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Hariiarti College 1/ibvars 

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JOHN AMORY LOWELL, 

(Class of ISlft). 

This fund is $30,000, and of its income three qoarters 

shall be spent for books and one quarter 

be added to the principal. 




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THE DIAL 



nA OAonibly Journal of 



Current Literature 



VOLUME XL 
04 AY. 1890, TO t/JPRIL, 18(^1. 



CHICAGO: 

A. C. McClurg & CoMPANT, Publishers. 

1891. 



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INDEX TO VOLUME XI. 



America, Prehistoric James 0. Pierce 377 

America, The Makers of Andrew (7. McLaughlin . . . 342 

American Literature, A Library of Horatio X. Powers 181 

AuTHO&sHiP, The Art of Melville B. Anderson .... 85 

Autobiography of a Famous Actor Janies B. Runnion 237 

Bac:ox's Kssays, Anderson's Edition of Alhert S. Cook 290 

Bryant, William Cullen Oliver Farrar Emerson ... 31 

Chesterfield's Letters to His Godson Edward Gilpin Johnson ... 61 

Constitutions and Institutions Jainss 0. Pierce 152 

Dark Continent, The Dark Problem of thk . . . James F. Clajiin 117 

Darwin, Charles, Journal of Anjia B. McMahxin 59 

De Quincey, Masson's Edition of Melville B. Anderson .... 35 

Dictionary of National Biography, The Edward Gilpin Johnson ... 5 

Earth-Artificers, Two Sdim H, Peahodi/ 148 

Electbicity, Modern Uses of H. S, Carhart 348 

English Literature, Studies in Oliver Farrar Emsrson . . . 309 

Erdm Ann's History of Philosophy WiUiam M, Salter 344 

Essays, New and Old inna B, McMahan 150 

Evolution, Recent Books on Anna B. McMahan 7 

Fiction, Recent Books of Williain Morton Payne 12, 92, 239 ^ 

GEORCiKs, The Four C. W. French 64 

German Empire, Founding of the Charles H. Cooper 288 

Greek Dramatists, Odi<:s from the M. L. D'Ooge 311 

Hemenway, Francis Dana Minerva B. Norton 350 

Historic Myths, 1'he Persistknce of W. F, Poole 143 

Ibsen, Hexrik,^ The Life of W, E. Simonds 146 

International Copyright 43 

International Copyright a Fact 354 

"International" Webster, The New Melville B, Anderson . . . . 189 

Irish Parliament, The Closing Years of the . . . William Eliot Furness . . . 346 

Jefferson, Thomas, The Statesmanship of ... . Henry W. Thurston ..... 33 

Lowell for Posterity Melville B. Anderson .... 285 

Madison and Commercial Restriction Henry IV. Thurston 307 

MiLNBS, Richard M., Life, Letters, and Friendships of Edward Gilpin Johnson . . . 339 

Modern Roman, A /. «/. Halsey Ill 

New England, Economic and Social History of . . W, F, Poole 279 

Newman, Cardinal, The Life and Letters of . . . William M. Lawrence- .... 374 

Norumbega, Problem of the Northmen and Site of . Julius E. Olson 112 

"Old Country Life" Genevieve Grant 38 

Old England, A Good Old Book on Minerva B, Norton 89 

Pater's "Appreciations" C. A, L. Richards 37 

PHLLOepPHY OF THE FuTURB, Thb Anna B. McMahan . . . .^ 36 

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IV. 



INDEX. 



PoETBY, Recent Books of William Morton Payne . . 67, 312 

Powers, Dr. H. N., Death of 158 

Primitive Family, The J- J- HaUey 9 

Queens, Wits, and Beaux of Society Octave Thanet 244 

Religion and Philosophy, Notable Discussions of . John Bascom 182 

Religious Leaders, Two J, J, Halsey 87 

Renaissance, The Civilization of the Henrietta Schuyler Gardiner . . 192 

Russia, New Views of Aiihertine Woodward Moore . . 115 

Scott, Walter, Journal of Martin W. Sampson .... 231 

Stanley and His Work in Africa Minerva B. Norton 234 

Travel and Adventure, New Books of Edward Gilpin Johnson . . . 185 

"Two Years Before the Mast," The Sequel of . . Edward Playfair Anderson . . 379 

Walpole, Horace, The Letters of Octave Thanet 66 

WiNCHELL, Dr. Alexander, Death of 355 

Wineland, the Finding of Julius E. Olson 371 

World's Fair, The, and Intellectual Progress 355 



AUTHORS AND TITLES OF BOOKS REVIEWED. 



Abbot, Francis EUingwood. The Way Out of 

Agnosticism 36 

Abbott, Mary. The Beverley s 242 

Abbot, Willis J. Battlefields and Canipfires . 254 

Auton, Mrs. Adam. Rosebud 255 

Adams, Charles Francis. Richard Henry Dana 379 
Adams, Henry. The Administrations of James 

Madison 307 

Adams, Henry. The Administrations of Thomas 

Jefferson 33 

Adamsy Mrs. A. W. Rhymes for Little Readers 252 

Adams, Myron. The Continuous Creation . . 9 

Adams, Oscar Fay. The Poet's Year .... 248 

Alger, Horatio, Jr. Struggling Upward . . . 254 

Allen, Grant. Wednesday, the Tenth . . . 251 
Allen, William F. Short History of the Roman 

People 70 

Allen, Willis Boyd. The Lion City of Africa . 255 
Anderson, Melville B. The Essays or Counsels 

of Francis Bacon 290 

Anstey, F. Voces Populi 249 

Arnold, Matthew, Poetical Works of ... . 317 

Ashton, John. Curious Ci'eatures in Zoology . 249 

Austin, Jane G. Standish of Standish .... 12 

Austin, Stella. Paul and His Friend .... 253 
Babcock, W. H, The Two Lost Centuries of 

Britain 354 

Baconian Facts . . . . * 321 

Bainton, Georg^. The Art of Authorship . . 85 
Balch, Elizabeth. Glimpses of Old English 

Homes 248 

Balch, F H. The Bridge of the Gods ... 242 

Ball, Sir Robert S. Star-Land 43 

Baring-Gould, S. Old Country Life .... 38 

Bates, Arlo. Albrecht 13 

BsizAOf Emilia Pardo. Russia : Its People and 

Its Literature 116 



Benet, S. Elgar. Sunmier Thoughts for Yule 

Tide 250 

Besant, Walter. Captain Cook 42 

Bigelow, Jolm. William CuUen Bryant ... 31 

Black, William. Prince Fortunatus .... 14 
Blackmar, Frank W. Tlie Spanish Colonization 

in the Southwest 153 

Blackmore, R. D. Kit and Kitty 14 

Blackmore, R. D. Loma Doone 248 

Blake, Mary Elizabeth. Verses Along the Way 315 

Bouvet, Marguerite. Sweet William .... 253 

Boyesen, H. H. Against Heavy Odds . . . 252 
Bradley, Charles F. The Life of Francis Dana 

Hemenway 350 

Breton, Jules. The Life of an Artist : An Auto- 
biography 383 

Brinton, Daniel G. Essays of an Americanist . 40 

Bronte, Emily. Jane Eyre 247 

Brown, John Mason. The Political Beginnings 

of Kentucky • . . 154 

Brown, Robert. The Adventures of Thomas 

PeUow 189 

Browne, William Hand. George and Cecilius 

Calvert 343 

Browning Memorial 41 

Browning, Selections from the Poetical Works of 317 
Bruce, Henry. Life of General Oglethorpe . . 344 
Brush, Christine Champlin. One Summer's Les- 
sons in Practical Perspective 252 

Burckhardt, Jacob. The Civilization of the Ren- 
aissance in Italy 192 

Butler, Sir William. Sir Charles Napier . . 194 
Butterworth, Hezekiah. Ziz-Zag Journeys in the 

Great Northwest 255 

Bynner, Edwin Lassetter. The Begum's Daugh- 
ter 93 

Calendars for 1891 250 

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INDEX. 



Carnarvon, £arl of. Letters of Philip Dormer 

to His Godson .' 61 

Castlemon, Harry. Rodney the Partisan . . 254 

Catherwood, Mary Hartwell. The Story of Tonty 12 

Century Dictionary, Volumes III. and IV. . 95, 202 

Century Magazine, Volume XXXIX. ... 43 
Champney, Elizabeth W. Three Vassar Girls 

in Switzerland 255 

Chester, E. Girls and Women 121 

Chichester, H. Manners. Memoirs of the Mil- 
itary Career of John Shipp 189 

Clark, Susie G. The Round Trip 187 

Clarke, Richard F. Cardinal Lavigerie and the 

African Slave Trade 117 

Coffin, C. C. Freedom Triumphant .... 254 
Collins, F. Howard. An Epitome of the Syn- 
thetic Philosophy 8 

Conder, R. E. Palestine 157 

Cone, Helen Gray, and Humphrey, Maud. Baby 

Sweethearts 254 

Cone, Helen Gray, and Humphrey, Maud. Tiny 

Toddlers 254 

Cook, Joel. An Eastern Tour at Home . . . 187 

Copp^e, Francois. Disillusion 250 

Cox, Psdmer. Another Brownie Book .... 254 
C ranch, Christopher Pearse. The Bird and the 

Bell 316 

Crandall, Charles H. Representative Sonnets by 

American Poets 316 

Crawford, F. Marion. A Cigarette-Maker's Ro- 
mance 241 

Curtin, Jeremiah. Myths and Folk-Lore of Ire- 
land 42 

Curtin, Jeremiah. Myths and Folk-Tales of the 

Russians, etc 352 

Dana, James D. Chai-Jicter of Volcanoes . . 148 

Dana, James I). Coi-als and Coral Islands . . 150 
Darwin, Charles. Jounuil of Researches during 
the Voyage round the World of H. M. S. 

Beagle 59 

Daudet, Alphonse. Port Tarascon 242 

Dawson, W. J. The Makers of Modern English 309 

Day's Message, Tlie 249 

De Amicis, Edmondo. Holland and Its People 246 
De Costa, B. F. The Pre-Columbian Discovery 

of America 371 

Deland, Margaret. Sidney 240 

Delano, Aline. The Autobiography of Anton 

Rubinstein 318 

Delpit, Albert. As Tis in Life 94 

De Maupassant, Guy. Modem Ghosts . . . 243 

Dickinson, Enuly. Poems 313 

Dilke, Sir Charles. Problems of Greater Britain 70 

Dobson, Austin. Four Frenchwomen .... 352 

Dobson, Austin. Memoir of Horace Walpole . 248 

Dobson, Austin. The Sun Dial 247 

Dodge, Theodore A. Alexander 293 

Drake, Samuel Adams. The Pine Tree Coast . 187 

Du Bois, Constance Goddard. Martha Corey . 241 

Duncan, Sara Jeannette. A Social Departure . 158 

Dunckley, Henry, l^rd Melbourne .... 353 

Earle, <John. English Prose 351 

Eaton, Frances. DoUikens and the Miser . . 255 

Edersheim, Alfred. Jesus the Messiah . . . 182 

Eldridge, Mary I^e. Mrs. Muff and Her Friends 252 

Electricity in Daily Life 348 

Eleusis : A Poem 43, 68 

Eliot, George. Romola 246 



Ellis, Edward S. The Cabin in the Clearing . 256 

Ellwanger, George H. The Story of My House 321 

English Poems 248 

Evolution : Popular Lectures before the Brooklyn 

Ethical Association 8 

Farrar, Canon. Eric 251 

Farrington, Margaret Vere. Fra Lippo Lippi . 247 
Field, Henry M. Bright Skies and Dark Shad- 
ows 71 

Finck, Henry T. The Pacific Coast Scenic Tour 186 

Finley, Martha. Elsie Yachting 262 

Fisher, George Park. The Nature and Method 

of Revelation 183 

Flammarion, Camille. Urania ..../. 249 

Forbes, Archibald. Havelock 97 

Frances, Laurence H. Through Thick and Thin 255 

Franzos, Karl Emil. The Chief Justice . . . 243 

Frederic, Harold. In the Valley 239 

Frederic, Harold. The Lawton Girl .... 93 

Fremont, Jessie Benton. Far- West Sketches . 187 

Fuller, Mabel I^ouise. In Poppy Land . . . 254 

Garnett, James M. Selections in English Prose 310 

Garnett, Richard. Life of John Milton ... 16 
Gasp^, Philippe Aubert de. The Canadians of 

Old 244 

Gautier, L^on. Chivalry 266 

Gayley, Charles Mills, and Scott, Fred Newton. 

A Guide to the Literature of ^Esthetics . . 310 

GUdersleeve, Basil Lanneau. Essays and Studies 160 

Gladden, Washington. Santa Clans on a Lark . 255 

God in His World 183 

Golden Flower Chrysanthemum 247 

(romme, George Laurence. The Village Com- 

mimity 154 

Goncourt, E. and J. de. Sister Pliilomeue . . 243 

(JlcM)d Things of Life 249 

(iosse, Edmund. Browning Personalia ... 41 

Gi*and Army Picture Book 254 

Gi-ay, E. Conder. Making the Best of Things . 294 

Grosse, Theobald. Tlie Humming Top . . . 266 

Hale, Edward Everett. The Story of a Dory . 250 

Hal^vy, Ludovic. A Marriage for Love . . . 247 

Harrison, Mrs. Burton. The Anglomaniacs . . 241 

Harte, Bret. A Ward of the Golden Gate . . 241 

Hawthorne. Our Old Home 246 

Hay, John. Poems 69 

Hearu, Lafcadio. Two Years in the French 

West Indies 15 

Henley, W. E. Views and Reviews .... 155 

Heyse, Paul. The Children of the World . . 243 
Higginsou, Mrs. S. J. Java : The Pearl of the 

East 72 

Higginson, T. W., and Bigelow, E. H. Amer- 
ican Sonnets 316 

Hochschild, Baron. D^sir^e, Queen of Sweden 

and Norway 319 

Hoppin, James M. Old England 89 

Horsford, Eben Norton. The Discovery of the 

Ancient City of Norumbega 114 

Horsford, Eben Norton. The Problem of the 

Northmen 112 

Hough, Williston S. Erdmann's History of Phi- 
losophy 344 

Howells, W. D. A Boy's Town 250 

Howells, W. D. The Shadow of a Dream . . 93 
Hoyt, D. L. Handbook of Historic Schools of 

Painting 294 

Hughes, Thomas. Tom Brown's School Days . 251 

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VI. 



INDEX. 



Hugo, Victor. Hans of Iceland 258 

Hutton, Laurence. Curiosities of the American 

Stage 384 

Ingersoll, Ernest. Silver Caves 253 

Isaacs, Jorge. Maria 14 

Jacobs, Joseph. English Fairy Tales .... 255 

Jfeger, Henrik. Henrik Ibsen 146 

James, E. J. The Federal Constitution of Swit- 
zerland 120 

James, Henry. The Tragic Muse 92 

Janvier, Thomas A. The Aztec Treasure-House 241 

Jefferies, Richard. The Gamekeeper at Home . 320 

JefiPerson, Joseph, The Autobiography of . . . 237 
Jephson, A. J. Mounteney. Emin Pasha and 

the Rebellion at the Equator 235 

Jerome, Irene E. From an Old Love Letter . 250 
Johnston, Henry P. The Correspondence and 

Public Papers of John Jay, Vol. I. . . . Ill 

Juvenile Periodicals for 1890 255 

Keltic, J. Scott. The Statesman's Year Hook, 

1890 90 

Keltic, J. Scott. The Story of Emin's Rescue as 

Told in Stanley's Letters 15, 236 

Kendall, Mrs. Dramatic Opinions 40 

Khayyim, Omar, Rubdiydt of 317 

King, Charles. Campaigning with Crook . . 293 

Kipling, Rudyard. Departmental Ditties . . 312 

Kitchin, Dean. Winchester 72 

Knight, F. H. Leafy Ways 250 

Knox, Thomas W. Boy Travellers in Great 

Britain and Ireland 255 

Knox, Thomas W. Horse Stories 255 

Kopta, F. P. Bohemian Legends and Ballads . 69 

Korolenko, Vhulimir. The Blind Musician . . 120 

Kraszewski, rFoseph Ignatius. The Jew . 243 
Ltidd, George Trumbull. Introduction to Phi- 

losopliy 184 

Lane- Poole, Stanley. Story of the Barlmry Cor- 
sairs 16 

Lang, Andrew. Old Friends 72 

Lazarus, Josephine. Love Letters of a Port- 
uguese Nun 319 

Lecky, William Edward Hartpole. England in 
the Eighteenth Century, Volumes VII. and 

VIII :H6 

Lee, Alfred E. European Days and Ways . . 187 
Lee, Arthur Bolles. Tlie Microtomist's Vade- 

Mecum 318 

Leger, Louis. A History of Austro-Hungary . 41 

I^ Strange, Guy. Palestine under the Moslems 158 

Litchfield, Grace Denio. Little Venice . . . 254 

Little, H. W. Henry M. Stanley 236 

Lockwood, Ingersoll. Little Giant Boab . . . 254 

Longfellow. Hiawatha 246 

Loti, Pierre. Rarahu 243 

Lowell. The Vision of Sir Launfal .... 248 

Lowell, The Writings of . 285 

Ludlow, James M. The Captain of the Janiza- 
ries 94 

Lytton, The Earl of. The Ring of Amasis . . 94 

Mabie, Hamilton Wright. My Study Fire . . 294 

Mabie, Hamilton Wright. Our New England . 248 
Machar, Agnes M., and Marquis, Thomas G. 

Stories of New France 17 

Mackay of Uganda 237 

MacWhorter, Lula. Dreams of the Sea . . . 249 
Mahaffy, J. P. The Greek World under Roman 

Sway 383 



Martin, Mrs. Herbert. Little Great Grandmother 261 
Masson, David. The (yollecte'd Writings of 

Thomas de Quincey 35 

McCarthy, Justin. A History of the Four Georges, 

Volumes I. and II 64 

McCaskey, J. P. Christmas in Song, Sketch, and 

Story 249 

McCosh, James. The Religious Aspect of Evo- 
lution 9 

Mead, Theodore H. Our Mother Tongue . . 195 

Meredith, Owen. Lucile 249 

Mitchell, Donald G. English Lands, Letters, 

and Kings 71 

Mitchell, S. Weir. A Psalm of Deaths . . . 313 

Molesworth, Mrs. Children of the Castle . . 254 

Monvel, M. B. de. Good Children and Bad . . 254 

Moore, Thomas. Lalla Rookh 250 

Moore, Thomas. The Epicurean 242 

Moorhead, Warren K. Waimeta the Sioux . . 251 

Morfill, W. R. The Stoi-y of Russia .... 115 

Morley, Henry. English Writers, Volume V. . 194 

Morris, Lewis, The Works of 69 

Morris, William. A Tale of the House of the 

Wolfings 67 

Mosaic, A .246 

Moulton, Louise Chandler. Stories Told at Twi- 
light • . 252 

Mozley, Anne. Letters and Correspondence of 

John Henry Newman 374 

Murray, G. G. A. Gobi or Shamo 14 

Nadaillac, Marquis de. Prehistoric America 379 
Newhall, Charles T. The Trees of Northeastern 

America 194 

Newton, William Wilberforce. Dr. Muhlenberg 87 

Nicholson, Mei-edith. Short Flights .... 314 

Ogden, Ruth. A Loyal Little Redcoat . . . 252 

Ohnet, Georges. The Soul of Pierre .... 249 

Oliphant, Mrs. Royal E<linburgh 383 

Oliver, Pasfield. Robert Drury's Journal . . 157 

Our Great Actors 248 

Owen, Edward T. Notes to French Fiction . . 42 

Palmer, Lynde. Half-Hours in Story Land . . 255 

Pasco, Charles Eyre. London of To-day ... 73 

Pater, Walter. Appreciations 37 

Pattison, Mark. Essays 119 

Peabody, A. P. Harvard Graduates Whom I 

Have Known 96 

Pellew, George. John Jajv* Ill 

Pennypacker, Isaac R. Gettysburg, and other 

Poems 69 

Perrot, Georges, and Cliipiez, Charles. History 

of Art in Sardinia, etc 155 

Perry, Bliss. The Broughton House .... 93 
Perry, Nora. Another Flock of Girls .... 251 
Plympton, A. G. Dear Daughter Dorothy . . 252 
Pollard, Alfred W. Odes from the Greek Dra- 
matists 311 

Pollard, Josephine, and Sunter, J. Pauline. Two 

Little Tots 254 

Prentice, George. Wilbur Fisk 89 

Proctor, Edna Dean. A Russian Journey . . 186 

Proctor, Edna Dean. Poems 316 

Pyle, Howard. The Buccaneers and Marooners 

of America 353 

Read, T. B. Sheridan's Ride 248 

Reddall, Henry F. Henry M. Stanley . . . 236 

Reed, Edwin. Bacon vs. Shakespeare .... 321 

Reed, Mrs. Elizabeth B. Hindu Literature . . 294 

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INDEX. 



Vll. 



Reeve, Charles McCormick. How We Went 

and What We Saw 384 

Reeves, Arthur Middleton. The Finding of Wine- 
land the Good 371 

Reid, T. Wemyss. Life, Letters, and Friend- 
ships of Richard Monckton Milnes .... 339 
Richards, Laura E. Captain January .... 253 
Ridolfo-Bolognesi, Pietro. II Mio Poenia . . 316 
Roberts, A. Sidney. In and Out of Book and 

Journal . 249 

Robinson, Frank T. The Winds of the Seasons 250 

Rolfe, William J. Shakespeare's Poems . . . 317 

Ruffini, G. D. Doctor Antonio 242 

Russell, A. P. In a Club Corner 16 

Russell, Clark. Nelson 97 

Ryland, Frederick. Chronological Outlines of 

English Literature 310 

Saintsbury, George. Balzac's The Chouans . . 247 
Saintsbury, George. M^rim^e's A Chronicle of 

the Reign of Charles IX 247 

Saint- Amand, Imbert de. Citizeness Bonaparte 196 
Saint- Amand, Imbert de. Marie Antoinette and 

the End of the Old Regime 156 

Saint-Amand, Imbert de. Marie Louise and the 

Decadence of the Empire 319 

Saint- Amand, Imbert de. The Court of the Em- 
press Josephine 319 

Saint-Amand, Imbert de. The Happy Days of 

the Empress Marie Louise 121 

Saint-Amand, Imbert de. The Wife of the First 

Consul 43 

Saltus, Francis S. Shadows and Ideals . . . 315 

Sand, George. The Gallant Lords of Bois Dor^e 249 

Sand, George. The Haunted Pool 249 

Sargent, John F. Reading for the Young . . 311 

Savage, Minot J. Helps for Daily Living . . 17 

Savage, Minot J. The Signs of the Times . . 17 

Scheffel, Joseph Victor von. Ekkehard ... 94 
Schelling, Felix E. Poetic and Verse Criticism 

of the Reign of Elizabeth 382 

Schunnan, Jacob Gould. Belief in God . . . 185 

Scott, Fred N. The Principles of Style ... 310 

Scott, Sir Walter, The Journal of 231 

Seawell, Molly Elliot. Little Jarvis .... 255 
Sessions, Francis C. On the Wing Through Eu- 
rope 16 

Shepherd, Henry A. The Antiquities of the State 

of Ohio 378 

Sidney, Sir Philip. Defence of Poesy .... 320 

Sienkiewicz, Henryk. With Fire and Sword . 93 
Sladen, Douglas B. W. Australian Poets, 1788- 

1888 69 

Small, Albion W. Beginnings of American Na- 
tionality 152 

Smalley, G. W. lx)ndon Letters 292 

Smith, F. Harrison. Through Abyssinia . . . 187 
Smith, G. T. Synopsis of English and American 

Literature 310 

Sociology : Papers before the Brooklyn Ethical 

Association 320 

Stahl, P. J. Maroussia 254 

Stanley, Henry M. In Darkest Africa . . . 235 

Starcke, C. N. The Primitive Family .... 9 

Starrett, Helen E. Gyppy 255 

Stebbing, William. Peterborough 42 

Stedman, E. C, and Hutchinson, Ellen M. A 
Library of American Literature, concluding 

volumes 181 



Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Biography 5 
Steme, Stuart. Piero da Castiglione .... 315 
Sterrett, J. Macbride. Studies in Hegel's Philos- 
ophy 184 

Stevens, Thomas. Scouting for Stanley in East 

Africa 236 

Stevenson, Robert Louis. Ballads 313 

Stewart, Aubrey. The Tale of Troy .... 294 

Stockton, Frank R. Ardis Claverden .... 240 

Stockton, Frank R. The Great War Syndicate . 13 

Stoddard, Richard Henry. The Lion's Cub . . 313 

Stoddard, W. O. Chuck Purdy -251 

Stoddard, W. O. Crowded Out o' Crofleld . . 263 

Sumner, William Graham. Alexander Hamilton 342 

Swift, Jonathan. Gulliver's Travels .... 320 

Swiss Family Robinson 255 

Sybel, Heinrich von. The Founding of the Ger- 
man Empire, Volume 1 288 

Symonds, John Addington. Introduction to the 

Study of Dante 72 

Tennyson. The Princess 249 

Tenting on the Old Camp Ground 250 

Thanet, Octave. Expiation 13 

Thaxter, Celia. My Light House .• ... 250 
Thayer, William Roscoe. The Best Elizabethan 

Plays 96 

Thomas, Edith M. The Inverted Torch . . . 314 
Thompson, Daniel Greenleaf. The Philosophy 

of Fiction 309 ^ 

Thompson, Joseph. Mungo Park and the Niger 188 

Thruston, Gates P. The Antiquities of Tennessee 377 

Thurston, Robert H. Heat as a Form of Energy 156 

Thus Think and Smoke Tobacco 250 

Tieman, Mary Spear. Jack Homer .... 13 

Tiffany, Esther B. The Spirit of the Rne . . 250 

Tiffany, Francis. Life of Dorothea Lynde Dix . 193 

Toland, Mrs. M. B. M. Tisiyac of the Yosemite 249 

Tramp, Tramp, Tramp 260 

Trelawny, Edward John. Adventures of a Youn- 
ger Son 94 

TroUope, Thomas Adolphus. What I Remember, 

Vol.11 16 

Trowbridge, J. T. The Kelp Gatherers . . . 252 

Tsar and His People, The 382 

Turner, Asa, and His Times 120 

Upton, Mrs. H. T. Our Early Presidents . . 248 
Van Rensselaer, Mrs. John King. The Devil's 

Picture Books 247 

Verne, Jules. Csesar Cascabel 255 

Ver Planck, Mrs. J. Campbell. Wonder Light . 253 
Vincent, Frank. In and Out of Central America 157 
Wake, C. Stanilaud. The Development of Mar- 
riage and Kinship 9 

Walker, Francis A. Elementary Course in Po- 
litical Economy 15 

Ward, Herbert. Five Years with the Congo Can- 
nibals 236 

Ward, May Alden. Petrarch 384 

Washburn, William T. Spring and Summer . . 69 

Weber, Alice. When I'm a Man 253 

Webster's International Dictionary of the En- 
glish Language 189 

Weeden, William B. Economic and Social His- 
tory of New England 279 

Wenckebach, Carlo. Deutsche Literaturgeschichte 157 

Wentworth, Walter. The L rifting Island . . 253 
Wesselhoeft, Lily. The Winds, the Woods, and 

the Wanderer ^^ . 252 

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Vlll. 



INDEX. 



244 



Wharton, Grace and Philip. Queens of Society 
Wharton, Grace and Philip. Wits and Beaux of 

Society 244 

White, Greenough. The Philosophy of American 

Literature . • 311 

Wiggin, Kate Douglas, and Smith, Nora A. The 

Story Hour 255 

Wilkinson, J. A. A Real Robinson Crusoe . . 255 
Williams, R. O. Our Dictionaries, and other 

English Language Topics 195 



Wilson, Edward L. In Scripture Lands . 247 

WQson, Sir Charles. Clive 194 

Wilson, Woodrow. State and Federal Govern- 
ments of the United States 121 

Wolff, Henry W. Rambles in the Black Forest 186 
Woodberry, George Edward. Studies in Letters 

and Life 195 

Wordsworth's Sonnets, Selections from . . . 247 

Yonge, Charles D. letters of Horace Walpole 66 

Zoe 252 



Announcements of Fall Pubijcations 121 

Announcements of Spring Publications 384 

Topics in Leadino Periodicals 44, 159, 356, 385 

Books of the Month 17, 44, 73, 97, 126, 159, 196, 255, 295, 321, 356, 386 



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CONTENTS. 

SOME MODERN FRENCH PAINTERS. By Theodore 
Child. 15 illustrations (including frontispiece) from paint- 
ings by leading artists and drawings by Paul Renou^vrd 
and L. O. Mebson. 

MAKING U. S. BONDS UNDER PRESSURE. By L. E. 
Chittenden, Register of the Trejisury under President 
Lincoln. An absolutely unique episode in the history of 
our national credit. 

ROBERT BROWNING. Sonnet. By Aubkey de Veke. 

THE EVOLUTION OF inTMOR. By Profe.s8or S. H. 
Butcher, LL.D., of Edinburgh University. A difficulty 
with the Darwinian tbeorj'. 

OLD NEW YORK TAVERNS. By John Austin Stev- 
ens. With 2(3 illustrations, drawn by Howard Pyle. 

A RIDE IN AUSTRALIA. "ITirough Bush and Fern." 
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NOW IS THE CHERRY IN BLaSSOM. Poem. By^LvRY 

E. WiLKlNS. 

ENGLISH LYRICS UNDER THE FIRST CHARLES. 

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prints. 
FELINE AMENITIES. Drawing. By Geor«e Du Mau- 

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Fiction hy Four zAmericans. 

By W. p. HOWELI^S. *' The Shadow of a Di-eam " (con- 
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Key to oJ^ottb American "Birds. 

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A U^aturalist among the Head-Hunters. I The Skipper in JlrStic Seas. 

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engravings it contains, leproductions of photographs taken by < to this litUe-known region is nniaue, and Ihe reader's interest 

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With the exception of four chapters only, " When We Were Boys " was written by Mr. O'Brien while con- 
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%* The volume contains the following letter from Mr. O'Brien, reproduced in fac-simile : 

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The Captain of the Tolestar, 

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THE [MAY DUMBER 

OF THE 

North American Review 



CONTAINS 



T^EFORMS O^EEDED IN THE HOUSE the hon. thos. m. %EED, speaker. 

The Hatred of England GOLDWIN SMITH. 

Soap-'Bubbli's of Socialism SIMON u^EiVCOMB. 

IVbaf Shall We Do with Silver? THE HON. %OGER Q. (MILLS. 

The Typical .^American undrew lang and [MAX 0%ell. 

jj p^^ Words on Colonel Ingersoll zARCHDEACON FARRAR. 

Audacity in Women O^ovelists GEORGE PARSONS LATHROP. 

The {Mississippi Floods .... GEN. ^. W. GREELEY, Chief of the Signal 'Bureau. 

Why Cities are 'Badly Governed STATE SENATOR FASSETT. 

THE TARIFF ON TRIAL. 

TROTECTION IN CANADA sir %icha%d j. cartright. 

SOME QUESTIONS ANSWERED THOMAS G. SHEARMAN. 

NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

Secret Sessions of the Senate EDWARD STANIVOOD. 

V^ot " Ingersoll ism" THE %El\ 'DR. LYMAN ABBOTT. 

The {Methodist Episcopal ^Bishop THE %EV. 'DR. T. 'B. U^EELY. 

i/tbuse of Police Pouers Samuel iv. cooper. 

The Responsibility for d^ndersonville WARREN LEE GOSS. 

Our Pension System GEORGE 'BABER. 

SOLD BY ALL NEWSDEALERS— 50 CENTS A COPY; $5.00 A YEAR. 

The north American review, 

U^o. ) Rut Fourteenth Street, [N^EW YORK. 

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Vol. XL MAY, 1890. 



No. 121. 



COXTENTS. 

THE DICTIONARY OF NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY. 

Edward Gilpin Johnson 5 

RECENT BOOKS ON EVOLUTION. Anna B. Mc- 

Mahan 7 

THE PRIMITIVE FAMILY. J. J. Ualaey .... 9 
RECENT FICTION. William Morton Payne ... 12 

BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS 15 

Walker's Elementary Course in Political Economy. 
— Heam's Two Years in the French West Indies. — 
Keltie^s Story of Emin^s Rescue as Told in Stanley^s 
Letters.— Trollope's What I Remember, Vol. II.— 
Gamett's Life of John Milton. — Lane-Poole*s Story 
of the Barbary Corsairs. — RusselFs In a Club Cor- 
ner. — Sessions's On the Wing Through Europe. — 
Machar and Marquises Stories of New France. — Sav- 
age's Helps for Daily Living. — Savage's The Signs 
of the Times. 

BOOKS OF THE MONTH 17 



The Dictionary of National 
Biography.* 



A comparison, in respect of creative literary 
jK)wer, is sometimes drawn — very much to our 
disadvantage — between the English-speaking 
people of to-day and the mediaeval Florentines, 
the Greeks, or the Elizabethans. To our fur- 
ther disparagement, it is hinted that strict can- 
dor would compel the average modern to admit 
a distaste for the form in which the master- 
work of literature has chiefly sought expression 
— a lurking sympathy with Professor Huxley's 
contempt for " sensual caterwauling." 

In our defence, we may urge that inferiority 
in one direction often implies superiority in 
another ; and that, within our own province, 
neither the Florentines, the Greeks, nor the 
Elizalx^thans, wuld have co])ed with us. At 
no former time have conditions l>een so favor- 
able to literary ventures calling especially for 
ripe scholarship, unclouded critical vision, and 
a wide division of scholarly lal)or : and when 
these qualities are combined in a modern work, 
we justly expect it to be of the first rank. 

* Dictionary of National BiOftRAPHY. Edited by Leslie 
Stephen. In about 50 vols. Vols. I.-XXL, Abb-Glo. New 
York : Maciwillan & Co. 



It would l>e difficult to name a venture more 
strictly within the scope of the period, or more 
thoroughly illustrative of its literary bent, than 
the '* Dictionary of National Biography," ed- 
ited by Leslie Stephen, the first twenty-one 
volumes of which are before us. This great 
work will comprise fifty volumes when com- 
pleted, and we are promised the remainder at 
the astonishingly rapid rate, quality considered, 
of one every three months. 

The main essentials of a good biographical 
dictionary are easily stated. First, as to com- 
pactness, a work necessarily so large should 
not ask an inch more of the purchaser's shelf- 
room, or a shilling more of his money, than is 
strictly needed for the fulfillment of its pur- 
pose. In his selection of names, in so far as 
we can judge, the editor has been sufficiently 
chary, — though no name, within proposed lim- 
its, likely to interest any considerable section 
of the public, seems to have been omitted. As 
implied in the title, the sketches have been 
confiiled to men born or acclimatized in (Jreat 
Britain and Ireland ; and it wiU possibly be 
urged on this side the Atlantic that Americans 
should have been included. The Dictionary, 
however, is Xational in scope, and it is hardly 
our province to prescribe to publishers the 
range of their ventures, — as to quality of work 
we may presume to judge. It is questionable, 
moreover, whether so enormous an addition to 
a work unavoidably large would be, on the 
whole, a gain. For one would scarcely care to 
risk insolvency, even to secure an all-compre- 
hensive biographical dictionary. In respect of 
names selected, there seems to l)e no reasonable 
ground of complaint. 

As to proportion of treatment, certain faults, 
doubtless inevitable at the outset, that mar the 
first volume, disappear in the succeeding ones. 
To keep each " life" strictly within Inmnds im- 
plies self-denial on the part of contributors, and 
tact on the part of the editor ; and that these 
qualities have l)een exerted l)y Mr. Stephen 
and his c(vlalx)rers is attested by the remarka- 
ble evenness and i)roportion — considering the 
numl)er of hands emi>loyed — of their work as 
a whole. 

In regard to manner of treatment, there is 
more to Ix* said. One does not go to a bio- 
gi'ai)hical dictionary for dissertation, history, 
or the personal views or literary graci^ of the 

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[May, 



contributors. Facts are what we require, — 
authentic facts illustrative of the characters 
under review. To what extent criticism is 
admissible has been questioned. We may say 
that, in general, one does not go to a biograph- 
ical dictionary for criticism — certainly not in 
the case of the greatest names. In any event, 
the judgments offered should be thoroughly 
well founded. To admit mere matter of opin- 
ion is to endanger the permanent value of a 
work that should be first and always a medium 
of information. 

In the opening volume, some of the articles 
are too long, and contain matter which it is 
unfair to ask purchasers of a work of this 
nature to pay for. For instance, were all 
the " lives " on the scale of Canon Stephens's 
disquisition (that is the word for it) on Saint 
Anselm, the proposed fifty volumes must cer- 
tainly mean a hundred and fifty. Early de- 
fects, as already stated, disappear as the work 
progresses ; and one cannot but wonder at the 
tact shown by Mr. Stephen and his aids in 
keeping in hand such a host of contributors, — 
and we may note here that these contributors 
collectively represent English scholarship at 
its best. Many of the articles in the later vol- 
umes are models of their class. Amid so much 
excellence, it is, perhaps, unfair to specify ; but 
we may say that in the papers contributed by 
Joseph Knight, Cosmo Monkhouse, and by the 
editor himself, the most hypercritical reader 
will scarcely suggest any improvements. Mr. 
Stephen's '* Byron," for example, is precisely 
what it should be, presenting the maximum of 
fact with the minimum of criticism, and judi- 
ciously avoiding the usual " Byron ic " debates 
— wherein, to quote Sancho Paiiza, "there is 
a great deal to be said on both sides." Mr. 
Monkhouse's treatment of the painters is also 
admirable. His paper on Constable is spe- 
cially good, giving in a few words the best 
characterization of that painter and his art that 
we remember to have seen. 

A biographical dictionary is perhaps chiefly 
usef 111 for the information it gives of the lesser 
notabilities — people whose records would, with- 
out it, be difficult of access ; and a rare collec- 
tion of such worthies has Mr. Stephen brought 
to light. To have been a preacher, a poet, a 
statesman, a hangman, a murderer, a pick- 
pocket, of any sort of distinction, entitles one 
to a niche in his pantheon. The ways in which 
" the bubble reputation " may be won are en- 
couragingly numerous. That the name of John 
Astley, painter, is inscribed on the roll of fame 



is due to a financial crisis which compelled him 
" to patch the back of his waistcoat with a can- 
vas of his own painting representing a mag- 
nificent waterfall" — a sorry fate for a pro- 
jected masterpiece. One would not care a 
button for John Ash, lexicographer, were he 
not the author of the most stupendous blunder 
on record. Johnson, in defining " curmud- 
geon," derived it from camr mechant " on the 
authority of an unknown correspondent" — 
whereupon the ingenious Ash gave it as from 
" comr^ unknown, and mechant, correspond- 
ent." Surrounded by a respectable concourse 
of poets and theologians, is Mrs. Elizabeth 
Brownrigg, whose humor it was to tie up her 
apprentice, Mary Clifford, " to a hook fixed in 
one of the beams in the kitchen," and to flog 
her until the victim's death put an end to the 
pleasantry. It is gratifying to learn that Mrs. 
Brownrigg's " emotional insanity " did not de- 
prive her of her reward. Abiezer Coppe was 
the most radical of non-conformists. Such was 
his contempt for the gauds and vestments of 
ritualism that he was in the habit of preach- 
ing stark naked, — until the minions of an es- 
tablished church locked him up. Mr. Coppe's 
doctrine was as impressive as his practice. 
" It's meat and drink to an angel," he held, 
" to swear a f idl-mouthed oath." George Bar- 
ington's versatility was such that he might well 
be called the Admirable Barrington. He was 
successful at once as a poet and as a pick- 
pocket. No volume of familiar quotations 
would be complete without his couplet, — 

** True patriots we, for be it understood, 
We left our country for our country's good." 

On the day that Barring-ton was transported, 
his relative. Dr. Shute Barrington, was ad- 
vanced to the bishopric of Durham — a fact 
which gave rise to the epigram, — 

'^ Two namesakes of late, in a different way, 
With spirit and zeal did bestir 'em ; 
The one was transported to Botany Bay, 
The other translated to Durham." 

A concrete example is often the best definition. 
Were one asked, for instance, to define *' hu- 
morist " — in the old sense — it would be well to 
refer the questioner to the account of Thomas 
Day, author of " Sanford and Merton," — a 
humorist of the first water. The story of his 
matrimonial ventures is very amusing. Ilis 
first proposal was made, in verse, to a Shaftes- 
bury lady, whom he invited to dwell '^ unno- 
ticed " with him ''in some sequestered grove." 
The offer was declined — in prose. Day then 
determined to secure a wife upon philosoph- 
ical principles. With a view of procuring raw 



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1890.] 



THE DIAL 



material for experiment, he chose from the 
Shrewsbury orphan asylum two girls — one a 
blonde of twelve, whom he named " Sabrina 
Sidney," the other a brunette, called " Lucre- 
tia." These neophytes he proposed to submit 
to a course of training of Spartan severity. 
Unhappily, " Sabrina" proved " invincibly stu- 
pid," and was placed with a milliner, " where 
she did weU, and finally married a linen-dra- 
per." Day then took a house on Stow Hill 
and devoted himself to the training of " Lucre- 
tia." But as "she screamed when he fired 
pistols (only loaded with imaginary ball) at 
her petticoats, and started when he dropped 
melted sealing-wax on her arms, he judged her 
to fall below the right standard of stoicism." 
He finally married a Miss Esther Milnes, and 
gave further and most convincing proof of his 
eccentricity by insisting that '* her fortune be 
placed beyond his control, that she might re- 
treat from the experiment if it proved too pain- 
ful." To Pierce Egan, author of "Life in 
London," " Boxiana," etc., was paid as sincere 
a compliment as was ever earned by the pen. 
It is related that Thurtell the murderer, just 
before his execution, said wistfully to his war- 
ders : " It is perhaps wrong for one in my sit- 
uation, but I own I should like to read Pierce 
Egan's accoimt of the great fight yesterday " 
— meaning the championship " battle" between 
Spring and Langan. One can imagine the 
poor wretch in Newgate, the fetters on his 
limbs, the death-watch round him, the chill 
London fog stealing in through the corridors, 
the awakening stir of preparation — sounds to 
which the '- knocking at the gate " in " Mac- 
beth " were cheerful — begging for a last hour 
with his favorite author. Compared to this, 
Johnson's tribute to Burton is the damnation 
of faint praise. 

But it is not as a chronicle of crime and 
eccentricity that we are to regard the work 
under review. Primarily, it is the object of 
the '' Dictionary of National Biography " to 
set forth in unglossed narrative whatever is 
known or can be learned of Englishmen who 
have measurably contributed toward England's 
greatness — whether it be in science, art, litera- 
ture, or politics. It should be noted that — for 
the convenience of readers desiring specially 
minute information — a full list of references 
is appended to each " life." Of the value of 
such a record to Americans one scarcely need 
speak ; and we take it for granted that no ref- 
erence library in this coimtry, of the least pre- 
tension to completeness, will be without it. 



Moreover, aside from its mere utDity, the work 
is a veritable mine of entertainment ; and 
owners of private libraries who are judicious- 
enough to add it to their collections will find 
it quite as weU adapted to the hour of recrea- 
tion as to that of study. To the editor and pub- 
lishers of the " Dictionary" is due the credit of 
having produced not only the best biographical 
dictionary in existence, but the most servicea- 
ble and impressive literary work of the present 
generation. Edward Gilpin Johnson. 



Recknt Books on EvoLirxiox.* 

The history of modern thought shows two 
landmarks far transcending all others in im- 
portance. One of these dates back to 1543, 
through the adoption of the Copemican sys- 
tem of astronomy ; the other belongs to our 
own generation, and springs from the accept- 
ance of the doctrine of Evolution. These are 
the great epochs in the realm of ideas, because 
they are the points at which men have been 
forced to revise their theories of the universe ; 
and every alteration in the theory of nature, 
every fresh hypothesis regarding the origin of 
the world, must of necessity cause a revision 
of current systems of theology, metaphysics, 
and morals. Great was the revolution in hu- 
man thought three centuries ago when it could 
no longer be believed that the earth was the 
central spot of the universe, and it shook the 
whole fabric of Christian theology to its foun- 
dation ; but it was not greater than that we 
have seen, and are seeing, in our own day and 
generation, following upon our new cosmology. 
Nor is there any more reason for supposing 
that our new theory of the relation of things 
in time — Evolution — will ever be supplanted, 
than there is for supposing a similar displacing 
of the older theory of the relation of things in 
space. As science, Evolution has passed be- 
yond the realm of controversy, and every sci- 
entific writer, in whatever department, assumes 
it as granted. As Professor Le Conte has well 
said, — " We might as well talk of gravitation- 
ist as of evolutionist." 

•An Epitomb op the Synthbtic Philosophy. By F. 
Howard Collins. With a Preface by Herbert Spencer. New 
York : D. Appleton <& Co. 

Evolution : Popular Lectures and Discussions before the 
Brooklyn Ethical Association. Boston : James H. West. 

The Continuous Creation. By Myron Adams. Boston : 
Hous^hton, Mifflin <& Co. 

The Religious Aspect of Evolution. By James Mc- 
Cosh, D.D., LL.D., Litt. D. New York : Charles Scribner's 
Sons. 



Digitized by 



Google 



8 



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[May, 



In the popular mind, however, there is still 
considerable vagueness in respec»t to the exact 
•8(M)pe and meaning of the new word. What is 
this all-potent process which presumes to ac- 
-count not only for the world and man, but for 
^all that man has become and has done — cus- 
toms, habits, beliefs, tools, literature, arts, mor- 
als, religion? 

The series of books called " The Synthetic 
Philosophy," in which Herbert Spencer un- 
folds the general concept of a single and all- 
pervading, natural process, — tracing it out 
through all its modes of action, in sun and 
star, plant, animal, and humanity, and giving 
to it the name of Evolution, — are too volumi- 
nous, too technical, too difficult, for the aver- 
age reader. Although Spencer's literary style 
is admirably clear and direct, not every one 
will be sufficiently in earnest to follow him 
through the successive chapters of demonstra- 
tion in order to get at his completed definition : 

" Evolution is an integration of matter and concom- 
itant dissipation of motion ; during which the matter 
passes from an indefinite incoherent homogeneity to 
a definite coherent heterogeneity ; and during which 
the retained motion undergoes a parallel transforma- 
tion." 

Still fewer are those who will master the eight 
volumes in which the law is shown to apply to 
organic life, to mind and habit, to societies, 
politics, morals, religion. The word Evolution 
l)eing in eveiy mouth, the demand of the hour 
is for something more simple, more available, 
better suited t« the conditions under which 
most people must do their reading and gain 
their knowledge. 

Mr. Howard Collinses " Epitome of the Syn- 
thetic Philosophy " might, by its title, be sup- 
jK)sed to Ije a work of such purpose. Mr. Col- 
lins has been index-maker of Spencer's works, 
and for five years has been engaged in the task 
of bringing into the (»ompass of this single vol- 
ume the substance of Spencer's eight volumes. 
But let not our average reader Ihj misled into 
the assumption that this is the lK)ok for him. 
It is, in fact, very nuich harder reading than 
the original authority. Its aim is not simpli- 
fication but condensation, and the^ basis of the 
<!ondeusation is a mathematical one, retaining 
all the original divisions by chapters and ])ar- 
agra])hs, but reducing each to one-tenth of its 
original proportions. The five thousand and 
more Spetu»er pages are thus rej)reftented by 
one lK)ok of a little over five hundred pages. 
This com])ression has Ix^en obtained by the 
sacrifice of all illustration and nearly all elu- 
cidation, each i)roposition Inung stated in its 



most abstract form. The chief value of the 
work, therefore, is for students who have al- 
ready studied the subject largely. To such it 
will prove a convenient reference book for com- 
pact statement of inclusions with which they 
are already familiar ; or, perchance, as an as- 
sistance to the conception of the general pro- 
portions of the parts to the whole, as a system. 
Also, the specialist in any department of sci- 
ence will find it serviceable as a sort of ampli- 
fied index of the original, indicating the places 
where fuller treatment of his to})ic may lx» 
found. The work seems well done for these 
uses ; but let all beginners beware of it. To 
one unacquainted with the subject, we can im- 
agine nothing more forbidding than its array 
of highly abstract and unilluminated propo- 
sitions, and it would inevitably create a dis- 
taste for what is in truth a gi-eatly fascinating 
theme. 

A collection of lectures by various persons, 
with the discussions following their delivery, 
has been published by the Brooklyn Ethical 
Association, with the avowed purjwse " of pop- 
ularizing correct views of the Evolution phil- 
osophy." The lectures are fifteen in number, 
and, beside technical treatment of each depart- 
ment of the subje(*t, include introductory l>io- 
graphical sketches of Herbert Spencer and 
Charles Darwin, and three concluding topics 
of somewhat wider scope, dealing with the re- 
lation of Evolution to diflferent phases of life 
and thought. The book has the inevitable 
deficiencies of any such collection. While it 
is evident that the effort has l)een made to as- 
sign each subject to a writer with some equij)- 
meiit for his titsk, there is, nevertheless, a great 
inequality in the execution of the work. Some 
are admirable inonograi)hs — as, for example, 
the two by Mr. Chadwick, '^ Charles Dar- 
win " and '* Evolution as Related to Religious 
Thought''; also, M. J. Savage's '' The Effects of 
Evolution on the Coming Civilizsition." Others 
are insignificant, as the opening j)aper on ^'Iler- 
Ixjrt Spencer ": or painfully feeble and iiiade- 
(piate, as the one on " The Philosoi)hy of Evo- 
lution." The same diversity in value occurs 
in the strictly scientific topics. S])ecialists of 
more than local reputation contribute some of 
these, — Garrett P. Serviss writing of '^ Solar 
and Planetary Evolution," Lewis (i. Janes of 
'^ Evolution of the Earth," E. D. C()i)e of '" The 
Descent of Man." But as a rule there is less 
directness and sim})licity than there should be. 
We know the difficulties : but the success of 
Edward C'lodd in his ^' Story of Creation," and 

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of H. M. Siiinnons in *' The Unending Gene- 
sis/' proves that *" popular " writing is jiot im- 
possible even on these subjects. 

A better book than either of the foregoing, 
indeed one of the best yet issued for the pur- 
pose we are considering, — namely, for present- 
ing in simple and attractive form the leading 
features of Evolution, — is the work of Myron 
Adams on '- The Continuous C/reation." Ilis 
aim Ls to make " an application of the Evolu- 
tionary Philosophy to the Christian Religion," 
thus taking hold of the subject at the point of 
its greatest interest for most people. He does 
not undertake to prove the doctrine of Evolu- 
tion, to examine in detail the specific grounds 
of its adoption by the scientific world, assum- 
ing as sufficient authority the testimony of ac- 
tual investigators that it works as far as it is 
followed. For definition, he goes to Professor 
Le Conte, — and wisely, since it is hard to con- 
ceive a better: — Evolution is (1) continuous 
progressive change, (2) according to certain 
laws, (3) by means of resident forces. Three 
opening chapters are devoted to the scientific 
application of this definition ; but Mr. Adams 
well knows that it is not on this ground that 
the l)attle for Evolution is to be fought. So 
long as the scientific aspects are alone in ques- 
tion, the scientists may have their way without 
objections ; but thoughtful persons see that the 
matter cannot stop there : granted so much, a 
great modification of religious philosophy must 
follow, a profound revolution in all the supreme 
subjects of human mterest must impend. In 
Mr. Adams's own words, — 

" There is a feeling that Evolution is dangerous. The 
exaggeration of that feeling is that evolutionary philos- 
osophy comes as a whirlwind to destroy religion ; on the 
contrary, it comes to restore and revive it." 

To prove and enforce this statement, in the 
various lines of religious thought, is the work 
of the remaining chapters, bearing such titles 
as, '* The Bible a Record of Religion's Grad- 
ual Growth," '^The Problem of Evil," '^The 
Consummation of Evolution is Immortality," 
"Resident Forces and the Divine Personality," 
" Prayer," " Miracles and Scientific Thought," 
" Faith and Intuition.'' These subjects are all 
admirably worked out, and though the l)ook is 
less scholarly than Le Conte's *' Evolution as 
Related to Religious Thought," and less brill- 
iant than Powell's " Our Heredity from God," 
it is, on the whole, probably the most success- 
ful attempt yet made to enlighten the unin- 
formed concerning the scope and bearings of 
the Evolution philosophy. 



President McCosh's "Religious Aspect of 
Evolution " is a small book of 120 pages, an- 
nouncing itself as an ^^ enlarged and improved 
edition." But it needs a far more fundamental 
enlargement to bring it up to present require- 
ments of thought. It belongs to that by-gone 
period of the discussion when it was considered 
the duty of the hour to reconcile Genesis and 
geology, to torture impossible meanings out of 
Moses' use of the word " day," to set definite 
lx>undaries to religion " natural " and religion 
'^ revealed." President McCosh has not come 
sufficiently abreast with his subject to see that 
all religion, however derived, is a manifestation 
of the life of God in the life of man. Revela- 
tion is not merely a fleeting gleam of divine 
inspiration, at a remote period, u|)on a small 
portion of the race, but it is the unveiling of 
the mind of man to see the sunrise of God's 
glory in the world. It is the record, not so 
much of God's revealing himself to man, as 
of man's development into a consciousness of 
God. And Revelation, in this sense, is almost 
synonymous with Evolution. 

Anna B. McMahan. 



The Primitive Family.* 



Since the publication, nearly thirty years 
ago, of Sir Henry Maine's '* Ancient Law," a 
battle of lKX)ks and magazine articles has raged 
fiercely round the *' patriarchal theory" of soci- 
ety as therein set forth. Rashly accepted by 
many students of philology and jurisprudence 
as a general working hypothesis, this theory 
was strenuously attacked by anthropologists as 
too limited in its inductions, both in time and 
place, and as an hypothesis which ignored the 
larger circle of facts. Conspicuous among its 
assailants was the ingenious and imaginative 
McLennan, whose destructive criticism, in his 
" Patriarchal Theory," while expressing some 
of the irritability of a dying man, yet shows 
a vigor and a trenchancy due to a scientific 
method of attack. Herbert Spencer had al- 
ready, in his calmer and more careful manner, 
shown the too narrow basis of the theory as a 
working hyj)othesis of society in what is now 
his chapter on " The Family " in his " Princi- 
ples of Sociology." It is probably safe to say 

♦The Primitive Family in its Origin and Develop- 
ment. By C. N. StATcke, Ph.D. of the University of Copen- 
hagen. ** International Scientific Series," Vol. LXV. New 
York : D. Appleton <fe Co. 

The Development of Marriage and Kinship. By C. 
Staniland Wake. London : George Red way. ^^^y | 

_ igitized by VriOOQlC 



10 



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[May, 



that no prominent thinker in the sphere of So- 
ciology now maintains Maine's theory in its 
leading characteristics of exclusive Agnation 
and Patria Potestas, 

But the successful critic is not always equally 
successful in constructive work. Mr. McLen- 
nan, even before he had tumbled in partial ruin 
the foundations of Sir Henry Maine's theory, 
proceeded, in his " Primitive Marriage," to 
erect his own hypothesis, which has become as 
famous as its predecessor. Every student of 
sociology is now familiar with his evolutionary 
scheme of marriage and kinship : general pro- 
miscuity and attending destruction of female 
infants ; thence scarcity of women, producing 
polyandry of the Nair type, unrecognizable pa- 
ternity, female kinship, and polyandry of the 
Thibetan type ; marriage by capture, produc- 
ing exogamy and, ultimately, male kinship ; 
finally, heterogeneous local tribes, with endog- 
amous clans, survival of original capture in 
symbols of voluntary marriage, and the ad- 
vance to monogamy. This view has been ac- 
cepted, w^ith some diflference in detail, by Lub- 
bock, and its starting-point in promiscuity has 
been arrived at independently by Bachofen, 
Morgan, and Lubbock. All these theorists of 
what may be called the "general promiscuity" 
group seem to start out with a preconceived 
theory, instead of with careful inductions from 
facts, and they ignore not only the data of 
economic and legal studies, but even those of 
biology. The McLennan theory, however, as 
the one most plausibly maintained, has been as 
vigorously, and we think as successfully, at- 
tacked as the Maine theory. Herbert Spen- 
cer, in the chapter already alluded to, took 
exception both to its starting-point, its logic of 
procedure, and its ultimate conclusions. He 
clearly pointed out the narrow range of poly- 
andry ; suggested probable causes other than 
pi'omiscuity for the prevalence of female kin- 
ship, as well as economic reasons for a wide 
prevalence of monogamy aa a primary social 
phenomenon ; emphasized the improbability of 
early races depleting the stock of available 
wives, with one hand by destroying female 
infants, and with the other seeking to make 
the deficiency good by capture from equally 
depleted stocks of neighboring tribes ; and, 
finally, showed several other causes working 
alongside of capture to produce the symbolism 
of more recent marriage. 

What Mr. Spencer did in outline so admir- 
ably fourteen years ago has been attempted 
in a more enlarged treatment in the two works 



now before us. Dr. Starcke and Mr. Wake 
occupy common ground as their starting-point, 
and do not differ widely in their conclusions, 
and both have made valuable contributions to 
the study of primitive society. Both repudiate, 
with Spencer, the sole explanation of female 
kinship in uncertain paternity growing out of 
promiscuity and polyandry. But the style of 
presentation is widely different. Mr. Wake 
has written a treatise as attractive in its forci- 
ble English and clear logical sequence, as Dr. 
Starcke's is oppressive by the reverse. The 
proof-reader has done Mr. Wake scant justice. 
Such slips as Epi«caste, Talbot Wheeler for 
Talboy.s, and Vamber^ for Vamberj/, should 
not be found in so expensive a book. But 
literary and typogi'aphical merits or demerits 
do not principally concern us. These are 
epoch-making books : let us attend to their 
matter. We can merely give opinions ; the 
books must be consulted for the various evi- 
dence cited in proof. 

Dr. Starcke advances and well maintains the 
following opinions : (1) Marriage was not pre- 
ceded by promiscuity, but social life begins in 
the partially agnatistic family. (2) Hence agna- 
tion is not developed from female kinship, but 
has an earlier development. (3) Female kin- 
ship is not, in any large measure, due to imcer- 
tain paternity, but to mothers' groups in polyg- 
ynous families. (4) The influence of locality 
has had much to do in assigning the child to 
the father or to the mother. Agricultural com- 
munities value workers, pastoral communities 
value cattle : in the former the father will bring 
in a husband for his daughter, in the latter he 
will sell her out for a price in cattle ; the for- 
mer will thus establish a female line of descent, 
through its daughters with alien husbands, 
while the latter will maintain the male line. 
(5) Polyandry has been of limited range, and 
originated in the patriarchal joint family of 
male descent. (6) The Levirate maiTiage of 
the Hebrews had no relation to polyandry, 
but grew out of the desire to have heirs to 
offer the funeral sacrifice. (7) But last and 
most original of all his theses — the relation 
of sex is by no means the central point and 
raison cTHre of primitive marriage, since "it 
is not adapted to support the burden of social 
order." The contract idea is at the bottom 
of marriage, carrying with it the idea of legal- 
ity, which, as it at first excluded the thought 
of a wife chosen from within the family cir- 
cle, for whom no contract could be made, so, 
extending its prohibition to thef^ 
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kindred, drove on to outside marriage, or ex- 
ogamy. 

On the last of the seven points made it will 
be well to linger, as this is, in Dr. Starcke's 
judgment, his distinct contribution to the dis- 
cussion of early marriage. He says : 

*< We shall meet with no stronger distinction between 
aninial and human existence than the use of fire. By 
its use the way was opened to man to obtain better 
nourishment; it then became possible to become a flesh- 
eating animal. The necessary preparation of food 
which resulted from this fact caused a division of labor 
between the sexes, which was unknown in the animal 
world. The man then became the regular provider of 
food, not, as in the case of animals, only occasionally, 
and it was the woman's part to prepare the prey. In 
this way she became indispensable to the man, not on 
account of an impulse which is suddenly aroused and as 
quickly disappears, but on accoimt of a necessity which 
endures as long as life itself, namely, the need of food. 
. . . A man connects himself with a woman in order 
that she might keep house for him, and to this may be 
added a second motive, that of obtaining children. His 
ownership of the children does not depend upon the 
fact that they were begotten by him, but upon the fact 
that he owns and supports their mother. . . . The 
interest felt in children must have exerted its influence 
on the form of marriage, since it furnishes a motive for 
polyg^amy which is not included in the need of a house- 
keeper. A man will be actuated by this motive in pro- 
portion to the number of available women, and to his 
power of purchasing and providing for them. It fol- 
lows from the nature of things . . . that polyg- 
amy can never have been the normal condition of a 
tribe, since it would have involved the existence of twice 
as many women as men. Polygamy must necessarily 
have been restricted to the noblest, richest, and bravest 
members of the tribe. . . . The common household, 
in which each had a given work to do, and the common 
interest of obtaining and rearing children, were the 
foundations upon which marriage was originally built. 
And from the sympathy which inevitably springs from 
the interests which they have in common, that love is 
developed which effects a perfect and stable marriag^.', 

Dr. Starcke's work barely precedes, in date, 
that of Mr, Wake, and does not deprive it of 
originality in its judgments, which were arrived 
at independently. Consequently, the general 
agreement of argument in the two books is 
most striking. AH the positions which Dr. 
Starcke has taken against the McLennan the- 
ories are also forcibly taken by Mr. Wake, who 
fortifies his ground by abundant citations of 
examples as well as by most cogent reasoning. 
To go through his positions would be but to 
repeat what has already been said in reference 
to the earlier book ; it will be sufficient to say 
that the one thesis peculiar to Dr. Starcke is 
the economic rather than emotional basis of 
marriage ; Mr. Wake ako has his own special 
contribution, which must be noted, at least in 
citation, as a distinct and valuable contribu- 



tion to the discussion of kiaship. He says: 
<< It is necessary to point out the distinction between 
relationship and kinshipf a distinction which is usually 
lost sight of. The former of these terms is wider than 
the latter, as two persons may be related to each other, 
and yet not be of the same kin. Systems of kinship 
are based on the existence of a special relationship of 
persons to each other, as distinguished from the general 
relationship subsisting between such persons and other 
individuals. . . . While a man may be related 
generally through his father to one class of individuals, 
and through his mother to another class, he may be of 
kin only to one class or the other. This special rela- 
tionship or kinship is accompanied by certain disabili- 
ities, particularly in connection with marriage, which it 
would not be possible in small communities to extend 
to all persons related to each other through both par- 
ents. Kinship, as distinguished from mere relationship, 
must be restricted, therefore, to one line of descent. 
It is evident that a child may be treated as specially 
related to either parent, and be reckoned of his or her 
kin to the exclusion of the kin of the other parent. 
There must be some reason for the preference in any 
particular case other than that based on paternity or 
maternity, seeing that uncultured peoples, as a rule, 
fully recognize the relationship of a child to both par- 
ents. As a fact, the kinship of the child depends on the 
conditions of the marital arrangement between its par- 
ents. Among the social restraints on promiscuity, one 
of the most powerful is that which arises from the 
rights of a woman's father or kindred. These rights 
extend not only to her conduct before marriage . . . 
but also to the marriage itself and its consequences. 
Thus the woman's father or her kin, in the absence of 
any agreement to the contrary, claim her children as be- 
longing to them, whether she remains with them after 
her marriage, or goes to reside among her husband's 
kin. . . . Whether descent shall be traced in the 
female or in the male line, depends on whether or not 
the woman's kin have given up their natural right to 
the children of the marriage. ... If the husband 
does not give anything in return for his wife she con- 
tinues a member of her own family group, and her 
children belong to their mother's kin. If, however, the 
husband pays a bride-price, she may have to give up 
lier own family for that of her husband, and her ofiP- 
spring will belong to the latter." 

It may be safely claimed that these two writ- 
ers have done much toward a more scientific 
view of primitive marriage and kinship. By 
careful and patient collocation of facts over a 
wide area of social life, by as careful a study 
of the unsophisticated man under the influence 
of the instincts of self-preservation, sex, and 
order, they have laid a secure foundation for 
the cautious reasoning of which they both are 
masters. Starting fi-om the decisions of so 
distinguished a biologist as Darwin, who will 
not concede promiscuity even among the quad- 
rumana, we begin human life in the monoga- 
mous family, witness the phenomena of polyan- 
dry and polygamy thrown off and left by the 
wayside, — the one continuing the primary male 
descent, the other developing female kinship, 



3gle 



12 



THE DIAL 



[May, 



and come tlirougli a varied world of maiTiage 
relations to the monogamous form of the mod- 
em world of Christian faith, in which love as 
a basis has not set aside the older basis of con- 
tract, but has reached beneath it and rooted it 
in the holiest sentiment of the race. 

J. J. Halsey. 



Recext Fiction.* 

Since no writer of English fiction at the 
present day can, except by the very midsum- 
mer madness of myopic criticism, be for a mo- 
ment considered as ranking with the great 
masters of the last generation, it is evident 
that whatever interest there lies for us in con- 
temporary novels must be sought for, not in 
their portrayal of character or situation upon 
the absolute terms of art, but in their points of 
incidental excellence, whether of style, theme, 
or tendency. This is a fact which is coming 
to be generally recognized ; and most careful 
readers of the modern product frankly admit 
that what attracts them is either some quaint- 
ness or suggestiveness of language, the exposi- 
tion of some social or intellectual problem, or 
the selection of some special field in which the 
wi'iter is prepared to present interesting in- 
formation, more or less obviously disguised in 
fictive garb. No one, for example, could seri- 
ously maintain the ingenious Mr. Ilowells, or 
the picturesque Mr. Crawford, or the solemn 
Mrs. Ward, to be a writer of gieat fiction in 
the sense in which Charles Dickens, or Sir 
Walter Scott, or George Eliot was such. But 
we are none the less attracted by the humor of 
the one, the novelty, or the earnest purpose, of 
the others. And to our mind the most prom- 

*The Story of Tonty. By Mary Hartwell Catherwood. 
Chicago : A. C. MeClurg & Co. 

Standirh of Standish. a Story of the Pilgrims. By 
Jane G. Austin. Boston : Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

The Great War Syndicate. By Frank R. Stockton. 
Xew York : Dodd. Mead & Co. 

Expiation. By Ocfcive Thanet. Xew York : Charles 
Scrihner's Sons. 

Albrecht. ByArlo Bates. Boston: Roberts Brothers. 

Jack Horner. A Novel. By Mary Spear Tieman. Bos- 
ton : Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

Prince Fortunatus. A Novel. By William Black. 
New York : Harper & Brothers. 

Kit and Kitty. A Novel. By R. D. Blackraore. New 
York : Harper & Brothers. 

Gobi or Shamo. A Story of Three Songs. By G. G. A. 
Murray. New York : Longmans, Green, & Co. 

Maria : A South American Romance. By Jorge Isaacs. 
The Translation by RoUo Ogden. New York : Harper & 
Brothers. 



ising field for the clever but mediocre novelist 
of the present uncreative age is that which we 
have taken Mr. Crawford to illustrate — the 
field of special and unfamiliar information. It 
was really the glimpse of Indian life, and not 
the vagaries of Kam Lai and his astral body, 
that set us all to reading '^ Mr. Isaacs "; it was 
the treatment of German life (in the students' 
" corps " and the ancestral legend-haunted cas- 
tle) that made "' Greifenstein " attractive to 
us, and it is interest in the social and jwlitical 
condition of new Italy that makes us anxiously 
await another volume about the doings of the 
Saraeinesca family. The substitution of mere 
knowledge for creative ability doubtless marks 
for us a decadent epoch in literature ; but we 
may console ourselves by the reflection that 
there are, after all, enough really good novels 
left us from the past to fill up as large a share 
of the average existence as should reasonably 
be devoted to that soii; of entertainment. 

These remarks are not, however, designed to 
introduce any new novel by Mr. Crawford, for, 
strange to say, although it is at least six months 
since that familiar name has greeted us from 
the title-page of a volume just from the press, 
we have seen no reason to expect that its owner 
is about to bestow upon the public any fresh 
product of his industry. But they are sug- 
gested to us liy the perusal of two recently 
published stories which deal with certain im- 
portant phases of American histoiy, and which 
illuminate, with singular clearness, the periods 
and the scenes which they represent. We refer 
to Mrs. Catherwood's "• The Story of Tonty " 
and Mrs. Austin's ''Standish of Standish," 
two of the most conscientious and sympathetic 
studies in historical fiction that have come to 
us for examination in late years. 

In *' The Story of Tonty " Mrs. Catherwood 
has emphasized the success made by her " Ro- 
mance of DoUard." The story of La Salle and 
his lieutenant, beginning in Montreal, and end- 
ing, tragically enough, by the Mississippi shore, 
is one which offers many elements of romantic 
interest, and the author has told it in a strong 
and fascinating way. La Salle, quite as much 
as Tonty, is the historical hero of her work, 
and both figures stand out in very human dis- 
tinctness. There is a great wealth of material 
for the novelist in these annals of New France 
and of the western territory, which was an un- 
explored wilderness two centuries ago, and Mrs. 
Catherwood has exhibited a remarkable talent 
for making use of it for purposes of fiction. 

The character of Miles Standish has already 



1890.] 



THE DIAL 



13 



been given a place in the gallery of historical 
figures made familiar to all of us by tlie art of 
the poet and the novelist ; and yet Mrs. Austin, 
in her i*e-<lelineation of the famous Pilgrim, 
seems to have given him a clearer outline and 
a warmer coloring than he has had before in the 
imagination. But *' Standish of Standish " is 
not the only historical figure in Mrs. Austin's 
romance. Bradford and Carver and Winslow 
are there as well, and many others of whom 
those curious in New England history have 
read in ^' Mourt's Relation" and other precious 
records of the past. Indeed, all of the figures 
in this story are historical in some degree, and 
what is more, they are not mere images with 
but the semblance of animation, not puppets 
worked by wires only too evident to the ob- 
server, but living men and women, our own 
ancestors again clothed in flesh and blood, and 
affording a very human contrast to the rather 
inhuman picture of the early colonists of Mas- 
sachusetts Bay which has been so often thiiist 
forward by well-meaning writers. In other 
words, out of comparatively meagre materials, 
the author has made a very vital narrative, and 
one which must appeal strongly to every man 
with New England blood in his veins. To 
those '' dear ones whose memory we cherish so 
lovingly, and in the sober reality of whose lives 
lies a charm no romance can ever reach," this 
l)ook is a worthy tribute, and, we trust, a last- 
ing monument. 

Mr. Stockton's story of '' The Great War 
Syndicate " is a variation upon a well-worn 
theme. War is declared between Great Britain 
and the United States, and our government 
does not know how to meet the enemy, being 
entirely unprepared for anything of the sort. 
At this point a syndicate of capitalists comes 
forward, offers to carry on the war for the 
government, and makes a contract to that effect. 
Victory is speedily assured us, for the syndicate 
controls a secret force more suggestive of the 
Keely motor than of anything else, and quite 
as deadly as the " vril " of " The Coming 
Race." Armed with this mysterious power, 
the war-ships of the syndicate sail forth, and 
speedily reduce England to subjection. The 
warfare described by Mr. Stockton is unparal- 
leled by anything in recorded history, for the 
reason that it is waged from beginning to end 
without loss of life. At least, there is only one 
life lost, and that is by accident. But if Mr. 
Stockton has no tale of murder grim and great 
to tell us, he blows up a few vessels and forti- 
fied places by means of his new force, and 



contrives to make his story generally exciting. 

The reputation made by Miss French (we 
believe that the personality of the lady who 
signs herself *' Octave Thanet " is now an open ^ 
secret) as a writer of realistic sketches of life 
in the Southwest is more than confirmed by 
her story of " Expiation," her first fuU-fledged 
novel. The work is sustained in interest, strong 
and virile enough to warrant the use of a mas- 
culine Jiorn de guerre. We should no more 
suspect it, from internal evidence, to be the 
work of a woman than we suspected that to be 
the case with the author of " Where the Battle 
was Fought." " Expiation " is a story of Ar- 
kansas in the days of the guerrillas and the 
closing months of the late war. There is a 
little more of the element of dialect than we 
can ac(»ept with unalloyed pleasure, but this 
deepens the general impression of faithfulness 
to fact which is the net result of the perusal of 
this remarkable story. It is m something more 
than the hackneyed sense of the terms that w^e 
may speak of the characters in this story as 
well drawn and vital, of the situations as inter- 
esting, and of the scenes as graphically de- 
scribed. And the reflective or contemplative 
passages of the book have the charm of a poetic 
instinct and the grace of a finished style. 

It is undoubtedly true, as Mr. Arlo Bates 
confesses, that without the Freiheri' de la Motte 
Fouque's " Undine" for a precedent, the story 
of "Albrecht" would never have l)een con- 
ceived. But it is equally true that the story 
is a charming and graceful piece of imagina- 
tive work, showing us, among other things, that 
realism does not yet have everything its own 
way with our novelists. In Mr. Bates's story 
the soulless mortal is a man, not a woman, a "^ 
kol)old, not an undine, and his marriage with 
the maiden of his choice, in furnishing him 
with a soul, endangers that of his wife. But 
in the end the powers of darkness are subdued. 
The scene of the romance is fittingly placed 
in the Black Forest, at the time of Karl the 
Great. 

The city of Richmond, at the time of our 
own civil war, is chosen for the scene of " Jack 
Horner." " Human blood at that time," says 
the writer, " was of a splendid red color, as a 
hundred fields could testify. It had not yet be- 
come the languid lukewarm tide which evolves 
the pale emotions of a modern American novel." 
No great amount of blood is made to flow by the 
author of this story, although she has chosen to 
deal with the war period, but we are left in 
little doubt as to the nature of the fluid tha|;Qlp 



14 



THE DIAL 



[May, 



courses through the arteries of the principal 
characters. They are all very genuine men and 
women, with the exception of the hero ^jr??' ex- 
cellence^ and he is a very genuine baby. In 
fact, this modern edition of the famous nursery 
hero is about as adorable a bit of infant human- 
ity as is often found in a novel, to say nothing 
of the cold actual world. But he could not 
have the story all to himseK, and so he is sur- 
rounded by a number of pleasant people, whose 
lives, during those trying years of siege, come 
to be strangely interesting to us, so gracefully 
is their story told. The novel is one whose 
perusal will leave no feeling of regiet for a 
wasted hour. 

Mr. William Black has so pleasant a way 
of telling a story, and is so beguiling a chron- 
icler of the small-talk of the club and the 
drawing-room, that we are apt to forget, until 
we come to reflect upon it after the book is 
closed, how uninteresting the story is in itself, 
and how trivial the conversation of which it 
largely consists. " Prince Fortunatus ' is an 
example of the average novel of Mr. Black's 
recent years. It makes us acquainted with a 
lot of clever and generally well-behaved peo- 
ple, having various degrees of interest in one 
another, and never plays upon our emotions 
beyond the point of gentle and agreeable stim- 
idation. The hero, in the present case, is a 
singer of comic opera, and the romance of his 
life is threefold — that is to say, he is in love, 
more or less simultaneously, with three women. 
Probably the extremely idiotic game of poker 
which he is described as playing on one occa- 
sion, when in a peculiarly reckless mood, may 
be accounted for by the distraction incident 
upon such a state of mind and heart as is im- 
plied in an affection thus divided. In the end, 
he marries one of the three — he could not do 
more, not being a merman — and, as it can make 
little difference to the reader which of the three 
it is, the story may be said to end happily. 

The muse of all perversity seems to preside 
over the naming of Mr. Blackmore's latest sto- 
ries and of their characters, male and female. 
*' Kit and Kitty " is sufficiently bizarre as a 
title for a serious novel, and it is peopled by 
such persons as Tabby Tapscott, Tony Tonks, 
and Donovan (familiarly known as " Downy") 
Bulwrag. But Mr. Blackmore always tells a 
story genially, and the season has brought few 
as well worth attention as this. Kit is a prom- 
ising young market-gardener, and Kitty is the 
maiden whom he loves. Just at the proper 
time when Kit's love affairs are running a trifle 



too smoothly to promise much interest, Kitty 
is kidnapped by the ingenious Downy Bulwrag, 
and the story takes a new lease of life. When 
it has been expanded to a suitable length, she 
is restored to his arms, and all ends happily. 
The lore of the gardener forms a substantial 
element in the narrative, and who, if not Mr. 
Blackmore, should be capable of expounding 
it ? If we are to have no more "Lorna Doones" 
and ''Alice Lorraines," we should at least not 
be ungrateful for such gentler idyls as this. 

" Gobi or Shamo," further described upon 
the title-page as "A Story of Three Songs," 
is such a work of fiction as Mr. Rider Haggard 
and Mr. Andrew Lang might have written, had 
they chosen to collaborate in such a task. The 
story of the isolated Greek city, existing un- 
known all these years in the highlands of Cen- 
tral Asia, embodies just such an imaginative 
idea as that of " King Solomon's Mines," and 
a great deal of the incident and description is 
just what might have been expected of the ripe 
classical scholarship of the author of " Letters 
to Dead Authors." The gentleman who has 
successfully combined the diverse gifts of these 
two writers is Professor G. G. A. Murray, who 
occupies the chair of Greek in the University 
of Glasgow. The story which he has produced 
may be described as faulty in construction, but 
amazingly clever in detailed execution. We 
have not been able to discover what is meant 
by the mention of " three songs " in the title ; 
as for the '' Gobi or Shamo " part of it, that 
is cleared up by a quotation from Cornwell's 
" Geography " — " the great desert of Gobi or 
Shamo." The Greek city of which there is 
question in the work is represented as a relic 
of the invasion of the Greeks under Alexan- 
der the Great, and the story of its re-discovery 
by two or three modern Englishmen is one of 
the most fascinating narratives that recent fic- 
tion has provided. 

The literature of Spanish America, as Mr. 
Thomas A. Janvier points out in his brief but 
admirable introduction to Mr. Rollo Ogden's 
translation of "• Maria : A South American Ro- 
mance," is both rich and ancient. A cator 
logue raisonne of the books published in Mex- 
ico alone, and before the year 1600, includes 
one hundred and sixteen titles, and the literary 
production of Mexico and the other Spanish- 
American countries has certainly kept pace 
since then with that of the English-speaking 
half of the continent. Sefior Jorge Isaacs, the 
author of the story now translated, is a Colum- 
bian, and his fame among Spanish- Americans 



1890.] 



THE DIAL 



15 



is probably as great as that of Mr. Howells 
among Americans who speak English ; so that 
the story was well worth translating, and Mr. 
Ogdeu appears to have done the work consci- 
entiously. As a story, it can make little appeal 
to our Anglo-Saxon and somewhat jaded appe- 
tites. It is suggestive of such French romantic 
idyls as ^-Atala " and " Paul et Virginie," and 
neither of these stories ever excited more than 
a languid literary interest in English readers. 
But it is pretty, pathetic, and graceful, and it 
gives a faithful picture of refined country life 
b a South American republic, so that it adds 
materially to our vital knowletlge of the world 
and its peoples. 

