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Full text of "The dialect of the English gypsies"

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THE DIALECT 



ENGLISH GYPSIES 



BY 

B. C. SMART, M.D., & H. T. CROFTON. 



SECOND EDITION. 
REVISED AND GREATLY ENLARGED. 



LONDON : 
AS HER AND CO., 

13, BEDFORD STREET, CO VENT GARDEN. 
1S75. 

{All Rights Reserved.) 



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V 



TO 

DR. ALEXANDRE G. PASPATI, 

OF CONSTANTINOPLE, AUTHOR OF 

'etudes sur les tchinghianes de l' empire ottoman,' 
IN token of their high appreciation 

OF HIS VALUABLE WORK, 

AND IN ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF THE GREAT ASSISTANCE 

THEY HAVE DERIVED THEREFROM 

IN PROSECUTING KINDRED RESEARCHES, 

THIS MONOGRAPH, 

ON THE DIALECT OF THE ENGLISH GYPSIES, 

IS WITH HIS KIND PERMISSION, 
INSCRIBED BY 

THE AUTHORS. 



NOTE ON ERRATA. 



The critical reader is particularly referred to the 
list of " Corrigenda " at the end of this volume, to 
rectify various typographical and other inaccuracies 
which have been inadvertently overlooked in revising 
the proofs. 



PREFACE. 



LITTLE requires to be said by way of preface to 
the present work, unless it be in reference to its 
conjoint authorship. Although termed a Second Edition, 
and so far as one of its authors is concerned being but 
an extension of his previously published researches, yet 
it is far from being a r^iauffe of a prior publication. 
It has received such additions to its material, and under- 
gone such changes in its arrangement, that we think it 
may fairly be described, in the prevalent language of the 
day, as having passed through a process of evolution 
from a lower to a higher stage of development. The 
infusion into the work of fresh blood, and the contact 
with younger enthusiasm, have stirred a somewhat stag- 
nating interest, and awakened a zymotic activity, which 
have led to combined and successful efforts to obtain 
further facts to fill former vacancies. 

From a critical point of view, a book is apt to suffer 
from the confusion of style and want of unity which are 
the almost necessary features of literary partnership. 
Such considerations, however, are of little moment in 
connection with a scientific treatise which depends for 
its value, not upon manner, but upon matter. There are 
even in questions of fact positive advantages to be gained 
by collaboration, and notably the increased authority 



VI PREFACE. 

which a statement derives from the corroboration of a 
second observer. Accordingly, we have in most instances 
carefully tested each other's results before adopting them 
as our own. 

In the following pages we have endeavoured accurately 
to record facts as we found them, and to present them to 
our readers untinctured by the personal medium through 
which they are transmitted. Whatever be the merits or 
defects of our undertaking, we claim an equal share of 
the praise or blame which may be bestowed upon it. 

BATH C. SMART. 

HENRY THOMAS CROFTON. 

Manchester, 

June it^th, 1874. 



INTRODUCTION. 



IN the year 1861 a short paper on the "Language of 
the English Gypsies" was read by one of the authors 
of the present work before the Ethnological Section of 
the British Association, then holding its annual meeting 
at Manchester. This paper was chiefly based upon a 
vocabulary which was submitted to the inspection of the 
members of the Section, and which the author, at that 
time a very young man engaged in the study of medi- 
cine, had himself collected in the tents of various Gypsy 
tribes. Subsequently this vocabulary was presented to the 
London Philological Society, in conjunction with some 
remarks upon Grammar, and is to be found printed in its 
Transactions for the year 1 86^, where it is entitled " The 
Dialect of the English Gypsies, by Bath C. Smart, M.D." 
Since the publication of this contribution towards a fuller 
knowledge of English Romanes, little has been written 
on the subject in this country of any scientific preten- 
sion, until the recent works of Borrow and Leland issued 
from the press. Both these writers have dealt with Gypsy 
topics in their own peculiar way. The picturesque man- 
nerism of Mr. Borrow's well-known style, his roving ex- 
perience, and evident sympathy with Bohemian life and 
character, impart a charm to all his works quite inde- 
pendent of their linguistic value. The latest production 



VUl INTRODUCTION. 

of his pen is the first systematic treatise he has written 
on the English Gypsy dialect, which is only referred to 
casually in his previous publications. Whatever be the 
judgment passed upon his labours from a philological 
point of view, to him must be conceded the crown as the 
facile princeps of English Gypsy writers. His infectious 
enthusiasm awakens in the hearts of even staid, respect- 
able readers a dangerous longing for the freedom of the 
wilds ; and disposes them to admire, if not to emulate, 
the example of the Oxford scholar, whose romantic story 
Mr. Matthew Arnold has commemorated in elegant verse. 
He, chafing within the "studious walls" of his college, 
sick of the culture " which gives no bliss," at length broke 
through the restrictions and conventional proprieties of 
his stately Alma Mater, and, yielding to the "free on- 
ward impulse" of a nomadic nature, 

" One summer morn forsook 
His friends, and went to learn the Gypsy lore, 
And roamed the world with that wild brotherhood, 
And came, as most men deemed, to little good." 

Mr, Leland in his work has subordinated the scientific 
to the popular clement ; and in so doing has evoked, as 
he probably intended, a wider interest in his subject than 
if he had confined his remarks within severer limits. 

The books of both these authors will well repay the 
perusal of those interested in Gypsy literature, but still . 
neither of them has exhausted the material to be obtained 
by a diligent investigator in the same field of research. 
Much good grain yet remains to be gathered in before 
the harvest be completed, and the record of this remark- 
able race be written in its full entirety. Here lies the 
raison d'etre of our own little treatise. We believe we 
have new matter to place before our readers, having col- 



INTRODUCTION. IX 

lected sufficient data to warrant us in attempting, what 
has not been done before in this country, a tolerably 
complete exposition of the grammatical forms and con- 
struction of the * deepest ' extant English Romanes, 
namely, that spoken by the oldest members of the 
families most renowned among the Gypsies themselves for 
a knowledge of their ancient tongue. 

These * fathers in Israel,' the 'jinomeskros' or pundits 
of their tribe, are well acquainted with words and idioms 
which are unfamiliar to their sons, and will be almost 
unintelligible to the generation which shall come after 
them. Little else than bare root-words are to be ob- 
tained from the modernized Gypsy of the period ; but in 
conversing with his patriarchal sire, 

" Whose spirit is a chronicle 
Of strange and occult and forgotten things," 

we have often been rewarded by hearing archaic terms 
and obsolete inflexions which, like the bones and eggs 
of the Great Auk, or the mummified fragments of a Dodo, 
are the sole relics of extinct forms. These need to be 
eagerly listened for and carefully treasured as the broken 
utterances of an expiring language. 

Among these conservators of ancient ways, we have 
met with no Gypsy anywhere who can be compared with 
our friend Sylvester Boswell, for purity of speech and 
idiomatic style. No 'posh-and-posh' mumper is he, but a 
genuine specimen of a fine old * Romani chal ' — a regular 
blue-blooded hidalgo — his father a Boswell, his mother 
a Heme — his pedigree unstained by base 'gaujo' admix- 
ture. We have been especially indebted to him both for 
his willingness to impart information and for the intelli- 
gence which has enabled him satisfactorily to elucidate 
several doubtful points in the language. We mention his 



X INTRODUCTION. 

name here with emphasis, because he himself wishes for 
some public acknowledgment of his services, and because 
we have pleasure in claiming for him a * double first' in 
classical honours, as a Romanes scholar of the 'deepest' 
dye. Sylvester habitually uses in his conversation what 
he calls the "double {i.e., inflected) words," and prides 
himself on so doing. He declares that he speaks just 
like his father and mother did before him, but that many 
of the younger folk around him do not understand him 
when he uses the old forms current in his early days. 
According to him, these degenerate scions of an ancient 
stock only speak the "dead {i.e., unin fleeted) words," and 
say, when at a loss for an expression, " Go to Wester, — 
he speaks dictionary." He aflirms that none can use the 
double words like some of the Hemes and Boswells ; that 
most of the old-fashioned ' Romani chals' are either dead 
or have left England for America or elsewhere; but that 
nevertheless some few remain scattered over the country, 
though even they have lost and forgotten a great deal* 
through constant intercourse with other Gypsies who only 
speak the broken dialect. To tell the truth, Wester him- 
self occasionally lapses from his lofty pedestal, and we 
have noted from his lips examples of very dog- Romanes. 
He would, however, often recover himself from these slips, 
and arrest our reporting pencil in mid-career with " Stop, 
don't put that down!" and, after thinking for a moment, 
would tell us the same thing in 'deep' Romanes, or even 
find on further reflection "in the lowest deep a deeper 
still." 

There are several dialects of the Anglo-Romanes. 
Sylvester Boswell recounts six : ist, that spoken by the 
New Forest Gypsies, having Hampshire for its head- 
quarters ; 2nd, the South-Eastern, including Kent and the 



INTRODUCTION. XI 

neighbourhood ; 3rd, the Metropolitan, that of London 
and its environs; 4th, the East Anglian, extending over 
Norfolk, Suffolk, Cambs, Lincolnshire, Northampton, and 
Leicestershire; 5th, that spoken in the ' Korlo-tem,* or 
Black Country, having Birmingham for its capital; 6th, 
the Northern. We do not altogether agree vi^ith this 
classification, but it is interesting as a Gypsy's own, and 
we give it for what it is worth. 

In addition, there is the Kirk Yetholm or Scotch Gypsy 
dialect, which is very corrupt, and anything but copious. 
Lastly, there is the Welsh Gypsy dialect spoken by the 
Woods, Williamses, Joneses, etc., who have a reputation 
for speaking 'deep,' but who mix Romani words with 
*Lavenes,* i.e., the language of the Principality. 

For practical purposes, the English Gypsy tongue may 
be conveniently considered as consisting of two great 
divisions, viz., — 

1st. The Common wide-spread corrupt dialect, "quod 
semper, quod ubique, quod ab omnibus," containing but 
few inflexions, and mixed to a greater or less extent with 
English, and conforming to the English method in the 
arrangement of the sentences. This is the vulgar tongue 
in every-day use by ordinary Gypsies.' 

2nd. The 'Deep' or old dialect, known only to a few 
aged Gypsies, which contains many inflexions and idioms ; 
which has its own 'ordo verborum;' which closely re- 
sembles the principal Continental Gypsy dialects, e.g., the 
German, Turkish, etc.; and which contains a minimum 
admixture of English words. This last, which will soon 
cease to exist, is par excellence the Gypsy language, of 
which the first is merely the corruption. 

Dialectical variations, whether local or tribal, un- 
doubtedly exist, and may perhaps help to explain the 



XU INTRODUCTION. 

discrepancies to be found in the writings of the different 
authors who have treated on the language of the English 
Gypsies. We think there is now sufficient evidence to 
enable us to estimate the nature and extent of topo- 
graphical peculiarities. The materials most available for 
this purpose are : ist, Dr. Richard Bright 's imperfect and 
scanty, but at the same time valuable, examples of the 
dialect of the Norwood Gypsies, published in 1818; 2nd, 
Colonel Harriot's very excellent vocabulary obtained from 
the New Forest Gypsies, published in 1830; 3rd, our own 
vocabulary, principally collected in the North of England, 
but partly in the Eastern Counties, first pubHshed in 1863; 
4th, the recent work of Mr. Leland, who appears to have 
conducted his researches principally in and around London, 
which may be taken to illustrate the pecuHarities of the 
Metropolitan district, published in 1873 ; lastly, the 
"Lavo-lil" of Mr. Borrow, published in 1874, who, being 
an old resident in Norfolk, might be regarded as the 
exponent of the East Anglian dialect, were it not for the 
intrinsic evidence in his writings that many of his words 
have been procured from various and wide-spread sources. 
A comparative examination of the data furnished by these 
works, and our own additional experience, strongly in- 
cline us to the opinion that mere locality has very little 
influence in the formation or limitation of a genuine 
Gypsy dialect. The 'deeper' {i.e., purer) Romanes a 
Gypsy speaks, irrespective of his whereabouts, the nearer 
he approximates to one common standard. The language 
of Dr. Bright's Norwood Gypsies in 181 8 closely resembles 
that of our Lancashire Boswells in 1874. 

Posh-Romanes, the corrupt broken dialect, is of course 
intermixed with provincialisms, and this varies in different 
parts of England. If an infusion of broad Yorkshire be 



INTRODUCTION. xiii 

the excipient, the resultant mixture is not the same as 
when the vehicle is East Anglian. Seeing that Gypsies 
speak English like that of the surrounding population, it 
must happen that in turning English colloquialisms into 
Romanes, they follow the prevailing idiom of the district 
they frequent, and thus may arise special modes of ex- 
pression. Romanes melts into the shape of the mould 
into which it is cast ; or, to change the metaphor, its 
stream may be said to take the course of the channel, 
and to become impregnated with the soil of the country, 
through which it flows. 

Our conclusion, then, is this : that local colouring does 
not affect Romanes proper, but only the medium in which 
it is conveyed. 

But if we attach little importance to territorial variation, 
we are inclined to admit the probability of there being 
tribal differences of dialect. Whether these depend on 
the greater or less time which has elapsed since the sepa- 
ration of particular tribes from their Continental brethren, 
or whether on original and longer-standing peculiarities, 
are only matters for conjecture. It is likely that the 
Gypsies did not invade this island in a body, but landed 
in successive detachments, and thus a straggling immi- 
gration may have extended over a considerable period, 
and in that case the latest arrivals might be expected to 
speak the deepest Romanes. At all events, it is now a 
fact that certain Gypsy families speak their own language 
better than others ; and words and idiomatic expressions 
habitually used in one tent may never be heard in another. 

Dr. Paspati, in his " Memoir on the Tchingianes of the 
Ottoman Empire," minutely discriminates between the 
idioms spoken respectively by the *Sedentaires* and the 
• Nomades.' The words in these two dialects, as he gives 



XIV INTRODUCTION. 

them, are sometimes so unlike as apparently to constitute 
separate branches of a common stock. In England, the 
distinction between the sedentary or settled Gypsies and 
their wandering brethren has not the significance which 
it has in Turkey, where, especially in the Danubian pro- 
vinces, there are many villages inhabited by Gypsies alone. 
Kirk-Yctholm is the only place in Great Britain where 
there is a Gypsy colony of any magnitude, although 
' kairengros,* or house-dwellers, are to be found scattered 
over the whole country. No general dialectical distinc- 
tion, however, can be drawn between English Gypsies on 
these grounds. Our Gypsy settlers assimilate their speech 
more or less closely to that of their neighbours, according 
as the rust of disuse, and the forgetful lapse of time, 
gradually obliterate their primitive language, until in a 
generation or two there are left but few and imperfect 
traces of their original mother-tongue. In spite of all that 
has been said by Mr. Simson, in his " History of the 
Gypsies," our own experience supports the conclusion 
that a settled life is not favourable to the preservation 
of the language, but that those who use it with greater 
average purity are those who travel about the most, and 
have therefore greatest need for a secret language, and 
more frequent opportunities for its exercise and cultiva- 
tion with others of their confraternity across whom they 
may come in the course of their wanderings. 

Most of our Gypsies cease their roving habits during 
the colder months of the year, and take up their abode in 
or near our larger towns. The houses they temporarily 
occupy there present the same empty appearance as is 
seen in the homes of the sedentary Gypsies in the East, 
The whole household will be found squatting on the floor, 
and dispensing with all unaccustomed articles of furniture. 



INTRODUCTION. XV 

Many families also resort to towns for shelter and con- 
venience during the winter, without abandoning their tent 
life. These encamp in unused yards, or on waste plots 
left for building purposes, for which they often pay a small 
ground-rent. The Gypsies' inveterate attachment to the 
tent in preference to a house is indicated, as Paspati points 
out, in their very language : thus, he says, the Turkish 
Gypsies have twenty words applicable to a tent and its 
appurtenances, but only two referring to a house. 

But the dignity of a town residence has few attractions 
even for the half-domesticated ' kairengro.' The nomadic 
instinct underlies his assumed character of a householder, 
and reappears as certainly as the traditional Tartar on 
scratching a Russian. With the first spring sunshine 
comes the old longing to be off; and soon is seen, issuing 
from his winter quarters, a little calvacade, tilted cart, 
bag and baggage, donkeys and dogs, 'rom, romni, and 
tickni chavis,' and the happy family is once more under 
weigh for the open country. With dark restless eye and 
coarse black hair fluttered by the fresh breeze, he slouches 
along, singing as he goes, in heart, if not in precise words, 

" I loiter down by thorpe and town ; 
For any job Pm willing; 
Take here and there a dusty brown, 
And here and there a shilling." 

No carpet can please him like the soft green turf, and 
no curtains compare with the snow-white blossoming 
hedgerow thorn. A child of Nature, he loves to repose 
on the bare breast of the great mother. As the smoke 
of his evening fire goes up to heaven, and the savoury 
odour of roast 'hotchi-witchi' or of 'canengri' soup salutes 
his nostrils, he sits in the deepening twilight drinking 
in with unconscious delight all the sights and sounds 



XVI INTRODUCTION. 

which the country affords. With his keen senses alive to 

every external impression, he feels that 

" 'Tis sweet to see the evenizig star appear ; 
'Tis sweet to listen as the night winds creep 
From leaf to leaf;" 

he dreamily hears the distant bark of the prowling fox 
and the melancholy hootings of the wood-owls ; he marks 
the shriek of the " night-wandering weasel," and the rustle 
of the bushes, as some startled forest-creature plunges into 
deeper coverts ; or perchance the faint sounds from a se- 
questered hamlet reach his ears, or the still more remote 
hum of a great city. Cradled from his infancy in such 
haunts as these, " places of nestling green for poets made," 
and surely for Gypsies too, no wonder if, after the fitful 
fever of his town-life, he sleeps well, with the unforgotten 
and dearly-loved lullabies of his childhood soothing him 

to rest, — 

" Beatus ille, qui procul negotiis, 
Ut prisca gens mortalium." 

Gypsies are the Arabs of pastoral England — the Bedouins 
of our commons and woodlands. In these days of material 
progress and much false refinement, they present the 
singular spectacle of a race in our midst who regard 
with philosophic indifference the much-prized comforts of 
modern civilization, and object to forego their simple life 
in close contact with Nature, in order to engage in the 
struggle after wealth and personal aggrandizement. These 
people, be it remembered, are not the outcasts of society; 
they voluntarily hold aloof from its crushing organization, 
and refuse to wear the bonds it imposes. The sameness 
and restraints of civil life ; the routine of business and 
labour; "the dull mechanic pacings to and fro;" the dim 
skies, confined air, and circumscribed space of towns ; the 
want of freshness and natural beauty ; — these conditions of 



INTRODUCTION. Xvii 

existence are for them intolerable, and they escape from 
them whenever they can. As in the present so in past 
time, their history for centuries may be written in the 
words of the Psalmist : " They wandered in the wilderness 
in a solitary way ; they found no city to dwell in." 

If we extend our survey beyond mere provincial limits, 
and examine the English Gypsy dialect in relation to 
geographical variation, we find that it has been influenced 
by the languages of different countries in a similar way 
to that described as operating over district areas. 

Dr. Franz Miklosich of Vienna, the well-known Sla- 
vonic scholar, has made a comparative study of the great 
geographical varieties of the Gypsy dialect in Europe. 
In the vocabulary of the Anglo-Scottish Gypsies, he finds 
Greek, Slavonic, Roumanian, Magyar, German, and French 
ingredients. He specifies thirty Slavonic and about an 
equal number of Greek words, which constitute the most 
important foreign elements in Anglo-Romanes ; and con- 
cludes that the Gypsies entered England after they had 
sojourned among Greeks, Slaves, Magyars, Germans, and 
French. 

But if the Anglo- Gypsies be regarded as travellers who 
arrived at their destination stained with the dust of the 
road along which their journey had lain, a special inte- 
rest has since attached to them on account of their more 
complete insulation in this sea-girt land than elsewhere, 
and their long separation from the cognate tribes of the 
Continent. It is curious to note in Anglo-Romanes the 
rarity or absence of certain words which seem to be in 
common use in other countries ; and, conversely, to find that 
our Gypsies have retained some words which are not met 
with in any other European Gypsy dialect. These will be 
especially referred to in a subsequent page. 

b 



Xviii INTRODUCTION. 

A detailed analysis of the English Gypsy Vocabulary 
shows that the number of roots is comparatively small. 
But it is interesting to observe, as illustrating the natural 
growth of all languages, how in these few elements resides 
a potentiality which renders the language equal to express 
the simple wants and ideas of a nomadic people. A 
Gypsy knows how to make the best use of his limited 
stock of words, and is rarely at a loss for an expression. 
He is an adept at extemporary word-building. When 
requisite, he compounds and coins new names and phrases 
with great facility; and not in an altogether arbitrary 
fashion, but according to established usage, so that the 
fresh word sounds natural, and conveys a meaning to the 
ears of his fellows, hearing it perhaps for the first time. 
His comrades sit in judgment on the production, and after 
a critical examination, "welcome the little stranger," and 
commend it as *a good lav,' or crush it in its birth, and 
pronounce it to be ' not tatcho,' if it doesn't come up to 
average excellence. Language is plastic in the Gypsy's 
mouth, and allows itself to be easily moulded into new 
forms. In this readiness of speech he presents a striking 
contrast to the slowness and poverty of utterance which 
characterizes the ordinary English rustic. If a Gypsy 
cannot find or frame a word to express a particular sense, 
he often accomplishes his end by means of a paraphrase. 
However fluent a * rokeromengro,' or conversationalist, an 
outsider may be, the tongue of the alien is apt to stumble 
over the blanks which abound in the language and bar 
his progress, and he is forced to throw in English words 
to fill up the vacuities; but a knowing old 'Romani dial' 
adroitly doubles, and circumvents most such difficulties in 
a periphrasis, without extraneous aid or breaking the con- 
tinuity of his 'rokeropen.' In these linguistic predica- 



INTRODUCTION. XIX 

ments the 'gaujo's' extremity is the Gypsy's opportunity. 
The superior power of the skilful craftsman is best shown 
in the way he overcomes a defect in his tools. Like 
Paganini playing on one string, the Gypsy elicits from his 
imperfect instrument notes and phrases which a *gaujo* 
in vain attempts to extract. 

Place an English dictionary alongside of the Gypsy 
vocabulary, and on comparison many of our words will 
be found to have no corresponding Romani ones to ex- 
press their meaning ; but let it not be too hastily assumed 
that in such a case a Gypsy is unable to obviate the 
deficiency. " There is always a way of saying everything 
in Romanes, sir," a Gypsy once remarked to us, "if you 
can only find it out." 

For example : the Gypsy has no single word answer- 
ing to the English verb ' to untie.' If he wishes to give 
the direction, * Untie the string,' he says, ' Mook o dori 
peero,' ?>., Let the string loose. 

There is no word for 'nephew' ; but a Gypsy expresses 
the relationship * He is my nephew' by reversing the order 
of ideas, and saying * Lesko koko shorn,' 2>., I am his 
uncle. 

In further illustration of this usage, we append a series 
of questions and the Romanes answers : — 

Q. How would you say you were faint ? 

Ans. Mandi shorn naflo pensa jawin' to sooto, — i.e., I am ill like 

going to sleep (becoming unconscious). 
Q. How would you say 'I humbled myself? 
Ans. Kairddm mi kokkero choorokond, — i.e., I made myself poor 

(or lowly). 
Q How do you say ' Divide it' ? 
Ans. Del mandi posh ta too lei posh, — i.e., Give me half, and do 

you take half. 
Q. How can you ask for a spade ? 



XX INTRODUCTION. 

Ans. Lei the kowa to chin a hev adre o poov, — i.e.. Get the thmg 
for cutting a hole in the ground (for delving). 

Q. ^^^lat is ' to pray to God ' ? 

Ans. To del kooshto lavaw kater mi Doovel, — i.e., To give good 
words to God. 

Q. What is * to answer him'? 

Ans. To del lav lesti, i.e., — to give word to him. — (Comp. with 
Germ, ant-worten.) 

Some of the descriptive definitions which take the place 
of a substantive designation are fanciful and poetical. 
Stars are ' Doods adre mi Doovelesko keri/ i.e\. Lights in 
my God's home. Thunder is ' Mi Doovelesko Godli,' i>., 
My God's noise (or voice). Lightning is * Mi Doovelesko 
yog,' i.e., My God's fire. A Gypsy never mentions the 
name of God without prefixing ' mi/ after the manner of 
the opening invocation in Our Lord's Prayer. 

The Gypsy word for a dog is 'jookel/ which becomes 
a generic term in constructing names for allied species 
which have no proper Romani designation. The Gypsy 
unwittingly adopts a strictly scientific nomenclature not 
unlike the binomial system of Linnaeus. Thus: — 

Jookel ... ... ... = Canis familiaris (the dog). 

Lolo-veshkeno jookel — the ) ^ . , , , ^ x 

- = Cams vulpes (the fox), 
red wood-dog ) 

Borohollomengro jookel — \ 

the great rapacious (or ^ = Canis lupus (the wolf). 

devouring) dog ... ^ 

Naturalists have given the jackal (Canis aureus) a specific 
name referring to its colour, which is analogous to the 
Gypsy term for a fox, expressing both colour and habitat. 
Anotlier instance of the Gypsy's perception of analogy 
(whether scientific or culinary) may be taken from tlie 
vegetable kingdom. The Romani word for cabbage is 



INTRODUCTION. XXI 

*shok/ but this is also applied as a generic name to the 
watercress, which is called * panengri-shok/ i.e.^ water- 
cabbage or water-wort. This appellation is quite correct, 
seeing that cabbages and cresses are closely related 
botanically, both belonging to the same natural order of 
plants — the Cruciferae. 

It is sometimes difficult to discover from its etymology 
how a particular word originated. We were puzzled to 
understand why 'lilengro,' from Mil/ a book, should 
come to mean a star, until a Gypsy suggested the reason. 
It has an astrological significance, and refers to the prac- 
tice of fortune-tellers and nativity-casters, who profess to 
read the heavens, to decipher the book of fate, in which 
the secrets of the unknown future are written in the 
language of the stars. 

There are a few words, of which 'beshopen* may be 
taken as a good sample, which are singularly appropriate 
translations from other languages. Our word 'sessions,' 
from Lat. *sedo,' to sit, is represented in Romanes by 
* beshopen,' from ' besh,* to sit. We can hardly suppose 
that uneducated men like Gypsies were acquainted with 
the primary meaning, much less the Latin derivation, of 
'sessions,' and yet its analogy to 'beshopen' is so exact 
that it can scarcely be attributed to chance. 

Again, 'policeman,' from ttoX^?, a city, is turned by 
Gipsy tongues into 'gavengro,' from 'gav,' a town. So 
too 'potatoes' become 'poovengries* from 'poov,' earth, 
which recalls to mind the German 'erdbirne,' and the 
French 'pomme de terre.' 

The foregoing examples will suffice to convey a general 
notion of the Gypsies' various methods of procedure in 
manipulating their mother-tongue to meet the exigencies 
of circumstances. 



XXll INTRODUCTION. 

Slang and cant words peculiar to each country have 
become incorporated in the different Gypsy dialects, 
sometimes probably through a want of discrimination on 
the part of the reporter, who hearing them used has con- 
founded them with the genuine Gypsy tongue. Most 
English Gypsies distinguish with great nicety between 
Romanes and the Cant tongue, in the use of which latter 
the greater part of them are likewise proficient. " That's 
not a 'tatcho lav,'" is a frequent Gypsy comment on hear- 
ing a canting phrase imported into a conversation which 
is being professedly carried on in their own proper dialect. 
Cant words are intermixed with Gypsy in the same way, 
and on exactly the same principle, as ordinary or pro- 
vincial English, but to nothing like the same extent. 
Possibly some words of this class may have inadvertently 
found their way into our vocabulary ; but if so, they do 
not occur in Hotten's Slang Dictionary (London, 1864), 
and we leave them to be relegated to their proper place 
by those who may detect their real character. 

Before concluding these introductory remarks, it might 
be expected of us to say something on the Ethnology of 
the Gypsy race, but to expatiate on this subject would be 
beyond the scope of a strictly linguistic treatise. The 
Gypsy language is a member of the great Aryan family, 
and has long ago been ascertained to be closely allied to 
the Sanskrit. It is for scholars better versed than our- 
selves in the intricacies of comparative philology to de- 
termine to which of the Indian dialects in particular the 
Gypsy tongue is most nearly related. Pott, Ascoli, Paspati, 
and others, have severally helped to solve 'the Eastern 
question' by tracing the homologies and affinities of the 
Romani vocabulary. Our first list of words, already re- 
ferred to as published in the Transactions of the London 



INTRODUCTION. XXlll 

Philological Society, had the advantage of being over- 
looked by the Rev. George Small, for many years a 
resident in India, who corrected and added to the column 
of Oriental derivations. We have not attempted anything 
of the kind in the present work, which aims at being 
nothing more than a succinct exposition of the English 
dialect of the Gypsy language, as we have actually heard 
it spoken. 



GYPSY GRAMMAR 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE DIALECT. 

The presence of Gypsies in Scotland can be traced as far 
back as 1506, (Simson's "History of the Gypsies," p. 98,) 
and in England as far back as 1512 (" Notes and Queries," 
1st Series, vol xi., p. 326) * Down to 1784, various statutes 
and authors mention that these foreigners spoke a language 
of their own^ but we have not been able to learn that any 
examples are extant of earlier date than 1780. 

About the year 1783, greater interest in the race and 
their language seems to have been aroused in this country, 
partly by the repeal (23 George III., c. 51,) of the statutes, 
rigorous in words, but obsolete in practice, against them, 
and partly by the publication in that year of the well- 
known German work of Grellman (translated into English 
by Raper, 1787). 

Dating from 1780, we have several collections and speci- 
mens of this dialect, of more or less value, which we have 
arranged chronologically as follows : — 

1780. — A collection taken down from the liiOuths of Gypsies in 
Somersetshire, by a clergyman resident there in 1780— 
Edited, with notes, by W. Pinkerton, Esq., F.L.S. London, 
Hotten, 1865. (Advertised, but never published.) 

♦ On the authority of " The Art of Jugghng," etc., by S. R. ; see 
also Bright's Travels {post), pp. 537, 538, and the authorities there 
cited. 



2 GYPSY GRAMMAR. 

1784. — Marsden, William — "Archaeologia," vol. vii., London, 
1785, pp. 382 — 386. Twenty-eight words, and the numerals 
from I to 10, are given, and are stated to have been collected 
several years before 1784. 

1784. — Bryant, Jacob — " Archaeologia," vol. vii., pp.387 — 391. 
A considerable vocabulary arranged in the alphabetical order 
of the English words, and also stated to have been collected 
several years before 1784. 

1784. — "The Annual Register," p. 83, Antiquities. — Bryant's 
vocabulary repeated. 

1784. — Richardson, Capt. David — "Asiatic Researches," vol. 

vii., p. 474. — Twenty-seven of the words are taken from 

Bryant's vocabulary. 
1812-13. — "■■ Christian Guardian," — A conversation by a Clergyman 

with a Gypsy named Boswell. See Hoyland (next), p. 189. 

1 81 6. — Hoyland, John — " Historical Survey of the Customs, etc., 
of the Gypsies," — York. Predari mentions an edition of 1832. 
Page 142, Comparative vocab. of several words and numerals, 
apparently taken from Marsden; p. 188, Specimens of their 
words, procured by friends. 

1818. — Bright, Dr. Richard — "Travels from Vienna through 
Hungary," — Edinburgh. The Appendix (p. Ixxix) contains a 
comparative vocab. of the English, Spanish, and Hungarian 
Gypsy dialects, as well as sentences in each of those dialects. 
A very valuable collection. 

18 1 9. — Irvine, ,— "On the Similitude between the Gypsy and 

Hindi Eanguages."— Transactions of the Literary Society of 
Bombay, 1819. 

181 9.— Harriot, Col. John Staples— " Observations on the 
Oriental Origin of the Romnichal."— Roy. Asiatic Soc. of 
Great Britain, vol. ii., London, 1830, pp. 518—588, read 
5th Dec, 1829, and 2nd Jan., 1830; Predari, pp. 213, 258, 
says that the paper was read before the Society of Calcutta, 
1 2th April, 1822; Harriot, p. 520, says he collected his 
vocabulary in the north of Hampshire, 181 9-1820. The 
vocab. is arranged in the alphabetical order of the English 
words, and is an important addition to all preceding it. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 3 

1832. — Crabb, James — "The Gypsies' Advocate," — London, 
Nisbet Westley. 3rd edit, sm. 8vo, price y. 6d. Page 14, 
Vocab. of 26 words besides numerals i — 10, and 20, taken 
from Grellman, Hoyland, and Richardson ; p. 27, piz/iarris, in 
debt ; artmee deviilesty, God bless you. 

1835.— James, G. P. R.— '' The Gipsy," 3 vols., London. Vol. i, 
p. 36, gazo, peasant ; raye^ gentleman. 

1836. — Roberts, Samuel — " The Gypsies, their Origin, etc." 
London. 4th edit. (1839), i2m.o; 5th edit. (1842), post 
8vo, Longman, price 10s. 6d.; pp. 97 — 100. List of words 
collected by his daughters from Clara Hearn. 

1841. — Borrow, George — "The Zincali, or Gypsies in Spain," 
vol. i., pp. 16 — 28, gives an account of the English Gypsies* 
The vocabulary (vol. ii.) gives one or two words; and the 
Appendix to vol. ii. of subsequent editions (1843, 1846, 
1 86 1,) gives a short dialogue with a Gypsy, and translation 
of the Lord's Prayer and Creed, in English Romanes, varying 
almost with each edition. 

1841. — Baird, Rev. John — " Report to the Scottish Church 
Society," printed 1841 ; collected 181 7 — 1831, 

1844. — Pott, Dr. A. F. — "Die Zigeuner in Europa und Asien," 
2 vols. Halle. This profoundly learned work incorporates 
almost all the foregoing vocabularies. 

1 85 1. — Borrow, George — " Lavengro," etc., 3 vols., containing 
many words scattered throughout 

1851. — "Illustrated London News," — Gypsy Experiences by a 
Roumany Rei : 13th Dec, pp. 655, 715, 777. 

1856. — "Illustrated London News," — "The Roumany-chi, or 
Gypsies;" 20th Sept, p, 304; apparently by the same 
writer as the last. This article was reprinted separately at 
Bath, in 1870, by J. and J. Keene. 

1857. — Borrow, George — "Romany Rye," a Sequel to " Laven- 
gro," 2 vols., containing many words scattered throughout. 

1858. — Norwood, Rev. T. W.— " On the Race and Language of 
the Gypsies " — Report of the British Association, etc., Leeds, 
p. 195 of Transactions of the Sections. 



4 GYPSY GRAMMAR. 

i860.— Smart, Dr. B. C— " The Dialect of the English Gypsies." 
Published for the English Philological Society, by Asher and 
Co., Berlin, 1863, in the Society's Transactions, and sepa- 
rately. The vocab. was begun in i860, and some remarks on 
the dialect were printed in the British Association Trans- 
actions, 186 r, and Trans. Ethnolog. Soc, vol. ii. 

1862. — Borrow, George — "Wild Wales," 3 vols. ; chapter xcviii . 
contains a conversation with an English Gypsy. From this 
and Mr. Borrow's preceding works, nearly 300 words (including 
varieties of spelling) may be collected. From passages in 
chapters xiv. and xcviii.^ and on p. 233 of his '' Lavo-lil," 
(post), it would seem that the author considered Wales without 
a Gypsy inhabitant, which is by no means the case. 

1865. — SiMSON, Walter — " A History of the Gypsies, with speci- 
mens of their Language," — London, Sampson, Lowe, and Co. 
From a passage on p. 466, the work seems to have been in 
MS. before 1840. Most of the Gypsy words were republished 
in " The Adventures of Bampfylde Moore Carew," London, 
W. Tegg, 1873; and several of them are quoted by Dr. 
Paspati. 

1872. — "The Times" (newspaper), Oct. 11 — 17, 2nd column, p. i, 
an advertisement in English Romanes, copied as a curiosity 
into other papers ; translated in *« Notes and Queries," 4th 
Series, vol. xi., p. 462, also in " Leland's English Gypsies," 
p. 184. 

1873.— "Zelda's Fortune,"— "Cornhill Magazine," vols. 27, 28,29. 
There are several words and sentences used in the course 
of the tale, the earlier ones resembling Hungarian rather 
than English Gypsy, but of these guesto, p. 127, resembles 
Marsden's questo, good = kooshto. 

1873.— Smith, Hubert—" Tent-life with English Gypsies in 
Norway," — London, H. S. King and Co., price 21J. Several 
words, etc., are scattered throughout, and on pp. 527 — 529 
is a comparative vocab. of the English dialect, and that of 
Norway as given by Sundt. 

1873.— MiKLosicH, F.— "Uber die Mundarten und die Wander- 
ungen der Zigeuner Europas," iii., Wien, Gerold's Sohn, con- 



ETYMOLOGY, ETC. 5 

tains remarks on this dialect grounded on some of the fore- 
going works. 

1873. — Leland, Charles G. — "The English Gipsies and their 
Language." London, Triibner and Co., price ']s. 6d. Very- 
valuable, both as respects vocab., and a knowledge of 
customs, etc. 

1874. — Borrow, George — "■ Romano Lavo-lil, Wordbook of the 
Romany, or English Gypsy Language," — London, Murray, 
price los. 6d.j pp. 11 — loi ; vocab. not, however, exhaustive 
of the words used in this, or of those used in his other works. 

1874. — "The Athenaeum" (newspaper), No. 2426, April 25 — A 

Review of Sorrow's " Romano Lavo-lil." 
1874. — " The Academy" (newspaper). No. 10 1 (new issue), June 13 

— A Review of Miklosich, Leland, and Borrow's " Lavo-lil." 
In addition to the above, may be added " Notes and Queries," 

2nd Series, vol. xi., p. 129; p. 196, on Scotch Gypsies ; 4th 

Series, vol. xi., p. 443 ; p. 462, and elsewhere. 



ETYMOLOGY, etc. 

As far as possible, to each root-word is annexed the corre- 
sponding one in the Turkish, or Asiatic, Gypsy dialects, as 
given by Dr. Paspati in his " Etudes sur les Tchinghianes," 
published in French, at Constantinople, in 1870. Where 
Dr. Paspati has afforded no comparison, we have had 
recourse to the German Gypsy dialect as given by Dr. 
Liebich in his " Die Zigeuner," etc., published in German, 
at Leipzig, in 1863. Further than this, we have in few 
instances deemed it advisable to attempt anything that 
can be more strictly called Etymology, as we could add 
nothing original in this respect to the labours of Dr. Pott, 
Dr. Paspati, and Sr. Ascoli, who have appended to almost 
every word the oriental word or words akin to it. 

The comparisons thus made will, it is hoped, add an 
additional interest to our work, as showing the resemblance 



6 GYPSY GRAMMAR. 

and difference in the two dialects, Turkish and English, 
after so long a separation as four centuries. We say four 
centuries, for Mr. Borrow in his *' Lavo-lil," p. 212, asserts 
that the Gypsies first made their appearance in England in 
1480, though we are not aware of his authority. 

To those who, like M. Bataillard (" Les derniers travaux 
relatifs aux Boh^miens dans I'Europe orientale," Paris, 
1872, pp. 47 — 53), lean to the theory of a long residence 
of the race in Turkey prior to a westerly drifting of these 
nomads, this comparison has, we venture to think, much to 
commend itself. 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 

To assist ilic pronunciation, we have endeavoured to 
adhere to a phonetic orthography, based on the Glossic 
system invented by Mr. A. J. Ellis, and used by the English 
Dialect Society and others. 

In it the vowel sounds are expressed and pronounced as 
follows :— 



At as in Bait. 


t as in 


Knit. 


a „ Gnat. 


^ 


Coal. 


aa „ Baa. 


„ 


Not. 


an, azi>, as in Can/, cazc. 


en „ 


Fend. 


Final /, as at in Bait. 


?' » 


Nut. 


ce as in Bed 


00 „ 


Cool, OY foot. 


e , Net. 


oi „ 


Foil. 


ei ,, Height. 


on „ 


Font. 


must be borne in mind. 


however, that these soun( 



and more especially the ti sounds, vary according to the 
county or district of which the individual is a native. 

As to the consonants, the majority are pronounced as in 
English. We have discarded altogether the ambiguous c, 



ACCENT. 7 

and substituted k or s, according as c would take the hard 
or soft sound. Throughout the book 

Ch is to be pronounced as in Church. 

Sh „ „ „ Shirt. 

G, gh „ „ „ Go (never soft, as in gui). 

F „ „ „ For (never dull, as in of). 

Dj, dg „ „ „ Fudge. 

Besides these, there is a deep guttural sound, which we 
have represented by p^, the sound being nearly that of ch 
in German, 



ACCENT. 

In the Turkish dialect, the accent is usually on the last 
syllable ; but if the word is inflected, or liable to inflection, 
the accent is placed on the first syllable of the inflection, e.g.y 

Bar-6, great. Gen. bar-^skoro ; pi. bar-e. 
Beshdva, I sit ; besh-ela, He sits. 

Relics of this system are found in the old dialect of this 
country, e.g.^ 

BaurS, great; pi., bmird. 
Bcsh-ova, I sit ; besh-eia, He sits. 

Words too ending in -engro, -eskro, (elsewhere shown 
to be inflections,) invariably take the accent on the first 
syllable of those terminations, in both the old and new 
dialects. 

In the new dialect, dissyllables and trisyllables take an 
accent on the first syllable, and words of four or five syl- 
lables take an accent on the first and third, e.g., 

Bauro, great Beshto, saddle 

Bengalo, diabolic Brisheuo, rainy 



8 GYPSY GRAMMAR. 

B<^romMgro, sailor Sdvlohdloben, oath 

Boshofn^iigro, fiddler Tdssermengri, frying-pan 

The above are only general rules. There are several 
exceptions, 



LETTER CHANGES, ELISIONS, ETC. 

Interchanges of certain letters, initial or otherwise, 
frequently occur in Gypsy words, but always according to 
established rules, and this must be remembered in tracing 
their derivations. 

Interchanges take place between the following letters : 
K and H, K and P, K and T, K and F, K and ^, y^ ^"^ 
F, F and S, Sh and Dj, Sh and Ch, J and Y, D and B, 
B and V, V and W, L M N and R, 

Examples, 

K and H. 
Kol, Hoi, eat, Kdtcher, Hotelier, burn, 

K and P, 
Chuhii, Chupni, whip. 

K and T. 
Kushni, Ttis/mi, basket. Kam, Tarn, sun. 

KoSshko, Kodshto, good. 

K and F. 
Jdrifa, Jdrika, apron. 

K and ;^. 
Ydrduka, 7orj6x<^, apron. 

X and F. 
JorjSxa, JorjSfa, apron. 

F and S. 
Wdfedoj Wdsedo, bad. Ndsfelo, Ndfelo, ill. 

Sh and Dj. 
Kaish, Kaidj, silk. Minsk, Mindj, pudendum muliebre. 



LETTER CHANGES, ELISIONS, ETC. Q 

Sh and Ch. 
Choom, ShooHf moon, Chdrdoka, Shdrdoka, apron. 

J and Y. 
Jodkel, Ydkel, dog. Jorj6')(a^ Ydrdwxa, apron. 

D and B. 
Loddni, Loobni, harlot. 

B and V. 
Bokocho, Vdkasho, lamb, Livena, Liberia, beer. 

V and W. 

Vdrdo, Wdrdo, cart. Vast, Wast, hand. 

L, M, N, R. 
SMrilo, Shilino, cold. Dinilo, Dinvero, fool. 

Soom, Soon, smell, Vdniso, Vdriso, any. 

The English Gypsies are in the frequent habit of con- 
founding the liquids ; and Mr. Borrow has remarked the 
same of the Spanish Gitanos (" Zincali," vol. ii., p. 4, pre- 
ceding vocab.) According to Gilchrist ("Hind. Diet." vol. ii., 
1790, p. 489), the natives of Hindustan so confuse the use 
of the Hquids L, N, and R, that it is often difficult to say 
which of those letters ought to be adopted in spelling. 

Besides this interchange of consonants, the Gypsies 
occasionally transpose them. 

Examples. 
Sovlohol, Sulverkon, to swear. 
Doomdksjio, for Doomhk'no, broken-backed. 
SheHksno, for SherdsUno, lawyer. 

The dialect is also remarkable for its systematic elision 
of the letter n in certain words. 





Examples. 




English. 


Turkish. 


Meaning. 


Adr^ 


Andr^ 


Into 


Agldl 


Angldl 


Before 



lO GYPSY GRAMMAR. 



Euglish. 


Turkish. 


Meaning. 


Hauro 


KJiant 6 


Sword 


Mdiiro 


Manro 


Bread 


Mdrikli 


Manrikli 


Cake 


Me&o 


Minrd 


My 


Tedro 


Third 


Thy 


Ydra 


A lira 


Egg 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 



Of the full forms, Mr. Borrow, in his " Lavo-lil," supplies 
us with ando, anglo, manro, manreckly, etc. 

Similar instances of this elision could be adduced in other 
dialects, but, so far as we are aware, not to the same extent 
as in this. 



ARTICLE. 
Definite. 



Dr. Paspati f 'Tchinghian^s," 1870, p. 39) says the Turkish 
Gypsies have borrowed their article from the Greeks, and 
the Asiatic Gypsies have none; and further states that 
among the wandering tribes in Turkey the use of the article 
is less frequent than among the Christian (settled) Gypsies. 
Amongst the Turkish Gypsies, the article is — masculine 0, 
feminine i in the nominative, and c masculine and feminine 
in all other cases, of the singular; and o masculine and 
feminine in the nominative, and c masculine and feminine 
in all other cases, of the plural. 

The English Gypsies have a masculine definite article o, 
and feminine /', but now hardly ever employ any other than 
the English word the, which they, like other foreigners, often 
pronounce de. Their own article, however, is preserved 
in certain phrases which have been retained in common 
use, e.g., 

Paudel ipadni, Over the water (transportation). 



NOUN. I I 

Dr. Bright, in his "Travels in Hungary," Edinburgh, 1818, 
Appendix, affords the following examples, obtained from 
a family of Gypsies residing at Norwood ; — 

Pre si kain, The sun is up. 

Le gri, Catch the horse. 

O tascho wast, The right hand. 

Dalo givy Gives the snow (it snows). 

In some famiUes, from analogy to English, o is indeclinable, 
being used wherever the occurs, and irrespective of gender 
or case. 

The Definite article is frequently omitted altogether, e.g., 

Boshda jdokel. Barks (the) dog, for The dog barks. 
Riserela gdiro, Trembles (the) man, for The man 

trembles. 
Chooin see opre, (The) Moon is up. 

Indefinite. 

The English Gypsies invariably use the English word a 
for the indefinite article, and say, eg., Mdfidi diks a gdiro^ 
not Mandi diks yek gairo, which would mean I see one man. 
In the old dialect this article is very frequently omitted 
entirely. Example, Dikova gdiro, I see a man. 



NOUN. 

Gender. 
Some of the nouns have a masculine termination in 
-0, and a feminine in -/. There are also masculine nouns 
and feminine nouns which end in a variety of consonants 
and vowels, but usually the gender is determined by that 
of the corresponding English word, e.g., 

Masculines in -o, with corresponding feminines in -i. 

Chdvo, boy Cha{v)i, Chei, girl 

Chiriklo, bird Chhiklz, bird 



12 



GYPSY GRAMMAR. 



GairOy man 
Gaiijo, male Gentile 
Pirino, male sweetheart 
Rdklo, boy 
etc. 

Masculines in -o. 

BairdngrOy sailor 
Bardngro, stallion 
Bokromdngro, shepherd 
Booko, liver 
Gdno, sack 
Koko, uncle 
etc. 



Gdiri, woman 
Gauji, female Gentile 
Piritti, female sweetheart 
Kdkli, girl 
etc. 

Feminines in -i. 

Bedbi, aunt 
Booti, work 
Choofi, knife 
Kdrmi, hen 
Kekdvvi, kettle 
Mthnbli, candle 
etc. 



Masculine. 

ChoovikdUy wizard 
Grei, horse 
Grov, bull 
yookel, dog 
Kf'dlis, king 
Manooshy man 
j?t?w, husband 
etc. 



Feminine. 

Chdojihdniy witch 
Grdsni, mare 
Grdvni, cow 
7^^/&/2, bitch 
Kralissi, queen 
Manooshni, woman 
Bdtnni, wife 
etc. 



Z>a^, father 
Pi?/, brother 
/?^/, gentleman 



Irregular. 

Dd, mother 
P^fw, sister 
Rduniy lady. 



Declension. 

To illustrate the declension, examples, from pp. 50, 51, 
of Dr. Paspati's " Tchinghian^s," are subjoined. 



SINGULAR. 



Nom. O raklS, the boy 

Gen. e rakldskoro, of the boy 

Ace. e raklds, the boy 
1st Dat. e rakldste, to the boy 

2nd „ e rakldske, in the boy 

Instr. e raklesa^ with the boy 

Abl. e rakldstar, from the boy 

Voc. e rakldyuy Boy ! 



/ rakli, the girl Rdi, lord 

e raklidkorOy of the girl raidskoro 

e raklidy the girl raids 

e raklidte, to the girl raidste 

e raklidke, in the girl raidske 

e raklidsa, with the girl raidsa 

e raklidtar, from the girl raidstar 

e raklid. Girl ! rdia 



NOUN. 13 





PLURAL. 




Norn. Rakle, boys 


Raklid, girls 


Raid, lords 


Gen. raklengoro 


rakliengoro 


raidngoro 


Ace. raklen 


raklien 


raie7i 


1st Dat. rakUnde 


raklicnde 


raimde 


2nd „ rakleitghe 


raklienghe 


raidnghe 


Instr. i-aklendja 


rakliendja 


raiendja 


Abl. raklendar 


rakliJndar 


raiendar 


Voc. rakldle 


rakldle 


raidle 



The inflections preserved in the English Gypsy dialect 
may be classed as follows : — 

Singular. 

Genitive, -eskoro (plural, -e'ngoro). 

A great peculiarity of this dialect is the large number of 
words ending in -eskro, -meskro, -omeskro ; -engro, -meiigro, 
-om^ngro. These endings were originally genitive forms, 
as will be gathered from the above declensions, but are 
now added to verbs and adjectives, as well as nouns, and 
thus form nouns denoting an agent, or possessor, the 
termination -0 being masculine, and -i feminine or neuter, 
though these rules of gender are honoured more perhaps 
in the breach than the observance. 

Examples. 

-eskro. 

Barhkro-grei, stallion, from bar, stone ; grei, horse. 

-meskro. 
P6gerf7ihkri, hammer, from poger, to break. 

Sdstermeskro, blacksmith, „ sdster, iron. 

-omeskro, 
CMnomhkro, chopper, from chm, to cut. 

Pdrnomhkro, miller, „ pdrno, flour. 

Ydgomhkro, fire-range, gun, „ yog, fire. 

-aigro. 
Barmgro, stallion, from bar, stone. 

-mengro, 
Tdttermingro, fryingpan, from tatter, to heat. 
Bokoromengro, shepherd, ,, bokoro, sheep. 



14 GYPSY GRAMMAR. 

-om^ngro. 
Chlnom^ngro, hatchet, from chin, to cut. 

Sometimes the forms -^ndri and -imongeri occur, eg.^ 

Kotorendri, fragment, from kdtor, piece. 

Muter-imongeri, tea, „ miiter, urine. 

Dr. Paspati remarks, in a letter to Dr, Smart, " your 
-engro, or -mchigro^ is our (Turkish Gypsy) -koro, rendered 
-?igo7'o by the nasal //. Your bokoromengro, a shepherd, is 
here (Constantinople) bakreskoro ; pi. bakrengoro, a shepherd 
of many sheep, baMnghcre, shepherds of many sheep." 

From the above examples, and others to be found in the 
vocabulary, it would appear that the in is euphonic, and was 
originally added to nouns ending in vowels; and that the 
termination -niengro^ which was thus formed, was some- 
times with and sometimes without, the preceding vowel, 
attached to other roots as a termination denoting an agent, 
or possessor, and equivalent to the English termination -er. 

Besides -hkro, etc., there are, in the English Gypsy 
dialect, the terminations -hko and -hto, in common use, 
both as genitives singular and adjectival terminations. 

These may have arisen from a gradual confusion of the 
inflections for the genitive masculine {hkoro), and first and 
second Datives masculine {cste and hkc) in the singular (see 
declension above), due to the influence of the idiom for pos- 
session " DoSva stdrdi see lest I'' That hat is to him, = That 
hat is his, or That is his hat. 

Examples. 

-eskro. 
Barhkro-grei^ stallion, from bai\ stone ; grci^ horse. 

'hko. 
Bdngesko-tem^ hell, from beng, devil ; tern, country. 

Mi-ddovelisko-dood^ moon, „ Mi-dodvel^ God ; dood, light. 

Ddsko tan, mother's tent, „ Dei, mother ; tan, tent. 

R^iesko-kair, gentleman's house, „ Rci, gentleman ; kair, house. 

(Bright) O tascho wasteskee wangesto, The finger of the right hand. 



NOUN. 



15 



-esto. 
Chiriklesto kair, birdcage, from chiriklo, bird ; kair, house. 

Gddesto-bei^ shirt-sleeve, „ gad^ shirt ; beiy sleeve. 

Griiesto-koppa^ horserug, „ greiy horse ; koppa, blanket, 

etc. etc. 

Sometimes the forms -rnisto and -omisto occur, from 
analogy to the forms -mesh'o, -oineskro, e.g., 

Pdrnoviesto, miller, from porno, flour. 

Pogeroviesto, hammer, „ poger^ to break. 

The genitive is, however, usually formed by adding 's to 
the nominative, as in English, e.g., 

Mi-do6vcV s-divviis, Christmas ; lit. my god's day. 

We have not been able to meet with any example of the 
feminine genitive form -dkoro. 

Accusative : -es. 

The only example we have heard is pdlla koorokess, after 
Sunday. 

Dr, Pott, vol. i., p. 232, conjectures that " Res, nobleman," 
given by Col. Harriot (" R. Asiatic Society Transactions," 
1830), is the accusative of rei, gentleman, (see declension 
above), 

Mr. Borrow, in "Lavengro," vol. iii., pp. 53, 172, edit. 185 1, 
has put '^ Hir mi devlisl' and in " Romany Rye," vol. i., 
p. 230, edit. 1857, has put *^ Hir mi diblis'' into the mouths 
of English Gypsies. Devlis and diblis appear to be accu- 
sative forms. The same expression, '^ Heri devlis',' occurs 
on p. 126 of his " Lavo-lil," at the foot of the Lord's Prayer 
the Gypsy dialect of Transylvania. 

Datives : ist, -este; 2nd, eske. 

Dr. Bright gives the following example : " Deh acove a 
gresti giv cJiil' Give to this horse corn, girl. See also re- 
marks on the terminations -esko, and esto, under the head 
of genitive. 

Instrumental : -esa. 

According to Pott, vol. i., p. 192, the instrumental case of 



1 6 GYPSY GRAMMAR. 

dewel, god, is deweleha, with god — the -eha representing -esa 
(Jt = J- in some continental Gypsy dialects). Mr. Borrow, 
in "Lavengro," vol. i., p. i86, edit. 185 1, has put '' Chal 
devlehiy'\Go with God = good-bye, into the mouth of an 
English Gypsy. We have ourselves met with no examples 
of this inflection amongst nouns, though examples will be 
observed amongst the pronouns. 
Vocative : -eya, -a, -e. 

The only instances apparently extant in this dialect are 
D£a, Mother ! and Reia, Sir ! 

Plural. 
Nominative : -/. 

1. The few who still retain a knowledge of the old 
dialect, sound the nominative plural oi nouns ending in -0 
in the singular, with an accent on the final syllable, which 
they pronounce -/. 

The most ordinary instances are the plurals of the com- 
mon words gairo, man, and chSorodo, mumper or tramp ; 
plural gair^, men ; chSorod^, mumpers or tramps, 

Many other instances will be found in the vocabulary, 
eg., 

BSkro, sheep ; plural, bokr^, sheep. Pasp. bakrtf. 
Pe^ro, foot ; „ peer^, feet „ //>/. 

„ PeU, q.v. „ pele. 

2, 3. The plurals of other nouns end in -aw, or -yaw^ 
equivalent respectively to ~d and -id, of the Turkish Gypsy 
dialect, and less correctly represented by -or and -yor, 
there being no true r sound in the syllable. The difference, 
however, between -aw and -or, -yaiv and -yor, in ordinary 
English, is almost, if not quite, imperceptible. 

Examples. 
ENGLISH GYPSY. TURKISH GYPSY. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. PLURAL. 

Grei, horse GrcHmv Graid 

Hev, hole Hhiyaiv Khevid 



NOUN. 




'SY. 


TURKISH GYPSY, 


PLURAL. 


PLURAL. 


NSaw 


Naid 


Phiyaw 


Penid 


Vdstaw 


Vastd 


Yokaw 


Yakd 



17 

ENGLISH GYPSY. 

SINGULAR. 

Nei, nail 
Pen, sister 
Vast, hand 
Yoky eye 

4. More frequently, however, — and this is becoming the 
general rule, — the nominative plural is formed by the ad- 
dition of s, as in English, e.g., 

Pen, sister ; Pens, sisters. 
Vast, hand ; Vasts, hands. 
Yok, eye ; Yoks, eyes. 

5. Sometimes two forms are combined, e.g.. 

Bar, stone ; Bdryaws, stones. 
PooVj field ; Pdovyaws, fields. 
Ran, rod ; Rdnyazvs, rods. 
Genitive : -htgoro. 

See remarks on the genitive singular. 

Examples. 

Rookenghi, or Rook^ngri Ch6-)(as (Wester), The coats of 
trees, — i.e., leaves. ShusJiJnghi h^vyaw, Rabbit-burrows. 
Accusative : -en. 

We have not met with any examples. 
Dative: 1st, -mde; 2nd, -e'nghe. 

The only instance that has occurred to us is, *' Yov see 
tdrderin shdo kotorendV,' He is pulling rope to pieces, i.e., 
He is picking oakum. 
Instrumental : -endja; Ablative : -aidar. 

These cases are apparently obsolete, unless gdver in the 
following sentence may be regarded as an ablative .• M^ndi 
jalyek gdver kdter wdver. We go from one town to another. 
Vocative : -die. 

This inflection is, so far as we know, only retained in the 
word choopdle, mates ; a word which has a variety of modi- 
fications of sound, and is by no means uncommon. 



1 8 GYPSY GRAMMAR. 

Locative. 

Dr. Paspati (p. 57) says, " Sometimes one hears the loca- 
tive case, which probably existed formerly in the tongue," 
and quotes from p. 108 of Burns' Essay: "The termi- 
nation of the locative e is the same in the two tongues," i.e. 
in Sanscrit and Pali, and amongst other examples mentions 
kere {djal kere, he goes home), which in the English Gypsy 
dialect would be, e.g., yov jals keri, he goes home, or, yov 
see ghilo kere, he is (has) gone home. Dr. Paspati adds that 
the ab verbs andre\ inwardly, opr^, above, tel^, below, are 
in the locative case. These forms are preserved in the 
English adf'if, in, opr^, upon, tald, down. 

Sometimes nouns appear to have been formed from the 
past participles of verbs, e.g., 

ENGLISH DIALECT. TURKISH DIALECT. 

Bhhto, saddle, from besh, to sit. Beshdva, p. part. beshtS. 

Boshno, cock, „ bosh, to crow. Bashdva, „ bashnd. 

Diklo, handkerchief, „ dik, to see. Dikdva, „ dikld. 

Moolo, ghost, „ 7ner, to die. Merdva, „ muld. 

Diminutives. 

Dr. Paspati (p. 45) states that the Turkish Gypsies form, 
from almost all nouns, in imitation of the Turks and Greeks, 
diminutives in -oro, as well as some in -tchdy a form borrowed 
from the Bulgarian language. 

The English Gypsy dialect has one example at least of 
the latter form, viz., bSkocho, lamb, from bdkoro, sheep. 

Perhaps Dr. Bright's " chaori, female children," and our 
chavori, chicken, are examples of the other form. 

Abstract Nouns. 

Dr. Paspati (p. 47) says, " Abstract nouns are formed 
from verbs, adjectives, and nouns " (p. 46) ; " they are very 
numerous, and always end in be or pe!' He gives, amongst 
other examples, — 



NOUN. I g 

TURKISH GYPSY. 

From verbs, Astaribe, prize, from astardva, I seize. 

Djibd, life, „ djivdva, I live. 

Meribd, death, „ merdva, I die. 

From adjectives, Mattipe, drunkenness, „ matto, drunk. 

Barvalipe, wealth, „ barvalo, rich. 

Kalipe, blackness, „ kalo, black. 

Nas/alibe, illness, „ nasfalo, ill. 

Tchakhipc, truth, „ tchatcho, true. 

From nouns, Bcttghipe, devilry, „ beng, devil. 

Rupuibe, silversmith | ... 

trade, } " ^/^A silver. 

Trushnibd, thirst, „ triish, thirst. 

He adds that inflections of these nouns are rare, but that the 
instrumental case shows that primitively they ended in pen. 
In the English dialect, also, abstract nouns are formed 
from verbs, adjectives, and nouns, and retain the primitive 
endings oi pen or beii, e.g.. 

From verbs, Stdriben, prison, from astardva (obsolete in Eng. 

dialect), I seize. 

Jivoben, life, „ j'iv, to live. 

M^?iben, death, „ mer, to die. 

From adjectives, Mottoben. drunken- ) '^^ j , 

ness, f " '«^^^^> drunk. 

Bdrvalipen, wealth, „ bdrvalo, rich. 

Katilopeti, blackness, „ kaulo, black, 

Ndjlopen, illness, „ nd_fio, ill. 

Tdtchipetij truth, „ tdtcho, true. 

From nouns, Chodmaben, kissing, „ chooma, kiss, n. and v. 

Breedopeu, breed, „ breed (Eng.), n. and v. 

Compound Nouns. 

The English Gypsy dialect has, in analogy to the English 
language, many compound nouns formed by the union of 
nouns with verbs, adjectives, and nouns, e.g., 

om kanhigri, hare ; moosh, man. 
kaiili, black ; ra^ni, lady. 
Idlo, red ; mdtcho, fish. 



Kanengri-rnoosh, gamekeeper, 
Kaiili-rauni, turkey, 
Lolo-mdtcJio, herring, 
Mee'asto-bar, milestone, 
Moosh-chdvi, boy, 
Pookering-kosht, signpost, 



meea, mile ; bar, stone. 
moosh, man ; chdvi, child. 
pookerin^, telling ; kosht, post. 



20 GYPSY GRAMMAR. 

Pdrni-rauni^ swan, frompdrm, white; ratini, lady. 

Simmering-boddega^ pawnshop, „ simmering^ pawning ; boddega, 

shop. 
Tdtto-padni,^^\x\X.%, „ tdUo, hot ; padni, water. 

etc. etc. 

Punning Appellatives. 

The English Gypsies have manufactured and adopted a 
class of words which are essentially of the nature of puns. 
They consist of words in which a fancied resemblance of 
sound in English has suggested their translation into 
Romanes, 

The German Gypsies have done the same, as will be 
seen on referring to p. 91 of Dr. Liebich's " Die Zigeuner," 
Leipzig, 1863, where amongst other instances he mentions 
— Vienna, gwinakro foro (honey town), — German Wien, 
Vienna, sounding like the German Gypsy word ^w/;/, honey. 

The following are examples of this practice by English 
Gypsies : — 

B^ngesko-mel, Devil's Die, for Devil's Dyke, Cambridge- 
shire. 

BoSko-padni-gav, Liver-water-town, for Liverpool. 

Kdlesko-tem, Cheese-country, for Cheshire. 

Kaulo-padni, Black-water, for Blackpool, Lancashire. 

Ldlo-gav, Red-town, for Reading. 

Ldlo-pe^ro, Red-foot, for Redford. 

M£lesto-gav, Donkey's-town, for Doncaster. 

Mo6shke7ti-gav, Man-town, for Manchester. 

o-g <■', \ A-norange-town, for Norwich. 
PSbomuskt-gav, ) 

Woodnis-gav-tern, Bed-town-country, for Bedfordshire. 

Descriptive Appellatives. 
They have also invented another class of words, nearly 
related to the last, and descriptive of some actual or fancied 
peculiarity. 

Examples. 
Cho6resto-gav, knife-town, for Sheffield. 



NOUN. 21 

Ckdrkeno-tem, Grassy-country, | 

Bdrvalo-tem, Rich-country, j Yorkshire. 

Kaiilo-gav^ Black-town, Birmingham. 

Ldvines-tem, Wordy-country, Wales. 

Peero-deliii-tem, Foot-kicking-country, Lancashire. 

Pobesko-peemhkri-tem, Apple-drink-country, Hereford- 
shire. 

P6xtan-gai\ Cloth-town, Manchester. 

Tdvesto-gav, Cotton (thread)-town, Manchester. 

Tulo-maS'tem, Fat-meat-country, Lincolnshire, 
etc. etc. etc. 

The following tribes have punning appellatives in Rd- 
manes : — 

Cooper — Ward^ngro. 

Gray — Bal. 

H erne — Mdtcho. 

Lee — Pooru m. 

Lovell — Komomeskro, KSmelo, pi. Kdmyaws. 

Pinfold — Pdndom^ngro. 

S m ith — Petalhigro. 

Stan ley — Barmgro. 

Taylor —Sivovihigro. 

Young — Tdrno. 

To these Mr. Borrow, in his " Lavo-lil," adds Rossarmescro, 
Heme {Duck, for Heron), and Chodma-misto, Buss [i.e., kiss)- 
well, Choomomengro, Busser {i.e., kisser), for Boswell. Both 
of these terms are, so far as we can find, unknown in the 
North, which is the more remarkable as the Hemes and 
Boswells are the chief tribes in the northern counties. 

Nouns peculiar to this Dialect. 

Of these, the following appear to be the most remarkable 
and in commonest use : — 

I. Bdngheri, n.. Waistcoat. Bryant, bringaree ; Bright, 
bangeri ; Borrow ("Lavo-lil," p. 22), bengree. 



22 GYPSY GRAMMAR. 

2. Bor, n., Friend, mate. Irvine, md bd, don't, sir ; Smith 

("Tent Life in Norway," p. 22), baugh ; Borrow 
("Lavo-lil," p. 21), baw, ban. 

3. BSiiri, n.. Snail. Borrow (" Zincali," 1861 ed., p. 58), 

boror, snails; Lid. (Engl. Gs., p. 32", 33, 34", 223,) bawris. 

4. Gdiro, n., Man ; Gdiri, Woman. Bright, purugero, old 

man; Borrow (" Zincali," 1843 ed., vol. ii., p. 145*), 
geiro, gairy ; (" Zincali," 1861 ed., p. ly) geiro ; Simson 
(" History of the Gypsies," 1865, pp. 295, ll\),gourie ; 
Leland (" English Gipsies," pp. 146, 254), geero; (p. 221, 
241, 254,) geeros, pi. ; 57, ^^^^/V, gen. ; 256, geeris, pi. ; 
Borrow (" Lavo-lil," p. 48), guero, gueri. 

5. JorjSxct, n.. Apron. Almost every family pronounces 

this word differently. We have heard chdrdokay 
jdrifa, Jdrika, jorjoffa, shdrdoka^ ydrdooka^ and ya7'- 
duxa. Simson ("History of the Gypsies," pp. 315, 
332), j'air dah ; Leland ("English Gipsies," p. C)6), 
iellico ; Borrow (" Lavo-lil," p. 54), yW(^<'?/('^j^; Roberts, 
shaducca. 

6. Meila, n., Ass. Bryant, niillan, ass ; milo, mule ; Hoy- 

land (Survey, etc., p. 188), moila ; 'Qright, mila, ineila ; 
Harriot, rnaila, ass, donkey; tane mail, young donkey ; 
Irvine, myla ; Borrow (" Lavengro," 185 1 ed., vol. iii., 
p. 228), niailla ; Smith ("Tent Life in Norway," pp. 
105, 106, 345, etc.), fnerle ; Leland ("English Gipsies," 
pp. 29, 30, 90, 107, etc.), myla ; Borrow ("Lavo-lil," 
p. Gi), mail la, 

7. Szi'dglcr, swt^gler, n., Pipe, tobacco-pipe. Bright, sivegii ; 

Smitli (p. \^2), swaglcr ; Leland ("English Gipsies," 
PP- 35. Ii3)» swdgler ; Borrow (" Lavo-Hl," p. 93), 
szvegler, szvingle. 

Various Terminations. 
Class I. -ama, -amns, -imus, -otnns. 

Bitchama, sentence; Rdkamus, speech; Kerimus, 
battle: Tdrnomus, youth. 



ADJECTIVE. 23 

Class 2. -drtts, -erus, -ero. 

Monkdrus, monkey ; Rushdrus^ rush ; Wesidrus, 
Sylvester ; Bosherus, cough ; Boshero^ fiddler. 

Class 3. -dri, -i. 

Besomdri^ besom-makers ; Burk-dri, breasts ; Foosh- 
dri, fern ; RusMri, rushes ; Bluelegi, bluelegs ; Ntiti, 
nuts. 

Class 4. -er. 

Bdr-er, stone ; Gdd-er, shirt ; Rdok-er, tree. 
Class 5. -tu, -OS. 

Bostdrdus, bastard ; Fdirus, a fair ; Hdnikos, a well. 
Class 6. -um. 

Gooshum, throat. 

Of these terminations, -7mis (i) appears in many words 
to be equivalent to the termination -pen, or -ben ; -dri (3) is 
probably the plural form of -drns (2), and the two forms 
-drus, -dri, may owe their origin perhaps to the termina- 
tion -oro (see Diminutives) ; -us, mus, etc., are apparently 
cant terminations. 



ADJECTIVE. 

Adjectives, in the singular, almost invariably end in -0 
or -i, which are respectively masculine and feminine ter- 
minations, e.g., 

Masculine. Feminine, Meaning. 

Baiiro Baiiri Great 

Chikh Chikli Dirty 

CJiooro Choori Poor 

Rinkeno Rinkeni Pretty 

Roopno RoSpni Silver 

These terminations are even added to English adjec- 
tives, e.g., 

Dear-i dei, dear mother. 
Fine-o peios, fiiTe fun. 



24 GYPSY GRAMMAR. 

The Gypsies in Germany do the same, as is shown in the 
following example taken from Pott : 

Biinto bakro, em bimtes Sckaf, a spotted sheep. 

An instance in which a German word, with the normal 
Gypsy adjectival termination, appears prefixed to a Gypsy 
noun, occurs in the English Gypsy dialect, viz., 

Stiffo-paly brother-in-law {stief-bruder). 

Stiffi-pen, sister-in-law {stief-schwester) . 

We have also in this dialect what seems to be an example 
of a French word similarly treated, viz., — 
Bitti chei, little girl {petite fille). 

For the plural, those who speak the ordinary dialect 
apparently prefer the termination -2, and the very few who 
speak the old dialect make use of -/. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

Chiklo drovi, dirty road Chikli drdmaw, dirty roads (ordinary 

dialect). 
Chdoro gairo^ poor man Clwor^ gair^, poor men \ 

Podro gairo, old man Poori gair^, old men I (old dialect). 

Wdver bdkro, another sheep Waverd bokr^^ other sheep) 

The following examples will illustrate the agreement 
between adjectives and nouns. The rule is, however, 
constantly violated by every Gypsy. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

Bauro ret, great gentleman Podri dei, old mother 

Baiiro padni, great water Rinkeni rdkti, pretty girl 

Kdisheno diklo, silk handherchief Rodpni rot, silver spoon 

Many of the adjectives in common use are almost pure 
Hindostani, Sanscrit, or Persian {vide Paspati, p. 59), e.g., 



English Gypsy Adjective. 


Oriental representative. 


Meaning. 


Bauro 


Bur a, Hind. 


Great 


BSkolo 


Bhookha, Hind. 


Hungry 


Kaiilo 


Kala, Hind. 


Black 


Kodshko 


Khoosh, Pers. 


Good 


L6I0 


Lai, Pers. 


Red 





ADJECTIVE. 


25 


iglish Gypsy Adjective. 


Oriental representative. 


Meaning. 


Ldngo 


Lung, Pers. 
.Ltmgra, Hind.) 


Lame 


MoSlo 


Mooa, Hind. 


Dead 


MStto 


Muttu, Sans. 


Drunk 


Nevo 


Niivu, Sans. 


New 


NSngo 


Nunga, Hind. 


Naked 


Podro 


Boor ha, Hind. 


Old 


Shirilo 


Seer a, Hind. 


Cold 


Skodko 


Sookha, Hind. 


