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From the collection of the 
Z n 


o Prelinger 

i a 


San Francisco, California 

1345 is.'- 1353 

4- 'J \J ^ 





Semi-Monthly Journal of 

Literary Criticism, Discussion, and Information. 


JULY i TO DECEMBER 16, 1892. 










ART AND LIFE ONCE MORE John Burroughs 287 
















ENGLISH PROSE LITERATURE Oliver Farrar Emerson . . . . 116 



FICTION, RECENT BOOKS OF William Morton Payne . .92, 226, 340 


GOSSE'S PUZZLE OVER POE John Burroughs 214 


READY" Henry W. Thurston 39 






IRVING'S SHYLOCK . Anna B. McMahan 215 


JOAN OF ARC, THE STORY OF Octave Thanet ....; 67 



LIFE WORTH LIVING, A William Morton Payne .... 189 







NEW WITCHCRAFT, THE Joseph Jastrow 113 





OLD HOPE IN A NEW LIGHT, AN William Morton Payne 



POETRY, RECENT BOOKS OF William Morton Payne . 40, 

POLITICAL ECONOMY, A NEW HISTORY OF . . . . 0. L. Elliott 336 




RAILWAY FINANCE, PROBLEMS OF . . . . . . . A. C. Miller 






EYES * ... Rasmus B. Anderson 222 



SOCIAL SPIRIT IN AMERICA, THE Joseph Henry Crooker 17 


SUMNER, CHARLES, THE PUBLIC CAREER OF .... William Henry Smith 33 





UNITY OF FAITH, THE John Bascom 392 


WHITMANIANA . . . William Morton Payne 390 



BALLADE TO A BOOKMAN Francis Howard Williams . . . 289 

CONGREVE, WILLIAM (Sonnet) Marian Mead 135 

CONSUELO (Two Sonnets) . . ... . . % . . W.R.Perkins . . 330 

TOWER OF FLAME (The White City, July 10, 1893) . R. W. Gilder . . / . . . '; . 27 


SONNET ON THE COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION . . /. . . William P. Trent .... . . 177 


NEW YORK Tones. Arthur Stedman 196, 232, 273, 302, 351, 402 

Breach of Idiom. F. H 85 Newman, Cardinal, Versus Se. F. H 331 

Columbian Celebration a Hundred Years Ago. Newspapers and their Constituencies. George 

James L. Onderdonk 140 Henry Cleveland 290 

Daily Papers and their Readers. J. H. Crooker 179 Newspapers, The Improvement of. C. K. Adams 254 

Decorative Sculpture at the Fair, and Its Preser- New Theology " and Quackery. Leon A. Harvey 108 

vation. A Travelling European .... 255 " None but They, " etc. F. H 179 

Disclaimer and Explanation. F. H 383 Old Dominion, Airs and Manners " in the . . 382 

East and West Once More. Celia Parker Wooley 216 Pardonable Forgetting, A. R. O. Williams . . 218 
English Drama at the Universities. C. . . . 63 Perhaps an Error. R. O. Williams .... 8 
Geographical Importance of Tomfoolery. D. H.W. 217 " Perhaps an Error." R.O.Williams ... 63 
John Bull, What Shall We Do With ? Jonathan 382 Poe, Mr. John Burroughs on. E. E. Hale, Jr. . 254 
Library of the Chicago University. W.I. Fletcher 382 Slang, The Use and Abuse of. Brander Mat- 
Literary Art, Concerning. D. H. Wheeler . . 290 thews 108 

Literary Style, A Curiosity of. W. H. Johnson 256 Slang, The Use and Abuse of. Pitts Duffield . 86 

Literature, Creative Art in. John G. Dow . . 331 Unauthoritative Authority. R. O. Williams . . 109 

Literature, A "Western Style "in. A. H. M. . 256 Worthy Journal, A. Frederick Starr , ... 290 




Authors and Publishers, Personal Agreements be- 
tween . 197 

Authors' Congress, English views of the . . . 158 

Authors' Congress in Germany 157 

Authorship, Tribulations of 235 

Bassett, Lieut. Fletcher S., Death of .... 274 
Besant, Walter, Letter from, on Authors' Congress 74 

Booth, Edwin, Tributes to 352 

Browning, Mrs., Newly-printed Letters of . . 304 
Chicago Massacre, Memorial of the .... 159 

Church, Alfred, Poem by 199 

Coleridge Manuscript, Recovery of a .... 49 

Come"die Franchise in London 7 

Copyright Conference at Barcelona 304 

Dobson, Austin, A Fragment from 304 

Emerson and Browning, Freeman's Opinion of . 275 
FitzGerald, Edward, Verses to, by Edmund Gosse 

and Theodore Watts 275 

Iconoclast Society, Need of an 122 

Jowett, Prof. Jebb's Tribute to *. 353 







Jowett, Theodore Watts's Sonnets to .... 353 

Lang, Andrew, Verses to 304 

Literary Workers, Organization among . . . 198 

Lowell, Memorial to, in Westminster Abbey . . 352 

Macmillan & Co., Sketch of house of .... 121 

Maupassant, Guy de, Death of 73 

Nettleship, Professor, Death of 73 

Newspaper Press, Progress of the 275 

Portuguese Literature 7 

Robinson, A. Mary F., Sonnet by 198 

Shelley and Tennyson, Memorials to .... 21 

Shelley MSS. given to the Bodleian Library . . 198 

Symonds, J. A., Funeral of 197 

University Library, Mr. Woodruff on the Uses 

of the 305 

Wagner Cult in Paris 304 

Walton's Angler, A Rare Copy of 234 

Western Literature, Eastern Comment on . . 234 

Whittier's Love of Home 198 

Zola and Oscar Wilde 275 


... 19, 45, 70, 95, 118, 149, 193, 228, 269, 300 

21, 48, 73, 97, 120, 196, 231, 272, 302 

21, 48, 73, 97, 121, 157, 197, 233, 274, 303, 352, 403 
.... 22, 49, 74, 122, 199, 235, 276, 305, 404 
. . . 22, 50, 98, 122, 199, 235, 276, 306, 353, 404 


Abrante's, Laura, Duchess of. Autobiography . 303 

Across France in a Caravan 396 

Addams, Jane, and others. Philanthropy and So- 
cial Science 20 

Alcott, Louise. Comic Tragedies 401 

Alden, Mrs. J. R. Stephen Mitchell's Journey 400 

Alden, Mrs. J. R. Worth Having 401 

Aldrich, T. B. Two Bites at a Cherry . . . 343 
Alger, Horatio, Jr. In a New World .... 399 
Andersen, Hans Christian. The Little Mermaid 400 
Andrews, C. M. The Old English Manor . . 260 
Anstey, F. Mr. Punch's Pocket Ibsen ... 45 
Anstey, F. The Man from Blankley's . . . 346 
Appleton, William Hyde. Greek Poets in En- 
glish Verse 43 

Appletous' General Guide, 1893 73 

Appletons' Picciola 398 

Archer, Thomas. Fleet Street 231 

Ashley, Professor. English Economic History . 261 

Bach, F. W. How to Judge a Horse .... 232 

Baldwin, James. Elegiac Verse 231 

Ballantyne, R. M. The Walrus Hunters . . 401 

Balmforth, Ramsden. The New Reformation . 263 

Bamford, Mary E. Talks by Queer Folks . . 400 

Bancroft, H. H. The Book of the Fair . . . 120 

Bandelier, A. F. The Gilded Man .... 389 

Bangs, John K. Half-hours with Jimmieboy . 399 

Bangs, John Kendrick. Toppleton's Client . . 94 

Barr, Amelia E. The Bow of Orange Ribbon . 348 

Barrow, Sir John C. The Seven Cities of the Dead 268 

Barry, John. The Princess Margarethe . . . 400 
Beach, Daniel Nelson. The Newer Religious 

Thinking , 147 

Beckford, William. Vathek 344 

Bede, Cuthbert. The Adventures of Verdant 

Green 395 

Bell, Lillian. The Love Affairs of an Old Maid 99 

Benson, E. F. Dodo 340 

Bentley, Arthur F. The Condition of the Western 

Farmer 261 

Benyowsky, Count de. Memoirs and Travels . 72 

Besant, Walter. The Rebel Queen .... 226 

Bidgood, John. Course of Practical Biology . 95 

Bishop, William Henry. A House-hunter in Europe 195 

Blackmail, R. D. Dictionary of Foreign Phrases 231 

Blackmore, R. D. Lorna Doone 347 

Block, Louis James. El Nuevo Mundo ... 41 

Boies, Henry M. Prisoners and Paupers ... 46 

Bolton, Sarah K. Famous Voyagers .... 399 

Bonar, James. Philosophy and Political Economy 262 

Bonner, John. Child's History of France . . 231 

Bonney, T. G. The Yearbook of Science ... 21 

Bowen, H. Courthope. Froebel and Education . 195 

Bremer, Frederika. The Home 397 

Brewer, R. F. Orthometry 72 

Bridgman, Lewis. Odd Business 400 

Brisbane, Redelia. Life of Albert Brisbane . . 229 
Bronte Sisters, The Novels of ... 118, 196, 302 

Brooks, Noah. Statesmen 273 

Brown, Helen D. The Petrie Estate .... 342 

Brown, T. E. Old John 41 

Bryant, W. C. Poems of Nature 398 

Burnett, Frances Hodgson. The One I Knew the 

Best of All 349 

Bury, J. B. Freeman's Federal Government in 

Greece and Italy 194 



Butler, Arthur J. A Companion to Dante . . 300 
Butterworth, Hezekiah. The Boys of Greenway 

Court 350 

Cable, George W., Novels of 302 

Calderwood, Henry. Evolution and Man's Place 

in Nature 66 

Campbell, James Dykes. The Poetical Works of 

Coleridge 44 

Campbell, William W. The Dread Voyage . 269 
Carlyle, Thomas. History of the French Revo- 
lution 347 

Carpe*, Adolph. The Pianist 121 

Carpenter, Edward. From Adam's Peak to Ele- 

phanta 110 

Castlemou, Harry. Rodney the Overseer . . 399 

Catherwood, Mary H. Old Kaskaskia ... 94 

Catherwood, Mary H. The White Islander . . 342 

Cawein, Madison. Red Leaves and Roses . . 43 

Century Gallery - 346 

Chamberlain, B. H. Handbook for Travellers in 

Japan 48 

Champfleury. The Faience Violin 228 

Chainpney, Elizabeth W. Six Boys .... 349 
Chapin, Willis O. Masters and Masterpieces of 

Engraving 344 

Cherbuliez, Victor. The Tutor's Secret . . . 228 
Claflin, Mary B. Personal Recollections of Whit- 
tier 270 

Clement, Clara E. The Queen of the Adriatic . 345 

Cole, Robert H. The Anglican Church ... 38 
Collingwood, W. G. The Life and Work of John 

Ruskin 189 

Cone, Orello. The Gospel 148 

Coolidge, Susan. The Barberry Bush .... 401 

Coote, Eyre. With Thackeray in America . . 229 

Coryell, John R. Diccon the Bold 350 

Cossa, Luigi. An Introduction to the Study of 

Political Economy 335 

Cox, Palmer. The Brownies at Home .... 348 

Craik, Henry. English Prose 116 

Crawford, F. Marion. Pietro Ghisleri .... 93 

Crawford, F. Marion. Marion Darche . . . 341 

Creevey, Caroline A. Recreations in Botany . 121 
Crocker, Joseph H. The New Bible and Its New 

Uses , 30/3 

Crowell's Children's Favorite Classics . . . 400 
Curtis, George William. Other Essays from the 

Easy Chair 120 

Daudet, M. Letters from My Mill ... 346 

Deland, Margaret. Mr. Tommy Dove 94 

Deland, Margaret. The Old Garden . 347 

De Motte, John. The Secret of Character Building 149 

3 Normandie, James. Four Sermons . <>i 

Dictionary of National Biography, Vol. XXXV 73 

Dobson, Austin. Memoir of Horace Walpole 347 

Dobson, Austin. Proverbs in Porcelain 393 
Dodge, T. A. Riders of Many Lands 
Dole, Nathan Haskell. Not Angels Quite 

Doyle, A. Conan. My Friend the Murderer 343 

Doyle, A. Conan. The Refugees no 

Du Chaillu, Paul. Ivar the Viking o 41 
Duffy, Bella. Tuscan Republics and Genoa ' 
Duncan, Sara J. The Simple Adventures of a 

Memsahib ... 11O 

Duval Madame Delphine. ' Petite Histoire de la 

.Litterature Franchise 071 

Dwight James. Practical Lawn-Tennis .' 120 

Dyche, Lewis L. Camp-fires of a Naturalist 195 

Earle, Alice Morse. Customs and Fashions in 

Old New England 219 

Ebers, Georg. The Story of My Life .... 87 
Edwards, George W. Thumb-nail Sketches . 272 
Elliot, Frances. Old Court Life in France . . 396 
Elliott, Sarah Barnwell. John Paget .... 93 

Ellis, Edward S. Across Texas 350 

Ellis, Edward S. River and Wilderness Series 350 
Elton, Charles and Mary. The Great Book Col- 
lectors 296 

English Dictionary of the Philological Society, 

Part VII 96 

Estes & Lauriat's Ivanhoe 395 

Factors in American Civilization 271 

Farrar, Canon. Christmas Carols 398 

Fawcett, Edgar. Songs of Doubt and Dream . 42 
Fielde, Adele M. Chinese Nights Entertainments 34(5 
Fielding, Henry, The Novels of .... 118,302 
Flower, B. O. In Civilization's Inferno ... 95 
Forbes, Edith E. The Children's Year-book . 401 
Ford, Worthington C. The Writings of George 

Washington, Vol. XIV 232 

Fraser, Sir W. Hie et Ubique 300 

Frederic, Harold. The Copperhead .... 341 
French, Henry W. Oscar Peterson .... 401 
Fuller, Edward. The Complaining Millions of Men 227 
Fuller, Henry B. The Cliff Dwellers .... 227 

Galton, Francis. Finger-Prints 12 

Galton, Francis. Hereditary Genius .... 12 
Galton, Francis. Natural Inheritance .... 12 
Gatty, Mrs. Alfred. Parables from Nature . . 397 
Gayley, Charles M. The Classic Myths in En- 
glish Literature 194 

Gilder, Richard Watson. The Great Remem- 
brance 265 

Gilman, Bradley. The Musical Journey of Dor- 
othy and Delia 348 

Gilman, N. P. Socialism and the American Spirit 17 
Gladden, Washington. Tools and the Man . . 17 
Gordon, George A. The Witness to Immortality 393 
Gordon, Sir Arthur. The Earl of Aberdeen . . 119 
Gordy, W. F. A Pathfinder in American History 119 
Gosse, Edmund. Questions at Issue . . . . 193 
Gower, Lord Ronald. Joan of Arc .... 67 

Grant, Robert. Jack Hall 400 

Grant, Robert. Jack in the Bush . . . . 400 
Gray, Jane Loring. Letters of Asa Gray . . 333 
Green, J. R. Short History of the English Peo- 
ple, illustrated edition 21 

Gudrin, Euge"nie de, Journal of 397 

Guiney, Louise Imogen. A Roadside Harp . . 266 
Hale, Edward E. For Fifty Years .... 265 

HaleVy, M. The Abbe* Constantin 397 

Harden, William D. The Truth of Dogmatic 

Christianity 147 

Harlow, Louis K. The World's Best Hymns . 397 
Harper's Black and White Series, five new vol- 
umes .... 97 

Harper's Distaff Series, new volumes . . . . 120 
Harper's New Monthly Magazine, Index to . . 272 
Harrison, Constance C. Short Stories .... 343 
Harrison, Joseph Le Roy. Cap and Gown . . 43 
Harrison, Mrs. Burton. Sweet Bells Out of Tune 342 
Hart, A. B. Formation of the Union .... 195 
Hart, Ernest. Hypnotism, Mesmerism, and the 

New Witchcraft 113 

Hays, Dudley G., and others. High' School Lab- 
oratory Manual of Physics 272 



Henderson, C. R. Introduction to the Study of the 

Dependent, Defective, and Delinquent Classes 263 

Heinemann, Arnold H. Froebel's Letters . . 120 

Henty, G. A. A Jacobite Exile 349 

Henty, G. A. St. Bartholomew's Eve . . . 349 

Henty, G. A. Through the Sikh War ... 349 

Hibbard, George A. Nowadays 228 

Higby, C. D. A General Outline of Civil Gov- 
ernment 272 

Higginson, T. W. English History for American 

Readers 231 

Holder, Charles F. Louis Agassiz 48 

Holmes, Kate R. Pictures from Nature and Life 397 
Holmes, O. W. The Autocrat of the Breakfast 

Table 345 

Hopkins, F. P. Fishing Experiences of Half a 

Century 301 

Hoppin, Emily H. From Out of the Past . . 93 

Horley, Engelhart. Sefton Church .... 272 

Horton, Robert F. Verbum Dei 147 

Hourwich, I. A. The Economics of the Russian 

Village 261 

Housman, Laurence. Selections from William 

Blake 48 

Hovey, Richard. Seaward 43 

Howard, B. D. Life with Trans-Siberian Savages 338 

Howard, Blanche Willis. No Heroes .... 349 

Howard, Oliver O. General Taylor .... 39 

Howells, W. D. The Coast of Bohemia ... 340 

Howitt, Mary. Sketches of Natural History . 399 

Hugo, Victor. Ruy Bias 346 

Hume, Fergus. The Chronicles of Fairyland . 349 
Hurst, John F. Short History of the Christian 

Church 37 

Huxley, Thomas. Evolution and Ethics . . . 269 

Irving, Henry. The Drama 90 

Irving, Washington. Knickerbocker's History of 

New York 347 

Isaacs, Abram S. Stories from the Rabbis . . 120 

Jackson, G. A. The Son of a Prophet ... 341 

Jacobs, Joseph. More English Fairy Tales . . 348 

James, Henry. Picture and Text 47 

James, Henry. The Private Life 228 

James, Henry. The Wheel of Time .... 344 

Janvier, Thomas A. An Embassy to Provence . 300 

Jenks, Tudor. The Century World's Fair Book 351 

Jewett, Sarah O. Deephaven 347 

Jewsbury, Geraldine E. Letters to Jane Welsh 

Carlyle 20 

Johnson, Clifton. The Country School . . . 400 
Johnson, Emory R. Inland Waterways . . . 273 
Johnston, H. P. Correspondence and Public Pa- 
pers of John Jay 48 

Kavanagh, Julia. Woman in France During the 

Eighteenth Century 396 

Kebbel, T. E. The Agricultural Laborer . . 260 

Kempis, Thomas a. The Imitation of Christ . 398 

King, Grace. Jean Baptiste Le Moyne ... 96 

Kipling, Rudyard. Many Inventions .... 94 

Kirkland, Joseph. The Chicago Massacre of 1812 301 

Knight, E. F. Where Three Empires Meet . . 9 

Knight, William. Aspects of Theism .... 394 

Knox, T. W. Boy Travellers in Southern Europe 350 

Lang, Andrew. Homer and the Epic .... 15 

Lang, Andrew. Letters to Dead Authors . . 230 

Lang, Andrew. The True Story Book . . . 349 
Le*on, Ne"stor Ponce de. Diccionario Tecnoldgico 

Ingle's Espanol 194 

Le*on, Nestor Ponce de. The Caravels of Columbus 149 

Le'on, Ndstor Ponce de. The Columbus Gallery 149 
Leroy-Beaulieu, Anatole. The Empire of the 

Tsars and the Russians 222 

Life, The Spiritual 394 

Lightfoot, J. B. Biblical Essays 394 

Lillie, Arthur. The Influence of Buddhism . . 146 

Linn, Thomas. The Health Resorts of Europe . 121 
Littledale, Harold. Essays on Tennyson's Idylls 

of the King 47, 95 

Lock, Walter. John Keble 19 

Loftie, W. J. Inigo Jones and Wren .... 395 

Longfellow, H. W. The Hanging of the Crane 347 

Lowell, D. O. S. Jason's Quest 399 

Lowell, James R. Conversations on Some of the 

Old Poets 196 

Lytton, Earl of. King Poppy 40 

Mabie, H. W. Essays in Literary Interpretation 119 

Mallet, C. E. The French Revolution ... 47 

Marshall, A. Milnes. Vertebrate Embryology . 97 

Martin, E. S. Windfalls of Observation . . . 273 

Marthold, Jules de. The History of a Bearskin . 348 

Matthews, Brander. The Story of a Story . . 94 

McClelland, M. G. Broadoaks 93 

McCowan, H. S., and others. Under the Scarlet 

and Black 43 

Mead, Charles Marsh. Christ and Criticism . 147 

Meredith, Owen. Lucile 397 

Merrill, Mary B. Helpful Words 398 

Miller, Margaret. My Saturday Bird-class . . 399 
Moeller, Wilhelm. History of the Christian 

Church 36 

Morfill, W. R. Story of Poland 46 

Morgan, M. H. Xenophon's Art of Horsemanship 272 

Morris, H. S. Lamb's Tales from Shakespeare 301 

Morris, O'Connor. Napoleon 150 

Morse, John T., Jr. Abraham Lincoln . . . 263 

Muirhead, J. F. The United States .... 19 

Miiller, F. Max. Theosophy 148 

Munroe, Kirk. The Coral Ship 399 

Munroe, Kirk. The White Conquerors . . . 350 
Murphy, J. J. Natural Selection and Spiritual 

Freedom 394 

Myers, Frederick W. H. Science and a Future 

Life 141 

Nash, F. P. Satires of Juvenal ...... 96 

Newcomer, Alphonso G. A Practical Course in 

English Composition 196 

Newell, P. S. Topsys and Turvys 348 

Newhall, Charles S. Shrubs of Northeastern 

America 73 

North, Marianne. Some Further Recollections . 64 

Norton, C. E. Letters of James Russell Lowell 291 

Ober, Frederick A. In the Wake of Columbus 231 

Optic, Oliver. A Victorious Union .... 350 

Orndorff, W. R. Laboratory Manual .... 232 

Otis, James. Jenny Wren's Boarding House . 401 

Page, Thomas Nelson. Collected Works . . 232 

Page, Thomas Nelson. Meh Lady 347 

Palmer, Lynde. A Question of Honor . . . 401 
Parkes, Sir Henry. Fifty Years of Australian 

History 114 

Parton, James. General Jackson 39 

Patmore, Coventry. Religio Poetse .... 271 

Pearce, J. H. Drolls from Shadowlaud . . . 301 
Peddie, Alexander. Recollections of Dr. John 

Brown 119 

Pelham, H. F. Outlines of Roman History . . 48 



IVmu'll, Joseph and Elizabeth. To Gipsyland . 301 
Philips, MrKillr. Tin- Making of a Newspaper 120 
Piep.'iil.nii-;, Ch. Theology of the Old Testament 393 
Pierce, E. L. Memoir and Letters of Charles 

Sunnier 33 

Plympton, Miss A. G. Robin's Recruit . . . 400 

Poems by Two Brothers 40 

Potter, J. H. Under Cotton Canvas .... 47 
Powell, Henry. The Buccaneers of America . 272 

Preble, Henry. Latin Lessons 73 

Publishers' Exhibits at the World's Fair ... 302 

Ralph, Julian. Our Great West 302 

Rame*, Louisa de la (Ouida). A Dog of Flanders 349 
Ramsay, W. M. The Church in the Roman Em- 
pire 36 

Rawnsley, H. D. Valete 267 

Ray, Anna Chapin. Margaret Davis, Tutor . . 401 
Reade, Charles. The Cloister and the Hearth . 345 
Redgrave, Richard. A Century of Painters . . 398 
Reed, Elizabeth A. Persian Literature ... 20 
Renton, William. Outlines of English Literature 71 
Repplier, Agnes. Essays in Idleness .... 225 
Reynolds, M. T. Housing of the Poor . . . 262 

Rhoades, James. Teresa 268 

Rhoades, Jauies. The JEaeid in English Verse 44 
Rice, J. M. The Public-School System of the U. S. 293 
Richards, Laura E. Glimpses of the French Court 347 

Richards, Laura E. Melody 349 

Roberts, C. G. D. Songs of the Common Day, 

and Ave 268 

Robinson, A. Mary F. Retrospect 267 

Rocheterie, M. de la. Life of Marie Antoinette 395 
Rogers, Clara Kathleen. The Philosophy of Sing- 

in g 121 

Roosevelt, Theodore. The Wilderness Hunter . 149 
Saint-Amand, Imbert de. The Court of Louis 

XIV 230 

Saint-Amand, Imbert de. Women of the Valois 

Court 72 

Salvini, Tomaso, Autobiography of ... 298 

Sangster, Margaret E. On the Road Home ! ! 267 
Sargent, John Osborne. Horatian Echoes . . 44 
Savage, M. J. Jesus and Modern Life . . . 393 
Scidmore, Eliza R. Guide-Book to Alaska . . 73 
Scott, E. H. Madison's Journal of the Federal 

Convention 07 

, Scott, Sir Walter, Familiar Letters of . . 334 

Scudder, Samuel H. The Commoner Butterflies 

of the Northern United States ... 120 
Scudder, Samuel H. The Life of a Butterfly 120 
Seawell, Molly Elliot. Paul Jones . . 399 

Seelye, Elizabeth E. The Story of Washington 350 
Sesselberg, Martha F. In Amazon Land . 97 

Shakespeare, The Ariel," second eroup yv> 

Shedd Wm.G.T. Orthodoxy and Heterodoxy 392 
Sheridan, R. B. The Rivals .... 346 

Shoemaker, M. M. Eastward to the Land of the 

Morning ....- 

Siegfried, Professor. The Book of Job 70 

Sienkiewicz, Heuryk. Yanko the Musician .' 343 

bmetham, James. Literary Works 228 
Smith, Goldwin. The United States 

Smith, G. Vance. The Bible and Its Theology \ 393 

Spencer Herbert. The Principles of Ethics 387 

Spofford Mrs. O. M. A Norse Romance 347 

Stables, Gordon Westward with Columbus . 399 
Stanley, Henry M. My Dark Companions 

Stebbmg, Thomas II. R. A History of Crustacea 120 

Steel, Mrs. F. A. Miss Stuart's Legacy . . . 340 
Stephen, Leslie. An Agnostic's Apology ... 45 
Stevenson, Robert Louis. David Balfour . . 226 
Stoddarcl, W. O. Guert Ten Eyck .... 350 

Stoddard, W. O. Men of Business 273 

Stoddard, W. O. On the Old Frontier . . . 350 
Stoddard, W. O. The White Cave .... 400 
Stnrgis, Russell, and others. Homes in City and 

Country 48 

Sullivan, T. R. Day and Night Stories ... 94 
Sunnier, Charles. The True Grandeur of Nations 232 
Sunnier, William G. Robert Morris .... 96 
Sunderland, Jabez T. The Bible . . . . . 393 
Sweet, Henry. A Manual of Current Shorthand 97 
Sykes, J. F. J. Public Health Problems ... 48 
Symonds, J. A. Studies of the Greek Poets . . 70 
Tabb, John B. An Octave to Mary .... 73 
Tarducci, F. John and Sebastian Cabot . . . 273 
Thanet, Octave. An Adventure in Photography 46 
Thompson, Edward M. Greek and Latin Palae- 
ography 119 

Thoreau's Works, Riverside Edition .... 302 

Tout, T. F. Edward the First 120 

Traubel, H. L., and others. In Re Walt Whitman 390 
Trigg, Oscar L. Browning and Whitman . . 20 
Tristram, W. Outram. Coaching Days and Ways 196 
Trowbridge, J. T. Woodie Thorpe's Pilgrimage 400 
Trumbull, William. The White Canoe ... 397 

Tuckwell, W. The Ancient Ways 150 

Underwood, F. H. Builders of American Liter- 
ature 272 

Underwood, F. H. The Poet and the Man . . 21 

Under King Constantine 43 

Venable, W. H. Let Him First Be a Man . . 195 
Van Dyke, H. D. The Christ-Child in Art . . 346 
VanOss, S. F. American Railroads as Investments 185 
Van Rennselaer, Mrs. Schuyler. Art Out of Doors 193 

Wagner, Charles. Youth 150 

Waldo, Frank. Modern Meteorology .... 48 
Waldstein, Charles. The Work of John Ruskin 270 
Wallace, George R. Princeton Sketches ... 73 
Wallace, Lew. The Prince of India .... 226 
Ward, Julius H. Life and Times of Bishop White 97 

Ware, William. Aurelian 348 

Watson, William. The Eloping Angels ... 41 
Webster, Augusta, Selections from the Verse of 268 
Wedmore, Frederick. Pastorals of France; Re- 
nunciations 343 

Weismann, August. The Germ-Plasm . . . 143 

West, Max. The Inheritance Tax 262 

Wetherell, J. E. Later Canadian Poems . . . 269 
Wheeler, Candace. Household Art .... 230 
Whishaw, F. J. Out of Doors in Tsarland . .120 
Wiggin, Kate Douglas. The Kindergarten . . 230 
Wilder, Daniel W. Life of Shakespeare ... 271 
Williams, Alfred M. Sam Houston .... 257 
Wilson, Sir Charles W., and others. The City 

and the Land / 97 

Winter, William. Shakespeare's England, illus- 
trated edition 231 

Wood, James. Dictionary of Quotations . . . 273 
Wright, Elizur. The Fables of La Fontaine . 345 
Wright, William Aldis. The Cambridge Shake- 
speare, Vol. IX 232 

Yechton, Barbara. Ingleside 401 

Youth, The Sunny Days of 400 

Ziehen, Herr. Introduction to the Study of Phys- 
iological Psychology .... ng 



Criticism, gisntssbn, anft |nf0rmatbn. 

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Side Lights on the German Soldier. By POULT- 
NEY BlGELOW. With 19 Illustrations from Paintings 
and Drawings by FREDERIC REMINGTON. 

Silence. A Story. By MARY E. WILKINS. With 2 
Illustrations by H. SIDDONS MOWBRAY. 

The Vestal Virgin. A Story. By WILL CARLETON. 

Three English Race Meetings. (Derby, Ascot, and 
Oxford-Cambridge.) By RICHARD HARDING DAVIS. 
With 9 Illustrations by WILLIAM SMALL. 

Algerian Riders. By Col. T. A. DODGE, U.S.A. With 

7 Illustrations. 
Horace Chase. A Novel. By CONSTANCE FENIMORE 


Chicago's (ientle Side. By JULIAN RALPH. 
The Function of Slang. By BRANDER MATTHEWS. 

Editor's Drawer. With an Introductory Story by 

Literary Notes. By LAURENCE HUTTON. 


Harper & Brothers' Latest Books. 

Green's England, Illustrated. A Short History of 
the English People. By J. R. GREEN. Edited by 
Mrs. J. R. GREEN and Miss KATE NORGATE. With 
Portrait, Colored Plates, Maps, and many Illustra- 
tions. Royal 8vo, illuminated cloth, uncut edges and 
gilt tops. Vols. I. and II. now ready. Price, $5.00 
per volume. Vol. III. in press. 

A House-Hunter in Europe. By WILLIAM HENRY 
BISHOP. With Plans and an Illustration. Post 8vo, 
cloth, ornamental, $1.50. 

Practical Lawn-Tennis. By JAMES DWIGHT, M.D. 
Illustrated from Instantaneous Photographs. 16mo, 
cloth, ornamental, $1.25. 

Recreations in Botany. By CAROLINE A. CREEVEY. 
Illustrated. Post 8vo, cloth, ornamental, $1.50. 

The Love Affairs of an Old Maid. By LILIAN BELL. 
16mo, cloth, ornamental, uncut edges, gilt top, $1.25. 

The Refugees. A Tale of Two Continents. By A. 
CONAN DOYLE, author of " Micah Clarke," " Adven- 
tures of Sherlock Holmes," etc. Illustrated by T. 
DE THULSTRUP. Post 8vo, cloth, ornamental, $1.75. 

Picture and Text. By HENRY JAMES. With Portrait 
and Illustrations. 16mo, cloth, ornamental, $1.00. 
(In the Series " Harper's American Essayists.") 

Woman and the Higher Education. Edited by ANNA 
C. BRACKETT. 16mo, cloth, ornamental, $1.00. (In 
the " Distaff Series.") 

Heather and Snow. A Novel. By GEORGE MAC- 
DONALD. Post 8vo, cloth, ornamental, $1.25. 

The Story of a Story, and Other Stories. By 
BRANDER MATTHEWS. Illustrated. 16mo, cloth, 
ornamental, $1.25. 

Everybody's Book of Correct Conduct: Being 
Hints on Every-day Life. By Lady COLIN and M. 
FRENCH SHELDON. Square 16mo, cloth, 75 cents. 

Harper's Black and White Series. Latest Issues: 
Edwin Booth. By LAURENCE HUTTON. The Decis- 
ion of the Court. A Comedy. By BRANDER MAT- 
THEWS George William Curtis. An Address. By 

JOHN WHITE CHADWICK Phillips Brooks. By the 


Illustrated, 32mo, cloth, ornamental, 50 cents each. 

Published by HARPER & BROTHERS, New York. 

he above works are for sale by all Booksellers, or will be sent by HARPER & BROTHERS, postage prepaid, to any part of 
the United States, Canada, or Mexico, on receipt of price. Harper's New Catalogue will be sent by mail on receipt of 10 cents. 


[July 1, 


"The Great Dictionary." 







A to Ant * $3 25 

Ant-Batten 3 25 

Batter-Boz 3 25 

(Section I.) Bra-Byz, completing 

Vol. I. 2 00 

PART IV. (Sec. II.) beginning Vol. II., C 

to Cass $1 

V. Cast-Clivy . .* ...... 3 

VI. Clo-Consignor 3 

III. Part I., E-Every 3 



VOL. I. (A and B) pp. xxvi.-1240, bound in half morocco $13 00 


On Historical Principles, founded mainly on the materials collected by the Philological Society. 
Edited by JAMES A. H. MURRAY, B.A., London; Hon. M.A., Oxon; LL.D., Edinburgh; D.C.L., Dunelm, etc.; 

sometime President of the Philological Society; with the assistance of many scholars and men of science. 

"Every cultivated person should be interested in the progress of the 'New English Dictionary,' edited by Dr. J. A. H. 
Murray, Vice-President, and Mr. Henry Bradley, President, of the Philological Society. Among subscription books, that 
is, books necessarily issued in parts, at greater or less intervals, it is surpassed by none in intrinsic -worth or in the ease with 
which the infrequent payments can be borne. Unlike cyclopaedias, it can never become completely antiquated, and time will 
affect it mainly in the particular of neologisms ; for, as its illustrations of usage are marshalled in chronological order, the 
history of each word or meaning may be added to but cannot be detracted from and we cannot foresee the day when a sup- 
plement will be undertaken." From Evening Post Editorial, Saturday, March 25, 1893. 


By WILFRID WARD, author of " William George Ward and 
the Oxford Movement." 8vo, $3.00. 


Selected from the Journals of MARIANNE NORTH, chiefly 
between the years 1859 and 1869. Edited by her Sister, 
Mrs. JOHN ADDINGTON SYMONDS. With Portraits. 12mo, 


With Portrait. Second Edition. 18mo, cloth, 75 cents. 

" A fragrant tribute that now, embalmed between the cov- 
ers of a book, will shed lasting sweetness." Philadelphia 


A Biography. By FRANCES A. GERARD. A New Edition. 
12mo, $1.75. 


With Other Essays. By FREDERIC W. H. MYERS. 
12mo, $1.50. 


Edited by WALTER JERROLD. With Grotesques by ANDREY 

BEAHDSLEY. With Portraits. 18mo, 75 cents. 

Large-paper Limited Edition, $2.75. 

A New Book by F. Anstey. IGmo, $1,25. 

A Collection of some of the Master's best-known Dramas. 
Condensed, Revised, and slightly Rearranged for the ben- 
ch* of the earnest student. By F. ANSTEY, author of " Vice 
Versa." With Illustrations. Cloth, 16mo, $1.25 


Just Published. 12mo, $1.00. 


of the Roses. 12mo, cloth, $1.00. 

By the same Author. 


By CHARLOTTE M. YONGE, author of "Heir of Redclyffe," 
and CHRISTABEL R. COLERIDGE. 12mo, cloth, $1.00. 

Just Ready. 12mo, $1.00. 

By PAPL CUSHING, author of " Cut by His Own Diamond," 

etc. 12mo, cloth, $1.00. 

"An exceedingly clever story, with plenty of incident, a 
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Uniform with the 10-volume Edition of Jane Austen 1 s Works. 


In 12 16mo volumes. W'ith Portrait and 36 Illustrations in 

photogravure, after drawings by H. S. Greig. Price, $1.00 

each. To be issued monthly. 
Now ready, Vols. I. and II. JANE EYRE, 2 vols., $1 each. 

Vols. III. and IV., SHIRLEY, 2 vols., $1.00 each. 

***Also, a Large-paper Limited Edition, on hand-made 
paper, at $3.00 per volume. 

BOOK REVIEWS, a Monthly Journal devoted to New and Current Publications. Price, 5 cents. Yearly Subscription, 50 cents. 






Winter term begins September 18, 1893. Course of study 
covers four years ; for Bachelors of Arts and Sciences, three 
years. Preliminary examination required in English, Physics, 
Mathematics, and Latin. Fees, $100 a year. Laboratory 
equipment for students unequaled. 

For Announcement and further information address 

Venetian Building, Chicago, 111. 


Nos. 479-481 Dearborn Aye. Seventeenth year. Prepares 
for College, and gives special courses of study. For Young 
Ladies and Children. Migs R g R A M 

Miss M. E. BEEDY, A.M., 


Forty-fifth year begins Sept. 13, 1893. College course and 
excellent preparatory school. Specially organized departments 
of Music and Art. Four well-equipped laboratories. Good 
growing library, fine gymnasium, resident physician. Memo- 
rial Hall enables students to much reduce expenses. For cat- 
alogue address SARAH F. ANDERSON, Principal ( Lock box 52). 


BOSTON, MASS., 252 Marlboro' St. Reopens October 3. 
Specialists in each Department. References : Rev. Dr. DON- 
ALD, Trinity Church ; Mrs. Louis AGASSIZ, Cambridge ; 
Pres. WALKER, Institute of Technology. 


Founded by CARL FAELTEN, 

Dr. EBEN TOURGEE. Director. 

In addition to its unequaled musical advantages, excep- 
tional opportunities are also provided for the study of Elocu- 
tion, the Fine Arts, and Modern Languages. The admirably 
equipped Home affords a safe and inviting residence for lady 
students. Calendar free. 

FRANK W. HALE, General Manager. 

Franklin Square, Boston, Mass. 


A superior school and refined home. Number of students 
limited. Terms $250. Send for Catalogue. Opens Sep- 
tember 14, 1893. Brick buildings, passenger elevator, and 
steam heat. 


1793. ESTABLISHED IN 1793. 1893. 
201st Session begins Sept. 1, 1893. Maj. R. BINGHAM, Supt. 


Boys aged 8 to 16 received into family ; fitted for any col- 
lege. Business College Course, with Typewriting, Stenog- 
raphy. A. A. CHAMBERS, A.M., Principal. 


Prepares pupils for College. Broader Seminary Course. 
Room for twenty-five boarders. Individual care of pupils. 
Pleasant family life. Fall term opens Sept. 13, 1893. 

Miss EUNICE D. SEWALL, Principal. 


No. 55 West 47th st. Mrs. SARAH H. EMERSON, Principal. 
Will re-open Oct. 4. A few boarding pupils taken. 



Announcements of the Graduate, Collegiate, and 

Medical Courses for the next academic 

year are now ready, and will 

be sent on application. 



Contains the First Chapters of 


A New Serial by 

Also, besides Other Articles : 

In the Heart of the Summer. EDITH M. THOMAS. 
t/ldmiral Lord Exmouth. A. T. MAHAN. 

Passports, Police, and Post Office in Russia. 


<tA General Election : Right and Wrong in 


The Chase of Saint-Castin. 


Governor Morton and the Sons of Liberty. 


Studies in the Correspondence of Petrarch. I. 


Problems of Presumptive Proof. JAS. w. CLARKE. 
If Public Libraries, why not Public Museums ? 


$4.00 a Year; Thirty-five cents a Number. 



The Life and Work of John Ruskin. 

By W. G. COLLINGWOOD. With Portraits and other 

illustrations. 2 vols., 8vo, $5.00. 

An exceedingly interesting biography of this illustri- 
ous man by one who was for many years Mr. Ruskin's 
private secretary. 

Abraham Lincoln. 

An excellent work in the Series of American States- 
men. By JOHN T. MORSE, Jr. With a Portrait 
and Map. 2 vols., 16mo, $2.50. 

The same, in Library style, bound in smooth red 
cloth, $2.50. 

The Dawn of Italian Independence. 

Italy from the Congress of Vienna, 1814, to the 
Fall of Venice, 1849. A peculiarly welcome 
work on account of its marked ability and pic- 
turesqueness, and as covering an important period 
in Italian history which has hitherto been inad- 
equately treated. By WILLIAM R. THAYER. 
With Maps. 2 vols., crown octavo, $4.00. 

Sold by all Booksellers. Sent, postpaid, by 



[July 1, 1893. 


Many Inventions. 

By RUDYARD KIPLING. Containing fourteen stories, sev- 
eral of which are now published for the first time, and two 
poems. 12mo, 450 pages. Cloth, $1.50. 

The Simple Adventures of a Memsahib. 

A new book by SABA JEANNETTE DUNCAN, author of " A 
Social Departure" and "An American Girl in London." 
The brilliant story of Mr. and Mrs. Browne's quaint and 
delightfully humorous experiences in India. With many 
illustrations by F. H. TOWNSEND. 12mo. Cloth, $1.50. 

Questions at Issue. 

By EDMUND GOSSE. 12mo. Cloth, $2.50. 

Some of the literary " Questions " which Mr. Gosse discusses in this 
volume are : "The Tyranny fit the Novel," "The Influence of Democ- 
racy on Literature," "The Limits of Realism in Fiction," "Mr. Rud- 
yard Kipling's Short Stories," "Shelley in 1892," and "Has America 
Produced a Poet ? " 

General Greene. 

By Col. FRANCIS V. GREENE, author of " The Russian Army 
and Its Campaigns in Turkey," etc. The fourth volume 
in the Great Commanders Series, edited by Gen. JAMES 
GRANT WILSON. With portrait and maps. 12mo. Cloth, 
gilt top, $1.50. 

Appletons' Guide-Book to Alaska. 

By Miss E. R. SCIDMORE. With maps and illustrations. $1.25. 
Miss Scidmore's writings on Alaska and the Northwest coast are 
already most favorably known, and her " Guide-Book " will be found 
to be an authority. It is fully illustrated, and contains many maps, 
several of which have been made specially for this book by recent ex- 
plorers of remote regions. The descriptive and historical matter re- 
lating to Behring Sea and the fisheries, including particulars to date of 
the negotiations for international protection of the seals, will be found 
of timely interest. 

The Standard American Guide-Book. 

Appletons' General Guide to the 
United States. 

With numerous maps and illustrations. New edition, revised 
to date. With Appendix devoted to the Columbian Expo- 
sition. 12mo. Flexible morocco, with tuck, $2.50. 
Part I., separately, New England and Middle States and Can- 
ada. Cloth, $1.25. Part II., Southern and Western States. 
Cloth, $1.25. 

This well-known work, the standard guide-book for foreign visitors 
as well as American residents, is prepared with the special knowledge 
of an American. The editor has, during the past two years, traveled 
extensively over the entire United States for the express purpose of 
this revision, and has embodied new features and improved old ones as 
experience and observation have suggested. Itineraries of the principal 
cities nave been prepared by a local expert hi each case. 

Appletons' Hand-Book of Summer Resorts. 

With maps, illustrations, and table of railroad fares, etc. New 
edition, revised to date. Large 12mo. Paper, 50 cents. 

Hypnotism, Mesmerism, and the New 

By ERNEST HART, formerly Surgeon to the West London 
Hospital, and Ophthalmic Surgeon to St. Mary's Hospital, 
London. With 20 illustrations. 12mo. Cloth, $1.25. 
"I venture to think that these papers will meet with general accept- 
ance from the medical and scientific world, and that they will serve a 
useful purpose in dissipating some popular errors and a good deal of 
pseudo-scientific superstition." From the Preface. 

The Story of My Life. 

By GEORG EBERS, author of "Uarda," "An Egyptian Prin- 
cess," "A Thorny Path," etc. With portraits. IGmo, $1.25. 
The author here tells of his student life in Germany, his association 
with the movements like that for the establishment of kindergarten 
training, his acquaintance with distinguished men like Frcebel and the 
brothers Grimm, his interest in Egyptology and the history of ancient 
Greece and Rome, and the beginnings of his literary career. It is a 
book of historical as well as personal interest. 



Each, 12mo. Paper, 50 cts.; cloth, $1.00. 

Lucia, Hugh, and Another. 

By Mrs. J. H. NEEDELL, author of "Stephen Allicott's 
Daughter," etc. 



Singularly Deluded. 

By the author of " Ideala." 

The Voice of a Flower. 

By E. GERARD, joint author of "A Sensitive Plant." 

Capt'n Davy's Honeymoon. 

By HALL CAINE, author of " The Deemster," etc. 

A Little Minx. 

By ADA CAMBRIDGE, author of "The Three Miss Kings," 
" Not All in Vain," etc. 

Children of Destiny. 

By MOLLY ELLIOT SEAWELL, author of " Throckmorton," 
"Little Jarvis," etc. 

Dr. Paull's Theory. 

By Mrs. A. M. DIEHL, author of " The Garden of Eden," etc. 

Commander Mendoza. 

By JUAN VALERA, author of "Pepita Ximenez," "Don 
Braulio," etc. 

Stories in Black and White. 

A Volume of Short Stories by THOMAS HARDY, W. E. NOR- 
With 27 illustrations. 

For sale by all Booksellers, or sent by mail, on receipt of price, by the Publiihers, 

D. APPLETON & CO., Nos. 1, 1, & 5 Bond Street, New York. 


&emi=ilH0ntf)lg Journal of ILiterarg Criticism, 29 ignition, anfc Information. 

THE DIAL (founded in 1880) is published on the 1st and 10th of 
each month. TERMS OP SUBSCRIPTION, 82.00 a year in advance, postage 
prepaid in the United States, Canada, and Mexico; in other countries 
comprised in the Postal Union, 50 cents a year for extra postage must 
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for subscriptions with other publications will be sent on application ; 
and SAMPLE COPY on receipt of 10 cents. ADVERTISING RATES furnished 
on application. All communications should be addressed to 

THE DIAL, No. 24 Adams Street, Chicago. 

No. 169. 

JULY 1, 1893. 

Vol. XV. 





Perhaps an Error. R. O. Williams. 


TON. Frederick Starr 12 


Shorey 15 


Crocker 17 


An excellent American Guide-Book. The author of 
The Christian Year. A useful book on Persian 
Literature. A correspondent of Jane Welsh Car- 
lyle. Philosophy and Social Science. Studies of 
Democracy in Poets. 


LITERARY NOTES AND NEWS . . . . . ; . 21 




THE DIAL has given, from time to time, 
accounts of the remarkable series of gather- 
ings planned for the Exposition season by the 
World's Congress Auxiliary. These Con- 
gresses, which have been uninterruptedly in 
progress since the middle of May, are designed 
to cover all the important fields of intellectual 
activity, and each of them has been placed in 
charge of a competent local committee of ar- 
rangements, with full power to plan the ses- 
sions and extend invitations to those whom it 
is desirable should participate. Up to the 
present time, the Congresses have dealt with 
the work of representative women, with the 

public press, medicine, temperance, social re- 
form, and with the problems of commerce and 
finance. The Congresses of the present month 
will include the three subjects of music, litera- 
ture, and education, subjects relating to the 
higher aspects of culture, and thus making a 
particular appeal to the constituency addressed 
by THE DIAL. We propose, in the present 
article, to outline the more important features 
of the Literature Congresses planned for the 
week beginning with the tenth of July. 

Literature, as used in connection with these 
gatherings, is a term to be taken in a broad 
sense, as appears from the primary classifica- 
tion of the work to be done. Five sections 
have been established, dealing respectively with 
libraries, history, philology, folk-lore, and lit- 
erature proper. The work of the five sections 
will be carried on at the same time, and through- 
out the greater part of the week ; but the pro- 
grammes have been arranged, as far as it has 
been found possible to do so, with the view of 
bringing into session, at a given time, the in- 
terests least likely to conflict with one another, 
so that those in attendance upon the respective 
sections may not be unduly disturbed by the 
promptings of a divided duty. Thus the mem- 
bers of any one section will be free to at- 
tend those meetings of the others most likely 
to be attractive to them. The real work of the 
Congresses will begin on Tuesday, the evening 
of the preceding Monday being given up to an 
informal reception to the visiting members and 
the interested resident public. 

The Congress of Librarians, in charge of a 
committee having Mr. F. H. Hild, of the Chi- 
cago Public Library, as chairman, will be su- 
perimposed upon the regular annual confer- 
ence of the American Library Association. 
The Congress proper will probably occupy four 
sessions, and for these sessions more than a 
score of papers have been secured. The con- 
ference of the Association is planned to occupy 
three further sessions, for which the programmes 
have been arranged by the officers of that body. 
The public has always taken much interest in 
the meetings of the Library Association, and 
the meeting of this summer, with its unusual 
features, will probably be the most important 
ever held, as well as the most fruitful in prac- 
tical outcome. The profession of the librarian 



[July 1, 

is growing in importance every year, and the 
public is coming more and more fully to recog- 
nize that librarians are not merely collectors 
and custodians of books, that the function 
of facilitating to the public use the libraries 
under their charge is at least as important as 
any other that they are called upon to exercise. 

The work of the section devoted to histor- 
ical literature has been undertaken with the 
cooperation of the American Historical Asso- 
ciation, by a committee having as chairman 
Dr. W. F. Poole, of the Newberry Library. 
Six sessions are planned, and for them have 
been collected upwards of thirty papers, mostly 
by American writers and upon American sub- 
jects. The healthful activity of local historical 
studies has been one of the most promising in- 
tellectual signs of recent years, and our coun- 
try has developed a school of historical inves- 
tigators hardly second to that of any other in 
industry, in scientific method, or in philosoph- 
ical outlook. A few of the more important 
papers to be read at this Congress are the fol- 
lowing : " The Inadequate Recognition of Di- 
plomatists by Historians," by President James 
B. Angell ; " Personal Explorations at Wat- 
ling Island," by Herr Rudolph Cronau, of 
Leipzig ; " Condition of Spain in the Sixteenth 
Century, "by Professor Bernard Moses ; "Early 
Slavery in Illinois," by Mr. William Henry 
Smith ; and " The Time-Element in American 
History," by Professor Moses Coit Tyler. 

The work of the Congress of Philologists 
has been planned by a committee having as 
chairman Mr. W. M. Payne, with the coop- 
eration of the American Philological Associa- 
tion, the Modern Language Association of 
America, and the American Dialect Society. 
These three societies will hold formal meet- 
ings, and their work will be supplemented 
by a number of papers obtained from outside 
sources, many of these relating to Oriental 
philology and archeology. About sixty papers 
will be included in the work of the philolog- 
ical section, and it will be necessary, during 
the greater part of the week, to hold two ses- 
sions at the same time. Among the features 
of these sessions may be mentioned the annual 
address of the President of the American Phi- 
lological Association, Professor W. G. Hale, 
upon the subject of " Democracy and Educa- 
tion," discussed in the last number of THE 
DIAL ; a paper by Mr. T. G. Pinches, of the 
British Museum, upon " Unpublished Manu- 
script Treasures "; a paper by Professor Rich- 
ard Garbe, of the University of Kbnigsberg, 

upon " The Connection between Indian and 
Greek Philosophy "; a paper by Dr. Richter, 
of Berlin, upon " The Archaeology of Cyprus "; 
a paper by Professor Emil Hausknecht, of 
Berlin, upon " Pedagogical Questions in Ger- 
many "; a paper by Dr. William C. Wins- 
low, Vice-President of the Egypt Exploration 
Fund, upon " Old Testament History in the 
Light of Recent Discoveries "; and a paper by 
Professor F. A. March, upon " The Language 
of the Sciences and a Universal Language." 
The papers above named will be read by their 
authors. Other European philologists coming 
to America for the express purpose of attend- 
ing this Congress are Professor Wilhelm Streit- 
berg, of Freiburg (Switzerland), Professor E. 
A. Sonnenschein, of Birmingham, and Profes- 
sor Hermann Osthoff, of Heidelberg. Among 
the important papers sent from Europe to the 
Congress are the following : " Assyrian Tablet 
Libraries," by Professor A. H. Sayce, of Ox- 
ford; " Canons of Etymological Investigation," 
by Professor Michel Breal, of the College de 
France ; " Koptic Art and Its Relation to Early 
Christian Ornament," by Dr. Georg Ebers ; 
and "The Great Altar at Dagr el Baharee 
(Thebes)," by Dr. Edouard Naville, a paper 
presenting the results of the author's latest ex- 

Extensive as is the programme of the Phi- 
lological Congress, that of the Folk-Lore sec- 
tion is still more extensive. Mr. Fletcher S. 
Bassett, the enthusiastic chairman of the com- 
mittee upon this subject, has obtained upward 
of seventy papers from specialists in all parts 
of the world, and has secured the attendance 
of some of the most distinguished among Euro- 
pean folk-lorists, including M. Charles Ploix, 
President of the French Society ; Mr. J. Aber- 
crombie, Vice-President of the English So- 
ciety ; Herr Ulrich Jahn, of the Berlin Society ; 
and Mr. Smigrodski, of Warsaw, who comes 
as the representative of several Continental 
societies. One feature of the Folk-Lore Con- 
gress will be of extraordinary interest. On 
Friday evening a concert will be given for the 
purpose of illustrating the popular songs of 
the various races of mankind. This concert is 
made possible by the presence at the Exposi- 
tion of many types of humanity, and a score 
or more of nationalities will be represented in 
the programme. No single event of the week 
is likely to attract wider attention or excite 
more general interest. 

The Congress of Authors, in which our read- 
ers probably take a more general interest than 



in any other, promises to be remarkably suc- 
cessful. The local committee of arrangements, 
having Mr. F. F. Browne as chairman, some 
time ago enlisted the services of an Eastern 
committee of the best-known American writers, 
with Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes as honorary 
chairman, and Professor George E. Woodberry 
as secretary. Largely owing to the efforts of 
this Committee of Cooperation, a very import- 
ant programme has been drawn up, dealing with 
the commercial as well as the artistic aspects 
of authorship. The former of these aspects 
will be presented very forcibly by Mr. Walter 
Besant, who comes as the representative of the 
English Society of Authors, and who has awak- 
ened in his fellow-countrymen much interest in 
the Chicago Congress. Mr. Besant comes not 
only to speak in his own person, but also as 
the bearer of many important papers by En- 
glish writers, among which may be mentioned 
" Some Considerations on Publishing," by Sir 
Frederick Pollock ; " The Berne Conference," 
by Sir Henry Bergne ; " Literature and the 
Press," by Mr. H. D. Traill ; and The Future 
of the Drama," by Mr. Henry Arthur Jones. 
A fact of extraordinary interest in connection 
with this Congress is the expected presence of 
the greatest poet of modern Italy, Signor Car- 
ducci, although it is not yet known what part 
he will take in the proceedings. The subject 
of Copyright will have an important place in 
the work of the Congress, being discussed not 
only in the papers sent by English contribu- 
tors, but also by Mr. A. L. Spofford, Libra- 
rian of Congress (who will preside), by Mr. R. 
R. Bowker of New York, and Mr. George E. 
Adams of Chicago. On the subject of Criti- 
cism, papers will be read by Messrs. Charles 
Dudley Warner (who will preside), John Bur- 
roughs, Moses Coit Tyler, H. W. Mabie, and 
others. On the subject of Fiction, there will be 
papers presented by Messrs. G. W. Cable (who 
will preside), Thomas Nelson Page, Joseph 
Kirkland, Mrs. Mary H. Catherwood, and Miss 
Alice French. Mr. R. W. Gilder, Mr. George 
E. Woodberry, and many other American writ- 
ers of distinction are also expected to be pres- 
ent at the Congress, and take part in the work ; 
but it is impossible at this date to give a more 
detailed account of the programme. Enough 
has been said, however, to make it clear that 
the gathering will be of great interest to all 
literary workers, and that important practical 
results may very probably remain as its out- 
come. The week of the Literature Congresses, 
taken as a whole, may be seen, even from the 

outline of facts presented in this article, to- 
promise a degree of attractiveness to all sorts 
of intellectual interests that is rarely offered 
the public at any one time and place. After 
the Congresses are over, THE DIAL will again 
take occasion to summarize their features, and 
to point out what shall appear to have been 
significant in the results achieved by them. 


The Come'die Francaise could not come to Chi- 
cago this summer, for reasons playfully set forth in 
a recent article by M. Sarcey, and it has, instead, 
gone to London, where it is to remain a month, and 
produce no less than forty-seven pieces of its reper- 
tory. The programme includes classical and mod- 
ern plays in great variety, among which " Hamlet " 
is noteworthy, although we hardly recognize the 
tragedy in the description u drame en vers en 
cinq actes par MM. Dumas et Paul Meurice." But 
we have no doubt that it is our own Hamlet that 
M. Mounet-Sully will present to his audience. We 
must remember that it was Shakespeare's Cleopatra 
that was, after all, given us by Mme. Bernhardt, 
although disguised in lines that made no pretence 
of being Shakespearian. The opening performance 
of the French Play in London was signalized by a 
" Salut a Londres," written by M. Claretie, and re- 
cited by Mile. Reichemberg, from which we extract 
a few verses : 

"Salut, pays du grand Shakespeare, 

Au nom de Corneille le Grand ; 
Aux souverains d'un double empire 

Ou le g&iie accepte et rend ; 

" Ou, loin de la dent des couleuvres, 
II proclarae invincible et fier 
Le libre e'change des chefs-d'oeuvre 
A travers les vents et la mer ! " 

Mr. Edgar Prestage writes to the London " Acad- 
emy " to complain of the neglect of Portugese lit- 
erature by English students. To say that Portugal 
has produced but one author of the first rank 
Camoens is a statement as absurd, in his opinion, 
as " that England has produced no great poet with 
the exception of Shakespeare." He calls particu- 
lar attention to three great writers of the present 
century Almeida Garrett, Anthero de Quental, 
and Joao de Deus saying of the latter that he is 
" without doubt, the greatest lyric poet now living." 
Curiosity should certainly be stimulated by so en- 
thusiastic a description of a poet whose name means 
nothing at all to most English readers, but we 
fear that the case is a hopeless one. If the poet in 
question were a novelist, or even a dramatist, he 
might come into general recognition ; but no lyric 
poet is ever appreciated outside the circle of those 
whose language he sings. Heine has come nearer 
than any other lyrist of the century to such general 
favor, but even Heine is known to most non-Ger- 
mans chiefly for his humorous and ironical prose 



[July 1, 

or for his pathetic life-story. It was not Byron's 
slender lyrical gift that made him a Continental 
favorite, but the fact that he stood as an energetic 
and picturesque spokesman of the revolutionary 
spirit. Even Shelley is practically unknown out- 
side of England and America. The greatest of 
living lyrists pace Mr. Prestage is probably Sig- 
nor Carducci ; but to how many who are not Ital- 
ians is he more than a name ? Hugo's highest 
achievement was in the lyric, but to the English- 
speaking world he was the novelist and hardly 
more. These statements apply with almost equal 
force to Herr Bjornson ; but who, unfamiliar with 
Norwegian, thinks of Bjornson as a lyric poet ? 
There is no help for it. We can translate novels, 
and plays, and epics ; we cannot translate songs. 
A nation must be content with its own lyrists ; the 
genius of the singer proper is, by no process known 
to the alchemy of the translator, reproducible in 
another form of speech than that in which it finds 
native expression. 

The London " Literary World " recounts an al- 
leged recent " experience " of Mr. Herbert Spencer, 
telling us that the philosopher has " received a let- 
ter from a Wild West American publisher, asking 
how much he would take for the exclusive right to 
publish his poem, ' The Faerie Queen,' in the States." 
The story is not even ben trovato, but it shows well 
enough how we are libelled at times by the arro- 
gant foreigner. In this case, revenge follows 
promptly, for the same issue of the paper, a few 
pages further on, informs its readers that Mrs. 
Deland is a daughter of Mrs. Julia Ward Howe ; 
and, still later, inserts an anxious query as to the 
authorship of the line, 

" From perilous seas in faery lands forlorn." 
People who live in glass houses should not pretend 
that the brown-stone fronts of their neighbors are 
constructed of the same brittle material. 


(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

The frequent letters of " F. H." to " The Nation " 
are read with great interest and valued very highly, I 
am sure, by all American students of modern English. 
Nevertheless, there is something in these letters (if it 
may be said) that would be pleasanter if it were dif- 
ferent. A reader of a half-dozen of them cannot help 
wondering whether F. H." has ever made a mistake, 
the master is so masterful, his censure is so pungent. 

The grammatical question examined below is trivial, 
perhaps, but the examination itself becomes important 
if it be regarded as helping somewhat towards answer- 
ing the more serious inquiry, Has " F. H." ever erred ? 

It should be premised that " F. H." has identified 
himself in " The Nation " (more than once, I think) as 
the author of Modern English," and that there cannot 
be any impropriety, therefore, in referring to him here as 
the author of that well-knowu and very valuable work. 

The present case is this : At page 85 of his " Modern 
English " Dr. Hall quotes from Marsh's " Lectures on 
the English Language," and in one of the sentences 
quoted inserts sic in brackets after known to. This is 
the sentence quoted from Marsh's Lectures: 

" The word respect, in this combination, has none of the 
meanings known to [sic] it, as an independent noun, in the 
English vocabulary." 

Dr. Hall says of this sic in a foot-note: 
"A Lord Grenville of former days wrote of 'a long and 
destructive warfare, of a nature long since unknown to the 
practice of civilized nations.' Here, remarks Coleridge, ' the 
word to is absurdly used for the word in.' ( ' Essays on His 
own Times,' p. 262.) Not unlike the nobleman's ' unknown 
Jo,' the context considered, is Mr. Marsh's ' known to." 1 " 
("Modern English," p. 85.) 

Dr. Hall's sic and foot-note seem to show that he re- 
gards such uses of known to and unknown to as lacking 
authority and censurable. 

It may be assumed here that Dr. Hall does not find 
anything objectionable in a use of known to that occurs 
often in his own writings, as in the following instance: 
". . . the historical fact, known to everybody " ("Mod- 
ern English," p. 192, foot-note). Such use has been very 
common for a long time. But the same construction is 
common when the word with which known to or un- 
known to is connected has been substituted by me- 
tonymy for something else, as camp for people in the 

" . . . in token of the which, 
My Noble Steed, knowne to the Campe, I give him." 
(" Coriolanus," Act I., sc. ix. ) 

"... custards, cheesecakes, and minced pies, which were 
entirely unknown to these parts. . . ." (Lady M.W. Mon- 
tagu, Letter, Nov. 27, N. S., 1753.) 

"Another accomplishment was that of copying manu- 
scripts, which they did with a perfection unknown to the 
scholastic age which followed them." (Cardinal Newman, 
"Historical Sketches," vol. ii., p. 464.) 

The line is not distinct between such cases and the fol- 

" In other cases it is not the love of finery, but simple want 
of education, which makes writers employ words in senses un- 
known to genuine English." ( J. S. Mill, " Logic," Bk. IV., 
ch. v., sect. 3.) 

" This is the only use of the word in Johnson, the following 
three being unknown to dictionaries till very recently." ( " A 
New English Dictionary on Historical Principles," Remark 
under Alternative. ) 

" Noble Tribunes, 

It is the humane way : the other course 
Will prove to[o] bloody : and the end of it, 
Unknowne to the Beginning." 

("Coriolanus," Act III., sc. i.) 

" Enoch's white horse, and Enoch's ocean spoil . . . 
Not only to the market-cross were known, 
But in the leafy lanes behind the down." 

(Tennyson, "Enoch Arden," 11, 93-7). 
"Most of these wretches were not soldiers. They acted 
under no authority known to the law." (Macaulay, "Hist. 
Eng.,"ch. xii.) 

A remark made by Dr. Hall concerning another locu- 
tion may be appropriately quoted here : " Even such a 
purist as Lord Macaulay uses it more than once." 
(" Modern English," p. 300.) 

The examples given above could be supported by a 
larger number of similar citations now before me, if 
there were space for printing so many. 


New Haven, Conn., June 19, 1893. 




The handsome volume entitled " Where 
Three Empires Meet " contains the interesting 
account of Mr. E. F. Knight's recent trav- 
els in Kashmir, Western Tibit, Gilgit, and ad- 
joining countries ; the book taking its title 
from the fact that it is hard by Gilgit, on the 
high roof of the world, as it were, that the 
three greatest empires, Great Britain, Russia, 
and China, converge. Mr. Knight is a very 
agreeable writer, with a keen eye for out-of- 
the-way traits and humors ; and his book, be- 
sides being rich in the solider sort of facts, is 
pleasantly anecdotal, and, on occasion, drily 
humorous. Kashmir has been called the north- 
ern bastion of India, and Gilgit may be de- 
scribed as her farther outpost. Of the Happy 
Valley itself, the author did not, as he tells us, 
see much, the greater part of the year (1891) 
being spent by him among the desolate moun- 
tain-tracts to the north of it, where the ranges 
of the Hindoo Koosh and Karakoram form the 
boundary between the dominions of the Ma- 
haraja and that rather vaguely defined region 
called Central Asia. In the course of the 
journey he visited the mystic land of Ladak, 
and he reached Gilgit in time to take part 
in Colonel Durand's expedition against the 
raiding Hunza-Nagars, thus falling in with ex- 
ceptional opportunities for observing how 
things are ordered on the Indian frontier, both 
in peace and war. Mr. Knight prudently con- 
fines himself, so far as possible, to the narra- 
tive of his own sufficiently varied experiences, 
without attempting to theorize as to what ought 
to be done or left undone on the frontier. He 
remarks : 

" The Indian government can be trusted to do every- 
thing for the best, as heretofore ; and while it is foolish 
for people at home to airily criticise the policy of those 
highly-trained Anglo-Indian experts who have made 
the complicated problems of our Asiatic rule the study 
of a lifetime, it is still more foolish for one to do so 
who has spent but a year in the East, and who, there- 
fore, has just had time to realize what a vast amount 
he has yet to learn." 

Especially interesting and opportune is the 
account of Kashmir a sort of debatable land, 
at present, the affairs of which are likely soon 
to attract a good deal of attention. In order 
to understand the ground, at least the ostensi- 

* WHERE THREE EMPIRES MEET. A Narrative of Recent 
Travel in Kashmir, Western Tibet, Gilgit, and the Adjoin- 
ing Countries. By E. F. Knight. Illustrated. New York : 
Longmans, Green, & Co. 

ble ground, of late British interference in that 
country, a few general facts touching its more 
recent history must be borne in mind. Kash- 
mir, having been wrested from the Pathans by 
the Sikhs in 1819, was attached to the Pun- 
jab until the termination of the Sutlej cam- 
paign, when it fell into the hands of the Brit- 
ish who did not, as the author significantly 
observes, at that time realize its immense value. 
It was at once assigned by treaty, dated March 
16, 1846, to the Maharaja of Jummoo, partly 
in consideration of certain services rendered. 
In exchange for the cession the Maharaja was 
to pay over the very inadequate sum of seventy- 
five lacs of rupees, besides engaging to come 
to the assistance of England with the whole of 
his army whenever she was at war with any 
of the people near his frontier. He also ac- 
knowledged England's supremacy, and agreed 
to pay an annual tribute consisting mainly 
of Kashmir shawls to the government. By 
this treaty, not only the Vale of Kashmir, but 
Ladak, Baltistan, and the Astor and Gilgit 
districts, became the appanage of the Mahara- 
jas of Jummoo. During the reign of the 
present ruler, Pertab Singh, the Indian Gov- 
ernment has " lent " to the Kashmir State mil- 
itary and civil officers "to superintend the 
much-needed reforms in the administration of 
the country." The author describes what he 
saw of the work of these officials in a rather 
non-committal way, and he reaches the conclu- 
sion that the present active policy of Great Bri- 
tain in Kashmir, " while having for its object 
the safeguarding of our Imperial interests, will 
bring about a great amelioration in the condi- 
tion of the population." Despite this need of 
foreign interference in its internal affairs, Mr. 
Knight found Kashmir the " safest land he had 
ever seen or heard of " one of the few coun- 
tries, indeed, in which it is possible for a lady 
to travel without escort in a perfectly uncon- 
ventional way. 

" Every summer English ladies wander about Kash- 
mir alone, taking their caravans of native servants, bag- 
gage animals, and coolies, pitching their tents at night, 
and riding the stages in the same independent fashion 
as their brothers and husbands would." 

This immunity of travellers from offences 
against person or property seems to be due 
partly to the native dread of the dominant 
British race, partly to the drastic Oriental cus- 
tom by which a whole district is made amen- 
able for crimes committed within its boun- 

The account of Kashmir itself, its climate, 



[July 1, 

natural resources, etc., is highly favorable. 
The whole of the state is practically independ- 
ent of rain, a fairly hard winter storing a suffi- 
ciency of snow on the mountain-tops, so that 
the gradual thaw of the summer, which keeps 
the irrigating canals constantly brimming, is 
all that is needed to insure a harvest. The 
famines in Kashmir have been caused, not by 
summer drought, but by a too mild winter, or 
by heavy rains in the hot season which have 
flooded the plains and drowned out the crops. 
The climate of this Asiatic paradise seems to 
be well adapted to Europeans, the few English 
children who have been born and brought up 
there being as strong and rosy-cheeked as if 
they had been bred at home. The great draw- 
back to an Indian career, the necessary sepa- 
ration between parents and children, is thus 
quite avoidable in Kashmir ; and Mr. Knight 
regretfully observes, " Had we not sold this 
magnificent country, a great military canton- 
ment would no doubt have been long since es- 
tablished here." 

The resources of Kashmir have never been 
exploited, though Mr. Knight makes it evident 
that should British capital ever be admitted 
into the country there will be ample scope for 
it. According to some authorities, only one- 
third of the available land is under cultivation, 
and even that does not produce nearly what it 
might. Valuable minerals undoubtedly exist, 
and it is probable that should the long-pro- 
jected more-than-once-surveyed railway be 
made, Kashmir will become a large exporter 
of agricultural produce and of the delicious 
fruits for which it is famed. At present the 
industrial enterprise of the country is centred, 
that is to say is strangled, in the hands of 
the Maharaja. His, for instance, are the saw- 
mills, his the wine and brandy monopoly. 
French experts conduct the latter branch for 
him, producing wine, both red and white, of 
excellent quality ; and our author thinks it is 
not too much to say that the vineyards of 
Kashmir should some day make India inde- 
pendent of France, at least for claret of the 
ordinary description. 

In point of scenery and natural charm Kash- 
mir seems to be all that the author of " Lalla 
Rookh " (which poem our author makes it a 
point of honor not to quote) has taught the 
northern fancy to paint her. It is a land of 
running water, of fruits and flowers and birds 
(not omitting, one hopes, the bulbul, though 
Mr. Knight does not mention it), and sweet 
odors and sparkling cascades, a land, in 

short, that assures the traveller that the beau- 
ties of far-famed Kashmir have not been exag- 
gerated by Oriental poets. Mr. Knight who 
is a capital hand at description, terse, vigor- 
ous, and sparing of the finical details of the 
" word-painter " writes as follows of the scen- 
ery along the road to Baramoula : 

" We drove through pleasant groves of chestnuts, 
walnuts, peaches, pears, cherries, mulberries, and ap- 
ples, all of which are indigenous to this favored land, 
while the wild vines hung in festoons from the branches. 
The fresh grass beneath the trees was spangled with 
various flowers great terra-cotta colored lilies, iris of 
several shades, and others while hawthorn bushes in 
full blossom'emulated the whiteness of the snows above. 
The mountains, too, were craggy and grander in out- 
line than any we had yet seen. Highest of all were 
the dreary, snow-streaked wastes, lower down forests 
of deodar crowned the cliffs, which in their turn often 
fell sheer a thousand feet to the green, lawn-like ex- 
pauses below." 

The nominal masters of this favored land 
seem to be utterly unworthy of their good for- 
tune, as a rule, says our author. An English- 
man coming to the country for the first time 
takes a great fancy to the handsome, cheery, 
outwardly civil and obliging Kashmiris, and it 
is not until he has been some time in the coun- 
try that he discovers them to be among the 
most despicable of creatures, incorrigible cheats 
and liars, and cowardly to an inconceivable de- 
gree. Tartars, Tibetans, Moguls, Afghans, 
Sikhs, have in turn overrun the Happy Val- 
ley, whose inhabitants have always meekly sub- 
mitted to each new tyranny, their very abject- 
ness proving their salvation. Says Mr. Knight : 

" I had been a good deal among Mohammedans in 
other countries, and had always associated dignity and 
courage with the profession of that creed, so was dis- 
agreeably surprised to discover this cowardly, cringing, 
cackling race among the followers of the prophet." 

A Kashmiri will unresistingly take a blow from 
anyone, even from a Kashmiri ; the people 
who, however, wrangle among themselves like 
the proverbial washerwomen having achieved 
such a depth of cowardice that they actually 
fear one another. To understand the Kash- 
miri thoroughly, which is to dislike him, 
one must have seen, for instance, a great bearded 
man meekly submitting to having his ears 
boxed by a Punjabi half his size, whom he 
could crush with one hand, weeping and shriek- 
ing like a naughty child under the maternal 
slipper, " and finally rolling on the ground and 
howling at the feet of this lad of a more plucky 
race." On the other hand, "one must have 
observed his covert insolence to some griffin 
globe-trotter, who does not understand the ras- 




cal yet, and treats him too leniently. He will 
presume on any kindness that is shown him, 
until, at last, going too far, he is brought to 
reason by the thrashing he has long been ask- 
ing for." In short, the inhabitant of the 
Happy Valley is a paradoxical creature, for he 
has, withal, certain rather feebly revealed good 
qualities, difficult to describe, and certainly 
not admirable, save, perhaps, to that school 
which affects to despise physical courage as a 
relic of savagery. 

The qualities of the serpent are often cou- 
pled with those of the dove ; and the Kash- 
miris, meekest of men, are uncommonly sly at 
a bargain, and are gifted, moreover, with a 
mercantile pertinacity not unworthy of the 
" book-agent " of less favored climes. Some 
of these Kashmir merchants will go to great 
lengths, stepping unbidden from the shore to 
the prow of the tourist's " doongah," crowd- 
ing into his cabin, pressing their wares upon 
him, and declining to move until forcibly 
ejected. To enjoy even a modicum of peace, 
the sahib must be brutal, and actual privacy is 
only to be gained with a stick. Any hint short 
of this is lost upon hawkers of the lower sort. 
A beating he understands as a hint that he 
must take himself off. Then he departs, smil- 
ing ; it is all in his day's work ; and to cheat 
the sahib out of one anna will recompense him 
for many blows. Our author says of the mer- 
chants of Srinagur an especially pestilent 
class : 

" They were all adepts at blarney, and with a jovial 
persuasive volubility extolled their own wares and cried 
down those of their neighbors in more or less broken 
English. Their pertinacity was extraordinary. The 
sweetly-smiling, long-robed ruffians would not take no 
for an answer. <I do not want you to buy, sir,' one 
would say in a gentle, deprecating way, after some em- 
phatic refusal on my part to have any dealings with 
him. ' Please to understand, sir, that I do not wish to 
sell. I only ask you to do me the honor of looking at 
some of this excellent workmanship. It will not fail to 
interest you.' Then, if I should order him to be gone, 
and explain that I was busy, ' In that case I would not 
on any account interrupt you,' he would urge, < but I 
have nothing myself to do, sir, so I will sit down here 
and wait until you are quite unoccupied; then I will 
show you some beautiful things.' And thereupon he 
would squat down on the grass in front of the boat, 
surrounded by his merchandise, to remain there silent 
and motionless, contemplating me with a smile of pa- 
tient amiability." 

These people employ all sorts of curious de- 
vices to attract the attention of the rich or 
powerful sahib a habit, however, by no means 
confined to the merchant class. Even learn- 
ing forgets, on occasion, its dignity. Once, 

for instance, in Srinagur, Mr. Lawrence, the 
Settlement Officer for the State, on coming 
out of his bungalow, found a strange object in 
front of his door, surrounded by a deferential 
crowd. On walking up to it he discovered 
that it was nothing less than an ancient pun- 
dit, stark naked, standing on his head. The 
acrobatic sage was thus patiently balancing him- 
self, meditating, doubtless, the while on Nir- 
vana, while he awaited the coming out of the 
sahib. Mr. Lawrence ordered the learned man 
to be turned right side up, and the case was 
dealt with forthwith. 

The following incident, of which Mr. Knight 
was an eye-witness, illustrates this curiously 
puerile side of the Kashmiri character. Mr. 
Lawrence was then holding court just outside 
Islamabad : 

" Two suppliants came up, who, after the manner of 
Kashmiris, had carefully got themselves up in pitiable 
plight with a view of attracting sympathy for their 
cause. These two big men had stripped themselves 
naked, and had smeared their bodies all over with foul, 
wet, blue mud from the river bed. Even their hair and 
faces were thickly covered with the filth, through which 
their eyes glittered comically. . . . They came up 
and stood before the Settlement Officer, quietly sa- 
laamed, and then suddenly and of one accord com- 
menced to weep, groan, and shriek most dismally, while 
they wrung their hands or clasped them imploringly, 
writhing their bodies as in agony, etc. . . . Their 
story was, that while they were working in their fields 
an official had taken from them by force some grass 
straw of the value of twopence. The said official had 
moreover plucked their beards; in evidence of which 
they produced two or three hairs, which they affirmed 
had been pulled out." 

Mr. Lawrence refused to listen to men in so 
filthy a condition, and the court accordingly 
adjourned itself and went to breakfast while 
the plaintiffs washed themselves. 

The Kashmiri, with all his rascality, always 
demands, on leaving his employer, a chit, or 
written testimonial. If convicted of theft or 
other offence he will endure without a murmur 
the mulcting of his pay ; but a chit, good, bad, 
or indifferent, he must have. So insensible is 
he as to the purport of these talismans that he 
does not take the trouble to get them translated, 
but presents them all, good and bad, for your 
consideration. One official, encountered by 
Mr. Knight, was the proud possessor of many 

chits : 

" He handed one to me, and gazed at me with a sol- 
emn expression of conscious merit as I read it. This 
chit was from a captain sahib, and ran thus: 'This 
man is the greatest thief and scoundrel generally I have 
ever come across.' " 

On reaching Ladak, really a part of Tibet, 
Mr. Knight found himself in a strange country, 


[July 1, 

a land, as he says, of topsy-turveydom, where 
polyandry prevails instead of polygamy, where 
praying is carried on by machinery, where the 
traveller from beyond the mountains is every 
day bewildered by quaint sights, strange beliefs, 
customs, and superstitions. Ladak is still almost 
as theocratic a country as Chinese Tibet, and no 
less than one-sixth of the population are in the 
church. The Church is well endowed, and the 
lamaseries, several of which were visited, seem 
to be organized in a very business-like way. 
There are two classes of monks in each : the 
working monks, who attend to temporal inter- 
ests, and the spiritual monks, who devote their 
time to dreaming and religious exercises, and 
to whom, our author thinks, "to judge from 
their abstracted expression and general ap- 
pearance, the bladder-flappers of the Laputan 
sages would be useful attendants, to wake 
them up when it was time to wash." From 
the latter class the abbot is chosen, and in 
a few cases a lamasery has as its spiritual 
head no less holy a personage than a skooshok, 
or incarnation. It seems that after a man 
has attained a high pitch of virtue, and has 
thus escaped liability to re-birth in any of 
the six ordinary spheres, he can when he dies 
either enter the Nirvana, or.*return to earth as 
a skooshok. The Skooshok of Spitak Gompa, 
for instance, a very exemplary personage in- 
deed, is believed to have been re-incarnated 
seventeen times, and to have been, in his first 
stage, a contemorary of Buddha. One of these 
holy men, the Skooshok of Tikzay, was visited 
by Mr. Knight : 

" He appeared to be a man of middle age, and had a 
gentle, intelligent face. He spoke but little, and had 
a dreamy, far-off look in his eyes. For most of the 
time that we sat with him he was abstractedly gazing 
at the immense landscape that was extended before 
him deserts, oases, the far-stretching Indus Valley, 
and the snowy mountain-ranges. . . . His incarna- 
tions have been many. He thoroughly believes that he 
was Skooshok of Tikzay at a date when we British 
were naked, painted savages, and has been gazing cen- 
tury after century over the same glaring wilderness 
from this high monastery top. At times he muttered 
prayers almost inaudibly as he sat by us, contemplating 
the scene with mild, sad eyes. He ordered a gift of 
sugar and dried apricots to be brought to us, and then 
we bade farewell to the incarnation, whom we left still 
praying and dreamily considering the world below." 

Oddly enough, one never hears of Mahatmas 
in Ladak or in Tibet proper. The lamas know 
nothing of them, and the nearest approach to 
the mysterious beings seems to be the skoo- 
shok though the author doubts whether a 
European esoteric Buddhist would accept one 
of these incarnations as his spiritual master. 

Mr. Knight, like other travellers, notes the 
striking resemblance between the ritual of Ti- 
betan Buddhism and that of the Church of 

" The lamas, who represented the saints in this mum- 
mery, had the appearance of early-Christian bishops: 
they wore mitres and copes, and carried pastoral crooks; 
they swung censers of incense as they walked in pro- 
cession, slowly chanting. Little bells were rung at in- 
tervals during the ceremony ; some of the chanting was 
quite Gregorian. There was the partaking of a sort of 
sacrament; there was a dipping of fingers in bowls of 
holy water; the shaven monks, who were looking on, 
clad almost exactly like some of the friars in Italy, told 
their beads on their rosaries," etc. 

Several of the best chapters are devoted to 
a description of the Hunza-Nagar expedition 
of winter before last one of those innumera- 
ble little broils which England has had on 
her hands of late. Mr. Knight volunteered 
as an officer, thus securing excellent opportuni- 
ties of observation. The book is, on the whole, 
one of the most graphic and entertaining of its 
class, delightfully written, and full of informa- 
tion regarding a region well out of the orbit of 
the ordinary globe-trotter. There are a number 
of capital illustrations from photographs by the 

E. G. J. 


Two remarkable books have just appeared 
by Mr. Galton. " Hereditary Genius " was 
published in 1869, but has for years been out 
of print. Mr. Galton has written a new pref- 
ace for it, and reprinted it otherwise as it first 
appeared. " Finger-Prints " is entirely new, 
and embodies the author's latest study along 
a novel line. Between 1869 and 1892, between 
the publication of " Hereditary Genius " and 
"Finger-Prints," three other notable works by 
the same author were published : " English 
Men of Science," " Inquiries into Human Fac- 
ulty," and " Natural Inheritance." There are 
perhaps not five such original books in the lan- 
guage ; certainly there are few scientific works 
in any language that are dictated by so honest 
a purpose. Mr. Galton is now a man of sev- 
enty, and it may not be uninteresting to review 
here his scientific work. 

Two subjects perhaps have attracted his par- 
ticular attention, Heredity and Identification. 
The former is dealt with in all his books, the 
latter in "Finger-Prints." Everywhere Mr. 

PRINTS. By Francis Galton. New York : Macmillan & Co. 




Galton is an anthropologist and a statistician. 
He reduces his results, wherever practicable, 
to mathematical form and statement. In " He- 
reditary Genius " he assumes that high repu- 
tation is a fairly accurate test of high ability 
(= genius). From this assumption he proceeds 
to study certain groups of eminent men. He 
considers first the judges of England from 
1660 to 1868, and carefully examines into the 
family histories to ascertain how many and 
what eminent relatives they had. Similar 
studies are made of the statesmen of the time 
of George the Third, of the Premiers of the 
last hundred years, of men of literature, scien- 
tists, painters, musicians, divines, and scholars. 
Lastly, some data from oarsmen and wrestlers 
are presented. In each series it is shown that 
there are more eminent relatives in the families 
of given men of talent than mathematical prob- 
abilities require. Some few quotations or con- 
clusions may be interesting some of them im- 
portant in the discussion, some merely inci- 

Talent, it seems, is dreadfully rare ; medi- 
ocrity is painfully common. Out of any mil- 
lion of Englishmen over fifty years old only 
about two hundred and fifty are really eminent. 

" Ability, in the long run, does not start suddenly 
into existence and disappear with equal abruptness, but 
rather it rises in a gradual and regular curve out of 
the ordinary level of family life. The statistics show 
that there is a regular average increase of ability in 
the generations that precede its culmination and as reg- 
ular a decrease in those which succeed it. In the first 
case the marriages have been consentient to its produc- 
tion ; in the latter they have been incapable of preserv- 
ing it." 

One of the best tables in the work is the one 
giving the facts regarding statesmen. These 
are generally eminently gifted, and their rela- 
tionships are rich in ability. Nor is the abil- 
ity distributed at haphazard : it clearly affects 
certain families. Moreover, the peculiar com- 
bination of gifts that make up a good states- 
man high intellectual power, tact in deal- 
ing with men, power of expression in debate, 
ability to endure exceedingly hard work is 

Incidentally, Mr. Galton makes some sug- 
gestive statements regarding the cause of peer- 
ages dying out, why very pious parents may have 
wicked children, and how the church has hin- 
dered man's progress. Men of ability who are 
raised to peerages are prone to marry heiresses ; 
or, if they do not do so themselves, their sous 
do. But the heiress only child in a family 
comes from an infertile stock, and is little 

likely to be herself the mother of a vigorous 
family. Pious persons, according to Mr. Gal- 
ton, are naturally endowed with high moral 
characters combined with instability of disposi- 
tion, peculiarities in no way connected. The 
child may inherit both, or he may inherit one 
without the other ; in neither of the latter 
cases will he be markedly pious, in one he 
may be truly bad. Mr. Galton claims that the 
policy of the church during the middle ages, 
in enforcing or encouraging celibacy in the best 
men and women of the time, placed a premium 
upon mediocrity. 

Our author believes that the chance for emi- 
nence in the relationship of an eminent man 
varies with the degree of kin. He says : 

" I reckon the chances of kinsmen of illustrious men 
rising or having risen to eminence to be fifteen and one- 
half to one hundred in case of fathers, thirteen and one- 
half to one hundred in the case of brothers, twenty-four to 
one hundred in the case of sons. Or, putting these and the 
remaining proportions in a more convenient way, we 
obtain the following results : In the first grade, the 
chance of the father is one to six; of each brother, one 
to seven ; of each son, one to four. In the second 
grade, of each grandfather, one to twenty-five; of each 
uncle, one to forty; of each nephew, one to forty; of 
each grandson, one to twenty-nine. In the third grade 
the chance of each brother is about one to two hundred, 
except in case of first cousins, where it is one to one 

Nor are different races equally gifted with 
ability. Mr. Galton considers the Negro race 
two grades in his scale of ability below the En- 
glish. But he believes that we are surpassed 
by the Athenians at their prime by at least an 
equal amount. This claim may be true, but it 
is not palatable. In this discussion the author 
strikes the key-note of his work, the underly- 
ing idea of all his study. He believes that we 
ought to raise the grade of ability of our race, 
that we should breed a nobler posterity. Ear- 
lier marriage of the capable is the only way for 
the intellectually and morally fit to survive. 
This practical application of the results of his 
apparently non-utilitarian and theoretical stud- 
ies is ever the most striking feature in Mr. 
Galton's writings. 

Passing by his " English Men of Science " 
and " Investigations into Human Faculty," al- 
though both are interesting and characteristic, 
we will consider " Natural Inheritance " the 
most mathematical of the series. To discover 
the parental influence upon the offspring, he 
finds it necessary to get rid of sex, and trans- 
forms the female character of the mother into 
male equivalents ; he then combines the pa- 
rental influences, and, by averaging, secures an 



[July 1, 

ideal mid-parent whose qualities are what are 
really inherited. He finds a constantly oper- 
ative law of regression toward mediocrity, and 
shows that gifts of high order are little likely 
to be transmitted fully. " The more bounti- 
fully a parent is gifted by nature, the more 
rare will be his good fortune if he begets a son 
who is as richly endowed as himself, and still 
more so if he has a son endowed still more 
largely." But the law is even-handed, and the 
son no more inherits all his father's wickedness 
and disease than he does his good points. In 
this study, the heredity of stature, eye, color, 
artistic taste, disease, and the matter of latent 
characters, are discussed. The material used 
is interesting. What was needed was the facts 
regarding several succeeding generations, each 
containing a considerable number of individ- 
uals equally related to each other (fraternities, 
etc.) ; groups, not individuals. Mr. Galton 
offered a considerable sum in prizes for family 
records, which were used as the basis of these 
studies. Some material was also secured at 
his Anthropometric Laboratory. But human 
material, sufficient in quantity and precise in 
character, is very difficult to obtain ; and to 
secure fraternities of the desired size and rep- 
resentative of several generations, Mr. Galton 
directed careful cultures of sweet peas and 
" pedigree moths." He concludes that every 
individual receives from each parent one-fourth 
of his endowment and from each grandparent 
one-sixteenth. As a final conclusion, he says : 
" Suppose two couples, one consisting of two 
gifted members of a poor stock and the other 
of two ordinary members of a gifted stock. 
The difference between them will display itself 
in their offspring. The children of the former 
will tend to regress ; those of the latter will 
not." Here again we see his plan for amelio- 

We have referred above to Mr. Galton's 
Anthropometric Laboratory. It is known to 
most visitors to the South Kensington Museum. 
In it anyone may be thoroughly examined and 
measured free of charge ; a permanent record is 
made of his measurements and faculties, and a 
copy is given to him for his own use. For use in 
this Laboratory, Mr. Galton has devised some 
most ingenious pieces of apparatus for the study 
of delicacy in hearing, quickness of blow, keen- 
ness of eyesight, etc. In devising such instru- 
ments and pieces of apparatus for clearly illus- 
trating points of considerable mathematical 
complexity, Mr. Galton is a veritable genius. 
He is also the inventor of composite photog- 

raphy, which has been used in so many ways 
in science. For some years past those who 
were measured in the Laboratory have left the 
impression of their finger-tips behind them, 
and a study of this material has led to his last 
book, " Finger-Prints." 

As in all his writing, Mr. Galton presents 
first a summary of the treatment to be pur- 
sued in the book. Finger-prints have been 
used among various peoples in signing legal 
papers, but have seldom been used for purposes 
of identification. Sir William Herschel made 
such use of them in India. A full statement 
of the methods of taking finger-prints, of en- 
larging them, and of study, are then given. 
Anyone who will look at his own finger-tips 
will see that they are covered with curved 
ridges surrounding a central core ; this core 
may be either an arch, a loop, or a whorl. 
Taking into consideration the ridges above and 
below these cores, and the cores themselves, 
some nine fundamental patterns may be made 
out. These may serve as a basis for classifica- 
tion. In any given pattern there are also minor 
details which characterize it. But confining 
attention to only the more important points, 
one may easily and exactly describe any given 
combination. Mr. Galton thinks that he finds, 
from careful study of a considerable number of 
cases, that the patterns are persistent from 
birth to death. If this is so, and it is likely 
that finger-prints of two persons are never 
identical, we have here, of course, an import- 
ant means for identification. After finding 
how many points of comparison are presented 
in a single finger-print, Mr. Galton calculates 
the mathematical probability of any two per- 
sons having the print made by any single fin- 
ger identical, at 1 : 2 s6 , or 1 to 6400 millions. 
" It is a smaller chance than 1 to 4 that the 
print of any single finger of any given person 
would be exactly like that of the same finger 
of any other member of the human race." 
What would the probability of identity be if all 
ten finger-prints of one man were compared with 
all ten of those of another ? Everyone knows 
how important a rapid, simple, and certain 
means of identification is to-day. Bertillon's 
method of measurement met the demand so 
well that it has rapidly been adopted in re- 
formatories arid prisons, but it is by no means 
certain. It is true that a man who can make 
Bertillon's measurements is more readily found 
than one who can compare finger-prints ; but 
two minutes' time would add a card of finger- 
prints to the anthropometric data secured in 




Bertillonage, and the combined data would 
make identification absolutely sure. Mr. Gal- 
ton, after considering the identification value 
of finger-prints, makes some study of the he- 
redity of patterns, which he believes to exist ; 
he finds considerable resemblances also be- 
tween twins. His study of finger-prints of dif- 
ferent races is not very extensive ; but he has 
studied some material from Welsh, Hebrew, 
Negro, and Basque sources. From this he con- 
cludes that there are no ethnic peculiarities. It 
seems to us, however, that such a conclusion is 

Such, in brief, is Mr. Galton's work, remark- 
able alike for its originality, its practical im- 
portance, and its scientific value. 



Did Homer write the " Iliad," or was it an- 
other man of the same name ? This question, 
as Matthew Arnold tells us, with his character- 
istic impatience of laborious futility, has been 
discussed with learning, with ingenuity, with 
genius even ; but it has the inconvenience that 
there really exist no data for determining it. 
And yet. unmindful of Seneca's warning that 
life is too short to debate the authorship of 
the " Iliad " and " Odyssey," Mr. Andrew 
Lang, master in the art of evading vain logo- 
machy with an epigram, now inflicts upon a 
book-ridden world four hundred pages of su- 
pererogatory demonstration that the German 
higher criticism of Homer is naught. Is he 
preparing a volume to disprove the Baconian 
authorship of the plays of Shakespeare ? 

As a student, I perused two or three thou- 
sand pages of erudite German and Latin treat- 
ises in order to earn the right to enjoy my 
Homer in peace. But I date from two mem- 
orable conversations the final illuminating 
and restful conviction that the Homeric ques- 
tion should be relegated to the large leisure of 
Milton's fallen angels, along with the free-will 
controversy, the problem of the nature and ori- 
gin of the Roman gens, and the determination 
of the dates of the Platonic dialogues. I was 
once talking with a well-known German Ho- 
merid about certain favorite passages in the 
closing books of the " Iliad," the lament of 
Briseis over the body of Patroclus, and the 
threnodies of Andromache and Helen for Hec- 

* HOMER AND THE EPIC. By Andrew Lang, M.A. New 
York : Longmans, Green, & Co. 

tor. These passages my interlocutor had pro- 
nounced late interpolations ; and, half in jest, 
I expressed my regret at the sacrifice of this 
exquisite poetry on the altar of science. " Yes," 
he gravely replied, " they are not by Homer, 
but were all composed by one interpolator who 
had a special talent for dirges." The other 
conversation was an argument with an Ameri- 
can colleague, a distinguished professor of com- 
parative philology. Our debate terminated in 
the " mere oppugnancy " of assertion and coun- 
ter-assertion. It was to him axiomatic that no 
early Greek poet could have employed for va- 
riety or metri causa any dialectic form not 
familiar to his infancy in his native isle or can- 
ton. And he also stoutly maintained that 
there was an irreconcilable contradiction be- 
tween the last line of the first Iliad, in which 
Zeus and all the Gods go to bed (or to sleep), 
and the first lines of the second book, in which 
" the other gods slumbered all night, but sweet 
sleep did not hold Zeus." Neither of these 
affirmations would " shine in on me," as the 
Germans say, and the debate ceased from want 
of common standing-ground of principles. 

