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The Publication Committee of the Grolier Club 
certifies that this copy of a "Catalogue of 
an Exhibition of Early and Original Editions 
of Italian Books " is one of an edition of three 
hundred and six copies, on hand-made paper, 
of which two are for the Club library, two for 
copyright, and two for presentation, and that 
all were printed in the month of January, 1904. 


of an Exhibition of 

Original and Early Editions 


Italian Books 

Selected from a Collection designed 
to illustrate the Development 
of Italian Literature 

New Tork 

The Grolier Club 





Copyright, 1904, by 

The Grolier Club of the 

City of New York 

Address of 
Marion Crawford, Esq. 

Delivered before the members of the Grolier Club 

on the occasion of the opening of the 

Exhibition of Italian Books 

Address of 

Marion Crawford, Esq. 

IT is manifestly impossible to give a sketch 
of such a subject as Italian literatiire 
from the thirteenth century to the seventeenth 
within the limits accorded to me. It has been 
justly said that Hterature developed somewhat 
later in Italy than in some other European 
countries; but the slowness of the develop- 
ment was more than compensated by the 
variety exhibited in the subsequent growth. 
For instance, even in the wide domain of 
English letters it would be hard to name 
three writers of attainments and natural gifts 
so varied as Dante, Boccaccio, and Petrarch, 
all alive at the same time. Or, to take those 
usually designated as the foirr great poets, 
Dante, Petrarch, Ariosto, and Tasso, can any 
other nation show four writers of verse, all 
admittedly great, yet all so notably individual 
and different in manner ? Or, again, take Sa- 
yonarola, Pietro Aretino, and Macchiavelli : 
the first, the religious enthusiast, perhaps the 
fanatic ; Aretino, the satirical unbeliever, the 
Petronius of his day ; MacchiavelH, the cour- 


Address of Marion Crawford 

tier, whose name has become a by-word 
for tortuous intrigue, who was neither for 
good nor against it, neither against evil nor 
for it, but only, in his greatest book, for 
the absolute rule of his ideal, Caesar Borgia. 
In the attempt to grasp and understand such 
varied personalities, and to carry in the mem- 
ory something of the writings of each, the mind 
becomes dazed and confused. I shall there- 
fore not attempt to do more than give a very 
slight account of a few among the great lead- 
ers of Italian literature, with whom most of 
you, I have no doubt, have more than a pass- 
ing acquaintance. 

Dante really comes first; but before him 
we find upon the catalogue of works before 
us the name of Brunetto Latini, Dante's 
teacher, and also the instructor of Dante's 
friend and fellow-poet, Gviido Cavalcanti. 
No plodding schoolmaster was he, nor 
priestly teacher of the mediaeval type. He 
was a man full of the spirit of his times; a 
Guelph of the Guelphs, and their ambassa- 
dor to Alfonso of Castile; not only a man 
famous in letters, but a model of prudence 
and wisdom in public affairs ; an exile, too, 
after the terrible defeat which drove the 
Guelphs from Florence, hither and thither 
and homeless, throughout Italy and Eiu-ope ; 

Address of Marion Crawford 

a man, moreover, who wrote as easily in the 
French language as in his own, and as 
readily in Latin as in either. He filled 
Dante's young intelHgence with thoughts 
high and mature, so that the great pupil 
began to think, as it were, at the high-water 
mark of the teacher's wisdom. Brunetto died 
when Dante was but nineteen years old and 
had only given the first warning of his genius 
in a few of the sonnets and canzoni of the 
Vita Nuova. The book itself did not 
take shape till he was twenty-five. The 
poet's youth, says Ugolini, was spent between 
study, love, and arms, which are the fountains 
of wisdom, gentleness, and strength. In 
study he surpassed all the men of his time, 
and in those days it was really possible to 
know all that could be known. The Vita 
Nuova, the Divine Comedy, and the prose 
writings of Dante exhibit a knowledge of 
nature, of books, and of mankind which 
has rarely been equalled in any age and has 
probably never been surpassed. There was 
hardly a single law of natiu-e known in the 
thirteenth century which Dante did not at 
one time or another expound, explain, and 
broaden according to his hghts. There was no 
question of reHgious belief, of conduct, or of 
general morality which he did not touch upon 

Address of Marion Crawford 

and beautify. There was hardly an episode 
in the history of his century which he did not 
present in a new and striking light. His 
eminence as a man of learning places him 
without doubt above all the leading men of 
his day, and yet when we pronounce the 
name of Dante we associate it neither with 
science, nor with language, nor with history ; 
we couple it with another name, without 
which his own seems incomplete, and in our 
imaginations his shade rises from the past 
hand in hand with the spirit of Beatrice. We 
forget the man of learning, we are almost 
ready to overlook the poet; we see most 
clearly, after six hundred years, the inspired 
lover of the Vita Nuova and of the conclud- 
ing cantos of the Purgatory. 

The Iliad of Homer is the greatest love- 
story of the world. The wrath of Achilles 
at being robbed of the beloved Briseis fills it 
from end to end, and the woes of the Greeks 
avenge a thousandfold the heartaches of the 
hero ; nor is he appeased at last until the 
lovely captive is brought back to him un- 
scathed from the tent of the king. Dante's 
love-story is told in the Vita Nuova, but 
his great love-poem is the Divine Comedy 
itself. Scholars have discussed the identity, 
the character, and the influence of Beatrice 

Address of Marion Crawford 

for centuries, and we are to-day no nearer to 
knowing who she was than was Boccaccio him- 
self. But one thing we do know : that Dante 
loved her, and that it was love of her that 
inspired him throughout the greatest task ever 
begun and accomplished by a poet. Many 
of us who, for one reason or another, have 
spent time in trying to find out the truth 
about Dante's life are convinced that the 
lady of his love was not Beatrice Portinari, 
the fair daughter of his father's neighbor, nor 
any Beatrice at all; and that he merely al- 
lowed his friends to believe that it was she 
in order to conceal her true name altogether. 
Many of us are inclined to believe that there 
was some deep-seated reason in the poet's 
life wherefore he "fell, as fall the dead," 
when Francesca of Rimini had told him her 
tragic story in the lull of the infernal gales. 
We know something of the man's nature 
from his contemporaries. He was passion- 
ate, headstrong, and wayward in his youth, 
as many a great poet has been. He was 
most unlike the timid and gentle lover of 
the Vita Nuova in his outward life, and yet 
somehow we know that his true story, dark, 
tragic perhaps, and certainly mysterious, is 
hidden somewhere in the language of those 
exquisite pages ; and we know that it was the 


Address of Marion Crawford 

dead woman who inspired him with the strong 
wish to say of her "such things as no man 
had ever said of woman" since the world 
began, and that the thought of her was with 
him in his exile, in his work, in his lonely 
life, to the end. So much for the years of 
his youth spent in study and love ; but Ugo- 
lini speaks of arms also. Fighting was but 
an episode in the poet's life, at a time when 
few men who boasted themselves good citi- 
zens could escape military service altogether. 
He was present in at least one decisive bat- 
tle, at Campaldino, which was a hard-fought 
field, and what he saw there remained indeli- 
bly impressed upon his memory ; for fighting 
was fighting in those days. A soldier said 
the other day that all he had seen of a battle 
was a great deal of smoke and the back of 
the man in front of him. In the thirteenth 
centiuy there was no smoke, and men fought 
hand to hand, cut and thrust, and hacked 
each other and each other's horses with 
swords and axes. More than once in the 
course of his great poem Dante describes 
scenes of carnage, and there is always in his 
description the smre touch of the eye-witness ; 
so that it is fair enough to say that what 
formed a part of his experience was in the 
end a part of his education. He lived in a 

Address of Marion Crawford 

time of great changes, and on the eve of a 
great revival. His figure stands on the 
threshold of the Renaissance; his influence 
began before it, contributed to its growth, 
and was felt long after it had produced a 
new era of thought and literatiire. He was 
acknowledged to be great while he was liv- 
ing, and not long after his death he was 
looked upon as the greatest. He made the 
language in which he wrote, for he was the 
first who dared to give the world at large his 
thoughts in his native tongue, instead of in 
barbarous Latin. He made the language, 
and made it so well that hundreds of his 
verses are familiar to men and women of our 
own time all over the world, and not famil- 
iar as archaisms or curiosities either, but as 
the poetry of a living language. The same 
cannot be said of any other writer in any 
other country whose works date from the 
year 1300, and in this respect it is not too 
much to say that in him Italian literature at 
once took the lead of all others by producing 
great masterpieces, which are still not only 
beautiful but comprehensible to any one pos- 
sessed of an ordinary knowledge of the mod- 
em language. The Renaissance came in- 
deed, the great revival of European learning, 
the love for the classics, which produced 

Address of Marion Crawford 

books that were very nearly classic in form, 
if not in substance; but the great men still 
followed the great leader, and no great poet 
ever again made it a rule to express himself 
in Latin. What is most remarkable in the 
careers of all men of genius is the immense 
reach of their first efforts, the vast stride 
which takes them at the very first out of ob- 
scurity into the full blaze of fame. Of this 
there is no more striking instance than Dante's 
life. Long before printing was invented his 
books were read throughout Italy and in 
other parts of Europe. Long before the 
Paradise was finished a hundred passages of 
his Inferno were household words in his own 
country. Long before he had reached the 
end of his career he knew that he had won 
immortality, and he said justly, in the se- 
rene certainty of genius, that he, too, like 
Horace, had raised up a monument to him- 
self more enduring than bronze. Like all 
the greatest writers, he founded a school, 
and the school he founded was one of the 
most enduring that has ever flourished. He 
did not escape criticism, but he was beyond 
competition. Fastidious men of letters after- 
wards called his verses harsh, rough, clumsy ; 
but they were monumental, they endvu"ed, and 
he endures in them even to our own time, 

Address of Marion Crawford 

The life of Petrarch resembles that of 
Dante inasmuch as it was founded upon the 
pursuit of learning and beautified by the love 
of a good woman, in whom the poet dis- 
covered his ideal, and who died young, while 
he was in the full possession of his poetical 
gifts. In all other respects the lives of the 
two men are strongly contrasted. Dante's 
character passed through phases of fierceness, 
melancholy, and bitterness. He was a lay- 
man, he was for a time a soldier, he belonged 
to the losing faction of his day, he was an 
exile. Petrarch was gentle, artistic, sweet- 
tempered, a priestly courtier. He was a 
temperate ambassador, a man willing to ac- 
cept the times as they were, not without hope 
of bettering them, but altogether without 
Dante's furious longing to destroy injustice, 
even at the risk of destroying justice too. 
Dante's love was an inspiration, a main- 
spring, a strength. Petrarch's was an object 
in itself, a deity in his temple, the idol of his 
shrine. Petrarch's best works are the expres- 
sion of his devotion to Laura, they are the 
exquisite setting of his jewel, they are the 
canvas and the colors of a woman's portrait, 
they are the " vehicle " of beauty. But 
Dante's masterpiece embraced the world it- 
self, found that world too small, plunged into 

Address of Marion Crawford 

Hell, and rose again to the outer firmament 
of Heaven. 

It is almost impossible to imagine two men 
more completely contrasted. If there is any- 
thing in handwriting to denote the character 
of the writer, the autographs of Dante and 
Petrarch must be striking examples of the 
science. Dante's writing is angular, cramped, 
upright, and original. Petrarch's was famous 
for its beauty even in his own day. It is only 
necessary to say that the first Italian book 
which issued from the Aldine press, and which 
was a volume of Petrarch's works, was printed 
with type cut to imitate the author's hand- 
writing, and that this type has come down 
to us in the present day under the name of 
" italic." It was a careful, scrupulously neat 
and even character, such as any one of us 
would be glad to write, if only for the sake 
of clearness. There is a fine copy of this 
book in the collection before us, also three 
beautiful MSS. and a copy of the first folio 
of the complete works. 

Dante was thirty-nine years old when 
Petrarch was bom. When Boccaccio came 
into the world Petrarch was nine, and Dante 
still had eight years to live. When Boccaccio 
was grown up Dante was already looked upon 
as the Italian classic, and Boccaccio in his 

Address of Marion Crawford 

last years occupied the chair of professor, as 
expounder of Dante's works, in the Univer- 
sity of Florence. Within two lifetimes a 
whole epoch passes before us, from the 
founder of Italian literature, rough-hewing 
his way out of darkness, to the most graceful 
love-poet of any country or age; and from 
him again to the incomparable novelist, the 
author of the Fiammetta, of the Amorous Vision, 
and of the Decameron itself. 

Boccaccio was both a prose writer and a 
poet, and in his own voluminous writings is 
found the transition from the metrical ro- 
mance to the prose novel. He is by many 
considered to have invented the stanza of 
eight lines, commonly known in Italian as 
the "ottava rima," in which the epics of 
Boiardo, Ariosto, and Tasso were afterwards 
written. He also attempted to imitate Dante 
in the "terza rima," or three-lined stanza, 
but without success, and he ultimately found 
the natural expression of his genius in the 
harmonious prose of the Decameron. 

He was neither a political exile, like Dante, 
nor a prosperous covirtier, like Petrarch ; he 
was a poor literary man, who enjoyed the fa- 
vor of sovereigns at intervals, from time to 
time; and Petrarch left him a small sum of 
money by will for the express purpose of 

Address of Marion Crawford 

buying himself a fur coat to keep him warm 
when he was studying at night. He was af- 
flicted also in his latter years by an unsightly 
disease of the face, which made him shun 
company and daylight; though neither this 
nor his other troubles seem to have affected 
the brilliant gayety of his talent, which was 
the foundation of his enduring fame. 

Popular opinion has been unjust to him. 
In the minds of the average public the De- 
cameron is supposed to be a collection of 
tales, anything but moral, not always decent, 
and generally high-flavored. This is far from 
being the case. The work, doubtless, con- 
tains a few stories which deserve any of the 
epithets I have mentioned, and these have 
sufficed to give the book a bad name, but it 
contains many of a very different and more 
refined nature. I possess an old expurgated 
edition of the Decameron, and while, as a 
man of letters, I disapprove of " Bowdleriz- 
ing " anything worth reading at all, I must 
admit that in this instance the result is a dis- 
tinct gain to the literature which we may 
place in the hands of our wives and daughters. 

Yet considering the age in which he lived 

and the natiu-e of polite conversation in his 

time, Boccaccio must be reckoned one of 

the most refined among his contemporaries. 


Address of Marion Crawford 

The Decameron is a collection of what we 
should call short stories, depicting in bril- 
liant colors the elegant and sensuous exis- 
tence in which the young author played a part. 
But though young, and an author, he was en- 
dowed with worldly wisdom and clear sight, 
and the book is a mirror of life in the four- 
teenth century, with its gay and sad adven- 
tures, its romantic meetings and partings, its 
quick wit, and its elaborate courtesy. We 
find in the tales the grace of unusual yet pos- 
sible plots, dramatic movement, irony, an in- 
dulgent spirit towards human weakness, and 
withal the expression of a true sense of manly 
honor. The difference between those days 
and ours is this : the Decameron was written 
for the women of the fourteenth century; 
it is read by the men of the twentieth. 

Boccaccio iS one of the earliest instances 
of a type common among literary men ever 
since. He was gay, but he was not vicious. 
He sometimes earned money, but was utterly 
incapable of keeping it. He occupied more 
than one brilliant position during his life, but 
he ended his days in his native town in the 
studious and dignified retirement of unde- 
served poverty. 

As an instance of the completeness of the 
collection of books before us, I should like 

Address of Marion Crawford 

to call your attention to the fact that among 
the examples of his works are to be found a 
manuscript of his book on Mountains, Rivers 
and Woods, the first edition of it in Latin, and 
the first Italian translation. 

Following the pages of this most interest- 
ing catalogue the eye is soon arrested by the 
name of Lorenzo de' Medici. Near his stands 
that of Politian, the companion of Lorenzo's 
studies, and afterwards the tutor of his chil- 
dren; Boiardo's name is there, and not far 
from it those of Savonarola and Nicholas 
MacchiaveUi. The Florentines of to-day are 
fond of saying that Florence would have 
been as great if it had never been ruled by 
the race whose name is inseparably associated 
with hers. This may or may not be true, and 
at the best all such truths are relative. But 
even the Florentines cannot deny the im- 
mense influence of the Medici in the advance- 
ment of art and learning. Lorenzo the Mag- 
nificent hved but forty-fom- years, Politian 
hved only forty, Savonarola forty-six, and 
MacchiaveUi, the most long-lived of the four, 
was just fifty-eight when he fell ill and died. 
It seems nothing short of marvellous to us that 
the men who left such names behind them 
should have earned fame in so short a career, 
the one as a poet and a ruler of men, the next 

Address of Marion Cratvford 

as a poet and a grammarian, the third as a re- 
former, a preacher, a patriot, and perhaps a 
saint, and the last as the father of a school 
of policy. I think it was in 1863 that Bis- 
marck, being called to take the direction of 
Prussian affairs, said to his wife : " My dear, 
I am too old. My active career is over." 
His life was in reality before him, at the age 
when Lorenzo de' Medici and Savonarola 
had reached the end of theirs. Yet apart 
from the position which he assumed and held 
among the princes of Europe, Lorenzo earned 
the right to be counted among the chief poets 
of his century, and his love-lyrics still hold 
their own in the Italian language. It is not 
to his discredit if he imitated his friend Poli- 
tian, for Politian, in turn, did not hesitate to 
imitate him. Much of his work was truly origi- 
nal, bold, and passionate. His creations, when 
he allowed himself full freedom of expression, 
were alive with the blood of true poetry, in- 
stead of being filled with an artificial nectar 
brewed from the leavings of Greek and Latin 
gods. But it is above all as a man that he 
is remembered, the protector of students, 
poets, and artists ; the man who desired the 
friendship of Savonarola, but to whom Sa- 
vonarola refused to do homage, who sent for 
Savonarola on his death-bed, and to whom 

Address of Marion Crawford 

the monk would not grant absolution unless 
Lorenzo would promise not to leave the lord- 
ship of Florence to be handed down in his 
own family ; last and not least, Lorenzo was 
the friend and protector of Michelangelo. 

