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From the collection of the 

n T m 

o Prelinger 



v .LJrbrary 

San Francisco, California 









Semi-Monthly Journal of 

Literary Criticism, Discussion, and Information 


JULY i, 1894, TO DECEMBER 16, 1894 









BIRDS, SOME BOOKS ABOUT Sara A. Hubbard 291 


















ENGLISH AT THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN .... David B. Frankenburger .... 187 




ENGLISH LITERATURE, THE HISTORY OF Frederic Ives Carpenter .... 285 

ENGLISH NOVELS, RECENT William Morton Payne 263 

ETHICS, SOME RECENT STUDIES IN Frank Chapman Sharp .... 196 


FAITH, EXTREMES OF John Bascom 156 


FICTION, RECENT William Morton Payne 121 








JAPAN OF OLD, THE REAL Ernest W. Clement 258 

JUVENILE BOOKS, 1894 339,388 


LAKE POETS, THE Anna B. McMahan 293 




MANNERS, AMERICAN Anna B. McMahan 375 


"MERE LITERATURE" .' ; John Burroughs 253 




OLD LIGHT ON THE NEW PATH, THE Frederick Starr 376 

ONE STEP SHORT S. R. Elliott 217 


POETRY, RECENT William Morton Payne 63 

PUBLIC SERVANT, A GREAT Melville B. Anderson 86 


SAVE ME FROM MY FRIENDS Alexander C. McClurg 36 



SHERMAN LETTERS, THE B. A. Hinsdale 226 




STORIES, A CENTURY OF William Morton Payne 332 




"TELL Us A STORY!" Jessie Macmillan Anderson . . . 145 


THOREAU'S LETTERS Louis J. Block 228 

" THREE DECKER," THE RISE AND FALL OF THE . . Walter Besant 185 




VIRGINIANS, Two GREAT B. A. Hinsdale 378 




NEW YORK TOPICS. Arthur Stedman 

Books, The Public Appreciation of. W. R. K. . 222 

Bryant Centenary, The. Arthur Stedman . . 107 

Bryant Day at Knox College. W. E. S. . . . 301 
Comparative Literature, A Society of. Charles 

Mills Gayley 57 

Comparative Literature, The Proposed Society of. 

Albert S. Cook 110 

Comparative Literature, The Proposed Society of. 

Willard C. Gore 287 

Cruelty, The Social Distribution of. A. W. G. . 326 
Ely, Professor, The Trial of. R. W. Conant . 109 
English in Southern Universities. J. B. Henneman 373 
English Literature, The Study of, from the Stand- 
point of the Student. Charles W. Hodell . 148 
English, The Teaching of, in Preparatory Schools. 

John M. Clapp 222 

English in Preparatory Schools. Caskie Harrison 286 
Ethics in Journalism A Warning for the Unin- 
itiated. William C. Lawton 288 

Fiske, John, and the California Vigilants. C. Clark 255 

Hebrew as a Sailor, The. Adolphe Cohn . . . 222 

Historian's " Literary Style," An. John J. Halsey 32 

. . . .19, 44, 71, 96, 167, 201, 237, 301, 343, 390 
Illinois University, Dedication and Inauguration 

at the. T. A. Clark 342 

Italian Novelists, Contemporary. G. B. Rose . 7 
Learning, The " Royal Road " to. W. M. Bryant 254 
Literature in Preparatory Schools, The Study of. 

Gertrude H. Mason 374 

" Literature, Mere," Mr. Burroughs on. William 

M. Salter 326 

Literature, The Teaching of. W. H. Johnson . 56 
Literature, The Teaching of, Again. Frederic 

Ives Carpenter 85 

" Literature," What is Meant by ? W. E. Henry 326 
New York " Nation," The, and its " College An- 
archist." C. E. S 

Provincial Flag of Pennsylvania, The. F. 0. Allen 
San Francisco Vigilantes Again, The. W. R. K. 
Shakespeare Library, A Working. A. J. H. 
Shakespeare Society of New York, The, and its 
" Bankside " Shakespeare. Appleton Morgan 
" Teaching, The Freedom of." Duane Mowry . 
Tennyson, A Memorial to. Annie Fields . 
Word Unfitly Spoken, A. W. R. K. . . . . 







American Philological Association, The. J. R. S. 56 

Autumn. Poem by John Vance Cheney . . . 147 
Ballade of Books Well Bound. Poem by Harry 

B. Smith 73 

Bibliophile's Library, A Modern. W. Irving Way 129 

Books for the Young 339, 388 

Bulgaria, Papers and Magazines of 45 

Carcassonne. Poem from the French of Gustave 

Nadaud, by Francis F. Browne 288 

Changeless Bard, The. Poem by W. P. Trent . 188 

De Lisle, Leconte 98 

English Authors, Older, Thinned Ranks of the . 344 

Fiction, Why Alone as Serials ? 73 

Freeman, Edward Augustus, In Memoriam. Poem 

by Arthur J. Evans 271 

Helmholtz, Prof. Hermann von, Death of . . . 169 

Holmes, Oliver Wendell. Poem by Julia C.R. Dorr 303 

Inadequacy. Poem by Edith M. Thomas . . 217 

Minor Poets, The Prospect for 203 

Newberry Library, John Vance Cheney Elected 
Librarian of the 

Oxford, Final Honor School of English at . . 

Pater, Walter. Poem by Michael Field . . . 

Pater, Walter, The Message of 

Pearson, Charles Henry 

Publishing House, The History of a .... 

Reprints, Garbled, Protection of Authors from . 

San Francisco, Professor M. B. Anderson's Crit- 
icisms on . 

Scott at the Close of his Century 

Shelley Memorial, Unveiling of the 

Swinburne's Memorial Ode on the Death of Le- 
conte de Lisle, Selections from 

To a Sleeper at Rome. Poem by Theodore Watts 

" Transfiguration." Poem by Florence Wilkinson 

Turkey, Public Instruction in 

University Extension, A Prophet of 

Webster, Augusta* Poem by Alexander H. Japp 












BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS 16, 41, 68, 94, 124, 158, 198, 233, 267, 296, 345 

BRIEFER MENTION .; . . 19, 44, 70, 96, 127, 160, 200, 236, 269, 300 

LITERARY NOTES AND MISCELLANY 20, 45, 72, 97, 128, 168, 202, 238, 270, 302, 343, 391 

TOPICS IN LEADING PERIODICALS 21, 46, 74, 130, 169, 205, 239, 271, 345, 392 

LIST OF NEW BOOKS 21, 46, 74, 130, 205, 240, 271, 303, 392 


Abbott, Charles Conrad. The Birds About Us . 291 

Aitken, G. A. Works of Richard Steele ... 70 
Aldrich, Thomas Bailey. The Story of a Bad 

Boy, holiday edition 390 

Alexander, W. F. Selected Letters of Mendels- 
sohn 10 

Allen, Joseph Henry. An Historical Sketch of 

the Unitarian Movement 157 

Allingham, William. Varieties in Prose . . . 13 

Andersen, Hans, Tales from 339 

Anster, John. Goethe's Faust, Dodd, Mead & 

Co.'s edition 385 

Aspects of Modern Study 235 

Atherton, Gertrude. Before the Gringo Came . 333 
Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice, holiday edi- 
tion 337 

Ballou, M. M. The Pearl of India 299 

Bancroft, H. H. The Book of the Fair . . . 159 
Bangs, John Kendrick. The Water Ghost and 