Now Mr. Lang's book is a prolonged printed 
conversation of this type with the German 
Homerids, and with his friend Mr. Walter 
Leaf, who has wasted much good paper on 
these themes in his otherwise excellent edition 
of the " Iliad," and in his recently-published 
" Companion to the Iliad," which would be 
much more companionable if it were not stuffed 
with this unsatisfying sawdust. In his intro- 
ductory chapters, Mr. Lang retells the thrice- 
told tale of the Homeric controversy from the 
days of Wolf, summarizing and refuting point 
by point Wolf's famous but much overrated 
" Prolegomena." He then analyzes in detail 
the story of the " Iliad " and the " Odyssey," 
smoothing over the hitches in the plot detected 
by exigent German exegesis, and defending 
the more important of the passages that have 
been stigmatized as interpolations. It is a 
wearisome business, as Mr. Lang says, to undo 
the " knots in the bulrush " which this petti- 
fogging criticism is perpetually discovering. A 
few specimens must suffice. Herr Fick, for ex- 
ample, rejects the fight over the body of Pa- 
troclus because the prologue explicitly declares 
that the wrath of Achilles gave the bodies of 
heroes to the dogs and the birds. As if there 
were nothing in " Paradise Lost " that the 
heavenly muse is not bidden to sing in the 
prologue ! Diomede, when confronted with 
the unknown Glaucus in the sixth book of the 



[July 1, 

" Iliad," declines the combat until he can be 
assured that his opponent is not a god in dis- 
guise. " Flat burglary as ever was committed," 
cry our learned Dogberrys. For has not Dio- 
mede just wounded Aphrodite and struck down 
Ares in the fifth book? But Diomede had 
been expressly warned by Athena to confine 
his attacks to Ares and Aphrodite, and the 
power of " discerning god from man " was of 
course not a permanent endowment, but was 
bestowed upon him for that occasion. 

Again, the petitionary embassy of the Greeks 
to Achilles in the ninth book is thought to be 
irreconcilable with Achilles' scornful or doubt- 
ful references in later books to the possibility 
or probability of such an appeal to his pity. 
But in repeated readings of these books in the 
class-room, I have never known a student to 
stumble at this supposed stone of offense. And, 
indeed, it does not require much insight into 
the logic of passion to see that an angry man 
may well spurn profferred atonement to-day, and 
yet cry out exultingly when he sees his enemy 
reduced to still more grievous straits on the 
morrow. " Now methinks that the sons of the 
Achaeans will stand in prayer about my knees, 
for intolerable need is come upon them." 

Mr. Lang makes much use of Matthew Ar- 
nold's argument of the improbability of the ex- 
istence of four or five nearly contemporaneous 
great poets, all working in the " grand style." 
One is pleased to note that he repudiates Pro- 
fessor Jebb's suggestion that what the great 
critic took for the grand style was merely the 
traditional epic diction, an assumption suffi- 
ciently refuted by Arnold's discriminating re- 
marks on Quintus of Smyrna. Mr. Lang also 
points out that Thackeray and Scott, in the 
days of proof-readers, could not attain to any- 
thing approaching the unfailing accuracy de- 
manded by Homeric critics ; he affirms that 
the lapses and nods of Homer are not dis- 
cernible to the unmicroscopic eye, and that they 
never disturb any readers except "spectacled 
young Germans on their promotion "; he shows 
that philosophic consistency is not to be looked 
for in scenes where the gods play a part, 
" mythology being consistent only in inconsis- 
tency " ; and then, growing weary of the con- 
troversy, petulantly protests that it is idle to 
argue with men who, to prove that a certain 
idea is unhomeric, expunge all passages in 
which it occurs. And yet he still persists in 
arguing, and grows too angry to be always 
amusing : " A critic who can seriously advance 
such a theory simply proves that he is incapa- 

ble of understanding what poetry is." " It is 
possible to give people poetry, but impossible 
to give them the brains to understand and the 
hearts to feel it." Is there not a slight failure 
here in the urbanity that we look for in the 
writer of " Letters to Dead Authors " ? We 
should bear in mind the provocation, however. 
For it appears from the chapters on the " Odys- 
sey " that he has actually read Kirchhoff and 
Niese through, pen in hand. The nervous 
strain of such a task palliates, if it does not 
justify, the vivacity of Mr. Lang's irreverent 
treatment of an argument contributed to the 
discussion by an estimable scholar who is 
thought in Germany to combine literary grace 
with scientific thoroughness, Wilamowitz-Moel- 
lendorf : " Telemachus ( Ody. 1, ^7-?) sits down 
in his bed and takes off his chiton. But the 
chiton reached to his feet. How then could 
he take it off when sitting down ? The critic 
can try the experiment with his night-shirt : 
he will be far from ingenious if he does not 
solve the problem." 

More attractive than these polemics are the 
archaeological and literary chapters at the end 
of Mr. Lang's volume. What is the relation 
of the Mycenae finds to the art described in 
Homer? Closer study reveals that the two 
arts are not identical, as was incautiously as- 
sumed at first. How shall we date the art of 
Mycenae by Egyptian or by Assyrian analo- 
gies ? Examples of Mycenaen art have been 
found in Egyptian tombs of the sixteenth cen- 
tury B. C., a date which startles the most res- 
olute pre-Dorian. On the other hand, if we 
make the treasures of Mycenae rich in gold 
contemporaneous with the Assyrian art of the 
period from 800 to 600 B. C., we must assume 
that the later Greeks, while preserving the 
earlier Homeric tradition, had completely for- 
gotten the mighty chiefs who so recently had 
reared the Lion's gate of Mycenae. Mr. Lang 
evidently doubts the possibility of attaining 
certainty with our present knowledge. Can 
we argue that Homer is later than carved gems 
because he never mentions them ? We could 
in the same way infer that Shakespeare is later 
than tobacco. Can we date pottery by the 
tomb in which it is found ? But ancient heir- 
looms may have been buried with the dead, or 
modern articles dropped or deposited by a des- 
ecrating or pious hand. Then, too, there is 
the malicious fact that " old Mexican pottery 
is often, in shape, color, and decoration, hardly 
to be distinguished from that of Mycenae 
or lalysus." It would be unbecoming for a 




layman to dispute the dicta of professional 
archaeologists, but when these doctors disagree 
he may divert himself with the " rival plausi- 
bilities of archaeological argument." 

Finally, Mr. Lang's account of the " Nibel- 
ungen Lied," of the " Chanson de Roland," 
and of the " Kalevala," conveys much useful 
information in compact convenient form. He 
explodes the false analogies that have been al- 
leged between the composition of these poems 
and the supposed redaction of the " Iliad " by 
the commission of Pisistratus. And while he 
does full justice to the grandeur and pathos of 
certain episodes of the story of Brunhild, he 
never allows the reader to forget that " ' tis 
a pretty poem, but you must not call it Homer." 



The growing interest in social problems 
throughout our country, both among scholars 
and the masses, is a hopeful and wholesome 
tendency to be welcomed and, fostered. There is 
here something more than a passing fashion or 
a mere literary pastime. Every intelligent and 
earnest mind recognizes that serious tasks of 
industrial reorganization are upon us. And 
this widespread consciousness of their existence, 
and the fertility in the invention of schemes 
for the bringing in of the millennium, are signs 
of promise that give us hope. 

Pauperism and crime are not new diseases, 
but the systematic effort to prevent and extir- 
pate these evils is a modern enterprise. The 
unjust distribution of wordly goods and the 
great miseries of the toiling masses, these 
have existed since the beginning of history ; 
but the encouraging fact is that they are now 
felt and fought as never before. The maga- 
zines overflow with discussions of the innumer- 
able phases of the social problem ; special or- 
gans spring into existence to lead attacks upon 
specific strongholds of the common enemy ; the 
daily press sends reports of new theories and 
philanthropic efforts abroad on the wings of 
the morning ; special organizations spread as 
by magic to relieve some peculiar distress or re- 
press some particular wrong ; these questions 
have come to the front in our Universities, and 
the pulpit begins to occupy itself with the 
topics and phases of social science. And all 

inan. Boston : Hough ton, Mifflin & Co. 

TOOLS AND THE MAN. By Washington Gladden. Bos- 
ton : Houghtou, Mifflin & Co. 

this is well. It will make religion more hu- 
mane, more practical, and more catholic ; it 
will give us a literature of ethical power as 
well as of attractive beauty. Above all, it will 
regenerate human society by the intelligent ap- 
plication of remedial and educative agencies 
for the purification and enrichment of its cor- 
porate life. 

Two notable contributions to the discussion 
of these problems have recently been made 
by Mr. N. P. Oilman and the Rev. Washing- 
ton Gladden, the former in " Socialism and 
the American Spirit," and the latter in " Tools 
and the Man." The two books, though differ- 
ent in scope and method, have this much in 
common : they are both earnest in spirit, tem- 
perate in the discussion of the problems treated, 
and preeminently wholesome in their general 
teachings. Neither Mr. Oilman nor Mr. Olad- 
den is doctrinaire or fanatic, but both men are 
practical Americans, anxious to learn from the 
teachings of all experience, and yet deeply con- 
scious (Mr. Oilman more especially) that our 
social problems must be wrought out by inde- 
pendent thought working through methods de- 
signed to fit our peculiar conditions. Both 
men feel the tremendous sweep of the socialis- 
tic sentiment, and yet neither has parted com- 
pany with that common-sense which keeps close 
to reality and brings all theoretical schemes to 
the test of experience. These pages reveal a 
deep sympathy for the larger aims of social- 
ism, but neither author commits himself to any 
special socialistic programme, both being evolu- 
tionists rather than revolutionists. And here 
we have ample recognition of the moral aspects 
of industrial problems, with a clear realization 
that spiritual forces have a part to play in the 
ongoing and upbuilding of human society. 

Both these books seem to me to be preemi- 
nently sane and opportune, spurs to the apa- 
thetic and indifferent, and needed correctives 
of that merely sentimental treatment of social 
problems which has been so much in vogue re- 
cently in and about Boston. Mr. Oilman's is 
by far the more scientific, original, and import- 
ant treatise, with a stronger grip on the prob- 
lem of socialism and a clearer vision of what 
is possible and expedient. Scholars will find 
in it a positive contribution to the topics dis- 
cussed, and its words will do much to win men 
from flying socialistic kites to the slow but sure 
tasks of social amelioration. Mr. Gladden has 
made a little book that will stir many a com- 
placent business man to new thoughts respect- 
ing the rights of laborers and the proper uses 



[July 1, 

of his gains ; and it will do immense good by 
making thousands realize that Christianity, to 
be worth having, must be penetrated with the 
ethical passion and devoted to practical minis- 
tries of love. 

The purpose of Mr. Oilman is not to give a 
history of socialism, though he weaves the es- 
sential facts of its various movements into the 
texture of his discussion. He does not attempt 
to expound or refute its principles so much as 
to bring them into comparison with the Amer- 
can spirit, and in this indirect way he shows 
how far the spirit of socialism may be wel- 
comed and also how far the socialistic pro- 
gramme conflicts with what is most precious 
and fundamental in our institutions. The ear- 
lier chapters of his book contain a very clear 
and admirable discussion of the factors at work 
in American society, the part played by in- 
dividualism and the part played by corporate 
and governmental methods. These chapters 
may well be commended in the strongest terms 
as a most valuable statement of what consti- 
tutes our manifest destiny as a nation, as well 
as a summary of what is highest in American 

The author shows how incompatible Ameri- 
can institutions are with the socialistic pro- 
gramme, and yet he constantly takes issue 
with Mr. Herbert Spencer, whom he criticises 
in a very forcible manner. Mr. Gilman, in 
his discussion of the functions of the State, fol- 
lows, it seems to me, the path of the golden 
mean : the government must be an opportunist, 
doing whatever is needed by the individual 
that the individual cannot well do for himself ; 
and yet the individual must be a living cell in 
a fluent organism rather than a cog in a mere 
machine. The two chapters on " The Indus- 
trial Future " and " The Way to Utopia " con- 
tain a large amount of clear thought and sober 
judgment which will do much to extend right 
views in these directions. From the author of 
" Profit Sharing " we naturally expect some- 
thing more than an allusion to this subject ; 
and we are not disappointed. 

This work will probably displease many per- 
sons, especially the disciples of Mr. Bellamy. 
Mr. Gilman holds "Looking Backward" up 
to the light, and shows without much trouble, 
but better than is done anywhere else, what a 
frail and gauzy fabric it really is. The severe 
critic could easily find some fault, here and 
there, with Mr. Oilman's pages, but I shall not 
attempt to criticise in detail or describe his 
work at greater length. I wish rather to com- 

mend it heartily as a very able discussion of 
the American spirit and the relation of social- 
ism to our institutions. Almost every page 
has words of wisdom which make the path of 
the American citizen a little plainer. 

Mr. Gladden has produced a very helpful 
book for the people who will constitute the ma- 
jority of his readers. He has not written for 
scholars or specialists ; but as in his former 
book, " Applied Christianity," he here tries to 
carry the authority of Christianity over into 
social affairs, while he also tries to interest 
Christians more fully in social problems. He 
endeavors to point out what changes the appli- 
cation of the Christian Law ought to make in 
the use of property, the holding of land ; upon 
industrial organizations, and upon competition 
in general. His pages stir us to enthusiasm for 
nobler policies in business, where his arguments 
seem inconclusive ; his earnestness imparts a 
moral fervor, where his theories sometimes fail 
to win the assent of reason. Everyone must 
join with him in the desire that love and jus- 
tice gain new power in the shop and on the 
market. But some of his statements, in their 
lack of scientific precision and in their inten- 
sity of expression, remind us that we are lis- 
tening to an oration from the pulpit rather 
than the calm deliverance of a specialist and a 
philosopher. Especially to be deplored is the 
loose and expansive way in which the term 
Christian is used. Mr. Gladden is constantly 
asking : What does Christian Ethics demand 
here ? and what does Christian Law make nec- 
essary here ? And yet these terms are nowhere 
defined ; they are used with little reference to 
their primitive meaning ; and even the right 
of Christianity to this supremacy is nowhere 
established. It seems to me that he construes 
the Christian Law very much to suit himself 
(always, however, for noble things), putting 
into it a great deal that did not belong to orig- 
inal Christianity, a great deal that is grandly 
human rather than specifically Christian. In 
this way the content of Christianity is en- 
larged and enriched, and people are thus led to 
accept many new things as Christian and au- 
thoritative, upon the supposition that they were 
a part of original Christianity. But it may 
well be doubted whether this course is justified 
by history, or is calculated to give social sci- 
ence the firmest basis, or motives of helpfulness 
the very greatest and most enduring power. 
However, the book is the word of an earnest 
man, and it will do good wherever read. 





An excellent 




By the publication of the long-prom- 
ised Baedeker's " United States " 
(imported by Scribner), American 
makers of guide-books are afforded a much needed 
object-lesson in compactness, in arrangement of ma- 
terial, and in beauty of cartography. In none of 
these respects has the Baedeker standard of excel- 
lence ever been approached by a guide-book of 
American production. Mr. J. F. Muirhead is the 
author of the book, and his work has been done 
with great care and thoroughness. We have no- 
ticed no considerable inaccuracies, and but few mis- 
prints, in spite of the Leipzig typography of the 
work. The special introductory features are an ac- 
count of our political history, by Professor Mc- 
Master; a study of our political institutions, by 
Professor Bryce ; North American physiography, 
by Professor N. S. Shaler ; chapters on the fine arts 
in America, by Messrs. W. A. Coffin and Mont- 
gomery Schuyler ; and essays upon our climate, our 
aborigines, our sports, and our social institutions. 
All the regular Baedeker features are included 
the introductory hints on railways, money, hotels, 
postal arrangements, etc.; the specimen tours, con- 
venient arrangement of routes, diagrams and plans 
for ready reference, asterisks to denote excellence 
or importance, and the many other features that 
have made the Baedeker guides models of their 
kind. Two or three points of special interest call 
for a word of mention. In comparing the railway 
trains of Europe and America, the author reaches 
the conclusion of most travellers, that the Euro- 
pean system is probably the better for short jour- 
neys, but that our system " reduces to a minimum 
the bodily discomfort and tedium of long railway 
journeys." We are also told that in the South and 
West the railway conductor is generally addressed 
as " captain." (Why not " colonel "?) The fol- 
lowing are hints to hotel-keepers desirous of Euro- 
pean patronage : " The wash-basins in the bedrooms 
should be much larger than is generally the case. 
Two or three large towels are preferable to the half- 
dozen small ones usually provided. A carafe or 
jug of fresh drinking-water (not necessarily iced) 
and a tumbler should always be kept in each bed- 
room. If it were possible to give baths more easily 
and cheaply, it would be a great boon to English 
visitors." The statement that "restaurants which 
solicit the patronage of ' gents ' should be avoided " 
is excellent, but should have been extended to include 
tailors who offer to provide mankind with " pants." 
We are given a glossary of the American language, 
with such definitions as these : " Boss, master, head, 
person in authority." " Bug, beetle, coleopterous in- 
sect of any kind." " Mad, vexed, cross." " Chicken, 
fowl of any age " ( the note of sarcasm should not 
escape an attentive listener). The author has 
learned, with evident surprise, that in America 
"weddings frequently take place in the evening, 
and are managed by a set of ' ushers ' chosen from 

the bridegroom's friends." As for Chicago, those 
who object to the pronunciation (Shekdhgo) given 
the word, will forgive the author when they read, 
further down upon the page, that "great injustice 
is done to Chicago by those who represent it as 
wholly given over to the worship of Mammon, as it 
compares favorably with many American cities in 
the efforts it has made to beautify itself by the cre- 
ation of parks and boulevards, and in its encourage- 
ment of education and the liberal arts." 

The author of Mr " Walter Lock ' s recent biography 
The Christian of John Keble ( Houghton) is an ad- 
equate presentment of a man whose 
life was in every way interesting and inspiring. 
The book is not a large one, but it is well planned 
and well written. Mr. Lock has evidently worked 
con amore. Such a life as Keble's demands sym- 
pathetic interpretation as well as accurate chron- 
icling, and this biography really interprets its sub- 
ject. Keble's early life, his importance in the Ox- 
ford Movement, his influence as a preacher and as 
an adviser, these phases of his life are faithfully 
portrayed ; his limitations are dwelt upon as dis- 
tinctly as are his points of strength. Keble's atti- 
tude toward the Church of England and the Church 
of Rome in the stirring times of half a century 
ago is of course fully set forth. The book presup- 
poses some knowledge of Tractarianism, but anyone 
who knows the main facts of the movement will 
readily learn here its true spirit. And yet, has not 
Mr. Lock taken for granted something it would 
have been better not to assume ? Many a man and 
many a woman, ignorant of Church history, have 
loved Keble through his work, and would gladly 
know him as he lived. For this large class of 
readers the present biography might have been made 
complete by a brief and explicit statement of the 
points at issue. " The Christian Year " is a term 
more familiar than Puseyism. In regard to Keble's 
literary career, it is not strange that one thinks of 
it last. " The Christian Year " is poetry, and its 
author was Professor of Poetry ; but writing was 
to him only a means to diviner things than lit- 
erature. Yet not the least interesting chapter in 
the book is one on the Prcelectioner Academical, the 
lectures on poetry that Keble delivered at Oxford. 
These lectures have never been translated into En- 
glish, so Mr. Lock's careful abstract of them is es- 
pecially valuable. In the present stage of criticism, 
we look to these discourses for loftiness of concep- 
tion rather than for authoritativeness. Keble had 
one ultimate criterion : a poet is in the first class 
or not, according as he possesses or lacks some one 
life-long potent feeling that appears in his work 
again and again. It is needless to comment on 
this theory further than to say that Mr. Lock suc- 
cessfully applies the test to Keble himself, and 
shows that throughout his poetry there is a "love 
of innocency " which may be taken as the keynote 
of all he wrote. It was indeed the underlying prin- 
ciple of Keble's life. 


[July 1, 

The literature of Persia, ancient and 
A useful book on moc iern, offers several distinct fields, 

Persian Literature. . , , . . 

each oi a good deal ot interest to us 
Occidentals of the present day. The study of the 
Cuneiform Inscriptions, besides giving us one of 
the most interesting chapters in the history of scien- 
tific research, connects directly with our recollec- 
tions of the Old Testament and of Herodotus. From 
another point of view the student of Comparative 
Religion and of Folklore finds, of course, in the 
" Avesta " the original sources for acquaintance with 
one of the earliest and most characteristic religions 
in mythological systems known to us. And in 
modern Persian Literature there is much of fasci- 
nation for one of more general interests. With 
Fitzgerald's " Omar Kha'yya'm," Matthew Arnold's 
" Sohrab and Rustum," and Sir Edwin Arnold's 
" With Sa'di in the Garden " still fresh in mind, 
we need not be reminded of the strangely charming 
literary characteristics which mark the work of 
Firdausi, Omar, Sa'di, Hafiz, and Attar. A His- 
tory of Persian Literature especially for English 
readers is thus an opportunity worthy of the scholar 
and the literary critic alike. Of this opportunity, 
Mrs. Elizabeth A. Reed, in her " Persian Litera- 
ture, Ancient and Modern" (Griggs), has taken 
advantage, and has produced a popular manual of 
the somewhat discrete subject described by the title. 
Our chief criticism upon the work must be that it 
slights the modern Persian literature of which most 
of us mainly think when the subject is mentioned. 
But it is, on the other hand, very full in its treat- 
ment of the earlier periods, and includes an im- 
portant section upon the " Koran." Mrs. Reed's 
acquaintance not only with her special subject but 
also with other ancient literatures, notably the San- 
skrit, enables her to compose an account of the 
Cunieform Inscriptions and the "Zend Avesta" 
which stimulates curiosity and satisfies the interest. 
The work is beautifully printed, and has a gor- 
geous frontispiece in gold and colors, reproducing 
a portion of an illuminated " Shah Nameh " manu- 
script. It is published uniform with the author's 
admirable manual of " Hindoo Literature." 

A correspondent Miss Jewsbury's Letters to Jane 
of Jane Welsh Welsh Carlyle " (Longmans) make 

Carlyle. i_ii I N , 

up a bulky volume that does not 
call for extended notice. Miss Geraldine Endsor 
Jewsbury was Mrs. Carlyle's most intimate friend 
and corresponded with her for a long time. The 
two agreed to burn each other's letters, but Mrs. 
Carlyle did not fulfil her part of the agreement, 
while Miss Jewsbury did. So we have only the 
latter's share of the correspondence. What Mrs. 
Carlyle's letters may have been we can partly guess 
and perhaps will not wholly regret their destruction. 
As to the letters before us, their value is not intrin- 
sically great ; they are diffuse, occasionally bright, 
occasionally witty, and always tender. They show 
the writer to be a woman of large capacity to love 
and to be loved, and of disappointment in the at- 

tainment of her ideals. Miss Jewsbury wrote nov- 
els and reviews, but her letters are not literary. 
The only reason for publishing them is the light 
they might throw on the life of the Carlyles. But 
in the first place, from this selection we learn little 
that is new, and in the second place that little is 
materially dimished by the irritating mode of edit- 
ing, which prints a dash for almost every proper 
name. Not only should names be given, but there 
should be an abundance of notes, which the editor, 
Mrs. Alexander Ireland, is able to supply. Her 
very readable life of Mrs. Carlyle showed her to be 
a capable worker in the field of Carlyle literature. 
This last volume in that field should be brought up 
to the level of her former volume. The sympa- 
thetic sketch of Miss Jewsbury's life is the most in- 
teresting part of the book. 

Seven lectures delivered last sum- 
S" mer befOTe the Plymouth School of 

Applied Ethics appear now in a vol- 
ume entitled "Philanthropy and Social Science" 
(Crowell). The first and second of the essays, by 
Miss Jane Addams, entitled " The Subjective Neces- 
sity for Social Settlements " and " The Objective 
Value of a Social Settlement," are interesting ser- 
mons in behalf of this new form of social organiza- 
tion in cities, with Hull House in Chicago as a text. 
The third, by Robert A. Woods, discusses the " Uni- 
versity Settlement Idea " from the point of view of 
the Andover House in Boston. Father James 0. 
S. Huntington contributes the fourth and fifth, 
which deal with the general principles of modern 
philanthropy in an incisive manner. The sixth is 
by Prof . Franklin H. Giddings, on the "Ethics of 
Social Progress," and is by far the most valuable 
and original contribution in the book. The last, by 
Bernard Bosanquet, on the " Principles and Chief 
Dangers of the Administration of Charity," is a 
brief statement of some of the commonplaces of 
scientific charity. While this volume contains much 
that is true and sensible, it lacks somewhat in con- 
tinuity and originality. These were- undoubtedly 
interesting and profitable lectures, but they touch 
only very superficially a few phases of the philan- 
thropic problem. They do not go deep enough for 
the scientific student, while the general reader can 
do better by devoting himself to manuals more spe- 
cific and extensive in information. 

Mr. Oscar L. Trigg's " Browning 
and Whitman: A Study in Democ- 
racy " (Macmillan) is a book that is 
more suggestive than conclusive. Democracy is de- 
fined as " self-government," the " absolute and free 
control of one's self." All that tends to develop 
the soul to its freest, fullest limits, and all that 
tends to band together self-controlled individuals, 
is in its essence democratic. To point out these 
principles in the two poets is the object of Mr. 
Trigg's analysis. Not a difficult task, surely; for 
Browning stands for the independence and preem- 




inence of the soul, and Whitman stands for the in- 
dependence and fellowship of man. Other writers 
are grouped with the two who name the book, 
Lowell, Emerson, Wagner, and the author says a 
great deal about them all that is penetrating and 
sympathetic. But he writes with the air of one who 
has a thesis to prove and a world to persuade, and 
the result is something partly one-sided and partly 
rhapsodical. The former effect is produced by his 
seeming lack of sympathy with poets like Words- 
worth ; the latter effect by the extremely large 
number of poetical citations. Out of 140 pages 
there are hardly a score that are not broken into 
by quotations. After a while this produces a mo- 
notony which materially and unjustly detracts from 
the author's prose. All in all, the book is spirited 
and thoughtful, and if it does not persuade every- 
one to its wide-reaching optimism, it is because 
America is still far from being democratic in our 
author's sense. 


THE second volume has just appeared of Green's 
" Short History of the English People " (Harper), in 
the magnificently illustrated edition that we owe to the 
painstaking scholarship and industry of Mrs. Green and 
Miss Norgate. This installment carries us through the 
Reformation period to the death of Elizabeth, two more 
volumes being necessary to complete the work. The 
illustrations are very numerous, a mere list of them, 
with brief descriptive notes, filling nearly thirty pages. 
It would be superfluous to praise the execution of this 
work, which is in all respects mechanically satisfactory. 
It should be found in every library, public or private. 

" THE Yearbook of Science " for 1892 (Dodd), edited 
by Professor T. G. Bonney, is the second issue of the 
series to which it belongs. The departments have been 
undertaken by the best specialist authorities, and the 
work offers a manual indispensable to every worker in 
physics or chemistry, in geology or biology. Refer- 
ences are given with unusual precision, and results are 
so concisely summarized as to permit the inclusion of a 
vast amount of matter. 

MR. Francis H. Underwood's study of " The Poet 
and the Man " (Lee & Shepard) gives us both a brief 
biography of Lowell and a generous tribute to his per- 
sonal qualities. The author knew Lowell quite inti- 
mately for nearly forty years, and, while his book gives 
us little or nothing that is absolutely new, it has the 
effect of bringing us very close to the lovable person- 
ality of its subject, and to make us realize afresh how 
worthy were the ideals for which Lowell stood, and how 
consistent was his devotion to their service. The vol- 
ume, which is an expansion of an article written for 
" The Contemporary Review," is prettily printed. 

FOUR pamphlet sermons that come to us from the 
Rev. James De Normandie, of Boston, are of timely in- 
terest. Two of them are memorials, respectively of A. 
P. Peabody and Bishop Brooks. The others are on 
" Sunday and the Columbian Fair " and " The Injustice 
to the Chinese," upon both of which subjects the author 
discourses with graceful and persuasive eloquence from 
the humane standpoint. We cordially commend these 
books to our readers. (Boston: Damrell & Upham.) 


Mr. W. H. Bishop has been appointed instructor in 
French and Spanish at Yale University. 

" The Builders of American Literature," by Mr. F. 
H. Underwood, a work in two volumes, is announced 
by Messrs. Lee & Shepard. 

Professor Goldwin Smith is writing a book upon " The 
Political History of the United States," and the first 
volume is announced for autumn publication by the 

The life of Sir Richard Francis Burton, upon which 
his widow has been engaged almost continuously since 
his death, will be published soon. The first portion is 
mainly autobiographical. It will be in two volumes, 
with portraits, colored illustrations, and maps. 

The final posthumous volume of Victor Hugo's poet- 
ical works is to be published immediately, with the 
title " Toute la Lyre, Seconde Se'rie." M. Auguste 
Vacquerie and M. Paul Meurice have classified the con- 
tents into eight parts, corresponding with the seven 
strings of the ancient lyre, with the addition of an 
eighth suggested by a line of the poet's, " Et j'ajoute k 
ma lyre une corde d'airain." 

" The Californian " for July comes to us with a new 
cover, probably the most beautiful that has ever adorned 
an American magazine. It is printed in gold and col- 
ors, and has the California poppy, in leaf, flower, and 
fruit, for its characteristic ornament. The cover is 
made particularly charming by its wayward grouping 
of the poppy-blossoms, which are of natural size, and in 
no way conventionalized. 

The Trinity (Dublin) correspondent of the London 
" Academy " has the following about one of our recent 
guests: "The return of Professor Tyrrell from Amer- 
ica has relieved the College from some anxiety, for dur- 
ing his stay in the West he suffered from serious illness, 
which, though it did not stay or spoil his lecturing 
this was due to his indomitable character marred his 
enjoyment, and caused much alarm amongst his col- 
leagues. He is now restored to health, and he speaks 
in the strongest terms of the sympathy and hospitality 
of his American friends." 

The London house occupied for over half a century 
by Samuel Rogers is to be sold. It may be said that 
there is scarcely a single representative of literature 
who during the first half of the present century was not 
a more or less frequent guest within its walls, from 
Lord Byron, Shelley, and Samuel Taylor Coleridge down 
to Thomas Campbell, Sir Walter Scott, Moore, Sydney 
Smith, and Mrs. Norton ; and there is scarcely a single 
celebrity of that age in whose memoirs the hospitable 
breakfasts of Sam Rogers and his constant " Table 
Talk " do not stand recorded. 

Mr. Longworth, the British Consul at Trebizond, re- 
ports that all books, pamphlets, and papers, even those for 
Persia, undergo the strictest censorship along that coast. 
Stationery is also examined for writings in invisible inks. 
Such as contain a likeness of the Sultan, disparaging 
remarks on Mahomedanism, or political reflection un- 
favorable to Turkey are condemned. The long list in- 
cludes Greek and Armenian proscribed books, besides 
thirty French and four English namely, the Koran, 
Byron's works, the handbook to Turkey in Asia, and 
the " Pacha of Many Tales," by Captain Marryat. 

The subscriptions to the Shelley memorial amounted 
to about fifteen hundred dollars, of which more than 



[July 1, 

one-fourth came from this country. It is proposed to 
use the money as a foundation for an annual English 
literature prize at the Horsham Grammar School. Lady 
Shelley's monument to the poet, at University College, 
Oxford, was formally inaugurated by the donor a few 
days ago. A Tennyson Memorial is now projected for 
Freshwater, in the Isle of Wight. There are two propos- 
als before the projectors a committee formed in Fresh- 
water itself. One is to substitute for the existing 
wooden beacon on the highest part of the Freshwater 
Down a stone tower. The other is the erection of a 
granite monolith in the form of an lona cross at the 
corner of Farringdon-lane, along which the poet often 
walked. The committee ask for 500. About half 
that sum has already been collected. 


July, 1893 (First List). 

Algerian Riders. Illus. T. A. Dodge. Harper. 

American Woman, The. M. C. de Varigny. Pop. Science. 

Army as a Training-School. Edmund Hudson. Forum. 

Bacon and Shakespeare : A Symposium. Arena. 

Bimetallic Parity. C. Vincent. Arena. 

Booth, An Actor's Memory of. John Malone. Forum. 

British Etching. Illus. F. Wedmore. Magazine of Art. 

Californian Farmers. J. R. Grayson. Californian. 

Californian Missions. Illus. Laura B. Powers. Californian. 

Chicago Architecture. Illus. Barr Ferree. Lippincott. 

Chicago's Gentle Side. Julian Ralph. Harper. 

Chinese and the Law. T. J. Geary. Californian. 

Christ and the Liquor Problem. G. G. Brown. Arena. 

Christian Preacher's Functions. Lyman Abbott. Forum. 

Civic Duty. James Bryce. Forum. 

Color in the Court of Honor at the Fair. Illus. Century. 

Crime, Is it Increasing ? Popular Science. 

Education and Selection. A. Fouille'e. Popular Science. 

English Race Meetings. Illus. R. H. Davis. Harper. 

Evil Spirits. J. H. Long. Popular Science. 

Exmouth, Admiral Lord. A. T. Mahan. Atlantic. 

Fair, On the Way to the. Illus. Julian Hawthorne. Lippincott. 

Foreign Policy, Our. W. D. McCrackan. Arena. 

Fort Ross, California. Illus. Overland. 

" Fourth," Celebration of the. Julia Ward Howe. Forum. 

French Canadians in New England. H. L. Nelson. Harper. 

Galton, Francis, Works and Work of. Frederick Starr. Dial. 

German Soldiers. Illus. Poultney Bigelow. Harper. 

Hardy, Thomas. Harriet W. Preston. Century. 

Homeric Question Once More. Paul Shorey. Dial. 

Human Brain, The. Illus. C. S. Minot. Popular Science. 

Indians, Famous. Illus. C. E. S. Wood. Century. 

Innocence and Ignorance. Solomon Schindler. Arena. 

Italian Gardens. Illus. C. A. Pratt. Harper. 

Japan, An Artist's Letters from. Illus. J. LaFarge. CenCy. 

Japanese Morals. Illus. W. D. Eastlake. Popular Science. 

Kemble, Fanny, at Lenox. C. B. Todd. Lippincott. 

Literature Congresses, The. Dial. 

Man in the Glacial Gravels. J. W. Powell. Popular Science. 

Meissonier Exhibition. Illus. Claude Phillips. Mag. of Art. 

Mental Suggestion. Illus. A. McL. Hamilton. Century. 

Money Question, The. C. J. Buell. Arena. 

Morton, Gov., and the Sons of Liberty. W. D. Foulke. Allan. 

National Gallery, The. Illus. M. H. Spielman. Mag. of Art. 

Nice to Genoa. Illus. Fannie C. W. Barbour. Californian. 

Panama Canal, The. Overland. 

Pension Scandal. C. McK. Leoser and J. J. Finn. Forum. 

Petrarch. Gamaliel Bradford, Jr. Atlantic. 

Petrarch's Correspondence. Harriet W. Preston. Atlantic. 

Physics, Teaching. F. Guthrie. Popular Science. 

Poor, Private Relief of. Herbert Spencer. Popular Science. 

Portsmouth Profiles. T. B. Aldrich. Century. 

Presumptive Proof. J. W. Clarke. Atlantic. 

Public Libraries and Public Museums. E. S. Morse. Atlantic. 

Reason at the World's Congress of Religions. Arena. 

Royal Academy Exhibition. Illus. Mag. of Art. 

Russian Passports and Police. Isabel F. Hapgood. Atlantic. 

Russian People, A Voice for the. George Kennan. Century. 

Russian Persecution. Joseph Jacobs. Century. 

Salt Lake City. Illus. H. R. Browne. Californian. 

Salvini's Autobiography. Tommaso Salviui. Century. 

Science, Recent. Prince Kropotkin. Popular Science. 

Siddons, Sarah. Edmund Gosse. Century. 

Sierra, Heart of the. Illus. Lillian E. Purdy. Californian. 

Slang. Brander Matthews. Harper. 

Social Spirit in America. J. H. Crooker. Dial. 

Spanish Inquisition an Alienist. H. C. Lea. Pop. Science. 

Summer, In the Heart of. Edith M. Thomas. Atlantic. 

Swift, Dean. Illus. M. O. W. Oliphant. Century. 

Truth vs. Point. Robt. Timsol and F. M. Bird. Lippincott. 

United States and Italy. G. P. Morosini. Lippincott. 

Women Wage-Earners. Helen Campbell. Arena. 

World's Fair Prospects. F. H. Head and E. F. Ingals. Forum. 

Writing, Style in. Edgar Fawcett. Lippincott. 

Yellowstone Fossil Forests. S. E. Tillman. Popular Science. 


[The following list, embracing 58 titles, includes all books 
received by THE DIAL since last issue. J 


Princeton Sketches : The Story of Nassau Hall. By George 
R. Wallace. With introduction by Andrew F. West, 
Ph.D. Illus., large 8vo, pp. 200. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

Lorenzo de' Medici: An Historical Portrait. By Edith 
Carpenter, author of " A Modern Rosalind." llimo, pp. 
216, gilt top, nncut edges. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.00. 


Dictionary of National Biography. Edited by Sidney 
Lee. Vol. XXV.. MacCarwell to Maltby. Large 8vo, 
pp. 447, gilt top. Macmillan & Co. $3.75. 

General Greene. By Francis Vinton Greene, author of 
" The Mississippi." Illus., 12mo, pp. 332, gilt top, un- 
cut edges. Appletons' " Great Commanders." $1.50. 

Thomas Jefferson. By James Schouler, LL.D. With por- 
trait, lOmo, pp. 252. Dodd's "Makers of America." $1. 


Questions at Issue. By Edmund Gosse. 12mo, pp. 333, 
gilt top, uncut edges. D. Appleton & Co. $2.50. 

Books in Manuscript : A Short Introduction to their Study 
and Use, with a Chapter on Records. By Falconer Ma- 
dan, M.A. Illus., 12mo, pp. 188, uncut. Imported by 
Chas. Scribner's Sons. $2.50. 

Robert Browning as an Exponent of a Philosophy of Life. 
By Brainerd Marc Burridge, M.A. 8vo, pp. 55. Cleve- 
land : The Book Shop. 1.25. 

The Maxims and Reflections of Goethe. Translated by 
Bailey Saunders. 12mo, pp. 222, gilt top, uncut edges. 
Macmillan & Co. $1.25. 

Froebel's Letters. Edited, with explanatory notes, by Ar- 
nold H. Heinemann. Illus., 12mo, pp. 182. Lee & 
Shepard. $1.25. 

Franklin's Select Works, including his Autobiography. 
With notes and a memoir by Epes Sargent. 12mo, pp. 
502. Lee & Shepard. 75 cts. 


A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles. Ed- 
ited by James A. H. Murray, B. A. Lond. Part VII., 
Consignificant to Crouching. 4to, pp. 8(il to 1204, uncut. 
Macmillan & Co. Boards, $3.25. 


Selections from the Writings of William Blake. With 
an introductory essay by Laurence Housman. With 
frontispiece, 18mo, pp. 259, gilt top, uncut edges. Im- 
ported by Chas. Scribner's Sons. $1.75. 




Cap and Gown: Some College Verse. Chosen by Joseph 
La Roy Harrison. 18mo, pp. 15)2, gilt top. Joseph 
Knight Co. $1.25. 

Tasks by Twilight. By Abbot Kinney, author of "The 
Conquest of Death." 12mo, pp. 211. G. P. Putnam's 
Sons. $1.00. 

Asleep and Awake. By Raymond Russell. 12mo, pp. 
200. C. H. Kerr & Co. $1.00. 

An Octave to Mary. By John B. Tabb. With frontis- 
piece, oblong, gilt top. John Murphy & Co. Paper, $1. 


Many Inventions. By Rudyard Kipling. 12mo, pp. 427. 

D. Appleton & Co. $1.50. 
Pietro Ghisleri. By F. Marion Crawford, author of "Sar- 

acinesca." 12mo, pp. 429. Macmillan & Co. $1.00. 
Heather and Snow. By George MacDonald, author of 

" Alec Forbes." 16'mo, pp. 285. Harper & Bros. $1.25. 
Brown's Retreat, and Other Stories. By Anna Eichberg 

King. 12mo, pp. 303. Roberts Bros. $1.00. 
Sweetheart Gwen : A Welsh Idyll. By William Tirebuck, 

author of " Dorrie." 12mo, pp. 280. Longmans, Green, & 

Co. $1.00. 
Toppleton's Client ; or, A Spirit in Exile. By John Kendrick 

Bangs. 12mo, pp. 269. C. L. Webster & Co. $1.00. 
A Conflict of Evidence. By Rodrigues Ottolengui, author 

of "An Artist in Crime." IGmo, pp. 347. G. P. Put- 
nam's Sons. $1.00. 
Found Wanting. By Mrs. Alexander, author of " For His 

Sake." 12mo, pp. 319. J. B. Lippincott Co. $1.00. 
A Woman Who Failed, and Others. By Bessie Chandler. 

16mo, pp. 343. Roberts Bros. $1.00. 


Shirley. By Charlotte Bronte. In 2 vols., illus. in photo- 
gravure, IGmo, gilt top, uncut edges. Macmillan & Co. $2. 

Ivanhoe. By Sir Walter Scott. " Dryburgh edition," illus., 
8vo, pp. 472, uncut. Macmillan & Co. $1.25. 

Judith Shakespeare. By William Black. New revised 
edition, IGmo, pp. 37G. Harper & Bros. 80 cts. 


Appletons' Town and Country Library: Singularly De- 
luded, by the author of " Ideala "; 12mo, pp. 259. Sus- 
pected, by Louisa Stratenus ; 12mo, pp. 213. Each, 50 cts. 

Bonner's Choice Series : Hearts and Coronets, a Tale of 
Love, by Jane G. Fuller ; illus., 12mo, pp. 347. 50 cts. 


The New Reformation, and Its Relation to Moral and So- 
cial Problems. By Ramsden Balmforth (Laon Ramsey). 
12mo, pp. 159, uncut. Chas. Scribner's Sons. $1.00. 

Milk and Meat: Twenty-four Sermons. By A. C. Dixon. 
With portrait, 12mo, pp. 265. Baker & Taylor Co. $1.25. 

The New Bra- or, The Coming Kingdom. By Rev. Josiah 
Strong, D.D., author of " Our Country." 12mo, pp. 374. 
Baker & Taylor Co. $1.50. 

The Hallowed Day. (Fletcher Prize Essay, Dartmouth 
College, 1892.) By Rev. George Guirey, author of " The 
Unanswerable Word." 12mo, pp. 291. Baker & Taylor 
Co. $1.25. 

What Is Inspiration ? By John Dewitt, D.D., author of 
" The Psalms." IGmo, pp. 187. A. D. F. Randolph & Co. 


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THE DIAL, No. 24 Adams Street, Chicago. 

No. 170. 

JULY 16, 1893. 

Vol. XV. 



10,1893.) E. W. Gilder 27 


from the Papers Read) 27 


William Henry Smith 33 


Noll 36 


ROUGH AND READY." Henry W. Thurston . 39 


Payne 40 

Poems by Two Brothers. The Earl of Lytton's 
King Poppy. Watson's The Eloping Angels. 
Brown's Old John. Block's El Nuevo Mundo. 
Fawcett's Songs of Doubt and Dream. Cawein's 
Red Leaves and Roses. Under the Scarlet and 
Black. Cap and Gown. Under King Constantine. 
Hovey's Seaward. Appleton's Greek Poets in 
English Verse. Sargent's Horatian Echoes. 
Rhoades's The ^Eneid of Vergil in English Verse. 
Poetical Works of Samuel Taylor Coleridge. 


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crime and poverty in the United States. Poland in 
history. A readable and practical guide for ama- 
teur photographers. Appreciative chats on Ameri- 
can artists. Interpretations of Tennyson's Idylls of 
the King. A sailing-voyage from New York to Cape 
Town. A good summary of the French Revolution. 






THE WHITE CITY : July 10, 1893. 

Here for the world to see men brought their fairest; 

Whatever of beauty is in all the earth: 
The priceless flower of art, the loveliest, rarest, 

Here by our inland ocean came to glorious birth. 

Yet on this day of doom a strange new splendor 

Shed its celestial light on all men's eyes: 
Flower of the hero-soul, consummate, tender, 
That from the tower of flame sprang to the eternal 



It is hardly possible, at a date when the Lit- 
erature Congresses have but just completed 
their work, to take anything like a philosoph- 
ical survey of the week's proceedings. We 
have, however, thought it best, even at the risk 
of offering our readers an incomplete and im- 
perfectly digested report, to summarize the 
series of events that have made the week just 
ended noteworthy in the intellectual history of 
Chicago. If we may not tell the whole story, 
and if our coign of vantage be too near the ob- 
ject for realization of the proper perspective, 
our report may at least embody the salient fea- 
tures of the Congresses, and point a possible 
moral here and there. As has already been 
stated in these pages, Congresses to the num- 
ber of five were planned for the week ending 
July 15, their subjects being Literature proper, 
Philology, Folk-lore, History, and Libraries. 
They have provided an intellectual repast be- 
wildering in variety, and quite beyond the as- 
similative powers of such rash mortals as may 
have attempted to partake of all the courses. 
They have been characterized by many notable 
contributions to both general and special cul- 
ture, as well as by many of those discussions 
and comparisons of diverse views from which a 
subject often receives more light than from 
some more formal method of treatment. 

The Congresses were happily opened on 
Monday evening, July 10, by a general recep- 


[July 16, 

tion given to such of the participants in the 
week's work as had at that time reached the 
city. The reception began with the usual in- 
troductions and handshakings, and ended with 
a few speeches of welcome by representatives 
of the World's Congress Auxiliary, followed 
by responses from some of the more distin- 
guished guests. Under the latter category come 
the remarks made by Mr. Charles Dudley 
Warner, Mr. Richard Watson Gilder, Mr. 
George W. Cable, Mr. Walter Besant, and 
Dr. Max Richter. In the course of Mr. War- 
ner's remarks, a tribute was paid to the beau- 
ties of the World's Fair, and the speaker con- 
cluded with these words : 

" I fear all the time that the Fair will disappear, and, 
as I say, I grudge every moment spent away from it, 
for it will go, like everything else that we have created 
by hand. And when it has gone these poor scribblers 
who have not money enough to create it and many of 
them not imagination enough to put it into poetry or into 
romance even because I don't know anybody, except 
St. John in the Apocalypse, who has hit it off at all so 
far these poor scribblers will have to take up the 
task of perpetuating this creation of beauty and of 
splendor, and the next generation that wanders about 
Lake Michigan looking at the ruins of Chicago the 
distant generation, of course will have to depend upon 
some wandering bard who even then won't be half paid, 
I dare say for the remembrance, for the description of 
the great achievement of this city of Chicago in 1893." 

Mr. Gilder, in a few well-chosen words, con- 
trasted the literary art with the arts of form 
and color, pointing out that the very subtlety of 
the former makes its discussion difficult. Hence 
the speaker concluded that a Congress of Au- 
thors must of necessity for the most part deal 
with the physical side of literature, with " the 
relation of that art to its presentation through 
books to the public." Probably the most 
noteworthy incident of all this speech-making 
was to be found in the applause that inter- 
rupted Mr. Gilder when he said : " I, for one, 
would not have the countenance to stand up 
before a World's Congress of Authors if within 
a short time we, as a nation, had not wiped 
out the unbearable disgrace of international 

The sentiment thus expressed by Mr. Gil- 
der had many an echo in the subsequent pro- 
ceedings of the Congress of Authors. The 
Tuesday session of this Congress was devoted 
to the general subject of Copyright, and it was 
peculiarly fitting that Mr. George E. Adams 
should serve as the presiding officer. The en- 
actment of the Copyright Law of 1891 was, as 
our readers will remember, largely due to the 
efforts of Mr. Adams, then a member of the 

House of Representatives. Major Kirkland, 
who introduced Mr. Adams to the audience, 
gracefully alluded to this fact, as did also Mr. 
Gilder, when his turn came to share in the gen- 
eral discussion. That the services of Mr. Ad- 
ams had been appreciated, and were still re- 
membered by those present, appeared in the ap- 
plause that followed every allusion made to 
them. The discussion was opened by the pre- 
siding officer himself, who read an admirable 
paper upon our copyright legislation, past and 
future. He took an eminently sane and prac- 
tical view of the question, making clear the 
fundamental distinction between a copyright 
and a patent (a distinction too often neg- 
lected), but still averring that our future legis- 
lation is sure to be based upon the broad con- 
siderations of public policy rather than upon 
purely theoretical grounds. " The question of 
the so-called moral right of an author in his 
book is not likely to arise in any future move- 
ment in this country for the enlargement of 
authors' rights by Congress. Such legislation 
will be supported on the ground of public pol- 
icy rather than on the ground of just pro- 
tection of property." Dr. S. S. Sprigge, late 
Secretary of the London Society of Authors, 
followed Mr. Adams with a brief paper on 
" The International Copyright Union," sent 
to the Congress by Sir Henry Bergne, the Brit- 
ish Commissioner at the Berne Conference of 
1886. Dr. Sprigge also read a paper of his 
own upon the present complicated condition of 
copyright legislation, English and interna- 
tional. The remainder of the session was given 
up to an informal discussion, among the parti- 
cipants being Mr. Gilder, Mr. George W. Ca- 
ble, Mr. Charles Dudley Warner, Professor 
T. R. Lounsbury of Yale, President C. K. Ad- 
ams of the University of Wisconsin, and Gen- 
eral A. C. McClurg. There was general agree- 
ment among the speakers in deprecating the 
necessity of the " manufacturing clause " of 
the Act of 1891, but there was an equally gen- 
eral agreement in the admission that the law, 
with all its defects, is vastly better than no law 
at all. Even Professor Lounsbury, who pro- 
claimed himself one of the irreconcilables, ad- 
mitted the justice of this view. The injury 
done to writers by the condition of simultan- 
eous publication also came up for discussion, 
as well as the inadequacy of the term at pres- 
ent provided. " Nearly all our great Amer- 
ican authors have outlived their copyrights, 
which is a ridiculous perversion of justice," 
said Mr. Gilder ; and Mr. Warner, echoing the 




opinion, allowed his wit to play upon the 
thought, greatly to the delight of his hearers. 

The copyright question was again brought 
forward, at the Wednesday session, by Mr. 
R. R. Bowker, editor of "The Publishers' 
Weekly," who read a carefully prepared paper 
upon " The Limitations of Copyright." We 
may also mention in this connection, as an il- 
lustration of the interest taken by foreign coun- 
tries in the work of the Congress, that a rep- 
resentative of the French Syndicat pour la 
Protection de la Propriete Litteraire et Artis- 
tique placed in the hands of the Committee, for 
distribution among the members of the Con- 
gress, a pamphlet " Note sur 1'Acte du 3 Mars 
1891," especially prepared and printed for the 
purpose. After congratulating the Copyright 
League upon the successful outcome of its la- 
bors, the pamphlet adds : "II ne saurait se 
presenter une occasion plus favorable que celle 
de la reunion du Congres de 1893 pour ex- 
primer les remerciements des interesses a tous 
ceux qui ont eu confiance en 1'esprit de justice 
du peuple americain." The special subject of 
the Wednesday session, "The Rights and In- 
terests of Authors," was introduced by Mr. 
Walter Besant, who also presided over the 
session. Mr. Besant's paper summarized the 
history of the London Society of Authors, ex- 
plaining also the reasons for its existence and 
the difficulties with which it has had to con- 
tend. A recent editorial in THE DIAL, upon 
the subject of the Society, gave the principal 
facts embodied in Mr. Besant's statement, and 
it is unnecessary to repeat them here. To the 
majority of those who heard them upon this 
occasion, they were doubtless new, and, as pre- 
sented by Mr. Besant, they were given the 
added force that always characterizes a man's 
spoken words upon some subject to which he has 
devoted years of active thought. The follow- 
ing is one of the passages of more general in- 
terest contained in Mr. Besant's paper : 

" We have made a careful and prolonged inquiry into 
the very difficult subject of the present nature and ex- 
tent of literary property. A writer of importance in 
our language may address an audience drawn from a 
hundred millions of English-speaking people. Remem- 
ber that never before in the history of the world has 
there been such an audience. There were doubtless 
more than a hundred millions under the Roman rule 
around the shores of the Mediterranean, but they spoke 
many different languages. We have now this enormous 
multitude, all, with very few exceptions, able to read, 
and all reading. Twenty years ago they read the weekly 
paper ; there are many who still read nothing more. Now 
that no longer satisfies the majority. Every day makes 
it plainer and clearer that we have arrived at a time when 
the whole of this multitude, which in fifty years' time will 

be two hundred millions, will very soon be reading books. 
What kind of books ? All kinds, good and bad, but 
mostly good ; we may be very sure that they will pre- 
fer good books to bad. Even now the direct road to 
popularity is by dramatic strength, clear vision, clear 
dialogue, whether a man write a play, a poem, a his- 
tory, or a novel. We see magazines suddenly achiev- 
ing a circulation reckoned by hundreds of thousands, 
while our old magazines creep along with their old cir- 
culation of from two to ten thousands. Hundreds of 
thousands ? How is this popularity achieved ? Is it 
by pandering to the low, gross, coarse taste commonly 
attributed to the multitude ? Not so. It is mainly ac- 
complished by giving them dramatic work stories 
which hold and interest them essays which speak 
clearly work that somehow seems to have a message. 
If we want a formula or golden rule for arriving at 
popularity, I should propose this: Let the work have 
a Message. Let it have a thing to say, a story to tell, 
a living Man or Woman to present, a lesson to deliver, 
clear, strong, unmistakable. 

" The demand for reading is enormous, and it in- 
creases every day. I see plainly as plainly as eyes 
can see a time- it is even now already upon us 
when the popular writer the novelist, the poet, the 
dramatist, the historian, the physicist, the essayist 
will command such an audience so vast an audience 
as he has never yet even conceived as possible. Such a 
writer as Dickens, if he were living now, would command 
an audience all of whom would buy his works of 
twenty millions at least. The world has never yet wit- 
nessed such a popularity so wide-spread as awaits 
the successor of Dickens in the affections of the En- 
glish speaking races. The consideration must surely en- 
courage us to persevere in our endeavors after the in- 
dependence and therefore the nobility of our calling, 
and therefore the nobility of our work. But you must 
not think that this enormous demand is for fiction alone. 
One of the things charged upon our Society is that we 
exist for novelists alone. That is because literary property 
is not understood at all. As a fact educational literature 
is a much larger and more valuable branch than fiction. 
But for science, history everything except, perhaps, 
poetry the demand is leaping forward year after year 
in a most surprising manner. Now, in order to meet 
this enormous demand, which has actually begun and 
will increase more and more a demand which we alone 
can meet and satisfy I say that we must claim and that 
we must have a readjustment of the old machinery 
a reconsideration of the old methods a new appeal to 
principles of equity and fair play." 

The remainder of this session was taken up 
by a paper on " Syndicate Publishing," sent by 
Mr. W. Morris Colles, of London, by " Some 
Considerations on Publishing," a paper sent by 
Sir Frederick Pollock, and by a discussion in 
which part was taken by Mr. Besant, Mr. 
Charles Carleton Coffin, Mrs. Mary Hartwell 
Catherwood, and Mrs. D. Lothrop. 

The general subject of " Criticism and Lit- 
erature " occupied the Thursday session of the 
Congress. Over this session Mr. Charles Dud- 
ley Warner presided, and read the opening 
paper, his subject being " The Function of Lit- 
erary Criticism in the United States." Mr. 



[July 16, 

Warner's paper is so sound and so suggestive 
that we feel justified in reproducing a some- 
what lengthy extract. 

" There seems to be a general impression that in a 
new country like the United States, where everything 
grows freely, almost spontaneously, as by a new crea- 
tive impulse, literature had better be left to develop 
itself without criticism, as practically it has been left 
every tree to get as high as it can without reference to 
shape or character. I say, as practically it has been 
left. For while there has been some good criticism in 
this country of other literatures, an application of sound 
scholarship and wide comparison, there has been very 
little of this applied to American literature. There has 
been some fault-finding, some ridicule, a good deal of 
the slashing personality and the expression of individual 
prejudice and like or dislike, which characterized so 
much of the British review criticism of the beginning 
of this century much of it utterly conventional and 
blind judgment but almost no attempt to ascertain the 
essence and purport of our achievement and to arraign 
it at the bar of comparative excellence, both as to form 
and substance. I do not deny that there has been some 
ingenious and even just exploiting of our literature, with 
note of its defects and its excellences, but it will be 
scarcely claimed for even this that it is cosmopolitan. 
How little of the application of universal principles to 
specific productions ! We thought it bad taste when Mat- 
thew Arnold put his finger on Emerson as he would put 
his finger on Socrates or on Milton. His judgment may 
have been wrong, or it may have. been right; matter of 
individual taste we would have been indifferent to; it 
seemed as if it were the universality of the test from 
which our national vanity shrank. We have our own 
standards ; if we choose, a dollar is sixty-five cents, and 
we resent the commercial assertion that a dollar is one 
hundred cents. 

" It seems to me that the thing the American litera- 
ture needs just now, and needs more than any other 
literature in the world, is criticism. In the essay by 
Matthew Arnold to which I have referred, and in which, 
as you remember, he defines criticism to be 'a disin- 
terested endeavor to learn and propagate the best that 
is known and thought in the world,' he would have had 
smooth sailing if he had not attempted to apply his 
principles of criticism to the current English literature. 
And this application made the essay largely an exposi- 
tion of the British Philistine. The Philistine is, in his 
origin and character, a very respectable person, whether 
he is found in Parliament, or in Exeter Hall, or in 
a newspaper office ; he is incased in tradition. The 
epithet, borrowed from the German, would not have 
stung as it did if Arnold had not further defined the 
person to be, what Ruskin found him also in En- 
gland and Wagner in Germany, one inaccessible to new 

" Now, we have not in the United States the Philis- 
tine, or Philistinism, at least not much of it, and for 
the reason that we have no tradition. We have thrown 
away, or tried to throw away, tradition. We are growing 
in the habit of being sufficient unto ourselves. We 
have not Philistinism, but we have something else. 
There has been no name for it yet invented. Some say 
it is satisfaction in superficiality, and they point to the 
common school and to Chautauqua; the French say that 
it is satisfaction in mediocrity. At any rate it is a sat- 
isfaction that has a large element of boastfulness in it, 

and boastfulness based upon a lack of enlightenment, 
in literature especially a want of discrimination, of fine 
discernment of quality. It is a habit of looking at lit- 
erature as we look at other things ; literature in na- 
tional life never stands alone if we condone crooked- 
ness in politics and in business under the name of smart- 
ness, we apply the same sort of test, that is the test of suc- 
cess, to literature. It is the test of the late Mr. Barnum. 
There is in it a disregard of moral as well as of artistic 
values and standards. You see it in the press, in ser- 
mons even, the effort to attract attention, the lack of 
moderation, the striving to be sensational in poetry, in 
the novel, to shock, to advertise the performance. Ev- 
erything is on a strain. No, this is not Philistinism. 
I am sure, also, that it is not the final expression of the 
American spirit, that which will represent its life or 
its literature. I trust it is a transient disease, which 
we may perhaps call by a transient name, Barnumism." 

Another paper of importance, sent by Mr. 
Hamilton W. Mabie (who was unfortunately 
absent), had for its subject " Criticism as an 
Educational Force." Speaking of the change 
that has of late years come over the spirit of 
criticism, Mr. Mabie writes : 

" It was not until criticism passed into the hands of 
men of insight and creative power that it discovered its 
chief function to be that of comprehension, and its 
principal service that of interpretation. Not that it 
has surrendered its function of judging according to 
the highest standards, but that it has discovered that 
the forms of excellence change from time to time, and 
that the question with regard to a work of art is not 
whether it conforms to types of excellence already fa- 
miliar, but whether it is an ultimate expression of 
beauty or power. In every case the artist creates the 
type and the critic proves his competency by recogniz- 
ing it; so that while the critic holds the artist to rigid 
standards of veracity and craftsmanship it is the artist 
who lays down the law to the critic. As an applied art, 
based on induction and constructing its canons apart 
from the material which literature furnishes, criticism 
was notable mainly for its fallability. As an art based 
on deduction, and framing its laws in accordance with the 
methods and principles illustrated in the best literature, 
it has advanced from a secondary to a leading place 
among the literary forms now most widely employed 
and most widely influential." 

Mr. H. D. Traill, of Oxford, sent to the Con- 
gress a paper upon " The Relations of Litera- 
ture and Journalism," from which we quote the 
opening paragraph: 

" There never was a more promising subject for peo- 
ple who are fond of a good discursive debate, not likely 
to be brought to an abrupt and disappointing close 
by a sudden agreement between the disputants, than 
the subject of the relations between Literature and 
Journalism. A discussion of it combines almost every 
possible attraction ambiguity of terms, indefiniteness 
of area, uncertainty of aim everything in short that 
the heart of the most ardent controversialist could de- 
sire. I have been privileged to hear many such discus- 
sions and to take part in some of them, and on no oc- 
casion can I remember to have met with any debater 
so pedantic as to ask for a definition either of Literature 
or Journalism, at any stage of the argument. A sound 




instinct seems to warn people that if they were to do 
that, the particular debate engaged in would immediately 
branch off either into a prolonged and probably tech- 
nical inquiry into the precise meaning and limits of the 
term Journalism or into an interminable and almost cer- 
tainly violent dispute as to what constitutes Literature. 
The latter question in especial is full of " excellent dif- 
ferences" for those who care to discuss it: because ac- 
cording to some theorists on the subject there would 
seem to be scarcely any written or printed matter 
when once you have risen above the Postoffice Direct- 
ory which is not literature ; while with the very super- 
fine class of critics, the difficulty is to find anything that 
is. Literature begins for the former almost where it be- 
gan with Dogberry. Anyone who could have " pleaded 
his clergy " in the middle ages, would in their view ap- 
parently have been a literary man. Between this esti- 
mate and that of the Superfine Critic who claims to 
confine the name of literature to some limited class of 
composition which he happens himself to admire, or 
perhaps affect, the gap yawns enormous : and I for one 
have no intention of attempting to bridge it. The true 
definition of literature no doubt lies somewhere between 
them; and will be fixed on that auspicious day when 
it is found possible to determine the exact proportions 
in which Form and Matter enter into the constitution 
of literary merit. In the meantime we must content 
ourselves with admitting that form is certainly, if in an 
undefined degree, the more important of the two. It 
would be dangerous to admit any more than this in a 
day when so many minor poets are abroad; for a con- 
siderable number of these, while particularly careful of 
form, have reduced the value of their matter to a van- 
ishing point, and any encouragement to them to carry 
the process yet further is to be strongly deprecated. 
Still this much, as I have said, must be admitted: that 
it is primarily form rather than matter which consti- 
tutes literature." 

Among other papers presented at the Thurs- 
day session was that sent by Mr. Henry Ar- 
thur Jones, who took for his subject " The Fu- 
ture of the English Drama," and forecast it 
with an optimism quite excusable in the writer 
of so many serious and successful plays. While 
this session was in progress, the subject of " Lit- 
erature for Children " was under consideration 
in another hall of the building, and -papers 
were read by Mrs. D. Lothrop, Mrs. Elia W. 
Peattie, and Mr. Hezekiah Butterworth. In 
the afternoon, a programme of authors' read- 
ing for children was carried out in the pres- 
ence of a very large audience, composed mostly 
of young people. 

" Aspects of Modern Fiction " was the gen- 
eral subject of the Friday session of the Con- 
gress. Mr. George W. Cable was asked to 
preside, and the choice was no less happy than 
that of the chairmen for the three preceding 
sessions. Mr. Cable followed the example of 
his predecessors in the chair, and read the 
opening paper, his subject being : " The Uses 
and Methods of Fiction." We extract a pas- 
sage from the close of this paper : 

" We live in a day unparalleled by any earlier time 
in its love and jealousy for truth. In no field of search 
after truth have we been more successful than in sci- 
ence. Our triumphs here have kindled in us such en- 
ergy and earnest enthusiasm, we have been tempted, 
both readers and writers, to forget that facts are not 
the only vehicle of truth. In our almost daily trium- 
phant search, through the simple study of facts as they 
are, for the human race's betterment, we have learned to 
yield our imaginations too subserviently to the rule and 
discipline of the fact-hunters, and a depiction of desira, 
ble but as yet unrealized conditions across achasm os 
impracticability is often unduly and unwisely resented. 

" The world will do well to let its story-tellers be as 
at their best they have ever been, ambassadors of hope. 
The fealty they owe is not a scientific adherence and 
confinement to facts and their photographic display, 
however benevolently such an attitude may be inspired, 
save in so far as they may help them the more delight- 
fully to reveal the divine perfections of eternal truth 
and beauty. 

" Yet if it is true that there is no more law to com- 
pel the fictionist to teach truth than there is to require 
the scientist to be a poet, there are reasons why in more 
or less degree, and in the great majority of cases, he 
will choose to teach. One of these reasons lies on the 
surface. It is that in fictional literature, at least, Truth, 
duly subordinated to Beauty as the queen of the realm, 
is her greatest possible auxiliary and ally. No page 
of fiction ought ever to contain a truth without which 
the page would be more beautiful than with it. As 
certainly when truth ignores beauty as when beauty 
ignores truth, a discount falls upon the value of both in 
the economy of the universe. Yet on the other hand 
beauty in the story-teller's art, while it may as really, 
can never so largely and nobly, minister to the soul's 
delight without the inculcation of truth as with it. 

" Hence it is that fiction's peculiar ministry to the 
human soul is the prose depiction, through the lens of 
beauty, to the imagination and the emotions, of conflicts 
of human passions, wills, duties, and fates ; a depiction 
unaccompanied by any tax of intellectual labor, but con- 
sistent with all known truth, though without any nec- 
essary intervention of actual facts. Or, more briefly, it is 
the contemplation of the truths of human life as it ought 
to be, compared with the facts as they are. 

" If this is the fictionist's commission, is not his com- 
mission his passport also in the economist's world ? It 
would be easy to follow out the radiations of this func- 
tion and show their value by their simple enumeration. 
In the form of pure romance it fosters that spirit of 
adventure which seeks and finds new worlds and which 
cannot be lightly spoken of while we celebrate the dis- 
coveries of Columbus. In all its forms it helps to ex- 
ercise, expand, and refresh those powers of the imag- 
ination whose decay is the hectic fever and night-sweat of 
all search for truth and beauty; of science and inven- 
tion, art, enterprise, and true religion. Often it gives 
to the soul otherwise imprisoned by the cramped walls 
of the commonplace, spiritual experiences of life re- 
fined from some of their deadliest risks, and cuts win- 
dows in the walls of cramped and commonplace envir- 
onments. At its best it elevates our conceptions of the 
heroic and opens our eyes to the presence, actuality, and 
value of a world of romance that is, and ought to be, 
in our own lives and fates." 

Mrs. Mary Hartwell Catherwood followed Mr. 
Cable with a paper on " Form and Condensa- 


[July 16, 

tion in the Novel." We print a portion of 
Mrs. Catherwood's remarks, regretting that we 
have not space for them all. 

" Whoever attempts a novel is supposed to have a 
story to tell; and the manner of his telling it is almost 
as important as the story itself. It is always what- 
ever variations the theme may take the story of a 
man and a woman ; often a sad, often an absurd story ; 
but one which is as fresh with every generation as new 
grass with the spring. The dear little maid whom you 
now call the light of your house will soon reach her 
version of it. She tells you in confidence, and with a 
stammer on the long word, that she has a prejudice 
against boys, and you know what that prejudice in the 
course of a few years will do with the incipient men 
who are hanging May-baskets or doing sums for her. 

" It seems to me the best form for this story is the 
dramatic form. We want intensified life. 'It is the 
quality of the moment that imports,' says Emerson. Of 
what interest are our glacial periods, our slow transi- 
tions that change us we know not why ? Everyone can 
look back on many differing persons he has been in his 
time. And everyone is conscious of undeveloped iden- 
tities hampered yet within him. The sweetest and sin- 
cerest natures have repressions and concealments. It 
is the result of these things which makes the story of 
life. You may put a microscope over a man and fol- 
low his trail day by day; but unless he reaches some 
stress of loving, suffering, doing, you soon lose inter- 
est in him. I delight in Jane Austen for the qual- 
ity of her work. In the same way I enjoy the work of 
Mr. Howells. It is their dramatic grasp on the com- 
monplace which makes these realists great. 

" The most dramatic treatment cannot wholly present 
the beauty of one human soul, and the sternest analysis 
cannot reach all its convolutions of evil. Shakespeare 
knew his human soul. When we are very young we 
complain that he pictures us unfairly; but when we 
are older, we know. He took the great moments, that 
counted; and presented his men and women intensely 

" I have heard there are authors who do not rewrite 
and condense, who set down at the first stroke the 
word they want to use; the word which creates. But 
I never absolutely laid hands on one. The growth of 
a story is usually slow, like the growth of most plants. 
It is labor and delight, pain and pleasure, despair and 
hope. You cannot escape a pang. You must abso- 
lutely live it through ; and then try it by the test of 
ridicule of common standards, by the guage of human 
nature. I heard a judge say when he was a college 
student he kicked all the bark off a log in the campus, 
and wore out the backs of a new pair of trousers, try- 
ing to write a poem; and he made up his mind he was 
no poet. If the spirit of art had really been in him he 
would have recognized these agonies. It is not easy to 
speak the word except when it is easy ; when you 
have those moments of clear seeing and that condens- 
ing grasp of your material which sometimes pay for 
days of worthless labor." 

The remaining papers of the session were as 
follows: "The Short Story," by Miss Alice 
French; "The New Motive in Fiction," by 
Mrs. Anna B. McMahan; "Local Color in 
Fiction," by Mr. Hamlin Garland ; and " Ebb- 
Tide in Realism," by Mr. Joseph Kirkland. The 

Friday session of the Congress seemed to arouse 
a more general public interest than any of the 
others, and was distinguished from them by 
the fact that all the papers presented upon 
this occasion were read by their authors. 

Our account has thus far dealt almost ex- 
clusively with the special subject of the Con- 
gress of Authors. When we consider the fact 
that this Congress has been the first of the sort 
to be held by writers in the English language, 
and the other fact that there existed in this coun- 
try no definite association of literary workers 
to take charge of the arrangements, there is 
reason to congratulate the committees in charge 
upon the outcome of their enterprise. To the 
non-resident Committee of Cooperation, and 
particularly to its secretary, Professor George 
E. Woodberry, who labored long and strenu- 
ously for the success of the work, a special and 
hearty word of recognition is due. It is true 
that there have been many disappointments 
that some who should have taken part in the 
work declined the invitation to do so, and that 
others who had promised their help and their 
presence failed to come forward at the final 
moment, but, with allowance for all these 
mishaps, it must be admitted that the Congress 
achieved a distinct success, that its sessions 
were dignified and thought-provoking, that it 
attracted the serious attention of a considera- 
ble and influential public, and that it has paved 
the way for a better organization of author- 
ship, and a better understanding of literature 
both in its commercial and its artistic aspects. 
The proceedings of the Congress of Authors 
will have many echoes in the periodical litera- 
ture of the coming weeks ; and, if they shall be 
subsequently published, as is hoped, in perma- 
nent form, their effect will be felt far beyond 
the moment, and is likely to make itself appar- 
ent both in predicable and in unpredicable 

Of the four remaining Congresses of the 
week we have not, upon the present occasion, 
space to speak in detail. We must be content 
with saying that they brought to Chicago ex- 
ceptionally large gatherings of the four classes 
of specialists to whom appeal was made, in- 
cluding many European scholars of the first 
rank ; that their programmes covered a very 
wide range of original research ; and that, in 
spite of the tropical temperature of the week, 
and the counter attractions of the World's Fair, 
they were attended by audiences commensurate 
with the interest and importance of what the 
proceedings had to offer. 




Nefo Books. 


Mr. Pierce has brought to a successful con- 
clusion, in the third and fourth volumes of his 
" Memoir and Letters of Charles Sumner," 
the story of the life of an eminent statesman, 
whose career was singularly useful in promot- 
ing moral ideas in the realm of politics. If 
Charles Sumner failed to realize the full meas- 
ure of his ambition no one ever does it could 
not be said of him that he put his manhood in 
the balance upon the chance of winning the 
Presidency. Herein is a lesson for those who 
choose a public career with honorable aspira- 

The volumes before us cover the period from 
1845 to 1874 twenty-nine years of agitation 
and human activity of profound significance to 
mankind, during a portion of which it was un- 
certain whether civilization would be advanced 
or retarded. The year 1845 finds Sumner in 
the prime of manhood, fairly launched upon a 
professional career at the bar, which one can- 
not but believe, if no other claims had inter- 
vened, would have won high distinction. He 
was a favorite in society, the friend and asso- 
ciate of Longfellow, Hillard, and other liter- 
ary men at home, and a correspondent of men 
of distinction abroad. His broad culture and 
oratorical gifts made him a man of mark, con- 
cerning whom there was much prophetic spec- 
ulation. Conservatism, controling commerce, 
manufacturing, and finance, wooed him with 
assiduity. His abilities exerted to maintain 
the established order of things would have 
" strengthened the bulwarks of society," and he 
would have been rewarded with her richest 
gifts. The temptation was great, but conserv- 
atism failed. Charles Sumner elected to be 
an agitator for moral and political reform. 
When society became frigid, when the doors 
of the best houses were closed to him, he grieved 
and wondered much. Disfavor was mani- 
fested even before he became an Antislavery 
leader ; while he was advocating prison reform 
and promoting the aims of the Peace Society. 
Antislavery was only the last straw. The an- 
tagonism that resulted was bitter, unyielding, 
and far-reaching in its effects. At that day 
the refinement of Boston social life was most 

ward L. Pierce. Vols. III. and IV. Boston : Roberts Bros. 

attractive, and charmed all who came under its 

" Such a society was like that of ancient Athens more 
than any other modern city can show, intellectual, 
consolidated, despotic over individual thought, insisting 
on uniformity of belief in matters which were related 
to its interests, and frowning upon novelties which 
struck at its prestige." 

During the Mexican War controversy Sum- 
ner criticised the course of Mr. Winthrop in 
Congress, and further widened the breach that 
had already been made in the ranks of the 
Whig party in Massachusetts. We are told 
by Mr. Pierce that it cost him friendships 
which he valued dearly, and secluded him al- 
most entirely from general society. 

"It ended his visits at Nathan Appleton's. Tick- 
nor's door was closed to him; and when a guest at a 
party there inquired if Mr. Sumner was to be present, 
the host replied, ' He is outside of the pale of society.' 
The feeling became so pervasive in Boston's ' Belgra- 
via ' that a lady living on Beacon street, who had in- 
vited Sumner with other guests to dinner, received a 
withdrawal of an acceptance from one of them when he 
found Sumner was to be present, although he was not 
at all in politics, and had no personal grievance. Pres- 
cott, of gentler mood than his neighbors, though with 
no more sympathy than they in Sumner's themes, still 
welcomed him in his home on Beacon street and to his 
summer retreat ; but the tradition is that he was obliged 
to select his guests with care when Sumner was invited, 
lest the feast should be marred by unseemly behavior 
on their part. Longfellow and his wife, made of far 
finer mould than their kin or their class, were, in spite 
of their connection with Mr. Appleton, as devotedly at- 
tached to Sumner as ever, and kept a chamber at his 
service; but even they sometimes found it necessary to 
send him a warning from Cambridge that some one was 
with them whom it was not best for him to meet. 
Even his triumphant career his election to the Sen- 
ate and his fame as an orator did not soften this ani- 

It was undoubtedly this conservative influ- 
ence of the solid men of New England which 
changed Mr. Webster's political course, and 
prepared the way for the fatal seventh of 
March speech. Because of his uusoundness 
on the tariff and tendency toward Antislavery 
views, the class represented by Lawrence and 
the Appletons had preferred Clay for Presi- 
dent, much to his mortification. He strove to 
placate it, and succeeded so far that in 1848 
they advocated his nomination. It is claimed 
that their support was only nominal, their real 
choice being General Taylor, but it is certain 
that their influence over him was heightened 
rather than lessened. Webster's opposition to 
the annexation of Texas led many of the Con- 
science Whigs to look to him as a candidate, 
but Sumner distrusted him and opposed his 
selection. He preferred Corwin, whose happy 



[July 16, 

fortune it had been to speak the truth with 
fearlessness in the presence of a triumphant 
opposition one of a half-dozen great speeches 
illustrating the best of American oratory. Look- 
ing back upon the past, one cannot but regret 
that closer relations were not established be- 
tween the brilliant Ohioan and the Massachu- 
setts reformer, as the zeal of the latter would 
have stimulated the former to his best work, 
benefitted society, and changed the story of a 

The campaign of 1848 is one of the most cu- 
rious and instructive in American political his- 
tory. That the incongruous elements Free 
Soil Democrats, Conscience Whigs, and New 
York spoilsmen known as Barnburners led by 
B. F. Butler and Samuel J. Tilden which 
went to make up the Buffalo convention could 
fraternize, even for a day, was remarkable. 
We are told that 

" Both the nominating body and the mass-meeting 
were animated by a profound earnestness. A religious 
fervor pervaded the resolutions and addresses. The 
speakers asserted fundamental rights and universal ob- 
ligations, and iu their appeals and asseverations sought 
the sanctions of the Christian faith." 

But for once the reformers displayed common 
sense, and used the personal prestige of the 
wily old partisan of Kinderhook and his ma- 
chine to promote their cause. What if Mar- 
tin Van Buren had their help in revenging him- 
self upon Cass, and what if 1852 found But- 
ler and Tilden and John Van Buren and others 
of his followers turning their backs on those 
noble protests for freedom " which made 1848 
an illustrious year in American annals " and 
supporting Franklin Pierce for President,* 
opposition to slavery had made substantial 
gains and prepared the way for the struggle 
that followed the passage of the Compromise 
Measures, what was really the death-grapple 
with the Oligarchy. 

We now see coming into greater prominence 
Sumner, Horace Mann, Charles F. Adams, 
Henry Wilson, and R. H. Dana, Jr., who 
placed Massachusetts in the van of the Anti- 
slavery movement, despite the opposition of the 
powerful merchants of Boston and Webster. 
As the glory of the latter departed, the hero of 
the new crusade, also a great orator, was 
hailed with popular acclaim thus repeating 
the experience of every generation. 

* Tilden and other Barnburners, when secession was threat- 
ened, addressed the South in resolutions recognizing the right 
of slaveholders to carry their slaves into the territories and 
the justness of their grievances, which further heightens the 
insincerity of the Van Buren men in 1848. 

Sumner's career in the Senate is fresh in 
the recollection of our readers. His culture, 
industry, singleness of purpose, and perfect in- 
tegrity made him a true representative of the 
new North. When he spoke it was with a 
moral force surpassing that of all others. The 
world listened with respect. The opposition, 
enraged, struck back with brute force, to the 
injury of its own cause. 

During the administration of Mr. Lincoln, 
Sumner was an authority on all questions af- 
fecting our foreign relations ; but his devotion 
to Antislavery convictions often proved an em- 
barrassment. In common with others he mis- 
judged the President, underrated his capacity 
for leadership in such a crisis, and at times 
became impatient and censorious. He did not, 
however, as did Henry Winter Davis, Wade, 
and Chase, actively oppose Lincoln's renom- 
ination, or seek to force him to withdraw in 
the midst of the campaign of 1864, as did 
others. He said : 

" If Mr. Lincoln does not withdraw, then all who 
now disincline to him must come into his support. I 
have declined to sign any paper or take any part in any 
action, because I was satisfied that nothing could be 
done except through Mr. Lincoln and with his good-will. 
To him the appeal must be made, and on him must be 
the final responsibility." 

This was early in September. In a letter to 
Mr. Cobden, September 18, he expressed him- 
self more at length on this theme : 

" The hesitation in the support of Mr. Lincoln dis- 
appears at the promulgation of the Chicago treason. 
There was a meeting in New York of persons from dif- 
ferent parts of the country to bring about a new con- 
vention to nominate a Union candidate. The ' Tribune,' 
' Evening Post,' ' Independent,' and Cincinnati < Gazette' 
were all represented in it; but as soon as they read the 
platform, they ranged in support of Mr. Lincoln. . . . 
You understand that there is a strong feeling among those 
who have seen Mr. Lincoln, in the way of business, that 
he lacks practical talent for his important place. It is 
thought that there should be more readiness, and also 
more capacity for government. 

"... Chase for a long time hesitated in the support 
of Mr. Lincoln; he did not think him competent. But 
he finds that he has no alternative; as a patriot, he 
must oppose Chicago. The President made a great 
mistake in compelling him to resign. It was very much 
as when Louis XVI. threw overboard Necker, and by 
the way, I have often observed that Mr. Lincoln resem- 
bles Louis XVI. more than any other ruler in history. 
I once said to Chase that I should not be astonished if, 
like Necker, he was recalled, to which he replied, 'That 
might be if Mr. Lincoln were king and not politician.' 
Thus far the President has made no overture to him 
of any kind, although he has received him kindly." 

But Mr. Chase did make overtures through 
Governor Brough, seeking a restoration, the 
relation of the particulars of which (if this 




were the proper place) would prove our Pres- 
ident very unlike Louis XVI. He was in pos- 
session of evidence that the effort to create the 
opinion that he lacked capacity for government, 
and that he had lost public confidence, had 
been persistently made by some of the inti- 
mate friends of Mr. Chase notably Senator 
Pomeroy for months, and that the Cleveland 
Convention was a part of the plan to promote 
the ambition of that statesman. The head- 
quarters of the faction on Vine street, Cincin- 
nati, were not closed until it became apparent 
that the scheme to force Mr. Lincoln to with- 
draw would fail. 

Our author fails to see the motive behind 
this opposition to Lincoln, or the peril to the 
Union cause in the midst of the campaign 
through the factious course of party leaders, 
an opposition that was kept up to within eight 
weeks of the election. He has fallen into error 
as to the attitude of the Cincinnati " Gazette " 
and of the part taken by its able directing head 
at that time. The " Gazette " was not in sym- 
pathy with Mr. Chase's views, and did not 
further his ambition. It did not indulge in 
captious criticisms of the President, but gave 
him loyal support. Its representative at the 
New York conference was undoubtedly there 
in the interest of harmony. It is true that 
its distinguished Washington correspondent, 
Mr. Whitelaw Reid, was on terms of intimacy 
with Mr. Chase, sympathized with the view of 
the situation taken by that statesman, Gov- 
ernor Andrew and other earnest men, and par- 
ticipated in the movement having for its ob- 
ject the retirement of Mr. Lincoln. But Mr. 
Richard Smith, the editor, was not " active in 
the movement," as our author says. There is 
a letter of his in the possession of a friend, 
written to a gentleman on intimate terms with 
Mr. Lincoln, frankly telling him that in a tour 
he had made through northern Ohio and Mich- 
igan in August he found a condition of apathy 
which threatened the defeat of the Union ticket. 
He expressed the same views to the writer, 
who at that time was conducting the canvas 
for the Union party in Ohio, and who assured 
him that the people were sound. This was the 
measure of Mr. Smith's opposition. The ma- 
jority for the State ticket in October was over 
56,000, and for Mr. Lincoln, a month later, 
over 64,000. 

The Union successes only served to engross 
Mr. Sumner's time more and more in behalf 
of the negro race. He would not only emanci- 
pate them, but confer upon them without prep- 

aration all of the rights and responsibilities 
of citizenship. In this regard he sharply an- 
tagonized the President and a majority of his 
party. Mr. Lincoln had much at heart the 
reconstruction of Louisiana, with white suf- 
frage. He held that the radicals were attempt- 
ing " to change this government from its orig- 
inal form and make it a strong centralized 
power." He is quoted by Mr. Welles as hav-. 
ing said on the last day of his life, "These 
humanitarians break down all State rights and 
Constitutional rights. Had the Louisianians 
inserted the negro in their Constitution, and 
had that instrument been in all other respects 
the same, Mr. Sumner would never have ex- 
cepted to that Constitution." The effort to 
carry out Mr. Lincoln's views led to an acri- 
monious debate in the Senate, in which Sum- 
ner appears to less advantage than on other 
occasions. To him belonged the responsibility 
of defeating the wishes of the President in the 
recognition of the State government of Louis- 
iana. " Sumner's behavior," said his friend 
Samuel Bowles, " in preventing a vote on the 
Louisiana question was perfectly unjustifiable. 
I shall henceforth be intolerant of him, always. 
It was undignified, disgraceful."* A breach 
between the President and the Senator was 
predicted, but the former, by marked atten- 
tions to Sumner, gave public notice that he was 
not going to quarrel. 

Far different was his experience when Grant 
was President. The Motley and San Domingo 
episodes, and his deposition from the chairman- 
ship of the Committee on Foreign Relations, 
made a breach which could never be healed, 
and loosened the ties that bound him to his 
party. A satisfactory explanation of this treat- 
ment of a distinguished senator for independ- 
ence of action on a public question has never 
been made. 

Mr. Sumner's plan of reconstruction came 
to be, after a struggle, the policy of his party. 
Theoretically it armed the emancipated negro 
withapower that should prove invincible against 
his former master, the power of the ballot, 
and it charged the general government with 
the responsibility of the execution of the law. 
To the party that adopted it, it has proved a 
veritable Pandora's box ; to the whole country- 
injurious, as it has perpetuated sectional di- 
visions, intensified race prejudices, and lessened 
respect for law. Wherein has the negro been 
benefited ? What is his part in government as 
an elector ? Clearly, his future yet lies before 
The Life and Times of Samuel Bowles, Vol. I., p. 419. 



[July 16, 

him. Through education the education that 
trains the hand as well as the head, that gives 
stability to character his real emancipation 
must come. 

It only remains to thank the author and pub- 
lisher for this valuable contribution to Ameri- 
can political history. 



Obviously, the late learned Professor of 
Church History in the University of Kiel used, 
as the basis of his work now appearing for the 
benefit of English readers in an octavo volume 
entitled " History of the Christian Church, A. D. 
1-600," the notes for his accustomed lectures. 
The original skeleton with which his lectures 
began can be readily differentiated from notes 
added from year to year as the same lectures 
have been delivered to successive classes of 
students at Kiel. How thorough and how en- 
tertaining the lectures must have been, the 
book shows. One can imagine how each of 
the parenthetical references, interspersed in 
great profusion throughout the volumes, has 
been made to remind the lecturer of an illus- 
trative incident that has lost none of its effect- 
iveness in the telling. Lecture notes, how- 
ever, require much emendation and rearrange- 
ment as well as expansion to render them read- 
able in a printed volume, and to give English 
readers the benefit of his profound knowledge, 
the learned author of Kiel needed, quite as 
much as a translator, a careful editor, who 
could separate from the text the explanatory 
parentheses and citations of authorities and 
relegate them to their proper place as foot- 
notes or appendices. As it is, we have upon 
each page a confused mass of text, explana- 
tory notes, and references to authorities, in- 
terspersed with parentheses in some cases of 

the late Dr. Wilhelm Moeller, Professor Ordinarius of Church- 
History in the University of Kiel. Translated from the Ger- 
man by Andrew Rutherford, B.D. New York : Macmillan 

By W. M. Ramsay, M.A., Professor of Humanity in the 
University of Aberdeen; formerly Professor of Classical 
Archaeology, and Fellow of Exeter College, Oxford. With 
maps and illustrations. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

Fletcher Hurst, D.D., LL.D. With maps. New York : 
Harper & Bros. 

THE ANGLICAN CHURCH ; or, The Introduction and Con- 
tinuity of the Christian Faith in the British Isles. By the 
Rev. Robert Henry Cole, B.D. New York : James Pott <fc Co. 

such length as to cause the reader to lose the 
thread of the narrative, the whole making 
the reading exceedingly laborious. The va- 
riety of types used in printing the book, 
Roman capitals and lower case, italics, and 
full-faced letters, tends to still greater con- 
fusion. It is evident that the full-faced letters 
are resorted to for emphasis. The reason for 
setting up the text in small pica with para- 
graphs here and there in bourgeois is not so 
evident. The book does not justify its appear- 
ance at this time either by adding newly dis- 
covered facts in history to those known to stu- 
dents in theology, or by presenting the old mat- 
ter in any new light. The author's deductions 
are those likely to be most acceptable to ultra- 
Protestant Germany. As a text-book, the 
work will probably be useful, its chief value 
consisting in its exhaustive bibliography. Cer- 
tainly its style is not calculated to popularize 
the study of Church History, or (to borrow a 
phrase from the author's preface) " to animate 
delight in that study." The present volume 
was intended to be the first of fehree to take up 
that number of great epochs of Church History. 
Whether or not the author's death (since 
Easter, 1891, the date of his preface) has in- 
terrupted the preparation of the subsequent 
volumes does not appear. 

A book-buyer might be led by the title of Pro- 
fessor Ramsay's recent book " The Church 
in the Roman Empire before A. D. 170 " and 
by its general appearance (it is an octavo of 
480 pages with an index) to expect a narrative 
history of a certain phase of the early church 
promising much of deep interest in its devel- 
opment. Such a one would probably be sur- 
prised, without being disappointed, upon find- 
ing in the volume an exemplification of " the 
method of applying archaeological, topograph- 
ical, and numismatic evidence to the investiga- 
tion of early Christian History." The volume 
bears as a somewhat misleading sub-title, 
" Mansfield College Lectures." The six lec- 
tures delivered at Mansfield College, Oxford, 
in 1892, form, indeed, the basis of the book, but 
these lectures (themselves almost entirely re- 
written) include a chapter expanded from a lec- 
ture delivered at Cambridge in 1889, and are 
preceded by a long excursus (divided into eight 
chapters) upon " St. Paul in Asia Minor." 
Therein the author supplements and corrects 
Conybeare and Howson and Dean Farrar in 
their biographies of St. Paul, from a topograph- 
ical study of Asia Minor, and he even corrects 
his own previously published " Historical Geog- 




raphy." He shows a like frankness in the man- 
ner in which he celebrates, in his preface, his 
breaking away from the German critics whom he 
followed for years with much interest and zeal, 
and whose results he accepted. In recent years, 
and with a better understanding of Roman his- 
tory, he has realized that it is a gross outrage on 
criticism to hold most of the books of the New 
Testament for second-century forgeries. Much 
of the work before us is directed towards this 

Dr. Hurst's volume, " Short History of the 
Christian Church," would take up nearly the 
same amount of shelf-room as Dr. Moeller's, 
but it contains about a hundred pages more of 
text, besides statistical appendices and indices. 
Its typographical arrangement, however, is not 
so compact as that of the former volume, and 
if pains were taken to estimate the exact amount 
of verbal matter in each, it would probably be 
found that there was little difference. As- 
suming this result, it is interesting to note that 
Dr. Hurst attempts to give a comprehensive 
view of nineteen centuries of Christian history 
in a space equal to that which Dr. Moeller re- 
quires for setting forth six centuries. To the 
early Church, Dr. Hurst assigns a century and 
a half more than Dr. Moeller, and devotes 102 
pages. His avowed purpose is to popularize 
the study of religious history. The qualifying 
part of the title to his work, in such a case, is 
made important. The author frankly tells us 
how he has prepared this volume. Its five di- 
visions are a careful re-arrangement and re- 
writing of five short histories by which he is 
already known to a certain class of readers. 
In the re-arrangement and re-writing, it seems 
to have escaped the author's attention that the 
rather confused view of a very disorganized 
Christianity presented in the latter part of his 
volume is wholly inconsistent with the defini- 
tion of the visible Church with which he sets 
out. " The visible Church," says he, " con- 
sists of the organized believers in Christ and 
the followers of his life." We should be jus- 
tified in expecting a " short history " of the 
Christian Church to keep this definition in 
view, so that the Church might be clearly iden- 
tified in every period of its history. Certain 
phrases used by the author, e. g., " the Evan- 
gelical Protestant Church," "Evangelical Chris- 
tianity," and " the aggressive sisterhood of Pro- 
testant Churches," imply a reaching out after 
a term which shall be comprehensive of 
something, and yet non-committal as to the 
theories of the visible Church held by Latin or 

Anglican theologians ; though he repeatedly 
makes the blunder, common among ultra-Pro- 
testant writers, of calling the Church of Rome, 
its adherents, and its principles, " Catholic," 
a sweeping concession of every claim the Church 
of Rome makes. The author would have avoided 
many difficulties in the way of writing a short 
history of the Church from his standpoint, had 
he entitled his work a " Short History of Chris- 
tianity." The chapters in the fifth division of 
his volume, devoted to a score or more of fan- 
tastic sects in no sense connected with the 
Church as he defines it, would not then appear 
so incongruous. 

An accurate terminology, however, does not 
seem to be a strong point with this distinguished 
writer. The words " sect " and " schism " are 
used as though convertible terms. " Theo- 
tokos " is defined as " God-born " on page 52, 
and as " Mother of God " on page 386. The 
term " Roman Catholic " is used under circum- 
stances which render it utterly meaningless. 
We are seriously told that, at a certain period 
of his life, Luther was " a firm and full believer 
in the one Roman Catholic Church." Again (p. 
247) " Henry's [VIII.] real purpose was a Na- 
tional Roman Catholic Church with himself at 
the head "; and (p. 262) mention is made of 
the desire of the French " for a National Ro- 
man Catholic Church." How such combina- 
tions of antagonistic Church polities could pos- 
sibly have been accomplished, even in the mind 
of a theorist, it would be interesting to know. 
Furthermore, omitting all reference to the ori- 
gin of the term " Protestant " (a serious omis- 
sion even in a short history of the Reforma- 
tion), and failing to define the same, it is 
applied long before the occasion for its use 
arose, and indiscriminately afterwards, even 
to a class of modern religionists of the Baltic 
Provinces who have been deprived of privi- 
leges which the Czar of Russia seems to have 
it in his power to restore. This confusion of 
terms appears to result from confused ideas on 
certain essential historical points. Be that as 
it may, it is sure to lead to confused ideas in 
those who would derive their historical inform- 
ation from this book. 

If " the Church of the Past " is to be made 
" a wise instructor for the Church of the Fu- 
ture," it is not only necessary that the events 
of history be accurately known by those who 
have the "true historical instinct," but also 
that they be accurately related. Granted that 
Dr. Hurst is not deficient in his knowledge of 
events, it is unfortunate that we should find 



[July 16, 

him " nodding " so frequently when he comes 
to relate these events. We are surprised that 
some of the errors (of which we may cite the 
following as an example) should have evaded 
detection. It was not to escape the general 
persecution under Herod Agrippa, A. D. 44, 
that " the Christians took refuge in Pella, be- 
yond the Jordan " (p. 17), but in immediate 
anticipation of the destruction of Jerusalem 
by the armies of Titus, A. D. 70. That im- 
portant event is altogether erroneously nar- 
rated in the sentences immediately following 
the statement we have just corrected : 

" Bar-cochba led a final popular Jewish revolt against 
the Roman authority, A. D. 132, but was defeated by 
Julius Sever us, and Jerusalem became a heap of ruins. 
The Roman emperor Hadrian tried to destroy the at- 
tachment of the Christians to the sacred associations of 
the city by erecting on Calvary a temple to Venus, and, 
over the Holy Sepulchre, a statue to Jupiter. But his ef- 
forts, while pleasing to the Jews, had no material effect." 

It is scarcely necessary to give a correct ac- 
count of these events, so well known is it to 
readers of history. It was the insult offered 
by Hadrian to the religion of the Jews, in set- 
tling a Roman colony on the site of the Holy 
City which had been destroyed sixty-two years 
previously, that incited the revolt of Bar- 
cochba. Hadrian's establishment of the city 
of ^Elia Capitolina on the foundations of Jer- 
usalem, and a temple of Jupiter on Mount Zion, 
were very far from pleasing to the Jews, and 
to the Roman city the Christians, who had been 
expelled by Titus, were freely admitted with 
the first of their Gentile Bishops. 

