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Full text of "Detroit in its world setting; a 250-year chronology, 1701-1951"

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DETROIT 

IN ITS 

WORLD SETTING 



DETROIT IN ITS 

WORLD 

SETTING 



A 250-YEAR CHRONOLOGY 

/ / f 1701-1951 




DETROIT PUBLIC LIBRARY 
DETROIT, MICHIGAN ' ' ' 1953 



Copyright 1953 by the DETROIT PUBLIC LIBRARY 
Library of Congress catalog card number 53-11686 



Dedicated to 

KENNETH L MOORE 1891-1951 

Staunch Friend of Libraries, Public-Spirited Citizen, 
Enthusiastic Historian 

whose interest in this Chronology while the work was in its formative 

stages was responsible for its being brought to the 

attention of McGregor Fund. 



The printing of the Chronology was made possible by a publishing grant 
which the Detroit Public Library received from McGregor Fund. On behalf 
of educational institutions and individual users who will benefit through 
the issuance of this publication, the Library wishes to acknowledge its own 
and their indebtedness to McGregor Fund for invaluable and considerable 
financial assistance realized through this grant. 



INTRODUCTION 

As PART OF ITS CONTRIBUTION to the celebration of Detroit's 250th anni- 
versary, the Library undertook the preparation of a Chronology for the 
period 1701 to 1951. The object of the Chronology is to show Detroit in 
its world setting, so that events in Detroit can be viewed in the light of 
events of national and international importance and these larger happen- 
ings in turn as reflected in Detroit. 

Since the Chronology covers so many years and so many subjects, each 
item is obviously brief and great selectivity was necessary in choosing the 
events to be included. Influential and widespread occurrences and those 
of future as well as contemporary importance were preferred. Items were 
chosen to show change and to show progress, namely, the development of 
an idea or an object. The aim has been to present people's daily living and 
interests; therefore, the popular, the homely everyday things have been 
included as well as the great. 

The Chronology is not a full, detailed history but rather a framework 
on which to organize one's memories of men and events and fads and 
fancies. It indicates not only rulers and wars but also what people were 
reading, how they amused themselves, what songs they sang, what kind of 
clothes they wore, what inventions affected their lives, etc. With such a 
tool as this Chronology it is possible to pick out the events of any par- 
ticular year or to trace a subject through two and a half centuries. For 
example, one can follow the course of exploration or the conquest of 
disease or the changes in transportation. 

Many chronologies of one sort or another are available in published 
form. This Chronology differs from others in that it is local in orientation. 
Detroit is the focus. Events in Detroit are given a separate and the leading 
listing. Events of local importance or interest are included whether or 
not they had national influence. Events of national importance may be 
treated in their local sense in the Detroit section as well as in their greater 
aspect elsewhere. Since so much of the early history of Detroit coincided 
with that of Michigan before statehood and since Detroit plays such a 
large role in the state and is inextricably bound up with state events, 
Michigan as well as Detroit is included in this local emphasis. 



Moreover this compilation is American in orientation. Although its 
scope is worldwide, events in the United States receive major attention 
and "first" when used without other qualification means the "first American." 

The Chronology, under each year, is divided into four sections or 
categories, viz., (1) Detroit and Michigan listing local events in general 
and social history, and intellectual, cultural, scientific, technical, and com- 
mercial progress; ( 2 ) World History covering political, military and dip- 
lomatic history, religion, labor, social welfare, governmental and legal 
progress, public health, crime, disasters, exploration, and expositions; 
( 3 ) Cultural Progress including such topics as fads and fashions, education, 
recreation, sports, movies, radio and television as entertainment, the arts 
(music, theater, painting and sculpture, architecture), books and reading, 
magazines, newspapers, and other publications; and (4) Scientific and 
Commercial Progress devoted to events in the biological and physical 
sciences, medicine, technology (invention, industry, transportation), agri- 
culture, applied arts and crafts, household arts and food, advertising, com- 
merce, business and finance. 

Because of the size and complexity of such a project, the preparation 
of the Chronology has taken much time and effort. All Library reference 
departments co-operated by selecting the significant events in its subject 
fields. The Chief of the History and Travel Department, serving as editor, 
classified and arranged the items, verified the data, filled in gaps, and checked 
discrepancies. Considerable effort was made during this editorial proc- 
ess to eliminate inconsistencies and inaccuracies, but it has not been 
possible to recheck formally every one of the thousands of items. No doubt 
omissions and errors both of fact and in arrangement will appear. If users 
of the Chronology will point these out to the editor, corrections can be 
made in any future editions. 

The items themselves were taken from books, magazines, manu- 
scripts, and other reference sources usually found in libraries. Especially 
helpful were books such as Famous First Facts, by Joseph N. Kane; the 
Variety Radio Directory; and Langer's Encyclopedia of World History. 
A Short Chronology of American History, by Irving and Nell Kull was 
available for consultation in the final editorial stages. Specialized sources 
were also used such as clippings from Detroit newspapers and the extensive 
files of the Burton Historical Collection of the Detroit Public Library. 

At one time or another practically every staff member in the Library's 
reference services contributed to this Chronology in greater or lesser degree. 
Among the persons who contributed especially should be mentioned the 



staff of the Burton Historical Collection who checked the Detroit items, 
Miss Naomi Picquet of the Catalog Department, who assisted in the early 
editorial work, the typists who patiently deciphered much-revised copy, the 
several staff members who critically read the items for clarity, and Miss 
Catharine Haughey, Chief of Publications and Exhibits, who designed the 
book and saw it through the press. The entire project was conceived and 
supervised by Mr. Ralph A. Ulveling, the Director of the Detroit Public 
Library. 

RAE ELIZABETH RIPS, Editor 



July, 1953 



CATEGORIES AND THEIR SCOPE 



DETROIT AND MICHIGAN 

General and Social History Intellectual and Cultural Progress 
Scientific, Technical and Commercial Progress 



WORLD HISTORY 

Political Social Military Diplomatic Religious 
Public Services Social Welfare Labor Explorations 
Crime Disasters 



CULTURAL PROGRESS 

The Arts Literature Education Fashion Music Theater 
Movies Painting Architecture Books and Reading 
Journalism Radio Recreation Games Sports Fads 



SCIENTIFIC AND COMMERCIAL PROGRESS 

Science : Natural Physical Medical 
Technology : Invention Industry Transportation 
Applied Arts and Crafts Household Arts Food 
Business Commerce Finance Agriculture 



DETROIT IN ITS WORLD SETTING 



Detroit and Michigan 

1701. July 24. Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac with his company of soldiers 
and traders landed at site of present city of Detroit and built a 
stockade which he named Fort Pontchartrain. This fort occupied 
the area now bounded on the east by Griswold Street, on the west 
by Wayne Street, and from the River at Woodbridge Street to 
about Larned Street. 

July 26. St. Anne's Day observed with Mass said by priest in 
Cadillac's company. Founding of St. Anne's Church probably dates 
from this service. 

Oct. 7. French wheat sown by the inhabitants of Fort Pontchartrain. 
Harvested following July. 

Oct. 31. Company of the Colony of Canada given exclusive right to 
trade at Detroit. 

Madame Cadillac and Madame Tonty arrived in Detroit in the 
autumn, the first white women in the west. Child of Cadillac born 
and died latter part of 1702. 

World History 
1701. Population of the American colonies about 275,000. 

The second city in the United States to receive a charter was 
Philadelphia. Had been founded in 1682 by William Penn. 

Captain Kidd, the notorious pirate, was hanged in England. 

Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts founded 
by Thomas Bray of the Anglican Church. 

Cultural Progress 

1701. Women of fashion in France wore full skirts over hoops, tight 
bodices, and caps made of lace, gauze, linen or lawn. The hoop 
skirt was prevalent both in Europe and in the American colonies 
by 1713. 

Men who followed French fashion leadership wore knee breeches, 
hose and buckled shoes, a long coat to the knees, a long waistcoat, 
ruffled cravat, and three-cornered hats. Wigs or perukes were long. 

1 



1701-1715. Madame de Maintenon continued as the favorite of Louis 

XIV, who had married her in 1685. Her influence was toward 

sobriety in conduct and fashion. 
1701. Jean Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) the favorite painter. His gay, 

rustic scenes influenced fashion and typified the frivolity of the 

age of Louis XV. 
1701-1750. As in the previous half century the favorite reading matter 

was religious in character. Robert Russell's Seven Sermons was a 

best seller in 1701 and the form continued popular. 
1701. Cotton Mather the leading American divine. His Death Made Easy 

and Happy was published this year. Magnalia Christi Americana 

appeared in 1702 and Day Which the Lord Has Made in 1703. 

Yale College chartered by Connecticut General Court. Founded 

1700. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1701. Jethro Tull invented the seed drill which dropped seeds in rows. 
He also improved the plow and introduced cultivating into 
England. 

World History 

1702. East and West Jersey united into province of New Jersey. Had 
joint governor with New York until 1738. 

1702-1713. War of the Spanish Succession. Major phase of the struggle 
between England and France for power in Europe and in the 
colonial field. American phase known as Queen Anne's War. 

1702. Anne became Queen of Great Britain. 

Cultural Progress 

1702. First daily newspaper in London, The Daily Courant. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1703. Name Detroit as a village first appeared on Delisle map. 
Church and other buildings burned by Indians. New church erected. 
Father Constantin Delhalle, pastor. 

World History 
1703- St. Petersburg founded by Peter the Great. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 
1703. Isaac Newton became president of the Royal Society. 

2 



Detroit and Michigan 

1704. Cadillac claimed there were more than 2,000 Indians at the settle- 
ment on the Detroit River. 

Fall- 1706. Sieur Alphonse de Tonty, Commander at Detroit dur- 
ing Cadillac's absence in Quebec. 

1704. Feb. 2 or 9. First extant recorded baptism of a white child in 
Detroit, Marie Therese, daughter of Cadilkc. 

World History 
1704. Separation of Delaware from Pennsylvania. 

Aug. 4. British took Gibraltar. Have held it ever since. 

Aug. 13. Battle of Blenheim. British under Marlborough victorious. 

Cultural Progress 

1704. First newspaper in America, The Boston News-Letter. Established 
April 24 by John Campbell. 

Battle of the Books and Tale of a Tub by Jonathan Swift published 
in England. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1704. Publication of Newton's Opticks. 

First newspaper advertisements in America appeared in the Boston 
News-Letter. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1705. Thomas Newcomen improved the steam engine. Used in pumping 
water out of coal mines. He invented his first engine in 1696. 
First copper mine worked in the United States Simsbury mine at 
Granby, Connecticut. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1706. Jan. 29- Aug. Sieur de Bourgmont, Commander at Detroit. Trouble 
with Ottawa Indians. 

Cadillac given entire control of Detroit following his arrest and 
trial in Quebec (June 15, 1705). Returned to Detroit in August. 
New influx of settlers. 

June 6. Indians attacked the Fort. Father Delhalle, pastor of 
church, killed. 



Detroit and Michigan 
1707. March 10. First known grants of land by Cadillac. 

Aug. 6-10. Great council of Indian chiefs held at Fort Pontchar- 
train (Detroit) to settle Indian difficulties. Cadillac in charge. 

World History 

1707. Union of England, Scotland and Wales as Great Britain. Adoption 
of Union Jack as national flag of Great Britain. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1708. New church built. Burned 1712 to prevent its use by attacking 
Indians. Unoccupied houses used for church purposes for some 
time thereafter. 

Cultural Progress 

1708. Versailles palaces completed. Begun in 1661. Symbolized extrava- 
gance of age of Louis XIV. 

World History 

1709. July 8. Battle of Poltava. Charles XII of Sweden defeated by Peter 
the Great. Marked end of Swedish and rise of Russian power in 
northern Europe. 

Cultural Progress 

1709. First pianoforte made by Bartolomeo Cristofori, a Florentine maker 
of harpsichords. 

Addison and Steele began issuing The Tatler in England. Their 
Spectator followed in 1711. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1709. Thermometer invented by Fahrenheit in Germany. 

Porcelain made for the first time in Europe by Johann F. Bottger. 
The Chinese had made it previously but kept process secret. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1710. Cadillac appointed Governor of Louisiana. Left in the summer of 
1711 and never returned to Detroit. 

May 5. First recorded marriage between white people at Detroit, 
Jean Baptiste Turpin and Margaret Fafard. 

May 9. Name of first doctor found on church records M. Henry 
Belisle, Chirurgeon. 

4 



Cultural Progress 

1710. St. Paul's Cathedral completed. Begun 1668. Architect, Sir Christo- 
pher Wren. 

Publication of Berkeley's Principles of Human Knowledge. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1710. Second paper mill in America set up near Philadelphia. First mill, 
1690, near Germantown, Pennsylvania. 

Cultural Progress 

1711. Alexander Pope published his Essay on Criticism in England. In 
1712 came his Rape of the Lock. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1711. First sperm whale captured at sea by Nantucket whalemen. First 
known whaling expedition set out about 1715. Whaling became a 
leading American industry of the 18th and early 19th centuries. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1712. Sauk and Fox Indians attacked Fort Pontchartrain. Church burned. 
French settlers with aid of Huron and Ottawa Indians defeated the 
attackers. 

World History 

1712. Carolina separated into two colonies: North and South Carolina. 

World History 

1713. Apr. 11. Treaty of Utrecht. Ended the War of the Spanish Succes- 
sion, gave England the keys to world dominion and began the 
dissolution of the French colonial empire. 

World History 

1714. George I became King of Great Britain first of the Hanovers. 

Cultural Progress 

1714. Robert Hunter's Androboros, the first play to be written and printed 
in America. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 
1714. First schooner built in America launched at Gloucester, Mass. 

5 



World History 

1715. Death of Louis XIV after longest reign in history. Louis XV became 
King of France. 

Cultural Progress 

1715. Gil Bias by Lesage published in France. 

The fashions of the period 1715-1774 reflected the gaiety and 
pleasure interests of the court of Louis XV. Hoops and paniers 
were worn by women under full skirts trimmed by puffs and rib- 
bon bows. Soft light materials were used, especially in pastel colors 
and gay flowered or striped taffeta. Popular accessories: high heeled 
shoes, tiny muffs, fans. Hairdress: pompadour with one long curl. 
Men's long waistcoats began to be elaborately trimmed with lace 
and embroidery. Colors were bright and gay. 

World History 

1716. First settlement on site of present city of San Antonio, Texas, by 
the Spanish. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1716. First lighthouse in America erected on Little Brewster Island, Maine. 
Boston Light also built. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1717. "Card money," ordinary playing cards cut into four pieces, stamped 
and signed by officials, was in use in Detroit. 

Fox Indians again attacked the Fort but did little harm. 

World History 

llll. Migration of German sects to Pennsylvania began about this time. 
German settlers had come to other colonies as early as 1710. 
Speculative scheme for development of Louisiana sponsored by 
John Law and known as the Mississippi Bubble. Failure of the 
Company in 1720 brought ruin to many who had invested in its stock. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1718. Fort Pontchartrain strengthened. 

World History 

1718. City of New Orleans founded by the French Governor of Louisiana, 
Sieur de Bienville. 



Cultural Progress 
1718. First theater built in America at Williamsburg, Virginia. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 
1718. Halley discovered the proper motions of fixed stars. 

Cultural Progress 
1719- Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe. 

Mother Goose's Melodies for Children, published in Boston, by 
Thomas Fleet. Popularity began after 1827. 

Isaac Watts' Divine and Moral Songs for the Use of Children 
appeared and remained popular throughout the century. 

James Figg, the man who popularized boxing in England and origi- 
nated bare knuckle fighting, opened a boxing school. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1719- The first factory in the modern sense seems to have been a silk 
factory built by Sir Thomas Lambe in Derbyshire, England. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1720. 43 baptisms, 7 marriages, 15 deaths recorded in St. Anne's Church 
records. This church has second oldest continuous Catholic parish 
register in the United States. 

World History 

1720. South Sea Bubble. Failure of British South Sea Company brought 
loss to the thousands who had speculated in its stock. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1720. First English patent on a plow granted to Joseph Foljambe of 
Yorkshire. 

Chippendale chair with bow-shaped back and cabriole legs appeared. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1721. June 6-18. Father Peter Charlevoix visited Detroit. Described it as 
almost deserted and abandoned due to neglect by the French 
government. 

7 



World History 

1721. Aug. 30. Treaty of Nystadt between Russia and Sweden. Russia 
acquired "window" on the Baltic and took position as a European 
power. 

World History 

1722. Peter the Great, on the throne since 1689, assumed the title, Tsar 
of Russia. 

Cultural Progress 

1722. Moll Flanders by Daniel Defoe. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1723. Third Catholic church building erected on north side of present 
Jefferson Avenue between Griswold and Shelby. First to be named 
St. Anne's. From July 17, 1722, church records were inscribed 
"Parish of St. Anne's." 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1723. Death of Antony von Leeuvenhoek who first observed bacteria 
under the microscope and who made many lenses. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1725. Windsor chair first made and used in Philadelphia. Most popular 
up to 19th century. 

Conestoga or covered wagon originated in Pennsylvania about this 
time. Used to carry heavy loads long distances before railroads. A 
lighter canvas covered wagon, the prairie schooner, was used for 
crossing the plains. Covered wagons and wagon trains disappeared 
in east by 1850. Important in west until about 1870 when trans- 
continental railroad was built. 

Cultural Progress 

1726. Gulliver's Travels by Jonathan Swift. 

World History 

1727. George II became King of Great Britain. 

First convent in what is now the United States was established in 
New Orleans by Ursuline nuns. 

8 



Cultural Progress 

1727. Ursuline Academy founded in New Orleans. Oldest convent school 
in the United States. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1727. Stephen Hale's essays Vegetable Staticks recorded beginning of 
experimental plant physiology. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1728. Nov. 10. Alphonse de Tonty, Cadillac's lieutenant, died. Buried in 
churchyard at northwest corner of Griswold and Jefferson. 

World History 

1728. Vitus Bering, a Dane in the Russian service, sailed through straits 
now named for him and explored Aleutian Islands. In 1741 he 
again explored the Alaskan coast. 

Cultural Progress 

1728. The Pennsylvania Gazette founded Dec. 24. Taken over by Benja- 
min Franklin in 1729- It became the most influential journal in the 
American colonies. Issued until Oct. 11, 1815. One of the partners 
of the defunct Gazette first published the Saturday Evening Post 
in 1821 so the Post claims its origins date back to the Gazette of 
1728. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1728. Stereotyping process for printing invented by Claude Genoux of 
France. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1729. Robert Navarre arrived from France to be Intendant and handle 
civil affairs. 

World History 

1729. Site of present city of Baltimore purchased by the Maryland legis- 
lature and development of the port began. 

Cultural Progress 

1729. First nun ordained in the United States. Sister St. Stanislas Hachard 
of Ursuline Convent, New Orleans. 



Detroit and Michigan 

1730. 106 baptisms, 16 marriages, 44 deaths recorded in parish register. 
1730. Oct. 16 (18?). Cadillac died in France. 

Cultural Progress 

1730. The Watteau sacque was a popular dress style. It featured a loose 
hanging back and was usually made of light flowered materials 
such as lawn, dimity, muslin. These now joined the silks and 
brocades as popular dress fabrics. 

1730-1760. William Hogarth (1697-1764) caricatured the vices and 
follies of London. His engravings were very popular. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1730. First thoroughbred horse imported into Virginia. Supposedly the 
horse named "Bulle Rock." 

Cultural Progress 

1731. First circulating library in America organized by Franklin and the 
Junto in Philadelphia. Each member paid a fee. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1731. First botanic garden in the United States planned and laid out by 
John Bartram in Philadelphia. 

Cultural Progress 

1732. Poor Richard's Almanac started by Benjamin Franklin. Issued until 
1757. 

Earliest known play to be acted in North America by professional 
players The Recruiting Officer, by George Farquhar, produced at 
New Theater in New York, Dec. 6. 

World History 

1733. Georgia, last of the thirteen original colonies, founded by James 
Oglethorpe. First settlement at Savannah. 

Cultural Progress 

1733. famous History of Dr. Faustus typical of the various "Faust" books 
popular during 19th century. 

10 



1733-1734. Essay on Man by Alexander Pope appeared in England. First 
published in the United States in 1747. Most popular poem of the 
18th century. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1733. John Kay invented the flying shuttle. First of the inventions which 
brought about the Industrial Revolution. The flying shuttle speeded 
up the weaving process and thus increased the demand for thread. 
Practice of "horse holing" or "cultivating" spread by Jethro Tull's 
Horse-Holing Husbandry. 

Stephen Hale's Haemastatics recorded his determination of the 
blood pressure. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1734. Dam was built across Cabacier's Creek, and grist mill erected where 
flour and meal for Detroit settlement were ground. 

World History 

1734. Beginning of the Great Awakening, religious revival in the colonies 
led by Jonathan Edwards. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1734. The first American-born doctor was graduated when William Bull 
of Charleston, South Carolina, received a degree from the University 
of Leyden. 

World History 

1735. Trial of John Peter Zenger for libel. Victory safeguarded freedom 
of the press since jury decided on fact of libel rather than on fact 
of publication. 

Cultural Progress 

1735. First opera performed in the United States at Charleston, South 
Carolina, Feb. 18. Flora by Colley Cibber. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 
1735. First United States medical society was a local one in Boston. 

Carl Linnaeus, Swedish naturalist, published the first edition of 
his Sy sterna Naturae which in its 10th edition (1758) is the basis 
for the modern system of biological classification and nomenclature. 
First agricultural experiment farm in the United States established 
at Savannah, Georgia. 

11 



Cultural Progress 

1737. University of Gottingen founded in Germany. First to hold that 
function of a university was to discover as well as pass on knowledge. 

Detroit and Michigan 
1738-1754. Father Carpentier, Recollect Order, Pastor of St. Anne's. 

World History 

1738. John Wesley converted. Societies of Methodists began organizing. 
Pierre Verendrye, French explorer, founded fur-trading posts west 
of Lake Superior and reached the Missouri River in his search for 
an overland northwest passage. In 1742, he sent his two sons to 
explore this area, and in 1743 they sighted the Bighorn Range of 
the Rocky Mountains in South Dakota. 

Cultural Progress 
1739- Publication of David Hume's Treatise on Human Nature. 

Detroit and Michigan 
1740. 156 baptisms, 27 marriages, 73 deaths recorded. 

World History 

1740. First orphanage with a continuous existence in the United States 
founded Bethesda Home, Savannah. 

Enclosure of English farm lands hastened by act of Parliament. 
Frederick the Great became King of Prussia. 
Maria Theresa became Queen of Austria and Hungary. 

1740-1748. War of the Austrian Succession. Other European rulers refused 
to recognize succession of Maria Theresa to Hapsburg throne of 
Austria. England was allied with Austria against Spain, France, and 
Russia. American phase of the struggle between England and France 
called King George's War (1744-1748). Ended by Treaty of 
Aix-la-Chapelle. 

Cultural Progress 

1740. The first pipe organ built in America was installed in Trinity Church 
in New York City. Organs had been imported as early as 1700. 
Peg Woffington made her stage debut at Covent Garden. She was 
the idol of the English stage for the next decade. 

12 



1740. Pamela, novel by Samuel Richardson, published in England. A best 
seller in America after 1744. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1740. First umbrella supposed to have been used in Windsor, Connecticut. 

World History 

1741. The first strike in the United States was probably among New York 
bakers in this year. 

Cultural Progress 

1741. David Garrick, foremost English actor of the century, made his 
reputation in Richard 111. 

First magazine in America was the American Magazine of which 
three issues were published in Philadelphia. 

A Token for Youth or Comfort to Children by Sarah Rede popular 
juvenile of the 18th century typical of pious works for children. 

Cultural Progress 

1742. First performance of The Messiah, oratorio by George Frederick 
Handel in Dublin, Apr. 13. Handel's "Water Music" performed in 
London in 1715. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1742. Centigrade thermometer invented by Anders Celsius in Sweden. 
Stove for heating by warm air invented by Benjamin Franklin. 
Called Pennsylvania fireplace. 

First cookbook printed in the United States at Williamsburg, Vir- 
ginia. Titled The Compleat Housewife. 

World History 

1743. First religious periodical in America: Christian History. 

Cultural Progress 

1743. Maryland Jockey Club formed. Oldest continuous turf organization 
in America. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1743. American Philosophical Society organized in Philadelphia first 
scientific society in the United States. 

13 



World History 

1744. The first society dedicated to freeing the slaves was formed in 
Pennsylvania. 

Cultural Progress 

1745-1764. Madame Pompadour as the favorite of Louis XV had great 
influence on French fashions and politics. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1745. Ley den jar condenser invented by Von Kleist. A basic electrical 
device. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1746. Fort attacked by Indians. 

World History 

1746. Apr. 16. Scottish forces defeated at Culloden Moor. Last Stuart 
rebellion. 

Cultural Progress 

1746. Charter granted to College of New Jersey. Opened May 1, 1747. 
Afterward became Princeton University. 

Cultural Progress 
1747-1755. The Dictionary by Samuel Johnson published in England. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1747. First school of civil engineering established in Paris. 

Cultural Progress 

1748. David Hume's Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding. 
Esprit des Lois by Montesquieu issued in France. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1749. Plan of Detroit made by French engineer, Joseph de Lery, fils. 

Several hundred French settlers sent to Detroit from Canada. Fort 
enlarged. 

World History 
1749. Halifax, Nova Scotia, founded by the English. 

14 



Cultural Progress 
1749. Tom Jones by Henry Fielding published in England. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1749. Lightning rod invented by Benjamin Franklin and installed on his 
house in Philadelphia. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1750. 236 baptisms, 24 marriages, 114 deaths recorded. 

World History 
1750. Population of colonies estimated at 1,207,000. 

Cultural Progress 
1750. Men's coats were long, fitted to waist, full in skirt and often wired 

at the bottom to extend. Brilliant colors and fabrics. 
1750-1760. Powdered hair the mode. Women wore pompadour hairdress. 

Dainty cambrics became fashionable for the hooped skirt or draped 

panier or watteau sacque. Bodices were boned with very low 

decolletage. Little caps still the fashion. 
1750. Death of Johann Sebastian Bach, July 28. Composed "Brandenburg 

Concertos" in 1721 and "B Minor Mass" in 1733. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1750. Coal first mined in America on James River, Chesterfield County, 
Virginia. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1751. Michael Yax, probably first German settler in Michigan, started 
farming in Grosse Pointe. 

World History 

1751. Sept. 12. Robert Clive's victory at Arcot in India established Eng- 
lish prestige and checked French. 

Cultural Progress 

1751. Academy at Philadelphia founded by Benjamin Franklin. Great 
period of the academy in education came after 1800. 
Peregrine Pickle by Tobias Smollett published in England. 
"Elegy in a Country Churchyard," poem by Thomas Gray. 

15 



1751. First volume of Diderot's Encyclopedia appeared in France. Last 
volume published in 1772. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1751. Sugar cane brought to Louisiana from Santo Domingo. Used only 
for rum and syrup until 1761, then also for sugar. Sugar industry 
established around 1794. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1752. Famine and smallpox threatened Fort Pontchar train. 

World History 
1752. Gregorian calendar adopted in England and the colonies. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1752. Pennsylvania Hospital (organized in 1751) opened in Philadelphia. 
Oldest permanent general hospital founded as such in the United 
States although the Philadelphia General Hospital opened as an 
Almshouse in 1732. 

Relationship between lightning and electricity demonstrated in kite 
experiment by Benjamin Franklin at Philadelphia (June 15). His 
letter describing experiments read before Royal Society in London, 
Dec. 1752. 

Cultural Progress 

1753. British Museum founded. 

World History 

1754-1763. French and Indian War (American phase of the Seven 
Years' War). 

1754. Fort Duquesne built by French on site of present Pittsburgh. 

Cultural Progress 

1754. Charter of King's College in New York signed. Later became 
Columbia University. 

Thirteen rules to govern golf were drafted at the St. Andrews Golf 
Club in Scotland the first set of rules. 

Jonathan Edwards, most celebrated American divine of the times, 
published his Freedom of the Will. The Great Awakening in 
religion in the colonies began in his church about 1734. He was 
noted for his fiery sermons. 

16 



1754. First concert hall in Boston opened by Gilbert Deblois. 

First volume of David Hume's History of Great Britain published. 
Completed 1762. Became immensely popular reading in both 
England and America. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1755. Many Acadians banished from Nova Scotia found refuge in Detroit. 
Fort Pontchartrain again enlarged because of new settlers. 

World History 

1755. French Acadians expatriated by the English. Many settled in 
Louisiana. 
July 9. General Braddock's defeat by the French near Fort Duquesne. 

Cultural Progress 

1755. "Yankee Doodle" verses written by Dr. Richard Skuckberg, Eng- 
lish surgeon with General Braddock. The music used was an old 
English song. 

World History 

1756-1763- Seven Years' War. Worldwide struggle in which England 
won Canada from France and supremacy in India. 

1756. June 20. Black Hole of Calcutta. Overnight imprisonment of 146 
Europeans by an Indian Nawab in a tiny, poorly ventilated room, 
resulted in the death of all but 23. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1756. Art of cement making rediscovered in England by John Smeaton. 
Hydraulic cement used for foundation of Eddystone Lighthouse. 

World History 

1757. June 2 2. Battle of Plassey. Destroyed French claims in India. 

Cultural Progress 

1757-1758. Tobias Smollett's History of England rivaled Hume's work 
in popularity during this age of history reading. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1757. Albrecht von Haller published his Elementa Physiologiae marking 
the beginning of modern physiology. 

17 



Detroit and Michigan 
1758-1760. Francois Picote, Sieur de Bellestre, last French Commandant. 

World History 

1758. First white settlement at site of Buffalo, New York, by the French. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1758-1759. Halley's comet appeared as predicted. First observed Christ- 
mas night, 1758. 

World History 

1759. Sept. 13-18. Battle on Plains of Abraham above Quebec. British 
troops under General Wolfe defeated French commanded by Gen- 
eral Montcalm but both generals were killed. 

Cultural Progress 

1759. Joseph Haydn's "Symphony No. 1" composed. "Symphony No. 103" 
is dated 1795. He is called "father of the symphony orchestra." 
The first American song "My Days Have Been So Wondrous Free" 
composed by Francis Hopkinson. 
Candide by Voltaire. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1759. First life insurance company in America incorporated in Philadelphia. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1760. Nov. 29. Fort Pontchartrain surrendered by French to the English 
with all Canada. Major Robert Rogers in command of British 
soldiers who took over the Fort. 

Fort and town of Detroit, surrendered by French, had area of 372 
feet north and south and 600 feet east and west. About 300 dwell- 
ings and 2,000 inhabitants. 

Copper obtained in Northern Michigan by Alexander Henry who 
sank a mine shaft. Soon abandoned. 

World History 
1760. George III became King of Great Britain. 

Population of the thirteen colonies estimated at about 1,600,000. 

18 



Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1760. Rocking chair supposed to have been invented by Franklin. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1761. Sept. 3. Sir William Johnson arrived as Indian Commissioner. 
Secured Indian treaties. 

World History 

1761. James Otis argued against the writs of assistance (general search 
warrants). 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1761. Chronometer invented by John Harrison in England. 

Leopold Auenbrugger of Vienna introduced percussion tapping as 
a method of medical diagnosis. 

Joseph Koelreuter, German, discovered the function of plant nec- 
tar and recognized the role of insects and the wind in the pollina- 
tion of flowers. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1762. Major Henry Gladwin commanded military forces in Detroit. 

World History 
1762. Catherine II, the Great, became Empress of Russia. 

Louisiana territory west of the Mississippi ceded to Spain by 
France. Reclaimed by Napoleon in 1802. 

Cultural Progress 

1762. The Social Contract by Jean Jacques Rousseau published. Its demo- 
cratic ideas were later put into effect by the French revolutionists. 

Song "Drink To Me Only With Thine Eyes" published in London. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1763. Siege by Indians led by Pontiac. Attack began May 10. Battle of 
Bloody Run, July 31. Siege lasted until October 31. 

World History 

1763. Peace of Paris ending French and Indian War. Canada and Nova 
Scotia ceded to British and French expelled from North America. 

19 



1763- Conspiracy of Pontiac. Indian War led by Chief Pontiac against 
British. 

Mason and Dixon began survey of boundary line between Penn- 
sylvania and Maryland. Completed 1767 and later became dividing 
line between North and South. 

Cultural Progress 
1763. Johnson meets Boswell. 

Intensive excavations carried on at Pompeii and Herculaneum 
stirred much interest. Excavating at Pompeii began in 1748. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1763. First steamboat built in the United States by William Henry. 
Unsuccessful. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1764. Aug. 31. Major Gladwin relieved of command of Detroit by 
Colonel John Bradstreet. 

Freemasons among British officers in Detroit organized a lodge. 
Named Zion Lodge. 

World History 
1764. St. Louis, Missouri, settled. 

Sugar Act passed by Parliament. Marked beginning of new British 
policy for raising money through customs duties levied upon the 
colonists and for enforcement of navigation laws. 

Cultural Progress 

1764. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's "First Symphony" composed. "Sym- 
phony No. 41" (the Jupiter) is dated 1788. 

Publication of Beccaria's On Crime and Punishment. 

Castle of Otranto by Horace Walpole set vogue for Gothic novels. 

World History 

1765. Mar. 22. Stamp Act passed by Parliament to raise revenue in the 
colonies. 

May 29- Patrick Henry made speech in Virginia legislature oppos- 
ing Stamp Act. 

Oct. 7. Stamp Act Congress. Delegates of the colonies assembled to 
resist the Stamp Act. Sent petitions to King and Parliament. 

20 



Cultural Progress 

1765. The Prince of Parthia by Thomas Godfrey, Jr., the first play written 
by an American and acted professionally. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1765. First medical college in the United States established in Philadelphia. 
First School of Mines established at Freiberg, Germany. 
Friendly Society organized first savings bank in England. 
William Stiegel began producing fine glassware in his glassworks 
in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1766. Pontiac and Sir William Johnson met at Fort Ontario and reached 
agreement in which Pontiac gave his allegiance to the British. 

World History 

1766. Mar. 18. Stamp Act repealed but Parliament reaffirmed its powers 
over colonies in the Declaratory Act. 

Cultural Progress 

1766. Vicar of Wake field by Oliver Goldsmith published in England. 
Became popular in colonies after American edition of 1772. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1766. Hydrogen discovered by Henry Cavendish who described its prop- 
erties. 

World History 

1767. Townshend Acts caused colonists to organize non-importation 
agreements, especially in Boston. 

Cultural Progress 
1767. First parish school (Philadelphia). 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1767. Spinning jenny invented by James Hargreaves in England. Could 
spin sixteen or more threads at once. 

21 



Detroit and Michigan 
1768. Village tax, 1 shilling per foot for lots in the Fort. 

Ownership of Hog Island (later Belle Isle) transferred by Indians 
to George McDougalL 

World History 

1768-1771. Captain James Cook's first voyage and discoveries in the South 
Pacific. In 1770 he discovered Botany Bay and claimed Australia 
for Britain. 

Cultural Progress 

1768. Royal Academy of Arts founded in London. Sir Joshua Reynolds 
the first president. 

John Dickinson's Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania widely 
read in the American colonies. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1 768. Cottonseed oil first produced by Dr. Otto of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. 
Mustard first manufactured by Benjamin Jackson in Philadelphia 
and sold in glass bottles. 

Chamber of Commerce of the State of New York, oldest American 
organization of its kind, formed. The Chamber of Commerce of 
the United States was organized in 1912. 
First American fire insurance company chartered in Philadelphia. 

World History 

1769. Westward movement. Watauga settlement in eastern Tennessee. 
James Robertson and John Sevier arrived with Virginians and 
North Carolinians (1770-1771). 

Daniel Boone explored trail to Kentucky. Transylvania Company 
established settlement in Kentucky in 1775 after Boone had cut 
the Wilderness Road for them. 

First Spanish mission and settlement in California established near 
San Diego by Father Junipero Serra, a Franciscan. 

Cultural Progress 
1769. Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, chartered. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1769. James Watt patented the improved steam engine. Made it practical 
for uses other than pumping and reduced cost of operation. 

22 



1769. Spinning frame, a water-power operated spinning machine, pat- 
ented by Richard Arkwright in England. 

First self-propelled vehicle built by Nicolas Joseph Cugnot in Paris. 
A three-wheeled carriage driven by steam with boiler in front at 
speed of 3 miles an hour. In 1789 Oliver Evans obtained the first 
American patent for a self-propelled vehicle. 

First type foundry in America was that belonging to Abel Buell of 
Killingworth, Connecticut. 

World History 

1770. Population of the thirteen colonies about 2,205,000. 
Mar. 5. Boston Massacre episode. 

Apr. 12. Townshend Revenue Act repealed except for tax on tea. 

Cultural Progress 

1770. Philip Astley, father of the modern circus, was proprietor of a 
London circus and hippodrome. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1770. Erasing qualities of substance, caoutchouc, discovered by Joseph 
Priestley about this date hence the name "rubber." 

Cultural Progress 

1771. First edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica in three volumes 
issued in England. 

World History 

1772. First Partition of Poland by Russia, Prussia, and Austria. 

Nov. 2. Committees of Correspondence began forming under 
leadership of Samuel Adams. 

1772-1775. Second voyage of Captain Cook. First explorer to cross the 
Antarctic Circle, Jan. 17, 1773. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1772. Nitrogen recognized as a distinct substance by Rutherford. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1773. Detroit population exclusive of soldiers, 1,367. 

23 



World History 

1773. First institution designed solely for care of the mentally ill opened 
at Williamsburg, Virginia. 

Dec. 16. Boston Tea Party. 

Cultural Progress 

1773. She Stoops to Conquer, play by Oliver Goldsmith, was first produced 
Mar. 15 at Covent Garden, London. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1773. First American natural history museum established at Charleston, 
South Carolina, in connection with its Library Society. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1774. June 22. Quebec Act passed. Provided first civil government by 
English for territory including Detroit. 

World History 

1774. Boston Port Act and other coercive measures adopted by the 
British Government. 

Sept. 5. First Continental Congress met in Philadelphia. Adopted 
a declaration of rights. Adjourned, Oct. 26. 

Louis XVI became King of France. 

Cultural Progress 

1774. John Singleton Copley (1737-1815), first American painter of 
importance, sailed for England to paint the King and Queen. 

1774-1789- Marie Antoinette set the modes which were characterized 
by exaggeration. Bodices were tighter and stiff er; hoops wider on 
sides and flat in front and back; skirts more elaborately trimmed 
with puffing and shirring, laces, ribbons, and embroidery. Thin 
taffeta, satin, India cotton, and gauze in pastel shades were the 
materials used. 

1774. Towering headdresses appeared. Hair was frizzed and raised high 
with puffs and curls over horsehair pads. Generously powdered, it 
was made even higher with feather plumes, flowers, and ribbons. 
Very large hats were worn over these high coiffures and millinery 
became an important accessory in dress. 

24 



Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1774. Joseph Priestley isolated oxygen in its pure form. 

A. G. Werner introduced definite order and nomenclature for 
minerals. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1775. Nov. 9. Henry Hamilton arrived in Detroit to take command. 

World History 

1775. Apr. 18. Paul Revere's ride to warn the Americans between Boston 
and Lexington of the approach of British troops. 
Apr. 19. Battle of Lexington and Concord. War for American 
Independence began. 

May 10. Second Continental Congress met in Philadelphia. John 
Hancock named as president. 

June 15. George Washington appointed Commander in Chief 
after Congress decided to raise a Continental Army. 
June 17. Battle of Bunker Hill. 
Nov. Continental Congress organized an American Navy. 

Cultural Progress 

1775-1825. Neo-classicist movement in painting, sculpture, and archi- 
tecture imitated Greco-Roman art. 
1775. The Rivals, the first of Richard Sheridan's plays, produced Jan. 17 

at Covent Garden, London. 

Beaumarchais' Barber of Seville, one of his outstanding comedies, 

and a high point of this era. 

Speech for Conciliation with the American Colonies delivered by 

Edmund Burke. 

Lord Chesterfield's Letters to His Son, by Philip D. Stanhope, one 

of the popular behavior books of the century. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1775. Wilderness Road opened by Daniel Boone into Kentucky. 

World History 

1776. New Hampshire adopted the first state constitution. 

Virginia Convention incorporated the philosophy of religious 
liberty into its state constitution. 

25 



1776. July 4. Declaration of Independence by the American colonies 

adopted by Congress. Signed by members, Aug. 2. 

Sept. 22. Nathan Hale hanged as a spy by the British. 

Dec. 25-26. General Washington crossed the Delaware River and 

defeated British and Hessians at Trenton. 

San Francisco Mission founded by Father Junipero Serra. Settlement 

called Yerba Buena. Named San Francisco by Americans who took 

over in 1846. 

First Shaker religious group organized in New York. First Shaker 

Community, 1788, at New Lebanon, New York. 
1776-1779- Third voyage of Captain James Cook searching for passage 

from Hudson Bay to Pacific Ocean. Explored Pacific coast and 

discovered Hawaiian Islands (Jan. 18, 1778). 

Cultural Progress 

1776. Adam Smith published his Wealth of Nations attacking mercantil- 
ism and advocating laissez-faire. 

Thomas Paine's Common Sense did much to prepare the colonists 
for independence. One copy sold for every 25 people in America 
within three months an outstanding best seller. 
Phi Beta Kappa founded at William and Mary College, Dec. 5. 

1776-1788. Decline and Pall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1776. Submarine The Turtle, built by David Bushnell, carried one person. 
One of the first attempts to travel under water while attacking an 
enemy. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1777-1780. Hamilton, the British commander, made Detroit a center of 
offense against American settlers during the Revolution. 

World History 

1777. June 14. Flag of stars and stripes adopted by Congress. 

July 8. Vermont's state constitution was the first to provide for 
manhood suffrage and abolition of slavery. 

Marquis de Lafayette entered American service. Commissioned 
July 31. 

26 



1777. Oct. 17. Surrender of British troops under General Burgoyne at 
Saratoga, New York. Decisive American victory because it encour- 
aged France to aid the Americans. 

Nov. 15. Articles of Confederation adopted by Continental Con- 
gress. Provided for a United States of America and sent to the 
thirteen states for ratification. 
Dec. Washington at Valley Forge. 

Cultural Progress 

1777. First American edition of Paradise Lost by John Milton. Originally 
published in England in 1667. Staple volume in every home library 
of the time. 

First American edition of Night Thoughts on Life, Death and 
Immortality by Reverend Edward Young doleful meditations in 
blank verse. Popular throughout Europe, England, and America. 
American edition of The Seasons by James Thomson, long poem 
in blank verse popular in latter half of 18th century. 
Production of Sheridan's The School for Scandal, his greatest com- 
edy, at Drury Lane Theatre, London, May 8. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1777. First rails manufactured in United States. Cold cut from iron by 
Jeremiah Wilkinson of Cumberland, Rhode Island. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1778. Fort Lernoult added to Fort Pontchartrain. Named for British 
commanding officer, Major Richard Lernoult. Erected on ground 
now bounded by Fort, Lafayette, Griswold and Wayne and con- 
nected with old town by a covered passage. 

Daniel Boone an Indian captive at Detroit in March. 

World History 
1778. Feb. 6. French-American Alliance. 

June 28. Battle of Monmouth a victory for Washington and his 
troops. 

1778-1779. George Rogers Clark expedition to Illinois country for control 
of the Western frontier. 

1778. Sept. 14. Benjamin Franklin appointed minister to France. 

27 



Cultural Progress 

1778-1789- Marie Antoinette Petit Trianon fashions. Watteau style 
dresses skirts full and puffed over short petticoats and hip pads. 
Tight pointed bodices. Fichus of lace, net or gauze. Sleeves short 
and puffed. Soft light silks and cottons in pastel colors. Fads: lace 
mitts, small muffs, velvet neck ribbons, shepherdess crooks and 
canes. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1778. Buffon in his Epoques de la Nature pointed out long chronological 
history of the earth. 

William Brown published first American Pharmacopeia in Phila- 
delphia. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1779. Colonel Arent S. De Peyster became British commander in Detroit. 
Continued raids on American settlers in Ohio and Kentucky. 

World History 

1779. Sept. 23. Naval victory of John Paul Jones in the Bonhomme 
Richard vs. Serapis. 

Cultural Progress 

1779. Thomas Gainsborough painted the picture "Blue Boy." This artist's 
portraits epitomized 18th-century fashion and culture. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1779. Spinning mule invented by Samuel Crompton in England. Com- 
bined principles of spinning wheel and frame. 

First iron bridge a 100-foot arch erected in Coalbrookdale, 

England. 

Thomas Chippendale died. His best furniture designing and making 

was done between 1735-1760. 

World History 

1780. Sept. 23. Benedict Arnold committed treason by attempting to 
surrender West Point to the British. His confederate, the British 
Major Andre, was hanged as a spy Oct. 2, 1780. 

Oct. 7. Battle of King's Mountain in North Carolina. British 
defeated by backwoodsmen. 

28 



1780. Oct. 10. Connecticut was first state to agree to cede its western 
lands to the Union. Cession of western lands made possible ratifica- 
tion of Articles of Confederation and provided for formation of 
new states. 

Cultural Progress 
1780. American Academy of Arts and Sciences founded in Boston. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1780. Steel pens for writing introduced. First American steel pen patent 
granted in 1809 to Peregrine Williamson of Baltimore. (See also 
1828.) 

First hat factory established in Danbury, Connecticut. Made fur 
hats from rabbit or beaver with an output of about 18 per week. 

Dr. James Baker purchased chocolate mill erected 1765 at Dor- 
chester, Massachusetts, by John Hannan. Origin of present Walter 
Baker and Company. 

World History 

1781. Mar. 1. Articles of Confederation went into effect. 
Oct. 19. Surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown. 
City of Los Angeles founded by the Spanish. 

Cultural Progress 
1781. Critique of Pure Reason by Immanuel Kant. 

Johann Pestalozzi published his most famous book Leonard and 
Gertrude expressing his concept of education as natural develop- 
ment of the child. His first school had been opened in 1774. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 
1781. Planet "Uranus" discovered by Sir William Herschel. 

Blumenbach separated man into five races: Caucasian, American, 
Mongoloid, Malayan, and Negro. 

Continental currency practically valueless. Robert Morris appointed 
superintendent of finance by Congress to find solution for its mone- 
tary problems. 

Bank of North America (oldest bank in the United States) in 
Philadelphia chartered by the Continental Congress. 

29 



Detroit and Michigan 
1782. Detroit population 2,191. 

Trail which became Gratiot Avenue opened by Moravians from 
Detroit to their settlement in Mt. Clemens. 

Cultural Progress 

1782. "John Gilpin," poem by William Cowper. With publication of 
"The Task" in 1785 Cowper became the chief poet of the era. 

Mrs. Sarah Kemble Siddons scored a triumph in the play The Fatal 
Marriage at the Drury Lane Theatre, Oct. 10. Remained a leading 
actress until her retirement in 1812. 

First Bible printed in English in America by Robert Aitken of 
Philadelphia. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1782. James Watt developed double-acting steam engine. 
Relation of metals to oxides discovered by Lavoisier. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1783. Detroit included in territory awarded to United States by Treaty 
of Paris. 

1783-1796. British retained control of western forts including Detroit. 
Jay Treaty finally settled the quarrel. 

World History 

1783. Sept. 3- Treaty of Paris signed. Final treaty closing the war between 
Great Britain and the United States. Recognized the independence 
of the United States with the Mississippi River as its western 
boundary. 

1783-1787. Settlement of loyalists from United States in Canada. Given 
lands and aid by British government. Gave Canada a more English 
composition. 

Cultural Progress 

1783. Noah Webster's American Spelling Book issued. The most famous 
of all 18th-century American schoolbooks. Seventy million spellers 
were sold between 1783 and 1883. 

30 



Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1783. Gas balloon invented by Montgolfier Brothers of France. First 
invention to carry men in the air. First American balloon flight 
was in Baltimore in 1784. 

Lavoisier first synthesized water quantitatively. 

World History 

1784. First American religious body to form a national organization was 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

In Treaty of Fort Stanwix the Iroquois Indians (Six Nations) 
surrendered final claims to the western territory. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1784. Invention of the plow with cast-iron mold board and wrought- 
and cast-iron shares by James Small of Scotland. 

Threshing machine for grain built by Andrew Meikle of Scotland. 

Bifocal spectacles invented by Franklin. 

Motor boat invented by James Rumsey and exhibited on Potomac 

River. 

World History 

1785. Land Ordinance created public domain of the United States from 
western lands ceded by states. Established system of survey and 
sale for public lands. 

King's Chapel, Boston, became first American Unitarian Church. 

Cultural Progress 

1785. Land Ordinance of 1785 directed that Section 16 of every township 
in the western territory should be forever reserved for the support 
of schools. 

John Bill Ricketts introduced the circus into America when he 
presented such a show in Philadelphia. 

First state university chartered University of Georgia, Athens, 
Georgia. Opened 1801. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1785. Invention of the power loom by James Cartwright of England. 
Provided an improved weaving process to utilize increased thread 
spinning. 

31 



1785. Coulomb set forth fundamental laws of electrical attraction. 

First agricultural society in America Philadelphia Society for the 

Promotion of Agriculture. 

Survey of public lands authorized by Congress. Land Ordinance 

established system of 6-mile-square townships. 

Charles III of Spain sent George Washington two jackasses from 

which Washington bred mules. 

World History 

1786. Impeachment of Warren Hastings, East India Company governor 
of India since 1774. Put on trial in Parliament Feb. 13, 1788. 
Acquitted, Apr. 23, 1795. 

Bill for establishing religious freedom in Virginia, written by 
Thomas Jefferson, became law. 

Rebellion in Massachusetts led by Daniel Shays. Caused by post-war 
depression and discontent of common folk. 

Cultural Progress 

1786. First performance of The Marriage of Figaro, opera by Mozart, 
in Vienna, May 1. 

First Sunday school introduced into the United States by Methodists. 
Robert Burns first published his verse Poems Chiefly in the Scottish 
Dialect. Included such favorites as "To a Mouse" and "Cotters' 
Saturday Night." 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1786. Nail machine, first for making cut nails, made by Ezekiel Reed, 
Bridgewater, Massachusetts. 

Ice cream first advertised by Mr. Hall of New York City. (See 
also 1851) 

Detroit and Michigan 

1787. Michigan included in Northwest Territory organized under Ordi- 
nance of 1787. Region included area north of Ohio River and east 
of Mississippi River. 

World History 
1787. Society for the Suppression of the Slave Trade founded. 

July 13. Northwest Ordinance enacted providing for government 
of the Northwest Territory and setting up pattern for reaching 
statehood. 

32 



1787. May 14. Constitutional Convention met at Philadelphia. 

Sept. 17. Constitution of the United States signed by the delegates. 

Cultural Progress 

1787. Ordinance of 1787 stated: "Religion, morality and knowledge being 
necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, 
schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged." 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1787. John Fitch built first steamboat to carry a man on the Delaware 
River. Had made a steam paddle boat in 1786. 

First alarm clock made by Levi Hutchins of Concord, New Hamp- 
shire. 

Law of expansion of gases announced by Charles. 
Botanical Magazine founded. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1788-1796. Detroit included in Canadian District of Hesse by the British. 
City under British law and Canadian courts despite United States 
Ordinance of 1787. 

World History 

1788. African Association founded by Sir Joseph Banks for exploration 
and trade. 

The town of Marietta on the Ohio River was the first settlement in 
the Northwest Territory. Founded by Ohio Company which had 
been organized in 1786 by New Englanders to purchase land and 
promote settlement in the West. 

Settlement on site of present city of Cincinnati established. 
Jan. First shipload of British convicts landed at Botany Bay. Eng- 
land claimed Australia. 

June 21. New Hampshire became the ninth state to ratify the 
Constitution, securing its adoption. 

Cultural Progress 
1788. Critique of Practical Reason by Immanuel Kant. 

The Federalist Papers by Alexander Hamilton and others helped 
bring about the adoption of the new Constitution. 

33 



Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1788. Linnean Society founded in London under royal charter. 

World History 

1789. Jan. 7. First national election for presidential electors. On Feb. 4 
they chose George Washington as President and John Adams as 
Vice-President of the United States. 

Mar. 4-Sept. 29. First Congress of the United States met in New 
York City. 

Apr. 30. George Washington inaugurated first President of the 
United States. 

Federal departments created. Congress created Department of State 
on July 27, Department of War on Aug. 7, Department of Treas- 
ury on Sept. 2. The Secretaries heading each department became the 
President's advisors and eventually his Cabinet. 

Sept. 24. Judiciary Act provided for system of federal courts and 
the attorney-general. 

Sept. 26. John Jay appointed first Chief Justice of the Supreme 
Court. 

Twelve amendments to Constitution adopted by Congress and sent 
to the states for approval. The ten ratified became the Bill of Rights. 

Protestant Episcopal Church organized in America out of former 
Anglican church. 

May 5. French Revolution began. Estates-General met in Paris. 

June 17 1791. National Assembly (Constituant) formed by Third 
Estate in France. 

July 14. Destruction of the Bastille. 

Aug. 27. French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the 
Citizen adopted. 

Cultural Progress 

1789-1795. Fashions were simplified by the French Revolution and 
English modes were adopted on the continent. The redingote origi- 
nated at this time featuring a high turn-over collar with wide 
revers or triple collars and wide cuffs. Skirts were full and straight, 
worn over small hoops at the hips and a bustle in back. Fitted 
jackets with long, tight sleeves and niching at wrists became 
popular. Materials were of silk, satin and wool in bright pink and 

34 



yellow or wide black and white stripes. Accessories: fichus, tall 
crowned hats with wide brims and much trimming, huge muffs, 
long scarves. 

1789. Methodist Book Concern, oldest denominational publishing house 
in the United States, established. 

Georgetown, first Catholic college in the United States, established 
in Washington, D.C Opened Nov. 15, 1791. 
Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation by Jeremy 
Bentham. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1789. Lavoisier's Traite de chimie first great synthesis of chemical princi- 
ples. Named the elements and compounds; suggested chemical 
equation; and stated doctrine of conservation of matter. 
Antoine-Laurent de Jussien, French botanist, published Genera 
Plantamm, basis of the natural system of botanical classification. 
First American tariff act passed. 

First Morgan horse foaled at Randolph, Vermont. 

World History 

1790. First United States Census: population 3,929,214; area 892,132 
square miles; 16 states and Ohio territory; population per square 
mile 4.5. Center of population was 23 miles east of Baltimore, 
Maryland. 

Jan. 1791, Dec. Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton's 

fiscal plans formulated and put into effect by Congress. Provided for 

establishment of public credit, revenue taxes, a national bank, and 

protection of manufactures. 

Mar. 22. Thomas Jefferson became Secretary of State. 

Mar. 26. First United States Naturalization Act. 

Aug. 4. Revenue Cutter Service organized. Origin of Coast Guard, 

Aug. 4. First bonds of the United States government authorized. 

Mutiny on the ship Bounty. Mutineers settled on Pitcairn Island 

in the Pacific Ocean. 

First American Catholic bishop, John Carroll, consecrated as Bishop 

of Baltimore. 

Cultural Progress 

1790. Men's fashions produced the round, high hat later known as the 
"stovepipe." This gradually changed into the high silk hat which 

*' (continued: on following page)- 



has persisted to the present day as the conventional hat for men's 

formal wear. 

First United States copyright law passed, May 31. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1790. Over ninety percent of all persons gainfully employed in the United 
States were engaged in agriculture. 

First national patent law approved Apr. 10. An act to promote the 
progress of useful arts. First United States patent issued to Samuel 
Hopkins of Vermont for a process of making potash ashes. 
Samuel Slater, called "the father of American manufacture," erected 
the first factory with power machinery in Pawtucket, Rhode Island. 
Hydraulic press invented in England by Joseph Bramah. 
Pewter or tin buttons manufactured in Waterbury, Connecticut. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1791. Detroit and Michigan incorporated in Upper Canada. In 1792 
Detroit sent two delegates to Canadian legislature. 

World History 
1791. Vermont admitted as a state. 

June 10. Canada Act passed by Parliament. Went into effect 

Dec. 26. Divided area into Upper (English) and Lower (French) 

Canada, each with own government. 

Oct. 1 1792, Sept. Legislative Assembly in France. 

Dec. 15. Bill of Rights, first ten amendments to United States 

Constitution, ratified by the states and went into force. 

Cultural Progress 

1791. Ballet introduced to America by the dancers Alexander Placide 
and his wife in Charleston, South Carolina. 

First performance of The Magic Flute, opera by Mozart, in Vienna, 
Sept. 30. 

Life of Johnson by James Boswell. 
Rights of Man by Thomas Paine. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1791. Barber's internal combustion engine marked the first recorded effort 
from which the gasoline engine of today is the offspring. 

36 



1791. First carpet mill in the United States at Philadelphia. William Peter 
Sprague made Axminster carpets on hand looms. 

First practical sugar refinery opened in New Orleans by Antonio 
Mendez. First commercial mill began operating in 1795. 
Anthracite coal discovered near Sharp Mountain, Pennsylvania. 
A bank known as the First Bank of the United States was chartered 
by Congress. 

Thomas Sheraton's first book of furniture designs appeared. Titled 
The Cabinet Maker and Upholsterer's Drawing Book, it was very 
influential. 

ca. 1791. William Smith was first to realize importance of fossils in deter- 
mining relative ages of rock strata. 

World History 

1792. Political parties began to form in arguments over Hamilton's fiscal 
plans and other governmental policies. Hamilton and Adams led 
the Federalists and Jefferson organized and led the Republicans 
or Democratic-Republicans. 

Feb. 20. Post Office Department and Postal Service provided for 
in detailed act. Office of Postmaster General had been created on 
Sept. 22, 1789. 

Denmark was the first country to prohibit the slave trade. 
Robert Gray, American navigator, ascended the Columbia River. 
Captain George Vancouver explored the northwest coast and cir- 
cled what is now Vancouver Island. 
Kentucky admitted as a state. 
Sept. 2-7. September massacres in France. 
Sept. 21 1795, Oct. National Convention ruled France. 
Sept. 22. France declared a republic. 

Gustavus III of Sweden assassinated. Gustavus IV became King. 
Dec. 5. Washington and Adams re-elected as President and Vice- 
President. Inaugurated for second term, Mar. 4, 1793. 

Cultural Progress 

1792. Death of Sir Joshua Reynolds (born 1723 ), leading English painter. 
Benjamin West, American painter, became president of Royal 
Academy of London. Held office until 1815. First came to London 
in 1763. 

"La Marseillaise" by Rouget de Lisle introduced. Became the French 
national song. 

37 



Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1792. Illuminating gas made from coal invented and introduced by 
William Murdock of England. 

Chemical Society of Philadelphia founded. First in the world. 
New York Stock Exchange began on Wall Street. Organized as 
New York Stock and Exchange Board in 1817. 
First life insurance offered by Insurance Company of North Amer- 
ica of Philadelphia. 

United States monetary system established. Decimal system of 
coinage with dollar as the unit. Silver coins authorized by Con- 
gress were half dollar, quarter dollar, dime, and half dime. Same 
act provided for establishment of mint. First silver dollar coined 
at the Philadelphia Mint in 1794. 

Farmer's Almanac founded by Robert Bailey Thomas in Massa- 
chusetts. Still published. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1793. William Macomb purchased Belle Isle from George and John 
Robert McDougall. His heirs sold it to Barnabas Campau in 1817 
for $5,000. 

World History 

1793. Jan. 21. Louis XVI of France executed. Oct. 16, Marie Antoinette 
guillotined. 

Jan. 23. Second partition of Poland by Russia and Prussia. 
Feb. 1. France declared war against Great Britain, Holland, Spain. 
Genet Affair. French minister, Edmund Genet, used American ports 
for fitting out French privateers despite American neutrality. 
May 2 5. First Catholic priest ordained in the United States 
Father Stephen Badin. 

July 1794, July. Reign of Terror in France. 
Sept. 18. Cornerstone of Capitol Building laid in Washington, D.C. 
Arrival of first free settlers in Australia. 

Cultural Progress 
1793. Louvre Museum founded in Paris. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1793. Eli Whitney applied for patent on the cotton gin. Invented in 
1792. Patent issued Mar. 14, 1794. 

38 



World History 

1794. General Anthony Wayne defeated the Indians in Battle of Fallen 
Timbers. Obtained cession of Indian lands in Treaty of Greenville, 
1795. 

Toronto, Ontario, founded by the English on site of former French 
fort. Originally named York. 

Eleventh Amendment to the United States Constitution adopted 
by Congress providing that a state cannot be sued by a citizen of 
another state in Federal courts. Ratified 1798. 

May 6. Toussaint L'Ouverture led revolt in Haiti. Defeated French 
army, Jan. 1, 1804. 

Nov. 19- Jay's Treaty between United States and Great Britain 
settled issues arising from Peace of 1783. 

Cultural Progress 

1794. Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828) went to Philadelphia to paint George 
Washington's portrait. 

Thomas Paine created a furor with the publication of the first part 
of his Age of Reason. 

First American edition of Arabian Nights' Entertainment. 
Benjamin Franklin's Autobiography. 

Charlotte Temple by Mrs. Susanna Rowson first best-selling novel 
by a woman. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1794. The first steam engine entirely constructed in America, at Belle- 
ville, New Jersey. 

First building erected for strictly hotel purposes. City Hotel, 70 
rooms, on Broadway just below Wall Street, New York City. (See 
also 1829) 

Detroit and Michigan 

1795. General Anthony Wayne succeeded in defeating hostile Indians 
after Colonel Joseph Harmer and General Arthur St. Clair had 
failed. On August 3, 1795, Indians signed Treaty of Greenville 
submitting to the United States. 

World History 

1795. Aug. 22. Constitution of 1795 created the Directory in France. 
Napoleon Bonaparte placed in charge of its troops. 

39 



1795. Oct. 24. Third partition of remainder of Poland between Russia, 

Austria, and Prussia. 

Oct. 27. Treaty of San Lorenzo with Spain fixed United States 

southern boundary at 31st parallel and obtained right of navigation 

on the Mississippi River. 
1795-1796. Mungo Park explored Gambia River in West Africa and 

reached the Niger. 

Cultural Progress 
1795. The first appearance of an American Negro on the American stage 

was that of William Bates in the role of Sambo in J. Murdock's 

Triumph of Love. 

First state university opened University of North Carolina, 

Chapel Hill. 
1795-1798. Men adopted English fashions: high-collared coats, huge 

cravats. 
1795-1799- Directoire period in women's fashions. Long, straight gowns 

of diaphanous materials modeled after the classic Greek style. Short 

waist achieved by sash girdled high. Accessories: soft, heelless kid 

sandals tied around the ankle with ribbon; high scooped bonnets; 

scarves; reticules; cashmere shawls. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1795. Napoleon offered a prize of 12,000 francs to anyone who discov- 
ered a way of preserving foods. 

First business publication in the United States, the weekly New 
York Prices Current. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1796. July 11. British evacuated Detroit and turned it over to the United 
States. American flag raised here for first time at noon. Captain 
Moses Porter led the first American troops into Detroit. 

July 13- Colonel John Francis Hamtramck arrived in Detroit with 
the rest of his troops and remained as commander. 
Aug. 13. General Anthony Wayne arrived in Detroit and estab- 
lished army headquarters. 

At time of surrender, Detroit population was 2,200. Soon dwindled 
as many British residents moved across river to Canadian side. 
General Arthur St. Clair was governor of Northwest Territory and 
Winthrop Sargent, secretary. 

40 



1796. Aug. 15. Wayne County organized in Northwest Territory. Named 
for General Anthony Wayne. Contained nearly all of Michigan and 
parts of Ohio, Indiana, and Wisconsin. 

Dec. Court of General Quarter Sessions met. Divided Wayne 
County into 4 townships: St. Clair, Hamtramck, Detroit, and 
Sargent. Appointed officials for each constables, overseers of 
poor, highway commissioners. 

Catholic jurisdiction over Detroit passed from Bishop of Quebec 
to Bishop of Baltimore. Quebec priests were withdrawn and Balti- 
more sent Sulpician Father Michael Levadoux to take charge of 
Detroit parish. 

World History 
1796. City of Cleveland founded. 

Tennessee admitted to the Union. 

Society for Bettering the Condition and Increasing the Comforts 

of the Poor founded in England. Among earliest of social welfare 

agencies. 

Apr. 1797. Bonaparte's campaign in Italy. 

July 8. First passport recorded in the State Department. 

Sept. 16. Washington's Farewell Address. 

Oct. 2. British relinquished last of the frontier posts, Michili- 

mackinac, as provided in Jay's Treaty. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1796. Dr. Edward Jenner discovered vaccination for smallpox. (See also 
1798) 

Laplace set forth his nebular hypothesis on the movement of the 
planets. 

Homeopathy introduced by Samuel Hahnemann in Germany. In- 
troduced to the United States about 1825. 

Nail cutting and heading machine patented by George Chandler 
of Maryland. 

First elephant brought to the United States; exhibited in New 
York City. 

World History 

1797. Mar. 4. John Adams inaugurated as President. 
1797-1800. Sept. 30. United States naval conflict with France. 

41 



Cultural Progress 

1797-1801. Romantic novels by women authors were the popular books 
of the period. The Coquette by Hannah Foster was a typical favor- 
ite and best seller of 1797. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1797. Cast-iron plow (share and moldboard cast in one piece) patented 
by Charles Newbold of New Jersey. Unsuccessful because cast-iron 
point wore off and replacing whole plow was too expensive. 

First clock patent granted to Eli Terry of Connecticut. 

Lancaster Turnpike opened from Philadelphia to Lancaster. First 
Macadam road and first toll road in the United States. Begun in 1793. 

Launching of the first "frigate" built in the United States, The 
United States, at Philadelphia. 

First medical periodical in the United States, The Medical Reposi- 
tory, founded. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1798. Civic and military entertainments were given in old council house 
near river. 

June 3. Father Gabriel Richard arrived in Detroit as assistant to 
Father Levadoux. 

First Detroit election of delegates to General Assembly of North- 
west Territory. Wayne County sent three representatives. Solomon 
Sibley elected December 17 and Jacobus Visger and Chabert de 
Joncaire elected January 15, 1799. 

World History 
1798. Apr. 30. Navy Department established. 

June 25. First American immigration lav/. Required recording of 
names and data about aliens upon arrival. 

July 11. Marine Corps established by act of Congress. 

July 14. Sedition Act passed to suppress criticism of the federal 
government. Alien Act passed June 25. 

Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions in opposition to the Alien and 
Sedition Acts. 

1798-1799- Bonaparte's campaign in Egypt. Battle of the Pyramids, July 
21,1798. 

42 



1798. Aug. 1. Battle of the Nile. Lord Nelson destroyed Napoleon's fleet. 

Dec. 24. Second Coalition (Russia and Great Britain) against 
France. 

Ceylon became a British crown colony. 

Cultural Progress 

1 798. Thomas Malthus published his Essay on the Principle of Population. 
Oratorio, The Creation, by Joseph Haydn first performed Apr. 29- 

"Rime of the Ancient Mariner," poem by S. T. Coleridge. 

Francisco Goya (1746-1828) made chief painter to the King of 
Spain. The last great Spanish master, he satirized his age of 
revolution and Napoleonic conquest. 

1798-1801. Napoleon's expedition to Egypt in these years awakened the 
first general interest in Egyptian antiquities. The Rosetta Stone 
was discovered in 1799 and eventually provided a key to the 
ancient Egyptian language. (See also 1822) 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1798. Eli Whitney introduced principle of mass production by making 
interchangeable parts for guns. 

Benjamin Thompson, Baron Rumford, explained mechanical theory 
of heat. 

Lithography as a method of printing discovered by Aloys Senefelder 
of Bavaria. 

First screw patent granted to David Wilkinson of Rhode Island. 
Philosophical Magazine founded in London. 

Jenner's Inquiry into Causes and Effects of the Variolae Vaccinea 
demonstrated value of vaccination and created science of preventive 
medicine. 

Marine Hospital Service authorized by Congress, July 16. Predeces- 
sor of United States Public Health Service. 

First systematic instruction for nurses given at New York Hospital. 
In effect, the first American nursing school. 

Detroit and Michigan 
1799- Mar. 2. Detroit made a port of entry. 

43 



World History 

1799- Nov. 9. Napoleon overthrew the Directory and set up the Con- 
sulate (1799-1804) with himself as First Consul. 
Dec. 14. Washington died at Mt. Vernon. 

Dec. 24. French Constitution of Year VIII. Preserved appearance 
of Republic but actually established dictatorship of Napoleon. 

1799-1804. Von Humboldt explored Amazon and Orinoco Valley. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1800. Feb. 12. Memorial services for George Washington held in Detroit. 
May 7. Northwest Territory divided to create Territory of Indiana. 
Territorial government located at Chillicothe, Ohio. 
Sept. 11. First Protestant missionary to the Indians, Rev. David 
Bacon, arrived in Detroit. Sent by Congregational church associa- 
tion of Connecticut. 
Dec. 9- Wayne County Circuit Court created. 

World History 

1800. United States population 5,308,583; area 892,135 square miles; 
center of population, 18 miles west of Baltimore, Maryland. 
Money in circulation $26,500,000. 
United States capital moved from Philadelphia to Washington. 