Dry 


Tdtto 


Tiitta, Hind. 


Hot 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 


Some adjectives are 


\ formed from Gypsy 


nouns by adding 


or -lo, e.g., 






NOUN. 


ADJECTIVE. 


Chik, dirt. 


Chik-lo, 


dirty. 


Kaish, silk. 


Kaishnc 


>, silken. 


Roop, silver. 


Rodpno, 


silver. 



Dr. Paspati, p. 60, says, " The greater number of Turkish 
Gypsy adjectives end in -/<?." More than half the adjectives 
in the English Gypsy dialect end in -lo or -no, e.g., 

-io, m. ; -//, f. 

Jo6vli, lousy 
Kaulo, black 
KSmelo, loving 
M06I0, dead 
Ndsfalo, ill 
Peedlo, drunk 



Bdlli, hairy 
Bdrvalo, rich 
B^ngalo, wicked 
Bokolo, hungry 
Chodralo, bearded 
Goddlo, sweet 
-no, m. ; -7ii, f 
Ho'ino, angry 
Joovni, female 
Kdishno, silken 
Kino, tired 

Some few end in -do, 
Kindo, wet 



Pehdo, widowed 
Rdtvalo, bloody 
Shirilo, cold 
Shoobli, pregnant 
TtUlo, fat 
Tuvlo, smoky 



Kdshno, wooden Rinkeno, pretty 
Mooshkeno, male Rodpno, silver 
Pdrno, cloth Tdrno, young 

Paimo, white Tikno, little 



e.g., 
Korodo, blind 



P6rdo, full, etc. 



26 GYPSY GRAMMAR. 

These last in general have meanings akin to past parti- 
ciples ; though the division between adjectives in -/o, -no, 
-do, and past participles with the same terminations, is by- 
no means distinct. 

Others have various terminations. 

We have also adjectives in -sko, -sto, formed from the 
genitive singular, e.g., 

Krdlisko, royal, from krdlis, king. 
V^nesto, 



J relating to wmter, from ven, winter. 

[See remarks on the declensions of nouns, p. 14.] 

We have several adjectives, in the very commonest use, 
which seem to be almost peculiar to the English Gypsy- 
dialect, e.g., 

KoSshko, good (Persian, koosh). 
The word occurs in Dr. Pott's work, but is taken from 
English sources. M. Bohtlingk, in " Melanges Asiatiques," 
tome ii., 2me livraison, 1854, has kdnsto, good. Dr. 
Paspati says, in a letter to Dr. Smart, " This word 
(kooshko) is unknown to me." 

The word Latscho, or Laczo, takes its place in most 
dialects, — e.g., instead of KodsJiko divvus, Good day, one 
would say Latscho dives. 

Almost all English Gypsy vocabularies contain the 
word : — 

Bright — Coshko, kosliko (? // for Ji). 

Harriot — Kashto, kashko. 

I rvi ne — Kooshka. 

Borrow — Kosgo, kosko, koshto, kusJito. 

" Illustrated London News," 13th Dec, 1851 — Cushgar, 

kushgar. 
Hubert Smith— O/^/j/y. 
Leland — Kushto, etc. 

Another adjective which appears peculiar to this dialect 

Rinkeno, pretty. 



ADJECTIVE. 27 

Mr. Hubert Smith, in his "Tent Life with English Gypsies 
in Norway," London, 1873, p. 332, says, "In the ItaHan 
Gypsy, it {rankny) is pronounced rincaiwy This assertion 
may perhaps be accounted for on referring to Predari, 
"Origine e Vicende dei Zingari," etc., 8vo, Milan, 1841 
(see "Tent Life," etc., p. 165), for Predari has taken words 
from Kogalnitschan's " Esquisse sur I'hist., et la langue des 
Cigains," 8vo, Berlin, 1837 (see Pott, i. 25), and Kog. con- 
tains many English Gypsy words and phrases taken from 
Roberts.* 

The word for pretty ^ on the Continent, is, — Liebich, 
Schukker ; Paspati, Sukdr, SJmkdr ; Pott, Schakker, Szukar, 
etc., which is represented in this dialect by Shookdr, an 
adverb meaning gently, nicely, easily. 

Rinkeno is represented in most of the English Gypsy 
vocabularies : — 

Bright — Richini. 

Harriot — Rickeno. 

Borrow — Rinkeno, rikkeni. 

"Illustrated London News," 13th Dec, 185 1 — Rinckne; 
ditto, 20th Sept., 1856 — Rinkni. 

Hubert Smith — Rankny. 

Leland — Rikkeno, rijtkeni, rinkni. 

Another of these adjectives is 

Vdsavo, bad, evil. 
The pronunciation varies slightly with individuals. The 
word may be spelt wdsedo, wdfedo, or wdfro. 

The only word resembling these is Borrows Spanish 
Gypsy basto, adj., evil, which is apparently connected with 
his bastardo, s.a., affliction, evil, prison. 

Most of the English vocabularies represent this word, e.g., 

* This theory of the origin of rincano via Kogal is strengthened 
by the statement ("Tent Life," p. 479,) that "the French Gypsies use 
wuddress for bed," whereas there is no w in the French alphabet, but 
" ivuddress, lit " occurs in Kogal., who wrote his book in French, and 
rincana, and wuddress, both occur in Roberts. 



2 8 GYPSY GRAMMAR. 

Bright— Waffro. 

Harriot — Vasavo, vesavo. 

Borrow — Vassavo, vassavy, imssavie, waftido, wafodu^ 

wafitdup^nes (sins). 
"Illustrated London News," 13th Dec, 185 1 — Va- 

fardes. 
Leland — Vessavo, wafro, zvafri^ wafrodearer (worse). 

A fourth peculiar adjective is 

Bitto, little. 

Mr. Hubert Smith, p. 527, quotes biitan as Norwegian 
Gypsy for little, according to M. Sundt. 

It probably owes its origin to the French petit. The 
English bit, though corresponding with this adjective in 
sound, is never synonymous with small. The English say 
indififerently " a bit of bread " and " a little bread " ; and 
English Gypsies may perhaps have confused these two 
phrases, from the assonance of a bitto = a small, and a 
bit 0' = a. bit, or small piece, of. 

The following forms occur in former collections : — 

Bryant — Bittn, bottoo. 

Bright— /^zV/^^, bitto, 

Harriot — Bitta, biti, bite, beti, bete. 

Borrow — Biti, beti. 

Leland— 5^7//. 



Comparison. 

The comparative degree is formed by adding -dalr, -ddr, 
or -ddiro, to the positive. There seems to be no form for 
the superlative beyond the English methods of adding -est, 
or prefixing most, to either the positive or comparative, — 
in the former of which cases the feminine termination -i 
seems preferred to the masculine. At times the compara- 
tive is used as a superlative. 



ADVERB. 29 

Examples. 

POSITIVE. COMPARATIVE. SUPERLATIVE. 

Batiro, great Ba^roddr Bauriest, bauroddrest, most 

baurodar 
ChoSro, poor Chooroddr Chooriest, chooroddrest 

Pooro, old Pooroddr Poortesi, vaosX. poorodar 

Tdrno, young Tdrnoddir Tdrniest, most tarni 

So bootoder too komdssa f What do you want most ? 
O koU so komova feterdair. The things I want most. 

These forms for the comparative are fast dying out, and 
giving way to English formations ; they are, however, still 
in ordinary use in several families. 

The Turkish Gypsies use a similar termination. Dr. 
Paspati, p. 56, gives 

Bard, great ; Bared^r. 
Kalo, black ; Kaleddr. 
Tikno, young ; Tikneddr. 

The comparative degree in Persian is formed by adding 

-tur or -tar, e.g., 

Door; Doortur. 

Sometimes this degree in the English Gypsy dialect is 
formed irregularly, e.g., 

Kodshko, good ; F^tterddir, better. 



ADVERB. 

Adverbs are formed from adjectives by adding -nes or 
-es, e.g., 

Bongo, lame ; Bonges, lamely. 
Chooro, poor ; Choorones, poorly. 
Romano, gypsy ; Romanes, gypsily. 
Tdtcho, true ; Tdchenes, truly. 

Some are formed irregularly, e.g., Ko6shko,^ooA\ mlshto, 
well. Mishto they use occasionally as an adjective, and say 
mishto divvus, good day. 



30 GYPSY GRAMMAR. 

The following examples are from Continental Gypsy 
vocabularies : — 

Baro, great ; Bares. 
Latcho, good ; Latches. 
Tc/ntlo, fat ; Tchules. 



SOME ABSTRACT NOUNS 

Are formed from adjectives, by adding -pen or -ben, [See 
remarks on the noun, p. 19.] 



AUXILIARY VERB. 



Dr. Paspati (p. 80) gives the following, as the inflection 
of the verb to be, in the Turkish Gypsy dialect : — 

PRESENT. IMPERFECT. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. SINGULAR. PLURAL. 



Me isom, I am Amen isd^n, We are 

Tu isdn^ Thou art Tumen isdn, Ye are 
Ov /j/, He is 01 isi, They are 



IsSmas Isdmas 

Isdnas Isdnas 

Isds Isds 



In the English Gypsy dialect, parts of this verb are not 
unfrequently employed in conversation, e.g., 

PRESENT. IMPERFECT. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. SINGULAR. PLURAL. 



Shorn Shorn, shem 

Shan Shan 

See See 



S ho mas, sas Shiimas 
Shdnas Shdnas 

Sas Sas 



A few examples will serve to .show the use now made of 

this verb. 

Present. 

Kind shorn, I am tired. 

Sar shan, pal, How art thou, brother } 

Sar shan, choovdli. How are ye, mates } 

So see, What is it } 

Jinda m^ndi shem akH, He knows we are here. 

Doosta RSmani-chdlaw see akH, Many Gypsies are here. 



auxiliary verb. 3 i 

Imperfect. 
Mdndi sas keker koordtto 'dre mi merripen, I was never 

beaten in my life. 
Beeno shomas, I was born (Wester Bos.) 
Too shdnas ndflo, Thou wast ill. 
Yov sas be^no agldl fndndi, He was born before me. 
Mendi shiiinas wdfedo, We were bad. 
Wdvere sas willing, Others were coming. 

It is also used in the sense of must^ e.g., 
So sham te kerdw, What must I do } What am I to do } 

It occasionally takes the meaning of have, a usage 
derived from the form Mdiidi see. To me there is, = I have 
{est mihi), e.g., 

Yov see a porno sidrdi, He has a white hat. 

Too shanas tri7i greiaw, Thou hadst three horses. 

To be able, can {posse). 

Mr. Borrow ("Romano Lavo-lil," London, Murray, 1874, 
p. 18,) gives* astis mangu^, I can. 

Wester Boswell uses the following forms, viz. : SastiSy 
or Siistis (can) ; Nastis, or Nastissa (cannot) ; TasHs, or 
Tustis (If I can). Liebich has Sasti (can), Nasti (cannot) ; 
but does not represent our third form. Paspati has the 
second form only, viz., Nasti and Nastik (cannot). 

Examples. 

Sar sastis te yek moosk del? How can one man give } 
Pookerova toot, Rei, tastis, I will tell you, sir, if I can. 
Yov' II kair toot tdteho, tastis. He will cure you, if he can. 
Nastis wantasova, I cannot want. 
" Hoi doovay " Nastissa:'—'' Eat that." " I cannot." 

* cf. Pasp., p. 48 : AsTi (As) it is. 



32 



GYPSY GRAMMAR. 



VERB. 

According to various authorities, the German, Hungarian, 
and Turkish Gypsies have a pecuHar conjugation of their 
own. The Gitanos of Spain assimilate their verbs to the 
Spanish conjugation. In this country the Gypsy dialect 
exhibits only remnants of the ancient mode of conjugating 
the verb, which now generally conforms to the English 
method in preference. 

To elucidate the few remarks to be made on this point, 
specimens of the conjugation of the Turkish Gypsy verb, 
taken from pp. 87 and 89 of Dr. Paspati's recent work, are 
subjoined. 

Lava, to take. Kerdva, to make. 

Participle. 
Lino, f. lini, pi. line. Kerdo, f. kerdi, pi. kerde. 

Geru nd. — Kerindds. 





Indicative. 






Present. 




SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. , SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 


I Ldva, or lav 


Ldsa, las 


Kerdva, -rdv 


Kerdsa, -rds 


2 Ldsa, „ las 


Ldna, len 


Kerha, -rds 


Kerina, -rin 


Lha, „ les 




Kerdla, -ril 


Kerdna, -rdn 


3 Ldla, „ lal 


Ldna, len 






Ula, „ lei 


Imperfect. 




Ldvas 


Ldsas 


Kerdvas 


Kerdsas 


Ldsas 


Ldnas 


Kerdsas 


Kerdnas 


Ldas 


Ldnas 


Kerdlas 


Kerdnas 




First A oris t. 






According to the Settled Gypsies. 




SINGULAR, 


PLURAL. SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 


Linidm, lidnt 


Linidm 


Kerghiom 


Kerghidm 


Liuidn, lidn 


Linidn 


Kerghidn 


Kerghidn 


Linids, lids 


Linids 


Kerghids 


Kerghids 



VERB. 



33 



According to the Wandering Gypsies, 



Lindm 
Lindn 
Linds 


Lindm 
Lindn 
Linds 


Kerddm 
Kerddn 
Kerdds 


Kerddm 
Kerddn 
Kerdds 




Second Aorist. 






According to the Settled Gypsies. 




Linidmas 
Linidnas 
Linids 


Linidmas 
Linidnas 
Linids 


Kerghidmas 
Kerghidnas 
Kerghids 


Kerghidmas 
Kerghidnas 
Kerghids 



According to the Wandering Gyysies. 



Lindmas 


Lindmas 


Kerddmas 


Kerddmas 


Lindnas 


Lindnas 


Kerddnas 


Kerddnas 


Linds 


Linds 


Kerdds 


Kerdds 



Kamaldva, -Idv 
Kamaldsa^ -Ih 
KamaUla, -Ul 



Future. 



Kamaldsa, -Ids 
KamaUna, -Idn 
Kamaldna, -tin 



Kamakerdva 
Kamakerdsa 
Kamakerila 



Kamakerdsa 
Kamakerdna 
Kamakerdna 



2 Le, lo 

3 Me lei 



Imperative. 



Len 

Me len 



Ker 

Me kerdl 



Kerdn 

Me kerdn 



Te Idva, -lav 
Tf Idsa, -les 
Te lila, -lei 



Subjunctive. 
Present. 



Te Idsa, -las 
Te Idna, -len 
Te Una, -len 



Te kerdva 
Te kerdsa 
Te kerdla 



Te kerdsa 
Te kerdna 
Te kerdna 



In most instances the English Gypsy verb consists of the 
bare root, e.g., 

5 



34 GYPSY GRAMMAR. 





1st Pers. Sing., Pres., 




English Gypsy. 


Turkish Gypsy. 


Meaning. 


Chin 


Tchin-dva 


Cut 


Jin 


Djan-dva 


Know 


Kair 


Ker-dva 


Make 


Kin 


Kin-dva 


Buy 


Koor 


Ktir-dva 


Fight 


Mor 


Mar-dva 


Kill 


Pen 


Pen-dva 


Say 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 


The few inflections 


still extant may 


be grouped as 


Hows : — 







Indicative. 

Present. 
1st pers., sing., ~ov^ -ova. 

In deep Romanes this termination is still used, not only 
for the present tense, but the future also, e.g., 

AndSva, I bring DSva, \ . Jinova, I know 

Chindva, I cut Deldva^) ^'^^ JSva, \ 

Chivdvay I put HSva, I eat Jaldva,'^ ^ 

Dikdva, I see HdtcJurova, I burn Kair ova, I make 
etc. etc. etc. 

The same termination is occasionally added to English 
verbs, e.g., 

T\{\wV.as6va, I think ; ^2.n\.as6va, I want. 

This form of -Sva, or -dwva, is often contracted in rapid 
conversation, eg., 

Parikrdw, or Pdriko toot, Thank you. 
Jindw, I know. 
Law, I take. 

As comparisons of the old with the ordinary dialect, the 
following examples will serve : — 

Jdva m^, I am going MdndHsjdlin' 
JinSva m^, I know Mdndijins 



VERB. 



3S 



A * v^' which appears to be the remains of -dva, or rather 
of the lengthened form -avdva, is found in the English 
dialect annexed to the root of many of the commonest 
verbs : — 



Hindustani. 


Root. 


Turkish Gypsy. 


English Gypsy. 


Meaning. 


^-na 


A- 


^-v-ava 


A-v 


Come 


Ro-ndi 


Ro- 


Ro-v-i.va 


Ro-v 


Cry 


See-na 


See- 


5/-v-ava 


Si-v 


Sew 


So-na. 


So- 


5<?-v-dva 


So-v 


Sheep 


D/to-na. 


Dho- 


To-v-iva 


To-v 


Wash 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 



2nd pers., sing., -dsa, -ha. 

A few of the old Gypsies still use this form, pronouncing 
it -dssa, -hsa, and frequently contracting it to -ds, -/i", e.g., 

Too jinesa^ thou knowest ; jdsa, goest ; dikha, seest ; 

jivha, livest ; kairesa, or kha, doest ; komha, or 

komh, lovest ; shoonha, hearest. 
Too rdkerdsa, or rSkerds, thou speakest ; podkerds, tellest. 

Examples. 
Jinesa too Westdnis f Do you know Sylvester .' 
Komds too bdlovds ? Do you like bacon "i 
jfinova, pal, sorkon koovaw too pookerds mdndi see tdtcho^ 
I know, brother, everything thou tellest me is true. 

3rd pers., sing., -da, -//. 
This termination is also in use at the present time, e.g., 

Boshda, barks. Kairda, makes. 

Brishinda {brishin-ddd), rains. Nasherda, loses. 
Chivda, puts. 
jfdla, goes. 
Kanda, stinks. 

English Gypsy verbs, in the ordinary dialect, are fre- 
quently merely contracted forms of this termination. This 
is generally the case if the root ends in a vowel, or the 
liquid r, e.g., 



Rokerda, talks. 
Trashda^ fears. 
Yivda {yiv-dda), snows. 



36 GYPSY GRAMMAR. 

3rd Pers. Sing., Pres., English Gypsy 



Root. 


according to Paspati. 


Verb. 


Meaning. 


D^- 


Dda 


Dd 


Give 


7a- 


Jala 


Jal 


Go 


U- 


Ula 


Ld 


Get 


Ker- 


Kerda 


Kd 


Play 


Kha- 


KhSla 


Kol, hoi 


Eat 


Mer- 


Merda 


Md 


Die 


Per- 


Perda 


Pd 


Fall 


Ter- 


Terda 


Til 


Hold 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 



Examples from the Old Dialect. 

Ydijinda man, She knows me. 

Yov jivda posha mdndi, He lives near me. \ 

Yov peerda fnisto, He walks well. 

3rd pers., plur., -^a, -en. 

The old dialect retains this termination, e.g., 

ChivMna, They put. Riggerdina, or rigger^n, They 

carry. 
Jin^nna, They know. WMiia, or wen, They come. 

Examples. 
Kek n^ jinhina yon, They do not know. 
Chiv^nna yon kek gorgiokonh adr^ Usti, They put no 
English in it (their talk). 

Past Forms ; vide Paspati's Aorists. 

There appears to be no distinction between the imperfect 
and aorists, but only one form for both. 

1st pers., sing, and plur., -ddm^ -6m. 

Bisserddm, I forgot Hdnjeddm, I itched 

Didfn, \ KairdSm, I made 

DeldSm) ^ ^^^^ Lidm, I took 

ChidSm, I put Peddm, I fell 



VERB. 37 

Ghioni, 1 went Wooserdom, 1 threw 

Hodom, I ate 

Examples. 
Ghidm ;«/, I went. 
Ghidm mMdi, We went. 

These are contracted forms of past participles, + shorn, 
as kairdo -j- sho7n = katrdSm, I made ; see Paspati. 

2nd pers., sing, and plur., -an. 

Lidn, Thou hast got. 
Ghidn, Ye went. 
Muterddn, Ye micturated. 

Examples. 
Sdvo che^rus lidn to atch akH, What time hast thou got 

to stay here (in prison) } 
MiHterddn too ti-kSkero ? Have you wet yourself > 

These are contracted forms of past participles + skan, as 
kairdo + shan = kairddn, Thou hast done. 

3rd pers., sing, and plur,, -dds, -tds, -ds. 

Chingadds, He tore. Jivdds, He lived. 

Bids, He gave. Kairdds, He made. 

DookaddSy He hurt. Kindds, He bought. 

Yon ghids, They went. Lids, He got. 

Pendds, He said. Mooktds, He left. 
Yon jinddSy They knew. Pedds, He fell, 
etc. etc. 

These are contracted forms of past participles -h see, as 
kairdo -f see — kairdds, He made. 

Occasionally this termination is used for the 2nd person 
singular, somewhat in accordance with that person of the 
imperfect of Paspati's conjugation, and in these cases some- 
times takes a final * a^ e.g., 

Bisserdds too ? Hast thou forgotten .? 

Diktdssa too f Did you see } 



38 GYPSY GRAMMAR. 

3rd pers.; plur., /, formed from past participle plural. 

Von hod^, =: They atej .^ 
Yonped^, = They fell) ^^^'^^^ ^^'•>' 

The following sentences, spoken by Sylvester Boswell, 
well illustrate the above forms, -6m, -an, -as, — 

Z)t6m o bitto jodkel, so hodds I gave away the little dog, which 

o mas, wdver divvus, too ate the meat, the other day, thou 

kindds. boughtedst. 

Didm les kdter bitto tdrno rei I gave it to a little young gentle- 

akii, ta jivdla posha mdndi, man here, that lives near me, 

zxidiyov lids les pdrdel padni and he took it over the water to 

kdter Booko-padni-gav, Liverpool. 

Too kairddn mas ? Have you done the meat ? 

Future. 
In the Turkish dialect this tense is formed, from analogy 
to modern Greek, by prefixing the verb kamdma, to wish, 
desire, etc. As already mentioned, the present tense in 
English R6manes serves also for the future, the meaning 
being determined by the context, or accompanying circum- 
stances. 

Example. 
Dikdva tdlla hdtchiwitchi. I will look after the hedgehog. 

Mdndi latchdva yek. I will find one. 

Maurdva Usti, ta fnorrov Idsti. I will slay it, and shave it. 

Yodsherdva Usti, I will clean it. 

Chiv6va Idsti kdter yog, I will put it to the fire, 

Ta kdrav Idsti, ta hdva Us mdnghi. And cook it, and eat it myself. 

Sylvester Boswell. 

Imperative. 
2nd pers., sing. The verbal root, as dik, see ! kair, do ! 

Although the forms d^, give, and U, take, exists the 
English Gypsies generally use del and leL 

1st pers., plural. 

According to Wester Boswell's usage, this is formed by 
the addition of -^ to the root, with the accent on the added 
syllable. 



VERB, 



39 



Examples. 

OLD DIALECT. NEW. 

J'ds minghi, Let us go Mook's jal 

Dik-ds mendiy Let us look Mook's dik 

Latch'ds menghi, Let us find Mook's latch 

Ker-ds m^nghi. Let us make Mook's kair 

Harriot (see Pott, vol. i., p. 348) has the following ex- 
amples : — 

Ne pala ! jas amego, (sic) ti chinnas amege (sic) bete giv, 

Now mates, let us go, and let us cut a little corn. 
Pdravdsa^ Let us change. 
Jas omingo, (sic) Let us go. 

Pott (vol. i., pp. 346, 475) gives several instances taken 
by him from Puchmayer's " Romdni Czib" (Pott, vol. i., 
p. 20, Source 25), e.g., dschas, shas, 3ind j'avas, let us go; 
dikkas and te dikas, let us see ; ma das, do not let us give ; 
and conjectures that the form is borrowed from the ist 
person plural of the present conjunctive. 



Subjunctive. 

The Turkish Gypsies form the present subjunctive by 
prefixing te to the present indicative. The English Gypsies 
do the same. 



The Beng te lei dodva Ret. 
ni ckiv a choori adrd his 
rdttvali zee. 

The Beng te lei to6ti. 

Beng te lei toot. 

Deldva meiro lav kdter mi- 

Dodvel yov te jal kdter 

yov. 
Te wel tedro krdlisom. 



Examples. 

The Devil take that Gentleman. I'll put 
a knife in his bloody heart. " The most 
wishfullest thing as you can say against 
any one." Charlie Boswell. 

The Devil take you. Ned Bosw£ll. 

Devil take you. 

I will give my word (I will pray) to God 
that he may go to him. 

May thy kingdom come. 

Sylvester Boswell. 



40 



GYPSY GRAMMAR. 



Participle. 
Present. 
They invariably use the English termination -ing^ which 
they pronounce -eti or -in, e.g., 

K6min\ loving. Ko6ren\ fighting. 



Past, 
It ends in -do, -no, or -lo, e.g., 

Chdrdo, stolen, from Chor, 
Ddndo, bitten, 
Modklo, left, 
NdsherdOy lost, 
Pogerdo, broken, 
Dikno, seen, 
etc. 



to steal. 
Dan, „ bite, 
Mook, „ leave. 
NdsheVy „ lose. 
Poger, „ break. 
Dik, „ see. 
etc. 



In deep R6manes the past participle ends in / in the 
plural, and is used for the 3rd person plural of the perfect. 
(See above.) 

Some verbs are formed from past participles of verbs 
which are otherwise believed to be extinct in this dialect, e.g., 

And, to bring, vide andd, p. part, of Turk. Gypsy andva. 
Hinder, QdiCdiXe, „ khindd, „ „ khidva. 

Kister, to ride, „ uklistd, „ „ uklidva. 

Lost Verbs. 

Besides those last mentioned, there are other verbs which 
seem to be lost in the English Gypsy dialect, though their 
roots are retained in derivatives, eg,, 



ENGLISH GYPSY. 
Beino, bom. 
BdlUsJ^Q-divvus, Christmas Day. 



Podsomingro, fork. 
Stdrdo, \ 

Stdriben, \ prison. 
Stiripen, etc. ) 



See TURKISH GYPSY. 

Bendva, to lie in. 

Boldva, to baptize, christen (Bor- 
row, " Lavo-lil," p. 24, inserts 
this verb). 

Pusavdva, to stick, spur. 

Astardva, to seize, arrest. 



PRONOUN. 41 

COxMPOUND Verbs. 

These are numerous and in most cases mere literal trans- 
lations from the English, e.g., 

Atch apr^, Arise, lit. Stand up. 

Del apre, Read, „ Give (attention) on. 

Lei apr^, Arrest, „ Take up. 

Jal adr^y Enter, „ Go in. 

Wodser apr^, Vomit, „ Throw up. 

Jal pdlla, Follow, „ Go after. 
etc. etc. etc. 

In every case the inflection is added to the verb, e.g., 

Woosedom apr^, I vomited. 
Ghidm adr^y I entered. 
Ghidm pdlla, I followed. 

Note. — The pure inflections given above are not usually- 
met with in the ordinary dialect, which inflects its verbs after 
the English mode in preference. Even among those who 
still retain a knowledge of the old dialect, the inflections 
are frequently confused, -//« being used for -^sa, -ha for 
-Mna, etc. 

Westdrus (Sylvester) Boswell asserts that it is only some 
of the Hemes and Boswells who know how to use th 
'double words' (inflected), and that most Gypsies us. 
simply the 'dead words' (uninflected). 



PRONOUN. 

Personal Pronouns. 

The following are the inflections of the Turkish Gypsy 
pronouns according to Dr. Paspati, " Tchinghian^s," pp. 
66, 6^, and those still in use among the English Gypsies, 
arranged in parallel columns for more convenient com- 
parison. 



42 



GYPSY GRAMMAR. 



O 



>r -^ 



s •;: 






1,2^ ^ i> 



.1 

^ ^^ ^ 






I 



^ 













f f 1 

.^ :q :§ 



:^ ^ :^ :^ ^ ^ :^ 




1^ "^ •*« i^ 

^ e g g 



O < Q ^ < 



^ ^ ^ li 
o (u u J5 

iz; o < Q 

















PRONOUN. 








43 














V2 




1 
























^ 




^ ^ 
























^^ 




pq 


"o" 








5^^. 






H 
2 








P. 




















s 








> 




1 


t 








i ? 






1 




jp 








^5 


a 






"i 


^? 










^ 




2 


3 


o 


2 






^ 


5 ^ 




s 


X 

!*»^ 




^ 
i^'^ 
^ 

ȣ>> 




3 

pq 


1 




i 
1 




i 


^ 
•»*^ 

1 


pq W 

If 




C/3 


s 




^ 
^ 




^ 


^ 


2," 


a. 


c/5 




s? 


^:i 




»-H 








-N 










H 










^ 




rs 


R^ 














a 






< 






^^ 


'Z 










(—1 








i 

O 

t/3 


M 


U 
2 
J 

& 

s ^ 


CO 

o 

a 

N 


1 


1 




►^ 




NO 

d 

> 

2 


O 

O 

(3h 


M 




1 
1 .. 






^ 
1 




* 


1 

1 — 1 


1 


5 

■a 


1 


pq 


< 

C/D 




1 

5 


!,3 

:3^ f^ 


Pi 






1 


:3 d 


^ 

3 




i 


1 


< 




1 






































W «:> 
















(^ 




V 


ti 






2-^ 




1 






i ^ 


? 


1 






1 

<1 






g§ 




^3 




4 


5 5 


5 


:3 




^ 


M 


c 




>^ 




















^ 


c3 


S 2 
























s 


Q 


^ < 






















w 




























C/3 








ffl 


M 


























C/3 


z W 


















^ 








s 


is 




1 




3 




1 


1 




ID 

H 


5 


Ldngoro 
Len 






i 




O 




8 
< 


Q 


u 

1— 1 


i 






z 


p < s 



44 GYPSY GRAMMAR. 

L6, He ; pi., //, They. 

Besides the forms yov and yoi^ he and she — pi., yon^ 
they — we have met with lo, he (of which the feminine 
would be //, she), and U, they. These pronouns are only 
used after the auxiliary verb to be, so far as we can find. 
Dr. Pott (vol. i., p. 242) quotes the same remark as having 
been made by Graffunder, though he adduces instances 
from other writers showing that this is not an invariable 
rule. 

The following sentences we noted down as we heard 
them : — 

O rashei, kooshto sas-l6, The clergyman was a good 

man ; lit, good was he. 
'Jaw wdfedo see-id adre lesko zee, He is so jealous ; lit., 

so evil is he in his heart. 
Pookeromengri see-U, They are ' informers.' 
KoshU see-U kondw. They (hedgehogs) are good (to 

eat) now. 
T06I0 see-U, They are fat. 

POSSESSIVES. 

Mi, mine ; Pasp., mo, mi, Ti, thine ; Pasp., to, ti 
Minno,\ Te^ro, thine; Pasp., tinrS 

M^ero, [-mine; Pasp., minrd, L^sko, his; Pasp., Ihkoro, 
MHro, ) Ldki, ISki, her ; Pasp., Idkoro, 

MSro, our ; Pasp. amard, L^ngheri, Ihighi, their ; Pasp., 

Ungoro 
Fhki, his ; Pasp., po (of which the Dative would h^ p^ske). 

N.B. — Mr. Borrow, " Lavo-lil," pp. 13, 174, gives miftro, 
minriy my. 

Demonstratives. 
AkSvva, kSvva, This ; pi. kSlla, These; Pasp. akd, pi. akU ; 

kadavd, pi. kadali. 
AdSvva, doSva, That ; pi. dSlla, dulla, Those ; Pasp., odova, 

pi. odol^. , 



NUMERALS. 45 

INTERROGATIVES, RELATIVES, ETC. ETC. 

Kei, Where ; Pasp., ka, Jdfri, Such ; Pasp., asavko 

adv. locat., q.v. Sdvo, so, Which, what ; Pasp., 

Kokero, Self {Ipse) savd, so 

Kon, ko, Who ; Pasp., ko^, Sor, All ; Pasp., sarrd 

qiiis Ta, who, which, that ; Pott, 

NSgo, Own ke ; Pasp., ka, rel. pron. 

These words are classed together in accordance with 
Pott's and Paspati's arrangement. 











NUMERALS. 


I 


Yek; 


Pasp 


,yek, 


P-75- 


2 


Dod'i; 


» 


dui, 


}) 


3 


Trin; 


»i 


trin 




4 


Stor; 


>> 


star 




5 


Pansh 


> >» 


pantch, pandj. 


6 


Shov; 


i> 


shov. 





7 Dooi trinydw ta yek ; trin ta stor [A/ta, Bryant ; 
He/tan, Marsden ; Pasp., e/td]. 

8 Doot siordw [oitoo, Bryant; Pasp., okto], and see i8. 

9 DoSt storaw ta yek \enneah, Bryant; Henya, Marsden; 
Pasp., enid\ 

10 Desk; Y 2,%^., desk. 

1 1 Desk ta yek ; Pasp., desk u yek, etc. 
1 8 DesJito ; Pasp., desh u ohtd. 

20 Bish, or dooi deshdiv ; Pasp., bish. 
30 Trin deshdw ; Pasp., trianda. 
40 Stor deshdw ; „ sardnda. 
50 Parish deshdw ; „ peninda. 
60 Shov deshdw, etc. ; Pasp., exinda. 
100 Desh deshdw ; V>\N.,shel; Pasp., j^^/. 
1000 Mille, Bw., " Lavo-lil," p. 154. 

* Besides the above forms, we may note the following : — 

6 Sho, Bw., " Lavo-lil," p. 89 ; Pasp., sho. 



46 GYPSY GRAMMAR. 

7 Efta, Lid., Eng. G., p. 218, and hefta, p. 15 ; Bw. 
" Lavo-lil," p. 42, eft. 

9 EnnyOy nu, Bw., " Lavo-lil," p. 5. Mr. Borrow, " Lavo- 
lil," pp. 154 — 162, gives trianda, 30; shovardesh, 60; and 
several other numerals. 

For 7, 8, and 9 we have ourselves only heard the corrupt 
compound forms given above. 

From the numerals there are formed 

y^kino, adj., single ; '6X\^ yekortis, adv., once, 
Pansh^jtgro, n,, five pound bank-note. Pasp., p. yy, 
pantcJtenger^y gen, pi. ; of five piastres, 

Mr. Borrow supplies the following : — 
Duito, second, " Lavo-lil," p. 408. 

Trito, third, "Lavo-lil," p. 96; and "Zinc," 1843 ed., 
vol. ii., p. 145*. 



PREPOSITIONS. 



- Over. 



Adrdl, 'dral, Through, Pdrdel, 

Adr^, Wr/, Into, in, P&dal, 

Agldl, 'glal,\ Before, in Pauddl, 

Agdl, 'gal, ) front of Paudel, 

ApSsh, Against ; v., PSsha. Posh, ) Opposite, near, by, 

Apr^, opr^, 'pr^, Upon, on, up. PSsha,) besides. 

Avr^e, 'vree, Out of, out, Sar, With. 

away, off, from, TaU, aU, 7/, Down, under, 

Fon, from. beneath. 

Katdr, kdtar, kdter. To, unto, Tdlla, Under, beneath, behind, 

at* after, except, 

Ke, To {ke-divvus, to-day). TV, To 

Paldl,^^ 

Pdlla, \ After, behind, back. _f^^/ ;| About, concerning. 

PaMi) TrrSstal,] 

* Kat^r, prep,, = Hel., Air6; M. G., «?'r; Paspati. 



SYNTAX, IDIOMS, ETC. 47 

The following variations and additions are taken from 
Borrow's " Lavo-lil," etc. : — 
Ando, In. 
Anglo ^ Before. 
Inna, inneVy In, within. 

Hir, By, " Lavengro," 185 1 ed., vol., iii., pp. 53, 172. 
Pa, For, „ „ vol. i., p. 325. 

Mr. Leland, " English Gypsies," p. 232, gives muscro. 
Through, in the centre of. 

Of these, te, ke, and sar are also postpositions, te and ke 
forming the dative, and sar forming the instrumental case 
of the pronouns in this dialect, and of those cases of the 
nouns also in the Turkish and other dialects. 

N.B. — Many of these prepositions are also used ad- 
verbially. 



SYNTAX, IDIOMS, etc. 



The arrangement of words in a Gypsy sentence, with 
few exceptions, is strictly in accordance with the English 
language. The following peculiarities may, however, be 
mentioned : — 

(i) The order of a sentence is often reversed, in deep 
Romanes in connection with the verb to be, e.g., 

Tdtcho see, It is right. 

BSkalo shorn, I am hungry. 

HSx^^io shorn, I am a liar. 

Behio s ho mas, I was born. 

'Jaw see, It is so. 

Tikno chor see yov. He is a little child. 

(2) The nominative case often follows the verb it governs, 

KoSromSngro sas me^ro dad, My father was a soldier. 
TSogono shorn mi to dik toot akH, I am sorry to see 
thee here.. 



48 GYPSY GRAMMAR. 

Kek najinSva m^, I do not know. 
Kek najhiina yon, They do not know. 

(3) The verb to be is frequently used without pronouns, 

Sar sJian, How are you ? 
BSkalo shan, Are you hungry ? 
See also (i). 

(4) In asking questions, the sense is frequently deter- 
mined only by the tone, the pronoun when expressed often 
preceding the verb, e.g., 

Too dids o bauro choori kdter rnoosh ? Did you give the 

big knife to the man ? 
Too righerdds kooshni kere? Did you bring the basket 

home ? 
Lon see tooti? Have you got any salt ? 
Kek shoonesa too ? Don't you hear ? 

Examples of the following will be found in other parts 
of the grammar : — 

(5) The article, definite and indefinite, is frequently 
omitted. 

(6) The adjective precedes the noun. 

(7) Possession is denoted by the auxiliary verb and the 
pronoun in the dative case (cf. Pasp., p. 29). 

(8) The use of the present tense for the future. 

(9) The formation of the subjunctive by the optative 
particle te preceding the verb. 

(10) Intensity is denoted by a repetition of the word, 

Dodvore^ doovoree, Very far indeed, — cf. Pasp., p. 171, 
Nakda sigS sigo bersh, The year passes very quick. 

(11) The elision of or between two numerals, e.g., 

Yek doSi, One or two ; Dooi trin, Two or three, etc., — cf. 
Pasp., pp. 594,610. 

( 1 2) The use of double negatives for emphasis, — cf. Pott, 
ii., P- 321. 



SYNTAX, IDIOMS, ETC. 49 

(13) Negation. There are three classes of negatives : 

{a) Kek, with derivatives k^ker, k^kero, k^keno. 

{b) Ma, variously pronounced maa^ maw, mo, usually 

maw. 
(c) JVa, natu, n/, with derivatives net, nan/i, nast/ssa, 

nesHs. 

Class {a) are used chiefly in giving negative answers ; 
{B) with the imperative in prohibiting ; and (^) in making 
negative assertions. 

It is remarkable that kek, which is so frequently used in 
this dialect, should be apparently without a representative 
in the Turkish, except perhaps kdnek. Any, some, none, — 
about which, however, see Pasp., p. 266. 



GYPSY-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 

Note. — Cross references are given between brackets ( ). 

A. 

Aava, I adv., Yes, truly, certainly, verily (ourli). Pasp., 
Advali,/ va ; belt (As.) ; Lieb., auwa 
Adoi, adv., There ('doi, odoi). Pasp., otid; abl., otdr 
Ado6sta, adv. and adj., Plenty, enough ('doosta, 'd6sta). 

Lieb., docha 
Ado6vdi, pron., That ('doova, aduvel). Pasp., odovd 

Adulla,//., Those 
Adral,/r^., Through ('dral). Pasp., and^'dl, from within 
AdYQ, prep., In, into, to ('dr^). Pasp., andre, in. 

Ka.{red adre, enclosed, fenced in ; lit., made in 
^drom, adv., Away ('drom) 
Adu\l3i, pron. p/., Those 

AduUa fo/ki, so kek nanei komela mandi. Those 
people who do not love me 
Aduvel, pron., That (adoova) 

Agal, ) prep., Before, in front of, in the presence of ('gal, 
Aglal,) 'glal). Pasp., a7igldl, angdl 

Poshaglal, Opposite ; lit., close before 
Ajaw, adv., Thus, so ('jaw). .'' Pasp., adjdi, yet, still, again; 

avekd, thus 
Akei, adv.. Here ('kei). Pasp., akd 

Dfdakeij-, or Ditakeij, n.pL, Half-bred Gypsies, who, 
instead of ' dik-akei,' say 'did-, or dit-, akei', for 
* look here ' 
-^k6nyo, adv., Alone (bikoyno) 



52 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Akova, pron., This ('kova). Pasp., akavd 

^ladj, adj., Ashamed ('ladj). Pasp,, ladj, shame 

A\^,prep., Down ('le, tale). Pasp., tel^ 

Besh ale, Sit down 

Chin ale, Cut off, cut down 
Amandi, pron., To me (mandi) 

Am^ndi, /r<?«.. We (mendi). Pasp., dat. pi., amMde 
And, v.a., To bring, fetch, etc. (hand). Pasp., andva 

And6va, I do, or will, bring, etc. 

And^ssa, You bring 

An\o, p. part., Brought 

Anlo apr^. Brought up, educated 

Andad6m, I brought 

Andadasj "^ '"'""S'^'' "-^^^ '°'°''^'^^ 
Angar, n., Coals (vdngar, v6ngar). Pasp., angdr, coal 
Anghit^rra, n.,pr., England. French, Angleterre 
-^popli, adv.. Again (p6pli) 
-^posh, /r^., Against 
K'^xi, prep., Upon, on, up ('pre, opr6). Pasp., opr^ 

Atch apre, To awake, get up 

De, or del, apre. To read 

And apre, | ^^ educate, bring up 

Hand apre,) 

Jiv apre, To live uprightly 

Lei apr6. To arrest, take up 

Pand apr6, To close, shut up 

Til apre, To raise, hold up 

Wo6ser apr^, To vomit, throw up 

Yo6ser apre, To sweep, clean up 
Asdr, } adv., } Also. This word, or particle, is in frequent 
use, sometimes separately, apparently for emphasis, 
and sometimes as an adjunct to a gdujo lav, in 
order to disguise it. It frequently follows verbs 
in the imperative; ^. Vaill., Gramm. Romm., 71, 
Gati sar londis , prepare la salade ; and Mikl., 
ii., 5, 6. Mr. Borrow, in his *' Lavo-lil," gives 



VOCABULARY. 53 

(p. 18), " Asd, asau, ad., also, likewise, too; meero 
pal asau, my brother also. Asarlas, ad., At all, 
in no manner ; " (p. no) " It is my Dowel's kerri- 
mus, and we can't help asarlus ;" (p. 144) "But 
it was kek koskipen asarlus!' Our examples are : — 

Besh pduli, asdr ? Do sit down (lit, back), won't you ? 

Dik, oddi, asdr^ mi DoSveUnghi ? Do look there, won't 
you, for God's sake ? 

Rak, asdr, ti toovlo. Do mind your tobacco 

Too rdker asdr, sar see ddva chldo taUf Do you speak 
as it is put down ? 

Mdndi roker asdr mlsto kendzv sig. I will speak well 
immediately 

P and asdr Ihti opr^ kdter rook. Do tie him up to (a) 
tree 

Me&o rom pands asdr mandi opr^. My husband shuts 
me up 

And asdr mdndi a ko6si padni. Do bring me a little 
water 

Help asdr men, kair o wdrdo jal opr^ drom. Do 
help us (to) make the cart go on the road 

MMdi forgive asdr tooii. We do forgive you 

There's the Bmgesto-h^v, and the Bengesto-md asdr. 
There's the devil's ditch, and the devil's die (dyke) 
too 

Shan todti jdl'm' to Stockport asdr ? Are you going 
to Stockport too } 

O bitto chdvo wants asdr to jin, kon shan too. The 
little boy wants to know who you are 

So too want asdr ? What do you want } 

Shodnedom IhtikdrvcC asdr mdndi. I heard him call- 
ing to me 

Doo'i me'ndi had asdr kdmeni o' Ihtdi. Both of us had 
some of them 

Mdndi did asdr komdva to jal. I did want to go 

Yov kom'd asdr Idti. He pitied her 

Sas so yov promised asdr. It was what he promised 



54 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Kair too sus asdr komessa. Do just as you like 

Well, if I wasn't thinking asdr ajdw ! Well, if I 
wasn't thinking so ! 
Atch, v., To stop, stand, halt, etc. (hatch). Pasp., atchdva 

Atch6va, I stand, I do stand, I am standing, I will 
stop, stand, arise, etc. 

Atch^ssa, You stop, thou stoppest 

Atch^la, He stops 

Atchenna, They stop 

K\.Q}^ing, Standing, floating 

Atchlo /. part, and adj., Stopped, still 

Atch^^, Stood 

Atchdds,) ^^ 

Atchtds, I "^ ^°^^> ^^^^^ 

Atchdem, We stopped 

Yon atchte, They stood 

Atch apr^, Awake, get up 

K\.<z\iing apr6 ap6pli, Resurrection ; lit, standing up 
again 
.<4trdsh, adj., Afraid (trash). Pasp., trashdva, to fear 
Aura, «., Watch, hour (6ra, hdura, yorra) 
Av, v., To come (hav, 'wel, Vel). Pasp., avdva 

Av^l, or aw^l, v., To come, e.g., yon sas av^hV, 
They were coming 

Av^la, He comes 

Av^ssa, Thou wilt come 

Ava td. Come ye, come along ! 

Av palla. Follow ! lit., come after 

A ' • \ Commg 

A V QXl7lg, ) ^ 

W^la, w^nna, vi6m, viis, \\i. See Vel 
Avr6e, or Avrf, prep, and adv., From, out, out of, off, away 
(Vree). Pasp., avri 
Avrf-rig, Outside, crust 
^w6ver, adj.. Another (ovavo, w6ver, wdver). Pasp., j^az'/r, 
other 
Avdver^, //., Others 



VOCABULARY. 55 

Azer, v., To lift (had) ; cf. Pasp., Idzdava, ushtidva ; Vaill., 
Gramm. Romm., asarao 
Azerdas, He, or they, Hfted 



B. 

BadjdjkxViS, n., Badger 

Bdiro, ?i., Ship. See B^ro. Pasp., herd 

Bal, n., Hair. Pasp., bal 

Balaw,//., Hairs 

Bal, sing-., \ Grays, a Gypsy tribe ; as {(grey hairs. 

Balawj-, //., i Compare Borrows Spanish Gypsy, 
bullas, grey hairs 

Balawj, //., Hemes, a Gypsy tribe 

Balaw- ) . , TT . 

BdlenoJ "'^^^^^^ ^^'""^ 

Bdleno,) ,. ^ . 

Bdly, I ^^y-^ Hairy 

Kralisi'j" bauro baleno jo6kel, Dandelion (flower) ; 

lit., Queen's big hairy dog 

Bal-choori, Knife 

Bdlans, ) ^ , ,. 

T./, \ n., One pound sterhng, a sovereign 

T. /, , [ ^-j Bacon (baulo). Pasp., balanS-mas 

Bang, 71., Devil (Beng). Pasp., beng 
Bdngaree, ;/., Waistcoat 

Banga, n. pL, Whiskers, t German Wange, cheeks, or is 
bdnga due to the assonance of waistcoat and 
whiskers 1 
Bar, n.. Stone. Pasp., bar 
Baraw, //., Stones 

Baryaw,//., Stones, testicles, pillars 
Bar6ngri, n., pr., Stanleys, a Gypsy tribe ; as if 
* stonely.' Pasp., barengoro, stony 



56 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

BisWm'n£ bduro bars, Hailing ; lit., raining big 

stones 

Meeasto- > , ,,., 

-r, /I • t bar. Milestone 

rookerz;i!^- j ' 

Soonakei wztA tatcho bari- adr^ lis, Jewelry ; lit,, gold 
with real stones in it 
Bar, «., One pound sterling, sovereign. Pasp.,/«r^, heavy 
Barvalo, adj., Rich, wealthy. Pasp., barvald 

Bdrvalo-tem, Yorkshire 

Bdrvalopen, n., Wealth, riches. Pasp., baravalipi, 
wealth 

Bdrvalo bar, Diamond 

D^shbar, ;/., Ten-pound note 
Bars^ngri ) «., Shepherd. Lieb., Bershero ; } French, Ber- 
Basdngro, ) ghe 
Bastardo, n., Bastard (Boshtardus) 
Bdulo, «., Pig. Pasp , bald 

Baul6, //., Pigs 

Baulesto-f6ros, Pig fair, pig market 

Baulesko-mas, Pork 

Balovas, ■) ^ 
^,, \ n., Bacon 

i3aleno-mas,j 

Baulesko-mooY, Pigface, a nickname 

Bauleski tulopen, Lard ; lit., pig's fat 

Bauro, adj., Great, big, large, broad, deep, etc. Pasp., 

bard 

Bauri, adj., /., Pregnant, * big with child ' 

Bauri-cli^rikl, ) 

Bauro-ch^riklo.) P''^^^^"* 

Baiiri-dei, Grandmother 

Bauroddr, cornp., Bigger. Pasp., bared^r 

Bauro-beresto-gav, Liverpool ; lit., big-ship-town 

Baiiro-b/shno, Hail 

Bauro-cho6ri, Sword 

Bauro-dfklo, Shawl 

Bauro-dood, Lightning 

Bauro-gav, London 



VOCABULARY. 57 

Bauro-h61om6ngro, \ 

Bauro-holomeskro, Y Glutton 

Bauro-hobeneskro, ^ 

Bauro-paani, Ocean, sea, deep water 

Bauro-rei, Gentleman 

Baury6,) n., Assizes ; due to the assonance of 

Baud, i 'Assise' and 'a size' (a big thing) 

Bauri, n., Snail (bouri) 

Bdval, n., Wind. Pasp., balvdl 

Bavengro, -j „ , . , , , 

-r,, J ,/ 1/ V «., Broken-winded horse 

rogado-bavalengro, j ' 

Baval-pogamengri, Windmill 
^^cho vih6ni^</. Bewitched (cho vih6ni) 
Be^bee, or Beebi, «., Aunt, Pasp., bibi 
B&€no,p.part., Born. Pasp., bendo, deHvered 

Beene,//-, Born 

Posh-be6nomus, Placenta, after-birth 

Beenopen, ;?., Birth 
Bei, «., Sleeve, bough. Pasp., bdi, sleeve 

Gadesto-bei, Shirt-sleeve 
Beng, «., Devil (Bang). Pasp., Beng 

B^ngaw,//., Devils 

Beng, adj., Evil, wicked 

B^ngalo, adj,, Wicked, devilish, diabolic. Pasp., 
bengals 

Bengesko, ) 

Bengesko-dik//?^,) ' 

Bengesko-gai'ro, n., Enemy 

B6ngesko-tan, Hell ; lit., Devil's place 

Bengeski-) (The Devil's Ditch, near Balsham, 

Bengesti- i * \ Cambridgeshire 

B6ngesko-mel, The Devil's Dyke, near New- 
market 
Berk. See Burk 
B6ro, «., Ship, boat, barque (Bairo). Pasp., berd 



58 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

B^resto-sher^ngro, I 

Tatcho-ber6ngro, i " 

B6resto-pl6;^ta, A ship's sail 

Bero-gav, | ^.^^^ ^^^ 

Bauro-b6resto-gav, ^ ^ 

Besh, z^., To sit. Pasp., beshdva 

Besh6va, I sit 

Besh^la, He sits 

Beshtas, He sat 

Beshas, Let us sit 

Beshomengro, «., Chair 

B^shto, 71,, Saddle (b6shto). Pasp., beshtS, sat 

B^shopen, ;/., Sessions. Pasp., beship^, residence 

Bauro-po6kinyuski-beshopen, Assizes ; lit., great 
judges' session 
Besh, n.^ Year. Pasp., bersh 

^^^^^^'1 ./ Years 
Beshdvv,)^'^'' ^^^^^ 

Besh6ngro, w., A one-year-old horse, a yearling. This 

word is also used with other numerals in stating a 

person's age ; so Pasp., hi bish-n-pandj bershMgoro, 

He is twenty- five years old, which in the English 

dialect would be * Yov see a bish-ta-pansh besh^ngro' 

Besoma.An, Besom-makers 

Beurus, n., Parlour, the best room of a house ; cf. Vaillant, 
Gramm. Romm., bm-o, cavern 

-„., J V. a.y To sell. Pasp., bikndva 

Bikn6va, I do, or will, sell 

Bfkin6ssa,| 

-oM . r \ Ihou sellest 

Bikmassa,-* 

Bikinela, He sells 

Bfkinde, They sold 

Bfkindds, He sold 

Bfkinds, Let us sell 

Bfkinomdngro,-) 

Bfkom^ngro, } ''- ^^^^^'' riztns^e^ hawker 



VOCABULARY. 59 

Bfknomus, n., Auction sale 
Bik6nyo,| adv., Alone, unbegun, not done (akonyo, pok6n- 
Bik6nya,j yus). Yott/ix.,'^^^, pokoino, bokonOy c{mQt 

Muk 16sti bik6nyo, Leave it alone 
Bissio,) ^ ^ - 

Bfsko j ^^'' ^P"^* ^^P*' ' ^ ^P^^ 
Bish, adj., Twenty. Pasp., bisk 
Bfshno, n., Rain (brfshindo) 

Baiiro bishno, Hail 

Bfshn^w^, Raining 

Bfshnz;/^ baiiro bar^-. Hailing 
Bfsser, v., To forget. Pasp., bistrdva 

Bissad6m, I forgot 

Bissadas, He forgot 
Bfsser, v., To avoid (nisser) 
Bfsser, v.. To send. See next 
Bftcher, v., To send, to sentence. Pasp., bitchavdva 

Bftcher6nna, They send 

Bitchadas, He sent 

Bftchadi paudel. Transported ; lit., sent over. Pasp., 
bitchavdo 

Bftchama, n., Sentence, judgment 

Bitchamdngro, n., A convict 
Bftto, m., \ adj.. Small, little, thin, narrow, lean. .'' French, 
Bftti,/., ) petit. Sundt, bittan, a bit 

Bitta ta bitta. Little by little 

Bitader, comp., Smaller, less 
Bivdn, adv., Raw. Pott, ii., 406, Bivant mass, raw meat 
(taken by Pott from Zippel) 

Bivano, adj., Raw 

Bivan-kosht, Green -wood 
Blue-iiSS2i, adj., Blue 

Blue liggi, n. pi., Toadstools ; lit., blue legs, because one 
variety (Agaricus personatus), much esteemed by 
the Gypsies as a delicacy, has blue stalks 
Bo bi, ) 
B6bbi I ^'' ^^^ (b6obi). Pasp., bdbi 



60 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Bauro- ) 

TT / 1 • . I bobbi, Broad-bean 

Grei-bobbi, Horse-bean 

Bok, «., Hunger. Pasp., bok 

B6kalo, adj., Hungry. Pasp., bokald 

Bauro b6kaloben, Famine 

Bok, I 

-p . I «., Luck, fortune. Pasp., bakht 

Bokalo, ) 

RfSk I ^^J'' ^^^^y- P^isp., bakhtald 

Kooshko bok, Health, happiness 

Ko6shki b6kj/, Happy 

B6kocho, «., Lamb (vakasho, b6koro). Pasp., bakritchS 

Bokoch^sto-pur, Tripe 

B6koro, ■) 

B6kro i ^'' ^ sheep (b6kocho). Pasp., bakrd 

Bokr6, />/., Sheep 
B6korom6ngro,\ 

Bokrom^ngro, cu v, ^ /u z -x 

B6kom6ngro, [ ^^'^ Shepherd (bars^ngri) 

B6kor^ngro, ' 
Bokr^V-peere, Sheep's feet 
Ldvines-b6kro, Goat ; lit., Welsh sheep 
B61esko-dfvvus, n., ChristmdiS Day. Pasp., boldva, to bap- 
tize, to christen 
B6ngali-gdiro, «., Rich man. Only heard once ; ques- 
tionable ; cf, Vaillant, Gramm. Romm., banik, 
richard 
B6ngo, adj., Left, wrong, crooked, lame. Pasp., bangd 
B6ngo-wast, Left hand 
B6nges, adv.. Wrongly 
B6ngo-grei, Spavined horse 
B6nnek, To lei b6nnek, to lay hold of. Pasp., burnek, 

handful 
Bo6bi, n., Pea, bean (bubi). Pasp., bdbi, bean 
Kaulo-bo6bi, Black bean 
Bo6bi b6shno, Peacock 



VOCABULARY. 6 1 

Bo6dega,|«., Shop (boorika). French, boutique; Italian, 
Bo6dika, ) bottega ; Spanish, bodega 

Boodegamengro, «., Shopkeeper 

Simmer/;?^ boodega, Pawnshop 
Boog^nya, n., A pock (booko). Pasp., pukni, abscess ; Pott, 
ii., 396 ; Mikl, i., 5 

Boog^nyaj", pL, Smallpox 
Bo6ko, «., Liver. Pasp., buko, intestine 

Bo6kesto-paani-gav,\ 

Booko-paani-gav, I 

Bo6ko-paani, U-/'"., Liverpool 

Book^sto-gav 
Bo6ko, n.y Smallpox (boogenya) 
Bool, «., Rump. Pasp., bul 

Boolengri^i", ) 

Bo61iengri^^,/ «>*''•• Breeches, knee-breeches 

Boolomengro, «., Contra naturam peccator 

Bool-koova, Chair 

Gro'vneski-bool, Beef-steak 

Bo6lfno, adj., Proud, boasting, swaggering ; Pott, ii., 

407 

Booinelopus pensa rei. As stuck-up as a lord ; lit, 

swaggering like gentleman 

Booinus-, or bo6in^?^i^-, moosh, A swaggering fellow 

Boot, ) 

-p /.• r adj.. Much. Pasp., but 

Bootodair, comp., More. Pasp., buted^r 

O bootodair, stiperL, Most 

Boot adoosta. Very many, very much 
Bo6ti, ) 
Bootsi,} ^-^ ^^'^- P^'P' ^''^' 

Booti, I 

Bo6tsi,l^-'^^^^'^ 

Bootiengro, ) 

Bo6tsi^ngro,i "- ^^'■^^"*' «'°''''^'' 

Bo6tiesto-vdrdo, Knifegrinder's barrow 

Bo6tsi-/;?^ g^iro, Working man 



62 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Shov divvusdw too bo6tiessa, Six days shalt thou 
labour 
Bor, n., Mate, friend. ? In too general use to be the common 

Eastern Counties provincial word 
Bor, «., Hedge. Pasp., bciri, garden 

B6ryaw, //., Hedges 

Borengri, n., Hedge-stake 
B6rlo, Pig. See Baulo 
B6ro, Great. See Bauro 
Boryo, Assizes. See Baury6 
Bosh,z^.,To fiddle. Fa.sp.,baskavdva, topiary on any instrument 

Bosh, n., Fiddle 

Boshero, n., Fiddler 

B6sherus, n., Cough 

B6shervenna, Thej^ are fiddling 

B6shomengri, n., Piper, fiddler, a fiddle, music 

B6shom6ngro, n., A fiddle, fiddler 

Wasto-boshomengro, ?/., Drum 
Bosh, v., To bark. Pasp., bashdva, to cry, call, sing 

Boshdla, It barks 

B6shade, They barked 

B6shno, «., Cock. Pasp., o bashnd bash^l, the cock crows 
Boshtdrdus, «., Bastard (bastardo) 
B6shto,^ 

Boshto, \ n., Saddle (bdshto). Pasp., beshtS, sat 
B6shta,) 

Boiiri, ;/., Snail (bauri). Vaill., Gramm. Romm., buro 
Breedopen, «,, Breed 
Bri'shindo, ;/., Rain. Pasp., brishindS 

Brisheno, adj., Rainy 

Brishin^la, It rains 

Bishn/;/^, Raining 

Bfshn/;/^ bauro bar.^ Hailing 

Bauro bfshno. Hail 
Bro'gi^j-, n., Knee-breeches 

Biimbaros, «., Monkey. ? Bw.'s Span. Gypsy, bombardo, lion, 
and bomboi, foolish 



VOCABULARY. 6j 



Bung2.kr\xs, n., Bung, cork 
Bur, n., Gate 

Burk, n.y Breast. Pasp., brek 
Burkaari,//., Breasts 



CH. 

Chabi, n., s. and pL, Child, children (chavi), Pasp., tchavi 
Chdho, n.y Coat (chiikka, cho6fa, chooko). } Pasp., sharga, 
ridinghood, " probably Turkish choha, cloth, which 
the Greeks call T<r6')(a.!' — Extract from a letter 
from Dr. Paspati 
Chairus, n., Time (cheerus). Pasp., keros ; '' Kaupo^, pro- 
nounced in Crete and Cyprus raaipcx;." — Extract 
from a letter from Dr. Paspati 
Mi-duvel^sko-chairus, ) Heaven, universe, world, 
Do6velesto-<;hairus, i eternity 
Givesto-chairus, Harvest 
Venesto-chairus, Winter 
Chal, n., Fellow, chap 

Romani-chal, A Gypsy 
/"-chalaw, 



Romani -x -chalaw, }/>/-, Gypsies 
v-chale, 

Chalav, v., To touch, meddle (charvo). Pasp., fckardva, to 
lick ; tchalavdvay to beat 

Cham, «., Leather, cheek, tin. Pasp., tchaMy cheek ; Lieb., 
leather 

Chardoka, n., Apron (chorova, to cover; jarifa, jarika, 
j6rjo;j^a, jorjoffa, shardoka, yardooka, ydrdu;^a). 
Pasp., ittchardo, covered. Baudrimont ("Voca- 
bulaire de la langue des Bohemiens habitant sur 
les pays Basques Fran^ais," Bordeaux, 1862,) has 
uruka, mantle, and Francisque Michel (" Pays 
basque," Paris, 1857,) has uraka, cape, both con- 
jecturally referred by M. Ascoli (p. 157) to 7irav, 
to dress 



j ;/., Time (chairus). Pasp., keros 



64 GYPSY- ENGLISH 

Chara, ) v.. To touch, meddle, tease (chdlav). Pasp., tcha- 
ChdrvOji rdva, to lick 

Charas, Let us tease 

Charer opre, To vomit 

Chaver, v., To betray, inform, tell, sed queer e 
Chdvo, ;;?.,) «., Child. Pasp., tckavS, m. ; tchavi, f.; 
Chdvi,/, / tchav^, pi. 

Chavi, \ 

Chav^, \pl., Children 

Chavi^i-, / 

K6shno-chavi, Doll ; lit, wooden-child 

Moosh-chavi, Boy ; lit., man-child 

Chavori, «., Chicken. See Pott, ii., 199, czarvi, das 
Huhn ; dimin., czarvSri 
Cheerus, 
Cheer, 
Chei, «., Lass, daughter, girl. Pasp., tcyi 

Chdiaw,\ 

Cheiaw, \ pL, Girls. Pasp., tchaid 

Ch6iaj, / 

Chein, «., Moon (choom, shool, shoon). Pasp., tchon 

Chelle maur^, //., Loaves (Ch611o). Lieb., zelo 

Ch^riklo, ;;/.,) ^. ,.,,.,, . ^^ , •• ,/ 

Ch' 'VY f \ ^^•' (chiriklo). Pasp., tchincH 

Bauro-ch^riklo, m.,\ 

Baiiri-cWrikli,/., I Pheasant 

R6mani-r6ker/;/^-ch^riklo, A parrot 

Ch6riklesto-kair, Birdcage 
Cheiiri, «., Knife (cho6ri). Pasp., tchori, tchuri 
Chib, «., Tongue (chiv, jib). Pasp., tcJiip 

Chichi,) ^r y . T^ 7 • , 

^. . I n., Nothmg. Pasp., Iiitcli 

Chfchikeni-dr6m, * No thoroughfare,' a private road 
Chide, They put. \ 
Chi'do,/./^;-/., Put. |- See Chiv 
Chid6m, I did put. ' 

Chik, ;/., Dirt, filth, mud, ashes, sand, earth, soil, etc. Pasp., 
hhik 



VOCABULARY. 65 

Chikesko chiimba, Dunghill 

Chfklo, m.,) ,. ^. ^ , ., ,, 

Ch'W f ) J'' 1-^^^^y- Pasp., tchikalo 

Chikengri^j", «., 'Bankers,' who repair canal banks 
Chin, v.y a., To cut, dig. Pasp., tchindva 
Chin6va, I do, or will, cut 
Chin61a, He cuts 
Chinlo, 



ChinV,(^''^ 
Chindom, I did cut 

^, , , ' ) «., Bill, chopper, cleaver, hatchet, 

Chmom^ngro, ^nife, letter 

Chinomongn, ; 

Po6vo-chfnomengri, Plough 

Chinoben, n.y Wound, cut 

Chin tal^, or al6. To cut off, or down 
Ch/ngar, v.^ To quarrel, scold, tear, Pasp., tchingdr, mis- 
fortune, the origin of a quarrel, brawl 

Chinger^nna, They quarrel 

Chingadas, He tore, quarrelled, etc. 

Chingariben, ;/., Quarrel 
Chiriklo, n., Bird (cheriklo). Pasp., tchiriklo 

Chirikle, //., Birds 
Chfti, «., Chain, t German, kette 
Chiv, v., To put, place, pour, etc. Pasp., tckivdva, to throw 

Chivova, I do, or will, put 

Chives, ) _, 

^, . , f Thou puttest 

Chivessa, ) ^ 

Chivela, He puts, will put 

Chivenna, They put 

Chidom, ) ^ ,. , 

^, . J , (I did put 

Chivdova,-' ^ 

Chivdas, 

Chidas, 

Chidem, We put, did put 

Chfdo, ) 

Chide, pL,^^'^'''''^''^ 



!■ He placed, put 



66 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Yon chid^ They put 

Chiv it adre your shero^ Remember ; lit, put it into 

your head 

Chived upon, Cheated ; lit., put upon, imposed on 

Chived to woodrus, Confined (of a woman) ; lit., put 

to bed 

Chiv, «., Tongue (chib). Pasp., tchip 

Chfvomengro,| . ^, , . -r 

^, , , • f ^-j Letter, lawyer, knite 
Chivomengri, ; ' > ^ » 

Chivlo-gorj er. Magistrate, j ustice of the peace (chuvno- 

gorjer). Lieb., tschiwalo rai, der Polizei-direktor 

Chivengro, n., Lawyer 

,' \ n.y Shoe, boot. Pasp., tchekmi (As) 

Ch6kaw,) , _, 

Ch6;^aw,J^^-^^^^^'^^°^" 

Chokengro,} 

^11/ . \ n., bhoemaker 

Chokengri, ) ' 

Grei-esto chok, Horseshoe 

N^i-esto ch6k, Hobnailed boot 
Chokka,! 7t., Coat (chukka, chaho). ^\xndX,tjokka, Skjoert ; 
Cho^o, I Pott, ii., 178 

Pallani chokka. Petticoat ; lit., behind-coat 
Ch611o, adj., Whole, entire (chell^). Pasp., tchalS, satisfied. 
Pott, ii., 256; Mikl., i., 7 

Chollo mauro, Loaf; lit., whole bread 

Chellc maur^, //., Loaves 
Chong, 7/., Knee, hill (choong). Pasp., tchang, leg 

Ch6ngaw,//., Knees 
Chooali, ) «., voc. pL, Mates ! (choovdli, chowdli). Pasp., 
Choobali, ) tchavdle 
Choofa, «., Coat (chaho, chooko, chukka, chokka) 

Chufiaj, //., Petticoats (sho6ba) 
Cho6fih6ni, n.. Witch (cho'vih6ni, cho6vikon). Pasp., tcho- 

vekhanS, ghost 
Cho6kni, ) 
Chookn^e,) ^' '^^^P (c^^oopni). Pasp., tchukni 



VOCABULARY. 67 

Chooko, n., Coat (chaho, etc.) 

Yogengri-chooko, Shooting-coat 
Choom, ;/., Moon (chein, shoon, shool). Pasp., tchon, 

tchomiit 
Chooma, n.y Kiss. Pasp., tcliumi 

Chooma, v., To kiss 

Choomerova, I do, or will, kiss 

Choomadom, I kissed, I did kiss 

Choomadas, He kissed 

Choomaben, ;/., Kissing 
Choomba,) n.^ Hill, chin (choonga, chiimba, diimbo). Pasp., 
Choombo,) tumbay hillock 

Choomoni, n.. Something (chumoni). Lieb., tschomoni 
Cho6nga, ;/., Hill (choomba, dumbo). Pasp., ^(umda, hillock 
Choong, u., Hill, knee (chong). Pasp., tchang, leg 
Choongar, v.^ To spit (chungar). Pasp., tchungardva 

Choongarben, ;/., Spittle 
Choopni, ;/., Whip (chookni). Pasp., tchupni 
Chooralo, adj.. Bearded. Pasp., tchor, beard 

Chooralo-modf, Bearded face 
Cho6ri, «., Knife. Pasp., tchori, tchuri 

Baiiro choori, Sword 

Chooresto-gav, Sheffield 

Poovesto-choori, Plough 

1 •' r \ ^4j\, Poor, humble (choro), Pasp., tdwrd 

Chooreno, ) 
Cho6rokno,i '"^J' P°°' 
Choorokne, //., Mumpers 

Chooromengro, ) 

r-u ' J r i^'i Tramp 

Choorodo, j ' ^ 

Choorode, ) 

Cho6rodon4}^'-'^''=''"P' 

Choorodar, comp,, Poorer 

Choorones-gav, Wakefield ; lit., poorly town (poorly 

== weak = wake) 

Choorokono-lav, A mumper's word 



p. part., Stolen. Pasp., tchordS 



68 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Choovali, n., voc. pL, Mates, companions (chawali, etc.) 
Chooveno, adj., Poor (chuveno) 

Cho6venes, adv., Humbly 
Cho6vikon, n., Witch (ch5 Vih6ni). Pasp., tchovekhanS, ghost 

Cho6vih6neski matchka. Bewitched cat 
Chor, n., Grass. Pasp., tchar 

Chorengri, adj., Grassy, green 

Chor-dik?;^^, adj.. Green ; lit., grass-looking 

Chor-6%tamdngro, Grasshopper 

Dandim6ngri-chor,//., Nettles 

Chorkeno-tem, Yorkshire 
Chor, V. a., To steal. Pasp., tchordva 

Chor6va, I do, or will, steal 

Ch6rdo, '\ 

Chorno, 

Ch6rdeno, 

Chordn6, pl.,^ 

Ch6rom^ngro,} ^^ '^^^^^- ^^^P'^ ''^' 
Chor, n., Son, lad. Pasp., tcho, child ; gor (As), boy 

Giv^ngro chor, Farmer's lad 
Choro, adj., Poor (cho6ro). Pasp., tchoro 

Ch6rokon^s, adv.. Humbly 
Ch6ro,\ 

Chora, V n., Plate, dish. Pasp., tcharS 
Chor, ) 
Chor6va, I cover, wrap up. Pasp., utchardva 

Chor6va les parddl o' yog, I will cover it up with 
ashes 

Chordas, They covered 
Ch6rda, v., To 'cover' (in coYtu). Pasp., utchardva^ to cover, 

or tchordva, to pour ; tckoraib^, seminal fluid 
Ch6vono, adj., Poor (chuveno, cho6veno) 
Ch6vih6ni, n., Witch (cho6fih6ni, cho6vikon). Pasp., tcho- 

vekhand, ghost 
Chiiffa.?, n.pl., Petticoats (cho6fa, sho6ba) 
Chukka, n., Coat (chiho, cho(5ko, etc.) 



VOCABULARY. 69 

Chukk6ngro,) ^ ,. 

^, , , , ' \ n., roliceman 

Chukkengri, j 

Chumba, n., Hill, chin (cho6mba, cho6nga, dumbo). Pasp., 

tumba, hillock 

Chumba kdlesko tem, Derbyshire 
Chumoni, «., Something (cho6moni). Lieb., tchomoni 
Chungar, v., To spit (cho6ngar). Pasp., tchungardva 

Chungar, «., Skewer, spit 

Chuveno,^ _ _ , , , , , , 

rh ' * I ^^'* ^^^^ (chooveno, chovono) 

Chuvno-g6rjer, Magistrate, justice of the peace 
(chivlo g6rjer) 

D. 
Dad, ) ^ , _ , , 

Dddus,) ^^'' ^^^^^^- ^^^P- ^^^ 

Daddi, voc, Father ! 

