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University of California Berkeley 



University of California General Library/Berkeley 

Regional Cultural History Project 

Harold C. Bryant 

Newton B. Drury 


An Interview Conducted by 
Amelia R. Fry 


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Harold C. Bryant, Assistant Director of National 
Park Service in charge of Branch of Research and 
Education, 1930-1939, Washington, D.C. 

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All uses of this manuscript are covered by an agreement 
between the Regents of the University of California and 
Harold C. Bryant and Newton Bishop Drury, dated 
February 10, 1964. The manuscript is thereby made 
available for research purposes. All literary rights 
in the manuscript, including the right to publish, are 
reserved to the General Library of the University of 
California at Berkeley. No part of the manuscript may 
be quoted for publication without the written permission 
of the University Librarian of the University of 
California at Berkeley. 

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One day in 1964, during a series of interviews 
which were being tape recorded with conservationist 
Newton B. Drury, he suggested that perhaps in the next 
taping session we should include his longtime friend, 
Harold C. Bryant, an early pioneer in nature interpre 
tation in the national parks. At that time we were 
about to finish Mr. Drury 's account of his days as 
Director of the National Park Service, and it was easy 
to see that an account of the development of the natu 
ralist program would make a significant addition to our 
attempt to preserve the memories of those formative 
years of the service. 

Dr, Bryant not only had undertaken the first 
"vacationist education" service (at Yosemite for 
Stephen Mather) but, by force of logical progression, 
was called to Washington by Director Horace Albright 
to organize interpretation programs and personnel for 
the entire national park system. Those were times when 


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the growth of the naturalist program if there were to 
be one at all required someone with thorough training 
in biology and the ingenuity to apply this knowledge to 
a situation unique at that time: the education of 
tourists on the wing, a random type of student body 
with a range of intellect and background as broad as 
the world's population. Mr. Bryant was the man on the 
spot at that time with the talent, training, and imag 
ination for just such a challenge. 

In this interview, held in the recording laboratory 
in Dwinelle Hall on the University of California campus, 
Dr. Bryant answered questions from Mr. Drury and myself, 
with occasional dialogues developing between him and 
Mr. Drury over such perennial uncertainties as the 
relative merits of the factual versus the inspirational 
approach. Mr. Drury also contributed his own comments 
and anecdotes during the process of the interview. 
Basically, however, the story unrolled to show how the 
idea of naturalist programs developed, where the earliest 
support was found, and what happened when, with fortunate 
timing, Dr. Bryant opened the Division of Education and 
Research in the National Park Service in Washington just 




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before the New Deal came in with increased funds for 
all park operations, including interpretation. 

Both Newton Drury and Harold Bryant checked over 
the manuscript for errors after it was transcribed. 
The only changes made from the original were those for 
clarification or more chronological development in the 
story. A sample of the tape is on file in the Regional 
Cultural History Project office. 

This manuscript, produced by the Regional Cultural 
History Project, is one of several produced with Newton 
Drury about national parks. They form a part of a series 
on conservation which includes interviews with national 
park personnel, foresters, and other specialists in the 
field, all of which are available in the Bancroft Library 
of the University of California. 

The Regional Cultural History Project records auto 
biographies which will preserve for posterity eyewitness 
accounts of historical events during the twentieth cen 
tury. The Project is under the administrative super 
vision of Mr. Julian G. Michel, Assistant University 
Librarian, and the Bancroft Subcommittee of the Library 

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Committee of the Academic Senate at Berkeley. 

Amelia Roberts Fry, Interviewer 
Regional Cultural History Project 

17 February 1965 

Regional Cultural History Project 

Room 486 

The General Library 

University of California 

Berkeley 4, California 

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Yosemite 4 

C.M. Goethe and Lake Tahoe Resorts 5 

Stephen Mather and the Yosemite Program 11 


Committee on Education in the National Parks 18 

Yavapai Observation Station, Grand Canyon 23 

Aesthetics and Crater Lake 38 



"NATURE GUIDING," by Harold C. Bryant 50 



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1908 B.A. Pomona College 

1910 M.A. University of California, Berkeley 

1913 Ph.D. University of California, Berkeley 

1914 Economic Ornithologist at the Museum of 
Vertebrate Zoology, University of California 

1915-1930 Nature Study for University of California 

1910-1930 In charge of education and research, 

California State Fish and Game Commission 

1919 Summer as naturalist at Lake Tahoe resorts 

1920 Summer as naturalist at Yosemite under 
California State Fish and Game Commission 

1920-1930 Summers as a naturalist in Yosemite National 

1930-1939 Education and research in National Park 
Service office, Washington, D.C. 

1939-1954 Superintendent, Grand Canyon National Park 


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Fry: We have today Dr. Harold C. Bryant with Mr. Newton B. 

Drury to give us some facts of life about the interpre 
tation part of the National Park Service. 

Drury s May I interrupt to get a little of the chronology? You 
are a graduate, Harold, of Pomona College? 

Bryant: Yes, 1908. And I taught a year and then I came up here 
as a graduate student and took two higher degrees here 
on the University campus. 

Drury: Isn't it true that your field was primarily that of the 

Bryant: I was called an economic ornithologist at the Museum of 
Vertebrate Zoology, here on the campus, before I joined 
the California Fish and Game Commission. 

Drury: How did you happen to join the Fish and Game Commission? 

Bryant: First of all, I got a fellowship from the Fish and Game 
Commission of the state to do a special job on the food 
habits of the birds. They were complaining bitterly 


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Bryant: that the birds were very destructive to crops, and so 

I took up the job of trying to find out just what birds 
do eat. I even wrote my doctor's thesis on the food 
and habits of the Western Meadowlark, because it was 
eating up newly-planted grain. Out here in the San 
Joaquin Valley the farmers would plow a field and 
scatter grain to harrow it in, then when it started to 
come up as a nice little plant the meadowlarks would 
get out there and eat it. But it was discovered that 
their stomachs were full of insects rather than this 
grain. This grain is taken by birds at a certain time 
of year. 

Drurys You were a pioneer in that type of biological research? 

Bryant: A good deal of work of that kind had been done in the 
East, but I was one of the first ones to undertake it 
on the West Coast. 

Fry: How did you get into this ranger naturalist work, Dr. 

Bryant: That's interesting. I was here at the University as an 
ornithologist and quite interested in University Exten 
sion work, but also greatly interested in what we in 
those days called "nature study," in particular in the 

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Two early naturalists at 
Yosemite National Park: 

Enid Michael, Ranger Naturalist Botanist 
and Bert Harwell, Park Naturalist, 1926 

Bryant: public schools. Let's say that that was along in 1917, 
1918, 1919, 1920 when I was trying to stimulate teachers 
to teach nature study in the schools. I did that under 
University Extension courses for years; we had built 
up one course called Six Trips Afield, in which we got 
many teachers and many doctors and their wives to meet 
on a Saturday afternoon. We'd first go over to Golden 
Gate Park in San Francisco, or over into Marin County. 
We'd go up here in the Berkeley hills and see the wild 
flowers and the birds and the trees and everything along 
a trailside. In fact, this friend at Sacramento got up 
the motto, "Learn to read a trailside like a book." 
That was C.M. Goethe, a successful businessman and 

Drury: What was his relationship to the interpretive program 
in terms of the experience he and Mrs. Goethe had in 

Bryant: This man traveled a good deal. He was quite surprised 
to find how children in the European schools learned 
their history by going to old castles and old fields 

of war and so on, and he was greatly surprised when 

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Bryant: he found blind children taken out to study birds. They 
couldn't see one at all but they could hear a bird, so 
these blind children in European schools were taught 
to know their birds by their call notes and songs. So 
he came back all enthused about how every child in 
Europe had a chance to really get acquainted with his 
environment, and how little we were doing in America. 
He used to come down from Sacramento and talk to me in 
my Fish and Game Commission office and get all enthused, 
and he had experimented a little bit with children at 
a children's home. He and his wife had spent Sundays 
and holidays trying to do something with these children 
and he started taking them afield and was quite enthused 
about how children loved to get acquainted with the 
things around them and how fine it was when they could 
do that. 


Bryant: So this plan was tried out a little bit for the tourists 
in Yosemite in 1918; talks were given to the assembled 


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Nature Guide Trips 


1921 class addressed by Loye H. Miller 


trip, ca. 1920 

A baby bird absorbs 
the interest of these 
children, 1923. 



Harold C. Bryant with nature class in Yosemite, 
1921. Original program of education started by 
H.C. Bryant and Loye H. Miller in 1920, now 
(1964) involves a Naturalist or Historian in 
every national park and hundreds of summer nature 
guides and historians. 



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Below and Left: Guided groups, 1920 

Below: Dedication of Sequoia Tree, Yosemite National Park, 
1921. H.C. Bryant, speaking. Governor Friend Richardson, 
right; Stephen T. Mather, 2nd from right; Don Tressider; 
Bryant; acting superintendent Earnest Leavitt. 


Left: Nature Guide Trip group 
at Upper Yosemite Falls, 1922. 
Above: Columbia Point, 1924. 

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H.C. Bryant addressing group at Yosemite, ca. 1926. 

Nature Guide Trip, May 1928, H.C. Bryant, naturalist 

Bryant: crowd at Yosemite and then they would be taken out on 
field trips. 

Drury: Were you a part of that? 

Bryant: I was a part of that. 

Fry: Was that also University Extension? 