Cultural Progress 

1800. Growth of romanticism in English literature symbolized by Words- 
worth and Coleridge in their Lyrical Ballads. 

First billiard table in New York City. The game of billiards had 
been introduced to America by the Spanish when they settled 
St. Augustine in 1565. George Washington was an enthusiastic 
billiard player. The first perfect billiard table in America was 
built in 1845 by John M. Brunswick of Cincinnati. 
Leading English painters were: George Romney (1734-1802); 
Sir Henry Raeburn (1756-1823); Sir Thomas Lawrence (1769- 
1830). 

Life of Washington by Parson Weems became the source of many 
long-lasting legends. 

Library of Congress established by act of Congress, Apr. 24. 
Ludwig von Beethoven gave a concert Apr. 2 at which his "First 
Symphony" was first performed. 

44 



1800-1814. Empress Josephine set the fashions for women. The Empire 
mode followed the same general classic style of previous years but 
employed richer fabrics. Long trains of bright red or green velvet 
were worn in the evening. Jewelled combs, embroidered reticules, 
and fans were popular accessories. 

1800-1825. Classicism the dominant form in painting (David and Ingres), 
architecture, music (Beethoven), and drama. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1800. Royal Institution in London chartered with Rumford as leading 
founder. Great scientific organization. 

Alessandro Volta produced electricity from pile of silver and zinc 
discs with salt-water-soaked cloth between them. Basis of electric 
battery. Unit of electrical power, the volt, named in his honor. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1801. Rev. Mr. Bacon returned to Detroit and taught a school for boys 
and Mrs. Bacon one for girls, in vicinity of present Shelby and 
Larned Streets. 

Jan. 6 & 20. Assemblies featured three fiddlers for dancing and 
refreshments of corned beef, bacon, bread, apples, tea, coffee, and 
spirits. 

World History 

1801. Jan. 1. Legislative Union of Great Britain and Ireland as United 
Kingdom. 

Mar. 4. Thomas Jefferson inaugurated as President. 

John Marshall became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. 

Alexander I became Tsar of Russia. 

Health and Morals of Apprentices Act in England among the 
earliest of social welfare legislation. 

1801-1805. War between the United States and the Barbary Powers. 

Cultural Progress 

1801. First booksellers association organized in New York City with 
Matthew Carey as president. 

45 



Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1801. Invention of the pattern loom by M. J. Jacquard of France. 
Richard Trevithick built a 3 -wheeled steam vehicle in England. 
Many steam road carriages were built but Red Flag Act hampered 
their development in England. 

Doctrine of organic evolution expressed by French naturalist 
Lamarck in his work On the Organization of Living "Bodies. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1802. Jan. 18. Detroit incorporated as a town. Charter enacted by legis- 
lature of Northwest Territory provided for government by a board 
of trustees assisted by a secretary, an assessor, a collector of taxes, 
and a marshal. First charter specified boundaries as river on the 
south, line between Askin and Beaubien farms on the east, line 
between Macomb and Chene farms on the west, and line two miles 
north of river as northern limits (about what is now Warren 
Avenue). Official name "Town of Detroit." 

First board of trustees as named in the charter: John Askin, John 

Dodemead, James Henry, Charles F. Girardin, and Joseph Campau. 

After the first municipal election on May 3, John Askin was 

replaced by George Meldrum. 

Better fire protection was the first business considered by the new 

board of trustees. Adopted fire regulations and organized a fire 

department, February 23. 

Besides the fire laws, other early ordinances included those against 

horse-racing in the village streets and one regulating price and 

weight of bread. Bread for the town was baked at public bakeries 

in large ovens. 

Apr. 17. First city tax, $150, to be paid by assessment of 25^ upon 

each individual over 21 years of age and by tax of V4 of 1% on 

"fixed property," meaning houses. 

May 18. Father Richard succeeded Father Levadoux as pastor of 

St. Anne's church. 

Sept. 7. Frederick Bates appointed postmaster. Two deliveries a 

month. 

World History 
1802. Ohio joined the Union. 

May 19. Order of the Legion of Honor created in France. 
Aug. 2. Napoleon named Consul for life. 

46 



Cultural Progress 

1802. Nathaniel Bowditch wrote the American Practical Navigator, still 
the standard authority on navigation. 

Saratoga spa started on its career as a resort with the building of a 
hotel. 

System of public land grants for support of schools begun with 
grant to Ohio. Section 16 of each township went to school fund. 
United States Military Academy established at West Point. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1802. United States Patent Office organized. Previously patents were 
granted through a board or commission. 

E. I. Du Pont set up powder mill in Delaware. Origin of gigantic 
Du Pont Company of today. 

First congressional act for improving roads with federal funds. 
First Merino sheep imported into United States for breeding for 
wool. First sheep came in 1609 to Jamestown. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1803. Mar. 3. Michigan became part of Indiana Territory. 

Apr. 11. John F. Hamtramck died. Major Zebulon Pike assumed 
command of military post at Detroit. 

World History 
1803. Marbury vs. Madison Case decided by Supreme Court. Principle of 

judicial review of congressional acts established. 
1803-1804. Settlement of Tasmania. 
1803. Apr. 30. Louisiana purchased by the United States from Napoleon. 

This vast territory consisted of the west drainage basin of the 

Mississippi River. 

May 16. War renewed between England and France. 

Fort Dearborn established on site of Chicago by soldiers from 

Detroit. First permanent white settler, John Kinzie, arrived in 1804. 

Nov. 19. Haiti, French colony, achieved independence. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1803. First and basic paper-making machine made by Fourdrinier Broth- 
ers of London. Made paper in a continuous web. Based on Louis 

47 (continued, on folio-wing page) 



Robert's machine of 1799- First Fourdrinier machine imported into 

United States in 1828. 

Application of steam to the loom by William Horrocks of England. 

Steamboat with a twin-screw propeller built by John Stevens at 

Hoboken, New Jersey. 

The principles of the storage battery discovered by J. B. Ritter in 

Germany. 

Atomic theory formulated by John Dalton, English chemist, that 

substances are composed of particles of matter, or atoms. 

Joseph Black introduced calorimetry, quantitative study of heat. 

Refrigerator invented by Thomas Moore, a Maryland farmer. Two 

boxes, one inside the other, separated by insulating material, with 

ice and food stored in the center box. 

First bird banding in the United States done by John James Audu- 

bon near Philadelphia. Makes possible study of bird migrations. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1804. First dock ordinance passed. Schedule of charges prescribed to raise 
funds for a new public wharf. 

Gates of Detroit stockade were kept closed and guarded at night. 
Watchmen patrolled streets and curfew kept people off streets at 
night. No Indian allowed in town after sunset. Lights had to be out 
after 11 p.m. People feared Indian attack. 

Father Richard started the Young Ladies' Academy and a class for 
boys to foster vocations for the priesthood. 
Mar. 26. United States land office established in Detroit. 
First Protestant missionary to the white people of the Detroit area 
arrived; Rev. Nathaniel Bangs, an itinerant Methodist minister. 

World History 
1804. Twelfth Amendment to the Constitution provided for the election 

of president and vice-president on separate ballots. 

May 18. Napoleon proclaimed Emperor. Crowned, Dec. 2. 

Code of Napoleon promulgated. Still the basic French legal code. 

July 11. Aaron Burr killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel. 
1804-1806. Lewis and Clark expedition to the Northwest. 

Cultural Progress 

1804. Wilhelm Tell, dramatic masterpiece by Schiller (1759-1805). 
Beethoven's "Third Symphony" (Eroica). 

48 



Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1804. The first steam carriage to run on rails built by Richard Trevithick 
in England. 

First wool spinning machine in an American factory at Peace Dale, 

Rhode Island. 

Bananas first imported into the United States from Cuba. 

Jardin des Plantes opened in Paris. First zoo, in modern sense; 

collection of animals for scientific study. London Zoo opened 1826. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1805. Territory of Michigan created (January 11) out of Indiana Ter- 
ritory. Detroit the seat of government. Officials were a governor, 
three judges, and a secretary. 

Mar. President Jefferson appointed following officials for Michi- 
gan Territory: Governor, William Hull; Judges, Augustus B. Wood- 
ward, Frederick Bates, and John Griffin; Secretary, Stanley Griswold. 
June 11. Detroit destroyed by fire which started in barn of John 
Harvey, the village baker. Every building in town except one burned. 
July 1. Official birth of Michigan Territory. Governor William 
Hull and Judges Woodward and Bates took oath of office, July 2. 
August. First session of governing officials of Michigan Territory 
held in Richard Smyth's tavern on Woodward near Woodbridge. 

World History 
1805. Mar. 4. Second inauguration of Jefferson as President. 

Third coalition against Napoleon formed by England, Austria, 

Russia, and Sweden. Spain allied with France. 

Oct. 21. Battle of Trafalgar and death of Lord Nelson. French and 

Spanish fleets defeated by Nelson. 

Dec. 2. Battle of Austerlitz. 

Mungo Park explored the Niger River in Africa. 

Cultural Progress 

1805. New York Free School Society organized. Soon changed name to 
Public School Society of New York. Most famous of the American 
societies for maintaining schools for the poor. Its facilities were 
taken over in 1853 by New York City School Department. 
Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts established; oldest such institu- 

49 (continued on following page) 



tion still in existence in the United States. Incorporated Mar. 28, 

1806. 

Fidelio, opera by Ludwig von Beethoven, first performed in Vienna, 

Nov. 20 . 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1805. Beginning of electroplating, by Luigi Brugnatelli, in Italy. 

First optical glass ground in Germany by Guinand and Fraundhofer. 
Courses in chemistry started at Yale University under Benjamin 
Silliman. 

ca. 1805. Georges Cuvier, French naturalist, founded the science of com- 
parative anatomy, or structural zoology. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1806. Sept. 13. "City of Detroit" incorporated. Local affairs controlled 
by territorial Governor and Judges included laying out of new 
town and disposal of town lands. 

Detroit Bank chartered first in Michigan. Judge Woodward, 
president. Issued paper money of questionable value. Opened for 
business September 19 in building at Jefferson and Randolph. In 
1807 Congress disapproved territorial banking act. After a brief 
period as a private bank, the Detroit Bank went out of business. 
Hull and Woodward secured permission for the Governor and 
Judges to lay out new city of Detroit and obtained a grant of 
10,000 acres from which would be distributed to each resident over 
17 years of age a lot of not less than 5,000 square feet. This was 
known as the ten thousand acre tract, north of present Grand 
Boulevard. 

World History 

1806. During his western explorations Zebulon Pike discovered the moun- 
tain later named Pike's Peak. 
Aug. 6. End of Holy Roman Empire. 

Nov. 21. Berlin Decree Napoleon's paper blockade of Great 
Britain. Milan Decree came Dec. 1807. British retaliated with 
Orders in Council. Chiefly harmful to neutral trade. 

Cultural Progress 

1806. Noah Webster's first dictionary, Compendium Dictionary of the 
English Language. An American Dictionary appeared in 1828. 

50 



Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1806. William Colgate opened a factory in New York City for rendering 
fats for soap stock. Became the famous Colgate Company. 
Cumberland Road begun. First highway built with federal funds. 
Reached Ohio by 1817 and Vandalia, Illinois, in 1840. Called 
National Road west of Wheeling, West Virginia. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1807. Plan for rebuilding of Detroit included many features suggested 
by Judge Woodward. A central street (Woodward) laid at right 
angles to the river and Jefferson; Woodbridge, and Atwater streets 
laid at right angles to it. Michigan and Monroe Avenue intersection 
with Woodward named Campus Martius. Farther up Woodward a 
circular area was provided for a courthouse and jail. This is now 
Grand Circus Park. 

First brick house erected. 

Indians relinquished lands in southeastern Michigan in Treaty of 

Detroit negotiated by Governor Hull. 

World History 

1807. July 7. Peace of Tilsit between France, Russia and Prussia. Divided 
Europe into two spheres of influence. 

Sept. Aaron Burr treason trial. Burr acquitted on technical grounds. 
Dec. 22. Embargo Act passed by the United States prohibiting 
United States ships from leaving for foreign ports. Intended as 
retaliation for British and French interference with American trade 
and shipping. 

John Colter, American trapper, discovered Yellowstone Park. 
British abolished African slave trade. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1807. Robert Fulton's steamboat The Clermont was the first to make a 
regular trip (New York to Albany and return). Demonstrated 
commercial possibilities of water navigation. 

The first street gas lighting in England developed by F. A. Winsor. 
First carbonated water prepared by Townsend Speakman of Phila- 
delphia. (See also 1832) 

Congress authorized survey of coast of the United States. Origin of 
present United States Coast and Geodetic Survey. Geodetic work 
added to United States Coast Survey in 1871. 

51 



Detroit and Michigan 

1808. Mar. 18. Reuben Attwater succeeded Stanley Griswold as Secre- 
tary of Michigan Territory. Attwater served until October 15, 1814. 

Apr. James Witherell succeeded Frederick Bates as one of the 
Judges. 

World History 
1808. Jan. 1. Importation of slaves prohibited by the United States. 

1808-1814. Peninsular War. France invaded Spain and proclaimed Joseph 
Bonaparte, King. General uprisings of Spaniards (May 1808). 
English sent troops under Wellington to aid the Spanish. 

Cultural Progress 
1808. American Academy of Fine Arts founded in New York. 

Song, "Believe Me If All Those Endearing Young Charms" with 
words by Thomas Moore published in London. 
First part of Goethe's Faust published. Final part finished in 1831. 
This work represents the high point of German literature. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1808. The first American built steamboat to make a trip to sea, The 
Phoenix, was constructed by John Stevens. It journeyed from New 
York to Philadelphia. 

Pear's soap advertisements began appearing. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1809. Aug. 31. First newspaper published in Detroit by Father Gabriel 
Richard on printing press he obtained Michigan Essay or Impartial 
Observer. This was also the first Catholic newspaper in English 
printed in the United States. Only the first issue is extant now. 

World History 

1809. Jan. 16. Battle of Corunna. 

Mar. 4. James Madison inaugurated as President. 
Hutchins, American pioneer hunter, discovered Mammoth Cave. 
Napoleon divorced Josephine, Dec. 16. Married Maria Louisa of 
Austria, Mar. 11, 1810. 

52 



Cultural Progress 
1809- Some 30 daily newspapers circulated in the United States. 

Knickerbockers History of New York by Washington Irving. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1809- Arc light principle discovered by Sir Humphry Davy. Used for 
lighting before incandescent lamp and also in welding. 
Joseph Gay-Lussac, French chemist, published his memoir on gase- 
ous combination. Gases combine in simple proportion by volume. 

Detroit and Michigan 
1810. Population of Detroit 1,650. 

Methodist Society organized first Protestant church group. 

World History 

1810. United States population 7,239,881; area 1,720,112 square miles. 
Center of population now in Virginia, 40 miles northwest of 
Washington, D. C 

June 29. American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions 
established. Marked the beginning of organized foreign missionary 
enterprise in America. 

Cultural Progress 

1810. First agricultural journal, Agricultural Museum, issued by Colum- 
bian Agricultural Society at Georgetown. Ceased May 1812. 
"Lady of the Lake," poem by Sir Walter Scott, enhanced his popu- 
larity as a poet, already high after "Marmion" in 1808. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1810. Census counted 109 cotton mills in New England just 20 years 
after Samuel Slater introduced the first one. 

Steam power applied to printing press by Friedrich Konig of Ger- 
many. Increased output of a press greatly. This steam cylinder 
press was first used for London Times in 1814. 
First American cigar factory of importance established by Simeon 
Viets in West Suffield, Connecticut. 

Ferry service between Staten Island and New York City established 
by Cornelius Vanderbilt. In 1814, the first steam ferry, designed 
by Fulton, began operation between New York and Long Island. 

53 



1810. First screw factory established at Belief onte, Rhode Island. 

Food preservation by heating in closed vessels and sealing while 
hot discovered by Francois Appert in Paris. 

First county agricultural fair held at Pittsfield, Massachusetts. The 
Berkshire Cattle Show. 

1810-1825. The Duncan Phyfe shop in New York City produced some of 
the finest American furniture. The shop had been opened in 1792. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1811. Tecumseh incited Indian tribes against American settlers. Indians 
were defeated at Battle of Tippecanoe (November 7) by General 
Harrison. 

World History 

1811. Latin American revolutions for independence from Spain began. 
Led by Simon Bolivar and Bernardo O'Higgins. 
Nov. 7. Battle of Tippecanoe. Part of Indian war in the west. 
Fur trading post established by American Fur Company at mouth 
of the Columbia River and named Astoria, after John Jacob Astor, 
the company's owner. Important for later American claims to the 
Oregon Territory. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1811. Molecular hypothesis of Avogadro. 

Invention of the breech-loading shotgun by Thornton and Hall. 
First rubber factory in the world in Vienna. Thomas Hancock built 
the first in England in 1820. First American company was Rox- 
bury India Rubber Company in 1832. 

First steamboat on the Ohio River. The New Orleans launched 
at Pittsburgh for trip down rivers to Gulf of Mexico. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1812. Aug. 16. Detroit surrendered by Governor Hull to the British 
General Brock during War of 1812. 

World History 
1812. Louisiana admitted as a state. 

Fort Dearborn massacre on site of present-day Chicago. 

54 



1812. June-Dec Napoleon's invasion of Russia. 

1812-1814. War of 1812. United States declared war against England 

on June 18, 1812. Principal cause was British interference with 

American shipping. 

1812. Aug. 19. The U. S. frigate, Constitution, defeated the British 
Guerriere in naval battle. 

Cultural Progress 

1812. Opening of Walnut Street Theater in Philadelphia. Oldest extant 
theater in the United States. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1812. William Monroe of Concord, Massachusetts, began manufacturing 
lead pencils. Joseph Dixon opened his lead pencil factory in Salem 
in 1827. 

Academy of Natural Sciences founded in Philadelphia. 

John James Audubon began classifying and describing the birds of 

America. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1813. Sept. 29. Detroit recaptured by American troops. 

Oct. 5. Americans defeated British troops and Indians at Battle of 

the Thames. 

Fort Lernoult renamed Fort Shelby in honor of General Isaac 

Shelby. Soldiers quartered in Detroit endured much hardship, 

lacked food and proper shelter. 

Cholera-like epidemic killed many soldiers and townspeople. 

Oct. 29- Lewis Cass appointed military and civil governor of 

Michigan Territory by General Harrison. Served until 1831. 

World History 
1813. Mar. 4. Madison's second inauguration as President. 

Sept. 10. Oliver Hazard Perry's naval victory over British in Battle 

of Lake Erie. 

Oct. 16-19. Napoleon defeated at Leipzig. 

Spain abolished the Inquisition. 

Cultural Progress 

1813. Men's hats were very high with narrower brims. Men began wear- 
ing whiskers. 

55 



1813. Game of "Hazards" introduced in New Orleans by Bernard de 
Marigny. Since the nickname for a Creole was Johnny Crapaud 
it was soon called Crapaud's game and then "craps." 
Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen published. First American 
edition issued 1832 and her other books were issued the next year. 
Robert Southey made Poet Laureate of England. 
Swiss Family Robinson by Johann R. Wyss. Published in America 
in 1832. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1813. First complete American textile factory established at Waltham, 
Massachusetts, by Francis C. Lowell. He combined cotton spinning 
and weaving in one mill and used power looms. 

Cast-iron plow in which the share, moldboard, and landside were 
cast in separate pieces patented by Richard B. Chenaworth of 
Baltimore. One of first U. S. farm implement manufacturers. Great 
improvement in the plow. 
Edmund Ruffin of Virginia began his soil experiments. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1814. Sept. Last Indian hostility in this region. Indians killed Ananias 
McMillan and captured his son, Archibald. 

Oct. 15. William Woodbridge succeeded Attwater as Secretary of 
the Territory. Served until January 15, 1828. 

World History 
1814. Apr. 11. Napoleon abdicated and was exiled to Elba. 

Bourbon restoration in France. Louis XVIII became King. 

May 30. Great Britain secured definite possession of Cape of Good 

Hope colony under Treaty of Paris. British settlement in South 

Africa followed. Cape first occupied by the British in 1806. 

June 21. Belgium and Holland united to form Kingdom of the 

Netherlands. (See also 1830) 

Aug. 25. British troops captured Washington, D.C., and burned 

Capitol and White House. 

Dec. Hartford Convention by New England states in protest 

against War of 1812. 

Dec. 24. Treaty of Ghent ended War of 1812. Status quo ante 

helium restored. 

56 



Cultural Progress 

1814-1840. Corseted figure returned for fashionable women. Skirts were 
full, ankle length, and trimmed with lace, tucks, and embroidery. 
Bodices were decollete with shoulders covered by small cape of 
sheer material. Dresses were made of heavy, stiff taffetas and satins 
light, bright colors, stripes and plaids. Pantalets worn in England 
and America but in France only by children as yet. The hair was 
elaborately dressed and worn in ringlets about the face. Flowers 
and ribbon trimmed poke bonnets. 

1814. "Star Spangled Banner" written by Francis Scott Key. Set to music 
of old song "To Anacreon in Heaven." Adopted as national anthem 
by Congress in 1931. 

Sir Walter Scott began the vogue for romantic historical novels. 
Wave fly was a best seller in 1814 and his other works were equally 
popular during the next decade, such as Guy Mannering, 1815; 
Rob Roy, 1817; Heart of Midlothian, 1818; Ivanhoe, 1820; Kenil- 
worth, 1821; Talisman, 1825. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1814. First locomotive in the United States built by George Stephenson, 
an Englishman. 

Moses L. Morse invented a machine for manufacturing pins from 
wire in one operation. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1815. Governor Cass began the county system by laying out that part of 
the territory in which the Indian title had been extinguished (now 
Michigan and Wisconsin). Wayne County, with the seat of justice 
at Detroit, was materially reduced in size from its previous exten- 
sive boundaries of 1796 and 1805 to an area little larger than its 
present size. 

Mar. 30. "Pacification Ball" at Woodworth's Hotel in honor of 
peace between Great Britain and the United States. 

Oct. 24. Detroit re-incorporated and provided with local governing 
board elected from the residents. Solomon Sibley elected chairman 
of the first board of trustees. Corporate name became "City of 
Detroit." 

Governor Cass brought the first carriage to Detroit. 

57 



World History 

1815. France abolished the slave trade followed by Spain and Portugal. 
Jan. 8. Battle of New Orleans. Jackson defeated the British. 
Mar. 20- June 22. The Hundred Days. Napoleon escaped from Elba, 
Mar. 1, and entered Paris, Mar. 20. Defeated at Waterloo, June 18. 
Second abdication, June 22. Exiled to St. Helena in October. 

Congress of Vienna. Final act, June 8. Remade Europe after 
Napoleon. Restored monarchies in France, Italy, Spain, Austria, 
Prussia, etc. Prince Metternich, Chancellor of Austria, was the lead- 
ing figure at the Congress. 

Metternich system of opposition to liberal and nationalistic aspira- 
tions put into operation. 

Sept. 26. So-called Holy Alliance established by Russia, Austria, 

and Prussia. Became the Quadruple Alliance when England joined 

the league whose purpose was to maintain the Restoration. Became 

a Quintuple Alliance in 1818 when Bourbon France joined the 

membership. 

United States Navy suppressed Algerian piracy. 

Cultural Progress 
1815. North American Review established. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1815. A. J. Fresnel researches in diffraction of light established wave 
theory. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1816. Government warehouse built at foot of Wayne Street. Army officers 
and their wives began fitting up a theater for amateur entertain- 
ments in this building. In 1819 began giving three plays each winter. 
Cass Code of Michigan Territorial Laws published. 

Apr. 18. Treaty of peace concluded with Indian Council in meet- 
ing at Council House. "The Prophet," brother of Tecumseh, present. 
Rev. John Monteith sent to Detroit by American Board of Com- 
missioners for Foreign Missions. Preached first sermon June 30. 

World History 

1816. Indiana admitted to the Union. 
American Bible Society founded. 

58 



1816. American Colonization Society founded to settle freed slaves back 
in Africa. 

Cultural Progress 

1816. Infant School for primary instruction introduced in Boston. Origi- 
nated in England. 

First ring prize fight in the United States Jacob Hyers vs. Tom 
Beasley. 
Barber of Seville, opera by Rossini, first performed in Rome, Feb. 20. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 
1816. Miners' safety lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. 

"Hobby horse" or celeripede, forerunner of bicycle, made in Paris 
by Niepce. Consisted of two wheels and a cross bar which rider 
propelled with feet. 

Baron Karl von Drais of Germany invented an improved bicycle. 
The front wheel pivoted and was steered by a handle bar. Called 
the "Draisene." 

First wire suspension bridge in the world erected over Schuylkill 
River near Philadelphia. 

Two small steamboats Frontenac and Ontario launched and oper- 
ated on Lake Ontario. First steamboats on the Great Lakes. 
Black Ball packet line began sailings from New York to Liverpool. 
First regular transatlantic service. 

First printing press invented in America, The Columbian, devised 
by George Clymer of Philadelphia. Operated by hand levers instead 
of screw. 

First savings bank in the United States Philadelphia Savings Fund 
Society. 
First protective tariff enacted by Congress. 

.1816. Native United States manufacture stimulated by wartime exclu- 
sion of English goods, protective tariff, and movement for national 
self-sufficiency. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1817. Hogs allowed to run at large in public streets if their noses were 
ringed to prevent them rooting up gardens. 
Woodward Avenue Market erected. Just below Jefferson Avenue. 
Used until 1835. 

59 



1817. July 2 5. First issue of Detroit Gazette published. Newspaper 
founded by John P. Sheldon and Ebenezer Reed. 4 pages, 9 l /2 by 
l6!/2 inches, in both English and French. Less than a hundred 
subscribers. 

First President of the United States to visit Detroit while in office 
was President James Monroe who arrived for a five-day visit on 
August 13. City and county of Monroe named in his honor. 

Catholepistemiad or University of Michigania established in Detroit. 
Governor and Judges passed act for founding of a university, 
August 26. Rev. John Monteith became president and Father Rich- 
ard, vice-president, and they held all the professorships. Cornerstone 
for building laid September 24 on Bates Street, between Larned 
and Congress. 

Detroit City Library organized by society of citizens and subscrip- 
tions were sold for the purchase of books. Books were kept in the 
University building on Bates Street. The library had only a brief 
existence, and its books were turned over to the Detroit Athenaeum 
in 1831. 

Sept. 15. First Evangelistic Society of Detroit organized to hold 
Protestant church services. 

Dec. 19. Bank of Michigan authorized by act of Governor and 
Judges. Organized June 2, 1818. Began business January 2, 1819. 

Dec. 26. Detroit Musical Society mentioned in Gazette as partici- 
pating in exercises at the Council House. 

Dec. 29. First charitable society established in Detroit Moral 
and Humane Society whose objects were to suppress vice and 
report children in need of education. Lasted three years. 

First white settler, George Clark, on site of Wyandotte. It was 
made a city in 1867. 

Birmingham founded. Incorporated as a village in 1864 and as a 
city in 1933. 

World History 

1817-1820. "Era of good feeling" in the United States. 
1817. Mississippi admitted as a state. 

Mar. 4. James Monroe inaugurated as President. 

Apr. 28. Agreement between Great Britain and United States 

limiting naval forces on the Great Lakes. 
1817-1818. Seminole Indians subdued by Jackson in first Seminole War. 

60 



Cultural Progress 

1817. About this time full length trousers replaced the knee breeches 
previously worn by men. First American president to wear long 
pants while in office was James Madison. 

First free school for the deaf opened in Hartford, Connecticut, with 
Thomas H. Gallaudet as principal. His sons also devoted themselves 
to education for the deaf. 

"Thanatopsis," poem by William Cullen Bryant published in the 
North American Review. 

"Lalla Rookh," by Thomas Moore became one of the most popular 
poems of the century. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1817. First machine-made paper in the United States manufactured by 
Thomas Gilpen at Brandywine, Delaware, on paper-making cylinder 
machine he invented. 

First gas light company in United States incorporated in Baltimore 
Feb. 5. First street lighted Feb. 17. 

Lyceum of Natural History founded in New York. Later (1876) 
became the New York Academy of Sciences. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1818. Jan. 14. Lyceum of Detroit organized as a literary, scientific, patri- 
otic, and benevolent association. Lasted about three years. 

First Protestant church in Michigan built near the River Rouge. A 

log building dedicated March 31. 

June 9- Cornerstone of new St. Anne's Church laid at Larned and 

Bates streets. 

July 6. First auction sale of public lands in Michigan held at the 

Council House. Average price $4 per acre with range of $2 to $40. 

July 20. Detroit Mechanics' Society organized. Building erected at 

corner of Griswold and Lafayette was opened in 1834 and a 

library gathered. These books were eventually turned over to the 

Public Library. 

Public whipping post erected under ordinance passed July 27. In 

use until 1831. Located above market at intersection of Woodward 

and Jefferson. 

Aug. 27. Walk-in-the-Water, first steamboat on the Great Lakes, 

arrived in Detroit on maiden voyage from Buffalo. Welcomed by 

61 (continued on following page) 



entire Detroit populace. The ship carried passengers and goods 
between Detroit and Buffalo until wrecked in November, 1821. 
Oct. 4. First Sunday school held in Detroit. Organized by Sunday 
School Association. Object was to teach reading as well as religion. 
Regular ferry service between Detroit and Windsor shore estab- 
lished by Edwin Baldwin. First used a canoe; then a rowboat. 
General Cass and companions followed Saginaw Indians' winter 
trail and explored what is now Oakland County then a primeval 
oak forest. Their reports attracted families to seek homesteads in 
the area. Many from New York brought their state's names with 
them to the new towns, such as Rochester, founded in 1818. 
First settlers at site of Dearborn. Incorporated as a village in 1893. 
Settlement at the site later known as Pontiac founded by Detroit 
land speculators who organized Pontiac Company and purchased 
land tract. 

World History 

1818. Congress prescribed the American flag: 13 horizontal stripes of 
red and white and a blue field filled with one white star for each 
state. 

Illinois admitted to the Union. 
First permanent settlement at Milwaukee. 

Pensioning of war veterans and their widows and children began. 
First pension act for Revolutionary War veterans. 
New Bernadotte dynasty in Sweden when Charles XIV became 
King. 

British government renewed offer of 20,000 for navigating the 
Northwest Passage, thus encouraging its exploration. 
Oct. 20. Convention between Great Britain and United States 
fixing 49th parallel as boundary from Lake of the Woods to Rocky 
Mountains and joint occupation of Oregon Country. 

Cultural Progress 

1818. Mary Shelley published Frankenstein, a warning that man would 
be overpowered by his machines. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1818. Anthracite coal mining began in the United States near Mauch 
Chunk, Pennsylvania. 

62 



1818. Milling machine devised by Eli Whitney. 

Launching of Walk-in- f he-Water at Buffalo, Apr. 4. First steam- 
boat to ply all the Great Lakes. 

First science magazine, The American Journal of Science, founded 
by Benjamin Silliman in New York. 

New York Horticultural Society founded. First one in the United 
States. Lasted about fifteen years. 

1818-1819. Bicycle craze spread to England and America. Called "dandy 
horse" in England and "curricle" in United States. Lasted only a 
few years. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1819. Treaty of Saginaw negotiated with Indians by Governor Cass. 
Indians ceded about 6 million acres diagonally across center of 
Michigan. 

Legislative Council by act of June 14 authorized physicians and 
surgeons to meet in Detroit on July 3 to form a medical society. 
Michigan Territory authorized (July 16) to elect a delegate to 
Congress. William Woodbridge elected September 2. Citizens pro- 
tested because he was already Secretary of the Territory and Collec- 
tor of Customs, so Woodbridge resigned in 1820 and Solomon 
Sibley was elected. 

First land entry in Royal Oak by white settler, William Thurber. 
Royal Oak became a separate township in 1832. Village of Royal 
Oak incorporated in 1891 and as a city in 1921. 
Nov. 25. Elephant was exhibited for first time in Detroit. 

World History 
1819- Alabama admitted to the Union. 

Feb. 22. Purchase of Florida from Spain by treaty. 

In Dartmouth College Case, Chief Justice Marshall set precedent 

that Supreme Court could review laws passed by state legislatures. 

McCulloch vs. Maryland Case. Supreme Court upheld power of 

federal government against a state. 

Singapore founded by Raffles. Acquired by English in 1824. 

Oct. Zollverein (customs union of German states) began under 

Prussian leadership. By 1834 included most German states. 

Cultural Progress 
1819. Arthur Schopenhauer's The World as Will and Idea. 

63 



Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1819. American Geological Society founded. First national geology organ- 
ization. Ceased 1828. 

Oersted discovered that an electric current will deflect a magnetic 
needle. The beginning of the science of electro-magnetism. 
Iron plow of replaceable parts patented by Jethro Wood of New 
York. He was chiefly responsible for advocating use of cast iron 
plows and for present graceful shape. 

First steamer to cross the Atlantic Ocean was the Savannah. Thirty- 
one days to Liverpool. Used steam power only partially. 
Profile lathe for turning irregular wood forms patented by Thomas 
Blanchard. 

Stethoscope invented by Laennec in France. Enabled physicians to 
hear body sounds. 

The American Farmer, famous farm journal, established. 
The New York State Board of Agriculture was set up by the state 
legislature. First such board. 

Canning introduced by Ezra Daggett and Thomas Kensett who 
canned salmon, oysters, and lobster in New York City. Known as 
"preservers." Obtained patent on Jan. 19, 1825, to "preserve animal 
substances in tin." Real development of canning industry came 
after Civil War. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1820. Population of Detroit 1,442. 

First post roads established from Detroit to Pontiac and Mt. 
Clemens. 

Governor Cass and party, including Henry R. Schoolcraft, under- 
took exploring expedition via canoe to Lake Superior and thence 
to Mississippi River and back to Detroit via Lakes. 
Feb. 27. First Protestant church in Detroit dedicated on Wood- 
ward north of Larned Street. Rev. John Monteith, pastor. Inter- 
denominational Protestant society organized. 

World History 

1820. United States population 9,638,453; area 1,792,223 square miles. 
Center of population had shifted to a point 16 miles east of Moore- 
field, West Virginia. About; 83% of all persons gainfully employed 
were engaged in agriculture. 

64 



1820. Mar. The Missouri Compromise. Maine to be admitted as a free 
state and Missouri as a slave state but slavery to be prohibited else- 
where in Louisiana Purchase Territory north of 36 30'. 
Maine admitted as a state. 

Military post established at Fort Snelling, later Minneapolis. 
Nov. James Monroe re-elected President with only one dissenting 
electoral vote. 

Nov. 18. Discovery of American sections of Antarctica by Captain 
Nathaniel Brown Palmer in sloop Hero. 
George IV became King of Great Britain. 

Cultural Progress 

1820. Beginning of the vogue for a small waist. The French corset came 
into use and remained standard feminine wear until the 1900's. 
Byron "craze." His poems had been popular since 1812 when 
"Childe Harold's Pilgrimage" appeared. 
Essays of Elia by Charles Lamb. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1820. The theory of electro-dynamics first propounded by Andre Ampere 
in France. 

Horse drawn cultivators began to replace hand hoe. First American 

patent for a cultivator granted in 1830. 

Cranberry cultivation attempted by Captain Henry Hall of Dennis, 

Massachusetts. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1821. Governor Cass negotiated treaty at Chicago, August 29, whereby 
Indians ceded all Michigan territory south of the Grand River not 
previously ceded. 

Furs still most important item in Detroit trade. 

World History 

1821. Feb. Greek war of independence began. Independence declared 
Jan. 13, 1822. 
Missouri admitted to the Union. 

1821-1822. Trade over Santa Fe Trail began with William Becknell lead- 
ing first wagon expedition. This route from Independence, Missouri, 
to Santa Fe, New Mexico, became the principal one for settlement 
of the southwest. 

65 



Cultural Progress 
1821. First public high school in the United States opened in Boston. 

Poems by William Cullen Bryant offered a collection from one of 

America's leading poets and journalists. 

Death of John Keats, English poet. Born 1795. 

Saturday Evening Post first issued Aug. 4. (See also 1728) 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1821. Michael Faraday discovered mutual rotation of a magnetic pole 
and an electric current around each other. Basic principle of electric 
motors and generators. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1822. Michigan Catholic church transferred from jurisdiction of Bards- 
town to Cincinnati. 

Mar. 21. First Methodist Episcopal Society of Detroit organized. 

Church erected in 1826 at Gratiot and Library streets but was too 

far out. New church erected at northeast corner of Woodward and 

Congress dedicated July 13, 1834. Became Central Methodist 

Church. 

Public stages first began running from Detroit. (See also 1827) 

World History 
1822. Independence of Spanish South American states recognized by the 

United States. 

Liberia founded by the American Colonization Society for freed 

slaves. 
1822-1823. Denham and Clapperton, English explorers, crossed the 

Sahara Desert. 

Cultural Progress 

1822. Egyptian hieroglyphics deciphered by Champollion with aid of 
Rosetta Stone. (See also 1798-1801) 

Franz Schubert's "Symphony No. 8" (Unfinished). His first sym- 
phony was composed in 1813 and his prolific output included 
hundreds of fine songs. 

Death of Percy Bysshe Shelley, English lyric poet. Born 1792. 
Washington Irving continued as a leading American writer. His 
Bracebridge Hall, 1822; Tales of a Traveller, 1824; and Conquest 
of Granada, 1829, were widely read. 

66 



Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1822. Invention of the galvanometer by Schweigger of Germany. 
Joseph Niepce of France made first photograph by exposing light- 
sensitive surface within a camera. 

First American patent for artificial teeth granted to C. M. Graham 
of New York. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1823. Congress transferred territorial government from Governor and 
Judges to a Governor and Legislative Council. People to elect 
eighteen candidates from whom President of United States would 
select nine. Detroiters delighted since they were much disgusted 
with Judges' rule. 

Sept. 22. Cornerstone for courthouse and territorial capitol laid 
at head of Griswold Street, present Capitol Square. Building not 
ready for occupancy until May 5, 1828. 

Father Richard elected delegate to Congress after bitter election. 
Ypsilanti founded. Named in 1825 by Judge Woodward in honor 
of a Greek prince famous during Greek war of independence. 

World History 
1823. Dec. 2. Monroe Doctrine announced. 

First state birth registration law passed by Georgia. 

Cultural Progress 

1823. Song "Home, Sweet Home" with words by John Howard Paine 
published in London. 
Beethoven's "Ninth Symphony" (Choral). 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1823. Process for liquefaction and condensation of gases devised by 
Michael Faraday. 

Process for waterproofing fabrics with rubber devised by Charles 
Macintosh. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1824. Aug. 5. City Charter adopted providing for local government by 
Mayor and Common Council. Council or Board of Aldermen was 
composed of five Aldermen, plus Mayor and Recorder. Mayor's 
Court tried offenses against city ordinances. Office of Recorder 

67 (continued on following page) 



created to perform duties of Mayor when latter was sick or absent. 
Office of City Clerk also created by the Charter. Made elective 
office in 1849. 

John R. Williams elected first Mayor. Office of Mayor did not have 
a salary until 1857. 

First effort to obtain a pure water supply. Peter Berthelet author- 
ized to erect a wharf to deep water on Detroit River provided he 
maintained a pump at which all residents could obtain water. 

June?. First legislative council of Michigan Territory convened 
in Detroit. 

Nov. 22. First Episcopal Church in Detroit organized, St. Paul's. 

Incorporated February, 1825. Church building completed July, 

1828, on Woodward south of Congress. Moved to Congress and 

Shelby in 1851. 

Nov. 25. Thanksgiving Day first observed in Detroit. 

Ann Arbor settled. 

Congress appropriated funds ($20,000) for road between Detroit 
and Toledo and ($10,000) for survey of Great Sauk Trail between 
Detroit and Chicago (now U.S. 112). 

World History 

1824. Marquis de Lafayette began the tour in which he visited each of 
the 24 states in the United States. 

Henry Clay's "American System" advocated a protective tariff for 

American manufactures and internal improvements. Both policies 

were supported by legislation in the next decades which were 

marked by protective tariffs and the building of many roads and 

canals. 

James Bridger discovered Great Salt Lake. 

British repealed laws against combinations of wage earners. 

Charles X became King of France. Tried to restore pre-revolution- 

ary old regime. 

Cultural Progress 

1824. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, established. First 
technical school except for West Point. 

Maria Edgeworth was a popular author of the period. Her Harry 
and Lucy a best seller. 

68 



Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1824. Portland cement invented by Joseph Aspdin of Leeds, England. 
Mixed and prepared materials rather than using them in natural 
state. In 1917 specifications were adopted in United States to stand- 
ardize Portland cement. 

Shell gun introduced by Henri J. Paixhaus of France. Revolutionary 
invention in the history of warfare. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1825. Four day steamboat service between Detroit and Buffalo main- 
tained by the ships Superior, built in 1822, and Henry Clay, built 
in 1824. 

Jan. 23. First Protestant Society and church reorganized as First 

Presbyterian Church. New church building dedicated April 28, 

1835, on Woodward at Lamed. 

Sept. 21. Fire Engine No. 1 purchased. 

May 10. Michigan Herald, newspaper rival for Detroit Gazette, 

started and lasted four years. 

Germans began settling in Detroit. Now those of German descent 

comprise second largest nationality group in Detroit, numbering 

some 190,000. 

World History 
1825. Mar. 4. John Quincy Adams inaugurated as President. 

Democratic Party organized from faction of Democratic-Republi- 
cans led by Jackson. First Democratic National Convention held 
in 1832. 

Nicholas I became Tsar of Russia. Firm believer in autocracy and 
foe of liberalism. 

1825-1826. Prevalence of Utopian schemes and experiments such as 
Robert Owen's community at New Harmony, Indiana. Later came 
Fourier and his phalanxes, exemplified by the Icarians. 

Cultural Progress 

1825. Feminine fashions featured enormous leg-of-mutton sleeves, full 
skirts, fur boas, lace scarfs, and leghorn hats. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1825. William Sturgeon in England discovered principle of the electro- 
magnet. 

69 



1825. Santa Fe Trail surveyed. Wagon traffic at height, 1844-45. 

Steam railroad development began with the opening of the 
Stockton and Darlington Line in England. 

Erie Canal completed connecting Albany, New York, and Lake 
Erie. Other states also building canals. 

Gas used for lighting New York streets. Used in Boston in 1822. 
About 50 to 60 man-hours were required to produce one acre 
(20 bushels) of wheat with a walking plow, a bundle of brush 
for harrow, hand broadcast of seed, harvesting by sickle, and 
threshing by flail. (See also 1850) 

Lorenzo Delmonico settled in New York and shortly after set up 
a restaurant which served foods in the European manner. Influ- 
enced eating habits of the country. 
Sandwich Company on Cape Cod began making glassware. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1826. Wayne County reduced to present boundaries. 

Troops stationed at Detroit removed. Fort Shelby and environs, 
the Military Reserve, donated to city by Congress. Barracks and 
stockade removed and fort demolished in 1827. 
Improvement of river front begun by depositing along its margin 
earth from the Fort Shelby embankments. Work continued to 1834. 
June 24. First Grand Lodge of Michigan Masons organized. 

World History 

1826. Jedediah Smith made the first overland expedition to California 
from the Great Salt Lake to San Diego. Smith led the first covered 
wagons to the Rocky Mountains a few years after this. 
First Pan-American Congress in Panama. 

Cultural Progress 

1826. John Constable (1776-1837) leading English pastoral painter of 
the period became a member of the Royal Academy. 
Edwin Forrest made his New York debut at the Bowery Theater. 
He had appeared in Philadelphia in 1820. He encouraged native 
American drama by producing plays by American authors. 
James K. Hackett made his debut at Park Theater, New York. 
Became a leading actor of the times. 

70 



1826. Last of the Mohicans, most famous of James Fenimore Cooper's 
novels. 

Scientific and, Commercial Progress 

1826. The first railroad in the United States built near Quincy, Massa- 
chusetts. Horse-drawn wagons carried freight. 

Patent leather was made by Seth Boyden in Newark. 

First cloth-covered buttons made by Mrs. Samuel Williston, East- 

hampton, Massachusetts. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1827. Congress authorized building of roads from Detroit to Chicago, 
to Saginaw, and to Fort Gratiot (Port Huron). Grand River Road 
authorized 1833. Improvements consisted of clearing trees and 
stumps from route, some drainage, and laying logs across marshy 
places. Some corduroy sections. These roads determined lines of 
Michigan settlement. 

Apr. 4. "The Mayor, Recorder, and Aldermen of the City of 

Detroit" . became the corporate name. 

Detroit city seal adopted. Commemorates 1805 fire as does city 

motto "Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus," meaning "We 

hope for better days; it shall arise from its ashes." 

Fort Street opened after demolition of Fort Shelby. Cass and Shelby 

Streets opened same year. 

First Baptist Society organized. Dedicated new church on northeast 

corner of Griswold and Fort in 1835. First Baptist Church at 

Woodward and Pingree dedicated 1910. 

City Council passed ordinance, November 26, requiring sidewalks. 

Usually built of wooden planks. Cement did not come into use 

until around 1900. 

Water supply obtained by pump house on wharf from which 

wooden logs conveyed water to wooden reservoir on Randolph 

Street. Capacity of 9,500 gallons. 

First steamboat built at Detroit, The Argo, small vessel used as 

ferry boat. Consisted of two hollo wed-out logs held together by a 

deck on which small steam engine was installed. 

Mansion House took over the stone building on south side of 

Jefferson between Shelby and Wayne Streets. A leading hotel for 

many years. 

Stage coaches began regular runs to Ohio. By 1835 Detroit sent 

71 (continued on following page) 



out two regular stage lines, one to Chicago and one to Toledo, 
several trips each week. Most stages started from Woodworth's 
Hotel. 

World History 

1827. General strike in Philadelphia for 10-hour day. Beginning of mod- 
ern American labor movement marked by formation of unions 
and workingmen's parties for political action. 

Cultural Progress 

1827. Songs by Heinrich Heine, German poet. 
"Tamerlane," poem by Edgar Allen Poe. 
1827-1838. John J. Audubon's Birds of America published. 
1827. Poems by Mrs. Lydia H. Sigourney were popular. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1827. Ohm demonstrated the principle which governs the flow of electric 
currents in circuits. Ohm's law is the foundation of electrical 
science. 

Friction matches made in England by John Walker. Phosphorous 
matches devised in 1831 by Charles Sauria in France and patented 
in 1836 in the United States by J. D. Phillips. 
Mauch Chunk Railroad, 9 miles long, built for the transportation 
of coal in Pennsylvania. 

Hudson & Mohawk Railroad built between Albany and Sche- 
nectady. 

First successful silk mill established in Gurleyville, Connecticut. 
Craze for raising mulberry trees to feed silkworms swept Connecticut. 
Pennsylvania Horticultural Society first such permanent organiza- 
tion. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1828. May 5. Territorial Capitol and Courthouse on Capitol Square first 
occupied. 

Dec. 25. First stone building occupied by St. Anne's Church. 
Basement in use since 1820. Twin steeples a landmark. New church 
on Howard Street first used in 1887. 

Michigan State Library created as a law library for the legislature. 
Now serves all state agencies and also supplies books and informa- 
tion to supplement local libraries or for citizens in communities 
without a library. 

72 



1828. Historical Society of Michigan founded by Lewis Cass, Henry R. 
Schoolcraft, and others. 

Cultural Progress 
1828. National Academy of Design incorporated. Founded 1824. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1828. Electric magnet invented by Joseph Henry. First in America. 
Mechanical signals could be produced at a distance as in telegraph. 
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad opened, July 4. First railroad in the 
United States for passengers. Horse-drawn cars over 14 miles of 
iron-covered wooden rails. 

Metal, slip-in, nib pen came into common use after this date when 
Josiah Mason improved it and began manufacturing it in England. 
Synthesis of urea by Friedrich Wohler of Germany founded or- 
ganic chemistry and gave impetus to preparation of organic com- 
pounds from inorganic materials, including synthetic dyes and 
medicines. 

Karl von Baer founded science of comparative embryology with 
his book on that subject. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1829. Typing machine or "typographer" patented July 23 by William 
A. Burt of Mount Vernon, Michigan. First letter written on 
machine sent to Secretary of State Martin Van Buren on May 25 
by John P. Sheldon, editor of Detroit Gazette. 

Counties in southwestern Michigan named for members of Presi- 
dent Jackson's cabinet Calhoun, Van Buren, Eaton, Cass. 
Northwestern Journal founded. Became Detroit Journal and Mich- 
igan Advertiser in 1830. Titled Detroit Journal in 1833, then 
Detroit Journal and Courier, and later Journal and Advertiser. 

World History 

1829. Principle of white manhood suffrage established in most states 
by this time. 

Mar. 4. Andrew Jackson inaugurated as President. Marked rise of 
the common man. Jacksonian politics characterized by the spoils 
system. 

Catholic emancipation in Great Britain a major step in growth of 
religious freedom. 

73 



1829. Nov. 30. Greece gained independence. Recognized at London 
Conference. 

Cultural Progress 

1829. First performance of the opera William Tell by Rossini, in Paris, 
Aug. 3. 
"Serenade," song by Franz Schubert published in Vienna. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1829. George Stephenson's "Rocket" successfully competed in a speed 
trial on the newly constructed Liverpool and Manchester Railway, 
traveling over 24 miles an hour. First practical locomotive. 

First locomotive for railroad use in the United States was the 

"Stourbridge Lion." Built in England and purchased by Delaware 

and Hudson Railroad Company. Traveled at speed of 10 miles an 

hour. 

First stone arch railroad bridge was the Carrolton Viaduct of the 

Baltimore and Ohio Railroad spanning Gwynn's Falls at Baltimore. 

Still in use. 

Canals opened throughout eastern United States Delaware and 

Chesapeake, Delaware and Hudson, Oswego, Farmington, etc. 

Coffee mill patent granted to James Carrington, Wallingford, 

Connecticut. 

Tremont House in Boston, Massachusetts, opened. First modern 

hotel in the United States. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1830. Population of Detroit 2,222. 

John R. Williams again Mayor. Also in 1844-46. 
Feb. 19- First city temperance society organized. 
Mar. 18. Detroit Female Seminary incorporated by leading citizens. 
Obtained land grant and erected building. Opened 1836. Dis- 
continued 1842. 

July 31. First railroad charter in Michigan granted Detroit and 
Pontiac Railroad. Built and operated railroad as far as Royal Oak 
by 1838. Reached Pontiac in 1843. First railroad station located 
at Jefferson and Dequindre streets. 

Sept. 24. Stephen G. Simmons hanged for murder in Detroit. Last 
execution in Michigan. 

74 



1830. Brick reservoir constructed on Fort Street to supply water. Another 
added in 1831 to increase capacity. 

World History 

1830. United States population 12,866,020; area 1,792,223 square miles. 
First census to exceed ten million. Center of population had moved 
to 19 miles west of Moorefield, West Virginia. 
Money in circulation $87,344,000. 

Jan. 19-27. Webster-Hayne debate in Congress on nullification 
and nature of the union. 
First consumers co-operative society. 

Indian Removal Act for relocation of Indians west of the Missis- 
sippi River. Cherokees moved from Georgia. Office of Commis- 
sioner of Indian Affairs created by Congress in 1832 although a 
Bureau of Indian Affairs had existed in War Department since 1824. 
Apr. 6. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Mormons) 
organized at Fayette, New York, by Joseph Smith and 30 members. 
Book of Mormon published. 

June 26. William IV became King of Great Britain. 
July 5. France took Algiers. Beginning of her empire in Africa. 
July 28. Revolt in Paris. Abdication of Charles X. Louis Philippe 
became constitutional King of the French. 

Dec. 20. Separation of Holland and Belgium after Belgian revolt 
of August. 

1830-1831. Revolutionary uprisings in Europe against reactionary gov- 
ernments suppressed. Polish struggles for nationality began but 
failed. Poland incorporated into Russian empire, 1832. Revolts in 
German states put down by Metternich's repressive measures. 

Cultural Progress 

1830. Heyday in both England and the United States of the monitorial 
school devised by Lancaster. Widespread 1810-1830 but waning 
in 1840. Lancaster had come to the United States in 1818. 
Poker evolved into a gambling game using a deck of 52 cards. 
Smartest model in carriages was the cabriolet (one-horse, two- 
wheeled vehicle ) . 

Painters of the Barbizon school such as Camille Corot (1796- 
1875) and Jean-Francois Millet (1814-1874) carried painting 
out-of-doors, close to nature. Naturalism was the leading influence 

75 (continued on following page) 



in art from 1830 to about 1875 paralleling romanticism in 
literature. 

First performance on Dec. 5 of "Symphonic Fantastique" by Hector 
Berlioz, the greatest figure in French romantic music. Berlioz 
Festival at Weimar in 1855. 

Production of Hernani, by Victor Hugo, marked climax of stage 
battle between romanticism and classicism and victory of romantic 
movement in the theater. 

Catholic Telegraph founded in Cincinnati. Oldest existing Roman 
Catholic journal in the United States. 

Godey's Lady's Book founded. Continued as a leading women's 
magazine until 1898, especially influential in the world of fashion. 

Poems Chiefly Lyrical by Alfred Tennyson published in England. 
"Old Ironsides," poem by Oliver Wendell Holmes. 

Peter Parley's Geography for Children by Samuel G. Goodrich. 
One of early successes of this author of some 170 books for children 
and textbooks. Widely used in the 19th century. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 
1830. Forty miles of railway in the United States. 

First steam locomotive built in the United States to carry passen- 
gers was the "Tom Thumb" designed and built by Peter Cooper. 
Carried 26 passengers thirteen miles on Baltimore and Ohio Rail- 
road tracks and returned on Aug. 28. 

Sewing machine patented in France by Thimonier. 

The first portable steam fire engine built by Brathwaite and Erics- 
son, England. 

First platform scale built by Thaddeus Fairbanks of Vermont. 
Previously even balance and steel yard types of scales were used. 

Soap in individually wrapped cakes of uniform weight introduced 
by Jessie Oakley of Newburgh, New York. Previously sold to 
grocers in large cakes from which pieces were cut as desired. 

National Observatory established by Navy in Washington, D. C. 

Lyell's Principles of Geology published. Basic work on that science. 
Described evolution of the earth. 

Mrs. Trollope commented that corn was eaten in many forms in 
the United States: green, as hominy, and in a dozen different cakes. 

76 



1830. Consumption of coffee in the United States had increased from one 
pound per capita in 1800 to almost three pounds. 

Cincinnati called "Porkopolis" because it was the nation's meat 

packing center. 

Veterinary hospital opened by Charles Grice in New York City. 

First graduate of veterinary medicine to practice in the United 

States. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1831. First mention of a Board of Health in Council Proceedings. 

Jan. 9- Daily mail service inaugurated between Detroit and the 
East. 

Mar. 22. Michigan Sunday School Union organized. 
May 5. Democratic Free Press and Michigan Intelligencer first 
issued. Predecessor of Detroit Free Press. Weekly until May 19, 
1835, when became a semi-weekly, and on September 28, 1835, 
a daily. 

July. Detroit Athenaeum organized to conduct a library and read- 
ing room. Occupied quarters on Griswold Street. Merged into 
Detroit Young Men's Society in 1836. 

Stevens T. Mason appointed Territorial Secretary to succeed his 
father who had resigned in his favor. Only 19 years old but very 
able. Became acting Governor of Territory when Cass resigned 
and later also when Governor Porter died. Mason was Territorial 
Secretary and acting Governor at times until September 20, 1835. 
Aug. 6. George B. Porter appointed Territorial Governor to suc- 
ceed Lewis Cass who became Secretary of War in President Jack- 
son's cabinet. Porter served until his death, July 6, 1834. 
Alexis de Tocqueville visited Detroit. 

World History 

1831. Uprisings in Italian states Modena, Parma, and Papal States 
suppressed by Austrian troops. 

First national nominating convention in the United States held by 
Anti-Masonic party. 

The Abolition Movement acquired importance in the United 
States. 

June 4. Leopold I became King of the Belgians. Belgian inde- 
pendence recognized by European powers. 
Abolition of hereditary peerage in France. 

77 



Cultural Progress 

1831. Trap shooting introduced into the United States by Sportsmen's 
Club of Cincinnati. 

Le Rouge et Noir by Stendhal (Henri Beyle) marked creation of 
the modern realistic novel. 

Abolitionist paper The Liberator founded in Boston by William 
Lloyd Garrison. 

Notre Dame de Paris by Victor Hugo. First American translation 
of 1834 entitled Hunchback of Notre Dame. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1831. Electro-magnetic induction demonstrated by Michael Faraday in 
England and by Joseph Henry in America. Basic principle of the 
dynamo. 

Electric bell invented by Joseph Henry. He first made insulated 
magnetic coil. 

Cyrus McCormick built his first reaper for cutting grain. Patented 
in 1834. Greatest of farm labor-saving machines. 
First cylinder printing press made by R. Hoe & Company of New 
York. Operated by hand power; later steam. 
Chloroform first prepared in Europe by J. von Liebig and E. Sou- 
beiran and in the United States by Dr. Samuel Guthrie. 
Guernsey cattle first imported into the United States. Herefords, 
Ayrshires, Jerseys, etc., came about 1845-55. First Aberdeen- Angus 
bulls imported 1873 for crossing with the Texas longhorns. 
1831-1836. Voyage of the Beagle with Charles Darwin as naturalist on 
board. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1832. Black Hawk War. Detachment of Detroit militia started across 
Michigan to Chicago on May 24. Black Hawk himself visited 
Detroit in 1833. 

Cholera epidemic. Disease brought by steamer Henry Clay carrying 

soldiers to Black Hawk War. Docked at Detroit wharf July 4 and 

sick were given refuge in Detroit. Among victims was Father 

Gabriel Richard who died September 13, 1832. 

Charter granted Detroit and St. Joseph Railroad which afterward 

became the Michigan Central. 

Episcopal Diocese of Michigan created. State divided into two 

dioceses in 1874. 

78 



World History 

1832. First covered wagons followed Oregon Trail from Independence, 
Missouri, to Columbia River. Became route for most of settlers to 
the Pacific Northwest. Peak of emigration to Oregon came 1843- 
1847. 

Henry R. Schoolcraft located source of the Mississippi River in 
Minnesota (Lake Itasca). 

Black Hawk War. Part of struggle between Indians and whites in 
the west over land cessions. 
Nullification crisis in South Carolina. 
Kingdom of Greece founded. Otto I, King. 
June 4. Reform Act in Great Britain. Gave vote to middle class. 

Cultural Progress 

1832. Opening of first American school for the blind New England 
Asylum for the Blind in Boston. Incorporated Mar. 2, 1829. Re- 
named Perkins Institute, Apr. 1, 1839- Still in operation at Water- 
town, Mass. 

Frederic Chopin played first concert in Paris and began his most 
successful period (1832-1840) as musician and composer for the 
piano. 

"America," the patriotic song with words by Samuel F. Smith and 
the tune "God Save the King" first sung in Boston, July 4. 
The Young Christian, pious novel by Reverend Jacob Abbott, intro- 
duced that prolific author. His more than 200 titles included the 
28 "Rollo Books" for teaching facts to children through stories. 
With his brother, John S. C. Abbott, he wrote many short biogra- 
phies of historical figures. 

1832-1837. Contes Prolatiques (Droll Tales) by Honore de Balzac pub- 
lished in France. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 
1832. Machine for manufacturing pins invented by John I. Home of 

Derby, Connecticut. 

M. W. Baldwin, Philadelphia, completed his first locomotive, called 

the "Ironsides." 
1832-1834. First lock stitch sewing machine made by Walter Hunt. Used 

two threads, one below and one above cloth, interlocking as stitched. 

Did not try to patent his machine until 1854. 

79 



1832. First horse-drawn streetcar began service in New York City, 
Nov. 26. 

First clipper ship Ann McKim built in Baltimore. The great era 
for these long, speedy wooden sailing vessels was from about 
1840 to 1865 when they were used chiefly in voyages to California 
and in the China Trade. 

Soda water machine invented by John Matthews. Opened factory 
in 1834 to manufacture soda water apparatus. Basis of soft drink 
industry. (See also 1807) 

Cholera epidemic produced fear of eating fresh fruits and vege- 
tables that was not overcome for many years. 
Hot Springs National Park, Arkansas, set aside as reservation. First 
such park. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1833. Wayne County poorhouse opened in January on land purchased 
in 1832. Located on Gratiot Avenue west of Mt. Elliott. 

Jan. 8. Detroit Young Men's Society formally organized. Dr. 
Douglass Houghton was one of its leaders. Foremost Detroit literary 
society. Sponsored lectures and built up a library. Disbanded 1882 
and donated books and other effects to Detroit Public Library. 
Had been a leading cultural influence. 

Roman Catholic Diocese of Detroit created. Frederic Rese appointed 
first bishop but not consecrated until 1837. 

Aug. 18. First Lutheran Church organized in Detroit, St. John's 
German Evangelical Church. Present-day St. John's Evangelical 
and Reformed Church at Russell and Gratiot built in 1873- 
Oliver Newberry, pioneer of lake transportation, built steamer 
Michigan at foot of Wayne Street. 156 feet long, largest and finest 
steamer on the lakes. Trial trip, October 11. 

Act providing for common schools in Detroit was passed but little 
or nothing was actually done. Women organized Free School 
Society, raised funds, and established a "free school" over grocery 
store on south side of Woodbridge Street near Shelby. Detroit had 
1,350 children of school age. Previously Father Richard had estab- 
lished schools near St. Anne's Church and Spring Hill. At Spring 
Hill Academy he taught domestic arts and industrial arts. 
Apr. 22. Amendment to city charter authorized first city taxes on 
real and personal property. 
June 14-15. Riot over Thornton Blackburn and his wife claimed 

80 



as runaway slaves. Mob got Blackburn and his wife away to Canada. 
Government troops ordered out to assist in maintaining order. 
Incident gave impetus to Anti-Slavery Movement in Detroit and 
Michigan. 

Erie and Kalamazoo Railroad chartered. Horse-drawn cars began 
operation from Toledo to Adrian, October 1, 1836. First locomo- 
tive arrived 1837; first railway engine in Michigan. Line from 
Monroe to Petersburgh opened in 1839, to Adrian in 1840, and 
to Hillsdale in 1843. In 1849 Erie and Kalamazoo Railroad was 
leased to Michigan Southern. 

Chicago Road completed. Had reached Niles in 1832. Ten Eyck 
Tavern, nine miles west of Detroit, was famous stopping place. 
Daily stages ran between Detroit and Chicago by 1835. 
First shoe manufactory established in Detroit. Became a leading 
industry. 

World History 
1833. American Anti-Slavery Society organized. 

Chicago incorporated as a town. Incorporated as a city in 1837. 

Mar. 4. Jackson's second inauguration as President. 

Aug. 23. Britain abolished slavery in her empire. William Wilber- 

force led the anti-slavery agitation. 

Aug. 29. Third English Factory Act first to limit child labor. 

Cultural Progress 

1833. First tax- supported free public library in the United States estab- 
lished in Peterborough, New Hampshire, Apr. 9. 
Oberlin College opened. Became co-educational in 1837 when 
first women were admitted. 

Era of penny newspapers began when New York Sun sold for a 
penny. 

Books on etiquette gaining popularity as exemplified by Mrs. Lydia 
Sigourney's Letters to Young Ladies. 

Popular books reflected a taste for adventure: Autobiography by 
David Crockett; Daniel Boone by Timothy Flint; Life and Writ- 
ings of Major Jack Downing by Seba Smith. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1833. First vessel crossed the Atlantic propelled entirely by steam. Royal 
William, a Canadian ship. 

81 



1833. John Lane manufactured a steel-bladed plow. 
First collar factory established in Troy, New York. 
First state geological survey completed in Massachusetts. 

William Beaumont reported his observations of the gastric juices. 
Made possible by abdominal wall opening in the stomach of his 
patient. 

Avocado imported by Henry Perrine and planted at Santa Barbara, 
California. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1834. Detroit population 4,968. 

Michigan Territory included all of present states of Michigan, 
Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin, and part of Dakota. 

Charles C. Trowbridge served as Mayor of Detroit. In 1837 he 
was defeated for governorship of Michigan by Mason. 

Second Catholic Church organized, Holy Trinity, primarily for 
Irish Catholic residents. Majority of St. Anne's Church members 
were of French descent. Holy Trinity used building at northwest 
corner of Michigan and Bates Street. Father Martin Kiindig was 
its pastor, July 1839 to May 1842. 

Aug.-Sept. Second cholera epidemic. Father Kiindig turned Holy 
Trinity Church into a hospital. More than one-eighth of the people 
in the city died. 

Catholic Female Association organized for the relief of the sick 
and poor of Detroit. Cared for children orphaned during cholera 
epidemic. In 1836 orphans were cared for in a house near the 
county farm on Gratiot Road. This was basis for later St. Vincent's 
Female Orphan Asylum. 

Father Kiindig appointed supervisor of the poor. Utilized poor- 
house to care for part of widows and orphans of cholera victims. 
County funds insufficient so he used his own money and went into 
debt for supplies for the poor and needy. In 1837 there were 300 
poor and resources were exhausted. Creditors stripped poorhouse 
in 1838. 

June. Detroit Mechanics' Society occupied their new two-story, 
wooden building at corner of Griswold and Lafayette. 

David McKinstry conducted various amusement enterprises the- 
ater, circus, museum, public garden. 

82 



World History 

1834. Whig party formed by anti- Jackson elements. 

1834-1839. Carlist Civil War in Spain. Don Carlos claimed throne 
although Ferdinand had set aside Salic Law in 1833 so his infant 
daughter Isabella could become queen. Conservatives supported 
Don Carlos who eventually left Spain. 

Cultural Progress 

1834. Public education in England received its first parliamentary grant 
of aid. 

"Old Zip Coon," also known as "Turkey in the Straw," first played 
at this time. 

Last Days of Pompeii by Edward Bulwer-Lytton. His Rienzi 
appeared in 1835. One of the most popular authors of the times. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1834. Michael Faraday discovered principles of electrolytic action and 
about 1835 formulated laws of electrochemical change during 
electrolysis. 

First crude electric motor made by Thomas Davenport of Vermont. 

He patented an electric motor in 1837. 

First iron vessel, John Randolph, built at Savannah from iron 

manufactured in England. 

Carbolic acid discovered by Runge of Germany. 

The science of fossils was christened "paleontology" by De Bain- 

ville and Fisher von Waldheim. 

First federal appropriation for a geological and mineralogical survey 

for the country between Missouri and Red Rivers. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1835. "Toledo War" over Michigan-Ohio boundary. Dispute over owner- 
ship of strip containing City of Toledo and Maumee Bay. Militia 
called out by both states. Michigan's admission to Union delayed 
until 1837 because she would not give up claim to Toledo strip. 
Finally, Michigan surrendered Toledo strip in exchange for Upper 
Peninsula. 

Michigan Territory qualified for statehood when census disclosed 

population of over 85,000. 

First state constitutional convention assembled in Detroit, May 11. 

83 



1835. Constitution approved by voters, October 5, who elected state and 
national officials. 

Stevens T. Mason inaugurated as first state Governor, November 3. 
John S. Horner was Territorial Governor, September 20-November 
2. First session of Michigan legislature, November 2. 
Gratiot Road completed to Fort Gratiot; Saginaw Road had 
reached Flint. Grand River Road near Howell by 1837. 
First city bonds issued and sold to Oliver Newberry. 
First systematic street paving. Atwater Street paved with stones 
between Woodward and Randolph. Cobblestone paving became 
general about 1848-9. 
Nov. 18. Old City Hall first occupied. 

World History 

1835-1837. Great Trek of the Boers to the Transvaal in Africa. 
1835-1843. The second Seminole War. Fiercest of United States-Indian 
conflicts. Seminoles led by Osceola. 

Cultural Progress 
1835. Johann Friedrich Herbart, the influential German educator and 

philosopher, published his Outlines of Educational Doctrine. 

New York Herald launched by James Gordon Bennett. 

Lucia de Lammermoor, opera by Gaetano Donizetti first performed 

in Naples on Sept. 26. 
1835. Democracy in America by Alexis de Tocqueville. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1835. Samuel F. B. Morse completed his working model of the telegraph 
which he had conceived as early as 1832. Applied for a patent in 
1837 and exhibited his telegraph publicly in New York City. 
First use of rubber for vehicle tires by Dietz. 

Halley's comet reappeared. (See also 1910) 

Detroit and Michigan 

1836. Michigan a state de facto but not acknowledged by federal govern- 
ment because state refused to accept boundary without Toledo strip. 
Apr. 2. Congress passed act for admission of Michigan on condi- 
tion state gave prior assent to boundaries prescribed in the act at a 
convention elected for this purpose. 

84 



1836. Dec. 14. Convention of Assent at Ann Arbor accepted Congres- 
sional terms for admission as a state. 

In Treaty of Washington negotiated by Schoolcraft, Indians ceded 
remaining lands in western part of Lower Peninsula and eastern 
tip of Upper Peninsula. 

First underground sewer built in Detroit. Followed route of the 
Savoyard River. Named Grand Sewer. 

First Negro church in Detroit. Negro Baptists organized Colored 
American Church. Colored Methodists organized church in 1839- 
City purchased Hydraulic Company Waterworks and operated it 
thereafter. 