Dadengro, \^ Bastard; because * fathered' on 

^ , ,, ^ ' ( the putative parent 
Dadlo, ) "^ "" 

Po6ro-dad, Grandfather 

Stiffo-dad, Father-in-law 

Dadesko kair. Father's house 

Mi dddeski bo6tsi^ngri, My father's servants 
Dan, adv., Than 
Ddnder, \ 

Dand, V v. a., To bite. Pasp., dantdva 
Dan, j 

Dd 1 '}a/^^^-* jBitten. Yd^^., dantd 
Dan, n.y Tooth 

Cho6ro-bftto-ddndom6ngro, Mouse; lit., poor little 

biter 
Dandimdngri-chor, Nettles ; lit, biting-grass 



70 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Dandermeskri, «., Pepper 

Danomeskri, n., Mustard 

DandzV^^-pishum, Wasp ; lit., biting-fly 
Dashj «., Cup. Pasp., tdsi 

Doodds, I n., Cup and saucer ; lit, two cups, or 

Do6i-dash,i cuplike things 

Ddsko. See Dei 

De^ article, The 

De. See Del 

Dedro,\ ,. t^ 

Vedr\. } "'^J- ^^^' 

Dei, «., Mother. Pasp., d£, ddi 

D^iesko ") 

T-) ' ,u ) S^^^-> Mother's. Pasp., daidskoro 

Deia, voc.^ Mother ! 

Bauri-dei,) ^ , ^, 
p / . J . j- Grandmother 

Stiffi-dei, Mother-in-law 
Del, V. a,, To give, kick, hit, read (d6). Pasp., ddva, to 

give, kick, hit, speak 
D6, To give, kick 
D6va, ) ^ , .,, . 

Del6va,M^^'°^^^ll'S^^^'^*^- 
Del6va meero lav kdter mi-Do6vel, I pray; lit., I give 

my word to God 
D61a, 1 u . .„ . 

Del^la,) ^ ^'^^^' ^^^^' ^^^• 

Deld6m,) ^ 
Di6m, I I gave, etc. 

M^ndi di6m, We gave 

Dids, He gave, forgave, etc. 

Dids drovdn opr^ o wo6da, He knocked hard at the 

door 
Dfno, n., Gift; lit., given. Vd^s])., p. part., din6 
Di^, They gave 

^ . I opr6, v., To read 



VOCABULARY, 7 1 

Delomus-opre, Writing 

Del-/6?-mandi, Present ; lit., a give to me 

Peero-delh;?^-tem, Lancashire ; lit., foot-kicking 
country 

Delomengro, n.^ Parson, lucifer match, kicking horse 

Delomeskro, n., Hammer 
Den, adv. J Then 
Desh, adj.y Ten. Pasp., desk 

Deshbar, Ten-pound bank-note 

Deshto-hauri,] Eighteen-pence. Pasp., desh-u-shto, 

Deshti-korri, / eighteen 

Desh-ta-yek, Eleven. D. ta dooi, -trin, -stor, -pansh, 
-dooi-trinaw, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16. and so on; dooi 
deshaw, 20 
Didakeii", 71. pi.. Half-bred Gypsies. See Ak^i 
ms,Hegave,| ^^^ ^^, 
Diom, I gave, j 
Dik, V. a., To see, look. Pasp., dikdva 

Dikova, I look, see 

Te dikov avri, dik6va, If I look out, I see 

T (\'V' \ ^^°^ lookest, ye look, see 

Dikela, He sees 

Dikela pensa raiini. She looks like a lady 

Diktom, \ 

Diktoom,) 

Diktassa, Thou didst see, ye saw 

Diktas, He saw, looked 

Dikas, Let us look 

Too diktas.? Have you seen.? (Properly diktdn ; see 

P- 37) 
Diktas komeni .? Did you see anything? (Properly 

diktdn; see p. 37) 
Diktana, They saw, (properly diktas) 

T^'u j p' p(^rt.. Seen. Pasp., diklo 

Dik palla, v., To watch, attend to ; lit., look after 



«., Fool. Pasp., dinilS 



72 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

B6ngesko-dik?>z^, Diabolic, ugly ; lit., devil-looking 

Ko6shko-dfk/«^, Handsome, good-looking 

Dfdak^ij,//., Half-bred Gypsies. See Akei 

Dikom^ngro, «., Looking-glass 

Door-dfkom6ngro, Telescope ; lit., far-seeing thing 

Dfkom^ngri, «., Portrait, likeness, photograph, 
picture 

Dfkimus, \ 

Dfkomus,r-' S^S^^ 

Wafedo dfkomusti chei sas y6i'. She was an ugly girl 
Dfklo, «., Handkerchief, necktie, etc. Pasp., dikl6 

Bauro-dfklQ, Shawl 
Dfnilo, 
Dfnlo, 
Dinl^e,/, 
Dfnvero, 

Dinld, //., Fools 

Dfnveres, adv.. Foolishly 

Dfnveri, adj.. Silly, foolish 

Dids. \ 

Did, Dfno. \ See Del, to give 

Di6m. ) 

Dfvio, ) 

■Pj, . I adj.y Mad, wild. Lieb., diwio ; Mikl., i., 9 

Dfviaw,//., Lunatics 
Dfvio-kair, Asylum, madhouse 

Dfvi-gdiri, Midwife ; lit., madwife. Due to assonance 
Dfvvus, «., Day. Pasp., divis 
Divvusdw, //., Days 
Ke-dfvvus, \ 
K6vva-dfwus, \ To-day 
Te-divvus, / 
K61iko-dfvvus, yesterday 
Kro6kingo-d{vvus, Sunday 
Mi-duver.f-dfvvus, ] 
Mol-diwus, > Christmas Day 

B61esko-dfvvus, ) 



VOCABULARY. 73 

Ovdvo-dfvvus, To-morrow 

Trin-dfvvus^j--palla-ko6roko, Wednesday; lit., three 
days after Sunday, and so on for the other days 
of the week 

Dfvvus/v, adv.j Daily 

Divvusj roozha, Daisy 
'Doi, adv.y There (adof, odoi). Pasp., otid ; abl., otdr 
DdWa., pron., Those (diilla). Pasp., odoU 
Dood, n., Light. Lieb., ^u^ 

Doodaw, ) , ^ . , 

Do6domengro, n., Lantern 

Do6dom^ngro,\ 

Doodeno, \ adj., Light (lucidus) 

Do6dengi, / 

Do6domeskri, n., Lucifer-match 

Do6desko mo61o, Will-o'-th'-Wisp 

Bauro-dood, Lightning 

Mido6vel6sko-dood, Moon, lightning 

Dood-y6gengi-k6shterj, Firebrands; lit, light-fire 
sticks 

Kaulo-dood, Dark-lantern 
Do6das, n., Cup and saucer (dash) 
Do6dum, n., Belly, womb. Pasp., dud%ini, gourd 
Do6lf, adj.y Two. Pasp., dui 

Do6f-m6ndi, We two, or both of us 

Dooi-l^ndi, They two, or both of them 

Do6i' k611i. Florin, a two-shilling piece; lit., two 
things 



Do6f-dash,| ^ , ,, , , 

Do6das, i ^"P ^"^ '^^^^' (^^'^> 



Do6y trin. Two or three 

Yon ghi^n avrl do6Y ta do6l[ ketan^, Th^y went out 
by twos {ghiifiy for ghids) 
Do6ker, v,. To hurt, pain, ache. Pasp., dukdva, to feel pain 
Do6ker, n,, An ache. Pasp., duk 
Do6ker6va, I punish 



74 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Do6kadds, He did hurt 

Do6kadno,/. /«rA, Tormented 
Do6mo, «., Back. Pasp., diunS 

Doomengro, ) n., Broken-backed horse ; doom- 

Doomeksno-grei,i ^ksno for doomhkano 
Door, adj. and adv.^ Far, long. Pasp., dur 

Door, n.^ Distance 

Door door dosta,) . , r rr 

T>, , , ' ( A very long way, very far off 

Doovori-doovori, ; ^ ->=> j> j 

Doordair, ) _ , ^ 

DooroderJ ^'^^^'^'' F^^*^^^^^'- ^^^p., dured^r 

Door-dikomengro, n., Telescope ; lit., far-seer 
Do6ri, n.^ String, twine (dori). Pasp., dori 
Do6rik, v., To tell fortunes, predict (diikker). Lieb., turke- 
wawa 
Do6rikapen, «., Fortune-telling, prediction. Lieb., 
tiirkepejin 
Doosh, n. and adj., Evil ; bad, unlucky, etc. Lieb., dosch 

Dooshalo, adj., Unlucky, etc. 
Do6sta, adj. and ;/., Enough, many, much, plenty, very 
(adoosta, d6sta). Lieb., docha ; Mikl., i., lo 
Door do6sta. Long enough 
'Do6va, pron., That (ado6va). Pasp., odovd 

'Glal doovdski kair, In front of that house 
Diilla k611a, //., TJiose things 
Do6vel, n., God (duvel). Pasp., devd 

Do6velkan6sto, adj., Divine, holy. Pasp., deviicanS 
Mi do6vel6ski chdiros. Eternity, for ever, the World, 

universe ; lit., my God's time 
Diivel^sko chdvo, Christ ; lit, God's Son 
Mi-do6vel^sko, adj., Religious. Pasp., devUskoro 
Mi-do6vel6sko-dood, The moon 
Mi-duvel(^ski gaire, Saints 
Mi-duvelesko mauromengri, Jews ; lit., my God's 

slayers 
Mi-do6velesko bftta folki. Fairies; lit., my God's 
little people 



VOCABULARY. 75 

Duvel^ski Joovel, The Virgin 

Mi-duvel^sto-tem, Sky 

Mi-do6velesko-g6dli, Thunder ; lit, my God's voice 

Mi-duvelesko-keri, Heaven 

Mi-do6velenghi,) 

Mi-do6vel^sti, I For my Gods sake 

Mi-duvel, By God ! 
Mi-duvel'j" moosh, Clergyman 
Mi-duvel'i" divvus, Christmas Day 
Doovori, A long way off. (Door.) ? A contraction of 
door-avr^e ; compare, however, Boht., part i. iadj) : "A 
lengthened form, -oro, m., and ori, /., is much affected 
by both adjectives and nouns, e.g., terno, young, temord, 
ternori, very young " 
Dordi', intei'j.y Lo, behold, see, look ! ? Pasp., otdr dik 
D6ri, n., String, twine, riband, navel (doori). Pasp., dori 
Dorio'v, n., Ocean, sea, river (doyav). Pasp., dardv 
D6sta, adj, and ;?., Plenty, etc. See Do6sta 
Dosta komeni, A great multitude 
D6sta dosta beshaw, Very many years 
Dosta ta d6sta, Enough and to spare 
"Ddwdi, pron., That, it. See Doova 
D6va, I give. See Del 
Doval, \ ^ ^ , ,, 

Dovyal,i ^^^ ^^^' ^^sp., ^^z/rj^/ 

Doyav, n., Sea (dorio'v). Pasp., dardv 
Drab, «., Poison, drug, medicine. Pasp., drab, herb, root, 
physic 

Drab6ngro,) 

Drab<^ngri, 1 ""■■ druggist, doctor 

Tatcho-drabengro, Doctor of medicine 
'Dral,/r^/., Through (adral). Pasp., andrdl, from within 
'Dr6, prep.. In (adre). Pasp., andre 
Drillaw, n. pL, Berries, gooseberries (diiril) 
Drom, n., Road, way, path, lane, street, etc., fashion, 
manner. Pasp., drom, road ; Mikl., i., lo 

Dromaw, //., Roads 



76 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Baur6 dr6maw, Highroads 

Bauri-gavesti-dr6maw, Streets ; lit, big town-roads 
Bftti-gdvesti-dr6maw, Lanes ; lit., little town-roads 
Dro6ven, adv., Slowly. Pott, ii., 318, dirwanh, drovven, etc. 
Dro6veno, ) 
Dro6ven, I ^^'^ tiresome, wearisome 

Drovdn, adv., Hard, forcibly, slowly 

Dvikker, v., To tell fortunes, predict (do6rik). Lieb., turke- 

wawa 

Dukker6va, I tell fortunes 

Dukker?^', n., Fortune-telling 

Dukkeriben, n., Fortune 

Diikkadno, p. part., Predicted 

Diilla ) 

■Q/ 11. '[//., Those (do6va). Pasp., odovd ; pi., odol^ 

Dumbo, n., Hill, mountain (cho6mbo, etc.) Pasp., tumba, 

hillock 
Duril, n., Gooseberry (drfUaw). Lieb., heril, a pea ; Pott, 
ii., 167 
Duril^ski-g6l, Gooseberry-tart 
Diivel, «., God, sky, star. See Do6vel. Pasp., dev^l, God, sky 



E. 

Ei, an ejaculation of woe, alas ! 
'Y.s,pron., It (les) 

E6zaw, n. pL, Clothes. Sundt, Beretning om Landstryger- 
folket, 1852 ; tzar, {pi.), Kloeder 



F. 
Fdirus, n., Fair (f6ros) 

Grefesto-fafrus, Horse fair 
F6rradair, \ 

F^ttadair, > ^^'., <:^;«/., Better. lA^h., fedidir 
Fataddiro,) 

F^ttedafro to6ti. Better than you 



VOCABULARY. 77 

So komova fdterddir, What I want most 

O feterdair pl6;^ta, The best robe 
Filisin, «., Hall, mansion. lA^h., filezzin 
Fino, adj., Fine 
/^WZ-adair, adj.^ First 

First-2.di\r d lil^i, Spring ; lit., first of summer 
Fiz, n., Enchantment, charm 
Folki (pron. fo'ki), «., Folk, people 
Follas^, \ 

Follasaw, >• n. pi., Gloves. \Ji€Q.,forlozzo ; Pott, ii., 394 
FoUasi^i", ) 

Yon, prep., From. German, von 
Foozhaari, n., Fern 
ForAk:, ) 
ForAe\)i ^•' '^^ forgive (d^, del) 

For^tve-asir, Forgive 

Fordeloness, n., Forgiveness 

F6ros, n., Market town (fai'rus). F asp., fciros 

Baiilesto-foros, Pig fair 

F6shono, adj.. False, counterfeit, imitation 

F6shono wongushij, False rings ; rings made of 

imitation gold 

Maw kair tooti kek komeni foshono kookelo, Thou 

shalt not make any graven image ; lit, don't make 

to thee not any false doll 

Full, ) 

P 1 j «•, Dung, excrement, rasp., /ul 

Full-vardo, Dung-cart 



G. 

This letter must be invariably pronounced bard, as in go, and not as in §^tH. 

Gad, n., Shirt. Pasp., ^ad 
Gddaw, //., Shirts 
Gidesto-bei, Shirt-sleeve 
Gad-kosht-koova, Clothes-peg 



78 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Gairo, n., Man. Only applied to gaujos. Pasp., kur ; gov 
(As), boy ; Sundt, gaer {pi), Folk 

Gain;}/' W"""^" 

Gaire,//., Men 

Pe^vlo-gairo, Widower 

Pe^vli-gairi, Widow 

Vardengro-gairo, Miller 

Yek d mi dodvel'j- tatcho gaire, An angel 

'Gdi\,prep., Before (agal, 'glal). Pasp., angldl, agdl 

Garav,) ^ , . , -r^ 

^ , \ V. a., To hide. Pasp., gheravava 

Garov, I do, or will, hide 

Garido, \ 

Ga.ndn6,> p. part., Hidden 

Garer^^, / 

Garidnes,) , , . , , 

^ , h adv., Secretly, hidden, unknown 

Garones, ) ' -^' ' 

Garadom,) 

^ f \ I hid 

Garavom,) 

Garadds,| ._ . . , 
^ , f He hid 

Garavas, ) 

Gaujo, ) n., Stranger, English person, one who is not a 

Gaujer,) Gypsy. (Gorjo.) Va.sp., gajo 

Gav, n., Town, village. Pasp., gav, village 

Gavdw,//., Towns 

Gavengro,| 

^ , . y 71., roliceman 

Gavengri, ) ' 

Bauro-gav, London 

Bauro-bdresto-gav,-) ^ . 

■D ,, , . \ Liverpool 

Booko-paani-gav, j ^ 

Steripen-gav, County town ; lit., prison town 

Mendi jab yek gaver kater waver, We go from one 

town to the other 

Ghian, You went. 

Ghias, He, she, they went. \ See Jal 

Ghien, They went. 



VOCABULA.RY. 



79 



Ghil, V. a., To sing (ghiv). Pasp., ghilidbava 
Ghi'li, n., Song (ghiveli). V3.s^., ghili 
Ghilyawj, //., Songs, broadsheets, handbills, news- 
papers 
Ghilyengri, n. pL, Newspapers 

nu'\''\ P- P^^i', Gone. See J al. Pasp., gkelS, ghel^ 

Ghinjer,) v., To count, reckon. Pasp., Ghendva; pass., 
Ghinya, ) ghenghiovdva 
Ghiom, I went. See Jal 
Ghiv, V. a., To sing (ghil) 

Ghivova, I do, or will, sing 

Ghiveli, n., Song (ghili) 

Ghivenna, They sing 

Ghiv, «., Corn, wheat, Pasp., ghiv 

Ghivengro,) 

^, . , , \ ;/., rarmer 

Ghiveskro, ) 

Ghivesto-chairos, Harvest ; lit., corn-time 

Ghiv^sto-kair, Farmhouse 

Ghivesto-shero, Ear of corn 

Ghiv-poosengro, Wheat-straw stack 

Ghiv-poov, Wheat-field 

Livena-ghiv, Barley ; lit., beer-corn 
Ghiv, n., Snow (iv, hiv, shiv, yiv). Pasp., iv, hiv, biv, vif 
'G\3.\,prep., Before ('gal, agal, aglal). Pasp., ang/dl, aiigdl 

Poshaglal, adv., Opposite ; lit., close before 

Tatcho-'glal, adv., Opposite ; lit., right before 
G6dli, n., Noise, dispute, quarrel, row, summons (gudli, 
goodli) 

Mi-do6velesko-g6dli, Thunder 
G6i*, ;/., Pudding, pie, tart. Pasp., gSi, a thick sausage 

Go'ia, //., Puddings 

Goiongo-gunno, Pudding-bag 

Gono, ) 

^ , I n.. Sack (gunno, kanyo). Pasp., gono 

Goodlo, m.,\ 

Go6dli f. ) -^'^ ^^^^^- Pasp., gtidlo, gentle, sweets 



80 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Goodli, «., Sugar, summons 

Go6dlopen, «., Sweets, sweetmeats. Pasp., gtidlipi, 
gentleness 
Gooroni, n.^ Bull. Pasp., guri, ox ; adj., guruvanS 
Go6shum, n., Throat 

G6rishi, trin-g6rishi, Shilling. Pasp., ghroshia, piastres, 

from the Turkish ghrush ; compare also German 

groschen ; Sundt, ^wrrw; Skilling ; Pott, i., 52; 

Mikl., i., 13 

Gdrjo, ) «., Englishman, stranger, alien, gentile, any one who 

Gorjer,) is not a Gypsy. Y^.s'^., gadjS ; Mikl., i., 1 1 

Gorji,/., Stranger. Pasp., ^«^"/ 

Gorje,/^., English persons. Gentiles. Pasp., ^<2rt^y 

G6rjikana-drom, non-Gypsy fashion 

Gaujikana jinomus, Learning fit for an alien 

Boot gauj^-kani/<:^/>^-i see-le konaw, They are all like 
Gentiles now 

Gorjikanes, \ 

Gorjokanes, \ adv., English 

G6rjones, / 

Chivlo- ) , . ^^ . 

Chiivno-I ^^"J^"' Magistrate 

Paanengro-g6rjer, Sailor ; lit., water-gentile 

Poov^ngri-g6rjer, Irishman ; lit, potato-gentile 

Yogengri-gorjer, Gamekeeper; lit., gun-gentile 
G6zvero, adj., Artful, sly. Lieb., godsw^ro ; Pasp., godialS 

^ , I «., Barn. Lieb., granscha, stable 

Grasni, n. /., Mare. Pasp., grasnl 

Grdsni-m^ila, She-ass 
GreinOy adj., Green 
Grei, n. m., Horse. Pasp., grdi 

Gr^iaw,) , ..^ 

Greidngro, «., Horsedealer, groom 
Gr^iesto-chok, Horse.shoe 
Gr^iesti-ch6;)^aw, //., Horseshoes 



VOCABULARY. 8 1 

Gr^iesto-chukni, Horsewhip 

Gr^iesto-fairus, Horse-fair 

Greiesto-koppa, Horse-rug 

Greiesko-menengro, Horse-collar 

Greiesto-praster?;?^, Horse-race 

Barengro- ) 

Bar&kro-/g''^''S'«"'°" 

Delomengro-grei, Kicking horse 

Doomeksno-grei, Brokenbacked horse 

Grunchi-grunchi-grei, Insatiable horse ; by onoma- 

topoea 
Gresti, «., The mayor of a town. (The form of this word is 

the dative oi grei, but it is probably a corruption 

oi grdsni) 

^ , ' ^ n., Cow. Pasp., gurtivno 
GroovenJ ^ ^ 

Groovenesko-mas, Beef 

Mooshkeni-groovni, Ox, bull ; lit., male cow 

Groovni roozha, Cowslip (flower) 
Grov, 7i.y Bull. Pasp., gurnv 

Grovneski-bool, Beef-steak 
Giidli, «., Noise (godli) 
Giinno, «., Sack, bag (gonno). Pasp., gono 
Gur, ;2., Throat (kauri, kur, karlo). Pasp., kori ; Mikl., i., 13 



H. 

This letter is in many instances interchangeable with K, and in such cases is a 
relic of an original aspirated K, e.g., /^<?/and kol, to eat {khala, Pasp.) 

Had, V. a., To raise, lift (azer). Lieb., hadawa 

'Hamyai-, //.//., Knee-breeches (rokamyas) 

Hand, v. a., To bring (and). Pasp., andva 

Hanik, ) 

TT ' -1 I n.y Well. Pasp., khaniJik 

Harri, ;/., Penny (horro, hauro, korro). Lieb., cheiro 
Hatch, v., To stand, halt, stay, stop, etc. (atch). Pasp., 
atchdva, to remain 

6 



82 GYPSY-EXGLISH 

Hatch-pauli-kanni, Guineafowl ; lit., stay-back fowl, 
because provincials call them 'comebacks,' from 
their cry 
Hav, 7'., To come (av, Vel). Pasp., avdva 
YidiW^ particle^ ? eh 

Too shanas ndfelo waver divvus, haw ? You were ill 
the other day, eh ? 
Haw, z/., To eat (hoi, kol). Pasp., khdva 

Hawmdskro, «., Table 
Haurini, adj., Angry, cross, savage (hoino, korni). Pasp., 

kholmdkoro 
Hauro, n., Copper (harri, horro, korro) 

Haiirongo, adj., Copper (holono) 
Hauro, n., Sword. Pasp., khanro 

Heka, n., Haste (yeka, hokki). Pott, ii., 173, suggests sik, 
quick as the etymon 

^ , 'I ;/., Leg, wheel. Lieb., hero. Pasp., gher, thigh 

Here, pi., Wheels 
Wardesko-here, Cart-wheels 
Herengri^j, n.p/., Leggings 
Herengro-matcho, Crab ; lit, legged-fish 
Hev, n.. Hole, window, grave (kev). Pasp., k/iev 
H^vaw, \ 

H^vyaw, > //., Holes, windows 
H^vyawJ", ) 

'H6v/y, ) Holy. From the assonance of Ho/e and 
Hdveski,! No/j/ 
Mo6sheno-hev, Armpit 

jj. J I z/., Cacare (kinder). Fasp., k/ienddva 

Hfndi i ^^■' ^^^^y> wretched, squalid, filthy 
Hindi-kair, Privy. Pasp., k/i^ndi 
Hfndi-kdkardtchi, Parrot ; lit., dirty magpie 
Hindo-tem, ) Ireland. ? c/. Pasp., hindyemi, the 



H/ndi-tem^skro>J end of the world 



VOCABULARY. 8^ 

Hindo-kovva, A coarse expression sometimes used 

for mustard ; cf. muterimongeri 
Hi'ndi-temengro, Irishman 
Hindi-temengri-gaire, p/r, Irishmen 
Hindi-temengri kongri, Catholic Church ; because 
so many Irish are Roman CathoHcs, or, in com- 
mon parlance, Catholics 
Hiv. n., Snow (iv) 

Hoax, v., To cheat (hokano). Pasp., khokhavdva 
Hoben, n.. Food, victuals, eatables (holben, koben). Pasp., 
khabe 
Hoben-chairos, Supper-time 

Hobenengro, ;/2.,) i, n r j 

TT .1 , • r \ n., Cook, one who sells food 
Hobenengri, /., j ' 

Hobeneskro, n., Table 

Bauro hobeneskro, A glutton ; lit., big eater 
Hodas, He ate. See Hoi 
Hodjerpen, n., Gonorrhoea (hotchopen) 
H6dno, 



TT 1/ (I ate, eaten. See Hoi 
Hodom, ) 

Hoino, adj., Angry (ho no, etc.) Lieb., hoino ; Mikl., i., I2 
Hoinomus,) 
H6lben, / «- ^"^er, vexat.on 

Hoinous, adj., Angry 
WA . '\n., Lie, falsehood (hookapen, hoax) 

,T r '\ n., Liar, lie : rt^'., false. Pasp., khokhavnS 

Ho%ano,) > » y' r- » 

Hokane,//., Lies 

H^kt ^'1 ^'' ^° J""^P (^%^^)- Pasp., ukhkidva, to arise, get 
Hok,^'i "P 

Hokki! Look! Here! (heka, yeka). Pott, ii,, 173 
Hoi, v.. To eat (haw, kol). Pasp., khidva, to eat; khalS, 
eaten 



84 GYPSY- ENGLISH 

Hova, ) ^ , 

TT 1 , f 1 do, or will, eat 

Holova,) 

Hola, He eats 

Holessa, Thou eatest, you eat 

Hodom, I ate 

Hodas, He ate, he has eaten 

Hode, X _, 

Hoden,}^^^^^'^^^ 

Hodno,) _ 

HolW,)^-^^^^'^^^^^ 

Holben, 

Holoben, \ n., Food (koben). Pasp., khab^ 

Hoben, 

Holeno, 

H6Iono, \ n., Landlord 

Hol^skro,. 

Holomus, «., Feast, supper. Vaill., p. 70, Andeas o 

hamoSy On a servi ; p. 71, To hamos pe mcseli^ Mets 

le plat sur la table 

Bauro-holomengro, Glutton 

Bauro-holomengro-jookel,) ,,t ,r i-^ u- ^- j 
^ , , ,, ,1 . ,, , Wolf; lit, biff-eating doe: 
Bauro-holomeskro-jookel,^ > > & & s 

Lolo-holomengri, Radish 

Grei-esko lolo-holomengri, Horse-radish 
H61ono, adj., Copper (haurongo) 
Honj, «., The itch 

Honj, v., To itch. Pasp., kJtdndjiovava 

Honjedom, I itched 

Honyificd, adj., Mangy 
Ho'no, adj., Angry, cross, etc. (hoino, haiirini, korni). Lieb., 

hoino 
Ho6fa, n., Cap, captain (ko6fa). Dr. Paspati says in a 

letter, " from the Greek Koucpui, a cap " 
Ho6kapen, ;/., Lie, falsehood (h6;T^aben). Pasp., khokham- 

nib^, khokhaimb^ 
Hoolaverj, n.pl.. Stockings (oulavers). 'L\Qh.,cholib; Mikl.,i., 4 
Hoora, n.. Watch (ora). Pasp., dra 



VOCABULARY. 85 



TT / • 'I n-, Penny (hdrri, korro, hauro) 

Posh-h6rn, Halfpenny 
Shoo-kh6rri, Sixpence 
D6sto-h6rri, Eighteenpence 

'I V. a., To burn (kdchar). Lieb 



chadscJieivawa 



Hotch, 

Hotcherova, I do, or will, burn 

H6tcher61a, It burns 

Hotchedo, /. part., Burnt 

Hotchede,//., Burnt, also They burnt 

Hotchedom, I burnt 

Hotchedas, He burnt 

H6tcheropen,\ 

Hotcheroben, [ n.. Gonorrhoea (hodjerpen) 

Hotchopen, j 
H6tchi-wftchi, Hedgehog. Vaill, Gramm. Romm., Hoc a, 
epic, pique ; hocavi^a, pore, ^pine, h^risson ; hoclo, 
herisse, piquant 
Hotcher me, I said. An irregular verb ; used in narration, 
like ' quotha.' Vaill., hiotosarao, jeter les hauts 
cris ; Pasp., khuydzava, to call, cry to any one 

Hotchi-yov, He said 

Hotchi-yoT, She said 

H(5tch'ov, He said, I said 
H6va, I eat. See Hoi 

I. 

I,/., def. art., The. Pasp., i 
I'ngrin^Vi-, n.pl., Welsh Gypsies, } Ingrams 
Iv, n., Snow (ghiv, hiv, shiv, yiv). Pasp., iv, etc. 
Iv-bar, Snowball 



J. 

Jafra ) 

Tdf ■ i ^^^ ^^^^^- Pasp., asavkS 



86 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Maw kel jafri godli, Don't make such a noise 

Kek na komova jafri tanaw si k61i, I do not like 

such places as these 

Jal, v., To go (jaw, jil, jol, ghilo). Pasp., djdva 

J6va, ) T J Ml 

■; , , \ I do, or will, go 
Jalova,) ' ^ 

Jalassa,) 

Jdssa, I Thou goest, you go 

Jdla, He goes 

Jal6m mendi, We will go 

Yov te jal, That he may go 

Ghi6m, I, or we, went 

Ghias, He went 

Ghian, Ye went 

Ghil6, They went 

G\ii\o, p. part., Gone. Vd.s^., g/ielo 

Jas mdnghi pardal kola poovyaw. Let us go over 
those fields 

]i\ed, Went 

Jal palla, To follow ; lit., go after 

Jal shookdr. Go softly 
Jdmba, n., Toad (j6mba). Pasp., zdmba, frog 
Jirifa, ) ^ ,. . ,„ 

Jdrika,) ^^-' ^P^^" (jorjoffa, etc.) 

Jas, Let us go.) ^^^ 

Jassa, You go.) -^ 

Jaw, v., To go (jal, etc.) Pasp., djdva 

Jaw paiili, v.. To return, go back 
'Jaw, adv., Thus so (ajdw). Pasp., adjdi, yet, still, again ; 
avekd, thus 

'Jaw see ta jaw see. Amen ; lit., so it is and so 
it is 

'Jaw mdndi, So do I 
Jeer, n.. Rump. Pasp., ^//^V, groin 
Jib, n.. Tongue, language (chiv). Pasp., djib (As); tchip 
Jfdo, adj., Alive, lively. See Jiv 
Jil, z/., To go. See Jal 



VOCABULARY. 87 

Jin, v., To know. Pasp., djindva 

Jinova,) 

\,. , \\ know 

Jinaw, ) 

Kek na jinom me, /don't know (.?jindw m6) 

Jin^ssa, Ye know, thou knowest 

Jin^la, He knows 

Jin^nna, They know 

Jind6m, I knew 

Jindassa, Thou didst know, you knew 

Jindas, He knew, they knew 

]\x\\o, p. part, Known 

Jinomeskro, adj., Wise, clever, knowing, sharp, 

/fly; 

jinomes , \ ^^ ^ knowing person, wise man 

Jmomengro,) 

Jinomeskri,//., Wise men 
Jiv, v.y To Hve. Pasp., djivdva 

Jivova, I Hve 

Jiv^ssa, Thou livest, ye Hve, thou shalt Hve 

Jiv^la, He Hves 

Jiv^nna, They Hve 

Jivdds, He Hved 

Jfvdo,\ 

J{vo, )• «^'., AHve, Hving. VdiS^.,p. part., djivdo 

Jido, ) 

Jivoben, ;/., LiveHhood, Hfe. Pasp., djib^ 

Jiv apre, v., To Hve uprightly 
Job, ;/., Oats (jov). Pasp., djov, barley ; Mikl., i., 47 

J6b-poos6ngro, Oat straw stack 
Jol-ta, A signal-cry, the meaning of which is obsolete. 
1 Bryant, shu/ta, here (sed q., shulta = sJioonta, 
hear!), Leland, Engl. G., p. 227, joter 
Jol, v., To go. See Jal 

J6mba, n,, Toad (jamba). Pasp., zdmba, a frog ; Mikl., i., 47 
J6ngher, v., To awake. Pasp., djangdva 

•[ 1- 1 ^^- ^v I^og (y^kel)- Pasp., djukH 



SS GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Jookli,/., Bitch. Pasp., tc/mk/i 

Kanengro-jookel, Greyhound ; ht., hare-dog 

Vesh-jo6kel, Fox ; lit., wood-dog 

Bauro-h61om6ns[ro-io6kel ) „. ,^ ,. , . 

T2 , V,., .1 . ., ,'[ Wolf; ht.,big-eatmg dog 

Bauro-h61omeskro-jookel, ) » ' t> js o 

Kralisf's bauro bdleno jo6kel, Dandelion (flower) ; 
lit., Queen's big hairy dog 
Jo6va, 71., Louse. Pasp., djuv 

]oov6,/>/,, Lice 

Jo6vH, adj., Lousy. Pasp., djuvald 
Jo6vel, 71., Woman. Pasp., djuvd 

]o6vYd^N,pL, Women 

Joovni, adj.. Feminine, female. Pasp., djuvlicano 

Jo6vni-k611aw,/'/., Women's clothes 

Jo6visko-mas,) Mutton ; lit, female meat; or, 

Jo6viko-mas, / The flesh of a cow which has died 
in calving 

Jo6vioko-st adi. Bonnet ; lit., female hat 
Jorj6fla,} n., Apron (jdrifa, chard6kka, etc.) Bohtlingk, 
Jorj6%a,/ Part i., p. 'i^^.jdtiddrdka, shawl 
Jov, n., Oats (job). Pasp., djov, barley 
J(5va, I go. See Jal 
Jmt2^ kondw, Just now 



K. 

This letter in some words is interchangeable with '//,' and, in such cases, is a 
relic of an original aspirated ^k,'' e.g., kol, hoi, originally k-hol, to «at, 

Kadfni, adj., In foal (kdvni). Pasp., kabni 

Kdchar, v.y To burn (h6tcher). Lieb., chadschewawa ; Pasp., 

kizdizava, to take fire 
Kair, n.. House. Pasp., ker 

Kairaw,//., Houses 

Kair^ngro, «., Housed weller, housekeeper 

Kairiko-tan, Brickfield 

^ ' c adv., At home. Pasp., ker^ 



VOCABULARY. 89 

Chfrikl6sto-kair, Birdcage 
Ghiv6sto-kair, Farmhouse 
Hindi-kair, Privy 
Kralisko-kair, Palace 
Loodopen-kair, Lodging-house 
Kair, v. a., To do, make, etc. (k6rav, kel). Pasp., ke- 
rdva 
Kair6va,\ 

^r M I I make, do make, I will make, or do, etc. 
Kel6va, 

Keraw, 

Ker6ssa,\ 

K'^ssa, [ Thou makest 

Ker^s, ) 

Kair61a,v 

T^ , ,, 'I He, she, it, does, or will, make, do, etc. 
Kelela, 

K61a, } 

Kair^nna,) ^, , , 

•tr A \ They make, dance, etc. 

K6do, \ 

Ka.irdo,> p. part., Done, made. Pasp., kerdd 

Ksiired, ) 

Te kerav te^ro drom, To make thy way 

Ked6m, I did, I made, I did do, I have done 

Kedds, I 

TT -If I He made 

Kerdas,) 

Kedas wafedo, He sinned, he suffered ; lit., he did 

bad 

Kairddn, Thou hast cooked, done 

Yon kerde, They cooked 

Ked^ a baiiro g6dli. They made a great noise 

Keras m^nghi. Let us cook, make, dance, play 

Kair posh, To help ; lit., do half 

Kair tatcho. To cure; lit., make right 

Kdir^i/ adr6. Enclosed, fenced in 

Kdiropen, «., Doings, dealings, actions 



90 GYPSY- ENGLISH 

T . , . ' [ n., Behaviour, doine 
Kerimus,) ° 

Kiirom^ngro.) „ , , 

„ , , f ?/., Creator, maker 

Keromengro, ) 

Kal-kelimus-tem, Cheshire ; lit., cheese-making 

country 

Kaish j «•■ ^"'^- ^^-^P' '''''' 

Kaijino, 



,^,. , . «^'., Silken. YdA'o., keshanS 

Kaisheno, ) 

Kdkardtchi, ;/., Magpie. Pasp., karakdshka, kakardshka 

Hindo-kakaratchi, n., Parrot ; lit., dirty magpie 
Kal, «., Cheese. Pasp., kerdl 

Kalengri, «., Buttermilk, whey 
Kal-marekli, Cheesecake 
Kalesko- \ 

Kal-k^limus- \ tem, Cheshire, as if C/tfeseshire 
Ksi\-k6\m'- ) 

Chumba-kdlesko-tem, Derbyshire ; lit, hill-cheese- 
county 
Kdliko, «., Yesterday, to-morrow (k6Hko) 

L6va lendi to mdndi'j h6ben adre kdliko saula, I will 
have them for breakfast (lit., to my food) (in) to- 
morrow morning 
Kdliko ko6roko, Last Sunday 
Kam, ;/., Sun. Pasp., kam 

O kam see opre (or, atch^^ opr6), The sun has 

risen 
O kam .see b^sh^^ (or, b^sh^'^/ tale). The sun has set 
Kamora,\ n., Chamber, room. Lieb., kamora ; see Mikl., 
Kam6ra,j i., 17; Pasp., in a letttr, says " Greek «:t</i€pa, 
from Kufxapat a vault " 

4 7/., To stink. Y diSV), kanddva 
Kan. ) 



' \ 71., A stink, unpleasant smell 
Kan, ) 



Kan^la, It stinks 



VOCABULARY. 9 1 

Kanlo, \ 

Kanloo, h^^7-, Stinking 

Kanle,//./ 

Kanlo-pooruma, Garlic ; lit., stinking onion 
Kan, n., Ear. Pasp., kann 

Kanaw,//., Ears 

Kan^ngro,) ^^^^ 

Kanengri, ) 

Bauri-kanengri-mooshaw, pi., Hemes ; lit., big-hare- 
men 

Kanengre, //., Hares 

Kanengro-jookel, Greyhound 

Kanengro-moosh, Gamekeeper 

Kanengro, \ 

Kanengri, > n.. Earring 

KanomengroJ 

'Shooko kanengri, Deaf person 
Kdnna, adv.y When, now (k6nna). Pasp., kdnna 

Kanna yuv sas X^Wcd opre. When he was arrested 

Kanna sig. Immediately (kenaw sig) 

Kdnni,| ;/., Hen, fowl. Pasp., >^rt^«/; \A^\Q\i,kachnin. See 

Kd^niJ Mikl, i., 16 

Kanniaw,) , _^ - , 
^^ , . \ pi., Hens, fowls 
Kannia, J ^ 

Hatch-pauli-kanni, Guineafowl, called ' comebacks ' 
by provincials, from the cry 
Kdnyo, «., Sack (g6no). Vdisp.,go7i6 
Kdrlo, ;/., Throat (kur, gur). Pasp., kurld 
Kas, n., Hay. Pasp,, kas 

Kas6ngro, n., Hayrick 

Kasoni, ;/., Billhook 
Kdter,\ prep., To, unto, at. Pasp., katar, from where, 
Kdtar, > whence ; katdr, from ; akatdr, from here ; okaidr, 
Katdr,/ from there. Lieb., ^«//'er, hither 

,^ , . { n., Scissors, Pasp., kat 
Katsi^.y, ' 



92 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Kateni, \ 

Katenes, > adv., Together (k6tan6, /(?-ketane). Pasp., ketan^ 

Kdten6, ) 

Kaulo, w.; Kauli,/.; Kaule,//., Black. Pasp., >^rt/(? 

Kaulo, «., Common, heath, a term which is said 
to have originated with the large black waste 
lands about Birmingham and the Staffordshire 
Potteries 

Kauloben, n.. Blackness 

Kaulom^skro, «., Blacksmith 

Kaulomeskro-ko6va, Anvil ; lit., blacksmith- thing 

Kaulo-bo6bi, Black bean 

Kaulo-dood, Dark-lantern 

Kaulo-gav, Birmingham, London ; lit., black town 

Kaulo-tem, ' The Black Country,' either Manchester, 
Birmingham, the Staffordshire Potteries, or Lan- 
cashire 

Kauli-rauni, Turkey ; lit., black lady 
Kaur, ^'., To shout, call (kor). } Pasp., tchdrdava 
Kauri, «., Penis (k6rri) 
Kauri, «., Neck (kur), Pasp,, koH 
Kavak6i, This here 
Kdvod6i, That there 

Kdvni, adj.. In foal (kadfni). Pasp., kabnl 
'Kdvi, «., Kettle (kekdvi) 
Kedds, He made. See Kair 
Ke-dfvvus, «., To-day 
K^do,/./«r/., Made.) ^^^ j^^j^ 
Ked6m, I made. / 
Kei, adv., Where. Pasp., ka 
'Kei, adv., Here (akei) 
Kekdvi, «., Kettle ('kdvi). Pasp., kakkdvi 
Kek, adv.. No, not. .'* Pasp., kan^k, none 

K6ker, adv.. No ; adj., None 

K6kero, adj.. None 



K^kera mdndi, 
K6ker mdndi. 



\ No, not I ; an emphatic negation 



VOCABULARY. 93 

Keker adre lin, Empty ; lit., none in them 
Kek-komi, adv., Never, no more 
Kek-kom, v., To hate ; lit., not-love 
Kek-komeni, None, nobody, no one (komeni) 
Kel, v., To do, act, play, dance, make, cook, etc. (kair). 

Pasp., kerdva, to make ; keldva, to dance 
Kelova, I will make 
Kela, It will do 

Kelela peias, It is playing ; lit., it makes fun 
KelW, Made 
KelbVi!^, Dancing 
Kelopen, n., Spree, dance, dancing, ball. Pasp., 

keliy 
Kelomengro,-;/., Doer, performer 
Spingaaro-kdomengro, Skewer-maker 
Kelimus, «., Play. Vaill., kelimas 
Kal-kelimus-tem, Cheshire ; lit., cheese-making 

country 

,^ ' \ adv., Now (kanna). Pasp., akand 

Knaw, ) ^ ' ^ 

Kenaw-sig, Just now, immediately (kanna-sig) ; lit., 

now soon, or quick 

Kepsi, ;/., Basket (ki'psi) 

Kerav, To cook.) ^ ^r - 
x^ r T 1 r -5ee Kair 

Keraw, 1 do. ^ 

Kere ) 

^^ , .'\ adv.. At home. Pasp., ker^ 

Ken, ) 

Keriben, \^ , . . 

,^ , . \ Behaviour. 
Kerimus.J 

Kerenna, They make. See Kair 

Keressa, Thou makest, etc. 

Kermo, n.. Worm (ki'rmo), Pasp., kermo 

Kerova, I do. See Kair 

Kisser, n., Care ; v., To care 

Kesserela, He cares 
Kester, v., To ride (kister). Pasp., uklistS, mounted 

Kesterdas, He rode 



94 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Kesterm6ngro, n., Jockey 

' [ adv., Together (kateni). Pasp., ketane 

Kev, ;/., Hole, window (hev). Pasp., kJiev 
Kil, 11., Butter. Pasp., kil 

Kil-mauro, Bread and butter 

Kil-koro, Buttercup (flower) 

Kil-pishum, Butterfly 
Killi, n., Earring. Pasp., tcheni 
Kin, v.. To buy. Pasp., kindva 

Kindom, I have bought 

Kindds, He bought 
Kinder, v., To relieve the bowels (hinder). Pasp., khen- 

ddva 
Kindo, adj., Wet, sweaty. Pasp., tilnde (As). Pott, ii., 

103 
Kinger, v., To tease, bother, weary, vex. Pasp., khiniovava, 
to be tired 

Kfnno,' 

Kin6, 

Kini, 

Kinf, 

Kfpsi, «., Basket (k^psi) 
Kfrmo, 71., Worm (kermo). Pasp., kermd 
Kisi, n.y Purse. Pasp., kisi 
Kfsi, adj., Much ; sar kisi, how much. Lieb., gizzi 

Savo kisi, What a lot of 
Ki'ster, v.. To ride (kester). Pasp., uklistd, mounted 
Kftchema, n.. Inn. Lieb., kertschimma. See Mikl., i., 19 

Kitchemdw, //., Inns 

Kitchemdngro, «., Innkeeper 

Klerin, «., Key. Pasp., klidi 

KMrin,) 

,,,, . \ n. and v., Lock 

Knsin, ) 

Klisindw, //., Locks, a Gypsy tribe 

Klfsom^ngro, n.. Bridewell, lock-up, police-station, 

rabbit-trap 



- /. part., Tired, weary. Pasp., khin6 



VOCABULARY. 



95 



Klisi, «., Box 
K'naw, adv.. Now (kenaw) 
Ko, pron., Who (kon). Pasp., kon, ka 
Koko, 7?., Uncle. Pasp., kak 

, '!• n., Bone, rib, thigh (kokoolus). Pasp., kSkkalo 

Kokero, \ 

Kokero, \ adj., Self, lonely, alone. Pasp., korkoyo, alone 

Kokeri, ) 

Kokere,//-, Selves 
Kokerus, n., Week (kooroki, krooko, etc.) Pasp., kurko 
Kokoolus, n., Bone (kokalos). Pasp., kokkalo 

'Kolyaw, //., Bones 

Kookelo, ;/., Doll. Lieb., gukkli 
Kol, v.y To eat (hoi, haw). Pasp., khava 

Koben, n., Food, victuals, eatables (hoben, holben). 
Pasp., khabe 
Koliko, ) n., Yesterday (kaliko). Pasp., korkoro, 

K61iko-divvus,) kolkoro, alone ; Lieb., kokeres, retired, 
alone 

Koliko-'saula, To-morrow morning 
K611a,) n.,s. dind pi., Thing, things, shillings (kovva, koova). 
KoUi, / Pasp., kovd. This is really a plural form ; compare 
'kova, this, and 'doova, that 

]J°[J'"''}//., Things, shillings 

Dooi-kolli, Florin, two-shilling piece 
Joovni-koUaw, Woman's clothes 
Mutter/V^^-kolla, Urinal 
Pansh-koUa, Crown, five-shilling piece 
Pansh-kolenghi-yek, A five-shilling one 
Praaster^V/^-kolli, Railway train 
Wafedi-kolli, Misfortunes ; lit., evil things 

'Kolyaw, n. pL, Bones (kokoolus) 

Kom, v., To love, owe, wish, desire, want, like, etc. Pasp., 
kamdma 
Komer, v., To love 



96 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Kom6va, I do want, I want, like, wish, etc 

Kom^ssa,) ,^ ,., , 

^ , j You like, thou lovest, thou wantest 

Kom^s too ? Do you like ? 

Komela, He wants, or will want, he likes 

Komenna, They wish 

Kom asar, iniperat., Love thou 

Komoben, z^., Love, friendship, mercy, pity 

Komomus, ;/., Love 

Komomeskro,) t n ^ 

Komelo, * "■ ^°''^"' ^ ^^'^''^ ^''^ 

K6momuso, \ 

Komomusti, \ adj., Loving, kind, dear 

K6melo, ) 

Komelo-gairo, Friend 

Komyaw,//., Friends 

Komyawj-, //., Lovells. See above 

Kek-kom, v> a., To hate ; lit., not love 
Komeni, adj., Some, somebody (choomeni, kiimeni) 

Kek-komeni, None, nobody, not any 

Dosta-komeni, A great multitude 
Komi, adj., More. Pott, ii., 90 

Komodair, comp., More 

Kek-komi, adv., Never, no more, not again 
Y^on, pron.. Who (ko). Pasp., kon, ka 
Kon, adv., Then, therefore 

Besh tooki 'le kon. Sit down then 
Kon, Sor-kon, All, every. Mikl., ii., 35, sekon; Vaill., se kono, 
Mikl., i., 46 

Sor-kon koUi, All things, everything 
Konafni, ^ 

Konadfi, v n., Turnip (krdafni) 
Kondfia,//.,) 

Greiesko- \ 

Baulesko-> konadfi. Beetroot 

Bokro- ) 
K6ngali, n.. Comb. Pasp., kangli 



VOCABULARY. 97 

K6n£'} ^■' '^° '^°™'^ 

Kongeri,-^ ^, 1 -r, r r / 

^ , . I 11., Church, rasp., kangheri 

Kongri lil, Bible 
Koofa, 11., Cap (hoofa) 

Kookelo, «., Doll, goblin (kokoolus). Lieb., gukkli 
Kooko, n.y Week (kooroko) 

Koonjones, adv., Secretly, unknown ; ? connected with 
Koonsus, a corner. See also Bikonyo, Ak6nyo 

Ko6nshi,1 "•' ^°''""'- Lieb..^««to/^ 

Koor, V,, To fight, beat, strike, knock, etc. Pasp,, kurdva 

Koorova, I do, or will, fight 

Koordno, p. part., Beaten 

Kooras, Let us beat 

Koordas, He beat 

Koordem menghi. We fought 

Kooroben,) , 

T_ , . \ n., Battle 

Koorimus,^ 

Kooromengri, «., Drum, tambourine 

Ko6romengro, «., Soldier, pugilist, etc. 

Koorimongeri, n., Army 

Kooroko,) ;?., Sunday, week (kokerus, kro6ko, ko6ko, etc.) 

Kooroki, ) Pasp., kurko, Sunday, week 

Yorakana-kooroko, Easter Sunday ; lit., Qgg Sunday 

Kooroko, ;/., Thunder ; by a lisping assonance of 

thunder and Sunday 

Yek divvus palla koorokess, Monday ; lit., one day 

after Sunday 

Koorona, ;/., Crown, five-shilling piece. French, couronne 

Koori, 71., Cup, pot (koro, kura). Pasp., koro 

Ko6si, «., A little. Pott, ii., 96, kutti 

Kooshne,//., Baskets (kushni). See Mikl., i., 18 

Kooshto, I adj.. Good (koshto, kushto). Lieb., gutsch, 

Kooshko, ) happy ; Bohtl., kdnsio, good ; Sundt, kiska, 

good ; Pott, ii., 93, kucz, theuer 



98 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Ko6shtiben, \ 

Kooshtoben, > ;/., Goodness, good 

Kooshkopen,/ 

Kooshko-bok, Happiness, good health 

Ko6shko-b6kj, Happy 

Ko6shko-dik/«^, Handsome, good-looking 
Ko6va, n., Thing (koUa, kovva). Pasp., kovd 

Ko6vaw,//., Things 

Bool-koova, Chair 

Gad-kosht-ko6va, Clothes-peg 

Kaulom^skro-ko6va, Anvil 

Mutterimongeri-koova, Teapot 

Tatto-ko6va, Pepper 

Ldlo-koovaw, Cherries, currants 
K6ppa, n., Blanket. 'LiQh.,^apJ>a; Pasp., kirpa, a dish-clout 

Greiesto-k6ppa, Horserug 

Pe6resto-k6ppa, Carpet 
Kor, v.. To call (kaur). } Pasp., tckdrdava 

Kor6va, I do call 

¥i.6rdo,p.part., Called 

Kord6m, I called 

Kordds, He called 

Kord^, They called 

K6romdngro, n., One who calls at shops, and steals 
money by sleight of hand 

Mookds m^ndi kor asdr dxxXdifolkl, Let us call those 
people 
Kor, «., Brow, eyebrow 
K6ro, N 



K6rdi, 






K6red6,}^^"'^^^"'^^^°^^^ 



K6rodomus, «., Blindness 
K6rni, adj., Cross, ill-tempered (haiirini, h6no, h6mo). 
Pasp., k/wlindkoro 



VOCABULARY. 99 

K6rro,| n,, Penny (horro, h6rri, harri). Lieb., cheiro, cheir- 
Korri, i engero 

Deshti-kaiiri, Eighteenpence 

Shookhauri, Sixpence 

' \ n., Cup, pot (koori, kiira). Pasp., korS 

Korengro, n., Potter 
Korengri, //., Potters 



^°^^"f'f™' I Staffordshire 
Koresko-tem, ) 

] 



K6rri,) n., Thorn, tent-peg, pudendum virile (kauri). Pasp., 
K6ro, ) kar, penis ; kanro, thorn 

Bauro-kaurengro-moosh, A descriptive appellation 
Kor'ri, or Kauri, n., Throat (kur). Pasp., kori 

,^ ^ ^^'1 v., To lick, to clean (yooso). Pasp., koshdva 
Kosser, ) 

Kosser/^' plo^ta, Towel ; lit., cleaning-cloth 

Kosserova les yo6zho, I will cleanse it 

Kossad6, They licked 
K6shno-chavi, Doll (koshteno) 
Koshto, adj., Good (kooshto) 

Koshte,//., Good 

Koshtoben, ) ^ , 

,^ , , M- n., Goodness, peace 

Koshtomus, J 

Kerova mi koshtodafr les, I will do my best 
Kosht, n., Stick. Pasp., kasht, kash 

Koshtaw,//., Sticks 

Koshtengro, n., Woodcutter. Pasp., kasht^skoro 

Koshteno-tfkno, Doll (koshno-chdvi). Pasp., kashtu- 
nano 

Dood-yogengi-koshterj-, Firebrands 

Gad-kosht-ko6va, Clothes-peg 

Mooshkero-kosht, Constable's stafif 

Po6ker/«^-kosht, Signpost 

Yo6ser2>/^-kosht, Broom 
Kosser. See K6sher 



lOO GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Kotor, «., Piece, part, guinea-piece. Pasp., kotor, a piece 
indeclinable 

Kotorendri, 71., Fragment 

Kotorendi, Pieces, to pieces 
Kovva, n.y Thing (koova, etc.) Pasp., kovd 

Li'lesko-kovva, Paper ; lit., book thing 

Mo6esto-k6vva, Looking-glass 
*K6vva, adj\, This (akovva). Pasp,, akavd 

Kovva-divvus, To-day 
Kradfni,) ?/., Nail, button, turnip (kondfia, kondfni). Pasp. 
Krdfni, i (p. 451), kdrfia ; Mikl., ii., 37, 132 (Kolomyjer 

Kreise Galiziens Vocab.), karfin, nail 
Krdlis, 7/., King. Pasp., krdlis. See Mikl, i., 18 

Kralisi, ^ 

Krdlisi, >■ n., Queen. Pasp., kralitcha 

Krallissi,/ 

Kralisko-kair, 



Kraliskesko-kair, ) 

Kralisko-podro-kair, Castle 

Kralisko-rook, Oak ; called frequently ' royal oak * 

Kralis^w, «., Kingdom 

Kralisi'i- ) baiiro baleno jo6kel. Dandelion (flower) ; 

Kralisk^skoi lit., Queen*s) , . , . 

King's I b'g hairy dog 

Krdmbrookos, ;?., Drum. Lieb., tambuk 
Kre^a, «., Ant. Pasp., kiri 

¥i.xt^dLW,pl., Ants 
Kro6ko, «., Week (ko6roko, etc.) Pasp., kurkd 

Kro6kingo-dfvvus, ) 

Kuifo, I ''" s^"^^y 

Kiimbo, «., Hill (diimbo) 

Kiimeni, adj., Some, somebody (k6meni) 

Vdniso-kumeni, Anybody 
Kur, «., Throat (kdrlo, kor'ri, gur). Pasp., kurl6, kori 
Kiira, n,, Cup (k6ro) 



VOCABULARY. lOl 

Kiirri, n., Tin, solder. Pasp., kaldi, tin 

Kushni, n,. Basket (tushni, trooshni, etc.) Pasp., koshnika 

Kooshne,//., Baskets 
Kushto, adj.y Good (kooshto) 

Kushto-mooshi, Right arm 



L. 

Ladj, «., Shame (rtladj). Pasp., ladj 

hAdj-ful/y, adv., Shamefully 
Ladjipen, n., Goodness (latcho). Pasp., latchipe 
Laki, ) pron., Her (lati, loki). Pasp., 2nd dat, Idke; gen., 
Lakro, ) Idkoro 
Lalo, adj., Red (lolo). Pasp., lolo 

Lalo-gav, Reading ; lit., red-town 

Lalo-piro, Redford ; lit., red-foot 

Lalo-koovaw, Cherries, currants ; lit., red things 
Las, He, or she, got (lei). Pasp., lids, las 
"LaSfpron., Him, it (les, lis, 'es). Pasp., les 
Lasa, With her. Pasp., Idsa 
Latch, v.. To find. Pasp., lasddva, to pick up 

Latchova, I do, or will, find 

Latchenna, They find 

'LAtchno, p, part., Found 

Latchdom, I found 

Latchas menghi, Let us find 
Ldtcho, adj., Good, fine (ladipen). Pasp., latcho 
Lati, pron., To her, with her, her (laki). Pasp., ist dat, Idte, 

to her 
Lav, «., Word, name. Pasp., lav 

Lavaw, \ 

Lavaw, } pi. Words 

Ldvyaw,/ 

Lavines, adv. used as a notm, Gibberish 

Lavines-tem, Wales ; lit., wordy country 

Ldvines-rokerben, Welsh language ; lit., wordy talk 

LavineS'gaujo, Welshman 



I02 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Lavines-gair6, 



T , . , . . , , //., Welshmen 
Lavinengn-gauje, ) 

Del lav, v., To answer, pray 

Del kooshto lavaw, To pray ; lit., give good words 

Del6va meero lav kater mi-do6vel, I pray God 
Law, I take. See Lei 
Le,/r. //., They. Pott, i., 242 

Bootgaujakani/^7>^i see-le kondw,Very Englishified 
folk are they nowadays 

Pookeromengri see-16, They are informers 

Koshte see-1^ kondw — toolo see-le. They (hedge- 
hogs) are good now (to eat) — they are fat 

Kanle see-le, They are putrid 
L6, Take ! See Lei 
'lA.prep., Down (al^ tale) 
Leeno, /. /«^/., Taken. See next 
Lei, v., To take, get, obtain, catch, etc. Pasp., lava 

Lova, \ 

Lel6va, I I do, or will, get, take, etc. 

Law, ) 

Lda, He takes, catches, he will take, etc. 

Li6m, I got, obtained, etc. 

Lias "i 

^ ' [ He, or they, got. Pasp., lids, las 

Lidn, You took, got, etc. 

Lid, They took 

Lecno, \ 

Lin6, > /. pai'i., Got, taken, begotten. Pasp., linS 

L6I0, ) 

Beng te lei tooti. Devil take you 

Lei k6shtoben, Please ; lit, take the goodness 

Lei m6tti, To get drunk 

Lei opr6. To apprehend ; lit,, take up 

Lei trad. Take care ! mind ! 

Lei veena, Take notice 
"Len, pron., Them (lin). Pasp., ace, Im 
Ldndi, prou.^To them,theni, their (icnti). Pasp., 1st dat, UhcI<: 



I //., Books 



VOCABULARY. IO3 

Shoon lendi, Remember ! lit, hear them 
LengheriA 

Lenghi, > pron., Their (lendi) 
Lenti, ) 

Lensa, With them. Pasp., Ihtsa 
Les, pron., Him, it (las, 'es, lis). Pasp., ace, les 
L.6sko, pron., His. Pasp., gen., Ihkoro 
"Lesti, pron., His, her, it. Pasp., 1st dat., les^e 
Lian,Yegot. . Se^hd 

Lias, He, or they, got.) 

Libena, «., Beer (livena, Vini). Lieb., lowina 
Lie. See Lei 
Lik, ;/., Nit. Pasp., lik 

Likyaw,//., Nits, flies 
Lil, «., Book, paper. Pasp., HI 

Lilaw, 

Li'lyaw, 

Lflesko-kova, Paper ; lit., book-thing 

Lilengro, «., Star, because ' read' by astrologers 

Mi doovelesko lil,) Bible; lit., my God's book, or 

Kongri lil, } church book 

Pansh balanser lil. Five-pound note 

/I «., Summer. Pasp., niidi 

Bignom\xs\ , .. , j Spring; lit., beginning, or first, 

F/rsta.da.k) ' 1 of summer 

Palla-lilei-see-pardel, Autumn ; lit., after summer is 
over 
Lino,/. />rtr/., Taken. See Lei 
Liom, I took. See Lei 

Livena, n., Beer (libena, lovina, 'vfni). Lieb., lowina; MikL, 
i., 28 

Livenengro, ;/., Brewer, beerseller 

Livenengr/^j-, it, pL, Hops 

P6besko livena. Cyder ; lit, apple-beer 

Livena ghiv, Barley 
'Lo,pron., He. Pott, i., 242 



I04 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Yov ghias kater tan kei sas-16, He went to the place 
where he was 

O rashei, kooshto sas-16, The priest was a good man ; 
lit., the priest, good was he 

'Jaw wafedo see-16 adr^ lesko zee, He is so jealous 
Lod, v.y To lodge. Pasp., loddva 

Loodopen, n., Lodging 
\.6V\, pron., Her (laki) 

L6ko,) adj., Heavy. Pasp., loko, light {levis)\ Mikl., i., 22. 
Lok6,i This is an example of the confusion of opposite 
meanings remarked by Mr. Leland, Eng. Gyp- 
sies, p. 126 

Kek nanei loko. It is light 

Chomoni sas adrd, loko. Something was inside, 
heavy 
L6I0, adj., Red (Idlo, luUer). Pasp., lolo 

Loli-mdtcho, Red-herring 

Lolo holomc^ngri, Radish ; lit., red-eating thing 

Greiesko lolo holomengri, Horseradish 

O lolo weshkeno-jookel. The fox 

L61o-match6, //., Salmon ; lit., red-fish 
Loli, ;/., Farthing (luli) 

L6nderi, n. pr., London (Lundra). French, Londres 
Lon, ;/., Salt. Pasp., Ion 

L6ndo, adj., Saline, salt. Pasp., lo7id6 

L6ndo-paani, 1 ^, 

■r , J J , . V 1 he sea ; lit, salt water 

Londudno-paani, ) 

L6ndo matcho. Salt fish 

O hoYno 16ndo paani. The angry waves 
Long, adj. and v., Lame, to lame. Vaill., lang ; Sundt, 
ImigalS ; Pott, ii., ^^7 

Longd,//., Lame people 
Lo6bni) ;/., Harlot (lubni, liivni). V diS^, , lubni ; Mikl., i., 
Lo6dni,> 21 

Lo6bniaw, pi., Harlots 

Lo6beriben, n., Prostitution 
Lo6dopen, n.. Lodging, barn (lod> 



love 



VOCABULARY. IO5 

Loodopen-kair, Lodging-house 
Loor, v., To rob, plunder, steal 

Looromengro, ;/., Thief 
Looripen, ;/., Booty, plunder 

'I n., Money (liiva). Pasp. 

Lova, I take. See Lei 
Lovina, «., Beer (livena) 
Lubni, «., Harlot (loobni). Pasp., liibnl 
Lull, ;/., Farthing (loli) 
LuUer, v., To blush (1616), Pasp., loliavava 
Luller6va, I do, or will, blush 

_ , '[ n.pr.y London (L6nderi). Yx^x\z\ Loud res 
Lundro,) 

Liiva, «., Money (lo6va). Pasp., lovd 

Luvni, «., Harlot (lo6bni) 



M. 

"^2^2., prohibitive particle, Do not (maw). Pasp., ma 

Malo6na, n., Thunder. Mikl, i., 24 

Malyaw, «.//., Companions, mates. Pasp-, mal 

lyr ' J- \pron., I, me (menghi, m6nghi). Pasp., acc, man; 

,, , ,'. I 1st dat., mdnde; 2n 1 dat., mdjisrhe 
Manghi,/ '6 

Mandi see lesti. It is mine ; lit., to me is it 

A del-/^-mandi, A gift, present 
Mano6sh, ;/., Man, male (moosh). Pasp., manush 

Mano6shni, ;/., Woman (m6noshi). Pasp., manushni 

Mdnsa, pron., With me. Pasp., instr., mdnsa 

Mantchi too, ) „, 1 tt -n - t 1 

-_, , - ^ \ Cheer up! Vaill., manjao, I console 
Mantcha too,) ^ > y » 

Marikli, n., Cake. Pasp., maftriklo 

Kal-marikli, Cheesecake 

Mas, «., Meat, sheep. Pasp., mas 



I06 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Masavv,//., Meats, victuals 
Masengro, «., Butcher. Pasp., mashkoro 
Masengro'j- niaum/' kair, Slaughter-house 
Masali, ;/., Frying-pan 
Joovioko-mas, Mutton 
Mooshkeno-mas, Beef 
Balovas, Bacon 
Mo61o-mas, Carrion 
Matchka, ;?., Cat. Pasp., mdtchka ; Mikl, i., 23 
Tikno matchka, Kitten ; lit., little cat 



Matcho,, T-- 1- -n . / / 

' — matcho 



Matchi,'} "•' ^'''^- ^^^■' 



Matchomengro, ) ;^., Fisherman. V^s>'^.yntatchhigoro, 



Matchaw,') 
Match dw, > pL, Fish 
Matche, ) 

Mdtcho, n. pr., Heron, Heme, a Gypsy tribe ; as if 
herrifig- 

\ngYOA 

Matchengro, j fish-seller 
Sapesko matcho. Eel; lit, snaky-fish 
H^rengo-matcho, Crab ; lit., leggy-fish 
Bdleno-matcho, Herring 
Lolo-matcho, Red-herring 
L(51i-matche, //., Salmon 

p , , I matcho, Cod-fish 

Rinkeni bar mdtcho, 

Rinkeni mdtchaw ta jab tal^ o barydw, J- Trout 

Refeski match6,//., 
Maur, v.y To kill. See Mor. Pasp., mardva 
Mauro, lu. Bread. Pasp., maitrd, maro 

Maurdngro, ;/., Baker 

Ch611o mauro, Loaf 

Chcll^ maurd,//.. Loaves 

Kil-mauro, Bread and butter 
Mavi, «., Rabbit 
yi^^, prohibitive particle, Do not (maa). Pasp., nui 



VOCABULARY. IU7 

M€,pron., I. Pasp., me 

Me6a, n., Mile. VailL, miga ; Sundt, mijan; Pott, ii., 454 ; 
i, 88 
Me6asto-bar, Milestone 
Meero, m., 



,, , . ^ , pron.. My (meiro, mino). Pasp., minro 
Meeri,/., J ^ 

Meila, «., Donkey, ass (m6ila). Pott, ii., 454, suggests 

for etymon Lat. mulus, Gael, nmil, mnileidj 

etc. 

Meilesto-gav, Doncaster ; as if, donkey's town 

Meilesko-tem, Yorkshire 

Grasni-meila, She-ass 

Posh grei ta posh meila, Mule 

\A^\ro^\pron.,yiy (me^ro). The first syllable appears to 

Meiri, I have been influenced by the English word 

Mel, v., To die (mer) 

Bengesko-mel, The Devil's Dyke, near Newmarket, 

Cambridgeshire 

Men, «., Neck. Pasp., men 

Greiesko-menengro, Horse-collar 

Men-w6riga, Necklace 

Dula bauro-menengri-cherikld. Herons ; lit., those 

great-necked birds 

Men,/r<7;/., We, us. Pasp., amen 

Mendi,/r^;/., To us, we, us. Pasp,, 1st dat., amende 

Menghi,/r^;/., Me, we (manghi). Pasp., 2nd dat. s., mdnghe; 

pi., amenghe 

Koordem menghi, We fought 

Mensa, With us. Pasp., instr., amendja 

Kek yon te wel posha mensa } May they not come 

along with us } 

Mer, V,, To die (mel). Pasp., merdva 

Merova, I do, or will, die 

Merenna, They do, or will, die 

Merdas, He died 

Merd6 yon besh ghias konaw. They died a year ago 

now 



I08 OYPSY-ENGLISH 

Meriben,) «., Death, life. Pasp., mcribe. Life is, to 

Meripen, j a Gypsy, an abstract idea or state, and 
death is a fact. It terminates life. The Gypsies 
have therefore taken the preceding state as part 
of the terminating fact, making death part of a 
man's life, and thus call life and death by the same 
name. See also remarks on Loko 

Meripen tanaw si dikdla. Murdering places as they 
look (lit., looks) 

Sho'mas te merova, I must have died 
Merikli, «., Bead. Pasp., minriklS 

n/r ^ -1 . I PK Beads, bracelets 
Merikios, ) 

Merova, I die. See Mer 

Mi-, adj., My. The words Doovel, Duvel, God, generally 

take this word as a prefix. Pasp., mo, mi 

-^. j^' i «., Pudendum muliebre, woman. VdiS'p., mindj,mi7itch 

Mino, adj., My (me^ro, meiro). Pasp., minrd 

Misali,| w.. Table. Pasp., mesdii, towel; Lieb., messelin, 

Misali,) tablecloth ; Mikl, i., 24 

Mishto,\ 

Misto, > adv., Well. Pasp., mishto, misto 

Mist6, j 

mSJo,""'} ^^^•' ^^^^' S^^^ 
Mofla, n., Donkey, ass (meila) 

MoOesto-gav, Doncaster ; lit., donkey's town 
Moker, v., To foul, dirty. Pasp., makdva, to spot, stain 

Mo^odo, I adj.. Dirty, filthy, etc. Pasp,, maklS, 

Mo6kedo,/ stained; makavdd^ ^^m\.Q.A 

Mo^adi /c^VX'-i, Dirty people 

Pardal sor mo;^odc posh-kedo Romani-chalj-, Over 

all dirty half-breed Gypsies 

M6kto,) ,^ , M N T . , 

^ , \ ;/., Box (mookto). Lieb., mocktou 

O muUo m6;)^to, The coffin 



VOCABULARY. IO9 

Mol, n., Wine (mul). Pasp., mol 

K61a so keb o mol, Grapes ; lit., things which make 
the wine 
Moll, adj., Worth (mool). Lieb., moll 

Yek shosho adre o k6ro see moll doof adre o wesh. 
One rabbit in the pot is worth two in the wood 

-^,, f ;/., Lead. Lieb., moleivo 
M6I0V,) ' 

Mong, v., To beg, pray, request. Pasp., viangdva 

Mong6va, I do beg, pray, etc. 

Mong asar ! Beg ! 

Mongamengro, «., Beggar 

Monghi, /r^;?., I, me (manghi) 

Jaw m6nghi kater wo6drus, I will go to bed, or, Let 

me go to bed 

Monoshi, n., Woman (mano6shni). Pasp., mannshni 

The commonest words for 'woman' are jnonoshi^ 

joovel, and gairi, and they are generally used 

indiscriminately, though gairi is seldom, if ever, 

applied to a Gypsy 

Mooi, «., Mouth, face. Pasp., miii 

Mooiaw,//., Faces, mouths 

MooY-engro, ) ^ 

" Lawyer 



Moo-engro, 

Mooesto-kova, Looking-glass, mirror 

Mooi-kokalos, Jawbone 

Chooralo-mooi", Bearded face 
Mook, v., To let, allow, leave, lend (muk). Pasp., mukdva 

Mookova, I will leave 

Mooklo, p. parL, Left, lent. Pasp., nm^ld 

Mooktas, He left, let 

Mookte, They left 

Mookas, Let us leave 
Mookedo, adj., Dirty, filthy (mo^odo). Pasp., rnakavdd, 

painted ; maklo, stained 
Mookto, n., Box (mokto). Lieb., mochton 
Mool, adj., Worth (moll). Lieb., moll 



no GYPSY-ENGLISH 

M06I0, adj., Dead. Pasp., mulS 

M06I0, «., Ghost, devil (mulo) 

Tatcho-moolesko tan, A regular haunted spot ; lit, 

true ghost's place 

Doodesko-moolo, Will-o'-th'-Wisp 

Moole,//., Ghosts 

Moolomengro, ;;., Halter 

Moolo-mas, Carrion. Pasp., mulano-mas 

Mo61eno-rook, Yew ; lit, dead-tree, because common 

in churchyards 

Mo6njer, «. and v.. Nudge, pinch, squeeze; cf. Borrow, 

" Lavo-lil," munjee, a blow on the mouth or face 

Mo6njer6va toot, I will give you a nudge 

Moonjadom lati'i" wast, jindas yoi so mandi kerV, I 

squeezed her hand, (and) she knew what I meant 

Moosh, ;/., Man. Pasp., imirsh, onrush, boy, male 

Mooshaw,) , ,_ 
T»,r / 1 \ Pl', Men 
Mo6shaw,i ^ ' 

Moosh, adj., Male 

Mo6sh-chavi, Boy ; lit, male child 

Mo6shkeno, adj., Masculine, male. Pasp., murshnd, 

manly 

Mo6shkeni-gav, Manchester 

Mooshkeni-groovni, Ox, bull 

Mo6shkeni-groovn6, Oxen 

Mo6shkeno-grei, Stallion 

Mo6shkeno-mas, Beef 

Mo6shkcno-matcho, Cod-fish 

Kan6ngro-moosh, Gamekeeper 

Peidskro-moosh, Actor 

Mi-duvel'i'-moosh, Parson 

,^ , , r ^^-j Arm. Pasp., musi 
Mo6sho,i ' ^' 

Mo6shaw,//., Arms 

Mo6sheno-hev, Armpit 

K6k-mooshengri, Maimed people ; lit., armless people 

Kushto-mooshi, Right arm 



p. part, and adj.^ Killed. Pasp., mardd 



VOCABULARY. I I I 

Mo6shaw of the rook, Branches 

Wasteni-mooshaw, Arms 
Mooshkero,) «., Policeman, constable. Dr. Paspati, in a 
Mooshero, i letter, says, " = one who looks, observes 
= moskero" 

Mo6shkero-kosht, Constable's staff 
Mootengri, n., Tea (muterimongeri) 

Mootsi, \ «.,Skin. VdiS^.^morii; mcs/im,mezm (As,), leather; 
Mootska,) Lieb., inortin, mortzin, leather; Mikl., i., 25 
Mor, v., To kill, slay, murder (maur). Pasp., mardva 

Morova, I do, or will, kill 

Morela, He does, or will, kill 

Mordas, He killed 

M6rdeno, \ 

Mordene, //., 

Mordno, 

Mordo, 

Mor^^, , 

Mi-Duvel6sko-maurom^ngri, Jews 
M6ro, /r^;?., Our. Pasp., amaro 

M6rov, v., To shave. Pasp., muravdva, to shave; from 
murdva, mordva, to rub 

M6rov6va, I do, or will, shave 

M6romen£:ro, >> ^ 

T,. r r [ n., Razor 

Morovmengro,) 

Mormengro, n., Barber, razor (muravmangro) 

Motto, m.A J. TK 1 • . • . 1 T^ 

Mf^tf f I -^'^ -Drunk, mtoxicated. Pasp., matto 

M6ttomengro, «., Drunkard 

Mottoben,) ^ , 

Mottopen,! ^'' ^^^^kenness. Pasp., inattjp^ 

Lei mottj/. To get drunk 
Motiseus, «., Mouse 
Muk, v., To let, leave, allow (mook). Pasp., mukdva 

Mukova, I do, or will, leave, etc. 