Of Savonarola it is always hard to speak. 
Even at this late day partisans arise for him 
and against him ; in a breath he is called pa- 
triot and traitor, saint and heretic. His life 
began with a love-story and ended on the 
gallows, where he was hanged before his body 
was burnt. In the httle city of Ferrara, 
where he was bom, he fell hopelessly in love 
with a natural daughter of one of the Strozzi 
family exiled there. The girl did not return 
his love ; whether repelled by his strange fea- 
tures or the natural hardness of his manner, 
we do not know. Disappointed, he went to 
Florence without telling his parents of his in- 
tention, and entered the Dominican Order as 
a novice. Like many men who have left 
great names, his youth was a series of disap- 
pointments. He preached without success, 
he fought against the evils of his time, and 
failed to make any impression upon them ; but 
repeated failure hardened his hard character 
as blows harden steel. He persisted, he drew 
upon him the attention of Lorenzo at last, 
and the time came when those who had re- 

Address of Marion Crawford 

fused to hear him hung upon the words that 
fell from his lips. He fancied that he saw 
visions, and he believed in them ; some of his 
predictions were fulfilled, and the people 
called him a prophet. He Hved two lives, 
the one for his time strenuous, untiring, spot- 
less ; the other a life of mystic exaltation bor- 
dering on ecstasy. Among the rare works to 
be found in this collection are first editions 
of his various sermons, which, although writ- 
ten in Latin, were published only in ItaUan, 
and were chiefly preached in that language. 
The sermons are the man, vehement, exalted, 
full of the tyranny of conviction. 

It is impossible to speak of this period of 
Italian literature, as it would be unjust to 
comment ever so lightly upon the collection 
before us, without speaking of the poet 
Boiardo, the author of the Orlando Inna- 
morato. We have here, I think, all the 
rarest editions of his works, including the 
Venetian edition of 1543, of which only two 
other copies are known to exist in the world. 
It is a remarkable fact that no edition of 
Boiardo's works in their original shape was 
pubHshed from 1544 to 1830, the edition of 
1545, which is here, being a sort of remould- 
ing of the original poem by the obscure poet 
Ludovico Domenichi. 

Address of Marion Crawford 

Boiardo was the first of the Italian poets 
to make use of the Carlovingian traditions in 
a romantic poem of chivaby. Without his 
work Ariosto would never have produced the 
Orlando Furioso nor is it likely that Tasso 
would have composed the Jerusalem. The 
work itself has been much criticized, ever 
since it was produced, for the carelessness of 
its style and the incorrectness of its language, 
not to mention the frequent use of words of 
the Lombard dialect, and phrases taken whole 
from the productions of market-place story- 
tellers. The work contains sixty-nine cantos, 
and was to have been considerably longer, 
but was cut short, as the author explains in 
the last stanza, because, while he was singing 
the "Orlando in Love," the French had set 
Italy in a blaze. The poem ends with a 
promise that if possible he will once more 
return to his hero and heroine ; but the writer 
was already near his end and did not live to 
continue his work. He was of gentle birth, and 
bore the title of " Count of Scandiano." We 
learn that he was of very kind temper and very 
just in the administration of the many offices 
he held, beloved aUke by the princes he served 
and by the people he governed for them. 

There is no unity of action in his poem, 
nor any central interest to justify the endless 

Address of Marion Crawford 

episodes described ; but the work undoubtedly 
aroused an especial interest at the time, be- 
cause it described the struggles of Christian 
knights with Mohammedan champions, at a 
time when Mohammed II had quenched the 
ashes of the Eastern Empire in blood, and 
had filled eastern Europe with the terror of 
his name. Boiardo's knights fought with the 
strength of giants, but are always exquisitely 
courteous. They found themselves in en- 
chanted castles, their enemies assailed them 
with enchanted arms, enchanted rings set 
ladies' hearts beating for love, and ladies and 
knights alike drank at the enchanted foun- 
tains of love and hate. Yet there is much 
of humanity in the poem, and Italian critics 
say that it is a faithful representation of the 
court Ufe of the Dukes of Ferrara, where 
ancient, warlike, and feudal customs were 
softened by a young and enthusiastic cultiue 
of the beautiful. There is indeed something 
far more human in the personages of the 
poem than in those of the early epics, with a 
tendency to transplant the miraculous from 
the level of mere magic, and out of fairyland 
to the region of mystic and divine powers. 
Few of the most industrious readers of Italian 
literature have had the coiu^age and the 
patience to go through the sixty-nine cantos 


Address of Marion Crawford 

to the end, yet with a slight acquaintance 
gained from reading a few pages of the poem 
we may easily convince ourselves of the value 
of Professor d'Ancona's criticism, the sub- 
stance of which I have given you here. 

Of the writers of whom I have spoken, per- 
haps at too great a length, it remains for me 
to say something of Nicholas Macchiavelli, 
often spoken of as the " Florentine Secre- 
tary," from his having held an office of Sec- 
retary under the RepubUc during fourteen 
consecutive years. He was removed from it 
on the return of the Medici to Florence in 
1512, was accused of conspiracy, was im- 
prisoned and tortured, but was finally ac- 
quitted and set free. In spite of these 
circumstances, however, he succeeded several 
years later in ingratiating himself anew with 
the Medici family, but died of grief because, 
after they had been driven out again in 1527, 
he was unable to obtain the post of Secretary 
to the Council of War under their enemies. 
Such conduct was only too much in accord- 
ance with the spirit of the times, and Mac- 
chiavelli has too often been blamed for being 
no worse than thousands of his contempo- 
raries. He appears to have been a man of 
rich wit and poor fortune, since he left his 
wife and five children in a starving condition 

Address of Marion Crawford 

and endowed the world with writings of 
genius. He wrote upon a great variety of 
subjects, but he is best remembered by the 
work entitled the Prince, which was com- 
posed when he was at the height of his 
powers, and treated chiefly of his friend, pa- 
tron, and idol, Caesar Borgia. In reading 
this work, as in considering the life of the 
writer, common justice requires that we 
should remember the nature of the times in 
which the book was written. Moreover, if it 
be read carefully, and without yielding to the 
common traditional prejudice against Mac- 
chiavelli, it will be found that the principles 
advocated and the theories suggested are by 
no means so different from those of modern 
politics as might be supposed. I am not 
sure that a modem popular translation of 
the Principe, published under another title 
and without the author's name, might not be 
read with great interest and profit to them- 
selves, if not to others, by the politicians and 
diplomatists of our own times. The conclud- 
ing passionate exhortation to liberate Italy 
from the rule of strangers naturally endears the 
work to all patriotic Italians. The masterly 
style in which the work is composed, and the 
vast cultiue and learning it displays, would 
alone give it a foremost place in literature, 

Address of Marion Crawford 

To proceed even with such summary 
sketches of the great men whose books ap- 
pear in this beautiful collection would lead 
me too far. The names of Aretino, Castigli- 
one, Pulci, Ariosto, Tasso, Giordano Bruno, 
Galileo, and Sarpi would lead to a whole 
volume of interesting reflections. Here are 
the works of Bembo, poet, scholar, theolo- 
gian, and historian, who dominated Italian 
literature in the sixteenth century. Here 
is his own copy of one of his works, with 
notes in his own handwriting. Few realize 
the vast scope and reach of Italian literatuxe 
between 1300 and 1700. I do not hesitate 
to say that in value, and probably in extent, 
it comes next to the literature of the English 
language, if it does not equal it, and it cer- 
tainly surpasses that of France and Germany 
diuing the same time. It is of no use to in- 
quire into the causes of the literary inactiv- 
ity which succeeded such an extraordinary 
period of production. We may suppose that 
countries, like writers themselves, need inter- 
vals of intellectual rest after each new de- 
velopment and expression of thought, and if 
this is the case Italy has certainly earned her 
holiday. One is perhaps tempted to claim 
too much for her, and yet a vast deal may be 
claimed justly. For a long time she held the 

Address of Marion Crawford 

lead in literature, in painting, in architecture, 
and in engineering, and she still shows a vi- 
tality of invention which many younger coun- 
tries might envy. 

Of her modern literature it is not yet time 
to speak, and it has apparently become a 
canon law of our profession that no author 
shall speak of his living contemporaries ex- 
cept in terms of the highest praise. I came 
before you to talk of old books and of old 
writers, and I have tried to do so. 

The collection of original and early edi- 
tions of Italian books which we see exhibited 
here, and about which I have had the honor 
to speak, is one of the most complete private 
collections in the world. The number of 
rare first editions it contains is truly surpris- 
ing, and it is enriched by several precious 
manuscripts. It contains not a single vol- 
ume which could be spared, and few that the 
possessor would care to exchange for a du- 
plicate. The gathering of such a collection 
means love, learning, and labor, the triplicity 
which in Art stands for Faith, Hope, and 
Charity. The generous giver who is about 
to bestow this precious library upon Wellesley 
College has labored with hands of love, and 
he has labored long. Even in our time there 
are some things which money will neither 

Address of Marion Crawford 

buy nor bring. Money will buy labor. 
Money, with the condition of willingness, will 
help to procure learning. But money will 
not buy that love of good and beautiful things 
which, with labor and learning, brings forth 
new things both beautiful and good. For 
my own part, when I view this rich and rare 
collection, I am inclined to esteem the love 
of the subject which produced it even more 
highly than I value the books themselves. 

Marion Crawford. 


If Italy was late in developing a national 
literature, it was because she regarded the 
Latin language as her own peculiar heritage. 
Latin was the lingua aulica, the volgare being 
fit only for every-day life. 

With the persecution of the Albigenses Pro- 
vengal troubadours took refuge in Italy, es- 
pecially at the Sicilian court of Frederick II, 
where the ballad and the serventese were 
cultivated by the king and courtiers. This 
school fell with its patron, but its influence 
lived. In the last decades of the thirteenth 
century it inspired a group of young men who, 
to quote their leader : 

"Practiced the sweet and gracious rhymes of love " 
" in the sweet new style." 

Dante soon outstripped his companions, Guido 


Cavalcanti, Cino da Pistoja and Dante da 
Maiano. In the first century of her literary 
life Italy was favored in that three master 
minds of Tuscan birth took its dialect and 
rendered it capable of expressing every emo- 
tion : Dante, with his epic, Petrarch, with his 
lyrics and Boccaccio, with his prose fiction. 

The impulse given to classical study by 
Petrarch, followed by the introduction of 
Greek learning into Italy subsequent to the 
fall of Constantinople, was fostered by the 
wealthy, and by none more intelligently than 
by Cosimo de' Medici and his brilliant grand- 
son, Lorenzo. At their villa of Careggi gath- 
ered the Platonic Academy, with Poliziano, 
Ficino and the young Count Pico as leaders. 
To Careggi came Savonarola to exhort in 
vain at the owner's death-bed, and toward 
Careggi looked the young Machiavelli while 
preparing " to temper the sword of tyrants." 

With the sixteenth century classicism and 
dilettantism are at their height. The versa- 


tile Cardinal Bembo is their characteristic ex- 
ponent, the notorious Pietro Aretino their 
worst. One masterpiece, however, does ap- 
pear in this age — Ariosto's Orlando Furioso. 
The deeds of Charlemagne and his paladins 
exercised a strange fascination on the Italian 
imagination. The Reali di Francia is lis- 
tened to as eagerly to-day in Mulberry Bend 
as it was seven hundred years ago in the 
market-places of Florence or Palermo. Of 
the paladins Roland is the favorite. He is 
the hero of La Spagna and La Rotta di 
Roncisvalle. The flippant Pulci entertained 
Lorenzo de' Medici and his mother with 
his deeds, and the grave Boiardo edified the 
court of Ferrara with his love for Angelica. 
Boiardo's work was left unfinished ; Berni 
sought to improve upon it and almost lost 
sight of the original. Several wished to con- 
tinue the interrupted work, among these 
Ariosto, who alone produced a masterpiece. 
Such was the immediate popularity of the 


Orlando Furioso that each of its characters 
became the hero of some more or less unin- 
teresting poem. The reaction against this 
fashion appears in such burlesques as Tas- 
soni's Secchia Rapita and, in lofty vein, 
Tasso's Gerusalemme Liberata. 

After Tasso comes a rapid decline in liter- 
ary production. Despotic rule and the In- 
quisition were not conducive to free expres- 
sion, and the better minds of the seven- 
teenth century, Bruno, Sarpi, and GaUleo, 

Margaret H. Jackson. 


List of Facsimiles 

Alamanni, Luigi, page 

Opere Toscane, 1532 4 

Ariosto, Lodovico, 

Orlando Furioso, 1526 11 

Bembo, Pietro, 

Gli Asolani, 1515 15 

Boccaccio, Giovanni, 

De Montibus, MS. of the XVth cent. . 31 
Boccaccio, Giovanni, 

De Montibus, 1473 33 

Boccaccio, Giovanni, 

Opera {x^^ot) 34 

Bracciolini, lacopo di Poggio, 

Historia, 1547 40 

Castiglione, Baldassare, 

II Libro del Cortegiano, 1528 . . . 45 
Cellini, Benvenuto, 

Due Trattati, 1568 47 

Colonna, Vittoria, 

Rime, 1539 50 


List of Facsimiles 

Dante Alighieri, p^gg 

Convivio, 1490 54 

Giraldi, Giovanni Battista (Cinthio), 

De Gli Hecatommithi, 1565 .... 63 

Guerino il Meschino, 65 

Latini, Brunette, 

Retorica, 1546 66 

Machiavelli, Niccolo, 

Historie, 1550 69 

Medici, Lorenzo de', 

Poesie Volgari, 1554 72 

Petrarca, Francesco, 

Le Cose Volgari, 1501 ']'] 

Savonarola, Girolamo, 

Prediche, 1528 86 

Savonarola, Girolamo, 

Expositione del Pater noster, 1494 . . 88 
Tasso, Torquato, 

Gierusalemme Liberata, 1581 . . . 93 


Original and Early 
Editions of Italian Books 

For the material used as the basis of this 

catalogue the Club is indebted to 

Mr. Joseph Martini. 

Original and Early 
Editions of Italian Books 

Alamanni, Luigi, statesman and poet, was 
born at Florence in 1495. Having taken part in an 
unsuccessful conspiracy against Giulio de' Medici, 
afterwards Pope Clement VII, he was obliged to seek 
refuge in Venice and afterwards to flee to France. 
When Florence shook off the papal yoke Alamanni 
returned and took a prominent part in the manage- 
ment of the affairs of the republic. On the restoration 
of the Medici in 1530 he again took refuge in France, 
where he composed the greater part of his works. 
In Francis I he found a liberal patron, and was sent 
by him as ambassador to Charles V after the peace 
of Crespi in 1544. Upon the death of Francis he 
was patronized by Henry II, who sent him as ambas- 
sador to Genoa. He died at Amboise, April 18, 
1556. His poems are distinguished by the purity and 
excellence of their style. Through Sir Thomas Wyatt, 
who imitated him, he exerted an influence upon Eng- 
lish poetry, 

I Opere Tosca | Ne Di Lvigi Alaman | Ni 
Al Christianis I Simo Re I Francesco I 




S I MO R E^ 


P R I M O. 



M' E' DATO ALB ergo. 



L V G D. 


[ No. I ] 

Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

Primo. [lyinter's mark] Sebast. Gryphivs 
I Excvdebat | Lvgd. | 1532 (-33) | Con 
Octavo. Two volumes. 

The first edition. 

The early editions of the Opere Toscane are very 
scarce. Niccold Franco asserts that Pope Clement 
VII ordered all the copies which appeared in Rome 
to be burned because of seditious teachings ; but this 
is undoubtedly a mistake, since the edition of Lyons 
bears the imprint : Con priuilegio della Santitd di 
N. S. P. P. Clemente VII. It is more credible, as 
Manni asserts, that the Florentine booksellers were 
condemned to pay fines for the sale of the work. 

2 La Coltivatione Di | Lvigi Alamanni Al | 
Christianissimo Re | Francesco Primo. | 
yPrinter's mark] Stampato in Parigi da 
Ruberto Stephano | Regio Stampatore. | 
M.D.XLVI. I Con Privilegi. 

The first edition. 

This didactic poem on agriculture, written in blank 
verse {versi sciolti), is Alamanni' s chief work, and 
Ginguen^, in his Histoire de la literature en Italie, 
says that the Coltivazione abounds in elegant imita- 
tions of Virgil's Georgics, and in true and poetical 
descriptions of the rural beauties of Italy and France. 

Garnett calls it an excellent example "of the de- 
scription of poetry which owes most to artifice and 
least to inspiration." 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

3 Gyrone II Cortese Di | Lvigi Alamanni 
Al I Christianissimo, Et | Invittissimo Re 
Arri- I Go Secondo. | [FHnter's mark] 
Stampato in Parigi da Rinaldo Calderio, | 
Et Claudio suo figliuolo. | Con Privilegi. — 
{Colophon) Stampato in Parigi, TAnno 
1 548 I Con Priuilegi per X. Anni, 

The first edition. 

The Girone was written in imitation of the success- 
ful Orlando Furioso of Ariosto. It is, according to 
Ginguen6, ' ' a very dignified, very rational, and gen- 
erally well-written poem, but cold and consequently 
somewhat tiresome." 

4 La I Avarchide | Del S. Lvigi Alamanni, | 
Gentilhuomo Fiorentino, | • • • \JPrinter''s 
mark] In Firenze | Nella Stamperia di 
Filippo Giunti, | e Fratelli. MDLXX. 
Quarto. Portrait. 

The first edition. 

The poem is taken from the romances of the Round 
Table, and tells of Lancelot's anger against King 
Arthur at the siege of Avaricum (Bourges). 

Albert!, Leone Battista, distinguished as a 

painter, poet, philosopher, musician, and especially 
as an architect, was born at Venice about 1404. He 
died at Rome in 1472 or 1484. 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

5 Hecatomphila | DiMesserLeon | Battista 
Alberto Firentino, ne | laquale ne insegna 
lingenio | sa arte d'amore, mostran | done 
il perito modo | d'amare, oue di sem | pij, 
et rozzi, sag | gi, et gentili | ne fa di- | 
uenire. | M.D.XXXIIIL [Venice.] 

A curious work on the deportment of young ladies. 

Aragona, Tullia d', the daughter of a courtezan 
called Giulia Campana, was born between 1505 and 
1 5 ID, and lived during her youth at Rome; later she 
accompanied her mother to Siena, where she learned, 
says Mutio, ad essere virtuosa e a parlare senese. 
Coming back to Rome, she was introduced to the 
world of the courtezan, where she was surrounded by 
many admirers, among them Paolo Emilio Orsini, 
who, being rejected by her, contrived to drive her 
from the city. The rest of her adventurous life was 
spent in Venice, Ferrara, and Florence. She attracted 
to herself, wherever she went, the most prominent 
men of the time, writers, soldiers, and the nobility, 
but she died finally, forsaken by all, in 1556. Tullia 
d'Aragona resembled the courtezans of ancient 
Greece who were ennobled by poetry and spiritual 
endowments. For twenty years she gained the at- 
tention of her contemporaries, and her fame is that 
of one of the chief women writers of Italy. 

6 II Meschino, | Altramente Detto | II 
Gverrino, | Fatto In Ottava Rima | Dal- 
la Signora TvUia | D'Aragona. | Opera, 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

Nella Qvale Si Veggono | & intendono le 
parti principali di tutto il mondo, | & 
molte altre diletteuolissime cose, da esser | 
sommamente care ad ogni sorte di | per- 
sona di bello ingegno. | Con Privilegio. | 
[Printer's mark] In Venetia, | Appresso 
Gio. Battista, Et Melchior | Sessa, Fratelli. 

