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i-P3 



THE DIALECT 



OF THE 



ENGLISH GYPSIES 



BY 



B. C. SMART, M.D., & H. T. CROFTON. 



SECOND EDITION. 
REVISED AND GREATLY ENLARGED. 



LONDON : 

ASHER AND CO., 

13, BEDFORD STREET, CO VENT GARDEN. 

1875. 

{All Rii^hts 'Reserved,) 






653987 



' • - - V .. 












TO 

DR. ALEXANDRE G. PASPATI, 

OF CONSTANTINOPLE, AUTHOR OF 

"ixUDES SUR LES TCHINGHIANES DE l' EMPIRE OTTOMAN," 

IN TOKEN OF THEIR HIGH APPRECIATION 

OF HIS VALUABLE WORK, 

AND IN ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF THE GREAT ASSISTANCE 

THEY HAVE DERIVED THEREFROM 

IN PROSECUTING KINDRED RESEARCHES, 

THIS MONOGRAPH, 

ON THE DIALECT OF THE ENGLISH GYPSIES, 

IS WITH HIS KIND PERMISSION, 
INSCRIBED BY 

THE AUTHORS. 



NOTE ON ERRATA. 



The critical reader is particularly referred to the 
list of " Corrigenda " at the end of this volume, to 
rectify various typographical and other inaccuracies 
which have been inadvertently overlooked in revising 
the proofs. 



PREFACE. 



LITTLE requires to be said by way of preface to 
the present work, unless it be in reference to its 
conjoint authorship. Although termed a Second Edition, 
and so far as one of its authors is concerned being but 
an extension of his previously published researches, yet 
it is far from being a richauffS of a prior publication. 
It has received such additions to its material, and under- 
gone such changes in its arrangement, that we think it 
may fairly be described, m the prevalent language of the 
day, as having passed through a process of evolution 
from a lower to a higher stage of development. The 
infusion into the work of fresh blood, and the contact 
with younger enthusiasm, have stirred a somewhat stag- 
nating interest, and awakened a zymotic activity, which 
have led to combined and successful efforts to obtain 
further facts to fill former vacancies. 

From a critical point of view, a book is apt to suffer 
from the confusion of style and want of unity which are 
the almost necessary features of literary partnership. 
Such considerations, however, are of little moment in 
connection with a scientific treatise which depends for 
its value, not upon manner, but upon matter. There are 
even in questions of fact positive advantages to be gained 
by collaboration, and notably the increased authority 



VI PREFACE. 

which a statement derives from the corroboration of a 
second observer. Accordingly, we have in most instances 
carefully tested each other's results before adopting them 
as our own. 

In the following pages we have endeavoured accurately 
to record facts as we found them, and to present them to 
our readers untinctured by the personal medium through 
which they are transmitted. Whatever be the merits or 
defects of our undertaking, we claim an equal share of 
the praise or blame which may be bestowed upon it. 

BATH C. SMART. 

HENRY THOMAS CROFTON. 

Manchester, 

June 15M, 1874. 



INTRODUCTION. 



IN the year 1861 a short paper on the "Language of 
the English Gypsies" was read by one of the authors 
of the present work before the Ethnological Section of 
the British Association, then holding its annual meeting 
at Manchester. This paper was chiefly based upon a 
vocabulary which was submitted to the inspection of the 
members of the Section, and which the author, at that 
time a very young man engaged in the study of medi- 
cine, had himself collected in the tents of various Gypsy 
tribes. Subsequently this vocabulary was presented to the 
London Philological Society, in conjunction with some 
remarks upon Grammar, and is to be found printed in its 
Transactions for the year 1863, where it is entitled "The 
Dialect of the English Gypsies, by Bath C. Smart, M.D." 
Since the publication of this contribution towards a fuller 
knowledge of English Romanes, little has been written 
on the subject in this country of any scientific preten- 
sion, until the recent works of Borrow and Leland issued 
from the press. Both these writers have dealt with Gypsy 
topics in their own peculiar way. The picturesque man- 
nerism of Mr. Borrow's well-known style, his roving ex- 
perience, and evident sympathy with Bohemian life and 
character, impart a charm t6 all his works quite inde- 
pendent of their linguistic value. The latest production 



Vlll INTRODUCTION. 

of his pen is the first systematic treatise he has written 
on the English Gypsy dialect, which is only referred to 
casually in his previous publications. Whatever be the 
judgment passed upon his labours from a philological 
point of view, to him must be conceded the crown as the 
facile princeps of English Gypsy writers. His infectious 
enthusiasm awakens in the hearts of even staid, respect- 
able readers a dangerous longing for the freedom of the 
wilds ; and disposes them to admire, if not to emulate, 
the example of the Oxford scholar, whose romantic story 
Mr. Matthew Arnold has commemorated in elegant verse. 
He, chafing within the "studious walls" of his college, 
sick of the culture "which gives no bliss," at length broke 
through the restrictipns and conventional proprieties of 
his stately Alma Mater, and, yielding to the "free on- 
ward impulse" of a nomadic nature, 

" One summer mom forsook 
His fiiends, and went to learn the Gypsy lore, 
And roamed the world with that wild brotherhood, 
And came, as most men deemed, to little good." 

• 

Mr. Leland in his work has subordinated the scientific 
to the popular element; and in so doing has evoked, as 
he probably intended, a wider interest in his subject than 
if he had confined his remarks within severer limits. 

The books of both these authors will well repay the 
perusal of those interested in Gypsy literature, but still 
neither of them has exhausted the material to be obtained 
by a diligent investigator in the same field of research. 
Much good grain yet remains to be gathered in before 
the harvest be completed, and the record of this remark- 
able race be written in its full entirety. Here lies the 
raison (Titre of our own little treatise. We believe we 
have new matter to place before our readers, having col- 



INTRODUCTION. IX 

lected sufficient data to warrant us in attempting, what 
has not been done before in this country, a tolerably 
complete exposition of the grammatical forms and con- 
struction of the 'deepest' extant English Romanes, 
namely, that spoken by the oldest members of the 
families most renowned among the Gypsies themselves for 
a knowledge of their ancient tongue. 

These 'fathers in Israel/ the 'jinomeskros' or pundits 
of their tribe, are well acquainted with words and idioms 
which are unfamiliar to their sons, and will be almost 
unintelligible to th^ generation which shall come after 
them. Little else than bare root-words are to be ob- 
tained from the modernized Gypsy of the period ; but in 
, conversing with his patriarchal sire, 

" Whose spirit is a chronicle 
Of strange and occult and forgotten things," 

we have often been rewarded by hearing archaic terms 
and obsolete inflexions which, like the bones and eggs 
of the Great Auk, -or the mummified fragments of a Dodo, 
are the sole relics of extinct forms. These need to be 
eagerly listened for and carefully treasured as the broken 
utterances of an expiring language. 

Among these conservators of ancient ways, we have 
met with no Gypsy anywhere who can be compared with 
our friend Sylvester Boswell, for purity of speech and 
idiomatic style. No 'posh-and-posh* mumper is he, but a 
genuine specimen of a fine old 'Romani chal' — a regular 
blue-blooded hidalgo — his father a Boswell, his mother 
a Heme — his pedigree unstained by base 'gaujo* admix- 
ture. We have been especially indebted to him both for 
his willingness to impart information and for the intelli- 
gence which has enabled him satisfactorily to elucidate 
several doubtful points in the languag^e. We mention his 



X INTRODUCTION. 

name here with emphasis, because he himself wishes for 
some public acknowledgment of his services, and because 
we have pleasure in claiming for him a 'double first' in 
classical honours, as a Romanes scholar of the 'deepest' 
dye. Sylvester habitually uses in his conversation what 
he calls the "double (i^,, inflected) words," and prides 
himself on so doing. He declares that he speaks just 
like his father and mother did before him, but that many 
of the younger folk around him do not understand him 
when he uses the old forms current in his early days. 
According to him, these degenerate scions of an ancient 
stock only speak the " dead {i,e,y uninflected) words," and 
say, when at a loss for an expression, " Go to Wester, — 
he speaks dictionary." He affirms that none can use the 
double words like some of the Hemes and Boswells ; that 
most of the old-fashioned 'Romani chals' are either dead 
or have left England for America or elsewhere; but that 
nevertheless some few remain scattered over the country, 
though even they have lost and forgotten a great deal 
through constant intercourse with other Gypsies who only 
speak the broken dialect. To tell the truth. Wester him- 
self occasionally lapses from his lofty pedestal, and we 
have noted from his lips examples of very dog- Romanes. 
He would, however, often recover himself from these slips, 
and arrest our reporting pencil in mid-career with " Stop, 
don't put that down!" and, after thinking for a moment, 
would tell us the same thing in 'deep' Romanes, or even 
find on further reflection "in the lowest deep a deeper 
still." 

There are several dialects of the Anglo-Romanes. 
Sylvester Boswell recounts six: ist, that spoken by the 
New Forest Gypsies, having Hampshire for its head- 
quarters ; 2nd, the South-Eastem, including Kent and the 



INTRODUCTION. XI 

neighbourhood ; 3rd, the Metropolitan, that of London 
and its environs; 4th, the East Anglian, extending over 
Norfolk, Suffolk, Cambs, Lincolnshire, Northampton, and 
Leicestershire; Sth, that spoken in the 'Korlo-tem,' or 
Black Country, having Birmingham for its capital; 6th, 
the Northern. We do not altogether agree with this 
classification, but it is interesting as a Gypsy's own, and 
we give it for what «it is worth. 

In addition, there is the Kirk Yetholm of Scotch Gypsy 
dialect, which is very corrupt, and anything but copious. 
Lastly, there is the Welsh Gypsy dialect spoken by the 
Woods, Williamses, Joneses, etc., who have a reputation 
for speaking 'deep,' but .who mix Romani words with 
'Lavenes,' i,e,, the language of the Principality. 

For practical purposes, the English Gypsy tongue may 
be conveniently considered as consisting of two great 
divisions, viz., — 

1st. The Common wide-spread corrupt dialect, "quod 
semper, quod ubique, quod ab omnibus," containing but 
few inflexions, and mixed to a greater or less extent with 
English, and conforming to the English method in the 
arrangement of the sentences. This is the vulgar tongue 
in every-day use by ordinary Gypsies.' 

2nd. The *Deep' or old dialect, known only to a few 
aged Gypsies, which contains many inflexions and idioms ; 
which has its own *ordo verborum;' which closely re- 
sembles the principal Continental Gypsy dialects, e.g,y the 
German, Turkish, etc.; and which contains a minimum 
admixture of English words. This last, which will soon 
cease to exist, is par excellence the Gypsy language, of 
which the first is merely the corruption. 

Dialectical variations, whether local or tribal, un- 
doubtedly exist, and may perhaps help to explain the 



Xll INTRODUCTION. 

discrepancies to be found in the writings of the different 
authors who have treated on the language of the English 
Gypsies. We think there is now sufficient evidence to 
enable us to estimate the nature and extent of topo- 
graphical peculiarities. The materials most available for 
this purpose are : ist, Dr. Richard Bright's imperfect and 
scanty, but at the same time valuable, examples of the 
dialect of the Norwood Gypsies, published in 1818; 2nd, 
Colonel Harriot's very excellent vocabulary obtained from 
the New Forest Gypsies, published in 1830; 3rd, our own 
vocabulary, principally collected in the North of England, 
but partly in the Eastern Counties, first published in 1863; 
4th, the recent work of Mr. Leland, who appears to have 
conducted his researches principally in and around London, 
which may be taken to illustrate the peculiarities of the 
Metropolitan district, published in 1873 ; lastly, the 
"Lavo-lil" of Mr. Borrow, published in 1874, who, being 
an old resident in Norfolk, might be regarded as the 
exponent of the East Anglian dialect, were it not for the 
intrinsic evidence in his writings that many of his words 
have been procured from various and wide-spread sources. 
A comparative examination of the data furnished by these 
works, and our own additional experience, strongly in- 
cline us to the opinion that mere locality has very little 
influence in the formation or limitation of a genuine 
Gypsy dialect. The 'deeper' (/.^., purer) Romanes a 
Gypsy speaks, irrespective of his whereabouts, the nearer 
he approximates to one common standard. The language 
of Dr. Bright's Norwood Gypsies in 181 8 closely resembles 
that of our Lancashire Boswells in 1874. 

Posh- Romanes, the corrupt broken dialect, is of course 
intermixed with provincialisms, and this varies in different 
parts of England. If an infusion of broad Yorkshire be 



INTRODUCTION. xiii 

the excipient, the resultant mixture is not the same as 
when the vehicle is East Anglian. Seeing that Gypsies 
speak English like that of the surrounding population, it 
must happen that in turning English colloquialisms into 
Romanes, they follow the prevailing idiom of the district 
they frequent, and thus may arise special modes of ex- 
pression. Romanes melts into the shape of the mould 
into which it is cast; or, to change the metaphor, its 
stream may be said to take the course of the channel, 
and to become impregnated with the soil of the country, 
through which it flows. 

Our conclusion, then, is this : that local colouring does 
not affect Romanes proper, but only the medium in which 
it is conveyed. 

But if we attach little importance to territorial variation, 
we are inclined to admit the probability of there being 
tribal differences of dialect. Whether these depend on 
the greater or less time which has elapsed since the sepa- 
ration of particular tribes from their Continental brethren, 
or whether on original and longer-standing peculiarities, 
are only matters for conjecture. It is likely that the 
Gypsies did not invade this island in a body, but landed 
in successive detachments, and thus a straggling immi- 
gration may have extended over a considerable period, 
and in that case the latest arrivals might be expected to 
speak the deepest Romanes. At all events, it is now a 
fact that certain Gypsy families speak their own lang^uage 
better than others ; and words and idiomatic expressions 
habitually used in one tent may never be heard in another. 

Dr. Paspati, in his " Memoir on the Tchingiands of the 
Ottoman Empire," minutely discriminates between the 
idioms spoken respectively by the ' Sddentaires' and the 
* Nomades.' The words in these two dialects, as he gives 



XVI INTRODUCTION. 

which the country affords. With his keen senses alive to 

every external impression, he feels that 

" 'Tis sweet to see the evenuig star appear ; 
rris sweet to listen as the night winds creep 
From leaf to leaf;'' 

he dreamily hears the distant bark of the prowling fox 
and the melancholy hootings of the wood-owls ; he marks 
the shriek of the " night-wandering weasel," and the rustle 
> of the bushes, as some startled forest-creature plunges into 
deeper coverts ; or perchance the faint sounds from a se- 
questered hamlet reach his ears, or the still more remote 
hum of a great city. Cradled from his infancy in such 
haunts as these, *' places of nestling green for poets made," 
and surely for Gypsies too, no wonder if, 'after the fitful 
fever of his town-life, he sleeps well, with the unforgotten 
and dearly-loved lullabies of his childhood soothing him 

to rest, — 

" Beatus ille, qui procul negotiis, 

Ut prisca gens mortalium." 

Gypsies are the Arabs of pastoral England — the Bedouins 
of our commons and woodlands. In these days of material 
progress and much false refinement, they present the 
singular spectacle of a race in our midst \^ho regard 
with philosophic indifference the much-prized comforts of 
modern civilization, and object to forego their simple life 
• in close contact with Nature, in order to engage in the 
struggle after wealth and personal aggrandizement. These 
people, be it remembered, are not the outcasts of society; 
they voluntarily hold aloof from its crushing organization, 
and refuse to wear the bonds it imposes. The sameness 
and restraints of civil life; the routine of business and 
labour ; " the dull mechanic pacings to and fro ; " the dim 
skies, confined air, and circumscribed space of towns ; the 
want of freshness and natural beauty ; — these conditions of 



INTRODUCTION. XVli 

existence are for them intolerable, and they escape from 
them whenever they can. As in the present so in past 
time, their history for centuries may be written in the 
words of the Psalmist : " They wandered in the wilderness 
in a solitary way ; they found no city to dwell in." 

If we extend our survey beyond mere provincial limits, 
and examine the English Gypsy dialect in relation to 
geographical variation, we find that it has been influenced 
by the languages of different countries in a similar way 
to that described as operating over district areas. 

Dr. Franz Miklosich of Vienna, the well-known Sla- 
vonic scholar, has made a comparative study of the great 
geographical varieties of the Gypsy dialect in Europe. 
In the vocabulary of the Anglo-Scottish G3q)sies, he finds 
Greek, Slavonic, Roumanian, Magyar, German, and French 
ingredients. He specifies thirty Slavonic and about an 
equal number of Greek words, which constitute the most 
important foreign elements in Anglo-Romanes; and con- 
cludes that the Gypsies entered England after they had 
sojourned among Greeks, Slaves, Magyars, Germans, and 
French. 

But if the Anglo-Gypsies be regarded as travellers who 
arrived at their destination stained with the dust of the 
road along which their journey had lain, a special inte- 
rest has since attached to them on account of their more 
complete insulation in this sea-girt land than elsewhere, 
and their long separation from the cognate tribes of the 
Continent. It is curious to note in Anglo-Romanes the 
rarity or absence of certain words which seem to be in 
common use in other countries; and, conversely, to find that 
our Gypsies have retained some words which are not met 
with in any other European Gypsy dialect. These will be 

especially referred to in a subsequent page. 

b 



XVlll INTRODUCTION. 

A detailed analysis of the English Gypsy Vocabulary 
shows that the number of roots is comparatively small. 
But it is interesting to observe, as illustrating the natural 
growth of all languages, how in these few elements resides 
a potentiality which renders the language equal to express 
the simple wants and ideas of a nomadic people. A 
Gypsy knows how to make the best use of his limited 
stock of words, and is rarely at a loss for an expression. 
He is an adept at extemporary word-building. When 
requisite, he compounds and coins new names and phrases 
with great facility; and not in an altogether arbitrary 
fashion, but according to established usage, so that the 
fresh word sounds natural, and conveys a meaning to the 
cars of his fellows, hearing it perhaps for the first time. 
His comrades sit in judgment on the production, and after 
a critical examination, "welcome the little stranger," and 
commend it as 'a good lav,' or crush it in its birth, and 
pronounce it to be * not tatcho,' if it doesn't come up to 
average excellence. Language is plastic in the Gypsy's 
mouth, and allows itself to be easily moulded into new 
forms. In this readiness of speech he presents a striking 
contrast to the slowness and poverty of utterance which 
characterizes the ordinary English rustic. If a Gypsy 
cannot find or frame a word to express a particular sense, 
he often accomplishes his end by means of a paraphrase. 
However fluent a * rokeromengro,' or conversationalist, an 
outsider may be, the tongue of the alien is apt to stumble 
over the blanks which abound in the language and bar 
his progress, and he is forced to throw in English words 
to fill up the vacuities; but a knowing old 'Romani chal' 
adroitly doubles, and circumvents most such difficulties in 
a periphrasis, without extraneous aid or breaking the con- 
tinuity of his 'rokeropen.' In these linguistic predica- 



INTRODUCTION. XIX 

ments the *gaujo*s* extremity is the Gypsy s opportunity. 
The superior power of the skilful craftsman is best shown 
in the way he overcomes a defect in his tools. Like 
Paganini playing on one string, the Gypsy elicits from his 
imperfect instrument notes and phrases which a 'gaujo' 
in vain attempts to extract. 

Place an English dictionary alongside of the Gypsy 
vocabulary, and on comparison many of our words will 
be found to have no corresponding Romani ones to ex- 
press their meaning ; but let it not be too hastily assumed 
that in such a case a Gypsy is unable to obviate the 
deficiency. " There is always a way of saying everything 
in Romanes, sir," a Gypsy once remarked to us, "if you 
can only find it out." 

For example : the Gypsy has no single word answer- 
ing to the English verb * to untie.' If he wishes to give 
the direction, * Untie the string,' he says, * Mook o dori 
peero,' i.e., Let the string loose. 

There is no word for * nephew' ; but a Gypsy expresses 
the relationship * He is my nephew' by reversing the order 
of ideas, and saying 'Lesko koko shorn,' />., I am his 
uncle. 

In further illustration of this usage, we append a series 
of questions and the Romanes answers : — 

Q. How would you say you were faint ? 

Ans. Mandi shorn naflo pensa jawin' to sooto, — i,e.y I am ill like 

going to sleep (becoming unconscious). 
Q. How would you say *I humbled myself? 
Ans. Kairddm mi kokkero choorokond, — i.e., I made myself poor 

(or lowly). 
Q How do you say * Divide it' ? 
Ans. Del mandi posh ta too lei posh, — i.e,. Give me half, and do 

you take half. 
Q. How can you ask for a spade ? 



XX INTRODUCTION. 

Ans. Lei the kowa to chin a hev adr^ o poov, — i.e.. Get the thing 
for cutting a hole in the ground (for delving). 

Q. What is ' to pray to God * ? 

Ans. To del kooshto lavaw kater mi Doovel, — i.e.. To give good 
words to God. 

Q. What is ' to answer him'? 

Ans. To del lav lesti, i,e,, — to give word to him. — (Comp. with 
Germ, ant-worten.) 

Some of the descriptive definitions which take the place 
of a substantive designation are fanciful and poetical. 
Stars are * Doods adr^ mi Doovelesko kerl/ i:e,, Lights in 
my God's home. Thunder is ' Mi Doovelesko Godli/ i.e., 
My God's noise (or voice). Lightning is ' Mi Doovelesko 
yog/ ie.y My God*s fire. A Gypsy never mentions the 
name of God without prefixing * mi/ after the manner of 
the opening invocation in Our Lord's Prayer. 

The Gypsy word for a dog is *jookel/ which becomes 
a generic term in constructing names for allied species 
which have no proper Romani designation. The Gypsy 
unwittingly adopts a strictly scientific nomenclature not 
unlike the binomial system of Linnseus. Thus : — 

Jookel ... ,.. ... = Canis familiaris (the dog). 

Lolo-veshkenojookel — the) ^ . , /i ^ v 
, , > = Cams vulpes (the fox), 

red wood-dog ) 

Borohollomengro jookel — \ 

the great rapacious (or > = Canis lupus (the wolf). 

devouring) dog ... / 

Naturalists have given the jackal (Canis aureus) a specific 
name referring to its colour, which is analogous to the 
Gypsy term for a fox, expressing both colour and habitat. 
Another instance of the Gypsy's perception of analogy 
(whether scientific or culinary) may be taken from the 
vegetable kingdom. The Romani word for cabbage is 



INTRODUCTION. XXI 

'shok/ but this is also applied as a generic name to the 
watercress, which is called ' panengri-shok/ /.^., water- 
cabbage or water-wort. This appellation is quite correct, 
seeing that cabbages and cresses are closely related 
botanically, both belonging to the same natural order of 
plants — the Cruciferae. 

It is sometimes difficult to discover from its etymology 
how a particular word originated. We were puzzled to 
understand why 'lilengro/ from 'HI,' a book, should 
come to mean a star, until a Gypsy suggested the reason. 
It has an astrological significance, and refers to the prac- 
tice of fortune-tellers and nativity-casters, who profess to 
read the heavens, to decipher the book of fate, in which 
the secrets of the unknown future are written in the 
language of the stars. 

There are a few words, of which 'beshopen' may be 
taken as a good sample, which are singularly appropriate 
translations from other languages. Our word 'sessions,' 
from Lat. *sedo,' to sit, is represented in Romanes by 
'beshopen,' from 'besh,' to sit. We can hardly suppose 
that uneducated men like Gypsies were acquainted with 
the primary meaning, much less the Latin derivation, of 
'sessions,* and yet its analogy to 'beshopen' is so exact 
that it can scarcely be attributed to chance. 

Again, 'policeman,* from 7r6\^9, a city, is turned by 
Gipsy tongues into 'gavengro,' from 'gav,' a town. So 
too 'potatoes' become 'poovengries* from 'poov,' earth, 
which recalls to mind the German 'erdbime,' and the 
French 'pomme de terre.' 

The foregoing examples will suffice to convey a general 
notion of the Gypsies' various methods of procedure in 
manipulating their mother-tongue to meet the exigencies 
of circumstances. 



XXll INTRODUCTION. 

Slang and cant words peculiar to each country have 
become incorporated in the different Gypsy dialects, 
sometimes probably through a want of discrimination on 
the part of the reporter, who hearing them used has con- 
founded them with the genuine Gypsy tongue. Most 
English Gypsies distinguish with great nicety between 
Romanes and the Cant tongue, in the use of which latter 
the greater part of them are likewise proficient. " That's 
not a *tatcho lav,'" is a frequent Gypsy comment on hear- 
ing a canting phrase imported into a conversation which 
is being professedly carried on in their own proper dialect. 
Cant words are intermixed with Gypsy in the same way, 
and on exactly the same principle, as ordinary or pro- 
vincial English, but to nothing like the same extent. 
Possibly some words of this class may have inadvertently 
found their way into our vocabulary ; but if so, they do 
not occur in Hotten's Slang Dictionary (London, 1864), 
and we leave them to be relegated to their proper place 
by those who may detect their real character. 

Before concluding these introductory remarks, it might 
be expected of us to say something on the Ethnology of 
the Gypsy race, but to expatiate on this subject would be 
beyond the scope of a strictly linguistic treatise. The 
Gypsy language is a member of the great Aryan family, 
and has long ago been ascertained to be closely allied to 
the Sanskrit. It is for scholars better versed than our- 
selves in the intricacies of comparative philology to de- 
termine to which of the Indian dialects in particular the 
Gypsy tongue is most nearly related. Pott, Ascoli, Paspati, 
and others, have severally helped to solve *the Eastern 
question' by tracing the homologies and affinities of the 
Romani vocabulary. Our first list of words, already re- 
ferred to as published in the Transactions of the London 



INTRODUCTION. XXlll 

Philological Society, had the advantage of being over- 
looked by the Rev. George Small, for many years a 
resident in India, who corrected and added to the column 
of Oriental derivations. We have not attempted anything 
of the kind in the present work, which aims at being 
nothing more than a succinct exposition of the English 
dialect of the Gypsy language, as we have actually heard 
it spoken. 



GYPSY GRAMMAR. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE DIALECT. 

The presence of Gypsies in Scotland can be traced as far 
back as 1506, (Simson's "History of the Gypsies," p, g8,) 
and in England as far back as 1512 (" Notes and Queries," 
1st Series, voL xi,, p. 326).* Down to 1784, various statutes 
and authors mention that these foreigners spoke a language 
of their own, but we have not been able to learn that any 
examples are extant of earlier date than 1780. 

About the year 1783, greater interest in the face and 
their language seems to have been aroused in this country, 
partly by the repeal (23 George III., c* 51,) of the statutes, 
rigorous in words, but obsolete irt practice, against them, 
and partly by the publication in that year of the well- 
known German work of Grellman (translated into English 
by Raper, 1787), 

Dating from 1780, we have several collections and speci- 
mens of this dialect, of more or less value, which we have 
arranged chronologically as follows : — • 

1780. — A collection taken down from the mouths of Gypsies in 
} Somersetshire, by a clergyman resident there in 1780— 
/ Edited, with notes, by W. Pinkerton, Esq., F.L.S. London, 
Rotten, 1865. (Advertised, but never published.) 

♦ On the authority of " The Art of Juggling," etc., by S. R. ; sec 
also Bright's Travels ipos^), pp. 537, 53&, and the authorities there 
cited. 



2 GYPSY GRAMMAR. 

lyg^. — Marsden, William — "Archaeologia," voL vii., London, 
1785, pp. 382 — 386. Twenty-eight words, and the numerals 
from I to 10, are given, and are stated to have been collected 
several years before 1784. 

1784. — Bryant, Jacob — "Archaeologia," vol. vii., pp. 387 — 391. 
A considerable vocabulary arranged in the alphabetical order 
of the English words, and also stated to have been collected 
several years before 1784. 

1784. — "The Annual Register," p. 83, Antiquities. — Bryant's 
vocabulary repeated. 

1784. — Richardson, Capt. David — "Asiatic Researches," vol. 
vii., p. 474. — Twenty-seven of the wotds are taken from 
Bryant's vocabulary. 

181 2-13. — " Christian Guardian," — A conversation by a Clergyman 
with a G)Tpsy named Boswell. See Hoyland (next), p. 189. 

1 81 6. — Hoyland, John — " Historical Survey of the Customs, etc., 
of the Gypsies," — York. Predari mentions an edition of 1 832. 
Page 142, Comparative vocab. of several words and numerals, 
apparently taken from Marsden; p. 188, Specimens of their 
words, procured by friends. 

18 18. — Bright, Dr. Richard — "Travels from Vienna through 
Hungary," — Edinburgh. The Appendix (p. Ixxix) contains a 
comparative vocab. of the English, Spanish, and Hungarian 
Gypsy dialects, as well as sentences in each of those dialects. 
A very valuable collection. 

18 1 9. — Irvine, , — "On the Similitude between the Gj^sy and 

Hindi Languages." — Transactions of the Literary Society of 
Bombay, 181 9. 

18 1 9. — Harriot, Col. John Staples — "Observations on the 
Oriental Origin of the Romnichal." — Roy. Asiatic Soc. of 
Great Britain, vol. ii., London, 1830, pp. 518 — 588, read 
5th Dec, 1829, and 2nd Jan., 1830; Predari, pp. 213, 258, 
says that the paper was read before the Society of Calcutta, 
1 2th April, 1822; Harriot, p. 520, says he collected his 
vocabulary in the north of Hampshire, 1819-1820. The 
vocab. is arranged in the alphabetical order of the English 
words, and is an important addition to all preceding it. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 3 

1832. — Crabb, James — "The Gypsies* Advocate," — London, 
Nisbet Westley. 3rd edit, sm. 8vo, price ^s, 6d, Page 14, 
Vocab. of 26 words besides numerals i — 10, and 20, taken 
from Grellman, Hoyland, and Richardson ; p. 27, pizharris^ in 
debt ; artmee deviiiesty, God bless you. 

I S3 5. —James, G. R R*—*' The Gipsy," 3 vols., London. Vol. 1, 
p. 36, gazo^ peasant ; raye, gentleman. 

1836. — Roberts, Samuel — ** The Gypsies, their Origin, etc." 
London. 4th edit (1839), i2mo; 5th edit (1842), post 
8vo, Longman, price 10s, 6^.; pp. 97 — 100. List of words 
collected by his daughters from Clara Hearn. 

1841.— Borrow, George — "The Zincaii, or Gypsies in Spain,'* 
vol. i., pp. 16 — 28, gives an account of the English Gypsies. 
The vocabulary (vol. ii.) gives one or two words ; and the 
Appendix to vol. ii. of subsequent editions (1843, 1846, 
1 86 1,) gives a short dialogue with a Gj^sy, and translation 
of the Lord's Prayer and Creed, in English Romanes, varying 
almost with each edition. 

1841.— Baird, Rev. John — "Report to the Scottish Church 
Society," printed 1841 ; collected 181 7 — 1831. 

1844.— Pott, Dr. A. F. — " Die Zigeuner in Europa und Asien,'* 
2 vols. Halle. This profound^ learned work incorporates 
almost all the foregoing vocabularies. 

1 85 1.— Borrow, George— -" Lavengro/* etc., 3 vols., containing 
many words scattered throughout. 

185 1. — "Illustrated London News," — Gypsy Experiences by a 
Roumany Rei ; 13th Dec, pp. 655, 715, 777. 

1856. — "Illustrated London News,** — "The Roumany-chi, of 
Gypsies j " 20th Sept, p. 304 ; apparently by the same 
writer as the last This article was reprinted separately at 
Bath, in 1870, by J. and J. Keene. 

1857.— Borrow, George — " Romany Rye,** a Sequel to " Laven- 
gro," 2 vols., containing many words scattered throughout. 

1858.— Norwood, Rev. T. W.— " On the Race and Language of 
the Gypsies "—Report of the British Association, etc., Leeds, 
p. 195 of Transactions of the Sections. 



►•-'• 



4 GYPSY GRAMMAR. 

i860.— Smart, Dr. B. C. — "The Dialect of the English Gypsies." 
Published for the English Philological Society, by Asher and 
Co., Berlin, 1863, in the Society's Transactions, and sepa- 
rately. The vocab. was begun in i860, and some remarks on 
the dialect were printed in the British Association Trans- 
actions, 186 r, and Trans. Ethnolog. Soc, vol. ii. 

1862. — Borrow, George — ** Wild Wales," 3 vols. ; chapter xcviii. 
contains a conversation with an English Gypsy. From this 
and Mr. Borrow's preceding works, nearly 300 words (including 
varieties of spelling) may be collected. From passages in 
chapters xiv. and xcviii., and on p. 233 of his " Lavo-lil,*' 
(post), it would seem that the author considered Wales without 
a Gypsy inhabitant, which is by no means the case. 

1865. — SiMSON, Walter — " A History of the Gypsies, with speci- 
mens of their Language,'* — London, Sampson, Lowe, and Co. 
From a passage on p. 466, the work seems to have been in 
MS. before 1840. Most of the Gypsy words were republished 
in ** The Adventures of Bampfylde Moore Carew," London, 
W. Tegg, 1873 ; and several of them are quoted by Dr. 
Paspati. 

1872. — " The Times " (newspaper), Oct 11 — 17, 2nd column, p. i, 
an advertisement in English Romanes, copied as a curiosity 
into other papers ; translated in ** Notes and Queries," 4th 
Series, vol. xi., p. 462, also in " Leland's English Gypsies," 
p. 184. 

1873. — "Zelda's Fortune," — "Comhill Magazine," vols. 27, 28,29. 
There are several words and sentences used in the course 
of the tale, the earlier ones resembling Hungarian rather 
than English Gypsy, but of these guesto^ p. 127, resembles 
Marsden's guesto, good = kooshto, 

1873. — Smith, Hubert — ** Tent-life with English Gypsies in 
Norway," — London, H. S. King and Co., price 2 is. Several 
words, etc., are scattered throughout, and on pp. 527 — 529 
is a comparative vocab. of the English dialect, and that of 
Norway as given by Sundt. 

1873. — MiKLosiCH, F. — "Uber die Mundarten und die Wander- 
ungen der Zigeuner Europas," iii., Wien, Gerold's Sohn, con- 



ETYMOLOGY, ETC. 5 

tains remarks on this dialect grounded on some of the fore- 
going works. 

1873. — Leland, Charles G. — "The English Gipsies and their 
Language." London, Triibner and Co., price is.dd. Very 
valuable, both as respects vocab., and a knowledge of 
customs, etc. 

1874, — Borrow, George — " Romano Lavo-hl, Wordbook of the 
Romany, or English Gypsy Language," — London, Murray, 
price \os. 6d., pp. 11— 101 ; vocab. not, however, exhaustive 
of the words used in this, or of those used in his other works. 

1874. — "The AthenjEum" (newspaper), No. 2426, April 25 — A 
Review of Sorrow's " Romano Lavo-lil." 

1874. — " The Academy "(newspaper). No. loi (new issue), June 13 
— A Review of Miklosich, Leland, and Sorrow's " Lavo-IL." 

In addition to the above, may be added " Notes and Queries," 
and Series, vol. xi., p. 129 ; p. 196, on Scotch Gypsies ; 4th 
Series, vol. xi., p. 443 ; p. 462, and elsewhere. 



ETYMOLOGY, etc. 



As far as possible, to each root-word is annexed the corre- 
sponding one in the Turkish, or Asiatic, Gypsy dialects, as 
given by Dr. Faspati in his " Etudes sur les Tchinghian^s," 
published in French, at Constantinople, in 1870. Where 
Dr. Paspati has afforded no comparison, we have had 
recourse to the German Gypsy dialect as given by Dr. 
Liebich in his " Die Zigeuner," etc., published in German, 
at Leipzig, in 1863. Further than this, we have in few 
instances deemed it advisable to attempt anything that 
can be more strictly called Etymology, as we could add 
nothing original in this respect to the labours of Dr. Pott, 
Dr. Paspati, and Sr. Ascoli, who have appended to almost 
every word the oriental word or words akin to it. 

The comparisons thus made will, it is hoped, add an 
additional interest to our work, as showing the resemblance 



6 GYPSY GRAMMAR. 

and difference in the two dialects, Turkish and English, 
after so long a separation as four centuries. We say four 
centuries, for Mr. Borrow in his "Lavo-lil," p. 212, asserts 
that the Gypsies first made their appearance in England in 
1480, though we are not aware of his authority. 

To those who, like M. Bataillard (" Les derniers travaux 
relatifs aux Boh^miens dans TEurope orientale," Paris, 
1872, pp. 47 — 53), lean to the theory of a long residence 
of the race in Turkey prior to a westerly drifting of these 
nomads, this comparison has, we venture to think, much to 
commend itself. 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 

To assist the pronunciation, we have endeavoured to 
adhere to a phonetic orthography, based on the Glossic 
system invented by Mr. A. J. Ellis, and used by the English 
Dialect Society and others. 

In it the vowel sounds are expressed and pronounced as 
follows :— 



Ai as in Bait. 


i 


as in 


Knit. 


a „ Gnat 


D 


» 


Coal. 


aa „ Baa^ 





>» 


Not. 


auy aWy as in Caul^ caiv. 


eu 


)i 


Feud. 


Final /, as ai in Bait. 


u 


» 


Nut. 


ee as in Beet. 


00 


M 


Cooly ox foot. 


e „ Net. 


oi 


» 


Foil, 


ei „ Heighf. 


ou 


» 


Foul, 



It must be borne in mind, however, that these sounds, 
and more especially the u sounds, vary according to the 
county or district of which the individual is a native. 

As to the consonants, the majority are pronounced as in 
English. We have discarded altogether the ambiguous c, 



ACCENT. 7 

and substituted k or s, according as c would take the hard 
or soft sound. Throughout the book 

Ch is to be pronounced as in Church. 

Sh „ „ „ ShirL 

Gy gh „ „ „ Go (never soft, as in gin), 

F „ „ „ For (never dull, as in of), 

Djydg „ „ „ Fudge, 

Besides these, there is a deep guttural sound, which we 
have represented by ;f, the sound being nearly that of ch 
in German. 



ACCENT. 

In the Turkish dialect, the accent is usually on the last 
syllable ; but if the word is inflected, or liable to inflection, 
the accent is placed on the first syllable of the inflection, eg,, 

Bar-Sy great. Gen. bar-hkoro ; pi. bar-^. 
BeshdvUy I sit ; besli^^lay He sits. 

Relics of this system are found in the old dialect of this 
country, eg.y 

BaurSy great; pi., baur^, 
Besh'OVUy I sit ; besh-^lay He sits. 

Words too ending in -htgrOy -iskrOy (elsewhere shown 
to be inflections,) invariably take the accent on the first 
syllable of those terminations, in both the old and new 
dialects. 

In the new dialect, dissyllables and trisyllables take an 
accent on the first syllable, and words of four or five syl- 
lables take an accent on the first and third, eg., 

BaurOy great Bhhto, saddle 

Bhigaloy diabolic Brisheno, rainy 



8 GYPSY GRAMMAR. 

B^romMgro, sailor S6vloh6lobefiy oath 

BSshom^ngrOf fiddler Tdssermfyigri^ frying-pan 

The above are only general rules. There are several 
exceptions. 



LETTER CHANGES, ELISIONS, etc. 

Interchanges of certain letters, initial or otherwise, 
frequently occur in Gypsy words, but always according to 
established rules, and this must be remembered in tracing 
their derivations. 

Interchanges take place between the following letters : 
K and H, K and P, K and T, K and F, K and ;)^, % and 
F, F and S, Sh and Dj, Sh and Ch, J and Y, D and B, 
B and V, V and W, L M N and R. 

Examples. 

K and H. 
Kol, Hoi, eat. Kdtcher, Hdtcher, burn, 

K and P. 
CMkni^ Chiifni, whip. 

K and T, 
K^hnij Tiishni^ basket. Kam, Tarn, sun. 

Ko6shkOy Kodskto, good. 

K and F. 
Jdrifa, Jdrika, apron. 

K and x- 
Ydrduka, yorjS'xa, apron. 

;f and F. 
Jorj6xay Jorj6fa, apron. 

F and S. 
Wdfedo, Wdsedo, bad. Ndsfelo, Ndfelo, ill. 

Sh and Dj. 
Kaish, Kaidfy silk. Minshy Mindj\ pudendum muliebre. 



I 



LETTER CHANGES, ELISIONS, ETC. 9 

Sh and Ch. 
Cheom, Shorn, moon. Chdrdoka, Shdrdoka, apron. 

J and Y. 
Jodkel, Ydkel, dog. J'^Jhlfli ydrdu%a, apron. 

D and B- 
LoSdni, Lodbni, harlot 

B and V. 
BSkocko, Vdkasko, lamb, Livena, Lihena, beer. 

V and W. 
Vdrdo, Wdrdo, cart. Vast, Wast, hand, 

L, M, N, R. 
Skirilo, Shilino, cold. Dinilo, Dinvero, fool. 

Soom, Soon, smell. Vdniso, Vdrtso, any. 

The English Gypsies are in the frequent habit of con- 
founding the liquids ; and Mr. Borrow has remarked the 
same of the Spanish Gitanos (" Zincali," vol. ii., p, 4, pre- 
ceding vocab.) According to Gilchrist {" Hind. Diet." vol. ii., 
1790, p. 489), the natives of Hindustan so confuse the use 
of the liquids L, N, and R, that it is often difficult to say 
which of those letters ought to be adopted in spelling. 

Besides this interchange of consonants, the Gypsies 
occasionally transpose them. 

Examples. 
Sdvbkol, SMverkon, to swear. 
Doomiksno, for Doom^sk'no, broken-backed. 
Skerdksno, for SherhKno, lawyer. 

The dialect is also remarkable for its systematic elision 
of the letter « in certain words. 





Examples. 




Adri 

Asm 


Tqrkish. 

Andri 
AngUl 


Meaning. 
Into 
Before 



lO 



GYPSY GRAMMAR. 



English. 


Turkish. 


Meaning. 


Hatiro 


Kluinro 


Sword 


Mdnro 


Manrd 


Bread 


Mdrikli 


Manrikli 


Cake 


Me&o 


Minrd 


My 


T^^ro 


Tinrd 


Thy 


Y6ra 


Anrd 


Egg 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 



Of the full forms, Mr. Borrow, in his " Lavo-lil,*' supplies 
us with ando, anglo, fnanro, manreckly, etc. 

Similar instances of this elision could be adduced in other 
dialects, but, so far as we are aware, not to the same extent 
as in this. 



ARTICLE. 

Definite. 

Dr. Paspati ("Tchinghian^s," 1870, p. 39) says the Turkish 
Gypsies have borrowed their article from the Greeks, and 
the Asiatic Gypsies have none; and further states that 
among the wandering tribes in Turkey the use of the article 
is less frequent than among the Christian (settled) Gypsies. 
Amongst the Turkish Gypsies, the article is — masculine o^ 
feminine i in the nominative, and e masculine and feminine 
in all other cases, of the singular ; and masculine and 
feminine in the nominative, and e masculine and feminine 
in all other cases, of the plural. 

The English Gypsies have a masculine definite article 0, 
and feminine i, but now hardly ever employ any other than 
the English word the, which they, like other foreigners, often 
pronounce de. Their own article, however, is preserved 
in certain phrases which have been retained in common 
use, e,g.f 

Paudel ipadni, Over the water (transportation). 



Dr. Bright, in his "Travels in Hungary," Edinburgh, 1818, 
Appendix, affords the following examples, obtained from 
a family of Gypsies residing at Norwood :— 
Pre si o kam, The sun is up. 
Le o gri. Catch the horse. 
O tascko wast. The right hand, 
Dalo giv, Gives the snow (it snows). 
In some families, from analogy to English, o is indeclinable, 
being used wherever the occurs, and irrespective of gender 
or case. 

The Definite article Is frequently omitted altogether, e.g., 
Boshdlaj^kfl, Barks (the) dc^, for The dog barks. 
Riserila gdiro. Trembles (the) man, for The man 

trembles. 
Choom see opr^, (The) Moon is up. 

Indefinite. 
The English Gypsies invariably use the English word a 
for the indefinite article, and say, eg., Mdndi diks a gdiro, 
not Mandi diks yek gairo, which would mean I see one man. 
In the old dialect this article is very frequently omitted 
entirely. Example, Dikdva gdiro, I see a man. 



NOUN. 
Genper. 
Some of the nouns have a masculine termination in 
-o, and a feminine in -/. There are also masculine nouns 
and feminine nouns which end in a variety of consonants 
and vowels, but usually the gender is determined by that 
of the corresponding English word, eg-. 

Masculines in -o, with corresponding feminlnes in -i, 

Ckdvo, boy Ckaiv)i, Chei, girl 

CMrikh, bird CUrikU, bird 



12 



GYPSY GRAMMAR. 



II 



tr 






I 
.1 



GairOy man 
GaajOy male Gentile 
PirinOf male sweetheart 
Rdkloy boy 
etc. 

Masculines in -o, 

BairdngrOy sailor 
BardngrOy stallion 
BdkromdngrOy shepherd 
Bodko, liver 
6^i^;^^, sack 
KdkOy uncle 
etc. 

Masculine. 

Chdovikdtty wizard 
Greiy horse 
(Jr<7z/, bull 
JoSkely dog 
KrdliSy king 
Manodshy man 
/?^/», husband 
etc. 



Gdifiy woman 
Gaiijiy female Gentile 
Piriniy female sweetheart 
Rdkliy girl 
etc. 

Feminines in -/. 

BeiHy aunt 
Bdotiy work 
Chdoriy knife 
Kdnniy hen 
Kekdvviy kettle 
Miifnbliy candle 
etc. 

Feminine. 

Chdofihdniy witch 
Grdsniy mare 
Grdvniy cow 
Jodkliy bitch 
Kralissiy queen 
Manodshniy woman 
Rdmniy wife 
etc. 



Z?a</, father 
/•tf/, brother 
/?^/, gentleman 



Irregular, 

Deiy mother 
Z'^^, sister 
Rduniy lady. 

Declension. 



To illustrate the declension, examples, from pp. 50, 51, 
of Dr. Paspati's " Tchinghian^s," are subjoined. 



Nom. O rakldy the boy 
Gen. e rakldskorOy of the boy 
Ace. e rakUsy the boy 
1st Dat e rakUstey to the boy 
2nd „ e rakUskCy in the boy 



SINGULAR. 

/ rakliy the girl 

e raklidkoroy of the girl 

e raklidy the girl 

e raklidte, to the girl 

e raklidkcy in the girl 

e raklidsUy with the girl 



Instr. e raklisUy with the boy 

Abl. e rakUstary from the boy e raklidtary from the girl 

Voc. e rakUyay Boy ! e raklidy Girl I 



Rdiy lord 

raidskoro 

raids 

raidste 

raidske 

raidsa 

raidstar 

rdia 



i / 





PLURAL. 




Nom. RakU, boys 


;?flA/iVf, girls 


Raid, lords 


Gen. rakUngoro 


roHiingoro 


rai^ngoro 


Ace. rakldn 


raklUn 


raiitt 


1st Dat. rakUniU 


raklUnde 


raiindt 


znd „ rakUngke 


raklUnght 


raitnghe 


Instr. rakUndja 


rakliittdja 


raUndja 


Abi. rakUndar 


rakliJndar 


raiindar 


Voc r-iAAlif 


rakldU 


nddU 


The inflections 


preserved m the English Gypsy dialect 


may be classed as 


follows : — 

Singular. 





Genitive, -iskoro (plural, -Aigoro). 

A great peculiarity of this dialect is the large number of 
words ending in -hkro, -m^skro, -omiskro ; -htgro, -nUngro, 
-omingro. These endings were originally genitive forms, 
as will be gathered from the above declensions, but are 
now added to verbs and adjectives, as well as nouns, and 
thus form nouns denoting an agent, or possessor, the 
termination -o being masculine, and -/ feminine or neuter, 
though these rules of gender are honoured more perhaps 
in the breach than the observance. 

Examples. 

■^skro. 

BariskrO'grH, stallion, from bar, stone; grei, Iwrse. 

-mhkro. 
PSgermiskri, hammer, from fSger, to break. 

Sdsterm/skro, blacksmith, „ sdsfer, iron. 

-omSskro. 
Chlnomiskro, chopper, from chin, to cut. 

PSmomiskro, miller, „ pdmo, flour. 

VSgomdskro, fire-range, gun, „ yog, fire. 

-Mgro. 
Baringrs, stallion, from bar, stone. 

-mingro, 
Tdttermdngro, fi-yingpan, from idtler, to heat. 
B4korem/ngro, shepherd, „ bikoro, sheep. 



14 GYPSY GRAMMAR. 

CMnom^ngro, hatchet, from chiuy to cut. 

Sometimes the forms -^ndri and Hftidngeri occur, e.g.^ 

Kdtofdndriy fragment, from kdtor^ piece. 

Mjiter*imdngeri, tea, „ muter, urine. 

Dr. Paspati remarks, in a letter to Dr* Smart, "your 
'cngro, or -mdngroy is our (Turkish Gypsy) ^koro, rendered 
-ngoro by the nasal «. Your bokoromengro, a shepherd, is 
here (Constantinople) bakrhkoro ; pi. bakr^ngoro, a shepherd 
of many sheep, bakr^nghere, shepherds of many sheep." 

From the above examples, and others to be found in the 
vocabulary, it would appear that the m is euphonic, and was 
originally added to nouns ending in vowds; and that the 
termination ^mdngrOy which was thus formed, was some- 
times with and sometimes without, the preceding vowel, 
attached to other roots as a termination denoting an agent, 
or possessor, and equivalent to the English termination -er. 

Besides -^skro^ etc., there are, in the English Gypsy 
dialect, the terminations '^sko and ^hto, in common use, 
both as genitives singular and adjectival terminations. 

These may have arisen from a gradual confusion of the 
inflections for the genitive masculine {hkoro), and first and 
second Datives masculine {hte and hke) in the singular (see 
declension above), due to the influence of the idiom for pos- 
session " DoSva stdrdi see UsH*' That hat is to him, 2= That 
hat is his, or That is his hat. 

Examples. 

'^skro* 
BardskrO'greiy stallion, from bar, stone \ greiy horse. 

"hko, 
Bdngesko-tenty hell, from heng, devil ; teMy country. 

Mi-ddoveldsko-dood^ moon, „ Mi-dodvel, God ; dood, light. 

Ddsko tatty mother's tent, „ Deiy mother ; tatty tent. 

RHesko-kaiVy gentleman's house, „ Reiy gentleman ; kaity house. 
(Bright) O tascho wasteskee wattgestOy The finger of the right hand. 



NOUN. 1 5 

ChirikUsto kair, birdcage, from MriklOy bird ; kair, house. 

Gddesto-beiy shirt-sleeve, „ gad^ shirt ; beiy sleeve. 

Griiesto-kSppay horserug, „ grei^ horse ; kdppa, blanket, 
etc. etc. 

Sometimes the forms -misto and -omisto occur, from 
analogy to the forms -nthkro^ -omdskroy e.g., 

PdmonUsto^ miller, from pdrno, flour. 

PdgeromdstOy hammer, „ pdger^ to break. 

The genitive is, however, usually formed by adding 's to 
the nominative, as in English, e,g,^ 

Mi^doSveV s-divvusy Christmas ; lit. my god*s day. 

We have not been able to meet with any example of the 
feminine genitive form -dkoro. 

Accusative : -/i*. 

The only example we have heard xspdlia koorok^ss^ after 
Sunday. 

Dr. Pott, vol. 1., p. 232, conjectures that "Res, nobleman,'* 
given by Col. Harriot (" R. Asiatic Society Transactions," 
1830), is the accusative of m, gentleman, (see declension 
above). 

Mr. Borrow, in "Lavengro,'* vol. iii., pp. 53, 172, edit. 1851^ 
has put " Hir mi devlisl' and in " Romany Rye," vol. i., 
p. 230, edit. 1857, has put ''Hir mi diblis'' into the mouths 
of English Gypsies. Devlis and diblis appear to be accu- 
sative forms. The same expression, '* Heri devlis]^ occurs 
on p. 126 of his " Lavo-lil," at the foot of the Lord's Prayer 
the Gypsy dialect of Transylvania. 

Datives : ist, 'hte\ 2nd, hke. 

Dr. Bright gives the following example : " Deh acove a 
gresti giv chil' Give to this horse corn, girl. See also re- 
marks on the terminations -hko^ and ^sto, under the head 
of genitive. 

Instrumental : -^sa. 

According to Pott, vol. i., p. 192, the instrumental case of 



1 6 GYPSY GRAMMAR. 

dewely god, is dewelehUy with god — the -eha representing -esa 
(A = J" in some continental Gypsy dialects). Mr. Borrow, 
in "Lavengro," vol. i., p. i86, edit. 185 1, has put ^^ Chal 
devlehiy' Go with God — good-bye, into the mouth of an 
English Gypsy. We have ourselves met with no examples 
of this inflection amongst nouns, though examples will be 
observed amongst the pronouns. 

Vocative : -eya, -a, -e. 

The only instances apparently extant in this dialect are 
D^a, Mother ! and R^ia, Sir ! 

Plural. 
Nominative : -/. 

1. The few who still retain a knowledge of the old 
dialect, sound the nominative plural of nouns ending in -t? 
in the singular, with an accent on the final syllable, which 
they pronounce -/. 

The most ordinary instances are the plurals of the com- 
mon words gairo, man, and ckSorodo, mumper or tramp ; 
plural gair^f men ; chdorod^^ mumpers or tramps. 

Many other instances will be found in the vocabulary, 

e.g, 

BSkrOy sheep ; plural, bokr^y sheep. Pasp. bakr^» 

Pe&o, foot ; „ peer^y feet „ pir^. 

„ Pel/y q.v. „ pel^. 

2, 3. The plurals of other nouns end in -aWy or '^yaWy 
equivalent respectively to ^d and -id, of the Turkish Gypsy 
dialect, and less correctly represented by -or and -yor, 
there being no true r sound in the syllable. The difference, 
however, between 'Uw and -or, -yaw and -yor, in ordinary 
English, is almost, if not quite, imperceptible. 

Examples. 

ENGLISH GYPSY. TURKISH GYPSY. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. PLURAL. 

Grei, horse GrHaw Graid 

Hev, hole Hh)yaw Khevid 



ENGLISH GVPSY. 


TURKISH GYPSY. 


SINGDLAR. 


PLURAL. 


PLURAL. 


NH, nail 


Ntia-t, 


Naid 


Pen, sister 


PAtyaw 


Ptnid 


Vast, liand 


Vdstaw 


Vastd 


Yek, eye 


Yitaw 


Yakd 



4. More frequently, however, — and this is becoming the 
general rule, — the nominative plural is formed by the ad- 
dition of s, as in English, e.^.. 

Pen, sister ; Pens, sisters. 
Vast, hand ; Vasts, hands. 
Yok, eye ; Voks, eyes. 

5. Sometimes two forms are combined, e.g:. 

Bar, stone ; Bdryaws, stones. 
Poov, field ; Pdovyaws, fields. 
Ran, rod ; Rdnyaws, rods. 
Genitive: -Mgoro. 

See remarks on the genitive singular. 

Examples. 

Rook^ghi, or RookMgri ChSyas (Wester), The coats of 
trees, — i^., leaves. ShusliJnghi lihjyaw. Rabbit-burrows. 
Accusative : -M. 

We have not met with any examples. 
Dative: ist,-/pide; 2nd, -Mghe. 

The only instance that has occurred to us is, " Yov see 
tdrderin' sMo kotor^di," He is pulling rope to pieces, i>.. 
He is picking oakum. 
Instrumental; -htdja; Ablative: Sidar. 

These cases are apparently obsolete, unless gdver in the 
following sentence may be regarded as an ablative ■ Mindi 
jalyek gdver kdter wdver, We go from one town to another. 
Vocative : "die. 

This inflection is, so far as we know, only retained in the 
word choovdle, mates ; a word which has a variety of modi- 
fications of sound, and is by no means uncommon. 



1 8 GYPSY GRAMMAR, 

Locative. 

Dr. Paspati (p. 57) says, " Sometimes one hears the loca- 
tive case, which probably existeci formerly in the tongue," 
and quotes from p. 108 of Burns' Essay : " The termi- 
nation of the locative e is the same in the two tongues," ue, 
in Sanscrit and Pali, and amongst other examples mentions 
ker^ (djal ker^y he goes home), which in the English Gypsy 
dialect would be, e.g., yov jals kiriy he goes home, or, yov 
see ghilo ker^^ he is (has) gone home. Dr. Paspati adds that 
the abverbs andr^^ inwardly, opr^^ above, teU^ below, are 
in the locative case. These forms are preserved in the 
English adr^y in, opr^^ upon, taU^ down. 

Sometimes nouns appear to have been formed from the 
past participles of verbs, e.g.^ 

ENGLISH DIALECT. TURKISH DIALECT. 

B^shto, saddle, from besh, to sit. Beshdva, p. part, beshtd, 
BdshnOy cock, „ bosh, to crow. BasMva, „ bashnd. 

Diklo, handkerchief, „ dik, to see. Dikdva, „ dikld. 

ModlOy ghost, „ mer, to die. Merdva, „ muld. 

Diminutives. 

Dr. Paspati (p. 45) states that the Turkish Gypsies form, 
from almost all nouns, in imitation of the Turks and Greeks, 
diminutives in -ord, as well as some in -tchd^ a form borrowed 
from the Bulgarian language. 

The English Gypsy dialect has one example at least of 
the latter form, viz., bSkocho, lamb, from bSkoro, sheep. 

Perhaps Dr. Bright s " chaori, female children," and our 
chavori, chicken, are examples of the other form. 

Abstract Nouns. 

Dr. Paspati (p. 47) says, " Abstract nouns are formed 
from verbs, adjectives, and nouns " (p. 46) ; " they are very 
numerous, and always end in be ox peV He gives, amongst 
other examples, — 



NOUN. 19 





TURKISH GYPSY 


• 


From verbs, 


Astanbi^ prize, 


from astardva, I seize. 




Djibi, life, 


„ djivdva, I live. 




Meribd^ death, 


„ ffierdva, I die. 


From adjectives, MatHpS^ drunkenness, 


„ mattdy drunk. 




Barvalipd^ wealth, 


„ barvald^ rich. 




KcUipi^ blackness. 


„ kald^ black. 


• 


Nasfalibi^ illness. 


„ nas/aid, ilL 




Tchatchipi^ truth. 


„ tchatchS^ true. 


From nouns, 


Benghipdy devilry, 


„ beng^ devil. 




Rupuibi^ silversmith 
trade, 


„ rup^ silver. 




Trushuib^j thirst. 


„ trushy thirst. 



He adds that inflections of these nouns are rare, but that the 
instrumental case shows that primitively they ended in peti. 
In the English dialect, also, abstract nouns are formed 
from verbs, adjectives, and nouns, and retain the primitive 
endings oipen or betif e.g,, 

From verbs, Stdriben^ prison, from astardva (obsolete in Eng. 

dialect), I seize. 
Jivobetty life, „ jiv^ to live. 

MMberiy death, „ w^r, to die. 

From adjectives, Mdttoben, drunken- ) ^^ ^ ^^ 

ness, j " ' 

Bdrvalipen, wealth, „ bdfvaloy rich. 

KaHtlopen^ blackness, „ katilo, black. 

Ndflopen^ illness, „ itdflo^ ill. 

TdUhipen, truth, „ tdtcho, true. 

From nouns, Chodmaben, kissing, „ chodma^ kiss, n. and v. 

Briedopen^ breed, „ breed (Eng.), n. and v. 

Compound Nouns. 

The English Gypsy dialect has, in analogy to the English 
language, many compound nouns formed by the union of 
nouns with verbs, adjectives, and nouns, cg,^ 

Kaningri'tnooshy gamekeeper, from kandngri^ hare ; mooshy man. 

KaHli-raiimy turkey, „ kaiiliy black ; raiini, lady. 

Ldlo-rndtchfiy herring, „ Idlo^ red ; tndtcho^ fish. 

Medasto-bar, milestone, „ fneda, mile ; bar, stone. 

Moosh-chdviy boy, „ moosh, man ; chdviy child. 

Podkering'kosht, signpost, „ podkerin^^ telling ; kosht^ post. 



20 GYPSY GRAMMAR. 

Pdrni-ra^ni, swan, from pSrni^ white ; raiiniy lady. 

Simmering'boddega^ pawnshop, „ simmering, pawning ; boSdega, 

shop. 
Tdtto-padnt, spirits, „ idtto, hot ; padni, water, 

etc. etc. 

Punning Appellatives. 

The English Gypsies have manufactured and adopted a 
class of words which are essentially of the nature of puns. 
They consist of words in which a fancied resemblance of 
sound in English has suggested their translation into 
R6manes. 

The German Gypsies have done the same, as will be 
seen on referring to p. 91 of Dr. Liebich's " Die Zigeuner," 
Leipzig, 1863, where amongst other instances he mentions 
— ^Vienna, gwinakro foro (honey town), — German Wien^ 
Vienna, sounding like the German Gypsy word ^^7£//>/, honey. 

The following are examples of this practice by English 
Gypsies : — 

BMgeskO'fnely Devil's Die, for Devil's Dyke, Cambridge- 
shire. 

BoSko-padni'gaVy Liver-water-town, for Liverpool. 

KdleskO'tem, Cheese-country, for Cheshire. 

KaMo'padni, Black-water, for Blackpool, Lancashire. 

Ldlo^gaVy Red-town, for Reading. 

Ldlo-pe^rOy Red-foot, for Redford. 

MHlesto-gav, Donkey 's-town, for Doncaster. 

MoSskkeni'gav, Man-town, for Manchester. 

T^,r^ , y^ \ A-norange-town, for Norwich. 
Fobomuskt'gaVy ) 

WoSdrus-gaV'tem^ Bed-town-country, for Bedfordshire. 

Descriptive Appellatives. 

They have also invented another class of words, nearly 
related to the last, and descriptive of some actual or fancied 
peculiarity. 

Examples. 

ChoSresto-gav, knife-town, for Sheffield. 



NOUN. 21 

CkdrkenO'tem, Grassy-country, | 
BdrvalO'tem, Rich-country, I Yorkshire. 

KaMo-gaVy Black-town, Birmingham. 
LdvineS'tem, Wordy-country, Wales. 
Pe^rO'CUlifi'temy Foot-kicking-country, Lancashire. 
PdbeskO'peemiskrUtem^ Apple-drink-country, H ereford- 

shire. 
P&Xtan'gaVy Cloth-town, Manchester. 
TdvestO'gav, Cotton (thread)-town, Manchester. 
Tillo-mas-tem, Fat-meat-country, Lincolnshire. 

etc. etc. etc. 

The following tribes have punning appellatives in Rd^ 
manes : — 

Cooper — WarcUngro. 

Gray — BaL 

H erne — Mdtcho, 

Lee — Po6ru7n, 

Lovell — Kdmomeskro, Kdmelo^ pi, Kdmyaws, 

Pinfold — PdndomMgro, 

S mith — PetaUngro. 

Stanley — Bardngro, 

Taylor —Sivom^ngro, 

Young — Tdrno, 

To these Mr. Borrow, in his ** Lavo-lil," adds Rossarmescro^ 
Heme {Duck, for Heron), and Clio6ma-misto, Buss [i.e,, kiss)- 
well, Chodmom^ngrOy Busser (/.^., kisser), for BoswelL Both 
of these terms are, so far as we can find, unknown in the 
North, which is the more remarkable as the Hemes and 
Boswells are the chief tribes in the northern counties. 

Nouns peculiar to this Dialect. 

Of these, the following appear to be the most remarkable 
and in commonest use : — 

I. Bdngheri, n., Waistcoat. Bryant, bringaree ; Bright, 
bangeri ; Borrow ("Lavo-lil," p. 22), bengree. 



/ nrfV .» V:\f^v\(\, mutt*, Irvine, md bd, doir't^ sir; Snritfi 

' ;"t?f I,*f/' in Monvay,' p. 22;, bcaigk ; Bcarrow 

;. /Mf/f^; n. ;n?Ml fV>frow r Zincali," 1861 oL, p. 5S), 
/►</^/>^, ;n^iU ; f .IH f RngL Gh., p. 32", 33, 34', 223,) bamris^ 

/^ /^//ry/>, M , .Vf>f»i , /^^m, Woman, ^ri^ht, purugero^ aid 

jnrfn , JV^r'orv T' Zincali," 1843 ed., voL ii^ p. 145*)^ 

>//7y/^. ^/^*ry . (" /in/vili," i86f ed, p. 17,) geira ; Simson 

/'' iriti»/>T'/^.r fhr r^pnic?*," 1865, pp. 295, IWygourie ; 

(/•fjind ^^' Kn<4lJ';h ("/ipHierft," pp. I46, 254), ^^w/ (p. 221, 

/4^ >'''r4.; ^//^/^^^ pi. ; S7>Z^^^'^^ ^^^ J 256, ^^^sffm; pL ; 
ytTyrfff^jv (" J^vr>-lii;* p, A^),guero,giieru 

^, A/'/^///, f^w Apf^>n. Almr>5it every family proaoimces 
fhi<* w^'rff't diffrr<^ntly. We have heard ckdrdoka, 
//ffif^f, Mrikrt, j^PJf^^ xhdrdoka, ydrdooka^ and jrar- 
////y/y. 9Att\9/>^ (" Hifttr>ry of the Gypsies," pp. 315, 
f^/>, /<//> fifih; f^Jand (''English Gipsies," p. 66), 
A///^// ; Hf^rr/yw C" f ^vo-lil," p, ^^)Joddakaye; Roberts, 

fy. Mclld, t\,, t\9fi^. Bryant, millan, ass; w/&, mule; Hoy- 
Irtnd (5>tifvey, etc, p* r88), moila ; Bright, mila, tneila ; 
\\nfT\o\, uiaita, ft.<»», donkey; tane mail, young donkey ; 
\tv\x\^, myla : Borrow ("Lavcngro," 185 1 ed, vol. iii., 
\h 2i^\ miUlla ; Smith ("Tent Life in Norway," pp. 
'^^5. 'OO, 345, ctc.)» merle ; Lcland ("English Gipsies," 
(ip. ^9, 30, 90, 107, ctc.)i fnyla ; Borrow ("Lavo-HI," 
p. 03), mttitla, 

/. SiViigtvts swi^gler^ n., Pipe, tobacco-pipe. Bright, swegii; 
S111IH1 (p. \^2)^ swd^ltr ; Lcland ("English Gipsies," 
PP« 35« ^^0. stviigla- ; Borrow (" Lavo-lil," p. 93), 
surg/cf'^ stvtfigle. 

Various Terminations. 

V}^9>9. I. -f^7ft<^, '(tiiif4S^ -immy ^offtm. 

I^itilt(im(t, sentence; R6kamiiSy speech; KMrntis, 
battle: liirnomnsy youth. 



ADJECTIVE. 23 

Class 2. -drtis, -erus^ -era, 

MonkdruSy monkey ; Rushdrus^ rush ; WestdruSy 
Sylvester ; Edsherus, cough ; BSsherOy fiddler. 

Class 3. -^W, 'L 

Besomdriy besom-makers ; Burk-dri^ breasts ; Footsh- 
driy fern ; Rtishdri^ rushes ; Blttekgi^ bluelegs ; Nuti^ 
nuts. 

Class 4. -er, 

Bdr-er, stone ; Gdd-er, shirt ; Rdok-er, tree. 

Class 5. 'tis, 'OS, 

Bostdrdt^, bastard ; Fdirus, a fair ; Hdnikos, a well. 

Class 6. 'Um. 

Godshum, throat. 

Of these terminations, -mus (i) appears in many words 
to be equivalent to the termination -petif or -ben; -dri (3) is 
probably the plural form of -drus (2), and the two forms 
'drusy -driy may owe their origin perhaps to the termina- 
tion -oro (see DIMINUTIVES) ; -us, mus, etc., are apparently 
cant terminations. 



ADJECTIVE. 

Adjectives, in the singular, almost invariably end in -o 
or -/, which are respectively masculine and feminine ter- 
minations, e.g,, 

Masculine. Feminine. Meaning. 

Baiiro Bauri Great 

Chiklo Chikli Dirty 

ChoSro ChoSri Poor 

Rinkeno Rinkmt Pretty 

RoSpno RoSpni Silver 

These terminations are even added to English adjec- 
tives, e.g.y 

D^ar-i dei^ dear mother. 

Fine-o pAoSy fine fun. 



24 GYPSY GRAMMAR. 

The Gypsies in Germany do the same, as is shown in the 
following example taken from Pott : 

Biinto bakro, ein buntes Schafy a spotted sheep. 

An instance in which a German word, with the normal 
Gypsy adjectival termination, appears prefixed to a Gypsy 
noun, occurs in the English Gypsy dialect, viz., 

StiffO'paly brother-in-law {stief-bruder), 
Stiffi-petiy sister-in-law (stief-schwester). 

We have also in this dialect what seems to be an example 
of a French word similarly treated, viz., — 

BUti chei, little girl {petiU fille). 

For the plural, those who speak the ordinary dialect 
apparently prefer the termination -/, and the very few who 
speak the old dialect make use of -/. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

Chiklo drom, dirty road Chikli drdmaWy dirty roads (ordinary 

dialect). 
Chdoro gairo, poor man Choori gairi^ poor men \ 

Po6ro gairOy old man Poori gairiy old men v (old dialect). 

Wdver bdkrOy another sheep Waveri bokriy other sheep) 

The following examples will illustrate the agreement 
between adjectives and nouns. The rule is, however, 
constantly violated by every Gypsy. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

Baiiro rei^ great gentleman Podri dez, old mother 

Baiiro padniy great water Rinkeni rdkli, pretty girl 

Kdisheno diklo, silk handherchief Rodpni rot, silver spoon 

Many of the adjectives in common use are almost pure 
Hindostani, Sanscrit, or Persian {vide Paspati, p. 59), e,g,y 



English Gypsy Adjective. 


Oriental representative. 


Meaning. 


Baiiro 


Bur a, Hind. 


Great 


BSkolo 


BfiookhUy Hind. 


Hungry 


Kajiio 


Kala, Hind. 


Black 


KoSshko 


Khooshy Pers. 


Good 


L6I0 


Laly Pers. 


Red 





ADJECTIVE. 


25 


■Engtish Gypsy Adjective. 




Meaning. 


L^£0 


{Lung, Pers. 1 
KLungra, Hind. J 


Lame 


M06I0 


Mooa, Hind. 


Dead 


Mdtio 


Muttu, Sans. 


Drunk 


Neva 


Niivu, Sans.- 


New- 


N6ngo 


Nunga, Hind. 


Naked 


Podro 


Boorha. Hind. 


Old 


Shirilo 


Seer a, Hind. 


Cold 


Sko6k0 


Sookka, Hind. 


Dry 


Tdtto 


Tutta, Hind. 


Hot 


etc 


etc. 


etc. 


Some adjectives are formed from Gypsy 


nouns by adding 


-no or -lo, e.g.. 






NOUN. 


ADJECTIVE. 


Chik, dirt. 


Chlk-h, 


dirty. 


KaUh, silk. 


Kaishno, silken. 



Roop, silver. 



^pno, silver. 



Dr. Paspati, p. 60, says, " The greater number of Turkish 
Gypsy adjectives end in -lo'' More than half the adjectives 
in the English Gypsy dialect end in -lo or -no, e.g., 
~lo, m. ; -//, f. 

Jodvli, lousy Peh'lo, widowed 
KaAlo, black Rdtvalo, bloody 
KSmelo, loving Shirilo, cold 
Modio, dead Sho6bli, pregnant 

Ndsfalo, ill TMo, fat 

PeMlo, drunk TUvio, smoky 



Bdlli, hairy 
Bdrvalo, rich 
Bingalo, wicked 
Bdkolo, hungry 
Cho6ralo, bearded 
Go6dlo, sweet 
-no, m. ; -«;, f. 
Hoino, angry 
JoSvni, female 
Kdishno, silken 
Kino, tired 



K6shno, wooden Rlnkeno, pretty 
Mo6shkeno, male Rodpno, silver 
Pdrno, cloth Tdriw, young 

Pa&no, white Tlkrio, little 



Some few end in -do, e.g., 

Kindo, wet Kirodo, blind P4rdo, full, etc. 



26 GYPSY GRAMMAR. 

These last in general have meanings akin to past parti- 
ciples ; though the division between adjectives in -loy -no, 
-do, and past participles with the same terminations, is by 
no means distinct. 

Others have various terminations. 

We have also adjectives in -skOy -sto, formed from the 
genitive singular, e.g., 

KrdliskOy royal, from krdlis, king. 

V^fiesto I 

^ , ' \ relating to winter, from ven, winter. 

[See remarks on the declensions of nouns, p. 14.] 

We have several adjectives, in the very commonest use, 
which seem to be almost peculiar to the English Gypsy 
dialect, e.g., 

Ko6shkOy good (Persian, koosh). 

The word occurs in Dr. Pott's work, but is taken from 
English sources. M. Bohtlingk, in " Melanges Asiatiques," 
tome ii., 2me livraison, 1854, has kdnsto, good. Dr. 
Paspati says, in a letter to Dr. Smart, "This word 
{kodshko) is unknown to me." 

The word Latscho, or Laczo, takes its place in most 
dialects, — e.g., instead of Kodshko divvus, Good day, one 
would say Latscho dives. 

Almost all English Gypsy vocabularies contain the 
word : — 

Bright — CoshkOy kosliko Q li for h). 

Harriot — Kashto, kaskko, 

Irvine — Kooshka. 

Borrow — Kosgo, kosko, koshto, kushto. 

" Illustrated London News," 13th Dec, 1851 — Cuskgar, 

kushgar. 
Hubert Smith— Cuskiy, 
Leland — Kushto, etc. 

Another adjective which appears peculiar to this dialect 

IS 

RinkenOy pretty. 