The utility of the work is seriously marred 
by omissions, of which a long list might be 
given. The organized existence of the Church 
of England in the fourth century, independent 
of the See of Rome, having been frankly ad- 
mitted, the means by which Rome gained the 
supremacy, the continued protests of the Church 
of England against the same, and the part 
taken by that Church in the Reformation, are 
entitled to some attention. A paragraph is cer- 
tainly inadequate treatment of the Council of 
Trent, even in a short history, and the omis- 
sion of all mention of the Creed of Pius IV., 
and the consequent failure to define modern 
Romanism, are scarcely excusable. In rela- 
tion to the Vatican Council of 1869 (which the 
author incautiously concedes to have been oacu- 
menical), a magnificent opportunity for a clear 
statement of the decree of Infallibility is ig- 
nored. Such a statement would have con- 
veyed information on a subject often referred 
to but popularly little known. 

The suggestion of so many omissions might 
be taken to imply that the work should have 
been extended at the cost of its qualified title. 
On the contrary, however, the book would have 
been greatly improved by a regard for the 
rules of proportion, and the consequent omis- 
sion of much of its present contents. The ref- 
erences to hymnody are so filled with errors and 
are so inadequate, and a half-dozen or so chap- 
ters upon Missions, Religious Literature, and 
cognate subjects are so partial, that the space 
they occupy might have been used to better 
advantage in the treatment of more important 
historical subjects. The author's prefatory 
misgivings regarding his treatment of the vari- 
ous American denominations are well founded, 
and suggest that the considerable portion of 
Part V., devoted to not very satisfactory 
sketches of about thirty different denomina- 
tions, might have been profitably replaced by 
a comprehensive view of Christianity in Amer- 
ica. A general re-arrangement of the chap- 
ters would have been of great advantage. The 
present derangement (of which let this serve 
as a sample : In Part II., Arnold of Brescia is 
treated of in Chapter XVI., Abelard, who was 
his teacher, is treated of in Chapter XXVIII.) 
is calculated to mislead readers as to the chron- 
ological order of the events narrated. 

If we have been somewhat explicit in point- 
ing out the shortcomings of this work, it is be- 
cause we agree with the author, " that the pop- 
ular taste for the condensed treatment of the 
secular sciences can be safely applied to the 
domain of Theological Science, and to no de- 
partment with greater hope of success than to 
Historical Theology." We regret, however, 
that this book falls far short of. serving that 
popular taste as it should, and fails of being 
of educational value to the constantly increas- 
ing number of students of Church History. 

Mr. Cole's contribution to ecclesiastico-his- 
torical literature, " The Anglican Church," is 
a monograph with a definite aim in view, 
thereby giving it a decided advantage over the 
much more pretentious works above reviewed. 
It is a modest duodecimo of 110 pages, con- 
taining a catena of proofs of the facts implied 
in the title, viz. that the Christian Faith was 
early introduced into the British Isles and has 
been continuously maintained therein. Its ar- 
gument is for the identity of the present Church 
of England with the organized Church which 
Dr. Hurst admits was represented at the Coun- 
cil of Aries. It is an argument against both 
Romanists and Protestants, who, in the face of 




such historic facts as Magna Charta, refer the 
origin of the English Church to the time of 
Henry VIII. The book has all the elements 
of popularity save one. Its arguments are too 
convincing to meet with favor from those whose 
minds are made up against the claims of the 
Church of England to Catholicity limited only 
by nationality. ARTHUR HOWARD NOLL. 


The second and third volumes of the " Great 
Commanders " series give sympathetic and in- 
spiring biographies of General Zachary Taylor 
and General Andrew Jackson. As the name 
implies, this series has a different purpose from 
that of the " American Statesmen Series," even 
when, as in the case of Jackson, a biography 
of the same man appears in each series. This 
difference in purpose sufficiently appears from 
examination of the two lives of Jackson, when 
it is found that Professor Sumner, who wrote 
the volume in the " Statesmen " series, has de- 
voted only 72 pages out of 386 to the events 
in the General's life previous to 1824, when he 
first ran for President, while Mr. Parton, in 
the volume in the " Great Commanders " se- 
ries, gives 272 pages out of 326 to the same 
period. The life of General Taylor follows a 
similar plan, and it will be readily seen that this 
difference in purpose makes the later series one 
which appeals strongly to boys and young men. 

Andrew Jackson, the intolerant and vol- 
canic, but intensely patriotic, honest, and in- 
domitable man, is made to live again in Mr. 
Parton's pages. From the days of '76, when 
as a boy prisoner he was struck to the ground 
with a sword by a British officer for refusing 
to black his captor's boots, through stormy 
years of service as public prosecutor in the un- 
tamed days of early Tennessee, day by day 
amidst the difficulties of conducting a success- 
ful campaign, with the aid of a half-starved 
and mutinous army, against the Indians of 
Alabama, in perpetual warfare with weakness 
and pain in his own body, through the awful 
carnage of New Orleans, and finally upon the 
no less stormy if less bloody political field of 
Calhoun and Webster's day, Andrew Jackson 

* GENERAL JACKSON. By James Parton. With portrait. 
" The Great Commanders." New York : D. Appleton & Co. 

GENERAL TAYLOR. By Oliver Otis Howard. With por- 
traits and maps. " The Great Commanders." New York : 
D. Appleton & Co. 

the man stands forth as the only adequate ex- 
planation of Andrew Jackson the general and 
statesman. His faults are not covered up or 
explained away, and a boy must see them as 
faults ; but the essential greatness and manli- 
ness of his character and achievements are so 
clearly shown that, in spite of faults, he must 
be a rare American youth who can read these 
pages without feeling a healthful stimulus to 
his own manliness and patriotism. 

In 1812, a year before General Jackson 
took terrible revenge upon the Creeks for the 
massacre of Fort Minis, Captain Zachary Tay- 
lor, then a young man of twenty-eight years, 
serving under General William Henry Harri- 
son, made such a gallant defense of Fort Har- 
rison against a superior force of Indians led 
by the Prophet, Tecumseh's brother, that his 
superior in his despatches to Washington 
warmly praised him. From that time on, and 
indeed for some time previously, in Indiana, 
Ohio, Illinois, Wisconsin, Iowa, Florida (where 
Jackson had once been a campaigner and Gov- 
ernor), in Texas at Palo Alto and Resaca de 
la Palma, beyond the Rio Grande at Mata- 
moras, and finally at Monterey and Buena 
Vista, another American commander was slowly 
fitting himself for greater deeds and heavier 
responsibilities by quietly " doing his duty." 
The evolution of the sturdy old soldier and pa- 
triotic American is lovingly traced by Major- 
General O. O. Howard. Here, as in the life 
of Jackson, the man himself is introduced to 
us and we share his tent. The contrast be- 
tween the two men is striking. One is impet- 
uous, intolerant, radical, the other is poised, 
generous, and conservative. And yet, when 
need was, the aggressive boldness and uncon- 
querable will of "Old Rough and Ready" 
were not surpassed even by the " Hero of New 

The civic life of Taylor is briefly but ade- 
quately told. Special prominence is given to 
his attitude toward the slavery agitation of that 
day. We are told that when, in 1850, the 
President was approached by Southern leaders 
to get him to join in their plan to, set up a 
southern confederacy with him as President, 
Taylor replied with true Jacksonian vigor and 
effectiveness that he would put down such an 
attempt " with Southern volunteers." In Gen- 
eral Howard's opinion, this answer postponed 
the " irrepressible conflict " ten years and made 
the ultimate success of the Union cause possible. 

A good map of the battlefield of New Or- 
leans is given in the life of Jackson, and ex- 



[July 16, 

cellent maps of the Texas and Mexican battles 
are found in the other volume ; but a few good 
general maps, covering the whole field of mil- 
itary movements described, would add to the 
reader's interest and profit. The volumes are 
well indexed. HENRY W. THURSTON. 


It seems odd to begin an article upon " Recent 
Books of Poetry" with a paragraph devoted to 
" Poems by Two Brothers." That modest collec- 
tion of youthful exercises in verse, now reproduced 
(as to title-page and arrangement) in fac-simile, is 
mainly useful in enabling us to realize the immense 
range of the conquests of Victorian Poetry. The 
year of its publication (1827 ) was also that of the 
appearance of Pollok's " Course of Time," mark- 
ing the lowest ebb of the tide of dull eighteenth- 
century didacticism. Meanwhile, the romantic move- 
ment had swelled to its height, and its force was 
fast becoming spent. But who could have dis- 
cerned, in the volume almost furtively put forth by 
three English schoolboys (for Mr. Frederick Ten- 
nyson wrote at least four of the poems), the first 
wave of a new tide of song, about to gather to itself 
the best impulses of both the didactic and romantic 
spirits, to unite them in one resistless surge, and 
destined to sweep down the century almost to its 
very close. Even now, when judgment can hardly 

* POEMS BY Two BROTHERS. New York : Macmillan 

KING POPPY. By the Earl of Lytton. New York : Long- 
mans, Green, & Co. 

THE ELOPING ANGELS : A Caprice. By William Watson. 
New York : Macmillan & Co. 

OLD JOHN, and Other Poems. By T. E. Brown. New 
York : Macmillan & Co. 

EL NUEVO MUNDO : A Poem. By Louis James Block. 
Chicago : C. H. Kerr & Co. 

SONGS OF DOUBT AND DREAM. By Edgar Fawcett. New 
York: Funk & Wagnalls Co. 

RED LEAVES AND ROSES. By Madison Cawein. New 
York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

UNDER THE SCARLET AND BLACK : Poems by Undergrad- 
uates of Iowa College. Edited by Henry S. McCowan and 
Frank F. Everest. Grinnell : Herald Publishing Co. 

CAP AND GOWN : Some College Verse. Chosen by Joseph 
La Roy Harrison. Boston : Joseph Knight Co. 

dolph & Co. 

SEAWARD : An Elegy on the Death of Thomas William 
Parsons. By Richard Hovey. Boston : D. Lothrop Co. 

tors. Edited by William Hyde Appleton. Boston: Hough- 
ton, Mifflin & Co. 

HORATIAN ECHOES : Translations of the Odes of Horace. 
By John Osborne Sargent. Boston : Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

THE ^ENEID OF VERGIL, BOOKS I. VI. Translated into 
English Verse by James Rhoades. New York : Longmans, 
Green, & Co. 

Edited by James Dykes Campbell. New York : Macmillan 

avoid the influence of the accomplished fact, it is 
difficult to find in this volume any suggestion, much 
less any promise, of what was to come. Here and 
there we find a faintly Tennysonian phrase, such as 

" Groves of undulating pine, 
Upon whose heads the hoary vapours hung," 

or this : The tnun( j er of the Drazen prows 

O'er Actium's ocean rang," 
or this : 

" A wan, dull, lengthen'd sheet of swimming light 
Lies the broad lake." 

But what we find for the most part are the plati- 
tudes of boyish rhetoric, and echoes of Byron or 
Moore. It is amusing to think that any work signed 
by Alfred Tennyson should deserve no better de- 
scription than is given by the phrase, " an echo of 
Moore." Four pieces not included in the original 
edition are now first published from manuscript. 
They enrich English literature by such measures as 

41 Fare thee well ! for I am parting 
To the realms of endless bliss ; 
Why is thus thy full tear starting ? 
There's a world more bright than this." 

" Timbuctoo," the prize poem of 1829, which the 
publishers have also added to the collection, is a dif- 
ferent matter. Here we can find our own Tennyson 
in many passages. The following has often been 
quoted, but is worth quoting again : 

" The clear galaxy 
Shorn of its hoary lustre, wonderful, 
Distinct and vivid with sharp points of light, 
Blaze within blaze, an unimagin'd depth 
And harmony of planet-girded suns 
And moon-encircled planets, wheel in wheel, 
Arch'd the wan sapphire." 

Indeed, the growth in power of poetic expression 
that is evidenced by these and many other lines of 
" Timbuctoo," when compared with the best of the 
" Poems by Two Brothers," is one of the most 
striking things in all the record of the development 
of poetical genius. 

" King Poppy," a posthumous poem by the Earl 
of Lytton, was written nearly twenty years ago, and 
subjected, during the rest of the author's lifetime, 
to constant revision and improvement. It was the 
author's favorite work, and exhibits, at their highest 
stage of development, his considerable powers as a 
writer of philosophic and fanciful verse. In 1880, 
he wrote of the poem to this effect : 

" The purpose of it, so far as it has any definite purpose, is 
not to prove that all is vanity, but to suggest what a poor 
tissue of unreality human life would be if the much despised 
influence of the imagination were banished from it. I think 
that the practical tendency of all the most popular formulas 
of social and political improvement is to exclude the imagin- 
ative element from the development of character and society, 
and to ignore its influence. . . . Holding this view, it was a 
relief to me to write ' King Poppy,' and a sort of whimsical 
enjoyment to contemplate my own image of the perfection of 
government conducted by a puppet. Apart from this, the 
more purely literary idea I had in this poem was to shape out 
vaguely a sort of Golden Legend from the most venerable and 
familiar features or fragments of the fairy tales and ballads 
which float about the world, and which our wise generation 
relegates to the nursery." 




We select the following lines from the introductory 
" Legend," as well representing the charm of the 
work in its more poetical passages : 

" There is a legend, the low-breathing wind 
In Spring-time whispers to the trees and flowers, 
That some good gift on every flower and tree 
A guardian god or goddess once bestow'd. 
Pan made the reed melodious : Artemis 
With mystic influence fill'd the moon-fern : Zeus 
The cypress, Cybele the pine, endow'd 
With solemn grace : blithe Dionysus pour'd 
The strength of his indomitable mirth 
Into the sweet orbs of the cluster'd vine : 
Ethereal azure from Athene's eyes 
The dim veins of the violet imbued 
With pensive beauty : Cythereia's kiss 
Crimson'd the balmy bosom of the rose : 
Leaf of unfading lustre Phoabus gave 
To the green laurel : washt in Herd's milk, 
White shone the immaculate lily : and the ripe corn 
Demeter robed in oriental gold." 

" The Eloping Angels " is entirely unworthy of 
Mr. Watson's talents. That the author of " Words- 
worth's Grave " should have wasted his time in the 
composition of a skit like this is simply amazing, 
and that he should have heen willing to give it pub- 
lication is still more amazing. The piece is evi- 
dently intended to he semi-humorous, but the hu- 
mor is elephantine, and the author's wit nearly 
always misses fire. Humor that does not warm and 
wit that does not illuminate, are things " most tol- 
erable and not to be endured." The best comment 
upon the work is provided by its own text: 

" This sort of prank, to me, is rather tame." 
Mr. Watson's good work is so very good that it is 
doubly a pity that he should publish anything so 
far below the level of his better self. 

Mr. T. E. Brown, the author of "Old John and 
Other Poems," is at least no imitator of other 
men's work. His manner, freakish to eccentricity, 
is all his own, although a superficial view might 
find it to resemble the manner of Browning. Much 
of his verse is too utterly formless to deserve seri- 
ous consideration, and yet there often emerges from 
the seeming chaos some ethical message that is 
startling in its directness and its force. We also 
note in his work a vein of mysticism that is not 
without impressiveness. As an illustration of the 
author's more eccentric manner, we may take some 
very original verses from a poem which preaches 
upon a frequently recurring theme that of the 
need of man's soul to get back to nature, to escape 
from the coil of a complex civilization and the 
sophistications of art. 

" The main purport of our earthly station, 
Which is to permeate 
One soul with fullest freight 
Of constant natural forms, not factual complication. 

" Else were our life both frivolous and final. 

A mere skiomachy, 
Not succulent of growth, not officinal 

To what shall after be, 

But Fortune's devilry 
Of Harlequin with smirk theatro-columbinal." 

" Israel and Hellas " is the title of one of the finer 

poems in the collection. It contrasts the two civ- 
ilizations much as Matthew Arnold was wont to do, 
although our later poet half doubts if the contrast 
were as great as it appears to us. We quote four 
stanzas that embody the central thought of the poem. 

" And was it possible for them to hold 

A creed elastic in that lightsome air, 
And let sweet fables droop in flexile fold 

From off their shoulders bare, 
Loose-fitting, jewel-clasped with fancies rare ? 

" For not as yet intense across the sea 

Came the swart Hebrew with a fiery haste ; 

In long brown arms entwined Euphrosyne, 
And round her snowy waist 

Fast bound the Nessus-robe, that may not be displaced. 

" Yes, this is true ; but the whole truth is more ; 

This was not all the burning Orient gave ; 
Through purple partings of her golden door 

Came gleams upon the wave. 
Long shafts that search the souls of men who crave ; 

" And probings of the heart, and spirit-balm, 
And to deep questionings the deep replies 
That echo in the everlasting calm 

All this from forth those skies, 
Beside Gehenna fire and worm that never dies." 

There is a large philosophy of life embodied in some 
of Mr. Brown's pieces, the stanzas to " Pain " offer- 
ing a notable illustration. They open thus : 

" The man that hath great griefs I pity not ; 
'Tis something to be great 
In any wise, and hint the larger state, 
Though but in shadow of a shade, God wot ! 

" Moreover, while we wait the possible, 
This man has touched the fact, 
And probed till he has felt the core, where, packed 
In pulpy folds, resides the ironic ill." 

This is the close of the poem : 

" But tenfold one is he, who feels all pains 
Not partial, knowing them 
As ripples parted from the gold-beaked stem 
Wherewith God's galley onward ever strains. 

" To him the sorrows are the tension-thrills 
Of that serene endeavor 
Which yields to God forever and forever 
The joy that is more ancient than the hills." 

This is the deeper optimism that we find in Brown- 
ing, or in Carlyle's doctrine that not happiness but 
blessedness is the true aim of life. Enough has been 
said to show that Mr. Brown's work will repay study, 
that within its husks there may be found a sweet 
and nutritious kernel. 

The past year has brought many contributions of 
verse to its central Columbian theme, verse that has 
ranged all the way from the wooden epics of Mr. 
Kinahan Cornwallis to the lyrical measures of Miss 
Monroe's " Commemoration Ode." Mr. Louis 
James Block is the latest contributor to this Colum- 
bian literature, and his work takes the form of a 
sort of versified Culturgeschichte, having the dis- 
covery of America for its main episode. In spite 
of a few defects a defective line now and then or 
an imperfect rhyme, an archaism or a verbal li- 
cense that occasionally goes beyond the limits of 
the admissible, a mysticism and a vagueness of ex- 



[July 16, 

pression that sometimes lapses into obscurity, in 
spite of these things, we think that Mr. Block has 
produced a very noble poem, a poem not unworthy 
of its great theme, and that stands in eloquent con- 
trast to many efforts that we will not for a moment 
draw from kindly oblivion by naming. Mr. Block's 
poem is in four sections " The Old World," " The 
Man," "The Deed," and "The New World" 
with a dedication to the "Women of America." 
The first and last sections, with their poetic charac- 
terization of the supreme moments of history, show 
the author's work at its best, for they afford him 
the most opportunities for the fine philosophical gen- 
eralizations towards which he is led by his natural 
bent. As an illustration of this, as well as of the 
complex structure of the whole poem, we quote the 
stanza which sums up the part of India in the his- 
tory of ancient culture : 

" Under the fervid skies, and mid the growth 
Of tangled forests where the mountains vast 
Circle the shaded glens, a gloomy past 
Enwraps a nobler people ; ever loth 
To grasp the present firmly, seeing both 

The worlds of earth and heaven in mist of dreams 
Enrobed and mingled, they seemed bound by oath 
Of high allegiance to the One who gleams 
Recedingly on the gaze 
Turned Himwards ; by what ways 
Of severence from the body, down what streams 
Of anguish did they seek Him ; the land teems 
With monstrous shapes and visions that enthrall ; 
And chiefly thee, Buddh, the foiled ones call 
Savior and friend, thee clothed in contemplation's rest, 
And finding loss of all and nothingness the best." 

Felicitous passages abound in the poem. 

" People grown strong with very sight of God," 
gives admirable expression to the ethical mission of 
the Hebrew. 

" Freedom awoke with Greece, 

And violet-crowned peace ; 
The soul was born and thought's first victory won," 

is both exquisite and adequate. The following fine 
tribute is paid to England : 

" stern-browed Heroine far across the sea, 

Your daughter knows your blood within her veins, 
And hearkens to the ever-ringing strains 
Your voice has poured to honor liberty." 

Indeed, the whole poem is a song of the conquests 
of liberty, and closes in a vein that seems inspired 
by Shelley's outburst : 

" Oh, happy earth, reality of heaven ! " 
" One vision more ! " sings the author, 

" One vision more ! the spiritual city lies 
Beneath the sun ; the all-subduing love 
Inhabits there as in the realms above ; 
As lordly as the blue unclouded skies 
Life passes, and the mighty dawn's surmise 

Reaches completion, and the deeps on deeps 
Of spirit which are seen alone of eyes 

Whose watch is kin to power that never sleeps 
Are more and more revealed ; 
The inmost heavens unsealed 
Comfort the heart where no more anguish weeps, 
And open fields which faith forever reaps." 

The dramatic element, rather than the lyrical, is 
the characteristic component of Mr. Fawcett's 

" Songs of Doubt and Dream." The best of the 
poems are those either dramatic in form, as " Two 
Scenes in the Life of Beau Brummell," or in spirit, 
as the fine narrative of " Queen Christina and De 
Liar." Hence we question the propriety of speci- 
fically styling the volume a collection of songs. The 
spontaneous grace and melody of the true lyric are 
qualities rarely exhibited in Mr. Fawcett's verse, 
but we have instead abundant energy devoted to a 
wide range of themes. We are inclined to think that 
the author has weighted his verse with more phil- 
osophy than it will bear, or rather, perhaps, that 
his philosophy has not been sublimed in the proper 
alembic ; it is often crude and merely prosaic in 
expression. The memorial verses to Courtlandt 
Palmer are excellent in thought and sympathy, yet 
we can hardly call poetry such lines as these : 

" Ye men that bow to science as your god 
Learn self-control and patience from her laws. 
Remember Newton and Copernicus 
Killed superstition with the sword of truth ; 
They did not scare it dead with rhetoric ; 
Hysteria never framed a syllogism, 
And logic murders like a gentleman." 

The " dream " of Mr. Fawcett's title, as well as the 
" doubt," is justified by many pieces, from which 
we select, as among the more successful, " A Retro- 

" Wandering where mortals have no power to gauge 

The enormity of night that space outrolls, 
Floated or paused, in shadowy pilgrimage, 

Two disembodied souls. 

" One towered a shape with dark wild-trailing shroud, 
With face by sorrow and anger seamed and drawn ; 

One loomed a holy glory, as when some cloud 
Swims deep in baths of dawn. 

" World after world they gazed on, till beguiled 
They flew toward earth, and hovering where she swept, 

One with a saturnine dejection smiled, 
And one with slow tears wept. 

"'On that star,' said the spirit of sombre mien, 
' As Dante I passed through pain's most blinding heats. . . . 

' On that star,' said the spirit of look serene, 
' I suffered, and was Keats.' " 

There are in these lines echoes of Tennyson and 
Aldrich, at least, and the felicity of several words 
(guage, enormity, loomed, dejection) may be ques- 
tioned, but the poem has merits, and is not unim- 
pressive. We have found nothing prettier or more 
nearly faultless in the volume than this " Aqua- 

" Far away westward the cattle go, 

Dotting the land's dim edges ; 
Isled in the roseate afterglow, 

Darken the long cloud-ledges. 

" Burning each moment with warmer beams, 

Moon, by your sweet chaste power 
Lull the world into lotus-dreams, 
While you hang like a lotus-flower." 

On the whole, Mr. Fawcett's volume comprises the 
best work in verse that he has yet given us, and 
fairly entitles him to a place among our American 
poets of the second rank. 




Mr. Cawein's new volume has the general charac 
teristics of its predecessors the cloying imagery 
and the verbal trickery; but we hear at times a 
stronger note than he has been wont to sound, a 
graver, if a no less passionate, strain. There is stil 
too much of this sort of thing : 

" Fly out with flirt and fluting 

As flies a falling- star 
From flaming star-beds shooting, 
From where the roses are," 

but there are also verses like these : 

" Once when the morning on the curling breakers, 

Along the foaming sand, 
Flashed expectation, by the ocean's acres, 
Love took command. 

"And so we sailed, ^Eolian music melting 

Around our silken sails ; 

The bubbled foam our prow of sandal pelting 
With rainbow gales." 

Mr. Cawein's Muse, in her less exuberant moods, 
gives promise of excellent things. 

One does not expect very much from undergrad- 
uate college verse. " Under the Scarlet and Black " 
is perhaps deserving of a word of mention as the 
first book of verse that has yet hailed from a West- 
ern college, for the collection comes to us from 
Grinnell, Iowa. The honors of the volume are 
borne off by Miss Mary Bowen and Miss Bertha 
Booth (both of this year's class), and, after some 
hesitation, we select a piece by the former writer 
a sonnet " To Emily Dickinson ": 
" A harp ^Eolian on a lonely sill 

Was placed to feel the subtle wind's soft touch. 
Perhaps its strains were burdened overmuch 
With Nature's sadness and her discords ; still, 
Responsive to its master's touchless thrill, 
It told the clover's whisper to the breeze, 
The wordless plaint of wind-swept winter trees, 
With melody unknown to human skill. 
So in the quiet of a life apart 

From other lives, their passion and their pain, 
The hand of Nature touched thy tuue'd heart, 

And, lo, thou utterest in simple strain 
A song too thought-rich for a fettered art, 
Yet bearing ever Nature's sad refrain." 

Professor Newton M. Hall introduces the volume 
with a brief sketch of journalism in Iowa College. 
We have hardly found anything as good as the 
above sonnet in " Cap and Gown," although Mr. 
J. L. Harrison, the editor, has chosen his contents 
from some forty college papers. Most of his pieces 
are love lyrics of a somewhat callow sort, written 
in the exotic verse-forms that seem so easy, yet 
in which real success is reached only by the mas- 
ters. The verses to Eleanor," by Mr. J. H. Boyn- 
ton, are perhaps as successful as anything in the 

" I do not think she loves me yet, 

Her glance meets mine direct and free ; 
Its very sweetness seems to set 
A bar between herself and me. 

" I never touched her lips with mine, 

I dare not dream I ever may ; 
Still when I come her eyes will shine, 
And soften when I go away. 

"Some hours I cannot well forget, 

Perhaps she may remember too. 
I knew I loved her when we met, 
She never seemed as others do. 

" I loved to watch her flushing cheek, 

Her soft hair carelessly astray, 
To see her smile, to hear her speak, 
And still have loved her every day. 

" I do not think she loves me yet, 

I dare not think she ever may ; 
I know I loved her when we met, 
And still have loved her every day." 

The binding of this volume, with its hydrangea- 
decorated covers, is original and exquisite enough 
to call for a special word of praise. 

^ The title-page of " Under King Constantine " 
gives us no author's name, but we understand the 
authorship of the book has been acknowledged by 
Mrs. Spencer Trask. Mrs. Trask has undertaken 
the hazardous experiment of writing Arthurian idyls, 
and her little volume comprises three such poems 
narratives expanded from hints in Malory. A 
passage describing the vision of the Grail will show 
the character of the verse : 

" One night at midnight came the ray again, 
And with it came a strange expectancy 
Of spirit as the light waxed radiant. 
The cell was filled with spicy odours sweet, 
And on the midnight stillness song was borne 
As sweet as heaven's harmony the words 
The same Sir Launcelot had heard of old 

' Honour and joy be to the Father of Heaven.' 
With wide eyes searching his lone cell for cause 
He waited : as the ray became more clear 
And more effulgent than the mid-day sun, 
He trembled with that chill of mortal flesh 
Beholding spiritual things. At last 
Now vaguely as though veiled by light, and then 
With shining clearness, perfectly he saw 
The sight unspeakable, transcending words." 

The purpose of Mrs. Trask's verse is serious and 
sincere, but the execution is amateurish, and an ex- 
tremely qualified praise is all that can be given the 

Mr. Richard Hovey's " Seaward " is an elegy, in 
forty-five seven-line stanzas, upon the late Thomas 
William Parsons. It is elaborate in construction 
and extremely discursive in treatment. We quote 
one of the stanzas : 

' But who is this that from the mightier shades 
Emerges, seeing whose sacred laureate hair 

Thou startest forward trembling through the glades, 
Advancing upturned palms of filial prayer? 

Long hast thou served him ; now, of lineament 
Not stern but strenuous still, thy pious care 

He comes to guerdon. Art though not content ? " 

Dne of Mr. Hovey's notes obligingly informs us that 
,he reference of this passage is to Dante. A study 

of Parsons, reprinted from " The Atlantic Monthly," 

serves, with the notes, to thicken the booklet into 

what may be called a volume. 

Professor William Hyde Appleton, of Swarth- 

more College, has made and annotated a collection 
f translated passages of Greek poetry, naming the 

volume " Greek Poets in English Verse," and sup- 



[July 16, 

plying an introduction of no great value. The in- 
troduction, in fact, is little more than a summary 
of the Homeric poems and three or four selected 
tragedies. It is not noticeably critical, and lapses 
into the style sophomoric. We may remark inci- 
dentally that " deeper than ever plummet sounded " 
is not a quotation from any author known to us. 
Mr. Appleton's volume is intended as an aid to the 
"classical course in English " of which overmuch is 
nowadays heard from university extension lecturers. 
The idea of such courses is an excellent one, pro- 
vided only they fall into the right hands, but the 
attempts thus far made to give them seem to have 
been unfortunate. Mr. Appleton's selections include 
copious extracts from Homer and the four dram- 
atists, and many short passages from the lyric and 
elegiac poets and the Anthology. We are aware 
that in any work of this sort much allowance should 
be made for the tastes of the compiler, and that no 
collector of elegant extracts (not even Mr. Pal- 
grave ) ever quite satisfied all his readers. But Mr. 
Appleton has missed so many of the things that 
ought to have gone into his book that we must ven- 
ture a word of unfavorable comment. His fear 
" that some one of his readers may miss the very 
thing that he hopes to find " is only too well war- 
ranted, for is it possible that any reader should not 
have hoped and confidently expected to find, in 
the Homeric section, Lord Tennyson's "Achilles 
over the French "? "Language as divine almost 
as Homer's own," Mr. Theodore Watts calls it, and 
whatever else was omitted, surely that ought not to 
have been. Another omission as conspicuous is 
that of Mr. Swinburne's translation of the chorus 
from the " Birds." Compared with that, all other 
translations from Aristophanes (even Mr. Lang's 
version of the ' Clouds ' chorus ) are simply nowhere. 
When we add that neither the " Agamemnon " of 
Browning or of Fitz Gerald is represented, and that 
Calverley's " Theocritus " is wholly ignored, we feel 
justified in asserting that Mr. Appleton's work is 
not done as well as it should have been. 

The late John Osborne Sargent, lawyer and 
journalist, was a life-long lover of Horace, and a 
man singularly fitted by temperament to sympa- 
thize with the Horatian point of view. During the 
last ten years of his life, he devoted his leisure 
hours to the translation of his favorite poet, and the 
work, which includes all but a dozen or so of the 
odes, is now published by his daughter, Dr. Oliver 
Wendell Holmes contributing an introduction. The 
volume must be reckoned among the best of the 
many attempts to perform the alluring but diffi- 
cult task of Horatian translation. Mr. Sargent 
commands a variety of metrical forms, and his 
most satisfactory work is done in the grave iambic 
measures chosen for the more serious of the odes. 
We may take as an example the " Exegi monnmen- 
tum sere perennius ": 

"A monument more durable than brass 
Of height no regal pyramids surpass, 

I have achieved a work that will outlast 

The waste of waters or the northern blast. 

I shall not wholly die, but much of me, 

My better part shall reach posterity. 

No flight of seasons shall obscure my name, 

But serial ages shall increase my fame. 

While to the Capitol, to Time's last day, 

Pontiff and vestal tread the sacred way, 

It shall be told of one of humble birth, 

Now potent with the magnates of the earth 

Bred where he heard Ofanto's torrent roar, 

When Daunus' subjects ploughed its arid shore 

That he first wed to him that praise belongs 

^Eolian measures to Italian songs. 

With guerdon crown desert, Melpomene, 

And give the Delphic laurel wreath to me." 

If Mr. Sargent's versions are often inadequate, they 
are at least never undignified or lacking in either 
taste or feeling. He has fairly escaped the beset- 
ting sin of many Horatian translators that of vul- 
garizing their original. 

Mr. James Rhoades, whose version of books 
I. VI. of the " ^neid " has just appeared, apol- 
ogizes for adding another to the already numerous 
translations of Virgil (" Vergil " he styles the poet), 
and says : " It has seemed to me that, if one could 
produce a version of the ' ^Eneid ' that should be 
in itself an English poem, and at the same time a 
faithful reflection of the original, neither adding to 
the text nor diminishing from it, such an achieve- 
ment would be worth the time and labor required 
for the task." This is, indeed, the whole problem, 
and we are bound to say that Mr. Rhoades has been 
one of the most successful of those who have en- 
deavored to solve it. We make a brief extract from 
the prophecy of the sixth book. 

" Here is Caesar, here 
The whole line of lulus, that thall pass 
One day beneath the mighty pole of heaven. 
This, this the man so oft foretold to thee, 
Caesar Augustus, a god's son, who shall 
The golden age rebuild through Latian fields 
Once ruled by Saturn, and push far his sway 
O'er Garamantians and the tribes of Ind, 
A land that lies beyond the stars, beyond 
The year's path and the sun's, where, prop of heaven, 
Atlas upon his shoulders turns the pole, 
Studded with burning constellations." 

This is excellent verse, and the elevation is fairly 
sustained throughout the translation. 

Of the new edition of Coleridge, which we must 
dismiss with a word, the principal things to be said 
are that it offers a critical edition of the text alto- 
gether superior to any previously in existence, a 
compact and fairly exhaustive body of notes, and 
an introductory biography that must at once super- 
sede all others, and remain for an indefinite period 
the standard authority for the life of the poet. It 
is difficult to accord to Mr. Campbell's labors the 
praise that they deserve ; no previous editor of Cole- 
ridge has approached him either in knowledge or in 
painstaking industry. The memoir, we understand, 
is to be republished by itself, a compliment of which 
it is entirely worthy. 





Mr. Leslie Stephen is a superbly 
Mr. Leslie Stephen v i gorous am i trenchant writer. He 

as an apologist. , 

belongs with Mr. John Morley to 
that younger school of English radicals who have 
discarded the rhetorical bravery of the poets and 
orators of the Revolution, have outgrown the nar- 
rowness and harshness of the original Bentham- 
ite, have supplemented will by evolution and added 
culture and the historic sense to Herbert Spencer. 
Their only fault is that they are at all times sweetly 
reasonable and on all topics hopelessly and irreme- 
diably right. Mr. Stephen has but one weakness 
a fondness for parson-baiting, an itching for the- 
ological polemic, a desire to do over again the work 
of Voltaire. He knows better. He has read his 
Matthew Arnold and his Renan, and is aware that 
for this gross work " Voltaire suffit" But at times 
the unregenerate blood grows hot within him, he 
" bites his thumb," he " remembers his everlasting 
blow," and sallies forth to confound the orthodox 
with " An Agnostic's Apology, and Other Essays " 
(Putnam). "Why," he passionately exclaims, 
" when no honest man will deny in private that 
every ultimate problem is wrapped in the profound- 
est mystery, do honest men proclaim in pulpits that 
unhesitating certainty is the duty of the most fool- 
ish and ignorant " ? Why, perhaps because, as 
Emerson says, " All the Muses and love and reli- 
gion hate these developments and will find a way 
to punish the chemist who publishes in the parlor 
the secrets of the laboratory." And if this is so, 
what is the use of proving by irrefragable logic that 
the " scepticism of believers " is really more par- 
alyzing to progress than " scepticism about the shift- 
ing phantasmagoria of theology." What profits it 
to combat " the Higher Pantheism " by a demon- 
stration that the dreams of theologians are not more 
than half true while they last, and that if we will live 
in dreams we lose our firm grasp of realities ? Of 
what avail solemnly to analyze and refute Cardinal 
Newman's " Theory of Belief " ? Do any thinkers 
take seriously this "theory of belief," or its author, 
except as a " stylist " and a " grand old man " ? 
And, when all is said, will Mr. Stephen's seventy 
pages of close reasoning convince anybody who is 
not already satisfied with Arnold's quiet affirmation 
that " Cardinal Newman has accepted a solution 
which is, frankly speaking, impossible " ? The del- 
icate irony of Mr. Stephen's essay on " The Reli- 
gion of All Sensible Men " will delight the literary 
epicure. But will it induce one " sensible man " to 
come out if his interest bids him keep the peace ? 
Does it really bring us any nearer the solution of 
the painful questions of conscience started in Mr. 
Morley's " Compromise " ? The discussion of the 
entire problem of persecution in the essay on " Poi- 
sonous Opinions " is an admirable philosophic sup- 
plement to Mill's essay on " Liberty." But will it 
make it possible for the Professor of Psychology to 
deliver his whole thought in any chair in the United 

States or England ? But we are wrong. Supersti- 
tion and intolerance are always striving for the 
mastery of the world, and must be combated in 
many ways. The slow gentle solvents of Renan's 
irony, of Arnold's freely-playing consciousness, and 
of Mr. Paters's tolerant interest in all errors that 
assume picturesque forms, will not suffice. There 
will always be enough neutrals, lovers of peace and 
advocates of compromise and accomodation. And 
so, lest the conflict prove too unequal, the philosophic 
onlooker, accepting with a grimace the service of 
the vitriol of Voltaire and the bludgeon of Inger- 
soll, will gladly welcome the finely-tempered, keen, 
trenchant blade of Mr. Stephen. 

The humorous talent of Mr. Guthrie 

Some delightful 

burlesques on the (F. Anstey) has never been better dis- 

plays of Ibsen. u Mp p unch > s p ocket 

Ibsen" (Macmillan), described as "a collection of 
some of the master's best-known dramas, condensed, 
revised, and slightly rearranged for the benefit of 
the earnest student." Herr Ibsen's later works are 
good game for the parodist, and Mr. Guthrie has 
made the most of his opportunities. One would 
have to be a very crabbed and uncompromising 
Ibsenite not to smile at these delightful burlesques, 
which touch with inimitable skill the weak spots of 
the works which they parody, and give humorous 
exaggeration to the points that most clearly lend 
themselves to satirical treatment. " Rosmersholm," 
A Doll Home," " Hedda Gabler," and The Wild 
Duck " are thus presented in revised forms, while 
in " Pill-doctor Herdal " we have " rather a rev- 
erent attempt to tread in the footprints of the Nor- 
wegian dramatist, than a version of any actually 
existing masterpiece." The author confesses that 
" his imitation is painfully lacking in the magnifi- 
cently impenetrable obscurity of the original, that 
the vein of allegorical symbolism is thinner through- 
out than it should be, and that the characters are 
not nearly as mad as persons invariably are in real 
life," but even with these drawbacks, " Pill-doctor 
Herdal " offers no lack of mirthful entertainment. 
We must find space for one illustrative extract. It 
should be premised that, after the death of Byg- 
mester Solness, his widow has married Dr. Herdal. 
Into their household enters Hilde Wangel (who 
turns out to be no other than Nora of "A Doll 
Home," emancipated at last), just as previously she 
had come into Solness's life. The scene we quote 
is between Herdal and his wife: 

"DR. HERDAL (drinks a glass of punch). You're right 
enough there. If I had not been called in to prescribe for 
Dr. Ryval, who used to have the leading practice here, I 
should never have stepped so wonderfully into his shoes as I 
did. ( Changes to a tone of quiet chuckling merriment.) Let 
me tell you a funny story, Aline ; it sounds a ludicrous thing 
_ but all my good fortune here was based upon a simple lit- 
tle pill. For if Dr. Ryval had never taken it 

"Mns. HERDAL ( anxiously). Then you do think it was 
the pill that caused him to - ? 

" DR. HERDAL. On the contrary ; I am perfectly sure the 
pill had nothing whatever to do with it the inquest made it 
quite clear that it was really the liniment. But don't you see, 



[July 16, 

Aline, what tortures me night and day is the thought that it 

might unconsciously have been the pill which . Never to 

be free from that! To have such a thought gnawing and 
burning always always, like a moral mustard poultice ! (He 
takes more punch. ) 

" MBS. HEBDAL. Yes ; I suppose there is a poultice of that 
sort burning on every breast and we must never take it off 
either it is our simple duty to keep it on. I, too, Haustus, 
am haunted by a fancy that if this Miss Wangel were to ring 
at our bell now " 

At this juncture, Miss Wangel does ring at the bell, 
but what follows must be left to imagination, or 
found out by our readers for themselves. 

,. . , The endeavor of Mr. Henry M. 

Statistics of crime . . . J 

and poverty in Boies in " Prisoners and Paupers 
the tfnited state*. (p utnam ) is to state and emphasize 

the alarming increase in the United States of our 
criminal and dependent classes. The ordinary 
reader will be led by his pages to conclude that our 
nation is fast going to ruin. Statistics of crime 
and poverty are given, which, on their face, show 
that vice is growing with tremendous rapidity and 
that destitution will soon become general. The 
author discusses the problems of intemperance, im- 
migration, our urban population, the negro race, 
and jails and poor-houses, in a way to multiply our 
fears rather than to enlighten us respecting causes 
and remedies. These are indeed great problems, 
worthy serious attention and in need of wise action. 
But while Mr. Boies is a gentleman of earnestness 
and experience, it is clear that he has no such skill 
in handling statistics as Mr. Carroll D. Wright, 
and no such scientific ability in studying social phe- 
nomena as Dr. Amos G. Warner. In some cases, 
he does not seem to understand the figures which 
he uses, while in other cases he indulges in careless 
statements. He shows that since 1850, criminals 
have increased three times as fast as our population. 
This is indeed what appears upon the face of re- 
turns. But it is evident that we are not three 
times as wicked a people as forty years ago ! When 
we look at the statistics more carefully, we see 
that the comparison is vitiated by several factors : 
(1) The criminal acts of the negro race are ex- 
cluded from the census of 1850, but included in 
that of 1890, a fact of great importance. ( 2 ) 
The census of 1890 was more thorough than that 
of 1850 along this line ; it not only reports the 
facts more accurately but it reports new classes of 
facts. So that conclusions based upon a literal 
comparison must be manifestly erroneous. (3) New 
laws and police regulations lead to arrests and 
convictions where acts would have been considered 
innocent forty years ago. Cruelty to animals and 
children caused few arrests then ; violations of san- 
itary regulations were unknown ; offences against 
public order, such as drunkenness and the selling of 
liquor ; all these and many other acts, like the pur- 
chase of lottery tickets, though innumerable, did not 
enter into our criminal records as at present. That 
our list of criminals has grown in this direction is 
evidence, not of our increasing depravity, but of our 

in history. 

moral progress. We have more patients in hospi- 
tals than the Esquimo, but it does not follow that we 
are physically a more feeble people. Mr. Boies 
does not make any such discriminations, he only 
alludes to the fact respecting the negro race. These 
defects vitiate all his discussions of these problems, 
which are indeed great and serious problems. His 
incapacity in this line is farther shown by his use of 
a statement from Professor Ely to support his 
claim that there are three million paupers in the 
United States (p. 205), and by his astonishing as- 
sertion that there are 17,058 county jails in our 
country (p. 193). 

Mr. Morfill, among Englishmen, 
seems to have a monopoly of pro- 
duct on Slavonic subjects, in the field 
of history as well as of literature. He now gives 
to the " Story of the Nations " series a " Poland " 
(Putnam). No writer of English would seem bet- 
ter qualified for such a work, yet Mr. Morfill has 
hardly added to what one may get from an ency- 
clopaedia on this subject. His book is sketchy, and 
one ends it by wishing for a guide through the maze 
of aimless energy which it portrays. What one 
needs is an explanation of Poland's failure in his- 
tory, which Mr. Morfill does not give in his pages 
devoted to that purpose. An unpatriotic nobility, 
an intolerant clergy, a lacking middle class, and a 
degraded peasantry, were characteristics of all 
feudal states. That Poland did not change all this 
was not due solely to the fifth cause suggested the 
want of rulers of talent and energy, although a 
Louis Eleventh, a Henry Eighth, or a Ferdinand the 
Catholic, would have been a great blessing to Poland. 
But all these men had their opportunity only be- 
cause the principle of hereditary succession was al- 
ready established in their dominions. The curse 
and the ruin of Poland was an elective monarchy, 
which, as in the case of the Holy Roman Empire, 
made a feudal condition of anarchy possible long 
after the age of feudalism was gone by. The fail- 
ure of success of this volume is not due to a lack of 
knowledge, but to a lack of historical insight on the 
part of a man whose forte is linguistic. 

A readable and Many a guide for the amateur pho- 
fo^amaiew^ tographer has appeared of recent 
photographers. years, written either in the interest 
of the general public, or in that of some firm en- 
gaged in the manufacture of photographic materials. 
It has been left for Miss Alice French (Octave 
Thanet) to produce a book upon the subject which 
serves its readers not only as guide, but also as 
philosopher and friend. Every beginner in this 
intricate art knows how deep is at times the need 
of philosophy, and how consoling may be the min- 
istry of friendship. Miss French has pursued pho- 
tography through trials to triumphs ( as some of the 
pictures in her book clearly show), but she has not 
acquired the air of superiority that makes the suc- 
cessful amateur so cordially detested by all less sue- 




cessful aspirants. A record of failure is often more 
helpful than a record of triumphant achievement, and 
Miss French, in her record, gives abundant evidence 
that she too is human, and no exception to the maxim, 
humanum errare est. In vivacious and unconven- 
tional language, she tells the reader of her early 
tribulations, of the pitfalls upon which stumbled her 
unwary feet, and of the methods and formulae in 
which she finally found salvation. Miss French's 
book is good, first, to read, and second, to keep at 
hand for practical guidance in all the stages of photo- 
graphic work. It is entitled " An Adventure in 
Photography " (Scribner). 

chats on 
American artists. 

In a series of essays and sketches 
reprinted under the collective title, 
"Picture and Text" (Harper), Mr. 
Henry James chats appreciatively of the admirable 
group of artists Messrs. Abbey, Parsons, Millet, 
Bough ton, Reinhart, Sargent, etc. best known to 
many of us through the medium of " Harper's 
Magazine." The excellence, in point of illustra- 
tion, of American magazines is justly a matter of 
national pride one of the shining exceptions to 
which we refer the carping foreigner ; and it is 
well to learn something of leading personality and 
methods of the illustrators. Touching the illustra- 
tion of books and magazines in general, the author 
observes that it " may be said to have been born in 
our time, so far as variety and abundance are the 
signs of it ; or born, at any rate, the comprehensive, 
ingenious, sympathetic spirit in which we conceive 
and practise it. If the centuries are ever arraigned 
at some bar of justice to answer in regard to what 
they have given, of good or of bad, to humanity, 
our interesting age (which certainly is not open to 
the charge of having stood with its hands in its 
pockets) might perhaps do worse than put forth 
the plea of having contributed a fresh interest in 
' black and white.' " The little book, which con- 
tains several illustrations, is a companion volume 
in the " Black and White Series " to Mr. Curtis's 
" From the Easy Chair," Mr. Warner's " As We 
Were Saying," etc. Of Mr. James's quality as an 
essayist we need not speak. Even those who do 
not care for him must admit his painstaking fidel- 
ity to his models ; and, at the worst, he may serve 
to sharpen the reader's appetite for a bit of down- 
right Anglo-Saxon. 

of Tennyson's 

Mr. Harold Littledale's " Essays on 
Lord Tennyson's Idylls of the King " 

Idylls of the King. /- MI \ v. j i 

(Macmillan) are based upon lec- 
tures written for students in India. It was cer- 
tainly worth while to offer the book in its present 
form to English and American students. Like 
other books prepared for the use of Indian under- 
graduates, this volume explains many things that 
any good dictionary could explain, but on the other 
hand it interprets many phases of the Idylls that 
no reference-book alludes to. There are chapters on 
the sources of the Arthurian story, on its growth from 

Malory to Tennyson, and on personages and localities 
spoken of in the modern epic. Then follow stud- 
ies of each Idyll, and annotations on particular words 
and obscure points. The work is by no means ex- 
haustive, but the material is carefully selected and 
well arranged. There is a constant comparison 
of Tennyson with Malory and the Mabinogion, and 
many interesting points of departure are suggested 
to the reader. The interpretation of the allegor- 
ical bearing of the Idylls is sensible and appreciat- 
ive, and the treatment of the rise of the legend, al- 
though brief, is in the main accurate. Rather 
strangely, however, Mr. Littledale takes no account 
of such an authoritative work as Professor Rhy's 
"Arthurian Legend." The work can readily be 
used as a handbook in a Tennyson class. 

A sailing-voyage 

from New York 
to Cape Town. 

" Undei> C ttOn Canva8 " 

is a lively account, with much inci- 
i a. i </ < M- 

dental " yarn-spinning, ot a sailing- 
voyage from New York to Cape Town, thence, over 
two hundred degrees of longitude, across the Indian 
and Pacific Oceans, to the coast of Chili, and from 
Chili to the Falkland Islands. The author, Cap- 
tain J. H. Potter, of the ship " Onward," observes in 
his Preface : " While Cooper, Marryatt, and others, 
have let the world know all about sailing before the 
day of steam, I know of no writer having yet come 
to the front to give anywhere near the correct idea 
of how it is with us, the ' wind-jammers,' since the 
introduction into our profession of that powerful 
element. This work was accordingly begun with 
the sole view of contributing towards the supply of 
that deficiency." A " wind-jammer," it may be 
said parenthetically, is a sailing-vessel, as contra- 
distinguished from a steamer. The story is told, 
as it should be told, for the most part, in an off- 
hand, breezy, sailor-like fashion, with plenty of in- 
cident, humorous as well as stirring. But oddly 
enough there is a tendency here and there to " work 
in," at all hazards, a tempting literary allusion or 
citation which results once or twice, where the 
connection is remote, in the Captain's getting his 
syntactical sails " all a-back and shaking," and nar- 
rowly escaping shipwreck. 

Mallet's " The French Revolution " 

A good summary 

of the French (ocribner), written by a lecturer on 
the staff of the Oxford University 
Extension for the " University Extension Manuals " 
series, may be thoroughly commended. It is the 
best summary of the Revolution yet published, and 
is a large improvement on the sketch by O'Connor 
Morris, also published by Messrs. Scribner. The 
author has availed himself of all the recent litera- 
ture of his subject down to Mr. Morse Stephens, and 
has not only summarized but has unified these con- 
tributions. His first two chapters clearly introduce 
the Revolution through its social causes, and he is 
very successful in showing why the Constitutional 
party failed, why the Jacobin party followed, and 
why the latter also failed. He ends his narrative 



[July 16, 

rightly with the thunder of Bonaparte's guns from 
the portals of St. Roch against the insurgent Sec- 
tions. His estimate of La Fayette is a compromise 
between the conventional one and the iconoclastic 
portrayal of Morse Stephens, and is probably near- 
est the truth. One may here trace briefly yet clearly 
the rapid sequence of causes and effects which 
Stephens alone of the more detailed historians has 
been able to keep above the surface of the multi- 
tudinous events narrated. As a text-book guide to 
the subject it must be highly praised. 


VOLUME IV. (just published) of "The Correspond- 
ence and Public Papers of John Jay " (Putnam) covers 
the dates between 1794 and 1826, thus completing the 
work that Professor Henry P. Johnston has edited with 
so much care. The volume opens with a letter from 
Jay to Dugald Stewart, " returning thanks for the gift 
of his ingenious work," and closes with the action of 
the New York Bar upon the occasion of Jay's death. 
There is also a very satisfactory index to the complete 

THE new edition of Murray's " Handbook for Trav- 
ellers in Japan " (imported by Scribner) has been 
almost wholly rewritten by Mr. Basil Hall Chamberlain 
(than whom there is no higher authority), assisted by 
Mr. W. B. Mason. A thorough revision of the sort 
here accomplished was peculiarly necessary in the case 
of the present work, for the world moves rapidly in 
Japan, as if to make up for many centuries lost, and 
even the past decade has transformed many sections of 
the country. Generally speaking, we prefer a " Bae- 
deker " to a " Murray " for a guide-book, but the " Mur- 
ray " now before us is one of the very best of that im- 
print, and no English tourist in Japan can afford to be 
without it. 

SOME " Selections from the Writings of William 
Blake " (imported by Scribner) have been made by 
Mr. Laurence Housman, who also supplies them with 
an introductory essay that is labored and not altogether 
agreeable in manner. The selections include both prose 
and poetry; were it not for the prose extracts, its 
place would seem to have been filled by Mr. W. M. 
Rossetti's edition of the poems. Such a selection as 
this is all of Blake that is wanted by the great major- 
ity of readers, although the recent sumptuous publica- 
tion of his entire works shows that there exists at least 
a limited demand for the more chaotic productions of 
his unregulated genius. 

MR. Charles Frederick Holder's "Louis Agassiz" 
(Putnam), appearing in the " Leaders in Science " 
series, gives a very readable popular biography of the 
great naturalist. The work is illustrated, and has a 
useful bibliography. Two recent issues in " Whittaker's 
Library of Popular Science " (Macmillan) are " Geol- 
ogy*" by Mr. A. J. Jukes-Brown, and " Electricity and 
Magnetism," by Mr. S. R. Bottone. These books are 
of the most elementary description, but subserve a use- 
ful purpose. 

Six articles that originally appeared in " Scribner's 
Magazine " have been grouped in a volume entitled 
" Homes in City and Country " (Scribner). They in- 
clude " The City House in the East and South," by 

Mr. Russell Sturgis; "The City House in the West," 
by the late John W. Root; articles on "The Suburban 
House," " The Country House," and " Small Country 
Places"; closing somewhat incongruously with a chap- 
ter on " Building and Loan Associations." The book 
is provided with many handsome illustrations, and the 
" homes " with which it deals are for the wealthy. 

THE fact that Mr. H. F. Pelham's " Outlines of Ro- 
man History " (Putnam) is essentially a reprint of the 
" Encyclopaedia Britannica " article upon the subject 
stamps the work with the hall-mark of literary and schol- 
arly excellence. Many revisions and additions have, how- 
ever, been made to fit the article for reproduction as an in- 
dependent volume. The greater part of the work is 
given to the years 133 B. C. 69 A. D., from the Grac- 
chi to the fall of Nero. A useful list of authorities 
prefaces the book. 

Two recent volumes of the " Contemporary Science 
Series " (imported by Scribner) are " Modern Meteor- 
ology," a useful popular treatise by Mr. Frank Waldo, 
and " Public Health Problems," by Mr. John F. J. Sykes. 
The latter work treats its subject from a distinctly prac- 
tical standpoint, and includes valuable chapters upon 
the precautionary measures to be adopted in case of ep- 
idemics. Similar in interest to the work last mentioned 
is Dr. F. L. Dibble's " Vagaries of Sanitary Science " 
(Lippincott), a work which exposes many popular errors 
and throws much light upon the workings of sanitary 
officialism, as illustrated by State Boards of Health and 
the like. 


The Johns Hopkins Press will publish in September 
" Florentine Life during the Renaissance," by Dr. Wal- 
ter B. Scaife. 

" The Science of Mechanics," from the German of 
Professor Mach, will be published at once by the Open 
Court Publishing Co. 

The German papers announce a posthumous work 
by Hegel, entitled " Kritik der Verfassung Deutsch- 
lands," edited by Dr. G. Mollat. 

" The Shadow of the Obelisk, and Other Poems," by 
the late Dr. Parsons, will be published in the autumn 
by Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

Some announcements of the Century Co. are these: 
" The Public School System of the United States," by 
Dr. J. M. Rice; "An Embassy to Provence," by Mr. 
Thomas A. Janvier; " The White Islander," by Mrs. 
Catherwood; and a new volume of poems by Mr. Gilder. 

"Borderland," is the title selected by Mr. W. T. 
Stead for his newest periodical venture. It is to be " a 
quarterly review and index devoted to the study of the 
phenomena vulgarly called ' supernatural.' " Mr. Stead, 
it may be mentioned, has lately become a medium him- 
self, and we may expect some astonishing tales from 
his forthcoming quarterly. 

In the French Academy of Inscriptions M. Haureau 
recently announced the discovery of a new manuscript 
of Abelard's poem addressed to his son. It contains 
1,040 verses, of which only 461 were hitherto known. 
It contains some of the heretical views attributed to 
him, it mentions He*loise, and versifies a passage from 
one of her letters. M. Haureau will publish the poem. 

Sir Frederick Pollock has the following " note " in 
" The Author " for July : " I earnestly hope that no at- 




tempt will be made at the Chicago meeting to revive 
the project of perpetual copyright. In my opinion it 
would be pure waste of time. The abstract jurispru- 
dence of this question was thoroughly discussed in the 
great case of Jefferys vs. Boosey in the House of Lords, 
in 1854, and there can be nothing new to say about it." 

" Pierre Loti " has decided to devote himself to a new 
work, the plot of which will be laid in the Holy Land. 
To obtain materials for his " coloring " he will make a 
pilgrimage through Palestine, starting from Cairo as 
soon as the summer heat is over, and proceed across the 
desert to Jerusalem. There will be no Europeans in 
his caravan. His idea is to follow as near as he can 
the route taken by the Holy Family in the flight into 

We learn from the London " Academy " that Mr. 
Paget Toynbee, who has been engaged for some years 
upon a Dictionary of the " Divina Comedia," has 
decided to divide the publication into two parts. The 
first, which will be complete for the whole of Dante's 
works, Latin as well as Italian, will contain the arti- 
cles dealing with the proper names. The second 
will comprise the Vocabulary proper. Mr. Toynbee 
hopes eventually to supplement the latter with the 
vocabulary of the " Convito," " Vita Nuova," and " Can- 

Mr. R. H. Sherard writes from Paris to " The Au- 
thor " of the breakfast given to M. Zola in celebration 
of the completed Rougon-Macquart series. He says: 
" There were about two hundred guests, and the dejeuner 
was held on one of the islands in the Bois de Boulogne. 
Zola looked very spruce in a black frock coat, light 
grey trousers, and a pair of varnished boots. He called 
his publisher ' my old friend,' and said, ' If I have not 
ceased writing you have not ceased publishing," so that, 
in sort, as much of the honor was due to the pub- 
lisher. It was a pleasant sight to see author and pub- 
lisher sitting side by side united by such bonds of affec- 

The Independent Theatre of London offers the fol- 
lowing highly attractive programme for next season: 
" William Rufus," by Michael Field, to be given without 
scenic accessories; " The Black Cat," a play in three acts, 
by Dr. Todhunter; "A Family Reunion," a play also in 
three acts, by Mr. Frank Danby; "Salve," a one-act 
play, by Mrs. Oscar Beringer; "The Death of Count 
Godfrey," by Messrs. Walter Besant and W. H. Pol- 
lock; Mr. Archer's translation of Herr Ibsen's " Wild 
Duck"; and "The Heirs of Rabourdin," translated by 
Mr. A. Teixeira de Mattos from M. Zola. " La Prin- 
cesse Maleine " of M. Maeterlinck is to be given by ma- 
rionettes. Herr Strindberg's " Father" is being trans- 
lated by Mr. J. H. McCarthy; and Mr. G. Bernard 
Shaw will supply a new play. 

A passage put into the mouth of Horne-Tooke by 
Landor (in the first Conversation between Johnson and 
Horne-Tooke) bears aptly upon the present discussion 
of the decadence of modern English. Indeed, the whole 
dialogue is wise and racy in comments on the tenden- 
cies of English. " I wish I were as sure," says Horne- 
Tooke, " that 

Multa renascentur quae jam cecidere, 

as I am that, ~ , 


Quae nunc sunt in honore vocabula. 

I am unacquainted with any language in which, during 
the prosperity of a people, the changes have run so sel- 

dom into improvement, so perpetually into impropriety. 
Within another generation, ours must have become so 
corrupt that writers, if they hope for life, will find it 
necessary to mount up nearer to its Sources." 

Mr. C. A. Ward, writing to "The Athenseum," tells 
of the recovery of a Coleridge manuscript by many 
thought to have no other than a mythical existence. 
Mr. Ward's letter is as follows: " The name of Samuel 
Taylor Coleridge stands out so prominently in the col- 
umns of 'The Athenaeum 'of June 17th that if atten- 
tion be not solely to be restricted to the poetical suc- 
cesses of this myriad-minded man the greatest man 
of our century, towering over all else by a head and 
shoulders, as critic, thinker, bard what follows may 
have interest. There have drifted to me by accident 
(though at each step traceable historically) two vol- 
umes, quarto, of MSS., bound, entitled respectively: 
' The History of Logic ' and ' Elements of Logic.' In 
Coleridge's letter to Allsop the work is mentioned as 
complete and nearly ready for press. This assertion 
has been called an opium-dream. But here is the book. 
It is not very like modern philosophy; but some care 
to hear two sides of a question. I write to ascertain 
whether the agnostic materialism is now so established 
that high spiritualism can no longer be allowed to 
breathe, and for such purpose nothing can test the 
point like ' The Athenseum.' " 


July, 1893 (Second List). 

Anti-Trust Campaign. A. W. Tourge'e. North American. 
Australian Women. Julia F. Nicholson. North American. 
Chinese Exclusion. R. G. Ingersoll, T. J. Geary. N. American. 
Church History Re-edited. A. H. Noll. Dial (July 16). 
Columbus, Family of. Duke of Veragua. North American. 
Columbus Portraits and Statues at the Fair. Inland Printer. 
Country Newspapers. R. C. Penfield. Inland Printer. 
Distrust and Trade. Edward Atkinson. North American. 
Divorce Made Easy. S. J. Brun. North American. 
Edison, Thomas A. Illus. C. D. Lanier. Review ofEeviews. 
Electricity at the Fair. Illus. J. R. Cravath. Eev. of Reviews. 
Fair, Impressions of the. Dlus. F. H. Stead. Rev. of Reviews. 
Fastest Train in the World. H. G. Prout. North American. 
Foreground and Vista at the Fair. Illus. W.H.Gibson. Scrib. 
Forest Reservations, Our New. Review of Reviews. 
French Girlhood. Marquise de San Carlos. North American. 
German Kantian Bibliography. Philosophical Review. 
Gettysburg Recollections. A. H. Nickerson. Scribner. 
Hiss, Natural History of the. Louis Robinson. No. Am. 
International Speech and Song. J.M.Baldwin. Phil. Review. 
Ireland at the Fair. Countess of Aberdeen. No. American. 
Jackson and Taylor, Generals. H. W. Thurston.Di'aZ (July 16). 
Kelmscott Press, The. W. Irving Way. Inland Printer. 
Leisure. Agnes Repplier. Scribner. 
Literature Congresses, The. Dial I July 16). 
Merchant Sailor, The. Illus. W. Clark Russell. Scribner. 
Musical Societies at the Fair. Illus. G. P. Upton. Scribner. 
Nature in the West Indies. Illus. W. K. Brooks. Scribner. 
Norway's Political Crisis. H. H. Boyesen. No. American. 
Pauper Prevention. Oscar Craig. Scribner. 
Poetry, Recent Books of. W. M. Payne. Dial (July 16). 
Presbyterianism, Future of. C. A. Briggs. No. American. 
Printing and Kindred Industries at the Fair. Inland Printer. 
Silver Legislation. E. 0. Leech. No. American. 
Sumner's Public Career. W. H. Smith. Dial (July 16). 
Thomson, Sir William. Illus. J. Munro. Rev. of Reviews. 
Trout-fishing in the Traun. Illus. H. Van Dyke. Scribner. 
Truth and Error. D. S. Miller. Philosophical Review. 
Yachting in 1893. G. A. Stewart. North American. 



[July 16, 


[The following list, embracing 47 titles, includes all books 
received by THE DIAL since last issue.\ 


Federal Government in Greece and Italy. By Edward 
A. Freeman. Edited by J. B. Bury, M.A. Second edi- 
tion, 8vo, pp. 692. Macmillan & Co. $3.75. 

History of Elections in the American Colonies. By 
Cortlandt F. Bishop, Ph.D. 8vo, pp. 300. Columbia 
College Studies. $1.50. 

The Chicago Massacre of 1812. With historical docu- 
ments. By Joseph Kirkland, author of " Zury." Illus., 
12mo, pp. 218. Dibble Publishing Co. $1.00. 

The Columbus Gallery: The "Discoverer of the New 
World " as represented in Portraits, Monuments, etc. 
By Ne'stor Ponce de Leon. Illus., 4to, pp. 178. N. Ponce 
de Leon. $3.00. 

The Caravels of Columbus. Compiled from original doc- 
uments, by Ne'stor Ponce de Leon. Illus., oblong 4to, 
pp. 41. N. Ponce de Leon. 50 cts. 

Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus. By Wash- 
ington Irving. (Condensed by the author from his 
larger work.) Illus., 12mo, pp. 412. G. P. Putnam's 
Sons. $1.75. 


The Story of My Life from Childhood to Manhood. By 
George Ebers, author of " Joshua." Translated by Mary 
J. Serrano. With portraits, 12mo, pp. 382. D. Apple- 
ton & Co. $1.25. 

Edwin Booth. By Laurence Button. Illus., 32mo, pp. 59. 
Harper's " Black and White Series." 50 cts. 

The Baroness Burdett-Coutts : A Sketch of her Public 
Life and Work. Prepared for the Lady Managers of the 
World's Columbian Exposition. With portrait, 24mo, 
pp.204. A. C. McClurg & Co. 75 cts. 


Arrian's Anabasis of Alexander and Indica. Translated, 
with a copious commentary, by Edward James Chinnock, 
M.A. 12mo, pp. 452. Macmillan & Co. $1.50. 

The Bible: Its Origin, Growth, and Character. With a list 
of books for study and reference. By Jabez Thomas Sun- 
derland. 8vo, pp. 300. G. P. Putnam's Sons, f 1.50. 


Valete : Tennyson, and Other Memorial Poems. By H. D. 

Rawnsley. 8vo, pp. 175, uncut. Macmillan & Co. $2.00. 
In the Shade of Ygdrasil. By Frederick Peterson, M.D. 

18mo, pp. 123, gilt top. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.50. 
Jonquilles and Heather-Bloom. By Jane Grey and May 

Morrow. 18mo, pp. 89, gilt edges. J. B. Lippincott Co. 

75 cts. 


The Refugees : A Tale of Two Continents. By A. Conan 

Doyle, author of "Micah Clarke." Illus., 12mo, pp. 

366. Harper & Bros. $1.75. 
Foes in Ambush. By Capt. Charles King, U.S.A., author 

of "The Colonel's Daughter." 16mo, pp. 263. J. B. 

Lippincott Co. $1.25. 
Tavistock Tales. By Gilbert Parker, Luke Sharp, and eight 

others. Illus., 12mo, pp. 254. Tait, Sons & Co. $1.25. 
Harvard Stories: Sketches of the Undergraduate. By 

Waldron Kintzing Post. 8vo, pp. 312. G. P. Putnam's 

Sons. $1.25. 
A Border Leander. By Howard Seeley, author of "A 

Nymph of the West." 16mo, pp. 168. D. Appleton & 

Co. 75 cts. 
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Winter term begins September 18, 1893. Course of study 
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Nos. 479-481 Dearborn Aye. Seventeenth year. Prepares 
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Forty-fifth year begins Sept. 13, 1893. College course and 
excellent preparatory school. Specially organized departments 
of Music and Art. Four well-equipped laboratories. Good 
growing library, fine gymnasium, resident physician. Memo- 
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alogue address SARAH F. ANDERSON, Principal ( Lock box 52). 


BOSTON, MASS., 252 Marlboro' St. Reopens October 3. 
Specialists in each Department. References : Rev. Dr. DON- 
ALD, Trinity Church ; Mrs. Louis AGASSIZ, Cambridge ; 
Pres. WALKER, Institute of Technology. 


Founded by CARL FAELTHN, 

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In addition to its unequaled musical advantages, excep- 
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equipped Home affords a safe and inviting residence for lady 
students. Calendar free. 

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A superior school and refined home. Number of students 
limited. Terms $250. Send for Catalogue. Opens Sep- 
tember 14, 1893. Brick buildings, passenger elevator, and 
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1793. ESTABLISHED IN 1793. 1893. 
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Boys aged 8 to 16 received into family ; fitted for any col- 
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raphy. A. A. CHAMBERS, A.M., Principal. 


Prepares pupils for College. Broader Seminary Course. 
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Pleasant family fife. Fall term opens Sept. 13, 1893. . 
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No. 55 West 47th st. Mrs. SARAH H. EMERSON, Principal. 
Will re-open Oct. 4. A few boarding pupils taken. 



^Announcements of the Graduate, Collegiate, and 

Medical Courses for the next academic 

year are now ready, and will 

he sent on application. 



[July 16, 1893. 


THE entire area of New Mexico, 122,444 square miles in extent, 
averages as high as the loftiest summit of the White Mountains 
of New Hampshire. There, on a slope of the Rockies, bordered 
by the pine forest, neighbored by gorges and foaming torrents 
where trout abound, and environed by quaint Mexican villages, 
lies Las Vegas Hot Springs, one of the most attractive of Ameri- 
can resorts. Chronic diseases are relieved by the medicinal waters 
-every form of bath being administered and the climate is a 
specific for pulmonary affections. The superb Hotel Montezuma 
accommodates 2">0 guests. Send for illustrated descriptive book, 
"The Land of Sunshine," to 

701 Monadnock Building, CHICAGO. 



^AMERICAN DUMBER, containing a variety of 
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At Inspection, A Story of American Army Life, by 

Dorothy Lundt. 
A Study of Walt Whitman, by Professor Oscar L. 

Triggs, of the Chicago University, is an important 

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The Singer, by M. A. Warswick. 
Emerson as an Exponent of Beauty in Poetry, by 

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A Talk on American Patriotic Poems, by Charlotte 


Early Women Poets of America, by Mary Horned. 
Poet's Parleys : A Dream of Freedom," by Lowell 

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[Aug. 1, 1893. 


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THE DIAL, No. 24 Adams Street, Chicago. 

No. 171. AUGUST 1, 1893. Vol. XV. 




The Congress of Philologists, the Congress of His- 
torians, the Folk-lore Congress, the Congress of Li- 


" Perhaps an Error." It. O. Williams. 
English Drama at the Universities. C. 


E.G.J. 64 

AN EVOLUTIONIST'S ALARM. Paul Shorey . . 66 
THE STORY OF JOAN OF ARC. Octave Thanet . 67 


Studies of the Greek Poets. A diagrammatic treat- 
ment of English Literature. A condensed history of 
the Italian Republics. More portraits of Women 
of the French Court. A guide to reading and mak- 
ing verse. Beautiful reprint of the Hebrew text of 
the Old Testament. Narrative of a Polish adven- 





For some time past " The Athenaeum " has 
published annual summaries of the current lit- 
erature of Continental Europe, each country of 
importance being represented by a special ar- 
ticle. To the year just ended are devoted no 
less than thirty-two pages of the issue for July 
1 of our English contemporary, and the infor- 
mation given by this series of communications 
is of such interest that we feel justified in de- 
voting considerable space to a summary of their 
contents. There are in all thirteen articles, 

the countries represented being Belgium, Bo- 
hemia, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, 
Holland, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Russia, Spain, 
and Sweden. This list includes, it will be seen, 
every European country of any literary import- 
ance, with the two exceptions of Norway and 

M. Joseph Reinach, who is the French con- 
tributor to this symposium, thus comments upon 
the general literary situation in France : 

" The word crisis is, indeed, the most applicable to 
the present state of French letters. They are on a field 
of battle where two different mental tendencies are 
struggling for mastery: science and metaphysics, criti- 
cism and belief, realism and idealism. Fifty or sixty 
years ago the same phenomenon appeared, and then 
romanticism triumphed over classicism, positivism over 
spiritualism, liberal ideas over the old principles of abso- 
lutism. Which will triumph to-day cannot be predicted 
with certainty. Perhaps neither of the tendencies which 
I have indicated will be victorious; perhaps the two 
currents of existing thought will continue to run par- 
allel. At most one may discover under the vacillations 
of the moment an uneasiness in matters of social action, 
and in regard to letters in particular a growing belief 
that they are not merely a relaxation, an amusement, 
or a consolation, but that they ought to result in some 
direct teaching and help to man, tracing for him a line 
of conduct in life. This will be better understood after 
a rapid glance at the principal works of French litera- 
ture during the last twelve months." 

After a few comments upon the influence ex- 
erted over French thought by the two great 
men of letters who have recently died Renan 
and Taine M. Reinach begins his review 
with some remarks about M. Ernest Lavisse, 
whose " Jeunesse de Frederic II." is one of the 
notable books of the year. 

" His talents as a sagacious historian and a fascinat- 
ing writer have often been remarked upon, but he is, 
perhaps, less known as an educationalist to those who 
are not familiar with the progress and history of school- 
mastering. M. Ernest Lavisse has in this department 
left a very deep impress on the generation of young 
professors and their youthful auditors of the Faculty of 
Letters at Paris, where he teaches. After 1870 he 
held that it was the mission of the Ministers of Public 
Education, and especially of the professors of history, 
to know and make known the secret of our conquer- 
or's power. That is why all his endeavors have been 
concentrated on the annals of Prussia and Germany. 
His success has been so signal, both in the quality of 
the matter and the excellence of the manner of his work, 
that the author of ' Etudes sur les Origines de la Prusse ' 
is recognized to-day as an incontestable authority on 
the point." 
Studies of the French Revolution have figured 



[Aug. 1, 

largely in the work of the past year, having been 
encouraged by the Society of the History of the 
Revolution, and by a special chair established 
by the Faculty of Letters at Paris. Some of the 
books in this department are M. Aulard's " Le 
Culte de la Raison et le Culte de 1'Etre Su- 
preme, 1793-1794," the fourth volume of M. 
Albert Sorel's "L'Europe et la Revolution," 
and M. H. Houssaye's " 1815." Other histor- 
ical studies are M. Thureau-Dangin's work on 
the reign of Louis Philippe, M. Spuller's work 
on Lamennais, M. Leroy-Beaulieu's " La Pa- 
paute, L'Eglise, et la Democratic," and M. 
Benoist's " L'Eglise et 1'Etat." In poetry, M. 
Jose Maria de Heredia's " Les Trophees " is 
singled out for special praise. In fiction, the 
place of first importance is given to M. Zola's 
" La Debacle," of which we read : 

" When this work appeared its morality was the sub- 
ject of much discussion. Some of its critics took ex- 
ception to the mournful picture of the military disor- 
ganization, the despair and general hopelessness which 
marked the terrible downfall of the empire. Some, in- 
deed, went so far as to accuse M. Zola of a serious lack 
of patriotism for having thus laid bare the story of our 
army's sufferings and defeats. These criticisms do not 
seem to me to have much foundation. The catastrophe 
at Sedan, terrible as it was, had certain lessons to teach, 
and it is well that someone should have interpreted 
them. There is a patriotism, as sincere and as ardent 
as the other, which finds in a defeat something to be 
learned and pondered over for future guidance." 

Other noteworthy works of fiction are M. Bour- 
get's " Terre Promise " and " Cosmopolis," M. 
Margueritte's " Sur le Retour," M. Prevost's 
"L'Automne d'une Femme," M. France's "R6- 
tisserie de la Reine Pedauque," M. Barres's 
" L'Ennemi des Lois," and M. Lemaitre's "Les 
Rois." In criticism are mentioned a volume 
of essays by M. Brunetiere, M. de Vogue's 
*' Heures d'Histoire," and M. Doumic's " De 
Scribe a Ibsen." M. Reinach concludes his 
article in the following hopeful strain : 

" The ethic or, to use a less pretentious word, the 
moral character of literature is regaining importance. 
The most of our men of letters are writers with a thesis 
even those who seem to sacrifice the least to the de- 
sire of proving a truth; and the most wayward allow 
themselves to be impressed by the serious problems of 
the moment. In poetry, too, symbolism efforts to ex- 
press what young theorists call ' the mystery of things ' 
is a sign of the general state of men's minds. It is 
the same with the historian in the choice of subject, and 
with the character and part some assign to critics. 
<L'art pour Part,' 'le de'sinte'ressement litte'raire,' are 
phrases that have had their day, as well as descriptions 
of gross realities. The object of our best writers ap- 
pears to be to teach men what one of them calls ' le de- 
voir present et 1'action morale.'" 

Herr Robert Zimmermann, who writes the 

German article, says that the literature of his 
country at the present day has less to fear from 
a comparison with contemporary literatures 
than from a comparison with its former great- 
ness, with the " time of its literary classicism 
and philosophical idealism," which is so ob- 
vious as hardly to be worth the saying. In 
dramatic literature, nothing published has been 
found worthy of the Grillparzer prize, which 
is awarded only to dramas of inherent worth 
and proved success upon the stage. We have 
mention, however, of Herr Fulda's " Das Ver- 
lorene Paradies " and " Die Sklavin," of Herr 
Sudermann's " Hirmat," of Herr Hauptmann's 
" Die Weber," of Herr Wilbrandt's " Der 
Meister von Palmyra," and of Herr Widmann's 
" Jenseits von Gut und Bose." The latter title 
is also given to the latest philosophical work of 
Herr Nietzsche. This is a very fin de siecle 
book, as appears from the writer's comment : 
" The justifiable contention that the man who has ar- 
rived at complete moral control over himself no longer 
requires the leading-strings of duty and legal restraint 
goes too far when it is assumed that commands and 
precepts are only binding upon lower ' mankind, and 
that the ' higher,' or so-called < upper,' mankind is above 
the law and the opposite qualities of good and bad. The 
moral cynicism contained therein is veiled by the sem- 
blance of greatness that superiority to the law conjures 
up in the minds of na'ive readers and onlookers." 

Among novels, Herr Heyse's " Merlin " leads 
the list, followed by the " Per Aspera " of Dr. 
Ebers, the " Sonntagskind " of Herr Spiel- 
hagen, and the " Glaubenslos " of Frau von 
Ebner-Eschenbach. The Goethe Gesellschaft 
has been active during the year, and has done 
something towards the rehabilitation of Chris- 
tiane. There has been no end of Bismarck 
literature, mostly ephemeral. Herr Nietzsche, 
besides the book already mentioned, has pub- 
lished the fourth volume of his principal work, 
" Also Sprach Zarathustra." Having fallen a 
victim to the curse of insanity, the career of 
this brilliant writer is probably closed. 

Literature has been active in all three of the 
Scandinavian countries, and we much regret 
that Norway should be unrepresented in the 
" Athenaeum " symposium. Herr Alfred Ipsen, 
writing from Denmark, tells us : 

" The public is tired of books crammed with discus- 
sion, so that they seem the works of so many journal- 
ists tired of a sterile realism, which has ended with 
giving us only photographs of life, disregarding the 
human soul's everlasting thirst for something beyond or 
behind reality. There is a feeling that we have had 
enough of sexual abnormities and pathological phenom- 
ena enough of stories of sinful and merely sensual 
love, detailed with minute accuracy. . . . Some point 
to Maeterlinck as the prophet to come, and comment 




on his works, while they proceed to imitate him as fast 
as they can. Many still swear by Henrik Ibsen, and 
especially by his last esoteric dramas. French sym- 
bolists also are finding imitators and eulogists among 
our youngest writers, and Baudelaire has been canon- 
ized by a few young poets who ' have read him.' " 

The writer makes particular mention of the in- 
terest aroused in Denmark by the Shelley cen- 
tenary, and of Dr. A. Hansen's translation of 
" Prometheus Unbound." A sumptuous mon- 
ograph on Thorvaldsen is among the note- 
worthy books of the year, but the name of the 
author is not given. A great cooperative work 
on the Denmark of to-day is also mentioned. 
A dictionary of Danish national biography is 
being edited by Herr Hegel of the Gylden- 
dalske firm of publishers. Other books of im- 
portance are Professor P. Hansen's " History 
of the Royal Danish Theatre," Dr. Vedel's 
work upon Dante, and his " Kulturbaerere " 
("Bearers of Culture"), the latter being studies 
of Boccaccio, Petrarch, Chaucer, and others. 

Herr Hugo Tigerschibld, who writes from 
Sweden, thus characterizes the most important 
book of the year : 

" The most remarkable literary production of the 
year is certainly Louis de Geer's ' Minnen ' (' Memoirs '). 
Animated by an infinite love of truth, the aged states- 
man has bequeathed to his country the picture of a no- 
ble and upright, clear, if not altogether deep, personal- 
ity, in whose life, both private and political, one can 
never detect any but the purest motives. At the same 
time he has imparted to us in these memoirs many im- 
portant and hitherto unknown documents relating to 
Sweden's most recent history, which no one knows bet- 
ter than he who has taken such an active part in it." 

The death of the Countess Leffler-Cajanello was 
the most serious loss of Swedish letters during 
the year ; a posthumous sketch of her friend, 
Professor Sonja Kovalevski, is among the books 
of the year mentioned by the writer of this 
article. Another posthumous work of import- 
ance gives to the public the letters and me- 
moirs of the great chemist Scheele, and proves, 
we are told, " to demonstration the claims of 
Scheele to be regarded as the discoverer of 
oxygen." The following extract from the Swed- 
ish article is of much interest : 

" The difficulties which Swedish authors in the field 
of 'belles-lettres have to contend with, and which, so far 
as they result from the limited area of the language and 
the restriction of the book market to a very short period 
of the year, have already been touched upon in my pre- 
vious review, have led during the present year to a 
combination of authors into an Authors' Union. The 
narrow circle which an author in Sweden can reckon 
upon, in consequence of the limited area of the lan- 
guage in general, is made even narrower than it need 
be by several other circumstances. A torrent of trans- 
lations from foreign belles-lettres of very doubtful value, 

not uufrequently acquired by publishers at unreasona- 
bly low prices, really floods the market, and competes 
with the works of original native authors. The Union 
has, therefore, set before it the task of ostracizing both 
bad translations and translations of bad books, and 
thereby establishing fixed minimum prices for both 
translations and original works." 

The article on Italy is the work of Signori 
Ruggero Bonghi and Giovanni Zannoni, and 
the following extracts are taken from the open- 
ing paragraphs : 

" It is scarcely fifteen years since the domination of 
current Italian literature by one or the other of two 
schools of poetic thought if, indeed, they deserve the 
name seemed inevitable, and that two possible ways 
only were open to it, one of which it must follow. The 
tendency of the one school was to revert to classical 
models, more particularly Horace, both in subject-mat- 
ter and in form ; the other followed in the steps of the 
latest examples of the French naturalistic school, bor- 
rowing all its worst features and all its exaggerations." 

Of the men of the first school we read : 

" But their existence was short. The very audacity 
of their aims, and the sickly wantonness of many of 
them, not only wearied the reading public, but soon 
roused its indignation. To-day the majority of these 
poets have no alternative but to be ashamed of their 
own verses." 

The work of the other school is thus summar- 
ized : 

" The classical school, on the other hand, had a no- 
bler object and a wider scope. Giosue Carducci set 
forth its guiding principles in a volume which contains 
some of his best lyrics. He showed by his work how 
the art of Horace could best be reproduced in Italian 
lyric poetry, how best to render to Italian ears the 
music of hexameters and pentameters, alcaics and as- 
clepiads. To-day this neo-classic school seems also to 
be on the brink of dissolution, although it can still boast 
one or two good writers." 

Signer Carducci, of course, remains the one 
great poet of contemporary Italy. 

" On the 20th of September, the anniversary of the 
breach of the Porta Pia, it has now been for some years 
Carducci's custom to publish an ode on some national 
topic, inspired by the glory of our political resurrection. 
The title of this year's poem is ' II Cadore.' Cadore pos- 
sesses some of the most stirring memories in the north 
of Italy. Here it was that a long and fierce struggle 
took place against the Austrian troops. Cadore sent 
forth the best of her sons, her women, and her priests 
to fight for liberty so long as they had a drop of blood 
to shed. It was a truly heroic defense, worthy of being 
sung in epic and lyric strains, and Carducci has cele- 
brated it in lofty patriotic verse." 

After mentioning the " Odi Navali " of Signor 
d'Annunzio and the " Carmi e Odi Barbare " 
of Signor Razetti, the article continues as fol- 
lows : 

" The following tendencies are, therefore, to be noted 
in regard to the development of poetry in Italy at pres- 
ent, viz., the repudiation of the neo-classic style, even 



[Aug. 1, 

by those who have themselves closely followed it in the 
past, and the rise of a lyric poetry whose aim is to be 
the exponent of the miseries of the wretched. Hence 
academic poetry with its fixed poetic systems is falling 
into disuse, and it is not possible to save it. Upon its 
ruins is rising a new type of lyric poetry, devoting 
itself to otiose meanderings. The first fact need occa- 
sion nothing but rejoicing; the second should warn us 
to advance somewhat circumspectly. Since a young 
poetess, Ada Negri, with the true poetic instinct, strong 
and original, has carried a generous wrath into glowing 
verses, too many have thought themselves to be inspired 
by the social muse ; but its notes are harsh and sombre. 
No longer do we see the old-fashioned Arcadia with its 
piping shepherds, but another type of Arcadia per- 
haps a less pleasing one with its oppressed and its 

Among novels we are especially asked to note 
Signer Praga's " La Biondina," Signer de Ros- 
si's " Mai d'Amore," Signer Farina's " Amore 
Bugiarda," Signer Mambrini's " A Bordo," 
and Signora Serao's " Castigo." In miscella- 
neous literature, Signora Beri's " In Calabria," 
Senatore Pasolini's " Caterina Sforza," Signer 
Centelli's " Caterina Cornaro e il Sue Regno," 
and Signer Carducci's " La Storia del Giorno 
di Giuseppe Parini," seem to be particularly 

Senor Riano leads off his discussion of con- 
temporary Spanish letters with some remarks 
upon the books called forth by the Columbus 
centenary. Among these we note " Autografos 
de Cristobal Colon y Papeles de America," a 
volume of original documents published by the 
Duchess of Berwick and Alba, and Senor 
Asensio's " Fuentes Historicas Sobre Colon y 
America." The writer thus concludes the Co- 
lumbus section of his article : 

"To end with this topic, which is becoming rather 
tedious, I may conclude by saying that two important 
points have been gained: one is that it is almost certain 
that Columbus's birthplace was Savona; the other that 
Amerigo Vespucci never thought of giving, or pretended 
to give, his own name to the new continent discovered 
by Columbus, but that it was entirely the fault of those 
who drew the first charts of the discovered continent." 

We are also told of the Congress of Ameri- 
canists assembled last October at Huelva, and 
of the linguistic studies stimulated by that 
gathering. There has been of late a consider- 
able revival in Spain of interest in Arabic 
studies, as the following paragraph will show : 

" For some time past my countrymen seem to have 
arrived at the conviction that the study of the Oriental 
languages, and principally of the Magrebi or Western 
Arabic, is not only indispensable for the complete knowl- 
edge of the national annals, but also useful in view of 
Spain's mercantile and political relations with Morocco. 
Hence it is that the number of chairs or professorships 
at the universities has been increased; that manuscripts 
have been bought at Tunis, Algiers, and elsewhere ; and 

that numerous publications are daily being made on 
the history and geography of Mohammedan Spain. I 
scarcely need call your readers' attention to the collec- 
tion of Hispano-Arab historians which the learned Pro- 
fessor of Arabic at the University of Madrid is now 
continuing, and the eighth volume of which, containing 
the text of Ebu Alfaradhf, a writer of the fourteenth cen- 
tury of our era, has just appeared. Under the title of 
' Estudios sobre la Invasion de los Arabes en Espana,' 
Saavedra (Don Eduardo) has published what may be 
rightly denominated a luminous essay on the invasion of 
Spain by the Moors." 

In belles-lettres, nothing of special importance 
has appeared during the year, unless we ac- 
cord that distinction to " Mariana " and " Do- 
lores," two comedies by Senor Echegaray. 

M. Paul Fredericq's Belgian article opens 
as follows : 

"The two principal events in the annals of French 
literature in Belgium during the last twelve months are 
the republication of the ' Le'gende d'Uylenspiegel ' of 
the late Charles de Coster, and the production at Paris 
of the ' Pelldas et Mdlisaude ' of M. Maurice Maeter- 

Other works deemed worthy of special mention 
are M. Nautet's " Histoire des Lettres Beiges 
d'Expression Francaise," M. Eekhoud's " Au 
Siecle de Shakespeare," M. Kurth's " L'His- 
toire Poetique des Merovingiens," the conclu- 
sion of " L'CEuvre de P. P. Rubens," by M. 
Rooses, and the conclusion of the " Cours 
d'Histoire Nationale," by Mgr. Nameche. Of 
the latter work we read : 

" The twenty-ninth and last volume of Mgr. Nameche's 
great ' Cours d'Histoire Nationale ' has just made its ap- 
pearance, although the author died, at the age of eighty- 
two, in January last. This volume stops at the year 
1804, and deals with the history of Belgium under the 
Consulate. The first volume of this vast and scholarly 
composition was published forty years ago." 

Among books written in the Flemish language, 
the writer gives the place of first importance 
to M. van Zuylen's " De Belgische Taalwetten 
Toegelicht," a work " designed to furnish an 
account of the laws on the official use of the 
two national languages." The death of La- 
veleye has been the great loss of the year in 
Belgian letters. 

From Holland, Mr. Taco H. de Beer writes 
to inform us that " there is a dreadful monot- 
ony about the middle-class Dutchman and about 
the ordinary society of the Dutch East Indies, 
which form the staple materials of our novel- 
ists." The successes in Dutch fiction have been 
" Eene Illusie," by Mr. Couperus, " Johannes 
Viator," by Mr. van Eeden, and " De Bre- 
deros," a historical novel by Professor Jan ten 
Brink. Among plays, " Petrus Dathenus," 
by Mr. Hoogewerf, and " Het Goudvischje," 




by Mr. van Nouhuys, are noted. The follow- 
ing note is of curious philological interest : 

" What might interest English readers is the appear- 
ance of a little book of Professor Bulbring, the well- 
known philologist from Heidelberg, who lately was made 
Professor of English at Groningen. The oratio inau- 
guralis of the Professor of English at a Dutch univer- 
sity was delivered in German ! The professor's pre- 
decessor was never heard speaking English in public, 
nor will the present professor address his audience in 
that language. As Professor Bulbring discoursed about 
' Wege und Ziele der Englischen Philologie,' it is rather 
curious that he did not prove by example that speaking 
the language is one of the aims of English philology." 

Contemporary Russian literature is treated 
at some length by Mr. P. Milyoukov, who does 
not, however, find many important works to 
mention. What he says of the literary tenden- 
cies of the last decades is highly interesting. 

" The ' men of the eighties,' who made a virtue of 
their want of principle, have been silent. It is not so 
long ago that they were making a stir and causing people 
to talk of them, although by no means formidable; but 
latterly, although certain publicists belonging to the 
party still continue to pour out the vials of their wrath, 
nobody pays them any attention. Again, during the 
1 seventies ' a curious movement sprang up which was 
called ' going among the people,' and consisted in an 
adoption of the life of farm labourers by educated and 
cultivated young men, who thus established colonies 
amongst the peasantry which served as centres for the 
spread of socialism. During the ' eighties ' these set- 
tlements succumbed to the prevalent tone, and, cutting 
themselves off from their surroundings, devoted them- 
selves, partly under the influence of Tolstoy's teach- 
ings, to the work of self-perfection. To-day they have 
taken a new departure. They have recognized that this 
self-centred work of internal improvement leads in- 
evitably to mysticism and sectarianism, and deprives 
them of all wider influence. In a word, the rise in the 
social temperature, which I recorded last year, continues 
unmistakably. The Russian social movement is clearly 
preparing itself for fresh and increasing efforts. To 
begin with, after putting aside the programme of the 
1 men of the eighties,' we have commenced an active 
survey of the social programmes of preceding periods. 
This is, indeed, the meaning of a renewal of the contro- 
versy between our liberals and our radicals, or party of 
the people; for in a country where eighty-eight per 
cent of the population are peasants, radicalism is bound 
to be popular." 

A few of the publications mentioned by Mr. 
Milyoukov are the " Village Communes " of 
Vorontzov, an " Essay in Russian Historiog- 
raphy," by Professor Ikonnikov, and a volume 
of " Sketches and Tales," by Korolenko. 

Mr. Adam Belcikowski, who writes of things 
Polish, calls our attention to " Lux in Tenebris 
Lucet," and " Do We Follow Him," both by 
Mr. Sienkiewicz, and both showing signs of an 
encroaching mysticism which we hope will not 
make of this great writer a second Tolstoi. 
" Charcyzy," a historical novel by Mr. Rawita, 

and " The Annals of the Western Slavs," by 
Mr. Bogulawski, are other noticeable books of 
the year. Mr. V. Tille, the Bohemian corres- 
pondent, reports much Comenius literature, 
two volumes of poems and one of essays by 
Mr. Vrchlicky, the first part of Mr. Vlcek's 
" History of Bohemian Literature," and a gen- 
eral tendency towards realism. Herr Leopold 
Katcher, writing from Hungary, praises " The 
Gyurkovics Girls," by Mr. Ferencz Herczeg, 
the True Stories " of Dr. Adolf Agai, Mr. 
Gracza's " Life and Work of Kossuth," and 
the " Social Economy " of Professor Foldes. 
Mr. Jokai, also, has published a novel, "Brother 
George," in five volumes. This popular writer 
is soon to celebrate " the half-centenary of his 
literary activity " or rather it will be cele- 
brated for him by the publication of his col- 
lected works in a limited edition de luxe. Last 
of all upon our list comes an article from Greece, 
by Mr. S. P. Lambros, who tells us of Mr. 
Karkavitsas, and his tales, called "Diegemata"; 
of " The Eyes of My Soul," by Mr. Palamas, 
and " The Singer of the Village and the Fold," 
by Mr. Krystallis, both volumes being verse. 
With these notes we must bring to an end our 
digest of this very valuable series of articles, 
referring our readers to the pages of " The 
Athenaeum " both for other titles and for further 
details concerning the books that we have sin- 
gled out for mention. 