Bryant: No, that was not the Extension, that was under the Fish 
and Game Commission; I was in charge of education and 
research for the California Fish and Game Commission. 
That first experience was largely because one of the 
fish and game commissioners had been in Yosemite and 
had seen all those vacationing people that didn't know 
what to do with themselves, and he came to me and said, 
"Now, you ought to go up there and give them some con 
servation talks," so I'd done that, and it worked very 

C.M. Goethe and Lake Tahoe Resorts 

Bryant: Mr. C.M. Goethe of Sacramento planned to see what could 
be done the next summer in an educational program for 
recreationists at a big summer resort. So we planned 

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Bryant: in 1919 to go to Lake Tahoe resorts and try to get at 
the vacationist when he was enjoying things out of 
doors and hand him some useful information. We made 
the rounds of the Tahoe resorts, one after another. 
His idea was to catch the people when they were on a 
vacation trip, so you can use the term "education for 
vacationists." At the Tahoe resorts they were very 
glad to have me come there. 

I would talk to their assembled group at night 
and then the next morning I'd say, "Now, we're going 
outdoors and see these things, and you come along with 
me, we'll meet at eight o'clock." I'd get big crowds 
of people to follow around and learn something first 
hand. They got quite interested. Instead of the 
second-hand information one gets from a University 
professor or from a book, these people got around to 
dealing with the real thing itself and tried to learn 
about it. You have to go out of doors to do that. 
Instead of having it in words you went out and actually 
got acquainted with the thing itself. And that was fun. 

I had good success except at one resort where the 

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Bryant: people had such trunks of baggage and so many servants 
looking after their children, and did so much card 
playing, that my talks didn't go over too well. But 
at all these other resorts where there were campers 
who took things easier, they just enjoyed these field 
trips and enjoyed the illustrated talks that were given 
at night about birds and animals and wildflowers and so 
on. That was 1919. 

Drury: It was the summer of 1919 which was just the year that 
the Save-the-Redwoods League was incorporated and 
only three years after the establishment by law of the 

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National Park Service. 

Fry: We need to put in one little note here about Mr. Goethe's 
official capacity in this project, 

Bryant: He was a businessman and banker in Sacramento. He used 
to subdivide property. At the top of his letterhead 
there were just columns and columns of different sub 
divisions. He would buy up big acreages and subdivide 
them and sell these lots. 

Drury: A very remarkable man. Of course he's now eighty-six 

or eighty-seven. He's become very deaf. Dr. Bryant 


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Drury: and I were just commenting on the fact that we don't 
go to see him any more, at his request, because he 
finds that if we call him up on the telephone he can 
hear us but if we're there present his hearing device 
doesn't help him. 

Bryant: We corresponded all through the years. He used to 

come down and talk in my office, and we continued to 
correspond through the years. 

Drury: I don't think you can minimize the importance of C.M. 
Goethe in this whole program of nature conservation. 
There's no question that he had a great effect on 
Stephen Mather and Madison Grant and some of the 
pioneers, both in the formation of the National Park 
Service and of the Save-the-Redwoods League. 

Bryant: Now, if we say that this educational work in the 

national parks is a great going program today, let's 
first of all give a lot of credit to a lot of differ 
ent men. It wasn't just one man like Mr. Goethe or 
like Bryant or like Loje Miller down in Los Angeles 
that you can point to, but this is a case where many 
men had contributed already along this line. Then 
came a group of men who were so thoroughly interested 
in the project that that got it going. 

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Drury: Of course, we think immediately of Thoreau and Audubon 
and John Muir particularly, who really on this coast 
gave the initial impetus to the interpretation and 

appreciation of nature. 
Bryant: Agassi z was the man that urged us to "study nature and 

not books." 

Drury: That's right. 

I want to say something about Mr. Goethe which I 
don't believe ever has been recorded. It's hearsay 
evidence and therefore wouldn't hold up in court, but 

Fry: It'll be perfect for history. 

Drury: Yes. [Laughter] Anyhow, this is what my brother Aubrey, 
who was very close to Mr. Goethe, told me: that when 
Mrs. Goethe, a very charming person, agreed to marry 
him, she made him promise that half of his time and 
means would be devoted to public causes. He was a 
pretty hardboiled businessman to this day he is. 
He told me, for instance, that he had forty ranches 
strung up along the Sacramento River, and when they 
have a freeze like this at present it unquestionably 
means probably a loss of hundreds of thousands of 

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Drury: dollars to Mr, Goethe. 

Bryant: Let me tell you what he told me one time which I think 
is very interesting. I have to embellish the story a 
little bit by saying that he was willing to say that 
"ninety-seven percent of all my earnings go into better 
ment work." He's been interested in every kind of thing 

Church Federation, the American Recreation Association 

he even got interested in immigration for a while, and 
now he's all off on eugenics. He believes in only start 
ing things, not supporting them forever. 

Drury: His function is sort of as the catalyzer, you know, 

giving the initial impulse and then well, he follows 
up, but he's not inclined to monopolize any movement, 
A very good citizen, and in the national parks and in 
the Save-the-Redwoods League we particularly owe a great 
deal to him, but there are other causes we don't even 
know about which are just as much indebted to him. 

This will interest you, Mrs. Fry, as an historian; 
it shows the hazards with respect to keeping files and 
records. I've spoken to you about that before. In 
fact, only today I was talking to Dr. Hart at the 

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Drury: Bancroft Library about getting some archives that are 
now in a rather flimsy structure at Monterey, put into 
the Bancroft Library Stevensoniana, collections of 
Robert Louis Stevenson including the original diary 
of Fanny Osborne Stevenson which was recently published. 
But Mr. Goethe told me that in a fit of orderliness in 
his household this was after Mrs. Goethe died and he 
was ill they cleared out a lot of his records, 
including all of the correspondence between him and 
Stephen Mather and Madison Grant and John C. Merriam 
pertaining to the establishment of the National Park 
Service. All of that material is gone. I only wish 
you could have an oral interview with Mr. Goethe on 
some of these things, because although he's a much older 
man I think he has a much better memory than some of us 
here present. [Laughter] 

Stephen Mather and the Yosemite Program 

Bryant: Now, let's go back to that time when we tried out this 

experiment of education for the vacationists. At that 



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Bryant: time in the Washington office of the Park Service there 
was a man who had been editor of Century magazine, and 
who was brought in. About the only main thing that had 
been done was to get out a picture book on the national 

Drury: You're speaking of Robert Sterling Yard, who was the 

founder, incidentally, of the National Parks Association. 

Bryant: Mr. Mather had brought him in and paid his salary him 
self for several years, until the government said "nay" 
and so there was at least one man in the group who at 
the time I got there had moved off into the National 
Parks Association. 

I think the next story is about Stephen Mather 
and his interest in doing something in the parks that 
would be helpful to visitation, so he found out, through 
Mr. Goethe very largely, that I was at Tahoe. I went 
back to my camp one night, and there was a note that 
had been left for me, signed by Stephen Mather, and 
he said, "I'm down here at the El Tahoe Tavern and I 
want to talk to you. Will you come down and see me?" 
I took the old steamer down the length of the lake 

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Bryant: and went over to the hotel and there I met Mr. Mother, 
who told me of his ambition that there should be some 
thing done for the visitors to parks and that it should 
be something very worthwhile in the way of fundamental 
education regarding the chief features of the parks 
and that he thought I ought to give up whatever I was 
doing and go to Yosemite and start such a program. 

I said, "Well, I'm all signed up here. I can't 
possibly go this year, but I think maybe it could be 
arranged another year." So we talked quite a little. 
He had also gotten in touch with a man named Loye Miller, 
who was then in the Los Angeles Normal School, and he 
had asked him whether he could help in this program, 
so that in 1920 Loje Miller and I arrived in Yosemite 
and we started to organize an actual program for the 



But you were not then with the federal government; 

you were still with the state of California. 

Bryant: I was with the state of California and they continued 
my salary, and Mr. Mather dug into his pocket, and 
Mr. Goethe did the same, and the two of them paid us 


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Bryant: a little expense money so that we could afford to go. 
We weren't paid any salary. We weren't regular 
government employees. We were just donating our 
services, but we had a little expense money. 

Drury: I think very early you helped develop the idea that 
an understanding and appreciation of the works of 
nature tended toward their protection from vandalism 
and fire and other destructive forces. 

Bryant: And 1 found these people were quite enthusiastic at 
the opportunity to go out afield and get acquainted 
first-hand with what was along the trailside, and we 
had great numbers of the Sierra Club members arrive 
up there and the doctors it's strange how doctors 
almost more than any other profession, except the 
teaching profession, would be interested in that 
sort of thing and learning something about their 

Drury: Well, doctors have developed the ability to consume 
a lot of matter. Didn't you find that there's a 
limit on what the normal average person can absorb 
intellectually or aesthetically? 


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Bryant: We discovered that particularly in the evening talks 
at Camp Curry; we would try to narrow it down to 
just one animal a gray squirrel, for instance, an 
animal they saw every time they went afield. Then 
we'd say, "Now, tomorrow if you'll meet at eight 
o'clock here, a group f us are going out to see what 
we can see along the trail, and we'll show you a gray 

Then we had another very fine drawing card, a 
water ouzel and its nest, and we'd suggest that we 
were all going up to see the parent birds feed the 

I can remember times when we got over a hundred 
people, and one person can't handle a hundred people. 
We tried to limit it to twenty people at a time. 

Drury: That still plagues the National Park Service. 

Bryant: They can't yell loud enough. 

Drury: Of course I deplore the fact that at some of the 
historical parks and maybe at most of the major 
national parks we introduced loudspeakers, which I 
thought was a step downward. Dr. Merriam quoted 
from Elihu Root a wise saying that always appealed 

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"...To go out afield and get acquainted first 
hand with what was along the trailside. . ." 