ADJECTIVE. 27 

Mr. Hubert Smith, in his '*Tent Life with English Gypsies 
in Norway," London, 1873, p. 332, says, "In the Italian 
Gypsy, it {rankny) is pronounced rincano!' This assertion 
may perhaps be accounted for on referring to Predari, 
"Origine e Vicende dei Zingari," etc., 8vo, Milan, 1841 
(see "Tent Life," etc., p. 165), for Predari has taken words 
from Kogalnitschan's " Esquisse sur Thist., et la langue des 
Cigains," 8vo, Berlin, 1837 (see Pott, i. 25), and Kog. con- 
tains many English Gypsy words and phrases taken from 
Roberts.* 

The word for pretty y on the Continent, is, — Liebich, 
Schukker ; Paspati, Sukdr^ Shukdr ; Pott, Schakker^ Szukar^ 
eta, which is represented in this dialect by Skookdr, an 
adverb meaning gently, nicely, easily. 

Rinkeno is represented in most of the English Gypsy 
vocabularies : — 

Bright — Richini, 

Harriot — Rickeno. 

Borrow — Rinkeno, rikkeni. 

"Illustrated London News,'* 13th Dec, 1851 — Rinckne; 

ditto, 20th Sept., 1856 — Rinkni. 
Hubert Smith — Rankny. 
Leland — Rikkeno, rinkeni, rinkni. 

Another of these adjectives is 

Vdsavo, bad, evil. 

The pronunciation varies slightly with individuals. The 
word may be spelt wdsedo, wd/edo, or wdfro. 

The only word resembling these is Borrow's Spanish 
Gypsy bastOy adj., evil, which is apparently connected with 
his bastardq, s.a., affliction, evil, prison. 

Most of the English vocabularies represent this word, e.g.^ 

* This theory of the origin of rincano vii Kogal is strengthened 
by the statement ("Tent Life," p. 479,) that " the French Gypsies use 
wuddress for bed," whereas there is no w in the French alphabet, but 
" wuddress^ lit " occurs in Kogal., who wrote his book in French, and 
rincana^ and wuddress^ both occur in Roberts. 



28 GYPSY GRAMMAR. 

Bright— Waffro. 

Harriot — Vasavo, vesavo. 

Borrow — Vassavo, vassavy, vassavie, wafudo, wafodu^ 

wafudupines (sins). 
"Illustrated London News,'* 13th Dec, 1851 — Va- 

fardes. 
Leland — VessavOy wafro^ zvafriy waftodearer (worse). 

A fourth peculiar adjective is 

BUto, little. 

Mr. Hubert Smith, p. 527, quotes bittan as Norwegian 
Gypsy for little^ according to M. Sundt. 

It probably owes its origin to the French petit The 
English bit, though corresponding with this adjective in 
sound, is never synonymous with small. The English say 
indifferently " a bit of bread " and " a little bread " ; and 
English Gypsies may perhaps have confused these two 
phrases, from the assonance of a bitto = a small, and a 
bit d = dL bit, or small piece, of. 

The following forms occur in former collections : — 

Bryant — Bittu, bottoo. 

Bright — Bitta, bitto. 

Harriot— Bitta, biti, bite, beti, bete. 

Borrow — Biti, beti, 

Leland — Bitti, 

Comparison. 

The comparative degree is formed by adding -dair, -ddr, 
or 'ddiro, to the positive. There seems to be no form for 
the superlative beyond the English methods of adding -est, 
or prefixing most, to either the positive or comparative, — 
in the former of which cases the feminine termination -/ 
seems preferred to the masctiline. At times the compara- 
tive is used as a superlative. 



ADVERB. 2q 

Examples. 

POSITIVB. COMPARATIVE. SUPERLATIVE. 

Baiiro, great Ba&roddr Baiiriest, bauroddrest^ most - 

baiirodar 
CkoSro, poor ChoSroddr Chodriest, chooroddrest 

Podro, old Podroddr Pooriest^ most podrodar 

Tdmo, young Tdrnoddir Tdrniest, most tami 

So bodtoder too komdssa f What do you want most ? 
O koli so komdva feterdair. The things I want most. 

These forms for the comparative are fast dying out, and 
giving way to English formations ; they are, however, still 
in ordinary use in several families. 

The Turkish Gypsies use a similar termination. Dr. 
Paspati, p. 56, gives 

Bar6, great ; Bared/r. 
Kal6y black ; Kaled/r. 
TiknS, young ; Tikneddr, ' 

The comparative degree in Persian is formed by adding 

-tur or "tar, e.g., 

Door ; Doortur, 

Sometimes this degree in the English Gypsy dialect is 
formed irregularly, e.g,, 

KodskkOy good ; Fditerddir, better. 



ADVERB. 

Adverbs are formed from adjectives by adding -nes or 

"Bs, e.g., 

Bongo, lame ; Bdnges, lamely. 

Cho6ro, poor ; Choorones, poorly. 

RSmatto, gypsy ; RSmanes, gypsily. 

Tdtcho, true ; Tdc/tenes, truly. 

Some are formed irregularly, e.g., KoSskko, gooA\ miskto, 
well. Mishto they use occasionally as an adjective, and say 
tnishto divvus, good day. 



30 GYPSY GRAMMAR. 

The following examples are from Continental Gypsy 
vocabularies : — 

Baro, great ; Bares, 

LatcJiOy good ; Latches. 
Tckulo, fat ; Tckules. 



SOME ABSTRACT NOUNS 

Are formed from adjectives, by adding -pen or -ben, [See 
remarks on the noun, p. 19.] 



AUXILIARY VERB. 



Dr. Paspati (p. 80) gives the following, as the inflection 
of the verb to be, in the Turkish Gypsy dialect : — 

PRESENT. IMPERFECT. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. SINGULAR. PLURAL. 



Me tsdm^ I am Amen isdnty We are 
Tu isdn, Thou art Tumen isdn, Ye are 
Ov isiy He is 01 isi. They are 



Isdmas Isdmas 

Isdnas Isdnas 

Isds Isds 



In the English Gypsy dialect, parts of this verb are not 
unfrequently employed in conversation, e.g., 



PRESENT. 


IMPERFECT. 


SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 


SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 


Shorn 


Shorn, shem 


S ho' mas J sas 


Shiimas 


Shan 


Shan 


Shdnas 


Shdnas 


See 


See 


Sas 


Sas 



A few examples will serve to show the use now made of 

this verb. 

Present. 

Kind shorn, I am tired. 

Sar shaUy pal, How art thou, brother > 

Sar shaft, choovdli, How are ye, mates ? 

So see. What is it ? 

Jin^la mhidi sltem akH, He knows we are here. 

Dodsta RSmani-chdlaw see akti. Many Gypsies are here. 



auxiliary verb. 3 i 

Imperfect. 

Mdndi sas k^ker kodrdno 'dri mi m^tipen, I was never 

beaten in my life. 
BeMo shomas^ I was bom (Wester Bos.) 
Too shdnas ndflo, Thou wast ill. 
Yav sas be^o agldl mdndi, He was born before me. 
MMdi shtimas wdfedo, We were bad. 
Wdver^ sas willing, Others were coming. 

It is also used in the sense of must, e.g., 
So shorn te kerdw, What must I do } What am I to do ? 

It occasionally takes the meaning of have^ a usage 
derived from the form Mdndi see. To me there is, = I have 
(est miht), e.g., 

Yov see a pSrno stdrdi, He has a white hat. 

Too shanas trin grAaw, Thou hadst three horses. 

To be able, can {posse). 

Mr. Borrow ("Romano Lavo-lil," London, Murray, 1874, 
p. 18,) gives* asiis mangui^ I can. 

Wester Boswell uses the following forms, viz. : Sastis, 
or Sustis (can) ; Nastis, or Nastissa (cannot) ; Tastis, or 
Tustis (If I can). Liebich has Sasti (can), Nasti (cannot) ; 
but does not represent our third form. Paspati has the 
second form only, viz., Nasti and Nastik (cannot). 

Examples. 

Sar sastis te yek moosh del? How can one man give } 
PodkerSva toot, Rei, tastis, I will tell you, sir, if I can. 
Yoi/ll kair toot tdtcho, tastis. He will cure you, if he can. 
Nastis wantasSva, I cannot want. 
" Hoi doSvar " Nastissar—'' Eat that." " I cannot." 



* cf, Pasp., p. 48 : ASTI (As) it is. 



32 



GYPSY GRAMMAR. 



VERB, 

According to various authorities, the German, Hungarian, 
and Turkish Gypsies have a peculiar conjugation of their 
own. The Gitanos of Spain assimilate their verbs to the 
Spanish conjugation. In this country the Gypsy dialect 
exhibits only remnants of the ancient mode of conjugating 
the verb, which now generally conforms to the English 
method in preference. 

To elucidate the few remarks to be made on this point, 
specimens of the conjugation of the Turkish Gypsy verb, 
taken from pp. 87 and 89 of Dr. Paspati's recent work, are 
subjoined. 

LdvUy to take. Kerdva^ to make. 

Participle. 
LinSy f liniy pi. lini, KerdS, f. kerdi, pi. kerd^. 

Gerund. — Kerindds, 



SINGULAR. 

1 Ldva, or lav 

2 Ldsa, „ las 
LJsa, „ les 

3 Ldla^ „ lal 
Ula^ „ lei 



Ldvas 
Ldsas 
Ulas 



Indicative. 






Present, 




PLURAL. 


SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 


Ldsa^ las 




Kerdva, -rdv 


Kerdsay -rds 


Lina^ len 




Kerisa, -ris 


Kerina, -rin 






Kerila, -ril 


Kerina, -rin 


Una, len 










Imperfect 




lAsas 




Kerdvas 


Kerdsas 


Linas 




Kerdsas 


Kerinas 


Ldnas 




Kerilas 


KerSnas 



SINGULAR. 

Linidniy lidm 
LinidUy lidn 
LinidSy lids 



First A or is t. 

According to the Settled Gypsies. 



PLURAL. 

Linidm 

Linidn 

Linids 



SINGULAR. 

Kerghidm 

Kerghidn 

Kerghids 



PLURAL. 

Kerghidm 

Kerghidn 

Kerghids 



VERB. 



33 



According to the Wandering Gypsies. 



Lindm 
Lindn 
Linds 


Lindm 

Lindn 

Linds 


Kerddm 
Kerddn 
Kerdds 


Kerddm 
Kerddn 
Kerdds 




Second Aorist. 






According to the Settled Gypsies. 




Ldnidmas 
Linidnas 
Linids 


Linidmas 
Linidnas 
Linids 


Kerghidmas 
Kerghidnas 
Kerghids 


Kerghidmas 
Kerghidnas 
Kerghids 



According to the Wandering Gyysies. 



Lindmas 


Lindmas 


Kerddmas 


Kerddmas 


Lindnas 


Lindnas 


Kerddnas 


Kerddnas 


Linds 


Linds 


Kerdds 


Kerdds 



Future, 



Kamaldvay 4dv 
Kamalisay 4ds 
Kamalila, 441 


Kamaldsay 4ds 
Kamalina,'Un 
Kamalina^ 4in 


Kamakerdva 
Kamakerdsa 
Kamakerdla 


Kamakerdsa 
Kamakerina 
Kamakerina 




Imperative. 




2 Le, !o 

3 MeUl 


Len 

Me ten 


Ker 

Me keril 


Kerin 

Me kerin 




Subjunctive. 






Present 




Te Idva^ -lav 
Te Usay 4es 
Te Ula, 'Ul 


Te Idsa, -las 
Te lina^ -ten 
Te Una, -len 


Te kerdva 
Te kerdsa 
Te kerila 


Te kerdsa 
Te kerina 
Te kerina 



In most instances the English Gypsy verb consists of the 
bare root, e,g,, 

3 



34 GYPSY GRAMMAR. 





1st Pers. Sing., Pres., 




English Gypsy. 


Turkish Gypsy. 


Meaning. 


Chin 


Tchin-dva 


Cut 


Jin 


Djan-dva 


Know 


Kair 


Ker-dva 


Make 


Kin 


Kin-dva 


Buy 


Koor 


Kur-dva 


Fight 


Mor 


Mar-dva 


Kill 


Pen 


Pen-dva 


Say 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 



Thfc. few inflections still extant may be grouped as 
follows : — 

Indicative. 

Present. 
1st peris., sing., -ov^ -dva. 

In deep R6manes this termination is still used, not only 
for the present tense, but the future also, e,g,, 

AndSva, I bring D6va, | . Jindva^ I know 

ChinSva, 1 cwt DeUvUf) ^^^ JSvay | 

Ckivdva, I put Hdva, I eat yaUvaJ ^^ 

DikSva, I see H6tcher&va^ I burn Kairdva^ I make 
etc. etc. etc. 

The same termination is occasionally added to English 
verbs, ^^., 

'Y\i\xC\^as6vay I think ; Want^w^a, I want. 

This form of -dvay or -^wva, is often contracted in rapid 
conversation, e.g.^ 

ParikrdWf or Pdriko toot^ Thank you. 
Jindw^ I know. 
Law^ I take. 

As comparisons of the old with the ordinary dialect, the 
following examples will serve : — 

76va mi, I am going MdndtsjdM 
Jindva mi, I know Mdndijins 



VERB. 35 

A ' Vf which appears to be the remains of -dva^ or rather 
of the lengthened form -avdva^ is found in the English 
dialect annexed to the root of many of the commonest 
verbs : — 



iindustani. 


Root. 


Tiirkish Gypsy. 


English Gypsy. 


Meaning. 


^-na 


A^ 


A'V'ivdi 


A^v 


Come 


i?^-na 


Ro- 


Ro-V'&vdL 


Ro'V 


Cry 


5^^-na 


See- 


Si'V'ivai 


Si'V 


Sew 


5^-na 


So- 


So'V-Avs. 


So'V 


Sheep 


DhO'XidL 


DAo- 


To'V'Avdi 


To'V 


Wash 



etc. etc. etc. etc. etc. 

2nd pers., sing., -dsa, -/sa. 

A few of the old Gypsies still use this form, pronouncing 
it 'dssa, '/ssa, and frequently contracting it to -ds, -/s, e.g., 

Too jin/sa, thou knowest ; jdsa, goest ; dik/sa, seest ; 

jiv^sa, livest ; kair/say or k/sa, doest ; kom/sa, or 

kontiSy lovest ; shoon^sa, hearest. 
Too rdkerdsa, or rdkerds, thou speakest ; podkerds^ tellest. 

Examples. 

Jinisa too Westdrust Do you know Sylvester.? 
Kom^s too bdlovds t Do you like bacon } 
yindva, pal, sorkSn kodvaw too pookerds mdndi see tdtcho, 
I know, brother, everything thou tellest me is true. 

3rd pers., sing., -//fl', -//. 
This termination is also in use at the present time, e.g,, 

BoshdlUy barks. Kairila, makes. 

Brishin^la iprishin-ddld), rains. Nasherda, loses. 

Ckiv^la, puts. Rokerda, talks. 

Jdla, goes. TrashJlUy fears. 

Kanila, stinks. Yivdla {yiv-dHd), snows. 

English Gypsy verbs, in the ordinary dialect, are fre- 
quently merely contracted forms of this termination. This 
is generally the case if the root ends in a vowel, or the 
liquid r, e.g., 



36 GYPSY GRAMMAR. 





3rd Pers. Sing., Pres., 


English Gypsy 




Root. 


according to FaspatL 


Verb. 


Meaning. 


Z>/- 


Dila 


Del 


Give 


Ja. 


Jdla 


yai 


Qo 


U- 


Lila 


Lei 


Get 


Ker- 


Kerila 


Kel 


Play 


Kha- 


KhSla 


Kol, hoi 


Eat 


Mer- 


Mer^la 


Mel 


Die 


Per- 


Persia 


Pel 


Fall 


Ter- 


Terila 


TU 


Hold 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 



Examples from the Old Dialect. 

YStjin^la nuzn, She knows me. 

Yov jiv^la p6sha mdndi^ He lives near me. \ 

Yov peer^la misto, He walks well. 

3rd pers., plur., -^^, -en. 

The old dialect retains this termination, e.g,^ 

ChivMna, They put. RiggerMnay or riggerhiy They 

carry. 
JinMnay They know. WMna, or weUy They come. 

Examples. 

Kek n/ jin^nna yon, They do not know. 
Chivinna yon kek gorgiokon^s adr^ Usti, They put no 
English in it (their talk). 

Past Forms ; vide Paspati's Aorists. 

There appears to be no distinction between the imperfect 
and aorists, but only one form for both. 

1st pers., sing, and plur., -dSniy -6m, 

BisserdSntf I forgot Hdnjeddnty I itched 

Didnty I KairdSm, I made 

DeldSmJ ^ ^^^^ Lidm, I took 

Chiddnty I put PedSnty I fell 



GMidm, I went WoAsenUm, I threw 

HodSm, I ate 

Examples. 
GkUm mi, I went. 
GhUm mindi. We went. 
These are contracted fonns of past participles, + shorn, 
as katrdo + shorn = kairdAm, I made ; see Paspati. 
2nd pers., sing, and plur, -dti. 

Luin, Thou hast got. 
Ghidn, Ye went. 
Miterddn, Ye micturated. 

Examples. 
Sdvo cheAvs lidn to aUh akH, What time hast thou got 

to stay here (in prison) ? 
Miierddn too ti-fcikero t Have you wet yourself ? 
These are contracted forms of past participles -(- shan, as 
hairdo + skan = kairddn. Thou hast done. 
3rd pers., sing, and plur., -dds, -tds, -ds. 

Ckingadds, He tore. yivdds. He lived. 

Dids, He gave. Kairdds, He made. 

Dookadds, He hurt Kindds, He bought. 

Yongkids, They went. Lids, He got, 
Pendds, He said. Mooktds, He left. 

Ymjindds, They knew. Pedds, He fell, 
etc etc. 

These are contracted forms of past participles + see, as 
hairdo + see = kairdds. He made. 

Occasionally this termination is used for the 2nd person 
singular, somewhat in accordance with that person of the 
imperfect of Paspati's conjugation, and in these cases some- 
times takes a final ' a,' e.g., 

Blsserdds tao t Hast thou forgotten ? 
Dihtdssa toot Did you see i 



38 GYPSY GRAMMAR. 

3rd pers., plur., /, formed from past participle plural. 

Yon hod^, = They ate| .^ g . 

Yonped^, = They fell) ^^^^'^^ ^^^'^^ 

The following sentences, spoken by Sylvester Boswell, 
well illustrate the above forms, -^w, -dtiy -dSy — 

Didm o ifitto jodkelf so hodds I gave away the little dog, which 

o maSy o wdver divvus^ too ate the meat, the other day, thou 

kindds, boughtedst. 

Didm les kdter ditto tdrno ret I gave it to a little young gentle- 

akii^ ta jivdla pdsha mdndi, man here, that lives near me, 

and j/^z/ lids les pdrdel o padni and he took it over the water to 

kdter Bodko-padni'gav, Liverpool. 

Too kairddn o mas f Have you done the meat ? 

Future, 
In the Turkish dialect this tense is formed, from analogy 
to modern Greek, by prefixing the verb kamdma^ to wish, 
desire, etc. As already mentioned, the present tense in 
English R6manes serves also for the future, the meaning 
being determined by the context, or accompanying circum- 
stances. 

Example. 

Dikdva tdlla o hStchiwitchi, I will look after the hedgehog. 

Mdndi latchSva yek, I will find one. 

Maurdva Usti, ta mdrrov Usti, I will slay it, and shave it 

Yodsherdva Ustu I will clean it. 

Chivdva Usti kdter yog^ I will put it to the fire, 

Ta kirav I4sti^ ta hdva Us tndnghu And cook it, arid eat it myself. 

Sylvester Boswelu 

Imperative. 
2nd pers., sing. The verbal root, as dik^ see! kair, do 1 

Although the forms dd, give, and U, take, exist, the 
English Gypsies generally use del and lei, 

1st pers., plural. 

According to Wester Boswell's usage, this is formed by 
the addition of -^w to the root, with the accent on the added 
syllable. 



VERB. 39 

Examples. 

OLD DIALECT. NEW. 

yds mMghi, Let us go Mook'sjal 

Dik-ds m/ndi, Let us look Mooks dik 

Latchrds mhtghi^ Let us find Mook's latch 

Ker-ds mhighi^ Let us make Mooks kair 

Harriot (see Pott, vol. i., p. 348) has the following ex- 
amples : — 

Ne pala ! jas amegOy (sic) // ckinnds amege (sic) bete giv, 

Now mates, let us go, and let us cut a little corn. 
Pdravdsa^ Let us change. 
Jas omingOf (sic) Let us go. 

Pott (vol. i., pp. 346, 475) gives several instances taken 
by him from Puchmayer's " Romdni Czib" (Pott, vol. i., 
p. 20, Source 25), e.g., dschas, shas, dLiid javas, let us go; 
dikkas and te dikas, let us see ; ma das^ do not let us give ; 
and conjectures that the form is borrowed from the 1st 
person plural of the present conjunctive. 

Subjunctive. 

The Turkish Gypsies form the present subjunctive by 
prefixing te to the present indicative. The English Gypsies 
do the same. 

Examples. 

The B€ng te lei 4o6va Reu The Devil take that Gentleman. Ill put 
111 chiv SL ckodri adri his a knife in his bloody heart. " The most 
rdttvali zee, wishfullest thing as you can say against 

any one." CHARLIE B08WELL. 

The Beng te lei todtL The Devil take you. Ned Bosweix. 

Beng te lei toot. Devil take you. 

Del&ua meiro lav kdter mi- I will give my word (I will pray) to God 

Dodvel yov te jcU kdter that he may go to hinu 

yov, 
Te wel teSro krdUsom. May thy kingdom come. 

Sylvester Boswell. 



40 gypsy grammar. 

Participle. 

Present, 
They invariably use the English termination -ing^ which 
they pronounce -eti or -/»', e.g., 

K6tnin\ loving. Ko6ren\ fighting. 





Past 




ends in -do^ -no^ or - 


lo, e.g., 




ChSrdo, stolen, 


from Chor^ 


to steal. 


Ddndo, bitten, 


„ Dan, 


„ bite. 


MoSklo, left. 


„ Mook, 


„ leave. 


NdsherdOf lost. 


„ Ndsher^ 


„ lose. 


PdgerdOf broken, „ P6ger^ 


„ break. 


DiknOf seen. 


„ Dik, 


„ see. 


etc. 


etc. 





In deep R6manes the past participle ends in / in the 
plural, and is used for the 3rd person plural of the perfect. 
(See above.) 

Some verbs are formed from past participles of verbs 
which are otherwise believed to be extinct in this dialect, eg,, 

And, to bring, vide andd, p. part, of Turk. Gypsy andva. 
Hinder, cdiCdS^, „ khindS, „ „ khidva. 

Kister, to ride, „ uklistd, „ „ uklidva. 

Lost Verbs. 

Besides those last mentioned, there are other verbs which 
seem to be lost in the English Gypsy dialect, though their 
roots are retained in derivatives, eg, 

ENGLISH GYPSY. See TURKISH GYPSY. 

Beino, bom. Bendva, to lie in. 

Bdllesko-diwus^ Christmas Day. Boldva, to baptize, christen (Bor- 
row, " Lavo-lil," p. 24, inserts 
this verb). 

Podsomingro, fork. Pusavdva, to stick, spur. 

Stdrdo, \ 

Stdriben, > prison.^ Astardva, to seize, arrest. 

StMpen, etc. ) 



PRONOUN. 4 1 

Compound Verbs. 

These are numerous and in most cases mere literal trans- 
lations from the English, e,g,y 

Atch apr^, Arise, lit. Stand up. 

Del apr^, Read, „ Give (attention) on. 

Lei apri. Arrest, „ Take up. 

Jal adri^ Enter, „ Go in. 

Wodser apri^ Vomit, „ Throw up. 

Jalpdlla, Follow, „ Go after, 
etc. etc. etc. 

In every case the inflection is added to the verb, e.g., 

Wodseddm apr^, I vomited. 
GhiSm adri, I entered. 
Ghidm pdlla, I followed. 

Note. — The pure inflections given above are not usually 
met with in the ordinary dialect, which inflects its verbs after 
the English mode in preference. Even among those who 
still retain a knowledge of the old dialect, the inflections 
are frequently confused, -^la being used for -^sa, -isa for 
'inna^ etc. 

Westirus (Sylvester) Boswell asserts that it is only some 
of the Hemes and Boswells who know how to use tht 
'double words* (inflected), and that most Gypsies us 
simply the 'dead words* (uninflected). 



PRONOUN. 
Personal Pronouns. 

The following are the inflections of the Turkish Gypsy 
pronouns according to Dr. Paspati, " Tchinghian^s," pp. 
66, 67, and those still in use among the English Gypsies, 
arranged in parallel columns for more convenient com- 
parison. 



42 



GYPSY GRAMMAR. 



NO 
00 



O 

CO 

H 

CO 



CO 

O 

W 
CO 

o 



< 



I 









•a 

a 

N3 
Q vO 



^ 2,^ ^ 



a. 
a. 



Pi 

o 

CO 






II 



I^S• 






^ ^ ^ 



1 

• "* 

•8 

1 

o 

I 



I 






•s 



;« 



>? 



6 

3 



pq 



i^ 



Q 

O 
U 

CO 



• 

>< 


1 


1 






4 

i5 


3 
*" 


1 


o 


^ 


^ 


1 


&:3 

CO 


f5 


fJI 


fj; 


hH 








1-3 








o 








IS 








M 









^ 
^ 



•§ 



^ ^ I 









I 



CO 

O 
X 

CO 

X 
H 



p 
pi 
pk 






o 
25 - 



8 



1 1 



I 









^ « ^ 

til 

^ ^ ^ 






i^ ^ i^ ^ ^ ^ !^ 



M <^ 



I s d t3 

:z o < Q 






CO 

> 

O 

CO 

H 



^ 



8 



I I 



iv. 



f5 



I 






g C ^ ^ 
o &) (J ra 

^z; O < Q 



^ -S^ •? 
f^ E^ ^ 



^ Q ^ 

1^ 1 1 

K ^ K 

S 5 



PRONOUN. 



43 



< 
o 

CO 

o 

Q 

w 



CO 

> 
O 

CO 

1-1 

O 



O 

CO 



H 



5' 



o 













O 

> 

ei 



I 



O 







^ 

;§ 



S (A 

as 



g 

-§ 







5 



^:5 :^ 



O 



I 

:3 






•85 »$ Q 

•^i ^ ^ ^ 



M 



O CO 






NO 



6 

> 









:3 



t 



CO 

Q 

2; 

H 
O 

n 

p< 
o 
\^ 

CO 

•-) 



vO 

O 

CO 



> 

CO 

o 

CO 



1 6 













V „ >v 



"It 



::i :s 



Q 









5 



:^3^ 




44 GYPSY GRAMMAR. 

L6, He ; pL, //, They. 

Besides the forms yov and yoi^ he and she — pi., yon^ 
they — we have met with lo^ he (of which the feminine 
would be liy she), and //, they. These pronouns are only 
used ' after the auxiliary verb to be, so far as we can find. 
Dr. Pott (vol. i., p. 242) quotes the same remark as having 
been made by Graffunder, though he adduces instances 
from other writers showing that this is not an invariable 
rule. 

The following sentences we noted down as we heard 
them : — 

O rash^i, koSskto sas-ld. The clergyman was a good 

man ; lit, good was he. 
*7aw wdfedo see46 adr^ Usko zee, He is so jealous ; lit., 

so evil is he in his heart. 
PoSkerom^ngri see-U, They are ' informers.' 
Koshtd see4i kondw, They (hedgehogs) are good (to 

eat) now. 
T06I0 see4iy They are fat. 

POSSESSIVES. 

Miy mine ; Pasp., mo, mi, Ti, thine ; Pasp., to, ti 
Minno,\ Teiro, thine ; Pasp., tinr6 

M^ero, \ mine; Pasp., minrS, Ldsko, his ; Pasp., Uskoro, 
MHro, ) Ldki, I6ki, her ; Pasp., Idkoro, 

M6ro, our ; Pasp. amarS, LSngheri, Unghi, their ; Pasp., 

Ungoro 
Phki, his ; Pasp., po (of which the Dative would h&p^ske), 

N.B. — Mr. Borrow, "Lavo-lil," pp. 13, 174, gives minro^ 
minri, my. 

Demonstratives. 

Akdvva, kdvva, This; pi. kdlla, These; Pasp. akd, pi. akli; 

kadavd, pi. kadaU, 
Addvva, dodva^ That ; pi. dSlla, dulla^ Those ; Pasp., odova^ 

pi. odoU, 



NUMERALS. 45 

INTERROGATIVES, RELATIVES, ETC. ETC. 

Kei, Where ; Pasp., ka, Jdfri^ Such ; Pasp., asavkS 

adv. locat., q,v, Sdvo, so, Which, what ; Pasp., 

KSkero, Self (Jpse) savd, so 

Kon, kOy Who ; Pasp., kon, Sor, All ; Pasp., sarrd 

guis Ta, who, which, that ; Pott, 

NSgOy Own ke ; Pasp., ka, rel. pron. 

These words are classed together in accordance with 
Pott's and Paspati's arrangement. 









NUMERALS. 


I 


Yek ; Pasp., ^^^, 


p. 75. 


2 


Do6t: „ 


dii, 


» 


3 


Trin; „ 


trin 




4 


Stor; „ 


star 




5 


Pansh; „ 


pantchy pandj. 


6 


Shov; „ 


shov. 





7 Do6t trinydw ta yek; trin ta stor [A/ta, Bryant; 
Heftan, Marsden ; Pasp., eft£\, 

8 Do6i stordw [oitoo, Bryant; Pasp., oAt(f], and see i8. 

9 Do6i stSraw ta yek \enneah, Bryant; Henya, Marsden; 
Pasp., eni(l\, 

10 Desk; "PsLsp., desk. 

11 Desk tayek ; Pasp., desk uyek, etc. 
1 8 D^shto ; Pasp., desk u oht6. 

20 Bishy or do6t deshdw ; Pasp., bisk. 
30 Trin deshdw ; Pasp., trianda, 
40 Stor deshdw ; „ sardnda. 
50 Pansh deshdw ; „ peninda, 
60 Shov deshdw, etc. ; Pasp., exinda. 
100 Desh deshdw ; 'Bvf.,shel; Pasp., jA^/. 
i.OOO Mille, Bw., " Lavo-lil," p. 1 54. 

Besides the above forms, we may note the following : — 
6 She, Bw., " Lavo-lil," p. 89 ; Pasp., sho. 



46 GYPSY GRAMMAR. 

7 Efta, Lid., Eng. G., p. 218, and hefta, p. 15; Bw. 
" Lavo-lil/' p. 42, efU 

9 Ennyo^ nUy Bw., " Lavo-lil," p. 5. Mr. Borrow, "Lavo- 
lil," pp. 154 — 162, gives trianda, 30; shovardeshy 60; and 
several other numerals. 

For 7, 8, and 9 we have ourselves only heard the corrupt 
compound forms given above. 

From the numerals there are formed 

Y^kino, adj., single ; 'AnA y^korus^ adv., once. 
Panshhigro, n., five pound bank-note. Pasp., p. TJ, 
pantchenger^y gen. pi. ; of five piastres. 

Mr. Borrow supplies the following : — 

Duito, second, " Lavo-Hl," p. 408. 
Trito, third, '' Lavo-lil," p. 96 ; and " Zinc," 1843 ed., 
vol. ii., p. 1 45*. 



PREPOSITIONS. 



- Over. 



A drdl^ *dral, Through. Pdrdel, ' 

Adr^, 'driy Into, in. Pdrdal, 

Agldl, 'glalA Before, in Pauddl, 

Agdl, 'gal, ) front of. Patide/, , 

Apdsh, Against ; v., PSska. Posh, | Opposite, near, by, 

Apr^, opr^y 'pr^f Upon, on, up. P6sha, > besides. 

Avr/e, *vree, Out of, out, Sar, With. 

away, off, from. TaU, aU, 'U, Down, under. 

Fan, from. beneath. 

Katdr, kdtar, kdter, To, unto, Tdlla, Under, beneath, behind, 

at.* after, except. 

Ke, Tq {ke-diwus, to-day). 7>, To 

PaldlA Tooostdl 

Pdlla, \ After, behind, back. _. , '\ About, concerning. 

PaMi) TrrSstal,] 

* Kat^r, prep., = Hcl., drft; M. G., ^; Paspati. 



SYNTAX, IDIOMS, ETC. 47 

The following variations and additions are taken from 
Borrow's " Lavo-lil," etc. : — 

AndOf In. 

Anglo, Before. 

Inna, inner^ In, within. 

Hir, By, "Lavcngro," 1 851 ed., vol., iiL, pp. 53, 172. 

Pa, For, „ „ vol. i., p. 325. 

Mr. Leland, " English Gypsies," p. 232, gives mwscro. 
Through, in the centre of. 

Of these, te, ke, and sar are also postpositions, te and ke 
forming the dative, and sar forming the instrumental case 
of the pronouns in this dialect, and of those cases of the 
nouns also in the Turkish and other dialects. 

N.B. — Many of these prepositions are also used ad- 
verbially. 



SYNTAX, IDIOMS, etc. 



The arrangement of words in a Gypsy sentence, with 
few exceptions, is strictly in accordance with the English 
language. The following peculiarities may, however, be 
mentioned : — 

(i) The order of a sentence is often reversed, in deep 
R6manes in connection with the verb to be, e.g., 

Tdtcho see. It is right. 

Bdkalo shorn, I am hungry. 

H6x<^no sham, I am a liar. 

Beino shomas, I was born. 

*yaw see. It is so. 

Tikno chor see yov. He is a little child. 

(2) The nominative case often follows the verb it governs, 

KoSromSngro sas me^o dad, My father was a soldier. 
TSogono shorn mi to dik toot akH, I am sorry to see 
thee here. 



48 GYPSY GRAMMAR. 

Kek najinSva «//, I do not know. 
Kek najininayony They do not know. 

(3) The verb to be is frequently used without pronouns, 

Sar sAan, How are you ? 
B6kalo shan, Are you hungry > 
See also (i). 

(4) In asking questions, the sense is frequently deter- 
mined only by the tone, the pronoun when expressed often 
preceding the verb, e.g,^ 

Too dids baHro Mori kdter moosh f Did you give the 

big knife to the man } 
Too righerdds koSshni kerif Did you bring the basket 

home ? 
Lon see tdotif Have you got any salt ? 
Kek shoonha too f Don't you hear } 

Examples of the following will be found in other parts 
of the grammar : — 

(5) The article, definite and indefinite, is frequently 
omitted. 

(6) The adjective precedes the noun. 

(7) Possession is denoted by the auxiliary verb and the 
pronoun in the dative case (cf. Pasp., p. 29). 

(8) The use of the present tense for the future. 

(9) The formation of the subjunctive by the optative 
particle te preceding the verb. 

(10) Intensity is denoted by a repetition of the word, 

I)o(fvore/ dodvore/, Very far indeed, — ef. Pasp., p. 171, 
NaMa sigS sigd bersh, The year passes very quick. 

(11) The elision oi or between two numerals, ^^., 

Yek doS'i, One or two ; Dodt trin, Two or three, etc., — cf, 
Pasp., pp. 594> 610. 

( 1 2) The use of double negatives for emphasis, — cf. Pott, 
'i., p. 321. 



SYNTAX, IDIOMS, ETC. 49 

(13) Negation. There are three classes of negatives : 

(a) Kek, with derivatives k^ker, k/kero, k/keno. 

(6) Ma, variously pronounced man, maw, mo, usually 

maw. 
(c) Na, naw, «/, with derivatives net, nanH, nastissa, 

nesHs. 

Class (ci) are used chiefly in giving negative answers ; 
iff) with the imperative in prohibiting ; and (c) in making 
negative assertions. 

It is remarkable that kek, which is so frequently used in 
this dialect, should be apparently without a representative 
in the Turkish, except perhaps kdnek. Any, some, none, — 
about which, however, see Pasp., p. 266. 



GYPSY-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 

Note. — Cross references are given between brackets ( ). 

A. 

Adva, ) adv., Yes, truly, certainly, verily (6urH). Pasp., 
Advali,/ va; beli {As) \ hieh., auwa 
Ad6i, adv., There ('doi, od6i). Pasp., o^id; abl, ofdr 
Ado6sta, adv. and ad/,, Plenty, enough {'do6sta, 'd6sta). 

Lieb., docAa 
Ado6va, pron.. That ('do6va, adiivel). Pasp., odovd 

Adiilla,//., Those 
KdsiX, prep.. Through ('dral). Pasp., andrdl, from within 
Adr6, prep.. In, into, to ('dr6). Pasp., andr^, in. 

Kdiired adr6, enclosed, fenced in ; lit., made in 
^dr6m, adv., Away ('drom) 
Adiilla, /r^«.//.. Those 

Adiilla fo/ki, so kek nandi komdla mdndi, Those 
people who do not love me 
Adiivel, pron.. That (ado6va) 

Agdl, ) prep.. Before, in front of, in the presence of (*gal, 
Agldl,/ 'glal). Pasp., angldl, angdl 

P6shagldl, Opposite ; lit, close before 
Ajdw, adv.. Thus, so Cjaw). ? Pasp., adjdi, yet, still, again; 

avekd, thus 
Ak^i, adv.. Here (*kei). Pasp., akd 

Dfdakeij', or Dftakeij, n.pL, Half-bred Gypsies, who, 
instead of ' dik-akei,' say ' did-, or dit-, akei* for 
^look here ' 
^k6nyo, adv.. Alone (bik6yno) 



5 2 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Ak6va, pron.y This (*kova). Pasp., akavd 

Alidjy ad/\ Ashamed Cladj). Pasp., lad/, shame 

KM, prep., Down (16, tal6). Pasp., teU 

Besh ale, Sit down 

Chin ale. Cut off, cut down 
Amdndi, pron.. To me (mandi) 
Amdndi, pron,, We (m^ndi). Pasp., dat. pL, amhide 
And, v.a., To bring, fetch, etc. (hand). Pasp., andva 

And6va, I do, or will, bring, etc. 

And^ssa, You bring 

Av\o, p, part, Brought 

Anlo apr6. Brought up, educated 

Andad6m, I brought 

Andadisj "^ ^'°"S^*' *^^y ^'■^"S^* 
Angar, «., Coals (vdngar, v6ngar). Pasp., angdr, coal 
Anghit^rra, n.,pr,, England. French, Angleterre 
.<4p6pli, adv,, Again (p6pli) 
A'^6^, prep., Against 
Apre, prep.. Upon, on, up ('pre, opr6). Pasp., opri 

Atch apr6, To awake, get up 

De, or del, apre. To read 

And apr6, | ^^ educate, bring up 

Hand apre, ) 

Jiv apr6. To live uprightly 

Lei apr6, To arrest, take up 

Pand apr6. To close, shut up 

Til apr^ To raise, hold up 

Wo6ser apr6. To vomit, throw up 

Yo6ser apre, To sweep, clean up 
Asar, } adv., } Also. This word, or particle, is in frequent 
use, sometimes separately, apparently for emphasis, 
and sometimes as an adjunct to a gdujo lav, in 
order to disguise it. It frequently follows verbs 
in the imperative; ^. VailL, Gramm. Romm., 71, 
Gati sar londis, prepare la salade ; and Mikl., 
ii., 5, 6. Mr. Borrow, in his "Lavo-lil," gives 



VOCABULARY. 53 

(p. 18), **Asd, asau, ad., also, likewise, too; meero 
pal asau, my brother also. Asarlas, ad., At all, 
in no manner ; "(p. 1 10) " It is my DovveVs kerri- 
mus, and we can't help asarlus ; " (p. 144) " But 
It was iei koskipen asarlus^ Our examples are: — 

Besh pduli, asdr ? Do sit down (lit., back), won't you } 

Dik, odSiy asdr, mi Do6veUnghi ? Do look there, won't 
you, for God's sake ? 

Rak, asdr, ti todvlo. Do mind your tobacco 

Too r6ker asdr, sar see dSva chido talif Do you speak 
as it is put down ? 

Mdndi rSker asdr misto kendw sig, I will speak well 
immediately 

Pand asdr Usti opr^ kdter rook. Do tie him up to (a) 
tree 

Me fro rom pands asdr mafidi oprf. My husband shuts 
me up 

And asdr mdndi a ko6si padni. Do bring me a little 
water 

Help asdr men, kair o wdrdo jal oprf drom. Do 
help us (to) make the cart go on the road 

Mfndi forgive asdr to6tu We do forgive you 

There's the Bhigesto-hiv, and the Bingesto-md asdr. 
There's the devil's ditch, and the devil's die (dyke) 
too 

Shan todti jdlvcC to Stockport asdr ? Are you going 
to Stockport too ? 

O ditto chdvo wants asdr to jin, kon shan too. The 
little boy wants to know who you are 

So too want asdr ? What do you want } 

Sho6ned6m Ustik6f\r! asdr mdndi, I heard him call- 
ing to me 

D6oi mindi had asdr k&m£ni o* Ihidi, Both of us had 
some of them 

Mdndi did asdr komSva to j'al. I did want to go 

Yov kom'd asdr Idti. He pitied her 

Sas so yov promised asdr. It was what he promised 



54 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Kair toosus asdr kom^ssa. Do just as you like 
Well, if I wasn't thinking asdr ajdw ! Well, if I 
wasn't thinking so ! 
Atch, v.y To stop, stand, halt, etc. (hatch). Pasp., atc/idva 
Atch6va, I stand, I do stand, I am standing, I will 

stop, stand, arise, etc. 
Atchdssa, You stop, thou stoppest 
Atch^la, He stops 
Atch^nna, They stop 
Atching, Standing, floating 
Atchlo /. part, and adj.. Stopped, still 
Atchedy Stood 
Atchdds,) ^^ 

Atchtds, I "^ ^^^^^' ^'^^^ 
Atchdem, We stopped 
Yon atcht6, They stood 
Atch apr4 Awake, get up 

Atch/«^ apr^ ap6pli, Resurrection ; lit, standing up 
again 
.^trdsh, adj\f Afraid (trash). Pasp., trashdva, to fear 
Aiira, n,. Watch, hour (6ra, hdura, y6rra) 
Av, V,, To come (hav, 'wel, Vel). Pasp., avdva 

Av^l, or aw61, v,, To come, e.g,, yon sas av6h*«*. 

They were coming 
Av^la, He comes 
Av6ssa, Thou wilt come 
Ava td, Come ye, come along ! 
Av pdlla, Follow ! lit, come after 

Aver/«^,l C^"^^"S 

W61a, w^nna, vi6m, vids, vi6. See Vel 
Avr6e, or Avrf, prep, and adv.^ From, out, out of, off, away 
(Vree). Pasp., avri 
Avrf-rig, Outside, crust 
A-wivtr, adj., Another (ovdvo, w6ver, wdver). Pasp., j^^z/^, 
other 
Avdver^,//., Others 



I mdtcho, Herring 



VOCABULARY. 55 

Azer, V,, To lift (had) ; cf, Tdisp,, Idzdava, tishtldva; Vaill., 
Gramm. Romm., asarao 
Azerdds, He, or they, lifted 



B. 

Badjzixws, «., Badger 

B&iro, «., Ship. See B^ro. Pasp., herd 

Bal, «., Hair. Pasp., bal 

Bdlaw,//., Hairs 

Bal, sing,^ \ Grays, a Gypsy tribe ; as if grey hairs. 

Bdlawj, //., ) Compare Borrow's Spanish Gypsy, 
bullas, grey hairs 

Bdlawj, //., Hemes, a Gypsy tribe 

Bdlaw- 

Bdleno- 

Bdleno, ) 

B%, l^^-' Hairy 

Kralisf J bauro bdleno jo6kel, Dandelion (flower) ; 

lit. Queen's big hairy dog 

Bal-cho6ri, Knife 

Bdlans, ) 

Bdlanser ) ^'' ^^^ pound sterling, a sovereign 

Bdleno-mas, ) 

•D ji 1 \ «., Bacon (baiilo). Pasp., balani-mas 

Bang, w.. Devil (Beng). Pasp., beng 
Bdngaree, «., Waistcoat 

Bdnga, n. pi,. Whiskers. } German Wange, cheeks, or is 
bdnga due to the assonance of waistcoat and 
whiskers ? 
Bar, «,, Stone. Pasp., bar 
Bardw,//., Stones 

Bdryaw,//., Stones, testicles, pillars 
Bar^ngri, n,, /r., Stanleys, a Gypsy tribe ; as if 
* stonely.' Pasp., bar/ngoro, stony 



Bar&kr^} S^^'' Stallion, horse 



56 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

BisKnin^ bduro bars, Hailing; lit, raining big 

stones 

Me^asto- ) 

■D ,i . } bar, Milestone 

So6nakei witA tdtcho barj adr6 lis. Jewelry ; lit., gold 
with real stones in it 
Bar, n., One pound sterling, sovereign. Pasp.,/^^^, heavy 
Bdrvalo, adj., Rich, wealthy. Pasp., barvaU 

Bdrvalo-tem, Yorkshire 

Bdrvalopen, n,^ Wealth, riches. Pasp^ baravalip^, 
wealth 

Bdrvalo bar, Diamond 

Ddshbdr, n., Ten-pound note 
Barsdngri ) «., Shepherd. Lieb., Bershero ; ? French, Ber- 
Basdngro, > ghe 
Bastdrdo, n,^ Bastard (Boshtdrdus) 
Bdulo, n.y Pig. Pasp., bal6 

Bauld, //., Pigs 

Baiilesto-f6ros, Pig fair, pig market 

Baulesko-mas, Pork 

Bdlovds, \ ^ 
T>,, \ n,. Bacon 

Bdleno-mas, ) 

Baulesko-mo6lf, Pigface, a nickname 
Baiileski tiilopen, Lard ; lit., pig's fat 
Baiiro, adj., Great, big, large, broad, deep, etc. Pasp., 
bar6 
Baiiri, adj.^ f., Pregnant, ' big with child * 
Baiiri-ch^rikl, ) 
Badro-ch6riklo.; Pheasant 

Baiiri-dei, Grandmother 

Baiiroddr, comp.^ Bigger. Pasp., bared^r 

Baiiro-beresto-gav, Liverpool ; lit., big-ship-town 

Baiiro-bfshno, Hail 

Bauro-cho6ri, Sword 

Baiiro-dfklo, Shawl 

Baiiro-dood, Lightning 

Baiiro-gav, London 



VOCABULARY. 57 

Bauro-h61om6ngro, \ 

Baiiro-h61om6skro, r Glutton 

Bauro-h6bendskro, ^ 

Bauro-padni, Ocean, sea, deep water 

Baiiro-rei, Gentleman 

Baury6,) «., Assizes ; due to the assonance of 

Baiiri, ) * Assize' and *a size' (a big thing) 
Baiiri, n., Snail (bouri) 
Bdval, n,, Wind. Pasp., balvdl 

Bav^ngro, \ 

P6gado-b4vaI^ngro,} «- Broken-winded horse 

Bdval-p6gam^ngri, Windmill 
-ff«:h5Vih6ni^^, Bewitched (ch5 vih6ni) 
Be^bee, or Bedbi, «., Aunt. Pasp., bibi 
Be6no, /. /^r/., Born. Pasp., bendd, delivered 

Beene,//., Bom 

Posh-be6nomus, Placenta, after-birth 

Be^nopen, «., Birth 
Bei, «., Sleeve, bough. Pasp., bdi, sleeve 

Gadesto-bei, Shirt-sleeve 
Beng, «., Devil (Bang). Pasp., Beng 

B^ngaw,//., Devils 

Beng, adj,, Evil, wicked 

B^ngalo, adj\, Wicked, devilish, diabolic. Pasp^, 
bengald 

B^ngesko, ) 

Bdngesko-dfk/;/^,/ ^^"^> ^^"^ 

B^ngesko-gafro, n,. Enemy 

B6ngesko-tan, Hell ; lit.. Devil's place 

B^ngeski-| jThe Devil's Ditch, near Balsham, 

B^ngesti- ) ' \ Cambridgeshire 

B6ngesko-mel, The Devil's Dyke, near New- 
market 
Berk. See Burk 
B^ro, «., Ship, boat, barque (Bafro). Pasp., ber6 

Berdngro, ) 

T^ / / r «., Sailor. Pasp., berhkoro 



58 GYPSY-ENGLISH 



Bdresto-sher^ngro,| 
Tdtcho-ber^ngro, / ^ 
B6resto-pl6%ta, A ship's sail 
Bero-gav, ) ^^.^^ ^^^ 



Baiiro-bdresto-gav, 
Besh, v., To sit. Pasp., beshdva 

Besh6va, I sit 

Besh^la, He sits 

Beshtds, He sat 

Beshds, Let us sit 

B^shomdngro, «., Chair 

B^shto, «., Saddle (b6shto). Pasp., beshtd, sat 

B^shopen, n,, Sessions. Pasp., beskip^, residence 

Baiiro-po6kinyuski-bdshopen, Assizes ; lit., great 

judges' session 

Besh, n.y Year. Pasp., bersh 

Bashaw, I ^ _^ 
Beshdw,/^^-' Years 

Besh^ngro, «., A one-year-old horse, a yearling. This 
word is also used with other numerals in stating a 
person's age ; so Pasp., Isi bish-u-^andj bershMgoro, 
He is twenty-five years old, which in the English 
dialect would be ' Yov see a bish^ta-pansh besh^ngro' 

Besomsiin, Besom-makers 

Beiirus, n., Parlour, the best room of a house ; cf, Vaillant, 
Gramm. Romm., buro, cavern 

Ti., I V. a., To sell. Pasp., bikndva 

Bikn6va, I do, or will, sell 
Bfkin^ssa,) ^, „ 

Bfkindssa,) ^^°" "^"^"* 
Bfkin^la, He sells 
Bfkindd, They sold 
Bfkindds, He sold 
Bfkinds, Let us sell 

Bfkinomdngro,N ax. \ 

Bfkom^ngro, } ^'^ ^^^^^^' \^^^ri^^^ hawker 



VOCABULARY, 59 

Bfknomus, «., Auction sale 
Bik6nyo,| adv.y Alone, unbegun, not done (ak6nyo, pok^n- 
Bik6nya,l yus). Pott, ii., 2>^<^, pokoinOy bokonOy quiet 

Muk l^sti bik6nyo. Leave it alone 

BfSSlO,) r^ ^ 1 

Bf k i ^•' Spur, rasp., busty a spit 

Bish, adj.y Twenty. Pasp., bish 
Bfshno, n.y Rain (brfshindo) 

Bauro bfshno, Hail 

Bfshn/«^, Raining 

Bfshn/;aj^ baiiro bar^, Hailing 
Bfsser, v,y To forget. Pasp., bistrdva 

Bfssad6m, I forgot 

Bfssadds, He forgot 
Bfsser, v,y To avoid (nfsser) 
Bfsser, v., To send. See next 
Bftcher, v,y To send, to sentence. Pasp., bitchavdva 

Bftcherinna, They send 

Bitchadds, He sent 

Bftchadi paiSdel, Transported ; lit., sent over. Pasp., 
bitchavdd 

Bftchama, «., Sentence, judgment 

Bftcham^ngro, «., A convict 
Bftto, in.y \ adj\y Small, little, thin, narrow, lean. ? French, 
Bftti,/., / petit. Sundt, bittatiy a bit 

Bftta ta bftta, Little by little 

Bitad^r, comp.y Smaller, less 
Bivin, adv,y Raw. Pott, ii., 406, Bivant masSy raw meat 
(taken by Pott from Zippel) 

Bfvano, adj,y Raw ^ 

Bfvan-kosht, Green-wood 
Blfie-^sss^ <idj\y Blue 

-Sfe^ yggi, n. pLy Toadstools ; lit, blue legs, because one 
variety (Agaricus personatus), much esteemed by 
the Gypsies as a delicacy, has blue stalks 
B6l)i, ) ^ 
B6bbi 1 ^'* ^^ (b6obi). Pasp., bdbi 



6o GYPSY-ENGLISH 



Baiiro- 



ro- ) 
TT^i • » I b6bbi, Broad-bean 

Grei-b6bbi, Horse-bean 

Bok, «., Hunger. Pasp., bok 

B6kalo, adj.f Hungry. Pasp., bokalS 

Baiiro b6kaloben, Famine 

Bok, ) 

Bovt / ^"^ L^^^> fortune. Pasp., bakht 

Bokalo, ) 

B6kv i ^^*' Lucky. Pasp., bakhtalo 

Ko6shko bok. Health, happiness 

Ko6shki b6k^, Happy 

B6kocho, «., Lamb (vdkasho, b6koro). Pasp., bakritchd 

B6koch^sto-pur, Tripe 

B6koro, ) 

B6kro i ^*' "^ sheep (b6kocho). Pasp., bakrd 

Bokr6,//., Sheep 
B6korom6ngro,\ 

B6krom6ngro, o, , /, / v 

B6kom6ngro, "" Shepherd (bars^ngri) 

B6kor6ngro, ' 
Bokr6V-peer6, Sheep's feet 
Ldvines-b6kro, Goat ; lit., Welsh sheep 
B61esko-dfwus, n,, CAristmas Day. Pasp., boldva, to bap- 
tize, to christen 
B6ngali-gdiro, n.y Rich man. Only heard once; ques- 
tionable; cf, Vaillant, Gramm. Romm., banik, 
richard 
B6ngo, adj,y Left, wrong, crooked, lame. Pasp., bangd 
B6ngo-wast, Left hand 
B6nges, adv,^ Wrongly 
B6ngo-grei, Spavined horse 
B6nnek, To lei b6nnek, to lay hold of. Pasp., bimeky 

handful 
Bo6bi, n,y Pea, bean (bobi). Pasp., b6biy bean 
Kaiilo-bo6bi^ Black bean 
Bo6bi b6shno, Peacock 



VOCABULARY. 6 1 

Bo6dega,j«., Shop (bo6rika). French, boutique; Italian, 
Bo6dika, / bott/ga ; Spanish, bodega 

Bo6degam6ngro, «., Shopkeeper 

Sfmmerm^ bo6dega, Pawnshop 
Boogdnya, «., A pock (bo6ko). Pasp., pukni^ abscess ; Pott, 
ii., 396 ; Mikl., i., 5 

Boog^nya^, //., Smallpox 
Bo6ko, «., Liver. Pasp., buk6^ intestine 

Bo6kesto-padni-gav,\ 

Bo6ko-padni-gav, I 

Bo6ko-paini, | «• /r.. Liverpool 

Book^sto-gav ' 

Bo6ko, n,y Smallpox (boogdnya) 

Bool, «., Rump. Pasp., bul 

Boolengri^.f, ) , *, , , , . 
Bo61iengri^.^,/ ^-^^^ Breeches, knee-breeches 

Bo61om6ngro, «., Contra naturam peccator 
Bool-ko6va, Chair 
Gro'vneski-bool, Beef-steak 
Bo6tno, adj,y Proud, boasting, swaggering ; Pott, ii., 

407 
Bo6mdlopus p6nsa rei. As* stuck-up as a lord ; lit., 

swaggering like gentleman 

Bo6tnus-, or bo6lfn^«j'-, moosh, A swaggering fellow 

Boot, ) 

T» /- • I adj.^ Much. Pasp., but 

Bo6todair, comp.y More. Pasp., buted^ 

O bootodafr, superL, Most 

Boot ado6sta. Very many, very much 
Bo6ti, ) 
Bo6tsi I ^'' ^^^^* ^^^P' ^^^^ 

Bo6ti, \ 

Bo6tsi,i^-T^^^"'' 

Bo6tiengro, ) _ . 

Bo6tsi6ngro,l ''■' ^^'^*"*' ^°'''^^" 

Bo6tiesto-Vclrdo, Knifegrinder*s barrow 

Bo6tsi-/«^ ^iSxOy Working man 



62 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Shov diwusdw too bo6tidssa, Six days shalt thou 
labour 
Bor, n,y Mate, friend. ? In too general use to be the common 

Eastern Counties provincial word 
Bor, n.y Hedge. Pasp., bdri, garden 

B6ryaw, //., Hedges 

Bordngri, «., Hedge-stake 
B6rlo, Pig. See Baiilo 
B6ro, Great. See Baiiro 
Bory6, Assizes. See Baury6 
Bosh,z/.,To fiddle. Tdisp.,dasAavdva,topla,yon anyinstrument 

Bosh, n., Fiddle 

B6shero, n., Fiddler 

B6sherus, «., Cough 

B6sherv6nna, They are fiddling 

B6shomdngri, n., Piper, fiddler, a fiddle, music 

B6shom6ngro, «., A fiddle, fiddler 

Wasto-b6shomdngro, n,, Drum 
Bosh, v,y To bark. Pasp., baskdva, to cry, call, sing 

Bosh^la, It barks 

B6shad6, They barked 

B6shno, «., Cock. Pasp., o basknS bashdl^ the cock crows 
Boshtdrdus, n,y Bastard (bastardo) 
B6shto,^ 

Bosht6, \ n.y Saddle (bdshto). Pasp., beshtSy sat 
B6shta,) 

Boiiri, n,y Snail (baiiri). Vaill., Gramm. Romm., buro 
Breedopen, n., Breed 
Brfshindo, «., Rain. Pasp., brishindd 

Brfsheno, adj.y Rainy 

Brfshindla, It rains 

^ishningy Raining 

^ls\\r\ing baiiro bari-, Hailing 

Baiiro bfshno. Hail 
Br6'gi^.f, n.y Knee-breeches 

Biimbaros, n.y Monkey. ? Bw.'s Span. Gypsy, bombardOy lion, 
and bomboiy foolish 



VOCABULARY. 63 

Bungaiitus, n,, Bung, cork 
Bur, n.y Gate 

Burk, n., Breast Pasp., drek 
Burkdari,//., Breasts 

CH. 

Chabi, n.y s. and pi, Child, children (chdvi). Pasp., tchavi 
Chdho, «., Coat (chiikka, cho6fa, cho6ko). ? Pasp., sharga, 
ridinghood, " probably Turkish chSha, cloth, which 
the Greeks call Taoyay — Extract from a letter 
from Dr. Paspati 
Chdinis, «., Time (chedrus). Pasp., keros ; '' Kotpo^y pro- 
nounced in Crete and Cyprus raaipoq" — Extract 
from a letter from Dr. Paspati 
Mi-diivel^sko-chdirus,) Heaven, universe, world, 
Do6vel6sto-chdirus, / eternity 
Givesto-chdirus, Harvest 
V^nesto-chairus, Winter 
Chal, n.y Fellow, chap 

R6mani-chcll, A Gypsy 

/-chaldw,^ 
R6mani l -chdlaw, > //., Gypsies 
(-chald, ) 
Chdlav, v., To touch, meddle (charvo). Pasp., tcAardva, to 

lick ; tchalavdvuy to beat 
Cham, n.y Leather, cheek, tin. Pasp., tchanty cheek ; Lieb., 

leather 
Chdrdoka, «., Apron (chor6va, to cover; jdrifa, jdrika, 
j6rjo;^a, jorj6ffa, shdrdoka, yirdooka, ydrdu;^). 
Pasp., utchardSy covered. Baudrimont ("Voca- 
bulaire de la langue des Bohdmiens habitant sur 
les pays Basques Frangais," Bordeaux, 1862,) has 
urukay mantle, and Francisque Michel (" Pay^ 
basque," Paris, 1857,) has «r^^^, cape, both con- 
jecturally referred by M. Ascoli (p. 157) to uraVy 
to dress 



64 GYPSY-EXGLISH 

Chira, ) v.^ To touch, meddle, tease (chalav). Pasp., tcha-- 
Chirvo/ rdva, to lick 

Chards^ Let us tease 

Chdrer opr^. To vomit 

Chiver, z/.. To betray, inform, tell, sed quare 
Chivo, w.,) «., Child. Pasp^ tchavS, m.; tckavt^ f.; 
Chivi, /,, ) tchav/, pi. 

Chavi, \ 

Chav4 f //., Children 

Chivi^,/ 

K6shno-chivi, Doll ; lit, wooden-child 

Mo6sh-chivi, Boy ; lit, man-child 

Chavorf, «., Chicken. See Pott, iL, 199, czarviy das 

Huhn ; dimin., czarvSri 

Che^rus, ) . , 

Cheer J ^'' Time (chairus). Pasp., keros 

Chei, «^ Lass, daughter, g^rl. Pasp., tchH 

Ch^iaw,\ 

Cheidw, \ pL, Girls. Pasp., tchaid 

Ch^iar, / 

Chein, n.. Moon (choom, shool, shoon). Pasp., tchon 

Chell^ maur6, //., Loaves (Ch611o). Lieb., zelo 

Ch^riklo, m,,\ ^ , , v 

Ch^rikli f \ ^'* ^^^ (chfriklo). Pasp., tchiruU 

Bauro-ch^riklo, m.y\ 
Baiiri-ch^rikli,/.. I Pheasant 

R6mani-r6ker/;s5^-ch^riklo, A parrot 

Chdriklesto-kair, Birdcage 
Chetiri, «., Knife (cho6ri). Pasp., tchoriy tchuri 
Chib, n,, Tongue (chiv, jib). Pasp., tchip 

Chi \ ^'' Nothing. Pasp., hitch 

Chfchikeni-dr6m, ' No thoroughfare,* a private road 
Chid4 They put. \ 
Chfdo,/./^;'/., Put. See Chiv 
Chid6m, I did put 

""hik, «., Dirt, filth, mud, ashes, sand, earth, soil, etc. Pasp., 
Uhik 



VOCABULARY. 6j 

Chflccsko chumba, Dunghill 

rhfic!' V ') ^^'' ^'"^y- P^sp., tckikali 
Chik^ngrkj-, «., ' Bankers,' who repair canal banks 
Chin, v., a. To cut, dig. Pasp., Ukindva 
Chin6va, I do, or will, cut 
Chin^la, He cuts 
Chinlo.) 
ChinV,}^"' 
Chind6m, I did cut 

^, , , ' ) «., Bill, chopper, cleaver, hatchet, 
Chinomengrn I - .-'- '^'^ ' 



-,, , , .1 knife, letter 

Chlnomongri, ) 

Potivo-chtnom^ngri, Plough 

Chfnoben, «., Wound, cut 

Chin tal^, or al6. To cut off, or down 
Chfngar, v.. To quarrel, scold, tear. Pasp., tckingdr, mis- 
fortune, the origin of a quarrel, brawl 

Chinger^nna, They quarrel 

Chingadas, He tore, quarrelled, etc. 

Chfngariben, «., Quarrel 
ChWklo, «., Bird (ch^riklo). Pasp, tcktrikU 

Chirikli, //., Birds 
Cbfti, «., Chain. ? German, kette 
Chiv, v.. To put, place, pour, etc. Pasp., IcMvdva, to throlnr 

Chiv6va, I do, or will, put 

Chivfe, ) ^, 

Chiv&sa,fT^°"P"**«^' 

Chtv^la, He puts, will put 

Chiv^nna, They put 

Chid6m, 1 , ,. , ^ 

Chivd6va.M'^'^P"* 

Chivdis,) tj 1 J » 

Chidis, IH'P'^'^J.P'" 

Chid^m, We put, did put 

Chldo, > 



66 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Yon chid6. They put 

Chiv it adr^ your sh^roy Remember ; lit, put it into 

your head 
Ckived upon, Cheated ; lit., put upon, imposed on 
Chivtd to wo6drus. Confined (of a woman) ; lit., put 

to bed 

Chiv, n,y Tongue (chib). Pasp., tchip 

Chfvom^ngro. ) 

Chfvom^ngri, / ^^ better, lawyer, knife . 

Ch{vlo-g6rjer, Magistrate, justice of the peace (chiivno- 
g6rier). Lieb., tschiwalo raiy der Polizei-direktor 
Chiv6ngro, n,^ Lawyer 

_- ., ' [ ^'^ Shoe, boot. Pasp., tchekmi (As) 

Ch6kaw,) , ^, , 

Chok^ngro, ) ^u i 

Chok^ngri. I «•' Shoemaker 

Gr6i-esto chok, Horseshoe 

N6i-esto ch6k. Hobnailed boot 
Ch6kka,| «., Coat (chiikka, chaho). Sundt, tjokka^ Skjoert ; 
Ch6xo, J Pott, ii., 178 

Pallani ch6kka. Petticoat ; lit., behind-coat 
Ch611o, adj,y Whole, entire (chell6). Pasp., tchalS, satisfied. 
Pott, ii., 256; MikL, i., 7 

Ch611o mauro. Loaf; lit., whole bread 

Chell6 maur6, //., Loaves - 
Chong, «., Knee, hill (choong). Pasp., tchang^ leg 

Ch6ngaw,//., Knees 
Choodli, ) n., voc. pL^ Mates ! (choovdli, chowdli). Pasp., 
Choobali, ) tchavdle 
Cho6fa, n,y Coat (chdho, cho6ko, chiikka, ch6kka) 

Chiiffai",//., Petticoats (sho6ba) 
Cho6fih6ni, n,. Witch (cho Vih6ni, cho6vikon). Pasp., tcho- 

vekhand, ghost 
Cho6kni, ) 
Chookn^e ) ^'' ^^^P (cho6pni). Pasp., tchukni 









I*' 



VOCABtJi:ARY. 67 

Cho6ko, «., Coat (chdho, etc.) 

Yog^ngri-cho6ko, Shooting-coat 
Choom, n,y Moon (chein, shoon, shool). Pasp., tchouy 

tchomiit 
Cho6ma, «., Kiss. Pasp., tchumi 

Cho6ma, v,y To kiss 

Cho6mer6va, I do, or will, kiss 

Cho6mad6m, I kissed, I did kiss 

Choomadds, He kissed 

ChoiSmaben, ^., Kissing 
Cho6mba,) «., Hill, chin (choonga, chiimba, diimbo). Pasp., 
Cho6mbo,) tumba, hillock 

Choomoni, n.^ Something (chiimoni). Lieb., tschomoni 
Cho6nga, /«., Hill (cho6mba, dumbo). Pasp., tAmba, hillock 
Choong, n,y Hill, knee (chong). Pasp., tchang, leg 
Cho6ngar, t/., To spit (chungar). Pasp., tchungardva 

Cho6ngarben, n,y Spittle 
Cho6pni, «., Whip (cho6kni). Pasp., tchupni 
Cho6ralo, adj,^ Bearded. Pasp., /c^^r, beard 

Cho<5ralo-mo6Y, Bearded face 
Cho6ri, «., Knife. Pasp., tchori, tckurl 

Bauro cho6ri, Sword 

Cho<5resto-gav, Sheffield 

Po6vesto-cho6ri, Plough 

r\\rsA •'/ ^\^^J'y Poor, humble (choro), Pasp,, tckorS 

Choore'no, ) ,. ^^ 
- Cho6rokno,r'^^' ^°°'' 

Cho6rokn4 //., Mumpers 
Cho6rom^ngro,) • 
ChcxSrodo. |«-.Tramp 

Cho6rod4 ) _ 

Cho<Srodon4K^-'^''*"P^ 

ChoiSroddr, comp,, Poorer 

Cho<5rones-gav, Wakefield ; lit, poorly town (poorly 

= weak = wake) 
Cho6rokono-lav, A mumper's word 



i 






68 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Choovdli, «., vocpLy Mates, companions (chawdli, etc.) 
Cho6veno, adj., Poor (chiiveno) 

Cho6venes, adv,, Humbly 
Cho6vikon, n,, Witch (cho Vih6ni). Pasp., tchovekhandy ghost 

Cho6vih6neski mdtchka. Bewitched cat 
Chor, «., Grass. Pasp., tchar 

Chor^ngri, adj,. Grassy, green 

Ch6r-dik/«^, adj,. Green ; lit., grass-looking 

Chor-6xtam^ngro, Grasshopper 

Ddndim6ngri-chor,//., Nettles 

Ch6rkeno-tem, Yorkshire 
I Chor, V. a., To steal. Pasp., tchordva 

Chor6va, I do, or will, steal 

Ch6rdo, ^ 

/-u^ J ' rP-P^^^-y Stolen. Pasp., tchordS 
Chordeno, 

Chordn^ 

ChSom^ngroj «' '^^'^^' ^^P" ^^"^ 
Chor, «., Son, lad. Pasp., tcho, child ; gor (As), boy 
Giv^ngro chor, Farmer's lad 
S Ch6ro, adj,y Poor (cho6ro). Pasp., tchord 

J Ch6rokon&, adv,. Humbly 

Ch6ro,\ 

Ch6ra, > n,, Plate, dish. Pasp., tchard 
Chor, ) 
Chor6va, I cover, wrap up. Pasp., utchardva 

Chor6va les parddl o^ yog, I will cover it up with 

ashes 
Chordds, They covered 
Ch6rda, v.. To 'cover' (in coTtu). Pasp., utchardva^ to cover, 

or tchordva, to pour ; tchoraib^y seminal fluid 
Ch6vono, adj.y Poor (chiiveno, cho6veno) 
Chovih6ni, «., Witch (cho6fih6ni, cho6vikon). Pasp., tcho- 
vekhandy ghost 
ChiiffsLf, n,pLy Petticoats (cho6fa, sho6ba) 
Chiikka, «., Coat (chdho, cho6ko, etc.) 



VOCABULARY. 69 

Chukk^ngro,) _ ,. 

Chukk^ngri, } ^" ^o^'^^^^^ 
Chdcnba, n,, Hill, chin (cho6mba, cho6nga, diimbo). Pasp.> 
tiimba, hillock 

Chiimba kilesko tern, Derbyshire 
Chiimoni, n,, Something (cho6moni). Lieb., tchomani 
Chtingar, z/., To spit (cho6ngar). Pasp., tchungardva 

Chiingar, «., Skewer, spit 

Chiiveno,) ,. ^ , , , 

Chiivni I ^'* ^oox (chooveno, chovono) 

Chiivno-g6rjer, Magistrate, justice of the peace 
(chfvlo g(Srjer) 



D. 

Dad, ) 

DddusJ ^-^ Father. Pasp., dad 

Daddi, voc, Father ! 

n H ' * I ^'^ ^as*a^^ y because * fathered * on 
n4Hi ; ^^ putatiye parent 

Po6ro-dad, Grandfather 

StfiTo-dad, Father-in-law 

Didesko kair. Father's house 

Mi dddeski bo6tsi^ngri, My father's servants 

Dan^ adv,y Than 

Dinder,\ 

Dand, \ v. ^., To bite. Pasp., dantdva 

Dan, ' j 

Ddndo,) ' . ^ , , 

Di 1 f//^^^* Bitten. Y^s^,^danto 

Dan, «., Tooth 

Cho6ro-bftto-ddndom^ngro, Mouse; lit., poor little 

biter 
Dindim^ngri-chor, Nettles ; lit, biting-grass 



70 GTPST'ZXGrLISH 

1ji.adf:rtntslcti, n^ Pepper 

Danorr.er^kri, n^ Mustard 

Dand/zr^-piihuai, Wasp ; lit^ btting-ffy 
Dash^ ^.^ Cup, Pasp^ /^*{ 

Dcy^das, , n^ Cup and saucer: lit., two cups, or 

Do^f -dash, / cuplike things 
D^ka See Dei 
XV, article. The 
Dc, See Del 

y> X . ' adj^ Dear 

Dei, «,, Mother. Pasp., eUi, ddi 

, , , > ^^^^ Mother's. Pasp., daidskoro 

l)6i2i, voc, Mother ! 

Bauri-dci, i 

PcKiri-deiJ Grandmoth^ 

St/ffi-dei, Mother-in-law 
Del, V. a,, To give, kick, hit, read (d^). Pasp., ddva, to 
give, kick, hit, speak 
D<5, To give, kick 
D6va, ) 
Del6va,Md^'^^^"^>S^^^>^^^- 

Del6va me^ro lav kdter mi-Do6vel, I pray; lit., I givQ 

my word to God 

D^la, 

Delila 

Deld6m,) , 

Di6m, 1 1 gave, etc. 

M<Sndi di6m, Wc gave 

Dids, He gave, forgave, etc. 

1)\Ah (Irovdn oprcS o wo6da, He knocked hard at the 

door 
Diiio, //., Gift; lit, given. Vsisp,, p. part., din6 
Di^, They gave 



[ He gives, will give, etc. 



VOCABULARY. 7 1 

Delomus-opr^, Writing 

Del-Z^-mdndi, Present ; lit., a give to me 

Pe^ro-d^lh*«^-tem, Lancashire ; lit., foot-kicking 
country 

D^lomengro, «., Parson, lucifer match, kicking horse 

D61om^skro, n.. Hammer 
Den^ adv., Then 
Desh, adj.y Ten. Pasp., desk 

Deshbar, Ten-pound bank-note 
. p&hto-hadri,) Eighteen-pence. VdiS^., desk-u-sktS, 

D&hti-k6rri, / eighteen , :. j. 

Desh-ta-y^k, Eleven. D. ta do6i, -trin, ^stor, -pansh, 
-do6i-trindw, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16. and so on;. do6i 
deshdw, 20 
Dfdakefj, n.pL, Half-bred Gypsies. See Ak6i 
Dids, He gave.. ^^^^^^ 
Diom, I gave, j . 

Dik, V. a.y To see, look. Pasp., dikdva 

Dik6va, I look, see 

Te dik6v avrf, dik6va, If I look out, I see 

Dik^ssa, ) 

T H*W^ 1 '^^^^ lookest, ye look, see 

Dikela, He sees 

Dik^la p6nsa raiini, She looks like a lady 
Dikt6m, ^ 
Dikto6m,j 
. Diktdssa, Thou didst see, ye saw 
Diktas, He saw, looked 
Dikds, Let us look 
Too diktds } Have you seen.? (Properly diktdn; see 

p. 37) 
Diktds k6meni.? Did you see anything? (Properly 

diktdn; see p. 37) 

Diktdna, They saw, (properly diktds) 

Dfkto, ) _ _ ..... 