Others 334 

Barker, G. F. Russell. Walpole's Memoirs of 

the Reign of George III 335 

Bartlett, John. A Complete Concordance to 

Shakespeare . 193 

Baylor, Frances Courtney. Claudia Hyde . . 123 
Beers, Henry A. From Chaucer to Tennyson . 199 
Bent, Theodore. The Sacred City of the Ethiop- 
ians 71 

Bible Stories for the Young 340 

Bibliographica 18 

Bikelas, Demetrios. Tales from the JEge&n . . 334 

Bishop, W. H. Writing to Rosina 338 

Bjornson, Bjornstjerne. A Gauntlet .... 128 

Black, William. Highland Cousins 265 

Bliss, Frederick Jones. A Mound of Many Cities 19 
Blossom, Jr., Henry M. The Documents in Evi- 
dence 44 

Bolles, Frank. From Blomidon to Smoky . . 292 

Bolton, Sarah K. Famous Leaders among Men 342 
Booth, Charles. The Aged Poor in England and 

Wales 154 

Booth by, Guy. On the Wallaby 40 

Bosanquet, Bernard. The Civilization of Christ- 
endom 196 

Bower, Hamilton. Diary of a Journey across Tibet 39 

Boyesen, H. H. Literary and Social Silhouettes 95 

Boyesen, H. H. Norseland Tales 342 

Boyd, Mrs. Orsemus B. Cavalry Life in Tent and 

Field 234 

Bradford, Amory H. The Question of Unity . 156 

Bradford, Amory H. The Sistine Madonna . . 387 

Bridges, Robert. The Growth of Love . . . 386 
Brooks, Elbridge S. The Century Book for Young 

Americans 340 

Brown, Horatio F. Life on the Lagoons ... 68 

Browning, Robert. Asolando 300 

Bruce, Wallace. Wayside Poems 387 

Bryant, William M. A Syllabus of Ethics . . 

Bryant, William M. Ethics and the New Edu- 

Burnett, Frances Hodgson. Piccino .... 

Burt, Mary E. Stories from Plato and Other 
Classic Writers 

Butterworth, Hezekiah. The Patriot School- 

Byron, Lord. Childe Harold, Handy Volume 

Caine, Hall. The Manxman 

Carus, Paul. Fundamental Problems .... 

Catherwood, Mary Hartwell. The Chase of Saint- 

Champney, Elizabeth W. Witch Winnie at Shin- 
necock . 

Chatelain, Heli. Folk-Tales of Angola . . . 

Chatterbox for 1894 

Child, Theodore. Wimples and Crisping Pins . 

Church, A. J. Stories from English History 

Church, Samuel Harden. Oliver Cromwell . 

Clark, J. W. Libraries in the Mediaeval and 
Renaissance Periods 

Clark, T. M. Building Superintendence . 

Cochrane, Alfred. The Kestral's Nest 

Cole, Grenville A. J. The Gypsy Road . . . 

Collier, William Francis. History of English 
Literature ... 

Coman, Katherine, and Kendall, Elizabeth. The 
Growth of the English Nation 

Commons, John R. Social Reform and the Church 

Commons, John R. The Distribution of Wealth 

Conder, Claude R. Maccabseus and the Jewish 
War of Independence 

Conway, Moncure D. Centenary History of the 
South Place Society 

Conway, Moncure D. The Writings of Thomas 

Conway, William M. Climbing and Exploration 
in the Karakoram Himalayas 

Coolidge, Susan. Not Quite Eighteen 

Cortina, R. D. Spanish Texts for Students . 

Cotes, Mrs. Everard. A Daughter of To-day . 

Cox, Palmer. The Brownies Around the World 

Coxe, Brinton. Essay on Judicial Power and Un- 
constitutional Legislation 

Craddock, Charles Egbert. His Vanished Star . 

Crane, Lauren E. Speeches and Addresses of 
Newton Booth 

Curzon, George N. Problems of the Far East . 

Davidson, John. Plays 

De Amicis, Edmondo. Holland 

De Gontaut, the Duchesse, Memoirs of ... 

De Me"neval, Claude-Francois. Memoirs Illus- 
trating the History of Napoleon I. . . .111, 

Dickens, Charles. A Tale of Two Cities, holi- 
day edition 



















Dickens, Mary Angela. A Valiant Ignorance . 122 
Dickson, W. K. L. and Antonia. The Life and 

Inventions of Thomas Alva Edison .... 289 

Dictionary of National Biography 201 

Dillon, John F. Laws and Jurisprudence of En- 
gland and America 115 

Discipleship: The Scheme of Christianity . . . 295 
Dixon, Miss E. Fairy Tales from the Arabian 

Nights 19 

Dobson, Austin. Eighteenth Century Vignettes, 

Second Series 338 

Dobson, Austin. Old English Songs .... 385 

Dodge, Mary Mapes. The Land of Pluck . . 340 

Dodge, Mary Mapes. When Life is Young . . 389 

Dolbear, A. E. Matter, Ether, and Motion . . 71 

Dostoievsky, F. Poor Folk 124 

Doyle, A. Conan. Micah Clarke, school edition 236 

Doyle, A. Conan. Round the Red Lamp . . . 332 
Drage, Geoffrey. The Unemployed . . . 155, 331 
Drake, Samuel Adams. The Making of the Ohio 

Valley States 381 

Dumas, Alexandre. The Count of Monte Cristo, 

Crowell's edition 336 

Dumas, Alexandre. The Napoleon Romances, 

Little, Brown, & Co.'s edition 127 

Du Maurier, George. Trilby 264 

Dunn, George. Red Cap and Blue Jacket . . 121 

Earle, Alice Morse. Costume in Colonial Times 269 

Earle, Alice Morse. Diary of Anna Green Winslow 268 

Edwards, George Wharton. P'tit Matiuic . . 338 
Egleston, Thomas. Life of Major General John 

Paterson 380 

Ely, Richard T. Socialism 91 

English in the Secondary Schools 71 

Erman, Adolf. Life in Ancient Egypt . . . 386 

European Architecture 383 

Faber's Hymns, Crowell's edition 387 

Farrar, Canon. Life of Christ as Represented in 

Art 383 

Fasnacht, G. E. Select Specimens of the Great 

French Writers 160 

Fenn, George Manville. First in the Field . . 389 
Ferrier, Susan, The Novels of, Dent's edition . 385 
Field, Eugene. Love Songs of Childhood . . 390 
Finley, John H. The Public Treatment of Pau- 
perism 300 

Firth, C. H. Memoirs of Edmund Ludlow . . 160 
Fiske, John. History of the United States for 

Schools 198 

Fiske, John. The War for Independence, school 

edition 70 

Fitzgerald, Edward. The Rubaiyat of Omar 

Khayyam, Mosher's edition 299 

Fitzgerald, Percy. The Gilbert and Sullivan 

Operas 159 

Flammarion, Camille. Popular Astronomy . . 386 

Forbes, Archibald. Czar and Sultan .... 340 

Forster, Francis. Major Joshua 122 

Fowler, J. K. Recollections of Old Country Life 95 

Frederic, Harold. Marsena 333 

Frost, William H. Wagner Story Book . . . 340 

Fuller, Anna. Peak and Prairie 333 

Gamlin, Hilda. Life and Art of George Romney 384 
Gandhi, Virchand R. The Unknown Life of 

Jesus Christ 295 

Garland, Hamlin. Crumbling Idols .... 11 

Garnett, Edward. An Imaged World .... 338 

Giddings, Franklin H. The Theory of Sociology 155 

Gilder, Richard Watson. Five Books of Song . 