The first edition. 

The subject of the poem is taken from a Spanish 
romance, which has never been printed, and, very- 
likely, is now lost. 

Aretino, Pietro, was bom about 1492 atArezzo, 
from which place he took his name. He received 
only a slight education, and lived for some years poor 
and neglected, picking up such scraps of information 
as he could. When very young, being banished 
from Arezzo on account of a satirical sonnet on in- 
dulgences, he went to Perugia, where for some time 
he worked as a bookbinder, and continued to dis- 
tinguish himself by his daring attacks upon religion. 
After some years' wandering through various parts of 
Italy he reached Rome, where his talents commended 
him to the Papal Court. This favor, however, he lost 
in 1524 by writing a set of obscene sonnets to ac- 
company a series of drawings by Giulio Romano and 
engraved by Marcantonio Raimondi. He left Rome 
and was received by Giovanni de' Medici, who took 
him to Milan and introduced him to Francis I, into 
whose good graces he soon ingratiated himself, 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

Shortly afterwards Aretino attempted to regain the 
favor of the Pope, but failing in this, he returned to 
Giovanni de' Medici. On the death of the latter, in 
December, 1526, he withdrew to Venice, where he 
afterwards continued to reside, employed in writing 
comedies, sonnets, licentious dialogues, and a few 
religious works. He died in 1557, according to 
some accounts, by falling from his chair in a fit of 
laughter caused by hearing an indecent story about 
his sisters. The reputation of Aretino in his own 
time rested chiefly on his satirical sonnets or bur- 
lesques ; but his comedies, five in number, are now 
considered the best of his works. His letters, of 
which a great number have been printed, are also 
commended for their style. 

7 La I Sirena, | Marfisa, | & | Angelica | 
Poemetti | Di Partenio Etiro, | Con- 
secrati | All' Illvstr'?° Sig? | II Si- 
gner I Giorgio Foscarini, | In Venetia, 
MDCXXX. I Presso Marco Ginammi. | 
Con Licenza de' Sup. et Priuilegio. 

These poems had already been printed in part, and 
several times. 

La Vita Di Catheri- | Na Vergine 
Composta | Per M. Pietro | Aretino. | 

Octavo. Portrait. 

Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

The fourth edition, probably printed at Venice by 
Niccolini da Sabio. 

Aretino, who from time to time published religious 
works to drain the pious of their money, wrote 
this work at the request of the Marquis del Vasto. 

9 La Vita Di Maria | Vergine Di Messer | 
PietroAre- | Tino. | Nuouamente corretta 
e ristampata. 

Octavo. Portrait. 

The second edition, printed at Venice by Niccolini 
da Sabio, about 1540 or 1541. 

ArioStO, LodovicO, the greatest poet of Italy 
after Dante and Petrarch, was born at Reggio (Emi- 
lia), September 8, 1474; he died at Ferrara, June 6, 

10 Orlando Furioso | Di Ludouico Ariosto 
Nobile I Ferrarese: Nouamenteri- | stam- 
pato: & con molta | diligentia ricorret- | 
to : & quasi tut- | to reforma | to. j 
Ul.D.XXY I. —{Colophon) Finisse Orlando 
Furioso di Messer Ludouico | Ariosto da 
Ferrara : nouamente con gran | diligentia 
riformato & ricorretto: | Stampato nella 
Inclyta Citta di | Vinegia, Del Mese di 
Mar I zo. M.D.XXVL 


[No. 10 ] 

Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

Sixth edition, unknown until the year 182 1, when 
Melzi for the first time described it. Only two copies 
are known. 

Ariosto began to write his great poem about 1503, 
and, after having consulted the first men of his age, 
published it in 15 16. Up to the moment of his death 
he never ceased to correct and improve both the sub- 
ject and the style. He adopted the plots of Boiardo's 
Orlando Innamorato, "continued the story where he 
left it and brought it to a close ; so that, taken to- 
gether, both poems form one gigantic narrative of 
about 100,000 lines which has for its main subject 
the love and marriage of Ruggiero and Bradamante." 

11 Orlando | Fvrioso | Di M. | Lodovico | 
Ariosto I Nuouamente | adoraato di Fi- 
gure di Rame | da Girolamo Porro. | 
Padouano. | . . . In Venetia| MDLXXX— 
nil. I Appresso Francesco de | Fran- 
ceschi Senese | e compagni. 


12 Orlando | Furioso | Di | Lodovico | 
Ariosto, I Tomo Primo. \Secondo, Terzo, 
Quarto] \ Birmingham, | Da' Torchj di 
G. Baskerville: | Per P. Molini. | M. 

Royal Quarto. Four volumes. 

Of this edition only one hundred copies were printed. 
It is valuable not only for the type and illustrations, 
but also, according to Morali, for the accurate read- 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

ing of the text. The poem is preceded by a life of 
Ariosto by Andrea Barotti. 

13 Le Satire | Di M. Lodovico | Ariosto 
Novissi I Mamente Ri- | Stampate. | 
[Printer's mark] In Venetia. 


Without printer's name or date ; but thought to have 
been printed by Bindoni and Pasini about 1535. 
Ariosto's Satires were not published during his life- 
time, but a few months after his death they were se- 
cretly printed ml mese di Giugno M.D. XXXIV. In 
1535 the printers began to publish them openly. 
Baruffaldi in the Vita delP Ariosto mentions an edition 
of the year 1533, but no copy of it is known. 

"... The great exemplar is Ariosto, whose satires 
are not the least ornament of his poetic crown, yield- 
ing little in facetious urbanity to his model Horace. " — 

14 Le Satire | Di M. Lodovico | Ariosto 
Stampa | Te Novamente, | con diligenza 
reuiste, | etcorrette. — {Colophon) In Vene- 
tia per Alessandro de Vian. 

Octavo. Portrait, 

Printed about 1535 or 1536. 

Belcari, Feo, wasasonofFeodiCoppo(Jacopo) 
Belcari, and flourished at Florence about 1450. He 
died August 16, 1454. He wrote several Laudi and 
some Rappresentazioni sacre (Mysteries). 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

15 La Vita Del | Beato Giovanni Colom | 
Bini Da Siena, Fonda | Tore Dell' Or- 
dine | De Poveri Giesva | Ti, Composta | 
Per Feo Bel- | Cari | E Da Lvi Dedica- 
ta Al Ma- | Gnifico Giovanni Di | Cosimo 
De' Medici. | Et Inoltre Vn' Opera Nel | 
La Qvale Si Contiene Par | Te Delia Vita 
D'Alcvni I Servi Di Giesv Cristo | E Qvali 
Fvrono Nel | La Compagnia Di | Detti 
Poveri | Giesvati. — ( Colophon) Impresso 
in Siena per Calisto, Francesco di Simione 
Bindi. | A Di. XXVIL d'Ottobre. M.D. 
XLL I Ad Instantia d [sic) Giouanni di 
Alisandro Libraio. 

Third edition ; the first was printed at Florence by 
Nicholaus Florentiae (Nicolb di Lorenzo della Magna) 
about 1480-86. 

Bembo, Pietro, was bom at Venice, May 20, 
1470. He studied Greek under Lascaris, and sub- 
sequently became a member of the Academy of 
Aldus Manutius. In 15 12 he went to Rome, where 
Leo X made him his private secretary and bestowed 
upon him numerous signs of his favor. After the 
death of Leo he retired to Padua, where he lived for 
a number of years, engaged in literary labors, and 
where he formed his valuable library. He was 
created a cardinal by Paul HI in 1539, and, going 
back to Rome, he renounced the study of classical 
literature and devoted himself to theology and his- 


tnalff , ntvmdre ', et aperti (j^uegliocchi , che m quejh at 
mino fi chiudono , mirdre con efft tiuella mejfttiU beU 
lez!/^, di Oil fono amante fua doles merce gr^ bUon tsm 
fo ; et hora ferche io uecchio fia , ante tit mi uedi } elld 
non mhd ferdo mem , che m altra eta. , atro : ne mi n= 
fittttra j ferche io di <ofi grojjo fmno uefhto le nadd 
mndn^ • Q^dntun<iue ne io con quefh fanno udtts 
drojMtu con quello tiaitdrai:ne altro di cjuefh luoghi 
fi forta dlcuno jeco difartendofi , chegli fnoi amcri : 
B^nali fi fono jkti di (^uefh beUez^ , che c^M gu jbs 
no J fercio che ejje coU fk non ftgliono ,ma rmangmo 
alia terra, di cni fono figliuoUj efft a tornuntano ',fi co= 
me hora ci fogliono quegli difii tvrmentare , de^^uali go= 
dere nonfi fito ne molto ne foco : Sejbno di (Quelle di 
la fu pan; efft marauigliofatnente ci traflHlldno,fo/ad 
che dd eJJe ferttemti fidnamcnte ne gpdidmo • Ma 
fercio che qmlU dimcrd e fimfiterna j ft dee credere 
Lauinello , che buono Amore fia qttello^ delc^uale ff>des 
reft ftto eternamente'jet reo t^tteWdltro , che etemamen 
te ci condanna d dolere • Q^epe oafi ragonaa 

temi ddl fmto huomo ', fercio che tempo era , che io mi 
difdrnjji j ejjo mi licentio • llche pofaa che hebbe detb 
l.<utinellojafHoi ra^onamenti fofi fine • 

mprefji m Yenetia nelle cafi d^Aldo Komano net an-: 

no ' M D V • del mefi di Mrfr^ j con la oonceffione 

delta lUujlrijfima Signorid no^rd j che fer ' x » 

artni ne luoghi dl yenetidno Vomino fotto- 

fopt nejju no dltro gli foffa mfri 

m€re,o mfrefft uendere, 

fotto le fene , che 

tn lei ft con 




[ No. i6 ] 

Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

tory. He died January i8, 1547. His writings are 
characterized by great elegance of style. 

"Never since Petrarch's day had the sceptre of 
Italian literature rested so unequivocally in one hand 
as in Pietro Bembo's." — Gamett. 

16 Gli Asolani Di Messer | Pietro Bembo. — 
[Colophon) Impressi in Venetia nelle Case 
d'Aldo Romano nel an- | no. MDV. del 
mese di Marzo ; Con la concessione | della 
lUustrissima Signoria nostra ; che per. X. | 
anni ne luoghi al Venetiano Dominio 
sotto- I posti nessuno altro gli possa impri | 
mere, o impressi uendere, | sotto le pene, 
che I in lei si con | tengo- | no. 

The first edition. This copy contains the dedication 
to Lucrezia Borgia, which is missing in many. The 
letter to Lucrezia, Pope Alexander VI's daughter 
and Duke Alfonso of Este's wife, is insignificant in 
itself, but the controversies between Alfonso of 
Este and Pope Julius II probably induced Bembo 
and Aldus to suppress a compliment paid to the wife 
of a prince who was an enemy of the Pope. The 
present copy bears on the first page of the text some 
emendations in Bembo's hand. 

The Asolani was written when Bembo was 
twenty-eight years old. It is a disquisition on Love, 
from different points of view, composed in imitation 
of Cicero's Tusculan Questions. Its chief impor- 
tance comes from the fact that it was influential in 
reviving the practice of Italian composition. 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

"Seldom, however, have commonplaces been set 
off with such harmony and polish of style, or with 
more ingenious eloquence." — Garnett. 

17 Rime Di M. Pietro | Bembo. — (^Colophon) 
Stampate in Vinegia per Maestro Giouan 
An- I tonio et Fratelli da Sabbio. Nell' 
anno M.D. | XXX. Con le concessioni de 
tutti i Principi | de 1' Italia che altri stam- 
par non le possa, ne | uendere. 


The first edition. A copy printed on large paper. 

According to Gabriel Giolito de' Ferrari, Bembo' s 
Rime rank second only to those of Petrarch. 

18 Delia Historia | Vinitiana Di M. Pietro | 
Bembo Card, Volgar- | Mente Scritta. | 
Libri XII. | \Printer's mark] Con Privi- 
legii. I In Vinegia M.D.LII. — {Colophon) 
In Vinegia Appresso Gualtero Scotto. | 


First edition of the translation. Bembo had written 
the history of Venice in Latin (Venice, Aldus, 1551) ; 
and from the printer's dedication to Isabella Quirina, 
we learn that he translated it at the request of that 
illustrious lady. The author's life is ascribed to 
Giovanni Delia Casa. 

19 Prose Di. M. Pietro Bembo | Nelle Qvali 
Si Ragiona Del- | La Volgar Lingva 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

Scritte | Al Cardinale De Medici Che | 
Poi E Stato Creato A Som- | Mo Ponte- 
fice Et Detto Pa- | Pa Clemente Settimo 
Divise | In Tre Libri. — [Colophon) Im- 
presse in Vinegia per Giouan Tacnino, nel 
mese di Set- | tembre del M.D.XXV. Con 
priuilegio di Papa Cle- | mente, et del 
Senato di questa Citta, . . . 

The first edition. Bembo employed about twenty 
years in writing and perfecting this work. 

20 Delle Lettere Di M. Pietro Bembo | Primo 
Volvme. — {Colophon) Stampate in Roma 
per Valerio Dorico et Luigi fra- | telli, 
Nel Mese di Settembre. M.D.XLVIII. 


First edition, dedicated by the publisher Carlo Gual- 
teruzzi, to Cardinal Guido Ascanio Sforza. It forms 
the first volume of Bembo's letters ; the second was 
printed at Venice by Figlioli di Aldo in 1550; the 
third and fourth at Venice by Scotto in 1552. Scotto 
also reprinted the first and second volumes. 

"These may still be read with profit by students 
for the light they cast upon Italian society during the 
first half of the cinque cento, and with pleasure by 
all who can appreciate the courtesies of refined breed- 
ing, expressed in language of fastidious delicacy." 



Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

21 Nvove I Lettere Famigliari | Di M. Pietro 
Bembo | Scritte | A M. Gio. Mattheo 
Bembo | Svo Nipote | • . . [Printer's 
mark] In Venetia, Appresso Francesco | 
Rampazetto. MDLXIIII. 

The first edition. These letters were published by 
Francesco Sansovino, who dedicated them to Guido- 
baldo della Rovere, Duke of Urbino. 

Benivieni, GirolamO, was bom at Florence 
about 1453, and died in 1542. He was a friend of 
Marsilio Ficino, Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, who 
wrote this commentary on the song DeW Amor di 
Dio, and of Girolamo Savonarola. The subject of 
Benivieni's poetry is the Divine Love, which implies 
also the Platonic philosophy. 

2 2 Opere Di Girolamo Be- | niuieni Fioren- 
tino nouissimamente ri- {sic) \ uedute et da 
molti errori espurgate | con una canzona 
dello Amor cele | ste et diuino, col com- 
mento del | lo 111. S. Conte Giouanni. | 
Pico Mirandolano distin- | to in Libbri. 
III. et I altre Frottole | de diuersi | Aut- 
tori. — {Colophon) Stampato in Venegia 
per Gregorio de | Gregori, Nellanno del 
nostro Si- | gnore. M.CCCCC.XXIIII. | 
A di. XXVIII. de Aprile. 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

The third edition. 

This book contains eclogues, songs, sonnets, Laudi 
spirituali, Frottole, and translations of the Bucolics 
of Moschus, an elegy of Propertius, and a few 
psalms of David. 

" His verses might have given him no inconsider- 
able distinction if he could have attained to lucidity 
of diction ; but his powers of expression are inade- 
quate to the abstruseness of his themes." — Gamett. 

Bentivoglio, Cardinal Guido, the eminent 

statesman and historian, was born at Ferrara in 1579, 
and died at Rome, September 17, 1644, in conclave, 
just as he seemed about to be elected pope. 

23 Relationi | Del | Cardinale | Bentivoglio 
I Pubblicate | Da Erycio Pvteano | in An- 
uersa. | Ristampate in Colonial 630. | con 
licenza de' Superiori. 

The second edition ; the first was printed in Antwerp, 
by Gio. Meerbecio, in 1629. 

The Relationi were written during Bentivoglio's 
nunciature in Flanders and in France, and contain 
a valuable account of England during that period. 
He also wrote Memorie overo Diario and Delia 
Guerra di Fiandra. 

In these works he shows himself a diligent ob- 
server and prudent statesman. His style "is most 
agreeable," and his prose especially "a model of pure 
and simple composition." 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 
Berni, Francesco, was bom, about the end of 

the XVth century, at Lamporecchio. At an early age 
he was sent to Florence, where he remained until his 
nineteenth year, when he went to Rome, trusting to 
obtain assistance from his uncle. Cardinal Bernardo 
Divizio da Bibbiena ; but the Cardinal soon after died 
and Berni was obliged to accept a situation as secre- 
tary to Mgr. Giberti, datary to Clement VII. He 
remained with Giberti until about 1530, when he ob- 
tained a canonry in the Cathedral of Florence, where 
he died, May 26, 1535, poisoned, it was said, by Duke 
Alessandro de' Medici for having refused to poison 
the duke's brother, Cardinal Ippolito de' Medici. 

24 Tvtte Le Opere Del | Bemia In Terza 
Rima, | Nvovamente Con | Somma Di- 
ligentia | Starapate. [I^inter's mark] Per 
Cvrtio Navo Et Fratelli. | M D XXXVIII. 
— [Colophon) In Vinegia Per Curtio | 
Navo Et Fratelli. | M D XXXVIII. 

Second edition. Burlesque poetry was perfected by 
Berni and Mauro, but Berni had the fortune to give 
it his name {poesia bernesca). This "branch of . . . 
literature . . . belonged to Tuscany and took its origin 
from the equivocal carnival and dance songs raised 
to the dignity of art by Lorenzo de' Medici. Its 
conventional meter was lerza rima, handled with ex- 
quisite sense of rhythm, but degraded to low comedy 
by the treatment of trivial or vulgar motives. The 
author of these Capitoli . . . chose some common 
object — a paint-brush, salad, a sausage, peaches, 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

figs, eels, radishes — to celebrate ; affected to be 
inspired by the grandeur of his subject; . . . and 
almost invariably conveyed an obscene meaning under 
the form of innuendoes appropriate to his professed 
theme. " — Symonds. 

25 Orlando | Innamorato Nvova- | Mente 
composto I Da M. Francesco | Berni | 
Fiorentino | Stampato in Vinetia per gli 
heredi di Lu- | cantonio Giunta. Con 
Priuilegio dell' Illustris | simo Senato 
Veneto per anni. X. | M D XXXXI. 