Mukela, He leaves 

Muktas; He left 



I I 2 GYPSY -ENGLISH 

Mul, n., Wine (mol). Pasp., mol 
Mul, adj., Worth (moll). Lieb., moll 
Mulo, n., Ghost, devil (mo61o) 
Mulomengro, n., Halter 
Weshni-mulo, Owl 
Mulo-ch^riklo, Goatsucker ; lit., death-bird. " It 

cries kek-kek, and some one will die" 
Adre o miilo raati, In the middle, or dead, of 
night 

, . . ' I «., Candle. Pasp., moineli, mumeli^ wax taper 

Munkiros, n., Monkey 

Muravmangro, ;/., Barber (morov). Pasp., muravdva, to 

shave 
M liter, n., Urine. Pasp., imiter 

Muter, v., To micturate. Pasp., mutrdva 

Muterdan too ti-kokero } Hast thou wet thyself.^ 

Muter/;i!^-k61a, Urinal 

Miiterimongeri, ;/., Tea (mootdngri) 

Muterim6ngeri-k66va, Teapot 

N. 

Na, negative, No, not. Frequently used for emphasis (naw). 
Pasp., 7ta 
Kek na jinova m^ I do not know 
Kek na jova, I am not going 
Kek na jinenna yon, They do not know 
O dinilo kek na jindla, The fool doesn't know 

Na, C071J., Nor 

Dikt6m chfchi, na shoond6m chichi, I saw nothing, 
nor heard anything 

Ndfalo, ?«.,) adj., Ill, sick, poorly (ndsfalo). Pasp., nasvald, 

Ndfali,/., / nasfalo 

-^,_ 'I n.. Illness, sickness. Pasp., nasvalib^ 
Ndflopen,) ^ 

Shflalo-ndflopen, Ague ; lit, cold-illness 



VOCABULARY. II3 

Y6genghi-ndflopen, Fever ; lit, fiery-illness 

Nago, adj., Own (n6go) 

Naish, v., To run (nash). Pasp., nashdva, to depart 

Nanef, negative, Not, nor (na, nei). Pasp., ndndi 

Kek nanef, No, it is not ; not at all 

Kek nanei yek, nan6i waver, Neither one, nor the 

other 

Kek nanei komova, I do not wish, like, want, etc. 

Kek nanei yek kosht. Not a single stick 

Kowa p6bo see nanei go6dlo, This apple it not 

sweet 

Kek liiva nanei lesti. He has no money. Pasp., lovi 

ndndi 

Ndsfalo, adj., Ill, sick (nafalo). Pasp., nasfald, nasvalS 

^Jasher ^ 

' [ v., To run (naish). Pasp., naskdva, to depart 

Nashenna, They run 

Nashdas, He ran 

Nashermengro, n., Runner, policeman, constable 

Nash/Vz^-jookel, Greyhound ; lit., running dog 

Nash/«' paani, A stream, running water 

Nasher, v., To lose, waste, hang. Pasp., nashavdva, to 

lose 

Ndsherela, He hangs, he will lose 

Nashedas, He lost, wasted, hanged 

Nashedo, v 

Nashado, t , , i -r. i r 

N ' liH \ ^' P^^^-> Lost, hung, hanged, rasp., nashtc 

Nasher^^,^ 

Nashede,//., Tdtcheni Romani-chaU are sor nashed6. 

True Gypsies are all lost 
Nashedo gairo, Hangman 
Nastissa,) Cannot; I, you, he, they cannot; unable, etc. 
Nastis, / (nestis). Pasp., ndsti, ndstik ; see Pott, vol. i., 
pp. 367 — 380 ; Bohtl., nashti; Lieb., 7iasti 
Nastfs mandi jinova-les, I cannot understand it 
Nastis yov latchela lati. He cannot find her 



114 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Nav, n.. Name. Pasp., nav 

Navo, adj., New (nevo) 

Naw ) 

■vr4 J negative. No, not (na). Pasp., na 

N^ shorn m6 b6kolo, I am not hungry 
N6, adv. or inter j., Now 

Nd mo6shaw ! Now, men ! 

N^ chaw61i ! Now, mates ! 
Nei, negative, No, not (na, nane/) 

Kek nei jin^nna yon, They do not know 

Nei ler kek lovo, He has no money 
Nei, ;/., Finger nail, any kind of nail. Pasp., ndi, finger nail 

'^e{3iW,/>/., Finger nails 

Nefesto-ch6kker, Hobnailed boot 
Nestfs, 7iegative, Cannot (nastissa). Pasp., ndsti 

"NT #4 • V J ^^'' ^^^ (navo). Pasp., nevo 

N6vus, adj.. Own (nogo) 

Nfsser, v., To miss, avoid ; cf. Pasp., nikdva, to pass ; niglistS, 

p. part., gone out ; nispeldva, to hide 
Nok, n., Nose. Pasp., nak 

Nokengro, n.. Snuff, glandered horse 
Nongo, adj.. Naked, bald, bare. Pasp., nango 

N6ngo-peero, adj., Barefoot 
iVi7r///er^ngri-gair6, Scotchmen ; lit. Northern-men 

A^(7//!erengri-tem, Scotland ; lit., Northern-country 

iV^//!er6nghi chirikM, //., Grouse ; lit, Scotch birds 
NtU\,pl., Nuts 



O. 

O, in. def. art., The. Sometimes indeclinable, like English 
the. Pasp., 

^ . , 'I adv., There (adoi, 'doi). Pasp., otid 

Okki. Mdndi po6ker6va too dkki yek rinkeno tarno rei, I 
tell you there is a handsome young man 



VOCABULARY. I I 5 

^ * \ v., To jump (hokter). Pasp., ukhkidva, to arise 

0%tenna, They jump 

Janna ti o;3^ten, They will jump ; lit., they are going 

to jump 
0%ter^;', ;/., Jumper 
Chor-6;^tam6ngro, «., Grasshopper 

Q,i ' \ n. ply Stockings, socks (hoolaver^). Lieb., cholib 

O^Y6,prep., Upon, on, up (apr6, 'pre). Pasp., opr^ 

Dias opr6 adre o raati, It appeared in the night 
Ora, ;/., Watch, hour (aura, hora, yora). Pasp., ora 
Our, I affirmative particle, Yes, truly, etc. (aava). Pasp., 
0\xxly,) va ; "Lieh., anwa 
Ov,pro?z., He (yov). Pasp., ov 
Ovdvo-dfvvus, To-morrow (awaver). Pasp., yavir 



Paani, pani, or pauni, n., Water. Pasp., pant 
Paanengro, n.. Boat 
Paanengro-gaujo, Sailor 
Panengro, n.. Turnip 
Paanesto-\ 

Pan^ngri- >■ shok, Watercress 
.Paani- ) 

Paanisko-kova, Bucket, pail, anything to hold water 
Paanisko-tan, Swamp, moss, watery place 
Paaniski-hev, Well 
Paiidel-i-paani, ) ^ ^ , 

Padni-^^, I Transported 

Bauro-paani, \ 
Londo-paani, >• The sea 
Londudno-paani, J 

Tatto-pani, Any kind of spirituous liquor, e.g., brandy 
Pal, n., Brother, mate. Pasp., /r^/ 
Stiffo-pal, Brother-in-law 



Il6 GYPSY- ENGLISH 

PaldlJ prep., After, behind, ago, bygone (pauU). Pasp., 
Palla, ■' paldl, paU 

Av palla, To follow ; lit, come after 

Dik palla, To watch ; lit., look after 

Jal palla, To follow ; lit., go after 

Pallani-chokka, Petticoat 

Beng palla man. An enemy ; lit., devil after me 
Palyaw, n. pL, Rails, palings. Pott, ii., 361, pall, board, 
plank ; ? Pasp., beli, post 

_, J, \ v., To shut, fasten, close, tie, bind, etc. Pasp., 

Pan, ) f""^"""" 

Pand-asdva, I fasten, etc. 

Meero rom pandi- asar mdndi opre adre o kair, My 

husband shuts me up in the house 
Pandadom, I shut, did shut 
Pandadas \ 

Pandds, V He, she, they bound, fastened, etc. 
Pdndadas,) 

p ' 1 ' J \p' paf"t; Shut, etc. Vaill., p. 54, is pandado 

_,,,,'( iidar, the door is shut 
Pandr^, ) 

Pandomengro,) n., Pound for stray cattle, shcepfold, 
Panom^ngro, •' pen, fold, pinfold ; ;/. pr., Pinfold, 

a Gypsy tribe 
Pand opre, Shut up ! be silent 
Pandjer, v., To wheedle } } cf pditder, to fasten, enclose, take 
in; also Pott, ii., 374, ''panscheraf, biegen ; p. durch, 
durchkriechen " 
They lelV jaw ki'ssi luvva by pandjer/;/' the gaujoj. 
They got so much money by wheedling the Gen- 
tiles 
Pani, Water. See Paani 

p , ' \ adj., Five. Pasp., pandj, pantch 

Panshdngro, «., A five-pound bank-note 
Pansh-k61a, Crown, five-shilling piece 



VOCABULARY. 1 1 7 

Stor-pansh, Twenty 
Papin, n., Goose. Pasp., papin 

Papinyaw, //., Geese 

Papini, \ n., Goose ; sometimes applied to ducks 

Papinengri,/ or turkeys 

Mooshkeno papin, Gander 

Papini-drilaw, Gooseberries (drflaw) 
Para, v., To change, exchange (piira). F asp., panevdva 

Parapen, n., Change, small money (puraben). Pasp», 

paruibe, change of clothes 

Parav, t;., To thank, bless (parik) 

Pardal ) 

P' d 1 j ^^^'' Over, across (paudel). Pasp^, /^r^ii/, beyond 

Pardel, v.^ Forgive. Pardel mandi/^r yeka, Forgive me for 

once 

Pdrdonos, n., Pardon, forgiveness 

Parik, v., To thank, bless (parav). Lieb., parkerwawa 

Parikar6va,\ 

Pdrik'rd, ! ,, , 
T. / ., M thank 

Pariko, 

Parik'raw, 

Parikaben, ) ^, , 
_,,.,. \ «., Thanks 

Pariktom, 1 thanked 

Parno, adj., Cloth. Pasp., parind, berdnd, tent-cloth ; Lieb., 

pdrne, die Windeln 

Partan, «., Cloth (poktan). Vasp., pokhtdn 

Pasherela, He believes. See Patser 

Patrin 

Patin. 

Patrinaw,) 

T) ^ ' ' \ P^'i Trails 

Patreni, j ^ 

PatseK, V,, To believe (pazer). Pasp^, pakidva ; Lieb., pat- 

schdwa 

Patsova, I believe 

Patsdom, I believed 

Pdsherela, He believes 



' \ ;?., Leaf, trail-sign. Pasp., patrin 



I I 8 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Yon kek nanef patserenna, They will not believe 
Pdtsad^, They believed 
Patsaben, 7t,, Belief. lAob., patscMpenn 
O rauni pdts2><^ so yoi penW, The lady believed what 
'she said 

P 'A 1 '[ /^^A^ Over (pardal). Pasp.,/^r^rt7, beyond 

Bitchadi-paudel.) ^ , 

T^ , - , . , . \ Iransported 
raudel-i-paani, ) 

p ii \ P^^P-> Behind, back (palla). Pasp.,/^// 

Hatch-pauli-kani, Guineafowl 

Jal-pauli, To return 
Pauni, Water. See Paani 
Pauno, adj., White (porno). Pasp.,/^r«<7 
Paupus, 7t., Grandfather. VdiS^.,pdpus 
Pazer, v. a.. To trust (passerova). VdiS^.ypakid'ia 

Pdzorus, adj.y Indebted 

Pazerova, I obtain credit, get on trust 

Pdzeroben, «., Credit, trust 
Pedas, He fell. ) c p 
Pede, They fell.) ^^^ ^^"^ 
Pedliaw, n. pL, Nuts (p^tliaw, pdvliaw). Lieb., pendach^ 

walnut 
Pee, v., To drink. Pasp., pidva 

Piova, I drink, I will drink 

Piela, He drinks, or will drink 

Pidom, I drank 

Pidas, He, or they, drank 

Pid^, They drank 

V^^^\o,p. part.y Drunk, drunken. Pasp.,///i^ 

Piaben, ) 

Peemengro, n., Teapot, drunkard 

^!=""':"S'-°' ;«•■};,, Drunkard 

Plamengri,/., ) 

Piameskri, «., Tea 



VOCABULARY. 1 19 

Piameskri-skoodalin, Teapot 

Pobesko-piameskri-tem, Devonshire 

Mendi see dosta te hoi ta pi, We have plenty to eat 
and drink 
Peer, v., To walk, stroll (pi'rav), VdiS^., pirdva 

Peerela, He walks 

Peeras, He walked 

Pedrdo, «., Tramp, vagrant 

Posh-pe^rdo, Half-breed 

Peerom^ngro, ;/., Stile 

Pedromus, «., Roaming. Vaill, p. /8, Is nasidpirmasko, 
II est difficile de marcher 
Peeri, «., Cauldron, stewpan, copper. Pasp., piri 

p ,.'!«., Foot (pi'ro). Pasp,, phiro, pirS 

Peer4 pi. Feet 

BokreV peere. Sheep's feet 

Peeresto-koppa, Carpet 

Peero-dehV/^-tem, Lancashire ; lit, foot-kicking county 
Peevlo, adj,, Widowed. Y2i%y^,,pivlil6 

Peevlo-gafro, Widower. Pasp., pivlS 

Peevli-gairi, Widow. V diS"^., pivH 
Peias, «., Play, fun, sport, game. Lieb., perjas 

Peiaskro-moosh, Actor 
Pek, v., To roast. Pasp., pekdva 

Pekova, I do, or will, roast 

VokS, p. pari., Roasted, Pasp.,/^/^J 
Pel, v.. To fall. See Per. Pasp., perdva 

Pel'^, Fell 

Pelova, I do, or will, fall 

Pel^la, He falls, or will fall 
Pele, \ 

Pelon4 )■«.//., Testicles. Pasp.,/^/*?; pl.,/^// 
P^lonoi-,/ 

P^leno-grei, Stallion 

Pelengo-chavo, Boy 

Pelengro, n., Stallion 



I20 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Pele-matcho, Cod-fish 
Pen, v., To say, tell. FsLsp.,pemva 

Pen6va, I say, I will say 

Mandi pen6va yoiV/ mer, I say (think) she will die; 
cf. Pott, ii., 346, " akeake pennawame. So meine 
ich's [eig. doch ich sage s. pchenav]" 

So penessa ? What do you say? 

Penela, He says 

Pendas, He said 

So pendan ? What did you say ? 
Pen, ;/., Sister. Pasp.,/^« 

Penyaw, //., Sisters. Pasp., /^enid 

Stiffi-pen, Sister-in-law 

Penna, They will fall. See Per 

Pensa \ 

p , . ' j adj. and adv., Like (p^ssa). } Pasp., pentchya (As,), 

Dikela p^nsa rauni. She looks like (a) lady 
Per, v., To fall (pel). Vd.s'p., perdva 

Perova, I fall 

Perela, He, or it, falls 

Pelova, I will fall 

Yon penna, They will fall (p^nna = per^nna) 

Ped6m, I fell 

Pedds, He fell 

Yon ped^ They fell 
Per, 11., Belly, stomach, paunch. Pasp,,/^^ 

Peraw, />/., Stomachs 

Yo6sho adr6 16nghi peraw, Clean in their eating 

P6r-do6ka, Stomach-ache 
P^ski,/r^;/, reflective, Himself. Pasp.y/^^; dat., //j-/^^ 

Ghias pdski, He took himself off 

Dids p^ski k6keri wdfedo-k^rimus, He gave himself 
trouble 

Vias p^ski akef, He came here himself 



VOCABULARY. I 2 I 

Praasterdas peski pensa grei, He ran off like a 
horse 
Pessa, adj,, Like (pensa) 
Pesser, v,, To pay. Lieb., pleisserwawa^ posinaiva 

Pesserova, I do, or will, pay 

Viss^do ppartA ^^.^ 

Pessade,//., ) 

Pessadom, I paid 
Petal, «., Horseshoe. VdiS^., p^tah 

Petalengro, ;/., Blacksmith; ri. pr., Smith, a Gypsy 
tribe 

Kekavvi-petalengr^ Tinkers ; lit., kettle-smiths 

Soonakei-petalengro, Goldsmith 

Petalesto-kova, Anvil 
Pdtliaw, I ^^ ^^^g (p^dliaw) 
Pevliaw,) 
Piaben. \ 

Piamus, etc. > See Pee, to drink 
Pidom, etc. ) 
Piko, V 

Pikio, (. «., Shoulder. Pasp.,/?/^^ 
Pik^//.,] 

Piova, I do, or will, drink. See Pee 
Pirav, v., To walk (peer)* Fasp., pirdva 
Pi'riv, V, a., To open, woo, court, make love to. Pasp,,////- 
ravdva 

^Y. .* ''] n.y Sweetheart lovef. Vd^sp., piHano 
Pirmi,/., ) 

Pirivdo, /. party Opened 

Pirivdas, He opened 

Piro, adj., Open, loose 
Piro, 11., Foot (peero). Pasp.,/zW 

Pisham, «., Flea, fly, honey (pooshuma). Pasp., pushum^ 
flea 

Go6dlo-pi9ham, | Bee ; lit, sweet flea 
Goodlo-pishamus, ) 
DandzV pisham, Wasp 



;) 

71., Cyder 



1 2 2 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Kil pi'sham, Butterfly 
Plashta, \ 

Plochta, r n., Cloak, cloth. Lieb., blaschda; Mikl, i., 30 
Pl^xta, ^ 

Bcresto-pl6%ta, Sail 

Pobo,-) . , ^ 

p., . \ ;/., Apple. VdiS'p. , paoai 

Pobe,//., Apples 

Pobomus, It., Orange 

Pobomuski-gav,] n.pr., Norwich; lit., orange town, 

Pobomusti-gav, i from the assonance of aji orange 

and Norwich 
Pobengro, 
Pobesko-livena, . 
Pobesko-rook, Apple-tree 
Pobcsko-gav-tem, Norfolk 
P6besko-piameskri-tem, Devonshire 
Waver-temeski-lolo-pobo, Orange; lit.,other-country 

red apple 

Bitto-lolo-pobi, Cherries ; lit., small red apples 

Pochi, «., Pocket (pootsi). Pasp., boshka; 'Licb., pottizsa 

Po<^er ^ 

p ^ ' [ v., To break. Pasp., pangdva, bangdva 

Bongo, adj., Crooked. Pasp.,/<^«^d?, bango, lame 
B6nges, adv., Wrongly 
Pogadom, I broke 
Pogadas, He broke 

P6|er^^,} ^* ^^"^^'^ ^^°^^"- P^^P'^ P'^'^S^'^ 
Pogado-shero, Cocked hat, broken head 

,,, , , , . !• Broken-winded horse 
Poga-baval-grei, ) 

P6ga-ch6ngaw-grci, Broken-kneed horse 
P6gami-ngri, j ^^^ Windmill 

Baval-pogamengri, ) 
P6garomengro, n.. Miller 
Pogaromengri, n., Treadwhcel 



VOCABULARY. 123 

Pogaromdsti, ) ^t 

^° , , } n., Hammer 

Fogaromeskro,-' 

Poga-kairengro, «., Burglar 

Pok^nyus, n., Judge, justice of the peace (pookinyus). Lieb., 

pokono, peaceful ; Pott, ii., 345, pokoino, bokono, 

quiet; ii., \(yi,pokoinepen, peace ; Mikl., i., 31 

pr , j ^^-j Cloth (partan). V diS^., pokhtdn 

P6;(;tan-gav, Manchester 

P6%tan-kelom^ngro, Weaver ; lit, cloth-maker 
Pongdfshler, n., Pocket-handkerchief 

Poodj, «., Bridge, sky. Pasp., purt, burdji, bridge ; Pott, 
ii., 382 

'\ v.,To blow, singe, shoot. Pasp., purddva, puddva 

Pood toovlo, To smoke tobacco 

Poodado, /. part., Blown 

Poodela, He blows 

Pooderenna, They shoot, blow 

Poodekrj-, \ 

Poodam^ngro, > iu, Bellows 

Poodamengri, ) 
Po6-h-tan, «., Tinder ; ? cloth ; cf. poktan 
Pookinyus, «., Judge (pok-enyus) 
Pooker, v,, To tell 

Pookerova, I do, or will, tell 

Po6ker6va kek-komeni ta mandi diktas (diktom) 
toot akei adre steripen, I will tell no one that I 
saw you here in prison 

Pookras, You told 

Pookadas, He told 

Pookeromengro, ;?., Watch, clock 

Pookeromengri, //., Betrayers 

Pooker/w^-bar, Milestone 

Po6ker/;/^-kosht, Signpost 

Poorav, ) ^ , 

^ , \ v., \o bury 

Pooros, ) 



1 24 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Po6rost6m mi po6ro dad, I buried my old father 

Po6ro, w.,) ,. rM 1 -r* / , 1 

T> ' • f \ ^"J-y 0^°- r^sp., phuro, phuri 

Poorokono, ad;\, Ancient, old-fashioned 

Poorodar, comp., Olden Pasp., pJmredir 

Pooroder-rook, Oak ; lit, older (oldest) tree 

Pooro-dad, ;/., Grandfather 

Poori-dei, n., Grandmother 

Po6ro-dad J chdvo, Grandchild 
Po6rdav$-, «.//., Stairs. Yid.xx\o\.^ padras ; of Pott, ii., 382 
Po6rumi, 11., Onion, leek, garlic (poruma). Pasp., piirilm ; 
Mikl., i., 31 

Poorum, n. pr., Lee, a Gypsy tribe ; as if LeeAz 

Kanlo po6ruma, Garlic; lit., stinking onion 
Poos, 7t,, Straw. Pasp.,/?/j 

Pooskeno,) ,. ^^ 

Po6skeni, I "'^J'' ^''^'' 

Poosengro, «., Straw rick, stack 

Ghiv-poos^ngro, Wheat stack 

Job-poosengro, Oat stack 
Pooshom, «., Wool Pasp., posSm, poshont 
Pooshuma, «., Flea, bee (pfsham). VdiS^., piishum, flea 
Pooshumengro, «., Fork. Fa.sp., pusavdt'a, to prick, spur 

Po6som<:.ngri,«., I Spur (poshadri) 

O gref-esko possomengri,) ^ *^ 
Pootch, V,, To ask. Pasp., piitchdva 
Pootch6va, I ask 
Pootchessa, Thou askest 
Pootchd6m, I asked 
Pootchdas, 



S, \ -fj 1 J 

Pootchtas, j 

Pootcht^m, We asked 

Pootcht6, They asked 

Po6tchlo,/./rtr/.,) - , , . , , 
r> ^ \,M ., \ Asked, nivited 

Pootchl^,//., j 



VOCABULARY. 1 25 

Pootchas, Let us ask 

Maw too pootch troostal vaniso kova ta nanef see 

te6ro, Do not covet (lit., ask for) any thing that 

is not thine 

Pootsi, n., Pocket (po'chi). Pasp., boshka; 'Lieb., pottissa 

Poov, n., Earth, field. Ya-sp., p/mv, puv 

Poovyaw, //., Fields 

Poovela, n., Field-path 

Poovengri, ) ^ ^ . 
_, , . f n., Potato 

Poovyengn, > 

Poovengri-gav, Manchester. A name used by 
Cheshire Gypsies on account of the loads of 
potatoes sent there 

Poovengri-gaujo, Irishman ; because potatoes enter 
largely into the diet of the Irish 

Poovesto-choori, \ 

Poovo-chinom^ngri, /• Plough 

Poov-vardo, ^ 

So o ghivengro chinela o poov opr^ Plough ; lit., 
what the farmer cuts the field up (with) 
Popli, adv., Again (apopli). Fdsp., pd/pa/e, Derriere ; Vaill., 
p. $l,de dilma mandi parpali, Reponds-moi, sostar 
ni dh diima parpalif Pourquoi ne reponds-tu 
pas.? Mikl., ii., 52, 1032, "papdie, adv.. von neuem, 
wieder ; papdle megint Born : 118" 
Por, n., Feather (pur). Lieb.,/^r; Mikl., i., 29 

Porongo-wudrus, Feather-bed 

Cherikleski-por, Wing 
Porasto, adj., Buried (poorav) 

Pord^/Z^'} F^^^'^e^vy- Pasp.,/^r^J 

Pordo, v., To fill. VdiSp.,perdva 
P6ri, «., Tail, end. Vdisp., port 
P6rno, adj., White (pauno). VdiSp.,parnd 

Porno, n., Flour 

Pornom^sti, n., Miller 

Pornengri, n., Mill 



126 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Porni-rauni, Swan 

Porno-saster, Tin ; lit., white iron 
Poruma, adj., Gaelic ; from assonance of garlic and gaelic 

(poorumi) 
Y6^2Ao, p. pai't., Buried (poorav) 
Posh, adj., Half. Pasp., _;^^^-/^'j-/^ 

Posh-horri, Halfpenny 

Posh-koorona, Halfcrown 

Posh and posh, ) ^ t i r i i 
„ , ,\ ,- Half-bred 
Posh-peerdo, -• 

Yo'^free, Turnpike ; lit., half-free, because passengers 
are not tolled, but carts are 

Kair-posh, Help ; lit., do half 
Posh, prep., After. ? from assonance of half and /rafter 

Posh-aglal, Opposite ; ? lit., half before 

Posh-beenomus, Placenta, after-birth 
P6sha, adv. diudprep., Near, by, besides. VdiS^.,pash^ 

P6sh-rig, Besides 
■ Dosta folkA sas posha yoi, Much people was with 
her 
Poshaari, ;/.//., Spurs (pooshumengro) 
Poshli, adj., Confined. Pasp., pdslilo, bedfast, bedridden 

Poshle,//., Women who have been confined 

Yof sas poshli (-f) adre wo6drus, She was confined 
in bed 
Prdster, | ?7.,To run. Sundtj/r^j-^/!/^, springe, hoppe ; Pott, 
Pradster,/ ii., 244 

Prdster^la, He runs 

Prasterdas, He ran 

Prasterm6ngro, «., Runner, policeman, deserter 

Prdsterom^ngro, ;/., Deserter 



Prdstermc^'ngrri 



fc»' 






Prasterimus, V n., Horse-race 

Greiesto-praster/^'^, ) 
Prdster/«^-k61i, Railway train 
Prdster/;/ kister, Railway journey 
Prdstcr/;/^^-wdrdesko-dtch/;/^-tan, Railway station 



VOCABULARY. 1 27 

Wardesko-prastermengri, Wheel, cart-wheel 

Praster tiiki! Be off! Run! 
Prarchadi, ;/., Flame. ? V^s^., prdhos, cinders 
'VYQ,prep., Upon, on, up (apre, opre). Pasp., oprt^ 

Pre-engro, adj., Upper 
Pur, n., Feather (por). hieh., por 
Pur, n., Stomach, belly, paunch (per) 

Bokochesto-pur, Tripe 
Pura, v., To change, exchange (para). Fasp.,paruvd2^a 

Furered, Changed 

Piiraben, n., Exchange (parapen) 



R. 

Raati, ;2., Night. Pasp., raU ; araUi, during the night 

Raatia,//., Nights 

Raatsene^hi-) , , ., , ^ , 
^ . °. I chiriklo. Owl 
Raatenghi- ) 

Raatenghi-chei chiriklo. Nightingale ; lit., night-^z>/ 
{vu\g-^a/) bird 

Ke-raati, To-night 
Rak, I v., To guard, protect, take care of, mind. Pasp., 
Rakker, ) arakdva 

Rak to6ti ! Take care ! 

Rak ti toovlo. Mind your 'baccy 
Rdklo, m. n., Boy. Pasp., raklo 

Rdkli,/. «., Girl. Pasp., rakli 

Rakha,//., Girls 

Rakle, //., Boys 
Ran, «., Rod, osier, etc. Pasp., ran 

'R.iLnydiw^pl., Rods 

Ranyaw to kair kushni^j-, Osiers ; lit., rods to make 
baskets 
Ranjer, v., To remove, take off. Lieb., ranschkirwawa wri, 

I undress 
Rashei, 
Rashrei, 



I 71., Parson. Pasp., rashdi 



j- n., Lady. Pasp., rdniti 



128 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Ratt, n., Blood. Pasp., ratt 

Rattvalo, \ 

RAtt/u//Oy y adj., Bloody. Pasp., rattvald 

Rattvali, ) 

Dulla bitta kola (so) peei- o ratt, so see chivV opr^ 
naflo folki te kair l^ndi koshto. Leeches ; lit., 
those little things (which) drink the blood, which 
are put on sick people to cure them 
Raiini,' 
Rauni, ' 

Raunia,//., Ladies 

Kauli-rauni, Turkey 

Porni-rauni, Swan 
Rei, «., Gentleman. Pasp., rdi 

Rei-aw,//., Gentlemen 

Reia, voc, Sir ! 

Do6va refesko kair. That gentleman's house 

Refesko-kdrimus, Gentlemanly behaviour 

Reialj, adj., Gentlemanly 

Bauro-rei, Gentleman 

Refesko-vdrdo, Carriage ; lit., gentleman's cart 

Reiesko ro6zho-poov moosh. Gardener ; lit, gentle- 
man's flower-ground man 

Refeski match^//., Trout 

Refakana ta gaujikana jinomus. Learning fit for a 
gentleman and Englishman 
Rapper toot, Remember 
R6ssi toot ! Make haste ! 

R6s-les apr6, Rouse him up 

^f ^^' 1 «., Duck (riitsa). Lieb., retza; Mikl., i., 35 
Ketza,) 

Retzd,//., Ducks 

Tfkno-} ^^'^^' ^"^^^^"^ 
RidjW, «., Partn^^. Used by Isaac Heme's family 
Rfdo,/. /^r/., Dressed.) q -p- 
Rfdad^ They dressed. ) 



VOCABULARY. 



129 



Rig, n., Side, Pasp., rik 

j^. '\v., To carry, keep, bring, Lieb., rikkerwawa, to 

R/ker, ) ^*°P 

Righerova, I do, or will, keep 

Ri'gher toot mishto, Take care of yourself 

Righadom, I carried 

Yon righadas-les, They (that) carried him 
Rikeno, adj., Pretty (rfnkeno) 
Rikni^j", //., Trousers (rokengri^j-, etc.) 
Ril, V,, Pedere; also used as a noun. Pasp.> rill; Lieb.> 

rill 
Rinkeno, m.,\ adj., Pretty (rikeno). Pott, ii., 264, gives 
Rinkeni,/!, > rajkano, from Puchmayer's Hungarian 
Rinkene, //.,>' "Romani Czib," and suggests that the 
word rinkeiw is an adjective formed from the 
dative plural of rai, i.e., r^nge. See also Sundt's 
" Landstrygerfolket," 1852, rankand, gentle, noble. 
Predari has, p. 270, rincano, and p. 259, arincino, 
both apparently taken from Roberts 
Rinkenes, adv., Prettily 
Rinkenoder, comp., Prettier 

Rinkeni matchaw ta jal^ tal^ o baryaw. Trout ; lit., 
pretty fishes that go under the stones 
Risser, v., To shake, tremble. Pasp., lisdrdva 
Ri'sserela, He trembles 
Risser toot. Be quick (ressi) 

Risser toot apre, Be quick, and get up ; lit, shake 
yourself up 
Riv, v., To wear (rood). Pasp., tirydva 
'K{do,p.part., Dressed 
Rfdade, They dressed 

Rivoben, «., Apparel, clothes (rodi, roodopen) 
Yov rivdas lesko kokero adre kooshto eezaw sorkon 
cheerus, He always dressed in fine clothes 

9? 



1 30 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Yon sas ride sor adrd kaij. They were dressed all in 
silk 

•p _, 1' [ v., To search, seek. Pasp., roddva 

Ro'dadom, I searched, sought 

Rode, They searched 

Ro6dopen, n., Search. Pasp., rodip^ 

R6di-/;/^J ^^v Clothing, apparel (roodo, riv) 

P ,/[ n., Spoon. Pasp., rdi 

Roiyawj, //., Spoons 
Roiengr^, Spoon-makers 
R6ker, v.. To talk, speak. Pasp., vrakerdva; Mikl., i., 34 
R6keraa, He talks 

Komeni roker^la troostal mdndi, Some one is talking 
about me — " That's what we say when we sneeze " 
R6kerdas,'j 

R6kadds, [ He talked 
R6keras, / 
Rokras, You talk 
R6kerd4 They talked 
R6kerop^n,\ 



ii,y Conversation, language, speech. 
Pasp., vrakeribd 



Rokerp^n, 

R6keriben, 

Rokerimus, 

RcSkamus, , 

R6kerom^ngro, v . 

R6kerm^ngro, I '' ^ 

R6kerom^skro, «., Talker 

Bauro r6kerom6ngri, //., Prophets 

R6kerm' chiriklo, Parrot 

Rok^ngri^.v,^ 

Rok6nyus, 

Rokrdnyus 

Rop^fny^i", 

Roxhiya, , 



n. pl.y Trousers (rfkni^^-) 



VOCABULARY. 1 3 I 

Rom, n.j Husband, bridegroom, a male Gypsy. Pasp,, rom 
R6meni,\ 

Romni, > n., Wife, bride. Pasp., roinni 
Romadi, / 

^ , . ' [ adj.y Gypsy. Pasp., romano 

Romano-drab, probably Spurge-laurel {Daphne lau- 
reold), the berries of which, according to Lindley, 
''are poisonous to all animals except birds" 

Romani-chal, A male Gypsy 

Romani-chalaw, //., Gypsies 

Romanes, adv., Gypsy, the Gypsy language. Pasp., 
ronmnh 

Romano chiriklo. Magpie ; lit, Gypsy bird 
Romer, v,. To marry 

R6mado, ) . ^^ . , / f i-x 

Romadom, I married 

Romerob^n, lu. Marriage 

Romeromus, «., Wedding 
Rood, v.y To dress (riv) 

Ro6do, /. /«;'/., Dressed (rido, rodi) 

Roodopen, ;/., Dress, clothing. Pasp., iirydibi 
Roodopen, «., Search (road). Pasp., rodipe 
Rook, ;?,, Tree. Pasp., ruk 

Rookaw,) ^j ^ 

Rookamengro, «., Squirrel 
Rookenghi-cho^aj, Leaves ; lit, tree-coats 
Roop, ;/., Silver. Pasp., rup 
Roopono^ 

Roopno, ] ^^•' [ ^^.^ 3jj^g^_ p^gp^ rupovanS 
Roopni,/., j 
Roopnomengro, ;/., Silvermith 

P , ' [ adj., Strong (ruzlo). Pasp., zoralo 

Sor-roozlo, Almighty 



132 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Roozlopen, n., Strength 
Rov, v.. To cry. Pasp., rovdva 
Rov6va, I do, or will, cry 
Rovena, They cry 
Rovde, They cried 

SSe;,} '^•' ^'°"'"''- Mikl.,i.,35 

Ro6zho-poov, Flower garden 

Ro6zhaw-po6vaw, pi, Flower gardens 

Grooveni roozha, Cowslip 

Divusj/ ro6zha, Daisy 
Rushin, n.pL, Rushes, reeds 
Rutsa, «., Duck, goose (r^tsi). Lieb., retza 

. ' f adj., Strong, coarse (roozlo). Pasp., zoralS 

Ruzlo mas. Coarse meat 



'Sadla, n.y Morning (saula). Pasp., disiola, it dawns j disdra, 

early 
Sadas, He laughed. See Sav 
Sdke-os, n., Sake 
Sal, v., To laugh (sdrler, sav). Pasp., asdva 

Sdlir^s } ^'' L^"S^^"g' laughter, laugh 
Salvia, He laughs 
Saldova {for Sadom), I laughed 
Salamanca, n., Table. Pasp., saldn 

^,y , '!•«., Bridle (s61iv^ngro, solivdrdo). Va,sp., sidivdn 

Sap, «., Snake, serpent, eel. Pasp., sapp, snake 
Sapaw,//., Snakes. Pasp., sappd 
Sdpesko-mdtcho, Eel 
Sdpesko-matcho-mo6tsi, Eel-skin 

SdpinisJ ^^'' ^^^^' ^^^^'' ^^P^^^*^ > ^^^^"^ '^'> 3^ 



VOCABULARY. 1 33 

Sar, prep., With 

Sar, adv., How, as. Pasp., sar, how 

Sar 'shan, How are you ? 

Sar komessa, If you please 
Sarler, v., To laugh (sal, sav), Pasp., asdva 
Sarshta, \ 

Sarsta, > ;/., Iron. Pasp., shastir, sastir 
Saster, ) 

Sarstera,) ,. -. 

Sastera, I '^^■' ^™" 

Sastrameskro, n., Blacksmith. Pasp., s astir iskoro 

Sastera-bikinom^ngro, Ironmonger 

Sastermangro, «., An iron-grey horse 
Sas, 2nd sing, and pi. imperf. Was, were. Pasp., isds 

Yov sas nashedo opre o rook, He was hanged on the 
tree 

Yon sas wafedo nafalo, They were very 
Saster, Iron. See Sarshta 

Sastis, Able, can (sitis, stastis). Lieb., sasti; Pasp., sasto, 
sound, healthy ; Pott, ii., 370 — 380; cf. Lat, valeo 

Sar sastis te yek moosh del, How can one man give? 

,^ ,. '\ n., Morning ('saala). Pasp., disiolo, disdra 

Koliko-saula, To-morrow morning 
Kesaula, This morning 
Sav, V,, To laugh (sal, sarler). Pasp,, asdva 

' h n., Laugh, laughter. Pasp., asaibi 
Savapen,) 

Sadas, He laughed 

Savo, pron.. Who, what (so). Pasp,, savo, so 

Savo shan too, Who art thou } 

Savo cheerus. What time } when ? 

'See, 3^^ sing, and //. pres, ind., Is, are, has, have. Pasp,, 

is£ 

See-engro, adj., Spirited, lively (zee) 

Shab, v., To run away, "A mumper's word." Pott, ii., 14, 

schufdich. ! be off! Sundt, p. 394, shibba ! go ! 



134 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Sham, We are (shem). Pasp., isdm 

Ta sorkon kovaw sham m^ (mdndi), And all that we 
have ; lit, and all things are to us 
'Shamas, We were (shumas). Pasp., isdmas 

'Sor kino shamas. We were all tired 
'Shan, 2nd sing, di.ndpl.pres.. Art, are, hast, have. Pasp., isdfi 
Too 'shan kerdo mfshto, Thou hast done well 
Too 'shan lesti. You have it 
Sar shan. How art thou ? how are ye } 
'Shanas, 2Jid sing, and //. imperf., Thou wast, ye were. 
Pasp., isdnas 
Too 'shanas nafalo waver divvus, haw t You were ill 

the other day, eh } 
'Shanas kino } Were you tired .'' 
Shani, n., Mule 
Shan6ngro, n., Lawyer, liar (shoon). The two meanings are 

due to their assonance 
Shardoka, n.^ Apron (chardoka, etc.) .'' Pasp., utcharddy 
mantle, covered. Pott, ii., 231, 252, '' shadiicca^ 
apron, Kog.," is from Roberts; Boht, j'dnddrdka 
Shauhauri, 71., Sixpence (shookhaiiri) 
Sh(;lo, ;/., Rope, cord (sholo). Pasp., s/te/S, sJiolo 

K6va, so too kairj- sh^lo, Flax ; lit., thing which you 
make rope (of) 
Shel^ngro, ;/., Whistler (shol) 
'Shem, 1st pi. prcs., We are ('sham). Pasp., isdm 

Mendi 'shem akef. We are here 
Sh^ro, n., Head (sh6ri). Pasp., she7'd 

Sherengro, ;/., Bridle, captain, chief, headman, leader 
B^resto-sher<fngro, Captain of a ship 
Sh^rom^ngro, n., Lawyer 
Sher^/C'i-no, «., Lawyer ; for sher^j^ano 
Ghfvesto-shero, Ear of corn 
P6gado-sh^ro, Cocked hat 

Chiv it adrd your shdro. Remember ; lit, put it into 
your head. Compare Pasp., sJierdva man ; Lieb., 
rikkerwdwa an sc/icro 



VOCABULARY. 1 35 

Shil, ii.y Cold, catarrh. Pasp., shil 

Shilino, adj., Cold (shirilo). Pasp., shilalo 

Shilo-tem, The north 
Shing, 71., Horn. Pasp., shing 

Shingaw, //., Horns 
Shirilo, adj., Cold (shililo). Pasp., shilalo 
Shiv, n.. Snow (iv, ghiv, hiv, yiv). Pasp., iv, etc. 
Shok, n., Cabbage. Pasp., shakh 

Shokyaw,//., Cabbages 

Paani-shok, ) -,,7 ^ 

T^ , • 1 1 f Watercress 

Panengn-shok, ) 

Shol, v., To whistle (shool). Pasp., shdndava 

Shelengro, n.. Whistler 

Sholova, I whistle. Lieb., scholleivdwa 
Sholo, n., Rope, cord (shelo). Pasp., sJwlo, sheld 
'Shorn, 1st sing, and pi pres., I am, we are (shem). Pasp., 

1st sing., isom; ist pi., isdm 
'Sho'mas, \st sing, and pi hnperf., I was^ we were (shumas). 
Pasp., 1st sing., isomas ; ist pi., isdmas 

Mandi sho'mas 'jaw kino, I was so tired 

Be^no sho mas adre Dovarus, I was born at Dover 

M6ndi sho'mas yekera a bauro haiiro kekovvi. We 
once had a large copper kettle 
Sho6ba, «., Gown, frock (shoova) 

Chuffai-, //., Petticoats 
Shoobli, adj., Pregnant (shoovlo, q.v) 
Shookar, adv.. Nicely, quietly, slowly. Pasp., shukdr 

Jal shookar, Go slowly, easily, nicely 

Shookaridair, comp.. Slower, easier 

Shookar, adj.. Quiet, still 

Shooker ! Silence ! Keep quiet ! 

Shooko, adj., Dumb 

Roker shookes, adv.. Speak low 
Shookhauri, n.. Sixpence (shauhauri, shov, hauri) 
'Shooko-kanengri, Deaf person, Pasp., kashuko, deaf 
Shooko, adj.. Dry. Pasp., slmko 



136 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Sho6ko-mauromengri-tem, Suffolk ; lit , dry bread 
fellows' county 
Shod, v., To whistle (shol). Pasp., shonddva 
Shoolova, I whistle 
Shoolde, They whistled 

_, ' \ n.y Moon. Pasp., tchoii 

Shoonaw,//., Months 

Shoon, v., To hear, listen, hearken, etc. Pasp., shimdva 

Shoonova, I hear 

Shoonessa, Thou hearest 

Shoon61a, He hears 

Shoonta ! Listen ! Hark ! 

Shoon6m, We will hear 

Shoonedom,) ^ , 

c,, , J r 1 heard 

bhoondom, > 

Sar kek shoondnna. If they will not hear 

Shoondas, He heard 

Shoonde, They heard 

Shoon Mndi ! Remember \ lit., listen to them 

Shoon-^^-k6ngri, A bell ; lit., hark to church 

Shoonaben, ) __ 

c,, , , ' \ n., Newspaper 

bhoonamengn,) ^ ^ 

Shan^ngro, ;?., Lawyer, liar ; from assonance 

<^Vi M \ ^^■' ^^'^^S^^'- Pasp., shuty sJmtkd 

Sho6teIo, 

Shootlo, 

Shootlo chor, Sorrel ; lit, sour grass 

Shoot shokdw. Lettuce, any plant used in making 
salad 
Sho6va, n. Gown (sho6ba) 
Sho6vlo, adj., Swollen. Pasp., shuvlS 

Sho6vli,/., Pregnant (sho6bli) 
Shor, v., To praise. Pasp., ashardva 

Shorova, I do praise 

Sh6r/«^ his k6kero, Bragging, boasting 



[ adj.. Sour. Pasp., shutld 



VOCABULARY. 1 37 

Sh6roben, n., Boast 
Shoro,] 

Sh6ro, I n.y Head (shero, shuro). Pasp., sherd 
Shori, ) 

Shorengro, ;/., Chief, captain, foreman, headman, 
lawyer 

Bauro-shorengro, Lord 

Shoro jinomus gai'ro, A learned man ; lit., head- 
knowledge-man 

Sh6rokno, n., Chief, master 

Sh6rokno gairo, A headman, clever fellow, collegian 

Shorokne gaire,//,, Clever men 

Sh6rokono mooshaw, Disciples ; lit, chief men 

mi' W) ^^'' -^^^^^^ (shushi). VdiS"^., shoshoi 

Shoshe,//., Rabbits 
Shov, adj., Six. Pasp., shov, sho 

Shookhauri,) ^. /1 / -v 

ShavlhaUri, I "' S-'^Pe^^e (h^"") 
Shiimas, \st pi. imperf., We were (sho'mas, sham as). Pasp., 

isdmas 
Shuro, 71., Head (shero, shoro). Pasp., sherd 
Shushi, 71., Rabbit (shoshi). Pasp., shoshoi 

Shushei, //., Rabbits 

Shushenghi hevyaw. Rabbit-holes 
'Si, Is (see). Pasp., isi 

Si, C071J., As. } From assonance of is and as when spoken 
quickly 

Jaw door si too. As far as you 

Kek na kom6va jafri tanaw si koli, I do not like 
such places as these 

Meripen tanaw si dikela. Murdering places as they 
look (lit, looks) 
Sig, adj. and adv.. Quick, soon, early, just Pasp., sigS 

Sigodair, comp.. Sooner, earlier, before 

Ken sigaw. Immediately; lit, just now 

Sfgo tooti. Bestir yourself, be quick 



138 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Siker, v., To show. Pasp., sikdva 
Siker, ;/., Gold 

Sikerova, I show, I will show 
Sikadas, He showed 
Siklo, adj. and /. part, Accustomed, used. Pasp., 

siklo 
Mandi couldnt jiv ad re a gav, mandi'.y so siklo to the 
baval, I couldn't live in a town, I am so accus- 
tomed to the open air 
Sikermengro, «., Show, showman, circus, pleasure- 
grounds, moon 
Sikeromengro, n., Signpost 
Simensa, ?/., Cousin, relation, kin. Miklosich, iiber die 
mundarten, etc., part ii., p. 71, No. 456, sentence 
Sor see mensi, We are all relations 
Sfmmer, v., To pawn, pledge. Lieb., shnmeto, a pledge; 
Pasp., simadi, sign 
Simmer/;/^ boodega. Pawnshop 
Sfmmeromeskro, Pawnbroker 
Sftis, If I can (stdstis) 
Siv, v., To sew. Pasp., sivdva 
Sivdiim, I sewed 
£/>2sfvdo, Unsewn 
Sivomengro, «., Tailor ; the name too of the Taylor 

tribe of Gypsies (soovdngro). Pasp., siibndskcro 
Soov, 11., Needle. Pasp,, suv ' 
Skdmin, ;/., Chair. Pasp., scamni, stool ; Lieb., stammtJz 

Skamine, \ ^, nu - 
o, , . \ pi., Chairs 

bkaminyaw,; 

Skdmindngro, ;/., Chair-mender, chair-bottomer 

Rdshei skamin adr^ o k6ngri, kei o rdshei besh^la, 

Pulpit ; lit, priest-chair in the church, where the 

priest sits 

Sken, n., Sun (kam, tam). Pasp., kam 

Sko'ni, n., Boot. Lieb., skorni 

Sko nyawj-, //., Boots (skriinya) 

Skoodalin, ;/., Plate. } Italian, scodclla, porringer 



VOCABULARY. 1 39 

Skoodilin, n., Teapot 
Piameskri skoodalin, Teapot 
Koshtudno skoodilaw, Wooden dishes 
Skrunya, n.pL, Boots (sko'nyawj"). Lieb., skornia; Mikl., 

Sliigus, 11., Slug 

,. , . . r ^i-y Cream. Lieb., scJuninddna ; Mikl., i., 40 
Smentini, ) 

So,pron., What (savo). Pasp., so 

^,,. , ' [;/., Bridle (salivardo). V asp., sulivdn 
Solivengro,) 

Solivare, //-, Bridles 
S61oh61omus, n., Oath (s6verhol, sulverkon). Pasp., sov//; 

sovel khaliom, I have sworn 
Soom, \ 

Soon, \ v., To smell. Pasp., stmgdva 
Soong,/ 

Soongova, I smell 

Soongela, He smells 

Soongimus, «., Smell 

Soom a kan, Smell a stink 
Soonakei, n. and adj.. Gold. Pasp., soonakdi 

Soonakei-petalengro, Goldsmith 

Soonaka weriga. Gold chain 
Sooti, v., To sleep, coYre (sov). Pasp., sovdva, p. part., stittd, 
sotto 



IoSl'} "•' Sl^^P (^"«°) 



Sooti, 

Sooto, adj., Asleep, sleepy 
Sootela, He sleeps 
Sootadom, I slept 
Sootadas, He slept 
Jaw kater siitto. Go to sleep 
Yon sootede, They slept 

Dula kola (so) kair^ tooti te jal to sooto. Poppies ; 
lit., those things (which) make you go to sleep 
Soov, 11., Needle (siv). Pasp., stiv 



1 40 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Soovengro, ;/., Tailor (si'vomengro). Pasp., siibfid- 
skoro 
Sor, ;/ and adj., Everything, all ; adv., quite. Pasp., sarro, 
sdore 
Sor-kon k611i, Everything; cf. Mikl., ii., 35, 133 
(Bukowina Vocab.), sekon shiba, alle sprachen ; ii., 
55, 1271 (Hungarian Vocab.), sako, every 
S6r-kon-cheerus, ) ., 

S6r-kon-ch4irus, I ^'"'^J'^' °^*^" ' '"' ^^^^ *""^ 
S6rsin, n., Plate ; } from saucer 

S6ski, adv., Why ; lit., for what (so). Pasp., dative, sSske, 
for what, why 
Soski kedas-les talla } Why did you do it \ 
S6ski too nanef roker to mandi } Why don't you 
speak to me } 
Sov, v.. To sleep, coYre (sooti). Pasp., sovdva 
Sovdom, I slept 
Sovd6, They slept 
S6verhol,| v.. To swear, curse (sulverkon, s61oh61omus). 
S6vlohol, ) Pasp., sov^l-k1mli6m, I have sworn ; lit., I have 
eaten oath 
S6vloh61oben, 
S6verh61oben, 

Spink, 



[ n.. Curse, oath 



ping ; 1 pjj^ p French, ^pinHe. Pott, ii., 248. spinaf, 
Sp(ngher,^ I stick 



Spingo, 11., Brooch 

Spfngo, v., To pin, fasten with wooden skewers 

Spingadrus, «., Skewer, spit 

Spingadro-k(^lom6ngro, Skewer-maker 
Staddi,^ 

Stddi, > n.. Hat. Pasp., stadik 
Stati, ) 

Staddia,) ^j ^ . 

Staad4 K^-' ""*' 

Joovioko-staddi, Bonnet ; lit, female hat 
Stadni, ;/., Deer, stag. .? Pott, ii., 247, stirna, cat 



VOCABULARY. 1 4 1 

Stanya, n., Stable. Lieb., stehiia; Mikl, i., 38 

,j^ , ,. ' \n.y Prison ('steripen, 'stauri). Pasp., astardi, that 

>(-^/ -i' I which one holds : astaribe, diYXQSt 
Stariben, / 

Stari, n.f Star. Pasp., stiari (As.) 

Stastis, If it is possible, if he can (sastfs, tastis) 

'Stauri, ;/., Prison ('stardi) 

Stekas, n., Gate, turnpike (stigher). ? Provincial English, 
steek, to shut, or from stakervava, to tread, walk, 
Pott, vol. i., p. 437 (from Puchmayer's " Romani 
Czib") 

't^f ' • \ ^-y Prison ('stariben). Pasp., astaribe, arrest 

'Sterorriengro, ) _. . 
'St&om&ti, } «•' P"^""""" 
*Steripen-gav, «., County town 
Stifo-dad, 71., Father-in-law. German, sti^f- ; English, step- 
Stifi-dei, Mother-in-law, \ Miklosich, "iiber diemun- 
Stifo-pal, Brother-in-law,/ darten," etc., part ii., p. 69, 

No. 279, and p. 70, No. 376, shtyfdaj\ shtyfdad 
Stifi-pen, Sister-in-law 
Stigher, 71., Gate, turnpike (stekas). Pott, ii., 246, gives / 
stika, path, and compares iwss-steig, footpath ; 
Mikl, i., 39 
Pesser-stigher, Turnpike 
Stor, adj., Four. Pasp., star 

Trin-stor, Seven ; lit, three-four 
Dooi-trinyaw ta yek. Seven ; lit., two threes and one 
DooY storaw. Eight ; lit., two fours 
Stor-pansh, Twenty ; lit, four fives 
Stor-peerengro, Frog 
Strangli, 71., Onion. "A mumper's lav, it "means poorumi" 
Stug\i\, 71. pL, Stacks, cf. Harr., stagus, a rick ; Pott, ii., 

246 ; Mikl., i., 39 
Siilverkon, v., To swear, curse (s6verh61, s61oh61omus). Pasp., 

sovel-khalidm, I have sworn 
Simddyws, Sunday 



1 4 2 GYPSY- ENGLISH 

Sus. Kair too sus asar komessa, Do just as you like. 

? Sus = so as, with the particle asdr attached, to 

disguise the English words 
Siitto, ;/., Sleep (sooto). Pasp., suUd 

wag , ) Tobacco-pipe 
Swegler,) 

T. 

TsL, con/,, And. Pasp., /^ 

Dad ta dei. Father and mother 
Ta, conj., Than (te) 

Yov si bitader ta mandi, He is less than I. .-'Ta 
=: Engl, to, which is sometimes used provincially 
in this sense. Some Gypsies similarly use nor, 
others da7t, den (than) 
-ta, emphatic suffix to verbs in the imperative. Pott, vol. i., 
p. 310 
Shoonta, chaw61i ! Listen, mates ! 
Avata ! Come here ! 
Ta, conj. and pron., That. Pasp., ka 

Yov pendas ta mdndi jak pdlla waver moo^dw. He 

was jealous ; lit, he said that I go after other men 

Wafedo baval ta andi- kek koshto bok, A bad wind 

that brings no good luck 
Yov ta sas moolo. He that was dead 
Taf, n., Thread (tav, tel). Pasp., fav 

Ta\6, prep., Down, under, beneath (teld, aid, '\i). Pasp., tel^ 
Talla, adv.. After, afterwards, except, without 
Talla, prep., Under, beneath, behind 
Tair of a baiiro wesh. Alongside of a big wood 
Tdllani-ch6%a, Under-petticoat 
Lei tale, To peel 
Chin tale, To cut off, cut down 
Lei o mo6tsi tale o p6bo, Peel the orange ; lit., take 
the skin off the orange 
Tarn, ;/., Sun (kam, sken). Pasp., kam 



VOCABULARY. I 43 

Tamlo, adj., Sunny, light. A corruption of kdmlo 
Tamlo, adj., Dark. Pasp., tam, blind ; Mikl, i., 43 

Tamlo raati, Dark night 
Tan, ) n., Camp, place, tent. Pasp,, tan, place; katunat 
Tano, i tent 

Tan aw,//., Places 
Tan, v., To encamp 

Kair ti tan talla o rook avri o kam. Pitch your tent 
under the tree out of the sun 
Tarder, v., To pull, stretch. Pasp., traddva, to draw 
Tardadom, I pulled 
Tdrdadas, He pulled 
Tardade, They pulled 
Tarderz;/^ shdlo kotorendi, Picking oakum ; lit, 

pulling rope to pieces 
So too tarderj matche avrf o paani troostal. Fish- 
hook ; lit., what you pull fish out of the water with 
Tamo, adj., Young (tauno). Pasp., terno 
Tdrno, n., Child 

Tdrno, «. pr.y Young, a Gypsy tribe 
Tarnodar, ) ^ ^. 

Tarnoda.'r,r'"«^-'Y°""S«'' 
Tarnomus, n., Youth 
Tdsser, v.y To choke, drown. Pasp., tasdva 
Ta.ssa.do, p. par ^., Choked 
Tassadas, He choked 
Tasti's, If he can, if I can, if it be possible, etc. (stastis, 
tiissis). A combination of U sasto isi ; vide Pott, 
i., 370 ; ii., 242 
Kerova-les, tastis, I will try to do it ; lit, I will do 

it, if I can 
R6ker too, tastis. Speak, if you can 
Sor o koli pelela adral lesti, tastiss, AH the things 
(everything) will fall through it, if they can (or 
that can) 
Tdtcho, I adj., Good, true, right, real, holy, ready, healthy, 



J 



Tatcheno,) well, safe. Pasp., tchatchtino, true 



144 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Tatchipen, ;/., Truth. Pasp., tchatchipe 

Tatcho wast, Right hand 

Tatchene gaire, ox fSlk'i, Holy men, angels 

Tatchnes, adv., Right 

Kair tatcho, To cure, comfort; lit, make right 

Yov sas o tatcho yek o' lesko dei, He was the only 

son of his mother 
Tatcho-'glal, Right opposite, face to face 
Tatcho berengro. Ship captain 
Tatcho-barj-, Jewels 
Tatcho d6sta, Sure enough 
Tattav, 



^.^ , To warm. V asp., taUiardva 
Tatter, } v, ^ ' 

Tatterm^ngri, u.. Frying-pan 

Tatto, adj.. Warm, hot. Pasp., ^aUd 

Tattoben, «., Heat, summer. Pasp,, tattib^, heat 

Tatto-koova, Pepper 

Tatto-pani, Alcohol, ardent spirits ; cf. American 

'fire-water ' 

Tav, n.. Thread (taf, tel). Pasp., tav 

Tdvesto-gav, Manchester; lit, cotton-town 

^ , •'/•") ^^'' Yo^'^S (tarno). Pasp., terno 

Te, prep, and conj., To, for, at, how, with, what, than, but, 

etc. Pasp., te 
Tediwus, To-day 
Biknova-les tei te vaniso luva, I will sell it too for 

any sum 
Te d6va che^rus d raati. At that time of night 
Te go6dlo see, How sweet it is 
Yon pandas yov opre te 16sti, They tied he (him) up 

with it 
Kelela peias te lesti n6go p6ri. It is playing with its 

own tail 
Te wafedo moosh see yov, What a bad man he is 
Dordi, te go6dlo pobe see odof, chavoli ! Look, what 

ripe apples are there, mates ! 



VOCABULARY. 1 45 

Y6if see wafedodair te yov, She is worse than he 
Kek k6meni sas kerV man ko6shto te yov, No one 
but he cured me 
Te, particle^ used to form the subjunctive ; vide Grammar, 
p. 39. Pasp., te 
Beng te lei toot. Devil take you 
Te wel mdndi te bitcher6va-len avrf. If I send them 

away 
Te jin^ssa too ? Do you know ? 
Sho'mas te mer6va, I must have died 
Te dik6v avrf, dik6va. If I look out, I see 
T^iro, pron., Thine, thy, your. Pasp., tinro 
Tei, conj,, Also, too, indeed. Pott, i., 308, tai; Mikl, ii., 58 
(1454), taj 
D6sta brfshno wela tale ta hiv tei, Much rain comes 

down and snow too 
Bikn6va les tei te vaniso liiva, I will sell it too for 
any sum 
Tel, n., Thread (tav). Pasp., iav 
Tele, prep., Down, etc. (tale). Pasp., tele 
Tern, n., Country, county, district, neighbourhood, etc. 
Pasp., tent, people, world 
Temaw,//., Countries 
Temengro, n.. Countryman, rustic 
Waver-tem^ngro, Foreigner 
Hfndo-tem, Ireland 
Hindi-temengro, Irishman 
Temeskri, adj., Country 
Kaulo-tem, The 'black-country' 
Watchkeni-tem, Wales 
Mi-Diiveldsto-tem, Heaven, the sky 
D61a temdski R6mani-chalj, The Gypsies of that 

county 
Waver temeski I6I0 p6bo. Orange ; lit., other-country 

red (yellow) apple 
Ch6rkeno-tem, Yorkshire 



10 



146 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Think6\dit ) t 4.u- t, 

Thinkdis6w2i,} '' 

Ti, pron., Thine, thy. Pasp., H 

Tikno, ) adj., Small, little.) -n .-t / n 

menoj «., Child. I Pasp., /.^«^, young, small 

K6shteno tfkno, Doll 
Til, v., To hold. Pasp., terdva, to have ; 3rd pers. sing., 
terda; VailL, p. 73, Ti pacas men, tilas tk Mrdittiy 
Si tu m'en crois, nous prendrons une voiture 

T\Vd,p.part., Held 

Til apr6. To raise ; lit., hold up 

Tflomdngri, n., Reins, pincers, snaptrap 

Mi Do6vel kek tilessa {til^d) lesti sor tatcho, God 
will not hold him guiltless 

Yov tildds lesko sh6ro opre. He held his head up 
Tobar, «., Axe, hammer. Pasp., tov^, axe 

To ver, \ 

To fer, I n., Hammer, axe, anvil 

To'ber,) 
To ber kovs (coves). Highwaymen. " That's mumpers' talk" 
r^ketan^, adv., Together 
ToOy pron., Thou, you. Pasp., tu 

^ , .'I Thy. Pasp., ist dat., tute; 2nd dat, tuke 

T^^f- ] /^^^- ^^^v Thee, you. Pasp., ace, tui 

Tusssi, pron. instr., With thee. Pasp., tusa 

Mantchi too ! Cheer up ! 
Tood, «., Milk. Pasp., tut 

Tood, v., To milk 
Toof, n., Smoke (toov, tuvlo). Pasp., tm^, tobacco for 

smoking 
To6geno,' 

To6gno, «^'., Sorry, grieved (tiigno). Pott, ii., 307 ; Mikl., 
Toogn6, r i., 10, 41 
To6gnus,, 

To6geno, adj., Lonesome, lonely 



^-^.c 



VOCABULARY. 1 47 

To grieve 
Sorrow 

Mi toog is quite mist6, I am quite well 
Tooki, pron,y Thee (tuki, too). Pasp., 2nd dat, tuke 
Tooshni, n., Basket, faggot (kushni, trushni, tushni). Pasp., 

koshnika 
To6tchi, n.y Breast (Lat., mamma). Pasp., tchutcht 

Tootchdw, //., Breasts 
"YooW, pron., Thee, thy, for thee (too). Pasp., ist dat., tute 
Toov, n.y Smoke (toof). Pasp., tuv, tobacco 
Toov, v.y To smoke 
To6vlo, n.y Tobacco (tiivlo) 
Toovlo-gonno, Tobacco-pouch 
J'^-raati, To-night 
Torro, adj.y High. Pasp., khoTy deep 

Torropen, «., Height 
Tov, v.y To wash. Pasp., tovdva 

Tovova, I will wash 
Tover, «., Axe (tobar). Pasp., tov^r ; Mikl, i., 42 
Trad, To lei trad, to take care. ? A translation o{ prenez 
garde, corrupted into grade, and then trad 
Trad, «., Order, notice, etc., e.g., mdndi deh todti 
kooshto trad to kair dodva, I order you to do so ; 
lit, I give thee good order to do that ; del man 
trady show me ; } lit., give me advice 
Trash, ) v.y To fear, frighten, astonish. Pasp., trashdva, 
Trasher,'' to fear 

Trashova, I fear, I am afraid 
Trash^la, He fears, frightens 
Trash^nna, They fear 

T^' C ^ } P'P^^^-> Frightened, afraid, astonished 

Trash////, adj.. Fearful 
^ trash. Afraid 

Trash, n.. Fear, fright, astonishment 
Trash see mdndi, I am afraid ; lit., fear is to me 
Traslo, adj.. Thirsty (tro6shlo). Pasp., trushaldy thirsty 



148 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

'Tri^prep., In (dx6) 

-, . ' \ adj., Three. Pasp., trin 

Trin-g6rishi, Shilling 
Trin-ta-stor, \ 

Trfn-stor, > Seven 

Doolf trinydw ta yek,/ 

T A ' \ ^•' -^^^y* corpse. Lieb., trupo; Mikl., i., 42 

Tro6pus,'j 

Troopia, > n. pi., Stays 

Troope, / 
Troosh, n., Thirst. Pasp., trush 

Tro6shlo, adj.. Thirsty (traslo). Pasp., trushald 
Tro6shel, ) n.y A trail formed by three heaps of grass at 
Tro6shilo,i cross-roads. Pasp., trushul, cross 
Tro6shni, «., Can, quart, any large vessel, bundle (kiishni, 
tiishni). Lieb., tuschni, flask, bottle 

^ / if prep., About, of, concerning. Lieb., trujal 
Troostal, ) 

Mdndi kom^ssa (komdva) te shoon troostal 16sti, I 
would like to hear about him 

So ker^ssa o patreni troostdl } What do you make 
trails of? 

So too tdrderj matchd avri o paani tro6stal. Fish- 
hook ; lit., what you pull fish out of the water with 

Troostdl me^ro k6shto komomusti Do6vel kerV 
mdndi k6shto, However my good kind God made 
me well 
Tukki, pron., Thee (to6ki) 

" .' ''\ adj., Fat, stout, plump. Pasp., tulo 

X U 1 1 1 • / •* ' 

rr. ,,,. f ^^M Fat, grease, ointment 
Tullipen, i ' ' ^ 

TuUo-mas-tem, Lincolnshire ; lit., fat-meat county 

Tugno, adj., Tiring, fatiguing (to6gno) 

Tum^ndi,/rf7«., To ye, ye. Pasp., ist dat. pi., tiimSnde 



VOCABULARY. 1 49 

Tushni, n.y Faggot, basket (to6shni, etc.) Pasp., kdshnika 

basket 
Tussa, /r<?;2., With thee, thee. Pasp., tii.sa 

r^ ,' I If it be possible (tasti's) 

r^, 1. [ ^^., Tobacco (toov, etc.) Pasp., tuv, tobacco 
Tuvlopen, «., Tobacco 

V AND W. 

These letters are almost always interchangeable. 

Wdfedo, adj.^ Bad (vasavo, wdsedo) 

Wafedoy<?//^i, Enemies 

Wafedo gairo, Enemy 

Wafedo x^Vtxing gafro, Chatterer 

Wafedopen, «., Wickedness 

Wdfedes, adv., Ill 

Wafedodair, comp., Worse 

Wafedo-dfke^^^-tan, Wildernes3 ; lit., bad-looking 
place 

Wafedo baval ta andj kek kooshto bok, (An) ill wind 
that brings no good luck 
Wagyauro, n., Fair, market (walgaurus) 
Vakasho, n., Lamb (bokocho, bokoro). Pasp., bakritchS 

^^xy ' j n., Bottle, glass. Lieb., walin 

Valin6sko-men, «., Bottle-neck, neck of a bottle 
Walgaurus, n., Fair (wagyauro, w^lingauro). This word 
occurs in the following forms in English collec- 
tions : — Bright, varingera; Harriot, vail goro ; 
Roberts, waggaulus (Pott, ii., 77, and Predari, p. 
274, give the same word from Kogalnitschan, who 
took it from Roberts) ; "Illustrated Lond. News," 
1851, p. 715, vellgouris, pi. ; Leland, welgooro, pp. 
50, 56, 66y 114, 212; wellgooros, pi., 137; well- 
gooras, pi., 211; Borrow, " Lavo-lil," weggaulus, 



X50 GYPSY-ENGLISH- 

welgvruSy welgaulus, Bryant, Irvine, Simson, and 

Borrow's earlier works do not include the word. 

Pasp., p. 255, in voce, inklidv, "panayir^ste (G. M. 

irav^yvpLs;)," to the fair ; Vaillant, Gramm, Romm., 

vagaily foire 
Vdngar, n.^ Coals, money (angar, vongar). Pasp., angdr, coal 
Wangiishteri-, «., //., Rings (v6ngusti, etc.) Pasp., angiistri 
Vaniso, adj, and «., Any, anything (vdriso, w6riso). Miklo- 

sich, iiber die Mundarten, part ii., p. 60, No. 161 2, 

valaso; No. 1622, vareko; No. 1626, vareso 
Vdniso kumeni. Anybody 
WdntSisdva., I do want 

Too wdntasAr, Thou wantest 

wLdo) ""•' ^^^*" ^^^P-' '''^^'^^'' 

Ward^ngro, n. pr., Cooper, a Gypsy gang 
Wdrdesko-her^, //., Wheels ; lit., cart legs 
Wardesko-k61a, Harness ; lit, cart things 
Wdrdesko-prasterm^ngri, Wheel ; lit, cart runner 
PrdsterZ/^^-wdrdesko-atch/^^-tan, Railway station ; 

Ht, running-cart's stopping-place 
Bo6t]festo-vdrdo, Knifegrinder's barrow ; Ht, working 

cart 
Refesko-vdrdo, Carriage ; lit, gentleman's cart 
Poov-vardo, ) Plough ; lit, earth-cart {} bav^ngro, 
Vdrdo-bav^ngro,/ for poov^ngro) 
Wdrdi, n, //., Cards. From the assonance of carts 

and cards 
Wdrdi,//., Carts 
Wdrdi-gair^, Carters 
Vdriso. See Vdniso 
Vdro, «., Flour (v6ro). Pasp., varS 

VarSng°;} «- ^'""' "°"' 
Varter, v., To watch. Lieb., garda, precaution 
Rakl^ vart asdr Idti, Boys watch her 
Vartfnimi, They are watching us 



VOCABULARY. 



151 



Vast, 

Vdsti, 

Vas, 

Wast, 

Wasto,, 



n.y Hand, fist. Pasp., vast 



Vdstaw, ) , TT , -r. 

Wastaw, i ^^" ^^''^^- ^^'P" '"'''^'' 

Wast^ngri^i", n. pL, Handcuffs 

Wasteni-mo6shaw,//., Arms 

Wasto-boshomengro, Drum 

Yogesto-wdstaw, //., Tongs 

Wast hanik, Anvil ; lit., hand-well. Due to assonance 
Vdsavo, ) adj.y Bad (wdfedo). ? Formed from, Pasp., bezih^ 
Wdsedo,/ sin; or from /m, bad; Gusely's "Travels in 

Persia," iii., 400 (see Pott, ii., 368) 
Vas, bdlo-vas, «., Bacon (mas) 
Waver, adj., Other, others (w6ver, etc.) Pasp., yavir 

Wdver^,//., Others 

Wdver-temdngro, Foreigner; lit., other-country (man) 
Ve6na, «., Excuse 

Ve^nlo, adj.y Excused 

Lei ve^na, Take notice 
'Vel, 
'Wel,> 

Wda, He comes 

Weldssa,) ^- 

--, ,, \ Thou comest 

Welessa, ) 

'Vfssa u'V mdndi tal6 koo (k'o) kftchema ? Will you 
go with me down to the inn } Welsh Romanes 

W^nna,) 

Ven, 

Vi6m, I came 

Vian, You came 

Vias, He came 

Sor mendi viam. We all came 

Vi^m ak^i o waver ko6roko. We came here last (lit. 
the other) Sunday 



!• v.y To come, become (av^l, aw^l). Pasp., da^ come ! 