The space at our disposal in the last issue of THE 
DIAL was so fully taken up with the account of the 
Congress of Authors that we were obliged to post- 
pone our report of the four other Congresses held 
during the week ending July 15. The subjects of 
those Congresses were, as our readers have already 
been informed, Philology, Folk-lore, History, and 


The Congress of Philologists embraced the regu- 
lar annual meeting of the American Philological 
Association, specially appointed meetings of the 
Modern Language Association of America and the 
American Dialect Society, a meeting of the Spelling 
Reform Association, and a number of general meet- 
ings for the consideration of papers not presented 
by the organized bodies of philologists above men- 
tioned. The Congress assembled, as a whole, what 
was probably the most important gathering of phil- 
ologists that ever met in the United States ; and 
there is likely to follow, as one of its consequences, 
a series of biennial joint meetings of the philological 
societies of the country. The American Philolog- 
ical Association usually devotes the first evening 



[Aug. 1, 

session of its annual meeting to an address, upon 
some subject of extra-philological interest, by the 
President for the year. Professor William Gard- 
ner Hale, of the University of Chicago, has occu- 
pied that position for the year just ended, and his 
address was given Tuesday evening, July 11, the 
subject being " Democracy and Education." It was 
a scholarly exposition of the particular perils to 
which the higher education is exposed in a demo- 
cratic environment, and, in the case of our own 
country, opened a fairly hopeful outlook upon the 
future. Among the papers read before the Asso- 
ciation at its subsequent sessions we may mention 
the following as of special value : " The Language 
of the Law," by Mr. H. L. Baker ; Vedic Studies," 
by Professor Maurice Bloomfield ; and " The Re- 
mote Deliberative in Greek," by Professor W. G. 
Hale. On Wednesday and Friday mornings, there 
were held two " general sessions," devoted mainly 
to the papers offered by distinguished European 
guests of the Association. These papers included 
" The Connection between Indian and Greek Phi- 
losophy," by Professor Richard Garbe, of Konigs- 
berg ; " Helles and Dunkles I im Lateinischen," 
by Professor Hermann Osthoff, of Heidelberg; 
" Indogermanische Ablautprobleme," by Professor 
Wilhelm Streitberg, of Freiburg ( Switzerland ) ; 
and " The Scientific Emendation of Classical Texts," 
by Professor E. A. Sonnenschein, of Birmingham. 
Other papers read at these sessions were : " Some 
Problems in Greek Syntax," by Professor Basil L. 
Gildersleeve ; " The Relation of Philology to His- 
tory," by Professor M. Bloomfield ; and " The Eth- 
ical and Psychological Implications of the Style of 
Thucydides," by Professor Paul Shorey. A paper 
on "Unpublished Manuscript Treasures," by Mr. 
T. G. Pinches, of the British Museum, was pre- 
sented at one of the sessions. Mr. Pinches had 
made his preparations to be present at the Congress, 
but was, at the last moment, detained in London 
by a vexatious lawsuit. A paper sent by Professor 
Michel Bre'al, of the College de France, had for its 
subject "Canons of Etymological Investigation," 
and was made the basis of an interesting discus- 
sion, opened by Professor B. I. Wheeler. Another 
discussion, led by Professor M. Bloomfield, had for 
its theme the "Importance of Uniformity in the 
Transliteration of non-Roman Alphabets." The 
Association, before adjourning, transacted its regu- 
lar business, and elected Professor James M. Gar- 
nett, of the University of Virginia, as President for 
the coming year. 

The meeting of the Modern Language Associa- 
tion comprised two sessions, both on Thursday, July 
13. Among the papers presented were : " The 
Language of the Sciences and a Universal Lan- 
guage," by Professor F. A. March ; " German Phi- 
lology in America," by Professor M. D. Learned ; 
and " The Training of College and University Pro- 
fessors," by Professor A. Rambeau. The Ameri- 
can Dialect Society and the Spelling Reform Asso- 
ciation had one session each. 

The sessions not held under the special auspices 
of the philological organizations were seven in num- 
ber, and offered a preponderance of papers upon 
subjects in the department of oriental archaeology. 
These papers were collected by Mrs. Elizabeth A. 
Reed, and to this lady is due a special word of 
praise for her efforts in behalf of the Congress. 
Dr. Max Ohnefalsch-Richter, of Berlin, lectured 
upon Cypriote archaeology ; and Professor W. H. 
Goodyear, of Brooklyn, summarized the line of 
argument, based upon a study of prehistoric orna- 
ment, that has made him a firm believer in the 
non-Asiatic origin of the Aryans. Both these lec- 
tures were illustrated with the lantern. Other speak- 
ers and papers comprised in the programmes of 
these miscellaneous sessions were : " Old Testament 
History in the Light of Recent Discoveries," by 
Dr. William C. Winslow, who represents the Egypt 
Exploration Fund in this country ; and " Cleopatra," 
a lecture by Dr. Samuel A. Binion, of New York. 

The following papers (the writers not being pre- 
sent) were among those sent to be read at the Con- 
gress : " Greek Ceramography in Relation to Greek 
Mythology," by Miss Jane Harrison of London ; 
" Schliemann's Excavations," by Mrs. Schliemann, 
of Athens ; " Assyrian and Babylonian Libraries," 
by Professor A. H. Sayce, of Oxford ; " Babylonian 
and Assyrian Archaeology," by Mr. Hormuzd Ras- 
sam, of London ; and " Koptic Art and Its Relation 
to Early Christian Ornament," by Dr. Georg Ebers, 
of Munich. 


The Congress of Historians was called to order 
by Dr. W. F. Poole, on Tuesday morning, July 11, 
and was organized by the choice of Dr. James B. 
Angell, of Michigan University, as President, and 
Dr. Herbert B. Adams, of Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity, as Secretary. These gentlemen hold the same 
positions in the American Historical Association, 
and nearly all the contributors of papers are mem- 
bers of the same Association. The sessions were 
continued morning and evening for three days, the 
afternoons being devoted to the Fair at Jackson 
Park. Notwithstanding the fact that five Con- 
gresses were in progress at the same time and un- 
der the same roof, the history sessions were at- 
tended by several hundred interested auditors, and 
the Congress was regarded by all as a complete suc- 
cess. Universities and colleges were largely repre- 
sented in the scheme of exercises. Of the contri- 
butors of the thirty-three papers, three were presi- 
dents of universities and seventeen were professors, 
most of them professors of history. Of the other 
contributors, ten were well-known historical writers, 
and four were ladies, whose papers were among the 
most interesting read. It will be seen that ama- 
teur historians and sensational theorists had no 
place in the programme. President Angell was the 
reader of the first paper, his subject being " The 
Inadequate Recognition of Diplomatists by His- 
torians." It was listened to with great interest, 




and set forth the eminent services of diplomatists, 
whose names, in connection with these services, are 
rarely mentioned by English and American histor- 
ians. French and Continental writers have a better 
appreciation of historical justice. The discussion 
of " The Value of National Historical Archives," 
by Mrs. Ellen Hardin Walworth, of Saratoga, was 
one of the ablest and most practical papers read at 
the Congress. It depicted in eloquent and forcible 
terms the need of such a department at Washing- 
ton. All the other great, and many of the smaller, 
nations of the world have departments of archives, 
and the United States has none. The student of 
American history must go, or send, to Europe, or 
to Canada (which has an excellent department of 
state papers), to find documents which should be 
in Washington. Mrs. Walworth concluded by offer- 
ing a resolution to the effect that a committee be 
appointed to memorialize our national Congress to 
establish such a department. An earnest discussion 
followed, supporting the resolution, and it passed 

Dr. James Schouler, of Boston, and Dr. Charles 
J. Little, of the Northwestern University, happily 
discussed " The Methods of Historical Investiga- 
tion " and " The Historical Method of Writing the 
History of Christian Doctrine." Dr. Fred. Ban- 
croft read a paper on "Mr. Seward's Position to- 
ward the South from November, 1860, to March 4, 
1861." On Wednesday morning, " Pre-Columbian 
Discovery," "Prince Henry, the Navigator," and 
" The Economic Conditions of Spain in the Sixteenth 
Century " were ably treated by the Hon. J. P. Bax- 
ter, of Portland, Me., Prof. E. G. Bourne, of Adel- 
bert College, and Prof. Bernard Moses, of the Uni- 
versity of California ; and Prof. Lucy M. Salmon, of 
Vassar College, read a good paper on " The Union of 
Utrecht." In the evening the Hon. William Henry 
Smith, of Lake Forest, and Mr. Reuben G. Thwaites, 
of Madison, Wis., read interesting papers on " Early 
Slavery in the Northwest " and " Early Lead Min- 
ing in Illinois and Wisconsin." Thursday morning 
opened with a scholarly paper by Dr. L. H. Boutell, 
of Chicago, on " Roger Sherman in the National 
Constitutional Convention," in which he replied to 
the claim made by Dr. Charles J. Stille", in his 
life of John Dickinson, that Dickinson was the 
author of the provisions of the Constitution con- 
cerning the number and choice of Senators. Other 
excellent papers were read, which we have not 
space to mention. The time, during the six sessions 
of more than two hours each, was fully occupied, 
and it was necessary to omit the reading of papers 
when their writers were not present. 


It is quite impossible to summarize, in any de- 
tailed way, within the limits of the space available, 
the results of a Congress that cost months of active 
preparation and extended through six busy days. 
Only the barest outlines can be presented. The 
Congress was planned and held in the face of op- 

position and discouragement from organized bodies 
in London and Boston the American Folk-Lore 
Society's Secretary declaring that it would be im- 
practicable to hold a World's Congress in the United 
States at this time. In view of the phenomenal suc- 
cess of the Congress, these elements of difficulty 
and discouragement should be noted ; as should the 
fact that the success is very largely due to the un- 
tiring labors and enthusiasm of Lieut. F. S. Bassett, 
chairman of the committee of arrangements. This 
was the third International Congress of Folk-lore 
ever held, and really the first to which all nations 
were invited, and in which representatives from 
nearly all civilized peoples of the earth participated. 
More than thirty nationalities were represented, one 
hundred persons actively participating in the literary 
exercises, and more than a hundred in the concert. 
Twelve sessions were held, at which sixty-eight pa- 
pers and addresses were read and forty-seven sep- 
arate songs were sung, in addition to the phono- 
graphic chants. The geographical range of the 
essays was unrestricted. The folk-lore of all lands 
was treated at the hands of those who were natives, 
or who had lived in the lands of which they spoke, 
from Corea to Dalmatia. Many distinguished folk- 
lore scholars from abroad assisted personally in 
this exposition of the folk-lore of Asia, Africa, Eu- 
rope, and the two Americas. Among these were 
the Hon. John Abercromby, Vice President of the 
English Folk-lore Society ; Mr. Michel Smigrodzki, 
of Poland, a member of the Paris Socie'te' des Tra- 
ditions Populaires ; Mr. Vucasovic, of Dalmatia ; 
Mr. Mihic, of Servia; Mr. Beers, Secretary of the 
New Orleans Society ; the Hon. Lorin Thurston, of 
Honolulu; Dr. V. I. Shopoff, of Bulgaria; Mr. 
Paul Groussac, of Buenos Ayres ; and Mr. Ludwig 
Krwyzinski, of Poland. 

The scientific range of the papers read was also 
remarkable. No branch of folk-lore was unrepre- 
sented. Myths, legends, customs, superstitions, re- 
ligions, songs, in fact, all branches of folk-speech, 
folk-wont, and folk-thought, were dealt with. Par- 
ticularly were the legends and customs of the Amer- 
ican aborigines treated at the hands of such experts 
as Surgeon Matthews, Lieutenant Scott, Dr. East- 
man, Mr. James Deans, Mr. Quelch, Lieutenant 
Welles, and Mr. Groussac. Dr. Matthews's wonder- 
ful collection of phonographed Navajo songs, and 
Lieutenant Scott's exposition of the sign language, 
were especially meritorious. Nor was the black man 
neglected. He carried off the honors at the con- 
cert, and in the hands of Miss Owen, Mrs. Watson, 
and Mrs. Sheldon, his superstitions and customs 
and his strange literature were ably represented. 
Many of these essays were made more popular by 
the objects from strange lands used in illustrating 
them, as, for example, Dr. Matthews's " Navajo 
Rites," Mr. Stephen's Hopi pigments, Mrs. French- 
Sheldon's African charms, Mr. Smigrodzki's tablet 
of the Svastika, and Mr. Quelch's South American 
musical instruments. 



[Aug. 1, 

The bibliography of folk-lore has never received 
the attention here given to it. Signor Pitre* for 
Italy, M. Sdbillot for France and Creole literature, 
Seiior Rodriguez for Venezuela, and the Rev. J. C. 
O'Hanlon for Ireland, fully presented the folk-lore 
bibliography of those lands. What may be called 
literary folk-lore received excellent treatment in 
Dr. Prato's exhaustive article on "The Symbolism 
of the Vase," Mr. Field's charming poem, Mrs. 
Catherwood's Loup-garou story, Professor Drago- 
monov and Mr. Head's " Taming of the Shrew," 
Dr. Carsten's analysis of Longfellow's " Golden 
Legend," and the Hon. John Abercromby's magic 
Finnish poetry. 

But it was in folk-song particularly that this Con- 
gress excelled. Besides the full collection of Na- 
vajo songs made by Dr. Matthews, and the really 
beautiful folk-songs of Mr. Smigrodzki, Mr. Mihic, 
and Mr. Cable, a concert consisting of more than 
forty solos and choruses, and embracing folk-music 
from Japan, India, Ceylon, Turkey, Africa, Swe- 
den, Norway, Russia, Poland, Bohemia, England, 
Italy, Scotland, Spain, France, Wales, and North 
and South America, was rendered by natives of 
those lands in the costumes and languages of the 
countries, and accompanied frequently by their own 
strange instruments. This concert, made possible 
only by the presence of specially-organized World's 
Fair choruses, and by the courtesy of various for- 
eign commissioners, was given free to the public in 
the two great halls of the Art Institute, to more 
than six thousand people, the numbers given in one 
hall being repeated to the audience in the other 
immediately after their performance in the first. Mr. 
Frederick W. Root, who arranged the concert, de- 
serves the greatest credit for successfully accom- 
plishing this task, without a rehearsal, and with no 
precedent to guide him. 

In the Folk-lore Congress, as in others, women 
played a very important part. Very much of the 
success of this Congress was due to the admirable 
tact, perseverance and effort of the acting chair- 
man of the Woman's Committee, Mrs. S. F. Bassett. 
Eight essays were contributed by women, and much 
of the success of the concert was due to them. 


The annual meeting of the American Library As- 
sociation, which is always an occasion of very great 
interest to all persons engaged in library work, was 
merged, this year, into the Congress of Librarians, 
the papers read and subjects discussed taking, in 
consequence, a somewhat wider range than is usual 
at the meetings of the Association. The Congress 
was opened on Wednesday morning, July 12, by 
the chairman of the local committee, Mr. F. H. 
Hild. Mr. Melvil E. Dewey, President of the Amer- 
ican Library Association, who was selected to pre- 
side at the first day's Congress, delivered the open- 
ing address, in which he comprehensively reviewed 
library progress in the United States during the 
present century. He was followed by Mr. Fred- 

erick M. Crunden, Librarian of the St. Louis Pub- 
lic Library, who read an interesting paper on " The 
Librarian as Administrator." The second session 
of the Congress, on Thursday morning, was pre- 
sided over by Mr. Samuel S. Green, Librarian of 
the Worcester Public Library, who read an able 
paper on "State Library Commissions." Mr. R. 
R. Bowker, of "The Library Journal," followed 
with a paper on " National Bibliography," and the 
session closed with a paper by Prof. R. C. Davis, 
Librarian of the University of Michigan, on " An 
Over-use of Books." On Friday morning Mr. Fred- 
erick M. Crunden called the third session of the Con- 
gress to order. The first paper was by Mr. Charles 
A. Cutter, formerly Librarian of the Boston Athe- 
naeum, who spoke on " The Note of the American 
Library." Mr. E. H. Woodruff, Librarian of the 
Leland Stanford University, read an admirable pa- 
per on " Present Tendencies in University Libra- 
ries." He was followed by Dr. Emil G. Hirsch, 
President of the Chicago Public Library Board, 
whose remarks on " The Public Library in its Re- 
lation to Education " were listened to with the 
greatest attention. Among other papers read at 
this session were one on " The International Mutual 
Relations of Libraries," by Dr. Carl Dziatzko of the 
University Library of Gottingen, and one on " The 
Direct Interchange of Manuscripts between Libra- 
ries," by Dr. O. Hartwig, of the Royal University 
Library of Halle. Both of these papers were read by 
Mr. E. F. L. Gauss, who had made excellent trans- 
lations of the German originals. Two excellent pa- 
pers were presented by women librarians ; viz., 
Miss C. M. Hewins, Librarian of the Hartford Li- 
brary Association, on " The Pictorial Resources of 
a Small Library," and Miss Jessie Allan, of the 
Omaha Public Library, on " The Library as a 
Teacher of Literature." The closing session of the 
Congress, on Saturday morning, was presided over 
by Miss M. S. R. James, Librarian of the People's 
Palace, London, who read a most interesting paper 
on " The People's Palace and Its Library." Mr. 
Peter Cowell, Librarian of the Liverpool Public 
Libraries, addressed the Congress on the subject of 
"How to Popularize the Public Library." Mr. 
E. C. Richardson, Librarian of Princeton College, 
read a paper on " Library Science and Other 
Sciences," and was followed by Miss Tessa Kelso, 
of the Los Angeles Public Library, who gave an 
animated address on " Some Economic Features 
of a Library." Mr. William I. Fletcher, Librarian 
of Amherst College, spoke on " The Library Cata- 
logue of the Twentieth Century," and Miss Kather- 
ine L. Sharp, Librarian of the Armour Institute, 
read in conclusion an interesting paper on " The 
Library Exhibit at the World's Fair." For want 
of time, some six additional papers on the pro- 
gramme were read by title only before the Congress 
adjourned. Following the four sessions of the Con- 
gress, the American Libraiy Association held six 
meetings, at the various libraries in Chicago, dur- 
ing the week beginning July 17. 




(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

In THE DIAL for July 1, I examined very briefly 
certain uses of known to and unknown to. The exam- 
ination was ancillary to the more important inquiry, 
Has " F. H." ever erred ? Following the same line of 
research, I now submit, with illustrative quotations, a 
word or two about but; premising, as in my former let- 
ter, that " F. H." has identified himself in the public 
press as the author of " Modern English." 

Dr. Hall, or " F. H.," commenting adversely on Lan- 
dor's praise of Gray's English, says: 

" But is Gray's English, from the ordinary point of view, 
altogether faultless ? Look at ... his preterites begun, run, 
and throwed ; and his past participles broke, chose, and wrote. 
Add his . . . ' none but they '; ' nobody but /'; ' I have seen 
nothing, neither '; ' nor drink out of nothing but '; ' every- 
body . . . them.' In his Progress of Poesy, furthermore, he 
violates all idiom by," etc. ("Modern English," pp. 103-4, 

A careful reading of Dr. Hall's note can leave no 
doubt, I think, in the mind of anybody that the words 
and phrases quoted in it were regarded by Dr. Hall as 
bad English. And no doubt most of them must be so 
regarded now. But are they all bad ? 

Pausing first to remark that Gray wrote the English 
of his time, the grammar of which was very unsettled, 
I venture to say that " none but they " and " nobody but 
/ " are very good English, as good English as there 
is. Of course I don't mean that the prepositional use 
of but with the objective case is bad English. 

"... although no man was in our parts spoken of but he 
for his manhood . . ." (Sir Philip Sidney, " Arcadia," Col- 
lected Writings, edition of 1598, p. 38.) 

" There is none but he, 
Whose being I doe feare." 

("Macbeth," III., i., First Folio, reduced fac-simile.) 
" Not out of confidence that none but wee 
Are able to present this Tragedie." 

(Chapman," Bussy D'Ambois," Prologue.) 
"... yet who would keep him company but I ? " (Id.) 
" An humerous dayes mirth." (Tragedies and Comedies, 
London, 1873.) 

" Then came brave Glorie puffing by 

In silks that whistled, who but he ? " (George 
Herbert, "The Temple" [The Quip], first ed., fac-simile 
reprint, p. 103.) 

"... and none but they can carry Arms . . ." (James 
Howell, " Familiar Letters," Sect. I., xxxx., ed. of 1645, p. 80.) 
" The most obvious answer, then, to the question, why we 
yield to the authority of the Church in the questions and de- 
velopments of faith, is, that some authority there must be if 
there is a revelation, and other authority there is none but 
she." (Cardinal Newman, "An Essay on the Development 
of Christian Doctrine," London, 1846, pp. 126-7.) 

" Under such circumstances, any men but they would have 
had a strong leaning towards what is called ' Conservatism.' " 
(Id., " Historical Sketches," London, 1885, Vol. iii., p. 131.) 
" And in his hand he shakes the brand 

Which none but he can wield." 
(Macaulay, " Lays of Ancient Rome," Horatius, xlii.) 

"... since none puts by 
The curtain 1 have drawn for you, but I." 

(Browning, "My Last Duchess.") 

Our old young friend Casabianca turns up here. A 
remark in Wells's Grammar, citing 

" The boy stood on the burning deck, 
Whence all but hint had fled," 

is quoted by Goold Brown in The Grammar of English 
Grammars " (p. 596, 10th edition, New York, 1880) . In 
the carefully printed Philadelphia edition (seven vol- 
umes, 1840) of the works of Mrs. Hemans, the lines read: 
" The boy stood on the burning deck 
Whence all but he had fled." 

Sometimes, of course, the objective case is required 
whether the construction be regarded as conjunctional 
or prepositional. 

"... one that hath no other guide but him. . . ." (Sir 
Philip Sidney, "The Defence of Poesie," Collected Writings, 
edition of 1598, p. 498.) 

The quotations from Cardinal Newman that are 
given above are especially interesting here, because Dr. 
Hall has expressed very emphatically his opinion as to 
the correctness of Newman's writing. In his " Modern 
English" (p. 292, footnote), he says: 

" Dr. Newman, when writing at his best, comes nothing 
short of Addison, for grace, and, for correctness, is incompar- 
ably his superior. . . . Having studied nearly every line of 
Dr. Newman's voluminous writings, I am surprised to find how 
little there is in them, as regards words and uses of words, to 
arrest unfavourable attention." 

And at page 329, he writes: 

"... some of the choicest of living English writers em- 
ploy it [a certain locution] freely. Preeminent among these 
stands Dr. Newman. . . ." 

Some instances where Cardinal Newman's English 
has arrested the " unfavourable attention " of Dr. Hall 
are mentioned in his note at page 292, but the use of 
the nominative case after but is not among them. 


New Haven, Conn., July 23, 1893. 

(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

To a student of the Elizabethan drama one of the 
significant facts of the times is the great interest in 
the drama manifested by the universities and public 
schools throughout the period. Not only were plays 
from the classics revived, but original compositions in 
Latin in great numbers were written and performed be- 
fore the students, while many of the best productions of 
the English dramatists of the period were acted with 
great applause at Oxford and Cambridge. The uni- 
versities, too, turned out, with or without honors, many 
of the most accomplished Elizabethan playwrights and 
poets, and in one way or another took no inconsiderable 
part in the development of that great drama which is 
now the pride of English-speaking people. 

In these days of Independent Theatres and of uni- 
versity revivals of classic Greek and Latin plays, is it 
not a little singular that the universities do not go a 
step farther and attempt the revival of some of the 
neglected classic plays of English literature, as well as 
of Greek and Latin literature ? Nothing could more 
strikingly serve both to emphasize and to promote the 
reviving interest in the study of English literature than 
attempts of this sort. It may be trusted that the an- 
cient Puritanism of our colleges is sufficiently mellowed 
by time ere this to permit such a vanity, and surely 
among the many new methods of teaching literature 
none could be more engaging to the healthy taste of 
youth than this, and none could serve to connect the 
study more closely with life. C. 

Chicago, July 20, 1893. 



[Aug. 1, 

Ncto Books. 

LIFE." * 

Those who have read Marianne North's 
" Recollections of a Happy Life " will approve 
the publishing by the editor, Mrs. J. A. Sy- 
monds, of a supplementary volume of " Further 
Recollections " containing certain earlier chap- 
ters of Miss North's journals omitted from the 
original work. We may say at once that while 
the new volume lacks the scientific interest of 
its predecessor, it easily surpasses it in wit and 
vivacity. The chapters now given were orig- 
inally omitted, chiefly, as the editor tells us, 
because the journeys described were over what 
is nowadays comparatively well-trodden ground 
an objection, however, which loses force in 
the case of narrators whose " travel-pictures," 
like Miss North's, are largely a reflection of tem- 
perament. Miss North had, in a special sense, 
her own way of seeing things. What she des- 
cribes comes to us tinged and refracted, as it 
were, through a quite peculiar medium ; so 
that it really matters little in point of novelty 
whether her observations are made from the 
deck of a Nile dahabieh or from the top of a 
Brompton omnibus, the results being in either 
case largely out of the average ken. 

The most objective and guide-lookish of Miss 
North's descriptions have, however, a certain 
value of their own, in that they enable us to con- 
trast the travel of thirty years ago with the 
more convenient, if less picturesque, methods 
of our own day. Railways and Cook's steamers 
had not then, in Spain and on the Nile, quite 
supplanted the leisurely arrangements of more 
primitive travel. The jogging, jingling cara- 
van of mules is now, almost everywhere, a thing 
of the past ; so is the old Spanish diligence 
a delightful vehicle in which Miss North was 
whirled " at a furious pace over zig-zag passes 
and round shoulders of the Pyrenees, racing 
with a rival diligence in a most breakneck 
manner, too shaken and exhausted even to no- 
tice the wondrous change of vegetation." There 
is a big hotel now at Luxor ! fitted with the 
"modern improvements," and affected by squads 
of Cook-forwarded pilgrims ; and, in short, the 
ubiquitous railway, wafting abroad the winged 
seeds of the " Anglo-Saxon contagion," will in 

lected from the Journals of Marianne North, chiefly between 
the years 1859-69. Edited by her sister, Mrs. John A. Sy- 
monds. With portraits. New York : Macmillan & Co. 

a few more years have made travel, as the edi- 
tor laments, " everywhere exactly alike." 

" Further Recollections " is essentially a trans- 
cript of the journals kept by the author from 
1859 to 1870, while travelling with her father 
in Spain, Switzerland, Egypt, and the Levant. 
The thread of continuity supplied in the open- 
ing volume by the scientific purpose of the 
writer's later journeyings, is here lacking. It 
is distinctly the work of a younger woman 
of a fresh young girl with a fair stock of read- 
ing and a vast stock of animal spirits, whose 
keen enjoyment of the novelties of foreign 
travel is bracingly manifest in every page of 
her diary. Miss North was a specially stout- 
hearted and independent traveller, one of the 
sort whose elasticity of spirits is more than 
proof against the annoyances and discomforts 
that form the melancholy refrain of the narra- 
tives of less resolute pilgrims. The direst mis- 
hap serves, with her, to point a jest. At the 
very start, for instance, a precious portmanteau 
(one portmanteau, containing everything that 
this admirable woman thought necessary for a 
journey of several months) fell overboard in 
the harbor at St. Heliers : 

" Everything was thoroughly soaked, and had to be 
spread out separately to dry; all my paints, paper, and 
dress (only one) ; for we took the least possible luggage, 
and yet had everything we really needed, even luxu- 
ries^) including a bonnet, whose crown I used to stuff 
with a compact roll of stockings and cram into a hole 
left for it amongst my underclothing, just big enough to 
contain it: when taken out it would be damped and set in 
the sun, with the stockings still in the crown, and it 
stretched itself into proper shape again, and was the 
admiration of all beholders." 

Very different, we may note in passing, 
from Miss North's slender effects must have 
been the baggage train of the American ladies 
(the " Skinners of Boston ") whom she saw 
later at Phila? tripping about among the rel- 
ics of the Pharaohs, appropriately dressed 
" in Worth's very latest fashions," and con- 
voyed by a male apparition clad " in a com- 
plete suit of cineraria color, from stockings to 
cap." Sarcastic Miss North ! She even goes 
on to say that, owing to this " Yankee incur- 
sion " (that is her disrespectful expression) 
from the Back Bay, " the place lost half its 
charm," etc. 

A pleasanter American experience was her 
meeting with Miss Hosmer in Rome in 1860. 

" Once Miss Raincock took me to see Gibson's young 
American pupil, Miss Hosmer, in a large unfurnished 
studio she had just taken, where she was preparing to 
make a portrait statue of some famous countryman, it 
was to be nine feet high, she said (looking herself like 




a small child) ; she had only one chair, which she gave 
me, as the stranger ; seating our old friend on the table, 
she mounted to the top of a high ladder herself, from 
whence she chattered and laughed with the happy air of 
one who is sure to please. Miss Raincock had once re- 
ceived a note from Gibson, That poor American girl 
has fever, come and nurse her,' so she had packed up 
her old carpet-bag and gone at once to obey the order, 
thus forming a friendship for life." 

But Miss North's turn for satirical portrait- 
ure was by no means reserved for Americans. 
Among the most amusing of her " Innocents 
Abroad " was a Frenchman, a fellow-passenger 
on the Nile boat, who was, she rather naively 
complains, " absurdly national and unlike us 
in everything " Curiously enough, Monsieur, 
on his side, seems to have been observing his 
English companions, and making, mutatis mu- 
tandis, the same conclusions about them. Says 
Miss North : 

" He got up late in the morning, and came into the 
saloon in demi-toilette as we were finishing our break- 
fast, having been ' strangled ' and frozen entirely by the 
cold, and, mon Dieu ! he had no appetite ! he would 
take a glass of lemonade and his narghile, and lecture 
us in the most polite and unreasonable way about the 
betise and English barbarism of fatiguing the stomach 
so early in the morning by eating; after a little while 
he would get faint with hunger, and declare the cold 
would kill him, and, mon Dieu 1 he would die if he got 
nothing to eat till so late, and Achmet ya Achmet! and 
then he began gorging like a boa-constrictor, stopping 
every now and then to explain how much better the 
food would have been if, etc., after which he began 
smoking again, and tried to draw, but, mon Dieu ! he 
had no time; if he only had time he could do something 
of true merit. . . . Mr. S. confided to me that the 
Frenchman went to bed clothes and all, and that his 
toilette in the morning consisted of a thorough brushing 
downwards with the same brush, beginning with his hair, 
then his green velvet coat, and lastly his dear shining 
boots, c'est tout, voila ! He also complained that he 
could not get filtered water to wash in; if he could not 
get it filtered he would not wash his ' figure ' at all. He 
was told Madame only used that of the Nile for hers. 
' Madame was too good to complain, and besides she 
was an Englishwoman, bah'!" 

Miss North visited Egypt in 1865, and she 
gives a lively account of the country and peo- 
ple and of her own experiences. The route 
from Alexandria ("a nasty, mongrel, mosquito- 
ish place ") to Cairo reminded her of the fens 
of Ely; but the country was richly cropped 
with cotton and Indian corn, with scarcely a 
tree to break the monotony of the view, and but 
few villages. The cottages were merely square 
blocks of hardened mud, windowless and with 
the flat roofs covered with pigeons, chickens, 
and cats ; primitive ploughs, like the ancient 
models in old Egyptian carvings, were scratch- 
ing the rich soil. 

"The natives had that calm, soft type of countenance 

that marks the old statuary of their country, large eyes 
and gentle expression, but no strength of character, and 
one could easily see that the old sculptors had before 
their eyes the ancestors of the present race, and that, 
though the ruling classes might be changed in Egypt, 
the fellahs or original population of the land are of the 
same blood as their forefathers." 

Books might be filled, says Miss North, with 
the architectural wonders of Cairo, its elaborate 
arabesques, and lacelike patterns in stone-work, 
plaster, and wood-carving. The tombs outside 
the city were the greatest gems of all, though 
they were only visited by flights of falcons or 
stray Arab wanderers. Europeans seemed pop- 
ular with the people, who were fond of showing 
off any words they knew. Miss North's donkey- 
man, like most of his tribe, was a special lin- 
guist. He knew " a few words of many lan- 
guages, and made the most of them by trans- 
posing and reversing their order in a sentence ; 
for instance, ' gentleman like donkey,' ' no gen- 
tleman like donkey,' 'donkey no like gentleman.' 
He told his beast where to go, and the clever 
creature trotted off right or left accordingly. 
'Donkey speak English,' then the donkey always 
put its ears back and kicked out behind," a 
proceeding reminding one of the intelligent 
animal that carried Silas Wegg to " Boflinses 
Bower " on a memorable occasion. 

The author confesses to having regarded 
things Egyptian " from a purely picturesque 
point," and was scolded for this by the Cairo 
clergyman's wife: 

" ' Dear, dear, like all travellers, you wander hither 
and thither and see nothing with a proper object, every- 
thing from a false point of view. I suppose you never 
considered that on the precise spot where those Mame- 
luke tombs stand the Israelites made their bricks with- 
out straw ! ' And her husband took us to the top of a hill 
and showed us the very stone on which Moses stood to 
count the Israelites as they passed out of Egypt." 

The start from Cairo was made the day after 
Christmas, and the author's record of the en- 
suing Nile voyage is studded with characteristic 
bits of vivid, semi-humourous description. At 
Luxor, Miss North visited the eccentric Lady 
Duff Gordon, whom she had seen twenty-five 
years before. Lady Lucie was picturesquely 
installed in some rooms raised up amongst the 
pillars of an old temple, " like a second story " : 

" She herself was old and gray, but had still the 
handsome face which had captivated me then, in spite 
of having burst two blood-vessels that year, and she said 
the air at Luxor did wonders for her. The natives all 
worshipped her, and she doctored them, amused them, 
and even smoked with them. They looked on her as 
something mysterious, and even rather uncanny, and 
respected her accordingly." 

Later, at Karnak, Miss North was rather 



[Aug. 1, 

startlingly reminded of one of Lady Gordon's 
early eccentricities : 

" Once while painting, and quite absorbed in my work 
at Karnak, a man sat down close to me, and I said ' Good 
morning,' without looking up, till Hassan pulled my 
dress, and, oh horror ! the man was holding a huge 
golden snake by the tail, a yard of shining, polished, 
slippery snake, quite straight and looking at me ! I 
shouted and sprang away, and Hassan drove off the 
two wretched brutes. They take out the fangs of these 
tame snakes, but I hate even the sight of them now, 
though I used to like poor Lucie's pet when I was a 

The justness of the following description of 
our heroine's first crocodiles will be recognized 
by those familiar with both terms of her com- 
parison : 

" One day we saw seven crocodiles, looking like rocks 
or shadows on the sand ; we were disputing if they were 
really crocodiles, when the huge creatures curved their 
backs with a violent effort, raised themselves on what 
our Frenchman called their 'pattes,' and slid slowly 
into the water, as a fat lady descends from her car- 
riage, with a certain waddle and air of importance." 

Everything in Thebes appeared to Miss North 
" too stupendous," seeming, as she says, 
" To blunt my poor wits and pencil too, no cutting could 
get the wretched thing to draw straight; and then the 
flocks of Americans and ' backsheesh ' people drove all 
peace away. The little women of eleven or twelve 
years old, who carried water jars on their heads, only 
supported by the palm of one hand, keeping up with 
our fast donkeys at a run, were very bewitching, with 
their bright eyes and easy graceful movements. They 
said they were all ladies, not girls, meaning they were 
married. ' You got wife ? ' they asked me. ' Oh yes, 
you have in house in England ! ' as if I locked up 
my husband at home as they do their wives here." 

Near the caves of Beni Hassan the writer en- 
countered her first Egyptian "saint," who 
seems to have been, in some points, very like 
his historic prototypes : 

" One morning we were surprised to see Achmet and 
the Reis go on shore amicably together, after incessant 
squabbling, for a walk, but a few minutes later a wild 
head with a mop of hair came suddenly out of the water 
and up the boat's side, and its owner seated himself on 
the edge and tied himself into a petticoat which he had 
brought on the top of the mop, and then proceeded to 
kiss all the sailors, who did not enjoy it, while we 
shrank closer into our cabin shell. The poor fellows 
all gave him some coppers, and after he had adminis- 
tered another hugging all round, he took off and folded 
up his petticoat, put it on his head, and dived and swam 
off to a boat full of corn near us, to levy the same tax. 
They said he was mad, and consequently a saint, and 
thus gained his own livelihood." 

We shall close our extracts from Miss North's 
journals with the following description of the 
journalist herself, given by the Egyptian pilot 
who took the Norths up the river : 

" This Bint was unlike most other English Bints, be- 
ing, firstly, .white and lively; secondly, she was gracious 

in her manner, and of kind disposition; thirdly, she at- 
tended continually to her father, whose days went in re- 
joicing that he had such a Bint; fourthly, she repre- 
sented all things on paper, she drew all the temples of 
Nubia, all the Sakkiahs, and all the men and women 
and nearly all the palm trees; she was a valuable and 
remarkable Bint." 

The portrait is certainly more complimentary 
to its subject than to English " Bints " (we 
confess to some uncertainty as to the meaning 
of this term) in general. 

There are three illustrations, including por- 
traits of the author and her father, and a pen- 
sketch, by a fellow-traveler, which is so absurdly 
bad that it is difficult to account for its inclu- 


E. G. J. 


Professor Calderwood's work on " Evolution 
and Man's Place in Nature " belongs to a class 
of books that may not inaptly be designated 
as " buffers." Their service is to soften the 
shock between new scientific doctrine and the 
dogmas of popular religion. This work has 
been done for the science of geology, and is 
now rapidly doing for the new biology that 
dates from Darwin. Those who have never 
experienced the need of a reconciliation be- 
tween religion and science, and those who pre- 
fer to devise their own systems of " accommo- 
dation," will take but a moderate interest in 
" buffers." Acute metaphysical minds will find, 
in some form of Berkeleian idealism, a way out 
from the disconsolate vision of a merely me- 
chanical world, in which Darwinism, on a first 
hasty interpretation, seemed to issue. Crude 
literal materialism has been proved unthinka- 
ble, they will argue. Matter that contains in 
itself the power and potency of all forms of 
life and thought must be conceived as the man- 
ifestation of a power most nearly akin to what 
we know as mind. Belief in such a world- 
soul would seem mere pantheism. But it did 
not seem so to Berkeley ; and Berkeley was 
right. With the Infinite and Unknowable, all 
things are possible. We cannot tell how far 
the roots of personality penetrate into the real 
nature of things ; and since we have no right 
to dogmatize on either side, we may properly 
throw the weight of our moral and religious 
feelings into the scale of hope. Evolution ex- 
plains the process, it does not explain away 
the fact, of creation. And, like other winds of 
scientific doctrine that terrified our fathers, Dar- 

Calderwood, LL.D. New York : Macmillan & Co. 



win ism, when the storm of controversy has died 
down, will be found to have left unshaken the 
pillars of man's faith in his higher spiritual 

But there are many estimable persons who 
refuse to be soothed by these subtle considera- 
tions. Their alarmed imaginations require 
visible tangible barriers of defense something 
like Professor Max Miiller's Rubicon of lan- 
guage "which no brute will dare to cross." 
And it is for these that Professor Calderwood's 
book is chiefly designed. He finds that the 
continuity of evolution is interrupted at three 
points : (1) at the creation of organic life, (2) 
at the appearance of mind, (3) at the advent 
of " rational life." At each of these points he 
erects a barrier and assumes a direct interven- 
tion of the living source of all existence. In 
defense of the first barrier, he offers no argu- 
ment beyond the generally acknowledged fact 
that spontaneous generation cannot now be ex- 
perimentally verified. In separating by a sharp 
line of demarcation " rational life " from animal 
life, he follows Mr. Wallace, whose arguments 
he amplifies into an elaborate rhetorical expo- 
sition of the many distinctive qualities that 
differentiate the developed nineteenth century 
man from the animals. The one novel feature 
of his teaching is the affirmation (p. 340) that 
" the inferior type of mind recognized as be- 
longing to the higher animals cannot be ac- 
counted for by evolution from sensory appa- 
ratus any more than rational power can be thus 
explained." Sensibility is coexistent with life. 
But no one, Professor Calderwood argues, would 
make mind coexistent with life, for that would 
be to assign mind to the oyster, and pass as by 
a dissolving view into the Hegelian monism. 
The difference between sense-discrimination 
and mind, or intelligence proper, is that the 
latter not only distinguishes sensations, but 
recognizes their significance, interprets them 
as signs of something else. The power of the 
higher animals to do this, the ability of a 
dog, for example, to understand our signs, 
cannot be accounted for by the structure of 
the brain. To explain it we must assume a 
higher form of intelligence independent of the 
organism, and yet radically distinct from the 
active power of inventing signs for his own ra- 
tional or moral ends, which is the peculiar pre- 
rogative of man. It would seem that the poor 
Indian's untutored mind was not so far astray, 
after all, in thinking that, 

" Admitted to that equal sky, 
His faithful dog shall bear him company." 

It is hardly worth while to attempt to clear up 
the psychological misconceptions involved in 
this ratiocination. The rigid distinction be- 
tween mere sense-discrimination in the oyster 
and the interpretation of sensation in the higher 
animals is of course untenable, for the simple 
reason that there is no case of sense-discrimi- 
nation unaccompanied by a corresponding in- 
terpretation. Even the amoeba interprets soft 
as organic and digestible, and hard as inor- 
ganic and indigestible, and shapes its action 
accordingly. And from the amoeba to the dog 
the correspondence between immediate sensa- 
tion and consequent action based on " inter- 
pretation " develops too gradually to admit of 
the drawing of any absolute dividing line. We 
may say, if we please, that the reaction in the 
amoeba is purely physiological or mechanical, 
while in the dog it is accompanied by conscious- 
ness. But the only basis for such an asser- 
tion would be the fact that the dog has a brain 
and the amoeba has none. And Professor Cal- 
derwood's contention is that the higher facul- 
ties of the dog are in no way expressed in his 
physical structure. In fact, the attempt to 
" draw the line " anywhere except between man 
and the animals is not a serious issue in con- 
temporary speculation, and the loose reasoning 
of this book will not make it one. 



" There is nothing in history more strange and yet 
more true than the story that has been told so often, 
but which never palls in its interest, that of the life 
of the maiden through whose instrumentality France re- 
gained her place among the nations." 

Thus does the latest historian of Joan of Arc 
introduce his story of her life. And he adds : 
" Sainte Beuve has written that, in his opinion, the 
way to honor the history of Joan of Arc is to tell the 
truth about her as simply as possible. This has been 
my object in the following pages." 

It is no reproach to Lord Ronald that he has 
told the story of the heroine whom his mother 
loved ( u my mother," he says, " had what the 
French call a culte " for Joan of Arc) rather 
as the affectionate admirer than the cold-blooded 
critic. There are times, indeed, when the ju- 
dicial spirit looks ungraceful, especially in a 
young man. The book is written in a style of 
graphic simplicity, with as little affectation in 

*JoAN OF ARC. By Lord Ronald Gower, F. S. A. London : 
John Nimmo. Imported by Charles Scribner's Sons, New 



[Aug. 1, 

the point of view or arrangement as in the dic- 
tion. Through his very straightforwardness 
and idiomatic energy, the author often grows 
truly impressive and pathetic ; while we never 
lose our faith in his truthfulness or his common 
sense. He has graphically rendered Jeanne's 
lovable qualities those qualities that saints 
and martyrs, alas I do not inevitably possess. 
She is more than Michelet's woman of genius 
in these pages more even than De Quincey's 
heroic saint. To Lord Ronald, whose research 
has breathed the breath of life into this dim 
and lovely shade, she is just the gentle, infin- 
itely compassionate, but not unwise woman, 
who is the guardian angel in her family, or 
her village, or her nation, as opportunity may 
offer. Her people were well-to-do farmers, her 
father holding a certain position in the com- 
munity as the oldest inhabitant (doyen) of the 
village, and ranking next to the mayor. The 
family owned " about twenty acres of land, 
twelve of which were arable, four were meadow- 
lands, and four were used for fuel." Besides 
this, they had some two to three hundred francs 
kept safe for use in case of emergency, and the 
furniture, goods, and chattels of their modest 
home. " All told, the fortune of the family of 
Joan attained an annual income of about two 
hundred pounds of our money." A thousand 
dollars a year needs doubling, if not trebling, 
to reduce it to our standard ; and Lord Ronald 
very sensibly remarks that it was " a not in- 
considerable revenue at that time ; and with it 
they were enabled to raise a family in comfort, 
and to give alms and hospitality to the poor." 

Of this family, Jeanne was the fifth child, 
and, it would appear, was rather indulged by 
her parents. She was not, for all the wonder- 
ful visions that saved France, a mystic or a sol- 
itary ; she joined in all the sports of her play- 
mates, and was a leader and a favorite. 

" She loved her mother tenderly, and in her trial she 
bore witness before men to the good influence that she 
had derived from that parent. . . . All that we gather 
of Joan's early years proves her nature to have been a 
compound of love and goodness. . . . From her earliest 
years she loved to help the weak and poor; she was 
known, when there was no room for the weary wayfarer 
to pass the night in her parents' house, to give up her 
bed to him, and to sleep on the floor by the hearth." 

She was a pious little girl, and loved to lis- 
ten at her mother's knee to the recital of the 
marvels of the saints ; she was also patriotic, 
and almost as dearly loved to hear the brave 
deeds of Frenchmen in war. Her mother 
would rehearse these legends while spinning ; 
and the little, glowing-faced maid would listen 

while her heart swelled. But though she felt 
intensely, she was a reticent child. No doubt 
the worthy Isambeau, or Mere D'Arc, some- 
times whispered to a confidant that Joan " was 
never one to talk, but as good and willing a 
child as ever breathed," for, after all, vary 
the idiom, and the language of mothers is the 
same in all tongues and all generations. Per- 
haps, had the mother lived she might have per- 
suaded Joan out of her visions which had 
been the better for Mere d' Arc's daughter, and 
the worse for France. 

It was a strange, heavy time, a time of 
dreams and portents, a time of misery in many 
forms. There had been famines and horri- 
ble new diseases. The crazed and starving 
peasants had risen in revolt, aimlessly striking 
at the nearest, rushing about like mad dogs, 
biting, and being at last hunted down, at the 
end of a useless, brutal, bloody struggle. There 
were two popes, and religion itself seemed 
shaken. Society was in a ferment. In such 
times superstition flourishes. To Frenchmen 
especially, the day was full of bitterness. The 
French king had been stripped of his provinces 
until there remained to the dauphin, north of 
the Loire, only " a pitiful half-dozen places." 
No wonder visions came to the French maiden 
whose heart was hot with brooding over the 
humiliation of her country ! Whatever they 
were and we need not follow Michelet into 
an ingenious psychical dissertation, since Joan's 
character depends on their veracity not at all,. 
she undoubtedly counted them real, " and 
was not disobedient to the heavenly vision." 

It is a wonderful tale, that of her determin- 
ing to forsake all that she loved, to lead th& 
troops of the dauphin, " out of the great pity 
that she felt for the land of France "; her jour- 
ney to the dauphin, and the manner in which 
her superb enthusiasm, her modesty, and her 
natural shrewd sense conquered first the com- 
mon people (who never fail to respond, for 
good or evil, to the note of genuine and tre- 
mendous earnestness), then the soldiers and 
the nobles, last of all the priests themselves. 
Was the Maid a great general? Was she a 
leader ? Or was she simply an enthusiast who 
came at the right moment ? 

No one can read the most direct accounts 
without suspecting that Joan had a long head. 
She knew nothing of the technique of war 
which, it is to be remembered, was simpler far 
in those days than these, but she intuitively 
seized upon the wisest plan of campaign, pos- 
sibly because it was the most daring. Her per- 




sonal courage is as well established as anything 
can be. Lord Ronald loves to dwell on it. 
Wounded at the siege of Orleans, she pulled 
out the arrow with her own hands, and then 
(having piously made her confession) returned 
to the fray and inspired the wavering soldiers. 
At Jargeau, 

" A stone from a catapult struck Joan on the helmet as 
she was in the act of mounting a ladder she fell back, 
stunned, into the ditch, but soon revived, and rising, 
with her undaunted courage, she turned to hearten her 
followers, declaring that the victory would be theirs. 
In a few moments the place was in possession of the 

At Troyes, the king, considering attack of so 
strongly fortified a place hopeless, would have 
abandoned the expedition to Rheims (since he 
dared not leave such a hornets' nest in his 
rear) ; but Joan pushed on the preparations for 
attack with such ingenious and overwhelming 
energy that the citizens of Troyes surrendered 
without a blow. Thus Charles advanced to 
Rheims, and was crowned King of France. No 
wonder her biographer exclaims enthusiastically: 

" How had she been able not only to learn the tactics 
of a campaign, the rudiments of the art of war, but even 
the art itself ? No one had shown a keener eye for se- 
lecting the weakest place to attack, or where artillery 
and culverin fire could be used with most effect, or had 
been quicker to avail himself of these weapons. No 
one saw with greater rapidity (that rarest of military 
gifts) when the decisive moment had arrived for a 
sudden attack, or had a better judgment for the right 
moment to head a charge and assault." 

And he adds that the professional soldiers about 
her could only explain her victories by the be- 
lief " that in Joan of Arc was united not only 
the soul of patriotism and a faith to move 
mountains, but the qualities of a great captain 
as well." 

All testimony agrees that Joan was more 
than a narrow zealot. She had nothing of the 
furious, almost venomous, partisanship that 
sometimes darkens her sex's devotion to a cause. 
Because she was a French patriot she was not 
therefore a hater of the English. Memoirs of 
her are full of her compassion for the foe. She 
ministered to the English wounded after the 
fight ; " as far as she could, she prevented pil- 
lage "; even in the fury of battle she restrained 
her followers. Indeed, as Lord Ronald says, 
" she may be considered the precursor of all 
the noble hearts who in modern warfare follow 
armies in order to alleviate and help the sick 
and wounded." This were enough, had Joan 
no other claim on our reverence, to win it. 
The peasant from Domremy was the first of 
the Red Cross knights. 

Even at this distant time, it is a painful task 
to follow the cruel ending of the story. The 
intrigues of jealous courtiers and of unsuccess- 
ful and envious captains on the French side 
helped the open enmity of the English. Their 
motives are clear enough : to discredit Charles's 
title, their only hope was to show that the Maid 
was a witch, thus putting the king in the odious 
position of being in collusion with the powers 
of evil. Joan was wounded, captured, sold to 
the English ; and the ensuing drama was in- 
evitable. She was tried as a sorceress. Lord 
Ronald quotes very fully from the notes of the 
proces-verbal, and it is interesting to see, even 
in this record of her enemies, how clearly the 
large sense and elevation of mind of this wonder- 
ful girl appear. When asked in what language 
her voices conversed, " They speak to me in 
soft and beautiful French voices," said she. 
" Does not Saint Margaret speak in English ? " 
was the instant inquiry. " How should she," 
was her answer, " when she is not on the En- 
glish side ? " 

She disclaimed anything miraculous in the 
revival of an apparently dead infant because of 
her prayers ; she said, as she had said at the 
time when the populace besought her to cure 
sickness by the touch of her rings, that she 
could not cure the sick. She refused steadily 
to betray anything that might harm the king, 
who had made no effort to save her. Once 
Beaupere asked her the usual mediaeval test 
question, whether she was in a state of grace. 
She avoided the presumption of confidence and 
the danger of denial in much the same manner 
that an English martyr did later, answering : 
" If I am not, may God place me in it ; if I 
am already, may He keep me in it." When 
asked what she thought of the murder of the 
Duke of Orleans, she answered out of a pure 
and merciful heart; and no statesman could 
have spoken more wisely, since she neither in- 
culpates Charles nor approves the infamous 
act. She said : " It was a great misfortune 
for the kingdom of France." 

But where the victim is condemned before- 
hand, what avails defence ? There is no need 
to repeat the brutal and treacherous devices of 
Beauvais. He was paid his price and earned 
his wages. Baffled by Joan's constancy, her 
enemies did not scruple to resort to torture as 
a persuader of confession. They brought Joan 
to the rack ; and there are few nobler answers 
than the words spoken by this lonely girl, de- 
serted by all except her dauntless soul, sick 
and feeble, and exhausted by a most cruel im- 



[Aug. 1, 

prisonment. " Even," she said, " if you tear 
me limb from limb, and even if you kill me, I 
will not tell you anything further. And even 
were I forced to do so, I should afterwards de- 
clare that it was only because of the torture 
that I had spoken differently." 

But when fear failed, fraud succeeded. Just 
what happened at the stake, where Joan was 
persuaded to make what was proclaimed by the 
English to be a recantation, it is difficult to de- 
cide. De Quincey vehemently rejects the " cal- 
umny," as he calls it. Michelet believes that 
she tried to save her life ; " whether she said 
the word, is uncertain ; but 1 affirm that she 
thought it," is his phrase. But Michelet had 
his own theories of women, which it was ne- 
cessary to his peace of mind that he should 
support in the case of every woman ; and a 
little twisting was sometimes necessary. It 
appears from obtainable evidence that Joan, 

how worked upon, who shall say ? did put 
her mark to something that day in the square 
at Rouen, when she was brought to the stake 
and taken away. In view of her courage be- 
fore and of her fortitude afterward, the most 
likely solution is that she was as much tricked 
as bullied into an abjuration that she only half 
comprehended. Certain it is that she seems to 
have believed herself to have only promised to 
abandon her man's dress and to submit herself 
to the will of the church. Cochon's plot appears 
the more atrocious the more it is investigated. 
The unfortunate girl protected her modesty at 
the cost of her life. She resumed the man's 
dress that she was forbidden to wear; and 
whether the danger were real, or only a base 
threat, it was equally efficacious. Joan was 
brought before her judges. She admitted that 
she had seen her supernatural guides, that they 
had told her that she had " commited a bad 
deed " in denying what she had done. " Then," 
cried the bishop, "you retract your abjura- 
tion? " "It was," said Joan and this is the 
clearest testimony we have on the vexed subject 

"it was from the fear of being burnt that I re- 
tracted what I had done ; but I never intended to 
deny or revoke my voices." And when Cochon 
asked her if she no longer dreaded being burnt, 
she answered, " I had rather die than endure any 
longer what I have now to undergo." Where- 
upon Cochon fared gaily to Warwick and said 
to him in English, " You can dine now with a 
good appetite. We have caught her at last." 
On the 30th of May, 1431, the next day but 
one, Joan of Arc met her dreadful fate. She 
died with a patience and constancy the first 

natural recoil past that affected even her 
judges and made an indelible impression on the 
weeping spectators. And not only on the spec- 
tators : the imagination of France has never 
been more deeply stirred. Twenty years later, 
the French clergy, after a solemn trial, reha- 
bilitated the memory of Joan. Her family was 
ennobled, and monuments were erected by the 
king to the giver of his crown : a tardy jus- 
tice, to which, however, was added what Joan 
would have valued more than all the endur- 
ing love of her countrymen. 

Lord Gower's book is printed and illustrated 
sumptuously ; the etched illustrations of the 
scenes of the story being supplied by Mr. Lee 
Latrobe Bateman, who made the sketches from 
the spot during a pious journey which Lord 
Ronald and he made together to the scenes of 
Joan's life. It is seldom, I may add, that one 
leaves a work of history with a feeling of more 
confidence in the research, judgment, and con- 
scientious fidelity of the historian. 



The two volumes of " Studies of the 

Greek Poets ''.' b y the lat f J - A -. sy- 

monds, have just been reissued in a 
stately third edition (Macmillan), with a few 
changes from earlier forms of the text. Of these 
changes, the only one at all noteworthy is the new 
chapter upon the recently discovered mimes of He- 
rondas, which includes long translated passages. 
The chapters have been arranged in a better chrono- 
logical order than before, some further translations 
have been inserted, and an occasional footnote ap- 
pended. In one of these foot-notes, the author 
gives his reasons for not re-casting more fully the 
text of the work. "Owing to the way in which 
they were first composed, it is impossible to avoid 
a certain amount of repetition without a laborious 
re-casting and re-writing of all the chapters. That 
would involve a thorough-going change of style, and 
would deprive the work of the one quality it claims 
youthfulness." We think it best, on the whole, 
that such a revision should not have been attempted, 
for the " youthfulness " of the work that is, its 
spirit of generous enthusiasm for its subject is the 
very quality that has made it the most useful, if not 
the most important, of the author's many books. 
For young readers, whether students of Greek or 
not, these chapters offer the best introduction in our 
language to the study of Greek literature ; and in 
these days, when the value of that study is ques- 
tioned more than ever before, such books are capa- 
ble of doing a world of good. We do not know, 
either, that the author's riper judgment could have 




given better form to the general conclusions result- 
ing from the study of Greek thought as expressed 
in Greek poetry. Such a passage as the following, 
for example, is wholly admirable : " We must imi- 
tate the Greeks, not by trying to reproduce their 
bygone modes of life and feeling, but by approxi- 
mating to their free and fearless attitude of mind. 
While frankly recognizing that much of their lib- 
erty would for us be license, and that the moral 
progress of the race depends on holding with a firm 
grasp what the Greeks had hardly apprehended, we 
ought still to emulate their spirit by cheerfully ac- 
cepting the world as we find it, acknowledging the 
value of each human impulse, and aiming after vir- 
tues that depend on self-regulation rather than on 
total abstinence and mortification. To do this in 
the midst of our conventionalities and prejudices, 
our interminglement of unproved expectations and 
unrefuted terrors, is no doubt hard. Yet if we fail 
of this, we lose the best the Greeks can teach us." 
A book so sane in its essential doctrine may well be 
pardoned a few outbursts of florid rhetoric and a 
certain amount of exuberant verbosity. It is doubt- 
less open to much minor criticism, as, for example, 
in the passage which speaks of Moliere's " courtly 
and polished treatment of disgusting subjects" a 
comment that does not come with good grace from 
one who censures Hallam for precisely the same 
sort of comment upon Marlowe ; but criticism of 
this sort we are willing to forego, contenting our- 
selves with an emphatic protest against the publica- 
tion of such a work without an index. 

... .. Mr. William Renton's " Outlines of 

A diagrammatic . . . 

treatment of English Literature (Scribner) is a 

English Literature. University Extension Manual," 

and, as such, hardly appears to fulfil its purpose. 
As an introduction to the subject it would be found 
confusing, although it has much suggestiveness for 
readers who already know the history of our liter- 
ature. Its defect, as far as beginners are concerned, 
is found in its insistence upon a rather obscure sys- 
tem of philosophical classification and criticism. 
It professes to deal with types, schools, and epochs 
rather than with individuals, but the interest of the 
beginner is only to be awakened by an extremely 
individual method of treatment. He is told, for 
example, that Marlowe's chief discovery was " that 
in the universal and a posteriori, not the excep- 
tional and the a priori, is to be found the true source 
of human interest and interpretation " from 
which statement he is not likely to learn much. 
Mr. Renton makes use of many ingenious formu- 
las and diagrams in illustration of his subject. The 
formula for Shakespeare, for example, is this : 
(s -j- p) S -j- (v -(- h ) T, which, being interpreted, 
means " spontaneity and pregnancy of Suggestion 
combined with variety and harmony of Treatment." 
When the scientific treatment of literature culmi- 
nates in such pseudo-mathematical forms of expres- 
sion, it is time to call a halt. The variety and in- 
genuity of the author's diagrams for he makes 

much use of the graphic method, as well as of the 
algebraical defy any attempt at mere description. 
One of the less complicated of the figures gives 
us the abstraction Nature as a centre, and groups 
about it, at quadrant intervals, the four other ab- 
stractions, Will, Soul, Sense, and Spirit. The names 
of eight nineteenth century poets link together the 
circles representing these abstractions ; thus, Byron 
is the poet of Nature and Will, Shelley of Nature 
and Soul, Keats of Nature and Sense, Wordsworth 
of Nature and Spirit. In an outer circle, Spirit is 
linked with Will by Mr. Roden Noel (whose name 
had to be dragged in for the sake of diagrammatic 
symmetry), Will with Soul by Browning, Soul with 
Sense by Mr. Swinburne, and Sense with Spirit by 
Tennyson. The description of such a diagram is 
its best reductio ad absurdam. The structure of 
literature is too organic to admit of being thus me- 
chanically explained. The author seems to be 
fairly accurate as to historical fact and sane as to 
criticism, although we do not agree with him in 
making Balzac inferior to Thackeray, in singling 
out Mr. Swinburne's " Tristram of Lyonesse " as 
one of the poet's most remarkable works, or in a. 
number of other and minor matters. And it is at 
least amusing to be told that Berkeley, in " The 
Querist," " anticipated the Political Economy of 
Smith and Ruskin." Mr. Ruskin would not thank 
the author for that. 

Sismondi's "Rdpubliques Italiennes," 

A condensed , H . i 

history of the in ten volumes, albeit a work which 
Italian Republic,. fagcinateS5 is some what formidable to 

one who is seeking a general knowledge of the Ital- 
ian city republics of the middle ages. Miss Duffy 
has done well to give us a portion of all this in a 
single volume, in her " Tuscan Republics and Ge- 
noa" (Putnam). Considering the length of cen- 
turies that she deals with, and the lack of unity 
involved in a history of five states Genoa, Pisa, 
Lucca, Florence, and Siena, she has produced a. 
very successful narrative. She truly emphasizes 
the fact that communal institutions here did not 
come down from the Roman time, but sprang up 
amid the confusion and neglect of the Germanic 
settlements and the early feudal period. Florence, 
as is right, gets the largest treatment, and the 
narrative is well handled as it passes from consuls 
to podestas, podestas to Signoria, and as the power 
is snatched by popolani from grandi, only to be 
handed over to Medici patrons and tyrants. It is a 
pity there is much slovenly writing in the volume, for 
a good book is worth making slowly. Such writing 
as, " In other places, notable in Lombardy," " con- 
ferred sole possession to the property," "Pisa's 
wealth and outlaying interests," "a change came 
over the government," is not creditable. An inter- 
preter is needed for such sentences as, " Florence 
owed its final great prosperity to its position mid- 
way between the Mediterranean coast and Rome " 
(a map will not elucidate it), or "Henry IV. had 
conferred on Lucca the privilege of trading freely 


[Aug. 1, 

throughout his dominions, and this fact explains the 
passionate jealousy of Pisa, which, desirous of ex- 
panding inland, found an insurmountable obstacle 
to this aspiration of its neighbor." One would 
wish to have seen a fuller account of Siena and 
some recognition of Arezzo in a Tuscan history. 

. .. " Women of the Valois Court" (Scrib- 

More portraits . . . < r t_ 

of women of the ner) is the initial volume of a fresh 
sub-series by the indefatigable M. 
Imbert de Saint- Amand. The volumes differ from 
their predecessors in that their interest is still more 
largely personal, each one containing a series of 
detached historical portraits. In the number before 
us, for instance, there are portraits, pictorial as well 
as verbal, of Marguerite of Angouleme and Cather- 
ine de' Medici, and, subordinately, of Diane de 
Poitiers, Marguerite of Valois, Marie Stuart, and 
others. The author's style is as showy and vivacious 
as ever, and he has interwoven in his own narrative 
the usual proportion of quotations from the author- 
ities, and from diaries and letters, of the period. 
Balzac's opinion of Catherine is sufficiently striking. 
Nothing, not even Saint Bartholomew's, gives him 
pause in his enthusiasm for his heroine. In his 
eyes, " the figure of Catherine de' Medici appears 
like that of a great king. The calumnies once dis- 
pelled by facts, recovered with difficulty from the 
falsities and contradictions of pamphlets and anec- 
dotes, everything can be explained to the honor 
of this extraordinary woman, who had none of the 
weaknesses of her sex, who lived chastely in the 
midst of the amours of the most licentious court of 
Europe, and who, in spite of her meagre purse, was 
able to build admirable monuments, as if to repair 
the losses occasioned by the demolitions of the Cal- 
vinists, who inflicted as many wounds on art as on 
the body politic." The extracts in the volume, 
brought thus together in compact and accessible 
form, are of great value to the student. The book 
is withal full of romantic interest, and is more read- 
able than the general run of books that profess to 
be nothing else. 

In " Orthometry " (Putnam), Mr. 

R - F * Brewer has attempted a fuller 
treatment of the art of versification 
than is to be found in the popular treatises on that 
subject. While the preface shows a tendency to 
encourage verse-making, as unnecessary as it is un- 
desirable, the work may be regarded as useful in 
so far as it tends to cultivate an intelligent taste 
for good poetry. The rhyming dictionary at the 
end is a new feature, which will undoubtedly com- 
mend itself to those having a use for such aids. A 
specially interesting chapter is that on "Poetic 
Trifles," in which are included the various imita- 
tions of foreign verse in English. The discussion 
of the sonnet, too, though failing to bring out fully 
the spiritual nature of this difficult verse form, is 
more accurate than might be expected from the 
following sentence : " The form of the sonnet is of 
Italian origin, and came into use in the fifteenth 

[sic] century, towards the end of which its con- 
struction was perfected, and its utmost melodious 
sweetness attained in the verse of Petrarch and 
Dante." In the chapter on Alliteration there are 
several misleading statements, such as calling " Piers 
the Plowman " an " Old English " poem. In the 
bibliography one is surprised not to find Mr. F. B. 
Gummere's admirable " Handbook of Poetics," now 
in its third edition. In spite of these and other 
shortcomings, which can be readily corrected in a 
later issue, this work may be recommended as a sat- 
isfactory treatment of the mechanics of verse. 

Beautwrepnntof Th * P ubli h f s alrea( ty heard more 
the Hebrew text of or less of the translation of the 
** Old Testament writings, undertaken 
sometime since by a group of the most eminent 
European and American Semitic scholars, and al- 
ready well under way. The projectors of this great 
enterprise have also included in their plans the pub- 
lication of the complete Hebrew text of the Old 
Testament, in a series of volumes to be the exact 
counterparts of those making up the English edi- 
tion. There will be twenty of these parts altogether, 
and, through the generosity of an unnamed friend 
of the enterprise, they are offered to subscribers at 
a very low price. Part the first, containing the text 
of the book of Job, edited by Professor Siegfried, 
of Jena, has just been issued, and, in its Leipzig 
typography, is a very beautiful piece of work. The 
text is printed in colors by a new process, the in- 
vention of Professor Haupt, the general editor of 
the series. Interpolations and parallel compositions 
are thus distinguished from the primitive portions 
of the text, a feature which those who use the book 
will not be slow to appreciate. The text has been 
left unpointed except in ambiguous cases. The 
Johns Hopkins Press is the American agent for 
this work, and will receive subscriptions for the 
whole work or for the separate parts as issued. 

Volume 17 of " The Adventure Se- 
NarraJiive of a rieg / Macmillan) contains a reprint 

Polish adventurer. \ , ' . ,*rrr\r\\ 

of Nicholson s translation (1790) of 
Count de Benyowsky's " Memoirs and Travels in 
Siberia, Kamchatka, Japan, the Liukiu Islands, and 
Formosa." The book is edited by Captain Pasfield 
Oliver, who, in his exhaustive Introduction, devotes 
himself to the rather unusual editorial task of pick- 
ing holes in his author's narrative and impugning 
his veracity. Benyowsky was a Polish adventurer 
of the eighteenth century, one of those " plausible, 
amusing, and good-looking, but wholly unprincipled, 
Don Juans," says Captain Oliver, " who would 
fight under any leader where plunder was to be 
gained." He was taken prisoner by the Russians 
in 1769, but escaped shortly after and made his 
way to Kamchatka, from whence he sailed on his zig- 
za gg m g voyage in Behring Sea, the Sea of Ochotsk, 
and the North Pacific, arriving at Macao, after 
a series of remarkable " adventures " which form 
the basis of his narrative, in 1771. Judging from 




internal evidence, and from discrepancies pointed 
out by the diligent and skeptical editor, the Count 
was almost as gifted a liar as Miinchausen. Cer- 
tainly he was a more plausible one, for his story has 
provoked much learned discussion. The "Memoir" 
is something of a literary curiosity, and it may still 
be read with interest. There are several plates, in- 
cluding a portrait of the author. 


PRINCETON COLLEGE is rich in historical memories, 
and Mr. George R. Wallace, a recent graduate, has 
taken advantage of this fact in his volume of " Prince- 
ton Sketches" (Putnam). Mr. Wallace relates many 
episodes in the history of Princeton, from the reign of 
Dickinson to the reign of McCosh, and illustrates them 
with facsimiles of old documents and photographs of 
modern buildings. " The Princeton Idea " is the sub- 
ject of the closing chapter, and, as expounded by the 
author, an excellent idea it appears to be. 

"APPLE-TONS' General Guide to the United States 
and Canada " for the year 1893, not greatly changed from 
former editions (except for an illustrated World's Fair 
appendix), makes its appearance in time for the uses of 
the summer tourist. The same publishers send us their 
new " Guide-Book to Alaska and the Northwest Coast," 
a work prepared by Miss Eliza Kuhamah Scidmore, and 
uniform with the two volumes of the " Canadian Guide- 
Book " of Messrs. Roberts and Ingersoll. These books 
are illustrated, which we think is a mistake, and their 
maps and plans leave much to be desired. 

THE " Latin Lessons " (Houghton) of Messrs. Henry 
Preble and Lawrence C. Hull, are " designed to prepare 
for the intelligent reading of classical Latin prose." 
They are based upon the standard grammars (Andrews 
and Stoddard, Allen and Greenough, Gildersleeve, Hark- 
ness) , but may be used independently of any other book. 
There is an extensive vocabulary. Mr. A. S. Cook has 
edited Leigh Hunt's "What is Poetry ? " (Ginn) for the 
use of students of English. The latest modern language 
texts are " Le Piano de Jeanne " and " Qui Perd Gagne " 
(Sower Co.), by M. Francisque Sarcey edited by Mr. Ed- 
ward H. Magill, and " L'Histoire de la Mere Michel et 
de Son Chat" (Heath), by M. de la Bedolliere, edited 
by Mr. W. H. Wrench. 

THE " Shrubs of Northeastern America " (Putnam), 
by Mr. Charles S. Newhall, is a companion volume to 
the author's handbook of our native trees, published two 
years or so ago. The analytical guides, three in num- 
ber (based on flowers, leaves, and fruit), are simple and 
adequate. There are over a hundred pages of outline 
illustrations. Thirty-four orders are represented, and 
more than twice that number of genera. Mr. Newhall 
is preparing a similar work on vines. The amateur 
botanist has much reason to be grateful to the author 
for these helpful handbooks. 

VOLUME XXXV. of the "Dictionary of National 
Biography " (Macmillan) extends from MacCarwell to 
Maltby. The " Macs " get the major share of the arti- 
cles, and among them we note Macduff, Earl of Fife 
(whose name seems strange enough in this connection), 
Macready, and James Macpherson. Later in the vol- 
ume come Father Prout, Sir Henry Maine, and Sir 
Thomas Malory, three worthies whom one does not 
usually think of grouping together. 

" WHITTIER with the Children," by Miss Margaret 
Sidney, and " A Song of the Christ," by Miss Harriet 
Adams Sawyer, are two pretty gift-books published by 
the D. Lothrop Co. The former is in prose and the 
latter in verse, and both are illustrated. " An Octave 
to Mary " (Murphy), by Mr. John B. Tabb, is also a 
gift-book, oblong in shape and comprising eight simple 
religious poems. The booklet is given distinction by 
its frontispiece, which reproduces in photogravure an 
"Annunciation" by Mr. E. Burne-Jones. 

" SHIRLEY," in two volumes, follows " Jane Eyre " in 
the exquisite Dent edition of the Brontes. Mr. William 
Black's " Yolande " and " Judith Shakespeare " (the lat- 
ter one of his three or four most successful novels) are 
the latest additions to the popular Harper reprint of his 
works. And at last, with illustrations by Mr. Gordon 
Browne, appears " Ivanhoe " in the Dryburgh " Wa- 
verly," published by the Macmillans. 


The death of Mr. Wilson Graham, who undertook 
five years ago the preparation of the Chaucer Concord- 
ance, leaves the completion of the work to his colleague, 
Dr. Fliigel, of Stanford University, to whom all out- 
standing slips should now be sent. 

At the Zola dinner mentioned in our last issue, the 
following bit of dialogue is reported to have taken 
place: General Jung said to M. Zola, "You have writ- 
ten ' La De"bkcle '; I hope you will write La Victoire.' " 
M. Zola replied, " That, General, is more your business 
than mine." 

The following inscription is borne by the tablet re- 
cently placed upon the Palazzo Verospi, at Rome : " A 
Percy Bysshe Shelley, che nella primavera del 1819 
scrisse in questa casa ' H Prometeo ' e ' La Cenci.' II 
Comune di Roma, cento anni dopo la nascita del poeta, 
sostenitore invitto delle liberta popolati, avversate ai 
sui tempi da tutta Europa, pose questo ricordo, 1892." 

One Babu Sarat Chandra Das, a Bengali pundit, who 
lived for some time in a Buddhist monastery at Lhassa, 
and who brought back with him a thorough knowledge 
of Tibetan language and literature, is now engaged upon 
an exhaustive dictionary of Tibetan, to be published by 
the government of India. He has also found time to 
write a popular narrative of his travels and experiences 
in Tibet, and thus throw open to English readers a 
country that has been closed for more than a century. 

The death-roll for July includes two names of high 

rank, that of Guy de Maupassant, who died on the 

6th, and that of Henry Nettleship, whose death was re- 
ported on the 10th. Maupassant was born in 1850, 
trained himself for literary work under the direction of 
Flaubert, and during the last dozen years of his life 
was a prolific writer of novels and short stories always 
admirable in manner, often far from admirable in mat- 
ter. The story of his illness is too fresh in the public 
mind to need recounting. Professor Nettleship had not 
more than three or four equals among recent classical 
scholars in England. He was born in 1839, and was 
identified with Oxford throughout the greater part of 
his career. In 1878, he became Corpus Professor of 
Latin, thus filling the chair formerly occupied by his 
old master and friend, Professor Conington. He com- 
pleted Conington's " Virgil " and " Persius," published 



[Aug. 1, 

many papers on classical philology, and devoted many 
years to a proposed Latin-English lexicon, planned, then 
afterwards abandoned, by the Clarendon Press. 

Mr. Walter Besant, the English novelist, who attended 
the recent Authors' Congress at Chicago as a delegate 
from the British Society of Authors, has written the fol- 
lowing appreciative letter to the President of the Aux- 
iliary Congresses, by whom it is given to the public. 


President World's Congress Auxiliary. 

DEAR SIR : At the moment of leaving Chicago and the 
Literary Conference, I beg permission, in the name of Dr. 
Sprigge and myself, and of the organization which we repre- 
sented at your Congress, to convey to you as president, and 
to the committee of organization of the Literary department, 
first, our most sincere congratulations on the success of the 
Congress which is to-day concluded ; second, our most sin- 
cere thanks for the arrangements made for the reception of 
the English contributors, and for the great personal kindness 
shown to us and the trouble taken for us. 

Many papers were read most helpful and suggestive ; a great 
stimulus has been given to the consideration of all subjects 
connected with the advance of our common literature a lit- 
erature growing daily more international, while on both sides 
of the Atlantic it will preserve its natural distinctions. I ven- 
ture to express the earnest hope that in the interests of both 
countries the papers read and the speeches made during this 
week may be edited i. e., reduced and condensed and pub- 
lished, and sent to all the principal libraries in the world of 
the Republic and the English Empire. 

Permit me, sir, if I may do so as a simple visitor, without 
the appearance of impertinence, to congratulate your splendid 
city on the place which this Exposition has enabled it to take 
among the great mother cities of the world. Among all your 
business activities, and in the eager pressing forward of your 
people, rejoicing in a vigorous youth, confident in a splendid 
future, reckless of what they spend because of the strength 
and resources within them, I rejoice to find springing up a 
new literature. Whatever be the future of this literature, 
which rises on the frontier line of East and West, it will be at 
least free from the old traditions. I wish for your authors 
that independence which we in the old country are straggling 
to conquer ; at least it will be their fault if they do not 
achieve it at the outset not the fault of the national char- 
acter, nor the fault of this Literary Congress. 

I leave your city with memories of the greatest kindness 
and hospitality. I can never sufficiently thank my friends 
here for their friendliness. I carry away a delightful memory, 
not so much of a Chicago rich, daring, young, and confident, 
as of a Chicago which has conceived and carried into execu- 
tion the most beautiful and poetic dream a place surpassing 
the imagination of man, as man is commonly found and a 
Chicago loving the old literature, discerning and proving that 
which is new, and laying the foundations for that which is to 
come, a Chicago which is destined to become the centre of 
American literature in the future. 

I remain, dear sir, your obedient servant, 



August, 1893. 

Academic and Technical Instruction. N. S. Shaler. Atlantic. 

Animal Speech. E. P. Evans. Popular Science. 

Art and Shoddy. Frederic Harrison. Forum. 

Astronomy in America. E. S. Holden. Forum. 

Auxiliary Congresses, The. Dial. 

Belcher, Jonathan, Royal Governor of Massachusetts. Allan. 

Breathing Movements. Illus. T. J. Mays. Century. 

California, Division of. M. M. Estee, Abbott Kinney. CaVn. 

Chinese Six Companies. R. H. Drayton. Californian. 

Congress and the Financial Crisis. Forum. 

Cup Defenders. Illus. W. P. Stephens. Century. 

European Literature of a Year. Dial. 

Evolution and Man. Paul Shorey. Dial. 

Explorer, Tasks for the. A. Heilprin. Forum. 

Fez. Illus. Stephen Bonsai. Century. 

Frogs' Color Changes. Illus. C. M. Weed. Popular Science. 

Greenwich Village. Illus. T. A. Janvier. Harper. 

Honey and Honey Plants. G. G. Groff . Popular Science. 

How My Character Was Formed. Georg Ebers. Forum. 

Italian Gardens. Illus. C. A. Platt. Harper. 

Japanese Art, Contemporary. Illus. E. F. Fenollosa. Century* 

Joan of Arc. Octave Thanet. Dial. 

Journalism, Inside Views of. Forum. 

Kentucky Beauties. Illus. Sarah H. Henton. Californian* 

Learn and Search. Rudolph Virchow. Popular Science. 

Letters of Phillips Brooks to Children. Century. 

Lightning, Protection from. Illus. Popular Science. 

Mark Twain's Recent Works. F. R. Stockton. Forum. 

Material and Spiritual. Graham Lusk. Popular Science. 

Murat, Prince and Princess, in Florida. Century. , 

Navajo Blankets. J. J. Peatfield. Californian. 

Newnham College's First Principal. Atlantic. 

Newspaper Correspondents. Illus. Julian Ralph. Scribner* 

North, Marianne, Further Recollections. Dial. 

Oil on the Sea. Illus. G. W. Littlehales. Popular Science* 

Petrarch's Correspondence. Atlantic. 

Plant and Animal Growth. Manly Miles. Popular Science* 

Sealing in the Atlantic. Popular Science. 

Siam. Illus. S. E. Carrington. Californian. 

Taylor, Zachary. Illus. Annah R. Watson. Lippincott. 

Tolstoy the Younger and the Famine. Illus. Century. 

Tramp Census and Its Revelations. J. J. McCook. Forum* 

Tunis, Riders of. Illus. T. A. Dodge. Harper. 

Washington and Baltimore Sanitation. J. S. Billings. Forum* 

Washington in 1860-1. H. L. Dawes. Atlantic. 

Weismann's Theories. Herbert Spencer. Popular Science* 

Witchcraft Revival. Ernest Hart. Popular Science. 

World's Fair Types. Illus. J. A. Mitchell. Scribner. 

Zorn, Anders. Illus. Mrs. S. van Rensselaer. Century. 


Bishop Phillips Brooks. 

The 'Beauty of a Life of Service. 
Thought and tAclion. 
The Duty of the Christian Business Man- 
True Liberty. 
The Christ in whom Christians Believe. 

6/Jbraham Lincoln. With an etched Portrait by W. 
H. W. BICKNEIX. 1 vol., 16mo, cloth, gilt top, $1.00. 

Chas. E. Brown & Co., 53 State St., Boston. 

* AUTHORS : The skilled revision, the unbiassed and com- 
petent criticism of prose and verse ; advice as to publication. 
FOR PUBLISHERS : The compilation of first-class works of 
reference. Established 1880. Unique in position and suc- 
cess. Indorsed by our leading writers. Address 

DR. TITUS M. COAN, 70 Fifth Ave., NEW YORK. 

/] \AC D ]/^ A \T A A History of the Indian Wars. 
C/7 JV1C I\l \^./-lN/-l . w i t h t he First Settlers of the 
United States to the commencement of the Late War ; to- 
gether with an Appendix containing interesting Accounts of 
the Battles fought by General Andrew Jackson. With two 
Plates. Rochester, N. Y., 1828. 

Two hundred signed and numbered copies have just been 
reprinted at $2.00 each. 

25 Exchange Street, ROCHESTER, N. Y. 





THE entire area of New Mexico, 122,444 square miles in extent, 
averages as high as the loftiest summit of the White Mountains 
of New Hampshire. There, on a slope of the Rockies, bordered 
by the pine forest, neighbored by gorges and foaming torrents 
where trout abound, and environed by quaint Mexican villages, 
lies Las Vegas Hot Springs, one of the most attractive of Ameri- 
can resorts. Chronic diseases are relieved by the medicinal waters 
-every form of bath being administered and the climate is a 
specific for pulmonary affections. The superb Hotel Montezuma 
accommodates 2^0 guests. Send for illustrated descriptive book, 
"The Land of Sunshine," to 

, ovRNF 
701 Monadnock Building, CHICAGO. 



Winter term begins September 18, 1893. Course of study 
covers four years ; for Bachelors of Arts and Sciences, three 
years. Preliminary examination required in English, Physics, 
Mathematics, and Latin. Fees, $100 a year. Laboratory 
equipment for students unequaled. 
For Announcement and further information address 

Venetian Building, Chicago, 111. 


Nos. 479-481 Dearborn Aye. Seventeenth year. Prepares 
for College, and gives special courses of study. For Young 
Ladies and Children. Migg R g R A M 

Miss M. E. BEEDY, A.M., 


Boys aged 8 to 16 received into family ; fitted for any col- 
lege. Business College Course, with Typewriting, Stenog- 
raphy. A. A. CHAMBERS, A.M., Principal. 


BOSTON, MASS., 252 Marlboro' St. Reopens October 3. 
Specialists in each Department. References : Rev. Dr. DON- 
ALD, Trinity Church ; Mrs. Louis AGASSIZ, Cambridge ; 
Pres. WALKER, Institute of Technology. 


Founded by CARL FAELTBN, 

Dr. EBEN TOURGEE. Director. 

In addition to its unequaled musical advantages, excep- 
tional opportunities are also provided for the study of Elocu- 
tion, the Fine Arts, and Modern Languages. The admirably 
equipped Home affords a safe and inviting residence for lady 
students. Calendar free. 

FRANK W. HALE, General Manager, 

Franklin Square, Boston, Mass. 


A superior school and refined home. Number of students 
limited. Terms $250. Send for Catalogue. Opens Sep- 
tember 14, 1893. Brick buildings, passenger elevator, and 
steam heat. 


1793. ESTABLISHED IN 1793. 1893. 
201st Session begins Sept. 1, 1893. Maj. R. BINGHAM, Supt. 


Forty-fifth year begins Sept. 13, 1893. College course and 
excellent preparatory school. Specially organized departments 
of Music and Art. Four well-equipped laboratories. Good 
growing library, fine gymnasium, resident physician. Memo- 
rial Hall enables students to much reduce expenses. For cat- 
alogue address SARAH F. ANDERSON, Principal ( Lock box 52). 


Prepares pupils for College. Broader Seminary Course. 
Room for twenty-five boarders. Individual care of pupils. 
Pleasant family life. Fall term opens Sept. 13, 1893. 

Miss EUNICE D. SEWALL, Principal. 


No. 55 West 47th st. Mrs. SARAH H. EMERSON, Principal. 
Will re-open Oct. 4. A few boarding pupils taken. 



Announcements of the Graduate, Collegiate, and 

Medical Courses for the next academic 

year are now ready, and will 

be sent on application. 



[Aug. 1, 1893. 


Just Published. A New Nmd by F. MARION GBA WFORD. 


By F. MARION CRAWFORD, author of " Saracinesca," "Mr. Isaacs," etc. 12mo, cloth, 11.00. 

" The story has power, is highly dramatic in parts, and the threads of the plot are held firmly in the hands of a master." 
Philadelphia Telegraph. 

New Editions of F. MARION CRAWFORD'S NOVELS in uniform linding. 
l%mo, cloth, $1.00 each. 

A Roman Singer. To Leeward. Paul Patoff. Children of the King, 

Just Published. New and Cheaper Edition. 


12mo, cloth, $2.25. 

New Edition. Completed and Largely Be-written. 


By EDWARD CAMPBELL TAINSH. New Edition. 12mo, 
cloth, $1.75. 

Just Published. 12mo, cloth, $1.75. 


Translated in the original metres by EDWARD H. SUGDEN, 
B.A., B.Sc. 12mo, cloth, $1.75. 

Just Ready. 
New Volume in the Series of Twelve English Statesmen. 


By Professor T. F. TOUT. 12mo, cloth, cut, 60 cents ; cloth, 
nncnt, 75 cents. 

Just Published. 16mo, cloth, gilt top, gilt extra, $1.S5, 



Translated by BAILEY SAUNDERS. With a Preface. 16mo. 
cloth, gilt, gilt extra, $1.25. 

Completion of the New Edition of 

Edited by WILLIAM ALDIS WRIGHT. Vol. IX., 8vo. $3.00. 
The Set, nine volumes, in box, $27.00. 


By WILFRID WARD, author of " William George Ward and. 
the Oxford Movement." 8vo, $3.00. 


Selected from the Journals of MARIANNE NORTH, chiefly 
between the years 1859 and 1869. Edited by her Sister, 
Mrs. JOHN ADDINGTON SYMONDS. With Portraits. 12mo, 


Just Published. 12mo, $1.00. 


of the Roses. 12mo, cloth, $1.00. 

By the same Author. . 


By CHARLOTTE M. YONGE, author of "Heir of Redclyffe," 
and CHRISTABEL R. COLERIDGE. 12mo, cloth, $1.00. 

Just Ready. ISmo, $1.00. 

By PAUL CUSHING, author of " Cut by His Own Diamond," 
etc. 12mo, cloth, $1.00. 


By GEORGE GISSING, author of "Denzil Quarrier," "The 
NetherWorld," etc. 12mo, $1.00. 

THE REAL THING, and Other Stories. 

By HENRY JAMES, author of "The Lesson of the Master," 
etc. 12mo, $1.00. 

Uniform with the 10-volume Edition of Jane Austen's Works. 


In 12 16mo volumes. With Portrait and 36 Illustrations in 
photogravure, after drawings by H. Si Greig. Price, $1.00 
each. To be issued monthly. 

Now Ready. 

Vols. I. and II., JANE EYRE, 2 vols., f 1.00 each. 
Vols. III. and IV., SHIRLEY, 2 vols., $1.00 each. 
Vols. V. and VI., VILETTE, 2 vols., $1.00 each. 

***Also, a Large-paper Limited Edition, on hand-made 
paper, at $3.00 per volume. 

In similar style to the issues of the editions of Jane Austen and 

the Srontes. 

Edited by GEORGE SAINTSBORY. To be completed in 12 
16mo volumes. With Portrait and Illustrations by HER- 

Now Ready. 
Vols. I. and II., JOSEPH ANDREWS, 2 vols., $1.00 each. 

BOOK REVIEWS, a Monthly Journal devoted to New and Current Publications. Price, 5 cents. Yearly Subscription, 50 cents. 





Criticism, giscussbn, anti Information. 

EDITED BV ( Volume XV. 

FRANCIS F. BROWNE. \ Ko. 172. 

AT -| n 1 OOQ Jucis.a copy, i OFFICE : 24 ADAMS ST. 

, AUlT. 10, iyd. 82 .ayear. \ Stevens Building. 



of the Philosophical Society of Great Britain and of the 
International Congress of Orientalists. 1 vol., cloth, $2.50. 
This volume traces the growth and development of the lit- 
erature of Persia from its origin, 4000 years ago, to the pres- 
ent century. It contains the philosophy, language, literature, 
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[Aug. 16, 1893. 


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A group of articles upon the subject of 
American Journalism, published in the August 
"Forum," offers no little food for reflection. 
The continuous degradation of the American 
newspaper has long been admitted by all who 
are competent to express an opinion upon the 
subject ; it would be difficult to-day to find an 
intelligent and disinterested observer who would 

make, otherwise than as a hypocritical pre- 
tence, the claim that our average newspaper is 
in any sense a leader of public opinion. Even 
those who, engaged in the " new journalism,' 7 
attempt its defence, are growing bold enough 
to cast off the mask, and cynically to disavow 
all aims not comprised within such terms as. 
" popularity," " commercial success," and " un- 
precedented circulation." Most of them are 
frank enough to admit that these considera- 
tions are the only ones to be seriously taken 
into account, and that the work of newspaper 
production is, like the work of the dealer in 
real-estate or of the stock-broker, essentially a 
form of money-getting. 

The fact is, of course, as all persons will ad- 
mit whose moral perceptions are not hopelessly 
blunted, that the profession of the journalist 
carries with it certain inseparable responsibil- 
ities, and that to ignore these responsibilities, 
or to take refuge behind the fact that the law 
(that excellent but necessarily imperfect rule 
of conduct) does not enforce them, is simply 
to set morality at defiance. In all occupations, 
indeed, there are ethical as well as legal limi- 
tations upon freedom of action ; but in the 
professions (and journalism surely ought to be 
numbered among them) the limitations im- 
posed by ethics are peculiarly obvious and im- 
perative. The aims of the newspaper, from 
the ethical standpoint, may for convenience be 
classified under three heads : 1. As a collector 
of news, pure and simple, its work should be 
done in the scientific spirit, placing accuracy 
of statement above all other considerations. 

2. In its selection and arrangement of the news 
thus collected, it should have regard to real 
rather than sensational values ; it should pre- 
sent its facts in their proper perspective (which 
is still, of course, a very different perspective 
from that required by permanent history); and 
it should carefully exclude, or at least mini- 
mize to the utmost, those facts which it cannot 
possibly benefit the public to know, or of which 
the knowledge is likely to vulgarize popular 
taste and lower popular standards of morality. 

3. In its comment upon the happenings of the 
day or the week, it is bound to be honest, to 
stand for well-defined principles, to express the 
sincere convictions of its intellectual head and 
of those associated with him in the work. 



[Aug. 16, 

Judged by these tests (and who, without 
abandoning the ethical standpoint altogether, 
will deny their fairness ?), there are few news- 
papers in the country that will not be found 
wanting. In fact, no serious attempt is likely 
to be made to defend the American newspaper 
upon any such grounds as we have presented. 
The " practical newspaper man " will answer 
them, and probably think the reply convincing, 
in some such fashion as follows : Of the first 
requirement he will say that an inaccurate and 
distorted report of an occurrence is better than 
no report at all ; that the public must, in any 
event, be given something to read upon the 
subject. Of the second requirement he will 
say that the public must be regaled with read- 
ing to its taste, no matter how trivial, how 
shocking, or how filthy the subject-matter. Of 
the third requirement he will probably say 
that the exigencies of partisan journalism are 
incompatible with sincerity and consistency ; 
or he may be content with the brutal cynicism 
of the statement that a newspaper proprietor 
may do what he wishes with his own, making 
it a weathercock to the shifting winds of ig- 
norant popular opinion or of personal whim 
making it even the instrument of his personal 
prejudices and petty malignities. 

Such a reply as the above, of course, begs 
the ethical question altogether, and leaves the 
discussion where it started. The magazine 
symposium to which we have referred in our 
caption includes among its contributors the ed- 
itor of the New York " Times," who derides 
at the outset the notion that newspapers should 
be conducted with any reference to ethical 
standards. Yet what would the editor of the 
" Times " think of the clergyman who should 
preach a doctrine carefully selected for its pay- 
ing qualities, or even of the physician who 
should take up with what he knew to be quack- 
ery because he expected from it large financial 
returns? The newspaper certainly assumes, 
in its editorial department, the functions of 
the preacher or of the college professor in a 
social sense, even the functions of the medical 
practitioner ; is there any reason why it should 
be exempt from judgment by the same stand- 
ards? Yet this is the simple proposition of 
which the writer in question makes elephantine 
fun. " Among the mass of newspaper readers," 
he says, " I do not find any warrant for the 
assertions made with such flippancy by these 
reckless critics that newspapers are everywhere 
regarded as untrustworthy and debasing." Of 
course not ! " The mass of newspaper read- 

ers " approve of the paper so carefully ad- 
justed to their tastes, just as the patients of 
our practitioner of the " new medicine " or the 
hearers of our preacher of the " new theology " 
approve of the quackery of which they are the 
willing dupes. It is the sort of thing they like, 
and so, with admirable thoughtfulness, it is 
provided for their delectation. 

All that is said by the writer just quoted, 
beyond the dull trifling that makes up a large 
part of his article, is reducible to what we may 
call, for brevity, the counting-room argument ; 
and the force of that argument we admit with- 
out cavil. If journalism is to be considered a 
form of business, and nothing more, then the 
only proper tests of success are the daily cir- 
culation, the number of advertisements, and 
the annual balance-sheet. Those who consider 
it a profession, with inherent, peculiar, and 
far-reaching responsibilities, will prefer the 
tests that we have already designated, and will 
be aided in applying them by the two articles, 
hitherto unmentioned, of the symposium that 
suggested our present comment. One of these 
articles, by a New York newspaper writer fo 
thirteen years' experience, has for its title 
"Journalism as a Career," and offers a very 
plain-spoken statement of the conditions of 
newspaper work in our largest city. " The 
fundamental principle of metropolitan journal- 
ism," says this candid writer, " is to buy white 
paper at three cents a pound and sell it at ten 
cents a pound. And in some quarters it does 
not matter how much the virgin whiteness of 
the paper is defiled so long as the defilement 
sells the paper." The writer is not so much 
concerned with what he casually calls the " per- 
verted ethics " of modern journalism he seems 
to take them for granted as with the life of 
the newspaper worker. That life, under mod- 
ern conditions, is one that a dog would hardly 
envy, so degrading is it, in most cases, to every 
form of self-respect. The modern newspaper 
owner is described in a few pointed sentences : 
" He knows how to buy and sell, whether it be 
white paper or ink or brains. The fact that 
he may not know the first rudiments of the En- 
glish language, that sociology and political sci- 
ence are as incomprehensible to him as the 
hereafter, does not affect the case at all." 
" Editorial writers, or critics, or copy-readers, 
or reporters, are so numerous and so cheap 
that his whole editorial staff can be changed in 
a day if he deems it necessary. He despises 
the literary accomplishments of these men and 
therefore the men themselves, because he meas- 




ures all men by their ability to accumulate 
money and cannot see advantage in anything not 
convertible into money." Work in the employ 
of such a person is necessarily debasing ; and 
we are glad that one of the workers has had 
the candor to speak his mind openly, and give 
us this truthful account of the humiliation at- 
tendant upon the path of the modern journal- 
ist, of the meanness, the sycophancy, and the 
intellectual dishonesty that are the chief qual- 
ifications for his success, and of the peculiar 
brutality that marks the attitude maintained 
toward him by his employer. 

The writer of the third of our series of arti- 
cles, also a journalist of long experience, boldly 
attacks the modern newspaper at the point 
where its defence is commonly supposed to be 
the strongest, and asks whether, with all its 
defects of prejudice and taste, it even succeeds 
in giving the news. The writer selects for 
comparison, taking the date at random, a copy 
of each of the four leading New York papers 
for Sunday, April 17, 1881, and copies of the 
same papers for the corresponding date of the 
present year. He analyzes and classifies their 
contents, and presents the result in neatly tab- 
ulated form. While the aggregate reading 
matter in the four papers for 1893 is about 
treble that in the papers twelve years old, it is 
noticeable that the amount of space devoted to 
art has fallen from six and a quarter to five 
and a quarter columns ; that religious mat- 
ter has declined from four and a quarter col- 
umns to half a column (in the Sunday papers 
at that !); and that literature has dropped from 
forty columns to twenty-five. When we ask 
what has taken the place of the space thus 
saved, and what fills the two hundred per cent 
of additional space, we are answered by the 
figures for scandals, sports, and gossip. Scan- 
dals have gone up from one column to seven 
and a half ; sports from seven columns to fifty ; 
and gossip from four and a half columns to 
one hundred and sixteen. The writer's final 
comment upon these astonishing figures is thus 
expressed : " There is a conventional phrase 
* a newspaper is the history of the world for a 
day ' that is more or less believed in. Noth- 
ing could be falser than this. Our newspapers 
do not record the really serious happenings, but 
only the sensations, the catastrophes of history." 