William Morton Payne. 



Briefs on Xkw Books. 



Pkofessor Francis A. Walker has twice recast 
his admirable text-book of political economy, pub- 
lished in 1883. In 1886 he reduced it to a *' Briefer 
Course," better adapted by its size to collegiate 
work. He now gives us his »* Elementary Course " 
(Holt), in something over three hundred pages, for 
high schools. The author says : ** It is no primer 
of political economy which is here ofPered, but a sub- 
stantial course of study in this vitally important 
subject." He might have added that it is no mere 
digest of the larger books, but a fresh presentation 
of the subject, and anyone who has had experience 
with the larger works will readily concede that this 
is the best. The whole subject is admirably handled. 
The separate applications of economic principles of 
the larger works have here been incoi*porated into 
the general treatment with good results. A trait 
that much commends Professor Walker as a thinker 
to thinking men is his fearlessness in modifying his 
opinions as he grows in knowledge, and he has not 
been afraid to confess to it so recently as the April 
issue of the *' Quarterly Journal of Economics." So, 
in the volume under consideration, there are modi- 
fications, both by addition aAl omission, which in 
our judgment improve its quality as an educational 
text-book. Of course. Professor Walker's large re- 
cognition of the entrepreneur is found here, as well 
as in his earlier works, and here also '" substitution 
of commodities " as affecting supply, and the failure 
of substitution as affecting labor supply, get due re- 
co^ition. The chapter on ** Protection and Free 
Trade " handles that living question carefully and 
without prejudice, although we think the writer is 
at his very best on that subject in the article on 
*• Protection and Protectionists " in the ** Quarterly 
Journal of Economics " for April, 1890, where the 
judicial attitude of mind is admirable. We do not 
intend to disparage the two earlier books when we 
say we believe this volume will become the college 
text-book, at least until the day when someone shall 



take Professor Folwell*s suggestion and begin the 
economic text>book with consumption, because '' the 
best place to begin anything is at the beginning, and 
it is a mere truism that the wants and desires of 
men are the spring and motive of industrial ac- 
tivity." 

Lafcadio Heakn is an alert and sympathetic 
observer, and possesses in a marked degree the fac- 
ulty of giving to his impressions their exact word 
values. To read his "Two Years in the French 
West Indies " (Harper) is to see the French West 
Indies pretty much as he himself saw them — 
through a pleasing, poetical, coideur-de^rose haze, yet 
truthfully enough as to general features. We in- 
cline to the belief tliat a visit to Martinique, for ex- 
ample, after reading Mr. Hearn*8 Martinique stud- 
ies, would be almost as disenchanting as a visit to 
Venice after contemplating Turner's glowing can- 
vases. Still, we freely forgive author and painter 
for gloiifying the truth ; and few of us would care 
to exchange Turner for Canaletto, or Mr. Hearn 
for a writer with a more statistical bent. The 
tropic luxuriance of the regions described by our 
author is happily reflected in his style, though at 
times his pen sheds colors and superlatives a thought 
too freely. There is a smack of the garish splen- 
dor of the pantomine in this, for instance : " High 
carmine cliffs and rocks outlying in a green sea, 
which lashes their bases with a foam of gold." But 
Mr. Hearn expresses himself, in general, in a very 
delightful way, and his style is not one to be adjusted 
to the Procrustean bed of strict academic propriety. 
The book abounds in charming bits of word-paint- 
ing and characterization ; and the whole is tinged 
with a sentiment and poetic charm that will appeal 
to lovers of good literature. The value of the work 
is enhanced by its profuse illustrations, which speak 
well for both artist and artisan. Some of the cuts 
are really admirable for precision of line and deli- 
cate gradation of tone. 



To THOSE impatiently waiting for Mr. Stanley*s 
book — now announced by the publishers as soon 
to appear, — Mr. Scott Keltic's " Story of Emin*s 
Rescue as told in Stanley's Letters" (Harper) is a 
welcome foretaste. These letters have been thus 
edited in response to a demand for a cheap publica- 
tion to satisfy the public craving for news about the 
land and the man now sharing the largest portion 
of the world's curiosity. Those who did not read 
these letters as they originally appeared in the daily 
papers will here meet afresh that tremendous rush 
of personal energy which always carries men off 
their feet when Stanley appears, and will also find 
much interesting addition to their previous informa- 
tion about the lake region of central Africa. A 
brief sketch of Emin. and of the events which led 
up to the rescue expedition, is prefixed to the letters. 
The unhappy controversy which has sprung up over 
the later conduct of £min is here foreshadowed, j 
although there is due recognition of the heroisna)Q[^ 



16 



THE DIAL 



[May, 



which can never be obscured by later errors of judg- 
ment growing out of a large heart and a noble de- 
votion to humanity. When the truth is all told, 
Emin Bey will be gratefuUy remembered by man- 
kind as one who, if perchance he shared some of 
the quixotic tendencies of his old captain, Gordon, 
has with it also that which will enroll both of these 
soldiers of fortune high among the benefactors of 
the race. The book would have gained by the in- 
clusion of Stanley's latest letters. 

Some two years ago, the octogenarian novelist 
and litterateur^ Mr. Thomas Adolphus Trollope, and 
the veteran academician, Mr. W. P. Frith, each 
published a volume of personal reminiscences. Both 
volumes were received with generous applause by 
the public, and in both cases there was a hearty call 
for more. Mr. Frith responded to this call, not 
long ago, with a second volume no less interesting 
than the first, and Mr. Trollope has now likewise 
responded with an equaUy charming sequel to his 
earlier volume. The second installment of '* What 
I Remember" (Harper) is mostly devoted to re- 
coUections of the past quarter of a century, although 
the writer does not hesitate to put in matters of 
earlier date when they occur to him. For the past 
twenty-five years he has lived almost continuously 
in Italy, for a while in the neighborhood of Flor- 
ence, and afterwards at Rome. He has been stead- 
ily occupied with literary work during this period, 
and has been thrown into contact with a gi-eat many 
charming people. The new volume, like the other, 
is a storehouse of anecdote and pleasantly-related 
incident, all genial in the highest degree. As a 
running commentary upon the great events of mod- 
ern Italian history, and as a picture of the refined 
society of the Italian capitals, the new volume is 
of the most interesting description. 



Dr. Richard Garxett certainly exhibited a 
self-confidence worthy of his subject in venturing to 
write a short " Life of John Milton " (London : 
Walter Scott) so soon after Mark Pattison's deeply- 
conceived and masterly book on the same subject. 
Yet the admirer of Pattison must admit that Dr. 
Garnett has justified himself. His book was worth 
writing, for it is worth reading. Less deeply medi- 
tated, less terse, less precise than its predecessor, 
the present volume is nevertheless an elegant bit of 
work. It contains a good deal of material not to 
be found in Pattison ; notably an excellent bibliog- 
raphy covering thirty-nine pages, and representing 
the cream of the Miltoniana in the British museum. 
Touching one mooted point. Dr. Garnett takes issue 
successfully with Pattison, who thinks it a i)itv that 
Milton should have given uj) *' to party what was 
meant for mankind." On tlie other hand, the pres- 
ent biographer shows, we think conclusivelvi that 
Milton would have been false, not only to his coun- 
try and to his God, but to himself, had he not em- 
barked ui)on that ** troubled sea of noises and hoarse 
disputes." Dr. Garnett contends, moreover, very 



convincingly, that the composition of the prose 
works was in several ways no bad course of training 
for the future author of " Paradise Lost." 

In reviewing Mr. Stanley Lane-Poole's *• Stoiy of 
Turkey," we criticized the book as failing to make 
anything more than a mere string of adventures of 
Turkish history. This writer has now found a more 
congenial field in his " Stoiy of the Barbary Cor- 
sairs" (Putnam), which is necessarily limited to a 
tale of adventure. In this restricted sphere, Mr. 
Lane-Poole has done admirably, and has produced 
the most entertaining volume of the ** Story of the 
Nations " series. There is a flavor of the sea about 
the narrative, and the style of the writer has in it 
the dash and verve of the rovers it represents. Old 
Barbarossa here lives again in all his large-minded 
rascality ; the Knights of St. John again win death- 
less laurels ; and the Mediterranean again whitens 
with innumerable sails, and glitters with the armor 
of contending heroes. The darker side, too, is here, 
and the terrible life of the galley-slave is pictured in 
a most valuable chapter. Proper credit is given to 
the United States for the initial step toward suppres- 
sing the mere handful of impudent pirates who for 
two centuries had bullied all Europe. In this por- 
tion, the writer has had the assistance of Lieutenant 
J. D. J. Kelley, of the United States navy. The 
last chapter, on the French acquisition of Algeria, 
is written with a somewhat too caustic pen, as the 
facts would speak for themselves, without added 
denunciation. 

Whatever may be Mr. A. P. Russell's other 
gifts, his latest work, '* In a Club Corner " (Hough- 
ton), shows that he has what Carlyle called " a 
genius for making excerpts." In this compact little 
volume of 328 pages, he gives us an agreeable mS- 
lange of wit, wisdom, humor, and anecdote, culled 
during a course of widely-extended and well-selected 
reading. For the convenience of the reader, he has 
arranged his material under general heads, with 
marginal summary ; and '* scrappiness " is avoided 
by stitching the whole together with a thread of 
personal comment and reflection. The selections 
are fresher than one usuaUy finds in such compilar 
tions, and the book, iftsides being very readable, 
will prove an excellent means of reference. Mr. 
Russell has seen fit to call his work a " monologue " 
— a term not very apposite where the author's role 
is chiefly that of raconteur. Be that as it may, " In 
a Club Corner " is a book to be grateful for under 
any title. Mr. Russell will be i)leasantly remem- 
bered as the author of " A Club of One," which was 
received with much favor three years ago ; and the 
present volume is marked by the variety of matter 
and general air of refinement that characterized its 
predecessor. 

Ax attractive volume entitled •* On the Wing 
through Europe" (Welch, Fracker & Co.) com- 
prises a series of newspaper letters written from 
abroad by Francis C. Sessions. Th^ present^edi- 

Digitized by VriOO^lC 



1890.] 



THE DIAL 



17 



tion is the third, and the author, in his introduction, 
expresses his surprise that his hasty jottings shouUl 
have been so well received — and we are inclined 
to agree with him. Mr. Sessions^s tour did not take 
him off the beaten track, and what he saw in Lon- 
don, Paris, Rome, etc., is what no traveller with the 
usual complement of eyes could have helped seeing. 
His comments are, in general, as trite as his descrip- 
tions. One scarcely needs, for instance, to be told 
of Westminster Abbey, ** Here indeed one may spend 
a day with gi*eat interest "; or of the Coliseum that, 
'' Here thousands of the earlier Christians suffered 
martyrdom by being thrown into the arena, to be 
torn and devoured by wild beasts." Mr. Sessions's 
style, however, is not without originality. He tells 
us that ''• Scarcely a foot of Italian soil is other than 
a pilgrimage," and that he and his friends enjoyed 
the sea breeze in Venice '* with a zeal unequalled 
since we left home." The illustrations in the book 
are well chosen and well executed. 

The volume entitled '* Stories of New France " 
(Lothrop), by Agnes M. Machar and Thomas G. 
Marquis, will be of interest to Americans chiefly 
because it presents in liistorical form what is already 
familiar in prose and poetical romance. The " Sto- 
ries " begin with a chapter on " How New France 
was Found," and close with the " Great Siege of 
Quebec," thus covering a period from the earliest 
knowledge of America to the day when Montcalm 
and Wolfe, in 1759, met on the plains of Abraham. 
The hero of a Canadian ITiermopylae, Daulac, has 
already been introduced to us by Mrs. Catherwood 
in her '' Romance of Dollard," and the same author's 
*• Story of Tonty," tells also the story of Robert de 
La Salle. Eveiy school girl will feel an impulse to 
read the story of the Acadian exiles, in order to find 
out more, if possible, about " Evangeline," and thus 
the best purposes of the book will be sei*ved by lead- 
ing the reader one step nearer to the great store- 
house of Canadian history, Francis Parkinan. The 
authors should consider their work not in vain if it 
contributes a little toward this end. 

UxDER the titles, ** Helps for Daily Living " and 
" The Signs of the Times," two volumes have been 
recently published by George H. Ellis, containing 
twenty-two sermons by the Rev. Minot J. Savage, 
the well-known Unitarian divine ; and we take 
pleasure in saying that these sermons are well worth 
putting in type. A degree of appositeness is given 
to the contents of each book by selecting for it dis- 
courses of the same general trend as to subject mat- 
ter and intent. The first named contains much 
strong sense and straight thinking on practical sub- 
jects, and will be well received irrespective of the 
reader's particular "doxy." In '*The Signs of the 
Times." however, Mr. Savage gets upon debatable 
ground, and treats such subjects as ** Break-up of 
the Old Orthodoxy," ** IngersoUisni," etc., with a 
frankness that will, we are afraid, displea»*e many 
readers. 



Books of the Moxth. 



[The following list includes all books received by The Dial 
during the month qf April, 1890.] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY. 

History of Art in Sardinia, Jndea, Syria, and Asia Minor. 
From the French of Georges Perrot ana Charles Chipiez. 
Translated and £dited by I. Gonino. With 41G Engrav- 
ings and 8 Steel and (^olored Plates. 2 vols. 4to. A. C. 
Armstrong & Son. $14.50. 

The Problem of the Northmen. A I^etter to Judge Dalv, 
President of the American Geogranhical Society. Bv 
£l)en Norton Horsford. Second Edition. Illustrated. 
4to, pp. 2.H. Paper. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. $1.00. 

HISTORY. 

Hiatory of the United States of America, under the Con- 
stitution. By James Shouler. In 4 vols. 8vo. Dodd, 
Mead & Co. $9.00. 

A Short History of Mexico. By Arthur Howard Noll. 
16mo, pp. 294. A. C. McClurg & Co. $1.00. 

Bncrlish Lemds, Letters, and Kingrs. Part II., from Eliza- 
beth to Anne. By Donald G. Mitchell. 12mo, pp. 347. 
Charles Scribner's Sons. $1 .oO. 

Palestine. By Major C. R. Conder, D.C.L., R.E. lUus- 
trated. Kimo, pp. 207. Dodd, Mead <& Co. $1.25. 

A Short History of the Roman People. By William F. 
Allen. IGmo, pp. ;<70. Ginn & Co. $1.10. 

BIOGRAPHY. 

Dictionary of National Biography. Edited by Leslie 
Stephen and Sidney Lee. In about 50 vols. Vol. XXII., 
Glover-Gravet. Lai^e 8vo, pp. 449. Gilt top. Uncut. 
Macmillan & Co. $3.75. 

History of the Gix*tys. Being a Concise Account of the 
Girty Brothers, and of the Part Taken by Them in Loi-d 
Dunmore's War, et4". By Consul Willshire Butterfield, 
author of *'The Expedition Against Sandusky under 
Col. William Crawfom.*' Large 8vo, pp. 42«). Robert 
Clarke & Co. $3.50. 

Asa Turner and His Times. By George F. Magoun, D.D. 
Witli an Introduction by A. H. Clapp, D.D. Illustrated. 
12mo, pp. •i45. Congregational and S. S. Publishing 
Society. $1.50. 

The Wife of the First OodsuI. By Imbert de Saint- Amand . 
Translated by Thomas Sergeant Perry. With Portrait. 
12mo, pp. 357. Chas. Scribner^s Sons. $1.25. 

Memorial to Robert Browniner. Under the Auspices of 
the Browning Society of Boston, King's Chapel, Tues- 
day, January 28. 1S90. 8vo, pp. (>4. Paper. Tied. 
Printed for the Society. $ 1 .00. 

NATURAL HISTORY AND SCIENCE. 

Journal Oi Researches into the Natural History and Greol- 
ogy of the Countries Visited during the Voyage around 
the World of H. M. S. *' Beagle." By Charles Darwin, 
M.A., F.K.S. New Edition. Illustnited. 8vo, pp. 551. 
Uncut. D. Appleton & Co. .•;?5.(M). 

Characteristics of Volcanoes. With contributions of Facts 
and Principles from the Hawaiian Islands. By Jaines I). 
Dana. Profusely Illustrated with Maps and Views. 
Large Svo, pp. 3i)9. Gilt top. Uncut. Dodd, Mead & 
Co. $5.()0. 

Ck>rals and Coral Islands. By James D. Dana, LL.D. 
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Sold by A. C. McClurg ^ Co,, Chicago. 



NOW READY. 

SISTER SAINT SULP/CE. 

From the Spanish of Don Armando Pallacio Y aldes. 

Authorized translation by Nathan Haskell Dole. 

With Portrait. 12mo, cloth, 81.50. 

In this piquant and oharming story the versatile author of 
^^ The Marquis of PefLalta *' and ^' MaTimina *' has combined 
and contrasted the widely differing characters of Northern 
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la a natiye of Gallicia, and though he is a Isrric poet, has all 
the obstinacy, determination, frankness, and thrift of that 
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is quite unsuited to the religious vocation ; is quick-witted, 
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Moreover, she is the possessor of a fortune, as well as of a 
pair of wonderful Moorish eyes. Hero and heroine meet at 
a watering-place on the Guadalquivir. The love-making, 
auspiciously begun, is interrupted by the appearance of a 
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Mother Superior. The scene is then transferred to Seville, 
life in which beautiful city is charmingly portrayed. Recep- 
tions, excursions down the Guadalquivir, and various enter- 
taining episodes, give the author abundant chance for the 
humor and pathos of which he is a master. 

The author's masterly Prologue, in which he so eloquently 
discourses on the art of novel-writing, is included in the vol- 
ume, which is adorned with a fine portrait of Se&or Vald^. 



WILL BE READY MAY 10. 
THE 

Salt [Master of Luneburg. 

From the German of Julius Wolff. By W. Henry 
and Elizabeth R. Winslow. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

In these days, so rife with labor troubles and the strained 
relations of employer and employed, it is interesting to go 
back to the time when there was a complete and complicated 
system of guilds, embracing nearly all trades, and carrying 
with it the hierarchy of masters and apprentices. To such a 
period are we transported by Julius WolfF^s great novel, ^''Der 
SiHfmeister,^^ or, *^ The Salt Master of Luneburg. ** Since the 
death of Viktor von Schoffel, Wolff is the most popular of 
German poets, and this historical novel of his he has invested 
with all the charm of his fine fancy. 

The scene is laid in the famous city of Liineburg about the 
middle of the fifteenth century, during the reign of Frederick 
III., and the story of the great struggle between the wealthy 
burghers and the grasping Lord of the Land is most graph- 
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city of the Coopers' and Vintners' and Furriers' and Shoe- 
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golden threads of a double romance. There are many delight- 
fully humorous incidents, and here and there occur the IjTic 
gems for which the author is noted. 



Thomas Y. Crowell & Co., 

No. 46 E. Fourteenth St., New York. 

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[May, 1890. 



J. B. LippiNcoTT Company 

HAVE JUST PUBLISHED: 

%ECOLLECTIONS. 

By George W. Childs. Containing reminiscences of noted persons with whom Mr. Childs has been intimately 
acquainted, together with interesting incidents in his own life. With Portrait of author. 12ino, cloth, g^lt 
top, $1.00. 

*' A chatty unpretending record of the rise of worth, industry, and good sense, to fortune. Its sketches of people whom 
he has known embrace a targe number of the most desirable acquaintances, such as Inring, Halleck, Longfellow, Motley, 
Bryant, Presoott, Hawthorne, and others.'' — New York Christian Intelligencer. 

*' The man himself, crowned by a brilliantly successful life, is a subject of interest to every American. His personal rem- 
iniscences of ^vea.t men who had enjoyed his hospitality, and with whom he was intimate, makes these pages of ' RecoUeo- 
tions' full of mterest." — Wilmington (Del.) Ensign. 

'^ The finer tender side of General Grant's character becomes more evident as we read the recollections of Mr. Childs and 
others who knew him intimately. It explains the personal affection towards him of such natures as Conkling, Logan, and 
others, whose friendship was more than the loyalty of political partisans." — Boston Pilot. 



^S YOU LIKE IT. 

Volume VIII. of the Variorum Edition of Shakespeare. 
Edited by Horace Howard Furness, Ph.D., LL.D., 
L.H.D. Royal 8vo, extra cloth, gilt top, 84.00. 
Each volume is a Shakespearean library in itself, and 
contains the best criticisms that have ever been written. 
Those already issued are " Romeo and Juliet," " Ham- 
let " (two vols.), " Macbeth," " King I^ear," " Othello," 
and " The Merchant of Venice." 

'* Of all the editions of Shakespeare, there is none more 
scholarly, more exhaustive, or in every way more satisfactory 
than the Variorum Edition edited by Horace Howard Fur- 
ness." — Boston Courier, 

" To enjoy Shakespeare thoroughly, there is but one edition 
that will sumce, and that is Dr. Fumess's own. It is the re- 
sult of a lifetime of study bv the most eminent Shakespea 
scholar in America." — Philadelphia Public Ledger. 



WORKS OF 

IVILLIAM H. TRESCOTT. 

New Library Edition. Edited by J. Foster Kirk. 

Illustrated with Portraits and Maps. Complete in 

12 volumes. Octavo, neatly bound in cloth, gilt top. 

$2.50 per volume. 

" Conquest of Mexico," two vohmies. " Conquest of 
Peru," two volumes. " Ferdinand and Isabella," two 
volumes. " The Reig^ of Charles V.," two volumes. 
Now ready. 

"It would be difficult to point out among any works of liv- 

S^ historians the eanal of those which have proceeded from 
r. Prescott's pen.'' — Harper"* s Magazine. 
" Mr. Prescott has long been honorably known as the author 
of the most valuable historical works produced in the present 
age."— TAc Edinburgh Review. 



STANLEY'S EMIN TASHA EXPEDITION. 



With Maps, thirty-three Por- 



By A. J. Wauters, Chief Editor of the Mouvement Greographique, Brussells. 
traits, and Illustrations. 12mo, cloth, $2.00. 

*^The stor^ is told in a clear concise manner that challenges interest. Those who desire to understand what Stanley 
really accomplished, and the perils that he encountered, will do well to read this work." — Toledo Blade. 

'* The author of the present volume has studied the facts in all available sources, and has thrown light on the immediate 
expedition itself by going back and tracing in outline the attempt of Egypt to secure mid- African empire, with all the events 
incident, including General Gordon's governorship, and his subsequent attempt to bring off what was left of the Egyptian 
effort, ending in the tragedy at Khartoum. Cleanv to know what this last expedition of Stanley was for, it is necessary to 
understand what went l^fore. The expedition itself is followed in as much detail as is possible from information received 
from many sources. The author has made an exceedinglv interesting book, from which the reader may gather an outline of 
the most strikingly dramatic exploit of recent years." — Chicago Times. 



Two NEW WORKS OF FICTION. 



LOVE IN THE TROPICS. 

A Romance of the South Seas. By Caroline Earle 
White, l^mo, cloth, 81.00. 

This story will doubtless be a welcome surprise to the 
many friends of the author, who is so widely known through 
her activity in charitable and humanitarian effoi'ts. Mrs. 
White is gifted with fine imaginative powers, and possesses 
literary taste and ability of a superior order, as is abundantly 
shown by this life-like romance of the South Seas. 



SYRLIN. 

By " Ouida," author of " Guilderoy," " Chandos," « In 
Maremma," " Moths," etc. A 12mo volume of 400 
pages. Paper, 50 cents; cloth, 81.00. 

'* Ouida's stories are abundant in world-knowledge and 
world-wisdom, strong and interesting in plot. Her characters 
are conceived and elaborated with a skill little short of mas- 
terly, and the reflective portions of her stories are marked by 
fine thought and a deep insight into the workings of human 
nature." — Boston Gazette. 



If not obtainable at pour Bookseller'' s^ send direct to the Publishers^ who will forward the books^ free of postage^ 

promptly upon receipt of the price. 

J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY, Publisuebs, 715 and 717 Market St., Philadelphia. 

THS DIAIi PRB86, CHICAGO. j^^*^ | 

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THE INCOMPARABLE 

TARTARIN OF Tarascon. 

HARPER'S MAGAZINE presents, in the June 
Number, the first installment of an entirely new and 
supremely droll serial story, 

TORT TARASCON; 

The Last Adventures of the Illustrious Tartarin. 

Written hy ALPHONSE DAUDET, traiuilated by 
HENRY JAMES. 

Tkt leading Illustrators qf France— Rossis Myrbach^ and 
othert-^U lend the charm of their art to " Port Tarascon.^* 
Tke Jirtt installment contains 24 Illustrations, A novel hy 
Daudei has never h^ore been first published outside of France. 



Other Attractive Contents of same Number. 

THROUGH THE CAUCASUS. By Vicomte Euoenk 
Mrlchoib de "Vooub. Eleyen illustrations by T. dr 
Thuutrup and H. D. Nichols. 

THE ENEMY'S DISTANCE : Range-finding at Sea by Elec- 
tricity. BypARKBsMJAMiK^Ph.D. With three diagrams. 

THE AMERICAN BURLESQUE. By Laurence Hut- 
ton. Nineteen illnstrations. 

THREE BRILUANT SHORT STORIES: "Would Dick 

Do That ? '' by Geo. A. Hibbabd ; illustrated by Alice 
. Barber. " Two Points of View," by Matt Crim . ** Six 

Hoon in Squantioo,'* by F. Hopkimson Smith ; illustrated 

brA. B.Frost. 
fOrsT BISMARCK. By George Morttz Wahl. PUte 

Portrait after Franz y. Leitbach. 

THE BEST-GOVERNED CITY IN THE WORLD. By 
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THE YOUNG WHIST-PLAYER'S NOVITIATE: Some 
Praetice Hands for Beginners. By Professor F. B. Good- 
rich. Diagrams. 

CHAPBOOK HEROES. By Howard Ptle. Four illna- 
tnlions by the author. 

FOUR POEMS. By Zoe Dana Underhill, William S. 
Walsh, Anoib W. Wray, and C. H. Crandall. 

THIXaS ONE COULD HAVE WISHED TO HAVE EX- 
PRESSED OTHERWISE ! FuU-page drawing by Geo. 
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Editorial T>epartments. 

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BOOKS FOR SUMMER READING. 



THE CAPTAIN OF THE JANIZARIES. A Tale 
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YOUMA. The Story of a West-Indian Slave. By 
Laptadio Hearn, author of " Chita," etc. Frontispiece 
by Howard Pyle. Post 8vo, cloth, Ornamental, $1.00. 

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THE ODD NUMBER : Thirteen Tales by Guy de 
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MARIA.: A South American Romance. By Jorge 
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PASTELS IN PROSE. (From the French.) Trans- 
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20 THE DIAL [June, 



WEBSTER'S DICTIONARY. 

"BOTH ^NCIENl AND [MODERN. 



DO NOT BE DUPED. 

A 80-€allecl " Webster's Unabridged Dictionary " is being offered to the public at a very low price. 
The body of the book, from A to Z, is a cheap reprint, page for page, of the edition of 1847, which was 
in its day a valuable book, but in the progress of language for over FORTY YEARS has been com- 
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printed on cheap paper, and flimsily bound. It is advertised to be the substantial equivalent of '' an 
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about five dollars, and that book was much superior, in paper, print, and binding, to this imitation, and 
was then the best Dictionary of the time instead of an antiquated one. A brief comparison, page by 
page, between the reprint and the latest and enlarged edition will show the great superiority of the latter. 
No honorable dealer will allow the buyer of such to suppose he is getting tlie Webster which to-day is 
recognized as the Standard and THE BEST. 

There are several of these reprints, differing in minor particulars; but don*t be duped. The 
body of each is a literal copy of the 1847 edition. 



WHAT THE PAPERS SAY. 



The V^EIV YORK TIMES says: 

« Ouly those who are ignorant of the great advances that have been made in dictionaries are likely to buy 
this reprint at any price." 

The AMERICAN "BOOKSELLER, of U^ew York, says : 

"The etymologies are utterly misleading, and naturally so; for when the Webster of 1847 was issued Coiii- 
pamtive Pliilology was in its cradle. The definitions are imperfect, requiring condensation, re-arrangement, and 
a(hlitions. Tlie vocabulary is defective, some of the commonest words of to-day, especially scientific terms, for 
which a dictionary is most often consulted, being entirely absent. In not one of these three prime requisites of a 
dictionary is the Webster reprint a trustworthy guide, or, rather, it is a misleading one. . . . This * reprint ' 
is not intended for intelligent men. It is made expressly to be foisted, by all the arts of the book canvasser, on 
those who have been precluded from a knowledge of what developments lexicog^phy has undergone during the 
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The "BUFFALO CHRISTIAN ^DWOCATE says: 

" Don't be Duped f Thousands are, or are likely to be, by the flashy fraudulent advertisements of « The 
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The JOURNAL OF EDUCATION. Boston, says: 

" Teachers can not be too careful not to be imposed on, since the very things which make a dictionary" valu- 
able in school are wanting in this old-time reprint. Any high-school dictionary which can be purchased for a dollar 
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iUusti*ations on almost every page. 

G. & C. MERRIAM & CO., SPRINGFIELD. Mass. 

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1890.] 



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Macmillan and Co.'s New Books. 

THE ADVENTURE SERIES. Large 12mo, cloth. Price, #1.60 each. 

The First Volume Now Ready. 

<,/myENTURES OF A YOUNGER SON. 

By John £i>\vabd Trelawsey. With Introduction by Edward Garnett. Illustrated. Large 12mo, ^1.50. 

'*The Adventures of a Younger Son*^ is unique. Trelawney, the friend of Byi-on and Shelley, founded the exciting 
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" Trelawney's work is emphatically good literature. ... It is admirable, full of vigor and variety, spirit and etUrain, 
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*'* The book is one of the most fascinating of its kind in the language." — Echo, 



S, Dana Harton*s Neto Book on the Silver Question. 

SILVER IN EUROPE. 

By S. Dah A HoKTON, author of " The Silver Pound," etc. 



12mo, 300 pages, cloth, $1.!K). 

'* Silver in Europe " is a series of essays dealing with vari- 
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Now Ready, 

THE STATESMAN'S YEAR 'BOOK, i8go. 

Statistical and Historical Annual of the States of the Civilized 
World for the Year 1890. Edited by J. Scott Keltie, 
Librarian to the Royal Gksographical Society. Twenty- 
Seventh Annual Publication. Revised after official re- 
turns. 12mo, doth, 83.00. 



A New Book by Sir Charles W, Dilke, uniform with James Bryce's "American Commonwealth.** 

TROBLEMS OF GREATER BRITAIN. 

By the Right Hon. Sir Charles W. Dilke, Bart. With Maps. Large 12ino. J&4.00. 
** (Hie of the most important and interesting studies of the time." — New York Tribune. 

*' The most important contribution ever made to the materials for the study of constitutional and political institutions.' 
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THE CIVILIZATION of the RENAISSANCE 

IN ITALY. By Jacob BuRCKHABDT. Authorized trans- 
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Now Ready. Vol. 11. of the New Edition of 

^ hand-book of descriptive and 

PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. By G. F. Chambers, 
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Vol. II. INSTRUMENTS AND PRACTICAL AS- 
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AMONG THE SELKIRK GLACIERS. 

Being the account of a Rough Survey in the Rocky Mountaiiui 
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INTERNATIONAL LAIV. 

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AN OUTLINE of the LAW OF PROPERTY. 

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'DEVELOPMENT and CHARACTER of GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE. 

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ENGLISH MEN OF ACTION SERIES. New Volume. 12mo, cloth, limp, 60 cts.; edges uncut, 75 cts. 

HAVELOCK. By Archibald Forbes. 

ALREADY PUBLISHED: 



DAVID LIVINGSTONE. By Thomas Hughes. 
HENRY THE FIFTH. By Rev. A. J. Chuich. 
GENERAL GORDON. By Col. Sir W. BuUer. 
LORD LAWRENCE. By Sir Richard Temple. 
WELLINGTON. By George Hooper. 

CAPTAIN COOK. 



DAMPIER. By W. CUrk Russell. 
MONK. By Julian Corbett. 
STRAFFORD. ByH. D.TraUl. 
WARREN HASTINGS. By Su- Alfred LyaU. 
PETERBOROUGH. By William Stebbing. 
By Walter Besant. 



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[June, 



Houghton, Mifflin & Co;s 

The Master of the Magicians. 

A Novel. Collaborated by Elizabeth Stuart 
Phelps and Herbert D. Ward. 16mo, price 
$1.25. 
" The Master of the Magicians " is a novel dealing 

with court life in Babylon six hundred years before 

Christ. 

THIRD EDITION. 

" There can he little question that the extraordinary 
popularity of * Ben Hur ' will be rivalled by * The Master 
of the Magicians,^ " — Boston Traveller. 

Toems. 

By John Hay. 16mo, gilt top, $1.25. 

Colonel Hay has included in this volume the poems 
published nearly twenty years ago under the title of 
<*Pike County Ballads/' which have had a quite re- 
markable popularity, with the poems he has written 
since that date. 

Castilian Days. 

By John Hay. New Edition, uniform with Hay's 
Poems. 16mo, $1.25. 

John Jay. 

Vol. 23 of " American Statesmen." By George 
Pellew. 16mo, $1.26. 

Harvard Graduates whom I have Known 

By A. p. Peadody, D.D., LL.D. 12mo, $1.25. 

Tales of U^ew England. 

By Sarah Orne Jewett. In the "Riverside 

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Eight of Miss Jewett's most delightful stories, form- 
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The American Horsewoman.- 

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16mo, price reduced to $1.25. 
An admirable book for ladies learning to ride. 

Sweetsefs Guide-Books. 

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Editions for 1890: 

NEW ENGLAND. 

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MESSRS. ROBERT BONNER'S SONS 

Announce for publvcaiwn June i, 1890^ 

THE FOLLOWING : 

AFRICA RE-DISCOVERED.— Herbert Ward's 
Great Book. 

Froe Years with the Congo Cannibals. 

By Herbert Ward. Magnificently illustrated with 
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NEW PUBLICATIONS. 
Henry OA. Stanley. 

By Henrt Frederic Reddall. A Full Account of 
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The Lost Lady of Lone. 

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lone: A Broken Love Dream. 

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Great Senators. 

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,/.5 L' 




Vol. XI. 



JUNE, 1890. 



No. 122. 



CONTEXTS. 

WILLIAM CULLEN BRYANT. Oliver F. Emerson 31 

THE STATESMANSHIP OF THOMAS JEFFER- 
SON. IL W. Thurston 33 

MASSON'S EDITION OF DE QUINCEY. Melville 

B. Anderson 35 

THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE FUTURE. Anna B. 

McMahan 36 

PATER'S " APPRECIATIONS." C. A, L. Richards 37 

"OLD COLTTTRY LIFE." Genevieve Grant ... 38 

BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS 40 

Brinton's EtsayB of an Americanist. — Mrs. Kendall's 
Dramatic Opinions. — Browning Memorial. — Gosse's 
Browning: Personalia. — Mrs. Hill's Leger's A History 
of Austro-Hungary. — Stebbing's Peterborough. — Be- 
sant's Captain Cook.— Owen's Notes to Modem French 
fiction. — Cnrtin's Myths and Folk-Lore of Ireland. — 
Perry's SaintrAmand's The Wife of the First Consul. 
—Ball's Stai^Land. 

LITERARY NOTES AND NEWS 43 

TOPICS IN JUNE PERIODICALS 44 

BOOKS OF THE MONTH 44 



William Cullex Bryaxt.* 

The new " Life of Bryant " in the handy 
"American Men of Letters " series is welcome 
as an important addition to our literary biog- 
raphy. The Life by Parke Godwin must al- 
ways be the great storehouse of facts for those 
to whom every item of information about the 
great poet is gladly received. But Godwin's 
work is too bulky for ordinary use, and too 
expensive for the popular purse. The present 
volume, therefore, having the advantage of fol- 
lowing the larger work, together with the in- 
spiration of pei-sonal relations of its author 
with the poet, will surely find a wider circle of 
readers, and increase the influence of a life 
noble enough to make it memorable apart from 
the blossom and fruit of its song. 

The life of Bryant has a two-fold character. 
He was a great poet, and has produced some 
of the finest poems of our literature. But he 
was a public man as well, no insignificant fac- 
tor, during his long connection with the New 
York " Evening Post," in moulding public 

• William Cullbn Bryant. By John Bigelow. "Amer- 
ican Men of Letters" Series. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin 
A Co. 



opinion and directing the counsels of his coun- 
try. He possessed rai*e judgment in practical 
affairs, no less than rare taste and power in 
verse. The strength of his individuality was 
far-reaching, during the fifty years that his 
striking face and figure were well-known in 
New York City. In Bryant's case, the direc- 
tion of Othello, "nothing extenuate, nor set 
down aught in malice," is inapplicable, because 
the first is unnecessary, the last is impossible. 
Born of Puritan New England parents, he 
early learned to esteem that spotlessness of 
character which became his own, to imbue his 
life with that moral beauty so characteristic of 
his poetry, and to set before himself that stand- 
ard of virtue which made him revered in pub- 
lic as in private life. 

Bryant the poet early showed his power. 
The record of his precocity is as marvellous 
as that of any other genius. Before he was a 
year and a half old he knew his letters. At 
five, he recited with pleasure many of Watts's 
hymns. At eight, he wrote verses. When 
scarcely ten, he made a verse paraphrase of 
the first chapter of Job, and in the same year 
declaimed a rhymed description of the school 
he attended, — verses afterwards published in 
the county paper. At this time he wrote a sat- 
ire on the " Embargo " of Jefferson, which his 
father, an ardent Federalist, published in Bos- 
ton. These five hundred lines contained a 
scathing rebuke to Jefferson, often quoted with 
great merriment when Bryant afterwards be- 
came a Jeffersonian Democrat. The early 
verse, however, shows little but excessive in- 
fluence of Pope, both in correctness of measure 
and in couplet structure. Not till later was 
the reactionary poetry of Cowper and Words- 
worth read with delight, giving the impulse to 
his later poetic form. One other incident, the 
story of '^ Thanatopsis," is known to all : how 
it was written by the boy of eighteen, and re- 
mained six years unheard of ; how it was first 
brought to notice by the father and even as- 
cribed to him, and how its publication in the 
" North American Review " discovered a new 
genius in the young barrister of the Berkshire 
hiUs. 

When " Thanatopsis" was published Bryant 
was twenty-three years old. He had given up 
his college course at eighteen, after the sopho- 
more year at Williams, because his f ath^ could * 

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32 



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[June, 



not afford the expense. He began almost im- 
mediately the study of law, not daring to trust 
himaplf to his favorite literature, but still writ- 
ing poetry, and receiving one rebuke at least 
for preferring Wordsworth to Blackstone. At 
twenty-one he was admitted to the bar, and the 
following year he began successful practice at 
Grreat Barrington, Massachusetts. The publi- 
cation of '* Thanatopsis " brought him invita- 
tions to write both poetry and prose, and in 
these years he did some of his best work. In 
1822, he published a booklet containing eight 
of his best poems, among them " To a Water- 
Fowl," *- Green River,"* and -* The Ages," the 
latter a Phi Beta Kappa poem delivered at 
Harvard. During this time, however, Bryant 
was not in great sympathy with the law. His 
literary successes did not tend to increase his 
love for the profession, and, although he re- 
mained a barrister ten years, he was at last to 
break the bond and devote himself to litera- 
ture. In 1825, after several visits of explora- 
tion, he settled in New York, a literary adven- 
turer. He had first thought of going to Boston, 
but the Sedgwicks, brothers of Miss Sedgwick 
the story-writer, persuaded him to try New 
York. Here he wrote poetry, edited several 
unsuccessful magazines, and finally, after two 
years of adventurer's life, became editor of the 
" Evening Post." 

With this journalistic enterprise, we leave 
for a time the poet Bryant. He continued to 
write, but not frequently or much. But he 
was doing a great work in quieter ways, when 
honest, nianly, dignified prose was more neces- 
sary than verse. The " Post " began its life 
in the first year of the century. More signifi- 
cant, its existence antedated the popular news- 
sheet, with the catering to public fancy and 
mediocre taste, and under Bryant's guidance 
it continued the best representative of inde- 
pendent but conservative criticism of public 
men and national affairs. Bryant was nev^r 
a party man or a party editor. He was never 
subservient to party counsels, and never hesi- 
tated to oppose party managers when he could 
not sympathize with their views. On this ac- 
count the *' Post " passed through more than 
one crisis, at one time being threatened with 
destruction by the mob, at another suffering ex- 
treme financial straits, so that Bryant thought 
seriously of going west to begin anew. But 
neither financial embarrassment nor denuncia- 
tion by party press changed his attitude for a 
moment. There was no letting down the high 
standard Bryant had set for himseK, and by 



which he persisted in judging others. Nor 
was his paper without success in the best sense. 
Possessed of unerring judgment, of almost pro- 
phetic insight, Bryant's editorial utterances 
were found to be a safe sailing-chart, and his 
advocacy of measures was justified by the re- 
sult. Few, if any, crises in local or national 
affairs could be cited in which the " Post " was 
not the champion of justice and high morals. 
It stood with Jackson against nullification, 
when his worst enemies were of his own party. 
It opposed the annexation of Texas to mcrease 
the slave power. It withstood the extension of 
slavery, when Northern Democrats were trim- 
ming to Southern wishes. It upheld freedom 
of speech, when the anti-slavery presses of the 
boi-der were destroyed and their owners threat- 
ened with death. It became the supporter of 
the war on slavery, of Emancipation when the 
nation's leaders were halting at such a step. 

Bryant's editorial career cannot be sepa- 
rated from his life as a poet. They are parts 
of one whole, necessary to a proper estimate of 
the man. Still, his editiorial duties undoubt- 
edly interfered with his poetry. Before he 
began his duties on the '* Post " he had writ- 
ten one-third of all his lines. The fifty years 
that followed were comparatively unproductive. 
Some years he wrote none at all, while in the 
decade after he was thirty-five he averaged only 
about one hundred lines a year. He is thus to 
be judged rather from the character than the 
abundance of his poetry. It was a natural but 
not a necessary language with him. He has 
written some poems that rank with anything 
in the language. There are many others cor- 
rect in form, beautiful in sentiment, pleasantly 
expressed, but missing the depth or the fulness 
of the best English verse. Moreover, the ideal 
of his verse was circumscribed. His poetry is 
preeminently ethical, and while good ethics 
does not mar good poetry, except when too fre- 
quently expressed, it is not an essential feature. 
He is characterized, preeminently among Amer- 
ican poets, by a sympathetic observation of Na- 
ture, and by correct and dignified expression. 
In the first, he shows most the influence of 
Wordsworth. There was a natural kinship in 
their love of Nature, and in its spiritual appeal 
to them. But Bryant gave that spiritual ap- 
peal an ethical expression, while in the best of 
Wordsworth the ethical element is left to in- 
ference. In the technique of verse, Bryant was 
also a master. Moreover, he added dignity to 
harmony, so that his blank verse often equsdled 
the lofty melody of Milton. It is not neces- 



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1890.] 



THE DIAL 



88 



sary to attempt ranking Bryant in our litera- 
ture. He has no doubt sometimes been placed 
too high, often too low, in the roll of honored 
ones. But his place is secure in the first rank 
of that coterie of poets who have made our lit- 
erature honored outside their own country. 

The volume before us is not a strong one in 
its make-up, not the equal of others of the same 
series, perhaps. The praise is sometimes ful- 
some, and sometimes too meagre. There has 
been wasted, also, some effort on details that 
might better have been spent on more import- 
ant facts. The chapter on Bryant the Tourist 
is an example, as well as the pages devoted to 
Bryant's vote in the Presidential contest of 
1876. But the book is written with care, by 
a sincere admirer, and gives in compact form 
the principal points in a notable life, so that it 
will be gladly read by those who have learned 
to revere Bryant the poet, the editor, and the 

™^- Oliver Farrar Emerson. 



The Statesmanship of Thomas 
Jeeferson.* 



Thomas Jefferson was inaugurated Presi- 
dent of the United States March 4, 1801, only 
twelve years after the adoption of the Consti- 
tution ; and it is hard for men of to-day to get 
clear and lasting conceptions of the condition 
of the country and people at that period. No 
railroads, no steamboats, no telegraph. New 
England was separated from Pennsylvania and 
Virginia by weary days of time and antago- 
nisms of political and economic interest, while 
the whole Atlantic coast was shut off from the 
half-million settlers in the Ohio and Missis- 
sippi valleys by the huge uncompromising bar- 
rier of the Allegheny mountains. The com- 
mercial and physical isolation of New England 
constantly invited intrigues and conspiracies 
for disunion, like that of Timothy Pickering 
and Roger Griswold ; while dreams of a west- 
ern empire, with an outlet through the Missis- 
sippi river, were but the product of existing 
physical and political conditions, and promised 
good fuel for the fire of treasonable ambition 
that smouldered in the breast of Aaron Burr. 
Thus, in spite of the constitution that was to 
form " a more perfect union," it was hardly 
more than a confederacy of states over which 

♦History of the Unitbd Statbs of America, during 
the Administratioiis of Thomas JefFeraon . By Henry Adams. 
In fonr volumes. Vols. I. and II., The First Administration ; 
Vols. III. and IV., The Second Administration. New York : 
Charles Scribner's Sons. 



Jefferson was called to preside ; and in spite 
of his efforts to unite them, it was still but a 
confederacy of states and interests which, after 
eight years, he left face to face with the alter- 
native of slavish submission to France and 
England or of going to war against them. 

But however weak and disunited his own 
country might be, Jefferson had strong coun- 
tries and strong men to cope with abroad. Pitt 
and Canning in England, Godoy " The Prince 
of Peace" in Spain, and Talleyrand and Napo- 
leon in France, were no mean opponents. When 
one considers the odds against him, it may seem 
remarkable that Jefferson won so often as he 
did ; but when his movements are all fully ex- 
plained, it seems the more remarkable that he 
won at all. The best that can be said for him 
is that, however wisely he planned his own 
movements, he seemed rarely to have any true 
conception of the character and resources of 
the men with whom he coped. 

Thomas Jefferson came into office as the 
champion of Republicanism against an imag- 
ined tendency to Monarchism, of States' Rights 
against the rights of the General Government, 
and of peace against war. Mr. Adams shows 
that the real purposes of the man are not to be 
found in his Inaugural Addresses and public 
messages. It is in his private messages to 
Congress, and in his private correspondence, 
that Jefferson's real opinions are preserved. 
His first Inaugural Address breathed nothing 
but harmony, and in it he gravely said, " We 
are all Republicans, we are all Federalists," 
while but two days afterward he expressed in 
a private letter his real belief in the monarch- 
ical plans of his predecessor : 

<< The tough sides of our argosie have been thoroughly 
tried. Her strength has stood the waves into which she 
was steered with a view to sink her. We shall put her 
on her Republican tack, and she will show by the beauty 
of her motion the skill of her builders." 

As to the aggressions of foreign nations, 
he outlined in 1797, while still a minister to 
France, a policy that he afterward persistently 
followed until it was proved a failure : 

" We must make the interest of every nation stand 
surety for their justice, and their own loss to follow in- 
jury to us as effect follows its cause. As to everything 
except commerce, we ought to divorce ourselves from 
them all." 

Shortly before his inauguration, with refer- 
ence to States' Rights and the powers of the 
General Government, he wrote as follows : 

" The true theory of our Constitution is surely the 
wisest and best, that the states are independent as to 
everything within themselves, and united as to ®very.-^T/^ 



84 



THE DIAL 



[June, 



thing respecting foreign nations. Let the General Gov- 
ernment be reduced to foreign concerns only." 

In brief, Jefferson's plans for his administra- 
tion, as explained by Mr. Adams, were to win 
all political opinions to his own ; to encourage 
education, agriculture, and commerce ; to cur- 
tail the powers of the general government, and 
to control foreign nations by directing at will 
American commerce past their ports or into 
them. 

There is space to give little more than a hint 
of the mass of Jefferson's diplomatic corre- 
spondence, of which hundreds of extracts are 
given in Mr. Adams's history. Through the 
magic medium of this correspondence, we are 
transported to the pestilential battle-fields of 
St. Domingo, into the personal presence of the 
Spanish " Prince of Peace," before the inscrut- 
able Talleyrand, nay, into the private bath-room 
of the First Consul himself. All the separate 
levers that were working together to topple 
over the vast territory of Louisiana into Amer- 
ican control are seen in action. Jefferson him- 
self appears with a fragile instrument in his 
hand, prying away at the vast weight after it 
had begun to move, and flattering himself that 
his own strength has set it in motion. Napo- 
leon sold this territory in opposition to the will 
of France, and of Louisiana itself ; and Jeffer- 
son went beyond his powers under the Consti- 
tution, as he interpreted it, in accepting the 
purchase. But he did not stop here. 

" Within three years of his inaug^iration, Jefferson 
hought a foreign colony without its consent and against 
its will, annexed it to the United States hy an act which 
he said made blank paper of the Constitution; and then 
he who had found his predecessors too monarchical, and 
the Constitution too liberal in powers, — he who had 
nearly dissolved the bonds of society rather than allow 
his predecessor to order a dangerous alien out of the 
country in a time of threatened war, — made himself 
monarch of the new territory, and wielded over it, 
against its protests, the powers of its old kings.*' 

Napoleon had dii'ected Talleyrand to insert 
an obscurity in the Treaty, in regard to the 
boundary of Louisiana, and this ol)scurity led 
Jefferson into nothing but entanglement and 
humiliation. In 1762, France had ceded Lou- 
isiana to Spain and the Floridas to Great Brit- 
ain, and in 1783 the Floridas also came into 
the possession of Spain. In 1800, Spain ret- 
roceded Louisiana to France, " with the same 
extent that it now has in the hands of Spain 
and that it had when France possessed it." 
Napoleon knew well that Florida had not been 
retroceded to him ; but Livingstone and Mon- 
roe, negotiators of the purchase, persuaded 



themselves, and afterward Jefferson, to believe 
that France had regained both Florida and 
Louisiana, and that, in buying out the rights 
of France, the United States had bought Flor- 
ida as well as Louisiana. At first, Napoleon 
seemed to favor this claim, but only to further 
his own ends ; and for more than two years he 
continued to dangle the Floridas in the face of 
the United States as a possible reward for their 
subservience to him. Jefferson saw the trick 
too late to save himself from the charge of un- 
restrained cupidity. 

But cupidity was not a deadly sin in the 
eyes of the people, and as the Algerian pirates 
had been soundly thrashed, and Louisiana was 
being paid for while the Treasury surplus was 
still growing larger, Jefferson was re-elected in 
1804, and was increasingly populai*. Indeed, 
he had so far succeeded in harmonizing the 
politicians that in the Tenth Congress he con- 
trolled four-fifths of the Senate and nearly 
three-fourths of the House. He had so com- 
municated his " passion for peace" to the coun- 
try that, in 1807, Congress res}X)nded to the 
" Berlin Decree" of Napoleon and the English 
" Orders in Council," to French destruction of 
American merchantmen and British impress- 
ment of American seamen, only with an em- 
bargo upon American commerce. 

linmediately revenue dwindled, smugglers 
multiplied and grew openly defiant, the na- 
tional tone was lowered. Government troops 
coerced states and cities, ships were rotting at 
the wharves, and the nation was growing j)oor. 
But still England and France did not feel 
themselves "compelled to do justice" to the 
United States. Jefferson's long-cherishetl plan 
of "peaceful coercion" had been thoroughly 
tried and had failed, and three days before his 
retirement from office the President signed the 
repeal of Embargo. With the failure of Em- 
bargo Jefferson's popularity had also waned, 
so that the Senate of the Eleventh Congi'ess 
refused to confirm the appointment of his friend 
William Short as minister to Russia, although 
he was already in Paris on his way to St. Peters- 
burg. 

Mr. Adams has done his work well, so well 
that there will he no need for another to do it 
again. He has turned the white light of tnith 
upon every important administrative act of 
Thomas Jefferson during the eight years of his 
presidency, and most men who care more for 
the truth than for their own opinion of the 
truth will acknowledge themselves his debtor. 
While not aiming to be ix)pida|', the work is 

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1890.] 



THE DIAL 



85 



so written as to entertain earnest readers of 
history, as well as to instruct special students. 
There is a complete index at the end of the 
second and fourth volumes. 

It is but justice that the author should have 
the last word in his own cause and in descrip- 
tion of the man whose personality in these 
pregnant years was frequently the government : 

<<On horseback, over roads impassable to wheels, 
through storm and snow, he hurried back to Monticello, 
to recover in the quiet of home the peace of mind he 
had lost in the disappointments of his statesmanship. 
. . . Twenty years elapsed before his political au- 
thority recovered power over the Northern people; for 
not untU Embargo and its memories faded from men's 
minds did the mighty shadow of Jefferson's Revolution- 
ary name efface the ruin of his Presidency." 

H. W. Thurston. 



MA880n's Edition of De Quixcby.* 

The biographer of Dr. Parr, and the editor 
of his works in eight octavo volumes (a certain 
Dr. Johnstone), gives solemn and sonorous ut- 
terance to a lament that his hero did not, like 
Clarendon, like Burnet, or like Tacitus, write 
a history of his own times, " and deliver, as an 
everlasting memorial to posterity, the charac- 
ters of those who bore a part in them." Upon 
which lament De Quincey comments as fol- 
lows : 

" But, with submission, Posterity are a sort of people 
whom it is very difficult to get at; whatever other good 
qualities Posterity may have, accessibility is not one of 
them. A man may write eight octavos, specially ad- 
dressed to Posterity, and get no more hearing from the 
wretches than had he been a stock and they been stones. 
As to those * everlasting memorials ' which Dr. John- 
stone and Thucydides talk of, it is certainly advisable 
to 'deliver' them — but troublesome and injurious to 
the digestive organs." 

It is now upwards of a century since De 
Quincey's birth (1785), and nearly three-score 
and ten years since he won literary celebrity 
by the publication of the " Confessions of an 
Opium-Eater " (1822). In the last decade of 
his life two collected editions of his works were 
published; his American publishers found a 
market a few years ago for a third ; and now 
the Messrs. A. & C. Black, of Edinburgh, — 
represented by the Messrs. Macmillan & Co. 
on this side the sea, — are publishing, under 

•The Collected Wrttinos of Thomas De Qudtcbt. 
New and Enlarged Edition in Fonrteen Voloraes. By Pro- 
feasor David Masson. Vol. I., Autobiography ; Vol. II., Auto- 
biography and Literary Reminisoences ; Vol. III., London 
Rendniscences and Confeosions of an Opium-Eater ; Vol. IV., 
Biographies and Biographic Sketches ; Vol. V., Biographies 
and Biographic Sketches. Edinburgh : A. & G. Black. New 
York. : Macmillan & Co. 



the eminently competent editorship of Profes- 
sor Masson, an edition that seems likely to 
prove the definitive one. Considering the vast 
numbers of digestive organs, of every degree 
of robustness, that are taxed to their utmost 
from month to month in order to provide en- 
tertainment for the readers of the better sort 
of literary periodicals, it is certainly a notable 
circumstance when a writer of this class is so 
much as remembered a generation after his 
death. Much more noteworthy is it that a 
mere writer of periodical essays ranging over 
a vast extent of topics, — a writer, too, whose 
digestive organs had been hopelessly impaired 
by the opium-habit before the outset of his lit- 
erary career, — should still have the energy to 
deliver to a book-ridden posterity significant 
memorials of himself filling fourteen volumes. 
With so many worthy contemporary claimants 
to our attention and to our purses, is it possible 
that we, the Posterity for whom De Quincey 
did not write, can afford to bestow upon his 
fourteen volumes the number of hours and dol- 
lars requisite to the possession of them ? 

Evidently the publishers of these weU-print- 
ed,well-illustrated, and well-edited volumes have 
answered this question satisfactorily to them- 
selves from a business point of view, for they 
are able to offer this edition at a smaller price, 
volume for volume, than we have had to pay 
hitherto for a less complete and otherwise infe- 
rior edition. Without disparagement to the 
great American publishing house whose rela- 
tions with De Quincey were so honorable to 
them and so advantageous to him, it must be 
admitted that the present edition is distinctly 
superior to theirs typographically, and incom- 
parably superior in its editing. Professor Mas- 
son is an ideal editor, — sympathetic, watchful, 
scrupulous, unobtrusive. He provides each 
volume with an interesting biographical and 
bibliographical preface, arranges the contents 
according to a rational plan, introduces foot- 
notes whenever there is occasion, and distrib- 
utes the author's successive prolific crops of 
foot-notes in orderly fashion. Each volume 
has a carefully engraved frontispiece portrait 
of De Quincey or of members of his family, 
— ^the most beautiful and striking portrait in 
these five volumes being that of his daughter 
Florence in Volume IV. There are also one 
or two appropriate wood-cuts in each volume. 

A noble memorial this to a mere periodical 
essayist whose busy pen was laid down near a 
third of a century since. But is it justified ? 
Can we admit that Tait and Blackwood and 

"■" ' O" 



e 



36 



THE DIAL 



[June, 



Hogg's Instructor contained, a half-century 
back, metal more attractive than the great 
periodicals of to-day ? Has Time, that slayer 
and devourer of such prophets as Dr. Parr 
and Coleridge and Southey and Christopher 
North, and so many others, overlooked or dis- 
dained " little Mr. De Quincey " ? To these 
and other questions suggested by the volumes 
before us, we purpose to attempt no answer 
now. A few months later, when the whole 
edition shall be in the hands of the public, we 
hope to return to the subject and to analyze 
those remarkable qualities of mind and style 
by virtue of which this spirited writer is per- 
ennially fascinating. 

Melville B. Anderson. 



The Philosophy of the Future.* 



Near the close of George Henry Lewes' vol- 
uminous " History of Philosophy " occurs this 
discouraging statement : " Thus has philosophy 
completed its circle, and we are left in this 
nineteenth century precisely at the same point 
at which we were in the fifth." Were Mr. 
Lewes living to-day, he would certainly see 
cause to revise his statement in order to fit it 
to the last decade of the century. For while it 
is true that philosophical problems are not yet 
settled — and never can be until men's minds 
are all made after the same pattern — it is not 
true that " we are left at precisely the same 
point at which we were in the fifth." The old 
battle-ground is indeed the same, but the new 
armor and appliances of war are so vastly dif- 
ferent that it gives an entirely new aspect to 
the struggle. 

The fundamental question of philosophy to- 
day, as ever, is : Can we^ or can we not^ know 
anything in itself^ — that w, not merely as it 
se^ema^ but as it is ? On this question the 
world is now, as it always has been, divided 
into two hostile camps, but they have now a 
common point of agreement, unknown in the 
old days ; and this common agreement has re- 
sulted, not, as Lewes imagined, in doing away 
with the need of philosophy altogether, but 
rather in developing philosophy into unex- 
pected and highly surprising forms. The prac- 
tically universal acceptance by scientists of 
Evolution as a scientific explanation of the uni- 
verse implies the existence of some correspond- 

•The Way Out of Aonobticism; or, The Philosophy 
of Free ReDpon. By Francis Ellingwood Abhot, Ph.D. 
Boston : Little, Brown, & Co. 



ing philosophy as a philosophical explanation 
of the universe. The exposition of such a phil- 
osophy is the most imperative task laid upon 
speculative thinkers to-day, and it is one to tax 
their highest powers. 

To add to our interest in the matter, it is 
on American soil and from American thinkers 
that this philosophy of the future is receiving 
its most important contributions. While we 
owe to Herbert Spencer the word Evolution 
itself and the general concept of Evolution as 
a single all-pervading natural process, it was 
John Fiske rather than Herbert Spencer that 
first unfolded its religious and philosophical 
implications. And now another American — 
Francis Ellingwood Abbot, — starting from the 
same ground but travelling in an exactly oppo- 
site direction from Spencer, has come to ex- 
actly opposite conclusions. Thus, while neither 
wishes to be considered as having spoken his 
final word on the subject, we have already, in 
outline, two radically different philosophies of 
Evolution, which we are able to trace up to 
" last Saturday night." 

Their common ground is, — (1) That Nature 
means the. All of Being ^ (2) that the only 
road to knowledge of Nature is the Scientific 
Method. These are the new armor, the new 
appliances, the distinctive badges of nineteenth 
century thought. What is old, as old as man's 
mind itself, is the difference of mental consti- 
tution, whereby one man declares that we can 
know things as they exist in themselves, and 
another asserts that we can never know these 
in themselves, but merely as they seem to us. 
Thus, one school of Evolution philosophy, to 
which Mr. Spencer has given the name Trans- 
figured Realism, declares that the Scientific 
Method applies only to phenomena^ to the ap- 
pearances or shows of thin^, and has no pos- 
sible application to nomnena^ or things as they 
really exist in their internal relations and con- 
stitutions. Its religious outcome is Agnosti- 
cism. The other school, which Mr. Abbot has 
named Scientific Realism, declares that the 
Scientific Method applies necessarily both to 
phenomena and noumena^ both to things as 
they seem and to things as they are. 

Mr. Abbot's latest word on this subject, 
" The Way out of Agnosticism," is a very im- 
portant word indeed. Its object is, — " to meet 
and defeat agnosticism on its own professed 
grounds — the ground of science and philoso- 
phy ; to show by a wholly new line of reason- 
ing, drawn exclusively from those sources, that 
in order to refute agnosticism^and establish 

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THE DIAL 



87 



enlightened theism, nothing is now necessary 
but to philosophize that very scientific method 
which agnosticism barbarously misunderstands 
and misuses." All readers of Mr. Abbot's 
earlier work, " Scientific Theism " — and they 
must be many, since it has reached its third 
edition — will recognize this new work as its 
natural successor, and will be glad to learn 
that both are only preliminary to a more com- 
plete exposition, " the ground-plan of which is 
already thoroughly matured," although its lit- 
erary execution is still incomplete. 

It is certainly greatly to be hoped that lei- 
sure and years will be granted Mr. Abbot in 
which to develop, to his own satisfaction, the 
momentous and severe enterprise which has 
been slowly taking shape as the result of thirty 
years of cogitation by our chief American phil- 
osopher. In the mean time, it is much that we 
have a book so well-fitted to rescue Evolution 
from the opprobrium with which it is regarded 
in some quarters ; one which proclaims that 
"the self-contradictory conjunction of Evolu- 
tion and Agnosticism, in the so-called ^ philos- 
ophy ' of the nineteenth century, is a mere 
freak of the hour. . . . The philosophy of 
the future, founded upon the scientific method, 
must be organic through and through, and 
built upon the known organic constitution of 
the Tioumenal universe as the assured result of 
science itself." ^^^ g^ McMahan. 



Pater's ** Appreciatioxs.'' * 



It is with very pleasurable anticipation that 
any lover of literature for its own sake takes up 
a new book by the author of those delightful 
papers upon "The Renaissance," of "Marius 
the Epicurean," and of the "Imaginary Por- 
traits." With his earliest volume Mr. Pater 
made his mark, and assumed his place well up 
in the ranks of the writers whose each success- 
ive issue the critic welcomes, and girds himself 
to deal with. Here was plainly a man of pith 
and likelihood who would be heard from again, 
who had something to say to us in prose that 
had a distinction of its own, an aroma as pecu- 
liar as that of a Tangierine orange or of pat- 
chouli. He felt and understood art, and could 
make his thoughts and emotions intelligible. 
There were few contemporary authors from 
whom we could venture to hope for as much 
in the line of pure literature. 

* Appbeciations. With an Essay on Style. By Walter 
Pater. New York : Mamnillan Sl Go. 



It is a pity that such pleasant expectations, 
based upon successive experiences, should ever 
fail to be justified by the result. Why should 
not a man who has done well once, twice, and 
thrice, do as well, or better, always ? There 
is no denying, however, that the present vol- 
ume measurably disappoints us. The " Imag- 
inary Portraits " was hardly up to the level of 
the " Marius" or the " Renaissance," and "Ap- 
preciations" falls definitely below it. It is made 
up of disconnected papers upon Wordsworth, 
Coleridge, Lamb, and Sir Thomas Browne, 
upon several of Shakespeare's plays, upon 
aesthetic poetry, and Dante Gabriel Rossetti. 
There is a preliminary disquisition upon Style, 
and a postscript upon the classical and roman- 
tic elements in literature. The papers range, 
in time, from an article begun in 1865 to an 
ai'ticle completed in 1889. They should reveal 
to us, therefore, something of their author's 
progi'ess and development in letters. They 
have their interest in that regai'd, but it is a 
perplexing interest. If the substance of the 
thinking in Mr. Pater's latest work has gained 
in philosophic depth, if it is of more solid grain 
and fibre than in his eai*lier essays, none the 
less his peculiar excellence, the fine edge of 
his stj'le, is dulled and blunted. It is not from 
carelessness, from the riper man's absorption 
in his theme and consequent neglect of the 
channels of expression. That might be a 
healthy token, giving promise of more mature 
and perfect work eventually. 

But it is impossible to interpret the failure 
in that genial fashion. The trouble is in quite 
another direction. Mr. Pater has overworked 
a native vein. He has lost something of his 
first crispness and freshness and vivacity. His 
style, once so apt and choice and dainty, has 
grown pedantic, has become entangled and in- 
tricate. He plays tricks with language until we 
resent his artifice. The muse forgives whimsi- 
calness, but is intolerant of the tweezers applied 
to her downy cheek or the apparatus of the 
manicure upon her taper fingers. Mr. Pater 
sins by over-elaboration. He weakens the text- 
ure of his material by carving his 

** Laborious orient ivory sphere in sphere." 

He would do better with less pains. We grow 
impatient over his tortuous movements, and are 
ready to say to him. Most dainty sir, let your 
sentences sway and undulate, but do not insist 
that they should writhe. Over-conscious graces 
in life or literature repel us. We do not care 
about all this ingenuity, this tampering with 
constructions, this dexterous interweaving of » 

__. . _oogle 



38 



THE DIAL 



[June, 



dependent clauses. Let Pegasus cease to cur- 
vet and sidle. A good roadster goes a steady 
pace for the most part, and needs neither spur 
nor rein. It is well to study style, and be able 
adroitly to discourse of style ; and then it is 
well to lose sight of style, and not remind your 
reader too perpetually of the medium through 
which he perceives your thought. Mr. Pater 
seems to have forgotten the charm of a light 
touch and a careless attitude. He has become 
Latinized. He has grown fond of the '' long- 
con tending victoriously intricate sentence "; 
and the victory sometimes goes the other way. 
The construction is sometimes clumsy with con- 
tortion. There are passages in the essay on 
" Style " where an intelligent listener, when 
they are read aloud, may fail to catch the 
sense, nor be quite sure of it even on a second 
hearing. The fault is in a perverse theory. 
When, in the paper on Coleridge, Mr. Pater 
describes the artist as " moving slowly over his 
work, calculating the tenderest tone and re- 
i training the subtlest curve, never letting hand 
cr fancy move at large, gradually enforcing 
flaccid spaces to the higher degree of express- 
iveness," it is difficult for the gentlest reader 
not to grow restless and cry out with Keats, 
who also was an artist, 

** sweet Fancy, let her loose, 
ETerything^ is spoilt by use," 

by this meddlesome handling and fussy pre- 
meditation. Calculated tenderness is fatal to 
spontaneous sweetness ; curves too much re- 
strained grow hard and mechanical ; and this 
gradually enforcing flaccid spaces — whatever 
that may mean — is apt to strain the original 
outline. Better meagreness than dropsical puf- 
finess. Better unoccupied roominess than a 
dense and jostling crowd of artfully compacted 
phrases. 

One hates to say all this ; it is only because 
Mr. Pater can be so delightful, that we are 
vexed at his perversities and pedantries. It 
would be unfair to let this be our last word 
upon this volume. With all its defects, there 
is abundance to enjoy in it. These essays, with 
their finical title, "Appreciations," are genu- 
inely appreciative. Mr. Pater knows his sub- 
jects, and discusses them with true insight and 
sensitive sympathy. The essential elements of 
style are well defined, however faultily illus- 
trated. The distinction between the classic and 
romantic schools in literature, and especially in 
French literature, is admirably stated. There 
is very much that is just and well put, if noth- 
ing very novel, in the treatment of Words- 



worth, Coleridge, and Charles Lamb. Even 
the well-worn thoroughfares of Shakespeare 
are traversed with a fresh and ringing step. 
" The ideal aspects of conmaon things" are re- 
vealed to us. You feel that you are in the 
company of one who has read much and gazed 
upon much and meditated much, who loves the 
best in art and letters and life, and has a dis- 
criminative sense of values. You would like 
to turn over with him the pages of any famous 
author or any unfledged aspirant to authorship. 
You are sure that his interest would be alert, 
his sympathy inclusive, his taste catholic, his 
views luminous, his judgment sober and sound. 
You only wish no one had ever told him there 
is a magic in nicely articulated prose. You 
long to have him talk right on, " plunge soul- 
forward," without too curiously picking his 
phrases, restraining the curves of his para- 
graphs, or enforcing too persistently "flaccid 
spaces " in his speech. 

C. A. L. Richards. 



"OL.D Country riiFE."* 



" Old Country Life " takes us into the at- 
mosphere of the •' good old times " before the 
fever of socialism, materialism, atheism, natu- 
ralism, and all the other isms of this modern 
age, had invaded and taken possession of the 
world. This age of subtle analyses, of infinite 
desires and boundless irresponsibility, of wants 
increased by intelligence, and of passions in- 
stead of instincts, is for the nonce forgotten. 
We smell lavender, we have visions of old 
chateatix^ stately dames in brocades and snuff- 
taking gentlemen in powdered wigs, quaint 
old terraced gardens, paradises of roses and 
dreams, with sunny walks protected by vine- 
grown walls, stiff parterres, hollyhocks, phlox, 
mignonette, and boxwood hedges. W^e read 
first about the old country families, how they 
rose and flourished, and how they have in many 
instances vanished from the face of the earth. 
They were simple folk. To quote Mr. Gould : 

" The country gentry in those days were not very 
wealthy. They lived very much on the produce of the 
home farm, and their younger sons went into trade, and 
their daughters, without any sense of degradation, mar- 
ried yeomen." 

It seems that even to marry a blacksmith was 
not considered very terrible for a young woman 
of quality, as a daughter of the house of Glan- 

♦Old Country Life. By S. Baringr-Gould, M.A. With 
Illustrations hj W. Parkenson, F. D. Bedford, and F. Masy. 
Philadelphia : J. B. Lippinoott Companv.- 



igitized by 



Google 



1890.] 



THE DIAL 



39 



ville was allowed to marry a Tavistock black- 
smith, and he was entered as " faber " in the 
pedigree they enrolled with the heralds. " It 
was quite another matter when one of the sons 
or daughters "Xvas guilty of misconduct ; then 
he or she was struck out of the pedigree." The 
English aristocracy of to-day might copy their 
ancestors in this respect with profit. 

Mr. Gould proceeds to draw attention to the 
fact that — 

" The occasion of that irruption of false pride relative 
to < soiling the hands ' with trade was the great change 
that ensued after Queen Anne's reign. . . . Vast 
numbers of estates changed hands, passed away from 
the old aristocracy into the possession of men who had 
amassed fortunes in trade, and it was among the chil- 
dren of these rich retired tradesmen that there sprang 
up such a contempt for whatever savoured of the shop 
and the counting-house." 

It is very curious to notice the evolution in 
houses since the fourteenth century. That they 
were more picturesque than cheerful or comfort- 
able, we should imagine from the description of 
the original manor-house of the Arundels : 

" This house consisted of three courts ; one is a mere 
garden court, through which access was had to the main 
entrance; through this passed the way into the prin- 
cipal quadrangle. The third court was for stables and 
cattle-sheds. Now this house has but a single window 
in it looking outwards, and that is the great hall win- 
dow; all the rest look inwards into the tiny quadrangle, 
which is almost like a well, never illumined by the sun, 
so small is it." 

Mr. Gould also speaks of an old English house, 
Upcott by name, which shows how extremely 
primitive customs were in England, even at a 
comparatively late date : 

« This house has or had but a single bedroom, . . . 
in which slept the unmarried ladies of the family and 
the maid servants, and where was the nursery for the 
babies. All the men of the family, gentle and serving, 
slept in the hall about the fire, on the straw and fern 
and broom that littered the pavement." 

With the Tudor monarchs came in the era 
of broad wide windows, stately staircases, and 
the fine carved oak furniture of the German 
Renaissance. Marquetry became the fashion 
under William and Mary; and under Louis 
XIV. Monsieur Andr^ Buhl fashioned the ex- 
quisite cabinets, adorned with a marquetry of 
tortoise-shell and brass, which are known as 
Buhl cabinets to this day. With Louis XV. 
came the reign of rococo. White and gold 
walls, decorated panels and brilliant colors, 
took the place of the oak panels and demi-tints 
of Elizabethan times. Then came Chippen- 
dale, Heppelwhite, and Sheraton, then "the 
deluge." As Mr. Gould pertly says, — 

" The only furniture that cannot be loved is that of the 



first thirty years of this century, when it violated all 
true principles of construction, and manifested neither 
invention nor taste in design/' 

Mr. Gould next gives us a charming chapter 
on " The Old Garden," in which he mourns the 
fast disappearing ones of Rome. Whoever has 
loitered in the Ludovisi gardens on a sunny 
afternoon, or picked violets in the green alleys 
of the Borghese or Rospigliosi palaces, must 
join in these lamentations. There is a melan- 
choly charm about these old gardens which a 
new one, however beautiful, cannot possess. 
The romance of centuries, the spell of the mys- 
terious, is there. Men and women have come 
and gone, leaving no visible trace, but the trag- 
edies and comedies of human life pulsate in the 
very air we breathe. The gold-dust of sun- 
beams, the concentrated perfume of a thousand 
flowers, float about us. 

Mr. Gould makes a plea for the graceful 
and dignified miiluets and measures of our fore- 
fathers. He says that *•*• the dance as a fine art 
is extinct among us. It has been expelled by 
the intrusive waltz." He would wish to substi- 
tute " Sweet Kate," " Bobbing Joan," or " The 
Triumph." 

Our author gives us some very curious and 
interesting facts in regard to heredity, in his 
chapter on " Family Portraits." By calcula- 
tion, h^ imparts to us the astounding and con- 
fusing information that " in the reign of Henry 
III. there were over a million independent in- 
dividuals, walking, talking, eating, marrying, 
whose united blood was to be, in 1889, blended 
in your veins." No wonder that Schopenhauer 
defined a human being as the " possibility of 
many contradictions." 

In the reign of Elizabeth, music was brought 
to great perfection. At that time, every gen- 
tleman was expected to be able to play or sing 
at sight, and wherever men and women met 
part-songs were sung. The Elizabethan poets 
were so permeated with this spirit of music 
that in their poems we feel the music between 
the lines. With the idealism, the burning note 
of passion and of love, the glowing imageries 
imprisoned in rhyme, the intensity, the fresh- 
ness, the spontaneity, of the poetry of the Eliz- 
abethan age, is always combined the lyrical 
element. Some of these poems almost sing 
themselves. Even the serving-maids, we read 
in Pepys' '' Diary," entertained their masters 
and mistresses with music of various kinds. 
In those days, however, very few persons kept 
servants, and they were often taken from among 
their own relatives. Pepys took his own sister p 



40 



THE DIAL 



[June, 



to be servant in his house, and afterward two 
young ladies, acquaintances of his wife's broth- 
er, as his sister's temper proved unsatisfac- 
tory. " Our forefathers do not seem at one 
time to have thought that domestic service was 
derogatory to gentility." Menial, Mr. Gould 
points out, simply means within walls, from the 
Latin intror-moenia, which, by the way, he erro- 
neously writes intra^menia. Menial service thus 
simply meant in-door work, and involved no 
social degradation. When we read how Pepys 
and his wife amused themselves by spending 
their evenings with their servants, listening to 
pretty Mary Mercer sing, or Mary Ashewell 
play on the harpsicon, we ask if that was not 
in those times more true social equality than 
is found in the boasted democracy of to-day. 

Mr. Gould is perhaps too much inclined to 
retrospective optimism, but this tendency is 
fully compensated by the thoroughly sympa- 
thetic way in which it enables him to treat his 
subject. His book is quaintly illustrated, and 
the publishers' work is exceptionally well done. 

Genevieve Grant. 



Briefs on K"ew Books. 



The reader of Dr. Brinton's " Essays of an Amer- 
icanist " (Porter & Coates) can hardly fail to catch 
some of the author's enthusiasm for the department 
of study in which he is our most noted specialist. 
The work is a collection of twenty-eight essays, 
most of which have been first read as papers before 
various learned societies, and are here grouped into 
four general classes : Ethnologic and Archaeologic ; 
Mythology and Folk-Lore; Graphic Systems and 
Literature ; Linguistic. Dr. Brinton*s scholarly and 
original researches in these fields have brought him 
to some conclusions considerably different from the 
commonly accepted ones, all tending to give the 
American race a higher psychologic place than has 
heretofore been granted. At the outset, the author 
dismisses as trivial all attempts to connect the Amer- 
ican race genealogically with any other, or to trace 
the typical culture of this continent to the historic 
forms of the Old World. Accepting the theory that 
man as a species spread from one primal centre, 
and that each of the great continental areas moulded 
this plastic primitive man into a race subtly corre- 
lated with its environment, he considers that the 
earliest Americans came here as immigrants ; that 
the racial type of the American Indian was devel- 
oped on it<s own soil, and constitutes as true and 
distinct a sub-species an do the African or the White 
races. At what period the process began he does 
not undertake to determine in the present state of 
geologic knowledge ; but certainly at a much more 
distant time than has been commonly fixed, — as 



long ago as during or just after the glacial epoch. 
Theories based on alleged affinities between the 
Mongolian and American races he regards as un- 
supported, either by linguistics, the history of cul- 
ture, or physical resemblances. He rejects the 
current notion of a Toltec race and a Toltec em- 
pire as a baseless fable. Tula was merely one of 
the towns built and occupied by that tribe of the 
Nahuas known as Azteca or Mexican who finally 
settled at the present City of Mexico. Its inhab- 
itants were called Toltecs, but there was never any 
such distinct tribe or nationality. They enjoyed 
no supremacy, either in power or in the arts, and 
what gave them their singular fame in later legend 
was the tendency of the human mind to glorify the 
" good old times," and to merge ancestors into di- 
vinities. As Americans by adoption. Dr. Brinton 
urges upon American scholars the duty and the in- 
terest of studying a race so unique and so absolutely 
autochthonous in its culture. A century more, and 
scarcely a native of pure blood will be found ; the 
tribes and languages of to-day will have been ex- 
tinguished or corrupted. Every day the progress 
of civilization, ruthless of the monuments of bar- 
barism, is destroying the feeble vestiges of the an- 
cient race ; mounds are levelled, embankments dis- 
appear, the stones of temples are built into factories, 
the holy places desecrated; the opportunity of re- 
covering something from this wreck of a race and 
its monuments is one which will never again pre- 
sent itself in such fulness. Certainly we should all 
be grateful for such labors, if they can yield such 
interesting fruits as those contained in Dr. Brinton *s 
chapters on ** Native American Poetry " or "Ameri- 
can Languages, and Why We Should Study Them." 
In these we learn that a well-developed American 
tongue, such as the Aztec or the Algonquin, is for 
most uses quite equal to the French or English ; 
that not only are almost all savage tribes passion- 
ate lovers of music and verse, of measure and song, 
but that the Eskimo — the boreal, blubber-eating, 
ice-bound Eskimo — hold the verse-making power 
in such esteem that genuine tourneys of song, not 
unlike those in fair Provence in the days of la gaye 
science^ occur in the long winter nights, between 
the champions of villages. The more one becomes 
acquainted with works like the present volume, the 
more one recognizes the importance of Locke's po- 
sition — for which Cousin was so angry with him — 
that no study of psychology can afford to do with- 
out examination of mind as it is manifested by the 
uncivilized and savage. 