H.C. Bryant 
examining a 





Pine Squirrel 

Eagle Peak 






Sierra Club studies a 
rattlesnake, 1924 

Gopher snake 
studies, 1922 

aquatic insects 
under Ranger 
Harwood, Lily 
Pond, Sentinal 
Meadows, 1926 





Right: Trees along the 
Valley Rim. Below: Deer 
Fawn found by H.C. Bryant; 
Whiteheaded woodpecker 




Spotting a 
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Drury: to me to this effect: They were going to build an 

auditorium in the Carnegie Institution and they de 
bated how large it should be, whether it should hold 
1,000 people or 500 or 3,000 ~ this was before the 
days of loudspeakers. Elihu Root finally dominated 
the meeting and said, "No, I think we'll build one 
with 500 capacity, for the reason that it is very 
difficult to tell the truth if you have to raise 
your voice to do it." Which psychologically has some 
basis. I know from my public speaking experience you 
speak more extravagantly, you're in a different emo 
tional state, when you're speaking to a big crowd 
than you do when you're just talking in matter-of- 
fact fashion to a small group. 

I think that is one of the things that you had 
to wrestle with as chief naturalist in the National 
Park Service, the problem of keeping these talks and 
the nature walks more or less intimate and informal. 

Bryant: And also down to the ground level of the kind of 

people you were talking to. You couldn't talk over 
their heads. 

Fry: When you went to Yosemite in 1920 did you stay there 
until 1930? 

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Yosemite School of Field 
Natural History, established 
1925, addressed by H.C. Bryant 

Class of 1930, with, left to right, Naturalists Nichols, 
Smith, Bryant, and Harwell 

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Bryant: Yes; that is, every summer. I was here on the campus 
during the school year; I had an appointment by the 
Regents each year, and also had the educational work 
for the Fish and Game Commission, but each summer I 
would go up and continue that work at Yosemite. We 
continued to make a demonstration or a trial of this 
thing to see how it would work. 



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Committee on Education in the National Parks 

Bryant: But it wasn't very many years before especially the 

Sierra Club people would say, "We went to Glacier 
National Park this past year and we couldn't get any 
of this up there. Why don't they have this educa 
tional plan in Glacier?" And then they'd report on 
some other park that didn't have it, and they kept 
writing in to the Director of the National Park 
Service and saying, "How come at Yosemite we can 
get it but we can't get it at the other parks?" So 
finally by 1930 they invited me back to Washington 
to try to build a real organized program in all the 
national parks. 

Fry: All this time you were at Yosemite were you being 
paid out of private funds? 


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By 1923 I began to be paid my expenses only, no salary, 

by the Park Service that is, I was taken on 

As a collaborator. That's what we call them now. 

Yes, but it wasn't exactly that. Then they began to 

pay me this small salary as a naturalist, but then I 

got no expenses. 

That was when the salary of the director was $3,000 

to $5,000 a year. 

I'm trying to think; I think I got $150 salary per 

month in those first days. I was there three months 

usually in the summer, and I lived in a tent with my 

whole family. I helped to raise my family up there 

in Yosemite, which was interesting. 

When you went to Washington, how many people were 

there in interpretive work? 

I was the one and only educator in the park staff. 

This was 1930. 

You mean anywhere in the United States? 

There were naturalists in only a few of the national 


Oh, yes, very few. There were one or two men. One 

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Bryant: man was interested in the big game animals of Yellow 
stone, and so on, but there was no organized program 
of education in the parks until the first September I 
arrived in Washington. 

Drury: This is something that probably Dr. Bryant will remem 
ber, but when he had the call to the National Park 
Service he was then with the California Fish and 
Game Commission you [Dr. Bryant] came down to San 
Francisco and we went out to lunch and you asked my 
advice as to whether you should join the National Park 
Service and leave California. I'm afraid I advised 
you not to. [Laughter] The National Park Service 
would have lost a lot if you hadn't detected the fact 
that my advice was fallacious. Of course I never 
dreamt then that I would ever have any relationship 
with the National Park Service. 

Fry: This was Horace Albright who as Director of the National 
Park Service brought you to Washington? 

Bryant: Yes. I think the main background there is that when 
Horace Albright took over as director he was thor 
oughly interested in carrying on this educational 

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Bryant: program, and so finally he got me back to Washington 
and this too had a certain background; the reason why 
this work had a push ahead was because of the appoint 
ment of a committee on education in the national parks 
appointed by the Secretary of the Interior. Now, this 
committee was made up of a number of high-powered 
educators and it met under the chairman of the com 
mittee, Dr. John C. Merriam of the University of 
California Department of Paleontology. It got out 
first a sort of an outline of what a great educa 
tional program should be in the parks, trying to point 
out what should be done and how it could be done and 
so on. 

So they also advised that someone should be put 
in Washington to organize and develop such a program, 
which now is called an interpretation program. In 
those days we talked about education and research. 
In fact, I went back to head up a division I guess 
they called it a division in those days of educa 
tion and research. They had suggested that the man 



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Bryant: should have good administrative experience and the 
power to get things done. So this boost by the 
committee report, which the Secretary had accepted, 
set the background for the plan to organize the 
work in all the national parks. By that time many 
complaints had come in about only one park putting 
on a program when here were all these other national 
parks something should be done all together in a 
big plan. 

Fry: The Secretary at that time was an education-minded 
man, wasn't he? The ex-president of Stanford Uni 

Bryant: Yes, Ray Lyman Wilbur was Secretary when I went in, 
and the President was Hoover. 

Drury: That's right. Wilbur came in midway in Albright's 
term there and then Horace served under Ickes for 
only a short time. 

Bryant: That's right, then Albright got out and Cammerer came 

Fry: So you went in with both superiors favoring this in a 
very sturdy way. 


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Bryant: Both of them aided and abetted the whole program 

straight through and helped to develop it. Again it 
wasn't any one-man affair, it was because we got the 
aid of the National Parks Association and the Sierra 
Club in getting behind the program. Many organiza 
tions helped. 

I think we ought to have this background, that 
Dr. John C. Merriam was chairman of this committee 
on education for the national parks, which afterwards 
became a legally appointed advisory board for the 
National Park Service. 

Drury: More under administrative law than any statute cre 
ating it. 

Bryant: So Dr. Merriam had a very great interest in every 
thing in the parks, especially the scientific fea 
tures that were in parks. He felt that something 
should be done about it. 

Yavapai Observation Station, Grand Canyon 
Bryant: For instance, he dropped in at Grand Canyon one time 


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Harold C. Bryant, Grand Canyon, Arizona, ca. 1950 


Bryant: and got talking to some of the people that were stand 
ing on the edge of the canyon looking over, and he 
discovered that they were just hungry for an explana 
tion. How was the canyon built? How far is it over 
there? Is the same kind of life over there as on this 

Finally he came forth with a very wonderful idea 
that there should be some kind of a helpful station 
built on the rim and that certain facts, scientific 
facts, should be presented to the general public both 
in the form of a simple explanation by a man in charge 
and by a group of park exhibits. So there was built 
in Grand Canyon on Yavapai Point the Yavapai Observa 
tion Station named after an Indian tribe and care 
fully not called a museum. 

Dr. Merriam first of all brought a group of 
scientists he was head of the Carnegie Institution 
of Washington, and he was in a position to know the 
best of the scientists and he said, "We'll pay 
your way." He invited them to Grand Canyon and he 
asked them, "How should this story be told to the 


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Bryant: public?" And he got this 

Drury: First he asked the question and then he answered it. 

Bryant: But anyway he got some good ideas from a lot of these 
visiting scientists mostly geologists. 

Drury: But one person he didn't get along very well with. 

Bryant: Well, it wasn't so bad. Bumpus could get along with 
most anybody. He followed Merriam as chairman of 
the advisory board. 

Fry: You mean they agreed upon all of the varying aspects 
of the theory? 

Bryant: That's right, and then administratively we tried to 
put into effect this plan and exactly what we would 
tell the public. So we found out all the questions 
they asked and said, "Well, we must answer this ques 
tion for them and this question for them," and so on. 
And then we finally put out a beautiful summary out 
line of what should be given, the story of the Grand 

Drury: I was with Dr. Merriam practically every summer while 
this was being worked out, and I know the infinite 

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pains that were taken and the tremendous amount of 

collaboration that was necessary. It wasn't just 

struck off in a few days or even a few months; it 

took several years to evolve it. 

You didn't have very many funds or very much staff. 


Didn't the Carnegie Institution make a small grant 

toward it? 

Yes, towards the building of the building and so on. 

Are you giving this as a typical example, or was this 


This was the first one, and it's still the outstanding 

example of that kind of interpretation. 

Bryant: This was one of the first attempts to put on an organ 
ized program in a park. It had been tried in Yosemite 
and now we were going to try and apply it to the visi 
tor in Grand Canyon and try to see that he got the 
information that he wanted. 


Do you mind my interpolating this idea? Prior to 
that, museums, so-called, had been established in some 
of the national parks; in fact the Yosemite Museum 
antedated the archeological museum at Mesa Verde and 

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Drury: various others. 

Bryant: This program at Grand Canyon was designed to help people 
understand three stories: First of all, what about the 
rocks of which Grand Canyon is made? 

Second, how was the canyon cut? 

Third, what was the effect on life in the canyon? 

You see, in the story of the rocks we had the 
interesting story that down in the bottom of the canyon 
are some of the oldest rocks known on the crust of the 
earth. They go back about four billion years. That's 
an interesting story. Then you have all these layers 
of rock, one laid up on top of the other and so on. 
Everybody would ask, "Well, what is all that?" So we 
told the story of the rocks and the age of the rocks, 
how the young rocks were up on top; and then we had 
such help as that the top layer is just full of sea- 
shells and corals and all sorts of things that live 
normally in the bottom of the ocean, and we had to 
explain why you had these fossils that once lived at 
sea level or below now seven thousand feet up in the 
air. That gave us such a nice chance to say that what 

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Bryant: was once down there has been raised up by the building 
of a great plateau, the folding up of a big plateau. 
Then we tried to answer the question of how was 
this canyon built? How did it come to be? So we had 
the great story of the erosion. How the big river, 
the Colorado River, the second largest river in the 
United States, had cut this great deep canyon. The 
funny thing is that it was not cut as the average 
person would understand; that was one of the points 
we had quite a little difficulty in putting over. 
They thought that the river originally must have been 
up here where we were on the rim of the canyon, and 
cut and cut and cut until now the river is 5000 feet 
down. But that wasn't it, you see. The river was 
always down there, and the plateau came up against 
the river and the river cut as the plateau came up. 