' \ They come 



152 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

Kanna vidn tom6ndi akei ? When did ye come here ? 

Vidn, They came, began, became 

WeVdyp.part.y Came 

Wei pdlla, To follow ; lit, come after 

Te 'wel, May it come, or become 

Te wel k6va ko6si poov me^ro n6go, Would that 

this little field were my own 
Yon te vel sor tatch6. Kek yon te wel panlo. They 

will be all right. They will not be put in the 

* pound ' 
Te vel yov akef, If he were to come here 
Kek mdndi te wel Hno opr6, I shall not be arrested 
Te wel toot rfnkeni, If you be pretty 
Te wel mdndi te mer. If I happened to die 
W^lingauro, «., Fair (walgaurus) 
Ven, They come. See Vel 

XT 

• ' 1 ^-j WiJ^ter. Pasp., vent, vend 

Venesto-chafrus, ) „.. ^ . ^ ^. 
^j . . > Wmter, wmter-time 

Ven-cheerus, ) 

V^ndri, «., Gut, intestine. Lieb., wenterja 

V^ indvdiW, pi., Entrails 
W6nna, They come. See Vel 
V^riga, V 

W^rigo, H., Chain. Bw., Span. G., beriga; Pott, ii., 80 ; 
Vdriglo, Mikl, i., 44 

Weriglo,-' 

Men-weriga, Necklace 
Vesh \ 
-^ |! f ^•' Forest, wood. Pasp., vesh 

W^shaw,\ . ... - 

Weshdw,!^^"^^^^^ 

Vesh^ngro, \ n., Gamekeeper, one who takes care of 

Weshengro,) a wood, forester 

W^shni-mullo, Owl 



VOCABULARY. 1 53 

Vesh-jookel, | ^^^ 

O 161o-weshkeno-jo6kel,j 

Weshkeni-tilomengri, Trap, snare 
'Vfni, «., Beer (Idvfna). Lieb., lowma 
Vi6m, I came. See 'Vel 

Wfshtoj "•' ^'P- ^*=P' ""'''* 

'Pr^-engro-wisht, Upper lip 
Talani-wisht, Under lip 
W61sho, «./^., Wales (Wotchkeni). Lieb., walschdo ; Pott, 
i-) 53> Walldscho, French 
Walshenengro, «., Welshman 

Kek mandi can roker W61shitikka, I cannot speak 
Welsh. Lieb,, ^walschdikke iemm, welschland, 
Frankreich ' 
V6ngar, ) n., Coals, money (vangaf, angar). Pasp., angdr, 
W6ngar, / coal 

onga i-ga ri, | ^ Colliers 

Wongarengri^j, ) ^ ' 
V6nka, \ adv., When. .? Mikl., ii., 36 (59), ank^, noch (in 
W6nka,/ Kolomyjer Kreise Galiziens Vocab.) 

Vonka see raati. When it is night 

W6nka jafra iv pedas tale. When there was such a 
snowstorm 

Wonka mandi vi6m akei, When I came here 
V6ngusti, \ 

V6ngushi, I n., Ring, finger. Pasp., attgustr^y ring ; angusht 
Wongushi, | finger 
V6ngus, ' 

Vongshengri, «., Glove 

Foshono-wongushi^i", False rings, rings of imitation 
gold 

Vongusht^ I ^/ T?- 
Vongeshterj, ) '^ "* ^ 

Wast-vongushte, ) ., t-. 
V6ngustch4 }/^'F'"g^^^ 
Wo6der, «., Door. Pasp., vuddr 



154 GYPSY-ENGLISH 

X^^fj""^^' 1 «., Bed (wudress). Pott, ii., 78 ; Mikl, i, 27 

Chived to wo6drus, Confined 

Wo6drus-gav-tem, Bedfordshire 

Opr6 woodrus, Upstairs ; lit, upon bed, but used for 
upstairs. O baiiro kam6ra see opr^ wo6drus, The 
big room is upstairs 
Wo6ser, ) ^ ^, 
Wo6sher,r-'^°*''°^ 

Wo6ser6va, I do, or will, throw 

Wo6ser apr^. To vomit 

Wo6sad6m apr6, I vomited 

Wo6sadds, He threw 

Wo6ser^df, p. part., Thrown 
V6ro, «., Flour (vdro). Pasp., vard 
W6riso. See Vdriso 

W6tchkeni-tem, Wales (W61sho). Pott, i., 53, Walldscho, 
French 

W6tchken6ngro, n., Welshman 
W6ver, adj.. Other (aw6ver, ovavo, wdver). Pasp., jj/^z//r 
Wiidrus, n., Bed (wo6drus) 

Wudrus-sh6rom^ngro, Pillow 

Wudrus-ddndimengri, Bug ; lit., bed-biter 

Y. 

Ydkel, n., Dog (jo6kel). Pasp., djukil 
Ydrdooka,) . ,- -l ^ \ 

Ydrdu^a, > ""•' ^P''''' (JO^J^X^' ^^c.) 
Yaun,/^^«., They (yon). Pasp., ol 
Yek, adj., One. Pasp., j/ek 

Yekino, adj., Single, only 

Y6korus,\ 



Y^kos, 
Y^koro, 
Y6kera, 
Y^ka, 



adv., Once 



VOCABULARY. 



155 



«.. Gun 



Yov kom'd asar lendi do6l sar yekera, He loved them 
both equally; lit., them both as one 
Y6ka, n., Haste (heka) 
Yiv, n., Snow (iv, etc.) Pasp., viv, iv, etc. 

Yivyela, It snows (yiv [d]ela, it gives snow) 
Yog, n., Fire. Pasp., yag 

Yog-chik, Ashes ; lit., fire-dirt 

Yogengro, 

Yogengri, 

Y6gom^ngri, 

Y6gom6skro,' 

Yog^ngri-cho6ko, Shooting-coat 

Y6gom^ngro, \ 

Yogengri gaujo, \ Gamekeeper 

Yog-moosh, ) 

Yog6ngri^j, n. pl.^ Lucifer matches 

Y6gesto-wastaw, //., Tongs 

Dood-yogenghi-k6shter, Firebrand 

Yogenghi ndflopen, Fever ; lit, fiery illness, pyrexia 

Y6gongo-tan, Fireplace 

^ .' [ pron,^ She. Pasp., 6i 
Yok, «., Eye. Pasp.,^^^ 

Yok^ngri^j, «. //., Spectacles 

Y6k^, adj.^ Knowing, wideawake, sharp 

Y6kj/ rivoben. Fine linen 

Y6Vy folki, Fine people 

Cocky y6ki. Squinting, cockeyed. A nickname for 
the Boswell tribe about Manchester 
Yon, pron., They (yaun). Pasp., ol 

Yo6so, ) adj.^ Clean, clear. Pasp., koshdva, ghoshdva, to 
Yo6zo, i clean ; ushandva^ to sift 

Yo6ser, v.^ To clean (k6sher) 

Yo6zher6va, I clean 

Yo6zhad6m o kair tdtcho, I swept the house clean 



156 GYPSY-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 

Yo6zhade, They swept 
Yo6zhadas, He swept 
Yo6ser apr^ To sweep, clean up 
Yoosering kosht, Broom, brush 
Yo6zhoben, Cleanliness 
Y6ra, n., Watch, hour, clock (ora, etc.) Pasp., 6ra, watch 

^ , . ' i n.y Egg. Pasp., va7ir6, arnd 

Y6rakana-ko6roko, Easter; lit., Egg-Sunday 

Y6resko-ch6;)^a, Egg-shell 
Yov, I 

Yow. >/r^«., He (ov). Pasp., ov 
Yuv, ) 

Z. 

Zee, «., Heart, soul. Pasp., oghi; ghi (As.) 

Zeeaw, //., Hearts 

See-engro, adj.y Spirited 
Zfmen, n., Soup, broth. Pasp., zumi ; Lieb., summin. 



APPENDIX 

TO THE 

GYPSY-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



The words in this Appendix are taken from a variety of 
Anglo- Romany sources, from which those words only are 
extracted which we have not ourselves heard, and which 
have their representatives in foreign Gypsy vocabularies, 
or seem to us otherwise noteworthy. 
The following contractions are used : 

Bw. I Z., 2 Z. — Borrow, "Zincali," 3rd edition, 1843, in 2 vols. 
„ Z. — Borrow, "Zincali," 1861 edition, in i vol. 
„ I L., 2 L., 3 L. — Borrow, " Lavengro," 1851 edition, in 3 vols. 
„ I R., 2 R. — Borrow, " Romany Rye," 1857 edition, in 2 vols.1 
„ W.— Borrow, "Wild Wales," 1868 ed., i vol., post 8vo, ch.xcviii. 
„ LI.— Borrow, " Lavo-lil," 1874. 
Bnt. — Bryant's Vocabulary, contained in the "Annual Register," 1784. 
Bgt. — Bright's "Travels through Lower Hungary," 1818. 
Boht. — Bohtlingk's " Uber die Sprache der Zigeuner in Russland, 

Melanges Asiatiques," vol. 2, part 2. 
Boorde.— Andrew Boorde, " Introduction of Knowledge" (a.d. 1547), 
reprinted 1870, for Early English Text Society, by Triibner 
and Co., London, p. 218. See " The Academy," 25 July, 1874, 
p. 100. 
Hotten. — "Slang Dictionary," 1864. 
Harr.— Col. Harriot's Vocabulary, published in " Royal Asiatic Soc. 

Transactions," 1830. 
LL.N. — "Illustrated London News." 
Irv. — Irvine's Vocabulary, published in " Bombay Literary Society's 

Transactions," 18 19. 
Lid.— Leland, "English Gypsies," 1873. 



158 APPENDIX TO THE 

Lieb.— Dr. Liebich, " Die Zigeuner," etc., 1863. 

Mikl. — Miklosich, " Uber die Mundarten und die Wanderungen der 
Zigeuner Europas," Vienna, 1872. 

Pasp. — Dr. Paspati, " Tchinghian^s ou Bohdmiens de TEmpire Otto- 
man," 1870. 

Pott.— Dr. Pott, " Die Zigeuner," etc., 1844 

Sim. — Simson's "History of the Gypsies," 1865. 

Smith. — Smith's "Tent-life with Enghsh Gypsies in Norway," 1873. 

Vaill. — Vaillant, "Grammaire Rommane," Paris, 1868. 



Afta, Seven. Bnt. (eft, heft- ward esh) ; Pasp., eftd 
Ambrol, ) _ (Bw., 3 L, 209; i R., 245 ;) _, , ., 

And4 Into Bw , L., 325 n p^^ ^^^^^ 

Ando, In. Bw., LI, 17; ) ^ 

Anglo, Before. Bw., LI., 17 ; Pasp., angld 

Astis, Possible, it is possible. Bw., LI., 18 (estist) 

Artav, To forgive, pardon.) Bw., LI., 18, 130; artavavanty 

Artapen, forgiveness. / 210; Vaill., ertit^a^ pardon 



B. 

Bedra, Pail. Bw., LI., 264 (pitaree) ; Pasp., beldni, beldi, 

trough ; Mikl., i., 44 
Bolla, To baptise. Bw., LI., 24 ; Pasp., boldva 
Bo, Stove. Bw., LI., 265. Pasp., bov 
Beshaley, Stanley, a Gypsy tribe. Bw., LI., 22 



C. 

Calshes, Breeches. Sim., 300, 315 ; Pott, ii., 170 

Chaori, Lasses. Bgt. ; Pasp., tchaiori^ lass 

Choomomengro, Boswell tribe. Bw., LI, 82 

Chungalo, Void, without form. Bw., LI., 1 19; Pasp., tchungald 

Colee, Anger. Bnt. ; Pasp., kliolin 

Corbatcha, } Whip. Bw., W. ; } Boht., karbatscho, whip 

Covantza, Anvil. Bw., 3 L., 192; Pasp., 42, govanitcka 



GYPSY-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 1 59 

D. 

Dearginni, It thunders. Bw., i L., 338 ; Bgt., Hungn. G., 

derguner; Mikl., ii., 42, No. 309, derginjel 
Devlehi, With God. Bw., 3 L., 186; i Pott, 191, devleha 
Deue lasse, For God's sake. Boorde ; Pasp., devl^sa 
Dook, Ghost, spirit. Bw., 2 L., 241 ; 3 L., 66; i R., 114, 
115, 193, 210, 233. Yd,s>^., dukhos ; lA^h., tucho ; 
Mikl, i., 10 
Dugilla, Lightning {} dearginni). Bgt. 
Duito, Second. Bw., LI., 40 ; Lieb., duito 



E. 

Efage, Trish Gypsy. Harr. 

Eft, Seven. Bw., LI. (aft, heft-wardesh). Pasp., eftd 

Enneah, Nine. Bnt. ; Pasp., enid 

Enyovardesh, Ninety. Bw., LI., 156. Yzs^.,inid far desk 

Estist, May be. Bw., LI., 138 (astis) 



' I J. and v., Thunder ; to thunder. Bw., LI., 47 ; 
Grubbena, I Pasp.. -J^r«..V Mikl.. i., 13 
Grondinni, It hails. Bw., i L., 338; i Pott, 104, grados ; 
Polish, ^r^^/ '^wss.y gradi ; Mikl., i., 12 



H. 

Harko, Copper. Bw., W., 344; i Pott, loy , hart* as ; 119, 

Pchm., charkom 
Harkomescro, Coppersmith. Bw., 3 L., 53 
Horkipen, Copper. Bw., LI., 51 

Heftwardesh, Seventy. Bw., LI., 158; VdiS^.^ eftd far desk 
Hetavava, To slay, etc. ; Bw., LI., 49 
Hir, By. Bw., 3 L., 53, 172; i R., 230; Bw., Hungn. G., 

LI., 126, heri 



l60 APPENDIX TO THE 

Hushti, Wide awake there. Lid., 102 ; Pasp., ushtidva, I 

get up ; ushti! get up ! 
Husker, To help. Lid., 209 

I. 

Inna, In, within. Bw., LI, 5 1 

K. 

Kater (my la barforas }), How farre (is it to the next 

towne i*) Boorde ; "i Pasp., ybor, combien 
Kona, A meal. Irv. ; Hind., khana^ dinner ; Mikl., i., 20 
Koppas, Times. Lid., 221 ; Lieb., koppa, time 



Lach ittur ydyues, Good morow. Boorde ; Pasp., latchd to 
divds, bon ton jour = bon j. ; Pott, ii., 331, latschidir 
diwes, einen bessern Tag 
Later, From her. Bw., LL, 60; Pasp., Idtar 
Lendar, From them. Bw., LI, 60 ; Pasp., Undar 
Lestar, From him. Bw., LI., 160 ; Pasp., Ustar 
Lullero, Dumb. Lid., 107 ; Pasp., lalSri 

M. 

Malleco, False. Bw., Ll., 63 ; } Pasp., makld, stained 

Mander, From me. Bw., LL, 64 ; Pasp., mdndar 

Manrickli, Cake. Bw., 3 L., 52 ; Pasp., manriklS 

Manro,) _ , fBw., 2 L., 167 ;) 

Manor,} ^'•^*^- I Boorde; ]'^^V.ntanr6 

Mille, Thousand. Bw., Ll., 154 ; Bw., Span. G., Zinc, milan 

Mokkado tanengre, Marshall, a Gypsy tribe. Bw., Ll., 232 

Mole pis lauena, Wyl you drynke some wine (lit.. Pray will 

you drink beer). Boorde ; Pasp., molisardva; 

Mikl., i., 24 
Mormusti, Midwife. Bw., Ll, 68 ; Lieb., mamischizza 



GYPSY-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. l6l 

Mosco, A fly. Bw., LI., 68 ; Pasp., maki; Lieb., madzlin 
Muscro, Through. Lid., 232 ; Pasp,, maskar^, in the middle 
Mushipen, Lad. Bw., LI., 69, 176 ; Pasp., manushipe, 
humanity 

N. 

Nick, To take away, steal. Bw., LI., 71 ; Pasp., nikdvuy to 

go out 
Nill, River, etc. Lid., 113 ; Pasp., len 



O. 

Ochto, Eight. Bw., LI., 154; Pasp., okhtS 

Oitoo, Eight. Bnt. ; Pasp., ohtS 

Olescro, His. Bw., 2 Z., 145* 

Opral, Above. Bw., LI., 72 (pral) ; Pasp., oprdl 



P. 

Pa, For. Bw., i L., 325 ; Bw., Span. G.,/^ 

Paloo, Cup. Irv. ; Pasp., bdli,pal 

Paningosha, Handkerchief. Roberts, 98 ; Pott, ii., i\%,pand' 

schoche; Mikl., i., 31 
Panschto, Fifth. Bw., LI., 120; lAob., panschto 
Pashall, With. Lid., 225 ; Vzs^., pashdl, near 

uv o,| p^Qj.^ lAd., 29, 203, 234; YrQnoh, pauvre 
Pauveri, ) 

Penchava, To think. Bw., LI., 76, 142, 156, 162 ; Pasp., 

pintchardva, to understand, know 
Peneka, Nut. Bgt. ; ) i Pott, 120, i^i, pennack; 

Penliois, Nuts. Bw.,Ll., 77;) io8,/^/^;/</<3:, Bisch. 
Peshota, Bellows. Bw., 3 L., 192; Lid., 39; VdiS^., pishot ; 

Mikl, i., 33 
Phar, Silk. Bnt. ; Lieb., par 
Pindro, Hoof. Bw., 3 L., 194 ; Vd^si^., pinro 
Pita^'-e, Basket. Irv. (bedra) 

II 



(l62 APPENDIX TO THE 

Pitch, To stick. Lid., ii6; Mikl, ii., 34 (112), Bukowina 

Vocab., pisdeas, er stiess 
Plaistra, Pincers. Bw., 3 L., 193 ; Pasp., kldshta; Mikl., i,, 16 
Poshavaben, False laughter. Smith, 382 
Powiskie, Musket. Sim., 314; Bw., LI., 3i8,/«j-^<:«; Pasp., 

ptishkd; Mikl, i., 33 
Praia, To seize. Bw,, 3 L., 192 
Pral, Up. Lid., 247, sky ; Harr.| . 

Praller, Above. Lid., 221 ; / ^""^^^^^ ' ^^^P" ^^"^^^ 

p ' [ To ridicule. Lid., 94 ; Pasp., prasdva 

Put, Abyss. Bw., LI., 119; Bw., Span. G., butron, putar 

R. 

Rek of the tarpe, } the vault of heaven. Bw., LI., 120 

Rin, File. Bw., 3 L., 194 ; Pasp., rin 

Romanic, Whisky. Sim., 296, 314, 333; Pott, ii., 274, 

rapanus 
Rossarmescro, Heme, a Gypsy tribe. Bw., LI., 85 

S. 

Sano, Soft. Lid., 231 ; Pasp., sanno 
Selno, Green. Lid., 29 ; Lieb., senn^lo; Mikl., i., 47 
Shel, Hundred. Bw., LI., 140, 154, 158, 162; Pasp., j^^/ 
Sherrafo, «/?<a? Sharrafo, Religious. Bw., LI, 89, 122 
Shovardesh, Sixty. Bw., LI., 154; VdiS^.^ shov far desk 
Shukara, Hammer. Bw., 3 L., 193 ; Pasp., tchokdnos 
Surrelo, Strong. LI., 29, 31, 177, etc.; lA^h., sori^lo ; Pasp., 

zorald 
Swa, Fear (f for t .?), Bgt. ; Pasp., dsfa, dsva, tears 
Swety, Folk. Bw., i R., 84 ; Li., 92 ; i Pott, 107, svaetos, 

swieto; Mikl., i., 39 



Tarpe, Heaven. Bw., LI, 120; Bw., Span. G., tarpe 
Teeyakas, Shoes. Sim., 297, 315, 332 ; ? Pasp,, tridk 



GYPSY-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 1 63 

Trianda, Thirty. Bw., LI, 158 ; Pasp., tridnda 
Trito, Third. Bw., 2 Z., 145* ; Lieb., trinto 
Tschar, Ashes. I.L.N., 185 1, Dec, p. 715 ; Pasp., tchar (As.) 
Tschammedini, A slap on the face. Bgt. ; i Pott, 173, 
dschamtinya; Lieb., tschammadini 

V. 

Vastro, Hand. Smith, 528 ; Pasp., vastord^ a little hand 
Villarminni, It lightens. Bw., I L., 338 ; Mikl.,ii.,6o (1642), 

villdniinel; (1643), villamo 
Vol, To fly. Bw., LI., 120, voMan, 210 ; Mikl., ii., 33, volavel, 

vtiravel, fliegt 
Voker, To talk. Hotten, 266 ; Pasp., vrakerdva 

Y. 

Yeckto, First. Bw., LI., 119; \AQ\i., jekkto 

Z. 

Zezro, Left (hand). Bgt. ; Bw., Span. G., iesdra; Lieb., 

serwes 



ENGLISH-GYPSY VOCABULARY 

OR, 

Jith^ to % irixmgal Wiax'b% mii %aah 

IN THE GYPSY-ENGLISH VOCABULARY AND ITS APPENDIX. 



Note.— Words marked with an asterisk (*) will be found in the Appendix to 
the Gypsy- English Vocabulary. 



A. 
About, Troostal 
Above, Apre, opr^, pre, opral,^ 

praller* 
Ache, n. and v., Dooker 
Across, Paudel, pardel 
Actions, Kairopen 
Active, Sig 

Actor, Peiaskro-moosh 
Afraid, Trashlo, «trash 
After, Palla, palal, talla 
After-birth, Poshbeenimus 
Again, ^p6pli, p6pli 
Age, Pooroben 
Ago, Palla, ghias, q.v. 
Air, Baval 
Alehouse, Kitchema 
Alien, Gaujo 
Alive, Jivdo, jivo, jido 
All, Sor 
Allow, Mook 



Alone, ^k6nyo, bikonyo, k6- 

kero, koker6 
Along, Tale (o drom) 
Already, Kenaw 
Also, Tei 

Altogether,Sor-ketane, ketan^ 
Always, Sor cheerus^j, sork6n 

cheerus 
Am, Shorn 

Amen, 'Jaw see ta 'jaw see 
Anchor, Beresto tilomdngri 
Ancient, Po6ro, po6rokono 
And, Ta 
Angel, Yek o' mido6verj- td- 

tcho gaire 
Anger, Colee* 
Angry, H6ino, h6no, haurino, 

k6rni 
Ankle, Pfresto-kokalos 
Another, Wav^r, ^w6ver, ova- 

vo, w6ver 



1 66 



ENGLISH-GYPSY 



Answer, Po6ker, del lav kdter 

Ant, Kre^a 

Arms, Jeer 

Anvil, Covantza,* kaulom^s- 

kro-k6va, p6tal6sto-k6va, 

wast-hdnik 
Any, Vaniso, vdriso, w6riso 
Apple, P6bo 

Apple-tree, P6besko rook 
Apprehend, Lei opr6 
Apron, Jdrifa, jarika, jorj6fa, 

jorj6;)^a, chardoka, shdrdoka, 

ydrdup(^a, ydrdooka 
Are, Shan, see, q.v. 
Arm, Mooshi, moosho, wdst- 

eni-moosh 
Armpit, Moosheno-hev 
Army, Ko6rim6ngeri 
Artful, G6zvero 
As, ']diw, sar 
Ascend, Jal opre 
Ashamed, -^Iddj, ladj 
Ashes, Chik, yog-chik, tschar* 
Ask, Pootch 
Asleep, So6to 
Ass, M^ila, m6ila 
Assize, Baury6, baiiri, baiiro- 

po6kenyuski-b6shopen 
Astonish, Trdsher 
Asylum, D/vio-kair 
Attorney. See Lawyer 
Auction, Bfkinopen 
Aunt, Be^bi 
Autumn, Palla lilef 
Avoid, Nfsser 

Awake, «;., J6nger, atch opr^, 
hushti* 



Away, ^dr6m, avr{ 
Awful, Trdsh/^/ 
Axe, T6ver, tobdr 



B. 



Baby, Tfkno chdvo, tdrno 

chdvo 
Back, ;/., Do6mo 
Back, adv., Pauli, palla 
Bacon, Bdlovds 
Bad, Vdsavo, wdsedo, wdfedo, 

bengalo, doosh 
Badger, ^«<^adrus 
Badness, Wafedopen 
Bag, Gunno 
Baker, Maur^ngro 
Bald, N6ngo 
Ball {dance), Kelopen 
Baptise, Bolla* 
Barber, Morm^ngro, murav- 

mdngro 
Bare, Nongo 
Barefoot, N6ngo-pe^ro 
Bark, v., Bosh 
Barley, L/vina-ghiv 
Barn, Grdnza, grdinsi, lo6d- 

open 
Basket, Kdpsi, k/psi, kushni, 

tushni, to6shni, tro6shni, 

pitaree* 
Bastard, Dad^ngro, dddlo, 

dddom6ngro, boshtdrdus, 

bostdrdo, bastdrdo 
Bathe, Jal adr6 the padni 
Battle, Ko6roben, ko6rimus 
Be, See, vel, wel 



VOCABULARY. 



167 



Beads, Meriki^j", m^rikliex 
Beak, Chiriklesto nok 
Bean, Boobi 
Bearded, Cho6ralo 
Beat, Koor, del 
Beating, Kooroben 
Beautiful, Ri'nkeno 
Become, Vel, wel, q.v. 
Bed, Voodrus, wo6drus 
Bedfordshire, Wo6drus-gav- 

tem 
Bee, Pfsham, pooshamer, 

go6dlo-p{shamer, goodlo- 

pisham 
Beef, Mooshkeno-mas, gro6- 

venesko-mas 
Beer, Lfvina, lovina, Vini 
Beerseller, Lfven^ngro 
Before, Anglo,* aglal, 'glal, 

agal, 'gal 
Beg, Mong 

Beggar, M6ngamengro 
Begging, Mongamus 
Behaviour, Kairopen, keriben, 

kerimus 
Behind, Palla, palal, pauli 
Belief, Patsaben 
Believe, Patser 
Bell, Shoon-/tf-k6ngri 
Bellows, Peshota,* poodamen- 

gri, poodelai- 

^^^°^' 1 Tal4 aid, 'le, tdlla 
Beneath,/ 

Bend, Kair b6ngo 

Bent, B6ngo 

Berry, Diiril 

Better, Feterdafro, fdradair 



Bible, Mi-do6velesko-lil 
Big, Baiiro 
Bigger, Baurodar 
Billhook, Chfnomdngro, kas- 

soni 
Bind, Pander, pand, pan 
Bird, Cheriklo, chfriklo ' 
Birdcage, Cheriklesto kair 
Birmingham, Kaulo-gav 
Bit, n., Kotor, ko6si 
Bitch, Jo6kli 
Bite, Dander, dan 
Bitter, Sho6tlo (lit., sour), 
Black, Kaulo 
Blackbird, Kaulo-chdriklo 
Blackness, Kaulopen, kaulo- 

ben 
Blackpool, Kaulo gav, kaulo- 

padni-gav 
Blacksmith, Kaulomdskro, 

kaulomengro, sastramdskro, 

petalengro 
Blanket, Koppa 
Blaze, Yog, h6tcher, kdtchar 
Bless, Parav, parik 
Blind, Koredo, kordi, koro 
Blindness, K6rodomus 
Blood, Ratt 

Bloody, Rattvalo, xdXtfullo 
Blow, z^.. Pood 
Blow, n., Koor 
Boar, Mo6shkeno baiilo 
Boast, v., Shor 
Boat, Bero, paanengro 
Body, Troopus, troopo 
Boil, Kdrav 
Bone, Kokalos, koko61us 



1 68 



ENGLISH-GYPSY 



Bonnet, Joovioko stardi 

Book, Lil 

Boot, Sk6'ni,//.,skrunya,chok; 

ch6kka 
Booty, Looripen 
Born, Be^no 
Bosh, Lavines 
Bosom, Berk 

Boswell, Choomomengro* 
Both, Do6i 

Bother, Kfnger, chara 
Bottle, VaHn, walin 
Bottle-neck, Vdlinesko-men 
Bough, Bei 

Bowels, V^ndri, w^ndraw 
Box, M6%to, m6kto, mo6kto, 

khsi 
Boxer, Ko6rom^ngro 
Boy,Chavo,moosh-chavi, raklo 
Brandy, Tatto paani 
Bread, Manro,* mauro 
Bread and butter, Kil maiiro 
Break, Poger, pog 
Break-wind, Ril 
Breast, Berk, to6tchi {nipple) 
Breath, Bdval 
Breeches. See Trousers 
Brick, Chfkino-k6va 
Brickfield, Chikino tan,kafriko 

tan 
Bride, R6madi, r6meni, r6mni 
Bridegroom, Rom 
Bridewell, KHsomdngro 
Bridge, Poodj 
Bridle, Sher6ngro, s61iv6ngro, 

s61ovardo, sdlivdrus, sh611o- 

vardo 



'[ Yo6ser/V/^-kosht 



Bright, Doodeno, doodengi, 

do6dom^ngro 
Bring, And, hand, ri'gher 
Bristle, «., Baulesko bal 
Broad, Bauro 
Broadsheets, Ghflyawj 
Broken, Pogado 
Broken-kneed horse, Pel6ngro, 

p6ga(do)-ch6ngaw-grei 
Broken-winded horse, Pogado 

bdval^ngro, bav^ngro, p6ga- 

baval-grei 
Broken-backed horse, Doom- 

6ngro, doom6ksno-grei 
Brooch, Spingo 
Broom, 
Brush, 
Broth, Zi'men 
Brother, Pal 

Brother-in-law, Stffo-pal 
Brow, Kor 
Bull, Gooro, grov, gooroni, 

mo6shkeni-gro6vni 
Bung, BungdiXws 
Burn, H6tcher, hotch, kat- 

char 
Bury, Po6rav, po6ras 
Business, Kdiropen, jivoben, 

bo6ti, bo6tsi 
Butcher, Mas6ngro 
Butter, Kil 
Buttermilk, Kal^ngri 
Button, Krafni 
Buy, Kin 
By, /r^., Hir* 
By, adv., P6sha, posh 



VOCABULARY. 



169 



Cabbage, Shok, //., shokyaw 
Cake, Manrickli,* marekli 
Caldron, Peeri, kekavi 
Call, Kor 
Cambridgeshire, Dova tern kei 

o sh6rokone gaire jivenna 
Camp, Tan 

Can, Sastis, vide Tastis 
Cannot, Nastissa, nestis 
Candle, Mumbli 
Cannon, Bauro-y6gom6ngri 
Cap, Koofa, hoofa 
Captain,Sherengro, shorengrO; 

b^resto-sherengro 
Cards, Wardi 
Care, Kisser, trad 
Carpet, Peeresto-k6ppa 
Carriage, R^iesko-vardo 
Carrion, Moolomas 
Carry, Righer, ri'ker, rig 
Cart, Vardo, wardo 
Castle, Kralisko-pooro-kair 
Cat, Matchka 
Certainly, Our, oiirli, aava, 

aavali 
Chain, Chitti, v^riga, w6riga, 

v^riglo, weriglo 
Chair, B^shomengro, bo61- 

koova, skamin 
Chamber, Kamora 
Change, v., Para, piira 
Change, «., Parapen 
Chap, n., Chal 
Charm, «., Fiz 
Cheat, Hoax, chiv opr^ 



Cheater, Koromengro 
Cheek, Cham . 
Cheer up, Mantchi too 
Cheese, Kal 
Cherries, Lalo koovaw 
Cheshire, Kalesko-t^m, kal- 

keh';?^-t6m,kal-k61imus-t6m 
Chief, Shorokno 
Child, Chavo, chabo, tarno, 

ti'kno, ti'keno 
Chin, Choombo, chumba,kum- 

bo 
Choke, Tasser 
Chopper, Chinomeskro 
Christ, Mi-duvelesko Chdvo 
Christmas Day, Bollesko-div- 

vus, mi-duverj-divvus, mol- 

dfvvus 
Church, K6ngri 
Circus, Sfkomengro 
Clean, Yo6so, yo6zo 
Clean, v., Yo6ser, yoosherova, 

kosher, kosser 
Clean up, Yooser apre 
Clear, adj.^ Yoosho, doodo- 

m^ngro, doodeno 
Cleaver, Chinom^ngro, chino- 
meskro 
Cloak, Plaashta, pl6%ta, ploch- 

ta 
Clock, Ora, yora 
Close, v., Pand apre 
Cloth, adj. and n., Parno 
Cloth, «., Partan, poktan, p6%- 

tan 
Clothes, ) E^zaw, rivoben, 
Clothing,/ r6di, x66\-ing 



I70 



ENGLISH-GYPSY 



Clothes-peg,Gad-kosht-ko6va, 

troosheni 
Coals, Angar, v6ngar, wongar 
Coarse, Riizlo 
Coat, Chaho, cho^a, choka, 

chooko, cho6fa, chuka 
Cock, B6shno 

Codfish, Mo6shkeno-matcho 
Coffin, Mulo m6;(;to 
CoTre, Kester, ch6rda, sov lasa 
Cold, n.y Shil 
Cold, adj.f Shflino, shfrilo 
Collar, Menengro 
Colliers, W6ngarengri<?j', won- 

gali-gdiri 
Comb, «., K6ngali 
Comb, v.y Kongl, konga 
Come, Av, avdl, aw^l, Vel, 

*wel, dver 
Companions, Mdlyaw 
Confined, Chived to wo6drus, 

poshli 
Constable, Mooshkero 
Conversation, R6keropdn, x6- 

kerben, r6keroben, r6kamus 
Convict, n., Bftcham^ngro 
Cook, n.y H6ben6ngro, h6be- 

n6ngri 
Cook, v.y Kdrav, kel, kair 
Cooper, n. pr., Ward^ngro 
Copper, adj.y Harko,"* horki- 

pen,* haiirengo, h61ono 
Copper, 71., Haiiro 
Coppersmith, Harkom^skro^ 
Cord, Sholo, sh(51o 
Corn, Ghiv 
Corner, Koonsus, ko(5nshi 



Corpse, Troopus, troopo, 

mo61o 
Cough, B6sherus, shel 
Count, Ghi'nja, ghfnya 

^°""'^y'l Tem 
County, I 

Country, adj., Temeskri 

Countryman, Temengro 

County-town, St^ripen-gav 

Court, v., Kom, p{riv 

Cousin, Simensa 

Cover, v., Chor6va 

Cow, Gro6vni, gro6ven 

Crab, Her^ngro-matcho 

Cream, Smenting, sm^ntini 

Creator, Kairomengro 

Cress, Pandngri shok 

Crooked, B6ngo 

Cross, adj., Hoino, bono, 

k6rni 
Crow, Kaulo chiriklo 
Crown (five shillings), Kooro- 

na, pansh kola 
Cry, v., Rov 
Cup, Dash, ko6ri, k6ro, kiira, 

paloo * 
Cup and saucer, Do6lf-dash, 

doo-das 
Curse, v., S6verhol, siilverkon, 

s6vlohol 
Curse, n., S61oh61omus, sovlo- 

h61oben, s6verh61oben 
Cut, v., Chin 

Cut off. Chin tale, chin ale 
Cut, «., Chfnoben 
Cyder, Pobdngro, p6besko. 

pfam^skro 



VOCABULARY. 



ly I 



D. 

Dance, v., Kel 

Dance, «., Kelopen 

Dark, Tamlo, kaiilo 

Daughter, Chei 

Day, Divvus, div^z 

Dead, Moolo, mulo 

Deaf, 'Sho6ko 

Deaf person, 'Shooko kan^n- 

Dear, Komelo 

Death, Mdripen 

Deceit, Ho6kaben 

Deep, Bauro 

Deer, Staani 

Derbyshire, Chumba-kalesko 

tern 
Deserter, Praster-m^ngro, 

prastero-mongro 
Devil, Bang, beng 
Devil's Dyke, B^ngesko-hev 
Devilish, Bengalo, bengesko 
Diamond, Barvalo-bar 
Die, Mer, mel 
Dig, Chin the poov 
Dirt, Chik 
Dirty, adj., Chfklo, hfndi, 

mo6kedo, m6%odo 

Dirty, v., Moker 

Distance,) ^-^ 
^. \ Door 

Distant, i 

Divine, Do6velkanesto, do6- 

velesko 
Do, Kair, kel 
Doctor, Tatcho drab^ngrO; 

drab^ngro 



Doer, Kelomengro 
Dog, Jookel, jook, yakel 
Doll, Kookelo, koshno chavi, 

koshteno tikno 
Doncaster, n.pr., Meflesto-gav, 

moilesto-gav 
Donkey, Meila, m6ila 
Don't, Maw, ma 
Door, Wo6da 
Down, Tale, al^, 'le 
Dress, v., Rood 
Dress, n., Roodopen, rivoben, 

jo6vni-k61aw 
Drink, v., Pee, piova 
Drink, n., Piaben, piamus 
Drown, Tasser 
Drug, Drab 
Druggist, Drabengri 
Drum, Krambrookos, ko6ro- 

m6ngri,wasto-b6shomengro 
Drunk, Motto, peedlo 
Drunk, To get. Lei m6tti 
Drunkard, Mottom^ngro, pee- 

mengro, piamengro 
Drunkenness, M6ttoben 
Dry, Shooko 
Duck, Retza 
Dumb, Shooker, kek tatcho 

adre the moo, luUero * 
Dung, Full, chik 
Dunghill, Chikesko-chiimba 

E. 

Ear, Kan 

Earring, Kan^ngro, kfli, kano- 
m^ngro 



172 



ENGLISH-GYPSY 



Earth, «., Poov, chik 
Earth, adj.y Po6vesto 
Easter, Y6rakana kooroko 
Easy, Shookar 
Eat, Kol, hoi, haw 
Eatables, K6ben, hoben, hol- 

ben 
Educate, And apre 
Eel, Sap, sapesko-matcho 
^Z^y Yoro, y6ri 
Eight, Oitoo,* ochto,* dooi- 

storaw 
Eighteen-pence, Deshto-hauri, 

desti-k6ri 
Encamp, Tan 
Enchantment, Fiz 
Enemy, Wdfedo gairo 
England, Anghit^rra 
English, Gaujokones, gaujones 
Englishman, Gaujo, Anitra- 

kero (Anghiterrakero) 
Enough, Do6sta, dosta 
Entire, Ch61o 

Entrails, Wendraw, venderi 
Every, Sorkon 
Evil, Doosh 
Except, Tdlla 
Exchange, Piiraben 
Excuse, ;/., Veena 
Eye, Yok 
Eyebrow, Kor 
Eyeglasses, Yok^ngri^j- 



F. 

Face, Mo6if 

Fagot, Tushni, to6shni 



Fair, ;/., Fairos, wagyauro, 

walgaurus, welingauro 
Fairies, Mi-do6vel6ski-bitta- 

f61ki 
Fall, v., Per6va, pel 
False, Foshono, malleco* 
False laughter, Poshavaben * 
Falsehood, Ho6kapen 
Famine, Bauro bokaloben 
Far, Door 
Farmer, Ghiv^ngro 
Farmhouse, Ghivesto kair 
Farther, Do6rdair 
Farthing, Loli, luli 
Fashion, Drom 
Fasten, Pander, pand, pan 
Fast, Panlo 
Fat, adj., Tiilo 
Fat, n., Tiilopen 
Father, Dad, dadus 
Father-in-law, StiTo-dad 
Fear, n. and v.. Trash 
Fearful, Trash>/ 
Feather, Pur, por 
Feather-bed, P6rongo-wudrus 
Fellow, Chal 

Female, ) ^ . . . , . , 
Feminine,; J°°^"'' •'°°"°'^° 
Fern, Foozhari 
Fetch, Rfgher 
Fiddle, v. and ;/., Bosh 
Fiddle,;/., B6shom^ngro, b6sh- 

omengri 
Fiddler, Boshero, b6shomen- 

gro, b6shom^ngri 
Field, Poov 
Fiery, Y6gesko 



VOCABULARY. 



173 



Fight, v.y Koor 

Fight, 71., Kooroben, koori- 

mus 
File, Rin^ 
Fill, P6rder 
Filth, Chik 
Find, Latch 
Fine, Fine-o 
Finger, Vongusti, v6ngushi, 

v6ngus 
Finger-nail, Nei 
Fire, n.^ Yog ; adj.^ Yogesko 
Firearm, Yogengro, y6gom6n- 

gro, yogengri 
Firebrand, Dood-y6gengi- 

k6shter 
Fireplace, Yogom^skro, y6- 

gongo-tan 
First, Firsia.da.ir 
Fish, Matcho, matchi 
Fisherman, Matchom^ngro, 

matchengro 
Five, Pansh 

Five-pound note, Pansh6ngro 
Five shillings, Koorona, pansh 

kola 
Flame, Prarchadi 
Flea, Pooshamer, pfsham 
Flies, Likyaw 
Florin, Dooi koli 
Flour, Varo, v6ro, porno 
Flower, R6sali, rosheo 
Fly, n,, Mosco ;* v., vol* 
Foal, Tarno-grei, grei'j tfkno 
In foal, Adr^ kaafni, kavni 
Fold, Pandomengro 
Folk, Folki, sweti * 



Follow, Av palla, jal palla 
Food, Koben, h61ben, h6ben 
Fool, Dinilo, dinvero, dinlo 
Foolishly, Dinveres 
Foolish, Dinveri 
Foot, Peero, piro, peeri 
♦For, Pa* 
Forcibly, Drovdn 
Forget, Bisser 
Foreign, Gaiijokones 
Foreigner, Gaujo, gauji, waver- 

temengro 
Forest, Vesh 
Forgive, Arta.v*ford6f ford6\, 

pardel 
Forgiveness, Artapen,* /ord6- 

loness 
Fork, Posomengro 
Foretell, Doorik, duker 
Fortune, Bok, diikeriben * 
Fortunes, To tell, Doorik, du- 
ker 
Fortune-telling, Do6rikapen, 

dukeropen 
Foul, v., Moker 
Four, Stor 
Fox, Vesh-jookel, o I6I0 wesh- 

keno-jookel 
Fragment, Kotor^ndri 
Friday, Pansh divvus^i" palla 

kooroko, Dooi' divvus^i- 'glal 

kooroko 
Friend, Bor, mal, pal, komelo 

gairo 
Friendship, Komoben 
Frightened, Trashedo 
Frock, Sho6ba 



174 



ENGLISH-GYPSY 



Frog, O stor her6ngro h6n- 
gesko koli ta jab ad re o 
paani so pi6va 

From, Avrf, fon 

Frying-pan, Masali, tatter- 
m^ngri 

Full, Pordo 

Fun, Peias 

Further. Do6rdair 



Gamekeeper,Kan^ngri-moosh, 

yog-moosh, veshengro, yog- 

6ngri-gaujo 
Gaol, Stdripen 
Garden, Roozho-poov, bor 
Garlic, P6ruma 
Garments, Rivoben 
Gate, Bur, stekas, stfgher 
Gentile, n., Gaujo, gauji 
Gentile, adv., Gaujokones, gau- 

jones ; adj., Gaujokono 
Gentleman, Rei 
Gentlemanlike, Reidli 
Genuine, Tatcho 
Get, Lei, r/gher 
Get up, Atch opre 
Ghost, Mulo, mo61o 
Gift, Di'no (lit., given) 
Gipsy. See Gypsy 
Girl, Rdkli 
Give, Del, d6 
Glad, Mishto 

Glandered horse, Nokdngro 
Gloves, Vongsh6ngri, f61as6, 

f61asciw 



Glutton, Bauro-h61om6ngro 
God, Do6vel, duvel 
Go, J ova, jaw, jal, jil, jol 
Go back, Jaw pauli 
Go slowly, Jal shookdr 
Goat, Ldvines-b6kro 
Gold, So6nakei 
Goldsmith, So6nako-p6tal6n- 

gro 
Gonorrhoea, H6tcheropen, 

hotchopen, hodjerpen 
Good, Ko6shko, kooshto, kush- 

to, k6shto, mfshto, tatcho, 

tatcheno, latcho 
Goodness,Ko6shkopen,ko6sh- 

tiben, kooshtoben, k6shto- 

ben, Idtchipen 
Good health!) 
Good luck! I Kooshto bok! 

Goose, Pdpin, papini, pdpin^n- 

Gooseberry, Diiril 
Gown, Shooba 

Grandchild, Po6ro-dad'.f chdvo 
Grandfather, Po6ro-dad, pau- 

pus 
Grandmother, Po6ri-dei, baiiri- 

dei 
Grass, Chor 
Grassy, Ch6resto, ch6rkeno 

chor^ngri 
Grasshopper, Ch6r-6;^tam^n- 
• gro 

Grave, «., Hev 
Gray, n. pr., Bal (lit, hair) 
Grease, n., Tulopen 
Great, Bauro 



VOCABULARY. 



175 



Green, Greefio, chor-dik/«^, 

chorengri, selno* 
Greenwood, Bivan-kosht 
Greyhound, Kanengri-jookel, 

shoshi-jookel 
Grieve, Toog 
Grieved, Toogno, toogeno, 

toognus 
Ground, Tan, chik, poov 
Grouse, iVi^Z/^erenghi chfriklo 
Guinea, Kotor 

Guineafowl, Atch pauli kanni 
Gun. See Musket 
Gut, Venderi 
Gypsy, n., Rom, Romani-chal, 

kaulomengro ; ^^■.,R6mani 
Gypsy language, R6manes 

H. 

Hail, «., Baiiro bishno ; it 

hails, grondinni* 
Hair, Bal 

Hairy, Baleno, bal/j/ 
Half, Posh 
Half-breed, Didakei, posh- 

peerdo 
Halfcrown, Posh-koorona 
Halfpenny, Posh-h6ri 
Hall, Fflisin 
Halt, Atch 
Halter, Mulomengro 
Hammer, Delomeskro,p6gero- 

meskro, pogeromesti, tobar, 

tover, shukara * 
Hand, Vast, wast, vdsti, vas, 

vastro* 



Handbills, Ghilyawj 
Handcuffs, Wastengri^j- 
Handkerchief, Diklo, posh- 

neckus, pongdishler 
Hang, Ndsher 
Happiness, Kooshko-bok 
Hard, adv,, Drovan 
Hare, Kanengro, kan^ngri 
Hark! Shoonta ! 
Harlot, Lo6bni, loodni, lubni 
Harness, Wardesko k61a 
Harvest, Ghivesto-chairus 
Haste, Heka, yeka 
Hasten ! Ressi toot, kair h^ka 
Hat, Staadi, stadi 
Hatchet, Chinom^ngro 
Hate, Kek-kom 
Have, Si, shan, q.v. 
Hawker, Bfkinomengro, biko- 

m^ngro, kaurom^ngro 
Hay, Kas 
Hayrick, Kas6ngro 
He, Ov, yov, yow 
Head, Shero, shoro, shor6, 

shuro 
Hear, Shoon 
Heart, Zee 
Heat, Tattoben 
Heaven, Duvel, miduvelesko 

chairus, miduvelesko-keri 
Heavy, Loko {q.v), pordo 
Hedge, Bor 

Hedgehog, Hotchi-witchi 
Hedgestake, Borengri 
Height, Torropen 
Hell, Bengesko-tan 
Help, Kair-posh, husker* 



176 



ENGLISH-GYPSY 



Hen, Kanni, ka;)^ni 

Her, Ldki, 16ki, Ukro, Idti 

Here, Akei, 'kei 

Herefordshire, Pobesko pia- 
meski tern 

Heren,\ «./r.,Match6,Rossar- 

Heron, > mescro ;* pi., Bauro- 

Herne,) kanengri - mooshaw, 
Balaw^ 

Herring, Mdtcho, baleno 
matcho 

Hide, Garav, gdra 

Hidden, adv., Garones, garid- 
nes ; adj., garidno, garido 

High, T6rro 

Highway, Bauro drom 

Hill, Chong, choong, choonga, 

cho6mba, kumbo, dumbo 
Him, Las, les, 16sti 
His, L^sko, lesti'j-, olescro* 
Hit, Del, koor 
Hold, n., B6nek ; v., Til 
Hole, Kev, hev 
Holy, Do6velkan6sto 
Home, Kerd, k^ri 
Honey, Pisham 
Hoof, Greiesto-pfro, pindro* 
Hop, v., Hok 
Hops, 'Liveningries 
Horn, Shing 

Horse, n., Grei ; adj., Grefesto 
Horse-dealer, Grei-engro 
Horse- shoe, Pdtal, gref-esto- 

chok 
Horse-race, Prastdrimus, pras- 
term^ngri, greiesto-prdster- 



Horse-fair, Gr^iesto-fdiros 
Horse-whip, Gr^iesto-chukni 
Horse-rug, Gr^iesto-k6ppa 
Horse-collar, Greiesto-men^n- 

gro 
Hot, Tatto 
Hound, Jookel 
Hour, Ora, y6ra 
House, Kair 

House-dweller, \ Kair^ngro, 
Housekeeper, J kairengri 
How, Sar 

How d'ye do ? Sar shan ? 
Humble, Chooro, cho6reno, 

cho6rokno 
Humbly, Choovenes 
Hundred, Shel* 
Hung, Nashedo 
Hunger, Bok 
Hungry, Bokalo 
Hurt, n. and v., Do6ka 
Husband. Rom 



I. 

I, Man, m6, mdndi, mdnghi 
111, Ndsfelo, ndfifelo, doosh 
Illness, Ndffelopen 
Illtempered, K6rni 
Imitation, F6shono 
Immediately, Kendw sig 
In, Adr6, 'dr6, ando,* inna* 
Indebted, Fizerous 
Inflame, Katcher 
Injure, Do6ka 
Inn, Kftchema 
Innkeeper, Kftchem^ngro 



VOCABULARY. 



77 



Intestine, Vender! 
Into, Ande,* adre, 'dre 
Ireland, Hindo-tem, Hindi- 

temeskro-tem 
Irishman, Hindi-temengro, 

poovengri-gaujo 
Irish Gypsy, Efage * 
Iron, n., Saster, saasta, saashta 
Iron, adj., Sastera 
Is, See 
It, Les 
Itch, ;/. and v.^ Honj 

J- 

Jail, Steripen 

Jews, Miduvelesto-mauromen- 

gri 
Jockey, Kestermengro 
Judgment, Bitchama 
Jump, Hokter, hok, 6;^ta 
Jumper, Hop^ter^r 
Just now, Kenaw sig 
Justice of the peace, Chi'vlo- 

gaujo, chuvno-gaujo, poken- 

yus, pookinyus 

K. 

Keep, Righer, ri'ker 
Kettle, Kekavvi, 'kavvi 
Key, Klerin, kli'sin 
Kick, v., Del, de 
Kill, Maur 
Kin, Sim^nsa 

Kind, adj., Komelo, k6mo- 
niuso 



King, Kralis 

Kingdom, Kralis^;;/, tern 

Kiss, 11. and v., Chooma 

Knee, Chong, choong 

Knife, Choori, chivomengro, 

chinomengro 
Knock, v., Koor, de 
Know, Jin 
Knowing, Yoki, jinomengro, 

jinomeskro 

L. 

Lad, Chab, chabo, chavo, 

mushipen.* See Boy 
Lady, Rauni 
Lamb, Bokocho, vakasho 
Lame, Long, bongo 
Lancashire, Piro-dehV/^-tem 
Landlord, Holeno, holeskro 
Lantern, Doodomengro 
Lard, Baiileski tulopen 
Large, Bauro 
Lass, Chei. See Girl 
Last, Koliko 

Laugh, v.^ Sav, sal, sarler 
Laugh, ;/., Savaben, savapen 
Laughter, ;/., Salimus, sahV/^ 
False laughter, Poshavaben ^ 
Lawyer, Shanengro, shereks- 
no, chivomengro, rokero- 
mengro, rokermengro, sho- 
rengro, sheromengro, mooi- 
engro, moo-engro 
Lead (metal), Molus, molov 
Lead, v., Righer 
Leaf, Patrin 

12 



178 



ENGLISH-GYPSY 



Lean, adj., Bi'to, bi'ti 

Leather, Cham 

Leave, v., Mook 

Leaves, Rookenghi cho^aj" 

Lee, 11. pr., Poorum 

Leek, Poorumi 

Left, adj.y Bongo, zezro* 

"Ldt, p. part.y Mooklo 

Leg, Hero 

Leggings, Herengri^j 

Lent, Mooklo 

Let, Mook 

Letter, Chinomengro, Chi'vo- 
mengro 

Liar, H6;^ano, hokeno, sha- 
nengro 

Lice, Joovc, joova^ 

Lick, v., Kosher 

Lie, H6;)^aben, ho^ani, hook- 
apen 

Life, Meripen, jivoben 

Lift, Had, azer 

Light, n.j Dood 

Light (kicidus), adj., Doodeno 

Light (Icvis), adj., loko (gene- 
rally used for heavy) 

Lightning, Bauro-dood, mi- 
duvclcsto-dood, mi-doovel- 
csko-yog, villarminni * 

Like, v., Kom ; adj., Pdnsa, 
penza, sar 

Likeness, Dikomengri 

Lincolnshire, Tulo-mas tern 

Lip, Wisht 

Listen, Shoon 

Little, Ti'kno, bito 

A little, Koosi 



Live, Jiv 

Livelihood,) ^, , 
^ . . \ Jivoben 

Living, j 

Lively, Jido 

Liver, Bo6ko 

Liverpool, Booko-paani, boo- 

kesto-paani-gav, bero-gav, 

bau ro-beresto-gav 
Loaf of bread, Cholo mauro 
Lock, v., Kli'sin 
Lock-up, 71., Klisomengro 
Lodge, v., Lod 
Lodging-house, Loodopen 
London, Lundro, Londeri, 

Lundra, Kaulo-gav, Bauro- 

gav 
Lonely, Kokero, toogeno 
Long, Door 
Very long way, Doovori-doo- 

vori 
Look ! Dordi ! hokki ! 
Look, v., Dik 
Looking-gkss, Dikom^ngro, 

mooesto-kova 
Loose, Piro 
Lose, Ndsher 
Louse, Jo6va 
Lousy, Joovli 

Love, v., Kom; ;/., Komoben 
Lovell, ;/. pr., Komomeskro, 

komelo 
Lover, Pi'rino, pirini 
Lucifer-match, D^lomcngro, 

doodomdskri 
Luck, Bok 
Lucky, Bokalo 



VOCABULARY. 



179 



M. 

Mad, Divio 

Made, Kairdo, kedo 

Magistrate. See Justice of the 

peace 
Magpie, Kakaratchi, romani- 

chal-rokenV^'^ chiriklo 
Maid, Rakli 
Make, Kair, kel 
Maker, K6ron1engro 
Make love, Piriv 
Male, Mooshkeno 
Man, Gairo, nianoosh, moosh 
Manchester, Poovengri gav, 

Mooshkeno gav, Tavesto- 

gav, P6%tan gav 
Mangy, Hdni'i/ied 
Mansion, Filisin 
Many, Doosta, dosta 
Mare, Grasni 
Market-town, Forus 
Married, Romedo 
Marry, Romer 
Marshall, 71. pr., Mokkado tan- 

engre* 
Masculine, Mooshkeno 
Master, Shorokno gairo 
Match, Delomengro, doodo- 

meskri 
Mate, Bor 
Mates ! Choovali ! chawoli ! 

malyaw ! 
May, Te (preceding verb) 
May be, Estist * 
Mayor, Gresti 
Me, Man, mdndi 



Meal, Kona* 

Meat, Mas, -vas 

Meddle, Chalav, chdrvo, chara 

Mercy, Komoben 

Midnight, Mulo raati 

Midwife, Mormusti,*divi-gairi 

Mile, Meea 

Milestone, Meeasto bar, pook- 

er/;/^ bar 
Milk, ;/. and v., Tood 
Mill, Pornengri, pogamengri, 

baval-pogamengri 
Miller, Pogeromengro, porno- 

mesti, varengro, vardengro- 

gairo 
Mind! Lei trad! Rak ! Lei 

veena ! 
Mine. See My 
Miss, Nisser 
Monday, Yek divvus palla 

kooroko 
Monkey, Bumbaros, 7/in;ik'dYos 
Money, Luva, angar, vongar, 

vangar, wongar 
Month, Shoon 
Moon, Shoon, shool, chein, 

choom, sikermengro, mi- 

duvelesko-dood 
More, Bootodair, komi, komo- 

dair 
Morning, Saula, saala 
This morning, Kesaula 
Mother, Dei 
Mother-in-law, Stifi-dei 
Mountain, Dumbo 
Mourn, Rov 
Mouse, Mousc-\xs 



i8o 



ENGLISH-GYPSY 



Mouth, Mooi" 

Much, Boot, booti, ki'si, doosta 

MuckjN ^, ., 
__ - M Chik 
Mud, j 

Muck-cart, FuU-vardo 

Muddy, Chiklo 

Mule, Shani 

Mumper, Cho6rokono moosh, 

cho6rodo 
Musket, Pushca,* powiskie,* 

yog^ngro 
I must, Shom te 
Mustard, Danomeskri 
Mutton, Joovioko-mas 
My, Meero, mei'ro, mi'no, mi, 

mandiV 



N. 

Nail (finger), Nei 

Nail (iron), Krafni 

Naked, Nongo 

Name, Nav, lav 

Narrow, Bito 

Naughty, Wafedo 

Near, P6sha 

Neck, Men 

Necklace, Men-wdriga 

Needle, Soov 

Negatives, Kek, maw, na (sec 

P- 49) 
Nettles, Dandimcngri chor 
Never, Kek-komi 
New, Nevo 
Newspaper, Sho6naben,Sho6- 

namc^^ngri, ghilyawj-, ghil- 

yengri^j- 



Night, Raati 

Nine, Enneah * 

Ninety, Enyovardesh* 

Nit, Lik 

No, Kek, keker, kekcno, naw, 
na, nei, nanei, kek-nanei 

Nobody, Kek-komeni 

' No road,' Chichikeno drom 

Noise, Giidli, godli 

None, K^kero, kekeno, kek- 
komeni, kek-nanei 

Norfolk, Matchesko-gav-tera, 
pobesko-gav-tem 

Norwich, Pobomuski-gav, p6- 
bomusti-gav 

North, Shflo-tem 

Nose, Nok 

Not, Kek. See No 

Notice, ;/., Veena 

Nothing, Chichi, chi 

Now, Kenaw, konaw, kanna, 
konna, kon 

Nudge, Moonjer 

Nuts, Pedliaw, petliaw, pcv- 
liaw, peneka,* penliois,* nut'i 

O. 

Oak, Po6roder rook, krdlisko 

rook 
Oath, Soverholoben, s6vloh6- 

loben, s61oh6lomus 
Oats, Job 

Oat-stack, Job-poosengro 
Off, Avri, tal6, al6 
Ointment, Tulipen 
Old, Po6ro 



VOCABULARY. 



l8l 



Old-fashioned, Poorokono 

On, Opre, apre, 'pre 

Once, Yekorus 

One, Yek 

One-year-old horse, Beshen- 

gro 
Onion, Poorumi, strangli 
Only, adj., Yekino 
Open, v., Piriv ; adj.^ Piro 
Opened, Pirivdo 
Opposite, Posh-aglal, tatcho 

glal 
Orange, Pobomus 
Order, ;/., Trad ; v., Del trad 
Osier, Ran 
Other, Waver, wover 
Our, Moro, mendiV, amandi'i-* 
Out, out of, Avri 
Over, Paudel, pardel 
Owe, Kom 
Owl, Weshni-miilo 
Own, adj., Nogo, nago, nevus 
Ox, Mooshkeni-groovni 



Pail, bedra* 

Pain, n. and v., Dooka 

Palace, Kralisko kair, kralis- 

kesko kair 
Pales, palings, Palyaw 
Paper, Lil, lilesko kova 
Pardon, v., Artav,* /<?rdel, 

fordiQ, pardel 
Pardon, ;/,, Artapen,*/^rdelo- 

n£ss, pdrdonos 
Parlour, Beurus 



Parrot, Romani-chal-roker?;^^ 

chiriklo, Hindo-kakaratchi 
Parson, Rashei, rashrei, delo- 

mengro, mi-duveri- moosh 
Part, Kotor 
Partners, Malyaw 
Partridge, RidjW 
Path, Poovela, droni 
Paunch, Pur 

Pauper, Chooredo. See Tramp 
Pawn, v., Simmer 
Pawnshop, Simmer/;/^ bo6- 

dega 
Pay, v., Pesser 
Pea, Boobi 
Pear, Ambrol* 
Pedere, Ril 
Pedestrian, Peerengro 
Pedlar, Bikinomengro, biko- 

mengro 
Pen (fold), Panomengro 
Penny, Kori, horo, hori, hari 
People, Folk'x, sweti " 
Pepper, Dandermeskri, tatto- 

koova 
Performer, Kelomengro 
Petticoats, Chuffa^, shoova, 

shooba, pallani-chokka 
Pheasant, Bauro cheriklo, r^i- 

esko cheriklo 
Photograph, Dikomengri 
Physician, Drabengro 
Pick, v., Tarder 
Pie, Goi 
Piece, Kotor 
Pig, Baulo 
Pig-face, Baulesko mo6i* 



i8; 



ENGLISH- GYPSY 



Pig-fair, Baulesto foros 
Pillow, Woodrus shcromengro 
Pin, Spingl, spingcr, spink 
Pincers, Tilomengri, plaistra* 
Pinch, v.y Moonjer 
Pinfold, 11. pr., Panomengro 
Pipe, Swagler, swegler 
Piper, Boshomengri 
Place, IK, Chiv ; ;/., Tan 
Placenta, Poshbecnimus 
Plate, Ch6ro,chor,s6rsin, skoo- 

dalin 
Play,'Z^.,Kel ; «.,Kelimus,peias 
Please ! Lei kooshtoben ! 
Pleasure-grounds, Sikermen- 

gro 
Pledge, v., Simmer 
Plenty, Doosta, dosta 
Plough, Poov-vdrdo, poovesto- 

choori, poovo-chinom^ngri, 

vardo-bavengro 
Plunder, v., Loor ; ;/.,Lo6ripen 
Pocket, Pootsi, po'chi 
Poison, Drab 
Policeman, Gavcngro, moosh- 

kero, nashermengro, prds- 

termengro, chukengro 
Poor, Chooro, chuveno, choo- 

reno, choorokno 
Poorer, Choorodar 
Pork, Baleno-mas, baiilesko- 

mas 
Post, Kosht 
Possible, Astis,* sastis, stastis, 

tastfs, q,v. 
Pot, Koori, koro 
Potato, Poovengri, poovy^ngri 



Potter, Koromengro, korengro 

Pothook, Sastcr 

Pouch, Giinno 

Pound (;^i), Bar, balanser, 

balans 
Pound (forcattle),Panomengro 
Pour, Chiv 

Powerful, Ruslo, ruzino 
Power, Riizlipen 
Praise, v., Shor 
Pray, Mong, mole * 
Predict, Do6rik, dukker 
Pregnant, Bauri, shoobli, 
shoovli (of women) ; kavni, 
kaafni (of animals) 

Present, ;/., Del-/^-mandi, dfno 

Pretty, Rinkeno, n'keno 

Prettily, Rinkenes 

Prison, Stariben, stcripen, ste- 
rimus, stardo, staiiri 

Prisoner, St(^rom6ngro, stcro- 
mcsti 

Privy, Hindi kair 

Prognosticate, Doorik 

Prostitute, Lubni 

Protect, Rak 

Proud, BooTno 

Public-house, Kitchema 

Pudding, Goi 

Pudding-bag, Goiongo giinno 

Pudendum muliebre, Mindj, 
minsh 

Pudendum virile, Kori, kauri 

Pugilist, Ko6rom^ngro 

Pull, Tarder 

Purse, Ki'si 

Put, Chiv 



VOCABULARY. 



183 



Quarrel, v., Chingar 

Quarrel, ;/., Chingariben, godli 

Quart, Trooshni 

Queen, Kralisi, Kralisi 

Quick, Sig 

Be quick, Sigo toot, ressi toot, 

kair abba 
Quietly, Shookar 



R. 

Rabbit, Shoshi, mavi 
Rabbit-trap, Klisomengro 
Race, v., Praster 
Race, ;/., Prastermengri 
Rails, Palyaw 

Railway train, Praster/;/^ koli 
Rain, Brishindo, bi'shno 
It rains, Brishinela 
Rainy, Brisheno, bishavo 
Raise, Had, til apre 
Raw, Bivan, bivano 
Razor, Moromengro 
Read, Del apre, De apre, del 
Reading, n.pr., Lalo-gav 
Real, Tatcho, tatcheno 
Reckon, Ghinja, ghinya 
Reeds, Rushin 
Red, L6I0, lalo 
Redford, 71. pr,, Lalo peero 
Red-herring, Loli matcho 
Reins, Tilomengri 
Relation, Simensa 
Relieve the bowels, Kinder, 
hinder, hingher, hind 



Religious, Mi-duvelesko 
Remember, Chiv it adre yoitr 

shero, shoon lendi, kek bis- 

ser, repper toot 
Remove, Ranjer 
Resurrection, Aic\\ing apre 

rtpopli 
Return, ■:'., Av paiili, jaw pauli 
Rib, Kokalo 
Riband, Dori 
Rich, Barvalo 
Riches, Barvalopen 
Ride, Kester, kister 
Rider, Kestermengro 
Ridicule, v., Prosser,* pross* 
Right, adj., Tdtcho, tatcheno 
Right, adv., Tatchnes 
Right, ;/., Tatchopen 
Right arm, Kushto mooshi 
Ring, ;/., Vongus, vongusti, 

vongushi 
River, Dorio'v, Doydv, nill* 
Road, Drom 
Roast, Pek 
Rob, Loor 
Rock, ;/., Bar 
Rod, Ran 
Room, Kamora 
Rope, Shelo, sholo 
Royal, Kralisko 
Row (noise), Gudli, godli 
Rump, Bool 
Run, v., Nasher, praster 
Runner, Nashermengro, Pras- 

termengro 
Rushes, Rushivi 



1 84 



ENGLISH- GYPSY 



S. 

Sack, Gono, gi'inno, kanyo 
Saddle, Beshto, b6shto,b6shta 
Safe, Tatcho, tatcheno 
Sail, «., Beresto pl6%ta 
Sailor, Berengro, beromcngro, 

paanengro-gaiijo 
Saints, Mi-duveleski gaire 
Sake, Sake-OS 
Saliva, Choongarben 
Salt, ?/., Lon, Ion 
Salt, adj., Londo, londudno 
Sand, Chik 
Saturday, O di'vvus 'glal koo- 

roko 
Savage, Haurini 
Say, Pen 

Scent, So6ngimus 
Scissors, Katserj, katsifj- 
Scold, v., Chingar 
Scotland, A^^V//f^rcngri-tem 
Scotchmen, A^<?/'///^rengri gair^ 
Sea, Dorio'v, doyav, doval, 

dovyal, bauro pani, londo 

paani, londudno padni 
Search, v., R5d, roder 
Search, ;/., Roodopen 
Second, Duito* 
Secretly, Koonjones, garones, 

garidnes 
See ! Dordi ! hokki ! 
See, v., Dik 
Seek, Ro der, rod 
Seize, Til, prala* 
Self, Kokero 
Sell, Bikin, bik 



Send, \ Bitch er,;/.,Bitcha- 

Sentence,) ma 

Serpent, Sap 

Servant, Bootiengro, bootsien- 

gro 
Sessions, Beshopen 
Seven, Afta,* eft,* dooi trinyaw 

ta yek, trin ta stor, trinstor 
Seventy, Heftwardesh,* dooi 

trinyaw ta yek deshaw 
Sew, Siv 
Shake, Ri'sser 

Shame, v., Ladjer ; ;/., Ladj 
Shamefully, 'Lidjfiilly 
Sharp, Jinomengro 
Shave, Morov 
Shawl, Bauro di'klo 
She, YoT, yoi 

Sheep, Bokoro, bokro, mas 
Sheffield, ;/. pr., Chooresto gav 
Shepherd, Barscngri, basengro, 

bokoromengro, b6krom6n- 

gro, bokomengro, bokor^-n- 

gro 
Shilling, Tringorishi, kolli 
Ship, Bero 
Shirt, Gad 

Shirt-sleeve, Gddesto bei 
Shoe, Chok, ch6ka 
Shoemaker, Chokengro 
Shoot, Pooder 
Shooting-coat, Yogengri choo- 

ko 
Shop, Bo6dega, bo6dika, bo6- 

rika 
Shopkeeper, Boodegam^-ngro, 

boorikamengro 



VOCABULARY. 



185 



Shoulder, Piko 

Shout, v., Kaur 

Show, v., Siker 

Showman, ) c>y 

\ \ Sikermengro 
Show-gardens,) 

Shut, v., Pander 

Sick, Nasfalo, nafifalo 

Sickness, Nafflopen 

Side, Rig 

Sign-post, Po6ker/;/f-kosht, 

sikeromengro 
Silence ! Shooker, shookar 
Silk, Kaish, kaidj, p'har* 
Silken, Kaisheno, kaidjino 
Silly, Dinveri 

Silver,;/., Roop ; adj., Roopeno 
Silversmith, Roopnomengro 
Sing, Ghil, ghiv 
Single, Yekino 
Sir! Reia! 
Sin, Wafedopen 
Sister, Pen 

Sister-in-law, Stifi-pen 
Sit, Besh 
Six, Shov, sho* 
Sixpence, Shookauri 
Sixty, Shovardesh* 
Skewer, Chungar, spingarus 
Skewer-maker, Spingaro-kelo- 

mengro 
Skin, Mootsi 
Sky, Duvel, poodj, miduve- 

lesto-tem 
Slap on the face, Tschamme- 

dini* 
Slay, Maur, hetavava * 
Sleep, v., Sov, sooter 



Sleeve, Bei 

Slowly, Dro6ven, shookar 

Sly,G6zvero,jinomeskro,y6kj' 

Small, Bi'to, tikno 

Smallpox, Bookenyus, booko 

Smell, v., Soon, soom ; ;/., 
Soongimus, soonaben 

Smith, n.pr.y Petalengro 

Smith, Sastermengro, petal- 
engro, kaulomeskro 

Smoke, n. and v., Toov 

Smoke tobacco. Pood toovalo 

Snail, Boiiri 

Snake, Sap 

Snaptrap, Klisomengro, pan- 
domengro, tilomengro 

Snare, THomengro 

Snow, Iv, yiv, ghiv, shiv, hiv 

It snows, Yivyela 

Snowball, Iv-bar 

Snuff, Nokengro 

So, Ajaw, 'jaw 

Soap, Sapanis, sapan 

Soft, Sano* 

Soldier, Kooromengro 

Something,) Choomoni, ku- 

Some, i meni, komeni 

Son, Chor 

Song, GhiH, ghiveli 

Soon, Sig 

Sorry, Toogeno, toogno, toog- 
nus 

Soul, Zee 

Sour, Shootlo 

Sorrel, Shootlo-chor 

Sovereign (;^i). Bar, balans, 
balanser 



i86 



ENGLISH -GYPSY 



Sovereign, Kralis, kralisi 

Spavined horse, Bongo grei 

Spectacles, YokengnVi" 

Spirited, See-engro 

Spirits, Tatto paani 

Spit, v., Cho6ngar, chungar 

Spittle, Choongarben 

Spit, Spingarus 

Sport, Peias 

Spree, Kelopen 

Spring, i^^>i•/adair, or bigno- 

mus, o\ lilei 
Spur, Bisko, poosomengri 
Squirrel, Rookamengro 
Stable, Stanya 
Stacks, Stug\\\ 
Staff, Kosht 
Staffordshire, Korengri-tem, 

koromengro-tem 
Stag, Staani 
Stallion, Bareskro-grei, baren- 

gro-grei, peleno-grei, pelen- 

gro-grei, mo6shkeno-grei 
Stand,) .^ . 
Stay, / ''^ ^^^^^ 
Stanley, ;/./r.,Barengri, Besha- 

ley* 
Star, Stari, lilengro, duvel, mi- 

doovelesko-dood 
Station, Priister/;/^-wdrdesko- 

dtch/;/^-tan 
Stays, Troopus 
Steal, Chor, loor, nick* 
Stick, n., Kosht 
Stile, Peeromengro 
Still, adj., Atchlo, shookar 
Stink, T'., Kdnder, hinder, kan 



Stinking, Kanelo, kanlo 
Stockings, Olivaj, ho61avai', 

oulaveri- 
Stone, Bar 
Stop, Atch 
Stove, Bo* 
Stranger, Gaiijo 
Straw,;/., Poos; «^'., Pooskeno, 

pooskeni 
Straw-stack, Poosengro 
Street, Drom 
Stretch, v., Tarder 
String, Dori, doori 
Strong, Ruzlo, ruzino, roozlus, 

surrelo* 
Such, Jafri, jafra 
Suffolk, Shooko-mauromen- 

gro-teni 
Sugar, Goodlo 

Summer, Tattobcn, lilei, lilei 
Summons, Goodli 
Sun, Kam, tam, sken 
Sunny, Tamlo (kamlo) 
Sunday, Kooroki, Krookingo- 

di'vvus, Kiilpho 
Supper-time, Hoben-chairus 
Swan, Porno-rauni 
Swear, Soverhol, siilverkon, 

s6vlohol 
Sweaty, Kindo 
Sweep, v., Yo6ser apr^ 
Sweet, Goodlo 
Sweetheart, Pirino, pirini 
Sweetmeats, Gudlopen 
Swelled, swollen, Shoovlo 
Sword, Haiiro, baiiro-choori 



VOCABULARY. 