A SPECIALLY dainty volume containing the "Dra- 
matic Opinions'* of that sterling English actress, 
Mrs. Kendal, is issued by Little, Brown, & Co. The 
" Opinions" were first published in " Murray's Mag- 
azine," and as they were taken viva voce, they par- 
take of the nature of an " Interview." It wiU be 
readily agreed that Mrs. EendaFs views on things 
histrionic are entitled to consideration. Few have 
had greater experience in the matt^^*s whereof she 

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1890.] 



THE DIAL 



41 



speaks. Her ancestors — ^like those of Mr. Vincent 
Crummles's pony — were all "in the profession"; and 
she tells us that her blood " burns with enthusiasm 
when speaking of our long line of descent from ac- 
tors of old.*' Mrs. Kendal seems to have made an 
early dibut as Eva, in " Uncle Tom's Cabin." «» I 
was put," she says, " in a kind of machine, some- 
thing was put round my waist, and I went up in a 
sort of apotheosis." Later, she became leading lady 
in a Hull theatre, where she " played everything 
from Lady Macbeth to Papillonnelta. Papillon- 
netta was a lady with wings, in a burlesque of Mr. 
Brough's. The wings were invented by Mr. Brough, 
and they used to wind up and flap for about ten 
minutes, and you then had to run off and be wound 
up again." Lack of space forbids us tracing Mrs. 
KendaUs career, the phases of which she portrays 
with great vivacity. As is implied in its title, her 
book is largely made up of criticism ; and her judg- 
ments are marked by good sense, good-nature, and 
frankness. She does not fully approve of the pres- 
ent tendency of prominent stage professionals to 
seek society. " If you are a bitterly conscientious 
person, and act up to the hilt, I defy you night after 
night to go out, after your work, or even two or 
three times a week." We commend the following 
to a certain class of commentators : " It would be 
impossible for any ordinary persons, if they were 
to live to be hundreds of years old, and thought 
only of cultivating their minds, to tell you, from 
their own small range of thought, what Shakespeare 
meant." The following incident in Mrs. Kendal's 
career we believe to have been a rare one : "A man 
came into the stalls rather late, and looked about a 
good deal, and yawned so markedly, one could not 
help noticing him. It was very trying, but at the 
end of the second act he went out altogether, and 
didn't return. This little episode made me cry for 
about three days." We trust this paragraph may 
meet the eyes of the yawning gentleman — ^and oth- 
ers of his kind. " Dramatic Opinions " is a bright 
and amusing book, and may be taken, perhaps, as 
an earnest of what the author means to give us 
some day in the way of a serious addition to stage 
literature. 

Few poets live long enough to see the indiffer- 
ence or scorn, which seems to be their almost invari- 
able reception at the hands of contemporaries, trans- 
formed into sympathetic and responsive appreciation. 
Robert Browning was more fortunate than most men 
in this respect, although indeed his happiness must 
have been much qualiiied by the large amount of 
empty and undiscriminating applause which, to a 
sensitive soul, cannot fail to be more distasteful 
than even scorn or indifference. This latter class 
were noisy and numerous enough to create a new 
^* fad " around the Browning name, and thus to 
make genuine Browning-lovers shy of confessing 
their real feelings. These are now breaking through 
their reserve, and under the stress of a severe sense 
of loss no longer hesitate to lay on the grave the 



wreath or flower that might have seemed too hum- 
ble to offer to the man living. Such are the vol- 
umes '* Browning Memorial " (University Press, 
Cambridge) and •* Browning Personalia " (Hough- 
ton, Mifflin & Co.) — ^two of the daintiest and most 
beautiful books that have come to hand for many a 
day. The " Memorial " is in white paper covers, 
silken-tied, and contains, besides the addresses, let- 
ters, songs, and hymns which made up the Boston 
Browning Society's programme at its Memorial 
Service, pictures of the exterior and interior of 
King's Chapel where the services were held, Janu- 
ary 28, 1890, and a portrait of Browning in his 
later years. The other volume is by Edmund Gosse, 
and contains his valuable story of ** The Early Ca- 
reer of Robert Browning," written in 1881 and 
printed in the " Century " for December of that 
year ; also Gosse's " Personal Impressions" as given 
in the issue of " The New Review" following Brown- 
ing's death. As the neighbor and close friend of 
Browning for twelve years, Mr. Gosse had special 
opportunity for intimacy with the poet, and, indeed, 
wrote the first paper under his personal supervision. 
Therefore, it is well to have a reprint of these mag- 
azine articles in a book not only so beautiful to the 
eye, but so satisfying to the common and not un- 
worthy desire of mankind to know something of 
the daily life of those who by their writings have 
given us some part of their own vision into the 
'< infinite in things," and thus transformed our own 
lives forever after. 

It is satisfactory to be able at last to say that 
there is a compendious history in English of the 
territories ruled over by the Austrian princes. Mrs. 
Birkbeck Hill's translation of Professor Louis Le- 
ger's ** Histoire de 1' Autriche-Hongrie " begins 
badly in mangling the very title into ** A History 
of Austro-Hungary " (Putnam), and yet the book 
is better than its translation. The choice of Edward 
A. Freeman to write a preface to the translation 
was not a happy one, as that distinguished historian 
can never write calmly about his pet aversion, the 
Austrian dynasty. But, getting beyond translator 
and prolocutor, we find a most serviceable volume 
of 650 pages. The author has done well to devote 
nearly half his space to the times since the accession 
of Maria Theresa, for he is far best where the par- 
tial unification of the composite realm of the Haps- 
burgs makes possible a single continuous narrative. 
Where, in the earlier pages, the author attempts to 
deal separately with the narratives of Austria, Bo- 
hemia, and Hungary, he fails to produce satisfac- 
tory work. His chapters are sketchy, and barren 
of human interest. We believe that a historian like 
Freeman or Green could have here grasped the 
unity in the midst of apparent segregation, and 
would have given us a living and glowing narra- 
tive. We miss in this first portion any adequate 
account of what is so large a part of earlier medise- 
val history — the institutions of a people. Especially 
is the earlier history of the arch-duchy neglected^ T/> 



42 



THE DIAL 



[June, 



No reader would get from this volume alone a due 
conception of the importance of the Thirty Years 
War to either Austria or Bohemia. But with 1740 
the book becomes more satisfactory, and expands 
into a valuable study of the institutional as well as 
military and political history. We should have 
liked to see more appreciation of the personal ele- 
ment. We get no glimpse of the personality be- 
hind the taciturn mask of the subtle Kaunitz, or 
of the Metternich who for thirty years stayed the 
progi'ess of a large section of Europe by a pol- 
icy expressed in his borrowed aphorism, — '^Aprh 
nwile dHuge.'^ Still, the facts are carefully pre- 
sented, and as a handbook the work will iind a use- 
ful place in any library. 

Charles Mordaunt, Earl of Peterborough, was 
probably the most versatile Englishman of the times 
of Queen Anne. As erratic as he was brilliant, his 
life seems one in which the ordinary laws of conduct 
are suspended, and the answer to the why and the 
wherefore cannot be satisfactorily given. To entrust 
the command-in-chief in a great international war 
to a man nearly fifty years of age who had hitherto 
never seen a battle or a book of tactics, and who 
was known merely as a hanger-on at court and a 
politician, might seem the height of folly ; yet Peter- 
borough proved himself to be not only a dashing but 
a great general. In his recently published biogra- 
phy of this eccentric character in the " English Men 
of Action " series (Macmillan), Mr. Stebbing has 
attempted to remove not only the cloud of adverse 
misrepresentation which hangs over his subject, but 
also to resolve some of the legend which has grown 
around his hero. After ag^reeing with Colonel Ar- 
thur Pamell in his " History of the War of the Suc- 
cession," and relegating the supposititious Captain 
Carleton and his memoirs to << the limbo of histor- 
ical romance,'* he shows that the estimate there put 
upon Peterborough's part in the war is confirmed 
by the very highest historical evidence. In the 
chapter entitled " Was he an Imposter ? '* he with 
equal cogency shows that Colonel ParnelFs attempt 
to grive the credit for the Peninsular Campaigns to 
everyone rather than to Peterborough is futile in 
the face of the facts. But while Mr. Stebbing is 
determined and successful in vindicating the mili- 
tary career of Peterborough, he makes little effort 
to furnish him with a character. In truth, the one 
thing this worthy lacked to make him one of En- 
gland's greatest men was high and constraining pur- 
pose in his life. Mr. Stebbing has written an at- 
tractive book, both in material and presentation. 

Another volume in the same series is Walter Be- 
sant's ** Captain Cook." Mr. Besant calls Cook with 
truth " the greatest navigator of any age." He fur- 
ther says of him, ^^ It is certain that there was not in 
the whole of the king's navy any officer who could 
compare with Cook in breadth and depth of knowl- 
edge, in forethought, in the power of conceiving 
great designs, and in courage and pertinacity in car- 



rying them through." He gave to the world the 
map of a large portion of the Pacific Ocean, from 
Arctic to Antarctic, and was the first to discover an 
anti-scorbutic, for which he should ever be gratefully 
remembered. It is singular that, while Mr. Besant 
anticipates and alludes in retrospect to this valuable 
discovery as one of Cook's most important services, 
one hardly notices the actual account of it, so slight- 
ly is it alluded to. Mr. Besant should be heartily 
ashamed to have closed his account of Cook's death, 
at the hands of the people who had thought him a 
god, with a pitiable attempt at humor over a fallen 
hero. One cannot help thinking, in consequence, 
of the dead lion in the fable. If the writer were 
better able to keep Mr. Besant out of his accounts 
of other people he would make a more successful 
biographer. 

To ANY readers who may be looking for the 
shortest cut to an easy acquaintance with modern 
French fiction in the original, we can confidently 
commend a unique series of Notes, by Edward T. 
Owen, Professor of French at the University of 
Wisconsin, published by Holt & Co. The notes to 
Victor Hugo's " Toilers of the Sea" (TravaiUeurs de 
la Mer) form a stout pamphlet of 238 pages. They 
are simply a dictionary, page for page, to all the 
difficulties of word, phrase, and allusion, with which 
this work bristles. Any student of French who has 
tried to find his way through one of Hugo's stories, 
with the aid of even the best dictionaries, will ap- 
preciate the value of Mr. Owen's notes, which are 
the result of patient and long-continued researches, 
pushed, in some instances, to the very threshold of 
Hugo's residence. The author has freely given his 
time and scholarship to this thankless task, in order 
to save the time of all who shall henceforth attempt 
to read this romance. The same remarks apply to 
the less voluminous notes to Sand's "Petite Fa- 
dette" (Fanchon the Cricket), Feuillet's "Ro- 
mance of a Poor Young Man," and to Balzac's 
" Ursule Mirouet." The careful reading of these 
masterpieces will enable anyone to cope with the 
difficulties of any modern French book ; and it 
would be foolish for anyone whose knowledge of 
French is something less than masterly to attempt 
these works without the aid of Mr. Owen's notes. 



The value of the study of mythology as a contri- 
bution to the history of the human mind is now 
universally recognized. The consequence is a new 
impetus given to the collection, preservation, and 
publication of the myth-stories of all nations, civi- 
lized and savage, with the aim of contributing fresh 
material for the advancement of comparative myth- 
ology. One of the latest of such books is Jeremiah 
Curtin's " Myths and Folk-Lore of Ireland " (Little, 
Brown, & Co.). It contains twenty myth-tales, re- 
cently collected by the author personally in those 
parts of Ireland where Gaelic is still spoken, and 
where alone they are preserved. Mr. Curtin claims 
that they contain many myth-facts which have per- 



1890.] 



THE DIAL 



43 



ished elsewhere. The Kelts having left the home 
of the Aryan race at a period far anterior to any 
of the other migrations, their mythology shows sur- 
vivals of an ancient time, and hy throwing light on 
many myths, and by connecting non-Aryan with 
Aryan mythologjs renders a service for which we 
should look in vain elsewhere. In an Introduction 
of thirty pages, Mr. Curtin traces the origin of the 
vulgar conception of myths as synon\^mous with lies, 
and grives his reason for ranking these old tales as 
the most comprehensive and splendid statements 
of truth known to man. 



Doubtless M. Imbert de Saint-Amand feels that 
it is a great deal easier to make a book out of other 
people's books than to make a book of one's own. 
His " Wife of the First Consul " (Scribner) — a se- 
ries of vivid pictures of the court of Napoleon and 
Josephine from the first consulate to the death of 
£nghien — is made up largely of extracts from Bour- 
rienne, Madame de Remusat, Madame Campan, the 
Duchess of Abrant^s, and " a host of others," as the 
play-bills say. By those not already familiar with 
the materials used, the result will be found very 
readable. M. de SaintrAmand's opinion is usually 
g^ven much after the fashion of that of Mr. Bagnet 
in " Bleak House "; but it may be gathered that he 
still tends to the idea that Napoleon was the creator 
rather than the creature of events. The volume is 
attractive as to externals, and the author is specially 
fortunate in his translator, Mr. Thomas Sergeant 
Perry. 

It would be hard to find a pleasanter road to as- 
tronomical knowledge tlian through " Star-Land " 
(Cassell), as described by Sir Robert S. Ball, the 
Royal Astronomer of Ireland. Although based on 
a course of lectures delivered to children, it is a 
book which all ages will enjoy reading. Its simple 
story-book style has not interfered with scientific 
accuracy, nor excluded the consideration of many ob- 
scure and not generally understood matters. From 
the somewhat familiar lore of the sun, moon, and 
inner planets, the author has passed on to include 
such difficult subjects as how Neptune was discov- 
ered, how we find the distances of the stars and 
what they are made of, the nature and movements 
of meteors, etc. When an author succeeds in mak- 
ing clear and fascinating stories out of such themes 
he is entitled to very high praise indeed, and the 
present work is quite a mastei*piece of tliis art. 
Ninety-two illustrations increase the value of the 
work, and aid the elucidation. 



IjITERAry Notes axd News. 

The report of Dr. Poole, Librarian of the Newberry 
Librarj', Chicago, shows that 16,492 books and 1,816 
pamphlets, costing 338,618, were added during the 
past year, giving a total of 37,375 books and 12,349 
pamphlets now open to the public. Tlie trustees ex- 
pect to begin the erection of the permanent library 
building during the present year. 



The latest completed volume of " The Century Mag- 
azine," number xxxix., is sent us by the publishers in 
the usual beautiful gold cloth binding. The volume 
contains nearly a thousand pages and over four hundred 
illustrations, and is, altogether, such a treasure of lit- 
erary miscellany and beautiful pictures as can hardly 
be found in the same compass elsewhere. 

The interest in the works of Henrik Ibsen is still in- 
creasing, and is one of the marked literary featui'es of 
the day. The third and fourth volumes of his plays, 
edited by Archer, are announced as nearly ready by 
Scribner & Welford. A comprehensive critical biogra- 
phy of Ibsen, written by Henrik Jaeger, and lately pub- 
lished in Copenhagen, has been translated into English 
by Mr. William Morton Payne, and will be published 
in the early Fall by A. C. McClurg & Co. 

" Eleusis," a little volume of verse in the metrical 
form and somewhat in the style of Tennyson's "In 
Memoriam," has just appeared in an edition privately 
printed in Chicago. No clue to its authorship is given, 
but the work discloses evidence of a new and distinct- 
ive force in American poetry. It has, what our modern 
poetry painfully lacks, a serious and well-meditated 
theme; and although this theme is not a new one — it is 
as old, indeed, as the introspective tendencies of the 
human soul — it is treated in a manner that has almost 
the stamp of genius. It is a sad strain which this new 
singer gives us, but so sweet and thrilling that we can 
forgive its saduess. 

Webstek's Dictionary, as is well known, has been 
so greatly improved and enlarged, since the appearance 
of the original edition of 1847, as to be practically a 
new work, and almost entirely to supersede the old edi- 
tion among intelligent people. But, unfortunately, all 
people, even among dictionary-users, are not highly in- 
telligent, — as is proved by the large sales of a recent 
cheap reprint of the original Webster, the copyright on 
that particular edition having lately expired. Now, 
although the newer editions of the dictionary are so 
much better than the old that no one who could buy 
the new should want the old at any price, yet, since 
any dictionary may be better than no dictionary, there 
could perhaps be no valid objection to the reissue of the 
superannuated edition — ^provided the facts in the case 
were fully stated, without misrepresentation or conceal- 
ment. Such, however, is not the case. The book is 
put forward simply as " Webster's Dictionary," and as 
the substantial equivalent of " an eight to twelve dollar 
book," when it is no such equivalent at all, being a re- 
print of an edition nearly half a century old and hence 
quite behind the times, printed not from type but from 
rough << process " plates, cheaply bound, and altogether 
a wholly inferior and comparatively worthless affair. 
The project is not only a deception upon the public, but 
an injury to the legitimate publishers of Webster's Dic- 
tionary, and cannot but be condemned by all right- 
minded persons who once understand the case. 

That within a brief period international copyright 
will be an accomplished fact in America, is almost as 
certain as any probable fact of the future — say, the 
general advance of civilization. The opposition of nar- 
row intelligences and archaic prejudices may a little 
further deLay this result, but caimot prevent it. The 
recent vote of Cong^ss was disappointing and mortify- 
ing, but not disheartening. Patiently and resolutely 
the friends of the good cause must prepare themselves 
for another struggle, encouraged by the hope that 



*J§le 



44 



THE DIAL 



[June, 



will prove the final and victorious one. The practical 
pledge of the Senate to a copyright enactment, and the 
narrow margin of votes by which the House of Repre- 
sentatives failed to pass the recent bill — the first ever 
brought to the test of a vote in that body, — leave little 
room for doubt as to the final outcome. It should now, 
indeed, be more a matter of concern as to the specific 
provisions of the bill which Congress is to be asked to 
pass, than of anxiety to secure the passage of anything, 
little matter what, that could bear the title of an inter- 
national copyright act. It is not improbable that the 
cause has suffered somewhat from this over-anxiety, 
and from the over-accommodating spirit of those hav- 
ing the bill in charge. To please everyone, and con- 
ciliate every real or fancied adverse interest, new clauses 
and changes and amendments were introduced, some of 
them wise but many foolish, until the bill had been 
transformed almost beyond recognition by its own orig- 
inators, and quite past the comprehension of the gen- 
eral public. It was thus weakened in the eyes of its 
friends, while exposed more openly to the attacks of its 
enemies. This mistake ought not, and probably will 
not, be made again. A compromise measure is often 
wise and right, but compromise may be carried too far. 
The bill which we may now expect to see passed by 
Congress will be a simpler and stronger bill than the 
one that lately failed, and thus the failure may work 
a benefit in the end. The managers of the next cam- 
paign will doubtless know how to profit by the experi- 
ence of the last. Whatever measure they place before 
Congress and the people should be well-digested in ad- 
vance, and prepared by the best legal talent obtainable. 
Perhaps the creation of a Copyright Commission, to go 
over the whole ground and draft a bill to be presented 
with its report, would be the best measure to ask of 
Congress at its next session. A commission composed 
of eminent jurists and scholars — for example, Hon. E. 
J. Phelps, Judge Thomas M. Cooley, and George Will- 
iam Curtis, — might be confidently looked to for a re- 
port that would at once form a most valuable contribu- 
tion to the literature of the subject, and secure the 
passage of a solid and satisfactory copyright law. 



Topics ix liEADixo Periodicals. 

June, 1890, 

Africa, American Interest in. H. S. Sanford. Forum, 

Agnosticism. J. A. Skilton. Popular Science. 

Animal and Plant Lore. Mrs. F. D. Beii^en. Popular Science. 

Antiquity of Man and Egyptologv. A. D. White. Pop. Sci. 

Arable Lands, Exhaustion of. C. W. Davis. Forum, 

Architecture, Utility in. fiarr Ferree. Popular Science. 

Balfour's Land Bill. C. S. Pamell. North American. 

Barbizon and MiUet. T. H. Bartlett. Scribner. 

Bismarck. G. M. WaU. Harner, 

Boker, George H. R. H. Stoddard. Lippincott. 

Bryant, Waiiam C. O.F.Emerson. Dial. 

Burlesque. The American. L. Hutton. Harper, 

Caucasus, Through the. E. M. de Vo^^. Harper. 

Census Methods. R. M. Smith. Political Science Quarterly. 

Chapbook Heroes. Howard Pyle. Harper. 

Chinese Culture and Civilization. R. K. Doug-las. Lippincott. 

City Houses. Russell Sturgis. Scribner. 

Controllers and the Courts. C. B. Elliott. Pol. Sri. Quar. 

Criminal Politics. E. L. Godkin. North American. 

Culture and Current Orthodoxy. A. J. F. Behrends. Forum. 

Education and Crime. A. W. Gould. Popular Science. 

Eight-Hour Agitation. F. A. Walker. Atlantic, 

Eight*Hour Movement. And over. 

Elections, Federal Control of. T. B. Reed. North A merican. 

Emin Pasha Relief Exi)edition. H. M. Stanley. Scribner, 

Enp^land, Do Americans Hate ? North American. 

Epidemic IMseases. Cyrus Edson. Forum. 

Episcopacy, Keinstitution of. C. C. Starbuck. Andover. 



Fiction, Realism in. Edmund Gosse. Forum, 

Fiction, Reality in. Agnes Repplier. Lippincott, 

Glacial Action in S. E. Connecticut. D. A.Wells. Pop, Sci, 

Glass-Making. C. H. Henderson. Popular Science. 

Grady, Henry W. J. W. Lee. Arena, 

Homer and the Bible. W. C. Wilkinson. Century. 

House of Representatives, The. Hannis Taylor. Atlantic, 

Ibsen as a Dramatist. Hamlin Garland. Arena, 

Japan, An Artistes Letters from. J. La Farge. Century. 

Jefferson^s Statesmanship. H. W. Thurston. Dial, 

Justice. Herbert Spencer. Popular Science. 

Kenton, Simon. Annie £. Wilson. Mag. American History, 

Letters and Life. Prof. Hardy. Andover, 

Lincoln Memoranda. H. De Garrs and others. Century, 

London Polytechnics. Albert Shaw. Century, 

Masson^s De Quincey. M. B. Anderson. Diot. 

National Sovereignty. J. A. Jameson. Pol. Sci, Quarterly. 

Nationalism. Bernard Moses, and others. Overland, 

New England and New Tariff Bill. R.Q.Mills. Forum, 

New Yorkers, Some Old. C. K. Tuckerman. Mag. Am. Hist, 

Novels and Common Schools. C. D. Warner. Atlantic. 

" Old Country I afe." Genevieve Grant. Died, 

Over the Teacups. O. W. Holmes. Atlantic. 

Pantheistic Theism. F. H. Johnson. Andover, 

Pater's "Appreciations." C. A. L. Richards. Dial, 

Persian Farm Life. S. G. W. Benjamin. Cosmopolitan, 

Philosophy of the Future. Anna B. McMahan. Dial, 

Politics, Fetichism in. H. C. Lea. Forum, 

Political Parties. F. A. Becher. Mag. American History. 

Preterition. G. A. Strong. Andover. 

Protection. Wm. McKimey, Jr. North American, 

Race Question. W. C. P. Breckenridge. Arena, 

Range-Finding at Sea. Park Benjamin. Harper, 

Ryder, Albert Pinkham. Henry Eckford. (fentwry. 

Schools and Colleges. C. W. Eliot. Arena, 

Schwann, Theodor. M. L^n Fr^^ricq. Popular Science., 

Sea^s Encroachments. W. J. McGee. Forum, 

Social Institutions, Classification of. S. W. Dyke. Andover. 

Spanish Writers. Rollo ^rden. Cosmopolitan, 

Taxation, Comparative. Edward Atkinson. Century, 

Telegraph, Public Control of. B. C. Keeler. Forum, 

Tennyson and Our Age. J. T. Bixby. Arena, 

Tin. M. B. de Saint JPol Lias. Popular Science. 

Universities and the Working Population. M. I. Swift. A nd, 

Wainwright, Jonathan M. Roy Singleton. Mag, Am. Hist, 

West-Intuan Half-Breeds. Lafcadio Heam. Cosmopolitan. 



BOOKS OF TPiE Month. 



[The following list includes all books received by The Dial 
during the month of May, 1890,] 

LITERARY MISCELLANY, 

Essays cuid Studies. Educational and Literary. By Basil 
Lanneau Gildersleeve. Sq. 8vo, pp. 512. Uncut. N. 
Murray. $3.r)0. 

Old Friends. Essays in Epistolary Parody. By Andrew 
Lang. With Frontispiece. IGnio, pp. 205. Gilt top. 
Longmans, Green & Co. $2.()0. 

Engrllsh Poetry and Poets. By Sarah Warner Brooks. 
8vo, pp. 506. Gilt top. Uncut. Estes & Lauriat. $2.(X). 

Introduc5tlon to the Study of Dante. By George Add- 
ington Symonds. With Frontispiece. Second Edition, 
8vo, pp. 288. Uncut. MacmiUan & Co. .$1.75. 

The Best Elizabethan Plays. Edited by William Roscoe 
Thayer, author of ** Hesper." 12mo, pp. 611. Giim & 
Co. $1.40. 

The Ck>llected Wrltlngrs of Thomas De Quincey. By 
David Masson. In 14 Vols. Vol. VII., Historical Es- 
says and Researches. 16mo, pp. 456. Uncut. Macniil- 
lan«feCo. 81.25. 

Midnlgrht Talks at the Club. Reported by Amos K. flske. 
Kmio, pp. 2<»8. Gilt top. Fords, Howard & Hulbert. $1. 

Sta^e-Land : Curious Habits and Customs of Its Inhabit- 
ants. Described by Jerome K. Jerome, author of " Idle 
Thoughts of an Idle Fellow." Illustrated by J. Bernard 
Partridge. 12mo, pp. 158. Henry Holt & Co. Si .00. 

BIOGRAPHY. 
Horatio Nelson and the Naval Supremacy of England. By 
W. Clark Russell, author of *' The Wreck of the Grosve- 
nor." With tlie Collaboration of William H. Jacqnes. 
lUufitrated. 12rao, pp. 357. Putnam's '* Heroes of the 
Nation." $1.50. 



Digiti: 



zed by Google 



1890.] 



THE DIAL 



45 



Jobn Jay. By George Pellew. 12nio, pp. 374. Gilt top. 
Houghton*8 " American Statesmen " »*Serie8. Si. 25. 

The Bov. J. Q. Wood: His Life and Work. By the Rev. 
Theodore Wood, F.E.S., author of " Our Insect Allies." 
With a Portrait. Svo, pp. 318. The Cassell Publishing 
Co. $2.50. 

Adventures of a Younerer Son. By Edward John Tre- 
lawney. A New Edition. With an Introduction by Ed- 
ward Gamett. Illustrated. Syo, pp. 521. Uncut. Mac- 
miUan<&Co. $1.50. 

The Happy Days of the Empress Marie I>oui8e. By 
Imbert de S^t-Amand. Translated by Thomas Sei^ 
fl;eant Perry. With Portrait. 12mo, pp. 383. Charles 
Scribner's Sons. $1.25. 

Harvard Graduates Whom I Have Known. By Andrew 
Preston Peabody, D.D., LL.D. 12mo, pp. 255. GUt top. 
Houghton. Miffin <& Co. $1.25. 

Havelock. By Archibald Forbes. With Frontispiece Por- 
trait. 16mo, pp. 223. Macmillan's ** English Men of 
Action." 60 cents. 

Robert Brownincr Personalia. By Edmund Gosse. With 
Portrait. 18mo, pp. 06. Uncut. Houghton, Mifflin & 
Co. 75 cents. 

Recollections of General Grant. By George W. Childs. 
24mo, pp. 104. Paper. Philadelphia: Collins Printing 
House. 

HISTORY, 

The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy. By Jacob 
Buickhardt. Authorized Translation by S. G. C. Mid- 
dlemore. 8vo, pp. 559. GKlt top. Macmillan & Co. $4. 

Palestine xmder the Moslems. A Description of Syria 
and the Holy Land, from A.D. 650 to 1500. Translated, 
from the Works of the Mediieval Arab Geographers, by 
Guy Le Strange. With Maps and Illustrations. 8vo, pp. 
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82 THE DIAL [Aug., 



SAMUEL ADAMS T>RAKE'S /BEAUTIFUL V^EIV "BOOK: 

THE PINE TREE COAST. 

DESCRIBING and illustrating the peerless scenery, quaint old seaports, and romantic story of the 
more than two thousand miles of Maine coast. An equally delightful outdoor or fireside companion, 
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1 AUG 5 mo i 

THE DIAL 



Vol. XI. AUGUST, 1890. No. 124. 



CONTENTS. 



THE ART OF AUTHORSHIP. Melville B. Anderson 85 

TWO REUGIOUS LEADERS. John J, Halsey . . 87 

A GOOD OLD BOOK ON OLD ENGLAND. Minerva 

B. Norton 89 

RECENT FICTION. WiUiam Morion Payne ... 92 

BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS 96 

The Century Dictionary, Vol. III. — Peabody's Har- 
vard Gradnatee Whom I Have Known.— Keltie's 
The Statesman's Year Book.— Thayer's The Best 
Elizabethan Plays.— Forbee's Life of Havelock, in 
** Eng^lish Men of Action " Series.— Russell's Nelson, 
in "' Heroes of the Nations " Series. 

BOOKS OF THE MONTH ' 97 



The Art of Authorship.* 



Mr. George Bainton, who is, I believe, libra- 
rian of Trinity College, has hit upon an in- 
genious method of producing an 'original and 
interesting book without mental toil. Appeal- 
ing by letter to a great number of authors for 
their experience and advice as to the best meth- 
ods of learning how to write effectively, and 
receiving some nine-score of answers, Mr. Bain- 
ton has strung these answei*s together under 
proper headings. To the remarks of every 
author is prefixed a brief eulogy upon that au- 
thor ; and these eulogies, with few exceptions, 
would apply almost as well if they were shuf- 
fled. If Mr. Bainton is a librarian, he must be 
singularly impervious to the opinion of his fel- 
lows ; otherwise he would hardly have printed 
one hundred and seventy-eight essays on style 
with no other key than a title-page, six chap- 
ter-headings, and an ^^ index of contributing 
authors." Perhaps no more important addi- 
tion to what the rhetorics offer on the subject of 
literary style has ever been given to the world at 
any one time ; yet the collector has not deemed 
it worth indexing! In preparing to review 
the book I have made hundreds of crcss-refer- 

^TiTE Abt of Authorship. Literary Reminiscences, 
Methods of Work, and Advice to Young Beginners, Person- 
ally Gontribated by Leading Authors of the Day. Compiled 
and Edited by Gtoige Bainton. New York: D. Appleton 
A Go. 



6nces on the margin ; on page 17, for example, 
there are forty-three. That the man who calls 
himself compiler and editor of the book did 
not save me this labor, almost makes me forget 
the gratitude due him for what he has done. 

The best service the reviewer of this book 
can do is to make use of his cross-references, 
in order to give the reader a few of the piquant 
contrasts and interesting coincidences of opin- 
ion and experience in which the letters abound. 
It is interesting to note the substantial unan- 
imity of opinion touching a few of the great 
principles which the best rhetoricians have al- 
ways insisted upon as fundamental. Thus, Mr. 
Walter Pater thinks all rules reducible to 
^^Truthfulness — truthfulness, I mean, to one's 
own inward view or impression.'' Herein, he 
thinks, lies the significance of Buffon's saying, 
" The style is the man himself." Almost every- 
one quotes or paraphrases or suggests this say- 
ing. Thus, Mr. T. T. Munger : " When you 
have got your man, you have got your style." 
Mr. J. B. O'Reilly expresses this thought with 
Celtic intensity, exclaiming, " Style is a vile 
study." 

The majority of these authors make state- 
ments substantially identical with the follow- 
ing by Mr. O'Reilly : " I gave myself no spe- 
cial training in youth to form a style ; I never 
thought of it." Similarly Mr. Froude : *'I 
have never thought about style at any time in 
my life." Likewise Coventry Patmore, Gerald 
Massey, J. S. Blackie, Thomas Hughes, G. W. 
Curtis, Miss Jewett, James Bryce, and a host 
of others. Mr. George Meredith goes so far 
as to say : " I have no style, though I sup- 
pose my work is distinctive. I am too experi- 
mental in phrases to be other than a misleading 
guide." Mr. Leslie Stephen remarks in the 
same strain : 

" I do not perceive that I have anything to be called 
a style, as Mr. Morley, for example, or Mr. Pater, or 
Mr. Stevenson have styles: and if anybody should be 
so misguided as to wish to write like me, he must do it 
by thinking of nothing except clearness and simply ex- 
pressing his meaning." 

A great many others, with Mr. Freeman at 
their head, ^' simply speak straight on "; and 
the gist of their advice is, " Spin your yarn in 
plain English." For all these let Dr. F. W. 
Newman be the spokesman : ^^ Good composi- 
tion depends on the total culture of the mind, 
and cannot be taught as a separate artr^ Or, | 

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[Aug., 



as M. Renan puts it, *'To write well is to 
think well; there is no art of style distinct 
from the culture of the mind." This seems an 
odd view for a Frenchman to take ; one would 
like to hear M. Renan's answer to the ques- 
tion whether there is any art, distinct from the 
culture of the mind. 

M. de Laveleye and M. Taine, at all events, 
believe that there is an art of writing, as there 
is an an art of painting. Says M. Taine: 
" The men of my tune in France have all re- 
ceived a special training with a view to style." 
M. de Laveleye emphasizes two qualities of 
style : the first that of clearness, the second that 
of color, — " the employment of energetic and 
highly-colored word-pictures, which strike the 
imagination, awake the attention, and stamp 
the thought on the memory." Mr. W. D. 
Howells appears as ungrateful as M. Renan 
for the training that has made him what he 
is. " I admired, and I worked hard to get, a 
smooth, rich, classic style. The passion I after- 
ward formed for Heine's prose forced me from 
this slavery, and taught me to aim at natural- 
ness." And a little farther on : "I should ad- 
vise any beginner to study the raciest, strong- 
est, best sjjoken speech, and let the printed 
speech alone." This echoes the famous declar- 
ation of Montaigne that he would have his son 
study the language of the taverns ; will Mr. 
Howells send his son to the saloons rather than 
to the Latin school and to Harvard ? And why 
spoken rather than printed speech? Appar- 
ently Shakespeare and Swift and Bunyan and 
Defoe are not strong and racy enough for 
Mr. Howells ; but he will surely admit that 
certain sides of the language are more safely 
and conveniently studied by Mr. Sainton's 
" young beginner " from the pages even of 
realistic novelists, than from the lips of harlots 
and criminals. 

Sir Edwin Arnold thinks that "no elevation 
or charm of style can be obtained without a 
constant artistic effort to lift language to its 
best expression." Mr. Hamerton asserts that 
" good writing is as much a fine art as paint- 
ing or musical composition." How is this art 
to be learned ? With few exceptions, all these 
writers advise the caref id study of the great 
masters of thought and expression. *' For pre- 
empts of style," says Professor Gold win Smith, 
" you must go to the masters of style, and for 
lessons in the art of composition you must go 
to artists." Professor Huxley, indeed, has 
' always turned a deaf ear to the common ad- 
vice to ' study good models,' to ' give your days 



and nights to the study of Addison,' and so 
on." Mr. James Bryce, while believing in 
models such as Burke and Milton and Cardi- 
nal Newman, calls attention to the danger "that 
a student may become a mere imitator, and pro- 
voke the annoyance of his readers by reproduc- 
ing mannerisms rather than merits." This is 
a danger which so courageous a man as Pro- 
fessor Huxley surely need not have feared I 
Mr. Lowell and many others advise us to face 
it, for the sake of the great compensations to 
him who escapes. " I am inclined to think," 
says Mr. Lowell, " that a man's style is bom 
with him, and that a style modelled upon an- 
other's is apt to be none or worse." Neverthe- 
less he concludes : " Cato's advice, ' Cum bonis 
ambyla^^ is all that one feels inclined to give." 
Sarah Tytler (Miss Henrietta Kidder) repeats 
one of the good things in Mr. Lowell's letter^ 
and makes it her own : 

« I believe that style is in a manner infectious, and 
that by habitually keeping good company in books we 
are as sure to catch the tone of their authors as we 
catch the tone of the best — that is, the most spirituaUj 
noble, agreeable, and intelligent — society." 

Messrs. T. W. Higginson, Francis Parkman^ 
E. E. Hale, Monier Williams, J. A. Symonds, 
A. P. Peabody, O. W. Holmes, P. G. Hamer- 
ton, and Canon Westcott gratefully acknowl- 
edge the training in the art of writing received 
from early teachers of rhetoric. Dr. Holmea 
finds, however, that his special indebtedness to 
Professor Channing is for instructions " how 
not to write." Professor WiDiam Minto owes 
all his success in the way of logical and cohe- 
rent composition to the instruction of Profes- 
sor Bain. That this training has its drawbacks 
Mr. Minto hints in the following remarkable 
statement : '^ I must again say, however, that 
if entertainment is a writer's purpose, all the 
obvious rules of clear and coherent statement 
seem to me, although I cannot myself, owing 
to ingrained habit, get rid of them, to be a 
mistake." The poor Scotchman would so much 
like to be iUogical and incoherent, at tinies^ 
by way of variety, but he cannot attain unto 
it. Such is the melancholy issue of the instruc- 
tion of Professor Bain I How Mr. Minto must 
long to be able to exchange places with Mr. 
George Moore, author of the "* Confessions of 
a Young Man," who confesses himself as fol- 
lows: 

<* When I was five and twenty I could not distinguish 
between a verb and a noun, and until a few years ago 
I could not punctuate a sentence. This suggests idiocy; 
but I was never stupid, although I could not learn; I 
simply could not write consecutive sentj^nces. For many 



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87 



years I had to pick out aud strive to put together the 
fragments of sentences with which I covered reams of 
paper. My father thought I was deficient in intelli- 
gence because I could not learn to spell. I have never 
succeeded in learning to spell. I am entirely opposed 
to education as it is at present understood. . . . An 
educational course seems to me to be folly. ... I 
scarcely know anything of Shakespeare, and I know his 
contemporaries thoroughly. ... I still experience 
great difficulty in disentangling my thoughts." 

Despite Mr. Moore's advanced opinions about 
education and about Shakespeare, his experi- 
ence is such as to separate him less hopelessly 
from the sympathy and compi-ehension of ordi- 
nary human beings, than that of the Scotch lit- 
terateyr who sighs in vain for deliverance from 
the body of this logic. Those who are inclined 
to hold authors in superstitious reverence will 
find their account in this book. Many an author 
confesses his (and especially her') sins, grammat- 
ical, logical, orthographical, and other, in almost 
as frank a manner as Mr. Moore, whom Mr. 
Sainton pronounces " certainly clever." 

A favorite piece of advice, — upon which an 
extraordinary number of authors seem to plume 
themselves, as upon something really in the na- 
ture of a revelation, — is the following : 

" Never use a long word when you can find a short 
one to answer the same purpose; never use a Latin 
word when you can find a Saxon one to express the 
same meaning." 

Upon this Mrs. Molesworth vrisely comments 
as follows : 

" I would rather advise young writers to choose the 
word which best expresses their meaning, be it long or 
short. Even in writing for children I do not entirely 
confine myself to words which they can at once under- 
stand; by the help of the context, and a little exercise 
of their own brains, children soon master a new word's 
exact meaning, and each new word is so much gained 
of intellectual treasure." 

Incidentally, the book is full of interesting 
expi-essions of preference for books and au- 
thors. Who, by the suffrages of authors them- 
selves, are the most artistic of recent or living 
writers? De Quincey and Landor are fre- 
quently mentioned as models. Mr. Freeman 
and others owe more to Macaulay than to any 
other stylist. Mr. Lang is not alone in pre- 
ferring Thackeray ; Mr. Black says : " Tenny- 
son and Thackeray for choice." Mr. John 
Burroughs, Mr. Brander Matthews, and Pro- 
fessor Minto seem to prefer Matthew Arnold. 
Emei*son is frequently mentioned, but Maxwell 
Grey (Miss Tuttiett) distrusts him as "a loose 
thinker." Among writers still living, Mr. 
Pater prefers Cardinal Newman, but says that 
Tennyson and Browning have influenced him 
(Mr. Pater) more than prose writers. Mr. 



James Bryce, Mr. Aubrey De Vere, and Canon 
Liddon prefer Cardinal Newman ; Mr. Ernest 
Myers brackets Cardinal Newman with Gold- 
win Smith, and Mr. Freeman places Goldwin 
Smith at the head ; Mr. George Rawlinson 
mentions Ruskin and Froude ; Mr. Brander 
Matthews owes most to Lowell ; Miss Jewett 
would be happy if she could write like Miss 
Thackeray; Mr. Herman Merivale exclaims, 
"In present days, 'John Inglesant,' and to 
me, none other." Among living women, Mrs. 
Molesworth receives the suffrage of Mr. Swin- 
burne. 

To conclude, I briefly sunmiarize the prin- 
cipal rules for "the art of authorship," as I 
educe them from this interesting book : 1. Be 
born with the right aptitude, taste, or knack 
for the art of expression. 2. Read choicely 
and widely. This stocks the mind, cultivates 
an ear for the music of style, and educates the 
inner eye to a nice perception of word-color. 

8. Study foreign languages, especially Latin 
and French, and practice translation critically 
and assiduously. 4. Learn to think clearly 
and consecutively. 5. Write and rewrite what 
you think, and then bum what you have writ- 
ten. 6. Converse much ; get experience. 7. 
Master some subject. 8. This apprenticeship 
accomplished, when, in the expressive phrase 
of Mrs. Barr, the heart grows " hot behind the 
pen," you may venture to write for publication. 

9. Do not be chagrined at failure ; try again, 
harder. 10. From the practise of Mr. Bain- 
ton, for whose style little can be said, I derive 
the least hackneyed precept of all, vlz.^ get the 
most celebrated authors to do it for you. 

Melville B. Anderson. 



Two Religious IjEAders.* 



In planning a series of biographies of repre- 
sentative men in religious thought and activity, 
the projectors of the series to which the vol- 
umes under review belong could have shown 
no wiser judgment than in the selection of 
William Augustus Muhlenberg as such a lead- 
er. For no other one of the men mentioned 
in the prospectus of the series is so completely 
in the van of the march of religious ideas m 
the nineteenth century. Dr. Muhlenberg's 
leadership was that combination of the ideal 

*Db. Muhlenbkbo. By William Wilberforce Newton, 
D.D. "American Religioua Leaders.'* Boston : Houghton, 
Mifflin A Co. 

WiLBUH FiSK. By Professor C^orge Prentice. "Ameri- 
can Religious I^eaders.^' Boston : Houghton, Mi^piii^ & Co. 



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and the practical which kept him ever in ad- 
vance of public opiiiion, and yet never brought 
him out of touch with the sympathy and appre- 
ciation of the times. Yet he is known to most 
Americans to-day chiefly by the one thing he 
did which least represents him — ^that morbid 
rliapsody familiar to every congregation of 
Protestants in the land, entitled "I Would 
Not Live Alway." We are glad to know that 
he wrote it in his youth, and wrote a robuster 
version of it in his later years, and that it rep- 
resented the real state of his eminently healthy 
mind about as much as " Thanatopsis " repre- 
sented a waxing boyhood at seventeen years 
of age. 

Muhlenberg was a pioneer along several im- 
portant lines of religious movement. He stands 
in the fore-front of American educators as the 
founder of the system of parochial schools, and 
he was one of the first churchmen to break 
away from the narrow bounds of denomination, 
and to call for a church whose inclusion should 
be as large as the number of those who profess 
the name of Christ. We hardly know which 
to admire the more : the spirit of Dr. Muhlen- 
berg with reference to education and denomi- 
national catholicity, or that of this his most 
recent biogi'apher. Dr. Muhlenberg was an 
ideal teacher and an evangelical churchman ; 
and Dr. Newton is an ideal biographer in his 
comprehension, not only of the subject of his 
sketch, but also of the Zeitgeist. He treats 
his theme topically in a series of essays, rather 
than in a chronological narrative, and in ad- 
mirable English sets forth in its beauty a most 
remarkable life. 

Muhlenberg's practice and Newton's theory 
of education both aim at character rather than 
at facts, at the development of conduct in ad- 
dition to capacity. They recognize the indi- 
vidual in the pupil, and his moral and social 
capabilities as well as his mental. They would 
train complete men rather than merely minds, 
and would call for, not only a sound mind in a 
sound body, but also a sound mind with a good 
conscience and a high purpose. To Muhlen- 
berg, — 

" Education was uot the impartation of knowledge, 
but the comiuanication of a spirit; not the training of 
an intelligence, but the development and inspiration of 
a soul ; not the discipline of powers, but the formation 
of a character; not familiarity with principles, but the 
perfection of manhood. The real teaching force re- 
sides in the individuality of the teacher, which the Lord 
has made, and not man, and which is worth more than 
all man-made methods in the books.*' 

Wise and timely words these, at a time when 



the swing toward technical specialists for teach- 
ers has gone too far, when would-be teachers 
are asked, not what they can do, but merely 
how much they know, and when teaching posi- 
tions are too often filled by men whose great 
knowledge does not extend to human nature, 
who lecture but cannot teach, and who never 
touch the personality of their pupils except by 
repellant eccentricities. What this great west- 
em water-shed of the East needs much to-day 
is a Christian college which shall be a teaching 
college, which shall build on such foundations 
as Muhlenberg helped to lay, and shall teach 
our youth not only by the influence of schol- 
arly and trained minds, but by the added influ- 
ence of large adaptability to a needy humanity 
and of character disciplined and made practical 
in the service of mankind. 

Thi-ee of Dr. Muhlenberg's undertakings 
which were closely related in spirit to his edu- 
cational activity were — his establishment in 
New York City of a free church, which he 
served for twelve years, and the institution in 
connection therewith of a '' Church Sister- 
hood " as an order of deaconesses ; the noble 
St. Luke's Hospital, to which he gave twenty 
years of his life as its chaplain, and to which 
he brought his Sisterhood as nurses ; and his 
contribution toward a practical answer to so- 
cialism, from the text " God helps him who 
helps himself," m his viDage of St. Johnland. 
These were pioneer movements toward the de- 
livery of the masses of a great city from relig- 
ious and physical and social disease ; and while 
the last failed, they all together show the large 
inclusiveness of the man's conception of prac- 
tical Christianity. 

If we turn to his attitude as a churchman 
and a clergyman we flnd the same thing em- 
phasized, in his " Evangelical Catholicism." 
Dr. Muhlenberg would have a church broad 
enough to include all who take the life of 
Christ as an inspiration and a working model, 
and low enough to reach every hovel. His 
double aim was liturgical and episcopal free- 
dom. Toward the former he demanded " the 
freedom of prayer and of prophesying, and the 
right of all the people of the congregation to 
participate actively and audibly in the stated 
exercises of public worship in the sanctuary." 
He forcibly wrote : 

" It is not the PREscription but the PROscription of 
the canon at which we demur. We are not < weary of 
the liturgy/ but we are weary, quite weary, of the re- 
straint of a law which fastens a bondage to the liturgy 
in no wise belonging to it; . . . which disfranchises 
the citizens of the Heavenly Citvt^uchuig their right 

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of petition, dictating the words in which alone it shall 
be exercised, and that in the public assemblage of the 
citizens in which petition is the most availing; which in- 
fringes the Magna Charta of freedom in prayer guar- 
anteed by the great apostle of gospel liberty when he 
bids us come, whether in closet or church, to the throne 
of grace boldly, literally with freespokenness." 

As to his demand for freedom in the calling 
of men to the Christian ministiy, he says : 

** Let theological dogmata, schools, and platforms be 
put back to their legitimate place, to make room for a 
restoration of the * Catholic Consent ' in the substance of 
the faith; let aU but confess to that; let all but agree 
in the person and offices of our blessed Lord, as the 
God-man, the Prophet, Priest, and Ring, the one Medi- 
ator between God and man, the final Judge of the quick 
and the dead." 

Standing on this platform, he wished his church 
to recognize its mission to preach the Gospel to 
all mankind, and, so far as they would, through 
all mankind. The broad tolerance of this 
churchman, his efforts toward Christian unity, 
his desire for the subsidence of dogmatic the- 
ology and the emergence of fellowship in prac- 
tical faith and conduct, are worth repeating 
to-day, when that other great church of the 
same theology wit^ Muhlenberg's is debating, 
not the substance, but merely the form of its 
credo ; and yet when many thoughtful Christ- 
ians are remembering that Presbyterianism is 
older than Calvinism, and are asking that the 
confession of their church shake itself loose 
from sixteenth-century politics, and give utter- 
ance to the intelligence of the nineteenth cen- 
tury. Dr. Muhlenberg's justification in his own 
church was the adoption, practically, by the 
general convention at Chicago, in 1886, of the 
views presented by him and his few sympathiz- 
ers to the House of Bishops in 1853. 

Professor Prentice's sketch of Wilbur Fisk 
will not take the high rank won by this life of 
Muhlenberg. It is not merely that Professor 
Prentice fails to recognize the critical calling 
of the historian and writes like a polemic : the 
sober common-sense which underlay the enthu- 
siasm and pervaded the thinking of Muhlen- 
berg, and which, guiding his aspirations, made 
him a great man, was not given to his Meth- 
odist contemporary in equal measure. The 
account of his practical experience, during his 
early ministry, of " the Wesleyan doctrine of 
entire sanctification, Christian perfection, or 
perfect love," makes one suspect that a hyster- 
ical possession was mistaken for something 
spiritual, and lays the biographer open to the 
charge of rhapsody rather than plain history. 
In fact, the book is so full of mysticism that 
it is pleasant to turn from this feature to a 



recognition of Dr. Fisk's noble work for edu- 
cation within the lines of the Methodist Church. 
Such progress as that church has made toward 
a ministry of culture is largely due to his efforts 
for higher education, first as principal of the 
Wesleyan Academy at Wilbraham, and then 
as first president of Wesleyan University at 
Middletown. When his theological writings 
on the vexing questions 

*' Of Providence, Foreknowledge, Will, and Fate '' 

are forgotten, he will be remembered gi-atefuUy 
for his earnest labors and his wise counsels for 
the education of youth. Not only did he illus- 
trate in his practice the theory of the teacher 
emphasized in the earlier portion of this article, 
but he apprehended, sixty years ago, one im- 
portant educational truth of whose enforcement 
to-day there is much need. Recognizing the 
importance of the college faculty as the teach- 
ing and governing body, he would have it con- 
trol appointments to its own number, and so 
would not only call upon the men best fitted 
by education and by self-interest to approve 
their colleagues, but also develop an esprit du 
corps of the highest order. We wish he could 
have had a more self-controlled biographer, 
for, while not a mind of the first order, he was 
a man of earnest life and large usefulness. 

John J. Halsey. 



A Good Old Book ox Old England.* 



Nearly a quarter of a century ago, the com- 
paratively few Americans who looked forward 
to travel in England, and a portion of the stay- 
at-home public who had learned to read books 
of travel with interest, welcomed the first ap- 
pearance of " Old England," in which the 
genial Professor Hoppin led his readers most 
profitably and delightfully through a maze of 
English scenes. Edition after edition was 
called for. Ten years ago, the author wi*ote a 
preface for the fifth edition, in which he mod- 
estly said that it was probably the last ; and 
added the chapter entitled ^^ England Revis- 
ited." The present is the tenth edition, with 
an added record of a third visit in 1888. It 
is handsomely printed by the Riverside Press, 
and contains a convenient county map of En- 
gland and Wales. 

It may be well to study briefly the sources 
of influence to be found in this perennial book. 

* Old EiroLAND. Its Scenery, Art, and People. By James 
M. Hoppin, Plrofeesor of the History of Art in Yale College. 
Tenth Edition. Boston : Houghton, Mifflin & Gor^ | 

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A peculiarly terse and picturesque style lends 
an exquisite charm to the personal story of the 
author's wanderings. We set out with him on 
a railway ride along the north coast of Wales, 
where we see the foreheads of great green 
cliffs, the rush and swirl of the waves, the soft 
blue mountains in the misty distance with the 
haze of morning light filling all the spaces be- 
tween their summits. The broken towers and 
majestic battlements of Caernarvon Castle lift 
for us their slim turrets, and disclose their 
great flights of stairs broken midway, where 
the lightest maiden's foot may not tread, though 
vanished kings and mailed warriors once press- 
ed them heavily. 

Turning from Northern Wales, we are led, 
by cathedral town and market-place, in and 
out of many a lovely English haunt. We are 
taken into an old cathedral when evening is 
fading into night, the moon shining on the 
lofty windows of one side as the last crimson 
shafts of day strike the upper openings on the 
opposite side, while below and within parts of 
the vast edifice are already lost in darkness. 
We wander along the South Coast, where the 
gi*eat gi'een billows arch into the sunlight to 
pour themselves along the beach. On the Isle 
of Wight, we catch the mysterious gleam of 
patches of soft hazy sunlight on the sea, with- 
out losing sight of the big brass knockers on 
the doors of the cottages, while in the fields 
which run to the very edge of the cliffs, men 
are tying up wheat on the brow of the preci- 
pice, the late clover is a-bloom, and the black- 
ben-ies are ripening. 

The scenery of England is like the soberness 
of a Doric temple, with its decorated frieze and 
intervals of rich exquisite sculpture. The lit- 
tle silver-footed streams, the waving and gentle 
outline of the hills, the sheen of the grass, the 
bright lakes and bosky combes, the low cottage 
and the village church hid in foliage and flow- 
ers, the gray ruin clothed in green, the great 
parks of venerable oaks, the sweeping glades 
of cleanest and smoothest lawn, the delicate 
veil of mist that softens and heightens each 
effect, make England a beautiful northern 
temple* the home and shrine of our ancestral 
virtue. 

Our author, with his true poetic inspiration, 
touches not alone natural scenery and the de- 
tails of man's grandest works. He has a 
healthy sympathy with humanity, especially 
with the poor and with little children, which 
saves from the heart-deadening effect of exclu- 
sively intellectual and imaginative work. The 



same poetic instinct sets in their frames these 
human pictures, and one reads a leaf of Shakes- 
peare in the natural light in which it was writ- 
ten. We wander, at Stratford-on-Avon, amid 
the townspeople, — burly magistrate, bearded 
soldier, young man, lover, schoolboy, and nurs- 
ing babe ; and we hear a tired old woman 
shrieking into a fit in Shakespeare's church in 
the midst of the services. We cross a Lon- 
don street with a pallid little crippled street- 
sweeper, haH-naked, with the stump of an old 
broom in his hand, hopping cheerily after us 
in the rainy November day, shrilly calling, 
" Poor little chick, sir, — give him a lift, sir, — 
thank'ee, good momin', sir." At high noon 
in a Birmingham street, the English love of 
fun and fighting gleams forth, men with bars 
of iron on their shoulders and clerks with pa- 
pers in their hands forget their work, and car- 
men sit sidewise on their elephantine horses to 
watch the piping denunciations and determined 
thwacks of Punch. An old man with a red 
vest leans on his crutch in the shadow of an 
ancient church, his trembling head, bleared 
eyes, and long tangled white locks shading the 
outline of Shakespeare's Old Age. 

There is much valuable criticism held in so- 
lution in the delightful flow of the author's 
pellucid English. For him in Loudon, histoiy, 
law, literature, art, religion, meet and radiate 
from a common centre. So for the reader in 
this narrative, the many-sided culture of the 
author, like a prism, separates the white light 
of civilization into primary and secondary rays, 
and flashes the splendor of color along with 
the axiomatic lines of definition across his 
pages. 

Familiarity with English literature is the 
groundwork of much that is best in the vol- 
ume. Here is the "hazy amber light" of 
Tennyson's poetry in " Lady Godiva "; there 
the lines of Chaucer exemplified in the elo- 
quence of a Member of Parliament ; Thack- 
eray here grows in fame while Dickens de- 
clines, but the tear still falls over the pages 
which portray the earthly pilgrimages of Oli- 
ver Twist and Tiny Tim. The delicate hum 
of insect life and the whir and flutter of little 
wings surround us in the quiet churchyard con- 
secrated by the genius of Gray at Stoke Pogis. 
At Strawberry Hill we have glimpses of the 
charming lawn and garden of Horace Walpole, 
where the cunning letter-writer ^'sat like a 
spider and drew into his brilliant dew-spangled 
country web all things, — where he sucked the 
life out of his times, and sometimes ejected his 
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]K>ison also into them." We climb to the back- 
room of Charles Lamb in the East India House 
in Leadenhall street ; we visit the home of 
Addison, with his flower-garden, rich in June 
roses, sending its delicious perfume into the 
open windows ; we go in a hansom to Carlyle's 
house in Chelsea, a brick house, three windows 
wide, in a narrow and humble street, and con- 
trast its present smart red color, its window- 
siUs furbished with flower-boxes and yellow 
porcelain swans, with the grave old-fashioned 
place where the master was driven and set 
down disconsolate, with his boxes of books, yet 
doubtless enjoying his thoughts better than 
many suppose, for he knew that behind a 
gloomy face and cynic humor he hid a large 
trust in God and hope for man, and that, 
sooner or later, men would flnd this out. We 
stand in massive Durham beside the grave of 
the Venerable Bede, struggle up the dreary- 
road from Keighly to Haworth, and are ad- 
mitted to the parlor where Charlotte Bronte's 
large dark eyes, square impending brow, and 
sad unsmiling mouth look down from her por- 
trait, and her books, with "a Bible of Emily's," 
still lie on the table. 

Two delicious chapters are devoted to the 
Lake Country, with soft Windermere in the 
front, where, at every foothold, some noble 
dwelling is placed, its rolled lawn or majestic 
park coming down to the very water's edge. 
In these ravishing descriptions, nothing lovely 
is omitted, save the smoke from English hearth- 
stones which ascends amid the leafy verdure, 
with exquisite soothing homelikeness for the 
heart of the wayfarer. We pass Fox How, 
the embowered cottage of Arnold of Rugby 
under Loughrigg Fell ; we gaze on the home of 
Wordsworfii over its thick girdle of larch-trees 
and laburnums, furnished within with every 
English comfort, but with no luxuries beyond 
the presence of books and flowers. We wan- 
der with Southey, Coleridge, Scott, Lamb, Wil- 
son, De Quinoey, along Rydal Mere, strung 
by a silver streamlet to Grasmere, so named 
" because it could not have been named any- 
thing else." 

Our author has true self-respecting Ameri- 
can feeling, as well as deep and genuine respect 
for England. There is no hesitation in speak- 
ing of the superiority of some things Ameri- 
can. New York is vastly superior to London, 
in its site as a commercial metropolis, with its 
wonderful harbor, its two deep amis of the sea 
on either side, and its magnificent bay in front. 
England is a miniature country which one can 



span from shore to shore in a summer after- 
noon. The writer had a curious impression 
on his second visit, as if London were but a 
huge aggregation of low brick buildings and 
he could stretch out his arms over the tops of 
all the houses like a city of Lilliput. This was 
no illusion of vanity, but a genuine feeling, 
bred of the wide ocean and our broad Ameri- 
can land, which gave him a momentary sense 
of triumph as a citizen of the New World. 
The stratification of English society engenders 
some useful virtues of order and reverence, 
along with the vices of mercenariness and ser- 
vility, — a stratification which the insular posi- 
tion and confined spaces of the kingdom tend to 
make permanent ; but, sooner or later, changes 
must and will come. The American principle 
of self-government gives us immense advantage 
over England and other aristocratic nations, 
but it is a perilous superiority. The English 
and French are mentally and morally antago- 
nistic ; the Englishman, the German, and the 
American are only temperamentally dissimilar. 
Mutual pride prevents the English and the 
Americans from seeing each other's good traits 
and positive resemblances. All English are 
not disagreeable, nor all Americans insuffera- 
ble. The two nations are essentiaUy one, and 
for the sake of humanity they should learn to 
know and love each other better than they do. 
There is no country which contains so much of 
absorbing interest to a thoughtful American as 
Old England, and it is especially good for his 
intensely active American nature to come in 
contact with the slower and graver spirit of 
England, gaining therefrom calmness and so- 
bered strength. 

How noble a plant is our English literature ! 
Its seed was sown long ago in German soil ; it 
shot its roots under the sea into the little island ; 
it was watered with the tears of the Celt and 
the blood of the Saxon ; it was grafted by the 
Norman sword and the French steel ; it was 
tossed by the winds and the tempests of revolu- 
tions ; it felt the quickening heat of the Ref- 
ormation ; it fruits were borne over the ocean 
into distant regions, and they have sprung up 
among us in America, where the old stock is 
flourishing under brighter suns. Because we 
read the same English Bible and sing the same 
English hymns ; because we comprehend the 
words of William Shakespeare, John Milton, 
and John Bunyan ; because we laugh and weep 
over the same pages of Hawthorne and Whit- 
tier, Thackeray and Dickens ; — this is a spir- 
itual bond more profound than commercial ties 

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and international treaties, and more present 
and vital than even past historical associations. 
Such is the author's profound and glowing 
tribute to English and American unity. 

Many other subjects are set in illuminated 
borders in these enchanted pages, and occas- 
ionally a gleam of humor plays over them like 
the lightning of a summer evening, harmless on 
the far horizon. Professor Hoppin is an accom- 
plished critic of public speaking, especiaUy of 
preaching, a practical observer of English coal 
and tin mines, of the social influence of the 
English Sabbath and the English newspaper, 
of the structure of the English Parliament, of 
the salaries of English bishops, the tendencies 
within the English Church, the prospect of 
disestablishment, land monopoly, and in close 
touch with all of the English roots of New 
England civilization. He is a thorough stu- 
dent of English education as exemplified in 
her public schools and universities, and believes 
the American college system to have, for Amer- 
icans, some practical advantages over the meth- 
ods of education in England and Germany. 
His interest in philanthropic work gives the 
reader charming descriptions of the homes of 
Florence Nightingale and Miss Marsh. His 
professorship of the history of art never ob- 
trudes itself, indeed is kept rather in the back- 
ground, though there is some suggestive criti- 
cism ; and . the scattered dissertations upon 
architecture, if collected and systematically ar- 
ranged, would form a valuable monograph on 
this subject. The American youth about to 
visit England without a knowledge of architec- 
ture, is advised to defer his visit a year until 
he knows the difference between a tower and 
a spire, a groin and a gable. 

A pleasant book, gossippy in the good sense 
of the term, to take up for a vacant hour, it 
is inspiring to read and digest thoroughly. Its 
value to the thorough reader, and as a book of 
reference to the traveller, would be materially 
enhanced by a more systematic treatment of 
its many lines of thought and information. Its 
appended itinerary of a tour in England com- 
prising the principal cathedral towns is not 
confined to cathedral towns, but meanders over 
a variety of routes to many attractive points, 
and the index lacks in fulness and precision. 
As it is, with its few faults and its many excel- 
lences, " Old England " exemplifies the endur- 
ing value of a work produced by a mind largely 
endowed and thoroughly disciplined, united 
with a highly spiritual and imaginative nature. 
Minerva B. Norton. 



Recent Fiction.* 

" The Tragic Muse " has been so long with 
us, in the pages of the ^' Atlantic Monthly,'* 
that its portentous volume, extending, in book 
form, to 882 pages, is not a matter for sur- 
prise. The reader who engages upon its peru- 
sal will, however, do so advisedly, for he knows 
by this time the limitations and the excellences 
of the author's art. On the whole, he will not 
be disappointed, for the novel takes a high rank 
among Mr. James's works. If second to any- 
thing, it is only to ^^ The Princess Casamassi- 
ma," and it is far superior to eitlier " The Bos- 
tonians " or " The Portrait of a Lady." Of 
course, there is no story worth mentioning ; 
there are merely half a dozen men and women 
engaged in protracted conversations that lead 
to nothing in particular, and they are mostly 
of rather vulgar types. And their relations 
are nearly as unsettled at the end of the 882 
pages as they were at the beginning. But they 
are all distinctly individual, and the product 
of a very delicate art. We might wish that 
art exercised upon more attractive material, 
but such a wish is well-nigh hopeless with ref- 
erence to any work by Mr. James. The hero- 
ine is a young woman of dubious origin and 
strong artistic instincts, making her way upon 
the stage by force of sheer persistence and ob- 
tuse disregard of obstacles that would have 
blocked the path of a more sensitive aspirant. 
The dramatic motive thus playing a large part 
in the story, an opportunity is offered the au- 
thor to indulge in various bits of dramatic criti- 
cism which constitute almost the most delightful 

*Thk Tbaoig Muse. By Heniy James. In Two Vol- 
umes. Boston : Houghton, BfifiUn A Go. 

The Shadow of a Dream. By W. D. Howells. New 
York : Harper & Brothers. 

The Bbouqhton House. By Bliss Perry. New York ; 
Charles Scribner's Sons. 

The Lawton Oibl. By Harold Frederic. New Y<»rk: 
Charles Scribner's Sons. 

The Beoum*s Dauohteb. By Edwin Lassetter Bynner. 
Boston : Little, Brown, A Co. 

With Fibe akd Swobd. An Historical Novel of Poland 
and Rnssia. By Henryk Sienkiewioz. Translated from the 
Polish by Jeremiah Curtin. Boston : Little, Brown, A Co. 

The CAPTAnr of the Janizabdm. By James M. Lad- 
low, D.D., Litt. D. New York : Harper & Brothen. 

Ekkehabd. a Tale of the Tenth Century. By Joseph 
Victor Yon Scheffel. Translated from the German. New 
York : W. S. Gottsberger & Co. 

Ab *Tis IN Life. By Albert Delpit. Translated from the 
French by E. P. Robins. New York : Welch. Fracker Co. 

The Ring of Amasis. A Romance. By the Bad of 
Lytton. New York : Macmillan & Co. 

Adventubes of a YotmoEB So». By Edward John Tre- 
lawny. New York : Macmillan A Co. 



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feature of the novel. We say almost, because 
one of the characters claims the first place in 
our regard. Mr. Gabriel Nash, apostle of can- 
dor and exponent of the fine art of living, is so 
genially conceived a creation that the book is 
more tiian worth reading for his sake alone. 
And it need not all be read for that purpose, 
for it is very easy to pass over the pages of 
monotonous analysis that interrupt the narra- 
tive from time to time. A chapter lost here 
and there makes little difPerence ; the chances 
are that nothing essential to the understanding 
of the story will have happened. 

At all events, the art of Mr. James, with its 
languid pace and its mannerisms, ofPers a defi- 
nite form upon which the reader may count 
with some degree of certainty. In this respect 
it is far superior to the art of Mr. Howells, 
which seems to have entered again, and indefi- 
nitely, upon the tentative stage. Mr. HoweUs's 
recent work has been of the best-intentioned, 
but still very far from satisfactory. This may 
be said with equal truth of " Annie Kilburn," 
of "A Hazard of New Fortunes," and of "The 
Shadow of a Dream," the novel, or rather nov- 
elette, that has just appeared. This book is a 
study in morbid psychology ; and morbid psy- 
chology, it must be said once for all, is not the 
forte of Mr. Howells. One thinks of Haw- 
thorne, and smiles. The epileptic, or otherwise 
diseased person, whose dream, in this story, 
overshadows three or four lives, his own in- 
cluded, does not awaken our interest, and hardly 
excites our curiosity. When he dies we feel 
happily rid of him, but even then things run 
along no more smoothly ; and the only real sat- 
isfaction provided by the book is at the point 
at which the writer wisely concludes that such 
of his characters as survive have ceased to pos- 
sess further interest for anyone. 

"The Broughton House," by Mr. Bliss 
Perry, is a New England village study having 
much of the manner of Mr. Howells but none 
of his illuminating humor. As the work of a 
beginner, it is entitled to praise for careful 
workmanship, and those who look upon fiction 
as a series of " documents " will find it praise- 
worthy upon other grounds. Perhaps it is the 
best sort of novel that a New England village 
can produce ; if so, we would suggest Amalfi 
and Samarcand as more attractive scenes, and 
even express willingness to see invention sub- 
stituted, in part, for knowledge. 

Mr. Harold Frederic's " The Lawton Girl" 
is still another village study, the scene being 
shifted to central New York. But Mr. Fred- 



eric, although he must be classed as a realist, 
is not so committed to the method as to be in- ^ 
capable of an occasional expansion of the imag- 
ination, and his story is a far stronger one than 
that just mentioned. Some of his characters, 
at least, seem to havie hot blood in their veins, 
and to be capable of some sort of passion. The 
story of the lock-out, and of the wild scenes 
consequent thereupon, is made the subject of a 
vivid piece of description ; and the author, in 
the delineation of his characters, is willing to 
leave a few details for the reader to fill in. His 
villain is a very satisfactory piece of work, and 
is let ofF far too easily, in our opinion. Besides, 
the story has considerable diversity of incident, 
and the various threads of the fabric are skil- 
fully woven. 

Mr. Bynner's story of "The Begum's Daugh- 
ter" is one of the most successful attempts yet 
made to impart a romantic interest to the old 
colonial period in this country. The scene of 
his story is laid in the New Amsterdam of two 
centuries ago, and the life of the Dutch settle- 
ment is described in an extremely animated 
fashion. There is, perhaps, some lack of apenpi^ 
and something too much of local and fleeting 
color in the narrative, but the work is both 
brilliant and interesting, and the period with 
which it deals worth our attention. 

Among recently-published works of fiction 
there are a few translations and reprints that 
call for special mention. First and most im- 
portant of these is the ma^ificent historical 
novel, "With Fire and Sword," translated from 
the Polish of Henryk Sienkiewicz by Mr. Jer- 
emiah Curtin. Here is a book indeed. There 
are nearly eight hundred closely printed pages 
in this translation, so that the work even ex- 
ceeds in volume the novel of Mr. James re- 
viewed at the head of this article. It need 
hai*dly be said that in matter any single chap- 
ter of this work easily outweighs the whole of v 
Mr. James's two volumes of fine-spun analysis. 
For the novel is rich in historical substance,- 
and its scene is placed in one of the most inter- 
esting periods of European history — a period 
as yet almost wholly unexploited by the west- 
em novelist or even historian — that of the Cos- 
sack wars of the latter half of the seventeenth 
century. Splendid almost beyond description 
is this picture from the past, with its tale of 
fierce wars and faithful loves, with its scenes 
of slaughter grim and great, with its crowded 
canvas from which, among innumerable faces 
of men known and unknown to fame, there 
emerge the heroic figure of Yeremi Vishnyev- i 

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94 



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[Aug., 



etski, the champion of the Commonwealth, the 
stern and implacable figure of Hmelnitski, 
" the ablest man in Europe at that time," and 
the contrasted figures of the four friends cre- 
ated by the imagination of the novelist him- 
self, and whose exploits inevitably suggest those 
of the immortal quartette of whom we read with 
such breathless interest in ^^ Les Trois Mous- 
quetaires." And back of these figures are the 
hosts of Pole and Cossack and Tartar, and the 
steppes and forests of Poland (now Russia) 
where the great struggle between Christian and 
Pagan was fought out. And then the language 
of the book, with its barbaric, half-oriental col- 
oring, and its romantic cast, with its vivid de- 
scriptions and its rich use of figure and pro- 
verb (aU of which qualities are admirably re- 
produced by Mr. Curtin), is aj» refreshing as 
a cool breeze on a sultry day; In short, the 
pleasure which good historical fiction ofPers to 
all healthy minds may be very fully realized in 
a perusal of this work. The author, who was 
bom in 1845, lives in Warsaw, and is one of 
the most famous Polish writers now living. It 
may be interesting to learn that, as a young 
man, he spent several years in this country, 
principally in California, and first gained a 
reputation by the publication, in the Warsaw 
newspapers, of a series of letters descriptive of 
his travels. 

It is, perhaps, a not unnatural transition 
from a romance of Southeastern Europe in the 
seventeenth century to one of the same region 
in the fifteenth century. The conquest of Con- 
stantinople by the Turks is the first chapter of 
a history that ends with the Siege of Vienna 
and the Peace of Carlowitz. The work of our 
Polish novelist touches upon some of the later 
chapters of this history, and Dr. Ludlow's "The 
Captain of the Janizaries," of which the hero 
is Seanderbeg and the closing episode the fall 
of the Eastern Empire, takes us back to the 
prologue.- Dr. Ludlow's work is a new edition 
of a novel that we had the pleasure of praising 
in these pages some years ago, when it first 
appeared. Being a work that commends itself 
to the judicious, it has, instead of being shelved 
and forgotten, grown steadily in fame. A new 
examination of the work has only served to con- 
firm us m the opinion expressed before, that it 
is one of the most remarkable pieces of histor- 
ical fiction ever produced in this countiy. 

But even Dr. Ludlow's book does not plunge 
us far enough into the past, for there awaits us 
a new translation of the " Ekkehard " of Jos- 
eph Victor von Scheffel, and, as every reader 



who has been thrilled by that opening first par- 
agraph knows, the story of " Ekkehard" is laid 
in the tenth century. It is too famous a book 
to call for any description here : for, although 
published only thirty-five years ago, it has en- 
joyed classical honors for almost that length of 
time, and is only to be compared with the great- 
est productions of historical fiction, hardly with 
anything else in German literature (unless pos- 
sibly the work of Freytag or of Felix Dahn}, 
perhaps only with the best of the Waverley nov- 
els. The present translation, which is not ac- 
knowledged, is so well done that the translator 
should have the credit of it. It contains aU 
the notes of the author. 

"As 'Tis in Life," translated from the French 
of M. Albert Delpit by Mr. E. P. Robins, is 
a novel with a somewhat misleading title, for 
it describes many things as very different from 
what they are in life ; the tragedy of the West- 
em plains, which constitutes the central feature 
of the story, being a noteworthy example of 
exaggeration and misrepresentation. We will 
observe, en passant^ that it is unfortunately not 
true to state that criminals of foreign birth, 
after having served sentences in United States 
penitentiaries, are exiled from the country. 
The whole story is a piece of rather crude sen- 
sationalism, far below the level of M . Delpit's 
best work. It is evidently intended as a study 
in the psychology of remorse, and is given a 
scientific flavor by frequent references to Ribot, 
Maudsley, and other authorities. The work is 
not without a certain skill in construction, and 
an occasional touch of force. 

" The Ring of Amafiis," by the Earl of Lyt- 
ton, must be classed among the reprints, al- 
though the author claims to have re-written the 
story. First published a quarter of a century 
ago, it marked even then a declining fashion 
in fiction, and now appears a curious survival 
of an almost forgotten t3rpe. The type in ques- 
tion is that of the mystical work of the elder 
Lord Lytton, of "A Strange Story" and " Za- 
noni." But even those works were inspired 
by something closely akin to genius, and may 
still be read with interest, which is more than 
can justly be said of "The Ring of Amasis." 
The somewhat faded laurels of Owen Meredith 
will be made none the fresher by this com- 
pound oS vague metaphysics and romantic de- 
lirium. 

In the Protestant cemetery at Rome, almost 
under the shadow of the pyramid of Caius Ces- 
tius, are the two graves to which lovers of En- 
glish poetry have made reverent pilgrimage 

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THE DIAL 



95 



for almost three-quarters of a century. A few 
years ago, in 1881, the long-undisturbed ground 
was broken by one of these graves, and the 
mortal remains of Edward J. Trelawny were 
buried at the side of his friend and fellow- 
exile, Shelley. The double grave now bears 
this inscription : 

'* These are two friends whose lives were undivided ; 
So let their memory be, now they have grlided 
Under the grave ; let not their bones be parted. 
For their two hearts in life were single-hearted." 

It is almost startling to think that Trelawny, 
who was but a few months Shelley's junior, 
should have survived him by nearly sixty years, 
and that the poet whose majestic song of "The 
Triumph of Life" was cut short by the triumph 
of a still greater conqueror might, had it not 
been for that summer squall in the Mediter- 
ranean, have lived into our own days ; that 
Browning, thrilled even half a century ago at 
sight of one who had seen Shelley in the flesh, 
might for many years have known and done 
loyal homage to his spiritual master ; and that 
the poet's vision of a golden age to come might 
have found, in our own time, even nobler ex- 
pression than that given it in the second 
" Locksley Hall." All such fancies are futile 
enough, but the name of Trelawny can hardly 
f aU to evoke them, for his " Records of Shel- 
ley, Byron, and the Author" have indissolubly 
linked his name with that of England's greatest 
lyric poet. That book is familiar enough ; far 
less familiar is the "Adventures of a Younger 
Son," the publication of which, in an entirely 
new edition, gives us occasion to speak here 
of that 

*' World-wide liberty's life-long lover, 
Lover no less of the strength of song, 
Sea-king, swordsman, hater of wrong.'' 

The "Adventures of a Younger Son" was first 
published in 1831, anonymously. How much 
of it is truth and how much fiction has never 
been exactly ascertained, but it seems, on the 
whole, to deserve classification with works of 
romance rather than with works of biography. 
It is a stirring account of adventure by land 
and sea, written in rough and often ungram- 
matical language, but infused with a rare and 
energetic vitality that makes of it one of the 
most real of narratives. Mr. Edward Garnett 
provides this new edition with an introductory 
sketch of Trelawny's life, and the volume serves 
very happily to inaugurate the new "Adventure 
Series" in which it appears. 

William Morton Payne. 



Bribfs on INTew Books. 