Drury: Like cutting a board with a buzz-saw, so to speak. 
As you raise the board up the saw rips through it. 

Bryant: We used to illustrate that with the example of a layered 
cake; the commonest way of cutting the layer cake is 
to take a big butcher knife and cut from the top down 


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Bryant: to the bottom; but what if you took your cake over 

here and put your knife over it and pressed the cake 
up from the bottom? You see how you'd still cut it 
so that you could look down in and see the cake, all 
the layers in the cake, but you'd hold the knife still. 
It didn't move. Only the cake moved. 

And then the third very interesting point was 
the life of the past and the life of today and how 
it was affected by this great gorge that had been cut 
out there, because we had animals that were found only 
on the north rim and animals that were found only on 
the south rim, and therefore the canyon had been a 
great barrier to the movement of life. We had 
wonderful fossils, you see. We found fossil foot 
prints of dinosaurs and fossil footprints of amphi 
bians and reptiles, great numbers of them, forty or 
more named animals that we've never seen a bone of 
at all. 

Drury: Do you think there was too much emphasis upon factual 
matter and not enough upon the inspirational aspects 
of the Grand Canyon? 


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Bryant: I'm glad you asked that, because if there was anyone 
who believed in the inspirational value of the parks 
it was John C. Merriam. He was the key man in this 
group of advisors who was always emphasizing that if 
we want to have the tourists think great thoughts, 

we must have them understand what they see when they 
come into a park. 

Drury: See not just with the intelligence but with the emo 
tions also. The aesthetic phase is just as important 
to him as the intellectual. 

Fry: Once you have this intellectual lesson of the enormous 
history that's lying before you there, what more would 
you add to that? That has an emotional impact in 

Drury: If I may, let me try to interpret what we're talking 
about. Dr. Merrianrfs idea was that instead of having 
a dry-as-dust exhibit inside a museum, you'd sit out 
there, and here was the great landscape before you 
you couldn't miss it because you were a part of 
it. All of this interpretation of its meaning was 
something that not only Dr. Merriam but the inter- 

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Drury: pretive force of the National Park Service and people 
generally felt enhanced the appreciation of its 
beauty and magnificence. 

Bryant: The attention was always directed to the features in 
the canyon that told you these stores. We would say, 
"Here is a binocular, you look and this is what you 
see." We would bring it up from down there and put 
it right here where you can see this is what it looks 
like close at hand. 

Drury: I think the story wouldn't be complete without saying 
a word at least about Louis Schellbach who in my 
opinion was one of the greatest spielers we ever had. 
He was a spell-binder and he told this story of the 
Grand Canyon, as it had been taught to him of course 
by the superintendent and by others, so eloquently 
day after day, month in and month out, and seemingly 
never losing the freshness of his enthusiasm for it. 
I think he was primarily an archeologist, wasn't he, 
in his profession? 

Bryant: An archeologist, yes. 

Drury: I remember one occasion when a bus tour came by the 


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canyon and they stopped and were given this talk by 
Louis Schellbach and there was one little Japanese 
boy with thick-rimmed spectacles who sat there so 
enthralled by the thing that the bus went off without 
him. [Laughter] He just sat there dreaming about it. 
But don't you agree that although Louis was his 
trionic, of course, and he showed off quite a bit, he 
was a very effective lecturer? And who was the other 
one? Christiansen? He was quieter than Schellbach, 
but possibly more of an original thinker. 
That's right. 
This was in the thirties? 

First of all, the first key man was Ed MsKee who is 
still one of the greatest geologists on sedimentary 
geology in the United States and is working for the 
Geological Survey. He had been brought up in Washing 
ton, B.C., and had gotten into a boy scout troop headed 
by Francois Matthes, a great geologist, and that stir 
red his interest in geology and he finally came out 
as a naturalist there at Grand Canyon. 



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Bryant: He wrote great tomes on the different layers of the 
rocks of Grand Canyon that were published by the 
Carnegie Institution. He was a truly fine scientific 
research man, not quite so good in his diction and 
talking and so on, but he did a wonderful piece of 
research. In fact, to this day he is known as the 
outstanding geologist on sedimentary rock. 

Fry: And he helped you in this initial program? 

Bryant: Oh, he was the naturalist there for years. 

Fry: First you tried to find what questions the tourists 
asked most frequently, and you set up your exhibits 
around this. Then did you more or less follow this 
same procedure at all parks? 

Bryant: No. It's about the only place that has an educational 
observation station. 

Drury: In the interest of continuity, I think it would be 
interesting to have your appraisal of the Yavapai 
Observation Station as it is today. Have you any idea 
whether it has carried on in the spirit and the intent 
in which it was founded? 

Bryant: Yes, even though at Grand Canyon now there is a fine 





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Bryant: museum development known as a vistors 1 center. Instead 
of calling it a museum they call it a visitors' center, 
and that carries all the rest of the stories. But the 
geology and the paleontology story is still at Yavapai, 
and all the buses that go out along the rim all stop 
for passengers to hear this talk. 

Fry: It seems as though you were very careful to get a pro 
gram that would take in a wide span of the American 
public, say from an eight-year-old to an eighty-year- 
old, and from a machinist to a doctor. They could all 
understand this, 

Bryant: When we had this man Schellbach, he was a little bit 

of a dramatist and he talked with his fingers, explain 
ing layers and all the different things about it, and 
he could talk to the children and get a laugh out of 
them. He'd always start with this story about the 
man who rushed out to the rim and had a look and then 
turned back to his car and the people in it and he'd 
say, "Gosh, it's nothing but rocks. Let's go on and 
get something to eat." [Laughter] 

Drury: I remember Louis Schellbach had one quip that he got 

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Drury: off that was always good about how men had advanced 
because of certain things; he said, "For one thing, 
he had the opposing thumb and fingers, and for another 
he had a chin, unlike other animals." He said, "He's 
been sticking it out ever since." [Laughter] 

Bryant: And then he had another very wonderful story that 

helped give people an idea of what past ages have been 
and where man comes into the picture. 

We can go back four billion years when there was 
no life on the earth at all and take up life from the 
little tiny algae that had been found in those rocks 
in the canyon and on up to the animal footprints and 
so on, and then finally man comes into the picture, 
and we can show lots of Indian ruins all down through 
the canyon. And to try to give people some idea of 
the sequence and the amount of time that's gone by 
through the years, he'd always tell this story about 
the Washington Monument and the distance up here to 
where you have windows was so many years of time and 
so on, and then if you put a dime on the top of it 
the thickness would represent the era that's just 
passed, and then take up the era that we live in and 


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Bryant: you put a little piece of paper flat on top of the dime 
on the Washington Monument and thus you'd have a 
comparable column that showed these great expanses 
of time. 

Fry: I think any future historian interested in the history 
of ideas might wonder if you had any experience with 
groups who simply couldn't swallow this panorama 
that was laid before them. 

Drury: I used to argue with Dr. Merriam on that, too. I 

don't think any person I know I couldn't could 
thoroughly absorb all of the detail, even though it 
were oversimplified and put in tabloid form. It was 
still too much for the normal mind to absorb. 

Bryant: But at least we attempted to simplify it in such a 
way that everybody could understand it. 

Fry: What about people who objected to the theory of evolu 

Bryant: That was interesting. We occasionally had reactions 
to that. We had such a fine chance to show evolution 
from the fossils of the lowest forms of plant life to 
trees very much like those we have today, and then 

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Bryant: from the animals like the trilobite, a little crab-like 
creature that crept on the bottom of the ocean, clear 
on up to dinosaurs. We had it all laid out there and 
once in a while we'd find a fundamentalist who'd 
complain about that. Now my way of turning the sub 
ject a little bit was to say that that was the way 
God made things as far as our scientists could deter 
mine, and they couldn't have much of a comeback to 

Drury: Well, anyhow, there they were. [Laughter] Even when 
you were superintendent of Grand Canyon in the fortes 
you took your turn at the lecture, I remember. 

Bryant: Yes, right along, trying to keep in touch with the 
public and understand what their reactions were. 
Whenever a naturalist was sick or had to get away, 
then I'd go out there and take over. 

Drury: Now, let me tell you a story first so that this won't 
be too serious. Dr. Merriam was, of course, as a 
scientist much interested in the Scopes trial in 
which William Jennings Bryan took a very prominent 
part in fact at which he expired, probably due to 

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Drury: the hotweather and his overeating. We all followed it 
very carefully. I remember about that time Dr. Merriam 
and some of us were up in the redwood country where at 
Arcata some zealous Republican had erected a bronze 
statue to William McKinley. It showed him in the 
traditional frock coat which is not a flattering 
costume for anyone, least of all a short man like 
McKinley. [Laughing] With a great big head and a 
bushy head of hair. As we passed by there, thinking 
of recent events in Tennessee at the Scopes trial, 
Dr. Merriam took a look at it and he said, "Do you 
know, I think if William Jennings Bryan had seen this 
statue of William McKinley he would no longer have any 
doubt that man was descended from the ape." [Laughter] 

Aesthetics and Crater Lake 

Bryant: And that brings in Sinnott Memorial at Crater Lake, 
where Dr. Merriam kept thinking, "Now, this is a 
beautiful thing, this is a beautiful scene. How do 
you teach beauty?" 