Gilkes, Arthur Herman. The Thing that Hath 

Gomme, Alice B. Children's Singing Games 

Goodyear, W. H. Renaissance and Modern Art 

Gould, George M. Illustrated Dictionary of Med- 
icine, Biology, and Allied Sciences .... 

Gould, George M. The Meaning and the Method 
of Life ' , ; . 

Green Carnation, The 

Green, Mrs. J. R. Town Life in the Fifteenth 

Griffis, William Elliott. Brave Little Holland . 

Gudeman, Alfred. Tacitus's Dialogus de Orator- 

Gunn, John. The Sons of the Vikings 

Hall, John R. Clark. A Concise Anglo-Saxon 

Hall, Tom. When Hearts are Trumps 

Harper's Young People for 1894 

Harraden, Beatrice. Things Will Take a Turn 

Harris, Frank. Elder Conklin 

Harris, Joel Chandler. Little Mr. Thimblefin- 









Harte, Bret. The Bell-Ringer of Angel's 

Healy, George P. A. Reminiscences of a Portrait 

Hearn, Lafcadio. Glimpses of Unfamiliar Japan 

Heath, Richard. The English Peasant 

Henty, G. A. In the Heart of the Rockies . 

Henty, G. A. When London Burned .... 

Henty, G. A. Wulf the Saxon 

Heyse, Paul. Ghost Tales 

Hinkson, Katherine Tynan. Cuckoo Songs . 

Hinton, Richard J. John Brown and His Men . 

Hittell, John S. A History of the Mental Growth 
of Mankind in Ancient Times 

Holmes, Oliver Wendell. The Last Leaf, holi- 
day edition 

Hope, Anthony. A Change of Air 

Howells, W. D. A Traveller from Altruria . . 

Howells, W. D. Five o'Clock Tea 

Howells, W. D. Their Wedding Journey, holiday 

Howells, W. D. The Mousetrap 

Hudson, William Henry. Introduction to the 
Philosophy of Herbert Spencer < 

Hufford, Lois G. Essays and Letters Selected 
from the Writings of John Ruskin .... 

Hughson, Shirley C. The Carolina Pirates and 
Colonial Commerce 

Hugo, Victor, The Romances of, Little, Brown, 
& Co.'s edition 

Hunt, Violet. The Maiden's Progress .... 

Hutton, Laurence. Portraits in Plaster . 

Hutton, Richard Holt. Criticisms on Contem- 
porary Thought and Thinkers 

Huxley, Thomas H. Discourses Biological and 

Huxley, Thomas H. Man's Place in Nature 

Irving, Washington. The Sketch Book, Lippin- 
cott's edition 

Irving, Washington. The Sketch Book, " Van 
Tassell " edition 

Jacobs, Joseph. More Celtic Fairy Tales 

Jacobs, Joseph. The Fables of .ZEsop .... 

James, Henry. Theatricals 

Jamison, Mrs. C. V. Toinette's Philip . . . 














Janvier, Thomas A. In Old New York . . . 235 

Jenks, Tudor. Iniaginotions 339 

Jersey, The Countess of. Maurice, or the Red Jar 339 

Jessopp, Augustus. Random Roamings . . . 155 

Jewish Question, The 125 

.Johnson, Bradley T. General Washington . . 378 

Johnson, Clifton. The Farmer's Boy .... 342 

Judson, H. P. Europe in the Nineteenth Century 199 

Karoly, Karl. Raphael's Madonnas .... 385 

Kayserling, M. Christopher Columbus ... 95 

Keane, T. Prose Tales of Alexander Poushkin . 124 
Keene, John Harrington. Boys' Own Guide to 

Fishing 389 

Keith, Alyn Yates. A Hilltop Summer . . . 387 

Kelly, W. J. Presswork 237 

Kenealy, Arabella. Dr. Janet of Harley Street 266 

Keyser, Leander S. In Bird Land ..... 292 

Kidd, Benjamin. Social Evolution 154 

Kingsley, Charles. Hypatia, holiday edition . . 336 
Kingsley, Henry, The Novels of, Ward, Lock, 

& Bowdeu's edition . 300 

Knox, Thomas W. Boy Travellers in the Levant 341 

Knox, Thomas W. The Lost Army .... 389 

La Mara. Letters of Franz Liszt 8 

Landon, Joseph. Principles and Practice of 

Teaching 18 

Lane-Poole, Stanley. Life of Sir Harry Parkes, 

K.C.B 92 

Lang, Andrew. Ban and Arriere Ban .... 63 

Lang, Andrew. Border Ballads ...... 383 

Lang, Andrew. Cock Lane and Common Sense 126 

Lang, Andrew. St. Andrews 96 

Lang, Andrew. The Yellow Fairy Book . . . 339 

Larminie, William. West Irish Folk-Tales . . 69 
Lamed, J. N. History for Ready Reference . 152, 237 
Laurie, S. S. Lectures on Language and Linguistic 

Method in the School 17 

Layard, G. S. Tennyson and His Pre-Raphaelite 

Illustrators 337 

Lecky, W. E. H. The Empire, Its Value and 

Growth 70 

Lee, Charles Henry. Arthur Lee as Seen in His- 
tory 382 

Lee, Fitzhugh. General Lee 379 

Lee- Warner, William. The Protected Princes of 

India 201 

Lefevre, Andre*. Race and Language .... 299 
LeGallienne, Richard. English Poems ... 65 
Leighton, Robert. Olaf the Glorious .... 341 
Liddon, Henry Parry. Life of Pusey .... 297 
Lilly, William Samuel. The Claims of Chris- 
tianity 296 

Little, George T. Bowdoin College .... 199 

Little, W. J. Knox. Sacerdotalism 156 

Lloyd, Henry Demarest. Wealth against Com- 
monwealth 230 

Lummis, Charles F. The Man Who Married the 

Moon 340 

Maccallum, M. W. Tennyson's Idylls of the King 

and Arthurian Story from the XVIth Century 42 

Maccunn, John. The Ethics of Citizenship . . 233 

Mace, W. H. Syllabus on American History . 44 

Mackay, Eric. Love Letters of a Violinist . . 387 
Mackintosh, William. The Natural History of 

the Christian Religion 157 

Macpherson, H. A., Stuart- Wortley, A. J., and 

Saintsbury, George. The Grouse .... 200 

Magruder, Julia. The Child Amy 390 

Marshall, Emma. Kensington Palace in the Days 

of Queen Mary 389 

Masson, Frederic. Napoleon, Lover and Hus- 
band 269 

Matthews, Brander. Vignettes of Manhattan . 299 
May, Joseph. Letters and Sermons of Samuel 

Longfellow 267 

McCulloch, Hugh, Jr. The Quest of Heracles . 68 
McLaughlin, Edward Tompkins. Studies in Me- 
diaeval Life and Literature 41 

Mercer, L. P. The New Jerusalem in the World's 

Religious Congresses 294 

Meredith, George. Lord Ormont and His Aminta 263 
Merriam, Florence A. My Summer in a Mormon 

Village 94 

Meyer, Isaac. Scarabs 71 

Mitchell, Langdon Elwyn. Poems 66 

Molesworth, Mrs. My New Home 388 

Molesworth, Mrs. Olivia 388 

Monroe, Kirk. The Fur Seal's Tooth .... 341 

Montbard, Georges. Among the Moors ... 40 

Moore, R. W. A History of German Literature 201 
Morris, Mowbray. Boswell's Life of Johnson, 