The Centuby Dictionary, to which The Dial 
paid its respects in September, 1889, and again in 
April, 1890, is still steadily running the longitude 
of the English vocabulary. The third volume (Cen- 
tury Company ; Chicago : McDonnell Bros.), G to L 
inclusive, is before us, and its last p^e, numbered 
3556, marks the completion of half the great task. 
The main features of this volume differ, of course, 
little from those of the two preceding volumes. The 
work gains rather than loses as it proceeds, in the 
high qualities for which it is distinguished. The 
most casual glance is struck by the solidity and fin- 
ish of the binding, the perspective of the page, the 
distinctness of the typography, the elegance, the 
number, and the appropriateness of the illnstrar 
tions. It may not be amiss to remind the reader 
that this is << an encyclopedic lexicon of the English 
language." That is, whOe neither a biographical 
dictionary nor a gazetteer, it purports to be a com- 
plete dictionary of words and things. On the side 
of language, it is distinguished by far greater ful- 
ness of detail, accuracy of etymology, and wealth 
of illustrative quotations, than our popular diction- 
aries can pretend to ; while on the side of things, it 
is a ready-reference book of the most valuable kind, 
because presenting a judicious epitome of knowl- 
edge ; the consulter of an encyclopaedia looks for 
precise outlines, not for detaUs. By eliminating 
names of persons and places, space has been secured 
for a sufficiently full treatment of whatever comes 
within the scope of this dictionary ; and the pre- 
sumption of accuracy founded upon the high repu- 
tation of the scholars responsible for the several 
departments of the work, is in the main fully borne 
out by the contents. The scope of the present vol- 
ume may be faintly indicated by reference to such 
articles as those on gaMndation, genius, geometry ^ 
German, glass, goose, Greek, hdrid, heir, hydravr 
lie, Indian^ p^ge, p^ry, Kantianism^ key, lace, 
language, lantern, law, logarithm, etc.; and to such 
important verbs as get, go, lay, let, etc., the articles 
on which fill many columns, and even pages, and 
involve innumerable quotations from five or six cen- 
turies of English literature. Two facts, indicative 
of the scholarly accuracy with which the whole work 
is executed, may be mentioned here. First, the 
source of every illustration, or the location of the 
object illustrated, is specified, whenever practicable. 
Thus, to illustrate litter, there is an engraving of a 
particular litter preserved in a particular place. 
Secondly, every illustrative quotation is credited 
not merely, as in our popular dictionaries, to its 
author, but also to its exact source, — chapter and 
verse, volume and page, act, scene, and line, being 
given, according to circumstances. It is interest- 
ing, by the way, to meet with sentences from the 
most recent reputable American authors cheek by 
jowl with scraps from old ballads and lines from 
Chaucer and other Middle English writers. For 
this dictionary treats, apparently, with equally imv 

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[Aug., 



partial fulness, all phases of our language from the 
fourteenth century down. To the student of Chau- 
cer, or of the elder dramatists, it is no less valuable 
than to the student of the latest results in science, or 
of the most recent processes in the industrial arts. 

Dr. a. p. Peabody's "Harvard Graduates whom 
I Have Known" (Houghton), while it contains cer- 
tain elements of interest to American readers in 
general, is addressed to a rather limited circle. 
Practically, only one or two of the men commemo- 
rated were of our day, and none of them achieved 
much more than a local reputation. The group, 
however, merits the attention of the general reader 
in that it is admirably illustrative of an ideal of 
life, a standard of social, political, and personal ex- 
cellence, which has left an indelible impress upon 
the national institutions — if not upon the national 
manners. The work is designed as a sequel to the 
author's " Harvard Reminiscences," and comprises 
twenty brief sketches, averaging about twelve pages 
each, of graduates of Harvard, all of whom were 
either benefactors of the college, or members of 
one or more of its governing boards. The first 
name treated is that of Joshua Fisher (1749-1833), 
and the last that of Increase Sumner Wheeler 
(1806-1888) ; and in an appendix the author has 
added brief sketches of the first two presidents of 
the college, who, as educated in the mother coun- 
try, are not included in Mr. Sibley's "Harvard 
Graduates." Perhaps the most readable papers are 
those on Charles Russell Lowell, father of the poet ; 
George Barrell Emerson, brother of Ralph Waldo, 
and one of forty-six Emersons named in the Har- 
vard Quinquennial of 1885 ; Daniel Appleton White, 
founder of the " Hasty Pudding Club "; Samuel Atr 
kins Eliot; and Nathan Dane, who drafted and 
reported the Ordinance for the Government of the 
Territory Northwest of the Ohio. Dr. Peabody's 
account of John Pierce (1773-1849) is very amus- 
ing. Dr. Pierce's devotion to his Alma Mater seems 
to have been a species of mania. When a boy he 
used to walk over to Cambridge to feast his eyes 
on the college, and he was present at sixty-three 
out of sixty-four successive Conunencements. Sev- 
eral good stories are told of the Doctor, who must 
have been something of a humorist — in the old 
sense. The author says of him : " He was easily 
moved to tears, and did not hide them ; but while 
they were raining down his cheeks at the moving 
close of an eloquent discourse, he would take out 
his great silver watch and say in broken accents to 
the persons sitting next to him, ^ Just fifty minutes,' 
or, ' Ten minutes over the hour.' " Considering the 
length of the sermons, the good man's emotion is 
not so very surprising. The volume is outwardly 
attractive, and should prove interesting to a larger 
circle of readers than its title would seem to ap- 
peal to. 

The " Statesman's Year Book " (Macmillan) has 
become as indispensable in a reference library, or 
indeed in a household that boasts only a few choice 



books, as a standard dictionary. It is the diction- 
ary of the progress of the world. It presents with 
remarkable accuracy the essential statistics of every 
government known to civilization, and affords in a 
few pages, and with scientific precision, an outline 
of every constitution and a sketch of all civil ad- 
ministrations. The history of Europe has never 
been written as truthfully as it may be found in its 
pages ; and although its reports are not as f uU for 
the countries of this hemisphere, even Americans 
caii obtain within them more information about their 
own country than they will fina with equal conven- 
ience, and placed so favorably for comparison, in any 
other compilation. The editor, Mr. Scott Keltie, 
is librarian to the Royal Geographical Society. His 
position, his training, and his knowledge of the needs 
of students, combine to make him better fitted than 
his predecessor for his arduous and interminable 
duties.. He has wholly reorganized the "States- 
man's Year Book," as will be quickly perceived by 
those familiar with its preceding annual issues. This 
year it is not only printed with new type carefully 
selected and proportioned, but the general mould is 
recast, and the new form is a great improvement 
over the old. Many states are included never be- 
fore mentioned. The official returns are procured 
from every government for its compilations ; and 
in all instances where such caution is desirable they 
have been criticised and digested by experts con- 
nected with the several governments to which they 
appertain. Only in a volume of so great scope and 
such minute accuracy can one hope to find the facts 
that enable one to keep abreast with diplomacy, ex- 
ploration, war, commerce, and discovery. The en- 
larged spheres of England, France, and Germany 
in Asia and Africa are here to be found. The vol- 
ume, which now exceeds eleven hundred pages, is 
a storehouse of resources which the scholar, the stu- 
dent, the teacher, the editor, must have at hand, in 
order to think correctly and interpret with knowl- 
edge and effect the changes that are constantly taking 
place throughout the world and the institutions that 
may be deemed permanent in every quarter of it 

Can a literature which deals freely with all that 
concerns human nature and human life be placed, 
with safety, in the hands of adolescents ? Modern 
educators are tacitly answering this question, with 
certain reservations, in the affirmative. The reser- 
vations involve a free use of the expurgator's prun- 
ing-knife, which, in the hands of the timid or the 
prudish, is apt to become a more " desperate hook " 
than that of '' slashing Bentley." Mr. William 
Roscoe Thayer, in his edition of " The Best Eliza- 
bethan Plays " (Ginn), has attempted to make the 
plain-spoken old dramatists conform to the modern 
taste for the naughty thought without the naughty 
word. Of course, he has exercised great freedom 
in clipping and grafting. For example, in Beau- 
mont and Fletcher's " Philaster," Megra's waiting- 
women are designated (by Mr. Thayer) as "wicked." 
This being obviously a false note,a^like Professor 

_ igitized by v^nOC ^^ - ~ 



1890.] 



THE DIAL 



97 



Skeat*8 celebrated change of " concubyn " to " wik- 
ked sin," — the reader consults the correct text and 
finds the word " bawds." Elsewhere, however, Mr. 
Thayer freely admits this word ; perhaps he objects 
to it only when used in a Pickwickian sense. The 
difficult words which remain are explained at the 
foot of the page, where, also, the confiding reader 
is admonished when to frown and when to admire. 
It is doubtful whether any critic will agree with 
this editor that the five plays selected — <^ The Jew 
of Malta," "The Alchemist," "Phihister," "The 
Two Noble Kinsmen," " The Duchess of Malfi,"— 
are absolutely the masterpieces of Shakespeare's 
great contemporaries. He says, indeed, Uiat he 
thinks " Volpone " superior to " The Alchemist," 
but was forced to exclude the former on account of 
its coarseness. But what are we to think of an ed- 
itor who is capable of passing over " Edward II." 
and " Doctor Faustus," and of selecting " The Jew 
of Malta " as the supreme illustration of Marlowe's 
genius ? In spite of, and partly by reason of, these 
objectionable features, this volume will be found 
useful in schools where the anatomy of the soul, 
like that of the body, is studied without reference 
to the reproductive functions. Men and women to 
whom literature is something real and deeply re- 
lated to life itself, will prefer to know the old drar 
matists as they are, or not know them at all. 

A NEW series, entitled " Heroes of the Nations," 
published by Messrs. Putnam's Sons, and edited by 
Evelyn Abbott of Balliol College, begins with " Nel- 
son," by Clark Russell. The choice of this biog- 
rapher for Nelson is as happy as that of Forbes for 
Havelock. Clark Russell is, after Hermann Mel- 
ville, the one writer of seartales whose searlore never 
fails him, for even Fenimore Cooper and Maryatt 
write occasionally like land-lubbers. Russell is thor- 
oughly saturated with the sea, and has, moreover, 
a most attractive style. His " Nelson " is a book 
that any boy will thrill over, and that any mature 
mind may read to advantage. This portraiture of 
England's greatest naval commander is written in a 
discerning and discriminating spirit, and furnishes 
us, consequently, not a made-up book, but a genuine 
contribution to biographical literature. Not only 
are we shown the large and noble nature of the man 
who was beloved by everybody, from colleague to 
Jack Tar, but the military traits which made him 
the g^at admiral are brought out forcibly in the 
narrative of his sea-fights, as well as summed up in 
the statement that "his great theory of warfare 
consisted in swiftness of resolution, in dashing at 
the enemy, in getting alongside of him, as close as 
channels or yard-arms would permit, and in firing 
until he struck or was annihilated." Much of the 
rodomontade which the legend-makers have put 
into the mouth of Nelson is summarily disposed of, 
while the one blot on his character — ^the intrigue 
with Lady Hamilton — is handled in a sound and 
manly manner. The pretty and appropriate initial 
and tail pieces of each chapter, the full-page illus- 



trations, the paper beautiful in quality and tint, the 
broad mar^ns, and the excellent typography, all 
combine with the matter and the manner to make 
this a delightful book to soul and to sense. 

What a happy collocation : a life of Havelock 
by Archibald Forbes — the ideal soldier pictured by 
the ideal .war reporter! Had Archibald Forbes 
been bom somewhat earlier, instead of riding with 
Grourko at Shipka Pass and with Skobeleff at Plevna, 
he would have been with Salkeld at the Delhi Grate 
and with Havelock at the Bailey Guard of Luck- 
now. We have in this latest life of Havelock (Mac- 
millan's " English Men of Action") the best because 
the truest. As the book contains the only authen- 
tic portrait published, so it shows us for the first 
time Havelock the fighting man just as men of ac- 
tion saw him and knew him. We do not disparage 
his former biographers when we say that it needed 
an old campaigner to estimate him at his true worth, 
to strip from his portraiture a certain sentimental- 
ized gloss which has somewhat concealed his true 
features, and to put before the public this superb 
portrayal of " the old saint," who " held fast by his 
earnest piety through evil as through good report," 
of whom it is further said : " Hoping against hope 
through the years, his hair had whitened, his fine 
regular features had sharpened, and the small spare 
figure had lost the suppleness though not the erect- 
ness of its prime ; but his eye had not waxed dim ; 
neither, at sixty-two, and after forty-two years of 
soldiering, thirty-four of which were Indian service, 
was his natural force abated. He was the man of 
greatest military culture then in India." As one 
reads again the story of Havelock's heroic " relief " 
the blood thrills anew, for the admirable style of 
this master of narrative English was never better 
displayed than in this little sketch. 



Books of the Month. 



[The folloyfing list includes ail books received by The Dial 
during the month of July, 1890,] 

LITERARY MISCELLANY-BIOGRAPHY. 

The Gorreepondenoe and Public Papers of John Jay, 
First Chief-Justioe of the United States, etc., etc. 1763- 
1781. Edited by Henry P. Johnston, A. M. In Four 
Volumes. Vol. 1. Royal 8vo, pp. 461. Uncut. Gilt 
top. O. P. Putnam's Sons. $5.00. 

Patriotic Addressee in America and England, from 1850 to 
1885, on Slayery, the Civil War. and tne Development of 
Civil Liberty m the United States. By Henry Ward 
Beeoher. Edited, with a Review of Mr. Beecher's Per^ 
sonal Influence in Public Affairs, by John R. Howard. 
With Frontispeioe Portrait. 8vo, pp. 857. D. Lothrop 
Co. 82.00. 

The Collected Wrltlncrs of Thomas De Qulncey. By 
David Masson. New and Enlarged Edition, In 14 Vols. 
Vols. VIII. and IX., SpecuUtive and Theological Es- 
says; Political Economy and Politics. 16mo. illustrat- 
ed. Uncut. MacmUbin<&Co. Per Vol., $1.25. 

Views and Reviews. Essays in Appreciation. By W. £. 
Henley. 18mo, pp. 235. Qilt top. Uncut. Charles 
Soribner's Sons. $1.00. 

Northern Studies. By Edmund Gosse. 16mo, pp. 268. 
Uncut. A. Lovell & Co. 40 cents. 



, igitized by 



Google 



98 



THE DIAL 



[Aug., 



Boston UziltarianlBm. 1820-1850. A Stnd;^ df the Life 
and Work of Nathaniel Langdon Frothingham. Bv 
Octayins Brooks Frothingham. 12rao, pp. 272. G. P. 
Patnam's Sods. $1.75. 

Dictionary of National Blosrraphy. Edited by Leslie 
Stephen and Sidney Lee. Vol. XXIII. Grav — Haigh- 
ton. Large 8vOt PP* 4^* Oilt top. Macmillan & Co. 
$3.76. 

Marie Antoinette and the End of the Old Regime. By 
Imbert de Saint-Amand. Translated by Thomas Ser- 
geant Perry. With Frontispiece Portrait. 12mo, pp. *KK). 
Charles Soribner's Sons. $1 .25. 

Lord Clive. By Colonel Sir Charles Wilson. IGmo, pp. 221. 
Macmillan^s "" English Men of Action.^' 60 cents. 

FICTION, 

The Aztec Treasure-House. A Romance of Conteraporar 
neons Antiquity. By Thomas A. Janvier. Illustrated. 
12mo, pp. 446. Harper & Brothers. $1.50. 

Snap: A Legend of the Lone Mountain. By C. Phillips 
WooUey, author of ^^Sport in the Crimea and Caucasus.'^ 
Illustrated. 12mo, pp. 310. ■ Longmans, Green, & Co. 

$1.50. 

The Blind Musician. By Vladimir Korolenko. Translated 
from the Russian by Aline Delano. With an Introduc- 
tion by George Kennan and Illustrations by Edmund H. 
Garrett. 16mo, pp. 244. Uncut. Little, Brown, A Co. 
$1.50. 

Armorel of Lyonesee. A Romance of To-Day. By Wal- 
ter Besant, author of *' For Faith and Freedom.** Dlus- 
trated. 12mo, pp. 396. Harper A Brothers. $1.25 ; 
Pai>er, 50 cents. 

With the Best Intentions: A Midsummer Episode. Bv 
Marion Harland. 16mo, pp. 303. Charles ScribnerVi 
Sons. $1.00. 

Hermit Island. By Katherine Lee Bat«s, author of the 
$1000 Prize Story ''Rose and Thorn.*' Illustrated. 12nio, 
pp. 346. D. Lothrop Co. $1.25. 



The Story of an JJgly Woman. By 



Bella's Blue-Book: 

Marie Calm. Translated from the German by Mrs. 
W. Davis. Illustrated. 12mo, pp. 301. Uncut. Wor- 
thington Co. $1.25. 

The Bank Tra«redy. By Mair R. P. Hatch. With Frontr 
ispiece. 12mo, pp. 427. Welch, Fracker Co. 

All Sorts and Conditions of Men. An Impossible Story. 
By Walter Besant, author of *' For Faith and for Free- 
dom.** Illustrated. 8vo, pp. 412. Paper. Harper's 
''Franklin Square Library.** 50 cents. 

Katy of Oatoctin. By George Alfred Townsend, author of 
"The Entailed Hat.** 16mo, pp. 567. Appleton*s " Town 
and Country Library.** 50 cents. 

Throckmorton. A Novel. By Molly Elliot Seawell. 16mo. 
pp. 304. Appleton*B "Town and Country Library.'^ 
50 cents. 

Written in Bed ; or. The ConspinMv in the North Case. (A 
Story of Boston.) By Charles Howard Montasue and C. 
W. Dyer. 16mo, pp. 3^35. Paper. Cassell Publishing 
Co. 50 cents. 

An Artlst-s Honor. Translated by £. P. Robins from the 
French of Octave Feuillet, author of "The Romance of a 
Poor Young Man.** 16mo, pp. 264. Paper. Cassell 
Publishing Co. 50 cents. 

Pearl-Powder. A Novel. By Annie Edwards. 12mo, 
pp. 414. Paper. Lippincott*s "Select Novels.** 50 
cents. 

Lucie's Mistake. By W\ Heimburg. Translated by Mrs. 
J. W. Davis. Illustrated. 12mo, pp. :J04. Paper. Woi- 
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Were They Sinners? By Charles J. Bellamy, author of 
"An Experiment in Marriage.** 12mo, pp. 219. "Auth- 
or's Library.** Author*8 Publishing Co. 50 cents. 

JUVENILE, 

Five Little Peppers Midway. A Sequel to " Five Little 
Peppers and How They Grew.'* By Margaret Sidney, 
author of "Our Town.** Illustrated. 12mo, pp. 512. 
D. Lothrop Co. $1.50. 



POETEY. 

The Findiner of the Gnosis, or Apotheosis of an Ideal. An 

Interior Life-Drama. Authorized Version. 16mo, pp. 

74. Occult Publishing Co. 50 cents. 
Shadows and Ideals. Poems by Francis S. Saltus. With 

Portrait. 8vo, pp. 366. Uncut. Gilt top. C. W. Moul- 

ton. 

TRA V EL- ADVENTURE, 

In and Out of Central Americct, and other Sketches of 
Study and Travel. By Frank Vincent, author of "Around 
and About South America.** With Maps and Illustra- 
tions. 12mo, pp. 246. D. Appleton <& Co. 82.00. 

A Social Departure. How Orthodocia and I Went Round 
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Illustrated. 12mo, pp. 417. D. Appletou A Co. $1.75. 

Madftgaflcar; or. Robert Drury*s Journal, during Fifteen 
Years of Captivity on that Island. With a Further De- 
scription of Madagascar by the Abb^ Alexis Rochon. 
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field Oliver, R. A., author of "Madagascar.** Illustrated. 
8vo, pp. 3i^. Uncut. Macmillan*s "Adventure Series.** 
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ED UCATION-TEXT-BOOES, 

Education in Alabama. 1702-1889. By Willis G. Cbrk. 
8vo, pp. 281. Paper. "American Educational History,*' 
No. 8. Government Printing: Office. 

Federal and State Aid to Hi£[her Education in the Uni- 
ted States. By Frank W. Blackmar, Ph.D. 8vo, pp. 
343. Paper. '^Am. Educational History,'* No 9. Gov- 
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The Directional Calculus. Baaed upon the Methods of 
Herman Graasmann. By E. W. Hyde. 8vo, pp. 247. 
Ginn A Co. $2.15. 

Lonerman'B School Geography for North America. By 
George G. Chishohn, M.A., B.Sc., and C. H. Leete, B.A. 
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Co. 81.25. 

The lieadinsr Facts of American History. By D. H. 
Montgomery. Illustrated. 12mo, pp. 402. Ginn A Co. 
81.10. 

Structural and Systematic Botany. For High Schools 
and Elementary College Courses. By Douglas Houghton 
CampheU, Ph.D. 16mo, pp. 253. Ginn <& Co. $1.15. 

Deutsche LiteratTirGreechichte. To A. D. 1100. For Uni- 
versities, Colleges, and Academies. By Carla Wencke- 
bach. 16mo, pp. 200. Paper. D. C. Heath A Co. 
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REFERENCE, 

Beforence Handbook for Readers, Students, and Teaohera 
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Bnerlish-Esklmo and Eakimo-Kngliah Vocabularies. 
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Office. 

ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL STUDIES, 

The Canal and the Railway, with a Note on the Develop- 
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James, Ph.D. With a Paper on Canals and their Eco- 
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A.M., C.E. 8vo, pp. 85. Paper. Publications Am. Eco- 
nomic A8s*n. 81 .00. 

Practical Sanitary and Economic Cookiner. Adapted 
to Persons of Moderate and Small Means. By Mrs. Mair 
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Ass*n. 40 cents. 

MISCELLANEO US. 

Harmony in Praise. Compiled and Edited by Mills Whit- 
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&Co. 81.05. 

ParalfiBa: The Fmding of Christ throudb Art ; or, Richard 
Wagner as Theologian. By Albert Ross Parsons. 8vo, 
pp. 113. G. P. Putnam*8 Sons. 81.00. 



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" In spite of the absurd claims advanced on the one 
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« We record with pleasure the completion of the tenth 
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« The Dial is the Journal de luxe among American 
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^ElV FICTION. 

With Fire and Sword. 

A U^ew Historical tf^ovel of great power and 
interest, now first translated from the orig- 
inal of HENRYK SIENKIEIVICZ by JERE- 
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Time : 1648-16^1. Crown 8vo, cloth, ^2.00. 

This Brilliant Romance Attbacts Attention 

£yEBTWHERE, AND IS UNIVERSALLY PrAISED 

BY THE Press. 

«« Wonderful in its strength and picturesqueness.'* — 
Boston Courier, 

" One of the most brilliant historical novels ever 
written." — Christian Union, 

**A romance which once read is not easily forgotten." 
Literary World. 

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« He exhibits the sustained power and sweep of nai^ 
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The BEGUM'S Daughter. 

By Edwin L. Btnner, author of « Agnes Surriage." 

Illustrated. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

An historical novel, founded upon early Dutch life in New 
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THE BLIND MUSICIAN. 

Translated from the Russian of Vladimir Korolknko, 
by Aline Delano, with an Introduction by George 
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' cloth, gilt top, 81.25. 

"He has succeeded marvellously." — Stepniak. 

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" Hard indeed would be the heart not reached and touched 

by this idyllic narrative. ... * The Blind Musician^ well 

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Five Hundred Dollars, 

AND OTHER STORIES OF NEW ENGLAND 
LIFE. By Heman White Chaplin. New Edi- 
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" Come and take choice of all my Lihrary, and so bes^ule 
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A GREAT NATIONAL WORK. 

Tbe Library of American Literature 

By E. C. Stedman and E. M. Hutchinson. 

WAsmNQTON, Dec. 20, 18B9. 
I do not see how any school in America can spare this work 
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The " Library of American Literature" is an admirable 
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Yale University, Apr. 24, 1890. 

Prices and Terms fixed within the reach of all. Send fob 
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EXPATRIATION. 

A TALE OF ANGLOMANIACS. By the author of " Akistocracy." 12mo. 
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WHAT THE PRESS SAYS OF ^'ARISTOCBACYr 

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anonymous skit called < Aristoci*acy.' " 

The Tribune says : << This is undoubtedly an amusing book." 
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/// the Town and Country Library: 

Throckmorton. 

By Molly Elliot Sea well. Paper cover, 
price, 50 cents ; specially bound in cloth, 
price, $1.00. 

A new American Novell presenting a strong 
study of contrasting characters, by an author 
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ground — the Virginia of the years immediately 
following the war. 



An Unconventional Travel-'^ook. 

A SOCIAL Departure: 

How Orthodocia and I went Hound the World, 
by Ourselves. By Sarah Jeannette Dun- 
can. With 112 Illustrations. 12mo, cloth, 
price, f 1.75. 

<< The reader who does not have < a good time ' over 
< A Social Departure' must have a blunted appreciation 
of fun and pluck. There is not a dull page in it. The 
story is told with wonderful dash and cleverness, and 
the illustrations are as good as the text." — Scotsman. 



THE WHITE MOUNTAINS. 

A GUIDE TO THEIR INTERPRETATION. With a Map of the Mountains and Ten 
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Mr. Ward has spent his summer vacations in the White Mountains for several yeai-s, and 
has entered deeply into their life and meaning. This book is both a guide to a better knowl- 
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In and Out of central 
America; 

And Other ^Sketches and ^Studies of Travel, 
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and About 'South America," etc. With 
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'< Few living travellers have had a literary success 
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Internatbnal Education Series. 

Edited by William T. Harris, A.M., LL.D., 
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VOL. XV. 

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EDUCATIONAL. 



JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY. 

Baltimobb, MaBTIiAITD. 

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For Young Ladies and Children. Sixteenth year begins 
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"TO AUTHORS.— The New York Bureau of Revmion 
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THERE'S NO SECRET 

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"ACROSS THE JINDES." 

Describes aioumey made in January, 1890, along: the line of 
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PORT TARASCON : The Last Adventures of the Ii/- 
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RECENT DISCOVERIES op PAINTED GREEK SCULP- 
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HARVARD UNIVERSITY IN 1890. By Charles Eliot 
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THE BfETRIC SYSTEM. By H. W. Richardson. 

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16mo, cloth, ornamental, $1.00. 

^ A story of humble life in an Italian fishing village, dealing 

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MARIA : A South American Romance. By Jorge 
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THE BEGINNINGS OF NEW ENGLAND; 
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THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCE. In the 

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SAMUEL ADAMS DRAKE'S 'BEAUTIFUL S^E^V 'BOOK: 

THE PINE TREE COAST. 

DESCRIBING and illustrating the peerless scenery, quaint old seaports, and romantic story of the 
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/ vol., 8vo, cloth, gilt, unique stamping, . f^.oo 
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A Didtionary of Music and Musicians. 

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Digitized by V:iOOQIC 



THE DIAL 



Vol. XI. SEPTEMBER, 1890. No. 125. 



COXTENT8. 

A MODERN ROMAN. John J. Ilcdsey HI 

THE PROBLEM OF THE NORTHMEN AND THE 

SITE OF NORUMBEOA. Ju/tiM E. Olson . . 112 

NEW VIEWS OF RUSSIA. Auhertine Woodward 

Moore 115 

THE DARK PROBLEM OF THE DARK CONTI- 
NENT. JatMs F. Clckflin 117 

BRIBES ON NEW BOOKS 119 

Nettle»bip'8 The EsBays of Mark Pattiaon.-- Koro- 
lenko's The Blind Muliician.— Asa Turner and His 
Timee.— James's The Federal Constitution of Switi- 
erland.— Wilson's State and Federal GoTemments of 
the United States.— Chester's Girls and Women.— 
Perry's Sainl^Amand's The Happy Days of the^Em- 
press Biarie Louise. 

ANNOUNCEMENTS OF FALL BOOKS 121 

BOOKS OF THE MONTH 126 



A Modern Roman.* 



John Jay was the serenest personage of our 
Revolutionary period. The short clear-cut de- 
cided name is a fitting symbol for the man 
whom old John Adams called " a Roman." 
He has come down to us as ^^ a cold austere 
man, with all the classic virtues, but also with 
much of classic remoteness from ordinary hu- 
manity.'' Mr. Pellew's life of his great-grand- 
father reveals the warm friendships and devoted 
home-life of this publicly imperturbable man, 
and yet only fortifies the conviction that John 
Jay was unique among the fathers of the re- 
public in equanimity, " deliberate valor," and 
absolute poise of character. Next to Wash- 
ington and Hamilton, no man's services to the 
young nation were more important than Jay's, 
whether as Revolutionary leader, member of 
the State Constituent Convention, President 
of the Continental Congress, Secretary for For- 
eigjn Affairs, envoy to foreign courts, or Chief 
Justice of our Supreme Court. In the earlier 

*ThK COBBX8FOia>ENCE AITD PuBUC PaPBBS OF JoHN 

Jat. Edited hy Henry P. Johnston. In Four Volumes. Vol. 
I. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

JoHK Jat. By George Pellew. ''American Statesmen'* 
Series. Boston : Houghton, Mifflin'^ Co. 



days he did much to stimulate and hold* his na- 
tive state to an energetic and patriotic course, 
while his essentially legal mind made him con- 
.servative in theory as in conduct, whether he, 
as a member of the revolutionary Committee 
of Safety, was handling recalcitrant Tories, or 
in the State Convention was drafting that Con- 
stitution which has been designated by a high 
authority as ^^ essentially the model of the na- 
tional government under which we live." As 
a member of the Continental Congress, he was 
the one above all others to whom such large- 
minded statesmen as Robert Morris, Edward 
Rutledge, Hamilton, and Washington looked 
and wrote, as not only the coolest head and 
sincerest patriot in that body, but as the man 
of soundest judgment, deepest insight, and 
largest influence for the nation's welfare. As 
a negotiator of the peace with England, his in- 
flexible and calm determination in the face of 
Spanish g^ed, French neglect, and English 
obstinacy, won terms which aroused wonder 
and admiration not only at the French court 
but even in England. His famous treaty of 
1794 was but the codicil to the former one, 
and was remarkably favorable to the United 
States, which at that time could sue but not 
dictate. By his decision, as Chief Justice, in the 
famous case of Chisholm vs. State of Georgia, 
he forever introduced into practical poUtics the 
doctrine of the national sovereignty, and laid 
the foundation on which John Marshall built 
for a third of a century. 

All this is familiar history, yet the printed 
evidence for it at first hand has hitherto been 
largely confined to a limited selection from 
Jay's papers, long since out of print, and there- 
fore costly in proportion to its completeness. 
Every student of history is a debtor to Profes- 
sor Johnston and his publishers for this beau- 
tiful edition of Jay's papers, to be completed 
in four octavo volumes uniform in style with 
the recent editions of Hamilton, Franklin, and 
Washington. One could wish that the pub- 
lishers had put as substantial a backing on the 
Jay and the Washington as on the Hamilton, 
but aside from this slight defect the volumes 
are a luxury to the eye. This first volume of 
the Jay papers is brought down oplj to the 
beginning of 1781, yet one may form a fair 
estimate of the man from its varied contents — 
pronunciamentos, state papers, briefs^-Qf na- ^ 

_._._. Google 



112 



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[Sept., 



tional policy, letters to and from the fathers 
of the republic, intermingled with affectionate 
epistles to near relatives and wife. Probably 
the most interesting contents are the official 
notes of Jay's ingenuous and naive confer- 
ence with the Spanish minister, Count Florida 
Blanca, and the famous letter from Washing- 
ton to Jay in regard to the Gates cabal, with. 
Jay's reply. The Washington letter is now 
for the first time published just as its writer 
penned it, for Mr. Ford's volumes have not 
yet reached that date. We could wish that 
Professor Johnston had given us certain im- 
portant letters not here published, such as the 
one in reference to the scene in Congress over 
the Deane imbroglio, which brought Jay to 
the presiding chair of that body, and those of 
March 5 and 17, 1779, so charming as revelar 
tions of the tender relations of his home life. 
But the editor had the difficult task of selec- 
tion from a treasure-house before him, and has 
managed to give us a rich collection. 

Mr. Pellew writes for us an appreciative 
sketch of his great ancestor. Apparently he 
is " to the manner born," for he writes himself 
down a '^ mugwump," and undertakes to show 
that his worthy grandsire was an olden type 
to this nineteenth century antitype. We are 
glad to have so good a memoir of Jay, for the 
book sets forth in convenient and acceptable 
form his characteristics as a conservative Whig 
leader, a Revolutionary leader, a constructive 
statesman, as presiding officer of Congi*ess, 
governor, diplomatist, and jurist. Nearly a 
third of the pages is wisely given to the import- 
ant peace negotiations after the war, and Mr. 
Pellew vmdicates against Sparks and Cabot 
Lodge Jay's conduct in these negotiations. He 
clearly shows him, not as an obstructionist and 
meddler coming in at a late hour to upset the 
negotiations so nearly completed by Franklin, 
but rather as a leader of his venerable colleague 
in independence and assertion, and as solely 
responsible for the conclusion which was so fa- 
vorable to the United States that '^ De Ver- 
gennes wrote to Rayneval that the English had 
rather bought a peace than made one, and that 
their concessions exceeded anything he had be- 
lieved possible ; and Rayneval replied that the 
treaty seemed to him like a dream." 

Some matters remain for criticism. The au- 
thor has written Zwengler for Zenger on page 
18, and Rhode for Long Island on page 83 ; 
on page 310 we find pavilion is misspelled paj)- 
illon^ with a very funny effect ; and on page 
289, 17S^J should be 179J. We think the 



writer would be puzzled to find the passes 
" between the Hudson and Albany" spoken of 
on page 62. To speak of Count Florida Blanca 
in 1780 as "the clever young diplomat" is 
hardly fair to the fifty-two years of worldly 
experience of that wily courtier. Nor is it fair 
to Jay, in discussing his financial letter to the 
States in 1779, to say : " It stated simply the 
causes of depreciation, which was held in this 
case to be artificial^ or due to lack of confidence 
in the government, and not natural [or] due 
to excessive issue." (It has been necessary to 
amend Mr. Pellew's English to make it clear.) 
What Jay said in his letter was : " The depre- 
ciation of bills of credit is always either natu- 
ral, or artificial, or both. The latter is our 
case." Here, evidently, latter refers back to 
both. Jay goes on to discuss the rationale of 
a natural depreciation from an inflated circu- 
lation, and then adds : ^' The artificial depre- 
ciation is a more serious subject, and merits 
minute investigation." This depreciation he 
lays to the charge of loss of confidence. We 
do not defend his distinction. We only ask 
for correct citation. j^,,^ j^ Halsey. 



The Problem of the Xorthmen axi> 
THE Site of Xorumbega.* 



In 1888, Mr. Horsford published a work 
entitled, * 'Disco veiy of America by Northmen : 
Address at the Unveiling of the Statue of Leif 
Erikson, Delivered in Faneuil Hall October 
29, 1887." Against this work Justin Winsor 
quotes Bancroft's opinion that ** though Scan- 
dinavians may have reached the shores of Lab- 
rador, the soil of the United States has not one 
vestige of their pi'esence." This, Mr. Winsor 
adds, " is as true now as when first written." 
Concerning this same work, Mr. Winsor says in 
his " Nan*ative and Critical History of Amer- 
ica ": 

<* Nothing could be slenderer than the alleged corre- 
spondences of lang^iages ; and we can see in Horsford's 
* Discovery of America by Northmen * to what a fanci- 
ful extent a confident enthusiasm can carry it. . . . 
The most incautious linguistic inferences, and the most 
uncritical cartographical perversions, are presented by 
Eben Norton Horsford. "—[Vol. I., page 98.] 

* The Probl£M of the Northmen : A lietter to Judge 
Daly, the President of the American Geographical Society. 
By Eben Norton Horsford. Boston: Houghton, MifSin A 
Co. 

The Discovery of the Ancient Crrsr of Nobumbboa : 
A Communication to the President and Council of the Amer- 
ican Geographical Society, at their Special Sesnon in Water> 
town, November 21, 1889. By Eben Norton Horsford. Boston: 
Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 



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It is to these words of Mr. Winsor, together 
with the opinion of a committee of the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society, adverae to the plan 
of erecting a monument to Leif Erikson, that 
Mr. Horsford replies in his brochure entitled, 
'' The Problem of the Northmen." Mr. Hors- 
ford believes, and thinks he can prove, that 
the Northmen were as far south as Massachu- 
setts. New England historical writers on this 
subject are still groping in the dark, for as a 
matter of fact Mr. Bancroft, Mr. Winsor, the 
committee of the Massachusetts Historical So- 
ciety, and Mr. Horsford, are all wrong. Mr. 
Bancroft is not an authority on this question. 
He is not familiar with the Vinland sagas, or 
he would not have set them aside as ^^ mytho- 
logical " — a most inappropriate word. Mr. 
Winsor is incomparably better equipped to 
render an opinion, and ought not to have given 
his readers an opportunity for thinking that 
he too believed with Mr. Bancroft that the 
Northmen reached no further south than Lab- 
rador. Here Mr. Horsford scores a point 
against Mr. Winsor. It is to be regretted that 
Mr. Winsor has not obtained for his monu- 
mental work on American history the latest re- 
.sults of Scandinavian scholarship on the ques- 
tion of the Norse discoveries. Unfortunately, 
none of the New England scholars who have 
treated the subject have a knowledge of Old 
^orse, the language of the sagas. He who 
would speak with authority on this matter must 
have a comprehensive knowledge of Icelandic, 
or Old Norse, literature, and furthermore, he 
must, in his investigations, apply the compara- 
tive and critical methods of modern historical 
research. 

Kafn, the Danish antiquarian, in his ^^ An- 
tiquitates Americana;," published in 1837, was 
the first to collect the sagas and fragments re- 
lating to the Vinland voyages, and, although 
unfortunate, it is not very strange that he did 
not thoroughly understand his materials. If 
he had understood them, the question of the 
Norse discoveries in America would have been 
settled, and there would have been no provoca- 
tion for Mr. Winsor to say : 

« The more these details are scanned in the different 
sagas, the more they confuse the investigator; and the 
more successive relators try to enlighten us, the more 
our doubts are strengthened, till we end with the con- 
viction that all attempts at consistent enravelment leave 
nothing but a vague sense of something somewhere 
done." 

Mr. Winsor would have been wise had he given 
more prominence to Rev. Edmund F. Slafter's 
opinion as found in his introduction to " Voy- 



ages of the Northmen to America," which, 
though brief, is the most scholarly presentation 
of this subject in the English language. He 
says that an investigation of the question makes 
it "easy to believe that the narratives con- 
stained in the sagas are true in their general 
outlines and important features." Higginson's 
" Larger History of the United States " also 
has a very excellent chapter on the Norse dis- 
coveries. 

Before completing his " Antiquitates Amer- 
icanse " Rafn had considerable correspondence 
with American scholars, and hence the result 
of his labors was awaited with great interest. 
Higginson says : 

« I can well remember, as a boy, the excitement pro- 
duced among Harvard College professors when the pon- 
derous volume called Antiquitates AmericaruB, contain- 
ing the Norse legends of ^Vinland,' with the translations 
of Professor Rain, made its appearance on the library 
table." 

This is sufficient to show that the work received 
attention. The subject was not treated with in- 
difference among scholars except by a few who 
" shrank from the innovation." The American 
mind was in a mood to be convinced. Hence, 
the fact that considerable doubt still prevails 
is not so much the fault of American as of 
Northern scholars, especially Rafn. He claimed 
too much, not only in regard to the Newport 
tower and the Dighton Writing Rock, but also 
for the Old Norse records. He took for granted 
that all the sagas and fragments which refer to 
the Vinland voyages are reliable except in some 
minor points, — a view which modem historical 
scholarship has shown to be untenable. There 
is a saga that gives a simple and trustworthy 
account of these expeditions, but it took care- 
ful study to determine which saga contained 
the original story. A rolling stone gathers no 
moss, but a rolling story (if I may use the ex- 
pression) gathers details and gains embellish- 
ments. This is what the Vinland story did. 
Unfortunately, Rafn gave the first place in 
his work to the variants instead of to the sim- 
ple unadorned tale. And even of this he did 
not print what is now considered far the best 
text. 

Space forbids my attempting to give in this 
review the result of the latest researches in this 
field. This much, however, may be stated : In 
the year 1000, Leif Erikson, on a voyage from 
Norway to Greenland, was driven out of his 
course and discovered the American continent. 
That part of the continent which he called Vin- 
land there are excellent rea.sons for believing | 

-igitizedby _ _ ..^^VlC 



114 



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[Sept., 



was the peninsula of Nova Scotia. He collected 
various specimens of the products of the coun- 
try and proceeded to Greenland, where his story 
of the new land induced others to visit it. Those 
who naade the first attempt were unsuccessful ; 
but in 1003, Thoi-finn Karlsevne, with three 
ships and one hundred and forty men, found 
the land and remained there about three years. 
On account of troublesome natives and internal 
discord, he left the country in the summer of 
1007. This is the barest outline of a saga 
which is not only of historic interest, but " a 
very charming story in itself, abounding in 
beautiful scenes and well-told incidents," with 
a charm of style and beauty of diction which 
its variants and the various fragmentary ac- 
counts do not possess. 

Mr.Horsford has undertaken to make a fina] 
settlement of this much-disputed question. He 
insists that he has found the exact spot where 
Leif and his successors landed. It is vain to 
be dogmatic in discussing the landfalls of early 
explorers. Mr. Horsford disregards the prin- 
cipal canons of criticism in this field of re- 
search, and asserts that Leif 's booths were on 
the Charles River near Boston. His writings, 
in their ^' wealth of cartographical adornment 
and sumptuousness of page," at first throw one 
off his guard, but it is not necessary to read 
far before it becomes evident that on points 
where there is occasion for deep shadings of 
doubt Mr. Horsford is dogmatic, and that his 
acquaintance with the literature of the subject 
is superficial. A careful perusal of his three 
published works will scarcely leave any doubt 
in the mind of anyone conversant with this 
question that the author's conclusions are thor- 
oughly unreliable. It is necessary to say this, 
eager though one may be to find legitimate 
fruits of such commendable enthusiasm as Mr. 
Horsford displays in his studies. 

" The Problem of the Northmen " is, in the 
1, a defense of the author's methods of 



mam. 



studying geographical problems. He speaks 
of having found Leif 's landing-place, and cou- 
ples this claim with the solution of another dis- 
puted question in American history : the site 
of Fort Norumbega. He says : 

« The site of Koriunbega was first found in the liter- 
ature of the subject, and when I had eliminated every 
douht of the locality that I coidd find, I drove with a 
friend through a region I had never hefore visited, of 
the topography of which I knew nothing, nine miles 

away, directly to the remains of the Fort 

In a certain sense there was in this discovery the fulfil- 
ment of a prophecy. On the basis of the literature 
of the subject, I had predicted the finding of Fart Nor- 



umbega at a particular spot. I went to the spot and 
found it.*' 

The memorials that the author claims to 
have found are the remains of two long log- 
houses and some huts, together with the re- 
mains of some fish-pits and dams. It is Mr. 
Winsor's opinion that a trading-post and fort 
were erected there by the French in the early 
part of the sixteenth century. The subject of 
these remains, alluded to in the ^^ Problem of 
the Northmen," Mr. Horsford treats in detail 
in his last work, " The Discovery of the An- 
cient City of Norumbega." The author says 
that there have always been before the world 
certain grand geographical problems ; among 
them these : Where were Vinland and Norum- 
bega ? He solves both problems with one deft 
stroke : Yinland and Norumbega are identical ! 

To commemorate the alleged discovery, Mr. 
Horsford has erected, at his own expense, at 
Watertown, near the mouth of Stony Brook 
(a tributary of the Charles), an antique stone 
tower. This, he thinks, will invite criticism, 
excite interest in that field of archseological 
investigation, and finally allay that skepticism 
which would deprive Massachusetts of th6 gloiy 
of holding the landfall of Leif Erikson, and of 
being the seat of the earliest colony of Euro- 
peans in America. 

Mr. Horsford locates Vinland f i-om the terms 
in the sagas, which, he says, are as descriptive 
as a chart. He contends that Norumbega is a 
corruption of Norbega or Norvega. The Indi- 
ans, among whom the Norwegians came, could 
not, he says, utter the sound of 6 without put- 
ting the sound of m before it. Hence Norbega 
became Nor'mbega. 

To show that this theory is utterly untenable, 
it is simply necessary to call attention to the 
fact that the name of the country we call Nor- 
way nowhere occurs in Scandinavian literature, 
ancient or modern, in. the form Noriega. It 
has neither a 6 nor an a. The form Norvegi' 
is found, but is not common. In all the sagas, 
including all variants and fragments, that make 
mention of the Vinland voyages, the word for 
Norway invariably appears in the form of Nor- 
egr, without even a r. 

Here is another argument which Mr. Hors- 
ford adduces to support his theory : 

" The people of Norway settling in a newly diaoov- 
ered country claimed the sovereignty of that country. 
Vinland belonged to Norway, — ^that is, Norbega." 

Such statements as these sorely try one's pa- 
tience. Leif Erikson and Thoiinn Karlsevne 
were natives of Iceland, independent inhabit- 

_ igitized by _ _ _ __ 



1890.] 



THE DIAL 



115 



ants of an independent country which did not 
become subject to Norway till 1263. No Nor- 
wegian king ever claimed the sovereignty of 
Vinland. 

In Winsor's " Narrative and Critical His- 
tory of America," the question of Norumbega 
is treated by Kev. Benjamin F. De Costa, who 
has also written the story of " The Lost City 
of New England," the very title of which would 
seem to show that his search for it has been 
confined to New England. He thinks that 
Norumbega was on the Penobscot, concerning 
which theory there are the gravest doubts, but 
he confesses his inability to offer any clue as 
to the origin of the term. In his own words : 
"Perhaps the explanation of the word does 
not lie so far away as some suppose, though 
the study of the subject must be attended with 
great care." Following this suggestion, one 
would naturally suppose the name to be French, 
for it was used by French writers before the 
English settled in America (1607). The ear- 
liest reference, according to De Costa, is on a 
map of 1529. 

Neither De Costa nor Horsford seem to have 
heard of the explanation offered by Weise in 
his " Discoveries of America to 1525," pub- 
lished in 1884. He thinks that Norumbega is 
a corruption of the French words Anomiee 
Berge^ and that they were applied to the Pal- 
isades on the Hudson. The country of the 
Palisades would then have been La Terre 
D^Anormee Berge. Anorme is an obsolete 
form of the adjective enorme^ and signifies that 
which is vast or grand ; the noun herge means 
an elevated border of a river, a scarp of a for- 
tification, rocks elevated perpendicularly above 
the water. There are various forms of the 
word Norumbega. On a terrestrial globe made 
by Mercator in 1541 he has Anorumbega ; on 
a map made about the year 1548 for King 
Henry II. of France we find Anorohagra ; and 
the French explorer Laudonniere (1564) uses 
the words Terre de Norumherge^ which looks 
suspiciously like Terre U Anortnee Berge, Mr. 
Weise thinks that the writings of the earlier 
French explorers uphold him, and he gives 
many interesting quotations from them in sup- 
port of his theory. I notice that Mr. Horsford 
also quotes some of the same French authori- 
ties, — very recklessly, however. He quotes 
Thevet as saying : " To the north of Virginia 
is Norumbega, which is well known as a beau- 
tiful city and a great river." He does not give 
the ori^nal French. The sentence condemns 
itself, however, as Thevet, who was in America 



in 1556 (which date Horsford also gives), could 
not have spoken of Virginia^ a name that was 
applied much later than 1556. The date of 
the First Charter is 1606, and Elizabeth, the 
virgin queen, in whose honor the country was 
named, did not begin her i*eign untill 1558. 
Thevet did not speak of a beautiful city^ but a 
beautiful river, " A river presents itself, one 
of the beautiful rivers that are in the world, 
which we named Norombegue, and the Indians 
Aggoncy, and which is marked on some marine 
charts as Grande river." 

It would seem that Mr. Weise's explanation 
is worthy of consideration. We commend his 
book to the careful perusal of Mr. Horsford. 

Julius E. Olson. 



New Views of Russia.* 

No two books could fall into the reviewer's 
hands better calculated to supplement each 
other than MorftU's "Story of Russia" and 
Emilia Pardo Bazan's " Russia : Its People 
and Its Literature." The first-named volume 
gives an outline of Russian history from " the 
development of the little Grand Duchy of Mus- 
covy, in the fifteenth century, to the present 
mighty empire with its hundred million inhab- 
itants." While not attempting to conceal the 
darker shades of the picture, the writer has 
endeavored to avoid drawing his sketch from 
a purely English standpoint. He says in his 
Preface : 

« There is nothing political about my book. I have 
simply told the truth as it appeared to me. I have 
treated Russia as an important element in the national- 
ities of the world, a country of great solidarity and 
strength, whatever may have been said to the contrary.'^ 

Mr. Morfill bears the title of ^^ Reader in the 
Russian and Slavonic Languages" in the Uni- 
versity of Oxford. He is the author of a work 
on " Slavonic Literature," of " A Simplified 
Grammar of the Serbian Language," and of 
^^A Grammar of the Russian Language." His 
philological labors have trained him well in 
the art of condensation, and his attempt to 
condense the leading facts in the public rec- 
ords of a country embracing one-sixth of the 
habitable globe, and a period of more than one 
thousand years, within the limits of a duodecimo 
story-book, is most gracefully accomplished. 

•The Story of Russia. By W. R. MorfiU, M.A. New 
York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

Russia : Its People and Its Literature. By Emilia Pardo 
Basin. Translated from the Spanish, by Fanny Hale Gardi- 
ner. Chicago : A. C. McCluiy & Go. 



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[Sept., 



His story is what it aims to be — something more 
than a mere compilation in the English language 
of other people^s stories. He has thoroughly 
studied the ¥rritings of Nestor, Karamzin, Kos- 
tomarov, and other Russian authorities almost 
wholly unread in this country, and illustrated 
the facts thus obtained and embodied in his 
pleasant narration by translations from the his- 
torical poems handed down by native chroni- 
clers and contemporary diaries. 

A book of this kind, with its pictures of 
peasants and royal personages, of tombs, coins, 
medals, and public buildings, and its maps of 
the Russian Empire before the time of Peter 
the Great and of the same empire in 1889, is 
most timely at the present moment, when the 
public mind is so thoroughly on the alert for 
light on Russia. It is a most agreeable intro- 
duction to the geography, ethnology, legendary 
lore, history, and literature of the land, and 
paves the way to a comprehension of its polit- 
ical and religious organizations, the condition 
of the Russian Church, and Russian dissent. 
Trifling errors in proof-reading or inconsisten- 
cies in the spelling of proper names, however 
much to be regretted, cannot seriously mar the 
value of the work to the reading public. 

There is certainly awakened by the book a 
desire for more knowledge of the life beneath 
the surface in this wonderful country ; and this 
we gain from the neat little volume by Doiia 
Bazan, presented to American readers in a 
most admirable English translation by Fanny 
Hale Gardiner. It may seem singular that we 
should go to Spain for information about Rus- 
sia, and that, too, from an author who has 
neither visited the country nor become ac- 
quainted with its language ; yet in reading her 
frank avowal of her lacks we are inspired with 
the belief that she has based her opinions upon 
solid foundations. 

Emilia Pardo Bazan, as we learn from the 
translator's interesting Preface, is a Spanish 
woman of well-known literary attainments, as 
well as wealth and position. Books were almost 
her sole pleasures in childhood, and at fourteen 
she was widely read in history, science, poetry, 
and fiction. During her wanderings with her 
father, who some years later was obliged to 
leave his country for political reasons, she 
learned French, English, and Italian, in order 
to read the literatures of those tongues, and 
plunged deep into German philosophy. In- 
spired finally by her reading and observation, 
she became a novel-writer herself, and success- 
fully called forth the first echoes of the French 



realist movement in Spain. Much of her life 
has been spent in association with men of mark. 
She became acquainted with Russia in Paris, 
the city where Turgenief sojourned that he 
might gain a clearer insight into his beloved 
country. She read everything written about 
Russia in the several languages with which she 
was familiar, and also all the best translations 
of the prominent productions of Russian liter- 
ature, besides associating herself with Russian 
authors and artists for the express purpose of 
noting their opinions. What she has thus 
acquired she gives her readers in a thoroughly- 
matured and well-digested form. 

Some of her conclusions are most ingenious 
and interesting to follow. In classifying Rus- 
sia among the nations of Europe, she says : 

<< There are two great peoples which have not yet 
placed their stones in the world's historic edifice. They 
are the great transatlantic republic and the colossal 
Sclayonic empire, — ^the United States and Russia. What 
artistic future awaits the young North American nation? 
That land of material civilization, free, happy, with 
wise and practical institutions, with splendid natural 
resources, with flourishing commerce and industries, 
that people so young yet so vigorous, has acquired ev- 
erything except the acclimatization in her vast and fer- 
tile territory of the flower of beauty in the arts and let- 
ters. Her literature, in which such names as Edgar 
Poe shine with a world-wide lustre, is yet a prolonga- 
tion of the English literature, and no more. What 
would that country not give to see within herself the 
glorious promise of that spirit which produced a Mur- 
illo, a Cervantes, a Goethe, or a Meyerbeer, while she 
covers with gold the canvases of the mediocre painters 
of Europe ! But that art and literature of a national 
character may be spontaneous, a people must pass 
through two epochs, — one, in which, by the process of 
time, the myths and heroes of earlier days assume a 
representative character, and the early creeds and aspi- 
rations, still undefined by reflection, take shape in pop- 
ular poetry and legend ; the other, in which, after a 
period of learning, the people arises and shakes off the 
outer crust of artificiality, and begins to build connci- 
entiously its own art upon the basis of its never-forgot- 
ten traditions. The United States was bom full-grown. 
It never passed through the cloud-land of myth ; it is 
utterly lacking in that sort of popular poetry which to- 
day we call folk-lore. But when a nation carries within 
itself this powerful and prolific seed, sooner or later 
this will sprout. . . . Russia is a complete proof 
of this truth." 

In treating of the ethnology and topography • 
of Russia, Doiia Bazan shows how a homoge- 
neous people has proceeded from various races 
and origins, and how geographical oneness su- 
perseding ethnological variety has created a 
moral unity stronger than aQ others. She 
shows how finally the Slav became the dominat- 
ing influence, not from numerical superiority, 
but because his character was more adaptable 
to European civilization. Her accounts of Rus- 

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THE DIAL 



117 



sian serfdom, Russian autocracy, the agrarian 
municipality, the social classes, nihilism, and 
the position of woman in Russia, all evince pro- 
found thought and keen judgment, as do also 
her delineations of Russian literature and the 
ehjuraeter of Russian authors. Occasionally we 
find her biased in a way that betrays the Span- 
ish Catholic, but in the main she proves her- 
self impartial. She gives a masterly analysis 
of the life and works of Tolstoi, whom she 
styles nihilist and mystic, of Dostoiewsky the 
psychologist, and of Turgenief the poet and 
artist, of whom she says that he loved his coun- 
try well enough to tell her the truth, and to 
warn her persistently and incessantly. In the 
conclusion of her final remarks on Russian 
realism, she writes : 

** RuBsia la an enigma ; let those solve it who can, — 
I Gould not. The Sphinx called to me ; I looked into 
the depths of her eyes, I felt the sweet and bewildering 
attraction of the unknown, I questioned her, and like 
the German poet I wait, with but moderate hope, for 
the answer to come to me, borne by voices of the ocean 
of Time." 

Having made the acquaintance of these two 
volumes, the reader will find himself ready to 
dip with fresh eagerness into the mysteries of 
such works as " The Truth About Russia " by 
W. T. Stead, "The Russian Church and Rus- 
sian Dissent" by Albert F. Heard, and the 
fascinating works of Stepniak, including his 
^'Underground Russia," and his new romance, 
** The Career of a Nihilist." He will enter 
with renewed interest into the tragedy of Rus- 
sian history as revealed by these ¥rritings and 
by the papers of George Kennan. He will be 
led to ponder deeply on the riddle propounded 
by the present political, social, and religious 
conditions of Russia. 

A new world of speculation must inevitably 
be called into being in any earnest mind that 
attempts to follow the career of General Igna- 
tief, the Russian Gladstone, and that of M. 
Pobedonestzeff, Procureur of the Holy Synod, 
who instituted a new reign of intolerance, and 
who has devoutly believed that the fate of the 
Tsar was dependent on that of the Orthodox 
Russian Church, which must be upheld on its 
lofty pedestal, even if it be as a lifeless body. 
The history and philosophy of Russian dissent 
and its treatment are awakening more and more 
attention. When we learn that the peaceful 
virtuous Stundists and PashkofiFski (followers 
of M. Pashkoff), whose sole offence is that they 
endeavor to benefit immoral and irreligious 
members of the orthodox church by inducing 
them to attend their Bible readings and prayer- 



meetings, are as liable to exile in Siberia as are 
the adherents of certain mystic and dangerous 
sects whose rites and ceremonies are often most 
offensive and indecent, we cease to marvel at 
the» vigorous fermentation in Russia. The hu- 
man soul revolts against injustice, political, re* 
ligious, or social ; and it seems reasonable to 
believe that Russia is on the eve of a great 
political, religious, and social change. 

AUBERTINE WOODWABD MOOBE. 



The Dark Probl.em of the Dark 
Continent.* 



« Mjr mission is to teach you three things — the moet 
important, the most sacred, the most indispensable which 
can be taught on earth ; — faith, which sustains and guides 
the life of man; hope, which consoles and' cheers him; 
charity, which renders his existence a source of happi- 
ness to himself and a benefit to others." 

These words are from the pastoral letter of 
Mgr. Lavigerie to his future flock, on taking 
possession of his Episcopal dignity when ap;: 
pointed to the See of Nancy in 1868 ; and they 
express as well, perhaps, as words can, the 
spirit of the man who devoted his whole life 
and labors to the service of humanity. Bom 
at Bayonne in 1825, ordained priest by special 
dispensation f roni Rome while under the canon- 
ical age of twenty-four, appointed Professor of 
Latin Literature in the House of Studies in 
1849, elevated to the chair of Ecclesiastical 
History in the Sarbonne in 1854, elected Direc- 
tor-General of the Society for the Promotion 
of Christian Education in the East in 1857, 
made Auditor of the Rota for France and do- 
mestic prelate to his Holiness in 1861, he be- 
came a member of the highest tribunal of the 
Roman court ; and in 1868, at the age of thir- 
ty-eight, he was created Bishop of the See of 
Nancy, and four years later Archbishop of Al- 
geria, where, by his faithful labors of fifteen 
years, he well earned and was rewarded with 
the red hat in 1882. These rapid promotions 
of an obscure youth are evidences no less of 
the discernment and high Christian purpose of 
the Catholic Church than of the superior abil- 
ity and profound consecration of Mgr. Lav- 
igerie. 

Passing over his eminent services in securing 
the rights of Christians in the East, and his 
efforts to promote a more liberal education in 
the See of Nancy, we cannot but pause to ad- 
mire the humanitarian work which he did in 

* Cardinal Layiokbie and the African Slave Trade. 
Edited by Richard F. Clarke, S.J., Trinity CoUege, Oxford. 
New York : Longmans, Gbeen, A Co. 



Digiti: 



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118 



THE DIAL 



[Sept., 



Algeria. Arriving there when more than five 
hundred thousand of the natives had heen swept 
away by the cholera and typhus fever, he found 
the country devoured by a famine horrible past 
description, and thousands of children penish- 
ing for the want of food and care. These he 
hastened to gather into orphanages, and ap- 
pealed to all Christendom for help to save their 
perishing bodies and educate their benighted 
minds. He rescued them from the wild and 
unthrifty habits of the Arabs, and trained them 
to lives of duty and industry. And when the 
French government, which had neglected the 
deserted waifs, had determined as a matter of 
state policy to return these children to the wan- 
dering tribes and remit them again to barbar- 
ism, Mgr. Lavigerie withstood Marshal Mc- 
Mahan, and even Napoleon III. himself, with 
a boldness and decision that they little expected 
to find in this gentle shepherd of lost lambs. 

When Mgr. Lavigerie entered Africa, it was 
with views that extended far beyond the con- 
fines of the French possessions there. It was 
in the apostolic frame of mind of the ancient 
fathers that he looked upon the ^' Dark Conti- 
nent." No sooner had he brought confusion 
out of disorder in Algeria and Tunis, than he 
l)egan to reach forth to the tribes to the west 
and south. He organized a society called ^^ The 
White Fathers of Algeria " — so named from 
the white robe they wore, — a band of mission- 
aries who sought martyrdom with the zeal of 
the ancients. No sooner were the members of 
one party slaughtered by the bloody natives 
than twice the number would spring forward 
to take their places. The opening up of Cen- 
tral Africa by the labors of Sir Samuel Baker, 
General Gordon, Livingstone, Stanley, and 
Emin Bey, inspired Mgr. Lavigerie with bound- 
less hope. He soon parcelled out the wild coun- 
try between Lakes Tanganyika and Nyanza 
and the upper waters of the Congo into apos- 
tolic vicariates, over which he appointed bish- 
ops, and heroic bands of priests were soon 
threading the jungles of Uganda, and proving 
to the world that these debased and down-trod- 
den negroes, hunted, captured, sold like brute 
beasts, were, under the influence of their relig- 
ious teaching and example, capable of showing 
a sublime devotion and heroic courage worthy 
of comparison with that of the martyrs of the 
early ages. We have read a great deal of 
Stanley and the other explorers who have done 
so much to open up the unknown interior of 
Africa ; but we have heard little of the more 
than fifty devoted missionaries who have already 



laid down their lives, eleven of them suffering 
violent deaths, for the sake of carrying the light 
of Christianity to those benighted regions. 

And this brings us to the dreadful subject 
of the African slave-trade, with which the chief 
part of Mr. Clarke's excellent account of Car- 
dinal Lavigerie has to do. We of the United 
States have in our earlier years pajssed through 
such a nightmare of slavery, and awakened out 
of our terrible dream in such a bloody sweat, 
that we are apt to think of the word slavery as 
standing for a thing of the past ; and it is with 
something akin to surprise that we see this 
terrible apparition rising out of the jungles of 
Africa and still bidding defiance to the genial 
powers of civilization and Christianity. We 
have indeed seen the last of chattel slavery in 
the countries of Christendom ; but under the 
Crescent it still thrives, and the European na- 
tions are gradually opening their eyes to the 
terrible fact that this monster is already so 
intrenched in the interior of Africa as to form 
the one insurmountable obstacle to its civiliza- 
tion. And we must remember that it is not 
slavery modified and tempered by civilization 
as it was in our Southern States, but slavery 
intensified by Mohammedism and barbarism. 
Many have the impression that with the open- 
ing up of the interior these cruelties will dis- 
appear ; but the reverse appears thus far to 
have been the fact. All authorities agree that 
slavery there runs riot now as never before. 
Intercourse with the white man has introduced 
the spirit of trade, and there is no game so 
easily captured as human beings. The Mos- 
lem slave-traders have furnished the natives 
with firearms and taught them the trade of 
slave-hunting. The inhuman traffic was for- 
merly carried on chiefly to supply the market 
in Western Asia and Turkey, and it was to 
break up this hellish commerce that Baker and 
Gordon undertook their great expeditions ; bat 
the gains of the slave-trade found their way 
into the pockets of the Egyptian officials ; the 
good intentions of the Khedive were no match 
for the cupidity of his officers, and Baker and 
Gordon failed in their humane purpose. The 
domestic slave-trade has also increased im- 
mensely in the last twenty years ; so that now 
many once-populous districts are left desolate 
from the repeated raids of the hunters. It w 
estimated that not less than five hundred thou- 
sand human beings are annually destroyed in 
this ruthless traffic. Cardinal Lavigerie, in 
his speech before the London Anti-Slavery So- 
ciety in 1888, says : 

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1890.] 



THE DIAL, 



119 



** Slavery, in the proportions that it has now assumed, 
means, in fact, the approaching destruction of the black 
popuhition of the interior, with the impossibility of pen- 
etrating and civilizing the heart of the country. My 
missionaries are established in the Sahara, and upon 
the high table-lands of Central Africa from the north 
of Nyanza to the south of Tanganyika. They have seen 
with their own eyes, in the course of ten years, whole 
provinces absolutely depopulated by the massacres of 
the slave-hunters, and each day they are obliged to wit- 
ness scenes which point to the extinction of the race. 
They tell me particularly of the province of Manynema, 
which at the time of the death of Livingstone was the 
richest in ivory and population, and which the slave- 
hunters have now reduced to a desert, seizing the ivory 
and reducing the inliabitants to slavery in order that 
they may carry it to the coast, after which their cap- 
tives would be sold. The contempt for human life 
engendered by such examples as these, and by the pas- 
sions of the slave-hunters, is so grest that you can im- 
agine nothing more horrible. If this state of things 
continnes, Africa as a nation cannot remain. These 
horrors are incompatible with the existence of Africa, 
and the country will be absolutely and irredeemably 
lost. Things have reached such a pass in the vicinity 
of the great lakes now that every woman, every child, 
that stray ten minutes away from their village, have 
no certainty of ever returning to it." 

The whole speech is well worth quoting, but 
want of space forbids, and for the same rea- 
son we must refer interested readers to Mr. 
Clarke's book for a full discussion of the vari- 
ous remedies proposed for this crying evil. One 
thing is evident : Mohammedism i^ responsible 
for the slave-trade of Africa, and is straining 
every nerve to secure the millions of Africa for 
its own. Hitherto the nations of Europe have 
put forth their energies chiefly in the direction 
of commercial advantages ; but the time has 
come when, to secure these, they must assume 
a more friendly attitude toward the devoted 
men who are endeavoring to bring a Christian 
civilization to the hordes of African negroes. 
Not that Testaments and moral pocket-hand- 
kerchiefs will do much for these savages, as 
£inin Bey says ; but the kind of civilization 
that goes with Testaments and moral pocket- 
handkerchiefs must meet and conquer the in- 
fluences that go with the Koran and the slave- 
trade. We understand that Cardinal Lavig- 
erie is now making a tour of Europe with the 
hope that by his persuasive eloquence he can 
unite all Christendom in some well-considered 
and effective plan for meeting the encroach- 
ments of the Moslem power in Africa, and for 
stamping out the infamous traffic in human 
flesh, and thus opening the interior of " the 
Darkest Continent " to the influences of com- 
merce, education, and Christianity. 

James F. Claflin. 



Brlefs ox New Books. 

The late Mark Pattison, sometime Rector of Lin- 
coln College, was perhaps as indifferent to literary 
fame as was his delightful contemporary, Edward 
Fitz Gerald. Pattison was a great and finished 
scholar ; not a specialist, but rather a humanist — 
if that word may be used to describe a scholar who 
sought to combine exactness of knowledge with phil- 
osophic amplitude of survey. In him acquisitive- 
ness predominated over the instinct of communicsr 
tion ; in his gettings he was an assiduous practiser 
of the rule of addition, division, and silence. His 
literary productions seem to have been wrung from 
him, as it were, drop by drop. Not that he was 
anything of a bookworm or pedant ; but he delib- 
erately set the value of knowing above that of pro- 
ducing. He was one of the few men of this century 
who have had the leisure and the self-denial to un- 
dertake Goethe's great task of self-culture. Those 
who would learn how Pattison went about this task, 
and what was the outcome, should read his fascinat- 
ing " Memoirs" (reviewed in The Dial for July, 
1885). His principal literary works were the val- 
uable " Life of Casaubon," and the " Milton " in 
the " English Men of Letters " series. The latter 
is perhaps the most concentrated and masterly book 
of that admirable series. His treatment of Milton 
combines a charm equal to Macaulay's with a pun- 
gency equal to Johnson's ; but the greatest value of 
Uie book consists in its unusual weight of matter 
and force of thought. It is no slight distinction to 
write the best thing on a subject upon which every- 
one tries the edge of his wit. Of like force and 
weight are his " Essays," posthumously published 
in two stately volumes at the Clarendon Press (Mac- 
millan), under the editorship of Professor Nettle- 
ship. These " Essays" include more than one hun- 
dred pages, crown octavo, upon Joseph Scaliger — 
fragments of a great work over which Pattison 
brooded for many years. They also include inter- 
esting and original studies of other great humanists : 
Muretus, Huet, and F. A. Wolf. Noteworthy also 
are the essays on the life of Warburton, on Pope 
and his editors, on Buckle's " History of Civiliza- 
tion," on the Galas Tragedy, and on Calvin at 
Geneva. The most famous essay of all is that enti- 
tled ^' Tendencies of Religious Thought in England, 
1688-1750," — an original contribution to history, 
the fruit of long and laborious studies. Perhaps, 
however, the essay in which Pattison most fully and 
genially unfolds himself is that entitled <^ Oxford 
Studies," wherein the author develops his theory of 
a university and his noble philosophy of liberal ed- 
ucation. Of course these essays are too compact 
and thoughtful to enjoy wide popularity ; and more's 
the pity, for few popular essayists have a tithe of 
the intellectual capital of Pattison. But readers 
with a stomach for solid pabulum will find their 
account here. Pattison's style has unusual merits ; 
it is crisp and crusty and cogent, as if the writer's 
aim liad been to speak once and then forp:^ hold j 

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THE DIAL 



[Sept., 



his peace. His English is pure, never scholastic, 
never poetical, never circumlocatory. Mr. John 
Morley pronounces Pattison "the shrewdest and 
most widely competent critic of his day." Of his 
conversation Mr. Morley says : " There was nohody 
in whose company one felt so much of the ineffable 
comfort of being quite safe against an attack of 
platitude." Such immunity may not be best for 
all; but to the veteran reader of what is called, 
with unintended irony, the " periodical literature" 
of the day, how grateful the discovery of one essay- 
ist who never writes to order ! He puts into has 
writings the best of all he knows and feels, and 
none of the second-best. He practises, by prefer- 
ence, that gospel of silence which Carlyle only 
preached. In his writings, as in life, to quote Mr. 
Morley again, he encounters all commonplace with 
''some significant, admonitory, and almost luminous 
manifestation of the great ars tacendV^ In fine, 
these essays unite classic reticence with something 
of classic dignity and conciseness. 

The little volume entitled " The Blind Musician" 
(Little, Brown, & Co.) is a new addition to our trans- 
lations from the Russian, which have become so pop- 
ular with English and American readers. The au- 
thor's name is also new to us — Vladimir Eorolenko. 
The Introduction is by George Kennan, whose ac- 
quaintance with the author began through reading 
his articles in various Russian periodicals. The 
high opinion formed from these was strengthened 
by a later personal acquaintance, and he considers 
Korolenko as representing the most progressive, lib- 
eral, sincerely patriotic type of young Russian man- 
hood. As long ago as 1886 or 1887, this author 
wrote a long and carefully worked-out novel of 
Russian life, but its publication was vetoed by the 
censor of the press. His short stories, sketches, 
and studies of character have been produced under 
great discouragements and interruptions, Korolenko, 
although not yet thirty-five years old, having been 
already four times banished from his home to re- 
mote parts of the empire. The present story indi- 
cates very high literary and artistic powers, working 
with a theme somewhat uncommon in literature. It 
is a psychological study, dealing with the inner life 
of a man blind from birth. The author undertakes 
to reveal not only the psychological processes in the 
mind of the blind, but their sufferings from the lack 
of sight as well, uncomplicated by any untoward cir- 
cumstances. The sources of musical feeling, the 
development of the soul through love and pater- 
nity, the awakening of the heart out of egotism and 
selfish complainings to a sympathetic interest in 
other men, are subjects which are brought to bear 
on the narrative with rare insight and skill. Thus, 
although almost entirely lacking in outward inci- 
dent, it is highly attractive for its delicate and pen- 
etrating treatment of many things which belong to 
the inner history of nearly everyone. The translac 
tion is by Aline Delano, and is so well done that 
one forgets it is a translation. The dainty binding 



of white and green cloth, and the beautiful illustra- 
tions of Edmund H. Garrett, are in harmony with 
the general refinement of the work. 

Thb record of a long and useful life is contained 
in a volume recently issued by the Congregational 
Sunday School and Publishing Society, entitlecl "Asa 
Turner and His Times." The "Thnes" of Asa 
Turner were the second and third quarters of the 
present century in the new countries of lUinois and 
Iowa. Even those who may not care to read of 
the man personally, or of the home missionary work 
to which his life was consecrated, may be stirred 
by the relations of pioneer experiences in those 
eventful days which immediately succeeded the 
greatest struggle ever made in this country to con- 
quer a state for slavery. Those were the days when 
the convention to amend the Constitution of Illinois 
to permit slaveholding so nearly succeeded, when 
the first Anti-Slavery Society of Illinois was formed 
(Mr. Turner being chairman), and when Lovejoy 
was murdered by a pro-slavery mob while defend- 
ing his own printing-presses in the city of Alton. 
Iowa, whither Mr. Turner went only two months 
after it had secured independent existence as the 
Territory of Iowa, was a country even rawer and 
newer than Illinois. But to our hardy pioneer its 
one objection was that << it was so beautiful, there 
might be an imwillingness to exchange it for the 
paradise above." As the records of a leader in all 
moral and social reforms, as well as in strictly de- 
nominational work, from these early days untU the 
time of his death forty-seven years later, these me- 
morials of Mr. Turner have a value for the future 
historian of a great and populous state where sixty- 
six years ago President Monroe had in mind to col- 
lect a vast and permanent Indian nation. 

The University of Pennsylvania publishes, as one 
of the pampldets of its Political Economy Series, a 
translation, by Prof. E. J. James, of " The Federal 
Constitution of Switzerland." A nearly contempo- 
raneous translation of the same document, by Pro- 
fessor Hart of Harvard, published in the "Old 
South Leaflets " by Heath & Co., attests the gen- 
eral interest felt in comparative constitutional his- 
tory. The differences between these two transla- 
tions are so marked as to suggest that if there is a 
necessity for careful study of the Swiss constitution 
in this country, a harmonious English version of it 
should be adopted. The " Extraordinary Tribunals" 
of Art 58, according to the Harvard version, be- 
come "Exceptional Courts" in the Pennsylvania 
version ; the former conforming most closely to En- 
glish idioms. The reciprocal " right of free emi- 
gration to foreign states," in Art. 63 of the Penn- 
sylvania translation, is found in Massachusetts to 
be an " exit duty on property," a wholly different 
subject In Art 6, the Pennsylvania version de- 
clares that " the cantons are required to demand of 
the Union its guaranty for their constitutions," and 
that " the Union shall accord this guaranty" condi- 

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1890.] 



THE DIAL 



121 



tionally; while the other version says that ^<the 
Cantons are bound to ask of the Confederation " 
such guaranty, and proceeds to declare that '< this 
guaranty is accorded " thereby, with conditions. 
Such conflicts of translation wiU send many an 
American student to the original, before he can un- 
derstand his translation. 



A CHAPTER taken bodily from Dr. Woodrow Wil- 
son's treatise entitled << The State,*' which was no- 
ticed in The Dial, Vol. X., p. 308, becomes a man- 
ual for the use of colleges and schools, under the 
tide of << State and Federal Grovernments of the 
United States" (Heath). It has one advantage 
over the other numerous manuals prepared for the 
purpose of teaching to students tiie constitutional 
and political peculiarities of our country, namely, 
that it is written from the point of view of the Johns 
Hopkins Studies in Political Science, and embodies 
the results of the latest researches of the promoters 
of that series of Studies. 



The eighth volume of the <' Riverside Library 
for Young People" (Houghton) is somewhat of a 
departure from the rest of the series. Its prede- 
cessors have dealt with history, biography, mechan- 
ics, natural history, and other subjects of exact 
study. The latest volume differs from these in be- 
ing devoted to a consideration of practical life-prob- 
lems, under the title ^< Girls and Women," by E. 
Chester. It is a very wise and suggestive little 
book. Advice for young women has abounded ever 
since the days when Mrs. Chapone's *^ Letters " or 
Dr. Gregory's ** Legacy to his Daughters" were 
considered almost the only appropriate reading for 
women. But the whole condition of woman's world 
has changed so rapidly and so materially within the 
last few years that an entirely new point of view is 
required of those who would guide ^e present gen- 
eration. Some subjects, it is true, are never out- 
grown ; thus, our little book deals with the old top- 
ics, '< Health," '< Hospitality," ''The Essentials of a 
Lady," etc. But what would our grandmothers, or 
even our mothers, have thought of a woman's book 
contiuning instructions for ''An Aim in Life," "How 
shall Girls Support Themselves ? " or " Occupations 
for the Rich." Nevertheless, these are some of the 
most valuable portions of the work. Although es- 
pecially profitable reading for girls between fifteen 
and twenty, we heartily commend it to women of 
all ages. 

Mention has been made in a former number of 
Mr. T. S. Perry's translation of M. Imbert de Saint- 
Amand*s " Famous Women of the French Court " 
(Scribner). The second volume in the series, " The 
Happy Days of the Empress Marie Louise," relates 
in detail the diplomatic preliminaries of Napoleon's 
marriage to the daughter of the Grermanic Cassars, 
and the story of their married life up to the culmi- 
nation, in 1812, of the Emperor's career. This 
volume, like its predecessor, is largely made up of 
excerpts — " purple patches " — from this, that, and 



the other author, and free recourse has been had 
to original documents. M. de Saint-Amand's pro- 
cess of selection and arrangement has resulted in a 
graphic picture of the immediate surroundings of 
the Emperor during the period treated, and his 
book will be found very entertaining by readers 
who like plenty of sentiment and color, and anec- 
dotal details of court ceremony and intrigue. 



Announcements of Fall. Books. 

The following classified list embodies reports fur- 
nished to The Dial by the principal American pub- 
lishers, regarding the books which they are preparing 
to issue during the Fall season. The number of pub- 
lishers represented is thirty-seven, and the number of 
titles is nearly four hundred — over a hundred more 
than were given in the similar list of a year ago. The 
present list, like the former, does not aim to include 
absolutely everything — some minor juveniles and un- 
important fiction and miscellaneous brochures being 
necessarily excluded. It has been the intention to 
omit also new editions, unless in new form or with new 
and distinctive features. The list will, we believe, be 
found of interest and value to our readers, presenting 
as it does a complete survey of what is being done in 
the various departments of literature at the important 
season of the publishing year. A noticeable feature of 
the list IS the falling off in the high priced holiday 
books of a few years ago; and it is pleasant to note, 
also, that these nearly extinct literary and art mam- 
moths are so happily compensated for by the abundance 
of smaller and daintier volumes containing old and 
often rare literary gems in new and elegant setting. 
Many other not less interesting indications from the 
list will be apparent to the discerning reader. 

HiBTORT. 

United States. Qenesis of the : A Narrative of the MoTemeot 
in Ensrland, 1600-1(>16, whioh resulted in the Plantation 
of North America by Entflnhmen. Gcilleoted, arranged, 
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Pellew*s Adventures and Sufferings during his Captivity in 
Morocco. Edited, with prefatory notes, by Dr. Robert 
Brown. Illus. Macmillan. $1.50. 

A Treasure Hunt. Being the narrative of an expedition in 
the Yacht ''Alerte " to the desert iakmd of Trinidad. By 
£. F. Knight. Longmans. 



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HoUand and Its People. ByEdmondode AmidB. Tmmdated 
from the Italian by Caroline Tilton. New revised edition, 
84 illnstrations. Futnam. $2.25. 