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Fry: That's what I was going to ask you. If you try to 
teach the awesome beauty of Grand Canyon or Crater 
Lake you'd almost be gilding the lily. What more 
could you do than just let people look at it? 

Drury: Well, here is something that Dr. Merriam in one of 
his lighter moods told me about some tourists there 
at the Grand Canyon. They looked at it and the man 
turned to his wife and said, "It's just about like an 
elephant; when you've seen it you've seen it." [Laugh 
ter] I suppose that's what you mean when you say you 
are painting the lily if you start to analyze it. And 
yet there is one school of thought that believes that 
appreciation of art and music and literature can be 
enhanced by the study of the aesthetics of the field. 

Bryant: But Crater Lake was quite a different program from 

Grand Canyon. This was beauty that everyone reacted 
to: the blue, blue lake, down in a volcanic crater. 
Dr. Merriam spent a good deal of time trying to see 
what we could do there, and he got quite interested 
in nature appreciation and in books on nature appre 
ciation. And of course when we came up there we had 

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Bryant: to get around to art appreciation. What is there that 
is so artistic that appeals to people in the scene? 

He finally tried a scheme that I don't think 
worked out too well, but at least it was a try. A 
number of good artists were brought to Crater Lake 
to sit down and paint into the picture what they saw, 
and then we set these pictures up. I remember Eugen 
Neuhaus had quite an angry scene, I think it was a 
storm over Crater Lake, and somebody else pictured 
it in bright sunshine. Anyway, a number of very fine 
artists went there. 

Drury: Didn't Gunnar Widfors make a number of paintings of 
Crater Lake? He was a Swedish watercolorist, had 
been the court painter for the king of Sweden and 
for some reason or other came to this country. He 
was discovered by Stephen Mather, who sent him out 

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to the national parks and up to the redwoods. I 
have three of his paintings of the redwoods. He was 
a very rapid worker; I remember I'd leave him in the 
morning at a spot and come back in the afternoon and 
he'd have one of those paintings completed. 

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Bryant: When we left Grand Canyon the staff there gave me a 
wonderful Widfors. 

Drury: The Cosmos Club has two. They're quite valuable today, 

Bryant: Yes. Then we even experimented with hiring a teacher 
of art at the University of Oregon and bringing him 
down there to lead some of the trips and try to show 
people the beauties of the lake and so on. 

But in the end we almost decided that if you 
give a person quietude and solitude on the rim of 
Crater Lake it would be better to have them get it 
themselves than to try to pass around from one per 
son to another what beauty is. You immediately get 
an artist who talks about lines and forms and all 
sorts of things, and people didn't take to it too 
well. We just thought we'd put nice benches in the 
finest places to see the lake and let them go them 
selves and just soak it into their own souls instead 
of trying to have it taught. 

Drury: I remember for instance Dr. George Ruble talking up 
there. rt e was the park naturalist, and made a very 
eloquent presentation. He dealt superficially with 




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Drury: this question of aesthetics. Dr. Merriam had an essay 

.. ;, 
he published, the title of which is, "Why is Crater 

Lake so Blue?" 
Bryant: The only answer he could give was the scientific 

answer. It has largely to do with depth of water and 
lighting and the reflection of the sky in the water. 

So in the different parks we had different sorts 
of problems to meet. We couldn't use just any form 
that would fit all parks, but we had to take the 
chief features of each park and from that work out 
the story that was to be told the traveling public. 



But we didn't have any devices comparable to Yavapai 
and Sinnott Memorial, did we, in any of the other parks? 

Have you been to this new observation post that they've 

built on Klingman's Dome? 
Bryant: No, I haven't. I've seen pictures of it. It's made 

of concrete. 
Drury: Do you like it? 

Well, I don't know. I'm not one of those who think it 


is a terrible mistake, because I think you have to 

take change from year to year. You can't go back and 

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Bryant: say that just because we used to use architecture 

that was rustic and made out of wood that we've got 
to stay with that forever. We've apparently had to 
get around to concrete. 

Drury: Well, I don't know. You surprise me; you've evident 
ly become more of a modern than I have. 

Bryant: Perhaps a little more than John C. Merriam. 

Drury: I still think that what you might call indigenous 
architecture, architecture based on the building 
materials that you find at the site, whether it is 
timber or stone, or even in Hawaii perhaps thatched 
roofs, would be more germane to the landscape than 
these modern atrocities. One of the pleasures that 
I took when I was in the National Park Service was 
knocking on the head many a plan which called for 
these contemporary designs which have since blossomed 

Bryant: Like the Jackson Lake Lodge at Grant Teton? All made 
out of concrete, and yet it simulates wood. 

Drury: I know, and that again isn't genuine, of course. I 

think that bears somewhat on this thing we're talking 

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Drury: about, the question of revealing the parks and all of 
their meaning as the natural features were created and 
not as they've been embellished by the hand of man. 
I'm afraid that that's about all I should take 
time for, and I haven't done anything except I 
take full credit for bringing you here, Dr. Harold 
Bryant. I think it's been a very interesting discus 
sion of a phase of the national park program that I 
will now not have to discuss in my own interviews 
with Mrs. Fry. [Laughter] 

Fry: Thank you very much for coming, Dr. Bryant. 

Transcribed: L.W. 
Typed: S.R. 


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. . : 




Albright, Horace, 20-22 

Bryan, William Jennings, 37,38 
Biunpus, Herman C., 25 

California State Fish and Game Commission, 1,2,5,13, 


Carnegie Institution, 15,16,24,26,33 
Committee on Education in the National Parks, 21-23 
Crater Lake National Park, 38,42 

Evolution, Theory of, 36-38 

Goethe, C.M., 3-5,7-9,11-13 

Grand Canyon National Park, Yavapai Observation Sta 
tion, 23-29,31-35,37,39,41,42 

Grand Teton National Park, Jackson Lake Lodge, 43 

Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Klinginan's Dome, 

Lake Tahoe resorts naturalist talks, 6,7,13 

McKee, Ed, 32,33 

McKinley, William, 38 

Mather, Stephen, 8,11-13 

Merriam, John C., 11,15,21,23-25,30,36-40,42,43 

Miller, Loje, 8,13 

National Park Service, 7,11,12,15,16,18-20,31,43 
National Parks Advisory Board, 23,25 
National Parks Association, 12,23 
Neuhaus, Eugen, 40 


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Root, Elihu, 15,16 
Ruhle, George, 41,42 

Schellbach, Louis, 31,32,34,35 
Sierra Club, 14,18,23 

University of California Extension Division, 2,3 
University of California Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, 

Widfors, Gunnar, 40,41 
Wilbur, Ray Lyman, 21,22 

Yard, Robert Sterling, 12 

Yosemite National Park, 4,5,13-19,26 

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Stephen T. Mather (standing) anil the author (left foreground) attend 192 1 ceremonies in Yosemite 

GlflMcBS tQ 

By Harold C. Bryant 

HAT is the bird with a yellow 
breast and red head? 
What bird steals butter from our 
mp table? 

Where can I see a sequoia tree? 
Are there rattlesnakes here? 
These are familiar questions to nat- 
alists with the National Park Service, 
or nearly half a century these ques- 
ons have been answered by men whose 
b it is to interpret the glories of nature 
the millions of visitors to the National 
arks, to increase the enjoyment and 
nderstanding of our great natural pre- 
rves. It was not always so. 
The effective modern interpretative 
rvice was started by the first Director 
the National Park Service, Stephen 
Mather. He wanted to make sure 
at every visitor to the National Parks 
as inspired by their beauty and ap- 
eciated their eternal values. Out of his 
n pocket he hired Robert Sterling 
aril, an editor of Century Magazine, to 
repare a picture book about the parks, 
nown as the National Parks Portfolio, 
was sent to every congressman and 
ent through six editions. 
The Director's second step was to 
eate the National Parks Educational 
ommittee of seventy-five college presi- 
ents and educators. This was converted 
the National Parks Association in 

1919, an organization that has been 
enormously helpful in publicizing the 
inspirational and scientific significance 
of the National Parks. 

In that same year Loye Holmes Mil 
ler from the Los Angeles Normal School 
and I, from the University of California 
at Berkeley, were guiding nature study 
groups at Lake Tahoe. Mr. Mather 
visited us and by the following year we 
were in Yosemite organizing a free 
Nature Guide Service. A Sacramento 
business man, C. M. Goethe, who had 
been greatly impressed by guided trips 
for children and adults in central Ku- 
rope, helped Mather finance the experi 
ment. Soon other parks demanded a 
similar service. Superintendent Frank 
Pinkley trained his men in the south 
west National Monuments to guide the 
public through Indian ruins. Visiting 
college professors were urged to give 
talks at evening campfires and to lead 
field trips. 

In 1928 the Secretary of the Interior 
appointed a committee to study the 
educational problems in the National 
Parks. The chairman was Dr. John C. 
Merriam; Drs. Herman C. Bumpus, 
Vernon Kellogg, Frank R. Oastler and 
I comprised the rest of the committee 
to report on field studies. Our expenses 
were paid by the Laura Spelman Rocke 

feller Memorial fund. The report, sub 
mitted in 1929, listed some of the gen 
eral principles and made a number of 
recommendations, among them the cre 
ation of an advisory board and a divi 
sion of the National Park Service to 
administer an educational program in 
the parks. Both these recommendations 
were put into effect in 1930. 

Since that time efforts have been 
made to place a naturalist or historian 
in every national park and monument. 
Improvements have been made in park 
programs for field trips, campfire talks, 
nature trails, museums, libraries and 
bulletins. The educational program is 
now known as the Interpretation Serv 
ice and there are divisions of History, 
Natural History and Museums. State 
and city parks have installed naturalists 
as has the U. S. Forest Service. 