D/k I ^' P^^^'* Seen. Pasp., dtkto 

Dik pdlla, z/., To watch, attend to ; lit., look after 



72 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Bingcskiy-diking', Diabolic, ugly ; lit., dcvil-looldn^ 
Ko6shko-dik/Vf^, Handsome, good-looking 
mdzk6is,/l. Half-bred Gypsies. See Akti 
Dflcom^ngro, n,. Looking-glass 
Door-dflcom^ngrOy Telescope ; lit., far-seeing thing 
Dflcomdigri, n.. Portrait, likeness, photograph, 

picture 
Dflcimus, > ^. , 
Dflcomusj "•• S'ght 

Wdfedo dflcomusti chei sas y6t She was an i^ly girl 
Dflclo, n,, Handkerchief, necktie, etc. Pasp., diild 

Badro-dflclo, Shawl 
Dfnilo, V 

Dfnvero, f 

Dinl^,//., Fools 

Dfnveres, adv., Foolishly 

Dfnveri, ad/.. Silly, foolish 

Dids. \ 

Dii, Dfno. > See Del, to give 

Di6m. ) 

Dfvio, ) 

Divioo / ^•' Mad, wild. Lieb., diwio; Mikl., L, 9 

Dfviaw,//., Lunatics 
Dfvio-kair, Asylum, madhouse 
Dfvi-gdiri, Midwife ; lit., madwife. Due to assonance 
Dfwus, «., Day. Pasp., divh 
Diwusdw,//., Days 
Ke-dfwus, \ 
K6wa-dfwus, > To-day 
Te-dfvvus, / 
K61iko-dfvvus, yesterday 
Kro6kingo-dfwus, Sunday 
Mi-diiverj-dfwus, \ 
Mol-dfwus, \ Christmas Day 

B61esko-dfwus, / 



VOCABULARY. 73 

Ovdvo-dfwus, To-morrow 

Trin-dfwus^j-pdlla-ko6roko, Wednesday; lit, three 
days after Sunday, and so on for the other days 
of the week 

Diwusly, adv., Daily 

Dfwus^ ro6zha, Daisy 
'Doi, adv^ There (adof, od6i). Pasp., otid; abl., otdr 
D6llB,,pron., Those (diilla). Pasp., odoU 
Dood, n., Light. Lieb., tiit 

Do6daw, ) 

Do6dyaw,M^' L'g^*'' "*^" 

Do6dom^ngro, «., Lantern 

Do6dom^ngro,l 

Do6deno, > ad/,, Light (lucidus) 

Do6dengi, / 

Do6dom&kri, «., Lucifer-match 

Do6desko mo61o, Will-o'-th'-Wisp 

Baiiro-dood, Lightning 

Mido6vel6sko-dood, Moon, lightning 

Dood-y6gengi-k6shterj, Firebrands ; lit, light-fire 
sticks 

Kaiilo-dood, Dark-lantern 
Do6dds, n,, Cup and saucer (dash) 
Do6dum, n,, Belly, womb. Pasp., dudiim, gourd 
Do6y, a^\, Two. Pasp., dtii 

Do6l-m^ndi, We two, or both of us 

Do6Y-l^ndi, They two, or both of them 

Do6y k611i. Florin, a two-shilling piece; lit, two 
things 

Do6Y-dash,) 

Do6dds, ) ^"P ^"^ ^^"^^^ ^^^^^ 

Do6y trin, Two or three 

Yon ghi^n avri do6Y ta do6x ketan^. They went out 
by twos {ghihi, for ghids) 
Do6ker, v,, To hurt, pain, ache. Pasp., dukdva, to feel pain 

Do6ker, «., An ache. Pasp., duk 

Do6ker6va, I punish 



74 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Do6kadds, He did hurt 

Dodkdidno, p, part,. Tormented 
Do6mo, «., Back. Pasp., dum(f 

Doom^ngro, \ n., Broken-backed horse ; doom- 

Doom6ksno-grei, / ^ksno for dootnhkano 
Door, adj. and adv,. Far, long. Pasp., dur 

Door, n,y Distance 

Door door d6sta,) - , r rr 

Doovorf-doovori, I ^ ^^^ ^^^S ^^y- ^^^ f^"" ^^ - 

Doordair, ) -^ ^ ^ , ,r 

Do6roder j ^^^-^'^ Farther. Pasp., rf«ri?^/r 

Door-dfkom^ngro, «., Telescope ; lit., far-seer 
Do6ri, n,, String, twine (d6ri). Pasp., dori 
Do6rik, z/., To tell fortunes, predict (diikker). Lieb., turke- 
wawa 
Do6rikapen, «^ Fortune-telling, prediction. Lieb., 
turkepenn 
Doosh, n, and adj,, Evil ; bad, unlucky, etc. Lieb., dosch 

Do6shalo, adj.. Unlucky, etc. 
Do6sta, adj, and «., Enough, many, much, plenty, very 
(ado6sta, d6sta). Lieb., docha ; Mikl., i., lO 
Door do6sta. Long enough 
'Do6va, pron,^ That (ado6va). Pasp., odovd 

'Glal doov^ski kair, In front of that house - • 

Diilla k611a, //., Those things • - 

Do6vel, n., God (diivel). Pasp., devH 

Do6velkan^sto, adj,, Divine, holy. Pasp., devlicand 
Mi do6vel^ski chdiros, Eternity, for ever, the World, 

universe ; lit, my God*s time 
Duvel^sko chdvo, Christ ; lit., God's Son 
Mi-do6vel&ko, adj.. Religious. Pasp., devliskoro 
Mi-do6vel^sko-dood, The moon 
. . Mi-^diivel^ski gair^ Saints 

Mi-duvelesko maiiromtegri, Jews ; lit, my God's 
_ slayers ... - 

Mi-do6vel^sko Wtta f61ki. Fairies; lit, my God's 
little people 



VQCABUJ-ARY. . 7,5: 

Diivel6ski Jo6vel, The Virgin 

Mi-d\ivel^sto-tem, Sky 

Mi-do6vel^sko-g6dli, Thunder ; lit., my God's voice 

Mi-diivel^sko-k^ri, Heaven 

Mi-do6vel^nghi,\ /- j» , 

Mi.do6vel&ti, / P^' "^y ^^^ " ^^^ 

Mi-diivel, By God ! 

Mi-diivel*j moosh. Clergyman 

Mi-diivePj dfvvus, Christmas Day 
Doovorf, A long way off. (Door^) ? A contraction of 
door-avr^e ; compare, however, Boht, part i. (adj) : "A 
lengthened form, -oro^ m.^ and ori, /, is much affected 
by both adjectives and nouns, e.g,^ ternOy young, ternorS^ 
ternoriy very young " 
D6rdi', interj., Lo, behold, see, look ! ? Pasp., otdr dik 
D6ri, n,y String, twine, riband, navel (do6ri). Pasp.,-^r/. - 
Dorio V, «., Ocean, sea, river (doyav). Pasp., dardv 
D63ta, adj, and n,. Plenty, etc. See Do6sta 

D6sta k6meni, A great multitude 

D6sta dosta beshdw, Very many years • 

D6sta ta d6sta, Enough and to spar« - . - 

D6va, pron,^ That, it. See Do6va 
D6va, I give. See Del 
Dovdl, ) 
Dovydl,K^''.^^^* Pasp., rf^r>/^ 

Doydv, n.y Sea (dorio V). Pasp., dardv 
Drab, ^., Poison, drug, medicine. Pasp., drab, herb, root, 
physic 

Drab^ngro,) _ . , 

Drab^ngri, i ^^ ^^^^^g^s^' ^^c^^r 

Tdtcho-drab^ngro, Doctor of medicine 
'Dral,/r^., Through (adrdl). Pasp., andrdl, from within -^ 
^T^xiyprep,, In (adr6). VdiS^.,andr^ 
Dirfllaw, n,pL, Berries, gooseberries (diiril) 
Drom, n,, Road, way, path, lane, street, etc., fashion; 
manner. Pasp., drom, road ; Mikl., i., 10 

Dromdw, //., Roads 



76 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Baur^ dr6maw. Highroads 

Baiiri-gdvesti-dr6maw, Streets ; lit, big town-roads 

Bftti-gdvesti-dr6maw, Lanes ; lit, little town-roads 

Dro6ven, adv,^ Slowly. Pott, ii., 318, dirwaniSy drawetty etc. 

Dro6veno,| 

Dro6ven I -^'^ tiresome, wearisome 

Drovdn, adv.. Hard, forcibly, slowly 

Diikker, v., To tell fortunes, predict (do<5rik), Lieb., turke- 

wawa 

Diikker6va, I tell fortunes 

DiikkenV?', ;/., Fortune-telling 

Dukkeriben, n,^ Fortune 

Diikkadno, p, part, Predicted 

Diilla ^ 

■pv /,,.'[//., Those (do6va). Vasp,, odovd ; pi,, odol/ 

Diimbo, n,. Hill, mountain (cho6mbo, etc.) Pasp., ttimia, 

hillock 
Diiril, «., Gooseberry (drfllaw). Lieb., Am/, a pea ; Pott, 
ii., 167 
Duril&ki-g6t, Gooseberry-tart 
Diivel, n,, God, sky, star. See Do6vel. Pasp., dev/l, God, sky 



E. 

£i, an ejaculation of woe, alas ! 
'Es, pron,, It (les) 

E6zaw, «.//., Clothes. Sundt, Beretning om Landstryger- 
folket, 1852 ; tsar, {pi), Klceder 

F. 
Fdirus, n,. Fair (f6ros) 

Grefesto-fafrus, Horse fair 
F^rradair, \ 

F^ttadair, >• adj,, comp,. Better. lAth., fedidir 
F^ttaddiro,) 

F^edafro to6ti. Better than you 



VOCABULARf. 77 

So kom6va ftterddir, What I want most 

O feterddir pl6xta, The best robe 
Filisin^ n., Hall, mansion. 'Lieh,, ^kssin 
Fino, adj.. Fine 
First'dLdiiiT, adj\ First 

First'3,Ailx o' lil^i. Spring ; lit, first of summer 
Fiz^ n,. Enchantment, charm 
FoUA (pron. fblci), «., Folk, people 
Follas^, \ 

FoUasdw, > «.//., Gloves. lAeh,,forhzzo ; Pott, ii., 394 
F611asitf J, ) 

Fon,/r^., From. Gierman, von 
Foozhadri, «., Fern 
Fordij ) 
Ford^) ^'' ^^ forgive (d^ del) 

Forgive-zsir, Forgive 

FardtXoness, «., Forgiveness 

F6ros, «., Market town (fafrus). Vasp., ftfros 

Baiilesto-f6ros, Pig fair 

F6shono, ad/\, False, counterfeit, imitation 

F6shono w6ngushLr, Fake rings; rings made of 

imitation gold 

Maw kair to6ti kek k6meni f6shono ko6kelo, Thou 

shalt not make any graven image ; lit, don't make 

to thee not any false doll 

Full, \ ^ 

Fool ) ^'* ^^^Sf excrement. Pasp.,/«/ 

FuU-vdrdo, Dung-cart 



G. 

This letter must be invariably pronounced hard, as in ^, and not as in gin. 

Gad, n,, Shirt. Pasp., g-ad 
Gddaw,//., Shirts 
Gidesto*bei, Shirt-sleeve 
Gad-kosht-ko6va, Clothes-peg 



78 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Gdiro, n,, Man. Only applied to gatijos, Pasp., kur ; gor 
(As), boy ; Sundt, goer {pi), Folk 
Gdiri, \ 
Gairi,}-^' Woman 

Gair4//., Men 

Pe^vlo-gdiro, Widower 

Pe^vli-gairi, Widow 

Vard^ngro-gairo, Miller 

Yek o' mi do6verj tdtcho gair^, An angel 

'Gal,"/r^., Before ^agdl, 'glal). Pasp., angUtly agdl 

Gdrav, ) 

pr I z/. ^., To hide. Y^sq,^ gheravdva 

Gar6v, I do, or will, hide 

Gdrido, \ 

Gdridn6, \p, part, Hidden 

Gdrer^^, ) 

Gdridnes, ) , _ , , . , , , ' 

P / \ adv,^ Secretly, hidden, unknown 

Gdrad6m,) 
Garav6m,}^^^^ 

• ^ Gdradds.) 

r , \ He hid 
Garavas, ) 

Gaiijo, I n., Stranger, English person, one who is not a 

Gaiijer,/ Gypsy. (G6rjo.) Pasp.,^i^i^ 

Gav, «., Town, village. Pasp., gav, village 

GavcLW,//., Towns 

Gav^ngro,v 

^ , • f «., Policeman 
Gavengri, ) * 

Bauro-gav, London 

Baiiro-b^resto-gav,) _ . " , 

Tj /I / . \ Liverpool 

Booko-paani-gav, j ^ 

St^ripen-gav, County town ; lit., prison town 

M^ndi jab yek gdver kdter wdver, We go from one 

town to the other 

Ghidn, You went. 

Ghids, He, she, they went. \ See Jal 

Ghi^n, They went. 



VOCABULARY. 79 

Ghil, V. a,, To sing (ghiv). Pasp., ghilidbava 
Ghfli, n,. Song (ghfveli). Pasp., ghili 
Ghdyawj, pL, Songs, broadsheets, handbills, news- 
papers 
Ghily^ngri, /^.//., Newspapers 

^, ., , j/./^r/., Gone. See Jal. Y^s^.y ghel6y gheU 

Ghfnjer,) v,y To count, reckon. Pasp., Ghendva; pass., 
Ghfnya, i ghenghiovdva 

Ghi6m, I went See Jal .....:- 

Ghiv, V. a,, To sing (ghil) * "^^ 

Ghiv6va, I do, or will, sing 

Ghfveli, «., Song (ghfli) 

Ghiv^nna, They sing 
Ghiv, «., Corn, wheat. Pasp., ghiv 

Ghiv^ngro,| 

Ghiv^skro, I ^-^ ^^^^^^ 

Ghiv6sto-chairos, Harvest ; lit., corn-time 

Ghiv&to-kair, Farmhouse 

Ghiv&to-sh^ro, Ear of corn 

Ghiv-poos^ngro, Wheat-straw stack 

Ghiv-poov, Wheat-field 

Lfvena-ghiv, Barley ; lit., beer-corn 
Ghiv, «., Snow (iv, hiv, shiv, yiv). Pasp., iv^ hiv, biv, vif 
*Glal,prep., Before (gal, agdl, agldl). Pasp., ang/dl, angdl 

P6shagUl, adv,y Opposite ; lit., close before 

Tdtcho-'glal, adv.y Opposite ; lit, right before 
G6dli, n,y Noise, dispute, quarrel, row, summons (giidfi, 
go6dli) 

Mi-do6vel^sko-g6dli, Thunder 
G6y, «., Pudding, pie, tart Pasp., g6iy a thick sausage 

G5']fa, //., Puddings 

G6]f6ngo-giinno, Pudding-bag 

P \\ «., Sack (giinno, kdnyo). Pasp., gonS 

Go6dlo, /«.,) ,. ^ ^ 

Trw^dr f ) -^'^ Sweet. Pasp., gudlo, gentle, sweets 



8o GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Go6dH, «., Sugar, summons 

Go6dlopen, «., Sweets, sweetmeats. Pasp., gudlip^y 
gentleness 
Go6roni, «., Bull. Pasp., guH, ox ; adj., guruvanS 
Go6shum, «., Throat 

G6rishiy trin-g6rishi, Shilling. Pasp., ghroshia, piastres, 
from the Turkish ghrush ; compare also German 
groschen ; Sundt, gurris ; Skilling; Pott, i., 52; 
Mikl., i., 13 
Gorjo, 'i «., Englishman, stranger, alien, gentile, any one who 
Gorjer,) is not a Gypsy. V3Lsp,y gadj'tf ; Mikl., i., 11 
G6rj i, /., Stranger. Pasp., gadj^ 
Gorj^,//., English persons. Gentiles. Y2sp,,gadj^ 
G6rjikana-drom, non-Gypsy fashion 
Gaiijikana jfnomus, Learning fit for an alien 
Boot gauj6-kani/J/>&-i see-ld kondw, They are all like 

Gentiles now 
G6rjikanes, \ 

G6rjokanes, > adv., English 
G6rjones, / 

Chiivno-I S^^J^^' Magistrate 
Paan^ngro-g6rjer, Sailor ; lit., water-gentile 
Poovdngri-g6rjer, Irishman ; lit., potato-gentile 
Yogdngri-g6rjer, Gamekeeper; lit., gun-gentile 
Gdzvero, adj.. Artful, sly. Lieb., godsw^ro ; Pasp., godiaU 

P , I «., Bam. lAf^.y granscha^ stable 

Grdsni, «./., Mare. Vasp.y grasni 

Grdsni-m^ila, She-ass 
Gre/nOy adjf.^ Green 
Grei, n. m., Horse. Pasp., grdi 

Greidw j ^'•' "°"^" 
Grei^ngro, n,y Horsedealer, groom 
Gr6iesto-chok, Horseshoe 
Gr6iesti-ch6;^aw, //., Horseshoes 



VOCABULARY. 8 1 

Gr^iesto-chiikni, Horsewhip 

Grdiesto-fafrus, Horse-fair 

Gr^iesto-k6ppa, Horse-rug 

Gr^iesko-men^ngro, Horse-collar 

Gr^iesto-prdsterm^, Horse-race 

Bar^ngro-) . ^ ,, 

Bar^skro- } §''«'• S*^"'°" 

Delomdngro-grei, Kicking horse 

Doom^ksno-grei, Brokenbacked horse 

Gninchi-gninchi-grei, Insatiable horse ; by onoma- 

topcea 
Gr&ti, «., The mayor of a town. (The form of this word is 

the dative oigrei, but it is probably a corruption 

oigrdsni) 

r A \^'* Cow. Pasp., gurtivnS 

Gro6venesko-mas, Beef 

Mo6shkeni-gro6vni, Ox, bull ; lit., male cow 

Gro6vni ro6zha. Cowslip (flower) 
Gr6v, «., Bull. Pasp., guruv 

Grovneski-bool, Beef-steak 
Gudli, «., Noise (g6dli) 
Giinno, «., Sack, bag (g6nno). Pasp., gon6 
Gur, «., Throat (kauri,kur, kdrlo). Pasp., kori; Mikl, i., 13 



H. 

This letter is in many instances interchangeable with K, and in such cases is a 
relic of an original aspirated K^ e.g., hol^xA kol^ to eat {khala^ Pasp.) 

Had, V, a., To raise, lift (dzer). Lieb., hadawa 
'Himyar, «. //., Knee-breeches (rokimyas) 
Hand, v. cUy To bring (and). Pasp., andva 

Hdnikos i ^'^ Well. Pasp., khanink 

HArri, «., Penny (h6rro, haiiro, k6rro). Lieb., cheiro 
Hatch, v.y To stand, halt, stay, stop, etc. (atch). Pasp., 
atchdva, to remain 

6 



§2 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Hatch-paiili-kinni, Guineafowl ; lit., stay-back fowl, 
because provincials call them 'comebacks/ from 
their cry 
Hav, z/., To come (av, Vel). Pasp., avdva 
Haw, particle^ ? eh 

Too shanafs ndfelo wAver dfwus, haw ? You were ill 
the other day, eh ? 
Haw, v,y To eat (hoi, kol). Pasp., klidva 

Hawm&kro, «., Table 
Haurini, adj,^ Angry, cross, savage {h6ino, k6rni). Pasp., 

kholindkoro 
Hauro, n^ Copper (hdrri, h6rro, k6rro) 

Haiirongo, adj\^ Copper (h61ono) 
Haiiro, «., Sword. Pasp., khanrS 

Hdka, n,, Haste (y^ka, h6kki). Pott, ii., 173, $uggests siky 
quick as the etymon 

-^ , ' I ;/., Leg, wheel. Lieb., hero. Pasp., ghety thigh 

Herd, //., Wheels 

WArdesko-herd, Cart-wheels 

Herdngri^j, «.//., Leggings 

Hdrengro-mdtcho, Crab ; lit, legged-fis^ 

Hev, «., Hole, window, grave (kev). Pasp., khev 

Hdvaw, \ 

Hdvyaw, > //., Holes, windows 

Hdvyawj,/ 

Yiivly, ) Holy. From the asspnance of Hole and 

Hdveski, ) Holy 

Mo6sheno-hev, Armpit 

Hinder,! _ /. . , v « ,, ., 

Hind ) ^*' C^icare (kinder). Pasp., klienddva 

Hfndo,\ ,. ^. 

Hfndi > ^*' -Dirty, wretched, squalid, filthy 

Hfndi-kair, Privy. Pasp., kk/ndi 
Hfndi-kdka,rdtchi, Parrot ; lit, dirty magpie 
Hfndo-tem, | Ireland. } cf. Pasp., hlndyemi, the 
Hfndi-temdskro>/ end of the world 



VOCABULARY. 83 

Hfndo-k6wa, A coarse expression sometimes used 

for mustard ; cf. miiterim6ngeri 
Hfndi-tem^ngro, Irishman 
Hfndi-temdngri-gair^, //., Irishmen 
Hfndi-tem6ngri k6ngri, Catholic Church ; because 
so many Irish are Roman Catholics, or, in com- 
mon parlance, Catholics 
Hiv. n.y Snow (iv) 

Hoax, z/.. To cheat (h6kano). Pasp., khokkavdva 
H6ben, «., Food, victuals, ea:tables (h61ben, k6ben). Pasp., 
kkab^ 
H6ben-chiiros, Supper-time 
H6ben6ngro, ;;«.,| u yy c a 

H6bendngri,/., / «' ^"^^^ ^"^ ^*^^ ^^"^ ^^^ 
H6ben6skro, ^., Table 
Baiiro h6ben^skro, A glutton ; lit., big eater 
Hodis, He ate. See Hoi 
H6djerpen; «., Gonorrhoea (h6tchopen) 

WciA^ ' \ ^ ^^^* eaten. See Hoi 

H6mo, adj\ Angry (bono, etc.) Lieb., hoino ; Mikl., i., 12 
H6xnomus,) . 
H6Yben. / «" ^"S^""' vexation 

H6W, /Ve'^^ 
HoYn^w^, adj.. Angry 

TT^ • ' [ «., Lie, falsehood (ho6kapen, hoax) 

Tj /^ / [ «i, Liar, lie ; <xdj,, false. Pasp., khokhavnS 
Hokan6,//., Lies 

H6kter > ^'^ "^^ jump (6%ta). Pasp., ukhkidva, to arise, get 

Hok, ) "P 

H6kki! Look! Here! (heka, y6ka)» Pott, li., 173 
Hoi, v.^ To eat (haw, kol). Pasp., kkidva, to eat; ^4a^, 
eaten 



84 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

H61a, He eats 

Hol^ssa, Thou eatest, you eat 

Hod6m, I ate 

Hodds, He ate, he has eaten 

Hod^, ^ ^^ 

Hod^nj ^^^y ^^^ 

H6dno,) ^ 

H61W, I ^-^^^-^ ^^*^" 

H61ben, \ 

H61oben, > «., Food (k6ben). Pasp., i/tai/ 

H6ben, ) 

H61eno, \ 

H61ono, > «., Landlord 

Hol&kro,/ 

HcSIomus, n.y Feast, supper. VailL, p. 70, Andeas o 

kantoSy On a servi ; p. 71, To hamos pe meseliy Mets 

le plat sur la table 
Bauro-h61om^ngro, Glutton 
Baiiro-h61om6ngro-jo6kel,) -.. .. .. , . . , 

Badro-h61om Jro-jo6kel,l W°>^' Lt. b.g-eat. ng dog 

L61o-h61om6ngri, Radish 

Grdi-esko 161o-h61omengri, Horse-radish 
H61ono, adj., Copper (haiirongo) 
Honj, n., The itch 

Honj, v., To itch. Pasp., khdndjiovava 

H6njed6m, I itched 

Hdnjified, adj\ Mangy 
Ho'no, adj\, Angry, cross, etc. (h6ino, haiirini, k6rni). Lieb., 

Aoino 
Ho6fa, n., Cap, captain (ko6fa). Dr. Paspati says in a 

letter, " from the Greek Kov<f>ui, a cap " 
Ho6kapen, «., Lie, falsehood {h6;^aben). Pasp., khokham- 

nib^, khokkaimb/ 
iio6\dLWtts,n.pL,Stoc\dngs{oiilavers). "Lieb,, cAo/ib; Mikl.,i.,4 
Ho6ra, «., Watch (6ra). Pasp, <fra 



VOCABULARY. S^ 

jj , .'!«., Penny (hdrri, k6rro, haiiro) 

Posh-h6rri, Halfpenny 
Shoo-kh6rri, Sixpence 
D^sto-h6rri, Eighteenpence 

Hotch i ^' ^'* '^^ burn (kdchar). Lieb., chadschewawa 

H6tcher6va, I do, or will, burn 
H6tcher^la, It burns 
H6tchedo, /. /a:r/., Burnt 
H6tched4//., Burnt, also They burnt 
H6tched6m, I burnt 
H6tchedds, He burnt 
H6tcheropen,\ 

H6tcheroben, V n.^ Gonorrhoea (h6djerpen) 
H6tchopen, ) 
H6tchi-wftchi, Hedgehog. VailL, Gramm. Romm., Hoc' a, 
^pic, pique ; koc'aviga, pore, ^pine, hdrisson ; hoc'lo, 
heriss^ piquant 
H<5tcher m^, I said. An irregular verb ; used in narration, 
like 'quotha.' VailL, hiotosarao^ jeter les hauts 
cris ; Pasp., khuydzava, to call, cry to any one 
H6tchi-yov, He said 
H6tchi-y6l, She said 
H6tch'ov, He said, I said 
H6va, I eat. See Hoi 

I. 

I,/., def. art.. The. Pasp., i 
Yngdnies, n.pL, Welsh Gypsies, i Ingrams 
Iv, «., Snow (ghiv, hiv, shiv, yiv). Pasp., iv, etc. 
Iv-bar, Snowball 



J. 

lifri J ^'» Such. Pasp., asavkS 



86 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Maw kel jifri g6dli, Don*t make such a noise 
Kek na kom6va jdfri tandw si k61i, I do not like 
such places as these 
Jal, v., To go (jaw, jil, jol, ghflb). Pasp., djdva 

JAla, He goes 

Jal6m m^ndi, We will go 

Yov te jal, That he may go 

Ghi6m, I, or we, went 

Ghids, He went 

Ghidn, Ye went 

Ghil6, They went 

Ghflo, /. part., Gone. Pasp., g-^e/tf 

Jas m^nghi parddl k61a poovydw. Let us go ovier 

those fields 
]iled, Went 

Jal pAlla, To follow ; lit., go after 
Jal shookdr. Go softly 
JAmba, n,, Toad (j6mba). Pasp., zdmba, frog . i \/KAy 

Jirika,} ^*' -^P^^" GorJ<iffa, etc.) 

Jas, Let us go. j 

Jdssa, You go./ ^««JaA 

J^y^, V,, To go (jal, etc.) Pasp., djdva 

Jaw paiili, v., To return, go back 
'J^w, adv,y Thus so (ajdw). Pasp., adjdi, yet, still, again ; 
avekd, thus 

'Jaw see ta *jaw see. Amen ; lit, so it is and so 
it is 

'Jaw mdndi. So. do I 
Jeer, n., Rump. Pasp., ghiiry groin 
Jib, n.. Tongue, language (chiv). Pasp., djib (As) ; tchip 
Jfdo, adj\, Alive, lively. See Jiv 
Jil, v., To go. See Jal 



VOCABULARY. 87 

Jin, v., To knaw. Pasp., djindva 

in6va,| 

. / f I know 
inaw, ) 

Kek na jin6m m6, / don't know (? jindw m^) 

fin^ssa. Ye know, thou knowest 

inda. He knows 

in^nna, They know 

ind6m, I knew 

inddssa, Thou didst know, you knew 

indds^ He knew, they knew 

{vXoy p. part, Known 

fnomeskro, adj,y Wise, clever, knowing, sharp, 

'fly* 

fnomeskro,) a 1 . 

. . }■ «., A knowing person, wise man 

{nom^skri, //., Wise men 
Jiv, v., To live. Pasp., djivdva l>^ *^^ ^^^^ 

'iv6va, I live 

iv6ssa, Thou livest, ye live, thou shalt live 

[ivda, He lives 

iv^nna. They live 

ivdds. He lived 

fvdo,| 

fvo, \adj\y Alive, living. Pasp.,/./^xr/., djivdd 

{do, ) 

fvoben, «., Livelihood/life. Pasp., djib^ 

iv apr^, v.y To live uprightly 
Job, «., Oats (jov). Pasp., djov, barley ; MikL, i., 47 

J6b-poos^ngro, Oat straw stack 
J5'l-ta, A signal-cry, the meaning of which is obsolete. 
} Bryant, shulta, here (sed q., shulta = shoonta, 
hear!), Leland, Engl. G., p. 22y, jdter 
Jol, z/., To go. See Jal 

J6mba, «., Toad (jdmba), Pasp., zdmba, a frog ; Mikl., i., 47 
J6ngher, v.. To awake. Pasp., djangdva 

"I ^ '\ n. m,, Dog (ydkel). Pasp., djukil 



or 



88 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Jo6kli,/., Bitch. Pasp., tchukU 

Kan^ngro-jo6kel, Greyhound ; lit,, hare-dog 

Vesh-jo6kel, Fox ; lit., wood-dog 

Baiiro-h61om^ngro-io6kel ) .,, ,- ,. , . . , 

T, t i_/i ^1 • /I ,'f Wolf ; litjbig-eatingdo 
Baiiro-h61om&kro-jo6kel, J » > & & 

Kralisfs badro bdleno jo6kel, Dandelion (flower) ; 
lit., Queen's big hairy dog 
Jo6va, n., Louse. Pasp., djuv 

]oov6,/f/,, Lice 

Jo6vli, ad/,, Lousy. Pasp., djuvald 
Jo6vel, «., Woman. Pasp., djuv^l 

]o6vydiVfypl.y Women 

Jo6vni, adj\, Feminine, female. Pasp., djuvlicand 

Jo6vni-k611aw, //., Women's clothes 

Jo6visko-mds,| Mutton ; lit, female meat; or, 

Jo6viko-mas, j The flesh of a cow which has died 
in calving 

Jo6vioko-st'^^4di, Bonnet ; lit, female hat 
Jorj6ffa,) «., Apron (jdrifa, chard6kka, etc.) Bohtlingk, 
Jorj6;^a,/ Part i., p. i^.jduddrdka, shawl 
Jov, «., Oats (job). Pasp., djov, barley 
J6va, I go. See Jal 
Jtistdk kondw. Just now 



K. 

This letter in some words is interchangeable with '^^ and, in such cases, is a 
relic of an original aspirated *i,' e.g., kol, holy originally k-hol, to eat. 

Kadfni, adj,, In foal (kdvni). Pasp., kabni 

Kdchar, ^., To burn (h6tcher). Lieb., chadschewawa ; Pasp., 

kizdizava, to take fire 
Kair, «., House. Pasp., ker 

l^^Axk^ypLy Houses 

Kair^ngro, «., Housedweller, housekeeper 

Kairiko-tan, Brickfield 

^ \c adv,y At home. Pasp., ker^ 



VOCABULARY. 89 

Chfrikl6sto-kair, Birdcage 
Ghiv^sto-kair, Farmhouse 
Hfndi-kair, Privy 
Krdlisko-kair, Palace 
Lo6dopen-kair, Lodging-house 
Kair, v, a., To do, make, etc. (k^rav, kel). Pasp., ke- 
rdva 
Kair6va,x 

Y^ \i I I make, do make, I will make, or do, etc. 

Kerdw,' ^ 

Ker^ssa,^ 

K*6ssa, \ Thou makest 

Ker&, ) 

Kair61a,v 

Kerala 

^ . . ' [■ He, she, it, does, or will, make, do, etc. 

K61a, ' 

Kair^nna,) ^, , , 

Ker^mia, ) ^^^^ "^""^^^ ^^"^^' ^*^- 

K6do, y 

Kafrdo, y/./^xr/., Done, made. Pasp., kerdd 

KdiiredJ 

Te k^rav te^ro drom. To make thy way 

Ked6m, I did, I made, I did do, I have done 

Kedds, ) 

Kerdds.) "^ ""^^^^ 

Kedds wdfedo, He sinned, he suffered ; lit., he did 

bad 
Kairddn, Thou hast cooked, done 
Yon kerd^, They cooked 
Ked6 a badro g6dli. They made a great noise 
Kerds m^nghi. Let us cook, make, dance, play 
Kair posh. To help ; lit., do half 
Kair tdtcho. To cure; lit., make right 
Kiired adr6. Enclosed, fenced in 
Kdiropen, n., Doings, dealings, actions 



90 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

K^riben, ) t> i^ . j . 
K^rimus,} "' behaviour, domg 

KAirom^ngro,) ^ ^ , 

T- , , ^ y «., Creator, maker 
Keromengro, ) 

Kal-k^limus-tem, Cheshire ; lit., cheese-making 

country 

TT^/.i ' [ a^/r., Silken. Vdisp., keskanS 
KAisheno, ) -^ '^ 

Kdkardtchi, «., Magpie. Pasp., karakdskka, kakardshka 

Hfado-kdkardtchi, «., Parrot ; lit, dirty magpie 
Kal, «., Cheese. Pasp., kerdl 

Kal^ngri, «., Buttermilk, whey 
Kdl-mdrekli, Cheesecake 
KAlesko- \ 

Kal-kdimus- > tem, Cheshire, as if Cheese^xx^ 
Kal-k^h*//'- ) 

Chiimba-kdlesko-tem, Derbyshire; lit, hill-cheese- 
county 
Kdliko, «., Yesterday, to-morrow (k61iko) 

L6va l^ndi to mdndi'j h6ben adr^ kdliko saiila, I will 
have them for breakfast (lit., to my food) (in) to- 
morrow morning 
Kdliko ko6roko, Last Sunday 
Kam, //., Sun. Pasp., kam 

O kam see opre (or, Atch^rf opr^), The sun has 

risen 
O kam see hh^ed (or, b^sh^^ tal6). The sun has set 
Kdmora,\ «., Chamber, room. Lieb., kamdra; see Mikl., 
Kam6ra,j i., 17; Pasp., in a letter, says " Greek /co/Li€/>a, 

from KOL^apa, a vault *' 

-_ ' \ v., To stink. Pasp., kanddva 

Kan, ) 



'I «., A stink, unpleasant smell 
Kan, ) 

Kan61a, It stinks 



VOCABULARY. 9 1 



■ adj.y Stinking 



Kdnlo, 

Kdnelo, 

Kanloo, 

Kanl^,//./ 

Kdnlo-po6runia, Garlic ; lit., stinking onion 
Kan, «., Ear. Pasp., kann 

K^naw,//., Ears 

Kan^ngro,) 

Kanengn, / 

Bauri-kan^ngri-mooshdw, //., Hemes ; lit., big-hare- 
men 

Kanengre,//., Hares 

Kan6ngro-jo6kel, Greyhound 

Kan^ngro-moosh, Gamekeeper 

Kan^ngro, \ 

Kan^ngri, > «., Earring 

Kdnom^ngroJ 

'Sho6ko kan^ngri. Deaf person 
KcLnna, adv,^ When, now (k6nna). Pasp., kdnna 

Kdnna yuv sas lelk^ opr6. When he was arrested 

Kdnna sig, Immediately (kendw sig) 
Kdnni,| «., Hen, fowl. Pasp., kagni; hiobich, ^acAnm. See 
Kd^niJ Mikl.^ i., 16 

Hatch-padli-kdnni, Guineafowl, called ' comebacks ' 
by provincials, from the cry 
Kdnyo, «., Sack (g6no). Pasp., ^^w J 
Kdrlo, n,, Throat (kur, gur). Pasp., kur/d 
Kas, n,, Hay. Pasp., kas 

Kas^ngro, «., Hayrick 

Kdsoni, n., Billhook 
Kdter,^ prep., To, unto, at. Pasp., kdtar^ from where, 
Kdtar, \ whence ; katdr, from ; akatdr, from here ; okatdr, 
Katdr,/ from there. Lieb., ^^^//^, hither 

•tT , • ' f ^-i Scissors. Pasp., kat 
Kdtsi^j, ^ ^ 



92 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

KAteni, \ 

KAtenes, > adv., Together (k^tan^, /it7-ketan6). Pasp., ketatU 

Kdten^, ) 

Kaiilo, /«.; Kauli,/./ Kaul^,//., Black. Pasp., ^^x^ 

Kaiilo, «., Common, heath, a term which is said 
to have originated with the large black waste 
lands about Birmingham and the Staffordshire 
Potteries 

Kadloben, n., Blackness 

Kadlom^skro, n,. Blacksmith 

Kaiilomeskro-ko6va, Anvil ; lit., blacksmith- thing 

Kaiilo-bo6bi, Black bean 

Kaiilo-dood, Dark-lantern 

Kaiilo-gav, Birmingham, London ; lit, black town 

Kaiilo-tem, ' The Black Country/ either Manchester, 
Birmingham, the Staffordshire Potteries, or Lan- 
cashire 

Kaiili-rauni, Turkey ; lit., black lady 
Kaur, z;., To shout, call (kor). } Pasp., tchdrdava 
Kaiiri, «., Penis (k6rri) 
Kauri, n,^ Neck (kur). Pasp., koH 
Kdvak^i, This here 
Kdvod6i, That there 

Kdvni, adj,, In foal (kaifni). Pasp., kabni 
'Kdvi, «., Kettle (kekdvi) 
Kedds, He made. See Kair 
Ke-dfvvus, «., To-day 
Kddo, /. part. Made. | g^^ ^^^.^ 
Ked6m, I made. / 
Kei, adv,. Where. Pasp., ka 
'Kei, adv,, Here (akei) 
Kekdvi, «., Kettle ('kdvi). Pasp., kakkdvi 
Kek, adv,. No, not. t Pasp., kan^k, none 

K6ker, adv,, No ; adj.y None 

K^kero, adj,, None 

K^kera mdndi, ) . , ^ ^ i • 

K^ker mdndi, 1 ^""^ """^ ^ ^ ^^ emphatic negation 



VOCABULARY. 93 

K^ker adr^ lin, Empty ; lit., none in them 
Kek-k6mi, adv.y Never, no more 
K6k-kom, V,, To hate ; lit, not-Iove 
Kek-k6meni, None, nobody, no one (k6meni) 
Kel, z/.. To do, act, play, dance, make, cook, etc. (kair). 

Pasp., kerdva, to make ; keldva^ to dance 
Kel6va, I will make 
K^la, It will do 

Kel^la pdias, It is playing ; lit., it makes fun 
KelW, Made 
Kelh«^, Dancing 
K^Iopen, n,^ Spree, dance, dancing, ball. Pasp., 

keliy 
K^lomdngro, «., Doer, performer 
Spingadro-k^lom^ngro, Skewer-maket 
Kdlimus, «., Play. Vaill., kelitnas' 
Kal-kdlimus-tem, Cheshire ; lit, cheese-making 

country 

^ ' I adv.y Now (kAnna). Pasp., akand 

Ken4w-sig,'Just now, immediately (kdnna-sig) ; lit., 
now soon, or quick 
K^psi, «., Basket (kfpsi) 
K^rav, To cook.) o Tr • 
Kerdw,Ido. f ^"" ^^''' 

^^, .'I adv.y At home. Pasp., keri 
Ken, ) 

K^riben, ) ,5 , . ^ x 

^.. . \ Behaviour. 
Kerimus,J 

Ker^nna, They make. See Kair 

Keressa, Thou makest, etc., 

K^rmo, «., Worm (kfrmo), Pasp., kermS 

Ker6va, I do. See Kair 

K&ser, «., Care ; v.y To care 

K^sser^la, He cares 
K6ster, z/., To ride (kfster). Pasp., uklistdy mounted 

Kesterdds, He rode 



94 GYI^Y-ENGLISH 

Kesterm^iTgro, «., Jockey 

f ^^^j Together (kdteni). Pasp., ketane 
Ketanes, ^ 

K^v, /^., Hole, window (hev): Pasp., kkev 
Kil, «., Butter. Pasp., ^/7 

Kil-maiiro, Bread and butter 

Kil-k6ro, Buttercup (flower) 

Kil-pfshum, Butterfly 
KflH, ft.; Earring: Pasp., tckmi 
Kin, z^.. To buy. Pasp., kindva 

Kind6m, I have bought 

Kindis, He bought 
Kfnder, t/.. To relieve the bowels (hfnder). Pasp., khen- 

ddva 
Kfndo, adj., Wet, sweaty. Pasp., tunde (As). Pott, ii., 

103 
Kfnger, v., To tease, bother, weary, vex. Pasp;, kfdniovava^ 

to be tired 

Kfnno,\ 

TT/ •' [•/./^^/., Tired, weary. Vsls^,, kkinS 

Kinf,' J 
K{psi, «., Basket (k^psi) 
K{rmo, «., Worm (k^rmo). Pasp., kerntS 
Kfsi, /^., Purse. Pasp., kisi 
Kfsi, adj.. Much ; sar kfei, how much. Lieb., giz^i 

Sdvo kfsi, What a lot of 
Kfster, v,y To ride (k^ster). Pasp., uklistd, mounted 
Kftchema, «., Inn. Lieb., kertschimma. See Mild., 1., 19 

Kftchemdw,//., Inns 

Kftchem^ngro, «., Innkeeper 
Kl^rin, «., Key. Pasp;, klidl 

Klfs"n"'} «• *"** ''•• ^^ 
Klfsindw, //., Locks, a Gypsy tribe 
Klfsomdngro, n.^ Bridewell^ lock-up, police-nation, 
rabbit-trap 



VOCfABULARY. 95 

Klfsi, «;, Box 
K*naw, adv,y Now (keniw) 
Ko, pron,^ Who (fcon). Pasp., kon, ka 
K6ko, «., Uncle. Pasp., kak 

^ .- 1 S ^'^ Bone, rib, thigh (koko61us). Pasp., kSkkalo 

K6kero,\ 

Koker6, > adj,. Self, lonely, alone. Pasp., kSrkor^^ alone 

K6keri,') 

Koker4//., Selves 
K6kerus, «., Week (ko6roki, kro6ko, etc.) Pasp., kurko 
Koko61us, «., Bone (kokdlos). Pasp., kSkkala 

*K61yaw,//., Bones^ 

Ko6kelo, n,, Doll. Lieb., gukkli 
Kol, z/., To eat (hoi, haw). Pasp., khava 

K6ben, «., Food, victuals, eatables (h6ben, h61ben). 
Pasp., khabi 
K61iko, \ n,y Yesterday (kdliko). Pasp., korkoro, 

K6Hko-dfwuSi/ kSlkoro, alone ; Lieb,, kokeres, retired, 

alone 

.K61iko-*saiila, To-morrow morning 
K611a,) n,,s, and//., Thing, things, shillings (k6wa, ko6va). 
K611i, ) Pasp., kovd. This is really a plural form ; compare 
^kova^ this, and *do6va^ that 



S^'^V'*' ™"^^' ^*'""''^' 



Do6i-k611i, Florin, two-shilling piece 

Jo6vni-k61Iaw, Woman's clothes 

Mutten«^-k611a, Urinal 

Pansh-k611a, Crown, five-shilling piece 

Pansh-k61enghi-yek, A five-shilling one 

Prdaster/«g--k611i, Railway train 

Wdfedi-k611i, Misfortunes ; lit, evil things 
*K61yaw, n, pL, Bones (koko61us) 

Kom, v,y To love, owe, wish, desire, want, like, etc. Pasp., 
kamdma 

K6mer, v,, To love 



I 



)• 



■ \ 



fj 96 GYPSY-ENGLISH 



^S 



r 1 



1' . 

f ■ 



Kom6va, I do want, I want, like, wish, etc. 

{•' \c ^ ) ^^^ '^^^' ^'^^^ lovest, thou wantest 

;- Kom^s too ? Do you like ? 

J, Kom^la, He wants, or will want, he likes 

; ^ Kom^nna, They wish 

'/• Kom asir, imperat. Love thou 

;:• K6moben, «., Love, friendship, mercy, pity 

V K6momus, «., Love 

K6mom^skro,\ n /- . ., 

K6melo, ^ ^'^ ^^^^"' ^ ^^P^^ ^"^^ 

K6momuso, ^ 

K6momusti, r idj^*.. Loving, kind, dear 

K6melo, f 

K6melo-g4iro, Friend 

Komyiw,//., Friends 

K6myawj, //., Lovells. See above 

Kek-kom, v. a,. To hate ; lit, not love 
K6meni, adj,^ Some, somebody (cho6meni, ktimeni) 

Kek-k6meni, None, nobody, not any 

D6sta-k6meni, A great multitude 
K6mi, adj.y More. Pott, ii., 90 

K6modair, comp,. More 

Kek-k6mi, adv.. Never, no more, not again 
Kon,/r^«., Who (ko). Pasp., kon^ ka 
Kon, adv,y Then, therefore 

Besh to6ki *1^ kon. Sit down then 
Kon, Sor-kon, All, every. Mikl., ii., 35, sekon; Vaill., se kano; 
Mikl., i., 46 

S6r-kon k61H, All things, everything 
Konifni, \ 

Konaifi, V «., Turnip (krdafni) 
Konifia,//.,) 

Gr^iesko- \ 

Baulesko- > konadfi. Beetroot 

B6kro. J 
K6ngali, «., Comb. Pasp., kangU 



VOCABULARY. 97 

kdngri lil, Bible 
Ko6fa, «., Cap (ho6fa) 

Ko6keIo, «., boll, goblin (koko61us). Lieb., gukkli 
Ko<5ko, «., Week (ko6roko) 

Ko6njon^s, adv.. Secretly, unknown ; ? connected with 
Ko6nsus, a comer. See also Bik6nyo, Ak6nyo 

^ , ,.'!■«., Corner. \Ji^,^ guntsch 

Koor, v.y To fight, beat, strike, knock, etc. Pasp., kurdva 

Koor6va, I do, or will, fight 

lCo6rdno, /. party Beaten 

Kooris, Let us beat 

Koordis, He beat 

Koord^m m^nghi. We fought 

Ko6roben,) „ .. 

Jvoonmus^ ) 

Ko<5rom6ngri, «., Drum, tambourine 

Ko6rom6ngro, «., Soldier, pugilist, etc. 

Ko6rim6ngeri, «., Army 
Ko6roko,)«., Sunday, week (k6kerus, kro6ko, ko6ko, etc.) 
Ko6roki, ) Pasp., kurkd, Sunday, week 

Y6rakAna-ko6roko, Easter Sunday ; lit., egg Sunday 

Ko6roko, «., Thunder; by a lisping assonance of 
thunder and Sunday 

Yek dfwus pilla koorok&s, Monday ; lit., one day 
after Sunday 
Ko6rona, «., Crown, five-shilling piece. French, couronne 
Ko6ri, «., Cup, pot (k6ro, l^ura). Pasp., kord 
Ko6si, «., A little. Pott, ii., 96, kutti 
Kooshn^//., Baskets (kiishni). See Mikl, i., 18 
Ko6shto, I adj,, Good (k6shto, kushto). Lieb., gutsck, 
Ko<5shkO)> happy; Bohtl., kdnsto, good; Sundt, kiskay 

good ; Pott, ii., 93, kucz, theuer 

7 



gS GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Ko6shtiben, \ 

Ko6shtoben, > «., Goodness, good 

Ko6shkopen^) 

Ko6shko-bok, Happiness, good health 

Ko6shko-b6kj/, Happy 

Ko6shko-dfk/;^^, Handsome, good-looking 
Ko6va, «., Thing (k611a, k6vva). Pasp., kavd 

Ko6vaw, //., Things 

Bool-ko6va, Chair 

Gad-kosht-ko6va, Clothes-p^ 

Kaiilom^skro-ko6va, Anvil 

Miitterim6ngeri-ko6va, Teapot 

TAtto-ko6va, Pepper 

Ldlo-ko6vaw, Cherries, currants 
K6ppa, ;^., Blanket. lA^h., gappa; Pasp,, ^/r;^^, a dish-clout 

Grefesto-k6ppa, Horserug 

Pe6resto-k6ppa, Carpet 
Kor, v., To call (kaur). ? Pasp., tchdrdava 

Kor6va, I do call 

T^6ri3iO, p, part, Called 

Kord6m, I called 

Kordds, He called 

Kord^, They called 

K6rom6ngro, «., One who calls at shops, and steals 
money by sleight of hand 

Mookds m^ndi kor asdr diila/^/^i. Let us call those 
people 
Kor, «., Brow, eyebrow 
K6ro, \ 

^ . a ' ^'' Blind, Pasp., kord 

K6rdi, ' 

Kord^, 

K6red6, 

K6rodomus, n,. Blindness 
K6mi, adj., Cross, ill-tempered (haiirini, h6no, h6¥no). 
Pasp., kholindkoro 



I //., Blind people 



VOCABULARY. 99 

K6rro,) «., Penny (h6rro, h6rri, hdrri). Lieb., cheiro, cheir^ 
K6rri, / engero 

Ddshti-kauri, Eighteenpence 

Shookhaiiri, Sixpence 

K6 ' I ^*' ^"P* P^^ (koori, kiira). Pasp., kor6 

Kor^ngro, «., Potter 
Koreng^i, //., Potters 

Kor^.yri-tem,j Staffordshire 
Koresko-tem, ) 

K6rri, I «., Thorn, tent-peg, pudendum virile (kaiiri). Pasp., 

K6ro, / kar, penis ; kanrd, thorn 

Baiiro-kaur^ngro-moosh^ A descriptive appellation 

Kor 'ri, or Kaiiri, n,. Throat (kur). Pasp., kori 

•^ . * [ v., To lick, to clean (yo6so). Pasp., koshdva 

Kdsserin* pl6;^ta. Towel ; lit, cleaning-cloth 
K6sser6va les yo6zho, I will cleanse it 
Kossad^, They licked 

K6shno-chdvi, Doll (k6shteno) 

K6shto, adj\, Good (ko6shto) 

Koshtd,//., Good 
K6shtoben, ) ^ , 
Kdshtomus.} "■' Goodness, peace 

Ker6va mi k6shtodafr les, I will do my best 
Kosht, n.i Stick. Pasp., kasAt, kash 

Koshtdw,//., Sticks 

Kosht^ng^o, «., Woodcutter. Pasp., kashthkoro 

K6shteno-tfkno, Doll (k6shno-chdvi). Pasp., kashtu- 
nand 

Dood-y6gengi-k6shter.f, Firebrands 

Gad-kosht-ko6va, Clothes-peg 

Mo6shkero-kosht, Constable's staff 

Po6ker/«^-kosht, Signpost 

Yo6ser/«^-kosht, Broom 
K6sser. See K6sher 



lOO GYPSY-ENGLISH 

K6tor, «., Piece, part, guinea-piece. Pasp., kot6r, a piec^ 
indeclinable 

K6tor6ndri, n.y Fragment 

K6tordndi, Pieces, to pieces 
K6wa, «., Thing (ko<5va, etc.) Pasp., kovd 

Lflesko-k6wa, Paper ; lit, book thing 

Mo<Sesto-k6wa, Looking-glass 
*K6wa, adj.. This (ak6wa). Pasp., akavd 

K6wa-dfwus, To-day 
Kradfni,) «., Nail, button, turnip (konifia, kondfni). Pasp. 
Krdfni, / (p. 451), kdrfia; Mikl., ii., 37, 132 (iColomyjer 

Kreise Galiziens Vocab.), karfin, nail 
Krilis, »., King. Pasp., krdlis. See Mikl., i., 18 

Kralisf, \ 

Krdlisi, \ n,f Queen. Pasp., kralitcha 

Krallfssi,/ 

Krdlisko-kair, ) p 1 

Krdliskdsko-kair, / 

Krilisko-po6ro-kair, Castle 

Krdlisko-rook, Oak ; called frequently * royal oak ' 

Krdlist?w, n.y Kingdom 

Kralisf J- ) baiiro bdleno jo6kel. Dandelion (flower) ; 

Kralisk^sko/ lit., Queen's) , . 1 . , 

King's ) ^'^ ^'"^ ^°S 
Krimbrookos, «., Drum. Lieb., tambuk 
Kre^a, «., Ant. Pasp., kiri 

Kre^aw,//., Ants 
Kro6ko, «., Week (ko6roko, etc.) Pasp., kurkd 

Kro6kingo-dfvvus, ) 

Kiilfo, / «•' Sunday 

Kiimbo, «., Hill (diimbo) 

Kiimeni, adj,y Some, somebody (k6meni) 

Vdniso-kiimeni, Anybody 
Kur, «., Throat (kArlo, kor'ri, gur). Pasp., kurlS^ kori 
Kiira, «., Cup (k6ro) 



VOCABULARY. lOI 

Kurri, n,, Tin, solder. Pasp., kaldi, tin 

Kushni, n., Basket (tushni, trooshni, etc) Pasp., kdshnika 

Kooshn^,//., Baskets 
Kiishto, adj,^ Good (ko6shto) 

Kushto-mo<5shi, Right arm 



L. 

Ladj, «., Shame (^Iddj). Pasp., ladj 

hAdy/ully, adv,, Shamefully 
Lidjipen, n.. Goodness (lAtcho). Pasp., latchipe 
Ldki, ) pran.y Her (lAti, I6ki). Pasp., 2nd dat, Idke; gen., 
LAkro,/ Idkoro 
Lilo, adj.y Red (I6I0). Pasp., I0I6 

Ldlo-gav, Reading ; lit., red-town 

L41o-pfro, Redford ; lit., red-foot 

Ldlo-ko6vaw, Cherries, currants ; lit, red things 
Las, He, or she, got (lei). Pasp., lids, las 
"LsiStpron,, Him, it (les, lis, 'es). Pasp., Us 
Ldsa, With her. Pasp., Idsa 
Latch, v.. To find. Pasp., lazddva, to pick up 

Latch6va, I do, or will, find 

Latch^nna, They find 

L4tchno,/./^r/., Found 

Latchd6m, I found 

Latchds mdnghi, Let us find 
Ldtcho, adj.^ Good,, fine (Iddipen). Pasp., latchS 
'LAtifPron., To her, with her, her (Idki). Pasp., ist dat.. Idle, 

to her 
I^v, «., Word, name. Pasp., lav 

Ldvaw, \ 

Lavdw, r //., Words 

Ldvyaw,^ 

Ldvines, adv. used as a noun, Gibberish 

Ldvines-tem, Wales ; lit., wordy country 

Ldvines-r6kerben, Welsh language ; lit.^ wordy talk 

Ldvines-gaujo, Welshman 



• •• 



• *• «•• •• 



• • 



, . • • • 



1 02 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

T , . , . ' . , [ //., Welshmen 
Lavmengn-gauje, ) 

Del lav, v., To answer, pray 

Del ko6shto livaw, To pray ; lit, give good words 

Del6va me^ro lav kiter mi-do<5vel, I pray God 
Law, I take. See Lei 
ILifpr. pLy They. Pott, 1., 242 

Bootgaujikani/rf/>&i see-1^ kondw,Very Englishified 
folk are they nowadays 

Po6kerom^ngri see-1^. They are informers 

Kosht6 see-16 kondw — to61o see-16. They (hedge- 
hogs) are good now (to eat) — ^they are fat 

Kanl^ see-14 They are putrid 
L^, Take ! See Lei 
'Li, prep., Down (al6, tal6) 
Le^no, /. party Taken. See next 
Lei, I/., To take, get, obtain, catch, etc. Pasp., Idva 

L6va, \ 

Lel6va, I l do, or will, get, take, etc. 

Law, ) 

L61a, He takes, catches, he will take, etc 
Li6m, I got, obtained, etc. 

J ' I He, or they, got. Pasp., lids, las 

Lidn, You took, got, etc. 

Li4 They took 

Le^no,\ 

Lin6, V /. part, Got, taken, begotten, Pasp., linS 

L^lo, ) 

Beng te lei to6ti, Devil take you 

Lei k6shtoben, Please ; lit, take the goodness 

Lei m6tti, To get drunk 

Lei opr^. To apprehend ; lit., take up 

Lei trad. Take care ! mind ! 

Lei ve^na. Take notice 
Len, pron., Them (lin). Pasp., ace, lepi 
L6ndi, pran.yTo them, them, their (16nti). Pasp., ist dat, lAtde 



VOCABULARY. IO3 

Shoon l^ndi, Remember ! lit, hear them 
L^ngheri,^ 

L^nghi, > pron.y Their (l^ndi) 
L^nti, / 

L^nsa, With them. Pasp., Unsa 
Les, pron,, Him, it (las, *es, lis). Pasp., ace, les 
hisko, pron., His. Pasp., gen., Uskoro 
histi, pron., His, her, it. Pasp., ist dat., Uste 

Lidn,Yegot | gee Lei 

Lids, He, or they, got.) 

Lfbena, «., Beer (Hvena, Vfni). Lieb., lowina 

IaL See Lei 

Lik, n.f Nit. Pasp., lik 

Lfkyaw,//., Nits, flies 
Lil, «., Book, paper. Pasp., HI 

T /I I pl*i Books 
Lily aw,-' ^ 

Lflesko-k6va, Paper ; lit, book-thing 

Lil^ngro, n,. Star, because ' read' by astrologers 

Mi do6vel^sko lil,) Bible; lit, my God's book, or 

K6ngri lil, / church book 

Pansh bdlanser lil. Five-pound note 

.... /[ «., Summer. Pasp., nildi 

B{gnomus\ i i-i / f Spring; lit, b^inning, or first, 

FirstdAzir) ' \ of summer 

Pdlla-lilef-see-pdrdel, Autumn ; lit., after summer is 
over 
Lin6,/./^r/., Taken. See Lei 
Li6m, I took. See Lei 

Lfvena, «., Beer (Ifbena, lovfna, Vfni). Lieb., lowina; Mikl., 
i., 28 

Liven^ngro, «., Brewer, beerseller 

lAven^ngries, n. pL, Hops 

P6besko Ifvena, Cyder ; lit, apple-beer 

Lfvena ghiv. Barley 
Lo, pran,, He. Pott, i., 242 



I04 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Yov ghiis kiter tan kd sas46. He went to the place 
where he was 

O rash^i, ko6shto sas-16. The priest was a good man ; 
lit, the priest, good was he 

'Jaw wdfedo see-16 adr6 Idsko zee. He is so jealous 
Lod, 2/., To lodge. Pasp^ loddva 

Lo6dopen, «., Lodg^ing 
L6ki,/r^w., Her (liki) 

L6ko, \ adj.. Heavy. Pasp., lok6^ light [levis) ; MikL, L, 22. 
Lok6,/ This is an example of the confusion of opposite 
meanings remarked by Mr. Leland, Eng. G3rp- 
sies, p. 126 

Kek nanef 16ko, It is light 

Ch6moni sas adrd, lok6. Something was inside, 
heavy 
L6I0, adj.. Red (Idlo, luller). Pasp., lolS 

L6Ii-mdtcho, Red-herring 

L6I0 h61om^gri, Radish ; lit, red-eatii^ thing 

Grefesko I6I0 h61om6ngri, Horseradish 

O I6I0 w&hkeno-jo<5kel. The fox 

L61o-matchd,//., Salmon ; lit., red-fish 
L61i, «., Farthing (Iiili) 

IxSnderi, n. pr,, London (Lundra). French, Londres 
Lon, n.y Salt. Pasp, Ion 

L6ndo, adj.. Saline, salt Pasp., londS 

T / , J ' / . I The sea : lit, salt water 
Londudno-paani, > 

L6ndo mitcho, Salt fish 

O h5'lfno 16ndo paini, The angry waves 
Long, adj. and z/., Lame, to lame. VailL, long ; Sundt, 
ImgalS ; Pott, ii., 337 

Longd,//., Lame people 
Lo<5bni^ > «., Harlot (liibni, liivni). Pasp., bibni ; MikL, i,, 
Lo6dni,/ 21 

Lo6bniaw, /)/., Harlots 

Lo6beriben, n., Prostitution 
'dopen, «., Lodging, barn (lod) 



vcx:abulary. 105 

Lo6dopen-kair, Lodging-house 
Loor, v., To rob, plunder, steal 

Lo6rom^ngro, n., Thief 
Lo6ripen, n,, Booty, plunder 

. '\ n., Money (liiva). Pasp., /ov/ 

L6va, I take. See Lei 
Lovfna, «., Beer (Ifvena) 
Liibni, n., Harlot (lo6bni). Pasp., /udn^ 
Liili, «, Farthing (I61i) 
Liiller, v., To blush (1616). Pasp., Uliavava 
Liiller6va, I do, or will, blush 

- , J 1 ^•/''•' London (L6nderi). French, Londres 

Liiva, «., Money (lo6va). Pasp., lov^ 
Liivni, «., Harlot (lo6bni) 

M. 

MdLdiy prohibitive particle, Do not (maw). Pasp., ma 

Malo6na, «., Thunder. MikL, 1., 24 

Mdlyaw, n, pL, Companions, mates. Pasp., mal 

Af an \ 

M4 H* ( /''^^•> I* ^6 (n^^^&H n^<inghi). Pasp., ace, /«««/ 

•Kiri !-'• I 1st dat, mdnde; 2ni dat, mdnghe 
Mangni,/ 

Mdndi see 16sti, It is mine ; lit., to me is it 

A del-/^-mandi, A gift, present 
Mano6sh, n,, Man, male (moosh). Pasp., manush 

Mano6shni, «., Woman (m6noshi). Pasp., manushni 
Minsa, pron., With me^^ Pasp., instr., mdnsa 

Mdntchi too, ) ^v • xr -n • t t 

M4 f Vi t f ^"^^^ "P ' Vaill, manjao, I console 

Mdrikli, «., Cake. Tdisp., manrii/(f 

Kal-mdrikli, Cheesecake 
Mas, «., Meat, sheep. Pasp., mas 



I06 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Masdw,//., Meats, victuals 
Masdngro, «., Butcher. Pasp., mashkoro 
Mas^ngro'j maiiwV kair, Slaughter-house 
Masdli, n,y Frying-pan 
Jo6vioko-mas, Mutton 
Mo6shkeno-mas, Beef 
Balovds, Bacon 
Mo61o-mas, Carrion 
Mdtchka, «., Cat. Pasp., mdtclika; MikL, i., 2j 
Tfkno mdtchka, Kitten ; lit., little cat 

n*/ 1 . 'I «•> Fish. Pasp., matchS 
Mdtchi, j . 

Mdtchaw,\ 

Matchdw, \ pL, Fish 

Match^ f 

Mdtcho, «. /r., Heron, Heme, a Gypsy tribe ; as if 

herring 
Mdtchom^ngro, \ n., Fisherman. Pasp., matcltingorOy 
Match^ngro, / fish-seller 
Sdpesko mdtcho, Eel ; lit, snaky-fish 
Hdrengo-mitcho, Crab ; lit, leggy-fish 
Bdleno-mdtcho, Herring 
L61o-mdtcho, Red-herring 
L61i-matchd, //., Salmon 

Mo6shkeno-) .^ - r- a n v. 
_, , , f matcho. Cod-fish 

Jrele- ■' 

Rfnkeni bar mdtcho, \ 

Rfnkeni mdtchaw ta jalj tal^ o barydw, > Trout 

Refeski match^//., ' / . 

Maur, v,y To kill. See Mor. Pasp., ntardva 
Maiiro, «., Bread. Pasp., manrdy mard 

Maur^ngro, n,^ Baker 

Ch611o maiiro. Loaf 

Chelld maur^,//.. Loaves 

Kil-maiiro, Bread and butter 
Mdvi, «., Rabbit 
Maw, prohibitive Article, Do not (maa). Pasp., ma 



VOCABULARY. 1 07 

M6ypron.y I. Pasp., tne 

Me^a, «., Mile. VailL, mi^a ; Sundt, mijan; Pott, ii., 454 ; 
1., 88 
Me6asto-bdr, Milestone 

TUT 2 • ' / f pron.^ My (mefro, mfno). Pasp., minrd 

Mefla, n., Donkey, ass (m6ila). Pott, ii., 454, suggests 
for etymon Lat. mulus, Gael, muil^ muileid, 
etc. 
Meflesto-gav, Doncaster ; as if, donkey's town 
Meflesko-tem, Yorkshire 
Grdsni-mefla, She-ass 
Posh grei ta posh mefla, Mule 
iA^ixoApron.fMy (me^ro). The first syllable appears to 
Mefri, j have been influenced by the English word 
Mel, v.y To die (mer) 

B^ngesko-mel, The Devil's Dyke, near Newmarket, 
Cambridgeshire 
Men, «., Neck. Pasp., men 

Gr^iesko-men^ngro, Horse-collar 
Men-w^riga, Necklace 

Diila bauro-mendngri-cherikld, Herons; lit, those 
great-necked birds 
Men,/rt?«., We, us. Pasp., amM 
TAinAiy pron», To us, we, us. Pasp., ist dat, amende 
M^nghi,/rt?«., Me, we (mdnghi). Pasp., 2nd dat. s., mdngJu; 
pi., amMghe 
Koord^m m^nghi. We fought 
M^nsa, With us. Pasp,, instr., amhidja 

Kek yon te wel p6sha mdnsa ? May they not come 
along with us ? 
Mer, v.y To die (mel), Pasp., merdva 
Mer6va, I do, or will, die 
Mer^nna, They do, or will, die 
Merdds, He died 

Merd6 yon besh ghids kondw. They died a year «^go 
now 



I08 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Mdriben,) «., Death, life. Pasp., meribi. Life is, to 

Mdripen,/ a Gypsy, an abstract idea or state, and 
death is a fact. It terminates life. The Gypsies 
have therefore taken the preceding state as part 
of the terminating fact, making death part of a 
man's life, and thus call life and death by the same 
name. See also remarks on L6ko 

M^ripen tinaw si dikdla. Murdering places as they 
look (lit., looks) 

Sho'mas te mer6va, I must have died 
M^rikli, n,^ Bead. Pasp., minriklS 

-K^f't- [ pl-y Beads, bracelets 
Merikios, ) ^ 

Mer6va, I die. See Mer 

Mi-, adj\, My. The words Doivel, Divel, God, generally 

take this word as a prefix. Pasp., mOy mi 

^. ^ I «., Pudendum muliebre, woman. 'Pasp.fmind/ffHmtcA 

Mfno, ad;\, My (me^ro, mefro). Pasp., minrd 

Mfsali,) «., Table. Pasp., mesdli, towel; Lieb., ntesselin^ 

Misdli,/ tablecloth ; MikL, i., 24 

Mfehto,\ 

Mfsto, \ adv.y Well. Pasp., misktSy mistd 

Mist6, ) 

Mofla, n.y Donkey, ass (mefla) 

Moflesto-gav, Doncaster ; lit, donkey's town 
M6ker, z;., To foul, dirty. Pasp., vtakdva^ to spot, stain 

M6xodo, \ adj.. Dirty, filthy, etc. Pasp., maklS^ 

Mo6kedo,i stained ; makavdd, painted 

M6%adi/(J/^-i, Dirty people 

Pardil sor mo^od^ posh-ked6 R6mani'chalj', Over 
all dirty half-breed Gypsies 

*-., '\ n,y Box (mo6kto). Lieb., mochton 

O mullo m6xto. The coffin 



VOCABULARY. I OQ 

Mol, «., Wine (mul). Pasp., mol 

K61a so keb o mol. Grapes ; lit., things which make 
- the wine 
Moll, adj., Worth (mool). Lieb., moll 

Yek sh6sho adr^ o k6ro see moll do<5]f adr^ o wesh. 
One rabbit in the pot is worth two in the wood 

^ir^i f «•> Lead. Lieb., molewo 
Molov,) 

Mong, v.y To beg, pray, request. Pasp., mangdva 

Mong6va, I do beg, pray, etc. 

Mong asdr! Beg! 

M6ngamdngro, «., Beggar 

M6nghi, pron,^ I, me (minghi) 

Jaw m6nghi kdter wo6drus, I will go to bed, or. Let 

me go to bed 

M6noshi, «., Woman (mano6shni). Pasp., manushni 

The commonest words for 'woman* are mdnoshi^ 

jodvely and galri, and they are generally used 

indiscriminately, though galri is seldom, if ever, 

applied to a Gypsy 

Mo6i, n^ Mouth, face. Pasp., m^i 

Mooldw,//., Faces, mouths 

Mo6lf-^ngro,) - 

HIT 1 \ ^'f Lawyer 

Moo-engro, > ^ 

Mo6esto-k6va, Looking-glass, mirror 

Mo6]f-kokAlos, Jawbone 

Cho<5ralo-mo6lf, Bearded face 
Mook, z/.. To let, allow, leave, lend (muk). Pasp., mukdva 

Mook6va, I will leave 

Mo6klo,/./^r/., Left, lent. Pasp., mukld 

Mooktds, He left, let 

Mookt6, They left 

Mookds, Let us leave 
Mo6kedo, adj,, Dirty, filthy (m6xodo). Pasp., makavdd, 

painted ; makld, stained 
Mo6kto, n.i Box (m6kto). Lieb., mochton 
Mool, adj., Worth (moll). Lieb., moll 



K- 



1 1 »YPSY-ENGLISH 

M06I0, adj,y Dead. Pasp., inul6 

M06I0, «., Ghost, devil (miilo) 

Tdtcho-mo61esko tan, A regular haunted spot ; lit, 
true ghost's place 

Do6desko-mo61o, Will-o'-th'-Wisp 

M00I6,//., Ghosts 

Mo61omdngro, «., Halter 

Mo61o-mds, Carrion. Pasp., muland-mas 

Mo61eno-rook, Yew ; lit, dead-tree, because common 
in churchyards 
Mo6njer, «. and t;., Nudge, pinch, squeeze; cf. Borrow, 
" Lavo-lil," munjee, a blow on the mouth or face 

Mo6njer6va toot, I will give you a nudge 

Mo6njad6m lati'j wast, jindds y6x so mdndi kerV, I 
squeezed her hand, (and) she knew what I meant 
V Moosh, «., Man. Pasp., mursh, inrush, boy, male 
^^ Mooshdw,| . -- 

Mo6shaw,i '^*' 

Moosh, adj.^ Male 

Mo6sh-chdvi, Boy ; lit, male child 

Mo6shkeno, adj,, Masci^line, niale. Pasp., fnurshnd, 
manly 

Mo6shkeni-gav, Manchester 

Mo6shkeni-gro6vni, Ox, bull 

Mo6shkeni-groovn6, Oxen 

Mo6shkeno-grei, Stallion 

Mo6shkeno-mds, Beef 

Mo6shkeno-mdtcho, Cod-fish 

Kan6ngro-moosh, Gamekeeper 

Peidskro-moosh, Actor 

Mi-diivel'j-moosh, Parson 
Mo6shi, ) A T> I 

Mo<Sshoj "•' ^'■'"- ^^P-' '"^^ 

Mo6shaw,//., Arms 

Mo6sheno-hev, Armpit 

K6k-moosh6ngri, Maimed people ; lit., armless people 

Kiishto-mo6shi, Right arm 



■ p. part, and adj.y Killed Pasp., mardd 



VOCABULARY. 1 1 1 

Mo6shaw of the rook, Branches 

Wdsteni-mo6shaw, Arms 
Mo6shkero,) «., Policeman, constable. Dr. Paspati, in a 
Mo6shero, / letter, says, " = one who looks, observes 
= mSskero*^ 

Mo6shkero-kosht, Constable's staff 
Moot^ngri, «., Tea (miiterim6ngeri) 

Mo6tsi, I «.,Skin. ^QS^,,mort{ ; mesk{n,fnejsin (As.), leathQr; 
Mo6tska,j Lieb., martin, mortzin, leather; Mikl., i., 2$ 
Mor, v,y To kill, slay, murder (maur). Pasp., mardva 

Mor6va, I do, or will, kill 

Morula, He does, or will, kill 

Mordds, He killed 

M6rdeno, n 

Mordent //., 

M6rdno, 

M6rdo, 

yL6red, 

Mi-Diivel&ko-maiirom6ngri, Jews 
M6ro, pron., Our. Pasp., amard 

M6rov, v., To shave. Pasp., muravdva, to shave; from 
murdvay mordva, to rub 

M6rov6va, I do, or will, shave 

M6rom6ngro, % _ 

-- , 2 l «.f Razor 

Morovmengro,) 

Morm^ngro, «., Barber, razor (miiravmdngro) 

nir /...'/. 'I ^dj\. Drunk, intoxicated. Pasp., matto 
M6tti,/., J •^' ' ^' 

M6ttom^ngro, «., Drunkard 

^ . ' I «., Drunkenness. Pasp., mattipi 

Lei m6tt^. To get drunk 
Moiiseus, n,, Mouse 
Muk, V,, To let, leave, allow (mook). Pasp., mukdva 

Muk6va, I do, or will, leave, etc. 

Muk^la, He leaves 

Muktds, He left 



114 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Nav, «., Name. Pasp., nav 

Ndvo, adj,. New (ndvo) 

Naw ^ 

Tsjz ' [ ^^S^^i'^^i No, not (na). Pasp., na 

N6 shorn md b6kolo, I am not hungry 
N6, adv, or inter/., Now 

Nd mo6shaw ! Now, men ! 