During May, 90 steamboats stopped at Detroit wharves. 
City Theater opened in May with Charlotte Cushman in Shake- 
spearean repertoire. First building called a "theater" in Detroit. 
Had been built as a church at Gratiot and Farmer streets. 
Street names first ordered at street corners. 

Washington Allston Bacon conducted a select school for boys in 
his residence. He was a well-known Detroit private school teacher 
for nearly 40 years. 

May 18. Ladies' Protestant Orphan Asylum organized. Incorpo- 
rated 1837 and reincorporated 1859. 

June 11. Detroit Daily Advertiser first issued. Absorbed Daily 
Express in 1845. Became Detroit Tribune in 1849. 
June 13. Harriet Martineau arrived in Detroit. She wrote about 
the lack of accommodations for influx of people and commented 
upon the wooden plank pavements, choice society, Indians on the 
roads out of Detroit to the west, bad roads. She was traveling by 
stage to Chicago. 

National Hotel opened on site taken over by Russell House in 
1857, Cadillac Square at Woodward. 

Sixteen Mile House on Grand River Road opened. Became Botsford 
Tavern later. 

Hamlet called Richmond in Ontario renamed Windsor. Incorpo- 
rated as village in 1854. 

World History 

1836. Texas revolted against Mexico and declared her independence. 
Battle of the Alamo, Mar. 6. Republic of Texas organized. 
Admission of Arkansas as a state. 

85 



Cultural Progress 
1836. Union Theological Seminary in New York founded. 

McGuffey Readers first issued. Peak sales came after Civil War 
to the end of century. 

First number of Pickwick Papers by Charles Dickens published 
Mar. 31, introducing a literary career of unrivaled popularity. 
Oliver Twist appeared in 1838 and Nicholas Nickleby in 1839. 
Maria Monk created a sensation with her Awful Disclosures of 
convent life. One of the incidents in the anti-Catholic movement 
of the era and typical of similar books and a source of much popu- 
lar controversy. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1836. Patent granted to Samuel Colt for the revolver pistol with revolving 
barrel which he had invented in 1830. 

First sleeping car used on the Cumberland Valley Railroad in 
Pennsylvania. No bedding; passengers wrapped themselves in 
shawls and stretched out on bunks. 

1836-1841. John Ericsson applied screw propulsion to steam navigation. 
Use of screw propeller increased speed of ships. 

1836. Combined harvester and thresher built and patented by John Has- 
call and Hiram Moore. First used on farm near Kalamazoo, Mich. 
Hooks and eyes were successfully manufactured at Waterbury, 
Connecticut. 

First scientific expedition fitted out by the United States govern- 
ment to explore the South Seas. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1837. Jan. 26. Michigan formally admitted to the Union as the twenty- 
sixth state. 

Michigan General School Law. John D. Pierce became first Michi- 
gan State Superintendent of Public Instruction and organized pub- 
lic school system. Constitution required a school in each district. 

University of Michigan established at Ann Arbor by the state 

legislature. 

Polish settlers first began to come to Detroit. Greatest Polish 

immigration came between 1901 -19 19. Now those of Polish descent 

constitute the largest of the city's nationality groups, some 350,000. 

86 



1837. Land speculation exemplified in Port Sheldon and other town 
promotions. Collapsed in panic of 1837. 

First Directory of the City of Detroit published by Julius P. B. 
MacCabe. 

Detroit had three fire engine companies and one horse company, 
all volunteers and keen rivals. 

Detroit Anti-Slavery Society organized, April 26. City became 
station on the "Underground Railroad." Finney barn was a leading 
hiding place for runaway slaves. 

Daniel Webster arrived in Detroit, July 8, on western trip seeking 
investments. Addressed a large group on July 11. His son had a 
law office in Detroit. 

Bank of Michigan building erected at Jefferson and Griswold 
Street. First one in Detroit of dressed stone. Purchased by federal 
government in 1842 for United States courthouse and post office. 

World History 

1837. Mar. 4. Martin Van Buren inaugurated as President. 
June 20. Queen Victoria ascended the British throne. 
Panic of 1837. 

Michigan admitted as a state. 
Rebellion in Canada. 

Cultural Progress 

1837. First kindergarten, called a "School for Little Children," opened 
by Froebel in Germany. 

First state school for the blind opened in Columbus, Ohio. 
First college for women opened Nov. 8. Mount Holyoke Seminary 
founded by Mary Lyon, Feb. 11, 1836. 

First municipal college created when the College of Charleston, 
South Carolina, (opened in 1790) came under city control. Opened 
as a municipal college Apr. 1, 1838. 
French Revolution by Thomas Carlyle published. 
Poems by James Greenleaf Whittier published in the United States. 
Lays of My Home and Other Poems appeared in 1843. 
Nick of the Woods, by Robert M. Bird, popular historical work 
for boys and also as a melodrama. 
Twice-Told Tales by Nathaniel Hawthorne. 

87 



Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1837. Sir Charles Wheatstone and W. F. Cooke patented an electric 
telegraph in England. 

Anthracite used in smelting iron ore in a furnace at Mauch Chunk, 
Pennsylvania. 

Carpet power loom patented by Erastus Brigham Bigelow. 
Practical threshing machine invented by Hiram and John Pitts. 
Separated grain from straw and chaff. 

Patent granted to Charles Goodyear for method of destroying ad- 
hesive properties of rubber. 

John Deere made a steel plow. Soon had a factory at Moline, Illinois. 
Studies of osmosis completed by Henri Dutrochet. He also proved 
that plants utilize carbon dioxide because of their chlorophyll. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1838. Detroit full of sympathizers for "patriots" cause in Canadian rebel- 
lion. They tried to raid Canada and furnish arms to the patriots. 
Dr. Douglass Houghton as state geologist filed his first report. He 
had persuaded legislature to appropriate money for systematic 
geological survey to locate mineral resources. 

Michigan Central Railroad reached Ypsilanti. Detroit terminal 
was a wooden building at Michigan and Griswold. Later moved to 
foot of Third Street (1848). Fare to Ypsilanti was $1.50. Two 
trains daily left Detroit and returned. 

Eaton Chemical and Dyestuf? Company founded by Theodore H. 
Eaton as Eaton-Clark Company. Oldest existing Michigan indus- 
trial firm. 

First iron water pipes laid on Jefferson Avenue. 
Detroit schools organized under state public school law. Three 
school inspectors elected in April served as school board. City 
divided into districts. First school census showed 2,097 children 
between 5 and 17 years of age of whom 507 were enrolled in the 
seven district schools. Each district levied its own assessment with 
aid from primary school fund derived from land sales. Schools estab- 
lished under this arrangement had great difficulties, but they can 
be considered as first public or tax-supported schools in Detroit. 
Reform came in 1842. 

First public district school located in the second-floor room of a 
store built on piles in the river on Woodbridge Street near Shelby. 

88 



First floor used as a grocery. Occupied until 1842. 
Disciples of Christ Society held first meetings in Detroit. 

World History 

1838. Auguste Comte first used the word sociology for the science of 
society and first developed social principles in a systematic way. 

Cultural Progress 

1838. Song "Annie Laurie" appeared in a volume, Vocal Melodies of 
Scotland. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1838. David Bruce, New York, patented the first successful type-casting 
machine. 

Steam shovel invented by William S. Otis of Philadelphia. Patented 
as crane for excavating and removing earth in 1839- 
Regular steamboat service across the Atlantic Ocean inaugurated 
by Great Western and Sirius. Both arrived in New York on Apr. 23. 
F. W. Bessel discovered measurable stellar parallax (distance). 
1838-1839. Cell theory formulated and stated by M. J. Schleiden in 1838 
and Theodore Schwann in 1839: that basic organic unit is the cell 
and that all plants and animals, however complex, are composed 
of cells. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1839. Act provided that Board of Aldermen or Common Council be 
composed of two aldermen from each ward with Mayor and 
Recorder. 

Feb. 18. Detroit Boat Club organized. One of the oldest clubs in 
Detroit and the oldest river club in the United States. 
Mar. 27. Detroit divided into wards. First political subdivision. 
Previous wards merely fire districts for fire wardens. 
Sept. 1. Steamboat Great Western burned at Detroit. 
Michigan Medical Society was in existence. 

Poorhouse on Gratiot sold by Wayne County and Torbert farm in 
Nankin Township purchased for poor farm (now part of Eloise 
tract). Black Horse Tavern on new farm used as new poorhouse 
to which charges were moved in April. Became known as Wayne 
County Asylum. First mental patient admitted in 1841. New build- 
ing was built in 1845. This is origin of Wayne County General 
Hospital at Eloise. 

89 



World History 

1839. Lord Durham's report proposed union of Upper and Lower Canada 
into a responsible government. 
Anti-Corn Law and Chartist agitations in England. 

Cultural Progress 

1839. Prudery so widespread in America it even became the subject of a 
joke it was said some people put pantalets on piano legs. 
Joseph M. W. Turner (1775-1851), leading painter of the English 
landscape school and famous for his depiction of sunlight, com- 
pleted his popular ship painting, "Fighting Temeraire." 
Abner Doubleday formulated rules of baseball and laid out first 
regular diamond at Cooperstown, New York. 
Horace Mann established the first normal school in America. 
Life of Washington by Jared Sparks supplemented his edition 
of Washington's Writings. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1839. Process for vulcanization of rubber discovered by Charles Goodyear. 
Patented 1844. 

Electrically operated printing press used by Thomas Davenport. 
First real bicycle made by Kirkpatrick MacMillan of Scotland. He 
added cranks, pedals, driving rods, seat, and handlebars to the 
"dandy horse." In 1846 Gavin Dalzell improved the bicycle further. 
Louis Daguerre devised process of taking pictures on a light-sensi- 
tive prepared metallic plate the daguerrotype. 
First photograph taken in America by Samuel F. B. Morse. Daguer- 
rotype of church tower in New York City. 

First dental college in the United States organized in Baltimore, 
Maryland. Incorporated Feb. 1, 1840. 
American Statistical Association organized. 

Congress appropriated $1,000 to collect and distribute seeds, con- 
duct agricultural investigations, collect agricultural statistics. Patent 
Office assumed work. 

The Royal Botanic Society incorporated in London. 
William Harnden, former conductor on Boston and Worcester 
Railway, started "express" service between Boston and New York, 
carrying parcels, executing commissions, collecting bills and drafts. 

90 



Detroit and Michigan 
1840. Detroit population 9,192. 

Tobacco manufacturing in Detroit begun by George Miller. John 
J. Bagley and Daniel Scotten, both of whom became important 
Detroit tobacco merchants and capitalists, were apprentices in the 
Miller factory. Detroit became a leading tobacco manufacturing 
center. 

Detroit enjoyed presidential campaign of 1840 with many meet- 
ings, barbecues, songs, etc. 

1840-1841. Dr. Zina Pitcher, Mayor of Detroit. Also in 1843. Known as 
the father of Detroit's public school system. 

World History 

1840. United States population 17,069,453; area 1,792,223 square miles. 
United States national debt: 21^ per capita. 

In presidential campaign Whigs used log cabin as symbol and 
the slogan "Tippecanoe and Tyler Too." 
Jan. 22. First British settlers in New Zealand. 
Feb. 10. Marriage of Queen Victoria to Prince Albert of Saxe- 
Coburg. 

July 2 3- Union of Upper and Lower Canada enacted by British 
Parliament. 

Lieut. Charles Wilkes led American naval expedition which sur- 
veyed coast of the Antarctic continent. Dumond D'Urville led 
French exploring expedition in same region. 

1840-1848. Emergence of socialism in France followed industrial devel- 
opment. Leaders: Fourier, St. Simon, Blanc. 

Cultural Progress 

1840. First recorded bowling match at Knickerbocker Alleys, New York, 
Jan. 1. 

The song "Kathleen Mavourneen" was published in London. 
Two Years Before the Mast by Richard Henry Dana. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1840. 77.5% of all those gainfully employed in the United States were 
engaged in agriculture. 

91 



1840. 2,775 miles of railway in the United States. 3,320 miles of canal 
constructed. 

Transatlantic steamship line established by Samuel Cunard. 
Incandescent electric lamp demonstrated in England by Sir William 
Robert Grove. In 1841 a British patent for an incandescent lamp 
was granted to Frederick De Moleyns. In I860 Sir Joseph W. Swan 
introduced the carbon filament. J. W. Star of Cincinnati was the 
first American to patent an incandescent lamp in 1845. (See also 
1879) 

James P. Joule, English physicist, measured heat produced by an 
electric current in a conductor. He determined the mechanical 
equivalent of heat. The electrical unit of work, the joule, is named 
for him. 

First nut and bolt factory established by Micah Rugg and Martin 
Barnes in Connecticut. In 1842 Rugg patented a trimming machine 
for nuts and bolts. 

Method for developing photographic negatives on paper and print- 
ing positives therefrom discovered by William H. Fox-Talbot of 
England. Basis of modern photography. Unlimited prints can be 
made from a negative. 

Liebig published first of his great works on soil chemistry. Founded 
science of agricultural chemistry. 

Alvin Adams started express service in New York and New Eng- 
land. Other firms began in the major cities. 
The Prairie Farmer, famous agricultural paper, founded. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1841. Survey of the Great Lakes authorized by federal government. 
Cornerstone laid for St. Mary's Catholic Church, intended primarily 
for German Catholics, at corner of St. Antoine and Monroe streets. 
Colored Methodists who had organized a church society in 1839 
reorganized as African M. E. Church. Used old Military Hall for a 
building. Present Bethel A.M.E. Church on Frederick Street com- 
pleted in 1925. 

University of Michigan held its first classes in Ann Arbor. 
Apr. 20. Funeral procession, oration, tolling bells in memory of 
President Harrison, lately dead. 

Orleans Street Waterworks put into operation. Round brick reser- 
voir with iron tank elevated 50 feet. A landmark for visitors until 
torn down in 1866. 

92 



1841. Sept. 12. Mt. Elliott Cemetery opened. 

Dec. 29. Michigan Central Railroad opened through to Jackson. 

World History 

1841. Brook Farm co-operative venture near West Roxbury, Massachu- 
setts, symbolized interest in Utopian schemes during the era. 
Mar. 4. William Henry Harrison inaugurated as President. 
Apr. 4. President William Henry Harrison died in office. John 
Tyler became President. 
First Canadian Parliament met at Kingston. 

1841-1843- Antarctic explorations of Captain James Clark Ross for the 
British. 

Cultural Progress 

1841. Eugene Delacroix (1799-1863), leading painter of the romantic 
school, completed his "Entrance of the Crusaders into Constanti- 
nople" a painting typical of the artist and of the school. 
Horace Greeley was the famed proprietor of The Neiv York Daily 
Tribune. 

Rugby College began playing the game "Rugby football." 
P. T. Barnum opened his museum at Broadway and Ann St., New 
York City. 

Dion Boucicault's first play, London Assurance, produced at Covent 
Garden, established him on his career of leading melodramatist 
of the age. 

Edgar Allan Poe's story Murders in the Rue Morgue appeared in 
Graham's Magazine the first detective story of popularity. His 
story The Gold Bug won a prize in 1843. 
Ballads and Other Poems by Henry W. Longfellow published. 
Heroes and Hero Worship by Thomas Carlyle published in England. 
Old Curiosity Shop and Barnaby Rudge continued and increased 
Dickens' popularity. 

The Deerslayer by James Fenimore Cooper. 

Essays, First Series by Ralph Waldo Emerson. Second Series pub- 
lished 1844. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1841. First screw-propelled vessel on the Great Lakes, the Vandalia 
launched Dec. 1 at Oswego, New York. 

93 



1841. Patent for cornstarch issued to Orlando Jones. First starch made 
commercially from corn by Thomas Kingsford at Jersey City in 
1842. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1842. Copper mining operations began near Keweenaw Point. Copper 
fever here and in Ontonagon region in 1846. 

Dr. Douglass Houghton, Mayor of Detroit. State geologist who 
first pointed out Michigan's mineral resources. One of founders of 
Young Men's Society. Drowned 1845. Michigan named a county, 
township, lake, city, school of mines, and school in Detroit in honor 
of Houghton. 

Detroit and Pontiac Railroad built new station at Gratiot and 
Farmer. First Brush Street Station built in 1851 when line was 
extended to the river. 

Indians ceded remaining lands in Upper Peninsula. 
Feb. 18. Legislature passed bill enabling Detroit to organize its 
public school system. Authorized city local tax for support of free 
schools. Two persons to be elected from each ward as members 
of Board of Education. Board had power to employ teachers and 
manage schools. City organized as one school district. Schools free 
to all children between ages of 5 and 17 years. 
Mar. 15. Detroit's first Board of Education organized with 12 
members (2 inspectors from each ward) and ex-officio, the Mayor 
as president and the Recorder as a member. 

Books used in primary schools included: Webster's Speller, Sand- 
ers' Readers, Parley's History, Davies' Arithmetic, and Smith's 
Geography and Grammar. 

Primary schools opened in May. Six women teachers were paid 
$18 a month. Middle schools opened in November. Men teachers 
here received $30 a month. 

July 8. Ex-President Martin Van Buren visited Detroit where he 
was tendered many receptions. 

Dec. 5. Henry Barnard lectured in Detroit on schools and education. 
Charles H. Miller began express service in Detroit. Pomeroy Com- 
pany opened office in 1844. Renamed Wells Company Express in 
1845. In I860 reorganized as American Express Company. 

World History 
1842. European powers began acquisition of Pacific areas when France 

94 



annexed the Marquesas and established protectorate over Tahiti 

and Society Islands. 

Expeditions to California made by John C. Fremont and Kit Carson. 

Boer Republic in Natal occupied by the British. 

Dorr's Rebellion in Rhode Island against suffrage restrictions. 

Aug. 9- Maine-Canadian boundary settled by Webster- Ashburton 

Treaty with England. 

Aug. 29. End of Opium War between China and England which 

began in 1839- Treaty of Nanking opened Chinese ports to British 

commerce. Hongkong ceded to British. 

Cultural Progress 

1842. Feminine vogues: mantillas, black patent leather shoes, lace mitts, 
large muffs, small parasols. 

First business school established in Rochester, New York the 
Eastman Commercial College. 

First American museum devoted wholly to art Wadsworth Ath- 
enaeum at Hartford, Connecticut. 

Charles Dickens visited the United States. His American Notes 
became a best seller despite its criticism of the country. Second 
American tour in 1867-8. 

Americans were reading poetry. Best sellers were Poets and Poetry 
of America by Rufus Wilmot Griswold, in its llth printing, and 
Female Poets of America reprinted four times in the next seven 
years. 

American taste during the forties for "satanic" or "wicked" books 
made the melodramatic Mysteries of Paris by Eugene Sue a tre- 
mendous success after 1842 and led to much imitation such as 
The Quaker City: or The Monks of Monk Hall by George Lippard 
which had 30 editions in the four years after it appeared in 1843. 
Dramatic Lyrics by Robert Browning published in England. 
Poems by Alfred Tennyson. 

Followers of William Miller were much disturbed when the world 
failed to end on Mar. 21. This represented climax of "Millerism." 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1842. Wire rope factory erected by John A. Roebling at Saxonburg, 
Pennsylvania. Twisting done by hand at first. 
First sewing machine patent in the United States granted to John 

^5 (continued on following page) 



James Greenough. Short thread machine. 

First grain elevator constructed at Buffalo. 

First successful rubber shoes manufactured by L. Candee Shoe 

Company at Hampden, Connecticut, using Goodyear vulcanizing 

patent. 

Ether used as an anaesthetic by Dr. Crawford W. Long of Georgia 

to remove a tumor. 

Oregon Trail surveyed. 

Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York chartered. First such 

company to operate in the United States. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1843. Construction of Fort Wayne begun. Completed 1851. 
Central Market opened in shed in rear of old City Hall. 
Dec. 4. First Detroit lodge of Odd Fellows chartered. 
Michigan Farmer, chief state agricultural publication, established. 

World History 
1843. Irish Home Rule and Repeal agitation under O'Conneil. 

Cultural Progress 

1843. Newspapers coined the word "millionaire" upon death of Pierre 
Lorillard, wealthy tobacco manufacturer. 
McGill College of Canada opened. Founded 1821. 
First volume of John Ruskin's Modern Painters published. By time 
fifth volume appeared in I860 Ruskin's reputation as a foremost 
art critic was established. 

Virginia Minstrels first regularly organized band of Negro min- 
strels gave their initial performance at Chatham Theater, New 
York. This form of entertainment originated around 1828. 
"Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean," song written at this time for 
a theatrical benefit. 

William Wordsworth made Poet Laureate of England. 
John Stuart Mills' System of Logic published. 
Martin Chuzzlewitt published. Dickens' novels were pirated by 
American publishers and installments sold like newspapers on the 
streets. 

Christmas Carol by Charles Dickens published in England six days 
before Christmas. 

96 



1843. Conquest of Mexico by William H. Prescott, popular historical 
work. 

The Wonders of the World in Nature, Art and Mind, an illustrated 
compilation for family reading, issued by Richard Sears, became the 
most successful subscription book of the first half of the 19th 
century. 
Poetical Works by William Cullen Bryant. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1843. First incubator for hatching chickens from eggs by artificial heat 
patented by Napoleon E. Guerin of New York City. 

Typing machine patented by Charles Thurber. Called a "Chirogra- 

pher" and used an inking roller. Not successful. 

O. W. Holmes pointed out contagiousness of puerperal fever. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1844. Iron ore discovered in Upper Peninsula near Marquette by William 
A. Burt and associates of state geological survey. 

Park development began when Grand Circus Park area was drained, 
filled, and raised. In 1853 trees were planted and fence put around 
the park. 

First Congregational Society organized. Church built at Jefferson 
and Beaubien streets in 1846. Present church at Forest and Wood- 
ward built in 1891. 

World History 

1844. Some 850 United States persons were listed as being worth $100,000 
or more. These included John Jacob Astor with $44,000,000; Ste- 
phen Van Rensselaer, $10,000,000; and Cornelius Vanderbilt, 
$1,000,000. 

First commercial treaty between China and the United States 
negotiated. 

Rochdale Pioneers Society opened first consumers' co-operative 
store in England. 

Young Men's Christian Association founded in England by Sir 
George Williams. First American Y.M.C.A. established in Boston 
in 1851. 

Cultural Progress 

1844. Ragged school union formed in England. Marked high point of 
voluntary charitable schools for the poor called "ragged schools." 

97 



1844. Felix Mendelssohn completed his "Violin Concerto in E Minor." 

Stephen Collins Foster, one of America's greatest song writers, 
published his first song, "Open Thy Lattice, Love." Other songs of 
his were: 1848, "Oh! Susanna"; 1851, "Old Folks at Home"; 1853, 
"My Old Kentucky Home"; 1854, "Jeanie with the Light Brown 
Hair." 

One of Thomas Macaulay's finest essays Earl of Chatham marked 
climax of his career as an historical essayist. 

Poems by Elizabeth Barrett published in England. An American 
best seller in 1850. 

Three Musketeers by Alexandre Dumas. 

1844-1845. America's literary taste for historical novels exemplified by 
the huge popularity of Alexandre Dumas and The Wandering 
jew by Eugene Sue. Their numerous editions were best sellers. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1844. The first commercial telegraph line in the United States opened 
officially May 24 between Washington and Baltimore (40 miles). 
The first message sent by Morse contained the words "What hath 
God wrought!" Line had been used for messages while under 
construction. 

First mowing machines as distinct from reapers. Previously machines 
were used for both purposes. 

Printing press for polychromatic linear printing patented by Thomas 
Adams of Philadelphia. 

Gasoline engine patented by Stuart Perry of New York City. Air 
and water-cooled types using turpentine gases as fuel. 

Dr. Horace Wells of Hartford, Connecticut, introduced the use of 
nitrous oxide gas as an anaesthetic when his tooth was pulled by 
dentist John Riggs. 

The first book illustrated with photographs The Pencil of Nature 
published by William Henry Fox-Talbot in England. 

Mathew Brady opened his photograph studio in New York City. 
A Washington branch was opened about 1849. Brady was the 
first to make portraits of distinction such as those of Abraham 
Lincoln. He also gained fame as the photographer of the Civil War 
for his pictures of the Union Army in action. 

98 



Detroit and Michigan 

1845. June 9- St. Vincent's Hospital opened by Sisters of Charity in log 
building at Larned and Randolph. Name changed to St. Mary's 
Hospital and moved to Clinton Street near St. Antoine in 1850. 
Present buildings opened November 21, 1879. Now operated as 
Detroit Memorial Hospital. 

June 9. Wayne County Building at corner of Griswold and Con- 
gress first occupied. 
July 4. Hog Island renamed Belle Isle. 

Nov. 28. Sisters of the Immaculate Heart of Mary founded near 
Monroe, Michigan. Now one of leading teaching sisterhoods in 
Michigan. 

Horse-drawn public hacks introduced in Detroit. Used chiefly from 
and to depots and operated by hotels. 

Michigan sent agent to New York City to attract newly arrived 
European immigrants to the state. In 1859 a State Commission of 
Immigration successfully began to attract Europeans. In 1869 agents 
were stationed in Germany. 

World History 

1845. Dorothea Lynde Dix published Prisons and Prison Discipline. This 
reformer spent her life in relief of paupers, criminals, and the insane. 
Texas annexed as a state by joint resolution of Congress, Mar. 1. 
Admitted to the Union, Dec. 29. 
Mar. 4. James K. Polk inaugurated as President. 
Separation of Methodists and Baptists into Northern and Southern 
groups over slavery issue. Methodists reunited in 1939- 
Florida admitted into the Union. 

Beginning of heavy Irish immigration to the United States because 
of potato famines in Ireland. 

1845-1848. Sir John Franklin's disastrous expedition to seek a northwest 
passage. Discovered passage but could not navigate it. 

Cultural Progress 

1845. First baseball organization, Knickerbocker Club of New York, 
formed Sept. 23. 

United States Naval Academy established at Annapolis. 
Tenpins superseded billiards as a common pastime. 

99 



1845. Polka was the most fashionable dance. 

Premiere performance of Tannhauser, opera by Richard Wagner, 

in Dresden, Oct. 19. 

"The Raven," poem by Edgar Allan Poe, a favorite in both the 

United States and Europe. 

The Count of Monte Cristo by Alexandre Dumas. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1845. Pneumatic tire patented by Robert W. Thompson in England and 
in 1847 in the United States. First rubber tire patent in United States. 
Automatic arc lamp patented by Thomas Wright, London. 
Gun-cotton invented by Schonbein. 

Soap powder in packages introduced by B. T. Babbitt. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1846. May 4. Capital punishment abolished by Michigan law. Effective 
March 1, 1847. 

Iron mining in Upper Peninsula near Negaunee begun by Jackson 

Mining Company. 

Michigan Central Railroad opened to Kalamazoo. 

World History 
1846. Admission of Iowa as a state. 

Mexican War began. Congress declared war May 13. 

June 6. Repeal of British Corn Laws. Beginning of free-trade 

policy. 

June 15. Treaty with Britain settling Oregon territory boundary 

at 49th parallel. 

Cultural Progress 

1846. American male habit of chewing tobacco deplored by visiting 
Englishmen. 

First real game of baseball played in Hoboken, New Jersey, between 
Knickerbocker Club of New York and New York Club team. 
Christy Minstrels appeared in New York. 

Vanity Fair made reputation for William Makepeace Thackeray. 
Even more popular in America than in England but never reached 
Dickens' sales. 
Robert Browning published (1841-46) some of his most famous 

100 



poems, such as "Pied Piper of Hamelin," and married Elizabeth 
Barrett. 

College of the City of New York founded under municipal control. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1846. American agricultural exports increased by repeal of British Corn 
Laws. 

Smithsonian Institution founded. 

Patent for lock stitch sewing machine granted to Elias Howe. 

Rotary type printing press, double cylinder, invented by Richard 
M. Roe of New York City. Patented in 1847. 

Gingham factory opened at Clinton, Massachusetts, by Erastus 
Bigelow. He received patent for gingham-manufacturing machin- 
ery in 1845. Previously gingham was made by hand at home. 

Telegraph ticker which printed letters patented by Royal E. House. 
Alfred Vail had invented a printing telegraph in 1837 but did not 
patent it. 

The first telegraph line extending from New York City to Wash- 
ington, D.C., installed. 

Planet "Neptune" discovered by Leverrier and Adams, each inde- 
pendently. 

Commercial production of baking soda first undertaken by John 
Dwight and Dr. Austin Church in New York City. 

Substance within cell named protoplasm by von Mohl. Term coined 
in 1839 by Purkinje. Substance discovered scientifically in 1835 
by French naturalist, Felix Dujardin, although had been casually 
observed as far back as 1755. 

Surgery under anaesthetic demonstrated at Massachusetts General 
Hospital. Dr. John Warren operated while patient was under drug, 
ether, discovered by Dr. William T. G. Morton. 

Pennsylvania Railroad chartered. By 1852 completed as far as 
Pittsburgh from Philadelphia. 

First plank road was that between Syracuse and Central Square, 
New York. 

First suspension bridge built across Monongahela River. Designed 
by John A. Roebling. 

101 



Detroit and Michigan 

1847. State capital changed from Detroit to Lansing. Old Capitol build- 
ing converted to school use. 

Apr. 24. First company of soldiers left Detroit for the Mexican 
War. 

Aug. 15. First United States postage stamps received in Detroit. 
Nov. 29. Telegraph between Detroit and Ypsilanti first used. 
Reached Chicago and New York by 1848. The instrument was 
first exhibited in Detroit in 1845. 

First regularly scheduled horse-drawn omnibus line began oper- 
ating on Jefferson Avenue. Not successful but others followed in 
coming years. 

Detroit campaign for relief of Irish potato famine sufferers. Mich- 
igan sent over 2,000 barrels of provisions. 

Dutch settlers came to Michigan. Founded Holland and other towns. 
James Jesse Strang established Mormon settlement on Big Beaver 
Island in Lake Michigan where it remained for about ten years. 

World History 

1847. Postage stamps with adhesive backs first issued by the United 
States. Previously letters were hand-stamped or marked "paid" by 
the postmaster when the postage fee was paid. 

Oneida Community established in New York State by John Hum- 
phrey Noyes and the socialist Perfectionists. 

Salt Lake City founded by the Mormons led by Brigham Young. 
July 26. Liberia established as free and independent republic. 

Cultural Progress 

1847. Last major public concert by Franz Liszt. Thereafter his composing 
took precedence. "Hungarian Rhapsodies" Nos. 1-15, 1851-54, and 
"Les Preludes," 1856, are among his best-known works. 

Martha, opera by Friedrich von Flotow, performed in Vienna. 

Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bronte, and Wuthering Heights by Emily 
Bronte published in England. American editions in 1848. Jane 
Eyre became popular but Withering Heights neglected until movie 
of 1939 made it popular. 
Evangeline by Henry W. Longfellow published in the United States. 

102 



Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1847. Hermann von Helmholtz enunciated law of conservation of energy. 
One of the fundamental scientific laws. 

Electric car which operated on current in the rails designed by 
Moses G. Farmer. 

McCormick's reaper factory built in Chicago. Origin of Interna- 
tional Harvester Company. 

First successful silver plating factory established by Rogers Brothers 
at Hartford, Connecticut. In 1898 succeeded by International 
Silver Company. 

Artificial fertilizer developed by James Jay Mapes on his farm at 
Newark, New Jersey. Patented superphosphate of lime in 1859. 

Unbolted flour for bread introduced by Sylvester Graham. 

Discovery of anesthetic properties of chloroform. Value in obstetrics 
demonstrated by Sir J. Y. Simpson of Edinburgh. 

American Medical Association founded. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1848. Mar. 1. Horace Grceley visited Detroit. First of several visits. 

May 9. Area bounded by Bates, Brush, Jefferson streets and river 
destroyed by fire. 

June 29- SS. Peter and Paul Church consecrated. Served as Detroit 
Cathedral until 1877. 

Council Chamber in old City Hall on Cadillac Square used as a 
theater. 

First Detroit building erected as a theater opened on Jefferson 
Avenue as the National Theater. Renamed Metropolitan Theater 
in 1854 and later the "Varieties." 

Earliest Michigan publication on medicine issued, Michigan Journal 
of Homeopathy. 

First bathtub installed in Detroit. 

New Michigan Central Depot built at Michigan and Third Streets 
replacing station at Michigan and Griswold built in 1836. 

Plank Road Act provided for roadways constructed by licensed 
private companies who received tolls. Tollgates usually placed every 
ten miles. 

103 



World History 

1848. Jan. 24. Gold discovered in California. Gold Rush of 1849 followed. 
Feb.2. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo closed Mexican War. Fixed 
southern United States boundary at Rio Grande River. New 
Mexico and California ceded to United States for 15 million 
dollars. 

Mar. 13. Metternich resigned. Indicated close of era of reaction 
and restoration. 

July 19- First Woman's Rights Convention, Seneca Falls, New 
York. 

Free Soil Party organized to oppose slavery. 
Wisconsin admitted to the Union. 

Feb. 22-24. Revolution in France. Louis Philippe abdicated. Sec- 
ond Republic proclaimed. June 23-26, bloody street righting. Dec. 
10, French elections. Louis Napoleon won. Took oath as President 
of French Republic on Dec. 20. 

Sept. 12. New constitution organized Switzerland as federal union. 
Revolutionary and nationalistic uprisings in Europe: France, Italian 
states, German states, Austria, Hungary, Denmark, Poland. 
Heavy German immigration to United States after failure of politi- 
cal uprisings. 
Dec. 2. Francis Joseph I became Emperor of Austria. 

Cultural Progress 

1848. Pre-Raphaelitism in art introduced in England by Hunt, Millais, 
and Rossetti. Continued in vogue to end of century. Opposed aca- 
demic rules and conventions. 

Honore Daumier (1808-1879) was the leading social and political 
caricaturist of the day. 

Washington National Monument authorized by Congress. Dedi- 
cated February 21, 1885. Opened to public Oct. 9, 1888. 
The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx published. 
John Stuart Mill's Principles of Political Economy published. 
Fairy Tales by Hans Christian Anderson published in the United 
States. 

James Russell Lowell, a popular author both in prose, The Bigelow 
Papers, and in poetry, Vision of Sir Launfal. 

104 



Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1848. First railroad to run west out of Chicago, Chicago and North 
Western Railway, began operations. 

Baby carriage made by Charles Burton in New York City. Moved 
to England and made "perambulators." 

Peddlers hawked petroleum as "Seneca oil" with medicinal qualities. 

Adhesive medicated plaster invented by Dr. John Parker Maynard 
of Dedham, Massachusetts. 

American Association for the Advancement of Science organized 
at Philadelphia. 

Publication of first edition of Manual of the Botany of the Northern 
United States by Asa Gray. This book continued to be a basic refer- 
ence on the subject. 

Principles of Zoology by Louis Agassiz published. Remained stand- 
ard work for many years. 

First chewing gum manufactured at Bangor, Maine. 
Chicago Board of Trade formed. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1849. Offices of city clerk, treasurer, marshal, attorney, etc., made elective 
instead of appointive. 

Jefferson Avenue paved with cobblestones between Third and 
Brush streets. 

New county jail at Clinton and Beaubien streets occupied. 

Detroit and Pontiac plank road opened. For rest of the century 
nearly every main road to Detroit was a toll road. One tollgate 
was located at Woodward and Adams. Previously Woodward was 
a log or corduroy road. 

Distinguished Detroit visitors included Vice-President Millard 

Fillmore in September and George Bancroft, the historian, in 

October. 

Feb. 21. Act providing for city physician. 

Mar. City of Detroit Gaslight Company organized. Did not supply 
gas until after reorganization as Detroit Gaslight Company, March 
8, 1851. The first illuminating gas was used in Detroit early in 
1850 in a hotel at the foot of Third Street where it was made by 
the owner, H. R. Johnson. 

105 



1849. June 1. Harmonic Society organized. 
July-Sept. Third cholera epidemic. 

Sept. 25-27. First Michigan State Fair held in Detroit on grounds 
on west side of Woodward between Columbia Street and Vernor. 
Sponsored by newly organized Michigan Agricultural Society. 
Nov. 19. Detroit Daily Tribune first issued. Weekly from October 
23. Merged with Detroit News in 1915. 

Nov. 26. One-cent daily paper Detroit Herald began publication. 
Lasted only to December, 1850. 

Mariners' Church, or Sailors' Bethel, on Woodward Avenue at 
Woodbridge, dedicated December 23. Oldest church building in 
Detroit still in use. Lower floor always used for business purposes 
to produce revenue. Organized 1841. Church built during 1848. 
Diddle House built. Became a leading hotel. 

Mar. 5. Detroit Savings Bank incorporated as the Detroit Savings 
Fund Institute. Oldest existing bank in Detroit. 
First photographic studio established in Detroit by J. E. Martin. 

World History 

1849. United States Department of the Interior created. 
Mar. 4. Zachary Taylor inaugurated President. 
William III became King of the Netherlands and led nation in 
great commercial expansion. 
Victor Emmanuel became King of Sardinia. 
June 30. Garibaldi's defeat and retreat from Rome. 

Cultural Progress 

1849. First library law enacted by a state for public libraries in New 
Hampshire. 

Edwin Booth made his debut. Leading American actor of the 19th 
century until 1891. 

First volumes of Thomas Macaulay's History of England published 
and rivaled his essays in popularity. 
The Oregon Trail by Francis Parkman. 

Damd Copper field appeared as a twenty-part serial. Became most 
popular of all Dickens' longer novels. Forty years later still among 
the most called-for books in public libraries. First edition in book 
form, 1850. 

106 



Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1849. Safety pin invented by Walter Hunt of New York. 

Sir David Brewster improved stereoscope and invented double 

camera for taking stereoscopic views. In 1861 Oliver W. Holmes 

developed stereoscope which became standard entertainment device 

in every American parlor. 

Invention of steam pressure gauge by Bourdon of France. 

Elizabeth Blackwell became first American woman to receive a 

medical degree. 

Mormons in Utah diverted mountain streams to make first real 

beginning of irrigation in America. 

First stage coach traveled the Santa Fe Trail. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1850. Detroit's population of 21,019 gave it the rank of 21st in size 
among United States cities. Of this population 11,055 were 
native-born and 9,927 foreign-born (44%). 

Detroit had about 90 streets. Most of the population lived near 
the river because of water supply. A few scattered houses were as 
far north as Grand Circus Park and farms were beyond. Western 
city limits were extended to about present Eighth Street (east line 
of Woodbridge farm) in 1849. Eastern limits had been fixed at 
Dequindre Street in 1842. Lighting was by means of tallow candles 
or lamps which burned lard or whale oil. Curfew bell rang at six 
in the morning, noon, and six and nine at night, to give citizens 
the time. 

Popular residential streets were Woodbridge, Jefferson, Congress, 
Larned, and Fort. General Cass had fine home at northwest corner 
of Fort and Cass streets. 

Main plank roads leading out of Detroit were: Detroit and Saline, 
or Michigan Avenue; Detroit and Howell, or Grand River Avenue; 
Detroit and Pontiac, or Woodward Avenue; and Detroit and Erin, 
or Gratiot Avenue. Stagecoaches carried travelers and settlers over 
these routes as well as over the river route (Jefferson) to Toledo. 
Taverns located along the way. 

Michigan constitution revised. Second Constitutional Convention 
June 3-August 15. Ratified by people November 5. Effective Janu- 
ary 1, 1851. 

Regular steamship service between Detroit and Cleveland estab- 
lished. 

107 



1850. University of Michigan Medical School founded. 

First union school, the Barstow, opened in Detroit. 

Apr. 2. Police Court established. 

Oct. 6. First Unitarian church organized. First services held in 

1849- Church erected in 1853 at Lafayette and Shelby. 

Detroit Musical Association formed. Evidence of interest in music. 

Traub Brothers jewelry firm established as Duncan and Traub in 

its first store. Moved to location on Washington Boulevard at 

Clifford in 1933. 

World History 
1850. United States population 23,191,876; area 2,997,119 square miles; 

population per square mile 7.9. 

Compromise of 1850. Henry Clay's attempt to settle the slavery 

controversy. 

July 9. Millard Fillmore succeeded to the Presidency on the death 

of Taylor. 

Sept. 9. Admission of California as a state. 

Sept. 18. Fugitive Slave Act. 

Land grants to railroads by Congress began. 

Apr. 19. Clayton-Bulwer Treaty between United States and Great 

Britain provided for future transisthmian canal. 
1850-1864. Taiping Rebellion in China. 

Cultural Progress 

1850-1870. Empress Eugenie set the fashions during this period which 
was characterized by extravagance. Skirts were long and full, made 
with many flounces and worn over hoops or starched petticoats. 
Colors were soft, with magenta a new shade, and changeable taffeta 
a new material. Shoes were buttoned high and had high heels. 
Hats and bonnets were small and trimmed with plumes. Lace mitts 
and black lace mantillas worn as shawls were popular. 

1850. Black velvet basques were worn with every kind of skirt as the 
vogue of the year. 

1850-1851. Oxford Movement led by Cardinal Newman. 

1850. Whist and faro were popular gambling games. 

E. W. Bushnell of Philadelphia developed a steel skate; and ice 
skating in the years following became very popular. 
Millet's painting "The Sower." 

108 



1850-1880. Leading French painters were Edouard Manet (1832-1883) 
and Edgar Degas (1834-1917). 

1850. First performance of Lohengrin, opera by Richard Wagner, at 
Dresden, Aug. 28. 

Jenny Lind appeared in Castle Garden, New York, under P. T. 
Barnum's management. 

Alfred Tennyson made Poet Laureate of England. 
Harper's Magazine established. 

Popularity of Boccaccio's Decameron exemplified American taste 
for the "sub-rosa" in literature. 

The first great American novel, The Scarlet Letter, by Nathaniel 
Hawthorne was published. The House of Seven Gables was issued 
the following year. 

The Wide, Wide World by Susan Warner issued in December, 
became an immediate best seller. Thirteen editions in 2 years and 
the title became a catchword of the day. It typified the popular 
domestic novel of the fifties full of sentimental piety, details of 
family life, and moralistic teachings. 

Sentimental sketches by "Ik Marvel," pen-name of Donald G. 
Mitchell, were exceedingly popular, especially Reveries of a Bach- 
elor, which remained favorites to the end of the century and 
inspired many imitations and parodies. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1850. Invention of mercerized cotton, by John Mercer of England. Gave 
silky appearance to cotton fabric. 

The American Collins Line of transatlantic steamers was established 
with four American-built boats, the largest, finest, and fastest in 
the world. They took much of the traffic from the Cunard line. 
First elevator, platform type, made by Henry Waterman and installed 
in a mill in New York City. Used for hoisting barrels. 
Magic lantern slides (glass plate) invented and patented by Fred- 
erick Langenheim of Philadelphia. 

A. H. L. Fizeau devised a mechanical method for measurement of 
velocity of light by the use of toothed wheel and mirrors. 
United States Botanical Garden, Washington, D.C., established. 
The first eight pairs of English sparrows in America were imported 
by the directors of the Brooklyn Institute to protect shade trees 
from caterpillars. 

109 



ca. 1850. About 30 to 35 man-hours were required to produce one acre of 
corn (40 bushels) with a walking plow, a harrow, and hand plant- 
ing. (See also 1890) 

1850. First derby hats manufactured by Knapp and Gilliam of South 
Norwalk, Connecticut. Named after English race horse "Derby." 

Detroit and Michigan 

1851. Apr. 21. Temple Beth El incorporated. First Jewish congregation 
in Detroit. Organized 1850. Reformed type. First temple building 
on Rivard Street in 1861. Jews first came to Detroit around 1762. 
June 5. St. Vincent's Catholic Female Orphan Asylum opened by 
Sisters of Charity. 

Detroit Gaslight Company began operating. Principal Detroit 
streets first lighted with coal gas on September 24. 
Lieut. Ulysses S. Grant had charge of United States military bar- 
racks in Detroit. 

Zachariah Chandler, one of Michigan's wealthiest men, served as 
Mayor of Detroit. He was a United States Senator 1857-75, 1879-81. 

World History 

1851. May 1-Oct. 15. Crystal Palace Exhibition in London. First great 
international exposition. 

Aug. 9- Discovery of gold in Victoria in Australia. 
Dec. 2. Coup d'etat in France; Louis Napoleon elected President 
of the Republic for ten years. 
Livingstone discovered Zambezi River in Africa. 

Cultural Progress 

1851. Mrs. Amelia Jenks Bloomer agitated for the garment named after 
her. Bloomers had been introduced at First Woman's Rights Con- 
vention at Seneca Falls in 1848. The bloomer dress, introduced in 
1851, featured three-quarter length skirt over long, full Turkish 
trousers. It caused great public amusement. 

America won first victory in yacht cup races. "America's Cup" has 
remained in the United States ever since. 

First performance of Rigoletto, opera by Giuseppe Verdi, in Venice, 
Mar. 11. 
New York Times founded, Sept. 18. 

110 



1851. Moby Dick by Herman Melville published. Not popular until 
Melville revival of the 1920's brought many editions and a movie 
in 1925. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1851. Gyroscope constructed by Foucault to demonstrate the earth's rota- 
tion. Principle used now chiefly to stabilize ships and airplanes. 
Submarine cable laid across the English Channel between Dover 
and Calais. 

Illinois Central Railroad chartered. First to receive a land grant 
from the government. Completed from Chicago to Cairo by 1856. 
The New York and Mississippi Valley Printing Telegraph Com- 
pany was organized, and in 1856 became the Western Union Tele- 
graph Company. 

Clipper ship Flying Cloud established record of 89 days 8 hours 
for trip from New York to San Francisco. 

Isaac Singer invented the sewing machine with rocking treadle and 
started his sewing machine manufacturing business in Boston. 
First locomotive using electric power made a trial trip (Apr. 29) 
on Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Invented by Charles G. Page and 
operated on storage batteries. Not practical as limited to very short 
distances. 

Machine for making artificial ice patented by John Gorrie of Florida. 
Wet collodion plate process in photography introduced by Frederick 
Scott Archer of London. 

First condensed milk produced by Gail Borden in Brooklyn. Patent 
granted 1856. Condenseries not commercially successful until 1861. 
Basis of the modern dairy products firm, the Borden Company. 
First ice cream factory established in Baltimore by Jacob Fussell. 
Commercial production made possible by hand freezer invented in 
1846 by Nancy Johnson. Flavored ices and ice cream as delicacies 
known in Europe long before. (See also 1904) 
Invention of the ophthalmoscope by Helmholtz, of Germany, made 
possible medical examination of the interior of the eye. 

1851-1854. William Thomson, Lord Kelvin, formulated the laws of 
thermodynamics. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1852. Michigan Central Railroad and Michigan Southern reached Chicago. 
Sept. 27. First Y.M.C.A. in Detroit organized. Lasted until 1855. 

Ill (continued on following page) 



Second association 1858-1861. Third and permanent Y.M.C.A. 
organized August 1, 1864. 
Ordinance created office of scavenger. 

World History 

1852. Nov. 4. Cavour became Premier of Sardinia. Led Italy to unification. 
Dec. 2. Empire restored in France. Napoleon III proclaimed 
Emperor. 

Constitution for New Zealand promulgated. 

First labor law regulating hours of work for women, in Ohio. 

First public bath and washhouse, in New York City. 

Cultural Progress 

1852. First American compulsory school attendance law passed in Massa- 
chusetts. 

The Boston Public Library was founded. It was opened to the pub- 
lic in 1854 and in 1858 became the first library in a building 
devoted exclusively to library use. 

Camille by Alexandre Dumas, fils, the famous novel and drama 
that started the vogue for crying or "tear-jerker" heroines. 
Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe published in book 
form after serialization in National Era. Unparalleled influence as a 
book and play. One of the all-time best sellers and of historical 
importance in the anti-slavery controversy. 

Curse of Clifton by Mrs. E. D. E. N. Southworth "most popular 
authoress in the annals of American publishing." Wrote over 50 
novels and nearly all sold in the hundreds of thousands. Ishmael 
and Self -Raised published first in 1864 sold more than two million 
copies each. Melodramatic, moralistic romance with type characters. 
Mrs. Southworth was the favorite of female readers throughout 
the latter half of the century. 
Henry Esmond by William M. Thackeray. 
Roget's Thesaurus first issued in England. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1852. First practical fire engine invented by Alexander Latta and built 
in Cincinnati. Went into service Jan. 1, 1853. Had three wheels 
and was drawn by four horses. Threw from one to six streams of 
water making its own power in a boiler. 

112 



1852. First railroad to run west of the Mississippi River was Pacific Rail- 
road whose tracks were laid west of St. Louis in December. 
American Society of Civil Engineers founded in New York City. 
American Pharmaceutical Association organized in Philadelphia. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1853. Board of Water Commissioners established to manage water supply. 
Wyandotte Rolling Mills, later the Eureka Iron and Steel Com- 
pany, established by Eber B. Ward and associates. 

John J. Bagley opened his tobacco business. Manufactured a fine cut 
chewing tobacco called "Mayflower." Accumulated large fortune. 
Elected Governor in 1872. 

Company for manufacture of railway cars organized by George B. 
Russel. Car building had been carried on for some years previously 
by John G. Hays. Russel firm incorporated in 1868 as Detroit Car 
and Manufacturing Company. 

Apr. 3. Daily Free Democrat first issued. Established in 1852 as 
a weekly Free-Soil paper. 

Oct. 13. Mrs. Amelia Bloomer lectured on women's rights. 
Nov. 9. First complete opera performance advertised in news- 
paper, Lucia di Lammermoor. 

State normal school opened at Ypsilanti as Michigan State Normal 
College. Founded in 1849- Oldest normal school west of the Alle- 
gheny Mountains. 

World History 
1853. Mar. 4. Franklin Pierce inaugurated as President. 

July 8. Commodore Perry anchored his ships off Japan. Treaty 
opening Japan, Mar. 31, 1854. 
Oct. 4. Russia began war with Turkey. 

Dec. 30. Gadsden Purchase completed present United States boun- 
daries when the United States purchased from Mexico some 50,000 
acres along border in Arizona and New Mexico. Chief reason for 
the purchase was to obtain best southern route for a railroad to the 
Pacific. 

Cultural Progress 

1853. Giuseppe Verdi's opera // Trovatore first performed Jan. 19 at 
Rome followed by the premiere of La Traviata Mar. 6 in Venice. 

113 



1853- Crystal Palace opened in New York. Also Franconi's Hippodrome 
which seated 4,000. Seats cost 25^ to $1. Offered chariot races, 
clowns, and ostrich races. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1853. New York Central Railroad Company formed by consolidation of 
ten other companies. First important railroad merger. 

Rail connection established between New York and Chicago. 
First union railroad passenger station opened in Indianapolis, Indi- 
ana. Five railroad companies used it. 

First national trade association organized. American Brass Associa- 
tion in Connecticut. Ceased 1869- 

Elevator with safety devices to prevent falling of car if ropes broke, 
made by Elisha G. Otis. 

New York Clearing House, first bank clearing house in the United 
States, organized. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1854. First rail connection with New York and the east achieved when 
Canadian Great Western Railway was completed to Windsor. Great 
celebration in Detroit, January 17. Ferry carried freight and pas- 
sengers between Detroit and Windsor. 

June- Aug. Fourth cholera epidemic in Detroit. 
Republican Party organizational meeting in Jackson, Michigan, 
July 6. Preliminary conference of anti-slavery leaders in Detroit 
had called this Convention of Free-Soilers. Leaders were Jacob M. 
Howard and Zachariah Chandler. 

World History 

1854. High point for the American or Know-Nothing Party. Founded in 
1852 on the anti-foreigner, anti-Catholic principles originally advo- 
cated by the Native- American Party of the forties. Influential in 
many local and state elections of the period. 
Kansas-Nebraska bill enacted. 

Republican Party originated as an anti-slavery movement. Name 
"Republican" suggested at meeting in Ripon, Wisconsin, on Mar. 
20. New party attracted the remnants of the Whigs, Free-Soilers, 
Know-Nothings, and other dissolving political parties. Republican 
Party was formally founded and nominated its first Presidential 
candidate, John Fremont, in 1856. 

114 



1854. Mar. 28. Outbreak of Crimean War when England and France 
joined Turkey against Russia. Later, Austria and Sardinia joined 
allies. 

Dec. 8. Dogma of The Immaculate Conception of The Virgin 
made a Roman Catholic "article of faith." 

Organization of battlefield relief work and nursing by Florence 
Nightingale after Battle of Inkerman. 

1854-1858. "Bleeding Kansas." Conflicts between pro- and anti-slavery 
settlers. 

Cultural Progress 

1854. Ashmun Institute, the first college for Negroes, chartered. Opened 
in 1857 in Chester County, Pennsylvania. Renamed Lincoln Uni- 
versity in 1866. 

Opening of the Academy of Music, New York City, Oct. 2. 
Walden by Henry David Thoreau. 

Phineas T. Barnum issued his autobiography Struggles and Triumphs 
at the height of his career as a showman. Sold by thousands to crowds 
visiting his museum and circus. 

Tempest and Sunshine, first of the Mary Jane Holmes novels; the 
sentimental, moralistic tales so popular with women readers during 
the fifties and following decades. Lena Rivers published first in 
1856 was another Holmes favorite among her 30 annual books. 
Sold millions of copies, especially in paper covers. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1854. First oil company incorporated: Pennsylvania Rock Oil Company. 
First blanket factory, Burleigh Blanket Mills, established at South 
Berwick, Maine. 

Adams and Company bought out Harnden's Express. American 
Express Company organized to operate from East to far West. Had 
been established in 1841. 

1854-1855. Wells Fargo and Company organized. They started express 
and stage lines, and for many years transported letters, parcels, and 
money for the government to the West. Organized Overland Mail 
Company in 1858. 

1854. First sleeping car patent granted Henry B. Meyer of Buffalo for 
method of converting backs of seats into lounges or beds. 
Walter Hunt patented a paper collar. 

115 



1854. Antiquity of man established by Boucher de Perthes when he found 
human remains along with those of extinct animals in the caves 
of northern France. 

First state agricultural college authorized (Apr. 13) was Pennsyl- 
vania State College. Opened Feb. 16, 1859. First actually to open 
was Michigan State College which was authorized in 1855 and 
opened May 13, 1857. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1855. First ship canal at Sault Ste. Marie opened. Detroiters were leaders 
in this Soo Canal project. 

Detroit Light Guard established. Merged into Michigan National 
Guard in 1911. 

John F. Nichols appointed first superintendent of schools. Well- 
known Detroit teacher from 1848 until 1883. Famed as a strict 
disciplinarian. 

Fort Street Presbyterian Church built. Survived fires in 1866 and 
1914. This second Presbyterian church group in Detroit was organ- 
ized in 1849. 

World History 
1855. Mar. 2. Alexander II became Tsar of Russia. 

Apr. -June. Attacks on Sebastopol. Sept. 11, Russians abandoned 
Sebastopol. 

May-Nov. Paris International Exhibition to display technical and 
economic progress of France. 

Young Women's Christian Association founded in England. Ameri- 
can Y.W.CA. organized in New York in 1858. 
The first "model dwelling" in the United States was erected in 
New York City by the Workmen's Home Association. 
Castle Garden became immigrant reception center in New York 
City. 

Cultural Progress 
1855. Charles Blondin crossed Niagara Falls on a wire tightrope. 

First publication of Herbert Spencer's Principles of Psychology. 
"Listen to the Mocking Bird," song by Alice Hawthorn, published. 
Publication of Hiawatha made Henry Wadsworth Longfellow the 
great popular poet of America. 
First edition of Leaves of Grass by Walt Whitman. 

116 



1855. Ten Nights in a Bar-Room, by T. S. Arthur, the great temperance 
tract of the times. Dramatic version appeared 1858. 
Prince of the House of David, by Joseph Holt Ingraham, popular 
religious novel of the 19th century. 
Cloister and the Hearth by Charles Reade. 

The Age of Fable by Thomas Bulfinch. Greatest popularity came 
after 1882. 

The Warden by Anthony Trollope began his Barsetshire chronicles. 
Popular in the United States in the sixties and seventies. Bar Chester 
Towers appeared in 1857. 
Westward Ho! by Charles Kingsley. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1855. Sir Henry Bessemer obtained his first patents on his process for 
making steel by decarbonization of iron with an air blast. 
Bunsen burner invented by Robert W. Bunsen, German scientist. 
Provided a smokeless, nonluminous, high-temperature flame for the 
laboratory. 

Niagara Falls suspension bridge opened. Built by John A. Roebling. 
Upper deck for railroad trains and lower a highway. 
Safety matches made by J. D. Lundstrom of Sweden. The com- 
bustible material was on the box with an oxidizing agent on the 
match tip. 

Kerosene (oil for illuminating purposes) obtained from bitumi- 
nous shale and cannel coal by Dr. Abraham Gesner who patented 
the process in 1855. 

First actual battlefield photographs taken by Roger Fenton during 
Crimean War. 

First veterinary college incorporated was the Boston Veterinary 
Institute. 

Other express companies organized, such as National Express 
Company, operating between eastern United States and Canada, and 
the Southern Express Company in 1861. Phenomenal growth of 
express service after 1865 came with growth of West and rise of 
industry. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1856. Railway connection between Detroit and Toledo completed. 
Detroit Board of Trade organized. Merchants' Exchange and Board 
of Trade of 1847, short-lived. 

117 



1856. Daniel Scotten started tobacco business with Granger Lovett. 
Manufactured "Hiawatha" brand chewing tobacco. Scotten sole 
owner by 1882. Built Hotel Cadillac. 

Frederick Stearns began manufacturing drug specialties as sideline 
to his retail drug store. Frederick Stearns and Company incorpo- 
rated 1882. Marked beginning of Detroit's great pharmaceutical 
industry. 

Manufacture of matches began in factory built by D. M. Richard- 
son. Sold to Diamond Match Company, 1881. 

World History 

1856. Feb. 18. The Hatt-I Humayun. Turkish reform edict guaranteeing 
Christian subjects security of life, honor, and property, etc. 
Mar. 10. Crimean War ended by Treaty of Paris. Turkey admitted 
to concert of Europe. 

Cultural Progress 
1856. Tom Thumb featured at Barnum's Museum. 

The Academy of Music in Philadelphia opened. 

"Darling Nelly Gray," song by Benjamin Russel Hanby. 

John Halifax, Gentleman by Dinah M. Mulock gained popularity 

at once. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1856. Sir Henry Bessemer read paper before British Association "The 
Manufacture of Malleable Iron and Steel Without Fuel." His proc- 
ess made possible the production of steel rapidly, cheaply, and in 
large quantities and hence its wide use. 

First commercially important aniline dye, mauve, discovered by 
W. H. Perkin in England. 

Sir William Siemens invented the regenerative furnace and applied 
it to steel making and later to other industrial processes such as 
glass making. 

First railway bridge across the Mississippi River completed between 
Rock Island, Illinois, and Davenport, Iowa. Built of wood on stone 
piers. 

Borax discovered by Dr. John A. Veatch in mineral water from 
Tuscan Springs, Tehama City, California. Commercial production 
began in 1864 at Borax Lake, Lake City, California. 

118 



1856. Tintype camera patented by Hamilton L. Smith of Ohio. 

First fish commission was authorized by state of Massachusetts to 
look into matter of artificial propagation of fishes. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1857. Feb. 5. New city charter. Official name to be "City of Detroit." 
Recorder's Court created. Provided salary for Mayor for first time. 
May 13. Michigan State Agricultural College opened in Lansing. 
Authorized 1855. Oldest state agricultural school in the United 
States. 

July 16. First telegraph cable laid across the Detroit River. 

July 22. The bark /. C. Kershaw left Detroit for Liverpool. Other 

Great Lakes vessels made ocean trip in following years. 

Sept. 28. Russell House opened. Replaced National Hotel. One of 

leading Detroit hotels of its day. 

Nov. 30. Marine Hospital opened. 

New water reservoir on Dequindre Street first used. Completed 

I860. Capacity nine million gallons. 

Jacob Beller operated a concert hall on site of present county 

building until 1863. Later he built resort called Beller's Garden near 

Belle Isle Bridge. 

World History 
1857. Mar. 4. James Buchanan inaugurated as President. 

Mar. 6. Dred Scott decision of United States Supreme Court held 
that a Negro slave was not a citizen and that the Missouri Compro- 
mise was unconstitutional. 
Financial panic. 

Sepoy mutiny in India. Crown took over duties of East India Com- 
pany and assumed government of India, Sept. 1858. 

Cultural Progress 

1857. Cooper Union was opened in New York. Offered free day and 
evening classes to men and women. 

Nathaniel Currier and J. Merritt Ives formed partnership as lithog- 
raphy firm. Their prints depicted American life during the last 
half of the 19th century. 

"Jingle Bells; or, The One Horse Open Sleigh," song by J. S. 
Pierpont. 

119 



1857. First governing body of baseball organized National Association 
of Baseball Players. 
Atlantic Monthly established. 
Tom Brown's School Days by Thomas Hughes. 
Madame Bovary by Gustave Flaubert published in France. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1857. First passenger elevator installed by Elisha G. Otis in store in New 
York City. Elevator made possible building of skyscrapers. Otis 
patented steam elevator in 1861 and invented hydraulic elevator 
in 1872. 

Reinforced concrete metal framework embedded in cement 
patented by its French inventor, Joseph Monier. 

Lamp for burning kerosene developed by A. C. Ferris and Company. 
First box spring imported from France by James Boyle, bedding 
manufacturer of New York. 
Discovery of prehistoric Neanderthal Man by workmen in Germany. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1858. Jan. 12. Recorder's Court organized to supersede Mayor's Court. 
Had jurisdiction over state offenses committed within city limits 
and over violations of city ordinances. In 1919 assumed jurisdiction 
of Police Court also. 

Aug. 30. First session of high school in upper story of building 
on Broadway site now occupied by Board of Education. Twenty- 
three boys enrolled. 

First varnish factory established by Berry Brothers. The firm is still 
operating. 

World History 
1858. Ottawa made capital of Canada. 

End of property qualifications for members of Parliament and 
removal of disabilities on Jews in England. 

Admission of Minnesota to the Union. 

Aug. 21 -Oct. 15. Lincoln-Douglas debates during Illinois senatorial 

campaign. 

Benito Juarez became President of Mexico. Reforms followed. 

120 



Cultural Progress 

1858. Novels and tales by Alphonse Daudet began appearing in France. 
Courtship of Miles Standish by Henry W. Longfellow. 
The Autocrat of the Breakfast Table by Oliver Wendell Holmes. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1858. Cable across the Atlantic Ocean successfully completed Aug. 5. 
Cyrus W. Field chiefly responsible for this first transatlantic sub- 
marine cable. Messages exchanged by President Buchanan and 
Queen Victoria on Aug. 16. Terminals in Newfoundland and Ireland. 
Cable car invented by Eleazer A. Gardner of Philadelphia. 
Machine for stitching soles and uppers of shoes invented by Lyman 
Blake. Bought and developed by Gordon McKay. Revolutionized 
shoe manufacturing methods. 

Steel pens first commercially manufactured by Richard Esterbrook 
in Camden, New Jersey. Company is still producing pens. 
Pencil with eraser attached patented by H. L. Lipman of Phila- 
delphia. 

"Arctics" patented by Thomas Crane Wales of Dorchester, Massa- 
chusetts. Waterproof gaiter of rubber and cloth. 
First successful baby carriage factory started in Leominster, Massa- 
chusetts by F. W. and F. A. Whitney. 

Two papers read to the Linnean Society on July 1 announced evolu- 
tionary theories of Alfred R. Wallace and Charles Darwin. 

Detroit and Michigan 
1859- Jan. 25. Centennial celebration of Robert Burns' birthday. 

Mar. 12. John Brown came to Detroit and brought fourteen slaves 

to smuggle across the river. Frederick Douglass delivered a lecture 

in Detroit that night. 

Apr. 12. First national championship billiard match held in Detroit. 

Michael Phelan defeated John Seereiter. 

Railroad from Detroit to Port Huron completed connection with 

Grand Trunk system. 

Dr. Herman Kiefer became one of the city physicians of Detroit. 

World History 
1859- Admission of Oregon as a state. 

Apr. -Nov. Sardinia gained recognition of her independence after 

121 (continued on following page) 



defeating Austria with aid of France. 

Oct. 16. The John Brown raid at Harpers Ferry. 

Cultural Progress 

1859. Adelina Patti made her operatic debut at New York Academy of 
Music. Had appeared in 1851 at Niblo's Gardens as a child star. 
Faust, opera by Charles Gounod, first performed in Paris, Mar. 19. 
New York premiere, Nov. 26, 1868. 

"Dixie" sung for first time Sept. 19, by Daniel Emmett of Bryants' 
Minstrels, New York. Published in I860. 

Joseph Jefferson began playing Rip Van Winkle. Continued in the 
role until 1904. 

Idylls of the King by Alfred Tennyson. 

Important English novels appeared: Tale of Two Cities by Charles 
Dickens, Ordeal of Richard Feverel by George Meredith, Adam 
Bede by George Eliot, The Virginians by William M. Thackeray. 
All became best sellers in the United States. 

Rubaiyat of Omar Khayam translated by Edward Fitzgerald. Be- 
came popular in the United States after 1870. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1859- Darwin published Origin of Species setting forth theory of evolution. 
Practical storage or secondary battery devised by Gaston Plante of 
France. 

1859-1860. Spectroscope developed by KirchhofT and Bunsen and princi- 
ples of spectrum analysis established. 

1859. First commercially productive oil well drilled at Titusville, Penn- 
sylvania, by Edwin L. Drake. 

Comstock Lode, great silver deposit, discovered in Nevada. 
First Pullman sleeping car built and put into service on Chicago 
and Alton Railroad. First comfortable car "The Pioneer" came 
in 1865. 

First rotary-motion washing machine made by Hamilton E. Smith 
of Philadelphia. Patented in 1858. 

George F. Gilman opened his first store in New York City. The 
first chain store. Soon had several stores operating as The Great 
American Tea Company. In 1869 renamed the Great Atlantic 
and Pacific Tea Company. George H. Hartford took over the man- 

122 



agement of the company in 1878 and by 1881 it had 100 stores. 

Groceries were added in the 1890's. 

Milk inspectors required by law in Massachusetts. 

Florence Nightingale published Notes on Nursing. 

First mastoid operation performed at Brooklyn City Hospital by 

Dr. Joseph Hutchison. 

Detroit and Michigan 

I860. Detroit ranked nineteenth in size among United States cities with 
a population of 45,619- 

Total value of Detroit manufactured products exceeded $5,000,000 
for the first time. 

Jan. 16. High School moved into its own building on Gratiot 
Street. Girls were permitted to enroll for the first time. Eighty-five 
pupils. 

Jan. 30. New federal post office and customhouse in Detroit 
opened on corner of Griswold and Larned streets. Cornerstone of 
this first government-built federal building laid May 18, 1858. 
July 1. Adelina Patti sang in Detroit. 

July 10. Land now occupied by Cass Park given to city by General 
Lewis Cass. 

Sept. 4. Big Republican gathering and torchlight procession. 
Speech by William Seward. 

Sept. 20. The Prince of Wales, later Edward VII, on his tour of 
Canada and the United States, arrived in Detroit. Stayed at the 
Russell House. 

Sept. 28. Dorothea Lynde Dix inspected Wayne County Poor 
House and Asylum at Eloise and found conditions there deplorable. 
The worst such place she had yet seen. Reforms did not begin until 
1868. 

Oct. 15. Big Democratic meeting with Stephen A. Douglas as 
speaker. 

City contracted for its first steam fire engine. In 1861 a paid fire 
department was established replacing the volunteer companies 
used previously. 

Salt mining industry began in Saginaw region. Salt in commercial 
quantities discovered in 1859- 

Nov. Michigan's six electoral votes went to Abraham Lincoln for 
President. 

123 



World History 

I860. United States population 31,443,321 including about 4,000,000 
slaves; area 3,026,789 square miles. Center of population 20 miles 
southeast of Chillicothe, Ohio. 
National debt $64,842,287. 

Prince of Wales ( later King Edward VII ) visited the United States. 
Mar. 13-15. Italian states of Parma, Modena, Romagna, and 
Tuscany voted for annexation to Sardinia. 
Mar. 24. Treaty of Turin. Savoy and Nice ceded to France. 
Garibaldi and his Thousand Redshirts sailed for Sicily, May 5. 
Took Naples, Sept. 7. 

Nov. Abraham Lincoln elected President of the United States. 
Dec. 20. South Carolina adopted Ordinance of Secession. 

Cultural Progress 

I860. Hoop skirt or crinoline grew very expansive. Women also preferred 
little round hats. 

Men started to wear knickers for sports. 

Architecture became frilly and exaggerated included Baroque, 
French and Italian Renaissance, etc. 

The first golf tournament was held at the Prestwick Course in Scot- 
land. Willie Park, Sr., won it. This later became known as the 
British Open. 

"Old Black Joe," song by Stephen Collins Foster. 
First dime novel published by Erastus F. Beadle started rage which 
continued until 1890's. Malaeska, the Indian Wife of the White 
Hunter, by Mrs. Ann S. Stephens, was the first dime novel in the 
Beadle series and best seller of the genre. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1860. Internal trade in the United States shifted from north-south to 
east-west about this time. 
30,000 miles of railroad in the United States. 