Natural History. 

The Silra of North America. A deeoription of the trees 
which grow naturally in North America, exclusive of 
Mexico. ByChariesSpracrneSaivent. With fi^nires and 
analyses drawn from nature by Charles Edwara Faxon. 
Vol. I. (To be completed in 12 yoIs.) Honghton. $25. 

Popnlar Natural History. By J. S. Kingsley. Estes. $9.00. 

Curioos Creatures in Zoology. By John Ashton. Illus. Cas- 
sell. $3.50. 

Motly and Butterflies. By Julia E. Ballard. Dins. Put- 
nam. $1.50. 

Bees: Their History, Habits, Instincts. Dlus. Pott. $1.25. 

Wonders from Sea and Shore. By Fannie A. Deane. Loth- 
rap. $1.25. 

StroDs by Starlight and Sunshine. By W. Hamilton Gibson, 
nius. Harper. 

Reference. 

A Literary Manual of Foreign Quotations. By John Deroe 
Behon. Putnam. 

The Portable Commentary. By Jamieson, Faussett, and 
Brown. 2 toIs. Crowell. $4.00. 

Dictionary of German and English Languages. By W. James 
andC.Stoffel. Stokes. $2.50. 

IboyelopsBdia of Missions. Funk. $5.00. 

Ebeydopasdia of Temperance. Funk. $3.50. 

The Best Books. A Reader's Guide to the best avaiUble 
books in all departments of literature down to 1888. 
Compiled b^ Wuliam Swan Sonnenschein. Second edi- 
tion. Rewritten and much enlarged. Putnam. $6.00. 

Dictionary of Statistics. By M. G. Mulhall. New edition, 
Revised and brought down to date. Routledge. 

Medicine and Hygiene. 

Text-Book of Materia Medioa for the Use of Nurses. Com- 

IMled by Larinia L. Dock. Putnam. 
Manual of the Domestic Hygiene of the Child. By Julius 

Uffelmann, M.D. Translated by Harriet Ransom Milin- 

owski. Edited by Mary Putnam>Jacobi, M.D. Putnam. 
Notes on BiUitary Hygiene. By Surgeon A. A. Woodhull, 

UJS.A. Wiley. $2.50. 
Dust and Its Dangers. By T. M. Prudden, M.D. Illus. 

Putnam. 75 cents. 

Navigation — Mechanics. 
Practical Navigation. By Captain Lecky. Wiley. $6. 
Practical Seamanship. By John Todd and W. B. Whall. 

Wiley. $7.50. 
Weisbach's Mechanics of Engineering. Vol. III., Part I., 

Section 2. Wiley. $5.00. 
Constructive Steam Engineering. ByJayM. Whitham. Wiley. 
The Elements of Machine Design. By W. Cawthome Un- 

win, C.E. Part II. Eleventh edition. " Text-Books of 

Science." Longmans. $2.00. 

Games and Sports. 

The Devil's Picture Books: A History of Playing Cards. 

By M. K. Van Rensselaer. 16 full page plivbes in color. 

Dodd. $5.00. 
Book of Card and Table Games. By Prof. Hoffman. 

Routiedge. $5.00. 
Toong People's Cyclopedia of Ghunes and Sports. By John 

D. Chflumplin, Jr., and Arthur £. Bostwick. Holt. 
Moanitla of Sports : Athlctics, Boxing, Cricket, etc. Stokes. 

Per vol., 50c. and $1.00. 
In the Riding School. By Theodore Stephenson Browne. 

Lothrop. $1.00. 

Illustrated Holiday Books. 

Memoir of Horace Walpole. Bv Austin Dobson. lUns. 
with 11 etchings by Moran, and by other plates. Limited 
e<ft/ton-</«-7uxe, printed on hand-made paper. Dodd. $15. 

Rivers of Great Britain : Descriptive, Historical, Pictorial. 
With numerous engravings. Cassell. $15.00. 



American Painters in Watez^C^olors. By Ripley Hitchcock. 
Stokes. $12.50. 

The Golden Flower Chrysanthemum. Verses by Edith M. 
Thomas. Collected, arranged, and embellished by F. 
Schuyler Matthews. Illus. m water<»lor8. Prang. $10. 

A Marriage for Love. By Ludovio Hal^vy. 24 photogra- 
vures oy Wilson de Meza. Edition-de-iuxe. Dodd. $10. 

Saul. By Robert Browning. Illus. in photogravure from 
drawings by Frank O. Small. Prang. $10.00. 

The Sun-Dial: A Poem. By Austin Dobson. Illus. with 
photogravure reproductions of designs by George Whar- 
ton Edwards. Dodd. $7.50. 

The Chouans. By H. de Balzac. 100 illustrations. Cassell. 
$7.50. 

Child-Life : A Souvenir of Lizabeth B. Humphrey. A col- 
lection of her most beautiful designs in color, with bio- 
graphical sketch by Mary J. Jacques. Prang. $7.50. 

Selections from Wordsworth^s Sonnets. Dlus. by Alfred 
Parsons. Harper. 

Glimpses of Old English Homes. By E. Baloh. Profusely 

Illus. Ma^^millan , 

Relics of the Royal House of Stuart. Letterpress by John 
Skelton. Drawings in color by W. Gibb. MaomOlan. 

The Vicar of Wakefield. Bv Oliver Goldsmith. Dlus. by 
Hugh Thomson. MacmiUan. 

The Song of Hiawatha. Bv H. W. Longfellow. 22 photo- 
gravures and 400 text illustrations by Frederic Reming- 
ton. Houghton. $6.00. 

The Poet's Year : Poetry of the Seasons. Edited by Oscar 
Fay Adams. 120 illustrations. Lothrop. $6.00. 

Romola. By George Eliot. Illus. with photo-etchings. 2 
vob. Ekes. $6.00. 

Romola. By George Eliot. 60 photogravures. 2 vols. Por- 
ter <& Coates. $6.00. 

Night Song. By Charles Reinich. Illus. by Henry Sandham. 
Estes. $7.50. 

Selected Rctures by American Artists. Lippincott. $7.50. 

Choice Pictures by American Artists. Lippincott. $7.50. 

Recent European Art. Estes. $7.50. 

Gems of American Art. Lippincott. $7.50. 

Golden Treasury of Art and Song. 18 monotint pages. Dnt- 
ton. $7.50. 

The Haunted Pool. (La Mare au Diable.) From the French 
of Georee Sand, by Frank Hunter Potter. With 14 etch- 
ings by Kudanx. Dodd. $5.00. 

Jane Eyre. By Charlotte Bronte. 48 illustrations. 2 vols. 
Crowell. $5.00. 

Our Great Actors. By Charles S. Abb^. Portraits in watei^ 
colors. Estes. $5.00. 

Our New England. By Hamilton W. Mabie. Roberts. $5. 

Flirt. By Paul Hervieu. TransUted by Hu^h Craig. 37 
photogravures aftet wateiHM>lorB bv Madeleine Lemaire, 
and 18 full-page illustrations. Worthington. $5.00. 

Wits and Beaux of Society. By Grace and Philip Wharton. 
20 photogravures. 2 vols. Porter <& Coates. $5.00. 

The Same. With preface by Justin H. McCarthy. Dlus. by 
Browne and Gkniwin. 2 vols. Worthington. $5.00. 

Queens of Society. By Gkuce and Philip Wharton. 18 pho- 
togravures. 2 vols. Porter & Coates. $5.00. 

The Same. With preface by Justin H. McCarthy. Illus. by 
C. A. Doyle. 2 vols. Worthington. $5.00. 

Timers Footsteps : A Family Record Book. Illus. in mono- 
tint and pen-and ink. Dutton. $5.00. 

Our Old Home. By Nathaniel Hawthorne. With photogra- 
vures and engravings. 2 vols. Houghton. $4.00. 

Golden Links : A Birthday Text Book. 12 pages in color, 
and other illustrations. Dutton. $4.00. 

Summerland. By Margaret McDonald Pullman. 63 illustra- 
tions by Ancurew. Lee & Shepard. $3.75. 

Gonpil Gallery of Great War Paintings. Estes. $3.75. 

Familiar London. Containing 12 views in color of the best- 
known sights of London, and other sketches. Dutton. 
$3.75. 

Eve of St. Agnes. By John Keats. An illuminated missal. 
Estes. $3.00. 

XXIV. Bits of Society Verse. Illus. by H. W. McVickar. 
Stokes. $3.00. 

The Artist Gkllery: Biographies and Portraits of Five 
Greatest Modem Painters. Lothrop. $3.00. 



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Banyan's Home. 
lUnstratioiis. 



With 24 iMftges in monotint, and other 
Dutton. S3.00. 
Shakespeare*8 Home. With ten sketches of the Poet's 

Home, etc., and other illustrations. Dntton. $3.00. 
Oat of Doors with Tennyson. Edited, with Introdaction, by 

£. S. Brooks. lUus. Lothrop. $2.50. 
Thus Think and Smoke Tobacco. Illus. by 6eorg:e Wharton 

Edwards. Stokes. $2.50. 
Fra lippo Lippi : A Romance of Florence in the 15th Century. 

By Margaret Vere Farrini^ton. 14 full page photogravure 

illustrations. Putnam. $2.50. 
Gold Nails to Hang Memories On : An Original Autograph 

Book. By Elizabeth A. Allen. Crowell. $2.50. 
Dreams of the Sea. Compiled by Lula M. Walker. Estes. 

$2.50. 
Friends from My Garden : Verses by Anna M. Pratt. Illus. 

by Laura C. Hills. Stokes. $2.50. 
An Old Loye-Letter. Designed and Illuminated by Irene £. 

Jerome. Lee & Shepard. $1.00. 
Tom Brown's School Days. By Thomas Hughes. 53 illus- 
trations by Andrew. Crowell. $2.00. 

Juveniles. 

BatUefields and Campfires. By Willis J. Abbot. Illus. by 

W.C.Jackson. Dodd. $3.00. 
The Boy Travellers in Great Britain and Irebuid. By T. W. 

Knox. Illus. Harper. $3.00. 
Zigzag Journeys in the Great Northwest. By Hezekiah But- 

terworth. Illus. Estes. $1.75. 
Knockabout Club in North Africa. By F. A. Ober. Illus. 

Estes. $1.50. 
Three Vassar Girls in Switzerland. By Mrs. Champney. 

Illus. Estes. $1.50. 
The Red Fairy Book. Edited by Andrew Lang. Illus. (Uni- 
form with '' The Blue Fairy Book.'') Longmans. $2.00. 
Horse Stories, and Stories of Other Animals. By Thomas 

W.Knox. Illus. Cassell. $2.50. 
Little Giant Brab and His Talking Raven Tabib. By Inger^ 

soil Lockwood. Lee and Shepard. $2.00. 
The Princess with the Foiget-me-not Eyes. Illus. by Walter 

Crane. Macroillan. 
Sweet William. By Marguerite Bouvet. Illus. McClnrg. 
Young Folk's Golden Treasury of History. Lothrop. $2.25. 
Round the World with the Blue Jaoketo. By Lieut. E. H. 

Rhoads, U.S.N. Lothrop. $1.75. 
Famous European Artists. By Mrs. Sarah K. Bolton. With 

portraits. Crowell. $1.50. 
Nigel Browning. By Agnes Gibeme. Longmans. $1.50. 
Peokover's Mill : A Story of the Great Frost of 1739. By the 

author of Starwood Hall.'* Illus. Whittaker. $1.50. 
The House of Surprises. By L.T.Meade. Whittaker. $1.2.'). 
The Beresford Prize. By L.T.Meade. Illus. Longmans. $1.50 
The Winds, the Woods, and the Wanderer. By Lily F. 

Weaselhceft. Roberts. $1.25. 
The Family Coach : Who Filled It, Who Drove It, and Who 

Seized the Reins. By M. and C. Lee. Whittaker. $1.25. 
In My Nursery. By Laura C. Richards. Roberts. $1.25. 
Library of Fiction for Young Folks: A new illus. series. 

First vols.: The Life of an Artist, by Jules Breton ; Les 

Anciens Canadiens, by Philip Gasp^. Appleton. 
Look Ahead Series. By Rev. Edward A. Rand. Compris- 
ing : Making the Best of It ; Up North in a WhiUer ; 

Too Late for the Tide Mill. 3 vols. Whittaker. $3.75. 
Half-ar Dozen Boys. By Annie C. Ray. Illus. Crowell. $1.25. 
The Lion City of Africa. By WUlis B.Allen. Lothrop. $2.25. 
The Kelp Gatherers. By J. T. Trowbridge. Lee & Shepard. 

$1.00. 
Against Heavy Odds : A Tale of Norse Heroism. By H. H. 

Boyesen. Illus. by W. L. Taylor. Scribner. $1.00. 
A Loyal Little Red-Coat. By Ruth Ogden. Ulus. by H. A. 

OgdLBn. Stokes. $2.00. 
Aunt Hannah and Martha and John. By Mrs. G. R. Alden 

(Pansy). Lothrop. $1.50. 
Polly: A New-Fashioned Girl. By L. T. Meade. Illus. 

Cassell. $1.50. 
Dear Daughter Dorothy. By A. G. Plympton. Roberts. $1. 
A Lost Jewel. By Harriet Preecott Spofford. Lee & 

Shepard. $1.00. 



The Story of a Spring Morning, and Other Tales. By Mn* 

Molesworth. Ulus. Longmans. $1.50. 
Zoe. By author of *' Miss Toosey's Mission.'' Roberts. 60c. 
Santa Claus on a Lark. By Washingtcm Gladden. Century 

Co. $1.60. 
Baby Sweethearts. By Helen Grey Cone. Illus. by Mand 

Humphrey. Stokes. $3.00. 
Wee Tots. Poems by Amy Blanchard. 48 designs by Ida 

Waugh. Worthington. $2.00. 
Granny's Story Box. Illus. in color. Dutton. $2.(X). 
Another Brownie Book. By Palmer Cox. CelituryGo. $1.60. 
Flower Folk. Verses by Anna M. Pratt. Bins, by Lama 

C. Hills. Stokes. $1.50. 
Bonnie Little People. Bv Helen Gray Cone. VHjM. by 

Maud Humphrey. Stokes. $1.75. 
Tiny Toddlers. By Helen Gray Cone. Illus. by Maud 

Humphrey. Stokes. $1.75. 
Two Little Tots. By Josephine Pollard. Illus. by J. 

Pauline Snnter. Stokes. $1.00. 



Books of the Month. 

[The following list indttdes all books received by Ths Diai. 
during the month qf August^ 1890.] 

HISTOR Y-SOCIOLOG Y. 

Stratford-on- Avon. From the Earliest Times to the Death 
of Shakespeare. Bv Sidney Lee. With 45 IllustratiouB 
by Edward Hull. New Edition, 12mo, pp. 304. Mae- 
millan & Co. $2.00. 

Nation Making: : A Story of New Zealand. Sava^m vs. 
Civilization. By J. C. Firth, author of " Our Km across 
the Sea.** With Frontispiece. 12mo, pp. 402. Long^ 
mans. Green, & Co. $2.00. 

U. S. : An Index to the United States of America. A Hand- 
book of Reference combining the ** Curious " in U. S. 
History. Compiled by Malooun Townsend. lUustrated 
and with Maps, etc. 8vo,pp. 482. D. Lothrop Co. $1.60. 

LITERABY MISCELLANY. 

Patriotic AddreeaeB in America and England, from 1860 to 
1885, on Slavery, the Civil War, and the Development of 
Civil Liberty m the United States. By Henry Ward 
Beecher. Edited, with a Review of Mr. Beecher^s Per- 
sonalityand Influence in Public Affairs, by John R. How- 
ard. With Portraits. 8vo, pp. 857. Forda, Howard A 
Hulbert. $2.00. 

Newspaper Reportinsr in Olden Time and To-Day. Bv 
John Pendleton, author of "A History of Derbyshire." 
16mo, pp. 245. Uncut. Armstrong's Book-Loveas* Li- 
brary." $1.25. 

The Ethical Problem : Three Lectures by Dr. Paul Cants. 
12mo, pp. 90. Paper. Oi>en Court Pub'g Co. 

POETRY. 

RuhiXy&t of Omar Khajrydm, the Astronomer-Poet of 
Persia. Rendered into EngUsh Verse. 8vo, pp. 112. 
Uncut. Vellum. Macmillau & Co. $3.00. 

Poems of Owen Meredith (the Earl of Lytton). Selected, 
with an Introduction, by M. Bethan-Edwards. Author- 
ized Edition. 24mo, pp. 250. Uncut. A. Lovell & Co. 
40 cents. 

Qema from Walt Whitman. Selected by Elizabeih Pcm^ 
ter Oould. Oblong 16mo, pp. 58. Gilt top. David Mc- 
Kay. 50 cents. 

FICTION. 

The House by the Medlar-Tree. By Giovanni Vein. 
The Translation bv Mary A. Craig. An Introduction by 
WiUiam D. Howells. 16mo. pp. 300. Uncut. Unifwm 
with '' Maria." Harper & Brothers. $1.00. 

Barahu ; or. The Marriage of Loti. By Pierre Loti, author 
of " From Lands of Exile." Translated from the Freoeh. 
by Clara BeU. Revised and Corrected in the United 
States. 16mo, pp. 2%. W. S. Gottsberger & Co. $1.00. 

Tozar. A Romance. By the author of "Thoth." 8vo, 
pp. 171. Paper. Harper's '* Franklin Square library." 
30 cents. 

Expatriation. By the author of ^^Aristocracy." IGmo, 
pp. 307. Paper. Appleton's ** Town and Country Librft- 
ry." 50 cents. 



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Geoffirey Hampstead. By Thomas S. Jarvis. 16mo, pp. 
378. Paper. Appleton's ^* Town and Country library.'* 
50 cents. 

The Soul of Pierre. By Georges Ohnet, author of ''The 
Master of the Forge;'' Trai^lated from the French, by 
Mary J. Serrano, translator of ''Marie BashkirtsefiF's 
Journal." Illustrated by Elmile Bavard. 16mo, pp. 291. 
Paper. Cassell's "Sunshine Series." 50 cents. 

IMsenchantmeiit : An Every-Day Stwy . By F. Mabel Rob- 
inson, author of " Mr. Butler's Ward." 12mo, pp. 432. 
Paper. Lippincott's "Select Novels." 50 cents. 

The Phantom Bickshaw, and Other Tales. By Rudyard 
Kipling, author of " Plain Tales from the Hills." l2mo, 
pp.391. Pai)er. Lovell's "International Series." 50o. 

The Two Brothers (Pierre et Jean.) By Guy de Maupas- 
sant. TransLited by Clara Bell. 12rao, pp. 333. Paper. 
Lovell's " Series of Foreign Literature." 60 cents. 

A SmufiTSrler's Secret. Bv Frank Barrett, author of " Kit 
Wyndham." Ida : An Adventure in Morocco. By Mabel 
Collins, author of "Ijord Vanecourt's Daughter." In one 
vol. 12mo, pp. 195. Paper. Lovell's " International Se- 
ries." 50 cents. 

With Eesex in Ireland. Being Extracts from a Diary 
Kept in Ireland during the Year 1559 by Mr. Henry Har- 
vey. With a Preface by John Oliver Maddox, M. A. In- 
troduced and Edited by Hon. Emily Lawless, author of 
"Hurrish." 12mo, pp. 270. Paper. Lovell's "Inter- 
national Series." 50 cents. 

The Blind Musician. From the Russian of Korolenko. By 
William Westall and Sergius Stejpniak. 12mo, pp. 230. 
Paper. Lovell's " International series." 50 cents. 

Manraret Byngr. By F. C. Phillips, author of " As in a 
Looking^lass." 12mo, pp. 300. Paper. Lovell's '* In- 
ternational Series." 50 cents. 

So^TinfiT the Wind. By E. Lynn Lynton, author of " lone 
Stewart." 12mo, pp. 31«. Paper. Lovell's "Intema- 
tional Series." 50 cents. 

Notes firom the "Newp." By James P^n, author of 
"Thicker than Water." 12mo, pp. 223. Paper. Uncut. 
Lovell's " International Series." 50 cents. 

A Brookl3m Bachelor. By Margaret Lee, author of " A 
Brighton Novel." 16mo, pp. 207. Paper. "Am. Nov- 
elists' Series." F. F. Lovell & Co. 50 cents. 

The Blind Men and the Devil. Bv Phineas. 16mo, pp. 
219. Paper. Lee & Shepard's " Good Company Series." 
50 cents. 

JUVENILE. 

The Nursery "Alice.'- Containing 20 Colored Enlarge- 
ments from Tenniel's Illustrations tx) " Alice in Wonder- 
land." Text adapted to Nursery Readers by Lewis Car^ 
roll. 4to, pp. 61. Illuminated Cover. Maomdlan. $1.50. 

The Promised Klnor ; or, The Story of the Children's Sav- 
iour. By Annie R. Butler, author of " In the Beginning." 
Illustrated. 12mo, pp. 320. J. B. Lippincott Co. $1.00. 

Btartlns Points : How to Make a Good Beginning. Edited 
by Abbie H. Fairfield. 16mo, pp. 205. D. Lothrop Co. 
$1.25. 

TRAVEL AND ADVENTURE. 

Memoirs of the Military Career of John Shipp, late 
Lieutenant in His Majesty's 87th Regiment. Written by 
Himself. With an Introduction by H. Manners Chiches- 
ter. Illustrated. 8vo, pp. 386. Macmillan's "Adven- 
ture Series." $1.50. 

FoUowin^r the Guidon. By Elizabeth B. Custer, author 
of '* Boots and Saddles.'^ lUustrated. 12mo, pp. 341. 
Harper & Bros. $1.60. 

An Bastem Tour at Home. By Joel Cook, author of 
" A Holiday Tour in Europe." 12mo, pp. 286. David 
McKay. $1.00. 

EDUCATION-TEXT-BOOKS. 

Methods of Teachingr Patriotism in the Public Schools. 
By Col. George T. Balch. 8vo, pp. 109. D. Van Nost- 
raad Co. $1.50. 

Svolution of the University. By Geor^ E. Howard. 
8vo, pp. 3<i. Paper. Published by University of Ne- 
braska Alumni Assoc'n. 

Elements of the Differential and Integral Calculus: 
Method of Rates. By Arthur Sherburne Hardy, Ph.D. 
Hvo, pp. 239. GinnACo. $1.65. 



The "Annals" of Tacitus. Books I.-VI. Edited, with In- 
troduction, Notes, and Indexes, by William Francis Al- 
len. With Portraits. 12mo, pp. 444. Ginn's '* CoUega 
Series of Latin Authors." $1.65. 

The Science of Laneruagre and Its Place in General Edu- 
cation: Three Lectures. By F. Max Miiller. 16mo, 
pp. 112. Open Court Pub'g Co. 75 cents. 

The First Reader. By Anna B. Bodlam, author of " Aids 
to Number." Illnstrated. 12mo, pp. 159. Boards. D. 
C. Heath & Co. 35 cents. 

Bunyan's Pilgrrlm's Progrress. With Notes, and a Sketch 
of Bunyan^s Life. 16mo, pp. 119. Ginn & Co. 35 cents. 

Pierre et Camille. Par Alfred de Musset. Edited, with 
English Notes, by O. B. Super, Ph.D. 16mo, pp. 67. 
Paper. Heath^s '* Modem Lauiguage Series." 15 cents. 

REFERENCE. 

A Stem Dictionary of the English Language. For Use 
in Elementary Schools. By John Kenneay, author of 
**What WWs Say." 12mo, pp. 282. A. S. Barnes A 
Co. $1.00. 

A Guide to the Literature of JBsthetlcs. By Charles 
Mills Gayley and Fred Newton Scott, Ph.D. Large 8to, 
pp. 116. Paper. Library Bulletin No. 11. University 
of California. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Cookery in the Public Schools. By Sallie Joy White, 
author of ** Housekeepers and Home-Makers." Illus- 
trated. 16mo, pp. 173. D. Lothrop Co. 75 cents. 

Funny Stories Told bv Phineas T. Bamum (The Great 
American Showman). 16mo, pp. 374. Paper. George 
Routledge & Sons. 50 cents. 



[Any book in this list unit be mailed to any address^ post-paid, 
on receipt of price by Messrs. A. C. McClubo & Co., CAteayo.] 



WORCESTER'S 

DICTIONARY. 

The Highest Authority known as to the Use 
of the English Language. 

The New Edition includes A DICTIONARY that con- 
tains thousands of words not to be found 
in any other Dictionary; 

A Pronouncing Biographical Di^ionaty 

Of over 12,000 Personages; 

A Pronouncing Ga{etteer of the World, 

Noting and locating over 20,000 Places; 

A DiSiionary of Synonymes, 

Containing over 5,000 Words in general use, also OVER 
12,500 NEW WORDS recently added. 

All in One Volume. 

Illustrated with Wood-Cuts and FuU-Page Plates. 

The Standard of the leading Publishers, Magazines 
and Newspapers. The Dictionary of the Scholar for 
Spelling, Pronunciation, and Accuracy in Definition. 
Specimen pages and testimonials mailed on application. 
For sale by all Booksellers. 

J. B. LIPPINCOTT CO., Publishers, 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



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[Sept., 



A Partial List of T. Y. Croivell &■ Co:s 

FALL ANNOUNCEMENTS OF NEW BOOKS. 



THE FOUNDING OF THE GERMAN EMPIRE 
BY WILLIAM I. Tnmslated from the Qerman of Hein- 
RiCH VON Stbbl. by Professor Mabshaui LiYincwTOinfi 
Pkbbxn, of the Boston University. 5 vols. 8vo. Cloth, 
$10.00 ; half moroooo, $15.00. 

This work, on the publication of the first volume, was in- 
stantly recos^zed by the German critics as a masterpiece of 
histonoal writing ; at the same time, its genuine popularity 
was attested by the fact that an edition of 50,000 copies was 
almost immediatelyexhausted. The present edition is transr 
lated by Professor Perrin, whose scholarly accuracy and care 
are visible on every page. It is in five volumes, illustrated 
with portraits of Wilnelm I., Bismarck, Von Moltke, Fried- 
rich, and the present Emperor. 

JANE EYRE. By Charlotte Bronte. With 48 
lUnstrations engraved by AifDBEW. Carefully printed from 
beautiful i^pe on superior calendered paper. 2 vob. 12mo. 
Cloth, pit top, boxed, $5.00 ; half catf, $9.00. Edition de 
Luxe, kmited to 2.'K) numbered copies, large paper, Japan 
proofs mounted, $10.00. 
^ ** Jane Eyre " is one of the books which seem destmed to 
Kve. The present illustrated edition is as perfect as will ever 
be produced. Press-work, paper, illustrations, and binding 
combine into a whole that is a delight to the eye and a cyno- 
sure for a library. 

THE PORTABLE COMMENTARY. BjJamieson, 
Faubsbtt, and Brown. 2 vols. Crown 8vo, cloth, $4.00. 
Hiis convenient manual has a world-wide reputation as the 

best book of its kind in the English language. It is full, yet 

concise, easily understood, clear in tjrpe, convenient in size ; 

and should be in the handis of every student of the Bible. 

THE NARRATIVE OF CAPTAIN COIGNET, 
SOLDIER OF THE EMPIRE, 1776-1850. An Autobio- 
graphical Account of one of Napoleon^s Body-Guard. Fully 
Illustrated. 12mo. Half leather, $2.50; half calf, $5.00. 
The recollectioiis of Captain Coignet, perfectly authenti- 
cated, come t4> us like a voice from those mighty masses who, 
under Napoleon, made Europe tremble almost a hundred 
years ago. It is the record of the daily doings of a private 
soldier, who fought in many great campaigns. Nothing like 
these memoirs has ever been published. 

FAMOUS EUROPEAN ARTISTS. By Mrs. Sarah 
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FAMOUS ENGLISH AUTHORS OF THE NINF^ 
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During a recent visit abroad, Mrs. Bolton had an opportu- 
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REAL HAPPENINGS. By Mrs. Mary B. Claflin. 

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Under the above attractive title, Mrs. Claflin has collected 
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BOURRIENNE'S MEMOIRS OF NAPOLEON 
BONAPARTE. Special Limited Edition, with over 100 
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THE ROBBER COUNT. By Julius W^olff. Trana- 
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This masterpiece among Julius WolfiTs prose romances is 

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TOM BROWN'S SCHOOL DAYS. By Thomas 
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The present edition of this classic is by all odds the best 

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BRAMPTON SKETCHES OF OLD NEW-ENG- 
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The old New-England life is rapidly fading, not only from 
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GOLD NAILS TO HANG MEMORIES ON. A 
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GOSPEL STORIES. Translated from the Russian of 
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Count Tolstois short sketches of Russian life, inspired gen- 
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PHILIP ; Or, .What May Have Been. A Story of 
the First Century. By Mary C. Cutler. 12mo, $1.25. 
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HALF A DOZEN BOYS. By Anna Chapin Ray. 

12mo, Illustrated, $1.25. 

This is a genuine story of bov-life. The six heroes are cap- 
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thy of Miss Alcott's pen. 



Sold by all booksellers. Mailed, postpaid, on receipt qf price, by 

THOMAS Y. CROWELL & CO., Publishers, New York City. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



1890.] THE DIAL 129 



Still Harping on that 
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ARNOLD AND COMPANY, Publishers, 
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WEBSTER'S Unabridged Dictionary 

The 'Best Investment for the Family, the School, the Professional or Private Library. 
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THE DIAL 



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D. LOTHROP COMPANY'S NeW BoOKS. 



U. S. : CURIOUS FACTS IN UNITED STATES 

HISTORY. By BCaloolm TowNSBKD. 12mo, olotih, $1.50 

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OUT OF DOORS WITH TENNYSON. Edited, with 
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with views of the localities of the poems. Quarto, $2.50. 
Such poems and portions of poems written by the Laureate 
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THE POETS' YEAR. Edited by Oscar Fay Adams. 

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OUR EARLY PRESIDENTS, THEIR WIVES AND 
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STORIES OF FAMOUS PRECIOUS STONES. By 

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GREAT CITIES OF THE WORLD. Edited by 
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THREE LITTLE MAIDS. By Mary Bathurst 
Deanb. nius. by F.O. Small. New Edition. Cloth, $1.50. 
*^ A bright witty tale of English life that, in its originality 

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American Hebrew. 
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The humor is delicate and abounding, the moral atmosphere 

clear and high.** — Commonwealth. 



For sale at the Bookstores, or sent, postpaid, by the Publishers, on receipt of the price, 

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PUBU8HSD BY ] 
A. C. McCLURG & CO. I 



a year 



^ 



HICAGO, OCTOBER, 1890. 



Vol.XT.l KDITED BY 

So, Its i FRANCIS F. BROWNE. 



HARPER'S MAGAZINE 

FOR OCTOBER. 
INTERESTING PAPERS. 

AGRICULTURAL CHILI. By Thbodobk Chiij>. Witii 
fourteen Illnstratioiis. 

ANTOINE'S MOOSE-YARD. By Juuan Ralph. With 
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THE FIRST OIL WELL. By Prof. J. S. Nbwbkbry. 

NEW MONEYS OF LINCOLN'S ADMINISTRATION. 
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REMINISCENCES OF N. P. WILLIS AND LYDIA 
MARIA CHILD. By George Ticknor Curtis. 

ENTERTAINING FICTION. 

FIFTH PART OF PORT TARASCON: The Last Ad- 
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A WHITE UNIFORM. A Story. By Jonathan Sturcirs. 
With four Illustrations drawn by C. S. Rbinhart. 

'* A-FLAGGIN'." a Stopy. By S. P. McLean Greene. 

**THE DRAGONESSE." A Story. By G. A. Hibbard. 

THE STRANGE TALE OF A TYPE-WRITER. By 
AifNA C. Brackett. 

TEA TEPHI in amity. An Episode. By A. B.Ward. 

POETRY. 

SONNBTS BY WORDSWORTH. With eleven lUustrar 
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THE DREAM OF PHIDIAS. By Rennell Rodd. 

AN AUTUMN SONG. By Nina F. La yard. 

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EDITORIAL ^DEPARTMENTS. 

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Published by HARPER & BROTHERS, New York. 

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[Oct, 



Houghton, Mifflin & Co.'s New Booics. 



JAMES TiUSSELL LOIVELL 



A New and Complete Issue of the Works of James Russell Lowell. Riverside Edition, Literary Essays, in 
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HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES. 

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THE ^TAL 



Vol. XI. OCTOBER, 1890. No. 126. 



CONTEXTS. 

THE PERSLSTENCE OF HISTORIC MYTHS. 

W. F. Poole 143 

THE LIFE OF HENRIK IBSEN. W. E. Simonds . 14« 

TWO EARTH-ARTIFK^ERS. Selim U. Peahody . . 148 

ESSAYS, NEW AND OLD. Anna B. McMahan . . 1.70 

CONSTITI'TIONS AND INSTITITTIONS. James O. 

Pierce 152 

BRIEfS ON NEW BOOKS 155 

Henley *8 Views and Reviews. — Perrot's and Chipiez^ 
History of Art in Sardinia, Judea, Syria, and Asia 
Minor. — Thnrston^s Heat as a Form of Enerjfy.— 
Saint- Amand^s Marie Antoinette and the End of 
the Old Regime. — Robert Drury's Journal. — Wencke- 
bach's Deutsche Literaturgeschichte. — Vincent's In 
and Out of Central America. — C^onder's Palestine. — 
Le Strangers Palestine Under the Moslems.— Miss 
Duncan*8 A Social Departure. 

NOTE ON THE DEATH OF DR. H. N. POWERS . 158 

TOPICS IN OCTOBER PERIODIC AI>> 159 

BOOKS OF THE MONTH 15i) 



The Pp:rsistexc'e of Historic Myths. 



Among the political attacks which pestered 
the last seven years of Thomas Jefferson's life 
was the charge that he pilfered the sentiment 
and some of the passages of his di'aft of the 
Declaration of Independence from a similar 
Declaration made by the citizens of Mecklen- 
burg, North Carolina, fourteen months before ; 
and that when he was confronted by a copy of 
the earlier Declaration, he denied that he had 
ever seen or heard of it. This position he 
maintained to his dying day ; and after his 
decease the discussion as to the genuineness of 
the Mecklenburg Declaration of May 20, 1775, 
was kept up by his political friends and oppo- 
nents. If it were a genuine document, the re- 
semblance between the two Declarations was 
so marked that there appeared to be no escape 
from the inference that Jefferson was charge- 
able with lx)th plagiarism and untruthfulness. 
Historical writers have generally mentioned 
and passively admitted the genuineness of the 
Mecklenburg Declaration, without raising the 
question of its authenticity. The historians of 
North Carolina have uniformly extolled it as 



the most illustrious incident m their State an- 
nals. Wheeler, in his " Historical Sketches of 
North Carolina,'' says : " This important pai)er 
is dear to eveiy North Carolinian. The 20th 
of May is a sacred festival within its borders ; 
and efforts are being made to erect in the place 
where the event occurred a monument to per- 
petuate its memory." 

Since the death of Mr. Jefferson, documents 
have come to light which prove beyond a doubt 
that the Mecklenburg Declaration of May 20, 
1776, is a myth. It is a singular fact, how- 
ever, that in these developments no evidence 
appears of intentional fraud on the part of any 
pei*son ; and yet it is evident that the paper 
was composed (perhaps as an exercise, or a rev- 
erie), after Mr. Jefferson's Declaration of July 
4, 1776, had been printed, and that the writer 
adopted Mr. Jefferson's ideas and some of his 
expressions. That it was not intended as a 
deception seems probable from the fact that 
no public use was made of it during the life- 
time of the writer. 

A brief account of the Mecklenburg Declar- 
ation, and of the evidence on which its apoc- 
ryphal character is shown, may not be without 
interest. 

The first suspicious circumstance connecte<l 
with the Mecklenburg Declaration of Indepen- 
dence is that it did not appear in print, and 
was never quoted or aUuded to by any histor- 
ical writer, until forty-four years after it was 
alleged to have been adopted by a committee 
of the citizens of North Carolina. It was first 
printed in the Raleigh "Register" of April 
30, 1819, with a statement signed by Joseph 
McKnitt Alexander, giving its history, and 
affirming it to be a true c^py of papers left in 
his hands by his father, John McKnitt Alex- 
ander, deceased, who was the clerk of the com- 
mittee which adopted the Declaration ; that he 
finds in the files a memorandum that the orig- 
inal lx)ok in which the proceedings of the meet- 
ing of May 20, 1775, were recorded was burnt 
in April, 1800 ; and that copies of the proceed- 
ings were sent to Hugh Williamson, who was 
writing the history of North Carolina, and to 
Gen. W. R. Davie. Dr. \V illiamson's " Ilis- 
toiy of North Carolina," which was not printed 
till 1812, made no mention of the Declaration. 
Perhaps he was aware of its mythical charac- 
ter, and suppressed it. The copy sent to (ieii- 

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THE DIAL 



[Oct., 



eral Davie has been found, and it differs ma- 
terially from the one printed in the Raleigh 
" Register." A certificate is attached, which 
states that it was compiled from recollection, 
and without the aid of any written records. 

The documents from the Raleigh "Register" 
were copied into Northern newspapers, and fell 
under the eye of John Adams, at Quincy, Mas- 
sachusetts. On the 22d of June, 1819, Mr. 
Adams wrote to Mr. Jefferson as follows : 

" May I inclose to you one of the greatest curiosities, 
and one of the deepest mysteries, that ever occurred to 
me ? It is in the Essex < Register ' [Salem, Mass.,] of 
Jime 5. It is from the Raleigh < Register,' entitled 

* A Declaration of Independence.* How is it possible 
that the paper should have been concealed from me to 
this day ? Tou know that if I had possessed it I would 
have made the halls of Congress echo and re-echo with 
it fifteen months before your Declaration of Independ- 
ence. What a poor, ignorant, malicious, short-sighted, 
crapulous mess is Tom Paine's * Common Seuse ' in com- 
parison with this paper ! Had I known it I would have 
commented upon it from the day you entered Congress 
till the 4th of July, 1776. The genuine sense of Amer- 
ica at that moment was never so well expressed before 
or since ; and yet history is to ascribe the American 
Revolution to Thomas Paine ! " 

The writer then had evidently no suspicion 
that the document was not genuine, and per- 
haps he took pleasure in thrusting a thorn into 
the ribs of his correspondent. To another per- 
son Mr. Adams wrote July 5, before he had 
received Mr. JeflFerson's reply, intimating that 
Mr. Jefferson had cribbed from the Mecklen- 
burg document, and declaring that **Jefferson 
has copied the spirit, the sense, and the expres- 
sions of it verbatim in his Declaration of the 
4th of July, 1776." How Adamsy are these 
letters I 

Mr. Jefferson, on the 9th of July, replied to 
Mr. Adams in his best and most attractive 
form. After a graceful introduction, in which 
he acknowledged and commented on the con- 
tents of several lettei*s from Mr. Adams, he 
says: 

** But what has attracted my special notice is the pa- 
per from Mecklenburg County, of North Carolina, pub- 
lished in the Essex * Register/ which you were so kind 
as to inclose in your last of June 22. And you seem 
to think it genuine. I believe it spurious. I deem it 
a very unjustifiable quiz, like that of the volcano said 
to have broken out in North Carolina some half a dozen 
years ago — perhaps in that very county of Mecklen- 
burg, for I do not remember its precise locality. If 
this paper be really taken from the Raleigh * Register,' 
I wonder that it should have escaped Ritchie and the 

* National Intelligencer,' and that the fire should blaze 
out all at once in Essex [Mass.], one thousand miles 
from the spot where the sjmrk is said to have fallen. 
But if really taken from the Raleigh * Register,' who is 
narrator ? and is the name subscribed real ? or is it as 



fictitious as the paper itself? It appeals, too, to an 
original book which is burnt ; to Mr. Alexander, who 
is dead ; to a joint letter from Caswell, Hughes, and 
Hooper [Members of Congress from North Carolina], 
all dead; to a copy sent to the dead Caswell [Davie ?], 
and another to Dr. Williamson, now probably dead, 
whose memory did not retain, in the history he has 
written of North Carolina, this gigantic step in the 
county of Mecklenburg. Horry, too, is silent in his 
history of Marion, whose scene of action was the county 
bordering on Mecklenburg. Ramsay, Marshall, Jones, 
Gerardin, Wirt, historians of the adjacent States, are 
all silent. When Patrick Henry's resolutions, far short 
of Independence, flew like lightning through every paper 
and kiudlcd both sides of the Atlantic, this flaming Dec- 
laration (of the same date) of the Independence of Meck- 
lenburg County of North Carolina, absolving it from thfe 
British allegiance and abjuring all political connection 
with that nation, although sent to Congress, too, is never 
heard of ! It is not known even a twelvemonth later when 
a similar proposition is first made in that body. Armed 
with this bold example, would not you have addressed 
our timid brethren in peals of thunder ? Would not 
every advocate of Independence have rung the glories 
of Mecklenburg County in Nprth Carolina in the ears 
of the doubting Dickinson and others who hung so heav- 
ily on us ? Yet the example of Mecklenburg County 
in North Carolina was never once quoted. For the 
present I must be an unbeliever in the apocryphal gos- 
pel." 

Mr. Adams, on receiving this letter and giv- 
ing the matter further consideration, changed 
his first impressions, and fully concurred with 
Mr. Jefferson in the opinion that the Mecklen- 
burg Declaration was a spurious document. 

The publication of Mr. Jefferson's letter 
aroused an intense feeling of patriotic antag- 
onism in the Old North State. Everybody 
who could wield a pen took up the defense of 
the Declaration and to defaming the character 
of Mr. Jefferson. The matter was brought 
before the General Assembly of the State, and 
a committee was appointed during the session 
of 1830-31, to collate and arrange all the doc- 
uments accessible on the subject, and to collect 
new evidence in support of the authenticity of 
the Declaration. The committee performed 
its duty, and made a report in print, which, in 
the opinion of the committee, was " sufficient 
to silence incredulity." 

Rev. Dr. Hawks, one of the historians of 
North Carolina, in an address before the New 
York Historical Society in 1852, thus summar- 
ized the report of the committee, which he re- 
garde<l as conclusive : 

** No less than seven witnesses of the most unexcep- 
tionable chai'acter swear positively that there was a 
meeting of the people of Mecklenburg at Charlotte on 
the 19th and 20th days of May, 1775 ; that certain res- 
olutions distinctly declaring independence of Great Brit- 
ain were then and there prepared by a committee, read 
publicly to the people by Colonel Thomas Polk, and 

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THE DIALr 



145 



adopted by aoclaination ; that they were present and 
took part in the proceedings themselves ; and that John 
McKnitt Alexander was the secretary of the meelting. 
In addition, seven others equally above suspicion swear 
that they were present at precisely such a meeting as 
that described above. Here are fourteen witnesses 
who, if human testimony can prove anything, do show 
beyond all peradventure that on the 20th of May, 1775, 
a certain paper was read and adopted in their hearing, 
whereby the people of Mecklenburg County did abjure 
allegiance to the British Crown, and did declare them- 
selves independent. Such a paper, then, was in exist- 
ence on that day, and was in the possession of the sec- 
retary, John McKnitt Alexander." 

The committee's report and the accompany- 
ing testimonies printed in Force's **Anierican 
Archives " (4th series, vol. ii., pp. 855-864), 
ai-e less conclusive than Dr. Hawk's summary 
would indicate. The witnesses whose affidavits 
are printed were very aged men, and testified 
to what occurred fifty-five years befoi'e with a 
precision and a minuteness of detail which is 
incredible. James Graham states that he was 
present on the 20th of May, heard the discus- 
sion and the i*eading of the Declaration by Dr. 
Ephraim Brevard, " in the very words I have 
since seen several times in print."' It is a well- 
known fact that the memories of aged persons 
are, unconsciously to themselves, very defective 
in matters where time and place are the ques- 
tions at issue. Mr. Jefferson noticed this fact 
in correcting some errors of Governor McKean 
concerning the Declaration of July 4, 1776. 
He says : " The Governor, trusting to his mem- 
ory at an age when our memories are not to be 
trusted, has confounded two events." This is 
precisely what was done by these aged wit^ 
nesses. 

One of the printed testimonies is that of 
Captain James Jack, who states that he was 
the messenger who carried the Declaration of 
May 20 to the Congress at Philadelphia, and 
delivered it into the hands of the three North 
Carolina members. In explanation of the fact 
that it was not printed at the time and no men- 
tion of it appears in the proceedings of (yon- 
gress, he says that these gentlemen thought it 
was not prudent to make it public then. Three 
persons certified that they had heard William 
S. Alexander, deceased, say that he met Cap- 
tain Jack at Philadelphia in the early summer 
of 1775, who told them that he came the bearer 
to Congress of a Declaration of Independence, 
and that they themselves met Captain Jack the 
day General Washington started to take com- 
mand of the Northern army — the day known 
to be June 23, 1775. 

The evidence which seemed to be most con- 



clusive of the genuineness of the Declaration 
was a letter of Josiah Martin, colonial governor 
of North Carolina, written August 8, 1775, on 
board a British gunboat, in which he says : 

" I have seen a most infamous puhlication purporting 
to be resolves of a set of people styling themselves a 
committee of the county of Mecklenburg, most traitor- 
ously declaring an entire dissolution of the laws, gov- 
ernment, and constitution of this country, and setting 
up a system of rules and regulations repugnant to the 
laws and subversive of His Majesty's government." 

In the British State Paper Office is a letter 
from Governor Martin, of June 30, 1775, to 
Lord Dartmouth, Secretary of State, which 
says: 

"The resolves of the committee of Mecklenburg, 
which your lordship will find in the inclosed newspaper, 
surpass all the horrid and treasonable publications that 
the inflammatory spirits of the continent have yet pro- 
duced. A copy of these resolves was sent off, I am in- 
formed, by express to the Congress at Philadelphia as 
soon as they were passed by the committee." 

A letter of June 20 to the Secretary of State 
from Governor Wright of Georgia also inclosed 
a copy. The newspapers containing the trea- 
sonable document are filed with the letters. We 
have now reached surely the genuine Mecklen- 
burg Declaration of Independence of May 20, 
1775 I Not at all. The document is a series 
of resolutions, of quite a different purport and 
character, adopted at Charlotte, Mecklenburg 
County, May 31 — eleven days afterward, — in 
which there is no allusion to the Declaration 
of May 20, nor an intimation that such action 
hail been taken or was intended. It is a set 
of patriotic high-toned resolutions, such as were 
adopted in all the colonies at that time. To 
the fugitive colonial governor they doubtless 
appeared a " horrid and treasonable publica- 
tion''; and they were the resolutions which were 
taken by express to Philadelphia by Captain 
Jack, and out of which the myth of the Meck- 
lenburg Declaration had grown I They were 
forgotten in North Carolina when the spurious 
draft of a Declai'ation of Independence came 
up in 1819 ; but Mr. Peter Force, at Wash- 
ington, found them in 1838, when he w^as 
searching for materials for his "American Ar- 
chives," and before they were found in Lon- 
don. They have since been found printed in 
several Northern and Southern newspapers of 
the Revolutionary period ; but no contempo- 
rary trace has been discovered of the alleged 
Declaration of May 20, 1775. The twenty or 
more witnesses who testified before the com- 
mittee of the North Carolina Assembly were 
doubtless honest ; but in the lapse of fifty-five | 

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146 



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[Oct., 



years their memories were in fault as to the 
date of the meeting and the purprirt of its ac- 
tion. 

It is probable that much of what is termed 
literary plagiarism is as groundless as these 
charges against Mr. Jefferson. It lessens our 
respect for popular history, when myths like 
the Mecklenburg Declaration and the story of 
Pocahontas saving the life of Captain John 
Smith — still regarded in North Carolina and 
Virginia as their most notable events — can so 
persistently maintain a place in books of Amer- 
lean history. ^_ y_ p^^^^^_ 



The lAYK OF IIKXIUK IKSKX.* 

There are writers who direct the thought 
and mould the spirit of their age, and there are 
others whose works serve rather to indicate the 
thought and reveal the spirit of their genera- 
tion. Henrik Ibsen is to be classed among the 
latter, rather than with the former. This is not 
saying that Ibsen is not a great writer, — for 
undoubtedly he is ; but he is not a Goethe, nor 
even an Emerson or a Carlyle. Is it objected 
that Ibsen does not indicate the thought or any 
general trend of the thought of the time ? Let 
us not be too dogmatic upon that jjoint ; there 
is evidently a movement in European thinking 
that just now struggles for expression along 
these lines. Its forms may be crude, repellant ; 
but nevertheless the spirit is there, existing, 
insistent. Happily, nothing has yet been said 
by the Norwegian dramatist to cast a doubt in 
any wise upon his sanity. 

Just where among the world's gi*eat minds 
Ibsen is to find his place, is a riddle which the 
future alone can solve. One thing seems indeed 
decided, and that is that in the literature of his 
native Norway Ibsen's place is at the head and 
front ; the critics are agreed in this, and the 
poet's countrymen apparently approve. It is 
in the character of first Norwegian writer of 
the day that Ibsen should primai'ily be judged ; 
for Ibsen has always written for ^ Norwegian 
public, his scenes are Norse scenes with stern 
and stormy backgrounds, and his themes and 
problems are suggested by an environment and 
an experience in a measure peculiar to his north- 
ern home. In a word, the social stioicture in 
Europe and the society of the American cities 
in the aggregate are two very different things ; 

* Hknrik Ibhen. a Critical Biosrraphy. By Henrik Jfe- 
ger. From the Norwegian, by William Morton Paj-ne, trans- 
lator of Bjornson's "Sigurd Slembe/' Chicago : A. C. MeClurg 
& Co. 



and the individual in the one society sustains 
relations to which his cousin is a stranger. 
Hem*e, Ibsen, like the other continental philo- 
sophizers, is in one sense outside the circles of 
American appreciation or American criticism, 
although not so far removed that the power of 
his pen or the truths in his denunciations 
should go quite unnoted by us. And now that 
Ibsen has crossed the water, introduced through 
his writings by enthusiastic admirers of his bold- 
ness and his art, there is need that we should 
view the Norse poet and dramatist against a 
broader field and in a sharper light. 

The American public has been startled by 
Ibsen's arraignment of x'ertain institutions in 
society and state ; but we seriously doubt that 
half his readers in this country have really felt 
the i)ower of Ibsen's genius or responded to 
the contact of his ideas. That they should give 
any general assent to the truth of his assertions, 
or anticipate the realization of his suggestions, 
IS out of question altogether. Ibsen is too revo- 
lutionary, too much of an extremist, to permit 
of any large following here. The present curi- 
ous interest in him will doubtless recede, and 
only a small circle of admirers will ultimately 
be left who will continue to read their Ibsen as 
they read their Goethe or their Tolstoi, — mar- 
velling at the art of the dramatist, pondering 
with him the harsh unsolved problems of an 
imperfect and illusory social life, and conject- 
uring whither these shadowy suggestions of un- 
tried schemes would lead the world if tested. 
At present, however, curiosity is still unsate<l. 
The American reading public demands to be 
told something more concerning the author of 
" The DolFs House " and of " Ghosts "; and 
Mr. William Morton Payne seeks to gratify 
this demand with a translation of a recent Norse 
biography from the pen of Henrik Jaeger. Tliis 
is a real biography at last, and especially wel- 
come after the unsatisfying host of light and 
popular magazine articles which have been 
wearying us of late with their repetition of 
trivial details long ago familiar to Ibsen readers. 
And yet we confess to some degree of disajv- 
pointmeiit in Herr Jaeger's work ; for into the 
inner life of the dramatist during the decade 
just finished, the period of his most extraor- 
dinary and most brilliant creations, Il)sen's 
biogi'apher gives us hardly a glunpse. Per- 
haps this may be the wisest course, — but pre- 
cisely in this i)eriod was it that we most desire<l 
to know the man ; and now we find ourselves 
c»omi)elled to withdraw, as it were, our acquaint- 
ance only just l)egun. However, we will not 



1890.] 



THE DIAL 



147 



quarrel long with our Norse biogi*apher, but 
will rather hasten to express our thanks for the 
clear and vivid picture he has given us of the 
poet-dramatist's early life, while still a citizen 
of the cold and unresponsive Norseland. 

This is what Ibsen himself now tells us of 
his birthplace and the impressions it has left 
upon his memory : 

" I was bom in a court near the market-place. This 
court faces the church with its high steps and its note- 
worthy tower. At the right of the church stood the 
town pillory, and at the left the town-hall, with its lock- 
up and the mad-house. The fourth side of the market- 
place was occupied by the common and the Latin schools. 
The church stood in a clear space in the middle. This 
prospect made up the first view of the world that was 
offered to my sight. It was all architectural ; tliere was 
nothing green, no open country landscape. But the air 
above this four-cornered enclosure of wood and stone 
was filled, the whole day long, with the subdued roar 
of the Langefos, the Klosterfos, and the many other 
falls, and through this sound there pierced, from moin- 
ing till night, something that resembled the cry of 
women in keen distress, now rising to a shriek, now 
subdued to a moan. It was the sound of the hundreds 
of saws that were at work by the falls." 

This was in the little town of Skien — lively 
and sociable at that period of its history, 
Ibsen says, although it has since become a dull 
and an uninteresting place. Many travellers 
came to Skien, and at Christmas or at fair- 
time open house was the rule from morning 
till night. The Ibsen household ranked with 
the aristocracy, and in Ibsen's earliest child- 
hood it was a centre of the social life of the 
town. Ibsen was a precocious boy, as might 
be expected, not playing like other children, 
but shutting himself up in a closet along with 
some old books he had discovered, or giving 
performances in legerdemain before an audi- 
ence of astonished brothers and sisters. He 
attended the public school and develoi^ed a 
taste for theology. He also wished to become 
an artist, and devoted himself with enthusiasm 
to drawing and painting. Thus he lived until, 
at sixteen years of age, his father's fortunes 
having changed, the precocious and solitaiy 
boy went up to Grimstad to be apprenticed to 
a pharmacist and to live a lonely and dreamy 
life within the borders of a narrow, lifeless 
little town, whose eight hundred inhabitants 
were more absorbed in -freight quotations and 
in the private affairs of the neighborhood than 
in the exciting events then occurring in the 
gi'eat world without. And here Ibsen lived 
for five years longer — ambitious, restless, 
growing. Here he wrote his bits of verse: 
and when the revolution of '48 and '49 broke 
out he indited fierce .sonnets to the Magyars 



and a glowing poem " To Hungary," wjth other 
stanzas of the same sort, appealing to Norway 
and Sweden to come to the help of Denmark 
against the Prussians. These things set the 
worthy burghers of Grimstad by the ears, and 
brought poor Ibsen into a position unexpectedly 
conspicuous before the eyes of the shocked 
community. He was now upon a war-footing 
with his fellow-citizens, and there is no doubt 
that here he nursed those feelings concerning 
the state and the individual, which he has sub- 
sequently embodied in one or another of his 
plays. The individual and what he owes to 
the state, had been the usual formula for ex- 
pressing that relation. The failure of the 
state to discharge its responsibilities, and its 
unjust exactions of the individual, is the thesis 
Ibsen undertook to demonstrate. And thus he 
wrote his " Catiline " at twenty years of age. 

But space does not permit a detailed syn- 
opsis of Ibsen's life. It must suffice to say 
that from the poet's removal to Christiania in 
1850 — covering the period of his stay at the 
capital as student and dramatic writer, the five 
years of his engagement as theatre poet at 
Bergen, and his later residence at Christiania 
until the beginning of 1869 — Ibsen passed a 
troubled, indeed a stormy, though seemingly a 
not uncongenial existence. He produced sev- 
eral dramas, the most notable of which were 
the two historical plays, "The Feast at Sol- 
haug" and "The Chieftains of Helgeland," 
besides the realistic " Comedy of Love," which 
marked an epoch in his development as drama- 
tist and as thinker, and brought all Christiania 
about the poet's ears, as, earlier, his war poems 
had disturbed the peace and quiet of little 
Grimstad. And then, in April of 1869, Ibsen, 
having obtained the "poet's salary," turned 
his back on Norway and wandered southward. 
From this time on, the })oet made his residence 
abroad — for a time in Rome, later in Dresden, 
and then in Munich, where he now resides. 
From one or the other of these cities the two 
remarkable poems, "Brand" and "Peer 
Gynt," the. great historical drama, "Emperor 
and Galilean," and, most important of all, that 
unique series of satiric dramas of social life 
on which Ibsen's fame now rests, have been 
sent northward year by year, Ibsen became 
long since famous and popular at home. It 
is only within the last two or three years, how- 
ever, that he has been read or known in En- 
gland or America. 

Mr. Payne has given us a facile and a vig- 
orous translation of Jaeger's biographj^. The 

_._._. Google 



148 



THE DIAL 



[Oct., 



extracts irom Ibsen's verse have been trans- 
lated honestly and bluntly, and with adherence 
to the original metres. The aim has l>een to 
give us the poet's thoughts in words and form 
as nearly equivalent to the oftentimes ol)sciire 
and roughly-hewn phraseology of the original 
as an English writer with English vocabulary 
could hope to do. This is not always easy ; 
but the attempt is not without a good degree 
of success, and we are glad that Mr. Payne 
adopted as his guide a principle so sound. 

W. E. S1MOND8. 



Two EAUTII-AirnFlCKHS.* 



Two companion volumes by a veteran Amer- 
ican author have come recently from the press 
elegant in their typography and bindings, but 
with far stronger claims than these upon our 
careful and studious examination. As mono- 
graphs, they are notable examples of what a 
scientific treatise should he. In each case the 
subject is specific, not hackneyed, nor of only 
remote and questionable interest, but one about 
which intelligent people wish to learn. The 
treatment is plain, logical, exhaustive, and con- 
vincing. The books are by no means reading 
for midsummer loungers ; but any practical 
man of sound business capacity, and an apt- 
ness for seeing the fitness of thoughts well 
framed together, will find in them abundant 
and attractive foo<l for reflection. It may be 
that so much prefatory remark is superfluous ; 
to very many it would have been quite enough 
to name the author, the Nestor of American 
geologists. Professor Dana. The first work is 
a treatise on the character and phenomena of 
Volcanoes, and is perhaps the more important 
of the two. 

Volcanoes, with few exceptions, lie remote 
from the habitations and walks of men. A 
notable exception is Vesuvius, which, first a 
sleeping menace, then a raging destruction, af- 
terward a beautiful landmark, lies surrounded 
by dwellings and vineyards, almost within the 
purlieus of a populous city. Another, Fusi- 
yama, has long been a shrine, sacred in the 
eyes of the worshipping Japanese. Kilauea, 
as Professor Dana remarks, is but three weeks 
from New York, and is upon an island easily 
accessible ; and Stroml)oli shows its beacon 

* Characi'Eu of Volcanoes. With Contributions of Facts 
and Principles from the Hawaiian Islands, etc. By James D. 
Dana. New York : Dodd, Mead, and Co. 

C0KAL8 AND Coral Islands. By James I). Dana. Xew 
York: Dodd. Mead & Co. 



fires to every passing seaman. But elsewhere 
the volcano is only a danger, remote, inaccess- 
ible, clothed with clouds and vapors of dark- 
ness, ejecting when active whole bombardments 
of stones and showers of ashes, vomiting streams 
of molten lava, and breathing out vast volumes 
of deadly vaiK)rs, amidst whose insidious dan- 
gers no creature may survive. Pliny was suf- 
focated on the shore of the sea, miles from the 
crater of the volcano. A whole company of 
islanders who were exploring Kilauea during 
an eruption were at once overwhelmed by the 
fatal blast, and perished in an instant, sitting 
or h'ing as they happened to be overtaken. 

The casual traveller who finds himself 
stranded at Naples, watches daily the drifting 
of the vaporous plume from the volcano pre- 
siding in solemn majesty over the bay, amid 
the ruined cities that lie at its feet. Then, on 
a bright morning, when the wind sets in the 
right quarter, he rides in a landau with two or 
three other odd fish as remote from home as 
himself, escorted by wandering minstrels play- 
ing '^ Funicola " to his unwilling ears, winding 
first amid the vineyards and then amongst the 
lava beds, until he reaches the foot of the steep 
cinder cone. Thence he goes by cable railway 
for a half mile, and on foot a few yards of steep 
ascent ; then he stands on the rim of the crater. 
He listens to the dash and i*oar of fiery surges 
that l)reak within the misty obscure only a few- 
yards beneath his feet. He watches the sheaves 
of pyrotechnics that the mountain is flinging 
up from reiterant explosions. He amuses him- 
self with dodging the red-hot pancakes as they 
fall at his feet ; until the guides, terrified at 
his ignorant audacity, drag him with main force 
into situations less exposed. He smells the chok- 
ing vapors, buys a soldo imbedded in a lava 
cake, tunis away, skips down the rattling cin- 
ders, — and has seen Vesuvius I 

Has he ? For answer let us turn to Profes- 
sor Dana. He takes us to the Hawaiian Is- 
lands, alone in Pacific mid-ocean. There he 
shows us the two grandest volcanic craters of 
the world, Kilauea and Mauna, or Mount, Loa. 
These craters, although only twenty miles apart, 
and on the same slope of the island mass, yet 
differ in altitude by about 10,000 feet, Kilauea 
being about 4,000 and Mount Loa nearly 
14,000 feet above the level of the surrounding 
sea. Here he seats us upon the crater's edge, 
and makes us pAiently watch the demonstra- 
tions in the gehenna below. Kilauea's crater 
is a huge basm, irregularly oval, two and a 
half miles long, two miles wide, and seven and 

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1890.] 



THE DIAL 



149 



a half miles in circ*uitk Below us is usually 
seen a level floor at depths varying from 500 
to 1,500 feet below the rim. At times there 
are two principal levels, — the one a broad bench 
about the margin, called the " black ledge " ; 
the other, a central space several hundred feet 
lower. It is in this central space that the in- 
tenser activity of liquid and boiling lavas is 
observed. 

Supposing that the successive observers be 
counted as only the repeated advents of one 
person, this one will have discovered that the 
fiery caldron below gradually fills itself to 
greater and greater heights with molten mate- 
rial pushed up from below. The black ledge, 
which may indicate the level reached by the 
swelling volume at some former maximum, may 
be finally overflowed, so that from wall to wall 
there is but one molten sea. The observer may 
readily conceive that in the depths below the 
melted lava acts as a solvent upon the cooler 
i-ocks that encompass it, and may eat, like a 
burrowing cancerous disease, into the substance 
of the mountain in various directions. So long 
as the waUs stand firm the molten mass aug- 
ments, its surface slowly rises, the liquid col- 
umn grows in altitude within the crater tube, 
while its hydrostatic pressure upon the walls 
l)ecomes enormous in its ever-increasing in- 
tensity. At length, somewhere, perhaps miles 
away from the crater, the side of the mountain 
yields, the lava issues in a broad and hastening 
stream, rushing down the mountain slope and 
onward to the sea. The lava column within 
the crater is simply drawn off from below. If 
the surface has been ct)oIed and solidified, the 
ci-ust descends with the descending fluid, or 
drops down upon it as ice falls upon a receding 
stream. If the surface is nearly all liquid, it 
may still leave a solid mass at the margin to 
remain afterwards visible as the black ledge. 
It is evident that if the walls of the conduit are 
sufficiently secure against the hydrostatic press- 
ure of the swelling interior column of molten 
matter, the lava will rise until it finally flows 
over the rim of the crater. Such is the cycle of 
action at Kilauea. 

Because of the greater altitude of Mount 
Loa, its crater has been less studied. There 
seems no reason to doubt that the cycle is sim- 
ilar to that described, which seems to he the 
account of normal volcanic activities. The 
places on Mount Loa usually visited are those 
on the slopes of the mountain where the out- 
breaks have occurred, when the wall has yielded 
to the hydrostatic pressure. The most notable 



feature of these lateral eruptions is that the 
fluid lava is sometimes thrown upward in foun- 
tain jets to the height of two hundred, three 
hundred, or even seven hundred feet. 

Professor Dana enumerates the agencies con- 
cerned in the ordinary work of a volcano as 
follows : 1, Vapors ; 2, the ascensive force of 
the conduit lavas ; 3, heat ; 4, hydrostatic aid 
and other gravitational pressure. Selecting 
among these agencies that which is evidently 
the fundamental cause, we must; pl&ce heat at 
the head of the list. The intensity of this heat 
must be an unknown quantity. Its most vig- 
orous action is in the secret and inaccessible 
recesses of the mountain. It is enough to keep 
the most refractory rocks in a state of fluidity. 
As to the cause or source of this heat. Profes- 
sor Dana is absolutely silent This book is 
evidently written with the purpose of setting 
down what is known, and no more. To the 
question. What produces the intense heat of 
the volcano ? there is no reply. 

The intensity of the heat being taken as 
granted, the remainder follows naturally. The 
rocks are melted. The fluid mass becomes less 
dense and swells in the lava conduit, lifting 
the surface to constantly increasing altitudes. 
Water from the sea percolates through the 
veins of rocks, — or, as Professor Dana ver}' 
reasonably explains, the rain waters descend 
until they reach the igneous tract. The heat 
changes these fluids to vapors ; it may even 
dissociate the elements of these vapors, and 
thus provide volumes of free hycb^gen, or com- 
})ounds thereof, whose presence is frequently 
indicated. These vapors and gases being in- 
volved in the molten lava, induce a vesicular 
or even a frothy condition, which farther dim- 
inishes the specific gravity of the lava, and 
increases the height of the fluid column. But 
even in this condition the lava is denser than 
water, and consequently the hycb*ostatic press- 
ure of the lofty fluid column l)ecomes tremen- 
dous. A rough but simple estimate shows how 
great must be this pressure. It will l)e remem- 
bered that two feet depth of water gives about 
one pound of pressure to the square inch. Ten 
thousand feet of water will give a pressure of 
five thousand pounds to the inch. If the mol- 
ten lava should have a density only twice that 
of water, which is probably quite below the fact, 
the pressure would be ten thousand pounds, or 
five net tons, upon each square inch of surface 
exposed to the pressure of the fluid column. No 
wonder that the mountain quakes and rends, 
and that the jets of spouting lava ase«aid to | 

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150 



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[Oct., 



gi-eat heights, when the hidden forces possess 
snch enormous intensities. 

Nor will it be difficult to comprehend, on 
the other hand, the grand explosive phenomena 
which volcanoes have often displayed. Let 
Vesuvius, for example, have long remained dor- 
mant, as before the gladiators of Capua made 
their camp in the hollow of its crater. The 
floor of the crater was formed of the cooling- 
lava at the top of the last-formed fluid column. 
Upon it the rains of centuries had piled the 
debris washed from the crater's sides until the 
cavity was filled high with the ashes of old 
eruptions. But the fires beneath still burned ; 
they began to rage afresh and with renewed 
fury; the waters from sea and cloud found 
their way below ; they were changed to steam, 
intensily superheated, until the pressure, enor- 
mous and ever increasing, burst the seal above, 
and projected stones, ashes, and molten fire far 
into the clouds, to descend as a funereal pall 
upon the smiling cities that for centuries had 
lain in unconscious security. The dormant 
Vesuvius of the days of Pliny proved itself a 
fearful menace ; the active Vesuvius of to-day 
is probably a safety-valve. 

To consider the subject of the second of the 
two works under review is to go from great to 
small, — from magnificence to apparent insignif- 
icance, — from the lofty volcano, shrouded in va- 
ix)rs, to the lowly polyp, vegetating under the 
rippling waters. The phrase, coral iti^ects^ so 
often heard, is a libel on the great class of in- 
sects, creatures of very much more advanceil de- 
velopment. Because the creature is small, often 
microscopic, it is not therefore an insect. The 
polyp is a gelatinous mass, chiefly mouth and 
stomach, surrounded by a whorl of rays, more 
or less numerous, which may be protruded or 
retracted at the pleasure of the animal, and 
which give a striking resemblance to some vari- 
eties of land-growing flowers. 

These coral creatures toil not, neither do 
they build. All the rhetoric based ui)on the 
thought that they do either is vain. They sim- 
j)ly repose where chance and the wandering 
waves first fixed them, waiting for the gliding 
waters to wash food into their gaping and re- 
ceptive mouths. As they grow, certain hard 
material is secreted within, around, or beneath 
the gelatinous substance. This dejwsit is merely 
an excretion, like the shell of an oyster, or the 
bark of a tree, about which the creature has 
no knowledge or care. It remains after the 
animal has perished, and is the coral of which 
l)eaches and reefs are formed, accumulating 



slowly in the long lapse of years. The coral 
polyp thrives only in warm seas. It cannot 
live in deep waters ; it perishes unless it is 
washed at least by the daily tide. Yet in the 
Pacific seas its stony growths form reefs that 
fringe the shores of continents, or remoter bar- 
riers that arise from depths far beyond the lim- 
its at which coral life perishes, and withstand 
the mightiest surges of ocean storms. And 
these conditions of growth, in which the vege- 
tating polyps exist constantly at that depth in 
which only growth is possible, notwithstand- 
ing their upward increase, indicate clearly that 
the upward tendency has been counteracted 
by some equal downwai'd movement ; and this 
means that the floors of the ocean depths, on 
which these structures rest, have gently and 
gradually been lowered. Islands that were 
but peaks of oceanic mountains were once sur- 
rounded with fringes of coral ; the island sank 
while the corals grew, until the fringe became 
a barrier, with a navigable channel between it 
and the shore ; its sinking continued until the 
summit disappeared beneath the water, and the 
encircling barrier, still growing, became only a 
circumvallation about a blue and silent lake in 
the midst of the turbulent ocean. 

Thus does nature by the volcano or the polyp, 
agencies the most widely divergent, forward the 
slowly progressive movements that have made 
the earth what it is, and are yet modifying it 
for the unknown uses of the hereafter. 

Selim H. Peabody. 



KssAYs, Xew and Old.* 

•' The literary world has its fashions na well 
as the world that reads Le FoUet and the Jour- 
naf deii Modes^^^ says Professor Gildersleeve 
in his recently-published volume of ** Essays 
and Studies," and he makes a happy applica- 
tion of the statement by showing how^, from 
time to time, certain of the old stories and 
myths come again to the front as favorite 
themes for the modem writer. A further 
application of the same comparison, by recog- 
nizing that discussions of past issues, like 
prints of last year's costumes, are seldom worth 
re-publication, would have eliminated a good 
many pages from the author's own book with- 
out greatly impairing its value. The "Essays" 
are four in number, all on educational topics, 
the earliest written in 1867, the latest in 1883. 



•Essays and Studies: Educational and Literary. 
Basil Lanneau Gildersleeve. Baltimor9'^> N. Mun 



By 



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It is not surprising, therefore^ that the issues 
with which they are chiefly concerned are now 
somewhat passe. Twenty years ago there was 
a powerful reaction against the traditions of 
an exclusive classical education. Physical sci- 
ence and modern languages, revolting against 
their former subordination in educational cur- 
riculums, demanded their share, and some- 
times much more than their share, of recog- 
nition. The "dead languages" were called 
upon to show their credentials, to defend their 
aristocratic claims of superiority over all new- 
comers whatsoever. Not the least valiant and 
scholarly of these champions was Professor 
Gildersleeve. Nor will he suffer himself to 
be enrolled in the ranks of those who make 
their fight on the line of disciplinary useful- 
ness. He says : 

" We are not disposed to make any such cowardly 
surrender. We are not content to consider the sacred 
tripods as dumb-bells to develop the mental biceps and 
triceps, or the branches of the Delphic bay as an appa^ 
ratus for turning intellectual somersaults or 'skinning' 
intellectual *cats.* . . . Our modern reformers try 
to frown down all studies which do not prepare for < the 
work of life.' But what is « the work of life ?' Is it 
not just here that we need the high ideal of antiquity 
in order to counteract the depressing tendencies of 
modem civilization, and especially those of American 
civilization ? . . . Material well-being in more or 
less refined forms is more or less consciously the main 
object. But the ideal life of antiquity is constructed 
after a different pattern ; and though it is as unattain- 
able by the means of mere humanity as the antique 
ideal of the state, we must confess the superiority of 
the one as of the other to the negative virtues and 
positive selfishness of our modern standards." 

Like others at this date (1867) Professor 
Gildersleeve assumes a mutual incompatibility 
between subjects ''scientific" and "non scien- 
tific." Now we have outgrown such an anti- 
thesis. We have ceased to oppose one subject 
to another as scientific or non-scientific, be- 
cause we perceive that the distinction is not in 
subjects, but in methods of treating them. 
Science is a particular method of treating sub- 
jects leading to results of a particular kind. 
Scientific research is as applicable to the field 
of language, or history, or sociology, or politi- 
cal economy, as it is to the field of botany, or 
geology, or biology. Letters admit of scien- 
tific ti-eatment just as much as the phenomena 
of electricity or the movements of the heavenly 
bodies. The world has grown a little weary of 
the old discussion, however eloquently voiced, 
and regards it as practically closed by reason 
of a more extended outlook and by the rise of 
new pi*oblems of more living intei*est. 

These " Essays," however, occupy somewhat 



less than one-third of the bulk of the book, 
the remainder being given to '' Studies," liter- 
ary and historical. A happy commingling of 
vivacity and scholarship in the composition 
makes these delightful examples of a type of 
writing not much cultivated as yet by Amer- 
ican writers. In humor both delicate and 
broad, in wit spontaneous and overflowing, our 
literature has always abounded ; but in that 
half-earnest, half-laughing, and wholly artistic 
play of fancy with learning which marks the 
French causerie^ it has so far been signally 
lacking. This is the style, however, in which 
our author reveals himself as truly at home. 
There are eight of these historical and literary 
studies, and they are long enough to give scope 
to considerable digression, but come to an end 
before the author is wearied of his subject, or 
has exhausted the fresh thoughts and happy 
analogies that come in troops at his bidding. 
Their subjects, as might be expected from a 
scholar like Professor Gildersleeve, are mainly 
drawn from the classical world, and include 
"The Legend of Venus," "Xanthippe and 
Socrates," " Lucian," besides the less familiar 
names of " ApoUonius of Tyana," "Platen," 
etc. ; while the chatty way in which the author 
moves about in such company almost takes 
away one's breath to behold. The man who 
spoke disrespectfully of the dative case was 
certainly not more audacious than Professor 
Gildersleeve when he deals with the respectable 
Father Anchises after this fashion : 

<*Anchises is a more fortunate Adonis, and if it were 
not too irreverent we might call him the * Bottom ' of 
the Greek < Midsummer Night's Dream.' As Oberon 
made Titania fall in love with the weaver, so Zeus him- 
self put forth his power to mortify golden Aphrodite ; 
and if the Greek < Bottom ' has not an ass's head the 
candor of his animal nature reminds us forcibly of Iiis 
English analagon. Perhaps, however, this is all preju- 
dice, and we may as well frankly acknowledge that our 
conception of pater Anchises has always been grotesque. 
To carry or to be carried piek-a-pack is graceful 
neither in the carrier or the carried, and we cannot 
conceive Anchises otherwise than mounted on the 
shoulders of pious ^neas, with a pad under him to 
make his old bones comfortable. As Virgil describes 
him, the old gentleman was little more than a respect- 
able mummy; but even in the prime of his youth and 
beauty, * strolling backward and forward and loudly 
a-sounding his cithern,' he is rather amusing than 
heroic, if we may trust the charmingly na\ve rei>ort in 
the Homeric hymn on Aphrodite." 

The handsome and portly volume concludes 
with two short addresses delivered to the Johns 
Hopkins University graduates in the years 
1886 and 1888. These recur again to the 
subject of classical study, but are not-open to | 

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the criticism of the earlier essays, being also 
interesting as the retrospect of the longest 
occupant of a professorial chair in that insti- 
tution of high ideals and worthy achievement. 
It is interesting to learn that an institution 
founded for the sake of supplying in America 
the same advanced instruction offered by the 
German universities already outranks in num- 
bers many of the minor German universities^ 
and that in the more abstruse and recondite 
studies, such as Assyrian and Sanskrit, it holds 
its own with some of the leading schools of 
Europe. The plea for a university exchange, 
whereby American students may pass from one 
university to another in the pix)secution of a 
line of study, as they do in Germany, is 
another sign of liberal tendencies in educa- 
tional appliances, and one which it is hoped 
may soon be undertaken. 

Anna B. McMahan. 



CONSTITUTIOXS ANJ) IXSTITUTJOXS.* 



In recognition of the necessity of re-stating 
the historical propositions as to the origin of 
our national system, and ascertaining the true 
" vanishing-point for the perspective of our 
national history," President Small presents in 
the first of a series of monographs a sum- 
mary statement of the doings and resolutions 
of the Continental Congresses of 1774 and 
1775. Upon the basis of the powers and 
functions in fact exercised by these bodies, he 
proposes to show the actual constitutional re- 
lations then existing between the Continental 
Congi-ess and the colonies. He combats vig- 
orously the theory that there was at that time 
a true union to any extent. The Conthiental 
Congress of the pre-confederation period was 
not a government or an instrument of govern- 
ment ; it was the friend and adviser of the 
colonies ; it was '' the cleai*ing-house of colonial 
opinion," or ''the central office of a cooper- 
ative political signal service," to which the 

* Beginnings ok American Nationality. By Albion 
W. Small, Ph.D. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University 
Studies. 

The Spanish Colonization in the Southwest. By 
Frank W. Blackmar, Ph.D. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins 
University Studies. 

The Political Beginnings of Kentucky. By John 
Mason Brown. "'Filson Club Publications.'' Louisville: 
John P. Morton & Co. 

The Village Community. With special reference to the 
origrin and form of its survivals in Britain. By George Lau- 
rence Gomme. New York : Scribner & Welford. 



people of the colonies looked, "not for sanc- 
tions, in the legal sense, but for signs/' Un- 
questionably, the constitutional historian of 
the future will so class the Continental Con- 
gress, in his tracing of the development of the 
national sentiment in America. But it is to 
be feared that in the pamphlet under consider- 
ation, so much effort is made to swing the 
pendulum of public opinion away from the 
extreme idea of a pre-confederation imion, as 
to tend to carry it to the other extreme. In- 
deed, the learned author states the piHjposition 
which he aims ultimately to prove, to be that 
" the people of the United States simply dodged 
the responsibility of formulating their will 
upon the distinct subject of national sover- 
eignty until the legislation of the sword began 
in 1861." The duty of challenging this extra- 
ordinary statement involves the duty of exam- 
ining closely every step in the proposed sj'l- 
logism. 

The stress of the argument in this pamphlet 
is laid upon the revolutionary and extra-gov- 
ernmental character of the Continental Con- 
gresses, theii* lack of legal authority to bind 
the people of the colonies by legislation, their 
abstinence in general from the assumption of 
governmental power, and their exercise in the 
main of the privilege of advising the colonies. 
Such legislative authority as they did exercise 
was assumed, and derived jwwer only from the 
ratification of the people by their acquiescence. 
From these data is drawn the premise that in 
this acquiescence by the people in the assum]>- 
tions of power by the Congress, are to lie 
tfaced the beginnings of nationality. But in 
truth the beginnings are traceable further back 
in the colonial history, and the calling and 
convenmg and sittings of the Congress wei*e 
but steps in the development. Evidences of 
this are abundant in the pages of President 
Small's monograph. 