When Loye Miller and I started our 
service in Yosemite in 1920 we were 
housed in tents and we had a table in 
the Chief Ranger's office. We conducted 
field trips, gave evening talks and held 
office hours to answer questions. A 
wildflower show helped visitors identify 
the flowers in bloom along the trails. 
Children engaged in special "bark-feel 
ing" and "leaf-smelling" competitions 
and brought in new finds from their 
exploring trips. Now there are Junior 



Loye Miller guides Yosemite visitors in the early 1920' s 

The author, on a Devils Postnile nack trin. about 1924 


Museums and Junior Nature Schools. 

There were nature trips around the 
Valley and longer ones to Eagle Peak, 
Glacier Point, Little Yosemite, and 
finally a weekly trip around the loop 
of the Hikers Camps. With the help of 
the University of California and other 
schools, bird trips were led by orni 
thologists, flower trips by botanists and 
insect trips by entomologists. 

Museum materials were collected and 
by 1928 the American Museums Asso 
ciation and the Laura Spelman Rocke 
feller Fund had provided museum 
buildings in Yosemite, Yellowstone and 
Grand Canyon National Parks. Ansel 
Hall made park museums tell complete 
stories instead of becoming depositories 
for separate dusty exhibits. Then 
museum curators were added. 

As other national parks followed 
Yosemite's lead there was a great de 
mand for naturalists and historians. 
Men with the proper education and ex 
perience in the field were hard to find. 
A Yosemite School of Field Natural 
History was created and groups of 
twenty students were recruited through 
out the nation. Graduates of the school 
went to work for the parks, and at 
camps for Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts. 
The course ended with a two-week high 
country trip and research work on 
marked ecological plots. This work has 
been continued by field school alumni 
who return each year to contribute to 
the ecological study that has been con 
tinuous for more than twenty years. 

Before the field school was closed 
during World War II more than 300 
students had been trained there. Now 
there are other schools, as well as the 
Horace A. Albright Training Center for 
rangers and other protective personnel 
at Grand Canyon with its fine new 
school building and apartments for the 
students and their families, and the 
Training Center for naturalists and his 
torians at Harper's Ferry, Virginia. 

Since 1930 studies have been made of 
wildlife in the parks. Much has been 
learned since the first survey with respect 
to existing status, unsatisfactory con 
ditions and the orderly development of 
wildlife management. Until July I, 1931, 
the Wildlife Survey was supported by 
private funds. Under government aus 
pices since that time, this research proj 
ect has developed much important 
knowledge on 279 birds and animals, 
the interrelations of organisms, feeding 
of mammals, protection of predators, 
and has studied coyotes, wolves, the surf 
bird and the trumpeter swan. 

With the help of the park naturalists 
and historians the National Parks have 
become the great universities of the 
out-of-doors. The origin and history of 
the earth, the various species, and. the 
habits and interrelations of plant and 
animal life can be taught with the 
superlative materials found in the Na 
tional Parks. 

Bulletin NO. 17 



In Charge Nature Guide Service. Yoscmitc N.ili.' P.irk 


PuMisKcd by 


A COPT of this Bulletin, Dumber 
Seventeen, published by the 
American feature Association, will 
be sent to any Member on request. 
Additional copies and copies for no?i' 
members may be secured for tiventy 
five cents each by writing to 

1214 Sixteenth Street N.W. 
Washington, D 


By Harold C. Bryant 

The past few years have seen the rapid growth of a movement to 
popularize the study of nature. Mountain and hiking clubs are empha 
sizing nature study resorts and summer camps advertise nature study field 
trips, and national parks are offering regular instruction in natural history. 
Organized work of this type has been denoted "nature guiding." 

It is doubtful if anything excites a child more greatly than does the 
sight of some living creature. Nor is this interest in living things lost 
in adult life, for those who visit Yellowstone National Park usually have 
more to say about the live bears than about the geysers. The average person 
is more thrilled by the sight of a deer crossing the road in front of an 
automobile than by the enormous cliffs and waterfalls of the Yosemite. 
"What is the name of that tree?" "What bird is that?" "Does a deer 
actually lose its 'horns' each year?" such are the questions that continually 
confront the summer camper. To hear a trained scientist treat of these 
very subjects of most interest in a lecture or, better still, to accompany a 
person who can actually name and tell the life history of plants, birds and 
animals along the trailside, wins the immediate approval of the vacationist. 

In several countries in Europe attempts have been made to furnish to 
tourists and others guides qualified to furnish scientific information regard 
ing the living things seen. That work of this kind should be better devel 
oped in Europe than in America is to be expected because of the greater 
amount of nature study training given in the public schools and the much 
greater emphasis on field work. Every school child in Sweden, Denmark 
and several central European countries is taken afield where first-hand 
information is to be obtained regarding plants and animals. A group of 
school children, each with a collecting box for plants or for insects, is a 
familiar sight everywhere. Thus far in the United States nature studies, 
along with other studies, have been pursued almost entirely within a school 
building, and then with subjects to be viewed under a microscope, resulting 
in a dearth of information usable in the open. 

What better definition of nature guiding can we find than that given 
by Enos Mills, a pioneer in the field: "Nature guiding is helping people 
to become happily acquainted with the life and wonders of wild nature." 

In America the first attempts at satisfying the desire for information 
regarding the living things seen along the roadside were made by such 
organizations as Audubon societies, museums, botanical and zoological socie- 


ties and hiking clubs. One of the first private ventures in nature guiding 
was begun by Enos A. Mills in Estes National Park. Mr. Mills found 
that his guests at Long's Peak Inn were very receptive to natural history 
lore and he sought to furnish nature guiding as a feature of entertainment. 
The response from old and young was so immediate that he became suffi 
ciently impressed with the work to write about it. 

Full credit must be given Mr. Mills for the first adventure in nature 
guiding, as such, in a national park and for originating the term to describe 
this type of guiding as distinct from the usual horse wrangler type fur 
nished. His "trail school" was the first of a group continually increasing 
in number. 

The year 1901 seems to mark the beginning of emphasis on the field 
trip as an important feature in club educational work. In that year the 
Audubon Society of the District of Columbia inaugurated spring field 
excursions for the study of bird migration, and these have been maintained 
ever since. Wells W. Cooke, Dr. T. S. Palmer, Mrs. F. M. Bailey and 
other workers of the Bureau of Biological Survey willingly act as leaders. 
Similarly, field trips have been emphasized in Massachusetts and in Oregon 
with E. H. Forbush and William L. Finley as motivators. 

In the summer of 1901, Dr. T. Gilbert Pearson, now president of the 
National Association of Audubon Societies, undertook work of this kind 
at the University of Tennessee. "Bird walks," as the excursions were 
called, were continued for seven successive seasons. Continuing his interest 
in this work, Dr. Pearson, in 1915, began encouraging field trips and 
lectures on birds in the various summer schools by offering financial assist 
ance from the National Association of Audubon Societies. The results have 
been so favorable that the system has been continued from year to year. 

In connection with university courses in geology, entomology and zool 
ogy, field trips often constitute a definite part of the work. Too often they 
are sporadic rather than regular. Dr. A. A. Allen, of Cornell ; Dr. Joseph 
Grinnell, of the University of California, and J. O. Snyder, of Stanford 
University, are notable professors who have emphasized the field trip in 
classes in ornithology. Professor Lynde Jones, of Oberlin, and a few 
others have conducted transcontinental trips where field studies have been 

In a few instances, field excursions comprise a part of the nature study 
program in the schools. The Los Angeles City Nature Study Department 
has introduced trips afield and annual trips to mountains and seashore for 
part of the program. These larger excursions number thousands, and yet 
are so organized as to bring both profit and pleasure to the children. At 
the present time many nature clubs and hiking clubs offer field trips and 
thousands are thus led to study nature first hand. Last year more than 


2,000 persons attended field trips offered by the San Diego Museum of 
Natural History, but similar records by other museums are few in number. 

In 1919 the American School of Wild Life Protection was established 
at McGregor, Iowa. This school has held regular summer sessions with 
emphasis on both class and field work given by specialists. A nature lore 
school founded by Dr. William G. Vinal, of the Rhode Island College of 
Education on Cape Cod, is another recent venture. Its term of one week 
seems wholly inadequate, but its emphasis on "learning by doing" is to 
be commended. 

Boys' and girls' summer camps throughout the United States have found 
it to their advantage to offer trips afield under a competent guide, and early 
demands for trained field naturalists came from this source. 

Nature guide work in the summer resorts of California really had its 
beginning in 1918, when the California Fish and Game Commission sent 
its educational director to Yosemite National Park to deliver a number 
of lectures. As a stimulus to further interest in wild life, field trips were 
offered which proved very popular. In reality, the concept of nature guiding 
was a product of the World Survey, which brought the idea from Europe 
and planted it in America. 

This work caught the attention of Stephen T. Mather, Director of 
National Parks, and in the spring of 1920, through a cooperative arrange 
ment with the California Fish and Game Commission, the National Park 
Service instituted a "Free Nature Guide Service" in Yosemite National Park. 

Formal lectures and short ten-minute campfire talks are given alter 
nately at the main resorts in the Park. Most of the formal lectures are 
illustrated with lantern slides, motion pictures, or whistled imitations of 
bird songs. The shorter talks often deal with some particular animal, 
bird or tree, or answer directly some often repeated question on natural 
history. Occasionally, visiting scientists help out by giving lectures. Out 
lying camps and lodges are included in the program. 