187 



T. 

Table, Misali, misali, salaman- 
ka, haum^skro, hobeneskro 

Tail, Fori 

Tailor, ;/. and ;/. //'., SiVomen- 
gro, suvengro 

Take, Lei, le 

Take care, Lei trad 

Take care of, Rak 

Take notice, Lei veena 

Take off, Ranjer 

Take up. Lei opre 

Talk, v., Roker, voker ;* ;/., 
Rokeropen. See Conver- 
sation 

Talker, R6keromeskro 

Tambourine, Kooromengri 

Tart, G61 

Tea, Muterimongri, mootengri, 
piameskri 

Tea-kettle, Kekavvi 

Teapot, Muterimongri-koova, 
peemengro,piameskri-skoo- 
dalin, skoodilin 

Tear, v., Chingar 

Tease, Kinger, chara 

Teeth, Danyaw 

Telescope, Door-dikomengro 

Tell, Pen, pooker 

Tell fortunes, Doorik, dukker 

Ten, Desh 

Tent, Tan 

Testicles, Pele, p^lonoi" 

Thank, Parik, parikarova, pa- 
rikraw 

That, conj., Te ; pro7t., Ta, 
adoova, aduvel, 'doova 



The, O 

Thee, Toot, tooti 

Their, theirs, Lenti, lenghi 

Them, Len 

Then, Kon 

There, Adoi, odoi, 'doi 

They, Yaun, yon 

Thief, Chor, ch6romengro,lo6- 

romengro 
Thin, Bi'to 
Thine, Teero 
Thing, Kova 

Think, Penchava,* ////;/^as6va 
Third, Trito* 
Thirst, Troosh 
Thirsty, Trooshlo 
Thirty, Trianda* 
This, Akova, 'kova 
Thorn, Koro 
Those, Dula, dola 
Thou, Too, tooti 
Thousand, Mille* 
Thread, Tav, taf, tel 
Three, Trin 
Throat, Karlo, kaiiri, kur, gur, 

gooshum 
Through, Adral,'dral, muscro* 
Throw, Wooser, woosher 
Thunder, Maloona, kooroko 

grommena,*grovena,* grub- 

bena,* mi-duvelesko-godli 
It thunders, Dearginni * 
Thursday, Stor divvusrj- palla 

kooroko 
Thus, Ajavv, 'jaw 
Thy, Teero, tooti, tooki, ti 
Tie, v., Pander, pand, pan 



i8B 



ENCtLISH- GYPSY 



Time, Chdirus, //., koppas * 

Tin, Kuri, cham 

Tinder, Pootan 

Tired, Kino, kino 

Tiresome, Drooveno, drooven 

Tiring, Tugno 

To, Ke, katar, katar, kater 

Toad, Jamba, jombo 

Tobacco, Tuvlo, toovlo, tuvlo- 

pen 
To-day, Kedivvus, kedivez, 

kova divvus, tedivvus 
Together, Ketane, ketanes, 

katene, kateni, kdtenes 
Tollgate, Stigher. See Turn- 
pike 
To-morrow, Ovavo divvus 
To-morrow morning, Koliko- 

saula 
Tongs, Yogesto-wastaw 
Tongue, Chib, cliiv, jib 
Too, Tei 
Tooth, Dan 

Touch, Charvo, cheilav, chara 
Towel, Kosser/;/^ pl^Xta 
Town, Gav 

Trail, Patrin, paten, trooshel 
Train, Praster/;/^-k61i, poodj 
Traitor, Pookeromengro 
Tramp, Choorodo, chooro- 

mengro, peerdo 
Transported, Bitchadi paudel, 

paudel-i-paani, paunir^ 
Trap, Pandomengro 
Treadmill, treadwheel, P6ge- 

romengri 
Tree, Rook- 



Tremble, Rfsser 
Trickster, Koromengro 
Tripe, Bokochesto-pur 
Trousers, Rokonyus, roxiny^s, 

ro;;^inya, rikni^j, rokhamyaj-, 

'hamyaj, rokdngri^j-, rokren- 

yes, bro'gi^i", boolengri^j-, 

booliengnVi- 
Trout, Reieski-matcho 
True, Tdtcho, tatcheno 
Trust, v., Pazer ; u., pazeroben 
Truth, Tatchipen 
Tuesday, Dooi" dfvvus^j- palla 

kooroko 
Turkey, Kaiili rauni, papini 
Turnip, Konafia, konafni, 

kraafni, panengro 
Turnpike, P6sh/;rr, stekas, 

stigher, pesser-stigher 
Twenty, Bish, stor-pansh 
Two, Dooi" 
Two shillings, Dooi-koli 



U. 

Unable, Nastfssa, nest/s 

Uncle, Koko, kok 

Under, /;r/., Tale, ale, '\6 

Under, adj., Tallani 

Up, upon, Opre, aprc, 'pre 

Upper, Pre-engro 

Urine, )^,, 

Urinate,) 

Urinal, Muter/;/^ kola 

Us, Men, mendi 

Used. S/klo 



VOCABULARY. 



189 



V. 

Vagrant, Peerdo 

Very, Boot, booti 

Verily, Aava, our. Sec Yes 

Vessel, Trooshni 

Vex, Kfnger 

Victuals, Koben, hoben, hol- 

ben, holen 
Village, Gav 
Vinegar, Shooto 
Vinegry, Shootlo 
The Virgin, Do6veleski-jo6- 

vel 
Vomit, Wooser apre 



W. 

Wagon, Wardo, vardo 
Waistcoat, Bangeri 
Wakefield, 11. pr., Choorones- 

gav 
Wales, Wolsho, Wotchkeni- 

tem, Lavines-tem 
Walk, Peer, pi'riv 
Warm, v.^ Tatto 
Warmth, Tattopen 
Was, Sho'mas, sas, q.v. 
Wash, Tov 
Watch, ;/., 6ra, yora, hora, 

pookeromengro 
Watch v.y Varter, dik palla 
Water, Paani, pani, pauni 
Watercress, Paanesto-shok, 

paani-shok, paanengri-shok 
Watery, Paanisko 
Way, Drom 



We, Men, mendi 

Wealth, Barvalopen 

Wealthy, Barvalo 

Wear, Riv 

Wearing apparel, Rivoben 

Wearisome, Drooveno, droo- 

ven 
Weary, adj., Kino, kino 
Wednesday, Trin divvus^i", 

palla kooroko 
Week,Ko6roki, krooko, kooko, 

kokerus 
Weep, Rov 

Well, adv.f Mishto, misto, 
tatcho; j"., Hanik, hanikos 
Welsh Gypsies, Ingrini^^r 
Welshman, Wotchkenengro, 
Lavinengro, Lavines-gaujo 
Welsh language, Lavines ro- 

kerben, Wolshitikka 
Were, Shamas, sas, q.v. 
Wet, Kindo 
Whale, Baiiro-matcho 
What, Savo, So 
Wheat, Ghiv 
Wheat, adj., Ghivesto 
Wheat-stack, Ghiv-poosen- 

gro 
Wheedle, Pandjer 
Wheel, Hero, wardesko-pras- 

termengri, wardesko-here 
When, Kanna, konna, vonka, 

wonka, savo-cheerus 
Where, Kei 
Whey, Kalengri 
Whip, Chookni, choopni 
Whiskers, Banga 



I go 



KNGLISH-GYPSY VOCABULARY. 



Whistle, 7'., Shol, shool 

Whistler, Shelengro 

White, Porno 

Who, Ko, kon, savo 

Whole, Cholo 

Whore, Lubni 

Why, Soski 

Wicked, Vasavo, wasedo, wa- 

fedo, bdngalo 
Wickedness, Wafedopen 
Widow, Peevli-gairi 
V/idower, Peevlo-gairo 
Widowed, Peevlo 
Wife, Romeni, romni, romi 
Wild, DiVio 
Will-o'-th'-Wisp, Doodesko- 

moolo 
Wind, Baval 

Windmill, Baval pogamengri 
Window, Hev, kev 
Wine, Mol, mul 
Winter, Ven, wen; ^<^'.,Venesto 
Wintry, Venlo 
Wise, Jinomengro 
Witch, Choofihoni, choovikon, 

cho'vih6ni 
With, Sar, pashal* 
Within, Inna* 
Withy, Ran 
Wolf, Bauro-holomengro-joo- 

kel 
Woman, Gairi, jo6vel, man- 

ooshni, mo6shni, m6noshi 
Woman's bonnet, Joovioko- 

staddi 
Woman'sclothing, Joovni kola 
Womb, Doodum 



Woo, Pi'riv 
Wood, Vesh, kosht 
Woodcutter, Koshtengro 
Wooden dishes, Koshtudno 

skoodilyaw 
Wool, Poosham 
Word, Lav 

Work, ;/. and v., Booti, bootsi 
Worker, Bootiengro 
World, Sweti,''' doovelesto- 

chairos 
Worm, Kcrmo 
Worth, Mool, mol 
Wound, Chinobcn 
Wrexham, n. pr., Reltum 
Wrong, Bongo 
Wrongly, Bonges 

Y. 

Ye, Tumcndi 

Year, Besh 

Yearling, Beshengro 

Yes, Aava, aavali, our, ouwa, 

ourli 
Yesterday, K61iko,k6liko-div- 

vus, kaliko 
Yew, Mooleno rook 
Yonder, Odoi, adoi, 'doi 
Yorkshire, Barvalo-tem, Chor- 

keno-tcm, Meilesko-tem 
You, Too, toot, tooti 
Your, yours, Teero, tooti'j 
Young, adj. and 71. pr., Tarno, 

tauno 
Younger, Tarnodar 
Youth, Tarnomus. 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS 



REFERRING TO 



^wttUar ^abits aub ^oiions iit ^oguc among €nglisl^ (B^p'm, 



In numerous instances Gypsy customs have been related to 
us in Romanes by Gypsies themselves, and it has appeared 
to us to be of considerable interest and value to take down 
these communications as we received them, and to preserve 
the ipsissinia verba made use of by our informants. It 
would be beyond the scope of the present work, to which 
we have set strictly linguistic limits, to enter into details 
concerning manners and traditional observances which are 
still to be found among the Gypsies of this country. But, 
incidentally, it has become necessary to refer to them, in 
order to explain certain allusions which might otherwise 
be imperfectly understood. We have therefore introduced, 
where necessary, in the following pages, a few explanatory 
notes to render clearer the meaning of particular passages 
and expressions, but at the same time wish to disclaim any 
intention of treating comprehensively a subject which has 
a special interest apart from the language. In spite of the 
numerous violations of every grammatical rule, these com- 
positions are (as far as our experience goes) written in the 
"deepest" English Romanes extant. 



192 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

PITCHING A TENT* 

Ne, chow61i, kair ti grefaw te jal sig. Raati see wel/;/' 
sig opre mdndi. Kek tan see mendi kova raati tc sov tale; 
kek bfto shooko tan mendi latchova kova raati te jaw to 
so6to opre. 

So sig see o praastermengro jinela mendi shem akei, yov 
kom^la to chiv m6ndi door dosta opre o drom, or to lei men 
opre. Yov see tatcho dosta. Chivela men adre o steripen, 
ta bfken sor mod greiaw, ta wardi, ta sorkon kovaw sham 
me (mendi). 

Konaw, chowoli, kair sig. Kair ti tan opre. Dosta 
brishno wela tale, ta hiv tei. Mendi sor merova /^'-raati tc 



* The old-fashioned Gypsy encampments, once so frequent in shady 
lanes and secluded spots, have almost entirely disappeared from some 
parts of England, Hence it has been too hastily assumed that these 
inveterate strollers have forsaken tent-life and become permanent house- 
dwellers. Even Mr. Borrow makes the remark (" Lavo-lil," p. 221,) 
that you may " walk from London to Carlisle, but neither by the road- 
side nor on heath or common will you see a single Gypsy tent." This 
is certainly a mistake, Harassed by the rural police, deprived of his 
accustomed camping-grounds by Enclosure Acts, the Gypsy, like the 
bittern, has been extirpated from many of his old haunts^ — ancient 
commons and wastes from which " the Northern farmer " and other 
pioneers of modern agriculture have "raaved an'rembled un oot" — but 
he has only shifted his quarters, and not changed his habits. On our 
coasts where holiday-makers congregate, and in the neighbourhood of 
popular watering-places, still as heretofore are 

" The Gypsies all the summer seen, 
Native as poppies to the green," 

their tents having become a permanent feature in many such localities. 
Here they ply their traditional vocations, and reap a rich harvest from 
the visitors, a seaside flirtation being hardly deemed complete unless a 
Gypsy sybil has told the fortune of the amorous couple. 

The Gypsy willingly pays a small ground-rent for the patch he occu- 
pies, and then his frail tent becomes as much his castle as an English- 
man's house, and is as safe from the intrusion of prastermengros, 
and other unwelcome visitors. We know of an instance at Blackpool 
where a Gypsy, though living in a tent, has been so long a squatter on 
the same spot as to have been assessed for the poor-rate, which he 
duly discharges, 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 1 93 

shil, ta and cho6moni te kair a kooshto yog tei. Chiv o 
tan tale kooshto. 

Dosta baval wela kova raati. Pooderela men o baval 
sor opre kova raati. Mi chavi merenna <?' shil. Chiv sor 
o ranyaw adre o tan tatcho, to hatch mishto, ta spinger o 
koppa opre o ranyaw tatcho, to kel it hatch mishto. O 
choro chavi rovenna talla lenghi hoben. Mi Doovel, so 
mandi kairova te lei lendi hoben te hoi. Chichi nanei 
mandi te del lendi. Merenna yon talla hoben. 

Translation, 

Now, mates, make your horses go quick. Night is 
coming quick upon us. No tent is there for us this night 
to sleep under ; no little dry place shall we find this night 
to go to sleep on. 

As soon as the policeman knows we are here, he will 
want to put us very far on the road, or to take us up. 
He is fit enough (for that). He will put us in prison, and 
sell all our horses and carts, and everything we have. 

Now, mates, be quick. Put your tent up — much rain 
comes down and snow too. We all shall die to-night of 
cold ; and bring something to make a good fire too. Put 
the tent down well. Much wind will come this night. 
My children will die of cold. Put all the rods in the 
ground properly, to stand well, and pin the blanket on 
the rods properly to make it stand well. The poor chil- 
dren cry for their food. My God, what shall I do to 
get them food to eat.? I have nothing to give them. 
They will die without food. 

CHOOSING A CAMP. 

Kei jassa tumendi, chavoli, tedivvus te sov } 

Mendi jaw kater dova ghiveskro kair. Yov komela 
R6mano-clialaw. 

Kei see dova .'' 

Doi, kei atchdem yek besh paiili, wonka jafra iv pedas 
tal6. 

13 



194 (i]':xui:xE Romany compositions. 

Jinova konaw savo tan sec. Kei vias o Rei kater mendi 
te del mendi jaw kfssi kas te del mauri greiaw. Our, jinova 
konaw. Jas menghi odoi te atch. Kek yov penela kek 
wafedo to mendi. Mendi komela. Atchas* odoi a ko6- 
roko, te mendi konij. Yov delela men koshtaw te hotcher. 
Yov mookela men chiv maiiri greiavv adr6 lesko poov- 
yaw. Yon te vel sor tatcho. Kek yon te wel panlo. 
Atchas* m^ndi adre maiiri woodrus tatcho te sov. Kek te 
atch opre to dik talla mauri greiaw adre o mullo raati. 

Translation. 

Where are you going, mates, to-day, to sleep ) 

We are going to that farmer's house. He likes Gypsies. 

Where is it ) 

There, where we stopped a year back, when so much 
snow fell. 

I know now where the place is. Where the gentleman 
came to us to give us so much hay to feed our horses 
with. Oh yes, I know now. Let us go and stop there. 
He will not rate at us. He likes us. Let us {or, we will) 
stay there a week, if it suits us. He will give us some 
firewood, and let us put our horses in his fields, where 
they will be safe, and not be put in the pound. We shall 
rest in bed safe asleep, and not have to get up to look after 
our horses in the dead of night. 

o mo6lo. 

Kei jassa, choowdli, te sov tedivvus } Mook mendi jal to 
sooto adre dova gransa. 

Kater d6va tan, kei dova koshto Rei, te Rauni, jivela. 
Kei o mo61o sas dikn6. 

Kek mandi jal odoi te sov. Mandi shom trash te dik moole, 
te wel trashedo o' mi mdriben. Gauje po6kadas mandi d6sta 
chafrus^j", o moosh, ghivdngro sas-16, nashadds l^sko k6kero 
opr6 o rook adre o koonsa, kei m^ndi ]k\iii te atch. 

* First pers., pi, pres., or fut., indicative, or the Imperative V. 
Gram., p. 39. 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 1 95 

So keressa kon ? Jassa too odoi, te atchas ? /• 
Kekera mandi. 
Kei jassa kon ? 

Adre a waver pooro drom, yek mee dooroder. Doi 
mendi atchessa * Kek komeni charas {sic) mendi. 

Translation. 
THE GHOST. 

Where are you going to sleep to-day, mates ? Let us 
go to sleep in that barn. 

At that place where that kind gentleman and lady live — 
where the ghost was seen. 

I will not go and sleep there. I am afraid of seeing 
ghosts, and being frightened to death. The Gentiles have 
told me many a time how the man, he was a farmer, 
hanged himself on the tree in the corner where we are 
going to stop. 

What will you do, then } Will you go there and stop } 

Not I! 

Where will you go, then } 

Down another old road, a mile further on. We will stop 
there. No one will dsiturb us. 

A CAUTION. 

Maw mook teero greiaw, chawoli, jal tale dova drom, kei 
see dova koshto chor. Yon te vcl pandado. 

Translation. 
Do not let your horses, mates, go down that road, where 
that good grass is, or they will be put in the pound. 

THE HAUNTED CAMP. 

** I can just about remember the old times when our old 
folk hardly spoke any Gaujines. They were timid folk. 
You might hear them say : — 

* First pers., pi., pres., or fut., indicative. 



196 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

" Kon see doova, dadi ?" 
Who is that, father ? 

" Kekena jinova me. Diktas komeni ? " 
Not know I. Did you see any (thing) ? 

"Kekmandi. Shoondom choomoni. So shoondom ghias 
Not I. I heard something. What I heard went 

pensa groovni." 
like (a) cow. 

"Jaw opre o drom. Dik so see." 
Go up the road. See what it is. 

" Ghiom justa konaw. Kek nanei mandi diktom chichi, 
I went just now. No not I saw nothing, 

na shoondom chichi. O beng see, tatcho dosta." 
nor heard nothing. The devil it is, sure enough. 
" Maw trash tooti." 
Don't fear thou. 
" Trash see mandi." 

Fear is to me. 
" Mantcha too ! Atch o koosi. Shoondom-les popli. 
Cheer up ! Wait a bit. I heard it again. 

K6meni sas mordno aket. Av^la yov ^popli." 
Some one was killed here. Comes he again. 

" Wonka 'saula veb, jaw monghi ak^i. Kek na kom6va 
When morning comes, go I hence. No not I love 
jafri tanaw see koli, posha bauro weshaw. Mcripen tanaw 
such places as these, near great woods. Murdering places 
see dikela." 
as it looks. 

" Ei, d6rdi ! Wdfedo dikijtg tan see k6va. Tatcho 
Eh, look ! Evil looking place is this. True 

moolesko tan see k6va, pats6va mdndi ajaw." 
ghost's place is this, believe I so. 

" Kaulo radti see. S6rkon wdfedi k61i see opr6 mcndi. 
Dark night it is. Every evil thing is upon us. 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 1 97 

Yek wafedo kova kairi" dosta waver wafedi koli." 
One evil thing makes plenty of other evil things. 

Wester Boswell. 

SUPPER-TIME. 

Ne, chawoH, kair koosi yog. Shilalo shorn mandi. Chiv 
o kekavi opre o yog, te kel pi'amengri. Bokalo shorn. 
Dosta hoben see mandi. 

Dosta grooveni-mas see mandi. Kindom-les kater dova 
kooshto yoozho masengro'i- boodiga. Beshas sor mendi 
tale, te porder maiiri peraw mishto. Talla mendi ghivova, 
te kel o boshomengri. Sor mendi keras mendi. Mook sor 
dula tarno raunia ker mensa. Talla yon dela men liiva, ta 
lei mendi kooshto nav. 

Translation. 

Now, mates, make up a little fire, for I am cold. Put 
the kettle on the fire, and make tea. I am hungry. I 
have lots of food, and plenty of beef, which I bought at 
that nice clean butcher's shop. Let us all sit down and 
satisfy our appetites. Afterwards we will sing, and play 
the violin. Let us all set to. Let all those young ladies 
dance with us. Afterwards they will give us some money, 
and give us a good name. 

HEDGEHOG HUNTING AND GYPSY CAKE.=»«= 

"Ne mooshaw! Koshto dood-raati see konaw. Jas 
Noiv men ! Good light night it is now. Let 

menghi perdal kola poovyaw. Dikas mendi palla dooi-trin 
ns go over these fields. Let us look after two {or) three 
hotchi-witchi. Koshte see-le konaw. Toolo see-le {or lendi). 
hedge-hogs. Good (pi.) are they now. Fat are they. 
Mandi jinova poovyaw kei tised to ven dosta. Latchas 
/ know fields where used to eome plenty. Let us find 

* See also " Dinner Dialogue." 



198 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

menghi dool-trin /^-raati. Avesa mandi ? " " Oua. Mdndf 

two {or) three tO'7iight. Will you go {with) me ? " " Yes. I 

jal tusa." "Nashena sor konaw pardal o poovyaw kola 

go with you!' " TJiey run all nozv over the fields these 

dood-raatia. Keras menghi Romani marikli d dooi. 

light-nights. Let us 7nake {a) Gypsy eake or two. 

Lova lendi to mandi'i- hoben adrc kaliko 'saula. 

/ will have tJiem to my breakfast in to-morrow morning. 

Kerova manghi a Romani marikli. (Marikli see kcdo d 

I will make for me a Gypsy cake. {Cake is made of 

porno.) Kerova koshto yog. Chivova-lcs ad re a hev 

flour) I will make {a) good fire. I will put it in a hole 

adre o yog. Chorova-les pardal o"* yog. Kerova- 

iji the fire {ash). I will eover it over ivith fire {ash). I ivill cook 

les. Chinova les opre. See man dosta kil, chivova kil 

it. I will cut it up. Is me sufficient butter, I will put butter 

opr4 ta holova les monghi sor mi, or me^ro, kokero." 

on, and I ivill eat it myself all my- self 

"You make them of flour and water, and roll them well. 
Then you make a hole in the ashes, wood ashes are best, 
and put the cake in, and cover it over with ashes, and 
when it is cooked you just cut off the burnt part, and it 
eats so sweet."* 

Wester Boswell. 

PATRKNI. 

Kei jassa, choowali .-* 

Mendi jab yek gaver to o waver. Sor mcndi jala, ta 
mandi jova mi kokero. 

Kek na jinaw me savo drom ta mandi jala. 



* Another standard dish among the Gypsies is moolo-ujas, or the 
flesh of animals which have sickened and died unattended in their 
last moments by the butcher. They sometimes make a kind of broth 
or soup of snails, which they call bouri-aimnicn, and which is not 
unsavoury. 



L 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 1 99 



Mook meiidi jal kater o Meilesto-gav Praasterlmus, ta 
dikas o greiaw praastenV?'. Door door dosta ; doovorf 
akei ; door dosta see pardal odoi. 

Kek na jinova o drom. 

Mookova patreni opre o drom te jin savo drom ghiom 
m6. 

So keressa o patreni troostal ? Kek na jinova. 

Pookerova toot kon. Kerova-les koosi chor, koosi dan- 
dim engri-chor. Wooserova lesti tale oprd o drom so jova. 

Mi Doovel jal toosa. Atch kater mi Doovel. 

Maw jal tale dova drom. See a chichikeni drom. Kova 
drom jala kater bitto gav. Kooshko divvus, Bor. 

Yon ghias lendi ketane yek t'o waver. 

Translation. 
TRAILS. 

Where are you off to, mates } 

Going from one town to the other. We are all going, 
and I am going myself. 

I do not know which way I shall go. 

Let us go to Doncaster Races, and see the horses run. It 
is a very long way ; a great distance from here ; far away 
over in t/iat direction. 

I do not know the way. 

I will leave a sign on the road by which you will know 
which way I have gone. 

What will you make the sign with } I do not know. 

I will tell you then. I will make it of a little grass, — a 
few nettles. I will throw them down on the road I go. 

Goodbye. God bless you. 

Do not go down t/ia^ road. There is no thoroughfare. 
T/iis road leads to the village. Good day, mate. 

They went away together, both of them.* 

* The patrin, or Gypsy trail, deserves a few words of explanation. 

As the Gypsies are a wandering and vagabond race, it has always been 
necessary for them to have some way of pointing out to stragglers the 



200 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

LAMENT ON THE DECAY OF THE LANGUAGE. 

Kanna sas mandi a Tikno, sor o pooro fdlk\ rokerde 
tatcho pooro Romani lavaw. Kek nanei see jaw siklo 
konaw, see sas beshaw doosta palal. 

Konaw o tarno folki, kek yon roker^nna tatcho konaw. 
Boot gauje-kani fdlki see-le konaw. Kek ne jinenna lenghi 
kokeri so see tatcho ta wafedo. Kanna too pootches lendi 
tatcho lavaw, kek yon can pooker toot o tatcho drom o 
lendi. 

Meero kokero righerova o tatcho pooro lavaw. 

Mandi penova meero kokero, " Kek Romani-chak jivenna 
konaw, pensa mi kokero adrd tatcho pooro Romani-chal- 
rokerimus, ta koshto pooro tatcho lavaw. Sor gauje see o 
folki konaw. Mandi see a tatcho pooro Romano-chal 
pardal sor mo^ade posh-kedo Romani-chab." 

Komova te roker troostal jafri poori rokcroben. 

Translation. 

When I was a lad, all th© old folk spoke good old 
Gypsy words. They are not so much used now as they 
were many years ago. 

direction taken by the rest of the gang. As, moreover, in civilized 
countries they must travel more or less along the principal roads and 
highways, any ordinary spoor or trace would soon be effaced by the 
subsequent traffic. Hence arose the patrin-system, the invention of 
certain recognizable signs, by which the caravan on the march could 
indicate to loiterers the path it had taken, and guide them safely to the 
halting-place. Different kinds of patrins : 

(i) Three heaps of grass (or any plant agreed upon) placed on the 
left-hand side of the road taken (day-patrin). 

(2) Pieces of rag, generally three in number, tied to the twigs of the 
hedge on the left-hand side of the road taken (day-patrin). 

(3) Boughs, or cleft sticks, pointing down the road taken (night- 
patrin). 

(4) Marks and signs on the road itself— generally a cross (used in 
snowy, dusty, or dirty weather). 

(5) Stones placed in a certain manner on the left-hand side of the 
road taken (used in windy weather). 

(6) Shoe-prints or foot-marks, etc., etc. 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 201 

Now the young folk do not talk deep. They are too 
gaujo-like now. They do not know what is right or 
wrong. When you ask them deep words they cannot tell 
you their real meaning. I myself preserve the good old 
words. 

I say to myself, " There are no Gypsies now so well up 
as myself in real old Gypsy talk, and good old deep words. 
The people are all English now. I am a pure old Gypsy, 
above all these dirty half-bred Gypsies." 

I like to talk about such ancient speech. 

EHEU, FUGACES! 

Kanna sas mandi a ti'kno, — kooshto cheerus^ri- sas, — sor 
meero choro folki sas jido sor adre kooshtomus, ta mfshto 
sas yon. 

Konaw (kenaw) see-le sor moolo, ta ghile. Kek nanei 
mandi konaw kei shom mooklo sor kokero. Te wel mandi 
te mer, kek komeni p6sha mandi te del mandi koosi paani, 
te ker mandi koshto. Sor meeri chavi, ta meeri f6lk\, dei, 
ta dad, ta penaw, sor see moolo. 

Kek nanei mandi konaw, yek pal, yek pen adre Anghi- 
terra. Kek yon wek te dik mandi. 

Mandi pootch^i- meero dearo Doovel te kooshto bo;)^t. 
Yov deb mandi sor mandi pootch^i- talla. Nanei yov te 
atch to mandi, mandi te wel kerdo sor ketan6. Tatcho 
shom konaw, parik mi-Do6vel. Yov see sor kooshto kater 
mandi. Yov shoonela tei meero mongamus to lesti. 

Translation. 

When I was a lad, — good times were they, — all my poor 
people lived in peace, and were at ease. 

Now they are all dead, or gone. There is no one here 
but myself, and I am left all alone. Should I die, there is 
no one near me to give me a drop of water to relieve 
me. All my children, and my people, my mother, father, 
and sisters, all are dead. I have not now one brother, one 
sister in England. They never come to see me. 



202 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

I ask my dear God for good luck, and he grants me all 
I ask for. If he did not stand by me, I should be done for 
altogether. I am well now, thank God. He is all-merciful 
to me. He hears, too, my petition. 



FUNERAL RITES. 

Ei ! dordi ! chawali. So mandi kerova kenaw .'* Meero 
choro pooro dad see moolo konaw. So shom te keraw te 
lesti kolaw, so yov muktas palla lesti } 

Hotcherova-len son Sorkon koovaw talla saastera koli. 
Wooserova sor dulla 'dre o bauro paani. 

Delova meero lav kater mi Doovel, yov te jal kater yov 
te atch odoT ad re Kooshtoben, sor mi Doovel csti chairos. 

Translation. 

Alas ! alas ! my friends. What shall I do ? My poor 
old father is no more. What must I do with all he left 
behind } 

I will burn them all.*" Everything except those things 
that are of iron, and those I will cast into the deep. 

God grant he may rest in peace with Him for ever. 

CtitJibcrt Bcdc sent to " Notes and Queries " (2nd Sen, iii., 
442), in 1857, an account of a grand funeral of a Gypsy, 
followed by the destruction of his property, clothes, blankets, 
fiddle, books, and his grindstone^ — the last being thrown into 
the river Severn, and the others burnt. 

Something about Gypsy Burials.^TIiosc who know 
little about Gypsies would have been astonished had they 
visited the encampment at Ashton, outside Birmingham, 
last week. Many who were led by curiosity, or " to have 
their fortune told," or for some other equally good reason, 

* " Des verstorbenen Zigeuners Kleider, insoweit er sie nicht mit in 
die Erde gcnommen, seiii Bctt oder was sonst ihm zum Lager und 
zur Deckc gedient hat, werden unter frciem Ilimmel verbrannt." — 
Vide Liebich's Zigeuner, p. 55. 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 203 

to pay the Gypsy camp a visit last Wednesday, must have 
thought the demon of destruction possessed the nut-brown 
people. Men were smashing up a van, such as the Gypsies 
use for their residence ; women were breaking chairs ; chil- 
dren tearing up dresses, breaking crockery, and setting fire 
to whatever of the remains would burn ; whilst the Queen of 
the Gypsies superintended the work. Those whose curiosity 
led them to inquire the reason, discovered that it is the 
Gypsies' custom after a funeral to destroy everything that 
belonged to the deceased member of the fraternity. They 
had just returned from the burial of a dead sister, and 
straightway commenced to break up and burn everything 
that belonged to her. Even the horse that drew her resi- 
dential van had to be shot ; and the husband and children 
through this folly are left for a time without home com- 
forts. — Catholic Times, Dec. 13th, 1873. 

One instance came under our notice, not far from Man- 
chester (at Cheadle), where a favourite dog of the deceased 
was destroyed, and its body added to the funeral pile. 
. For further particulars concerning Gypsy burials, vide 
Crabb (pp. 29, 30) ; Borrow's " Lavo-lil," (pp. 299, 300) ; 
Hone's Year Book, 1832 ; Table Book, 1827 ; Licbich (pp. 
52—56) ; and N. and O. 

HORSE-DEALING. 

Ne, chowaali, jova menghi kater velgauro. And sor ti 
greiaw apre. Yoozher lendi mishto. Kair lendi to dik 
mishto, and del dova poga-baval grasni koosi bauleski 
tiilopen. Chivova-les adre loki mooi to atch loki baval 
koosi ; ta biknova-les, tastis. 

And dova nokengro grei akei to mandi. Band asar lesti 
opre kater rook. And asar mandi a koosi paani. Tovova- 
les mishto; ta kosserova-les yoozho talla. Dova kela. 
Biknova-les tei, te vaniso luvva. Yov bikindas sor lesko 
greiaw kater dova welgauro adre o Lavines-tem. Bikinas 
amendi sor moro greiaw te chiv lendi adre lovo. 



204 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

HORSE-DEALING. 

Now, mates, let us be off to the fair. Bring up all your 
horses. Clean them well, and make them look smart, and 
give that broken-winded mare a little lard. I will put it in 
her mouth to ease her breathing a little, and I will sell it, 
if I can. 

Bring that glandered horse here to me, and tie it up 
to the tree, and bring me a little water. I will wash 
it well, and wipe it clean afterwards. There, that will do. 
I will sell it too, at any price. He sold his horses at that 
fair in Wales. Let us sell all our horses, and turn them 
into cash.* 

ZUBA B . 

A gypsy's ACCOUNT. 

Kova lil6i, shoond6m, Romani-chal tarno joovel adre o 
Chumba-kalesko tem, shoondom, sas adre o Ghilyengri. 

Yoi ghias kater o bauro kair. Diktas yoi dooY trin 
raunya. Pootchte yoi yon, " Mook man do6ker6va toot, 
Mandi po6ker6va too okki yek rinkeno tarno rei. Komessa 
toot te lei lesti te rommer toot .'' Yov mol dosta lovo. 
Mook man dooker toot. Pookerova toot sor troostal yov, 
kanna too lei lesti." 

Yoi' pendas, " Our. Too dooker mandi. So dova toot } " 

* Instead of lard, some Romani-chals prefer to tie a little aloes 
(which they call 'aloways') in a piece of muslin, under the horse's 
tongue, * which will hatch the baval misto.' Another way of treating 
a nokengro is to stuff its nose full of nettles (dandimengri chor) an 
hour or two before offering it for sale. On removing the plug, a great 
quantity of purulent and highly offensive discharge comes away. The 
animal's nose is then well washed and syringed with spring water.* 
Gypsies display much skill in managing a horse so as to conceal its 
defects and show it off to the best advantage. They have been known 
to buy a worthless animal, and after clipping its coat, and manipulating 
it in other ways, to sell it again on the same day for a high price to 
its former owner. Their great love for horses — especially for other 
people's horses — brought many unlucky Gypsies to the gallows in those 
days when horse-stealing was a capital offence. 



These customs are but little practised nowadays. 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 205 

" Yek kotor." O rauni dias yoi a kotor. YoT pootchtas 
lati k6moder talla. 

Yoi' pendas lati te chiv ori te vongushte adre a m6;^to. 

O Rauni andadas sor dula koli, yoi pootcht^ o lendi. 
Tdlla yoi* chidas lati'i- wast opre o m6;)^to, sor pardal l^sti, 
akei and odoi. Yoi' pendas kater rauni, "Too mookas 
mandi lei kova. Mook-les kater mandi yek kooroko, 
Talla mandi and asar lesti paiili popli kater too. Talla 
wenna dosta lovo te soonaka, ta barvali koli adre lesti' 
wonka mandi and lesti pauli kater too." 

O rauni kedas ajaw. Ghias yon (yo'i), o Romani chei, keri. 
Righade (righadas) o koli pardal o chairus. 

Talla diktas o rauni, yoi kek ne vias pauli, yoi' pookadas 
opre lati. Kanna sig bitchadas o prastermengro palla lati. 
Lias lati. Chidas yoi" adr6 steripen. 

Adre o saula lias lati aglal o Pokenyus. O Pokenyus 
pendas kater lati, " So shan too akei troostal .?" 

YoY pendas, " O Rauni od6'i poochtas mandi te dooker 
lati, te po6ker lati kanna yoi' lela o tarno rei te lati'x 
rom. Y6i pendas, o rauni, ' dova toot vdniso. Pooker man 
tatcho.' " 

Pendas o Pokenyus kater rauni. '' See dova tatcho } " 

'' Our." Rauni pendas. " Kek yoi' andadas meeri koli 
paiili see yo'i pendas." 

O Pokenyus pendas. '' See tooti teeri koli pauli konaw .?" 

" Our." Hotchi raiini. " Sor tatcho see konaw. Kek 
nanei mandi te ker wafedo te yo'i." 

" Too lias sor ti koli pauli. Kek nanei too komessa te 
chiv kova joovel adre o staripen }" 

" Naw." Pendas o rauni. 

"Jaw tooki kon." Pendas o Pokenyus. "Maw mook 
mandi dik toot adre kova gav kek k6mmi." 

O Pokenyus pendas kater rauni, " Te baiiro dinli shanas 
too te mook teeri k61i te jafri komeni. Kek na too jindas, 
too sas o dinli ? Kek nanei o Romani chei sas dinli. Jaw 
tooki. Maw mook mandi dik toot akei kek kommi." " Kek 
nanei mandi nastis dookerova toot." 



206 genuine romany compositions. 

Translation. 

I heard this summer (about) a young Gypsy girl in 
Derbyshire, (and) I heard it was * in the papers.' 

She went to a (the) big house, and saw two or three 
women. She asked (one of) them, " Let me tell you your 
fortune. I tell you there is a nice young man ; would you 
like to have him to marry you } He is worth plenty of 
money. Let me tell you your fortune. I will tell you all 
about him, (and) when you'll be married." 

The woman replied, " Very well, you may tell me my 
fortune. What shall I give you .'' " " A guinea " (said the 
Gypsy). The woman gave her a guinea, (but the Gypsy) 
afterwards asked her for more. She told her to put (some) 
watches and rings in a box, (and) the woman fetched all 
those things that she asked of her. The Gypsy then passed 
her hand here and there, all over the box, (and) said to the 
woman, "You will let me take it. Lend it me a week ; after 
(that) I will bring it back again to you, (and) then there'll 
be lots of money, gold, and precious stones in it, when I 
bring it back to you." 

The woman did so. The Gypsy girl went home, but 
kept them more than the week. 

When the woman saw she did not return, she gave 
information, and the constable was sent after her at once, 
and apprehended her, and locked her up. 

The next morning he took her before the Justice of the 
Peace, who asked her what she was there for. 

She replied, "That woman asked me to tell her her 
fortune, and tell her when she would get her young man 
for a husband. Sl'ie said she would give me. anything to 
let her know the truth." 

The Justice asked the woman if it was correct. 

" Yes," said the woman ; ** (but) she did not bring my 
things back as she promised she would." 

Then the Justice asked if she had recovered her things. 

"Yes," said she, "they are all right now. I do not want 
to do harm to her." 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 207 

" You have got all your things back, and don't wish to 
have the girl put in prison ?" said the Justice. 

" No," replied the woman. 

" You can go, then," said the Justice to the Gypsy girl. 
" Don't let me see you in this town any more." 

And he said to the woman, " What a big fool you were 
to lend your things to one like her. Don't you know that 
you were the fool .'* The Gypsy girl was no fool. Get off 
with you. Don't let me see you here any more." And 
he told the Gypsy girl he could not punish her. 

"Manchester Guardian" account, August 13, 1874: — 

Extraordinary Credulity. — At the Ashton-under- 
Lyne County Petty Sessions, yesterday, a Gypsy named 

Zuba B was charged with fortune-telling and obtaining 

goods under false pretences. Mary Ann EUice, a domestic 
servant at Oldham, said that on Sunday night she went with 
her sister Hannah to a field at Fitton Hill, in which there 
was a Gypsy encampment. The prisoner asked them into 
a tent, and witness gave her a shilling to tell her fortune. 
The prisoner told her there was a young man who wore a 
pen beside his ear who loved the ground she walked upon. 
(Laughter.) Witness took off her glove, and prisoner, 
seeing a ring on her finger, asked to look at it. Prisoner 
tried it on her finger, and then got her brooch and cufTs 
from witness. She touched the end of witness's finger with 
the brooch, the ring, and the shilling, and then rolled them 
up and put them in a cigar-box, and said it would take till 
Wednesday to ''make the charm work."* She told witness 
to be sure to come for them on \Vednesday night. She 
became uneasy on Monday, and went to the field, but the 
Gypsies had gone. (Laughter.) — Hannah Ellice said the 
prisoner also told her there was a young man who loved 
the ground she walked on. The prisoner got her watch 
and guard, and also wanted her brooch and skirt, but she 

* A well-known trick. Sec B\v., Zincali, i., 319 ; Lavo-lil, 244. 



2o8 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

would not leave them. Prisoner looked at her hand, and 
said there was luck before her, and all that. (Laughter.) 
Prisoner told them to go home, and tell no one, not even 
their parents. Prisoner told them the tribe had taken the 
field for nine months. — Mr. Mellor, M.P. (one of the magis- 
trates) : Have you received any education i* — Witness : No, 
sir, I have not. — Superintendent Ludlam : Perhaps you 
don't understand. Have you ever been to school ? Can 
you read and write ? — Witness : No, sir. — Sergeant Barnett 
proved that he apprehended the prisoner at Bardsley on 
Tuesday night, and recovered the property. — Mr. Thomas 
Harrison, the presiding magistrate, dismissed the case, but 
counselled the prisoner to be cautious. Addressing the 
girls, he said it was most extraordinary that silly people 
should go to such places to have their fortunes told. It 
served them right if they lost their money. 

KOKERI INDIKI. 

A DIALOGUE. 

So see dcSva .-* 

' Kokeri IndikV (Cocculus Indicus) Rei. Chivova-les 
adr^ o paini. 

S6ski, mi pal .<* 

Maw pootch mandi jafri dinili koovaw. Komes too 
matcho, Rei } 

Ourli, pal. Komova-les d6sta. 

' KSkeri Indiki' kairela sor o matchaw posh-motto. 
Liom dosta and dosta ivi' lesti. 

THE WHITE DOG. 

A DIALOGUE. 
D6va see a rfnkeno pauno jo6kel odoi, pal ! 
Our. Latchadom-les yek divvus adrd o baiiro-gav. 
So see lesko nav ^ 

Sebastopol. Po6ker mandi o feterdair drom to kair lesti 
kaiilo. 

Ndstis po6ker6va toot. 



GENtJTNK ROMANY COlsri'OSTTIONS. 209 

ADRE STERIPEN. 

A DIALOCiUE. 

Sar shan, chci ? Toogeno shorn mc, to dik toot adrc 
steripcn akei. So see too akei talla ? 

For dooken//' ad re o baiiro gav. 

Savo cheerus Han, to atch akei ? 

Trill shoonaw. Mi rom see adre steripeit tei ! 

Soski ? 

For chor/;/' a grei, mi pal ! The rattvalo praastermen- 
groj pooker'd? hookapenj* troostal lesti. Yov see tarder/;/ 
shclo kotorendri konavv. Yov' J peer/;/' opr6 o pogerimengri. 

Toogno shorn to shoon Idsti. Pookerova kek-k6meni, ta 
mandi diktas (diktom) toot akdi adre steripen. 

Parrik mi Doovel te kek avel akei kek-komeni so long as 
too jivessa. Jinessa too " The Trumpet',' a ti'keni ki'tchema 
adre dc gav ? 

Kekera mandi. 

Mooktom mi kooshn/ri- odoi. Pooker mori f6lk\ ajaw, 
mi pal 

Our. Kerova-les, tastis. 

Kooshto di'vvus. 

Til oprejw//' zee. Mantchi too. 

Translation. 
IN PRISON. 

How are you, my child .'' I am grieved to see thee here 
in prison. What are you here for 1 

For telling fortunes in the city. 

How long have you to stop here } 

Three months. My husband is in prison too ! 

What for t 

For horse-stealing, mate. The cursed constables com- 
mitted perjury about it. He is picking oakum now, and 
working on the treadwheel. 

I am sorry to hear it. I will not tell any one I have seen 
you here in prison. 

14 



210 GKNOiXE ROMANY COMt^OSlTlONS. 

God grant that you may never come here as long as you 
hve. Do you know " The Trumpet," a small public-house 
in the town ? 

No, I do not. 

I left my baskets there. Tell our people so, friend. 

Certainly I will do, if I can. 

Good day. 

Keep up your spirits. Cheer up. 

REMARKS SHOWING A GYPSY'S DISLIKE TO 
MIXED MARRIAGES. 

O Romani-chei kedais koshto lati-k6keri tall' sor liitVs 
looberiben. Kek nanei yd'i rinkeni. Wafedo di'komusti 
chei sas yoi. O moosh, yov sas korodo, ta loobni yek sas-16. 
Yov sas bauro di'nelo te wooser lesko kokero adre jafra 
wafedo chei'j" wastelw. 

Yd'i sas chichi feterder te loobni. Yoi sas yek. Yoi 
atchd'la opre dromaw adre o Gav, posha kitchemaw, te dik 
talla o gaire te del yoT trin-gorishi, te shau-hauri, te sov zvi' 
lati. Bi'tta gauje, rakle, vart asar lati dosta chairus^i", te jal 
adre weshaw, te mook wardi-gaire te sov zuf lati, a;id d6va 
see tatcho. Gauje penela jaw troostal lati kondw. 

Mandi penova, wonka yov jivela lati yek besh, yov 
nasherela sor l^sko 16vo, ta sor lesko zee, ta wel te jal ta 
mong mauro te hoi, kanna sas-16 (see-16) bokalo. YoT sig 
kelela dova lesti. 

YoT lela sor lesko wongur. YoT dela lesti katcr Idti'j dad 
ta dei, te wel y6ki/o/i'i, talla sor latiV lo6beribcn. 

Dordi ! dordi ! ! Savo bauro Di'nelo sas-16 ! ! ! 



GEKUINK ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 211 



O CHOORODO'S GOZVERO KERIMUS. 

Yek raati a Choorodo ghias kater Drabengro te atch-les 
opre, te wel kater lesti choori Romiii. YoT sas poshle adr6 
woodrus. 

Kanna o Drabengro shoondas lesti, yov rokerW to lesti, 
and o Choorodo poochtas-les, so yov lela te wel kater lesko 
Romni, te dova cheerus o' raati. 

O Choorodo peiidas '' Meeri Romni see chlv'd kater 
woodrus. Mandi penova yoiV/ men Wel, Rei, te dik a^ 
lati. Mandi delova toot a kotor te kair o feterder to lati, 
tastis." 

O Drabengro ghias. Kanna sor sas kedo, o Choorodo 
dias o Drabengro yek kotor. O Drabengro diktas yov 
sas a choorokono moosh. Yov dias-les posh-k6tor pauli, 
ta dova kotor sas wafedo yek. 

Kanna o Rei diktas o kotor, yov latch'<^ lesti avri. 
Wafedo sas. 

Kanna o Drabengro diktas o kotor wafedo sas, kenaw-sig 
o Drabengro ghias te dik palla o Choorodo, te po6ker yov 
wafedo kotor sas, yov dias lesti. 

Yov ghias kater tan, kei sas-16. 

O Choorodo kerdas sor leski koli opre. Ghias peski. 
Yov jindas wafedo kotor sas. 

. Translation. 
THE MUMPER'S ARTFUL DODGE. 

A mumper one night went to a doctor to call him up to 
attend his poor wife, who was confined to bed. 

As soon as the doctor heard him, he answered ; and the 
mumper asked him what fee he would want to attend his 
wife at that time of the night. He said to the doctor, 
*' My wife is confined, and I fear she will die. Come and 



212 GENUINE ROMANY COMrOSITIONS. 

look at her, sir. I will give you a guinea to do the best 
you can for her." 

So the doctor went; and when he had finished, the mum- 
per handed him a guinea. The doctor, however, seeing he 
was a poor man, returned him half the fee; but the guinea 
was bad, and the doctor found it out as soon as he exa- 
mined it. He immediately set off to look for the mumper, 
and to tell him the guinea he had paid was a bad one. 
He went to the place where he had been, but the mumper 
had packed up his goods and taken himself off, for he knew 
the guinea was bad. 

O JINOMESKRO HINDI-TEMENGRO. 

Yck chdirus a tatcho kooshto Drabengro jivdas adre 
o Meilesko-tcm. Yek shilalo raati, yov sas kino dosta. 
Shoondas a moosh. Yov sas a Hindi-temengro. Vias 
kater Idsko kair. Dids drovan oprc o wo6da. Yov pendds 
kdter Drabengro, " Kair sig, ta wel mdnsa. Meero choro 
pooro r6mni see 'pre m6r-m\ Wel kdter y&i. Mdndi d^la 
(dova) toot yek kotor." 

O Drabengro pendds to lesti, " Kek mdndi jova toosa. 
Jaw wdfedo shilalo radti see, ta o dromdw see jaw wdfedo 
ta chiklo." 

O Hindi-temengro pendds kdter Drabengro, "Wel tooti 
mdnsa, mi Dooveldski ! Mdndi dova toot yek k6tor, te 
kel Idti te jiv te mer." 

O Drabengro ghids Idsti. Kdnna yov vids odoi kdter yoi, 
y6'i sas boot ndfelo te mer. O Drabengro dids yoi koosi 
drab te pee. Tdlla yov ghids p^ski kokero kere popli. 

Adr^ o saula, o Drabdngro shoondds y&i sas mo61o. 

Yov ghids kdter o Hindi-tem^ngro. Pootchtas-les pdlla 
lesko kotor. 

O Hfndi-tem^ngro pendds kdter o Drabdngro, "Kek 
mdndi d6va toot 'd6va k6tor." 

Tdlla o Drabengro lids godli lesti. Lids-les oprd kdter o 
Pookcnyus te lei lesko luva. Kdnna yov sas agldl o Poo- 



GENUINE ROAIANY COxMPOSITIONS. 213 

kenyus, o Pookenyus pootchtas-les, "Sar sas kova. Too 
kek nanei pesserW o Drabengro ? " 

O Pookenyus pootchV o Hindi temengro, "See toot 
mooiengro te roker tooki ?" 

"Kek," hotchi yov, o pooro Hindi-temengro, "Mandi see 
meero nogo r6keromengro." 

O Pookenyus pendas kater o Hindi-temengro, "Too see 
lavaw te pen te pootch lesti vaniso ? " 

"Our, Rei!" pendas kater Pookenyus. 

" Pootch lesti, kon." 

"Drabengro!" hotchi o Hindi-tcmengro, "Too kerdas 
meero romni te jiv ? " 

" Kek," hotch' o Drabengro. 

" Too kairdas yoi te mer kon ? " 

" Kek," hotchi o Drabengro. 

" So mandi te del toot liiva troostal kon ? Too kek nanei 
kairV yoi' te jiv. Too kek nanei maurW lati. Savo Koosh- 
topen kairdas too talla.-* Konaw, Rei," pendas o Hi'ndi- 
temengro kater Pookenyus, " So mandi te kair ? Te del 
yov liiva te kek .'' " 

O Pookenyus pendas, " Kek nanei yov kerW lesko bootsi 
tatcho, ta yov pendas te kel lati te jiv te mer. Yov kerV 
kek o* lendi. Te yov sas te kair o joovel te jiv, mandi 
kairova te del o Drabengro o kotor so too pendas. Te wel 
yov te maur lati, mandi chivova-les pauli kater o Baiiri, 
ta yov v61a nashado, kairm' meriben." 

"So mandi te kair konaw, Rei, kon.^" pendas o pooro 
Hindi-temengro, " Too jal/// te chiv mandi adre steripen 
troostal lesti, te mook mdndi yoozho ? " 

Pendas o Pookenyus, " Yoozho shan. Too shan tatcho. 
Jaw tooki kei too komcssa." 

Translation. 
THE KNOWING IRISHMAN. 

Once upon a time there was a downright clever 
doctor living in Yorkshire, and one cold night he was very 



214 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

tired, when he heard a man. It was an Irishman, who had 
come to the house. He knocked at the door hard, and 
said to the doctor, " Make haste and come with me. My 
poor old wife is nearly dead. Come to her, and I will give 
you a guinea." 

The doctor replied, " I will not go with you ; it is such 
a wretchedly cold night, and the roads are so bad and 
muddy." 

The Irishman said to the doctor, " Do come with mc, for 
God's sake. I will give you a guinea whether you kill or 
cure her." 

So the doctor went with him, and when he reached the 
place she was evidently on her death-bed. The doctor 
gave her a little medicine to drink, and then he took him- 
self off home again. 

In the morning the doctor heard she was dead. 

He went to the Irishman, and asked for his fee. 

The Irishman said to the doctor, " I will not pay you 
that guinea." 

Then the doctor took out a summons against him. He 
summoned him before the justice to obtain his money. 
When he appeared before the justice, the justice asked 
him, " How is this ? You have not paid the doctor.? " The 
magistrate asked the Irishman if he had a lawyer to defend 
him. 

" No," said the old Irishman; " I am my own lawyer." 

The magistrate said to him, '' Have you any questions 
to ask him .?" 

*' Yes, sir," he said to the magistrate. 

"Ask him, then." 

"Doctor," said the Irishman, "did you make my wife 
live.?" 

" No ! " cried the doctor. 

** You made her die, then .?" 

"No!" cried the doctor. 

" What am I to pay you for, then ? You did not make 
her live. You did not kill her. What good did you do, 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 215 

then ? Now, sir," said the Irishman to the magistrate, " what 
am I to do — pay him, or not ? " 

The magistrate said, "He did not do his work properly, 
for he said he would kill or cure her, and he did neither. 
If he had made the woman live, I would make you pay 
the doctor the guinea you promised. If he be the cause of 
her death, I will remand him to the assizes, and he will be 
hanged for committing murder." 

"What am I to do now, sir, then?" said the old Irish- 
man. " Arc you going to put me in gaol for it, or acquit 
me ? " 

The magistrate answered, " You are clear. You are all 
right. Go where you like."* 

KING EDWARD AND THE GYPSY. 

Dosta do St a besJidzv ghids kondw, sas a batiro 

Many many years gone (by) now, (there) was a great 
Krdlis adre AngJiiterra; Edward//.y sas Icsko nav — kooshto 
King in England ; Edward was his name — (a) good 
komdo I'd sas-l6. 

kind gentleman was he. 

Yek divinis yov kestcrdds, sor bikonyo, adrdl a bauro 
One day he rode, all alone, through a great 

tdmlo zvesh. Wonka yov sas ajd/hx talc a bitto rook, a baiu'o 
dark wood. When he was going under a little tree, a big 
koslit leVdi bonnek o' lcsti?> bal. O rdttvalo grei pradster'd 
bough took hold of his hair. The cursed horse ran 
avn, ta viooktds Edward ?/i' ndsJicdo oprd rook. 
off, and left Edward hanged on the tree. 

A pooro Romani-chal, so sas odoi, bes/im' p^nsa sap 
An old Gypsy man, who was there, lying like (a) snake 
adrc chor, diktds-Ies. Yov ghids kdtcr Krdlis. Yov 
in the grass, saw him. He went to the King. He 

* This is a well-known anecdote. 



2l6 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

chindds o kosJit talc, ta inooktds Edward?/^ jal pecro apoplt. 
cut the bough down, and let Edward go free again. 
O Krdlis dids-ks pdrikaben, ta pendds Icsti, '' Kon shan 
The King gave him thanks, and said to him, " Who art 
too?'' Yov rokerdi ajdw: "A pooro cJiooro Romani-chdl 
thou?" He spoke thus: "An old poor Gypsy (man) 
sJiom vu\' Krdlis pendds, " Mookova toot tc jal kei too 
am I." The King said, " I will let thee go where thou 
komessa, ta sov kei too komc^ssa, adr^ sormi kj'dlisovn.) ta 
likest, and sleep where thou likest, in all my kingdom; and 
wr zvdver Romani-cJidlaiv tci see pecro to kcl ajdiv'' 
all other Gypsies too are free to do so." "■* 

o chc5romengro. 

Mandi diktom a baiiro gairo. Ghias adrc dova kair. 
Lids chomoni avri panlo adre a bauro jorjaw;^a. Ch6moni 
sas adr6, loko (sas). Kek ne jindom me so sas adre lesti. 

Sar sig yov diktas mandi, praastadds peski p6nsa grei. 
GJiias, garadas leski kokero. K(^'kera diktom 16sti kek- 
komi. 

Talla yov sas ghilo, o raiini kater kair vias adre o kair. 
Diktas sor lati'i- roopcno koH, ta soonaka ora, ta soonaka 
weriga, ta merikli, ta vongcshtai", sas sor ghilc. 

Dova gairo lias lendi sor. Ghias peski sor koshto yoozho 
te lendi. 

Translation. 

the thief. 

I saw a big man. He went into that house. He took 
something out tied in a big apron. Something was inside 
heavy (lit., light). I did not know what was in it. 

As soon (as) he saw me, he himself ran like (a) horse. 
He went ; he hid himself. I never saw him any more. 

After he was gone, the lady at (the) house came into 

* Edward VI. reigned 1547—1553, but all histories have ignored 
this incident ! Perhaps it is based on some New Forest tradition of 
the death of Richard, grandson of William I. 



GENUINE ROMANS COMPOSITIONS. 2 I 7 

the house. She saw all her silver things, and gold watches, 
and gold chains, and bracelets, and rings, were all gone. 

That man took them all. He himself went all right 
clean (off) with them. 

MI DOOVELESKO BITTA FOLKl. 

Shoondom yekera, dosta beshaw ghile, sas varengro. 
Jivdas aglal o Kralisko pooro kair kater Kellingworth 
posha Warwick. Chiimba see odoi, ta o Kralisko pooro 
kair see opre-les. Koshto rei sas-16. Komela sorkon 
koshto jivomus, te li'vena, ta sor waver piamus. 

Yek divvus adre o saula ghias avri, te lesko vardo, ta 
greiaw tei, te jal kater o baiiro gav te bikin lesko varo. 

Kekera vias pauli popli. Kekera diktas yon. O vardo, 
ta greiaw vias pauli. Yov kek vias. 

Talla dooi beshaw yov vias rtpopli, ta andadas kater 
lesko romni, toovlo, ta toovlo choraw, ta bauri swegler. 

Pookerde lesti, " Kei shanas too sor dula chairus, sor 
diila do6l' beshaw ? " 

Pendas yov, " Tale dova baiiro kair odoi'. Kek nanei see 
dooi beshaw. Kaliko raati mandi sas wel/;/' keri, ta mi 
Duvelcsko bi'tta folki vias. Yon atchte sor ketanc aglal 
mandi, sor troostal. Lias mandi tale adre a bauro fino 
rinkeno tan odoi', tale o kralisko pooro kair. 

Hodom sorkon koshto holomus, ta peedom sorkon piamus 
ta mandi kom.f, livena, ta mol, ta tatto paani tei. Kek 
nanei paani see odoi! Sas lendi dosta dosta toovlo, ta 
bauri swegler. Dias dosta kater mandi. Kelcnna, bosher- 
vcnna, ghivenna tei sor o raati. Doi see dosta ro6pni koli 
ta soonaka. 

Kanna saula vias, yon mookte mandi jal, ta mandi anda- 
dom kova to6vlo, ta toovlo koraw, ta bauri swegler. Dik 
asar at lendi. Diktassa jafri koli adre teero mdriben .? " 
" Kekera," pend(^ yon, " see d6va sor tatcho "i " 
" Our," pendas yov, '' opre meero koshto zee." 
Dova see so gaujc pende kater mandi. Kanna mandi 
sas odoi, sas komeni simensi o dova varengro adre o gav. 



2l8 genuine romany compositions. 

Translation. 
THE FAIRIES. 

I heard once, many years ago, there was a miller, who 
lived opposite Kenilworth Castle, near Warwick. There 
is a hill there, and the castle stands on it. The miller was 
a jovial sort of fellow, fond of good living, and liquor. 

One day, early in the morning, he set off with his cart 
and horses to go to town and sell his flour. 

He never returned. They never saw him again. His 
cart and horses came back, but he did not. 

After two years, he returned, and brought his wife some 
'baccy, 'bacca dishes, and long pipes. 

They asked him where he had been all those two years. 

He replied, " Under the castle, yonder; but it isn't two 
years. Last night I was coming home, and a whole lot of 
fairies came and stood in a ring round me, and then they 
took me off to a splendid place under the castle over 
there. 

" I ate of the best, and had every kind of drink I like 
— ale and wine, and spirits too. There's no water there! 
They had lots of 'baccy, and great long pipes, and they 
gave me plenty. They were dancing, and fiddling, and 
singing too all night long, and there were heaps of gold 
and silver. 

"As soon as it was morning they let me go, and I 
brought this here tobacco, and 'bacca dishes, and pipes 
away with me. Just look at 'em. Did you ever see such 
things in your lives .?" 

" Not we," said they. " Is it all true V 

" Yes," said he ; " upon my honour it is." 

That is a story the people told me ; and when I was 
there, some of the miller's descendants were still living 
in the village.* 

* Versions of this story are common to almost all mythologies. 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 2ig 

HOW PETALENGRO WENT TO HEAVEN. 

OLD DIALECT. 

Mandi pookcrova toot sar Petalcngro ghias kater mi 
Doovelesko keri : — 

Yek divvus mi Doovel vias adre bitto gav. Kek nanei 
kitchema sas adoi. Yov ghias adre PetalengroV kair. Yov 
sootadds odoi sor doova raati. 

Adre o saula o Petalengro'i- poori romni pendas. 
"Komova tc jal adre mi Doovolesko keri kanna merova." 

Mi Doovel diktats adre laki mooT. Yov pendas " Maw 
trash. Too nasti's te jal adre o bengesko tan. Odoi sec 
rovoben ta kair//^^ wafedo mooiaw ta da.ndi/ig- ti danaw. 
Tooti see kek nan^i danaw. Too jasa adre meero keri." 

Yov pendas kater laki rom. " Delova tooti stor kola. 
So bootodair too komesa te lei ? " 

O Petalengro pendas '•' Komova. O moosh so jala opre 
meero pobesko rook, nastis te wel tale. Doova see yek 
kova. 

" Komova. O moosh so beshela opre o kova so mandi 
kerova greiesti cho;(;a opre, nastis te atch opre rt:popli. Dula 
see doof kola 

" Komova. O moosh so jala adre meero bitto sastera 
mokto, nastissa te v/el avri. Dida see trin kola 

" Komova. Meero hoofa see mandi adre sorkon cheerus, 
ta kanna beshova opre-les kek moosh nastis te kair mandi 
te atch opre. Dula see o stor kola so komova feterdair." 

Mi Doovel pendas yov ' Our' kater sor dula kola, so yov 
pootchdas-les. Yov ghias opre lesko drom. 

Palla doova o Petalengro jivdds dosta dosta beshaw. 

Yek divvus o Bauro-shorokono-mulo-moosh vias. Yov 
pendas kater o Petalengro " Av mansa ! " 

O Petalengro pendas "Atch koosi, Borl Mook mandi 
pen 'kooshko divvus' kater meeri poori romni. Too jasa 
opre meero rook te lei pobe." 

Yov ghias opre o rook. Nastis te wel tale ^T-popli. O 
Petalengro kedas-les pen " Mookova toot bikonyo bish 
beshaw." ' Yov pendas doova. Yov vias tale. 



220 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

Palla bish beshaw, yov vias rt^popli. Yov pendas "Av 
mansa ! " 

O Petalengro pendas " Atch koosi, Bor ! Too shan kino. 
Besh tale opre doova kova." Sas o kova so yov kedas o 
greiesto cho;^a opre. 

Yov beshtas tale opre lesti. Nastissa te atch opre ^popli. 
O Petalengro kedas-les pen " Mookova tooti bikonyo bish 
beshaw apopVC Yov pendas doova. Yov atchdas opre. 

Palla bish beshaw ^popli o Beng vias. Yov pendas "Av 
mansa." 

O Petalengro pendas " Atch koosi, Bor ! Kek jaw sig, 
mi pooro chavo ! M6 shom jaw kooshto sar tooti. Mook 
mandi dik tooti jal adre kova bitto sastera mokto." 

Yov ghias adre-les. Nastissa te wel avri. O Petalengro 
chidas o mokto adre o yog. Kanna les sas lolo-tatto yov 
chidas-les opr^ o kova so yov kedas o greiesto cho%a opre. 
Yov koordas-les sar sor lesko roozlopen. O Beng rovdas 
ta kordas avri sor o cheerus "Mook mandi jal. Mookova 
tooti bikonyo adr6 sor cheerus." Kanna o Petalengro sas 
sor kino, yov mooktas o Beng jal. 

Palla waver doosta dooro cheerus mi Doovel bitchadas 
yek o' mi Doovel'i" tatcho gaire. Yov pendas " Av mansa 
kater o Bengesko tan." 

O Petalengro pendas " Sor tatcho." 

Kanna o Beng diktas-les, yov pendas "Jal avri sig, 
wafedo gairo. Kek komova tooti akei." 

Jaw o tatcho gairo lias-les kater mi Doovel'j- tern. Mi 
Doovel pootchdas "Welessa too avri o Bengesko tan .?" 

O Petalengro pendds "Kek.'* Mi Doovel pcnd.is "Jal 
avri sig, wafedo gairo. Kek komova tooti ak(5i." 

O Petalengro pendas " Mook mandi dik adre teero kair." 
Mi Doovel pirivdas o wooda. O Petalengro wooserdas 
lesko hoofa adre. Prasterdas. Beshtas tale opre-les, ta 
pendds kater mi Doovel " Nastissa too te kair mandi jal 
kendw." 

Doova see sar o Petalengro ghids kater mi Dooverj kair, 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 221 

THE SAME. 

NEW DIALECT. 

MandiV/ pooker tooti /lozu the Petalengro jalW adre mi 
Doover^ kair. 

Yek divvus mi Doovcl welV/ adre a bitti gav, and latch'<^ 
kekeno kitchema odoi, so he]'dXd adre the Petalengro'i" kair, 
and sooter'^ odoi sor doova raati. 

Adre the saula the PetalengroV poori romni penV. ''' Td 
kom to jal adre mi DoovelV kair zvhen mandi merj," so 
mi Doovel 6S\^d adre lati'i" mooi, and penW '' Maw trash 
Tooti cant jal adre tJie Bengesko tan, 'cause odoi there's 
rovoben aftd dand/;/^ o' danyaw, and tooti'i- danyaw a7'e 
sor nasherV/ avri yo?tr mooV. Tooti shall jal adre meeri 
kair." 

And he pen'^ to lati'i- rom " MandiV/ del tooti stor kovai". 
So does tooti kom "■ " 

" The Petalengro penV/ " Mandi kom J as any moosh, as 
jab opre meero rook to lei poboj, can't wel tale ^popli. 
Doova'j" yek kova. 

" Mandi konii- as any moosh, as besh^i- opre the kova 
mandi kairi- greiesto chokai- opre, can't atch opre rt:popli. 
Doova'i" dooi" kovaj". 

" Mandi komi* as any moosh, as jal s adre meeri bitto 
sastera mokto, caiit wel avri rt:popli, DoovaV trin kovax. 

"Mandi kom.y as meeri hoofa may be mine adre sor 
cheerus, and tvhen mandi besh^i- apre lesti kek moosh can 
kair mandi atch opre ^popli. Doova'i" the stor kova^ as 
mandi komi-." 

Mi Doovel penW, " Our," to sor doova kovaj, and jalV 
opre lesti'j- drom. 

Palla doova the Petalengro ]Wd boot adoosta besh^j". 

Yek divvus the Bauro-shorokono-moolo-moosh welV and 
penW to the Petalengro, " Av ivith mandi." 

The Petalengro penV, " Atch a koosi, Bor ! Mook mandi 
pen 'Kooshto divvus' to meeri poori romni. Tooti can }a\ 



!12^ GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

op re mecri rook, ^//d lei so?/ic poboj-," (i/id ivJicn he jalV 
oprc tJie rook, Jic couldn't wel tale ^popH, so tJic Petalengro 
kairW Jiim pen " Mandi V/mook tooti ^konyo bish besh^i-" 
and sar sig as he ^cnd doova he could wel tale. 

Palla bish beshri- he welV/ ^popli ajid penV, "Av ivith 
mandi," a?id the Petalengro pcnV, "Atch a koosi, Bor ! 
Tooti'i- kini. Besh tale opre doova kova." 

He beshW tale opre the kovva he kairV greiesto chokai- 
opre ajid could?it atch opre ^popli, so the Petalengro kair'^ 
hint pen, "Mandi 7/ mook tooti ^konyo bish besh^o rt^popli," 
and sar sig as he penV doova he could atch opre. 

Palla bish besh^i- rt-popli the Beng welW and pen'rt^, "Av 
7vith mandi," ajid the Petalengro penW, "Atch a koosi, 
Bor ! Kek so sig, mi poori chavi. Mandi'j- as kooshti as 
tooti. Mook mandi dik tooti jal adre kovva bitti sastera 
mokto asar," He ]TiVd adre lesti atid couldn't wel avri so the 
Petalengro chivW it adre the yog, and zvhen it was sor lolo- 
tatto lie chivW it opre the kova he kairV greiesto chokai* 
opre a7id koor'^ lesti with sor Jiis roozlopen, and the Beng 
rovW and Vox\i avri sor tJie cheerus, " Mook mandi jal. 
Mandi 7/ mook tooti <?konyo 'dr6 sor cheerus," and ivhcn 
the Petalengro zvas quite kino, he mookW tlie Beng jal. 

Palla a baiiro cheerus mi Doovel bitcher'^ yek of his 
tatcho gairiri', who penV to the Petalengro, "Av witJi mandi 
to the Bengesko tan," aftd the Petalengro penV, " Sor 
tatcho." 

]Vhen the Beng dikV/ lesti, he penV, "Jal avri sig, jw/ 
wafedo gairo. Mandi doesn't kom tooti akei." 

So the tatcho gairo lelV him to mi Doovel'j tem, and mi 
Doovel pootchV 16sti, "Has tooti wcVd front the Bengesko 
tan.?" 

A?id the Petalengro penV, " Keker," so mi Doovel penV, 
"Jal avri sig, you wafedo gairo. Mandi doesn't kom tooti 
akei." 

And the Petalengro penV/, " Mook mandi dik adre your 
kair," ajid sar sig as mi Doovel pirivV the wooda, tJie Peta- 
lengro wooscrV his hoofa adre, and prasterV, and besh'rtf 



tale opre lesti, and peiiV/ to mi Doovel, " Tooti caiit kair 
mandi jal kenaw." 

Doova'i' the droni tJie Petalengro jalW adre mi DoovelV 
kair/"^ 



fraufilationfi. 



THE TARNO BOSHNO AND THE BARVALO 

BAR. 

THE YOUNG COCK AND THE DIAMOND. 

A tarno boshno ivi dooT trin kann?>i-, lesko romni^j", sas 
A young cock with two {or) three hens, his zvives, zvas 
dik/;/ for choomoni to hoi opr^ a chikesko-chumba. Yov 
looking for something to eat on a dnng-Jiill. He 

latchr^ odoi a barvalo bar and penV ajaw : " MandiW 
found tJiere a diamond, and said tJius : " I 'd 
sigadair latch a koosi ghiv te chiv adre mi pur dan sor 
sooner find a little corn to put into my belly than all 
the barvalo bar^ tale the kam." 
the diamonds binder the sun I' 

SAR THE JOOKEL NASHER^/) HIS MAS. 
HOW THE DOG LOST HIS MEAT. 

A chooro dinilo jookel sas peer/;^' posha the paani-rig zvi' 
A poor foolish dog zvasivalking near the water- side with 
koosi mas adre leski mooT. Diktas kumeni kova pensa 
a little meat in his mouth. He saiv some thing like 

* This story is taken from "Hone's Every Day Book," ed. 1857, 
vol. i., p. 447. The translations were originally my o^vn, but have been 
so altered, amended, and criticised by Gypsy auditors, that we have 
included them here, as examples of the two dialects.— II. T. C, 



2 24 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSlTTOXS. 

waver mas adrc o paani. Yov piriv<^^/ lesko danyaw to 
other meat in the water. He opened his teeth to 
lei o waver mas, ta mooktas o tatcho kova pel tale 
get the other meat, and let the real thing fall doivn 
adre o paani. Jaw sor lesko lioben sas nashedo. Yek 
into the zvater. So all his food zvas lost. One 
shosho adre o koro see mol dooi adre o wesh, 
rabbit in the pot is worth two in the wood. 