The failure of previous attempts at cooper- 
ation, from the New England Confederation 
of 1643 to the Albany convention of 1754, 
which is here emphasized as showing that tlie 
colonies were not ready for union, evidences 
the beginnings of a national feeling. Each 
renewed attempt at union exhibits an increase 
in the tendency toward nationality. Frank- 
lin's plan, in 1754, of a union of the colonies 
for certain general and external purposes, 
showed how far the national sentiment was 
controlling at least one great mind. The man- 
ner in which the Congress of 1774 was called 
together illustrates more powerfully than does 

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the action of the Congress itself the extent of 
national feeling. Out of the twelve colonies 
there represented, the delegates from nine were 
chosen by the people themselves independently 
of any action by the colonial legislatures, and 
in several instances counties sent delegates. 
The fact that the people of nine colonies thus 
took steps toward union, irrespective of their 
local governments, is significant. It was fitting 
that the people should instruct these, their 
delegates, to confer for the protection of the 
intei*ests of America^ and that the (conti- 
nental Congress should accordingly, in the 
exei'cise of its limited powers, speak for 
America. To the Congress of 1775 six col- 
onies sent delegates by the primary action of 
the people. The fact that in others where the 
people had taken the initiative in 1774, the 
colonial assemblies now acted, does not dis- 
prove that there was in fact a popular move- 
ment toward nationality. 

President Small throughout this monograph 
speaks of the colonies as corporations. In 
what precise sense this term is used, is not 
apparent. If intended to define their status 
in 1774 under the British Constitution, it can- 
not be accepted. If employed for want of a 
term more exactly illustrative of the existing 
status of the colonies, it is misleading by 
reason of the very general use of the term 
•■* corporation " in other senses. Such a colony 
was neither a private nor a municipal corpo- 
ration, acc*ording to the present usage of those 
terms. In the English law the colonies had 
originally been classed as civil corporations ; 
but they had long outgrown that character and 
were entitled to the status of political sub- 
divisions of the British Empire. The reader 
of this monograph and its successors should 
not think of the colonies as merely '* corpora- 
tions." It is too narrow a view to take of 
the colonial action in 1775, that revolution was 
an accomplished fact because ^^each colonial 
corporation '' (sic) which had discarded its 
chai-ter government had thereby "decreed 
anarchy.'' Each colony was a political, not 
a municipal, department of the British Empire. 
Each was in the exercise of legislative func- 
tions for itself. The severance of the relation 
to the British crown as the executive power 
did not upset government entirely. It was of 
the essence of the American claim, that there 
was political power in the people. Indeed, 
two of the colonies had commenced as repub- 
lics, and had never ceased to assert the right 
of the people to a share in the government. 



Whatever view we adopt of the popular will- 
ingness, in 1774 and 1775, to decree a new 
national order of things, there can be no doubt 
that the i)eople in nine of the colonies asserted 
in 1774 their inherent riffht to send delegates 
to a continental conference. When President 
Small asserts that "the Congress of 1775 did 
no act by any power other than that which the 
sejxirate corporations represented individually 
constituted," he is apparently hampered by the 
old British view of the colonies as civil corpo- 
rations, and has lost sight of their existing 
status as political entities. 

The pamphlet closes with the work of the 
Congressional session of 1775, and is to be 
followed by a future application of the same 
line of considerations to the later proceedings 
of the Congress, in which it may be hoped 
that the evidences of the continuous evolution 
of older tendencies towartl nationality will not 
be overlooked. 

Professor Frank W. Blackmai*, in his Johns 
Hopkins University study upon "Spanish 
Colonization in the Southwest," a monograph 
of seventy-two pages, has pointed out the dis- 
tinctive features of the Spanish system of 
settlements which so broadly differentiated 
them from English colonial settlements. It 
was in Spain that the Roman civilization first 
took ])ossession of a province and secured its 
firmest footing; and the Spanish colonization 
followed principally, though not without ex- 
ceptions, the Boman type, — the resemblance 
continuing until recent times. The Spanish 
conquests in America, as preserved, extended, 
and shaped by Charles V., Philip II., and 
their succ*essors, were prosecutetl under the 
direct authority of the state through the three- 
fold agency of its civil, military, and religious 
forces. Thus were planted, from time to time, 
pueblos, presidios, and missions, each develop- 
ing in its own way and each exerting its own 
peculiar influence over the native inhabitants 
of Mexic»o and California. The political in- 
dependence of the early Spanish municipal- 
ities, shorn of some of its strength by royal 
limitaticms, was transplanted to the soil of the 
Southwest; but the paternal government of 
Spain, by its liberal grants to settlers of land 
and by other privileges and conveniences, and 
by subjecting the natives to their service as 
laborers, deprived its colonists of those in- 
centives to lal)or and struggle which would 
have made the Spanish colonies strong like 
those planted by Englishmen. ^^ ^ 

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Mr. John Mason Brown, of Louisville, before 
his late lamented death, had completed the 
manuscript of his historical tract on the " Pol- 
itical Beginnings of Kentucky," which his as- 
sociates of the Filson Club have now added to 
their list of publications. The leading events 
in the history of the new state, prior to its ad- 
mission into the Union, are graphically stated, 
and incidents or movements which have here- 
tofore been the subject of dispute are critically 
examined by this new historian, whose valuable 
researches into our unwritten history were in- 
terrupted by his untimely death. So much of 
the matter which makes up this volume has 
been gathered from original sources as to justify 
this rewriting of the old story of the settlement 
of the first state west of the Alleghanies. Mr. 
Brown brings much additional evidence to the 
vindication of the memory of his eminent ances- 
.tor, John Brown, delegate from Virginia in the 
Continental Congress and first senator of the 
new state of Kentucky, from the already ex- 
ploded charge of disloyalty, and to sustain his 
conclusion that " the so-called ' Spanish Con- 
spiracy,' gloomily imagined as concocted with 
Gardoqui, was but a figment of an incensed 
political adversary's brain, a suspicion unsup- 
ported by a particle of testimony, un vouched 
by document, unestablished by dej^sition, and 
refuted by every proof." 

Lovers of romance will find it in real life in 
the early history of Kentucky, as painte<l by 
Mr. Brown. The latest of all attempts at pro- 
prietary government within the present domain 
of the United States was the Transylvania col- 
ony, planted in Kentucky, but which the strong 
republican sense of the American people killed 
in its infancy. The story of the efforts of Ken- 
tucky toward indej)endent statehood is drama- 
tic. The idea was broached as early as 1780, 
organized into a movement in 1784, but, though 
having the concurrence of the parent state Vir- 
ginia, was delayed from year to year by appar- 
ently trifling causes, until 1788, when, just as 
all other obstacles had been removed, and the 
Continental Congress was ready to recognize a 
fourteenth member of the Confederacy, the 
announcement of the ratification, by the ninth 
state, of the Federal Constitution, set the new 
national government in operation, and deprived 
the Continental Congress of all power in the 
premises. Then ensued the episode of the rival 
diplomacy of Spain and England, each endeav- 
oring for its own purposes to detach Kentucky 
from the Union and engage her in a separate 
alliance. But the closest research shows no real 



encouragement given to these schemes. The 
commei'cial necessity of an outlet at New Or- 
leans for Kentucky products, and the improve- 
ments in river navigation, stimulated the dis- 
cussion of the opening of the Mississippi ; but 
the Kentucky colonists loyally sought the open- 
ing of that great river under American auspices. 
The "Political Club" at Danville discussed 
the proposed Federal Constitution with as much 
detail and minuteness as the towns of Massar 
chusetts observed in discussing the provisions 
of their State Constitution. The records of 
that club still contain the faded manuscript 
endorsed, "The Constitution of the United 
States of America as amended and approved 
by the Political Club." But with the delays 
occasioned by the necessity of fresh legislative 
action in Virginia, and by the suspicions which 
were afloat as to the schemes of European diplo- 
mats, it was not until 1792 that Kentucky had 
the opportunity to become permanently enrolled 
in the list of American states. 

The essay of Mr. Gomme, on " The Village 
Community" as exhibited in various archaic 
survivals in Great Britain, will be found not 
only interesting but highly entertaining. The 
advanced views of this writer will enlist the 
attention of those readers who have followed 
the discussion of the question from Maine to 
Seebohm and Koss. He aims to show that the 
origin of the Village Community in Britain is 
not only pre-Roman but pre-Teutonic ; and that 
both there and in India it was primarily a non- 
Aryan institution, which has perpetuated itself 
under an Aryan overlordship, imposed upon it 
by Aryan conquerors ; while in Britain he seeks 
to trace its continuity from pre-Aryan times, 
as affected by alternate conquests of Teutonic 
and Roman invaders. The process employed 
is a detailed examination of all the evidences 
disclosed in the writings of previous investiga- 
tors, as well as those collected by the author 
himself. History, archaeology, law, custom and 
folk-lore are all appealed to, and he ingeniously 
finds support for his theory in all these fields 
of inquiry. The result is a work which will be 
read with interest, even by those who here for 
the first time examine the subject. Many and 
various features of the survival of archaic cus- 
toms, and many historical facts, are adduced 
to show that the Village Community was a vig- 
orous institution prior to the Roman invasion 
of Britain, and to illustrate the effect upon the 
institution of that invasion, and also of the 
later conquests by the Northmen. The Roman 

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165 



system of towns, connecting highways, and a 
commercial world, was imposed for a time upon 
the earlier agricultural communities of Britain. 
The Teutonic conquest placed the agricultural 
interests again in the ascendency. Villages or- 
ganized for agricultural purposes succeeded to 
commercial towns, and oftentimes u}X)n their 
iTiins. 

The Teutonic village communities had no use 
for towns ; and in this fact Mr. Gomme finds 
the explanation of the complete destruction of 
so many fortified Roman towns. An instance 
of the operation of these influences is found in 
London. The Roman commercial metropolis 
was not only reduced in size, but in its suburbs 
the Village Community, with all its character- 
istic features, was planted, and it governed the 
city and flourished for centuries, until again 
enveloped in the folds of the new and expand- 
ing metropolis. In the Customs of London, 
whose archaic features have long attracted the 
attention of the curious, both within and with- 
out the legal profession, Mr. Gomme finds light 
thrown upon the municipal history. Certain 
of these customs, now nearly extinct but once 
well-marked, he identifies as those of the Vil- 
lage Community, evidencing a period when that 
institution assumed the control of the former 
metropolis. Certain other customs, Roman in 
their origin, he finds surviving and asserting 
themselves during the period of Teutonic su- 
premacy, and operating in due time, with 
others, to again metamorphose the city, and 
make commercial customs and interests domi- 
nant. We refrain from extracting passages 
from Mr. Gomme's pages on this subject, pre- 
ferring to send readers to the original. The 
full illustration of the community villages of 
Chippenham and Malmesbury, and of their 
perpetuation of ancient customs with the force 
of local law, is no less interestmg. These vil- 
lages having been free from the influences of 
Roman occupation, Mr. Gomme appropriately 
presents them as more nearly typical of the 
Village Community pure and simple, than the 
manor and village of Hitehin, which were taken 
as a type by Mr. Seebohm. Less full, because 
of the paucity of material, but of equal inter- 
est, is this author's treatment of the institutions 
and agricultural customs of the hill-dwelling 
tribes in England, whose history antedates that 
of the villagers. The same mode of examma- 
tion, applied to the subject of the ancient hilU 
dwellers in Ireland, would furnish another valu- 
able text-book for the student of early institu- 
tions. James O. Pierce. 



BuiKFs OX Ke>v Books. 

Mk. W. E. Henley's "Views and Reviews" 
(Scribner) is described 1)y himself as " a mosaic of 
scraps and shreds recovered from the shot rubbish 
of some fourteen years of journalism." There 
are forty little reviews and a good many more 
views, and for the reviews as a whole more is 
to be said than for the views. Mr. Henley's most 
interesting views are those anent the chief English 
and B'rench novelists. Dickens is to him a great 
and serious artist, representative and national. 
Thackeray is merely " a student of the meannesses 
and the minor miseries of existence, the toothaches 
and the pimples of experience." Clarissa Harlowe 
" remains the Eve of fiction, the prototype of the 
modern heroine ;" Fielding is " worthy to dispute 
the palm with Cervantes and Sir Walter as the 
heroic man of letters ;" and for George Meredith 
he has no higher praise than that of being " a com- 
panion for Balzac and Richardson, an intimate for 
Fielding and Cervantes." Tolstoi is "the great 
optimist, and his work is wholesome in direct ratio 
to the vastness of his talent," etc. For George 
Eliot, on the other hand, Mr. Henley has nothing 
but the savage epigrams of the clubman : " t^allas 
with prejudices and a corset," etc. He has appar- 
ently heard of but two Americans of genius — 
Longfellow and Whitman — for each of whom he 
has a good word. Upon the " literary American " 
in general he bestews the conventional cheap sneer. 
From the exploration of Landor's works he returns 
jaded as from " a continent of dulness and futility ;" 
but he finds Dr. Hake to be "one of the most 
earnest and original of poets." These are samples 
of the " Views." As for the " Reviews," we may 
say at once that they were worth reprinting. If 
they sometimes fail in justness of appreciation, they 
seldom lack crispness of expression. When the 
critical verdicts are not true, they have at least the 
merit of being half-true. Mr. Henley's truth is 
as likely as not to be commonplace — ^as where for 
the thousandth time he refutes Macaulay concern 
ing Boswell, oblivious of the fact that Carlyle had 
performed the task once for all. Almost wholly 
admirable are the reviews of Matthew Arnold and 
of George Meredith, and that upon Heine contains a 
delightful castigation of the ignoble herd of trans- 
lators. On the whole, the reader who has lost his 
bearings in the jungle of modern " printed matter" 
might do worse than to accept the guidance, as far 
as it goes, of Mr. Henley's " Reviews." And the 
reader who has better guides will hardly fail of 
amusement in reviewing these " Views," and may 
even pick up a nugget or two in the midst of all 
this " shot rubbish." 



The new and rapidly extending interest in an- 
tiquarian art lias induced an English translation 
of the valuable French work by Messrs. Greorges 
Perrot and Charles Chipiez, entitled "History of 
Art in Sardinia, Judea, Syria, and AsiaMinor " 

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[Oct., 



(Armstrong). The translation and English notes 
are by I. Gonino, whose precise knowledge of the 
subject-matter enables him to elucidate many facts 
only passingly touched by the authors. The work 
is issued in two large octavo volumes, and is illus- 
trated with more than 400 engravings, including 
eight steel and colored plates. The first volume is 
devoted to Sardinia and Judea. The researches 
of the authors have brought forth a mass of 
curious and important information. A careful 
portion of the opening chapter is on Sardinian 
civilization. Under the head of Judea the student 
will find a history of the temple with topography 
of Jerusalem, a description of Mount Moriah, and 
architectural forms and materials used in the 
inclosure wall. The methods used in restoring the 
temple are developed, and there is a scheme by 
which a scientific study of Jewish art may be more 
deliberately prosecuted. A chapter is devoted to 
the Temple of £zekiel, and another to sepulchral, 
religious, and domestic architecture and sculpture. 
In this will also be found the rudiments of gl3ri)tic 
art, of painting and the industrial arts, and a con- 
sideration of Hebraic archaeology. The second 
volume carries the authors' inquiries into Northern 
Syria and Cappadocia. They present a concise 
view of the writings of the Hittites, and their 
architecture and sculpture are carefully considered. 
One chapter treats of the art of Asia Minor as 
seen in civil and military architecture, in the sanc- 
tuary, the palace, and necropolis. No recent con- 
tribution to history is more effectual than this work 
in demonstrating the unity of origin of all Aiyan 
peoples and Aryan art ; nor does any other more 
clearly establish that moderns have improved little 
upon the principles of aesthetics practiced by early 
orientals in decorative, domestic, and industrial art. 
The work is written in a clear, scholarly, and pol- 
ished style, and the translation is worthy of it. 

The third volume of the valuable '* Riverside 
Science Series " (Houghton) is entitled " Heat as a 
Form of Energy,*' and is written by Robert H. 
Thurston of Cornell University. The opening chap- 
ter, on "The Philosophers* Ideas of Heat," gives 
a survey of early theories, and is interesting as show- 
ing many correspondences between ancient and mod- 
em notions. But the former were merely ingenious 
guesses, and no real progress was made until exper- 
iment and induction began. Even so late as the 
beginning of the present century, scientific men were 
still disputing the nature of heat, and were divided 
into two gi-eat parties, the one holding with Sir Isaac 
Newton that heat was a substance emitted in the 
form of minute projectiles, bombarding all surround- 
ing objects ; the other asserting that it was simply 
a mode of motion, a variety of energy consisting in 
the vibration of particles of bodies. Due considera- 
tion is then given to the part played by Count Rum- 
ford and by Sir Humphrey Davy in confirming the 
second hypothesis; by Joule in finding accurate 
measures of the mechanical equivalent of heat; by 



Rankine, Clausius, Thomson, Zeuner, and others, in 
their several contributions of discovery, which finally 
gave us, about the middle of the century, a true 
science of thermodynamics. Thus the way was 
opened to a science of heat-motors, and the applica- 
tion of these well-established principles becomes the 
means through which the energy of heat-motion is 
converted by transformation into the various mani- 
festations of mechanical energy, or through which 
tlie operation of mechanical power is made to result 
in the production of heat. Professor Thurston gives 
some space to air and gas engines, their work and 
their promise ; and there is an admirable chapter, 
illustrated by several plates, on the development of 
the steam-engine. The great defect of the pre^^ent 
appliances of tiiermodynamics is the enonnous 
amount of heat-waste thus far found unavoidable; 
the great desideratum is some means of imitating 
nature in the production of light without heat-\i'a8te, 
one which, like the glowworm, shall utilize an iUani- 
inant and a lighting system for the conversion of 
substantially all applied energy into ether-vibrations 
of the luminous kind. Whether man will ever suc- 
ceed in such an achievement, the author does not 
undei*take to decide, but that it is among the prob- 
abilities, he has no doubt ; nor does he doubt that 
the future has wonders in store for us fully as im- 
pressive and important as any that have astonished 
and delighted the present generation. 

The third volume in the ''Famous Women of 
the French Court" series (Scribner), "Marie An- 
toinette and the End of the Old Regime," seems 
to us to be the best of the set, so far. Beginning 
with the birth of the Dauphin, in 1781, the author 
reviews rapidly and graphically the leading events 
in the life of the unfortunate Queen, up to the ter- 
rible 6th of October, 1789, when the amazons of the 
Fanbaurg escorted •* the baker, the baker's wife, and 
the baker *s little boy " on their last journey from 
Versailles to the Tuilleries. Why M. de Saint- 
Amand thought fit to break off his narrative at this 
point is not evident. We should have preferred a 
continuation of it, instead of the long and senti- 
mentally retrosp'^ctive chapter on the fortunes of 
*' Versailles since 1789,'' with which the volume 
concludes. The author has not, of course, omitted 
the story of the diamond necklace from his recital. 
and he tells it very well : we recommend this part 
of the work as a good preparative to the enjoyment 
of Carlyle's brilliant but rather tojisy-turvy narra- 
tive. The present volume will be found, like its 
predecessors, entertaining and not uninstructive. Its 
pages are a-glitter with the details of balls, banquets, 
court-spectacles, and court dresses — ^the parapher- 
nalia of a class and system of which our author is a 
determined panegyrist. The superficial glories of 
the *' Old Regime " have captivated his imagination 
to the detriment of his judgment ; and the mass of 
anecdote, description, and quotation, which forms 
the ground-work of his book, is strung together on 
a thread of unwarrantably regretful reflection. Mor- 



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alizing on the altered fortunes of the palace of Ver- 
sailles, he exclaims, *' Not even the chambers of the 
kings inspired respect." We think it would puzzle 
M. de Saint-Amand to give a good and sufficient 
reason why they should. 

The second volume of the " Adventure Series " 
(Macmillan) is a reprint, elaborately edited by 
Captain Pasfield Oliver, R.A., of that very curious 
eighteenth century document, "Robert Drmy*s 
Journal." The *' Journal" is, or pretends to be, 
an account of the fifteen years' captivity of the 
author in Madagascar, during which period he 
claims to have been held in slavery by the natives 
of the island. Drury's story was first published in 
1729 and has passed through six editions, being 
generally regarded as authentic and freely quoted 
as first-hand authority by subsequent writei-s on 
JVIadagascar. Drury's veracity has, however, been 
impeached of late, and the editor of the present 
'volume, after much deliberation, enrolls himself 
among the doubting Thomases, basing his distrust 
chiefly on certain suspicious resemblances between 
the *' Journal" and De Flacourt's "Histoire de 
3Iadagascar," which was issued sixty-eight years 
anterior to it. Drury was an unlettered man, and 
his •* Journal," in the form in which we have it, is 
largely the work of an editor (perhaps the " un- 
abashed Defoe" himself) who, in compiling the 
nainrative from the " yarns " of the returned cast- 
away, probably drew on extant works on Mada- 
^rascar, besides enriching the whole with the embel- 
lishments of his own imagination. But there is 
undoubtedly a substratum of truth to the story, 
^'hich is told very much in Defoe*s manner. 
Drury 's adventures, as related in the "Journal," 
were certainly of the most surprising character, 
and we commend them to the attention of lovers of 
the marveUous. The volume is liberally illustrated, 
and contains, in addition to Drury's narrative, a 
critical and descriptive introduction by the editor, 
Drury *s vocabulary of the Madagascar language, 
and an abridgement of the Abb^ Rochon's " Account 
of Madagascar." 

A WELL-ARRANGED and well-considered work 
for advanced students in the Grerman language is 
Book I. of Professor Carla Wenckebach's " Deutsche 
Literaturgeschichte " (Heath), and we take pleas- 
ure in recommending it to all who wish to lay the 
foundation of a thorough and scientific knowledge 
of the Grerman language and literature. The series 
will consist of three books, each embracing the pro- 
ductions of a separate period: the first, from the 
dawn of the German literature until 1100 ; the 
second, from 1100 until 1624 ; and the third, from 
1624 up to the present time. Professor Wencke- 
bach's work seems to be arranged throughout on 
the rational principle that instruction in the devel- 
opment of a literature, if it is to be thorough, 
must be accompanied by instruction in the develop- 
ment of the people, period for period ; that no lit- 



erary work can be grasped and enjoyed unless 
something is known of the social conditions that 
surrounded its author. Teachers are often com- 
pelled, through inaccessibility of material, to attempt 
to impart a knowledge of German literature with- 
out giving the pupil adequate examples. In the 
Literaturgeschichte will be found, under the head 
of Muster stflck^i (specimen-pieces), a well-chosen 
collection of examples conveniently arranged for 
reference. Lack of space compels us to pass over 
other commendable features of this work. It 
should be mentioned, however, that the typography 
is especially good — so good as to reduce considera- 
bly the eye-destroying qualities of the Grerman text. 

The fact that public attention has so recently 
been drawn to the republics of Guatemala and Sal- 
vador renders Mr. Frank Vincent's new book, " In 
and Out of Central America" (Appleton), a very 
timely one. The writer is a keen-eyed and practiced 
observer who rapidly '* takes in " the chief outward 
features of the places and peoples he visits ; and 
while he does not linger very long, or cut very deep, 
he gives us plenty of the sort of information that 
intelligent readers look for in books of travel. The 
volume is written in a very agreeable style, clear, 
direct, with an occasional touch of humor. Unlike 
many other wi*iters in his chosen field, Mr. Vincent 
is modest enough to think that what he saw is of 
more importance to his readers than what he felt 
when he saw it; hence no time is wasted by him 
in fiorid ''word painting" or sentiment. Not more 
than half the book is devoted to Central America 
— the states of Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, 
Salvador, and Guatemala being treated in turn, — 
while the rest is made up of sketches ranging from 
the Antilles and Brazil, to Siam and Cambodia. The 
work is liberally illustrated and is supplied with the 
requisite maps. _ 

Major Conder's ** Palestine," in the "Great 
Explorers" series (Dodd), takes us for a pleasant 
ramble " in those holy fields " which the author has 
so recently explored. The work is not an archaeo- 
logical treatise, but a running glance at the work 
of the Palestine Exploring Expedition, which 
Major Conder led. Much of personal incident is 
scattered through the narrative and enlivens it. 
The position is well taken that the students of 
Biblical history of the school of Ewald and Well- 
hausen take a one-sided view of their subject, 
through a deficiency of archaeological knowledge, 
and that a lengthened sojourn in Palestine would 
modify many of their dogmas. Major Conder 
suggests forcibly that the oriental mind has ever 
been, not an editing^ but a commeiitdting one. 
His picture of the Moslem world is an interesting 
revelation, showing as many hypocritical professors 
of the faith there as in Christendom. The author, 
of course, parades his hobby, the "Mongolian" 
Hittite theory, and he is too eager to tell us how 
competent Major Claude Regnier Conderyas for 

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the work undertaken; but we can condone his 
assumptions and liis foibles in view of his valuable 

researches. 

A CONTEMPORARY volume on a kindred theme 
with the above, ^^ Palestine under the Moslems'' 
(Houghton), is one in which a competent scholar 
sinks himself in his subject. Mr. Guy Le Strange 
has won greater distinction in editing mediaeval 
travels for the Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society 
than in editing semi-political correspondence of the 
present century, in which he is not at home. In 
the work now under notice his foot is on his native 
heath, his object being <^ to translate and thus ren- 
der available the mass of interesting information 
about Palestine which lies buried in the Arabic 
texts of the Moslem geographers and travellers of 
the middle ages.*' The result is a work which must 
take its place on our shelves alongside Robinson's 
"Biblical Researches in Palestine" and the pub- 
lications of the Palestine Exploration Fund. For 
those who do not read Arabic the work is done 
once for all, and an exhaustive and scholarly g^uide- 
book for mediaeval Palestine is provided. It is 
dry reading in many places, but at times the nar- 
rative expands into most vivid and fascinating por- 
trayals, with all the naivetS of a mind at once 
mediaeval and oriental. 

One of the most amusing things in the way of 
feminine "globe-trotting" reminiscences that we 
have seen is Miss Sara Jeannette Duncan's "A 
Social Departure " (Appleton). Women are usually 
denied humor ; but Miss Duncan has a good deal 
of it — a dry cis-Atlantic humor with a Mark 
Twainish flavor. Unfortunately, the writer's fun 
sometimes degenei*ates into flippancy ; the book, 
too, is rather too long, — but it is so amusing that 
we cannot quarrel with it on that score. The nu- 
merous illustrations by F. H. Townsend are spirited 
and well reproduced. 

The Dial ia again called upon to cbrouicle the death 
of one of its contributors, — one of its oldest and best, 
the Rev. Dr. Horatio K. Powers, who died suddenly at 
his parsonage home at Piermont-on-the-Hudson, Sep- 
tember 6, in his sixty-fourth year. Last winter, his 
health failing somewhat alarmingly, Dr. Powers took a 
trip to Europe with his family, from which he returned 
in the summer apparently much improved. A letter 
received from him hardly two weeks before his death 
shows at its full that buoyancy and hope so character- 
istic of him throughout his life. Dr. Powers was bom 
iu Ameuia, N. Y., was graduated at Union College and 
tlie Protestant-Episcopal Theological Seminary in New 
York City, was ordained by Bishop Horatio Potter, and 
became rector successively of parishes at I^ancaster, 
Pa.; Davenport, Iowa; Chicago; Bridgeport, Conn.; and 
Piermont-on-the-Hudson. In addition to his regular 
and successful pastoral work, Dr. Powers found a large 
space in his life for literature, and for the companion- 
ship of literar}' men — among them, Bryant, Bayai*d 
Taylor, and others of the older school. Art study and 
criticism was always with him a favorite pursuit ; he 
was for several yeara the American correspondent of 



" L'Art," and was a frequent writer upon art and liter- 
ary topics in the periodicals. He also wrote mnch for 
the religious press, and a volume of his religious essap, 
with the title « Through the Year," was published in 
1875. But his best love was given to poetry. Many 
of his pieces have been widely copied, and have a place 
in the standard anthologies of English verse. Two 
volumes of hLs poems have been published — "Early 
and Late " in 1876, and " A Decade of Song " in 1885. 
His poetry reflects a tender and genuine feeling for 
nature, an introspective habit that enabled him to see a 
spiritual meaning in all things, and a cheerful serenity 
of disposition that kept his spirit young and his imag- 
ination responsive to all beautiful forms and thoughts. 
Such poems as " My Walk to Church," for example, 
are tndy Wordsworthian in depth, tenderness, and sim- 
plicity. Our readers will, we are sure, be glad to see 
this poem reprinted here, not only for its characteristic 
poetic qualities, but for its personal tone and for the 
glimpses it reveals of the beautiful and kindly spirit 
that inspired it. 

MY WALK TO CHURCH. 

Breathinff the Summer-acented air 
Along: the bowery mountain way. 

Each Lord's-day momin? I repair 
To serve my church, a mile away. 

Below, the glorious river lies — 
A bright, broad-breaated, sylvan sea; 

And I'ound the samptuous highlands rise, 
Fair as the hills of Galilee. 

Young flowers are in my path. I hear 

Music of unrecorded tone. 
The heart of Beauty beats so near, 
"^ Its pulses modulate my own. 

The sliadow on the meadow's breast 
Is not more calm than my reiKise, 

As. step by step; I am the guest 
Of every living thing that grows. 

All, something melts along the sky. 

And something rises from the ground. 
And fills the inner ear and eye 

Beyond the sense of sight and sound. 

It LB not that I strive to see 

Wliat Love in lovely shapes has wrought,— 
Its gracious messages to me 

Come, like the gentle dews, unsought. 

I merely walk with open heart 
Which feels the secret in the sign; 

But oh, how laige and rich my part 
III all that makes the feast divine! 

Sometimes I hear the happy birds 
That sang to Christ beyond the sea. 

And softly His consoling words 
Blend with their joyous minstrelsy. 

Sometimes in royal vesture glow 

llie lilies that He called so fair, 
Which never toil nor spin, yet show 

The loving Father's tender care. 

And then along the fragrant hills 
A radiant presence seems to move. 

And earth grows fairer as it fills 
The very air I breathe with love. 

And now I see one perfect face; 

And, hastening to my church's door. 
Find Him within the holy place 

Who, all my way, went on before. 



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Topics in Treading Pkiuodicals. 

October, 1890, 

Altdorf. W. D. McCrackan. Atlantic. 

American Girls m E nrpp e. Madam Adam. North American. 

American literature, Women in. Helen G. Cone. Century, 

American Universities. A. D. White. North American. 

Anient Dwellings of the Rio Verde. £. A. Mearns. Pop. Set. 

Anthropology and Fall of Man. A. D. White. Pop. Sci. 

Amold^^B Treason. John FSske. Atlantic. 

Assessment life Insurance. G. D. Eldridgre. North Am. 

Atlantic Barrier Beaches. F. J. H. Memll. Pop. Science. 

Bidfonr's Answer to Famell. JohnMorley. North American. 

British Ijahor Tendencies. Michael Davitt. North Am. 

Cahle Expedition, With a. H. L. Webb. Scribner. 

Gave-DweUings. F. T. Bickford. Century, 

Character in Schools. Abby M. Diaz. Arena. 

(liemical Truth. Louis Olivier. Popular Science. 

China, Irrigation in. Tcheng Ki Ton^. Popular Science. 

China's Menace. Thomas Siumree. Forum. 

Citizenship, A Test of. Century. 

City Houses. J. W. Koot. Scribner. 

CliraAte luid the GKilf Stream. J. W. Kedway. F&rttm. 

Constitutions and Institutions. James O. Pierce. Died. 

Cotton-Spinning. H. V. Meigs. Popular Science. 

Crowns and Coronets. G. P. A. Healey. North American. 

Daughters, Future of (hir. Helen E. Starrett. Forum. 

Death Penalty. G. F. Shrady. Arena. 

Descartes, Ren4. Popular Science. 

Earth-Artificers, Two. Selim H. Peabody. Dial. 

*' Earthly Tabernacle." Olive T. Miller. Popular Science. 

Electric Lighting. David Salomons. Lippincott. 

Essays, New and Old. Anna B. McMahan. Dial. 

Faith and Credulity. John Burroughs. North American. 

French Canadian Peasantry. Prosper Bender. Mag, Am. His. 

French Salons, Women of the. Amelia G. Mason. Century. 

Girls' Private Schools. Mrs. Sylvanus Keed. Scribner. 

Guatemala. F. J, A. Darr. Cosmopolitan. 

Health's Invisible Assailants. Samuel Hart. Pop. Science. 

Hexameters and Rhythmic Prose. G. H. Palmer. Atlantic. 

Ibsen, Henrik. E. P. Evans. Atlantic. 

Ibeen, Henrik.^ W. E. Symonds. i>t<ii. 

Japan, An Artist's Letters from. J. La Faige. Century. 

liquor Laws. G. F. Magoun. Popular Science. ^ 

Merit System, The. Century. ^^ 

Meteorites and Stellar Systems. G. H. Darwin. Century. 

Moneys of Lincoln's Administration. L. Chittenden. Harper. 

Moose-Hunting. Julian Ralph. Harper. 

Municipal Reform. E. L. Godkin. North American, 

National Progress. R. S. Storrs. Mag, American History. 

Nationalism. Edward Bellamy. Forum. 

Newman, Cardinal. J. T. Bixby. Arena. 

Office Patronage. H. C. Lodge. Century. 

Over the Teacups. O. W. Holmes. Atlantic. 

Pan-American Conference. North American. 

Persistency of Historic Myths. William F. Poole. Died. 

Postmaster^General and Censorship of Morals. Arena. 

Race Problem. W. S. Scarborouf^. Arena. 

Sand-Waves. J. R. Spears. Scribner. 

saver Act, The New. F.W.Taussig. Forum. 

Sonthold and Her Homes. Mrs. M. J. Lamb. Mag. Am, His, 

University Extension. S. T. Skidmore. Lippincott. 

Vivisection. Edward Berdoe. Century. 

Zodiacal Light. A. W. Wright. Forum, 



Books of the Month. 



[The following list includes all books received by The Dial 
during the month of September, 1890,] 

BIOGBAPHT. 

Henrik Ibeen: 1828-1888. A Critical Biognphy. By Hen- 
rik 'J«eger. From the Norwegian by WilOam Morton 
Payne, truislator of Biomson's ** Sigurd Slembe." Illus- 
trated. 12mo, pp. 275. Uncut. Gilt top. A. C. McClurg & 
Co. «1.50. 

Life of Dorothea Lynde Diz. By Francis Tiffany. With 
Portrait. 12mo, pp. 992. Gnlt top. Houghton, Mifflin 
<&Co. $1.50. 

Famous European Artists. By Sarah K. Bolton, author 
of *' Famous American Authors." Illustrated. 16mo, 
pp.423. T. y. CroweU <fc Co. $1.50. 

Citizeness Bonaparte. By Imbert de Saint- Amand. Trans- 
lated by Thomas Sergeant Perry. With Portrait. 12mo, 
pp. :)0G. Charles Scnbner's Sons. $1.25. 



Am-ed the Great. Bv Thomas Hughes, M.P., author of 
"School Days at Kugby." Illustrated. 16mo, pp. ,'«4. 



Uncut. Houghton, I^fftin & Co. $1.(M). 
Life of Henry Dod^e. From 1782 to IKiS. By William 
Salter. With Portrait and Maps. Large Mvo, pp. 7(>. 
Paper. Mauro <& Wilson. $1.(N). 

HISTOBY, 

The Jews under Roman Rule. By W. D. Morrison. Illus- 
trated. 12mo, pp. 42G. Putnam's *'Stoiy of the Nations" 
Series. $1.50. 

History of the American Episcopal Church. From the 
Pladiting of the Colonies to the end of the Civil War. 
By S. D. McConnell, D. D. 8vo, pp. .firi. Thomas Whit- 
taker. $2.00. 

The Study of History in Holland and BelfiriunL By 
Paul Fr^d^ricq. Authorized Translation. 8vo, pp. 77. 
Paper. The Johns Hopkins Press. 50 cents. 

An Elementary History of the United States. By Charles 
Morris, author of ** Civilization." 12mo, pp. 250. J. B. 
lippincott Co. GO cents. 

ABCH.^OLOGY, 

The Antiquities of Tennessee and the adjacent States ; 
and the State of Aboriginal Society in the Scale of Civil- 
ization Represented by them. A Series of Historical and 
Ethnological Studies. By Gates P. Thruston. Illustrated. 
Royal 8vo, pp. 300. Robt. Clarke & Co. $4.00. 

The Pre-Columbian Discovery of America by the 
Northmen, with Translations from the Icelandic Sagas. 
By B. F. DeCosta. Second Edition. 8vo, pp. 206. Boards. 
Uncut. Joel Mimsell's Sons. $3.(N). 

POLITICAL AND SOCIAL STUDIES, 
Civil Government in the United States. Considered 

with some Reference to Its Origin. By John Fiske. 

Crown 8vo, pp. .'WJO. Houghton, Ji£fflin & Co. $1.00. 
An Introduction to the History of the Science of Politics. 

By Sir Henry Pollock, Bart, M.A. 12mo, pp. 128. Mac- 

mdlan & Co. 75 cents. 
Want and Wealth: A Discussion of some Economic 

Dangers of the Day. By Edward J.Shriver. 12mo, pp. 

35. Paper. Putnam's *' Questions of the Day." 25ctB. 

LITEBABY MISCELLANY, 

Literary Essays. By James Russell Lowell. In 4 vols. 
With Portrait. 12mo. Gilt top. Houghton, Mifflin & 
Co. $6.00. 

The Writingrs of Oeorere Waahincrton. Collected and 
Edited by Worthington Chauncey Ford. In 14 volumes. 
Vol. VIL, 1778-1779. Royal 8vo, pp. 500. GUt top. G. P. 
Putnam's Sons. $5.00. 

Abraham Lincoln's Pen and Voice: Being a Complete 
Collection of his Letters. Addresses, Inaugurals, etc. By 
G. M. Van Buren. With a Steel Portrait. 12mo, pp. 
435. Robt. Clarke & Co. $1.50. 

Essayes of Montaifirne. Transhited by John Florio. Edited 
by Justin Huntley McCarthy. Vote. III. and IV. With 
two Frontispieces. 32mo. London: David Stott. $1.50. 

The Bssajrs of EUa. Bv Charies Lamb. Edited by August- 
ine BirreU. With Etched Frontispiece. 16mo, pp. ;J28. 
Gilt top. MacmiUan & Co. $1.00. 

The Collected Writingrs of Thomas De Quincey. By 
David Masson. New and Enlarged Edition. In 14 Vols. 
Vols. X. and XL, Literary Theory and Criticism. 16mo. 
Illustrated. Uncut. Macmilhui & Co. Per Vol., $1.25. 

Short Studies of Shakespeare's Plots. By Cyril Ran- 
some, M.A. 12mo, pp. 209. MacmiUan & Co. $1.00. 

The Defense of Poesy. Otherwise known as an Apology 
for Poetry. Bv Sir Philip Sidney. Edited, with Intro- 
duction and Notes, by Albert S. Cook. lOmo, pp. 143. 
Ginn & Co. 

Representative Men; Nature; Addresses and Lectures. 
By Ralph Waldo Emerson. Popular Edition, two vols, 
in one. 12mo, pp. 648. Houghton, Mifflin <& Co. $1.00. 

Bab and His Friends; and other Dogs and Men. By Dr. 
John Brown. With an Outline Sketch of the Author and 
a Portrait. 18mo, pp. 29i). Houghton^s " Riverside Clas- 
sics." $1.00. 

The Nine Worlda Stories from Norse Mythology. By 
Mary E. Litchfield. Illustrated. Ifimo, pp. 1(«. Ginn 
& Co. GO cents. 



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[Oct., 



FICTION. 
Gome Forth. By Elizabeth Stuart Phelm and Herbert D. 

Ward. 16tno, pp. 318. Houghton, Mifflin <& Co. $1.25. 
Plain Tales tcom the Hills. By Kudyard Kipling, author 

of ** Departmental Ditties.^' Third Edition, 12rao, pp. 

310. Uncut. MaciuiUan & Co. $\,m. 
The Anglomanlacs. 12mo, pp. 2SH>. Caasell Pub'g Co. $1. 
Two Modem Women. A novel. By Kate Gannett Wells. 

16nio. J. B. Lippincott C'O. ;}|(1.2.*>. 
Whose Fault? By Jennie Harrison, author of ''Choir 

Boys of Cheswick." 12mo, pp. :3rX). E. P. Dntton & 

Co. $1.25. 
The Blversons : A Tale of the Wissahickon. By S. J. 

Bumstead. 12mo, pp. 448. Welch, Fracker Co. $1.25. 
Catherine's Coquetries— A Tale of French Country Life. 

ByCamille Debans. Translated by Leon Mead. Illus- 
trated. 12too, pp. 174. Worthington Co. Paper, 50 cts. ; 

cloth, $1.00. 
Flirt : A Storv of Parisian Life. By Paul Hervieu. Trans- 
lated by Hugh Craig. Illustrated by Madeleine Lemaire. 

12mo, pp. 273. Paper. Uncut. Worthington Co. 75 cts. 
Paul Nugent, Materialist: AKeply to ''Robert Elsmere.'' 

By Helen F. Hetherington (Gulufer) and Rev. H. Darwin 

Burton. 16mo, pp. 344. Paper. E. P. Dutton <& Co. 50c. 
Dmitri: A Romance of Old Russia. By F. W. Bain, M.A. 

16mo, pp. 282. Paper. Appleton^s " Town and Country 

Library.'' 50 cents. 
Part of the Property. By Beatrice Whitby, author of 

"The Awakening of Mary Fenwick." 16mo, pp. 312. 

Paper. Appleton's "Town and Country Library.'' 50 cts. 
Not of Her Father's Race. Bv William T. Meredith. 

16mo, pp. 291. Paper. Cassell's Sunshine Series." 50 cts. 
The Entedled Hat; or, Patty Cannon's Times. A Romance. 

By George Alfred Townseud (Gath). TJmo, pp. 5<>5. 

Paper. Harper's " Franklin Square Library." 50 cents. 
At an Old Chateau. A Novel. By Katharine S. Macguoid, 

author of '* At the Red Glove.-' 8vo, pp. 226. Paper. 

Harper's " Franklin Square Library." IV> cents. 
The Courtlngr of Dinah Shadd, and other Stories. Bv 

Rudyard Kipling, author of " Plain Tales from the Hills." 

With a Biograpnical and Critical Sketch by Andrew 

Lang. 8vo, pp. 182. Paper. Harper's " Franklin Square 

Library." JW cents. 
Two Masters: A Novel. By B. M. Croker, author of " Proper 

Pride." 12mo, pp. .'^(X). Paper. Lippincott's " Series of 

Select Novels.'* 50 cents. 
In Trust; or Doctor Bertram's Household. By Amanda M. 

Douglas. 16mo, pp. 383. Paper. Lee & Shepard's " Good 

Company Series.^' 50 cents. 
Sunset Pass; or, Running the Gauntlet through Apache 

Land. By Capt. Charles King, author of " The Deserter." 

16mo, pp. 203. Paper. Lovell's "American Authors' 

Series.'' 50 cents. 
Hermia Suydam. By Gertrude Franklin Atherton, author 

of "What Dreams May Come." 16mo, pp. 207. Paper. 

Lovell's " American Authors' Series." 50 cents. 
The Chief Justice. By Karl Emil Franzos. Authorized 

Edition, 16mo, pp. 272. Paper. Lovell's "Series of 

Foreign Literature.^' 50 cents. 
The Bishop's Bible: A Novel. By D. Christie Murray and 

Henry Hermann. Authorized Edition, 16mo, pp. ."^dS. 

Paper. Lovell's "International Series." 50 cents. 
The Keeper of the Iteys. By F. W. Robinson. 16mo, 

pp. 385. Paper. Lovell's '* Litemational Series." 50 cts. 
The Word and the WilL By James Payn, author of 

" Thicker than Water." 16mo, pp. 240. Paper. Lovell's 

' ' International Series. ' ' 50 cents. 
For One and the World. By M. Betham-Ed wards, author 

of " Love and Marriage." 16mo, pp. 340. Paper. Lov- 
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Influence of Fear in Disease. By Dr. Wm. H. Holcombe. 
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TEXT-BOOKS. 

The SaementB of Psycboloflry* By Gabriel Compayr^. 
Translated by William H. Payne, Ph.D., LL.D., author 
of ^* Chapters on School Supervision." 12mo, pp. .'J15. 
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An Baay Method for Beginners in Latin. By Albert Hark- 
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Book (^o. 

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and Charles P. Parker. B.A. Revised Edition. 16mo, 
pp. 109. 6inn & Co. ."W) cents. 

Historiettes Modemee. Kecueillies et Anuot^es par C. 
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Abeille. Par Anatole France. Edited by Charles P. Lebon. 
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[Any book in this list will be mailed to any address, post-paid^ 
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SELECT LIBRARY ""^ T^n^^^"" 

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** Altogether, so excellent a volume of Shakespearean criti- 
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a da,Y-The Nation. N. Y. 

CORSON'S INTRODUCTION TO BROWNING. A guide 
to the study of Browning's poetry. Also hjis 3.3 i)oems,with 
notes. $1.50. 
" The best model of what the introduction to a vrriter should 

be that I have seen in connection with any author.''— 3fr.i?.Cr. 

Moulton, Cambridge, Eng. 

GEORGE'S SELECTIONS FROM WORIXSWORTH. I(i8 

poems, chosen with a view to illustrate the growth of the 

poet's mind and art. $1 .50. 

"" The list is the best possible for a text-book in schools." — 
Aubrey de Vere. 
GEORGE S WORDSWORTH'S PRELUDE. Annotated for 

High School and College. Never before published alone. 

$1.2.5. 

" It is in every wa)r admirable. To wiv that the editing is 
worthy of the text is saying a great deal, yet hardly too 
much."- -Pro/". M. B. Anderson, Iowa State University. 

SIMONDS' SIR THOMAS WYATT AND HIS POEMS. 
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HOIXiKINS' 19TH CENTURY AUTHORS. Gives full 
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MEIKLEJOHN'S ENGLISH LANGUAGE. Treats salient 
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tT^ew Illustrated Edition. 

THE LIGHT OF ASIA ; or, The Great Renun- 
ciation. Being the Life and Teaching of Gautama, Prince 
of India and founder of Buddhism. By Sir Edwin Arnold, 
M.A., K.C.L.E., C.S.L Holiday Edition. Square 12mo. 
Bound in Oriental colors. With a new portrait of the au- 
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price, $1.50; full gilt, gilt edges, $2.00. 
The illustrations are taken for the most part, from photo- 
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identified hy eminent archieological authorities, both in India 
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ama Buddha, the founder of Budonism, and the hero of Mr. 
Amold^s poem. _ 

Ainericafi Editions of Two Pojndar English Books 
IDYLLS OF THE FIELD. 
BY LEAFY WAYS. 

Brief Studies from the Book of Nature. Bv F. A. Knkjht. 
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THE HOUSE OF THE WOLFINGS. A Tale of 
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laden with^ story, a stoiy which, whether prose or verse, is 
such pure singing? — Nation. 

ONE SUMMER'S LESSONS IN PRACTICAL 
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MISS BROOKS. A Story of Boston. By Eliza 
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cloth, $1.00. 

The author's style is exceedingly good and her portrayal of 
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THE WINDS, THE WOODS, AND THE WAN- 
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For sale by Booksellers generally, or will be sent postpaid, 
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Worthington's New and Standard Publications. 

FI I RT ^^ Paul Hervieu. Translated by Hugh Craig. With thirty-seven Photogravure Plates after 
*^ '-' * *^ ^ • the Original Water Colors of Madeleine Lemaire. Nineteen h€jad and tail pieces printed in 
colors, and eighteen full-page Illustrations. 1 vol., 4to, in portfolio, $5.00 ; or in cloth, extra, 86.00. 

Mme. Madeleine Lemaire, acknowled^d to be the most characteristic of all French -wateivcolor pwinteiB, and celebiat^cl 
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for which she received the larg^est sum ever paid for such work. The photogravures embellish the exquisite novel of ParisiaD 
life by Paul Hervieu, a singularly attractive story and very entertaining, of which the witty and wonderfully bright dialogues 
are specially delightful. 



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BEAUX OF SOCIETY. With Preface by Justin H. 
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foucault. Saint Simon, Walpole, Selwyn, Sheridan, Beau Brum- 
rael, Duke of Buckingham, and others. 

WHARTON'S THE QUEENS OF SOCIETY. With 
Preface by Justin H. McCarthy, M.P., and the original 
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i*ough. Madame Roland, Lady Montagu, Mme. de S^vigu^, 
Mme. R^caraier, Mme. de Stael, La ^^larquise de Maiutenou, 
Lady Hervey, Lady Caroline Lamb, and many others. 

WILSON'S NOCTES AMBROSIAN.E. By Profes- 
sor Wilson, Lockhart, Hogo, and Dr. Maginn. With 
steel i)ortrait8 and memoirs of the authors, and copiously 
annotated by R. Shelton Mackenzie, D.C.L. 6 vols., 
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Professor Wilson, from family papers and other sources, by 
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One of the most curious works in the English langua^, a 
most singular and delightful outpouring of criticism, pohtics, 
and descriptions of feelings, character, and scenery, of verse 
and prose, of eloquence, and especially of wild fun. Prof(»s8or 
Wilsfm is a writer of the most ardent and enthusiastic genius, 
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NAPOLEON. Memoirs of the Life, Exile, and Con- 
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With his son, the Count devoted himself at St. Helena to 

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NAPOLEON IN EXILE ; or, A Voice from St. 
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Most Important Events of his Life and GJoveniment, in his 
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extra, $6.00. 
Mr. O'Meara's work contains a body of the most intei'esting 

and valuable information — information the accuracy of which 

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'llie details in Las Cases^ work and those of Mr. O'Meani mu- 

tiuilly support each other. 

GRAY. The Works of Thomas Gray, in Prose and 
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calf, $12.00. 

BROWNING, ELIZABETH BARRETT. POEMS. 
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PICTURESQUE IRELAND. Descriptive and His- 
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TAINEVS (H. A.) HISTORY OF ENGLISH LIT- 
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Four handsome octavo volumes. Green or blue cloth, white 
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Same in two volumes, cloth, white label, $3.75 ; or in half 
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NAPIER'S PENINSULAR WAR. By W. F. P. 
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Acknowledged to be the most valuable record of tliat war 

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CYCLOPEDIA OF THE ARTS AND SCIENCES. 
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education. The several topics are handled with a view of a 
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OLD SPANISH ROMANCES. Illustrated with Etch- 
ings. In 12 vols., crown 8vo, half morocco, $1.50 per vol. 
The History of Don QinxoTE.DK la Mancha. By C-er- 
vantes. Tianslated by Mottenx. With notes and essays on 
Cervantes by J. G. Ixxjkhart. Edited bv Henri van Laun. 
With IG etchings by R. de los Rios. 4 vols. 
Lazarillo de Tormes. By Mendoza. Trans, by Roscoe. 
Guzman D'Alfarache. By Mate<i Aleman. Translated 
by Brady. Witli 8 etchings by R. de los Rius. 2 vols. 
Abmodeus. By Le Sage. With 4 et^shings by R. de los Rios. 
The Bachelor of Salamanca. By Le Sage. Trans- 
lated by James Towiisend. With 4 etchings by R. de los Ri<je. 
Vanillo Gonzales ; or. The Merry Bachelor. By Le Sage. 
With 4 etchings by R. de los Rios. 

The Adventures of Gil Blab of Santillank. By Le 
Sape. Translated by Tobias Smollett. Edited by Geoifie 
Samtsbury'. With 12 etchings by R. de los Rios. 3 vols. 

*' Handy in form, they are well printed from clear type, and 
are prot up with much eWaiice. The reading public has rea- 
son to be congratiUated that so neat and well-arranged an edi- 
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For sale by all booksellers. Sent on receipt of price by the Publishers, 

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The Truth about 
Mrs. Rorer's Cook Book 

Is very readily told, it is a reliable book. The recipes are 
proven, and found good. You cannot fail. Mrs. Rorer is a 
woman who understands her subject through and through. 
Her book gives the best results of her experience. The 
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the book. 

in washable oil-cloth covers, $1.7^. Of all booksellers, 
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ARNOLD AND COMPANY, 

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THE cANGLOMANIACS. 

A Stoiy of New York Society To-day. 1 vol., 12mo, on extra fine laid paper, dainty binding, $1.00. 
This is the story that has attracted such wide attention while running through « The Century Magazine." 
There has been no such picture of New York social life painted within the memory of the present generation. 
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agitated as to the authorship of a story which touches it in its most vulnerable part. 



VENGEANCE IS MINE. 



1 vol., 12 mo, cloth, 



A Novel. By Daniel Dane. 
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the characters are drawn with a keen appreciation of 
human nature, and the style is vigorous and entertain- 
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and that, too, with another man's wife. That Arnold 
North will, before long, become one of the recognized 
characters in the world of fiction there can be but little 
doubt. 



^OT OF HER FATHER'S T^ACE 

A Novel. By William T. Meredith. 
Paper, 50 cents ; cloth, 75 cents. 
This is a striking story of race — of a girl with a white 
father and mulatto mother, who inherits the character- 
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*< four hundred '' and their imitators in fashionable folly. 
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CASSELL PUBLISHING CO., 104 & 106 Fourth Ave.. New Yokk. ^ j 

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LEE &- SHEPARD'S 
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SUMMERLAND. A New Volnme by Maroaret MacDon- 
ALD PuLUiAN. With 63 original illustrations, euerayed 
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AN OLD LOVE LETTER. Miss Jerome's Latest Work. 
Designed and illuminated by Irene E. Jerome, author of 
'* One Year's Sketch Book,^' "Nature's Hallelujah." "In 
a Fair Country," "A Bunch of Violets," "The Message 
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BABY'S KINGDOM. A New and Elegant Edition, wherein 
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ALL AROUND THE YEAR— 1891. Lee & Shenard's New 
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Price, 50 cents. 

GOOD COMPANY SERIES. Paper. 50 cents each. 
No. 2. -In Trust; or, Dr. Bertrand's Household. By 

Amanda M. Douolab. 
No. 3.— Three Millions ! By W. T. Adams (Oliver 

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OUR DESTINY. The Influence of NationaUsm upon Relig^ 
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THE DEMAGOGUE. A Posthumous Novel by " Petroleum 
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A POCKET-BOOK OF PRIVATE DEVOTION. By Rev. 
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BRIGHT DAYS IN THE OLD PLANTATION TIME. 
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THE ROUND TRIP FROM THE HUB TO THE GOL- 
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THE KELP-GATHERERS. A New Volume by J. T. 
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ON THE BLOCKADE. A New Volume by Oliver Optic 
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LITTLE GIANT BOAB AND HIS TALKING RAVEN 
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JANE EYRE. By Charlotte Bronte. With 48 
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Diary of a Journey into North Wales. Edited 
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College, Oxford. Edition de Luxe, In six vol- 
umes. Large 8vo, bound in fine leather with 
cloth sides, uncut edges and gilt tops, with many 
Portraits, Views, Fac-similes, etc. $30.00. Edi- 
tion limited to 300 copies, each copy of which is 
numbered. 
Fojnilar Edition, — Six volumes, cloth, uncut 

edges and gilt tops, $10.00. {Jiist rea^y.) 

Strolls by Starlight and Sunshine. 

Written and illustrated by William Hamilton 
Gibson, author of " Happy Hunting-Grounds,'' 
** Highways and Byways," etc. Royal 8vo, cloth, 
ornamental, $3.50. {Nearly ready.) 

Freedom Triumphant. 

Tlie Fourth Period of the War of the Rebellion, 
from September, 1864, to its Close. By Charles 
C A RLETON Coffin. Copiously illustrated. Square 
Svo, cloth, ornanieiitnl, s3.()0. {Just ready,) 



Published by HARPER & BROTHERS, New York. 

77<« aboct works are for sate by a/l boiksellers^ or will bf> sent by IIakckk *& BiiOTHKiiS, poAtaye prepaid^ to any part of the 

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Houghton, Mifflin & Co.'s New Books. 



SIDNEY. 



A Novel. 



By Makciaket Deland, author of 
Other Verses." 



The Old Garden, and 



'* John Ward, Preacher," and 
16mo. Price, $1.25. 

" Sidney " may not produce ho much commotion in the theological world as ** Jolm Ward," but it raises ques- 
tions of universal interest, and is likely to evoke no little discussion. The heroine has been taught from childhood 
that Love is the maddest folly in a world where Death is ; and the development and effect of this teaching are 
admirably desciibed. 



Cardinal O^ewman. 



By Rkjhari) H. Huttox, editor of The Spectator, 
London. Crown 8vo, ^1.00. 



/^ Fable for Critics. 

By James Rushell Lowell. An entirely New 
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The Vision of Sir LannfaL 

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Tbe Inverted Torch, 

Poems. By Edith M. Thomas, author of *'Lyric» 
and Sonnets" and "The Round Year." *1.00. 
Tlie inspiration of thi.s noteworthy volume is the 

same as that of Tennvson*s " lu Memonam." 



Verses Along the Way. 

By Mary Elizabeth Blake. ?i^l.2i). 
Distinguished by thoughtfulness, symimthy, and a 
genuine lyrical qiwlity which entitle thorn to a high 
place in current poetry. 



^fte 



ter tbe HaU. 

And, Her Lovers Friend. Poems. By Nora 
Perry. Neto Edition^ complete in one vol. 91.25. 
[This volume does not include Miss Perry's New 

SONG8 and Ballads. '^1.50.] 



THE PROFESSOR AT THE BREAKFAST TABLE. 

THE POET AT THE BREAKFAST TABLE. 

By Oliver Wexdell Holmes. BiHMay Edition. Each in 2 vols. 16mo, uniform with the Birth- 
day Edition of *• The Autocrat" published last year and received with so remarkable favor. Each 
work, with engraved title-page, gilt top, Ji^2.50 ; half calf, ^.50 ; polished calf, or full levant, $8.00. 



The ft/lrt of Tlaywriting. 

By Alfred Hennequin, Ph.D., Professor in the 
University of Michigan. 16rao, $1 .25. 

This book is intended for the practical assistance of 
those who would write plays for the stage ; but it is so 
remarkable in dramatic scholarship that critics and stu- 
dents of the drama will find it extremelv valuable. 



A Summer in a Canon. 

\\y Kate Douglas Wiggix, author of "The Birds' 
Christmas Carol," " The Story of Patsy," etc. New 
aud Cheaper Edition. llliLstrated. lOnio, 81.25. 

A charming story of a camping party in California. 



Toems. 

By Edna Dean Proctor. Greatly enlarged. 

IGmo, gilt top, ^1.25. 

The fine thoughtfulness of these poems, with their 
vigorous and noble lyrical expression, renders this vol- 
ume a notable contribution to American verse. 

A T^ussian Journey. 

By Edna Dean Proctor. New Edition, enlarge*!. 

J?1.25. 

An enlarged edition of a book which Mr. George Rip- 
ley, the eminent critic of the Xew York Tribune, called 
" a singularly ag^eable volume," and which Mr. Whit- 
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*,* For mle by all Booksellers. Will be sent prepaid, on receipt of price, by the PMisherSy 

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1890] THE DIAL 171 

JUST PUBLISHED. 12mo, cloth extra, $1.25. F. Marion Crawkohd's New Novel: 

A CIGARETTE-MAKER'S %OMANCE. 

By F. Mariox Crawford, author of "Mr. Isaacs," *'Saiit' llano," etc. 12 mo, cloth extra, ^^1.2iS. 
BY THE SAME AUTHOR -RECENTLY PUBLISHED: 

SANT ILARIO. 12iiio, cloth extra, $1.50. GREIFENSTEIN. 12mo, cloth extra, $1.50. 

*' The author shows steiidy and coiistaut improvement , <* * Greifeiistein ' is a remarkable novel, and while it 

in his art. < Sant' Ilario' is a continuation of the chron- ! illustrates once more the author's unusual versatility, it 

icles of the Sai-acinesca family. ... A singularly ' also shows that he has not been tempted into careless 

powerful and beautiful story. . . . Admirably de- writing by the vogue of his earlier books. . . . There 

veloped, with a naturalness lieytmd praise." — New York ' is nothing weak or small or frivolous in the story." — 

Tribune. i New York Tribune, 

NOW RICADY. SIR SAMUEL W. BAKERS NEW BOOK: 

14^ILD LEASTS AND THEIR PVAYS. 

In A.SIA, Africa, and America. By Sir Samuel W. Baker, F.R.S., author of ^'Albert Nyaiiza," etc. 

Numerous Illustrations. Large 12mo, $3.50. 

5 TRA TFORD-ON-AVON. 

From the Earliest Times to the Death of Shakespeare. By Sidney Lee. With forty-five 

Illustrations by Edward Hull. 12mo, $2.00. 

FALL ANNOUNCEMENTS, 1890. 

ROYAL EDINBURGH : Her Saints, Kings, and GLIMPSES OF OLD ENGLISH HOMES. By 

Scholars. By Mrs. Ouphant, author of **The \ Elizabeth Balch. With numerous illustrations. 

Makers of Florence," " The Makers of Venice," etc. Super royal 4to. 

With illustrations by George Reid, R.S.A. 12mo. 1 

Also a limited edition o«largrpaper. Super royal 8vo. ^HE VICAR OF \V^^KEFIELUHy()ovER^ 

** *^ *^ r J smith. A New Edition, with LjO illustrations by 

RELICS OF THE ROYAL HOUSE OF STUART. \ Hugh Thomson, and a Preface by Austin Dobsou. 

Illustrated by a series of forty plates in colors, drawn , Uniform with the Randolph Caldecott Edition of 

by William Gibb. With Introduction by John Skel- ' " Bracebridge Hall " and " Old Christmas." l5^mo. 

ton, C.B., LL.D. Folio, levant morocco, gilt edges. Also a limited edition on large paper. Super royal 8vo. 

FROM CHARING CROSS TO ST. PAUL\S. By , . ,. , ,,,. . « , w ji- / » v d u 

Justin Huntly McCarthy. With 12 photogn,; ^^"^*^''* ^^*^*^'*- ^"'^^"''^ ^'P^'"^' '^'"^ ^^^' 

vure plates and numerous illustrations in the text by , THE BOOK OF THE FORTY-FIVE MORNINGS. 
Joseph Pennell, author of ♦* Pen Drawing and Pen | By Rudyard Kipling, author of " Plain Tales from 
Draughtsmen." 1 vol., 4to. i the Hills." 12mo, Y^\iev covei's, cloth cxtiti. 



NEW BOOKS FOR CHILDREN 

THE CHILDREN OF THE CASTLE. By Mrs. 
Moles WORTH. With illustrations by Walter Crane. 
16mo, cloth, g^lt, ^1.25. 

By LEWIS CARROLL, author of *' Alice's Adventurer in Wonderland. 



STORIES FROM THE BIBLE. Illustrated. By 
Rev. Prof. A. J. Church, author of " Stories from 
Homer." l2mo. 



THE NURSERY ALICE. Containing twenty colored 
enlargements from Tenniel's illustrations to "Alice's 
Adventures in Wonderland," witli Text adnpted t4) 
Nursery Readers, by Lewis Carholl. 4to, jBI .50. 



SYLVIE AND BRUNO. With forty-six illustrations 
by Harry Furniss. lOmo, J?L50. 

" The book is a eharmiug one for cliildreii. The illnstm- 
tioiis are very happy." — Traveller. 



^DI^ENTURE SERIES.—^ U^EW l^OLUME. 

THE BUCCANEERS AND MAROONERS OF AMERICA. Being an Account of the Famous Adventures 
and Daring Deeds of Certain Notorious Fi-eebooters of the Spanish Main. Edited and illustrated by Howard 
Pyle. 12ino, ^1.50. 

^♦^ Macmillan §■ Co.^s New Illustrated Holiday Catalogue will he sent Jree, by mail, to any address on application. 

MACMILLAN & CO., 112 Fourth Avenue, New York. 

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[Nov., 



D. APPLETON and COMPANY'S 
^ElV "BOOKS. 

The First Two Volumks of a Seri» ok 
Stokiks for Youxcj Readers. 
I. 

Crcncded Out d Crofield. 

By Wm. O. Stoddard. Illustrated by C. T. Hill. 
How SI plucky country boy lujidc his way. Oiic of 
tlie most succ<'s.sfnl of this popuhir author's stories. 

II. 

King Tom and the Runaways. 

By Louis Pkndi.kton. lUustrated by K. W. Kehblk. 

The strange exj>erieufe of two boys in the forests and 

swamps of (Georgia. 

Each volume bound in cloth» with specially designed 
uniform cover. 8vo. Price per vol., J?1.50. 

TOn'N AND (JOVNTHY LIBRARY. 
A Tkanslatiox of Canada's Great Hi.storic:al 

HoMAXflK : 

The Canadians of Old. 

By PiiiLiPPK Gaspe. Translated by Charles (J. I). 

RoBKKTS. l*2nu». Paper cover, 50 cents ; specially 

iKuind in cli»th, .'?1.00. 

The scene of this historical romance is laid in the 
eighteenth c»'iitury. Among the subjects sketched in 
the work, wlili-h is the classic nnnance of Canada, are 
j)ictui-es<jui» piiases of life in the old seigniories of Que- 
bec, hunting adventures, and the strange legends <»f 
OldCanachi. 

Outings at Odd Times. 

By Dr. Ciiaki.ks C. Ahhott, author of " Days Out of 
Doors " and *'.\ Naturalist's litinibles About Home." 
16mo, cloth, gilt t(»p, ^\.*lTi. 

Dr. Abb«itt's delightful studies in Natural History 
have beconu* familiar to many readers, and his new vol- 
ume is suggestive, instructive, and always interesting. 

t 

the 

Cortina CMetbod to Learn Spanish 

IS TWENTY LESSONS. 

Intended for Si*lf->tudy or for I'sc in Schinds, with a 
System i»f Pronuiu'iation based on Kugli.sh Kcpiiva- 
Icnts. By K. D. dk la Coktina, M.A., (fraduate , 
of the Univcr>ity of Madrid. In five parts, pai>er, 
each 40 cents ; one v(»bnne, 12mo, ch»th, Ji^l.^O. 
A method of indii-atnig the exact pronunciation of 
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commend it to all who wish to acquire a knowle<lge of 
the Spanish language i.i the shortest possible time. 

D. APPLETON & CO., Piblisukks. 
1, :\, & .". Itoiiil St., Nkw York. 



LEE Hr SHEPARD'S 
NEW ART PUBLICATIONS. 

CUMMERLAXD. A New Volume by Margaret 
MacI)onali> Pullman, author of " DavB Serene." Witli 
ihiS Orifnnal IlluHtrations, en)>rraved on wood by (vkorok T. 
Andrrw, and printed under hi.*i direction. Size, lU-2 by 
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cloths, heautifully ornamented, full v^t^ ^S.lTi ; Turkey 
Morocco, $J>.(H): Tree Calf, ."?10.(X); English Seal style, 
$7.00. 

These new illustrations by the talented artist of " Days 
Serene'' remind one ver>' forcibly of fiirket Foster, there is 
such a calm peaceful serenity ab(>ut them, such as one finds 
in the Rnglisn landscapes, and in them Mre. Pullman deni- 
onstnites anew that she possesses not onlv talent of a higli 
ortler, but a true conception of the beautiful in nature. 

AN OLD LOVE LETTER. Miss J kromk's latest 
Work. Designed and illuiniinited by Ikknk E. Jkkomi-:. 
author of "One Year's Sketch B(H>k." "Nature's Hallehi- 
jali," " In a Fair C^mntry," *' A Bunch of Violets." **Tlie 
Messasfe of the Bluebird," etc. Antique covers, tied with 
silk, boxed. $1.(N). 

Miss Jerome, in this the sixth IxKjk of her nuiU.*hless art- 
works, has entered a new realm of illustrative art, and haj* 
given us a novel but a beautiful cfunbinaticni of t«xt and 
delicate illumination, in which artistic t^ent and tender re- 
ligioits sentiment are tastefully blended. Each page of this 
chaste vohune contains an apt^ ciuotation in whicli the spirit 
of Divine love shines forth. These loving words are set iu 
omanientjil lettering surroun.led on each i»age by an original 
design illuminated in the old missal style of colors and gold, 
printed iu fac-siniile of Miss Jerome's original drawings, pro- 
ducing a brilliant effect, the whole forming a delicate and 
exquisite love letter. Tlie covers, with appropriate desigps. 
ai*e ])riuted on rich antiuue paper, tied with silk floss, which 
is Mecure<l to the cover by a seal. ** An Old Love Letter" is 
a suitable title, because it presents the spirit of love in the 
inspiring urords of love whicli liavi» come down to us from the 
ages. 

DAHY'S KIN(;D0M. A New and Elegant FMitiou, 
whei-ein may be chronicled as memories for grown-up 
days, till' Mother's Storj- of the Progress «»f the Baby. De- 
signed and illustnited by Ann IK F. (^ox. Oblong quarto. 
Blue and white cloth, full gold cloth, ^it.?.*!. Turkey mo- 
rocco. $\).m. 

This is practically a ww work, the illustrations and text 
having been re-<lrawn and engraved, and many additions 
made to the contents. The new sha|>e and el<^(ant binding 
will commend this edititni to all customers. 

A LL AROUND THE YEAR— 1891. Leo & Sliep- 

arrl's New Calendar, designe<l in Sepiatint and Color by 

J. Pai'link SiNTKR. Printe<l on heavy cardlniard. gilt 

edges, with chain, tassels, and rings. Size. 4 .*»-4 by .'> 1-2 

inches. Boxed, price oO cents. 

In addition to tlie calendar for each month each card oon- 
tains a channing design and an appropriate sentiment, in del- 
icate tints and colors. The cards are tastilv tied witJi white 
silk coM and a chain attached, by which thev may be hnn; 
on the wall or elsewhere, and are so arranged on rings that 
they may be turned over like the leaves of a Iniok as each 
month shall be needed for refeience. 

Smd by ail hook'nfllers, ami sent by maiL prepaid, on receipt 
of price. Illustrated and complete catalogws sent free. 

LEE & SHEPARD, PUBLISHERS, 

BOSTON, MASS. 

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NEW PUBLICATIONS 

FROM THE TRESS OF J. "B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY. 



In and Out of 'Book and Journal. 

\\\ A. Sydney Roberts, M.D., with fifty spirited illus- 
trations bv S. W. Van Schaick. 12ino, cloth, 
J#1.25. 

A ooUectiou of brig^ht, witty, sententious sayiug^s, {gathered 
from varioos sources. The pictorial interpretations of the 
text are characterized by peculiar genius, (felieacy of touch, 
and sense of humor. 

How to T^emember History. 

A Method of Memorizing Dates, with a Summary of 
the Most Important Events of the Sixteenth, Seven- 
teenth, Eighteenth, and Nineteenth Centuries. By 
Virginia Conskr Shaffer. Square 8vo, cloth, 
81.00. 



Tbe Two Lost Centuries of Britain. 

By William H. Babcock. 12mo, cloth, .f 1.26. 

The author here gives us an account of the period interven- 
ing between the evacuation by the Romans ana the commence- 
ment of authentic history of modem England. He has ear- 
nestly and critically sought out the truth embodied in the 
various legends and traditions current concerning that time, 
and has woven them, with the facts derived from various au- 
thoritative sources, into a most interesting and I'eliable nar- 
rative. 

A DiplotnaTs Diary. 

A Novel. By Juuan Gordon. 12mo, cloth, l$1.00. 

' ^ Among the brightest, most original, and interesting novels 
of the year."— Bo»fon Uome Journal. 

'" It is a strong well-told story.'' — Chicago Inter Ocean. 



THE VARIORUM EDITION OF SHAKESPEARE. 

Kilited by Horace Howard Fcrness, Ph.D., LL.D., L.H.D. Royal 8vo, exti-a cloth, gilt top, .^4.00 per vol. 
Recently published: ^ol. l^UI.—^S YOU LIKE IT. 

** America has the honor of having produced the very best and most complete edition, so far as it has gone, 
of onr great national poet. For text, illustration, commentary, and criticism, it leaves nothing to be desired. Tlie 
emitter combines with the patience and accuracy of the textual scholar an industry which has overlooked nothing 
t>f value that has \yeen written about Shakespeare by the best German and French, as well as English, commenta- 
tors and critics ; and what is of no less moment, he possesses in himself a rare delicacy of literary appreciation 
and breadth of judgment, disciplined by familiarity with all that is best in the literature of antiquity, as well a.s 
of modem times, which he brings to bear on his notes with great effect." — BlackwoofVs Edinburgh Magazine. 

Now complete : " RoMKO and Juijkt "; " Hamlkt," 2 vols. ; " Macbeth "; " King Lear "; " Othello "; 
ami "Merchant of Venice." 



European Days and PVays. 

By Alfred E. Lee, Late Cousul-General U. S. A. 

With 12 full-page illustrations. Crown 8vo, cloth, 

.^2.00. 

'^A vivacious record of the travels of a ver>' intelligent 
tmxnst.^''— Philadelphia Press. 

*" Every chapter is as instructive as it is entertaining.**— 
Chicago Inter Ocean. 



"O Thou, My Austria!" 

Translated by Mrs. A. L. Wister, from the Gernuui 
of OssiP SciiUBiN, author of " Erlach Court," etc. 
12mo, cloth, 91.25. 

" Mn. Wister not only selects but also translates her stories 
with rare skill, taste, and intelligence."- -PAi7a</€/pA»a In- 
quirer. 

Heriot's Choice. 

The latest issue in LippincotCs Series of Select Novels. 
By Rosa N. Carey, author of "Esther," "Wee 
Wifie,""()nly the Governess," etc. 12nio, paper, 
'70 cents ; cloth, 75 cents. 



Now Ready, Complete— TA VISTOCK EDITION of 

CHARLES DICKENS'S WORKS. 

Messrs. J. B. Lippincott Company have issued, in 
connection with the English publishers, a New Editioti 
of Charles Dickens's Works. It is printed from the 
plates of the best Octavo Edition on smaller and thinner 
paper, umking a large 12mo, not too bulky for easy 
reading. The type is the largest and clearest of all the 
editions that have ever appeared. The volumes contain 
539 Illustrations, all printed from the original steel 
plates (see certificate.) Sold only in complete sets of 
30 volumes. Bound in cloth, 645.00 ; three-quarters 
calf or moroi>co, Jp 100.00. This is the Best Edition of 
Dickens's Works ever offered at a Popular Price. 

(CERTIFICATE.) 
''TelephoueNo. 2711. 

'' Address for Telegrams, * PICKWICK, LONIK)N.' 
•CHAPMAN A HALL, Limited. 

11 Henrietta St., Covent Garden, 
(Late of llKi Piccadilly.) W. C. 
" Messrs. J. B. Lippincott Company : ^^V '^i l^-*^- 

'' Gentlemen :— This is to certify that the illustratious 
supplied by us for the ' Tavistock Edition ' of Charles Dick- 
ens s Works are all printed from the Original steel plates. 
" Yours faithfully, CHAPMAN & HALL, Ld., 
"Fred Chapman.'* 



For sale by all Booksellers^ or will be sent by the Publishers, free of expense, on receipt of price. 

J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY, Publishers, 715 and 717 Market St., Philadelphia. 

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[N<»v.. 



New Volumes in the Daudet Series. 

Just Published: 

KINGS IN EXILE. 

By Alphonse Daudet. Translated by Laura Ensor and E. Bartow. With 104 Illustrations from 
designs by Bieler, Conconi, and Myrbach. 12mo. Paper, J*1.50; half leather, J^2.25. 

UNIFORM IX STYLE WITH HIS 



ARTISTS' WIVES. With 103 illustrations by Rossi, 
Bieler, and others. 

RECOLLECTIONS OF A MAN OF LETTERS. 
With 89 ilhistrations from designs by Bieler, Mou- 
t^gnt, Myrbach, and Rossi. 

TARTARIN OF TARASCON: Traveij.er, "Turk," 
AND LiON-HuNTER. Witli 115 illustrations from 
designs by Mont^giit,Myrbach, Picard, and Rossi. 

TARTARIN ON THE ALPS. With 150 illustra- 
tions from designs by Rossi, Aranda, Myrbach, Mou- 
t^nard, and Beaumont. 



THIRTY YEARS OF PARIS AND OF MY LIT- 
ERARY LIFE. With 120 illustrations from desigihs 
by Bieler, Mont^gut, Myrbach, Picard, and Rossi. 

JACK. With 93 ilhistrations by Myrbach. 

LA BELLK NIVERNAISE, The Story of an Old 
Boat and Her Crew ; and Other Stories. With 
185 illustrations from designs by Mont^gut. 

SAPPHO : A Picture of Parisian Manners. With 
70 illustrations from designs by Rossi, Myrliach, and 
other French artists. 



AND WITH 

PIERRE AND JEAN. By Guy de Maupassant. 
With a Preface by the author. With 36 illustrations 
from designs by Ernest Duez and Albert Lynch. 



AFLOAT (SuR l*Eau). By Guy dk Maupassant. 
Translated by Laura Ensor. Witli 59 illustratitms 
from designs by Riou. 



Each, 12mo, paper, -SI .50 ; half leather, 82.25. 



Very T^ecently Issued: 



SISTER PHILOMENE. By Edmond and Jitlf.8 de 
GoNCOURT. Translated by Laura Ensor. With 70 
illustrations from designs by Bieler. 12mo. Paper, 
><1.50 ; half leather, 82.25." 



DISILLUSION ; or. The Story of Amdd^e's Youth. 
(Toute une Jeunesae.) By Fran<;ois Copp^e. Trans, 
by E. P. Robins. 74 illustratious from designs by 
Emile Bayard. 12mo. Paper, 81.60; hf.leath., 82.25. 



Uniform with the Illustrated Edition of Daudet's Writings. 

Also from the French (Just out): 
CHIVALRY. 

By Leon Gautier. Translated by Henry Frith. Numerous illustrations. 8vo, cloth, gilt edges, s2.5(). 



OTHER NEW PUBLICATlONS.-lllustrated Editions. 



LAST DAYS OF POMPEII. By Bulwer Lytton. 
With 35 full-page illustrations by Frank Kirchbach 
and others. 8vo, cloth, 83.00. 

DISCOVERIES AND INVENTIONS OF THE 
NINETEENTH CKNTURY. By Robert Rout- 
ledge, B.Sc, F.C.S. New Edition. Including de- 
scriptions of the Forth Bridge, the Eiffel Tower, and 
the Manchester Ship Canal. With numerous illus- 
trations. 8vo, cloth, 83.00. 