Crowell's edition 338 

Morton, Frederick W. Woman in Epigram . . 298 

Muirhead, J. F. Guide-Book to Canada . . . 268 
Murray-Aaron, Eugene. The Butterfly Hunters 

in the Caribbees 389 

My Paris Note-Book 18 

Nichols, Edward L. Laboratory Manual of Physics 

and Applied Electricity 160, 237 

Nicholson, J. Shield. Principles of Political Econ- 
omy 118 

Nicolay, John G., and Hay, John. Abraham Lin- 
coln's Complete Works 33 

Norton, Charles Eliot. Orations and Addresses 

of George William Curtis 86 

Oliphant, Mrs. M. O. W. The Reign of Queen 

Anne 335 

Oman, John Campbell. The Great Indian Epics 300 

Optic, Oliver. Brother against Brother . . . 341 

O'Rell, Max. John Bull & Co 268 

Oriental Studies 300 

Osborn, Grover Pease. Principles of Economics 120 

Osborn, Henry F. From the Greeks to Darwin 330 

Page, Thomas Nelson. Polly 384 

Page, Thomas Nelson. The Burial of the Guns 333 
Parker, Gilbert. A Lover's Diary ..... 67 
Pasquier, Due D'Audiffret. The Pasquier Me- 
moirs 236 

Paull, H. B., and Wheatley, L. A. Grimm's 

Fairy Tales 201 

Peard, Frances Mary. The Interloper . . . 122 
Pennell, Joseph. Pen Drawing and Pen Draughts- 
men 335 

Perry, Nora. Hope Benham 388 

Pfleiderer, Otto. Philosophy and Development 

of Religion 296 

Piatt, Donn, and Boynton, Henry V. General 

George H. Thomas 36 

Pickard, Samuel T. Life and Letters of John 

Greenleaf Whittier 327 

Plympton, Miss A. G. Penelope Prig .... 388 

Plympton, Miss A. G. Rags and Velvet Gowns 342 

Pollard, Alfred W. Chaucer's Canterbury Tales 260 
Porter, Rose. About Women: What Men Have 

Said . . . 298 

Porter, J. Hampden. Wild Beasts .... 386 



Posse, Baron Nils. Special Kinesiology of Edu- 
cational Gymnastics 71 

Prince, John T. Arithmetic by Grades . . . 1,60 
Radcliffe, Miss A. G. Schools and Masters of 

Sculpture 337 

Radford, Lewis B. Thomas of London before His 

Consecration 298 

Rand, Silas Tertius. Legends of the Micmacs . 14 
Rawnsley, H. D. Literary Associations of the 

English Lakes 293 

Rhys, Grace. The " Banbury Cross " Series . . 389 
Hinder, Edith Wingate. Poems and Lyrics of 

Nature .300 

Robertson, Alexander. Life of Fra Paolo Sarpi 70 

Robinson Crusoe, Macmillan's edition .... 390 

Robinson, Rowland E. Danvis Folk .... 299 
Rogers, Arthur Kenyon. The Life and Teachings 

of Jesus 295 

Roosevelt, Theodore. The Founding of the Trans- 

Alleghany Commonwealths 382 

Ruskin, John. Letters Addressed to a College 

Friend 127 

Ruskin, John. Verona and Other Lectures . . 69 

Rutherford, Mildred. American Authors . . 234 

Sabatier, Paul. Life of St. Francis of Assisi . 150 
Saint-Pierre, Bernardin. Paul and Virginia, Ap- 

pletons' edition 338 

Salt, H. S. Animals' Rights 296 

Samuel, Mark. The Amateur Aquarist ... 19 

Samuels, Adelaide F. Father Gander's Melodies 390 
Sanborn, F. B. Familiar Letters of Henry David 

Thoreau 228 

Sanborn, Kate. Abandoning an Adopted Farm 269 
Saunders, Bailey. Life and Letters of James 

Macpherson 158 

Scott, Complete Poetical Works of, Crowell's edi- 
tion 338 

Scudder, Horace E. Childhood in Literature and 

Art 384 

Seawell, Molly Elliot. Decatur and Somers . 342 

Seccombe, Thomas. Lives of Twelve Bad Men 223 

Shakespeare, The " Ariel " 269, 386 

Shakespeare, The " Temple " . . . . 96, 269, 386 

Short Story Writing, The Art of 183 

Shultz, Jeanne. Madeleine's Rescue .... 388 
Shuman, Edwin L. Steps into Journalism . . 298 
Sienkiewicz, Henryk. Lillian Morris .... 334 
Simcox, Miss E. J. Primitive Civilizations . . 376 
Small, A. W., and Vincent, G. E. An Introduc- 
tion to the Study of Society 153 

Smith, Charles. Elementary Algebra .... 127 
Smith, Goldwin. Essays on Questions of the Day 43 
Smith, Harry B. Lyrics and Sonnets .... 67 
Smith, Mary P. Wells. Jolly Good Times To-day 389 
Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, Pub- 
lications of the 390 

Spencer, William G. System of Lucid Shorthand 96 
Spofford, Harriet Prescott, and others. Three 

Heroines of New England Romance . . . 336 

Spofford, Harriet Prescott. A Scarlet Poppy . 334 

Stables, Gordon. To Greenland and the Pole . 341 

Steel, Flora Annie. The Potter's Thumb . . 122 

Steele, Robert. The Story of Alexander . . . 340 

Sterrett, J. Macbride. The Ethics of Hegel . . 197 

Stevens, George B. The Johannine Theology . 295 
Stevenson, Robert Louis, and Osbourne, Lloyd. 

The Ebb-Tide 122 

St. Nicholas for 1894 . . 390 

Stoddard, William O. Chris the Model Maker . 389 

Stoddard, William O. The Captain's Boat . . 389 

Straus, Oscar S. Roger Williams * . 380 
Swift, F. Darwin;- The Life and Times of James 

the First 200 

Swinburne, Algernon Charles. Felise .... 299 

Syle, L. DuPont. From Milton to Tennyson . 70 
Tennyson, Alfred. Becket, Dodd, Mead & Co.'s 

edition 387 

Thiers, Louis Adolplie. History of the Consulate 

and the Empire, Lippincott's edition . . . 335 
Thiers, Louis Adolphe. History of the French 

Revolution^ Lippincott's edition 335 

Thompson, Langdon S. Educational and Indus- 
trial System of Drawing 44 

Thorndike, Rachel Sherman. The Sherman Let- 
ters O ...... 226 

Thornton, John. Human Physiology .... 300 

Todd, Mabel Loomis. Total Eclipses of the Sun 237 
Tolman, W. H., and Hull, W. I. Handbook of 

Sociological Information . . ... . '. . 155 

Tomlinson, Everett T. The Search for Andrew 

Field 341 

Torrey, Bradford. A Florida Sketch Book . . 292 
Tourgue*nieff, Ivan. A House of Gentlefolk . . 329 
Townsend, Virginia. Sirs, Only Seventeen . . 388 
Trollope, Mrs. Domestic Manners of the Amer- 
icans 375 

Trowbridge, John. Three Boys in an Electrical 

Boat * 341 

Turgenev, Ivan. Rudin 123 

Vaughan, David James. Questions of the Day . 197 
Von Weirsacker, Carl. The Apostolic Age of the 