One other point made by the writer of the 
last-mentioned article demands our attention. 
In comparing the newspapers of New York 
with those of Chicago, he distinctly declares 
for the superior tone and intelligence ofj[the 

latter. While the former have been under- 
going the deterioration set forth by his con- 
vincing statistics, the latter "have distinctly 
improved in a better direction." This approval 
is, of course, only relative, and implies no claim 
that " the Chicago papers are models of pro- 
priety and good taste." On the contrary, we 
are told, " they are not even so good as the 
New York papers of twelve years ago ; but 
they are very much nicer and cleaner than the 
Chicago papers of that time or than the New 
York papers of to-day. So, while there has 
been a distinct deterioration and decadence in 
the New York newspaper press in the last 
dozen years, the improvement in Chicago has 
been steady and noteworthy, and this notwith- 
standing the introduction and general adoption 
there of the illustrations that do not illustrate." 
We are inclined to think that the approval 
thus expressed and thus carefully qualified is 
just, and it is noteworthy as the opinion of a 
New York journalist. Still more noteworthy, 
perhaps, is the endorsement of this opinion by 
the New York " Evening Post." This opinion, 
says the " Post," " we have independent evi- 
dence to believe to be well taken. That is, that 
while New York papers have degenerated, 
Western papers, particularly Chicago papers, 
have improved." The man who, more than 
any other, is responsible for the " new journal- 
ism "as it exists in New York was a West- 
erner who "brought to New York a vulgar 
standard which was then current and popular 
in the West, but which the West has since 
grown ashamed of and tried to improve." 


To the Education Congresses of the World's Con- 
gress Auxiliary were assigned the two weeks be- 
ginning July 17. The Congresses of the second 
week were held under the special auspices of the 
National Educational Association, but their work, 
in many of the departments, simply continued 
the work of the first week, bringing to it the re- 
enforcement of new speakers, and, to a certain ex- 
tent, of new special subjects for discussion. The 
work of the first week was organized in thirteen 
sections, and that of the second in fifteen. With 
fifteen distinct sections in session at the same time, 
as was the case during the second week, the indi- 
vidual participant found himself in a state border- 
ing upon distraction. He might easily eliminate 
from the problem a few sessions of the more spe- 
cial sort, but there still remained a considerable 
number having nearly or quite equal claims upon 
his attention. The same complication has made it 



[Aug. 16, 

impossible for us to present a full report ( even had 
space permitted) of the proceedings of the Con- 
gresses ; our readers must be content with an ac- 
count of what took place at the more important of 
them, and, in some cases, with a list of the more 
distinguished speakers, and the subjects of their re- 

The Congress on the subject of General Educa- 
tion held eleven sessions during the two weeks, all 
but the last three being planned by a committee 
having Mrs. H. M. Wilmarth as chairman. The 
subjects under discussion the first week included 
the following : " Reforms Now Practicable in Sec- 
ondary Education," " Methods of Teaching Ethics 
in Schools," " The Education of Girls," and the 
condition of education in a number of foreign coun- 
tries, Australia, Iceland, and Turkey. Monday, 
July 24, brought two very interesting sessions of 
this Congress, the first of them being given over to 
a discussion of what the public schools ought to 
teach. Among the speakers on this subject were 
Mrs. Marion Foster Washburne, who made a plea 
for the kindergarten ; Colonel Francis W. Parker, 
who stoutly defended the scientific educational 
methods called " fads " by the ignorant and indif- 
ferent ; Mr. Thomas Morgan, who infused an ele- 
ment of socialism into the discussion ; and Dr. C. 
M. Woodward, who argued for manual training. 
The second of these sessions brought more social- 
ism with Mr. Hamlin Garland, philosophy with the 
paper sent by Mr. Thomas Davidson, and practi- 
cality with General Francis A. Walker, whose ad- 
dress was the feature of the occasion. The session 
of July 25 discussed Herbartian pedagogics from 
many points of view, the speakers including Dr. 
Levi Seeley, of Lake Forest University, Professor 
Elmer E. Brown, of the University of California, 
President Charles De Garmo, of Swarthmore Col- 
lege, and Superintendent C. B. Gilbert, of St. 
Paul. The closing three sessions of this General 
Congress included addresses by Bishop Samuel Fal- 
lows, Dr. S. H. Peabody, Superintendent Albert G. 
Lane, President W. R. Harper, President James 
B. Angell, General John Eaton, Dr. William T. 
Harris, Minister of Education G. W. Ross of To- 
ronto, MM. G. Compayre' and Benjamin Buisson, 
Professor Stephan Watzoldt, Prince Wolkonsky, 
Professor Dimscha and M. Kovalevsky, Russian 
delegates, and a number of others. 

Two Congresses on the subject of Psychology 
were included in the proceedings of the second 
week. One of them, having for its special subject 
Experimental Psychology in Education, was organ- 
ized and presided over by President G. Stanley 
Hall, of Clark University, and held three sessions, 
devoting its entire time to the psychology of the 
child. The reasons for this limitation of field were 
thus set forth by Dr. Hall : " It has been decided, 
after much consideration and wide conference, to 
devote the entire three days to the subject of child 
study. Within a very few years several societies 
have been formed for this purpose ; several jour- 

nals have been started ; the school children in many 
cities of this country and Europe have been meas- 
ured or tested as to the rate of growth of body and 
muscular and mental power ; various classes of de- 
fect of sense, limb, mind, character, form of error 
in school work and of ignorance on entering school, 
have been tabulated. From these results a new 
body of literature is being developed, which throws 
much light upon the controllable causes, whether of 
excellence or defect, and contains many suggestions 
on the method and matter of teaching, and prom- 
ises to show how instruction can be made more ef- 
fective, as well as to point out the true beginnings 
of instruction, in the entire group of psychological 
subjects." Papers were presented by President Hail r 
Professors G. T. W. Patrick, Earl Barnes, W. L. 
Bryan, and others. Rational Psychology in Edu- 
cation was the subject of the other Congress of 
Psychologists, and was presided over by the vener- 
able Dr. James McCosh, whose active participation 
in the proceedings gave them a peculiar interest. 
Dr. McCosh read the opening paper at the first of 
the three sessions, taking for his subject, " Reality : 
What Place Has It in Philosophy ? " The second 
paper, sent by Professor Josiah Royce, discussed 
the dependence of psychology upon physiology. The 
reading of this paper was followed by an interest- 
ing discussion, in which Dr. McCosh and Professor 
Paul Shorey took leading parts. At the other ses- 
sions, papers were read by President Schurman, of 
Cornell University, Dr. A. F. Hewitt, of the Cath- 
olic University of America, Professor G. T. Or- 
mond, of Princeton, and Professor Titchener, of 

The Congress on Higher Education held nine ses- 
sions during the two weeks ; the first six of which ses- 
sions were organized by a committee headed by Pres- 
ident Rogers, of the Northwestern University, and 
Mrs. H. C. Brainard of the University of Chicago. 
The first session of this Congress was opened, after 
the preliminary addresses of welcome, by President 
Angell, of the University of Michigan, who read a 
paper on " State Universities in the United States." 
Another paper of interest was by Miss E. P. Hughes, 
Principal of the Cambridge (England) Training 
College, on " The Training of University Graduates 
for the Profession of Teaching." The proceedings 
of the day following were devoted to education in 
Germany. A paper presented by Frl. Kathe Schir- 
macher, of Danzig, gave some " Reasons Why the 
German Universities Are the Last to Admit Wo- 
men "; Professor Dittman Finkler, of the Univer- 
sity of Bonn, read a paper on the general subject 
of " The German University "; and a paper sent 
by Professor Stephen Watzoldt, of the University 
of Berlin, had for its title " Schools and Universi- 
ties in Germany." On Saturday, July 22, the pro- 
gramme included the following speakers and pa- 
pers : " Latin and Greek as Elements of Second- 
ary and Higher Education Compared with Science 
and History," by Commissioner of Education Will- 
iam T. Harris ; " University Education for Women 

1893.] . 



in Russia," by Prince Sergius Wolskonsky ; " Free- 
dom to Teach," by Mrs. M. F. Crow, of the Uni- 
versity of Chicago ; " Co-education : Its Advan- 
tages and Its Dangers," by Mrs. A. A. F. Johns- 
ton, of Oberlin University ; " The Balance of Stud- 
ies in the College Course," by Miss Sarah F. Whit- 
ing, of Wellesley College ; " The Distinction be- 
tween College and University Training," by Miss 
Mary A. Jordan, of Smith College ; and " The Re- 
lation of the Government of the United States to 
Higher Education," by the Hon. John W. Hoyt. 
The four papers first mentioned in this list were, 
perhaps, the most important, or at least aroused the 
most evident interest. On Monday, July 24, a 
number of papers of the highest importance were 
read. Those particularly deserving of mention are 
" The Latest Revival of the Study of Politics," by 
Professor Bernard Moses, of the University of Cal- 
ifornia ; " Graduate Work in America," by Pro- 
fessor William Gardner Hale, of the University of 
Chicago ; " University Education in France," by M. 
Gabriel Compayre, of the Academy of Poitiers ; 
" The Study of Literature in French Universities," 
by M. Andre* Chervillon, of the University of Lille ; 
" The New Movement in the Italian Universities," 
by Signora Zampini-Salazar, of Naples ; " The 
Value of a New University," by Professor Earl 
Barnes, of the Stanford University; and "The 
School at Athens," by Professor F. E. Woodruff, 
of Bowdoin College. The programme of this day's 
proceedings also included an address by Dr. Keane, 
Chancellor of the Catholic University of America. 
The discussion of Higher Education was con- 
tinued, under the auspices of the National Educa- 
tional Association, during three highly interesting 
sessions held on the mornings of July 26, 27, and 
28. Professor A. F. West, of Princeton Univer- 
sity, acted as secretary of these meetings, and the 
presiding officers were Presidents Gilman, Angell, 
and Patton. Discussions rather than set papers 
were the rule at these sessions. At the first session, 
the subjects up for consideration were these : How 
far is it desirable that universities should be of one 
type ? How should we cope with the problem of ex- 
cessive specialization in university study ? To what 
extent should an antecedent liberal education be 
required of students of law, medicine, and theology ? 
In what way may professional schools be most advan- 
tageously connected with universities and colleges ? 
The first of these discussions was opened by Presi- 
dent Kellogg, of the University of California, and 
the last by President Low, of Columbia College. A 
paper sent by Professor Allievo, of the University 
of Turin, opened the second, while the third, which 
proved the most interesting of all, was opened by 
Professor Woodrow Wilson, who made a strong 
plea for the "antecedent liberal education" in all 
cases. The session of the second day brought the 
interest of the Congress to its climax. The special 
question for discussion was the use to be made by 
colleges of the Arts degree whether it should 
continue to stand, as heretofore, for the distinct 

type of humanistic culture produced by the study 
of Greek and Latin, or whether it should be con- 
verted into an " omnibus " degree to be conferred 
upon graduates in all departments. Professor Hale 
opened this discussion with a carefully prepared 
and logical argument for the former contention, to 
which President Jordan, of the Stanford University, 
made an able but somewhat inconclusive reply. Pro- 
fessor Shorey, of the University of Chicago, then 
took the platform, and made a singularly effective 
plea for the retention of what has always been, un- 
til recently, the accepted meaning of the Arts de- 
gree. The trenchant way in which the speaker 
cleared the whole discussion of the irrelevancies 
that are always creeping into it and obscuring the 
real points at issue was particularly satisfying. 
Another argument for the " omnibus " degree, by 
Professor T. C. Chamberlain, of the University 
of Chicago, closed the discussion of this subject. 
Another subject coming up at the same session was 
that of the conditions of undergraduate life at the 
present day as compared with the conditions a gen- 
eration ago, the discussion to range, as the pro- 
gramme announced, "over the topics of athletics, 
morals, student organizations, intercollegiate cour- 
tesies, and relations of students to instructors." 
President Raymond, of Wesleyan University, led 
in this discussion, and took a very optimistic view 
of the situation. In the comment that followed, a 
sharp divergence of opinion was manifest, espe- 
cially as to the influence of college athletics. The 
Rev. Mr. Payne, of New York, was especially vig- 
orous in his denunciation of the evils attendant upon 
them, and his view of the matter, although extreme, 
had considerable support from other speakers. 

The closing session of this Congress had for its 
general theme " the relations of higher education 
to the advancement of culture, learning, and civil- 
ization." Professor West read a paper on " The 
Evolution of Liberal Education "; this was followed 
by a discussion of the doctorate in philosophy and 
of the conditions under which it should be bestowed, 
and the session closed with addresses by Bishop 
Keane and President Angell on the relation of our 
colleges to the advancement of civilization. When 
we consider the intelligent character of the audi- 
ences, the number of distinguished educators par- 
ticipating, and the excellence of the addresses made, 
we must reckon this Congress on the Higher Edu- 
cation as one of the most marked successes of the 
Auxiliary scheme. 

The University Extension Congress, in charge of 
a committee having as chairman Professor Na- 
thaniel Butler, Jr., of the University of Chicago, 
held five sessions, all included within the first week. 
The first paper read was one sent by Professor 
James Stuart, of London. It gave a sketch of Uni- 
versity Extension in England, and was particularly 
interesting as coming from the man who, in 1872, 
really started the movement. Of the other papers, 
those of especial interest and value were : "A Sketch 
of the Movement in America," by Miss Katharine 



[Aug. 16, 

L. Sharp ; Dr. R. D. Roberts's paper on " Univer- 
sity Credits"; Mr. F. W. Shepardson's paper on 
" The Traveling Library "; Mr. E. T. Devine's pa- 
per on " The Syllabus "; Mr. George L. Hunter's 
paper upon " The Function of the Local Centre "; 
the addresses by Mrs. Charles Kendall Adams and 
Mr. Melvil Dewey. Mr. Charles Zeublin gave a 
very forcible and practical discussion of " Class 
Instruction as a Department of University Exten- 
sion," and Mr. E. L. S. Horsburgh, of Oxford, gave 
what was perhaps the strongest and most interest- 
ing paper of the entire programme, the paper which 
really closed the Congress, discussing " The Uni- 
versities and the Workingmen." The spirit in 
which he discussed it and the sentiment which he 
expressed were an interesting proof that the pro- 
gressive Englishman of to-day, even though he may 
come from Oxford itself, is quite as democratic as 
the educated and enlightened American. The 
chairman of the committee writes to us upon the 
work of the Congress as follows : " The recently 
closed Congress did not accomplish the very high- 
est ideals of success, but I think it came as near to 
that as any of the Congresses that have thus far 
been held. I feel that we could do much better if 
we had the thing to do a second time. There were 
many representatives of foreign countries in which 
the movement has begun in one form or another, 
who would have been glad to report the condition 
of work in their countries, but for that the time could 
not be found. I think we had rather too much read- 
ing of papers, with too little time for discussion. 
But, on the whole, the Congress was very gratify- 
ing, and I am sure that it put the movement of 
University Extension in a new light before a great 
many intelligent people who will carry back to their 
communities new ideas regarding this new instru- 
mentality of culture. I know of several commun- 
ities in neighboring States, in which undoubtedly 
the work will be begun the coming fall and winter 
merely because their representatives were present 
at our Congresses." 

Mr. Charles Zeublin, of the University of Chi- 
cago, and Miss Jane Addams, of Hull House, un- 
dertook the organization of a Congress on Social 
Settlements, and of this .Congress seven sessions 
were held during the first week. Among the pa- 
pers read we may mention : " The University Set- 
tlement Historically Considered," by Mr. Robert 
A. Woods, of Andover House, Boston ; " The Re- 
lation of the Settlement to Universities," by Mr. 
James B. Reynolds, of Paris ; " The Settlement as 
a Centre for University Extension," by Dr. R. D. 
Roberts, of London ; " The Settlement in Its Re- 
lation to Municipal Reform," by Mrs. Florence 
Kelley ; " The Settlement in Its Relation to Tene- 
ment Houses," by Miss Helena Dudley, of Phila- 
delphia ; " The Settlement in Its Relation to Or- 
ganized Social Work," by Mr. Everett P. Wheeler, 
of New York; "Weak Points in the Settlement 
Method," by Mr. Edward Cummings, of Harvard 

University ; " The Settlement in Its Relation to the 
Art Movement," by Miss Ellen G. Starr, of Hull 
House; and "The Ideals of Future Society as 
Evolved in a Settlement," by Mr. Charles Zeublin. 
The evening Symposium on " The Settlement in 
Its Relation to the Labor Movement," opened by 
Mr. Henry D. Lloyd, was perhaps the most inter- 
esting of the sessions of this Congress. 

The Congresses of Secondary and Elementary 
Education were held during the second week, and 
had three sessions each. In the former, the prin- 
cipal subjects of discussion related to the arrange- 
ment of the school curriculum, although the inaug- 
ural address, by Dr. J. C. Mackenzie, had for its 
subject the supervision of secondary instruction by 
State or municipal authority. In the latter Con- 
gress, the course of study occupied the first session, 
the teaching of geography the second, and moral 
education the third. The geography session, hav- 
ing the most specific theme, proved the most suc- 
cessful, and was provided with an interesting ap- 
pendix in the shape of an address by General A. 
W. Greeley, on the subject of " Arctic Explora- 

The Congress on Technological Instruction held 
three sessions, and was opened by General Francis 
A. Walker, of the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology. The first session considered the thesis : 
" How far do the technological schools, as they are 
at present organized, accomplish the training of 
men for the scientific professions, and how far and 
for what reasons do they fail to accomplish their pri- 
mary purpose ? " The other sessions discussed the 
educational value of a number of special technolog- 
ical studies, such as chemistry, electricity, and draw- 
ing. The Congress on Manual Education, which 
extended through the two weeks, had no less than 
eleven sessions, and the papers read were of a high 
character. Among them we may mention : " The 
Function of Drawing and Manual Training in Edu- 
cation," by Professor C. R. Richards, of the Pratt 
Institute, Brooklyn ; " Manual " Training in the 
American School System," by President Walter 
Hervey, of the New York Training College ; " The 
Ethical Value of Manual Training," by Dr. Emil 
G. Hirsch ; " Manual Training in Sweden," by Pro- 
fessor Gustaf Sellergren, of the Stockholm Techno- 
logical High School ; " The Influence of Japanese 
Art," by Professor Ernest Fenollosa, of the Boston 
Art Museum ; The Philosophy of the Tool," by 
Dr. Paul Cams ; " Manual and Art Education in 
Switzerland," by Mr. Edward Boos-Jegher, official 
delegate of the Swiss Confederation ; and the ad- 
dresses by Mr. W. M. R. French, Dr. H. H. Bel- 
field, chairman of the committee of organization, 
Dr. C. M. Woodward, of Washington University, 
Professor Gabriel Bamberger, the Rev. F. W. Gun- 
saulus, Professor Halsey S. Ives, Dr. W. T. Har- 
ris, and the Rev. Jenkin Lloyd Jones. The papers 
and addresses above mentioned came during the 
first week ; the second was mainly devoted to the 




discussion of certain theses, previously selected and 
announced, such as: ''The new demands which 
the world's industries make upon the elementary 
schools," "The claims of the two systems of man- 
ual training known as the Russian and the Swedish," 
and " Since all industrial products involve form, it 
follows that all industrial instruction should have 
an aesthetic basis in the study of the general prin- 
ciples which underlie all tasteful and graceful forms, 
and this study should be regarded and ranked as of 
equal educational value with the mechanic art pro- 

The limits of our space forbid any account of 
the proceedings of the Congress on Art Instruction, 
in three sessions ; the Congress on Instruction in 
Vocal Music, likewise in three sessions ; the Con- 
gress on Kindergarten Education, in thirteen ses- 
sions ; of the three joint sessions of the Kindergarten 
and Manual Training Congresses ; or of the Con- 
gresses on School Supervision and the Professional 
Training of Teachers, in three sessions each. And 
there are something like a dozen of the Education 
Congresses that we cannot even mention by name. 

" All are but parts of one stupendous whole." 
Of how stupendous was that whole our account may 
convey a certain, although a necessarily imperfect, 
idea. Perhaps the following sentences, quoted from 
an article by Mr. A. Tolman Smith, of the United 
States Bureau of Education, may serve us as well 
as anything for a closing comment: " On the hu- 
manity side this Congress is an assurance such as 
the world has never before received that the human 
family is one in the aspirations and the necessities 
of its spiritual being. On the professional side the 
Congress has sounded the note of a victory over the 
downfall and routing of two fetishes long wor- 
shipped in our schools : the fetish of uniform work 
at a uniform pace for all children, and the deadly 
superstition that teaching is a matter of fixed method 
which can be drilled into insensate minds." 


(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

In a foot-note to p. 85 of " Modern English," I call 
attention to a slip on the part of Mr. G. P. Marsh, 
where he writes: 

"The word respect, in this combination, has none of the 
meanings known to [sic] it, as an independent noun, in the 
English vocabulary." 

Mr. R. O. Williams, in your issue for July 1, con- 
tends that Mr. Marsh there delivers himself metonym- 
ically. But, if he so delivers himself, for what is " word " 
exchangeable ? Its exchangeableuess failing, " the mean- 
ings known to it," if acceptable, necessitates the accept- 
ance of " the known meanings to it " ; " to it " being for 
of it. 

Since, in correct usage, known to is practically equiv- 
alent to known by, the conversion of Mr. Marsh's pas- 
sive construction into the active yields: 

" The word respect, in this combination, has none of the 
meanings which it knows, as an independent noun, in the En- 
glish vocabulary." 

To say that a meaning " is known to " or " is known 
by " a word, instead of " is recognized as borne by " it, 
just like saying that a word " knows " a meaning, for 
" has " it, at best involves, it seems to me, a highly 
nebulous and intolerable sort of personification. 

We are by no means obliged, however, to conclude 
that Mr. Marsh ventured to sanction the novel phenom- 
enon of a word's " knowing " a meaning, whether as an 
intimate, as a casual acquaintance, or as tantum visum. 
The question of what he actually did, I shall come to a 
little farther on. 

In order to be fully intelligible, I repeat my foot- 
note above referred to: 

" A Lord Grenville of former days wrote of ' a long and de- 
structive warfare, of a nature long since unknown to the prac- 
tice of civilized nations.' Here, remarks Coleridge, ' the word 
to is absurdly used for the word in.' ( ' Essays on His Own 
Times,' p. 202.) Not unlike the nobleman's 'unknown to,' 
the context considered is Mr. Marsh's ' known to.' " 

Lord Grenville was far from intending to say, though 
in effect he says, that, as concerns a certain " long and de- 
structive warfare, the practice of civilized nations was, in 
the distant past, ignorant of its nature." For Coleridge, 
if he had altered more freely, must have proposed to sub- 
stitute, in place of " unknown to," " discarded in " ; Lord 
Grenville's nobiliary rhetoric, unamended, importing 
that the kind of warfare which he disapproves of was 
not known in remote ages. 

Altogether apart from this, to predicate, respecting a 
practice, that it does not " know " this or that, is, I ad- 
mit, a metonomy, in which " practice " stands for " those 
who practise." But a metonomy thus violent, permis- 
sible though it may be in poetry, is, to my mind, quite 
out of place in plain pedestrian prose. That, however, 
Lord Grenville indulged in it I see no reason for be- 
lieving. Coleridge condemned his " to " only for in; 
and " not unlike it, the context considered," as I have 
said, is the " to " which Mr. Marsh puts for of. All 
this becomes clear by rewriting, with inversions, the 
passages quoted. 

Mr. Marsh, in doing as he does, exemplifies the care- 
lessness in the employment of indeclinables which not- 
ably distinguishes our countrymen in general. Of this 
carelessness, a few illustrations, exhibiting to misused 
for a variety of prepositions, here follow: 

" The horse . . . had a very disdainful fling to his hind 
legs." (H. W. Longfellow, Eavanagh [ed. 1849], p. 107.) 

" A claim for extraordinary protection to a certain kind of 
property." (J. R. Lowell [1861], Political Essays [1888], 
p. 57.) 

"Cattle without any go to them." (Dr. O. W. Holmes, 
Elsie Venner [1861], ch. xxi.) 

" There was a chivalric smack to the title of the book." 
(Dr. J. G. Holland, The Heroes of Crampton [London ed. 
1867], p. 203.) 

" A few hundred pounds to the year were all that England 
gave the weary penman." (Mr. E. C. Stedman, Victorian 
Poets [London ed. 1876], p. 81.) 

"An old negro . . . rode his plough-horse to a most un- 
wonted speed." (Mr. E. Eggleston, Roxy [London ed. 1878], 
vol. ii., pp. 29,) 

" The light was so great as to be seen . . . far out to sea." 
" There is, probably, no short and precise solution to the dif- 
ficult problem." (Mr. Josiah Quincy, Figures of the Past 
[1884], pp. 38, 350. J 

" There was a hard, metallic glitter to his talk, as there is 


[Aug. 16, 

to the dialogues in his plays." (Professor A. S. Hill, Our 
English [1889], p. 205.) 

" He set out at once to Boston, to investigate the subject." 
(Mr. John Bigelow, William Cullen Bryant [1890], p. 2. ) 

In all these quotations there is violation of idiom. 
To allege, against my position relative to their "to," 
such phrases as " there are three sides to a triangle," 
" Albany lies to the north of New York," " it serves as 
a protection to the throat," etc., etc., or quaintnesses like 
" we have Abraham to our father," " he was son to a 
butcher," is no argument. Good contemporary usage, 
not analogy, determines what is idiomatic; and accord- 
ingly, Mr. Williams's " a half-dozen of them," in his 
letter before me, and his " did not have," in " Our Dic- 
tionaries," p. 107, cannot be permitted to pass muster. 

" Has F. H.' ever erred ? " So inquires Mr. Wil- 
liams, humorously; and he shall have an answer to his 
inquiry from the very highest authority, an answer 
which he may, with all confidence, enroll among the 
placita prudentum. Alas ! much too favorable dear sir, 
often, and far oftener than often, in the course of his 
philological peregrinations, has that eminent oracle, for 
want of unction with the oil of inerrancy, gone wholly 
and disastrously astray, nay, come to utter and irrecov- 
erable grief, precisely after the fashion of the most or- 
dinary lost sheep of the commonest fold. But, for all 
that, it chances, curiously enough, that, in nearly all 
cases where he has been charged with taking the wrong 
road, he has had the good fortune to take the right one ; 
and this he may some day show in detail, at the same 
time making a full and contrite confession of his mani- 
fold and multifarious shortcomings. Resuming the first 
person, he would be allowed, meanwhile, to advert to 
one of his most recent miscarriages, in the matter of 
expression, and to explain how it came about. 

It was in the London " Academy," in a letter which, 
by the way, I have to thank THE DIAL for noticing gra- 
ciously, that I stumbled and fell. The beginning of 
that letter runs: "This question, it may be confidently 
assumed, is one to which all, barring the grossly illiter- 
ate, would reply in the affirmative. Most of them, too, 
if asked," etc. The proof-sheet had " Most of us" with 
" we," " our," and " we should," in what immediately 
follows, instead of "they," "their," and " they would." 
Revising, in unavoidable haste, I altered, in " Most of 
MS," only the " us," not observing that I had thereby as 
good as blundered into the tautological " Most of all," 
for " most." For the rest, on discovery of the remark- 
able genius who is not liable, when working against 
time, to such a mishap as that of mine, I should be glad 
to secure him, if possible, as my literarian Gamaliel. 

F H 

Marlesford, England, July 15, 1893. 

P. S. " Even such a purist as Lord Macaulay uses 
it more than once." This sentence Mr. Williams quotes 
from me as " a remark " which I make " concerning 
another locution." Is my remark amiss as to its word- 
ing ? or in what it expresses ? I am at a loss to know. 


(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

The paper by Professor Brander Matthews, in a re- 
cent number of " Harper's Monthly Magazine," on " The 
Function of Slang," fills, as the advertisements say, a 
long-felt want. Every true philologist, in these latter 
days, must have wished for some one bold enough to 
dispute the old pedagogic theory that slang is invariably 
a linguistic crime. Professor Matthews's literary inde- 

pendence and alert modernity signally qualify him to 
set up the new standard; and yet his manifesto might, 
I conceive, have been considerably improved by the omis- 
sion of a few inaccuracies and a correction in point of 

He says, for instance, that the vulgar phrase " fire 
out," in the sense of expel forcibly, was used by Shake- 
speare, and quotes in support from one of the sonnets: 
" Till my good angel fire my bad one out." 

Here, obviously, the " fire out " means, not expel forcibly, 
as Professor Matthews, curiously enough, seems to have 
thought, but drive away by fire. In " Lear " we have 
the same figure: 

" He that parts us shall bring a brand from heaven 
And fire us hence like foxes." (Lear, v, 3 ; 22,} 

The power and poetic propriety of this figure must be 
felt at once. In Shakespeare's use of the term, Adam 
and Eve may be said to have been " fired out " of Eden ; 
yet we should hardly like to say so of them nowadays, 
simply because the modern metaphor is that of fire- 
arms, not of a fire-brand. Of the two, I think no one 
will hesitate to pronounce Shakespeare's the better. He 
was not seldom extravagant in his tropes, but it re- 
mained for the exuberant incongruity of the nineteenth 
century to speak of " firing " people from the cannon's 
mouth. In circuses, to be sure, we have all seen lovely 
pink-apparelled creatures who were literally " fired out," 
who described graceful parabolas through the air, landed 
safely in capacious nets, and made unsteady exits with 
bows and kisses of the hand. But when we talk about 
" firing " a book agent from an office room, nine in ten 
of us have dulled our use of the words by forgetting 
what they originally meant. 

It is this same heedless lack of imagination that is 
the besetting sin of much of the popular diction of to- 
day, a sin which Professor Matthews fails to rebuke 
as I could wish a person of his authority to have done. 
He says, " It cannot be declared too often and too em- 
phatically how fortunate it is that the care of our lan- 
guage is not in the hands of even the most competent 
of our scholars." Our scholars and our purists exert a 
corrective influence which these rapid days make us 
hardly able to do without. In slower times a new word 
or a new phrase was not caught at once upon the cur- 
rent of popular approval; it was revolved first in the 
sober eddies of scholastic deliberation, with the result 
that much rubbish was got rid of by the way. We 
hardly agree with Professor Matthews that this rubbish 
should be swept along undammed. And we should be 
inclined to dispute him utterly, if by " the most compe- 
tent of our scholars " he included Lowell, Emerson, and 
men of their calibre. A language with the like of them 
for overseers would never be in danger of growing for- 
mal, and could not tend seriously toward the license which 
Professor Matthews rather too cursorily deprecates. 
He should recall Emerson's American Scholar for 
breadth and scholastic equity. And his admired Lowell 
might have kept him from such an error as implying 
that deck, in the sense of a pack of cards, is slang, 
" Western," Professor Matthews says, not, perhaps, hav- 
ing known always that it is an old word. If the men 
of books had a little more to say in this matter, they 
would not let good words come into disrepute because 
they fell into bad company, and there would be less 
necessity for the coinage of new ones. 


Mackinac Island, Michigan, August 7, 1893. 




Ejje Neto i3oofcs. 


The proverbial rarity of true " Confessions " 
is not so surprising when we consider how hard 
it is to shrive one's self, without evasion or 
casuistry, even at the bar of one's own con- 
science. Perfectly sincere autobiographies are 
the black swans of literature. Even Samuel 
Pepys, the accepted type of autobiographical 
candor, never meant to be candid. He care- 
fully screened himself from observation (as he 
thought) behind his cipher ; and posterity has 
taken what is, on the whole, rather an unfair 
advantage of him. Pepys was really a sensible, 
self-respecting man, and not unmindful of Lord 
Chesterfield's maxims as to the Graces ; and 
were it possible for him at any time to revisit 
the glimpses of the moon, his dismay at the qual- 
ity of his reception would be comical indeed. 

In the little volume before us, " The Story 
of My Life," by Dr. Georg Ebers the eminent 
Egyptologist and novelist, the point beyond 
which autobiographical frankness ceases, in a 
way, to be a virtue is fairly indicated. The 
book gives us all that its title warrants us in 
asking, and it does not give us too much. Its 
most important heads are the touching retro- 
spect of the author's childhood, the account of 
his gymnasium and university career and of his 
early essays in authorship, and the description 
of the unique Keilhau school (founded by Frce- 
bel), its methods and ideals. There is a good 
deal of incidental portraiture and reminiscence, 
and certain not unimportant Pendennis-like 
episodes of the narrator's Flegeljahre are amus- 
ingly told. The style throughout is easy and 
familiar, and there is a certain engaging air, 
especially in the earlier chapters, of musing, 
half-soliloquy, that the rather hasty translation 
has not altogether effaced. 

Georg Ebers was born in Berlin in 1837. 
He was a posthumous child. " It was," he says, 

" To soothe a mother's heartbreak that I came in the 
saddest hours of her life, and, though my locks are now 
gray, I have uot forgotten the joyful moments in which 
that dear mother hugged her fatherless little one, and 
among other pet names called him her ' comfort child.' " 

The mother was a Berliner only by adoption. 
She was a native of Holland ; and that the title 
of " the beautiful Hollander," by which she 
became known in the capital, was worthily be- 

* THE STORY OF MY LIFE, from Childhood to Manhood. 
By Georg Ebers. Translated by Mary J. Safford. With por- 
traits. New York : D. Appleton & Co. 

stowed is attested by the portrait which (in 
the fullest sense) adorns the volume before us. 
The plate is, in itself, a poor one ; but the 
beauty and goodness of the original shine 
through and fairly overcome the faults and in- 
adequacies of the representation. Says our 
author : 

" No one could help pronouncing my mother beauti- 
ful; but to me she was at once the fairest and best of 
women, and if I make the suffering Stephanus in Homo 
Sum say, < For every child his own mother is the best 
mother,' mine certainly was to me. My heart rejoiced 
when I perceived that every one shared this apprecia- 

When the elder Ebers led the "beautiful 
Hollander " away from her native city as his 
bride, the burgomaster told him that he gave 
to his keeping the pearl of Rotterdam ; and 
that the phrase was not merely the language 
of compliment was evinced by the young wife's 
speedy social triumph in her new home. She 
became one of the most courted women in Ber- 
lin society : 

" Holtei (the actor and dramatist) had made her ac- 
quaintance at this time, and it was a delight to hear her 
speak of those gay, brilliant days. How often Baron 
von Humboldt, Rauch, or Schleiermacher had escorted 
her to dinner ! Hegel had kept a blackened coin won 
from her at whist. Whenever he sat down to play 
cards with her he liked to draw it out, and showing it 
to his partner, say, ' My thaler, fair lady.' " 

Holtei, in later years, when asked by the au- 
thor if he remembered the " fair lady," warmly 
replied : 

"... No, my young unknown friend, I have far too 
much with which to reproach myself, have brought from 
the conflicts of a changeful life a lacerated heart, but I 
have never reached the point where that heart ceased 
to cherish Fanny Ebers among the most sacred memo- 
ries of my chequered career. How often her loved 
image appears before me when, in lonely twilight hours, 
I recall the past." 

Less eloquent was the tribute of Frau Kom- 
missionsrath Reichert, to whom Madam Ebers, 
in the first year of her widowhood, applied for 
the lease of a house in the Thiergartenstrasse. 
This lady, having no children herself, inclined 
to be rather sharp with people who had ; so 
she refused the lease, adding that she pre- 
ferred to let the house " stand empty rather 
than rent it to a family with children." But, 
says the author, 

" She had a warm, kind heart, and she told me this 
ners elf the sight of the beautiful young mother in 
her deep mourning made her quickly forget her preju- 
dice. ' If she had brought ten bawlers instead of five,' 
she remarked, ' I would not have refused the house to 
that angel face.' " 

About this pleasant, retired house in the 
Thiergartenstrasse are twined some of the ten- 



[Aug. 16, 

derest memories of the author's childhood 
among them the regular pilgrimages to the 
churchyard where his father lay buried. At 
these little ceremonies all the children were re- 
quired to assist : 

" During the walk, we gathered blue corn-flowers and 
scarlet poppies from the fields, bluebells, daisies, ranun- 
culus, and snap-dragon from the turf along the road- 
side, and tied them into nosegays for the graves. My 
mother moved silently with us between the rows of grassy 
mounds, tombstones, and crosses, while we carried the 
pots of flowers and wreaths, which, to afford everyone 
the pleasure of helping, she had distributed among us 
at the grave-digger's house, just back of the cemetery. 
. . . My mother led the way into the small enclosure, 
which was surrounded by an iron railing, and prayed or 
thought silently of the beloved dead who rested there. 
. . . When she had satisfied the needs of her own soul, 
she turned to us, and with cheerful composure directed 
the decoration of the mound. Then she spoke of our 
father, and if any of us had recently incurred punish- 
ment one instance of this kind is indelibly impressed 
on my memory she passed her arms around the child, 
and in whispered words, which no one else could hear, 
entreated the son or daughter not to grieve her so again, 
but to remember the dead." 

Later, the family moved to the Lennestrasse, 
and at this period our author's acquaintance 
with the world of books and of men fairly be- 
gan. The mother was still the sun about which 
the little lives revolved. She shared in and 
supervised the amusements of her children, and 
directed their reading with judicious liberality. 
Robinson Crusoe, the Arabian Nights, Don 
Quixote, Gulliver's Travels, etc., were devoured 
in turn ; but the ever-green story of the Trojan 
War was the common favorite: 

" Homer's heroes seemed like giant oaks, which far 
overtopped the little trees of the human wood. They 
towered like glorious snow-mountains above the little 
hills with which my childish imagination was already 
filled; and how often we played the Trojan War, and 
aspired to the honor of acting Achilles, Hector, or Ajax." 

In the Lennestrasse our author was early 
introduced to the world of art, and enjoyed 
access to the neighboring studios of Drake, 
Streichenberg, and Peter Cornelius. Corne- 
lius was an especial friend ; and when he asked 
permission of Madam Ebers to use her son's 
blond curly head as a model, the mother readily 
consented. Of this memorable sitting the wri- 
ter, as he says, remembers nothing save some 
particularly good candied fruit which the artist 
found necessary to administer at intervals : 

" Even now I smile at the recollection of his making 
an angel or a spirit of peace out of the wild boy who 
perhaps just before had been scuffling with the enemy 
from the flower-cellar." 

An equally notable friend at that time was 
Court-Chaplain Strauss : 

" When Strauss met us in the street and called to us 
with a certain unction in his melodious voice, < Good 
morning my dear children in Christ ! ' our hearts went 
out to him, and it seemed to us as if we had received a 

Strauss was deep in the counsels of Freder- 
ick William IV., although that eccentric 
prince could not resist an inclination to make 
cheap jokes at the good man's expense. After 
creating him court-chaplain, Frederick said to 
Alexander von Humboldt : "A trick in nat- 
ural history which you cannot copy ! I have 
turned an ostrich (Strauss) into a bull-finch 
(Dompfaffer} " an allusion to Strauss's be- 
ing a preacher in the cathedral (Dow). 

It was to this jocular prince that von Hum- 
boldt, when asked how he, who passed at court 
for a freethinker, could go to church, made the 
apt reply, " In order to get on, your Excel- 

The scenes of the Berlin revolution natur- 
ally left a deep impression on the writer's 
mind, and the two chapters devoted to the pe- 
riod are full of graphic interest. The family 
were then living in the Linkstrasse, not far 
from the scene of the disturbances. The catch- 
words of the day were in the mouths even of 
the schoolboys ; and the author remembers es- 
pecially a truculent phrase, " hanging the last 
king with the guts of the last priest," which he 
heard for the first time from the lips of a big, 
blond-bearded man at the sculptor Streichen- 
berg's, a declaimer who talked much of the 
freedom of the people and of his own mission 
to pave the way for it, and who was probably 
comfortably out of danger when the fighting 
began. The ever-recurring catch-word Press- 
freiheit (freedom of the press) was altered by 
the wags of the school into Fressfreiheit (lib- 
erty to stun one's self) ; and cries of " Loyal 
Legioner," " Pietist," " Friend of Light," etc., 
were not wanting. When the tumult began 
in the Schlossplatz, and the ominous rattle of 
musketry was heard from the Leipzigerstrasse, 
there was a sudden rush of an excited throng of 
rioters down the quiet street where the Ebers 
lived : 

"The tall, bearded fellow at their head we knew 
well. It was the upholsterer Specht, who had often 
put up curtains and done similar work for us, a good 
and capable workman. But what a change ! Instead 
of a neat little hammer, he was flourishing an axe, and 
he and his companions looked as if they were going to 
avenge some terrible injury. He caught sight of us, 
and I remember distinctly the whites of his rolling eyes 
as he raised his axe higher, and shouted hoarsely, and 
as if the threat was meant for us: ' They shall get it ! ' 
Meanwhile the fighting in the streets seemed to have 
increased in places to a battle, for the crash of the ar- 




tillery grapeshot was constantly intermingled with the 
crackling of the infantry fire, and through it all the 
bells were sounding the tocsin, a wailing, warning sound, 
which stirred the inmost heart." 

Happily, with the night the brief reign of 
terror was over. It was said that all was quiet ; 
the famous proclamation " To my dear people 
of Berlin " was issued ; but Pressfreiheit (and 
indeed " Fressfreiheit ") were still below the 
horizon, while luckless " upholsterer Specht " 
lay quiet enough in the cool of the morning, 
with outstretched hands that were done with 
the axe and the " neat little hammer " forever. 
The Berlin streets on that day presented a 
strange and terrible medley : 

" Here was a pool of blood, there a bearded corpse ; 
here a blood-stained weapon, there another blackened 
with powder. Like a cauldron where a witch mixes all 
sorts of strange things for a philtre, each barricade con- 
sisted of every sort of rubbish, together with objects 
originally useful. All kinds of overturned vehicles, 
from an omnibus to a perambulator, from a carriage to 
a hand-cart, were everywhere to be found. Ward- 
robes, commodes, chairs, boards, bookshelves, bath-tubs 
and wash-tubs, iron and wooden pipes, were piled to- 
gether, and the interstices filled with sacks of straw 
and rags, mattresses, and carriage cushions. . . . Bloody 
and terrible pictures rose before us, and perhaps there 
was no need of Assessor Geppert's calling to us sternly, 
' Off home with you, boys ! ' to turn our feet in that 

Touching the mooted question whether the 
Berlin revolution was the result of a long-pre- 
pared conspiracy or the spontaneous outburst 
of enthusiasm for liberty among the citizens, 
Dr. Ebers adopts the opinion of von Sybel : 

" Both these views are equally well founded, for only 
the united effort of the two forces could insure a pos- 
sibility of victory." 

From the detailed account of the admirable 
Keilhau school we shall extract only the fol- 
lowing notice of Frosbel, its founder : 

" When we came to Keilhau he was already sixty-six 
years old, a man of lofty stature, with a face which 
seemed to be carved with a dull knife out of brown 
wood. His long nose, strong chin, and large ears, be- 
hind which the long locks, parted in the middle, were 
smoothly brushed, would have rendered him positively 
ugly, had not his ' Come, let us live for our children,' 
beamed so invitingly in his clear eyes. . . . Yet I 
must confess and his portrait agrees with my memory 
that his face by no means suggested the idealist and 
man of feeling; it seemed rather expressive of shrewd- 
ness, and to have been lined and worn by severe con- 
flicts concerning the most diverse interests. But his 
voice and his glance were unusually winning, and his 
power over the child was limitless. A few words were 
sufficient to win completely the shyest boy whom he de- 
sired to attract; and thus it happened that, even when 
he had been with us only a few weeks, he was never 
seen crossing the court-yard without a group of the 
younger pupils hanging to his coat-tails and clasping 
his hands and arms. . . . We never called him any- 

thing but Oheim ' (uncle). The word ' Onkel ' he de- 
tested as foreign, because it was derived from ' avun- 
culus ' and ' oncle.' " 

If the reader will call to mind for a mo- 
ment, in connection with this winning picture, 
some " Dr. Busby " of his own boyhood, and 
the probable result of a pupil's calling the 
great man " uncle " not to speak of " hanging 
to his coat-tails," the principle that lay at 
the root of Frrebel's ideals becomes apparent. 
Love for the master, and the freest opportu- 
nity for the development of individual char- 
acter, was the rule at the Keilhau school. 
" Wherever I have met," says our author, 

" An old pupil of Keilhau, I have found in him the 
same love for the institute, have seen his eyes sparkle 
more brightly when we talked of Langethal, Midden- 
dorf, and Barop (the masters). Not one has turned out 
a sneak or a hypocrite." 

After a term at the gymnasia of Kottbus and 
Quedlinburg, Dr. Ebers entered Gottingen, 
where he resolved to devote himself to the law ; 
but his studies at this point were cut short by 
a terrible attack of spinal disease, which for 
some years left him almost helpless. It was 
during convalescence, however, that he found 
a final province of labor, a fixed goal toward 
which to move with firm tread in the seclusion 
to which his malady condemned him. He had 
been early attracted to Egyptology ; and by 
the advice of Jacob Grimm he resolved to take 
counsel with Richard Lepsius as to a plan of 
exhaustive study in that science. Lepsius's re- 
quirements were sufficiently formidable : 

" He had inquired about my previous education, and 
urged me to study philology, archaeology, and at least 
one Semitic language. ... It would be necessary 
also for me to understand English and Italian, since 
many things which the Egyptologist ought to know 
were published in those languages. Lastly he advised 
me to obtain some insight into Sanscrit, which was the 
point of departure for all linguistic studies." 

Lepsius, in brief, impressed upon the au- 
thor the truth, which he himself afterwards 
impressed upon his pupils, that it would be a 
mistake to begin by studying so restricted a 
science as Egyptology. The foundations nec- 
essary for the special structure must first be 
firmly laid. The programme suggested by 
Lepsius was thoroughly carried out, and many 
details were added including the study of 
Italian, Spanish, and Dutch. The material 
having been thus laboriously gathered, the ques- 
tion presented itself, how to turn it to account : 

This material gave me no peace. I soon mastered 
it completely, but gradually the relation changed and 
it mastered me, gave me no rest, and forced me to try 
upon it the poetic power so long condemned to rest." 



[Aug. 16, 

In short, Dr. Ebers resolved, not without 
some twinges of his scientific conscience, to 
compose a novel embodying this troublesome 
material, and the outcome was " The Egyptian 
Princess " a title suggested by Auerbach. 
His account of the reception by the austere 
Lepsius of the finished manuscript is amus- 

" I had not said even a word in allusion to what I 
was doing in the evening hours, and the three volumes 
of my large manuscript were received by him in a way 
that warranted the worst fears. He even asked how I, 
whom he believed to be a serious worker, had been 
tempted into such ' side issues.' . . . Yet he kept the 
manuscript and promised to look at the curiosity. He 
did more. He read it through to the last letter, and 
when, a fortnight later, he asked me at his house to re- 
main after the others had left, he looked pleased, and 
confessed that he had found something entirely different 
from what he had expected. The book was a scholarly 
work, and also a fascinating romance." 

With the account of his first novel, Dr. 
Ebers closes the first instalment of his autobi- 
ography. We shall look for the half -promised 
supplementary volume with interest. 

E. G. J. 


Whatever the place to which definitive criti- 
cism may assign the fame of Mr. Henry Irving 
as an actor, there is no possibility that his ser- 
vice to the stage, as artist, producer, champion, 
will be overpraised. He deserves of his profes- 
sional brethren more than the pretense of grat- 
itude, and the intellectual world is under obli- 
gation to him not merely for additions to its 
refinement but for positive increase of its knowl- 
edge. It is not necessary to assume that be- 
fore Mr. Irving's time there was no actor es- 
teemed and no art of acting appreciable, for 
in his excellent little volume of Addresses on 
the Drama in which jewels of literature 
sort with gems of reason our lecturer is at 
loving pains to tell us what noble figures in his 
regard are four of the masters of other days, 
Burbage, Betterton, Garrick, Kean. But Mr. 
Irving chanced upon, though he partly brought 
about, an era of dramatic renaissance, to which 
Edwin Booth and Lawrence Barrett in our 
own country, Salvini and Rossi in Italy, Son- 
nenthal and Barnay in Germany, were equally 
coincident and contributory. It was the first 
period in the history of the theatre that found 

* THE DKAMA. Addresses by Henry Irving. 1, The Stage 
as It Is. 2, The Art of Acting. 3, Four Great Actors. 4, The 
Art of Acting. New York : Tait, Sons & Co. 

actors ready and capable to assert themselves 
as peers in the kingdom of Genius, entitled to 
move by authority and not by sufferance ; and 
they claimed the right to be received as equals 
and factors, not as proteges and exhibits, of the 
society that tardily opened to them its doors. 

Circumstances have peculiarly favored Mr. 
Irving, and he has had the shrewdness to de- 
rive their full benefit. He came in the de- 
ciduous season of the English stage. The 
great ones were fallen or falling, and there 
was so little promise in the rising actors that 
the chief honors were to be worn by him who 
should most urgently set himself to possess 
them. Though he has something of the poetic 
temperament and much of artistic culture, Mr. 
Irving is firmly practical, methodic, and calcu- 
lating. Ardent impulses never mislead him ; 
calm, discriminating judgment guides him. As 
a young man he saw the opportunities open- 
ing to someone in the uncertain conditions of 
the English theatre, and he determined to be 
that someone. He strove with a strenuousness 
it is not in the power of fate to resist. He began 
by educating himself, with an eye to mastery ; 
and, assiduous then, he has been unremitting 
since. Truly and thoroughly proud of his vo- 
cation, nothing would content him but that it 
should be so much a pride to others as to give 
its chief representatives absolute equality with 
the eminent followers of other arts and profes- 
sions. So it came about that to-day we have, elo- 
quently worded and of manly spirit, preserved 
in the covers of a book, lectures delivered by 
an actor as the nobly honored guest of that 
stern and august mistress of learning, the Phil- 
osophical Institution of Edinburgh ; of that an- 
cient contemner of the mummer vagabond, the 
University of Oxford ; and of Harvard, ven- 
erable in age but never intolerant. That Mr. 
Irving should a little exult in his triumph and 
in the greater triumph of the stage, was a thing 
expected and pardonable ; but the objection may 
be urged against him that he has been so can- 
did in the expression of his satisfaction as rather 
to give the impression of a favor received than 
of a right secured. However, it must be ad- 
mitted that for a grievous time in the world's 
history the actor class was, partly through its 
own ignoble obsequiousness, but mostly by force 
of community prejudices and ignorance, made 
unworthy social esteem ; and if the old trend 
of thought bore off the current of new ideas 
long after the stage had indicated its right to 
the regard of the wise and the good, there is 
abundant reason now for gratulation that a 




better understanding between theatre and pub- 
lic has been educated. 

Question is made nowadays if the actor's be 
not the most difficult, as it is the most com- 
plex, of all the arts ; and it is pretty well 
established as a judgment that to be great as 
an actor entitles the man to a station not less 
than, nor removed from, that to which fame 
conducts poet, or painter, or sculptor, or states- 
man, or preacher. " A theatre," one time said 
Macready, " ought to be a place of recreation 
for the sober-minded and intelligent." So, 
indeed, the true theatre is ; for the theatre is 
not the building from whose plan of construc- 
tion it takes its name, but the vital drama, 
plays of life and character and thought and 
condition -and purpose. The great pity is that 
the drama proper is confounded with amuse- 
ments, that the theatre is made to take in 
everything in which there are the arc of a cir- 
cle and a stage. In any serious discussion of 
the drama, it is always presumed that the refer- 
ence is to its representative parts, those things 
in it that are best, noblest, enduring. Mr. 
Irving says, as soundly as felicitously : 

" The truth is that the immortal part of the stage is 
its noble part. Ignoble accidents and interludes come 
and go, but this lasts on forever. It lives like the hu- 
man soul in the body of humanity, associated with much 
that is inferior, and hampered by many hindrances, 
but it never sinks into nothingness, and never fails to 
find new and noble work in exactness of permanent and 
memorable excellence. Heaven forbid that I should 
seem to cover, even with a counterpane of courtesy, ex- 
hibitions of deliberate immorality. Happily this sort of 
thing is not common, and although it has hardly been 
practised by anyone who, without a strain of meaning, 
can be associated with the profession of acting; yet public 
<;ensure, not active enough to repress the evil, is ever 
ready to pass a sweeping condemnation on the stage 
which harbors it. Our cause is a good one. We go 
forth, armed with the luminous panoply which genius 
has forged for us, to do battle with dulness, with 
coarseness, with apathy, with every form of vice and 
vil. In every human heart there gleams a higher re- 
flection of this shining armor. The stage has no lights 
or shadows that are not lights of life and shadows of 
the heart. To each human consciousness it appeals in 
alternating mirth and sadness, and will not be denied. 
Err it must, for it is human ; but, being human, it must 

Admission is made of the fact that the in- 
terests of the theatre are sometimes degraded 
by panders to low, vicious, and morbid tastes ; 
but fair-minded, intelligent people find no dif- 
ficulty in discriminating the devotees of the 
drama from the hucksters and tradespeople of 
the play-house, nor do they confound the pur- 
suit of a noble art with the practices of a con- 
temptible commerce between ignorance and 

vulgarity. But even in such cases there is this 
to be observed, that the stage " holds out long 
against the invitation to pander ; and such invi- 
tations, from the publicity and decorum that 
attend the whole matter, are neither frequent 
nor eager. A sort of decency sets in upon the 
coarsest person in entering even the roughest 
theatre. I have sometimes thought that, con- 
sidering the liability to descend and the facil- 
ity of descent, a special providence watches 
over the morals and tone of our English stage." 
He might have said, of the English-speaking 
stage ; for certainly nothing is more indicative 
of a protecting spirit of the drama than the 
high moral tone of the stage of this country, 
where the only censorship of the drama, and 
the only restraint upon the theatre, is public 

May we not see in the survival and triumph 
of the drama through ages of assault and con- 
tumely, of persecutions and prohibitions, a di- 
vine purpose somewhat wiser than the will of 
man ? Mr. Irving has suggested the reason why 
"the stage has literally lived down the rebuke 
and reproach under which it formerly cowered, 
while its professors have been simultaneously 
living down the prejudices which excluded them 
from society." That reason is, "The stage is now 
seen to be an elevating instead of a lowering 
influence on national morality, and actors and 
actresses receive in society, as do members of 
other professions, exactly the treatment which 
is earned by their professional conduct." The 
conditions were very different when each of 
the four great actors discussed in one of these 
lectures strove for the laurel. Their obligation 
in the service of their profession was that of 
pioneers. They commanded the emotions of 
men, and prepared the way for the persuasion 
of their intelligence. 

Thomas Sheridan, in 1746, in Dublin, pre- 
cipitated a notorious riot by declaring in the 
face of a rich young ruffian, who, with others 
had made a disorder in the theatre, " I am as 
good a gentleman as you are." This impu- 
dence on the part of an actor though he was 
the son of old Dr. Sheridan, scholar and gen- 
tleman, and a graduate of the university was 
"tolerable and not to be endured," and for 
some hours the audacious Thespian was in mor- 
tal danger. At the same time Garrick was 
trying to be a gentleman in London, and, if 
not wholly successful in having himself ac- 
cepted by the noble lords who patronized and 
condescended to him, he did beat down some 
of the barriers and cleared a way for others to 



[Aug. 16, 

prosper in. The actor need not now eat out his 
heart with chagrin that his patient merit has 
to suffer whips and scorns on his profession's 
account. Society not only welcomes him, but 
holds him much in favor, for in these times 
the famous player has the advantage that at- 
tends preferment after revolution. He occu- 
pies a place in which he yet feels new, and of 
which he speaks mysteriously, and in which he 
is regarded with some curiosity. Even Mr. 
Irving could not repress a sort of chuckle from 
his lecture before the Philosophical Institution 
of Edinburgh. Before long all this reserve 
and strangeness will have disappeared, and the 
apologist of the theatre will be as rare a bird 
as the theatrical " reformer," described as one 
who combines with intellectual superciliousness 
a timidity as to moral contamination. Mr. Irv- 
ing finds the stage as it is both elevating and 
educating, a social benefactor and benefit to the 
individual, notwithstanding its sins of omission 
and of commission ; and I think no sociologist 
is prepared to dispute him. Indeed, the old 
warfare against the stage is about ended, or, if 
pursued, is so to the disadvantage of those who 
wage it ; of course I mean indiscriminate war- 
fare, battle against the theatre. 

Not less important than the first, but more 
technical and of immediate interest to the lim- 
ited number, is Mr. Irving's lecture on the Art 
of Acting. He finds as remarkable improve- 
ment in that regard as in the moral and social 
status of the theatre ; and particularly com- 
mends the modern adoption of Hamlet's ad- 
vice to the players as the rule and guide of 
action. Artifice is more and more dispelled, 
and the decrees of art become the utterance of 
nature. We learned sometime ago from his 
friendly rejoinders to Coquelin that Mr. Irving 
has no sympathy with the brilliant and specious 
Diderot's idea that the actor must be insensible 
to the emotions he simulates. It seems impos- 
sible there should be any great acting with- 
out profound sensibility, though it is the busi- 
ness of the artist to control his feelings within 
conscious bounds ; careful not to overstep the 
modesty of nature by letting passion get the 
better of judgment. Not to follow too far the 
interesting lead of Mr. Irving's delightful vol- 
ume and valuable addition to stage literature, 
this quotation, which presents a summary of 
the actor's art, will serve also as an epitome 
of the three especially aesthetic lectures : 

"It is necessary to this art that the mind should 
have, as it were, a double consciousness, in which all 
the emotions proper to the occasion may have full 

swing, while the actor is all the time on the alert for 
every detail of his method. It may be that his playing 
will be more spirited one night than another. But the 
actor who combines the electric force of a strong per- 
sonality with a mastery of the resources of his art must 
have a greater power over his audiences than the pas- 
sionless actor who gives a most artistic simulation of 
the emotions he never experiences." 



For a good story, that pretends to be nothing 
more than a story, that impels to no soul-search- 
ings, and that is instructive only in the mildest way, 
the season has brought us nothing better than " The 
Refugees." Dr. Doyle's work usuallyhas a way of 
suggesting some one of the masters of fiction with 
" Micah Clarke " and " The White Company " the 
suggestion was of Scott, while with the Sherlock 
Holmes series it was only of Gaboriau, and the 
Franco- American romance now before us tempts to 
characterization of its writer as a Dumas double de 
Cooper. Taking the revocation of the Edict of 
Nantes as his central episode, Dr. Doyle seeks (not 
in vain) to interest us in the fortunes of a Hugue- 
not family group ; and his story divides neatly into 
two parts, one of which, quite as good as " Le Vi- 
comte de Bragelonne," takes us to the court of " le 
Roi Soleil," while the other, no less thrilling than 
" The Last of the Mohicans," transports us to the 
wilds of the New World, and gives us some of the 
best Indian fighting to be found in books. Adven- 
ture is piled upon adventure with startling swiftness 
of succession ; but we soon learn that the author has 
a way for his hero out of the difficulties he encoun- 
ters, however desperate, and we can only feign 
alarm at the critical moments. We must say that 
the writer's Americans (not Indians) are a little 

. *THE REFUGEES: A Tale of Two Continents. By A. 
Conan Doyle. New York : Harper & Brothers. 

PIETBO ( J M i s i.i-: i: i . By F. Marion Crawford. New York : 
Macmillan & Co. 

FROM OUT OF THE PAST. By Emily Howland Hoppin. 
New York : Dodd, Mead & Co. 

JOHN PAGET. By Sarah Barnwell Elliott. New York: 
Henry Holt & Co. 

BROADOAKS. By M. G. McClelland. St. Paul: ThePrice- 
McGill Co. 

New York : Harper & Brothers. 

OLD K ASK A SKI A . By Mary Hartwell Catherwood. Bos- 
ton : Hough ton, Mifflin & Co. 

TOPPLETON'S CLIENT ; or, A Spirit in Exile. By John 
Kendrick Bangs. New York : Charles L. Webster & Co. 

MANY INVENTIONS. By Rudyard Kipling. New York: 
D. Appleton & Co. 

THE STORY OF A STORY, and Other Stories. By Brander 
Matthews. New York : Harper & Brothers. 

MR. TOMMY DOVE, and Other Stories. By Margaret De- 
land. Boston : Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

DAY AND NIGHT STORIES : Second Series. By T. R. Sulli- 
van. New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 




overdone, and that some among the humorous points 
that he scores are the result of rather cheap devices, 
but the tale as a whole is so well-knit, so spirited, 
and so exciting in its interest, that criticism of the 
minuter sort stands abashed in its presence. 

Mr. Crawford's " Pietro Ghisleri " introduces us 
once more to the aristocratic Roman society made 
so familiar by the novels of the " Saracinesca " se- 
ries, and even, incidentally, to many of the charac- 
ters of those brilliant works of fiction. The new 
story is of surprising interest, and leaves little to 
be desired, either in constructive skill or in deline- 
ation of character. The plot is complicated and the 
structure compact; there is little of the padding 
that disfigures a number of the author's books, and 
often makes us feel that he was hard-pressed to fill 
the requisite number of pages. Many of Mr. Craw- 
ford's literary excursions have been unfortunate, 
noticeably his dreary novel of hypnotism and his 
formless Oriental fantasies ; and we are glad that 
he has returned to the solid and familiar ground of 
contemporary life in the country best known to him. 
Mr. Crawford has recently deprecated putting the 
novelist's art at the service of science ; but we are 
bound to express the opinion that, as social or his- 
torical documents, the series of his Roman stories 
have claims quite as strong as those based merely 
upon their power to amuse or to entertain. 

" From Out of the Past " is one of the best nov- 
els that we have lately had occasion to read, and 
yet, so unobtrusive is its excellence, so far removed 
from the sensational its manner, it is likely to cause 
hardly a ripple upon the stream of current fiction. 
The scene is Touraine, although the characters are 
American, and something of the peace and old-world 
charm of the place has found its way into the au- 
thor's pages. A deep and exquisite feeling for 
beauty in landscape and art has given the simple 
love-story of the book a setting that enhances its 
meaning at every point. The writer knows her 
Touraine minutely and lovingly; and as far as 
her book deals with French life it gives us the 
sane true life of the provinces, not the false and 
feverish life of the capital which so many take to 
be the typical life of France. Our chief adverse 
criticism upon the book must be for its occasional 
lapses into the style of the tourist manual ; the au- 
thor seems to know Touraine almost too well for 
strictly artistic purposes. The story of the book is 
skilfully told, although the reader is left until the 
very end in a not wholly justifiable state of suspense 
as to the outcome. We cordially commend the work 
to those in search of summer-afternoon literature. 

A strong character gives a name to a strong book 
in Miss Elliott's " John Paget." He is one of two 
brothers whom fate separates when children, one of 
them to become a worldling, the other he of the 
title to become, through devious ways, both a 
preacher and a minister of the Gospel. His nature 
has the stamp of sincerity, and earnestness of pur- 
pose characterizes his every act. His religion, how- 

ever subject to intellectual limitations, is of the true 
sort, for it supplements faith by undoubted works, 
and so commands our respect. As a protest against 
worldliness, as an almost passionate plea for the real- 
ities as distinguished from the shows of existence, 
" John Paget " is a book of fine ethical tone and 
worthy idealism. Yet it inculcates one lesson that 
is, in our opinion, distinctly false in its ethical bear- 
ings. The brothers have a cousin, Beatrice, who, 
after a youth of religious training in a Southern 
convent, is taken to the home of her relatives in 
New York, and there becomes devotedly attached 
to Claude, the brother of the worldly mind and train- 
ing, who returns her love in at least equal measure. 
Now these two natures are in every essential respect 
fitted for one another ; yet the shadow of dogma 
falls between them, and Beatrice, acting from what 
she supposes to be religious conviction, tears her 
love from her heart, and dies as the consequence. 
The author's sympathies are clearly with her hero- 
ine in this course ; that is, we are clearly given to 
understand that she believes it right that two lives 
should be wrecked by a barren intellectual abstrac- 
tion. Such tragedies occur in real life, no doubt, 
and perhaps we cannot greatly blame those who are 
directly responsible for them ; but no condemnation 
of the system that trains young girls to act as Bea- 
trice does can be too strong. Miss Elliott gives tacit 
assent to the system, and so her book seems to us 
to embody a profoundly immoral lesson. To the 
author, and to her heroine, certain passages (espe- 
cially in the preface) of Mr. Ruskin's " Sesame 
and Lilies " might be recommended as profitable 
reading. It is a pity that so good and thoughtful 
a book as " John Paget " should have been marred 
by this insistence upon matters of " mint and anise 
and cummin," even if " the weightier matters of the 
law " be not wholly neglected. 

A mining engineer from New England, search- 
ing for gold on a Virginia plantation, incidentally 
falling in love with a fair maiden of the South, and 
coming to a tragic end in the old graveyard to which, 
without reckoning upon native prejudice and super- 
stition, he had extended his diggings this is the 
story told in " Broadoaks " by Miss McClelland. 
The first thing that occurs to the reader is the use 
made by Miss Murfree of a similar situation, al- 
though the resemblance is not carried into detail. 
The story is well thought out, has the atmosphere of 
its locality, and offers, in its negro-character sketches, 
a certain element of semi-humorous diversion. 

" The Love Affairs of an Old Maid " are really 
the love affairs of a number of her friends, reflected 
in the sympathetic and generous consciousness of 
the narrator. In these pages, unaffected and ex- 
quisite in style, sparkling with humor, yet softened 
by a pathos that reaches the very depths of the 
spiritual life, are sketched the heart-stories of a doz- 
en men and women, each with a few swift incisive 
strokes, and, for the most part, an insight that 
makes of the book a gallery of distinctly individual 



[Aug. 16, 

outline portraits. We imply no censure in saying 
that it is a woman's book, in noting the obvious 
fact that the men, with one exception, appear in but 
shadowy characterization. In the subtlety of her 
analysis, the writer reminds us not a little of Mrs. 
Clifford, while in her successful use of the epigram 
she suggests the brilliant Englishwoman who chooses 
to sign her very feminine books with the assertively 
masculine name of " John Oliver Hobbes/' Miss 
Bell is, we understand, a new-comer in the field of 
letters. It may safely be said that she has already 
won her spurs, and that her present performance 
justifies a lively expectation of excellent things to 
come. We hope that a rather forbidding title will 
not deter possible readers from making speedy ac- 
quaintance with a book possessing so distinct a 

In " Old Kaskaskia " Mrs. Catherwood has given 
us another of her delicate outline pictures of life in 
the Old Northwest. The story is placed in the 
early days of the present century, and in the town 
that was soon to become the first capital of a great 
commonwealth. It has for its culminating episode 
a great rising of the Mississippi in which half Kas- 
kaskia was submerged, and which extricates the 
tangled threads of romance woven by the author's 
art, breaking some of them off, and uniting those 
that remain into more symmetrical patterns. The 
contrasted French and English types of character 
are delineated with a subtle feeling for their essen- 
tial differences, while Mrs. Catherwood's restrained 
and exquisite style gives literary charm to every 
page of her work. One cannot help wishing that 
the author would, for once, work upon a larger 
canvas than any she has yet sought to cover. The 
field she has chosen is almost her own, and its ro- 
mantic possibilities are considerable. 

" Toppleton's Client " is an extravaganza that 
ranges all the way from dry Stocktonian humor to 
roaring farce. The central idea is that of the ex- 
change of souls between bodies, and we may easily 
imagine the opportunities it offers a writer intent 
only upon the possible humorous complications. The 
" client " is an exiled spirit whose body is occupied by 
a usurping fiend, and who engages Toppleton (a law- 
yer whose chief work of reference is the " Comic 
Blackstone ") to possess him once more of the bod- 
ily estate that he has lost. But the fiend is too sharp 
for the lawyer, and, preferring Toppleton's cor- 
poreal tenement to that in which he has been fraud- 
ulently dwelling, effects a substitution, and leaves 
Toppleton helpless, either to protect the rights of 
his client or to re-establish his own. The extrava- 
ganza is overdone, here and there, and its theory 
will not bear close scrutiny, but it is, as a whole, 

Of Mr. Kipling's " Many Inventions," many turn 
out to be variations upon the old familiar ones, and 
one gets a little tired even of Mulvaney and Or- 
theris and all the rest of the tribe of Atkins. But the 
volume contains one piece (which no one can for- 

get who read it in the English review where it first 
appeared) which we are inclined to rank as the 
cleverest thing and perhaps the most finely imag- 
inative that the author has ever done in prose. 
It is that romance of metempsychosis that he has 
chosen to style " The Finest Story in the World." 
The quotation-marks of this title are Mr. Kipling's, 
not ours, but we should be almost content to drop 
them, letting the name stand as a description of the 
author's own work, not of the work of his imagin- 
ary hero. It was a true stroke of genius to re- 
incarnate, in a cockney banker's clerk, one of the 
men who sailed with Thorfin Karlsefne, and to be- 
stow upon him reminiscent flashes of his past lives. 
The other stories in the book are of unequal value ; 
one can hardly escape being fascinated by Mul- 
vaney's adventure with " My Lord the Elephant," 
or finding in " A Conference of the Powers" a les- 
son at least worth the pondering. Mr. Kipling 
both introduces and closes his new collection of 
tales by some spirited verses. 

Mr. Brander Matthews has long before this shown 
himself an adept in the art of the short story, and 
his new volume is, as a matter of course, vivacious 
and entertaining. The characters that he knows 
best are those supplied by his own New York en- 
vironment of club and society life, although he 
reaches out, not without success, on one occasion to 
the wilds of British Guiana, and, on another, back 
to Augustan Rome. There are five stories alto- 
gether, two of which are distinctly romantic, one 
mildly satirical, one essentially humorous, and one 
a combination of all three of these qualities. We 
leave his readers to classify the five in accordance 
with our suggested scheme. 

Mrs. Deland is a new-comer among the tellers of 
short stories, but it is clear that she has mastered 
more than the rudiments of the art. Her work 
comes close to that of Miss Sarah Orne Jewett, not 
only in its choice of village scene and people, but 
also in its observation of the minuter humors of life, 
and in the delicacy of its treatment. Humor in 
any broader sense is lacking the writer, and the 
pathos of her humble tragedies seems to need some 
such relief as would be afforded by an occasional 
breeze blown from the brighter parts of life. She 
might profitably study " Octave Thanet," for exam- 
ple, with a view of making up for this defect. 
" Mr. Tommy Dove " and " A Fourth-class Ap- 
pointment " are decidedly the best of the five sto- 
ries, the latter being as effective a sermon on be- 
half of civil service reform as one often hears from 
a pulpit of any sort. If such stories could be mul- 
tiplied, they might prove the very best way of strik- 
ing the national conscience with shame for the 
" system " that has so cankered the vital organs of 
our political life. 

In passing from the volume just mentioned to 
the new series of Mr. Sullivan's " Day and Night 
Stories," we go all the way from realism to ro- 
mance, and find that, after all, romance is more sat- 



isfying than the most faithful realism. As a speci- 
men of romance in miniature, it would not be easy 
to surpass " A Toledo Blade," which is a master- 
piece of both style and construction. The half 
dozen stories that go with it are only less admira- 
ble examples of fictive art. They possess the qual- 
ity of distinction in a marked degree the dis- 
tinction that betokens a mind well-cultured and 
responsive to a wide range of emotional appeal. 
Trifling as two or three of the stories appear at 
first sight, no one of them comes to an end without 
sounding, at least for a moment, some deep recess 
of the soul. Mr. Sullivan knows, far better than 
most tellers of tales, just what ought to be said, and 
what must be left unsaid, to make a story as effect- 
ive as possible. ,,,. ,, 



We are wont to look very much 
askance at every new text-book of 
biology. So many of them are al- 
ready in the field struggling for life, many of them 
goaded to the unequal combat by the stimulating 
influences of their publishers' voices, that we insist 
now that each new competitor shall demonstrate his 
right to enter the lists. With a knowledge of the 
difficulties of the case, Professor John Bidgood has 
prepared his " Course of Practical Biology " ( Long- 
mans). There is one respect in which the work 
can fairly be said to be a departure. Each subject 
that is taken for study is treated in a series of para- 
graphs, each one of which directs some operation, 
the point of which is discussed in its immediate 
connection. This ought to have the effect of mak- 
ing a student thoughtful of the progress and sig- 
nificance of his work. We do not know of any 
other biological text-book in which this principle is 
so well applied as here. The subjects first taken up 
are several of the Fungi and Protococcus. A chap- 
ter on the Bacteria is included, with directions for 
some simpler experiments in culture and a consid- 
eration of their relation to disease. Then Chara, 
the Fern, and the Nettle are taken up in great de- 
tail. These complete the botanical side of the work, 
and occupy in all about half of the treatment. The 
fifty-four pages devoted to the Fungi and Proto- 
coccus form as good an introduction to the modes of 
biological work and thought as has yet appeared. 
We do not see, however, any sufficient reasons for 
the selection of Chara, or for the choice of the net- 
tle rather than of some others of the Phanerogams 
with a regularly racial flower as, for instance, 
the geranium, which latter can be had at all sea- 
sons at the florist's. We also regret that some of 
the filamentous algje were not touched on, if only 
briefly, as they are so very accessible for study. 
The animal forms selected are Amreba, Vorticella, 
Paramecium, Hydra, Anodonta, Astacus, and Rana. 
These are all well treated on the side of anatomy, 

but, as is the fashion in general text-books, they are 
very incomplete on the embryological side. On the 
other hand, the subject of Vertebrate Histology re- 
ceives very satisfactory attention. It will be seen 
that the work is one which covers a very large area. 
While it is necessarily greatly condensed, it is at 
the same time written in such a perfectly clear style 
that it is wholly intelligible, and the lay reader, as 
well as the student, will find it a very valuable 
presentation of the leading principles of the science. 
An Introduction of twenty-four pages covers the 
essentials of microscopical technique. The work is 
illustrated throughout, in part with the author's 
drawings and in part with many standard illustra- 
tions. In the histological part of the chapters on 
the Frog the cuts are largely from Quain's Anat- 

interpretations Mr - Harold Littledale's " Essays on 
of Tennyson's Lord Tennyson's Idylls of the King: " 

Idylls of the King. , -. .- -ii \ {. j 

(Macmillan) are based upon lec- 
tures written for students in India. It was cer- 
tainly worth while to offer the book in its present 
form to English and American students. Like 
other books prepared for the use of Indian under- 
graduates, this volume explains many things that 
any good dictionary could explain, but on the other 
hand it interprets many phases of the Idylls that 
no reference-book alludes to. There are chapters on 
the sources of the Arthurian story, on its growth from 
Malory to Tennyson, and on personages and localities 
spoken of in the modern epic. Then follow stud- 
ies of each Idyll, and annotations on particular words 
and obscure points. The work is by no means ex- 
haustive, but the material is carefully selected and 
well arranged. There is a constant comparison 
of Tennyson with Malory and the Mabinogion, and 
many interesting points of departure are suggested 
to the reader. The interpretation of the allegor- 
ical bearing of the Idylls is sensible and apprecia- 
tive, and the treatment of the rise of the legend, 
although brief, is in the main accurate. Rather 
strangely, however, Mr. Littledale takes no account 
of such an authoritative work as Professor Rhys's 
" Arthurian Legend." The work can readily be 
used as a handbook in a Tennyson class. 

.. . . In " Civilization s Inferno (Arena 

Lund pictures . v 

of modern Publishing Co. ) Mr. B. O. Flower 

nty life. paints a lurid picture of the seamy 

and gruesome side of modern city life. Besides the 
Introduction, there are seven chapters (expanded 
from articles published in "The Arena"), with the 
following titles, which indicate the spirit of sensa- 
tionalism that marks and mars the book : " Society's 
Exiles," " Two Hours in the Social Cellar," < The 
Democracy of Darkness," "Why the Ishmaelites 
Multiply," " The Froth and the Dregs," " A Pil- 
grimage and a Vision," and " What of the Mor- 
row ? " The author is evidently a man of earnest 
purpose, who has a very keen and genuine sympa- 
thy for the unfortunate classes whose condition he 



[Aug. 16, 

portrays in these pages. He writes some passages 
that glow with an eloquence born of deep feeling 
and felicitous phrase ; hut as a rule he lays on the 
red paint a little too lavishly, while he makes it too 
apparent that he is striving to produce an effect. 
The grime and want and wretchedness which he 
depicts do exist ; these heartrending miseries are 
realities. So far as Mr. Flower reports what 
he himself has seen, his earnest words are calcu- 
lated to arrest attention and arouse sympathy. And 
it seems ungracious to criticise one whose heart is 
aglow with interest in behalf of our destitute and 
depraved fellows. But a careful reading of this 
volume leaves the impression that Mr. Flower's ob- 
servations in this noisome but pitiable realm have 
not been sufficiently painstaking and searching to 
make his pages of value to the scientific student of 
social problems or to the practical philanthropist. 
As photographs of certain conditions, they may stir 
people to thought and sympathy ; but they do not 
penetrate deep enough to lead to helpful action. 
There is no adequate discussion of causes or de- 
scription of remedies. When we come to the last 
chapter, " What of the Morrow ? " we are given 
nothing more than a few familiar and glittering 
generalities. The way out is not described ; the 
methods by which this Inferno may be turned into 
a Paradise are not defined. 

A new edition 
of Juvenal's 

Professor F. P. Nash's edition of 
the first two Satires of Juvenal 
(Houghton) shows sufficient schol- 
arship and considerable general information. It is 
put forth as a specimen of a larger work which will 
perhaps find a small circle of usefulness among the 
many learned editions of this more than sufficiently 
edited poet. It is hard to say for what readers the 
present volume is intended. No teacher will care 
to confine his class to the first two Satires. The col- 
lege graduate who desires to renew his acquaint- 
ance with the "authors" (if that much-invoked 
personage exists in America) will want more di- 
rect help in construing, and less erudition. The 
scholar who uses Mayor will find little if anything 
new here. Mr. Nash is under an illusion in this 
regard. The new matter in his notes is of the kind 
that a well-informed discursive teacher will some- 
times dictate to a class of students whom he has 
trained to bring up their lessons in good shape. It 
is not a serious contribution to the interpretation of 


Part VII. of the great English Dic- 

The seventh part . & . 

of the " Great En- tionary of the Philological Society 
* ary> " (Macmillan) extends from Consignif- 
icant to Crouching, and contains 5414 main words, 
936 combinations, and 1190 subordinate words and 
forms. Twenty-five per cent of the words are marked 
as either obsolete or incompletely naturalized. We 
quote an interesting prefatory note on the word 
Cross : " The influence of historical events on the 
fortunes of a word finds a remarkable exemplifica- 
tion in the case of Cross. What Roman in pres- 

ence of the ignominious associations that attached 
to its Latin original crux, and the expression, ' / in 
crucem ! ' could have conceived that a time would 
come when Cross would be one of the great diction- 
ary words of a far greater language than his own ; 
that besides embracing senses so distinct as the in- 
strument of crucifixion, a decoration of an order, a 
piece of money, an intermixture of breeds, not to 
mention thirty other applications, the word would 
also be an adjective, a verb, an adverb, and a pre- 
position ; and in each of these capacities give rise 
to a multitude of compounds and derivations, of 
which 284 would require treatment in the Diction- 
ary ? " This instalment of the Dictionary concludes 
the long series of " Con "-prefixed words, and goes 
well into " Cr," which is " noteworthy for its nu- 
merous echoic or imitative words expressing sounds, 
usually of an abrupt, rough, or harsh kind, and the 
actions accompanied by such sounds." 

Miss Grace King's "Jean Baptiste 

French dominion & ntti 

in the Valley of Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville, in 
the Mississippi. the Makers of America" series 

(Dodd), is really a narrative of the establishment 
of the French government in the Mississippi Val- 
ley, so closely associated with this subject is Bien- 
ville's biography. Its pages, 327 in number, are 
very interesting, but naturally appeal more to the 
general reader than to the historian. They pre- 
sent in our own language and in a popular form 
what must otherwise be found in Margry's " De- 
couvertes et Etablissement de Francais." An ac- 
count of the discovery of the Mississippi is pre- 
faced by an outline story of the Le Moyne family. 
Then we are introduced to the Indian tribes of the 
lower Mississippi region, and told of Bienville's ex- 
cursion up the Red River Valley and of the many 
trials of this determined pioneer in the building up 
of a sort of Canada in southern North America. 
The history between 1725 and 1733 and between 
1743 and 1765 is left entirely blank. Of special 
interest to the student are a private letter from Bien- 
ville to his brother, and a copy of his will made in 
1765 and registered in Paris in 1767. 

Robert Morris, 
the financier 

Prof. William G. Sumner's "Rob- 
ert Morris," in the same series as 
of the Revolution. the volume j ust rev iewed, has made 

a collection of such facts from his " The Finan- 
cier and Finances of the Revolution " as he consid- 
ers of general interest. He certainly proves him- 
self an iconoclast ; and much of his iconoclasm is 
timely, to say the least. Popular images of Robert 
Morris are broken into a thousand pieces ; but the 
image substituted seems imperfect. The reader 
must go elsewhere for a satisfactory portrait of the 
great financier. So much attention is given to de- 
stroying, and the destroying is done with such en- 
ergy, that much of the merit in Morris's work is 
apt to be lost sight of. This is probably due in a 
measure to the facts that the book is an adaptation 
and that it is necessarily small. 




The establishment Mr ' Julius H - Ward's volume on 
of the Anglican "The Life and Times of Bishop 

Church in America. Tiru-j. n . 

White is one of the best thus far 
published in the " Makers of America" series. It 
is of interest to the student as well as to the general 
reader. The author has attempted not only to give 
a personal portrait, but besides to show what part 
the " Patriarch of the Church in America " had in 
the civil and religious life of the time in which he 
lived. As an account of the transplanting of the 
Anglican Church, it is brief, salient, and well writ- 
ten. For color and accuracy in detail, the memory 
and knowledge of the Bishop's relatives are largely 
depended upon ; and materials are drawn from both 
original and secondary sources. There is an intro- 
duction by Bishop Potter. 


Miss Martha F. Sesselberg has prepared a volume 
entitled "In Amazon Land" (Putnam), described as 
containing " adaptations from Brazilian writers, with 
original selections." What an " original selection " may 
be we know not, but we find the volume to contain a 
number of short Amazonian stories "A Tale of the 
Great River " being the longest some Brazilian legend- 
ary lore, and a number of amorphous fragments. No 
indication is given of the authorship of the " original " 
and other "selections." 

MADISON'S "Journal of the Federal Convention" of 
1787 one of the two foundation works of our consti- 
tutional history has been reprinted in a thick octavo 
volume of over eight hundred pages by Messrs. Albert, 
Scott & Co. The special feature of this reprint is a 
new and elaborate index, which is, we presume, to be 
credited to Mr. E. H. Scott, whose name appears upon 
the title-page as editor. 

FOUR late volumes of the Black and White " series 
(Harper), give us biographical sketches of as many 
American worthies, three of the number being on the 
death-roll of the past year. Mr. Laurence Hutton 
writes of Edwin Booth, Mr. John W. Chadwick of 
George William Curtis, Dr. Arthur Brooks of his 
brother, the late Bishop of Massachusetts, and Mr. 
Charles Dudley Warner of Washington Irving of the 
works rather than of the man. In the same series we 
have "The Decision of the Court," by Mr. Brander 
Matthews, a society comedy in which the author ap- 
proaches, but does not quite reach, the approved French 

PUBLISHED under the auspices of the " Palestine Ex- 
ploration Fund" (Macmillan), we have a highly inter- 
esting series of seven lectures delivered to popular au- 
diences about a year ago. Among the lectures we note 
the following: Ancient Jerusalem," by Sir Charles W. 
Wilson; The Future of Palestine," by Major Conder; 
" The Hittites," by Dr. William Wright; The Mod- 
ern Traveller in Palestine," by Canon Dalton; and " The 
General Work of the Society," by Mr. Walter Besant. 
" The City and the Land " is the general title of the 

THREE modern language dissertations, recently re- 
ceived by us, deserve a word of mention. " The Le- 
gend of the Holy Grail," by Mr. George McLean Har- 
per, is a reprint from the publications of the Modern 

Language Association. Dr. Edward Miles Brown takes 
as his subject The Language of the Rushworth Gloss to 
the Gospel of Matthew and the Mercian Dialect" (Gott- 
mgen). An Historical Study of the e- Vowel in Ac- 
cented Syllables in English " (Murphy) is the title of 
a thesis by Dr. Edwin W. Bowen. We may perhaps 
also mention in this connection an essay by Mr. Frank 
Chapman Sharp on " The ^Esthetic Element in Moral- 
ity," a booklet with the Macmillan imprint, but with 
very un-Macmillanlike typography. 

MR. HEXRY SWEET has published A Manual of Cur- 
rent Shorthand " (Macmillan), "intended to supply the 
want of a system of writing shorter and more compact 
than ordinary longhand, and at the same time not less 
distinct and legible." Mr. Sweet's method is upon a 
script basis, and is worked out in two forms : " one or- 
thographic, simply constructed, and of moderate speed, 
the other phonetic, in which brevity may be carried to 
its utmost legitimate limits." He claims that his system 
is the first workable pure script shorthand that has 
been brought out in England." The volume is very 
neatly printed. 

THE "Vertebrate Embryology" of Dr. A. Millies 
Marshall (Putnam) deals exhaustively with the embry- 
onic development of five typical vertebrate forms 

amphioxus, the frog, the chick, the rabbit, and man. 
The account of the latter form, in particular, is a highly 
satisfactory exposition of the present state of knowl- 
edge upon the subject, and will be found as useful to 
the physician as to the biologist. The figures are very 
numerous, and many of them are new. The work is 
handsomely printed. 


Portugal is the latest addition to the list of foreign 
countries coming under the operation of the Interna- 
tional Copyright Law. 

M. Zola has been named an officer of the Legion of 
Honor, which distinction, doubtless less desired than 
election to the Academy, may perhaps serve him as a 
sort of consolation prize. 

A hundred or more of the best known French novel- 
ists have organized themselves into a society called 
" Les Romanciers Franqais." One must have published 
at least four novels to be eligible for membership. 

By arrangement with the French publishers, the 
Messrs. Scribner will publish the authorized English 
version of the memoirs of the late Chancellor Pasquier, 
edited by the Due d'Audiffret-Pasquier, and entitled 
" A History of My Time." 

Count Tolstoi' has just finished an important work 
on the social question, which is being translated into 
English. Tolstoi' says that he feels that his days are 
numbered, but that he hopes to finish his life work with 
one more novel dealing with the present condition of 

A comprehensive programme has been arranged for 
the fifteenth annual congress of the International Lit- 
erary and Artistic Association, to be held at Barcelona 
in the last week of September. Upwards of a dozen 
papers will be read, opening with one on translation and 
ending with a study of Catalan literature. 

The Old South lectures for this summer have for 
.heir general subject " The Opening of the Great West." 
They are to be eight in number, closing September 13 



[Aug. 16, 

with The Story of Chicago." Mr. Edwin D. Mead, 
who has kept the good work going for more than ten 
years, is to be warmly congratulated upon its success. 
" The Pall Mall Magazine " contains a table which it 
calls " Mudie Measure": 

" Ten lines make one page ; 

Ten pages make one point ; 

Two points make one chapter ; 

Five chapters make one episode ; 

Two episodes make one volume ; 

Three volumes make one tired." 

The series of the " Story of the Nations " is being 
translated into the Marathi and Gujarati languages, 
the volumes on Egypt, Persia, and Turkey having 
already been published. The work has been under- 
taken by the tutor to H.R.H., the Prince Gaikwar of 
Baroda, British India, at the national expense. The 
companion series of " Heroes of the Nations " is now 
under consideration for a similar translation. 

" Bulls and Blunders " is the title of a work by Mr. 
Marshall Brown, which is soon to be issued by Messrs. 
S. C. Griggs & Co. It gives examples of blunders in 
expression, drawn from many sources from the writ- 
ings of distinguished essayists, historians, and novelists ; 
from the speeches of statesmen in Congress and Parlia- 
ment; from the pulpit, the bar, the editorial chair; and 
from the sayings of the intelligent and the stupid in all 
ranks of life. 

M. Brunetiere, who has long had a large part in the 
direction of the " Revue des Deux Mondes," takes the 
place of M. Buloz for the present. M. Brunetiere has 
been steadily bringing back the French criticism of lit- 
erature to the classical standards of the age of Louis 
XIV.; and his pertinacity is gradually building up 
a school. For nearly a dozen years he has annually 
published one or two solid volumes, made up from his 
lectures at the Ecole Normale and the Sorbonne. 

Beginning with 1894, an index to periodicals, on a 
new plan, will be published weekly in New York. Each 
successive issue during a quarter will recapitulate all 
the titles from the beginning of the quarter; at the end 
of the sixth, ninth, and twelfth months a special issue 
will recapitulate all the titles from the commencement 
of a year. This publication is made possible by the 
Mergenthaler and similar machines which cast type as 
a solid line. Its publisher will be Mr. J. Wellman 
Parks, who is at present in charge of the library exhibit 
of the National Department of Education in the United 
States Government Building at the World's Fair. 


[The following list, embracing 52 titles, includes all books 
received by THE DIAL since last issue.] 


Leirs House in Vineland. By Eben Norton Hereford. 

With Graves of the Northmen, by Cornelia Hereford. 

Illus. in photogravure, 4to, pp. 40. Damrell & Upham. 

Lake St. Louis, Old and New, and Cavalier de La Salle. 

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In her vivacious and picturesque account of Southern California the 
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observation, delightful humor, and originality which made her former 
books so popular with the reading public. Her book furnishes facts as 
well as amusement, and it will have a permanent vlue as a truthful 
picture of Southern California. 

Camp-Fires of a Naturalist. 

By CLARENCE E. EDWORDS. The Story of Fourteen Expe- 
ditions after North American Mammals. From the Field 
Notes of LEWIS LINDSAY DYCHE, A.M., M.S., Professor 
of Zoology and Curator of Birds and Mammals in the Kansas 
State University. With numerous Illustrations. 12mo, 
cloth, $1.50. 

This took sketches big game hunting in the West from a fresh point 
of view. The author describes the actual adventures and experiences 
of a naturalist who has hunted from Mexico to the northern confines 
of British Columbia, pursuing grizzly bears, mountain sheep, elk, moose, 
and other rare game. As an outdoor book of camping and hunting this 
possesses a timely interest, and it also has the merit of scientific exact- 
ness in the descriptions of the habits, peculiarities, and haunts of wild 

True Riches. 

By FRANCOIS COPPEE. A new volume in Appletons' Summer 

Series. 12mo, cloth, 75 cents. 

The charm of Francois Coppee's style has become familiar to Amer- 
ican readers, who will find that the author has not fallen below his 
highest mark in this entertaining and sympathetic book. " True Riches" 
is bright, wholesome, and interesting, and, although the author is too 
true an artist to insist upon his moral, he suggests one which perhaps 
has a peculiarly timely value. 

Many Inventions. 

By RUDYARD KIPLING. Containing fourteen stories, sev- 
eral of which are now published for the first time, and two 
poems. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

" ' Many Inventions ' will confirm Mr. Kipling's reputation. . . . 
We could cite with pleasure sentences from almost every page, and 
extract incidents from almost every story. But to what end ? Here is 
the completest book that Mr. Kipling has yet given us in workmanship, 
the weightiest and most humane in breadth of view." Pull Mull Ga- 

" Mr. Kipling's powers as a story-teller are evidently not diminishing. 
We advise everybody to buy ' Many Inventions ' and to profit by some 
of the best entertainment that modern fiction has to offer." A'ew 
York Sun. 

" ' Many Inventions ' will be welcomed wherever the English language 
is spoken. . . . Every one of the stories bears the imprint of a master 
who conjures up incident as if by magic, and who portrays character, 
scenery, and feeling with an ease which is only exceeded by the bold- 
ness of force." Boston Globe. 

The Simple Adventures of a Memsahib. 

A new book by SARA JEANNETTK DUNCAN, author of "A 
Social Departure " and "An American Girl in London." 
With many illustrations by F. H. TOWNSEND. 12mo, cloth, 


" It is impossible for Sara Jeannette Duncan to be otherwise than 
interesting. Whether it be a voyage around the world, or an American 
girl's experiences in London society, or the adventures pertaining to 
the establishment of a youthful couple in India, there is always an atmos- 

?here, a quality, a charm peculiarly her own." Brooklyn Stnndard- 

"Another witty and delightful book." Philadelphia Times. 
" It is like traveling without leaving one's armchair to read it. Miss 
Duncan has the descriptive and narrative gift in large measure, and she 
brings vividly before us the street scenes, the interiors, the bewilder- 
ingly queer natives, the gayeties of the English colony." Philadelphia 

For sale by all Booksellers, or sent by mail, on receipt of price, by the Publishers, 

D. APPLETON & CO., Nos. 1, 1, & 5 Bond Street, New York. 


&emt=fKontf)lg Journal of 3Literarg Criticism, Btscugsion, ano Information. 

(founded in 1880) is published on the 1st and 16th of 
each month. TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION, 82.00 a year in advance, postage 
prepaid in the United Stales, Canada, and Mexico; in other countries 
comprised in the Postal Union, 50 cents a year for extra postage must 
be added. Unless otherwise ordered, subscriptions will begin with the 
current number. REMITTANCES should be by check, or by express or 
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for subscriptions with other publications will be sent on application ; 
and SAMPLE COPY on receipt of 10 cents. ADVERTISING RATES furnished 
on application. All communications should be addressed to 

THE DIAL, No. 24 Adams Street, Chicago. 

No. 173. SEPTEMBER 1, 1893. Vol. XV. 





" The Use and Abuse of Slang." Brander Matthews. 
The " New Theology " and Quackery. Leon A. 

An Unauthoritative Authority. R. O. Williams. 

THE NEW WITCHCRAFT. Joseph Jastrow . . .113 
AN AUSTRALIAN BUILDER. John J. Halsey . . 114 


Emerson 116 


Exquisite reprints of classic English fiction. A fan- 
ciful scheme for the study of psychology. Mr. Ma- 
bie's literary essays. A sympathetic biography of 
Dr. John Brown. A satisfactory biography of the 
Earl of Aberdeen. Greek and Latin Palaeography. 
An excellent hand-book of American history. A 
thousand-page history of the Fair. 






The Columbian Exposition has now been 
open to the public for a period of four months, 
and ten million paid admissions have been reg- 
istered by the turnstiles at the gates. Seven 
or eight million more are practically assured, 
and, if an extension of the term into the open- 
ing weeks of November should be found prac- 
ticable, it is by no means impossible that the 
number of admissions now recorded should be 
doubled before the close. The prospect is thus 

very cheering, and satisfies, perhaps exceeds, 
all reasonable anticipations. That the Fair 
will pay every dollar of its bonded indebted- 
ness is now beyond a doubt ; and few, having 
any adequate conception of the undertaking, 
ever supposed that it would do much more than 
this. The stockholders, including the City of 
Chicago, understood from the outset that their 
subscriptions were largely in the nature of a 
gift, and looked for their reward in ways more 
or less indirect. That reward, even in the tan- 
gible form of pecuniary profit, bids fair to be 
realized by many of them not, of course, by 
all, for, in the very nature of things, such a 
distribution could not find its way back into 
the exact channels whence the contributions 
flowed. In spite of the many instances in which 
individual expectation has come short of real- 
ization, there cannot be the least doubt that 
the community as a whole has reason to be 
grateful to the Fair for the influx of currency 
and the stimulation of trade that have come in 
its train. The severity of the commercial de- 
pression, elsewhere so marked, has in this city 
been noticeably mitigated, and many an insti- 
tution has been saved from financial disaster. 
Of the intangible rewards that will come from 
the influence of so magnificent a demonstration 
of the possibilities of civilization it would be 
impossible to speak adequately without speak- 
ing at far greater length than our space per- 
mits ; these rewards will be disclosed in hun- 
dreds of subtle and unforeseen ways in the 
years to come. 