THE SWISS FAMILY ROBINSON. EiUted by 

W. H. G. Kingston. With 100 illustnttions on 

wood, and 12 full-page plates printed in colors by 
Ernest Nister. 8vo, cloth, 82.50, 

ROBINSON CRUSOE. By Daniel Defoe. With 
100 illustrations by J. D. Watson, and 12 fnll-page 
plates printed in colors by Ernest Nister. 8vo, 
cloth, 82.50. 



For sale hy all Boohfellers, or will be sent by 7naU, postpaid, on receipt of the advertised price, 

by the Publishers, 

(iEORGE KOUTLED(iE & SONS, Limited, No. 9 Lafayette Place, New York. 



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1890] THE DIAL 175 

Porter and Coates' New Books. 



Three of the HANDSOMEST GlFT-"BoOKS of the Year. 

PORTER & ('GATES' FLORENTINE EDITION. 

ROMOLA. 

By GEORGE ELIOT. From entirely new plates. Beautifully illustrated with airtij pliotogi-avures of 
views in Florence, sculpture, paintings, etc., with a portrait of George Eliot. In two volumes, small 
8vo, g^lt top. With slip covers in the Italian style, in cloth box, $6.00 ; half-crushed levant, gilt 
top, $12.00. 
The large-paper edition of " Romola " is all sold, the publishers having received orders for the entire edition 

before publication. _ 

GRACE AND PHILIP WHARTON'S WORKS: 

QUEENS OF SOCIETY. 

By Grace and Philip Wharton. New Library Edition. Beautifully illustrated with eighteen pho- 
togravures. Tastefully bound in two volumes, cloth extra, $5.00 : half calf, gilt top, $8.00. 

These entertaining volumes present a gfossiping biograpliy of several of the celebrated women who have held 
a conspicuons place in society, either on account of intellectual endowments, personal attractions, peculiar culture 
and accomplishments, political connections, or force of character. Among the distinguished names which are thus 
brought into fresh notice are those of the Duchess of Marlborough, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, Lady Morgan, 
Lady Caroline Lamb, Miss Landon (the unfortunate L. E. L.), Madame de StaSl, Madame Roland, Madame 
R^camier, and others, both of England and France. 

fVITS AND "BEAUX OF SOCIETY. 

By Grace and Philip Wharton. New Library Edition. Beautifully illustrated with twenty photo- 
gravures. Tastefully bound in two volumes. Small 8vo, cloth extra, $5.00 ; half calf, gilt top, $8.00. 

This gossipy and pleasant book gives sketches of such men as George Villiers, the second Duke of Bucking- 
ham, with numerous anecdotes of his adventures ; the celebrated Grammont and Rochester, wherein the authors 
introduce some incidents in the lives of such people as Hortense Mancini, the little Jermyn, I^ Belle Hamilton, 
and other noted beauties of France and England ; Beau Nash ; Ix)rd Hervey ; Scarron, and here again of his 
wife ; and so on, of numerous worthies and uuworthies, each and all of whom are more or less known to fame. 
The authors liave a happy faculty of making their sketches light and pleasant, interspersing history and anecdote, 
personalities and public events, so that the book is much more interesting than a novel, and much better worth 
reading than any fiction. 

Large-pajier edition of '' Wits and Beaux " and '* Queens/* limited to 250 copies, in sets of 4 volumes, 
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Mr. Ward^s travels in Africa commenced in 1884, when he 

received an appointment in the service of the (>ongo Free 

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This volume will prove of interest to the numerous 
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1 vol., crown 8vo, half Roxburgh, gilt tops . . $5.00 

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1 vol., crown 8vo, cloth, full gilt $3.50 

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Eknbraoing History of Knglish Poetry, Sketches of lives of 
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tAUTOBIOGRAPHY OF ,/INTON TiUBENSTEIN, 1829-1889. 



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A NEW DUMAS SERIES. 
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An Historical Novel of Poland and Russia. By Henrik 
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THE "BEGUM'S "DAUGHTER. 
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"DRAMATIC OPINIONS. 

By Mrs. Kendal. 16mo. Paper, 50 cents ; cloth, 
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THE recent remarkable serial successes of this magazine will be continued in 
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others; '' Tbe Court of tbe C{ar V^icbolas," etc., etc. In fiction: '' Tbe Faitb 
ThStor," a novel by Edward Eggleston; witb novelettes and stories by Frank 
%. Stockton, Joel Cbandler Harris, and otbers. Brilliant art features, etc., etc. 



THE NOVEMBER NUMBER, 

^ginning tbe volume, contains opening chapters in several important serials, including tbe 
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Charles Scribner's Sons' New Books. 

THE PACIFIC COAST SCENIC TOUR. 

From Southern California to Alaska. — The Yosemite. — The Canadian Pacific Railway. — ^Yellowstone 
Park and the Grand Cafton. By Henry T. Finck. With 20 full-page Illustrations. 8vo, $2.50. 
Mr. Finck*B new book is a patriotic demonstration of the superiority of American scenery. The description, 

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IN THE VALLEY. By Harold Frederic. With j A LITTLE BOOK OF WESTERN VERSE. 
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FAMOUS IVOMEN OF THE FRENCH COURT 

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MARIE ANTOINETTE AND THE WIFE OF HAPPY DAYS OF 

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READY IN NOVEMBER. 

IN SCRIPTURE LANDS.— €\[ew Views of Sacred Places. 

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author. Large 8vo, $3.50. 

Contents : The Land of Goshen. — Sinai and the Wilderness From Mount Sinai to Mount Seir. — A Visit 

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the Tenements of New York. Ry Jacob A. Riis. | count of the Science and Application of Electricity to 

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author. 8vo, $2.50. 



THE LIFE OF JOHN ERICSSON. By William 
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Sent Free to any address : Scribner's Illustrated List of Books for the Young, representing works by Mrs. 
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Vol. XI. NOVEMBER, 1890. No. 127. 

CONTENTS. 

A UBRARY OF AMERICAN UTERATURE. 

Horatio N. Powers 181 

NOTABLE DISCUSSIONS OF RELIGION AND 

PHILOSOPHY. John Bascom 182 

NEW BOOKS OF TRAVEL AND ADVENTURE. 

Edward Gilpin Johnson 18o 

THE NEW "INTERNATIONAL" WEBSTER. 

Melville B. Anderson 189 

THE CIVILIZATION OF THE RENAISSANCE. 

Henrietta Schuyler Gardiner 192 

BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS 193 

Tiffany's Life of Dorothea Lynde Dix. — Morley's 
English Writers, Volume V., Wiclif and Chancer. — 
Wilson's Life of Lord Clive. — Butler's life of Sir 
Charles Napier. — Newhall's Manual of the Trees of 
Northeastern America. — Woodberry's Studies in 
Letters and Life. — Williams's Our Dictionaries, and 
other English Language Topics. — Mead's Our Mother 
Tongue.— Saint- Amand's Citizeness- Bonaparte. 

BOOKS OF THE MONTH 196 



A liiBRARY OF American IjIterature.* 

{Concluding Notice.) 



[Note. — ^The following article is the last literary 
work of the Rev. Dr. H. N. Powers, whose recent death 
was recorded in the October Dial. He was engaged on 
the article almost up to the time of his sudden death, a 
portion of the final draft having been found on his study 
table, together witli unfinished sheets of the first draft, 
from which the article has been completed — Edr.] 

The Dial has more than once expressed its 
warm appreciation of the Library of American 
Literature; and now, on the appearance of 
the final volume, hearty congratulations are 
due the accomplished editors for the success- 
ful completion of their noble undertaking. 
Concerning the general character of the work 
our readers are already informed. Begun 
seven years ago, it has somewhat outgrown its 
original plan, while in its execution it has con- 

* A LiBBART OF American Literature, from the Earli- 
est Settlement to the Present Time. Compiled and edited 
by Edmund Clarence Stedman and Ellen Mackay Hutchin- 
son. In eleven volumes. New York : Charles L. Wehster 
^fcCo. (W. £. Dibble <& Co., Chicago.) 



stantly maintained its high standard of ex- 
cellence. Not all the difficulties attending the 
compilation were foreseen at the beginning ; 
and yet, whatever their nature or degi*ees, they 
have been met and overcome with a sure judg- 
ment and a scholarship that may be called un- 
erring. This Library is a work of solid and 
sterling value. It contains — though in most in- 
stances comparatively brief space is given to in- 
dividual examples — the cream of our literature. 
Considering the plan of the work, the place it 
was intended to fill, and the manner in which it 
has been executed, it is a masterpiece of ed- 
itorial achievement, which, on the lines of its 
inception and intention, has fully vindicated 
its national value and importance. 

The undertaking as a whole can only be 
fairly judged and appreciated by a considera- 
tion of the variety and quality of the material 
from which it has been drawn, the method of 
its handling, and the impartial spirit in which 
its selections have been made. Covering so 
wide a period and one so various in its char- 
acteristics, embracing qualities of such divers 
degrees of excellence, it has required the finest 
discrimination, the sanest judgment, the most 
unbiased estimate of literary values, to do full 
justice, without prejudice and without partial- 
ity, to the manifold topics presented. And 
here the casual reader, without critical atten- 
tion and a considerable acquaintance with Am- 
erican literature, is liable to undervalue the 
importance of the achievement, and to over- 
look its inherent difficulties. Opinions and 
tastes must of course diflFer. Here and there 
one might wish that some favorite poet were 
more liberally represented, that some other 
chapter had been substituted for the one 
chosen ; he might think it would have been 
fairer, in some instances, had the space allotted 
been diflFerently disposed of, — that this par- 
ticular name has received more prominence 
than it deserved, and this other less. But 
when everything has been candidly and dis- 
passionately considereil — the gi-eat object of 
the undertaking, the variety of topics to be 
treated, the grounds on which the selections 
had to be made, with the many questions of 
what was most characteristic of the i)eriod and 
of most national interest — it may well excite 
unfeigned surprise that a work of such high 
superiority has been produced. We j^ei. not 



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unfamiliar with the principles on which the 
editors directed their studies and selected the 
material for this compendium ; and it is only 
just to acknowledge that they have more than 
fulfilled their promises made in the beginning, 
and have fully carried out their original 
scheme, though with a more generous expend- 
iture of time and trouble than was at first con- 
templated. That the Library shows through- 
out a ripe judgment and an independent spirit, 
it is hardly necessary to afSrm. The editors 
are singularly free from the bias that is gen- 
erated by single studies and special proclivities. 
There is no evidence of narrow sympathies or 
ungroiuided predilections. Good taste and 
catholic-mindedness characterize the work from 
beginning to end. Moreover, it has no smack 
of a series of 1x)oks made to order, no indica- 
tions of inconsiderate haste, or flavor of a finan- 
cial venture, or suggestions of an aim at tem- 
poral popularity. It was compiled with a 
serious and profound apprehension of the value 
of such a work to the general reader and to 
the leaders and makers of public opinion, and 
of the just claims of American Literature. 

The Tenth and Eleventh volumes of this 
Libraiy, which are devoted to our contempo- 
raneous literature, will be examined with pe- 
culiar interest. If we mistake not, many will 
be surprised at the riches of the latest decade 
or so in the work of })ure creative talent. 
Though the Library was extended beyond its 
first intention of ten volumes, the enlargement 
was imperatively demanded for an adequate 
treatment of the writers who had come to the 
front since the series was begun. To have 
omitted these young and promising authors 
would have been manifestly unjust. The con- 
cluding volume (XI.) contains also several 
special features of interest and value. In ad- 
dition to the regular selections wmpleting the 
survey of contemporaneous authorship, it gives 
numerous additi(mal selecticms (1834 to 1889) 
which were overlooked in preparing the body 
of the work ; also various poems which deserve 
a permanent record and have some character- 
istic value, Populiu' Epithets given to certain 
Americans, and Noted Sayings which natur- 
ally belong to such a compilation. A good 
deal of studious care has been bestowed ujion 
the General Index, where the many topics are 
most conveniently aiTanged, and which is a 
marvel of convenience. The Shoi-t Biographies, 
compiled by Mr. Arthur Stedman, ai*e also an 
important feature of this volume, — which 
shows throughout the same conscientious edit- 



ing, amidst rather peculiar difficulties, that has 
distinguished the entire series. We have but a 
single criticism to make : We cannot but think 
that the omission of appropriate selections from 
the writings of the honored editors is an error 
that impairs the synmietry of the work. While 
we may admire the modesty that imposed this 
restraint, we cannot but regret it. Mr. Sted- 
man's writings are a part of American litera- 
ture, and readers have a right to expect to 
find examples of them in this Library. Some of 
Miss Hutchinson's fine poems also should have 
been included. Excepting this fault — which in 
one sense may be interpreted as a virtue — ^we 
have nothing but praise for the execution of 
the work, and congratulations for the editors 
and publishers, and for the public as well, on its 
successful completion. 

HoBATio N. Powers. 



Notable Discussions of Religiox ant> 
Philosophy,* 



The first four books on our list are very un- 
like in critical tendency, though all are devout 
in temper. The first of them, " Jesus the Mes- 
siah," shows in its very title that its purpose 
is to expound rather than to correct current 
faith. It l)elongs to that very valuable class 
of works — of which we are now fortunately hav- 
ing so many — that aims to give a more com- 
plete and con*ect picture of the life of Christ. 
It is erudite and full of instruction, and will 
give much assistance to the earnest and devout 
student of the Gospels. It will not satisfy the 
critical temper, as it makes little or no effort 
to meet it. It moves on the accepted plane 
of reverent orthodoxy, and is thus left undis- 
turl)ed by doubt in its treatment of facts. If 
a more critical spirit would sometimes lead to 
a deeper penetration into the very nature of 
the facts, it would also lead to a hide-and-seek 
of the facts themselves, often very disturbing 

* Jesus the Messiah. By Alfred Edersheim, M. A. Oxon., 
D.IK Ph.D. New York : A. I). F. Randolph & Co. 

The Nati're and Method of Revklation. By Geoive 
Park Fisher, D.D., LL.D. New York: Charles Scribner's 
Sons. 

God in IIis Would. An Inten^retation. New York : Ilai^ 
per & Bros. 

Studies in Hegel's Philosophy or Rbugion. By J. 
Macbride Sterrett, D.D. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 

Introduction to Philosophy. An Inquiry after a Ra- 
tional SyHtem of Scientific Principles in their Relation to inti- 
mate Reality. By George Trumbull Ladd. New York: 
Charles Scribner's Sons. 

Belief in (iod. Its Ori^n, Nature, and Basis. By Jacob 
Gould Schuniuui. New Y'ork: Charies Scribner^s i 



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to the believing mind. Criticism, especially in 
those stages of it in which its conclusions are 
uncertain and conflicting, is something which 
we should be as much at liberty to decline as 
to accept. The book is content to illuminate 
the way of life which so many worshipful minds 
have followed and are following. 

" The Nature and Method of Revelation " 
is critical, but critical for the most pait along 
lines of defence. Dr. Fisher's liberal spirit 
and scholarly acquirements enable him to do 
excellent work in this direction. lie soothes 
and comforts disturbed and timid believers in 
their faith, and leads all who are in any degree 
awakened to the variety and urgency of the 
attacks on accredited religious opinions to feel 
that there is no occasion for a stampede, that 
the various issues and interests involved will 
adjust themselves with no such wide change 
of base as many are predicting. The earlier por- 
tion of the volume was written for " The Cen- 
tury Magazine," with this very end of presentar 
tion and defence in view. It treats of the nature 
of revelation and of the early footing of Chris- 
tianity. The later i)ortion of the volume is 
made up of five essays, three on tlie Gospels 
and New Testament, two on the religious opin- 
ions expressed by Matthew Arnold and Profes- 
sor Huxley. The l)ook, as a whole, is fitted to 
sober criticism and to reduce the disintegration 
which attends upon it — not to avoid it or dis- 
parage it in itself. Such work is exceedingly 
serviceable in keeping quiet and trustful, yet 
progressive, the more intelligent forms of faith. 
To those already in the stream of wnfiicting 
opinions, the presentations of Dr. Fisher will 
often seem inadequate and unduly timid. He 
is slow in following out the conclusions plainly 
involved in his own premises. Many of his 
principles are of the most fundamental char- 
acter, and can hardly be allowed their full 
force without a profound modification — by no 
means a subversion — of orthodox faith. The 
secret of all sober faith is expressed in the last 
sentence of his Introduction : 

« The reality and profound significance of perscniality 
in God and man is a truth which is alike essential in all 
sound philosophy and in all earnest views of human life 
and duty." 

The spirit of his method is contained in this 
statement : 

*< The fundamental reality is not the Bible, it is the 
Kingdom of God. This is not a notion. Rather is it a 
real historical fact, the grandest of all facts." (P. 15.) 

An example of hesitancy in pursuing his own 
thought is seen in these assei-tions : 



** But the religion itself is not defective, and, there- 
fore, is not perfectible. Christianity is not to be put 
in the same category with the ethnic religions, which 
contain an admixture of error and are capable of being 
infinitely improved. The religion of the Gospel is ab- 
solute." (P. 21.) 

« The religion of the Gospel means vastly more to- 
day than it was ever perceived to mean before. This 
enlarged meaning, however, is not amiexed to it, or 
carried into it, but legitimately educed from it, through 
the ever-widening perceptions of Christian men whom 
the spirit of God illuminates." (P. 48.) 

" That revealed religion is revealed, and is not the 
product of human genius, despite the gradual unfolding 
of that religion and the coherence of its parts, becomes 
increasingly evident the more thoroughly its character- 
istics are appreciated." (P. 50.) 

Yet he does not hesitate to say of the Old Testa- 
ment : 

« Tliere was lacking a full perception of the moral 
ideal." (P. 78.) 

What can be meant by the perfection of a 
religion other than the perfection of the con- 
ception of those who entertain it ? What is a 
revelation which after all is not revealed? 
We might as well speak of the perfection of 
science on the ground of the inner coherence 
of facts, as of the completeness of faith because 
of the relations of truths not yet disclosed. 
No man denies that truth will be coherent when 
it is disclosed. Every truth in every system 
stands linked with the entire body of dis- 
coverable truth. In these days, however, when 
progress with so many means a loss of foot- 
ing and a rapid slide into the abyss of un- 
belief, we censure no man because he braces 
as he walks. 

" God in His World " is a remarkable book. 
Only here and there, scattered widely, do we 
meet with that elevated, transcendental, spir- 
itual tyjHj of mind disclosed in its pages. It 
is the product of profound and unhesitating 
l>elief, yet of the freest and most unconven- 
tional order. The thought often seems to 
l)ortler on mysticism, and to pass into wrapt 
vision, but it always shows a mind unusually 
awake to the inherent force and manifold im- 
plications of spiritual life. Difficulties, seri- 
ous to many, and over which they fall, are 
mere pebbles in the path of the writer, deflect- 
ing his steps neither one way nor the other. 
Though some may pronounce this bold and 
unhesitating movement rhapsody, we think it 
the result of ready and real insight. To those 
who have any of the same free and assured 
faith, the lK)ok will be very stimulating. 
Plodding minds may as well let it alone. For 
ourselves, we prefer a treatment more closely i 

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knit, and, in the higher sense of the word, 
more logical. The author is a man of wide 
reading, but of a very solitary habit of thought. 
Customs, in their conventional hold, are hardly 
recognizable by him. The volume is divided into 
three books, entitled " From the Beginning," 
" The Incarnation," " The Divine Human Fel- 
lowship." The comprehensive purpose Ls to 
declare the conditions of spiritual life widely 
sown in this our spiritual universe. There is 
as much difference between a j)iece of empiri- 
cism in philosophy and this book, as between 
a fish and a bird. Among birds, it has the 
eagle's strength. It Ls pervaded by a very 
subtile, delicate, and active poetic sense. 

" Studies in Hegel's Philosoj)hy of Religion " 
we have found quite as interesting as any one 
of the works already spoken of. It is readable 
and intelligible in itself, and so in a high de- 
gree for a book that treats of Hegel. It is 
not simply devout, but profoundly penetrated 
by a free, critical, coherent religious temper. 

" The intellectual comprehension of the thought and 
reality of the unfolded universe — the manifestations of 
God as Subject, rather than of substance, — this is the 
< vision splendid * of that philosophy which is thoroughly 
and essentially theological." (P. 131.) 

" In fact, his whole Logic which contiiins his system 
or method in pure scientific form, seems to me to be 
but his explication of the nature and acti\dties of God, 
immanent in the actuality and order of the world, and 
transcendent as its efficient and final Cause. . . . 
It is God, the Category' of all categories — the Subject 
of all absolute predicates." (P. IG.) 

** Egoism, individualism, is seen to be morbid selfish- 
ness and self-destruction. We are bound, on a voyage 
of discovery, to find ourselves in everything foreign. 
All things are ours." (P. 71.) 

The author's estimate of current belief and 
unbelief is that — 

" Much of modern skepticism is simply the inher- 
ently just and necessary demand of the human spirit to 
know the source and ground of such asserted infallibility 
for fiible and Church and Reason. It is more than 
willing to yield to rational authority. But it will not 
and it ought not to yield the blind obedience demanded 
to any authority." (P. 99.) 

** Modern skepticism is very serious, and earnest, and 
wistful. Much of it needs but the true presentation of 
Christianity, as the life and light of the world, as the 
Divine love seeking and saving and civilizing and per- 
fecting men — the most Divine, because the most human 
power on earth, — to joyfully accept and enter the social 
state in which the spirit of Christ reigns." (P. 102.) 

The author belongs to the right wing in his 
rendering of Hegel. 

"Indeed, any interpretation of Hegel which at- 
tributes to him the denial of personality and freedom 
to either God or man, is not worth the paper it is written 
on." (P. 133.) 



<< The physical universe is not all in the eye of the 
beholder, bnt is a real object of intelligence. Man is 
not identical with nature, nor God with man. But the 
reality which each possesses is that which, in spite of 
differences and distinctions, is of the same kith and kin 
in all. The resolute maintenance of this is a distin- 
guishing mark of what we may term both English and 
American Hegelians. The personality of God and 
man, and the objective reality of the world, are stren- 
uously maintained by them all." (P. 191.) 

So definite is this assertion of distinct real- 
ities, that the chief difficulty we should find 
with it is that it leaves no sufficient ground for 
that peculiar and ultimate philosophy which 
we have associated with Hegel — the universe 
as the unfolding of a rational process. Hegel 
becomes rather a realist. A rational evolu- 
tion can hardly be put back of and under real 
personality, since such a process is itself a 
product of personality, if we give personality 
the ordinary force of the word. Is it not the 
real difficulty of Hegelianism, that, while it in- 
volves some wonderfully penetrative pregnant 
and regnant ideas, it associates them with an 
impossible simplicity of philosophy, a verbal 
unity which finds no counterpart in experience ? 
Hegel's philosophy thus becomes capable of 
readings widely apart from each other, accord- 
ing as its central idea is boldly asserted and 
fearlessly developed, or as the comprehensive 
principles associated with it are unfolded in a 
more guarded way. The philosophy is weak 
in its central connection. " The necessary 
dialectic of the idea " lacks cohesive propell- 
ing power as the unfolding force in all events. 
Some of the earlier chapters, as that on " The 
Vital Idea of Religion," we have found espec- 
ially stimulating. 

We have never experienced quite the pleasure 
in the perusal of the works of Professor La^ld 
which we have anticipated. He is liberal, able, 
and fiiU of knowle<lge, and yet he only par- 
tially succeeds in presenting his topic. His 
sentences are not a few swift wheels under a 
car, but many rollers, without much motion, 
under a building just forsaking its old founda- 
tions. His erudition as often disturbs as aids 
his thoughts. His style, somewhat technical, 
demands ccmstant attention, and one soon 
wearies of the movement, as too slow, too de- 
ficult, with too little reward. Thus, in the vol- 
ume before us, the first chapter, of twenty- 
seven pages, is devoted to a definition of Phil- 
osophy. It is chiefly historical — not so directly 
and exclusively so as to be judged on this 
ground alone, and yet too much so for inter- 
esting and independent discussion. The title of 



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the book does not very obviously express its 
purpose and character. It is rather a general 
survey of philosophy by one who has given it 
extended study than a preparation for such 
study. It involves a scheme of philosophy and 
a determination of the chief dependencies of 
philosophy on other forms of knowledge. One 
will, therefore, hardly be interestetl in the 
work, or able fully to apprehend it, without 
much previous knowledge. The subjects con- 
sidered, put in a condensed way, are the na- 
ture, sources, and relations of philosophy ; its 
divisions, supported by a discussion of each 
division ; and schools of philosophy. Professor 
Ladd inclines toward intuitionalism, well sus- 
tained, however, by the results of empirical in- 
quiry. He thus adopts, if we may judge, the 
safest, most penetrative, and most progressive 
form of thought. With this sti'eam, all other 
streams from the right and left may readily 
unite. 

Professor Schurman has achieved, in a brief 
period, manifest success in his educational 
work. The present volume, on "Belief in 
God," was the result of an invitation to give 
the Winkley Lectures at Andover Theological 
Seminary. The discussion of the topic chosen 
is exceedingly well managed in the order and 
method of presentation. The existence of 
God as unmanent spirit is sustained as an ex- 
planatory hypothesis by the inner, constructive 
order of the universe, by the current movement 
which issues in definite purposes, and by the 
relation of the Infinite spirit, so assumed, to 
the spirit of man. The argument is made to 
rest firmly on both supports — the physical and 
the moral world. The lower facts are shown to 
require the interpretation of the higher ones, 
and the higher ones are given the firm footing 
of the lower ones. This presentation is made 
in the last three lectures, and the way is pre- 
pared for it by a lecture on agnosticism, by 
one on the logical basis and force of the argu- 
ment, and by one on the historic growth of 
the conception of God. I have rarely met 
with a book whose general results seem so satis- 
factory, so to unite empirical inquiry and ra- 
tional exposition. It goes far to indicate and 
promise a general movement of thought in con- 
verging lines toward one centre. The first 
lecture hardly does justice to the remaining 
lectures. The style of Professor Schurman, 
though not technical, is slightly touched with 
technicality — disadvantageously, as it seems 

to lis. ^ ^ 

John Bascom. 



'Sbw Books of Til.vvei. and Adventure.* 



A complete series of travellers' tales from 
pre-Homeric times to our own would perhaps 
present no bad parallel to the series of books 
read and enjoyed by most individuals from 
childhood to middle age. In both sets would 
be found a gradual tempering and final elim- 
ination of the marvellous. The early European 
was, in respect of the unexplored world, a 
credulous child beyond whose visible horizon 
lay a region of delightful possibilities for the 
adventurous, teeming with the true material 
for story-teller and poet, a land of enchant- 
ment thronged with creatures like those dream- 
born shapes that hover about the pillow of 
childhood. The men to whom Homer sang 
dreamed waking; they held the traveller in 
awe as one who had looked upon strange things 
— *'Gorgons, and Hydras, and Chimeras dire"; 
or reverenced him as one blessed, perhaps, 
with a glimpse of foam-born Aphrodite, or of 
silver-footed Thetis stealing like a mist over 
the sea. These artless creeds of humanity's 
childhood are long outworn ; anticipation has 
become but inverted recollection ; and, now- 
adays, the Ancient Mariner who holds us "with 
his glittering eye " has a comparatively trite 
and commonplace tale to tell. The voyage of 

* Thb Pacific Coast Scenic Tour : From Southern Cal- 
ifornia to Alaska. By Henry T. Finck. Illustrated. New 
York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 

Kamblks in thk Black Forest. By Henry W. Wolff. 
New York : Longmans, Green & Co. 

A Russian Journey. By Edna Dean Proctor. Revised 
Edition^ with Prelude. Illustrated. Boston: Houghton, 
Mifflin & Co. 

European Days and Ways. By Alfred E. Lee. Illus- 
trated. Philadelphia : J. B. Lippineott Company. 

The Round Trip from the Hub to the Gkilden Gate. By 
Susie G. Clark. Boston : Lee & Shepard. 

An Eastern Tour at Home. By Joel Cook. Phila- 
delphia : David McKay. 

The Pine Tree Coast. By Samuel Adams Drake. Il- 
lustrated. Boston : Estes & Lauriat. 

Far- West Sketches. By Jessie Benton Fremont. Bos- 
ton : D. Lothrop Company. 

Through Abyssinia: An Envoy's Ride to the King of 
Zion. By F. Harrison Smith, R.N. Illustrated. New York : 
A. C. Armstrong & Son. 

MuNGO Park and the Niger. By Joseph Thompson. 
Illustrated. ** Great Explorers and Explorations. '' New 
York : Dodd, Mead & Co. 

Memoirs of the Military Career of John Shipp, 
late Lieutenant in His Majesty's 87th Regiment. Written by 
himself. With an Introduction by H. Manners Chichester. 
Illustrated. *^ Adventure Series." New York : Macmillan 
&Co. 

The Adventures of Thomas Pellow, of Penryn, 
Mariner : Three-and-Twenty Years in Captivity among the 
Moors. Written by Himself, and Edited, with an Introduc- 
tion, by Dr. Robert Brown. llliLstrated. *' Adventure Se- 
ries.'* New York : Macmillau «fe Co. 



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Odysseus in his hollow ship is, when viewed in 
the calm spirit of modern criticism, a trifling 
affair compared with recent performances ; and 
erratic elderly gentlemen and journalistic 
young ladies of our day excite no great com- 
ment — not half so much, we should say, as 
they would like — by girdling the globe in a 
minute fraction of the time spent by the crafty 
Ithacan in crossing the ii]gean. The prime 
quality required of writers of " Travels " in 
ancient times seems to have been invention — 
a requirement which placed them upon a most 
respectable literary footing, for, if we may l)e- 
lieve Mr. Pope, '* It is the invention that, in 
different degrees, distinguishes all great gen- 
iuses." But the traveller has long been de- 
prived of his traditional weapon, the long bow; 
though, if one may judge from the goodly pile 
of " Books of Travel and Adventure " now be- 
fore us, his popularity has not been greatly 
lessened thereby. 

The freshness, literary merit, and compact 
thoroughness of Mr. Henry T. Finch's " Pa- 
cific Coast Scenic Tour " entitle it, we think, 
to the first place on our list. In this volume 
the author aims to give a general and impar- 
tial view of the whole Pacific Coast from San 
Diego to Sitka, including the hitherto compar- 
atively neglected states of Oregon and Wash- 
ington. A great many books have l)een writ- 
ten about this region, and there has been a 
vast expenditure of superlatives and exclama- 
tion points in the endeavor to fitly exhibit its 
scenic features — to which it is undoubtedly 
difficult to do justice. This volume of Mr. 
Finch's seems to us to surpass easily the best 
of its predecessors in the amount and quality 
of the information it supplies, and in the char- 
acter of its descriptions, some of which fairly 
approach in graphic force the effects attaina- 
ble through the medium of color and canvas. 
The sunny beauties of Southern California, 
and the sublime features of the region to the 
north — Lake Tahoe, Mount Shasta, the Co- 
lumbia River, the Snow Peaks of Washington, 
the giant glaciers of Alaska, the Yellowstone, 
the Grand Canon of the Arkansas, " absolutely 
unique and without a rival anywhere," — are 
pictured with a taste and discrimination that 
will appeal to the cultured reader. The vol- 
ume teems with quotable matter, but we must 
confine ourselves to a few lines descriptive of 
Lake Tahoe : 

" Here are not only mountain peaks and pine- wooded 
shores reflected in the water, but the whoh» sky, with 
its sunset clouds, more brilliantly colored and more fan- 



tastically shaped than anywhere else in the world, is 
mirrored below. The earth no longer seems a hemi- 
sphere, but a perfect symmetrical globe with the spec- 
tator in the centre, floating on the invisible water like 
a disembodied spirit. '* 

Our author has not confined his observations 
to the natural features of the Coast, but gives 
his impressions of the towns and cities as well. 
We advise those of our readers who cannot see 
the glories of this wonderful Pacific Coast 
region through their own eyes, to see them 
through Mr. Finch's — which are certainly a 
good deal better than the most of us can boast 
of. The illustrations are an attractive fea- 
ture of the volume, and are of quite unusual 
merit. 

In the Introduction to his charming book, 
'^ Rambles in the Black Forest," Mr. W. H. 
Wolflf takes his fellow Englishmen to task for 
neglecting, in their summer tours, the pictur- 
esque spot he describes, and migrating con- 
ventionally to " those recognized Alpine pas- 
tures to which accepted bell-wethers still lead 
them." The Black Forest region he pictures as 
a land of giant firs and of shaggy hills studded 
with jutting crags of granite and porphjTy, 
threaded by a profusion of limpid winding 
streams, interspersed with bright meadows, 
trim gardens, and picturesque villages — the 
home of a gayly-clad, kindly-mannered folk 
who have not yet learned to regard the Ilerr 
Engliinder as an affluent Ishmaelite to be 
smitten, pecuniarily, hip and thigh ; in short, 
the Forest is an Eden where nature-loving 
Englishmen may roam for weeks in blissful 
forgetfulness of Pears' Soap, Beecham's Pills, 
the Monkey Brand, and the '* euphony of Cock- 
ney accents." Our author's reflections upon the 
desirability of straying occasionally from the 
beaten paths of European travel are, in the 
main, just enough ; and we commend his book 
to the next outgoing batch of American tour- 
ists — especially of that class of them whose 
esoteric pleasures are dulled by the fact that 
'^ everybody travels nowadays," and who are 
w(mt to gi'eet their countrymen abroad with a 
Gorgon-stare that says plainly enough, " What 
the deuce are yo2i doing here ? " Mr. Wolff 
has made a sj)ecial study of the various dis- 
tricts of the Black Forest, and of the customs 
and industries of its inhabitants ; and his 
work, besides being packed with information, 
possesses literary qualities that lift it out of 
the usual class of " l)ooks of travel." 

A new and enlarged edition of Edna Dean 
Proctor's '*A Russian «Tourney " is welcome, 

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as the work is already favorably known to 
many readers. The book is one that the re- 
viewer can extol cheerfully and with a good 
conscience, feeling that his judgment is not 
likely to be questioned. "A Russian Journey " 
commends itself no less by its refined literary 
style than by the truth and vigor of its descrip- 
tions — descriptions whose accuracy is not, we 
should say, impaired by the warm glow of 
sympathy and poetic feeling with which they 
are tinged. The work is not, of course, put 
forth as an authoritative treatise on Russian 
polity and ethnology. The author makes no 
pretence to having penetrated deeply into the 
life of the people, and touches only casually 
upon the graver topics discussed by Mr. Ken- 
nan and other recent travellers. The journey 
of which the volume is a. record was made 
some twenty yeai'S ago. The author visited 
St. Petersburg, Moscow, Kazan, and inter- 
mediate points, and then turned southward 
into the Cossack country and the Crimea, 
noting intelligently the general outward feat- 
ures of town and country, and the peculiarities 
of the people of the different districts. The 
volume is acceptably illustrated, and is en- 
closed in a decorative cover emblematic of the 
country visited. 

In his " European Days and Ways," Mr. 
Alfred E. Lee discourses pleasantly and in- 
telligently of the " sights " and social features 
of Germany, Holland, Austria, Italy, and 
Spain ; and as his observations are the result 
of an extended residence abroad, they are 
well worth the attention of the prospective 
tourists. Mr. Lee devotes a portion of his 
book to the consideration of political questions, 
two chapters being given to an account of the 
evolution of the German Empire. The volume 
IS a handsome one, and deserves fuller treat- 
ment than can be accorded it here. The illus- 
trations are numerous and good. 

Susie G. Clark's booklet narrating the in- 
cidents of her " Round Trip from the Hub to 
the Golden Gate " seems to us better worth 
reading than some more pretentious works of 
its kind that we could mention. Besides pos- 
sessing a very good style, the author takes 
serious account of what she sees, and credits 
her readers with a rational desire for informa- 
tion ; hence her descriptions are not belittled 
with that phase of " American humor " which 
takes the form of treating respectable things 
¥rith flippant irreverence. The California 
notes are fresh and informing, a chapter on 
the Lick Observatory being especially good. 



The title of Mr. Joel Cook's book, " An 
Eastern Tour," leads one to put the author 
down as an Oriental traveller ; and imagination 
at once pictures him sitting cross-legged upon 
a carpet, puffing a hookah, quaffing snow- 
cooled sherbet or wine of Shiraz, and trying 
to make his harem-owning entertainer believe 
he is enjoying himself. A glance at the in- 
terior of the volume, however, shows that the 
extreme point of the " Orient " reached by 
Mr. Cook was Eastport, Maine. His book is, 
in fact, a series of articles, which are reprinted 
from the Pliiladelphia " Public Ledger," min- 
utely descriptive of various points of interest 
in the Eastern States. The fund of informa- 
tion — historical, traditional, and anecdotal, — 
embodied in these papers is really surprising ; 
and it is imparted in an agreeable way. 

Mr. Samuel Adams Drake's *^ The Pine 
Tree Coast " is a handsome volume illustrative 
of the coast of Maine, from Kittery to East- 
poit — a stretch of twenty-four hundred miles. 
The amount and variety of mformation, local 
and personal, collected here, implies an ap- 
palling development of the collector's bump of 
inquisitiveness ; and we caution people who 
have a hole in their coats to " tent it " before 
Mr. Drake comes " amang " them with his 
note-book. Every nook and corner of the 
Maine coast seems to have been explored and 
its special tradition and gossip ferreted out. 
The value of the work is enhanced by 379 il- 
lustrations — a number of them full-page photo- 
etchings. 

We have read with considerable pleasure a 
little volume of "Far- West Sketches" by 
Mrs. Jessie Benton Fremont. Mrs. Fremont 
has drawn her material from certain early ex- 
periences in California — some of them were 
Californian enough, in all conscience. The 
author writes gracefully and unconventionally, 
and her descriptive powers are exemplified by 
two or three character sketches worthy of the 
pencil of Bret Ilarte himself. Indeed, we 
think we are pretty safe in saying that Mrs. 
Fremont's people resemble their Californian 
prototypes more closely than Mr. Harte's 
charming but rather melodramatic worthies 
resemble theirs. 

In his " Through Abyssinia," Mr. F. Har- 
rison Smith gives a lively and rather instruct- 
ive account of a peculiar mission on which he 
was sent in 1885. In 1883, a treaty was en- 
tered into by Great Britain and Abyssinia by 
which the latter power bound itself to allow 
the release of the Egyptian garrisons^f cer- j 

_._. jL^oogle 



188 



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[Nov., 



tain places within its territory. King John 
of Abyssinia having, in 1885, unexpectedly 
falsified the old saymg about the faith of 
princes, by fulfilling his side of the bargain, it 
was agreed by the British Government that 
such phenomenal honesty should not go un- 
rewarded. It was accordingly decided to pre- 
sent King John, his son, and his chief gen- 
eral, with swords of honor as presents from 
Her Majesty the Queen, and Mr. F. Harrison 
Smith was selected as envoy. The story of 
his journey is an interesting one and is well 
told. 

The latest volume in the " Great Explorers 
and Explorations " series is a timely one. It 
is a well-wi'itten account, by Mr. Joseph 
Thompson, of the Scotch traveller Mungo 
Park, and his two expeditions (1794-1805) 
into the Soudan. Interest in the work of 
African exploration has been particularly 
strong of late ; and without some knowledge 
of what has been done in this field in times 
past one can but imperfectly comprehend the 
results of present activity. The chief object 
of Mungo Park's expeditions was to ascertain 
the origin, course, and termination of the Niger. 
To find the first allusion to this once mysteri- 
ous stream — believed by the ancients to be the 
Nile itself — we must go back to the dawn of 
history. Phoenicia, Greece, Carthage, and 
Rome, each had its bold navigators and travel- 
lers ; and even in those early days — twenty or 
more centuries ago — Africa was the goal of 
adventurous spirits who sought, by penetrat- 
ing into unknown wilds, to win the renown 
due to deeds of high emprise. In the pages 
of Herodotus, Strabo, Pliny, and Ptolemy, we 
find allusions to the fertile negro-land to the 
south of the desert zone, and of the mighty 
river running through it ; and from the mass 
of fable and of Arabian Night marvels, with 
which these ancient tales of " far Cathay " are 
clouded, we can extract the central fac^t that 
many centuries before the Christian era the 
Central or Western Soudan of our day was 
reached and partially explored. For many 
centuries little was added to the knowledge 
gained by the early classical writers. The 
power of Carthage yielded to that of Rome ; 
the African Empire was establisheil, but the 
advancing tide of Roman aggression was stayed 
to the southward by the natural barrier of 
Sahara, and the gi*eat desert remained un- 
crossed. In the seventh century a new power 
rose in the East, and the missionaries of Islam, 
l)nrsting the Ixjundaries of their native country. 



swept like the Simoon over Roman Africa,, 
overhelming its decaying Paganism and cor- 
rupting wrangling Christianity alike in their 
course, and turned finally to the North and 
South in quest of new fields to conquer for 
God and His prophet. The wide Sahara, im- 
passable to Carthaginian and Roman, formed 
no obstacle to the desert-born race ; and within 
less than a century after the commencement 
of the Mohammedan era the Arabs had carried 
the crescent to the banks of the Niger, and es- 
tablished their schools and mosques in the 
negi'o kingdoms to the west of Timbuktu. The 
negro tribes, formerly warring and disunited, 
were combined, for a time, under the spell of 
Arabic religion and Arabic civilization, into 
an empire headed by a powerful king. A 
flourishing trade grew up with their neighbors 
to the north of the desert, and cai^avans of 
Egypt, Tripoli, and Morocco, met at Walata 
and Timbuktu to barter the products of Moor- 
ish art and handicraft for the gold-dust, slaves,, 
and ivory of the Soudanese. Thus was formed, 
in the heart of Africa, the Empire of Prester 
John — a mystic realm whose fabulous wealth 
proved a loadstone to adventurous English- 
men of later times. To them, as to the Por- 
tuguese somewhat earlier, Timbuktu and the 
Niger were words to conjure with. The Niger 
they pictured as a new Pactolus whose sands 
were gold-dust ; while Timbuktu floated in 
their imaginations as an Aladdin-city, gold- 
paved and gold-roofed, crowned with jewelled 
domes and minarets, a resort of caravans laden 
with the wealth of the Orient. It was thought 
that the Senegal and the Gambia were the 
mouths of the Niger, and that to ascend either 
would be to reach the kingdom and partake of 
the wealth of Prester John. Science and 
geographical reseach have robbed the world of 
many a pleasing illusion. Keats lamented 
that the beauty of the rainbow had departed 
with its mystery ; and Timbuktu and the Niger 
have shared the fate of the Homeric lands. 
The latter part of the eighteenth century marks 
the commencement of the modem period of 
African exploration — the period of disinter- 
ested scientific research ; and to the Afrie^m 
Association belongs the honor of inaugurating 
it. It was under the auspices of this society 
that Mungo Park made his first expedition to 
the Niger. The publishers are happy in their 
selection of Mr. Joseph Thompson as the 
author of the present work. He tells the 
dramatic story of Park's career with clearness 
and force, dwelling sympathetically upon the 



1890.] 



THE DIAL 



189 



great explorer's mateLless courage and tenacity 
of purpose, yet not glossing over the fact that 
in point of executive ability and foresight he 
was fatally deficient. The volume is supplied 
with a number of fairly good maps and illus- 
trations. 

The third volume in Messrs. Macmillan's 
" Adventure Series " recounts " The Military 
Career of John Shipp," a British soldier who 
by dint of personal merit twice won a cx)mmis- 
sion from the ranks before he was thirty years 
old — an achievement pronounced by his editor, 
H. Manners Chichester, unique in the annals 
of the British army. Shipp saw plenty of act- 
ive service under Lord Lake in India (1804- 
1821), and his narrative presents an excellent 
picture of the everyday life of the English 
soldier at that period. The style of the mem- 
oir is surprisingly good, considering the writ- 
er's limited educational opportunities. A num- 
ber of quaint cuts are furnished, one of them 
representing Shipp himself pointing an unser- 
viceable-looking sabre at a fortress which he 
seems to be storming single-handed. 

Another volume in the same series, " The 
Adventures of Thomas Pellow," takes us back 
to the days of the Barbary corsairs, when the 
merchant vessels of Christendom, coursing 
between the Pillars of Hercules, ran a grue- 
some risk of being overhauled by the fleet of 
Morocco cruisers and towed as prize into the 
dens of Moslem piracy infesting the African 
coast. Happily, these nests of infamy have 
long since fallen into decay, or been pounded 
into submission by the cannon of the Naza- 
renes. In the year 1715, Thomas Pellow, 
then eleven years of age, set sail on a voyage 
from Falmouth to Genoa. When off Cape 
Finisterre, the vessel was surprised and cap- 
tured by two Sallee rovers, and Pellow, with 
his companions, was conveyed into the interior 
to become the slave of the Emj)eror Muley Is- 
mail. His situation may l)e inferred from 
the picture he draws of his master : ''He was 
of so fickle and cruel a nature that none could 
be even for one hour secure of life." This ty- 
rant kept several dextrous executioners at his 
elbow, to whom his sanguinary orders were 
conveyed by signs — *' as, for instance, when he 
would have any person's head cut oflF, by draw- 
ing or shrinking his own as close as he could 
to his shouldere, and then with a very quick 
or sudden motion extending it ; and when he 
would have any one strangled, by the qiuck 
turn of his arm-wrist, his eyes lK»ing fixed on 
the victims." During the early part of his 



captivity, Pellow suffered every manner of in- 
dignity and hardship ; but later, having ab- 
jured Christianity and "turned Moor," he 
fared better, and entered the Moorish army, 
serving under Muley Ismail, Muley Abdal- 
malek, and Muley Abdallah, and was an eye- 
witness of most of the sanguinary episodes of 
their reigns. Fellow's account of his twenty- 
three year's captivity and final escape is very 
interesting, and presents a reasonably accurate 
picture of Moorish manners at that period. 
The volume is illustrated, and the editor, Dr. 
Robert Brown, has prefaced it with an in- 
structive account of the origin, growth, and 
suppression of Barbary piracy. 

Edward Gilpin Johnson. 



The Xkw "International." Webster.* 



Before me stand two of the biggest books in 
the world : Webster's "American Dictionary," 
bearing the date 1887, and Webster's "Inter- 
national Dictionary" of the year 1890. The 
main body of the former is the edition of 1864, 
typographically unchanged ; the editions of 
1879 and 1884 are swollen by supplements of 
one kind and another, but beyond this they 
were in no sense revised. The appendix of 
1879, containing a large number of new words 
and definitions, though welcome to many, was 
probably of little utility to the great mass of 
those who have had occasion to consult this 
^pular oracle. To pause in the midst of an 
interesting story or essay or article to look up 
a word is undoubtedly a praiseworthy act in- 
volving the exercise of no small amount of 
energy. Praiseworthy as this act may be, the 
solitary reader can look for no other praise 
than that of his own literary conscience, and 
the voice of the literary conscience is too often 
very still and small. When the reader has 
roused himself to consult the dictionary and 
has failed to find what he wants in the body of 
the work, the literary conscience is rarely des- 
potic enough to impel him to plunge into a 
maze of appendixes, whence he is too likely to 
emerge uninformed and discouraged. There 
are a thousand ways of appeasing conscience 
in such a case. The attention may be dis- 

* Webster's Intebnational Dictionaby of the English 
Language. Being the Authentic Edition of Webster's Un- 
abridged Dictionary, Comprising the Issues of 1H64, 1879, and 
1H84, now thoroughly Revised and Enlarged under the Super- 
vision of Noah Porter, D.D., LL.D., of Yale University. 
With a Volnminous Appendix. Springfield, Mass.: G. & C. 
Merriam <& Co. 



Digitized by 



Google 



190 



THE DIAL 



[Nov., 



tracted from the author's train of thought ; the 
hour for reading may slip by ; the quest for 
the word may prove bootless ; and if we read 
on, the meaning may dawn upon us, or the 
writer may explain it himself. Nothing short 
of a dispute about the meaning of a word 
would ever arouse an unprofessional or un- 
scholarly reader to such a heroic expenditure 
of patience and fortitude as is involved in 
running down a shade of meaning in two or 
three different parts of this vast work, when 
the odds ai-e perhaps against his finding it 
at all. 

This is by no means the sole reason why a 
revision of Webster was called for. It seems 
not improbable that the past quarter-century 
has added a larger number of words to the 
English language than any preceding century 
since Norman French finally became blended 
with Old English to form the language of 
Wiclif and Chaucer. The thousands of words 
and meanings which the progress of modem 
society, with its retinue of arts and inventions 
and sciences, has added to our tongue since 
the Civil War, were but crudely and partially 
registered in the Supplement of 1879. Had 
the material forming that Supplement been 
merged in the body of the work, the dictionary 
would still have remained very imperfect. The 
wider resources and the exacter methods of 
philological investigation had shown the inad- 
equacy of much of the etymological part, and 
yet this was probably the most scientific part 
of the entire work. The unscientific method 
employed in the definitions of words was far 
more painfully evident. The book swarmed 
with grotesque, inaccurate, and useless cuts ; 
and the typography, if never quite illegible, 
was coming to be, in places, a severe trial to the 
eye. 

Recognizing these and other facts, the pub- 
lishers undertook, some ten years ago, the prep- 
aration of a dictionary which should answer to 
the present popular need. The result is before 
us. In the words of the editor-in-chief, — " The 
revision now given to the public is the fruit of 
over ten years of lalK)r by a large editorial 
staff, in which publishers • and editors have 
spared neither ex2)ense nor pains to produce 
a comprehensive, accurate, and symmetrical 
work." The publishers make the following 
extraordinary statements : 

" The staff of paid editorial laborers has numbered 
not less than one hundred persons, licsides these, a large 
uiiniber of interested scholars have freely contributed in 
iin)>ort}int ways to its completeness and value. Within 
the ten years that the work has been in progress, and 



before the first copy was printed, mare than three Aun- 
dred thousand dollars was expended in editing, illustrat- 
ing, type-setting, and electrotyping." 

There is no reason to doubt these statements. 
Careful and detailed examination of many dif- 
ferent parts of the book has convinced me that 
it is entirely re-written from cover to cover. 
Of course much of the old material, represent- 
ing the stable portion of our word-lore, remains ; 
but this old matter has been everywhei-e re- 
moulded, condensed, and blended with new. 
How skilfully this has been done could only 
be shown by parallel quotations for which The 
Dial has no room. Let anyone take, for ex- 
ample, the word nice^ and compare its treat- 
ment in the " Unabridged " and in the " Inter- 
national." lie will find that the eight heads 
under which the meanings were grouped have 
been reduced to seven, that these heads have 
been entirely rearranged sq that the last is first 
and the first last, that the etymology is treated 
more instructively in half the space, and that 
the synonymy is reduced, to the great relief of 
the reader, from seventeen lines to three. This 
system of c»ondensation has been carried out 
consistently throughout the work, so that very 
nmch more information is given ^dthin the 
same space. Probably no one who has been 
accustomed to use the old dictionary, and has 
not compared it with the new, can imagine how- 
large an amount of matter the older work con- 
tained which we can dispense with and never 
miss it. 

By means of these arts of condensation and 
judicious omission, the work has been kept 
within the l)ounds of a single volume. The two 
books, as they stand side by side, show no 
great disparity. The '* International "is a half- 
inch taller than the " Unabridged," and a trifle 
stouter. But no physiognomist could divine, 
from the diflference in outward configuration 
and bulk, the immense disparity within. The 
edition of 1887 contains 2012 pages ; the pres- 
ent edition contains 2118 somewhat larger 
pages. My scioitiny of the work inclines me 
to believe that every page of the revised work 
contains incomparably more information than 
the correspond mg page of the earlier work, 
and that this information is more scientifically 
arranged, more perspicuously worded, and far 
freer from intermixture of irrelevant, errone- 
ous, or trivial matter. 

I have but little space left for more specific 
statements and illustrations. I have mentioned 
the rearrangement of the definitions under the 
word 7uce. This is simply onejjlustration out 

Digitized by vn* _ _ _ _. 



1890.] 



THE DIAL 



191 



of thousands. The principle of this rearrange- 
ment is to exhibit the historic filiation of the 
various significations which a word may bear. 
The reader is enable to think back with the 
universal mind across centuries and millenaries, 
and to trace the subtle associations of thought 
by which words have leaped from one meaning 
to another. So also, in the etymologies, he is 
enabled to follow the metamorphoses which 
words have imdergone as to their outward form. 
The etymologies are rendered more perspicu- 
ous by being purged of the superfluous citations 
made by Dr. Mahn of parallel forms in the 
various modem languages. Those forms only 
are here cited which are in the direct line of 
descent, or which throw some useful light upon 
the laws by which that descent has been de- 
termined. The etymologies are further vastly 
improved by the citation of cognate forms and 
congeners, which would otherwise be over- 
looked. This is an entirely new feature, and a 
most useful one. Thus, under induce^ refer- 
ence is made to duke and induct ; under scheriie^ 
to epochs hectic^ and school ; under science^ to 
conscience^ conscious^ and nice. 

As might be expected, there is a marked im- 
provement in the treatment of certain classes 
of words which are just now enormously in 
vogue, — such as science^ lienaissance^ society 
and its congeners social^ socialism^ etc., induc- 
tion^ electric^ magnet and its derivatives, devel- 
opnient^ hypnotism. The words Darwinism^ 
solidary^ and mugmump^ may serve as samples 
of as many classes of new words not found in 
the former editions and supplement. But the 
great majority of new words here found are 
special terms in science and specific names of 
animals and plants. To what an extent new 
words appear may be illustrated by the fact 
that on the first two pages under the letter L 
no less than forty-three words are found which 
had been recorded in no previous edition. At 
this rate the "International" would contain 
upwards of thirty-six thousand more words 
than the "Unabridged" dictionary in its best 
estate. 

The " Dictionary of Noted Names in Fiction" 
furnishes a striking example of the methods by 
which a much larger amount of pertinent in- 
formation has been ci'owded into a smaller 
number of pages. In the edition of 1884, this 
*' dictionary" fills fifty-two pages ; in the pres- 
ent edition it fills but thirty. Yet by the 
omission of the frequent long quotations and 
other illustrative matter in the original work, 
room is made for the insertion of a large num* 



ber of additional " noted names." Of course 
this changes the entire character of this " dic- 
tionary" ; and the change is, I think, in the 
interest of the greatest number of those who 
may have occasion to look up such " noted 
names." Under the letter N, for example, 
there are here forty-seven articles ; in the orig- 
inal there are but thirty-five. Of the thirty- 
five, three have been omitted ; so that in all, 
fifteen new articles have been added. This 
work has been executed judiciously and accu- 
rately. 

The other well-known supplements of the 
later editions of Webster have been retained 
and improved. Even the list of words and 
phrases from foreign languages has been care- 
fully revised. In view of the great popularity 
of the study of the German language and of 
the frequent Germanisms used by such widely- 
read authors as Carlyle and one or two others, 
one looks for a great increase in the number 
of words and phrases quoted from the German. 
I may have overlooked some, but in the edition 
of 1884 I find but one : ich dien. In the pres- 
ent edition I find four more : auf unedersehen^ 
Ewiykeit^ Sturm und Drang^ Zeitgeist. One 
looks in vain for epochemacheiid^ tonange- 
hend^ and others ; nor is the word epoch-making 
to be found among the English words, — though 
it is very proj)erly included in the Century 
Dictionary. Another unaccountable omission 
is that of the Latin word redivivus^ which is far 
more frequently used in English than most of 
the Latin woids in this list. 

Undoubtedly, the quotations cited to illus- 
trate the definitions form the weakest point of 
this dictionary, — unless, indeed, that weakest 
point be the utter omission of a quotation, and 
the mere citation of an author's name in sup- 
port of a sense in which he is supposed by the 
editor to have used the word in question. I 
give the briefest example I can find. The word 
poser is defined as follows : 

« One who, or that which, puzzles ; a difficult or in- 
explicable question or fact. Bacon." 

Here Bacon's name is cited for the three 
meanings, apparently, which are attributed to 
the word. Now in his essay " Of Studies," 
Bacon does perhaps use the word in one of 
these senses, but with a much more specific 
reference than is here indicated : in the sense, 
namely, of an examiner — one who poses, or ap- 
poses, questions. The word is still so used at 
the schools of Eton and Winchester. This 
fact the dictionary should state ; or if space 
does not permit this, it should at least indicate j 

.. jgle 



192 



THE DIAL 



[Nov., 



where in Bacon's works the word is to be 
found ; or, at the very least, in which of the 
senses named he uses the word. As a matter 
of fact, his use of the word does not exactly 
correspond to any of these meanings, unless, in- 
deed, an examiner be necessarily "one who puz- 
zles." I lay stress upon this, because it is an 
illustration of a radical defect which this dic- 
tionary shares with Worcester's, and with many 
others. Such mere citation of an author's name 
is likely to be misleading, if it be not entirely 
meaningless. 

There are traces of an attempt to verify the 
illustrative quotations ; but as no clue has ever 
been given to them, this attempt can hardly 
have been successful, except in isolated cases 
where the quotations have turned up in the 
course of reading for other purposes. Under 
" school^ V. t., 2," two very important correc- 
tions are made in the quotation from Dryden, 
which was, like many others, sadly garbled in 
previous editions. Under the adjective /r/ce^c, 
the following quotation is made from " Prof. 
Wilson": 

" * How to interpose * with a small, smart remark, 
sentiment facete, or unctuous anecdote." 

In the edition of 1884, this reads very differ- 
ently : 

" Good manners must have induced them, now and 
then, < here to interpose,' with a small, smaH remark, 
etc." 

In this case, unless the original quotation is 
almost incredibly garbled, the fault would seem 
to lie at the door of the present editorship. 
A very different and less pardonable error of 
the present editor was the insertion of the bit 
of inediajval scholasticism which does duty as 
the first quotation under the word scieiice^ 
where it is grotesquely out of place. 

I forbear further strictures. Barring an oc- 
casional broken letter, the liook is beautifully 
and correctly printed. Most of the ugly old 
cuts have been replaced by othei*s more modern 
and more ac^curate. As a whole, the book is 
a most welcome and an invaluable addition to 
our stock of books of reference. Never before 
has such a mass of accurate information been 
placed between two covers. Even those who 
possess the more sumptuous and more exhaust- 
ive Century Dictionary will find Webster's 
" International " almost indispensable for ready 
reference, — and, in their hours of indolence, for 
unready reference also. 

Mklvii.lk B. Andekson. 



The Civilizatiox of the Renaissance,* 



The appearance of a translation of Dr. Burck- 
hardt's already well-known work is another to- 
ken of the unflagging interest taken in that 
stirring epoch when the intelligence of human- 
ity awoke to conscious freedom and energy. To 
English readers, the ground might seem to have 
been covered by Symonds's exhaustive analy- 
sis ; but the fine feeling and thorough scholar- 
ship of Dr. Burckhardt's treatise could not well 
have been spared, particularly as the condensed 
form in which he presents his materials would 
prove no objection to the special student of the 
period. The Italian civilization of the four- 
teenth century has a peculiar significance in its 
relations to that mighty impulse which, begin- 
ning with the Renaissance, is to-day still active 
and unspent ; but our author indulges in no 
generalizations leading us to regard this phase 
of society as merely the point of contact be- 
tween the modern spirit and the fresh vigor of 
antiquity. Italy was the home of the restored 
humanities, and he confines himself to pointing 
out the conditions under which alone that span- 
taneous outburst could have taken place. 

First comes the state as a "work of art," the 
scientific result of delilieration and reflection, 
where, amid the crowd of tyrants and despots, 
the modern political spirit is noticed for the 
first time, gi'adually developing the great con- 
stitutional principle of the equality of man and 
the rights of the individual. Man, who has 
known himself hitherto as a member of a race, 
a people, or a family, becomes a conscious per- 
sonal force, a force which, by favoring natural 
causes, reaches its highest point in a manifes- 
tation petiuliar to Italy alone, — the flower and 
crown of humanity, Vuomo universale^ the "all- 
sided man." 

Having reached this point in his narrative, 
Dr. Burckhardt proceeds to show us the influ- 
ence of classic literature on the national mind, 
insisting that it was not alone the revival of 
antiquity which revolutionized the world, but 
its union with the genius of the Italian people. 
When civic life had become a possibility, a con- 
dition of society arose in which the need of cul- 
ture was felt, and in which existed the leisure 
and means to obtain it. The sympathies of all 
classes of Italians would turn naturally to an- 
tiquity, and in its civilization they found a 
guide to those two great revelations immortal- 

♦ The Civiuzation of the Rknamsancr in Italy. By 
Jiicob Burt'khardt. Authoiized Translation by S. G. C. Mid- 
dlemore. New York : Macmillan <& Co. 



Digiti: 



zed by Google 



1890.] 



THE DIAL 



193 



ized by Michelet as the Discovery of the World 
and the Discovery of Man. 

The passionate enthusiasm of this search for 
the remains of antiquity, not only literary but 
artistic, is dwelt uj)on at some length, as rep- 
resenting how the spirit of the people was col- 
ored by that influence. When we have thus 
been shown the " individual," and the milieu 
in which he was trained, we arrive at the point 
where his spirit burst its bonds and attained 
self-conscious freedom, with the power to judge 
and the impulse to explore, to create, to re])- 
resent. We do not find here the fire which 
inspires us in the English author who has so 
vividly described this period, but instead gen- 
eral observations, patient and painstaking, of 
the i-esults achieved by the Italians in their 
explorations of the physical world and in the 
world of intellect. Contemplating the figure 
of " the great Genoese," we are ready to admit 
the as.seiiiion that they are preiMuinently the 
nation of discoverers, "for," says Dr. Burck- 
hardt, " the true discoverer is not the man who 
first chances to stumble uj>on anything, but the 
man who first finds what he sought." Be this 
as it may, the passion for travel and adventure, 
which had such far-reaching results, was first 
aroused in Italy. In the natural sciences he 
also claims for her the highest place, with Pa- 
olo Toscanelli, Luca Paccioli, and Lionardo da 
Vinci, of whom even Copernicus confessed him- 
self a pupil ; but this vast subject is touched 
upon but lightly. 

The discovery of the intellectual side of man 
was the second great achievement of the Re- 
naissance. Considering that this result is stud- 
ied l)e8t in the effort of the human mind to ob- 
serve and describe itself, Dr. Burckhardt gives 
us an analysis of the poetry of the fourteenth cen- 
tury, and attempts to discover why Italy, stand- 
ing in the front rank of every other de})artment 
of literature, science, and art, should occupy 
so low a place In tragedy. The chapters on 
religion and morality close the investigation, 
and are of especial interest. Our author dep- 
recates any attempt to judge the attitude of 
this great people by any other race, alleging 
the influence of antiquity as unfavorable to the 
attainment of the Christian ideal of holiness, 
and finding excuse for those powerful natures 
of the Renaissance who, through principle, "re- 
pented of nothing." 

In view of the close connection between mod- 
em life and thought and the period described 
by Dr. Burckhardt, the reviewer finds it diffi- 
cult to refrain from considerations the expres- 



sion of which might seem commonplace. This 
book will assist the reader to realize to what a 
degree our destiny has been shaped by the 
spirit of the Renaissance. We are still in mid- 
current of the stream which took its rise in 
this great water-shed between the antique world 
and the modern. 

Henrietta Schuyler Gardiner. 



Briefs ox Xkw Books. 

Francis Tiffany's " Life of Dorothea Lynde 
Dix" (Houghton) belongs among biographies of 
the best class. It is more than a mere narrative of 
the acts, habits, and events in the life of one indi- 
vidual ; it deals with the conditions, historical, po- 
litical, social — with the " environment," according 
to the favorite word of the day — in which the chief 
character finds hei'self, and then proceeds to show 
the influence of personality on that environment. 
The story of Dorothea Dix is the story of a woman 
who dedicated herself, with the self-sacrifice of a 
martyr and the religious fervor of a saint, to a life- 
work in behalf of the insane. Before entering upon 
this narrative in detail, the author devotes a cha]>- 
ter to the early theories of insanity, and shows how 
it was formerly regarded, not as a fury of the in- 
flamed and congested body acting on the mind, but 
as a fury of the mind, turning men and women into 
tigers and jackals. Iron cages, chains, clubs, star- 
vation, were regarded as the only fit instrumentali- 
ties for dealing with these wild beasts ; the whole 
realm of the subtler relations between mind and 
body were as yet a terra iricor/nita ; the insane were 
inevitably looked u])on with a strange and cruel 
blending of repulsion, personal fear, and despair of 
any methods but those of physical coercion. Even 
so late as the beginning of the present century, there 
were in the whole United States but four insane 
asylums, and of these only one liad been entirely 
built by a state government. In France and En- 
gland began the new epoch in the history of the 
treatment of insanity. It implied an absolute re- 
versal of all previous conceptions ; the substitution, 
in the place of restraint and force, of the largest 
possible degree of liberty ; the abandonment of the 
whole previous idea of brute subjection for that of 
the emancipation of reason and tlie enhancement 
of the sense of personal responsibility. Later, a 
few men of consecrated intelligence and humanity in 
this country enlisted under the new banner, and es- 
tablished institutions where the insane might see they 
were regarded as men and brethreii. None the 
less, one indispensable spiritual power was still lack- 
ing. It was that of a fervid apostle of the new 
creed — of one animated with the requisite inspira- 
tion and fire to lead a crusade against the almost 
universal ignorance, superstition, and apathy which 
still reigned over nearly the whole of the States of 
the Union. How this imperative demand w^ an- ^ 

_ igitized by VnOOQ IC 



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[Nov., 



swered in th6 person of Dorothea Dix, what a mar- 
vellous series of campaigns of pure humanity were 
won by this woman single-handed, what enormous 
structures and park-like grounds were made to start 
out of the earth by the wand of her moral genius, 
what victories were hers over the stupidity, selfish- 
ness, indifference, and heartlessness of legislatures, 
state and national, at home and abroad, form the 
story of this very interesting volume. In closing 
it, we feel that the words written at her death three 
years ago, by a celebrated physician of this country 
to a professional brother in £ngland, are not ex- 
travagant : " Thus has died and been laid to rest, 
in the most quiet, unostentatious way, the most use- 
ful and distingruished woman America has yet pro- 
duced." 

Those pessimists who deem the present the worst 
of all eras hitherto, and whose millennium will be 
the worst of all possible eras, must at least admit 
this to be an age of longevity in men of thought 
and men of action. In the cases of some who have 
recently passed away, like Victor Hugo, Professor 
Ranke, and Cardinal Newman, as well as in the 
cases of many who are still active and productive 
at eighty and upwards, the spectacle has something 
of the excitement of a race. Taking courage from 
such stout defiers of time as Mr. Gladstone and 
Mr. Holmes and Lord Tennyson, the men of the 
generation of Mr. Lowell and • Prof essor Henry 
Morley may still look forward to a long autumnal 
period wherein to harvest the fruitage of their 
prime. Professor Morley published, a generation 
ago, a history of English literature to the time of 
Chaucer and beyond. This work, which bore the 
somewhat equivocal title of " English Writers," was 
and is the most complete treatment of the subject. 
In November, 1887, The Dial gave an extended 
notice of the first volume of a new and thoroughly 
re-written edition of this great work, and from time 
to time we have recorded the appearance of suc- 
ceeding volumes. We now take great pleasure in 
welcoming the fifth volume, treating almost ex- 
clusively of Wiclif and Chaucer, and almost com- 
pleting the re-issue of the earlier work. This 
volume is, perhaps, by virtue of its subject, the 
most interesting of all so far. In character and 
style it differs so little from the previous volumes 
that we forbear repeating the criticisms and com- 
mendations which this meritorious work has so 
often received in these columns. No student of 
Chaucer can afford to be without the present 
volume. It may be incidentally mentioned that 
the author assumes, con jecturally, that Chaucer was 
born in the year 1332, instead of about the year 
1340, as most authorities now believe ; and that no 
mention is made of the supposed fact that Chaucer 
was ransomed by Edward III. from French cap- 
tivity for £16. At page 103, the statement is 
made that John of Gaunt was the third son of Ed- 
ward III. The fact is that he was the fourth son. 
Despite some shortcomings and some oddities which 



one can readily forgive, this volume forms the most 
exhaustive and useful account of Chaucer and bis 
work now accessible to the English reader. Every 
student of our literature will join us in the hearty 
wish that the veteran autlior may be spared to give 
us many more volumes of " English Writers." The 
publishers, Cassell & Co., issue the work in an at- 
tractive and handy form. 

The "English Men of Action" series (Mac- 
millan) keeps up its reputation admirably in its 
two latest volumes — " Clive," by Sir Charles Wil- 
son, and " Sir Charles Napier," by Sir William 
Butler. These lives of soldiers by veteran cam- 
paigners draw us to them by the very fact that the 
subject is in the hands of an expert ; and when by 
perusal one discovers that the expert author is not 
a mere technical machine and martinet, but a man 
first and foremost, with large human sympathies 
and a keen insight into human nature and institu- 
tions as well as into strategical and tactical lore, 
he rejoices in the happy selection of the biographer. 
Both these English colonels have already won 
laurels for gallantry in the field, and Colonel Butler 
is already known to the reader of the " Men of Ac- 
tion " by his fascinating sketch of Gordon. His 
pen has not lost its cunning as it takes up this new 
theme ; and well might the life of the noble Napier 
arouse the enthusiasm of this liberal-minded soldier 
of our own day. As we follow, in these pages, the 
career of their hero, through the Peninsula and 
the war in Scinde to the command-in-chief in In- 
dia, or wait with him in the long intervals of service 
" out of harness " for an unappreciative war bureau, 
we catch the spirit of the true-hearted Napier, in- 
tolerant of wrong and meanness of every kind. 
But the fiery glow of indignation which illuminates 
the narrative tells us also that England still has in 
command of her regiments men who rejoice as 
they see ** the great circle of human sympathy 
growing wider with every hour, and some new tribe 
among the toiling outcasts of men taken within 
its long-closed limits " — " a Greater Britain and a 
larger Ireland growing beyond the seas, fulfilling 
the work of liberty and progress." Large and gener- 
ous thoughts, but unwonted from a colonel of Her 
Majesty's forces I Colonel Wilson's book is a com- 
panion piece to Lyall's " Hastings." These two 
little volumes redeem the characters of these two 
great pro-consuls. Wilson says truly: "Among 
the many illustrious men India has produced, none 
is greater than the first of her soldier-statesmen, 
whose successful career marks an era in the history 
of England and of the world : great in council, 
great in war, great in his exploits which were many, 
and great in his faults which were few." 

Mr. Charles T. Newhall is the author of a 
manual of '* The Trees of Northeastern America " 
(Putnam), prepared for the non-botanical reader. 
His object is to afford simple means of identifica- 
tion for all the native species of^anada and the 

_ igitized by vj _ ^ _ _ 



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THE DIAL 



195 



northern United States east of the Mississippi. His 
key of genera is easily mastered, and fills but two 
pages. It is based entirely upon the leaves, their 
kind, arrangement, and margin. Given a stem with 
two or more leaves upon it, but a moment is needed 
to refer it to a group of from one to six genera. 
The only exception to this rule is in the case of 
trees whose leaves are simple and alternate, with 
toothed margins. This group includes no less than 
nineteen genera, and for it a special key would 
have been desirable. The plates afford the most 
important feature of the book, for nearly every 
species described has a page of outline drawings to 
itself. One hundred and sixteen species are thus 
figured, and the few others mentioned are culti- 
vated or uncommon species easily to be differentiated 
by the accompanying descriptions. Mr. Newhall's 
descriptions are clear and in the simplest possible 
language. A botanist will naturally turn to the 
difficult genus Salix as a crux of the author's treat- 
ment, and will, in tliis case, be a little disappointed, 
for he will find fully described only three native 
and three adventive species, together with three or 
four varieties. Gray's "Manual" gives twenty- 
one species and ten varieties. Many of these are 
shrubs, it is true ; but in the case of the willows it 
is very difficult to distinguish between shrubby and 
arboreal forms, and the leaves alone offer little 
assistance. Salix is, of course, an exceptional 
genus, and is probably the only one in which Mr. 
Newhall's book will not be very helpful. The sal- 
icologists themselves find it hard enough to classify 
this genus, and an amateur is not to be blamed for 
lack of complete success in the effort. The Conir 
fera' and Qiiercua have special keys which ought 
to prevent any difficulty in the determination of 
their species. Bits of folk-lore, poetry, and non- 
technical description, scattered through this volume, 
make it almost readable, in addition to its useful- 
ness for reference. It has a sufficient glossary and 
a capital index. A similar volume on " The Shrubs 
of Northeastern America " is promised for future 
publication. 

Nothing less than the heartiest welcome can be 
offered to Mr. George Edward Woodberry's 
"Studies in Letters and Life " (Houghton), for in 
the book is something more than promise. Perhaps 
it is not too much to say that no better literary 
work is being done in America to-day. In his life 
of Poe, in the " American Men of Letters " series, 
Mr. Woodberry showed his ability to do strong and 
thorough work. His recently-published volume of 
poems, " The North Shore Watch," together with 
these "Studies," assures us that literature is not 
yet quite extinct in America. This collection 
of essays, reprinted from the "Atlantic " and the 
"Nation," gives evidence of sound tliought and 
keen insight. The writer's polish and the poet's 
touch are plainly to be seen. The criticism is full 
of life, grace, and common sense, and it is interest- 
ing to contrast tlie tone of this poet's prose with 



that of Swinburne's. Here there is nothing of the 
wild exaggeration, the fervid rhetoric, that so fre- 
quently mar Swinburne's work. On the other hand, 
Mr. Woodberry has not the airy delicacy of Lowell 
at his best. Still, the suggestiveness is not want- 
ing, and as far as clearness of vision and maturity 
of judgment are concerned, perhaps some persons 
might be found to say that this new speaker was as 
safe a guide as the elder poet. That is high praise, 
and it may be deserved. When we find such true 
appreciation of a poet's life and aims as we do in 
the paper on Shelley, such temperate yet unhamp- 
ered criticism as in the paper on Byron, such clear 
and permanent truth-telling as in " Illustrations of 
Idealism," we are judging falsely if we do not as- 
sign the writer a high place. When, in addition, 
his powers are so varied that he writes in the same 
thoughtfid way on Greek sculpture, on Darwin, on 
the Italian Renaissance, on Bunyan and Channing, 
we must ask ourselves how many American writers 
can do this. If it is our final judgment that Mr. 
Woodberry's criticism is as sound and good as any 
that we have had on this side of the Atlantic, we 
shall probably not be far from the truth. The very 
least we can say is that these " Studies " are thoi^ 
oughly delightful. 

A BRIEF, accurate, and interesting historical 
sketch of English lexicography from early in the 
seventeenth century to the present day, is the lead- 
ing paper in Mr. R. O. Williams's " Our Diction- 
aries, and Other P^nglish Language Topics" 
(Holt.) Mr. Williams's remarks on our first dic- 
tionaries — " The New World of Words," " An En- 
glish Expositour," "A Compleat Collection," are 
some of their titles — are agreeably instructive, and 
his comments on the dictionaries of to-day are ad- 
mirable in tone and scholarly in spirit. Especially 
worthy of consideration are his objections to the 
Philological Society's "New English Dictionary." 
The accuracy of the definitions of scientific terms 
is questioned, and a doubt is cast on the possibility 
of verifying the quotations under Murray's present 
method. Another interesting chapter is on " Good 
English for Americans." The drift of this paper 
is sufficiently indicated, perhaps, by Mr. Williams's 
statement that in time we may expect Americans 
to speak American, Australians to speak Australian, 
etc., — English, as it now stands, being left to the 
inhabitants of Great Britain. The rest of the book 
is given up to an unprejudiced discussion of partic- 
ular words. A very full index makes the volume 
an easy one to refer to. 

The title of " Our Mother Tongue " (Dodd), a 
new work by Theodore H. Mead, does not prepare 
us for the contents of the book itself, for the author 
has reference to our language as it sounds, not as 
it is written. The special subject of the book is 
the defective and monotonous qualities of American 
English as it appeara to our ears. Mr. Mead's 
aim is to enable one to acquire, without a teacher, | 

_igitizedby _^ _ _iQlC 



196 



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[Nov., 



a well-modulated yoice that shall lay one emphasis 
on the right words properly pronounced. The two 
rules given are observe and practice. The author 
is right in thinking that it is necessary to arouse 
interest in the subject. No one can have failed to 
notice how much more variety, not to say richness, 
there is in the tones of an Englishman than in those 
of an American. There is room for improvement, 
and necessity for it if we wish to avoid the unpleas- 
ant, yet just, comments of foreigners on our manner 
of speech. As to whether this book will turn out 
to be the long-needed work, one must be permitted 
a doubt. Mr. Mead's attitude toward the subject 
is characterized by a great deal of common sense, 
and certainly the difiPerent exercises he recommends 
— exercises in breathing, for example, — must be 
highly beneficial. But is it practical to suppose 
that we are going to draw close distinctions in the 
pronunciation of missed and missile, metal and met- 
tle, cymbal and symbol, even for the sake of the 
much needed variety of speech ? The author is a 
purist in pronunciation, and the pronouncing vocab- 
ulary, which takes up 240 pages, is constructed ac- 
cordingly. 

"CiTiZENESS Bonaparte," the new volume in 
the " Famous Women of the French Court " 
series (Scribner), is, like its predecessors, a strik- 
ing example of the skill of the author, Imbert de 
Saint-Amand, in the art of working up a mass of 
excerpts into a fairly continuous and readable nar- 
rative. It is only fair to add, in respect of these 
excerpts, that M. Saint-Amand conscientiously sup- 
plies the quotation marks in each case — a formality 
sometimes omitted. " Citizeness Bonaparte " treats 
of the period dating from Josephine's marriage to 
Napoleon in 1796, to the time when — after the 
victorious campaigns in Italy and Egypt — he was 
made First Consul, in 1800. As already remarked 
in our previous notices of this series, the author in- 
clines to a rather sentimental view of his subject ; 
and in the present volume this tendency finds full 
scope. The time-honored — and, it seems to us, not 
now very momentous — conundrums as to the exact 
length, breadth, and depth of Napoleon's love for 
his wife, and the exact length, breadth, and depth 
of his wife's love for him, are again debated pro and 
cx>n with great accumen and marshalling of authori- 
ties, and abundant quotation of pyrotechnic epistles. 



Books of the Month. 

[The following list includes all books received by Thb Dial 
during the month qf October, 1890.] 

ILLUSTRATED GIFT BOOKS. 

A Mosaic. By the Artists* Fund Society of Philadelphia. 
Edited by Harrison S. Morris. 22 Photograyures, with 
appropriate text. Imperial 8yo, pp. Vio. Gilt edg^es. 
Boxed. J. B. Lippincott Co. $7.50. 