The first edition remodelled by Bemi. Berni under- 
took the revision of the whole poem, avowedly alter- 
ing no sentiment, removing or adding no incident, 
but simply giving to each line and stanza due grace- 
fulness and polish ; and perhaps he owes his greatest 
fame to this work. After two editions, Berni's ver- 
sion fell into disuse till the end of the XVIIIth cen- 
tury, when the critics rediscovered it and began to 
quote Boiardo's poem under Berni's name, "treating 
the real author as an ignorant and uncouth writer of 
a barbarous dialect." — Symonds. 

Boccaccio, Giovanni, was probably bom at 
Certaldo, in 13 13, where he died, December 21, 

26 Philostrato ala sua piu che oltra pia | 
cieuole filomena salute | Molte fiate gia 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

nobilissima donna a | uiene che io il quale 
quasi de la mia pu | ericia, infino a questo 
tenpo ne seruigi da | more sono istato 
ritrouandomi nela | sua corte . . . {Ends 
at the r. of f. 38, col. 2:) Finite libro isto 
renouamus | gratia christo amen. 

A manuscript, on paper, of the first half of the XVth 

"... Here for the first time we find the future 
author of the Decameron. . . . The Filostrato must 
undoubtedly be reckoned the finest of his narratives 
in verse." — Symonds. 

In the same manuscript are Capitoli, by Antonio 
Pucci, a bell-founder of Florence, and chief bell- 
ringer to the community, who died sometime after 
1373. He was one of the first to cultivate \!c^& poesia 
burlesca, afterwards perfected by Berni, Casa, and 

27 Laberinto D'Amore Di. M. Gio | Vanni 
Boccaccio Con | una Epistola "k Messer 
Pino de Ros | si confortatoria del me- | 
desimo autore. — [Colophon) Impresso in 
Firenze nell' anno del Signore. M.D.XVI. 


Without the printer's name, but by Filippo Giunta. 

28 Ameto I Comedia | Delle Ninfe | Fioren- 
tine, I Di M. Giouanni Boccaccio | daCer- 


Original and Early Editions cf Italian Books 

taldo : I Con La Dichiaratione | de' luoghi 
difficili di | M. Francesco Sansovino. | 
Nuouamente ristampata, & con | diligenza 
ricorretta. j [Winter's mark] In Venetia, 
M D XCII. I Presso Gio. Battista Bonfa- 


"The Atneto of Boccaccio also possesses consider- 
erable importance in literary history, being the first 
well-defined modern instance of an important genre, 
the pastoral romance, afterwards carried to perfection 
by Sannazaro and Montemayor; and also of a literary 
artifice, the interweaving of several stories to com- 
pose a whole." — Gamett. 

29 L'Amorosa | FiammettaDi | M.Giouanni 
Boccaccio | nuouamente per M. Lodo- | 
uico Dolce da ogni er- | rore emendata | 
Et Dal Medesimo Ag | giontoui vna nuoua 
tauo I la delle cose degne | di memoria. | 
Con Gratia Et Privilegio. | In Venetia Ap- 
presso I Gabriel lolito de Ferrarij | M. 

The first edition of the Fiammetta was printed at 
Padua by Bartholomaeus Valdezochius and Martinus 
de Septem Arboribus in 1472. This edition of Dolce 
is the first printed by Giolito. 

The Fiammetta, which has very few readers to- 
day, was almost as popular in the XVIth century as 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

the Decameron; and many editions were printed, 
most of them by Giolito, who dedicated this one: 
" AUe gentili e valorose donne di Casal Monferrato." 

30 Amorosa Visione Di | M. Giouan Boccac- 
cio, nuouamente ritro | uata, nella quale 
si contengono cinque | Triumphi, cioe. 
Triumpho di Sa- | pientia, di Gloria, di 
Ricchezza, | di Amore, e di Fortuna. | 
Apologia Di Gie- | ronimo Claricio Im- 
mol. contro De- | trattori della Poesia del 
Boccaccio. | Osseruationi di uolgar gram- 
I matica del Boccaccio. | MD [Boccaccio^ s 
portrait engraved on wood] XXXI. — {Colo- 
phon) In Vinegia per Nicolo d'Aristotile | 
I detto Zoppino. MDXXXI. 

The second edition. 

" It is written in terza ritna, and betrays an evident 
ambition to imitate Dante, while in its turn it has 
not been without influence on Petrarch's Trionfi." — 

31 II Decamerone Di M. | Giovanni Boc- | 

Caccio. — [Colophon) Impresso in Vinegia 

per Gregorio de Gregori il | mese di Mag- 

gio deir anno. M.D.XVI. | Con Privilegio. 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

The first edition of the Decameron with a date was 
printed at Milan by Christofal Valdarfer in 1471. 

Nicol6 Delfino, who published this edition, and 
dedicated it to the "gentili e valorose donne," was the 
first to try to give the Decameron in its entirety; and 
it was used for other editions, although the com- 
mittee appointed to expurgate the Decameron, after 
the Council of Trent, considered it to have been the 
work of a man who knew little of the Tuscan lan- 

32 II Decamerone | Di Messer Giovanni | 
Boccaccio Nvovamente Stam | pato Et 
Ricorretto | per Antonio Brvcioli. | Con 
La Dichiaratione Di Tvtti I Vo | caboli, 
detti, prouerbij, figure et modi di dire 
incogniti | et difficili, che sono in esso 
Libro. I Con Gratia Et Privilegio. — {Colo- 
phon) . . . Stampato in Vinegia, per Bar- 
tholomeo Zanetti | da Brescia ad instan- 
tia di Messer Giovanni Giolitto da Trino. | 
MDXXXVIII. Del mese d'Aprile. 
Quarto. Portrait. 

This is the first edition by Brucioli, a Florentine 
writer, whose best-known works are a translation of 
the Bible and translations of Aristotle and Cicero. 

33 lohannis Bocacii De Cercaldis {sic) His- 
tori- I Ographi Prologvs In Libros De 
a6 \ 

Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

Casi- I Bvs Virorvm lUvstrivm Incipit. — 
[At the end) Finit liber Nonus et vltimus 
Johannis Boccacii | de certaldo de casi- 
bus virorum illustrium. 

The first edition, printed at Strasburg, by Hussner 
and Beckenhub, about 1473-75. 

34 La I Ghismonda | Del Boccaccio | Com- 
posta In I Ottava Rima | Dal Sig. An- 
nibal Gvasco; | con I'istesso testo del 
Boccaccio, et con | alcuni altri componi- 
menti dell' Au- | tore fatti dopo I'ultimo 
volume I delle sue Rime | [Printer's mark\ 
In Pavia, Appresso Girolamo Bartoli, 
1583. I Con licenza de' Superiori. 


Annibale Guasco, the translator, was born in Alessan- 
dria (della Paglia), and died in that town, February 
4, 1619. 

35 Incomincia il libro primo di Florio & di 
Bian | zafiore chiamato Philocolo che tanto 
e adi- | re quanto amorosa faticha com- 
posto per il cla | rissimo poeta misser 
loanni Boccaccio da Cer | taldo ad in- 
stantia de la illustre & generosa ma | donna 
Maria figluola {sic) naturale de linclito re | 
Ruberto. — {Colophon) Qui finiscie il Philo- 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

colo con la uita di | Misser lohanne Bo- 
caccio. Im | presso in Venetia per Pe | 
legrino pasquale da | Bologna nel. M. | 
cern I brio Regnante lin | clito Principe 
di Venetia | Messer Augustino Barbadico. 

The seventh edition ; the first was printed at Florence, 
by Magister iouannes petri de tnagontia, 1472. 

This, the first prose work of Boccaccio, was com- 
posed at the command of Maria, daughter of King 
Robert of Naples. The tale describes the romantic 
love and adventures of Florio and Biancafiore, a fa- 
vorite subject with the knightly minstrels of France 
and Italy, and, although tedious in itself, it occupies 
an important place in Italian literature, for it marks 
the transition from the metrical romance to the pure 

36 La I Theseide | Di M. G. Boccaccio, | 
Innamoramento piaceuole, | & honesto di 
due I Giouani Thebani | Arcita, et Pale- 
mone ; | D'ottaua Rima nuouamente ri- 
dotta 1 In Prosa | Per Nicolao Granvcci 
Di Lvcca, | Aggiuntoui un brieue Dialogo 
nel principio e fine | dell' Opera diletteuole, 
& vario. I In Lucca appresso Vincenzo 
Busdraghi 1579 | Ad instantia di Giulio 

Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

" He [Boccaccio] may not have been the inventor of 
the octave stanza, but undoubtedly he was the first 
to show its supreme fitness for narrative, and thus 
mark out the channel in which the epic genius of 
Italy has flowed ever since. . . . Yet all the main 
recommendations of the octave are discoverable in 
his Teseide and Filostrato, poems especially interest- 
ing to English readers from the imitation — fre- 
quently translation — of them in Chaucer's Knighfs 
Tate and Troitus." — Garnett. 

This is a prose version of the poem, by Nicolo 

37 Vita I Di Dante | AHghieri | Poeta Fio- 
rentino, | Composta per Messer Giouanni 
Boccaccio. | Con Priuilegio di N. S. per 
anni 'Dit.oX.— {Colophon) In Roma. | Per 
Francesco Priscianese Florentine | 1544. 

Francesco Priscianese, the Florentine grammarian, 
known at Rome alike as publisher and printer, in the 
dedication of the book to Giovan Lodovico Pio, 
writes: " Eccovi la vita di Dante, la quale vi mando 
come cosa rara et nuoua et degna. " It was really pub- 
lished for the first time in the Divina Commedia 
printed at Venice by Vindelinus de Spira in 1477, 
and later, separately, at Venice in 1542. 

38 Libro Di M. Gio. [ Boccaccio Delle Don- | 
ne Illustri, tradotto per Messer | Givseppe 
Betvssi. I Con Vna Additione Fatta | dal 

Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

medesimo delle donne famose dal tempo 
di I M. Giouanni fino a i giomi nostri, et | 
alcune altre state per inanzi, | Con La Vita 
Del Boccaccio, | et la Tauola di tutte I'his- 
torie, et cose prin | cipali, che nell' opra si 
contengono. | AH' Illvstriss. S. Camilla | 
Pallauicina Marchesa di Corte Maggiore. | 
\Printer's mark] In Vinegia. M DXLV. — 
{^Colophon) In Vinegia Per Comin Da | 
Trino Di Monferrato A | Instanza Di M. 
An- I Drea Arrivabene | Al Segno Del | 
Pozzo. I Con Gratia Et Privilegio. | M 

This is the second Italian edition; the first was 
printed at Venice by Zuanne da Trino in 1506, the 
translator being Vincenzo da Bagli. The first trans- 
lation of De Claris Mulieribus was by Maestro Donate 
da Cesentino. 

39 lohannis bocatij de certaldo de montibus. 
siluis. fon | tibus. lacubus. fluminibus. sta- 
gnis. seu paludibus. | et mari. liber incipit & 
primo de montibus. — Ends: . . . bonitati | 
et doctrine adscribatur sue. finis | laus tibi 
christe quum liber explicit iste Amen. 

Manuscript, on vellum, of the first half of the XVth 



johaimtryocAai dccertiitdo Jc monoahaf Aiutf fon 
tihvtf tjLcuhuC flutrjtnthuf' Std^if/eti viludihf 
et mjtri U her iTiaptc eCvmrto Je rncmtih^. 

^r^^^PvlHf^lterim e<^mo(cTn ^e^wC aliWc diu>i4 erne 

J ^^^ ticnit V mcntcm Soctatew olim dtautt l« 
J^^^^m mimf luktr ittmf (olttwm c« iim€a(ttati«: 
cclelHum fvtf^c? fu||»ita cruritiiC arwTtdltnc: ci* rwof:/* 
filuf lufllc -'^c SctyaoTwrtn 4<ric*num ctle\utn> t/i^r 
fcmArwrttw (^Mccf AVAr4tt« «t - pvi . tfiwrtunitahbur ' 
rdululunt rc(iPifccntcr no nu^ nidnT rnXxXore. .tnettC 
calculoT/eiectaf*^ c<mcuU« c<Ht;cm(Tcr ntu fv^votxAxn 
colligtT' nc Jum tpr ad xccxcArxJUm, uiVtUt-em rferct' 
trtcitc nilji^cnteT ^v^>\ntvA\•ct■ m\cmA ' CLui^TcgT* ti^^ 
rwUtutn UtuLibtUum «;<erctfunrunt (VtoctitUTi imitj, 
ttirur nc oio t^f icrtt o<i<> c!4lMtHr/4<Ti»mp(l loco to 
coft l^Wvf (Vwiicnbltir |*etttu itlii/Kttitn Ulrror/4Mti 
4nti'fliuom \yy^!tor\AC vt\i(X\\env\)yx\ \ Aic^6 Xctxi <J«n« ft 
pftc'ytitftirtn-oijldle ♦ Memv tfu«||)e:' tfUT/ et- |»nifc 4ut 
tr<ich <Ic(t<3lerw fiKJ^T ^X\m. xXx^tit (ht^wru littynot 
ctrot mtc^Mtn lectu>tttr (<m(«m tpw^tw -pKmu 4iH 
no nuctt rmjtnum • rilu^nrum > ftrnttti- fluitun-tt- (fai^tw 
t-unr ' Teu t»AltJttm uf nuirxf oceutut uoc4])iih/4Vr 
fc^ ct xntdli^cnAc cf iAcmt, ntjpitt du motif 
notn i>ro fltuc dn VAhiAiC J^ mcnti: Struct CtuttUif 
uYj^xLicuL \qco (iinvitur/ ^de ien(%if \>Y(h9riA{if ^ 

[ No. 39 ] 

Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

40 loannis Boccacii de Certaldo : de monti- 
bus: sylvis: fontibus: lacubus: | flumini- 
bus : stagnis : seu paludibus : de nominibus 
maris: liber incipit feliciter. — [Colophon) 
lo. Boccatii uiri clarissimi de montibus: 
siluis: I fontibus: lacubus: stagnis seu 
paludibus : & de | diuersis nominibus ma- 
ris opus diligentissime | impressum finit. 
Venetiis Idus Ian. cccc.lxxiii (1473). 


The first edition, frequently bound with De Genea- 
logia Deorum, printed by Vindelinus in 1472, and so, 
probably, by the same printer. 

41 Opera Dell'Hvomo Dotto Et | Famoso 
Giovan. Boccaccio da Certal | do, dalla 
lingua latina nel thosco idioma per Meser 
Ni- I colo Liburnio nouamente trallatata. 
Doue per | ordine d'Alphabeto si tratta 
diffusamente delli | Monti : Selve : Bos- | 
chi : Fonti : La- | ghi : Fiumi : Sta- | gni : 
Paludi I Golfi : et | Man : . . . 


There is no colophon to this, the first translation of 
the preceding work; but it was probably printed at 
Rome (by A. Blado?) about 1550. 

42 Vrbano | Di M. Gioan Boccaccio | opera 
bellitissima [sic) in questi nouelli gior- | ni 
uenuta a luce, con somma dili- | genza 


petrarcbam incfyCifm prfceptorem meumhotitCU facie SC faurea niteti 

confpicuum per idmet nadtum lento tamen incedentem grada:non 

(quide Ubore attritum: fed altioribus cogitattoibus pre(tum: &C celebri 

aec|)ComedabiIt grauitate dedudhim. Obftupui afpec!lu primo mirat9 

quid circa tam infimum limen deducere^ bomo fublimis . ide memor 

Maronem folitum nonung grcgcm per imas Uallcs deduce re : &C aliqfi 

fml fuum: etia fupra aHra tranfierre: rubore fufiufus plurimo con(lici: 

ic fbrtunam ante alia damnaui meam:q) eo me in difcrimen deduxifTdC 

ui auditor ex minimis cum pr^ceptore ludlarerrpendenfq) multa eueHi 

gio animo circiiuolui:anirem.i.& incoeptum iter perficerem:ut Qarem 

leu potiusomnino redirem: &C prefTa bumo uedigia exturbarem. Oc/ 

currebant aut mibi plurima fuadentia redirum:& ate alia clarifTimi pr^ 

ceptotis mei fublimitas Ihli ornaturedimita mirabili: dc fententiarum 

ponderofitate plurima ftabilis.df infuper lepiditate uerbo^ deledtabilis 

nimium:quicucunqt extranea uideaturmateria.Pr^terea notitiarerum 

cuius plurimum indiget labor iHetquam adeo fibi familiarem noueram 

ut uidiCTe omnia:£C tenaci' feruafle memoria uideretur.Ec cu bis ruditas 

mea ftilus exoticus : bidoriarij penuria : ingentum bebes: 6C fluxa meo" 

ria ueniebantra quibus perfuafus cum iam elTem femiffexus in reditum 

& ecce prouerbium uetus uenit in mentem: quo aiunt contraria iuxta(e 

pofita magis elucefcut. Et ex co arbitratus fulgoris fui radios quatucu(^ 

de reciariCTimosopacitatisme^ tcnebras penetraturos poHeuideri itts 

entibus clariores: mutaui confilium : 6C ad eius reuerentiam non pngil: 

fed obfequiofus feruulus dC inneris Hrator infmem uiqi dedudlus fum: 

uolens iubentqi fi quod meritum mibi laboris bui? expedlandu e(l cau'^ 

tos eCTe ledlores : ut fi quid in bocopere operi uiciinclKti comperiantuc 

aduerfumzdamnetur illico : 6C fua fequatur : tanq uera danfq} lententia. 

Scripfi quidem quod in buccam uenit . Ipfe autem ft mores noui fuos) 

omnia muitipltcitrutmationedigefla:omiaponderofo librata iudicio 

icripGt:(cribetqt . Si quid uero congruum fuis conforme (criptis copiat": 

*diuin{ bouati do^tnf afccibatucTu;* 

lo.Boeeatii airi cfarifGmi de monttbas:ritufs: 
(bntibusrlacubussOagnis (eu paludibus: & de 
diaetfis nomtbus maris opus diligentidimc 
iprelTum 6nii; Venetiis Idtts lanx c c c «lxxiit 

[ No. 40 ] 


Famofo GIO VAN 'BOCCACCIO daCfrtai 
do , dalla lingua latina nel thofco idiomaper Mefer N I ^ 
COLO Lihurnio nouamente traltatata ♦ i)oue^er 
or dine d'hlfhahetofi tratta dijfufamente dellt 
GOLFI i er 
.Delfuniuerfo MONDO , Con k nature ^ tutie Vat 
tre cofe memorahili in ^elli anticamente fatte t/ da 
VoetiyCoJmographijOuer Hiftorici difcritte.Et in fine 
per lofopradetto ♦ M * Wcoto Liburnio pojie fono le 
Vrouinciedt tuttoH Modo ,cioe VASIA EV < 
ROPA , tf APHRICA . Etinchemodo 
molte delle dette Jitrono chiamate da gti antichi ^ in 
che guifa hor nominate fono dalli Moderrd ♦ 

[ No. 41 ] 

Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

uista, corretta et nuo- | uamente stampata. 
I M D XXX. [Portrait,]— {Colophon) Stam- 
pato in Vinegia per Nicolo | d'Aristotile 
detto Zoppino. | MDXXX. 