Although the term appointed is now two- 
thirds complete, it is probably fair to say, in 
view of the increased numbers that will throng 
the streets of the White City during its closing 
months, that the exhibition is but half over, 
that we have now reached a point midway in 
its course. At such a point in the history of 
any great enterprise it is well to pause for a 
moment, reviewing the accomplishment of the 
past, and regarding the probable outcome of 
the future. It is the purpose of this article to 
take such a backward and forward glance from 
one point of view only, from that of the ideal 
possibilities of the enterprise as contrasted with 
the actual realization of the daring and high- 
principled conception with which its directors 



[Sept. 1, 

set out. If, in making this survey, we have 
occasion to subject the management of the 
Fair to severe adverse criticism, it must be re- 
membered that from other points of view, which 
we do not here attempt to assume, that man- 
agement has deserved the highest praise. There 
has, for example, been no taint of jobbery in 
the direction of its vast and lavish scheme of 
expenditure ; there has been no lack of self- 
sacrificing devotion, prompted by genuine civic 
and personal pride, on the part of the execu- 
tive officers of the organization. 

The original conception of the Exposition 
was characterized by a fine disregard of the 
mean practical motives that might so easily 
have come to prevail in the councils of its man- 
agement. It was clearly understood that the 
mere suggestion of a universal exhibition to be 
held in this city would be met all over the world 
with the cry, " Can any good thing come out 
of Chicago ? " and it was resolved that the cry 
should be silenced, not by words, but by most 
effective deeds. The common expectation that 
a Chicago Fair would prove a vast exemplifi- 
cation of the material and commercial aspects 
of civilization should be met by a Fair in which 
art was exalted above manufacturing and the 
ideal above the narrowly practical. In this 
spirit was inaugurated the whole magnificent 
plan for a hitherto unequalled exhibition of ar- 
chitecture and landscape gardening, of music, 
and the arts of form, of science and industry, 
of objective and intellectual cosmopolitanism. 
In this spirit the best architects, sculptors, and 
painters were called together to design and dec- 
orate the buildings, and the best landscape gar- 
deners to beautify the site, all being given the 
greatest possible freedom to do their work with 
artistic effect alone in view. In this spirit a great 
musical leader was engaged, given practically 
unlimited resources, and told to prepare such an 
exhibit of his art as the world had never before 
known. In this spirit commissions were sent to 
foreign countries to collect the masterpieces of 
modern art, and expeditions were fitted out to 
bring together from the remote parts of earth 
the relics of primitive man. In this spirit a large 
sum of money was set aside to endow the city 
of the Fair with a permanent sculptured me- 
morial of the eventful year, and a still larger 
sum of money was devoted to the strictly in- 
tellectual work of the World's Congress Aux- 
iliary, work that could not be expected to yield 
any but an intellectual return. We have by 
no means exhausted the list of the methods by 
which the directors of the Exposition sought 

once for all to refute the widespread notion 
that Chicago was a community devoid of ideal 
interests, sought definitively to substitute newer 
and more worthy associations for those com- 
monly linked with its name. The methods, as 
a whole, were characterized by large-minded- 
ness ; they brought moral and intellectual con- 
siderations within their purview ; they took 
thought for the verdict of the future rather 
than for the clamor of the present. 

It is unpleasant now, in our midway retro- 
spect of the course followed by the directors of 
the Exposition, to be forced to chronicle a mel- 
ancholy derogation from the high motives which 
controlled the inception and early history of 
their work. The commercial motive has forced 
its way to the surface, and has become the con- 
trolling influence in their action. The object 
of the Fair is now frankly proclaimed to be 
that of making as much money for its stock- 
holders as possible. Amusement, of cheap and 
even vulgar sorts, is being substituted for educa- 
tion, because most people prefer being amused 
to being instructed. The popular devices of the 
country fair are being resorted to, and the 
greased pole figured in a recently published 
list of attractions for a particular day. Such 
pleasing novelties, announced in great variety 
from day to day, are converting the Exposition, 
as far as it is possible, into a huge circus (the 
Plaisance furnishing the sideshows), and mark 
a process of degradation aptly described by its 
sponsors as that of " barnumising the Fair." 
Now all this would have been deplorable enough 
had it been necessary to save the Fair from 
bankruptcy. But there has never been any 
serious danger that the income would be in- 
sufficient to pay the bills and meet the bonded 
indebtedness of the Exposition, while the stock 
subscriptions were made, as we have already 
pointed out, with a very clear understanding 
that no considerable fraction of them would 
come directly back. The directors were thus 
in the position of trustees of an enterprise un- 
dertaken less for financial returns than for the 
glory of accomplishing a great and worthy ob- 
ject. To all appearances, they started out with 
a distinct consciousness of the high nature of 
this trust ; to all appearances, they have made 
to greed at least a partial sacrifice of their 

The most signal illustration of their weak- 
ness, and of the decline of their ideals under 
the pressure of the commercial spirit, is offered 
by their treatment of the musical department of 
the Fair. To begin with, they incurred large 




preliminary expenses in the erection of two 
concert buildings. They then placed the mu- 
sical arrangements in the most competent of 
possible hands, contracted for the season with a 
large orchestra, and made many engagements 
with artists at home and abroad. Their aim, 
which no one can deny was well taken, was to 
place the music of the Fair upon an equal foot- 
ing with the painting, the sculpture, and the 
architecture. For three months, or therea- 
bouts, the plans thus made were carried out to 
the satisfaction of all whose opinion is worth 
considering. Then came the disgraceful news- 
paper attack upon the musical director, by 
which at first they very properly refused to be 
influenced. But at last, under the pressure of 
large expenses and unsatisfactory receipts, they 
weakly accepted the resignation generously of- 
fered by the musical director (who may well 
have been disheartened by the malignant in- 
sults heaped upon him by the press, but who 
deserved, on that account all the more, the un- 
hesitating support of the directors), and calmly 
announced their intention of repudiating the 
contracts they had made with the orchestra. 
The orchestra could not, of course, be thus dis- 
missed, for its legal rights are perfectly clear ; 
but the fact that it will remain brings no credit 
to the directors who sought deliberately to ig- 
nore those rights. The musical director, like- 
wise, might have remained had he chosen, and 
the acceptance of his generosity is even less 
creditable to the directors than their avowed 
intention of violating their contracts with the 
orchestra. Naturally the directors sought to 
excuse their extraordinary conduct in this mat- 
ter, and therefore pleaded the necessity of a 
reduction in the running expenses of the Fair. 
What this plea amounts to we have already 
seen, and had it amounted to much more it 
would not have justified a clearly dishonorable 
course. A secondary plea, put forward in all 
seriousness, although its absurdity is appar- 
ent, was to the effect that the musical depart- 
ment of the Fair should be disestablished be- 
cause it was not paying for itself. As if any 
department of the Fair, or the Fair as a whole, 
paid, or was expected to pay, for itself ! On 
this theory the Art Building might be closed 
to the public, or its wall stripped of paintings 
and hung with chromos. The fact is, of course, 
that the department of music, besides contrib- 
uting greatly, like the department of fine arts, 
to the general attractiveness of the Exposition, 
and thus paying for itself in the only sense that 
could reasonably be required, did further pay 

for itself in a specific sense, to the amount of 
the admission fees charged for some of the more 
important concerts. In this respect the mu- 
sical feature of the Fair had a distinct advant- 
age over all the others, and should have been 
singled out, if at all, to be retained rather than 
to be cut off. 

We might adduce other illustrations of the 
unprincipled, or at least low-principled, meth- 
ods that have come to prevail of late in the 
management of the Exposition. The cheese- 
paring policy that would have cut off current 
expenditures for music, leaving the costly mu- 
sic halls unused, may be parallelled by the pol- 
icy that has crippled the work of the World's 
Congress Auxiliary. Although for that work 
a large building appropriation was made at the 
start, the petty sums needed for clerical help r 
for the printing of programmes, and for keep- 
ing a record of the proceedings, have either 
been grudgingly bestowed or withheld alto- 
gether. The attitude of the directors toward* 
the question of Sunday closing is a further 
striking illustration of the decline from prin- 
ciple to expediency ; it has even caused many 
to doubt whether principle was involved at any 
stage of the discussion, and has earned the 
contempt of both parties alike. These, and 
other instances, might be enlarged upon as we 
have enlarged upon the music episode, but that 
episode is so typical of the class to which it be- 
longs that its lesson does not need reinforce- 
ment. When, in the future, we shall look back 
upon the history of the great exhibition, it is 
unpleasant to think that our view will include 
so much to awaken regret, when we might so 
easily have bequeathed to posterity the mem- 
ory of a noble purpose, not only planned with 
regard to ideal ends, but consistently carried 
out with no other than those ends in view. 

The Education meetings of the World's Congress 
Auxiliary, summarized at length in the last issue 
of THE DIAL, have been followed during the five 
weeks from July 31 to September 2, inclusive, by 
meetings devoted to the consideration of a great va- 
riety of subjects. Art and Engineering occupied 
the first of the five weeks now under discussion. 
The Art Congresses included meetings of painters 
and sculptors, decorative and ceramic artists, ar- 
chitects, and photographers. The American In- 
stitute of Architects met in connection with these 
Congresses, and its sessions were probably the most 
important held in this department. A notable fea- 
ture of the Congress on Painting and Sculpture was 



[Sept. 1, 

the lecture by Mr. F. Hopkinson Smith on " The 
Illustrative Arts of America." The Engineering 
Congress must be ranked among the great successes 
of the Auxiliary scheme. The number of foreign 
delegates was very large, and among them were the 
most eminent regresentatives of the profession. Be- 
sides the regular sections of civil, mechanical, min- 
ing, metallurgical, and military engineers, there was 
an important section devoted to engineering educa- 
tion, and another to the subject of aerial naviga- 
tion. The engineering sessions were mainly given 
over to the discussion of papers which had been 
printed in advance and circulated among the mem- 
bers. The week beginning August 7 was devoted 
to the subject of Government, and the proceedings 
included a Congress on Suffrage, a Congress on 
City Government, and Congresses on the reform of 
jurisprudence and of the civil service. The week 
of August 14 was set apart for a number of Con- 
gresses not easily classifiable under the regular de- 
partments of the Auxiliary, the most important of 
them being a Congress on Africa, historical, geo- 
graphical, ethnological, literary, scientific, religious, 
and social. The Arbitration and Peace Congress, 
also comprised within this week, was of much in- 
terest. Science and Philosophy held the Auxiliary 
fort during the week beginning August 21. Chem- 
istry, Meteorology, Geology, Electricity, and Math- 
ematics and Astronomy were the subjects of five 
sections, each of which called out a considerable at- 
tendance of specialists. The Electricity Congress 
included the special meetings of a small body of 
representative electricians, sent to the Congress by 
various countries as governmental delegates, and 
charged with the task of adopting a uniform inter- 
national system of electrical units. Dr. von Helm- 
holtz, who represented the German government in 
this " Chamber of Delegates," was naturally the 
guest of honor even among men so distinguished as 
his associates. " Psychical Science " was the sub- 
ject of a Congress some of whose sessions must 
have made the judicious grieve. It was given dig- 
nity by the presence and frequent participation of 
Mr. Frederic W. H. Myers, and, we need hardly 
add, proved the popular success of the week. The 
Philosophical Congress was of surprising interest, 
and its discussions proved to be animated, stimulat- 
ing, and serious. Among those who took part in 
them were Professors Josiah Royce, J. Macbride 
Sterrett, J. Clark Murray, Paul Shorey, and Les- 
ter F. Ward. The Congresses for the week begin- 
ning August 28, just ending, have included, first of 
all, Zoology and Anthropology, both really belong- 
ing to the week preceding, but necessarily postponed. 
Strictly speaking, the subject of this week's Con- 
gresses has been Economic Science, with special sec- 
tions on Labor, Profit-sharing, and Single Tax. 
The Jewish Congress, also included within the pro- 
gramme of this week, anticipates the Congresses in 
the Department of Religion, which will begin Sep- 
tember 4, and take up the remainder of the month. 
It will be seen from the rapid survey above given 

that the Congresses of the month of August have 
been among the most important of the whole series, 
and have given President Bonney renewed reason 
to congratulate himself upon the success of the im- 
mense organization at whose head he stands. 


(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

Generally as a man grows older he gains confidence 
in his own abilities; and I must confess that the arti- 
cles evoked by the little linguistic essays of mine which 
have appeared in the July number of " Harper's Mag- 
azine " for now three years are gradually giving me a 
great conceit as to my own ability to write sentences 
which can be misunderstood despite my utmost endeavor 
to make my meaning plain. If, for example, I implied 
as Mr. Pitts Duffield, in his very courteous commu- 
nication in THE DIAL of August 16 seems to suggest 
that " all the rubbish " of accidental and temporary 
slang should sweep " along undammed," I implied what 
I did not mean. What I desired to say, and what I 
thought I had said, was that the exclusive control of 
language ought not to be in the hands of a single class, 
even though that class were composed wholly of " our 
most competent scholars." I am sorry that there are 
not more clergymen and more college professors in the 
Congress of the United States; but I should gravely 
doubt the action of Congress if it were composed wholly 
of college professors or of clergymen. 


Columbia College, New York, August 19, 1893. 

(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

As an interested reader of THE DIAL, permit me to call 
attention to a misleading statement in your issue for Au- 
gust 16. In your leading editorial of that date, you say: 
" The mass of newspaper readers approve of the pa- 
per so carefully adjusted to their tastes, just as the pa- 
tients of our practitioner of the ' new medicine ' or the 
hearers of our preacher of the ' new theology ' approve 
of the quackery of which they are the willing dupes." 
This statement makes the " new theology " synony- 
mous with " quackery." And, though the writer of this 
protest is too radical to be identified with the " new theol- 
ogy," he believes that the movement known as the " new 
theology " is very far from quackery. Lyman Abbott, 
Newman Smyth, and Dr. Briggs are the acknowledged 
leaders of this movement. And, whatever else may be 
said of them, they cannot be counted men who carefully 
adjust their preaching or their teaching to the tastes of 
their hearers; nor can they be called theologic quacks. 

Feeling sure that your candor will induce you to cor- 
rect this (to me) unjustifiable statement, or, should you 
still hold to the view expressed, to justify that view, I 
am, very truly yours, LEON A- HARVEY. 

Des Moines, Iowa, August 19, 1893. 

[We willingly print the above letter, but cannot 
refrain from an expression of surprise that our 
meaning, in the article referred to, should have been 
entirely misunderstood. In the opening sentences of 
the paragraph to which our correspondent takes ex- 
ception, we had occasion to define a certain type of 




clergymen who should preach a doctrine care- 
fully selected for its paying qualities " and the sim- 
ilar type of physician " who should take up with 
what he knew to be quackery because he expected 
from it large financial returns." Our object in the 
selection and definition of these types was merely 
to illustrate, by the analogy of other professions, 
the leading principle of the "new journalism." 
Later on in the paragraph, speaking of the news- 
paper produced by the new journalism," we used 
the language that our correspondent has so misun- 
derstood. The words " our practitioner " and " our 
preacher," of course, merely referred back to the 
definitions previously given, to the offensive types 
of clergyman and physician selected for the purpose 
of illustrating by comparison the turpitude of the 
journalist. It is very surprising to us that the words 
should have been construed into an attack upon Dr. 
Abbott and Dr. Briggs, or upon the "new theol- 
ogy " i* 1 an y other than the narrow special sense 
just before carefully defined. EDRS. DIAL.] 

(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

At page 114 of his " Recent Exemplifications of False 
Philology" (New York, 1872), Dr. Hall said: "To the 
authorities for expressions like is being built, which I 
formerly adduced, I can now add Shelley, Mrs. Shelley, 
Dr. Arnold, Dr. Newman, Mr. Ruskin, and the Rev. 
Charles Kingsley." 

Although there might be different opinions concern- 
ing the value, as authorities for grammatical usage, of 
most of the writers mentioned at least when regarded 
separately, yet there could be hardly any doubt as to 
the importance that would be attached to the name of 
John Henry Newman. What Dr. Hall himself thought 
of Dr. Newman as an authority has been shown in pas- 
sages quoted by me in a former letter. I will quote 
one of them again, at somewhat greater length, because 
it contains the gist of the matter now to be considered. 

In an appendix to his " Modern English " (1873, pp. 
321-359) Dr. Hall returns to the discussion of is being 
built, and there (pp. 328-9) says: 

" I need, surely, name no more, among the dead, who found 
is being built, or the like, acceptable, . . . and we all know 
that the sort of phraseology under consideration is daily be- 
coming more and more common. The best-written of the 
English reviews, magazines, and journals are perpetually 
marked by it ; and some of the choicest of living English 
writers employ it freely. Preeminent among these stands 
Dr. Newman, who wrote, as far back as 1846 : ' At this very 
moment, souls are being led into the Catholic Church, on the 
most various and independent impulses, and from the most 
opposite directions." (Essays Critical and Historical, Vol. 2, 
p. 448). 

" Bishop Wilberforce shall be summoned next." [Then fol- 
low four illustrative quotations from the bishop's writings.] 

No other instance of the use of this form of expres- 
sion by Dr. Newman is quoted or referred to by Dr. 
Hall in this appendix of thirty-nine pages (where less 
important authorities are quoted several times), although 
Dr. Hall had previously said (p. 292) that he had 
" studied nearly every line of Dr. Newman's voluminous 
writings." This quotation from Newman, with others 
from other writers illustrative of " imperfects passive," 
was contributed by Dr. Hall to " A New English Dic- 

tionary on Historical Principles," where, shortened, it 
appears under Be. 

Now an inquisitive reader would like to know whether 
Dr. Hall, at the time he wrote the remarks quoted above, 
had knowledge of such a number of instances where Dr. 
Newman had used this locution in his voluminous writ- 
ings, that he, Dr. Hall, could fairly say, either by direct 
assertion or by implication, that Dr. Newman employed 
it freely." It will be noticed that the propriety of 
is being built is not questioned here; that has been lone 

I do not know how many examples of the " imperfect 
passive" have been added from Cardinal Newman's 
writings, by Dr. Hall and others, to the one quoted above ; 
but Professor Earle, in " The Philology of the English 
Tongue " (third edition, Oxford, 1879, pp. 546-7) has 
given to the public very distinct information as to New- 
man's feeling concerning is being: 

" From an early friend of Dr. Newman's I learnt that he 
had long ago expressed a strong dislike to the cumulate form- 
ula is being. 1 desired to be more particularly informed, and 
Dr. Newman wrote as follows to his friend : ' It surprises me 
that my antipathy to is being existed so long ago. It is as 
keen and bitter now as ever it was, though I don't pretend 
to be able to defend it. ... Now I know nothing of the his- 
tory of the language, and cannot tell whether all this will 
stand, but this I do know, that, rationally or irrationally, I 
have an undying, never-dying hatred to is being, whatever ar- 
guments are brought in its favour. At the same time I fully 
grant that it is so convenient in the present state of the lan- 
guage, that I will not pledge myself I have never been guilty 
of using it." 

Although I have noticed two instances (one in a let- 
ter), besides the one cited above by Dr. Hall, where 
the " imperfect passive " was employed by Dr. New- 
man, yet I am confident that its use by him at least 
in print was very rare. 

Surprise which one feels at the weakness of the sup- 
port to be had from Dr. Newman is increased by sur- 
prise from a different source when one compares with 
the quotation from " Modern English " given above Dr. 
Hall's opinion of Bishop Wilberforce as shown in other 
parts of the same volume. 

" Would that pessimists could learn to stifle their flatulent 
lamentations. Listen to another [Bishop Wilberforce], one 
who, for all his unctuous clutter, is, certainly, the most me- 
chanical of contemporary prelates." (P. 290, footnote.) 
And at page 48 Dr. Hall pays this compliment to the 
Bishop's English: 

"The self-accommodating Bp. Wilberforce, when, a few 
years ago, he wrote of 'the alone Saviour,' was ridiculed, in 
that, when he cleansed his skirts of Low-churchism, he did 
not fully unlearn its characteristic jargon." 

Perhaps Dr. Hall did not intend to include Bishop 
Wilberforce (with Dr. Newman) in " some of the choic- 
est of living English writers"; but if he did not, page 
329 needs amending. R Q WlLLIAM8- 

New Haven, Conn., August IS, 1893. 

A LARGE part of the forthcoming biography of Whit- 
tier will consist of letters never before published, in ac- 
cordance with his wish that he might be allowed to 
speak for himself, as far as possible, in his memoirs. In 
these letters we find the history of all his principal 
poems, the circumstances under which they were writ- 
ten, the changes made in them, and the reasons for the 
changes. Whittier's literary executor, Mr. S. T. Pick- 
ard, of Portland, Me., requests the loan of any letters 
by the poet which contain passages of public interest. 



[Sept. 1, 

ftjje Neb 


Within its moderate scope and intention, 
Mr. Edward Carpenter's " From Adam's Peak 
to Elephanta : Sketches in Ceylon and India " 
is decidedly the best book of recent East In- 
dian travel that has come to our notice. In 
addition to his series of brilliant pen-pictures 
of Oriental life and landscape, Mr. Carpenter 
offers us some instructive comment on current 
Indian questions, and his broader generaliza- 
tions touching the status and outlook of the 
Empire are pertinent and have an assuring 
ring of candor and mature conviction. To the 
rather hopeless social relations between Anglo- 
Indians and natives a separate chapter is de- 
voted, and the volume closes with a review of 
the " Old Order " of caste and communism, 
and of the working of the " New Influences " 
(chiefly Western science and commercialism) 
under whose solvent force old social and polit- 
ical growths now promise to disintegrate, agree- 
ably to the Spencerian formula. Religious 
topics are interestingly treated. We are af- 
forded a glimpse or two behind the scenes of 
the Hindu ritual, and the four expository chap- 
ters on the esoteric religious lore of South In- 
dia are the fruit of the author's introduction 
into circles of traditional teaching usually 
closed against the English. We may note 
here, in passing, that while in Madras Mr. Car- 
penter visited Adyar, the Theosophist head- 

" The Theosophist villa, with roomy lecture-hall and 
library, stands pleasantly among woods on the bank of 
a river and within half a mile of the sea. Passing from 
the library through sandalwood doors into an inner 
sanctum, I was shown a variety of curios connected with 
Madame Blavatsky, among which was a portrait, appar- 
ently done in a somewhat dashing style just the head 
of a man, surrounded with clouds and filaments in 
blue pigment on a piece of white silk, which was ' pre- 
cipitated ' by Madame Blavatsky in Col. Olcott's pres- 
ence she simply placing her two hands on the silk for 
a moment. . . . There were also two oil portraits 
heads, well framed and reverently guarded behind a 
curtain of the now celebrated Kout Houmi, Madame 
Blavatsky's Guru (Adept), and of another, Col. Olcott's 
Guru. . . . Madame Blavatsky knew Col. Olcott's 
Guru as well as her own, and the history of these two 

lon and India. By Edward Carpenter. Illustrated. New 
York : Macmillan & Co. 

nette Duncan. Illustrated. New York : D. Appleton & Co. 

Shoemaker. Illustrated. Cincinnati : Robert Clarke & Co. 

portraits is that they were done by a German artist 
whom she met in the course of her travels. Consider- 
ing him competent for the work, she projected the im- 
ages of the two Gurus into his mind, and he painted 
from the mental pictures she placing her hand on his 
head during the operation. The German artist-medium 
accounted for the decidedly mawkish expression of both 
faces, as well as for the considerable likeness to each 
other which, considering that Kout Houmi dates from 
Cashmere, and the other from Thibet, might not have 
been expected. . . . Keightley was evidently much im- 
pressed by the ' old lady's ' clairvoyant power, saying 
that sometimes in her letters from England she dis- 
played a knowledge of what was going on at Adyar, 
which he could not account for." 

It is due the author to add that he does not go 
into a serious discussion of the Adyar " mys- 

We shall confine our notice of the more pic- 
turesque portion of Mr. Carpenter's narrative 
to the chapter on Benares an ancient city, 
to which the " cheap-and-nasty puffing, profit- 
mongering, enterprising, energetic, individual- 
istic business " (our author is a fierce Ruskin- 
ian) of mongrel Bombay and Calcutta has not 
yet penetrated. Benares, the Indian Mecca, 
is situated in the midst of a great and populous 
plain, on the banks of the sacred Ganges. That 
the Ganges, a majestic river, and, like the Nile, 
the prime fertilizer of its adjacent plains, should 
be the object of a cult is easily intelligible. 
The myth is a striking one. In the Mahabar- 
ata, Siva is god of the Himalayas or rather he 
Is the Himalayas the icy crags his brow, the 
forests his hair : 

" Ganga, the beautiful Ganga, could not descend to 
earth till Siva consented to receive her on his head. So 
impetuously then did she rush down (in rain) that the 
god grew angry and locked up the floods amid his laby- 
rinthine hair till at last he let them escape and find 
their way to the plains." 

To Benares come pilgrims by the hundred and 
the thousand the year round, to make their 
offering at its 5000 shrines, and to bathe in the 
Ganges, or to burn the bodies of their friends 
and scatter their ashes upon the stream. The 
river side is a wonderful, a richly Oriental scene 
a wilderness of marble stairs, terraces, and 
jutting platforms, stretching away in pictur- 
esque disorder for a mile or more along the 
banks, and enlivened, especially on festal days, 
with throngs of natives in parti-colored rai- 
ment, going down to or coming up from the 
water, or sitting about in groups under gay 
awnings or huge straw umbrellas, chatting, or 
drinking in, for the thousandth time, the mar- 
vels of the story-teller. Here is a string of 
pilgrims carrying their scanty belongings in 
baskets on their heads : there on a balcony ap 




pear a half-dozen young men, stripped for their 
morning exercise, with their Indian clubs in 
their hands " their yellow and brown bodies 
shining in the early sun "; here are the men 
selling marigolds for the bathers to cast into 
the stream ; there is a group of children in 
festal finery, with silver toe-rings and bangles, 
stepping timidly down the steep stair, the same 
foot always first, to the water ; here is a yogi 
(saint), surrounded by a little circle of admir- 
ers ; there are boats and a quay, and ominous- 
looking piles of wood for burning the dead ; 
and there beyond, the dismal spectacle of a 
burning ghaut. 

Touching the rite of bathing in the Ganges, 
the author observes : 

" One might think that in order to induce people to 
bathe by thousands in muddy, half-stagnant water, thick 
with funeral ashes and drowned flowers, and here and 
there defiled by a corpse or a portion of one, there must 
be present an immense amount of religious or other fer- 
vor. But nothing of the kind. Except in a few, a very 
few, cases there was no more of this than there is in 
the crowd going to or from a popular London church 
on Sunday evening. Mere blind habit was written on 
most faces. ... It simply had to be done." 

One morning our author accompanied a 
Hindu friend, who wanted to bathe at a par- 
ticular ghaut, to the river-side. It was a spring 
festival, the ghauts were thronged, and charac- 
teristic scenes and objects were on every hand. 

" As we approached the river the alleys began to get 
full of people coming up after their baths to the vari- 
ous temples pretty to see the women in all shades of 
tawny gold, primrose, saffron, or salmon-pink, bearing 
their brass bowls and saucers full of flowers, and a sup- 
ply of Ganges water." 

It was early spring, and a group of women 
coming up fresh from the water in their drip- 
ping garments were shivering in the chill air 
as they took their stand near by. 

" Their long cotton clothes clung to their limbs, and 
I wondered how they would dress themselves under 
these conditions. The steps were reeking with wet and 
mud, and could not be used for sitting on. They man- 
aged, however, to unwind their wet things and at the 
same time to put on dry ones so deftly that in a short 
time and without any exposure of their bodies they were 
habited in clean and bright attire." 

In the course of the walk they came to one of 
the burning ghauts a sufficiently gruesome 
sight a blackened hollow running down to 
the water's edge with room for three funeral 

" As we stood there a corpse was brought down 
wrapped in an unbleached cloth (probably the same it 
wore in life) and slung beneath a pole which was car- 
ried on the shoulders of two men. Round about on the 
jutting verges of the hollow the male relatives sat 

perched upon their heels, with their cloths drawn over 
their heads spectators of the whole operation. . . . 
The body is placed upon the pyre, which generally in 
the case of the poor people is insufficiently large, a scanty 
supply of gums and fragrant oils is provided, the near- 
est male relative applies the torch himself and then 
there remains nothing but to sit for hours and watch 
the dread process, and at the conclusion, if the burning 
is complete, to collect the ashes and scatter them on the 
water, and if not, to throw the charred remains them- 
selves into the sacred river." 

While the author was taking note of this sick- 
ening business so hideously, not to say pro- 
fanely, suggestive, with its spices and aromat- 
ics, of cookery there appeared opportunely 
on the scene a self-mutilating fakir. This re- 
ligionist, scorning the lenten observances and 
mortifications of milder creeds, humored his 
amiable deity by holding the left arm uplifted 
in lifelong penance. 

" There was no doubt about it; the bare limb, to some 
extent dwindled, went straight up from the shoulder, 
and ended in a little hand, which looked like the hand 
of a child with fingers inbent and ending in long claw- 
like nails, while the thumb, which was disproportion- 
ately large, went straight up between the second and 
third fingers. . . . His extended right hand entreated 
a coin, which I gladly gave him, and after invoking 
some kind of blessing he turned away through the crowd 
his poor dwindled hand and half-closed fingers visible 
for some time over the heads of the people." 

Naturally, all this solemnity had its humor- 
ous interludes ; and the author was especially 
amused by the antics of a goat and a crow 
which knowingly stuck close to the altars and 
between them nibbled and nicked off the edible 
offerings as fast as the pious deposited them 

In his discussion of the Indian race-problem 
Mr. Carpenter is very frank and not at all 
optimistic. The sway of the Briton in a land 
he cannot really inhabit, and over a swarming 
and potentially powerful race that is to him 
as oil is to water, is an anomaly. John Bull 
in India is at best a sort of armed moderator, 
tolerated for the time because he measurably 
secures to the thrifty the fruits of their thrift, 
and restrains general throat-cutting. He does 
not like his position, but he accepts it, like old 
Mr. Trapbois, " for a consideration." Cer- 
tainly his " subjects " do not like him. Says 
a Hindu friend to our author : 

"The vaunted administrative ability of the English 
is a fiction. They make good policemen and keep or- 
der when the people acquiesce that is all. If this 
acquiescence ceases, as it must, when the people rightly 
or wrongly believe their religion and family life in dan- 
ger from the government, the English must pack up 
and go, and woe to the English capitalist and profes- 
sional man." 



[Sept. 1, 

Between the Englishman and the native is a 
profound and impassable gulf of race differ- 
ence, of race dislike " a deep-set ineradicable 
incompatibility." The primary point of view 
of each is impossible to the other. It is the 
old spiritual feud of Aristotelian and Platon- 
ist the two great types, as Leibniz said, of 
humanity. With the profoundly religious char- 
acter of the social system of India, the mate- 
rialistic spirit of English rule cannot blend. 
What are the Englishman's " improvements," 
his railways and tanks and bridges, his five 
per cent, dividends even, to the mystical, mildly 
contemplative, apathetic Hindu, with his gaze 
fixed on Nirvana, and his scorn of the fleeting 
uses of a world that is to him an inn, a 

" batter'd Caravanserai 
Whose Portals are alternate Night and Day." 

And on the other hand, what can the bustling, 
huckstering, eye-on-the-main-chance English- 
man, to whom metaphysic is a fable and barom- 
eters and microscopes are "philosophical instru- 
ments,"* whose religion is largely a matter of 
seventh-day observances, make of a man whose 
life is all religion, all metaphysic, who, as our 
author tartly puts it, 

" Sits on his haunches at a railway station for a whole 
day meditating on the desirability of not being born 
again ! " 

Truly, here is a pair of hopeless " Incompat- 
ibles." Yet the Anglo-Indian, a mere drop in 
the ocean of latently-hostile native life about 
him, is apparently as unmindful of his position 
as he was up to the hour when the tragedy of 
'57 burst upon him, threatening to sweep him 
like thistle-down from the face of the land where 
(as we gather from our author) he snubs the 
natives socially, maltreats them officially, and, 
in short, fags and bullies his unresisting infe- 
riors in the good old John Bull way. Says 
Mr. Carpenter: 

"The most damning fact that I know against the 
average English attitude towards the natives is the 
fact that one of the very few places besides Aligarh, 
where there is any cordial feeling between the two 
parties, is Hyderabad a place in which, on account 
of its being under the Nizam, the officials are natives, 
and their position therefore prevents their being tram- 
pled on ! " 

Mr. Carpenter dwells with apprehension on the 
fact that there are indications of an awaken- 
ing sense of nationality, of a dawning con- 
sciousness of their own strength, among the 
natives. While they will have none of the re- 

* As Hegel notes with scorn in his Geschichte der Philos- 

ligion of their rulers, they profit by their polit- 
ical lessons. Prominent among the signs of 
the times is the National Indian Congress 
an annual assemblage which brings together 
from 1000 to 1500 delegates from all parts of 

" If the Congress movement is destined to become a 
great political movement, it must, it seems to me, even- 
tuate in one of two ways either in violence and civil 
war, owing to determined hostility on the part of our 
Government and the continual widening of the breach 
between the two peoples; or which is more likely, 
if our government grants more and more representative 
power to the people in the immense growth of polit- 
ical and constitutional life among them, and the gradual 
drowning out of British rule thereby." 

There are other possibilities, as our author 
points out ; but they all, he holds, " involve 
the decadence of our political power in India. 
... I can neither see nor imagine any other 

From Mr. Carpenter's account of Caste we 
shall allow ourselves one extract just pre- 
mising that when one reads that the Brahmans 
alone are subdivided into 1886 separate classes, 
the fearful complexity of the system is dimly 
apparent. * 

" An acquaintance of mine in Ceylon who belongs to 
the Vellala caste told me that on one occasion he paid 
a visit to a friend of his in India who belonged to the 
same caste but to a different section of it. They had 
a Brahman cook, who prepared the food for both of 
them, but who, being of a higher caste, could not eat 
after them; while they could not eat together because 
they did not belong to the same section." 

Here was a problem to stagger the genius of a 
McAllister. But the Brahman cook rose to 
the emergency. He " ate his dinner first, and 
then served up the remainder separately to the 
two friends, who sat at different tables with a 
curtain hanging between them." 

In contrast to Mr. Carpenter's thoughtful 
book is Sara Jeannette Duncan's " The Sim- 
ple Adventures of a Memsahib." A " memsa- 
hib," we may say to those who have not read 
their Kipling, is a married woman more spe- 
cifically, we think, an English married woman. 
Our author has herself recently become a "mem- 
sahib "; and the present volume is essentially an 
account of the early house-keeping trials of an 
inexperienced young wife in Calcutta. The com 
plexities of house-furnishing, of the hiring and 
management of servants, of polyglot duels with 
the native shopmen (whose ways are decidedly 
not " the ways of righteousness "), etc., are de- 

*Dr. Wilson of Bombay wrote two large volumes of his 
projected great work on Caste, and then died ; but had not 
finished his first subject, the Brahmans ! 




tailed in a sprightly, superficial style, with a 
sprinkling of the smallest of small talk, and 
with a rambling volubility slightly suggestive 
of Mrs. Nickleby. Incidentally, the reader is 
given a glimpse of Calcutta " society " and 
the glimpse is not a pleasing one. The vol- 
ume closes with the following picture of an 
evolved memsahib " graduated, sophisticated, 
qualified ": 

" She has lost her pretty color, that always goes 
first, and has gained a shadowy ring under each eye, 
that always comes afterwards. She is thinner than she 
was, and has acquired nerves and some petulance. . . . 
To make up, she dresses her hair more elaborately, and 
crowns it with a little bonnet which is somewhat ex- 
travagantly ' chic.' She has fallen into a way of cross- 
ing her knees in a low chair that would horrify her 
Aunt Plovtree, and a whole set of little feminine An- 
glo-Indian poses have come to her naturally. . . . 
Without being actually slangy, she takes the easiest 
word and the shortest cut in India we know only the 
necessities of speech, we do not really talk, even in the 
cold weather. . . . She is growing dull to India, too, 
which is about as sad a thing as any. She has ac- 
quired for the Aryan inhabitant a certain strong irri- 
tation, and she believes him to be nasty in all his ways. 
This will sum up her impressions of India years hence 
as completely as it does to-day. She is a memsahib 
like another." 

The book is very amusing, and offers a fresh 
disproof of the notion (started, probably, by 
some author of an unappreciated joke) that wo- 
men lack the sense of humor. Miss Duncan 
is at times nearly as good as " Mark Twain." 
The illustrations, by F. H. Townsend, are cap- 

" Eastward to the Land of the Morning," 
by M. M. Shoemaker, is the pleasantly writ- 
ten record of " a happy winter under sunny 
skies and amidst strange people." In the 
course of his globe-girdling trip the author 
saw something of Egypt and China, and more 
of India and Japan ; and he tells the story in 
an easy, unaffected way, and with an abstention 
from citing the " capitol building at Colum- 
bus " as the architectural standard, that, in an 
Ohio man, is rather remarkable. Among the 
notable people met by Mr. Shoemaker was an 
Anglo-Indian judge who asked " whether each 
and every railroad in America does not own 
its own judge, before whom all cases in which 
said road is concerned are tried, and who al- 
ways decides in its favor." Mr. Shoemaker 
was about to give the " reply valiant "; but re- 
flecting that perhaps the judge had "heard 
something of the government of the city of 
New York, and gotten it mixed up with the 

country at large," he desisted. 

E. G. J. 



Dr. Ernest Hart, well known to students of 
psychology, has written a timely work on " Hyp- 
notism, Mesmerism, and the New Witchcraft." 
The tendency of this very readable volume is 
admirable ; while recognizing the demonstrable 
and physiological phenomena of hypnotism, it 
opposes most vigorously and effectively the 
extravagant notions and pseudo-experiments 
which, in the name of hypnotic science, have 
been launched with much ceremony upon the 
reading public. This protest is especially time- 
ly, as the recent popular interest in hypnotism 
has been sustained and fostered distinctly more 
by the promises of demonstration of superna- 
tural effects than by an intelligent understand- 
ing of the specially psychological and scientific 
problems involved. 

Dr. Hart devotes the most of his space to 
the consideration of the views and experiments 
of Dr. Luys at the hospital of La Charite in 
Paris. Dr. Luys's subjects claim to be sensi- 
tive to the action of a magnet, one pole attract- 
ing them and causing pleasant visions, while 
the other repels and gives rise to distressing 
emotions. Another specialty of these subjects 
is the externalization of sensation. The sub- 
ject becomes en rapport with an inanimate ob- 
ject. The favorite object is a doll that has 
been acted upon to secure the rapport; if the 
doll be pinched, the subject feels the pain in 
the corresponding place. Dr. Luys even has 
a skull-cap which, when placed upon the head 
of the subject, produces in her the somewhat 
incoherent mental notions of its former pos- 
sessor. These fantastic theories and observa- 
tions Dr. Hart has most patiently refuted by a 
series of control experiments. With the aid 
of an electro-magnet it was clearly shown that 
the alleged effects appeared as readily when 
the current was off as when it was on, and 
always in response to a suggestion. When one 
thing was said while in reality the opposite 
was done by Dr. Hart, the verbal suggestion 
was obeyed ; a false doll, not acted upon, ef- 
fected the alleged transfer of sensation quite 
as well as the true one. The following is a 
summary of some of the more interesting of 
the doll and magnet experiments : 

" I had prepared an electro-magnet of considerable 
power, from which the current could be turned on or off 
with great rapidity by touching a button or by lifting 
the plates from the bath, or of course by detaching one 
or the other of the wires. I had also a bar of iron 

By Ernest Hart. New York : D. Appleton & Co. 



[Sept. 1, 

resembling the magnetised bar which M. Luys had used, 
but which was not magnetic, a demagnetised magnet, 
and a set of needles variously and inversely magnetised. 
I had also two exactly similar wax dolls brought from a 
toy shop. ... I signalled to the assistant, and told him 
to put on the current, whereupon he turned it off. Ac- 
customed, however, to believe that a magnet must be a 
magnet, Marguerite began to handle it. The note taken 
by Dr. Sajous runs thus: 'She found the north pole, 
notwithstanding there was no current, very pretty; she 
was, as it were, fascinated by it; she caressed the blue 
flames, and showed every sign of delight. Then came 
the phenomena of attraction. She followed the magnet 
with delight across the room, as though fascinated by 
it. The bar was turned so as to present the other end, 
or what would be called, in the language of La Charite", 
the south pole; then she fell into the attitude of repul- 
sion and horror, with clenched fists, and as it approached 
her she fell backward into the arms of M. Cremiere, 
and was carried, still showing all the signs of terror and 
repulsion, back to her chair.' . . . Similar but false 
phenomena were obtained in succession with all the 
different forms of magnet and non-magnet. Marguerite 
was never once right; but throughout, her acting was 
perfect; she was utterly unable at any time really to dis- 
tinguish between a plain bar of iron, a demagnetised 
magnet, or a horse-shoe magnet carrying a full current, 
and one from which the current was wholly cut off. 

" We took one of the dolls. We restored Marguerite 
to the perfectly hypnotised condition, and when she was 
profoundly plunged in the state which is described as 
profound hypnosis, I placed a doll in her hand, which 
she held long enough to sensitise it. I then, taking the 
doll from her, rapidly disposed of it behind some books, 
and proceeded to operate on another doll which she 
had not touched and which I had just taken out of 
the box in which it came from the toy-shop. Holding 
her hand, I placed her in contact with Dr. Sajous, that 
he might also be, to use the jargon of the school, en 
rapport with her, and I continued to hold her hand. 
If now I touched the hair of the doll, which she was sup- 
posed not to see, she exclaimed, according to my notes, 
' On touche les cheveux,' < On les tire,' ' They are 
touching my hair they are pulling it,' and as she 
complained it hurt her, we had to leave off pulling the 
doll's hair. Taking the doll to a little distance, I 
pinched it; she showed every sign of pain, and cried out, 
' I don't like to be hurt je ne veux pas qu' on me fasse 
de mal.' I tickled the cheek of the figure; she began 
to smile pleasantly." 

The supposed action of drugs at a distance 
proved to depend for its success upon delicate 
and unconscious suggestion. 

" I put away the witness dolls, and we then proceeded 
to the effects of medicine tubes applied to the skin. 
I took a tube which was supposed to contain alcohol, but 
which did contain cherry laurel water. She immedi- 
ately began, to use the words of M. Sajous's notes, to 
smile agreeably and then to laugh; she became gay. 
' It makes me laugh,' she said ; and then, ' I'm not 
tipsy, I want to sing,' and so on through the whole 
performance of a not ungraceful griserie, which we 
stopped at that stage, for I was loth to have the degrading 
performance of drunkenness carried to the extreme I 
had seen her go through at the Charite". I now applied 
a tube of alcohol, asking the assistant, however, to give 
me valerian, which no doubt this profoundly hypnotised 

subject perfectly well heard, for she immediately went 
through the whole cat performance I have already de- 
scribed as having been performed for my delectation by 
Mervel, under the hands of Dr. Luys, on the previous 
day. She spat, she scratched, she mewed, she leaped 
about on all fours, and she was as thoroughly cat-like 
as was Mervel on the previous and Jeanne on the sub- 
sequent day. It would be tedious to go through the 
whole of the notes of the numerous sittings which I had 
with these five subjects, but I may say at once that we 
had the cat performance six times, twice with Jeanne, 
twice with Vix, once with Clarice, and once with Mervel. 
In no case by any accident was valerian used, but either 
sugar, alcohol, diabetic svigar, cherry laurel water, or 
distilled water ; nevertheless, the performance never 
failed when the subjects had reason to think it was ex- 
pected of them." 

In brief, we have here recorded another in- 
stance of a man of reputation being deceived 
by a shrewd anticipation of his unexpressed 
theories. It is certainly most unfortunate that 
experiments of this type have become identified 
with hypnotism, and it is to be hoped that this 
volume will contribute to a clearer perspective 
of the value of such research and a more whole- 
some direction of interest in phenomena of this 

The one criticism that most students of hyp- 
notism would pass upon Dr. Hart's views is 
that he undervalues the work done by the Nancy 
school, and the application of hypnotism to 
medical practice. There is undoubtedly occa- 
sion for divergence of opinion on these points, 
but a somewhat more prominent and emphatic 
statement of the real contribution to the sub- 
ject would perhaps have been serviceable in 
preventing the notion, which a hasty reader 
might form, that all hypnotic research is value- 
less. But the provocation for a destructive 
criticism of certain studies in hypnotism has 
been so ample that a little overstatement is but 


The eyes of the financial world are at pres- 
ent fixed on Australia, which has seen its credit 
shaken to the centre by the crash of its bank- 
ing system. This catastrophe seems, however, 
but a phase of the " storm and stress " period of 
growth through which all young states must 
inevitably come to a maturer, safer, and hon- 
ester life, and carries American memories back 
to the days of state banking and " wildcat " 
money. At such a time especial interest at- 

By Sir Henry Parkes, G.C.M.G. New York: Longmans, 
Green, & Co. 




taches to a book which is an autobiographic 
record of a half-century of public life in the 
leading Australian colony, written by the chief 
maker of Australian history probably the one 
politician of that new world who is as largely 
known to the American public as is Frank Sla- 
vin or Peter Jackson. For nearly forty years, 
as Henry Parkes or Sir Henry Parkes, he was 
a member of the Parliament of New South 
Wales, and was five times at the head of a lib- 
eral ministry. No more fascinating book than 
his has been published in recent times. The 
octogenarian statesman writes with the same 
audacious faith in himself which has always 
characterized his forty years of stormy polit- 
ical leadership, and gives blows with as sturdy 
a good-will as when he held command. 

One must not look here for a cool historical 
account of affairs in New South Wales. He 
must always remember that there is another 
side ; but Mr. Francis in the " Fortnightly Re- 
view," the special correspondent of the London 
" Times " for 1893, and Sir Charles Dilke in 
his " Problems of Greater Britain " may all 
help to keep that in sight for the impartial ob- 
server. What one does find here is a wealth 
of details of political affairs in Australia to be 
read of nowhere else, and such an introduction 
to the personality of Australian governing cir- 
cles as can be given, probably, by no other pen. 
These pages, for their field, are as good as 
Mozley's Reminiscences, or Greville's Memoirs, 
or the Journal of Lord Loftus. Here, mingled 
with interesting reminiscences of Browning 
and Tennyson, Cobden and Bright, President 
Arthur and General Grant, are delightful let- 
ters from Carlyle and Florence Nightingale, 
sandwiched in with others of the highest im- 
portance with reference to constitutional law 
from authorities so eminent as Alpheus Todd, 
Sir T. Erskine May, Sir Arthur Helps, Lord 
Grey of Howick. But, better still, we are here 
introduced to Australian life in its infancy, 
and see it grow to a giant strength as it unfolds 
around this Homeric figure. From the deck 
of an emigrant ship we catch with him our first 
glimpse of Australia in 1839, seventeen years 
before the advent of responsible government, 
when New South Wales had little more than 
a hundred thousand of colonists and nearly 
one-third of these were transported convicts. 
Then it was known to the outer world almost 
solely as the purlieus of Botany Bay. With 
this still hale old man we see it set off, to the 
north and to the south, its two younger colo- 
nies ; and then come to have within its own 

borders a million of freemen, the majority of 
whom annually produce the largest wool crop 
in the world, while thousands of others are en- 
gaged with the product of the most prolific 
of silver mines. Sidney wool is as famous for 
its quality as is the Proprietary Mine at Broken 
Hill for its quantity. 

Young in experience as Australia is, it has 
already given to the older world of its anti- 
podes the Torrens land registry system, the 
secret ballot, the closure, and the practical ap- 
plication of the eight-hour day. But not only 
in its suggestiveness to American politics is 
this newer Australian life of interest to us. 
This record by Sir Henry Parkes is a record 
of the working out on parallel lines of many 
problems kindred to our own, and this fre- 
quently under the influence of our own national 
history. Among the most important questions 
are those of immigration, the tariff, and the 
disposal of public lands. The immigration 
controversy in Australia has gone through 
three stages, according as its subject has been 
the convict, the Chinaman, or the Kanaka. 
In his early days Henry Parkes did good ser- 
vice, alongside the afterwards famous Robert 
Lowe, and that pioneer Australian, William 
Charles Wentworth, in putting an end to the 
convict supply. In 1881, and again in 1888, 
he was largely instrumental in the passage of 
Chinese restriction acts curiously synchron- 
ous with our own exclusion legislation. Con- 
sistently with his record, he took only last year 
the same attitude in regard to the importation 
of South Sea Islanders, as an element detri- 
mental to the body politic. So in his earlier 
years, when the experiment of " assisted " im- 
migration from the sturdy working classes of 
Great Britain and Ireland was being tried, he 
was strenuous for a proportion which should 
keep Saxon blood always to the fore. A homo- 
geneous self -controlled community has ever 
been his aim for the Australias. Again, along 
with Sir John Robertson, he fought for years 
the battle of the humbler settler against the 
"shepherd kings," the farmsteading against 
the ranche, until some approach to equal- 
ity of opportunity was at length obtained for 
the intending agriculturist. Again and again 
is reference found to our own system of land 
entry so far, more favorable to the home- 
steader. In the matter of the tariff, Parkes 
has always been a stanch free-trader, and with 
an interim of eight or nine years he has led the 
sentiment of his colony. In 1865, however, 
and the date is interesting from a telepathic 



[Sept. 1, 

point of view, New South Wales adopted a 
protective tariff. In 1873 the free-traders re- 
turned to control ; but only two years ago Sir 
Henry's last ministry was defeated through a 
coalition of the protectionists and the labor 
group, and in the spring of last year Mr. 
Dibbs's ministry reverted to protection. To- 
day, nevertheless, public sentiment in the col- 
ony, as with us, trembles in the balance. 

It is interesting to see, in all these Austra- 
lian colonies, a generous pride in the associa- 
tion with Great Britain go hand-in-hand with 
a large-minded jealousy of anything like im- 
perial interference in their affairs. By the 
aid of this local independence, Sir Henry has 
not yet succeeded in getting rid of the nomi- 
nee members of the upper house of the legis- 
lature, for whom his memoirs express scant re- 
spect. But it was during his first ministry 
that the imperial government in 1874 
virtually conceded to the colonial ministry the 
full control of the pardoning power ; and his 
government, backed by the legislature, by res- 
olution and protest most heartily cooperated 
with Queensland in 1888 in her successful op- 
position to the appointment of a governor who 
was persona ingrata to a large section of her 
population. Only the other day, in deference 
to this sentiment, the imperial authorities noti- 
fied the government of New South Wales of 
their desire to appoint Sir R. W. Duff to suc- 
ceed the retiring governor. The same spirit 
is manifest in the discussion of Australian 
as distinct from and even opposed to impe- 
rial federation, and is brought out in the cor- 
respondence in 1889 between Parkes and Dun- 
can Gillies, the premier of Victoria. Sir Henry 
Parkes's name has been largely identified with 
this movement toward Australasian federation, 
although his own colony has held somewhat 
aloof until the trend as to some of the matters 
of detail shall be more clearly defined. When 
that much- to-be-desired union shall take place, 
the Australias will find some of the problems 
of an upper house, over which Sir Henry has 
spent much thought, capable of an easier solu- 

The author's visits to the United States and 
England are interesting episodes in his agree- 
able narrative. His account of General Grant, 
who, at a dining, " spoke for six or seven min- 
utes with quiet fluency, and in clear finely-cut 
sentences of common-sense," was well worth re- 
cording. His mention of Governor Carnell of 
New York, whom he met more than once in the 
beginning of 1882, makes one rub his eyes for 

a moment, till he discovers Governor Cornell. 
Funny is Parkes's reply, in 1853, to a speaker 
who challenged the patriotism of the makers 
of our Constitution by the criticism that their 
work was done behind closed doors. " To a 
certain extent it might be true," is the rejoin- 
der, " that the delegates sat with closed doors, 
for as it was cold in America, they probably 
did not leave them open." Curious is it, too, 
to read from the speech of one of the delegates 
to the Federation Conference of 1890, as quoted 
approvingly by Parkes, that " the Federal Par- 
liament ought to be empowered to cut up the 
larger colonies into smaller colonies, as the 
Federal Government of America has cut up 
the larger States into smaller States when it 
has been deemed expedient and just to do so." 
Is this a generous induction from the solitary 
case of West Virginia? Inter arma silent leges. 
Many other portions of this prolonged and 
useful career might be dwelt upon such as 
Sir Henry Parkes's agency in opening up the 
trans-Pacific Ocean route in connection with 
our first continental railway, his admirable sys- 
tem of public-school education, his local-option 
treatment of the liquor traffic, his industrial 
schools and hospital system. But enough has 
been said to induce to the reading of a most 
instructive volume, where, if the author has in 
truth written himself somewhat large, he has 
done it with that naive and unconscious sim- 
plicity of egoism which is charming because it 
is the product only of heroic epochs of the 
juventus mundi. J OHN j. HALSET. 


Among selections from English poets, no 
collection is at present more widely known or 
more frequently used than Ward's " English 
Poets." The main feature of that work, apart 
from its careful selection of characteristic poems 
from various writers, was the concise critical 
introduction accompanying each author. Many 
of these were models of their kind, written as 
they were by various eminent critics chosen 
with special reference to the poet treated. The 
volume of Craik's " English Prose " now be- 
fore us, together with the three that are to 
follow it, are to furnish for English prose 
what Ward's Poets furnishes for English poe- 
try ; that is, short typical selections from the 
majority of English prose writers since the 

* ENGLISH PKOSB. Selections, with Critical Introductions. 
Edited by Henry Craik. Vol. I. New York : Macmillan & Co. 




middle of the fourteenth century. We find 
here the same critical introductions by emi- 
nent English critics, preceded by concise state- 
ments of the facts in the lives of the writers 
and followed by short selections from their 

The plan of the work would therefore seem 
to be without fault, and such a future useful- 
ness might apparently be predicted for it as 
the companion series has already had. Yet 
there is one essential difference between selec- 
tions from poetry and from prose. It is always 
possible in the case of poetry to select com- 
plete pieces which shall do ample justice to the 
merits of a poet, or even to choose passages 
from longer works that, because of some strik- 
ing description or episode, have a complete- 
ness in themselves. This is far from true of 
prose. It is not possible in the compass of 
such a volume as the present, giving extracts 
from the prose authors of two centuries, to 
print a single complete prose work, even a 
monograph or pamphlet ; while the nature of 
prose does not make it easy to select any short 
passage fully exemplifying the style of a prose 
writer. This depends on the fact that poetry 
is always a more concise form of expression 
than prose, and its flavor, so to speak, may be 
more easily perceived from a taste or two. In 
reality it would take twenty volumes of prose 
to give such a view of growth and development 
in English as might be given in a single vol- 
ume of poetry. For this reason, although it is 
inherent in the nature of poetry and prose and 
so not under the control of editor or critic, the 
volumes before us must inevitably suffer in 
comparison with the corresponding series. 

One other point deserves mention. The ed- 
itor of a volume of selections is most likely to 
err through including too many authors. Most 
of the collectors of prose have been especially 
liable to this criticism, and our editor is no ex- 
ception to the rule. For example, there are 
about forty poets in the first volume of Ward, 
ending with Donne, who died in 1631. In 
this first volume of English prose there are 
fifty-one for practically the same period. Had 
the number of authors been fewer, the selec- 
tions from the more important ones might have 
been longer and better. Moreover, this fact 
is especially emphasized when we compare the 
relative development of English poetry and 
prose. Modern poetry begins with Chaucer, 
and its second great exemplar died before 1600. 
Modern prose of equal importance scarcely 
begins before Milton and Dryden, neither of 

whom belongs to the present volume. Not- 
withstanding these criticisms, we gladly wel- 
come this important contribution to the history 
of English prose, and we shall look with inter- 
est for the later volumes, which will cover the 
more interesting periods of the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries. 

As in Ward's Poets, the critical introduc- 
tion to the prose writers are particularly inter- 
esting and valuable. Some of these are writ- 
ten by Saintsbury, Hales, Collins, Ainger, 
Ward, and Gosse, besides the editor himself. 
The introduction to the whole volume is by Mr. 
W. P. Ker, whose name also follows the largest 
number of critical notices. As to the former, 
one feels that scant justice is done to the ear- 
liest prose in the times of the great literary re- 
vivals under Alfred and JElfric, compared with 
the later prose under Chaucer. For it may 
certainly be said that the best prose of the pe- 
riods of Alfred and ^Elfric is stronger and 
clearer than much of that written in the Mid- 
dle English period. Nor is it clearly set forth 
that the relation between the prose of Alfred 
and the prose of Mandeville is a much more 
natural one than would be supposed from the 
exaggerated estimates of the influence of the 
Norman conquest. This is largely due to the 
fact that the English literary critic knows so 
little of the older period, and hence is not able 
to judge of what is original and what is ac- 

Occasional points that might be improved 
occur in the critical notices preceding the se- 
lections from various authors. We might have 
a more exact statement as to the origin of 
Mandeville's travels, and some mention might 
have been made of Schbnborn's important mon- 
ograph. Again, we have an occasional false 
note, as in the notice of Cranmer, where Mr. 
Collins has the following: 

" He adjusted with exquisite tact and skill the Saxon 
and Latin elements in our language, both in the ser- 
vice of rhythm and in the service of expression. He 
saw that the power of the first lay in terseness and 
sweetness, the power of the second in massiveness and 
dignity, and that he who could succeed in tempering 
artfully and with propriety the one by the other would 
be in the possession of an instrument which Isocrates 
and Cicero might envy. He saw, too, the immense ad- 
vantage which the coexistence of these elements af- 
forded for rhetorical emphasis. And this accounts for 
one of the distinctive features of the diction of our lit- 
urgy, the habitual association of Saxon words with their 
Latin synonyms for purposes of rhetorical emphasis." 

Now there need be no hesitation in saying that 
this goes much too far with regard to Cranmer 
or anyone else. In fact, one may assert, with- 



[Sept. 1, 

out fear of successful refutation, that no writer 
of any age consciously chooses his words from 
the Saxon and Latin or any other elements. 
What he does do is to choose from his own vo- 
cabulary, however required, words that seem 
to him strong or forcible, clear or concise, me- 
lodious or rhythmical, with little if any thought 
and often no knowledge of ultimate origin. 
One might as reasonably suppose the painter 
chooses his colors with some knowledge of their 
chemical composition, rather than because of 
their power to produce certain color effects. 
Moreover, an examination of the English Lit- 
urgy shows that the statement as to " habitual 
association," etc., is exaggerated and incorrect, 
although it has been so often repeated as to 
have apparently established itself. 

While noting these points of disagreement 
with the work before us, we have already ex- 
pressed a belief in its careful preparation and 
in its usefulness. These critical comments are 
added with the hope that they may be of bene- 
fit to those who use the book, not in any sense 
that they may prevent its use. It is to be hoped 
also that this new series of selections will stimu- 
late the study of English prose, which, compared 
with poetry, has been sadly neglected in the 
schools and we fear too often by English read- 




Exquisite re- ^ e ^ ave na( ^ frequent occasion to 

prints of classic praise the exquisite editions of En- 

English Action. v i i ii-i_ii 

glish classics published by Messrs. 
J. M. Dent & Co. (Macmillan). Few reprints of 
recent years have been as welcome as the Landor, 
Peacock, and Jane Austen, for which we are in- 
debted to these publishers. The convenient form 
of the volumes, the taste displayed in their typog- 
raphy, binding, and illustration, are features which 
must commend these editions to a wide circle of 
book-lovers ; while their inexpensiveness puts them 
within the reach of thousands to whom editions de 
luxe, in the ordinary sense, are inaccessible. The 
publishers of these books are now producing, in 
similar shape, editions of the Bronte sisters and of 
the works of Fielding. The former of these edi- 
tions has already been mentioned in these pages, 
and we have now only to note the appearance of 
the " Villette," which, like the " Jane Eyre " and 
the " Shirley," fills two of the pretty volumes. The 
edition of Fielding has just been started with " Jos- 
eph Andrews," in two volumes. It will be followed 
by "Tom Jones," "Amelia," "Jonathan Wild," 
and two volumes of Fielding's miscellaneous writ- 
ings twelve volumes in all, the whole under the 

editorship of Mr. George Saintsbury. The illus- 
trations, of which each volume is to have three or 
four, are the work of Mr. Herbert Railton and Mr. 
E. J. Wheeler. Mr. Saintsbury is to furnish each 
work with an introduction, and the prefatory chap- 
ter thus provided for " Joseph Andrews " is in the 
happiest manner (or mannerism) of that accom- 
plished critic. Mr. Saintsbury considers " Joseph 
Andrews " as having fceen suggested by the " Pay- 
san Parvenu " of Marivaux quite as much as by 
Richardson's " Pamela," which is perhaps stretch- 
ing a point. But Mr. Saintsbury is always thought- 
provoking, and nowhere more so than in his too 
brief introduction to the present volumes. 

Herr Ziehen's "Introduction to the 

A fanciful scheme -i -i- 

for the study of Study of Physiological Psychology 

(Macmillan) is a clear presentation 
of the outlines of the science from the point of view 
of the reaction against Herr Wundt, of which Herr 
Miinsterberg is the best-known leader. All the 
ultimate problems of psychology are relegated to 
epistemology, or to a possible science of meta- 
physics, "supposing it to exist"; and then every- 
thing else is made perfectly simple by means of 
neat little diagrams illustrating the origin, trans- 
formations, and associations of ideas in the brain. 
The diagrams are purely schematic and problem- 
atical. The hypothesis, for example, that pervades 
them all, of locally distinct sensory and memory 
cells, is by no means generally accepted by special- 
ists. But even a hypothetical anatomical scheme, 
the author contends, is of use as demonstrating the 
a priori possibility of his method, and relieving us 
of the " fear " of being compelled to have recourse 
to apperception, or will, or synthetic unity of con- 
sciousness, or some other mystic higher faculty. His 
schemes, he assures us, can all be easily readjusted 
as science progresses, and, whatever alterations be- 
come necessary, " the fundamental conception that all 
processes of thought can be reduced psychologic- 
ally to the association of ideas will at all events en- 
dure." Into the merits of the controversy with Herr 
Wundt it is impossible to enter here. Suffice it to 
say that he does not really break the continuity 
of mental development by the assumption of new 
mystic faculties of apperception, judgment, and will. 
Under these varying names he endeavors rather to 
trace throughout psychic life the fundamental uni- 
fying activity which the young psychologists in part 
dissimulate and in part relegate to epistemology. 
He attacks wherever he finds them the ultimate 
metaphysical problems which they evade and post- 
pone. To determine whether this means more than 
a difference of method or exposition would require 
a much more elaborate dialectic than either side has 
yet brought to bear upon the controversy. In any 
case, the present brief intelligible exposition of one 
view of the matter is welcome. The translation, 
by Mr. C. C. Van Liew and Dr. Otto W. Beyer, is 
substantially correct, but stiff, inelegant, and con- 
taminated with German idiom. 




Mr. Maine's 
literary essays, 

Mr. H. W. Mabie's " Essays in Lit- 
erary Interpretation " ( Dodd) are 
eight in number, and are character- 
ized by sanity, grace, and the philosophic temper. 
Two of them set forth the complexity of modern lit- 
ei*ature and the irreducible personal element which, 
in all great work, baffles the academic critic. A 
third discusses criticism itself, for the purpose of 
emphasizing the significant aspects of the art in its 
modern development. The critic has mainly to do 
with " the men whose inferiority to Homer and 
Dante, to Shakespeare and Milton, is clearly appar- 
ent," says Mr. Mabie. This is, of course, true, but 
we fail to understand to whom the succeeding sen- 
tence refers : " These illustrious shades have re- 
ceived but a single comrade into their immortal fel- 
lowship during the present century." Is it Goethe 
or Shelley or Hugo or Tennyson ? Competent opin- 
ion declares for each or all of these names, and Mr. 
Mabie should have specified, although later passages 
make it probable that Goethe is meant. According 
to Mr. Mabie, plasticity and the historical method 
give to modern criticism its distinctive character. 
Four of these essays are studies of as many poets 
Rossetti, Browning, Keats, and Dante. They well 
illustrate the author's own views of modern criti- 
cism, for each displays the special quality of sym- 
pathy that its subject calls for, and each takes ade- 
quate account of the poet's environment. The essay 
on Rossetti has one or two slips: 1876, instead of 
1870, is given as the date of Rossetti's " Poems," 
and " The Bride's Prelude " is omitted from the 
enumeration of his ballads. 

ened by the examples of his correspondence given 
us in this welcome little volume. 

A sympathetic 
biography of 
Dr. John Brown. 

The " Recollections of Dr. John 
Brown " (Scribner), which are given 
us, with a selection from Brown's 
correspondence, by Dr. Alexander Peddie, afford a 
sketch, rather than a finished portrait, of the genial 
historian of " Rab " and " Marjorie Fleming." The 
author was intimately acquainted with Brown, whom 
he calls " my revered master and nearly lifelong 
friend," and his book is sympathetic, if fragment- 
ary. It keeps us constantly in mind of the fact 
that Brown was primarily a man of medicine, and 
but secondarily a man of letters that his literary 
recreations were indeed, as their title indicates, 
products of his " Horse Subsecivae," rather than the 
serious work of his life. In fact, his appearance 
in literature was rather accidental, resulting from 
Hugh Miller's invitation to contribute to the " Wit- 
ness" some notices of the pictures in the Scottish 
Academy exhibition of 1846. His first thought 
was to decline the request (which was accompanied 
by a bank note), "had not my sine qud non, with 
wife-like government, retentive and peremptory, 
kept the money and heartened me." The book has 
a number of interesting illustrations, which include 
portraits and facsimile letters, the latter ornamented 
with rough drawings. Brown reminds one not a 
little, in character and originality, of the late Ed- 
ward FitzGerald, and this impression is strength- 

A ^factory Sir Arthur Gordon's The Earl of 
biography of the Aberdeen" ("The Queen's Prime 
een ' Ministers," Harper) is a satisfactory 
piece of biography, considering the narrow compass 
to which the volumes of the series are confined. 
The delineation of so finely shaded a character 
would not, in any circumstances, be an easy task; 
and the fact that Lord Aberdeen's public, like his 
private life, was, generally speaking, comparatively 
hidden, renders it still more difficult. His pre- 
miership shows none of the histrionic climaxes and 
situations that mark that of a Disraeli. There was 
little in his public career to dazzle the spectator, or 
to command instant or excessive admiration ; and 
neither his mental powers nor rare personal charm 
can now be fairly appreciated, except by those who, 
like the author of this book, lived in close personal 
intercourse with him, and have had access to the 
mass of his correspondence, public and private. The 
author is to be especially commended, in view of 
his relationship to Lord Aberdeen, for the tact and 
sobriety of judgment everywhere manifest in his 
work. : 

A very valuable addition to the " In- 

Greek and Latin tern ational Scientific Series " ( Ap- 

Palceography. . , , <r TT j 

pleton ) takes the shape of a " Hand- 
book of Greek and Latin Palaeography," by Dr. 
Edward Maunde Thompson, of the British Mu- 
seum. Photography has done so much in recent 
years for the study of palaeography that the sub- 
ject is practically brought within the reach of any 
who care to take it up. To such this book is ad- 
dressed. It gives us a history of the Greek and 
Latin alphabets, an account of the materials used 
to receive writing, chapters on writing instruments, 
the forms of books, and abbreviations, and, finally, 
an extended history of the development of Greek 
and Latin writing, with many facsimile illustrations 
from the earliest to the latest periods. The work is 
singularly compact, and provides a satisfactory in- 
troduction to the study of its important subject. 

" A Pathfinder in American His- 
&$$ tory " ( Lee & Shepard ), by Messrs. 

American history. ^ F Gordy and W. I. Twitchell, is 
one of those useful, or rather indispensable, books 
for teachers that recent years have so greatly mul- 
tiplied. It suggests methods of instruction for all 
grades, including the youngest ; it outlines the treat- 
ment of selected typical subjects ; it gives extensive 
lists of books for reference and for supplementary 
reading. The references, which are in most cases 
not merely to the book, but to chapter and page, 
will be found extremely helpful by students and 
teachers alike, while they represent, on the part of 
the authors, many years of reading and. investiga- 
tion. We give the book a hearty welcome, and pre- 
dict for it a long career of usefulness. 



[Sept. 1, 

The Bancroft Company send us the 
first installment of their Book of 
the Fair, a forty-page folio, to be 
followed by twenty-four similar semi-monthly parts. 
The complete work will thus make a folio volume 
of a thousand pages, and these will be adorned, we 
are told, by more than three thousand illustrations. 
The part now published contains a chapter on 
" Fairs of the Past," a historical sketch of Chicago, 
and the beginning of a chapter on " The Evolution 
of the Columbian Exposition." Mr. Hubert Howe 
Bancroft is the writer of the text, and is peculiarly 
competent to deal with so large a subject, although 
his style occasionally suffers from magniloquence. 
Paper, print, and illustrations are very satisfactory. 


MR. Arnold H. Heinemann has edited a selection of 
Froebel's letters (Lee & Shepard), not printed hereto- 
fore, and now reproduced in a very free sort of trans- 
lation or paraphrase. The publication is sanctioned by 
Frau Froebel, who is still living which may be news to 
some at the age of seventy-eight. The editor con- 
tributes some notes to the work, and a certain amount 
of comment upon Froebel's theories of education. The 
book will be welcome to kiudergartners, and, indeed, 
to all who are concerned in the education of children. 

OUR veteran lepidopterist, Mr. Samuel H. Scudder, 
has recently prepared two books about butterflies that 
will be found very helpful to youthful readers and stu- 
dents. One of them, " The Life of a Butterfly," takes 
a single species (Anosia plexippus) for a text, and dis- 
courses upon the structure, habits, and life-histories of 
butterflies in general. The other book is a little more 
pretentious, being a "Brief Guide to the Commoner 
Butterflies of the Northern United States and Canada." 
It classifies the common species, to the number of about 
a hundred, giving their life-histories, and provides ana- 
lytical keys, suggestions for reading, and directions for 
field and cabinet work. It is in every respect an ad- 
mirable little book, and ought to have a wide circula- 
tion. Both volumes are published by Messrs. Henry 
Holt & Co. 

" THE Making of a Newspaper " (Putnam) is a 
scrappy book, edited by Mr. Melville Philips, and con- 
sisting of a dozen or more articles upon various phases 
of newspaper production. It is intended " to afford the 
public a close and comprehensive view of various phases 
of newspaper life and work." While the view thus 
afforded is undeniably " close," we can hardly say that 
it is "comprehensive," for it is illustrated with too much 
of anecdote and random comment to leave room for the 
desirable amount of exact description. 

PROFESSOR T. F. Tout's Edward the First " (Mac- 
millan) almost completes the series of " Twelve En- 
glish Statesmen," but one volume Mr. Morley's "Chat- 
ham" remaining to be published. Professor Tout 
gives us a straightforward narrative of the reign of the 
great statesman-king. His work, while not brilliant, is 
perspicuous and scholarly, and comes quite up to the 
high general average of the series within which it is 

DR. James Dwight's little book on " Practical Lawn- 
Tennis " (Harper) is full of suggestions by which even 

an experienced player may profit, while for the begin- 
ner it affords all the necessary directions and rules. 
The most interesting feature of the book, however, is 
found in the illustrations, from instantaneous photo- 
graphs by Mr. Francis Blake, which represent the ten- 
nis player in a great variety of typical positions. So 
brief has been the exposure given these photographs, 
that the ball is defined with perfect sharpness, although 
in many cases it is just leaving the bat. 

A VOLUME of " Other Essays from the Easy Chair " 
(Harper) affords pleasant desultory reading. The es- 
says chosen range over many subjects, from nominating 
conventions to the idiosyncrasies of the hog family, and 
include semi-biographical studies of Emerson, Beecher, 
and Sherman. Some of the selections date back many 
years, as we discovered when we came upon the state- 
ment that Vice-Presidents of the United States have 
thrice succeeded to the Presidential chair. Either the 
essays should have been dated, or editorial care should 
have seen to the correction of such statements. 

THE Rev. Thomas R. R. Stebbing contributes " A 
History of Crustacea " to the " International Scientific 
Series" (Appleton). This title is misleading, for the 
reason that the work covers only a part of the ground 
indicated, having little to say about Entomostraca and 
Cirripedia. As far as the ground is covered, the book 
offers a compact and well illustrated manual of its sub- 
ject, useful both to the beginner and the advanced stu- 

SOME recent studies in biography deserve a word of 
favorable mention. Dr. George H. Clark's " Oliver 
Cromwell " (Lothrop) is a popular account of its sub- 
ject, excellent as far as it goes, and, of course, compet- 
ing with Mr. Paxton Hood rather than with Carlyle. 
Miss Edith Carpenter has drawn an attractive " histor- 
ical portrait " of " Lorenzo de' Medici " (Putnam), which 
appears in a pretty little volume. " General Greene," 
by Mr. Francis Vinton Greene, is a new volume in the 
" Great Commanders " series (Appleton). Among the 
" Makers of America " (Dodd), we now have enrolled 
" Peter Stuyvesant," by Mr. Bayard Tuckerman, and 
" Thomas Jefferson," by Dr. James Schouler. 

A NEW series of pocketable volumes, the " Distaff," 
just begun by Messrs. Harper & Brothers, already in- 
cludes " Woman and the Higher Education," edited by 
Miss Anna C. Brackett, and " The ^Literature of Phi- 
lanthropy," edited by Miss Frances A. Goodale. Both 
are collections of essays, by women writers of the State 
of New York, selected from the periodicals of the cen- 
tury. The series is designed as a sort of appendix to 
the New York exhibit of woman's work in the Woman's 
Building at the World's Fair. 

"OUT of Doors in Tsarland " (Longmans), by Mr. F. 
J. Whishaw, is a book on Russia, " in whose pages, from 
beginning to end, no reference is made to Russia's Mis- 
sion in the East, or Peter the Great's Will, no allusion 
to Nihilists, and no mention whatever of Siberia." In- 
stead of these instructive themes, the writer has chosen 
to discourse upon street scenes and village manners, 
upon the snipe and the capercailzie, and upon the for- 
tunes of the angler and the bear-hunter. The book is 
as entertaining as it is unpretentious, and will appeal 
strongly to all lovers of out-door life. 

ANYONE who fancies that the Talmud is dry reading 
may be referred to a little book recently published by 
Dr. Abram S. Isaacs, and called " Stories from the 
Rabbis " (Webster). The author has retold the stories, 




it is true, and made them more attractive than in their 
original form, but it is interesting to know that the Tal- 
mud has its Faust story, and its Rip Van Winkle, and 
its Baron Munchansen. This " modest sheaf of arrows 
from the rabbinical quiver " is aimed at the general, 
and particularly the young, reader, who will find the 
collection deserving of attention. 

" THE Philosophy of Singing " (Harper), by Mrs. 
Clara Kathleen Rogers, is a little book that conveys 
much excellent instruction of a technical kind, upon 
such subjects as breathing, enunciation, dramatic ex- 
pression, and the like. These matters occupy about 
half the volume; the other half is rhapsody, and of 
slight value. Tliere is very little of the rhapsodical 
about Mr. Adolph Carpi's " The Pianist and the Art of 
Music " (Lyon & Healy), which we find to be a schol- 
arly and suggestive work. It is strictly what it claims 
to be, " a treatise on piano-playing for teachers and stu- 
dents," and its closing " Outline of Piano Literature " 
is an admirable historical presentation of the subject. 

THE " Memories of Dean Hole " (Macmillan) has 
been reviewed at great length in THE DIAL, and we 
now mention it to call attention to the new and cheaper 
edition in which it is offered to the public. Published 
less than a year ago, the demand for this entertaining- 
work has exhausted five editions. The sixth, now pub- 
lished, is in crown octavo, and, to our mind, more at- 
tractive in form than the original. 

" RECREATIONS in Botany " (Harper) is the title of 
a pleasing volume of popular science by Miss Caroline 
A. Creevey. It marshals many of the curiosities of 
botanical science for the information of the beginner, 
and is written in fairly popular style, although unhesi- 
tating use is made, when necessary, of scientific termin- 
ology. The illustrations are satisfactory. The book 
may be commended to those who wish to learn some- 
thing substantial of botany without attacking the tech- 
nical manuals. 

THE " Health Resorts of Europe," by Dr. Thomas 
Linn (Apple ton), is a medical guide to the various 
springs, health resorts, and other " cures " of England 
and the Continent. Dr. T. M. Coan contributes a com- 
mendatory preface, in which it is hinted that those who 
seek a European " cure " are probably benefited by the 
change of scene quite as much as by the therapeutic 
qualities of the waters to which the pilgrimage is made. 
But what does Dr. Coan mean by his reference to " Mil- 
ton's famous line about changing one's skies and not 
one's mind " ? 


" The Chameleon's Dish " is the title of a forthcom- 
ing volume of lyrics and ballads by Mr. Theodore Til- 
ton, announced by MM. Mesnil-Dramard & Cie., of Paris. 

Mr. Arthur Christopher Benson, the son of the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, is about to publish a volume of 
poems. Mr. Benson is a master at Eton, and his poetry is 
calm and reflective, viewing life rather from the ethical 
than the artistic standpoint. The Archbishop's family 
boasts many names of distinction. Mr. E. F. Benson 
has made one of the successes of the season with his 
" Dodo," and Mr. F. R. Benson, the actor, is a nephew 
of the Archbishop. 

Mr. Besant, writing from this country, sent the fol- 
lowing amusing note to the London " Author " for Au- 
gust: "I have just learned from the New York 'Sun' 

that Mr. Buchanan is having a ' quarrel ' with me. It 
generally takes two to make a quarrel, and I am not 
one of the two. However, I hope that Mr. Buchanan 
is thoroughly enjoying himself. When I get home I 
dare say I may find a few remarks to make. But that 
cannot be for some weeks to come not, so far as the 
' Author ' is concerned, until the September number." 

The following note is from the London " Academy ": 
" Dr. Y. Sarruf, the editor of Al-Muktataf,' has just ar- 
rived in London, after having made a tour of the prin- 
cipal cities of Europe. From this country he will pro- 
ceed to Chicago. Dr. Sarruf is also joint editor and 
proprietor of the daily ' Al-Mokattam,' which is consid- 
ered to be the leading native newspaper in Egypt, as 
' Al-Muktataf ' is the leading scientific and literary 
monthly. This periodical, founded about twenty years 
ago, was the first to introduce the latest developments 
of western thought and achievement to the Arabic- 
speaking world." 

Mr. Edwin Lassetter Bynner, the well-known novel- 
ist, and at one time the librarian of the Boston Bar As- 
sociation, died August 5, at his residence at Forest 
Hills, Boston. Mr. Bynner combined literary with legal 
pursuits. He took his degree of LL.B. at the Harvard 
Law School in 1867. He was the author of numerous 
magazine articles on early New England life, and of 
the chapters, " Topography and Landmarks of the Colo- 
nial Period " and " Topography and Landmarks of the 
Provincial Period," in the Memorial History of Boston. 
"The Begum's Daughter," " Agnes Surriage," and 
" Zacliary Phips " are the titles of his novels. 

The treatment by the English papers of the July Con- 
gress of Authors is in striking contrast to the almost 
complete neglect of that event by the papers of this 
country. It is hardly too much to say that THE DIAL 
published the only intelligent account of the Congress 
that has appeared on this side of the Atlantic. On the 
other hand, the London " Times " devoted a long arti- 
cle to the subject; the London "Athenaeum" found 
space for two important letters, sending to the Congress 
a special correspondent for the purpose of preparing 
them; and the London "Author" reprinted in full the 
six-page account published in THE DIAL for July 16. 

The following is from the London "Academy": 
" A well-known scholar and man of letters has sent the 
following jeu d'esprit to Dr. Murray, on hearing the 
news that the New English Dictionary has at last got 
through the letter C, and that D is now in hand : 
' Wherever the English speech has spread, 

And the Union Jack flies free, 
The news will be gratefully, proudly read 
That you've conquered your ABC! 
But I fear it will come 
As a shock to some 
That the sad result must be 

That you 're taking to dabble and dawdle and doze, 
To dulness and dumps, and (worse than those) 
To danger and drink, 
And shocking to think 
To words that begin with a d .' " 

This is the jubilee year of the great publishing house 
of Macmillan & Co., their first book having appeared 
in 1843. Daniel Macmillan was the founder of the 
house, which first did business in Glasgow. He soon 
removed to London, and then to Cambridge, his brother 
Alexander being associated with him. The former died 
in 1857, but the latter still lives as the senior member 
of the firm. In 1863 the headquarters of the firm was 


[Sept. 1, 

transferred to London, and the Cambridge business 
came into the hands of Macmillan and Bowes, a distinct 
firm. In 1859 " Macmillan's Magazine " was started. 
From 1863 to 1880 Mr. A. Macmillan was official pub- 
lisher to the University of Oxford. In 1867 he vis- 
ited this country, and the result of the visit was the 
establishment, in 1869, of a branch house in New York, 
under the management of Mr. George E. Brett. On 
Mr. Brett's death, in 1890, the New York branch be- 
came an independent firm, with Mr. George P. Brett, 
his son, as the resident American partner. The firm 
has just moved into its new building at No. 66 Fifth 
Avenue. The present members of the London firm are 
Messrs. Alexander, Frederick, George, and Maurice 
Macmillan, and Mr. George L. Craik. American authors 
figure largely in the Macmillan catalogue, which, car- 
ried down only to 1889, fills an octavo volume of 568 
pages. It includes, as everyone knows, many of the 
greatest names in modern English literature. 

The following letter, written by Mr. Alfred B. Ma- 
son to the New York " Critic," has more than a local 

" The Sculpture Society is prematurely born. The hopes, 
the efforts, the money which it will absorb should be con- 
centrated on an older and more modest organization the 
Iconoclast Society. It is our purpose to destroy the chief hor- 
rors of existence in New York City. We propose, first, to 
blow up with suitable ceremonies a certain (or uncertain) 
cockchafer impaled on a pin (see Johnson's Dictionary : 
' Cockchafer, an animal unlike anything else on earth '), which 
disfigures Washington Square and has been labelled ' Gari- 
baldi ' by some hater of Italy. We shall then remove with 
proper violence a statue on the east side of Central Park 
which represents a forgotten retail clothier named S. F. 
B. Morse in the act of offering for sale to the passer-by 
a ' gent's shawl, rich and dressy.' St. Andrew's Day is to be 
celebrated by the obliteration of a misshapen bronze lump 
marked ' Burns,' which now makes walking on the Mall im- 
possible for all but the blind and the very young. Until the 
Iconoclast Society by a judicious combination of good taste 
and gunpowder has thus wrought its perfect work and freed 
the city from these and the kindred monsters which squat 
darkly in our parks, there can be no public taste for the 
Sculpture Society to develop and satisfy." 

We should like to see a branch of the Iconoclast Soci- 
ety established in Chicago, and it might very fittingly 
inaugurate its crusade by the removal, with "proper 
violence," of the bronze statue, alleged to be of Christo- 
pher Columbus, which the directors of the World's Fair 
have erected upon our Lake Front. 


September 1, 1893. 

African Diggings, The. Illus. Annie Russell. Century. 
Albert DiirerTown, An. Illus. Elizabeth R. Pennell. Harper. 
American Finances. M. M. Estee. Californian. 
Anthropology at the Fair. Illus. Fred'k Starr. Pop. Sci. 
Australian Builder, An. J. J. Halsey. Dial. 
Barnard, Edward E. Illus. S. W. Burnham. Harper. 
Bay of Fundy Tides. Illus. Gustav Kobbe*. Scribner. 
Booth, Edwin. H. A. Clapp. Atlantic. 
Californian Naval Battalion. Illus. Californian. 
Census and Immigration. H. C. Lodge. Century. 
Champs Elyse'es Salon. Illus. Claude Phillips. Mag. of Art. 
Children of the Streets. Illus. Elodie Hogan. Californian. 
Cholera's Pilgrim Path. Illus. Ernest Hart. Pop. Science. 
Clothes. Illus. E. J. Lowell. Scribner. 
Columbian Exposition, Midway Review of. Dial. 
Cooking, Scientific. Miss M. A. Boland. Popular Science. 

Dante's Historical Presuppositions. W.M.Bryant. Andover. 

DeFoe, Daniel. Illus. M. 0. W. Oliphant. Century. 

Dickens, Girl's Recollections of. Mrs. E. W. Latimer. Lippin. 

Egyptian Riders. Illus. T. A. Dodge. Harper. 

English General Election. Illus. R. H. Davis. Harper. 

English Prose. 0. F. Emerson. Dial. 

Executive Clemency. Charles Robinson. Century. 

Folk-Lore Study in America. Illus. Lee J.Vance. Pop. Sci. 

France's Moral Revival. Aline Gorren. Atlantic. 

German Sunday. G. M. Whicher. Andover. 

Graphic Humorists. Illus. M. H. Spielmann. Mag. of Art. 

Hypnotism. Judson Daland. Lippincott. 

Ibsen Notes. Illus. C. M. Waage. Californian. 

Iceland. Illus. T. G. Paterson. Magazine of Art . 

India, Recent Travels in. Dial. 

Irving, Henry. Illus. Peter Robertson. Californian. 

Isthmian Canal Law. Sidney Webster. Harper. 

Lehigh Jaspar Mines. Illus. H. C. Mercer. Pop. Science. 

Letters from India. Phillips Brooks. Century. 

Lizards, Psychology of. M. J. Delbceuf. Popular Science. 

Literary Forms. Charles Letourneau. Popular Science. 

Love and Marriage. Sir Edward Strachey. Atlantic. 

Love Lane. Illus. T. A. Janvier. Harper. 

Lowell's Letters. C. E. Norton. Harper. 

Machinists. Illus. F. J. Miller. Scribner. 

North, J. W., Painter and Poet. H. Herkomer. Mag. of Art. 

Pacific Coast Women's Press Ass'n. Illus. Californian. 

Petrarch Correspondence. Mrs. Preston and Miss Dodge. Atl. 

Prairie Farm Life. E. V. Smalley. Atlantic. 

Reformatories and Lombroso. Helen Zimmeni. Pop. Sci. 

Richardson at Home. Illus. Austin Dobson. Scribner. 

Russian Summer Resort. Isabel F. Hapgood. Atlantic. 

Salvini, Autobiography of. Century. 

Science, Recent. Prince Krapotkin. Popular Science. 

Seville Bull-Fights. Illus. Marrion Wilcox. Lippincott. 

Sights at the Fair. Illus. Gustav Kobbe 1 . Century. 

Silver, Why It Ceases to be Money. F. W. Taussig. Pop. Sci. 

Silver Coinage. W. W. Bowers. Californian. 

Southern Utes. Illus. V. Z. Reed. Californian. 

St. Augustine Road, The. Bradford Torrey. Atlantic. 

Stillman, W. J. W. P. Garrison. Century. 

Supernatural, The. C. E. Brewster. Andover. 

Taormina Note-Book. Illus. G. E. Woodberry. Century. 

Technical School and the University. F. A. Walker. Atlantic. 

Texas. Illus. S. B. Maxey. Harper. 

Thackeray MS. at Harvard. T. R. Sullivan. Scribner. 

Theosophy and Christianity. W. J. Lhainon. Andover. 

Uncle Sam in the Fair. Charles King, U. S. A. Lippincotl. 

Walnut in California. Wayne Scott. Californian. 

Walton, Izaak. Illus. Alex. Cargill. Scribner. 

Webster, Daniel. Mellen Chamberlain. Century. 

Wildcat Banking in the Teens. J. B. McMaster. Atlantic. 


[The following list, embracing 38 titles, includes all books 
received by THK DIAL since last issue.] 


The Ariel Shakespeare, Second Group : King John, Rich- 
ard II., Henry IV. (First Part), Henry IV. (Second 
Part), Henry V., Richard III., Henry VIII. 7 vols., 
illus., 32mo. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $5.25. 

Coaching Days and Coaching Ways. By W. Outram 
Tristram. Illus. by Hugh Thomson and Herbert Rail- 
ton. 12mo, pp. 37(>, gilt edges. Macmillan & Co. $2.00. 


The Ancient Ways: Winchester Fifty Years Ago. By 
Rev. W. Tuckwell, M.A. Illns., 12mo, pp. 171, uncut. 
Macmillan & Co. $1.50. 


The Memories of Dean Hole. New edition, with portrait, 
12mo, pp. 332, uncut. Macmillan & Co. $2.00. 





The Literary Works of James Smetham. Edited by 
William Davies. 12mo, pp. 288, inieiit. Macniillan & Co. 

Early Prose and Verse. Edited by Alice Morse Earle and 
Emily Ellswortb Ford. 18mo, pp. 216. Harper's " Dis- 
taff Series." $1.00. 


Religio Poetee, etc. By Coventry Patmore. 18mo, pp. 

229, uncut. Macmillan & Co. $2.00. 
Selections from the Verse of Augusta Webster. 16mo, 

pp. 211, uncut. Macmillan & Co. $1.50. 


The Rebel Queen. By Walter Besant, author of " Children 
ofGibeon." Illus., 12mo, pp. 389. Harper & Bros. $1.50, 

The Private Life, Lord Beaupre", and The Visits. By Henry 
James. 16mo, pp. 232, uncut. Harper & Bros. $1.00. 

True Riches. By Francois Coppe"e. 16mo, [pp. 168. D. 
Appleton & Co. $1.00. 

Mrs. Curgenven of Curgenven. By S. Baring-Gould, au- 
thor of " In the Roar of the Sea." 12mo, pp. 368. Lov- 
ell, Coryell & Co. $1.25. 

Stories of the Sea. Dlus., 32mo, pp. 256, gilt top, uncut. 
" Stories from Scribner." Chas. Scribner's Sons. 75 cts. 


The Adventures of Joseph Andrews and his Friend Mr. 
Abraham Adams. By Henry Fielding, Esq. Edited by 
George Saintsbury. In 2 vols., illus., 16mo, gilt top, un- 
cut edges. Macmillan & Co. $2.00. 

Villette. By Charlotte Bronte. In 2 vols., illus., 16mo, gilt 
top, uncut edges. Macmillan & Co. $2.00. 

The Monastery. By Sir Walter Scott, Bart. New Dry- 
burgh edition, illus., 8vo, pp. 400, uncut. Macmillan & 
Co. $1.25. 


Appletons' Town and Country Library : From the Five 
Rivers, by Mrs. F. A. Steel ; 16mo, pp. 212. An Inno- 
cent Impostor, by Maxwell Grey ; 16mo, pp. 266. Each, 
50 cts. 

Harper's Franklin Square Library : The Nameless City, 
by Stephen Graile ; 8vo, pp. 256. 50 cts. 

Harper's Quarterly Series : Dally, by Maria Louise Pool ; 
16mo, pp. 280. 50 cts. 

Lee & Shepard's Good Company Series: Joseph Zal- 
monah, by Edward King ; 12mo, pp. 365. 50 cts. 

Bonner"s Choice Series : A Priestess of Comedy, from the 
German ; illus., 16mo, pp. 307. -All or Nothing, from the 
Russian of Count Czapski ; 16mo, pp. 358. Each, 50 cts. 

Neely's Choice Literature : The Passing Show, by Richard 
Henry Savage ; 16mo, pp. 326. 50 cts. 


A Child's History of France. By John Bonner. Illus., 

12mo, pp. 406. Harper & Bros. $2.00. 
Paula Ferris. By Mary Farley Sanborn, author of " Sweet 

and Twenty." 12mo, pp. 276. Lee & Shepard. $1.25. 


A Truthful Woman in Southern California. By Kate 
Sanborn, author of "Adopting an Abandoned Farm." 
16mo, pp. 192. D. Appleton & Co. 75 cts. 

The Best Things to See at the Fair, and How to See 
Them: A Pocket Guide and Note Book. By J. L. 
Kaine. 18mo, pp. 126. Chicago : The White City Pub'g 
Co. 25 cts. 


Benjamin Franklin and the University of Pennsylvania. 

Edited by Francis N. Thorpe, Ph.D. Illus., 8vo, pp. 

450. Government Printing Office. 
Abnormal Man : Being Essays on Education and Crime, 

etc. By Arthur McDonald. 8vo, pp. 445. Government 

Printing Office. 

Heating and Ventilating of Residences. By James R. 

Willett. With plans, 8vo, pp. 50. Inland Architect Press. 

50 cts. 
The Religion of Science. By Dr. Paul Carus. 16mo, pp. 

103. Open Court Publishing Co. 25 cts. 



A superior school and refined home. Number of students 
limited. Terms $250. Send for Catalogue. Opens Sep- 
tember 14, 1893. Brick buildings, passenger elevator, and 
steam heat. 


1793. ESTABLISHED IN 1793. 1893. 
201st Session begins Sept. 1, 1893. Maj. R. BINGHAM, Supt. 


Forty-fifth year begins Sept. 13, 1893. College course and 
excellent preparatory school. Specially organized departments 
of Music and Art. Four well-equipped laboratories. Good 
growing library, fine gymnasium, resident physician. Memo- 
rial Hall enables students to much reduce expenses. For cat- 
alogue address SARAH F. ANDERSON, Principal ( Lock box 52). 


Prepares pupils for College. Broader Seminary Course. 
Room for twenty-five boarders. Individual care of pupils. 
Pleasant family life. Fall term opens Sept. 13, 1893. 

Miss EUNICE D. SEWALL, Principal. 


No. 55 West 47th st. Mrs. SARAH H. EMERSON, Principal. 
Will re-open Oct. 4. A few boarding pupils taken. 

Nos. 479-481 Dearborn Aye. Seventeenth year. Prepares 
for College, and gives special courses of study. For Young 
Ladies and Children. Migs R g R A M > 

_ Miss M. E. BEEDY, A.M., ( 


BOSTON, MASS., 252 Marlboro' St. Reopens October 3. 
Specialists in each Department. References : Rev. Dr. DON- 
ALD, Trinity Church ; Mrs. Louis AGASSIZ, Cambridge ; 
Pres. WALKER, Institute of Technology. 


Founded by CARL FAELTEN, 

Dr. EBEN TOURGEE. Director. 

In addition to its unequaled musical advantages, excep- 
tional opportunities are also provided for the study of Elocu- 
tion, the Fine Arts, and Modern Languages. The admirably 
equipped Home affords a safe and inviting residence for lady 
students. Calendar free. 

FRANK W. HALE, General Manager, 

Franklin Square, Boston, Mass. 

AUTHORS : The skilled revision, the_ unbiassed and com- 
petent criticism of prose and verse ; advice as to publication. 
FOR PUBLISHERS: The compilation of first-class works of 
reference. Established 1880. Unique in position and suc- 
cess. Indorsed by our leading writers. Address 

DR. TITUS M. COAN, 70 Fifth Ave., NEW YORK. 

A History of the Indian Wars 
. w ith the First Settlers of the 

United States to the commencement of the Late War ; to- 
gether with an Appendix containing interesting Accounts of 
the Battles fought by General Andrew Jackson. With two 
Plates. Rochester, N. Y., 1828. 

Two hundred signed and numbered copies have just been 
reprinted at $2.00 each. p 

25 Exchange Street, ROCHESTER, N. Y. 



[Sept. 1, 1893. 


T3y the Santa Fe T^pnte. The most attractive American 
tour. zA new descriptive book, with the above title, con- 
taining over 150 pages and as many pen-and-ink Illus- 
trations, sent free, on receipt of four cents in postage, by 

70; Monadnock Building, CHICAGO, ILL. 

Fall Announcement Number 

The issue of THE DIAL for September 
16 will be the Annual Fall Announce- 
ment Number, and will contain the 
usual classified lists of the books to 
be issued this Fall by the American 
publishers. It is intended that the list 
shall be as complete and accurate as 
possible, and publishers are invited to 
furnish full and prompt information of 
their forthcoming publications. This 
will, of course, be printed without 

* # * NOTE. The edition of this number will 
be the largest THE DIAL has ever printed. 