THE LOLO-WESHKENO JOOKEL AND LESKO 

PORT. 

THE FOX AND HIS TAIL. 

Yek divvus a lolo-wdshkeno-jookel sas lino by lesko pori 
One day a red-wood-dog {fox) was eaught by his tail 
adre a tilomengro. Yov pendas kater his kokero, " So 
iji a trap. He said to himself, ''What 

kerova mandi kenaw ? Nasti's lova lesti avri rrpopli." 
shall I do noiv ? I eannot get it ont againl^ 
Tardadas-les ta mooktas-les palla lesti adre o weshkeni- 
He pulled it and left it behind him in the wood- 
tilomengro. Palla doova yov sas rt-ladj to sikker his 
holder {-trap). After that he was ashamed to show him- 
kokero kater leski palaw. Kordas-len /^ketand, ta pendas 
self to his mates. He ealled them together, and said 

ajaw : " Mook sor mendi chin moro porydw tale. Kek nanei 
thus: ^' Let all of us cut our tails off. No 

kooshto jafri koli to mendi." Talla a pooro jinomeskro 
good (are) such things to us!' But an old knoiving 

jookel pendas, " Kanna meero nogo pori see lino adre yek, 
dog said, " When my owji tail is taken in one, 
kerova ajdw, tastis, talla righerova-les kenaw." 
/ will do so, if I ea7i, but I zvill keep it noiv!' 



GENiriNE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 225 

THE BAURO HOLOMENGRO JOOKEL AND THE 

TIKNO BOKOCHO. 

THE WOLF AND THE LITTLE LAMB. 

Yek divvus a bauro holomengro jookel ghias kater the 
One day a big ravenous dog {wolf) went to the 
paani-rig to pee, and a tikno bokocho sas odoi tei, 
water-side to drink, and a little lamb zvas there too, 
peei7i' kek door /r^w lesti. And the bauro holomengro 
d^Hnking not far from him. And the zvolf 

jookel sas doosta bokalo, and dik'd the tikno bokocho, and 
zvas very hungry, and saiv the little lamb, and 
pen'^, " Hoino shorn me tusa. Kairessa sor o paani 
said, ''Angry ant I with thee. Thou makest all the water 
mokado." Pendas o tikno bokocho, "Kek mandi see. 
dirty y Said the little lamb, " Not I is it. 

O paani nasheri- tale from tooti to mandi, 'jaw nastissa 
The water runs dozvn from thee to me, so cannot 
mandi kair o paani mokado." Pendas o bauro holomengro 
/ make the zuater dirty'' Said the wolf, 

jookel, " Tooti's jaw wafedo sar teero dad ta dei ; 

" Thou art as bad as thy father and mother ; 
mandi maurdom lendi dooi. Mandi maurova tooti." Yov 
/ killed them both. I zvill kill thee!' He 

hodas lesti opre. 
ate it tip. 



PATER NOSTER. 

(Compare six versions. Pott, ii., 472, et seq. ; also those 
in the Appendices to Borrow's "Zincali," and in his 
" Lavo-lil.") 

Moro Dad, so see adr6 mi Duvelesko kerl, te wel teero 
kralis^w; Too zee be kedo adre chik, jaw see adr6 mi 
Duvelesko keri. Del mendi kova divvus moro divvus/)/ 

15 



lit GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

mauro ; tay<?^del mendi moro wafedo-kerimus, pensa mendi 
y<?rdeU yon ta kairj wafedo ^posh mendi, ta lei mendi kek 
adre wafedo-kerimus. Jaw keressa te righer mendi avri 
wafedo. Jaw see ta jaw see. 

Wester Boswell, with a little help 
in paraphrasing the English. 

CREED. 

(Compare two versions, Pott, ii., 470, 471 ; and those in 
Borrow's " Lavo-lil.") 

Mandi patser * adre mi Duvel, o Dad sor-ruzlo, kon 
kedas mi Duvelesko keri, ta chik ; 

Ta'dr6 Duvelesko Chavo, lesko yekino tikno, moro Duvel, 
kon o Tatcho Mulo lino. Beeno palla o Tatchi Tarni 
Duveleski Juvel, so'j- nav sas Mary, ta kedas wafedo tale 
Pontius Pilate, jaw sas mordno opre o rook, moolo ta 
poorosto. Yov jal'^ tale adre o Bengesko Tan. Trin 
divvus^i- palla doova yov welW opre ^popli avri o Mulo 
Tan. Yov jal'^f opre adre mi Duvelesko keri, beshtas opr6 
o tatcho wast of mi Duvel, o Dad sor ruzlo. Avri doova 
tan yov avesa f ^popli, pensa pookinyus, te bitcher o jido 
ta o mulo. 

Mandi patser* adre o Tatcho Mulo, o tatcho Hindi- 
temengro'j- Kongri, o roker/;/ of\ios\\\.ofolk\y o for^(t\oness 
of wafedopeni", o atchzV/' opre ^popli of o troopus, ta o 
meriben kedo/br sor chairus. Jaw see ta jaw see. 

Wester Boswell, with a little help 
in paraphrasing the English. 

THE TEN COMMANDMENTS. 

(Compare Pott, ii., 488.) 

I. 
Mandi shorn teero tatcho Doovel. Kek komeni Doovel'j 
see tooti talla mandi. 



* Patsova. t Avela. 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 227 

IL 
Maw kair tooti kek komeni foshono kookelo, na kek 
pensa waver kova palla lesti ta see adre Duvelesko keri 
opre, adre o chik tale, or 'dre o paani tal^ o chik. Maw 
pel tal6 kater lendi. Maw pootch lendi te del tooti variso* 
Maw pen teero lavyaw kater lendi, 'jaw mandi teero tatcho 
Doovel shorn tatcho Doovel, ta kairova o chave dooker/br 
o dad'i- wafedo-peni- 'jaw door sar o pooro dad'j chave, ta 
lenghi chave tei, so kek nanei komela (komenna) mandi, 
ta siker komoben kater lendi so komesa (komenna) mandi 
ta kairesa (kairenna) meero tatcho trad. 

III. 
Maw lei teero Doovel'^y nav bonges, jaw mi Doovel kek 
tilesa (tilela) lesti sor tatcho so leU lesko nav bonges. 

IV. 
Maw bisser te righer tatcho o Kooroko divvus. Shov 
divvusaw too bootiesa ta kair sor so see tooti te kair, talla o 
trin ta stor divvus see o tatcho doovel'j kooroko. 'Dre lesti 
maw kair komeni booti, too, ta teero chavo, ta teeri chei, 
ta teero mooshkeni bootiengro, ta teero joovni bootiengro, 
teeri groovne, ta o gaujo so see adre teero tan. Jaw 'dr^ 
shov divvusaw mi Doovel kedas mi Doovelesko keri, ta o 
chik, o bauro londo paani, ta sor so see adre lesti, ta beshtas 
tale o trin ta stor divvus ta kedas chichi. Jaw mi Doovel 
pendas kooshto o trin ta stor divvus ta kedas-les tatcho. 

V. 

Kair kooshtoben kater teero dad ta teeri del, 'jaw too 
jivesa bauro cheerus adre o tern so teero tatcho Doovel delj- 
tooti. 

VI. 

Maw too maur. 

VII. 

Maw sov sar gairi^i* talla teero nogo romni. Kek nanei 
too sov troostal waver moosh'j- romni. 



228 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

VIII. 
Maw too chor. 

IX. 

Maw sovlohol bonges rt'posh o gaire so see posha tooti. 

X. 

Maw too pootch troostal vaniso kova ta nanci see teero. 

Maw kom o moosh'i- kair so see posha tooti. Maw kom 

lesko romni, na lesko bootiengro, ta lesko bootiengri rakli, 

na lesko mooshkeni groovni, na lesko meila, na variso kova 

so see lesti. 

Wester Boswell, with a little help 

in paraphrasing the English. 

THE LORD IS MY SHEPHERD. 
(Psalm xxiii. i — 6, Bible Version.) 

1. O Doovel see meero bokorengro so odoi mandi nastis 
w^«/asova chichi ; or, Meero Doovel see meero bokorengro 
kek nannef wantasova. 

2. Yov kairi- (kairela) mandi te sov tele adre o chorengri 
poovyaw. Yov \€ieth mandi posh-rig o shookar paani ; or, 
o atchlo paani. 

3. Kairela tatcho to mandi'i- meripen, kanna shom muUo. 
Yov siker^//<! mandi adre o tatcho drom ajaw lesko nav'j 
sake-Qs. 

4. Our. Though mandi peer^/// adral o kaulo meripen- 
drom, mandi'j- kek ^trash of kek wafedo,/<?r too shan posha 
mandi. Teero ran, ta teero kosht kairenna yon mandi 
kooshtoben. 

5. Too kairdss a misalli 'glal mandi, aglal meero wafedo- 
folkl. Too chiv^ss tulipen oprc mccro shoro, ta meero koro 

ndisheih pardal. 

6. Tatcho kooshtoben, ta tatcho komoben, wel palla 
mandi sor o divvus^j te meero meriben ; ta mandi jivova 
adre mi Doovelesko kair sor mi meriben. 

Wester Boswell, without any help. 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 22<^ 

THE SEVEN LOAVES MIRACLE. 
(Mark viii. i— 8.) 

1. Adre kola divvusaw, kanna sas dosta komeni odoi 
\Q\i7i chichi sor kova cheerus, mi Doovel pootchtas lesko 
foikl, ta pendas kater lendi. 

2. Mandi shorn toogiio talla sor o folk'i. Yon sas mandi 
trin divvusaw, ta kek nanei lendi sas yon te hoi sor kova 
cheerus. 

3. Te wel mandi te bitcherova-len avri kater lenghi 
kairaw, yon penna [perenna] tale 0' bok. Dosta lendi vien 
door dosta. 

4. Lesko nogo folk'i pendas to yov. " Sar sasti's te yek 
moosli del jaw kisi mooshaw mauro dosta te hoi te porder 
lenghi peraw adre kova wafedo-dik///' tan?" 

5. Yov pootchtas lendi. " Sar kisi chele maure see toot .?" 
Yon penV, " Dooi' trinyaw ta yek." 

6. Yov pendas lendi te besh tale o poov {or, chik). Yov 
lias o dooi trinyaw ta yek chele maur6. Yov del'^/ parik- 
aben kater mi Doovel. Yov pogadas o mauro, dids-les 
kater \Qs\d foikl te besh aglal lendi sor. Yon kair'</ ajaw. 

7. (Ta) yon lian dooi" trin bitta matchi. Yov delV lesko 
kooshto lav, ta pookadas yon te besh lesti tale aglal lendi. 

8. Jaw yon hode ta lenghi peraw sor lendi porde sas. 
Yon lelV opre, talla yon hode, dooi' trinyaw ta yek kooshnc 
pordo pogado hoben, so sas mooklo talla yon porderV 
sor lendi peraw. 

Wester Boswell, without any help. 

LOVE YOUR ENEMIES. 

(Luke vi. 27 — 31.) 

27. Mandi pooker kater too, " Kom asar teero wafedo 
folk'i. Kair koshto kater dula te kair^ wafedo kater toot. 

28. Kom too dola folk'i kanna yon pen wafedo lavaw 
kater tooki, Mong asar mi Duvel kanna yon kelj bonges 
kater tooki. 



230 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

29. Kanna yon del toot pre yek rig d ti mooY, chiv o 
waver kater lendi. Yov te lela teero plashta, maw penaw 
te yov lela tecro cho%a tei. 

30. Del kater sorkon moosh ta pootchela vaniso kova 
toti. Dova komeni lela teero koli pootch lesti kek komi. 

31. Kair too kater waver mooshaw, jaw too komessa 
Jendi te kel tooti. 

THE WIDOW'S SON. 
(Luke vii. 11 — 15.) 

11. Ta welV ajaw o divvus palla, yov jalV adre a 
shorokono gav. O nav sas Nain. Dosta ' lesti shorokono 
mooshaw ghien lesti, ta dosta waver /<?//6i. 

12. Talla yov vias kater o stigher o bauro shorokono 
gav, yov diktas a moolo moosh andV avri o stigher. Yov 
sas o tatcho yek d lesko dei. Yoi sas a peevli gain, ta 
dosta folki sas posha yoi". 

13. Kanna mi Doovel diktas yoi, yov komW lati. Pendds 
mi Doovel kater lati. " Maw rov too." 

14. Yov vias. Chivdels lesko vast opre o kova so yon 
rlgher'^ moolo gairo opre. Yon (ta) rigadas-les atcht^ 
lendi {pr yon atch'<^). Pendas mi Doovel, " Tarno moosh, 
(ta) sas moolo, atch opre jido." 

15. Yov, ta sas moolo, atchtas lesko kokero opr^. Talla 
atchtds oprd, rokadas. Meero Doovel talla ^iXd kova 
tarno moosh to lesko dei. 

Wester Boswell, without any help. 

THE SUPPER. 
(Luke xiv. 16—24.) 

16. Yek raati gairo kedas bauro holomus, ta poochdas 
boot doosta/^/y^i te wel, ta hoi lesti. 

17. Ta yov bitchadas lesko bootsiengro, ^/ hoben-chairos, 
te pen lendi, kon sas poochlo, " Av. Sor kola see tatcho 
k'naw. Wcl adrc." 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 23 I 

1 8. Ta yon sor, with yek zee, welessa (vien) te kel veena. 
Oyfrj-Zader pendas kater lesti, " Mandi kindom kotor poov, 
ta jova te dik lesti. Mongova tooti kair mandi veenlo." 

19. Ta yek waver pendas, "Mandi kindom pansh yoke 
mooshkeni groovni, ta jova te dik palla lendi. Mandi 
mongova tooti kair mandi veenlo." 

20. Ta yek waver pendas, "Mandi romedom kedivvus 
kater joovel, mandi nastissa te wel." 

21. Palla doova o bootsiengro welassa (vias) ta sikadas 
kater lesko Rei dula kola. Ta kanna o Shorokno-pardal-o- 
kair shoondas, yov sas hoino, ta pendas kater o bootsiengro, 
" Jal avri sig adre o baure-gavesti-dromaw, ta adre o bitt^- 
gavesti-dromaw, ta and adre kova tan dula moosliaw ta 
jooveli" so see choorokne, ta o kek-mooshengri, ta o long6, 
ta o korod^." 

22. Ta o bootsiengro kedas ajaw, ta yov welV rt^popli, ta 
pendas kater lesko Rei. " Rei ! mandi kedom sor too 
pendas, ta sor o skamine kek nanei pordo." 

23. Ta o Rei pendas kater o bootsiengro, " Jal avri ta dik 
adrd o baure dromaw, ta tale o boryaw, ta kair lendi wel 
adre, sar meero kair be pordo. 

24. Mandi pookerova tumendi kek nanei dula gaire so 
sas poochld holessa (holenna) yek koosi meero hoben." 

Wester Boswell, with a little help 
in paraphrasing the English. 



THE PRODIGAL SON. 
(Luke XV. II — 32.) 

1 1 . Yekorus yek gairo sas dooi chave. 

12. Ta o tarnodair pendas kater lesko dad. " Dad ! De 
mandi o kotor d koli ta perela mandi." Ta yov dias lendi 
lesko jivoben. 

1 3. Ta, kek dosta divusaw palla, o tarnodair chavo chidds 
sor ketarie ta yov lias lesko drom adre dooro tern, ta odoi 
yov nashedas sor lesko kola 'dre wafedo jivoben. 



2S2 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

14. Ta kanna yov nashedas sor, odoi sas bauro bokaloben 
adr6 doova tern ta yov vias te kom kumeni te hoi. 

15. Ta yov ghias ta pandas lesti kokero kater gavengro 
0/ doova tern, ta o moosh bitchadas-les adre o poovyaw te 
del hoben kater baule. 

16. Ta komessa (komdas) te porder lesko pur wi^/i o kola 
so o baule hode. Ta kek gairo dias leski vaniso. 

17. Ta kanna yov diktas lesti kokero yov pendas, "Sar 
kisi mi dadeski pessad^ bootsiengri si mauro dosta ta dosta, 
ta mandi merova bokalo. 

18. Mandi atchova opr^ ta jova kater meero Dad, and 
penova lesti, Meero Dad ! Kedom wafedo rt^posh mi Doovel 
ta tooti. 

19. Ta mandi shorn kek komi mol to be kordo teero chavo. 
Kair mandi sar yek d teero pessado bootsiengri." 

20. Ta yov atchdas ta vias kater lesko Dad. Ta kanna 
yov sas ajdw a bauro door avri, lesko dad diktas-les ta yov 
sas dosta toogno, ta nashdas, ta pedas opre lesko men ta 
choomadds-les. 

21. Ta o chavo pendas kater lesti dad, "Mandi kcdom 
wafedo ^posh mi Doovel ta 'dre teero dikimus ta mandi 
shorn kek komi mol to be kordo teero chavo." 

22. Ta o dad pendas kater lesko bootsiengri, "And avri 
o feterdair plo%ta ta chiv-les opr^ lesti, ta chiv wongusti 
opr6 lesko wast, ta cho^j^^aw opr^ lesko peerd. 

23. Ta and akei o tikno groovni so see kedo tuUo, ta maur 
lesti, ta mook mendi hoi ta be mishto adrd moro zceaw. 

24. Jaw mi chavo sas mulo ta see jido rt^popli. Yov sas 
nashedo talla see yov latchno rt;popli." Ta yon vian (vias) 
to be mishto adre lenghi zeeaw. 

25. Lesko poorodafr chavo sas adre o poov. Jaw yov 
vias ta sas posha o kair yov shoondds o boshomengri ta o 
kelopen. 

26. Ta yov kordas bootsiengro ta pootchdas, " So see } " 

27. O bootsiengro pendds, " Teero pal vias ta teero dad 
mordds o tuUo tikno groovni, jaw yov lids-les sor kooshto 
rtipopli." 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 233 

28. O poorodair chavo sas hoino ta pendas yov'd kek 
jal adre. Jaw lesko dad vias avri ta pootchdas-les te wel 
ad re. 

29. Ta yov dias lav ta pendas kater lesko dad, " Dordi ! 
So kisi beshaw mandi kedom sorkon kola too pootchdds 
(pootchdan) mandi ? Kekeno cheerus mandi pogadom teero 
trad. Kekeno cheerus too dias man bokoro te kcl peias 
sar meero komyaw. 

30. Jaw sig meero pal avela, maurdas too lesti o tuUo 
tikno groovni, ta yov nashedas sor teero jivoben sar loob- 
nidw." 

31. Lesko dad pendas, "Mi chavo! Too shan mansa 
sorkon cheerus ta sor meero kola see tooti. 

32. Tatcho sas mendi te kel peias. Teero pal sas mulo. 
Yov see jido <^popli. Yov sas nashedo ta see latchno 
rt;popli." 

Wester Boswell, with a little help 
in paraphrasing the English. 

THE RICH MAN AND LAZARUS. 
(Luke xvi. 19 — 31.) 

19. Yekorus sas barvalo moosh kon sas rido adre lolo 
po%tan ta yoki rivoben ta hodas kooshko hoben sorkon 
divusaw. 

20. Sas mongamengro tei. O nav see lesti Lazarus. 
Yov sas chido kater o wooda sor naflo ta pordo wafedo 
tanaw. 

21. Yov pootchdas o barvalo gairo to mook yov lei o bito 
kotore 0' mauro so pedas tale o barvalo gairo'j misali. 
Jookeli- vian tei ta kossade lesko wafedo tanaw opre lesti. 

22. O mongamengro merdas, ta yek 0' mi Doovel'j- tatcho 
gaire lias-les adre Abraham's berk adre mi Duvelesko tem. 
O barvalo moosh merdas tei, ta yov sas poorasto. 

23. Kanna yov sas adre o Bengesko tan, yov sas dook- 
adno ta diktas Abraham doovori adre mi Duvelesko tem, ta 
diktas Lazarus adre lesko berk. 



234 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

24. O Barvalo moosh rovdas ta pendas, "Meero dad, 
Abraham ! Te wel tooti komoben opre mandi ta bitcher 
Lazarus te chiv lesko nei adre paani ta kel meero chib 
shilalo. Shorn dosta dookadno adre kova yog." 

25. Abraham pendas, "Chor! Kek bisser too? Adr6 
teero meripen ta Has (han) kooshti kola, pensa Lazarus lids 
wafedo kola. Kenaw yov see kedo mishto ta too shan 
dookadno. 

26. Ta, poshrig sor dula kola, bauro hev see chido posh 
drom d mendi ta tooti, jaw dula gair6 so komena te jal 
avri mi Duvelesko tern kater tooti odoi nastissa, ta dula 
gaire so komena te wel avri o bengesko tan akei nastissa." 

27. O barvalo moosh pendas, " Kair mandi dova koshto, 
Dad, te bitcher Lazarus kater meero dadesko kair. 

28. Pansh palaw see mandi. Mook Lazarus pooker 
lendi. Trashova yon wena akei adre kova wafedo bengesko 
tan." 

29. Abraham penela kater lesti, " Moses ta waver6 bauro 
rokeromengri see lendi. Mook ti palaw shoon kater lendi." 

30. O barvalo moosh pendas, " Kek, dad Abraham. Sar 
yek moosh ghias kater lendi avri o mulo tem yon kerena 
mishto." 

31. Abraham pendas. "Sar kek shoonena Moses ta o 
wavere bauro rokeromengri, yon kek nanei patserena sar 
yek moosh avela kater lendi avri o mulo tem." 

Wester Boswell, with a little help 
in paraphrasing the English. 



ZACCH^US. 
(Luke xix. i — 6.) 

1. Ta Jesus vias adre ta ghias adral Jericho. 

2. Ta dordi sas odoi a Moosh, lesko nav Zacchaeus. Yov 
sas a shorokono Moosh, ta barvalo sas-16. 

3. Ta yov kedas o feterdair te dik Jesus kon yov sas, ta 
nastis kel ajaw. A bito moosh sas yov. 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 235 

4. Ta yov nashedas ta ghias opre adre a rook te dik 
lesti,/<?r yov sas te peer tale dova drom. 

5. And kanna Jesus vias kater tan, yov diktas opr^ ta 
diktas-les odoi, ta pendas lesti. "Zacchaeus, kair yeka ta av 
tale, atchova ke-divvus kater teero kalr." 

6. Yov kedas yeka, vias tale ta lias-les kere wV tatcho 
zee. 

THE GOOD SHEPHERD. 
(Luke X. II — 18.) 

11. Mandi shorn o kooshto bokromengro (^r Basengro). 
O kooshto Basengro dela lesko meripen for o bokre. 

12. But yov kon see pessado te dik palla o bokre, ta 
kon'i- see kek nanei o bokre, kanna dikela o bauro- 
holomengro-jookel wekV/, mukela o bokre ta prasterela, ta 
o bauro-holomengro-jookel lela len, ta kairela o bokre 
praster sor paudel o tern. 

13. O gairo, kon see pessado te dik palla o bokrd, 
prasterela sar sig yov see pessado, ta yov kesserela kek/6;r 
o bokre. 

14. Mandi shorn o kooshto Basengro, ta mandi jinova 
meeri bokre, ta mafidi shorn jinlo ^meero. 

15. Sar o Dad jinela mandi, ajaw mandi jinova o Dad, 
ta mandi chivova tale meero meeripen for o bokre. 

16. Ta mandi shan waver bokre, kon shan {or so see) kek 
^ meero pandomengra Yon tei mandi andova dula tasti's, 
ta yon shoonessa (shoonenna) mandi, kanna mandi kaurova 
lendi, ta mandi kelova yek pandomengro, ta kek nanei hit 
yek basengro pardel o bokre. 

17. Meero Dad komessa (komela) mandi, 'jaw see mandi 
chivova tale meero meripen, ta lelova lesti ^popli. 

18. Kek moosh leb lesti rt-mandi, mandi chivova lesti 
tale mi-kokero. Mandi kerova te chiv lesti tale, ta lei lesti 
apre rt;popli. Meero Dad dias mandi kowa kova te kair. 

Wester Boswell, with a little help 
in paraphrasing the English. 



236 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 



TEMPORA MUTANTUR. 

Sor o Lundra Romani chale mookte Lundra konaw.* 
Sor vien tale kova iVd?///erengn tern. Komela lesti feterder 
konaw, kei yon tised asar te ven yek chairus. Sor adre 
waver dromaw righeren lendi kokere, for sor jab kater 
paaneska gavaw konaw. Bita kerimus kek nanei kelela 
lendi konaw. Yon venna sor reiaw ta raunia konaw. 
Nanei yon konaw sas yon beshaw dosta paule. Trashenna 
te atch adre o bauro gavaw yek cheerus. Konaw yon 
atchenna 'dre o feterder gavaw te yon latchenna. Kondw 
choorokono hoben kek kela Icndi konaw. Yon lela o feter- 
der masaw, ta cherikle, ta kanya, ta papinyaw, ta shosh^, 
ta kanengre, ta goia. Jivcnna konaw opre o feterder hoben 
see adre o tern. 

All the London Gypsies have left London now.* All 
come down to these northern parts. They like it better 
now, (than) where they used to go once. They all keep 
themselves in other ways, for all go to watering-places 
now. Small sport does not do for them now. They are 
all become gentlemen and ladies now. They are not now 
as they were many years ago. They used to be afraid to 
stop in the big towns once. Now they stop in the best 
towns they can find. Poor victuals won't do for them now. 
They get the best meat, birds, hens, geese, rabbits, hares, 
and puddings. They live now on the best food there is in 
the land. 

SPEED THE PARTING GUEST. 

Chairus see konaw te jal te keri. Too atchessa bootod^r 
akei, too nasherela teero praster/;/' kister kater Mooshkeni- 

* This is not the case. 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS- 237 

gav. Kair sig keri, ta maw nasher teero chairus. Talla too 
nasher ti chairus, too atchessa adre kova gav sor raati ti 
kokero. Kek ti cheiaw jinela (jinenna) kei shan too. Yon 
bitcherenna prastermengri palla tooki te latch tooki poph*. 
Ajaw kair sig, jaw tooki. Kair o feterder tooki keri, ta mi 
Doovel jaw tusa. Kair sig, wel ^popli kater mandi poph*. 
And mandi choomoni koshto. Ta pooker o waver rei te and 
mandi dosta tovlo te toov monghi kanna shorn kokero a! 
raati. 

It is time now to go home. If you stop longer here, you 
will lose your train to Manchester. Make haste home, and 
don't waste your time. If you waste your time, you will 
stop in this town all night (by) yourself. Your servants 
don't know where you are. They will send policemen after 
you to find you again. So make haste, be off. Make the 
best of your way home, and God be with you. Make 
haste, come again to me. Bring me something nice. And 
tell the other gentleman to bring me plenty of tobacco for 
me to smoke when I am alone at night. 

THE CHILD'S CAUL. 

And mandi kova so see tikno beeno troostal paudel 
lenghi mooiaw. Lei mandi a mootsi tale o tikno, kanna 
see beeno. Mootsi see pardal lenghi mooiaw, kanna see 
yon beene. 

NAUSEA. 

Savo wafedo soong see akei. So see "i Soongela jaw 
wafedo. Mandi soongova kand akei, boot dosta te kair 
mandi te charer opre. Mook mendi jas tale o bauro 
drom. 

What a bad smell there is here. What is it .? It smells 
so bad. I smell a something here, sufficient to make me 
vomit. Let us go down the main road. 



238 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOStTIONS. 

STAG-HUNT. 

Dikas mendi kater dulla staani. Yon pooderenna lendi 
te lendi yogomengri. 

Let us watch these stags. They are shooting them with 
their guns. 

AN ASSAULT. 

Yon tardade dova chookni avri meero wast. Yon di6 
man pardal o shoro lesti. Yon sovloholW kater mandi. 
Pendas kater mandi, " Too ratt/?///o pooro jookel. Maurova 
toot." 

They wrenched that whip out of my hand. They hit 
me on the head with it. They swore at me. They said 
to me, *' You cursed old hound. I will kill you." 

HIDING. 

Dik odoT ! Hokki ! ! Moosh wela palla mendi. Praster 
tooki ! HoxtcY tooki pardal dova bar, ta kair sig te garav 
toot. O gairo dikela kater mandi. Yon kairVgodli. Yon 
korde avri. You rovde, shooldc tei. Kck yon shoonde 
lendi. Te wel sor mendi mordend. O Beng sas adr6 
lenghi kannaw, kek nanci shoonde mendi. 

Look there ! See ! A man is coming after us. Run ! 
Jump over that hedge, and be quick and hide yourself. 

The man is watching me. They made a noise. They 
called out. They bawled, and whistled too. They did not 
hear them. We shall all be killed. The devil was in their 
ears, that they did not hear us. 

WASHING, SHOPPING, etc. 

Mook mendi tov mauro koH adre kova nash//^' paani. 
Kosser lesti avrf. Ghiom kater masengro boodika. Mandi 
dikt6m o feterder kotor 0' mas. Li6m-les tale. Li6m o 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 239 

choori. Chindom-les, sar mandi komova. Kek o rei pardal 

boodika penV chichi kater mandi. Chichi nanei pendas. 
Sadas mandi. Pendas mandi, "Too jinessa — teero folk\ 
jinenna — so see o feterder mas. Too komessa sorkon 
chairus tc le o grovneski book 

Let us wash our clothes in this stream. Clean it out. 

1 went to the butcher's shop. I saw the best piece of 
meat. I took it down. I took the knife. I cut it, as I 
like. The shopman said nothing to me. He said nothing; 
he laughed at me. He said to me, "You know — your 
people know — which is the best meat. You like always 
to take the beefsteak." 



STEALING A WIFE. 

Rinkene see-le 1 Te wel mandi kater teero kair, chorova 
monghi yek o teero rinkenoder raklia te lei yek mandi. 
Righerova lati te wel meero romni, te wel yoi rinkenes, ta 
koshto, ta kek loobni. Kek n6 too wela palla mandi te lei 
yoi pauli popli. Maw lei mandi opre troostal chor/;^' teero 
bootsi-zw' rakli. 

Are they pretty } If I come to your house, I will steal 
one of your prettiest girls, that I may have one. I will 
keep her to be my wife, if she is pretty, and good, and not 
loose. Don't come after me to take her back again. 
Don't take me up for stealing your servant girl. 



SICKNESS AND RECOVERY. 

Mandi kaliko kooroko sh5'mas jaw nafelo adr6 meero 
chooro pur. Wafedo dosta sas mandi te mer. Kek komeni 
sas posha mandi te del mandi koosi paani. Sho'mas te 
merova. 

Troostal meero koshto komomusti Doovel ker'^ mandi 
koshto, ta sor tatcho popli, ta tatcho shom konaw. Parik 



240 GENUmE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

meero koshto Doovel. Kek komeni sas ker'^ man kooshto 
te yov. 

Last week I was very ill (in my poor stomach). I felt 
as if I was going to die (lit, bad enough was I to die). 
No one was near me to give me a drop of water. I must 
die. 

But my good merciful God cured me and made me right 
again, and now I am well. Thank God. No one cured 
me but He Himself. 

PAZEROBEN. 

Mandi see adre pazeroben. Mandi pazerova dova kova. 
Pazerova monghi dova kova tastis. Kek nanei kek lovo 
adre meero pootsi konaw. Pesserova lesti waver chairos. 

CREDIT. 

I am in debt. I will get that thing on trust. I will get 
that thing on trust, if I can. I have no money in my 
pocket now. I will pay for it another time. 

IPSE DIXIT. 

Jinessa too Westaarus .? Jinessa too o pooro Romano 
chal ? Lesko nav see Westaarus. 

Kooshto jinomeskro see yov. Yov jinj- bootoder talla sor 
tumendi. Kekera shoondom jafra moosh see yov. Yov see 
kooshto dosta jinomengro te kel a shorokono Pookenyus, 
ta mooiengro. Kekera shoondom vaniso Romani-chal talla 
yov te roker pensa yov rokerela. Meero waver gairo ta jab 
wV mandi see a mooiengro. Mandi see a tatcho Draben- 
gro. Yov, ta mandi, penj- yek to rtwavcr, '* Mendi jah;/' te 
kel a mooYengro of yov te dik palla mendi, te besh adre o 
Bauri, kanna o shorokone rokerenna te o sterimengri. Yov 
will pookcr mendi sorkon lavaw te wcl Romani-chalaw 
adr^ steripen ta jal aglal o Pookenyus. Yov see koshto 
dosta lesti, te kel ajaw." 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 24 1 

Kekera shoondoni jafra jinomeskro moosh see yov adre 
mi meriben. 

Do you know Sylvester Bosvvell ? Do you know the old 
Gypsy ? His name is Sylvester. He is a capital scholar. 
He knows more than all the rest of you. I never heard 
such another. He is sharp enough to be a Lord Chief 
Justice, or a lawyer. I never heard any Gypsy but him 
to talk as he talks. My friend (lit, my other man that 
goes with me) is a lawyer. I am a doctor. He and I say 
one to another, " We (are) going to make a lawyer of him 
to look after us, and sit at the Assizes, when the bigwigs 
plead for the prisoners. He will always send us word if 
any Gypsies come to prison to go before the Justice. He 
is quite fit to do so." 

I never heard such a clever man as he In all my life. 

A REMINDER. 

Maw bisser, rei, meeri poori staadia, too pendas too 
andessa mandi. Parikeraw toot, rei. Too shan koshto 
reiaw kater mandi. Mandi komova tumendi, reiaw. Ta 
maw bisser dova poori plo^ta too pendas te and to mandi. 
Kair sig tei, rei, tastis. Mandi komova te lei lesti sig, jaw 
kisi brishno wela tale konaw, kova wen cheerus. 

Dosta brishno, ta hiv, ta shilalo divvusaw, ta raatia wela 
(wenna) sig. Dova kelela man koshto. Kela mandi te sov 
shooko, ta tatto kova wen. 

Do not forget, sir, my old hats which you promised you 
would bring me. Thank you, sir. You are good friends 
to me. I like you, sirs. And do not forget that old 
tarpaulin you promised to bring to me. Make haste too, 
sir, if you can. I would like to have it soon, so much rain 
comes down now, this winter time. 

Much rain, and snow, and chilly days and nights will 
come soon. That (tarpaulin) will make me snug, and 
make me sleep dry and warm this winter. 

16 



242 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

A PROUD MAN. 

Yov tildas Icski shoro opre, pensa shorokono rei sas-16. 
Booinus sas-16 adre lesti, so yov kerW. 

He carried his head high, as if he were a lord. He was 
conceited about everything he did. 

A PEDESTRIAN. 

Dik at doova moosh. Peerela opre o droni sig. Yov 
jala pensi a shoshi-jookel. Yov keL' lesti te gaujej" te dik 
at lesti. Talla kedas-les, yov jab pootch^i" sorkon reiaw ta 
raunyaw te lei luva d lendi, te lei lesko jivoben. 

Translation. 

Look at that fellow. He races along the road on foot as 
fleet as a greyhound. He does it to attract the Gentiles' 
attention. When he has finished, he asks all the gentlemen 
and ladies, and gets money from them, and gets his living 
in that way. 

THE LICENCE. 

See man a chinomengri, o pokenyus dias mandi. Pessa- 
dom lesti. Yon, yekera, sas dooi kotoraw. Konaw see-le 
pansh koli. Mandi see yek pansh kolenghi yek, te bikin 
vaniso kova. Kek trash 'pre mandi te jal te bikin koli, so 
komova. Kek mandi te wel lino opre troostal lesti. 

Translation. 

I have a licence, which the magistrate gave me. I paid 
for it. Once, they were two guineas ; now they cost five 
shillings. Mine is a five shilling one, and is a general 
hawker's licence. I am not afraid to go and sell anything 
I choose. I shall not be taken up for it. 

THE GREYHOUND. 

Shool palla o jookel, chawoli ! O yogomengri sec akei 
Whistle after the dog, mates I The gamekeeper is here 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 243 

adre kova vesh. Maurela o choro jookel, ta yov dikela 
in this wood. He will kill the poor dog, if he sees 
lesti nash/;^^ talla o kanengri. 
it running after the hares. 

THE FROG. 

We have often asked Gypsies for the Romani lav for a 
frog. Charlie Boswell told us it was the '' tikeni koli disjals 
adrd do. paani, and leh de drab avrf [little thing that goes 
into the water and takes the poison out]. Wester Boswell 
told us it was " O stor-herengro bengesko koli ta jah adr^ 
paani so piova" [the four-legged diabolic thing that swims 
in the water which I drink]. The Gypsies in general 
consider any water, into which a frog goes, is fit to drink. 
Although they appear to have forgotten the word for frog, 
they use for toad the word which means frog in other 
didXQctSjVldQ Jamba, jomba (Vocab.), but are confused when 
questioned about it, and say 'it is no taicho lav (true word), 
but means Jumper' 

THE GYPSY'S CAT. 

Dik at o matchka. Kelela peias ta lesti nogo pori. 

Look at the cat. It is making fun with it own tail. 
Avela kanna shoolova. 

It will come when I whistle. 

A SQUABBLE. 

Dordi, dordi, choovali. Te wafedo moosh see yov. 
Pookerdas wafedo ho^aben opre mendi, o rattvalo jookel. 
Maurova lesti wonka mandi til bonnek 0^ lesti. Jaw see 
lesko loobni romni. Yoi' see wafedoder te yov. Kooras 
amendi yon dooi, avri morro folkVs drom, kek yon te wel 
posha mensa, jaw meriben folk'i ta pookeromengri see yon. 
Chichi nanei lendi te meriben folki. Pookeromengri see- 
le. Nasherela sor mendi bonges palla lenghi nogo wafedo- 
kerimus. 



244 GENtrtNE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

Just see, mates, what a blackguard he is. He has beeil 
telling wicked lies about us, the cursed dog, I will murder 
him when I get hold of him. That creature his wife is 
just as bad. She is worse than he. Let us thrash them 
both, and drive them out of our society, and not let them 
come near us, such cut-throats and informers as they are. 
They are nothing but murderers. They are informers. 
We shall all come to grief through their misdoings. 

THE APPLE-TREE. 

Dordi, te goodlo pobe see odoi, chowali ! Maw poger o 
rook, chowali, mi Doovelenghi. Sor mendi te wel lino. 

See, mates, what ripe apples are over there ! Do not 
break the tree, for God's sake, mates, or we shall all be 
caught. 

POLITE INQUIRIES. 

"Sar shan, pal.!*" " Kek mishto, bor. Sar shan tooti ? 
Too shanas naflo waver divvus, hor ?" " Ourli ; sor mendi 
sho'mas (shumas) wafedo dosta, waver divvus viem pardel 
lesti. Meero chei sas romedo o waver kooroko. Sor mendi 
sas motto. Koordem menghi, ta saldova (sad6m) mandi. 
So sas o vavere a-kairm' sor o cheerus ? Kairenna ; Bosher- 
venna, ta ghivenna tei, sor o cheerus, wonka saula vias adre. 

" How are you, mate.?" "Not very well, friend. How 
arej'ou f You were ill the other day, eh .? " "Yes, I was ; 
we were all ill enough the other day we came here over 
it. My daughter was married the other week, and we all 
were drunk, and fought with one another, and I laughed." 
" What were the others doing all the time .? " " They 
dance, and fiddle, and sing too, all the while, till day- 
break." 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITION^. 245 

THE JINOMESKRO GREI-ENGRO. 

NEW DIALECT. 

MandiV/ pen tooti, rei, a kooshto drom to kair a nokengro 
to dik sor tatcho. When yoitre jalzu' to bikin yek, lei koosi 
dandermengri chor, chiv it adre t/ie greis nok, and mook it 
atch odoi ti/l you weli- to the Walgaurus, then tarder it avri, 
and sor the wafedo kanipen %vill av avri tei. And mandi'// 
pen tooti konaw hozv to kel a bavengro. Jaw to the drab- 
engro boodiga, and kin koosi Alowes. Kel it opre adre a 
bit d crape. Chiv it adre the grei'j mooi. WJienyon avj to 
the Walgaurus, do yon dik, ypiHl lei it avri popli, and dovaV/ 
hatch //^^ grei'i- baval mishto. A moosh, as mandi jinj, 
bikinV a bavengri grasni for bish bar by keb;^* ajaw, and 
\dxid it popli for desh bar. Some Romani-chab chivi- kil 
adre the greiV mooi", biU the waver dromV the feterdair^j^, 

THE KNOWING HORSE-DEALER. 

I will tell (say) you, sir, a good way to make a glandered 
horse look all right. When you are going to sell one, take 
a few nettles (lit., a little biting-grass, put them (it) into the 
horse's nostrils, and let them stay there till you come to the 
fair ; then pull them out, and all the bad matter will come 
out too. And I will tell you now, how to ' cook ' a broken- 
winded horse. Go to the druggist's shop, and buy a little 
aloes. Do it up in a bit of crape. Put it in the horse's 
mouth. When you come to the fair, do you see, you will 
take it out again, and that will stop the horse's wind well.* 
A man that I know sold a broken-winded mare for twenty 
pounds by doing so, and bought it again for ten pounds. 
Some Gypsies put butter in the horse's mouth, but the 
other way is the best. 

* Some Gypsies adminster butter scrapings and brown paper, 

worked up into a ball. Our friend Louis L declares it to be the 

*• fetterdair^j-/ drom." — Vide p. 204. 



246 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 

Mandi sas beeno kater Dovar. Kooromongro sas meero 
Dad. Beeno sh5'mas adre o Kooromongri. Meero Dad, 
kanna sho'mas beeno, yov sas d'lkm' pardal o bauro 
yogomengri. Talla yov vias kere, ta mooktas sor kooro- 
mongri kerimus. Yov welW tale o Meilesko-tem, ta 'doi 
yov atch'd for beshaw dosta, and sor morro tikne sas anlo 
apre adre dova tern, and 'doi atchW sor mendi talla yov sas 
mord'no adre o Lincoln-tem. Yov merdas kanna mandi 
sho'mas a tikno chor. 

Mi-Doovelesko yog pedas tale apr^ lesti, and maurW 
lesti, «waver yek tei, dooY ketane. Dooi simensa sas yon. 
Lenghi folki chivW lendi dooi" adre yek hev. 'Doi mook- 
tom lendi, choori folk\. Toogno sas me dosta talla. Yov 
rivdas lesko kokero adr(^ kooshto eezaw sorkon chairus. 

Kanna yov sas poorosto, mandi Horn Romni, ta ghiom 
sor pardal o tern. Mandi ghiom sor pardal Anghiterra, 
iVi?//^erengri-tem, and o Lavines-tem, wonka mandi vi6m 
akei. 

Translation. 

I was born at Dover, My father was a soldier, and I 
was born in the army. My father, when I was born, was in 
charge of the great gun (Queen Anne's pocket-piece). 
After a while he came home, and left the army. He came 
down into Yorkshire, and there he stayed for many years, 
and all our family were brought up in that county, and 
there we all stayed after he was killed in Lincolnshire. 
He died when I was a lad. 

The lightning struck him, and killed him and another, 
both together. They were cousins. Our people put them 
both in one grave. There I left them, poor fellows. I 
was much grieved at it. He always dressed well. 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 247 

When he was buried, I took a wife, and went all over the 
country. I went all over England, Scotland, and Wales, 
until I came here. 

HIS RESIDENCE AT CODLING GAP. 

Mandi jivela konaw adre o poov, kei o gauje keb dola 
kola, so yon ker kairaw te jiv adre, avri o chik. 

Te wel kova koosi poov, kei atchova me konaw, morro 
nogo. Kelela man Rei sor meero meriben. 

Mandi komova te jiv kater o bauro londo paani. Mandi 
komova te jiv akei, kei shom konaw, beshaw dosta. Kek 
mandi te vel kino d lesti, jafra rinkeno tan see. 

Kanna shom adre meero woodrus, te dikov avri, mandi 
dikova sor o Bauro Gav, o Bookesko Gav, ta sor o paani, ta 
baire jala kater sorkon temaw. 

Diktom dova bauro yog sas hotcherela. Kanna shorn 
(sho'mas) mandi adre meero woodrus, diktom sor. 

Yeka kova besh, adr6 kova lilei, diktom bauro bairo sor 
dood, ta kol6 sas hotchade, ta sor o paani sor sas pardal o' 
dood. Sor o koli sas atch/// opre o paani. Sor dood sas. 
Diktas mishto, ta rinkenes diktas. 

Translation. 

I live now in the field, where the Gentiles make those 
things of clay with which they build houses to live in. 

Would that this little field, where I am stopping now, 
were mine. It would make me a gentleman for life. 

I like to live by the seaside. I would like to live here, 
where I am now, for many a long year. I should never be 
tired of it ; it is such a pretty place. 

When I am in bed, if I look out, I see all the city of 
Liverpool, and the river, and the ships going to every 
land. 

I saw that great fire [at the landing-stage] when it was 
burning. When I was in bed I could see it all. 

Once this year, this very summer, I saw a large vessel all 



248 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 



on fire, and the cotton bales were burnt, and the whole river 
was in flames. All the bales were floating in the river 
blazing. It looked well ; 'twas a pretty sight indeed. 



VERSES AS WRITTEN BY 
WESTER. 



AND 
HIS OWN TRANSLATION. 



After many roming years, 
How sweet it is to bej 
In love, and peace, and kindness, 
With all you see. 

II. 
So let all injoy the mind of me, 
And that you will plainly see. 
That love to God, and peace with 

man. 
Will bring you to a Happy Land. 

III. 
The rite way. First to love your 

Christ 
First, and obey His Holy Word, 
Then you will find that you will 

be rite. 
And make your road quite 
Strat, in Heaven to dwell, 



For ever and ever. Amen, 



Talla boot peeromus beshc^w, 
Te goodlo see te atch 
Adrc Komomus, ta Kooshtoben, 
Te sor mendi dik. 

II. 
Jaw mook sorkon ti zee d mandi, 
Te too'// tatcheni dik, 
TeKomomus katermirft'^-ro Duvel, 
te koshtomus te sor mooshdw. 
Dovaand'atooti kater tatcho poov, 

III. 
O tatcho drom te ker agldl td kom 

teero Duvelesko Chavo, 
Kom lesti ta lesti heveski lavaw, 
Talla too'// latch te too'// atch 

tatcho, 
Ta kcrav teero drom tatcho 
Oprc, adrc mi Duvelesko Tem te 

jiv, 
Beshdw ta beshdw. Amen. 



Written by SILVESTER BOSWELL, in the 
1874th year of our dear Lord. 



Letters written by Wester — (i) Reply to ours ifiq?iiriug- 
ivhetJicr he knezv anything respecting Matilda Bos well, 
aged 40, and LUCRETIA Smith, Queen of the Gypsies, 
aged 72, both of whom were buried at Beighton, in Derby- 
shire, in 1844. (Sec N. and O., 5 S., vol. ii., p. y6.) 

Seacombe, Aug. the is, 1874. Comlow Rei kec manday 
Jin Doler temeskey Ronnichel mandy Ached Jaw kisscy 
Beshaw ovre Dover tem keckeno Jin Chichey trustal a 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 249 

Lendy keck yoye sas keck Cralacy pardal o Romenaychell 
keck mandey Jinover Joffero Nave Rrie Komena sas yoiine 
yoye sas keck Cralacy. 

Patcer mandy mandy sea terowe poorow Romineychill, 

Silvester Boswell. 

In our Orthography, 

Komelo Rei, — Kek mandi jin dola temeski Romani-chal. 
Mandi atch^<:/ jaw kisi beshaw avri dova tern, kekeno jin 
chichi troostal lendi. 

Kek yoi sas kek Kralisi pardal o Romani-chal. Kek 
mandi jinova jafri nav, Rei, komeni sas yon. Yoi' sas kek 
Kralisi. 

Patser mandi, mandi see teero pooro Romani-chal. 

Translation. 

Dear Sir, — I do not know the Gypsies of that county. I 
(have) stayed so many years out of that county, (that) I 
know nothing about them. 

She was no Queen of the Gypsies.* I do not know such 
a name, sir, (or that) there (lit. they) were any (of that 
name.) She was no Queen. 

Believe me, (that) I am, thy old Gypsy. 

(2.) 

Seacombe Aug. the 4th 1874 Costo Rieo mandy bisad 
mearo cocrow pockerer to trustal merro burrow Dadesco 
tacho nave. Shedrich Boswell sas lesco nave to Richard 
Matcho sas mearrow Dieesco purrow Dadesco tacho nave 
Dover se tacho — the grandfather of me on the Boswell side 
Was shedrich Boswell and the farther of my mother Richard 
Harring and the name Emanuel Was his brother You 
Will Plese to tell Mr Smart the same as he has got it Rong 

* Aged Gypsies are styled Kings and , Queens after death, or on 
visiting new places, to gain respect and profit from the gmijos. 



250 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

By my forgetfullness. Plese To returne me answer from 
this 

Mandy shorn tearrow tacho porrow Romnichel 

S. Bos. Wester. 
Cere sig ta Bicher catter mandy porley. 

In our Orthography. 

Koshto Reia. Mandi bisser'^ meero kokero pookerer 
too troostal meero pooro-Dadesko tatcho nav. Shadrach 
Boswell sas lesko nav, ta Richard Matcho sas meero Dei- 
esko pooro-dadesko tatcho nav. Dova see tatcho. . . . 
Mandi shom teero tatcho pooro Romani-chal. . . . Kair sig 
ta bitcher kater mandi paiih*. 

Translation. 

Good Sir, — I forgot to tell you about my grandfather's 
proper name. Shadrach B. was his name, and R, Heme 
was my mother's grandfather's proper name. That is true. 
... I am thy true old Gypsy. ... Be quick and send me 
an answer. 

(3.) 

Seacombe, Oct. 4, 1874. romno rye so se to trustal 
kec nanni to bicher Eser to Catter manday ta pocker Esa 
mandy ta to shanush molo o jido mandy shomos togno 
pallcr tote kec nini to mucesr mandy o jor Cova Drome 
Bicher ta mandy a chinamongry Cer sig paller lesty ta 
muck mandy gin o toty mandy pucker Eser to ta to Cer 
mandy Wafodo to Ceresa te cockero Wafodo Catter te 
cockero jor mandy shounomos toty sig. 

Mandy shanous totys coshto poorey Ry Romenichel. 

Westerous. 

In our Orthography. 

Romano Rei. So see too troostal, kek nanei too bitcher- 
essa too kater mandi, te pookeressa mandi te too shanas 
moolo jido. 



^ ^0L^^^ ^^^^^ t^^^^^ 





GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 25 1 

Mandi shomas toogno palla tooti. Kek nanei too 
mookessa mandi ajaw, kova drom. 

Bitcher te mandi a chinomongri. Ker sig palla lesti, ta 
muk mandi jin 0' tooti. 

Mandi pookeressa too, ta too ker mandi wafedo. Too 
keressa ti kokero wafedo kater ti kokero ; jaw mandi 
shoonomus tooti sig. Mandi shanas (shom) tootiV koshto 
poori Rei Romanichal 

WestArus. 
Translation. 

Gypsy Gentleman, — What art thou about, that thou dost 
not send to me, to tell me if thou wert dead or alive } 

I was grieved about thee. Thou wilt not leave me so, in 
this way. 

Send me a letter. Make haste about it, and let me know 
about thee. 

I tell thee that thou art doing me harm. Thou art doing 
harm to thyself ; so (send) me news from thyself soon. 

I was thy good old gentleman, 

Gypsy Sylvester. 

(4.) 
Merow Commlow Rie maw Cesser trustal o Dover trustal 
mandy Jin overe tearrow Zea Jaw Coshto Catter mandy 
Bicher so Comesa ta mandy vanaso Dinow Cearra mandy 
saw se tacho trustal Dover Pucher youne ta Cack Bissea 
mearrow Plockter ta stardyear and Lendy a Dray o Bicher 
Lendy a Draye a Borrow Cusheney so youne Chivener o 
Canyowre or Canneys a Dray mearrow Chocha tye to penas 
mandy ta Cusey tovelow ta sweggler Coshto yeck ty Patsea 
mandy Rie tacho se mandy Catter ta mendy Duye coshto 
Rieo mandy shom to mendys tacho Beano Romenichel ta 
Ceck gorgoconness much. 

Wester Boswell, sicker Cover 

Catter o Drabengro Rie tye. 

In our Orthography. 
Meero komelo rei. Maw kesser troostal adova troostal. 



252 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

Mandi jinova teero zee jaw koshto kater mandi. Bitcher 
so komessa to mandi. Vaniso dino kair'a mandi. Sor see 
tatcho troostal dova. Pooker yon te kek bisser meero 
plo%ta, ta staadia ; and lendi adre, d bitcher lendi adre, a 
bauro kushni, so yon chivenna o kanyaw, or kanni^i- adre. 
Meero choka tei, too pen(d)as mandi, ta koosi toovlo, ta 
swegler, koshto yek tei. Patser mandi, rei, tatcho see mandi 
kater tumendi dooi koshto reiaw. Mandi shom tumendiV 
tatcho beeno Romani-chal, ta kek gaujikanes moosh. 

W. B., Siker kova kater o drabengro rei tei. 

(5.) 
Mearo Comlo rye mandy se velover ta totoes Care ta 
Dickover tut Dickavree ta Dickesa mandy o pray o Due- 
yeney Dives trustal Corroco Dives mandy veller to tuty o 
pray Dover Dives tacho ta Comesa mearro Dovel. 

In our Orthography. 

Meero komelo rei. Mandi see velova to tooti'i- kair te 
dikova toot. Dik avri, ta dikessa mandi oprc o dooieni 
divvus troostal (palla) Kooroko-divvus. Mandi vela to 
tooti, opre dova divvus, tatcho, te komessa (komela) meero 
Doovel. 

Translation. 

My dear sir. I am coming to your house that I may see 
you. Look out, and you will see me on the second day 
after Sunday. I will come to you, on that day, safe, if my 
God be willing. 

HIS GENEALOGY IN HIS OWN WORDS. 

Sophia Heme was born at Pirton, and was the mother of 
Sylvester Boswell. Teiso (Tasso) Boswell was his father. 
Teiso Boswell was killed, and one of his own cousins, two 
aged men, by lightning and thunder at Tetford in Lincoln- 
shire, near Horncastle. His cousin's name was called 
No Name, because he was not christened till he was an 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 253 

old man, and then they called him Edward. This occurred 
on August 5th, 1 83 1. 

Sarah Heme, the daughter of No Name, was the mother 
of my eldest son, Simpronius Bohemia Boswell. He was 
born on the 8th of July, 1832. She was a beautiful woman. 
Her face was darker than mine, and hair black as a raven, 
which hung in curls all down her shoulders, =:= and eyes like 
two plums. 

Sophia and Teiso's children were — i, Maria ; 2, Lucy ; 
3, Sage; 4, Betsy; 5, Dorclia ; 6, Edward; 7, Delata ; 
8, Sylvester. 

The father of Sophia was Richard Heme ; and Bonny 
was her mother. Richard Heme was buried at Hasling- 
field, near Cambridge. Bonny died twenty-three years 
ago, above a hundred years old. Richard Heme's brother 
was Emanuel. 

Sophia's sisters were Lucy, Ally, Sage, Margaret, Ann, 
and Sarah. Sarah was the mother of Mantis Buckland. 
Nan married Jasper Smith. 

The father of Teiso was Shadrach Boswell, and 
Cinderella Wood was the mother of Teiso. Shadrach was 
a soldier, and died in Holland, and was buried there. 
Both my grandfathers used to fight on stages. 

Maria, my sister, married John Grey, a fiddler. 

Lucy, my sister, married Riley Boswell, who died at 
Harrow-on-the-Hill. She is now in America. 

Sage, my sister, married Joseph Smith. She died in 
America, and left a large family. 

Betsy (Elizabeth), my sister, married Job Williams, the 
son of Jim of the Lavines-tem. He is dead. She is in 
America. Her daughter married Jasper Gray. 

Dorelia, my sister, married Kalei Heme. His sons are 
Yoben, Edward, Minnie, and Nelson. 

Edward, my brother, married Slari Draper, of the 

* A not uncommon mode of tiring the hair among the older female 
Gypsies is to tie it in four knotted loops, something after the style of a 
horse's tail. 



254 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

Lavines-tem. They live at Blackpool. Their children's 
names are Dorelia, and Emma, Alma (a boy), Tobias, and 
William. 

Delata, my sister, married Allen Boswell, and died in 
childbed in Lincolnshire. 

Sylvester married Florence Chilcott at Yarmouth. He 
was born at Dover, in 1811, in the army. Florence was born 
at Norwich, in January 1820, and died in the forty-third 
year of her age, and was buried at East Ham, near London. 
One of her sisters married Tom Lee, who has a daughter 
named Ada, and three sons — Walter, Edgar, and Bendigo. 

This is the family of Sylvester and Florence Chilcott : — 

1. Byron, born at Benwick, Cambridgeshire, in 1839. 

He is a fiddler, and now lives in Wales. 

2. M'Kenzie, born on Ascot racecourse, on the Derby 

day, 1842. 

3. Oscar, born at Bray, near Windsor, in 1844. 

4. Bruce, born at Stisted, near Braintree, Essex, in 1847. 

5. Julia, born at Litherland, Sefton, near Liverpool, in 

1850. 

6. Wallace, born at Sutton, in Cambs, in 1853. 

7. Trafalgar, born at Plaistow, Newtown, Essex, in 1856. 

8. Laura, born at Burrow, near Woodbridge, Suffolk, in 

1859, ^'"id since dead. 

Note. — Isaac Heme {vide "The Chase") is the son of Neabei, or 
Nearboy Heme, and Sinfi, commonly called 'The Crow,' who is said 
to have instructed Mr. Borrow in 'deep' Romanes; and Neabei was 
the son of Richard Heme, Sylvester's maternal grandfather. Isaac 
married a daughter of Pyramus Gray, and his children arc 'Eza, 
Trainit, 'Lenda, and Collia. 



I. 

Kooshko divvus, nogo pal. Sar shan, my pal \ 
'Tis a shilino divvus. 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 255 

Ourli, yivyela. 

Kei see tooti koko ghilo fo-d'wvus ? 

Yov ghias koliko-divvus fo Lalo peero wagyaura. 

Kei see tooti rinkeni pen ? 

Meiri penV adre adoova gav rt:-doorik?«. 

Shoon, pal ! Boshela jookel. 

Dik savo see ! A gaujo ? 

7?e nashermengro. 

Maw poger adoova bor, dinelo ! 

Keker, pal, 'tis a bauro rei. 

Yov' J- a kooshto kestermengro. 

Our, and yows koshto roodo. 

Dik ! Adoova see lesti filisin. 

Ranjer tooti staadi. 

Mook'i- jal adre akova kitchema for choomoni to pee. 

Besh tooki 'le, pal. 

Akova see wasedo livena. 

Kooshto for chichi. 

Mook'i- pee a wover trooshni livena. 

Kooshto bok to tooti, pal. 

Adoova Hindi-temengro'j" posh-motto. 

Kova moosh is a grei-engro. 

Atch apre, pal ! Mook'j jal avri popli. 

Our, meiri tano'i- a kooshto door fon ak^i. 

Savo see dc tatcho drom. 

Tale adoova chikli drom. 

Dik ! Akdi'j de patrin apre de bongo vas'. 

Translation. 
I. 
Good day, my own brother. How do you do, brother 1 
It is a cold day. 
Indeed it is. It is snowing. 
Where has your uncle gone to-day } 
He went yesterday to Red ford fair. 
Where is your pretty sister .'' 
My sister's in the town there telling fortunes. 



256 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

Listen, mate ! The doe: is barkin* 



'fa- 



Look who it is ! A stranger ? 

The policeman. 

Do not break the hedge, you fool ! 

No, brother. It's a gentleman. 

He is a good rider. 

That he is, and well dressed. 

Look. That's his house. 

Touch your hat. 

Let us go into the inn there for something to drink. 

Sit down, brother. 

This is bad beer. 

Good for nothing. 

Let us drink another quart of beer. 

Good luck to you, brother. 

That Irishman is half drunk. 

This fellow is a horse-dealer. 

Get up, brother. Let us go out again. 

Certainly. My camp is a good distance from here. 

Which is the right way ? 

Down that dirty lane. 

Look ! Here's the trail on the left hand. 

II. 

^Tts a kooshto door to the forus. 

Ourli. Kini shom. 

Besh tooki 'le, Dei, and mook mandi jaw to mong a bit 
of hohcn. 

Keker, uty Pal. 'Tis doosh to jaw odoi. 

T/ie bauro rci, as ]ws odoi, is a Pokenyus. 

He 11 bitcher t/ie nashermcngro to Icl tooti to stcripcn. 

Mook'.i- jaw a wover drom. 

My beebi'j a steromeskri kenaw at the bauro gav for 
chor/;/ at the moilesto-gav. 

She'll be bitchadi paudel. 

Dik ! The nashermcngro is lebV/* a mongamengro to 
steripen. 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 257 

TJie Beng has chivV/ wastengrit^j- aprc lesti. 
Riserela gairo. 
Mantchi too, pal. 

Til aprc your 7.(^0. \ Maw he rt'-ladj ! 
Lesti nok is sor rat. 
Yov'^f a kooshto kooromengro. 
Pooker the tatchipen ! Maw roker hookapeiii- ! 
A bairengro delV tJie moosh a kaulo yok, and a pogado 
shero. 

Hok 'doova bor, pal ! 

Chor dooY triii poovengri^:'^^, and some shokyaw. 

Chiv 'em ad re the gono. 

The ghivengro awel akei. 

Wooser de gono adoi, and garav yotiv kokero. 

Maw roker ! 

Lei trad ! Lei veena ! 

He's jawW. 

Tatcho see 'doova. 



IL 

It is a long way to the city. 
Yes. I am downright tired. 

Sit down, mother, and let me go to beg a little food. 
No, my brother. It is no good to go there. 
The gentleman that lives there is a magistrate. 
He will send the policeman to take you to prison. 
Let us go another way. 

My aunt is a prisoner now at the town for stealing at 
Doncaster. 

She will be sent to penal servitude. 

Look ! the policeman is taking a beggar to prison. 

The devil has put handcuffs on him. 

The man is trembling. 

Cheer up, brother. 

Keep up your spirits ! Don't be ashamed ! 

His nose is covered with blood. 

17 



258 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

He is a capital boxer. 

Tell the truth ! Don't tell lies ! 

A sailor gave the man a black eye, and a broken head. 

Jump that hedge, brother. 

Steal two or three potatoes, and some cabbages. 

Put them into the sack. 

The farmer is coming this way. 

Throw the sack there, and hide yourself. 

Don't speak. 

Take care ! Look out ! 

He has gone. 

That's right. 

HI. 

Me shom bokalo. 

Del mandi choomoni to hoi. 

Lei mandi a tuli hotchiwitchi. 

Hoi 'doova bokochesto pur. 

Del mandi a choori to chin i;ij/ mauro. 

Del mandi a poosomengro. 

Bitcher t/ic chavi to tJie boodega for a koosi balo-vas. 

Chiv paani adre the kekavi. 

Our, ril kel woriso for tooti. 

Kair a kooshko yog. 

Chiv wongur opre, and lei mandi the poodomengro. 

Kei'i" tJie saashter } 

The paani see tatto. Lei mandi the peemengro. 

Maw pee the muterimongeri without goodlo. 

Me shom traslo. 

Pee a koosi livena, tood, kalengri, mool. 

There s chichi adre the valin. 

Meiri pur see pordo kenaw. Pordo see meiri pur. 

Lei mandi ;;/j/ swagler. 

Meiri swagler see pogado. 

Kova tuvlo is kek mool a full. 

Riley ! Jaw to the boodega for some feterdairo. 

Del the moosh trin^r hauri. 



GENtJiNE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 2^g 

Riley! Vo?i' bauro dinelo! Voii wasedo bang! 'Tis 
kooshto for chichi. 
Maw chinger, palaw. 
Maw ! Maw kel ajaw ! 
Besh tale ^popli dj/ the yog. 
Our ! Pootch Pyramus to lei lesti boshamengro. 
Keker ! Mook'i- jal to woodrus. 
Kooshko raati. 

III. 

I am hungry. 

Give me something to eat. 

Get me a fat hedgehog. 

Eat that tripe. 

Give me a knife to cut my bread. 

Give me a fork. 

Send the lad to the shop for a little bacon. 

Pour (some) water into the kettle. 

Yes, I'll do anything for you. 

Make a good fire. 

Put (some) coal on, and get me the bellows, 
Where's the pot-hook } 
The water boils. Get me the teapot. 
Don't drink the tea without sugar. 
I am thirsty. 

Drink a little beer, milk, whey, wine. 
The bottle is empty. 

I have had enough now. I am satisfied. 
Give me my pipe. 
My pipe is broken. 
This tobacco is perfectly worthless. 
Riley ! go to the shop for some better. 
Give the fellow threepence. 

Riley ! You great fool ! You blackguard ! It's good 
for nothing. 

Don't quarrel, brothers. 
Pray don't do so. 



26o GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

Sit down again by the fire. 

Yes. Ask Pyramus to get his fiddle. 

No. Let us go to bed. 

Good night. 

DINNER DIALOGUE WITH WESTER. 

Wester. Bokalo shan too > 
Self. Ourli. Shorn dosta. 

W. Mandi merova o' bok, jaw bokalo shorn. Mandi see 
posh mulo. 

S. Kei jivela o masengro .'' 

W. Yov jivela adre o gav. Kek door see, mi Rei. 
S. Lei kova posh-koorona, ta jal kater boodega, ajid kin 
mandi koosi groovenesko-mas, ajid a choUo mauro. 
W. Parikraw toot, Rei. 

[Wester goes, and returns zvitk the provisions. 
Conversation continued: 
Jalova to lei dooi trin koshtaw, ta koosi wongur .... del 
mandi a delomengri. 

S. Dova see a kooshto yog. 

W. Kek nandi. Kenaw-sig te wel a koshto yog 
Yoosherova o tatermengri mishto, ta chivova koosi tulopen 
adre-les. Komess too balovas, Rei } 
S. Our. ' 

[ While he is busy cutting the bacon, his cat comes 

and smells at the meat. He addresses her 

thus : 

W. Jaw tooki choovihoneski matchka. Chichi nanci 

dova toot. Jaw adrd o shushenghi hevyaw. Maur lendi 

ta hoi lendi ti kokero. Porder ti pur ajdw. 

[After a bit, the dog watches his opportunity^ and 
runs off with half our dinner. WESTER no 
sooner sees this than he gives vent to his rage 
in the following terms : 
Dik od6i asdr, mi Doovelenghi ! O rattvalo jookel ! 

[He takes a stout stick, and rushes out of the tent. 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 26 1 

TJie bauro holomengro. Maurova lesti konaw-sig. Jinova 
kei see ghilo. 

[A great row ensues, and soon after Wester re- 
appears zvith the meat in triumph. He zvashcs 
it in the bucket, and proclaims it as good as 
ever ; ive however object to it, so another steak 
is cooked. A day or tzvo after this occurred, we 
visited him again, when he informed us : 
Diom o bito jookel so hod as o mas o waver divvus too 
kindas. Diom-les kater bito tarno rei akei ta jivela posha 
mandi, ta yov lias-les kater Booko-paani-gav.] 

W. Del mandi the mauro, Rei. Komes, too the avri-rig ? 
kS. So see dova ? 

W, The hotchedo kotor o' the mauro, Rei. . . . Mook 
mandi del tooti koosi dandimengri. 
vS. Parikraw toot. 
W. Lon see tooti } 
S. Our. 

W. And mandi o lon, ta tatto kova, ta hindi kova. 
Parikraw toot. Kenaw lon see mandi tei. Kova lon see 
kek mo%odo. Chidom tatto-kova wV lesti. Komes too 
hotchiwitchi } Our, kooshto see dova. Poorokono holoben 
see a koshto hotchi-witchi, ta a kooshto marikli.^ Dova 
see pooro Romani-chal'^ holomus. Yon sas jaw yoozho 
adre lenghi peraw. Yon (hotchi-witchi) see kek kooshto 
adre o lilei. Yon see bauri konaw. 

[He added : 
Jaw monghi. Dikova talla o hotchi-witchi. Mandi latch- 
ova yek. Andova lesti kere. Maurova lesti, ta morrov 
lesti. Yoosherova lesti. Chivova lesti tale o yog, ta kerav 
lesti, ta hova-les monghi.] 

Me shorn trooshlo. Del mandi choomoni to pee. Akei 
see kooshto paani. MandiV delV apre sor piamus d livena. 
Chiv les avri. Parikraw toot. Kooshto see dova. Del 
mandi koosi ginger-WvQnTi. Lei o bungdivus avri valinesko 
men. 

* See p. 197, " Hedgehog Hunting and Gypsy Cake." 



262 genuine romany compositions. 

Translation. 
Wester. Are you hungry ? 
Self. Certainly, I am very hungry. 

W. I am dying of hunger, I am so hungry. I am half 
dead with it. 

5. Where does the butcher live } 
W. He lives in the town, not far off, sir. 
vS. Take this half-crown, and go to the shop, and buy 
me a little beef, and a loaf of bread. 
W. Thank you, sir. 

[Wester goes and retnnis. 
I will go for two or three sticks and a little coal. . . . Give 
me a match. 

5. That is a good fire. 

W. Not it, but it will be soon a capital one. I will clean 
the frying-pan well, and put a little grease in it. Do you 
like bacon, sir } 
S. Yes. 

[The eat cojnes, and smells at the meat. He says 
to it, 
Get off with you, you bewitched cat. There is nothing 
there for you. Go to the rabbit-holes, and kill some for 
yourself, and have a good meal in that way. 
[ The dog steals the meat. 
IV. Just look there, for God's sake. The cursed dog! 
the glutton ! I will kill it this instant. I know where he 
is gone. 

[ The dog was thrashed, and the meat reseiied, and 
on our next visit : 
W. I gave away the little dog which ate the meat you 
bought the other day. I gave it to a young fellow here 
who lives near me, and he took it to Liverpool. 

[Dialogue continued : 
Give me the bread, sir. Do you like the avri-rig } 
S. What is that > 

W. The burnt part of the loaf, sir. Let me give you 
some mustard. 



GENUINE ROM AN V COMPOSITIONS, 263 

S. Thank you. 

W. Have you any salt ? 

^. Yes. 

W. Hand me the salt, pepper, and mustard. Thanks. 
Now I have some salt too. This salt is not dirty. I have 
mixed pepper with it. Do you like hedgehog ? That I 
do; is not it good } Old-fashioned food is a good hedge- 
hog and potatoes, and a nice cake. That is what the old 
Gypsies used to eat. They were rather dainty about their 
food. Hedgehogs are not good to eat in summer. They 
are with young now. I will go and look for a hedgehog. 
I will find one, and bring it home. I will kill it, and shave 
it. 1 will clean it, and put it in the ashes, and bake it, and 
eat it myself. I am thirsty. Give me something to drink. 
Here is good water. I have become a teetotaler. Pour it 
out. Thank you. That is good. Give me a little ginger- 
beer, and draw the cork. 



Illustrating ^peculiar Modes of Expression^ and points of Grammar. 

Yon rokerela lenghi Romanes, sor adre Romanes, 
Chivena yon kek gaujikanes adre lesti. 

Adr^ the iVi^/Z^erenghi tem sor o Romani chalaw see 
korengri, ^^j-^;;^aari, chorode, kekavi-Petalengre, roiengre. 

O Lavines gaire, ta o No{f)thQ.x^xi%x\ gaire, ta Hinditem- 
engri gaire, yon rokerj lenghi lavaw sor katene adre lenghi 
rokerben so see kordo sar o poruma rokerben. 

Rokerela Lavines rokeroben. Adre o Lavines tem o 
Romanii'j", see Woods, RobertSy Williams, and Jones. 

Yov rokerela misto kenaw. Mandi rokerasar misto 
kenaw sig. Too roker asar sar see doova chido tale. 
Kek nanei jinessa too so penova mandi, tooti tatcho 
Romani-chal tei } Keker mandi, mandi lova meero soover- 
holoben. Kek mandi pookerova toot vaniso koovaw talla 



264 GENUINE RUxMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

sor tatcho. Kck nanci mandi pookasova toot chichi so see 
wafedo. Jinova, pal, sorkoii koovaw too pookcras mandi sec 
tatcho. Wonka yon righerenna lesti adrc to lendi kokeri, talla 
chivi" lesti adrd tatcho wastaw, to waver reiaw, jinomeskri 
troostal lesti, doova koova kairela lendi mol dosta luvva. 

They (Welsh Gypsies) talk their Gypsy all in Gypsy. 
They mix no English with it. 

In Scotland all the Gypsies are potters, besom-makers, 
mumpers, tinkers, or spoon-makers. 