This work, a tale about an accident which happened 
to the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, is erroneously 
attributed to Boccaccio. According to Tommaso 
Buonaventuri {Lettera published by the Abbate Luigi 
Fiaschi), it was the work of a writer who tried to 
imitate him. In a manuscript once belonging to 
Poggiali it is ascribed to Giovanni Buonsignori of 
Citt^ di Castello. 

Boiardo, Matteo Maria, was bom at Scan- 

diano, one of the seigniorial estates of his family, near 
Reggio di Modena, about 1434. At an early age he 
entered the University of Ferrara, where he acquired 
a good knowledge of Greek and Latin, and even of 
the Oriental languages. At the court of Ferrara 
he enjoyed the favor of Duke Borso d'Este and 
his successor Ercole, and was entrusted with several 
honorable employments. He was named governor 
of Reggio in 1478. Three years afterwards he 
was elected captain of Modena, and reappointed 
governor of the town and citadel of Reggio, where 
he died in December, 1494. 

43 Liprimi tre libri del [ Conte Orlando | ina- 
morato I Composto per el Conte Matteo 
I maria Boiardo Conte | di Scandiano Poe 
I tapreclaris- j simo. — [Colophon)lva.^xtsso 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

nella inclita Citta di Venetia per Augu- 
stino di Bendoni nel Anno del signore. 

Colophon of this copy missing; supplied from Brunet 
and Melzi. 

Boiardo's poem of sixty-nine cantos was left incom- 
plete at the author's death. He published the first 
two books in i486 ( Venice, by Piero de Fiasi) ; the 
third was published after his death ( Venice, by Simone 
Bevilacqua, I4g5). AH three books were printed 
together at Scandiano the year after his death, under 
the superintendence of his son, Count Camillo {Scan- 
diano, by Pellegrino de Pasquali, I4()3) ; but of this 
edition no copy is known. The work continued to 
be reprinted during the first half of the XVIth cen- 
tury, but it was then superseded by the Furioso. 

The Orlando Innamorato is one of the most impor- 
tant poems in Italian literature ; it was the first ex- 
ample of the romantic epic, and served as a model 
for the Orlando Furioso. "Without the Innamorato 
the Furioso is meaningless." 

"The value of the Orlando Innamorato for the 
student of Italian development is principally this, 
that it is the most purely chivalrous poem of the 
Renaissance. " — Symonds. 

44 Tutti li libri d' Orlando inamorato del conte 
de Scandiano Mattheo Maria Bojardo, al 
vero senso reduti et ultimamente stampai 
{sic) MDXLIII. — {Colophon) InVineggia 
per Alouise de Tortis. Nelli anni della | 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

Salutifera Incarnatione del nostro Signore | 
lesu Christo. M.D.XXXXIII. | del mese 
di Febraro. | Orlan. Inna. 

Title-page of this copy missing. Title supplied from 

45 II Qvarto [Quinto, and Sesto'\ Libro Dello | 
Innamoramento Di Orlando | nel quale 
si conteneno molte, e Diverse | battaglie, 
come in quel leggendo | si potra intendere. 
Composto I per Nicolo Delli Agostini | 
nuouamente ristampa | pato (sic), e congran 
cura I corretto. — [Colophon) In Vineggia 
per Aloise de Tortis. Nelli anni della | 
Salutifera Incarnatione del nostro Signore | 
lesu Christo. M.D.XXXXIII. | Del 
mese di Febraro. 

There are only two other known copies of this edi- 
tion, one in the Royal Library at Stuttgart, the other 
was offered in the Libri sale in 1847. 

All editions of Orlando Innamorato printed in the 
first half of the XVIth century are rare, especially 
when well preserved. They were already scarce in 
the second half of the XVIth century, as is proved by 
a letter of G. Vine. Pinello to Aldus Manutius, ask- 
ing the printer to lend him an edition of Boiardo "in 
quel modo che fu lasciata da lui senza riforma," be- 
cause he was unable to find a copy. 
' ' No edition of the original as Boiardo wrote it 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

was published from 1544 to 1830, when Antonio 
Panizzi . . . redeemed it from oblivion and restored 
it to the place it has ever since maintained as a star 
of at least the second magnitude in the constellation 
of Italian epic poetry. " — Gamett. 

The three books, written by Nicolo degli Agostino, 
in continuation of Orlando Innamorato, were issued 
separately, and at different times. The first book 
was printed with Boiardo's three books at Venice by 
Giorgio de Rusconi in 1506; the second book was 
written nine years after the first, and printed sepa- 
rately in 1 5 14 (Venice, by Giorgio di Rusconi). We 
find the third book published for the first time in the 
edition of Orlando Innamorato printed at Venice by 
F. Bindoni and M. Pusini, 1525. 

46 Sonetti e Canzone Del | Poeta Carissimo 
{sic) Ma I theo Maria Boiardo | Conte di 
Scandiano ^Printer's mark\ — ( Colophon) 
Impressum Venetiis per loannem Bap- 
tistam Sessa. | Anno Domini. M.ccccc.i.a. 
di.xxvi. Marzo [/h'«/<fr'j mark\. 
Small quarto. 

Mazzuchelli pronounces this edition rarissima. 

"His lyrics . . . prove that, like Lorenzo de' 
Medici, he was capable of following the path of 
Petrarch without falling into Petrarchistic manner- 
ism." — Symonds. 

Bracciolini, Giovanni Francesco Pog- 

glO, was born at Terranuova in 1380, and died in 
1459. He rendered an important service to literature 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

by his discoveries of ancient Latin manuscripts, for 
which he searched in monasteries. He discovered 
seven orations of Cicero, twelve comedies of Plautus, 
the commentaries of Asconius Pedianus, the history 
of Ammianus Marcellinus, and other interesting 
classical works. 

47 Poggij florentini Oratoris eloquentissi | mi 
ac secretarij apostolici. facetiarum incipit 
feli- I citer. — [Colophon) Poggij florentini 
secretarij apostolici | facetiarum liber ex- 
plicit feliciter. | Im- | pressus Basilee per. 
N. K. [N. KesUr] quartadecima | men- 
sis Martii. Anno domini. M.cccc | Ixxxviij. 
Small quarto. 

These facetiae contain coarse and unpleasant ob- 
scenities, told by Cardinal Lannellotto, anecdotes and 
witticisms of Dante, and jokes of Gonnella, a buf- 
foon of the Visconti of Milan. 

Bracciolini, lacopo di Poggio, the son of 

the above, was born in 1441, and died in 1478. 

48 Historia Di | lacopo Di M. Poggio, | 
della origine della gran guerra | tra Fran- 
cesi et Inglesi. | [Printer's mark] In Fio- 
renza MDXLVII. — [Colophon) Stampata 
in Fiorenza per il Doni a di | xix del Mese 
di Marzo I'anno | MDXLVII. 



dsUdoriginedeU4 gr^n^uma 


[ No. 48 ] 

Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

The first edition of this historical novel ; it was 
reprinted at Florence in 1834 with the title Novella 
tVincerto autore del sec. XV, and at Lucca in 1850 
with the title Novella della Puhella di Francia. 

A unique copy. Gamba {Serie dei tesii di lingua) 
mentions only the second edition of 1834, asserting 
that it is the first. It is mentioned in Passano, who 
says that it is very rare. 

Bruno, Giordano, the most genial and inter- 
esting of the Italian philosophers of the Renaissance, 
was bom at Nola about the year 1548. In his 
fifteenth year he entered the order of the Dominicans 
at Naples, but he soon found the restraints intolera- 
ble, and became an outcast from his Church. He 
was accused of impiety, and thereafter led a life of 
flight and exile. After seven years of imprisonment 
in Rome he was burned at the stake, February 7, 

49 Candelaio | Comedia Del Brv ( No No- 
lano Achademi- | Co di nulla Achade- 
mia; detto il fa- | stidito. | In Tristitia 
Hila- I ris: in Hilaritate tristis. | In Pa- 
riggi, I Appresso Guglelmo {sic) GiuHano. 
Al I segno de I'Amicitia. | M.D.LXXXII. 

The first edition. 

Moli^re took from this satire on pedantry and 
avarice the idea for the first interlude of his Malade 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

Brusantino, VincenzO, was bom at Ferrara, 
and died in that city about the year 1570. He also 
translated in ottava rima the Decameron {Cento 
Nov e lie di Vincenzo Brusantini in ottava rima; e 
tutte hanno V Allegoria col Proverbio a proposito delta 
Novella. Venice, by Marcolini, i^S4)- 

50 Angelica | Inamorata, | Di M. Vincentio 
Brvsantino Ferrarese. | . . . \Printer's 
mark] In Vinegia | Per Francesco Mar- 
colini, M D LIII. I Con Privilegio. 


The second edition. 

This work forms a sequel to Ariosto's Orlando 

Burchiello, DomenicO, lived in Florence, 
where he was probably bom. The year of his birth 
is unknown; he died at Rome in 1448. 

51 Rime | Del Bvrchiello | Fiorentino | Co- 
mentate dal Doni. | . . . {Printer's mark] 
In Vicenza, Per gli Heredi di Perin Li- 
braro. 1597 | Con licentia de' Superiori. 


Doni's commentary is often so obscure as to be 
more in need of elucidation than the Sonnets. 

Caro, Annibale, was bom at Civita Nuova in 
1507. His most important work was the translation 
of the Aeneid (Venice, 1581). He is also the author 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

of Rime, Canzoni, and sonnets, a comedy entitled 
Gli Straccioni, and two clever /V«x d^ esprit, one in 
praise of figs (Za Ficheide), and another in eulogy 
of the big nose of Ancona Leoni, president of the 
Accademia della Vertic. His prose works consist of 
translations from Aristotle, Cyprian, and Gregory 
Nazianzen; and of these letters, written in his own 
name and in those of the Cardinals Farnese, which 
are both remarkable for their elegance. Caro's poetry 
is distinguished by very considerable ability, and par- 
ticularly by the freedom and grace of its versification. 
He died at Rome, November 21, 1566. 

52 De Le Lettere | Familiari | Del Commen- 
datore | Annibal Caro | Volvme Primo 
{and Secondo]. | Col Priuilegio di N. S. PP. 
Pio V. & deir lUustriss. | Signoria di 
Venetia. | [Printer's mark] In Venetia, | 
Appresso Aldo Manutio. | M.D.LXXIV. 

Quarto. Two volumes. 

The first volume was printed by Aldus in 1572; the 
second is here printed for the first time. The first 
volume was published, posthumously, by Giambat- 
tista Caro, a nephew of the author, and the second by 
Lepido Caro, another nephew. This edition is the 
best, and Volpi used it for his edition of 1725. 

Giovanni Delia Casa was bom at Mugeiio, 

June 28, 1503. He studied at Bologna, Florence, 
and Rome, and by his learning attracted the attention 
of Alexander Farnese, who, as Pope Paul HI, made 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

him nuncio to Florence, where he received the honor 
of being elected a member of the Accademia Fioren- 
tina. He was appointed archbishop of Benevento, 
and it was believed that it was only his licentious 
poem, Capitoli del Fomo, which prevented him from 
being raised to a still higher dignity. He died at 
Rome, November 14, 1556. Casa is chiefly re- 
markable as the leader of a reaction in lyric poetry 
against the universal imitation of Petrarch, and as 
the originator of a style which, if less soft and ele- 
gant, is more majestic than that which it replaced. 
His prose writings gained great reputation in their 
own day and long afterwards, but are disfigured by 
frequent puerility and circumlocution. His principal 
work is the famous // Galateo, a treatise on man- 
ners, which has been translated into Latin and several 
other languages. 

53 Le Terze Rime De | Messer Giovanni Dal 
I La Casa Di Messer | Bino Et D' Altri | 
\Printer's mark] Per Cvrtio Navo, E Fra | 
Telli. M D XXXVIII [ Venice]. 

Second edition; the first was printed at Venice by 
the same printer in 1528. We find these poems 
registered in the early Roman Indices librorutn pro- 

Castiglione, Baldassare, was bom at Ca- 

satico, December 6, 1478. He was educated at Milan 
under the famous humanist Giorgio Merula and under 
Demetrio Calcondila. In 1496 he entered the service 
of Lodovico Sforza, Duke of Milan, returning to 



Haffi nel priuiIegfo,& nella gratia ottenuta dalla Illuftriflima 

Signoria che in in niun alcra Cittadel fuo 

dominio (i pofTa fmprfmere, ne aitroue 

impreffo ticndere queflo libro 

del Cortegiano per<x» anni 


contenute * 

[ No. 54 ] 

Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

Mantua in 1500 when Lodovico was carried prisoner 
into France. In 1 504 he was attached to the court of 
Guidobaldo Malatesta, Duke of Urbino, and in 1506 
he was sent by this prince on a mission to Henry VII 
of England. He died at Toledo in 1529. 

Castiglione wrote little, but that little is of rare merit, 
and his verses, in Latin and Italian, are elegant in 
the extreme. 

54 II Libro Del Cortegiano | Del Conte Balde- 
sar I Castiglione. [Printer's mark] — {Co- 
lophon) In Venetia nelle case d' Aldo Ro- 
mano, & d' Andrea d' Asola suo | Suocero, 
neir anno M.D.XXVIII. | del mese 
d' Aprile. 

The first edition. Aldus printed six editions of this 

Castiglione' s idea was not to describe the courtier 
and how he lives at court, but to form a perfect 
courtier. He gives a charming picture of the court 
of Guidobaldo da Montefeltre, Duke of Urbino, con- 
fessedly the purest and most elevated of Italy. 

Cavalca, DomenicO, a monk of the Dominican 
order, was born at Vico Pisano, and died in 1342. 

55 Libro Di Patientia In | Lingva Fioren- 

tina. — {Colophon) Finisce | illibro Delia 

Pa I tientia chia | mato medi | cina di 

chuore | diuiso in tre diuoti | tractati: 



T R A T T A T I 



L*aItro in materia deirArte della Scultura; 

doue fi veggono infiniti fegretinel la 

uorar le Figure di Marmo, & 

nel getcarle di Bronzo • 




?crValcntePamz2ij,& Marco Peri, m d lxvxix, 

[ No. 56 ] 

Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

composto da fra | Domenicho da Vico 
pisano | dellordine de frati predicatori | 
Impresso in Firenze per Ser Fran | cesco 
Bonacorsi: nellan | no. M.CCCC. |. 
LXXXX. I Adi dodici di maggio. 

Cellini, BenvenutO, the celebrated goldsmith 
and sculptor, was born at Florence, November lo, 
1500; he died in that city December 13, 1571. His 
remarkable career is best described in his autobiog- 
raphy, "a greater work of art than any he accom- 
plished in his own vocation," and his most important 
literary work. " Of the literary merit of his perform- 
ance it is needless to speak ; if not at the very head 
of entertaining autobiographies, it is at least second 
to none." — Garnett. 

56 Dve I Trattati | Vno Intomo AUe Otto | 
Principali Arti | Dell' Orificeria. | L' altro 
in materia dell' Arte della Scultura ; | doue 
si ueggono infiniti segreti nel la | uorar 
le Figure di Marmo, & | nel gettarle di 
Bronzo. | Composti Da M. Benvenvto 
Cellini | Scvltore Fiorentino. [Printer's 
Mark] In Fiorenza | Per Valente Pan- 
izzij, & Marco Peri. M D LXVIII. 

The first edition, dedicated to Cardinal Ferdinando 
de' Medici. At the end of the volume are some 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

Italian and Latin poems in praise of the statues of 
Perseus and of the Christ by Benvenuto, written by 
Varchi, Vivaldi, Mini, Bronzino (the painter), Lelio, 
Bonsi, Paolo del Rosso, and Poggini, another gold- 
smith and sculptor. 

Chiabrera, Gabriello, was bom at Savona, 

June 8, 1552, and died there, October 14, 1637. 

57 DellePoesie | Di | Gabriello | Chiabrera | 
Parte Prima [Seconda and Terza]. | Per 
Lvi Medesimo Ordinata, | . • • {Printer's 
Mark] In Geneva, | Appresso Giuseppe 
Pauoni. MDCV (-MDCVI). | Con li- 
cenza de' Superiori. 

Chiabrera's reputation rests chiefly on his lyrics. 
Early in his career he discovered "that the Italian 
canzone needed to be reformed upon a Greek model." 
The value of the discovery lay "not so much in its 
abstract worth or in any real assimilation of the spirit 
of Greek poetry by Chiabrera, but in an endeavour 
after a high standard, which, even when misdirected, 
proved the best corrective of the inanity and eflfemi- 
nacy to which the Italian canzone had become prone. " 
— Gamett. 

Colonna, Vittoria, the daughter of Fabrizio 
Colonna, was born at Marino about 1490. Betrothed 
when four years old to Francisco d'Avalos, son of 
the Marquis of Pescara, she received the highest 
education and gave early proof of a love of letters. 







Cen Ufuejldn^ aggimte et it nucuo ccn iili 
gintiajlanj^ate et rUorrette* 

M. D, XXX IX* 

[No. 58] 

Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

At seventeen she married d'Avalos. In 1525, her 
husband having died of wounds received at Milan, 
Vittoria went to Naples, where she remained for 
about ten years. She died at Rome, February 25, 1547. 
She was the perfect example of the Italian lady. 
Her name was honored in all Italy. Simone Fornari 
asserts that Ariosto wrote the tale of Drusilla in 
Orlando Furioso to exalt her as an example of 
womanly virtue ; and Michelangelo dedicated to her 
some of his finest sonnets. 

58 Rime Delia | Divina Vettoria Co | lonna 
Marchesa | Na Di Pescara | Con le sue 
stanze aggiunte at di nuouo con dili | 
gentiastampate et ricorrette. | M.D.XXX- 


The second edition. Printed at Venice by Marchio 

Coppetta de' Beccuti, Francesco, was 

born at Perugia in 1509 or 15 10, and died in 1553 
or 1554. He is celebrated chiefly for his burlesques 
written in excellent sonnets, ' ' a curious blending of 
parodies of Petrarch with genuine feeling." 

59 Rime | Di M. Francesco | Coppetta | De' 
Beccvti, I Pervgino. | Con Privilegio. 
^Printer's mark] In Venetia, | Appresso 
Domenico, et Gio. Battista Guerra fratelli. | 



Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

The first edition. 

Neither Renouard nor Brunei mentions these Rime 
as the production of the Aldine press, which they 
undoubtedly are, as is apparent from a passage in 
the dedication. 

Dante Alighieri was born at Florence in May, 
1265 ; he died at Ravenna, September 14, 1321. 