His Celebrated Cumbers, 

*And Jw other styles, may be 'had of all dealers 
throughout the World. 


The Boorum & Pease Company, 



(For the Trade Only.) 

Everything, from the smallest Pass-Book to the largest 
Ledger, suitable to all purposes Commercial, Educational, 
and Household uses. 

Flat-opening Account-Books, under the Frey patent. 

For sale by all Booksellers and Stationers. 


Offices and Salesrooms : . . . . 101 & lOo Duane Street, 




Criticism, gisatssioit, aitb Information. 

EDITED BY ( Volume XV. mjTr' A n r* CT?T> r T 1 P 1 ono -70 eto. a copy. J OFFICE : 24 ADAMS ST. 

CIS F. BROWNE. I No. 174. ^.tli^AtjU, OJii-rl. 10, iO\)6. SS.ayear. ] Stevens Buildin. 

FRANCIS F. BROWNE. I No. 174. .j, Oi-r. , O. SS.ayear. Stevens Building. 

Charles Scribner's Sons' New Books 




Being Memoirs of his Adventures at Home and Abroad. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

Mr. Stevenson's new book is a worthy sequel to his great masterpiece, " Kidnapped." It is more than a 
story of romantic adventure, with conspiracies and perils and heroic achievements on land and sea, for it 
makes David the hero of a love affair, the description of which reveals the author's genius in an altogether 
new light. The Adventures of David and his Highland sweetheart carry them both into Holland and France, 
and supply fresh evidence of the author's wonderful power of spirited narrative and bold character painting. 



Being Memoirs of the Adventures of David Balfour, in the Year 1751. I2mo, cloth, $1.25. 

'' Mr. Stevenson has never appeared to greater advantage than in ' Kidnapped.' . . . No better book of its kind than 
these ' Adventures of David Balfour' has ever been written. Mr. Stevenson confesses in a note his own great kindness for 
Alan and Davie, and half promises to tell what further befell them after their parting in Edinburgh a promise which the 
friends they have already made long to see fulfilled." The Nation. 

A New Book by ROBERT GRANT. 



With many Illustrations by C. S. REINHART and W. T. SMEDLEY. 12mo, cloth, $1.00. 

An unusually large circle of eager readers will be found waiting for Robert Grant's " Opinions of a Phil- 
osopher"; for his "Reflections," to which this is a sequel, appealed to and made friends of a larger public 
than any book of its class in recent years. Every one who remembers at how many points, both tender and 
laughable, the story of Fred and Josephine's young married life in the " Reflections " touched his own, will be 
anxious to follow the couple through their middle life. The illustrations reflect admirably both the grave 
and the comic elements in the story. 



I2mo, cloth, $1.00. 

" Nothing is more entertaining than to have one's familiar experiences take objective form ; and few experiences are 
more familiar than those which Mr. Grant here chronicles for us. Altogether Mr. Grant has given us a capital little book, 
which should easily strike up literary comradeship with "Reveries of a Bachelor." Boston Transcript. 



Or, A Summer on Salmon River. By ROBERT GRANT. 

Illustrated by F. T. MERRILL. 12mo, cloth, $1.25. 

" An ideal story of out-door life and genuine experiences. ' ' Boston 


Or, The School Days of an American Boy. By ROBERT 
GRANT. Illus. by F. G. ATTWOOD. 12mo, cloth, $1.25. 
" A capital story for boys, wholesome and interesting. It reminds 

one of 'Tom Brown.' "Boston Transcript. 

For sale by all Booksellers, or sent postpaid, on receipt of price, by the Publishers, 

CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS, 743=745 Broadway, New York. 



[Sept. 16. 

Charles Scribner's Sons' New Books 

With Thackeray in America. 

New and charming glimpses of the great novelist are given in this chatty and readable book of Mr. Crowe, 

the artist who accompanied Thackeray on his journeyings in this country. The rapid and graphic narrative 

also describes the writer's own very lively impressions of the country and people 

of forty years ago. The author's vigorous sketches of persons and places are 

really historical memoranda of value, and include portraits of the most eminent 

notabilities of that day, and of characteristic scenes which have now wholly 

passed away. 

By Eyre Crowe. 

With 121 Illustrations. 

Small 4to, $2.00. 

Two New Volumes in the Cameo Edition. 

Virginibus Puerisque, and Other Papers. 


" If there are among our readers any lovers of good 
books, to whom Mr. Stevenson is still a 
stranger, we may advise them to make 
his acquaintance through this collection 
of essays." N. Y. Tribune. 

Each, with etched Portrait, 
16mo. Half levant, $3.50; 
half calf, $2.75 ; cloth, $1 .25. 

Letters to Dead Authors. By ANDREW LANG. 

With four additional letters. 

" The book is one of the luxuries of the literary taste. 
, It is meant for the exquisite palate, 
and is prepared by one of the ' know- 
ing kind.' It is an astonishing little 
volume." N. Y. Evening Post. 

* # * Large Paper Edition of the above two volumes, limited to 212 numbered sets, printed on Holland 
Paper, per set, $7.00 net. 

Women of 

the Valois and 



By Imbert de Saint Amar.d. 

" In his previous volumes upon Famous Women of 
Saiut-Amand apostrophised the virtues of Marie 
Josephine, Marie Louise, Duchess of Augouleme 
and Duchess of Berry. He now reverts to a 
group of even more distinction and of quite as 
much historic interest. He presents a group of 
feminine types, discovering almost every shade 
of human passions and ambitions." 

Philadelphia Ledger. 

the French Court, M. de 
Antoinette, the Empress 

Women of the Valois Court. 
The Court of Louis XIV. 
The Court of Louis XV. 
Last Years of Louis XV. 

Each, with numerous Portraits, 
12mo, $1.25. The set, half calf, 
$10.00 ; cloth, $5.00. 

New Editions of Page's and Cable's Works. 

Thomas Nelson Page's Works, 

The publication in a uniform edition of Mr. Page's 
" In Ole Virginia, " " Elsket, " " On Newfound 
River, " and the volume of essays, " The Old 
South, " will make these stand- 
ard books a welcome addition 4 yols in a box 
to many libraries. $ 4 50 

George W. Cable's Novels. 

Mr. Cable's six novels long ago acquired the distinc- 
tion of classics, and their appearance in a handsome 
uniform binding is in response to a wide demand 
for a library edition befitting 
their character and position in 
the front rank of American lit- 

5 vols. in a box, 

Stories from 

Fully Illustrated. 

Each, paper, 50 cts. ; cloth, 
75 cts.; half calf, $1.50. 

Stories of Italy. 
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Stories of the Army. 
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Stories of the Sea. 

" Only those who have regularly read SCRIBNER'S have any idea of the delight- 
ful contents of these volumes, for they contain 
some of the best short stories written for this peri- 
odical. They are exquisitely bound, clearly printed 
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The Set, 6 vols., paper, 
$3.00 ; cloth, $4.50; half 
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CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS, 743-745 Broadway, New York. 





^^^^ *Y r\ p : |N v A Bii ^^^^ 

To be Published by J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY during Autumn of 1893. 

MARY LAMB, with a continuation by HARRISON S. MORRIS, 
author of "Tales from Ten Poets," etc. 4 vols., IGmo, 
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By AGNES STRICKLAND. New Cabinet Edition, in 8 vols., 
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CHARLES V. 2 vols. 

1 vol. Completing the De Luxe Edition (limited to 250 
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A. THIERS, Ex-Prime Minister of France. Translated from 
the French, with the consent of the author, by D. FORBES 
CAMPBELL. Printed from new type, and illustrated with 
36 steel plates, printed from the French originals. The 
first volume ready in September, to be followed by one 
volume a month until completed. 12 8vo vols., cloth, 
price, $3.00 per vol., net. 

HISTORICAL TALES. The Romance of Reality. By 
CHARLES MORRIS, author of " The Half-Hour Series," etc. 
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GOLDSMITH'S WORKS. New Edition, published in 
connection with Dent & Co., of London. G vols., 16mo, 
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SEVEN CHRISTMAS EVES. The Romance of a So- 
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Fantastic Tales. By FERGUS HUME. 4to, cloth extra, 

A DOG OF FLANDERS, and Other Stones. By 
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ARD. A delightful book for little folks. With 20 full-page 
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ernized Version of the Morte Darthur. New illustrated 
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LITTLE MISS MUFFET. A Story for Girls. By 
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SERIES. Selected and arranged by CHARLES MOR- 
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Z. S.), author of "Idle Days in Patagonia," etc. Crown 
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OUR OWN BIRDS. A Familiar Natural History of 
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QUEECHY. By SUSAN WARNER, author of "Wide, 
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S. FOSTER, author of " Casanova the Courier," etc. 12mo, 

cloth, $1.25. 

of " A Study in Scarlet," etc. 12mo, paper, 50 cts.; cloth, 


thor of " A Successful Man," etc. New Edition, in paper 
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MY CHILD AND I. A Woman's Story by FLORENCE 
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A NEW NOVEL. By B. M. CROKER. To be issued 
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cloth, $1.00. 

For sale by all Booksellers, or sent by the Publishers, postage prepaid, on receipt of price. 




[Sept. 16, 

T. Y. Crowell & Co.'s Fall Announcement 



Eliot's (George) Complete Works. 

Including Novels, Poems, Essays, and her "Life and 
Letters " by her husband. Printed from new elec- 
trotype plates made from large type, and illustrated 
by FRANK T. MERRILL and H. W. PEIRCE. Popular 
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Edition printed on fine English-finish paper. Illus- 
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cloth, gilt top, $15.00; half calf, gilt top, $30.00. 
While there is always discussion as to the continued popularity of 

Scott, Thackeray, and Dickens, George Eliot's position as a novelist 

seems to remain unshaken, even unassailed. This new illustrated edition 

meets every requirement of the moat fastidious. 

Glimpses Through Life's Windows. 

By the Rev. J. R. MILLER, D.D., author of " Silent 
Times," " Making the Most of Life," " Every Day 
of Life," etc. Selections from his writings. Arranged 
by EVALINA I. FRYER. With portrait of the author. 
IGmo, ornamental binding, 75 cents. 

Imitation of Christ. 

By THOMAS A KEMPIS. Illustrated with 15 drawings, 
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Independent Treasury System of the 
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(Vol. I. in the Library of Economics and Politics. 
Edited by Prof. RICHARD T. ELY.) By DAVID KIN- 
LEY, A.B., Assistant and Fellow in Economics in the 
University of Wisconsin. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 
" Of real interest to all who are practically concerned in national 

finance management, as well as to the student of economics and United 

States institutional life." Review of Reviews. 

Irving's (Washington) Complete Works. 

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Carefully revised and compared with the author's text, this new issue 
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The New Redemption. 
By the Rev. GEORGE D. HERRON, D.D., author of "A 

Plea for the Gospel." IGmo, 75 cts. 

" I can quite see how remarkable the author is. . . . His influence 
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most salutary." The Rev. Robt. F. Norton, D.D., England, recent 
Yale Lecturer, and author of " Verbum Dei." 

Personal Recollections of John G. Whittier. 

By Mrs. MARY B. CLAFLIN. 18mo, with portrait, 75c. 

Theology of the Old Testament. 

By C. H. PIEPENBRING, Pastor and President of the 
Reformed Consistory at Strassburg. Translated by 
Prof. H. G. MITCHELL, of the Boston University. 
The briefest and clearest exposition of the subject as 
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thought. 12mo, cloth, $1.75. 

Many people read their Bible mechanically and without realizing the 
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It is iconoclastic, and yet entirely reverent in its treatment of a great 
many popular theories. 

Philanthropy and Social Progress. 

Seven essays delivered before the School of Applied 
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QUET, M.A., LL.D., with introduction by Prof. H. C. 
ADAMS. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

" One of the most valuable volumes from the standpoint of the stu- 
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Repudiation of State Debts in the 
United States. 

By WILLIAM A. SCOTT, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of 

Political Economy in the University of Wisconsin. 

(Vol. II. in the Library of Economics and Politics.) 

12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

"Will prove an instrument of education in the social and economic 
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Stillness and Service. 

By E. S. ELLIOTT. Booklet. 35 cts. 

A short essay fulll of sweet counsel and help to those who, while 
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splendid line : " They also serve who only stand and wait." 

What is Worth While. 

By ANNA ROBERTSON BROWN, Ph.D. Booklet. 35 cts. 

This is a paper read before the Philadelphia branch of the Association 
of Collegiate Alumnae. It urges the advisability of giving up pretence, 
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When the King Comes to His Own. 

By E. S. ELLIOTT. Booklet. 35 cts. 

Reprinted from the twentieth thousand of the English edition, a se- 
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Young Men : Faults and Ideals. 

By the Rev. J. R. MILLER, D.D., author of "Girls: 

Faults and Ideals." Booklet. 35 cts. 

This little volume should be put into the hands of every youth ap- 
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Chilhowee Boys. 

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A story equally interesting to boys and girls, and consequently to 
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acters are well individualized, and the tone of the book is remarkably 
wholesome. It is destined to be a classic for the young. 






By BARBARA YECHTON. Illustrated by JESSIE Mc- 
DKRMOTT. 12mo, cloth, $1.25. 

This story, published as a serial in the Churchman last year, won 
the unqualified praise of its readers. Great desire was manifested for 
its publication in book form. It has been revised and enlarged by the 
addition of one or two lively chapters. 

The Musical Journey of Dorothy and Delia. 

By the Rev. BRADLEY OILMAN. Illustrated by F. G. 

ATTWOOD. 8vo, unique binding, $1.25. 

The author has carried out a quaint conceit in a manner that places it 
on a level with "Alice's Adventures." The illustrations are capital. 

Margaret Davis, Tutor. 

By ANNA C. HAY, author of " Half a Dozen Boys," 
" Half a Dozen Girls," etc. Illustrated. 12mo, $1.25. 

In this story Miss Ray takes a wider outlook than she has hitherto 
done. Her forte lies in the depicting of healthy boys and girls ; but the 
story is bound together by a wholesome thread of romance which greatly 
deepens its interest. It is the best work she has as yet produced. 

The True Woman. 

Elements of character drawn from the Life of Mary 
Lyon and others. By the Rev. W. M. TIIAYER, au- 
thor of " The Farmer Boy," " Nelson," etc. Illus- 
trated. 12mo, $1.25. 

Nearly 100,000 copies of this biography have been sold ; but the 
author, feeling that there has been a great change in public sentiment 
regarding the employment of women, has entirely rewritten it from the 
modern standpoint. It is sure to have a still wider popularity. 

Famous Voyagers and Explorers. 

By SARAH K. BOLTON, author of "Poor Boys Who 
Became Famous," etc. Illustrated with portraits of 
Columbus, Raleigh, Sir John Franklin, Livingstone, 
and others. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

Mrs. Bolton in her latest volume tells in her unaffected, entertain- 
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explorers. All but one or two were concerned in the discovery of this 
continent, so that the book is peculiarly appropriate for the Columbian 
year. Lofty lessons of perseverance and heroism are inculcated. 



Handy in size, carefully printed on good paper, and bound in faultless styles. Each volume is illustrated with a frontis- 
piece and title-page in photogravure, and most of the volumes have numerous additional illustrations by the best artists. 
This attractive series has proved to be a favorite with those desiring something new and dainty for gifts or for the drawing- 
room table, and with the general reader or student who prefers his reading in small, companionable volumes. 

All of the volumes in the series are bound uniformly in the following styles : 


Cloth, vellum finish, neat gold border, gilt top, boxed, 18mo . . $0 75 
Parti-colored cloth, white back, gilt sides, gilt top, boxed, 18mo 1 00 
Half leather and corners, gilt back, gilt top, boxed, 18mo ... 1 25 

Silk, stamped in gold, full gilt edges, boxed, 18mo $1 50 

Half calf, gilt top, boxed, 18mo 2 00 

Half levant, gilt top, boxed, 18mo 2 50 

The volumes indicated by an asterisk can be had in full leather, gilt top, boxed, 18mo, per vol. 

$2 00. 

EVY. Revised translation. 

ROBERT BROWNING'S POEMS (Select'ns). 2 vols. 

BURNS' POEMS. (Selections.) Edited by N. H. 
DOLE. Biographical sketch. 

BYRON'S POEMS. (Selections.) Edited by MAT- 
THEW ARNOLD. With biographical sketch by N. H. 

BRYANT'S EARLY POEMS. With biographical 





EMERSON'S ESSAYS. (2 vols.) 






* KEATS' POEMS. (Selections.) Edited by FRAN- 






graphical sketch by N. H. DOLE. 

* LOWELL'S EARLY POEMS. With biographical 

sketch by N. H. DOLE. 

EDGAR A. POE'S POEMS. With biographical sketch 
by N. H. DOLE. 










* SHELLEY'S POEMS. (Selections.) Edited by STOP- 




WORDSWORTH'S POEMS. (Selections.) Edited by 


*WHITTIER'S EARLY POEMS. With biograph- 
ical sketch by NATHAN HASKELL DOLE. 
(Other volumes in preparation.) 

The orders already received indicate a very large increase over that of last season, and the following new volumes added 
to the list include many titles that give additional value to this already popular series, viz.: 

"The Abb<$ Constantin," "Byron," "Bryant," "Mrs. Browning," "Ethics of the Dust," "Evangeline," "Keats's 
Poems," "Longfellow," "Lowell," "Poems by Two Brothers," "Queen of the Air," "Seven Lamps of Architecture," 
" Shelley," " Tales from Shakespeare," " Whittier." 



[Sept. 16, 


Among the many books written for young people few possess greater merit or have had a wider popularity than the vol- 
umes compi-ised in this series. This new uniform style, containing many illustrations and additional features not contained 
in any other edition, is the most attractive form in which they have ever been issued. For those desiring wholesome books 
to put into hands of children, no better series than this can be found. 

Svo Edition. Printed from new plates on fine paper, with colored borders. Fully illustrated, 
including colored frontispiece and vignette title. Attractively bound in white and colors. 8 
square vols., 8vo, each $1 25 

16mo Edition. Fully illustrated, including colored frontispiece and vignette title. Cloth back and 

corners, fancy paper sides. 8 vols., 16mo, each 1 00 










The publishers have spared neither pains nor expense in their efforts to make this new line of standard books the finest 
that has ever been produced at so low a price. The paper, type, and illustrations are of the highest excellence, while the 
beauty and variety of the styles of bindings adapt these volumes to a large class of buyers. The plain styles are best suited 
for home and school libraries, while the more elaborate bindings make some of the most beautiful books for gift purposes 
ever published. 


12mo, cloth, neat gold line on cover, gilt top, per vol $1 50 

12mo, white back and corners, fancy sides, gilt top, per vol 1 50 

12mo, silk, full gilt edges, per vol 2 50 

12mo, half calf, gilt top, per vol 3 00 

Edited by CHARLOTTE FISKE BATES. Printed on 
fine paper, and illustrated with photogravure por- 
traits of Longfellow and Whittier, and original illus- 
trations by the best artists. This edition contains 40 
poems in autograph facsimile. 2 vols., boxed. 

fine paper. With 32 original illustrations by the 
best French artists. Photogravure frontispieces. 2 
vols., boxed. 

paper and illustrated with photogravure portrait and 
original illustrations by the best artists. 2 vols., boxed. 

Printed on fine paper, with photogravure portrait and 
ten original illustrations by PAUL FRENZENY. 1 vol., 

new plates on fine paper. With 18 new illustrations 
by H. M. EATON. Photogravure frontispieces. 2 
vols., boxed. 

fine paper, and illustrated with numerous original de- 
signs by E. H. GARRETT. Photogravure frontis- 
pieces. 2 vols., boxed. 

WARD DOWDEN. Printed on fine paper from new 
plates, and illustrated with portrait and original pho- 
togravures by MERRILL, PEIRCE, GARRETT, and COPE- 
LAND. 2 vols., boxed. 

ROMOLA. By GEORGE ELIOT. Printed on fine pa- 
per, and illustrated with 34 reproductions of Floren- 
tine photographs. Photogravure frontispieces. 2 
vols., boxed. 

from new plates on fine paper. With 18 new illus- 
trations by FRANK T. MERRILL. Photogravure front- 
ispieces. 2 vols., boxed. 

LYLE. Printed from new plates on fine paper, and 
illustrated with 34 portraits, and reproductions of fa- 
mous paintings. Photogravure frontispieces. 2 vols., 

HUGHES. Printed on fine paper and fully illustrated 
by H. W. PEIRCE. Photogravure frontispiece. 1 vol., 

Printed on fine paper and illustrated with 34 repro- 
ductions of fine photographs of the picturesque fea- 
tures of Oxford. Photogravure frontispieces. 2 vols., 

Printed from new plates on fine paper. With 18 new 
illustrations by FRANK T. MERRILL. Photogravure 
frontispieces. 2 vols., boxed. 

introduction by JOHN MORLEY. Printed on fine pa- 
per, and illustrated with portrait and original photo- 
gravures by E. H. GARRETT. 2 vols., boxed. 







The best works in fiction, history, biography, and poetry, carefully selected and edited. Suitable for any library, and 
attractive to readers and students of the most refined tastes, at a low price. Printed in clear, readable type, on fine English 
finish paper, and bound in a neat, durable style. Each volume contains a carefully printed and artistic frontispiece, adding 
greatly to the interest and value of the series. 60 volumes are now ready, and other volumes are in preparation. It is the 
intention of the publishers to include in this series only those works which are fairly entitled to be included among " the best 
books," by such authors as George Eliot, Irving, Dickens, Thackeray, Hugo, Walter Scott, Carlyle, Cooper, Boswell, Lytton, 
and other writers of world- wide reputation. 

Cloth, leather titles, gilt top, edges slightly trimmed, with ample margins, 12mo, per vol. ... $1 00 









































( Other volumes in preparation.) 

THE "MISTLETOE" EDITION OF POPULAR POETS. (Red Line Sheets.) Printed on fine paper. Attract- 

25 vols., 12mo, boxed, $1.75 per vol. 
Longfellow, H. W. Poe (Edgar A.) 

(Early Poems). Proctor. 

Meredith (Owen). Red-Letter Poems. 

Milton. Scott. 

Moore. Shakespeare. 

Whittier, J. G. 

(Early Poems). 

ively bound in embossed leather, padded covers, gilt edges. 
Browning (Mrs.) Byron. Lady of the Lake. 

Browning (Robert). Familiar Quotations. Lalla Rookh. 

Bryant (Early Favorite. Lowell (Early 

Poems) Hemans. Poems. 

Burns. Jean Ingelow. Lucile. 

SHELLEY'S POEMS. Complete. Dowden's text, carefully revised, with additional poems. " Imperial " Edition. Illus- 
trated. Full 12mo, cloth, gilt edges, $1.50 ; " Favorite Illustrated " Edition. Square 8vo, gilt edges, cloth slip wrappers, 
in a cloth box, $2.50; tree calf, or full morocco, gilt edges, $6.00. Also uniform with the above in the "Imperial" 
Edition. The " Cambridge Book of Poetry and Song " ; " Bryant's Early Poems." $1.50 per vol. 

THE ASTOR LIBRARY OF STANDARD LITERATURE. 229 volumes, bound in half russia leather, cloth sides, 
gilt back and marbled edges, 12mo, per vol., 75 cts. 

This edition of standard 12mos, bound in neat and attractive style, meets the existing demand for popular books in suitable bindings for fam- 
ily and school libraries or holiday gifts at reasonable prices. The following volumes have been added this season : 

Notre Dame. George Eliot's Essays, and Sketches by Boz. Scenes of Clerical Life. Ivan Dyitch. 

Ninety-Three. Theophrastus Such. Toilers of the Sea. Pictures from Italy. My Religion. 


46 East Fourteenth Street, New York. 

1OO Purchase Street, Boston. 



[Sept. 16, 

Houghton, Mifflin & Co.'s Fall Books. 


Massachusetts : Its Historians and Its His- 
tory. By CHARLES FRANCIS ADAMS, author of 
" Life of Richard Henry Dana," " Three Episodes in 
Massachusetts History," etc. Crown 8vo. 
A book of great interest showing that while Massachusetts has been 

foremost in the struggle for political freedom, she has by no means a 

record equally good hi regard to religious toleration. 

Cartier to Frontenac. A Study of Geographical 
Discovery in the interior of North America in its 
historical relations, 1534-1700; with full cartograph- 
ical illustrations from contemporary sources. By 
JUSTIN WiNSOR, author of " Columhus," editor of 
" Narrative and Critical History of America." 8vo. 

A Sketch of the History of the Apostolic 
Church. By OLIVER J. THATCHER, Professor 
in the University of Chicago. 16mo, $1.25. 
CONTENTS : The Condition of the World (at the time of Christ) ; The 
Expansion of Judaism; The Spread of Christianity; The Church at 
Jerusalem ; Breaking the Jewish Bonds ; The Burning Question ; The 
Best Years of Paul ; The Last Years of Paul ; The Opposition to Chris- 
tianity ; Authorities, Government, and Worship. 

Sam Houston, and the War of Independence in 
Texas. By ALFRED WILLIAMS, author of " Poets 
and Poetry of Ireland." With a portrait and maps. 
8vo, $2.00. 
A valuable and interesting book both as a history of Texas and as a 

biography of Houston, who had a remarkably picturesque career. 

The Life and Writings of Jared Sparks. Com- 
prising Selections from his Journals and Correspond- 
ence. By HERBERT B. ADAMS, Professor in Johns 
Hopkins University. With six Heliotype portraits. 
2 vols., 8vo, $5.00 net. 

A very interesting account of Mr. Sparks, who was a professor and 
afterward President of Harvard University, and eminent as a historian 
and biographer. 

Letters of Asa Gray. Edited by JANE LORING 
GRAY. With Portraits and other Illustrations. 2 vols., 
crown 8vo. 
A delightful record of the illustrious botanist of Harvard, who was 

an admirable writer and man. 

James Russell Lowell. By GEORGE E. WOOD- 
BERRY, author of " Edgar Allan Poe," " Studies in 
Letters and Life," " The North Shore Watch, and 
Other Poems," etc. With a Portrait. 2 vols. 16mo, 

A notable addition to the series of " American Men of Letters." 

George William Curtis. By EDWARD GARY. 
In the series of " American Men of Letters." With 
a Portrait. 16mo, $1.25. 

College Tom. By CAROLINE HAZARD, author of 
" Memoirs of the Rev. J. Lewis Diman," etc. 8vo. 

Miss Hazard, great -great-granddaughter of Thomas Hazard, has had 
access to some very important new material, and has made a book of 
much biographical and historic interest. 


Essays in Idleness. By AGNES REPPLIER, au- 
thor of " Books and Men," " Points of View," etc. 
16mo, $1.25. 

A book of delightful essays, sensible, humorous, stimulating. They 
treat Agrippina (a model cat), The Children's Poets, The Praises of 
War, Words, Ennui, Wit and Humor, and Letters. 

The Natural History of Intellect, and Other 
erside Edition. With an Index to all of Emerson's 
Works. 12mo, gilt top, $1.75; Little Classic Edi- 
tion, 18mo, $1.25. 

CONTENTS : The Natural History of Intellect ; Memory ; Boston ; 
Michael Angelo ; Milton ; Papers from the " Dial ": Thoughts on Mod- 
ern Literature, Walter Savage Landor, Prayers, Agriculture of Massa- 
chusetts, Europe and European Books, Past and Present, A Letter, The 

The Growth and Influence of Classical Greek 
Litt. D., LL.D., Professor of Greek in the University 
of Cambridge, author of " Attic Orators," " Modern 
Greece," etc. Crown 8vo, $1.50. 

CONTENTS : The Distinctive Qualities of the Greek Race as expressed 
by Homer; Greek Epic Poetry; Greek Lyric Poetry: the Course of 
its Development ; Pindar; The Attic Drama; The Permanent Power 
of Greek Poetry. 

Sub-Ccelum: A Sky-Built Human World. 

By A. P. RUSSELL, author of " In a Club Corner," 
"A Club of One," " Library Notes," and " Character- 
istics." 16mo. 

Mr. Russell also has had a vision of Utopia, and this is his descrip- 
tion of it, which is very sensible and engaging. 

Greek Lines, and Other Architectural Essays. 

By HENRY Van BRUNT. Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 

CONTENTS : Greek Lines, and Their Influence on Modern Architec- 
ture ; The Growth of Conscience in Modern Decorative Art ; Historical 
Architecture, and the Influence of the Personal Element upon it ; The 
Royal Chateau of Blois, an Example of Architectural Evidence hi the 
History of Civilization (with six half-tone illustrations) ; The Present 
Condition of Architecture ; Architecture and Poetry. 


An Old Town by the Sea. By THOMAS BAILEY 
ALDRICH, author of "From Ponkapog to Pesth," 
etc. 16mo. 

Mr. Aldrich has made Portsmouth in New Hampshire one of the 
famous towns in literature. It is the delightful " Rivermouth "_ of 
Tom Bailey, and other of his stories. Now he devotes a charming 
book to it, to points of history and topography and accounts of its ec- 
centric character. 

A Japanese Interior. By ALICE MABEL BACON, 
author of " Japanese Girls and Women." 16mo, 


Miss Bacon, who spent some time in Japan, here tells of Japanese 
home and school life, theatres, traveling, hotels, temples, food, dress, 
dolls' festivals ; of wrestling contests, curio men, fireworks, the climate, 
earthquakes, the mental characteristics of the people, and numberless 
other things. 


The Continuity of Christian Thought. A 

Study of Modern Theology in the Light of its His- 
tory. By ALEXANDER V. G. ALLEN, D.D., Profes- 
sor of Ecclesiastical History in the Episcopal Theo- 
logical School, Cambridge, Mass. New Edition. With 
a new preface and a full index. 12mo, gilt top, $2.00. 

The Witness to Immortality, in Literature, 
Philosophy, and Life. By Rev. GEORGE A. GORDON, 
D.D., Pastor of the Old South Church, in Boston. 
12mo, $1.50. 

Doctor Gordon here presents the fruits of his thoughtful study of 
the Immortal Life in the Scriptures, in the world's deepest poetry and 
philosophy, in the argument of Paul, and in the life and words of Christ. 




Houghton, Mifflin & Co.'s Fall Books Continued. 


Mercedes. By THOMAS BAILEY ALDRICH, author 
of " Wyndham Towers," " The Sisters' Tragedy," etc. 
An entirely new edition of Mr. Aldrich's two-act tragedy produced 

with so signal success last spring at Palmer's Theatre in New York. 

The text is given here as revised and arranged by the author for stage 


author of " The White Sail," etc. 16mo, gilt top. 

In this volume Miss Guiney makes a distinct advance upon her 
previous volumes of verse. She has gained a more assured command 
of her powers, and rises easily to the adequate treatment of the larger 
themes which challenge her thought and inspire her imagination. 

Longfellow's Poetical Works. New Cam- 
bridge Edition. From entirely new plates, printed 
from large type, on opaque paper and bound in flex- 
ible covers. With a Steel Portrait. 
This volume presents Longfellow's Complete Poems (including 

Christus) in a form which promises to be the ideal one-volume edition 

of this universally popular poet. 

Longfellow's Poetical Works. New Handy 
Volume Edition. In five volumes, 16mo, printed 
from beautiful large type, on opaque paper, bound 
in a simple but very attractive style, and put up in a 
cloth box. 
This is an entirely new edition, from new plates, and all the details 

have been studied to make it the favorite one for lovers of choice 


Poems. By THOMAS W. PARSONS. 16mo. A 
tasteful volume, containing the poems of one of the 
most gifted and least self-asserting of poets. 

The Divine Comedy of Dante. Translated 
into English verse by THOMAS WILLIAM PARSONS, 
author of " Poems," etc. With a Memorial Sketch 
by Miss LOUISE IMOGEN GUINEY, an Introduction 
by Professor CHARLES ELIOT NORTON, a Sketch by 
Dr. PARSONS from the Bust of Dante. 16mo. 

A Poet's Portfolio: Later Readings. By 

WILLIAM WETMORE STORY, author of " He and 
She," Roba di Roma," " Fiammetta," etc. 18mo. 
This is a little book like Mr. Story's " He and She," a collection of 
charming lyrics strung on the silver thread of an entertaining conversa- 
tion between a lady and a gentleman. 

White Memories. By MRS. A. D. T. WHIT- 
NEY. 16mo. 

Three poems on Bishop Brooks, Mr. Whittier, and Miss Larcom, 
written with the profound earnestness and thoughtfulness character- 
stic of Mrs. Whitney. 


The Petrie Estate. A clever story of the losing 
and finding of a will, and of the course of true love af- 
fected thereby, with many other elements of interest. 
By HELEN DAWES BROWN, author of " Two College 
Girls." 16mo, $1.25. 

Two College Girls. By HELEN DAWES BROWN. 

New Edition. Price reduced to $1.25. 

Rutledge. By MIRIAM COLES HARRIS. A new 
and attractive edition, from new plates, of this re- 
markable popular story. 16mo, $1.25. 


His Vanished Star. By CHARLES EGBERT 
CRADDOCK, author of "In the Tennessee Moun- 
tains," " The Prophet of the Great Smoky Moun- 
tains," etc. 16mo, $1.25. 

Charles Egbert Craddock returns to the scenes of her previous lit- 
erary triumphs among the mountains of Eastern Tennessee, and in this 
striking story introduces characters of great force and lawless inde- 
pendence, such as seem native to those wild regions. 

An Utter Failure. By MIRIAM COLES HARRIS. 

New Edition, 16mo, $1.25. 

This story depicts certain types of character which one meets in 
life and finds interesting, too, and is well worth reading and heeding. 

No Heroes. A Story for Boys. By BLANCHE 
WILLIS HOWARD, author of "One Summer," 
" Guenn," etc. Illustrated. 75 cents. 

The leading boy of this new story is a real hero, of a noble type ; 
and boys cannot fail to admire him and enjoy the very engaging story 
Miss Howard tells of him and others. 

The Son of a Prophet. 

JACKSON. 16mo, $1.25. 

A historical novel of great interest as a story, and much value as a 
view of times and incidents possessing a kind of sacred fascination. 
The scene is in Palestine and Egypt, during the reign of King Solomon 
and his immediate successors, and the story recreates the character of 
the writer of the Book of Job. 

A Native of Winby. And other Tales. By 
SARAH ORNE JEWETT, author of " Deephaven," " A 
White Heron," etc. 16mo, $1.25. 
Eight charming stories, six of them on New England subjects, in 

which Miss Jewett is unsurpassed, and two Irish-American stories, 

equally perfect in style and spirit. 

Rachel Stan wood. A Story of the Middle of 
the Nineteenth Century. By LUCY GIBBONS MORSE, 
author of "The Chezzles." 16mo, $1.25. 
Mrs. Morse tells a story of great interest in a field comparatively 
untraversed. It relates to the time and scenes of the anti-slavery agi- 
tation in New York City, about 1850, and depicts life among the 
Quakers, the protection of fugitive slaves from their pursuers, and in- 
troduces some famous characters. 

The Novels and Stories of Mrs. A. D. T. 
Whitney. New edition, with revisions and 
prefaces to some of the volumes. The set comprises: 

Faith Gartney's Girlhood. Sights and Insights. 2 vols. 

Hitherto: A Story of Tester- Odd, or Even ? 
days. Bonnyborough. 

Patience Strong's Outings. Boys at Chequasset. 

The Gay worth ys. Mother Goose for Grown 

A Summer in Leslie Gold- Folks. Enlarged Edition, 
thwaite's Life. Homespun Yarns. Short 

We Girls : A Home Story. Stories. 

Real Folks. Ascutney Street. 

The Other Girls. A Golden Gossip. 

Seventeen volumes, 16mo, in new and attractive bind- 
ing, and the price reduced to $1.25 a volume. The 
set in a box, $21.25. 
Very few stories by American writers enjoy so wide a popularity as 

do Mrs. Whitney's, and it may safely be said that no stories are more 

wholesome and more admirable in tone and spirit than hers. 

Polly Oliver's Problem. By KATE DOUGLAS 
WiGGiN, author of " The Birds' Christmas Carol," 
The Story of Patsy," " Timothy's Quest," " A Ca- 
thedral Courtship," etc. With Illustrations. 16mo. 
The problem which confronted Polly Oliver was how she should 
make a living. Mrs. Wiggin tells in her peculiar delightful way the 
story of the circumstances which made it necessary for Polly to solve 
this problem, and of the manner of its solution by Polly's becoming a 
teller of stories. 

For sale by all Booksellers, or will be sent, post-paid, on receipt of price by the Publishers. 




[Sept. 16, 1893. 

Macmillan & Co.'s Announcements 



To be Published during the Autumn of 1893. 

By CHARLES DEXTER ALLEN, Hon. Correspond- 
ing Secretary for the United States of the 
Ex Libris Society. 

American Book Plates. 

With fifty illustrations. Small 8vo. 

By KATHARINE LEE BATES, Professor of English 
Literature at Wellesley College. 

An Outline of the Development of the 
Early English Drama. 

By Professor FLORIAN C AJORI of Colorado College, 
Colorado Springs. 

A History of Mathematics. 

By Professor JOHN R. COMMONS of the University 
of Indiana. 

The Distribution of Wealth. 

Marion Darche. 

A new novel, written on the same basis of plot and 

character as his play of that name, soon to be put 

upon the stage by Mr. Augustin Daly. 

By Professor KARL P. DAHLSTROM of Lehigh Uni- 
versity, Bethlehem, Pa. A Translation of 

Weisbach's Mechanics of Hoisting 

As revised by Professor HERMANN. 

By Prof. N. F. DUPUIS, M.A.,F.R.S.C., Professor of 

Pure Mathematics in the University of Queen's 

College, Kingston, Canada. 

Synthetic Solid Geometry. 

By President DAVID J. HILL of the University of 

Genetic Philosophy. 

By Professor DUGALD C. JACKSON of the Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin. 

Notes on Electromagnets and the Con- 
struction of Dynamos. 

By Professor HENRY B. ORR of Tulane University, 
New Orleans, La. 

A Theory of Development and Heredity. 

By Professor GOLD WIN SMITH, author of Canada 
and the Canadian Question." 

The United States A Political History, 

12mo, cloth, $2.00. Published September 12. 

By the same Author. 

Bay Leaves. 

A collection of Translations from the Latin Poets. 

By D. W. TAYLOR of the U. S. Navy Yard at Mare 
Island, California. 

The Resistance of Ships and Screw 

By Professor J. A. TUFTS, of the University of 
Chicago. A Translation of 

Windelband's History of Philosophy. 

The Life and Art of Edwin Booth. 

This work has long been in preparation, with Mr. 

Booth's especial saction, and will be 

very fully illustrated. 

By the same Author. 

A NEW EDITION, Illustrated, of 

Shakespeare's England. 

With numerous full-page and vignette Illustrations, 

and a new photogravure Portrait of Mr. 

Winter, after the original drawing 

by Arthur Jule "Goodman. 

By Professor ALEXANDER ZIWET, of the 
University of Michigan. 

An Elementary Treatise on Theoretical 


BOOK REVIEWS, a Monthly Journal devoted to New and Current Publications. Price, 5 cents. Yearly Subscription, 50 cents. 



<&emf=ilHonth.lg Jlournal of ILttorarg (ZDrittctjsm, JStecttagton, ano Information. 

THE DIAL (founded in 1880) is published on the 1st and 16th of 
each month. TERMS OP SUBSCRIPTION, 62.00 a year in advance, postage 
prepaid in thf United States, Canada, and Mexico; in other countries 
comprised in the Postal Union, 50 cents a year for extra postage must 
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for subscriptions with other publications will be sent on application ; 
and SAMPLE COPY on receipt of 10 cents. ADVERTISING RATES furnished 
on application. All communications should be addressed to 

THE DIAL, Xo. 24 Adams Street, Chicago. 

No. 174. SEPTEMBER 16, 1893. Vol. XV. 


WILLIAM COXGREVE (Sonnet). Marian Mead . . 135 




Hjalmar H. Boyesen 137 


A Columbian Celebration a Hundred Years Ago. 
James L. Onderdonk. 


LIGION IN CRITICISM. John Bascom ... 146 
Lillie's The Influence of Buddhism on Primitive 
Christianity. Harden's An Inquiry into the Truth 
of Dogmatic Christianity. Beach's The Newer Re- 
ligious Thinking. Mead's Christ and Criticism. 
Horton's Verbum Dei. Cone's The Gospel. Miil- 
ler's Theosophy. 


Hunting on the Western Plains and Mountains. 
Two new volumes of Columbus literature. The Se- 
cret of Character Building. A French protest against 
materialism in France. A typical English School 
fifty years ago. An appreciative and judical life of 
Napoleon . 



. 157 


Master of words ! thine was the perfect art 

To catch the living phrase, no coin of thought, 

But thought's bright self, that, clear and roundly wrought, 

Distinct in air and sunshine, sends a start 

Of fresh delight through the worn sense. Apart 

From common ways of fumbling speech, where naught 

Rings true, thy crystal bells pure-toned are fraught 

With bliss for thrilling nerves. . . . But for the heart ? 

Potent the flow : nor flashing, pouting smiles 
Of Millamant can witch away the shame 
And hardness of her world. Yet while we blame, 
While our need craves some sterner, sweeter bard 
Whose trumpet-cry more than all joy beguiles, 
Thy keen truth leaps to flame, and night is starred ! 



A considerable portion of the space in this 
issue of THE DIAL is devoted to the regular 
annual list of classified announcements of forth- 
coming books. The list is a long one and 
would have been much longer had it not been 
thought best to exercise a certain discrimina- 
tion and to omit many titles of minor interest. 
It is believed that everything of real import- 
ance thus far definitely included in the an- 
nouncements of American publishers will be 
found comprised. Certainly, the list offers no 
evidence that the general commercial depres- 
sion of recent months has extended to the pub- 
lishing business ; it rather indicates, if any- 
thing, that the business has made more exten- 
sive plans and assumed a broader scope than 
usual. It is, however, true that the effects of 
commercial depression would require some time 
to become manifest in publishers' lists. Books 
are taken in hand long before they are pub- 
licly announced, and the close of one season 
finds the work of the next well under way. 

In the department of historical literature, 
several noteworthy works are promised. Per- 
haps the most important are a work on Massa- 
chusetts, by Mr. Charles Francis Adams ; a 
study in geographical discovery in the interior 
of North America, by Dr. Justin Winsor ; a 
history of the English town in the fifteenth cen- 
tury, by Miss Alice Stopford Green ; and a 
three-volume translation of the memoirs of the 
Chancellor Pasquier. In biography, we must 
mention first of all the life of Lowell which 
Professor Woodberry has been writing for the 
" American Men of Letters " series. The 
author is sure to bring both scholarship and 
literary grace to the work, and we will not 
quarrel with the fact that the biography is to 
fill two volumes, although such extended treat- 
ment is probably disproportionate to the scope 
of the series. While on the subject of Lowell, 
we must not forget to mention the two prom- 
ised volumes of letters, edited with loving care 
by Professor Norton. Other promised biog- 
raphies are a life of Jared Sparks, by Profes- 
sor Herbert B. Adams ; of Dean Stanley, by 
Mr. K. E. Prothero ; of Edwin Booth, by Mr. 
William Winter ; of Cardinal Manning, by 
Mr. Edmund Sheridan Purcell ; of William 



[Sept. 16. 

Jay, by Mr. Bayard Tuckerman ; and the au- 
tobiography of Signer Salvini. 

Among works of general literature the first 
place must be given to the familiar letters of 
Scott, edited by Mr. David Douglas ; and to 
Professor Jebb's volume of Turn bull lectures 
upon classical Greek poetry. We are to have 
the works of George William Curtis and of 
Thomas Paine two very unlike worthies 
each in four volumes ; the one edited by Pro- 
fessor Norton, and the other by the Rev. M. D. 
'Conway. We are also to have a new volume 
of papers by Emerson, most of which have seen 
the light in the magazines. The letters of Asa 
trray will have much more than a scientific in- 
terest, and will fill two volumes. Pleasing, at 
least, will be the volumes of essays by Mr. 
Henry James and Miss Agnes Repplier, and 
Mr. Lang's additional " Letters to Dead Au- 

The announcements in poetry and fiction are 
so numerous that we hardly know where to stop 
in our selection, although it is easy to begin, in 
the one class, with Parsons's poems and trans- 
lation of Dante ; in the other, with the " Pan 
Michael " of Mr. Sienkiewicz, which will com- 
plete the great historical trilogy of the Polish 
novelist. Volumes of new verse are promised by 
Mr. R. W. Gilder, Mr. Bliss Cf.rman, the Rev. 
E. E. Hale, Professor C. G. D. Roberts, and 
Miss Mary Robinson, besides Professor Gold- 
win Smith's collection of translations from the 
Latin poets. In fiction, we may soon expect 
" The Coast of Bohemia," by Mr. Howells ; 
" His Vanished Star," by Miss Murfree ; " The 
Copperhead," by Mr. Harold Frederic ; " The 
White Islander," by Mrs. Catherwood ; " Ma- 
rion Darche," by Mr. Crawford ; and " A Gen- 
tleman of France," by Mr. Stanley J. Wey- 

In art, the most interesting announcements 
are a volume of cats in photogravure, by Mad- 
ame Ronner, who has made the expression of 
feline character quite her own province ; a 
sumptuous work on French illustrators, by M. 
Louis Morin ; a great work on Rembrandt, by 
M. Emile Michel ; and a portfolio of proofs 
from " The Century." Serious travel will be 
represented by Dr. Nansen's work on Eskimo 
life and the late Professor Freeman's studies of 
travel in Italy and Greece. In lighter vein, 
we are sure to find enjoyment in Mr. Janvier's 
" An Embassy to Provence," in Miss Margaret 
Symonds's Lombard sketches, in Mr. Scollard's 
" On Sunny Shores," and in Mr. Lafcadio 
Hearn's " Glimpses of Unfamiliar Japan." 

Educators will be glad to find collected into a 
volume Dr. J. M. Rice's " Forum " articles on 
the public schools of our large cities, and will 
welcome the extensive lists of text-books of- 
fered in all departments by several publishing 
firms. In economics, the most important an- 
nouncement appears to be Professor John S. 
Nicholson's history of political economy. 

In the other departments, our list must be 
left to speak for itself. There will clearly be 
no dearth of new works upon science, philoso- 
phy, and religion ; no lack of choice among 
books for holiday gifts or of literature for youth- 
ful readers. The latter categories, indeed, are 
already bewildering in the variety that they in- 
clude, but still additional announcements may 
be expected during the coming weeks. 


We mentioned, some time ago, the "Note sur 
1'Acte du 3 Mars, 1891," printed in pamphlet form 
by the French Syndicat pour la Protection de la 
Proprie'te' Litte'raire et Artistique, and sent by that 
body as its contribution to the proceedings of the 
Congress of Authors. Another mark of French in- 
terest in the Congress takes the shape of a lengthy 
communication from the Association Litte'raire et 
Artistique Internationale, also sent to the Congress, 
although addressed in form to the President of the 
American Copyright League. We subjoin a trans- 
lation of the more important passages of this com- 
munication. After the usual preliminary salutations, 
accompanied by congratulations upon the work al- 
ready done by the Copyright League, the letter 
proceeds to comment upon the Law of 1891 : 

" The American law, by its recognition of the rights 
of authors during a period of forty-two years, has sanc- 
tioned intellectual property in an excellent manner, and 
although, in most European countries, these rights are 
protected for a minimum period of fifty years after the 
death of the author, we do not think that a modifica- 
tion of the law in this respect should be urged. But 
the question is different when we come to consider the 
formalities to be complied with. You are aware that 
all our efforts are directed towards the recognition of 
intellectual property without the necessity of complying 
with any formalities. In France, for example, the 
right comes into existence ipso facto with the act of pub- 
lication, no registration being necessary. If registra- 
tion is made at the Department of the Interior, it is 
considered merely as an administrative formality, and 
its omission neither lessens nor weakens the right of 

" In the United States such registration has been 
deemed necessary to the very existence of the right of 
ownership. We can only bow to the will of the legis- 
lator, which seems, however, to have exceeded its limits 
when, in the case of works by foreign authors, it has 
added to the registration clause the obligation of re- 




manufacture upon American soil, with American type 
and paper. 

" We understand clearly the nature of the consider- 
ations that have impelled the legislator to protect a na- 
tional industry by reserving to American printers a 
monopoly of the manufacture of books circulating in 
the United States. 

" But, setting aside the question of books published 
in the English language, we venture to observe that, 
as far as it concerns books published in French, Italian, 
Spanish, German, or other languages, the manufactur- 
ing clause acts adversely to the object proposed. 

"In fact, the considerable expense that it imposes 
upon foreign authors constitutes an almost insurmount- 
able obstacle to their claim of the right which the law 

" It is clearly the interest of American publishers 
to secure, at a low cost, the ownership of works pub- 
lished in Europe. But every contract made by them 
with a foreign author is heavily handicapped by the pre- 
liminary manufacturing clause. 

" Yet the intention of the legislator to recognize the 
rights of the foreign author is very distinctly expressed. 
How did it come about that he at the same time made 
the exercise of those rights almost impossible ? Would 
it not have been more logical to prohibit the importa- 
tion into the United States of all translations manufac- 
tured abroad ? In this way the monopoly of manufac- 
ture would remain with the American publishers and 
printers. The foreign author would register his work 
at the Washington library, and this registration would 
form the basis of the contract to be made between him 
and the American publisher, the latter being guaranteed 
against competition by his inalienable right to the mate- 
rial manufacture of the translation upon American soil. 

" We believe this to be the path that the legislator 
should take. With music and the graphic arts, likewise, 
it seems to us that it should suffice (the work being 
registered, and two copies manufactured in the country 
of its origin being deposited at Washington) to reserve 
to American publishers the monopoly of re-manufacture 
upon American soil, a contract having been made with 
the author. 

" It would be preferable, indeed, that the free circu- 
lation of intellectual works were assured throughout the 
whole world, but it is not for us to dictate to the United 
States a rule of conduct in a matter of which they alone 
must judge. We merely seek a modus vivendi, appli- 
cable to, yet improving, the present situation. 

" We beg also to call your attention to the wellnigh 
insurmountable difficulties arising from the legal re- 
quirement of registration at Washington on the very 
day of publication in the original country. Questions 
of distance play such a part in the relations of Europe 
with the United States that we need not insist upon a 
point so obvious. The legislative condition of registra- 
tion at Washington would be fulfilled even if foreign 
authors were to be granted a month or two of grace. 
We believe that this modification, based upon logic and 
the force of circumstances, would not meet with serious 

The letter closes with the expression of a wish 
that the French Society might enter into closer and 
more continuous relations with the American Copy- 
right League, and with an invitation to take part 
in the proceedings of the International Literary 
and Artistic Congress to be held at Barcelona, and 
opened the twenty-third of this month. 


In no play of Ibsen's is the corrosive self-destroy- 
ing character of his social criticism more apparent 
than in " The Wild Duck." " A Doll-House " and 
" The Pillars of Society " enforced the lesson that 
unless there be truth in personal and social rela- 
tions they cannot endure ; they are built upon sand, 
and cannot brave the shocks of adversity. This 
was perhaps the first positive lesson to be derived 
from Ibsen's teachings. We felt that here we had 
at last firm ground under our feet ; and Pilate's 
pertinent query, " What is truth ? " we left prelim- 
inarily in abeyance. But no sooner have we 
opened "The Wild Duck " than we find the earth 
rocking and heaving in the most uncomfortable man- 
ner. That which we mistook for rock was after all 
nothing but quagmire. " The Wild Duck " teaches 
us that the truth is by no means an unqualified boon. 
It takes a strong spirit to endure it. To small, com- 
monplace men, living in mean illusions, the truth 
may be absolutely destructive. It is better for such 
people to be permitted to cherish undisturbed their 
little lies and self-deceptions than to be brought 
face to face with the terrifying truth, lacking, as 
they do, both the courage and the strength to grap- 
ple with it and to readjust their lives to radically 
altered conditions. 

It appears to me as if Ibsen had undertaken to 
satirize himself in this play. " I have told you be- 
fore that you must above all be truthful," he seems 
to say ; " that you must live your individual lives, 
and refuse to adapt yourselves to the code of con- 
duct of your Philistine neighbors ; that you must 
drain, if necessary, the wholesome cup of woe that 
is put to your lips, and rise through suffering to a 
higher and nobler manhood and womanhood. But 
if you have been innocent enough to take me at my 
word in these injunctions, I now find that they stand 
in need of revision. It is not improbable that you 
may be too paltry to be benefited by such heroic 
diet, in which case I advise you to ignore what I 
have said and remain in your old slough of pusillani- 
mous mendacity and contentment." 

This is the obvious moral of " The Wild Duck," 
if a moral it can be called. The situation is as fol- 
lows : 

Hjalmar Ekdal, a photographer in a small town, 
is a lazy, miserable good-for-nothing, but with a 
taste for theatrical phrase-making and grand atti- 
tudes. He lives a sort of heroic dream-life, de- 
voting himself, in fancy at least, to the perfecting 
of a great invention, about which he talks a great 
deal, without, however, making any visible progress. 
By means of the fame which will come to him from 
this beneficent enterprise, he intends to obliterate 
the disgrace which has befallen his father, and vin- 
dicate the family honor. The elder Ekdal, an ex- 
lieutenant and lumber speculator, has been sentenced 
to the penitentiary for violation of the forestry laws, 
and, after having served out his sentence, is now 



[Sept. 16, 

living with his son. He earns a little money by 
copying documents for his former partner, the man- 
ufacturer Werle, and promptly gets drunk on part 
of the proceeds of his industry. He is half in his 
dotage, and utterly devoid of all sense of honor. 
In the loft of the house he has arranged a sort 
of mock-forest, consisting of some old Christmas 
trees, in the branches of which hens and pigeons 
roost. Here he has also collected some rabbits, 
and amuses himself by firing at them with a pis- 
tol and a gun which always clicks. From the ser- 
vants of Werle he has obtained a wild duck, which, 
after having been wounded by their master, had 
been retrieved by his dogs. Hedwig, his grand- 
daughter, a little girl of fourteen, takes a great 
fancy to this wild waterfowl, and daily spends 
Chappy hours in the dark loft, watching the rabbits 
and the pigeons. Her father, Hjalmar, though he 
makes a pretence of being deeply absorbed in sci- 
entific meditation, is rarely averse to indulging in 
the same sport as his parent ; and in fact the only 
member of the family for whom the loft has no at- 
traction is his wife Gina, who, by her attention to 
the housekeeping as well as the photographic busi- 
ness, is the mainstay and support of her husband, 
daughter, and father-in-law. She is a simple, un- 
reflecting creature, and is therefore easily imposed 
upon by Hjalmar's theatricals. She honestly be- 
lieves him to be the remarkable genius he pro- 
claims himself to -be, misunderstood and disdained 
by the world, but bound to shed his chrysalis some 
day and rise into the air as a golden butterfly. 
She had in her maiden days been a servant in 
Werle's employ, and the marriage had, in fact, been 
arranged by the great manufacturer. There was a 
rumor afloat that she had also been his mistress ; 
but if it had ever reached Hjalmar's ears, he magnan- 
imously ignored it. 

Now all these people are living more "or less sor- 
did lives, but each one is happy in his particular 
illusion. Ekdal hunts imaginary bears in an im- 
aginary forest, and gets drunk as often as he can af- 
ford it. If he dreams of the contempt with which 
he is regarded, he is not in the least troubled by it. 
Hjalmar glories in being a misunderstood genius, 
poses as a model husband, son, and father, and though 
the very incarnation of ruthless selfishness, drapes 
himself most successfully in a garb of virtue, as 
substantial as the Emperor's new clothes in Hans 
Christian Andersen's story. His daughter takes 
all his fine phrases at their face value, and while she 
wears out her little life retouching photographs for 
him, is greatly moved and edified by his magnanim- 
ity. He knows that she is losing her eye-sight, and 
makes pathetic speeches about her gliding into the 
eternal night, but it does not occur to him to re- 
lieve her of her labor. 

Gina, finally, is contented enough, after her 
fashion, because she demands but little of life, and 
has too blunt a conscience to be troubled by her 
past delinquency as long as it is safely hidden. 

Into the midst of this peaceful circle drops one 

day Gregers Werle, a son of the manufacturer and 
a former schoolfellow of Hjalmar. He knows the 
true state of affairs, and regards it as a sacred 
duty to reveal to his friend the ignominy in which 
he is living. He has been dazzled by his grand 
professions, which he takes for good coin. He be- 
lieves that a relation founded upon a lie can never 
be a happy one ; and persuades himself that the 
truth, under all circumstances, is wholesome and 
purifying. Hjalmar and Gina, standing, as it 
were, soul to soul, stripped of their false draperies, 
will, he thinks, find each other and be united in a 
true and ideal marriage. But in these suppositions 
he reckons without his host. The photographer, 
when he learns of his wife's former liason and the 
paternity of his supposed child, is not so very deeply 
shocked ; nay, at bottom, perhaps, he is nearly in- 
different. But he knows what is expected of him 
in such a moment ; and he casts about him for a 
truly heroic part. He must justify Gregers's opin- 
ion of him, and the demands of his own dignity. 
So he summons his wife, and in lofty phrases cate- 
chizes her concerning her past. The poor simple 
soul confesses unhesitatingly. She is delightful 
in her blunt honesty, which contrasts so glaringly 
with her husband's high-flown hypocrisy. When 
reproached for not having confessed before their 
marriage, she asks, naively : 

" But would you have married me all the same ? 

HJALMAK. How can you imagine such a thing ? 

CZINA. No ; but that was the reason I did not dare tell 
you anything then. For I got to love you very much, as you 
know. And I could not go and make myself completely un- 

When asked if she has not suffered an anguish 
of remorse during all these years, she replies : 

" Why, dear kdal, I've had enough to do in attending to 
the house and the daily supervision of things." 

Such callousness, such degradation, makes Hjal- 
mar despair or, I should say, assume the mask of 
despair. He must (though it tires him a little) re- 
main upon the heights of sublimity to which he has 
mounted. He commands Gina to- pack his trunk. 
He must separate from her. He cannot continue 
to live a life of infamy, practically supported by a 
former rival for his wife's favor ; for he learns that 
Werle has constantly overpaid the elder Ekdal 
for his copying, and that it is this money which has 
enabled them to maintain their household in com- 
fort. But now all this must come to an end. With 
a grand gesture, Hjalmar tears to pieces a docu- 
ment in which the elder Werle pledges himself to 
pay one hundred crowns per month to the elder 
Ekdal, and after the latter's death to continue the 
payment of the same sum to Hedwig. With fever- 
ish impatience he makes all the preparations for 
his departure from his desecrated home, and revels 
all the while in the admiration of his friend Gre- 
gers. But when the moment comes for decisive 
action, he wavers. On one flimsy pretext after 
another, he postpones his journey. He thrusts 
Hedwig away from him, and cruelly wounds the 
feelings of the affectionate child. He fumes and 




frets while considering the more sordid aspect of 
the situation which now presents itself to him. He 
concludes to do nothing rash ; but to remain at 
home until he can find new lodgings. With great 
care he collects the scattered bits of Werle's prom- 
issory note and pastes them together, because he has 
no right, he avers, to renounce what is not his own. 
Gina brings him coffee and sandwiches, which he 
consumes with a lugubrious zest ; and though he is 
a little shamefaced when Gregers surprises him in 
this prosaic occupation, he endeavors, though not 
quite successfully, to recover his heroic tone. He 
is really anxious to be persuaded to remain ; but 
feels in duty bound to yield only by degrees, and 
with the proper amount of high-flown declamation. 
He enjoys the interesting situation, and cannot af- 
ford to dismiss it before having displayed his full 
arsenal of noble sentiments. 

The child, of course, which he has cherished like 
a snake in his bosom, offers unlimited opportuni- 
ties for fine rhetoric ; and Hjalmar does not fail 
to improve them. Gregers, to whom Hedwig has 
betrayed her grief, because her father will no longer 
believe that she loves him, has persuaded her to 
prove her love for him by the highest sacrifice in 
her power. And as the wild duck is the thing 
she is fondest of, while Hjalmar has always pro- 
fessed to dislike it, Gregers advises her to kill it 
with her own hand. But so great is her misery, her 
feeling of superfluity and disgrace, that she turns 
the pistol against herself and sends the bullet into 
her own heart. 

Ibsen sums up the moral of his play in the words 
of Dr. Relling (a cynical friend of the family) : 

" Life might yet be quite tolerable, if we were only left in 
peace by these blessed duns who are continually knocking at 
the doors of us poor folk with their ' ideal demand.' " 

Rarely has a poet so ruthlessly satirized himself 
as Ibsen does in this remark. For it was this very 
ideal demand of which he had proclaimed himself 
the prophet. He is the most persistent of those 
duns who knock at the door of the average human 
soul, and disturb its sleepful contentment by their 
unwearied insistence upon full payment. But the 
bankrupt debtor is obliged to compromise at twenty, 
forty, or sixty per cent, or utterly repudiate the 
debt ; and the stern reminders of his dun cannot 
make him pay more than he has. 

The mood in which Ibsen wrote " The Wild 
Duck " was one of deep dejection if not despair. 
" You have got to take men as they are made," 
he seems to have said to himself, " and no amount 
of preaching will make them any better than they 
are. I, with my ideal demand, may have been as 
great a mischief-maker as Gregers Werle." And 
in order to emphasize this cynical lesson, he has in 
the relation of the elder Werle to Mrs. SOrby fur- 
nished a counter foil to the Ekdal couple, who, 
after the revelation of the truth, settle down in a 
sort of hideous shivering nudity into a barren and 
joyless slough, stripped of all embellishing dra- 
pery. Werle senior is an utterly prosaic person, 

and frankly tells his fiancee of all his escapades ; 
whereupon she, encouraged by his freedom from 
prejudice, makes an equally compromising confes- 
sion. These two then form a marriage based upon 
the truth ; and we are left to form our own con- 
clusions as to the nature of their union. 

No, the truth is only for the strong ; and the 
strong are few. The ordinary man needs more or 
less harmless lies to bolster up his self-respect ; for 
without self-respect there can be no contentment. 
This is the doctrine very trenchantly preached by 
Dr. Relling, who charitably devotes himself to in- 
venting the fitting lie which will minister to the 
happiness of each of his patients. It is he who in- 
stills into Hjalmar's mind the idea that he is des- 
tined to make a great discovery, which will lift 
photography into the region of exact science ; and 
with the same ingenuity he saves the self-respect of 
his bibulous friend, the theologian Molvik, by per- 
suading him that his drunkenness is " daemonic " 
i. e., the necessary and inevitable outbreak of some 
great undelivered force within him which has not 
found expression in its proper sphere. 

If instead of the ugly word " lie " we substitute 
its poetic synonym "illusion," I fancy no one will 
seriously object to Dr. Rolling's theory. For every 
one of us has his own illusion of life, himself in- 
cluded ; and his happiness depends upon the vivid- 
ness, the completeness, with which he is able to fit 
this illusion into actuality, or as much of it as ob- 
trudes itself upon his observation. I know I am a 
greater, a more admirable man in my own estimation 
than, most probably, I am in the estimation of the 
majority of my friends ; and if I did not have the 
private consolation of knowing that I am right and 
that they are wrong, I should not regard existence 
as much of a boon. My happiness nay, my very 
desire for self-preservation therefore depends upon 
my power of self-deception. If any Mephisto- 
phelian friend should ever succeed in convincing 
me of what infinitely small account I am in the 
world what a fortuitous agglomeration of atoms, 
hovering in the boundless space I fear I should 
be tempted to follow the example of poor Hedwig. 
I can imagine no greater calamity that could befall 
a man than a sudden opening of his vision a sud- 
den dispelling of all illusion enabling him to real- 
ize with absolute correctness his relations to the uni- 

In " Brand " Ibsen quotes with approval the 
scriptural passage, "No man can see Jehovah and 
live." All truth that we see, in this life, is largely 
alloyed with falsehood ; it is relative, not absolute. 
As Lessing says, " If God held truth shut in His 
right hand, and in his left hand nothing but the 
ever restless striving for truth, though with the con- 
dition of forever erring, and should say to me, 
' Choose,' I would humbly bow to His left hand and 
say, ' Father, give me this ; pure truth is for Thee 
alone.' " 

What Lessing meant by truth, in this instance, 
was the great fundamental facts which underlie ex- 



[Sept. 16, 

istence the eternal verities, physical and spiritual, 
which determine our relation to God and to our fel- 
low-men. But it might readily be extended to all 
human relations. The proposition would still hold 
good, that illusion is the prime requisite of happiness. 




(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

A little book of 77 pages now in my possession fur- 
nishes evidence that the three hundredth anniversary of 
the discovery of America was not allowed to pass un- 
noticed, and affords also some interesting glimpses of 
our country and its affairs as they appeared a hundred 
years ago. Some account of the book and its author 
may therefore be acceptable at this time. The book is 
entitled " An Oration on the Discovery of America, de- 
livered in London, October 12th, 1792." The orator 
was Elhanan Winchester, a noted character in his day. 
According to the best information that I can get, he was 
born near Boston, Mass., in 1751. He began preach- 
ing in his eighteenth year, and, passing through several 
phases of religious belief, finally developed into a Univer- 
salist clergyman. During our Revolution he earnestly 
sympathized with the American cause, composing a num- 
ber of so-called " political hymns," more remarkable for 
their piety and patriotism than for their poetry. After 
the war, in 1787, he visited England, where he remained 
several years, preaching his doctrines of universal sal- 
vation and universal liberty. Returning to America in 
1794, he died at Hartford in 1797. 

Passing over the historical portions of the work, which 
tell the familiar story of Columbus and his discovery very 
much as it is told to-day, and some speculations, more 
curious than valuable, as to the origin of the first inhab- 
itants of our continent, we come to the more interesting 
chapters giving the outlook on America in 1792. The 
population of the entire continent (North, South, and 
Central America) is estimated at twenty millions. When 
as densely populated as Holland then was, the Amer- 
ican continent is capable of containing three thousand 
three hundred and four millions. The orator exclaims : 
" Considered in this light, what an astonishing scene rises 
to our view ! God, who formed the earth, created it not in 
vain ; he formed it to be inhabited ; and I have no doubt that 
before the conflagration takes place, the earth shall be inhab- 
ited and cultivated to the utmost possible extent ; this shall 
be in the glorious millenium, or the thousand years' reign of 
Christ on earth ; which happy period is fast approaching and 
I trust is even at the door. Then, and not till then, shall the 
full importance of the discovery of America be known." 

Among the lessons already taught by the United 
States are enumerated the practicability of democracy, 
the wisdom of separating church and state, the justice 
of abolishing cruel and unnecessarily severe punishment 
for crime, and the strength of a mild and equable form 
of government as contrasted with the weakness of more 
arbitrary principalities. 

Notwithstanding the near approach of the millennium, 
which he has just predicted, the orator foretells the 
rapid development of his native land in the following 
prophecy, which has been so abundantly fulfilled: 

" The century to come will improve America far more than 

the three centuries past. The prospect opens, it extends it- 
self upon us. ' The wilderness and solitary place shall rejoice, 
and the desert shall rejoice and blossom as the rose.' I look 
forward to that glorious day when that vast continent shall 
be populated with civilized and religious people, when heav- 
enly wisdom and virtue, and all that can civilize and bless the 
children of men, shall cover that part of the globe as the 
waters cover the seas. 

" Transported at the thought, I am borne forward to days 
of distant renown. In my expanded view, the United States 
rise in all their ripened glory before me. I look through and 
beyond every yet peopled region of the New World, and be- 
hold period still brightening upon period. Where one con- 
tiguous depth of gloomy wilderness now shuts out even the 
beams of day, I see new states and empires, new seats of wis- 
dom and knowledge, new religious domes spreading around. 
In places now untrod by any but savage beasts, or men as 
savage as they, I hear the voice of happy labor, and see beau- 
tiful cities rising to view, behold the whole continent highly 
cultivated and fertilized, full of cities, towns, and villages, 
beautiful and lovely beyond expression. I hear the praises 
of my great Creator sung upon the banks of these rivers now 
unknown to song. Behold the delightful prospect ! See the 
silver and gold of America employed in the service of the 
Lord of the whole earth ! See slavery, with all its train of 
attendant evils, forever abolished ! See a communication 
opened through the whole continent, from north to south and 
from east to west, through a most fruitful country. Behold 
the glory of God extending, and the Gospel spreading through 
the whole land ! " 

An appendix to the published oration contains the pre- 
posterous " political hymns " already alluded to, a bio- 
graphical sketch of George Washington, and a plan and 
description of the new city to be called Washington,, 
"at the junction of the rivers Pawtomack and the East- 
ern branch." The valleys of the Mississippi and the 
Missouri, the Great Basin of the West, and the Pacific 
Coast, constituted an unknown land. The western line 
of Pennsylvania was the limit of civilization. The 
present national capital, with its throngs of people com- 
ing and going daily, is described as situated upon " the 
great post road, equi-distant from the northern and 
southern extremities of the Union, and nearly so from 
the Atlantick and Pittsburg." Added to this is the 
first census of the United States recently completed and 
certified to by "T. Jefferson, Secretary of State." The 
total population of the republic in 1792 footed up 3,925,- 
253. The five largest states in point of population were 
Virginia, 747,610; Pennsylvania, 434,373; North Car- 
olina, 393,751; Massachusetts, 378,587; New York, 
340,120. Maine and Massachusetts were the only states 
not possessing slaves. In Virginia the slaves numbered 
292,627; in New York, 21,324. The towns in point of 
size ranked, Philadelphia, New York, Boston, Balti- 
more, and Charleston; in trade, New York, Philadelphia, 
Boston, Charleston, and Baltimore. 

How far Mr. Winchester succeeded in instilling Amer- 
ican principles into the minds of his hearers, it is im- 
possible to say. One cannot fail to admire his courage, 
however, in stoutly proclaiming his convictions in the 
very centre of British conservatism, while resentment 
against the young republic was still bitter and the term 
" Yankee " was considered synonymous with rebel. Could 
he have realized how accurately his predictions would 
be fulfilled by the next Columbian centenary, it would 
have given peculiar emphasis to his closing paragraph: " I 
die ; but God will surely visit America, and make it a vast, 
flourishing, and populous empire ; will take it under his 
protection, and bless it abundantly; but the prospect 
is too glorious for my pen to describe. I add no more." 

Chicago, Sept. 5, 1S93. JAMES L. OXDERDONK. 





The essay, considered strictly as a work of 
literary art, has had in our day no more strik- 
ing illustration than may be found in the vol- 
umes of Mr. Frederic Myers. A pure and 
weighty style, producing, without any trick of 
rhythmical imitation, an effect akin to the po- 
etical, combined with a selection and arrange- 
ment of material resulting from a rare sense 
of relative values, gives to such essays as those 
upon Virgil and Mazzini a high place among 
the masterpieces of English prose. And we 
must ascribe to them not only such excellence 
of manner, but also a degree of scholarship 
that is not often allowed to appear within the 
limits of the essay. When we add that the 
subjects chosen by Mr. Myers are mostly of 
such nature as to touch upon the highest con- 
cerns, that his essays have for no small part 
of their aim the transformation for modern 
uses, or the translation into modern terms, of 
the best wisdom of the past, the large discourse 
of poet and philosopher, we shall at least have 
indicated the nature of their claim upon the 
attention of thoughtful readers. 

We are all the more concerned to give to 
the work of Mr. Myers this unstinted measure 
of praise, because the essays collectively enti- 
tled " Science and a Future Life," which make 
up the author's latest volume, cannot be seri- 
ously reviewed without considerable dissent 
from their conclusions, or without one import- 
ant exception to their form. To take this ex- 
ception first, and to put the matter bluntly, the 
contents of this collection are so colored by the 
peculiar theories of the Society for Psychical 
Research, so characterized by special pleading 
in behalf of a series of propositions consid- 
ered by most serious thinkers not merely im- 
probable but absolutely untenable, that the es- 
says are wanting in the judicial quality of the 
best criticism, and are even, to a certain extent, 
misleading. Whether the subject be " Charles 
Darwin and Agnosticism," u The Disenchant- 
ment of France," or " Modern Poets and Cosmic 
Law," the discussion eventually shapes itself 
into an argument for telepathy, or ghosts, or 
the communion of the living with the dead. 
Mr. Myers has to a certain extent met this ob- 
jection by a title which indicates the common 
tendency of the essays, and adverse criticism is 

* SCIENCE AND A FUTURE LIFE. With Other Essays. By 
Frederic W. H. Myers. New York : Macmillan & Co. 

at least partly disarmed by the unusual candor 
of the writer, by his seBupiriorts care to give to 
the views of his opponents the full weight due 
them, and by the unquestionable honesty of his 
belief that the psychical researchers are really 
on the track of a new cosmic law of funda- 
mental significance. 

The attitude of Mr. Myers toward modern 
science, with its destructive criticism of relig- 
ious beliefs, is very different from that of most 
defenders of the faith. He is sufficiently fa- 
miliar with scientific method to respect its re- 
sults, and never, even by suggestion, invokes 
the odium theologicum in aid of his contention. 
We doubt not, indeed, that he welcomes the 
work done by science in freeing religious 
thought from its accretions of theological rub- 
bish. But he holds firmly, even passionately 
(and passion rarely leaves the judgment un- 
warped), to the belief in a conscious personal 
immortality, seeking to find new grounds for 
the belief, more substantial than those which, 
he admits, science has largely brought into dis- 
credit. "The educated world," he sees, "is 
waking up to find that no mere trifles or tra- 
ditions only, but the great hope which inspired 
their fathers aforetime, is insensibly vanishing 
away." And, claiming that " a question so mo- 
mentous should not thus be suffered to go by 
default," he calls for a new " stocktaking of evi- 
dence," an inquiry whether " any evidence has 
been discovered bearing on a question which, 
after all, is to science a question of evidence 

It is in the new field of experimental psy- 
chology that Mr. Myers looks for the new evi- 
dence that is to rehabilitate an old and dying 
hope. He finds such evidence in the recent 
investigations of the abnormal consciousness, 
of the phenomena of hypnotism and multiple 
personality. He also finds it in the curious col- 
lections of the Society for Psychical Research. 
The great majority among men of science, of 
course, reject as totally inadequate the evidence 
for the phenomena of the latter class ; while 
for those of the former class, admitting many 
of them to have received proper evidential sub- 
stantiation, they find necessary no such inter- 
pretation as is given them by Mr. Myers. What 
if there be a subliminal consciousness, they 
say ; what if the personality assume, in cer- 
tain cases, a dual aspect ; what if we have 
learned " to conceive of our normal conscious- 
ness as representing only a fragment of the 
activity going on in our brains " ? Mr. Myers 
is himself candid enough to admit that " these 



[Sept. 16, 

expanding psychological prospects are still con- 
sistent with the view that all our mental activ- 
ities, however extensive and however subdivis- 
ible, may be dependent on cerebral changes, 
and may end with death." And having made 
this admission, there is little use in his adding, 
* The very magnitude of the change in our con- 
ception of personality might well make us pause 
before repeating the dogmas of negation which 
were framed with regard to far simpler and 
narrower facts." Why should the new con- 
ception of personality " make us pause," if the 
old view of our mental activities is comprehen- 
sive enough to include, without readjustment, 
all the new facts ? To get any really logical sup- 
port for his view, Mr. Myers is compelled to 
rely upon what are denied to be facts by nearly 
all serious psychologists, upon the alleged phe- 
nomena of thought-transference, of " phantasms 
of the living " and of hallucinatory images of 
the dying. It is surely a little premature to 
base a theory of personal immortality upon 
data which have not themselves gained the ac- 
ceptance of even a respectable minority among 
psychologists. It is a good rule to postpone 
the construction of your theory until you have 
established the facts upon which it must of ne- 
cessity rest ; enough of the facts, that is, to 
afford a working foundation. This was the rule 
that Darwin to whom one of the author's es- 
says pays generous tribute followed with such 
magnificent success. 

Mr. Myers, in his opening essay, which bears 
the title given the entire volume, expressly ex- 
cludes from his discussion the " moral and 
emotional arguments " by which belief in a fu- 
ture life is usually supported. Yet he seems 
to us to stand upon firmer ground when he 
comes back to those arguments in a later chap- 
ter. The essay on " Tennyson as Prophet," 
and the other essay, largely devoted to the 
same theme, entitled " Modern Poets and Cos- 
mic Law," offer a plea more convincing than 
any to be based upon the imperfectly appre- 
hended phases of the abnormal consciousness, 
or upon the ill-attested stories collected by the 
Society for Psychical Research. The argument 
from authority is always a dangerous argument 
to invoke, yet surely the authority of a man like 
Tennyson is not lightly to be set aside. The loft- 
iest of the poets have always numbered among 
their functions that of prophecy ; their title to 
enduring fame has rested chiefly upon their 
character as seers, upon their insight, deeper 
than that of their fellow men, into the things of 
the spirit. Now Tennyson, who knew and un- 

derstood as well as any man of his age the 
work of later nineteenth-century science, pre- 
served a faith, that grew stronger with his ad- 
vancing years, in the doctrine of conscious per- 
sonal immortality, a faith to which, in public 
and in private, he frequently gave impas- 
sioned and even vehement expression. This 
fact will not mean to most thinkers as much as 
it means to our essayist, who says : " We have 
lost our head and our chief ; the one man, 
surely, in all the world to-day who, from a tow- 
ering eminence which none could question, af- 
firmed the realities which to us are all." But 
of it the most indifferent must take some ac- 
count ; the most unmoved by Tennyson's spir- 
itual message must still be impressed by the 
cento of passages bearing upon the destinies of 
man, collected by Mr. Myers from the writings 
of the poet. In this aspect of his thought, 
" Tennyson is the prophet simply of a Spir- 
itual Universe : the proclaimer of man's spirit 
as part and parcel of that Universe, and in- 
destructible as the very root of things." 

We may, however, accept this latter prop- 
osition without putting upon it the narrow in- 
terpretation claimed for it by Mr. Myers. He 
would be the last to deny that the philosoph- 
ical view of the universe broadens immensely 
and even transforms the popular notion of im- 
mortality. And he is not well advised to treat 
with covert contempt the Positivist form of 
that notion, comparing it with " the grin with- 
out the cat of the popular fairy tale," and 
adding, with a touch of misplaced satire, that 
" all in this sad world is well, since Auguste 
Comte has demonstrated that the effect of our 
deeds lives after us, so that what we used to 
call eternal death the cessation, in point of 
fact, of our own existence may just as well 
be considered as eternal life of a very superior 
description." Most philosophic thinkers have 
found themselves forced to substitute for the 
narrow personal interpretation of the term im- 
mortality some such interpretation as is em- 
bodied in the Religion of Humanity, or is found 
in the universal soul of the pantheistic philos- 
ophies, or is logically implied in the idealism 
of Berkeley and Schopenhauer. Indeed, many 
of the Tennysonian passages collected by the 
writer in support of the narrower view lend 
themselves with little difficulty to the wider, 
and thus illustrate afresh the fact that the 
really great poet builds better than he knows 
the structure of his song. 

One point more, and we have done. In read- 
ing a book like the one before us we cannot re- 




frain from the question : This constant preoc- 
cupation with a life to come this insistent de- 
mand which will be satisfied with nothing less 
than the survival of memory after death, with 
the unbroken continuation of our present series 
of conscious states, is it helpful to the pursu- 
ance of the life that now is, with its manifold 
tasks and obligations? Goethe thought not 
so; nor Emerson ; nor Spinoza, whose splendid 
phrase, " The free man thinks of nothing less 
than of death," gives, to those who have taken 
its meaning to heart, a heightened sense of the 
dignity of the life which is now unquestionably 
ours, if only for a time. And we cannot ad- 
mit, what the author seems to take for granted, 
that the existence of a moral purpose in the 
universe is in any way indissolubly linked with 
the continuation of our individual series of 
states of consciousness. What need of invok- 
ing unknown forces and unseen powers to prove 
that the universe is moral ? Is not man a part 
of the universe, and is there not a moral pur- 
pose in human life ? In what sense, even, can 
we imagine a moral universe except as man 
makes it such ? To our mind, there is a more 
profound conception of the essential meaning 
of morality, a conception closer to the truth 
than that for which Mr. Myers argues, in the 
view of the greatest of our poets now living, 
which the essayist formulates, only to reject as 
inadequate, in the following impressive terms : 
" There is another phase of thought which also 
Mr. Swinburne has presented with singular 
fire. That is the resolve that even if there be 
no moral purpose already in the world, man 
shall put it there ; that even if all evolution be 
necessarily truncated, yet moral evolution, so 
long as our race lasts, there shall be ; that even 
if man's virtue be momentary, he shall act as 
though it were an eternal gain." 



While the majority of the biologists of the 
present day are engaged in the attempt to un- 
ravel the mysteries of cell life, including that 
most mysterious phase of cytic life, reproduc- 
tion, and are seeking as far as possible, with 
the aid of the microscope, to see all the most 
hidden circumstances of the act, there are also 
a great many other students who are seeking 

* THE GERM-PLASM : A Theory of Heredity. By August 
Weismann. Translated by W. Newton Parker, Ph.D., and 
Harriet Rb'nnfeldt, B.Sc. New York : Charles Scribner's 

to add reasoning to the methods of the labora- 
tory and thereby to look behind the scenes and 
have a peep at nature's inmost secrets. Of all 
the writers of this latter class, Professor Weis- 
mann of Freiburg has probably attracted the 
greatest notice. He has during the past ten 
years been publishing articles of the utmost im- 
portance on the general subject of the physical 
structures and mechanisms of cell life and de- 
velopment, the central problem in his series of 
articles having been a mechanical statement of 
the facts of heredity. Noticing the patent fact 
that living creatures tend to produce their kind, 
he has sought to discover among the now im- 
mense mass of accumulated information bear- 
ing on the subject the clue to the cause of this 
so universal truth. A host of other writers 
have also approached the subject, and many of 
them have aided in the attempt at a solution 
of the mystery. But no one of them all has 
presented so completely elaborated and so 
plausible a theory of heredity as that of the 
author now engaging our attention. He has 
written many articles, and they have for the 
most part been translated into our tongue and 
found their way into the hands of a great many 
readers. His latest work constitutes the last 
number of the very valuable " Contemporary 
Science " series entitled " The Germ-Plasm, 
A Theory of Heredity." The book is by no 
means easy reading ; in fact, it is the most ab- 
struse number of the series up to this date. 
There is not, however, any lack of clearness 
either on the part of the writer or the trans- 
lators, though it is inevitable that a work on so 
comparatively unusual a subject should not be 
as instantly intelligible as more usual topics 
are. The translators deserve great credit for 
the way in which they have performed their 
part in this most excellent production. 

The cell is no longer, as of yore, to be con- 
sidered the unit of biological structure, but is 
itself a structure or organism consisting of vi- 
tal units. The seat of the forces of the cell 
is the nucleus, and the controlling factors in 
cell-life are within the nucleus. Moreover, the 
substance of the nucleus is not uniform and ho- 
mogeneous, but is composed of various sorts of 
elements, their variety being greater in cells 
not yet mature than in those that have reached 
their final form and can be called fully devel- 
oped. From this it will be seen to follow 
that the egg cell is the most complex cell in 
the body of any animal ; and this we can be- 
lieve, as we reflect that the body is necessarily 
the result of the development or unfolding of 



[Sept 16, 

its contents. The nucleus has been proved to 
be the controlling factor in cell development 
by such observations as this one of Boveri, a 
very expert embryological observer, who took 
the nucleus out of a certain kind of sea ur- 
chin's egg and then fertilized the egg with the 
sperm of another species, whereupon the egg- 
developed not into the species of the mother 
but into that of the spermatozoon. This proves 
that the male nucleus has hereditary power, 
and on other grounds it is shown that the fe- 
male nucleus also has the same power. The 
nucleus is thus shown to be the source of all 
the hereditary influences which actuate the egg, 
and it is likely that this is equally true of all 
cells at all stages of their life. The structure 
of the nucleus is then of the last importance 
for a theory of heredity. It has long been 
known that the nucleus is composed of two 
sorts of substance, one the idioplasm or, as it 
is often called, the chromatin and the other 
a watery non-staining material called the achro- 
matin. The chromatin or idioplasm exhibits 
great differences in different kinds of cells and 
eggs. It is, however, in general composed of 
rods, loops, or coils of deeply stainable material, 
the shapes and arrangement of which are very 
different for different kinds of cells and very 
fixed and constant for different cells of the same 
kind. It is the opinion of Professor Weis- 
mann that these rods of idioplasm are made up 
of very definite elements of matter arranged in 
a very definite way, and that these elements 
are vital particles endowed with the properties 
of living things, including the powers of repro- 
duction and growth. He further thinks that 
they can give rise to cells, or groups of cells, 
by the mere unravelling, so to speak, of the 
parts they are composed of. The simplest of 
these compounds the author calls the " bio- 
phore." This is the primary vital unit, whose 
structure cannot be further simplified without 
destruction of its vitality. Biophores may con- 
ceivably differ as to their number of compon- 
ent molecules and as to the different kinds of 
molecules that enter into them. It is uncer- 
tain whether the biophores influence the cel- 
lular activities from within the nucleus, or mi- 
grate from the nucleus into the cell and thus 
work directly on the cell protoplasm. The bio- 
phore is further believed to be a definite en- 
tity and to have its own powers of life, growth, 
and reproduction, and to do its work through 
the aid of the cell body. The number of bio- 
phores in an animal body is further stated to 
be equal to that of the independently variable 

parts of that body, and not to the number of 
the cells of that body ; for in some cases many 
cells are so far alike that we can suppose them 
all derived from a single biophore. Thus all 
the red or white corpuscles of the human blood 
could be supposed to be derived from two bio- 
phores, while on the other hand we should need 
to assume a great number to produce all the 
different kinds of tissues of the nervous sys- 
tem. The biophore is thus regarded as a struc- 
tural unit of the lowest order, and its develop- 
ment is destined to produce all the cells of a 
given kind that enter into the composition of 
the body, and it cannot by any possibility pro- 
duce any other kind of cells. 

The second stage in Mr. Weismami's con- 
ception of the physical structure of the nuclear 
matter is the idea that the related biophores 
that is, those that are to form parts connected 
in any of many different ways are gathered 
together in the cell to form a larger unit than 
the biophore, for which the name " determi- 
nant " is employed. The determinant, with 
all its contained biophores, can divide and thus 
double the number of parts that can be de- 
rived from it. These determinants play a most 
conspicuous part in the author's theory of he- 
redity. They are the agents called in to ac- 
count for the facts in many cases. They are 
not believed to be visible by any mode of mi- 
croscopical analysis now attainable, but are 
none the less of a certain definite size. The 
fact that the nucleus can contain them all is 
sought to be accounted for by the supposition 
that they are very minute. The determinants 
are further collected into related groups called 
"ids," and these in their turn into " idants." 
The ids are large enough to be seen in the nu- 
cleus, and are the deeply staining spots, " mi- 
crosomata," that can be seen in the nuclear fil- 
aments, and these latter are called the " idants." 
The egg cell is thus seen to be a microcosm in 
which all the parts subsequently to come forth 
from it are present in such wise that the ma- 
turation of each of these preexistent parts will 
produce the adult body down to every remotest 
kind of cell. It is a part of the conception 
that the biophores are so arranged that they 
will produce all the proper cells at the correct 
time, and that these will fall, by reason of their 
position in the idant, in exactly the proper 
place, and thus all confusion be avoided. Ac- 
cording to this notion, the egg cell is the most 
complex of all the cells. In its earlier divis- 
ions we should expect that the sorting out of 
materials to form principal portions of the 




body would occur, and that later the lesser 
parts would receive attention. And this is the 
case in many instances. In some eggs the 
earliest divisions of the egg separate one half 
from all the other half of the body ; in other 
eggs all the ectoderm is separated from all the 
endoderm in the earliest segmentation. The 
development of an animal or plant can be 
stated in the terms of this hypothesis as fol- 
lows : The nuclear matter of the egg will re- 
quire to be analyzed and its parts arranged 
for distribution to the cells to be formed out 
of it. For this the centrosome or nuclear spin- 
dle exists. This, as its appearance suggests, is 
a sphere of attraction whose forces analyze the 
idants and arrange them for transmission to 
the cells to be formed. At first the cell must 
contain a very large number of different bio- 
phores, and the task of sorting them must be 
a very delicate one ; but later the cells are not 
so filled with heterologous biophores. As the 
process continues, the cells will contain fewer 
biophores, and at last only one or a few, from 
which the final forms of cells will be derivable, 
and no others. If a cell could become arrested 
before it had parted with all its biophores, it 
could subsequently at any time under certain 
conditions produce all the sorts of cells that it 
would have produced if it had not been ar- 
rested. And to press this reasoning to its 
legitimate conclusion if the egg should, be- 
fore it had developed at all, set aside one half 
of its substance to go down into the body to 
be developed from the other half, and if the 
half thus set aside should later develop in the 
same way as the first half had done, then we 
should derive from the first body a descendant 
which would be just like it, for it would in 
reality be its twin. 

This is Professor Weismann's conception, 
which he has called " The Continuity of Germ- 
Plasm "; and it is the central idea of his theory 
of heredity. The conception is not so much a 
mere abstraction as it is the only notion of the 
physical constitution of the idioplasm which is 
possible in the light of our knowledge. The 
value of an hypothesis depends on its power to 
explain facts. In this regard this one is particu- 
larly valid. Some of the proofs of this must be 
given, even at the risk of encroachment on the 
limits of our space. For example, so general 
a fact of biology as the regeneration of lost 
parts is understood in the terms of germ-plasm 
to be due to the development of biophores that 
had remained latent. Their production is con- 
sidered to be a result of natural selection, as 

they more often occur in parts where they are 
useful. The common power of fission in the 
lower orders of animals is accounted for in some- 
what the same way by supposing a duplication 
of the biophores that produce not a part but 
the whole of the body. The effect of their gen- 
eral development would be to produce two 
bodies out of one. These two modes of de- 
velopment, then, result from the further matu- 
ration of already considerably developed bio- 
phores, one producing a part only and the other 
producing an entire body. One can be con- 
ceived of readily as the phylogenetic result of 
the other. Gemmation, on the other hand, an 
equally general biological phenomenon, can be 
regarded as the result of the development of 
idants that had been arrested early in their 
course, and reserved till a later date in the 
life-history at which to come to their maturity. 
And egg development is a mode of gemmation 
in which the cell is arrested at the very outset 
of its course ; but we must note that true egg 
development includes another event, the access 
of the spermatozoon. Gemmation and egg de- 
velopment are thus seen to be modes of repro- 
duction that may have resulted from that ac- 
tion of natural selection on the idioplasm. 

But the central fact of biological science is 
variety in the midst of unity, and the evolu- 
tion of animals and plants from the simple to 
the complex. How does this theory look in 
the light of the facts of evolution ? Mere mul- 
tiplication of living things can conceivably be 
brought about through fission and gemmation ; 
and, in fact, in plants and the lower animals 
these processes have a very great deal to do 
with the operations of replenishing the earth. 
Even egg development can be parthenoge- 
netic ; that is, the unfertilized egg can, as we 
should think it ought to be able to do on our 
theory, reproduce its descendant generation, 
and the male sex is unknown for many ani- 
mals. Vacancies in the ranks of the living, 
due to the sickle of the reaper death, could 
then theoretically be made full through the 
operation of the monogamic modes of reproduc- 
tion. Why, then, does sexual development 
have any existence ? The older schools of bio- 
logical thought taught that the sexes were un- 
like in regard to the part played by the egg 
and the sperm in the egg development. Many 
ideas on this point have prevailed ; thus, some 
thought that the egg was inert, and that the 
spermatozoon was needed to energize the other- 
wise dull egg. Others thought that the sperm 
o-ave to the egg certain elements that caused 


[Sept. 16, 

the variations from the racial type necessary 
for the evolution of species. Weismann differs 
from all other thinkers in holding that the egg 
and the sperm are composed of almost precisely 
identical idioplasm. I say " almost," because 
he now is inclined to think that there are slight 
differences between the two, and that the mean- 
ing of the fertilization of the egg is not to fur- 
nish a stimulus to the egg but to unite the dif- 
ferent idioplasms of the two parents so as to 
bring about a slight variation in the idioplasm 
of the offspring. Professor Weismann's theory 
accounts beautifully for the facts of heredity, 
but heretofore it has been defective on the 
other equally important side of variation. He 
has heretofore held that the germinal plasm is 
invariable ; now he modifies that view and 
states that they are not absolutely invariable, 
but that the sundry influences which play upcn 
the organism and affect the body at large play 
also to some extent on the germinal matter, 
and that these influences, while not sufficient 
to destroy the construction of the idioplasm, do 
impress slight differences on the idants strong 
enough to divert them slightly from the exact 
course of heredity. In the development of in- 
sects from unfertilized eggs there are slight de- 
viations from the maternal image ; if there were 
two variable hereditary elements there would 
be a chance for still greater divergences from 
the exact type of the parent. And he seeks to 
prove that the result of the fusion of sperm and 
egg-nucleus is a nucleus with the differences of 
both. The fertilization of the egg is thus re- 
garded as a device for the production of varia- 
tions, and it is considered to be an acquired 
character brought about in its great develop- 
ment among the higher beings through the 
operation of natural selection, by reason of the 
great advantage it conferred on its possessors. 
Considerable evidence is being collected to 
prove that this is the real meaning of this pro- 
cess, the data of which cannot be cited here. 

It will be seen that this view of the meaning 
of sexual reproduction, or " Amphimixis," 
leaves us in the same old difficulty. For it does 
not show us how the germ-plasm is caused to 
vary in the right direction and at the right 
time, so as to produce such variations as nat- 
ural selection can work on. The cases of Cope 
and the Neolamarckians are all regarded by 
Weismann as being of the utmost interest, as 
showing us probable phyletic lines ; but they 
do not prove that use can affect the structure 
of the germinal matter so as to produce an off- 
spring on which the acquired character has been 

grafted. All the alleged cases of use-inherit- 
ance are dismissed as not proved, and many 
apparent cases are shown to be errors of con- 
clusion ; so that, both on theoretical grounds 
and on the results of experiment, Weismann 
concludes that somatic variations cannot be 
transmitted. The variation of the idioplasm 
referred to as correlated with the somatic vari- 
ations is not in any sense understood by him 
as due to the results of those somatic varia- 
tions, but having occurred, they can be seized 
by natural selection. Such a view of the mat- 
ter leaves us where Darwin left us in regard 
to this point. On the side of heredity the the- 
ory is a helpful working hypothesis, and is the 
closest approximation to a clear statement on 
the question that has as yet come to us ; on the 
side of variation and the origin of species, it 
leaves us very much in the dark. The author's 
method in these essays has been progressive, 
and it is possible that he will later reach a 
clearer ground on the latter question, which is 
quite as important a biological truth as the fact 
of heredity. HENRY LESLIE OSBORN. 


History and religion, the claims now current un- 
der any one form of faith and the claims hitherto 
current under many forms of faith, need reconcilia- 
tion in one comprehensive statement which shall 
find its authority in the entire unfolding of human 
life. This reconciliation it is the office of sound 
criticism to accomplish ; and with it, in one way or 
another, almost all religious literature is occupied. 
It is in this relation that we mark the bearings of 
the several works before us. 

The author of " Buddhism and Christianity " de- 
fines in his preface the purpose of his work : " It 
is the contention of this work that Christ was an 
Essene monk ; that Christianity was Essenism ; and 
that Essenism was due, as Dean Mansel contended, 

TIANITY. By Arthur Lillie. New York : Imported by Charles 
Scribner's Sons. 

ITY. By William Dearing Harden. New York : G. P. Put- 
nam's Sons. 