Pony Express started Apr. 3. Route between Sacramento, Califor- 
nia, and St. Joseph, Missouri, covered by riders in 10 days usually. 
First commercial oil refinery erected in Oil Creek Valley, Pennsyl- 
vania, by William Barnsdall and William H. Abbott. Kerosene the 
product. 

124 



1860. Repeating rifle introduced by Oliver F. Winchester. 

United States Secret Service created to suppress counterfeiting. 
New York City Police Department established first police traffic 
squad to escort pedestrians across the streets full of horse-drawn 
vehicles. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1861. Mar. 12. First police commission created. Consisted of Mayor and 
two others. Authorized to employ policemen. Ineffective during 
draft and anti-Negro riots of 1863. 

First Michigan Infantry Regiment mustered into service on May 2 
and departed for Civil War on May 13. Second Regiment left 
Detroit June 16. Military activities became chief interest in Detroit. 

Sept. 27. Shaarey Zedek Jewish Society organized. First orthodox 
Jewish synagogue and second oldest Jewish congregation in Detroit. 
Built synagogue on Congress Street in 1878. Congregation Shaarey 
Zedek's synagogue at Chicago and Lawton Avenue dedicated in 
1931. 

Young Men's Society building on Woodbridge Street opened. Con- 
tained hall seating 1,500 persons. Served as leading Detroit theater 
for a decade. 

Stove manufacturing begun by Jeremiah and James Dwyer. Hy- 
draulic Iron Works had manufactured stoves and parts on a small 
scale as far back as 1830's. 

July 6. House of Correction completed. 

World History 
1861. Kansas admitted as a free state. 

Feb. 4-9. Confederate States of America organized provisionally. 
Eleven states seceded by June. Permanent Confederate government 
became effective Feb. 22, 1862, with Jefferson Davis as President. 

1861-1865. Civil War in the United States. 

1861. Mar. 4. Abraham Lincoln inaugurated as President. 

Firing on Fort Sumter, Apr. 12-13, and its fall Apr. 14. 

Emancipation of serfs in Russia by edict of Alexander II. 

Mar. 17. Kingdom of Italy proclaimed by first Italian parliament 
with Victor Emmanuel as King. June 6, death of Cavour, leader in 
the unification of Italy. 

125 



1861. July 21. First Battle of Bull Run. Confederate victory. 

William I became King of Prussia. Had been regent since 1858. 

Dec. 23. Death of Albert, Prince Consort, husband of Queen 
Victoria. 

Cultural Progress 

1861. First American Doctor of Philosophy degree granted by Yale 
University. 

Herbert Spencer published his essays on education. Favored broad- 
ening curriculum to include sciences. 
Vassar College founded. 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology founded. 
Song: "Maryland! My Maryland!" 

First American edition of Grimm's Fairy Tales (Germany, 1812 
and 1815) issued as Popular Tales and Household Stories. Rivaled 
in popularity only by Hans Christian Anderson. 
East Lynne, by Mrs. Henry Wood, first issued in book form. Became 
sentimental sensation of the cheap novels and dramatic thriller of 
the "op'ry" house and tent show. 
Silas Marner by George Eliot. Followed Mill on the Floss (I860). 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1861. New York to San Francisco telegraph connection completed. The 
first transcontinental telegraph message was sent Oct. 24 by Stephen 
J. Field, Chief Justice of California, to President Lincoln. 

Central Pacific Railroad incorporated in California by Leland Stan- 
ford, Collis P. Huntington, and others. Began to build railroad east- 
ward from San Francisco. 

Process for manufacturing soda from salt devised by Ernest Solvay. 
First plant set up in Belgium in 1863. Many industrial demands for 
sodium carbonate could now be met. 

Cell defined as mass of protoplasm containing a nucleus by Max 
Schultze. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1862. July. Twenty-fourth Michigan Infantry recruited chiefly from 
Detroit and Wayne County. 

July 8. Detroit Daily Advertiser and Detroit Daily Tribune con- 
solidated. 

126 



World History 

1862. France acquired Cochin-China. Beginning of her colonies in Indo- 
China. Confirmed by Treaty of Saigon, 1874. 
Mar. 2. Naval battle between ironclad vessels, the Union Monitor 
and the Confederate Virginia, (formerly the Merrimac). 

Western campaign. Apr. 6-7, Grant's victory at Battle of Shiloh 

gave Union forces control of Mississippi River to Vicksburg. Apr. 

25, Farragut captured New Orleans. 

June 1. Robert E. Lee named commander in chief of Confederate 

eastern armies. Made commander in chief of all Confederate 

armies, Jan. 31, 1865. 

Peninsula campaign. May 31- July 1, Fighting around Richmond. 

Aug. 30, Second Battle of Bull Run Union army defeated by 

"Stonewall" Jackson. Sept. 17, Battle of Antietam. Dec. 13, Lee's 

victory at Battle of Fredericksburg. 

First Homestead Act. 

Medal of Honor authorized by Congress. 

First federal income tax levied by Congress for war needs. 

International Exposition, London. 

Sept. 2. Bismarck became Premier of Prussia. 

Cultural Progress 

1862. Morrill Act passed. Provided land grants to states to support agri- 
cultural and mechanical arts colleges. 

"Battle Hymn of the Republic," song with words by Julia Ward 
Howe published. 

Artemus Ward (Charles F. Browne) the popular humorist. 

Publication of Les Miserables by Victor Hugo a literary event of 
world magnitude. Appeared simultaneously in the major capitals 
and was translated into nine languages before publication. Immedi- 
ate literary and popular success. 

Fathers and Sons by Ivan S. Turgenev published in Russia. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1862. Union Pacific Railroad chartered by Congress with huge land grant 
to build railroad via central route from Omaha, Nebraska, to meet 
Central Pacific Railroad on California-Nevada border. 

127 



1862. Revolving machine gun invented and patented by Richard J. Catling. 
Nitroglycerin produced commercially by Alfred Nobel. Substance 
discovered in 1846 by Ascanio Sobrero. Invention of mercury ful- 
minating cap in 1864 by Nobel provided safe method for exploding 
the nitroglycerin. 

Scientific proof of photosynthesis in green leaves first produced by 
Julius von Sachs, German botanist. 
United States Department of Agriculture created. 
Paper money "Greenbacks" first issued by the United States govern- 
ment (authorized 1861). Printed at newly established Bureau of 
Engraving and Printing. 
Chicago surpassed Cincinnati as nation's meat-packing center. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1863. Aug. 3. First horsecars ran on Jefferson Avenue. Detroit City 
Railway incorporated to operate the cars which ran on rails. Soon 
other companies operated cars on other principal streets. Fare 
usually five cents. 

High School conducted on second floor of old Capitol Building. 

Remained in these quarters until 1875. 

Dec. 26. Clinton Street jail completed. 

First National Bank opened under new national banking act. 

Detroit Bridge and Iron Works established. Erected many bridges 

over Mississippi and Missouri Rivers. 

World History 

1863. Jan. 1. Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation issued freeing slaves 
in states which were in rebellion. 

Admission of West Virginia as the 35th state. Formed from section 
of Virginia remaining loyal to the Union. 

Mar. 3. First wartime conscription bill adopted in North. Provoked 
anti-draft riots in New York and other cities. 
May 1-4. Battle of Chancellorsville a Confederate victory but 
"Stonewall" Jackson was killed. 

June 7. France conquered Mexico City. Proclaimed an empire with 
Maximilian of Austria as Emperor, 1864. 
July 1-3. Battle of Gettysburg. Turning point of the Civil War. 
July 4. Vicksburg surrendered to Union Army. Siege began May 18. 

128 



1863. Nov. 19- Lincoln's address at Gettysburg. 

Nov. 23-25. Battle of Chattanooga. (Lookout Mountain and Mis- 
sionary Ridge.) Union won Tennessee. 
First state board of charities established in Massachusetts. 
City mail delivery service inaugurated. 

Cultural Progress 

1863. Crinoline dress reached its most exaggerated dimension and then 
began to decrease in size. Invisible nets of human hair introduced 
for the coiffure. 

First school for crippled children a private one in New York 
City. 

"When Johnny Comes Marching Home," song, published. 
The famous short story Man Without a Country by Edward Everett 
Hale made first appearance in December Atlantic Monthly. 
Lady Audley's Secret by Mary E. Braddon became one of the great 
successes of the fourth-rate feminine fiction of the era. Miss Brad- 
don wrote 80 such novels before her death in 1915. 
Romola by George Eliot. 
John Stuart Mill's Utilitarianism published. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1863- National Academy of Sciences incorporated by Act of Congress. 
Gasoline as a distillate of oil appeared. 

Manufacture of paper from wood pulp instead of from rags as for- 
merly introduced. Meant increased paper supply. 
Paper patterns practical for dressmaking devised and manufactured 
by Ebenezer Butterick in Sterling, Massachusetts. 
National bank system created by Congress. 

First American accident insurance company chartered Travelers 
Insurance Company of Hartford, Connecticut. 
Knitting machine by which garments and hosiery could be shaped 
as knit invented by William Cotton. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1864. Apr. 24. Shakespeare tercentenary celebration at Young Men's 
Hall. 

Sept. 27. First draft to fill Detroit quota for Union Army. Second 
draft, March 21, 1865. 

129 



1864. Oct. Free mail delivery by carriers began in Detroit. 

First Bessemer steel made in United States at Wyandotte, Michi- 
gan, by Eureka Iron and Steel Works. Used Kelly pneumatic process. 

Detroit Stove Works organized by Jeremiah Dwyer and his partners. 
Flint and Pere Marquette Railroad entered Detroit. 

World History 

1864. Jan. 16- June 26. Prussia and Austria made war on Denmark over 
Schleswig-Holstein. 

Mar. 9- Ulysses S. Grant named commander in chief of Union 
Armies. 

May 5. General Sherman began his march through Georgia; Sept. 
2, captured Atlanta; Nov. 16, began march to the sea; Dec. 22, 
Sherman occupied Savannah, Georgia. 

July 4. Immigration Act regulating importation of contract labor. 
Beginning of federal restrictions on immigration. 

Admission of Nevada as a state. 

Nov. 8. Re-election of Lincoln. Second inauguration, Mar. 4, 1865. 

Nov. President Lincoln revived custom of a national Thanksgiv- 
ing Day by proclaiming last Thursday in November as a day of 
thanksgiving. President Washington had proclaimed such a day 
for Nov. 26, 1789. Sarah Josepha Hale led the agitation for national 
celebration of Thanksgiving Day. 

Taming of the Plains Indians began. Cheyenne on warpath. Troops 
massacred Indians at Sand Creek, Colorado. 

Motto "In God We Trust" first appeared on American coins receiv- 
ing Congressional sanction the following year. 

First Catholic Negro parish, Baltimore. 
International Red Cross founded. 
Postal money order system established. 

Cultural Progress 

1864. New York became the first state to require a hunting license. 
"Tramp! Tramp! Tramp!" song by George Frederick Root. 

"Tenting on the Old Camp Ground" song by Walter Kittredge. 
Sung by both the South and North during the Civil War. 

130 



Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1864. Periscope invented by Thomas Doughty of the United States Navy. 

Louis Pasteur proved that organisms causing fermentation came 
from the air full of such organisms and were not spontaneously 
generated. Demonstrated existence of microbes. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1865. Michigan supplied 90,747 men for Union Army from 1861-1865. 
Wayne County sent 9,213 of which 6,000 were from city of De- 
troit. 14,343 Michigan soldiers died. 

Mar. 25. School District Library opened to public in rear of old 
Capitol Building in Capitol Park. Beginning of present Detroit 
Public Library. 

Metropolitan police department organized under state authority 
with four-member police commission appointed by the Governor. 
Patrol wagon service introduced in 1871, and telegraph signal 
boxes in 1885. Changed to one commissioner appointed by the 
Council in 1901. Charter of 1918 vested appointment of the police 
commissioner in the Mayor. 

Apr. 3 and 10. Celebrations at news of fall of Richmond and sur- 
render of Confederacy. 

Apr. 25. Mourning services for President Lincoln in Detroit in- 
cluding funeral procession and oration. 

Aug. 12. General Ulysses S. Grant visited Detroit. Honored by 
reception at Biddle House. 

Richard H. Fyfe established his shoe store by purchase of C. C. 
Tyler store. Present building completed in 1919. America's largest 
shoe store. 

Michigan Car Company Works established. 

World History 

1865. Apr. 9. Surrender of Lee and Confederate forces at Appomattox. 
Apr. 14. Assassination of Lincoln. Died April 15 at 7:22 A.M. 
Apr. 15. Andrew Johnson became President. 
Dec. 18. Thirteenth Amendment abolishing slavery ratified. 
Leopold II became King of the Belgians. 
American Social Science Association founded. 

131 



Cultural Progress 

1865. Society dividing into old conservative families and the flashy set 
or "swells" typified by "Diamond Jim" Brady. 
Front lawns decorated with iron statuary. 
Marquis of Queensbury boxing rules were first published. 
Pari-mutuel wagering originated in France. 

George Inness, a leading American painter of the Hudson River 
School, offered a typical landscape "Peace and Plenty." 
First performance of Tristan and Isolde, opera by Richard Wagner, 
at Munich, June 10. 

"Marching Through Georgia," song, published. 
Nation magazine established. 

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll. 
Essays in Criticism by Matthew Arnold. 

Hans Br inker and His Silver Skates by Mary Mapes Dodge pub- 
lished. Became favorite when its author won fame as editor of 
St. Nicholas Magazine. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1865. Open-hearth steel process introduced. Using regenerative gas fur- 
nace of Sir William Siemens, Pierre Martin combined scrap steel 
with the pig iron instead of fresh ore. 

First pipe line to transport crude petroleum completed in Pennsyl- 
vania. About five miles long. 

First printing press in America to use a continuous web or roll of 
paper produced by William Bullock. Used by the New York Sun. 
First two-wheeled velocipede or crank-driven bicycle perfected by 
Pierre Lallemont, a worker in the shop of M. Ernst Michaux in 
Paris. Lallemont sold his patent to Michaux and emigrated to the 
U.S.A. where he built velocipedes or "boneshakers." 
Sir Joseph Lister began practice of antiseptic surgery. 
Pasteur's studies on heat sterilization. The beginning of pasteuriza- 
tion as method of killing germs. 

Gregor Mendel discovered the laws of heredity but knowledge was 
not utilized until 1900. 

Coffee percolator patent granted to James H. Nason. 
Sweet crackers first manufactured in America by Belcher and 
Larrabee of Albany. To compete with imported English varieties. 

132 



Detroit and Michigan 

1866. Jan. Harper Hospital opened for civilian patients. Funds provided 
in 1859 by Walter Harper and Nancy Martin. Incorporated May 4, 
1863. Frame building on Woodward Avenue at Martin Place used 
for wounded soldiers after October, 1864, was later taken over by 
the Harper Hospital trustees. 

Feb. 7. General William T. Sherman visited Detroit. 
Mar. 27. Detroit Daily Post first issued. First eight-page daily in 
Detroit. Consolidated with Advertiser and Tribune in 1877. 
May. Wayne County Medical Society organized. Disbanded after 
ten years. New Society reorganized August 17, 1876. 
June 20. Funeral of General Lewis Cass. 
Sept. 4. President Andrew Johnson visited Detroit. 
Oct. 26. Parke, Davis & Company originated when Dr. Samuel 
P. Duffield, a druggist, and Hervey C. Parke formed a partnership 
as Duffield, Parke and Company. George S. Davis joined the firm 
in 1867 and the present name was adopted in 1871. The manu- 
facturing drug business established in a drug store at the corner 
of Cass and Henry Street moved to a specially built laboratory on 
the present river front site in 1873 and shortly thereafter began its 
pharmaceutical research program. 

James Vernor and Company established when James Vernor con- 
cocted and sold his first ginger ale at his drug store. 
Boot and shoe factory established by Hazen S. Pingree and Charles 
H. Smith. 

World History 

1866. Reconstruction of the Southern States under way. Struggle between 
President Johnson who favored lenient reconstruction methods and 
the Radical Reconstructionists in Congress who wanted a harsh 
policy. 

Apr. Civil Rights Bill passed over Johnson veto. 
Ku Klux Klan organized. Movement spread rapidly in the former 
Confederate states. 

Grand Army of the Republic founded. 
War with Sioux Indians began. 

United States public debt reached $2,755,000,000 or $77.69 per 
capita highest until 1916. 

American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals organ- 
ized by Henry Bergh. 

133 



1866. Municipal Board of Health established in New York City. Epi- 
demics of war years led to efforts for better public health control. 
National Labor Union one of first attempts at federating labor. 
Lasted six years. 

Fenians from United States invaded Canada. 

June-Aug. Seven Weeks' War. Prussians defeated Austrians. 
Meant recognition of Prussia as leader of German states. 

Cultural Progress 
1866. Croquet a very popular game. 

Fisk University (for Negroes) opened in Nashville, Tennessee. 

Another Negro college, Howard Theological Seminary, founded in 

Washington, D.C, was renamed Howard University and opened 

in 1867. 

Jacques Offenbach, typical composer of the Second Empire period, 

presented his La Vie Parisienne. His most famous opera, Tales 

of Hoffman, was first performed Feb. 10, 1881, after his death in 

1880. 

"When You and I Were Young, Maggie," song. 

Crime and Punishment by Feodor M. Dostoevski. 

"Snow-Bound" made John Greenleaf Whittier one of America's 

best loved poets during last quarter of 19th century. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1866. Second and successful Atlantic cable laid between United States 
and Great Britain. 

First American steam automobile invented by Henry A. House of 

Bridgeport, Connecticut. Used for several months. 

Printing press with stereotype plates curved to form the cylinder 

patented in England by J. C. MacDonald and J. Calverley. 

Patent to J. Osterhoudt for tin can with key opener. 

Nickel or 5 -cent piece authorized. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1867. Jan. 1. Central Police Station on Woodbridge east of Woodward 
first occupied. 

Mar. 26. Board of Fire Commissioners created. 

D. M. Ferry and Company, the seed company, was established. 

134 



Origin dated back to 1856 when Dexter M. Ferry began selling 
seeds in packets. Incorporated in 1879. In 1930 D. M. Ferry and 
Company merged with C. C. Morse and Company of California 
(breeder and grower) to form Ferry-Morse Seed Company. 

July 10. Michigan Mutual Life Insurance Company organized. 
Nov. 17. Central Methodist Church completed at Woodward and 
Adams Street. Chapel dedicated September 21, 1865. When Wood- 
ward Avenue was widened in 1936, front and spire were moved 
back by removing section of the nave. 

First railroad car ferry across Detroit River put into operation by 
Great Western Railway. 

World History 
1867. Admission of Nebraska as a state. 

Mar. 2. Reconstruction Bill passed. South divided into five mili- 
tary districts. Victory for Radical Reconstructionists. 

Mar. 30. Purchase of Alaska by the United States from Russia 
for $7,200,000. 

Massachusetts limited child labor to 10 hours a day. 

British North American Act passed Mar. 29. Ontario, Quebec, New 
Brunswick, and Nova Scotia united into Dominion of Canada. 
Effective July 1. 

June 19- Maximilian executed in Mexico. He was deserted by 
Napoleon III after firm stand by the United States. 

Second Reform Act in England extended suffrage. 

North German Confederation formed. 

Sept.-Nov. Garibaldi's expedition to Rome ended in his defeat. 

Last of the English convicts sent to Australia. 

Discovery of diamonds in South Africa. 

Cultural Progress 

1867. United States Bureau of Education established. Henry Barnard was 
the first Commissioner of Education. He was a leader in the com- 
mon school movement and the training of teachers. 

Baseball becoming the national game. William Cummings invented 
the curve ball. 

"The Beautiful Blue Danube," most famous of Johann Strauss 

135 (continued on following page) 



waltzes, played for the first time. The Waltz King appeared in 

Boston and New York in 1872. Toured Europe with his band 1849. 

First performance on Feb. 24 of Ibsen's play, Peer Gynt, with music 

by Edvard Grieg. 

Publication of first volume of Marx's Das Kapital. 

Elsie Dinsmore by Martha Finley began a long series. 

St. Elmo by Augusta J. Evans became such a popular book that the 

name was applied to children, towns, streets, etc. Typical of the 

paragon girl novels of the period. 

Ragged Dick first of the Horatio Alger books. The 135 written on 

this formula made Alger's name a synonym for the rags-to-riches 

success story. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1867. Automatic electric block safety signal system for railroads invented 
by Thomas S. Hall. Installed on New York and Harlem Railroad. 
Alfred Nobel produced dynamite most useful explosive. 

First stock ticker printing telegraph installed in brokerage firm 

on New York Stock Exchange. 

Sulphite process for making wood pulp for paper discovered by 

Benjamin Tilghaman, American chemist. Made possible plentiful 

supply of paper. 

First elevated railway opened in New York City. Real development 

came after transit study of 1875. 

National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry formed. Leading 

agricultural organization of the latter 19th century. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1868. William Davis of Detroit obtained a patent for an "icebox on 
wheels" or refrigerator car which he used for shipping fruits and 
fish. At request of George H. Hammond, a meat dealer, Davis 
designed a refrigerator car for meat which was first used in 
April, 1869. 

Wards of city divided into polling precincts for first time. 
Detroit and Cleveland Navigation Company incorporated. 

World History 

1868. Feb. 24-May 26. Impeachment and trial of President Andrew 
Johnson. Acquitted by one vote. 

136 



1868. May 30. First observance of Memorial or Decoration Day. Pro- 
moted by Grand Army of the Republic. 

July 2 8. Fourteenth Amendment to Constitution ratified. Granted 
citizenship to all persons born in the United States. Civil rights 
not to be denied on account of race. 

Shogunate of Japan overthrown. Emperor assumed control. West- 
ernization of Japan began. 

1868-1894. Disraeli vs. Gladstone in Britain. Chief problems were exten- 
sion of the franchise and Irish Home Rule. Feb. 29-Dec. 2, 1868, 
First Disraeli ministry. Dec. 9, 1868-Feb. 17, 1874, First Gladstone 
liberal ministry. 

Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks (B.P.O.E.) organized in 
New York City. 

Cultural Progress 
1868. The "bustle" was the important new feminine fashion. 

Theodore Thomas established his Symphony Orchestra in New 

York City. Began his annual tours in 1869. 

Luck of Roaring Camp, the story that made Bret Harte's reputation, 

appeared in Overland Monthly, the magazine he edited. Appeared 

in book form with other Western stories by Harte in 1870. 

The Moonstone by Wilkie Collins began its popular career as a 

mystery. 

Little Women by Louisa M. Alcott published. Became most popular 

girls' story in American literature. Brought world fame and fortune 

to its author. Little Men, 1871. 

The Ring and the Book by Robert Browning. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1868. First practical typing machine patented by Christopher L. Sholes. 
He named it the typewriter when he invented it in 1867. In 1873 
E. Remington and Sons began to manufacture the typewriter. 
German scientists began synthesizing a series of aniline dyes from 
coal tar. A. W. von Hofmann had identified and named aniline 
in 1858. 

Cro-Magnon man discovered by Louis Lartet. Another important 
step in evolution of man revealed. 

First American open-hearth furnace for manufacture of steel by the 
Siemens-Martin process built for Cooper Hewitt and Company 
at Trenton, New Jersey. 

137 



1868. First dining car, "the Delmonico," built by Pullman Company and 
placed in service on Chicago and Alton Railroad. 

Lawn mower invented by A. M. Hills. 

Oleomargarine made by H. Mege of France. First successful Ameri- 
can manufacturer was Alfred Paraf who organized firm in 1871. 
Compressed fresh yeast introduced by Charles Fleischmann whose 
firm manufactured it near Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Armour Company began meat packing in Chicago. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1869. Feb. 2 Detroit Medical College opened. Founded May 18, 1868. 
Mar. 29. Detroit Opera House facing Campus Martius opened. 
Burned Oct. 7, 1897. 

May 29- Memorial or Decoration Day first celebrated in Detroit 
with parade by Civil War veterans, oration, and scattering of 
flowers on graves in the cemeteries. 

June 5. Women's Hospital and- Foundlings' Home incorporated. 
Society organized 1868. In 1927 renamed Woman's Hospital. 

Oct. 11. Colored children first admitted to public schools. 

Nov. 25. First symphony concert given by the Theodore Thomas 
Orchestra at the Detroit Opera House. 

Providence Hospital founded. 

World History 
1869. Prohibition Party organized. 

National Woman Suffrage Association with Elizabeth Cady Stan- 
ton as president organized to work for a federal woman suffrage 
amendment. American Woman Suffrage Association founded to 
win suffrage by state law. 

First state board of health established in Massachusetts. Epidemic 
showed need of sanitation. 

The first Bureau of Labor in the American sense of the word was 
the Massachusetts Bureau of Statistics of Labor. 
United States Board of Indian Commissioners created. 
Mar. 4. Ulysses S. Grant inaugurated as President. 
Sept. 24. Black Friday Jay Gould failed to corner the gold mar- 
ket. Panic on Wall Street. 

138 



1869. Nov. 17. Official opening of Suez Canal. Opened to navigation in 
1867. 

Nov. 19. British government purchased Northwest Territories in 
Canada from Hudson's Bay Company. 
Dec. 9. Noble Order of the Knights of Labor founded. 

Cultural Progress 
1869. Charles W. Eliot became president of Harvard College. 

Cincinnati baseball team became first outright professional club. 

First intercollegiate football game between Princeton and Rutgers, 

Nov. 6. 

New songs: "The Little Brown Jug," and "Sweet Genevieve." 

Innocents Abroad by Mark Twain published as a subscription book 

and had phenomenal door-to-door sale. Roughing It sold by same 

method in 1872. 

Lorna Do one by Richard D. Blackmore. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1869- Air brake for railways patented by George Westinghouse, Jr. First 
used in 1868. Improved brake enabling all cars to stop at same 
time patented in 1872. Made possible high-speed railway travel. 
Chilled steel plow patented by James Oliver of South Bend, Indiana. 
Made the surface hard and smooth. Oliver made many other im- 
provements in the plow. 

Mendeleev worked out periodic table of elements. 
Francis Galton published his work Hereditary Genius. He founded 
and named the science of eugenics and introduced the statistical 
method into the study of heredity. 

The first plastic celluloid invented by John and Isaiah Hyatt. 
Name derived from "cellulose" and "oid" meaning "like." 
First suction-type vacuum cleaner patented by Ives W. McGaffey 
of Chicago as a "sweeping machine." 

Hydraulic tunneling shield invented by Beach and Greathead. Made 
possible subaqueous tunnels such as the New York subway tunnels 
under the East River and Hudson River opened in 1908, the Hol- 
land Tunnel under the Hudson River opened in 1927, and the 
Detroit- Windsor Tunnel opened in 1930. 

Thomas A. Edison obtained his first patent for an electric vote 
recorder or voting machine. 

139 



1869. Transcontinental railroad completed when tracks laid eastward by 
Central Pacific Railroad and westward by Union Pacific Railroad 
joined at Promontary Point, Utah. A nation-wide celebration 
marked the event on May 10. 

Henry John Heinz opened a factory at Sharpsburg, Pennsylvania, 
to become the first commercially successful foodstuffs producer. 
His first product was grated and prepared horse-radish. H. J. Heinz 
Company now manufactures several hundred varieties of products. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1870. Detroit population 79,577. Ranked eighteenth in size among 
United States cities. 

R. L. Polk and Company incorporated. First "Polk" directory 
issued 1872. 

Fire alarm system installed. 

Women admitted to the University of Michigan. 

1870's. Business crossed Campus Martius, and section between Campus 
and Grand Circus Park began shifting from residential to business 
use. Washington and Madison Avenues were fashionable residen- 
tial streets. 

World History 

1870. United States population 38,558,371. Center of population near 
Hillsboro, Ohio, about 48 miles northeast of Cincinnati. 

Illiteracy in United States, 20%. 

Two million women were gainfully employed. They constituted 
15% of the nation's workers. By 1949, 17 million women were in 
the labor force, or 28%. 

Mar. 30. Fifteenth Amendment to United States Constitution rati- 
fied. Voting privileges not to be denied on account of race. 
June 22. Federal Department of Justice established. 
Civil service reform in England. Competitive examinations made 
the basis for government service. 
Manitoba became a province of Canada. 

July 18. Vatican council proclaimed the Dogma of Papal Infalli- 
bility. 

Unification of Italy completed. Aug. 19, French troops withdrew 
from Rome. Oct. 2, Rome annexed and became capital of Italy. 

140 



1870. Franco-Prussian War. July 19, France declared war. Sept. 2, Defeat 
of Napoleon III at Sedan. 

Sept. 4. Third French Republic proclaimed. Napoleon III deposed. 
Sept. 19 1871, Jan. 28. Siege of Paris by Germans. 

Cultural Progress 

1870. Women's fashions: hoops reduced to padding over hips and bustle 
in back; skirts were draped with fullness drawn to the back and 
profusely trimmed; stiff taffeta a favorite material; bodices were 
tight, buttoned to the neck, with collars and jabots of lace. A popular 
style was the polonaise waist and skirt of one piece, plain and 
close-fitting, draped over a pleated underskirt of contrasting color 
and material. Accessories: small hats, cameo jewelry, pleated fans, 
fancy parasols. 

National Education Association founded. 

The first game refuge was established in California. The second 
state to establish one was Indiana in 1903. 
Metropolitan and Boston Art Museums founded. 

1870-1895. John Rogers' miniature sculptures, known as Rogers' Groups, 
and representing familiar scenes and incidents of home life, were 
popular in the United States. 

1870. Opera houses, music halls, and theaters opening everywhere even 
in the smallest towns. 
McCall's Magazine established. 

Death of Charles Dickens world's most popular author. Publish- 
ers began issuing sets of his works which sold in the hundreds of 
thousands. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1870. 47.4% of all persons gainfully employed in the United States 
were engaged in agriculture. First census to show farmers a minority 
among the gainfully employed. 
49,168 miles of railroad in the United States. 
Z. T. Gramme of Paris produced direct current dynamo based on 
Antonio Pacinotti's ring dynamo of I860. By 1873 dynamo was 
recognized as an electric motor. Made electricity available for 
industrial uses. 

Cement introduced into the United States from England. Brought 
as ship ballast. Use of European cement exceeded American-made 
until 1897. 

141 



1870. B. F. Goodrich started his rubber company at Akron. First really 
successful American rubber company. 

Petroleum jelly manufactured by Robert A. Chesebrough who 
named it "vaseline" and registered this name in 1878 as trade-mark 
of his brand. 

Standard Oil Company incorporated in Ohio with John D. Rocke- 
feller as principal stockholder. 

United States Weather Service authorized by Congress. Signal 
Corps began meteorological observations Nov. 1. 
Baking powder introduced to American cooks by Benjamin T. 
Babbitt who manufactured Star Yeast Powder. 
First American trade-mark registration act. Declared unconstitu- 
tional but another trade-mark law was enacted in 1881. This was 
superseded by act of 1905 and supplemented by acts of 1906 and 
1920 which now govern trade-mark registration. 
United States Public Health Service reorganized. 

Detroit and Michigan 
1871-1875. Park and boulevard question agitated Detroiters. 

1871. July 4. City Hall dedicated. Occupied July 18. Cornerstone laid 
August 6, 1868. 

Oct. 9- Citizens' meeting raised $25,000 to aid victims of Chi- 
cago fire. 

Mutual Gaslight Company established on east side. 
Detroit Car and Manufacturing Company bought by George M. 
Pullman and Detroit was center for Pullman car manufacture until 
Pullman plant near Chicago was built. Detroit plant abandoned 
in 1893. 

First compulsory school attendance law in Michigan. All children 
between eight and fourteen years required to attend school at least 
twelve weeks each year. 

World History 

1871. Jan. 18. German Empire proclaimed at Versailles. William I be- 
came Emperor of the German states united by treaties. 
Mar. 1-3. Paris Commune. 

May 13. Pope refused to accept loss of temporal power in law 
defining his relations to the Italian government, and thereafter con- 
fined himself to the Vatican in protest. 

142 



1871. Oct. 8. Great Chicago fire. Allegedly caused by Mrs. O'Leary's cow 
kicking over a lantern. 

Home Rule for Ireland party formed. Parnell became its leader. 
British Columbia joined Dominion of Canada. 
Henry M. Stanley found Dr. David Livingstone in Africa. 

Corruption of Tweed Ring in New York City exposed by Thomas 
Nast's cartoons in the New York Times and Harper's Weekly. 
Boss Tweed convicted in 1873. 

1871-1883. Kulturkampf in Germany Bismarck's fight against the 
Catholic church. "May" laws repressing church passed in 1873. 
Struggle of state versus church lessened after Bismarck turned his 
opposition towards Socialists. 

Cultural Progress 

1871. Popular novelty in men's hats the derby. 
Smith College for women founded. 

Beginning of high school accreditation for college admission instead 
of entrance examinations. Introduced by Michigan. 

Dwight L. Moody (preacher) and Ira D. Sankey (singer) began 
their great revivalist movement. 

Baseball assumed real professional status when nine teams organ- 
ized as the National Association of Professional Ball Players. 

P. T. Barnum's traveling circus and menagerie "Greatest Show on 
Earth" got under way. 

Premiere of opera Aida by Giuseppe Verdi, in Cairo, Dec. 24. 
The Ho osier Schoolmaster by Edward Eggleston. 

Horatio Alger's Tattered Tom series. Dime novels were the popular 
reading matter of the times. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1871. Dry -plate photography introduced by R. L. Maddox. George East- 
man began manufacturing photographic dry-plate in 1878. 

Rotary printing press with continuous roll feed perfected by 
R. Hoe and Company. Installed in the New York Tribune plant. 
Produced as many as 18,000 newspapers an hour. 

Darwin published The Descent of Man. 

143 



Detroit and Michigan 

1872. Apr. 9. Soldiers and Sailors Monument to Michigan men in Civil 
War dedicated on Campus Martius. 

MofFat Building finished. Had first passenger elevator in Detroit. 
Jewelry firm of Roehm and Wright established. When Roehm sold 
his share in 1886, John Kay became Henry M. Wright's partner in 
the firm of Wright, Kay and Company. 

Michigan Stove Company organized by Jeremiah Dwyer and part- 
ners in 1871, began manufacturing. The "Garland" stove was one 
of their products. 

World History 
1872. British Ballot Act provided for secret vote for the first time. 

Geneva Convention settled Alabama claims in favor of the United 
States. 

Credit mobilier scandal followed by others in the Grant adminis- 
tration. 

Cultural Progress 

1872. James A. McNeill Whistler first exhibited his painting, "Arrange- 
ment in Gray and Black," better known as "Portrait of the Artist's 
Mother." The painting probably best known to the average person. 
E. P. Roe started his best-selling author's career with Barriers 
Burned Away. His stories were sermons wherein a religious hero 
or heroine sought to convert a doubter of the opposite sex and suc- 
ceeded through the intervention of some great disaster. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 
1872. Mail-order house established by Montgomery Ward in Chicago. 

Cigarette manufacturing machine invented by Albert H. Hook. 
Patented in 1876 but not used commercially until 1882. Machine- 
made cigarettes became the basis of the great tobacco industry of 
today. 

First photograph showing motion taken by Edward Muybridge. 
Used series of cameras taking photos at regular intervals of a race 
horse in action. 

Yellowstone National Park established. 
First federal fish hatchery established in Maine. 
Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University established with Charles 

144 



S. Sargent as the first director. Contains the largest number of 

species of woody plants in any one place in America. 

Principles of Physiological Psychology by Wilhelm Wundt created 

modern experimental psychology. 

Popular Science Monthly founded. 

1872-1885. The popular bicycle was the "Ordinary" featuring high front 
wheel and small rear wheel. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1873. Board of Public Works established. Became Department of Public 
Works under single commissioner in 1901. 

Board of Estimates created to replace citizens' meetings in matters 
of city expenditures. Abolished 1881 but re-established 1887. 

Superior Court established for civil actions. 

Detroit and Bay City Railroad completed to Bay City. 

Aug. 23. Detroit Evening News first issued. Founded by James 
E. Scripps. 

All stage lines from Detroit ceased operation. 

St. Aloysius Roman Catholic Parish acquired the Presbyterian 
Church and rectory on Washington Boulevard. Present St. Alo- 
ysius Church on this site built and dedicated in 1930. 

Michigan State Board of Health established. 

World History 

1873. Feb. 12. "Crime of 1873" Coinage act which demonetized silver. 
Mar. 4. Grant inaugurated for second term as President. 
Sept. Financial panic precipitated by failure of Jay Cooke bank. 
Depression lasted through 1879. 

The Gilded Age, a novel by Mark Twain and Charles Dudley 
Warner, published this year, gave its name to the period 1865- 
1873. It was a period marked by speculation, industrial expansion, 
sudden new wealth, loose business and political morals, and flashy 
manners and modes. 

British courts reformed by Judicature Act. 

Prince Edward Island joined Dominion of Canada. 

Postal cards first issued in the United States. Introduced in Vienna 

in 1869 and first used in Great Britain in 1870. 

145 



1873. Austrian International Exposition in Vienna. 

Union of American Hebrew Congregations formed. 

Cultural Progress 

1873. Lawn tennis was introduced in England by its inventor Major 
Walter C. Wingfield. 

First permanent public school kindergarten in the United States 
founded in St. Louis. 
"Silver Threads Among the Gold," song. 
Woman's Home Companion established. 

Jules Verne's Around the World in Eighty Days and Twenty Thou- 
sand Leagues under the Sea became popular with young and old 
readers. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1873. Barbed wire made by Joseph F. Glidden of DeKalb, Illinois. Made 
possible fencing of the plains. 

Automatic grain-binding attachment came into use on harvesters. 
The Appleby Knotter of 1878 became the standard tying device. 
First cable streetcar in the world put into service in San Francisco. 
Invented by Andrew Hallidie in 1871. 

Linoleum first manufactured by American Linoleum Manufacturing 
Company on Staten Island. 

Seedless navel oranges began to be cultivated in Riverside, Cali- 
fornia, by Jonathan and Eliza Tibbets from orange saplings brought 
from Brazil in 1871. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1874. Detroit Conservatory of Music established. 

"Kalamazoo" decision by Justice Thomas M. Cooley upheld right 

of school boards to use primary school money for high schools. 

Meant that scope of public education was not limited. 

Michigan state school for underprivileged children opened at 

Coldwater. First of its kind in the world. 

Webster School on Twenty-first Street near Howard built. Oldest 

school building still in use. 

Apr. 16. Detroit Scientific Association organized. 

June 2. American Medical Association held its 25th meeting in 

Detroit. 

146 



World History 

1874. Universal Postal Union established. One of the earliest international 
agencies. 

Great Britain followed other European powers with Pacific annexa- 
tionist policy. Acquired Fiji Islands. 
Women's Christian Temperance Union formed. 

Cultural Progress 

1874. Chautauqua organized. Originally established for Bible study and 
the training of Sunday school teachers. In 1878 began offering 
home study courses. 

First Christmas cards engraved by Louis Prang at Roxbury, Mass., 
for export to England where the custom of sending card greetings 
was established. Introduced to American trade in 1875. 
First Impressionist exhibition in Paris. Impressionism was the 
name given to work of painters like Claude Monet (1840-1926) 
and Auguste Renoir (1841-1919) which tried to depict the world 
of ephemeral appearance and the influence of light on color. The 
name came from a painting of Monet's titled "Impression Soleil 
Levant." 

Peter Tschaikowsky composed his "Piano Concerto in B-Flat 
Minor." His "Violin Concerto in D Major" appeared in 1878 and 
his "Fifth Symphony in E Minor" was finished in 1888. 
Far from the Madding Crowd by Thomas Hardy. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1874. Edison made a practical quadruplex telegraph. Four messages could 
be sent over same wire at same time. J. B. Stearns had invented a 
duplex telegraph in 1866 and Wilhelm Ginol had made a duplex 
as early as 1853 in Vienna. 

First successful manufacture of adhesive and medicated plaster 
by Robert W. Johnson and George J. Seabury at East Orange, New 
Jersey. In 1886 Johnson separated and formed Johnson and Johnson 
Company of New Brunswick to make full line of pharmaceutical 
plasters with rubber base. 

Washburn and Pillsbury flour mills introduced process of reduc- 
ing wheat to flour by chilled steel rollers. 

Dr. Andrew Taylor Still of Kirksville, Missouri, founded osteopathy. 
Philadelphia Zoological Garden opened to public. First zoo in the 
United States. Founded 1859. 

147 



Detroit and Michigan 

1875. Jan. 2. Death of Eber Brock Ward, Detroit's first millionaire in- 
dustrialist. 

Aug. 11. American Association for the Advancement of Science 
met in Detroit. 

Sept. 13. C. J. Whitney's Opera House opened on northwest cor- 
ner of Fort and Shelby. 

New high school building erected in front of old Capitol structure. 
Evening schools first maintained for children unable to attend 
during day. 

Fred Sanders established his confectionery store. Reputedly among 
the first in the United States to introduce the ice cream soda. 

World History 

1875. Greenback Party organized to oppose redemption of greenbacks. 
Supported by Western and Southern groups who wanted easier 
credit and plenty of currency in circulation. Joined by labor groups 
in 1878 to form Greenback-Labor Party. Prominent political issue 
through 1884. 

Alfonso XII became King of Spain. 

Nov. 25. Great Britain acquired control of the Suez Canal. Pur- 
chased shares from Khedive of Egypt. 

Christian Science Church founded by Mary Baker Eddy. Science 
and Health first published. 

First United States cardinal named, John, Cardinal McCloskey. 
Theosophical Society formed. 

Cultural Progress 

1875. The Arts & Crafts Movement began to flourish in England and 
America and lasted well beyond the turn of the century. 
Soft felt hat was adopted for business and informal wear by men. 
Delmonico's and Sherry's were the fashionable New York restau- 
rants. 

First Kentucky Derby run. Won by "Aristides." 
First performance of Carmen, opera by Georges Bizet, in Paris, 
June 3. First performed in United States in 1878. Not successful 
until 1883. 

Debut of Mary Anderson, stage beauty of the seventies and eighties, 
famous for her "pure and innocent" roles. 

148 



1875. Anna Karenina by Leo Tolstoi. Vogue for the author in the United 
States came in the nineties and after. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1875. International Bureau of Weights and Measures established. 
Rotary perfecting press developed. Printed both sides of a sheet 
at once and delivered cut and folded newspaper. 

The combine the combined harvester and thresher came into 
use on the western wheat fields. Had been thought of as early 
as 1836. 

Luther Burbank moved to California and began breeding new 
varieties of plants by crossing and selection. His experimental farm 
was established in 1893. 

First state agricultural experiment station established at Middle- 
town, Connecticut. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1876. July 4. Independence centennial celebration in Detroit proces- 
sion, street decorations, boat races, illuminations, etc. 

Russel Wheel and Foundry Company established by George H. 
and Walter S. Russel. Their father, George B. Russel, at his Ham- 
tramck Iron Works, had manufactured the first car wheels in the 
west. 

World History 

1876. Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia. 
Admission of Colorado to the Union. 

June 25. General George Custer defeated at Little Big Horn by 
Sioux Indians led by Sitting Bull. 

Nov. Disputed Hayes-Tilden Presidential election. Electoral Com- 
mission decided for Hayes, Mar. 2, 1877. 

International Association for the Exploration and Civilization of 
Africa founded. 

Cultural Progress 

1876. The Philadelphia Centennial Exposition gave a strong impetus to 
art education, and was followed by a rapid growth of art schools: 
School of Drawing and Painting of the Boston Museum, 1876; 
School of Industrial Art of the Pennsylvania Museum, 1877; Rhode 
Island School of Design, 1877; and St. Louis School of Fine Arts, 
1879. 

149 



1876. Philadelphia Art Museum founded. 

Johns Hopkins University opened in Baltimore. First real gradu- 
ate school in the United States. 

Modern football rules formulated at an intercollegiate meeting. 
Touchdown became the deciding factor. 
Game of polo introduced to the United States. 
National Baseball League organized when old Professional Ball 
Players League broke up. 

The whole cycle of Der Ring des Nibelungen, sequence of four 
music-dramas by Richard Wagner, first produced at Bayreuth, 
Aug. 13-16. 

American Library Association organized. 

Johannes Brahms "First Symphony" performed. "Symphony No. 4" 
first performed 1885. 

"I'll Take You Home Again, Kathleen," song. 
American Magazine established. 

The Royal Path of Life; or Aims and Aids to Success and Happiness, 
essays and quotations on homely subjects, was the great subscrip- 
tion book success of the time reflecting popular taste for sentimental 
morality. 

Tom Saivyer by Mark Twain. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 
1876. Telephone invented by Alexander Graham Bell. 

Internal combustion gas engine made practical by Nikolaus Otto 

when he introduced his four-stroke cycle engine. Adopted for 

automobile and airplane motors. 

First practical pipe or screw wrench invented by Daniel C. Stillson. 

First practical carpet sweeper patented by Melville Reuben Bissell 

of Grand Rapids, Michigan. 

Thomas A. Edison patented the mimeograph. 

One-day, back-wind alarm clock in metal case patented by Seth 

E. Thomas. 

The "safety" (rear wheel driven) bicycle invented by H. J. Lawson. 

Wheels of nearly equal size. (See also 1885) 

Charles E. Hires started his root beer business on a national scale. 

He first made the drink in 1866. 

Merchant Shipping Act passed in Britain to prevent overloading 

150 



ships or use of unseaworthy vessels. Result of efforts of Samuel 

Plimsoll. 

American Chemical Society organized. 

Robert Koch proved the germ theory of disease that germs cause 

disease through studies on anthrax. Based on Pasteur's work. 

Cesare Lombroso founded science of criminal psychology. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1877. Two-day rowing regatta on the river indicative of popularity of 
rowing and boating as sports. 

First telephones installed in Detroit. First business telephone con- 
nected Frederick Stearns Company office and laboratory. 
Jan. 22. Public Library formally opened at Gratiot and Farmer 
Streets. Cornerstone laid May 29, 1875. Site now occupied by 
Downtown Library. 

Feb. 9. Henry Ward Beecher lectured at Detroit Opera House. 
Detroit College founded by the Jesuits. Opened in September in 
house on south side of Jefferson Avenue but moved to new build- 
ing across the street in 1885. Renamed University of Detroit in 191 1. 
Oct. 14. Detroit Post and Tribune first issued. Consolidation of 
Detroit Daily Tribune (founded 1849), which had previously 
united with Detroit Advertiser, and Detroit Daily Post (founded 
1866). On November 1, 1885, became The Tribune. 
Dec. 15. New waterworks on Jefferson at foot of Cadillac Avenue 
began supplying water. Construction began December, 1874. 

World History 

1877. Jan. 1. Queen Victoria proclaimed Empress of India. 
Mar. 5. Rutherford B. Hayes inaugurated as President. 
Last of the federal troops withdrawn from Southern states causing 
their "carpetbag" governments to fall. Former Confederate states 
now again controlled by Southerners. The Democratic "Solid 
South" resulted. 

1877-1878. Russo-Turkish War. Russia declared war on Turkey, Apr. 24. 
Treaty of San Stefano, Mar. 3, 1878. 

1877. June 14. First observance of Flag Day in honor of 100th anniver- 
sary of the American flag. 
Porfirio Diaz became President of Mexico. Remained as dictator 

151 (continued on following page) 



until 1911. Encouraged foreign investments and development of 
Mexico. 

Henry M. Stanley completed his exploration of the Congo River to 
the Atlantic Ocean. 

Desert Land Act to encourage private irrigation of arid areas in 

the United States. 

"Molly Maguires" terrorism in Pennsylvania coal fields. 

Cultural Progress 
1877. First modern-type dog show held in New York. 

With the advent of Howard Pyle there began a golden age of 
book illustration in America. 

Madame Modjeska made her American debut in San Francisco. 
Sarah Bernhardt was acclaimed in Hugo's Hernani and soon estab- 
lished herself as the best known of French actresses. 
"Carry Me Back to Old Virginny," song by James H. Bland. 
"The Lost Chord," song; words by A. Proctor, music by Sir Arthur 
Sullivan. 

"Swan Lake" first of Tschaikowsky's great ballets first performed 

in Moscow, Feb. 20. 

Birds and Poets by John Burroughs, popular nature writer of the 

times. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1877. Phonograph invented by Thomas A. Edison. Sounds permanently 
recorded and reproduced. Patented 1878. 

Microphone invented by Emile Berliner. This was loose-contact 

telephone transmitter or radio microphone. 

Bicycle making industry started in the United States when Albert 

A. Pope organized Pope Manufacturing Company of Boston. 

Hydroelectric power first developed at Niagara Falls by Nikola 

Tesla who had discovered method for long-distance transmission 

of electric power. 

Flour rolling mill invented by John Stevens of Wisconsin increased 

production seventy per cent and obtained a superior flour. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1878. First telephone exchange opened. First telephone directory issued 
listing 124 customers. 1950 directory lists about a million. 

152 



1878. Detroit had 26 lamplighters to light its gas street lamps. 
Detroit Athletic Club organized. 
June 16. First phonograph exhibited in Detroit. 
Nov. 16. Detroit Evening Telegraph ceased publication. 
Dec. 12. Madame Modjeska, the actress, performed in Detroit. 

World History 
1878. Leo XIII chosen Pope. 

Humbert I became King of Italy. 

June 13-July 13. Congress of Berlin attempted to solve the Near 
Eastern question. Treaty of Berlin recognized autonomy of Monte- 
negro, Serbia, Rumania, and Bulgaria from the Ottoman Empire 
which was left only a few fragments in Europe. 

Bland-Allison Act required government to purchase silver for 
coinage. 

June 18. United States Life Saving Service authorized. 

1878-1879. Nordenskjold, Swedish explorer, navigated the Northeast 
Passage, Arctic Ocean. 

1878. Salvation Army established in England by William Booth. Work 
began in 1865 as Christian Missions. American branch founded 
in 1880. 

Braille system of reading for the blind accepted as standard by the 
Blind and Deaf-Mute Congress. Its inventor, Louis Braille, died 
in 1852. 

Cultural Progress 

1878. Gilbert and Sullivan's HM.S. Pinafore first produced in London, 
May 25. This writer and composer began collaboration in 1875 
with Trial by Jury. 

Dame Ellen Terry's performance as Olivia in Vicar of Wakefield 

made her Sir Henry Irving's leading lady. Stayed his partner until 

1905. 

Return of the Native by Thomas Hardy. 

The Leavenworth Case by Anna Katharine Green helped make 
the detective story popular. 

Emile Zola gaining reputation as leading French novelist and 
dramatist with such works as L'Assomoir. 

153 



Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1878. Electric arc lights invented by Charles F. Brush. They were installed 
in Wanamaker Store in Philadelphia Dec. 26, 1878, and were first 
used for street lighting in Public Square of Cleveland, Apr. 29, 1879. 
Sir William Crookes, English physicist and chemist, demonstrated 
the properties of cathode rays and invented the Crookes tube. 

ca. 1878. Otto Lilienthal of Germany made pioneer glider flights. 

Rotary disk cultivator invented by Mallon of United States. 

First practical half-tone process of photoengraving devised by 

Frederic Ives, American inventor. By 1886 developed into process 

in general use revolutionizing engraving methods. 

Tidewater Oil firm began pumping oil over Alleghenies in pipes 

instead of shipping it in barrels. 

About 3,000 telephones in the United States. 

First milk delivery in glass bottles, in Brooklyn. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1879. Electric arc light first exhibited in Detroit. Some business firms had 
lighting service by September, 1880, supplied by Brush Electric 
Lighting Company. 

Belle Isle purchased by city for a park from Campau heirs. 
Bill authorizing Grand Boulevard passed by legislature. Route 
located in 1883 and formal dedication made. First house on the 
Boulevard line built in 1884 by James A. Randall who was largely 
responsible for the successful completion of the project. Ground- 
breaking ceremony on August 10, 1891, at John R Street intersec- 
tion marked beginning of paving improvements. 
Apr. 27. A "Tent" of the Knights of the Maccabees established in 
Detroit. 

May. Universalist Church organized in Detroit. 
Act providing for Poor Commission to supervise poor relief. 
Sept. 18. President Rutherford B. Hayes visited Detroit. 
Nov. 17. Michigan College of Medicine opened in Detroit. Organ- 
ized in June. 
New State Capitol Building at Lansing dedicated. 

World History 
1879. Jan. 1. Specie payment resumed in United States. 

154 



1879. Oct. 7. Alliance treaty between Germany and Austria. 

First factory inspection law in Massachusetts. 
1879-1884. Stanley ascended the Congo River to its source. 

Cultural Progress 

1879. Wilhelm Wundt opened first psychological laboratory at Leipzig. 
Ibsen's play, A Doll's House gave impetus to the feminist movement. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1879. First practical and commercially successful incandescent electric 
light invented by Thomas Edison. Used carbon filament in a vac- 
uum glass bulb. Incandescent lamp provided the safest and most 
useful artificial light. 

Electric streetcar or railway introduced by Werner von Siemens. 

First used in America in Baltimore in 1885. Made possible rapid 

transit in cities. 

Electric furnace invented by Sir William Siemens. Made possible 

very high temperatures. 

Chemical standardization of pharmaceutical products introduced 

by Parke, Davis & Company with "Liquid Ergotae Purificatus," the 

first standardized preparation. 

Centrifugal cream separator invented by Carl de Laval of Sweden. 

Cie de Fives Lilies had made a separator in France in 1876. P. M. 

Sharpies began manufacturing cream separators in the United 

States in 1887 and revolutionized the dairy industry. 

Cash register invented by J. J. Ritty of Dayton, Ohio. Business taken 

over by National Cash Register Company in 1884. 

Procter & Gamble began to make "Ivory" soap the first floating 

soap in Cincinnati. 

First five-and-ten-cent store opened by Frank W. Woolworth in 

Utica, New York. Soon moved to Lancaster, Pennsylvania. 

United States Geological Survey established. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1880. Population of 116,340 gave Detroit the rank of 17th among cities 
of the United States. 

Detroit manufactured products totaled more than $33,000,000. 
Detroit Council of Trades and Labor Unions formed. Reorganized 
and renamed Detroit Federation of Labor in 1906. 

155 



1880. Apr. 22. Detroit Association of Charities formally organized. 

May 29- Common Council adopted ordinance prohibiting the 
running at large of cattle in parks and other public places. 

World History 

1880. United States population 50,155,783. First census to exceed 50 
million. 

First Employers' Liability Act granting compensation to workers 
for injuries not their own fault. 

Cultural Progress 

1880. Continuing popularity of history with American readers evidenced 
by heavy sales of such books as John Richard Green's Short History 
of the English People (1874) and Justin M'Carthy's History of 
Our Times. 

Era highlighted by mandolin, banjo and guitar, family album, cro- 
quet, horsehair furniture, the parlor, the chaperon. 
Ice hockey introduced as a sport in the United States. 
League of American Wheelmen (first national bicycle society) 
formed. 

1880-1905. Postimpressionist period in painting, as exemplified by 
Cezanne, Van Gogh, Gauguin. 

1880. James A. Bailey, the master circus showman who introduced the 
third ring, combined his show with P. T. Barnum's to form the 
famous Barnum and Bailey circus. 

Sarah Bernhardt appeared at Booth's Theater, New York. 
Progress and Poverty by Henry George became immediate success 
when issued in a trade edition. (Author's edition, 1879.) Has 
remained influential work on economics and the bible of the single- 
tax supporters. 

1880-1881. French novels became popular with American readers when 
issued in cheap editions. Nana by Emile Zola ( 1880) and Madame 
Bovary by Gustave Flaubert (1881) exemplified the vogue. 

1880. Uncle Remus stories by Joel Chandler Harris first appeared in book 
form. Already familiar to newspaper readers. The stories and their 
animal characters have become popular classics, especially for 
children. 

Five Little Peppers and How They Grew by Margaret Sidney 
began the popular children's series. 

156 



1880. Ben Hur by Lew Wallace published. Became one of the top half- 
dozen best sellers by American authors. Dramatization produced 
in 1889 became the great national spectacle for over two decades. 
Movie version of 1926 became a box-office hit. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1880. Paint prepared from standard formulas first manufactured by 
Sherwin-Williams Company of Cleveland. 

American Society of Mechanical Engineers founded. 

Freezing of meat to preserve it became widespread after shipment 

of meat from Australia to Great Britain inadvertently froze on the 

refrigerated ship. 

Typhoidal bacillus or germ identified by Karl Eberth and Robert 

Koch. Anti-typhoid inoculation introduced by Sir A. E. Wright 

in 1896. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1881. First professional baseball played in Detroit. Detroit Baseball Club 
organized November 29, 1880. A member of National League 
from 1881-88. 

School board of 26 members unwieldy (city had 13 wards). New 
law abolished ward representation and provided for 12 -member 
board elected at large. 

Administration of the Public Library turned over to Library Com- 
mission by Board of Education. 

Normal Training School established to train teachers for Detroit 
city schools. Became Detroit Teachers College in 1921. Now 
Wayne University School of Education. 

Mar. 8-9. Sarah Bernhardt acted at Whitney's Opera House, and 
Fanny Davenport at the Detroit Opera House. 
Apr. 2. Grand opening of Joseph L. Hudson's clothing store in old 
Opera House vacated by Newcomb Endicott and Company. 
Apr. 21. Board of Estimates abolished and Board of Councilmen 
created. Twelve persons elected from city at large. Levied taxes, 
controlled expenditures. 

May 2 6. First systematic provision made for Board of Health. 
Aug. 14. Wabash Railroad entered Detroit when first through 
train from St. Louis arrived. 

Peninsular Stove Company organized by James Dwyer. After this 
time Detroit was recognized as the nation's center for the stove 
industry. 

157 



World History 
1881. Mar. 4. James A. Garfield inaugurated as 20th President. 

May 21. American Red Cross organized with Clara Barton as 

president. 

July 2. Assassination of President Garfield. Died Sept. 19- 

Sept. 20. Chester A. Arthur became President. 

Assassination of reformist Tsar Alexander II of Russia. The new 

Tsar, Alexander III, anti-reform. 

French established protectorate over Tunis. Marked emergence of 

French imperialism. 

Samuel Gompers led formation of Federation of Organized Trades 

and Labor Unions. Reorganized as American Federation of Labor, 

Dec. 8, 1886. 

Cultural Progress 

1881. Tuskegee Institute founded by Booker T. Washington. 
U. S. Lawn Tennis Association founded. 

Ibsen's Ghosts was one of the first plays to deal with the subject 
of heredity. 

Life, humor magazine, first issued. 
Century Magazine established. 

Children's classic story, Pinocchio, by Carlo Collodi published in 
Italy. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1881. Consolidation of Western Union, American Union, Atlantic and 
Pacific telegraph companies into Western Union Telegraph. Typi- 
fied this period of business combination and consolidation to elimi- 
nate competition. Standard Oil Trust was organized by Rockefeller 
in 1882. 

Southern Pacific Railroad completed between New Orleans and 
California. Santa Fe Railroad built from Kansas joined the South- 
ern Pacific in Deming, New Mexico, for another transcontinental 
line to the Pacific. 

Louis Pasteur demonstrated principle of immunization through 
inoculation against disease. Proved by anthrax vaccine used on 
sheep. 

Robert Koch introduced bacteriological technique of using pure 
gelatin medium for germ cultures and staining them with aniline 

158 



dyes to make them visible through the microscope. Discovery of 
germs causing specific diseases followed rapidly. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1882. Board of Park Commissioners engaged Detroit Opera House 
Orchestra for weekly band concerts at Belle Isle. 
Detroit theatergoers saw Edwin Booth act in Hamlet on March 15. 
"Tom Thumb" and his troupe performed December 12. 
Oct. 26. Detroit Daily Times succeeded Evening Telegraph. 
Dec. 19. Woodward Avenue between Campus Martius and Grand 
River was so crowded policemen were needed at crosswalks to escort 
ladies and children across the street. 

Grinnell Brothers, Ira and Clayton, opened Detroit music store. 
Present building on Woodward Avenue erected in 1908. Began 
piano manufacture in 1902 at Holly, Michigan. 
Dec. Well-cooked and well-served dinner could be obtained in 
Detroit for thirty cents. Included soup, beef, pork, mutton, and 
fish, three kinds of vegetables, bread and butter, pies, pudding, coffee. 
Solid rock salt discovered at Marine City. First deposit found in 
Michigan. 

World History 
1882. Anti-polygamy bill enacted in United States. 

Apr. 3. Jesse James, American outlaw, killed in St. Joseph, Mis- 
souri. Shot by one of his associates, Robert Ford. The many train 
and bank robberies led by Jesse and his brother, Frank James, made 
them famous, and legend has built them into the prototype of 
the frontier outlaw. 
May 6. Chinese Exclusion Act. 

May 20. Triple Alliance completed. Italy joined Austria and 
Germany. 

United States secured trading and other rights in Korea. Other 
nations followed. 

British intervened in Egypt after riots and assumed control. New 
government organic law (May 1, 1883) provided for British 
Resident to control through Khedive. Lord Cromer, first Resident. 
Establishment of international polar stations. United States expedi- 
tion led by Adolphus W. Greely reached farthest northern point 
in Greenland (83 24'). 

159 



Cultural Progress 

1882. Oscar Wilde lectured in New York. Exemplified popular vogue for 
lectures by visiting Europeans. 

Lillie Langtry made her American debut at Wallack's Theater, New 
York. 

The historical romances of F. Marion Crawford gained many readers 
during the next two decades. His Mr. Isaacs appeared this year. 
The Prince and the Pauper by Mark Twain. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1882. Electrical Review founded, the first weekly magazine in the United 
States devoted to the field of electricity. 

Electric fan invented by Dr. Schuyler S. Wheeler. 

Electric flatiron invented by Henry W. Seely of New York. 

Edison system of central-station power production introduced in 

New York City. Made electric power production commercially 

feasible. 

Koch isolated tuberculosis bacillus. 

Malted milk invented by William Horlick of Racine, Wisconsin. 

Named it "malted milk" in 1886. 

American Forestry Association organized to further conservation 

and development of forests and spread knowledge about trees. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1883. Jan. 27. Incandescent lights first used in Detroit in Metcalf's dry 
goods store. 

June 5. Revised city charter enacted. Board of Assessors created. 
July 3. "Jumbo," the elephant, chief attraction of Barnum, Bailey 
and Hutchinson shows in Detroit. 
Sept. 1. Detroit Evening Journal first issued. 

Sept. 1-Nov. 10. Art Loan Exhibition in its building on Larned 
Street near Bates attracted some 134,000 visitors and resulted in 
founding of Museum of Art. 

Sept. 5. Detroit Zoological Garden established on Michigan Ave- 
nue near 10th Street when a traveling circus auctioned off its 
menagerie in Detroit. The animals were purchased and exhibited 
for a small admission fee. Besides the wild animals, an aquarium, 
and birds, the garden offered band concerts. This privately-operated 
amusement center closed July 29, 1884, for lack of financial success. 

160 



1883. First electric arc street lighting in Detroit on Jefferson and 
Woodward. 

Woven wire fence industry started when John Wallace Page put 
up a fence of horizontally and vertically interlaced wires on his 
farm in Lenawee County, Michigan. When neighbors wanted 
similar fences, he opened a factory in Adrian, Michigan. 

Construction began on new Michigan Central Depot at Third and 
Woodbridge. Station opened in 1884. 

World History 

1883. Jan. 16. Civil service reform bill passed by Congress. Federal gov- 
ernment jobs to be obtained through competitive examinations. 

Fabian Society founded in England. 

German sickness insurance law, first in the comprehensive system 
of social insurance, promoted by Bismarck through 1889 to win 
adherence of workers to the German state. 

Cultural Progress 

1883. G. Stanley Hall founded the Child Study Movement when he began 
to apply psychological methods to the study of education. He 
founded the first psychological laboratory in the United States at 
Johns Hopkins University. 

Joseph Pulitzer bought The New York World. 

Colonel "Buffalo Bill" Cody launched his Wild West Show. 

Ladies' Home Journal established. 

Ella Wheeler Wilcox's Poems of Passion followed her Maurine 
( 1882 ) . Both received much publicity. 

Life on the Mississippi by Mark Twain. 

James Whitcomb Riley issued his volume of poems The Old 
Swimmin' Hole and Seven More Poems. He was the favorite poet 
by the end of the century. Thousands of children memorized and 
recited his poems and illustrated editions of his work were on 
every parlor table. 

Treasure Island by Robert Louis Stevenson published in England. 
An American best seller by 1884 and now a classic. 

Metropolitan Opera House opened Oct. 22 with Gounod's opera 

Faust. 

161 



Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1883. Brooklyn Bridge opened. Designed by John A. Roebling and begun 
in 1867. 

Northern Pacific Railroad completed. Chartered with huge land 

grant in 1864. 

Plate glass first produced on a commercial scale by Pittsburgh Plate 

Glass Company. 

Standard time zones adopted in United States. 

Function of the blood phagocytes in fighting infection announced 

by Elie Metchnikoff. Received 1908 Nobel Prize for his work on 

immunity. 

Law of equal contribution in heredity announced by Van Beneden 

chromosomes received equally from each parent. Foundation of 

scientific theory of heredity. W. S. Sutton in 1900 proved the pair- 

ing and division of chromosomes that each parent contributed 

equally to inheritance. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1884. June 19. New Harper Hospital building on John R Street opened 
for patients. Nurses' home and school opened 1922. 

Oct. 14. Republican gathering with national leaders James G. 
Blaine and John C. Fremont present. 

World History 

1884. Panic and bank failures followed by industrial depression. 
1884-1886. Geronimo led Apache Indian raids in Arizona and New 

Mexico. 

1884. Manhood suffrage made almost universal in Great Britain by the 
Franchise Bill. 

A Bureau of Labor was established in the United States Department 
of Interior. 

. 15 1885, Feb. 26. Berlin Conference on African Affairs. 



Cultural Progress 
1884. Ringling Brothers organized circus. 

Chauncey Olcott the popular singer. Starring in The Irish Artist. 

Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain. 

Heidi by Johanna Spyri published in the United States. Original 

Swiss edition, 1881. Has become a children's favorite. 

Ramona by Helen Hunt Jackson. 

162 



Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1884. Invention of first artificial fiber by Hilaire de Chardonnet of France. 
Manufactured by nitrocellulose process in 1889. Called artificial silk. 

Compound rotary steam turbine developed by Sir Charles Parsons. 
Another pioneer in steam turbines was Gustav de Laval. Their work 
made possible low-cost steam power. 

First practical fountain pen invented and manufactured by L. E. 

Waterman. Also invented the machinery to produce pens in 

quantities. 

Automatic machine gun invented by Hiram S. Maxim. 

George Eastman invented and patented transparent paper strip 
photographic film paper coated with insoluble sensitive gelatin 
emulsion. 

Glider flight first made in America by John J. Montgomery from 
hill near Otay, California. 

First long-distance telephone call made between Boston and New 
York City. New York and Chicago connection completed in 1892. 

United States Bureau of Animal Industry established. Federal help 
needed to fight farm animal diseases. 

Cholera germ or bacillus isolated by Robert Koch. 

Tetanus or lockjaw germs discovered by Nicolaier of France. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1885. Detroit Museum of Art incorporated. Funds were raised and a 
site purchased at Jefferson and Hastings Street for a building. 
Museum formally opened September 1, 1888. 

Jan. 1. Russell A. Alger of Detroit inaugurated as Governor of 
Michigan. In 1897 Alger was appointed Secretary of War by 
President McKinley. 

June 6. "Buffalo Bill" Cody and his Wild West Company in 
Detroit. Sitting Bull the star. 

June. Detroit College of Medicine incorporated by merger of 
Detroit Medical College and Michigan College of Medicine. New 
charter in 1893 renamed it Detroit College of Medicine and 
Surgery. In 1918 came under control of city Board of Education. 
Sept. 19- Newspaper reader complained about reckless Detroit 
drivers who "bang through the streets at six miles an hour or over." 
Roller skating a favorite recreation in Detroit. 

163 



World History 
1885. Jan. 26. Gordon garrison massacred at Khartum by The Mahdi. 

Mar. 4. Grover Cleveland inaugurated as President. 

May 2. Congo Free State established. 

American Economic Association founded. 

First Visiting Nurse group in the United States was organized in 

Buffalo. 
1885-1890. Heyday of the cowboy and the cattle business in the West. 

The great plains began to be used for cattle ranges in the sixties. 

Cultural Progress 

1885. The introduction of "two-a-day" or continuous vaudeville by B. F. 
Keith revolutionized the entertainment world. Variety entertain- 
ment had been introduced into the United States about the time 
of the Civil War for male audiences. Tony Pastor's Opera House 
was opened to women and children also in 1865, and the sponsor- 
ship of men like Keith and F. F. Proctor brought respectability to 
variety. Continuous variety or vaudeville brought greatly increased 
popularity to this type of theatrical entertainment. 
Roller skating popular. 

Child's Garden of Verses by Robert Louis Stevenson. 
Gilbert and Sullivan's The Mikado produced Mar. 14 at Savoy 
Theatre, London. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1885. "Safety" bicycle first manufactured in England by James Starley. 
Featured low wheels of equal size. Introduced in the United States 
by 1889. Within a few years bicycling was the most popular sport. 
Gottlieb Daimler developed a high-speed internal combustion 
gasoline engine suitable for automobiles. Had built a model in 
1883 now added carburetor. 