Nd chawoli ! Now, mates ! 
Nei, negative, No, not (na, nanef) 

Kek nei jindnna yon, They do not know 

Nei ler kek 16vo, He has no money 
Nei, n,. Finger nail, any kind of nail. Pasp., ndi, finger nail 

Nei3iw,p/,, Finger nails 

Nefesto-ch6kker, Hobnailed boot 
Nestfs, negative, Cannot (nastfssa). Pasp., ndsti 

-, . . ' *'| adj.. New (ndvo). Pasp., nev6 

Ndvus, adj,, Own (n6go) 

Nfsser, v.. To miss, avoid ; cf, Pasp., nikdva, to pass ; niglistS, 

p. part, gone out ; nispeldva, to hide 
Nok, «., Nose. Pasp., nak 

Nokdngro, n.. Snuff, glandered horse 
N6ngo, adj., Naked, bald, bare. Pasp., nangS 

N6ngo-pedro, adj.^ Barefoot 
Northtxhx{^x\'g2Axi, Scotchmen ; lit.. Northern-men 

iVi^/Aer^ngri-tem, Scotland ; lit.. Northern-country 

iVi^/Z/er^nghi chirikl6, //., Grouse ; lit, Scotch birds 
NM,pt., Nuts 



O. 

O, m. def. art.. The. Sometimes indeclinable, like English 
the. Pasp., o 

OH v/ 1 ^^'^'i There (adof, 'doi). Pasp., otid 

Okki. Mdndi po6ker6va too 6kki yek rfnkeno tdrno rei, I 
tell you there is a handsome young man 



VOCABULARY. 1 1 5 

Ovta ) 

n 1- ' i ^^ ^^ jump (h6kter). Pasp., uk/ikidva, to arise 

O^t^nna, They jump 

Jdnna ti o^^^n, They will jump ; lit., they are going 

to jump 
O^ter^, ;«., Jumper 
Chor-6xtam6ngro, n,, Grasshopper 

01iva*f ^ 

HM ' j ^•/'•' Stockings, socks (ho6Iaverj). Lieb., cAo/i6 

Opr6,pr^,, Upon, on, up (apr^, ^pr^). Pasp., opr/ 

Dids opr6 adr^ o radti, It appeared in the night 
(3ra, «., Watch, hour (aiSra, h6ra, y6ra). Pasp., Sra 
Our, I affirmative particle^ Yes, truly, etc. (adva). Pasp., 
Our^,j va; L,ieh.,auzva 
OVfPron., He (yov). Pasp., ov 
Ovdvo-dfwus, To-morrow (awdver). Pasp., yavir 



P. 

Padni, pdni, or pauni, «., Water. Pasp., pani 

Paan^ngro, «., Boat 

Paan^ngro-gaiijo, Sailor 

Pan^ngro, «., Turnip 

Padnesto-\ 

Pan^ngri- >• shok. Watercress 

Padni- ) 

Padnisko-k6va, Bucket, pail, anything to hold water 

Padnisko-tan, Swamp, moss, watery place 

Padniski-hev, Well 

PaiideU-padni,| r^^^^^^.. 
Patini-../, / Transported 

Baiiro-padni, \ 
L6ndo-padni, > The sea 
Londiidno-padni, / 

Tdtto-pdni, Any kind of spirituous liquor, e,g,, brandy 
Pal, n., Brother, mate. Pasp., pral 
St{ffo-pal, Brother-in-law 



I 1 6 GYPSY- ENGLISH 

PalAl,)/r^., After, behind, ago, bygone (paiili). Pasp., 
Pdlla,^ paldl,paU 

Av palla. To follow ; lit., come after 

Dik pdlla. To watch ; lit, look after 

Jal palla, To follow ; lit., go after 

Pdllani-ch6kka, Petticoat 

Beng pAlla man, An enemy ; lit, devil after me 
Pdlyaw, n. pL, Rails^ palings. Pott, ii., 361, pall, board, 
plank ; ? Pasp., beliy post 

,0 v.y To shut, fasten, close, tie, bind, etc. Pasp., 
' j panddva 

Pdnd-as6va, I fasten, etc. 

Me^ro rom pandj asAr mdndi opr6 adrd o kair. My 

husband shuts me up in the house 
Pandad6m, I shut, did shut 
Pandadds \ 

Pandis, v He, she, they bound, fastened, etc. 
Pdndadas,) 

T» J J ' J I A pci^t,. Shut, etc. VailL, p. 54, is pandado 
PAndado l^ ^ , .. \ . u J 
p , J , ' r tuiar, the door is shut 

Pdndomdngro,) n,, Pound for stray cattle, sheepfold, 
Pdnom^ngro, ^ pen, fold, pinfold ; n. pr., Pinfold, 

a Gypsy tribe 
Pand opr6. Shut up ! be silent 
Pdndjer, 7/., To wheedle ? ? cf pdnder, to fasten, enclose, take 
in; also Pott, ii., 374, ^^panscheraf, biegen ; p. durch, 
durchkriechen " 
They \^Xd jaw kfssi liiwa by pdndjer/;/' the gaiijoi". 
They got so much money by wheedling the Gen- 
tiles 
Pdni, Water. See Padni 

p u' [ ^^j'> Five. Pasp., pandj, pantch 

Panshdngro, «., A five-pound bank-note 
Pansh-k61a, Crown, five-shilling piece 



I /^<^»> Over, across (paiidel). Pasp.,/^r^/, beyond 



VOCABULARY. 1 1 7 

Stor-pansh, Twenty 
Pdpin, «., Goose. Pasp., papin 

Pap{nyaw,//., Geese 

Pdpini, ) n., Goose ; sometimes applied to ducks 

PApin^ngri,/ or turkeys 

Mo6shkeno pdpin, Gander 

Pdpini-drilAw, Gooseberries (drilaw) 
PAra, v., To change, exchange (piira). Yzs^.^partivdva 

Pdrap^n, «., Change, small money (puraben). Pasp., 
paruib^, change of clothes 
PArav, v., To thank, bless (pdrik) 
Pdrdal, 

Pdrdel, 

Pdrdel, «;., Forgive. Pdrdel miindi for ydka> Forgive me for 

once 
PdrdonoSf «., Pardon, forgiveness 
Pdrik, v., To thank, bless (pdrav). Lieb., parkerwawa 
Pdrikar6va,\ 

Pdrik'raw, 

Pdrikabdn, ) ^, , 
_ . ., . \ «., Thanks 

Pdrikt6m, I thanked 
Pdrno, adj,. Cloth. Pasp., parind^ berdnd^ tent-cloth ; Lieb., 

pdmey die Windeln 
Pdrtan, «., Cloth (p6ktan). VdiS^*, pokhtdn 
Pdsher^la, He believes. See Pdtser 

' [ «., Leaf, trail-sign. Pasp., patriH 

Patrfnawj) ^, ^ .. 

Pdtser, z/.. To believe (pizer). Pasp., pakidva; Lieb., /a/- 
scfidwa 
Pats6va, I believe 
Pat3d6m, I believed 
Pasher^la, He believes 



1 1 8 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Yon kek nanef patserdnna, They will not believe 
Pdtsad^, They believed 
Pdtsaben, «., Belief. lA^h:, patscMpenn 
O raiini ^iXsied so y6i pen'rf, The lady believed what 
she said 

P 'H 1 f Z^^-* Over (pdrdal). Tsisp., perddl, heyond 

Bftchadi-paiidel,) ^ ^ , 

Pa,idel-i-padni. f Transported 

Paiili ) 

p ]1 \ P^^'f Behind, back (pdlla). Pasp.,/^il/ 

Hatch-paiili-kdni, Guineafowl 

Jal-paiili, To return 
Paiini, Water. See Padni 
Paiino, ad/,, White (p6rno). Vsisp., parH(f 
Paiipus, n., Grandfather. Vasp.y pdpus 
Pazer, v. a,, To trust (pds9er6va). Fdisp,, pakidz^a 

Pdzorus, adj\, Indebted 

Pdzer6va, I obtain credit, get on trust 

Pdzeroben, «., Credit, trust 
Pedis, He fell. 
Ped6, They fell. 
P^dliaw, n, //., Nuts (p^tliaw, pdvliaw). Lieb., pendack^ 

walnut 
Pee, z/., To drink. Pasp., pidva 

Pi6va, I drink, I will drink 

Pi^la, He drinks, or will drink 

Pid6m, I drank 

Pidds, He, or they, drank 

Pid^, They drank 

Peddlo, /. part,, Drunk, drunken. Pasp., pil6 

Pfaben, ) t^ • i 
j- «., Dnnk 



. i See Per 



Pfamus,. 

Peem^ngro, n., Teapot, drunkard 
Pfam^ngro, m.A ^^ i i 
P/amdngri,/, ) ""■' drunkard 

Pfamdskri, «., Tea 



VOCABULARY. 1 1 9 

Pfam^skri-skooddlin, Teapot 

P6besko-pfam6skri-tem, Devonshire 

M6ndi see d6sta te hoi ta pi, We have plenty to eat 
and drink 
Peer, z/.. To walk, stroll (pfrav). Fasp., pirdva 

Peer^la, He walks 

Peerds, He walked 

Pe^rdo, «., Tramp, vagrant 

Posh-pe^rdo, Half-breed 

Pe^rom^ngro, «., Stile 

Pe^romus, n., Roaming. Vaill., p. /8, Is nasulpirmasko^ 

II est difficile de marcher 

Pe^ri, «., Cauldron, stewpan, copper. Vdisp., piri 

Pe6ro ) 

p - .'I «., Foot (pfro). VdiSp,, pinrS, pird 

Peer^, //., Feet 

Bokr^'j peerd. Sheep's feet 

Pe^resto-k6ppa, Carpet 

Pe^ro-ddl/«^-tem, Lancashire ; lit, foot-kicking county 
Pe^vlo, adj\, Widowed. Pasp ., pivlild 

Pe6vlo-gafro, Widower. Pasp., pivld 

Pedvli-gafri, Widow. Pasp., pivH 
P^ias, n,, Play, fun, sport, game. Lieb., perjas 

Peidskro-moosh, Actor p f ^ , ^. 

Pek, z/.. To roast. Fasp,, pekdva 

Pek6va, I do, or will, roast 

Fekdf p, part,, Roasted. Pasp.,/^^<^ 
Pel, V,, To fall. See Per. Pasp., perdva 

¥6Vd, Fell 

Pel6va, I do, or will, fall 

Pelda, He falls, or will fall 
Pel4 \ 

Pelon6, >«.//., Testicles. VaiSp., pe/(f; pL,peU 
PilonosJ 

Pdleno-grei, Stallion 

Pdlengo-chdvo, Boy 

Peldngro, «., Stallion 



«^ r 



I They said 



1 20 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Peld-mdtcho, Cod-fish 
Pen, v., To say, tell. Tasp., pendva 

Pen6va, I say, I will say 

Mdndi pen6va y6f/l mer, I say (think) she will die; 
cf. Pott, ii., 346, " akeake penniwam^. So meine 
ich*s [eig. doch ich sage s. pchenav]" 

So pen^ssa ? What do you say? 

Pen^la, He says 

Pendds, He said 

Pend6, 

Pend^n, 

So penddn ? What did you say ? 
Pen, n,, Sister. V2iSp.,pen 

P^nyaw, //., Sisters. Pasp., penid 

Stfffi-pen, Sister-in-law 

P^nna, They will fall. See Per 

Pensa \ 

p . . ' I adj. and adv,, Like (pdssa). ? Pasp., pentchya (As.), 

Dik^la p^nsa raiini, She looks like (a) lady 
Per, v,y To fall (pel). YdJ&p,, perdva 

Per6va, I fall 

Persia, He, or it, falls 

Pel6va, I will fall 

Yon p^nna. They will fall (pdnna = per^nna) 

Ped6m, I fell 

Pedds, He fell 

Yon ped4 They fell 
Per, «., Belly, stomach, paunch* Pasp.,/^ 

Perdw, //., Ston^achs 

Yo6sho adrd 16nghl perdw, Clean in their eating 

P^r-do6ka, Stomach-ache 
P&ki,/r^«. reflective, Himself. Pasp.,/^.fy AaX,.,p^ske 

Ghids pdski. He took himself off 

Dids p&ki k6keri wdfedo-kdrimus, He gave himself 
trouble 

Vids p^ski akef, He came here himself 



VOCABULARY. 121 

Pradsterdds p^ski p^nsa grei, He ran off like a 
horse 
P^ssa, adj., Like (p^nsa) 
Passer, v., To pay. Lieb., pleisserwaway pozinawa 

P^sser6va, I do, or will, pay 

P&sado,/./arA,) p^.^ 

Pessad^//., ^ 
P^ssad6in, I paid 

P^tal, «., Horseshoe. Pasp., pHalo 

Petal^ngro, «., Blacksmith; «./r., Smith, a Gypsy 

tribe 
Kek4wi-p^talengr4 Tinkers ; lit., kettle-smiths 
So6nakei-petal6ngro, Goldsmith 
Petal^sto-k6va, Anvil 

P{aben. \ 

P{amus, etc. > See Pee, to drink 
Pid6m, etc. ) 
Pik6, X 

P{kio, (. «., Shoulder. Pasp.,/£^J 
Pik6,//.,j 

Pi6va, I do, or will, drink. See Pee 
Pfrav, v,y To walk (peer). Faisp., pirdva 
Piriv, V, a., To open, woo, court, make love tOi Pasp., piu" 
ravdva 

. . .'''!«., Sweetheart, loveh Pasp., pirianS 

Pfrivdo, /. party Opened 

Pfrivdds, He opened 

Pfro, adj,y Open, loose 
P/ro, «., Foot (pe^ro). VdLsp,,pir6 

Pfsham, «., Flea, fly, honey (po6shuma)» Pasp., pusMfn^ 
flea 

Go6dlo-pfsham, \ . 

_ , ,- , - X -Dee , lit., sweet wm.a 

Goodlo-pishamus, ) 

Dand/«* pfsham, Wasp 



} 



/ 



122 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Kil pfsham. Butterfly 
Pldshta,| 
: AY P16chta, f n., Cloak, cloth. Lieb., blaschda; Mikl., i., 30 
^ P16xta, ^ 

B^resto-pI6;^ta, Sail 

p ., . ' I ;/., Apple. Pasp., pabdi 

Pobd, //., Apples 
P6bomus, n.y Orange 

Pobonniski-gav,! «./r., Norwich; lit., orange town, 
Pobomusti-gav, J from the assonance of an orange 
and Norwich 

P6besko-Hvena,J *' 

P6besko-rook, Apple-tree 

P6besko-gav-tem, Norfolk 

P6besko-pfam^skri-tem, Devonshire 

Wdver-t^meski-161o-p6bo, Orange; lit.,other-country 

red apple 

Bftto-161o-p6bi, Cherries ; lit, small red apples 

Po'chi, «., Pocket (po6tsi). Pasp., boshka; \A^,y pottizza 

P6£[er \ 

p ^ ' [ z;., To break. Pasp., pangdva, bangdva 

B6ngo, adj,^ Crooked. Pasp.,/a«^«c^, bangd, lame 
B6nges, adv,, Wrongly 
Pogad6m, I broke 
Pogadds, He broke 

P6ler^^ } ^* ^^^^*' ^^^^^" • -^^^P-' >^«^'^ 
P6gado-shero, Cocked hat, broken head 

P6gado-bdvaldngro,) _, , • j j 1. 

^ , , , , . h Broken-winded horse 
P6ga-baval-grei, j 

P6ga-ch6ngaw-grei, Broken-kneed horse 

P6gain^ngr5, | Windmill 

Baval-pogamengri, J 
P6garomdngro, n,, Miller 
P6garom^ngri, ;/., Tread wheel 



VOCABULARY, 1 23 

P6garom&ti, ) -. 

T^ , . , f «., Hammer 

Pogaromeskro,-' 

P6ga-kair6ngro, «., Burglar 

PoWnyus, «., Judge, justice of the peace (pcxikinyus). Lieb., Jj I 

pdkdndy peaceful ; Pott, ii., 345, pokoino, bokdno, J ^ ' 

quiet; ii., /^6i, pokomepen, peace; Mikl, i., 31 

P6ktan ) 

PiWf i ''•' Cloth (pdrtan). VdiS^., pokktdn 

P6xtan-gav, Manchester 

P6;^an-keIom6ngro, Weaver ; lit, cloth-maker 

P6ngd(shler, n., Pocket-handkerchief 

Foodj, «., Bridge, sky. Pasp., purty btirdji, bridge ; Pott, 

ii., 382 

Po6der ) 

« J { v,,To blow, singe, shoot. V?iSip,y purddvay puddva 

irOOd, ' 

Pood to6vlo. To smoke tobacco 

Po6dado,/./^rA, Blown 

Pood^la, He blows 

Po6der6nna, They shoot, blow 

Pooddl^r^, \ 

Po6dam^ngro, > «., Bellows 

Po6dam^ngri, / 
Po6-h-tan, «., Tinder ; } cloth ; cf, p6ktan 
Po6kinyus, n,, Judge (pok-^nyus) 
Po6ker, v,y To tell 

Po6ker6va, I do, or will, tell 

Po6ker6va kek-k6meni ta mdndi diktds (dikt6m) 
toot ake{ adr^ st^ripen, I will tell no one that I 
saw you here in prison 

Pookrds, You told 

Po6kadis, He told 

Po6kerom^ngro, ;/., Watch, clock 

Po6kerom^ngri,//., Betrayers 

Po6ker/«^bar, Milestone 

Po6keri>/^-kosht, Signpost 
Po6rav, ) ^ , 



1 24 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Po6rost6m mi po6ro dad, I buried my old father 

P r^ • V I ^^'^ ^^^* VdiSi^.fphurdfPhuri 

Po6rokono, adj\, Ancient, old-fashioned 

Po6roddr, comp,, Older. Pasp., ///wr^^r 

Po6roder-rook, Oak ; lit, older (oldest) tree 

Po6ro-dAd, «., Grandfather 

Po6ri-d^i, «., Grandmother 

Po6ro-dad'j chdvo, Grandchild 
Po6rdaj, n,pL, Stairs. Harriot, /^^ra:j; cf. Pott, ii*, 382 
Po6rumi, «., Onion, leek, garlic (p6ruma). Pasp., punim ; 
Mikl., i., 3 1 

Po6rum, n.pr,^ Lee, a Gypsy tribe; as i( Lee-k 

Kdnlo po6ruma, Garlic 3 lit, stinking onion 
Poos, ;/., Straw. Fdisp.f pus 

Po6skeno,) ,. c«^ 

Po6skeni, } '^^•' S**"^^ 

Poos^ngro, n., Straw rick, stack 

Ghiv-poos^ngro, Wheat stack 

Job-poos^ngro, Oat stack 

Po6shom, n,, Wool. Tasp.fPosdm, posAdm 

Po6shuma, n,, Flea, bee (pfsham). T?asp., pusA^m, fle^ 

Po6shumdngro, «., Fork. VdLsp>,pusavdva, to prick, spur 

Po6soni^ngri, «., ) ^ , . , .v 

r\ / 1 ^ 1 • f Spur (poshaan) 
O grei-esko possomengn,) ^ ^^ ' 

Pootch, v., To ask. Pasp., putchdva 

Pootch6va, I ask 

Pootch^ssa, Thou askest 

Pootchd6m, I asked 

Pootchdds,| ^ ^ 

Pootchtds, i "^ ^'^^"^ 

Pootcht^m, We asked 

Pootcht^ They asked 



Po6tchlo, A /a^/., ) A 1 J • -^ J 



VOCABULARY. 1 25 

Pootchds, Let us ask 

Maw too pootch tro6stal vdniso k6va ta nanef see 
te^ro, Do not covet (lit., ask for) any thing that 
is not thine 
Po6tsi^ «., Pocket (po'chi). Pasp., b6shka; lA^h., pottissa 
Poov, «., Earth, field. Pasp., pkuv, puv 
Po6vyaw,//., Fields 
Poov^la, «., Field-path 
Wngri, I p^^^^^ 
Poovyengn,^ 

Poov6ngri-gav, Manchester. A name used by 
Cheshire Gypsies on account of the loads of 
potatoes sent there 
Poov6ngri-gaiijo, Irishman; because potatoes enter 

largely into the diet of the Irish 
Po6vesto-cho6ri, \ 
Po6vo-chfnom^ngri, \ Plough 
Po6v-Vcirdo, / 

So o ghiv^ngro chinda o poov oprd, Plough; lit., 
what the farmer cuts the field up (with) 
P6pli, adv.y Again (ap6pli). Y?iS^,, pdlpale, Derri^re ; Vaill., 
p,$iyde d^ma mandi parpali^ Rdponds-moi, sostar 
ni dis d^nta parpalif Pourquoi ne rdponds-tu 
pas.^ Mikl, ii., 52, 1032, *'papdle, adv. von neuem, 
wieder ; papdle megint Born : 118" 
Por, «., Feather (pur). Lieb.,/^r; Mikl, i., 29 
P6rongo-wudrus, Feather-bed 
Ch^rikldski-por, Wing 
P6rasto, adj,, Buried (po6rav) 

Pord^^f') F»"''heavy. Pasp.,/^^ 

P6rdo, z/., To fill. Fsisp,, perdva 
P6ri, «., Tail, end. Pasp.,/t?r/ 
P6rno, adj., White (paiino). Vasp.,parn(f 

P6rno, «., Flour 

P6mom&li, n,, Miller 

Porn^ngri, «., Mill 



126 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

P6rni-raiiiii, Swan 

P6rno-sAster, Tin ; lit., white iron 
P6ruma, adj,^ Gaelic ; from assonance of garlic and gaelic 

(po6rumi) 
P6sado, /. /«r/.. Buried (po6rav) 
Posh, adj,y Half. Pasp., y^k-pdsh 

Posh-h6rri, Halfpenny 

Posh-ko6rona, Halfcrown 

Posh ^/?rf posh,) TT iri_ A 

T^ 1 1 A \ Half-bred 
Posh-peerdo, ) 

V6sh.free, Turnpike ; lit., half-free, because passengers 
are not tolled, but carts are 

Kair-posh, Help; lit., do half 
Posh,/r^., After. ? from assonance oihalf2inA Aafter 

Posh-agldl, Opposite ; ? lit, half before 

Posh-be^nomus, Placenta, after-birth 
P6sha, adv, and/r^.. Near, by, besides. Pasp.,/^^^ 

P6sh-rig, Besides 

D6sta fSlk'X sas p6sha Y6i, Much people was with 
her 
Poshadri, n.pL, Spurs (po6shum^ngro) 
P6shli, adj\, Confined. Pasp., pdshlo^ bedfast, bedridden 

Poshld, //., Women who have been confined 

YoX sas poshl6 (-f) adr^ wo6drus, She was confined 
in bed 
Prdster, \ z;.,To run. ^yinAt^praschta^ springe, hoppe ; Pott, 
Pradster,/ ii., 244 

Prdster^la, He runs 

PrdsterdAs, He ran 

Prdstermdngro, «., Runner, policeman, deserter 

Prdsterom^ngro, «., Deserter ♦ 

Prdsterm^ngri, \ 

Prastdrimus, \ «., Horse-race 

Grefesto-prdster/w^, ) 

Prdster/«^-k61i, Railway train 

Prdster/«' kfster. Railway journey* 

Prdster/;/^-wdrdesko-dtch/«^-tan, Railway station 



VOCABULARY. 127 

Wdrdesko-prdsterm^ngri, Wheel, cart-wheel 

Prdster tiiki ! Be off ! Run ! 
Prdrchadi, «., Flame. ? VdiS^,, prdhos, cinders 
^Yti.prip., Upon, on, up (apr6, opr6). Pasp., opri 

Pr6-6ngro, adj,. Upper 
Pur, «., Feather (por). Lieb.,/^?r 
Pur, «., Stomach, belly, paunch (per) 

B6koch&to-pur, Tripe 
Piira, v.^ To change, exchange (pdra). Faisp,, paruvdva 

Vurered, Changed 

Piiraben, «., Exchange (pdrapen) 

R. 

Radti, «., Night. Pasp., ratt ; aratti, during the night 

Radtia,//., Nights 

Ra^tse„ghi-| ^j^^^.^, Q^j 

Raatenghi- ) 

Radtenghi-chei chfriklo. Nightingale ; lit, night-^/>/ 
(y\j\%'gat) bird 

Ke-radti, To-night 
Hak, ) z/.. To guard, protect, take care of, mind. Pasp., 
Rdkker,) arakdva 

Rak to6ti ! Take care ! 

Rak ti to6vlo. Mind your 'baccy 
Rdklo, m, n.y Boy. Pasp., raklS 

Rdkli,/. «., Girl. Pasp., rakU 

Rdklia,//., Girls 

Rakl6, //., Boys 
Ran, «., Rod, osier, etc. Pasp., ran 

Rdnyaw,//., Rods 

Rdnyaw to kair kushni^j, Osiers ; lit, rods to make 
baskets 
Rdnjer, v.y To remove, take off. Lieb., ranschkirwawa wriy 

I undress 
Rdshei, 
Rdshrei 



'. I «., Parson. Pasp., rashdi 



i>- 



128 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Ratt, n.y Blood. Pasp., ratt 

Rdttvalo, \ 

Rdtt/«//o, X adj,. Bloody. Pasp., rattvalS 

Rdttvali, ) 

Dulla bftta k61a (so) pee.? o ratt, so see chivV opr6 
ndflo fSlJA te kair 16ndi k6shto. Leeches ; lit, 
those little things (which) drink the blood, which 
are put on sick people to cure them 

'I «., Lady. Pasp., rdnni 

Raiinia,//., Ladies 

Kaiili-raiini, Turkey 

P6rni-raunt, Swan 
Rei, «., Gentleman. Pasp., rdi 

R6i-aw,//., Gentlemen 

Refa, voCy Sir ! 

Do6va refesko kair. That gentleman's house 

Refesko-k^rimus, Gentlemanly behaviour 

Refal;/, adj.y Gentlemanly 

Bauro-rei, Gentleman 

Refesko-vdrdo, Carriage ; lit, gentleman's cart 

Refesko ro62ho-poov moosh. Gardener ; lit., gentle- 
man's flower-ground man 

Refeski match^,//.. Trout 

Refakana ta gaujikana jfnomus. Learning fit for a 
gentleman and Englishman 
Rapper toot. Remember 
R6ssi toot ! Make haste ! 

R6s-les apr6, Rouse him up 

_ , ' 1 «., Duck (nitsa). Lieb., retza; Mikl., i., 35 
Retz6,//., Ducks 

Tflcno-} ^^^^^' Duckling 
RidjW, n,, Ydstridge. Used by Isaac Heme's family 
Rfdo, /. part., Dressed. ) c t>' 
Rfdad6, They dressed, f 



VOCABULARY. 129 

RJg, n., Side. Pasp., rik 

Rig- ' i ^*' '^^ cany, keep, bring. Licb., rikkerwawa^ to 

Rfgher6va, I do, or will, keep 

Rfgher toot mfshto. Take care of yourself 

Rfghad6m, I carried 

Yon righadds-les, They (that) carried him 
Rfkeno, adj\, Pretty (rfnkeno) 
Rfkni^j, //., Trousers (rok^ngri^j, etc.) 
Ril, v., Pedere; also used as a noun. Pasp., riil; Lieb.> 

rill 
Rfnkeno, m.,\ adj., Pretty (rfkeno). Pott, ii», 264, gives 
Rfnkeni,/, > rajkano, from Puchmayer's Hungarian 
Rfnken^,//.,/ "R6mani Czib," and suggests that the 
word rinkeno is an adjective formed from the 
dative plural of rai, i.e., ringe. See also Sundt's 
" Landstrygerfolket," 1852, rankanS, gentle, noble. 
Predari has, p. 270, rincano, and p. 259, arincino, 
both apparently taken from Roberts 
Rfnken^s, adv., Prettily 
Rfnkenod^r, comp., Prettier 

Rfnkeni mdtchaw ta jal.f tal6 o barydw. Trout ; lit., 
pretty fishes that go under the stones 
Rfsser, v.. To shake, tremble, Pasp., lisdrdva 
Rfsser^la, He trembles 
Rfsser toot. Be quick (r^ssi) 

Rfsser toot apr6. Be quick, and get up ; lit, shake 
yourself up 
Riv, v.. To wear (rood). Pasp., urydva 
Rido, p, part., Dressed 
Rfdad^ They dressed 

Rfvoben, n,. Apparel, clothes (r6di, ro6dopen) 
Yov rivdds 16sko k6kero adr6 ko6shto eezdw s6rkon 
che^rus. He always dressed in fine clothes 



130 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Yon sas nd6 sor adr6 kaij, They were dressed all in 
silk 

T^ -/ i f ^.> To search, seek, Pasp., roddva 
Roder,) 

R5'dadom, I searched, sought 

R5d6, They searched 

Ro6dopen, n,, Search. Pasp., rodi^i 

R6diW>^ ^•> Clothing, apparel (ro6do, riv) 

^, *l n.y Spoon. Pasp., r6i 

KoiyaLWs, pi,, Spoons 
R6iengr6, Spoon-makers 
R6ker, v., To talk, speak. Pasp., vrakerdva; Mikl., 1., 34 
R6ker^la, He talks 

K6meni r6ker61a troostdl mdndi, Some one is talking 
about ine — " That's what we say when we sneeze " 
R6kerdds,\ 

R6kadds, > He talked 
R6keris, / 
Rokrds, You talk 
R6kerd^ They talked 
R6kerop6n,> 



n., Conversation, language, speech. 
Pasp., vrakerib^ 



-» 
R6kerp^n, 

R6keriben, 

R6kerimus, 

R6kamus, j 

R6kerom6ngro, ) • 

R6kerm6ngro, j *' ^^ 

R6kerom^skro, «., Talker 

Baiiro r6kerom6ngri, //., Prophets 

R6kenV chfriklo, Parrot 

Rok6ngri^j',> 

Rok6nyus, 

Rokr^nyus^}- n,pL^ Trousers (rfkni^) 

Ro^fny^i", 

Rox^nya, ) 



VOCABULARY. 1 3 1 

Rom, «., Husband, bridegroom, a male Gypsy, Pasp., rom 
R6meni,'j 

R6mni, \ «., Wife, bride, Pasp,, romni 
R6madi,/ 

R6manr} ^'' ^XPsy- Pasp., roman6 

R6mano-drab, probably Spurge-laurel (Daphne lau* 
reola), the berries of which, according to Lindley, 
*^ are poisonous to all animals except birds'' 

R6mani-chal, A male Gypsy 

R6mani-chdlaw, //., Gypsies 

R6manes, adv., Gypsy, the Gypsy language. Pasp,, 
roman^s 

R6mano chfriklo. Magpie ; lit, Gypsy bird 
R<5mer, v.. To marry 

Rwij^-^'^'''" ^^"■'^'^ ^'^"^"^'^ 

R6mad6m, I married 

R6merob^n, «,, Marriage 

R6meromus, f*,, Wedding 
Rood, v.^ To dress (riv) 

Ro6do,/./^r/., Dressed (r{do, r6di) 

Ro6dopen, «,, Dress, clothing, Pasp,, urydibi 
Ro6dopen, ^, Search (road). Pasp., rodipi 
Rook, «,, Tree. Pasp., ruk 

Ro6kaw,| 

Rookdw,K^'' ^'^' 

Ro6kam6ngro, «., Squirrel 

Ro6kenghi-ch6;)^ai', Leaves ; lit, tree^coats 
Roop, «., Silver. Pasp., rup 

Ro6pono^ 

Ro6pno, ] ^'^ \ ^jj^ Silver. Pasp., rupovani 
Roopni,/., j 

Ro6pnomdngro, tu^ Silvermith 

Ro6zlusJ ^^'^ ^^''^"S (riizlo). Pasp., zoralS 
Sor-ro6zlo, Almighty 



132 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Ro6zlopen, n., Strength 
Rov, v.t To cry. Pasp., rovdva 
R6v6va, I do, or will, cry 
R5v6na, They cry 
R6vd6, They cried 

R5'shloj ""•' ^°^'''- ^'''^' '•' 35 
Ro6zho-poov, Flower garden 
Ro6zhaw-po6vaw, //., Flower gardens 
Gro6veni ro6zha. Cowslip 
Dfvus;/ ro6zha, Daisy 

Ruskkxi^ n,pl., Rushes, reeds 

Rutsa, n., Duck, goose (r^tsi). Lieb., retza 

Riizlo, 

Ruzino, 

Ruzlo mas. Coarse meat 



, . ' I adj,^ Strong, coarse (ro6zlo). Pasp., zoralS 



S. 

'Sadla, n,y Morning (saiila). Pasp., disiola, it dawns; disdra, 

early 
Sadds, He laughed. See Sav 
Sdkeos, n,, Sake 
Sal, V,, To laugh (sdrler, sav). Pasp., asdva 

Sdlinms } ^'' ^"g'^^^S* laughter, laugh 

Salvia, He laughs 
Sald6va {for Sad6m), I laughed 
Sdlamdnca, n., Table. Pasp., saldn 

^ly 1 / »., Bridle (s61iv^ngro, solivifdo). Taisp,, sulivdri 

Sap, «., Snake, serpent, eel. Pasp., sa/i>fi, snake 
Sdpaw,//., Snakes. Pasp., sappd 
SApesko-mitcho, Eel 
Sdpesko-meitcho-mo6tsi, Eel-skin 

« , . '. I «., Soap. Pasp., sapurd; Mikl., i., 36 



VOCABULARY. 1 33 

Sar, prep,. With 

Sar, adv,, How, as, Pasp., sar, how 

Sar 'shan, How are you ? 

Sar kom6ssa, If you please 
Sdrler, z;., To laugh (sal, sav). Pasp., asdva 
Sdrshta,\ 

Sdrsta, \ «., Iron. Pasp., skasHr, sast/r 
Sdster, / 

Sdrstera,) ,. -. 

Sistera, I '^•' ^'°" 

Sdstram^skro, «., Blacksmith. Pasp., sastiriskoro 

Sdstera-bflcinom^ngro, Ironmonger 

Sdstermdngro, «., An iron-grey horse 
Sas, 2nd sing. and//, intperf. Was, were. Pasp., isds 

Yov sas ndshedo opr6 o rook. He was hanged on the 
tree 

Yon sas wdfedo ndfalo, They were very 
Sdster, Iron. See Sarshta 

Sastfs, Able, can (sftis, stastfs). Lieb., sasti; Pasp., sastS^ 
sound, healthy ; Pott, ii., 370 — 380 ; cf. Lat, valeo 

Sar sastfs te yek moosh del. How can one man give? 

'Saiila ) 

,0 /| '[ «v Morning ('sadla). Pasp., disiolo, disdra 

K61iko-saiila, To-morrow morning 
Kesaula, This morning 
Sav, z/., To laugh (sal, sdrler). Pasp., asdva 

o , ' [ «., Laugh, laughter. Pasp., asaibi 

Sadds, He laughed 
Sdvo, pron,. Who, what (so). Pasp., sav6, so 
Sdvo shan too, Who art thou } 
Sdvo che^rus. What time } when ? 
'See, 3n/ sing, and //. pres. ind,, Is, are, has, have. Pasp., 

isi 
See-6ngro, adj\. Spirited, lively (zee) 

Shab, V,, To run away, " A mumper's word." Pott, ii., 14, 
schuf iich. ! be off ! Sundt, p. 394, shibba! go! - 



134 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Sham, We are (shem). Pasp., isdm 

Ta s6rkon k6vaw sham md (mdndi), And all that we 
have ; lit, and all things are to us 
'Shdmas, We were (shiimas). Pasp., isdmas 

'Sor kino shdmas. We were all tired 
'Shan, 2nd sing, dJvdpLpres,, Art, are, hast, have. Pasp., isdn 
Too 'shan kdrdo mfshto, Thou hast done well 
Too *shan lesti. You have it 
Sar shan. How art thou ? how are ye ? 
'Shdnas, 2nd sing, and pL imperf,^ Thou wast, ye were. 
Pasp., isdnas 
Too *shdnas ndfalo wdver dfwus, haw ? You were ill 

the other day, eh ? 
'Shdnas kin6 ? Were you tired ? 
Shdni, n,, Mule 
Shandngro, «., Lawyer, liar (shoon). The two meanings are 

due to their assonance 
Shdrdoka, «., Apron (chdrdoka, etc.) ? Pasp., utchardS^ 
mantle, covered. Pott, ii., 231, 252, '' skadticca^ 
apron, Kog.," is from Roberts; B'6ht,,jdnddrdka 
Shaiihauri, n,y Sixpence (shookhaiiri) 
Shdlo, «., Rope, cord (sh61o). Pasp., shelS, sholS 

K6va, so too kair.? shdlo, Flax ; lit., thing which you 
make rope (of) 
Shcldngro, «., Whistler (shol) 
'Shem, istpLpres., We are ('sham). Pasp., isdm 

M6ndi 'shem akef. We are here 
Shdro, n,, Head (sh6ri). Pasp., skerd 

Sherdngro, «., Bridle, captain, chief, headman, leader 
Bdresto-sherdngro, Captain of a ship 
Shdromdngro, «., Lawyer 
Sher6^.yno, «., Lawyer ; for sherdf/^no 
Ghfvesto-shdro, Ear of corn 
P6gado-shdro, Cocked hat 

Chiv it adr6 your, shdro. Remember ; lit., put it into 
your head. Compare Pasp., sherdva man; Lieb., 
rikkerwdwa an schero 



VOCABULARY. 1 3 5 

Shil, «., Cold, catarrh. Pasp,, shil 

Shflino, adj.^ Cold (shfrilo). Pasp., shilaU 

Shflo-tem, The north 
Shing, «., Horn. Pasp., shing 

Shfngaw,//., Horns 
Shfrilo, adj,y Cold (shililo). Pasp., shilalS 
Shiv, n.f Snow (iv, ghiv, hiv, yiv). Pasp., iv, etc. 
Shok, n.i Cabbage. Pasp., shakh 

Sh6kyaw,//., Cabbages 

Padni-shok, ) .-. ^ 

^ I . 1- 1 f Watercress 

Panengn-shok,) 

Shol, v.f To whistle (shool). Pasp., shSndava 

Shel^ngro, «., Whistler 

Shol6va, I whistle. Lieb., schollewdwa 
Sh61o, «., Rope, cord (sh61o). Pasp., sholSy shelS 
'Shorn, \st sing, and pLpres.^ I am, we are (shem). Pasp., 

1st sing., is6m; ist pi., isdm 
'Sho'mas, ist sing, and//, intperf.^ I was, we were (shiimas). 
Pasp., 1st sing., isSmas; 1st pi., isdmas 

Mandi sho'mas 'jaw kind, I was so tired 

Be^no sho'mas adr^ Dovdrus, I was bom at Dover 

M6ndi sho'mas y^kera a bauro hadro kekivvi. We 
once had a large copper kettle 
Sho6ba, «., Gown, frock (sho6va) 

Chiiflfaj, //., Petticoats 
Sho6bli, adj\, Pregnant (sho6vlo, q.v) 
Shookdr, adv,^ Nicely, quietly, slowly. Pasp., shukdr 

Jal shookdr, Go slowly, easily, nicely 

Shookdriddir, comp,^ Slower, easier 

Sho6kar, adj\, Quiet, still 

Sho6ker ! Silence ! Keep quiet ! 

Sho6ko, adj., Dumb 

R6ker shook^s, adv,, Speak low 
Shookhaiiri, «., Sixpence (shaiihaiiri, shov, haiiri) 
'Sho6ko-kan6ngri, Deaf person, Pasp., kashukd, deaf 
Sho6ko, adj.. Dry. Pasp., shukd 



13* G\PSy-ENGLISH 

Sho6ko-mauromengri-tem, Suffolk; lit, dry bread 
fellows' county 
Shool, v., To whistle (shol), Pasp., skonddva 
Shooldva, I whistle 
Shoold^, They whistled 

-, ' I «., Moon. Pasp., tckon 

ShoiSnaw, //., Months 
Shoon, v., To hear, listen, hearken, etc. Pasp., skundva 
Shoon<4va, I hear 
Shoon^ssa, Thou hearest 
Shoon^la, He hears 
Sho<inta ! Listen ! Hark I 
Shoonim, We will hear 
Sho(ined6m,| _ , 
Sho<Sndom > 

Sar kek shoon^nna. If they will not hear 
Shoondas, He heard 
Shoond^, They heard 

Shoon l^ndi ! Remember ( lit., listen to them 
Slioon-;'o-k6iigri, A bell ; lit., hark to church 
Shodnaben, ) 
ShoiJnamengri,/ '' " ^ 

Shandngro, »., Lawyer, liar ; from assonance 

Sh fA \ "■' ^'"^S^''- Pasp., shut, shutkS 

Sho6tto°1 "*■■■ ^°"''- ''"P- ''""^ 

Shoiitlo chor, Sorrel ; lit., sour grass 

Shoot shokdw. Lettuce, any plant used in making 
salad 
Sho6va, n. Gown (sho6ba) 
Shodvlo, adj.. Swollen. Pasp., shuvlS 

Shodvli,/., Pregnant {sho6bIi) 
Shor, v.. To praise. Pasp., ashardva 

Shoriva, I do praise 

Shdun^ its k6kero, Bracing, boastii^ 



VOCABULARY. 1 3 7 

Sh6roben, «., Boast 

Shor6,] 

Sh6ro, I n.f Head (sh^ro, shdro). Pasp., sherd 

Sh6r!, ) 

Shor^ngro, «., Chief, captain, foreman, headman, 
lawyer 

Baiiro-shor^ngro, Lord 

Sh6ro jfnomus gafro, A learned man ; lit., head- 
knowledge-man 

Sh6rokno, «., Chief, master 

Sh6rokno gdiro, A headman, clever fellow, collegian 

Sh6rokn6 gair6, //., Clever men 

Sh6rokono mooshdw. Disciples ; lit, chief men 

^,. h' i ^** Rabbit' (shiishi). Pasp., shosMi 

Shosh6,//.# Rabbits 
Shov, adj\^ Six. Pasp., shov^ sho 

Shookhaiiri,) ^. /t / -v 

Shadhadri. f "•' ^'''P"""^ ^^""> 
Shdmas, \st pL imperf,^ We were (sho'mas, shdmas). Pasp., 

isdmas 
Shiiro, «., Head (sh6ro, sh6ro). Pasp., sherd 
Shiishi, «., Rabbit (sh6shi). Pasp., shoshSi 

Shushef, //., Rabbits 

Shiishenghi h^vyaw. Rabbit-holes 
'Si, Is (see). Pasp., isi 

Si, conj,y As. } From assonance of is and as when spoken 
quickly 

Jaw door si too. As far as you 

Kek na kom6va jdfri tandw si k61i, I do not like 
such places as these 

M^ripen tdnaw si dik^la. Murdering places as they 
look (lit., looks) 
Sig, adj, and adv,^ Quick, soon, early, just. Pasp., sigS 

Sfgodair, comp,, Sooner, earlier, before 

Ken sigaw. Immediately ; lit., just now 

Sfgo to6ti, Bestir yourself, be quick 



138 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Sfker, v.y To show. Pasp., sikdva 
Sfker, «., Gold 

Sfker6va, I show, I will show 
Sikadds, He showed 
Sfklo, adj. and /. part, Accustomed, used. Pasp., 

siklS 
Mdndi couldtit jiv adre a gav, mdndr.r so sflclo to the 
bdval, I couldn't live in a town, I am so accus- 
tomed to the open air 
Sfkerm^ngro, «., Show, showman, circus, pleasure- 
grounds, moon 
Sfkerom^ngro, «., Signpost 
Sim^nsa, «., Cousin, relation, kin. Miklosich, iiber die 
mundarten, etc., part ii., p. 71, No. 456, semence 
Sor see m^nsi, We are all relations 
Sfmmer, v,, To pawn, pledge. Lieb., simmeto, a pledge ; 
Pasp., simadiy sign 
Sfmmer/«^ bo6dega, Pawnshop 
Sfmmerom^skro, Pawnbroker 
Sftis, If I can (stdstis) 
Siv, z/.. To sew. Pasp., sivdva 
Sivdiim, I sewed 
UnsWdOy Unsewn 
Sivom^ngro, «., Tailor ; the name too of the Taylor 

tribe of Gypsies (soovdngro). Pasp., subndskero 
Soov, «., Needle. Pasp., stiv 
Skdmin, n,y Chair. Pasp., scamniy stool ; Lieb., stammin 

Skamin6, ) ^, /-. . 
01 ^ • f pl'i Chairs 

Skammyaw,) 

Skdmin^ngro, «., Chair-mender, chair-bottomer 

Rdshei skdmin adrd o k6ngri, kei o rdshei besh^la. 

Pulpit ; lit, priest-chair in the church, where the 

priest sits 

Sken, n.y Sun (kam, tam). Pasp., kam 

Sko'ni, «., Boot Lieb., skorni 

Skd'ny3iv/s,pl.t Boots (skriinya) 

Skooddlin, «., Plate. ? Italian, scodel/a, porringer 



w.^ 



VOCABULARY. 1 39 

Skoodflin, n,y Teapot 
Pfamdskri skooddlin, Teapot 
K6shtudno skoodflaw. Wooden dishes 
Skriiiiya, «.//., Boots (skonyawj). Lieb., skornia; Mikl.,- 1 [c 

i.. 37 
SlugMSy «., Slug 

^ ^ \ ) ^*' Cream. Lieb., schminddna; Mikl., I, 40 

SOi pron,^ What (sdvo). Pasp., so 

niy I ' f »•> Bridle (sdlivdrdo), Pasp., sulivdH 

S61ivar6, //., Bridles 
S61oh61omus, «., Oath (s6verhol, siilverkon). Pasp., sovil; 

sovH khaliSnt, I have sworn 
Soom, \ 

Soon, \ v., To smell. Pasp., sungdva 
Soong,/ 

Soong6va, I smell 

Soong^la, He smells 

So6ngimus, «., Smell 

Soom a kan, Smell a stink 
So6nakei, «. and adj\y Gold. Pasp., soonakdi 

So6nakei-pdtaldngro, Goldsmith 

So6naka wdriga, Gold chain 
So6ti, z/., To sleep, colre (sov). Pasp., sovdva, p. part, suttd, 
sottd 

So6to, ^j:^'.. Asleep, sleepy 
Sootdla, He sleeps 
So6tad6m, I slept 
Sootadds, He slept 
Jaw kdter siitto, Go to sleep 
Yon so6tedd, They slept 

Diila k61a (so) kair^ to6ti te jal to so6to. Poppies ; 
lit, those things (which) make you go to sleep 
Soov, n.f Needle (siv). Pasp., suv 



'I Always, often ; lit., every time 



140 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Soov^ngro, «., Tailor (sfvom^ngro). Pasp., siibnd' 
skoro 
Sor, n and adj,^ Everything, all ; adv,^ quite. Pasp., sarro^ 
sdore 
Sor-kon k611i. Everything; cf. Mikl., ii., 35, 133 
(Bukowina Vocab.), sekon skiba, alle sprachen ; ii.^ 
55, 1271 (Hungarian Vocab.), sako, eveiy 
S6r-kon-che6rus, 
S6r-kon-chciirus, 
S6rsin, n,, Plate ; } from saticer 

S6ski, adv,, Why ; lit., for what (so). Pasp., dative, sSske, 
for what, why 
S6ski kedds-les tdlla ? Why did you do it .? 
S6ski too nanef r6ker to mdndi "i Why don't you 
speak to me ? 
Sov, v,f To sleep, coYre (so6ti). Pasp., sovdva 
Sovd6m, I slept 
Sovdd, They slept 
S6verhol,| z^t., To swear, curse (siilverkon, s61oh61omus). 
S6ylohol, ) Pasp., savil-khalidtn^ I have sworn ; lit., I have 
eaten oath 
S6vloh61oben, ) ^ - 

S6verh61oben j «' ^"'^^"' °^* 

f Pf ^1' ) «., Pin. ? French, jingle. Pott, ii., 248. spinaf, 
Spfngher, j ^^.^^ 

Spink, / 

Spfngo, «., Brooch 

Spfngo, v,y To pin, fasten with wooden skewers 

Spingadrus, «., Skewer, spit 

Spingadro-kdlom^ngro, Skewer-maker 
Staddi,1 

Stddi, \ «., Hat. Pasp., stadlk 
Stdti, ) 

Staddia,) ^, „ . 

Jo6vioko-staddi, Bonnet ; lit., female hat 
Stadni, «., Deer, stag. 1 Pott, ii., 247, stirna, cat 



VOCABULARY, I4I 

Stdnya, «., Stable. Lieb., stdnia; MikL, 1.. 38 

,^^ , ,?' I «., Prison Cstdripen, 'staiiri). Pasp., astardi^ that 
,^ . . ' J which one holds ; astaribiy arrest 

Stdri, n,y Star. Pasp., stiari (As.) 

Stdstis, If it is possible, if he can (sastfs, tastfs) 

'Staiiri, n,y Prison fstdrdi) 

St^kas, «., Gate, turnpike (stfgher). ? Provincial English, 
steeky to shut, or from stakervava, to tread, walk, 
Pott, vol. i., p. 437 (from Puchmayer's "Romdni 
Czib") 

>c^/ • { ^-9 Prison (*stdriben). Pasp., astaribiy arrest 
otenpen, / 



'St6rom6ngro, ) p^^^^^^ 
'St6rom6sti, I «•' ^^'^""^ 



'Stdripen-gav, «., County town 
Stifo-dad, n,. Father-in-law. German, sHtf-; English, j/ij^- 
Stffi-dei, Mother-in-law, | Miklosich, "iiberdiemun- 
Stffo-pal, Brother-in-law, / darten," etc., part ii., p. 69, 

No. 279, and p. 70, No. 376, shtyfdaj\ shtyfdad 
Stffi-pen, Sister-in-law 
Stfgher, «., Gate, turnpike (st^kas). Pott, ii., 246, gives i 
stikuy path, and compares {yiss-steigy footpath ; 
Mikl., i., 39 
Pdsser-stfgher, Turnpike 
Stor, adj,, Four. Pasp., star 

Trin-stor, Seven ; lit., three-four 
Do6lf-trinydw ta yek. Seven ; lit., two threes and one 
Do6t stordw, Eight ; lit., two fours 
Stor-pansh, Twenty ; lit, four fives 
Stor-peer^ngro, Frog 
StrdngH, «., Onion. "A mumper's lav, it means po6rumi" 
Stdghi, n. pi, Stacks, cf, Harr., stagus, a rick ; Pott, ii., 

246 ; Mikl., 1., 39 
Sulverkon, 2/.,To swear, curse (s6verh61, s61oh61omus). Pasp., 

sovd-khaliSm^ I have sworn 
Sundiyyx^y Sunday 



142 GYPSY- ENGLISH 

Sus. Kair too sus asdr kom^sa. Do just as you like. 

? Sus = so as, with the particle asdr attached, to 

disguise the English words 
Siitto, «., Sleep (so6to). Pasp., suttd 



SwJ£} ^^ Tobacco-pipe 



T. 



Ta, con;\, And. Pasp., ia 

Dad ta dei. Father and mother 
Ta, con/., Than (te) 

Yov si bitad^r ta mdndi. He is less than I. ?Ta 
= Engl, to, which is sometimes used provincially 
in this sense. Some Gypsies similarly use nor, 
others dan, den (than) 
-ta, emphatic suffix to verbs in the imperative. Pott, v<^ i., 
p. 310 
Sho6nta, chaw<Sli ! Listen, mates 1 
AvatA ! Come here ! 
Ta, conj. and pron,. That Pasp., ka 

Yov pendds ta mdndi jab pilla wdver mooAAw, He 

was jealous ; lit, he said that I go after other men 

Wdfedo bdval ta and^ kek k6shto bok, A bad wind 

that brings no good luck 
Yov ta sas mo61o, He that was dead 
Taf, «., Thread (tav, tel). Pasp., tav 
Tal4 /^€^., Down, under, beneath (tel6, al6, '1^). Pasp., teU 
Tdlla, adv,, After, afterwards^ except, without 
Tdlla, prep,. Under, beneath, behind 
Tair of a badro wesh. Alongside of a big wood 
TAllani-ch6;^a, Under-petticoat 
Lei tal^. To peel 
Chin tal^. To cut off", cut down 
Lei o mo6tsi taM o p6bo, Peel the orange \ lit., take 
the skin off* the orange 
Tam, «., Sun (kam, sken). Pasp., kam 



VCXXA.BULARY. 1 43 

TAmlo, adj\y Sunny, light. A corruption of kdmlo 
Timlo, adj\y Dark. Pasp., taniy blind ; Mikl., i., 43 

Tdmlo radti, Dark night 
Tan, ) «., Camp, place, tent. Pasp., tan^ place ; katina^ 
T4no,i tent 

Tinaw, //., Places 
Tan, v,y To encamp 

Kair ti tan tdlla o rook avrf o kam, Pitch your tent 
under the tree out of the sun 
Tarder, z;.. To pull, stretch. Pasp., traddva^ to draw 
Tardad6m, I pulled 
Tirdadds, He pulled 
TArdad^ They pulled 
TArder/«^ sh^lo k6tordndi. Picking oakum; lit, 

pulling rope to pieces 
So too tarderj matchd avrf o padni tro6stal, Fish- 
hook ; lit., what you pull fish out of the water with 
TArno, adj.y Young (taiino). Pasp., ternS 
Tdrno, »., Child 

TArno, ». pr,^ Young, a Gypsy tribe 
Tdrnodar, ) ^ _. 
Tarnodafrj "^f" ^^^^Z^\ 
Tdmomus, »., Youth 
TAsser, v.y To choke, drown. Pasp., tasdva 
TAssado,/./ar/., Choked 
'TAssadAs, He choked 
Tastis, If he can, if I can, if it be possible, etc. (stast/s, 
tdssis). A combination of te sasto isi; vide Pott,- 
i., 370 ; ii., 242 
Ker6va-les, tastis, I will try to do it ; lit, I will do 

it, if I can 
R6ker too, tastfs. Speak, if you can 
Sor o k61i pel^la adrAl l^sti, tastfss, All the things 
(everything) will fall through it, if they can (or 
that can) 
TAtcho, ) adj,^ Good, true, right, real, holy, ready, healthy, 
TAtcheno, ) well, safe. Pasp., tchatchutid^ true 



144 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Tdtchipen, «., Truth. Pasp., tchatchipi 

Tdtcho wast, Right hand 

TAtchen^ gair^, orfdlki, Holy men, angels 

Tdtchnes, adv., Right 

Kair tdtcho. To cure, comfort ; lit, make right 

Yov sas o tdtcho yek o' l^sko dei, He was the only 

son of his mother 
Tatcho-'gldl, Right opposite, face to face 
TAtcho berengro, Ship captain 
TAtcho-barj, Jewels 
Tdtcho d6sta. Sure enough 

^,_ 'I To warm. Taisp., tattiardva 
Tdtter, ) v^ ^ ' 

Tdtterm^ngri, n., Frying-pan 

Tdtto, ad/., Warm, hot. Pasp., tattif 

TAttoben, n,. Heat, summer. Pasp., tattib^, heat 

Tdtto-ko6va, Pepper 

TAtto-pani, Alcohol, ardent spirits; cf, American 

^ fire-water^ 

Tav, n,, Thread (taf, tel). Pasp., tav 

TAvesto-gav, Manchester ; lit., cotton-town 

_. , • V J ^^" ' Young (tArno). Pasp., ternd 

Te, prep, and conj\, To, for, at, how, with, what, than, but, 

etc. Pasp., te 
Tedfwus, To-day 
Bikn6va-les tei te vAniso liiva, I will sell it too for 

any sum 
Te d6va che^rus o' raAti, At that time of night 
Te go6dlo see. How sweet it is 
Yon pandAs yov opr6 te 16sti, They tied he (him) up 

with it 
Kel^la peiAs te l^sti n6go p6ri, It is playing with its 

own tail 
Te wAfedo moosh see yov, What a bad man he is 
D6rdi, te go6dlo pob6 see odof, chav61i ! Look, what 

ripe apples are there, mates ! 



VOCABULARY. 1 45 

Y6t see wdfedoddir te yov, She is worse than he 
Kek k6meni sas ker*rf man ko6shto te yov, No one 
but he cured me 
Te, particle, used to form the subjunctive ; vide Grammar, 
p. 39. Pasp., te 
Beng te lei toot. Devil take you 
Te wel mdndi te bftcher6va-len avrf. If I send them 

away 
Te jindssa too ? Do you know ? 
Sha'mas te mer6va, I must have died 
Te dik6v avrf, dik6va, If I look out, I see 
Teero,/r<?«., Thine, thy, your. Pasp., tinro 
Tei, conj,, Also, too, indeed. Pott, i., 308, tai; Mikl., ii., 58 
(1454), taj 
D6sta brfshno w^la tal6 ta hiv tei, Much rain comes 

down and snow too 
Bikn6va les tei te vdniso liiva, I will sell it too for 
any sum 
Tel, «., Thread (tav). Pasp., tav 
TAhyprep,, Down, etc. (tal^). Pasp., tele 
Tem, «., Country, county, district, neighbourhood, etc. 
Pasp., teniy people, world 
Temdw,//., Countries 
Tem^ngro, «., Countryman, rustic 
Wdver-tem^ngro, Foreigner 
Hfndo-tem, Ireland 
Hfndi-tem^ngro, Irishman 
Tem^skri, adj,. Country 
Kaiilo-tem, The 'black-country' 
WAtchkeni-tem, Wales 
Mi-Diivel&to-tem, Heaven, the sky 
D61a tem^ski R6mani-chaLf, The Gypsies of that 

county 
Wdver t^meski I6I0 p6bo, Orange ; lit, other-country 

red (yellow) apple 
Ch6rkeno-tem, Yorkshire 



10 



146 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Think6v2^y ) t ^l- 1 
^i.- i JL \ '^'} I think 

Ti, pron.y Thine, thy. Pasp., // 

Tfkno, ) adj\, Small, little.) ^ ,, . „ 

TflcenoJ «., Child. / ^^'P- *''"^' y°""S. small 

K6shteno tfkno, Doll 
Til, v,y To hold. Pasp., terdva, to have; 3rd pers. sing., 
ter^la; VailL, p. 73, Tipac'as mefiy tilas tk kArdAn, 
Si tu m'en crois, nous prendrons une voiture 

TiVdyp.part, Held 

Til aprd. To raise ; lit., hold up 

Tflom^ngri, »., Reins, pincers, snaptrap 

Mi Do6vel kek tildssa (filild) l&ti sor tdtcho, God 
will not hold him guiltless 

Yov tildds l&ko sh6ro opr^, He held his head up 
Tobdr, «., Axe, hammer. Pasp., tovir^ axe 

To' ver, \ 

Td'fer, v «., Hammer, axe, anvil 

To'ber,) 
To'ber kovs (coves). Highwaymen. " That's mumpers* talk" 
7i?ketan6, adv,. Together 
m 00 fpron.y Thou, you. Pasp., tt4 

ry ,.^\ Thy. Pasp., 1st dat., tute; 2nd dat, ttike 

• , ' \ pron, acCy Thee, you. Pasp., ace, tut 

Tiissa, pron, instr., With thee. Pasp., tisa 

MAntchi too ! Cheer up ! 
Tood, «., Milk. Pasp., tut 

Tood, v., To milk 
Toof, «., Smoke (toov, tiivlo). Pasp., tuv, tobacco for 

smoking 
To6geno,\ 

To<Sgno, I ^'., Sorry, grieved (tiigno). Pott, ii., 307 ; Mikl, 
Toogn6, r i., 10, 41 
To6gnusJ 

To6geno, adj., Lonesome, lonely 



^-^- C; 



VOCABULARY. 1 47 

V,, To grieve 
Sorrow 

Mi toc^ is quite mist6, I am quite well 
To6ki, pron., Thee (tiiki, too). Pasp., 2nd dat., t4ke 
To6shni, «., Basket, faggot (kushni, tnishni, ti!ishni). Pasp., 

kdshnika 
To6tchi, «., Breast (Lat, mamma), Pasp., tchutchi 

Tootchdw,//., Breasts 
To6t\y pron., Thee, thy, for thee (too). Pasp., ist dat., titi 
Toov, «., Smoke (toof). Pasp., tuv, tobacco 
Toov, z;.. To smoke 
To6vlo, «., Tobacco (tiivlo) 
To6vlo-g6nno, Tobacco-pouch 
TiT-rdati, To-night 
T6rro, adj.. High. Pasp., khor, deep 

T6rropen, «., Height 
Tov, z/., To wash. Pasp., iovdva 

Tov6va, I will wash 
Tover, «., Axe (t5bdr). Pasp., tov^r; Mikl., i., 42 
Trad, To lei trad, to take care. ? A translation ol pnnen 
garde, corrupted into grade, and then trad 
Trad, «., Order, notice, etc., e.g., mdndi dels to6ti 
kodshto trad to kair dodva, I order you to do so ; 
lit., I give thee good order to do that ; del man 
trad, show me ; } lit., give me advice 
' ' ^ Trash, ) v,. To fear, frighten, astonish. Pasp., trashdva, 
TrAsher,^ to fear 

Trash6va, I fear, I am afraid 
Trash^la, He fears, frightens 
Trash^nna, They fear 

rp , , ^\ f' part,. Frightened, afraid, astonished 

Tr4sh/«/, adj,, Fearful 
^ trash. Afraid 

Trash, n,. Fear, fright, astonishment 
Trash see mdndi, I am afraid ; lit, fear is to me 
Traslo, adj., Thirsty (tro6shlo). Pasp., truskaU, thirsty 

V 






148 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

'Tr6,prep., In (dr€) 

rp . I adj\f Three. Pasp., trin 

Trin-g6rishi, Shilling 
Trin-ta-stor, \ 

Trfn-stor, \ Seven 

D061 trinydw ta yek J 

T A ' \ ^'* ^^^y> corpse. Lieb., trupo; Mikl., i., 42 

Tro6pus,^ 

Tro6pia, > «. ^/., Stays 

Troop4 ^ 
Troosh, «., Thirst. Pasp., trush 

Tro6shlo, adj,^ Thirsty (trdslo). Pasp., trushaU 
Tro6shel, ) ^., A trail formed by three heaps of grass at 
Tro6shilo,/ cross-roads. Pasp., trusMl^ cross 
Tro6shai, «., Can, quart, any large vessel, bundle (kiishni, 
tiishni). Lieb., tuschni, flask, bottle 

- 1 i P^^'f About, of, concerning. Lieb., trujal 

Mdndi kom^ssa {komdva) te shoon troostdl 16sti, I 
would like to hear about him 

So ker^ssa o patr^ni troostdl } What do you make 
trails of.? 

So too tdrderj match^ avrf o padni tro6stal, Fish- 
hook ; lit., what you pull fish out of the water with 

Troostdl me^ro k6shto k6momusti Do6vel ker'^ 
mdndi k6shto, However my good kind God made 
me well 
Tiikki, pron,f Thee (to6ki) 

' ''I adj,f Fat, stout, plump. Pasp., tuld 

Tm^n) """ ^**' urease, ointment 

Tiillo-mas-tem, Lincolnshire ; lit., fat-meat county 
Tiigno, adj\f Tiring, fatiguing (to6gno) 
Tum6ndi,/nw., To ye, ye. Pasp., ist dat. pi, tuminde 



VOCABULARY. 1 49 

Tiishni, «., Faggot, basket (to6shni, etc.) Pasp., kdshnika 

basket 

Tiissa, pron,f With thee, thee. Pasp., tisa 

'Piissis ) 

ry , f If it be possible (tastfs) 

rp, yf^-» Tobacco (toov, etc.) Pasp., tuv, tobacco 
Tiivlopen, «., Tobacco 



V AND W. 

These letters are almost always interchangeable. 

Wdfedo, ad/., Bad (vAsavo, wAsedo) 

W&kdofo/ki, Enemies 

WAfedo gairo, Enemy 

WAfedo rdkering^ gafro, Chatterer 

Wdfedopen, n., Wickedness 

WAfedes, adv», 111 

WAfedoddir, comp,, Worse 

WAfedo-dfk/»^-tan, Wilderness ; lit., bad-looking 
place 

WAfedo bAval ta andj kek ko6shto bok, (An) ill wind 
that brings no good luck 
Wagyaiiro, «., Fair, market (walgaiirus) 
VAkasho, «., Lamb (b6kocho, b6koro). Pasp., bakritch6 

WrSr ' I ^'^ ■'^^^^^^» glass. Lieb., walin 

VAlin6sko-men, n.. Bottle-neck, neck of a bottle 

Walgaiirus, «., Fair (wagyaiiro, w^lingaiiro). This word 
occurs in the following forms in English collec- 
tions: — Bright, varingera; Harriot, vail goro ; 
Roberts, waggaulus (Pott, ii., ^^y and Predari, p. 
274, give the same word from Kogalnitschan, who 
took it from Roberts) ; " Illustrated Lond. News,** 
1851, p. 715, vellgourisy pi; Leland, welgooro^^^. 
50, 56, 66, 114, 212; wellgooros, pi., 137; ivell- 
godras, pi., 211; Borrow, " Lavo-lil," weggaulus. 



150 GYPSY- ENGLISH 

welgoruSf welgaulus, Bryant, Irvine, Simson, and 

Borrow's earlier works do not include the word. 

Pasp., p. 255, in voce, inklidv^ "panayir&te (G. M. 

iravrfp)pii)l' to the fair ; Vaillant, Gramm. Romm., 

vagailf foire 
VAngar, «., Coals, money (Angar, v6ngar). Pasp., angdr, coal 
Wangiishterj, «., //., Rings (v6ngusti, etc.) Pasp., angustri 
Viniso, adj. and »., Any, anything (vAriso, w6riso). Miklo- 

sich, iiber die Mundarten, part ii., p. 60, No. 161 2, 

valaso; No. 1622, vareko; No. 1626, vareso 

Vdniso kiimeni. Anybody 

fFrf«/as6va, I do want 

Too wdnfyLsity Thou wantest 

Velrdo, ) ^ -n ,, 

\sr^ 1 r »., Cart. Pasp., vordon 

Ward^ngro, «./r.. Cooper, a Gypsy gang 
WdrdeskO'her6, //., Wheels ; lit., cart legs 
W4rdesko-k61a, Harness ; lit, cart things 
Wdrdesko-prasterm^ngri, Wheel ; lit, cart runner 
Pri8ter/«^-w4rdesko-atch/;«^-tan, Railway station ; 

lit, running-cart's stopping-place 
Bo6trestO"v4rdo, Knifegrinder's barrow ; lit, working 

cart 
Refesko-vArdo, Carriage ; lit, gentleman's cart 
Poov- vdrdo, ) Plough ; lit, earth-cart (? bav^ngro, 
Vdrdo-bavdngro,/ for poov^ngro) 
WArdi, n. pi. Cards. From the assonance of carts 

and cards 
WArdi, //., Carts 
WArdi-gair^ Carters 
VAriso. See VAniso 
VAro, «., Flour (v6ro). Pasp., varS 

V^S^oj *•' ^•"«'"' '^^"^ 
VArtcr, v.. To watch. Lieb., garda, precaution 
RakM vart asAr lAti, Boys watch her 
Vartfnimi, They are watching us 



VOCABULARY. 1 5 1 



Vast, 

Vdsti, 

Vas, 

Wast, 

Wdsto,J 



>- «., Hand, fist. Pasp., vast 



Wast^ngri^j, «.//., Handcuffs 

WAsteni-mo6shaw,//., Arms 

W4sto-b6shom6ngro, Drum 

Y6gesto-Welstaw,//., Tongs 

Wast hdnik. Anvil ; lit, hand-well. Due to assonance 
Vdsavo, ) ad;\, Bad (wdfedo). ? Formed from, Pasp., des/A, 
Wdsedo,) sin; or (rom pets, bad; Ousely's "Travels in 

Persia," 111., 400 (see Pott, ii., 368) 
Vas, bdlo-vas, «., Bacon (mas) 
Wdver, adj\, Other, others (w6ver, etc.) Pasp., yav& 

Wciver6,//., Others 

Wdver-tem^ngro, Foreigner; lit, other-country (man) 
Ve6na, «., Excuse 

Ve^nlo, ad/,, Excused 

Lei ve6na, Take notice 

'Vel ) 

'VJ \ i ^'^ ^^ come, become (av61, aw^l). Pasp., /la, come I 

W61a, He comes 

Weldssa.) r«t 

xrr %i r Thou comest 

Welessa, i 

*Vfssa wi* mdndi tal6 koo (k'o) kftchema ? Will you 
go with me down to the inn } Welsh Romanes 

W^nna,) 

Ven, 

Vi6m, I came 

Vidn, You came 

Vids, He came 

Sor m^ndi viim, We all came 

Vi^m ak6i o wdver ko6roko, We came here last (lit, 
the other) Sunday 



[ They come 



152 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

KAnna vidn tomdndi akef ? When did ye come here ? 

Vi6n, They came, began, became 

Vf€Vd,p,part.f Came 

Wei pAlla, To follow ; lit., come after 

Te Vel, May it come, or become 

Te wel k6va ko6si poov me6ro n6go. Would that 

this little field were my own 
Yon te vel sor tatch6. Kek yon te wel pdnlo. They 

will be all right. They will not be put in the 

' pound ' 
Te vel yov akef, If he were to come here 
Kek mdndi te wel Ifno opr^, I shall not be arrested 
Te wel toot rfnkeni. If you be pretty 
Te wel mdndi te mer. If I happened to die 
W^lingaiiro, «., Fair (walgaiirus) 
Ven, They come. See Vel 

^j^ ' I «., Winter. Pasp., vent^ vend 

Venesto-chafrus, 

Ven-che^rus, 
V6ndri, «., Gut, intestine. Lieb., wenterja 

W^ndraw,//., Entrails 
Wdnna, They come. See Vel 
V6riga, \ 

W^rigo, «., Chain. Bw., Span. G., beriga; Pott, ii., 80 ; 
V^riglo, MikL, i., 44 
W^riglo,^ 

Men-weriga, Necklace 

Vesh "i 

--- |! [ «., Forest, wood. Pasp., vesh 

W6shaw,\ . ... , 

WeshAw,}^'"^^^^^ 

Vesh^ngro, ) «., Gamekeeper, one who takes care of 

Weshengro,/ a wood, forester 

W^shni-miillo, Owl 



\ Winter, winter-time 



VOCABULARY. 1 5 3 

Vesh-jo6kel, ^ ^^^ 

O 161o-w&hkeno-jo6kel,) 

Weshkeni-tflom^ngri, Trap, snare 
'Vfni, «., Beer (lovfna). Lieb., lowina 
Vi6m, I came. See 'Vel 

Wfehto j ""•' '^'^' Pasp,z;«^A/ 

*Pr^-engro-wisht, Upper lip 

Tdlani-wisht, Under Up 
W61sho, «. ^f*., Wales (W6tchkeni). \A^,^ walschdo ; Pott, 
!•> 53> Walldscko, French 

Wdlshen^ngro, «., Welshman 

Kek mdndi can r6ker W61shitfkka, I cannot speak 
Welsh. Lieb., ^walschdikko iemm^ welschland, 
Frankreich' 
V6ngar, \ «., Coals, money (vAngar, dngar). Pasp., angdr^ 
W6ngar,i coal 

W6ngali-gaW. > ^^jj.^^ 

Wongarengri^j,) -r > 
V6nka, | adv.^ When. ? Mikl., ii., 36 (59), ankiy noch (in 
W6nka,/ Kolomyjer Krcise Galiziens Vocab.) 

V6nka see radti. When it is night 

W6nka jafra iv pedds tal6, When there was such a 
snowstorm 

W6nka mdndi y\6m akef, When I came here 
V6ngusti, X 

V6ngushi, «., Ring, finger. Pasp., angtistri^ ring ; angusht 
W6ngushi, finger 
V6ngus, ' 

Vongsh^ngri, «., Glove 

F6shono-w6ngushi^j, False ringfs, rings of imitation 
gold 

Vongusht^ 1 ^, t»- 
Vong&hter.,}^'-'^^"^^ 
Wast-v6ngusht6,| t;^. „^^^ 
V6ngustch6, I ^^-^ ^^"^^'^ 
Wo6der, n,, Door. Pasp., vud4r 



1 54 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

W(Sj7us } ^^ ^^^ (wiidress). Pott, ii., 78 ; Mikl., i., 27 

Chiwed to wo6drus, Confined 

Wo6drus-gav-tem, Bedfordshire 

Opr6 wo6drus, Upstairs ; lit, upon bed, but used for 
upstairs. O baiiro kam6ra see opr^ wo6drus, The 
big room is upstairs 
Wo6ser, ) ^^ ., 
Wo6sherj ^•' ^° *''°^ 

Wo6ser6va, I do, or will, throw 

Wo6ser apr^, To vomit 

Wo6sad6m apre, I vomited 

Wo6sadds, He threw 

VJo6sexed,p.partj Thrown 
V6ro, »., Flour (vdro). Pasp., varS 
W6riso. See VAriso 

W6tchkeni-tem, Wales (W61sho). Pott, i., 53, Walldscho, 
French 

W6tchken6ngro, «., Welshman 
W6ver, adj,^ Other (aw6ver, ovdvo, wdver). Pasp., ^^z/^r 
Wiidrus, «., Bed (wo6drus) 

WTidrus-sh6rom^ngro, Pillow 

Wiidrus-ddndimengri, Bug ; lit, bed-biter 



Y. 

YAkel, «., Dog (jo6kel). Pasp., djukil 

YdrduxaT^ ^" ^^^^^ (j^rj^^a, etc.) 
Yaun,/n?»., They (yon). Pasp., ol 
Yek, adj,^ One. Pasp., yek 

Y^kino, adj,^ Single, only 

Ydkorus,^ 



Y^kos, 
Y6koro, 
Y^kera, 
Y^ka, 



adv,^ Once 



VOCABULARY. I55 

Yov kom'rf asdr 16ndi do6l sar y^kera, He loved them 
both equally ; lit., them both as one 
Y6ka, «., Haste (h6ka) 
Yiv, ;/., Snow (iv, etc.) Pasp., viv, tv, etc. 