Christian Church 157 

Wake, C. Staniland. Memoirs of the International 

Congress of Anthropology 128 

Wallihan, A. G. Hoofs, Claws, and Antlers . . 385 

Walton, Alice. The Cult of Asklepios . " . . 269 

Waverley Novels, " Dryburgh " edition . . . 237 

Webster, Leigh. Another Girl's Experience . 388 
Weeks, Stephen B. General Joseph Martin and 

the War of the Revolution 381 

Wentworth, G. A. First Steps in Algebra . . 70 

Weyman, Stanley J. My Lady Rotha . . . 264 
Whitcomb, Seldon L. Chronological Outlines of 

American Literature 235 

White, Eliza Orne. When Molly Was Six . . 388 

Whitney, Caspar W. A Sporting Pilgrimage . 383 
Whittier, John G., Poetical Works, " Cambridge " 

edition 300 

Wiggin, Kate Douglas. Timothy's Quest, holi- 
day edition 390 

Wilde, Oscar. Salome 12 

Winter, William. The Life and Art of Joseph 

Jefferson 256 

Wood, Mrs. J. W. Dante Rossetti, and the Pre- 
Raphaelite Movement 42 

Woods, Margaret L. The Vagabonds .... 265 

Wright, Mabel Osgood. The Friendship of Nature 159 
Wright, William Aldis. Letters of Edward Fitz- 

Gerald 16 

Wyatt, Marian L. A Girl I Know 385 

Wylie, James Hamilton. History of England un- 
der Henry the Fourth 127 

Yeats, J. B. A Celtic Twilight 69 

Yellow Book, The 200 

Yonge, Charlotte M. The Cook and the Captive 342 

Z. Z. A Drama in Dutch 265 



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No. 193. 

JULY 1, 1894. Vol. XVII. 




W. Sampson 5 


Contemporary Italian Novelists. G. B. Rose, 
The Provincial Flag of Pennsylvania. Francis Olcott 



Hale, Jr 11 


OF NATURE. Anna B. McMahan 13 


Frederick Starr 14 


More of the letters of FitzGerald. Language and 
linguistic methods in the school. Contemporary 
thought and thinkers. Teaching, its principles and 
practices. Bibliography in its historical and artistic 
aspects. Leaves from a Parisian note-book. 


NEW YORK TOPICS. Arthur Stedman 19 





The recent agitation in behalf of better in- 
struction in elementary English, now so prom- 
inent a feature of educational discussion, may 
almost be said to date from the publication, a 
year or two ago, of the famous Harvard Re- 
port on Composition and Rhetoric. That Re- 
port, at least, gave to the reform movement its 
strongest impulse, and made a burning " ques- 
tion of the day " out of a matter previously little 
more than academic in its interest. The sub- 
ject reached a larger public than it had ever 

addressed before, and this new and wider pub- 
lic was fairly startled out of its self-complacency 
by the exhibit made of the sort of English writ- 
ten by young men and women supposed to 
have enjoyed the best preparatory educational 
advantages, and to be fitted for entrance into 
the oldest and most dignified of our colleges. 
The Report was more than a discussion of the 
evils of bad training ; it was an object-lesson 
of the most effective sort, for it printed many 
specimen papers literatim et verbatim, and was 
even cruel enough to facsimile some of them 
by photographic process. 

The seed of discontent having thus been 
sown broadcast, the field was in a measure pre- 
pared for the labors of the English Conference 
named by the Committee of Ten ; and the re- 
port of that Conference, made public at the 
beginning of the present year, has kept the 
question of English teaching as burning as 
ever, if, indeed, it has not fanned the flame 
into greater heat. Not only the educational 
periodicals, but also many published in the in- 
terests of general culture, and even some of 
the newspapers in their blundering way 
have kept the subject before the public. Edu- 
cational gatherings have devoted to it much of 
their attention, and it has been taken up by 
the pamphleteers, notably by Professors Gay- 
ley and Bradley of the University of Califor- 
nia, whose "English in the Secondary Schools " 
we take pleasure in commending as both prac- 
tical and sane. 

The English Conference of which mention 
has been made, although appointed to investi- 
gate secondary education only, soon found that 
the subject of English is a unity, and felt 
obliged to make its recommendations apply to 
the whole course of training below the college 
to the work of twelve years instead of four. 
The recommendations made for the first eight 
years substantially as follows : For the 
first two years, elementary story-telling and 
the description of objects ; for the next four, 
the use of reading-books, the beginnings of 
written composition, and a certain amount of 
informal grammar ; for the last two years, for- 
mal grammar and reading of a distinctly liter- 
ary sort. The " speller " is to be discarded 
altogether, and the " reader " after the sixth 
year. We wish, indeed, that the Conference 


[July 1, 

had gone still farther in the latter case and re- 
jected the " reader " altogether. The impor- 
tant principle seems to be that nothing but lit- 
erature should be read at all, and the "readers " 
in current use certainly contain much matter 
that cannot by any courtesy be called litera- 
ture. This criticism is altogether apart from 
the other defect of scrappiness, inherent in 
the plan of the typical reading-book. Even 
" Mother Goose," as Mr. Horace Scudder has 
convincingly argued, is a sort of literature, and 
there is no lack of other substitutes for the 
thin and innutritions pabulum of the graded 
(we were on the point of saying degraded) 
books called " readers " which enterprising pub- 
lishers have forced upon several generations of 
over-complacent school authorities. The sug- 
gestion that, as far as possible, complete works 
should be studied, is of fundamental impor- 
tance, and should have been given greater em- 
phasis. The following recommendation is ad- 
mirable : 

" Due attention should be paid to what are sometimes 
thoughtlessly regarded as points of pedantic detail, such 
as the elucidation of involved sentences, the expansion 
of metaphors into similes and the compression of similes 
into metaphors, the tracing of historical and other ref- 
erences, and a study of the denotation and connotation 
of single words. Such details are necessary if the pu- 
pil is to be brought to anything but the vaguest under- 
standing of what he reads, and there is no danger that 
an intelligent teacher will allow himself to be dominated 
by them. It should not be forgotten that in these early 
years of his training the pupil is forming habits of read- 
ing and of thought which will either aid him for the 
rest of his life, or of which he will by-and-by have to 
cure himself with painful effort." 

Upon the proportion of time to be allotted 
English in the first eight years, no definite pro- 
nouncement is made ; but it should be greater 
rather than less than the share of attention given 
to the subject during the high-school years. This 
share, in the opinion of the Conference, should 
be a full fourth of the time throughout the four 
years of work, and of this share literature 
proper should get rather more than half, the 
rest being given to composition, rhetoric, and 
grammar of the historical or systematic sort. 
The demand for a full fourth of the secondary 
school period does not seem to us excessive, and 
other reforms may well wait until the justice 
of this claim becomes generally admitted. 
Given such a recognition of the importance of 
secondary English, the accomplishment of its 
educational purpose must follow from insist- 
ence upon a few simple and well-understood 
principles rather than from any new devices or 
startling innovations of method. The Confer- 

ence rightly emphasized the fundamental im- 
portance of requiring good English in all 
school work, whether written or oral. As long 
as slovenly composition is allowed to pass un- 
censured in mathematical or natural science ex- 
ercises, as long as slovenly speech is tolerated 
in class translations from foreign languages, the 
case remains hopeless. This is the root of the 
matter, and other reforms are of minor import- 
ance. Theme-writing in the English classes 
is useful, but written exercises in all the classes 
must be treated as themes, and bad English in 
a mathematical paper must count against it no 
less than bad logic. Teachers should also avail 
themselves to the utmost of the invaluable com- 
parative advantages offered by the study of 
whatever ancient or modern languages are be- 
ing pursued at the same time by the English 
student. The Conference was wholly right in 
asserting that " the best results in the teaching 
of English in high schools cannot be secured 
without the aid given by the study of some 
other language." 