Karl Benz in Mannheim, Germany, built the first gasoline automo- 
bile powered by an internal combustion engine. Patented in 1886. 
Had three wheels. Used Daimler's engine and Forest's carburetor 
and an electric ignition. 

Linotype machine patented by Ottmar Mergenthaler of Baltimore. 
Cast line of type in one piece; hence greatly speeded type setting. 
Heinrich Hertz discovered photoelectricity. Also verified existence 
of electro-magnetic or radio waves. 

164 



1885. First skyscraper, Home Insurance Building in Chicago, erected. 
Ten-story, steel-skeleton structure. 

American Telephone and Telegraph Company organized. 
Gas "mantle" incandescent gas light invented by Carl Auer, 
Baron von Welsbach of Austria. Provided more efficient gas burner. 
First motorcycles introduced in France and Germany. 
First American school savings bank established in schools of Long 
Island City. Idea imported from Belgium. 
Pasteur developed treatment for rabies or hydrophobia. 
First modern tuberculosis sanitarium opened at Saranac Lake, New 
York, by Dr. Edward L. Trudeau. 

First successful appendectomy in United States performed at Daven- 
port, Iowa, by Dr. William W. Grant. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1886. Belle Isle Zoo probably originated with the establishment of a 
deer park. Park Commissioners report for 1889 disclosed owner- 
ship of 19 deer. By 1892 the 30 deer had been joined by 4 prairie 
dogs, 4 owls, 5 eagles, and 3 wild turkeys. 

Electric streetcars of the Highland Park Railway began operation 

on Woodward Avenue. 

Michigan College of Mines opened at Houghton. 

World History 

1886. Presidential Succession Law enacted. Provided for Secretary of State 
to succeed in absence of a Vice- President. (See also 1947) 
May 4. Haymarket Square riot in Chicago. 
Oct. 28. Statue of Liberty dedicated. 

Many strikes occurred during this period as workers tried to gain 
better pay and shorter hours. American Federation of Labor 
organized. 

Due process clause of 14th Amendment used to shield a corpora- 
tion in court decision in case of Santa Clara County vs. Southern 
Pacific Railroad. Became a barrier to social and labor legislation 
which was held unconstitutional by the courts on "due process" 
grounds. 

Pacification of Indians with end of Apache fighting. Indians 
removed to reservations or Indian Territory. 

165 



1886. Discovery of gold in the Transvaal, South Africa. Johannesburg 
founded. 
First National Congress in India. 

Cultural Progress 

1886. Tuxedo coat introduced from England when a gentleman wore 
a tailless dress coat at the Tuxedo Club. 

Boston became the first city to provide for public child recreation 
when it opened a playground containing sand piles. This could 
be said to mark the beginning of the public recreation movement 
in the United States. 

"La Grande Jatte," prime example of the pointillism technique, 
painted by Georges Seurat (1859-1891). 
Scribner's Magazine and Cosmopolitan Magazine established. 

Little Lord Fauntleroy, the popular St. Nicholas magazine serial, 
by Frances Hodgson Burnett was first published in book form. The 
illustrations helped make the book popular and set a fashion in 
boys' clothes black velvet suit, sash, white collar and cuffs, long 
curls. 

Furor created in Paris by publication there in 1885 of Leo Tolstoi's 
War and Peace, led to American printings of this work and the 
earlier Anna Karenina and the beginning of the Tolstoi vogue in 
the United States. War and Peace, regarded by many as the world's 
greatest novel, was written in Russia between 1864-66. 

Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde by Robert Louis Stevenson. 

1886-1887. H. Rider Haggard's melodramatic adventure tales became 
popular, especially in cheap editions. King Solomon's Mines was 
followed by She, both best sellers. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1886. Electrolytic process for reducing aluminum invented by Charles 
Martin Hall. First commercially produced in 1888 by Pittsburgh 
company which later became Aluminum Company of America. 
Made aluminum available for kitchen and industrial uses by cutting 
cost of refinement. Similar process developed in France by Paul 
Heroult. 

Electric welding invented by Elihu Thomson of Massachusetts. 
Patented process Aug. 10. 
First practical phonograph, the graphophone, patented and man- 

166 



ufactured by C. Bell and C S. Tainter. Used wax removable records. 
United States Forest Service organized as Division of Forestry. 
First national forest reserve designated 1891. 

Detroit and Michigan 
1887. Detroit baseball team won the National League championship. 

Ransom E. Olds built and drove in Lansing a three-wheeled vehicle 

self-propelled by steam. 

Present-day St. Anne's Church at Howard and Nineteenth streets 

completed. 

World History 
1887. Centenary of United States Constitution celebrated. 

Dawes Act allotted land to Indians in individual holdings under 

certain conditions. 

Interstate Commerce Act passed. 

Queen Victoria's jubilee celebration. 50th anniversary of Queen's 

accession. 

Stanley's second expedition through Africa. 

Indo-China formed by French by administrative union of Cambodia, 

Cochin-China, Annam, and Tonkin. 

Cultural Progress 

1887. Catholic University of America founded in Washington, D.C., the 
first pontifical university in the United States. Opened 1889. 
Saint-Gaudens' statue of Lincoln unveiled in Chicago. 
Naturalism in theater marked by opening of Theatre Libre in 
Paris, directed by Andre Antoine. 

Arthur Strindberg's naturalistic drama, The Father, the play which 
established his reputation in Europe as a powerful dramatist. 
"Rock-a-bye Baby," song by Effie I. Canning. 
The Brownies, Their Book by Palmer Cox. 

Marie Corelli, queen of the "cheap" novels during the nineties, 
published Thelma, the tale of the Norse princess. This book and 
others made Corelli one of the leading English woman novelists 
and fabulously popular in America. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1887. Disk phonograph records invented by Emile Berliner. Made possible 
permanent records. His machine called a gramophone. Berliner 

167 (continued on following page) 



also invented the matrix record from which unlimited duplicates 
could be pressed. 

Theory of ionization or electrolytic dissociation of salts in solution 
proved by Svante Arrhenius, Swedish chemist. Awarded 1903 
Nobel Prize for this. 

Celluloid photographic film invented by H. W. Goodwin of New- 
ark, New Jersey. 

Comptometer key driven calculator patented by Dorr Eugene 
Felt of Chicago who invented it in 1884. 

Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate railroads created by 
Interstate Commerce Act. 

Agricultural experiment station act (Hatch Act) authorized fed- 
eral aid to states in establishing stations for experiments in agri- 
culture. 

Detroit and Michigan 
1888. Apr. 17. Hotel Cadillac opened. 

Dec. 2. Detroit milkmen met to try to raise price of milk to 7^ 
per quart. 

Dec. 6. Grace Hospital opened for patients. Founded in 1886 with 
donations from James McMillan and John S. Newberry. 
Beecher, Peck and Lewis paper company established. 

World History 
1888. William II became Emperor of Germany. 

First crossing of Greenland by Dr. Fridtjof Nansen and others. 

National Geographic Society organized. 

Last religious disability for British Parliamentary membership 

removed with legalizing of affirmation. 

Australian (secret) ballot introduced for American local elections. 

Cultural Progress 

1888. Golf introduced to the United States. First golf club founded at 
Yonkers, New York. 

DeWolf Hopper recited "Casey at the Bat" for first time at 
Wallack's Theater, New York. 

Edward H. Sothern began starring in play The Highest Bidder 
under Daniel Frohman. 

Popular plays included: An American Beauty, Our Jennie, Shadows 
of a Great City, Brass Monkey, Little Lord Fauntleroy. 

168 



1888. Collier's Magazine and National Geographic Magazine established. 
Robert Elsmere by Mrs. Humphrey Ward, English novelist, became 
both a popular best seller and one of the controversial books of 
its time. 

Looking Backward by Edward Bellamy. By 1890 its Utopian ideas 
were so popular Bellamy societies were formed and imitations and 
parodies appeared. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1888. Induction motor patented by Nikola Tesla. Also invented alterna- 
ting current power transmission system. 

Roll film box camera patented by George Eastman and named 
"Kodak." Roll film for cameras had been patented in 1881 by David 
H. Houston of Wisconsin. 

Pneumatic rubber tires for bicycles introduced by John B. Dunlop 
of Belfast. 

Adding machine key set with crank patented by William S. 
Burroughs. Invented in 1885 and successfully marketed. 
Geological Society of America organized. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1889- Michigan the leading copper producing state in the United States. 
Mined more than any foreign country. Declined after 1910. 
First Presbyterian Church at Woodward and Edmund Place built. 
First Belle Isle Bridge constructed. Opened to public May 12. 
Ten-story Hammond Building built at Fort and Griswold. One of 
first skyscrapers in the United States. 

Board of Education returned to ward representation system. One 
inspector elected for each of the wards. 

Raise in pay for teachers favored. Salary at this time $30 per month 
to start, increasing to maximum of $70 at end of nine and one-half 
years. 

Sept. 13. Projected strike of streetcar conductors and drivers post- 
poned. Men worked l4 l /2 hours for two days and 9 hours on third 
day, seven days per week. Desired a reduction to 11 hours daily 
for 6 days. 

Detroit International Fair and Exposition incorporated. Buildings 
erected in Delray and fairs were held each year until 1893. 
Michigan Federation of Labor organized with Joseph Labadie as 
president. 
Village of Highland Park incorporated. Became a city in 1919. 

169 



World History 
1889- Mar. 4. Benjamin Harrison inaugurated as President. 

States of North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, and Washington 
admitted to the Union. 

Apr. 22. Oklahoma in Indian Territory opened to settlers. Chero- 
kee Strip opened to "boomers" in 1893- 

May. 31. Flood devastated Johnstown, Pennsylvania. Over 2,000 
lives lost. 

Brazil revolted, deposed its monarch Dom Pedro II, and proclaimed 
a republic. 

Hull House, one of the first American settlement houses, was estab- 
lished in Chicago by Jane Addams. 
Loyal Order of Moose founded. 

Cultural Progress 

1889. Last bare-knuckle championship prize fight in the United States. 
John L. Sullivan defeated Jake Kilrain in 75 rounds, retaining the 
championship he won in 1882. 

Vogue of amateur photography began. Kodak made it simple. 
"The Washington Post," march by John Philip Sousa. 

Popular plays of the season: A Ruling Passion, Margery Daw, 
She, The Prince and the Pauper, and Richard 111 with Richard 
Mansfield. 

Guy de Maupassant's real popularity in the United States began 
with Odd Number, collection of his short stories. Over 50 such 
collections have been made by American publishers since. 

First performance on Feb. 17 of Cesar Franck's "Symphony in D 
Minor." 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1889. Thomas A. Edison developed the Kinetoscope (projection apparatus 
for showing pictures of moving objects). Public demonstrations in 
1893 in New York City. 

First electric sewing machine manufactured by Singer Company. 
Electric elevator first successfully operated by Otis Brothers and 
Company in Demarest Building, New York City. More efficient 
than hydraulic elevator for vertical transportation. 
Automatic telephone invented by Almon B. Strowger. 

170 



1889- Tabulating machine invented by Dr. Herman Hollerith. Statistical 
items punched on cards and then tallied on the machine. First used 
extensively in tabulating census of 1890. 
Great Northern Railroad organized by James J. Hill. 
Eiffel Tower completed in Paris. 
Mayo Clinic founded at Rochester, Minnesota. Great medical center. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1890. Population of Detroit, 205,876. Ranked 15th among United States 
cities in size. City area 29^2 sq. miles. 

Jan. 15. Hazen S. Pingree took office as Mayor. Leading political 
and civic reform influence for next decade. 

Nov. 15. Local store advertised roast pork at 8^ per lb., and butter 
at 25^ per lb. 

Nov. Michigan elected a Democratic governor for the first time in 
forty years. Edwin B. Winans inaugurated January 1, 1891. 
Dec. 7. National convention of American Federation of Labor 
met in Detroit with Samuel Gompers presiding. The first woman 
delegate to a national labor convention attended. She was Mary 
Burke of Detroit. 

Midland Chemical Company, predecessor of Dow Chemical Com- 
pany, organized for extraction of chemicals from salt brine. 
1890's. Streetcar riding became a popular recreation. Cars were chartered 
by evening parties. 

World History 

1890. United States population 62,947,714. Center of population had 
moved westward to 20 miles east of Columbus, Indiana. 

Idaho and Wyoming admitted as states. 

Apr. 14. Pan American Union established at First International 

Conference of American States held in Washington, D.C., Oct. 2, 

1889-Apr. 19, 1890. 

July 2. Sherman Anti-Trust Act passed. 

July 10. Wyoming's constitution allowed women to vote. 

July 14. Sherman Silver Purchase Act passed. 

Oct. 1. McKinley tariff enacted providing highest protection. 

Wilhelmina became Queen of the Netherlands. 

Dismissal of Bismarck as Prime Minister of Germany. 

171 



Cultural Progress 
1890. Dark tailored suits increasingly popular with women. Worn with 

white shirtwaist, sailor hat, high laced shoes, fancy embroidered hose. 

Bicycling entered its heyday when "drop frame" model with pneu- 
matic tires superseded high type bicycles. Women now took up the 

sport also and wore divided skirts. 

The bathing suit for ladies began to rise from ankle to knee in 

length. 

Pugs and Newfoundlands were the popular dog breeds. 

"Nellie Bly," American journalist, returned to New York on Jan. 25 

after circling globe in 72 days, 6 hours, 10 minutes, 58 seconds. 

General Federation of Women's Clubs established. 

Popular dances: grand march, polka, lancers, quadrille, waltz, 

Portland fancy, Caledonia, Virginia reel. 

Death of Vincent van Gogh (born 1853) painter whose chief fame 

came after his death. He is known for the vivid intensity of his colors. 

Hedda Gabler, drama by Henrick Ibsen (1828-1906). 

Popular stage figures: Edwin Booth, Lillian Russell, Ada Rehan, 

Marie Jansen. 

Principles of Psychology by William James. 

Thais by Anatole France. 

Sherlock Holmes introduced to American readers in Study in 

Scarlet and Sign of the Four by A. Conan Doyle. Vogue for the 

detective developed after 1892 when Adventures of Sherlock 

Holmes appeared. Already popular in England. 

Black Beauty by Anna Sewell became popular in the United States. 

Published in England in 1877. 
1890-1891. Kipling "craze" of the nineties began with his Plain Tales 

from the Hills; Barrack Room Ballads; The Light that Failed; 

Mine Own People. 
1890-1895. Women's fashions featured the hour-glass figure achieved 

by full, gored, bell-shaped skirts and huge puffed sleeves, first 

leg-of-mutton, then balloon. Made waist appear very small. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

ca. 1 890. Many automobiles built in France. Makers included DeDion and 
Bouton (1885); Serpollet (1887); Pengeot (1889); Panhard and 
Levassor (1891) and Renault (1898). Most used Daimler engine. 
Many automobile terms are of French origin. 

172 



1890. 8 to 10 man-hours of labor were required to produce 1 acre (20 
bushels) of wheat with gang plow, seeder, harrow, binder, thresher, 
wagons and horses. 14 to 16 man-hours of labor were required to 
produce 1 acre ( 40 bushels ) of corn with a two-bottom gang plow, 
a disk and peg tooth harrow, and a two-row planter. (See also 1850) 
Sherman Anti-Trust Act declared illegal combinations or trusts in 
restraint of trade. 

Open-pit mining begun in Mesabi Iron Range in Minnesota by 
Merritt Brothers. First shipment of ore made in 1892. Greatest iron- 
ore producing region in the world. 
Yosemite National Park established. 

Word "tractor" coined when a patent was granted for a "tractor or 
traction engine." Steam tractor patented by Daniel Best of Cali- 
fornia and endless chain tractor patented by Charles Dinsmoor 
of Pennsylvania in 1886. Early wheel type gasoline tractor manu- 
factured by John Froelich of Iowa in 1892. 

Test for determining butterfat in milk and cream devised by Ste- 
phen M. Babcock at University of Wisconsin. Suitable for use in 
creamery or milk plant. 
John Davey introduced tree surgery. 

National Zoological Park opened in Washington, D.C. Bronx 
Zoo, largest in the world, opened in 1899. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1891. Streetcar employees struck for a 10-hour day against Detroit City 
Railway, April 21. Agreement reached May 12 provided 18^ an 
hour for a 10-hour day for conductors and $1.50 a day for drivers. 
Struggle for municipal ownership of street railways began in July 
when Mayor Pingree vetoed franchise extension granted to Detroit 
City Railway Company by the Council. Detroit Citizens Street 
Railway organized and the new company took over Detroit City 
Railway franchise. 

May 12. Detroit barbers raised price of a shave from 10^ to 15j. 
Sept. 17. J. L. Hudson Company opened its new eight-story build- 
ing on Gratiot and Farmer Streets. 

Grand Trunk Railway Tunnel under St. Clair River at Port Huron 
opened. 

Y.M.C.A. established vocational education classes which grew 
into Detroit Institute of Technology, chartered November 10, 
1909, to grant degrees. 

173 



1891. J. B. Ford drilled successfully for salt at Wyandotte. In 1895 Solvay 
Process Company established plant in the area. Many industries 
based on chemical treatment of salt followed. Wyandotte Chemicals 
Corporation organized January 1, 1943, by consolidation of Michi- 
gan Alkali Company (founded 1890) and J. B. Ford Company 
(founded 1898). 

World History 

1891. Mar. 4 1893, Mar. 3. Fifty-Second Congress, the first to appropri- 
ate a billion dollars. The Fifty-First Congress was often referred to 
as the "billion-dollar Congress" because of its lavish expenditures. 
May 15. Encyclical Rerum Novarum issued by Pope Leo XIII on 
the relations of capital and labor. 

Ellis Island opened to handle increased immigration to the United 
States. Castle Garden Depot closed. 

Populist or People's Party organized by farmer and labor groups to 
advocate free coinage of silver. 

Cultural Progress 
1891. Daughters of American Revolution founded. 

International Correspondence Schools founded for education by 

mail. 

Paul Gauguin (1848-1903) went to Tahiti to paint. His colorful 

works from this period created a furor when exhibited. 

"Little Boy Blue," song; words by Eugene Field, music by Ethelbert 

Nevin. 

Short stories, especially those dealing with American life, were 

popular. New books were: Gallagher and Other Stories by Richard 

Harding Davis; A New England Nun by Mary E. W. Freeman; 

Main Travelled Roads by Hamlin Garland. 

International copyright agreement passed in the United States. Now 

foreign as well as American authors and publishers received 

protection. 

Tschaikowsky conducted a concert of his works at the opening 

of Carnegie Hall in New York City, May 5. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1891. Carborundum invented by Edward G. Acheson. Provided more 
efficient abrasive and grinding material for industry. Patented 1893. 
Practical disk plow developed by M. T. Hancock. First United States 
patent for a disk plow granted in 1847. 

174 



1891. Electric storage battery automobile designed and built by William 
Morrison of Des Moines, Iowa. Fiske Warren of Boston was among 
the first to make an electric car in 1892. 

Transformer or Tesla coil invented by Nikola Tesla. 
Travelers' checks devised by Marcellus Berry of American Express 
Company. 

1891-1892. Pithecanthropus Erectus, commonly called ape-man of Java, 
discovered by Professor Eugene Dubois. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1892. Jan. 12. Paderewski performed at Detroit Opera House. 

Only four Detroit streets were paved with asphalt: Jefferson, 
Lafayette, Cass, and Second. Woodward paved with cedar blocks. 
Jefferson streetcar line electrified after Court of Appeals declared 
valid the franchise extension to 1909 gained by Detroit Citizens 
Street Railway Company. 

Henry Ford produced his first car (2 -cylinder machine) in work- 
shop back of his home at 58 Bagley Avenue. Began experimenting 
in 1891. 

Charles B. King of Detroit applied for a patent on his new inven- 
tion, a pneumatic hammer. Patent granted 1894. 

World History 

1892. Great Britain and the United States agreed to arbitration of dispute 
regarding Bering Sea seals. Arbitration Court decision in 1893 for- 
bade killing of seals near Pribilof Islands during certain seasons. 
July 6. Strike at Homestead, Pennsylvania, plant of Carnegie Steel 
Company resulted in violence between Pinkerton detectives and 
striking workers. 
Dalton Boys, outlaws, wiped out in Coffeyville, Kansas. 

Cultural Progress 

1892. Ward McAllister named the four hundred of society for Mrs. Astor's 
ball. 

Founding of American Psychological Association. 
Popularity of his "Prelude in C-Sharp Minor" made Sergei Rach- 
maninoff a well-known musical name. 

"After the Ball," and "Daisy Bell, or A Bicycle Built for Two" 
were new songs. 
Lady Windermere's Fan, play by Oscar Wilde. 

175 



1892. First official game of basketball played Jan. 20. Invented late in 
1891 by Dr. James Naismith at the Y.M.C.A. college in Springfield, 
Massachusetts. 

Premiere of Pagliacci, opera by Leoncavallo, in Milan, May 21. 
First heavyweight championship fight under Marquis of Queens- 
berry rules; James J. Corbett knocked out John L. Sullivan. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1892. Process for manufacturing acetylene or carbide gas found by 
Thomas L. Willson. 

Method for photographic reproduction of colors through an inter- 
ference process discovered by Gabriel Lippman, French physicist. 
Received Nobel Prize in 1908. Frederic Ives developed trichromatic 
plates in 1881. 

Charles E. Duryea claimed that his gasoline engine motor vehicle 
was successfully operated on Apr. 19 in Springfield, Massachusetts. 
Recognized by Smithsonian Institution as first American gasoline 
automobile. Patent applied for Apr. 30, 1894, and granted June 11, 
1895. (See also 1893) 

Viscose process for manufacturing artificial textile fiber appeared. 
Acetate process invented in 1918. 

First concrete road built in Bellefontaine, Ohio. Part of Main Street. 
August Weismann announced his theory of continuity of the germ 
plasm. 

American Psychological Association organized. Indicative of grow- 
ing importance of psychology. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1893. Jan. 27. Old Capitol Building and additions which were being 
used as schools burned. Site became a small park. 

Mar. 16. Detroit Y.W.C.A. organized. 

Public Lighting Commission created. Voters approved Pingree 

proposal for municipal lighting in April. 

Detroit College of Law chartered. Absorbed by Detroit Institute of 

Technology in 1915. 

June 30. Detroiters lined river bank to see replicas of Columbus' 

ships sail up the river en route to Chicago Columbian Exposition. 

Sept. 19. People's Outfitting Company opened. 

Nov. 7. Hazen S. Pingree elected Mayor for third time. 

176 



1893. Dec. 19. Adelina Patti sang in Detroit. 

First policewoman in the United States appointed by Detroit Bureau 

of Police, Mrs. Marie Owen. 

Palmer Park presented to the city by Thomas W. Palmer, former 

United States Senator and Minister to Spain and President of 

World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. 

Long-distance telephone service from Detroit to New York City 

and Chicago inaugurated. Detroit had about 4,000 telephones at 

this time. 

Detroit Gas Company organized through merger of Detroit and 

Mutual Gaslight Companies. 

First train arrived at new Fort Street Union Depot, January 21. 

World History 
1893. Severe financial panic. Depression lasted through 1896. 

Mar. 4. Grover Cleveland inaugurated as President for second time. 

Chicago Columbian Exposition, World's Fair and Parliament of 

Religions. 

Franco-Russian convention for military assistance. Renewed in 1899. 

Formation of the Foreign Missions Conference of North America 

all Protestant Societies and boards in U. S. and Canada joining 

for co-operation and interdenominational control of work in mission 

fields. 

Phillips Brooks, the recognized prince of the American pulpit 

during last half of 19th century, died. 

Cultural Progress 

1893. First college extension courses granting college credits offered by 
Home Study department of the new University of Chicago. 
Frederick Jackson Turner's paper "The Significance of the Frontier 
in American History" introduced an important historical interpre- 
tation. 

Thomson Jay Hudson published The Law of Psychic Phenomena. 
100,000 copies were sold and the terms "subjective mind" and "sug- 
gestion" became household words. 

Pseudo-classicism of Chicago World's Fair buildings influenced 
American architecture. 

Second Mrs. Tanqueray, play by Sir Arthur Wing Pinero, leading 
dramatist of the nineties. 

177 



1893- The Weavers, Gerhart Hauptmann's humanitarian play, was pro- 
duced. It won the 1912 Nobel Prize for this foremost modern 
German dramatist. 

Stage personalities: John Drew starring in The Masked Ball; 

Lillian Russell in Princess Nicotine; Marie Jansen in Delmonico's 

at Six; Bessie Bonehill, the popular burlesque performer; Maggie 

Cline singing "Throw Him Down, McClosky." 

The first movie studio, the Kinetographic Theatre, was built for 

the Edison Company in West Orange, New Jersey, at a cost of 

$637.67. 

The first movie actor ( though "first" has been disputed ) was Fred 

Ott who was photographed while he was sneezing. 

McClure's Magazine established by S. S. McClure. 

The Empire Theatre, one of the oldest still in use on Broadway, 

opened Jan. 25 with The Girl I Left Behind Me. 

First performance of Anton Dvorak's symphony "From the New 

World" in New York, Dec. 15. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 
1893. Five transcontinental railroad lines completed. 

J. Frank Duryea claimed that the Duryea motor vehicle was first 
successfully operated on Sept. 21 of this year rather than in 1892; 
that he made essential contributions such as gear and clutch trans- 
mission system. 

First foreign automobile shown at World's Fair in Chicago by 
Karl Benz. Built by Gottlieb Daimler of Germany and named 
Mercedes. 

Visible typewriter on which line of writing could be seen as writ- 
ten invented by Herman L. Wagner of Brooklyn. Underwood Type- 
writer Company incorporated in 1895 to manufacture this machine. 
Sears Roebuck and Company founded. Second great mail-order 
house. 

Ready-to-eat breakfast foods industry began when a machine for 
shredding wheat was patented by Henry Perky and William Ford 
of Watertown, New York, and they began to make shredded wheat 
biscuits. Charles W. Post began his breakfast food business in 
1897 with the granular cereal "grape nuts." Puffed rice was intro- 
duced in 1904. W. K. Kellogg began making such foods for the 
patients in his Battle Creek sanitarium in 1899 and established his 
factory for making toasted corn flakes in 1906. 

178 



1893. Theobald Smith published his classic parasitology account of cattle 
tick fever how a parasite, the tick, transmitted the disease-causing 
organism. Appeared as first Bulletin of the United States Bureau 
of Animal Industry. 

Johns Hopkins University Medical School founded. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1894. Mayor Pingree sponsored vegetable gardens to provide work and 
food for poor and unemployed. 

Detroit Yacht Club founded. Occupied present clubhouse on Belle 
Isle in 1923. 

American Electric Company founded in Detroit to make electric 
soldering irons. In 1896 it was the pioneer maker of electric flat- 
irons. Now a leading manufacturer of electrical irons for industrial 
and commercial use as well as of electrical home appliances. 

World History 

1894. Jacob Coxey's army of 20,000 unemployed marched to Washington. 
May Il-July20. Pullman strike in Chicago led by Eugene Debs. 
Strike crushed by government injunction and use of troops. 
Aug. 1. Chinese- Japanese War began over Korea. 
Nicholas II became Tsar of Russia. Weak, anti-liberal. 
Dec. 22. Dreyfus condemned and sent to Devil's Island. Marked 
beginning of the Dreyfus Affair which rocked French government 
and society for two decades. Dreyfus' eventual victory in 1906 
signified victory of republican and liberal forces in France. 

1894-1895. Armenian massacres. 

Cultural Progress 

1894. Bridge introduced in Portland Club in London by Lord Brougham 
about this time. 

First United States golf tournament held at Yonkers, New York. 
United States Golf Association formed as the controlling body 
for amateur golf. 

Victor Herbert was established as a composer of light opera when 
his Prince Ananias was performed Nov. 20. More than 30 operettas 
followed until his death in 1924. They included: The Fortune 
Teller, 1898; Babes in Toyland, 1903; Mile. Modiste, 1905; Red 
Mill, 1906; Naughty Marietta, 1910; Sweethearts, 1913; Eileen, 1917. 

179 



1894. "The Sidewalks of New York," song. 

Arms and the Man, play by George Bernard Shaw. 

First Kinetoscope peep-show opened by Holland Brothers at 1155 

Broadway, New York. 

Bill Nye, popular humorist. 

Trilby by George du Maurier the literary sensation. A Trilby mania 

raged in the United States for a decade and added new words to 

the language. The play was as successful as the novel. 

Romantic historical fiction was the popular reading in America 

during the next decade. The procession of such best-selling novels 

began with Prisoner of Zenda by Anthony Hope and Under the 

Red Robe by Stanley J. Weyman. 

Tales of Scottish village life were popular with American readers 

in the nineties. Favorites were James M. Barrie's Auld Licht Idylls 

(1891); A Window in Thrums (1892); and The Little Minister 

(1891). Most popular of all was Beside the Bonnie Brier Bush 

by Ian Maclaren, published in 1894. Its author made a successful 

lecture tour of the United States in 1896. 

Beautiful Joe, dog classic, by Margaret Marshall Saunders. 

1894-1895. Jungle Books by Rudyard Kipling. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1894. Diphtheria antitoxin perfected by Emil von Behring. Edwin Klebs 
had identified the germ in 1883 and it had been isolated by Fried- 
rich Loffler in 1884. Pierre Roux in 1889 demonstrated that the 
diphtheria bacillus produced a toxin. 

Germ of bubonic plague discovered by S. Kitasato and A. Yersin. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1895. Three-cent crosstown streetcar line began operating. Built by Detroit 
Railway Company organized by Pack Brothers under Pingree 
sponsorship. 

Detroit Federation of Women's Clubs organized. 

Kindergartens established in Detroit public schools. 

City Board of Health organized. 

Apr. 1. Power first supplied to street lighting system and public 

buildings from municipal power station. 

Nov. 6. Disastrous explosion and fire in Detroit Journal building. 

180 



World History 
1895. Cuba revolted against Spain. 

Apr. 17. Treaty of Shimonoseki ended China-Japanese War. 
Venezuela boundary dispute. Treaty providing for arbitration 
signed February 2, 1897, by Great Britain and Venezuela. 
Anti-Saloon League of America organized on national basis fol- 
lowing founding of the League in Ohio in 1893. 
Congress passed the Lottery Act excluding lottery tickets from 
interstate commerce. An 1890 act had made illegal the distribu- 
tion of lottery tickets or advertising through the mails. When the 
Supreme Court declared the Lottery Act constitutional in 1903 
it approved the principle of federal "police" power under which 
Congress has excluded from interstate commerce articles deemed 
injurious to public health and morals such as impure food or 
obscene literature. 

Cultural Progress 

1895. Height of the leg-of-mutton sleeve vogue in women's fashions. 
Candida, play by George Bernard Shaw. 

American Bowling Congress organized. The first national A.B.C. 
tournament was held in Chicago in 1901. 

First open golf championship held in America, at Newport, won 
by Horace Rawlins. United States golf clubs increased from about 
40 to 100 during year. 

Volleyball invented by William G. Morton of Holyoke, Mass. 
New York Public Library reference departments formed from 
combination of Astor, Lenox, and Tilden endowed libraries. (See 
also 1911) 

William Randolph Hearst, owner of San Francisco Journal, acquired 
the New York Journal "Yellow journalism" practiced by Hearst's 
paper and Pulitzer's New York World in their struggle to dominate 
the New York newspaper field. 

Freud published his first book dealing with psychoanalysis. 
"The Band Played On," song. 
Field and Stream magazine established. 

The Importance of Being Earnest, probably the most popular of 
all of Oscar Wilde's comedies, produced Feb. 14 at the St. James's 
Theatre, London. 
The first film, Lunch Hour at the Lumiere Factory, was shown 

181 (continued on following page) 



Mar. 28 before the Societe d'Encouragement de L'Industrie Nation- 
ale. The film was 50 feet long. 

Motion pictures projected on May 20 on screen at 156 Broadway, 
New York. Demonstration of "Pantoptikon" by Woodville La- 
tham. A moving picture was shown using Edison's Vitascope at 
Koster and Bial's Music Hall in New York on Apr. 23, 1896. 
First American auto magazine, The Horseless Age, issued and 
American Motor League, first auto club, organized. 

1895-1900. New silhouette for women had sharply-defined rounded hips, 
high bust, and small waist pulled down in front. Effect attained with 
a straight-front corset. Skirts fitted to knee with many gores then 
flared into circular or pleated flounces long enough for trains. Tight 
bodice, collars fitted high, sleeves tight at shoulders and puffed at 
elbows later bishop sleeves, puffed at wrist. Tailored tweed suits 
and shirtwaists or shirtwaists with separate skirts popular. Higher, 
stiffer pompadours. Large hats anchored on top. Accessories: long 
feather boas and muffs, mesh bags, pumps. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 
1895. Wilhelm Roentgen of Germany discovered X-rays. 
Wireless telegraphy developed by Marconi. 

Sigmund Freud published his first work on psychoanalysis, a study 
of the subconscious. 

Patent granted on Nov. 5 to George B. Selden of Rochester for 
application of internal combustion hydro-carbon motor to a road 
vehicle. Application filed May 8, 1879. First automobile patent, 
Duryea patent, filed 1894. 

First gasoline automobile manufactured for sale by Duryea Motor 
Wagon Company which was organized in Springfield, Massachusetts. 
First American auto race held in Chicago, Nov. 28. J. Frank Duryea 
drove a Duryea car to win. 

First automobile pneumatic tire made by Hartford (Connecticut) 
Rubber Works. Used on Duryea auto. 

First automobile catalog issued by Duryea Company. One-sheet, 
four-page circular. "Two-seater" auto priced at $1,000; "four-seater" 
at $2,000. 

First auto club, Automobile Motor League, organized in Chicago. 
American Automobile Association created in 1902 by the nine 
auto clubs then in existence. 
Process for liquefying air discovered by Carl Linde of Germany. 

182 



1895. First computing scale manufactured by Edward Canby in Dayton, 
Ohio. Computing Scale Company incorporated in 1891 and brought 
out first scale in 1895. 

Safety razor using throw-away thin steel blades invented by King 
Gillette. Gillette Company incorporated 1901. 

Glass blowing machine patented by Michael J. Owens of Toledo, 
Ohio. 

National Association of Manufacturers organized. 

Motion picture projectors offered in the cinematographe of Louis 
and Auguste Lumiere and the Vitascope of Thomas Armat. 

First cafeteria opened in Chicago by Ernest Kimball. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1896. Last horsecar operated on Detroit streets. All electric streetcars 
hereafter. 

Mar. 6. First automobile driven on streets of Detroit by Charles 
Brady King. 

June 4. Henry Ford successfully operated his first motor vehicle 
in Detroit. 

July 1. Edison's Vitascope demonstrated to newspapermen at Opera 
House. 

During summer Detroit Opera House exhibited several reels of 
film through an eidoloscope. Showed bullfight in Mexico. 
Sept. 8. Central High School opened in new building at Cass 
and Warren. Cornerstone was laid May 13. Now occupied by 
Wayne University. 

Nov. 5. Pingree elected Governor of Michigan while Mayor of 
Detroit. 

World History 
1896. Utah admitted as a state. 

Rural free delivery inaugurated. Boon to mail-order business. 
Mar. 1. Abyssinians defeated Italians at Battle of Adowa. Inde- 
pendence of Abyssinia recognized in peace treaty concluded 
Oct. 26. 

July 8. William Jennings Bryan delivered his "Cross of Gold" 
speech at the Democratic National Convention and won the Demo- 
cratic nomination for President. 

183 



1896. Aug. 6. France proclaimed Madagascar a French colony. 
1896-1898. Reconquest of the Sudan by Kitchener. 

Cultural Progress 
1896. Olympic Games revived at Athens, Greece. 

Robert G. Ingersoll delivered his lecture "Why I am an Agnostic." 
"A Hot Time in the Old Town," song. 
Weber & Fields opened vaudeville house in New York. 
House Beautiful magazine established. 

Fannie Farmer's Boston Cooking School Cook Book appeared. Best- 
selling of all cook books. 

The Little Colonel, by Annie Fellows Johnston, first of this popular 
children's series. 

Quo Vadis by Henryk Sienkiewicz the great best seller of the era. 
LaBoheme, opera by Giacomo Puccini, first performed Feb. 1 in 
Turin, Italy. 

Scientific and, Commercial Progress 

1896. Henri Becquerel discovered radioactivity in uranium. 

Samuel P. Langley tested his airplane. First heavier-than-air model 
to make a sustained flight unmanned. Driven by one-horsepower 
steam engine. 

The "Pianola" or first practical player piano was invented by Edwin 
Votey. An earlier patent for a mechanical musical instrument had 
been granted in 1881 to John McTammany. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1897. Mar. 20. Michigan Supreme Court ruled Hazen Pingree could not 
hold offices of Mayor of Detroit and Governor of Michigan at same 
time, so he resigned as Mayor. 

Apr. 5. William C. Maybury elected Mayor and held the office 
through 1904. 

Oct. 7. Detroit Opera House burned. Rebuilt and reopened Sep- 
tember 12, 1898. 

Oct. 29. Ernst Kern store opened. 

Nov. 27. New post office and federal building occupied. 
Olds Motor Vehicle Company, Inc. established in Lansing for pur- 
pose of manufacturing and selling automobiles. The first auto com- 

184 



pany in Michigan. Made one car but failed to raise needed capital. 
Sebastian S. Kresge opened store in Detroit in partnership with 
J. G. McCory. Kresge took over full interest in 1899. Store slogan 
was "Nothing over ten cents." Main office of Kresge Company 
still in Detroit. 

Florence Crittenton work started in Detroit. Present hospital built 
in 1929. 

World History 

1897. Mar. 4. William McKinley inaugurated as President. 
Klondike gold rush. 
Diamond jubilee of Queen Victoria. 
Apr. 17-Sept. 18. Greco-Turkish War. 

Nov. 14. Scramble for concessions in China precipitated by Ger- 
man occupation of Kiaochow Bay. Port Arthur leased to Russia in 
1898. 

Cultural Progress 
1897. Bob Fitzsimmons won heavyweight title from Jim Corbett. 

"The Stars and Stripes Forever," march by John Philip Sousa. 
Popular stage stars: Maude Adams in The Little Minister; Minnie 
Maddern Fiske in Tess of the D'Urbervilles, James K. Hackett, 
Maxine Elliott, Julia Marlowe, and Lizzie B. Raymond, the vaude- 
ville headliner. 

Captains Courageous by Rudyard Kipling. 

In His Steps, or What Would Jesus Do by Charles M. Sheldon began 
its career as the all-time United States best seller. 
First performance of Cyrano de Bergerac by Edmond Rostand with 
the famous Coquelin in the role on Dec. 28 in Paris. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1897. Electron theory electrical constitution of matter began to be 
generally accepted as result of experiments by J. J. Thomson in 
England, Lenard in Germany, and Zeeman and Lorentz in Holland. 
Elementary electrical charge had been designated the electron in 
1891 by Dr. G. J. Stoney. 

Rudolf Diesel of Germany completed successful Diesel oil engine. 
First model built and patented in 1892. Provided internal combus- 
tion engine using cheap, unrefined fuel. Widely used as a marine 
and locomotive motor. 

185 



1897. Stanley Steam Car Company was among the automobile manufac- 
turing plants being established in the United States. The Winton 
and Oldsmobile plants also began to make cars. 

Paul Sabatier, French chemist, devised method for hydrogenation 

of oils by using nickel as a catalyst. Made possible conversion of 

vegetable oils into solid fats for cooking, etc. 

Submarine fitted with an internal combustion engine invented and 

built by Simon Lake. His Argonaut was used to salvage sunken 

treasure. 

First municipal subway opened in Boston. 

First vending machines produced. One built by Pulver Company 

of Rochester sold gum in a penny package. One invented by T. S. 

Wheatcraft of Rush, Pennsylvania, dispensed hot peanuts in bags. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1898. Jan. 17. Average wage of Michigan laborers $1.62 per day. 

Feb. 8. Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Children organized 

Detroit chapter. 

Feb. 14. First Church of Christ Scientist organized in Detroit. 

Church building at southwest corner of Cass and Hancock erected 

in 1916. 

Apr. 6. William Jennings Bryan spoke in Detroit. 

Apr. 19- First Michigan troops left for Cuba. Michigan raised five 

infantry regiments for service in Spanish-American War. Michigan 

Naval Reserves served on the cruiser Yosemite. 

May 15. Bread prices increased. One-pound loaf rose from 4^ to 

5^ and 6^ while two-pound loaf went from 7^ and 8^ to 10^. 

The Light Guard Armory at Brush and Larned streets completed. 

Used as an auditorium for concerts and social affairs until it burned 

April 17, 1945. 

William E. Metzger established the first independent automobile 

dealership at 274 Jefferson Avenue, Detroit. 

Detroit Automobile Company organized by local capital to produce 

Ford-designed cars. Ford withdrew after three years during which 

time two cars had been produced. 

World History 

1898. Jan. 1. Greater New York came into existence when the five bor- 
oughs were united into one municipality. Legislation for this had 
been signed May 11, 1896. 

186 



1898. Feb. 15. U.S. battleship Maine blown up in Havana harbor. 

Mar. 28. First German naval law. Beginning of naval rivalry with 
Great Britain. 

Spanish- American War. Apr. 25, Congress declared war against 
Spain. May 1, Battle of Manila Bay. Admiral Dewey defeated Span- 
ish fleet. July 1-3, Battle of San Juan Hill in Cuba. July 3, Naval 
Battle of Santiago. Aug. 12, Hostilities suspended. 
Aug. 12. Hawaiian Islands annexed by joint resolution of Con- 
gress. Organized as a U. S. territory, Apr. 30, 1900. 
Sept. 19- Fashoda crisis. French occupying Fashoda when British 
arrived. Settled by Anglo-French Convention of Mar. 2, 1899- 
Dec. 10. Treaty of Paris ended Spanish- American War. Spain 
withdrew from Cuba, and ceded Puerto Rico, Guam, and the 
Philippine Islands to the U. S., the last for $20,000,000. 
South Dakota became first state to adopt initiative and referendum 
as part of its constitution. 

Cultural Progress 

1898. William James formulated the philosophic theory known as 
pragmatism. 

First season of Moscow Art Theatre. Its repertory featured plays by 
Anton Chekhov and Maxim Gorky. Naturalistic style of acting 
developed by its founder and director, Stanislavsky, influenced the 
entire dramatic world. 

George M. Cohan and Al Sheean were stage favorites. 
"On the Banks of the Wabash Far Away," song by Paul Dresser. 
Popular religious novels were those by Ralph Connor, such as 
Black Rock and The Sky Pilot, 1899. 

Bob, Son of Battle by Alfred Ollivant, a popular dog story. 
David Hamm by Edward Westcott published. Became popular 
as a novel, play, and movie. Started a vogue for novels of country 
life. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1898. Discovery of radium by Pierre and Marie Curie. 

Alberto Santos-Dumont was first to construct and fly a gasoline- 
motored airship. Lighter-than-air, non-rigid craft. 
First submarine practical for war purposes launched and submerged 
off Staten Island by John P. Holland Torpedo Boat Company. 
Purchased by the United States Navy. 

187 



1898. First automobile insurance policy issued by Travelers Insurance 
Company of Hartford to Dr. Truman J. Martin of Buffalo. 

The Scientific American in its July 30 issue carried the first auto- 
mobile advertisement, a small one for the Winton Motor Carriage. 
The first automobile advertisement in a major national magazine 
appeared in the Saturday Evening Post of Mar. 31, 1900, for the 
W. E. Roach Company. 

Sir Ronald Ross demonstrated that malaria was transmitted by 
mosquitoes. Charles Laveran had identified malaria germ in 1880. 
In 1900, Giovanni Grassi proved disease was carried by the 
Anopheles mosquito. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1899. Olds Motor Works established in Detroit with local capital. Auto- 
mobile manufacturing began in Detroit when the Olds Company 
built its first automobile for sale. 

Edgar A. Guest began writing occasional verse for the Detroit Free 
Press. In 1905 he began a column which became daily in 1906, 
featuring poems about homely common things. His first com- 
mercially published book, A Heap O' Limn' appeared in 1916. 
Apr. 10. Evangelist Dwight L. Moody drew Detroit crowds. 
Dec. 30. Excursion steamer Tashmoo launched. 
River Rouge incorporated as a village and as a city in 1922. 

World History 
1899. Jan. 19. Anglo-Egyptian Sudan established. 

Feb. 1902, Apr. Philippine insurrection against U. S. 

May 18- July 29- First International Peace Conference at the Hague. 

Secretary of State John Hay sent "open-door" note on China to 

the Powers. 

Oct. 12 1902, May 31. Boer War in South Africa. 

Dec. 4. Samoan Islands divided by U. S. and Germany. 

First juvenile court established by Cook County in Chicago. 

Food prices: round steak 13# lb., pork chops 11^ lb., bacon 14^ lb., 

eggs 20^ doz., butter 26^ lb., sugar 6^ lb. 

Cultural Progress 

1899- School and Society by John Dewey set forth his progressive educa- 
tion ideas. 

188 



1899. James J. Jeffries won heavyweight title from Bob Fitzsimmons at 
Coney Island. 

Sir Thomas Lipton with his yacht "Shamrock I" made his first 
unsuccessful challenge for the America's Cup. 
"Finlandia," tone poem by Jean Sibelius. 

"So Long, Mary" was a favorite song as sung by Fay Templeton, 
the comic-opera star. Other songs published were "Hearts and 
Flowers" and "My Wild Irish Rose." 

Irish Literary Theater opened. Organized by Lady Gregory, William 
B. Yeats, George Moore, and Edward Martyn. Became Irish National 
Theater after World War, popularly known as Abbey Theater. 
Developed dramatists John M. Synge and Sean O'Casey. 
Popular plays: Ben Hur, Sag Harbor, Becky Sharp, Girl from 
Maxim's. 

Sherlock Holmes, play by William Gillette and Conan Doyle 
began its long run. 

First of Rover Boys series by Arthur M. Winfield (Edward Strate- 
meyer) published. 

Thorstein Veblen's Theory of the Leisure Class published. 
Mr. Dooley in Peace and War by Finley Peter Dunne, America's 
popular humorist. 

Elbert Hubbard's pamphlet A Message to Garcia was read by almost 
everyone. 

"The Man with the Hoe," poem by Edwin Markham published. 
Gentleman from Indiana introduced Booth Tarkington to Ameri- 
can readers. 

Heyday of the historical novel as exemplified by such best sellers as 
When Knighthood Was in Flower by Charles Major; Janice Mere- 
dith by Paul Leicester Ford; and Richard Carvel by Winston 
Churchill. All became successful plays, also. 

1899-1901. Clyde Fitch was the popular dramatist of the period. His 
plays included: Barbara Frietchie, 1899; The Cowboy and the 
Lady, 1899; Sappho, 1900; Lovers' Lane, 1901. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1899- Marconi transmitted wireless messages across the English Channel. 
Automatic computing pendulum-type scale invented by Allen de 
Vilbiss of Toledo, Ohio. Organized company which later became 
the Toledo Scale Company, leading firm in this field. 

189 



1899- First automobile truck designed and built in Pittsburgh by Louis 
S. Clarke and his associates. 

J. A. Packard built the first Packard car. In 1900 the Ohio Automo- 
bile Company was organized to build the Packard car. The com- 
pany name was changed to Packard in 1902. 

Motor-driven vacuum cleaner invented and patented by John S. 
Theirman of St. Louis. 

Rubber heel patented by Humphrey O'Sullivan of Lowell, Massa- 
chusetts. 

Canned condensed soup originated by Dr. John T. Dorrance and 
marketed by Joseph Campbell Preserve Company of Camden, New 
Jersey. This firm became Campbell Soup Company in 1915. 
United Fruit Company incorporated. Important in development of 
Central American countries and in American trade in Latin America. 
1899-1900. Drought and rust-resistant varieties of hard durum wheat 
introduced into the United States by Mark A. Carleton of the United 
States Agriculture Department. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1900. Population within city limits of Detroit was 285,704 (13th city 
in the United States in size). Greater Detroit area numbered 
304,132. Michigan population was 2,420,982. 

Detroit had largest percentage of population who could not speak 
English of any of 15 largest cities 11.98%. 

Beginning of period of peak immigration for many Detroit nation- 
ality groups. By 1920 great numbers of Italians, Armenians, Rus- 
sians, Lithuanians, Finns, Hungarians, and Greeks had settled in 
Detroit although the first immigrants from these nations came 
earlier. 

Jerome H. Remick became sole owner of the Detroit music publish- 
ing firm that he had built into largest music publishing house in 
the world. He retired in 1928. 

All streetcar lines united into one corporation, the Detroit United 
Railway. Efficiently managed but would not expand to meet needs 
of growing population because not sure of new franchise. 
Apr. 2. Henry M. Utley Library opened as Branch No. 1 in Cen- 
tral High School Building. Moved to present building on Wood- 
ward at Alger, May 20, 1913. 
June 8. Admiral Dewey visited Detroit. 

190 



1900. Detroit became a member of the newly formed American League 
in professional baseball. First league game played April 19. 
Sept. 29- Detroit Golf Club links formally opened. 

World History 

1900. United States population 75,994,575; per square mile 25.6. 
Illiteracy in United States 10.7 per cent. 
American trade union membership totaled 868,500. 
Typical working week consisted of 6 days of 10 or more hours 
per day. 

Carrie Nation began her hatchet crusade against saloons in Kansas. 
Mar. 14. Gold standard established in United States. Other forms 
of money redeemable in gold. 

Sept. 9. Disastrous hurricane and tidal wave at Galveston, Texas, 
took some 6,000 lives. 

Nov. 6. Bryan vs. McKinley Presidential election over issues of 
free silver and imperialism. 

Feb. Origin of British Labour Party in formation of Labour Repre- 
sentation Committee with J. Ramsay MacDonald as secretary. Taff 
Vale case of 1902 consolidated ranks of British labor and led to the 
creation of the party. In election of 1906 the Labour Party won 29 
seats in Parliament. 

May- Aug. 14. Boxer Uprising in China; siege and relief of the 
foreign legations. 

July 29- King Humbert assassinated. Victor Emmanuel II became 
King of Italy. 

Dec. 14. Franco-Italian agreement. Free hand in Morocco for 
France exchanged for free hand in Tripoli for Italy. 

Cultural Progress 

1900. Americans liked baseball, poker, early ragtime music, rocking 
chairs, the bicycle, the cakewalk, and chow dogs. Also popular were 
dream books, palm-reading, and fortune-telling guides. 
Men wore: cloth- topped button shoes, high collars and stiff cuffs, 
derby hats, and bow ties. 

Platoon school organized at Bluffton, Indiana, by William Wirt. 
Later (1908) included in his Gary Plan. 

John Singer Sargent, popular society portrait painter, completed 
one of his finest works "The Three Graces" (The Wyndham Sisters). 

191 



1900. Floradora Sextette and their song "Tell Me Pretty Maiden." 
"A Bird in a Gilded Cage," song. 
George Ade's Fables in Slang amused American readers. 
Sister Carrie by Theodore Dreiser shocked American readers. 
The Wonderful Wizard of Oz by L. Frank Baum. 
Historical romances remained the fiction favorites of the era. This 
year saw the publication of To Have and To Hold by Mary John- 
ston and Alice of Old Vincennes by Maurice Thompson. 
American Baseball League organized. 

Ping-pong or table tennis was a popular pastime for the next decade. 
Its popularity was revived around 1928. 

1900-1901. Women wore shirtwaists with high collars and full trailing 
skirts with a tight waist. Shoes were pointed. The pompadour was 
the popular coiffure, and about this time the marcel wave was 
introduced. 

1900. Eben H olden, by Irving Bacheller, exemplified continued popularity 
of novels of country life. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1900. 35.7 percent of all persons gainfully employed in the United States 
were engaged in agriculture. 

4,192 autos produced. By 1902 some 9,000 cars per year were being 
produced. 

National Automobile Manufacturers Association organized. By 
1902 had 112 members who manufactured gasoline, electric, and 
steam automobiles. Over 40 makes of cars were introduced in 1900, 
about 40 in 1901, and over 50 in 1902. Most of these are no longer 
in existence. 

1900-1910. Major automobile companies were organized in the decade 
following 1900. These included Pierce- Arrow in 1901, Packard 
and Cadillac in 1902, Buick and Ford in 1903, Reo in 1904, General 
Motors in 1908, Hudson and Hupp in 1909. 

1900. First national automobile show held at Madison Square Garden in 
New York City, Nov. 3. 31 exhibitors showed cars and 20 showed 
accessories. 

Caterpillar tractor invented by Benjamin Holt of Stockton, Cali- 
fornia. Used flexible steel belt or track or endless chain to sup- 
port weight of the machine. Especially useful on soft ground or 
in areas without roads. Holt manufactured tractors in 1906. 

192 



1900. Escalator first manufactured by Otis Elevator Company. 

First practical motorcycle manufactured by E. R. Thomas Motor 
Company of Buffalo. Gasoline engine attached to bicycle. In 1901 
George Hendee Company of Springfield, Massachusetts, manufac- 
tured a motorcycle named the "Indian" with a built-in gasoline 
engine. 

ca. 1900. Process for manufacture of cellophane discovered by J. E. Bran- 
denburger of France. Not perfected until about 1912. 

1900. Trans-Siberian Railroad completed. 

Importance of Mendel's laws of heredity, published in 1865, redis- 
covered. Inheritance of dominant and recessive characteristics in a 
fixed ratio. 

Yellow fever traced to bite of female Stegomyia mosquito by Dr. 
Walter Reed. 

1900-1912. California mission became the favorite furniture style. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1901. Jan. 15. Memorial Hall, Grand River at Cass, dedicated for vet- 
erans of Civil War. 

Feb. 2. Fire in Free Press building. 

Mar. 11. Pro-Boer mass meeting in Detroit Light Guard Armory. 

May 4. Single commissioner placed at head of public works, parks 
and boulevards, and police departments by so-called "Ripper" Act. 

May 30. Memorial Day observance included strewing flowers on 
water from Belle Isle Bridge in memory of naval heroes. 

June 18. Death of Hazen S. Pingree, great reform Mayor and 
Governor of the 1890's. 

July 24. Celebration of Detroit's bi-centenary. Cadillac "Chair of 
Justice" erected in Cadillac Square. 

Dec. 18. Eastern High School dedicated. 

Atkinson Bill for ad valorem taxation of railroad property in 
Michigan finally passed after hard fight initiated by Pingree. Court 
battles kept it inoperative until 1905. Added greatly to school fund. 

Henry Ford Automobile Company organized to manufacture his 
automobile but was dissolved in less than a year. 

Olds plant in Detroit burned, March 9, and was relocated in 
Lansing. In 1902, 2,500 Olds cars were made in this Lansing factory. 

193 



World History 
1901. Jan. 1. Australia became a Commonwealth. 

Jan. 22. Death of Queen Victoria. Edward VII became King of 
Great Britain. 

Mar. 4. Second inauguration of William McKinley as President. 
Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Sept. 6. President McKinley shot by anarchist, Leon Czolgosz. He 
died Sept. 14, and was succeeded by Vice-President Theodore 
Roosevelt. 

Nov. 18. Second Hay-Pauncefote Treaty giving United States sole 
right of construction, maintenance, and control of Isthmian Canal. 
Federal government established eight-hour day for workers on gov- 
ernment contracts. Eight-hour law extended to all federal service 
in 1912. 

President Roosevelt recommended regulation of trusts and corpora- 
tions. Era of so-called "trust-busting" which followed led to increased 
regulation of railroads, etc., but big business continued to grow 
"bigger!" 

Cultural Progress 

1901. "Just A-Wearyin' for You" song with music by Carrie Jacobs Bond. 
Kim by Rudyard Kipling published in England. 
Up From Slavery by Booker T. Washington published. 
The Crisis by Winston Churchill topped the best-seller lists con- 
tinuing the popularity of the author's Richard Carvel (1899) and 
preceding The Crossing which led the best sellers in 1904. 
Graustark by George Barr McCutcheon. Sequel Beverly of Graustark 
was a best seller in 1904. 

Mrs. Wiggs of the Cabbage Patch by Alice Hegan Rice. 
First Nobel Prizes awarded Dec. 10 on the anniversary of Alfred 
Nobel's death. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1901. Max Planck stated the quantum theory a basic contribution to 
physics. 

Radio signal first sent across the Atlantic Ocean from Cornwall to 
Newfoundland by Marconi. Wireless telegraph system between the 
United States and Ireland opened in 1907. 

194 



1901. United States Steel Corporation organized. First billion-dollar cor- 
poration. 

First state motor car legislation was a Connecticut speed law. 

First United States automobile license plates required by New York 

State. In 1889 Leon Serpollet obtained the first auto license in the 

world in Paris. 

Adrenalin prepared by J. Takamine. First hormone to be isolated. 

Introduced commercially by Parke, Davis & Company. 

Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research incorporated. Laboratory 

opened in New York City 1904. 

National Bureau of Standards established. 

Importance of science in agriculture marked by establishment of 

three federal government agencies: Bureaus of Chemistry, of Soils, 

and of Plant Industry. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1902. Detroit Automobile Company became Cadillac Automobile Com- 
pany. In 1904 merged with Leland and Faulconer Manufacturing 
Company to become Cadillac Motor Car Company headed by Henry 
M. Leland. In 1910 became Cadillac Division of General Motors 
(purchased July 7, 1909). 

Feb. 2. A list of 74 millionaires in Michigan included 44 in Detroit. 
Feb. 27. First annual automobile and sportsmen's show held at 
Detroit Armory. 

Mar. Detroit union carpenters proposed 30^ an hour as their 
minimum wage. House painters asked $2.50 per day. 
Apr. 29. Voigt Farm (30,000 feet frontage in vicinity of Wood- 
ward, Calvert, and Chicago Boulevard) sold for $800,000. Eighteen 
years before, Voigt paid $55,000 for the land. 
May 3. Carrie Nation lectured in Detroit. 
June 6. Protest against proposed $3 license fee for auto owners. 
Aug. 17. Marie Dressier appeared at Avenue Theater. 
Sept. 21. President Theodore Roosevelt in Detroit to address 
Spanish- American War Veterans Convention. 
Oct. 11. Wayne County Building dedicated. Cornerstone laid 
October 20, 1897. 

World History 
1902. Alfonso XIII became King of Spain. 

195 



1902. Republic of Cuba established. 

Jan. 30. First Anglo- Japanese alliance formed. 

June 28. Triple Alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and 

Italy renewed. 

Permanent Court for International Arbitration, established at the 

Hague by 1899 Conference, tried its first case. 

May 9-Oct. 21. Anthracite coal strike. Finally settled by President's 

commission. One of the most far-reaching strikes in the history of 

the U. S. 

June 28. Congress authorized Isthmian Canal. 

Maryland enacted first state workmen's compensation law. All but 

5 states had such laws by 1920. 

Cultural Progress 

1902. New songs: "Because" and "In the Good Old Summer Time." 
Cherry Sisters were popular vaudeville entertainers. 
Just-So Stories by Rudyard Kipling. 
The Virginian by Owen Wister. 

First Rose Bowl football game played Jan. 1. University of Michigan 
defeated Stanford University 49-0. 

Rhodes Scholarships for study by American young men at Oxford 
University established by will of Cecil Rhodes. 
General Education Board established with funds from John D. 
Rockefeller and Carnegie Institution founded by Andrew Carnegie. 
First performance of the "Second Symphony" by Jean Sibelius, at 
Helsingfors, Mar. 8. 

First motion-picture theater showings in Los Angeles, Apr. 2. 
Admission 10 cents. (See also 1905) 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1902. Mutation theory propounded by Hugo de Vries. Important in 
science of heredity. 

Hormone doctrine explained by W. M. Bayliss and E. H. Starling. 
Hormones revealed as specific chemical substances contributed to 
the blood by definite organs or glands. These internal secretions 
control growth or activities of other parts of the body. 
Ivan Pavlov began his experiments on the conditioned reflex. Of 
great importance in psychology and education. His Work of the 
Digestive Glands was published in 1897. 

196 



1902. Albert A. Michelson measured the velocity of light. In 1907 he 
became the first American scientist to win a Nobel Prize. 

Nitrogen fixation on a commercial scale attempted by C. S. Bradley 
and R. Lovejoy using Niagara Falls power and an arc process. 
Fertilizer and many other industries benefited by nitrogen obtained 
from the atmosphere. 

Arc transmitter invented by Valdemar Poulsen. Great value in 
wireless. 

First automat restaurant opened by Horn and Hardart Company in 
Philadelphia. 

Studebaker Company sold its first electric car. The firm had been 
founded in 1852 in South Bend, Indiana, as a blacksmith and wagon 
shop by the Studebaker Brothers. Its first gasoline automobile was 
sold in 1904 and the Studebaker Corporation organized in 1911. 

United States Reclamation Service for irrigation of arid lands 
created. Newlands Act authorized construction of huge dams in the 
West. 

English Pacific cable from Canada to Australia laid. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1903. Buick Company organized in Flint by Benjamin Briscoe to manu- 
facture automobile designed by David Buick. William C. Durant 
soon became manager. 

Ford Motor Company incorporated, June 16, with Henry Ford 
holding 25% of the stock. First factory located at Bellevue and 
Mack Avenues. By 1906 Ford had 51% of the stock. Recapitalized 
in 1919 with Ford family holding all stock in the company. 

Packard Motor Car Company moved to Detroit from Warren, Ohio. 
Its new auto plant was designed by Albert Kahn. 

Jan. 20. Detroit Edison Company incorporated. 

Feb. First automobile sections appearing in Detroit newspapers. 

May 5. Booker T. Washington spoke in Detroit on race problem 
in the South. 

June 30. Detroit Board of Commerce formally organized. 
Oct. 25. Belle Isle Horticultural Building opened for inspection. 
Exhibits of plants being placed. Aquarium opened August 18, 1904. 
Nov. 13. Milk raised to 7^ per quart. 

197 



World History 

1903. May 1-4. Visit of King Edward VII to Paris. Beginning of French- 
British reconciliation. 

King Alexander I of Serbia ( Obrenovitch ) assassinated. Peter I 
(Karageorgevitch) succeeded him. 

Feb. 14. The Department of Commerce and Labor was created 
by Congress. 

Oct. 20. Alaskan Boundary Tribunal in London decided in favor 
of the United States. 

Nov. 3. Panama revolted against Colombia and declared her inde- 
pendence. Nov. 6, Recognized by United States. 
Nov. 18. Hay-Buneau-Varilla Treaty between United States and 
Panama allowed ten-mile-wide zone for American canal. Ratified 
Feb. 26, 1904. 

Dec. 30. Iroquois Theater fire in Chicago. Nearly 600 dead. Led to 
fire and safety regulations in theaters. 
Beginning of anti-child-labor movement. 
Wisconsin enacted first direct primary law. 
American Political Science Association organized. 

1903-1906. Roald Amundsen, Norwegian explorer, sailed through North- 
west Passage. 

Cultural Progress 
1903. Religious Education Association organized. 

First baseball World Series. Boston defeated Pittsburgh. 5 games 
to 3. First Harmsworth Trophy boat race won by Napier. 
Enrico Caruso made his American debut at the Metropolitan Opera 
House, New York. Italian debut made in 1884. 
Several famous plays appeared including The Lower Depths by 
Maxim Gorky and Man and Superman by G. B. Shaw. 
Bjornstjerne Bjornson, Norwegian dramatist, awarded the Nobel 
Prize for literature. 

The Great Train Robbery, an epoch-making film, generally con- 
sidered the first motion picture to tell a story. 
Top best seller among fiction: Lady Rose's Daughter by Mrs. Hum- 
phry Ward. Other popular books: Letters of a Self -Made Merchant 
to His Son by George Horace Lorimer; The Little Shepherd of 
Kingdom Come by John Fox, Jr.; The Call of the Wild by Jack 
London; Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm by Kate Douglas Wiggin. 

198 



1903-1904. First wholly professional ice hockey league was formed in 
northern Michigan the International Hockey League. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1903. American Pacific Cable completed. Reached Honolulu from San 
Francisco, Dec. 14, 1902. Reached Manila, July 3, 1903. 
Successful flights by Wilbur and Orville Wright in a motor-driven, 
heavier-than-air plane, carrying a man, at Kitty Hawk, North 
Carolina, Dec. 17. 

Patent for automobile electric self-starter granted to Clyde J. 
Coleman of New York City. Impractical. License purchased by 
Delco Company. First commercially successful starter patented later 
by Charles F. Kettering. (See 1911) 

First transcontinental trip in a gasoline automobile made by Dr. 
Horatio N. Jackson and Sewall K. Crocker, his mechanic. Left San 
Francisco in a Winton auto on May 23 and arrived in New York 
City on July 26. 

Frederick W. Taylor published Shop Management embodying his 
principles of scientific management for industry. He had introduced 
"Taylorization" or scientific management as far back as 1882. 
Sleeping sickness shown by Bruce to be transmitted by the tsetse fly. 
First national bird reservation established by President Theodore 
Roosevelt on Pelican Island, Florida. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1904. Maxwell-Briscoe Motor Company organized to manufacture Max- 
well car. Eventually became the Maxwell Motor Company which 
was purchased by Walter Chrysler in 1919 and later absorbed into 
the Chrysler Corporation. 

Adding machine manufacture began in Detroit when Arithmometer 

Company moved here from St. Louis. Incorporated as Burroughs 

Adding Machine Company under laws of Michigan in 1905. 

Salt mining began in Detroit Rock Salt Company mine near River 

Rouge. Now owned by International Salt Company. 

City ordinance requiring licensing of automobiles. Upheld by State 

Supreme Court April 22, 1905. 

May 30. Governor Pingree statue in Grand Circus Park unveiled. 

World History 
1904. Feb. 8. Russo-Japanese War began. 

199 



1904. Apr. 8. Entente Cordiale between Britain and France. 

Dec. 6. Theodore Roosevelt corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. The 
United States would have to exercise an international police power 
in the Western Hemisphere. 

Eugene Debs made second of five tries for Presidency as Socialist 
candidate. 

Louisiana Purchase Exposition, St. Louis, Missouri. 
Baltimore fire burned over 140 acres and caused damage amount- 
ing to $125,000,000. 

Cultural Progress 

1904. Shirtwaist still at its zenith in women's fashions. 
Rodin's statue: "The Thinker." 
Olympic Games held in St. Louis, Missouri. 
"Give My Regards to Broadway," song by George M. Cohan. 
Several outstanding plays appeared during the year: Anton Chek- 
hov's The Cherry Orchard; Arthur Schnitzler's The Lonely Way; 
Sir James Barrie's fantasy Peter Pan. 
David Warfield starred in the play The Music Master. 
Freckles by Gene Stratton Porter. 

Jean Christophe by Remain Rolland published in France. Rolland 
won the Nobel Prize for literature in 1915. 
Lincoln Steffens led the writers exposing political corruption. 
First performance on Feb. 17 of Madame Butterfly, opera by 
Giacomo Puccini, in Milan. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 
1904. Northern Securities Case. Symbol of trust-busting. 
Rapid transit subway opened in New York City. 
Separate electric attachment plug invented by Harvey Hubbell 
who manufactured them in Bridgeport, Connecticut. 
William C. Gorgas began mosquito control in Panama. Elimination 
of yellow fever made possible the building of the Panama Canal 
and demonstrated disease control by such sanitation methods. 
National Tuberculosis Association organized. 

1904-1906. Hagenbeck constructed first bar less-type zoo at Stellingen, 
Germany. First barless, naturalistic rock-type zoo opened in United 
States at Denver in 1918. 

200 



1904. Ice cream cone is said to have originated at Louisiana Purchase 
Exposition in St. Louis. 

First police department to adopt fingerprint system of identification 
was that of St. Louis, Missouri. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1905. Michigan State Highway Department created. Automobile owners 
to be licensed by state to provide funds for highways. Michigan 
became national pioneer and leader in highway development, espe- 
cially in such matters as concrete pavements, scientific construction, 
roadside parks, etc. Woodward Avenue from Detroit to Pontiac 
among the nation's first super-highways. 

May 1. Detroit adopted standard time instead of sun time. 

June 4. Remains of Governor Stevens T. Mason (died January 4, 

1843) brought to Detroit and interred in Capitol Square. Bronze 

statue erected over the grave. 

Aug. 30. Ty Cobb began his major league baseball career with the 

Detroit team. Played for twenty-four years. 

First movie theater opened in Detroit by John H. Kunsky and 

A. Arthur Caille. Named the "Casino" and located on Monroe 

Avenue. 

Detroit Orchestral Association formed to bring leading orchestras 

to the city. Concerts given in the Arcadia until 1920. 

World History 

1905. Mar. 4. Theodore Roosevelt's second inauguration as President. 
Mar. 31. Tangier crisis. Franco-German crisis over Morocco. 
June 7. Norwegian Storting declared union with Sweden dissolved. 
Ratified by plebiscite Aug. 5. Treaty of separation signed Oct. 26. 
Norwegians elected Haakon VII as King. 

Aug. 17. Russian Tsar issued manifesto authorizing creation of an 
imperial parliament or Duma. 