60 Qui comincia la vita e costumi dello ex- 
cellente | Poeta vulgari Dante alighieri di 
Firenze | honore e gloria de lidioma Fior- 
entino. Scri | pto e composto per lo 
famosissimo homo | missier giouani Boc- 
chacio da certaldo. scri | pto de la origene 
vita. Studii e costumi del | clarissimo 
huomo Dante alleghieri Poeta | Fioren- 
tino. E dellopere composte per lui in ] 
comincia felicemente. E in questo primo 
ca I pitulo tocha la sententia de Solone. la 
qua I le e mal seguita per gli Fiorentini. — 
( Colophon) Finita e lopra delinclito e diuo | 
dante alleghieri Fiorentino poeta | per cui 
il texto a noi e intellectiuo | Christofal 
Berardi pisaurense detti | opera e sacto in- 
degno correctore | per quanto intese di 
quella i subietti | De spiera vendelin fu il 
stampatore | del mille quattrocento e set- 
tantasetti {1477) \ correuan gli anni del 
nostro signore | Finis. 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

The first edition of the Divine Comedy was printed 
at Foligno by Johannes Numeister and Evangelista 
Mei in 1472. 

Gamba says that the commentary of this edition, 
although ascribed to Benvenuto da Imola, or to 
Pietro, Dante's son, is, by general consent, by lacopo 
della Lana. 

61 Proemio | Comento di christoforo Lan- 
dino fiorentino sopra la comedia di Danthe 
alighieri poeta fiorentino. — ( Colophon) Fine 
del comento di Christoforo Landino Fio- 
rentino sopra la Comedia di Danthe poeta 
excellentissimo. | Et impresso in Vinegia 
per Octauiano Scoto da Monza. Adi. 
xxiii. di Marzo, M.cccc.Lxxxiiii. 


Second edition, with the commentary of Cristoforo 
Landino (1424-1504), one of the chief members of 
the academy founded at Florence by Cosimo de' 
Medici. He was professor of belles-lettres and the 
tutor of Lorenzo and Giuliano de' Medici. 

62 La I Divina | Commedia | Di | Dante 
Alighieri | Con | Tavole In Rame | Tomo 
I {II, III and IV) I Firenze | NellaTipo- 
grafia | All' Insegna Dell' Ancora | MD- 

Folio. Four volumes. Portrait. 

The first volume contains forty-four plates by 
Ademollo and Lasinio; the second, forty plates by 




pho nelprindpio dcllapnma pbilofopbia: 
Tutri gli buomi'ni naturalmete defidcrano 
di faperc. Laragionc dicbe puo efferc fic/ 
cbc cr'afcbuna cofa daprouidcnria dipropia 
natura impiuta e/inchnabilc allafua perfe 
ctione. Ondc accio cbe lafdcnria e/ulrima 
pcrfcctionedcllanofn-aanimamcllaqualc fta lanoftra uln'ma 
felicita.'tutri naturalmcntealfuo defidcrio fiamo fubiccti.Ve 
ramentc daquefta nobilifTima perfectionc molti fono pnuati 
per diuerfc cagionitche dentro alhuomo et difuori daclTo lui 
rimuouono dalbabito difcicntia. Dentro dalbuomo pofTono 
cfTerc due difecti:c iimpedito luno dallapartc dcIcorpo:IaItro 
dallapartedellanima* Dallaparfe delcorpo e/quando leparti 
fono indebitamentc diTpoftcrfi cbe nulla riccuerc puorfi co 
mc fono fordi' ct muti ct Ipro fi'mili. Dallaparte dcllanima cl 
quado lamahtia uincc in cfTatri cbe fifa feguitarrice di uitio 
fe dilectalioni rncllequali nceue tanto fngannorcbe p quelle 
ogni cbofa ti'ene auile. Difuori dalbuomo poffono edere (i 
milemenrc due cbagfoni intefcluna dellequali e/inductrice 
dineceffira.-Ialtra dipigritia. Laprima c/Iacui-a familiarc ct d 
uile; laquale conueneuolemcnte ad fe riene dcglibuomini il 
maggiore numcro: fi cbc i otio difpeculatione cflTere no pof 
fono. Laltrae/ildifecto delluogborouela pfona c'nata et nu 
trita: cbe tal boi-a fara daogni ftudio non folam entc priuato 
ma dagenrc ftudiofa lontano. Leduc diqueftc cbagioni ciotl 
laprima dellapaite difuovi non fono dauituperare:ma dafcu 
fareret dipcrdono dcgnc. Leduealtrc auengacbcluna piu: 
fono degnc dibiafimo et dabominatione. Manifeftametc adii 
cbc puo uederc cbi ben cofidera; cbe pocbi rimagono quclli 
cbe allbabito datutti conliderafo poflano puenireret innumc 
rabili quafi fono limpeditircbe diqucfto dbo datutti fcmpre 
uiuono affamati. O bean quelli podii cbc fegbono a quella 
meTa :doue ilpanc dcgliangeli fimangiaret mifcri quelli cbc 
con Icpccorc banno comune cibo. . Ma perocbe ciafcbuno a 
ciafcuno buomo c/naturalmeute amicbo;etaafcuno amicbo 

a I 
[ No. 64 ] 

Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

AdemoUo ; the third, forty-one plates by Nenci, 
Maselli, Lapi, Migliavacca, Lasinio and Benucci. The 
fourth volume contains the life of Dante by Leonardo 
Aretino and the commentaries on the three Cantiche. 
This edition was dedicated to the celebrated sculptor 
Antonio Canova. 

63 La I Divina Commedia | Di | Dante Ali- 
ghieri . | Firenze, | G. Barbara, Editore. | 

Sixty -four-mo. 

The smallest legible Dante. 

64 Convivio Di Dante Alighieri | Fioren- 
tino. — {Colophon) Impresso in Firenze per 
ser Francesco bonaccorsi Nel an | no mille 
quattrocento nouanta Adi. xx. di septembre. 


The first edition. 

The Convito consists of an introduction and three 
treatises, each forming an elaborate commentary in 
which Beatrice appears as an allegory of divine 
philosophy. When done it was to have comprised 
commentaries on eleven more canzoni, making four- 
teen in all. It is perhaps the least well known of 
Dante's Italian works; it is crabbed and unattractive 
in many parts, but it is well worth reading, and con- 
tains many passages of great beauty and elevation. 
It is quite indispensable to the full understanding of 
the Divina Commedia. "More remarkable, perhaps, 
than the philosophical subtleties of which it consists, 
is Dante's appeal to a new public. He writes no 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

longer for literary circles, but for the world of per- 
sons of worth wherever found, especially persons of 
rank. Hence the treatise is necessarily composed in 
Italian, which has the good effect of drawing from 
Dante a spirited vindication of his native tongue." — 
Gamett. The time of its composition is uncertain, 
but it was probably written between the years 1292 and 

Dolce, LudovicO, whom we have seen as the 
editor of Boccaccio's U Amorosa Visione, was born 
at Venice in 1508; he died about 1568. He was one 
of the most laborious and fertile writers of his 
century, the whole number of his works amounting 
to upwards of seventy. 

65 Le I Prime Imprese | Del Conte Orlando | 
Di M, Lodovico Dolce. | . . . [Jointer's 
mark] In Vinegia Appresso Gabriel | 
Giolito De' Ferrari. | M D LXXII. 

Quarto. Portrait. 

The first edition. ] 

Dolce died before the publication of this work, 
which, according to Ferrario, is his best. 

Domenichi Lodovico, died at Pisa in 1564. 

66 Orlando Innamorato Del | Signor Matteo 
Maria Boiardo | Conte di Scandiano, in- 
sieme co i tre libri di Nicolo de | gli 
Agostini, nuouamente riformato per M. | 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

Lodovico Domenichi, | Con Gli Argo- 
menti, Le | Figvre Accomodate Al | prin- 
cipio d'ogni Canto, et la tauo | la di cio, 
che nell'opra | si contiene. | Con gratia, et 
priuilegio. | [Frinier^s mark] In Vinegia 
appresso Girolamo Scotto. | MDXXXXV. 

The first edition of Ludovico Domenichi's recasting. 

Doni, Anton Francesco, was bom at Florence 

about 1 5 13, and died at Monselice (Padua) in 1574. 
He lived a wandering life and gained a scanty sub- 
sistence by his writings, most of which were humor- 
ous or satirical. He had only a temporary vogue. 
At one time he opened a printing-office at Florence, 
but soon closed it on account of Torrentino's com- 

67 La Libraria Del | Doni Fiorentino, | Di- 

visa In Tre Trattati. | . . . Con Privilegio. | 

^Printer's mark] In Vinegia Appresso 

Gabriel | Giolito De' Ferrari. | M D LVIII. 

Octavo. Portraits. 

Many copies bear on the title-page the year Mdlvii. 
The Prima Libraria was published for the first time 
in 1550 (Venice, Giolito); and the Seconda in 1551 
(Venice, Marcolini). This edition embraces both, 
though the earlier editions each have something miss- 
ing in this. They form the first Italian biographical 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

Firenzuola, Agnolo, was born at Florence, 
September 28, 1493. Being destined for the profes- 
sion of the law, he pursued his studies first at Siena, 
and afterwards at Perugia, where he became the 
associate of Pietro Aretino. He left Rome, whither 
he had come to practice his profession, on the death 
of Pope Clement VII, and, after spending some time 
at Florence, settled at Prato as abbot of San Salvatore. 
He died before 1548. 

Firenzuola was the author of satirical poems, son- 
nets, prose essays, novels, and dramas. 

68 [Prose.] In Venetia Per Giouan. Griffio | 
Ad instantia di Pietro Boseli. | MDLII. 

Duodecimo. Four volumes in one. 

The Discacciamento delle nuove Lettere inutilmente 
aggiunte nelle lingua toscana, contained in this vol- 
ume, had been printed at Rome by Ludovico Vi- 
centino and Lautizio Perugino in 1524. Firenzuola, 
who wrote the pamphlet against Trissino's proposed 
introduction of new letters into the Italian alphabet, 
did much to make the scheme famous and ridiculous. 

69 Le Rime | Di M. Agnolo Firenzvola | 
Fiorentino. | \Printer'' s mark\\xiY'\QXt.m?,. | 
MDXLIX. — [Colophon)\xiY\ox&\izz. \ Ap- 
presso I Bernardo Givnti. | MDXLIX. 


The first edition. Firenzuola published only one 
work, the Discacciamento delle nuove Lettere, during 
his lifetime. After his death his brother Girolamo 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

collected his writings and gave them to Lorenzo 
Scala and Lodovico Domenichi to be edited. They 
were all published at Florence, between 1548 and 
1549, except the translation of Apuleius' Asino d^oro, 
which was printed at Venice by Giolito in 1550. 

70 I Lvcidi I Comedia | Di Messer Agnolo | 
Firenzvola Fio- | Rentino. | [Printer's 
mark] In Firenze | M.D.LI I. — {Colophon) 
In Firenze | Apresso I Giunti. | MDLII. 


Forteguerri, NicCOlb, who used the pseudo- 
nym CarteromaCO, was bom at Pistoia in 1674, 
and died in 1735. 

7 1 Ricciardetto | Di | Niccol6 Carteromaco. | 
In Parigi ( Venice) | A spese di Francesco 
Pitteri Libraio | Viniziano. | CIO IDCC 

Quarto. Portrait. Two volumes. 

First edition, containing passages which were subse- 
quently altered or suppressed. 

The origin of the poem was as follows : 
In 1 71 5 Forteguerri was spending the autumn in 
the country, where he amused his friends by reading 
the verses of Pulci, of Berni, and of Ariosto. One 
of the company expressed his admiration at the art 
with which these poets had overcome the difficulties 
of the ottava rima. Forteguerri maintained that the 
difficulty was imaginary, and engaged to produce, on 
the next evening, the first canto of a poem which 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

should imitate them all. He fulfilled his promise 
with such success that his friends persuaded him to 
continue the story. 

Fortunio, Francesco, was born in Dalmatia, 
and lived in Venice as a lawyer ; he was elected 
fotestd. of Ancona, where, during a revolution, he 
was cast out of a window of the palace and died. 

72 Regole Grammaticali | Delia Volgar 
Lingva. — {Colophon) Impresso in Ancona 
per Bernardin Vercellese nel anno. M.D. 
XVI. del I mese di settembre : Con la con- 
cessione nondimeno della lUustrissima Si- 
gnoria | di Venetiache per. X. anni nessuno 
sotto al suo dominio possa imprimerlo | ne 
altroue impresso uenderlo, sanza licentia 
deir auttore proprio. 

First edition ; the oldest printed Italian grammar. 

Apostolo Zeno, in his notes to Fontanini, cites 
fifteen editions. Although it is not useful to-day, it 
is worthy of consideration as the first book contain- 
ing grammatical rules cited from Dante, Petrarch, 
and Boccaccio. 

Galilei, Galileo, was bom at Pisa, February, 
1564, and died at Arcetri, near Florence, January 8, 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

73 Galilaei | Galilaei | Lyncei, Academiae | 
Pisanae Mathematici, | Seren"?' Magni- 
Dvcis Hetrvriae | Philosophi et Mathema- 
tici Primarij | Systema Cosmicvm: | Jn 
Qvo I Dialogis IV. de duobus maxi- 
mis Mundi Systematibus, | Ptolemaico & 
Copernicano, | Rationibus vtrinque pro- 
positis indefinite disseritur. | Accessit loco- 
rum S. Scripturae cum terrae mobilitate 
conciliatio. | Lvgdvni, Sumptibus loan. 
Antonii Hvgvetan, | via Mercatoria, ad 
insigne Sphaerae. ] M.DC.XLI. 

A Latin translation, by Matthaeus Berneggerus, of 
the original Italian work which was rigorously sup- 
pressed by order of the Inquisition. 

"Perhaps it is the best prose that Italy has ever 
had ; it is clear, goes straight to the point, is without 
rhetorical ornaments and without vulgar slips, artistic 
without appearing to be so." — Bartoli. 

Giraldi, Giovanni Battista, surnamed 

Cinthio, was bom at Ferrara in 1504. He was 
for many years professor of medicine and philosophy 
at the university of his native town, and afterwards of 
belles-lettres. Between 1542 and 1560 he acted as 
private secretary, first to Ercole II and afterwards to 
Alfonso II of Este ; but having become involved in 
a literary dispute which lost him the favor of his 
patron, he moved to Mondovi, where he remained as 
a teacher of literature until 1568. Subsequently he 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

occupied the chair of rhetoric at Pavia till 1573, when, 
in search of health, he returned to his native city, 
where he died December 30 of the same year. 

74 De GH I Hecatommithi | Di M. Giovan- 
battista | Gyraldi Cynthio | Nobile Fer- 
rarese. | Parte Prima [and Seconda\ \ 
^Printer's mark] Nel Monte Regale | Ap- 
presso Lionardo Torrentino | MDLXV. 
Octavo. Two volumes. 

The first edition. 

This copy bears the signature of Giraldi. The 
Hecatommithi are the most important of Giraldi's 
prose works. Somewhat in the manner of Boccaccio, 
they resemble still more closely the novels of Giral- 
di's contemporary Bandello. " They were heavy in 
style and prosaic ; yet their matter made them widely 
popular." They have a peculiar interest to students 
of English literature, as having furnished, directly or 
indirectly, the plots of Measure for Measure and 
Othello of Shakespeare. 

Grazzini, Antonfrancesco, was bom at 

Florence, March 22, 1503. In his youth he practised 
as an apothecary. He was one of the founders of 
the Accademia degli Umidi (Academy of the Humid), 
and he took a prominent part in the establishment of 
the famous Accademia della Crusca. In both acad- 
emies he was known as // Lasca (the Roach), and 
this pseudonym is frequently substituted for his 
proper name. He died February 18, 1584. Graz- 
zini ' ' was one of the chief promoters of the move- 


D E G L I 





ApprefTo Lionardo Torrendno 


B a 6. 6 » r CL ^ffC Lc ^ 

• c/ 



^ ; 





Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

ment for prescribing a standard of pure Tuscan 
prose." His style, though idiomatic, is copious, 
flexible, and without affectation. 

75 La Gverra | De Mostri | D'Antonfran- 
cesco Grazzini | Detto II Lasca. | Al 
Padre Stradino. | Con privilegio Di Tvtte 
L'Opere. | In Firenze, | Per Domenico 
Manzani, 1584. 


The first edition. 

An exceedingly rare work containing one canto of 
a Poema giocoso which was to have been followed by 
other cantos. 

Guarini, Giovan Battista, was born at Fer- 

rara, December 10, 1537, and died at Venice, October 
4, 1612. 

76 II I Pastor I Fido. | Tragicomedia Pas- 
torale. I Del MoltoIUvstre | Sig. Caualiere 
Battista Guarini. | . . . Con Privilegio. | 
In Venetia Appresso Gio. Battista Ciotti 

Quarto. Portrait. 

The Pastor Fido is a pastoral drama composed not 
without reminiscences of Tasso's Aminta. It met 
with brilliant success and was translated into the 
principal languages of Europe. 

"... The Italian reaction against the middle 
ages assumes a final shape of hitherto unapprehended 


CON LQ KE ETCOMOlofece Capitaniodetutala 
fuagente. .C. .C. VII. 