As for the study of English literature in sec- 
ondary schools, we are firmly convinced that a 
historical text-book of the subject should be in 
the hands of every student, and that he should 
frequently recur to it for the proper correla- 
tion of groups and the chronological develop- 
ment of schools and forms. Such a book should 
be used sparingly, and for certain purposes 
only ; not, for example, as a storehouse of cut- 
and-dried critical estimates. There has been 
of late a marked tendency to get along with the 
study of typical works of the great periods, just 
as in biology there has been a tendency to con- 
fine the work to study of a few typical forms. 
But the average student, left to his own devices, 
will not master the classification, in the one case, 
or the chronology, in the other ; and without 
the indispensable framework of bare fact, his 
special studies will fail to come into proper re- 
lation with each other, and will lose much of 
their significance. 

The greater part of the work done in English 
literature must of course consist in reading as 
many whole pieces of literature as it is possible 
to crowd into the time allotted. Since no two 
classes can be alike, and no two teachers ought 
to be alike, there is no greater mistake than 
the arrangement of a Procrustean course, to be 
followed by all, and repeated year after year. 
Whether the annual divisions of the high-school 
work be based upon literary periods or literary 
forms, or graded according to difficulty of sub- 
ject-matter, there should be within each year's 



work an almost unbounded latitude for the dis- 
play of the teacher's individuality. He should 
be free to read as much as he chooses, and what 
he chooses, and in whatever way he chooses. 
To impose rigid methods upon the secondary 
teacher, or to select for him the texts which 
he shall study with his classes, is an act of sheer 
and utterly unjustifiable arrogance. 

To sum up, we are inclined to think that the 
problem of secondary education in English re- 
duces itself to getting teachers who know good 
literature and care for it, and minimizing to the 
utmost the restrictions placed upon their work. 
Duplication of work in different years must be 
avoided, but beyond the limits set with this ob- 
ject in view there should be no effort made to 
secure uniformity, both because every attempt 
to secure it costs something in vitality, and be- 
cause there is no good reason for uniformity 
anyway. Our suggestions doubtless seem tame 
in comparison with the brilliant new departures 
here and there noisily heralded, but radical re- 
constructions appear to us no less suspicious in 
the body educational than in the body politic. 
It will be time to seek for the "new thing" when 
we have done all that is possible with the old. 


A year ago the English department of the Uni- 
versity of Indiana was completely reorganized, and 
four men a professor, an associate professor, and 
two instructors were appointed to carry on the 
work. The present course is our attempt to meet 
existing conditions. Each department must offer 
a full course of study leading to the bachelor's de- 
gree. Our students graduate in Greek, in Mathe- 
matics, in Sociology, in English, or in any one of 
the dozen other departments, with the uniform de- 
gree of A.B. About a third of the student's time 
is given to required studies, a third to the special 
work of the chosen department, and a third to elect- 
ive studies. The department of English, then, is 
required to offer a four years' course of five hours a 

* This article is the eleventh of an extended series on the 
Teaching of English at American Colleges and Universities, 
of which the following have already appeared in THE DIAL : 
English at Yale University, by Professor Albert S. Cook 
(Feb. 1) ; English at Columbia College, by Professor Bran- 
der Matthews (Feb. 16) ; English at Harvard University, by 
Professor Barrett Wendell (March 1) ; English at Stanford 
University, by Professor Melville B. Anderson ( March 1(3); 
English at Cornell University, by Professor Hiram Corson 
(April 1 ) ; English at the University of Virginia, by Professor 
Charles W. Kent (April 16) ; English at the University of 
Illinois, by Professor D. K. Dodge (May 1) ; English at La- 
fayette College, by Professor F. A. March (May 16) ; English 
at the State University of Iowa, by Professor E. E. Hale, Jr. 
(June 1) ; and English at the University of Chicago, by Pro- 
fessor Albert H. Tolman (June 16). [Eon. DIAL.! 

week ; as a matter of fact, it offers considerably more. 

The English courses fall into three distinct nat- 
ural groups language, composition, and literature, 
in each of which work may be pursued for four 
or more years. One year of this work is required 
of all students ; the rest is elective. With two ex- 
ceptions, all our courses run throughout the year. 

The linguistic work is under the charge of Asso- 
ciate Professor Davidson. The elementary courses 
are a beginning class in Old English prose, and one 
in the history of the language. Then follow a course 
in Chaucer, the Mystery Plays, and Middle English 
romances and lyrics ; an advanced course in Old 
English poetry, including a seminary study of Bgo- 
wulf ; the history of Old and Middle English liter- 
ature ; and a course in historical English grammar, 
which makes a special examination of forms and 
constructions in modern prose. In these classes the 
intention is to lead the student into independent in- 
vestigation as soon as he is prepared for it. 

In composition, the work is as completely prac- 
tical as we can make it. Writing is learned by 
writing papers, each one of which is corrected and 
rewritten. There are no recitations in " rhetoric." 
The bugbear known generally in our colleges as 
Freshman English is now a part of our entrance re- 
quirement, and university instruction in composition 
begins with those fortunate students who have some 
little control of their native language when a pen is 
between their fingers. We are still obliged, how- 
ever, to supply instruction to students conditioned 
in entrance English, and the conditioned classes 
make the heaviest drain upon the instructors' time. 
The first regular class receives students who write 
clearly and can compose good paragraphs. The sub- 
jects of the year's work are narration, description, 
exposition. In the next year's class, an attempt is 
made to stimulate original production in prose and 
verse. A certain amount of criticism upon contem- 
porary writing enters into this course, the object 
being to point out what is good in (for example) 
current magazines and reviews, and thus to hold 
before the student an ideal not altogether impos- 
sible of attainment. A young writer confronted 
with the virtues and defects of Macaulay and De 
Quincey is likelier to be discouraged or made indif- 
ferent, than inspired, as far as his own style is con- 
cerned. If he is shown wherein a " Brief " in THE 
DIAL is better than his own review of the book, he 
is in a fair way to improve. And so with sketches, 
stories, and even poems. Of course current maga- 
zine writing is not held up as ideal literature ; nor, on 
the other hand, is the production of literature deemed 
a possible part of college study. The work in this 
branch of English is rounded off by a class for stu- 
dents who intend to teach composition. The theory 
of rhetoric is studied, and something of its history ; 
school texts in rhetoric are examined ; and finally the ' 
class learns the first steps in teaching by taking 
charge of elementary classes. 

In the literary courses the required work comes 
first. Many students take no more English than these 



[July 1, 

prescribed three terms of five hours a week ; many 
others continue the study ; and the problem has 
been to arrange the course so as to create in the 
former class the habit of careful and sympathetic 
reading, and at the same time to give the latter 
class a safe foundation for future work. The plan 
is to read in the class, with the greatest attention 
to detail, one or more characteristic works of the 
authors chosen (Scott, Shakespeare, Thackeray, 
George Eliot), and to require as outside work a 
good deal of rapid collateral reading. This class 
and most of the composition classes are conducted 
by Mr. Sembower and Mr. Harris, who will be as- 
sisted during the coming year by one or two addi- 
tional instructors. 