Sept. 5. Treaty of Portsmouth ended Russo-Japanese War. Japan 
recognized as a power and in possession of Korea. 
Lloyd George became Liberal Prime Minister of United Kingdom. 
Lewis and Clark Exposition, Portland, Oregon. 
International Workers of the World organized. 
Alberta and Saskatchewan provinces formed in Canada. 
Rotary Club founded in Chicago. 
American Sociological Society founded. 

201 



1905-1906. Era of the "muckrakers" who exposed political and business 

corruption. 

Cultural Progress 
1905. Motorcar influenced fashion. Women wore linen or silk dusters 

and large hats tied on with chiffon veils. "In My Merry Oldsmobile" 

was a new song. 

Vogue for Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam as a gift book or wall 

decoration. 

Plan for co-operative education, work and study in alternate periods, 

started by University of Cincinnati for its engineering students. 

Became known as the Antioch plan of college education because 

it was most fully used at Antioch College after 1920. 

Alfred Binet, French psychologist, perfected the Binet scale for 

measurement of intelligence. 

"My Gal Sal," song by Paul Dresser. 

Best sellers included: The Garden of Allah by Robert Hichens; 

The Marriage of William Ashe by Mrs. Humphry Ward; The 

Clansman by Thomas Dixon. 

Novels were beginning to use motorcars and wireless telegraphy 

in their plots. 

First theater devoted exclusively to motion pictures, the Nickel- 
odeon, opened in Pittsburgh in June. 

Major Barbara by George Bernard Shaw produced Nov. 28 at the 

Court Theatre, London. 

The Merry Widow, operetta by Franz Lehar, performed in Vienna. 

First of more than 5,000 American performances was in 1906. 
1905-1915. Fauvism art movement led by Henri Matisse. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1905. 25,000 automobiles and 450 trucks produced in the United States. 
Special theory of relativity published by Albert Einstein. His 
formula for conversion of mass into energy (E=rmc 2 ), general 
theory, announced in 1915. 

Helium discovered as a constituent of natural gas by H. P. Cady 
and D. F. McFarland at University of Kansas. 
First commercial production of plywood from Douglas fir in 
Oregon. 

Novocaine introduced as an anesthetic. Especially valuable in dental 
surgery. 

202 



Detroit and Michigan 

1906. Detroit River the busiest inland water channel in the world by this 
time. 

Shrine Circus originated in Detroit. 

Feb. 24. Tommy Burns of Detroit became world's heavyweight 
champion. 

June 5. James E. Scripps willed $50,000 to Detroit for its beauti- 
fication. 

Sept. 4. 115,000 Detroiters jammed the Fair Grounds to hear Wil- 
liam Jennings Bryan. 

World History 

1906. Jan. 16- Apr. 7. Algeciras conference on Morocco. France gained 
support. 

Apr. 18-19. San Francisco earthquake and fire. 

The Dreadnaught, first all-big-gun battleship, launched by Great 
Britain. 

Finland became first nation to grant suffrage to women. 

Harry K. Thaw shot Stanford White. Pleaded "brainstorm" as 
defense at his trial. Sensation of the day. 

Cultural Progress 

1906. Women wore large picture hats trimmed with drooping ostrich 
plumes and held on by long hat pins. 

Organization of the Playground Association of America in Wash- 
ington, D.C. Now the National Recreation Association. 

Broadway plays and stars: Maude Adams in Peter Pan; Alia Nazi- 
mova in Hedda Gabler; Minnie Maddern Fiske in New York Idea; 
Fritzi Scheff in Mile. Modiste; Fay Templeton in Forty-five Minutes 
from Broadway by George M. Cohan; John Drew in His House in 
Order; William Gillette in Clarice. 

Anna Held singing "I Just Can't Make My Eyes Behave" was the 
favorite stage entertainer. 

New songs: "The Bird on Nellie's Hat"; "At Dawning"; "I Love 
a Lassie"; and "Waiting at the Church." 

John Philip Sousa had become the nation's "March King." 

203 



1906. The Jungle by Upton Sinclair led to the passage of the Pure Food 
and Drug Act. 

Zane Grey entered the best-seller ranks with Spirit of the Border. 
Stayed there with Last of the Plainsmen in 1908. After Riders of 
the Purple Sage (1912) no best-seller list was without a Zane Grey 
western. (See also 1918) 

O. Henry stories enjoyed continuous popularity. After The Four 
Million in 1906 came The Trimmed Lamp, 1907; Options, 1909; 
and Whirligigs, 1910. 

The Fighting Chance by Robert W. Chambers was the first of that 
popular author's best sellers. 

Rex Beach began his success as an adventure writer with The 
Spoilers. Also best sellers were The Barrier, 1908; The Silver Horde, 
1909; The Net, 1912. 

Willie Hoppe, at the age of 18, defeated world's champion, Maurice 
Vignaux, at billiards. 

Death of the painter Paul Cezanne. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1906. Lee Deforest invented the three-electrode vacuum tube (triode). 
Essential to radio and long-distance telephone since it amplified 
voice. Patented 1907. 

Charles W. Hart and Charles H. Parr of Charles City, Iowa credited 
with founding gasoline tractor industry when they built first suc- 
cessful internal combustion engine tractor. 

First gasoline automobile fire engine and hose wagon manufactured 
in the United States. 

Count von Zeppelin constructed first practical zeppelin. Principle 
of rigid airship introduced by him in 1898. 

Slide fastener (zipper) for universal use invented by Gideon 
Sundback of Hoboken, New Jersey. A hookless slide fastener for 
shoes had been made in 1893 by W. L. Judson of Chicago. 

Kinemacolor first process for motion-picture color photography 
developed by G. A. Smith and Charles Urban. 

Pure Food and Drug and Meat Inspection Act passed. 

Dr. Howard T. Ricketts proved that Rocky Mountain spotted fever 
was a tick disease. 

204 



Detroit and Michigan 
1907. Mar. 2. Detroit Saturday Night began publication. 

July. Detroit Stock Exchange organized as outgrowth of Detroit 
Brokers Association. 

Detroit Tigers won American League pennant. Also in 1908 and 
1909. 

Oct. 29- Hotel Pontchartrain opened on site of old Russell House. 
Later replaced by First National Bank (1920). 
High school for practical training opened in Cass Union School. 
When this old Union School burned in 1909, a new building was 
erected on triangle formed by Grand River, High, and Second 
Avenue. Completed in 1912-1913. Comprehensive industrial and 
vocational training classes planned. New Cass Technical High 
School building started in 1917 but delayed by war, so not occupied 
until 1922. 

Juvenile Court, a division of Wayne County Probate Court, estab- 
lished in Detroit. Authorized by legislature, June 30; first session 
began July 29- 

Police tried to establish an auto speed limit of 8 miles per hour in 
business district and 12 miles elsewhere. 

Seven persons killed in Detroit automobile accidents during year. 
Edward Murphy began to build the Oakland (now the Pontiac) 
car in Pontiac. 

World History 
1907. Financial panic. 

Oklahoma admitted as a state. 
Jamestown Tercentennial, Jamestown, Virginia. 
Gustavus V became King of Sweden. 

Anglo-Russian Entente over Persia, Afghanistan, and Tibet paved 
way for Russia's inclusion in Anglo-French Entente. 
New Zealand given Dominion status. 

June 15 -Oct. 18. Second Hague International Conference to pro- 
mote disarmament and peace. 

Dec. 16. American fleet of sixteen battleships started around the 
world. Returned Feb. 22, 1909. 

Cultural Progress 

1907. The Gibson Girl style for women was at its peak featuring tiny 
waist and low decolletage. The shirtwaist became "peekaboo" 

205 (continued on following page) 



with embroidered perforations. Feather boas were stylish. 

Cubism was born in the work of the painters Pablo Picasso and 
Georges Braque. 

Death of Augustus Saint-Gaudens, American sculptor ( born 1 848 ) 
famous for his statue of Lincoln and the Adams Memorial. 

Opera favorites: Geraldine Farrar, Feodor Chaliapin, Mary Garden. 

"On the Road to Mandalay," song; words by Rudyard Kipling, 
music by Oley Speaks. 

The Merry Widow was the hit of hits. Nora Bayes starred in the 
first Ziegfeld Follies. 

Playboy of the Western World by John M. Synge first performed 
by Irish Theatre. 

Vaudeville featured Salome dancers after Richard Strauss' scanda- 
lous opera Salome was performed in the United States. 

Vaudeville headliners: Eddie Foy, Julia Sanderson, Joe Cook, Harry 
Houdini, Elsie Janis, Pat Rooney, Willie and Eugene Howard, and 
Harry Lauder making his second American tour. 

Over 400 nickelodeons were in operation and song-slide pictures 
were popular. The first westerns featuring Broncho Billy were 
produced. 

Competitors to Edison movie company arising. Among these were 
Biograph, Vitagraph, Essanay, and Selig. William Selig was the 
first producer to build a motion-picture set on the west coast. 

Three Weeks by Elinor Glyn. 

The Shepherd of the Hills made Harold Bell Wright famous and 
the symbol of the writers who preached sermons in novels. 

The Spell of the Yukon and Other Verses established Robert W. 
Service as a popular poet. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1907. Heidelberg man discovered by Otto Schoctensack. Important pre- 
historic stage in evolution of man. 

First complete, self-contained electric washing machine marketed 
by Hurley Machine Company of Chicago. Named the Thor. 

General George W. Goethals appointed chief engineer by the 
Isthmian Canal Commission in charge of constructing the Panama 
Canal 

206 



Detroit and Michigan 

1908. New Michigan State Constitution adopted. Provided a measure of 
home rule for municipalities. Effective 1909- 

General Motors Company incorporated September 16. Organized 
by William C. Durant around Buick and Oldsmobile Companies. 
Cadillac, Pontiac, and Chevrolet added later as well as other con- 
cerns to produce parts for the General Motors cars. 
Paige-Detroit Motor Car Company incorporated. Graham-Paige 
eventually absorbed by Kaiser-Frazer. 
Motorcycles replaced bicycles of police cycle squad. 
April. Council passed ordinance for systematic collection of waste 
throughout city. 

Oct. 8. First appearance on Detroit streets of automobile taxicabs 
with automatic fare registers. 

Crowley, Milner and Company founded. Took over Pardridge store 
at Gratiot and Farmer, May 13, 1909. 

Fisher Body Company organized. Major share acquired by General 
Motors in 1919. 

Ford Motor Company began producing Model T exclusively, the 
standard low-price car. By 1927 when production ended some 
fifteen million Model T cars had been sold making it the most 
popular of all cars. 

World History 
1908. July 6-24. Young Turk Revolution. 

Oct. 6. Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina. 
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) established. 
First city manager appointed in Staunton, Virginia. 
Conservation movement symbolized by appointment of National 
Conservation Commission with Gifford Pinchot as chairman and 
and by organization of National Conservation Association in 1909- 
Ballinger-Pinchot controversy marked federal governmental con- 
servation policy, 1909-11. 

Oregon's 10-hour law for women in industry upheld. By 1930 all 
but 5 states had laws limiting hours of work of women. 
Oregon adopted principle of recall of elective officials. 
Congo ceded by Belgian King to the nation and became the Belgian 
Congo following scandal and inquiry, 1903-1905. 
Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America organized. 

207 



1908. Movement against liquor-drinking and smoking. Some employers 
expected their employees to be total abstainers. Georgia followed 
by several other states adopted prohibition. 

Cultural Progress 

1908. Women wore sheath gowns. Kimono sleeves and waist became 
popular as did long, wide sashes. Shoes were high buttoned or 
laced. "Merry Widow" hats decorated with dotted veils, bird wings, 
and flowers were high style. 

A New York salon offered women the first permanent waves in 
the United States. The process took eight to twelve hours. 
Stereoscope in every parlor. 

Boy Scout movement founded in England by Sir Robert Baden- 
Powell. 

First presentation of J. B. Watson's behaviorist system of psychol- 
ogy at lectures to seminar in Chicago. 
Jim Thorpe star of Carlisle Indians football team. 
Fred Merkle forgot to touch second base in crucial game between 
Giants and Cubs. "Bonehead" and "boner" became general slang 
terms. 
National Hockey League organized. 

Charles Dana Gibson and Howard Chandler Christy were leading 
illustrators. The "Gibson Girl" was the ideal of American woman- 
hood. 

Frank Lloyd Wright, great contemporary American architect, built 
the Robie house in Chicago. It has had perhaps the most far-reach- 
ing influence of all his works. 

"Shine On, Harvest Moon," and "Take Me Out to the Ball Game," 
popular songs by Jack Norworth, as sung by Nora Bayes. 
Dixieland Jazz Band organized in New Orleans. 

Popular plays: What Every Woman Knows by James M. Barrie, 
starring Maude Adams; The Witching Hour by Augustus Thomas. 

Isadora Duncan danced in New York. 

Vaudeville headliners: Eva Tanguay, Ed Wynn, Leon Errol, Annette 

Kellerman. 

Mary Pickford became a movie favorite. 

The Trail of the Lonesome Pine by John Fox, Jr., began its best- 
selling career. 

208 



1908. The Circular Staircase introduced Mary Roberts Rinehart, one of 
the most popular of all mystery story writers. 
Anne of Green Gables by L. M. Montgomery. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1908. Over 50,000 motorcars manufactured in the United States. 
Automobile brake (four-wheel) invented and patented by Otto 
Zachraw and William Besserdick of Wisconsin. 

Airplane flight of one-hour duration made Sept. 9 by Orville Wright 
in a Wright airplane. 

First water supply to be purified chemically with chlorine com- 
pounds was in Jersey City, New Jersey. Previously used slow sand 
filtration, introduced to the United States about 1870. 
First Pan American Scientific Congress met at Santiago, Chile. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1909. Jan. 1. New Y.M.C.A. building at Witherell and Adams first 
occupied. 

Feb. 20. Hudson Motor Car Company incorporated. 

May. City Plan and Improvement Commission created by Common 

Council. 

July. New bathhouse and bathing beach opened at Belle Isle. 

Oct. Pay scale in auto factories ranged from 9^ per hour for 

unskilled men to 40^ per hour for experienced. 

Construction of the Ford Motor Company's plant in Highland 

Park begun. Completed and placed in operation near the end of 

1910. 

First concrete rural road laid in Wayne County, Michigan. One 

mile paved on Woodward between Six and Seven Mile Roads. 

Woodward Highway paved to Pontiac by 1916. Improvement of 

Grand River as U. S. Highway 16 began around 1908. 

World History 

1909. Albert I succeeded his uncle as King of the Belgians. 
Mar. 4. William H. Taft inaugurated as President. 
Apr. 6. Rear Admiral Robert E. Peary reached North Pole. Popu- 
larly accepted but questioned by experts. 
First domestic relations court in Buffalo, N. Y. 

209 



1909- First credit union organized in the United States. 

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People 

founded. 

Lincoln replaced Indian head on penny. 

Alaska- Yukon-Pacific Exposition in Seattle, Washington. 

Cultural Progress 
1909. Hobble skirts the latest feminine fashion. 

Psychoanalysis introduced to the American public at a symposium 

at Clark University in which Freud and Jung participated. 

The first group of Girl Guides founded in England. 

Carrie Nation carried on her dry crusade. 

George W. Bellows' popular painting "Stag at Sharkey's," one 

of his prizefight pictures. 

Popular plays and stars: John Barrymore in The Fortune Hunters; 

Lillian Russell in The Widow's Might; Forbes-Robertson in Passing 

of the Third Floor Back. 

Vaudeville headliners: W. C. Fields; Nora Bayes and Jack Nor- 

worth; Blanche Ring singing "Waltz Me Around Again Willie"; 

Sophie Tucker and the "Cubanola Glide." 

Al Jolson sang his first mammy song in blackface. In 1911 he began 

starring in the Winter Garden shows. 

New songs: "By the Light of the Silvery Moon"; "Casey Jones"; 

"Heaven Will Protect the Working Girl"; "I Wonder Who's 

Kissing Her Now"; "Put on Your Old Gray Bonnet." 

9,000 film theaters in the United States. The first three-reel feature, 

Buffalo Bill, was made. 

Selma Lagerlof of Sweden became the first woman to win the Nobel 

Prize in literature. 

A Girl of the Limberlost by Gene Stratton Porter. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1909- Paul Ehrlich discovered Salvarsan, the chemical which could destroy 
bacilli of syphilis. Fritz Schandinn had isolated the syphilis parasite 
in 1905. August von Wassermann in 1906 provided a reliable diag- 
nosis with his blood test. Ehrlich's discovery started the search for 
chemicals which would fight disease germs. 

Blood groupings determined by Karl Landsteiner. Made blood 
transfusions safe. 

210 



1909. Plastic which was named "Bakelite" patented by Dr. Leo Hendrik 
Baekeland of Yonkers, New York. He had invented the "heat and 
pressure" process for controlling reaction of phenol and formalde- 
hyde in 1906. First man-made plastic. Basis of present huge plastics 
industry. 

Louis Bleriot flew a monoplane across the English Channel, July 25. 
Commercial production of airplanes began. Wright Company was 
incorporated with factory in Dayton and Glenn L. Martin Company 
incorporated in California. 

Outboard motor developed by Ole Evinrude in Milwaukee, Wis- 
consin. 

American Cyanamid Company began commercial production of 
cyanamide at their Niagara Falls, Ontario plant. 
First "in-a-door" beds made by Murphy Door Bed Company in 
San Francisco. 

Charles Nicolle demonstrated that typhus is transmitted by body 
lice. Verified by H. T. Ricketts and R. M. Wilder with Mexican 
typhus in 1910. In 1915 Dr. Harry Platz discovered the typhus 
bacillus and produced a vaccine against the disease. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1910. Detroit population 465,766. Ranked 9th in size among United 
States cities. 

Special education in the Detroit schools was among the earliest in 

the nation. A class for crippled children, one for the correction of 

defective speech, and open-air classes were opened during the year. 

In September the Department of Special Education was organized. 

The Binet-Simon mental test was first used in November to 

classify backward children and hence provide for their special 

training. 

Parke, Davis & Company pioneered a profit-sharing and old-age 

pension plan. 

June 20. Detroit Industrial Exposition opened. 

July 14. First airplane flight in Detroit. Arch Hoxsey flew his 

biplane at Fair Grounds. 

Aug. 1. Jessie Bonstelle Stock Company opened its first theatrical 

season in Detroit at the Garrick Theater with a presentation of 

The White Sister. 

Sept. 5. First primary election in Michigan. 

211 



1910. Michigan Central tunnel under Detroit River to Windsor first 
used by freight trains, September 18. Passenger trains began use 
October 15. Tunnel was started October 1, 1906. 
Oct. 28. Detroit Rotary Club organized. 

World History 

1910. United States population 91,972,266. Center of population in 
Bloomington, Indiana. 

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace established. 
Postal savings authorized by Congress. 

May 6. Edward VII died; accession of George V as King of Great 
Britain. 

May 31. Union of South Africa established. 
Oct. 5. Portuguese Republic proclaimed. 

Cultural Progress 

1910. Tailored suits the universal favorite with women. Narrow hobble 
skirts and loose blouses with kimono sleeves also fashionable. 
Christy Mathewson the pitching ace of the Giants. 
Ty Cobb won American League batting championship. Held it 
through 1919 except for 1916 when Tris Speaker led. 
Founding of Drama League of America gave impetus to community 
Little Theater movement. 

Popular plays: Chocolate Soldier; Marie Dressier in Time's Night- 
mare; Otis Skinner in Your Humble Servant. 
Diaghileff 's Ballet Russe had great success in Paris. The first Ameri- 
can appearance of this ballet company was in 1916. 
Anna Pavlova, the famous Russian ballet dancer, made her New 
York debut on March 1 and then toured the United States and 
Canada with her company. Her best-known solo dance was "The 
Dying Swan," and she is credited with popularizing the classical 
ballet in America. 

Popular songs: "Come, Josephine, in My Flying Machine"; "Ah! 
Sweet Mystery of Life"; "Down by the Old Mill Stream"; "Let 
Me Call You Sweetheart"; "A Perfect Day"; "Steamboat Bill." 
Newspaper "funnies" included "Mutt and Jeff" by Bud Fisher. 
Ethelbert Nevin's song "The Rosary" was the popular favorite and 
it was used in the plot of the year's best-selling novel The Rosary 
by Florence Barclay. 

212 



1910. Boy Scouts of America incorporated. 

Justice, John Galsworthy's drama produced in London, Feb. 21, 

made such a great impression that certain important reforms in 

prison administration can be traced to it. 

Pathe Weekly, first newsreel shown in the United States. Exhibited 

in Paris in 1909. 
1910-1915. Full, gathered skirts became shorter; were 6 inches off the 

floor. Suits had boxy coats trimmed with bands of fur. Many 

dresses had an overblouse with wide armholes and deep neckline. 

Boleros a popular new style. Small high crowned hats trimmed 

with many plumes. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1910. 33-2 percent of all persons gainfully employed in the United States 
were engaged in agriculture. 

Halley's comet reappeared. Next visit should be in 1986. 

Artificial fertilization of eggs of sea urchins by means of chemicals 

performed by Jacques Loeb. 

Gene theory announced by Thomas Hunt Morgan as result of his 

experiments with the fruit fly DrosopMa. The theory holds that 

hereditary characters are transmitted by genes in the chromosomes. 

Morgan received the 1933 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine 

for his work in heredity. 

First completely automatic bread-making plant opened by Ward 

Baking Company in Chicago. 

Artificial silk (rayon) first commercially produced by American 

Viscose Company. 

Synthetic rubber fabricated by R. B. Earle and L. P. Kyriokides 

working for Hood Rubber Company. This process for butadiene not 

commercialized. Germany made much progress in synthetic rubber 

during 1914-18 war. 

Trackless trolley first operated in California from Laurel Canyon 

to Los Angeles Pacific Electric Railway terminal about lYz miles. 

Milking machine came into use. 

United States Mines Bureau established. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1911. White traffic lines to designate lanes first painted on River Road 
near Trenton, Michigan, under direction of Wayne County Road 

213 (continued on following page) 



Commissioner Edward N. Hines to provide a "center line safety 
stripe." First in the United States. 

Detroit College reorganized as University of Detroit. Chartered 
January 10. 

Jan. 15. Detroit Tuberculosis Sanatorium on Twelfth Street dedi- 
cated. 

Mar. Juvenile Detention Home opened. 

Mar. Steamer Put-in-Bay launched at Wyandotte. 

May 1. Herman Kiefer Hospital for contagious diseases opened. 

Sept. 18. President William Howard Taft welcomed to Detroit. 

Had also visited the city in February, 1908. 

Nov. 3. Chevrolet Motor Company incorporated. Became part of 
General Motors in 1918. Plant moved from Buffalo to Flint. 

Dec. Detroit Zoological Society organized. 

Merging of the Wholesalers and Manufacturers' Association with 
the Board of Commerce. 

St. Paul's Episcopal Cathedral at Woodward and Hancock dedicated. 

World History 

1911. May. Diaz dictatorship overthrown in Mexico. Francisco Madero 
became President. Era of revolutions followed. 

June-Nov. Second Morocco international crisis when Germany 
sent gunboat Panther to Agadir. 

1911-1912. Tripolitan war between Italy and Turkey. Sept. 28, 1911, 
Italy seized Tripoli (Libya). Oct. 18, 1912, treaty gave Libya to 
Italy. 

1911. Oct. Chinese Revolution. Dec., Sun-Yat-Sen elected President and 
Republic proclaimed. Emperor abdicated Feb. 12, 1912. 

Dec. 14. Explorer Roald Amundsen reached South Pole. 

National Progressive Republican League organized under Robert 
LaFollette's leadership. 

Illinois adopted first state law for assistance to mothers with 

dependent children. 

California became the first state to establish a maximum 8-hour day 

and 48 -hour week for women. 

Carnegie Corporation for promotion of philanthropy and education 

established. 

214 



Cultural Progress 

1911. Arnold Gesell founded the Child Development Clinic at Yale 
University. 

Popular plays and stars: Maude Adams in Chanticleer; David War- 
field in Return of Peter Grimm by David Belasco; George Arliss in 
Disraeli. 

Ragtime was the musical craze and Irving Berlin's "Alexander's 
Ragtime Band" swept the country. Ragtime dances such as the 
turkey trot became popular. 

Kathleen Norris joined America's popular authors with Mother. 
Harold Bell Wright kept his following with The Winning of 
Barbara Worth. 

The Broad Highway by Jeffery Farnol led the best sellers and indi- 
cated the lasting popularity of the historical novel. His The 
Amateur Gentleman was a best seller of 1913. 
New York Public Library at 42 d Street and Fifth Avenue opened 
May 23. (See also 1895) 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1911. Ernest Rutherford presented theory of the atomic nucleus. He had 
received 1908 Nobel Prize for his studies on radioactive trans- 
formations of matter. 

Neon tube invented by George Claude of Paris. United States 
patent granted 1915. 

Dissolution of Standard Oil Company and American Tobacco Com- 
pany as trusts ordered by Supreme Court. Enunciated "rule of 
reason" doctrine. 

"Cracking" process developed to increase amount of gasoline 
obtained from crude oil. 

Gyrocompass built by E. A. Sperry successfully tried on ships. This 
device made possible correct navigation in steel ships. Sperry also 
developed the gyrostabilizer and gyropilot. 

Machine gun for rapid continuous firing invented by Isaac N. 
Lewis. Important weapon for the allied armies during World War I. 
First transcontinental airplane flight made by C. P. Rogers. Left 
New York Sept. 17 and reached Pasadena Nov. 5. Actual flying 
time of 3 days, 10 hours, 4 minutes. First east-bound transcontinental 
flight made by Robert G. Fowler who left Los Angeles Oct. 19 and 
reached Jacksonville, Florida, Feb. 8, 1912. 

215 



1911. First successful hydroplane flown by its inventor, Glenn H. Curtiss, 
at San Diego on Jan. 26. Provided a flying machine that could land 
on water. 

Electric self-starter offered to public by Cadillac Motor Car Com- 
pany. Patented by Charles F. Kettering as an "engine-starting 
device." 

Selden patent held not infringed because it described Brayton cycle 
while all autos run on Otto cycle. 

First 500-mile Indianapolis Speedway Auto Race held May 30. 
Eoanthropus, the "dawn-man," fossil remains discovered near 
Piltdown in Sussex, England. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1912. Census Bureau placed Michigan first in manufacture of automobiles. 
Feb. 5. Sir Robert Baden-Powell feted in Detroit by Boy Scouts. 
Also in 1926. 

Mar. 15. Workmen's Compensation Act passed by Michigan legis- 
lature. Effective September 1. 

Apr. 20. Navin Field dedicated for baseball. 

July 2 2 -2 6. Cadillaqua celebration. 

First class for the blind established in Detroit public schools in the 

Clinton school. 

Oct. 19- Livingstone Channel in lower Detroit River opened after 

more than four years work. Eleven miles long. Cost ten million 

dollars. 

World History 

1912. Sultan of Morocco accepted French protectorate. 
1912-1913. First Balkan War. Bulgaria, Serbia, and Greece versus Turkey. 
1912. Korea formally annexed to Japan and renamed Chosen. 

Steamship Titanic sunk by an iceberg, Apr. 15. 

New Mexico and Arizona admitted as states. 

Alaska given Territorial status. 

United States Marines used in Cuba, Nicaragua, Honduras, and 

other Latin American countries to protect American interests. This 

policy labeled "dollar diplomacy." 

Progressive Party organized. 

Presidential campaign. June 22, Taft renominated by Republicans. 

216 



1912. July 2. Wilson nominated by Democrats. Aug. 7, Theodore Roose- 
velt nominated by Progressive Party. 

U. S. Children's Bureau established to investigate all problems 
concerning the general welfare of children. 

Massachusetts adopted the first minimum-wage law for women and 
minors. 
Capt. R. F. Scott expedition reached South Pole, Jan. 16. 

Cultural Progress 

1912. Skirts featured hip interest peg-top, tiered, or draped. Slashed 
skirt introduced. 

Olympic Games held in Stockholm, Sweden. Jim Thorpe won both 
the pentathlon and decathlon but was disqualified for not being an 
amateur. 

Woolworth Building constructed in New York. Cass Gilbert, 
architect. 

Painting "September Morn" caused a sensation. 

#.1912. The Expressionist movement in painting began in Germany. To 
communicate intense emotion the "expressionists" freely sacrificed 
the outward appearance of objects and their normal relationships 
and painted distorted forms in clanging color. 

1912. Montague Glass' popular short stories Potash and Perlmutter 
became an equally popular stage play. 

The Firefly, operetta by Rudolf Friml performed. His popular 
musical Rose Marie was presented in 1924 and the Vagabond 
King in 1925. 

Nijinsky caused a sensation in the leading role of the ballet After- 
noon of a Faun, in Paris, May 29. 

Vernon and Irene Castle began their career as the most popular 
dance team of the times. They revolutionized ballroom dancing by 
originating or developing dances such as the one-step, turkey trot, 
tango, Castle walk, hesitation waltz, Castle maxixe, and others. 
New songs: "My Melancholy Baby"; "It's a Long, Long Way to 
Tipperary"; "The Sweetheart of Sigma Chi." 
13,000 movie theaters in the United States. Adolph Zukor formed 
Famous Players and adopted multiple-reel feature and star system. 
Mack Sennett formed the Keystone Company and began producing 
comedies featuring slapstick and bathing beauties. 
Queen Elizabeth, produced in France and starring Sarah Bernhardt, 

217 (continued on following page) 



was exhibited at Lyceum Theater in New York. It established the 

motion picture as a work of art. 

Gene Stratton Porter's The Harvester topped the best sellers for 

the second year. 

Poetry: A Magazine of Verse edited by Harriet Monroe established 

in Chicago. This little magazine was the organ of all "new poetry" 

movements. 

Daddy -Long-Legs by Jean Webster. Also popular was her Dear 

Enemy published in 1916. 

Juliette Low organized the first Girl Scout troop in the United 

States in Savannah, Georgia. 

Camp Fire Girls organized. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1912. Frederick G. Hopkins proved by quantitative methods the nutri- 
tional necessity for the substances found in natural foods now called 
vitamins. Casimir Funk founded vitamin theory. Obtained crys- 
talline material which cured beri-beri in birds and named it anti- 
beri-beri vitamin. Predicted existence of other vitamins preventive 
of scurvy, rickets, and pellagra. 

Existence of isotopes demonstrated by Frederick Soddy. 
Flexner's antitoxin for cerebro-spinal meningitis presented. 

First Nobel Prize in Medicine awarded to an American was to 

Dr. Alexis Carrel for his work on grafting of blood vessels and 

organs. 

Beginning of American motorbus network. A. L. Hayes established 

the Pickwick Line, later absorbed by the Greyhound System. (See 

also 1926) 

Detroit and Michigan 

1913. Amendment to Michigan Constitution provided for principles of 
initiative, referendum, and recall. 

State legislature passed act providing for school board of seven 
school inspectors elected at large. Adopted by Detroit electors 
November 7, 1916. 

Mar. 26. Himelhoch Brothers new store opened. 
Apr. 7. Detroit voters favored charter change providing for munici- 
pal ownership of street railways after state constitution was amended 
to permit city to operate street railway. 

218 



1913. Apr. 7. Adoption of city charter amendment for Civil Service 
Commission. State civil service law enacted 1937. 
Sept. 12. Celebration on Detroit River of centennial of Com- 
modore Perry's victory on Lake Erie. 

Dec. 26. New Michigan Central Railroad station opened. Dedica- 
tion scheduled for January 4, 1914, canceled when old station at 
Third and Jefferson burned. 

World History 
1913. Jan. 1. Parcel post service inaugurated (authorized 1912). 

Feb. 25. Sixteenth Amendment to United States Constitution 

adopted. Provided for federal income tax. 

Mar. 4. Woodrow Wilson inaugurated as President. 

Mar. 4. United States Department of Labor established. 

May 31. Seventeenth Amendment to Constitution, providing for 
direct popular election of senators, declared in effect. 

Sept. 2 3 -Dec. 10, 1914. Strike at Colorado Fuel and Iron Company 
over recognition of United Mine Workers. 

Rockefeller Foundation established. 

Peace Palace, gift of Andrew Carnegie, dedicated at The Hague. 

Second Balkan War. Rumania, Serbia, and Greece versus Bulgaria. 

King George I of Greece assassinated. Crown Prince Constantine 
succeeded him. 

Cultural Progress 

1913. Notre Dame University entered "big-time" football by defeating 
the Army team 35-13 using the forward pass. Knute Rockne starred 
as a player in the game. 

European art "isms" displayed at the Armory Show in New York 
City. Marcel Duchamp's "Nude Descending a Staircase" was the 
sensation of this exhibit. 

Pygmalion, drama by George Bernard Shaw. 

Peg 0' My Heart, with Laurette Taylor; Within the Law, with 

Jane Cowl; Seven Keys to Baldpate were popular plays. 

Songs: "The Curse of an Aching Heart"; "There's a Long, Long 

Trail." 

Film favorites: William Farnum, Mabel Taliaferro, Florence Nash. 
The Squaw Man was the first film production of the Jesse L. Lasky 

219 (continued on following page) 



Feature Play Company. Lasky's associates were Cecil B. DeMille 
and Samuel Goldwyn. 

Rabindranath Tagore, Indian poet, awarded the Nobel Prize. 
Robert Bridges made Poet Laureate of England. 
Sons and Lovers by D. H. Lawrence. 

First part of Remembrance of Things Past by Marcel Proust pub- 
lished in France. Finished 1925. 

Winston Churchill again headed the best-seller lists with The 
Inside of the Cup as he had headed them in 1901, 1904, 1906, 1908. 
Pollyanna by Eleanor H. Porter made first appearance and gained 
immediate success. 

Laddie by Gene Stratton Porter marked her continued popularity. 
She was one of America's most widely-read authors. 

1913-1920. During this period abstract art developed as experiments 
were carried on almost simultaneously in Russia, Paris, and Holland. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1913. Niels Bohr of Denmark contributed greatly to knowledge of atomic 
structure. He received the Nobel Prize in 1922 for his work in 
physics. 

Spectroscopic measurement of distance of stars developed by Harlow 
Shapley. 

Process for synthetic production of ammonia devised by Fritz 
Haber of Germany. Large-scale production worked out by Karl 
Bosch. Important in production of nitric acid for industry and 
explosives. Haber received Nobel Prize for this work in 1918. 
Existence of Vitamin A clearly recognized by its effect. Experiments 
conducted by Elmer V. McCollum and M. Davis and by Thomas 
B. Osborne and Lafayette B. Mendel. Chemically analyzed in 1933 
by P. Karrer in Switzerland. 

Test for determining susceptibility to diphtheria devised by Dr. 
Bela Schick. 

Lincoln Highway opened. First coast-to-coast paved road. 
Woolworth Building completed in New York City. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1914. Women employed in offices earned an average of $1.81 per day 
in Michigan. 

220 



1914. Ford Motor Company announced $5 per day minimum- wage scale 
(January 5) and acquired River Rouge plant location. 
Ford Motor Company developed assembly-line principle. The first 
complete endless-chain conveyor for final assembly was installed 
in the Highland Park plant on January 14, 1914. Other practices 
inaugurated by Ford were: the standardization of parts; requiring 
dealers to maintain standards of service set by the company; manu- 
facturing the parts for the Ford car instead of purchasing them from 
subcontractors. 

Dodge Motor Company founded by John and Horace Dodge. 
Incorporated July 17. 

Detroit Orchestra organized and led by Weston Gales in concert 
at Detroit Opera House, February 26. Detroit Symphony Society or- 
ganized. Marked beginning of modern Detroit Symphony Orchestra. 
Mar. Clarence M. Burton deeded his great collection of research 
materials on Detroit, Michigan, and the Old Northwest, to the 
Detroit Public Library where it is now known as the Burton 
Historical Collection. 

1914-1915. Winter of general depression. Much unemployment. 

World History 
1914. Aug. 15. Panama Canal opened. 

Federal Trade Commission Act to regulate unfair business practices. 
Clayton Anti-Trust Act. 
Benedict XV became Pope. 

June 28. Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria- 
Hungary at Sarajevo. 

July 28. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. 
Aug. 1. Germany declared war on Russia. 
Aug. 3. Germany declared war on France and invaded Belgium. 
Aug. 4. Great Britain entered war against Germany. 
Aug. 4. United States proclaimed her neutrality in European war. 
Sept. 5-12. Battle of the Marne. 
Dec. 18. Egypt proclaimed a British protectorate. 

Cultural Progress 
1914. Billy Sunday began his career as an evangelist. 

First auction bridge championship held at Lake Placid, New York. 

221 



1914. Milton C. Work's book Auction Bridge Today was a best seller 
of 1913-1914. 

Tango became the popular dance, especially as performed by 
Vernon and Irene Castle. 

Popular plays: Chin Chin; Daddy-Long Legs; It Pays to Advertise; 

The Outcast with Elsie Ferguson. 

Vaudeville headliners: Fannie Brice, Four Marx Brothers. 

Popular songs: "They Didn't Believe Me," by Jerome Kern; "Can't 

Yo' Hear Me Callin', Caroline"; "I Want To Go Back To Michigan 

Down on the Farm," by Irving Berlin; "Missouri Waltz"; "St. 

Louis Blues," by W. C. Handy. 

Rise of "deluxe" motion-picture houses such as Roxy's Strand in 

New York. 

Theda Bara starred in Destruction. Mack Sennett's Keystone-cop 

and pie-throwing comedies were popular. William S. Hart started 

making pictures and became king of the western stars. Million 

Dollar Mystery was a successful serial. Mary Pickford was a top star 

and Charlie Chaplin turned to the movies from vaudeville. 

New Republic established. 

Tarzan of the Apes by Edgar Rice Burroughs began his phenomenal 

career. 

Penrod by Booth Tarkington. 

Several famous poems appeared, including "North of Boston," by 

Robert Frost and "The Congo" by Vachel Lindsay, but none to rival 

"Trees" by Joyce Kilmer as a popular favorite. 

Best-selling authors were the old favorites: Harold Bell Wright, 

Eleanor H. Porter, Winston Churchill, William J. Locke, Frances 

Hodgson Burnett, George Barr McCutcheon. 

Smith-Lever Agricultural Extension Act provided for instruction 

and practical demonstrations in agriculture and home economics 

to farmers and their families. The cornerstone of the agricultural 

education structure. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1914. Thyroxine, the extract of the thyroid used to treat thyroid inactivity, 
crystallized as pure substance by Edward C. Kendall of Mayo Clinic. 
First important use of airplanes in warfare. Aviation section created 
within Army Signal Corps. This was first United States Army Air 
Service. 

222 



1914. Federal Reserve Bank System began operation. 

The last passenger pigeon died in the Cincinnati Zoological Garden. 
It was formerly perhaps the most numerous of all birds in America. 



Detroit and Michigan 

1915. Feb. 6. Hotel Statler opened. Construction began July 2, 1913. 

Feb. 1. Merger of Detroit News and the Tribune. James E. Scripps, 
owner of the News, had also controlled latter paper since 1891. 
Apr. 27. Belle Isle Bridge burned. 

Oct. 1. Henry Ford Hospital opened. Not completed until after 
World War I. 

Oct. 12. Municipal Receiving Hospital opened. 
Detroit Athletic Club House opened. 

Postgraduate high school training first offered by Board of Educa- 
tion at Central High School. Developed into a junior college 
(authorized by state law in 1917) and eventually became Wayne 
University. 

Roy A. Fruehauf and his son Harvey built a trailer with hard rubber 
tires and open slat sides. The first modern truck trailer in Detroit. 
The Fruehauf Trailer Company is now the nation's leading manu- 
facturer of such vans. 

World History 

1915. United States Coast Guard created by combining Revenue Cutter 
Service (1790) and Life Saving Service (1878). 
United States public debt lowest since Civil War: $1,191,264,000; 
$11.83 per capita. 

Eastland, steamer, overturned in Chicago River. 812 dead. 
Panama-Pacific International Exposition at San Francisco. 
Kiwanis International founded. 

May 7. Ship Lusitania torpedoed and sunk by Germans. 
Oct. 13. Worst zeppelin raids on England. 

Cultural Progress 
1915. Jess Willard knocked out Jack Johnson in Havana. 

Song "Hello Frisco" celebrated opening of New York-San Francisco 
telephone line. Other popular songs were: "Keep the Home Fires 

223 (continued on following page) 



Burning"; "Memories"; "The Sunshine of Your Smile"; "Roses of 
Picardy." 

D. W. Griffith produced Birth of a Nation among first ten box- 
office film hits of all time. 

Wallace Reid, one of the most popular male stars the screen has 
ever known, played with Lillian Gish in Enoch Arden. 
17,000 film theaters in the United States. 
Of Human Bondage by W. Somerset Maugham. 
Spoon River Anthology by Edgar Lee Masters. 
The Turmoil by Booth Tarkington topped the fiction best-seller list. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1915. Transcontinental telephone went into service when Alexander 
Graham Bell in New York again called T. A. Watson this time 
in San Francisco. 

Transatlantic radio telephone demonstrated. 

Dr. Joseph Goldberger of the United States Public Health Service 

proved experimentally that pellagra was caused by a deficiency of 

Vitamin B. 

Richard Willstatter received Nobel Prize for his studies of color 

in plants especially on chlorophyll. Basic to knowledge of living 

organisms. He also prepared pure chlorophyll. 

Carrel-Dakin antiseptic treatment of infected wounds first used. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1916. July 9- Thirty-first regiment, Michigan Infantry, left Camp Gray- 
ling for Texas to guard the Mexican border. 

July. President Wilson visited Detroit. 

Sept. 10. Billy Sunday opened Detroit revival campaign. 

Oct. 25. Henry Ford Trade School opened. 

Nov. State-wide prohibition adopted in Michigan to take effect 

May 1, 1918. 

First registered Girl Scout troop in Michigan organized in Detroit. 

Local council organized in 1920. 

Municipal court building at Macomb and St. Antoine completed. 

World History 

1916. Feb. 21. Beginning of Battle of Verdun. 
May 31- June 1. Naval Battle of Jutland. 

224 



1916. July 1-Nov. 18. Battle of the Somme. 

Dec. 7-10. David Lloyd George chosen wartime Prime Minister 
of Great Britain. 

Apr. 24-30. Irish Sinn Fein revolt against British rule. 

Nov. 21. Emperor Francis Joseph of Austria-Hungary died. Suc- 
ceeded by Charles. 

Dec. 30. Rasputin assassinated in Russia. 

Punitive expedition against Villa into Mexico led by Pershing. 

National Park Service established by Congress to care for national 
parks and monuments. 

Bombing during San Francisco Preparedness Day parade July 22. 
Tom Mooney arrested and later convicted. 

Munitions explosion on Black Tom Island, New Jersey, July 30. 

First federal child labor law passed. Declared unconstitutional June 
3, 1918. 

Adamson Act established 8-hour day on interstate railroads. 

Cultural Progress 

1916. Professional Golfers Association formed and held its first tourna- 
ment. 

Movies featured: Theda Bara, Mae Marsh, Clara Kimball Young, 
Pearl White, Mary Pickford, C. Aubrey Smith, Francis X. Bush- 
man, Anita Stewart, Norma and Constance Talmadge, Richard 
Bennett, Billie Burke. 

Griffith's Intolerance was released in the fall. Its settings and crowd 
scenes served as the model for other spectacle films. 
Seventeen by Booth Tarkington began its popularity by heading 
the best-seller list of novels and becoming a hit play. 

Carl Sandburg with Chicago Poems pleased the critics and the 
public. 

H. G. Wells helped Americans understand the war with the influ- 
ential Mr. Britling Sees It Through. It led the best sellers in 1917. 
Harold Bell Wright with When a Man's a Man and Eleanor H. 
Porter with Just David kept their place on the best-seller lists and 
were joined by a new author destined for comparable popularity 
Ethel M. Dell. 

1916-1922. Dadaist movement in art. 

225 



Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1916. National Research Council established by the National Academy 
of Sciences. 

Twin-motored plane developed by Igor Sikorsky. Beginning of 
multi-motored airplanes needed for commercial transport or for 
bombing. 

Submachine gun invented by General J. T. Thompson. 
Armored military vehicle or tank invented by Major-General E. D. 
Swinton of British Army. First used in Battle of Somme, Sept. 15, 
1916. 

Process for stainless or rustless steel (containing chromium) pat- 
ented in England by Brearley. 
United States Tariff Commission established. 
Federal grants- in-aid to states for highway construction authorized. 
National Park Service created. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1917. Feb. 3. Saxon Motor Plant destroyed by fire. 

July. Board of Commerce directors discussed means to provide 
proper housing for Negroes coming to Detroit. 
July. Self ridge air field opened near Mt. Clemens. 
Oct. 3. Detroit's first "meatless day." 

Nov. 2. Cornerstone laid for new main Public Library on Wood- 
ward at Kirby. 

Dec. 2. Streetcar fares raised from three cents to five cents by 
Detroit United Railway. 

Dec. 28. Ossip Gabrilowitsch made debut as guest conductor of 
Detroit Symphony. On May 14, 1918, signed contract as regular 
conductor for the Orchestra. 

Children's Museum sponsored by Detroit Museum of Art and 
Board of Education. In 1925 came under jurisdiction of Board of 
Education entirely. In 1936 moved into building at Cass and 
Merrick. 
First seven stories of Telephone Building erected. 

1917-1918. Michigan sent about 175,000 men into armed forces during 
World War of whom about 65,000 were from Detroit and Wayne 
County. 
Michigan National Guard organized into 32nd Division of U. S. 

226 



Army. Named Red Arrow Division. Reached France February 8, 
1918, and was in combat by May 18. Returned to New York, May 
5, 1919. 

1917. Michigan State Constabulary organized to guard strategic war 
points. State law of 1919 created permanent State Police. 
Nov. 1918, Feb. Fuel shortage in Michigan. On December 22 
manufacturing plants except munitions factories, suspended opera- 
tions to save fuel. January 21, 1918, was first of ten consecutive 
heatless Mondays. On January 22 all Detroit businesses except 
hotels, restaurants, and drug stores closed for five days to save fuel. 
Acute coal shortage in February caused closing of schools. 

1917-1918. Millions subscribed to Liberty Loans and Red Cross. Detroit 
oversubscribed its quota in all drives. 

World History 
1917. Feb. 1. Germany began unrestricted submarine warfare. 

Mar. 4. Woodrow Wilson inaugurated as President for second 
term. 

Mar. 15. Tsar Nicholas II abdicated. New Provisional Government 
in power in Russia. 

Apr. 6. United States declared war on Germany. 
May 2. First Liberty Loan Drive began. Fourth Liberty Loan offered 
Sept. 28, 1918. All oversubscribed, as was Victory Loan of 1919. 
June 13. First United States troops embarked for France. 
July 20. Drawing of draft numbers under Selective Service Act. 
First number drawn was 258. 

Nov. 2. Balfour declaration favoring Palestine as Jewish national 
home. 

Nov. 7. (old style Oct. 25) Bolsheviks overthrew Kerensky gov- 
ernment in Russia. Lenin and Trotsky in power. 
Dec. 8. General Allenby occupied Jerusalem. 
Virgin Islands purchased by United States from Denmark. 
Miriam "Ma" Ferguson became the first woman governor when 
Texas elected her after her husband's removal. 
International Association of Lions Clubs founded. 

Cultural Progress 

1917. Appearance of the chemise-type dress one-piece, slipped on over 
head, round or boat neckline, short kimono sleeves, no trimming, 

227 (continued on following page) 



no fastenings, worn with narrow belt at the hips. Simplicity and 

freedom pleasing to women who worked. 

Lilac Time with Jane Cowl was a Broadway hit play. 

Vaudeville favorites: Lou Holtz, Blossom Seeley, Benny Fields. 

"Goodbye, Broadway, Hello France" and "Smiles" were the popular 

songs of these wartime days. 

Movie favorites: Douglas Fairbanks, William S. Hart, Charles Ray, 

Enid Bennett, William Desmond, Polly Moran, Fatty Arbuckle, 

Mae Murray, Harry Carey. Theda Bara's career reached its climax 

when she appeared as Cleopatra. 

The Clever Dummy, movie with Ben Turpin. Thanks to a pair of 

crossed eyes, Turpin grew to be one of Sennett's most popular 

comedians. 

War books were immensely popular, none more so than Ian Hay's 

The First Hundred Thousand and Arthur Empey's Over the Top. 

Federal Board for Vocational Education created. 

1917-1918. Alan Seeger's poem "I Have a Rendezvous with Death" was 
popular as was Robert Service's Rhymes of a Red Cross Man. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1917. Most severe epidemic of influenza the world has ever known. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1918. Jan. War bread appeared in Detroit. 

Feb. 20. Detroit Patriotic Fund organized for centralized war 
relief work. 

Women employed as mail carriers, April 24. Detroit had 25 by 
June 20. Detroit United Railway began to employ women as con- 
ductors in September. Some 200,000 women in Wayne County 
over 16 years of age registered for war work in May. 
Central Standard Time adopted March 27. Eastern Standard Time 
adopted in October. 

Board of Education took over Detroit College of Medicine and 
Surgery and made it a municipal institution. Now Wayne Uni- 
versity School of Medicine. 

May 20. Katharine Cornell appeared in first role with Jessie 
Bonstelle Stock Company in Detroit. 
June 7. Fort Shelby Hotel opened. 

New Detroit city charter adopted at election of June 25. First non- 
228 



partisan election held November 5. Ward system abolished and 

nine-man Common Council elected on city-wide basis. Non-partisan 

government took office January, 1919. 

Aug. 10. Detroiters objected to paying 6^ fare on streetcar. 

Oct. Flour selling as high as $2.10 a sack and cold storage eggs up 

to 65^ a dozen. 

Nov. 11. Unprecedented civic demonstration over Armistice. 

Detroit Museum of Art became a city institution. New city charter 

provided for municipal Arts Commission. 

Detroit branch of Federal Reserve Bank opened. 

1918-1919. Influenza epidemic. Theaters, churches, schools, closed during 
October, 1918. A second epidemic in winter of 1920. 

1918. Sept. 1919, May. 339th Infantry Regiment composed mainly of 
Detroit men served on Murmansk front in Russia. Nicknamed 
"Polar Bears." Returned to United States July 4, 1919. 

World History 
1918. Meatless, wheatless, fuel-less days to conserve food and fuel. 

Jan. 1. Federal government took control of the railroads until 

Mar. 1, 1920. 

Jan. 8. Fourteen Points outlined by President Wilson. 

Mar. 3. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk ended fighting between Russia and 

Germany. 

Apr. 14. Marshal Ferdinand Foch made Commander in Chief of 

Allied armies. 

July 10. Soviet constitution promulgated. July 16, Tsar Nicholas 

II and his family executed. 

July 15-Aug. 7. Second Battle of the Marne. 

Sept. 26-Oct. 15. Battle of Meuse-Argonne. 

Oct. 28. Czechoslovakia proclaimed its independence under Thomas 

Masaryk. 

Nov. 3. Polish Republic proclaimed with Pilsudski as President. 

Nov. 9. Emperor William II of Germany abdicated. Fled to Holland. 

Nov. 11. Armistice. Hostilities ceased on Western Front at 11 a.m. 

Nov. 12. Emperor Charles VII of Austria-Hungary abdicated. 

Austrian Republic proclaimed. 

Nov. 16. Hungary declared her independence. 

229 



1918. Nov. 24. Proclamation of United Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, 
and Slovenes (Yugoslavia). 

Dec. 1. Occupation of Germany by Allied armies began. 
United States public debt $12,243,000,000; $115.65 per capita. 
600% greater than in 1917. 
Influenza epidemic. 

Air-mail postal service established. Introduced May 15 between 
Washington, Philadelphia, and New York City. 

Cultural Progress 
1918. Progressive Education Association organized. 

Songs: "Dear Old Pal of Mine" and "Beautiful Ohio." 

Popular plays: Lightnin' with Frank Bacon began its long run; 

East Is West; Up in Mabel's Room. 

Why Marry?, American comedy by Jesse Lynch Williams, was the 

first play to win the Pulitzer Prize for drama. 

Movie favorites: Tom Mix, Anna Q. Nilsson, Wallace Reid, Mary 

Miles Minter. 

Zane Grey's U. P. Trail topped the best sellers. His position as 

America's leading writer of westerns has been unrivaled and his 

name is practically a synonym for this type of novel. (See also 1906) 

Dere Mable by Edward Streeter was the soldier humor sensation 

of the first World War. 

Best-selling novelists: Mary Roberts Rinehart, Eleanor H. Porter, 

Ethel M. Dell, Ralph Connor, Gene Stratton Porter. 

My Antonia by Willa Gather. 

American Council on Education organized. Leading voluntary 

agency for co-ordinating American educational efforts. 

1918-1919- Women's skirts raised to about six inches below the knee. 
Called "peg-top" because of fullness at waist and hips. Evening 
dresses had fish-tail trains. Hats were large with headline at the 
eyebrows. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1918. Railroad Control Act provided for wartime management of rail- 
roads by the federal government. Telephone and telegraph also 
placed under federal control. 
American Railway Express Company organized as a wartime meas- 

230 



ure. Consolidated all express companies and acted for Director 
General of Railroads. Approved as permanent in 1920. 

Daylight-saving time first put into effect in United States on Mar. 31. 
Long-range artillery first used when German gun, Big Bertha, bom- 
barded Paris at a distance of 76 miles. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1919. "Remembrance Rings" presented by city to each of the men from 
Detroit who served in the armed forces. 

Jan. James Couzens became Mayor. Held the office until Decem- 
ber 5, 1922, when he resigned to enter United States Senate. 
Detroit Council of Churches organized. 

Mar. 5. Detroit women voted for the first time at general primary 
election. 

Mar. 20. Women served as jurors for first time in County Courts. 
May. Average wage paid skilled labor in Detroit $6.26 a day. 

Oct. 23. Detroit Symphony Orchestra conducted by Ossip Gabri- 
lowitsch played first concert in its own new Orchestra Hall, open- 
ing sixth orchestral season. 

Dec. 18. General Pershing visited Detroit. 

Henry Ford sued Chicago Tribune for libel. $1,000,000 damages 
asked. After trial lasting four months (May- August) jury awarded 
Ford 6^ damages and costs. 

1919-1920. "Red" scare in Detroit. Twenty-five aliens deported in July, 
1919. About 500 alien radicals rounded up in January, 1920, and 
held for deportation. 

World, History 

1919. Jan. 18. Peace Conference opened. June 28, Treaty of Versailles 
signed. 

Jan. 29. Prohibition Amendment (18th) to United States Con- 
stitution adopted, effective Jan. 16, 1920. Volstead Act for enforce- 
ment of Prohibition passed Oct. 20. Prohibition of sales of intoxi- 
cating liquors under War Prohibition Act went into effect June 30, 
1919- 

Mar. 2. Third International founded by Communists. Communist 
Party of America formed, Sept. 2. 
July 10 1920, March 19- Struggle in U. S. Senate over Treaty of 

231 (continued on following page) 



Versailles incorporating League of Nations. Defeated. 

July 31. Weimar Constitution adopted for German Republic. 

Sept. 10. Treaty of St. Germain with Austria. 

Nov. 27. Treaty of Neuilly with Bulgaria. 

Dec. 23. Government of India Act providing for dyarchy. 

Mustapha Kemal led Turkish nationalist movement. 
1919-1921. Guerilla warfare in Ireland between Sinn Fein and British 

"Black and Tans." 
1919. Grand Canyon National Park established. 

American Legion organized in Paris. Held first convention in 

St. Louis. 

Wave of strikes in the United States; over four million workers out 

on strike during the year. 

International Labour Organisation created. First session in Wash- 
ington, D. C, Oct. 29. 
1919-1920. "Red hunt." Attorney-General Palmer carried on a campaign 

to seek out and deport alleged radicals or "reds." 

Cultural Progress 

1919. Theater Guild founded in New York. Outgrowth of Washington 
Square Players Art Theater. Began its nation-wide subscription 
series in 1927. 

Smilin' Through with Jane Cowl, a hit play. 

The song "In My Sweet Little Alice Blue Gown" helped make 
Irene the hit musical of the year. 

Movies featured: Tully Marshall, Alma Rubens, Pauline Stark, 
Lillian and Dorothy Gish, Hope Hampton, Lila Lee, Mary Pickford, 
Charles Chaplin, Douglas Fairbanks. 

Griffith's Broken Blossoms, with Lillian Gish and Richard Barthel- 
mess, was one of his most profitable pictures. 
Pour Horsemen of the Apocalypse by V. Blasco Ibafiez headed the 
best sellers. 

Best-selling novelists: Joseph Conrad, Zane Grey, Mary Roberts 
Rinehart, Ralph Connor, Harold Bell Wright, Gene Stratton 
Porter, Robert W. Chambers. 

Temple Bailey joined Kathleen Norris as a favorite with women 
readers. 
Non-fiction best seller was the Education of Henry Adams. 

232 



1919. "In Flanders Fields," poem by John McCrae. 

Jack Dempsey won heavyweight crown from Jess Willard, July 4, 
Toledo, Ohio. 

1919-1920. Man-O'-War won 19 out of 20 horse races. 

1919. The Bauhaus, a German educational and research center for training 
architects, artists, and designers was founded by Walter Gropius in 
Weimar. The Bauhaus exerted a decisive influence on the formation 
of the modern style and became its center in Europe during the next 
decade. Architectural style stressing functional form and design 
emerged. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1919. First crossing of the Atlantic in an airplane by Captain John 
Alcock and Lieutenant Arthur W. Brown who flew from New- 
foundland to Ireland. 

Soo Canals connecting Lakes Superior and Huron completed by 
building of fourth American lock. Original canal at Sault Ste. Marie 
built by state of Michigan in 1855 was taken over by the federal 
government in 1881. The Canadian canal was completed in 1895. 
The Soo is the busiest canal in the world, as the tonnage passing 
through the combined American and Canadian channels exceeds 
that of any other canal. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1920. Detroit's population of 993,678 made it 4th largest city in the 
United States. Population more than doubled in ten years. Detroit 
metropolitan area population numbered 1,165,153. First census to 
show more urban than rural residents in Michigan. 
Nationality groups whose peak immigration to Detroit came during 
the decade 1920-1930 included the Scots, Irish, Norwegians, Swedes, 
and Slovaks. 

134,491 telephone subscribers in the Detroit area. 150% increase 
since 1900. 

Much unemployment in Detroit. Factories closed by general busi- 
ness depression and railroad strike (April). 

House numbering system on Detroit streets revised according to 
block and plat plan. 

Department of Recreation created. Detroit a leader in organized 
public recreation movement. 

233 



1920. Detroit Edison Company office building on Second Avenue con- 
structed. 

Jan. 31. Hotel Pontchartrain closed. National Bank later constructed 
on the Woodward Avenue site. 
Apr. 5. Voters approved Municipal Court reforms. 
Apr. 5. Electors authorized city to acquire, own, and operate a 
street railway system and approved bond issue for its financing. 
May 23. Pennsylvania Railroad started service from Detroit. 
Aug. 17. First air-mail delivery in Detroit; seaplane to Cleveland 
and back. 

Aug. 20. WWJ began commercial broadcasting of regular pro- 
grams. First such radio station in the United States. Licensed 
October 13, 1921. 

Dec. 1. Wayne County Library system established by Detroit 
Public Library and operated under the Detroit Library Commission 
until November 30, 1943, when it was transferred to authority of 
the County Board of Supervisors. 

Gar Wood won his first (of nine such trophies) Harmsworth 
Trophy with his boat Miss America in race off Isle of Wight. Miss 
America II won race in Detroit River the next year. Miss America X 
set new record to win in 1932. 

World History 

1920. United States population 105,710,620. First census in which urban 
population exceeded rural. 

Nineteenth Amendment (Woman Suffrage) to United States Con- 
stitution adopted Aug. 26. 

Women's Bureau established in federal government. 
League of Women Voters organized. 
American trade-union membership totaled 5,110,800. 
Prices "sky high": sugar 19^ lb., flour 8^ lb., butter 70^ lb., round 
steak 39^ lb., eggs 68^ doz., ham 55^. 

Jan. 10. League of Nations came into existence. Assembly met for 
first time on Nov. 15. 

World Court (Permanent Court of International Justice) estab- 
lished under auspices of League of Nations. First session, Jan. 30, 
1922, at the Hague. 

Mandates over German East Africa, Trans jordania, and Palestine 
assigned to Great Britain. 

234 



1920. Mar. 1. Admiral Horthy became regent and dictator of Hungary. 
June 4. Hungary signed Treaty of Trianon. 

1920-1921. Mahatma Gandhi led first civil disobedience and non-co-opera- 
tion campaign in India against British. 

Cultural Progress 

1920's. The basic dress style: straight, boyish silhouette with waistline at 
the hips and hemline near the knee. Silk hose and underwear 
worn by masses for first time. Close-fitting hats. Low shoes now 
worn at all seasons. 

1920. Beginning of the "Flapper Age" characterized by short skirts, 
bright make-up, short hair, flying scarves, loose topcoats, rolled 
stockings. 

Ouija popular. 

William (Bill) T. Tilden, 2d, won United States National Tennis 
Championship and held it through 1925. Regarded as greatest male 
tennis player. 

Rogers Hornsby won first of his six National League batting titles. 

Baseball scandal. Chicago White Sox of 1919 indicted for "throw- 
ing" World Series. In 1921 baseball appointed a High Commis- 
sioner, Kenesaw M. Landis, as a czar to clean up the sport. 

Beyond the Horizon, Eugene O'Neill's tragedy of frustration, was 
his first important full-length play and won the Pulitzer Prize. 

The play Clarence made a new star, Alfred Lunt, and The Green 
Goddess, by William Archer became a hit play for its star, George 
Arliss. 

Marilyn Miller starred in Sally on Broadway. Its popular song was 
"Look for the Silver Lining." 

Vaudeville favorites: Ben Bernie, Olsen and Johnson, Jack Benny, 
Harry Richman, Singers' Midgets, Winnie Lightner, Georgie Price. 

Charlie Chaplin and Jackie Coogan appeared in film The Kid. 
Nanook of the North, Robert Flaherty's documentary film of Eskimo 
life, produced. 

New names on the list of best-selling authors included: Peter B. 
Kyne, James Oliver Curwood, Joseph C. Lincoln. 

This Side of Paradise by F. Scott Fitzgerald brought the "younger 
generation" into the limelight. 

235 



1920. E. Phillips Oppenheim published one of his most popular novels 

of mystery and intrigue, Great Impersonation. 

The Bat, play by Mary Roberts Rinehart, opened its long run, 

Aug. 23. 
1920-1921. Best plays of the season: Liliom by Molnar, Mary Rose by 

James Barrie, Emperor Jones by O'Neill, Skin Game by Galsworthy. 

White Shadows in the South Seas by Frederick O'Brien started a 

new vogue in travel literature. It was joined in 1921 by a second 

book by O'Brien, Mystic Isles of the South Seas. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1920. 26.3 per cent of all persons gainfully employed in the United States 

were engaged in agriculture. 

First commercial radio station to offer regular service was 8MK 
(now WWJ, Detroit) which instituted daily program on Aug. 20. 
KDKA, Pittsburgh, was licensed Oct. 27 and offered semi- weekly 
broadcast from Nov. 1. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1921. Feb. 2. First municipal streetcar operated, St. Jean line. 

Feb. 23. Edward Denby, Detroit lawyer, named Secretary of Navy 

in President-elect Harding's cabinet. 

June 3. New Main Library at Woodward and Kirby dedicated and 

opened for service. Construction began in 1915 but was delayed 

by war. 

July 27. Memorial fountain dedicated in Grand Circus Park in 

honor of General Russell A. Alger. 

Oct. 6. Detroit Times purchased by William R. Hearst. 

Nov. 7. Marshal Foch was accorded an ovation on visit to Detroit. 

Goodwill Industries began operating in Detroit. Originated in 

Boston in 1895. 

General Motors Building completed. Construction began 1919- 

Harry Heilmann of the Detroit Tigers won his first American 

League batting championship. Also in 1923, 1925, 1927. 

World History 

1921. Year marked by much unemployment, business failures, and strikes. 
Mar. 4. Warren G. Harding inaugurated as President. 
July 2. War with Germany and Austria declared ended by Con* 

236 



gressional resolution. Treaty signed Aug. 25 and ratified by U. S. 
Senate on Oct. 18, contained same peace terms as Versailles Treaty 
except omitted League of Nations. 

July 14. Sacco and Vanzetti convicted. Agitation as to their inno- 
cence or guilt in murder of paymaster in Braintree, Massachusetts, 
has continued even beyond their execution on Aug. 23, 1927. 
U. S. Bureau of the Budget created. 
U. S. Veterans' Bureau established. 

Restriction of immigration of aliens into the United States and 
establishment of the national-origin quota system in the Emergency 
Quota Act. Immigration Act of 1924 limited any country's quota 
of immigrants to 2 per cent of its United States residents of that 
national origin in 1890. 
First state sales tax (West Virginia). 
Contraband liquor-running outside three-mile limit. 
Irish Free State given Dominion status in December. 
Mackenzie King became Prime Minister of Canada. 
Nov. 12 1922, Feb. 6. Washington Naval Arms Conference 
adopted 5:5:3 ratio for navies of United States, Britain, and Japan. 

Cultural Progress 

1921. First Atlantic City bathing beauty contest. One-piece form-fitting 
bathing suit adopted. 

Multitudes of young women were bobbing their hair. Bobbed hair 
had been adopted during the war by some women for convenience 
and had been made fashionable by Irene Castle. The shingled, boy- 
ish cut prevailed by the mid-twenties and short hair was the 
accepted fashion. 

Dempsey beat Carpentier at Boyle's Thirty Acres, New Jersey. 
First million-dollar gate and first major fight to be broadcast. 
Professional National Football League organized. 
Broadway plays and stars: Bill of Divorcement by Clemence Dane, 
with Katharine Cornell; Dulcy by George Kaufman, with Lynn 
Fontanne; Kiki with Lenore Ulric; The Circle by Somerset Maugham, 
with John Drew and Mrs. Leslie Carter; Blossom Time, a musical. 
Miss Lulu Bett by Zona Gale awarded the Pulitzer Prize in drama. 
Published first as a novel in 1920. 

Ed Wynn was a hit on Broadway in The Perfect Fool and Al Jolson 
sang "California, Here I Come" in Bombo. 

237 



1921. Vaudeville favorites: Will Rogers, Fred Allen, and Julian Eltinge, 
the female impersonator. 

"My Man" as sung by Fannie Brice was a hit in the Ziegfeld Follies. 
The first film actually made with the Technicolor camera was 
entitled Toll of the Sea. 

The year's best-selling novel, Main Street, by Sinclair Lewis 
"debunked" small-town life, made its author famous, and intro- 
duced realism into American popular literature which had been 
dominated by romance and adventure. 

1921-1922. The sensation of the day was The Sheik by Edith M. Hull. 
Not only a best-selling book it made a movie idol of Rudolph 
Valentino when filmed. 

1921. Non-fiction best seller: The Outline of History by H. G. Wells. It 
remained the top seller in 1922 and started a vogue for popularized 
history. 

The Age of Innocence by Edith Wharton was a best-selling novel 
and won the Pulitzer Prize. 

Collected Poems of Edwin Arlington Robinson published. Won 
the Pulitzer Prize in 1922. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1921. Radio broadcasts becoming established. Election returns were first 
broadcast in 1920. This year saw first broadcasting of police calls, 
baseball World Series, heavyweight championship fight, religious 
service, and weather reports. 

Rhodesian man discovered another link in the chain of man's 
evolution. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1922. Regular airplane service between Detroit and Chicago and Cleve- 
land established. Primarily for air mail. 

New police headquarters building being erected on Beaubien Street 

between Macomb and Clinton. Completed 1923. 

Policewomen regularly used in Detroit. (See also 1893) 

Jan. City Tuberculosis Sanitarium in Northville received patients. 

Named William H. Maybury Sanatorium in 1927. 

Merrill-Palmer nursery school opened. Mrs. Palmer left $3,000,000 

in 1915 to found Motherhood and Home Training School. 

Jan. 4. Lincoln Motor Company sold to Henry Ford for $8,000,000. 

238 



1922. Michigan Steel Corporation was granted a charter (September 22) 
to make steel sheets in plant to be built near Ecorse Creek. First 
steel rolled in July, 1923. Reorganized in 1929 as Great Lakes 
Steel Corporation to carry on complete steel manufacture. 
Mar. 20. First National Bank and Central Savings Bank occupied 
new building at Woodward Avenue and Cadillac Square. 

Mar. 25. Forty-hour week adopted as policy by Ford Motor 
Company. 

Apr. 10. Horse-drawn fire apparatus made last run on Detroit 
streets. Fire Department entirely motorized. 

Apr. 17. Purchase of Detroit United Railway remaining lines and 

properties approved by voters. City Department of Street Railways 

took them over May 15. 

May 4. Radio station WJR licensed. 

July 21. Detroit Journal absorbed by Detroit News. 

Aug. 30. Dodge Brothers donated eleven parks (containing 627 

acres ) to the state. 

New Temple Beth El at Woodward and Gladstone formally dedi- 
cated. Rabbi Leo M. Franklin elected Rabbi for life on November 
29. Franklin died August 8, 1948. 