Yivyela, It snows (yiv [d]^la, it gives snow) 
Yog, n., Fire. Pasp., jyag^ 

Yog-chik, Ashes ; lit., fire-dirt 

Yog^ngro, ^ 

Yog^ngri, I 

Y6gom6ngri,[^^-^"^ 

Y<^om&kro,' 

Yog^ngri-cho6ko, Shooting-coat 

Y6gom6ngro, \ 

Yog^ngri gaiijo, > Gamekeeper 

Yog-moosh, ) 

Yog^ngri^j, n, //., Lucifer matches 

Y6gesto-wdstaw, //., Tongs 

Dood-yog^nghi-k6shter, Firebrand 

Y6genghi ndflopen, Fever ; lit, fiery illness, pyrexia 

Y6gdngo-tan, Fireplace 

V -J /^^^'j She. Pasp., 6i 
Yok, n,^ Eye. Pasp., j/^^ 

Yokdngri^j, «. //., Spectacles 

Y6kj/, adj.^ Knowing, wideawake, sharp 

Y6kj^ rfvoben. Fine linen 

Y6\iyf6lllA^ Fine people 

Cocky y6ki, Squinting, cockeyed. A nickname for 
the Boswell tribe about Manchester 
Yon, pron,, They (yaun). Pasp., ol 

Yo6so, \ adj\ Clean, clear. Pasp., koshdva^ gkoshdva^ to 
Yo6zo,i clean ; ushandva, to sift 

Yo6ser, z;.. To clean (k6sher) 

Yo6zher6va, I clean 

Yo6zhad6m o kair tdtcho, I swept the house cleaQ 



156 GYPSY- ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 

Yo6zhad^, They swept 
Yo6zhad4s, He swept 
Yo6ser apr6, To sweep, clean up 
Yo6ser/«^ kosht, Broom, brush 
Yo6zhoben, Cleanliness 
Y6ra, »., Watch, hour, clock (6ra, etc.) Pasp., 6ra, watch 

-^ , . ' [ «., Egg. Pasp., vanrS, arftd 

Y6rakana-ko6roko, Easter; lit., Egg-Sunday 

Y6resko-ch6;^a, Egg-shell 
Yov,^ 

Yow> > pron., He (ov). Pasp., ov 
Yuv,) 

Z. 

Zee, «., Heart, soul. Pasp., oghi; ghi (As.) 

ZeeAw,//., Hearts 

See-^ngro, adj\f Spirited 
Zfmen, «., Soup, broth. Pasp., zumi; Lieb., summin. 



APPENDIX 

TO THE 

GYPSY-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



The words in this Appendix are taken from a variety of 
Anglo-Romany sources, from which those words only are 
extracted which we have not ourselves heard, and which 
have their representatives in foreign Gypsy vocabularies, 
or seem to us otherwise noteworthy. 
The following contractions are used : 

Bw. I Z., 2 Z. — Borrow, "Zincali," 3rd edition, 1843, i^ 2 vols. 
„ Z. — Borrow, "Zincali," 1861 edition, in i vol. 
„ I L., 2 L., 3 L.— Borrow, " Lavengro," 1851 edition, in 3 vols. 
„ I R., 2 R. — Borrow, " Romany Rye," 1857 edition, in 2 vols.^ 
„ W. — Borrow, "Wild Wales,** 1868 ed., i vol., post 8vo, ch,xcviii. 
„ LI. — Borrow, " Lavo-lil," 1874. 
Bnt. — Bryant's Vocabulary, contained in the *' Annual Register," 1784. 
Bgt — Bright's "Travels through Lower Hungary," 181 8. 
Boht — Bohtlingk's "Uber die Sprache der Zigeuner in Russland, 

Melanges Asiatiques," vol. 2, part 2. 
Boorde. — Andrew Boorde, "Introduction of Knowledge" (A.D, 1547), 
reprinted 1870, for Early English Text Society, by TrUbner 
and Co., London, p. 218. See " The Academy," 25 July, 1874, 
p. 100. 
Hotten.—" Slang Dictionary," 1864. 
Harr. — Col. Harriot's Vocabulary, published in " Royal Asiatic Soc. 

Transactions," 1830. 
LL.N. — " Illustrated London News." 
Irv. — Irvine's Vocabulary, published in " Bombay Literary Society's 

Transactions," 18 19. 
Lid.— Leland, "EngUsh Gypsies," 1873. 



158 APPENDIX TO THE 

Lieb. — Dr. Liebich, " Die Zigeuner," etc., 1863. 

Mikl. — Miklosich, " Uber die Mundarten und die Wanderungen der 
Zigenner Europas," Vienna, 1872. 

Pasp. — Dr. Paspati, ** Tchinghian^s ou Bohdmiens de PEmpire Otto- 
man," 1870. 

Pott.— Dr. Pott, ^* Die Zigeuner," etc., 1844 

Sim. — Simson's "History of the Gypsies," 1865. * 

Smith. — Smith's "Tent-Ufe with English Gypsies in Norway," 1873. 

VailL — Vaillant, "Grammaire Rommane," Paris, 1868. 



A. 



'- ^ f // — — X^ ' ./ — 

' \ T> /BW' 3 L,209; 1 R.,245 n 



Afta, Seven. Bnt. (eft, heft-wardesh) ; Pasp., eftd 

Ambrol, ) 

Ambrell, 

And4 Into. Bw., i L., 325 ;| ^ ^^^ 

Ando, In. Bw., LL, 17 ; / ^*' 

Anglo, Before. Bw., LL, 17 ; Pasp., angU 

Astis, Possible, it is possible. Bw., LL, 18 (estist) 

Artav, To forgive, pardon.) Bw., LL, 18, 130; artavdvam^ 

Artapen, forgiveness. ) 210; VailL, ertifa, pardon 



B. 

Bedra, Pail. Bw., LL, 264 (pitaree); Pasp., beldni^ beldi, 

trough ; Mikl., i., 44 
BoUa, To baptise. Bw., LL, 24 ; Pasp., boldva 
Bo, Stove. Bw., LL, 265. Pasp., bov 
Beshaley, Stanley, a Gypsy tribe. Bw., LL, 22 

C. 

Calshes, Breeches. Sim., 300, 315 ; Pott, ii., 170 

Chaori, Lasses. Bgt. ; Pasp., tchaiorij lass 

Choomomengro, Boswell tribe. Bw., LL, 82 

Chungalo, Void, without fornL Bw., LL, 119; Pasp., tchungal6 

Colee, Anger. Bnt ; Pasp., khoUn 

Corbatcha, } Whip. Bw., W. ; ? Boht, karbatschoy whip 

Covantza, AnviL Bw., 3 L., 192; Pasp., ^2, govanitcha 



GYPSY-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 1 59 

D. 

Dearginni, It thunders. Bw., i L., 338 ; Bgt, Hungn. G., 

derguner; Mikl., 11., 42, No. 309, derginjel 
Devlehi, With God. Bw., 3 L., 186; i Pott, 191, devleha 
Deue lasse. For God s sake. Boorde ; Pasp., devUsa 
Dook, Ghost, spirit. Bw., 2 L., 241 ; 3 L., 66 ; i R., 1 14, 
IIS> I93> 210, 233. Vd^s^.^ dUkhos ; hieb.,tucAo; 
Mikl., i., 10 
Dugilla, Lightning (.? dearginni). Bgt. 
Duito, Second. Bw., LI., 40 ; Lieb., duito 

E. 

Efage, Irish Gypsy. Harr. 

Eft, Seven. Bw., LI. (aft, heft-wardesh). Pasp., e/td 

Enneah, Nine. Bnt. ; Pasp., enid 

Enyovardesh, Ninety. Bw., LI., 156. Fdisp., inid far desA 

Estist, May be. Bw., LI., 138 (astis) 

G. 

*)s. and v., Thunder ; to thunder. Bw., LI., 47 ; 

GrubSna. ) ^^P" ^'''"'' ^'^'•' '' '^ 
Grondinni, It hails. Bw,, i L., 338; i Pott, 104, grados ; 
Polish, ^^/ Kuss.,gradi; Mikl., i., 12 

H. 

Harko, Copper. Bw., W., 344; i Pott, lOT^harfas ; 119, 

Pchm., charkom 
Harkomescro, Coppersmith. Bw., 3 L., 53 
Horkipen, Coppier. Bw., LI., 51 

Heftwardesh, Seventy. Bw., LI., 158; V^sip.y rftd far desk 
Hetavava, To slay, etc. ; Bw., LI, 49 
Hir, By. Bw., 3 L., 53, 172; i R., 230; Bw., Hungn. G., 

LL, 126, heti 



l60 APPENDIX TO THE 

Hushti, Wide awake there. Lid., 102 ; Pasp., ushtidva, I 

get up ; tishti! get up ! 
Husker, To help. Lid., 209 

I. 

Inna, In, within. Bw., LL, 5 1 

K. 

Kater (myla barforas?), How farre (is it to the next 

towne T) Boorde ; ? Pasp., k^bor^ combien 
Kona, A meal. Irv. ; Hind., khana^ dinner ; Mikl., i., 20 
Koppas, Times. Lid., 221 ; Lieb,, koppa, time 

L. 

Lach ittur ydyues. Good morow. Boorde ; Pasp., latchS to 
div^Sy bon ton jour = bon j. ; Pott, ii., 33 1, latschidir 
diwes, einen bessem Tag 
Later, From her. Bw., LL, 60 ; Pasp., Idtar 
Lendar, From them. Bw., LL, 60 ; Pasp., Undar 
Lestar, From him. Bw., LL, 160 ; Pasp., Ustar 
LuUero, Dumb. Lid., 107 ; Pasp., Ial6ri 

M. 

Malleco, False. Bw., LL, 63 ; ? Pasp., makld, stained 
Mander, From me. Bw,, LL, 64 ; Pasp., mdndar 
Manrickli, Cake. Bw., 3 L., 52 ; Pasp., manrikld 

Mille, Thousand. Bw., LL, 1 54 ; Bw., Span. G., Zinc, milan 
Mokkado tanengre, Marshall, a Gypsy tribe. Bw., LL, 232 
Mole pis lauena, Wyl you drynke some wine (lit.. Pray will 

you drink beer). Boorde; Pasp., molisardva; 

Mikl., i., 24 
Mormusti, Midwife. Bw., LL, 68 ; Lieb., tnamischizza 



GYPSY-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. l6l 

Mosco, A fly. Bw., LL, 68 ; Pasp., maki; Lieb., madzlin 
Muscro, Through. Lid., 232 ; Pasp., maskar^y in the middle 
Mushipen, Lad. Bw., LL, 69, 176 ; Pasp., mantiskipe, 
humanity 

N. 

Nick, To take away, steal, Bw., LI., 71; Pasp., nikdva^ to 

go out 
Nill, River, etc. Lid., 113 ; Pasp., len 



O. 

Ochto, Eight. Bw., LL, 154; Pasp., okht6 

Oitoo, Eight. Bnt. ; Pasp.j oht6 

Olescro, His. Bw., 2 Z., 145* 

Opral, Above. Bw., LL, 72 (pral) ; Pasp., oprdl 



P. 

Pa, For. Bw., i L., 325 ; Bw., Span. G.,/<a: 

Paloo, Cup. Irv. ; Pasp., bdli,pal 

Paningosha, Handkerchief. Roberts, 98 ; Pott, ii., i/^^^pand- 

schoche; MikL, i., 31 
Panschto, Fifth. Bw., LL, 120; lAth., panschto 
Pashall, With. Lid., 225 ; Pasp.,/^^i/, near 
auvero,| p^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ . Yrtnch,,pauvre 

Penchava, To think. Bw., LL, j6, 142, 156, 162; Pasp., 

pintchardva, to understand, know 
Peneka, Nut. Bgt. ; ) i Pott, 120, igi, pennach; 

Penliois, Nuts. Bw., LL, 77 \) loi, pelenda, Bisch. 
Peshota, Bellows. Bw., 3 L., 192; Lid., 39; Fasp., pisMt ; 

MikL, i., 33 
Phar, Silk. Bnt ; Lieb., par 
Pindro, Hoof. Bw., 3 L., 194 ; Pasp.,/f«r^ 
Pita'-^e, Basket. Irv. (bedra) 

II 



't&2 APPENDIX TO THE 

Kfcai, To ^ick. Lid., Ii6; Mild., li., 34 (112), Bukowina 

V6cab,yJnsdeaSy efr stiess 
IHkisfrtk, Pincers. Bw., 3 L., 193 ; Pasp., kldshta; Mikl., i., 16 
Poshavaben, False laughter. Smith, 382 
Powiskie, Musket. Sim., 314 ; Bw., LL, i\Z,pushca; Pasp., 

ptishkd; Mikl, i., 33 
Praia, To seize. Bw., 3 L., 192 

Prosser \ 

p ' [ To ridicule. Lid., 94 ; Pasp., prasdva 

Put, Abyss. Bw., LI,, 119; Bw., Span. G., biitron, putar 

R. 

Rek of the tarpe, } the vault of heaven. Bw., LL, 120 

Rin, File. Bw., 3 L,, 194 ; Pasp., tin 

Romanie, Whisky. Sim., 296, 314, 333 ; Pott, ii., 274, 

rapdnus 
Rossarmescro, Heme, a Gypsy tribe. Bw., LL, 85 

S. 

Sano,Soft. Lid., 231 ; Pasp., sann6 
Selno, Green. Lid., 29 ; Lieb., senn^lo; MikL, i., 47 
Shel, Hundred. Bw., LL, 140, 154, 158, 162; Pasp., shel 
Sherrafo, ««rf Sharrafo, Religious. ^Bw., LL, 89, 122 
Shovardesh, Sixty. Bw., LL, 154 ; Pasp., shov far desk 
Shukara, Hdmnier. B^., 3 L., 193 ; Pasp., tchokdnos 
Surrelo, Strong. LL, 29, 31, 177,' etc.; \A^h.,sorHo; Pasp., 

zoraU 
S"wa, Fear (f' for t .^),'Bgt. ; Pasp., dsfa^ d^a^ tears 
Swety, F<rfk. ^Bw^, i -^R., 84 ; LL, 92 ; ' i Pott, 1 07, svaetos, 

sMeto; MikL, i.,.99 

T. 

Tarpe, Heaven. '&W., LL, 120; Bw., Span. G., tarpe 
Tceyakas, Shoes. Sim., 297, 'j 1*5, '332 ; '? Yzs>^,;tridk 



GYPSY-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 1 63 

Trianda, Thirty. Bw., LL, 158 ; Pasp., tridnda 
Trito, Third. Bw., 2 Z., 145* ; Lieb., trinto 
Tschar, Ashes. I.L.N., 185 1, Dec, p. 715 ; Pasp., tchar (As.) 
Tschammedini, A slap on the face. Bgt. ; i Pott, 173, 
dschatntinya; Lieb., tschamtnadini 

V. 

Vastro, Hand. Smith, 528 ; Pasp., vastorS^ a little hand 
Villarminni, It lightens. Bw., i L., 338 ; Mild., ii., 60 (1642), 

viildminel ; (1643), 'viH^f^o 
Vol, To fly. Bw., LL, 120, voUlan, 210 ; MikL, ii., 33, volavel, 

vuravel, fliegt 
Voker, To talk. Hotten, 266 ; Pasp., vrakerdva 

Y. 

Yeckto, First. Bw., LI., 119; \S\f^i,^ jekkto 

Z. 

Zezro, Left (hand). Bgt. ; Bw., Span. G., iesdra; Lieb., 
serwes 



ENGLISH-GYPSY VOCABULARY; 



OR, 



IN THE GYPSY-ENGLISH VOCABULARY AND ITS APPENDIX. 



Note.— Words marked with an asterisk (♦) will be found in the Appendix to 

the Gypsy-English Vocabulary. 



A. 

About, Troostdl 

Above, Apr6, opr6, pr6, opral,* 

praller* 
Ache, n, and v., Do6ker 
Across, Paiidel, pdrdel 
Actions, Kdiropen 
Active, Sig 

Actor, Peidskro-moosh 
Afraid, Trdshlo, ^trdsh 
After, Pdlla, palAl, tdlla 
After-birth, Poshbeenimus 
Again, -^p6pli, p6pli 
Age, Po6roben 
Ago, PAUa, ghids, g.v. 
Air, BAval 
Alehouse, Kftchema 
Alien, Gaiijo 
Alive, Jfvdo, jfvo, jfdo 
All, Sor 
Allow, Mook 



Alone, -4k6nyo, bik6nyo, k6- 

kero, koker6 
Along, Tal^ (o drom) 
Already, Kendw 
Also, Tei 

Altogether,Sor-ketan4 ketan^ 
Always, Sor che^rus^J, sork6n 

che^rus 
Am, Shorn 

Amen, 'Jaw see ta 'jaw see 
Anchor, B^resto tflom^ngri 
Ancient, Po6ro, po6rokono 
And, Ta 
Angel, Yek o' midodvel'^ td- 

tcho gair^ 
Anger, Colee* 
Angry, H6ino, h6no, haurino, 

k6rni 
Ankle, Pfresto-kokdlos 
Another, Wav^r, aw6ver, ovd- 

vo, w6ver 



1 66 



ENGLISH-GYPSY 



Answer, Po6ker, del lav kdter 

Ant, Kre^a 

Anus, Jeer 

Anvil, Covantza,* kaiilom^s- 

kro-k6va, p^tal6sto-k6va, 

wast-hdnik 
Any, Vdniso, viryio, w6riso 
Apple, P6bo 

Apple-tree, P6be9ko rook 
Apprehend, Lei opr6 
Apron, Jdrifa, jdrika, jorj6fa, 

jorJ6xa, clidrdofea, SKdrdoka, 

ydrdu^a, ydrdooka 
Are; Shan, see; q.v. 
Arm, Mo6shi, mo6^ho, wdst- 

eni-moosh 
Armpit, lVlo6shen6-hev 
Army, Ko6rim6rigeri 
Artful, G6zvero 
As, *Jaw, sar 
Ascend, Jal opr6 
Ashamed, -^Iddj, kdj 
Ashes, Chik, yog-chik, tschar* 
Ask, Pootch 
Asleep, So6to 
Ass, Mdila, m6ila 
Assize, Baury6, baiiri, baiiro- 

po6kenyuski-b^hopen 
Astonish, Trdsher 
Asylum, Dfvio-kair 
Attorney. See Lawjrer 
Auction, Bfldnopeh 
Aunt, fieibi 
Autumn, Pdlla lilef 
Avoid, Nfsser 

Awake, v., J6nger, atch oprii, 
hushti* 



Away, -4dr6m, avrf 
Awful, Trdsh/«/ 
Axe, T6ver, tobdr 



B. 



Baby, Tfkno chdvo^ tdrno 

chdvo 
Back, «., Do6mo 
Back, adv.y Paiili, pdlla 
Bacon, Bdlovds 
Bad, Vdsavo, wAsedo, wdfedo, 

b^ngalo, doosh 
Badger, Bad/aims 
Badness, Wdfedopen 
Bag, Giinno 
Baker, Maur^ngro 
Bald, N6ngo 
Ball (dance); K^lopen 
Baptise, Bolla * 
Barber, Morm^ngro, murav- 

mdngro 
Bare, N6ngo 
Barefoot, N6ngo-pe6ro 
Bark, v,, Bosh 
Barley, Lfvina^hiv 
Bam, Grdnza, grdinsi, lo6d- 

open 
Basket, K^si, kfpsi, kiishni, 

tiishni, to6shni, tnxSshni, 

pitaree* 
Bastard, Dad^ngro, dddlo, 

didomdngro, boshtdrdus, 

bostdrdo, bastardo 
Bathe, Jal adr6 tAe padni 
Battle, Ko6roben, ko6rimus 
Be, See, vel, wel 



yOC49ULAR,Y, 



^^% 



Beads, M^riku7:r, mdriklieLf 
Beak, Chfriklesto nok 
Bean, Bo6bi 
Bearded, Cho6ralo 
Beat, Koor, del 
Beating, Ko6roben 
Beautiful, Rfnkeno 
Become, Vel, wel, q.v. 
Bed, Voddrus, wo6drus 
Bedfordshire, Wp6drus-g^v- 

tem 
Bee, Pfeham, po6shamer, 

gocSdlo-pfshamer, go6dlo- 

pfsham 
Beef, Mo6shkeno-mAs, gro<S- 

venesko-mds 
Beer, Lfvina, lovfna, Vfnf 
Beerseller, Lfven^ngro 
Before, Anglo,* agldl, 'glal, 

agAl, 'gal 
Beg, Mong 

Beggar, M6ngam^ngro 
Begging, Mongamus 
Behaviour, Kdiropen, k^riben, 

k^rimus 
Behind, Pdlla, paUl, padli 
Belief, Pdtsaben 
Believe, Pdtser 
Bell, Shoon-Z^-kcSngri 
Bellows, Peshota,* poddam^n- 

gri, pood^la^ 
Below I ^^j^ ^j^ ,j^ ^^jj^ 
Beneath,/ 
Bend, Kair b6ngo 
Bent, B6ngo 
Berry, Ddril 
Better, F^terdafro, f^radair 



Bible, Mi74P<f^v)^l^^]j^lil 
Big, Badro 
Bigger, Bs^iMrodir 
Billhook, Chfnom^ngrOj k^s- 

soni 
Bind, Pdnder, pand, pan 
Bird, Ch^riklo, chfriklp, 
Birdcage, Ch^riklestOi kaijr 
Birmingham, Kai^lo-gav 
Bit, «., K6tor, ko6si 
Bitch, Jo6kH 
Bite, Ddnder> dai^ 
Bitter, ^hoij^lq^ (lit., spur]^ 
Black, Kaiilo 
Blackbird, Kaiilo-ch<^ri]^la 
Blackness, K^adlopqi, ka^lc^ 

ben 
Blackpool, Kaulo gay, kaijffc^ 

padni-g^y 
Blacksmith, Kadlom,^sl^rq, 

kadlom^ngro, sdstram^kra, 

p^tal^ngro 
Blanket, K6ppa 
Blaze, Yog, h6tc|ier, kdtcha^r 
Bless, Pdrav, pdrik 
Blind, Kor^do, k6rc)i, kgr^ 
Blindness, K6rodomus 
Blood, Ratt 

Bloody, Rdttvalo, r^ttfi^f^ 
Blow, V,, Pood 
Blow, «., Kppr 
Boar, Mo6shkei^o bai!;)p 
Boast, V,, Shpr 
Boat, Bero, paanengi^p 
Bqdy, Tr:96p\is, tro6po 
Boil, K^rav 
Bone, Kokdlos, koko61us 



1 68 



ENGLISH-GYPSY 



Bonnet, Jo6vioko stirdi 

Book, Lil 

Boot, Sko'ni,//.,skninya,chok, 

ch6kka 
Booty, Lo6ripen 
Born, Be^no 
Bosh; Lavines 
Bosom, Berk 

Boswell, Choomomengro* 
Both, D061 

Bother, Kfnger, chdra 
Bottle, Vdlin, wdlin 
Bottle-neck, Vdlin6sko-men 
Bough, Bei 

Bowels, V^ndri, w^ndraw 
Box, Md^to, m6kto, mo6kto, 

klfsi 
Boxer, Ko6rom^ngro 
Boy,Chdvo,moosh-chdvi, rdklo 
Brandy, Tdtto padni 
Bread, Manro,* mauro 
Bread and butter, Kil madro 
Break, P6ger, pog 
Break-wind, Ril 
Breast, Berk, to6tchi {nipple) 
Breath, Bdval 
Breeches. See Trousers 
Brick, CK{kino-k6va 
Brickfield, Chfkino tan,kafriko 

tan 
Bride, R6madi, nSmeni, r6mni 
Bridegroom, Rom 
Bridewell. KHsom^ngro 
Bridge, Poodj 
Bridle, Sher^ngro, s61iv^ngro, 

s61ovdrdo, sdlivirus, sh611o- 

vArdo 



Bright, Do6deno, do6dengi, 

do6dom^ngro 
Bring, And, hand, rfgher 
Bristle, «., Baulesko bal 
Broad, Bauro 
Broadsheets, Ghflyaw^r 
Broken, P6gado 
Broken-kneed horse, Pel^ngro, 

p6ga(do)-ch6ngaw-grei 
Broken-winded horse, P6gado 

bdval^ngro, bav^ngro, p6ga- 

bdval-grei 
Broken-backed horse, Doom- 

^ngro, doom^ksno-grei 
Brooch, Spfngo 

Tx , '[ Yo6ser/«^-kosht 

Broth,' Zfmen 

Brother, Pal 

Brother-in-law, Stffo-pal 

Brow, Kor 

Bull, Go6ro, gr5v, go6roni, 

mo6shkeni-gro6vni 
Bung, BungiiYMS 
Burn, H6tcher, hotch, kdt- 

char 
Bury, Po6rav, po6ras 
Business, KAiropen, j/voben, 

bo6ti, bo6tsi 
Butcher, Mas^ngro 
Butter, Kil 
Buttermilk, Kal^ngri 
Button, KrAfni 
Buy, Kin 
By, prep., Hir * 
By, adv,, P6sha, posh 



VOCABULARY. 



169 



C. 

Cabbage, Shok, //., sh6kyaw 
Cake, Manrickli,* mdrekli 
Caldron, Pe^ri, kekdvi 
Call, Kor 
Cambridgeshire, D6va tern kei 

o sh6rokon^ gair^ jivenna 
Camp, Tan 

Can, SAstis, vide Tastfs 
Cannot, Nastfssa, nest/s 
Candle, Miimbli 
Cannon, Baiiro-y6gom^ngri 
Cap, Ko6fa, ho6fa 
Captain,Sher6ngro, shor^ngro, 

b^resto-sherdngro 
Cards, WArdi 
Care, Kdsser, trad 
Carpet, Pedresto-k6ppa 
Carriage, R^iesko-vdrdo 
Carrion, Mo61omds 
Carry, Rfgher, rflcer, rig 
Cart, Vdrdo, wdrdo 
Castle, KrdHsko-po6ro-kair 
Cat, MAtchka ;- 
Certainly, Our, ourli, adva, 

advali 
Chain, Chftti, vdriga, w6riga, 

vdriglo, w^riglo 
Chair, B^shom^ngro, bo61- 

ko6va, skdmin 
Chamber, Kam6ra 
Change, v.y Pdra, piira 
Change, «., Pdrapen 
Chap, n,, Chal 
Charm, «., Fiz 
Cheat, Hoax, chiv opr6 



Cheater, K6rom6ngro 

Cheek, Cham 

Cheer up, Mdntchi too 

Cheese, Kal 

Cherries, Ldlo ko6vaw 

Cheshire, Kdlesko-t^m, kal- 

k^l/«^-t^m,kal-k^limus-t^m 
Chief, Sh6rokno 
Child, Chdvo, chdbo, tdmo, 

tikno, tikeno 
Chin, Cho6mbo,chiimba,kiim- 

bo 
Choke, Tdsser 
Chopper, Chfnom^skro 
Christ, Mi-diivelesko Chdvo 
Christmas Day, B611esko-dfv- 

vus, mi-diiverj-dfwus, mol- 

dfwus 
Church, K6ngri 
Circus, Sfkom^ngro 
Clean, Yo6so, yo6zo 
Clean, z;., Yo6ser, yo6sher6va, 

k6sher, k6sser 
Clean up, Yo6ser apr^ 
Clear, adj.y Yo6sho, do6do- 

m^ngro, do6deno 
Cleaver, Chfnom^ngro, chfno- 

m^skro 
Cloak, Pladshta, pl6;)^ta, pl6ch- 

ta 
Clock, Ora, y6ra 
Close, v,y Pand apr^ 
Cloth, adj, and «,, Pdrno 
Cloth, «., Pdrtan, p6ktan, p6;^- 

tan 
Clothes, ) E^zaw, rfvoben, 
Clothing,/ r6di, r6di-/«^ 



I70 



ENGLISH-GYPSY 



Clothes-peg,Gad-kosht-ko6va, 

tro6sheni 
Coals, Angar, v6ngar, w6ngar 
Coarse, Riizlo 
Coat, Chiho, ch6;^a, ch6ka, 

cho6ko, cho6fa, chiika 
Cock, B6shno 

Codfish, Mo6shkeno-mdtcho 
Coffin, Miilo m6%to 
Colfre, Raster, ch6rda, sov lAsa 
Cold, »., Sbil 
Cold, adj,^ Shflino, shfrilo 
Collar, Men^ngro 
Colliers, W6ngar^ngri^j, w6n- 

gali-gdiri 
Comb, n,y K6ngali 
Comb, v,y Kongl, k6nga 
Come, Av, av^l, aw^l, *vel, 

'wel. Aver 
Companions, Mdlyaw 
Confined, O^Aved to wo6drus, 

p6shli 
Constable, Mo6shkero 
Conversation, R6kerop^n, r6- 

kerben, r6kerob6n, r6kamus 
Convict, «., Bftcham^ngro 
Cook, «., H6ben^ngro, h6be- 

n^ngri 
Cook, v,y K^rav, kel, kair 
Cooper, n, pr.^ Ward^ngro 
Copper, adj\y Harko,* horki- 

pen,* hadrengo, h61ono 
Copper, «., Haiiro 
Coppersmith, HArkom&kro * 
Cord, Sh61o, shdo 
Corn, Ghiv 
Comer, Ko6nsus, ko6nshi 



Corpse, Tro<5pus, tro6po, 

mo61o 
Cough, B6sherus, shel 
Count, Ghfnja, ghfnya 
Country,) ^^^ 
County, ) 

Country, adj., Tem&kri 
Countryman, Tem^ngro 
County-town, St^ripen-gav 
Court, v.y Kom, pfriv 
Cousin, Sim^nsa 
Cover, v,y ChonSva 
Cow, Gro6vni, gro6ven 
Crab, Herdngro-mdtcho 
Cream, Smenting, sm^ntini 
Creator, KAiromdngro 
Cress, Pan^ngri shok 
Crooked, B6ngo 
Cross, adj\, H6lfno, h6no, 

k6mi 
Crow, Kaulo chfriklo 
Crown (five shillings), Ko6ro-i 

na, pansh k61a 
Cry, «/., Rov 
Cup, Dash, ko6ri, k6ro, kura> 

paloo * 
Cup and saucer, Do6lf-dash, 

doo-das 
Curse, v.f S6verhol, sdlverkon, 

s6vlohol 
Curse, «., S61oh61omus, s6vlo- 

h61oben, s6verh61oben 
Cut, v,y Chin 

Cut oflf. Chin tale, chin al^ 
Cut, «., Chfnoben 
Cyder, Pob^ngro, p6besko- 

pfam^skro 



VOCABULARY. 



171 



D. 

Dance, z/., Kek 

Dance, «., Kdlopen 

Dark, Tamlo, kaiilo 

Daughter, Chei 

Day, Dfwus, div6z 

Dead, M06I0, miilo 

Deaf, 'Sho6ko 

Deaf person, 'Sho6ko kan^n- 

Dear, K6melo 

Death, M^ripen 

Deceit, Ho6kaben 

Deep, Baiiro 

Deer, Stadni 

Derbyshire, Chiimba-kdlesko- 

tem 
Deserter, Prdster-m^ngro, 

prdstero-m6ngro 
Devil, Bang, beng 
Devil's Dyke, B^ngesko-hev 
Devilish, B^ngalo, beng&ko 
Diamond, Bdrvalo-bar 
Die, Mer, mel 
Dig, Chin the poov 
Dirt, Chik 
Dirty, adj,^ Chfklo, hfndi, 

mo6kedo, md^odo 
Dirty, 2/., M6ker 
Distance, 
Distant, 
Divine, Do6velkan&to, do6- 

vel^sko 
Do, Kair, kel 
Doctor, TAtcho drab^ngro, 

drab^ngro 



j Door 



Doer, K^lom^ngro 
Dog, Jo6kel, jook, ydkel 
Doll, Ko6kelo, k6shno chdvi, 

k6shteno tfkno 
Doncaster, «./r., Meflesto-gav, 

moflesto-gav 
Donkey, Meila, m6ila 
Don't, Maw, ma 
Door, Wo6da 
Down, Tal^, aI6, '16 
Dress, z/., Rood 
Dress, «., Ro6dopen, rfvoben, 

jo6vni-k61aw 
Drink, z/.. Pee, pi6va 
Drink, ;/., Pfaben, pfamus 
Drown, TAsser 
Drug, Drab 
Druggist, Drab^ngri 
Drum, Krdmbrookos, ko6ro- 

m6ngri,wdsto-b6shomengro 
Drunk, M6tto, pe^dlo 
Drunk, To get/ Lei m6tti 
Drunkard, M6ttom6ngro, pee- 

m^ngro, pfamdngro 
Drunkenness, M6ttoben 
Dry, Sho6ko 
Duck, R^tza 
Dumb, Sho6ker, kek tdtcho 

adr^ the moo, liillero * 
Dung, Full, chik 
Dunghill, Chfkesko-chumba 



E. 

Ear, Kan 

Earring, Kan^ngro, kfli, kdno- 
m^ngro 



172 



ENGLISH-GYPSY 



Earth, «., Poov, chik 
Earth, adj.y Po6vesto 
Easter, Y6rakana ko6roko 
Easy, Shookdr 
Eat, Kol, hoi, haw 
Eatables, K6ben, h6ben, h61- 

ben 
Educate, And apre 
Eel, Sap, sdpesko-mdtcho 
Egg, Y6ro, y6ri 
Eight, Oitoo,* ochto,* do6l- 

storaw 
Eighteen-pence, D^shto-haiiri, 

d6sti-k6ri 
Encamp, Tan 
Enchantment, Fiz 
Enemy, Wdfedo gdiro 
England, Anghitdrra 
English, Gaiijokones, gaujones 
Englishman, Gaiijo, AnitrA- 

kero (Anghiterrdkero) 
Enough, Do6sta, dosta 
Entire, Ch61o 

Entrails, W^ndraw, v^nderi 
Every, S6rkon 
Evil, Doosh 
Except, Tdlla 
Exchange, Piiraben 
Excuse, «., Veena 
Eye, Yok 
Eyebrow, Kor 
Eyeglasses, Yok^ngri^j 



F. 

Face, M061 

Fagot, Tiishni, to6shni 



Fair, n,y Fdiros, wagyaiiro, 
walgaiirus, welingaiiro 

Fairies, Mi-do6vel6ski-bftta- 
f61ki 

Fall, V,, Per6va, pel 

False, F6shono, malleco* 

False laughter, Poshavaben * 

Falsehood, Ho6kapen 

Famine, Baiiro b6kalobdn 

Far, Door 

Farmer, Ghiv^ngro 

Farmhouse, Ghfvesto kair 

Farther, Do6rdair 

Farthing, L61i, liili 

Fashion, Drom 

Fasten, Pdnder, pand, pan 

Fast, Pdnlo 

Fat, adj.y Tiilo 

Fat, n,y Tiilopen 

Father, Dad, dddus 

Father-in-law, Stffo-dad 

Fear, n. and z;.. Trash 

Fearful, Trdsh/«/ 

Feather, Pur, por 

Feather-bed, P6rongo-wudrus 

Fellow, Chal 

Female ^ 

P . .' I Jo6vni, joovioko 

Fern, Foozhdri 
Fetch, Rfgher 
Fiddle, v. and n., Bosh 
Fiddle, ;?., B6shomdngro, b6sh- 

omengri 
Fiddler, B6shero, b6shomen- 

gro, b6shom6ngri 
Field, Poov 
Fiery, Y6gesko 



VOCABULARY. 



173 



Fight, v.y Koor 

Fight, n,, Ko6roben, ko6ri- 

mus 
File, Rin * 
Fill, P6rder 
Filth, Chik 
Find, Latch 
Fine, Fine-o 
Finger, V6ngusti, v6ngushi, 

v6ngus 
Finger-nail, Nei 
Fire, n,^ Yog ; adj.y Yogesko 
Firearm, Yog6ngro, y6gom6i- 

gro, yog6ngri 
Firebrand, Dood - y6gengi - 

k6shter 
Fireplace, Y6gom6skro, y6- 

gongo-tan 
First, FirstdiddAt 
Fish, Mdtcho, mdtchi 
Fisherman, Mdtchom 6ngro, 

match^ngro 
Five, Pansh 

Five-pound note, Pansh6ngro 
Five shillings, Ko6rona, pansh 

k61a 
Flame, Prdrchadi 
Flea, Po6shamer, pfsham 
Flies, Lfkyaw 
Florin, Do6i k61i 
Flour, Vdro, v6ro, p6mo 
Flower, R6sali, r6sheo 
Fly, n.y Mosco ;* v., vol* 
Foal, Tdrno-grei, grei'j tfkno 
In foal, Adr6 kadfni, kdvni 
Fold, Pdndom^ngro 
Folk, Folki, sweti * 



Follow, Av pdlla, jal pdlla 
Food, K6ben, h61ben, h6ben 
Fool, Dfnilo, dfnvero, dfnlo 
Foolishly, Dfnveres 
Foolish, Dfnveri 
Foot, Pe6ro, pfro, pe6ri 
For, Pa* 
Forcibly, Drovdn 
Forget, Bfsser 
Foreign, Gaujokones 
Foreigner, Gaiijo, gaiiji, wdver- 

temdngro 
Forest, Vesh 
Forgive, Artav,*/^rd6, fordiX, 

pdrdel 
Forgiveness, Artapen,* fordi- 

loness 
Fork, P6som6ngro 
Foretell, Do6rik, diiker 
Fortune, Bok, diikeriben 
Fortunes, To tell, Do6rik, dii- 
ker 
Fortune-telling, Do6rikapen, 

diikeropen 
Foul, v,y M6ker 
Four, Stor 
Fox, Vesh-jo6kel, o I6I0 wesh- 

keno-jo6kel 
Fragment, K6tor6ndri 
Friday, Pansh dfvvus^j pdlla 

ko6roko, D061 dfwus^ *glal 

ko6roko 
Friend, Bor, mal, pal, k6melo 

gdiro 
Friendship, K6moben 
Frightened, Trdshedo 
Frock, Sho6ba 



174 



ENGLISH-GYPSY 



Frc^, O stor her^ngro b^n- 
gesko k61i ta jab adr^ o 
paini so pi6va 

From, Avrf, fon 

Frying-pan, Masdli, tdtter- 
mingri 

Full, P6rdo 

Fun, P^ias 

Further, Do6rdair 



G. 

Gamekeeper,Kan6ngri-moosh, 

yog-moosh, veshingro, yog- 

ingri-gaiijo 
Gaol, Stiripen 
Garden, Ro6zho-poov, bor 
Garlic, P6ruma 
Garments, Rfvoben 
Gate, Bur, st^kas, stfgher 
Gentile, n,, Gaiijo, gaiiji 
Gentile, ^^z/., Gaiijokones,gau- 

jones ; adj\y Gaiijokono 
Gentleman, Rei 
Gentlemanlike, Reidli 
Genuine, Tdtcho 
Get, Lei, rfgher 
Get up, Atch opr6 
Ghost, M\!ilo, mocSlo 
Gift, Dfno (lit., given) 
Gipsy. See Gypsy 
Girl, RAkli 
Give, Del, d6 
Glad, Mfshto 

Glandered horse, Nokdngro 
Gloves, Vongshdngri, f61as6, 

f61asAw 



Glutton, Bauro-h61om!6ngro 
God, Do6vel, diivel 
Go, J6va, jaw, jal, jil, jol 
Go back. Jaw paiili 
Go slowly, Jal shookdr 
Goat, Ldvines-b6kro 
Gold, So6nakei 
Goldsmith, So6nako-pdtal6n- 

gro 
Gonorrhoea, H6tcheropen, 

h6tchopen, h6djerpen 
Good, Ko6shko, ko6shto, kiish- 

to, k6shto, mfshto, tdtcho, 

tdtcheno, Idtcho 
Goodness,Ko6shkopen,ko6sh- 

tiben, ko6shtoben, k6shto- 

ben, Idtchipen 
Good health!) ^^ , , ^ , , , 
Good luck ! i ^"^'^^r ^^ ' 
Goose, Pdpin, pdpini, pdpindn- 

Gooseberry, Duril 
Gown, Sho6ba 

Grandchild, PoiSrordad'j; chivo 
Grandfather, Po6ro-dad, paii- 

pus 
Grandmother, Po6rirdei, baiiri- 

dei 
Grass, Chor 
Grassy, Chiresto, ch6rkeno 

chordngri 
Grasshopper, Ch6r-<S;£taindn- 

gro 
Grave, «., Hev 
Gray/«. /r., Bal (lit., hair) 
Grease, «., Tdlopen . 
Great, Badro 



VOCABULARY. 



175 



Green, Grehio, chor-dfk/;^^, 

chor^ngri, selno* 
Greenwood, Bfvan-kosht 
Greyhound, Kan6ngri-jo6kel, 

sh6shi-jo6kel 
Grieve, Toog 
Grieved, To6gno, to6geno, 

to6gnus 
Ground, Tan, chik, poov 
Grouse, iVi^/Aer^nghi chfriklo 
Guinea, K6tor 

Guineafowl, Atch pauli kdnni 
Gun. See Musket 
Gut, Vender! 
Gypsy, n,, Rom, R6mani-chal, 

kaiilom^ngro; a^^•.,R6manl 
Gypsy language, RxSmanes 

H. 

Hail, M.| Bauro bishno ; it 

hails, grondinni* 
Hair, Bal 

Hairy, Baleno, bil^ 
Half, Posh 
Half-breed, Dfdak^i, p6sh-» 

pedrdo 
Halfcrown, >Posh-ko6rona 
Halfpenny, Posh-h6ri 
Hall, Fflisin 
Halt, Atch 
Halter, Miilomdngro 
Hammer, D61om&kro,p6gero- 

m^skro, p6gerom^sti,: tobdr, 

t6ver, shukara * | 

Hand, Vast, wast, vdsli, vasj 

vastfd* 



Handbills, Ghflyawj 
Handcuffs, Wast^ngri^x 
Handkerchief, Djfklo, p<Ssh- 

neckus, p<Sngdishler 
Hang, Ndsher 
Happiness, Ko6shko-b6k 
Hard, adv., Drovdn 
Hare, Kandngro, kan^ngri 
Hark! Sho6nta! 
Harlot, Loibni, lo<Sdni, liibni 
Harness, WArdesko k61a 
Harvest, Ghfvesto-chafrus 
Haste, Hdka, y^ka 
Hasten! R^ssi toot, kair h£ka 
Hat, Staddi, stAdi 
Hatchet, Chfnom^ngro 
Hate, Kek-kom 
Have, Si, shan, q.v. 
Hawker, Bfkinom^ngro, blko- 

m^ngro, kaurom^ngro 
Hay, Kas 
Hayrick, Kasingro 
He, Ov, yov, yow 
Head, Sh^ro, sh6ro, shonS, 

shiiro 
Hear, Shoon 
Heart, Zee 
Heat, Tdttoben 
Heaven, Diivel, imidiivelesko 

chdirus, middvelesko-fciri 
Heavy, L6ko (y.«/.),.p6rdo 
Hedge, Bor 

Hedgehog, Hdtchi-witchi 
Hedgestake, Bor^ngri 
Height, T6rropen 
Hell, B6ngesko-tan 
Help, Kair-posh, husker* 



176 



ENGLISH-GYPSY 



Hen, Kdnni, kd;)^ni 
Her, Ldki, 16ki, Idkro, Idti 
Here, Ak6i, 'kei 
Herefordshire, P6besko pfa- 

meski tern 
Heren,\ «./r.,Mdtcho,Rossar- 
Heron, > mescro ;* pL, Baiiro- 
Herne, / kan6ngri - mooshdw, 

Balawj 
Herring, Mdtcho, bdleno 

mdtcho 
Hide, Gdrav, gdra 
Hidden, adv., Gdrones, gdrid- 

nes ; adj,y gdridno, gdrido 
High, T6rro 
Highway, Baiiro drom 
Hill, Chong, choong, cho6nga, 

cho6mba, kiimbo, dumbo 
Him, Las, les, 16sti 
His, Ldsko, l^sti'j, olescro* 
Hit, Del, koor 
Hold, n., B6nek ; 2/., Til 
Hole, Kev, hev 
Holy, Do6velkan^sto 
Home, Kerd, k6ri 
Honey, Pfsham 
Hoof, Grefesto-pfro, pindro* 
Hop, z/., Hok 
Hops, Lfven6ngri^j 
Horn, Shing 

Horse, n,^ Grei ; adj,, Grefesto 
Horse-dealer, Grei-engro 
Horse-shoe, P^tal, gref-esto- 

chok 
Horse-race, Prastdrimus, prds- 
term6ngri, grefesto-prdster- 
ing 



Horse-fair, Gr^iesto-fdiros 
Horse-whip, Grdiesto-chiikni 
Horse-rug, Grdiesto-k6ppa 
Horse-collar, Grdiesto-men6n- 

gro 
Hot, Tatto 
Hound, Jo6kel 
Hour, Ora, y6ra 
House, Kair 

House-dweller, I Kairdngro, 
Housekeeper, / kairdngri 
How, Sar 

How d'ye do ? Sar.shan ? 
Humble, Cho6ro, cho6reno, 

cho6rokno 
Humbly, Cho6venes 
Hundred, Shel* 
Hung, Ndshedo 
Hunger, Bok 
Hungry, B6kalo 
Hurt, n, and v., Do6ka 
Husband, Rom 



I. 

I, Man, m^, mdndi, manghi 
111, Ndsfelo, ndffelo, doosh 
Illness, Ndffelop^n 
Illtempered, K6mi 
Imitation, F6shono 
Immediately, Kendw sig 
In, Adr6, *dr4 ando,* inna* 
Indebted, Pdzer^^^j 
Inflame, Kdtcher 
Injure, Do6ka 
Inn, Kftchema 
Innkeeper, Kftchem^ngro 



VOCABULARY. 



177 



Intestine, Venderi 
Into, And^,* adrd, 'dre 
Ireland, Hfndo-tem, Hindi- 

temdskro-tem 
Irishman, Hindi-tem^ngro, 

poovengri-gaujo 
Irish Gypsy, Efage * 
Iron, 11., Sdster, sadsta, saashta 
Iron, adj,, Sdstera 
Is, See 
It, Les 
Itch, //. and v,^ Honj 

J. 

Jail, Stdripen 

Jews, Miduvelesto-maiiromdn- 

Jockey, K6stermdngro 
Judgment, Bftchama 
Jump, H6kter, hok, 6;)^ta 
Jumper, H6;\;ter^r 
Just now, Kendw sig 
Justice of the peace, Chfvlo- 

gaujo, chuvno-gaujo, pokdn- 

yus, po6kinyus 

K. 

Keep, Righer, riker 
Kettle, Kekavvi, 'kavvi 
Key, Kl^rin, kl/sin 
Kick, ZK, Del, d^ 
Kill, Maur 
Kin, Simdnsa 

Kind, adj., K6melo, k6mo- 
muso 



King, Kralis 
Kingdom, Krdlis^?;;/, tem 
Kiss, ;/. and z/., Cho6ma 
Knee, Chong, choong 
Knife, - Cho6ri, chivomengro, 

ch{nom6ngro 
Knock, v,y Koor, d6 
Know, Jin 
Knowing, Y6ki, jinom6ngro, 

jinom^skro 



L. 

Lad, Chab, chabo, chdvo, 

mushipen.* See Boy 
Lady, Raiini 
Lamb, B6kocho, vdkasho 
Lame, Long, bongo 
Lancashire, Pfro-d^h;/^-tem 
Landlord, Holeno, holdskro 
Lantern, Doodom^ngro 
Lard, Baiileski tiilopen 
Large, Baiiro 
Lass, Chei. See Girl 
Last, K61iko 

Laugh, v.y Sav, sal, sarler 
Laugh, ;/., Savaben, sdvapen 
Laughter, ;/., Salimus, %^Mng 
False laughter, Poshavaben * 
Lawyer, Shanengro, sher6ks- 
no, chfvomengro, r6kero- 
m^ngro, r6kermdngro, sho- 
r^ngro, sh^romdngro, mo6*f- 
^ngro, moo-6ngro 
Lead (metal), M61us, molov' 
Lead, v.^ Rfgher 
Leaf, Patrin 



178 



EXGLISH-GYPSV 



Lean, adj.y Bito, biti 

Leather, Cham 

Leave, v.y Mook 

Leaves, Ro6kenghi ch6;^ar 

Lee, ;/. pr,, Po6rum 

Leek, PocSrumi 

Left, adj,y B6ngo, zezro * 

Left, /. part.y Mo6klo 

Leg, H^ro 

Leggings, HerengriVj 

Lent, Mo6klo 

Let, Mook 

Letter, Ch(nom<5ngro, Chivo- 
mengro 

Liar, H6;)^ano, h6keno, sha- 
nengro 

Lice, Joov^, jodvai" 

Lick, v,y K6sher 

Lie, H6;^aben, hd^ani, ho6k- 
apcn 

Life, Mdripen, jfvoben 

Lift, Had, azer 

Light, ;/., Dood 

Light (lucidus), adj,y Do6deno 

Light (levis), adj,y 16ko (gene- 
rally used for heavy) 

Lightning, Baiiro-dood, mi- 
diivclcsto-dood, mi-do6vel- 
csko-yog, villarminni * 

Like, v.y Kom ; adj\y Pdnsa, 
pdnza, sar 

Likeness, Dikomengri 

Lincolnshire, Tulo-mas tern 

Lip, Wisht 

Listen, Shoon 

Little, T{kno, bfto 

A little, Koosi 



r Jivoben 



Live, Jiv 

Livelihood,) ^, 

Living, 

Lively, Jido 

Liver, Booko 

Liverpool, Booko-paani, boo- 

kesto-paani-gav, b^ro-gav, 

baiiro-beresto-gav 
Loaf of bread, Ch61o maiiro 
Lock, v.y Klisin 
Lock-up, ;/., Klisomengro 
Lodge, v,y Lod 
Lodging-house, Loodopen 
London, Lundro, Londeri, 

Liindra, Kaiilo-gav, Baiiro- 

gav 
Lonely, K6kero, toogeno 
Long, Door 
Very long way, Doovori-doo- 

vori 
Look ! D6rdi ! hokki ! 
Look, v.y Dik 
Looking-glass, Dikom^ngro, 

mo6esto-k6va 
Loose, Pfro 
Lose, Ndsher 
Louse, Jo6va 
Lousy, Jo6vli 

Love, v.y Kom; //., Komoben 
Lovell, ;/. pr,y Komom^skro, 

k6melo 
Lover, Pirino, pfrini 
Lucifer-match, Delomcngro, 

do6dom^skri 
Luck, Bok 
Lucky, B6kalo 



VOCABULARY. 



179 



M. 

Mad, Divio 

Made, Kairdo, kcdo 

Magistrate. Sec Justice of the 

peace 
Magpie, Kdkaratchi, romani- 

chal-r6ken;/^ chiriklo 
Maid, Rdkli 
Make, Kair, kel 
Maker, K6romengro 
Make love, Pfriv 
Male, Mo6shkeno 
Man, Gairo, nidnoosh, moosh 
Manchester, Poovengri gav, 

Mooshkeno gav, Tdvesto- 

gav, Po^tan gav 
Mangy, Hdnjificci 
Mansion, Filisin 
Many, Do6sta, d6sta 
Mare, Grasni 
Market-town, Forus 
Married, R6medo 
Marry, R6mer 
Marshall, ;/./r.,Mokkado tan- 

engre* 
Masculine, Mo6shkeno 
Master, Sh6rokno gairo 
Match, Delom^ngro, do6do- 

meskri 
Mate, Bor 
Mates ! Choovdli ! chaw61i ! 

mdlyaw ! 
May, Te (preceding verb) 
May be, Estist* 
Mayor, Gresti 
Me, Man, mandi 



Meal, Kona* 

Meat, Mas, -vas 

Meddle, Chalav, charvo, chara 

Mercy, K6moben 

Midnight, Miilo raati 

Midwife, Mormusti,*dfvi-gairi 

Mile, Meea 

Milestone, Meeasto bar,po6k- 

cri/ig- bar 
Milk, ;/. and v., Tood 
Mill, Porndngri, p6gamengri, 

baval-p6gamengri 
Miller, P6geromdngro, p6rno- 

mesti, vardngro, varddngro- 

gdiro 
Mind! Lei trad! Rak ! Lei 

ve^na ! 
Mine. See My 
Miss, Nisser 
Monday, Yek divvus pAlIa 

kooroko 
Monkey, Biimbaros, inwikdixos 
Money, Liiva, angar, vongar, 

vangar, w6ngar 
Month, Shoon 
Moon, Shoon, shool, chain, 

choom, sikerm^ngro, mi- 

diivelesko-dood 
More, Bo6todair, k6mi, k6mo- 

dair 
Morning, Saiila, sadla 
This morning, Kesaula 
Mother, Dei 
Mother-in-law, St(fi-dei 
Mountain, Diimbo 
Mourn, Rov 
Mouse, Mouse-US 



i8o 



ENGLISH-GYPSY 



I. 






Mouth, Mo6t 

Much, l^oot, bo6ti, kfsi, do6sta 

Muck,\ ^1 ., 
- - , I Chik 
Mud, j 

Muck-cart, FuU-vdrdo 

Muddy, Chfklo 

Mule, Shdni 

Mumper, Cho6rokono moosh, 

cho6rodo 
Musket, Pushca,* powiskie,* 

yogingro 
I must. Shorn te 
Mustard, Ddnoyndskri 
Mutton, Jo6vioko-mas 
My, Me<iro, mefro, mfno, mi, 

mandiV 



Nail (finger). Nei 

Nail (iron), Krdfni 

Nakcd^ N6ngo 

Name, Nav, lav 

Narrow, Bfto 

Naughty, Wdfedo 

Near, P^isha 

Neck, Men 

Necklace, Men-w^riga 

Needle, Soov 

Negatives, Kek, maw, na (see 

P^ 49) 
Nettlcss Dandimengri chor \ 
Xexxr, Kek-komi 
New. Xcvo 
Neia^I^per, Shooiiabcn,Shoo« 

nanWf^. ghilj-awjr. ghil- 

}>?ngrw5r 



Night, Radti 

Nine, Enneah * 

Ninety, Enyovardesh * 

Nit, Lik 

No, Kek, k^ker, k6keno, naw, 

na, nei, nanef, kek-nanef 
Nobody, Kek-k6meni 
' No road,* Chfchikeno drom 
Noise, Gudli, g6dli 
None, K6kero, kekeno, kek- 

k6meni, kek-nanef 
Norfolk, MAtchesko-gav-tem, 

p6besko-gav-tem 
Norwich, P6bomuski-gav, p6- 

bomusti-gav 
North, Shflo-tem 
Nose, Nok 
Not, Kek. See No 
Notice, «., Ve^na 
Nothing, Chichi, chi 
Now, Kenaw, konaw, kanna, 

k6nna, kon 
Nudge, Mo6njer 
Nuts, Pedliaw, petliaw, pev- 

liaw, peneka,* penliois,* //w/i 

O. 

Oak, Pooroder rook, kralisko 

rook 
Oath, Soverholoben, sovloho- 

loben. solcAolomus 
Oats. Job 

Oat-^tack, Job-poosengio 
OiT A\Ti\ tale, ale 
Ointment, Tiilipea 
Old, Pooio 



VOCABULARY. 



I8l 






Old-fashioned, PcKSrokono 

On, Opr^, apr4 'pre 

Once, Ydkorus 

One, Yek 

One-year-old horse, Beshdn- 

gro 
Onion, Po6rumi, strdngli 
Only, adj,, Y6kino 
Open, v,y Pfriv ; adj\y Pfro 
Opened, Pfrivdo 
Opposite, P6sh-aglcil, tdtcho 

'glal 
Orange, P6bomus 
Order, ;/., Trad ; v.^ Del trad 
Osier, Ran 
Other, Wdver, w6ver 
Our, M6ro, mdndi'i", amandi'j* 
Out, out of, Avrf 
Over, Paudel, pdrdel 
Owe, Kom 
Owl, W&hni-mulo 
Own, adj.y N6go, ndgo, nevus 
Ox, Mo6shkeni-gro6vni 



P. 

Pail, bedra* 

Pain, n, and v., Do6ka 

Palace, KrAlisko kair, krdlis- 

kdsko kair 
Pales, palings, Pdlyaw 
Paper, Lil, Iflesko k6va 
Pardon, v,y Artav,* fordii\ 

forA€, pdrdel 
Pardon, ;/., Artapen,*/t7rddlo- 

nesSy pdrdojios 
Parlour, Beiirus 



Parrot, R6mani-chal-r6keri^;/^ 

chiriklo, Hfndo-kdkardtchi 
Parson, Rdshei, rdshref, ddlo- 

mdngro, mi-duver^ moosh 
Part, K6tor 
Partners, Mdlyaw 
Partridge, Ridjil 
Path, Poov61a, droni 
Paunch, Pur 

Pauper,Cho6redo. See Tramp 
Pawn, ^., Sfmmer 
Pawnshop, Sfmmer/;/^ bo6- 

dega 
Pay, V,, Passer 
Pea, Bo6bi 
Pear, Ambrol* 
Pedere, Ril 
Pedestrian, Peerdngro 
Pedlar, Bfkinom^ngro, bfko- 

mdngro 
Pen (fold), Pdnomengro 
Penny, K6ri, h6ro, h6ri, hdri 
People, FolkXy sweti '•' 
Pepper, Ddndermdskri, tdtto- 

ko6va 
Performer, K61om6ngro 
Petticoats, Chiiffay, sho6va, 

sho6ba, pdllani-ch6kka 
Pheasant, Bauro chiriklo, r^i- 

esko cheriklo 
Photograph, Dikom^ngri 
Physician, Drab^ngro 
Pick, V,, Tdrder 
Pie, G6'i 
Piece, K6tor 
Pig, Baulo 
Pig-face, Baiilesko mo6if 



lH2 



KXOI.ISII-GYPSY 



ri^;-fair, Haulcsto foros Potter, KcSromc^ngro, korengro 

I'illow, Wo(;clrus .sh(;rom(;ngro , Pothook, Sdstcr 



I'in, Spingl, spfngcr, spink 
I'inccrs, Tfloincingri, plaistra* 
I*incli, 7'., Mo(;njcr 
Pinfold, ;/./r., Pdnomdngro 
Pipe, Svvagler, swcgler 
Piper, li(>.shoni(:ngri 
Place, v.f Chiv; ;/., Tan 
Placenta, Poshbccnimus 
Plate, Ch6ro,chor,s6rsin, skoo- 

chUin 
Play,7^,Kel ; f/.,Kelimus,p(Sias 
Please! Lei ko6shtoben ! 
Pleasure-grounds, Sfkcrm(in- 

gro 
Pledge, 7'., Sfninicr 
Plenty, l)o6sta, dosta 
Plough, Poov-vdrdo, po6vesto- 

choori, poovo-chfnomengri, 

Vilrdo-bav6ngro 
Plunder, x\, Loor ; ;/.,Lo6ripcn 
Pocket, PoiStsi, po chi 
Poison, Drab 



Pouch, Giinno 

Pound (£i), Bar, balanser, 

bdlans 
Pound (forcattIe),Panomdngro 
Pour, Chiv 

Powerful, Riislo, riizino 
Power, Riizlipen 
Praise, v., Shor 
Pray, Mong, mole* 
Predict, Do6rik, diikker 
Pregnant, Baiiri, sho6bli, 

sho6vli (of women) ; kdvni, 

kadfni (of animals) 
Present, ;/., Del-/<7-mdndi, dino 
Pretty, Rfnkeno, rfkeno 
Prettily, Rfnkenes 
Prison, Stdriben, stdripen, st^- 

rimus, stdrdo, stauri 
Prisoner, St^rom^ngro, stero- 

mdsti 
Privy, Hindi kair 
Prognosticate, Doorik 
Prostitute, Lubni 



Policeman. Gavcngro, mo6sh- 

kerv*. nashcrmcngro, pras- ' Protect, Rak 

tcrmongro, chukcngro i Proud, Bootno 

Poor, Chooro, chiiveno, choo- Public-house, Kitchema 

rcno» choorokno Pudding, GoY 

P^^K^rcr. Choorodur i Pudding-bag, Gotongo giinno 

Pork. RUcno-mus» l>aulcsko- Pudendum muliebre, Mindj, 

nuxs ! minsh 

Post. K\.viht Pudendum virile, Kori. kauri 

Pv\^ibK\ Astiis* sastiis stastis. Pugilist Kooromcngro 

testis, </.:\ ' PulK Tarder 

Pot. Kov'm. korv^ Purse. Kisi 

IVtAtvxPoovcngri.ixxnycngri l\it. Chiv 



VOCABULARY. 



183 



Q. 

Quarrel, v.y Chfngar 

Quarrel, ;/., Chingariben, godli 

Quart, Tro6shni 

Queen, Kralisi, Krdlisi 

Quick, Sig 

Be quick, Sfgo toot, ressi toot, 

kair dbba 
Quietly, Shookdr 



R. 

Rabbit, Sh6shi, mdvi 
Rabbit-trap, Klfsom^ngro 
Race, v., Prdster 
Race, ;/., Prastermdngri 
Rails, Pdlyaw 

Railway train, Prdster/;/^ k61i 
Rain, Brishindo, bfshno 
It rains, Brfshin^la 
Rainy, Brfsheno, b/shavo 
Raise, Had, til apr6 
Raw, Bivdn, bfvano 
Razor, M6rom^ngro 
Read, Del apr^, D6 apr^ del 
Reading, ;/./r., Ldlo-gav 
Real, Tdtcho, tdtcheno 
Reckon, Ghinja, ghinya 
Reeds, Rushixi 
Red, L6I0, Idlo 
Redford, n, pr., Ldlo pedro 
Red-herring, L61i mdtcho 
Reins, TfIom6ngri 
Relation, Sim^nsa 
Relieve the bowels, Kinder, 
hfnder, hingher, hind 



Religious, Mi-duvelesko 
Remember, Chiv it adr^ your 

sh^ro, shoon Idndi, kek bfs- 

ser, rdpper toot 
Remove, Rdnjer 
Resurrection, Aiching apr^ 

^p6pli 
Return, z/., Av paiili, jaw paiili 
Rib, Kokdlo 
Riband, D6ri 
Rich, Bdrvalo 
Riches, Bdrvalopen 
Ride, Kdster, kister 
Rider, Kdsterm^ngro 
Ridicule, v., Prosser,* pross* 
Right, adj., Tdtcho, tdtcheno 
Right, adv,, Tdtchnes 
Right, ;/., Tdtchopen 
Right arm, Kiishto mo6shi 
Ring, ;/., V6ngus, v6ngusti, 

v6ngushi 
River, Dori5 V, Doydv, nill* 
Road, Drom 
Roast, Pek 
Rob, Loor 
Rock, ;/., Bar 
Rod, Ran 
Room, Kamora 
Rope, Sh61o, sh61o 
Royal, Krdlisko 
Row (noise), Giidli, g6dli 
Rump, Bool 
Run, V,, Ndsher, prdster 
Runner, Ndsherm6ngro, Prds- 

termdngro 
Rushes, Rnshixi 



1 84 



ENGLISH- GYPSY 



s. 



Sack, G6no, giinno, kanyo 
Saddle, B^shto, b6shto,b6shta 
Safe, Tdtcho, tdtcheno 
Sail, n.y B^resto pW^ta 
Sailor, Ber^ngro, b^romdngro, | 

paandngro-gaujo 
Saints, Mi-duveleski gair^ 
Sake, Sdke-os 
Saliva, Cho6ngarben 
Salt, ;/., Lon, Ion 
Salt, adj., Londo, 16ndudno 
Sand, Chik 
Saturday, O divvus 'glal ko6- 

roko 
Savage, Haiirini 
Say, Pen 

Scent, So6ngimus 
Scissors, Kdtserj, ViXsics 
Scold, v.y Chfngar 
Scotland, N6rtherkxigx\-\.^\Xi 
Scotchmen,iVi7r///^rengri gaird 
Sea, Dorio V, doydv, dovdl, 

dovydl, bauro pdni, 16ndo 

padni, 16ndudno padni 
Search, v.y Rod, r5der 
Search, ;/., Ro6dopen 
Second, Duito* 
Secretly, Ko6njones, gdrones, 

gdridnes 
See! D6rdi! h6kki! 
See, v., Dik 
Seek, Ro'der, rod 
Seize, Til, prala * 
Self, K6kero 
Sell, Bfkin, bik 



Send, I Bitcber,;/.,Bitcha- 
Sentence,) ma 
Serpent, Sap 
Servant, Bootiengro, bootsien- 

gro 
Sessions, B^shopen 
Seven, Afta,* eft,* do6x trinyaw 

ta yek, trin ta stor, trinstor 
Seventy, Heftwardesh,* do6f 

trinydw ta yek deshdvv 
Sew, Siv 
Shake, Risser 

Shame, v., Lddjer ; ;/., Ladj 
Shamefully, l^iAjfiiiiy 
Sharp, Jinomengro 
Shave, Morov 
Shawl, Bauro dfklo 
She, Y6f, yoi 

Sheep, Bokoro, bokro, mas 
Sheffield, ;/. /r., Cho6resto gav 
Shepherd, Bars^ngri, bas^ngro, 

b6korom^ngro, bokromdn- 

gro, b6komdngro, bokoren- 

gro 
Shilling, Tringorishi, k611i 
Ship, B6ro 
Shirt, Gad 

Shirt-sleeve, Gddesto bei 
Shoe, Chok, ch6ka 
Shoemaker, Chokdngro 
Shoot, Po6der 
Shooting-coat, Yogdngri choo- 

ko 
Shop, Bo6dega, boodika, bo6- 

rika 
Shopkeeper, Bo6degam6ngro, 

bo6rikam^ngro 



VOCABULARY. 



185 



Shoulder, Pik6 

Shout, V,, Kaur 

Show, V,, Sfker 

Showman, ) j^,, , 

^- , \ Sikermengro 

Show-gardens,) 

Shut, 2/., PAnder 

Sick, Ndsfalo, ndffalo 

Sickness, Ndfflopen 

Side, Rig 

Sign-post,' Po6ker/;/^-kosht, 

sfkerom6ngro 
Silence ! Sho6ker, shookir 
Silk, Kaish, kaidj, p'har* 
Silken, Kafsheno, kafdjino 
Silly, Dinveri 

Silver,;/., Roop ; ^^*.,Ro6peno 
Silversmith, Ro6pnomdngro 
Sing, Ghil, ghiv 
Single, Yekino 
Sir! Refa! 
Sin, Wdfedopen 
Sister, Pen 

Sister-in-law, Stffi-pen 
Sit, Besh 
Six, Shov, sho* 
Sixpence, Shookaiiri 
Sixty, Shovardesh * 
Skewer, Chiingar, spingdrus 
Skewer-maker,Spingaro-k61o- 

m^ngro 
Skin, Mo6tsi 
Sky, Diivel, poodj, midiive- 

lesto-tem 
Slap on the face, Tschamme- 

dini* 
Slay, Maur, hetavava * 
Sleep, z/., Sov, so6ter 



Sleeve, Bei 

Slowly, Dro6ven, shookar 
Sly, G6zvero, jfnom&kro,y6ky 
Small, Bito, tfkno 
Smallpox, Bo6kenyus, bo6ko 
Smell, v,y Soon, soom; «., 

So6ngimus, so6naben 
Smith, n.pr.^ P^tal^ngro 
Smith, Sdsterm^ngro, p^tal- 

dngro, kaiilom^skro 
Smoke, ;/. and v.^ Toov 
Smoke tobacco, Pood to6vaIo 
Snail, Boiiri 
Snake, Sap 
Snaptrap, KUsom^ngro, pan- 

dom^ngro, tflomdngro 
Snare, Tflom^ngro 
Snow, Iv, yiv, ghiv, shiv, hiv 
It snows, Yivy^Ia 
Snowball, Iv-bar 
Snuff, Nokdngro 
So, Ajaw, 'jaw 
Soap, Sapanis, sapan 
Soft, Sano* 
Soldier, Ko6rom^ngro 
Something,) Cho6moni, kii- 
Some, ) meni, k6meni 

Son, Chor 
Song, Ghfli, gh/veli 
Soon, Sig 
Sorry, To6geno, to6gno, to6g- 

nus 
Soul, Zee 
Sour, Sho6tlo 
Sorrel, Sho6tIo-chor 
Sovereign (;^i), Bar, bdlans, 

bdlanser 



1 86 



ENGLISH-GYPSY 



Sovereign, Krdlis, kralfsi 

Spavined horse, B6ngo grei 

Spectacles, Yokengri^i* 

Spirited, See-engro 

Spirits, Tdtto padni 

Spit, V,, Cho6ngar, chiingar 

Spittle, Choongarben 

Spit, Spingarus 

Sport, Peias 

Spree, Kdlopen 

Spring, /Vr^/adair, or bigno- 

mus, d lilei 
Spur, Bisko, po6som6ngri. 
Squirrel, Ro6kam6ngro 
Stable, Stdnya 
Stacks, Stii^x 
Stafif, Kosht 
Staffordshire, Kor^ngri-tem, 

koromdngro-tem 
Stag, Staani 
Stallion, Bar&kro-grei, bardn- 

gro-grei, p61eno-grei, pel^n- 

gro-grei, mo6shkeno-grei 
Stand,) .^ , 
Stay, I ^•' ^^-^^ 
Stanley, ;/./r.,Bardngri, Besha- 

ley* 
Star, Stari, lildngro, diivel, mi- 

do6velesko-dood 
Station, Praster/;/^-wdrdesko- 

iXoSxing-tesi 
Stays, Tro6pus 
Steal, Chor, loor, nick* 
Stick, ;/., Kosht 
Stile, Pe^romengro 
Still, adj,^ Atchlo, sho6kar 
Stink, 7/., Kdnder, hfnder, kan 



Stinking, Kdnelo, kanlo 
Stockings, Olivaj, ho61ava^, 

oiilaverj 
Stone, Bar 
Stop, Atch 
Stove, Bo* 
Stranger, Gaiijo 
Straw,;/., Poos; «^'.,Po6skeno, 

po6skeni 
Straw-stack, Poosdngro 
Street, Drom 
Stretch, 7^, T^rder 
String, D6ri, do6ri 
Strong, Riizlo, ruzino, ro6zlus, 

surrelo* 
Such, Jafri, jafra 
Suffolk, Sho6ko-mauromen- 

gro-tem 
Sugar, Go6dlo 

Summer, Tdttoben, lil^i, Iflei 
Summons, Go6dH 
Sun, Kam, tam, sken 
Sunny, Tamlo (kdmlo) 
Sunday, Ko6roki, Kro6kingo- 

divvus, Kiilpho 
Supper-time, H6ben-chairus 
Swan, P6rno-rauni 
Swear, S6verhol, sulverkon, 

s6vlohol 
Sweaty, Kfndo 
Sweep, v,^ Yo6ser apr^ 
Sweet, Go6dlo 
Sweetheart, Pirino, pfrini 
Sweetmeats, Giidlopen 
Swelled, swollen, Sho6vlo 
Sword, Hauro, bauro-cho6ri 



VOCABULARY. 



187 



T. 

Table, Misali, misali, sdlamdn- 
ka, haumeskro, hobendskro 

Tail, P6ri 

Tailor, ;/. and ;/. pr., Si vomdn- 
gro, suvengro 

Take, Lei, 16 

Take care, Lei trad 

Take care of, Rak 

Take notice, Lei vec^na 

Take off, Ranjer 

Take up. Lei opre 

Talk, v.f R6ker, voker;* ;/., 
R6kerop6n. See Conver- 
sation 

Talker, R6kerom6skro 

Tambourine, Ko6rom6ngri 

Tart, Goi- 

Tea, Muterim6ngri, mootengri, 
piam^skri 

Tea-kettle, Kekavvi 

Teapot, Muterim6ngri-ko6va, 
peem6ngro,piameskri-skoo- 
dalin, skoodilin 

Tear, v., Chfngar 

Tease, Kfnger, chara 

Teeth, Ddnyaw 

Telescope, Door-dikom^ngro 

Tell, Pen, po6ker 

Tell fortunes, Do6rik, diikker 

Ten, Desh 

Tent, Tan 

Testicles, Pele, p^lonoi" 

Thank, Parik, parikar6va, pa- 
rikraw 

That, conj.^ Te; pron.^ Ta, 
ado6va, adiivel, 'do6va 



The, O 

Thee, Toot, to6ti 

Their, theirs, L^nti, lenghi 

Them, Len 

Then, Kon 

There, Adof, odof, 'doi 

They, Yaun, yon 

Thief, Chor, ch6rom6ngro,lo6- 

rom(5ngro 
Thin, Bito 
Thine, Teero 
Thing, K6va 

Think, Penchava,* ////;/^as6va 
Third, Trito* 
Thirst, Troosh 
Thirsty, Trooshlo 
Thirty, Trianda* 
This, Ak6va, *k6va 
Thorn, K6ro 
Those, Diila, d61a 
Thou, Too, tooti 
Thousand, Mille* 
Thread, Tav, taf, tel 
Three, Trin 
Throat, Kdrlo, kaiiri, kur, gur, 

go6shum 
Through, Adral,'dral, muscro* 
Throw, Wo6ser, woosher 
Thunder, Malo6na, kooroko 

grommena,*grovena,* grub- 

bena,* mi-duvelesko-g6dli 
It thunders, Deargfnni * 
Thursday, Stor diwus^j" pdlla 

kooroko 
Thus, Ajaw, 'jaw 
Thy, Te^ro, to6ti, to6ki, ti 
Tie, z^., Pdnder, pand, pan 



1 88 



ENGLISH-GYPSY 



Time, Chdirus, //., koppas * 

Tin, Kiiri, cham 

Tinder, Po6tan 

Tired, Kfno, kin6 

Tiresome, Drooveno, dro6ven 

Tiring, Tiigno 

To, Ke, katar, kdtar, kdter 

Toad, Jamba, j6mbo 

Tobacco, Tiivlo, to6vlo, tiivlo- 

pen 
To-day, Kedfvvus, kediv^z, 

k6va dfvvus, tediwus 
Together, Ketan^ ketan^s, 

katen^ kateni, kitenes 
Tollgate, Stfgher. See Turn- 
pike 
To-morrow, Ovavo divvus 
To-morrow morning, K6Iiko- 

saula 
Tongs, Y6gesto-wastaw 
Tongue, Chib, chiv, jib 
Too, Tei . 
Tooth, Dan 

Touch, Chdrvo, chdiav, chdra 
Towel, Kdsseri/t^- pl6;^ta 
Town, Gav 

Trail, Pdtrin, paten, tro6shel 
Train, Prdster/;/^-k61i, poodj 
Traitor, Po6kerom6ngro 
Tramp, Cho6rodo, cho6ro- 

m^ngro, pe^rdo 
Transported, Bftchadi paiidel, 

pa(idel-i-paani, paiini^^ 
Trap, Pdndom^ngro 
Treadmill, treadwheel, P6ge- 

rom6ngri 
Tree, Rook 



Tremble, Rfsser 
Trickster, K6rom^ngro 
Tripe, B6kochesto-pur 
Trousers, Rok6nyus, roxinyes, 

ro;^{nya, rfkni^j, rokhdmyaj-, 

'hdmyaj", rok^ngri^j", rokr^n- 

yes, br5gi^j", bool^ngri^j-, 

booli^ngri^j 
Trout, Refeski-mdtcho 
True, Tdtcho, tdtcheno 
Trust, v., Pdzer ; «., pazeroben 
Truth, Tdtchipen 
Tuesday, Do6i dfvvus^j pdlla 

ko6roko 
Turkey, Kaiili rauni, pdpini 
Turnip, Kondfia, kondfni, 

kradfni, pan^ngro 
Turnpike, P6sh/r^^, stekas, 

stfgher, p^sser-stfgher 
Twenty, Bish, stor-pansh 
Two, Do6r 
Two shillings, Do6Y-k61i 



U. 