The Welsh, and Scotch, and Irish pronounce their words 
all together in their language, which is called the Gaelic 
tongue. 

He talks the Welsh language. In Wales the Gypsies 
are Woods, Roberts, etc. 

He talks well now. I shall speak well directly. Just 
you speak as it is put down. Don't you understand 
what I say, and you a real Gypsy too t Not I, I'll take 
my oath. I won't tell you anything but what is true. I 
will not tell you anything that is wrong. I know every- 
thing, my brother, that you tell me is right. When they 
keep it to themselves, and afterwards put it in right hands 
(or give it) to other gentlemen, who are learned about it, it 
will make them worth much money. 

Continued. 

Pookerova toot, Rei, tastis. 

Kek shoonessa too ; kona shorn mandi roker/;/ troostal 
duUa kolla. 

Doova, see a choorokon6 lav. Kek ne jinenna yon o 
tatcho Romani lav, pensa moro lavaw. Rokerenna posh 
dinveres posh gaujikanes. 

Soski too nant^M roker to mandi } Roker tooti, tastis. 

Kek na mandi rokerova, nasti's mandi jinova-les. 

Savo motto moosh see yov. Yov see motto sor divvus, 
lesko pal tei, motto sas-l6. Doova sec dooT lavaw chide 
ketan^. 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 265 

Yov pootchtas mandi, "Too diktas (diktan) a moosh jal 
kova drom ?" 

Nanei too kek dad ta del ? Merde yon besh ghias 
konaw. Kon'j chavo shan too ? Maw rov, tikno ! 

Doova see meeri deieski pen, meeri beebi. 

Nanei pookerova toot avri meero nogo mooT. 

Lei kova tringorishi. Maw nasher lesti. 

Komova reiakana ta gaujikana jinomus. 

I will tell you, sir, if I can. 

Don't you hear, when I am speaking about those things ? 

That is a mumper's word. They do not know the right 
Gypsy word, like our words. They talk half bosh and half 
English. 

Why do not you speak to me } Speak, if you can. 

I do not speak ; I cannot understand it. 

What a drunken man he is. He is drunk all day long ; 
his brother too was a drunkard. That is two words joined 
together. 

He asked mc, " Did you see a man go this way 1 " 

Have you no father or mother } They died a year ago 
now. Whose child art thou } Don't cry, child. 

That is my mother's sister, my aunt. 

I will not tell you with my own lips (///., out of my 
own mouth). 

Take this shilling. Don't waste it. 

I like aristocratic English learning. 

Continued. 

Kei jivela yov } Yov jivj tatch' aglal dova reiesko kair 
Yov jivdas mansa. 

Sar door see doova tan } Doovori, doovori. 

DW^fo/ki, savo kisi starni 'glal dooveski kair. Kon'j kair 
see doova .-* See a bauro rei'i" filisin. 

Kova tan see pordo rookaw. 

Besh tooki 'le kon. 

Jaw kater sooto, sar komessa. O kam see beshV. 



266 GENUIlsrE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

Mook Ics bikonyo. 

Diktassa too dova koova ? Our, diktom dulla kola. 

Te jinessa too dulla kola ? Our, pal, jinova sorkon koUi. 
Doova moosh jindas-les. 

Mook mendi jal, ta maur kancngre ! So dikessa palla ? 
Dikova o yogomengro ; awela akei. 

Nastis yov te latch lati. 

Del lesti kater o grei. Del lesti koosi kas te hoi. 

Mendi diom o greiaw kas. 

Maw kair toot jaw chorikanes. Kek luva nanei lesti ; 
kek nanef maiidi tei. Kek nanei yov mauro. So see yov 
te kair > 

Kanna mceri romni see shoovli, nastis yoi peerela. Ko- 
mova a divi gairi, ta o drabengro, te wel ta dik lati. 

So mandi dova toot dova yek papin ? Dova toot trin 
posh-kooroni lesti. 

Mendi bikindas o grei kater dova yek moosh. 

Lei ti jib, ta yoozher lesti (o roi). Kosher ti wishtaw 
konaw. 

Kon kerde-les. Too shanas } Kek mandi, lova meero 
sovloholoben. 

Where does he live } He lives right opposite that 
gentleman's house. He lived with me. 

How far is that place ^ Very far indeed. 

Look ! what a lot of stags (there are) before that house. 
Whose house is it ? It is a great gentleman's mansion. 

This place is full of trees. 

Sit down then. 

Go to sleep, if you like. The sun is set. 

Leave it alone. 

Did you see that ? Yes, I saw those things. 

Do you know those things ? Yes, brother, I know 
everything. That man knew it. 

Let us go and kill hares. What are you watching ? J 
see the gamekeeper ; he is coming here. 

He cannot find hen 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 267 

Give it to the horse. Give it a little hay to eat. 

We gave the horses hay. 

Don't make yourself so humble. He has no money ; I 
have none either. He has no bread. What is he to do } 

When my wife is enceinte, she cannot walk. I want a 
midwife and the doctor to come and see her. 

What shall I give you (for) that single goose ? I will 
give you 7^. 6d. for it. 

Take your tongue, and lick it (the spoon). Lick your 
lips now. 

Who did it "i Was it you } Not I, I will take my oath. 

Continued. 

Mi Doovelenghi, Chowali, maw kcl ajaw. Too trashcla 
mandi. 

Maw kel ajaw. Keressa too dova <7popli, moonjerova 
toot 

Moonjadom \?X\s wast. Jindas yoi so mandi kerV. 

Maw atch aglal mandi ajaw. Mook man dikas. Atch 
pauli. 

Choomerova toot te wel toot rinkeni. 

Te wel yov akei konaw, yov pooker asar mendi, so yon 
penenna. 

Yov peldas adre o paani kei o baire jalj-. 

Hotcher o poryaw, adre o yog, tale o papin. 

O poori joovel dias o wooda, ta o chei adre o kair pendas 
" So komessa too, poori gairi V Yoi" pendas, " Choori poori 
joovel shom me," ( Vide Pasp., p. 582.) 

Hokki, doosta gauje wen akei to mendi. 

Gauje shoonenna men. O gauje see wel/;/'. So mandi 
kerova konaw. 

Rak asar ti toovlo. Righerova lesti, pensa mi yokawj- 
adre mi shoro. 

Diktom leski yokaw pordo paani. 

Keker mi yokaw te dikova yoi* rt-popli. 

Bissadas too doova biti HI, so pookeri- toot o tatcho 
lavaw } 



289 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

Mandi bissadom lesti. 

Yon chivenna lesti oprc o misali. 

For God's sake, mates, don't do so. You frighten me. 

Don't do so. (If) you do that again, I will pinch you. 

I squeezed her hand. She knew what I meant (lit, did). 

Don't stand in the front of me like that. Let me see. 
Stand back. 

I will kiss you if you are pretty. 

If he were to come here now, he would tell us what they 
say. 

He fell into the river (lit., the water where the ships 
sail). 

Singe the feathers, in the fire, off the goose. 

The old woman knocked (at) the door, and the girl in 
the house said, " What do you want, old woman ? " She 
said, "I am a poor old woman." C/. Pasp., 582. 

Look out ! A lot of strangers are coming here to us. 

The Gentiles hear us. The Gentiles are coming. What 
shall I do now ? 

Take care of your tobacco. I will keep it, like my eyes 
in my head. 

I saw his eyes full of tears. 

May my eyes never see her again. 

Did you forget that little book which tells you the right 
words (i.e., an English Dictionar)) } 

I forgot it. 

They put it on the table. 

Continued, 
Roker too avri, jaw mandi can shoonova toot. 
Roker shookes. 
O ven see boot shilalo. 

Mook mendi jal, or jal6m {sic) mendi, kater sooto. 
Mendi diom yon {for lendi,) kil ta mauro. 
Dordi, doovaV a tarno rei piriv/;/' a tarni rauni. 
Yov see bitad^r ta mandi, 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 269 

kam k^das mandi kaulo. O kam see jaw tatto. 

Yoi kek na kedas-les. Yov pendas lati kek nanci te kel 
ajaw. 

Mandi shorn kino. Mandi beshW ale, mandi shomas jaw 
kino. Mandi chorV mandi adre o koppa, jaw shilalo sas 
mandi. 

Soski kedas-les talla } 

Kei mendi jal to lei paani te pee ? Mandi jinova. 
Pardel kova stigher, tale dova poov, posh 0' a bauro rook, 
'doi see a rinkeno tan o' paani. O paani vel avri o hev odoi. 

Kek nanei mandi ca/i chiv meero wast jaw door see too. 

Kei see mendi te jal te atch tedivvus .'* 

Kanna vian tumendi akei ? 

Viem akei o waver Kooroko. 

Kede a bauro godli o waver divvus. 

Kon sas doova } Kek na jinaw me. 

Pooker mandi choomoni te and tooti. 

And mandi kon a koshto bauro matcho. Kerova-les 
monghi 0' kooroko divvus to mi hoben. 

Yov kom'd asar lendi dooi sar yekera. 

Yon ghien avri dooi ta dooi ketane. 

Tardadom-les tale. 

Speak out, so that I can hear you. 
Speak low. 

The winter is very cold. 
Let us go to sleep. 
We gave them bread and butter. 

Look, there is a young gentleman courting a young 
lady. 

He is less than I. 

The sun made me black. The sun is so hot. 

She did not do it. He told her not to do so. 

1 am tired. I sat down, I was so tired. I wrapped 
myself in the blanket, I was so cold. 

What did he do it for ? 

Where shall we go to get water to drink .J' I know. 



1']0 GENUINE UOMaNY compositions. 

Over this gate, down that field, by the side of a big tree, 
there is a pretty spring. The water comes out of the hole 
there. 

I cannot reach as far as you. 

Where shall we go to stop to-day } 

When came ye here ? 

We came here the other Sunday. 

They made a great noise the other day. 

Who was that } I do not know. 

Tell me something to bring you. 

Bring me then a good big fish. I will cook it on Sunday 
for dinner. 

He loved them both equally. 

They went out two and two together. 

I pulled him down. 

Contiittted. 

Kek yov mook mandi jal avri. Kek yov komela man te 
roker to waver mooshaw, jaw wafedo see-16 'dre lesko zee. 
Yov pendas ta mandi jab palla waver mooshaw. 

Maw wooser baryaw ! 

Rak tooti. Maw ker a hev adre o kooshni. Sor o koli 
pelela adral lesti, tasti's. 

Yon hotchade lenghi koli. 

Yon bikinde o jookel kater dova rei. 

Yon yoozhade lenghi skrunya. 

Yon rode palla lenghi dei. 

Yon merde troostal o bogenya. 

Yon ridad^ lenghi kokere tatcho mishto. 

Yon pide pensa match^. 

Yon vien sor koordene mishto. 

Yon atchte trin divvusaw adre dova tan. 

Mendi shoondas sor yon pende. 

Yon pandadas opre dova trooshni d koshtaw. 

Yon andeis mendi opre mishto, pensa reidw ta raunia. 

Mookas mendi pootchas sor dulla/^//'i. 

Mookas sor mendi keras opre o boshomengri. 



Gi^.NUlNE ROMANY COMPOStTlOKS. 2Jt 

Yon lie o moosh, talla yon chide-les 'dre o steripen. 
Chide-len sor adre o steripen. 
Yov azadas lesti opre. 

Mendi shorn sorkon cheerus ka'inu a godll yek te waver. 
Mendi see sorkon chairus chingerenna kater yek te waver. 

He will not let me go out. He does not like me to 
speak to other men, he is so jealous. He said that I go 
after other men. 

Don't throw stones. 

Take care. Don't make a hole in the basket. All the 
things will fall through it, if they can. 

They burnt their things. 

They sold the dog to that gentleman. 

They cleaned their boots. 

They cried for their mother. 

They died of the smallpox. 

They dressed right well. 

They drank like fishes. 

They all got well beaten. 

They stayed three days in that place. 

We heard all they said. 

They tied up that bundle of sticks. 

They brought us up well, like gentlemen and ladies. 

Let us ask all those people. 

Let us all play on the fiddle. 

They arrested the man, afterwards they put him in 
prison. 

They put them all into the prison. 

He lifted it up. 

We are always making a row with one another. We 
are always quarrelling with one another. 



272 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 



To test the resemblance between the Turkish and Enclish 
Gypsy dialects, we ashed in English the following' sentences 
taken at random from Dr. Paspatis book. The parallel- 
ism conld be draivn mnch closer by carefnlly selecting 
corresponding English Gypsy ivords, bnt, on principle^ 
we have preferred a Gypsy's own langnage, even when 
unnecessarily discordant. 
Turkish-Gypsy. 
Savd mas kamdna [pi.] "i (p. 75) 
Asavk(5 manush(5nde te na bik- 
nds. (75) 

Me yakd na diklt^ asavkd sukdr 
romnM. (75) 

I SI ohtd dives k' alidm avatid. 

(74) 

Sostar marghids tut ? (74) 
Djanen so khuyazghidm tumdn } 

[pl.] (74) 

Sostar utcharddn i khaning? 

(74) 

Terdvas do pralcn. (76) 

Dindmas toot, ta na lindnas len. 
(100) 

Astardo i tchiriklid, ta tchindd 
la, pekld la, khald la. {\o6)— {Sin- 
gular used.] 

Tavdd mas, khald, peld, suttd 
pdske. (100) 

Me, sar t' astardv avakld tchiii- 
\dik[sg.]?{io4) 

Leskere bal bard isds, ta um- 
blavdd les oprd ko karadjil. (157) 

Kamdma yek bdli pdi te pidv. 

(159) 

Tu ndna djands, mo gadjd ka 
banddl man andrd ko ker. (160) 

O grast paravghids po bandipd. 
(160) 

Ndnasti panlidm me ydka. (160) 



English-Gypsy. 
Sdvo mas too komdssa [sg.] ? 
Kek too bikin te jafra mooshdw. 

Meeri yokdw kekera diktd jafra 
rinkeno joovel 

Dooi-stor divvus^j (see) kanna 
mandi vidm akei. 

So dids toot troostdl ? 

Too jinessa so mandi korddm 
toot troostdl ? [sg.] 

Soski chorddn too o hanik ? 

Mandi sas dooi paldw. 

Mandi didm lendi toot, ta kek 
nanei too lidn len. 

Yon tildds o chiriklo, chindds les 
shoro tale, chidd-les adrd o koro, 
ta hodd-les. — [Ptural used.'] 

Yon kerdd o mas, hodd-les, 
ghidn talla kater woodrus, ghidn 
lendi sor to sooto. 

Sar see mandi te lei kolla 
chirikld [pi.] ? 

Dosta balaw 'sas opre lesko 
shoro, ta yon pandadds-les oprd o 
rook ta lesti. 

Komova koro paani te pee. 

Kek na jinessa too, meero rem 
pandj- asdr mandi oprd adrd o kair 
O grei pogadds lesko shelo. 



Kek 
yokdw. 



mandi pandaddm m 



GENUINE ROMANY COATPOSITIONS. 273 

I rakli, ta sar gheld peske, O rakli pandadas o wooda, 

panlias pi vuddr. (160) kanna yon sor ghile avri. 

Ovokle divesende, isas yck Adrc kola divvusavv 'sas a 

maniish, ta terelas trinen raklicn, moosh. Trin rakliaw sas yov. 

penghids, me kamadjav polinate, Yov pendas lendi. "Jalovakater 

putchdva tum^ndar, so kamdla o bauro gav. So komessa toot 

tumar' oghi, t' anav tumenghe. mandi te and pauli tooti \sgi\ ? " 
im (394.) 



Befo or '%x^\z\\ gialett. 

[// is scarcely necessary to observe that there is no precise line of 
deinai'cation bcttvccn the old and nezu dialects.'] 



THE BENGAULER. 

Mandi Jiever dik'^ a gaujo to roker Romanes, pensa a 
Bengmder mandi once met in Derbyshire. We were \2Xi1i! 
along the drom zuith our vardoj, and I was the shorengro 
and mandi dik'^ a moosh beshw' apre a stigher, and his 
mooi was kaulo pensa Romani-chal, and he pen'^ to mandi, 
" Sar shan, pal ? " and I dikW at lesti, and yov kek pen V 
variso till some gaujoi- sar lenghi'j wardo^ Jiad jaVd past, 
and then I said, ''Are yon, a Romani-chal ? " a7id he penV, 
"Kek, mandi shom a Bengauler, Mandi did7it kom to 
roker aglal dula gairi," and then zveroker'd a bauro cheerus, 
and mandi jin'^ sor yov penV. So yott dik tJie Benganlers 
can roker Romanes. 

Translation. 

I never saw a Gentile (able) to talk Gypsy like a Bengal 
man that I once met in Derbyshire. We were going along 
the road with our waggons, and I was the chief, and saw 
a man sitting on a gate, and his face was dark like a 
Gypsy. He said to me, " How are you, mate ? " I looked 
at him, but he said nothing till some Gentiles with their 

18 



274 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

carts had gone past, and then I said, " Are you a Gypsy ? " 
He said, " No ; I am from Bengal I did not like to talk 
before those men;" and then we talked a long time. I 
understood all he said, so you see the Bengalese can talk 
Gypsy. 

THE THREE WORDS. 

BY ISAAC U . 

Loo/e Jiere, Koko ! If tooti 7/ del mandi pansh koli, 
mandi 7/ pooker tooti trin lavyaw tooti doesn't jin. 

" Keker, my pal. Kek if mandi jini- lesti. Pooker 
mandi so see the lavyaw adre Gaujines, <?;^^ mandi 'II bet 
tJie five shillings mandi jin.y Romanes y<7r lendi." 

" Ourli. Doova see tatcho, Ike. Pooker tJie Rei 'dr6 
Gaujines and dik if Jie doesn't I'm the Romanes." 

" Well, Koko. Pooker mandi sar tooti'^ pen, 'P?ct the 
saddle and bridle on the horse, and go to the fair.' " 

" Chiv the boshto rt;;/^ solivardo 'pre thegrcl ajid ]d\ to the 
welgaurus," 

" Doova 's kek sor tatcho, Koko. Mandi 'd pen * Dordi, 
chawoli ; jal and lei the boshto and solivardo. And the 
vardo akei, ajid chiv the grei adre lesti and mook 's jal to 
the welingaurus, an^ have some peias.' Doova 's the tatcho 
drom to pen so mandi pootchW tooti." 

"All right, Mr. H ; / see, ' six of one and half a dozen 

of the other.' And what are the other zvords ? " 

" Pooker mandi, Koko, so see the Sun adre Romanes." 

" The Sun. Well, I call that Kam." 

"Keker, Pal. It's Tam, not Kam. And what's a 
signpost ? " 

"A siker-dromengro, or a sikcrmengro." 

•' Well, a sikermengro might do, bnt that's a sJiow. We 
calls a signpost a pooker/;/-kosht, but I sec tooti jinj 
doosta Romanes, and {getting up to leave the tent) I dare 
say as Jioiv you jinj more lavi" tJian any of mendi, but 'the 
great secret' you'll never jin. Only tatcheno Roman?Vj Jin 
DOOVA, and they'll never pooker TOOTi," 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 275 

[And off he went^ leaving ns to conceal our dis- 
comfiture by cracking ivith the rest an old joke 
on Freemasonry and red-hot pokers. After a 
while, the moth returned to singe its wings a 
little more in the candle, and zvas asked if there 
IV ere any more five-shillingzvorths of words zve 
did not know, and in reply we were asked, 

" Pooker mandi so see a beurus?" 

''A brewery V 

" No ; a beurus." 

''A Livena-kel/;^' kair ? " 

" Keker ; that's a brezv-housc. I said a beurus. 

" IVellj I don't knozu that word at all.'' 

''It's a parlour, Koko. The shorokono tan of the kair. 
/ thought mandi'^ latch choomoni tooti didn't jin, besides 
' the great secret,' and tooti'// never get to jin DOOVA." 

Translation. 

" Look here, old fellow (lit., Uncle) ! If you'll give me 
five shillings, I'll tell you three words you do not know." 

" Not I, my friend ; not if I know it. Tell me what are 
the words in English, and I'll bet the five shillings I know 
Gypsy for them." 

" Yes, that's fair, Ike. Tell the gentleman in English, 
and see if he does not know the Gypsy." 

" Well, old boy. Tell me how you would say, * Put the 
saddle and bridle on the horse, and go to the fair."' 

"• Chiv the boshto, and solivardo 'pre the grei, and jal to 
the zvelgaurus." (Put the saddle and bridle on the horse, 
and go to the fair.) 

" That is not quite right, old cock. I would say, ' Dordi, 
chawoli, jal and lei the boshto and solivardo. And the 
vardo akei, and chiv the grei adre Icsti, and mook's jal to 
the welingaurus, and have somQ peias.' (Hi, mates, go and 
get the saddle and bridle. Bring the cart here, and put the 
horse to, and let us go to the fair, and have some fun.) 
That's the right way to say what I asked you." 



276 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

" All right, Mr. H ; I see : six'of one, and half a dozen 

of the other. And what are the other words ? " 

" Tell me, old fellow, what the sun is in Gypsy." 

" The sun. Well, I call that Kajn (Sun). 

" No, friend. It's TVr;//, not Kaju. And what is a 
Signpost ? " 

A Siker-dromengro (Show-road-thing), or a Sikermdugro 
(Shower)." 

" Well, a Sikerviengro might do, but that is a Show. We 
call a Signpost a Pooker'mg-kosht (a Telling-post), but I 
see you know plenty of Gypsy, and I dare say you know 
more words than any of us, but ' the great secret ' you 
will never know. Only real Gypsies know that, and they 
will never telljw/." 

He went out, but returned not long after, and said, — 

" Tell me, what is a beurus ? " 

"A brewery.?" 

" No, a beiirus!' 

"A Livena-keiin'-kair (b^QY-mdkmg house) .^" 

" No, that's a brew-house. I said a beurusr 

" Well, I don't know that word at all." 

" It's a parlour, old cock. The best room of the house. 
I thought I would find something you did not know, 
besides the ' great secret,' and you will never get to know 
Ihatr 

THE CHASE. 

BY IKE M . 

Vo?i i'm Wester, YLoko. Lesko dad ivas a "kooromQwgvo 
adre the kooromongri, and he was killed by lightning. 
Lesko dei was a Matcho. Romani-chab used to chin aid 
icnghi wongusht/ri- tJicu, so they woiddnt ^ press' them. 
And they ehased my dad. A Kooromengro opre a grei 
wel'*^, and my dad praster'^ avrf, and the kooromengro 
kister'^ palla lesti, ajid viy dad l^Xd tale Jiis cho^ai-, and 
hokter'^ adre the paani, 2.nd jal'^ to the wover rig, and the 
Kooromengro had a yogomcskro adre Ids wast, and he 



GENUINE RO^IANY COMPOSITIONS. 277 

hokter'^ pardal the paani opre his grei, and welV to my dad 
and penV ' Atch, or tooti 's a moolo moosh.' And some 
used to pander lenghi wongushtzVj- iviiJi dori, and lime, and 
soft soap, to kair them bongo, so they ivouldn't lei tJiem for 
the Kooromongri. 

Translation. 

You know Sylvester, mate. His father was a soldier in 
the army, and he was killed by lightning. His mother 
was a Heme. Gypsies used to cut off their fingers then, 
so that they would not ' press ' them. And they chased 
my father. A soldier on a horse came, and my father ran 
off, and the soldier rode after him, and my father took off 
his shoes, and jumped into the river, and swam to the oppo- 
site bank. The soldier had a gun in his hand, and he 
jumped over the stream on his horse, and came up with my 
father, and said, " Stop, or you're a dead man." Some used 
to tie their fingers with string, and lime, and soft-soap, to 
make them crooked, so that they would not take them for 
the army. 

IKE'S DOG. 

BY IKE M . 

TJie Bauro Steripen'i- tJie Bailey [the New Bailey, 
Salford], Koko. And they bitcher'^ me a godli^ for .a 
jookel, as they pend mandi'</ chor'</. But I didn't chor 
lesti. // was my nogo jookel. Mandi jin'^ lesti when it 

was born. And I lelV Mr. R s, the rokeromengro, to 

roker/^r mandi. And they kair'^ mandi pesser pansh bar 
for the jookel, and \^d lesti from mandi, and del'^/ lesti to 
the Rei. And mandi pesserW tJie rokeromengro stor bar 
more. And yek divvus, when mandi was a.tchin over odoi 
by Belle Vue [pleasure-grounds near Manchester], the jookel 
wel'^^ to my tan rt^popli. A nd ivJien they wel'^, and pen'^ 
as mandi must del it opre rt^popli, mandi pen'<7? 'Keker. 
Mandi'i- pesser'^ nearly desh bar for lesti, and mandiV/ 
kek del it opre.' And I jaVd to the rokeromengro, and he 



278 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

pen'rt^ they couldn't lei the jookel, 'cause mandiV/ pesscrW 
the pansh bar. And mandi righer'^ doova jookel a bauro 
cheerus, and called it ^Bailey! 

Translation. 

The big prison is the New Bailey at Salford, mate. 
They sent me a summons about a dog, which they said I 
had stolen ; but I had not stolen it. It was my own. I 

had known it from a pup. I got Mr. R s, the attorney, 

to speak for me. They fined mc five pounds for the dog, 
and took it from me, and gave it to the gentleman. I 
paid the attorney four pounds more. 

One day when I was stopping yonder by Belle Vue 
pleasure-grounds, near Manchester, the dog came back 
again to my tent. They came, and said I must give it up 
again. I said, " No ; I have paid nearly ten pounds for it, 
and I will not give it up." I went to the attorney, and he 
said they could not take the dog, because I had paid the 
ten pounds. And I kept that dog a long while, and called 
it ' Bailey.' 

'PUMPING.' 

BY PHILIP M . 



Koliko raati, rci, dooi trin 0' mendi'i- folki zvere adrd the 
kitchcma odof pardal the drom. And a rci loas odoi as 
had doosta luva ivi lesti, and he ivas posh motto, and 
pootch'fl^ mcndi's folki to dik lesti keri, as he zuas trash he'd 
be loordo oprc the drom. A?id as they were jahV/' keri zui' 
lesti a praastermengro wel'^ and pen'^?', they was kair/;?' a 
bauro godli, ajid zvere sor motto. And the rc\ pen'</ they 
zvere kek motto, atid pooker'^^/ lesti to jal avri lesti'i- drom, 
and mook him <?konyo. Ajid the praastermengro wojddiit 
jal avri the drom. Ajaw the rei lel'^ lesti by the pikio, 
and kair*<^ lesti jal avri the drom. And the praastermengro 
\cVd him opr6 for lesti, and pend as hed ' assnlicd' him. 
But they xwooVd the rci jal keri, and penV/ as tluyd bitcher 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 279 

him a godli. And mandi'^ kom to jin, rei, if tJie pookinyus 
"dbill mook lesti roker for his kokero, or must lesti lei a 
rokeromengro to xok^x for lesti. 

Translation. 

Last night, sir, two or three of us were in the inn there 
across the road. A gentleman was there that had a good 
deal of money with him; and he was half drunk, and asked 
us to see him home, as he was afraid he would be robbed 
on the road. As they were going home with him, a police- 
man came, and said they were making a great noise, and 
were all drunk. The gentleman said they were not drunk, 
and asked him to get out of his way, and leave him alone. 
The policeman would not get out of the way, so the gentle- 
man took him by the shoulder and made him get out of 
the way. The policeman took him up for it, and said that 
he had assaulted him ; but they let the gentleman go 
home, and said they would send him a summons. I want 
to know, sir, if the magistrate will let him defend himself, 
or must he get an attorney to defend him ? 

WAVER-TEMENGRI ROMANIES. 

BY FENNIK P . 

Did mandi ever dik any waver temengri RomanzVj, rei .? 
Our. Yekorus See a doosta besh^i* kenaw. Mandi sas at 

Bury {Lanc.^ welgaurus, and Wester Bossel, and Ike H , 

and boot adoosta waver Roman?Vi" tei. And some waver 
Romani folk\ sas odoi as mendi didn't jin. Yon atchV 
tale a bitto drom sor by lendi kokeroi-. They were more 
copper like adre lendi mooiaw dan mendi and kek as yon 
might pen tatchi kauli folki. They ivere doosta barvali 
folki — sor zvith roopni \^o\\ies and somkoi — zc/'bauri roopni 
wangusht^r.y apre lendi vongushzVi- and adre lendi kanyaw 
tei, a?id roopni VioWies, peemengr^Vj-, Koroj, shoodilaw, and 
bauro vardoi", and fino grei^f, and roodo sor adre kaish, 
and zvi' fino rivoben opre lendi dummoj". Kavakei folki 



28o GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

ivere waver temengri Roman/r^, doiit yon jiness, rei, and 
had lel'^ sor kavodoi roopni ^^oWies and ]diw kissi luva by 
panjer/;^' the gaujoj. They zuas a waver brcedopen to 
mendi. 

We were sor adr6 a kitchema palla the welgaurus yek 
raati vok^riii about kavakei folki, don't yon jiness, and 
Wester komV to lei lendi to jal mensa. Yov zvas beseen zvV 
lendi roopni koWies, and sonakei, dojit yon dikesS; rei. He 
'kom'd to roker zui lendi, but bless yon, rei, he eonldjit jin 
posh o' sor lendi rokeropen. They rokerW so deep, don't yon, 
dikess. Yov jinW dosta, bnt kek sor o' lesti, komodair dan 
sor mendi. 

'Ifd be mishto to lei lendi to jal mensa,' hotchov, ' they re 
sneh barvali folkl ' hotchov. 

And mandi pen'^ to lesti, 'Maw chiv yonr piko avri, 
they// none jal mensa — tJiey/t kek demean t/ieir kokeroj- to 
t/ie /ikes d mendi — tJieyre komodair to jal ivi' kraliszV.f, and 
bauri reiaw, patsova toot,' hotchov. 

Me^To chor — kavakei tarno moosh akei met a tarno 
Frene/A Romani-chal yek cheerus at Neweast/e. Yov'd 
kekeni romni, or vardo, or chav^Vi* 7vi' lesti. Yov sas a 
tarno ?/;^romedo moosh — a zrn/d sort of a tarno moosh. 
Yov roker'<^ dosta Romanes yov didn't jin. 

And a waver cheerus mandi zvas adr6 tJie Korengi-tem, 
and a kaulo moosh sas odoi adre a kitchema mendi 'atchW 
at. He zvas \\o\i?i kal-maiiro and pecin' pobesko-livena. 
Kavakei moosh dik'd at mendi a bauro cheerus. ' Sarshan, 
pal.'*' hotchov — as it mig/it be yonr kokero, rei, /^-raati. 
" Sarshan, bor } " hotchov, " shan tooti Romani 1 " 

" Kek, / 'm an Injnnl' hotchov. 

'^ Does tooti jiness Romanes.'*" hotchov. 

" Our, pal, doova'.y mandi'j nogo chib," hotchov. And zve 
rokerV ketnes a bauro cheerus ; and Jie didnt jin sor mandi 
penW to lesti, don't yon dikess, rei, and mandi didn't jin* 
sor leski'i- lavyaw, biU mandi )\\\d dosta. 

Mandi shoon'^ t/iet'e zvere some waver temengri Roman zVj- 
wclV/ to Epping Forest dooi trin beshaw ago, bnt mandi 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 251 

didiit dik 'em mi kokero ; / only Jieared on 'em, don't you 
dikess, rei. 

Kavakei moosh has welW adre the French tern. Yov'^ a 
Petalengro. He dikV the RomanzV^- odoi, but they don't 
roker tJicir lavj" tatcho pensa mendi does ; and wJien they 
web to a bauro gav tJiey jab to the shorokono praaster- 
mengro, and peiii- ' mendi komi- to atch akei a cheerus,' and 
the moosh deb lendi trin stor divvusri" or a kooroko to atch 
and pookeri" lendi kei they're to atch, and doovab mishti^r 
daji akei. The praastermengroj akei kair mendi jal sar sig 
as we atch and mandi'i" too naflo and pooro to jal opre the 
dxoms sor the raati zvhen mandi'j- kino a7id the vardoV too 
bauro to jal opre the drom adre the kaulo raatii", so mandi 
atch^i- akei opr^ the Kaulo. 

Doova moosh odoi as mandi was roker/;/ about jivi" adre 
the gav akei. Yov romerV/ a gauji, a7td yov's a barvalo 
moosh kenaw, ajui leski'.y romni kek jini- a lav o' Romanes 
as ever 1 hcared on. 

FOREIGN GYPSIES. 

BY PHCENIX S . 

Did I ever see any foreign Gypsies, sir } Yes, once. It 
is a good many years ago. I was at Bury Fair ; and 
Sylvester Boswell, and Isaac H., and a lot of other Gypsies 
too. Some other Gypsies were there that we did not know. 
They camped down a lane quite by themselves. They 
were more copper-like in their countenances than we, and 
not, so to speak, real black people. They were rather rich 
folk, with all sort of gold and silver things, and big silver 
rings on their fingers and in their ears too ; and silver 
articles — teapots, cups, and dishes ; and large waggons, and 
splendid horses ; and they were dressed in silk from head 
to foot, and had fine clothes on their backs. These people 
were foreign Gypsies, don't you know, sir, and had got all 
those silver articles and so much money by wheedling the 
Gentiles. They were of another breed to us. We were all 



2^2 GENUINP: ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

in an inn after the fair one night, talking about these 
people, don't you know, and Sylvester wanted to get them 
to join us. He was dazzled by their gold and silver, don't 
you see, sir. He wanted to talk with them ; but bless you, 
sir, he could not understand half of all their talk. They 
spoke so deep, don't you see. He understood a good deal, 
but not all ; more, however, than any of us. " It would be 
a good thing to get them to join us," he said ; " they are so 
rich," said he. I answered, " Don't put your shoulder out ; 
they will never agree to join us. They will not condescend 
to join such as us. They are more likely to join kings, and 
lords, I believe you," said I. 

My son, this young man, met a French Gypsy once at 
Newcastle. He had no wife, or waggon, or family with him. 
He was a young bachelor — a wild sort of a young fellow. 
He talked plenty of Gypsy my son did not understand. 

And another time I was in Staffordshire, and a black 
man was there in an inn at which we halted. He was 
eating bread and cheese, and drinking cyder. This fellow 
stared at us a long while. " Sarshan, pal," (How do you 
do, friend i*) said he, just as you might have done to-night, 
sir. " Sarshan, bor ? " (How do you do, mate .'') said I ; 
"Are you a Gypsy.?" "No, I am an Indian," said he. 
"Do you know Gypsy ? " said I. " Yes, friend, that is my 
own language," he answered. We talked together for some 
time, and he did not understand all I said to him, don't 
you see, sir ; and I did not understand all his words ; but 
I understood sufficiently. 

I heard there were some foreign Gypsies who came to 
Epping Forest two or three years ago ; but I did not sec 
them myself. I only heard about them, don't you see, sir. 

This man has travelled in France. He is a Smith. He 
saw the Gypsies there ; but they do not pronounce their 
words properly, like we do. When they arrive at a town, 
they go to the chief constable, and say, "We want to 
stop here for a time," and the man grants them leave to 
stay three or four days, or it may be a week, and tells them 



GENUINE ROMANY CO]\rPOSITIONS. 283 

where they must camp, and that is better than here. The 
poHcemen here make us go as soon as we stop ; and I am 
too ill and old to travel all night when I am tired ; and 
my waggon is too big to travel during dark nights, so I 
stay here on the Common. 

That man that I was talking about lives in the town here. 
He married a Gentile, and he is a well-to-do man now ; 
and his wife does not know a single Gypsy word, so far as 
I ever heard. 

THE POGADO SHERO. 

BY ISRAEL P . 

Ourli ! mandi'i- bin to the welgaurus at . / leW mi 

shero pogerV odoi. Yon can feel the hev akei adre mi bal 
sticl. It kairV^ rue divio and I zvas chWd adre the divio 
kair. It dookerj- mandi still sometimes. Hoiv zvas it done ? 
Why, a ratvalo gaujo opre a grei welW kester/V^' adral the 
welgaurus, and I zvas atch/;/' odoi, and he penW to mandi, 
" Yoit ratvalo jookcl, jal avri the drom." {He roker'^ lesti 
adre gaujines j^// jin.) And, zi'ithout more ado, he tip zvith a 
bauro chookni Jie had adre his wast, and d^Vd mandi a 
knock zvith it opre mi shero. It knocked mi staadi off, and 
pogerW mi shero, a?id I pel'^^ tale opre the poov, ajid I zvas 
nasfalo/^r a bauro chairus, a?id ]^Vd divio, a7id zvas chiv'^^f 
adre a divio kair, and //^<^ gaujo Jievci^ did no tiling for mandi. 
TJic Beng te lei lesti. He kesterV away, and mandi never 
dikV/ him <^popli." 

Translation. 
THE BROKEN HEAD. 

Yes, I've been to the fair at . I got my head 

broken there. You can feel the hole here in my hair still. 
It made me mad, and I was put in the asylum. It hurts 
me still sometimes. How was it done .'' Why a cursed 
Gentile on a horse came riding through the fair, and I was 
standing there ; and he said to me, "You cursed dog, get 
out of the way." He said it in English, you know. And, 



284 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

without more ado, he up with a big whip he had in his 
hand, and gave me a knock with it on my head. It 
knocked my hat off, and cracked my skull, and I fell 
down on the ground, and I was ill for a long time, and 
went mad, and was put in an asylum, and the Gentile never 
did anything for me. The devil take him. He rode away, 
and I never saw him again. 

INNOCENCE. 

BY ISRAEL P . 



Kekcr, pal ! mandi didiit jin as they zvas cliordi kovai". 
Yo?t dik, me and mandiV romni akei ]md Bill, and lesti'j- 
romni welV to lati, and pen'</, " Will yon pazvn these koppai- 
for mandi .'* " So sJie paivned 'cm, you dik, and she delW Jier 
a trin-gorishi, afid tJmi she wel'^ rt^popli, and pootchV her to 
kin tJie tickets, and she kinV cm, yon dik, bid she didiit jin' 
as the koppaj 7vas chord. They ivanted to make us 'fences^ 
you jin, without our ][mjig if. 

Translation. 

No, mate, I didn't know that they were stolen property. 
You see, I and my wife here knew Bill, and his wife came 
to her, and said, "Will you pawn these blankets for me V 
So she pawned them, you see, and she gave her a shilling ; 
and then she came again, and asked her to buy the tickets, 
and she bought them, you see ; but she didn't know that 
the blankets were stolen. They wanted to make us 
* fences,' you know, without our knowing it. 

AN INQUIRY. 

BY ISRAEL P . 

Keker, mandi doesn't jin Shcrratt. Doova'i- kek a 

Romani nav. She must be a choorodi. (To his wife) — 
Mary, av akei. Kova rei peni" as there s a monoshi adre 
the divio kair at P as he thinks is ' posh and posh,' 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 285 

and kek a moosh has been to dik lati for a besh kenaw. 
He peni- as lati zvas beeno adre Gloucester. Does tooti jin 
lati ? Mandi jiiii- Glossop, but kek Gloucester. Mandi 
docsnt jin booti about kova part of the tern, you dik, rei. 
Mandi weU from Yorkshire. . . . Ourli, pal, mandi'j jiv/;^' 
adre a kair kenaw, 'cause it's ivinter, you dik. 

Translation. 

No, I don't know Sherratt. That's not a Gypsy 

name. She must be a mumper. (To his wife) — Mary, come 
here. This gentleman says that there is a woman in the 

asylum at P , whom he thinks is a half-breed, and not a 

single person has been to see her for a year now. He says 
that she was born in Gloucester. Do you know her 1 I 
know Glossop, but not Gloucester. I don't know much 
about this part of the country, you see, sir. I come from 
Yorkshire. . . . Yes, mate, I am living in a house now, 
because it is winter, you see. 

WELSH GYPSIES. 

In September 1874 I met with a Welsh Gypsy, Oliver 
Lee, at Bettws-y-Coed, North Wales. His father was an 
English Gypsy from the Midland Counties ; his mother 
was one of the Woods, patricians amongst Welsh Gypsies. 
He was born, and had always lived, in Wales ; was about 
twenty-two years old, but, unlike most of the rising gene- 
ration in England, he could converse in both deep and 
broken Romanes, as well as Welsh and English. 

He and his wife had just been joined by some of her 
relatives, natives of Worcestershire, but Welsh by adoption ; 
whose children spoke English with a Welsh accent, and 
some of whom had married amongst the Welsh. 

I gathered from Oliver that his two aunts, Mary Wood, 
nicknamed Taw (W., silent), and Caroline Wood, both aged 
about forty, spoke Romanes habitually, and only used 
English or Welsh when talking to gaujos. 



286 GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 

After satisfying myself of Oliver's knowledge of the old 
forms, I read to him " The Widow's Son," " The Licence,' 
"Zuba B ," and "The Fairies," all of which he inter- 
preted correctly to his companions, the eldest of whom 
seemed to have a hazy recollection of several of the verbal 
inflections, and kept exclaiming, " It's just as I used to hear 
the old folk talking when I were a lad." A reference to the 
stories themselves will indicate how far the deep Anglo- 
Romanes corresponds with the current Welsh-Romanes. 
We did not, however, think we were warranted in con- 
cluding that the dialects were so far distinct that we must 
exclude my notes from the vocabularies, and we therefore 
incorporated the following, as far as the advanced state of 
the printing of our dictionary was then practicable. 

Gypsies are called in Welsh 'Gyptians, Gipsiaid, and Teulu 
Abram Hood (A. H.'s family). The origin of the last term 
is obscure ; possibly. Hood is Wood inflected. H. T. C. 

Anitrakero (Anghiterrakero), ;/., Englishman. A feminine 

genitive form. 
Ker abba, Make haste. 

Bignomws d lilei, Spring (lit, beginning of summer). 
Bor, «., Garden. Bourus, n., Snail. Bi///us, n., Bull. 
Kek chalavar mandi. Don't bother me. 
Cham odoi, Halt ! } From aich ; the termination seems 

anomalous. 
Chinomongri, ;/., One pound sterling ; cf , chinda^ shilling, 

silver, Sim., 305, 333. A £1 note (now abolished). 
Choro gono ; boot choro for mandi to righcr //. A heavy 

sack ; too heavy for me to carry it. 
Cherikleski por, Bird's tail. Dei-eski folki. Mother's people. 

Joovieski chu;j(;a, Petticoat. 
Desh/;/', Praying. 
Kek latcho see. Bishavo divez see ke-divez. It is not fine. 

It's a rainy day, to-day. 
Dikom o Beng ; dias opr(^ adre o raati, I saw a ghost (lit., 

the devil) ; it appeared in the night. 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 287 

Didas-les manghi, He gave it to me. Dino sas manghi, It 
was given to me. 

Eiavela, ;/., Understanding. Volunteered, in answer to my 
inquiry for the Romanes of " I do not understand 
you." .? * Hi ! he's coming ! ' (used as a signal.) 

Yon ghiavenna, They are singing. 

Godlieskro, «., Bell. 

Hev = minsh. Hi/harus, n., Hill. Hingher = Hinder. 

Ho;^tamangro, ;/., Toad. Holon, ;/., Landlord. 

Jinova monghi, I know. Me jinova sor, I know everything. 
Too jinessa sor, Thou knowest everything. 

Jas amenghi, or, Jas asar menghi, or, Jolta, Let us go. 

Lensa jas'^ yoi, She went with them. Janna ti o^^ten, They 
will jump (lit., They are going to jump). Joni 
odoi mi kokero, I went there alone. YoI ghias, 
She went. 

Kandela, It stinks. 

Ke-divdz, To-day. Kaliko divez, Yesterday. Ke-raati, 
To-night. Kaliko raati, Last night. Ke-saula, 
This morning. Kaliko saula, To-morrow morning. 

Kerav o mas, Boil the meat. O mas see kedo, The meat 
is boiled. 

Komas C? komova) ti la-les, I would like to have it. 

Kesserova kek, or Kek kesserova monghi, I don't care. 

Lakro, Hers. Jom lasa, I went with her. Sov lasa, coTre. 
Jom lensa, I went with them. 

'Doi see mauro, ta mas, ta lovfna ; ta so see doi popli, 
There is bread, and meat, and what is there be- 
sides. 

Ladjer o moosh. Shame the man. Varter /lozv he luUerj, 
Look ! how he blushes. LuUerova, I am blushing. 

Koro, Blind. Kurri, Tin. Mootska, Skin. 

Nei-les kek lovo, He has no money. 

0%tenna, They jump. Janna ti oy\.h^, They will jump. 

Kek pandom okaw sor o raati, I never closed my eyes all 
night. 

Pardel mandi/^v yeka, Forgive me for once. 



288 



GENUINE ROMANY COMPOSITIONS. 



Pek o mas, Roast the meat. Pekova mas, I will roast the 
meat. O mas see peko, The meat is roasted. 

Poordai", Stairs. Stor-peerengro, Frog. 

Repper toot, Remember. 

Sastermangro, An iron-grey horse. Slugns, n., Slug. 

Shomas kino, I was tired. Shanas kino. Were you tired } 
Sor kino shamas, We were all tired. Sor lendi 
sas kino tei, They were all tired too. 

Sov, v., Coire. Sooter, v., To sleep. 

Strangli, n., Onion = poorumi. 

Tarder, v., To stretch. Tre o saula, In the morning. 

Vartinimi, They are watching us. 

Vissa zvi' mandi tale koo kitchema } Will you go with me 
down to the inn .? 

Yov vias, He came. Sor mendi viam, We all came. 

Kek mandi can roker Wolshitikka, I cannot talk Welsh. 
Wolsho, n.pr., Wales. Wolshenengro, ;/., Welsh- 
man. 



Itmtcs. 



Loli, 

Posh-hori, 
Hori, hauri, 
Dooi-, trin-, stor- 



hori, 



Pandj hori, 

Shohauri, shookori, 

Trin-gorishi, koli, 

Deshto-kori, 

Pansh-kolaw, koorona, 

Posh-koorona, 

Balans, bar, 

Posh balans, 

K6tor, 

Posh-kotor, 

Panshengro, 



P'arthing. 

Halfpenny. 

Penny. 

Twopence, threepence, four 

pence. 
Fivepence. 
Sixpence. 
Shilling. 
Eighteenpence. 
Crown, five shillings. 
Half-crown. 
Sovereign, pound. 
Half-sovereign. 
Guinea. 
Half-guinea. 
Five-pound note. 



APPENDIX. 



After 19th line, insert, — 1 547, Boorde, Dr. Andrewe, 
" The first Boke of the Introduction of Knowledge, made 
by Andrew Boorde of Physyche Doctor," reprinted 1 870, 
edited by F. J. Furnivall, M.A., Trinity Hall, Cambridge, 
and published for Early English Text Society, by Triibner 
and Co., London; p. 218. See also "The Academy," July 
25th, 1874, p. 100. "The earliest known Specimen of the 
Gypsy Language," by F. J. Furnivall. 

Note. — The specimen referred to occurs in Chapter xxxviii., which 
" treteth of Egypt, and of theyr mony and of theyr speche," and com- 
prises thirteen sentences in all, which we insert here in extenso : — 

Good morrow ! Lack ittur ydyues ! 

How farre is it to the next towne ? Cater myla barforas ? 

You be welcome to the towne. Maysta ves barforas. 

Wyl you drynke some wine ? Mole pis laiiena ? 

I wyl go wyth you. A vauatosa. 

Sit you downe, and dryncke. Hyste leu pee. 

Drynke, drynke, for God sake ! Pe, pe, dene lasse I 

Mayde, geue me bread and wyne ! Achae, da inai manor la veuel 

Geue me fleshe ! Da mai masse / 

Mayde, come hyther ! harke a worde ! Achae, a tuordey siisse / 

Geue me aples and peeres ! Da inai paba la ambrell! 

Much good do it you ! Iche misto ! 

Good nyght ! Lachira tut! (Pp. 217, 218.) 

That Boorde collected these phrases from Gypsies, and not from 
" Egipcions," no one who knows anything about the language can have 
the slightest doubt. His description, moreover, of the people is very 
graphic : — 

19 



290 APPENDIX. 

"The people of the country be swarte, and doth go disgisyd in 
theyr apparel, contrary to other nacyons ; they be lyght fyngerd, 
and vse pyking ; they haue litle maner, and euyl loggyng, & yet 
they be pleas(a)unt daunsers. Ther be few or none of the Egipcions 
that doth dwell in Egipt, for Egipt is repleted now with infydele 
alyons." 

It may also be safely assumed that Boorde obtained his examples 
from English Gypsies, seeing that a trace of English is evident in 
combination with Gypsy proper. Thus in his tenth sentence occurs 
the expression " a wordey susse (tusa) = a word with thee. Most of 
Boorde's sentences have been dissected and explained in a previous 
portion of our work. According to Professor Miklosich, to Dr. Zupitza 
of Vienna, belongs the honour of having first recognized the true 
character of our English Doctor's examples of " Egipt speche,'' 
which are admitted to be the oldest known specimens of the Gypsy 
language. 

It is a curious circumstance that modern research should be 
indebted to two of our own countrymen for the earliest ethnographical 
and linguistic data which have been found relating to the Gypsy race. 
The first historical reference to the Gypsies occurs in the work of 
an Irishman, entitled " Itinerarium Symonis Simeonis et Hugonis 
Illuminatoris ad Terram Sanctam," primus eruit ediditque Jacobus 
Nasmith, A.M., S.A.S., Cantab., MDCCLXXViii., Ex. Cod. MS., in 
Bibliotheca Coll. Corp. Christi Cant, No. 407. Simon Simeon vel 
Simeonis (Fitz Simeon, in the vernacular), ' was a Minorite of the rule 
of St. Francis, of a Convent established in Dublin, from which city, in 
company with another friar, Hugh the Illuminator, he commenced his 
pilgrimage on the 15th of April, 1322.' He informs the readers of his 
Itinerary, in somewhat Quixotic language, that having ' despised the 
summit of honour,' he was 'inflated with the Seraphic ardour of visiting 
the Holy Land,' {Vide "Retrospective Review," 2nd Series, vol. ir, 
pp. 232 — 254.) On their way the two friars made a short stay in the 
island of Crete, where, it appears, they saw the Gypsies, whom Fitz- 
Simeon described in a passage to which Bryant originally directed 
attention. M. Bataillard, of Paris, has recently pointed out that it 
referred to the island of Crete, and not to Cyprus, as had been pre- 
viously supposed. There arc some small verbal inaccuracies in 
Bryant's transcript of this passage, which would be scarcely worth 
indicating if they had not been repeated by most subsequent writers, 
who seem not to have verified the quotation by consulting the prime 
authority. The passage taken verbatim from Nasmith, the first and 
last editor of the "Itinerarium," (p. 17, lines 21 — 31,) stands thus : 
" Ibidem et vidimus gentem extra civitatem ritu Graecorum utentem, et 
de genere Chaym se esse asserentcm, quai raro vel nunquam in loco 



APPENDIX. 291 

aliquo moratur ultra xxx dies, sed semper velut a deo maledicta vaga 
et profuga post xxx^^ diem de campo in campum cum tentoriis parvis 
oblongis nigris et humilibus ad modum Arabum, et de caverna in 
cavernam discurrit ; quia locus ab eis /«habitatus post dictum terminum 
efficitur plenus vermibus et aliis immunditiis, cum quibus impossibile 
est Cf^habitare." 

Page 5, after 14th line, insert: 1874. — "The Times," 
July 21, 2nd col., p. i, an announcement in Romanes of 
Mr. Hub. Smith's marriage to Esmeralda Lock ; repeated 
in "The Guardian," July 22; — also, "Illustrated London 
News," October 31, p. 214, an announcement in Romanes 
of Romany Ballads, by Prof. Palmer, Mr. Leland, and 
Miss Tuckey. 



Grammar. 



I^OUN. 

Page 14. — After paragraph commencing " Besides," add 
"According to M. Vaillant, (Grammaire Rommane, Paris, 
1868, p. 37,) the Roumanian Gypsy noun forms its genitive 
in -esko, vi., -eski, /., and the genitives of the pronouns 
(40) are sing., manki, tuki, leski, laki ; //., amenki, tumenki, 
lenki ; while the possessive adjectives (41,) are sing., maro, 
tiro, lesko, amaro, tumaro, lengo ; //., miri, tin, leski, amari, 
tumari, lenj'i. The agreement in this respect, as otherwise, 
between the two dialects is remarkable." 

Page 15, line 14. — Akoro., vide Anitrakero (Anghiterra- 
kero), Welsh Gypsy. Also in the two insults, Ti doki hev 
(Lieb., dakri), and Mi booliokri. 

Page 16. — Phiral. — Sometimes the plural ends in /, and 
probably results from a softening of the final e sound, which 
is a common plural termination in the deep dialect. 

Page 2 1 . — Nouns peculiar to the dialect. — We have since 
met with several of these words in foreign Gypsy Vocabu- 
laries. 



292 APPENDIX. 

Page 22. — After Class I., read, '' Similar terminations 
forming abstract nouns are frequent in the Roumanian 
Gypsy dialect ; vide Vaillant." 

ADJECTIVE. 

Page 23. — Rankano (fornem) and kiska (god) occur in 
Sundt. Latcho is inserted in our vocabulary, but we have 
only met with it once {vide Welsh Gypsies). On one 
occasion we heard an English Gypsy use Tatcho divvus 
for Kooshto or Latcho divvus. Lachi and comp. Lachittur 
are met with in Boorde. 

VERB. 

Page 35. — Av, Rov, Siv, Sov, Tov, etc. 
Av-ava, Rov-a.va., Siv-SiVR, etc. 
According to some authorities, the first v in these verbs 
really forms part of the root (vide Pasp., Pott, etc.) A 
comparison with the Sanscrit supports this view. 

Page 36. — To follow 15th line, ist pers., pi., -dsa, -as. 
We have met with the forms -assa, -as, -essa, for the ist 
pers., pi., pres. and fut., e.g., Doi mendi atchessa, or atchassa. 
There we will stop. 

Page 37. — We have met with several examples of the 
1st pers., pi., of the perfect ending in dan, e.g., koordem 
(koordo + shejn), We fought. CJiidc^in [cJiido + shein) We 
put. 

Page 40. — To follow Past Participle : — 

The Passive voice is formed, in deep Romanes, by the 
past participle preceded by one of two auxiliary verbs. 

1st. By the verb to be, sJioiii, shan, see, etc., q.v. 

Examples. 

Mandi shoin mooklo sor kokero, I am left all alone. 
Yov sas dikno, He was seen. 

Yov sas anlo aprd adrJ dova tent, He was brought up 
in that country. 



APPENDIX. 293 

2nd. By the verb to become, 'zvel, 'vel, etc., q.v., especially 
when the future is to be expressed. 

Examples. 
O grei te vel panlo, The horse will be pounded. 
Mandi te vel kerdOy I shall (or should) be done (for). 

Compare 'vel and 'zvel with Dr. Paspati, page 80. 
Uvav{d), Uves{a), Uvel{a), etc. Dr. Paspati first pointed 
out the existence of the verb Uvava, to become, which had 
always been previously confounded with Avava, to come. 

PRONOUNS. 

Pages 42, 43. — The promiscuous use of dative and accusa- 
tive forms for the accusative is also met with in the 
German Gypsy dialect ({oide Liebich, p. 102). 

The pronoun in the dative is frequently found following 
verbs, and then apparently often partakes of the nature of 
a reflective pronoun, e.g., — 

BesJi-tooki 'le, Sit yourself down. 

Ho')(ter-tooki, Jump ; Praster-tooki, Run. 

Holova-les vionghi, I will eat it myself. 

Ghids-peski, He took himself off. 

See Pasp., e.g., p. 608, sentence 40, kamadjdv indnghe, 
je m'en irai. 



girti0narg. 



The following words were omitted, or have been since 
collected : — • 

Booinova, v., I boast. See Booino 

He booini" his kokero, He praises himself. Note : 
Booinelopus, p. 61, is probably Booinela pes 
Dikomengri, ) 
Diksomengri,! Watchers, watchmen 

Dikomeskro hev, Window 



2 94 APPENDIX. 

Dooieni, Second 

Gaveskro (gavengro), Policeman 

Jindo moosh, Scholar 

Kitchemeskro, Innkeeper 

Klisinomengro, Lock 

Koosh, ;/. and v., Lie, falsehood ; cf. Pasp., kusJUpe 

Moskro (mooshkero), Constable 

Mtimpdirws, Mumper 

Okki, add ^' (hokki) ; cf. Pasp., akd, ceci 

Okki, lel-les tooti, Here ! take it ! 

Okki, a rei wela 'kei. Look out, there is a gentleman 

coming here ! " 

Panomeskri-gav, Watering-place 

Peker, v., To roast ; Pekedo, p. part., Roasted 

Raatenghi kova. Nitre 

Roomus, Romanes 

Shoonomus,) -^ 
r.. . \ News 

Snoonopen, ) 

Stanyamengro, Stableman 

Staromeskri^:'^, Prisoners 

Spongo, Match 

Tatchomus, Truth 

Tatti-peerengri, Irish, i.e., hot (blooded) tramps 

Trashermengro-kova, Lightning 

Tilomeskro, Pot-hook 

Weshenghi-chiriklo, Wood-pigeon. 

See also the following Tales. " 



[Want of space prevents our giving Translations,] 



THE BALL. 
Nd chavoH, too jassa mansa kater dova bitto welgauro 
tedivvus } Mandi jinova yek koshto kair adre o bitto gav 



APPENDIX. 295 

— shorokono kair see — kei see bauro kebV-kamora. Pendas 
o rauni kater mandi o waver divvus, te wel te yoi'^ kair te 
bosher opre o welgauro divvus, yoi dela mandi posh-kotor, 
ta sor meero hoben, ta piamus, te atchova odoi sor raati, te 
wel me te komova. Too wel mandi, too lela posh so mandi 
lelova. Bosheras too mansa ? 

Our. Jova me toosa. Nastis mandi bosherova sar 
koshto sar too, jiness. Mandi kairova o feterder tastis. 

Ava-ta kon ! Jaw menghi ! 

"Sar shan, Rauni ?" 

" Sar shan," hotchi yoi. " Too vias kon .'*" 

" Our, Rauni." 

" Lelessa tumendi chomoni te hoi, wonka too jala opre 
tekcl.?" 

" Our, Rauni, sar komessa, parikeraw toot." 

Beshtem mendi tale 'glal o misali. Dosta hoben sas 
opre lesti. Hodem ta pidem, so mendi komdas. Talla 
mendi ghiem opre o podas. Boshaddm koosi. Kanna-sig 
dosta ta dosta raunia ta reiaw vien adre. Komde men 
mishto. Boshadcm adre dova kamora sor raati. Yon 
kelde sor o raati mishto tei, raunikana dromaw {quadrilles^ 
valses, etc., not Jiornpipes). Mendi kedem mishto lendi tei. 
Talla mendi kede bosherzV/' lendi, yon, ta o shorokono rei, 
del'^ mendi pansh kotoraw. Pende te mendi. "Waver 
cheerus mendi wela akei." A vaver besh mendi kelova 
lendi rt:popli. 

A PRACTICAL JOKE. 

Yekera, kanna tarna tatcho rinkeno dikomusti chavo sas 
me, ghiom kater a rauneski loobno kair. Ridom mi kokero 
adre tarno joovelV rivomus. Pandadom meero kokero opre 
tatcho, pensa rinkeno tarno joovel. Meero bal sas boot 
opre mi shoro, dosta lesti, sar wooser(?/pardal meeri pike. 
Kaulo sas, pensa chiriklo'i" poryai*. 

Kanna sig yek d lendi pootchdas mandi, te atch opre ta 
kel. "Our," hotchi yoi, "mandi jinova sor teero folk\ 
kelela mishto." 



2g6 APPENDIX. 

Talla mandi atchdas opre te kerova wi lendi. Kanna 
yon dikte (sar) mandi kerV, yon pende kater mandi, " Kek 
nanei too a joovel, too keressa 'jaw mishto. Kek tarno 
joovel kerassa pensa too. Too see a moosh, tatcho dosta. 
Dikova tei." Vi6n kater mandi. Tardade meero cho;)^a 
ta shooba opre. Talla dikte mooshkeni rivopen opre 
mandi, sor o kair o' lendi sade koshto dosta te maur lenghi 
kokere. 

Talla yon dela mandi sorkon kova, mol, ta tatto paani, 
ta vaniso te piova, komde mandi 'jaw boot. Yon pende, 
kekera yon dikte jafra kova kedo ajaw ad re lenghi 
meriben. 

THE PUGILIST. 

Kanna shom (shomas) me tarno moosh, kek na kessadom 
troostal vaniso moosh, bitto o' bauro. Feterder sas o moosh, 
feterder mandi komde lesti. Kek mandi chsLrered o bitto 
mooshaw. Nanei lendi koshto dosta mandi. 

Mandi jindom koorova vaniso moosh, gauje ta Romani- 
chalaw. Mandi shomas o feterder bitto moosh adrc [o] 
Stor Temaw. Kek-komeni koorela man. Yon sor jindas, 
(^r jinde) dova. 

Kanna yon dike man, yon penenna yek to waver, " Kova 
see o feterder bitto moosh troostal sor mooshaw so ever 
diktom. Jaw sig si-16 adre lesko Vooxin . Yov dela troostal 
lesti wastaw, pensa o bitto grei. Kek yov kesser^<^ \.for\ 
kek moosh so yov koordds. Yov koordas sor o feterder 
Romani-chaldw adre lesko temaw." Yov penela konaw, te 
pooro si-les, yov koorela vaniso pooro moosh adr6 Anghi- 
terra. Lesko nav see jinlo mishto kater sorkon Romani- 
chalaw. Yov penela lesko kokero, keker nanei yov koordno. 
Kek moosh adr6 Anghiterra, kek nanei koordas lesti adr(^ 
sor leski meriben. 

Yek Romano moosh koordas te lesti, chiv'c/ lesti avri 
lesti jinomus bitto koosi chairus. Yov atchdds opr6 popli 
te koor yov, but kek o waver moosh wela, ta lesti [o Romano 



APPENDIX. 297 

moosh] ghias kater Drabengro te ratcher {bleed) lesti, keker 
o Drabengro kela 'jaw, yov koordno sas 'jaw wafedo. 

WHY WESTER WON'T EAT MUTTON. 

Mandi shomas yekera adre o lilei jala {going) pardal o 
poovyaw. Diktom bokrengro {or bazengro), kooser/;^' te 
yoosherela bokre. Sor sas {or si-le) pardal wafede tanaw, 
sor pardal lenghi shore, ta lenghi pik6, posh hodno tale, ta 
kandas pensa a hindo-kair. O bokrengro sas draberz;/' d 
lendi, te sor [JiacP^ koli {rags) chiv'/^ pardal lenghi shore. 
Yov sas draber//*^' d lendi, pensa o wafedo hotchado moosh. 

Talla dova mandi pendom, kek mandi hola bokroV mas 
kek-komi, vonka m^ jiv. 



(Note to page 197, line 20.) 

Gypsies everywhere evince a strong love for music, but 
their talents in this respect appear to greater advantage in 
foreign lands than in this country. With our English 
Gypsies the favourite instruments are the tambourine and 
the ' boshomengri,' or fiddle, especially the latter, and we 
know several good executants on the strings. One of the 
most gifted and renowned violinists among the Gypsies, in 
recent times, was a man named Horsery Gray, who died 
some years ago. We have been told by a Romani-chal that 
when Horsery had heard a tune he could play it off straight- 
way, putting in such " variations, grace-notes, shakes, and 
runs," that none of his confreres could compare with him. 
He played entirely by ear, and not from notes. The gaujos 
sent for him from long distances to hear his hornpipes. 

When an old acquaintance of ours, Charley Boswell, lost 
a favourite child, he refused to be comforted, abstained 
from food, becoming much emaciated in consequence, and 
spent all his time for several weeks after the child's 
death in playing on his fiddle. He seemed to find his only 
consolation in confiding his grief to his instrument, and 



298 APPENDIX. 

touching chords which responded in sympathy with his 
own sad mood. 

The Gypsy is always foremost among the " feast-finding 
minstrels " which attend our English fairs and country 
wakes. He is to be seen in his glory at a 'kelopen* or 
frolic, when the mirth grows fast and furious, as with 
flashing eyes and excited mien he flourishes his fiddle- 
bow and plays the music which keeps in time the flying 
feet of the dancers. The Gypsy girls are not averse to air 
their accomplishments on these occasions, and exhibit the 
same lightness of toe and natural grace which are said to 
distinguish their continental sisters. Highly favoured is 
the village swain who has a " dark ladye " from the tents 
for his partner in the dance. 

There arc no English tunes with which wc arc acquainted 
which can be said to be peculiarly Gypsy. The Ahb6 
Listz has made an extensive collection of Gypsy airs in 
the Slavonic provinces of the Austrian Empire, where 
Gypsies abound. " The natives dwelling on the Danube 
— Hungarians, Moldavians, Slavonians, Wallachians, and 
others — owe their music to the Gypsies, . . . and many 
of their melodies have become the national airs of those 
countries. Their music has been principally developed on 
the hospitable soil of Hungary, and from thence it has 
spread all over the Danubian Principalities. The Magyars 
have adopted them as their national musicians, and there 
is hardly a village without their minstrels called Lautars." 
— Vide Preface to "Gypsy Melodies, etc.," by Charles K. 
Laporte (London, Augener and Co.) ; also, " Die Zigeuner 
und ihre Musik in Ungarn, von Eranz Listz. 



CORRIGENDA. 



Page 

xiii, line 4 from foot, for ' Tchingianes' read ' Tchinghiands ' 
xxi, „ 19, for 'sedo' read 'scdeo' 

5, „ c), for ' 11' read * 17' 

6, „ 24, after '^^' read 'and fined /' 

7, „ 1 3, dele ' or liable to inflection ' 

14, „ 25, for ^ stdrdV read ^ staddV 

15, „ 27, after * Prayer ' add ' in * 

18, „ 8, after ' keri' add ' or Jala kerel and dele ' OY,yov 

see ghilo kere, he is (has) gone home' 
22, last line, for ' battle ' read ' dealings ' 
24, line 24, for 'SINGULAR,' 'PLURAL,' read 'MASCULINE,' 

' Feminine ' 
26, dele first paragraph 
35, line 9, for * sheep ' read ' sleep ' 
38, „ 8, for ' boughtedst ' read ' boughtest ' 
44, „ 27, dele from 'of to 'pcske, and add, ' Peski is 

generally used as a reflective pronoun, ef. Pasp., 
pes J pcske ' 
46, line 23, for ' avree, ^vreel here and elsewhere read 

' avri, 'vri! 
46, last lines, for * Tooostdl, Trrostal! read ' Troostdl, 

Troostal ' 
48, line 17, after 'following' read ' five' 
48, „ 2<), ior ^ doovore^, doovoree,' YQd^d ' doovori, doovorl' 
52, „ IS, add '(dolla,) Pasp., odole' ; last line, for 

* bikoyno ' read ' bikonyo ' 



300 CORRIGENDA. 

Page 

55, for ' Bangaree ' read ' Bangarec ' 

71, line 10, for ' -sJito' read ' -ohio' 

75, „ 16, for ' navel ' read ' umbilical cord ' 

81, „ 14, add ' cf. 'Liob., grisjii, das Gericht, das Amt' 

2)^, „ 20, for ^jdiiddrdka, shawl/ read ' jdndiirdka, 

Frauenrock ' 
95, „ 6, after ' ^T-^V a-dd ' and /;w/.' 
95, lines 18, 19, 20, cancel from ' Pasp.' to 'alone,' and 

substitute 'Pott, ii., 107' 
98, line 19, for * ? Pasp., tchdrdava ' read ' Pasp., akardva' 

lOi, „ 25, for 'ladipen ' read 'ladjipen ' 

103, ., 8, <^67<? ' her ' 

113, „ 10, for 'it' read 'is' 

1 14, „ 1 1, for 'ler ' read ' les (lesti)' 

124, lines 4 and 5, should be in the first margin 

131, line 24, for ' road ' read ' rod ' 

I33> j> ^7y ^dd ' ill' ; line 22, for ' disiolo ' read ' disiola ' 

I34> M 3> ^^^ '^^c to us' read ' are (have) we' 

137, „ 2 from foot, for ' ken sigaw' read ' kenaw sig ' 

141, „ 7, for ' stii^f read ' stief^ 

147, „ I, for 'kova' read 'kova'; and line 8, for 'dova' 

read 'dova' 
151, » 23, for * c/a, come ! ' read ' avdva, to come; uvdva, 

to become ' 
189, „ 9, dele ',' after 'divvus^j' 
195, „ 21, for ' dsiturb ' read * disturb ' 

219, „ 9, for 'Doovolesko' read * Doovelesko' 

220, „ 7, for ' tooti" read * tooti ' ^ 
230, „ 5, for ' toti ' read ' tooti ' 

235, „ 23, for ' meeripen ' read ' meripen ' 

237, „ 2 from foot, dele 'a' 

238, „ 16, for ' bar ' read ' bor ' 
245, „ 19, after * grass ' add ' ) ' 



INDEX. 





PAGE 




PAGE 


Title Page. 




Trails . . . . 


198 


Dedication. 




Lament on the Decay of 




Preface 


V 


the Language . 


200 


Introduction . 


. vii 


Eheu Fugaces . 


201 


Grammar :— 




Funeral Rites 


202 


Bibliography of the Dialect i 


Horse-dealing . 


203 


Etymology 


• 5 


Zuba B 


204 


Orthography 


. 6 


Kokeri Indiki . 


208 


Accent 


■ 7 


The White Dog 


208 


Letter Changes, Elisions, etc. 8 


In Prison . . . . 


209 


Article 


. 10 


Remarks on Mixed Mar- 




Noun . 


. II 


riages . . . . 


210 


Adjective . 


• 23 


Tales :— 




Adverb 


. 29 


The Mumper's Artful 




Auxiliary Verb . 


• 30 


Dodge . . . . 


211 


Verb . 


. 32 


The Knowing Irishman 


212 


Pronoun . 


■ 41 


King Edward and the 




Numerals . 


• 45 


Gypsy . . . . 


215 


Prepositions 


. 46 


The Thief . . . . 


216 


Syntax, Idioms, etc. 


. 47 


The Fairies 


217 


Dictionary :— 




How Petalengro went to 




Gypsy-English Vocabulary 5 1 


Heaven . . . . 


219 


Appendix to same 


. 158 


Translations :— 




English- Gypsy Vocabulary 163 


The Cock and the Diamond 


223 


Compositions ; Customs :— 


How the Dog lost his Meat 


223 


Introduction 


. 191 


The Fox and his Tail 


224 


Pitching a Tent 


. 192 


The Wolf and the Lamb . 


225 


Choosing a Camp 


• 193 


Pater Noster 


225 


The Ghost . 


. 194 


Creed . . . . 


226 


A Caution . 


• 195 


Ten Commandments . 


226 


The Haunted Camp 


. 195 


The Lord is my Shepherd 


228 


Supper-time 


. 197 


The Seven Loaves Miracle 


229 


Hedgehog Hunting 


and 


Love your Enemies . 


229 


Gypsy Cake . 


. 197 


The Widow's Son 


230 



302 



INDEX. 





PACE 




PAOB 


The Supper 


230 


Wester :— 




The Prodigal Son . 


. 231 


Autobiography . 


246 


The Rich Man and Lazarus 


' 233 


Codling Gap 


247 


Zacchseus . 


234 


Verses 


248 


The Good Shepherd . 


235 


Letters 


248 


Miscellaneous :— 




Genealogy . 


252 


Tempora Mutantur . 


236 


Dialogues :— 




Speed the Parting Guest 


236 


Three from the ist Edition 


254 


The Child's Caul . 


237 


At Dinner . 


260 


Nausea 


237 


Extracts from our Note 




Stag Hunt , 


238 


books 


263 


An Assault 


238 


Paspati's Sentences com 




Hiding 


238 


pared 


272 


Washing, shopping, etc. 


238 


New Dialect :— 




Steahng a Wife . 


239 


The Bengauler . 


273 


Sickness and Recovery 


239 


The Three Words . 


274 


In Debt . 


240 


The Chase 


276 


Ipse Dixit . 


240 


Ike's Dog . 


277 


A Reminder 


241 


Pumping . 


278 


A Proud Man . 


242 


Foreign Gypsies 


279 


A Pedestrian 


242 


The Broken Head 


283 


The Licence 


242 


Innocence . 


284 


The Greyhound 


. 242 


An Inquiry 


284 


The Frog . 


. 243 


Welsh Gypsies . 


285 


The Gypsy's Cat 


243 


Money. 


288 


Squabble . 


243 


Appendix . 


289 


Apple Tree 


244 


Corrigenda 


299 


Polite Inquiries . 


244 


Table of Contents . 


301 


The Knowing Horse-deale 


r 245 







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