The course in English prose style begins in the 
second year, and follows the method of the late 
Professor Minto. Macaulay, De Quincey, Carlyle, 
Ruskin, and Arnold are the writers taken up. 
A course in American authors finds here a place. 
Then comes a course in poetry : Coleridge, Words- 
worth, Byron, Shelley, Keats, Tennyson, Browning. 
Complete editions of all the poets, except the last, 
are used, and the year's work is meant to serve as 
an introduction to the critical reading of poetry. A 
separate course of one term in metrics accompanies 
the poetry course. In the drama there is a full 
course in Shakespeare and other Elizabethans (which 
presupposes the first year's work in Shakespeare), 
and also a course in classical drama, Greek and 
French, studied in translation. The dramatic courses 
begin with a discussion of Professor Moulton's 
books on Shakespeare, and on the Greek drama, 
and then take up independent study of as many 
plays as possible. The last regular course is the 
literary seminary, which during the coming year 
will investigate, as far as the library will allow, the 
rise of romantic poetry in England. Special re- 
search courses are arranged for students who wish 
to pursue their English studies. It may be added 
that in order to graduate in English, work must be 
taken in each of the three groups of the department. 

It has been my effort, naturally, to arrange the 
courses in a logical order, advancing from the 
simple to the more difficult, and covering as wide 
a range as is consistent with thoroughness ; this lat- 
ter quality being an ideal kept always in view 
would we might say as confidently, in reach. And 
as to the method of conducting classes, each in- 
structor teaches as he pleases ; any man's best 
method is the one that appeals to him at the time. 

And now, as to that vexed question : How shall 
literature be taught ? Class-room methods vary in 
the department, but our ultimate object is the same. 
The aim, then, in teaching literature is, I think, to 
give the student a thorough understanding of what 
he reads, and the ability to read sympathetically 
and understandingly in the future. If we use the 
phrase " to read intelligently," we name the object 
of every instructor's teaching. But in the defini- 
tion of this ideal we come upon so many differences 
of opinion that in reality it means not one thing 

but a thousand. To touch upon a few obsolescent 
notions, to one teacher it meant to fill the student 
full of biography and literary history; to another 
it meant to put the student in possession of what 
the best critics, or the worst ones, had said about 
the artist and his work ; to another it meant mak- 
ing a pother over numberless petty details of the 
text (a species of literary parsing) ; to another it 
meant harping on the moral purposes of the poet 
or novelist ; anything, in short, except placing the 
student face to face with the work itself and acting 
as his spectacles when his eyesight was blurred. 

The negations of all these theories have become 
the commonplaces of -day, truisms among a cer- 
tain class of teachers. To repeat those principles 
that have thus become truisms of theory (not yet 
of practice the difference is profound), we have 
first the truth that the study of literature means the 
study of literature, not of biography nor of literary 
history (incidentally of vast importance), not of 
grammar, not of etymology, not of anything except 
the works themselves, viewed as their creators wrote 
them, viewed as art, as transcripts of humanity, 
not as logic, not as psychology, not as ethics. 

The second point is that we are concerned with 
the study of literature. And here is the parting of 
the ways. Granting we concern ourselves with pure 
literature only, just how shall we concern ourselves 
with it ? There are many methods, but these methods 
are of two kinds only : the method of the professor 
who preaches the beauty of the poet's utterance, 
and the method of him who makes his student sys- 
tematically approach the work as a work of art, 
find out the laws of its existence as such, the mode 
of its manifestation, the meaning it has, and the sig- 
nificance of that meaning, in brief, to have his 
students interpret the work of art and ascertain 
what makes it just that and not something else. 
Literature, as every reader profoundly feels, is an 
appeal to all sides of our nature ; but I venture to 
insist that as a study and this is the point at issue 
it must be approached intellectually. And here 
the purpose of literature, and the purpose of study- 
ing literature, must be sharply discriminated. The 
question is not, Apprehending literature, how shall 
I let it influence me ? The question most definitely 
is, How shall I learn to apprehend literature, that 
thereby it may influence me? 

As far as class study is concerned, the instructors 
must draw the line once for all between the liking 
for reading and the understanding of literature. 
To all who assert that the study of literature must 
take into account the emotions, that it must remem- 
ber questions of taste, I can only answer impatiently, 
Yes, I agree ; but between taking them into account, 
and making them the prime object of the study, 
there is the difference between day and night. It 
is only by recognizing this difference that we pro- 
fessors of English cease to make ourselves ridicu- 
lous in the eyes of those who see into the heart of 
things, that we can at all successfully disprove 
Freeman's remark caustic and four-fifths true 



" English Literature is only chatter about Shelley." 
As a friend of mine puts it : To understand litera- 
ture is a matter of study, and may be taught in the 
class-room ; to love literature is a matter of char- 
acter, and can never be taught in a class-room. The 
professor who tries chiefly to make his students love 
literature wastes his energy for the sake of a few 
students who would love poetry anyway, and sacri- 
fices the majority of his class, who are not yet ripe 
enough to love it. The professor who tries chiefly 
to make his students understand literature will give 
them something to incorporate into their characters. 
For it is the peculiar grace of literature that whoso 
understands it loves it. It becomes to him a per- 
manent possession, not a passing thrill. 

To revert to our University work in English, we 
have been confronted with a peculiar local condi- 
tion. Sometime ago, Professor Hale wrote to THE 
DIAL that the students of Iowa University had lit- 
tle feeling for style. That is true of the Indiana 
students I have met. But the lowans, it was my 
experience, were willing to study style and develop 
their latent feeling. Widespread in Indiana, how- 
ever, I find the firm conviction that style is un- 
worthy serious consideration. A poem is simply so 
much thought; its "form-side," to use a favorite 
student expression, ought to be ignored. And of 
the thought, only the ethical bearing of it is signifi- 
cant. Poetry is merely a question of morals, and 
beauty has no excuse for being. The plan of pro- 
cedure is : believe unyieldingly in a certain philos- 
ophy of life ; take a poem and read that philosophy 
into it. This is the "thought-side" of literature. 
Our first year has been largely an attempt to set 
up other aims than these. 


Professor of English, Indiana University. 


(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

I was surprised to read in the leading article of your 
issue for June 16 the following sentence: " It is a little 
curious that Italy, from whom we have reason to ex- 
pect much, should have no contemporary writer of fic- 
tion deserving mention here." 

I fear that the writer is acquainted only with such 
Italian novels as have been translated into English. If 
he were a student of contemporary Italian literature he 
could hardly have made such a statement. In point of 
fact, Italy now has a school of novelists that is not sur- 
passed by that of any other country. While their state 
of society is very similar to the French and their plots 
are necessarily of the same somewhat objectionable 
character, and while they are fully as realistic, yet some- 
thing of the spirit of Dante and Petrarch, something of 
the idealization of love even in its guiltiest forms, still 
clings to their souls, and saves them from the cynicism 
of the French; so that they may well be placed above 
the contemporary French school. 

Every dog has its day. A few years ago it was the 

Russian dog; now it is the Spanish; and when people 
get tired of that, the Italian will doubtless have its turn, 
and everybody will be raving about Italian books which 
are now passed over unnoticed. 

To mention the able Italian novels of to-day would 
take too long. I may say, though, that I know of no 
contemporary French novel equal to Fogazzaro's " Dan- 
iele Cortis," the story of the struggle of two noble souls 
against a guilty love, a struggle in which they came out 
victors. It is said that Fogazzaro has been the recipient 
of very many letters from men and women thanking him 
for saving them in the hour of temptation, and that one 
famous Italian beauty who died rather than yield to a 
guilty passion had the book placed in her coffin. 