Unable, Nastfssa, nest/s 

Uncle, K6ko, kok 

Under, /r^/., Tald, al^, '16 

UndQV, ad/., Tallani 

Up, upon, Opre, apr^ 'pre 

Upper, Pr^-6ngro 

Urine, ),,,^ 
TT . 1 ^Miiter 
Unnate,) 

Urinal, Miiter/;/^ k61a 

Us, Men, m^ndi 

Used, Sfklo 



VOCABULARY. 



189 



V. 

Vagrant, Pe^rdo 

Very, Boot, bo6ti 

Verily, Aava, our. See Yes 

Vessel, Tro6shni 

Vex, Kfnger 

Victuals, K6ben,- h6ben, h61- 

ben, h61en 
Village, Gav 
Vinegar, Sho6to 
Vinegry, Sho6tlo 
The Virgin, Do6veleski-jo6- 

vel 
Vomit, Wo6ser apr^ 

W. 

Wagon, Wardo, vdrdo 
Waistcoat, Bdngeri 
Wakefield, «. pr,, Cho6rones- 

gav 
Wales, W61sho, W6tchkeni- 

tem, L4vines-tem 
Walk, Peer, pfriv 
Warm, ^., Tatto 
Warmth, Tdttopen 
Was, Sho mas, sas, q,v. 
Wash, Tov 
Watch, ;/., Ora, yora, h6ra, 

pookerom^ngro 
Watch z/., Vdrter, dik pdlla 
Water, Padni, pdni, paiini 
Watercress, Padnesto-shok, 

padni-shok, paan^ngri-shok 
Watery, Paanisko 
Way, Drom 



We, Men, m^ndi 

Wealth, Bdrvalopen 

Wealthy, Bdrvalo 

Wear, Riv 

Wearing apparel, Rfvoben 

Wearisome, Dro<5veno, droo- 

ven 
Weary, adj.y K(no, kin6 
Wednesday, Trin dfwus^j, 

pdlla ko6roko 
Week,Ko6roki, kro6ko, ko6ko, 

k6kerus 
Weep, Rov 
Well, adv.y Mfshto, mist6, 

tdtcho ; J., Hanik, hdnikos 
Welsh Gypsies, Ingrini^j 
Welshman, W6tchken6ngro, 

Ldvin^ngro, Livines-gaujo 
Welsh language, Ldvines rd- 

kerben, W61shitfkka 
Were, Shdmas, sas, q,v. 
Wet, Kfndo 
Whale, Bauro-mdtcho 
What, Sdvo, So 
Wheat, Ghiv 
Wheat, adj\, Ghfvesto 
Wheat-stack, Ghiv-poos6n- 

gro 
Wheedle, Pdndjer 
Wheel, Hero, wardesko-prds- 

term^ngri, wdrdesko-her6 
When, Kanna, k6nna, v6nka, 

w6nka, sdvo-che6rus 
Where, Kei 
Whey, Kal^ngri . 
Whip, Cho6kni, cho6pni 
Whiskers, Bdnga 



I go 



KNGLISH-GYPSY VOCABULARY. 



Whistle, v.y Shol, shool 

Whistler, Sheldngro 

White, Porno 

Who, Ko, Icon, sdvo 

Whole, Ch61o 

Whore, Liibni 

Why, Soski 

Wicked, Vasavo, wasedo, wa- 

fedo, b^ngalo 
Wickedness, Wafedopen 
Widow, Peevli-gairi 
Widower, Peevlo-gdiro 
Widowed, Pe^vlo 
Wife, R6meni, r6mni, r6mi 
Wild, Divio 
Will-o'-th'-Wisp, Doodesko- 

mo61o 
Wind, Baval 

Windmill, Baval pogam^ngri 
Window, Hev, kev 
Wine, Mol, mul 
Winter, Ven, wen; rt:^*.,Venesto 
Wintry, V^nlo 
Wise, Jinom^ngro 
Witch, Cho6fih6ni, cho6vikon, 

choVih6ni 
With, Sar, pashal* 
Within, Inna* 
Withy, Ran 
Wolf, Bauro-h61omengro-jo6- 

kel 
Woman, Gairi, jo6vel, man- 

o6shni, mo6shni, m6noshi 
Woman's bonnet, Jo6vioko- 

staadi 
Woman'sclothing, Jo6vni k61a 
Womb, Do6dnm 



Woo, Piriv 
Wood, Vesh, kosht 
Woodcutter, Koshtengro 
Wooden dishes, Koshtudno 

skoodilyaw 
Wool, Poosham 
Word, Lav 

Work, ;/. and v., Booti, bo6tsi 
Worker, Bo6tiengro 
World, Sweti,* doovelesto- 

chairos 
Worm, Kermo 
Worth, Mool, mol 
Wound, Chinoben 
Wrexham, ;/.//-., Reltum 
Wrong, Bongo 
Wrongly, B6nges 

Y. 

Ye, Tumdndi 

Year, Besh 

Yearling, Besh^ngro 

Yes, Aava, advali, our, oiiwa, 

oiirli 
Yesterday, K61iko,k61iko-dfv- 

vus, kdliko 
Yew, Mo61eno rook 
Yonder, Odoi, ad6i, 'doi 
Yorkshire, Barvalo-tem, Chor- 

keno-tem, Meilesko-tem 
You, Too, toot, to6ti 
Your, yours, Teero, to6ti*s 
Young, adj\ and n, pr,, Tamo, 

taiino 
Younger, Tarnodar 
Youth, Tdrnomus. 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS 



REFERRING TO 



^Uttliar Ipabils anb |(olions in: S^ogut among fiiijlis^ (ggpsiee. 



In numerous instances Gypsy customs have been related to 
us in Romanes by Gypsies themselves, and it has appeared 
to us to be of considerable interest and value to take down 
these communications as we received them, and to preserve 
the ipsissima verba made use of by our informants. It 
would be beyond the scope of the present work, to which 
we have set strictly linguistic limits, to enter into details 
concerning manners and traditional observances which are 
still to be found among the Gypsies of this country. But, 
incidentally, it has become necessary to refer to them, in 
order to explain certain allusions which might otherwise 
be imperfectly understood. We have therefore introduced, 
where necessary, in the following pages, a few explanatory 
notes to render clearer the meaning of particular passages 
and expressions, but at the same time wish to disclaim any 
intention of treating comprehensively a subject which has 
a special interest apart from the language. In spite of the 
numerous violations of every grammatical rule, these com- 
positions are (as far as our experience goes) written in the 
"deepest" English Romanes extant. 



192 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

PITCHING A TENT* 

N6, ch6w61i, kair ti grefaw te jal sig. Raati see wel/;^* 
sig opr6 m^ndi. Kek tan see mendi k6va raati te sov tald ; 
kek bito sho6ko tan mdndi latch6va kova raati te jaw to 
so6to opr6. 

So sig see o praastermdngro jinela mendi shem akei, yov 
kom^la to chiv m^ndi door d6sta opr^ o drom, or to lei m^n 
opr6. Yov see tatcho d6sta. Chivela men adre o steripen, 
ta b{ken sor m6ri grefaw, ta wardi, ta sorkon k6vaw sham 
m^ (mendi). 

Kondw, chowoli, kair sig. Kair ti tan opre. Dosta 
brfshno w^la tal^ ta hiv tei. M^ndi sor mer6va /^-radti te 

* The old-fashioned Gypsy encampments, once so frequent in shady 
lanes and secluded spots, have almost entirely disappeared from some 
parts of England. Hence it has been too hastily assumed that these 
inveterate strollers have forsaken tent-life and become permanent house- 
dwellers. Even Mr. Borrow makes the remark ("Lavo-lil," p. 221,) 
that you may " walk from London to Carlisle, but neither by the road- 
side nor on heath or common will you see a single Gypsy tent." This 
is certainly a mistake. Harassed by the rural police, deprived of his 
accustomed camping-grounds by Enclosure Acts, the Gypsy, like the 
bittern, has been extirpated from many of his old haunts — ancient 
commons and wastes from which " the Northern farmer " and other 
pioneers of modern agriculture have "raaved an' rembled un oot"— but 
he has only shifted his quarters, and not changed his habits. On our 
coasts where holiday-makers congregate, and in the neighbourhood of 
popular watering-places, still as heretofore are 

** The Gypsies all the summer seen, 
Native as poppies to the green," 

their tents having become a permanent feature in many such localities. 
Here they ply their traditional vocations, and reap a rich harvest from 
the visitors, a seaside flirtation being hardly deemed complete unless a 
Gypsy sybil has told the fortune of the amorous couple. 

The Gypsy willingly pays a small ground-rent for the patch he occu- 
pies, and then his frail tent becomes as much his castle as an English- 
man's house, and is as safe from the intrusion of prastermengros, 
and other unwelcome visitors. We know of an instance at Blackpool 
where a Gypsy, though living in a tent, has been so long a squatter on 
the same spot as to have been assessed for the poor-rate, which he 
duly discharges. 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 1 93 

shil, ta and cho6moni te kair a ko6shto yog tei. Chiv o 
tan tale kooshto. 

D6sta baval wela k6va raati. Po6der^la men o bdval 
sor opr^ k6va radti. Mi chdvi mer^nna o' shil. Chiv sor 
o rdnyaw adre o tan tdtcho, /o hatch mfshto, ta spfnger o 
k6ppa opr^ o ranyaw tdtcho, ^0 kel // hatch mfshto. O 
ch6ro chavi rovenna tdlla Idnghi h6ben. Mi Do6vel, so 
mdndi kair6va te lei 16ndi h6ben te hoi. Chfchi nanef 
mdndi te del lendi. Mer^nna yon tdlla h6ben. 

Translation. 

Now, mates, make your horses go quick. Night is 
coming quick upon us. No tent is there for us this night 
to sleep under ; no little dry place shall we find this night 
to go to sleep on. 

As soon as the policeman knows we are here, he will 
want to put us very far on the road, or to take us up. 
He is fit enough (for that). He will put us in prison, and 
sell all our horses and carts, and everything we have. 

Now, mates, be quick. Put your tent up — much rain 
comes down and snow too. We all shall die to-night of 
cold ; and bring something to make a good fire too. Put 
the tent down well. Much wind will come this night. 
My children will die of cold. Put all the rods in the ^' 

ground properly, to stand well, and pin the blanket on 
the rods properly to make it stand well. The poor chil- 
dren cry for their food. My God, what shall I do to 
get them food to eat.^ I have nothing to give them. 
They will die without food. 

CHOOSING A CAMP. 

Kei jdssa tum^ndi, chav61i, tedfvvus te sov ? 

M6ndi jaw kdter d6va ghiv^skro kair. Yov kom^la 
R6mano-chaldw. 

Kei see d6va ? 

D6'i, kei atchd^m yek besh paiili, w6nka jdfra iv pedds 
tal6. 

13 



194 GENUINE RO^IANY COMPOSITIONS. 

Jin6va kondw savo tan see. Kei vias o Rei kater mendi 
te del m^ndi jaw kissi kas te del mauri greiaw. Our^ jiinSva 
koniw. Jas m^nghi odoi te atch. Kek yov pen^la kek 
wifedo fo mendi. M^ndi kom^Ia. Atcfaas* od6i a ko6- 
roko, te m^di konu. Yov del^la men koshtiw te hotcher. 
Yov mook^la men chiv mauri greiiw adr6 l6sko poov- 
yiw. Yon te vel sor tdtcho. Kek yon te wel pdnlo. 
Atchds* m^di adr^ mauri wo6drus tatcho te sov. Kek te 
atch opr^ /o dik tilla mauri greidw adr^ o muUo raati. 

Translation. 

Where are you going, mates, to-day, to sleep ? 

We are going to that farmer's house. He likes Gypsies. 

Where is it ? 

There, where we stopped a year back, when so much 
snow fell. 

I know now where the place is. Where the gentleman 
came to us to give us so much hay to feed our horses 
with. Oh yes, I know now. Let us go and stop there. 
He will not rate at us. He likes us. Let us (or, we Will) 
stay there a week, if it suits us. He will give us some 
firewood, and let us put our horses in his fields, where 
they will be safe, and not be put in the pound. We shall 
rest in bed safe asleep, and not have to get up to look after • 
our horses In the dead of night. 

O mo(3lo. 

Kei jdssa, choowdli, te s5v tedfvvus ? Mook m^ndi jal fo 
so6to adr^ d6va gransa. 

Kdter d6va tan, kei d6va k6shto Rei, te Rauni, jiv^la. 
Kei o mo61o sas diknd 

Kek mdndi jal odof te sov. Mdndi shorn trash te dik tnooU, 
te wel trdshedo o* mi m^riben. Gauj6 po6kadds mdndi d6sta 
chafrus^j", o moosh, ghiv^ngro sas-16, nashadds l^sko k6kero 
opr6 o rook adr^ o ko6nsa, kei m6ndi jdbV te atch. 

* First pers., pi, pres., or fut, indicative, or the Imperative V. 
Gram., p. 39. 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 1 95 

* 

So ker^ssa kon ? Jdssa too od6i, te atchds ? 
K6kera mandi. 
Kei jdssa kon ? 

Adr6 a wAver po6ro drom, yek mee do6roder. Dof 
m^ndi atch^ssa * Kek k6meni chards {sic) m^ndi. 

Translation. 
THE GHOST. 

Where are you going to sleep to-day, mates 1 Let us 
go to sleep in that barn. 

At that place where that kind gentleman and lady live — 
where the ghost was seen. 

I will not go and sleep there, I am afraid of seeing 
ghosts, and being frightened to death. The Gentiles have 
told me many a time how the man, he was a farmer, 
hanged himself on the tree in the corner where we are 
going to stop. 

What will you do, then } Will you go there and atop } 

Not I! 

Where will you go, then ? 

Down another old road, a mile further on. We will stop 
there. No one will dsiturb us. 

A CAUTION. 

Maw mook te6ro greidw, chaw61i, jal tal6 d6va drom, kei 
see d6va k6shto chor. Yon te vcl pandad6. 

Translation. 
Do not let your horses, mates, go down that road, where 
that good grass is, or they will be put in the pound. 

THE HAUNTED CAMP. 

" I can just about remember the old times when our old 
folk hardly spoke any Gaujines. They were timid folk. 
You might hear them say :— 

* First pers., pi., pres., or fut., indicative. 



196 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

" Kon see doova, dddi ?" 
Who is that, father ? 

" Kdkena jin6va mL Diktds k6meni ? '* 
Not know I. Did you see any (thing) ? 

" Kek mdndi. Shoond6m cho6moni. So shoond6m ghids 
Not I. I heard something. What I heard went 

p6nsa groovni." 
like (a) cow. 

"Jaw opr^ o drom. Dik so see." 
Go up the road. See what it is. 

" Ghi6m justa kondw. Kek nanei mdndi dikt6m chfchi, 
I went just now. No not I saw nothing, 

na shoond6m chfchi. O beng see, tdtcho d6sta." 
nor heard nothing. The devil it is, sure enough. 

" Maw trash to6ti." 
Don't fear thou. 

" Trash see mdndi." 
Fear is to me. 

" Mdntcha too ! Atch o ko6si. Shoond6m-les popH. 
Cheer up ! Wait a bit. I heard it again. 

K6meni sas m6rdno ak6i. Av61a yov ^p6pli." 
Some one was killed here. Comes he again. 

" W6nka 'saula veb, jaw m6nghi ak^i. Kek na komova 
When morning comes, go I hence. No not I love 

jdfri tandw see k61i, p6sha baiiro weshdw. M^ripen tandw 
such places as these, near great woods. Murdering places 

see dik^la." 
as it looks. 

"Ei, d6rdi! Wifedo diking tan see k6va. Tdtcho 
Eh, look ! Evil looking place is this. True 

moolesko tan see k6va, pats6va mdndi ajdw." 
ghost's place is this, believe I so. 

" Kaiilo radti see. S6rkon wdfedi k6H see opr6 m6ndi. 
Dark night it is. Every evil thing is upon us. 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 1 97 

Yek wafedo kovd kairs d6sta wdver wdfedi k61i.'* 
One evil thing makes plenty of other evil things. 

Wester Boswell. 

SUPPER-TIME. 

N^, chawoli, kair ko6si yog. Shflalo shorn mandi. Chiv 
o kekavi opr6 o yog, te kel pfam6ngri. B6kaIo shorn. 
D6sta h6ben see mdndi. 

D6sta gro6veni-mas see mdndi. Kind6m-Ies kdter dovA 
ko6shto yo6zho mas^ngro*^ bo6diga. Beshds sor mendi 
tal6, te porder mauri perdw misht6. TAlla m^ndi ghiv6va, 
te kel o b6shom6ngri. Sor m^itdi kerds m6ndi. Mook sor 
diila tdrno raiinia ker mdnsa. Tdlla yon d^la men liiva, ta 
lei m6ndi ko6shto nav. 

Translation. 

Now, mates, make up a little fire, for I am cold. Put 
the kettle on the fire, and make tea. I am hungry. I 
have lots of food, and plenty of beef, which I bought at 
that nice clean butcher's shop. Let us all sit down and 
satisfy our appetites. Afterwards we will sing, and play 
the violin. Let us all set to. Let all those young ladies 
dance with us. Afterwards they will give us some money, 
and give us a good name. 

HEDGEHOG HUNTING AND GYPSY CAKE.* 

"Ne mo6shaw! K6shto dood-radti see kondw. Jas 
Now men ! Good light night it is now. Let 

m6nghi perdal k61a poovydw. Dikds m^ndi pdlla do6)f-trin 
us go over these fields. Let us look after two (or) three 

hotchi-wftchi. Kosht6 see-le konaw. T06I0 see-1^ {or l^ndi). 
hedge-hogs. Good (pi.) are they now. Fat are they, 

Mandi jin6va poovydw kei used to ven d6sta. Latchds 
/ know fields where used to come plenty. Let us find 



* See also " Dinner Dialogue.'' 



198 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSIJIONS. 

m^nghi do6Y-trin /^-radti. Av^sa mdndi ? " " Oua. Mandi 
two {or) three to-night. Will you go {with) me ? " " Yes. I 

jal tiisa." "Nash6na sor koniw pdrdal o poovyaw k61a 
go with you!' " They run all now over the fields tliese 

dood-radtia. Kerds m^nghi R6mani marikli d dooi. 
light-nights. Let us make {a) Gypsy cake or two. 

L6va l^ndi to mdndi j hoben adr6 kaliko 'saula. 
/ will have them to my breakfast in to-morrow morning, 

Ker6va mdnghi a R6mani mdrikli. (Marikli see k6do d 
I will make for me a Gypsy cake. {Cake is made of 

p6rno.) Ker6va k6shto yog. Chiv6va-les adr6 a hev 
flour) I will make {a) good fire, I will put it in a hole 

adre o yog. Chor6va-les parddl d* yog. Ker6va- 
in the fire {ash), I will cover it over with fire {ash), I will cook 

les. Chin6va les opr6. See man d6sta kil, chiv6va kil 
it. I will cut it up. Is me sufiicient butter^ I will put butter 

opr^, ta hol6va les m6nghi sor mi, or me^ro, k6kero." 
on, and I will cat it myself all my- self!' 

" You make them of flour and water, and roll them well. 
Then you make a hole in the ashes, wood ashes are best, 
and put the cake in, and cover it over with ashes, and 
when it is cooked you just cut off the burnt part, and it 
eats so sweet."* 

Wester Boswell. 

PATRENI. 

Kei jdssa, choowdli } 

M^ndi jdb yek gdver t^ o waver. Sor mendi jala, ta 
mdndi j6va mi k6kero. 

Kek na jindw m^ sdvo drom ta mandi jala. 



♦ Another standard dish among the Gypsies is moolo-fffas, or the 
flesh of animals which have sickened and died unattended in their 
last moments by the butcher. They sometimes make a kind of broth 
or soup of snails, which they call bouri-zimmeiiy and which is not 
unsavoury. 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 1 99 

Mook mendi jal kdter o Meilesto-gav Pradsterimus, ta 
dikas o gr^iaw pradsten;/'. Door door d6sta; do6vorf 
akef ; door d6sta see parddl od6r. 

Kek na jin6va o drom. 

Mook6va patr^ni opr6 o drom te jin sdvo drom ghi6m 
mi. 

So ker&sa o patr^ni tro6stal ? Kek na jin6va. 

Po6ker6va toot kon. Ker6va-les ko6si chor, ko6si ddn- 
dimdngri-chor. Wo6ser6va \6sti tali opr6 o drom so j6va. 

Mi Do6vel jal to6sa. Atch kdter mi Do6vel. 

Maw jal tal6 d6va drom. See a chfchikeni drom. K6va 
drom jdla kdter bftto gav. Ko6shko dfwus, Bon 

Yon ghias l^ndi k^tane yek t'o wdver. 

Translation. 
TRAILS. 

Where are you off to, mates ? 

Going from one town to the other. We are all going, 
and I am going myself. 

I do not know which way I shall go. 

Let us go to Doncaster Races, and see the horses run. It 
is a very long way ; a great distance from here ; far away 
over in tAai direction. 

I do not know the way. 

I will leave a sign on the road by which you will know 
which way I have gone. 

What will you make the sign with ? I do not know. 

I will tell you then. I will make It of a little grasS|-^a 
few nettles. I will throw them down Oft the road I go. 

Goodbye. God bless you. 

Do not go down fAat road. There is no thoroughfare^ 
TAis road leads to the village. Good day, mate. 

They went away together, both of them.* 

* The patrin, or Gypsy trail^ deserves a few words of explanation. 
As the Gypsies are a wandering and vagabond race, it has always been 
necessary for them to have some way of pointing out to stragglers the 



20O GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

LAMENT ON THE DECAY OF THE LANGUAGE. 

Kdnna sas mdndi a Tikno, sor o po6ro fSlki r6kerd^ 
tdtcho po6ro R6mani lavdw. Kek nanef see jaw sfklo 
konaw, see sas beshaw do6sta paldl. 

Kondw o tdrno folki, kek yon r6ker^nna tdtcho kondw. 
Boot gauje-kani f6lk\. see-I6 kondw. Kek ne jin^nna l^nghi 
k6keri so see tdtcho ta wdfedo. Kdnna too pootch^s 16ndi 
tdtcho Idvaw, kek yon can po6ker toot o tdtcho drom o' 
16ndi. 

Me(5ro k6kero rfgher6va o tatcho po6ro lavdw. 

Mdndi pen6va me^ro k6kero, " Kek R6mani-chab jiv6nna 
kondw, p^nsa mi kokero adr6 tdtcho po6ro R6mani-chal- 
r6kerimus, ta k6shto po6ro tdtcho lavdw. Sor gauj6 see o 
fdlki kondw. Mdndi see a tdtcho pooro R6mano-chal 
parddl sor m6;)^ad6 posh-kedo R6mani-chab.'* 

Komova te roker tro6stal jdfri poor! r6keroben. 

Translation. 

When I was a lad, all thd old folk spoke good old 
Gypsy words. They are not so much used now as they 
were many years ago. 

direction taken by the rest of the gang. As, moreover, in civilized 
countries they must travel more or less along the principal roads and 
highways, any ordinary spoor or trace would soon be effaced by the 
subsequent traffic. Hence arose the patrin-system, the invention of 
certain recognizable signs, by which the caravan on the march could 
indicate to loiterers the path it had taken, and guide them safely to the 
halting-place. Different kinds of patrins : 

(i) Three heaps of grass (or any plant agreed upon) placed on the 
left-hand side of the road taken (day-patrin). 

(2) Pieces of rag, generally three in number, tied to the twigs of the 
hedge on the left-hand side of the road taken (day-patrin). 

(3) Boughs, or cleft sticks, pointing down the road taken (night- 
patrin). 

(4) Marks and signs on the road itself— generally a cross (used in 
snowy, dusty, or dirty weather). 

(5) Stones placed in a certain manner on the left-hand side of the 
road taken (used in windy weather). 

(6) Shoe-prints or foot-marks, etc., etc. 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 20I 

Now the young folk do not talk deep. They are too 
gaujo-like now. They do not know what is right or 
wrong. When you ask them deep words they cannot tell 
you their real meaning. I myself preserve the good old 
words. 

I say to myself, " There are no Gypsies now so well up 
as myself in real old Gypsy talk, and good old deep words. 
The people are all English now. I am a pure old Gypsy, 
above all these dirty half-bred Gypsies." 

I like to talk about such ancient speech. 

EHEU, FUGACES! 

Kdnna sas mdndi a tfkno, — ko6shto ehe^rus^.r sas, — sor 
me6ro ch6ro fdlfA sas jido sor adr^ ko6shtomus, ta mfehto 
sas yon. 

Kondw (kendw) see-16 sor mool6, ta ghile. Kek nanef 
mdndi kondw kei shorn mo6klo sor k6kero. Te wel mdndi 
te mer, kek k6meni p6sha mandi te del mdndi ko6si padni, 
te ker mandi k6shto. Sor me6ri chdvi, ta me6ri fdlki, dei, 
ta dad, ta p^naw, sor see mo61o. 

Kek nanef mdndi konaw, yek pal, yek pen adr6 Anghi- 
terra. Kek yon web te dik mdndi. 

Mdndi ^o6tches me6ro dearo Do6vel te ko6shto bo;^t. 
Yov deb mdndi sor mdndi pootch^i* tdlla. Nanef yov te 
atch to mandi, mdndi te wel kerd6 sor k6tan6. Tdtcho 
shom kondw, pdrik mi-Do6vel. Yov see sor ko6shto kdter 
mdndi. Yov shoondla tei me6ro mongdmus to lesti. 

Translation. 

When I was a lad, — good times were they, — all my poor 
people lived in peace, and were at ease. 

Now they are all dead, or gone. There is no one here 
but myself, and I am left all alone. Should I die, there is 
no one near me to give me a drop of water to relieve 
me. All my children, and my people, my mother, father, 
and sisters, all are dead. I have not now one brother, one 
sister in England. They never come to see me. 



202 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS, 

I ask my dear God for good luck, and he grants me all 
I ask for. If he did not stand by me, I should be done for 
altogether. I am well now, thank God. He is all-merciful 
to me. He hears, too, my petition. 

FUNERAL RITES. ^ 

Ei ! d6rdi ! chawali. So mdndi ker6va kendw ? Meero 
ch6ro pooro dad see mo61o konAw. So shom te ker&w te 
l&ti koldw, so yov muktds pdlla lesti ? 

H6tcher6va-len son S6rkon koovaw tdlla saAstera k61i. 
Wo6ser6va sor diilla 'dre o baiiro padni. 

Del6va meero lav kdter mi Do6vel, yov te jal kater yov 
te atch od6lf adr6 Ko6shtoben, sor mi Do(5vel&ti chafros. 

Translation. 

Alas! alas! my friends. What shall I do? My poor 
old father is no more. What must I do with all he left 
behind ? 

I will burn them all.* Everything except those things 
that are of iron, and those I will cast into the deep. 

God grant he may rest in peace with Him for ever. 

Cuthbert Bede sent to " Notes and Queries " (2nd Sen, iii., 
442), in 1857, an account of a grand funeral of a Gypsy, 
followed by the destruction of his property, clothes, blankets, 
fiddle, books, and his grindstone, — the last being thrown into 
the river Severn, and the others burnt. 

Something about Gypsy Burials. — Those who know 
little about Gypsies would have been astonished had they 
visited the encampment at Ashton, outside Birmingham, 
last week. Many who were led by curiosity, or " to have 
their fortune told," or for some other equally good reason, 



* " Des verstorbenen Zigeuners Kleider, insoweit er sie nicht mit in 
die Erde genommen, sein Bett oder was sonst ihm zum Lager und 
iur Decke gedient hat, werden unter freiem Himmel verbrannt."— 
Vide Liebich's Zigeuner, jp. 55. 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 203 

to pay the Gypsy camp a visit last Wednesday, must have 
thought the demon of destruction possessed the nut-brown 
people. Men were smashing up a van, such as the Gypsies 
use for their residence ; women were breaking chairs ; chil- 
dren tearing up dresses, breaking crockery, and setting fire 
to whatever of the remains would burn ; whilst the Queen of 
the Gypsies superintended the work. Those whose curiosity 
led them to inquire the reason, discovered that it is the 
Gypsies* custom after a funeral to destroy everything that 
belonged to the deceased member of the fraternity. They 
had just returned from the burial of a dead sister, and 
straightway commenced to break up and burn everything 
that belonged to her. Even the horse that drew her resi- 
dential van had to be shot ; and the husband and children 
through this folly are left for a time without home com- 
forts. — Catholic Times, Dec. 13th, 1873. 

One instance came under our notice, not far from Man- 
chester (at Cheadle), where a favourite dog of the deceased 
was destroyed, and its body added to the funeral pile. 

For further particulars concerning Gypsy burials, vide 
Crabb (pp. 29, 30) ; Sorrow's " Lavo-lil,'' (pp. 299, 300) ; 
Hone's Year Book, 1832 ; Table Book, 1827 ; Liebich (pp. 
52—56) ; and N. and Q. 

HORSE-DEALING. 

N6, chowadli, j6va m^nghi kater velgaiiro. And sor ti 
greiaw apr^. Yo6zher lendi mfshto. Kair l^ndi to dik 
mishto, and del d6va p6ga-baval grdsni ko6si bduleski 
tiilopen. Chiv6va-les adre 16ki mo6lf to atch loki baval 
ko6si ; ta bikn6va-les, tastfe. 

And d6va nok^ngro grei akei to mandi. Pand asar lesti 
oprd kater rook. And asdr mandi a ko6si paani. Tov6va- 
les mfshto; ta k6sser6va-les yo6zho tAlla. Dova k^la. 
Bikn6va-les tei, te vdniso liivva. Yov bfkindds sor lesko 
greidw kdter dova welgduro adr6 o Ldvines-tem. Bfkinas 
amd-ndi sor m6ro greiilw te chiv l^ndi adre 16vo. 



204 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

HORSE-DEALING. 

Now, mates, let us be off to the fair. Bring up all your 
horses. Clean them well, and make them look smart, and 
give that broken-winded mare a little lard. I will put it in 
her mouth to ease her breathing a little, and I will sell it, 
if I can. 

Bring that glandered horse here to me, and tie it up 
to the tree, and bring me a little water. I will wash 
it well, and wipe it clean afterwards. There, that will do. 
I will sell it too, at any price. He sold his horses at that 
fair in Wales. Let us sell all our horses, and turn them 
into cash.* 

ZUBA B — . 

A gypsy's ACCOUNT. 

Kova lilei, shoond6m, Romani-chal tarno jo6vel adr^ o 
Ch6mba-kcilesko tem, shoond6m, sas adr6 o Ghily^ngri. 

Y6if ghids kater o baiiro kair. Diktds yiii do6r frin 
raiinya. Pootcht6 yi>i yon, " Mook man do6ker6va toot. 
Mdndi pp6ker6va too 6kki yek rfnkeno tarno rei. Kom^ssa 
toot te lei lesti te r6mmer toot.^ Yov mol d6sta 16vo. 
Mo6k man do6ker toot. Po6ker6va toot sor troostal yov, 
kanna too 161 lesti." 

Y6if pendas, " Our. Too do6ker mdndi. So d6va toot t " 

* Instead of lard, some Romani-chals prefer to tie a little aloes 
(which they call 'aloways') in a piece of muslin, under the horse's 
tongue, * which will hatch the baval misto.' Another way of treating 
a nokengro is to stuff its nose full of nettles (dandimengri chor) an 
hour or two before offering it for sale. On removing the plug, a great 
quantity of purulent and highly offensive discharge comes away. The 
animal's nose is then well washed and syringed with spring water.* 
Gypsies display much skill in managing a horse so as to conceal its 
defects and show it off to the best advantage. They have been known 
to buy a worthless animal, and after clipping its coat, and manipulating 
it in other ways, to sell it again on the same day for a high price to 
its former owner. Their great love for horses — especially for other 
people's horses — brought many unlucky Gypsies to the gallows in those 
days when horse-stealing was a capital offence. 

* These customs are but little practised nowadays. 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 205 

'' Yek k6tor." O raiini dias y6lf a kotor. Yof pootchtds 
Idti k6moder talla. 

Y6lf pendds lati te chiv 6ri te vongushtd adr6 a m6xto. 

O Raiini dndadds sor diila k61i, yoi pootchtd Idndi. 
Tdlla y6lf chidds Idti'j wast opr6 o m6xto, sor parddl l&ti, 
akef a7id od6i. Y6if pendds kdter raiini, "Too mookds 
mdndi lei kova. Mo6k-Ies kdter mdndi yek ko6rok6. 
Tdlla mdndi and asdr Idsti paiili p6pli kdter too. Tdlla 
wenna d6sta I6vo te so6naka, ta bdrvali k61i adr6 l^sti> 
w6nka mdndi and Idsti paiili kdter too." 

O raiini kedds ajdw. Ghids yon (yolf), o R6mani chei, k^ri. 
Righadd (righadds) o k61i parddl o chairus. 

Tdlla diktds o raiini, yoi kek ne vids paiili, y6'i* po6kadds 
opre Idti. Kdnna sig bitchadds o prdsterm^ngro pdlla Idti. 
Lids Idti. Chidds y6\ adr6 steripen. 

Adre o saiila lids Idti agldl o Pokdnyus. O Pok^nyus 
pendds kdter Idti, " So shan too akei troostdl V 

Y6\ pendds, " O Raiini oA6'i poochtds mdndi te do6ker 
Idti, te po6ker Idti kdnna y6'i lela o tdrno rei te latiV 
rom. Y6i pendds, o raiini, ' d6va toot vdniso. Po6ker man 
tdtch6.' " 

Pendds o Pokdnyus kdter raiini. " See d6va tdtcho } " 

" Oun'* Raiini pendds. " Kek y6\ dndadds me^ri k61i 
paiili see y(!>i pendds.'* 

O Pok^nyus pendds. " See to6ti teeri k61i paiili kondw ?" 

"Our." Hotchi raiini. "Sor tdtcho see kondw. Kek 
nanei mdndi te ker wdfedo te y6lf.'* 

" Too lids sor ti k61i paiili. Kek nane{ too komessa te 
chiv kova joovel adre o stdripen ? " 

" Naw." Pendds o raiini. 

"Jaw to6ki kon." Pendds o Pokdnyus. "Maw mook 
mdndi dik toot adrd k6va gav kek k6mmi." 

O Pokdnyus pendds kdter raiini, " Te baiiro dfnli shdnas 
too te mook tedri k61i te jdfri k6meni. Kek na too jindds, 
too sas o dfnli 1 Kek nanef o R6mani chei sas dfnli. Jaw 
to6ki. Maw mook mdndi dik toot akef kek k6mmi.'' " Kek 
nanei mdndi nastfs do6ker6va toot." 



206 genuine romany compositions. 

Translation. 

I heard this summer (about) a young Gypsy girl in 
Derbyshire, (and) I heard it was * in the papers.* 

She went to a (the) big house, and saw two or three 
women. She asked (one of) them, " Let me tell you your 
fortune. I tell you there is a nice young man ; would you 
like to have him to marry you ? He is worth plenty of 
money. Let me tell you your fortune. I will tell you all 
about him, (and) when you'll be married." 

The woman replied, '' Very well, you may tell me my 
fortune. What shall I give you ? " " A guinea " (said the 
Gypsy). The woman gave her a guinea, (but the Gypsy) 
afterwards asked her for more. She told her to put (some) 
watches and rings in a box, (and) the woman fetched all 
those things that she asked of her. The Gypsy then passed 
her hand here and there, all over the box, (and) said to the 
woman, "You will let me take it. Lend it me a week ; after 
(that) I will bring it back again to you, (and) then there'll 
be lots of money, gold, and precious stones in it, when I 
bring it back to you." 

The woman did so. The Gypsy girl went home, but 
kept them more than the week. 

When the woman saw she did not return, she gave 
information, and the constable was sent after her at once, 
and apprehended her, and locked her up. 

The next morning he took her before the Justice of the 
Peace, who asked her what she was there for. 

She replied, "That woman asked me to tell her her 
fortune, and tell her when she would get her young man 
for a husband. She said she would give me anything to 
let her know the truth." 

The Justice asked the woman if it was correct 

" Yes," said the woman ; " (but) she did not bring my 
things back as she promised she would." 

Then the Justice asked if she had recovered her things. 

^ Yes," said she, " they are all right now. I do not want 
to do harm to hen" 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 207 

" You have got all your things back, and don't wish to 
have the girl put in prison ?" said the Justice. 

" No," replied the woman. 

'* You can go, then," said the Justice to the Gypsy girl. 
" Don't let me see you in this town any more." 

And he said to the woman, " What a big fool you were 
to lend your things to one like her. Don't you know that 
you were the fool ? The Gypsy girl was no fool. Get off 
with you. Don't let me see you here any more." And 
he told the Gypsy girl he could not punish her. 

"Manchester Guardian" account, August 13, 1874: — 

Extraordinary Credulity. — At the Ashton-under- 
Lyne County Petty Sessions, yesterday, a Gypsy named 

Zuba B was charged with fortune-telling and obtaining 

goods under false pretences. Mary Ann EUice, a domestic 
servant at Oldham, said that on Sunday night she went with 
her sister Hannah to a field at Fitton Hill, in which there 
was a Gypsy encampment. The prisoner asked them into 
a tent, and witness gave her a shilling to tell her fortune. 
The prisoner told her there was a young man who wore a 
pen beside his ear who loved the ground she walked upon. 
(Laughter.) Witness took off her glove, and prisoner, 
seeing a ring on her finger, asked to look at it. Prisoner 
tried it on her finger, and then got her brooch and cuffs 
from witness. She touched the end of witness's finger with 
the brooch, the ring, and the shilling, and then rolled them 
up and put them in a cigar-box, and said it would take till 
Wednesday to "make the charm work."* She told witness 
to be sure to come for them on Wednesday night. She 
became uneasy on Monday, and went to the field, but the 
Gypsies had gone. (Laughter.) — Hannah Ellice said the 
prisoner also told her there was a young man who loved 
the ground she walked on. The prisoner got her watch 
and guard, and also wanted her brooch and skirt, but she 



♦ A well-known trick. See Bw., Zincali, i., 319 ; Lavo-lil, 244. 



208 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

would not leave them. Prisoner looked at her hand, and 
said there was luck before her, and all that. (Laughter.) 
Prisoner told them to go home, and tell no one, not even 
their parents. Prisoner told them the tribe had taken the 
field for nine months. — Mr. Mellor, M.P. (one of the magis- 
trates) : Have you received any education } — Witness : No, 
sir, I have not. — Superintendent Ludlam : Perhaps you 
don't understand. Have you ever been to school ? Can 
you read and write } — Witness : No, sir. — Sergeant Barnett 
proved that he apprehended the prisoner at Bardsley on 
Tuesday night, and recovered the property. — Mr. Thomas 
Harrison, the presiding magistrate, dismissed the case, but 
counselled the prisoner to be cautious. Addressing the 
girls, he said it was most extraordinary that silly people 
should go to such places to have their fortunes told. It 
served them right if they lost their money. 

KOKERI INDIKI. 

A DIALOGUE. 

So see d6va } 

^ K6keri IndikV (Cocculus Indicus) Rei. ^Chiv6va-les 
adr6 o pajlni. 

S6ski, mi pal "i 

Maw pootch mdndi jdfri dinili koovdw. Kom6s too 
mdtcho, Rei } 

Ourli, pal. Kom6va-les d6sta. 

' KSkeri Indiki* kair^la sor o matchdw posh-m6ttQ. 
Li6m d6sta and d6sta wi' l^sti. 

THE WHITE DOG. 

A DIALOGUE. 

D6va see a r/nkeno paiino jo6kel odof, pal ! 
Our. Latchad6m-les yek dfvvus adr^ o baiiro-gav. 
So see lesko nav } 

SebastopoL Po6ker mdndi o feterddir drom to kair lesti 
kaiilo. 

Ndstis po6ker6va toot. 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. POQ 

ADRE STERIPEN. 

A DIALOGUE. 

Sar shan, chei ? Toogeno shorn m6, to dik toot adrc 
steripen akci. So see too akef talla ? 

For do6ken;/ adre o baiiro gav. 

Savo che^rus lian, to atch akef ? 

Trin sho6naw. Mi rom see adre steripen tei ! 

S6ski ? 

For ch6r/;^' a grei, mi pal ! The rdttvalo praasterin^n- 
groj" po6ker'rf ho6kapenj' tro6stal I^sti. Yov see tdrder/;/ 
shelo k6tor6ndri kondw. Yov'j peer/;^' oprd o p6gerim6ngn. 

To6gno shorn to shoon 16sti. Po6ker6va kek-k6meni, ta 
mdndi diktds (dikt6m) toot akdi adr^ steripen. 

Pdrrik mi Do6vel te k6k avdl akei kek-k6meni so long as 
too jiv^ssa. Jindssa too " The Trumpet '^ a tfkeni kitchema 
adre de gav ? 

K6kera mandi. 

Mooktom mi kooshn/V^ odoi. Po6ker m6ri fSlkx ajdw, 
mi pal. 

Our. Ker6va-Ies, tastis. 

Ko6shto divvus. 

Til o'^x^yonr zee. Mantchi too. 

Translation. 
IN PRISON. 

How are you, my child ? I am grieved to see thee here 
in prison. What are you here for } 

For telling fortunes in the city. 

How long have you to stop here ? 

Three months. My husband is in prison too ! 

What for ? 

For horse-stealing, mate. The cursed constables com- 
mitted perjury about it. He is picking oakum now, and 
working on the treadwheel. 

I am sorry to hear it. I will not tell any one I have seen 
you here in prison. 



210 GKKUIXE ROXiAXY COMl>OSlTIOXS, 

God grant that you may never come here as long as you 
live. Do you know " The Trumpet," a small public-house 
in the town ? 

No, I do not. 

I left my baskets there. Tell our people so, friend. 

Certainly I will do, if I can. 

Good day. 

Keep up your spirits. Cheer up. 

REMARKS SHOWING A GYPSY'S DISLIKE TO 

MIXED MARRIAGES. 

O Romani-chei kedas koshto lati-k6keri tall' sor lati'j 
lo6beriben. Kek nanef yiii rinkeni. Wdfedo dikomusti 
chei sas y(!>t O moosh, yov sas k6rodo, ta lo6bni yek sas-16. 
Yov sas baiiro dinelo te wo6ser lesko k6kero adre jafra 
wdfedo cheiV wastaw. 

Y6lf sas chichi f^terder te loobni. Y6i sas yek. YoX 
atch^la opr^ dromaw adre o Gav, posha kitchemaw, te dik 
talla o gair6 te del yoii trin-gorishi, te shau-hauri, te s6v wr 
lati. Bitta gauj6, rakl^ vart asar Idti d6sta chafrus^j, te jal 
adre weshdw, te mook wardi-gaird te s5v «//* lati, and d6va 
see tdtcho. Gaujd pen^la jaw troostdl lati kondw. 

Mdndi pen6va, w6nka yov jiv^la Idti yek besh, yov 
ndsherela sor l&ko 16vo, ta sor l&ko zee, ta wel te jal ta 
mong maiiro te hoi, kdnna sas-16 (see-16) b6kalo. Yoi* sig 
keldla d6va lesti. 

Y6lf l^la sor l&ko wongur. Y6\ d^la l^sti kater Mil's dad 
ta dei, te wel y6ki/^/>^i, tdlla sor lixVs lodberiben. 

D6rdi ! dordi ! ! Sdvo baiiro Dinelo sas-16 ! ! ! 



(JEKUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 211 



%nUH. 



O CHOORODO'S GOZVERO KERIMUS. 

Yek raati a Cho6rodo ghids kater DraWngro te dtch-les 
opr4 te wel kdter 16sti cho6ri R6mni. Y6lf sas poshl6 adr6 
wo6drus. 

Kdnna o DraWngro shoondds Idsti, yov r6ker'rf to I^sti, 
a7td o Cho6rodo poochtds-Ies, so yov lela te wel kdter 16sko 
R6mni, te d6va che^rus o' radti. 

O Cho6rodo pendds "Me6ri R6mni see chivd kdter 
wo6drus. Mdndi pen6va y&Cll men Wel, Rei, te dik at 
Idti. Mdndi delova toot a k6tor te kair o f^terd^r to lati, 
tastfs." 

O Drab^ngro ghids. Kdnna sor sas ked6, o Cho6roc(o 
dids o Drab^ngro yek k6tor. O Drab6ngro diktds yov 
sas a cho6rokono moosh. Yov dids-les posh-k6tor paiili, 
ta d6va k6tor sas wdfedo yek. 

Kdnna o Rei diktds o k6tor, yov latch'^ lesti avrf. 
Wdfedo sas. 

Kdnna o Drabdngro diktds 6 k6tor wdfedo sas, kendw-sig 
o Drab^ngro ghids te dik pdlla o Cho6rodo, te po6ker yov 
wdfedo k6tor sas, yov dids 16sti. 

Yov ghids kdter tan, kei sas-16. 

O Cho6rodo kerdds sor 16ski koli oprd Ghids p6ski. 
Yov jindds wdfedo k6tor sas. 

Translation. 

THE MUMPER'S ARTFUL DODGE. 

A mumper one night went to a doctor to call him up to 
attend his poor wife, who was confined to bed. 

As soon as the doctor heard him, he answered ; and the 
mumper asked him what fee he would want to attend his 
wife at that time of the night. He said to the doctor, 
'^Mywife is confined, and I fear she will die. Come and 



212 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

look at her, sir. I will give you a guinea to do the best 
you can for her." 

So the doctor went; and when he had finished, the mum- 
per handed him a guinea. The doctor, however, seeing he 
was a poor man, returned him half the fee; but the guinea 
was bad, and the doctor found it out as soon as he exa- 
mined it He immediately set off to look for the mumper, 
and to tell him the guinea he had paid was a bad one. 
He went to the place where he had been, but the mumper 
had packed up his goods and taken himself off, for he knew 
the guinea was bad. 

O JINOMESKRO HINDI-TEMENGRO. 

Yek chdirus a tdtcho ko6shto Drab^ngro jivdds adre 
o Meflesko-tem. Yek shilalo radti, yov sas kfno d6sta. 
Shoondds a moosh. Yov sas a Hfndi-temdngro. Vias 
kdter Idsko kair. Dids drovdn oprd o wo6da. Yov pendds 
kdter Drab^ngro, " Kair sig, ta wel mdnsa. Meero ch6ro 
po6ro r6mni see 'pr^ mix-in\ Wel kdter y(si, Mdndi ddla 
(d6va) toot yek k6tor.*' 

O Drab^ngro pendds to l&ti, "Kek mdndi j6va toosa, 
Jaw wdfedo shflalo radti see, ta o dromdw see jaw wdfedo 
ta chfklo.'' 

O Hfndi-tem^ngro pendds kdter Drab^ngro, " Wel tooti 
mdnsa, mi Do6veldski! Mdndi d6va toot yek k6tor, te 
kel Idti te jiv te men" 

O Drab^ngro ghids l^sti. Kdnna yov vids od6t kdter y6lf, 
y6\ sas boot ndfelo te mer. O Drabdngro dids y6\ ko6si 
drab te pee, Tdlla yov ghids p&ki k6kero ker^ p6pli. 

Adr6 o saiila, o Drabdngro shoondds y6\ sas mo61o. 

Yov ghids kdter o Hfndi-tem^ngro. Pootchtds-les pdlla 
l^sko k6tor. 

O Hfndi-tem^ngro pendds kdter o Drab^ngro, "Kek 
mdndi d6va toot 'd6va k6tor." 

Tdlla o Drab^ngro lids g6dli l&ti. Lids-les oprd kdter o 
Pook(Snyus te lei l^sko liiva. Kdnna yov sas agldl o Poo- 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. . 213 

kdnyus, o Pookdnyus pootchtcis-les, '*Sar sas k6va. Too 
kek nanei pesserV o DraWngro ? " 

O Pook6nyus pootchV o Hfndi temdngro, "See to6t 
mo6i*6ngro te r6ker to6ki ?" 

"Kek," h6tchi yov, o pooro Hindi- tem^ngrb, "Mdndi see 
me6ro n6go r6kerom6ngro." 

O Pook6nyus pendds kdter o Hfndi-tem^ngro, "Too see 
lavdw te pen te pootch 16sti vdniso ? " 

"Our, Rei !" pendds kdter Pookdnyus. 

" Pootch I6sti, kon." 

"Drab^ngro!" h6tchi o Hfndi-temengro, "Too kerdas 
me^ro r6mni te jiv ? " 

" Kek," hotch' o DraWngro. 

" Too kairdds yoY te mer kon ? '* 

" Kek," h6tchi o Drabdngro. 

" So mdndi te del toot liiva troostdl kon ? Too kek nanei 
kair'rf y6if te jiv. Too kek nanef maurV Idti. Sdvo Ko6sh- 
topen kairdds too tdlla? Kondw, Rei," pendds o Hfndi- 
temengro kdter Pook^nyus, " So mdndi te kair ? Te del 
yov liiva te kek ? " 

O Pookenyus pendds, " Kek nanef yov kerV lesko bo6tsi 
tdtcho, ta yov pendds te kel Idti te jiv te mer. Yov kerV 
kek o' 16ndi. Te yov sas te kair o jo6vel te jiv, mdndi 
kair6va te del o Drab^ngro o k6tor so too pendds. Te wel 
yov te maur Idti, mdndi chivova-les paiili kdter o Baiiri, 
ta yov vdla ndshado, kair/;/* nieriben." 

"So mdndi te kair kondw, Rei, kon.?'* pendds o pooro 
Hfndi-temengro, " Too jdh;/* te chiv mdndi adre st^ripen 
troostdl 16sti, te mook mdndi yo6zho.?** 

Pendds o Pookenyus, " Yo6zho shan. Too shan tdtcho. 
Jaw to6ki kei too kom^ssa," 

Translation. 

THE KNOWING IRISHMAN. 

Once upon a time there was a downright clever 
doctor living in Yorkshire, and one cold night he was very 



^14 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS, 

tired, when he heard a man. It was an Irishman, who had 
come to the house. He knocked at the door hard, and 
said to the doctor, *' Make haste and come with me. My 
poor old wife is nearly dead. Come to her, and I will give 
you a guinea." 

The doctor replied, " I will not go with you ; it is such 
a wretchedly cold night, and the roads are so bad and 
muddy." 

The Irishman said to the doctor, " Do come with me, for 
God's sake. I will give you a guinea whether you kill or 
cure her.'\ 

So the doctor went with him, and when he reached the 
place she was evidently on her death-bed. The doctor 
gave her a little medicine to drink, and then he took. him- 
self off home again. 

In the morning the doctor heard she was dead. 

He went to the Irishman, and asked for his fee. 

The Irishman said to the doctor, "I will not pay you 
that guinea." 

Then the doctor took out a summons against him. He 
summoned him before the justice to obtain his money. 
When hq appeared before the justice, the justice asked 
him, " How is this ? You have not paid the doctor.? " The 
magistrate asked the Irishman if he had a lawyer to defend 
him. 

" No," said the old Irishman ; " I am my own lawyer." 

The magistrate said to him, " Have you any questions 
to ask him?" 

"Yes, sir," he said to the magistrate. 

" Ask him, then." 

" Doctor," said the Irishman, " did you make my wife 

live r 

" No ! " cried the doctor, 
" You made her die, then ?" 
"No!'* cried the doctor. 

" What am I to pay you for, then > You did not make 
her live. Yoa did not kill her. What good did you do, 



trENUINE kOMANY COMPOSITIONS. 21$ 

then ? Now, sir," said the Irishman to the magistrate, '* what 
am I to do — pay him, or not ?" 

The magistrate said, '' He did not do his work properly, 
for he said he would kill or cure her, and he did neither. 
If he had made the woman live, I would make you pay 
the doctor the guinea you promised. If he be the cause of 
her death, I will remand him to the assizes, and he will be 
hanged for committing murder." 

**What am I to do nowj sir, then?" said the old Irish- 
man. " Are you going to put me in gaol for it, or acquit 
me?" 

The magistrate answered, ** You are clear. You are all 
right. Go where you like."* 

KING EDWARD AND THE GYPSY. 

Ddsta dSsta beshdw ghids kondw, sas sl datiro 

Many many years gone (by) now, (there) was a great 

Krdlis adr^ Anghiterra; Edwardwj sas Usko nav—kodshto 
King in England ; Edward was his name — (a) good 

kdmelo ret sas-lS, 

kind gentleman was he. 

Yek divvus yov k^sterdds, sor bikSnyo^ adrdl a batlro 
One day he rode, all alone, through a great 

idmlo wesk, Wdnkayov sas ydlit)! /^//a b/tto rook, a batiro 
dark wood. When he was going under a little tree, a big 

kos/i^ leVA bSnnek o* l^stVs baL O rdttvalo grei pradster'd 
bough took hold of his hair. The cursed horse ran 

avrif ta mooktds 'EAvfZxdus ndshedo opr^ o rook, 
off, and left Edward hanged on the tree. 

A poSro RSmani-chal, so sas odoi, b^sIivcC paisa sap 
An old Gypsy man, who was there, lying like (a) snake 

adrd c/wr, diktds-les. Yov ghids kdter a Krdlis, Yov 
in the grass, saw him. He went to the King. He 

• 

* This is a well-known anecdote. 



2l6 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

chindds o kosht tal^, ta mooktds Edwardw-y jal pedro zpSplt. 
cut the bough down, and let Edward go free again. 
O Krdlis didsles pdrikab^n, ta pendds Ihti, '' Kon shan 
The King gave him thanks, and said to him, " Who art 
too?'' Yov rdker'd ajdw: "A po6ro cho6ro RSmani-c/idl 
thou?" He spoke thus: "An old poor Gypsy (man) 
shorn 7nir O Krdlis pendds, " Mookova toot te jal kei too 
am I." The King said, " I will let thee go where thou 

kom^ssa, ta sov kei too komhsa, adr^ sormi krdlisom. ; ta 
likest, and sleep where thou likest, in all my kingdom; and 

sor wdver Romani-chdlaw tei see peer o to kei ajdiv!' 
all other Gypsies too are free to do so." * 

O CHdROMENGRO. 

Mandi diktom a baiiro gairo. Ghias adrc dova kair. 
Lids chomoni avri panlo adrc a baiiro jorjaw;)^a. Chomoni 
sas adre, loko (sas). Kek n6 jindom me so sas adre Idsti. 

Sar sig yov diktas mandi, praastadds p^ski p^nsa grei. 
Gihias, garadas 16ski kokero. K^kera diktom 16sti kek- 
komi. 

Talla yov sas ghil6, o raiini kater kair vids adre o kair. 
Diktds sor IdtiV ro6peno k61i, ta so6naka ora, ta soonaka 
wdriga, ta m^rikli, ta vongeshtaj", sas sor ghile. 

Dova gairo lias lendi sor. Ghids peski sor koshto yoozho 
te l^ndi. 

Translation. 

THE THIEF. 

I saw a big man. He went into that house. He took 
something out tied in a big apron. Something was inside 
heavy (lit, light). I did not know what was in it. 

As soon (as) he saw me, he himself ran like (a) horse. 
He went ; he hid himself. I never saw him any more. 

After he was gone, the lady at (the) house came into 

* Edward VI. reigned 1547— 1 553, but all histories have ignored 
this incident ! Perhaps it is based on some New Forest tradition of 
the death of Riche^rd, grandson of William I, 



GENUINE ROMANS COMPOSITIONS- 217 

the house. She saw all her silver things, and gold watches, 
and gold chains, and bracelets, and rings, were all gone. 

That man took them all. He himself went all right 
clean (off) with them. 

MI D0(3VELESK0 fifXTA FOLKl, 

Shoond6m y^kera, dosta beshdw ghil6, sas varengro. 
Jivdas aglal o Krdlisko po6ro kair kdter Kellingworth 
p6sha Warwick Chiimba see od6if, ta o Krdlisko po6ro 
kair see opre-les. Koshto rei sas-16. Kom^la s6rkon 
koshto jivomus, te livena, ta sor wdver piamus. 

Yek diwus ad re o saiila ghids avri, te l^sko vardo, ta 
greidw tei, te jal kater o baiiro gav te bikin lesko varo. 

K^kera vias paiili popli. K^kera diktas yon. O vardo, 
ta greiaw vias paiili. Yov kek vias, 

Tdlla do6r beshaw yov vids <a:p6pli, ta andadas kdter 
l&ko romni, toovlo, ta toovlo chord w, ta bauri sw6gler. 

Pookerd^ lesti, "Kei shanas too sor dula chairus, sor 
diila door beshaw ? ** 

Pendas yov, " Tal6 d6va baiiro kair odol. Kek nanei see 
doot beshdw. Kaliko radti mdndi sas wel/«' keri, ta mi 
Diiveldsko bitta fdlki vids. Yon atchte sor ketan^ aglal 
mandi, sor troostdl. Lias mandi tal6 adr6 a baiiro fino 
rinkeno tan odoY, tale o kralisko po6ro kair. 

Hodom sorkon koshto holomus, ta peedom s6rkon pfamus 
ta mdndi komj, Iivena, ta mol, ta tdtto padni tei. Kek 
nane{ paani see od6l! Sas lendi d6sta d6sta to6vIo, ta 
baiiri sw^gler. Dias d6sta kater mdndi. Kel6nna, b6sher- 
v^nna, ghiv6nna tei sor o raati. D6r see d6sta ro6pni k61i 
ta soonaka. 

Kanna saiila vids, yon mooktd mandi jal, ta mdndi anda- 
d6m k6va to6vlo, ta to6vlo kordw, ta baiiri swdgler. Dik 
ascir at Idndi. Diktassa jdfri k61i adre tedro mdriben ? '* 

" Kdkera," pendd yon, "see d6va sor tdtcho?'' 

" Our," pendas yov, " oprd medro k6shto zee.** 

Dova see so gauj6 pendd kiter mdndi. Kdnna mdndi 
sas odof, sas kdmeni sim^Qsi (f' d6va y^r^ngro adr^ o gav, 



2l8 gexuxxe romany cohpositioxs. 

Translation. 
THE FAIRIES. 

I heard once, many years ago, there was a miller, who 
lived opposite Kenilworth Castle, near War\iick. There 
is a hiil there, and the castle stands on it. The miller was 
a jovial sort of fellow, fond of good living, and liquor. 

One day, early in the morning, he set off with his cart 
and horses to go to town and sell his flour. 

He never returned. They never saw him again. His 
cart and horses came back, but he did not. 

After two years, he returned, and brought his wife some 
'baccy, 'bacca dishes, and long pipes. 

They asked him where he had been all those two years. 

He replied, " Under the castle, yonder ; but it isn't two 
years. Last night I was coming home, and a whole lot of 
fairies came and stood in a ring round me, and then they 
took me off to a splendid place under the castle over 
there. 

" I ate of the best, and had every kind of drink I like 
— ale and wine, and spirits too. There's no water tlure! 
They had lots of 'baccy, and great long pipes, and they 
gave me plenty. They were dancing, and fiddling, and 
singing too all night long, and there were heaps of gold 
and silver. 

** As soon as it was morning they let me go, and I 
brought this here tobacco, and 'bacca dishes, and pipes 
away with me. Just look at 'em. Did you ever see such 
things in your lives V^ 

" Not we," said they. " Is it all true ?" 

" Yes," said he ; " upon my honour it is." 

That is a story the people told me; and when I was 
there, some of the miller's descendants were still living 
in the village.* 



* Versions of this story are common to almost all mythologies. 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSIXtONS. 2ig 

HOW PETALENGRO WENT TO HEAVEN. 

OLD DIALECT. 

Mandi pookerova toot sar Petalengro ghias kater mi 
Doovelesko keri : — 

Yek divvus mi Doovel vias adr6 bitto gav. Kek nan6i 
kitchema sas adoi. Yov ghias adre Petalengro'^ kair. Yov 
so6tadda odoi sor doova raati. 

Adr6 o saula o Petalengro*^ poori romni pendas. 
"Komova te jal adr6 mi Doovolesko keri kanna merova." 

Mi Doovel diktas adr^ laki mool. Yov pendds '* Maw 
trash. Too nastis te jal adre o bengesko tan. Odoi see 
rovoben ta kainV/^ wafedo moolaw ta danding' ti danaw. 
Tooti see kek nan^i dandw. Too jasa adr6 meero keri." 

Yov pendds J[\ater laki rom. " Delcva tooti stor kola. 
So bootodair too komesa te lei } " 

O Petalengro pendds '' Komova, O moosh so jala opr6 
meero pobesko rook, nastis te wel tal6, Doova see yek 
kova. 

" Komova. O moosh so beshela opre o kova so mandi 
kerova greiesti cho%a opr^, riastis te atch opr^ ^popli. Dula 
see dooif kola . 

" Komova. O moosh so jala adr^ meero bitto sasterq. 
mokto, nastissa te wel avrf. Dula see trin kola 

'* Komova. Meero hoofa see mandi adr6 sorkon cheerus, 
ta kanna beshova opri^-les kek moosh nastis te kair mandi 
te atch opr6. Dula see o stor kola so komova feterddir." 

Mi Doovel pendds yov ' Our ' kater sor dula kola^ so yov 
pootchdds-les. Yov ghids opr^ lesko drom, 

Palla doova o Petalengro jivdds dosta dosta beshaw. 

Yek divvus o Bauro-shorokono-mulo-moosh vids. • Yov 
pendds kater o Petalengro " Av mansa ! " 

O Petalengro pendds " Atch koo^i, Bor ! Mook mandi 
pen 'kooshko divvus* kater meeri poori romni. Too jasa 
opr6 meero rook te lei pob6.** 

Yov ghids opr6 o rook. Nastis te wel tal^ ^popli. O 
Petalengro kedas-les pen " Mookova toot bikonyo bish 
beshaw.'* Yov pendds doova. Yov vids tald 



220 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 



Palla bish beshaw, yov vias ^popli. Yov pendas " Av 
mansa ! " 

O Petalengro pendds " Atch koosi, Bor ! Too shan kino. 
Besh ta\6 opr6 doova kova." Sas o kova so yov kedas o 
greiesto cho;^a opr6. 

Yov beshtds tal6 opr6 lesti. Nastissa te atch opre ^popli. 
O Petalengro kedas-les pen " Mookova tooti bikonyo bish 
beshaw apopW Yov pendds doova. Yov atchdas opre. 

Palla bish beshaw ^popli o Beng vias. Yov pendas "Av 



mansa.'' 



O Petalengro pendas " Atch koosi, Bor ! Kek jaw sig, 
mi pooro chavo ! M6 shorn jaw kooshto sar tooti. Mook 
mandi dik tooti jal adrd kova bitto sastera mokto." 

Yov ghids adr6-les. Nastissa te wel avrf. O Petalengro 
chidds o mokto adr^ o yog. Kanna les sas lolo-tatto yov 
chidds-les opr^ o kova so yov kedds o greiesto cho^^a opre. 
Yov koordds-les sar sor lesko roozlopen. O Beng rovdds 
ta kordds avrf sor o cheerus "Mook mandi jal. Mookova 
tooti bikonyo adr^ sor cheerus." Kanna o Petalengro sas 
sor kino, yov mooktds o Beng jal. 

Palla waver doosta dooro cheerus mi Doovel bitchadds 
yek 0* mi DoovelV tatcho gair6. Yov pendds " Av mansa 
kater o Bengesko tan/' 

O Petalengro pendds " Sor tatcho." 

Kanna o Beng diktds-les, yov pendds "Jal avri sig, 
wafedo gairo. Kek komova tooti akei." 

Jaw o tatcho gairo lids-les kater mi Doovel'^ tem. Mi 
Doovel pootchdds "Welessa too avrf o Bengesko tan ?'* 

O Petalengro pendds " Kek." Mi Doovel pendds " Jal 
avr{ sig, wafedo gairo, Kek komova tooti ak6i." 

O Petalengro pendds "Mook mandi dik adr^ teero kair." 
Mi Doovel pirivdds o wooda. O Petalengro wooserdds 
lesko hoofa adr6. Prasterdds. Beshtds tal^ opre-les, ta 
pendds kater mi Doovel "Nastissa too te kair mandi jal 
kendw." 

Doova see sat o Petalengro ghids kat^r mi DoovelV kair. 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 2^1 

THE SAME. 

NEW DIALECT. 

MandiV/ pooker tooti hoiv the Petalengro jaFrf adr^ mi 
Doover^ kair. 

Yek divvus mi Doovel welW adre a bitti gav, and latch*^ 
kekeno kitchema od6i, so lie \?Xd adrd tite Petalengro'j kair, 
and sooterV od6i sor doova raati. 

Adrd the saula the Petalengro*^ poori romni penV/. ^' Vd 
kom to jdl adrd mi Doover^ kair when mandi merj," so 
mi Doovel dikW adr^ lati*J mool, arid pen*rf " Maw trash 
Tootf can't jal adr6 the Bengesko tan, 'cause od6i there's 
rovoben and dand/;/^ o* danyaw, and tooti'j danyaw are 
sor nasher'rf avrf your mooY. Tooti shall jal adrd meeri 
kair.*' 

Afid he penW to lati'^ rom " MandiV/ del tooti stor kovaj. 
So does tooti kom t " 

" The Petalengro pen'rf " Mandi kom^ as any moosh, as 
jab oprd meero rook to lei pobo^, can't wel tal^ ^popli. 
Doova'j yek kova. 

" Mandi kom^ as any moosh, as besh^j oprd the kova 
mandi kair^ greiesto chokaj opre, catit atch opr6 ^popli. 
Doova*^ dooY kova^. 

" Mandi komj as any moosh, as jal s adr^ meeri bitto 
sastera mokto, caiit wel avrf ^popli. Doova'^ trin kova^. 

"Mandi komj as meeri hoofa may be mine adr6 sor 
cheerus, and zvhen mandi besh^j aprd lesti kek moosh can 
kair mandi atch opr^ <a:popli. Doova*^ the stor kovaj as 
mandi komj." 

Mi Doovel pen*^, "Our," to sor doova kovaj, and jal'd 
oprd lesti'^ dr6m. 

Palla doova the Petalengro jWd boot adoosta besh^.r. 

Yek divvus the Bauro-shorokono-moolo-moosh welV and 
pen'd to the Petalengro, " Av with mandi." 

The Petalengro pen'^/, " Atch a koosi, Bor ! Mook mandi 
pen ' Kooshto diwus ' to meeri poori romni. Tooti can jal 



12^ GENUINE ROMANY eOxMt»OSlT10N^. 

opre nieeri rook, aiid lei some poboj," a7id when he jalV 
opr^ the rook, he couldn't wel tal6 <a:popli, so the Petalengro 
kairV htjn pen '* Mandi 7/ mook tooti <a:konyo bish besh^j* " 

« 

a7td sar sig as he penV doova he could -wtl tale. 

Palla bish besh^j' he -wtVd ^popH and pen*^, "Av with 
mandi," and the Petalengro penV, "Atch a koosi, Bof ! 
TootiV kini. Besh tald opr6 doova kova/' 

He beshV tald opr6 the k6vva he kairW greiesto chokaj 
opre a7id conldnt atch oprd ^popH, so the Petaldngro kair'rf 
him pen, " Mandi 7/ mook tooti ^konyo bish besh^i' ^popli,** 
and sar sig as he pen V doova he could atch oprd. 

Palla bish besh^j ^popli the Beng wel'^ and penV, " Av 
with mandi," and the Petalengro penV, "Atch a koosi, 
Bor ! Kek so sig, mi poori chavi. Mandi'j' as kooshti as 
tooti. Mook mandi dik tooti jal adr6 kovva bitti sastera 
mokto asar," He jal'^ adrd lesti and couldn't wel avrf so the 
Petalengro chivV it adrd the yog, and ivhen it was sor lolo- 
tatto he chivW it opre the kova he kair'^ greiesto chokai* 
oprd and koorW lesti with sor his roozlopen, and the Beng 
xoy'd and korV/ avrf sor the cheerus, " Mook mandi jal. 
Mandi 7/ mook tooti ^konyo 'dre sor cheerus," and when 
the Petalengro was qnite kfno, he mook*^ the Beng jal. 

Palla a baiiro cheerus mi Doovel bitcher'rf yek of his 
tatcho gairi^i-, ivho penV to the Petalengro, " Av with mandi 
to the Bengesko tan," and the Petalengro pen*^/, " Sor 
tatcho." 

When the Beng dikV lesti, he 'ptvid, "Jal avri s\g, you 
wdfedo gairo. Mandi doesn't kom tooti akei." 

So the tatcho gairo lelV him to mi Doover^ tem, and mi 
Doovel pootchV 16sti, "^ Has tooti w^Vd from the Bengesko 
tan } " 

And the Petalengro penV, " Keker," so mi Doovel penV, 
"Jal avri sig, you wafedo gairo. Wzxidx doesn't kom tooti 
akei." 

. And the Petalengro penV, " Mook mandi dik adre yotir 
kair," and s^r sig as mi Doovel pirivW the wooda, the Peta- 
lengro wooser'i/ his hoofa adre, and prasterW, a7id besh'df 



GEXUIXE ROMANY CoMPO:SI1?IONS. 25^ 

tale opfe lesti, and penV to mi Dobvel, " Tooti can't kair 
mandi jal kenaw." 

DoovaV the drom the Petalengro jalV adrd mi DooveFj 
kair.* 



f't:rafiMi0ttfi, 



THE TARNO BOSHNO AND THE BARVALO 

BAR. 

THE YOUNG COCK AND THE DIAMOND. 

A tarno boshno wH dooi' trin kann/Vj, lesko rorrini^j, sas 
A young cock with two {or) three henSy his wives, was 

dikin' for choomoni to hoi opre a chikesko-chumba. Yov 
looking for something to eat on a dung-hilL He 

latch^^ odof a barvalo bar and pen'^ ajaw : " MandiV 
found tJiere a diamond , and said thus : ^' I'd 

sigaddir latch a koosi ghiv te chiv adre mi pur da7t sor 
sooner find a little corn to put into my belly than all 

the barvalo barj* tald the kam/' 
the diamonds under the sun'' 

SAR THE JOOKEL NASHERi?Z> HIS MAS. 
HOW THE DOG LOST HIS MEAT. 

A chooro dinilo jookel sas peer/V posha ///^ paani-rig ivi' 
A poor foolish dog was zvalking near tlie water-side with 

koosi mas adr^ leski moot. Diktds kumeni kova pensa 
a little meat in his mouth. He saw some thing like 

* This story is taken from "Hone's Every Day Book/' ed. 1857, 
vol. i., p. 447. The translations were originally my own, but have been 
so altered, amended, and criticised by Gypsy auditors, that we have 
included them here, as examples of the two dialects.— H. T. C. 



234 OEl^TJINE ROMANY COMPOSltlOXS. 

waver mas adre o paani. Yov piriv^^ lesko danyavv to 
other meat in the ivater. He opened his teeth to 

lei o waver mas, ta mooktas o tatcho kova pel tale 
get the other meat, and let the real tiling fall dozen 

adrd o paani. Jaw sor lesko hoben sas nashedo. Yek 
into the ivater. So all his food was lost. One 

shosho adre o koro see mol dooi adre o wesli. 
rabbit in the pot is zvorth tzvo in the zvood, 

THE LOLO-WESHKENO JOOKEL AND LESKO 

FORI. 

THE FOX AND HIS TAIL. 