Dec. 5. Mayor Couzens resigned to become United States Senator. 
John C. Lodge assumed the office of Mayor. 

Dec. 8. Isadora Duncan dance recital at Orchestra Hall. 

Detroit Historical Society founded. Opened museum in 1928 in 
Barium Tower. 

Sunday morning services at St. Paul's Cathedral first broadcast over 
WWJ. Now oldest religious program in radio. 

Detroit was probably the first city to use a police broadcasting 
system and police cars radio-equipped to receive messages. In 
1934, radio police cars which could transmit as well as receive 
messages were introduced. 

World History 
1922. Feb. 6. Pius XI became Pope. 

Oct. 27. Mussolini led Fascist march on Rome. Oct. 31, Formed a 
cabinet and became head of Italian Government. 

Separation of Sultanate and Caliphate (Head of Islam) in Turkey 
and abolition of Sultanate. Caliphate abolished March 3, 1924. 

239 



1922. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics formed. 
Hall-Mills murder case. 

1922-1923. Ku Klux Klan agitation. KKK had been revived in South 
in 1915 and re-emerged on national scene about 1920. 

Cultural Progress 

1922. Lincoln Memorial dedicated in Washington, May 30. Daniel Chester 
French was the sculptor of its Lincoln statue. 

Lorado Taft's gigantic sculptural work "The Fountain of Time" 

erected in Chicago. 

Heyday of player pianos and phonographs. 

"My Buddy" and "Trees" were new songs. 

Florenz Ziegfeld at the zenith of his career as a theatrical producer. 

Anna Christie starring Pauline Lord was a hit play of the season 

and won a second Pulitzer Prize in drama for its author, Eugene 

O'Neill. Other popular plays and stars: Rain with Jeanne Eagels, 

and The Awful Truth with Ina Claire. 

Motion Picture Producers and Distributors Association formed 

with Will H. Hays as president to regulate the movies after the 

sensational Fatty Arbuckle trial. 

Popular films and stars: Orphans of the Storm with Lillian and 

Dorothy Gish; Smilin' Through with Norma Talmadge; Blood and 

Sand with Rudolph Valentino; Grandma's Boy with Harold Lloyd. 

Reader's Digest established. 

Alice Adams won the Pulitzer Prize for novels for Booth Tarkington. 

Emerson Hough again joined the ranks of popular western and 

adventure writers with The Covered Wagon. His 54-40 or Fight 

had been a best seller in 1909. 

John Galsworthy's Forsyte Saga began with A Man of Property. 

Important books of poetry published this year included The Waste 

Land by T. S. Eliot and Last Poems by A. E. Housman. 

Ulysses by James Joyce published in Paris. 

Queen Victoria by Lytton Strachey set new patterns in biography. 

The Americanization of Edward Bok remained a non-fiction best 

seller through 1924. 

Abie's Irish Rose, play by Anne Nichols, opened its record-breaking 

run, May 23. 

Tutankhamen's tomb opened in Egypt. King Tut fads followed. 

240 



Work of excavation suspended and then resumed in 1925. 

1922-1923. Mah-jongg the game craze. 

"Outline" books on various cultural and scientific subjects became 

popular. Besides H. G. Wells' Outline of History, best sellers 

included The Story of Mankind by Hendrik VanLoon; The Mind 

in the Making by James Harvey Robinson; and The Outline of 

Science by J. Arthur Thomson. 

Sinclair Lewis introduced a new word with his best-selling novel 

Babbitt. 

1922-1924. The "Four Horsemen" and Coach Knute Rockne kept Notre 
Dame University at the top in football. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1922. Insulin treatment for diabetes discovered by Frederick G. Banting 
and his co-workers. 

Vitamin E, the anti-sterility vitamin, first recognized at University 

of California by Dr. H. M. Evans and associates. They were first 

to reduce it to a pure substance by process announced in 1935. 

Einstein relativity theory confirmed by solar eclipse observation in 

Australia. 

First radar observation radio detection of a ship made at United 

States Naval Aircraft Radio Laboratory. Radar detection of an 

airplane first accomplished at the Laboratory in 1930. (See also 

1935) 

First commercially successful soybean factory built by A. E. Staley 

at Decatur, Illinois. Oil removed and residue or cake sold for feed. 

First technicolor motion picture released Dec. 3 (Toll of The Sea). 

Process developed by Dr. Herbert Kalmus. 

Eskimo pie (chocolate-coated ice cream) patented by C. K. Nelson 

of Iowa. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1923. Feb. 4. Dr. Emil Coue lectured at Orchestra Hall. 

Apr. 21. Marathon dance started in Majestic Institute. Sixteen 

couples. Lasted 96 l /2 hours. A nation-wide craze. 

Four-year College of the City of Detroit developed from city junior 

college. Opened September 10. 

Sept. First traffic school for motorcar drivers held in police 

auditorium. 

Sept. 2. Streetcar fare raised from 5^ to 6^ or nine tickets for 50^. 

241 



1923. Nov. 1. New Belle Isle bridge opened. Renamed Douglas Mac- 
Arthur Bridge February 25, 1942. 

Nov. 28. Detroit- Windsor ferry buildings destroyed by fire. 
Dec. 22. New water-filtering plant in Water Works Park began 
operation. Water treated with chlorine since 1913 but not filtered. 

1923-1924. Ku Klux Klan troublesome in Detroit. Initiated 1,000 novices, 
June 14, before huge crowd. Burned fiery cross before City Hall, 
November 6, and on County Building steps, December 25. Another 
Klan demonstration October 21, 1924, forced police to use tear 
gas and clubs to disperse the mob. 

World History 

1923. Aug. 2. Death of President Harding. Vice-President Calvin Cool- 
idge succeeded to Presidency, Aug. 3. 

First state old-age pension laws in Montana and Nevada, both on 
Mar. 5. 

Sept. 13. General Primo de Rivera set up military dictatorship in 
Spain. 

Oct. 29- Republic of Turkey proclaimed with Mustapha Kemal 
as President. Modernization of Turkey began. 
Nov. 8-11. "Beer-Hall Putsch" by Adolf Hitler. 

1923-1924. Teapot Dome oil scandal. Secretary of Interior Albert B. Fall, 
who had leased oil reserves at Teapot Dome to Harry F. Sinclair 
and at Elk Hills to Edward L. Doheny, resigned Mar. 4, 1923. Fed- 
eral government canceled the leases in March 1924. Fall, Sinclair, 
and Doheny indicted for fraud and bribery. Supreme Court held 
leases invalid in 1927. Fall convicted of bribery in 1929. 

Cultural Progress 

1923. America was dance-crazy, with the one-step the favorite. Marathon 
dances were held everywhere. 

Speak-easies operated widely. Scotch sold for $20 a quart but bath- 
tub gin was easier to get. 

Emil Coue s system of self-help through auto-suggestion was the 
rage. 

Jack Dempsey defeated Tommy Gibbons and knocked out Louis 
Firpo. 

Robert T. (Bobby) Jones won National Open Golf Championship 
and again in 1926, 1929, 1930. He won the National Amateur 

242 



Golf championship in 1924, 1925, 1927, 1928 and 1930. 

Helen Wills won national women's tennis championship and held 

it through 1931 except for 1926 and 1930. 

Eleanora Duse broke stage box-office records. Other stage favorites 

were Walter Hampden in Cyrano de Bergerac; Helen Menken in 

Seventh Heaven; W. C. Fields in Poppy; Raymond Hitchcock in 

The Old Soak; Eva LeGallienne in The Swan; the Duncan Sisters 

in Topsy and Eva. 

Nobel Prize for literature awarded to William Butler Yeats, Irish 

poet and dramatist. 

Everyone was singing "Yes! We Have No Bananas." 

Popular movies: Covered Wagon; Hunchback of Notre Dame with 

Lon Chancy; Safety Last with Harold Lloyd. 

The Ten Commandments established Cecil B. DeMille as producer 

of the spectacular picture. 

Jesse Crawford and his imitators played the organ in film houses. 

Time Magazine established. 

Top non-fiction best seller and influential ever since was Etiquette 

by Emily Post. 

Papini's Life of Christ began its best-selling career. 

One of Ours, novel by Willa Gather, received the Pulitzer Prize. 

Flaming Youth by Warner Fabian mirrored the age. 

Best-selling novel Black Oxen by Gertrude Atherton reflected 

interest in rejuvenation. 

Pulitzer Prize in poetry awarded to Edna St. Vincent Millay for her 

Ballad of the Harp-Weaver and A Few Figs from Thistles. 

1923-1924. Max Reinhardt produced The Miracle in the United States. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1923. Ethyl gasoline first marketed in Dayton, Ohio. Thomas Midgley, 
Jr., of General Motors Research Laboratories discovered anti-knock 
effect of tetraethyl lead. 

First transcontinental non-stop flight made by Lieutenants O. G. 
Kelly and J. A. Macready in United States Army plane from New 
York to California in 26 hours, 50 minutes. 

First sound-on-film moving picture exhibited by Dr. Lee De Forest. 
Experimental and called "Phonofilm." 

Vladimir K. Zworykin filed application ( Dec. 29 ) for a patent for 

243 (continued on following page) 



an electronic television transmission system using the Iconoscope 

camera. Patent granted Dec. 20, 1938. 

Balloon tires commercially produced by Firestone Tire and Rubber 

Company of Akron. 

Dr. George Dick and his wife Gladys devised skin test to determine 

susceptibility to scarlet fever. Also isolated the germ causing the 

disease and developed a serum to establish immunity. 

First dinosaur eggs found in Mongolia by Central Asiatic Expedition 

led by Roy Chapman Andrews. 

United States Bureau of Home Economics established. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1924. River Rouge Park purchased by city after condemnation proceed- 
ings were completed in 1923. 

May 29- Paul Whiteman and George Gershwin appeared at Arca- 
dia Auditorium. 

Oct. 14. The Prince of Wales (now the Duke of Windsor) visited 
city as guest of Henry Ford. 

Nov. 4. Bitterly-contested mayoral election with John W. Smith 
defeating Charles Bowles, the Klan candidate. 
Dec. 8. Book-Cadillac Hotel opened. 

First Chrysler car produced. Chrysler Corporation incorporated 
June 6, 1925, absorbing Maxwell Company and Chalmers. 
Detroit Repertory Theater organized. 
Detroit College of Music opened. 

Steamship Greater Detroit completed. It and sister ship Greater 
Buffalo were largest on the lakes. 

World History 
1924. Jan. 21. Death of Lenin. 

Jan. 22-Nov. 4. First Labour cabinet in Britain; Ramsay MacDonald 

succeeded Stanley Baldwin as Prime Minister. 

June 2. Child Labor Amendment passed by Congress. 28 of the 

necessary 36 states have ratified. 

Dec. 19. American Federation of Labor elected William Green as 

president to succeed its long-time head Samuel Gompers. 

Dawes Plan for German reparations. 
1924-1928. Plutarco Calles served as dictatorial President of Mexico. 

244 



1924. Bobby Franks murdered by Nathan Leopold and Richard Loeb in 
Chicago. Sensational trial. 

Archbishops Patrick J. Hayes of New York and George Mundelein 
of Chicago became Cardinals. 
Prince of Wales visited the United States. 

Cultural Progress 

1924. Crossword puzzle craze. First crossword-puzzle book published by 
Simon and Schuster. First crossword puzzle had appeared in New 
York World of Dec. 21, 1913. 
Charleston the favorite dance. 

United States won Olympic Games for 8th straight time. 
Babe Ruth led American League in batting. 

Opening of the American Wing of the Metropolitan Museum of 
Art marked the beginning of an interest in the artistic genius of 
our own people. 

Popular songs from musicals were: "All Alone" (Music Box 
Revue) by Irving Berlin; "Fascinating Rhythm" (Lady Be Good! ) 
by George Gershwin; "Serenade" (The Student Prince) by Sigmund 
Romberg. 

Jazz orchestras played in movie and vaudeville houses. 
What Price Glory? by Maxwell Anderson and Laurence Stallings 
was stage hit of the year. 

Eddie Cantor starred in Kid Boots. He first gained success in the 
Ziegfeld Follies of 1917. 

Rose Marie the hit operetta by Rudolf Friml featured the song 
"Indian Love Call." 

Favorite movies and stars: Sea Hawk with Milton Sills; Girl-Shy 
with Harold Lloyd; Thief of Bagdad with Douglas Fairbanks; and 
Colleen Moore, Patsy Ruth Miller, Rin-Tin-Tin. 
American Mercury established. 

Poems of Emily Dickinson first became generally known to public. 
A new name headed the best-selling novelists Edna Ferber with 
So Big. It received the Pulitzer Prize of 1926. 
Familiar names were still among the best-selling fiction: Philip 
Gibbs, James Oliver Curwood, Zane Grey, Booth Tarkington, 
Coningsby Dawson, Rafael Sabatini, Dorothy Canfield Fisher. 
The Plastic Age by Percy Marks depicted the "lost generation" 
and college life. 

245 



1924. Jeeves by P. G. Wodehouse created a favorite fiction character. 

Popularity of the new psychological biography evidenced by best- 
seller status of Andre Maurois' life of Shelley, Ariel. 

A. A. Milne, English author, introduced Winnie-the-Pooh and 
Christopher Robin to children's literature in When We Were Very 
Young. On United States best-seller lists in 1925 and thereafter. 

"Rhapsody in Blue" by George Gershwin played for first time, 
Feb. 12, by Paul Whiteman's orchestra with composer as soloist. 

1924-1925. "Red" Grange was the football idol. 

Diet and Health, by Lulu Hunt Peters topped the non-fiction best 
sellers for two years after being near the top since 1922. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1924. First round-the-world flight. Four United States Army planes left 
Seattle Apr. 6 and returned Sept. 28. 

Cellophane first made by DuPont Company at their plant in Buffalo. 

First pictures transmitted by radio across the Atlantic as demon- 
stration of photo-telegraph, or radio facsimile transmission, by 
Radio Corporation of America. 

First Diesel electric locomotive placed in service by Central Rail- 
road of New Jersey at the Bronx Terminal. Diesel electric freight 
locomotive first operated by New York Central in 1928. Diesel 
electric passenger locomotive first used in 1929. 

Leica camera introduced in Germany. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1925. Reichhold Chemicals Corporation founded when Henry H. Reich- 
hold started his synthetic resins business. 

May 31. James Scott Fountain on Belle Isle unveiled. 

June 3. Radio station WXYZ licensed. Became basis of Trendle 

Michigan Network in 1933. 

June 14. Bonstelle Theater opened in remodeled Temple Beth El 

on Woodward Avenue. Closed January 11, 1934. 

Sept. 29. Airplane Reliability Tour of 1,900-mile endurance-run 

started from Ford Airport. 

Dec. 1. Merger of Detroit and Michigan Stove Works. 

246 



World History 
1925. Mar. 4. Coolidge's second inauguration as President. 

Women governors, elected Nov. 9, 1924, installed in office. Nellie 

Tayloe Ross in Wyoming, Jan. 5, and Miriam (Ma) Ferguson in 

Texas, Jan. 20. 

James J. Walker elected Mayor of New York City. He resigned 

in 1932 after the Seabury investigation. 

Scopes evolution trial in Tennessee, July 10-21. 

Florida real-estate boom. Collapsed after 1926 hurricane. 

Dirigible Shenandoah destroyed in Ohio storm, Sept. 3- 

Floyd Collins trapped in Kentucky cave. His plight attracted 

national interest. Eventually found dead. 

Volume of installment buying reached five billion dollars. 

Locarno Conference. Guaranteed borders of France and Germany. 

Cultural Progress 

1925. International Exhibition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Art 
in France made newspaper headlines all over the world. 

Popular song: "Always" by Irving Berlin. 

George Bernard Shaw awarded the Nobel Prize for literature. 

They Knew What They Wanted, play by Sidney Howard, won 
the Pulitzer Prize. First performed 1924. 

Stage plays: Arms and the Man with Alfred Lunt and Lynn Fon- 
tanne; Cradle Snatchers with Mary Boland; The Vortex by Noel 
Coward; Last of Mrs. Cheyney by Frederick Lonsdale; Young 
Woodley by John Van Druten. 

Stage favorites: Marilyn Miller in Sunny; Marx Brothers in The 
Cocoa-nuts; George Jessel in The Jazz Singer; Phil Baker in Artists 
and Models. 

Craig's Wife, play by George Kelly, produced. Awarded Pulitzer 
Prize in 1926. His The Show-Off was a best play of 1924. 

John Gilbert became a film favorite after The Big Parade. He co- 
starred in The Merry Widow with Mae Murray; Ronald Colman 
starred in Stella Dallas and Harold Lloyd in The Freshman; The 
Gold Rush was one of Charlie Chaplin's best pictures. 

The Phantom of the Opera with Lon Chancy probably the best- 
remembered horror picture of the twenties. 
New Yorker magazine established. 

247 



1925. The Green Hat by Michael Arlen was a much talked-about book 
and a successful stage play starring Katharine Cornell. 
Arrowsmith by Sinclair Lewis, won both popular and critical acclaim, 
including the Pulitzer Prize of 1926. 

Keeper of the Bees by Gene Stratton Porter put this long-popular 
author again on the best-seller lists. 

An American Tragedy by Theodore Dreiser. 

Adolf Hitler's Mein Kampf was first published in Germany. His 

"Beer-Hall Putsch" of 1923 had failed. 

Igor Stravinsky on his first American tour conducted the New 

York Philharmonic in a program of his musical works, Jan. 28. 

1925-1926. The Man Nobody Knows by Bruce Barton offered a business- 
man's version of the life of Jesus. It topped the non-fiction best 
sellers in 1926 and was joined by Barton's story of the Bible, The 
Book Nobody Knows. 

Women strove for straight, boyish figures. Bobbed hair was shingled 
and wind-blown. Fashions featured skirts at the knee, flesh-colored 
silk stockings, and close-fitting hats. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1925. Cosmic rays discovered by Robert A. Millikan at California Institute 
of Technology. 

Photoelectric cell or tube (magic eye) first demonstrated by West- 
inghouse Company. Used to count objects and open doors at New 
York Electrical Show. 

Dry ice (solidified carbon dioxide) first manufactured commer- 
cially. First used by Schrafft's in New York City. 
United States Chamber of Commerce organized. 
Highway numbering system adopted in the United States. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1926. Feb. 1. New Central High School opened on Tuxedo Avenue. 
Feb. First contract air-mail service from Detroit to Cleveland 
in a Ford plane designed by William B. Stout, Detroit's foremost 
airplane designer. 

Feb. 13. First dial telephones in residential sections. 

Feb. 22. First concert in Masonic Auditorium, first unit of new 

Masonic Temple to be finished. Cornerstone of Temple laid Sep- 

248 



tember 18, 1922. Building dedicated November 25, 1926. Com- 
pleted 1928. 

Mar. 27. City Plan Commission adopted zoning ordinance after 
five years of work. 

May 9. Detroit-built plane used by Richard E. Byrd in his North 
Pole flight. Named Josephine Ford. Henry Ford produced his first 
airplane October 8, 1925. 

May 19- Sebastian S. Kresge established $25,000,000 foundation 
for education, religion, and charity. 

Detroit visitors included Crown Prince Gustavus and Princess 
Alexandra of Sweden, June 21, and Prince Nicholas of Rumania, 
November 19. 

Sept. 5. Cass Theater opened with production of Princess Flavia. 
Built for legitimate plays. 

Oct. 15. Dirigible Los Angeles moored at Ford Airport. 

State Supreme Court upheld city's ordering of jitneys off Detroit 
streets. 

Ty Cobb left Detroit Baseball Club which he had joined in 1905 
and retired from baseball. 

Detroit Cougars entered the National Hockey League. The Detroit 
Hockey Club had purchased the Victoria Cougars of Canada in 
October. Renamed the Falcons in 1930 and later the Red Wings. 

World History 
1926. Sesquicentennial Exposition, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

"Flaming youth" was the term which characterized the manners and 
morals of the period. 

"Peaches" Browning sued E. W. Browning for separation. Tabloid 
sensation. 

Aimee Semple McPherson made headlines by disappearing. 
Bootleggers' heyday. Al Capone and his gang in Chicago epitomized 
the lawlessness of the times. Capone's reign ended in 1931 when he 
was convicted for income-tax evasion. 

Roman Catholic Eucharistic Congress held in Chicago in June. 

Jan. 8. Ibn Saud became King of The Hejaz. Renamed Saudi 
Arabia in 1932. 

May 3-12. General strike in Britain. 

249 



1926. May. 12. Dirigible Norge reached North Pole. Amundsen-Ellsworth- 
Nobile expedition. 
Sept. 8. Germany entered League of Nations. 

Cultural Progress 

1926. Auction bridge craze at its height. Bridge manuals were also best 
sellers. 

Black Bottom joined Charleston as popular dance. 
Gene Tunney defeated Jack Dempsey for heavyweight boxing title 
in a 10-round decision at Philadelphia. 
Gertrude Ederle swam the English Channel. 

Stage hits: The Desert Song with music by Romberg; Broadway; 

Chicago; The Silver Cord by Sidney Howard; The Constant Wife 

by Maugham starring Ethel Barrymore. 

Gilda Gray doing the "shimmy" starred in vaudeville. 

Rudolph Valentino died. 

Outstanding movies: Ben-Hur with Ramon Navarro; What Price 

Glory with Victor McLaglen; Beau Geste with Ronald Colman. 

Book-of-the-Month Club established. 

Leading fiction best seller: Private Life of Helen of Troy, by John 

Erskine. Gentlemen Prefer Blondes, by Anita Loos, was both a 

successful book and play and the conversational hit of the day. 

Sorrell and Son, by Warwick Deeping, introduced a new English 

author to popularity. P. C. Wren had two books on the best-seller 

lists Beau Geste (published 1925) and Beau Sabreur, and the 

French Foreign Legion became a topic of interest. Show Boat by 

Edna Ferber was not only a best-selling book but became a hit 

musical and movie. 

Interest in science evidenced by popularity of books like Paul de 

Kruif's Microbe Hunters and George A. Dorsey's Why We Behave 

Like Human Beings. 

Premiere in New York, Aug. 6, of the first sound-picture Don Juan. 

It offered a synchronized musical score. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1926. Use of liver in treatment of anemia discovered by George R. Minot, 
William P. Murphy, and George H. Whipple. Received Nobel Prize 
in 1934 

250 



1926. Talking pictures introduced. Vitaphone system of picture on film 
and sound synchronized on disk records. 

Koroseal, synthetic rubber, developed by Goodrich Rubber Com- 
pany following discovery by W. L. Semon. 

Greyhound name and trademark adopted by bus transportation 
company. The bus now had joined the railroad as a major means 
of travel. 

May 9- First polar flight by Richard Byrd and Floyd Bennett over 
North Pole. 

Air Commerce Act provided for federal government supervision 
and promotion of commercial aviation. Civil Aeronautics Act of 
1938 continued the regulation of aviation. 
Chain stores and installment buying the business vogue. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1927. Gasoline tax authorized to provide state funds for highway con- 
struction and maintenance. (See also 1905) 

Feb. 2. J. L. Hudson Company acquired the Newcomb-Endicott 
store. Became third largest department store in the United States. 
May 2 3. Mistersky Power Plant began operating. One of the 
largest municipally-owned generating stations in the United States. 
May 26. Last Model T Ford rolled off the assembly line. Model A 
shown in December. 

Aug. 10. Tablet placed on wall of Charles Lindbergh's birthplace 
at 1120 West Forest Avenue in honor of his transatlantic flight. 
Oct. 6. Detroit Institute of Arts building on Woodward Avenue 
opened. Dedicated October 8. Cornerstone had been laid April 
29, 1924. 

Oct. 15. New Olympia Stadium opened. 
Oct. 24. Detroit City Airport opened. Dedicated November 5. 
Nov. 2. Stout Air Service regular passenger airline service from 
Detroit to Cleveland inaugurated. Perhaps first regukr passenger 
interstate airline in United States. Detroit-Chicago passenger service 
inaugurated 1928. 

Dec. 8. The passenger steamer Tashmoo broke loose from its dock 

at the foot of Griswold Street and was driven upstream against the 

Belle Isle Bridge during 60-mile gale. 

University of Detroit occupied new campus on McNichols Road at 

Livernois. 

251 



1927. Marygrove College founded. Outgrowth of St. Mary's College in 
Monroe established as St. Mary's Academy in 1845. 
Maccabees Building completed. Cornerstone laid May, 1926. 
Cranbrook Foundation created by George and Ellen Booth. En- 
dowed church, schools, etc. on beautiful estate near Bloomfield 
Hills. Cranbrook Academy of Arts established, 1928, and Cran- 
brook Institute of Science, 1930. The architect Eliel Saarinen 
designed buildings for them. The sculptor Carl Milles came to 
Cranbrook in 1931. 

World History 

1927. Disastrous floods in Mississippi Valley and New England. 

Aug. 2. Coolidge: "I do not choose to run for President in 1928." 
Ruth Snyder-Henry Judd Gray murder trial. Executed Jan. 1928 in 
Sing Sing. 

Marines sent to Nicaragua to protect American interests. With- 
drawn in 1933. 

Dec. Stalin faction won over Trotsky in U.S.S.R. Trotsky expelled, 
Jan. 1929. 

Cultural Progress 

1927. Short skirts at their highest just above the knee. Low waistline 
and tubular silhouette. Bobbed hair universally accepted. 
"Companionate marriage" advocated by Judge Ben Lindsay. 
Contract bridge introduced. 

Gene Tunney kept his heavyweight title in second match with 
Jack Dempsey after "long-count." All-time gate record set in 
Chicago $2,658,660. Broadcast to millions. 
Babe Ruth hit 60 home runs. 

Helen Wills Moody won her first Wimbledon women's singles 
tennis title. She won it seven more times, last in 1938. Probably 
the greatest of women tennis players. 

Sonja Henie won her first of ten consecutive women's world figure- 
skating championships. She also won Olympic championships in 
1928, 1932, and 1936. She revolutionized figure-skating technique 
by introducing dancing features, and when she became a profes- 
sional in 1936 offered a new kind of entertainment the ice-skating 
revue. 

Popular songs: "Chloe;" "Blue Skies" by Irving Berlin; "Strike Up 
the Band," by Ira and George Gershwin; "Ol' Man River" (Show 
Boat) by Jerome Kern. 

252 



1927. Ziegfeld had three hits on Broadway: The Follies starring Ruth 
Etting; Rio Rita; and Show Boat. 

Helen Hayes established herself as a stage star in Coquette. 
Musical hits included: Connecticut Yankee, Good News, Hit the 
Deck, My Maryland. 

Hit plays included: Burlesque, Trial of Mary Dugan. 

Vaudeville on downgrade. 

Clara Bow the symbol of "It" made a movie with that title. 

Greta Garbo and John Gilbert appeared together in Flesh and the 
Demi and were established as the great lovers on the screen. Seventh 
Heaven, with Janet Gaynor and Charles Farrell, was named the best 
picture of the year. 

The first talking picture, The Jazz Singer, starring Al Jolson, made 
film history and greatly altered the film industry. 
The Literary Guild entered the book club field. 
Fiction best seller: Elmer Gantry by Sinclair Lewis. 

The Magic Mountain by Thomas Mann published in Germany. In 

1929 Mann was awarded the Nobel Prize in literature. 

The Story of Philosophy by Will Durant headed the non-fiction 

best sellers. It had sold over a million copies since its publication 

in 1926, and represented the climax of the vogue for "outlines" of 

knowledge. 

Trader Horn caught the public's fancy despite its lack of basis in 
fact. 

We by Charles A. Lindbergh was a leading best seller. Also in 1928. 

The Ask Me Another quiz book sold 100,000 copies in its first 
month and began a vogue for quiz pastimes. 

Richard Halliburton satisfied the demand for glamorous adventure 
and escape-reading with his The Royal Road to Romance and 
The Glorious Adventure. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1927. Growing importance of radio demonstrated by creation of Federal 
Radio Commission to regulate broadcasting. National Broadcasting 
Company was operating two chains and Columbia Broadcasting 
System became the third network. 

First transmission of television over any distance. Broadcast Apr. 7 
between Washington, D.C., and New York City. 

253 



1927. Commercial transatlantic telephone service inaugurated between 
New York and London. 

May 20. Charles A. Lindbergh's non-stop solo flight across the 
Atlantic Ocean from New York to Paris. Triumphal welcome as 
the national hero when he returned followed by good-will flights 
to Latin America. 

First transpacific flight, June 29, by Army Air Corps Lieutenants 
A. F. Hegenberger and L. J. Maitland from Oakland, California, 
to Honolulu. Longest over- water flight to date. 
Respirator (iron lung) invented by Philip Drinker and Louis A. 
Shaw. First used in 1928 at Children's Hospital, Boston. 
First synthetic vitamin, D, manufactured by Mead, Johnson and 
Company. Made by exposing ergosteral to ultra-violet light. Steen- 
bock produced Vitamin D by irradiation in 1924. 



Detroit and Michigan 

1928. Coast Guard stationed armored craft along River to curb flow of 
Canadian liquor into the Detroit area. 

Apr. 19. New ferry boat Cadillac made maiden voyage between 
Detroit and Windsor. 

July 30. Dodge Motor Company merged into Chrysler Corporation. 
Aug. 1. Detroit Zoological Park opened. One of the first in the 
United States to use barless exhibits extensively. 
Detroit ban on jitneys again upheld by State Supreme Court (Octo- 
ber 25), ending six-year jitney fight. Citizens kept on demanding 
jitneys because of inadequate DSR service. 

Detroit Civic Theater organized as a community venture with 
Jessie Bonstelle as artistic director. 

Penobscot Building completed. City's tallest skyscraper, 47 stories. 
Original Penobscot Building erected in 1902. 
Fisher Building completed. 
Water Board Building opened. 

World History 

1928. July 2. British Parliament extended franchise to women. 

Aug. 27. Kellogg-Briand Pact outlawing war as an instrument of 
national policy signed in Paris. 

254 



1928. Independence of India League founded by Jawaharlal Nehru. 

First Five-Year Plan began for industrialization of Russia. 

Arctic flights by Sir Hubert Wilkins in airplane (Apr. 15) and 

General Umberto Nobile in dirigible (May 23). 
1928-1929. "Artificial" prosperity at its height. Stock speculation craze. 

Cultural Progress 
1928. American travelers flocked to Europe. 

Fads of the day: Marathon dances; C. C. Pyle's "Bunion Derby"; 
flagpole sitting. 

Ivan Mestrovic completed his equestrian statue "Mounted Indian." 
Strange Interlude, drama by Eugene O'Neill, won much publicity 
for its length and the Pulitzer Prize for its excellence. 
Ben Hecht and Charles MacArthur's The Front Page, comedy- 
melodrama depicting the newspaper world, was one of the most 
popular of their collaborations. 

The song "Lover Come Back to Me," helped make Sigmund Rom- 
berg's musical The New Moon a hit. 
Mae West starred on Broadway in Diamond Lil. 
First all-talking picture, The Lights of New York. 
Al Jolson in the movie Singing Fool set box-office records and 
"Sonny Boy" became the song of the year. 

Sigrid Undset received the Nobel Prize for literature. Her trilogy 
Kristin Lavransdatter was widely read in the United States. 
Edwin Arlington Robinson won his third Pulitzer Prize for poetry. 
(Also 1922 and 1925.) 

The Bridge of San Luis Rey by Thornton Wilder topped the fiction 
best sellers and received the Pulitzer Prize. 

S. S. Van Dine made Philo Vance the most famous detective of the 
day in his mystery stories: Canary Murder Case, 1927; Greene 
Murder Case, 1928; Bishop Murder Case, 1929; and others. 
Bad Girl by Vina Delmar a fiction best seller. 
English authors John Galsworthy and Warwick Deeping maintained 
their American popularity. 

Mother India by Katherine Mayo rose from 10th in 1927 to 2 d on 
the best-seller lists and aroused interest in India. 
First performance of the ballet group which came to be known as 
the Vic-Wells Ballet and then the Sadler's Wells Ballet, in London, 
in December. 

255 



1928. Women's acceptance of cigarette smoking indicated by cigarette 
sales of one hundred billion which was double the production of 
1918. 

1928-1929. Biography was prominent among non-fiction best sellers. 
Disraeli by Andre Maurois topped the list in 1928. Ludwig's works 
were popular. In 1929 Francis Hackett's Henry the Eighth and 
Lytton Strachey's Elizabeth and Essex found many readers. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1928. Automobile production over 4,000,000 per year. 

Mechanical cotton-picker built by John Rust of Weatherford, Texas. 

Amelia Earhart became first woman to fly across the Atlantic (June 

17) when she was a passenger on plane piloted by Wilmer Stultz 

with Louis Gordon as mechanic. 

Transpacific flight by Charles Kingsford-Smith and companions 

from California to Australia via Honolulu and Fiji Islands. 

First autogiro flown in the United States, Dec. 19, by Harold F. 

Pitcairn. 

First "seeing-eye" guide-dogs trained. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1929. Jan. 3. Deed to Detroit Street Railway recorded in the office of the 
register of deeds. Marked close of city's thirty-year fight with Detroit 
United Railway over municipal ownership of streetcar lines. 
Children's Fund of Michigan began operations. Established by 
James Couzens. 

June 2. Woman's Hospital at Hancock and Brush opened. 
June 3. Children's Village of the Methodist Children's Home 
Society (26645 West Six Mile Road) dedicated. 
June 28. Completion of new $5,000,000 Detroit Union Produce 
Terminal. 

Aug. 26. Dirigible Graf Zeppelin at Detroit on its world tour. 
Aug. 28. Common Pleas Court of Detroit established superseding 
justice courts. 

Oct. Greenfield Village opened. Edison Jubilee, semi-centennial 
celebration of invention of incandescent light, held in Dearborn 
and Detroit, October 21. President Hoover among the many notable 
guests gathered by Henry Ford to honor Thomas A. Edison. Open- 
ing of Edison Institute in Greenfield Village during the ceremonies. 

256 



1929- Nov. 11. Ambassador Bridge between Detroit and Windsor for 
mally dedicated. Opened to traffic November 15. 

World History 

1929. Mar. 4. Herbert Hoover inaugurated as President. Had defeated 
Alfred Smith in Nov. 1928 election. 

Height of gangsterism in Chicago. St. Valentine's Day massacre of 
the O'Banions. 

Lateran Treaty and Concordat between Pope and Mussolini settled 
Papal-Italian relations. Vatican City State created and sovereignty 
of Pope therein recognized. 

June 5 1931, Aug. 24. Second Labour cabinet of Ramsay Mac- 
Donald in Britain. 

Young Plan for settling German reparations and international 
finance problems. 

Oct. 24-Nov. 13. Stock market crash in United States. World-wide 
depression followed. 

Cultural Progress 

1929. Beginning of trend toward a natural waistline and longer skirts 
in women's fashions. Uneven hemline on women's dresses due 
to panels and flounces hanging at side and back. 
Museum of Modern Art established in New York City. 
Walter Winchell became drama critic of New York Daily Mirror 
and began his influential journalistic career. 
"Star Dust" song by Hoagy Carmichael. 

Eddie Cantor starred in Whoopee. By now he was active on both 
stage and screen and in 1931 he also became a leading radio per- 
former. 

Street Scene, play by Elmer Rice, won the Pulitzer Prize. Best plays 
included: Green Pastures, Berkeley Square, Strictly Dishonorable, 
Death Takes a Holiday. 

Noel Coward had made a name for himself as dramatist, actor, and 
composer with many hits climaxed by Bittersweet. He followed 
this with Private Lives (1930), Cavalcade (1931), Design for 
Living (1932), Conversation Piece (1934), Blithe Spirit (1942) 
and other plays and films. 

Movie Academy Awards went to: Broadway Melody as the best 
picture; Mary Pickford as the best actress in Coquette; Warner 

257 (continued on following page) 



Baxter as the best actor for In Old Arizona. 

All movie hits were talkies. Popular stars included: Janet Gaynor, 
Bebe Daniels, Maurice Chevalier, William Powell, Gary Cooper, 
Constance Bennett, Joe E. Brown, Billie Dove, Ann Harding. 

Business Week magazine established. 

Best seller of the year was All Quiet on the Western Front by Erich 
Maria Remarque and in 1930 it was voted the best movie. 
Dodsworth by Sinclair Lewis and A Farewell to Arms by Ernest 
Hemingway published. 

Robert L. Ripley's Believe It or Not was not only a best-selling 
book but a popular newspaper feature. 

Stephen Vincent Benet's long narrative poem John Brown's Body 
became a best seller and won the Pulitzer Prize. 

Popular desire for self -improvement made The Art of Thinking 
by Ernest Dimnet a best seller. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1929. Dirigible Graf Zeppelin circumnavigated the globe and then began 
regular passenger service from Europe to South America. 

Railroad companies took over American Railway Express Company 
and organized their Railway Express Agency. 

Agricultural Marketing Act encouraged farmers' co-operatives and 
provided for stabilization of farm prices through buying up 
surpluses. 

Commander Richard E. Byrd, with Bernt Balchen, Harold June, 
and A. C. McKinley, flew over the South Pole and returned to 
Little America base. Made second Antarctic Expedition, 1933-35. 
Over 122,000,000,000 cigarettes produced. 

W. C. Pei found an almost complete and uncrushed brain-case of 
Peking Man; another evolutionary step in the history of man. 

Consumers' Research organized to furnish information to con- 
sumers on the quality of products. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1930. Detroit population 1,568,662. Fourth largest city in the United 
States. 

Detroit's new traffic court heard 4,810 cases in January, its first 
month of operation. 

258 



1930. May 2-31. Rembrandt exhibition (one of largest ever assembled) 
at Institute of Arts. 

July 22. First recall in a major city when Mayor Charles Bowles 
was recalled by Detroit voters at a special election. 
Sept. 9. Frank Murphy elected Mayor. Assumed office Septem- 
ber 23. 

Nov. 3. Detroit- Windsor vehicular tunnel under the Detroit River 
opened to traffic. 

Covered Wagon Company of Detroit began manufacturing the 
"Covered Wagon" trailer coach or "mobile home." 
Scandinavian Symphony Orchestra founded. 

World History 

1930. United States population 122,775,046. Center of population now 
3 miles northeast of Linton, Indiana. 

Life expectancy around 59 years. In 1900 averaged 49 years. 
Illiteracy in United States 4.3%. 

22 % of all females ten-years old and over were gainfully employed. 
In 1870, 13-3% were working. 
Drought in South and Midwest. 
Jan. 21-Apr. 22. London Naval Conference. 

Feb. 3. Charles Evans Hughes appointed Chief Justice of the 
Supreme Court. 

June 6. Carol II accepted as King of Rumania. 

Cultural Progress 

1930. The use of cosmetics by women had become commonplace and 
beauty was now big business. A decade previously, open use of rouge 
and lipstick was rare. 
30,000 miniature golf courses. 

Bobby Jones won: British Amateur, British Open, United States 
Open, United States Amateur, the "Grand Slam" of golf; no one 
else before had done this. 

Children's Charter. White House Conference on Child Health and 
Protection drew up charter on Bill of Rights for childhood. 
"American Gothic," painting by Grant Wood (1892-1942). 
Aaron Copland, leading 20th-century modernist composer, won 
R.C.A. prize for his "Dance Symphony." His ballet music "Billy 

259 (continued on following page) 



the Kid" was composed in 1938; "Rodeo," 1941; and "Appalachian 
Spring," 1944. 

Green Pastures by Marc Connelly won Pulitzer Prize for drama. 
Other leading plays: Once in a Lifetime by Kaufman and Hart; 
Elizabeth the Queen by Maxwell Anderson. 

Favorite films and stars: Anna Christie with Greta Garbo; Blushing 
Brides with Joan Crawford; Caught Short with Marie Dressier; 
Love Parade with Maurice Chevalier and Jeanette MacDonald. 
Academy Awards for best movie actor and actress went to George 
Arliss in Disraeli and Norma Shearer in Divorce. 
Jean Harlow made a hit in the movie Hell's Angels and started a 
fad for platinum-blonde hair. 
Fortune magazine established. 
John Masefield made Poet Laureate of England. 
Sinclair Lewis became the first American to receive the Nobel 
Prize for literature. 

Best-selling novel of the year: Cimarron by Edna Ferber. 
Margaret Ayer Barnes, a new author, won readers with her novel 
Years of Grace and the Pulitzer Prize of 1931. 
Story of San Michele by Axel Munthe was the non-fiction best- 
seller and began vogue for "doctor" books. 

Historians became best sellers, notably Charles and Mary Beard 
with their Rise of American Civilization, and James Truslow Adams. 
Mary Roberts Rinehart mystery stories were still on the best-seller 
lists. Other favorite detective story writers and their fictional detec- 
tives were: Earl Derr Biggers Charlie Chan; Dashiell Hammett 
Sam Spade; Leslie Charteris The Saint; S. S. Van Dine Philo 
Vance; and Ellery Queen. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1930. 21.5 per cent of all persons gainfully employed in the United States 
were engaged in agriculture. 

260,443 miles of railroad in operation in the United States. 
Dr. Max Theiler and his associates began development of yellow- 
fever vaccine. 1951 Nobel Prize in medicine awarded to Theiler 
for his work. 

Planet "Pluto" discovered by Clyde W. Tombaugh at Lowell observ- 
atory in Flagstaff, Arizona. Mathematically predicted in 1915 by 
Dr. Percival Lowell. 

260 



1930. Adler Planetarium opened in Chicago. First in the United States. 
Frozen foods in individual packages first marketed about this time. 
Clarence Birdseye quick-freezing process had been developed 
about 1925. 

Use of hybrid corn became general. Studies on hybrid corn were 
begun in 1905 by Dr. George H. Shull and Dr. E. M. East. Henry 
A. Wallace chiefly responsible for acceptance of hybrid corn by 
growers. First hybrid seed-corn company had been organized in 1926. 
Exceedingly high tariff rates enacted by Hawley-Smoot Tariff Bill 
but it also provided for flexibility of rates. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1931. Jan. 2. Unemployment relief demonstration in front of City Hall. 
Wickersham Commission report disclosed Detroit as leader in Pro- 
hibition law violations. 

Henry Ford built his 20,000,000th auto. Ford plant at River Rouge 
recognized as one of world's largest industrial establishments. 

World History 

1931. Wickersham Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement 
reported that Prohibition was not working out and that it had 
increased crime and disrespect for law. 

Apr. 14. King Alfonso XIII left Spain. Dec. 9, Spanish Republic 
established by acceptance of new constitution. Zamora first President. 
Sept. 18. Japan occupied Manchuria. 
Sept. 21. England suspended gold payments. 
Dec. 11. Statute of Westminster passed by British Parliament 
whereby dominions became free members of British Common- 
wealth of Nations united through common allegiance to the Crown. 
Scottsboro Case. Eight Negroes sentenced to death in Scottsboro, 
Alabama. Supreme Court ordered new trials. Case aroused much 
racial prejudice and agitation during its long sojourn in the courts. 
Encyclical Quadragesima Anno issued by Pope Pius XI on the 
reconstruction of the social order. 

Cultural Progress 

1931. Square-shoulder, lean-hip silhouette inaugurated by Adrian of 
Hollywood for Joan Crawford. This silhouette at once became popu- 
lar with women and remained until 1945. Skirts were short for day- 

261 (continued on following page) 



time but long for evening. Revival of the Empress Eugenie hats. 

Bridge the favorite pastime but contract superseding auction. Ely 

Culbertson system prevailing and his contract guides were best 

sellers. 

Bill Tilden made his debut as a professional tennis player. The 

success of his first tour gave a big boost to professional tennis. 

Salvador Dali, a leading painter of the Surrealist school, offered his 
well-known work "Persistence of Memory." 

Popular songs: "All of Me," "Dancing in the Dark," "Sweet and 
Lovely." 

The Group Theater supplied the New York stage with much of its 
vigor and excitement. 

Katharine Cornell began starring in the Barretts of Wimpole Street, 
her greatest stage success. 

Other Broadway stage hits: Paul Muni in Counsellor-at-Law by 
Elmer Rice; the Lunts in Reunion in Vienna by Robert E. Sher- 
wood; Margaret Sullavan in The Good Fairy by Ferenc Molnar. 

Radio in full swing with Rudy Vallee and "Amos n' Andy" as top 
artists. 

Cimarron, starring Irene Dunne and Richard Dix, won the Academy 
Award as best movie. Marie Dressier was named best actress in 
Min and Bill; and Lionel Barrymore in A Free Soul, the best actor. 

Edward G. Robinson in Little Caesar started a series of gangster 
films. Maurice Chevalier and Jeanette MacDonald were the movies' 
favorite couple as in The Smiling Lieutenant. 

The Good Earth by Pearl Buck remained the leading fiction best 
seller through 1932. Mrs. Buck was awarded the Nobel Prize for 
literature in 1938. 

Interest in Russia both Tsarist and Soviet evidenced by best- 
seller status of Education of a Princess by Grand Duchess Marie and 
New Russia's Primer by M. Ilin. 

Washington Merry -Go-Round was the "sensation" book of the year 
and made Drew Pearson famous. In 1932 both this one and its 
sequel were best sellers. 

Lincoln Steffens' Autobiography recalled the days of the muckrakers. 
First performance on Dec. 26 of Of Thee I Sing with music by 
George Gershwin. It became the first musical play ever to win the 
Pulitzer Prize, in 1932 . 

262 



Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1931. Synthetic rubbers DuPrene and Neoprene developed commer- 
cially. Greatest progress in the synthetic rubber field came during 
World War II and under government sponsorship, to meet shortage 
of natural rubber. 

"Heavy water" identified by Harold C. Urey. Contained heavy 
hydrogen, later named deuterium. 

Professor Auguste Picard ascended 52,000 feet in a balloon. First 
ascension into the stratosphere. 

Wiley Post and Harold Gatty circled globe in monoplane. 
First electric shaver manufactured by Schick, Incorporated. Pat- 
ented by Colonel Jacob Schick in 1928. 

World's tallest skyscraper, Empire State Building, erected in New 
York City. 

First soilless culture of plants in garden of William F. Gericke in 
Berkeley, California. First commercial hydroponics undertaken in 
1934 

Detroit and Michigan 

1932. Jan. 2. Detroit Street Railway took over Detroit Motorbus Com- 
pany lines. 

July 25. Diego Rivera started work on frescoes in Detroit Institute 

of Arts. 

Oct. 2. Franklin D. Roosevelt, Democratic nominee for President, 

spoke at giant political rally in Detroit. 

Fiscal crisis in city because of heavy tax delinquency. Salaries of 

city employees reduced sharply. Drastic cut in welfare expenditures. 

Unemployment crisis. Thousands on public welfare in Detroit. 

Ford hunger march and riot in Dearborn, March 7. 

World History 
1932. Worst year of Depression. 15,000,000 unemployed. 

Mar. 1. Charles A. Lindbergh, Jr., kidnapped. (See also 1935) 

Bonus army marched on Washington, D.C. Driven from camp at 
Anacostia Flats, July 28. 

Samuel Insull utility empire collapsed. Trial for fraud in 1934 
"not guilty" verdict. 

Reconstruction Finance Corporation created. 

263 



1932. State of Wisconsin adopted the first unemployment insurance act in 

the United States. 

Technocracy the newest theory. 

Great Britain abandoned its historic free-trade policy and developed 

system of imperial preference tariffs. 

Feb. 2 -July. World Disarmament Conference in Geneva. No. results. 

Mar. Eamon de Valera elected President of Irish Free State. Prime 

Minister in 1938. 

June 16- July 9. Lausanne Conference on reparations and war debts. 

In December, some of the nations defaulted in their payments on 

war debts to the United States. 

July 5. Oliveira Salazar became Premier and dictator of Portugal. 
1932-1935. Chaco War between Paraguay and Bolivia. 

Cultural Progress 
1932. Olympic Games held in Los Angeles, California. 

Jack Sharkey beat Max Schmeling for heavyweight boxing title. 

Marie Dressier the top movie box-office star. Double bills were 

being offered as movie bargains. 

The Nobel Prize for literature was awarded to John Galsworthy. 

His Forsyte novels kept him continuously on the best-seller lists. 

Lloyd C. Douglas began his best-selling career as a novelist with 

Magnificent Obsession. 

Mutiny on the Bounty by Charles Nordhoff and James Norman Hall. 

Scientific and- Commercial Progress 
1932. Albert Einstein offered his unitary field theory. 

Carl D. Anderson discovered the positron (positive particle having 
same mass and charge as negative electron in the atom) and James 
Chadwick discovered the neutron (nuclear particle without charge). 
Bombardment of uranium by neutrons released atomic energy. 
Amelia Earhart Putnam became first woman to make a transatlantic 
solo flight (May 20) and a transcontinental non-stop flight (Aug. 24). 

Detroit and Michigan 

1933- Feb. 14. Michigan bank holiday proclaimed by Governor Corn- 
stock. Some Detroit banks never reopened. 

Mar. 29. Ten thousand Detroiters met in Naval Armory to protest 
German persecution of minorities. 

264 



1933. April 3. Michigan was first state to vote repeal of federal Prohibi- 
tion. State statutes had been repealed in 1932. 

Michigan Liquor Control Commission created. 
April 27. City issued $8,000,000 in scrip for city employees. 
May 6. Frank Murphy resigned as Mayor. Appointed Governor- 
General of the Philippines. Frank Couzens took office as Mayor, 
May 10. 

June 1. Sales tax passed by Michigan legislature. 
Sept. 24. Widening of Woodward Avenue began with removal of 
trees between Kirby and Ferry Avenues. Wider Woodward opened 
from Kirby to Baltimore Avenue in October, 1934. 

Various colleges of the City of Detroit, medical, teachers, liberal 
arts, unified into a University. Renamed Wayne University, Janu- 
ary, 1934. 

World History 

1933. Jan. 30. Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of German Reich. Mar. 
23, Nazi dictatorship. End of German republic. 

Feb. 6. 20th Amendment to United States Constitution abolishing 
Lame Duck Session of Congress adopted. 

Mar. 4. First inauguration of Franklin D. Roosevelt as President. 

Mar. 4. First woman cabinet member Frances Perkins, Secretary 
of Labor. 

Mar. 6. Bank holiday. Financial crisis. 

Mar. 27. Japan withdrew from League of Nations after Lytton 

Report on Manchuria. Serious blow to League and stimulus to 

aggression. 

Mar. 31. Civilian Conservation Corps created. 
Apr. 7. 3-2% beer and wine legalized. 

Apr. 19- United States went off gold standard officially suspended 
payments in gold. 

May 12. Federal Emergency Relief Act first of the New Deal 
relief legislation. 

May 12. Agricultural Adjustment Act followed by other New 
Deal agricultural legislation. 

May 18. Tennessee Valley Authority Act. 

Junel2-July 27. World Monetary and Economic Conference met 
in London. Failure. 

265 



1933. June 13. Home Owners' Refinancing Act. 

June 16. National Industrial Recovery Act. "Blue eagle" activity 
under "codes of fair competition." 

Oct. 14. Germany withdrew from the League of Nations and Dis- 
armament Conference which failed. 

Nov. 7. Fiorello La Guardia elected Mayor of New York City. 

Nov. 17. United States recognized Soviet government, resuming 
diplomatic relations with U.S.S.R. 

Dec. 5. 21st Amendment to United States Constitution, repealing 
Prohibition, ratified. 

"Good neighbor" policy announced by President Roosevelt for 
Pan American relations. 

Century of Progress Exposition, Chicago. Reopened in 1934. 
Kidnappings constantly in the news. 

Cultural Progress 

1933- Dirndl skirts popular. Beginning of full skirt. 
Jigsaw puzzle fad. 

Sally Rand and her fan dance the sensation of Chicago fair. 
Rockefeller Center opened. 

First appearance of the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo in America; 
an event which marked the rebirth of country-wide ballet enthusiasm. 

Popular songs: "Carioca," "Flying Down to Rio," "Easter Parade," 
"Smoke Gets in Your Eyes." Theme song of the year "Who's Afraid 
of the Big Bad Wolf" from Walt Disney's Three Little Pigs. 

Newsweek Magazine established. 

Men of Good Will by Jules Remains began to appear in France. 

Life Begins at Forty 'by Walter B. Pitkin was the non-fiction book 
favorite. 

The play Tobacco Road began its record-breaking run Dec. 4. 
Second longest on Broadway. Appeared as novel in 1932. 

1933-1934. Best-selling novel: Anthony Adverse by Hervey Allen. Turned 
public taste toward historical novel and introduced novel of great 
length. 

100,000,000 Guinea Pigs by Arthur Kallet and J. J. Schlink had a 
great vogue and led to consumers' information services. 

266 



Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1933. Solo flight around the world made by Wiley Post in the plane 
"Winnie Mae" in 7 days, 18 hours, 49 minutes. 

Military portable radio telephone or "walkie-talkie" built at Signal 

Corps Laboratories. 

First aircraft carrier designed and built. The Ranger was launched 

Feb. 25. 

Tennessee Valley Authority created to develop power in Muscle 

Shoals area and in so doing to improve flood control, agriculture, 

and industry of the region. 

Federal regulation of the stock market came with Securities Act 

which required registration of new stock issues. The Securities and 

Exchange Commission was established in 1934. 

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation established to insure bank 

deposits. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1934. Apr. 23. New federal building and post office on Lafayette Street 
opened. Dedicated June 27. 

June. Billy Sunday opened his second Detroit revival. First in 1916. 
Botsford Tavern renovated by Henry Ford and opened to public. 
Mickey Cochrane led Detroit Tigers to American League baseball 
championship. First Detroit pennant in twenty-five years. Lost 
World Series to Cardinals. 

World History 

1934. Dust storms in Midwest. Migration of Dust Bowl farmers, called 
"Okies," to California began. 

Townsend old-age pension plan and Upton Sinclair's EPIC plan 
offered cures for economic ills. Huey Long presented a "share-the- 
wealth" program. 

Father Charles Coughlin organized National Union for Social Jus- 
tice. Talked weekly to a nationwide audience over the radio and 
gained a large following. 

Feb. 17. King Albert I of Belgium killed while mountain climb- 
ing. Succeeded by Leopold III. 

Mar. 24. U. S. Congress passed bill granting ultimate independence 
to the Philippine Islands, to become effective in ten years. 
May 28. Dionne quintuplets born. 

267 



1934. June 28. Federal Housing Administration established. 

July 25. Nazis assassinated Chancellor Dollfuss of Austria. 

Aug. 20. United States joined the International Labor Organization. 

Sept. 18. Russia joined League of Nations. 

Oct. 9. King Alexander I of Yugoslavia assassinated in Marseilles. 
Succeeded by youth, Peter II. 

Investigation of munitions industry by Senate Committee under 
chairman Gerald P. Nye. Led to neutrality acts in effort to stay out 
of war. 

Morro Castle disaster off Asbury Park, NJ. Excursion steamer fire. 

John Dillinger killed by G-men. Other criminals killed by officers 
during this year were Clyde Barrow and his moll, Bonnie Parker, 
and Charles (Pretty Boy) Floyd. 

Cultural Progress 
1934. Turban hats the fashion. 

Rhumba the popular dance. 

Max Baer knocked out Primo Camera in heavyweight bout. 

American subversives were exposed in Under Cover by John Roy 
Carlson, the leading non-fiction best seller. 

Popular songs: "Isle of Capri" and Cole Porter's "You're the Top." 

Favorite movie stars: Mae West, Jean Harlow, Will Rogers, Marie 
Dressier, Wallace Beery, John Barrymore. 

Shirley Temple established herself as a box-office draw in Stand 
Up and Cheer and Little Miss Marker. 

It Happened One Night, movie starring Claudette Colbert and 
Clark Gable and directed by Frank Capra, won all major Academy 
Awards. 

Alexander Woollcott was a radio favorite and his book While Rome 
Burns a best seller. 

One of the first of the novels of abnormal psychology was Phyllis 
Bottome's Private Worlds. 

Popular interest in ballet reflected in best-seller status of biography 
of Nijinsky by his wife. 

1934-1935. Good-Bye Mr. Chips by James Hilton became exceedingly 
popular as both a novel and a movie. 

268 



Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1934. Cyclotron, spiral atom smasher, developed by Ernest O. Lawrence 
at University of California to study nuclear structure of the atom. 
Streamlined railroad trains put into service. Burlington Zephyr 
was first streamlined all-steel Diesel motor train. Made first trip 
from Lincoln, Nebraska, to Kansas City, Missouri, on Nov. 11. Union 
Pacific operated streamlined, lightweight, aluminum-alloy, high 
speed three-car passenger train west of Omaha on Mar. 2 and first 
streamlined Pullman train out of Los Angeles on Oct. 22. 
Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act provided a means of easing 
tariff barriers. 

Third chain broadcasting system, the Mutual network, organized. 
Federal Communications Act passed for regulating radio broad- 
casting, telephone, and telegraph industries. 
Blue Cross Hospital Insurance Plan began operations. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1935. Tigers again won American League pennant and defeated Cubs in 
World Series for world's baseball championship. Tigers' first World 
Series victory. In November, Walter O. Briggs became sole owner 
of the club. 

Father Coughlin's National Union for Social Justice claimed 

5,000,000 membership. 

Dec. 76^ per hour the average wage of auto workers. 

World History 
1935. 22,000,000 on U. S. relief rolls. 

Jan. 2-Feb. 13. Bruno Hauptmann on trial for kidnapping of Lind- 
bergh baby. Executed Apr. 3, 1936. 
Jan. 13. Saar Valley voted to rejoin Germany. 
Mar. 16. Germany formally denounced clauses of Versailles Treaty 
on her disarmament. Reintroduced conscription. 
May 6. W.P.A. created under authority of the Emergency Relief 
Appropriation Act of Apr. 8. Works Progress Administration pro- 
vided "work relief" on "useful projects." Liquidation of W.P.A. 
ordered Dec. 4, 1942. 

May 6-9. Silver jubilee of George V, King of Great Britain. 
May 27. N.R.A. "Blue eagle" law declared unconstitutional. 

269 



1935. July 5. National Labor Relations (Wagner) Act established a 
national labor policy of protecting the right of workers to organize 
and encouraging collective bargaining. National Labor Relations 
Board created. 

Aug. 14. Social Security Act established national system of social 
insurance in the United States. 

Aug. 15. Will Rogers and Wiley Post killed near Point Barrow, 
Alaska, in plane crash. 

Aug. 26. United Automobile Workers of America organized. 
Sept. 8. Huey Long assassinated. 

Sept. 15. Niirnberg Laws marked climax of anti-Semitism in Ger- 
many. 

Oct. Italians invaded Ethiopa. 

Nov. 9. Committee for Industrial Organization established. In 
Nov. 1938 reorganized as Congress of Industrial Organizations 
with John L. Lewis as president. The CIO organized the mass pro- 
duction industries. 

Nov. 15. Commonwealth of Philippines proclaimed with Manuel 
Quezon as first President. U. S. still in nominal control. 
Dec. 13. Edward Benes succeeded Thomas Masaryk as President 
of Czechoslovakia. 

Cultural Progress 
1935. Zippers first used by Schiaparelli. Affected dress design. 

Van Gogh exhibition an outstanding success at Museum of Modern 

Art. 

James J. Braddock won heavyweight title by decision from Max 

Baer. 

Porgy and Bess, opera by George Gershwin, first performed. 

"Swing music" becoming the rage with Benny Goodman its leading 

exponent. 

Popular songs: "The Music Goes 'Round and 'Round," and Cole 

Porter's "Begin the Beguine." 

Popular Broadway plays and musicals: Boy Meets Girl by Spewack; 

The Children's Hour by Lillian Hellman; Dead End by Sidney 

Kingsley; Three Men on a Horse; Jubilee; Billy Rose's Jumbo. 

Helen Hayes starring in Victoria Regina. This followed her 1933 

success in Maxwell Anderson's play Mary of Scotland. 

Clifford Odets gained recognition as a dramatist when the Group 

270 



Theatre performed his Waiting for Lefty and the critics acclaimed 
his play Awake and Sing. 

Robert E. Sherwood pleased audiences with his plays The Petrified 
Forest and Tovarich. 

Leading box-office films: Mutiny on the Bounty with Clark Gable 
and Charles Laughton; Top Hat with Fred Astaire and Ginger 
Rogers; David Copperfield v/ith Freddie Bartholomew; Lives of a 
Bengal Lancer with Gary Cooper; China Seas with Clark Gable and 
Jean Harlow; Curly Top with Shirley Temple. 

Motion picture Academy Awards: best picture, Mutiny on the 
Bounty; best actress, Bette Davis in Dangerous; best actor, Victor 
McLaglen in The Informer. 

Lloyd C. Douglas was America's most popular novelist with his 
book The Green Light. 

Lost Horizon gave James Hilton another novel on the best-seller 

list. 

First of the best-selling biographical newspaper correspondents 

was Vincent Sheean with Personal History. 

First major league night baseball game in Cincinnati, May 24. 

1935-1939- Experiment in federal support of the arts when cultural 
occupations were included in the work relief program of the W.P.A. 
in the form of Federal Theater Project, Federal Art Project, Federal 
Music Project, and Federal Writers Project. Encouraged local talent 
and brought forward much native American art. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1935. Therapeutic value of sulfanilimide demonstrated by Gerhard 
Domagk. 

Radar detection and ranging first put into use by the British. Im- 
portant during Battle of Britain in 1940 for detecting German 
planes. (See also 1922) 

Amelia Earhart Putnam was first woman to fly solo across the 
Pacific Ocean from Honolulu to Oakland on Jan. 11. 

Pan American Airways established regular transpacific passenger 
service flights from San Francisco to Manila. 

First automatic parking meter installed in Oklahoma City. 
United States Soil Conservation Service established to work on the 
prevention of erosion. 

271 



Detroit and Michigan 

1936. Natural gas from Texas piped to Detroit. Manufactured gas used 
previously. 

Low-cost government housing made possible by Council approval 
of Chandler Park housing site. 

Red Wings won National Hockey League playoffs to bring Detroit 
its first Stanley cup. Also won in 1937. 

Oct. Van Gogh exhibition a great success at Detroit Institute 
of Arts. 

Oct. 15. President Franklin D. Roosevelt in Detroit. 
Ford Foundation established with gift from Edsel Ford. 

World History 

1936. Jan. 20. Death of King George V. Prince of Wales became Edward 
VIII, King of Great Britain. 
Mar. 7. German reoccupation of the Rhineland. 
Apr. 28. Farouk became King of Egypt. 
May 9. Italy formally annexed Ethiopia. 

June 5. First popular-front Socialist ministry in France under 
Leon Blum. 

July 18. Beginning of Civil War in Spain. General Franco, chief 
of Insurgents. 

Oct. 27. Formation of Rome-Berlin axis. 

Dec. Inter-American Conference at Buenos Aires adopted collec- 
tive security convention. 

Dec. 10. Edward VIII abdicated over Mrs. Simpson issue. George 
VI became King of Great Britain. 

Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933 declared unconstitutional by 
U. S. Supreme Court, Jan. 6. Second Act passed Feb. 16, 1938. 
Veterans' Bonus Act passed, Jan. 27. 
Texas Centennial Exposition, Dallas, Texas. 
Great Lakes Exposition, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Cultural Progress 

1936. Eugene O'Neill became the first American dramatist to win the 
Nobel Prize for literature. 

Maxwell Anderson won the New York Drama Critic's Prize for the 
play Winterset, first performed Sept. 25, 1935, and based on the 

272 



Sacco-Vanzetti case. He repeated the honor in 1937 with his play 
High Tor. 

Idiot's Delight brought the Pulitzer Prize for drama to Robert E. 
Sherwood. 

George Kaufman, the "great collaborator" of the dramatic world, 
had a big year. With Edna Ferber he offered Stage Door. With Moss 
Hart he wrote You Can't "Take It With You. This play won the 
Pulitzer Prize for 1937. 

The Women by Clare Boothe, became a favorite Broadway comedy. 
Popular songs: "It's D'lovely," by Cole Porter; "Empty Saddles" 
by Billy Hill. 

Motion picture awards: best picture, The Great Ziegfeld; best 
actress, Luise Rainer in The Great Ziegfeld; best actor, Paul Muni 
in Louis Pasteur. 

Life Magazine established and started vogue for pictorial periodicals 
and books. 

Gone With the Wind by Margaret Mitchell made publishing his- 
tory as a meteoric best seller. 

Self-help was the theme of best-selling books such as Wake Up 
and Live! by Dorothea Brande and Live Alone and Like It by 
Marjorie Hillis. 

John Gunther began his interpretive reporting series with Inside 
Europe. 

Olympic Games held in Berlin, Germany. 

1936-1937. Medicine and faraway lands always popular with readers 
were combined in the best-selling American Doctor's Odyssey by 
Victor Heiser. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1936. Hoover (Boulder) Dam completed. Begun in 1930. 
100-octane aviation gasoline produced commercially by catalytic 
cracking method by Socony- Vacuum Oil Company using process 
invented by Eugene Houdry. 

Launching of the British ocean liner Queen Mary. 

Sulfa drugs used in medicine with spectacular results. 

Giant panda brought from China to the Brookfield Zoo in Chicago. 

Died in 1938. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1937. Detroit celebrated Centennial of Michigan statehood. 

Jan. 1. Frank Murphy inaugurated as Governor of Michigan. 

273 



1937. Jan. 13. Lone Ranger program began over radio station WXYZ. 
Sit-down strikes. United Auto Workers recognized by General 
Motors after three-month strike, on February 11. One-month Chrys- 
ler strike ended April 6. 

May 2 6. Clash between Ford Company guards and UAW leaders 
on Miller Road bridge. 

William S. Knudsen became President of General Motors. 
May. New Greyhound bus terminal on Washington Boulevard 
opened. 

June. Joe Louis of Detroit won world's heavyweight boxing cham- 
pionship. 

Sept. First Seeing-Eye dog in Detroit for blind Ellsworth Smith. 
Oct. 21. Baseball park renamed Briggs Stadium. Remodeled and 
first used in present form in 1938. The site had been called Bennett 
Field (1900-1912) and Navin Field (1912-1937). 
Detroit Roman Catholic diocese made an Archbishopric with 
Edward A. Mooney as its first Archbishop. 

Black Legion, anti-union subversive organization, made its head- 
quarters in Detroit. 

World History 

1937. Jan.-June. CIO efforts to organize auto and steel workers. Sit-down 
strikes. General Motors recognized UAW, Feb. 11. UAW-Chrysler 
agreement signed Apr. 6. 

Jan. 7. Marriage of Princess Juliana of the Netherlands to Prince 
Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld. 

Jan. 20. President Roosevelt's second inaugural. First American 
inauguration to occur on any date other than Mar. 4. Roosevelt 
defeated Landon in Nov. 1936. 

President Roosevelt attempted to change Supreme Court. Court- 
packing speech, Feb. 5. 
Floods on Mississippi and Ohio Rivers. 

Jan. 30. Hitler repudiated German war guilt and obligations of 
Versailles Treaty. 

Mar. 18. Gas explosion at school in New London, Texas, killed 294. 
May 6. Dirigible Hindenburg exploded at Lakehurst, N.J. 
May 12. Coronation of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth in 
London. 
May 26. Egypt admitted as 59th member of League of Nations. 

274 



1937. June 3. Duke of Windsor married Mrs. Wallis Warfield Simpson. 
July. Amelia Earhart Putnam lost on Pacific flight from New 
Guinea. 

July. 7 Undeclared war broke out between Japan and China. 
Dec. 11. Italy withdrew from League of Nations. 
Alfred P. Sloan Foundation established. 

Cultural Progress 

1937. "Crazes" of the year: Charlie McCarthy, candid cameras, skiing. 
Page-boy bob the latest hair style for women. 
"Fifth Symphony" of Dimitri Shostakovitch, Soviet composer. 
Popular songs: "My Little Buckaroo," "Sweet Leilani," "The Merry - 
Go-Round Broke Down." 

Pulitzer Prize for novels went to Late George Apley by John P. 
Marquand. 

Academy awards: best movie, Life of Emile Zola; best actress, Luise 
Rainer in Good Earth; best actor, Spencer Tracy in Captains 
Courageous. 

Best-selling novels after Gone With the Wind: Northivest Passage 
by Kenneth Roberts; The Citadel by A. J. Cronin; Of Mice and 
Men by John Steinbeck; The Rains Came by Louis Bromfield. 
Most popular of all the self-help books topped the best-seller lists 
How to Win Friends and Influence People by Dale Carnegie. 
Red Seal editions by Modern Age Publisher and Penguin Books 
from England were pioneer 25^ paper-bound pocket books. Within 
a decade they were a firmly established part of the American news- 
stand led by the Pocket Books series and its many imitators. 
Joe Louis won the heavyweight championship by knocking out 
James Braddock in the 8th round, in Chicago, June 22. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1937. Golden Gate Bridge across San Francisco Bay completed. Longest 
suspension bridge. 

First blood bank for preserving blood for transfusions established 
by Cook County Hospital, Chicago, Illinois. 

Pituitary hormone isolated in pure crystalline form by doctors at 
Yale University School of Medicine. 
National Cancer Institute established for research. 