A poi tute qfle cofTe dete ordied? andare i Babildia 
d de lo Soldao e raduno.xl.milia de faracini de mFte 
parte e prima dapolifmagna da fenofi da tropoli e 
da polif berde lixola de cutia e uerifola cita cartif^ 
mandono quale a pic del monte libiciaprefo Alcairo. cento 
miglia feceua el Mefchino andare la gente molto in ponro 
in quarro Tchiere molto fe merauiaua el Re delbelo ordine.i 
duidiazonfenoauna cicadita monpiarmagnaprenb Al" 
Cairo a trc ziornate qui madono adire che andauano dal Sol 
dano E caualcono poi tre ziorrii & eflfendo apreffo alcairo a 
x.milia fcontrono cl Soldano con grande moltitudinc de ge 
te cfcnrcn do el Mefchino comoci Soldano era con grande 
a prefTo fu la campana fcfrezo molto de far andarc le gcrt te 
molto ordiateeintroinanzia tutalagentc&andointorno 
per uederc Ce alcuno ufiua fuora de la fua fchicra El Soldano 
con uinti cauali era de nanzi a tuta la fua gente e fermofi per 
uedcre e quanto li parucpiu bela gente che non folena per lo 
tempo pafTato folo j) lo andare ordinati c uenedo ucrfo loro 
fo dito al Mefchino quelo e lo foldano ando uerfo lui &C cfTe 
do armato a tute arme fe zito da caualo i cinochioni denazi 
al foldano. E lui lo fece montarc a caualo eremontato molto 
regratio cl foldano che lo hauea fato cauare de prcxoc.E lui 
fece chiamarcel Re Polifmagna diCCeli o nobele re fina qflo 
ziorno te o rcnuto el piu fauio Re degipto . ma hora no me 
pare quelo che.tute tieni conzofia che neli tuo iudicii te o tro 
uatodiferctoefcriueftiche nui de raxone iudicaflfemoda 
collui a padori e fcriuefli me no cognofTere li fati de queflo 
nobile caualiefo o che Hulricia e a non cognoferc lui no aucr 
ato de ladrone . E piu falafti a retinirlo in prexone ma li pa' 
(lori del befl-iamc qlucp c ncl magiore o uero megliore ladrdc 
e uolcofe al Mefchio.5C domadoio come lui hauea nome lui 

[ No. 77 ] 

tfd fiTdre ndfuo Hre rlcorio ccme egU etdtmito id TdUmoneyil ^«d?e ahi 
fiu frcfc Troid aI tmfo del forte Htrcole» Et cofi metted awmi U ferfofi 
tii mittyiS guuoft in Uogo iife^^ infuo mto pf r pwccre dlU genie , O 
fer hiuere huond cdufd, Et ({Uindo U cdufd e Uidi jper cdgione di maid coft 
douinmo not rectre ntl nohro pirUmmo unWrn cofd huotHf & fucewle ,]i 
comefeceCdtellimfcufAndofidelUcongiurdtionechefccein Rowi che free 
um giufii cofd per co^rire <{uelU red dicendo egluJS.fidtd mid n/ingi di ^ren 
jere d diutdrc li miferi mlkloro cdufe* 

^St<wip<rM mRowi in Cdmpo difiore p?r.M. VdUrio Dorico, 

«y luigi frdteHi Brefcidm^neWAnno, 

M. D. XLVr. 

[ No. 78 ] 

Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

loveliness in the Aminta [of Tasso] and the Pastor 
Fido. They complete and close the Renaissance, be- 
queathing in a new species of art its form and 
pressure to succeeding generations." — Symonds. 

Guerino il Meschino. 

77 Prohemium . . c.i. | Como lasciata di 
Borgogna funo segnori de puglia & del 
pri I . . , — (Ci?/<?/>^^;?) Loinfelice Guerino 
dito Meschino fiolo de dio Marte | de 
sangue Reale de Franzia Magnifico & | 
ualleroso (sic) Capitanio qui felicemente | 
lo libro suo fornito e in Padua | adi. xxi. 
de Aurile |.M.cccc.Lxxiii. | Bartholomeus 
de Valdezochio ciuis Patauus | Martinus 
de septem arboribus Prutenus. . F.F. 

The first edition ; only three or four copies are 

Gamba and other bibliographers ascribe this prose 
romance of chivalry to Andrea Fiorentino. 

Latin i, BrunettO, was bom at Florence in 1230, 
and died there in 1294. 

He was the teacher of Guido Cavalcanti, and of 
Dante, who speaks of him, in the fifteenth canto of 
the Inferno, in the following affectionate terms : 

" La buona e cara immagine patema 
Di voi, quando nel mondo ad ora ad ora 
M'insegnavate come I'uom s'eterna. " 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

His chief work was his encyclopaedia, one of the 
earliest attempts in the vulgar tongue, which strove 
to embrace the entire field of what was then known, 
and from which "Dante, in common with all his 
contemporaries, derived no small portion of his 

78 Retorica | Di Ser Brvnetto Latini | in vol- 
gar I fiorentino. — [Colophon) Stampata in 
Roma in Campo di Fiore per M. Valerio 
Dorico, I et Luigi Fratelli Brefciani, nell' 
Anno. I M.D.XLVL [Printer's mark] 


The first edition. 

This book contains the translation of a part of the 
first book of De Inventione, accompanied by a long 
commentary, which gives it the appearance of having 
been written by the commentator rather than by 

Lodovici, Francesco dei, a writer of Venice, 
of whose life nothing is known. 

79 Triomphi Di Carlo Di Messer | Francesco 
D'l Lodovici Vinitiano. | [JVoodcut]. — 
{Colophon) II fine della seconda parte, et 
di tutto esso libro, intitolato I Triomphi 
Di I Carlo, di Messer Francesco d'i Lo- 
douici Vinitiano, Stampato in Vinegia 
per I Mapheo Pasini et Francesco Bin- 
doni compagni al segno dell' angiolo Ra- 








Pont. Mass. 

H. D. L. 

[ No. 80 ] 

Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

phaello ap- | presso san Mois^ I'anno 
della nostra salute MDXXXV. del mese 
di Set- I tembre. . . . 

The first edition. 

Lodovici wrote another romance of chivalry entitled 
Antheo Gigante (Venice, Bindoni et Pasini, 1523), 
which tells of Charlemagne's adventures with the 
giant Ant^o. 

Machiavelli, Niccolb, was bom at Florence, 
May 3, 1469; he died June 22, 1527. 

\o [Complete Works.] {Geneva {?), by Pierre 
Aubert{?)) M.D.L. 

The first edition, called dalla Testina, because it 
bears on the title-page a small head of Machiavelli, 
printed for the first time in the Discorsi, at Venice, 
by Comino da Trino, 1540. 

\\ Discorsi Di Nicol6 Machia- | Velli, Fi- 
rentino, Sopra | La Prima Deca Di | Tito 
Livio, I Nuouamente corretti, et con som- 
ma I diligenza ristampati. | \Aldus'' device\ 
U.'D. XL.— {Colophon) In Vinegia, Nell' 
Anno M.D. | XL. In Casa De' Figlivo- | 
Li Di Aldo. 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

The first edition printed by Aldus. It is a reprint 
of a little known edition, made at Venice, by Giov. 
Antonio di Nicolini e Fratelli da Sabbio, in 1532. 

"Cast in the form of comments on the history of 
Livy, the Discorsi are really an inquiry into the 
genesis and maintenances of states. ..." 

Malespini, Ricordano, of the noble family 
of Malespini, was the earliest writer of Florentine 
history. He died in 1 281. 

B2 Historia | Antica Di | Ricordano Male- 
spini I Gentir huomo Fiorentino | Dall' 
edificazione di Fiorenza per insino | all' 
anno M.CCLXXXI. | Con I'aggiunta di | 
Giachetto Svo Nipote | Dal detto anno 
per insino al | 1286. | Nvovamente Posta 
in Lvce. | Con Licenza de Superiori. | 
[Printer's mark] In Fiorenza | Nella stam- 
peria de i Giunti | M.D.LXVIII. | Con 

The first edition. 

The nephew, who continued the chronicle from 
Ricordano's death to the year 1286, was Giachetto 
di Francesco Malespini. Giovanni Villani copied 
freely from Malespini' s work without making recog- 
nition of his indebtedness. 

Medici, Lorenzo de', called // Magnifico, 

was born about 1449, and died April 8, 1492. 






chc fu padre di Papa Leone : 

Col commento dtl medepmo fSfrd dlcuni defnoifoncttu 

Con frmlegio del ?onttfice J ^delld signoriddi 
\megid J fer dnni X X . 


f No. 83 

Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

83 Poesie Volgari, | Nvovamente Stampate, 
Di Lorenzo De' Medici, | che fu padre di 
Papa Leone : | Col commento del mede- 
simo sopra alcuni de' suoi sonetti. — [Colo- 
phon) In Vinegia, | In Casa De' Figlivoli | 
Di Aldo, M.D.LIIII. 


The first edition. 

Novelle Antiche, Cento. 

84 Libro Di | Novelle, Et Di Bel | Parlar 
Gentile. | Nel quale si contengono Cento 
Nouelle altrauolta | mandate fuori da 
Messer Carlo | Gualteruzzi da Fano. | 
Di Nuouo Ricorrette. | Con aggiunta di 
quattro altre nel fine. | Et con vna dichia- 
ratione d'alcune delle voci piu antiche. | 
Con Licenza, Et Privilegio. | [IHnter's 
mark] In Fiorenza. | Nella Stamperia de 
i Giunti. | M D LXXII. 


The first edition was printed at Bologna by Benedetti, 
1525, and was published by Gualteruzzi with Bembo's 

This is one of the earliest books written in the 
Italian language. According to Federigo Ubal- 
dini and Magliabecchi, the author of some of the 
tales was Francesco da Barberino. 

These cento novelle are considered testi di lingua, 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

and were the foundation of some of the most beauti- 
ful tales of succeeding writers, including Chaucer 
and other early English poets. 

Palmieri, MatteO, was bom at Florence about 
1405. He was appointed to several public offices, 
among them the supreme office of Gonfaloniere di 
Giustizia. He died in 1475. His works are written 
chiefly in prose, and comprise a general chronicle 
from the creation of the world to his time, a life of 
Niccol6 Acciaioli, the book De captivitate Pisarum, 
the annals of the Florentines (1432-74), and a history 
of the translation of the body of St. Barbara. He 
wrote also a poem in terza rima, in imitation of 
Dante, entitled Citta di Vita, which was praised by 
Marsilio Ficino. 

85 Libro Delia Vita Ci- | Vile Composta Da | 
Mattheo Palmieri | Cittadino Fiorentino. | 
\IVinter's mark\ — {^Colophon) In Firenze 
per li heredi di Philippe | di Giunta ne 
I'anno del Signore | M.D.XXIX. alii 5. 
di I Settembre. 

The first edition. 

Pescatore, Giovanni Battista, wasbornat 

Ravenna, and died in 1558. He wrote other works, 
which are : Vendetta di Ruggiero (Venice, Comin da 
Trino, I55^)i ^^'i ^ comedy, Nina (Venice, Comin 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

da Trino, 1558). The Morte di Ruggiero and the 
Vendetta di Ruggiero are a continuation of Orlando 

86 La Morte Di Rvg- | Giero Continvata 
Alia Ma- | teria de I'Ariosto, con ogni 
riuscimento di | tutte I'imprese generose 
da lui pro- | poste, e non fornite. | Ag- 
giontovi Molti Bellis- | simi successi, che 
a I'alto apparecchio di quel | diuino Poeta 
seguir debbono. | Con Le AUegorie Ad 
Ogni I canto, che possono leuare I'intel- 
letto a I comprendere gli effetti de la | 
virtu, e del vitio. | Per Giovambattista | 
pescatore da Rauennanoua- | mentecom- 
posta. I Con Privilegio. | [Printer's mark] 
In Venetia | Per Pauolo Gherardo. | 
M D XL.YIU.— {ColoJ>/ion) In Vinetia 
per Comin da Trino | di Monferrato 
L'anno. | M.D.XLVIII. 


Petrarca, Francesco, was bom at Arezzo, 

July 20, 1304, and died at Arqua, July 18, 1374. 

He was "eminent in the history of literature both 
as one of the four classical Italian poets, and also as 
the first true reviver of learning in mediaeval Europe." 


87 [Sonetti, Canzoni e Trionfi.] Tabula 
Francisci petrarce. — {At the end) Finis. 



Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

Manuscript on vellum, written in Italy during the 
XVth century. 

88 [Sonetti, Canzoni e Trionfi.] {Colophon) 
Francisci petrarcae laureati poetae | nec- 
non secretarii apostolici | benemeriti. 
Rerum | uulgarium fragmen- | ta ex ori- 
ginali | libro extracta | In urbe pa | 
tauina li | ber abso | lutus est | foe- 
lici I ten | Bar. de Valde. patauus. F.F. | 
Martinus de septem arboribus Prutenus. | 
M.CCCC.LXXII. I Die .VI. No | ven | 
birs. {Sic) 


The third edition. One of the few copies which have 
the first page in capital letters. 

The peculiar interest of this edition is that it was 
printed from Petrarch's autograph manuscript, and 
that the account of Laura, which faces the first page 
of the Sonnets, was here published for the first time. 

89 [Trionfi.] 

I I MIEI. SO I SPIRI. I perladolceme- 
moria di quel giomo | . . . 

A manuscript, on vellum, of the second half of the 
XVth century. The first page is embellished with 
an illuminated capital letter and border. 


F elice ftfJo^cM hel uilo ferrd : 
che foi chdUra.ri^efo ilfuo bel utloi 
Sefu heato^chi U ttide in terrd\ 

K or che fia dwt(jue a rituderU in cielo ? 

tmpreljo in ^ine^a mile atfe Jtf>.Uo Romano, 

ml anno -MDl -del mefe di LugUo, et tolto con 

fommifjima diliffn'^d dallo fcritto di ntano me 

defitna del VoetdJjdUHto da M'Pieronemho 

Con Id Ofncefjtom delldlllujirifftma, ft 

gnorid nofha , che per 'X' dnni 

mfftno f>o(Jd /iampdre il 

Petrarchd fotto le 

pern, che in lei 

ft conten 


[ No. 91 ] 

Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

ET PRIMO DE AMORE. ] [A minia- 
ture representing Petrarch, seated in a field, 
reading a book.\ [N]E1 tempo che rinoua 
i mei suspiri | . . . 


A manuscript, on vellum, of the second half of the 
XV th century. 

91 Le Cose Volgari | Di Messer | Francesco 
Petrarca. — {Colophon) Impresso in Vinegia 
nelle case d' Aldo Romano, | nel anno. 
MDI. del mese di Luglio, et tolto con | 
sommissima diligenza dallo scritto di mano 
me I desima del Poeta, hauuto da M. 
Piero Bembo | Con la concessione della 
Illustrissima Si | gnoria nostra, che per. x. 
anni | nessuno possa stampare il | Pe- 
trarcha sotto le | pene, che in lei | si con- 
ten I gono. 


This is the famous edition printed from the auto- 
graph manuscript of the author, which Bembo gave 
to Aldus. It was the first Italian book from the 
Aldine press, and shows the results of experiments 
made by Aldus to reduce the size of printing types. 
"Legend says that the new letters were copied 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

■ exactly from the handwriting of Petrarch, inclining 
like all cursive writing ; the name Italic was given 
to this character, which was also called Aldine, from 
its inventor." 

92 Librorum Francisci Petrarchae Basileae | 
Impressorum Annotatio. | . . . — ( Colophon) 
Explicit Liber Augustalis : Beneuenuti de 
Rambaldis cum pluribus alijs opusculis | 
Francisci Petrarchae. Impressis Basileae 
per Magistrum Johannem de Amerbach : 
Anno I salutiferi uirginalis partus : Nona- 
gesimosexto supra miilesimum quaterque 
centesimum. — {Following) Principalium 
sententiarum ex libris Francisci | Pe- 
trarchae collectarum summaria Annotatio. 

93 [De remediis utriusque fortunae] [c]Vm 
res fortunasque hominum cogito incertos 
et subitos | rerum motus . . . — {At the 
end) Explicit liber iste de remedys | vtri- 
usque fortune domini francisci | petrarche 
laureati poete, etc. 

The first edition, probably printed at Strasburg in 
1472-73, by H. Eggesteyn. 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

PicCOlomini, AleSSandrO, was born at Siena 
in 1508. He was professor of ethics in the acad- 
emy of Infiammati at Padua, and afterwards was 
appointed archbishop of Patras. He died in 1578- 
Piccolomini wrote several works, among which are 
Rime, comedies, a dialogue entitled Raffaella, Dia- 
logo delta bella creanza delle donne, the Sfera del 
tnondo, a paraphrase on the Mechanics of Aristotle, a 
translation of the sixth book of the ^neid and one 
of Ovid's Metamorphoses. 

94 De La Institvtione | Di Tvtta La Vita 
De L'Homo | Nato Nobile | E In 
Citt^ Libera. | Libri X. In Lingva To- 
scana. | . . . Composti dal S. | Alessandro 
Piccolomini • . . | Con Pri- [Jointer's 
mark] vilegio. | Venetijs apud Hierony- 
mum Scotum. | M D XLII. 


The first edition. 

Piccolomini in this work cites Plato and Aristotle 
on the education of gentlemen born in a free city. 

Pico della Mirandola, Giovanni, was 

born at Mirandola in 1463 ; he died at Florence in 
1494. His works were all published by his nephew, 
Giov. Francesco Pico. 

95 loannis Pici Mirandulae omnia opera, | 
. . . ^Printer's mark] — {Colophon) Dispu- 
tationes loannis Pici Nirandulae (sic) 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

literarum | principis aduersus astrologiam 
diuinatri- | cem quibus penitus subneruata 
coiTU- I it Parisijs loannis parui Impen- | 
sa fideliter & Impresse & elima | te. Anno 
salutis Millesimo | quingentesimo decimo | 
septimo die nona | Mensis lunij. 

Poliziano, Angelo Ambrogini, known in 

literary annals as Angelo Poliziano or Politianus 
from his birthplace, was born at Montepulciano in 
1454. His genius was early manifested, and Lorenzo 
de' Medici took him into his house, made him the 
tutor of his children, and gave him a distinguished 
post in the University of Florence. He died in 1494. 

96 Stanze Di | Messer Angelo Politiano | Co- 
minciate per la gio | stra del Magnifico | 
Giuliano di Pie- ( ro de Medici. — {Colo- 
phon) Impresso in Bologna per Hieronymo 
di Be I nedetti. Nellanno del Signore. 

These famous Stanze which were written by Poli- 
ziano at the age of fourteen, are considered amongst 
the most graceful Italy has produced. The Orfeo, 
recited at Mantua probably in 1472, is called the 
earliest example of Italian tragedy. 

Pulci, Bernardo, a brother of Luigi Pulci, 
flourished about the end of the XVth century. 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

97 [Passione, Resurrezione, Vendetta and 
Giudizio di Cristo.] 

A manuscript, on paper, of the XVth century. 

The Passione and Resurrezione were printed at 
Florence about the end of the XVth century. The 
Vendetta and Giudizio were written by Monna An- 
tonia, the wife of Bernardo, and were printed for the 
first time at Florence in 1491. 

Pulci, Luigi, the intimate friend and confidential 
agent of Lorenzo de' Medici, was bom at Florence, 
December 3, 1432, and died in 1487. 

98 Morgan te | Maggiore Di | Lvigi Pvlci Fi- 
rentino, j • • • | InVenetia | PerCominde 
Trinodil Monf errato, I'anno | M.D.XLVI. 

The date 1545 appears at the end of the book, which 
would make it seem probable that the work was pub- 
lished at that time, and, some copies remaining unsold, 
a new title-page added the next year. 

The Morgante Maggiore has been called the "first 
really great modern example of burlesque poetry." 
There are traces of its influence in almost every 

Redi, Francesco, physician and naturalist, was 
born at Arezzo in 1626, and died at Pisa in 1698. 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

99 Bacco | In | Toscana. | Ditirambo | Di | 
Francesco Redi | Accademico Delia 
Crvsca | Con Le | Annotazioni. | In 
Firenze, MDCLXXXV. | Per Piero Ma- 
tini air Insegna del Lion d'Oro. | Con 
licenza de' Superior!. 

The first edition. 