Yek divvus a lolo-w6shkeno-jookel sas lino by lesko pori 
One day a red-zuood-dog {fox) zvas eaught by his tail 

adrd a tilomengro. Yov pendas kater his kokero, " So 
/;/ a trap. He said to himself ''What 

kerova mandi kendw? Nastis lova lesti avri ^popli." 
s/iall I do nozv? I cannot get it out again '^ 

Tardadds-les ta mooktas-les palla lesti adre o weshkeni- 
He pulled it and left it behind him in the zvood- 

tilomengro. Palla doova yov sas ^ladj to sikker his 
/wider {'trap). After that he zvas ashamed to shozv him- 

kokero kater leski palaw. Kordas-len /"^ketane, ta pendas 
self to his mates. He called them together, and said 

ajdw : " Mook sor mendi chin moro porydw tald. Kek nanei 
thus: *' Let all of us cut our tails off. No 

kooshto jafri koli to mendi." Talla a pooro jinomeskro 
good {are) such things to us!' But an old knozving 

jookel pendds, " Kanna meero nogo pori see lino adre yek, 
dog said, " When my own tail is taken in one, 

kerova ajdw, tastfs, talla righerova-les kendw." 
/ zvill do so, if I can, but I will keep it nozv!' 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 225 

THE BAURO HOLOMENGRO JOOKEL AND THE 

TIKNO BOKOCHO. 

THE WOLF AND THE LITTLE LAMB. 

Yek diwus a bauro holomengro jookel ghids kater tlte 

One day a big ravenous dog {wolf) went to the 

paani-rig to pee, and a tikno bokocho sas odof tei, 

waterside to drink^ and a little lamb was there too, 

i^ttin' kek door /rt?w lesti. And tlte bauro holomengro 
drinking not far from him. And the wolf 

jookel sas doosta bokalo, and dik'd the tikno bokocho, and 
was very hungry, and saw the little lamb, and 

penW, " Hoino shorn md tusa. Kairessa sor o paani 
said, ^^ Angry am I with thee, TJwu makest all the water 

mokado." Pendds o tikno bokocho, "Kek mandi see. 
dirty r Said the little lamb, " Not I is it. 

O paani nasher^ tald from tooti to mandi, 'jaw nastissa 
The water ru7ts down from thee to me, so cannot 

mandi kair o paani mokado." Pendds o bauro holomengro 
/ make the water dirty!^ Said the wolf, 

jookel, " Tooti s jaw wafedo sar teero dad ta dei ; 
" Thou art as bad as thy father and mother; 

mandi maurd6m lendi doot. Mandi maurova tooti." Yov 
/ killed them both, I will kill theeP He 

hodds lesti oprd 
ate it up. 



PATER NOSTER. 

(Compare sjx versions. Pott, ii., 472, et seq, ; also those 
in the Appendices to Borrow*s "Zincali," and in his 
" Lavo-lil.") 

Moro Dad, so see adrd.mi Duvelesko keri, te wel teero 
\ix2X\s0m; Too zee be kedo adr6 chik, jaw see adrd mi 
Duvelesko keri, Del mendi kova diwus moro diwus^ 

IS 



226 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

mauro ; ta/<?rdel mendi moro wafedo-kerimus, pensa mendi 
forAcls yon ta kairj* wafedo ^posh mendi, ta lei mendi kek 
adr6 wafedo-kerimus. Jaw keressa te righer mendi avr{ 
wafedo. Jaw see ta jaw see. 

Wester Boswell, with a little help 
in paraphrasing the English. 

CREED. 

(Compare two versions, Pott, ii., 470, 471 ; and those in 

Borrow's " Lavo-lil/') 

Mandi patser* adr^ mi Duvel, o Dad sor-ruzlo, kon 
kedas mi Duvelesko keri, ta chik ; 

Ta 'dr^ Duvelesko Chavo, lesko yekino tikno, moro Duvel, 
kon o Tatcho Mulo lino. Beeno palla o Tatchi Tarni 
Duveleski Juvel, so*j nav sas Mary, ta kedds wafedo tal6 
Pontius Pilate, jaw sas n^ordno opr6 o rook, moolo ta 
poorosto. Yov ]dXd tal^ adr^ o Bengesko Tan. Trin 
divvus^ palla doova yov wel'rf oprd ^popli avrf Mulo 
Tan. Yov jaFrf opr6 adr^ mi Duvelesko keri, beshtds opr^ 
o tatcho wast of mi Duvel, o Dad sor ruzlo. Avrf doova 
tan yov avesa f ^popli, pensa pookinyus, te bitcher o jido 
ta mulo. 

Mandi patser* adr^ o Tatcho Mulo, o tatcho Hindi- 
temengro'j Kongri, o roker/«' ^koshto/^/>fei, o forAtXoness 
of wafedopenj", o atch/«' opr6 ^popli of o troopus, ta o 
meriben kedo/<?r sor chairus. Jaw see ta jaw see. 

Wester Boswell, with a little help 
in paraphrasing the English. 

THE TEN COMMANDMENTS. 

(Compare Pott, ii., 488.) 

I. 
Mandi shom teero tatcho Doovel. Kek komeni DoovelV 
see tooti talla mandi. 

. 1 1, 1 I • - - - — — ■ — ■*■ ■ ■■-■■ ■■ ^■-i» 

* Patsova. t Avela. 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 22^ 

II. 

Maw kair tooti kek komeni foshono kookelo, na kek 
pensa waver kova palla lesti ta see adr^ Duvelesko keri 
opr4 adr6 o chik tal6, or 'dr6 o paani tal6 o chik. Maw 
pel tal6 kater lendi. Maw pootch lendi te del tooti variso* 
Maw pen teero lavyaw kater Mndi, 'jaw mandi teero tatcho 
Doovel shorn tatcho Doovel, ta kairova o chavd dooker for 
o da,d*s wafedo-penj 'jaw door sar o pooro dad'j* chav^, ta 
lenghi chav^ tei, so kek nanei komela (komenna) mandi, 
ta siker komoben kater lendi so komesa (komenna) mandi 
ta kairesa (kairenna) meero tatcho trad. 

III. 
M^w lei teero Doovel*^ nav bonges, jaw mi Doovel kek 
tilesa (tilela) lesti sor tatcho so lels lesko nav boriges. 

IV. 

Maw bisser te righer tatcho o Kooroko diwus. Shov 
diwusaw too bootiesa ta kair sor so see tooti te kair, talla o 
trin ta stor diwus see o tatcho doovel'j kooroko. 'Dr^ lesti 
maw kair komeni booti, too, ta teero chavo, ta teeri chei, 
ta teero mooshkeni bootiengro, ta teero joovni bootiengro, 
teeri groovn6, ta o gaiijo so see adr^ teero tan. Jaw 'dr^ 
shov diwusdw mi Doovel kcdds mi Doovelesko keri, ta o 
chik, o bauro londo paani, ta sor so see adr6 lesti; ta beshtds 
tal6 o trin ta stor diwus ta kedas chichi. Jaw mi Doovel 
pendds kooshto o trin ta stor diwus ta kcdds-les tatcho. 

V. 
Kair kooshtoben kater teero dad ta teeri dei, *jaw too 
jivesa bauro cheerus adr6 o tem so teero tatcho Doovel dels 
tooti. 

VI. 

Maw too maur. 

VII. 

Maw sov sar gairi^j talla teero nogo romni. Kek nanei 
too sov troostal waver moosh'^ romni. 



228 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

VIII. 

Maw too chor. 

IX. 

Maw sovlohol bonges ^posh o gair6 so see posha tooti. 

X. 

Maw too pootch troostal vaniso kova ta nanef see teero. 
Maw kom o moosh'^ kair so see posha tooti. Maw kom 
lesko romni, na lesko bootiengro, ta lesko bootiengri rakli, 
na lesko mooshkeni groovni, na lesko meila, na variso kova 

so see lesti. 

Wester Boswell, with a little help 

in paraphrasing the English. 

THE LORD IS MY SHEPHERD. 
(Psalm xxiii. i — 6, Bible Version.) 

1. O Doovel see meero bokorengro so odoi mandi nastfs 
wa«/asova chichi ; or^ Meero Doovel see meero bokorengro 
kek nannef wantasova. 

2. Yov kairj (kairela) mandi te sov tel6 adrd o chorengri 
poovyaw. Yov \Aeth mandi posh-rig o shookdr paani ; or^ 
o atchlo paani. 

3. Kairela tatcho to mandi'j meripen, kanna shorn miiUo. 
Yov siker^/A mandi adr6 o tatcho drom ajaw lesko nav*J 
sake'0%, 

4. Our. Though mandi ^Qtveth adrdl o kaulo meripen- 
drom, mandi*^ kek ^trdsh of kek wdfedo,/^r too shan posha 
mandi. Teero ran, ta teero kosht kairenna yon mandi 
kooshtoben. 

5. Too kair^ss a misalli 'glal mandi, agldl meero wafedo- 
folki. Too chiv^ss tulipen opr6 meero shoro, ta meero koro 
nash^/^ pdrdal. 

6. Tatcho kooshtoben, ta tatcho komoben, wel palla 
mandi sor o diwus^^ te meero meriben ; ta mandi jivova 
adr6 mi Doovelesko kair sor mi meriben. 

Wester Bosv^ell, without any help. 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 229 

THE SEVEN LOAVES MIRACLE. 

(Mark viii. i— 8.) 

1. Adr6 kola diwusdw, kanna sas dosta komeni odof 
lelm* chichi sor kova cheerus, mi Doovel pootchtds lesko 
/o/ki, ta pendds kater lendi. 

2. Mandi shorn toogno talla sor o /o/ki. Yon sas mandi 
trin divvusdw, ta kek nanef lendi sas yon te hoi sor kova 
cheerus. 

3. Te wel mandi te bitcherova-len avrf kater lenghi 
kairdw, yon penna [perenna] tal6 0' bok. Dosta lendi vi^n 
door dosta. 

4. Lesko nogo fo/ki pendds to yov. " Sar sastfs te yek 
moosh del jaw kisi mooshdw mauro dosta te hoi te porder 
lenghi perdw adr^ kova wafedo-dik/;^' tan ?" 

5. Yov pootchtds lendi. " Sar kisi chel^ maur6 see toot ?" 
Yon penW, " Doot trinydw ta yek." 

6. Yov pendds lendi te besh tal^ o poov (or, chik). Yov 
lids o dooY trinydw ta yek chel^ maurd Yov delW parik- 
ab^n kater mi Doovel. Yov pogadds o mauro, dids-les 
kater leski/o/M te besh agldl lendi sor. Yon kair*rfajdw. 

7. (Ta) yon lidn dool trin bitta matchi. Yov deVd lesko 
kooshto lav, ta pookadds yon te besh lesti tal^ agldl lendi. 

8. Jaw yon hod6 ta lenghi perdw sor lendi pord6 sas. 
Yon leVd opr6, talla yon hod6, dooX trinydw ta yek kooshni 
pordo 0* pogado hoben, so sas mooklo talla yon porder'rf 
sor lendi perdw. 

Wester Boswell, without any help. 

LOVE YOUR ENEMIES. 
(Luke vi. 27 — 31.) 

27. Mandi pooker kater too, " Kom asar teero wafedo 
fo/kl Kair koshto kater dula te kair^ wafedo kater toot. 

28. Kom too dola fo/ki kanna yon pen wafedo lavdw 
kater tooki. Mong asar mi Duvel kanna yon keU bonges 
kater tooki. 



230 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

29. Kanna yon del toot pr^ yek rig d ti mooY, chiv o 
waver kater lendi. Yov te lela teero plashta, maw penaw 
te yov lela teero cho^a tei. 

30. Del kater sorkon moosh ta pootchela vaniso kova 
toti. Dova komeni lela teero koli pootch lesti kek koml 

31. Kair too kater waver mooshdw^ jaw too komessa 
lendi te kel tooti. 

THE WIDOWS SON. 
(Luke vii. 11 — 1$.) 

11. Ta welW ajdw o diwus palla, yov jalW adrd a 
shorokono gav. O nav sas Nain. Dosta * lesti shorokono 
xnooshaw ghi^n lesti, ta dosta waver /^/>6i. 

12. Talla yov vids kater o stigher o bauro shorokono 
gav, yov diktas a moolo moosh andV avri o stigher. Yov 
sas o tatcho yek 0* lesko dei. Vol sas a peevH gairi, ta 
dosta /olki sas posha yol. 

13. Kanna mi Doovel diktds yoY, yov kom'd lati. PendAs 
mi Doovel kater lati. " Maw rov too." 

14. Yov vids. Chivdds lesko vast opr6 o kova so yon 
righerW moolo gairo opr^. Yon (ta) rigadds-les atcht^ 
lendi (or yon atchV). Pendds mi Doovel, " Tarno moosh^ 
(ta) sas moolo, atch opr^ jfdo." 

15. Yov, ta sas moolo, atchtds lesko kokero opr^. Talla 
atchtds opr6, rokadds. Meero Doovel talla d6Vd kova 
tarno moosh to lesko dei. 

Wester Boswell, without any help. 

THE SUPPER. 
(Luke XIV. 16 — 24.) 

16. Yek raati gairo kedds bauro holomus, ta poochdds 
boot doosta fo/ii te wel, ta hoi lesti. 

17. Ta yov bitchadds lesko bootsiengro, <a:/ hoben-chairos, 
te pen lendi, kon sas poochlo, " Av. Sor kola see tatcho 
k'naw. Weladrd" 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 23 I 

1 8. Ta yon sor, with yek zee, welessa (vi6n) te kel veena. 
O firstdiAix pendds kater lesti, " Mandi kind6m kotor poov, 
ta jova te dik lesti. Mongova tooti kair mandi veenlo." 

19. Ta yek waver pendds, " Mandi kind6m pansh yoke 
mooshkeni groovni, ta jova te dik palla lendi. Mandi 
mongova tooti kair mandi veenlo." 

20. Ta yek waver pendds, "Mandi romeddm kedivvus 
kater joovel, mandi nastissa te wel." 

21. Palla doova o bootsiengro welassa (vids) ta sikadds 
kater lesko Rei dula kola. Ta kanna o Shorokno-pardal-o- 
kair shoondds, yov sas ho'fno, ta pendds kater bootsiengro, 
" Jal avri sig adr^ o baurd-gavesti-dromaw, ta adr^ o bitt^- 
gavesti-dromaw, ta and adre kova tan dula mooshaw ta 
joovel J so see choorokn^ ta o kek-mooshengri, ta o long^, 
ta o korod^/' 

22. Ta o bootsiengro kedds ajdw, ta yov welV ^popli, ta 
pendds kater lesko Rei. "Rei! mandi ked6m sor too 
pendds, ta sor o skamin^ kek nandi pordo." 

23. Ta o Rei pendds kater o bootsiengro, " Jal avrf ta dik 
adr^ o baur^ dromaw, ta tal6 o boryaw, ta kair lendi wel 
adr4 sar meero kair be pordo. 

24. Mandi pookerova tumendi kek nandi dula gair6 so 
sas poochl^ holessa (holenna) yek koosi meero hoben." 

Wester Boswell, with a little help 
in paraphrasing the English. 



THE PRODIGAL SON. 
(Luke XV. II — 32.) 

1 1 . Yekorus yek gairo sas dooi chav^. 

12. Ta o tamodafr pendds kater lesko dad. " Dad ! D^ 
mandi o kotor 0' k61i ta per^la mandi." Ta yov didsrlendi 
lesko jivoben. 

13. Ta, kek d6sta divusdw palla, o tarnodafr chavo chidds 
sor ketan^ ta yov lids lesko drom adr6 dooro tem, ta odoi 
yov nashedds sor lesko kola *dr6 wdfedo jivoben. 



'232 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

14. Ta kanna yov nashedds sor, od6i sas bauro bokaloben 
adr6 doova tern ta yov vias te kom kumeni te hoi. 

15. Ta yov ghias ta pandds lesti kokero kater gavengro 
of doova tern, ta o moosh bitchadds-les adr6 o poovyaw te 
del hoben kater baul6. 

16. Ta komessa (komdcis) te porder lesko pur with o kola 
so o baul6 hod6. Ta kek gairo dids leski vaniso. 

17. Ta kanna yov diktds lesti kokero yov pendds, "Sar 
kisi mi dadeski pessad6 bootsiengri si mauro dosta ta dosta, 
ta mandi merova bokalo. 

18. Mandi atchova opr6 ta jova kater meero Dad, and 
penova lesti, Meero Dad ! Ked6m wafedo ^posh mi Doovel 
ta tooti. 

19. Ta mandi shorn kek komi mol tobeVox&o teero chavo. 
Kair mandi sar yek d teero pessado bootsiengri." 

20. Ta yov atchdds ta vids kater lesko Dad. Ta kanna 
yov sas ajdw a bauro door avrf, lesko dad diktds-les ta yov 
sas dosta toogno, ta nashdds, ta pedds opr6 lesko men ta 
choomadds-les. 

21. Ta o chavo pendds kater lesti dad, "Mandi kedom 
wafedo «p6sh mi Doovel ta *dr6 teero dikimus ta mandi 
shorn kek komi mol to be kordo teero chavo." 

22. Ta o dad pendds kater lesko bootsiengri, "And avri 
o feterdafr plo;^a ta chiv-les opr6 lesti, ta chiv wongusti 
opr6 lesko wast, ta cho%dw opr6 lesko peer6. 

23. Ta and akef o tikno groovni so see kedo tuUo, ta maur 
lesti, ta mook mendi hoi ta be mishto adr6 moro zeedw. 

24. Jaw mi chavo sas mulo ta see jido rt:popli. Yov sas 
nashedo talla see yov latchno ^popli." Ta yon vidn (vids) 
to be mishto adrd lenghi zeedw. 

25. Lesko poorodafr chavo sas adre o poov. Jaw yov 
vids ta sas posha o kair yov shoondds o boshomengri ta o 
kelopen. 

26. Ta yov kordds bootsiengro ta pootchdds, " So see } " 

27. O bootsiengro pendds, " Teero pal vids ta teero dad 
mordds o tullo tikno groovni, jaw yov lids-les sor kooshto 
^popli." 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 233 

28. O poorodair chavo sas hoYno ta pendas yow'd kek 
jal adr^. Jaw lesko dad vias avri ta pootchdds-les te wel 
adr6. 

29. Ta yov dias lav ta pendas kater lesko dad, " Dordi ! 
So kisi beshaw mandi ked6m sorkon kola too pootchdds 
(pootchddn) mandi ? Kekeno cheerus mandi pogad6m teero 
trad. Kekeno cheerus too dids man bokoro te kel peias 
sar meero komydw. 

30. Jaw sig meero pal avela, maurdds too lesti o tuUo 
tikno groovni, ta yov nashedds sor teero jivoben sar loob- 
nidw/* 

31. Lesko dad pendds, "Mi chavo! Too shan mansa 
sorkon cheerus ta sor meero kola see tooti. 

32. Tatcho sas mendi te kel peias. Teero pal sas mulo. 

Yov see jido ^popli. Yov sas nashedo ta see latchno 

^popli." 

Wester Boswell, with a little help 

in paraphrasing the Ei^lish. 

THE RICH MAN AND LAZARUS. 
(Luke xvi. 19 — 31.) 

19. Yekorus sas barvalo moosh kon sas rido adr6 lolo 
po^tan ta yoki rivoben ta hodds kooshko hoben s6rkon 

divusdw. 

20. Sas mongamengro tei. O nav see lesti Ldzams. 
Yov sas chido kater o wooda sor naflo ta pordo 0' wafedo 

tanaw. 

21. Yov pootchdds o barvalo gairo to mook yov lei o bito 
kotord 0' mauro so pedds tale o barvalo gairo' j misali. 
Jookeb vidn tei ta kossad^ lesko wafedo tandw opr6 lesti. 

22. O mongamengro merdds, ta yek mi Doovel'j tatcho 
gair6 lids-les adr6 Abraham's berk adr6 mi Duvelesko tem. 
O barvalo moosh merdds tei, ta yov sas poorasto. 

23. Kanna yov sas adr6 o Bengesko tan, yov sas dook- 
adno ta diktds Abraham doovorf adr^ mi Duvelesko tem, ta 
diktds Lazarus adr^ lesko berk. 



234 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

24. O Barvalo moosh rovdds ta pendds, "M^ero dad, 
Abraham ! Te wel tooti komoben opr6 mandi ta bitcher 
Lazarus te chiv lesko nei adr6 paani ta kel meero chib 
shilalo. Shorn dosta dookadho adri kova yog." 

25. Abraham pendas, "Chor! Kek bisser too? Adr6 
teero meripen ta lids (Udn) kooshti kola, pensa Lazarus lids 
wafedo kola. Kendw yov see kedo mishto ta too shan 
xJookadno, 

. 26. Ta, poshrig sor dula kola, bauro hev see chido posh 
drom d mendi ta tooti, jaw dula gair6 so komena te jal 
avrf mi Duvelesko tern kater tooti odoi nastissa, ta dula 
gaird so komena te wel avrf o bengesko tan ak^i nastissa." 

27. O barvalo moosh pendds, ''Kair mandi dova koshto. 
Dad, te bitcher Lazarus kater meero dadesko kair. 

28. Pansh palaw see mandi. Mpok Lazarus pooker 
lendi. Trashova yon wena ak^i adr^ kova wafedo bengesko 
tan," 

29. Abraham penela kater lesti, " Moses ta waver6 bauro 
rokeromengri see lendi. Mook ti palaw shoon kater lendi." 

30. O barvalo moosh pendds, " Kek, dad Abraham. Sar 
yek moosh ghids kater lendi avrf o mulo tem yon kerena 
mishto." 

31. Abraham pendds. "Sar kek shoonena Moses tao 
waverd bauro rokeromengri, yon kek nanei patserena sar 
yek moosh avela kater lendi avrf o mulo tem." 

Wester Boswell, with a little help 
in paraphrasing the English^ 



ZACCHiEUS. 
(Luke XIX. I — 6.) 

1. Ta Jesus vids adr^ ta ghids adrdl Jericho. 

2. Ta dordi sas odoi a Moosh, lesko nav Zaccha&us. Yov 
sas a shorokono Moosh, ta barvalo sas-16. 

3. Ta yov kedds o feterdafr te dik Jesus kon yov sas, ta 
nastfs kel ajaw. A bito moosli sas yov» 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 235 

4. Ta yov nashedas ta ghids opr6 adrd a rook te dik 
lesti, for yov sas te peer tal^ dova drom. 

5. And kanna Jesus vias kater tan, yov diktds opr^ ta 
diktcis-les odoi, ta pendds lesti. "Zacchaeus, kair yeka ta av 
tal6, atchova ke-diwus kater teero kair." 

6. Yov kedds yeka, vias tali ta lids-les keri wf tatcho 
zee. 

THE GOOD SHEPHERD. 
(Luke X. II — 18.) 

11. Mandi shorn kooshto bokromengro (or Basengro). 
O kooshto Basengro dela lesko meripen for o bokr^ 

12. JStii yov kon see pessado te dik palla o bokr^ ta 
kon's see kek nanii o bokr^ kanna dikela o bauro- 
holomengro-jookel weliu, mukela o bokr6 ta prasterela, ta 
o bauro-holomengro-jookel lela len, ta kairela o bokri 
praster sor paudel o tern. 

13. O gairo, kon see pessado te dik palla o bokri, 
prasterela sar sig yov see pessado, ta yov kesserela kok/or 
bokri. 

14. Mandi shorn o kooshto Basengro, ta mandi jinova 
meeri bokri, ta mafidi shorn jinlo 0/ meero. 

15. Sar o Dad jinela mandi, aj Aw mandi jinova o Dad, 
ta mandi chivova tali meero meeripen for o bokri. 

16. Ta mandi shan waver bokri, kon shan (or so see) kek 
of me&ro pandomengro. Yon tei mandi andova dula tastfe, 
ta yon shoonessa (shoonenna) mandi, kanna mandi kaurova 
lendi, ta mandi kelova yek pandomengro, ta kek nanii 6ut 
yek basengro pardel o bokri, 

17. Meero Dad komcssa (komela) mandi, *jaw see mandi 
chivova tali meero meripen, ta lelova lesti ^popli. 

18. Kek moosh lel^ lesti ^mandi, mandi cdiivova lesti 
tali mi-kokero. Mandi kerova te chiv lesti tali, ta lei lesti 
apri ^popH. Meero Dad dids mandi kovva kova te kair. 

Wester Boswell, with a little help 
in paraphrasing the English. 



236 GENUINK ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 



TEMPORA MUTANTUR. 

Sor o Lundra Romani chal6 mookt6 Lundra kondw.* 
Sor vi^n tali kova Not/iQrengri tern. Komela lesti feterd^r 
kondw, kei yon used asdr te ven yek chairus. Sor adr^ 
waver dromdw righer^n lendi koker^, for sor jab kater 
paaneska gavdw kondw. Bita kerimus kek nanef kelela 
lendi kondw. Yon venna sor reiaw ta raunia kondvv. 
Nanef yon kondw sas yon beshaw dosta paul6. Trashenna 
te atch adr^ o bauro gavdw yek cheerus. Kondw yon 
atchenna *dr6 o feterd^r gavdw te yon latchenna. Kondw 
choorokono hoben kek kela lendi kondw. Yon lela feter- 
d^r masdw, ta cherikl^ ta kanya, ta papinyaw, ta shosh6, 
ta kanengrd, ta gofa. Jivenna kondw opr^ o feterd^r hoben 
sec adr6 o tern. 

All the London Gypsies have left London now.* All 
come down to these northern parts. They like it better 
now, (than) where they used to go once. They all keep 
themselves in other ways, for all go to watering-places 
now. Small sport does not do for them now. They are 
all become gentlemen and ladies now. They are not no\V 
as they were many years ago. They used to be afraid to 
stop in the big towns once. Now they stop in the best 
towns they can find. Poor victuals won't do for them now^ 
They get the best meat, birds, hens, geese, rabbits, hares, 
and puddings. They live now on the best food there is in 
the land. 

SPEED THE PARTING GUEST. 

Chairus see kondw te jal te keri. Too atchessa bootod^r 
akci, too nasherela teero prasterm' kister kater Mooshkeni- 

* This is not the case. 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS, ^ 237 

gav. Kair sig keri, ta maw nasher teero chairus. Talla too 
nasher ti chairus, too atchessa adrd kova gav sor raati ti 
koker6. Kek ti cheiAw jinela (jinenna) kei shan too. Yom 
bitcherenna prastermengri palla tooki te latch took! popli. 
AjAw kair sig, jaw tooki. Kair o feterd^r tooki keri, ta mi 
Doovel jaw tusa. Kair sig, wel ^popli kater mandi popli. 
And mandi choomoni kosht6. Ta pooker o waver rei te and 
mandi dosta tovlo te toov monghi kanna shom koker6 d 
raati. 

It is time now to go home. If you stop longer here, you 
will lose your train to Manchester. Make haste home, and 
don't waste your time. If you waste your time, you will 
stop in this town all night (by) yourself. Your servants 
don't know where you are. They will send policemen after 
you to find you again. So make haste, be off. Make the 
best of your way home, and God be with you. Make 
haste, come again to me. Bring me something nice. And 
tell the other gentleman to bring me plenty of tobacco for 
me to smoke when I am alone at night. 

THE CHILD'S CAUL. 

And mandi kova so see tikno beeno troostdl paudel 
lenghi moo'fdw. Lei mandi a mootsi tal6 o tikno, kanna 
see beeno. Mootsi see parddl lenghi moordw, kanna see 
yon been^. 

NAUSEA. 

Savo wafedo soong see akef. So see "i Soongela jaw 
wafedo. Mandi soongova kand akef, boot dosta te kair 
mandi te charer opr^. Mook mendi jas tal6 o bauro 
drom. 

What a bad smell there is here. What is it ? It smells 
so bad. I smell a something here, sufficient to make me 
vomit. Let us go down the main road. 



2$S GEXUIKE ROMAXT COMPOSTTIOXS. 

STAG-HUNT. 

Dikis mendi kater dulla staani. Yon pooderenna lend! 
tc Icfidi yc^omcngii 

Let us watch these stags. They are shooting them with 
their guns. 

AN ASSAULT. 

Yon tardad^ dova chooknf avri meero wast. Yon di6 
man parddl o shoro lesti. Yon sovloholV kater mandi. 
Pendds kater mandi, " Too xzXXfullo pooro jookeL Maurova 
toot." 

They wrenched that whip out of my hand* They hit 
me on the head with it. They swore at me. They said 
to me, " You cursed old hound. I will kill you." 

HIDING. 

Dik odoY ! Hokki ! ! Moosh wela palla mendi. Praster 
tooki I Hotter tooki parddl dova bar, ta kair sig te garav 
toot O gairo dikela kater mandi. Yon kairV godli. Yon 
kord^ avrf. You rovd^, shoolde tei. Kek yon shoond6 
lendi. Te wel sor mendi mordent. O Beng sas adr6 
lenghi kanndw, kek nan^i shoond^ mendi. 

Look there ! See ! A man is coming after us. Run ! 
Jump over that hedge, and be quick and hide yourself. 

The man is watching me. They made a noise. They 
called out. They bawled, and whistled too. They did not 
hear them. We shall all be killed. The devil was in their 
earSi that they did not hear us. 

WASHING, SHOPPING, etc. 

Mook mendi tov mauro koli adr^ kova nash/V paani. 
Kosser Icsti avri. Ghi6m kater masengro boodika. Mandi 
dikt6m o feterd^r kotor o' mas. Li6m-les tal^. Li6m o 



GENUINE ROMANY COMl>OSITIONS, 239 

choori, Chind6m-Ies, sar mandi komova. Kek o rei parddl 

boodika pen*cl chichi kater mandi. Chichi nanei pendds. 
SadAs mandi. PendAs mandi, "Too jinessa — teero /o/ki 
jinenna — so see o feterd^r mas. Too komessa sorkon 
chairus te 1^ o grovneski bool. 

Let us wash our clothes inlthis stream. Clean it out. 

1 went to the butcher's shop. I saw the best piece of 
meat. I took it down. I took the knife. I cut it, as I 
like. The shopman said nothing to me. He said nothing; 
he laughed at me. He said to me, "You know — your 
people know — ^which is the best meat. You like always 
to take the beefsteak." 



STEALING A WIFE. 

Rinken^ see-1^ } Te wel mandi kater teero kair, chorova 
nionghi yek o^ teero rinkenod^r raklia te lei yek mandi. 
Righerova lati te wel meero romni, te wel yoY rinken^s, ta 
kosht6, ta kek loobni. Kek n6 too wela palla mandi te lei 
yoY pauli popH. Maw lei mandi opr^ troostdl chorin^ teero 
bootsi-/«* rakli. 

Are they pretty } If I come to your house, I will steal 
one of your prettiest girls, that I may have one. I will 
keep her to be my wife, if she is pretty, and good, and not 
loose. Don't come after me to take her batck again. 
Don't take me up for stealing your servant girl. 



SICKNESS AND RECOVERY. 

Mandi kaliko kooroko sho'mas jaw nafelo adr^ meero 
chooro pur. Wafedo dosta sas mandi te men Kek komeni 
sas posha mandi te del mandi koosi paani. Sho'mas te 
mer6va. 

Troostdl meero koshto komomusti Doovel ker rf mandi 
koshto, ta sor tdtcho popli, ta tatcho shorn kondw. Pa^ik 



240 GKNUIN£ ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

meero koshto Doovel. Kek komeni sas Vi&^d man kooshto 
te yov. 

Last week I was very ill (in my poor stomach). I felt 
as if I was going to die (lit, bad enough was I to die). 
No one was near me to give me a drop of water. I must 
die. 

But my good merciful God cured me and made me right 
^ain, and now I am well. Thank God. No one cured 
mo but He Himself. 

PAZEROBEN. 

Mandi see adr^ pazeroben. Mandi pazerova dova kova. 
Pazerova monghi dova kova tastis. Kek nanei kek lovo 
adr^ meero pootsi kondw. Pesserova lesti waver chairos. 

CREDIT. 

I am in debt I will get that thing on trust I will get 
that thing on trust, if I can. I have no money in my 
pocket now. I will pay for it another time. 

IPSE DIXIT. 

Jinessa too Westaarus ? Jinessa too o pooro Romano 
chal ? Lesko nav see Westaarus. 

Kooshto jinomeskro see yov. Yov jinj bootod^r talla sor 
tumendi. Kekera shoond6m jafra moosh see yov. Yov see 
kooshto dosta jinomengro te kel a shorokono Pookenyus, 
ta mooYengro. Kekera shoond6m vaniso Romani-chal talla 
yov te roker pensa yov rokerela. Meero waver gairo ta jab 
wV mandi see a mooYengro. Mandi see a tatcho Draben- 
gro. Yov, ta mandi, penj* yek to ^waver, '* Mendi jahV te 
kel a mooTengro of yov te dik palla mendi, te besh adr6 o 
Bauri, kanna o shorokon^ rokerenna te o sterimengri. Yov 
will pooker mendi sorkon lavdw te wel Romani-chaldw 
adr6 steripen ta jal aglAl o Pookenyus. Yov see koshto 
dosta lesti, te kel ajdw/* 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS, 24 1 

Kekera shoondom jafra jinomeskro moosh see yov adr6 
mi meriben. 

Do you know Sylvester Boswell ? Do you know the old 
Gypsy ? His name is Sylvester. He is a capital scholar. 
He knows more than all the rest of you. I never heard 
such another. He is sharp enough to be a Lord Chief 
Justice, or a lawyer. I never heard any Gypsy but him 
to talk as he talks. My friend (lit, my other man that 
goes with me) is a lawyer. I am a doctor. He and I say 
one to another, " We (are) going to make a lawyer of him 
to look after us, and sit at the Assizes, when the bigwigs 
plead for the prisoners. He will always send us word if 
any Gypsies come to prison to go before the Justice. He 
is quite fit to do so." 

I never heard such a clever man as he in all my life. 

A REMINDER. 

Maw bisser, rei, meeri poori staadia, too pendds too 
andessa mandi. Parikeraw toot, rei. Too shan koshto 
reiaw kater mandi. Mandi komova tumendi, reiaw. Ta 
maw bisser dova poori plo;^ta too pendds te and to mandi. 
Kair sig tei, rei, tastfs. Mandi komova te lei lesti sig, jaw 
kisi brishno wela tale konaw, kova wen cheerus. 

Dosta brishno, ta hiv, ta shilalo divvusdw, ta raatia wela 
(wenna) sig. Dova kelela man koshto. Kela mandi te sov 
shooko, ta tatto kova wen. 

Do not forget, sir, my old hats which you promised you 
would bring me. Thank you, sir. You are good friends 
to me. I like you, sirs. And do not forget that old 
tarpaulin you promised to bring to me. Make haste too, 
sir, if you can. I would like to have it soon, so much rain 
comes down now, this winter time. 

Much rain, and snow, and chilly days and nights will 
come soon. That (tarpaulin) will make me snug, and 
make me sleep dry and warm this winter. 

16 



242 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

A PROUD MAN. 

Yov tildds leski shoro oprd, pensa shorokono rei sas-16. 
Boolnus sas-16 adr6 lesti, so yov ker'd. 

He carried his head high, as if he were a lord. He was 
conceited about everything he did. 

A PEDESTRIAN. 

Dik at doova moosh. Peerela opr6 o drom sig. Yov 
jala pensi a shoshi-jookel. Yov keLr lesti te gaujdr te dik 
at lesti. Talla kedds-les, yov jab pootchr^ sorkon rei Aw ta 
raunyaw te lei luva o' lendi, te lei lesko jivoben. 

Translation. 

Look at that fellow. He races along the road on foot as 
fleet as a greyhound. He does it to attract the Gentiles' 
attention. When he has finished, he asks all the gentlemen 
and ladies, and gets money from them, and gets his living 
in that way. 

THE LICENCE. 

See man a chinomengri, o pokenyus diis mandi. Pessa- 
d6m lesti. Yon, yekera, sas doolf kotoraw. Kondw see-16 
pansh koli. Mandi see yek pansh kolenghi yek, te bikin 
vaniso kova. Kek trash 'pr^ mandi te jal te bikin koli, so 
komova. Kek mandi te wel lino opr6 troostal lesti. 

Translation. 

I have a licence, which the magistrate gave me. I paid 
for it. Once, they were two guineas ; now they cost five 
shillings. Mine is a five shilling one, and is a general 
hawker's licence. I am not afraid to go and sell anything 
I choose. I shall not be taken up for it. 

THE GREYHOUND. 

Shool palla o jookel, chawoli ! O yogomengri see akei 
Whistle after the dog, mates ! The gamekeeper is here 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 243 

adrd kova vesh. Maurela o choro jookel, ta yov dikela 
in this wood. He will kill the poor dog, if he sees 

lesti nash/«^ talla o kanengri. 
it running after the hares. 

THE FROG. 

We have often asked Gypsies for the Romani lav for a 
frog. Charlie Boswell told us it was the " tikmi koli d,^jah 
adr^ dt paaniy and leh de drab avrV [little thing that goes 
into the water and takes the poison out]. Wester Boswell 
fold us it was " O stor-herengro bengesko koli ta jah adr^ 
paani so piova " [the four-legged diabolic thing that swims 
in the water which I drink]. The Gypsies in general 
consider any water, into which a frog goes, is fit to drink. 
Although they appear to have forgotten the word for frog, 
they use for toad the word which means frog in other 
dialects, videyia:;^^^, yi?;;^^^(Vocab.), but are confused when 
questioned about it, and say *it is no tatcho lav (true wprd), 
but means jumper^ 

THE GYPSY'S CAT. 

Dik at o matchka. Kelela peias ta lesti nogo pori. 
Look at the cat. It is making fun with it own tail. 

Avela kanna shoolova. 

It will come when I whistle. 

A SQUABBLE. 

Dordi, dordi, choovali. Te wafedo moosh see yov. 
Pookerdds wafedo ho^aben opr^ mendi, o rattvalo jookel. 
Maurova lesti wonka mandi til bonnek 0^ lesti. Jaw see 
lesko loobni romni. YoY see wafedod^r te yov. KoorAs 
amendi yon doof, avrf morro folios drom, kek yon te wel 
posha mensa, jaw meriben folki ta pookeromengri see yon. 
Chichi nanei lendi te meriben folkx, Pookeromengri see- 
Id Nasherela sor mendi bonges palla lenghi nogo wafedo- 
kerimus. 



244 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

Just see, mates, what a blackguard he is. He has been 
telling wicked lies about us, the cursed dog, I will murder 
him when I get hold of him. That creature his wife is 
just as bad. She is worse than he. Let us thrash them 
both, and drive them out of our society, and not let them 
come near us, such cut-throats and informers as they are. 
They are nothing but murderers. They are informers. 
We shall all come to grief through their misdoings. 

THE APPLE-TREE. 

Dordi, te goodlo pob^ see odof, chowali ! Maw poger o 
rook, chowali, mi Doovelenghi. Sor mendi te wel lin6. 

See, mates, what ripe apples are over there J Do not 
break the tree, for God's sake, mates, or we shall all be 
caught. 

POLITE INQUIRIES. 

"Sar shan, pal .?" " Kek mishto, bor. Sar shan tooti } 
Too shanas naflo waver divvus, hor r* " Ourli ; sor mendi 
sh5'mas (shumas) wafedo dosta, waver diwus vi6m pardel 
lesti. Meero chei sas romedo o waver kooroko. Sor mendi 
sas motto. Koord^m menghi, ta saldova (sad6m) mandi. 
So sas o vaver^ a-kairin* sor o cheerus ? Kairenna ; Bosher- 
venna, ta ghivenna tei, sor o cheerus, wonka saula vids adr6. 

" How are you, mate .?" " Not very well, friend. How 
arej^ou ? You were ill the other day, eh } '* "Yes, I was ; 
we were all ill enough the other day we came here over 
it. My daughter was married the other week, and we all 
were drunk, and fought with one another, and I laughed.*' 
"What were the others doing all the time.?" "They 
dance, and fiddle, and sing too, all the while, till day- 
break." 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 245 

THE JINOMESKRO GREI-ENGRO. 

NEW DIALECT. 

MandiV/ pen tooti, rei, a kooshto drom to kair a nokengro 
to dik sor tatcho. When you're jalm* to bikin yek, lei koosi 
dandermengri chor, chiv it adr^ t/ie greYs nok, and mook // 
atch odof //// fou web to the Walgaurus, then tarder // avrf, 
and sor the wafedo kanipen will av avrf tei. And mandiV/ 
pen tooti kondw how to kel a bavengro. Jaw to the drab- 
engro boodiga, and kin koosi Alowes. Kel it opr6 adr6 a 
bit 0' crape. Chiv it adr6 the grei^j* mool. When you av^ to 
///^Walgaurus, do you dik, yoiill lei it avrf popli, and dovaV/ 
hatch the grei'j baval mishto. A moosh, as mandi jin^, 
bikin V a bavengri grasni for bish bar by kehV ajAw, and 
VvcCd it popli for desh bar. Some Romani-chalj" chiv^ kil 
adre the grei*^ mooY, but the waver drom'j" tlu feterdair^j"/, 

THE KNOWING HORSE-DEALER. 

I will tell (say) you, sir, a good way to make a glandered 
horse look all right. When you are going to sell one, take 
a few nettles (lit, a little biting-grass, put them (it) into the 
horse's nostrils, and let them stay there till you come to the 
fair ; then pull them out, and all the bad matter will come 
out too. And I will tell you now, how to * cook ' a broken- 
winded horse. Go to the druggist's shop, and buy a little 
aloes. Do it up in a bit of crape. Put it in the horse's 
mouth. When you come to the fair, do you see, you will 
take it out again, and that will stop the horse's wind welL* 
A man that I know sold a broken-winded mare for twenty 
pounds by doing so, and bought it again for ten pounds. 
Some Gypsies put butter in the horse's mouth, but the 
other way is the best. 



* Some Gypsies adminster butter scrapings and brown paper, 

worked up into a ball Our friend Louis L declares it to be the 

'• fetterdairifj/ drom." — Vide p. 204. 



246 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 



^jeMttg io Mtfsttx awi Y^ <f ^wilg- 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 

Mandi sas beeno kater Dovdr. Kooromongro sas meero 
Dad. Beeno sh5 mas adre o Kooromongri. Meero Dad, 
kanna sh5'mas beeno, yov sas dikm' pardal o bauro 
yogomengri. Talla yov vids ker6, ta mooktds sor kooro- 
mongri kerimus. Yov wel'rf tal^ o Meilesko-tem, ta 'doi 
yov atch'rf /or beshaw dosta, arid sor morro tiknd sas anlo 
apr^ adr6 dova tem, and 'doi atch'rf sor mendi talla yov sas 
mord'n6 adr^ o Lincoln-tem. Yov merdas kanna mandi 
sho'mas a tikno chon 

Mi-Doovelesko yog pedis tal6 apr6 lesti, a;id ma.ur'd 
lesti, ^waver yek tei, doof ketand Doof simensa sas yoii. 
Lenghi /olki chivV lendi dooY adr^ yek hev. 'Do'f mook- 
t6m lendi, choori folkl Toogno sas m6 dosta talla. Yov 
rivdds lesko kokero adr^ kooshto eezAw sorkon chairus. 

Kanna yov sas poorosto, mandi li6m Romni, ta ghi6m 
sor pardal o tem. Mandi ghi6m sor pardal Anghiterra, 
iVj/Aerengri-tem, and o Lavines-tem, wonka mandi vi6m 
akef. 

Translation. 

I was born at Dover. My father was a soldier, and I 
was bom in the army. My father, when I was born, was in 
charge of the great gun (Queen Anne's pocket-piece). 
After a while he came home, and left the army. He came 
down into Yorkshire, and there he stayed for many years, 
and all our family were brought up in that county, and 
there we all stayed after he was killed in Lincolnshire. 
He died when I was a lad. 

The lightning struck him, and killed him and another, 
both together. They were cousins. Our people put them 
both in one grave. There I left them, poor fellows. I 
was much grieved at it. He always dressed well. 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 247 

When he was buried, I took a wife, and went all over the 
country. I went all over England, Scotland, and Wales, 
until I came here. 

HIS RESIDENCE AT CODLING GAP. 

Mandi jivela kondw adr6 o poov, kei o gauj6 kcls dola 
kola, so yon ker kairdw te jiv adr6, avrf o chik. 

Te wel kova koosi poov, kei atchova me kondw, morro 
nogo. Kelela man Rei sor meero meriben. 

Mandi komova te jiv kater o bauro londo paani. Mandi 
komova te jiv akef, kei shorn kondw, beshdw dosta. Kek 
mandi te vel kino o' lesti, jafra rinkeno tan see. 

Kanna shom adr6 meero woodrus, te dik6v avr/, mandi 
dikova sor o Bauro Gav, o Bookesko Gav, ta sor o paani, ta 
bair6 jala kater sorkon temdw. 

Dikt6m dova bauro yog sas hotcherela. Kanna shom 
(sho'mas) mandi adre meero woodrus, dikt6m sor. 

Yeka kova besh, adr^ kova lilef, dikt6m bauro bairo sor 
dood, ta kol6 sas hotchade, ta sor o paani sor sas parddl o^ 
dood. Sor o koli sas atch/»' opr^ o paani. Sor dood sas. 
Diktas mishto, ta rinkenes diktds. 

Translation. 

I live now in the field, where the Gentiles make those 
things of clay with which they build houses to live in. 

Would that this little field, where I am stopping now, 
were mine. It would make me a gentleman for life. 

I like to live by the seaside. I would like to live here, 
where I am now, for many a long year. I should never be 
tired of it ; it is such a pretty place. 

When I am in bed, if I look out, I see all the city of 
Liverpool, and the river, and the ships going to every 
land. 

I saw that great fire [at the landing-stage] when it was 
burning. When I was in bed I could see it all. 

Once this year, this very summer, I saw a large vessel all 



248 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS, 



on fire, and the cotton bales were burnt, and the whole river 
was in flames. All the bales were floating in the river 
blazing. It looked well ; 'twas a pretty sight indeed. 



VERSES AS WRITTEN BY 
WESTER 

I. 
After many roming years, 
How sweet it is to be^ 
In love, and peace, and kindness, 
With all you see. 

II. 
So let all injoy the mind of me, 
And that you will plainly see, 
That love to God, and peace with 

man. 
Will bring you to a Happy Land. 

III. 
The rite way. First to love your 

Christ 
First, and obey His Holy Word, 
Then you will find that you will 

be rite. 
And make your road quite 
Strat, in Heaven to dwell, 

For ever and ever. Amen. 



AND 
HIS OWN TRANSLATION. 

I. 
Talla boot peeromus besh^w, 
Te goodlo see te atch 
Adr6 Komomus, ta Kooshtoben, 
Te sor mendi dik. 

II. 
Jaw mook sorkon ti zee o' mandi, 
Te tooV/ tatcheni dik, 
Te Komomus katermi^/<?^ro Duvel, 
te koshtomus te sor mooshdw. 
Dovaand'atooti kater tatcho poov, 

III. 

O tatcho drom te ker agldl t6 kom 

teero Duvelesko Chavo, 
Kom lesti ta lesti heveski lavaw, 
Talla tooV/ latch te too7/ atch 

tatcho, 
Ta kerav teero drom tatcho 
Oprd, adrd mi Duvelesko Tem te 

Beshdw ta beshdw. Amen. 



Written by Silvester Boswell, in the 
1874th year of our dear Lord. 

Letters written by Wester — (i) Reply to ours inquiring- 

whetlier he knew anything respecting Matilda Boswell, 

aged 40, and LUCRETIA Smith, Queen of the Gypsies, 

aged 72, both of whom were buried at Beighton^ in Derby- 

shire, in 1 844. (See N. and Q., 5 S., vol. ii., p. ^6) 

Seacombe, Aug. the is, 1874. Comlow Rei kec manday 
Jin Doler temeskey Ronnichel mandy Ached Jaw kissey 
Beshaw ovre Dover tem keckeno Jin Chichey trustal a 



GE^ruINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 249 

Lendy keck yoye sas keck Cralacy pardal o Romenaychell 
keck mandey Jinover Joffero Nave Rrie Komena sas youne 
yoye sas keck Cralacy. 

Patcer mandy mandy sea terowe poorow Romineychill, 

Silvester Boswell. 
In our Orthography. 

Komelo Rei, — Kek mandi jin dola temeski Romani-chal. 
Mandi atch^^ jaw kisi beshaw avrf dova tern, kekeno jin 
chichi troostdl lendi. 

Kek yolf sas kek Kralisi parddl o Romani-chal. Kek 
mandi jinova jafri nav, Rei, komeni sas yon. YoY sas kek 
Kralisi. 

Patser mandi, mandi see teero pooro Romani-chal. 

Translation. 

Dear Sir, — I do not know the Gypsies of that county. I 
(have) stayed so many years out of that county, (that) I 
know nothing about them. 

She was no Queen of the Gypsies.* I do not know such 
a name, sir, (or that) there (lit. they) were any (of that 
name.) She was no Queen. 

Believe me, (that) I am, thy old Gypsy. 

(2-) 

Seacombe Aug. the 4th 1874 Costo Rieo mandy bisad 
mearo cocrow pockerer to trustal merro burrow Dadesco 
tacho nave. Shedrich Boswell sas lesco nave to Richard 
Matcho sas mearrow Dieesco purrow Dadesco tacho nave 
Dover se tacho — the grandfather of me on the Boswell side 
Was shedrich Boswell and the farther of my mother Richard 
Harring and the name Emanuel Was his brother You 
Will Plese to tell Mr Smart the same as he has got it Rong 



* Aged Gjrpsies are styled Kings andj Queens after death, or on 
visiting new places, to gain respect and profit from the gaujos. 



250 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS, 

By my forgetfuUness. Plese To retume me answer from 
this 

Mandy shorn tearrow tacho porrow Romnichel 

S. Bos. Wester. 

Cere sig ta Bicher catter mandy porley. 

In our Orthography. 

Koshto Reia. Mandi bisser'rf meero kokero pookerer 
too troostal meero pooro-Dadesko tatcho nav. Shadrach 
Boswell sas lesko nav, ta Richard Matcho sas meero De/- 
esko pooro-dadesko tatcho nav. Dova see tatcho. . . . 
Mandi shom teero tatcho pooro Romani-chal. . . v Kair sig 
ta bitcher kater mandi pauli. 

Translation. 

Good Sir, — I forgot to tell you about my grandfather's 
proper name. Shadrach B. was his name, and R, Heme 
was my mother's grandfather's proper name. That is true. 
... I am thy true old Gypsy. ... Be quick and send me 
an answer. 

(3.) 

Seacombe, Oct. 4, 1874. romno rye so se to trustal 
kec nanni to bicher Eser to Catter manday ta pocker Esa 
mandy ta to shanush molo o jido mandy shomos togno 
paller tote kec nini to mudesr mandy o jor Cova Drome 
Bicher ta mandy a chinamongry Cer sig paller lesty ta 
muck mandy gin o toty mandy pucker Eser to ta to Cer 
mandy Wafodo to Ceresa te cockero Wafodo Catter te 
.Gockero jor mandy shounomos toty sig. 

Mandy shanous totys coshto poorey Ry Romenichel. 

Westerous. 

In our Orthography. 

Romano Rei. So see too troostal, kek nanei too bitcher- 
essa too kater mandi, te pookeressa mandi te too shanas 
M 0^ jido. 







yf^ 



^^lu^^n^^^jf-^^n. '(p 



Aifr^i^ 



U4^i^ 







\jz^v J^'^ --w«'/^f^^^'CiUW^'«< 




-d. 









^€>it4 




(A(^^^i^^/i^ 




GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 25 1 

Mandi sh5nias toogno palla tooti. Kek nanei too 
mookessa mandi ajaw, kova drom. 

Bitcher te mandi a chinomongri. Ker sig palla lesti, ta 
muk mandi jin 0^ tooti. 

Mandi pookeressa too, ta too ker mandi wafedo. Too 

keressa ti kokero wafedo kater ti kokero ; jaw mandi 

shoonomus tooti sig. Mandi shanas (shorn) tooti'j koshto 

poori Rei Romanichal 

WestArus. 

Translation. 

Gypsy Gentleman, — What art thou about, that thou dost 
not send to me, to tell me if thou wert dead or alive ? 

I was grieved about thee. Thou wilt not leave me so, in 
this way. 

Send me a letter. Make haste about it, and let me know 
about thee. 

I tell thee that thou art doing me harm. Thou art doing 
harm to thyself ; so (send) me news from thyself soon. 

I was thy good old gentleman, 

Gypsy Sylvester. 
(4.) 

Merow Commlow Rie maw Cesser trustal o Dover trustal 
mandy Jin overe tearrow Zea Jaw Coshto Catter mandy 
Bicher so Comesa ta mandy vanaso Dinow Cearra mandy 
saw se tacho trustal Dover Pucher youne ta Cack Bissea 
mearrow Plockter ta stardyeaf and Lendy a Dray o Bicher 
Lendy a Draye a Borrow Cusheney so youne Chivener o 
Canyowre or Canneys a Dray mearrow Chocha tye to penas 
mandy ta Cusey tovelow ta sweggler Coshto yeck ty Patsea 
mandy Rie tacho se mandy Catter ta mendy Duye coshto 
Rieo mandy shom to mendys tacho Beano Romenichel ta 
Ceck gorgoconness much. 

Wester Boswell, sicker Cover 

Catter o Drabengro Rie tye. 

In our Orthography. 
Meero komelo rei. Maw kesser troostal adova troostal. 



252 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

m 

Mandi jinova teero zee jaw koshto kater mandi. Bitcher 
so komessa to mandi. Vaniso dino kair'a mandi. Sor see 
tatcho troostal dova. Pooker yon te kek bisser meero 
plo^^a, ta staadia ; and lendi adr^, d bitcher lendi adre, a 
bauro kushni, so yon chivenna o kanyaw, or kanni^j- adr6. 
Meero choka tei, too pen(d)as mandi, ta koosi toovlo, ta 
swegler, koshto yek tei. Patser mandi, rei, tatcho see mandi 
kater tumendi doolf koshto reiaw. Mandi shorn tumendiV 
tatcho beeno Romani-chal, ta kek gaujikanes moosh. 

W.B., Siker kova kater o drabengro rei tei. 

(s.) 

Mearo Comlo rye mandy se velover ta totoes Care ta 
Dickover tut Dickavree ta Dickesa mandy o pray o Due- 
yeney Dives trustal Corroco Dives mandy veller to tuty o 
pray Dover Dives tacho ta Comesa mearro Dovel. 

In our Orthography, 

Meero komelo rei. Mandi see velova to tooti'j- kair te 
dikova toot. Dik avrf, ta dikessa mandi opr6 o doofeni 
divvus troostal (palla) Kooroko-divvus. Mandi vela to 
tooti, opr6 dova divvus, tatcho, te komessa (komela) meero 
Doovel. 

Translation. 

My dear sir. I am coming to your house that I may see 
you. Look out, and you will see me on the second day 
after Sunday. I will come to you, on that day, safe, if my 
God be willing. 

HIS GENEALOGY IN HIS OWN WORDS. 

Sophia Heme was bom at Pirton, and was the mother of 
Sylvester BoswelL Teiso (Tasso) Boswell was his father, 
Teiso Boswell was killed, and one of his own cousins, two 
aged men, by lightning and thunder at Tetford in Lincoln- 
shire, near Horncastle. His cousin's name was called 
No Name, because he was not christened till he was an 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 253 

» 

old man, and then they called him Edward. This occurred 
on August 5th, 1 83 1. 

Sarah Heme, the daughter of No Name, was the mother 
of my eldest son, Simpronius Bohemia Boswell. He was 
born on the 8th of July, 1832. She was a beautiful woman. 
Her face was darker than mine, and hair black as a raven, 
which hung in curls all down her shoulders,"' and eyes like 
two plums. 

Sophia and Teiso's children were — i, Maria ; 2, Lucy ; 
3, Sage; 4, Betsy; 5, Dorelia; 6, Edward; 7, Delata ; 
8, Sylvester. 

The father of Sophia was Richard Heme; and Bonny 
was her mother. Richard Heme was buried at Hasling- 
field, near Cambridge. Bonny died twenty-three years 
ago, above a hundred years old. Richard Heme's brother 
was Emanuel. 

Sophia's sisters were Lucy, Ally, Sage, Margaret, Ann, 
and Sarah. Sarah was the mother of Mantis Buckland. 
Nan married Jasper Smith. 

The father of Teiso was Shadrach Boswell, and 
Cinderella Wood was the mother of Teiso. Shadrach was 
a soldier, and died in Holland, and was buried there. 
Both my grandfathers used to fight on stages, 

Maria, my sister, married John Grey, a fiddler. 

Lucy, my sister, married Riley Boswell, who died at 
Harrow-on-the-Hill. She is now in America. 

Sage, my sister, married Joseph Smith. She died in 
America, and left a large family. 

Betsy (Elizabeth), my sister, married Job Williams, the 
son of Jim of the Ldvines-tem. He is dead. She is in 
America. Her daughter married Jasper Gray. 

Dorelia, my sister, married Kalei Heme. His sons are 
Yoben, Edward, Minnie, and Nelson. 

Edward, my brother, married Sidri Draper, of the 

* A not uncommon mode of tiring the hair among the older female 
Gypsies is to tie it in four knotted loops, something after the style of a 
horse's tail. 



254 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

Ld vines-tern. They Kve at Blackpool. Their children's 
names are Dorelia, and Emma, Alma (a boy), Tobias, and 
William. 

Delata, my sister, married Allen Boswell, and died in 
childbed in Lincolnshire. 

Sylvester married Florence Chilcott at Yarmouth. He 
was born at Dover, in 1811, in the army. Florence was born 
at Norwich, in January 1820, and died in the forty-third 
year of her age, and was buried at East Ham, near London. 
One of her sisters married Tom Lee, who has a daughter 
named Ada, and three sons — ^Walter, Edgar, and Bendigo. 

This is the family of Sylvester and Florence Chilcott : — 

1. Byron, born at Benwick, Cambridgeshire, in 1839. 

He is a fiddler, and now lives in Wales. 

2. M'Kenzie, born on Ascot racecourse, on the Derby 

day, 1842. 

3. Oscar, born at Bray, near Windsor, in 1844. 

4. Bruce, born at Stisted, near Braintree, Essex, in 1847. 

5. Julia, born at Litherland, Sefton, near Liverpool, in 

1850. 

6. Wallace, born at Sutton, in Cambs, in 1853. 

7. Trafalgar, born at Plaistow, Newtown, Essex, in 1856. 

8. Laura, born at Burrow, near Woodbridge, Suffolk, in 

1859, and since dead. 

Note. — Isaac Heme {vide " The Chase") is the son of Neabei, or 
Nearboy Heme, and Sinfi, commonly called ' The Crow,' who is said 
to have instructed Mr. Borrow in ' deep ' Romanes ; and Neabei was 
the son of Richard Heme, Sylvester's maternal grandfather. Isaac 
married a daughter of Pyramus Gray, and his children are 'Eza, 
Trainit, 'Lenda, and Collia. 



L 

Kooshko divvus, nogo pal. Sar shan, my pal } 
' Tis a shilino diwus. 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 255 

Ourli, yivyela. 

Kei see tooti koko ghilo to-divv\xs ? 

Yov ghiAs koHko-diwus fo Lalo peero wagyaura. 

Kei see tooti rinkeni pen ? 

Meiri pen*s adr^ adoova gav a-doorik^«, 

Shoon, pal ! Boshela jookel. 

Dik savo see ! A gaujo ? 

De nashermengro. 

Maw poger adoova bor, dinelo ! 

Keker, pal, 'tis a bauro rei. 

Yov*s a kooshto kestermengro. 

Our, mid yovs koshto roodo. 

Dik ! Adoova see lesti filisin. 

Ranjer tooti staadi. 

Mook'j jal adr6 akova kitchema /or choomoni to pee. 

Besh tooki '16, pal. 

Akova see wasedo livena. 

Kooshto for chichi. 

Mook'j pee a wover trooshni livena. 

Kooshto bok to tooti, pal. 

Adoova Hindi-temengro'j posh-motto. 

Kova moosh is a grei-engro. 

Atch apr6, pal ! Mook'j- jal avrf popli. 

Our, meiri tano'j" a kooshto door fon ak6i. 

Savo see de tatcho drom. 

Tal6 adoova chikli drom. 

Dik ! Ak€i^s de patrin apr^ de bongo vas*. 

Tra]^slation. 
I. 
Good day, my own brother. How do you do, brother } 
It is a cold day. 
Indeed it is. It is snowing. 
Where has your uncle gone to-day ? 
He went yesterday to Redford fair. 
Where is your pretty sister ? 
My sister's in the town there telling fortunes. 



255 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

Listen, mate ! The dog is barking. 

Look who it is ! A stranger ? 

The policeman. 

Do not break the hedge, you fool ! 

No, brother. It's a gentleman. 

He is a good rider. 

That he is, and well dressed. 

Look. That's his house. 

Touch your hat 

Let us go into the inn there for something to drink. 

Sit down, brother. 

This is bad beer. 

Good for nothing. 

Let us drink another quart of beer. 

Good luck to you, brother. 

That Irishman is half drunk. 

This fellow is a horse-dealer. 

Get up, brother. Let us go out again. 

Certainly. My camp is a good distance from here. 

Which is the right way ? 

Down that dirty lane. 

Look ! Here's the trail on the left hand. 

II. 

^Tis a kooshto door to tJte forus. 

Ourli. Kin{ shom. 

Besh tooki 'le, Dei, and mook mandi jaw to mong a bit 
^hoben. 

Keker, my Pal. ^Tis doosh to jaw odoi. 

The bauro rei, as jivi* odoi, is a Pokenyus. 

H^ll bitcher the nashermengro to lei tooti to steripen. 

Mook'i" jaw a wover drom. 

My beebi'j a steromeskri kendw at the bauro gav for 
chor/«' at the moilesto-gav. 

She'll be bitchadi paudel. 

Dik ! The nashermengro is lehV a mongamengro to 
steripen. 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. ^57 

The Beng has chivV wastengrki- apre lesti. 
Riserela gairo. 
Mantchi too, pal. 

Til apr6 yotir zee ! Maw be ^-ladj ! 
Lesti nok is sor rat. 
Yov's a kooshto kooromengro. 
Pooker the tatchipen ! Maw roker hookapen^ ! 
A bairengro delW the moosh a kaulo yok, and a pogado 
shero. 

Hok *doova bor, pal ! 

Chor dooY trin poovengri^'i", and some shokyaw. 

Chiv ^em adr6 the gono. 

Tlie ghivengro awdl akei. 

Wooser de gono adoi, and garav your kokero. 

Maw roker ! 

Lei trad ! Lei veena ! 

He's jaw'^. 

Tatcho see 'doova. 



IL 

It is a long way to the city. 
Yes. I am downright tired. 

Sit down, mother, and let me go to beg a little food. 
No, my brother. It is no good to go there. 
The gentleman that lives there is a magistrate. 
He will send the policeman to take you to prison. 
Let us go another way. 

My aunt is a prisoner now at the town for stealing at 
Doncaster. 

She will be sent to penal servitude. 

Look ! the policeman is taking a beggar to prison. 

The devil has put handcuffs on him. 

The man is trembling. 

Cheer up, brother. 

Keep up your spirits ! Don't be ashamed ! 

His nose is covered with blood. 



2s8 



GENUINE ROMANY C0MK)SITIONS. 



He is a capital boxer. 

Tell the truth ! Don't tell lies ! 

A sailor gave the man a black eye, and a broken head. 

Jump that hedge, brother. 

Steal two or three potatoes, and some cabbages. 

Put them into the sack. 

The farmer is coming this way. 

Throw the sack there, and hide yourself. 

Don't speak. 

Take care ! Look out ! 

He has gone. 

That's right. 

HI. 

M6 shorn bokalo. 

Del mandi choomoni fo hoi. 

Lei mandi a tuli hotchiwitchi. 

Hoi 'doova bokochesto pur. 

Del mandi a choori fo chin my mauro. 

Del mandi a poosomengro. 

Bitcher //u' chavi /o the boodega for a koosi balo-vas. 

Chiv paani adre the kekavi. 

Our, ril kel woriso for tooti. 

Kair a kooshko yog. 

Chiv wongur opre, and lei mandi the poodomengro. 

Kei'j the saashter ? 

The paani see tatto. Lei mandi tht peemengro. 

Maw pee the muterimongeri ^ciVA^^w/ goodlo. 

Mc shorn traslo. 

Pee a koosi livena, tood, kalengri, mool. 

Ttieres chichi adre tlic valin. 

Meiri pur see pordo kenaw. Pordo see meiri pur. 

Lei mandi my swagler. 

Meiri swagler see pogado. 

Kova tuvlo is kek mool a full. 

Riley ! Jaw to the boodega for soHU feterdairOi 

Del the moosh tring hauri. 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 259 

Riley! Vou bauro dinelo! You wasedo bang! 'Tis 
kooshto /or chichi. 
Maw chinger, palaw. 
Maw ! Maw kel ajdw ! 
Besh tal^ ^popli dy the yog. 
Our ! footch Pyramus to lei lesti boshamengro. 
Keker ! Mook'j jal to woodrus. 
Kooshko raati. 

III. 
I am hungry. 

Give me something to eat. 
Get me a fat hedgehog. 
Eat that tripe. 

Give me a knife to cut my bread. 
Give me a fork. 

Send the lad to the shop for a little bacon. 
Pour (some) water into the kettle. 
Yes, ni do anything for you. 
Make a good fire. 

Put (some) coal on, and get me the bellows. 
Where's the pot-hook ? 
The water boils. Get me the teapot. 
Don't drink the tea without sugar. 
I am thirsty. 

Drink a little beer, milk, whey, wine. 
The bottle is empty. 
I have had enough now. I am satisfied. 
Give me my pipe. 
My pipe is broken. 
This tobacco is perfectly worthless. 
Riley I go to the shop for some better. 
Give the fellow threepence. 

Riley ! You great fool ! You blackguard ! It's good 
for nothing. 

Don't quarrel, brothers. 
Pray don't do so. 



26o GEXUIXE ROMANY COMPOSmOXS- 

Sit down again by the fire. 

Yes. Ask Py ramus to get his fiddle. 

No. Let us go to bed. 

Good night. 

DINNER DIALOGUE WITH WESTER. 

Wester. Bokalo shan too > 
Self, Ourli. Shorn dosta. 

W, Mandi mcrova o' bok, jaw bokalo shorn. Mandi see 
posh mulo. 

S. Kei jivela o masengro } 

W. Yov jivela adr^ o gav. Kek door see, mi Rei. 
5. Lei kova posh-koorona, ta jal kater boodega, and kin 
mandi koosi groovenesko-mas, and a chollo mauro. 
W. Parikrdw toot, Rei. 

[Wester goes, and returns with the provisions. 
Conversation contimied: 
Jalova to lei dooT trin koshtaw, ta koosi wongur .... del 
mandi a delomengri. 

S. Dova see a kooshto yog. 

W, Kek nandi. Kenaw-sig te wel a koshto yog 
Yoosherova o tatermengri mishto, ta chivova koosi tulopen 
adrd-les. Komess too balovds, Rei ? 
5. Our. 

[ While he is hisy cutting tite bacon, his cat comes 

and smells at the meat. He addresses her 

thus : 

W. Jaw tooki choovihoneski matchka. Chichi nan^i 

dova toot. Jaw adr^ o shushenghi hevyaw. Maur lendi 

ta hoi lendi ti kokero. Porder ti pur ajdw. 

[After a bit, the dog watches his opportunity^ and 
runs off with half our dinner, WESTER no 
sooner sees this than he gives vent to his rage 
in tJie following terms : 
Dik od6i asdr, mi Doovelenghi ! O rattvalo jookel ! 

[He takes a stout sticky and rushes out of tlie tent. 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 26I 

The bauro holomengro. Maurova lesti kondvv-sig. Jinova 
kei see ghilo. 

\A. great rotv ensues, and soon after Wester re- 
appears with the meat in triumph. He washes 
it in the bucket , and proclaims it as good as 
ever ; tve however object to it, so anotJier steak 
is cooked. A day or two after this occurred, we 
visited him again, zv/ten he informed us : 
Di6m o bito jookel so hodds o mas o waver divvus too 
kindds. Diom-les kater bito tarno rei akef ta jivela posha 
mandi, ta yov lias-les kater Booko-paani-gav.] 

W. Del mandi the mauro, Rei. Komds, too the avri-rig ? 
*$■. So see dova ? 

W. The hotchedo kotor d t/ie mauro, Rei. . . . Mook 
mandi del tooti koosi dandimengri. 
6". Parikrdw toot. 
W. Lon see tooti } 
S. Our. 

W. And mandi o lon, ta tatto kova, ta hindi kova. 
Parikrdw toot. Kendw lon see mandi tei. Kova lon see 
kek mo;j^odo. Chidom tatto-kova wV lesti. Komds too 
hotchiwitchi ? Our, kooshto see dova. Poorokono holoben 
see a koshto hotchi-witchi, ta a kooshto marikli.* Dova 
see pooro Romani-charj- holomus. Yon sas jaw yoozho 
adr6 lenghi peraw. Yon (hotchi-witchi) see kek kooshto 
adr6 o lilef. Yon see bauri kondw. 

[He added : 
Jaw monghi. Dikova talla o hotchi-witchi. Mandi latch- 
ova yek. Andova lesti kere. Maurova lesti, ta morrov 
lesti. Yoosherova lesti. Chivova lesti tal^ o yog, ta kerav 
lesti, ta hova-les monghi.] 

M6 shorn trooshlo. Del mandi choomoni to pee. Akei 
see kooshto paani. Mandi^j delW apr6 sor piamus d livena. 
Chiv les avrf. Parikrdw toot. Kooshto see dova. Del 
mandi koosi ginger-lw^ndi. Lei o b?mg3,rus avrf valinesko 
men. 

* See p. 197, "Hedgehog Hunting and Gypsy Cake." 



262 genuine romany compositioxs. 

Translation. 

Wester. Are you hungry ? 

Self. Certainly, I am veiy hungry. 

W. I am dying of hunger, I am so hungiy. I am half 
dead with it 

S. Where does the butcher live ? 

W. He lives in the town, not far off, sir. 

S. Take this half-crown, and go to the shop, and buy 
me a little beef, and a loaf of bread. 

W. Thank you, sir. 

[Wester goes and reUinis. 
I will go for two or three sticks and a little coaL . . . Give 
me a match. 

S. That is a good fire. 

W. Not it, but it will be soon a capital one. I will clean 
the frying-pan well, and put a little grease in it. Do you 
like bacon, sir ? 

S. Yes. 

\The cat comes ^ and smells at the meat. He says 
to it, 
Get off with you, you bewitched cat. There is nothing 
there for you. Go to the rabbit-holes, and kill some for 
yourself, and have a good meal in that way. 
\The dog steals the meat. 

IV. Just look there, for God's sake. The cursed dog! 

the glutton ! I will kill it this instant. I know where be 

is gone. 

[Tlie dog zvas thrashed, and tlte meat rescued^ and 

on ottr next visit : 
IV, I gave away the little dog which ate the meat you 
bought the other day. I gave it to a young fellow here 
who lives near me, and he took it to Liverpool. 

\pialopie continued: 
Give mc the bread, sir. Do you like the avrf-rig } 
S. What is that ? 

IV. The burnt part of the loaf, sir. Let me give you 
some mustard. 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS, 263 

5. Thank you. 

W. Have you any salt ? 

6". Yes. 

IV. Hand me the salt, pepper, and mustard. Thanks. 
Now I have some salt too. This salt is not dirty. I have 
mixed pepper with it. Do you like hedgehog ? That I 
do; is not it good ? Old-fashioned food is a good hedge- 
hog and potatoes, and a nice cake. That is what the old 
Gypsies used to eat. They were rather dainty about their 
food. Hedgehogs are not good to eat in summer. They 
are with young now. I will go and look for a hedgehog. 
I will find one, and bring it home. I will kill it, and shave 
it I will clean it, and put it in the ashes, and bake it, and 
eat it myself. I am thirsty. Give me something to drink. 
Here is good water. I have become a teetotaler. Pour it 
out. Thank you. That is^ good. Give me a little ginger- 
beer, and draw the cork. 



Illustrating peculiar Modes of Expression^ and points 0/ Grammar, 

Yon rokerela lenghi Romanes, sor adrd Romanes. 
Chivena yon kek gaujikanes adr^ lesti. 

Adxi the iVi?//5erenghi tem sor o Romani chalaw see 
korengri, besoviZ2.x\, chorode, kekavi-Petalengr^, roiengr^. 

O Lavines gair^ ta o iVi7(r)/Aerengri gair^ ta Hinditem- 
engri gair^, yon rokeri* lenghi lavaw sor katend adf6 lenghi 
rokerben so see kordo sar o poruma rokerben. 

Rokerela Lavines rokerob^n. Adr^ o Lavines tem o 
Romani^j, see Woods, Roberts, Williams, and Jones. 

Yov rokerela misto kendw. Mandi rokerasdr misto 
kenaw sig. Too roker asdr sar see doova chido tal6. 
Kek nan^i jinessa too so penova mandi, tooti tatcho 
Romani-chal ttU Keker mandi, mandi lova meero soover- 
holoben. Kek mandi pookerova toot vaniso koovaw talla 



264 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

sor tatcho. Kek nanef mandi pookasova toot chichi so see 
wafedo. Jinova, pal, sorkon koovaw too pookerAs mandi see 
tatcho. Wonka yon righerenna lesti adr^ to lendi kokeri, talla 
chivj lesti adr6 tatcho wastaw, to waver reiaw, jinomeskri 
troostal lesti, doova koova kairela lendi mol dosta luvva. 

They (Welsh Gypsies) talk their Gypsy all in Gypsy. 
They mix no English with it. 

In Scotland all the Gypsies are potters, besom-makers, 
mumpers, tinkers, or spoon-makers. 