275 



Detroit and Michigan 

1938. Michigan Consolidated Gas Company formed by combination of 
gas companies in Detroit, Grand Rapids, Muskegon, and Ann Arbor. 
Secret party ballots used at primary election for first time. 
Feb. Peak welfare load of about 30,000 families. 
Apr. 11. Church of the Blessed Sacrament proclaimed Cathedral 
of the Catholic Archdiocese of Detroit. 
July 18. Detroit- Windsor ferry discontinued. 
Oct. First units occupied in Brewster and Parkside housing projects. 
Oct. 8. International Blue Water Bridge connecting Port Huron 
and Sarnia, Ontario, dedicated. 

Nov. 20. Detroiters join nationwide prayer service of protest 
against Nazi persecution of religious minorities, especially Jews. 

World History 

1938. Jan. 16. Spanish Insurgents began daily bombing of Barcelona. 
City fell, Jan. 10, 1939. 

Jan. 17. Mexican Government expropriated oil properties of Amer- 
ican and British companies. Nationalized petroleum industry, 
Mar. 18. 

Mar. 13. Anschluss of Austria and Germany. Hitler and German 
troops crossed frontier, Mar. 11. 

June 2 5. Fair Labor Standards Act approved providing minimum 
wages and time-and-a-half for hours over 40 per week. Effective 
Oct. 24, 1940. 

Sept. 30. Munich Pact ended German-Czech crisis. Sudetenland 
yielded to Hitler. 

Nov. 10. Death of Kemal Ataturk. Succeeded by Ismet Inonii as 
President of Turkey. 

Dec. 24. Declaration of Lima signed by 2 1 nations at 8th Interna- 
tional Conference qf American states, reaffirming their solidarity 
and opposition to any foreign intervention. 

Cultural Progress 
1938. Fads: Bingo, Big-apple dance. 

"Information Please" started the vogue for radio quiz programs. 
"God Bless America," song by Irving Berlin, as sung by Kate Smith, 
became a second national anthem. 

276 



1938. Popular Broadway plays: Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck; 
On Borrowed Time by Osborn; Amphitryon 38, starring the Lunts; 
What a Life introducing Henry Aldrich; and Knickerbocker Holiday 
by Maxwell Anderson. 

Our Town, play by Thornton Wilder, received the Pulitzer Prize 
for drama. 

Motion picture awards: best picture, You Can't Take It With You; 
best actress, Bette Davis in Jezebel; best actor, Spencer Tracy in 
Boys' Town. 

Walt Disney's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, the first feature- 
length animated cartoon, broke attendance records all over America. 
Best-selling novels: My Son! My Son! by Howard Spring; Rebecca 
by Daphne du Maurier; All This and Heaven Too by Rachel Field. 
Non-fiction favorites: Importance of Living by Lin Yutang; Mad- 
ame Curie by Eve Curie; Listen! The Wind by Anne Morrow Lind- 
bergh; The Horse and Buggy Doctor by Arthur Hertzler. 
Joe Louis knocked out Max Schmeling in the first round on June 
22, avenging his knockout by Schmeling in 1936. 
Panic caused by Orson Welles' radio program "Attack from Mars," 
Oct. 30. 

1938-1939. Broadway hits: Little Foxes by Lillian Hellman, starring 
Tallulah Bankhead; Philadelphia Story by Philip Barry, starring 
Katharine Hepburn; Abe Lincoln in Illinois by Robert E. Sherwood, 
starring Raymond Massey. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1938. Nylon introduced by DuPont Company. Dr. Wallace H. Carothers 
working on polymers made new fiber in 1935 which was named 
nylon. Commercial production began in 1938 with nylon bristle 
filaments for brushes. Nylon yarn manufacture began in 1939. 
Multa-filament yarn for hosiery introduced in 1940. 
Fluorescent-lamp tubes marketed in the United States. Becquerel 
had constructed a fluorescent tube as early as 1867. 

Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act passed to prevent sale of 
harmful or adulterated products. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1939. Jan. 2. Frank Murphy sworn in as Attorney General of the United 
States. 

Mar. 7. Branch of United Automobile Workers led by Homer 

277 (continued on following page) 



Martin seceded from the CI.O. Voted to reaffiliate with A.F.L., 
June 4. 

Detroiters met royalty when Crown Prince Frederik (now King 
Frederik IX) of Denmark visited Detroit on April 26. Crown 
Prince Olav and Princess Martha of Norway visited the city on 
May 3, and Detroit officials were presented to King George VI and 
Queen Elizabeth in Windsor, June 6. 

World History 
1939. Mar. 2. Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli elected Pope Pius XII. 

Mar. 14. Hitler occupied rest of Czechoslovakia. Czech Republic 
dissolved. 

Mar. 16. Germany seized port of Memel from Lithuania. 

Mar. 29- Spanish Civil War ended with surrender of Madrid. Gen- 
eral Franco's dictatorship ruled Spain. 

Apr. 7. Italians occupied Albania. 

May 17- June 22. Visit of King George and Queen Elizabeth to 
Canada and the United States (June 7-11). 

May 22. Formal political and military alliance of Italy and Ger- 
many concluded. 

Aug. 23. Soviet-German non-aggression pact. 

Sept. 1. World War II began with German invasion of Poland. 

Sept. 3. Great Britain and France declared war on Germany. 

Sept. 8. "Limited national emergency" proclaimed in United States 
by President Roosevelt. 

Nov. 30. Finland invaded by Soviet troops. Fighting continued 
until Mar. 1940 with Finland forced to cede territory. 

Dec. 14. U.S.S.R. expelled from League of Nations because of 
refusal to submit her dispute with Finland to League for settlement. 

Chiang Kai-shek gained chief power as head of Chinese Nationalist 
Government in fight against Japan. 

Reorganization of Federal government. Creation of Federal Security 
Agency and Federal Works Agency. 

Golden Gate International Exposition, San Francisco, California, 
Feb. 18-Oct. 29. 

New York World's Fair opened Apr. 30, closed Oct. 31, but 
reopened May 11, 1940. 

278 



Cultural Progress 

1939- Popular songs: "Beer Barrel Polka," "Three Little Fishes," "South 
of the Border, Down Mexico Way." 

Gone With the Wind was the motion picture industry's costliest 
($4,500,000) and longest (31/2 hours) production and also one 
of its most profitable. It won the Academy Award for best produc- 
tion of the year. 

Best-selling novel: The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck. It 
received the Pulitzer Prize of 1940. 

Hitler's Germany was the theme of widely read books, such as: 
The Mortal Storm by Phyllis Bottome (1938); Escape by Ethel 
Vance; Reaching for the Stars by Nora Wain; and including Mein 
Kampf by Hitler himself which was published in its first American 
editions. 

The play, Life With Father, opened Nov. 8. Longest run in history 
of Broadway 3,213 performances. Based on the 1935 book by 
Clarence Day. 

1939-1940. Plays of the season: Man Who Came to Dinner by George 
Kaufman; Male Animal by Nugent and Thurber; Time of Your 
Life by Saroyan. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1939- Otto Hahn split the uranium atom. Received 1944 Nobel Prize for 
his work on atomic fission. 

Pan American Airways inaugurated regular commercial passenger 
flights between United States and Europe. 

Frequency-modulation radio stations began commercial programs. 
First telecasts of sports events in New York, such as baseball game 
(Aug. 27); football game (Sept. 30); and prize fight (June 1) 
marked public introduction of the new television medium. 
Synthetic Vitamin K made by Dr. Louis F. Fieser of Harvard Uni- 
versity Chemistry Department. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1940. Detroit population 1,618,549. Fourth largest city in United States. 
City area 142 square miles. 

Jan. 2. Edward J. Jeffries, Jr. took office as Mayor of Detroit for 
first of six terms. 

279 



1940. Feb. 5. Frank Murphy took his seat as Associate Justice of the 
United States Supreme Court. 

Mar. 25. The Detroit Public Library celebrated its seventy-fifth 
anniversary. 

Apr. 3. Detroit Free Press purchased by John S. Knight. 
Apr. 6. The Ford Motor Company completed its 28,000,000th 
automobile thirty-seven years after the first Ford was built. 
June 16. Peace Carillon dedicated on Belle Isle. Funds raised 
through Nancy Brown's Experience column in the News. 
Aug. 15. The Chrysler Corporation started building $20,000,000 
plant to make large army tanks. 

Sept. 6. Michigan Supreme Court ruled that women doing equal 
work must be paid wages equal to those paid men. 
Oct. 15. Michigan National Guard mobilized for active service. 
Nearly 1,500 Detroiters called to active duty. 
Oct. 16. Half a million Detroiters registered for first selective 
service. State quota for initial call on November 18 only 627. 
Oct. 16. Large granite statue of Father Gabriel Richard unveiled 
in Gabriel Richard Park. 

Dec. 8. Strike by Neisner Brothers women clerks. 
Dec 12. Contract for first union shop in a major automobile plant 
signed by Hudson Motor Company and U.A.W. (C.I.O.). 
Dec. 19. William S. Knudsen named head of United States National 
Defense Council. On January 7, 1941, named Director of Office 
of Production Management. 

Visitors to Detroit included the Polish hero, General Joseph Haller, 
February 4, and twenty-two South American military leaders, Oc- 
tober 10. 

Detroit Tigers won American League pennant but lost World Series 
to Cincinnati Reds. 

World History 

1940. United States population: 131,669,275. Per square mile: 44.2. 
Center of population near Carlisle, Indiana. Geographic center 
in Smith County, Kansas. 

Rate per 1,000 United States population: marriages 12.1. Divorce 
rate now 2 per cent per 1,000 population. In 1890 had been .5; 
in 1910 rose to .9; and in 1920 increased to 1.6 per 1,000 popula- 
tion. By 1947 was 3.3 per cent. 

280 



1940. American trade-union membership totaled 8,944,000. 

Apr. 9- 10. Germany occupied Denmark and invaded Norway. 
Norway surrendered June 9. 

May 10. Germany invaded Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxemburg. 
May 10. Winston Churchill succeeded Neville Chamberlain as 
Prime Minister of Britain. 

May 13. Churchill's "blood, sweat and tears" speech. 
May 25. Office for Emergency Management established by Presi- 
dent Roosevelt. This agency became the governmental framework 
within which the defense and war agencies were organized and 
operated. 

May 2 6- June 4. Dunkirk evacuation. 
June 10. Italy declared war on Great Britain and France. 
June 13. Germans occupied Paris. France signed armistice with 
Germany, June 22. Vichy government came into power in France, 
July 9. 

July 10. Battle of Britain began with Nazi bombing. Coventry 
raid, Nov. 14. Worst air raid on London came May 11, 1941. 
July 14. U.S.S.R. annexed Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania. 
Sept. 16. Selective Training and Service Act. First peacetime con- 
scription in the United States. 

Sept. 27. Germany, Italy, and Japan concluded economic and mili- 
tary alliance. 

Oct. 16. Registration for selective service. Oct. 29, Compulsory 
military service inaugurated; 158 was first draft number drawn. 
Nov. 5. Franklin Roosevelt elected President for third time. De- 
feated Wendell Willkie. Norman Thomas ran as Socialist party 
nominee for the fourth time. 

Nov. 22. Philip Murray (United Steel Workers) succeeded John 
L. Lewis (United Mine Workers) as president of the C.I.O. 
Col. Benjamin O. Davis promoted by the President to the rank of 
brigadier general; the first Negro to hold such a commission in the 
U. S. Army. 

Cultural Progress 
1940. Zoot suit craze began. 

School attendance for 5-10-year-olds increased from 59.2% in 1910 
to 70.8% in 1940. By 1940 the median educational attainment was 
8.4 years. 4.6% of the population had finished college. 

281 



1940. "The Last Time I Saw Paris," popular song by Jerome Kern. 

Charles Chaplin's long-awaited picture, the Great Dictator, in which 
for the first time in his career he played a speaking part. 

Motion picture awards: best picture, Rebecca; best actress, Ginger 
Rogers in Kitty Foyle; best actor, James Stewart in Philadelphia 
Story. 

Best-selling novel: How Green Was My Valley by B-ichard Llewel- 
lyn. Other favorites were: Kitty Foyle by Christopher Morley; 
Mrs. Miniver by Jan Struther; The Nazarene by Sholem Asch. 

For Whom the Bell Tolls by Ernest Hemingway published. 

1940-1941. Outstanding plays of the season: My Sister Eileen; Watch on 
the Rhine; Corn Is Green, starring Ethel Barrymore; Lady in the 
Dark, starring Gertrude Lawrence. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1940. 5 man-hours required to produce and harvest an acre of corn and 
4 man-hours for an acre of wheat. In 1890 this required 15 man- 
hours and 9 man-hours respectively. 

245,740 miles of railway in the United States in operation. 

Synthetic rubber tires, Ameripol brand, marketed by B. F. Goodrich 
Company. 

First successful helicopter flown July 18 at Stratford, Connecticut, 
by Igor Sikorsky who constructed it in 1939. This marked real 
beginning of helicopter development although around 1910 Louis 
Charles Breguet of France had built a helicopter, and in 1922 
Henry A. Berliner had demonstrated a helicopter which could 
rise a short distance above the ground. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1941. Apr. 14. Ford Motor Company recognized U.A.W. and signed 
contract after ten-day strike. 

May. WWJ established first FM radio station in Michigan. 

Crown Princess Juliana of the Netherlands stopped in Detroit, 
June 9, and the Duke of Windsor toured war plants, October 30. 

Fort Wayne now used as a Quartermaster Corps Supply Depot. 

Nov. 11. International peace monument commemorating 126 years 
of peace between the United States and Canada dedicated on 
Belle Isle. 

282 



1941. Dec. 8. Army guards stationed at Detroit- Windsor tunnel and 
bridge after Pearl Harbor attack. 

Dec. 10. State Defense Council launched program for training 
emergency police, firemen, and air raid wardens. 

World History 

1941. Jan. 6. "Four freedoms" speech by President Roosevelt. Reaffirmed, 
Jan. 6, 1942. 

Jan. 7. Office of Production Management established to carry out 
defense program. 

Jan. 20. Franklin D. Roosevelt became first President ever inaugu- 
rated for a third term. Henry Wallace became Vice-President. 
Mar. 11. Lend-lease Act passed, principally to aid Britain. One- 
billion-dollar Lend-lease loan to U.S.S.R. arranged, Nov. 6. 
May 27. President Roosevelt proclaimed an "unlimited state of 
national emergency." 
June 22. German armies invaded Russia. 

June 25. Committee on Fair Employment Practice established by 
executive order to prevent discrimination on account of race or 
creed in war plants. 

July 7. U. S. Marines occupied Iceland by invitation of that country. 

July 20. "V" for victory symbol launched in British broadcast. 

Aug. 14. Atlantic Charter resulted from conference of Churchill 

and Roosevelt on battleship in Atlantic Ocean. 

Dec. 7. Bombing of Pearl Harbor naval base by Japanese. 

Dec. 8. U. S. declared state of war with Japan. 

Dec. 11. Germany and Italy declared war on the United States after 

which U. S. declared war against them. 

USO United Service Organizations organized to provide welfare 

and recreational facilities for servicemen. 

American Red Cross Blood Donor Service inaugurated. 

Cultural Progress 

1941. Joe DiMaggio hit safely in 56 consecutive games, May 15 to July 16, 
a major league record. 

Popular songs: "Chattanooga Choo-Choo," "Deep in the Heart of 
Texas," "The Hut-Sut Song." 
Robert E. Sherwood won his third Pulitzer Prize for drama with his 

283 (continued on following page) 



war play There Shall Be No Night. It opened on Broadway in 
April 1940 starring the Lunts. 

Motion picture awards: best picture, How Green Was My Valley; 
best actress, Joan Fontaine in Suspicion; best actor, Gary Cooper in 
Sergeant York. 

A. J. Cronin's Keys of the Kingdom was the best-selling novel. 

Berlin Diary by William L. Shirer was as influential a book as its 
author's broadcasts from Germany had been. It is probably the best 
of the "I-was-in-Germany-when" books which filled the book coun- 
ters during the early 1940's. 

The White Cliffs of Dover, narrative war poem by Alice Duer 
Miller, was not only the best-selling book but also the title of a 
popular movie and song. 

Jan Valtin startled American readers with his account of the 
Gestapo in Out of the Night. 

Popularity of Winston Churchill's book of speeches Blood, Sweat 
and Tears reflected American interest in Battle of Britain. 

Irvin S. Cobb, popular humorist of the day, wrote his autobiography 
Exit Laughing. 

Arsenic and Old Lace opened on Broadway, Jan. 10. 

Dedication of National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., hous- 
ing the Andrew W. Mellon collection of art presented to the United 
States in 1937. 

Joe Louis knocked out Billy Conn in 13th round after being close 
to defeat earlier in fight in defending his heavyweight title, 
June 18. 

1941-1942. Hit plays: The Moon Is Down by Steinbeck; Junior Miss; 
Angel Street. 

1941-1946. Gin rummy was the principal fad game. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1941. Anti-bacterial powers of penicillin established through studies by 
Sir Howard W. Florey and his associates at Oxford University. 
Penicillin had been discovered in 1929 by Sir Alexander Fleming. 

First "liberty" type ship launched, the Patrick Henry. 
First Quonset hut built at Greenwich, Rhode Island. 

284 



Detroit and Michigan 

1942. Jan. 28. Horace H. Rackham Educational Memorial opened. Head- 
quarters for Engineering Society of Detroit and extension services 
of the University of Michigan. 

Feb. 28. The Sojourner Truth housing project was the scene of a 
clash between whites and Negroes. 
May 3- Wayne County had first practice blackout. 
May 4. The first ration book was issued in Detroit. 
May. Ford's River Rouge plant converted into a tank arsenal. 
June 30. Frank Cody resigned as superintendent of Detroit schools 
after fifty years as a schoolmaster. Succeeded by Warren Bow. 
July 2. Max Stephan of Detroit found guilty of treason for aiding 
a Nazi prisoner of war to escape. Sentenced to death, August 6. 
First United States treason conviction and sentence of execution 
since Whiskey Rebellion in 1794. Death sentence commuted to life 
imprisonment by President Roosevelt, July 1, 1943. 

July 17-24. Detroit Street Railway strike crippled city transporta- 
tion. 

Sept. 18. President Franklin D. Roosevelt visited Detroit to look 
over war plants. 

Nov. Herman Gardens housing project first opened for occupancy. 
Completed May, 1943. 

Dec. 8. Death of Albert Kahn, leading industrial architect. Designed 
Ford plants, Fisher and General Motors buildings, Maccabees and 
Kresge buildings, and newspaper plants for the Free Press, Times, 
and News. 

World History 

1942. Jan. 16. War Production Board established. 

Jan. 30. Price Control Act. Office of Price Administration to con- 
trol prices and rents. Apr. 28, OPA froze prices of all major items 
affecting living costs in move to check inflation; stabilized rent 
limits were ordered in 301 areas designated as defense rental regions. 
Dec. 5. Over-all rent ceiling. 
Apr. 9- Surrender of Bataan. 
Apr. 18. Doolittle bombing-raid on Tokyo. 
May 5. Sugar rationing began. Coffee rationed Nov. 28. 
May 6. Fall of Corregidor. 

285 



1942. May 7-8. Battle of Coral Sea; June 3-6, Battle of Midway. Stopped 
Japanese advance in the Pacific. 

May 14. Women's Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC) authorized. 
July 20, Training began at Des Moines. Became integral part of 
Army as Women's Army Corps (WAC), Sept. 30, 1943. WAVES, 
women's branch of the Naval Reserve authorized July 30 and 
SPARS, women's division of Coast Guard created Nov. 23, 1942. 
Marines also established a women's service. 

May 15. Gasoline rationing started in 17 eastern states and Dis- 
trict of Columbia. Nationwide after Dec. 1. 
June 10. Lidice, Czechoslovakia, razed by Nazis. 
June 13. Office of War Information established. 
Aug. 7. Landings on Guadalcanal. Japanese surrendered Feb., 1943. 
Sept. 12. Russians halted Germans at Stalingrad. German Army 
surrendered Jan. 31, 1943. Virtually destroyed. 
Nov. 2. General Montgomery and British Eighth Army defeated 
Rommel forces at El Alamein in African desert. 
Nov. 8. Invasion of French North Africa by U. S. and British 
troops. 
Nov. 28. Cocoanut Grove Night Club fire in Boston. 

Cultural Progress 

1942. Popular songs: "This Is the Army, Mr. Jones" by Irving Berlin; 
"That Old Black Magic"; "Praise the Lord and Pass the Ammuni- 
tion" by Frank Loesser; "I Got Spurs That Jingle Jangle." 
Motion picture awards: best picture, Mrs. Miniver; best actress, 
Greer Garson in Mrs. Miniver; best actor, James Cagney in Yankee 
Doodle Dandy. 

Best-selling novel: Song of Bernadette by Franz Werfel. 
See Here, Private Hargrove by Marion Hargrove became the top 
humor book of the war and best seller of the year. 
The Robe by Lloyd C. Douglas began its remarkable career as a best 
seller. It topped the list in 1943 and was second in 1944 and has 
remained near the top ever since. Indicated strong appeal of relig- 
ious fiction. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1942. Atomic energy released and controlled in first self-sustaining 
nuclear chain reaction at University of Chicago. Work directed by 

286 



Enrico Fermi. Led to atomic bomb. 

First jet-propelled airplane designed and built in the United States 

tested Oct. 1 at Muroc, California. First jet fighter plane accepted 

by Army Air Forces in 1944. 

Bazooka rocket gun produced by General Electric Company. 

Grand Coulee Dam completed. 

Alaska or Alcan Highway opened. 

Nationwide collection of blood donations begun by Red Cross. 

Blood plasma important in treating battle casualties, etc. 

Detroit and Michigan 
1943. May 26. Edsel Ford died at the age of forty-nine. 

June 21. Negro-white race riots. Federal troops called in to main- 
tain order. 

Detroit Symphony Orchestra revived with financial support of 
Henry Reichhold and with Karl Krueger as conductor. 
Sept. 27. First Grand Opera Festival in Detroit with performances 
by Philadelphia La Scala Opera Company. 

Dec. 15. An epidemic of a mild variety of flu affected ten per cent 
of the population of Detroit. 

World History 

1943. Jan. 14-24. Casablanca Conference. Roosevelt and Churchill agreed 
on "unconditional surrender" policy. 

Jan. 27. First all-U. S. air raids over Germany. Continuous Allied 
bombing of German factories followed. 

Feb. 7. Shoe rationing at initial rate of approximately 3 pairs yearly 
per person decreed by OP A. 

Mar. 1. Point rationing of canned foods began. Ration point values 
for meat, butter, and cheese effective Apr. 1. 
Apr. Reported annihilation by gas chamber and mass executions 
of two million European Jews by Nazis. 

May 7. American 2d corps took Bizerte; British First Army took 
Tunis. May 12, End of Axis resistance in North Africa. 
July 1. Pay-as-you-go income tax became effective. Provided for 
withholding of tax by employers. 

July 10. Allies invaded Sicily and conquered it by Aug. 17. 
July 2 5. Mussolini deposed. 

287 



1943. Aug. 1. Harlem riot in New York City. 
Aug. 11-24. Quebec Conference. 

Sept. 3. British Army landed on mainland of Southern Italy; Sept. 
9, American Fifth Army landed at Salerno. 

Sept. 8. Italy surrendered unconditionally. Nazis kept on fighting 
in Italy. Italy declared war on Germany, Oct. 13. 
Sept. 13. Chiang Kai-shek named President of Chinese Republic. 
Oct. 9. Yugoslav guerilla forces under Tito opened offensive against 
Axis near Trieste. 

Oct. 19-Nov. 1. Moscow Conference of foreign ministers. 
Nov. 9. United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration 
(UNRRA) established. 
Nov. 20. Marines landed on Tarawa. 

Nov. 22-26. Cairo Conference of Roosevelt, Churchill, and Chiang 
Kai-shek. 

Nov. 28-Dec. 1. Teheran Conference. First meeting of Roosevelt 
and Churchill with Stalin. 
Dec. 17. Repeal of Chinese Exclusion Act. 

Dec. 24. General Eisenhower named to command Allied invasion 
of Europe. Had been Commander of U. S. forces in European 
Theater since June 25, 1942. 

V-mail introduced for rapid, lightweight letters between servicemen 
overseas and the home front. 

Cultural Progress 

1943. Popular songs: "Pistol Packin' Mama"; "Mairzy Doats"; "Lili 
Marlene"; "Comin' In On a Wing and a Prayer." 
Best moving picture: Casablanca, starring Ingrid Bergman and 
Humphrey Bogart; best actress, Jennifer Jones in Song of Berna- 
dette; best actor, Paul Lukas in Watch on the Rhine. 
Robert Frost won his fourth Pulitzer Prize for poetry. (Also 1924, 
1931, 1937) 

One World by Wendell Willkie became one of the all-time best 
sellers. Translated into 16 languages. Has sold over 3,000,000 copies. 
War books were the favorites with readers: Journey Among War- 
riors by Eve Curie; Guadalcanal Diary by Richard Tregaskis; Burma 
Surgeon by Gordon Seagrave; Here Is Your War by Ernie Pyle. 
Oklahoma, musical by Rodgers and Hammerstein, began its long 
Broadway run, Mar. 31. 

288 



Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1943. DDT adopted as standard insecticide. 

Penicillin successfully used in treatment of numerous diseases. 
Fermentation process for growing mold greatly increased produc- 
tivity. Spurred research in other antibiotic substances. 
ACTH, the adrenocorticotrophic hormone from the pituitary gland, 
produced in pure form. Developed by Armour and Company. Made 
medical history in 1949 in treatment of arthritis and allergy diseases. 
Death of George Washington Carver, great Negro scientist, Jan. 5. 
Pentagon Building completed in Washington, D.C 

Detroit and Michigan 

1944. Jan. 11. First season of Civic Light Opera performances opened. 
Jan. 13- Inter-Racial Relations Committee appointed by Mayor. 
Feb. 1. The Detroit industrial area, including plants in Wayne 
and Oakland counties, led the nation with a total of $12,745,525,000 
in war contracts up to this date. 

World History 

1944. Jan. 22. Allies landed at Anzio beachhead, 30 miles below Rome. 
U. S. Fifth Army entered Rome, June 4. 

Apr. 3 and May 8. Supreme Court upheld right of Negroes to vote 
in state primaries. 

June 6. D-Day. Allied forces landed in Normandy. 
June 13- Germans began robot bomb attacks on England. 
June 15. B-29 superfortresses bombed Japan for first time. 
June 22. Serviceman's Readjustment Act "GI Bill of Rights." 
July 3. Last great Russian city held by Nazis, Minsk, recaptured by 
Soviet troops. 

July 1-22. Bretton Woods Conference. Monetary and financial con- 
ference set up International Monetary Fund. 

July 6. Circus tent fire at Ringling Brothers, Barnum and Bailey 
Circus in Hartford, Conn. 

Aug. 21 -Oct. 7. Dumbarton Oaks Conference, Washington, D.C. 
Representatives of U.S., U.S.S.R., China, and United Kingdom 
explored plans for a new world organization. 
Aug. 25. Paris freed by U. S. and French troops. 

289 



1944. Sept. 11. American troops entered Germany. 

Sept. 25. British social security plan, under which every Briton 
would be insured from cradle to grave, published. 
Oct. 20. U. S. troops led by General Mac Arthur returned to Philip- 
pines. Entered Manila, Feb. 3, 1945. 

Oct. 22-27. Battle of Leyte Gulf. Japanese sea power smashed. 
Nov. 7. Franklin D. Roosevelt elected for fourth Presidential term, 
defeating Thomas E. Dewey. 

Dec. 16-26. Battle of the Bulge. German counter-offensive stopped 
at Bastogne. 

Deaths: Jan. 29, William Allen White. Mar. 10, Irvin S. Cobb. 
Sept. 27, Aimee Semple McPherson. Oct. 4, Al Smith. Oct. 8, 
Wendell Willkie. 

Cultural Progress 

1944. Popular songs: "Too-ra-loo-ra-loo-ra That's an Irish Lullaby" and 
"Rum and Coca Cola." 

Motion picture awards: best picture, Going My Way; best actor, 
Bing Crosby in Going My Way; best actress, Ingrid Bergman in 
Gaslight. 

Strange Fmit by Lillian Smith was the book of the year. 
Popular novels included the long-lasting The Robe, and A Tree 
Grows in Brooklyn, as well as new titles from favorite authors such 
as The Razor's Edge by W. Somerset Maugham; The Green Years 
by A. J. Cronin; Leave Her to Heaven by Ben Ames Williams; 
Green Dolphin Street by Elizabeth Goudge; Cluny Brown by 
Margery Sharp. 

Bob Hope, one of America's leading movie and radio comedians, 
topped the best-seller lists with his account of troop-entertaining, 
/ Never Left Home, 

Ernie Pyle added a second best seller to his account of the G.I. 
Brave Men. This title led the non-fiction best sellers in 1945. 
Harvey, farce-comedy by Mary Chase, opened on Broadway, Nov. 1. 
Awarded Pulitzer Prize in 1945. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1944. Streptomycin isolated from a soil culture by Dr. Selman A. 
Waksman and his associates at Rutgers University. Commercially 
manufactured by Merck and Company. Antibiotic used in medicine. 
Quinine synthesized. 

290 



Detroit and Michigan 

1945. Apr. 14. Detroit stopped work at the hour of President Roosevelt's 
funeral services. 

May 8. Detroit celebrated V-E Day. 

July. Reconversion began in the automobile plants. 

July 13. The Wilson Theater was bought by Henry Reichhold as 
a home for the Detroit Symphony Orchestra. Renamed Music Hall. 

Aug. 9. Kaiser-Frazer Corporation organized. By 1947 was fourth 
largest manufacturer of motorcars. 

Aug. 14. Detroit celebrated surrender of Japan. 

Sept. 21. Henry Ford II elected President of Ford Motor Company 
upon resignation of his grandfather. 

Oct. 10. Detroit Tigers won their second World Series, defeating 
Chicago Cubs four games to three. 

Parke, Davis & Company climaxed its distinguished pharmaceutical 
history by introducing Promin, the first effective chemotherapeutic 
agent for leprosy. In 1946 the company offered the anti-histaminic, 
Benadryl, and in 1948 the antibiotic Chloromycetin. 

World History 
1945. Jan. 20. Fourth inauguration of Franklin D. Roosevelt. 

Feb. 4-11. Crimea Conference at Yalta. Occupation plans for Ger- 
many settled. 

Feb. 19. U. S. Marines landed on Iwo Jima. Flag raised on Mt. 

Surabachi, Feb. 23. Island won by Mar. 17. 

Mar. 3. Act of Chapultepec unanimously adopted by 20 states 

represented at Inter-American Conference in Mexico City; each 

signatory pledged to protect territorial and political integrity of 

others. 

Mar. 7. U. S. First Army occupied Cologne and crossed Rhine at 

Remagen. 

Apr. 1. U. S. Tenth Army invaded Okinawa. Won island by 

June 21. 

Apr. 12. Death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. Vice-President Harry 

S. Truman inaugurated as President. 

Apr. 25. American and Russian armies met on Elbe River near 

Berlin. 

291 



1945. Apr. 25-June 26. United Nations Conference at San Francisco. 
Charter signed June 26. 

Apr. 28. Mussolini captured and executed by Italian Partisans. 
Apr. 29. Germans in Italy surrendered. 
Mayl-2. Death of Hitler announced. Berlin fell. 

May 7. Germany surrendered unconditionally at 2:41 a.m., French 
time. V-E Day proclaimed May 8. 

June 5. Allied Control Commission assumed occupation of Ger- 
many. Germany divided into four zones, each governed by one of 
the victorious powers: U.S., U.S.S.R., Great Britain, and France. 

July 15. Lights in Britain at night for first time since Sept. 3, 1939. 

July 17- Aug. 2. Potsdam Conference. Truman, Churchill, and 
Stalin fixed surrender terms for Japan and future of Germany. 

July 26. British Labour Party won national election. Clement Atlee 
became Prime Minister. 

Aug. 6. Atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, Japan; Aug. 9, 
Second bomb on Nagasaki. 

Aug. 14. Japan accepted surrender terms. 
Aug. 15. Gasoline rationing ended. 

Aug. 17. Independence of Indonesia proclaimed by President 
Soekarno. De facto recognition by the Netherlands was made in 
an agreement signed Mar. 25, 1947, by which the Indonesian 
Republic would become a member of the projected sovereign 
United States of Indonesia. Fighting between Netherlands and 
guerilla Republic forces was quieted under a United Nations truce 
and officially ended Aug. 3, 1949. 

Sept. 2. V-J Day. Japanese signed formal surrender aboard battle- 
ship Missouri. 

Oct. 16. First session of U.N. Food and Agricultural Organization. 

Oct. 18. 24 Nazi leaders indicted as war criminals. Trial before 
International War Crimes Tribunal opened Nov. 20. 

Oct. 24. United Nations World Security Organization came into 
being when Soviet Union ratified charter, which with legal major- 
ity of 29 ratifications became "law of nations." United States ratified, 
July 28. 

Nov. 23. Rationing of meat, butter, and all other red-point foods 
was ended in U. S. 

292 



1945. Dec. 21. Four American Cardinals named: Spellman of New York, 
Mooney of Detroit, Stritch of Chicago, Daugherty of Philadelphia. 
Dec. 27. World Bank set up by U. S. and 27 other nations. 

Cultural Progress 

1945. A. B. "Happy" Chandler became High Commissioner of Baseball 
upon the death of Judge Landis and held the position until 1951. 
The Glass Menagerie introduced a powerful new dramatist, Ten- 
nessee Williams. New York Drama Critics' Circle named it the 
season's best play. 

Popular songs: "Shoo-fly Pie and Apple Pan Dowdy," "On the 

Atchison, Topeka, and the Santa Fe." 

Best picture, The Lost Weekend; best actor, Ray Milland in The 

Lost Weekend; best actress, Joan Crawford in Mildred Pierce. 

Pulitzer Prize for novel went to John Hersey's A Bell for Adano. 

It also became a popular Broadway play. 

Historical romances were the top best sellers among novels led by 

Forever Amber by Kathleen Winsor (published 1944), followed 

by Captain from Castile by Samuel Shellabarger and The Black Rose 

by Thomas B. Costain. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1945. First atomic bomb explosion on July 16 in New Mexico desert near 
Los Alamos. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1946. Jan. 1. Detroit Street Railway fares raised to ten cents. 

Feb. 18. Archbishop Edward Mooney of Detroit made a Cardinal. 
Nominated December 21, 1945. 

Mar. 14. General Motors strike of 113-days duration settled when 
General Motors Corporation agreed to pay l8 l /2 cents hourly wage 
increase to U.A.W.-C.I.O. Strike called November 21, 1945. 
Mar. 27. Walter Reuther elected President of the United Auto- 
mobile Workers. 

Apr. 1. Detroit Street Railway transportation halted by strike. 
April. Detroit telephone directory published in two volumes for 
the first time. 
May 6. City-wide brownout ordered because of the coal shortage. 

293 



1946. June 9. Automotive Golden Jubilee and the Sesquicentennial of 
the first raising of the American flag in Detroit celebrated. 

Oct. 22. City Hall exterior cleaned by sand-blasting. 

World History 

1946. Jan. 10. First meeting of United Nations General Assembly in 
London. 

Feb. 24. Peron elected President of Argentina. Dictatorship in 
effect. 

Apr. 18. League of Nations voted itself out of existence and trans- 
ferred its assets to the United Nations. 

June 2. Italy abolished monarchy. Victor Emmanuel III had abdi- 
cated in favor of Prince Humbert, May 9- 

June 3. 28 Japanese war leaders went on trial in Tokyo for war 
crimes. 25 convicted and sentenced, Nov. 12, 1948. Tojo hanged, 
Dec. 23, 1948. 

June 5. LaSalle Hotel fire in Chicago. 

July 4. Philippine Islands became an independent republic. 

July29-Oct. 15. Paris Conference to draft peace treaties. Clash 
between United States and U.S.S.R. might be said to mark begin- 
ning of "cold war." 

Aug. 1. Atomic Energy Act. Provided for control by civilian com- 
mission. 

Aug. 12. British government announced halt on all illegal immi- 
gration of Jews to Palestine and said would-be immigrants were to 
be interned in Cyprus and elsewhere. 

Sept. 2. First all-Indian government inaugurated. Nehru headed 
cabinet. 

Oct. 1. International War Crimes Tribunal at Nuremberg sen- 
tenced 11 top Nazis to death, 7 to prison, 3 acquitted. Hermann 
Goering committed suicide, Oct. 15. 

Oct. 13. France established Fourth Republic. New constitution 
adopted. 

Nov. 4. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Or- 
ganization (UNESCO) began operating. 

Nov. 9. All controls on prices, wages, and salaries dropped except 
on rents, sugar, and rice. 

294 



1946. Dec. 31. President Truman proclaimed end of hostilities of World 
War II. 

Hindu-Moslem riots in India. 

Many strikes. Electrical workers, packing-house workers, and steel 
workers called strikes in January; coal miners on Apr. 1 and railroad 
trainmen and engineers on May 23. General Motors strike which 
began Nov. 21, 1945, settled Mar. 13, 1946. John L. Lewis and 
United Mine Workers were fined $3,500,000 for calling strike 
Nov. 21 despite government injunction. 

Mother Frances Cabrini sanctified. First United States citizen to be 
made a Saint. 

Cultural Progress 

1946. Broadway hits: Born Yesterday; O Mistress Mine, starring the 
Lunts; Joan of Lorraine by Maxwell Anderson, starring Ingrid Berg- 
man; State of the Union by Lindsay and Grouse, which won the 
Pulitzer Prize for 1946. 

Motion picture awards: best picture, Best Years of Our Lives; best 
actor, Frederic March in Best Years of Our Lives; best actress, Olivia 
de Havilland in To Each His Own. 

The movie The Jolson Story again made Al Jolson an entertain- 
ment figure of first importance. Its hit song was "The Anniversary 
Song." 

Leading box-office movie stars: Bing Crosby, Ingrid Bergman, Van 
Johnson, Gary Cooper, Bob Hope, Humphrey Bogart, Greer Garson, 
Margaret O'Brien, Betty Grable, Roy Rogers. 

Exceptional foreign films exhibited in the United States. From 
Britain: Henry V with Laurence Olivier; Brief Encounter; Caesar 
and Cleopatra; Seventh Veil. From Italy: Open City. 

Popular tunes: "The Gypsy" (on Hit Parade for 20 weeks, best 
seller in sheet music and records) and "To Each His Own." 

Irving Berlin was the song writer of the year with his music for 
Annie Get Your Gun and for the movie Blue Skies. 

Non-fiction best seller: The Egg and I by Betty MacDonald. 

Peace of Mind by Joshua L. Liebman began its long stay at the top 
of the best-seller lists, reflecting the great appeal of self-help books. 

1946-1947. Mildred Didrikson Zaharias won 16 successive women's golf 
championships. The outstanding woman athlete of her day. 

295 



Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1946. Army Signal Corps reached moon with radar beam, Jan. 24. 

July 1. Bikini Atoll atom bomb test. Second atomic test, under 
water, July 25. 

First rocket plane built in the United States for supersonic flight to 
carry a person tested Dec. 8. Rocket plane development began 
around 1944. 

Artificial snow produced by General Electric Company's method of 
seeding clouds with dry ice pellets. In 1947 a forest fire was drenched 
with man-made rain at Concord, New Hampshire. In 1948 rain- 
making experiments in Arizona were successful. 
Synthetic penicillin produced. 

Radioactive isotopes used in medicine and in other fields. 
Electric blanket manufactured by Simmons Company. Tempera- 
ture regulated by electronic thermostat control. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1947. Jan. 29. Webster Hall taken over by Wayne University as dormi- 
tory and student center. 

Feb. 12. Crown Prince Saud al Saud of Saudi Arabia visited Detroit. 
Mar. 4. Council approved City Plan Commission river-front devel- 
opment plan. 

Apr. 7. Henry Ford died at age of eighty- three. 
Mar. 4. WWJ-TV began television broadcasting. Sixth television 
station in United States. Experimental televising since October, 
1946. First regular daily commercial schedule, June 3, 1947. 
May 29. Willow Run Airport became airport for commercial air 
lines in Detroit area. 

July 9- Smoke abatement code adopted. Effective August 14. A 
smoke-nuisance ordinance had been adopted as far back as 1907. 
Nov. 4. Eugene I. Van Antwerp elected Mayor, defeating Edward 
J. Jeffries. George Edwards elected Council President. 
Ford Foundation became largest in the world when it received the 
Ford Motor Company non-voting stock under will of Henry Ford. 
In 1951 the Foundation reported resources of $492,678,255. 

World History 
1947. Jan. 1. England nationalized all coal mines. 

Jan. 1. Atomic energy transferred from military to civilian control. 

296 



1947. David Lilienthal confirmed Apr. 9 as Chairman of U.S. Atomic 
Energy Commission after struggle in Senate. 

Feb. 10. Peace treaties signed with Italy, Hungary, Rumania, Bul- 
garia, and Finland. Into effect Sept. 15, 1947. 

Feb. 16. Admiral Richard Byrd again flew over South Pole during 
his fourth Antarctic Expedition. 

Mar. 12. Truman Doctrine announced. Aid to Greece and Turkey 
to stop Communist pressure. Greek-Turkish Aid bill passed May 22 
and $350 million relief for war-devastated countries authorized by 
Congress May 31. 

May 14. Portal-to-portal pay suits by labor unions outlawed. 

June 5. Plan announced by Secretary of State George Marshall for 
the United States to aid European recovery. Interim Foreign Aid 
Act passed Dec. 17. 

June 11. Sugar rationing ended; last of wartime controls. 
June 23. Taft-Hartley Labor Management Relations Act. 

July 1. International Refugee Organization Preparatory Commission 
took over from UNRRA. IRO constitution into force Aug. 20, 1948. 

July 18. New Presidential succession law made Speaker of House 
next in line after Vice-President instead of Secretary of State. 

July 26. National Security Act created a separated Air Force and 
unified it with the Army and Navy in a National Military Estab- 
lishment under a Secretary of Defense. In 1949 the Department 
of Defense was created with subordinate Army, Navy, and Air 
Force Departments. 

Aug. 15. India divided into two independent nations. Union of 
India (Hindu), a self-governing dominion in British Common- 
wealth, and Pakistan (Moslem) a new state. 

Sept. 17. Freedom Train started on its nationwide tour. 
Oct. 5. New "Cominform" announced by the Soviet. 

Nov. 20. Princess Elizabeth of Great Britain married Prince Philip 

Mountbatten. 

Nov. 29. United Nations approved partition of Palestine into 

Jewish and Arab states. 

Dec. 5. 10 Hollywood figures indicted for refusal to testify as to 
their Communist status before House Un-American Activities 
Committee. 

297 



Cultural Progress 

1947. Fashion revolution in women's clothes ushered in the famous "new 
look" which featured the padded-hip, the long, full skirt. 
Popular tunes: "Near You"; "That's My Desire;" "Peg O' My 
Heart"; "Chi-baba, Chi-baba"; "Open the Door, Richard." Popular 
singers: Dinah Shore, Jo Stafford, Perry Como, Frankie Laine, 
Frank Sinatra. 

Motion picture awards: best picture, Gentleman's Agreement; best 
actress, Loretta Young in The Farmer's Daughter; best actor, Ronald 
Colman in A Double Life. 

Best-selling novels reflected public interest in inter-racial relations 
and the constant liking for historical romance. Gentleman's Agree- 
ment by Laura Z. Hobson topped the list, followed by Prince of 
Foxes by Samuel Shellabarger and Kingsblood Royal by Sinclair 
Lewis. 

First Negro major league baseball player: Jackie Robinson of the 
Brooklyn Dodgers. 

Opening performance, Dec. 2, of A Streetcar Named Desire, play 
by Tennessee Williams. It won both the Pulitzer Prize and Drama 
Critics' Award of 1948. 

1947-1948. Report by President's Commission on Higher Education. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1947. 227,146 miles of railroad in the United States in operation. 
Pilotless rocket planes with speed of 1,500 miles per hour tested 
by federal government aeronautical engineers. 

New photographic process produced positive print in the camera 
one minute after exposure. Demonstrated by Edward N. Land. 
Chloromycetin used in medicine. Mold antibiotic useful against 
rickettsia which are organisms smaller than germs. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1948. Apr. 20. Attempted assassination of Walter Reuther. 

May 29- General Motors-U.A.W. contract provided for wages tied 

to cost-of -living index. 

June 15. First night baseball game at Briggs Stadium. 

Sept. 20. New classroom building, State Hall, opened at Wayne 

University. 

Oct. 6 Parking meters installed on Detroit streets. 

298 



World History 

1948. Jan. 1. Railways nationalized in Great Britain. 
Jan. 30. Mahatma Gandhi assassinated in India. 
Feb. 23. Communists seized power in Czechoslovakia. 
Mar. 15-Apr. 22. Coal miners strike for $100-a-month pensions. 

Mar. 17. Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxemburg signed 50-year 
security pact with England and France and accepted their proposal 
for a union of Western European nations. 

Mar. 30-May 2. 9th Inter- American Conference at Bogota, Colom- 
bia, adopted charter creating Organization of American States. 

Apr. 1. The Soviet attempted to squeeze Western Powers out of 
Berlin by imposing blockade on all rail and road traffic from Amer- 
ican and British zones to their Berlin sectors. "Airlift" enabled the 
United States and Britain to supply western Berlin sector. 

Apr. 3. Congress passed foreign aid bill for the European Recov- 
ery Program. Paul G. Hoffman named Economic Cooperation 
Administrator. 

Apr. 7. World Health Organization established. 
May 14. United Nations voted to send mediator to Palestine to 
end Israeli-Arab fighting. May 20, Count Folke Bernadotte of 
Sweden named as mediator. 

May 14. British withdrew from Palestine mandate. New state of 
Israel proclaimed with Dr. Chaim Weizmann as President. Jewish- 
Arab war continued. 

July 5. Great Britain adopted National Health Service Act, pro- 
viding free medical service. 

Aug. 15. South Korea proclaimed a republic. Zone south of 38th 
parallel had been under United States supervision while North 
Korea was under Soviet control according to agreement of Feb. 6, 
1946. 

Aug. 23. World Council of Churches, composed of 147 denomina- 
tions including Protestant, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, and Old 
Catholic (not Roman Catholic), met in First International Assem- 
bly in Amsterdam, Holland. 

Sept. 6. Juliana became Queen of the Netherlands when her 
mother, Wilhelmina, abdicated after 50-year reign. 

Sept. 17. Count Bernadotte, United Nations mediator in Palestine, 
assassinated by terrorists. His assistant, Dr. Ralph Bunche, took over. 

299 



1948. Oct. 30. First group of displaced persons arrived in the United 
States under provisions of act of June 25, 1948, authorizing admis- 
sion of 205,000 European displaced persons within coming two 
years. Number increased by amended act of June 16, 1950. 
Nov. 2. Truman re-elected President in surprise Democratic vic- 
tory despite Republican opposition by Dewey, Progressive candi- 
dacy of Henry Wallace, and Dixiecrat rebellion within Democratic 
Party. 

Nov. 14. Son (Charles) born to Princess Elizabeth of England. 
Dec. 10. United Nations General Assembly adopted Declaration 
of Human Rights. 

Dec. House Un-American Activities Committee disclosed testi- 
mony by Whittaker Chambers as to Communist spy ring in State 
Department. Alger Hiss indicted for perjury, Dec. 15. 
Dec. 21. Republic of Ireland Act. Repealed External Relations Act 
whereby British controlled diplomacy. Became effective Apr. 18, 
1949, proclaimed Irish Independence Day. 

Cultural Progress 

1948. Masterpieces of painting from German museums exhibited in major 
American cities. 

Olympic Games held in London, England. First competition since 
1936. 

Popular tunes: "Buttons and Bows," "Now Is the Hour," "Nature 
Boy." Novelty songs included: "Dickey Bird Song," "Mariana," 
"Hair of Gold, Eyes of Blue." 

Outstanding plays: Mister Roberts starring Henry Fonda; Edward 
My Son starring Robert Morley; Where's Charley starring Ray 
Bolger. 

Motion picture awards: best picture, Hamlet; best actor, Laurence 
Olivier in Hamlet; best actress, Jane Wyman in Johnny Belinda. 
James A. Michener's Tales of the South Pacific received Pulitzer 
Prize in fiction. 

The "Schmoo" created by Al Capp for his Lil Abner comic strip 
became the leading fad of the year. 

The War was featured in best-selling novels The Naked and the 
Dead by Norman Mailer and The Young Lions by Irwin Shaw. 
General Eisenhower's Crusade in Europe topped the non-fiction 
for this and the next year. 

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1948. Other best-selling non-fiction: How To Stop Worrying and Start 
Living by Dale Carnegie; Peace of Mind by Joshua Liebman, in 
its 3d year. 

Sexual Behavior in the Human Male by A. C. Kinsey and others 
aroused much discussion. 

First opera televised from Metropolitan Opera House was Otello 
by Verdi on ABC network, Nov. 29. 

1948-1949. Frances Parkinson Keyes continued as a leading woman nov- 
elist with annual best sellers like Dinner at Antoine's (1949); 
Came a Cavalier (1948). One of her leading rivals, equally prolific, 
was Taylor Caldwell. 

Readers continued to exhibit a taste for lush, sexy historical 
romances in the Forever Amber pattern. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1948. Dedication, June 3, of 200-inch telescope at Mount Palomar 
Observatory, California. Lens molded at Corning, New York, Dec. 
2, 1934. Grinding and polishing completed Oct. 3, 1947. First used 
Feb. 1, 1949- 

First simultaneous broadcast over AM and FM radio and television, 
Mar. 20. 

Aureomycin obtained by Dr. Benjamin M. Duggar at Lederle Lab- 
oratories. This antibiotic was produced from soil. 
Therapeutic properties of cortisone, the adrenal cortex hormone, 
recognized. Cortisone first crystallized in 1935 by Edward C. Ken- 
dall of Mayo Clinic. Nobel Prize in medicine for 1950 awarded to 
Dr. Kendall and Dr. Philip S. Hench, also of Mayo Clinic, and 
Dr. Tadeusz Reichstein of Switzerland for studies in cortisone and 
related hormones. 

Successful extraction of chlorophyll, green pigment in plants, in 
its natural form, announced by Drs. Boris and Sophia Berkman of 
Chicago. 

30,545,000 automobiles in the United States; 17,500,000 in 1925; 
8,000 in 1900. 36,000,000 telephones in the United States; 
16,900,000 in 1925; 1,300,000 in 1900. 37,623,000 homes with 
radios in the United States; 3,700,000 in 1925. 20,819,000 homes 
with electric washers; 3,500,000 in 1926. 16,356,000 homes with 
vacuum cleaners; 5,200,000 in 1926. 23,525,000 homes with 
electric refrigerators; 142,000 in 1926. 

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Detroit and Michigan 

1949. Jan. 1. G. Mennen Williams inaugurated as Governor of Michigan. 
Jan. 1. Fort Wayne turned over to city by federal government. 
Dedicated as a military museum June 14, 1950, under supervision 
of the Detroit Historical Commission. 

Jan. 13. Northwestern Health Center opened. 

July 19. Frank Murphy, Supreme Court Justice, died in Detroit. 

Sept. 11 -Nov. 20. "For Modern Living" exhibit at Institute of 
Arts gained nationwide attention. Contemporary design in home 
furnishings and objects. 

Sept. 17. Passenger ship Noronic burned at Toronto. 139 persons 
died. Many Detroiters aboard. 

Nov. 26. Shah of Iran, Mohammed Riza Pahlevi, visited Detroit 
during United States tour. 

Inauguration of United Foundation single fund-raising campaign 
for all welfare and health agencies. Torch Drive exceeded quota, 
November 10. 
Detroit Symphony Orchestra disbanded. 

Ford Motor Company and U.A.W. entered into contract for worker 
pensions wholly financed by the company. Outstanding labor rela- 
tions event. 

Michigan had about 7,000 miles of railroad. In 1849 there were 
350 miles. 

Michigan- Wisconsin Pipe Line completed for bringing natural gas 
from Texas to Detroit. 

Major municipal problems: financial losses of Detroit Street Rail- 
way; welfare laxness; housing shortage. 

Nov. 8. Albert E. Cobo, City Treasurer for seven terms, elected 
Mayor, defeating George Edwards. 

Dec. 30. Miss Mary V. Beck, first woman elected as member of 
City Council sworn in. 

World History 

1949. Jan. 20. President Truman outlined his four-point program for 
world peace and freedom in his inaugural address. Point 4 advocated 
aid to underdeveloped areas. 

Feb. 3-8. Trial of Cardinal Joseph Mindszenty for treason in 
Hungary. 

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1949- Dr. Ralph Bunche, United Nations mediator, negotiated armistices 
between Israel and Egypt, Feb. 23; Israel and Trans Jordan, Apr. 3; 
Israel and Syria, July 20. 

Apr. 1. Final report by Hoover Commission on the Reorganization 
of the Executive Branch of The Government. President Truman 
submitted various reorganization plans in accordance with the 
Commission recommendations. Commission created July 7, 1947. 

Mar. 8. Independence of Viet-Nam (Indo-China) with French 
union recognized. 

Mar. 13. Economic union of Belgium, Luxemburg, and Nether- 
lands (Benelux) announced. Effective July 1, 1950. 

Mar. 31. UNRRA dissolved. Had spent $3,968,392,725 of which 
73% came from United States. 

Apr. 1. Newfoundland became Canada's tenth province. 

Apr. 4. North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, D.C. by 12 
nations. Ratified by Senate, July 21. Effective Aug. 24. 

Sept. 7. Federal Republic of Western Germany held first session 
at Bonn. 

Sept. 30. Allied airlift to Berlin officially terminated after 277,264 
flights beginning June 25, 1948. 

Oct. 1. People's Republic of China formally proclaimed by Com- 
munists. Mao Tze-Tung, President. 

Oct. High naval officers opposed unification policies. Admiral 
Denfield relieved as Chief of Naval Operations, Oct. 27. Admiral 
Forrest P. Sherman appointed, Nov. 1. 

Oct. 14. 11 Communist leaders found guilty in their trial for con- 
spiracy to overthrow U. S. government. 

Oct. 24. Dedication of permanent United Nations site in New 
York City. 

Oct. 26. Minimum wage raised from 40^ to 75^ per hour under 
act amending Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938. 

Oct. 28. Military Assistance funds appropriated to aid North 
Atlantic Treaty countries and others to resist Communism. 

Dec. 7. International Confederation of Free Trade Unions estab- 
lished in London. AFL, CIO, UMW participated. 
Dec. 8. Chiang Kai-shek's Chinese Nationalist Government took 
refuge on Formosa. 
Dec. 24. 25th Roman Catholic Holy Year opened. 

303 



Cultural Progress 

1949. Women's fashions featured the pencil silhouette with hemlines 
about 12-14 inches above floor. Short, flat coiffures. 
Canasta craze began. Official rules were published and the game 
was sweeping the country. 

Kiss Me Kate, musical play by Cole Porter, starring Alfred Drake, 
which opened Dec. 30, 1948, soon had a rival in South Pacific, 
musical by Rodgers and Hammerstein, starring Mary Martin and 
Ezio Pinza, which opened Apr. 7, 1949. 

Popular songs: "Some Enchanted Evening," "A Wonderful Guy," 
"Bali Hai," all from South Pacific; and "Riders in the Sky," "Mule 
Train," "Powder Your Face With Sunshine." 

Sadler's Wells Ballet visited New York. Made such a hit they 
returned for triumphal American tour in 1950. 
Motion picture awards: best picture, All the King's Men; best 
actor, Broderick Crawford in All the King's Men; best actress, 
Olivia de Havilland in The Heiress. 

Movies turned to racial problems as a leading theme, exemplified 
in these films on the Negro question: Pinky, Intruder in the Dust, 
Lost Boundaries, Home of the Brave. 

Bing Crosby ranked second in the poll of leading box-office movie 
stars after 5 years in first place. Bob Hope ranked first this year. 
Other movie favorites were: Abbott and Costello, John Wayne, 
Gary Cooper, Cary Grant, Betty Grable, Esther Williams, Hum- 
phrey Bogart, Clark Gable. 

Books with a religious or psychological theme continued to be 
popular both in fiction and non-fiction. Fiction best sellers included: 
The Egyptian by Mika Walteri; The Big Fisherman by Lloyd C. 
Douglas; Mary by Sholem Asch. Non-fiction best sellers: The 
Seven Storey Mountain by Thomas Merton; Greatest Story Ever 
Told by Fulton Oursler; Peace of Soul by Fulton J. Sheen; Guide 
To Confident Living by Norman V. Peale; The Mature Mind by 
Harry Overstreet. Their humor and warmth made best sellers of 
Father of the Bride by Edward Streeter and Cheaper By the Dozen 
by the Gilbreths. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1949. An Air Force jet bomber crossed the United States in 3 hours 46 
minutes. This fastest transcontinental flight averaged over 600 
miles per hour. 

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1949. Round-the-world non-stop airplane flight made by B-50 super- 
fortress Lucky Lady II. Left Fort Worth base Feb. 26, returned 
Mar. 2 (94 hours). Refueled four times in mid-air. 

General Motors Corporation realized greatest net profit ever re- 
corded by an American corporation $656 million. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1950. Detroit population of 1,838,517 made it 5th in size in the United 
States. Metropolitan area had a population of 2,973,019. 

Two leading Detroit political figures died: John C. Lodge in Febru- 
ary and Edward J. Jeffries in April. 

Ground broken for slum-clearance housing projects: the Douglas 
project, May 5; and the Jeffries project, July 19. 
Mar. 11. Ford Motor Company Fund and Ford and Lincoln-Mercury 
dealers announced a two-and-one-half -million-dollar gift to the city 
for a Henry and Edsel Ford Memorial Auditorium in Civic Center. 
May 17. American Cancer Society's new detection center on John R 
Street formally opened. 

June 11. Veterans' Memorial Building opened first unit of Civic 
Center. 

July 13. Jerome H. Remick music shell dedicated at Belle Isle. 
May 6. The 102-day strike of the U.A.W. ( CI.O. ) against Chrysler 
ended with a $100 pension agreement but without a union-shop 
clause. 

May 2 3. The U. A.W. ( CI.O. ) and General Motors Corporation 
agreed to a five-year contract including guaranteed annual wage 
increases, cost-of-living wage adjustments, a modified union shop, 
and $100-monthly pensions at age of sixty-five after twenty-five 
years' service. 

June. J. L. Hudson Company announced project for huge suburban 
shopping center. 

Nov. Michigan gubernatorial election settled by recount. G. Men- 
nen Williams re-elected. First Democratic Governor to succeed 
himself. Inaugurated January 1, 1951. 

World History 

1950. United States population according to Apr. 1 census: 150,697,361. 
Center of population moved west to near Olney, Illinois. 
United States national debt: $1,698.06 per capita. 

305 



1950. Women constituted 28.6% of the nation's labor force. In 1920, 
23-3% of the gainful workers were women. 

American labor union membership totaled some 16,000,000 with 
8,000,000 belonging to the AFL, 6,000,000 to the CIO and 
2,000,000 to independent or unaffiliated unions. 

Jan. 21. Alger Hiss found guilty of perjury. 
Jan. 26. India became independent republic. 

June 5. Supreme Court barred segregation of Negroes in Southern 
universities and on railroad dining cars. 

June. 25. Communist-led North Korean army crossed 38th paral- 
lel and attacked Republic of South Korea. June 27, U. S. forces 
ordered to fight in support of South Korea. 

July?. Reserves called up by U.S. Draft inductions restored. 
Unified command for armed forces defending South Korea author- 
ized by United Nations Security Council. General Douglas Mac- 
Arthur appointed commander in chief, July 8. 

Aug. 15. Republic of Indonesia proclaimed replacing States of 
Indonesia. New constitution abandoned federation and declared 
Indonesia a unitary nation of ten provinces. Name formerly held 
by one of the states, the Republic of Indonesia, was applied to the 
whole nation. 

Sept. 6. Point 4 program to help underdeveloped regions launched 
as part of Foreign Economic Assistance Program authorized by 
Congress June 5. 

Sept. 22. Dr. Ralph Bunche won Nobel Peace Prize for mediation 
of Israeli- Arab dispute. 

Oct. 29. Death of King Gustav V of Sweden. Gustav VI became 
King. 

Nov. 1. Puerto Rican extremists attempted to assassinate President 
Truman. 

Nov. 1. Pope Pius proclaimed dogma of the Assumption of the 
Blessed Virgin. 

Nov. 29- National Council of Churches of Christ in the United 
States of America replaced Federal Council in a movement toward 
greater Protestant church union. 

Dec. 16. National emergency proclaimed by President Truman. 
Office of Defense Mobilization created and Charles E. Wilson 
became its director, Dec. 21. 

306 



1950. Dec. 19. General Eisenhower named supreme commander of North 
Atlantic Treaty nations' military forces in Europe. 
Senator Joseph McCarthy attacked Communists in government, 
especially in State Department. 

Paul G. Hoffman (formerly ECA Administrator) named director 
of Ford Foundation with Robert M. Hutchins and Chester C. Davis 
as associate directors. The Foundation, established in 1936, reported 
resources over $450,000,000, making it the largest in the world. 
Water shortage in New York led to drastic conservation measures 
and even the hiring of rain makers. 

Cultural Progress 

1950. Nylon being used increasingly as a fabric for lingerie, dresses, and 
shirts as well as for hosiery. 

Ben Hogan won United States Open Golf Championship, June 11, 
in comeback after serious auto accident. 

Joe Louis defeated by Ezzard Charles, Sept. 27, in heavyweight 
championship bout. 

Popular song: "If I Knew You Were Comin' I'd've Baked a Cake." 
The best motion picture of the last half century, according to the 
Daily Variety poll was Gone With the Wind. Runners-up were 
The Birth of a Nation and The Best Years of Our Lives. The best 
motion picture actor of the last half century was Charles Chaplin. 
Ronald Colman, Laurence Olivier, and Spencer Tracy followed 
Chaplin in the best-actor category. The best motion picture actress 
of the last half century was Greta Garbo. Ingrid Bergman, Bette 
Davis, and Olivia de Havilland followed Miss Garbo in the best 
actress group. Irving Thalberg was named the best producer and 
David Wark Griffith the best director in the Daily Variety poll. 
Arturo Toscanini, leading orchestra conductor, toured with NBC 
Symphony. 

"Citation" set world mile-record (1 minute 33 3/5 seconds) and 
finished his career as top money-winning horse with earnings of 
$1,085,760. 

Death of Al Jolson on Oct. 23 and death of George Bernard Shaw 
at age of 94 on Nov. 2. 

Nobel Prize in literature for 1949 awarded to William Faulkner of 
the United States; 1950 Prize to Bertrand Russell of England. 
Hit musicals which opened on Broadway: Guys and Dolls and 
Call Me Madam. 

307 



1950. Popular movies: Samson and Delilah, Battleground, King Solomon's 
Mines, Cheaper By the Dozen, All About Eve, Sunset Boulevard, 
Born Yesterday. 

Rudolf Bing became general manager of the Metropolitan Opera 
(June 1) and inaugurated a program of restaging. 
Television replacing radio in the public interest as home entertain- 
ment. Milton Berle was top television comedian. 
Arthur Godfrey was a leading personality in radio and television. 
"Soap operas" continued to dominate daytime radio. 
Still ranking first in popularity were singers such as Dinah Shore, 
Perry Como, and Bing Crosby and orchestras such as Guy Lom- 
bardo's. Other favorites of the entertainment world were Jimmy 
Durante and Danny Kaye. 

Basketball scandals involving the bribing of players by gamblers 
made sports headlines. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1950. 94 per cent of American homes had electric lighting and 4 out of 
5 had mechanical refrigeration. In 1940, 79 per cent had electric 
lighting and 2 out of 5 had mechanical refrigeration. 
The television year. Television broadcasts of greater interest than 
radio. By the end of the year 13,500,000 television sets were in use. 
Radios still far ahead with over 95,000,000 sets in use. 
Color television developed by Columbia Broadcasting System, 
approved by Federal Communications Commission. Invented by 
Dr. Peter C. Goldmark. First demonstrated in 1940. 
Development of hydrogen super-bomb ordered, Jan. 31. 
Study of geriatrics, the medicine of old age, of increasing interest 
because people were living longer as a result of the conquest of 
various diseases. 

American Medical Association launched vigorous campaign in 
opposition to Truman "socialized-medicine" program. 
Terramycin joined the other six antibiotics commercially available 
penicillin, streptomycin, chloromycetin, aureomycin, bacitracin, 
tyrothricin. Some 141 remedies of mold origin known. 
Beauty was a billion-dollar-a-year industry. There were over 127,000 
beauty parlors contrasted with 3,000 in 1908. 
According to their annual reports, nineteen companies had sales 
of over $1 billion. In 1940, only five corporations had sales over 

308 



$1 billion. General Motors Corporation topped the list in both 
sales ($7,531 million) and profits ($834 million) in 1950. 

Detroit and Michigan 

1951. Operating Detroit city government cost approximately one million 
dollars per day. 

Feb. 8. Fire in State Office Building in Lansing. Heavy flame and 
water damage, especially to books in State Library. 

Feb. 20. Sherwood Forest Branch Library opened in new building 
on West Seven Mile Road climaxing several years of unprecedented 
branch library development. 

Apr. 1. Cornerstone placed for new International Institute build- 
ing on Kirby Avenue near John R Street. Opened in July. 

Apr. 18. Death of Arthur H. Vandenberg, Republican Senator 
from Michigan since 1928. Blair Moody, Detroit newspaperman, 
appointed his successor. 

Apr. 21. Strike by Detroit Street Railway operators halted public 
transportation. Public used share-the-ride tactics until 59-day strike 
ended, June 19- 

June 2 3. Opening of new St. Clair Metropolitan Beach, recrea- 
tional center developed by Huron-Clinton Metropolitan Authority. 

July 14-Sept. 16. Comprehensive exhibit of artistic and historic 
materials on the "French in America, 1520-1880" at Detroit Insti- 
tute of Arts. 

July 24. Dedication ceremonies and opening of new Detroit His- 
torical Museum on Woodward at Kirby. 

July 28. Mammoth parade depicting history and development of 
Detroit climaxed the many festivities celebrating Detroit's 250th 
Anniversary. 

Oct. 18. First concert by the newly reactivated Detroit Symphony 
Orchestra. 

Campaign under way to raise funds for a Convention-Exhibits 
Building in Civic Center and a Community Arts Building on Wayne 
University campus. 

World History 

1951. Feb. 26. 22d Amendment to the United States Constitution rati- 
fied. Limited President to two terms in office. 

309 



1951. Mar. Kefauver Senate Committee investigating crime gained 
nation's attention when its hearings were televised. 

Apr. 11. General Mac Arthur relieved of all Far Eastern commands. 
General Matthew Ridgway named to succeed him. Touched off 
furious American debate on Far Eastern foreign and military policy. 

Apr. 30. Iran nationalized its oil industry after Mohammed Mossa- 
degh became Premier. Anglo-Iranian Oil Company holdings seized 
after long dispute with the British. Acute crisis. 

July 8. Truce talks between United Nations forces and Communist 
Chinese and North Korean armies began at Kaesong in Korea. 

July 16. Leopold III abdicated as King of the Belgians in favor 
of his son Baudouin. 

July. Disastrous floods in Kansas and Missouri. 

Aug. 3. Cheating scandal at West Point. 90 cadets dismissed for 
violation of honor code. 

Sept. 8. Peace treaty with Japan signed at San Francisco. 

Sept. 23. King George VI of Great Britain successfully underwent 
major lung operation. 

Oct. 8-Nov. 17. Princess Elizabeth and her husband, Philip, Duke 
of Edinburgh, toured Canada and visited Washington, D.C. 

Oct. 25. Conservative Party won British election to regain control 
of Parliament by slight majority. Winston Churchill again became 
prime minister. 

Oct. Egypt clashed with Great Britain over ownership of Suez 
Canal. 

Oct. Corruption among income-tax collectors exposed. 
Increase in teen-age narcotics addiction aroused the nation. 

Cultural Progress 

1951. Kon Tiki, the story of an adventurous voyage on a raft from Peru 
to Polynesia, topped best-seller lists. Other books about the sea 
were also popular. 

A new dance the mambo appeared to rival the long-popular 
samba and rumba. 

The singer Mario Lanza became the new teen-age idol as indicated 

by the popularity of his movies and records. 

Popular songs: "My Heart Cries for You," "Be My Love," 

310 



"Tennessee Waltz," "Mockin' Bird Hill," "Cmon a My House." 
Festival of Britain opened in May. 

Scientific and Commercial Progress 

1951. Among the synthetic fibers becoming increasingly important were 
Dacron and Orion, developed by the DuPont Company, and Dynel, 
developed by the Union Carbide Company. 

First commercial telecast in color presented by Columbia Broad- 
casting System in New York City. 

That the addition of fluorine to drinking water does cut down tooth 
cavities demonstrated in six-year-test conducted by New York 
State Department of Health. 

Tuberculosis which was the leading cause of death in 1901 now 
ranked 7th while heart disease and cancer now ranked 1st and 2d 
as causes of death. Medical progress had removed many diseases 
such as diphtheria and typhoid from the list of principal causes of 
death. 



311 




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