Rime di diversi antichi Autori. 

I GO Rime Di Diversi | Antichi Avtori | Tos- 
cani In Die | Ci Libri Rac | Colte. | Di 
Dante Alaghieri Lib. IIII | Di M. Cino 
da Pistoia Libro I | Di Guido Caualcanti 
Libro I I Di Dante da Maiano Libro I | 
Di Fra Guittone d'Arezzo Lib. I | Di 
diuerse Canzoni e Sonetti senza | nome 
d'autore Libro I. — {Colophon) Stampata 
in Vinegia per lo. Antonio e Fratelli da 
Sabio. Nell' anno del Signore MDXXX- 


Colophon of this copy missing ; supplied from B. 
Gamba, Serie dei Testi di Lingua 1839, No. 800. 

This collection contains, among others, the works of 
Cino da Pistoia, "a jurist of encyclopasdic erudition, 
as well as a sweet and fluent singer. ... In [him] 
the artistic sense of the Italians awoke " ; of Guido 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

Cavalcanti, "the leader of the group which culmi- 
nates in Dante " ; of Dante da Maiano and Fra Guit- 
tone of Arezzo, who "attempted more than he was 
able to fulfil. But his attempt, when judged by the 
conditions of his epoch, deserves to rank among 

Rosa, Salvatore, a renowned painter of the 
Neapolitan school, was born in Arenella in 1615; he 
died March 15, 1673. 

1 01 Satire | Di | Salvator Rosa | Dedicate | 
A Settano. | Con Le Note ] D'Anton 
Maria Salvini | Ora Per La Prima Vol- 
ta I Date Alia Luce. | In Bema | 

The first edition with Salvini's notes. It is unknown 
to bibliographers. 

Sannazaro, JacopO, was bom at Naples in 
1458. He studied under Pontano, when, according 
to the fashion of the time, he assumed the name of 
Actius Syncerus. He was patronized by Frederick 
in, King of Naples ; and when his patron was com- 
pelled to take refuge in France he accompanied him, 
and did not return to Italy till after Frederick's death 
(1504). Sannazaro spent the later years of his life at 
Naples, where he died April 27, 1530. 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

1 02 Arcadia Del Sannazaro. — {Colophon) Im- 
presso in Florentia per Philippo di Giunta 
I nel. M.D.XIII. di Marzo. Leo | ne de- 
cimo Pontefice. 


The Arcadia, in which, in alternate prose and verse, 
the scenes and occupations of pastoral life are de- 
scribed, was the work which gave Sannazaro his 
greatest fame ; it was so esteemed that in the XVIth 
century over sixty editions of it were published. 

Sarpi, Paolo, in the order of the Servi di Maria, 
Fra Paolo, was born at Venice, August 14, 1552, and 
died there, January 15, 1623. His most celebrated 
work is the Storia del Concilio di Trento, published 
for the first time at London, in 16 19, under the name 
of Pietro Soave Polano. In his writings, Fra Paolo 
attacked the infallibility of the Pope and condemned 
his usurpations of temporal power. 

103 Historia | della Sacra | Inqvisitione. | 
Composta Gia Dal R.P. | Paolo Ser- 

, vita : . . . I Jn Serravalle, | Appresso Fa- 
bio Albicocco. I M.DC.XXXVIII. 

The first edition. 

A dispute between the Venetian government and 
the Inquisition led Sarpi to write this book. 

"As an advocate, Sarpi is far superior to . . . 
[Pallavicino] ; as an historian, Ranke places him 
immediately after Machiavelli. As a man, he ap- 




uerendo Padre Fra Girolamo Sauonarola da Fcrrara, 

dcll'ordinc dc Frati predicatori , fbpra il Saltno 

Q. V A M BO N VS Ifrael Deus, Predicate 

in Eirenze, in fanta Maria del Fiore in uno 

Adueto, neKM» C C C C X C 1 1 1, dal mc.# 

demo poi in latina I^ua raccoItetEtda 

Fra Girolamo Giannotti da Pifloia 

in lingua uolgare tradotte: Ec da 

mold eccellencifiimi buomini 

diligentemente riui(le 0^ 

emendatetdC in lin 

gua Tofcha 



[ No. 104 ] 

Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

pears sublimed by study and suffering into an incar- 
nation of pure intellect, passionless, except in his zeal 
for truth and freedom and his devotion to the Repub- 
lic. " — Garnett. 

Savonarola, GirolamO, was bom at Ferrara, 
September 21, 1452, and was executed at Florence, 
May 23, 1498. 

104 Prediche Nvova- | Mente Venvte In Lvce, 
Del Re | uerendo Padre Fra Girolarao 
Sauonarola da Ferrara, | dell' ordine de 
Frati predicatori, sopra il Salmo Qvam 
Bonvs Israel Deus, Predicate | in Firenze, 
in santa Maria del Fiore in uno | Aduento, 
nel. M.CCCCXCIII. dal me- | demo {sic) 
poi in latina lingua raccolte : Et da | Fra 
Girolamo Giannotti da Pistoia | in lingua 
uolgare tradotte : Et da | molti eccellen- 
tissimi huomini | diligentemente riuiste & | 
emendate: & in lin | gua Toscha | im- 
presse. | [Woodcut] — {Colophon) Stampata 
in Vinegia per Agostino de Zanni | Nel 
mese di Giugno del. M.D.XXVIII. 


The first edition. 

These sermons, although written in Latin, were 
published only in Italian. 

105 [Expositio orationis dominicae] Frater 
Hieronymvs Savonaro- | La Ferrariensis 


fattcac/lapcrfcuefanza/etmoltf/o; iiifto in quefta comu 
nione comindare bene/et poi fanno lafciati inriepidire : 
laqual cofa e/ molto pericolofatet pero bifogna gran co 
ftantia danimo maxime perche el noftro aduerfario noa 
dorme/elqualefadiquato fructo e/frcquentare bene tan 
to facrameto/etpero exdra molte perfecutionea chifpet 
fo ficommunica c6 dmonone / et mold exdcacheAfati 
no beffe diloro/et c6 pfuaf lone diuerfe gli f uiano. Stare 
aduncheconftand ad feniare niece quefte cofe ifmo alia 
morte/et non dace oreccbi alle lingue fanza fpmco* 

F I N I T A 

E/qucftadeuoca etunle cxpofirionederparcr noftro 
compofta dafraHicronyroodaferraradellor 
di'nedefrad predi'caton.Ecunabella 
epiftola della comunione 
auna deuoca donna 
In Rrenze 
Antonio Mifcbomini 

[ No. io6 ] 

Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

Ordinis Praedi | Catorvm Philippe Va- 
lorio I S.D. — [At the end) Finiis {sic). \ 
Deo Gratias. 

The original edition of an Exposition on the Lord's 
Prayer. Printed at Florence, about 1492. 

106 Prohemio sopra la expositione del Pater 
noster com | posta in latino da fra Hiero- 
nymo da Ferrara Del | lordine de frati 
predicatori : & traducta in uulgare. — [Colo- 
phon) Finita | E questa deuota et utile ex- 
positione del pater nostro | composta da 
fra Hieronymo da ferrara dellor | dine de 
frati predicatori. Et una bella epistola 
della comunione | auna deuota donna | 
Bolognese | Impressa | In Firenze | per 
Maestro | Antonio Mischomini | Anno. 


The first Italian edition. 

107 Opera Singolare Del Re- | uerendo Padre 
F. Hieronimo Sauonarola | contro L'a- 
strologia diuinatrice in cor- | roboratione 
delle refutatione | astrologiche del. S. 
conte I loan. Pico de la | Mirandola. | 
Con alcune cose dil medemo {sic) di nuouo 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

aggionte. | [IHnter's mark] In Vinegia 
WDXXXVl.— {Colophon) In Uinegia per 
M. Bernardino | Stagnino M.D.XXXVI. 

The original edition was written in Latin, and printed 
at Florence, at the end of the XVth century. 

This treatise against astrology was written by Fra 
Girolamo to corroborate the theories of Pico della 
Mirandola's Disputationes adversus Astrologos. 

Spagna, La. 

1 08 Libro I Chiamato | La Spagna. | Qval 
Tratta Li Gran Fatti, Et | le mirabili bat- 
taglie che fece il Magnanimo Re Carlo | 
Magno, nelle parti della Spagna. | Noua- 
mente stampato, etcon diligentia ricorretto. 
[Woodcut]. — (Colophon) In Venetia. | Ap- 
presso Pietro Donato 1530. 

The first edition was printed without the printer's 
name, the place of publication, or date, but before 

Some writers ascribe this poem of chivalry to 
Cristoforo Altissimo, but it was written in the 
XlVth century, and its author, according to the last 
stanza, was Sostegno di Zanobi of Florence: 

"A voi signori ho rimato tutto questo 
Sostegno di Zenobi di Fiorenza." 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

Stampa, Gaspara, was born at Pandua about 
1523 or 1524 and died about 1554. Sansovino called 
her " nobilissima " and " valorosissima," and he 
dedicated to her the Ameto of Boccaccio, the Lezione 
sopra il Sonetto del Casa contro alia Gelosia of Varchi, 
published by him, and his Ragionamento intomo 
alia beWarte d'Amore. Ortensio Lando calls her 
"gran Poetessa" and " Musica eccellente " for her 
ability in singing and playing the lute and the viol. 

109 Rime | Di Madonna | Gaspara Stampa; | 
Con Alcune Altre | Di Collaltino, E Di 
Vinciguerra | Conti Di Collalto : E Di 
Baldassare Stampa. | Giuntovi diversi 
componimenti di varj Autori | in lode 
dela medesima. | In Venezia. | MDCC- 
XXXVIII. I Appresso Francesco Pia- 
centini. | Con Licenza de' Superiori, e 

TaSSO, Bernardo, was born at Bergamo, No- 
vember II, 1493; he died at Mantua, September 4, 

no L'Amadigi Del | S. Bernardo | Tasso. | A 
L'Invittissimo, E | Catolico Re Filippo. | 
Con Privilegi. | [Giolito's device] In Vine- 
gia I Appresso Gabriel Giolito | De' Fer- 
rari. I M D LX. 
Royal quarto. 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

The first edition. 

This copy bears on the title-page the autograph of 
Ascanio Centorio. 

TaSSO, TorquatO, was bom at Sorrento, March 
II, 1544, and died at Rome, April 25, 1595. 

HI Giervsalemme | Liberata, | Poema Hero- 
ico del Signer Torquato | Tasso. | Al 
Serenissimo Signore ; il Signer Donno | 
Alfonso II. d'Este | Dvca Di Ferrara,&c. | 
. . . — (Colophon) InFerrara | Appressogli 
Heredi di Francesco de' Rossi. | 1581. 

The publisher, Febo Bonni, in the dedication, claims 
to have transcribed the original manuscript corrected 
by Tasso himself. 

" When all has been said that can be said, the 
Jerusalem Delivered remains a very great poem, the 
greatest of all the artificial epics after the ^neid and 
Paradise Lost (for Ariosto's poem, so frequently par- 
alleled with it, is not an epic at all)." — Garnett. 

112 Rime | del Signer | Torqvato | Tasso. | 

Parte Prima. | Insieme con altri componi- 

menti | del medesimo. | Con Privilegio. | 

{Aldus' device] In Vinegia, M D LXXXI. 





L 1 B E R A T A , 

Poema Herosco del Stgnor Torquato 
T ^ s s 0, 

Al Screnifsimo Signore j il Signer Donno 



Tratta Hal vcro Originale , con aggiunta tli quanro tnanca 

ncH'altre £dicdoni,con I'Allcgoria tlello fteflb Aucorc 

Et con gJi Argbmenti 4 cmcua C4:no 4el S..Horaciu . 

A R I O S T I, 

Con TriuUegh di Sua Satitita ; delle Maeft4 Chriflianijjima ; 

£f Catoiica : deUa Sertmfinna Sigvoria dt f^inetia : 

Del Serenijiitno Sig. Dv c a </< Ferrara ; 

©^ d'altriTrincipi . 

fn Ferrara I f 8 1 . 

[No. Ill ] 

Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

Some of Tasso's poems had been printed in collec- 
tions of poetry before Aldus printed this edition. 

113 Di I Gervsalemme | Conqvistata | Del 
Sig.TorqvatoTasso | LibriXXIV. | No — 
vellamente Ristampati: | Con Gli Argo- 
menti A Ciascvn Libro | Del Signer Gio. 
Battista Massarengo ; [ ... \Printer''s 
mark] In Pavia. M.D.XCIV. ] Appresso 
Andrea Viano, Con licenza de' Supe- 
riori. I Ad istanzadi Antonio degliAntonij. 


The second edition. 

Three years before his death Tasso wrote this revised 
v&rsiorx oi the Gerusalemme Liberata : "... all that 
made the poem of his early manhood charming he 
rigidly erased." — Symonds. 

114 II Re I Torrismondo | Tragedia | DelSig. 
Torqvato | Tasso. | Al Sereniss°?° Sig"".® | 
Don Vincenzo Gonzaga | Duca di Man- 
toua, & di Monferrato, &c. | \Printer's 
mark] In Bergamo, MDLXXXVII. | Per 
Comino Ventura, et Compagni. 


The first edition. 

TaSSOni, Alessandro, was bom at Modena in 
1565. He was secretary to Cardinal Ascanio Co- 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

lonna, and was employed in several diplomatic mis- 
sions. He died in 1635. 

115 La I Secchia Rapita | Poema Eroicomico | 
Di I Alessandro Tassoni | Tomo primo 
[and Secondo\ \ In Parigi | Appresso Lo- 
renzo Prault I e Pietro Dnrand | M. DCC. 

Octavo. Two volumes. 

The Secchia Rapita, or the Rape of the Bucket, is the 
best-known literary work of Tassoni ; it tells of a 
raid of the Modenese upon the people of Bologna in 
1325, when a bucket was carried off as a trophy. 

Trissino, Giovan Giorgio, poet and scholar, 

was born at Vicenza, July 8, 1478, and died in 
December, 1550. 

"The most just title to fame possessed by Tris- 
sino is founded on his ' Sof onisba, ' which may be 
considered as the first regular tragedy since the re- 
vival of letters." — Sismondi. 

116 TO ZHTOYMENON | La | Italia Libe- 
rata | Da Gotthi | Del Trissinw. | Stam- 
pata in Rwma per Valeriw | e Luigi Do- 
rici I A petiziojne di | Antoniw Macrw 
Vicentinw | MDXLVII. | di Maggico | 
Cwn Priuilegio) di N.S. | Papa Paulw III. 
£t di altri | Pwtentati. | AAATON.— 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

{Colophon) Stampata in Venezia per Twlo- 
mew laniculw da | Bressa Ne I'annw 
MDXLVIII. I di fittwbre. 
Octavo. Three volumes. 

The first edition, printed in what is called Trissino 
type, in which the long o and short e are expressed 
by the Greek w and e. The colophon, Venezia, T. 
Janiculo, 1J48, is only at the end of the second and 
third volumes. 

"It has some literary interest as the first attempt 
to write Italian epic poetry in blank verse, but its 
great misfortune is to be in verse of any kind." — 

117 La Grammatichetta | Di M. Giwvan 
Giorgio) | Trissinw. [I^inter's mark], — 
{Colophon) Stampata in Vicenza per 
Twlwmew laniculw | Nel MDXXIX. | Di 
Giugnw. I Cwn la prwhibitiwne di Nostrw 
Signwre Papa | Clemente, che nessun' 
altrcj possa stampar | questa opera, swttw 
la pena, che | nel Brieve, e ne I'altre | 
gratie si cwntiene. 

The first edition. 

Valla, Lorenzo, was bom at Rome about 1406 
or 1407; he died at Naples in 1457. 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

8 Lavrentii | Vallae Elegantiarvm | Libri 
Sex. I Eivsdem | De Reciprocatione Svi, 
Et Svvs I libellus plurimum utilis . . . | 
[Aldus' device] M.T>.XXXYl.— {Colophon) 
Venetiis, in Aedibvs Haere | Dvm Aldi, 
Et Andreae | Asvlani Soceri; | M.D. 

By this work, which gave to him his highest reputa- 
tion, Valla subjected the forms of Latin grammar 
and the rules of Latin rhetoric to critical investiga- 
tion. He placed the practice of composition upon a 
foundation of analysis and inductive reasoning. 

Varchi, Benedetto, was born at Florence in 
1502 and died there in 1565. 

119 L'Hercolano | Dialogo Di Messer | Bene- 
detto Varchi, | nel qual si ragiona gene- 
ralmente delle lingue, et in | particolare 
della Toscana, e della | Fiorentina | . • • 
[IHnter's mark] In Fiorenza, | Nella 
stamperia di Filippo Giunti, | e Fratelli, 

The first edition. 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

1 20 Storia I Fiorentina | Di Messer | Bene- 
detto Varchi. | ... In Colonia {Augusta) 
MDCCXXI I Appresso Pietro Martello. 


First edition, edited by Francesco Settimanni of 

This work includes the period of Florentine his- 
tory between the years 1527 and 1538. 

121 Lezzioni Di | Benedetto | Varchi | Ac- 
cademico Fiorentino, | . . . | \Printer's 
mark] In Fiorenza, | Per Filippo Givnti, 
I MDXC. I Con Licenza de' Superiori, et 


The first complete edition. 

Vasari, Giorgio, a celebrated painter and archi- 
tect, was born at Arezzo, July 30, 1 5 1 1 ; he died at 
Florence, June 27, 1574. 

2 Delle Vite | De' piii Eccellenti | Pittori, 
Scvltori, I Et Architetti. | Di Giorgio 
Vasari | Pittore, & Architetto, Aretino | 
III). I Per gli Eredi di Euangelista Dozza. 
Con licenza de' Superiori. 
Quarto. Three volumes. 


Original and Early Editions of Italian Books 

Villani, Giovanni, was bom at Florence, where 
he died of the plague in 1348. 

"... Taken as a whole, he may be regarded as 
the greatest chronicler who has written in Italian." — 

123 Croniche Di Messer | Giovanni Villani 
Cittadino Fioren | tino. . . . | [ Woodcut\ 
Hassi nel priuilegio, & nella gratia ottenuta 
dalla lUustrissima Signoria . . . — {Colo- 
phon) Finiscono le Croniche di messer 
Giouan Villani Cittadino Fiorenti- | no. 
Stampate in Vinetia per Bartholomeo 
Zanetti Casterza- | gense. Nel anno della 
incarnatione del Signore. | M.D. XXXVII. 
del mese d'Agosto. 

The first edition, published by Giacomo Fasolo. It 
contains only the first ten books ; the eleventh and 
twelfth were printed for the first time at Florence by 
L. Torrentino in 1554. The work was continued by 
Giovanni's brother, Matteo, and his nephew, Filippo, 
to 1368. 



pii I "■p