The Welsh, and Scotch, and Irish pronounce their words 
all together in their language, which is called the Gaelic 
tongue. 

He talks the Welsh language. In Wales the Gypsies 
are Woods, Roberts, etc. 

He talks well now. I shall speak well directly. Just 
you speak as it is put down. Don't you understand 
what I say, and you a real Gypsy too ? Not I, Til take 
my oath. I won't tell you anything but what is true. I 
will not tell you anything that is wrong. I know every- 
thing, my brother, that you tell me is right. When they 
keep it to themselves, and afterwards put it in right hands 
(or give it) to other gentlemen, who are learned about it, it 
will make them worth much money. 

Contimted, 

Pookerova toot, Rei, tastfs. 

Kek shoonessa too ; kona shom mandi roker/;^* troostal 
dulla kolla. 

Doova, see a choorokon6 lav. Kek ne jinenna yon o 
tatcho Romani lav, pensa moro lavaw. Rokerenna posh 
dinveres posh gaujikanes. 

Soski too nan^i roker to mandi } Roker tooti, tastis. 

Kek na mandi rokerova, nastis mandi jinova-les. 

Savo motto moosh see yov. Yov see motto sor diwus, 
lesko pal tei^ piptto sas-16. Doova see dooif lavaw chidd 
ketand 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 265 

Yov pootchtas mandi, " Too diktds (diktdn) a moosh jal 
kova drom ?" 

Nanef too kek dad ta dei? Merd^ yon besh ghids 
kondw. Kon'j' chavo shan too ? Maw rov, tikno ! 

Doova see meeri deieski pen, meeri beebi. 

Nanei pookerova toot avrf meero nogo mooif. 

Lei kova tringorishi. Maw nasher lesti. 

Komova reiakana ta gaujikana jinomus. 

I will tell you, sir, if I can. 

Don't you hear, when I am speaking about those things ? 

That is a mumper's word. They do not know the right 
Gypsy word, like our words. They talk half bosh and half 
English. 

Why do not you speak to me ? Speak, if you can. 

I do not speak ; I cannot understand it 

What a drunken man he is. He is drunk all day long ; 
his brother too was a drunkard. That is two words joined 
together. 

He asked me, " Did you see a man go this way } " 

Have you no father or mother ? They died a year ago 
now. Whose child art thou } Don't cry, child. 

That is my mother's sister, my aunt. 

I will not tell you with my own lips (///., out of my 
own mouth). 

Take this shilling. Don't waste it. 

I like aristocratic English learning. 

Continued, 

Kei j ivela yov } Yov jivj tatch' aglal dova reiesko kair 
Yov jivdds mansa. 

Sar door see doova tan } Doovorf, doovorf. 

Dik/^//^i, savo kisi starni *glal dooveski kair. Kon'j kair 
see doova ? See a bauro rei'j filisin. 

Kova tan see pordo rookdw. 

Besh tooki '1^ kon. 

Jaw kater sooto, sar komessa. O kam see besh'rf'. 



266 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS, 

Mook les bikonyo. 

Diktassa too dova koova ? Our, dikt6m dulla kola. 

Te jinessa too dulla kola ? Our, pal, jinova sorkon kolli. 
Doova moosh jindds-les. 

Mook mendi jal, ta maur kanengr^ ! So dikessa palla ? 
Dikova o yogomengro ; awela akei. 

Nastfs yov te latch lati. 

Del lesti kater o grei. Del lesti koosi kas te hoi. 

Mendi di6m o greiaw kas. 

Maw kair toot jaw chorikanes. Kek luva nanef lesti ; 
kek nanef mandi tei. Kek nanef yov mauro. So see yov 
te kair ? 

Kanna meeri romni see shoovH, nastis yoi peerela. Ko- 
mova a divi gairi, ta o drabengro, te wel ta dik lati. 

So mandi dova toot dova yek papin ? Dova toot trin 
posh-kooroni lesti. 

Mendi bikindds o grei kater dova yek moosh. 

Lei ti jib, ta yoozher lesti (o rol). Kosher ti wishtAw 
kondw. 

Kon kerd6-les. Too shanas ? Kek mandi, lova meero 
sovloholoben. 

Where does he live? He lives right opposite that 
gentleman's house. He lived with me. 

How far is that place ? Very far indeed. 

Look ! what a lot of stags (there are) before that house. 
Whose house is it } It is a great gentleman's mansion. 

This place is full of trees. 

Sit down then. 

Go to sleep, if you like. The sun is set. 

Leave it alone. 

Did you see that 1 Yes, I saw those things. 

Do you know those things.^ Yes, brother, I know 
everything. That man knew it. 

Let us go and kill hares. What are you watching > \ 
see the gamekeeper ; he is coming here. 

He cannot find her. 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 267 

Give it to the horse. Give it a little hay to eat. 

We gave the horses h.ay. 

Don't make yourself so humble. He has no money; I 
have none either. He has no bread. What is he to do ? 

When my wife is enceinte, she cannot walk. I want a 
midwife and the doctor to come and see her. 

What shall I give you (for) that single goose ? I will 
give you Js. 6d. for it. 

Take your tongue, and lick it (the spoon). Lick your 
lips now. 

Who did it } Was it you } Not I, I will take my oath. 

Continued. 

Mi Doovelenghi, Chowali, maw kel ajaw. Too trashcla 
mandi. 

Maw kel ajdw. Keressa too dova ^popli, moonjerova 
toot. 

Moonjad6m lati*^ wast. Jindds yoY so mandi kerV. 

Maw atch agUl mandi ajaw. Mook man dikds. Atch 
pauli. 

Choomerova toot te wel toot rinkeni. 

Te wel yov akef kondw, yov pooker asdr mendi, so yon 
penenna. 

Yov peldds adrd o paani kei o bair^ jaLs*. 

Hotcher o porydw, adr^ o yog, tale o papin. 

O poori joovel dids o wooda, ta o chei adr6 o kair pendds , 
" So komessa too, poori gairi ?" Yo'f pendds, *' Choori poori 
joovel shom md." {Vide Pasp., p. 582.) 

Hokki, doosta gauj6 wen akei to mendi. 

Gauj6 shoonenna men. O gauj6 see v^t\in\ So mandi 
kerova kondw. 

Rak asdr ti toovlo. Righerova lesti, pensa mi yokawj 
ad re mi shoro. 

Dikt6m leski yokaw pordo paani. 

Keker mi yokaw te dikova yoi* ^popli. 

Bissadds too doova biti lil, so pookerj toot o tatcho 
Javdw.^ 



289 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

Mandi bissad6m lesti. 

Yon chivenna lesti opre o misali. 

For God's sake, mates, don't do so. You frighten me. 
Don't do so. (If) you do that again, I will pinch you. 
I squeezed her hand. She knew what I meant (lit, did). 
Don't stand in the front of me like that. Let me see. 
Stand back. 

I will kiss you if you are pretty. 

If he were to come here now, he would tell us what they 
say. 

He fell into the river (lit, the water where the ships 
sail). 

Singe the feathers, in the fire, off the goose. 
The old woman knocked (at) the door, and the girl in 
the house said, " What do you want, old woman } " She 
said, "I am a poor old woman." Cf. Pasp., 582. 
Look out ! A lot of strangers are coming here to us. 
The Gentiles hear us. The Gentiles are coming. What 
shall I do now } 

Take care of your tobacco. I will keep it, like my eyes 
in my head. 

I saw his eyes full of tears. 
May my eyes never see her again. 

Did you forget that little book which tells you the right 
words {t.e,, an English Dictionary) } 
I forgot it 
They put it on the table. 

Continued. 

Roker too avrf, jaw mandi ca7t shoonova toot. 

Roker shook^s. 

O vcn see boot shilalo. 

Mook mcndi jal, or jaI6m {sic) raendi, kater sooto. 

Mendi di6m yon {for lendi,) kil ta mauro. 

Dordi, doovaV a tarno rei pinvfw* a tarni rauni. 

Yov see bitad^r ta mandi. 



G£NlTINE ROMANS COMPOSITIONS. 269 

kam kedds mandi kaulo. O kam see jaw tatto. 

YoX kek na kedds-les. Yov pendds lati kek nanei te kel 
ajdw. 

Mandi shorn kino. Mandi beshW al6, mandi shomas jaw 
kino. Mandi chor'^ mandi adr^ o koppa, jaw shilalo sas 
mandi. 

Soskf kedds-les talla ? 

Kei .mendi jal to lei paani te pee } Mandi jinova. 
Pardel kova stigher, tald dova poov, posh d a bauro rook, 
*doi see a rinkeno tan d paani. O paani vel avrf o hev odoi. 

Kek nanef mandi can chiv meero wast jaw door see too. 

Kei see mendi te jal te atch tediwus } 

Kanna vidn tumendi akei ? 

Vi6m akef o waver Kooroko. 

Ked6 a bauro godli o waver diwus. 

Kon sas doova ? Kek na jindw m6. 

Pooker mandi choomoni te and tooti. 

And mandi kon a koshto bauro matcho. Kerova-les 
monghi d kooroko diwus to mi hoben. 

Yov kom'^ asdr lendi doof sar yekera. 

Yon ghidn avri dooY ta doof ketan6. 

Tardad6m-les tale. 

Speak out, so that I can hear you. 
Speak low. 

The winter is very cold. 
Let us go to sleep. 
We gave them bread and butter. 

Look, there is a young gentleman courting a young 
lady. 

He is less than I. 

The sun made me black. The sun is so hot. 

She did not do it He told her not to do so. 

1 am tired. I sat down, I was so tired. I wrapped 
myself in the blanket, I was so cold. 

What did he do it for ? 

Where shall we go to get water to drink .^ I know. 



2JO GENUINE ROMAXY COMPOSITIOXS. 

Over this gate, down that field, by the side of a big tree, 
there is a pretty spring. The water comes out of the hole 
there. 

I cannot reach as far as you. 

Where shall we go to stop to-day ? 

When came ye here ? 

We came here the other Sunday. 

They made a great noise the other day. 

Who was that ? I do not know. 

Tell me something to bring you. 

Bring me then a good big fish. I will cook it on Sunday 
for dinner. 

He loved them both equally. 

They went out two and two tc^ether. 

I pulled him down. 

Cofttimied. 

Kek yov mook mandi jal avrf. Kek yov komela man te 
roker to waver mooshdw, jaw wafedo see-16 'dre lesko zee. 
Yov pendds ta mandi jaLf palla waver mooshdw. 

Maw wooser barydw ! 

Rak tooti. Maw ker a hev adrc o kooshni. Sor o koli 
pelela adral lesti, tastis. 

Yon hotchadd lenghi koli. 

Yon bikind^ o jookel kater dova rei. 

Yon yoozhadd lenghi skrunya. 

Yon rod^ palla lenghi dei. 

Yon merd^ troostdl o bogenya. 

Yon ridad^ lenghi kokerd tatcho mishto. 

Yon pid^ pensa matchd. 

Yon vi^n sor koordend mishto. 

Yon atchte trin divvusdw adr^ dova tan. 

Mendi shoondds sor yon pend^. 

Yon pandadas opr^ dova trooshni o' koshtdw. 

Yon andds mendi opr^ misht6, pensa reidw tsk raunia. 

Mookds mendi pootchds sor dMWdi folki, 

Mookds sor mendi kerds opre o boshomengri. 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 2yi 

Yon li6 o moosh, talla yon chidd-les *dr6 o steripen. 
Chid^-len sor adr6 o steripen. 
Yov azadds lesti opr6, 

Mendi shorn sorkon cheerus kainV a godli yek te waver. 
Mendi see sorkon chairus chingerenna kater yek te waver. 

He will not let me go out. He does not like me to 
speak to other men, he is so jealous. He said that I go 
after other men. 

Don't throw stones. 

Take care. Don't make a hole in the basket All the 
things will fall through it, if they can. 

They burnt their things. 

They sold the dog to that gentleman. 

They cleaned their boots. 

They cried for their mother. 

They died of the smallpox. 

They dressed right well. 

They drank like fishes. 

They all got well beaten. 

They stayed three days in that place. 

We heard all they said. 

They tied up that bundle of sticks. 

They brought us up well, like gentlemen and ladies. 

Let us ask all those people. 

Let us all play on the fiddle. 

They arrested the man, afterwards they put him in 
prison. 

They put them all into the prison. 

He lifted it up. 

We ate aiways making a row with one another. We 
are always quarrelling with one another. 



27± 



GENUmE ROMANY COMPOSlTlOKS. 



To test tlie resemblance between tlie Turkish afid English 
Gypsy dialects y we asked in English tJie follozving sentences 
taken at raiidoinfrom Dr. PaspatVs book. The parallel 
ism coiUd be drawn mnch closer by carefully selecting 
corresponding English Gypsy words, bnt, on primiple^ 
we have preferred a Gypsy's own language, even zvhen 
unnecessarily discordant. 



Turkish-Gypsy. 

Savd mas kamdna [pi.] ? (p. 75) 

Asavkd manushdnde te na bik- 
nds. (75) 

Me yakd na dikld asavkd sukdr 
romnid. (75) 

Is( ohtd divds k' alidm avatid. 

(74) 

Sostar marghids tut ? (74) 
Djan^n so khuyazghidm tumdn ? 

[pi.] (74) 

Sostar utcharddn i khanfng? 

(74) 

Terdvas do praldn. (76) 

Dindmas toot, ta na lindnas len. 
(100) 

Astardd i tchiriklid, ta tchindd 
la, pekld la, khald la. (100)— [6/;/- 
gttlar used,] 

Tavdd mas, khald, peld, suttd 
pdske. (100) 

Me, sar t' astardv avakld tchiri- 
\dik [sg,]? {104) 

Leskere bal bard isds, ta um- 
blavdd les oprd ko karadjfl. (157) 

Kamdma yek bdli pdi te pidv. 

(159) 
Tu ndna djands, mo gadjd ka 

banddl man andrd ko ker. (160) 
O grast paravghids po bandipd. 

(160) 
Ndnasti panlidmme ydka. (160) 



English-Gypsy. 

Sdvo mas too komdssa [sg.] ? 
Kek too bikin te jafra mooshdw. 

Meeri yokdw kekera diktd jafra 
rinkeno joovel 

Dooi-stor divvus^j (see) kanna 
mandi vidm akei. 

So dids toot troostdl ? 

Too jinessa so mandi korddm 
toot troostdl ? [sg,] 

Soski chorddn too o hanik ? 

Mandi sas dooY paldw. 

Mandi didm lendi toot, ta kek 
nanef too lidn len. 

Yon tildds o chiriklo, chindds les 
shoro tald, chidd-les adrd o koro, 
ta \iod6-\cs,— [Plural used,] 

Yon kerdd o mas, hod^-les, 
ghidn talla kater woodrus, ghidn 
lendi sor to sooto. 

Sar see mandi te lei koUa 
chirikld [pt.] ? 

Dosta balaw 'sas opre lesko 
shoro, ta yon pandadds-les oprd o 
rook ta lesti. 

Komova koro paani te pee. 

Kek na jinessa too, meero rem 
pandj asdr mandi oprd adrd o kair 
O grei pogadds lesko shelo. 



Kek mandi pandaddm 
yokdw. 



m 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS- 273 

I raklf, ta sar ght\6 p^ske, O rakli pandadds o wooda, 

panlids pi vuddr. (160) kanna yon sor ghild avrf. 

Ovokl^ dives^nde, isds yek Adrd kola divvusdw 'sas a 

manush, ta terdlas trindn raklidn, moosh. Trin rakliaw sas yov. 

penghids, me kamadjdv polinkte, Yov pendds lendi. " Jalova kater 

putchdva tum^ndar, so kamdla o bauro gav. So komessa toot 

tumar' oghf, t' andv tum^nghe. mandi te and pauli tooti [j^.] ? " 
IPI^ (394.) 



[// is scarcely necessary to observe that there is no precise line of 
dent ar cation between the old and new dialect s,'\ 



THE BENGAULER. 

Mandi never dikW a gaujo to rokpr Romanes, pensa a 
Bengauler mandi once met in Derbyshire. We were jahW 
along the drom with our vardoj, and I was the shorengro 
and mandi dikW a moosh besh/V apre a stigher, and his 
mooY was kaulo pensa Romani-chal, and he penV to mandi, 
" Sar shan, pal ? *' and I dik V at lesti, and yov kek pen'rf 
variso till some gaujoj sar lenghi'j wardoj had }a.Vd past, 
and then I said, *' Are you a Romani-chal ? " and he pen'^, 
" Kek, mandi shom a Bengauler. Mandi didn't kom to 
roker agldl dula gairi/' and then ze/^rokerV^ bauro cheerus, 
and mandi jinW sor yov penV. So you dik the ^engaulers 
can roker Romanes. 

Translation. 

I never saw a Gentile (able) to talk Gypsy like a Bengal 
man that I once met in Derbyshire. We were going along 
the road with our waggons, and I was the chief, and saw 
a man sitting on a gate, and his face was dark like a 
Gypsy. He said to me, " How are you, mate } '* I looked 
at him, but he said nothing till some Gentiles with their 

18 



274 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS! 

carts had gone past, and then I said, " Are you a Gypsy ? " 
I Ic said, '* No ; I am from Bengal. I did not like to talk 
before those men;" and then we talked a long time. I 
understood all he said, so you see the Bengalese can talk 
Gypsy. 

THE THREE WORDS. 

BY ISAAC M . 

Look herey Koko ! If tooti 7/ del mandi pansh koli, 
mandi 7/ pooker tooti trin lavyaw tooti doesiit jin. 

** Kekcr, my pal. Kek if mandi jinj lesti. Pooker 
mandi so see tJie lavyaw adrd Gaujines, Vr;/^ mandi 'II bet 
the five shillings mandi jinj Romanes y(7r lendi." 

" Ourli. Doova see tatcho, Ike, Pooker the Rei 'dr6 
Gaujincs a7id d'lk if he doesn't jin the Romanes." 

" Welly Koko. Pooker mandi sar tooti'<^ pen, 'Put the 
saddle and bridle on the horse, and go to the fair' " 

" Chiv the boshto and solivardo 'pr^ thegrd and ]b\ to the 
welgaurus." 

" Doova 's kek sor tatcho, Koko. Mandi 'd pen ' Dordi, 
chawoli ; jal and Icl the boshto and solivardo. And the 
vardo akef, and chiv the grei adr6 lesti and mook 's jal to 
the welingaurus, and have some peias.' Doova 's the tatcho 
drom to pen so mandi pootch*^ tooti." 

'* All rights Mr, H / / see, ' six of one and half a dozen 

of the other' And zvhat are the other words ? " 

'' Pooker mandi, Koko, so see the Sun adrd Romanes." 

" The Sun. Well, I call that Kam." 

"Keker, Pal. It's Tam, not Kam. And whafs a 
signpost ? " 

" A siker-dromengro, or a sikermengro." 

*^Well, a sikermengro might do, but that's a show. W^ 
calls a signpost a pooker/;^'-kosht, but I see tooti jini- 
doosta Romanes, and {getting up to leave the tait) I da7'e 
say as hoiu you ]\ns more lavi* than any of mendi, btit ^ the 
great secret' yotill never jin. Only tatcheno Roman/Vj jin 
DOOVA, and they'll never pooker TOOTI." 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 275 

[And off he went, leaving us to conceal our dis- 
comfit ure by cracking with the rest an old joke 
on Freemasonry and red-hot pokers. After a 
while^ the moth returned to singe its wings a 
little more in the candle, and zvas asked if there 
zuere any more five-shillingworths of words we 
did not know, and in reply we were asked, 

" Pooker mandi so see a beuru^?" 

*M brewery V 

" No ; a beurus." 

"^ Livena-kel/;/' kair ? " 

" Keker ; tliafs a brew-house. I said a beurus. 

" Well^ I don't know that word at all'' 

** It's a parlour, Koko. Tlie shorokono tan of the kair. 
/ thought mandi'rf latch choomoni tooti didnt jin, besides 
* the great secret^ and tooti'// never get to jin DOOVA." 

Translation. 

" Look here, old fellow (lit., Uncle) ! If you'll give me 
live shillings, I'll tell you three words you do not know." 

" Not I, my friend ; not if I know it. Tell me what are 
the words in English, and I'll bet the five shillings I know 
Gypsy for them." 

" Yes, that's fair, Ike. Tell the gentleman in English, 
and see if he does not know the Gypsy." 

" Well, old boy. Tell me how you would say, * Put the 
saddle and bridle on the horse, and go to the fair."' 

" Chiv the boshto, and solivardo 'pr^ the grei, 2Xi& jal to 
the welgaurusr (Put the saddle and bridle on the horse, 
and go to the fair.) 

" That is not quite right, old cock. I would say, ' Dordi, 
chawdli, jal and lei the boshto and solivardo. And the 
va7'do akeiy and chiv the grei adr^ lesti, and mook's jal to 
the welingaurus, and have sovciq peias! (Hi, mates, go and 
get the saddle and bridle. Bring the cart here, and put the 
horse to, and let us go to the fair, and have some fun.) 
That's the right way to say what I asked you." 



276 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

" All right, Mr. H ; I see : sixof one, and half a dozen 

of the other. And what are the other words ? " 

" Tell me, old fellow, what the sun is in Gypsy.*' 

" The sun. Well, I call that Kam (Sun). 

"No, friend. It's Tarn, not Kam. And what is a 
Signpost } " 

A ^Siker-dromdfigro (Show-road-thing), or a Sikerm^ngro 
(Shower)." 

" Well, a Sikerm^ngro might do, but that is a Show. We 
call a Signpost a Pookermg-koskt (a Telling-post), but I 
see you know plenty of Gypsy, and I dare say you know 
more words than any of us, but ' the great secret ' you 
will never know. Only real Gypsies know i/iaty and they 
will never tell fouy 

He went out, but returned not long after, and said, — 

*' Tell me, what is a beurics ? " 

" A brewery .? " 

" No, a beicrusy 

"A Livena-keiivi 'kair (^Qtt-mdi\dng house) .^" 

" No, that's a brew-house. I said a beurusJ' 

" Well, I don't know that word at all." 

*' It's a parlour, old cock. The best room of the house. 
I thought I would find something you did not know, 
besides the 'great secret,' and you will never get to know 
that:' 

THE CHASE. 

BY IKE M . 

You]m Wester, Koko. Lesko dad ze;^^ ^ kooromengro 
adrd the kooromongri, and he was killed by lightning, 
Lesko dei was a Matcho. Romani-chab tcsed to chin al6 
Icnghi wongusht/^i- theUy so they ivonldnt 'press' them. 
And they chased my dad. A Kooromengro opre a grei 
wel'^/, ajid my dad prasterV avrf, and the kooromengro 
kister'rf palla lesti, a7id my dad lel'^ tale his cho;)^aj', and 
hokter'rf adrc the paani, d^fid ]dXd to the wover rig, and the 
Kooromengro had a yogomeskro adr6 liis wast, and he 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 277 

hokterV pardal the paani oprd his grei, and welW to my dad 
and penW ' Atch, or tooti 's a moolo moosh/ And sotne 
used to pander lenghi wongusbt/^J with dori, and limey and 
soft soapy to kair them bongo, so they wouldn't lei tliem for 
the Kooromongri. 

Translation. 

You know Sylvester, mate. His father was a soldier in 
the army, and he was killed by lightning. His mother 
was a Heme. Gypsies used to cut ofif their fingers then, 
so that they would not ' press ' them. And they chased 
my father. A soldier on a horse came, and my father ran 
off, and the soldier rode after him, and my father took off 
his shoes, and jumped into the river, and swam to the oppo- 
site bank. The soldier had a gun in his hand, and he 
jumped over the stream on his horse, and came up with my 
father, and said, " Stop, or you're a dead man." Some used 
to tie their fingers with string, and lime, and soft-soap, to 
make them crooked, so that they would not take them for 
the army. 

IKE'S DOG. 

BY IKE M . 

The Bauro Steripen'j the Bailey [the New Bailey, 
Salford], Koko. And they bitcherV me a godli for a 
jookel, as they penV mandi*^ chorV. But I didn't chor 
lesti. It was my nogo jookel. Mandi jinV lesti when it 

was born. And I lelV Mr. R Sy the rokeromengro, to 

YokQv for mandi. And they kair'^ mandi pesser pansh bar 
for the jookel, and \^d lesti from mandi, a7id del*^ lesti to 
the Rei. And mandi pesser'rf the rokeromengro* star bar 
more. Andy ok divvus, when mandi was atchm' over odoi 
by Belle Vue [pleasure-grounds near Manchester], the jookel 
wel'rf to my tan ^popli. Afid when they wel'^, and penV 
as mandi must del // opr6 ^popli, mandi pen*^ *Keker. 
Mandi'.? pesser'rf nearly desh bar for lesti, a7td mandi'// 
kek del // opr^.' And I jaVd to the rokeromengroj and he 






;2j : -n Jbii'f t.rr iiicp-is^zuz?: 






Toe :jjii uracil is tie Xrv Baaiex ir Siliabri =:iilc. 
7?urr Knc 2ie i fiinnnctis icnuc i 5i^ if^figfr riey saic I 
iar: I?:.' ter: . i»u: I iuf 30: ftiuia: in Ii V3s zttt ^ttz. I 

t> ic>t:ii: Sic rut, T^t fzed zie rxi zcczo? 5ijr tbe d-c«r. 



iTLri t-xi X fr^ci rui, izii rxi^ Er tj tijss ^gsntl^^rnaaiL I 



0=«t Ccy -Fiftn I tti* fcicccii^ j-ioicr by Beile Vue 
l^^e^^-jT^-^rsirxiiy r^tr^jr iliz: ±^e5ttr, i!ie dog^ Cime back 
a^;^:: to niy titr.t TLey carre. and 5i5d I must give it up 
^.l/^T^ I *;i:d, * N ; I hare CoJd Geirly ten pounds for it, 
ar.^i I 7r;U not g:ve :: up."^ I -rent to the iitoraey, and he 
>;aud th«y o>u!d not Uke the dog, because I had paid the 
Ki^ jx/und'f. And I kept that dog a long wh'IIe, and called 
it ^ iJajIcy/ 

' pumping; 

liV PHILIP M . 



Koliko raati, rci, dooT trin o' mendi'x folki were adre the 
kitchcfna oAoi pardal t/ie drom. And a rei zvas odoi /?^ 
///r^/ do<>«ta luva ^r lesti, ^//^ he was posh motto, /?/«/ 
IKK>tchW mcndi'^/^/i'/ /t? dik lesti keri, as he was trash ke*d 
ba lormlo ojire ///^ drom. Atid as they were jal/V keri w€ 
IcHti ^ i)raa.stcrmcngro welW rt;/rf pen*^, ///^ ivas kair/«' a 
Jjfturo ({odli, and ivcrc sor motto. And the x^\ pen'// /^i?;^ 
ft^rvr kck motto, and pookerW lesti to jal avrf lesti'j- drom, 
and mook ///';;/ rikonyo. And the praastermengro wouldn't 
Jiil rtvr/ ///^ drom. Ajdw the rei lel'rf lesti by t/ie pikio, 
^//// kidrV/ IcHti jal avrf the drom. And the praastermengro 
WWf him o\)tA for IcHtl, and penV ^j he'd ' assnltcd' him. 
tUit th^y inook'*/ the rci jal keri, and penV ^j ///ry*^ bitcher 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 279 

kim a godli. Aftd mandiW kom to jin, rei, if the pookinyus 
will mook lesti roker for his kokero, or must lesti lei a 
rokeromengro to roker /c?r lesti. 

Translation. 

Last night, sir, two or three of us were in the inn there 
across the road. A gentleman was there that had a good 
deal of money with him ; and he was half drunk, and asked 
us to see him home, as he was afraid he would be robbed 
on the road. As they were going home with him, a police- 
man came, and said they were making a great noise, and 
were all drunk. The gentleman said they were not drunk, 
and asked him to get out of his way, and leave him alone. 
The policeman would not get out of the way, so the gentle- 
man took him by the shoulder and made him get out of 
the way. The policeman took him up for it, and said that 
he had assaulted him ; but they let the gentleman go 
home, and said they would send him a summons. I want 
to know, sir, if the magistrate will let him defend himself, 
or must he get an attorney to defend him ? 

WAVER-TEMENGRI ROMANIES. 

BY FENNIK P . 

Did mandi ever dik any waver temengri Roman/^j", rei } 
Our. Yekorus See a doosta besh^j kendw. Mandi sas at 

Bury {Lanc,^ welgaurus, and Wester Bossel, and Ike H , 

and boot adoosta waver Roman^Vj tei. And some waver 
Romani folkx sas odoi as mendi diditt jin. Yon atchW 
tal6 a bitto drom sor by lendi kokeroj. They were more 
copper like adre lendi mooifaw dan mendi and kek as yon 
might pen tatchi kauli folki. They were doosta barvali 
folki — SOX with roopni laoWies and somkei — zc/^'* bauri roopni 
wangusht^rr apre lendi vongushiV^ a?zd adre lendi kanyaw 
tei, and roopni kolhVi", peemengr/^^, Koroj, shoodilaw, and 
bauro vardoj, and fino greii", and roodo sor adre kaish, 
and wi fino rivoben oprd lendi dummoj. Kavakef folki 



280 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

were waver temeng^ Romaiu^, datit you jiness, rei, afid 
liad lelW sor kavodoi roopni VoWies and J3,w kissi luva 6y 
panjer/V i/ie gaujo^. T/tey was a waver ireedopen to 
mendi. 

We were sor adr^ a kitchema palla //iJ^ welgaurus yek 
raati roker///' about kavakei folkiy dont you jiness, and 
Wester komV to lei lendi to jal mensa. Yov was beseeti wV 
lendi roopni kolhVj, and sonakei, dofit you dikess, rei. He 
Vomd to roker wV lendi, but bless you, rei, lie couldnU jin 
posh d sor lendi rokeropen. TItey rokerV so deep, don't you 
dik^ss. Yov jin'^ dosta, but kek sor o' lesti, komodair dan 
sor mendi. 

*Ifd be mishto to lei lendi to jal mensa/ hotchov, ^ t/ieyre 
such barvali folki * hotchov. 

A7id mandi pen'^ to lesti, ' Maw chiv your piko avri, 
they'll none jal mensa — they'll kek demean tfieir kokeroj to 
the likes d mendi — they're komodair to jal wi' kralis/^j, and 
bauri reiaw, patsova toot,' hotchov. 

Meero chor — kavakef tarno moosh akef met a tarno 
Frenchi Romani-chal yek cheerus at Newcastle, Yov'd 
kekeni romni, or vardo, or chayzes wi* lesti. Yov sas a 
tarno ^/;/romedo moosh — a wild sort of a tarno moosh. 
Yov roker'rf dosta Romanes yov didn't jin. 

And a waver cheerus mandi 2uas adrd the Korengi-tem, 
and a kaulo moosh sas odoi adr6 a kitchema mendi atchV 
at. He was holin' kal-mauro aitd pcein' pobesko-livena. 
Kavakef moosh dik'd at mendi a bauro cheerus. ' Sarshan, 
pal ? ' hotchov — as it might be your kokero, rei, /(?- raati. 
" Sarshan, bor ? " hotchov, " shan tooti Romani } " 

"Kek, I'm an Injun," hotchov. 

" Does tooti jiness Romanes } " hotchov. 

" Our, pal, doova J mandi'j nogo chib," hotchov. And we 
vdktx'd ketnes a bauro cheerus ; ajid he didn't ]m sor mandi 
pen'^ to lesti, do7it yon dik^ss, rei, and mandi didn't jin' 
sor leski'j lavydw, but mandi ]\n'd dosta. 

Mandi shoonW there ivere some waver temengri Roman/^j 
welW to Epping Forest dool trin 'beshaw ago. but mandi 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSlTIONSv 28 1 

didn't dik 'em mi kokero ; / only heared on 'em, don't you 
dikess, rei. 

Kavakef moosh /uts welW adr6 the French tern. Yow's a 
Petalengro. He Aik'd the Roman^Vj odof, but they don't 
roker t/icir lavj tatcho pensa mendi does ; and wlien they 
web to a bauro gav they jab to the shorokono praaster- 
mengro, and pen^ ' mendi Voms to atch akei a cheerus/ and 
the moosh deb lendi trin stor divvus^j or a kooroko to atch 
and pookerj lendi kei they're to atch, and doova'j* mishti^r 
dan akef. The praastermengroj akef kair mendi jal sar sig 
as ive atch and mandi*^ too naflo a7td pooro to jal opr6 the 
Avoms sor the raati when mandi'j kino aftd the vardo'j too 
bauro to jal opre the drom adr^ the kaulo raatij, so mandi 
atch^j" akei opr6 the Kaulo. 

Doova moosh odof as mandi zvas rokenV^* about ]\ws ad re 
the gav akef. Yov romerV a gaujf, and yow's a barvalo 
moosh kendw, and leski'.? romni kek ]\ns a lav o' Romanes 
as ever 1 heared on, 

FOREIGN GYPSIES. 

BY PHCENIX S . 

Did I ever see any foreign Gypsies, sir.^ Yes, once. It 
is a good many years ago. I was at Bury Fair; and 
Sylvester Boswell, and Isaac H., and a lot of other Gypsies 
too. Some other Gypsies were there that we did not know. 
They camped down a lane quite by themselves. They 
were more copper-like in their countenances than we, and 
not, so to speak, real black people. They were rather rich 
folk, with all sort of gold and silver things, and big silver 
rings on their fingers and in their ears too ; and silver 
articles — teapots, cups, and dishes ; and large waggons, and 
splendid horses ; and they were dressed in silk from head 
to foot, and had fine clothes on their backs. These people 
were foreign Gypsies, don't you know, sir, and had got all 
those silver articles and so much money by wheedling the 
Gentiles. They were of another breed to us. We were all 



i82 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

in an inn after the fair one night, talking about these 
people, don't you know, and Sylvester wanted to get them 
to join us. He was dazzled by their gold and silver, don't 
you see, sir. He wanted to talk with them ; but bless you, 
sir, he could not understand half of all their talk. They 
spoke so deep, don't you see. He understood a good deal, 
but not all ; more, however, than any of us. " It would be 
a good thing to get them to join us," he said ; " they are so 
rich," said he. I answered, " Don't put your shoulder out ; 
they will never agree to join us. They will not condescend 
to join such as us. They are more likely to join kings, and 
lords, I believe you," said I. 

My son, this young man, met a French Gypsy once at 
Newcastle. He had no wife, or waggon, or family with him. 
He was a young bachelor — a wild sort of a young fellow. 
He talked plenty of Gypsy my son did not understand. 

And another time I was in Staffordshire, and a black 
man was there in an inn at which we halted. He was 
eating bread and cheese, and drinking cyder. This fellow 
stared at us a long while. " Sarshan, pal," (How do you 
do, friend }) said he, just as you might have done to-night, 
sir. " Sarshan, bor } " (How do you do, mate i^) said I ; 
"Are you a Gypsy?" "No, I am an Indian," said he. 
"Do you know Gypsy } " said I. " Yes, friend, that is my 
own language," he answered. We talked together for some 
time, and he did not understand all I said to him, don't 
you see, sir ; and I did not understand all his words ; but 
I understood sufficiently. 

I heard there were some foreign Gypsies who came to 
Epping Forest two or three years ago ; but I did not see 
them myself. I only heard about them, don't you see, sir. 

This man has travelled in France. He is a Smith. He 
saw the Gypsies there; but they do not pronounce their 
words properly, like we do. When they arrive at a town, 
they go to the chief constable, and say, "We want to 
stop here for a time," and the man grants them leave to 
stay three or four days, or it may be a week, and tells them 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 2^3 

where they must camp, and that is better than here. The 
policemen here make us go as soon as we stop ; and I am 
too ill and old to travel all night when I am tired ; and 
my waggon is too big to travel during dark nights, so I 
stay here on the Common. 

That man that I was talking about lives in the town here. 
He married a Gentile, and he is a well-to-do man now ; 
and his wife does not know a single Gypsy word, so far as 
I ever heard. 

THE POGADO SHERO. 

BY ISRAEL P . 

Ourli ! mandi'j din to the welgaurus at . / \Aed mi 

shero poger'rf odoi. Yoit can feel the hev akei adr6 mi bal 
still. It kairV me divio and I ivas chivV adrd the divio 
kair. // dookeri* mandi still sometimes, Hoiv was it done ? 
W/iy, a ratvalo gaujo opre a grei welV kesterm adrdl the 
welgaurus, and I ivas atchm' odoi, and he pen V to mandi, 
" Yoit> ratvalo jookcl, jal avrf the drom." (He roker*^ lesti 
adr^ gaujines^(?// jin.) And^ without more adOy he up zvith a 
bauro chookni he had adr6 his wast, and del'^ mandi a 
knock with it opr^ mi shero. // knocked mi staadi off, and 
pogerW mi shero, and I pel'rf tal6 opr6 the poov, and I was 
nasfalo/^^ a bauro chairus, and ja-Vd divio, and was chivW 
adr6 a divio kair, and the gaujo never did nothing for mandi. 
The Beng te lei lesti. He kesterV away^ and mandi never 
dik'^ him ^popli." 

Translation. 

THE BROKEN HEAD. 

Yes, I've been to the fair at . I got my head 

broken there. You can feel the hole here in my hair still. 
It made me mad, and I was put in the asylum. It hurts 
me still sometimes. How was it done } Why a cursed 
Gentile on a horse came riding through the fair, and I was 
standing there ; and he said to me, " You cursed dog, get 
out of the way." He said it in English, you know. And, 



284 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

without more ado, he up with a big whip he had in his 
hand, and gave me a knock with it on my head. It 
knocked my hat off, and cracked my skull, and I fell 
down on the ground, and I was ill for a long time, and 
went mad, and was put in an asylum, and the Gentile never 
did anything for me. The devil take him. He rode away, 
and I never saw him again. 

INNOCENCE. 

BY ISRAEL P . 



Keker, pal ! mandi didiit jin as tJiey was chordi kovaj*. 
Yoit dik, me and mandi'i" romni ak6i ]\nd Bill, a?td Itstis 
romni wel'rf to lati, and pen'rf, " Will you paw7i these koppa j 
for mandi ? " So she pawned ^em, you dik, and she del'^ /ler 
a trin-gorishi, and then slie wel'^ ^popli, and pootchV her to 
kin the tickets, and she Vixid em, you dik, but slie didn^t jin' 
as the koppaj" was chor'^. TJiey wanted to make us *fe?ices* 
you jin, without our ]\m7ig it. 

Translation. 

No, mate, I didn't know that they were stolen property. 
You see, I and my wife here knew Bill, and his wife came 
to her, and said, "Will you pawn these blankets for me V 
So she pawned them, you see, and she gave her a shilling ; 
and then she came again, and asked her to buy the tickets, 
and she bought them, you see ; but she didn't know that 
the blankets were stolen. They wanted to make us 
* fences,' you know, without our knowing it. 

AN INQUIRY. 

BY ISRAEL P . 

Keker, mandi doesn't jin Sherratt. Doova'j kek a 

Romani nav. She must be a choorodi. (To his wife) — 
Mary, av akei. Kova rei pen J as there s a monoshi ad re 
the divio kair at P as he thinks is 'posh and posh,' 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 285 

and kek a moosh has been to dik lati for a besh kendw. 
He pen^ as lati was beeno adr6 Gloucester. Does tooti jin 
,lati? Mandi jinj Glossopy bnt kek Gloucester. Mandi 
doesn't jin booti abotU kova part of the tern, yon dik, rei. 
Mandi web from Yorkshire, . . . Ourli, pal, mandi'j" jiv/«' 
adr6 a kair kendw, 'cause its winter ^ yo7c dik. 

Translation. 

No, I don't know Sherratt. That's not a Gypsy 

name. She must be a mumper. (To his wife) — Mary, come 
here. This gentleman says that there is a woman in the 

asylum at P , whom he thinks is a half-breed, and not a 

single person has been to see her for a year now. He says 
that she was born in Gloucester. Do you know her } I 
know Glossop, but not Gloucester. I don't know much 
about this part of the country, you see, sir. I come from 
Yorkshire. . . . Yes, mate, I am living in a house now, 
because it is winter, you see. 

WELSH GYPSIES. 

In September 1874 I met with a Welsh Gypsy, Oliver 
Lee, at Bettws-y-Coed, North Wales. His father was an 
English Gypsy from the Midland Counties ; his mother 
was one of the Woods, patricians amongst Welsh Gypsies. 
He was born, and had always lived, in Wales ; was about 
twenty-two years old, but, unlike most of the rising gene- 
ration in England, he could converse in both deep and 
broken Romanes, as well as Welsh and English. 

He and his wife had just been joined by some of her 
relatives, natives of Worcestershire, but Welsh by adoption ; 
whose children spoke English with a Welsh accent, and 
some of whom had married amongst the Welsh. 

I gathered from Oliver that his two aunts, Mary Wood, 
nicknamed Taw (W., silent), and Caroline Wood, both aged 
about forty, spoke Romanes habitually, and only used 
English or Welsh when talking to gaujos. 



2% oExxnxE RoiCAmr 



After s&tbfiHr^ nyseJ of Olrin's knmric^ of tk oU 
fonr^ I read t:» him '•The \VidoTr$ Soo,* *'T1jc T irmce;' 

*Z:;faa B .' and ''The Fairies,"" all of vindi he iater- 

pretad correctly to t£s osntpanio&s. the ^dest of wizom 
seemed to have a hazv recollection of screfal of the ¥>effaal 
infiectfons, and kept exdaimtng, ** Its just as I used to hear 
the o!d folk talking when I were a lad." A reference to the 
xt^rie? theniTeives wHI indicate how far the deep Angio- 
korr;'iinc.is corre5pond5 with the current Wrfsh-Romanes. 
We did not, hov/e^er, think we were warranted in con- 
cluding that the dialects were S3 far distinct tkit we must 
exclude my notes from the vocabularies, and we therefore 
incorporated the (ollovdng, as far as the advanced state of 
the printing of our dictionary- was then practicable. 

Gypsies are called in Welsh ^Gyptians, Gipsiaid^ and Tadu 
Abram Hood (A. H/s family;. The origin of the last term 
IS obscure ; possibly, Hood is IVood inflected. H. T. C. 

Anitrakcro TAnghiterrakero;, //., Englishman. A feminine 

genitive form. 
Kcr abba, Make haste. 

JHgnomus d lilei, Spring (lit, beginviWi'g of summer). 
Bor, //,, Garden. Bourns, //., SnaiL Bullv^ n^ Bull 
Kck chalav^r mandi. Don't bother me. 
Cham odof. Halt ! ? From atch ; the termination seems 

anomalous. 
Chinomongri, ;/., One pound sterling ; of, chinda^ shilling, 

silver, Sim., 305, 333. A £\ note (now abolished). 
Choro gono ; boot choro for mandi to righer //. A heavy 

sack ; too heavy for me to carry it 
Chcrikl<Sski por. Bird's tail Dei-eski folki, Mother s people. 

Joovieski chu^a, Petticoat 
Dcsh/;/', Praying. 
Kck latcho see. Bishavo div6z see ke-div6z. It is not line. 

It's a rainy day, to-day. 
DikcSm o Bong ; dids opr^ adr^ o raati, I saw a ghost (lit., 

the devil) ; it appeared in the night 



GENUINE kOMANV COMPOSITIONS. 587 

Didas-les nianghi, He gave it to me. Dino sas manghi, It 
was given to me. 

Eiav^la, 71., Understanding. Volunteered, in answer to my 
inquiry for the Romanes of " I do not understand 
you." ? * Hi ! he's coming ! ' (used as a signal.) 

Yon ghiavenna, They are singing. 

Godlieskro, ;/., Bell. 

Hev = minsh. /////aarus, /?., Hill. Hingher = Hinder. 

Ho;\;tamangro, ;/., Toad. Holon, ;/., Landlord. 

Jinova monghi, I know. Me jinova sor, I know everything. 
Too jinessa sor, Thou knowest everything. 

Jas amenghi, or, Jas asar menghi, ^r, Jolta, Let us go. 

Lensa jas'rf yolf. She went with them. Janna ti o;j^ten, They 
will jump (lit., They are going to jump). Jom 
odolf mi kokero, I went there alone. Yolf ghids, 
She went. 

Kandela, It stinks. 

Ke-div6z, To-day. Kaliko divez, Yesterday. Ke-raati, 
To-night. Kaliko raati, Last night. Ke-saula, 
This morning. Kaliko saula, To-morrow morning. 

Kerav o mas, Boil the meat. O mas see kedo, The meat 
is boiled. 

Komds (? komova) ti la-les, I would like to have it. 

Kesserova kek, or Kek kesserova monghi, I don't care. 

Lakro, Hers. Jom Idsa, I went with her. Sov lasa, coifre. 
Jom lensa, I went with them. 

'Doi* see mauro, ta mas, ta lovina ; ta so see dol popli, 
There is bread, and meat, and what is there be- 
sides. 

Ladjer o moosh, Shame the faian. Vdrter how he lulleri-. 
Look ! how he blushes. Lullerova, I am blushing. 

Koro, Blind. Kurri, Tin. Mootska, Skin. 

Nei-les kek lovo, He has no money. 

0%tenna, They jump. Janna ti o^j^^ten, They will jump. 

Kek pand6m okdw sor o raati, I never closed my eyes all 
night. 

Pardel mandi/^r yeka, Forgive me for once. 



288 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

Pek o mas, Roast the meat. Pekova mas, I will roast the 
meat. O mas see pek6, The meat is roasted. 

Poorda^, Stairs. Stor-peerengro, Frog. 

Repper toot, Remember. 

Sastermangro, An iron-grey horse. Slugus, ;/., Slug. 

Shomas kino, I was tired. Shanas kin6. Were you tired ? 
Sor kino shamas, We were all tired. Sor lendi 
sas kino tei, They were all tired too. 

Sov, v,y CoYre. Sooter, il, To sleep. 

Strangli, ;/., Onion = poorumi. 

Tarder, v,, To stretch. Tre o saula, In the morning. 

Vartinimi, They are watching us. 

Vissa wi' mandi tald koo kitchema } Will you go with me 
down to the inn ? 

Yov vids, He came. Sor mendi vidm, We all came. 

Kek mandi can roker Wolshitikka, I cannot talk Welsh. 
Wolsho, ;/. pr,, Wales. Wolshenengro, ;/., Welsh- 
man. 





Wm- 


T.011, 




Farthing. 


Posh-hori, 




Halfpenny. 


Hori, hauri, 




Penny. 


D00Y-, trin-, stor-, hori, 


Twopence, threepence, four 






pence. 


Pandj hori, 




Fivepence. 


Shohauri, shookori. 




Sixpence. 


Trin-gorishi, koli, 




Shilling. 


Deshto-kori, 




Eighteenpence. 


Pansh-kolaw, koorona, 


Crown, five shillings. 


Posh-koorona, 




Half-crown. 


Balans, bar. 




Sovereign, pound. 


Posh balans, 




Half-sovereign. 


K6tor, 




Guinea. 


Posh-k6tor, 




Half-guinea. 


Panshengro, 




Five-pound note. 



APPENDIX. 



After 19th line, insert, — 1547, Boorde, Dr. Andrewe, 
"The first Boke of the Introduction of Knowledge, made 
by Andrew Boorde of Physyche Doctor," reprinted 1870, 
edited by F. J. Furnivall, M.A., Trinity Hall, Cambridge, 
and published for Early English Text Society, by Triibner 
and Co., London ; p. 218. See also " The Academy," July 
2Sth, 1874, p. 100. "The earliest known Specimen of the 
Gypsy Language," by F. J. Furnivall. 

Note. — The specimen referred to occurs in Chapter xxxviii., which 
" treteth of Egypt, and of theyr mony and of theyr speche," and com- 
prises thirteen sentences in all, which we insert here in extenso : — 

Good morrow ! Lack ittur ydyues I 

How farre is it to the next towne ? Cater my la barforas ? 

You be welcome to the towne. Maysta ves barforas, 

Wyl you drynke some wine ? Mole pis lauena ? 

I wyl go wyth you. A vauatosa. 

Sit you downe, and dryncke. Hyste lenpee, 

Drynke, drynke, for God sake ! Pe, pe, dene lasse I 

Mayde, geue me bread and wyne ! Ackae, da mai manor la veue I 

Geue me fleshe ! Da mai masse ! 

Mayde, come hyther ! harke a worde ! Achae, a wordey susse I 

Geue me aples and peeres ! Da maipaba la ambrell! 

Much good do it you ! Iche misto ! 

Good nyght ! Lachira tut I (Pp. 2 1 7, 2 1 8. ) 

That Boorde collected these phrases from Gypsies, and not from 
" Egfipcions,** no one who knows anything about the language can have 
the slightest doubt. His description, moreover, of the people is very 
graphic : — 

19 



290 APPENDIX. 

"The people of the country be swarte, and doth go dlsgisyd in 
theyr apparel, contrary to other nacyons; they be lyght fyngerd, 
and vse pyking; they haue litle maner^ and euyl loggyng, & yet 
they be pleas(a)unt daunsers. Ther be few or none of the Egipcions 
that doth dwell in Egipt, for Egipt is repleted now with infydele 
alyons." 

It may also be safely assumed that Boorde obtained his examples 
from English Gypsies, seeing that a trace of English is evident in 
combination with Gypsy proper. Thus in his tenth sentence occurs 
the expression " a wordty susse (tusa) = a word with thee. Most of 
Boorde's sentences have been dissected and explained in a previous 
portion of our work. According to Professor Miklosich, to Dr. Zupitza 
of Vienna, belongs the honour of having first recognized the true 
character of our English Doctor's examples of "Egipt speche,' 
which are admitted to be the oldest known specimens of the Gypsy 
language. 

It is a curious circumstance that modem research should be 
indebted to two of our own countrymen for the earliest ethnographical 
and linguistic data which have been found relating to the Gypsy race. 
The first historical reference to the Gypsies occurs in the work of 
an Irishman, entitled "Itinerarium Symonis Simeonis et Hug^nis 
Illuminatoris ad Terram Sanctam," primus emit ediditque Jacobus 
Nasmith, A.M., S.A.S., Cantab., MDCCLXXViil., Ex. Cod. MS., in 
Bibliotheca ColL Corp. Christi Cant, No. 407. Simon Simeon vel 
Simeonis (Fitz Simeon, in the vernacular), * was a Minorite of the rule 
of St. Francis, of a Convent established in Dublin, from which city, in 
company with another friar, Hugh the Illuminator, he conmienced his 
pilgrimage on the 15th of April, 1322.' He informs the readers of his 
Itinerary, in somewhat Quixotic language, that having ' despised the 
summit of honour,' he was inflated with the Seraphic ardour of visiting 
the Holy Land.' ( Vide " Retrospective Review," 2nd Series, vol. 1 1, 
pp. 232 — 254.) On their way the two friars made a short stay in the 
island of Crete, where, it appears, they saw the Gypsies, whom Fitz- 
Simepn described in a passage to which Bryant originally directed 
attention. M. Bataillard, of Paris, has recently pointed out that it 
referred to the island of Crete, and not to Cypms, as had been pre- 
viously supposed. There are some small verbal inaccuracies in 
Bryant's transcript of this passage, which would be scarcely worth 
indicating if they had not been repeated by most subsequent writers, 
who seem not to have verified the quotation by consulting the prime 
authority. The passage taken Verbatim from Nasmith, the first and 
last editor of the "Itinerarium," (p. 17, lines 21—31,) stands thus: 
" Ibidem et vidimus gentem extra civitatem ritu Gra^comm utenteni, et 
de genere Chaym se esse asserentem, quae raro vel nunquam in }oco 



APBENDIX. 291 

^}iquo moratur ultra xxx dies, sed semper velut a deo maledicta vaga 
et profuga post xxx™ diem de campo in campum cum tentoriis parvis 
oblongis nigris et humilibus ad modum Arabum, et de cavema in 
cavemam discurrit ; quia locus ab eis /^habitatus post dictum terminum 
efficitur plenus vermibus et aliis immunditiis, cum quibus impossibile 
est r<?habitare." 

Page S, after 14th line, insert: 1874.^" The Times," 
July 21, 2nd coL, p. i, an announcement in Romanes of 
Mr. Hub. Smith's marriage to Esmeralda Lock ; repeated 
in "The Guardian," July 22; — also, "Illustrated London 
News," October 31, p. 214, an announcement in Romanes 
of Romany Ballads, by Prof. Palmer, Mr. Leland, and 
Miss Tuckey. 



%V&XKiMt. 



NOUN. 

Page 14. — After paragraph commencing " Besides," add 
"According to M. VaiUant, (Grammaire Rommane, Paris, 
1868, p. 37,) the Roumanian Gypsy noun forms its genitive 
in -esko, m,, -eski, /., and the genitives of the pronouns 
(40) are sing.^ manki, tuki, leski, laki ; //., amenki, tumenki, 
lenki ; while the possessive adjectives (41,) are sing,, maro, 
tiro, lesko, amaro, tumaro, lengo ; //., miri, tiri, leski, amari, 
tumari, lenj'i. The agreement in this respect, as otherwise, 
between the two dialects is remarkable." 

Page IS, line 14. — Akoro,^ vide Anitrakero (Anghiterra- 
kero), Welsh Gypsy. Also in the two insults, Ti doki hev 
(Lieb., dakri), and Mi booliokri. 

Page 16. — Plural, — Sometimes the plural ends in /, and 
probably results from a softening of the final / sound, which 
is a common plural termination in the deep dialect. 

Page 21. — Nouns peculiar to tlie dialect. — We have since 
met with several of these words in foreign Gypsy Vocabu- 
laries. 



292 APPENDIX. 

Page 22. — After Class /., read, "Similar terminations 
forming abstract nouns are frequent in the Roumanian 
Gypsy dialect ; vide Vaillant." 

ADJECTIVE. 

Page 23. — Rankano (fomem) and kiska (god) occur in 
Sundt. Latcho is inserted in our vocabulary, but we have 
only met with it once {vide Welsh Gypsies). On one 
occasion we heard an English Gypsy use Tatcho diwus 
for Kooshto or Latcho diwus. Lachi and comp. Lachittur 
are met with in Boorde. 

VERB. 

Page 35. — Av, Rov, Siv, Sov, Tov, etc. 
Av-diVdij Rov-diva, Siv-SLVSL, etc. 
According to some authorities, the first v in these verbs 
really forms part of the root (vide Pasp., Pott, etc.) A 
comparison with the Sanscrit supports this view. 

Page 36. — ^To follow iSth line, ist pers., pi., -dsa, -as. 
We have met with the forms -assa, -as, -essa, for the ist 
pers., pi., pres. and fut., e.g., Doi viendi atchessa, or atckassa. 
There we will stop. 

Page 37. — We have met with several examples of the 
1st pers., pi., of the perfect ending in d^n, e.g., koord^m 
{koordo + shem), We fought. Chid^m (chido + s/tem) We 
put. 

Page 40. — To follow Past Participle : — 

The Passive voice is formed, in deep Romanes, by the 
past participle preceded by one of two auxiliary verbs. 

1st. By the verb to be, shorn, shan, see, etc., q.v. 

Examples. 

Mandi s/iom mooklo sor kokero, I am left all alone. 
Yov sas dikno, He was seen. 

Yov sas anlo apr^ adr^ dova tent. He was brought up 
in that country. 



APPENDIX. 293 

2nd. By the verb to become, ^wel^ V^/, etc., q.v., especially 
when the future is to be expressed. 

Examples. 
O grei te vel panic. The horse will be pounded. 
Mandi te vel kerdo, I shall (or should) be done (for). 

Compare 'vel and \vel with Dr. Paspati, page 80. 
Uvav{d), Uves{d)y Uvel{d), etc. Dr. Paspati first pointed 
out the existence of the verb Uvava, to become, which had 
always been previously confounded with Avava, to come. 

PRONOUNS. 

Pages 42, 43. — ^The promiscuous use of dative and accusa- 
tive forms for the accusative is also met with in the 
German Gypsy dialect (vide Liebich, p. 102). 

The pronoun in the dative is frequently found following 
verbs, and then apparently often partakes of the nature of 
a reflective pronoun, e.g., — 

Besh-tooki 7/, Sit yourself down. 
Hoxter-tookiy Jump ; Praster-tooki, Run. 
Holova-les inonghi, I will eat it myself. 
Ghids'peski, He took himself off. 

See Pasp., e.g^ p. 608, sentence 40, kamadjdv indnghe, 
jc m'en irai. 



pictbuariT. 



The following words were omitted, or have been since 
collected : — 

BooYn6va, v,, I boast. See Bool'no 

He hoQiins his kokero, He praises himself Note: 

BooYnelopus, p. 61, is probably Boofnela pes 

Dikomengri, ) ,,- , 
DiksomengriJ Watchers, watchmen 

Dikomeskro hev, Window 



294 APPENDIX. 

DooYeni^ Second 

Gaveskro (gavengro), Policeman 

Jindo moosh, Scholar 

Kitchemeskro, Innkeeper 

Klisinomengro, Lock 

Koosh, ;/. and v., Lie, falsehood ; cf, Pasp., kushipe 

Moskro (mooshkero), Constable 

MumpdXM% Mumper 

Okki, add " (hokki) ; cf. Pasp., akd^ ceci 

Okki, lel-les tooti. Here ! take it ! 

Okki, a rei wela 'kei, Look out, there is a gentleman 
coming here ! " 
Panomeskri-gav, Watering-place 
Peker, v,^ To roast ; Pekedo, p, part., Roasted 
Raatenghi kova. Nitre 
Roomus, Romanes 
Shoonomus,) -^ 
bhoonopen, ) 

Stanyamengro, Stableman 
Staromeskri^i", Prisoners 
Spongo, Match 
Tatchomus, Truth 

Tatti-peerengri, Irish, i.e.y hot (blooded) tramps 
Trasherftiengro-kova, Lightning 
Tilomeskro, Pot-hook 
Weshenghi-chiriklo, Wood-pigeon. 

See also the following Tales. 



[Want of space prevents our giving Translations.] 



THE BALL. 

N6 chavoli, too jassa mansa kater dova bitto ivelgauro 
tediwus } Mandi jinova yek koshto kair ddre o bittjb gav 



APPENDIX. 295 

— shot-okono kair see — kei see bauro kehV-kamora. Pendds 
o rauni kater mandi o waver diwus, te wel te yoi'^ kair te 
bosher opr6 o welgauro dlvviis, yoi dela mandi posh-kotor, 
ta sor meero hoben, ta piamus, te atchova odoi sor raati, te 
wel m6 te komova. Too wel mandi, too lela posh so mandi 
lelova. Bosherds too mansa ? 

Our. Jova m6 toosa. Nastfs mandi bosherova sar 
koshto sar too, jin&s. Mandi kairova o feterddr tastfs. 

Ava-td kon ! Jaw menghi ! 

" Sar shan, Rauni ?'* 

" Sar shan," hotchi yoi. " Too vids kon ?" 

" Our, Rauni/' 

" Lelessa tumendi chomoni te hoi, wonka too jala opr6 
te kel ?" 

" Our, Rauni, sar kom^ssa, parikerdw toot." 

Besht^m mendi tal^ 'glal o misali. Dosta hoben sas 
opre lesti. Hod6m ta pid^m, so mendi komdds. Talla 
mendi ghidm opr6 o p5das. Boshaddrti koosi. Kanna-sig 
dosta ta dosta raunia ta reidw vi6n adre. Komd6 men 
mishto. Boshaddm adrd dova kamora sor raati. Yon 
keld6 sor o raati mishto tei, raunikana dromdw {quadrilles, 
valses, elc, not hornpipes), Mendi kedem mishto lertdi tei. 
Talla mendi kedd bosher/;/' lendi, yon, ta o shorokono rei, 
del'^ mendi pansh kotordw. Pend^ te mendi. "Waver 
cheerus mendi wela akei." A vaver besh tiiendi kelova 
lendi ^popli. 

A PRACTICAL JOKE. 

Yekera, kanna tarno tatcho rinkeno dikomusti chavo sas 
m6, ghi6m kater a rauneski loobno kair. Rid6m mi kokero 
adr^ tai-no joovelV rivomus. Pandad6m meero kokero opr^ 
tatcho, pensa rinketlc) tarno joovel. Meero bal sas bdot 
opr6 mi shoro, dosta lesti, sar wodser^/parddl meeri j)ikd. 
Kaulo sas, pensa chirikloV poryaj. 

Kanna sig yek 0^ lendi pobtchdds mandi, te atch opr6 ta 
kel. "Our," hotchi yoi, "mAtidi jlnova sot teero folki 
^ kelela mi«ht6." 



296 APPENDIX. 

Talla mandi atchdds opr6 te kerova wi lendi. Kanna 
yon dikt^ (sar) mandi ker*rf, yon pend6 kater mandi, " Kek 
nanef too a joovel, too keressa 'jaw mishto. Kek tarno 
joovel kerassa pensa too. Too see a moosh, tatcho dosta. 
Dikova tei." Vidn kater mandi. Tardad^ meero cho^a 
ta shooba opr6. Talla dikt^ mooshkeni rivopen opre 
mandi, sor o kair d lendi sad6 koshto dosta te maur lenghi 
koker^. 

Talla yon dela mandi sorkon kova, mol, ta tatto paani, 
ta vaniso te piova, komde mandi *jaw boot. Yon pend^, 
kekera yon dikt6 jafra kova kedo ajAw adr^ lenghi 
meriben. 



THE PUGILIST. 

Kanna shorn (shomas) m6 tarno moosh, kek na kessadom 
troostdl vaniso moosh, bitto d bauro. Feterddr sas o moosh, 
feterddr mandi komd^ lesti. Kek mandi charer^^ o bitto 
mooshdw. Nanef lendi koshto dosta mandi. 

Mandi jindom koorova vaniso moosh, gaujd ta Romani- 
chalaw. Mandi shomas o feterddr bitto moosh adrd [o] 
Stor Temdw. Kek-komeni koorela man. Yon sor jindds, 
(^^ jind6) dova. 

Kanna yon dikd man, yon penenna yek to waver, " Kova 
see o feterddr bitto moosh troostdl sor mooshdw so ever 
dikt6m. Jaw sig si-16 adr6 lesko koor/V. Yov dela troostdl 
lesti wastdw, pensa o bitto grei. Kek yov kesser^^ \,for\ 
kek moosh so yov koordds. Yov koordds sor o feterddr 
Romani-chaldw adr6 lesko temdw." Yov penela kondw, te 
pooro si-16s, yov koorela vaniso pooro moosh adr6 Anghi- 
terra. Lesko nav see jinlo mishto kater sorkon Romani- 
chaldw. Yov penela lesko kokero, keker nanei yov koordno. 
Kek moosh adr6 Anghiterra, kek nanef koordds lesti adr6 
sor leski meriben. 

Yek Romano moosh koordds te lesti, chiv'^ lesti avrf 
lesti jinomus bitto koosi chairus. Yov atchdds oprd popli 
te koor yov, but kek o waver moosh wela, ta lesti [o Romano 



APPENDIX. 297 

moosh] ghids kater Drabengro te ratcher {bleed) lesti, keker 
o Drabengro kela 'jaw, yov koordno sas 'jaw wafedo. 

WHY WESTER WONT EAT MUTTON. 

Mandi shomas yekera adrd o lilef jala {goin^ parddl o 
poovydw. Dikt6in bokrengro {or bazengro), kooser/«' te 
yoosherela bokrd. Sor sas (or si-16) pardal wafedd tandw, 
sor parddl lenghi shord, ta lenghi pikd, posh hodno taI6, ta 
kandds pensa a hindo-kair. O bokrengro sas draberm' d 
lendi, te sor Ifiad^ koH (^ags) chivV parddl lenghi shor6. 
Yov sas draben«' d lendi, pensa o wafedo hotchado moosh. 

Talla dova mandi pend6m, kek mandi hola bokro'j mas 
kek-komi, vonka md jiv. 



(Note to page 197, line 20.) 

Gypsies everywhere evince a strong love for music, but 
their talents in this respect appear to greater advantage in 
foreign lands than in this country. With our Engh'sh 
Gypsies the favourite instruments are the tambourine and 
the ' boshomengri,' or fiddle, especially the latter, and we 
know several good executants on the strings. One of the 
most gifted and renowned violinists among the Gypsies, in 
recent times, was a man named Horsery Gray, who died 
some years ago. We have been told by a Romani-chal that 
when Horsery had heard a tune he could play it off straight- 
way, putting in such " variations, grace-notes, shakes, and 
runs," that none of his confreres could compare with him. 
He played entirely by ear, and not from notes. The gaujos 
sent for him from long distances to hear his hornpipes. 

When an old acquaintance of ours, Charley Boswell, lost 
a favourite child, he refused to be comforted, abstained 
from food, becoming much emaciated in consequence, and 
spent all his time for several weeks after the child's 
death in playing on his fiddle. He seemed to find his only 
consolation in confiding his grief to his instrument, and 



ZgH APPENDIX. 

touching chords which responded In sympathy with his 
own sad mood. 

The Gypsy is always foremost among the *' feast-finding 
minstrels" which attend our English fairs and country 
wakes. He is to be seen in his glory at a * kelopen ' or 
frolic, when the mirth grows fast and furious, as with 
flashing eyes and excited mien he flourishes his fiddle- 
bow and plays the music which keeps in time the flying 
feet of the dancers. The Gypsy girls are not averse to air 
their accomplishments on these occasions, and exhibit the 
same lightness of toe and natural grace which are said to 
distinguish their continental sisters. Highly favoured is 
the village swain who has a " dark ladye " from the tents 
for his partner in the dance. 

There are no English tunes with which we are acquainted 
which can be said to be peculiarly Gypsy. The Ahh6 
Listz has made an extensive collection of Gypsy airs in 
the Slavonic provinces of the Austrian Empire, where 
Gypsies abound. "The natives dwelling on the Danube 
— Hungarians, Moldavians, Slavonians, Wallachians, and 
others — owe their music to the Gypsies, . . . and many 
of their melodies have become the national airs of those 
countries. Their music has been principally developed on 
the hospitable soil of Hungary, and from thence it has 
spread all over the Danubian Principalities. The Magyars 
have adopted them as their national musicians, and tihere 
is hardly a village without their minstrels called Lautars." 
— Vide Preface to "Gypsy Melodies, etc.," by Charles K. 
Laporte (London, Augener and Co.) ; also, " Die Zigeuner 
und ihre Musik in Ungarn, von Franz Listz, 



CORRIGENDA. 



Page 

xiii, line 4 from foot, for * Tchinglanes* read ' Tchinghian6s ' 
xxi, „ 19, for ' sedo ' read ' sedeo ' 
5* V 9, for '11' read '17* 

6, „ 24, after ' ee * read * and final / ' 

7, „ 1 3, dele * or liable to inflection ' 

14, „ 25, for *stdrdi' read ^ staddV 

15, >y 27, after ' Prayer ' add ' in ' 

18, „ 8, after 'k^V add * oxjdla keri^ and dele * or, yov 
see ghilo ker^, he is (has) gone home' 

22, last line, for ' battle * read ' dealings * 

24, line 24, for 'Singular,' 'Plural,' read 'Masculine,' 
' Feminine ' 

26, dele first paragraph 

35, line 9, for ' sheep ' read ' sleep ' 

38, „ 8, for ' boughtedst ' read * boughtest ' 

44, „ 2'j^dele from 'of* to ^peske^ and add, * Peski is 

generally used as a reflective pronoun, cf. Pasp., 

peSyp^ske^ 
46, line 23, for ' avree^ 'vreel here and elsewhere read 

46, last lines, for ' Tooostdt, TrrSstall read ' Troostdl, 

Trodsial' 
48, line 17, after ' following * read ' five * 
48, >, 29, for ^dodvored, dodvore^* read * doovori, doovorV 
52, ,, 15, add '(d611a,) Pasp., odol(S* ; last line, for 

* t»ikoyno * read ' bikonyo ' 



300 . CORRIGENDA. 

Page 

55, for ' Bangarde ' read ' Bdngaree * 

71, line 10, for ' -shtS' read '-ohtS' 

75, „ 16, for ' navel * read ' umbilical cord * 

81, „ 14, add ^ cf, "Lich,, £y7sm, das Gericht, das Amt' 

88, „ 20, for 'jdudardka, shawl,' read 'jdnddrdka, 

Frauenrock ' 
95> » 6, after ' ad/.' add * and pron.* 
95, lines 18, 19, 20, cancel from 'Pasp/ to 'alone,* and 

substitute ' Pott, ii., 107 * 
98, line 19, for ' ? Pasp., tchdrdava ' read * Pasp., akardva * 

loi, „ 25, for * Iddipen ' read * ladjipen ' 

103, ,, 8,de/e'her' 

113, » 10, for 'it' read 'is' 

114, „ 1 1, for ' ler * read ' les (lesti) ' 

124, lines 4 and 5, should be in the first margin 

131, line 24, for ' road ' read * rod ' 

133* » 17* add ' iir ; line 22, for ' d/sio/o ' read ' disiola ' 

I34> » 3» for * are to us ' read ' are (have) we ' 

137, „ 2 from foot, for ' ken sigaw' read * kendw sig ' 

141, „ Jyiox ' sti^f xtdiA' stief^ 

I47> >i i> for ' kovd ' read ' k6va ' ; and line 8, for ' dova' 

read ' d6va ' 
151, ,) 23, for * ^/a, come ! ' read ' avdva, to come; tivdva, 

to become ' 
189, „ 9, dele *,' after * diwus^j ' 
195, „ 2 1 , for ' dsiturb ' read * disturb ' 

219, „ 9, for ' Doovolesko ' read ' Doovelesko ' 

220, „ 7, for ' tootf * read 'tooti ' 
230, „ 5, for ' toti ' read ' tooti ' 

23 5> » 23, for ' meeripen ' read ' meripen ' 

237, „ 2 from foot, dele *a ' 

238, „ 16, for ' bar ' read ' bor ' 
245, „ 19, after * grass ' add ' ) ' 



INDEX. 





PAGE 




PAGE 


Title Page. 




Trails . . . .198 


Dedication. 




Lament on the Decay of 


Preface . . . , 


V 


the Language . . . 200 


Introduction . 


• • 

. vn 


Eheu Fugaces . 


. 201 


Grammar :— 




Funeral Rites . 


. 202 


Bibliography of the Dialect 


I 


Horse-dealing . 


. 203 


Etymology 


. 5 


Zuba B 


. 204 


Orthography 


6 


Kokeri Indiki . 


. 208 


Accent . . . . 


. 7 


The White Dog 


. 208 


Letter Changes, Elisions, et 


c. 8 


In Prison . 


. 209 


Article 


. lO 


Remarks on Mixed Mar- 


Noun 


II 


riages . . . .210 


Adjective . 


. 23 


Tales :— 


Adverb . . * . 


• 29 


The Mumper's Artful 


Auxiliary Verb . 


• 30 


Dodge . . . .211 


Verb .... 


• 32 


The Knowing Irishman .212 


Pronoun . . . , 


41 


King Edward and the 


Numerals . . . . 


45 


Gypsy .... 215 


Prepositions 


46 


The Thief . . . .216 


Syntax, Idioms, etc. . 


47 


The Fairies . . .217 


Dictionary :— 




How Petalengro went to 


Gypsy-English Vocabulary 


51 


Heaven .... 219 


Appendix to same 


158 


Translations :— 


English- Gypsy Vocabulary 


' 163 


The Cock and the Diamond 223 


Compositions ; Customs :- 


— 


How the Dog lost his Meat 223 


Introduction 


191 


The Fox and his Tail . 224 


Pitching a Tent 


, 192 


The Wolf and the Lamb . 225 


Choosing a Camp 


■ 193 


Pater Noster . . .225 


The Ghost . 


. 194 


Creed .... 226 


A Caution . . . . 


195 


Ten Commandments . . 226 


The Haunted Camp . 


. 195 


The Lord is my Shepherd 228 


Supper-time 


. 197 


The Seven Loaves Miracle 229 


Hedgehog Hunting anc 


I 


Love your Enemies , .229 


Gypsy Cake • 


• 197 


The Widow's Son , 


. 23Q 



302 



1K0EX. 



r\CM. 

The Supper . 230 

The Prodigal Son .231 

The Rich Man and Lazarus 233 
Zacchaeus .... 234 
The Good Shepherd . • . 235 
Miscellaneous :— 
Tempora Mutantur . . 236 
Speed the Parting Guest . 236 
The Child's Caul . . 237 
Nausea .... 237 
Stag Hunt .... 238 
An Assault . . 238 

Hiding .... 238 
Washing, shopping, etc . 238 
Stealing a Wife . . .239 
Sickness and Recovery . 239 
In Debt .... 240 
Ipse Dixit .... 240 
A Reminder . . 241 

A Proud Man . . 242 

A Pedestrian , . 242 

The Licence . . . 242 
The Greyhound . . 242 

The Frog .... 243 
The Gypsy's Cat . . 243 
Squabble .... 243 
Apple Tree . . . 244 
Polite Inquiries . . . 244 
The Knowing Horse-dealer 245 



Wester :— 
Autobiography 
Codlii^ Gap 



tJkCm 

246 

247 
248 

248 

252 



Letters 
Genealogy . 
Dialogues : — 
Three from the ist Edition 254 



At Dinner . 

Extracts from our 
books 

Paspati's Sentences 
pared 
New Dialect :— 

The Bengauler . 

The Three Words 

The Chase 

Ike's Dog . 

Pumping . 

FcMreign Gypsies 

The Broken Head 

Innocence . 

An Inquiry 
Welsh Gypsies 
Money. 
Appendix . 
Corrigenda 
Table of Contents 



Note- 



com- 



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263 
272 

273 
274 
276 

277 
278 

279 

283 
284 

284 

285 

288 

289 

299 
301 



Watson & Hazell, Printers, London and Aylesbur)'. 



-■ Jy 



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