Beach. Boston : Little, Brown, & Co. 

CHRIST AND CRITICISM. By Charles Marsh Mead, Ph.D., 
D.D. New York : Anson D. F. Randolph & Co. 

VERBUM DEI. Yale Lectures on Preaching, 1893. By 
Robert F. Horton, M.A. New York : Macmillan & Co. 

Orello Cone, D.D. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

Miiller, K.M. New York : Longmans, Green, & Co. 




to the Buddhist missionaries 'who visited Egypt 
within two generations of the time of Alexander 
the Great' " (p. v. ). There is something very sur- 
prising in the attitude of the mind of the author 
toward evidence which this statement discloses. He 
unites a very light and slight estimate of the im- 
mense amount of knowledge and current convic- 
tions that has accumulated about the life of Christ 
with an extravagant and overweening sense of what 
can he done in a few pages to build up a new and 
erratic theory. Such a position promises nothing of 
any moment. Facts which need careful verifica- 
tion, wide comparison, and cautious interpretation, 
are hastily gotten together, as if they carried with 
them at once the author's opinions. The most one 
will find in this work is, here and there, a useful sug- 

" An Inquiry into the Truth of Dogmatic Chris- 
tianity " may be briefly characterized as an old- 
fashioned assault of unbelief on the defenses of or- 
thodoxy, defenses that rarely crumble in a degree 
proportioned to the cannonade they undergo. Time 
can alone deal adequately with them, softening them 
down and refashioning them to suit new services of 
light and life. The author has a clear, vigorous, 
unconcessive mind, and thinks himself candid, as 
doubtless in his inmost heart he intends to be. But 
his confidence in his complete victory in his trial 
of strength with the reverend archbishop of the 
most reverend church, and the still further confi- 
dence with which he throws down his gauntlet to 
all comers, show plainly that true diffidence and 
tearfulness in the higher realms of truth are far 
from him. His successes are those which usually 
attend on the well-directed blows of unbelief. A good 
deal sounds hollow under them ; some things give 
way ; but they leave in the end a barrier nearly as 
high and inaccessible as that which they first as- 
sailed. The author belongs to those who have a 
supreme confidence in the steady strokes of logic, 
thug following thug on the syllogistic anvil. This 
is seen by his definition of faith : " Faith, I con- 
ceive to be a blind reliance on the views and asser- 
tions of others, and the utter suppression of rea- 
son " (p. 28 ). Such men will see many things very 
distinctly, and many things not at all. When such 
a mind professes a desire to be convinced by an 
adversary, we seem to hear a rock exclaim : " I 
would grow excellent corn if only some one, friend 
or foe, could be found to plant it plant it deep 
in my very bosom." 

" The Newer Religious Thinking " is a good an- 
tidote to the "Inquiry." It is a fresh, popular, 
and enthusiastic presentation, in a series of sermons, 
of the vital, concessive forces of a living faith. 
Without directly touching the burden of the " In- 
quiry," it would lift it from most minds by an in- 
sensible substitution of wider, more generous, and 
more just thoughts. There would thus insensibly 
take place that most needful transformation by 
which dogma a rock-like wall of ice dissolves 
away, becomes a running stream, and once more 

carries with it all the processes of life. This work 
brings courage and hope to the reader, and makes 
the world seem, what it truly is, an unfolding 
grace beyond grace, knowledge beyond knowledge 
of the divine mind. We escape the distress of 
finding things completely wrong now, and also the 
greater distress the absolute hopelessness of being 
able to make them right hereafter. It is wonder- 
ful that evolution should not seem to those who so 
readily entertain it a profound justification of the 
past as well as a limitless promise of the future. 

" Christ and Criticism " aims, as its primary pur- 
pose, to set forth " how far the authority of Jesus 
Christ should properly be allowed to modify, or to 
regulate, the process of Biblical criticism " (p. iv. ). 
The book is clear, candid, and concise. It considers 
somewhat at length the theory of Kuenen and others 
of the comparatively recent origin of the Jewish rit- 
ual, and is well fitted to make the mind more cau- 
tious in its critical essays. This, indeed, seems to be 
its chief value. There is a boldness, not to say rash- 
ness, about Biblical criticism that goes far to unhinge 
the mind, to destroy the criticism itself in common 
with all conclusions concerning the sacred record. 
More weight must be attached to existing conclu- 
sions, to historical testimony, to the slow determin- 
ation of opinions and events by the ages themselves 
in which they have been shaped, or there is no suf- 
ficient basis for criticism. Criticism that pulls to 
pieces with perfect freedom its subject-matter can 
only leave behind it disjecta membra. Its own pos- 
itive results will be far too weak to command respect 
in presence of the genei'al unbelief it has awakened. 
Weight is the universal condition of solid work. 
To show no reverence is to command no reverence. 
Criticism can create nothing, and it must therefore 
use sparingly and respectfully the material provided 
for it. The renewing of this impression seems to 
us the better purpose and result of the present work. 

To bring the testimony of Christ in a direct way to 
the support of any theory of interpretation is not so 
easy as the reverent mind regards it. The method 
implies a universality in the words of Christ, the 
full force of the thousand implications involved 
in his immediate purpose, that make of his teach- 
ings, not simply a seed-bed, but the entire harvest 
of later years. Thus, again and again, from the 
silence of Christ, or from an act, or from an asser- 
tion of his, having wholly other ends in view, there 
have been drawn conclusions wherewith to check 
the moral and spiritual growth of the world. We 
cannot enuecleate our spiritual world in its entirety 
from the teachings of Christ. His words are of 
most value when they are allowed to flow most freely 
into our words ; when they are united most imme- 
diately and vitally with their own conditions. As 
a section of the river, a chapter in the book, they 
come forward to us in a far more effective way 
than when we undertake to regard them as a gen- 
eral synopsis of all truth. 

" Verbum Dei " expresses in its title the prevail- 
ing idea of the volume. The author, addressing 



[Sept. 16, 

young men in preparation for the ministry, returns, 
under many forms of expression, to the supreme 
consideration that they must deliver a message 
which they have received from God. The author 
is plainly sincere and earnest in his exhortation, 
and will receive the hearty approval of the ordin- 
arily devout mind. An important truth lies back 
of the enforcement the need in one's calling of a 
simple, devout, and devoted spirit; but the exhor- 
tation, as the author puts it, seems to us tainted 
with presumption, mysticism, pietism. The aver- 
age young man, instead of finding in it a guide to 
sincere and wise effort, might readily fall, by means 
of it, into an unctuous and dogmatic temper entirely 
alien to the intention of the writer. He states as 
his theme : " Every living preacher must receive 
his message in a communication direct from God, 
and the constant purpose of his life must be to re- 
ceive it uncorrupted, and to deliver it without addi- 
tion or subtraction " (p. 17). Farther expressions 
of the same thought are : " Language may be fei-- 
tilizing as well as charming if the tide of God is in 
it." " Thus saith the Lord, tacitly introduces all 
that he teaches." " An utterance from the deep 
cell of immediate revelation." " Is the word of 
God in it authenticate and immediate and real? " 
" He is to climb Sinai with its ring-fence of death, 
and on the summit speak face to face with Him 
whom no one can see and yet live." These senti- 
ments, taken from the first lecture, are enforced 
in the lectures which follow, chiefly by a consid- 
eration of the character of the Bible and of the 
need of its study. One lecture is entitled, "The 
Word of God Outside the Bible." In this there is 
a passing mention of science, but no mention of 
those large and urgent questions which touch the 
relations of men to each other. Is there not here 
a profound mistake on the part of the lecturer, in 
spite of his earnest and liberal temper ? Has any 
young man any right to put his opinions, whatever 
they may be, first upon God and then upon his fel- 
low-men, as ultimate truths ? Does not this idea 
rest with its entire weight on the dogmatism of the 
past ? Is a young man likely to find a simple and 
modest message and a true work in this way ? How 
shall he attain the earnest, consecrated, and also 
wise temper, which the times and all times demand, 
otherwise than by a daily inquiry into that very 
theme, overlooked by the lecturer, Sociology the 
coming of the Kingdom of Heaven, here and now, 
among men ? It seems to us a great wrong to the 
Bible to magnify it in this way, and at the same 
time to separate it from its most immediate work, 
the redemption of society. What young men su- 
premely need is an earnest spirit in working with 
men for men, in all lower and higher ways ; and 
this spirit must ever arise in immediate view of the 
wants of men. We have no patience with a super- 
naturalism that blinds a man to the spiritual world 
he lives in. 

"The Gospel and its Earliest Interpretations " is 
a work well and clearly conceived, and executed with 

fulness and care. Only a rigid notion of inspira- 
tion can hide from us the diversity of outlook in 
different portions of the New Testament ; and the 
artificial harmony we secure by our narrow render- 
ings is attended by grave losses. Our fellowship 
with each writer will be stimulating in the degree 
in which it is free. The foreground is assigned in 
this book to the words of Christ ; these are followed 
by the view of his life given by his more immediate 
Jewish disciples ; then come what the author terms 
the Pauline transformation and the secondary kin- 
dred transformation, of which the Epistle to the 
Hebrews offers the most marked example. These 
are followed by the Johannine, the anti-gnostic, and 
the Apocalyptic interpretations. That there is ground 
for distinguishing all these phases of thought many 
would readily admit ; and also that, in tracing these 
distinctions, we come to a much better and broader 
understanding of the very wide-reaching problem of 
the formation of Christian faith. We think, how- 
ever, that the process of discrimination, once en- 
tered on, readily suffers exaggeration. The truth 
is that diverse things and contradictory things can 
be said and done by the same person, and still carry 
with them very little real division of thought. The 
religious world has suffered immensely, both in ac- 
tion and in interpretation, by magnifying wholly 
secondary distinctions. In discussions of this chai 1 - 
acter, questions of authenticity and of interpreta- 
tion are allowed to flow into each other too readily. 
The first set of inquiries are far less facile than the 
second. We can interpret safely only when the 
shore-marks of the text are well defined for us, and 
we are not allowed to determine its authenticity by 
the exigencies of our theory in rendering its words. 
If it is true, however, that the critic is especially 
tempted to magnify differences, it is still more true 
that the general reader of the New Testament 
greatly obscures them. A very important service 
is rendered by a work like the present in restoring 
local color to the various writings of the New Tes- 

The last volume on our list is "Theosophy, or 
Psychological Religion." No English author has 
done more than its author, Max Mliller, to identify 
the necessary steps of development in religious truth 
with the historical growth of religions. The two 
are essentially one. Whatever religion may owe to 
the superior insight of gifted minds, to a revelation 
of which they are made the prophets and apostles 
( and it owes very much to these personal points of 
light), none the less, the real test of religious truth. 
that by which it has been for the time being 
saved, and later passed on as a permanent term in 
the development of the race, has been its hold, as 
an actual faith, on the minds of men. In discuss- 
ing, therefore, the fundamental conceptions of the 
various religions of the world, and the manner in 
which they prepare the way for, support, and sup- 
plement each other, we come, as we cannot other- 
wise come, both at the order of religious develop- 
ment and at the tremendous weight of proof which 




attaches to the truths reached along this line of 
race-unfolding. Skepticism is impossible if we truly 
see and feel that these primary spiritual principles 
are really the product of all the reason of the world, 
acting both instinctively and rationally, individu- 
ally and in all men collectively. The present vol- 
ume is another most significant contribution in this 
same direction. " These lectures contain the key 
to the whole series, and they formed from the very 
beginning my final aim. They are meant as the 
coping-stone of the arch that rests on the two pil- 
lars of Physical and Anthropological Religion, and 
unites the two into the true gate of the temple of 
the religion of the future. They are to show that 
from a purely historical point of view Christianity 
is not a mere continuation or even reform of Juda- 
ism, but that, particularly in its theology or theos- 
ophy, it represents a synthesis of Semitic and Aryan 
thought which forms its real strength and its power 
of satisfying not only the requirements of the heart, 
but likewise the postulates of reason." (Preface, 
viii.). These lectures, with much incidental dis- 
cussion, cover a wide field in oriental and Grecian 
eschatology and theosophy, and gather their con- 
clusions together in connection with the church at 
Alexandria and with the mysticism of Mediaeval 
Christianity. A careful perusal of a book of this 
order becomes an immediate requisite of every stu- 
dent who is striving, at least in his own thought, to 
unite history and religion in one universal develop- 
ment ; to make criticism subserve its real purpose 
of uniting and consolidating all truth. 



Hunting on the 
Western plains 
and mountains. 

Mr. Theodore Roosevelt's " The Wil- 

derness Hunter " (Putnam ), a rather 
sumptuous volume, profusely illus- 
trated, is largely a narrative of the author's hunt- 
ing experiences on and about his ranch on the Little 
Missouri, and in the outlying mountainous region 
of western Montana and northwestern Wyoming. 
The business of " ranching " has, for some occult 
reason, a special charm for the gilded youth of the 
Eastern States ; and Mr. Roosevelt seems to have 
followed it, in a gentleman-amateurish sort of way, 
for some years before his fancy led him into the 
more precarious paths of politics. During these 
years, he tells us, he " hunted much, among the 
mountains and on the plains, both as a pastime and 
to procure hides, meat, and robes for use on the 
ranch ; and it was my good luck to kill all the va- 
rious kinds of large game that can properly be con- 
sidered to belong to, temperate North America." 
No one, after reading Mr. Roosevelt's books, will 
question his claim to having wrought a great deal of 
havoc in the animal world. Bison, moose, elk, deer, 
caribou, etc., have fallen in great numbers before 
his conquering rifle. It is fair to say, too, that he 
has carried on his warfare against the " native 

burghers " of forest and plain, with some shadow 
of justifiable end, and with a nice regard to the 
dictates of the sportsman's code. No single elk, 
deer, bison, or other victim on Mr. Roosevelt's list, 
has had reason, so far as we can discern, to com- 
plain that it was killed in other than a thoroughly 
sportsmanlike way a fact equally soothing, doubt- 
less, to both parties to the transaction. But it is 
not our purpose to chop morals with our author on 
the point indicated. The book is thoroughly read- 
able, and it contains, aside from matter of mere en- 
tertainment, much that should prove of practical 
value to the sportsman and of interest to the na- 

Mr. Nestor Ponce de Leon ( No. 40 

Two new volumes , __ -, . f,.. C*. , ., 

of Columbus Broadway, New York City) is both 

author and publisher of two well- 
printed and profusely-illustrated volumes of Co- 
lumbus literature " The Columbus Gallery " and 
"The Caravels of Columbus." The former con- 
tains an account of the portraits, monuments, stat- 
ues, medals, and paintings of Christopher Columbus 
now in existence in various countries. Its illus- 
trations are of course an important feature, and 
make of it a timely and useful volume. The sec- 
ond work, " The Caravels of Columbus," contains 
full descriptions, compiled from original documents, 
of the vessels selected by Columbus and by the 
brothers Pinzon. The author describes every de- 
tail of the famous caravels, and shows that they 
were stanch ships, properly fitted up ; but when he 
says they were " greatly superior to those dragons 
in which the Normans [Norsemen] made wonder- 
ful voyages through frozen and ice-packed seas, dis- 
covering and colonizing Iceland, Greenland, and the 
northern part of America, 500 years before the suc- 
cessful enterprise of Columbus," we must refer him 
to the Viking ship which has lately sailed across 
the Atlantic and is now on exhibition at the Co- 
lumbian Exposition. The grotesque caravels are 
mere tubs as compared with the picturesque Viking 
ship, and can in no wise be compared with the lat- 
ter in seagoing qualities. In the art of shipbuild- 
ing the Norsemen were farther advanced in the 
tenth century than the navigators of Spain or Por- 
tugal in the fifteenth. This criticism does not, of 
course, impugn the general accuracy of Mr. Ponce 
de Leon's work, which is in the main to be heartily 

In a little book on " The Secret of 
The Secret of Character Building" (Griggs), by 
"' John DeMotte, we have the attempt 
of a religious nature to provide a scientific explana- 
tion and authorization for a theory of morals and 
religion.. That what, is called the spiritual life has 
its basis in sensation and nerve-structure is a fact 
that religious people are too apt to overlook, and 
one which our author does well to emphasize. The 
tedious process of eradicating bad habits (or nerve- 
tracks leading upon stimulation to vicious action), 
and of establishing good ones, is necessary before 



[Sept. 16, 

the higher life can be considered a stable possession. 
In the words (and capitals) of the book: "The 
Physical Basis of a virtuous life is a network of 
Trunk Lines, where the incoming waves of stimu- 
lation, on reaching the cerebral hemispheres of the 
brain, find there well-worn tracks, with switches 
already set, leading to the God-given higher posses- 
sions of the Soul holy memories, pure imagina- 
tions, consecrated ambitions, righteous judgments, 
and a Will whose nerve connection with these 
higher faculties is so perfect that at once, unless 
the line of duty presents complications requiring 
consideration, the commands for right conduct are 
flashed out through the outgoing nerve tracks, and 
instantly obeyed." Despite a slight confusion in 
the author's thought and metaphor, and a little 
more parade of science than was necessary for the 
enforcement of his thesis, he rightly concludes that 
a sudden conversion, to secure a man from falling, 
must be reinforced by patient continuance in well- 
doing, that young converts need much more helpful 
care and attention than they receive, and that it is 
much better and easier to learn right habits at the 
outset than to sow wild oats now and rely upon 
making all right by " getting religion " later on. 
It is possible to cease from vicious action, but the 
traces of it and the tendency to it always remain a 
part of the physical basis of character. One can 
pull out the nail ; one cannot pull out the nail- 
hole. "This book is the expressed conviction of 
the writer that we shall never build the highest 
types of Christian character until society feels a 
deeper concern for the establishment in youth of 
none but sound nerve-tracks in moral areas." 

We welcome Ernest Redwood's 

A French protest . i,, /T-II\I 

against Material- translation of " Youth (Dodd),by 
nce - Charles Wagner, as an evidence that 
Americans are beginning to realize that not all 
Frenchmen are flippant and licentious, and are be- 
ginning to take an interest in the serious thought of 
France. The original book has aroused wide atten- 
tion as one sign of a healthy reaction in France 
against the prevalent materialism, utilitarianism, 
realism, naturalism. Wagner points out the dan- 
gers of exclusive devotion to positive science belit- 
tling man in his own eyes, to the neglect of charac- 
ter, culture, and training, and the dangers of that ex- 
treme centralization which has given us our mon- 
ster cities with pauperism on the one hand and lux- 
ury on the other. All that is evil in these things 
is opposed to the modern spirit, which he defines as 
the " sum total of the best which man has derived 
from all the mighty labors and sufferings of the 
past." It is fairmindedness and breadth of view, 
or the true scientific spirit ; it is kindness and jus- 
tice, or the true humanitarian spirit ; it is solidar- 
ity and altruism, or the true socialistic spirit. 
Man's success, during the past century, in construct- 
ing the machinery of a vast material civilization 
has been splendid, but man himself is a failure. 
He is overdriven and crushed by the Juggernaut he 

A- typical J&n- 

giish School 

Years Ago. 

has made. It is useless, or worse than useless, to 
master the material forces of the universe if we can- 
not master ourselves. Man is the basis of all civ- 
ilization, and it is because man is weak that our 
civilization threatens to crumble and fall about our 
heads. To regain strength, our youth must return 
to normal thinking and normal living, to rever- 
ence, to belief in something, to a feeling of responsi- 
bility, to work, to chastity, to simplicity, to joy- 
ousness, and where possible to country life, to 
communion with nature. Such are some of the 
points eloquently set forth in this very readable 

In his " The Ancient Ways : Win- 

. * 

chester Fifty Years Ago" (Macmil- 

jv^ th(j ^ w Tuckwel}? an old 

Winchester boy, gives a lively picture of his life as 
a pupil at that venerable foundation. In reading 
this account of Winchester school one scarcely knows 
which to wonder at most the barbarity of the 
boys, the indifference to it of the masters, the prac- 
tical futility of the curriculum, or the affectionate 
way in which the Rev. Mr. Tuckwell seems to look 
back upon it all. The abominable custom of " fag- 
ging " which makes the smaller boy the lawful 
drudge and victim of the larger flourished in es- 
pecial vigor at Winchester. The author himself 
suffered grievously therefrom in mind and in body, 
if not in estate ; and he feelingly heads a chapter 
on the subject with the familiar third line of the 
Second Book of the ^neid. As to the school-work, 
he says, " We were ' suckled on Latin and weaned 
on Greek '; little else was cared for." Fifteen hours 
a week were given to Latin composition not to 
translating into Latin, but to "original" composi- 
tion on a given theme. An incredible amount of 
Latin was learned by heart, and once a year the 
boys were publicly tested as to their proficiency in 
this useful accomplishment. On these occasions 
" the lines were said in eight lessons "; and once, as 
the author records, a pupil "took up 2,000 lines a les- 
son, 16,000 lines in all " a parrot-like feat which 
seems to have afforded the examiners much satis- 
faction. A mild feint was made at French and 
German, mathematics did not even count in the 
school marks, and the fact that " very rarely in- 
deed a theme was given for English writing" is not 
altogether unattested in Mr. Tuckwell's own style. 
In short, any branch remotely savoring of utility 
was severely frowned down at Winchester, and the 
pupil of the period left school, we opine, with the 
mental equipment of a mediaeval monk, and about 
as fit as Caspar Hauser for the real activities of life. 

It is high commendation to say that 

An appreciative _ / 

and judicial Mr. O Connor Morris, in adding an- 

life of Napoleon. Qther Ufe rf Napoleon to the multi- 

tude ("Heroes of the Nations" series, Putnam), 
has not been carrying coals to Newcastle. He has 
made a valuable book, in which the ever-fascinating 
narrative of that wonderful life is told again with 
appreciation yet with calm judgment. The fact 




that Napoleon, like other men, grew under the in- 
fluences of his circumstances is " too little recog- 
nized, although such recognition is necessary to any 
sane estimate of the man. Mr. Morris here em- 
phasizes it. The genius of the soldier and general 
is conceded by all, but we are here led to behold 
also the consummate ability of the administrator. 
This latest biographer, however, has to confess that 
Napoleon was not a great statesman, that while 
his domestic policy bore many rich and beneficent 
fruits, it was the policy of a beneficent despot, and 
that his imperial plans were the outcome of an in- 
ability to account for nationality and of an ambi- 
tion which was seldom in touch with the practical. 
It must be conceded, however, by the careful stu- 
dent of history, that much in the career of Napo- 
leon was the result of forces he did not control. 
When he came to the front, already had the wars 
of the Revolution period engendered a universal 
European distrust of French ambition, and already 
were the hostile forces of a world gathered around 
his camps. He could not go backward, and every 
step forward led but to a final Waterloo. No bet- 
ter summing up of Napoleon's policy and charac- 
ter, and of his contribution to history, has ever been 
written than the last chapter of this book, which we 
commend to all students of the career of the man 
of destiny. 


In presenting our annual list of books that are an- 
nounced for the coining Fall and Winter by American 
publishers, those principles of classification and arrange- 
ment have been followed that have in the past been 
found most convenient and helpful to our readers. The 
division into departments of literature, obviously of 
much practical advantage, has been attended with no 
little difficulty, owing to the meagre information some- 
times furnished us ; and if an occasional book is wrongly 
classified, the error is due to this cause alone. We be- 
lieve, however, that few such errors have occurred, and 
that the list as a whole will prove as trustworthy as it 
is instructive. Some suggestive comments upon it will 
be found in the leading editorial article in this number 


Massachusetts : Its Historians and Its History, by Charles 
Francis Adams. A Sketch of the History of the Apostolic 
Church, by Oliver J. Thatcher, $1.25. Sam Houston and 
the War of Independence in Texas, by Alfred M. Will- 
iams, with portrait and map, $2. Cartier to Frontenac, a 
study of geographical discovery in the interior of North 
America in its historical relations, by Justin Winsor, illus. 
(Houghton, Mifflin & Co.) 

The Jews of Angevin England, documents and records from 
Latin and Hebrew sources for the first time collected and 
translated, by Joseph Jacobs, $1.25. New vols. in the 
" Story of the Nations " series : The Story of Parthia, by 
George Rawlinson ; The Story of Vedic India, by Z. A. 
Ragozin ; The Story of Japan, by David Murray ; The 
Story of the Crusades, by T. A. Archer ; each, 1 vol., illus., 
$1.50. (G. P. Putnam's Sons.) 

A History of the Roman Empire, from its foundation to the 
death of Marcus Aurelins, by J. B. Bury ; illus., " Stu- 
dent's Series." (Harper & Bros.) 

A Half-Century of Conflict, by Francis Parkman, popular 
edition, 2 vols., $3. (Little, Brown & Co. ) 

History of My Time : Memoirs of the Chancellor Pasquier, 
edited by the Duke D'Audiffret-Pasquier, translated by 
C. E. Roche ; in 3 vols., illus. Customs and Fashions in 
Old New England, by Alice Morse Earle, $1.25. Stelligeri, 
and Other Essays concerning America, by Barrett Wen- 
dell. The Philosophy of History in Europe, by Robert 
Flint, in 3 vols. (Chas. Scribner's Sons.) 

Life in Ancient Egypt, described by Adolph Erman, trans- 
lated by H. M. Tirard ; with illustrations and maps. The 
English Town in the Fifteenth Century, by Alice Stopford 
Green, 2 vols. (Macmillan & Co.) 

Russia and Turkey in the Nineteenth Century, by Elizabeth 
W. Latimer, illus. (A. C. McClurg & Co.) 

History of Illinois and Louisiana under the French Rule, em- 
bracing a general view of French dominion in North Amer- 
ica, by Jos. Wallace, indexed, $2.50. (Rober t Clarke & 

English History for American Readers, by T. W. Higginson 
and Edward Channing, illus. A First History of France, 
by Louise Creighton, illus. ^Longmans, Green & Co.) 

The Pilgrim in Old England, the history, present condition, 
and outlook of the Independent (Congregational) Churches 
in England ; Southworth lectures in 1892 at Andover, $2. 
(Fords, Howard & Hulbert.) 

History of the Expedition under Lewis and Clark, new lim- 
ited edition, reprinted from original Philadelphia edition 
of 1814, edited, with notes, etc., by Prof essor Elliott Coues; 
in 4 vols., $12.50 net. (Francis P. Harper, N. Y. City.) 

The Queens of England, by Agnes Strickland, new cabinet 
edition, 8 vols., illus., $12. Works of William H. Pres- 
cott: History of the Reign of the Emperor Charles V., 2 
vols.; Biographical and Critical Miscellanies, 1 vol.; per 
vol., $5., net (completing the 6dition-de-luxe). History of 
the Consulate and the Empire of France under Napoleon, 
by L. A. Thiers, 12 vols., per vol. $3. (J. B. juippincott Co. ) 


The Life and Writings of Jared Sparks, comprising selections 
from his Journals and Correspondence, by Herbert B. 
Adams ; in 2 vols., with heliotype portraits, $5 net. 
James Russell Lowell, by George E. Woodberry ; in 2 vols., 
with portrait, $2.50, " American Men of Letters." George 
William Curtis, by Edward Gary, with portrait, $1.25, 
"Am. Men of Letters." The Bench and Bar of New 
Hampshire, brief biographical sketches, by Charles H. 
Bell. College Tom, the career of Thomas Hazard, of 
Rhode Island, by Caroline Hazard. (Houghton, Mifflin 

Women of the Valois and Versailles Court : Women of the 
Valois Court, The Court of Louis XIV., The Court of 
Louis XV., The Last Years of Louis XV.; each, 1 vol., 
illus., $1.25. Memoirs of Madame Junot, Duchesse 
D'Abrantes ; new revised edition, 4 vols., illus., $10. The 
Life and Correspondence of Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, late 
Dean of Westminister, by R. E. Prothero ; in 2 vols. 
Noah Porter, a memorial by friends, edited by George S. 
Merriam, $2. Men of Achievement : Explorers and Trav- 
elers, by Gen. A. W. Greeley, Men of Business, by William 
0. Stoddard, Inventors, by Philip G. Hubert, Jr., States- 
men, by Noah Brooks ; each, 1 vol., $2. (Chas. Scribner's 

Autobiography, by Charles G. Leland. Memoirs of Edward 
L. Youmaiis, by John Fiske. The Bronte Family, by 
Dr. William Wright, illus. Autobiography, by Werner 
von Siemens. The Story of Washington, by Elizabeth E. 
Seelye, illus. General Johnston, by Robert M. Hughes, 
illus., "Great Commanders," $1.50. General Thomas, 
by Henry Coppe"e, illus., " Great Commanders," $1.50. 
(D. Appleton&Co.) 

The Life and Work of Alexander Von Humboldt, by F. 
Guillemard, $1.50. New volumes in the " Heroes of the 
Nations": Henry of Navarre and the Huguenots in 
France, by P. F. Willert, illus.; Cicero and the Fall of the 
Roman Republic, by J. L. Strachan Davidson ; each 1 vol., 
illus., $1.50. (G. P. Putnam's Sons. I 

The Life and Art of Edwin Booth, by William Winter, illus. 
The Life of Henry Edward Manning, by Edmund Sher- 
idan Purcell ; 2 vols., with portraits. (Macmillan & Co.) 

Personal Recollections of John G. Whittier, by Mrs. Mary B. 
Claflin, with portrait, 75 cts. (T. Y. Crowell & Co.) 

The Life of Shakespeare, copied from the best sources with- 
out comment, by Daniel Wilder, $1. (Little, Brown & Co.) 

The Autobiography of Tommaso Salvini, with portrait, $1.50. 
(Century Co.) 



[Sept. 16, 

Life of General George H. Thomas, by Col. Don Piatt, with 
concluding chapters by Gen. H. V. Boynton, $3. (Robert 
Clarke & Co. I 

Leonidas Polk, Bishop and General, by William M. Polk, 
2 vols.. illus. Life of Edward Bouverie Pusey, D.D., by 
H. P. Liddon, 4 yols., illus. I Longmans, Green & Co.) 

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, by Arthur Waugh, new cheaper edi- 
tion, with additions and revisions, illus. (C. L. Webster 

Tke Life of William Jay, by Bayard Tuckerman, $2.50. 
(Dodd, Mead & Co.) 

Heinrich Heine's Life told in his own Words, edited by Gus- 
tav Karpeles and translated by Arthur Dexter. (Henry 
Holt & Co.) 


An Outline of the Development of the Early English Drama, 
by Katharine Lee Bates. English Prose Writers, passages 
of English prose selected on the plan of " Ward's English 
Poets," edited, with general introduction, by Henry Craik ; 
in 5 vols. (Macmillan & Co.) 

Letters of James Russell Lowell, edited by Charles Eliot Nor- 
ton ; 2 vols., boxed, $7.50. George William Curtis's 
Works, edited by Charles Eliot Norton, 4 vols. Harper's 
American Essayists : By the Way, by C. D. Warner, As 
We Were Saying, by C. D. Warner, The Work of Ruskin, 
by Charles Waldstein ; each, 1 vol., $1. Essays in London 
and Elsewhere, by Henry James, $1.25. ( Harper & Bros.) 

Historical Tales, by Charles Morris. America, England, 
France, Germany, 4 vols., illus., per vol., $1.25. Illus- 
trated edition of the Half Hour Series, selected and ar- 
ranged by Chas. Morris : Half Hours with the Best For- 
eign Authors, 4 vols., $6.; Half Hours with the Best Hum- 
orous Authors, 4 vols., $6.; Half Hours with the Best 
American Authors, 4 vols., $6.; Half Hours with Ameri- 
can History, 2 vols., $3. (J. B. Lippincott Co. I 

Letters to Dead Authors, by Andrew Lang ; new Cameo edi- 
tion, with four additional letters and etched portrait, $1.25. 
Virginibus Puerisque, and other Papers, by R. L. Steven- 
son; new Cameo edition, with etched portrait, $1.25. 
(Chas. Scribner's Sons. ) 

The Natural History of Intellect, and other Papers, by R. W. 
Emerson ; Riverside edition, with index to Emerson's 
Works, $1.75, large-paper edition, $4. net. Letters of Asa 
Gray, edited by Jane Loring Gray ; in 2 vols., illus. The 
Growth and Influence of Classical Greek Poetry, by Rich- 
ard Claverhouse Jebb, Litt. D., being the second series of 
the Tunibull lectures at Baltimore, $1.50. Familiar Let- 
ters of Sir Walter Scott, edited by David Douglas, in 2 
vols. Essays in Idleness, by Agnes Repplier, $1.25. 
(Houghton, Mifflin & Co.) 

The Writings of Thomas Paine, political, sociological, relig- 
ious, and literary, edited, with introduction and notes, by 
M. D. Conway ; complete in 4 vols., vol. 1, $2.50. The 
Writings and Correspondence of Thomas Jefferson, edited 
by P. L. Ford ; complete in 10 vols., vol. 3, $5. The Writ- 
ings of George Washington, edited by W. C. Ford ; vol. 
14, completing the work, $5. (G. P. Putnam's Sons.) 

Helpful Words from the Writings of E. E. Hale, selected by 
Mary B. Merrill, illus., $1. I Roberts Bros.) 

Miniatures from Balzac's Masterpieces, by F. T. Hill and S. 

P. Griffin. ( D. Appleton & Co. I 
Masterpieces of prose, orations, poems, sketches, etc., $3. 

(D. Lothrop Co.) 

Some Old Puritan Love Letters, by John and Margaret Win- 
throp, edited by Joseph H. Twichell, with portrait, $2. 
(Dodd, Mead & Co.) 

Some of Shakespeare's Female Characters, by Lady Helen 
F. Martin, illus., $4. (A. D. F. Randolph & Co.) 


Mercedes, a two-act tragedy, by Thomas Bailey Aldrich, new 
edition, revised. A Roadside Harp, by Louise Imogen 
Guiney. The Poems of Thomas William Parsons, com- 
plete. The Divine Comedy of Dante, translated into En- 
glish Verse-by Thomas William Parsons, with sketch by 
Miss Guiney, introduction by Prof. C. E. Norton, and a 
sketch by Dr. Parsons. A Poet's Portfolio, Later Read- 
ings, by William Wetmore Story. White Memories, three 
poems on Bishop Brooks, Mr. Whittier, and Miss Larcom, 
by Mrs. A. D. T. Whitney. (Houghton, Mifflin & Co.) 

Poems Here at Home, by James Whitcomb Riley ; illcs. by 
Kemble, $1.50. The Great Remembrance, and other Po- 
ems, by Richard Watson Gilder, 75 ets. (Century Co.) 

Low Tide on Grand Pre", a Book of Lyrics, by Bliss Carmen. 
(C. L.Webster & Co.) 

The Lover's Year-Book of Poetry : Married Life and Child 
Life, a collection of love-poems for every day in the year, 
by Horace Parker Chandler; in 2 vols., each, $1.25. 
Retrospect, and other Poems, by A. Mary F. Robinson, 
with frontispiece, $1. Emily Dickinson's Poems, edited 
by T. W. Higginson and Mabel Loomis Todd ; first and 
second series, in 1 vol., $2. Helen Jackson's Complete 
Poems; new edition, with portrait, $1.50. Allegretto, 
poems by Gertrude Hall, illus. Such as They Are, poems 
by T. W. and Mary T. Higginson. For Fifty Years, po- 
ems by the Rev. E. E. Hale. Countess Kathleen, a dra- 
matic Poem, and various legends and lyrics, by W. B. 
Yeates ; with frontispiece, $1. I Roberts Bros.) 

Bay Leaves, a collection of translations from the Latin Poets, 
by Goldwin Smith. Poems, by William Watson ; new 
edition, revised and enlarged, with new portrait. (Mac- 
millan & Co.) 

Pictures from Nature and Life, poems by Kate Raworth 
Holmes, illus. (A. C. McClurg & Co.] 

Irish Idylls, by Jane Barlow, $1.25. I Dodd, Mead & Co.) 

Poems of Nature and Love, by Madison Cawein. $1 .25. 
Songs of the Orchard, by Norman S. Gale. I G. P. Put- 
nam's Sons. ) 

Little New World Idylls, by John J. Piatt. Idylls and Lyr- 
ics of the Ohio Valley, by John J. Piatt, new edition. 
An Enchanted Castle and other Poems, by Sarah Piatt. 
Songs of the Common Day, and Ave ! an Ode for the 
Shelley Centenary, by C. G. D. Robers, $1.25. Pastor 
Sang, a play, by Bjornstjerne Bjornson, translated by 
William Wilson. The Seven Cities of the Dead, and 
other Poems, by Sir John C. Barrow, Bart., $1.75. New 
edition of Lord Lytton's Poems, in 3 vols. t Longmans, 
Green & Co. ) 

Where Brooks Go Softly, by Charles Eugene Banks, illus., 
$1.50. (C. H. Kerr & Co.) 

Immortelles, from the Writings of Tennyson, selected by 
Rose Porter. ( D. Lothrop Co. ) 

Hymns and Anthems, selected and arranged by Dr. Gustav 
Gottheil, $1. (William R.Jenkins.) 

Book-Song, an anthology of poems of books, edited by 
Gleason White, "Book-Lover's Library," $1.25. (A. C. 
Armstrong & Son. ) 

On the Road Home, poems by Margaret E. Sangster, illus. 
(Harper & Bros. I 

Prairie Songs, a volume of Western Verse, by Hamlin Gar- 
land. Illus., $1.25. (Stone & Kimball, Chicago. ) 

Around the Fireside, and other Poems, by Howard Carleton 
Tripp, illus., $1.50. (Times Pub'g Co., Kingsley, Iowa.) 

Old English Ballads, selected and edited by Prof. F. B. 
Gummere. (Ginn&Co. J 


The Coast of Bohemia, by W. D. Howells, illus. Horace 
Chase, by Constance F. Woolson. The Cliff-Dwellers, by 
Henry B. Fuller, illus., $1.50. The Two Salomes, by 
Maria Louise Pool, $1.25. Nowadays, and other Stories, 
by George A. Hibbard. The Handsome Humes, by Will- 
iam Black, illus. The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, 
second series, by A. Conan Doyle, illus. The Wheel of 
Time, three stories, by Henry James, $1.00. To Right the 
Wrong, by Edna Lyall, illus., $1. Short Stories, edited 
by Constance Gary Harrison, " Distaff Series," $1. (Har- 
per & Bros. ) 

Two Bites at a Cherry, with Other Tales, by Thomas Bailey 
Aldrich. The Petrie Estate, by Helen Dawes Brown, 
$1.25. His Vanished Star, by Charles Egbert Craddock. 

In Exile and other Stories, by Mary Hallock Foote. 
Rutledge, by Miriam Coles Harris, new edition, $1.25. An 
Utter Failure, by Miriam Coles Harris, new edition, $1.25. 

The Son of a Prophet, an historical novel, by George 
Anson Jackson, $1.25. A Native of Winby, and other 
Tales, by Sarah Orne Jewett, $1.25. Rachel Stanwood, a 
story of the Middle of the Nineteenth Century, by Lucy 
Gibbons Morse, $1.25. (Houghton, Mifflin & Co.) 

Meh Lady, a story of the war, by Thomas Nelson Page, illus. 
by Reinhart, $1-50. The Watchmaker's Wife, and other 
stories, by Frank R. Stockton, $1.25. Ivar the Viking, a 
romantic history, by Paul Du Chaillu, $1.50. Tom Syl- 
vester, a novel, by T. R. Sullivan. The Copperhead, a 
novel, by Harold Frederic. Stories from Scribner : Stories 
of Italy, and Stories of the Army ; each, 1 vol., 75 cts. 
New uniform edition of Thomas Nelson Page's Works, 
in 4 vols., $4.50. New uniform edition of George W. Ca- 
ble's Novels, in 5 vols., $6. (Chas. Scribner's Sons.) 




Sweet Bells Out of Tune, by Mrs. Burton Harrison ; illus. by 
Gibson, $1.25. Balcony Stories, by Grace King, illus., 
$1.25. The White Islander, by Mary Hartwell Cather- 
wood, illus., $1.25. Thumb-nail Sketches, by George 
Wharton Edwards; illus. by author, $1. Jeannie o'Big- 
gersdale, and other Yorkshire (Stories, by Mrs. T. W. 
Simpson, with .preface by Canon Atkinson, $1.50. (Cen- 
tury Co. ) 

Marion Darche, a novel, by F. Marion Crawford. Richard, 
Lord Stratton, a novel, by Edward H. Cooper. ( Macrnil- 
lan & Co. I 

The Gilded Man, by A. F. Bandelier. Duffels, by Edward 
Eggleston. t D. Apple ton & Co. ) 

Two Soldiers and a Politician, by Clinton Ross, 75 cts. (G. 
P. Putnam's Sons. I 

A Question of Honour, by Lynde Palmer, $1.25. The Rose 
of Love, a novel, by Angelina Teal, $1. Ashes of Roses, 
a novel, by Louise Knight Wheatley, $1. A Hillside Par- 
ish, a story, by S. Bayard Dod, $1. Lyndell Sherburne, 
by Amanda M. Douglas, $1.50. ( Dodd, Mead & Co. I 

Olynipe de Cleves, by Alexander Dumas, never before trans- 
lated ; 2 vols., illus., $3. Pan Michael, an historical 
novel, by Henryk Sienkiewicz. translated by Jeremiah 
Curtin, $2. Yanko the Musician, and Other Stories, by 
Henryk Sienkiewicz, translated by Jeremiah Curtin ; illus. 
by E. H. Garrett, $1.25. ( Little, Brown & Co.) 

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Artist Series of Classics : Carlyle's French Revolution, 3 vols.; 
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Brown's Rab and His Friends, 1 vol. ; Carlyle's Heroes 
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Lamb's Tales from Shakespeare, 1vol.; each set specially 
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The Old Garden, and other Verses, by Margaret Deland ; 
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Irving's Knickerbocker History of New York, new edition, 
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on Japan paper, $15. Old Court Life in France, by 
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ford, with preface by Anne T. Ritchie, illus. by Hugh 
Thomson, $2 ; also tdition-de-luxe, uniform with " Cran- 
ford." Goblin Market, by Christina G. Rossetti, illus.; 
also tdition-de-luxe. Shakespeare's England, by William 
Winter ; new illustrated edition, with new portrait. (Mac- 

1 ill Hall & Co. ) 

Elizabethan Songs in Honour of Love and Beautie, collected 
and illus. by E. H. Garrett ; new small edition, $2. The 
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Harlow, $1.50. (Little, Brown & Co.) 

Lorna Doone, by R. D. Blackmore, 2 vols., illus. in photo- 
togravure, $6. Black's A Princess of Thule, illus. in half- 
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border illustrations in colors, $4 net. (A. C. McClurg & 

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lus. by W. M. Johnson, boxed, $8. Riders of Many Lands, 
by Theodore Ayrault Dodge ; illus. by Remington and from 
photographs. Italian Gardens, by Charles A. Platt, illns., 
boxed. A Short History of the English People, by J. R. 
Green, edited by Mrs. Green and Miss Kate Norgate, illus. 
with colored plates, maps, etc., vol. 3, $5.; complete in 
4 vols. ( Harper & Bros. 1 

The Life of Marie Antoinette, by Maxirue de La Rocheterie, 
translated by Cora Hamilton Bell ; 2 vols., illus. in photo- 
gravure, $7.50. Letters from My Will, by Alphonse 
Daudet, translated by Frank H. Potter ; decorated by 
George Wharton Edwards and illus. in color by Madeleine 
Lemaire, $4.; limited large-paper edition, $10. Horace 
Walpole, a memoir, by Austin Dobson, illus in photograv- 
ure, $2.; limited large-paper edition, $5 net. The Bow of 
Orange Ribbon, by Amelia E. Barr ; 100 illustrations, 4 in 
color, $2.50. The Rivals, by Sheridan ; illus. by F. M. 
Gregory, 5 plates in color, $3.50 ; limited large-paper edi- 
tion, $6. net. (Dodd, Mead & Co.) 

Through Colonial Doorways, by Anne Hollingsworth Whar- 
ton, dition-de-luxe, illus., $3.50 net. King Arthur and 
the Knights of the Round Table, by Charles Morris, new 
illustrated edition, 3 vols., $3. In the Yule Log Glow, by 
Harrison S. Morris ; new illustrated edition, 4 vols., $4. 
Seven Christmas Eves, by seven authors, illus., $1. I J. B. 
Lippincott Co.) 

Lorna Doone, by R. D. Blackmore, 2 vols , illus. in photo- 
gravure, $0.; large-paper edition. 3 vols., $15. Tom 
Brown's School-Days, by Thomas Hughes, illus. in photo- 
gravure, $3.; large-paper edition, $0. (Porter & Coates.) 

In the Wake of Columbus, F. A. Ober, extra limited 6di- 
tion-de-luxe, profusely illus., $10. A Song of the Christ, 
by Harriet Adams Sawyer, illus. in photogravure, $1.50. 
I D. Lothrop Co.) 

Lucile, by Owen Meredith, illus. in color and half-tone, $3.50. 

Vignette Series, five new vols., illus., each, $1.50. 
Good Things of Life, tenth series, illus., $2. Wild Rose 
Series, twelve new vols., illus., each, $1. (F. A. Stokes 

Lamb's Tales from Shakespeare, illus. on wood by Sir John 
Gilbert, and 12 pictures in color, $2.50. The Countess 
D'Aulnoy's Fairy Tales, illus. on wood by Gordon Browne 
and 12 pictures in color, $2.50. (George Routledge & Sons.) 

A Calendar of Verse, by George Saintsbury, $1. Christmas 
Carols, by Canon Farrar, illus. in photogravure, $1.25. 
In the Footsteps of the Poets, by David Masson, profusely 
illus., $1.50. (Thomas Whittaker.) 


The One I Knew the Best of All, a memory of the mind of a 
Child, by Frances Hodgson Burnett ; illus. by Birch, $2. 

My Dark Companions, and their Strange Stories, by H. 
M. Stanley, illns. Jack Hall, or the School Days of an 
American Boy, by Robert Grant, illus., $1.25. Jack in 
the Bush, or a Summer on a Salmon River, by Robert 
Grant, illus., $1.25. The White Conquerors, a Tale of 
Toltec and Aztec, by Kirk Munroe, illus., $1.25. St. Bar- 
tholomew's Eve, by G. A. Henty, illus., $1.50. Through 
the Sikh War, by G. A. Henty, illus., $1.50. A Jacobite 
Exile, the adventures of a young Englishman in the ser- 
vice of Charles XII., by G. A. Henty, illus., $l.oO. 
Westward with Columbus, by Gordon Stables, illus., $1.50. 
The Wreck of the Golden Fleet, the story of a North Sea 
fisher-boy, by Robert Leigh ton, illus., $1.50. The Mak- 
ing of Virginia and the Middle Colonies, by Samuel Adams 
Drake, illus., $1.50. Windfalls of Observation, gathered 
for the edification of the young and the solace of others, 
by Edward S. Martin, $1.25. Sunny Days of Youth, by 
the author of " How io be Happy though Married," $1.25. 
( Chas. Scribner's Sons.) 

Chilhowee Boys, by Sarah E. Morrison, illus., $1.50. Fam- 
ous Voyagers and Explorers, by Sarah K. Bolton, illus. 
with portraits of Columbus and others, $1.50. Ingleside, 
by Barbara Yechton, illus., $1.25. Margaret Davis, Tu- 
tor, by Anna C. Ray, illus., $1.25. The True Woman, by 
the Rev. W. M. Thayer ; entirely rewritten, illus., $1.25. 
The Musical Jeurneyof Dorothy and Delia, by the Rev. 
F. G. Atwood, illus., $1.25. Yoang Men : Faults and 
Ideals, by the Rev. J. R. Miller, 35 cts. Children's Fav- 
orite Classics, a series comprising 8 popular stories ; each, 
1 vol., illns., $1.25. (T. Y. Crowell & Co.) 




The Boy Travellers in Southern Europe, by Thomas W. 
Knox, illus., $3. Harper's Young People for 1893, vol. 
14, 800 illustrations, $3.50. A Child's History of Spain, 
by John Bonner, illus. The Mate of the " Mary Ann," 
by Sophie Swett, illus., $1. (Harper & Bros.) 

The Boys of Greenway Court, by Hezekiah Butterworth, il- 
lus. John Boyd's Adventures, by T. W. Knox, illus., 
$1.50. On the Old Frontier, by W. O. Stoddard, illus., 
$1.50. Paul Jones, by Molly Elliott Seawell, illus., $1. 
(D. Appleton & Co. ) 

No Heroes, a story for boys, by Blanche Willis Howard, il- 
1ns. In Sunshine Land, poems for young folks, by Edith 
M. Thomas. Polly Oliver's Problem, by Kate Douglas 
Wiggin, illus. New edition of the Novels and Stories of 
Mrs. Whitney, with revisions and prefaces ; in 17 vols., 
per vol., $1.25. (Houghton, Mifflin & Co.) 

Guert Ten Eyck, by W. 0- Stoddard, illus., $1.50. Through 
Thick and Thin, by Molly Elliott Seawell, illus., $1.50. 
Oscar Peterson, Ranchman and Ranger, by H. W. French, 
illus., $1.50. Stephen Mitchell's Journey, by " Pansy," 
$1.50. Odd Business, by L. J. Bridgman, $1.25. Nursery 
Stories and Rhymes, by Emilie Poullson, illus., $1.25. 
Child Classics of Prose, compiled by Mary R. F. Pierce, 
illus., $1.50. Talks by Queer Folks, illus., $1.50. The 
Child's Day Book, compiled by Margaret Sidney, illus., 
50 cts. ( D. Lothrop Co. ) 

Sylvie and Bruno, second part, by Lewis Carroll, illus. Mary, 
a story for children, by Mrs. Molesworth, illus. (Mac- 
millan & Co.) 

The Brownies at Home, by Palmer Cox, illus., $1.50. Top- 
sys and Turveys, colored pictures by P. S. Newell, $1. 
Bound volumes of St. Nicholas Magazine, $4. The White 
Cave, by William 0. Stoddard, $1.50. (Century Co.) 

Comic Tragedies, written by " Jo " and " Meg " and acted 
by the " Little Women ": illus., uniform with Miss Al- 
cott's books, $1.50. The Barberry Bush, and Seven other 
Stories about Girls for Girls, by Susan Coolidge, illus., 
$1.25. Robin's Recruit, by Miss A. G. Plympton, illus., 
$1.00. (Roberts Bros.) 

The Spanish Pioneers, by Charles F. Lummis, in three parts. 
(A. C. McClurg&Co.) 

The True Story Book, by Andrew Lang ; fully illus., uni- 
form with the "Blue Fairy Book," etc., $2. (Longmans, 
Green & Co.) 

The Coral Ship, a story of the Florida Reefs, by Kirk Munro, 
illus., $1.25. Diccon the Bold, a story of the Days of 
Columbus, by John R. Coryell, illus., $1.25. Tales from 
the Arabian Knights, pictured by John D. Batten, $2. 
More English Fairy Tales, compiled by Joseph Jacobs, il- 
lus., $1.75. Chinese Nights Entertainments, forty stories 
told by Almond-eyed Folk, by Adele M. Fielde, illus. by 
Chinese artists, $1.75. The Light Princess, and other 
Fairy Tales, by George MacDonald ; illus. by Maud 
Humphrey, $1.75. The Little Mermaids, and other Fairy 
Tales, by Hans Anderson, illus. (G. P. Putnam's Sons.) 

The Talking Handkerchief, and other Stories, by Thomas W. 
Knox, 100 illustrations by John Henderson Garnsey, $1.50. 
Tom and the Money King, by William 0. Stoddard, 
illus. by Charles E. Boutwood, $1.50. The Romance of a 
Schoolboy, by Mary A. Denison, illus. by John Henderson 
Garnsey, $1.50. Marking the Boundary, by Edward E. 
Billings, illus. by John Henderson Garnsey, $1.50. Lost 
in the Wilderness, by Lieut. R. H. Jayne, illus., $1. ( "War 
Whoop Series " ). Through Apache Land, by Lieut. R. H. 
Jayne, illus., $1. (" War Whoop Series " ) .A Close Shave, 
by Thomas W. Knox, $1. The River Fugitives, by Ed- 
ward S. Ellis, illus.; The Wilderness Fugitives, a sequel 
to "The River Fugitives," by Edward S. Ellis, illus.; 
Lena-Wingo, the Mohawk, a sequel to " The Wilderness 
Fugitives," by Edward S. Ellis, illus.; each, 1 vol., " River 
and Wilderness Series," $1.25. (Price-McGill Co., St. 

The Children's Year-Book, chosen and arranged by Edith 
Emerson Forbes. (Roberts Bros.) 

A Dog of Flanders, by Ouida, illus. by Garrett, $1.50. The 
Chronicles of Fairyland, by Fergus Hume, illus., $1.50. 
Twenty Little Maidens, by Amy E. Blanchard, illus. by 
Ida Waugh, $1.50. Little Miss Muffet, by Rosa N. Carey, 
illus., $1.25. ( J. B. Lippincott Co.) 

Rodney the Overseer. Two Ways of Becoming a Hunter, 
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each, 1 vol., illus., $1.25. Facing the World, In a New 
World ; new stories by Horatio Alger, Jr., each, 1 vol., 
illus., $1.25. Across Texas, by E. S. Ellis, illus., $1.25. 
(Porter & Coates.) 

Six Boys, by Elizabeth W. Champney, illus., $1.50. Stories 
of the French Revolution, edited by Walter Montgomery, 
$1.25. When I Was Your Age, by Laura E. Richards, 
$1.25. Glimpses of the French Court, by Laura E. Rich- 
ards, illus., $1.50. Zigzag Journeys on the Mediterranean, 
illus., $1.25. Ruby's Ups and Downs, by Minnie E. Paull, 
illus., $1. Oliver Optic's Annual, 1893, illus., $1.25. 
Chatterbox for 1893, illus., $1.25. Little One's Annual for 
1893, illus., $1.75. Jenny Wren's Boarding House, by 
James Otis, illus., $1.25. Melody, by Laura E. Richards, 
50 cts. (Estes & Lauriat.) 

Witch Winnie in Paris, or the King's Daughters Abroad, by 
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skin, from the French of Jules D. Marthold, illus., $1.50. 
Elsie at Ion, $1.25. (Dodd, Mead & Co.) 

An Archer with Columbus, by Charles E. Brimblecom, illus., 
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illus., $1.25. (Joseph Knight Co.) 

A Little Queen of Hearts, by Ruth Ogden, illus. by Harry 
Ogden, $2. Frankie Bradford's Bear, by Joanna H. Mat- 
hews, illus., $1.25. Book of Pets, verses byE.S. Tucker, 
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Select Tables from La Fontaine, for the young, illus. The 
Thirteen Little Black Pigs, by Mrs. Molesworth, illus. in 
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(E. & J. B. Young & Co.) 

Story of Columbus for Young Folks, by Sarah H. Bradford, 
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The Doctor of the " Juliet," a story of the Sea, by Harry Col- 
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Emma Marshall, $1.25. Fair Women and Brave Men, by 
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Marshall, $1.25. Jill, a Flower Girl, by L. T. Meade, 
$1.25. The Paradise of the North, by D. L. Johnstone, 
$1.25. Pearla, a story for girls, by M. Betham-Ed wards, 
$1.25. The Treasures in the Marshes, by Charlotte M. 
Yonge, $1. (Thomas Whittaker.) 


Evening Dress, by W. D. Howells, illus., 50 cents; My 
Year in a Log Cabin, by W. D. Howells, illus., 50 cts. 
(Harper's " Black and White Series.") 

American Book Plates, by Charles D. Allen, illus. (Mac- 
millan & Co.) 

Public Libraries in America, by W. I. Fletcher ; in the " Co- 
lumbian Knowledge Series," $1. (Roberts Bros.) 

Through Blind Eyes, translated from the French of Maurice 
de la Sizeranne, by F. Park Lewis. (G. P. Putnam's 
Sons. ) 


The Independent Theatre of London has issued its 
programme for the coming season. It includes Herr 
Strindberg's "The Father," Dr. Ibsen's "The Wild 
Duck," and a comedy by M. Zola. 

" The Sewanee Review," which has recently com- 
pleted its first year, will hereafter be conducted by Pro- 
fessor W. P. Trent, author of the life of Simms in the 
" American Men of Letters " series. 

The New York Shakespeare Society has begun to re- 
print in its " Bankside " edition the archaic texts of the 
seventeen plays first printed in the Heminges and Con- 
dell Folio of 1623. The first of these plays, " The Tem- 
pest," will leave the press in a few days. Of these new 
volumes but 500 copies are printed. 

Germany has been having a Congress of Authors, the 
place of meeting being at Munich. The principal ques- 
tion discussed was the reform of the law of literary 
property, with especial reference to the copyright treaty 
between Germany and the United States, which is re- 
garded as very unfavorable to the former. A committee 
was appointed to prepare a memorial on this subject, to 
be submitted to the Imperial Government and to be laid 



[Sept. 16, 

before the Reichstag. The Convention adjourned to 
meet next year in Hamburg. 

An English publisher writes to " The Author " to put 
on record a novel experience. " This morning's post," 
he says, "brings an unasked-for and most acceptable 
cheque towards recouping publishers' losses from one 
whose book a really good book that was much praised 
failed to ' catch on.' I want to place on record that 
this is onr first and only experience of the kind." 

An extraordinary decision is reported from the French 
courts. The newsdealing firm of Messrs. Brentano's in 
Paris was sued for having placed on sale a New York 
newspaper wherein was contained a libellous article 
upon a former minister of France to Hayti. The court 
decided that the offending firm should pay both costs 
and heavy damages, as well as the expense of inserting 
the judgment in a number of journals. Such a decision 
as this must place the English booksellers of Paris in 
a very peculiar predicament. If they are to be held 
responsible for the contents of all the newspapers they 
offer for sale, they may as well retire from business. 

On November 8, Dr. Theodor Mommsen will cele- 
brate his fifty years' " Doktorjubilaum" A great num- 
ber of the friends and admirers of the eminent scholar 
are of opinion that the day should be marked by some 
substantial acknowledgement of his epoch-making work. 
They have resolved to collect a sum of money, and pre- 
sent it to the historian on the day of his jubilee as doc- 
tor, in order that he may found a " Stiftung " for the 
promotion of scientific studies in his own branch of la- 
bor, the arrangement of the character and statutes of 
this " Mommsen-fund " being left to his discretion. 
Foreign scholars and friends who wish to subscribe may 
remit to Ludwig Delbriick, 61, Mauerstrasse, Berlin. 


The London " Times " of recent date contained an 
extended article on the Authors' Congress at Chicago, 
written by Mr. Walter Besant, who, as is well known, 
was an active and influential member. He found the 
Congress " a truly representative meeting," and " the 
papers produced were written by those whose experi- 
ence in the subjects treated and whose position in the 
world of letters entitled them at least to a respectful 
hearing." The most quotable portions of the article 
are those addressed particularly to certain comments 
on the Congress by that somewhat witty caviller Mr. 
Andrew Lang and that somewhat wearisome caviller 
Mr. Robert Buchanan. Referring to the former gen- 
tleman, Mr. Besant pointedly says: 

" What is the good of holding such a Conference ? 
A certain English man of letters has asked this ques- 
tion, adding, as his answer, that an author has nothing 
to do but to sell his wares and have done with it. But 
suppose he will not sell his wares and so have done with 
it. Suppose he understands what many men of let- 
ters seem totally unable to understand that his wares 
may represent a considerable, even a great property, 
which is going to yield a steady return for many years; 
that he ought no more to sell this property ' and have 
done with it ' than he would sell a rich mine, or a mill, 
or a row of houses, and have done with it, unless for a 
consideration based on business principles. To such as 
understand this axiom t. e., to all who are concerned 
in the material interests of literature such a Confer- 
ence may prove of the greatest possible use. 

" For instance, among the questions to be considered 
were, (1) all those relating to copyright, international 

and domestic; (2) all those which relate to the admin- 
istration of literary property; (3) all those which are 
concerned with literature itself its past, its present, 
its tendency. ... It is manifest that the first two 
branches may be most important to those concerned 
with literary property too often anyone but the pro- 
ducer and creator of it. There is, however, another 
point. It is greatly to be desired that those who be- 
long to the literary profession should from time to time 
gather together and recognise the fact that they do be- 
long to a common calling. Hitherto the author, though 
he calls himself a man of letters, has been too apt to 
refuse the recognition of a profession or calling of let- 
ters. He has sat apart alone ; nay, in many cases his 
only recognition of his brethren has been a cheap sneer 
or a savage gibe. To this day there remain a few of 
those of whom Churchill wrote, who can never speak 
of their brethren but with bitterness or derision. Such 
a man at such a Conference is out of place ; much more 
important, his very existence comes to be recognised as 
an anachronism: he will no longer be tolerated." 

Mr. Lang's rather captious question, " How can a 
hundred Congresses at Chicago secure the conditions " 
of independence for the author, is thus answered in an- 
other place: 

" The author's independence will be secured for him 
from the moment that his pay the commercial side of 
his work is put, once for all, on such a footing of re- 
cognized terms and proportions as will make him abso- 
lutely independent of the publisher and dependent solely 
on the public, as a physician, or a barrister, or an archi- 
tect, or a solicitor, is independent. This can be done, 
and will be done, by the arrival at an understanding be- 
tween honorable publishers and leading writers. What- 
ever understanding this may be, it must rest upon the 
basis of the demand for a book by the public. Our ef- 
forts have been all along directed to showing the liter- 
ary profession the meaning of their property so that 
they may see the necessity of coming to such an under- 

Mr. Besant expresses the hope that when next an 
Author's Congress, or Conference, is held, Mr. Lang 
will be there to see. Mr. Buchanan, however, who " does 
his little best to darken counsel by prating foolishness 
about Literature and Lucre," Mr. Besant hopes and 
trusts " will not be present." The " literature and lu- 
cre " argument is thus treated : 

" Another kind of literary man is he who is continu- 
ally inveighing against the baseness of connecting liter- 
ature with lucre. He appears in this country, on an 
average, once a year, with his stale and conventional 
rubbish. Where this kind of talk is sincere, if ever it 
is sincere mostly it comes from those who have failed 
to connect literature with lucre it rests upon a con- 
fusion of ideas. That is to say, it confuses the intellec- 
tual, artistic, literary worth of a book with its com- 
mercial value. But the former is one thing, the latter 
is another. They are not commensurable. The former 
has no value which can be expressed in guineas any 
more than the beauty of a sunset or the colours of a 
rainbow. The latter may be taken as a measure of the 
popular taste, which should, but does not always, de- 
mand the best books. No one, therefore, must con- 
sider that a book necessarily fails because the demand 
for it is small; nor, on the other hand, is it always just 
or useful to deride the author of a successful book be- 
cause it is successful. In the latter case the author has 
perhaps done his best; it is the popular judgment that 



should be reproved and the popular taste which should 
be led into a truer way. 

" A book, rightly or wrongly, then, may be a thing 
worth money a property, an estate. It is the author's 
property unless he signs it away; and since any book, 
in the uncertainty of the popular judgment, may be- 
come a valuable property, it is the author's part to safe- 
guard his property, and not to part with it without due 
consideration and consultation with those who have con- 
sidered the problem. And it is the special function of 
such a Conference to lay down the data of the problem, 
and so to help in producing, if possible, a solution. But 
as for the question is it sordid, is it base, for an au- 
thor a genius to look after money ? Well, a pop- 
ular author is not always a genius. But even those who 
are admitted to have some claim to the possession of 
genius have generally been very careful indeed with re- 
gard to the money produced by their writings. Scott, 
Byron, Moore, Dickens, George Eliot, Thackeray, Trol- 
lope, Tennyson, Wilkie Collins, Charles Reade, almost 
every man or woman of real distinction in letters-, can 
be shown to have been most careful about the money 
side of his books. It is left for the unsuccessful, for 
the shallow pretenders, or for some shady publisher's 
hack, to cry out upon the degradation of letters when 
an author is advised to look after his property. Let us 
simply reply that what has not degraded the illustrious 
men who have gone before will not degrade those smaller 
men, their successors." 

Elsewhere in this interesting article, Mr. Besant in- 
dulges in some optimistic observations on what he terms 
the "new Literature of the West": 

"The Congress of Literature was held at Chicago at 
a fitting moment. It may be taken as the inauguration 
of a new Literature which has just begun to spring up 
in the West; a Literature of which I for one was pro- 
foundly ignorant until I learned about it on the spot. 
At present it exists chiefly in promise; but if it is a 
bantling, it is a vigorous bantling. In what direction 
this new Literature of the West will develop it would 
be quite impossible, even for one who knows the condi- 
tions of Western life, to predict. Enough to place on 
record for the moment, the fact that there has sprung 
into existence during the last year or two a company of 
new writers wholly belonging to the West. All over 
the broad valley of the Mississippi and on the Western 
prairies there are farmers in vast numbers living for 
the most part in solitary homesteads; their chief re- 
creation is reading; there are also small towns and vil- 
lages by the thousand; places whose population is be- 
tween one and two thousand, in every one of which will 
be found a ladies' literary society and a library. The 
former holds meetings, receives papers, and is, gener- 
ally, a centre of a certain intellectual activity; for the 
latter, the ladies who manage it endeavor to procure as 
many new books as possible." 

Thousands of visitors to Chicago this summer, and 
other thousands of our citizens, have noticed, in passing 
and repassing by railroad between the city and the Fair 
grounds, the fine group of bronze statuary standing near 
the lake front at Eighteenth street, on the line of the 
Illinois Central Railroad. This group, the work of 
Mr. Carl Rohl-Smith, a Danish sculptor who won dis- 
tinction by his statue of Franklin that adorns the en- 
trance to the Electricity Building at the Fair, was erected 
through the generosity of Mr. George M. Pullman, 

as a memorial to mark the spot of the Indian massacre 
at Chicago in 1812, when the garrison of Fort Dear- 
born, having evacuated the fort and started to march 
to Detroit, was attacked after marching a few miles 
and nearty exterminated. The dedication of the mon- 
ument was naturally the occasion of a considerable out- 
pouring of commemorative verse, some of the best of 
which is given a place in Major Kirkland's very read- 
able history of the massacre, lately published by Messrs. 
Dibble & Co. To our mind, however, by far the best 
verses on this theme are those written twenty years ago 
by that brilliant Western poet, Benjamin F. Taylor, and 
first published in " The Lakeside Monthly " for Octo- 
ber, 1873. We subjoin the stanzas referred to: 
" Born of the prairie and the wave, the blue sea and the green, 
A city of the Occident, Chicago lay between ; 
Dim trails upon the meadow, faint wakes upon the main, 
On either sea a schooner and a canvas-covered wain. 

" I saw a dot upon the map, and a house-fly's filmy wing 
They said 't was Dearborn's picket-flag when Wilderness was 

I heard the reed-bird's morning song the Indian's awkward 


The rice tattoo in his rude canoe like a dash of April hail, 
The beaded grasses' rustling bend the swash of the lazy tide, 
Where ships shake out their salted sails and navies grandly 

" I heard the Block-house gates unbar, the column's solemn 


I saw the Tree of a single leaf its splendid foilage shed 
To wave awhile that August morn above the column's head ; 
I heard the moan of muffled drum, the woman's wail of fife, 
The Dead March played for Dearborn's men just marching 

out of life, 

The swooping of the savage cloud that burst upon the rank 
And struck it with its thunderbolt in forehead and in flank, 
The spatter of the musket-shot, the rifles' whistling rain, 
The sand-hills drift round hope forlorn that never marched 

again ! " 


NAPOLEON : A Drama. 

Edition sold without advertising. Paper, 50c.; cloth, $1.50 ; 
leather, $2.00 ; white crushed levant, $3.50. 
"Mr. Dement has done honor to himself and to literature." Inter 
Ocean. "The rhythmic march of stately periods." Commercial Ad- 
vertiser. "Will be read with great interest and pleasure." Outing. 
" A drama in heroic mould." Current Literature. " The conception 
is elevated, the treatment fine." National Tribune. " Worthy of our 
attention and admiration." Journal of Education. 



A History of the Indian Wars 
w ith the First Settlers of the 
United States to the commencement of the Late War ; to- 
gether with an Appendix containing interesting Accounts of 
the Battles fought by General Andrew Jackson. With two 
Plates. Rochester, N. Y., 1828. 

Two hundred signed and numbered copies have just been 
reprinted at $2.00 each. 


25 Exchange Street, ROCHESTER, N. Y. 



A concise treatise as to its Qualities and Soundness including 
Bits and Bitting Saddles and Saddling Stable Drainage, Driving, 

an i2mo, cloth, fully illustrated, $1.00. For sale by all booksellers, 
or postpaid on receipt of price. 


851 and 853 SIXTH AVE. (48TH STREET), N. Y. 



[Sept. 16, 


The Law of Psychic Phenomena. 

A Working Hypothesis for the Systematic Study of Hypnot- 
ism, Spiritism, Mental Therapeutics, etc. By THOMSON 
JAY HUDSON. 12mo, $1.50. 

" There cannot be too many books, so honest, so faithful to a point 
of view, so elevated and just in tone, so strong and able and compre- 
hensive in reasoning, as this one is. It is the most far-sighted and 
complete work yet issued on the subject." Public Opinion, Wash- 

France in the Nineteenth Century, 1830-1890. 

By ELIZABETH W. LATIMER. Handsomely illustrated with 
22 full-page, half-tone portraits. Crown 8vo, $2.50. 
" It is as absorbing as a work of fiction. * * * Mrs. Latimer is 
always picturesque. In her analysis of character she displays a 
thorough mastery of her subject. * * * She has written an extremely 
interesting book, which will be read with eagerness." The Daily Ad- 
vertiser, Boston. 

Russia and Turkey in the Nineteenth Century. 

A companion volume to "France in the Nineteenth Century," 
by the same author, to be published shortly. It is written in 
the same brilliant style as the earlier volume, and will be 
handsomely illustrated with half-tone portraits. 

Sound and Music. 

By the Rev. J. A. ZAHM, C. S. C., Professor of Physics in 
the University of Notre Dame. With 195 Illustrations. 
8vo, $3.50. 

" It is an extraordinary book by one of our foremost workers in 
science. * * * It is a thoroughly scientific treatise, one which will 
give the student a practical and theoretical knowledge of the subject. 
* * * In no single volume can one find the same amount of valuable 
information as is to be found in Prof. Zahm's new book." The 
Scientific American. 

A History of Modern Philosophy. 

From the Renaissance to the Present. By B. C. BURT, A.M. 

2 vols, 12mo, $4.00. 

" The accidental necessity of examining with more or less care a 
number of current systems of philosophy has made it convenient to 
compare Mr. Burt's synoptical abstracts with original works. The test 
resulted very creditably for his book. * * * Wherever the test was 
applied his method was found commendably accurate." The New 
York Tribune. 

References for Literary Workers. 

With Introductions to Topics and Questions for Debate. By 
HENRY MATSON. Crown 8vo,f$3.00. 

" Writers who have spent hours in public libraries seeking for just 
the book needed to complete their knowledge of a certain subject, or 
who have waded disconsolately through volumes in pursuit of a single 
much-needed bit of information, will be glad to welcome this work. A 
more complete reference book it would be hard to find." The Boston 

The Best Letters of William Cowper. 

Edited, with an Introduction, by SHIRLEY C. HUGHSON. 
Laurel-Crowned Letters. l(5mo, gilt top, $1.00. 
" Cowper might be called, with little exaggeration, the prince of 
letter-writers, so elegant and classic are his epistles. Apart from their 
literary charm, these letters give a more satisfactory picture of the 
man than any "Life" of him that has yet been written." The Daily 
Advertiser, Boston. 

The Best Letters of Lord Chesterfield. 
The Best Letters of Madame de Sevigne. 
The Best Letters of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. 
The Best Letters of Horace Walpole. 
The Best Letters of Charles Lamb. 
The Best Letters of Percy Bysshe Shelley. 
Other volumes to follow. 

For Sale by Booksellers generally, or will be sent, postpaid, 
on receipt of the price by the publishers, 




a General View of the French Dominion in North America, 
with some account of the English Occupation of Illinois. 
By JOSEPH WALLACE. 8vo, cloth, $2.50, net. 
This is an authentic history of the Mississippi Valley from its earliest 
exploration and settlement by the French until the final surrender of 
llliiiois to the English in 1765, and of Louisiana to the Spaniards in 
1769, together with a concise account of the English sway in Illinois till 
1778. It includes many biographical and character sketches of the 
early explorers and notices of the settlement and prog ress of many of 
the towns and villages founded by the French in Canada and the Val- 
ley of the Mississippi. 


By Col. DONN PIATT. With concluding chapters by Genl. 

H. V. BOYNTON. Portrait. 8vo, cloth, $3.00, net. 

Written in Colonel Piatt's well-known trenchant style, and is doubt- 
less the most incisive of all his war criticisms. It presents at every 
step the movement of other armies, and will interest the admirers of 
other leading generals and lead to much discussion. Genl. Boynton 
has finished the chapters relating to the Atlanta and Nashville Cam- 
paigns, Genl. J. H. Wilson's wonderful cavalry expedition, etc., with 
an outline of Genl. Thomas's career after the war. 

CHARLES GRANT MILLER, his Private Secretary. Portraits 
and Views. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

An accurate account of Piatt's varied public services as a journalist, 
jurist, diplomat, soldier, politician, and author. It is enlivened by 
numerous incidents, illustrating his sense of humor, brilliant wit, 
crushing, remorseless sarcasm, cogent method of reasoning, and epi- 
grammatic force of expression. 

LECTED PROSE SKETCHES, and Critical Sketches of 
Celebrated Public Men, including Washington McLean, 
Robert C. Schenck, Henry Ward Beecher, Roscoe Conk- 
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ard Realf. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

tion of his Best Poems and Four Plays. I. Lost and Won ; 
II. A King's Love ; III. Emotional Insanity ; IV. Blen- 
nerhassett's Island. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 


By M. M. SHOEMAKER. Illustrated 12rao, cloth, $1.25. 
This is an unusually readable book. Mr. Shoemaker not only knows 
what to see, but how to describe what he sees better than nine travel- 
lers out of ten, whose observations get into print. We have not for a 
long time read a descriptive book which so set before us and lights up 
to view the scenes in hand. Literary World, Boston. 

Latest English Historian. A narrative of the principal 
events in the life of Mary Stuart, with some remarks on 
Mr. Froude's History of England. By JAMES F. MELINE. 
12mo, cloth, $1.50. 
An admirable critique on Froude. Mr. Meline's style is strong and 

trenchant ; and his sarcasm frequently admirable. He brings some 

valuable new material into the discussion. 

The Satisfaction of Human Wants, in so far as their satis- 
faction depends on material resources. By GROVEK PEASE 
OSBORNE. 12mo, cloth, $2.00. 

Mr. Osborne holds that the only working definition of the subject is 
" the satisfaction of human wants." His book will be read with inter- 
est on account of the originality of its thought and outline and the 
clearness of his statements. 

Any of the above sent by mail, prepaid, upon receipt of the 

ROBERT CLARKE & CO., Publishers, 








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Also, a very comprehensive list of MODERN LANGUAGE BOOKS, carefully selected and edited. 


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for Lawyers, Doctors, and Philanthropists. 
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A new work just published, showing further investiga- 
tion made by the late Eben Norton Hereford, on the location 
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1793. ESTABLISHED IN 1793. 1893. 
201st Session begins Sept. 1, 1893. Maj. R. BINGHAM, Supt. 


Forty-fifth year begins Sept. 13, 1893. College course and 
excellent preparatory school. Specially organized departments 
of Music and Art. Four well-equipped laboratories. Good 
growing library, fine gymnasium, resident physician. Memo- 
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alogue address SARAH F. ANDERSON, Principal ( Lock box 52) . 


Prepares pupils for College. Broader Seminary Course. 
Room for twenty-five boarders. Individual care of pupils. 
Pleasant family life. Fall term opens Sept. 13, 1893. 

Miss EUNICE D. SEWALL, Principal. 


No. 55 West 47th st. Mrs. SARAH H. EMERSON, Principal. 
Will re-open Oct. 4. A few boarding pupils taken. 

Nos. 479-481 Dearborn Aye. Seventeenth year. Prepares 
for College, and gives special courses of study. For Young 
Ladies and Children. Miga R g Rl A M 

Miss M. E. BEEDY, A.M., 


BOSTON, MASS., 252 Marlboro' St. Reopens October 3. 
Specialists in each Department. References : Rev. Dr. DON- 
ALD, Trinity Church; Mrs. Louis AGASSIZ, Cambridge; 
Pres. WALKER, Institute of Technology. 


Founded by CARL FAELTEN, 

Dr. EBEN TOURGEE. Director. 

In addition to its unequaled musical advantages, excep- 
tional opportunities are also provided for the study of Elocu- 
tion, the Fine Arts, and Modern Languages. The admirably 
equipped Home affords a safe and inviting residence for lady 
students. Calendar free. 

FRANK W. HALE, General Manager, 

Franklin Square, Boston, Mass. 

' AUTHORS : The skilled revision, the unbiassed and com- 
petent criticism of prose and verse ; advice as to publication. 
FOR PUBLISHERS : The compilation of first-class works of 
reference. Established 1880. Unique in position and suc- 
cess. Indorsed by our leading writers. Address 

DR. TITUS M. COAN, 70 Fifth Ave., NEW YORK. 



[Sept. 16, 



Comprising his Diaries and his Public and Private Corres- 
pondence, including numerous letters and documents now 
for the first time printed. Edited by WORTHINGTON C. 
FORD. Volume XIV., completing the work, and including 
an elaborate general index. 
8vo, half leather, gilt tops. Limited edition, 750 copies, 

printed from type. But few sets remain. Price, $70.00. 


Edited by PAUL L. FORD. Uniform with the set of the 
"Writings of Washington." To be complete in 10 vols., 
8vo, half leather, gilt tops. Two volumes now ready. The 
set, $50.00. 
Limited edition, 750 copies, printed from type. 


By E. A. FREEMAN, author of " The History of Sicily," " The 
Norman Conquest," etc. 

Each complete in 1 vol., with frontispiece. 16mo, 75 cents. 


By GEORGE RAWLINSON, author of "The Story of Ancient 
Egypt," etc. Being a new volume in the "Story of the 
Nations" Series. Cloth, $1.50; half leather, $1.75. 


By ANATOLE LEROY-BEAULIEU. Translated from the French 
by Z. A. RAGOZIN, author of " The Story of Assyria," etc. 
Three volumes, 8vo, with maps. 

Part I. The Country and its Inhabitants. $3.00. 

Part II. The Institutions. (Beady shortly.) 


An Account of the Big Game of the United States, and Its 
Chase with Horse, Hound, and Rifle. By THEODORE 
ROOSEVELT, author of "Hunting Trips of a Ranchman," 
"The Naval War of 1812," etc. With illustrations by 


A Treasury of Reference for Writers and Readers of Current 
Literature. Edited by R. D. BLACKMAN. 8vo, $1.25. 
This "Dictionary," comprising phrases and quotations from five lan- 
guages, has run through twelve editions in England. 


By WASHINGTON IRVING (condensed by the author from his 
larger work). 12mo, fully illustrated. (No. 4 in the Li- 
brary of American Biography. ) $1.75. 

*** Notes on New Books, a quarterly bulletin, prospectus of 
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In the Wake of Columbus. 

By Special Exposition Commissioner, F. A. OBER. El- 
egant Library Edition, Royal 8vo, uncut edges, gilt 
top, 500 pages, Spanish and American seals, and seal 
of Commission on cover, with maps and 200 illustra- 
tions, pen and inks, and photographs taken on the 
spot. Dedicated to President Higinbotham and to 
William Eleroy Curtis, Chief of Department that 
sent Mr. Ober on the commission. $2.50. Delayed 
in the press, this volume was issued the middle of July. 
EDITIOX-DE-LUXE Influenced by the advance sales 
the publishers have yielded to many requests, and are 
issuing an extra edition of two hundred and fifty copies 
only, each one signed by the author and numbered by 
the D. Lothrop Company. 

This edition-de-luxe is on hand-made English paper, 
elegant half-calf binding in red and yellow, and en- 
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Two other books of D. Lothrop Company's latest pub- 
lications have leaped into instantaneous favor. These are 


Wbittier with the Children. 

Illustrated with full-page photogravure of " Whittier 
with the Children," and sixteen exquisite cuts from 
photographs and drawings made at the poet's homes 
of his pets and favorite retreats. Written from in- 
timate personal friendship and from choice family 
reminiscences. Royal 8vo, uncut edges, gilt top, 
bound in silver-gray cloth, with silver and gold orna- 
ments, $1.50. And 


By RICHARD HOVEY, the remarkable elegaic poem on 
Thomas William Parsons, together with the study 
in the February " Atlantic " on Parsons, with full- 
page photogravure portrait and exquisite illuminated 
initials; is beautifully printed and bound. Royal 
8vo, gilt top, uncut edges, in a box, $1.50. 

The z/trtist Gallery. 

A rare collection illustrative of famous and representa- 
tive paintings of noted artists: Landseer, Millet, 
Rosa Bonheur, Sir Frederic Leightou, and Bougue- 
reau. With interesting biographies of the artists 
and comprehensive analysis of each painting. 8vo, 
half-leather, $3.00; full leather, $5.00. 

Guert Ten Eyck : 


By W. O. STODDARD. Square 8vo, illustrated by Mer- 
rill, $1.50. 

A stirring story of real American boys and girls, and how 
they helped on the Revolution. Washington, Hamilton, Aaron 
Burr, and Nathan Hale appear in the story. 

All Booksellers have them, or send your order direct to 

D. LOTHROP COMPANY, Publishers, 






T^ecent Important ^Publications. 

A Syllabus of Psychology. 

By WILLIAM M. BRYANT, author of "World Energy and 
its Self-Conservation." Second edition, paper, 25 cents. 
"The most immature student will not find it difficult to grasp the 
propositions laid down, and the Syllabus gives an entirely adequate out- 
line of the fundamentals of psychology. The list of books given at the 
close is brief, but forms a sufficient and admirable course of study." 
Neio York Evangelist. 

The Secret of Character Building. 

By JOHN DE MOTTK, A.M., Ph.D. Cloth, illustrated, $1.00. 
"Readers will here meet with a genuine surprise. The author finds 
a novel opportunity in physiological psychology for a more complete 
ethical training. The book is decidedly unique. With the pedagogic 
instinct of a Luther the author considers it not only easier but more 
profitable to try to form a new character than to reform a depraved 
one. In this work he lias given clear and beautiful expression in popu- 
lar form to profound scientific truth supporting his convictions." 
Edgar Dubs Shimer, University of City of New York, in Educational 

Poetry and Philosophy of Goethe. 

Edited by MARION V. DUDLEY. Cloth, $1.50. 
"We have read many works on Goethe, but never one which has 
thrown so much light upon his character, philosophy, and poetry as 
this volume. The many sides from which he is reviewed, the familiar 
character of the discussions, often colloquial, and those conducted by 
specialists in the study of his writings, furnish the reader with a mass 
of information of profound interest and rare value. The discussions 
contain a freshness and force, a flavor and freedom which awakens and 
retains the attention of the reader. To any one who would understand 
Goethe as a man, thinker, and writer, we commend this volume as the 
best with which we are acquainted." The National Baptist, Philadel- 

A Study of Greek Philosophy. 

By ELLEN M. MITCHELL. With an Introduction by WILLIAM 


" This survey, with its analysis of the Greek schools, is the most clear 
and inclusive, as far as my knowledge extends, that has been made in 
our language within so compact a space. It is of genuine value." 
Edmund Clarence Stedman. 

" It is the best work for general students we have ever read. It is a 
popular treatise in which we find most charmingly presented a discus- 
sion of the various schools of Greek thought, with biographical repre- 
sentatives from Thales to Proclus. In this brilliant volume the reader 
is introduced to such master minds as Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Zeno, 
and Epicurus. It is clear, crisp, compact. To those who have a taste 
for philosophy we can heartily recommend this admirable volume." 
The Arena, Boston, Mass. 

England and Its Rulers. 

A Concise Compendium of the History of England and Its 
HUMPHREY. Cloth, 352 pages, $1.50. 

"This will prove a reliable, helpful book for ready reference to the 
main facts of English Royal, Constitutional, and Church history. It is a 
well chosen, well arranged piece of compiling. The indexing is thor- 
oughly done, especially in biography." Review of Reviews, New York. 

The Youth of Frederick the Great. 

By ERNEST LAVISSE, of the Sorbonne, Paris. Translated by 
MARY BUSHNELL COLEMAN. 450 pages, cloth, $2.00. 

eneranng an nsructve. e suy s e more neresng e- 
cause it is made by a modem French professor, who is attempting to 
analyze the source of that tremendous expansion of German power 
which made France herself bow in cruel defeat." Review of Reviews, 
New York. 

To the Orator, Lawyer, Preacher, and Student. 



By WILLIAM MATHEWS, LL.D. 1 vol., 456 pages. 
Price, $2.00. 

CONTENTS: The Power and Influence of the Orator. 
Is Oratory a Lost Art ? Qualification of the Ora- 
tor. The Orator's Trials. The Orator's Helps. The 
Tests of Eloquence. Personalities in Debate. Polit- 
ical Orators : English. Political Orators : Irish. Polit- 
ical Orators : American. Forensic Orators. Pulpit 
Orators. A Plea for Oratorical Culture. 

This book contains information that would take half 
a lifetime to gather elsewhere. Lawyers, politicians, 
statesmen, clergymen, and all public speakers will find 
it a mine of wealth, full of practical suggestions and 
directions of great value, while the general reader will 
be fascinated by the gems of thought, the vivid por- 
traitures and sparkling anecdotes of celebrated orators 
with which its pages abound. 

From the New York Mail and Express : " This book should be read, 
marked, and inwardly digested by every young man who expects at any 
time to speak in public, either at a public meeting, in a deliberative 
body, at the bar, in the pulpit, or even after dinner." 

From the Philadelphia Inquirer : " No better idea of the great ora- 
tors whose names are in all men's mouths can be found than from Dr. 
Mathews's glowing pages. It is impossible to read them without gath- 
ering new ideas and increasing knowledge while it is equally impossible 
to miss being entertained." 

Other Volumes by Dr. Mathews : 

Wit and Humor $1 5O 

Men, Places, and Things 1 5O 

Hours with Men and Books . . . . 1 5O 

The Great Conversers 1 5O 

Literary Style and Other Essays . . 1 5O 

Getting On in the World 1 5O 

Words: Their Use and Abuse . , . 2 OO 

Monday-Chats of Sainte Beuve 

1 5O 

" We say to young people who are accumulating a library full of 
helpful suggestions, order Dr. Mathews's series." Bishop J. H. Vin- 
cent, D.D., in the Sunday-School Journal, New York. 

Price of The Nine Volumes $14-50, Express Paid. 


A Study of Political Eloquence in Greece, with extracts 
from his orations and a critical discussion of the 
Trial on the Crown, from the French of PROF. L. 
J}REDIF, of the University of France. Octavo, cloth, 
gilt top, $2.50. 

" This work on the illustrious Greek orator ought to be in the hands 
of all preachers, lecturers, actors, and politicians. Mr. McMahon^s 
translation of this remarkable book is admirable, and his editing is 
thoughtful and skillful." London (England) Morning Post. 



Pocket size. Cloth. Price, 75 cents. 

There is no other work in our language of like character, so 
thorough, concise, complete, and convenient for easy reference. 

The above books may be had of any good Bookseller, or will be sent, postpaid, on receipt of price, by the Publishers, 

S. C. GRIGGS & CO., 262 & 264 WABASH AVE., CHICAGO. 



[Sept. 16, 

New Books and New Editions for 



New and very attractive editions of these Famous College Stories, with all the original illustrations. 

The Adventures of Mr. Verdant Green, an Oxford Freshman. By CUTHBKRT BKDK. In three 

parts. Part I. The Adventures of Mr. Verdant Green. Part II. The Further Adventures of Mr. Verdant Green. Part 
III. Mr. Verdant Green Married and Done For. With 4 etched frontispieces and etched titles, and 180 illustrations by 
the author. 2 vols. 

Little Mr. Bouncer and His Friend, Verdant Green. Also Tales of College Life. I. A Long 

Vacation Vigil. II. "Aeger," or Mistaken Identity. III. The Only Man Left in College on Christmas Day. By CUTH- 
BEKT BEDE. With etched title and etched frontispiece, and 78 illustrations by the author. 1 vol. 

Together, '6 vols. 12mo, cloth, extra, gilt top, $5.00 ; half calf, extra, gilt top, $10.00 ; half morocco, extra, gilt top, $10.00. 
Also a limited large-paper edition of 250 numbered copies on Dickinson hand-made paper, with proofs of etchings on Japan 
paper, 3 vols. 8vo, cloth, uncut, $15.00, net. 

A Volume of Short Stories by the Author of " With Fire and 

Sword." Daintily Bound and Beautifully Illustrated. 

Translated from the Polish of HENBYK SIENKIEWICZ by 
l(5mo, cloth, extra, gilt top, $1.25. 

None of the stories have ever before been translated into English, al- 
though Yanko the Musician, the initial story of the volume, won the 

author his fame. In a review of Sienkiewicz in Blackwood's Magazine, 
this beautiful story was fittingly described as a little poem in prose, 
absolutely perfect of its land. " Bartek the Victor " is the story of a 
hero of the Franco-Prussian war." 

Xenophon's Art of Horsemanship. 

the writings of XENOPHON, with Preface by Dr. MORRIS 
H. MORGAN. With several full-page plates, and numerous 
illustrations from the antique. 12rao, cloth, gilt top, $1.50 ; 
half calf, extra, or half morocco, extra, gilt top, $3.25 ; 
limp morocco, gilt edges, $3.75. 
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COMIC TRAGEDIES. Written by "Jo" and "Meg," 
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COMPLETE POEMS. New Edition. With Portrait. 
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P. WORMELEY. 12mo, half russia, $1.50. 
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MABEL LOOMIS TODD. First and second series in one vol- 
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FOR FIFTY YEARS. Verses written on occasion in the 
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HELPFUL WORDS. From the writings of EDWARD E. 
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cloth, $1.00. 
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Columbian Knowledge Series. 

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Now in Press : 

Ph.D., Professor of Astronomy and Director of the Amherst 
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In Preparation for Early Issue: 

The Renaissance bindings. 

We issue this season a line of our most popular books, 
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POEMS BY HELEN JACKSON (H. H.). With portrait. 
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POEMS BY EMILY DICKINSON. Both series in one 
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Few More Verses." In one volume. 16mo, $3.00. 

portrait. 16mo, $3.00. 

graphical memoir. 16mo, $3.00. 

16mo, $3.00. 

days, so shall thy strength be." Selected by MARY W. 
TILESTON. 16mo, $3.00. 

QUIET HOURS. Selected by MARY W. TILESTON. 16mo, 

STON. 16mo, $3.00. 

TENDER AND TRUE. Poems of Love selected by MARY 
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[Oct. 1, 1893. 


General Johnston. 

By ROBERT M. HUGHES. A new volume in the Great Com- 
manders Series, edited by Gen. JAMES GRANT WILSON. 
With Portrait and Maps. 12mo, cloth, gilt top, $1.50. 
The active and varied career of General Joseph E. John- 
ston, the conspicuous part which he took in the civil war, the 
differences of opinion between Jefferson Davis and himself, 
and their effect upon the fortunes of the Confederacy, render 
the story of his life one of engrossing interest and great his- 
torical importance. The author has had access to unpublished 
documents and other sources of fresh information which im- 
part to his work a distinctive quality and a special and per- 
manent value. 

The Gilded Man. 
I El Dorado), 

And other Pictures of the Spanish Occupancy of America. 

By A. F. BANDELIER. 12mo, cloth, f 1.50. 
The author here describes the adventures and romantic epi- 
sodes attendant upon the early Spanish explorations of our 
Southwest. The scene of the story which gives its title to the 
volume is laid in Venezuela, and the legend of El Dorado is 
for the first time told accurately in popular form. With this 
exception the tales relate to our own country. They include 
the stories of the mysterious "Seven Cities of Cibola," " El 
Quivira," and others of equal dramatic interest and historical 

Factors in American Civilization. 

ular Lectures and Discussions before the Brooklyn Ethical 
Association. With Index. 12mo, cloth, $2.00. 
This is uniform with the two previous volumes of the series, 
entitled respectively "Evolution in Science and Art" and 
"Man and the State." The lectures are by well-known 
writers and speakers, the range of topics embracing all the 
more important sociological questions of the time. 

Speeches and Addresses of William 

From his Election to Congress to the Present Time. Com- 
piled by JOSEPH P. SMITH, Librarian of the Ohio State 
Library. With Portraits on Steel of the Author and Others. 
8vo, 650 pages, cloth, $2.00. 

These selections, sixty-five in number, embrace a wide range 
of topics of absorbing public interest, and include twenty-five 
speeches devoted to the tariff question in all its aspects ; and 
others on silver, Federal elections, pensions and the public 
debt, civil-service reform, the Treasury surplus and the pur- 
chase of bonds, the direct tax bill, etc. 

The orator whose views are thus presented is the best au- 
thority of his party on most of the matters considered. An 
elaborate analytical Index gives the volume an encyclopedic 
character, which will be especially appreciated at the present 
time by the student of whatever political faith. 

Personal Recollections of Werner von 

Translated by W. C. COUPLAND. 8vo, cloth. 
In two very different fields the application of heat and 
he application of electricitv Herr von Siemens trainer! tire- 

The Life of Sir Richard F. Burton. 

By his Wife, ISABEL BURTON. With numerous Portraits, 

Illustrations, and Maps, and 2 colored Plates. In 2 vols., 

8vo, cloth, $12.00. 

"Few men of our time have led a more romantic and adventurous 
life than the late Sir Richard F. Burton. A consummate linguist and 
intrepid traveller, without a rival in his varied knowledge of men, races, 
and religions, the hero of innumerable adventures, and of more than 
one almost impossible undertaking, Burton stands forth in these hum- 
drum days as a rare and almost unique personality. No one is so well 
qualified to do justice to his strange and eventful career as his devoted 
wife, the sharer and interpreter of his inmost thoughts, his associate in 
not a few of his singular experiences. . . . The book presents a strik- 
ing and faithful portrait of a very remarkable man and a stirring record 
of a very romantic career." London Times. 

" The volumes abound in interest of every sort, and they constitute 
an almost perfect course of modern geography and travel for those 
children of a larger growth who will insist on having their knowledge 
of this kind in an entertaining form." London Daily News. 

Camp-Fires of a Naturalist. 

From the Field Notes of LEWIS LINDSAY DYCHE, A.M., 
M.S., Professor of Zoology and Curator of Birds and Mam- 
mals in the Kansas State University. The Story of Four- 
teen Expeditions after North American Mammals. By 
CLARENCE E. EDWORDS. With numerous Illustrations. 
12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

" It is not always that a professor of zoology is so enthusiastic a sports- 
man as Prof. Dyche. His hunting exploits are as varied as those of 
Gordon dimming, for example, in South Africa. His grizzly bear is as 
dangerous as the lion, and his mountain sheep and goats more difficult 
to stalk and shoot than any creatures of the torrid zone. Evidently he 
came by his tastes as a hunter from lifelong experience." New York 

"This book has no dull pages, and is often excitingly interesting, and 
fully instructive as to the habits, haunts, and nature of wild beasts." 
Chicago Inter-Ocean. 

On the Old Frontier. 

By WILLIAM 0. STODDARD, author of " Crowded Out o' Cro- 

field," "Little Smoke," "The Battle of New York," etc. 

Illustrated by H. D. MURPHY. Good Books for Young 

Readers Series. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

In this thrilling story Mr. Stoddard is at his best. He de- 
scribes the vicissitudes of the settlers in western New York,