Our Great Actors: Portraits of Celebrated Actors in their 
Most Distingruished Roles, by Charles S. Abb^. Repro- 
duced in Color. Boxed. Estes & Lanriat. $r).(X). 

Jane Byre. By Charlotte BrontS. With 48 Ulustrations. 
2To]t. 12mo,8;Uttop. Boxed. T. Y. Crowell <& Co. $5, 



The Bong of Hiawatha. By Henry Wadsworth Lonfi:fel- 
low. Witli Illustrations from Desi«:ns by Frederic Kemr 
mingrton. 8yo, pp.242. Uncut, gilt top. Boxed. Hough- 
ton, Mifflin & Co. $6.00. 

Our Old Home. By Nathaniel Hawthorne. Annotated 
with Passages from the Author's Note-Book, and Illus- 
trated with Photogravures. 2 vols. 16mo. Gilt top, 
uncut. Boxed. Houghton, Mifflin <& Co. $4.00. 

0\ir New Engrland. Her Nature Described by Hamilton 
Wright Mabie, and Some of Her Familiar Scenes Illus- 
trated. 12 Photogravures from Nature. Oblong 4to. Gilt 
edges. Boxed. lioberts Brothers. $4.00. 

Urania. By Camille Flammarion. Translated by Au 
Rice Stetson. Illustrated by De Bieler, and others. ] 
8yo, pp.ai4. Gilt top. Boxed. Estes <& Lauriat. $3.50. 

Bngrlish Poems. Illustrated with Etchings by M. M. Tar- 
lor. Oblong folio, pp. 48. Gilt edges. Boxed. J. B. 
Lippincott Co. $2.r>0. 

Tlsd7ac of the Yoeemite. By M. B. M. Toland, author of 
'' Legend Laymone." W^ith Full-page Illustraiaons jn 



Photogravure. Square 8vo. Gilt edges. Boxed. J. B. 
Lippincott Co. $2.50. 

The boul of Pierre. By Georges Ohnet, author of "The 
Master of the Forge.'' Translated from the French by 
Mary J. Serrano. Illustrated by Emile Bayard. Edition 
de Ltixe. 12mo, pp. 290. Gilt top, uncut. Cassell Pub- 
lishing Co. $2.00. 

Dreams of the Sea. Selected and arranged by Lula MJie 
Walker. Illustrated in Monotint. Oblong. Boxed. Estes 
<& Lauriat. 

Sheridan's Ride. By T. Buchanon Read. Illustrated from 
Designs Especially Prepared for this Edition. 8vo. Oilt 
edges. Boxed. J. B. Lippincott Co. $2.00. 

GKx>d Thlners of "Life." Seventh Series. Illustrated. 
Oblong, pp. CA. F. A. Stokes Co. $2.00. 

The Vision of Sir Launfcd. By James Russell Lowell. Il- 
lustrated with Designs by E. H. Garrett. 16mo, pp. 48. 
Gilt top. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. $l..")0. 

In and Out of Book and Journal. Selected and Arranged 
by A. Sydney Roberts, M.D. With 50 Illustrations. 12nio, 
pp. 104. Gilt top. J. B. Lippincott Co. $1.25. 

ART PUBLICATIONS. 

Little Folk Wide Awake. Water-color by Maud Hum- 
phrey. Size, 15 X 20 inches. F. A. Stokes Co. $1.00. 

Little Folk in Dream-land. WateiM^olor by Maud Hum- 
phrey. Size, 15 X 20 inches. F. A. Stokes Co. $1 .00. 

May Day. Watei^olor by J. Pauline Sunter. Size, 15 x 20 
inches. F. A. Stokes Co. $1.00. 

A Truant on the Beax;h. WateiM^olor by J. Pauline Sun- 
ter. Size, 15 X 20 inches. F. A. Stokes Co. $1.00. 

HISTORY. 

Narrative and Critical History of America. Edited by 
Justin Winsor. Vol. VIII., The Later History of British, 
Spanish, and Portuguese America. Illustrated. Ijasfi^ 
8yo, pp. 604. (Subscription.) Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

History of the United States of America during the 
First Administration of James Madison. In2yolB. 12mo. 
Charles Scribner's Sons. $4.00. 

Holland and Its People. By Edmondo de Amicis, author 
of "Constantinople." Translated from the Italian by 
Caroline Tilton. Ulustnited. Vandyke Edition. 8vo, 
pp. 484. Gilt top. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $2.25. 

The Story of Scotland: From the Earliest Times to the 
Present Century. By John Mackintosh, LL.l)., author 
of '* History of Civilization in Scotland.*' With Frontis- 
piece. 12mo, pp. 33i}. Putnam's "'Story of the Nations.-' 
$1.50. 

A Short History of Anglo-Saxon Freedom : The Polity 
of the English-Speaking Rtice. By James K. Hosmer, 
author of '*Life of Samuel Adams." 12mo, pp. 420. 
Charles Scribner's Sons. $2.(K). 

The Two Lost Centuries of Britain. By William H. 
Babcock. Ifmio, pp. 239. J. B. Lippincott Co. $1.25. 

BIOGRAPHY. 
Dictionary of National Biogrraphy. Edited by Leslie 

Steven and Sidney Lee. Vol. XXIV., Hailes— Harriott. 

Large 8vo, pp. 445. Gilt top, uncut. Macmillan & Co. 

$3.75. 
Henry M. Stanley : His Life, Tnivels, and Explorations. By 

Rey. H. W. little, autlior of '' Madagascar." 8yo, pp. 

456. Unout J. B. lippincott Co. &^. 

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Savonarola: His Life and Times. By William Clark, M.A., 
LL.D. 12mo, pp. a')2. Gilt top, uncut. A. C. McClur? 
&Co. 3l.fiO. 

Famous Bn^Ush Authors of the XlXth Century. By 
Mrs. Sarah E. Bolton, author of " Poor Boys Who Be- 
came Famous." With Portraits. 12mo,pp. 451. T.Y. 
Crovdl & Co. $l.r)0. 

Marie Louiae and the Decadence of the Empire. By Im- 
bert de Saint- Amand. Translated by Thomas Sergeant 
Perry. With Portraits. 12mo, pp. 320. Charles Scrib- 
ner'sSons. $1.25. 

Autobioeraphy of Anton Rubensteln, 1829-1889. 
Translated from the Russian by Aline Delano. With 
Portrait. 16mo, pp.171. Little, Brown <& Co. $1.00. 

Sir Charles Napier. By Col. Sir William F. Butler. 
With Portrait. 12mo, pp. 216. MacmiUan's ''Enfifliah 
Men of Action.*' 60 cents. 

BiBixiarc]c in Private Life. By a Fellow Student. Trans- 
lated by Henry Hayward. With Portraits. 16mo, pp. 
286. Paper. Appletons' " Town and County Library." 
50 cents. 

Ufe of Hawthorne. By Moncare D. Conway. 12mo, pp. 
228. Uncut. A. Lovell & Co. 40 cents. 

ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL STUDIES. 

Boonomic and Social History of New Engrland. 1620 
-1789. By William B. Weeden. In two vols. 8yo. 
Gilt top. Houfirhton, Mi£Bin <& Co. $4.50. 

Principles of Economics. By Alfred Marshall. Vol. I. 
8yo, pp. 754. Uncut. MacmiUan <& Co. $4.00. 

The Unwritten Constitution of the United States : 
A Philosophical Inquiry into the Fundamentals of 
American Constitutional Law. By Christopher G. Tiede- 
man, A.M., LL.B. 16mo, pp. 165. G. P. Putnam^s 
Sods. $1.00. 

Tbe Veto Power : Its Origin, Development, and Function 
in the Goyemment of the United states. By Edward 
Campbell Mason, A.B. 8vo. pp. 232. Paper. ''Har- 
vard Historical Monographs," Ginn <& Co. $1.10. 

History of the New York Property Tax. By John 
Christopher Schwab, A.M., Ph.D. 8vo, pp. 108. Paper. 
Am. Economic Association. $1.00. 

Our Government : How It Grew, What It Does, and How 
It Does It. By Jesse Macy, A.M. Revised Edition. 
16mo, pp. 296. GHnn & Co. 85 cents. 

LITERARY MISCELLANY. 

Studies in Letters and Ufe. By George Edward Wood- 
berry. 12mo, pp. 296. Gilt top. Houghton, MiiBin & 
Co. $1.25. 

Bducation and the Hifirher Life. By J. L. Spaldinsr, 
Bishop of Peoria. 12mo, pp. 210. A. C. McCluisr & 
Co. $1.00. 

By Leafy Ways : Brief Studies from the Book of Nature. 
By Francis A. Knigrht. Illustrated. Fourth Edition. 
16mo, pp. 197. Roberts Brothers. $1.50. 

Makinsr the Best of Things, and Other Essays: Idle 
Musings. By E. Conder Gray, aathor of " Wise Words 
and Loving Deeds.'' 12mo, pp. 316. Uncut. G. P. Put- 
nam's Sons. $1.25. 

The Art of Play writin«r : Being a Practical Treatise on 
the Elements of Dramatic Construction. Bv Alfred 
Hennequin, Ph.D. 16mo, pp. 187. Houghton, Mifflin & 
Co. $1.25. 

The Morals and Manners of the Seventeenth Cen- 
tury : Being the Characters of La Bruy^re. Trans- 
lated by Helen Stott. With Frontispiece Portrait. 16mo, 
pp.307. A. C. McQurg & Co. 75 cents. 

I.<andTnarkB of Homeric Study : Together with an Es- 
say ou the Points of Contact between Uie Assyrian Tab- 
lets and the Homeric Text. By the Rt. Hon. W. E. 
Gladstone. 12mo, pp. 160. Macmillan <& Co. 75 cents. 

Biisoellaneous Wrltlncrs of Julia M. Thomas, founder of 
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SHAKESPEARE'S ROMEO AND JULIET. 

Illustrated in the highest class of Chromo Printing, after original drawings by LuDOVic Mar- 

CHETTi, Lucius Rossi, and Oreste Cortazzo, and printed at the Fine Art Works of 

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LIST OF COLORED ILLUSTRATIONS. 

(In sixteen separate printings.) 
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1 . Title-page, representing full-length figures of Romeo and (>. Romeo and Juliet taking leave, by Cortazzo. 

Juliet, by Marchetti. 7. The balcony scene, by Cortazzo. 

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4. The Nurse, Romeo. Beuvolio, andMercntio, a street scene, 10. Juliet wailing over the body of Romeo, by Marchetti. 

by l^Iarchetti. { 11. Apotheosis, by Rossi. 

.*). Fighting scene, Romeo, Tybalt, Benvolio, by Marchetti. 12. Allegory, by Cortazzo. 

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14. Lady Capulet, Juliet, and the Nurse, by C'ortazzo. 20. Capulet threatening Juliet, by Cortazzo. 

15. Romeo in the garden of Capulet, by Marchetti. ' 21. Juliet taking the draught, by Cortazzo. 
ir>. .Juliet on the balcony, by Cortazzo. 22. Romeo and the Apothecary. 

17. Niu'se and Juliet in the garden, by Cortazzo. i 

With twelve Wood Kugravings of Vignettes and Headings. 

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colors. Size, 7.'Mx(>l-2. 75 cents. 11x15. Boxed, ."i>7.50. 

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THE INTRUDER. SCHOOL IN. 

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RIGHT OR LEFT? 
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esterbrook's 

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WEBSTER'S 

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^CHICAGO, DECEMBER, 1890. ^^^'SlFRANasTsRowNE. 



HARPER'S MAGAZINE. 

CHRISTMAS U^UMBER. 

PROMINENT among the attractions offered in 
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tions of Shakespeare's comedy, " tAs You 
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Lang, and including a frontispiece, printed in tints, 
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{Mansion" in London. "Japanese Women" is 
the title of an interesting article written by Pierre 
LoTi, and illustrated from paintings by H. Hum- 
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'' The Winter of Our Content" continues his se- 
ries of illustrated papers on Southern California. 
The article is accompanied by numerous illustra- 
tions from photographs and from drawings by the 
foremost artists. The Bction of the number includes 
"c/? Christmas Present" by Paul Heyse, illus- 
trated by C. S. Reinhart; " Flute and Violin" 
an old Kentucky story by James Lane Allen, with 
twenty illustrations by Howard Pyle ; " P'laskis 
Tunaments" by Thos. Nelson Page, illustrated 
by J. W. Alexander; " Gibble Coifs T>ucks" 
by Richard Malcolm Johnston, illustrated by 
A. B. Frost ; "Jim's Little Woman," by Sarah 
Orne Jewett; and "^ Speakin' Ghost," by 
Annie Trumbull Slosson. The Editorial De- 
partments, too, have a distinctive holiday flavor. 
George William Curtis discourses upon the 
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T). ^PPLETON AND COMPANY'S 

HOLIDAY LIST OF NEW BOOKS. 



Messw. D, APPLETON AND COMPANY have the pleasure of annonncing 

WIDOW GUTHRIE: A Novel. 

By Richard Malcolm Johnston. Illustrated by E. W. Kemble. 12mo. Bound in cloth, $1.50. 
« It is understood that Colonel Johnston regards < Widow GtUhrie * (w his strongest work" 
In this charming picture of life in the Georgia of sixty years ago, Colonel Johnston shows a mastery of 
effects and a power of character-drawing which will surprise even his admirers. No other writer has an equal 
knowledge of the phases of American life which he delineates with such fidelity, force, and delightful humor. 

FICTION SERIES FOR YOUNG READERS. 

A SERIES OF STORIES ELABORATELY ILLUSTRATED, WHICH INCLUDES: 



Crowded Out d Crofield. 

By William O. Stoddard. Illustrated by C. T. 
Hill. How a plucky country boy made his 
way. One of the most successful of this popular 
author's stories. 

King Tom and the T^naways. 

By Louis Pendleton. Illustrated by E. W. Kem- 
ble. The strange experiences of two boys in the 
forests and swamps of Georgia. 



The Log School-House on the 
Columbia. 

A Tale of the Pioneers of the Great Northwest 
By Hezekiah Butterworth, author of " Zig^ 
Zag Journeys." Illustrated. 
In a story romantic, exciting, and instructive as 
well, the author introduces his readers to a new 
field, which will prove to be one of absorbing in- 
terest. 



Also stories by Octave Thanet, Richard Malcolm Johnston, and other well-known authors, which 

will be published shortly. 
The series, bound in cloth, with specially designed uniform cover. Per volume, $1.50. 

First Volume in the Series of "The Young Heroes of Our U^avy": 
LITTLE JARVIS. 

By Molly Elliot Seawell. Illustrated by J. O. Davidson and George Wharton Edwards. 
The story of the heroic midshipman of the frigate Constellation, The second of the Y&utKs Com- 
panion prize essays. Bound in cloth, with specially designed cover. 8vo, $1.00. 



The Life of an d/Jrtist. 

A Charming Autobiography. By Jules Breton. 

Translated by Mrs. Mary J. Serrano. With 

Portrait. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

« The Life of an Artist " is a work of much personal 
charm and interest, written with an entire absence of 
reserve. It contains recollections of the Barbizon paint- 
ers and others of world-wide reputation. 

Through 3fagic Glasses. 

By Arabella B. Buckley, author of " The Fairy- 
Land of Science," etc. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 



Outings at Odd' Times. 

By Dr. Charles C. Abbott, author of " Days Out 
of Doors " and '^ A Naturalist's Rambles about 
Home." 16mo, doth, gilt top, $1.25. 
Dr. Abbott's delightful studies in Natural Histoiy 

have become familiar to many readers, and his new 

volume is suggestive, instructive, and always inter^ 

esting. 

A Social ^Departure : 

How Orthodocla and I went rmind the World by 
Ourselves. By Sara Jeanette Duncan. With 
111 illustrations. 12mo, cloth, $1.75. 



The Household History of the United States 

AND ITS PEOPLE. For Young Americans. By Edward Eggleston. Richly illustrated with 
350 Drawings, 75 Maps, etc. Square 8vo, cloth, $2.50. 



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T>. <>/IPPLETON AND COMPANY'S 

Selection of Books for Holiday Presents. 



TWO NOTABLE BOOKS OF TRAVEL BY FRANK VINCENT, 

Author of " The Land of the White Elephant ": 

Around and About South America 

Twenty Months of Quest and Query. 



With Maps, Plane, and 54 f ull-pag^ Illiutrationg. 
8vo, cloth, $6.00. 



In and Out of Central <tAmerica ; 

And Other Sketches and Studies of I'ravel. 

12nio, 



With numerons Maps and lUustrations. 
cloth, $2.00. 



A Naturalists voyage Around the world. 

Journal of Researches into the Natural History and Geology of the Countries visited during the Voyage 
round the World of H. M. S. " Beagle:' By Charles Darwin. New UluBtrated Edition. With 
Maps and 100 Views of the places visited and described, chiefly from sketches taken on the spot by 
Robert Taylor Pritchett. One volume, 8vo, cloth, $5.00. 



The [Music Series. 

Consisting of Biographical and Anecdotical Sketches 
of The Great German Composers; The Great 
Italian and French Composers ; Great Singers ; 
Great Violinists and Pianists. Five volames. 
18mo. Bound in half white and red sides, $3.50 
per set ; half calf, $8.00. 

The Life and IVords of Christ 

By Cunningham Geikie, D.D. Illustrated. Two 
volumes. Cloth, $6.00 ; half calf, $13.00 ; full 
morocco, $18.00. 

^ew Edition of English Odes. 

Selected by Edmund W. Gosse, with Frontispiece 
on India paper from a design by Hamo Thorny- 
croft, A.R.A. Forty-two head and tail pieces 
from origrinal drawings by Louis Rhead. 16mo. 
Cloth, special design in gold, $1.50 ; same in 
parchment, $1.75. 

zh(ew Edition of English Lyrics. 

Uniform with " English Odes." With nearly 80 
head and tail pieces from original drawings by 
Louis Rhead. 16mo. Cloth, special design in 
gold, $1.50 ; same, in parchment, $1.75. 



Fifty Terfed; Toems. 

A Collection of Fifty Acknowledged Masterpieces, 
by English and American Poets, selected and 
arranged by Charles A. Dana and Rossiter 
Johnson. 72 Illustrations, printed on Japanese 
silk paper. Large 8vo. Bound in silk, $10.00. 

Leckys History of England 

In the Eighteenth Century. Complete in eight 
volumes, covering the history of England in the 
Eighteenth Century. The last two volumes have 
just been published. Crown 8vo. Cloth, per 
vol., $2.25 ; half calf, $36.00 per set. 

"Bancroft* s History of the United States 

From the Discovery of the Continent to the Es- 
tablishment of the Constitution, in 1789. By 
George Bancroft. Complete in six vols. 8vo. 
Cloth, uncut, gilt top, per set, $15.00 ; half calf 
or half morocco, $27.00 ; full morocco, $50.00. 

History of the People of the United States 

From the Revolution to the Civil War. By John 
Bach McMaster. To be completed in five 
volumes. Vols. I. and II. are now ready, and 
Vol. III. will be published this winter. 8vo. 
Cloth, gilt top. Per vol., $2.50. 



THE Ice Age in north America, 

And Us Bearings upon the Antiquity of Man. By Prof. G. Frederick Wright, Assistant on the 
United States Geological Survey. With an Appendix on *< The Probable Cause of Glaciation," by 
Warren Upham. With 147 Maps and Illustrations. One volume, 8vo, cloth, $5.00. 



D. APPLETON & CO., Publishers, 1, 8, & 5 Bond Street, New York. 

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THOMAS V^ELSON & SONS' 

CHOICE HOLIDAY GIFT BOOKS. 



The Marvellous " FINGER NEW TESTAMENT." 

The Greatest Novelty ever made in Testaments. 
This wonderful specimen of printing and binding exhibits the properties of the famous « Oxford India 
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in a type which, though necessarily minute, is yet clear, distinct, and perfectly legible. 

Five .styles, at prices from Eighty-five Cents to Three Dollars. 



A New Edition. 

DARWIN'S JOURNAL. Journal of Researches into 
the Natural History and Geology of the Countries Visited 
during the Voyage ofH. M. 8, ''Beagle" Round the Worlds 
under the command of Captain Fitz Roy^ R.N, By CHARiiES 
Dabwik, M.A., F.K.S. Profusely illustrated. 12mo, cloth 
extra, $2.00. 
** The most deliprhtful of all Mr. Darwin's works. . . . 

In many respects it exhibits Darwin at his best. . . . We 

have Darwin here before he was a Darwinian." — T^ Dukb 

OP Aboyll in The Nineteenth Century, 

New and Cheaper Edition. 
THE SEA AND ITS WONDERS. A companion 
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THE FAVORITE BOOK OF FABLES. Contain- 
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NEW HAND-MAP OF CENTRAL AFRICA. Show- 
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A Book fob the Times. 
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THE LAND WHERE JESUS CHRIST LIVED. A Tale 
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FOLLOW THE RIGHT. A Tale for Boys. By G. E. 
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JACK AND HIS OSTRICH. An African Story. By 
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DOROTHY ARDEN. A Story of England and France 200 
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SMITTEN AND SLAIN. A Nineteenth Century Romance 
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Genuine "OXFORD" Teachers' Bibles. 

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Little, Brown, & Company's New Books 



ANOTHER FLOCK OF GIRLS. 

By Nora Perry, author of « The Youngest Miss Lorton," " A Flock of Girls and Their Friends," etc. With 
illustrations by Reginald B. Birch and Charles Copeland. Small 4to, cloth extra, $1.75. 

Miss Perry's new volnme of girls* stories inclndes '^May Bartlett's Stepmother," ** Ja-Ja*s Christmas Party,'* *'A New 
Tear's Cidl," "'Jenny's Lark," and "" Sally Grreen's Clambake Party." It is likely to be as great a favorite with yonng people 
as her earlier " Flock of Oirls." 

** Miss Nora Perry, alwavs a charming writer, is never more delightful than when writing about girk, with whom she is 
always in hearty sympathy.'— Bo«f on Daily Advertiser, 

RUBINSTEIN'S AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 

Autobiography of Anton Rubinstein, 1829-1889. Translated by Aline Delano. With photograyiire Portrait. 

16mo, cloth, gilt top. Price, $1.00. 
Dictated by the famous musician in Russia last year, and now first translated. 



^ITH FIRE AND SPVORD. 

An Historical Novel of extraordinary interest and power, now first translated into English from the Polish of 
Henryk Siknkiewicz, by Jeremiah Curtin. Crown 8vo, cloth, 795 pages, 82.00. Also, a Library Edi- 
tion, printed on choice paper, with portrait of the author. 2 vols., 12mo, cloth, gilt top, $3.00. 

This brilliant historical romance is attracting the widest attention, and is universally praised. The character of Zagloba 
is one of the raciest and most remarkable in the whole range of fiction. As an illustration of die great variety and sc(mm of 
the author's genius it may be mentioned that he has already been compared by American critics to Dumas, Walter soott, 
Schiller, Cervantes, and Shakespeare. A work which compels such comparisons is unquestionably a remarkable one, and a 
perusal of the story amply justines the praise which has thus far been lavished upon it. 



THE mUND MUSICIAN. 

Translated from the Russian of Vladimir Korolenko, by Aline Delano. With Introduction by George 
Kennan, and illustrations by Edmund H. Garrett. 16mo, cloth, gilt top, 81.25. 

This charming little volume receives many tributes. The New York Sun says : " It is a marvel of typographical excel- 
lence, and the storv is worthv of its setting." The Boeton Transcript terms it ** a wonderfully faithful and delicate study in 
psychology," and describes the setting as ''this unique and exquisite little book." The Saturday Evening Gazette refers to 



it as '' a touching and truthful story.^ 

A NEW DUMAS SERIES. 
THE OAARIE ANTOINETTE %OMANCES. 

ooMPBisnro 
THE MEMOIRS OP A PHYSICIAN. 3 voU., $4.50. 
THE QUEEN'S NECKLACE. 2 vols., $3.00. 
ANGE PITOU. 2 voU., $3.00. 
LA COMTESSE DE CHARNY. 4 vols., $6.00. 
CHEVALIER DE MAISON ROUGE. 1 vol., $1.50. 

In all, 12 vols., 12mo, doth extra, gilt top, with 12 histori- 
oal portraits and plates, $18.00. 

This may fairly be cUumed to be one of the most important 
as well as most entertaining series of the famous romances of 
the elder Dumas. The successive works trace Marie Antoi- 
nette's career through the last days of the reign of Louis XV., 
and throughout the French Revolution, cloeinfl: with her death. 
The chamcters introduced are the most celebrated men and 
women of the time. 

In the same style: 

THE D'ARTAGNAN ROMANCES (Period of Louis XIII. 
and Louis XIV.), comprising the "Three Musketeers," 2 
vols.; "Twenty Years After," 2 vols.; and "Vicomtede 
Bragelonne," (3 vols. In all, 10 volumes, 12mo, cloth, with 
etched portrait of Dumas, and 10 historical portraits, $15. 

MONTE CRISTO. 4 vols., 12mo, cloth, with 8 phrtes, $6.00. 

THE VALOiS ROMANCES (Period of Charles IX. and 
Henry III.) comprising " Marguerite de Valois," 2 vols.; 
" La Dame de Monserean," 2 wis.; and '* The Forty-Kve," 
2 vols. In all, 6 vols., 12mo, doth, with historical por- 
traits, $9.00. 



HIGGINSON'S EPICTETUS. 

The Discourses, Enchiridion, and Fragments of Epicte- 
tus. Translated by Thomas Wentworth HxaancsoN. 
New and Revised Edition, uniform with the new Ldbrair 
Edition of " The Thoughts of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. 
2 vols., 12mo, cloth, gilt top, $2.50. 

MYTHS AND FOLK TALES OF THE RUSSIANS, 
WESTERN SLAVS, AND MAGYARS. By Jeremiah 
Curtin. Crown 8vo, doth, $2.00. 

MYTHS AND POLK LORE OF IRELAND. By Jkrb- 
MiAH Curtin. With etched frontispieoe. Crown 8vo, 
cloth, gUt top, $2.00. 

JUDAISM AND CHRISTIANITY. A Sketch of the Pro- 
gress of Thought from Old Testament to New Testament. 
By Crawford Howell Toy, Professor in Harvard Uni- 
versity. 8vo, cloth, $3.00. 

FLORIDA DAYS. By Margaret Deland. author of 
*' John Ward, Preacher." A beautiful Holiday volume, 
with 65 illustrations from sketches in St. Augustine aaa 
other parts of Florida, made expressly for the work by 
Louis K. Harlow, including 4 colored plates and 2 etch- 
ings. 8vo, cloth extra, beautiful deoorated cover, $4.00. 

CHESS FOR BEGINNERS AND THE BEGINNINGS 
OF CHESS. By R. B. Swinton. With iUustrations and 
diagrams. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

THE INFLUENCE OF SEA POWER UPON HISTORY. 

1660-1783. By Captain A. T. Mahan, U. S. Navy. 8vo, 

cloth, $4.00. 
THE BEGUM'S DAUGHTER. By Edwin L. Btnnbb. 

Illustrated. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 



LITTLE, BROWN, & CO., Publishers, 254 Washington Street, Boston, Mass. 

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Porter and Coates's New Books. 

Three of the H/iNDSOMEST GiFT-'BOOKS of the Year. 



PORTER & COATES'S FLORENTINE EDITION OF 

ROMOLA. 

By GEORGE ELIOT. From entirely new plates. Beautifully illustrated with sixty photogravures of 
views in Florence, sculpture, paintings, etc., with a portrait of George Eliot. In two volumes, small 
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top, $12.00. 
The large-paper edition of « Romola " is all sold, the publishers having received orders for the entire edition 

before publication. 

GRACE AND PHILIP WHARTON'S WORKS : 



Queens of Society. 



By Grace and Philip Wharton. New Library Edition. Beautifully illustrated with eighteen pho- 
togravures. Tastefully bound in two volumes, doth extra, $5.00 ; half calf, gilt top, $8.00. 
These entertaining volumes present a gossiping biography of several of the celebrated women who have held 
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Lady Caroline Lamb, Miss Landon (the unfortunate L. E. L.), Madame de StaSl, Madame Roland, Madame 
R^camier, and others, both of England and France. 

Wits and Beaux of Society. 

By Grace and Philip Wharton. New Library Edition. Beautifully illustrated with twenty photo- 
gravures. Tastefully bound in two volumes. Small 8vo, cloth extra, $5.00 ; half calf, gilt top, $8.00. 
This gossipy and pleasant book g^ves sketches of such men as George Villiers, the second Duke of Bucking- 
ham, with numerous anecdotes of his adventiu^s ; the celebrated Grammont and Rochester, wherein the authors 
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The authors have a happy faculty of making their sketches light and pleasant, interspersing history and anecdote, 
personalities and public events, so that the book is much knore interesting than a novel, and much better worth 
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Large-paper edition of *' Wits and Beaux " and '* Queens," limited to 250 copies, in sets of 4 volumes, 
$20.00. Printed from entirely new plates, on paper made expressly for this book. Illustrated on 
India paper, mounted. 

NEW AND POPULAR BOOKS FOR BOYS. 



%ODNEY THE PARTISAN. 

^y Harry Castlemon. Illustrated, 12mo, cloth, blue, 
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STRUGGLING UPIVARD. 
By Horatio Alger, Jr. Illustrated, 16mo, cloth e:> 
tra, black and gold, $1.25. 



THE CABIN IN THE CLEARING. 

By Edward S. Ellis. Illustrated, 12mo, cloth extra, red and gold, $1.25. 



PORTER & COATES, Publishers, - - Philadelphia, Pa. 

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[Dec., 



Dodd, Mead & Company's Publications 

FOR THE HOLIDAY SEASON OF 1890. 



HALEVY. 

A MARRIAGE FOR LOVE. 

By LuDOVic Halevy, author of " The Abb^ Constan- 
tin," etc. An Edition de luxe, with 23 full-page illnstra- 
tiong, by WiusoN de Meza. Uniform in size with the quarto 
edition of *' The Abb^ Gonstantin.'* In silk portfolio, $10. 
This oharminfl: story, riyallinsr '*The Abb^ Constantin" in 

its delicacy and parity, will, like it, be noted for the beanty 

and finish of its dlustrations. 

FERGUSSON. 

HI8T0R Y of MODERN ARCHITECTURE 
By James Ferousson, D.C.L., F.R.S., M.R.A.S., etc. 
Thoroughly revised and brought down to the present time 
by Robert Kerr, Professor of Architecture at King^s Col- 
lege, London, with many new illustrations added. 2 toIs., 
octavo, price announced later. 

This work is produced jointly by John Murray of London 
and ourselves. A supplementary volume devoted entirely to 
Modem Architecture m America, by Montgomery Schuyler, 
Esq., will appear in 1891. 

DOBSON. 

MEMOIR OF HORACE W ALP OLE. 

By Austin Dobson. A limited edition de luxe, printed 
at the De Vinne Press from t^rpe, on hand-made linen and 
Japan paper, and illustrated with 11 etchings by Percy Mo- 
BAK, by plates, etc. 
This volume is not a reprint, but has been written especially 

for us, and we are its sole owners. Large octavo. 
425 copies on Dickinson's hand-made paper. $15.00. 
50 copies on Japan paper. $20.00. 
4 copies on veUum. Prices on application. 
These 479 copies embrace all that will be printed of this 

edition for both the United States and England. 

THE SUN DIAL. 
A Poem by Austin Dobson. Illustrated with many 
designs reproduced in photogravure, and with drawings in 
pen-and-ink, bv Geo. Wharton Edwards, and bound in unique 
xashion. Small quarto, $7.50. 
An Edition de luxe on Japan pi^wr, limited to 50 copies, $20. 

1^0 UH FRENCHWOMEN. 

By Austin Dobson. This volume embraces sketches 
of Mademoiselle De Cobpay, Madame Roiand, Madame* 
Ds Genlis, and the Princess De Lamballe. With a por- 
trait of Mademoiselle De Gobday, etched bv Thomas John- 
son. 12mo, cloth, gilt top, $1.25. In the Giunta Series, 

SGHOULER. 

A HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES 

UNDER THE CONSTITUTION. 
By James Schouler. 4 vols., octavo, cloth, $9.00. 

LANDOR. 

The Citation and examination 
OF WILLIAM Shakespeare, 

touching deer stealing. By Walter 
Sayaoe Landor. 12mo, cloth, $1.25. In the Giunta Series, 

HOCHSCmLD. 

DESIREE^ Queen of Sweden and Norway. 
From the French of Baron Hochschild. hj Mrs. 
M. Carey. 16mo, cloth, $1.25. 



SAND. 

The GALLANT LORDS of BOIS DOREE 

By George Sand. Translated from the French by 

Steven Cloyis. 2 vols., 12mo, doth, uniform with " Con- 

suelo.*' $3.00. 

In ''The Gallant Lords of Bois Dor^e" George Sand has 

E'ven a deliriitful picture of the manners, ideas, and mode of 
Pe of the ^«nch nobility resident upon their estates in the 
first half of the 17th century. The political, social, and do- 
mestic relations of the times are so interwoven with the story 
of thrilling personal adventure that the tale commands the 
unbroken mterest of the historical stndent as well as the lover 
of romance and combat. 

THE HAUNTED POOL. 

(La Mare au Diahle.) From the French of George 
Sand, by Frank Hunter Potter. Illustrated with 14 
etchings by Rudaux. Quarto, beautifully bound, $5.00. 
No greater contrast can be imagined than between " Con- 

suelo" and ''The Haunted Pom." Abandoning the bn 



haunts of men, with their strife and intrigues, George I 
here gives us a rustic picture. It is a simple tale of peasant 
life and love, told witn a tender sympathy. 

VAN RENSSELAER. 

THE DEVIVS PICTURE BOOKS. 

A History of Playing Cards. By Mrs. John King 
VAN Rensselaer. Octavo, with 16 fuU-page plates in col- 
ors, and numerous illustrations in black and white. $5.00. 

SUMNER. 

ALEXANDER HAMILTON 

(1757-1804), Statesman, Fbmncier, Secretary of the 
Treasury. By Professor WiLLiAX G. Sumner, of Yale 
Univenity. 12mo, cloth, 75 cents. In the series Makers (^ 
America, 

BROWNE. 

GEORGE and CECILIUS CALVERT 
Barons Baltimore of Baltimore (1580-1676), and 
the Founding of the Maryland Colony. By William Hand 
Browne, editor of " The Archives of Maryland.'' With 
portrait of Cecilius Calvert. 12mo, cloth, 75 cents. In the 
series Makers <if America. 

BRUCE. 

JAMES EDWARD OGLETHORPE 

(1687-1785,) and the Founding of the Greorgia Colony. 
By Henry Bruce. 12mo, doth, 75 cents. In the series 
Makers cf America, 

MEAD. 

OUR MOTHER TONGUE. 

By Theodore H. Mead. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 
" Our Mother Ton^e " is written with a view to enabling 
the reader, without the aid of any other instruction, to oozrect 
any defects and imperfections that may exist in his manner 
of speaking our common language. These defects are found, 
in the first place, in the quality of the voice itself, then in our 
manner of urin^ the voice, then in modulation, in articulatian 
and pivnunciation. All these points are treated in a thor- 
oughly practical manner. 

MABIE. 

Mr STUDY EIRE. 
A Volume of Essays by Hamilton Wright Mabie, 
editor of "The Christian Union," author of "Norse Stories 
Retold from the Eddas.'' 12mo, boaids, $1.25. 



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DANA. 

VOLCANOES AND VOLCANIC ACTION. 

With Maps, Plates, and many Illustrations. By James 

D. Dana, ProfesBor at Yale College. Octavo, cloth, $5.00. 

CORALS AND CORAL ISLANDS. 
A New Edition, greatly enlarged. By James D. Dana, 
Profeasor at Tale College. Octavo, cloth, illiutrated, $5.00. 

THOMSON. 

MUNGO PARK AND THE NIGER. 

By Joseph Thomson, author of « Through Masai- 
Land." 12mo, doth, with numerous maps and iUustra- 
tions, $1.25. 

HOSIE. 

THREE YEARS IN WESTERN CHINA. 

By Alexander Hosie. Octavo, cloth, illus., $5.00. 

STOCKTON. 

ARDIS CLAVERDEN. 

A Novel. By Frank R. Stockton, author of « Rud- 
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Syndicate," "The Stories of the Three Burglars," etc. 
12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

This novel is the longest and most important of the author's 
works. It is thoroughly American, the scenes beinjp partly in 
the South and parUy m New York ; but there is mtroduced 
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used in fiction. 

THE GREAT WAR SYNDICATE. 

By Frank R. Stockton, author of " Rudder Grange," 
etc. 12mo, cloth, $1.00 ; paper, 50 cents. 

STORIES OF THE THREE BURGLARS. 
By Frank R. Stockton, author of * Rudder Grange," 
etc. 12mo, cloth, $1.00 ; paper, 50 cents. 

BARR. 

THE HOUSEHOLD OF MCNEIL. 

A Story of the Scotch Highlands. By Amelia E. 
Babr, author of " A Daughter of Pyfe," **A Border Shep- 
herdess," '' The Squire of Sandal Side," etc. 12mo, cloth, 
$1.25. 

FRIEND OLIVIA. 

By AMELL4 E. Barr, author of « Jan Vedder's Wife," 
'' The Bow of Orange Ribbon," etc. 12mo, cloth, $1.25. 
A Story of the time of George Fox and the days of the Pro- 
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KRASZEWSKL 

THE JEW. 
A Novel. By Joseph Ionatius Kraszewski. Trans- 
lated from the Polish by Linda de Kowalewska. 12mo, 
cloth, $1.50. 

" The Jew " is a plea for Judaism in its higher spiritual 
and moral aspects. It is at the same time a remarkaole pic- 
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highest, from die almost mediievaUy orthodox to the modem 
materialistic mercantile Jew. The story is laid amid the last 
uprising of the Poles in the time of Napoleon HI. 

FINLEY. 

ELSIE YACHTING. 

A new volume in the "Elsie Series." By Martha 
FiNLET. 12mo, cloth, $1.25. 



BANDELIER. 

THE DELIGHT MAKERS. 
A Novel of Pueblo Indian l^ife. By Adolf F. Ban- 

dsuer. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 
^ Of this novel, Dr. Francis Parkman writes: "Mr. Bando- 
lier, whom I have known many vears from his connection 
with the American Institute of Arehteolo^, is one of the 
leading ethnologists and arelueologiBts on this continent. In 
some oepartments, indeed, he has no equal. Aside from lit- 
erary qualities, his novel, which I have carefully read, has a 
great scientific value, being by far the best picture of life in 
the Pueblos of New Mexico that has ever been made public* 

STRETTON. 

THE DOCTOR'S DILEMMA. 

A Novel. By Hesba Stretton. 12mo, cloth, ^1.00. 

At the same time, a New EDrrioN of Hesba Stbetton'b 
Stories, in new bindings. 12mo, cloth, $1.00. 

READE. 

PEG WOFFINGTON. 
A Novel. By Charles Reade. With an etched 

?ortrait by Thomas Johnson. 12mo, doth, gilt top, $1.25. 
n the Giunta Series. 

CHRISTIE JOHNSTONE. 

A Novel. By Charles Reade. With a frontispiece 
in photogravure by Wilson de Meza. 12mo, cloth, gilt 
top, $1.25. In the Giunta Series. 

ALLEN. 

MISS EATON'S ROMANCE. 
A Novel. By Richard Allen. 12mo, cloth, 81.00 ;. 
paper, 50 cents. 

ABBOT. 

BATTLEFIELDS and CAMP FIRES. 

Being a sequel to " Battlefields of '61," and carrying 
forward the story of the War for the Union. Bv Wiixia 
J. Abbot, author of '* The Blue Jackets of '61, of 1812, of 
'76." Quarto, with many original illustrations by W. C. 
Jackson. Cloth, $3.00. 

MOOREHEAD. 

WANNETA THE SIOUX. 

By Warren K. Moorehead, of the Smithsonian In- 
stitution. A story of Indian life by one who has lived in 
the tepees of the Sioux Nation, and writes from peisonak 
knowledge. With many illustrations of Indian life. Oc- 
tavo, cloth, $2.00. 

GOOCH. 

MISS MORDECK'S FATHER. 

ANoveL By Fani PusEY Gooch. 12ino, cloth, $1.00;. 
paper, 50 cents. 

STAHL. 

MAROUSSIA. 

A Maid of Ukraine. From the French of P. J. Stahl,. 
by Cornelia W. Cyb. With 10 illustrations. A most de- 
lightful story, crowned by the French Academy. 12mo,. 
ck>th, $1.00. 

INGERSOLL. 

THE SIL VER CA VES. 
By Ernest Inoersoll. A Mining Story. With illus- 
trations. 12mo, cloth, $1.00. 



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THE SONG OF HUIVATHA. 

By Hekry Wadsworth Lokgfellow. Illustrated with twenty-two full-page Photogravures, and about four 
hundred text Illustrations of Indians, Indian Costumes, Implements, Arms, etc., by Frederic Remikoton. 
With a Steel Portrait. Bound in full buckskin from designs by Mrs. Henry Whitman. 8vo, $6.00. 



THE LIFE OF T>OROTHE/f LYNDE T>1X. 

By Francis Tiffany. With a fine Steel Portrait. $1.50. 
" From her papers and the letters written by her and preseryed by the recipients, Mr. Tiffany has constructed what, in 
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derful career ; and many will lay down this well-written and sympathetic biography, agreeing with the condusioii of one of 
her friends, who, in communicating her death, declared Dorothea Lynde Dix the * most useful and digtingnished woman 
America has yet produced.' ^^—New York Tribune. 



nSION OF SIR LAUNFAL. 
By James Russell Lowell. An entirely New Edi- 
tion. With Photogravure Illustrations, including a 
Portrait of Mr. Lowell, and eight original Drawings 
by Edmund H. Garrett. Tastefully bound, $1.50. 

OUR OLD HOME. 
By Nathaniel Hawthorne. Holiday Edition. From 
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top, 34.00; half calf, $7.00; polished calf, 89.00. 

AMERICAN SONNETS. 
A Choice Selection by Thomas Wentworth Higoin- 
SON and Mrs. E. H. Bioelow. Tastefully bound, 
81.25. 

e/? FABLE FOR CRITICS. 
By James Russell Lowell. An entirely New Edi- 
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by Joseph Linden Smith. Crown 8vo, 81.00. 



SIDS^EY. 
A Novel of peculiar interest by Margaret Delakd, 
author of « John Waid, Preacher," and « The Old 
Garden, and Other Verses." 81.26. 

STRANGERS AND IVAYFARERS. 

A new book of charming New England stories, by 
Sarah Orne Jewett. 81.25. 

WALFORD. 
A New England novel, by Ellen Olney Kirk, author 
of « The Story of Margaret Kent," etc. 81.25. 

^SCUTNEY STREET. 

An engaging story, by Mrs. A. D. T. Whitnet, author 
of " Faith Gartney's Girlhood," etc. 81.50. 

COME FORTH. 
A Novel of the Time of Christ. By Elizabeth Stuart 
Phelps and Herbert D. Ward, authors of ^ The 
Master of the Magicians." 81.25. 



IVORKS OF JAMES %USSELL LOPVELL 

New and Complete Riverside Edition. Literary Essays, in four volumes; Political Essays, in one volume; Literary 
and Political Addresses, in one volume ; Poems, in four volumes. With one Etched and two Steel Portraits. 
Crown 8vo, gilt top, uniform with Riverside Editions of Longfellow's and Whittier's Works. 81.50 a vol- 
ume ; uncut, 81.50. The set, cloth, 815.00; half calf, 827.50; half levant, 840.00. 



OVER THE TEACUPS. 

A delightful new book, quite like the famous Breakfast- 
Table Series. By Oliver Wendell Holmes. 81.50. 

REPRESENTATIVE SONNETS 

BY AMERICAN AUTHORS. With an Essay on 
the Sonnet, its Nature and History, including many 
notable Sonnets of Other Literatures ; also, Biog^ph- 
ical Notes, Indexes, etc. By Charles H. C Ran- 
dall. 81.50. 



STORIES BY (MRS. IVIGGIN. 

Timothy's Quest, 81.00. The Story Hour, 81.00. A 
Summer in a Canon, 81.25. The Birds' Christmas 
Carol, 50 cents. The Story of Patsy, 60 cents. All 
but the first are illustrated. 

T>R. LE'BARRON AND HIS DAUGHTERS. 

A third Historical Novel of Plymouth Colony. By 
Jane G. Austin, author of "A Nameless Noble- 
and " Standish of Standish." 81.25. 



\* For sale by all Booksellers. Sent by mail, post-paid, on receipt of price, by the Publishers, 

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STUDIES IN LETTERS AND LIFE. 
A notable Tolume of Essays by George £. Wood- 
berry, author of «The North Shore Watch, and 
Other Poems," and "Edgar Allan Poe." 16mo, SI .25. 

^ZTEC LAND. 

By Maturin M. Ballou, author of "Due West," 
"Due North," "Due South," "Under the Southern 
Cross,'' " The New Eldorado," etc. Each, SI. 50. 
An engaging book on Mexico. 

PIERO DA CASTIGLIONE. 

By Stuart Sterne, author of " Angelo," " Giorgio," 
and "Beyond the Shadow." 16mo, SI .00. 

ALFRED THE GREAT. 

By Thomas Hughes, author of " Tom Brown's School 

Days at Rugby," etc. Sl.OO. 

A delightful biography, and a notable chapter in 
English history. 



Lilliput Classics. 



Ten tasteful little volumes j paper covers, 25 cents each ; 
the set in a box, ^2.50, 
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Shakespeare's Sonkets. 

Gou>SMrrH's Deserted Village, and Traveller. 
Cabltle's Choice of Books. 
FouQUB^s Undine. 

Dr. Brown's Rab and His Friends. 
Whtttier's Tent on the Beach. 
Lowell's Vision or Sir Launfal. 
Hawthorne's Tales of the White Hills. 
Tennyson's Enoch Arden. 



Riverside Library for Young People 

Each volume 16 mo. 75 cents, 

1. The War of Independence. By John Fiske. With 

Maps. 

2. Georoe Washington. By Horace E. Scudder. Illus- 

trated. 

3. Birds Through an Opera-Glass. By Florence A. 

Merriam. Illustrated. 

4. Up and Down the Brooks. By Mary E. Bamford. 

Illastrated. 

5. Coal and Coal Mines. By Homer Greene. Illastrated. 

6. A New England Girlhood. By Lucy Larcom. 

7. Java : The Pearl of the East. By Mrs. S. J. Higginson. 

With a Blap. 
<8. Girls and Women. By E. Chester. 

" One of the most interesting and promising series of books 
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THE ct/lTL ANTIC CMONTHLY 

Fob 1891 will contain 

THE HOUSE OF OAARTHA. 
FRANK % STOCKTONS SERIAL. 

Contrihutions from 

T>R. HOLMES. (MR. LOWELL, AND 
(MR. WHITTIER. 

Some heretofore mipublished 

LETTERS BY CHARLES AND MARY 
LAMB. 

Mr. Percival Lowell will write a narrative of his 
adventures, under the title of 

d^OTO: An Unexplored Corner of Japan. 

The Capture of Louisbourg will be treated in 

A SERIES OF PAPERS BY FRANCIS 
PARKMAN. 

There will also be Short Stories and Sketches by 

%UDYARD KIPLING, 

Henry James, Sarah Orne Jewett, Octave 
Thanet and others. 

Untechnical Papers on Questions in 

[MODERN SCIENCE 

will be contributed by Professor Osborn of Princeton, 
and others. Topics in University, Secondary, and Pri- 
mary Education will be a feature. 

Mr. Richard Watson Gilder, Dr. Parsons, Mrs. 
Fields, Graham R. Tomson, and others will be among 
the contributors of Poetry. 



The Atlantic for 1891. 

TERMS : S4.00 a year in advance, postage free; 
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The November and December numbers sent free to new 
subscribers whose subscriptions for 1891 are received be- 
fore December 20. 

Postal notes and money are at the risk of the sender, 
and therefore remittances should be made by money- 
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Longmans, Green & Co/s New Books. 

A COMPANION TO "THE BLUE FAIRY BOOK." 

THE %ED FAIRY 'BOOK. 

£dited by Andrew Lang. With 100 Illustrations by H. J. Ford and Lancelot Speed. Crown 8vo, cloth, gilt, 

380 pages ; price, S2.00. 
Contents. — The Twelve Dancing Princesses.— The Princess Mayblossom. — Soria Moria Castle. — The Death of Koschei 
the Deathle88.--The Black Thief and Knight of the Glen.— The Master Thief .—Brother and Sister.- Princess Rosette.— The 
Enchanted Pig.— The Norka.— The Wonderful Birch.— Jack and the Beanstalk.— The Good Little Mouse.- (jraciosa and 
Percinet.— The Three Princesses of Wliiteland.— The Voice of Death. — The Six Sillies.- Kari Woodengown.— Drakestail.— 
The Ratcatcher.— The True History of Little Goldenhood.— The Golden Branch.— The Three Dwarfs.— Dapplegrim.— The 
Enchanted Canary.— The Twelve Brothers. — Rapunzel. — The Nettle Spinner.— Farmer Weatherbeard. — Mother HoUe.— 
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THE "BLUE FAIRY "BOOK. 

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** There could hardly be a better collection of fairy stories. Mr. Lang has picked from eveiy source, rewritten, con- 
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VOCES POPULI. Reprinted from " Punch." By F. 
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THE PHILOSOPHY OF FICTION. An Essay. By 
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*«* Most of the recent abundant discussion of the art of 
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^VHEN IV E IV ERE 'BOYS.— A ^avel. 

By William O'Brien, M.P. Third and Cheaper Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth, 556 pages, 81.00. 

" The book us a perfect storehouse of information about the real life and character of all classes of the Irish people. 
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LYRA CONSOLATIONIS from the Poets of the i THE LIFE OF LORD STRATFORD DE RED- 

Seventeenth, Eighteenth, and Nineteenth Centuries. Se- | CLIFFE, K.G. By Stanley-Lank Poole. (Popular £di- 

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Fcp. 8vo, cloth, gilt top, $2.00. •♦♦The present edition is condensed from the Library 



The selection of verse in this volume is designed to com 
. fort mourners from the first hours of their bereavement, and 
is based on those clauses of the Apostles' Creed in which the 
church confesses her belief in her Lord's crucifixion, death, and 
burial : in His resuiTection, ascension, and coming again. Poets 
of the last three centuries have been laid under contribution. 



Edition, published in two ^volumes in 1888, chiefly bv the 
omission of the larger dispatches and memoranda. While 
nothing of general interest has been sacrificed, reference must 
be made to the larger work for such detailed explanations 
and authenticating references as are necessarily excluded 
from a volume of this scope. 



HISTORIC TOWNS. Edited by Edward A. Freeman, D.C.L., and Rev. William Hunt. New Volume. 

U^EIV YORK. By Theodore Roosevelt. With three Maps. Crown 8vo. $1.25. 
*«* Mr. Roosevelt has written a vigorous and pictures4^ue book about the founding and growth of the greatest city of 
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sight of the reasons for the city's supremacy. 

MRS. JAMESON'S SACRED AND LEGENDARY ART. 

NEW AND MUCH CHEAPER EDITIONS. 

THE HISTORY OF OUR LORD, as exemplified in LEGENDS OF THE MONASTIC ORDERS, as rep- 
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etchings and 2^i woodcuts. 2 vols., 8vo, cloth, gilt top, $S. | gilt top, $4.00. 

LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS AND MARTYRS, | LEGENDS OF THE MADONNA, as represented in 

as represented in the Fine Arts. By Mrs. Jameson. With Sacred and Legendary Christian Art. By Mrs. Jameson. 

19 etchings on copper and steel, and 187 woodcuts. 2 vols., With 27 etchings and Ifio woodcuts. 1 vol., 8vo, cloth, gilt 

8vo, cloth, gilt top, $8.00. I top, $4.00. 

*^* Messrs. Longmans, Green Sf Co. will be happy to send their new Catalogues to any address upon application. 

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MACMILLAN AND CO.'S NEW BOOKS. 



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TiOYAL EDINBURGH: 

HER SAINTS, KINGS, AND SCHOLARS. By Mrs. Oliphant. With numerons Ulustrations by George 
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GLIMPSES OF OLD ENGLISH HOMES. 

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JuLst FiMished. Sir Samuel W. Baker's New Book. Cloth extra, fj^ilt, ^3.50. 

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THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. By Oliver Gold- 
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C.B., LL.D. 1 vol., folio, levant morocco, gilt edges. 

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F. Marion Crawford* s New Novel. 12mo, doth 
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THE TALE OF TROY. Homer's Iliad translated 
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[Doc., 



BOOKS FOR THE HOLIDAYS. 

''''Reading is to the mind what exercise is to the body,^^ — Steele. 



<^TTRACTiyE GIFT "BOOKS. 



OUR NEW ENGLAND. Her Natnn described by HamU- 
ton Wright Mabie, and some of her familiar scenes illus- 
trated. Fhotogrravnres from Nature, with Remarques by 
F. T. Merrill. Quarto, limp, with photograrure on Jap- 
anese paper, gilt edges ; price, $4.00 ; cloth, price, $5.00. 

THE HOUSE OF THE WOLFINGS. A tale of the Wolf- 
ings and All the Kindreds of the Mark. By William Mor- 
ris. 12mo, Oxford style. Price, $2.00. 

SHAKESPEARE'S WORKS. From the text of Rev. Alex- 
ander Dyce*8 second edition. 7 toIs. 16mo. Half Russia, 
gilt top. In a neat box. $9.00 the set ; doth, neat, $5.25. 

HER GREAT AMBITION: AStobt. By Anne Richard- 
son Earle. 16mo, cloth. Price, $1.00. 

LOUISA M. ALCOTT: Her Life, Letters, and Journal. 
Edited by Ednah D. Cheney, with portraits and views of the Alcott Home in Concord. 

uniform with " Little Women." Price, $1 .60. 



THE LIGHT OF ASIA. Dluatrated edition. By Sir Ed- 
win Arnold, M. A. HoHday editian. Sqaave 12iiio, with a 
new portrait. Price $1.50 ; fnll gilt, gilt edges, $2.00. 

MISS BROOKS. A Story of Boston. By Eliza Ome White, 
author of "A Browning Ckkurtship." 16mo, cloth, $1.00. 

NEWS FROM NOWHERE: or, Ak Epoch of Reot.^ Be- 
ing some chapten from a Katopian romance. By William 
Morris. 16mo, doth. Price, $1.00. 

BY LEAFY WAYS. IDYLS OF THE FIELD. Brief 
Studies in the Book of Nature. By F. A. Knight. Illns- 
trated by E. T. Compton. 12mo, cloth. Price, $l.i)0 each. 

NANON. By George Sand. Translated by Elizabeth 
Wormeley Latimer. 12mo, half Russia. Price, $1.50. 



One Yolnme, 16mo, 



ViONSENSE "BOOKS. 



Comprising << A Book of Nonsense Songs, Stories, Botany, and Alphabets," " More Nonsense Pictures, Rhymes, 
Botany," etc., << Laughable Lyrics : A Fresh Book of Nonsense Poems, Songs, Botany," etc. By Edward 
Lear. With all the original illustrations, a sketch of the author's life and a portrait. Complete in one 
volume. 12mo, cloth. •^2.00. 

"BOOKS OF "POEMS. 



IN THE GARDEN OF DREAMS; LYRICS AND SON- 
NETS. By Louise Chandler Moulton. With Ulnstrations 
by H. Winthrop Pierce. 16mo. Uniquely bound in white 
and green cloth, gold stamped. Price, $1.50. 

HELEN JACKSON S COMPLETE POEMS. Including 
'* Verses^' and *' Sonnets and Lyrics" in one volume. 
lOmo. Price, $1.50; white doth, gilt edge, $1.75; calf, 
padded, $4.(X) ; morocco, padded, $3.50. 



VERSES. A FEW MORE VERSES. By " Susan Coolidge." 

Square 16mo. Cloth, $1.00 each. 

" Many of the sweet and tender poems which make up the 
contents of this little volume of " Venes ' have already found 
lodgment in the hearts of many readers." — Trafucripc. 

POEMS. By Emily Dickinson. Edited by Mabel Loomis 
Todd and T. W. Hignnson. 16mo. Bound in drab and 
white cloth, with gilt design. Gilt top. Price, $1JjO. 



FOR "DAILY THOUGHT. 



THE DAY'S MESSAGE. 
A Brief Selectiok of Prose and Verse. 
For each day in the year. Chosen by Susan Coolidge. 16mo. 
White and green cloth, price, $1.00 ; full gilt, price, $1.25. 



DAILY STRENGTH FOR DAILY NEEDS. 
**As thydayv, so shall thy strensth be." A selection for 
every day in the year. Selected by the editor of ** Quiet 
Hours.'' 18mo. Price, $1.00; white cU>th, gilt, $l.'r); 
calf, padded, $3.50 ; morocco, padded, $3.00. 



The busy days of life are not so biuy but that there is time in each for the reading of one compact little sentence of wis- 
dom or conuort, and none need such a little, well-selected morsel as much as those who have no time to choose it for 
themselves. 

AUTHOR'S EDITION OF GEORGE ^MEREDITH'S SH^yELS. 

A Popular Edition. Bound in library style, 10 vols., 16mo^ cloth. Price, $1.50 per vol. Crown 8vo Edition, $2.00. 



The Ordeal of Richard 

Feverel. 
Diana of the Crossways. 



Harry Richmond. 
Sandra Belu)ni. 

VlTTORIA. 



Rhoda Flemino. Evan Harrxnoton. 

BEAucHA3fp*s Career. The Eooibt. 

The Shaving of Shaqpat and Farina. 



"BALZACS U^OyELS IN ENGLISH. 

Translated by Katharine Prescott Wormeley. Handsome 12mo volumes. Half Russia. 

DiTCHKSs DK Lanofjiis. Euoenie Grandbt. 

Thk Rise and Fall of Cesar The Magic Skin (La Peau 

BlROTTBAU. DE ChAORIN). 

The Country Doctor. Louis Lambert. 

Sons of the Soil. 



Cousin Pons. 

The Two Brothers, 

The Alkahest. 

MODESTB MiONON. 



Fame and Sorrow. 



Price, $1.50 each. 

Prrb Goriot. 
Cousin Bkttr. 
Bureaucracy. 
Sbrafhita. 



For sale by all Booksellers. Sent by maU, post-paid, on receipt of price, by the Publishers, 



ROBERTS BROTHERS, BOSTON. 



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BOOKS FOR YOUNG FOLK. 

' Whenever I have to do with young men and women^ I always wish to krufw whqt their 

books are.'' — Emerson. 



DEAR DAUGHTER DOJIOTHY. By A. G. Ryinptoii. 
With iUnatntieiis by the »iithor. Snudl 4to, oloth, $1. 

THE WINDS, THE WOODS AND THE WANDERER. 
A Fsble for Chndnm. By LUyF. Weaaelhoeft, auUior of 
'"Spanrow the Tramp" and "Flipwing the Spy." With 
ilhwtntiom. IGmo, ololli, $1.25. 

JjTORIES told at TWILIGHT. By Louiae Chandler 
Monlton, author of * 'Bed-time Stories," ''Fireli«rht Stories," 
etc. With illnstratioof by H. Winthrop Pierce. 16mo, 
doth, $1.25. 

THINE, NOT MINE. A Boy's Book. By WilKam Everett. 
IHintrated. 16mo, doth. Prioe, $1.25. ' 

Nbw EDiTiONg OP Mr. £vebett*8 
CHANGING BASE and DOUBLE PLAY. lUusfcrated. 
l(fano, cloth . Prioe, $1 .25 each . 

IN MY NURSE31Y. Rhymes, Chimes, and Jingles for 
Children. By Lauxm E. Kiohards, author of '* The Joyous 
Story of Toto" and "Toto's Merry Winter." Profusely 
illostiated. One TolBme, small 4to, doth. Price, $1.25. 

THE DRIFTING ISLAND; OR, THE SLAVE HUNT- 
ERS OF THE CONGO. A Sequel to ''Kibboo Ganey; 
m. The Lost Chief of the Copper Mountain." By Walter 
Wentworth. Illustrated by F. T. Merrill. 16mo, doth. 
Price, $1.25. 



ZOE. 
etc. 



A Story. By the author of '* Miss Toosey's Mission, *' 
16mo, doth. Price, 60 cents. 



DONALD AND DOROtHY. By Mary Mapes Dodge. Il- 
lustrated. 16190, eloth. Price, $1.50. 



THE KINGDOM OF COINS. A Tale for ChUdren of All 
AgeS; By John Bradley Giknan. Illustrated by F. T. 
Merrill. Small 4to. Illuminated board oorers. Price, 
60 cents. 

FLIPWING THE SPY. A Story for Children. By Lily 
F. Wesselhoeft, author of *' Sparrow the Tramp." With 
illnstratioiiB by Miss A. G. Tlympton. 16mo. Cloth. 
Price, $1.25. 

CLOVER. A Sequel to the Katy Books. By Susan Cool- 
idge. With illustrations by Jessie McDermott. Square 
16mo. Cloth. Prioe, $1.25. 

JUST SIXTEEN. A New Volume of Stories. By Susan 
CooHdge. Square 16mo. Cloth. Uniform with ''What 
Katy Did," '^A Little Country Girl," etc. Price, $1.25. 

THEIR CANOE TRIP. A Boy's Book. By Mary P. W. 
Smith, author of "Jolly Good Times," "The Browns," 
etc. 16mo. Cloth. Pnoe, $1.25. 

KIBBOO GANEY; or. The Lost Chiek of the Copper 
Mountain. A Story of Travel and Adyenture in the 
heart of Africa. With illustrations. 16mo. Cloth. Prioe, 
$1.25. 

RAYMOND KERSHAW. A Story of Deserved Success. 
By Maria Mcintosh Cox. With illastrations by F. T. Uer- 
rill. 16mo. Cloth. Price, $1.25. 

THE HAPPY PRINCE, AND OTHER TALES. By Oscar 
Wilde. With full-iMige illustrations bv Walter Crane, and 
vignettes and tail-pieces by Jacomb-Hood. Square 16mo. 
Cloth. $1.00. 



SETS OF POPULAR BOOKS FOR GIRLS AND BOYS. 

Any Story in the List may he had Separately. 



MISS ALCOTT'S LITTLE WOMEN SERIES. 8 vols., 
$1.50 etch. "Little Women," "Little Men," "Kght 
"Couibs,"'* Under the Lilacs," "An Old-fashioned Giri," 
" Jo'TSoys," " Rose in Bloom," "Jack and Jill." 

MISS ALCOTT'S AUNT JO'S SCRAP BAG. 6 vols., 
$1jOO each. "My Boys," "Shawl Straps," "Cupid and 
Chaw-Chow," "My Giris," "Jimmy's Cfruise in the Pma- 
fote," "An Ohl-fashioned Thanksgiving." 

MIBS ALCOTT'S SPINNING WHEEL STORIES. 4 vob., 
$1.25 each. "SpinniiKWhed Stories," " Proverb Stories," 
" saver Pitchers," "A Garhwd for Girls." 

MISS ALCOTT'S LULU'S LIBRARY. 3 vols., $1.00 each. 
Volume III. contains "Recollections of My Childhood," 
written shortly before her death. 

LAURA E. RICHARDS'S TOTO STORIES. 2 vob., $1.25 
each. "The Joyous Story of Toto," "Toto's Merry 
Wmter." 

FLORAL. SHAW'S Sl'ORIES. 4 vols., $1.00 each. "Castle 
Blaip," "Hector," " PhyUis Browne," "A Sea Change." 



EDWARD E. HALE'S STORIES. 5 vols., $1.00 each. 
"Stories of War," "Stories of the Sea," "Stories of Ad- 
venture," "Stories of Discovery," "Stories of Invention." 

MRS. MOULTON'S BED-TIME STORIES. 4 vols., $1.25 
each. "Bed-time Stories," "More Bed-time Stories," 
" New Bed-time Stories," " Firelight Stories." 

JEAN INGELOW'S STORIES. 5 vols., $1.25 each. "Stud- 
ies for Stories." "A Sister's Bye-hours," " Mopsa, the 
Fairy," "Stories Told to a Child," First Series; "Stories 
TddtoaChild," Second Series. 



JOLLY GOOD STORIES. 3 vols., $1.25 each 
Good Times," by P. Thome; "Mice at Play," by N 
Forest," " Jolly Good Times at School," by F. Thome 



JoUy 



MRS. EWING'S STORIES. 9 vols., 50 cents each. "Six 
to Sixteen," "A Great Emergency," etc.; "Jan of the 
WmdmiU," "We and the mrld," "Jackanapes," and 
other stories, with a life of Mrs. Ewin^r ; " Mrs. Overthe- 
way's Remembrances," etc.; "Melchior's Dream," «*'• • 
"Lob '■••"••• • - 



ing.' 



ob Lie-by-the-Fire,' 



etc.; 
etc.; 



etc.; 
' A Flat-iron for a Farth- 



Send for our Descriptive Catalogue {free). Our hooks are sold hy all hooksellers^ or mailed, post-paid, hy the 

publishers, on receipt of price. 

ROBERTS BROTHERS, BOSTON. Digitized by Google 



226 



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[Dec., 



Cassell Publishing Company's 

^ElV AND %ECENT PUBLICATIONS. 



HONORE D£ BALZAC. 



THE CHOUANS. 



Newly 



By H. de Balzac. With 100 engravings on wood by L^veill^ from drawings by Julien Le Blant. 
translated into English by George Saintsbury. 1 vol., large 8vo, ertra oloth, $7.50. 
There are more of the elements of a wide popularity in " The Chouans ^' than in any story that Balzac ever wrote. It is, 
as its title indicates, a tale of the troublous times in France when the Republicans and the ImperiaUsts stood ready to fly at 
each other's throats. No man could tell who was his enemy until it was proven to him at the dagger's point. The story reads 
like a romance, and yet it has followed almost literally in the footprints of history. M. Le Blant's illustrations are in perfect 
keeping with the spirit of the story. 

The T{^toers of Great Britain. 

Descriptive, historical, pictorial. With numerous higlily 
finished engravings. Engraved from the original 
drawings. Royal 4to, 384 pages, cloth, gilt, etc., 
•15.00. 



The International Sbakspere. 

Consisting of an Edition de Luxe of the principal plays 
of Shakspere, with original drawings by the leading 
artists of the world, reproduced in the highest style 
of photogravure. Now Ready. OTHELLO. Illus- 
trated by Frank Dicksee, A.R.A. $25.00. 

** Messrs. GaMell*s new Shakspere promises to be the most 
superb edition ever published.— Xonc^n Chronicle, 



Curious Creatures in Zoology. 

By John Abhton. 130 illustrations. 1 vol., 8vo, 83.50. 
Curious creatures these are indeed that Mr. Ashton de- 
scribee. *^ Freaks,'' they would be called by the unculti- 
vated. Thev include all sorts of singular formations, from 
Centaurs to bearded women. The subject is treated from a 
scientific standpoint, and the pencil has done as much as the 
pen to make it graphic. 

London Street tjlrabs. 

By Mrs. H. M. Stanley (Dorothy Tknnast). 1 vol., 
4to, extra cloth, very beautifully illustrated, $2.00. 
" We have only one fault to find— it is all too short : we 
should like to have heard more. The reproductions oi the 
pictures are excellent."— Xofu/an Daily Graphic, 



PROSPER MERIMEE. 

A CHRONICLE OF THE REIGN OF CHARLES IX. 

By Prosper Merimee. With 110 engravings on wood, from drawings by Edward Toudouze. Newly trans- 
lated into English by George Saintsbury. 1 vol., large 8vo, extra cloth, ^7.50. 

There will be no more beautiful book published this year. The text of M4rim^ is well known in the original. Mr. 
Saintsbury's translation is new, and so are the illustrations of Edward Toudouze. In press-work, paper, and binding, this 
book is a model. 



Society as I Have Found It. 

A volume of anecdote and reminiscence. By Ward 
McAllister. With portrait of the author. 1 vol., 
8vo, cloth, unique binding, $2.00. 

Edition de Luxe^ on laige paper, limited to 400 copies, each 
one numbered and signed by the author, and containing two 
portraits, etc. Published at $10.00. Price is now advanoed 
to $15.00 per copy. 

The publiahera reserve the right to increcue price of this edi- 
tion^ without further notice. 

Good Children and Bad. 

Illustrated in colors by M. B. de Monvel. 1 vol., ob- 
long, extra cloth, 92.50. 

Flower de Hundred. 

A story of a Virginia plantation. By Mrs. Burton 
Harrison. 1 vol., 12mo, cloth, $1.00. 



The {Magazine of c/Irt. 

Volume for 1890 contains about 500 beautiful illustra- 
tions, including litho. and tint plates and photo- 
gravures, the 'American Art Notes for the year, etc. 
Bound in extra cloth, beveled boards, full gilt, $5.00; 
full morocco, $10.00. 

(Memories of Home. 

Poems and Pictures of Life and Nature. By Mrs. 
Mart D. Brine. With numerous illustrations. 1 
vol., 4to, extra cloth, in box, $1.50. 

C(zsar Cascabel. 

By Jules Verne. Author of ^Around the World in 
Eighty Days," etc. Translated from the French by 
A. Estoclet. With numerous illustrations by George 
Roux. 1 vol., 8vo, $2.50. 



Oiir COMPLETE DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE of Illustrated, Fine Art, and Education Boohs is now 
ready, and will he sent free to any address on application. 

CASSELL PUBLISHING CO., 104 & 106 Fourth Ave., New York. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



1890.] 



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SUMPTUOUS GIFT BOOKS 



"The Quiet Life." 

"VhE quiet 'LIFE." Certain Verses by Various 
Hands; the Motive set forth in a Prologue and Epi- 
logue by Austin Dobson. The whole adorned with 
numerous drawings by Edwin A. Abbey and Alfred 
Parsons. 4to, ornamental leather, g^t edges, 97.50. 
(In a Box,) 

Old Songs. 

OLD SONGS. With drawings by Edwin A. Abbey 
and Alfred Parsons. 4to, ornamental leather, gilt 
edges, $7.50. (In a Box.) 

She Stoops to Conquer. 

"SHE STOOPS TO CONQUER ; Or, The Mistakes 
OF A NiOHT." A Comedy. By Dr. GrOLDSMiTH. 
With photograyuie and process reproductions from 
drawings by Edwin A. Abbey. Decorations by Al- 
fred Parsons. Introduction by Austin Dobson. 
Folio, leather, illuminated, gilt edges, 920. (In Box,) 

Herrick's Poems. 

Selections from the Poems of Robert Herrick. With 
drawings by Edwin A. Abbey. 4to, cloth, illumi- 
nated, gilt edges, 97.50. (In a Box.) 

Boughton and Abbey s Holland. 

SKETCHING RAMBLES IN HOLLAND. By 
George H. Bouohton, A.R.A. Beautifully and 
profusely illustrated with drawings by the author 
and Edwin A. Abbey. 8vo, cloth, illuminated, 
95.00 ; gilt edges, 95.25. 

Engravings on Wood. 

Twenty-five Engravings on Wood by Members of the 
Society of American Wood Engravers. With 
descriptive letter-press, by W. M. Laffan. Popu- 
lar Edition. Large folio; ornamental covers, 912.00. 
(In a Box.) 

Cathedrals and Abbeys. 

CATHEDRALS AND ABBEYS IN GREAT BRIT- 
AIN AND IRELAND. With descriptive letter- 
press by the Rey. Richard Wheatley, D.D. Pro- 
fusely illustrated. Folio, illuminated cloth, 910.00. 
(In a Box.) 



The Boyhood of Christ. 

THE BOYHOOD OF CHRIST. By Lew Wallace, 
Author of " Ben Hur," etc. 14 full-page engravings 
on plate paper. 4to, ornamental leather cover, 93.50 
(In a Box,) 

Home Fairies and Heart Flowers. 

Engraving of Typical Heads of Beautiful Children. By 
Frank French. With Poems by Margaret E. 
Sangster. Illustrated with numerous head-pieces 
and other decorations. 4to, cloth, illuminated, 96.00. 
(In a Box.) 

Howard Pyle's Works. 

THE WONDER CLOCK ; Or, Four and Twenty 
Marvelous Tales, being One for Each Hour of the 
Day. 160 drawings by the author. Embellished 
with verses by Katharine Pyle. Large 8vo, 
cloth, ornamental 93.00. 

PEPPER AND SALT ; Or, Seasoning for Young 
Folk. Profusely illustrated by the author. 4to, 
cloth, illuminated, 92.00. 

THE ROSE OF PARADISE. A Story of Adventure. 
Illustrated by the author. Post 8vo, cloth, 91.25. 



Dore's London. 

LONDON : A Pilgrimage. Illustrations by Gustave 
DoRE. Letter-press by Blanch ardJrrrold. Folio, 
cloth, 95.00. 

The Raven. 

Illustrated hy Dori, 

THE RAVEN. By Edgar Allan Poe. Dlustra- 
tions by Gustave Dore. With Comment by Clar- 
ence Stedman. Folio, cloth, illuminated, gilt edges, 
910.00. (In a Box.) 

The Ancient Mariner. 

Ilhistrated hy Dore. 
THE RIME OF THE ANCIENT MARINER. By 
Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Illustrated by Gus- 
tave Dore. Folio, cloth, illuminated, gilt edges. 
910.00. (In a Box.) 



Published by HARPER & BROTHERS, New York. 

The above works art for tale hy all hockgeUera^ or will be 8ent by Harper A Brothers, postage prepaid, to any part of the 

United Siaiea, Canada, or Mexico, on receipt of price. 



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THE DIAL 



[Dec., 



ROUTLEDGE'S HOLIDAY BoOKS. 



By W. 



SONGS OF A SAVOYARD. 

S. Gilbert. With Illustrations from designs by the author. 4to, cloth, gilt edges. 
A collection of the most popular songs from the favorite operas of Gilbert and Sullivan, 



$3.50. 



A superb edition of Bulwer's fartums masterpiece, 
THE LAST "DAYS OF POMPEII. 

By Bulwer-Lytton. With 35 full-page illustrations 
by Frank Kirchbach and others. 8vo, cloth, 93. 

Printed from new type on fine paper, beautifully illustrated 
and handsomely bound, 

PICTURESQUE INDIA: 
An Unconventional Guide Book. By W. S. Laine. 
With 200 Illustrations from design by Redder, 
Dale, and Stanton, and Maps. 8vo, cloth, gilt 
edges, $3.50. 

An entertaining description of the writer^ s experiences while 
travelling in Britain's great Eastern empire. 

GREAT AFRICAN TRAVELLERS, 
From Munoo Park to Stanley. By W. H. G. 
Kingston and Lieut. C. R. Low. With many Illus- 
trations and Portraits of Stanley. 12mo, cloth, gilt 
edges, $2.50. 

*' Juj< the book for young people who ujish to have a connected 
story of the opening of the Dark Continent,'^— Tkb Critic. 

"DISILLUSION; Or, The Story of ^medee's 
Youth. 

(Toute une Jeunesse.) By Francois Coppee. Trans- 
lated by £. P. Robins. With 74 Illustrations from 
designs by Emile Bayard. 12mo, paper, $1.50 ; 
half leather, $2.25. 

^* Equally fascinating in its story and in the way in which it 
is told. . . . Copp4e is a delightful writer. . . . This 
book presents him at his very best in fiction.^''— Bowrov Sat- 
urday Evening Gazette. 

KINGS IN EXILE. 
By Alphonse Daudet. Translated by Laura Ensor 
and E. Bartow. With 104 Illustrations from de- 
signs by BiELER, CoNCONi and Myrbach. 12mo, 
paper, $1.50 ; half leather, $2.25. 

** The sureness, lightness, and dtftness of Daudet^ s art, his 
constant and exquisite sympathy with nature . . . make his 
writings the source of a pleasure that must express itself, if aJt 
all, in enthusiastic hyperbole."— Bosi^v Advertiser. 



A stirring story for Boys. 

^ %OUGH SHAKING. 
By George Macdonald. With 12 ,f uU-page Illus- 
trations fron designs by W. Parkinson. 12mo, 
cloth, $1.50. 

Narrates the adventures of an English lad who lost his par- 
ents in an earthquake in Italy. 

SISTER PHILOMENE. 
By Edmond and Jules de Gonoouet. Translated by 
Laura Ensor. With 70 Illustrations from designs 
by BiELER. 12mo, paper, $1.50 ; half leather, $2.25. 

^*'A profoundly simple, profoundly pathetic tragedy, exquis- 
itely drawn and shaded."— Chicaqo Times. 

"DISCOyERIES AND INl^ENTIONS OF THE 

U^INETEENTH CENTURY. 
By Robert Routledgb, B. Sc, F. C. S. New Edi- 
tion. With numerous Illustrations. 8vo, cloth, $3. 

This edition is brought down to the current year, and inr 
dudes, among other fresh matter, descriptions qf the Forth 
Bridge, the Eifel Tower, and the Manchester Ship Canal. 

CHIVALRY. 

By Leon Gautier. Transited by Henry Frith. 

With numerous Illustrations. 8vo, cloth, $2.50. 

An attractii>ely-written account of the origin, obligations, 
and curious customs of the ^^ knightly age.^^ 

SHIPWRECKS AND T>IS ASTERS AT SEA. 
By W. H. G. Kingston. New Edition. With 180 
Illustrations. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

A vivid picture of the perils qf the deep and the life qf cast- 
aways ; full of startling incidents and hair-breadth escapee. 

KATE GREENAWAYS JILMANACK 
FOR 1891. 
Printed in colors by Edmund Evans. Boards, 25 
cents; torchoi^, 50 cents; calf, $1.00. 

" The daintiest book of the year. . . . falls behind none 
qf its predecessors in delicacy, r^nement, and picturesque 
^«rt."— Christiah Union. 



For sale by all Booksellers, or sent by mail, postpaid, on receipt of the advertised price, by the Publishers, 

GEORGE ROUTLEDGE & SONS, Limited, 

No. 9 LAFAYETTE PLACE, NEW YORK. 

Digitized by V:iOOQIC 



1890.] 



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HOLIDAY EDITIONS. 



%OMOLA. 



In placing on the market this superb two-volume edition of George Eliot's masterpiece, containing sixty etch- 
ings and photo-etchings printed in a variety of delicate tints, we feel that we have atteiupted and succeeded in 
giving the public the finest edition of this great historic story of Florentine life ever produced in any form. 

Two vols., white vellum cloth, red and gold, 86.00. 

T^MO LA. —Edition de Luxe. 

Limiled to 250 copies. This large paper edition, containing sixty-two plates printed on Imperial Japanese paper, 
is bound in full vellum, illuminated in gold and colors. Two vols., full vellum, red, blue and gold, $15.00. 

Owing to the limited number published^ all orders should be sent in as early as possible^ as the edition will be 
exhausted before the holidays. 

GOUPIL'S TARIS SAL