The daily field trips offered the public form an important feature of the 
nature guide service, for here individual instruction is given and a direct per 
sonal contact made. So popular has this feature become that difficulty in han 
dling the groups has been experienced. On many occasions, attendance 
on the morning trips exceeds fifty. Improved service to the public was at 
tained by offering field trips at the back-country lodges and by offering all- 
day trips to the rim of the valley, the latter affording an opportunity to 
study changes in fauna and flora with a change in altitude. Although the 
trips start alternately from the different resorts, it was found that many 
would travel between the camps to repeat their experiences of the day 
before. Many teachers made use of the opportunity to make a longer and 
more thorough study by attending regularly. 


To the child nothing is more interesting than the living thing. The 
second-hand information from a book may prove entertaining, but the in 
formation obtained at first hand in the open is entrancing. Why should 
nature study so often be taught within four walls when more stimulating 
subject matter and surroundings may be had out of doors? 

Herb-smelling and bark-feeling games are played and the children fa 
miliarized with the life about them. Teaching children to "read the road 
side" seems particularly worth while, for they retain the knowledge given 
them more accurately than adults, and their interest in natural history is 
being stimulated at the most receptive age. 

Questioners appear by the hundred during the office hours held each day 
at the office of the Nature Guide Service. Some are attracted by the 
stuffed specimens, and still others by the sign inviting them to ask questions. 
During the height of the season over fifty questions are answered per hour 
as proved by actual test. What bird steals butter from our camp table? 
What is the plant that looks like a giant red asparagus tip? What 
is the name of the bird with a red head and yellow breast? What 
lizard has a red head and blue tail, and is it poisonous? Does the redwood 
grow in Yosemite Valley? What kinds of pine trees grow in Yosemite? 
Such are the questions asked by every visitor to Yosemite National Park. 
If no one is near at hand to satisfy such a craving for information, the 
problems which confront the visitor are soon forgotten. If someone is near 
at hand, interest is stimulated, and the visitor receives a thrill plus a 
contentment of mind which makes his vacation more worth while. 

The need for reference works has been met by compact nature study 
libraries furnished by the California Nature Study League. Two such 
libraries have supplemented those at the Sierra Club Lodge and at the Mu 
seum. Stimulated by a lecture or by the experience on a field trip, many 
seek additional nature lore through the medium of books. 

Although the Nature Guide program emphasizes study of the living 
thing, yet there are those who may be stimulated to study the living thing 
as a result of a study of a specimen. A fine fire-proof museum, where 
one may check knowledge gained afield, is a part of the educational program. 
Mounted birds and animals, insects and plants furnish opportunity for 
initial study by those incapable of tramping, and opportunity for a close 
view and further study by many others. In addition to supplementing the 
attractions of a national park, a museum always furnishes through its dis 
plays a glimpse of what is to be seen and enjoyed in the park. Furthermore, 
it furnishes excellent general headquarters for all educational activities. 

A display of wild flowers is maintained throughout the summer months 
at each of the resorts, and through the interest of a local resident is con 
tained throughout the winter, it being possible to display trees and shrubs 


even though wild flowers are scarce. The success of such flower shows is 
made possible through the employment of a trained field botanist. During 
the summer season over four hundred different wild flowers, trees and 
shrubs are exhibited, each properly labeled and displayed. Many unable to 
climb to timber line have an opportunity to study the flowers of the alpine 
region, and everyone who notes an interesting flower in bloom may readily 
identify it by finding it in the display. Numbers of people have spent hours, 
notebook in hand, studying exhibits. 

Beginning with the summer of 1922 a mimeographed set of notes under 
the heading, "Yosemite Nature Notes," has been issued weekly and posted 
and distributed free to all interested. Instructive notes on the various 
interesting species conspicuous at the time, have been largely utilized. Thus 
readers of the Nature Notes are able to follow the changes in fauna and 
flora with the advance of the summer. 

Although primarily interested in teaching and recording the biological 
features of the Park, yet the Nature Guide Service has taken every oppor 
tunity to boost for the national parks, to preach conservation and proper 
sanitation. Furthermore, special interest has been taken in the new museum, 
and a number of botanical and zoological specimens have been prepared 
and added. 

In 1921 a nature guide service was established in Yellowstone National 
Park. Emphasis has been placed on evening lectures by trained scientists, 
the community centers affording a unique opportunity for development 
along this line. Every center is furnished a nature guide lecture each eve 
ning. A museum attracts hundreds of visitors. Field trips do not form 
a part of the program. 

Glacier National Park inaugurated a nature guide service in 1922 with 
the aid of the Montana State University. Here, also, emphasis was placed 
on a lecture program. The same year saw a beginning made in Mount 
Rainier and Sequoia National Parks. 

The results of nature guiding are far-reaching. Apparently the contact 
made with the student is oftentimes lasting and, occasionally, even influences 
very definitely the future program of certain individuals. In 1921 a man 
became interested in the field trips offered by the Yosemite Nature Guide 
Service. He became particularly interested in wild flowers. Returning in 
the summer of 1922, he reported that although he has usually considered 
botanizing a suitable hobby for eccentric women, yet he had found there 
was really something in it and that he had chosen it as his own hobby. 
During the winter season he collected 367 different species of plants, prop 
erly mounted the specimens and labeled them. Returning in the summer 
of 1922, he asked for some sort of work that might aid him in his studies, 
and he was appointed to help out with the flower shows. This man has 


continued his interest, and just the other day he wrote, reporting that an 
additional 200 specimens secured in another part of the state had been 
added to his collection, and another correspondent describes his herbarium 
as the finest she had seen. 

The writer was returning to Berkeley from San Diego when, on passing 
through a small town and having stopped his machine at the curb, a lady 
approached and said : "You do not know who I am, but I was out with 
you on nature-guide field excursions in Yosemite last summer. With the 
start these trips gave, I have become intensely interested in the study of 
birds. I live at Laguna, where many shore birds are to be seen during 
the migration period. Can you tell me what bird answers to this descrip 
tion?" She followed with a careful description of the western willet so 
that there was no difficulty in solving the problem for her. To be able 
thus to stimulate students sufficiently so that they continue their studies 
of living forms after leaving the Valley is perhaps the most worth-while 
thing that can be accomplished by a nature guide service. 

In the summer of 1922, a professor from an eastern institution came to 
seek rest and renewed strength in the Valley. His doctor had ordered 
him to do no studying on his own subject, which happened to be psychology. 
This professor immediately changed his viewpoint and began an active 
study of the flora and fauna of Yosemite National Park. He carried his 
botany with him everywhere he went and became so interested in the aid 
secured through the nature-guide program that he attended field trips and 
lectures regularly, and later even aided the guides when large attendance 
made an additional instructor necessary. 

A school superintendent took the writer to visit the room of a grammar- 
grade teacher. A table contained a fine display of wild flowers. Pictures 
and specimens of birds were in evidence. The superintendent introduced 
her as one doing the best nature-study work in the city. The teacher replied 
that her inspiration had come largely from a nature-study course offered 
by the Yosemite Nature Guide Service. 

There is abundant evidence to show that thousands have been awak 
ened to the pleasure to be found in nature study and, with the proper 
inspiration gained, have gone afield with eyes and ears open to see and to 
hear more completely themselves and to pass on enthusiasm to others. It 
is also plain to see that thousands, having seen "game hog" pictures and 
had pointed out to them the necessity for conserving the natural resources, 
have more actively espoused the cause of conservation. 

As E. H. Forbush has pointed out, the benefits of study in the field 
are two-fold, for: "The outdoor use of eye, ear, and limb, necessitated by 
field work, tends to fit both the body and the mind of the student for the 
practical work of life, for it develops both members and faculties." 


Particularly in a democracy is it necessary to have the public kept in 
touch with the findings of science. "There is no more dreadful sight than 
ignorance in action." The more scientists make known the products of 
research to the citizenry, the greater the progress toward a triumphant 

Biologists are beginning to fear the time when there will be no plant 
or animal life in its natural environment. The wilderness is fast dis 
appearing and unmodified associations of plant and animal life becoming 
rare. The recent completion of a naturalists' guide has shown the pre 
ponderance of modified areas, with their introduced species, over the natural 
conditions. To be able to point out the danger of present tendencies "on 
the ground" and win support for a policy demanding that national parks 
shall be areas where native plants and animals are maintained in their natu 
ral state should mean much to this worthy movement for the preservation 
of natural areas. 

The scientist who attempts popularization of his subject usually loses 
caste among his fellows. Work of this character is despised and considered 
trivial "in comparison with the stereotyped biology which can be learned 
from textbooks." At present the whole system of biological training dis 
courages that "taste for field natural history and collecting, spontaneous 
in so many young people." The passing of the old-time naturalist is being 
felt with the setting in of a reaction which is evident in oft-expressed ap 
prehensions in recent scientific literature. The success of this governmental 
project in popularizing natural history is a demonstration of the value of 
field study and should do much to alter this wrong point of view. 

That nature guiding should first become popular in the national parks 
is obvious. National parks furnish something more than recreation, whether 
it be the recreation sought by those who, arrayed in white flannels or silk 
shirts, spend their vacation in an inanity of leisure, or those who, dressed 
in khaki, aspire to climb the highest peaks. On every side one meets living 
things which stimulate his curiosity and interest. 

As Dr. J. Grinnell (1919) has so tersely put it: "The animal life of 
our national parks is one of their best recreative assets. The cliffs, the 
lakes, the waterfalls, and the forests each and together tend to stimulate 
the senses and the mind to pleasurable excitement; and the efforts to secure 
these pleasures in full measure bring vigorous bodily exercise. But the 
animals, provided interest in them is once aroused, undoubtedly constitute 
a more subtle and even more alluring objective, one that brings into play 
at keenest pitch those more or less latent senses and instincts which were 
of vital importance in the earlier stages of human history, for, among 
mammals, large and small, and among birds and insects, one encounters 
the moving elusive objective, the one characterized by mannerism, by chang- 



ing form, color tone and pattern, and by sound of great variety. Moreover, 
the animal life, and the plant life too, presents innumerable problems of 
interrelations, of interdependencies and of a struggle for mastery, the con 
templation of any one of which will provide unlimited stimulus for intel 
lectual activity and enjoyment." 

Who will not agree that: "Let the interest be keen, new facts will open 
up ; new trees will grow ; new birds will fly ; new fish will swim ; and then 
will our galleries be filled with new and glorious pictures of things worth 
seeing." And certain it is that when one has learned to "read the trailside 
as one reads a book," under instruction from a nature guide, his gallery 
will soon be filled with such pictures. 


"Knowledge never learned of schools, 
Of the wild bee's morning chase, 
Of the wild flower's time and place, 
Flight of fowl and habitude 
Of the tenants of the wood; 
How the tortoise bears his shell, 
How the woodchuck digs his cell, 
And the ground mole sinks his well; 
How the robin feeds her young, 
How the oriole's nest is hung." 

A School for Nature Guides 

A national park should furnish both recreation and education. In every 
park there is more to be seen and appreciated than the particular phenomena 
for the preservation of which the park was created. In Europe the main 
concept of a national park is that of a place where fauna and flora are left 
undisturbed and where the student of nature may go to study them. In 
America this viewpoint is overlooked. Most visitors pass by the most 
interesting forms of life, neither seeing nor hearing them, perhaps, largely 
because they have not been led to appreciate their opportunities in this regard. 

That Yosemite National Park might contribute more to the vacationist 
by means of an organized educational program emphasizing natural history 
opportunities, the Nature Guide Service was organized. In the work stress 
has been placed upon first-hand information from the living thing itself 
rather than upon printed or spoken words, although these also play a part. 
The opportunity of becoming intimately acquainted with birds, trees, flowers, 
insects, and other life is now afforded every visitor. The response of the 
public has been gratifying. Whereas two nature guides instructed a few 
hundred the first year (1920), it will take eight guides to care for the 
thousands who will seek instruction this coming summer. 

Yosemite visitors may expect the same program of lectures and field 
trips as in former years with added facilities due to the completion of the 
new Yosemite museum. The main innovation will be a School of Field 
Natural History for the training of teachers of nature study and of nature 
guides. Training in intensive field study such as will be undertaken is not 
afforded elsewhere in the West. This school appears to be a particularly 
fitting outgrowth of the Nature Guide Service. 

Teachers of nature study and of biology are seeking a training that 
will make them more familiar with conspicuous plants and animals. Lead 
ers of Boy Scouts and Camp Fire Girls are seeking to fit themselves to 
interpret nature. Every summer vacationist wants to be able to identify 
interesting forms of life encountered. Training along these lines is not 
to be held in the West. The time and conditions seem opportune for 
the establishment of a school of field natural history. The outstanding 
growth of the Nature Guide Service in the national parks and the growing 
demand for trained leadership in nature studies for summer camps and 
summer resorts is creating a new profession that of nature guiding. 

Biology as taught in the average high school and college does not em 
phasize field study and as a consequence there are few persons who are 
able to recognize, name and properly study the living things along a trail- 
side. Many, feeling themselves handicapped in this regard, are seeking 


for instruction that brings a first-hand acquaintance with the living thing 
in its native environment. A fine new museum building and increased 
nature guide staff now offer proper facilities, and an auspicious beginning 
is assured for a School of Field Natural History in Yosemite National 
Park. In reality, it is a natural outgrowth of the now well-established 
Nature Guide Service. 

The number of students in the 1925 session will be limited to twenty. 
Students will be accepted on the basis of date and written application 
after fulfilling educational requirements, two years of college work or the 
equivalent being considered a minimum prerequisite. 

Course of Study 

1. Physical geography and geology of the Sierra Nevada. 

2. Classification and nomenclature (animal and plant). 

3. Plant and animal distribution. Life zones. 

4. Botany (a) Common trees and shrubs, (b) Powers, (c) Algae 
and fungi. 

5. Zoology (a) Invertebrates insects; mollusks. (b) Common ver 
tebrates (i) Fishes, (2) amphibians, (3) reptiles, (4) birds, (5) mammals. 

1. Field trips for study of fauna and flora of the valley floor at 8 
a. m. daily. 

2. All-day field trips every Saturday to the rim of the valley. 

3. Special collecting trips for rarer forms. 

4. A week's trip to the high lake and meadow country, affording studies 
at timber line. 

Emphasis is to be placed on intensive field work, and each student will 
be expected to know and identify all the common Yosemite trees, shrubs, 
wild flowers, insects, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. Grad 
ing will be apportioned as follows: 

Field identification, 60 per cent ; teaching ability, 20 per cent ; notebooks, 
io per cent; preparation of scientific specimens, 5 per cent; familiarity 
with literature, 5 per cent. 

The work will be of university grade. However, for the present, no 
university credit is offered, but a certificate showing that the work was 
satisfactorily completed will be issued. 

It is hoped students will, on account of sociability, prefer to camp in 
a reserved section for students of the school. A tent for two with house 
keeping equipment costs about $7 per week. Groceries and meat are to 
be had at practically city prices. Hotel or American plan camp accom 
modations are near at hand for those who do not care to camp. Free camp 
grounds are available to those who have their own equipment. If you 


N A T U R E G U I D I N G 1 1 

plan to camp in the reserved section, you should bring your own bedding. 
Send it by parcel post. 

Outing clothes are in order at all times and places. 

The teaching staff includes: 

Harold C. Bryant, B.S., M.S., Ph.D., Economic Ornithologist, Museum 
of Vertebrate Zoology, University of California, and in charge of educa 
tion, publicity and research, California Fish and Game Commission. 

Ansel F. Hall, B.S. chief park naturalist, National Park Service. 

Carl P. Russell, A.B., M.A., park naturalist, Yosemite National Park. 

M. B. Nichols, Ph.D., instructor biology, Oakland Technical High 
School, nature guide. 

Mrs. Enid Michael, park botanist and nature guide. 

Roland Ross, naturalist, nature guide. 

Robert Harwood, A.B., teacher of biology, Bakersfield Union High 
School, nature guide. 

Leo Wilson, M.S., University of California, nature guide. 

Regular instruction, June 29 to August 8; high mountain field trip, 
August 9 to August 14. 

The school being a contribution of the National Park Service with 
the aid of the California Fish and Game Commission, no tuition or fees 
will be charged. Expense is thus limited to sundry materials, such as 
notebooks and collecting apparatus and transportation, food, housing and 

The plan is to make the work supplement the lower division university- 
courses in botany and zoology with the opportunity for field work bringing 
first-hand acquaintance with various living forms. Emphasis will be placed 
on the very knowledge, the lack of which many feel so keenly. Oppor 
tunity for practice in teaching, leading parties afield, in presentation of 
nature lore at the campfire and in writing nature notes will be given every 

For further information apply to Park Naturalist, Yosemite National 

Park, Yosemite, Calif. 

Bibliography of Nature Guiding 


1923. The relation of wild life to the public in national and state parks. Proc. 

Second Nat. Conference of State Parks, 1922, pp. 129-147. 

1922. Evolutionary faith and modern doubts. Science, 55, pp. 55-61. 

1920. Yosemite nature guide service. Report of the Director of the National 
Park Service to the Secretary of the Interior for fiscal year ending 1920. 
Gov. Printing Office, 423 pp., illus. 

1921. Yosemite nature guide service. Ibid. 1921, 306 pp., illus. 

1922. Yosemite nature guide service. Ibid. 1922, 173 pp., illus. 

1921. Nature play for the kiddies. Outers' Recreation, 64 (Feb., 1921), pp. 122- 
124, 153, 9 figs. 

1923. California schools and nature study. Nature Study Review, 19, pp. 18-22. 

1922. Nature guiding in our national parks. National Municipal Review, 12 
(Feb., 1923), pp. 56-58. 


1921. Uncle Sam teaches nature study to sixty thousand in West. Dearborn 
Independent, Nov. 26, 1921, p. n, illus. 


1915. Learning to read a roadside. Nature Study Revieia, n, pp. 273-279, 3 fig?. 

1919. The animal life of Glacier National Park. Condor, 21, pp. 131-132. 

1923. The educational development of Yosemite National Park. Sierra Club. 
Bull, n, pp. 411-416, 2 pis. 


1922. The early training of scientists. Science, 55, pp. 355-358. 

1910. The right way to teach zoology. The Outlook, pp. 256-263. 

19193. A day with a nature guide. The Outlook, 122, pp. 244-246, illus. 
n/ii)b. The children of my trail school. Saturday Evening Post, Mar. i, 1919, 

PP- 49-53. '"" 

19203. Nature guiding near home. American Boy, Aug., 1920, pp. 15, 25, illus. 
i92oh. The adventures of a nature guide. (Doubleday, Page & Co., N. Y.), 

XIV, pp. 271, illus. 

1917. "Back to nature" scientifically as well as emotionally. Amer. Mus. Jour., 

17, pp. 403-406. 

1920. The need for a more serious effort to rescue a few fragments of vanishing 
nature. Sci. Monthly, Mar., 1920, pp. 236-248. 


1923. The dry-rot of our acsdemic biology. Science, 57, pp. 61-71. 

For the Nature Lover 

The following publications available from th 

Association are invaluable to those who seek to know and to love 
the outdoors. 


An introduction to our forests, past an 

By Chari. 

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Charles Lathrop Pack. , $4.00 


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Through the pages of Nature Maga: beautifully illustrated monthly 

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Subscribing Membership in the American Nature A 
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The American Nature Association 

1214 i6th St. N.W. W ton, D. C. 

available free to mem- 
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to non-members are: 

Nature Guiding . . $0.25 

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1 ^^"^ 

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