Then, to go to the other extreme, I know of no French 
novel equal in its way to that marvellous, perverse, and 
perverting book, " L' Innocente," by Gabriele d'Annun- 
zio. It is probably impossible to find in any language 
a study of morbid psychology that will compare with it. 
Those sentimentalists who think that the infidelity of 
the husband is as blamable as that of the wife should 
read this awful book. The writer, a very young man, 
is perhaps the most highly gifted of living authors. 

It is probably safe to say that the writer of your ar- 
ticle has never read Rovetta's " Mater Dolorosa," Mem- 
ini's "Marchesa d'Arcello," Roberti's "L* Illusione," 
Gentile's "II Peccato,"or Sperani's "Numeri e Sogni," 
or he would have written differently. n. jj ROSE 
Little Rock, Ark., June 20, 1894. 

[The editorial article to which our correspondent 
refers dealt with its subject in the most summary 
fashion, and attempted to name only a very few of 
the living writers of fiction. Probably many of its 
readers felt aggrieved at the omission of favorite 
names, and we are glad to afford a lover of the new 
Italian literature this opportunity of expressing his 
particular grievance. But we still think that no one 
of the writers mentioned by him yet occupies a suf- 
ficient space in the field of literature to deserve 
being classed with the few whom we singled out. 
Even the work of the young poet Sig. d'Annunzio, 
remarkable as it is, has the fatal defect of being 
morbid, and we did not mention it for the same 
reason that would have prevented us from mention- 
ing the work of Guy de Maupassant, had he still 
been among the living. To call the former " the 
most highly gifted of living authors " seems to us 
a very wild bit of criticism. EDR. DIAL.] 

(To the Editor of THE DIAL. ) , 

The " Pennsylvania Gazette " of January 12 and April 
16, 1748, gives a description of devices which Dr. Ben- 
jamin Franklin says (in his Autobiography) that he fur- 
nished for flags for the " Associators " of 1747, in Phil- 
adelphia. ( Vide Sparks's Franklin, p. 146, for details.) 

No mention is made in either issue of the color of the 
silks upon which these devices were painted. Can any 
reader of THE DIAL put me in the way of finding out 
the color of the silk, especially that of the flag with de- 
vice No. 1, " a lion erect, a naked scimitar in one paw, 
the other holding the escutcheon of Pennsylvania, motto, 


314 Walnut St., Philadelphia, June 17, 1894. 


[July 1, 




To the musical world the publication of 
Liszt's Letters is an event of first-rate import- 
ance ; and they will be found, in the main, to 
fulfil anticipation. Their critical value is of 
a high order, and criticism is their dominant 
note. They tell us something of Liszt the man 
and much of Liszt the artist, and are fairly 
rich in those personal allusions and judgments 
which are the spice of productions of their 
class. " Spice," however, is hardly the right 
word here, for Liszt, when speaking of others, 
is too amiable to be pungent. Though a true 
son of Pho3bus Apollo, there were no poisoned 
shafts in his quiver; and his words have scarcely 
a sting even for Shelley's " stupid and malig- 
nant race," from whom, as a frequent con- 
temner of beaten paths, he had some provoca- 
tion. " Whether one worries a bit more or a 
bit less," he writes to Kbhler, "it is pretty 
much the same. Let us only spread our wings 
' with our faces firmly set,' and all the cackle 
of goose-quills will not trouble us at all." 

As Schlegel divided men into two main 
classes of Platonists and Aristotelians, so Liszt 
seems to have divided them into the fools and 
the non-fools ; and against the rock-ribbed 
Ehrenbreitstein of folly he resolved to waste 
no sparrow-shot in the shape of argument or 
appeal. The unvexed composer wrote to Dr. 
Franz Brendel, an active polemic in the lists his 
friend declined to enter : 

" People may think about it what they please, but 
the truth is that I do not bother myself about fools of 
any species, whether German, French, English, Russian 
or Italian, but am peacefully industrious in my seclu- 
sion here (Rome). 'Let me rest, let me dream,' not 
indeed beneath blossoming almond trees, as Hoffman 
sings, but comforted and at peace under the protection 
of the Madonna del Rosario who has provided me with 
this cell." 

In point of literary charm, Liszt's letters 
generally fall short of Mendelssohn's ; and the 
un-musical reader will find them over-full of 
the caviare of musical lore and technicality. 
Music was the god of Liszt's idolatry, and his 
devotions left him little time or concern for 
what he may have thought profaner interests. 
His letters are mostly addressed to people whose 

* LETTERS OF FRANZ LISZT. Collected and edited by La 
Mara ; translated by Constance Bache. In two volumes, with 
portrait. New York : Longmans, Green, & Co. 

Alexander, M. A. With an Introduction by Sir George Grove. 
" The Dilettante Library." New York : Macmillan & Co. 

pursuits and interests were kindred to his own 
fellow-artists, composers, publishers, critics, 
and amateurs of music, etc.; and one notes lit- 
tle to indicate that his sympathies ever left for 
long their wonted channel. Sparing in his cen- 
sures, he bestowed his commendation with a 
free hand. In 1832 he wrote of his early idol 
Pagan ini : 

" ' And I too am a painter ! ' cried Michael Angelo 
the first time he beheld a chef d'auvre. . . . Though 
insignificant and poor, your friend cannot leave off re- 
peating those words of the great man ever since Paga- 
nini's last performance. Rene", what a man, what a vio- 
lin, what an artist ! Heavens ! what sufferings, what 
misery, what tortures in those four strings ! " 

Of Wagner he wrote to Belloni in 1849 : 
" Richard Wagner, a Dresden conductor, has been 
here (Weimar) since yesterday. That is a man of won- 
derful genius, such a brain-splitting genius indeed as 
beseems this country, a new and brilliant appearance 
in art." 

In a letter to Kohler, in 1853, he tells of 
the " several Walhalla-dajs " recently spent 
with Wagner, and adds, " I praise God for hav- 
ing created such a man." Writing to Wilhelra 
von Lenz in regard to the latter's book on 
" Beethoven and his Three Styles," Liszt finely 
says : 

" For us musicians Beethoven's work is like the pil- 
lar of cloud and fire which guided the Israelites through 
the desert a pillar of cloud to guide us by day, a pil- 
lar of fire to guide us by night, ' so that we may pro- 
gress both day and night.' His obscurity and his light 
trace for us equally the path we have to follow; they 
are each of them a perpetual commandment, an infallible 

Proceeding to discuss the ground idea of Lenz's 
book, Liszt continues : 

" Were it my place to categorize the different peri- 
ods of the great master's thoughts, as manifested in his 
Sonatas, Symphonies, and Quartets, I should certainly 
not fix the division into three styles, which is now pretty 
generally adopted and which you have followed; but 
simply recording the questions which have been raised 
hitherto, I should frankly weigh the great question which 
is the axis of criticism and of musical sestheticism at 
the point to which Beethoven has led us namely, in 
how far is traditional or recognized form a necessary 
determinant for the organism of thought ? The solu- 
tion of this question, evolved from the works of Beet- 
hoven himself, would lead me to divide this work, not 
into three styles or periods, the words style and period 
being here only corollary subordinate terms, of a vague 
and equivocal meaning, but quite logically into two 
categories: the first, that in which traditional and rec- 
ognized form contains and governs the thought of the 
master; and the second, that in which the thought 
stretches, breaks, recreates, and fashions the form and 
style according to its needs and inspirations. Doubtless 
in proceeding thus we arrive in a direct line at those 
incessant problems of authority and liberty. But why 
should they alarm us ? In the region of liberal arts 
they do not, happily, bring in any of the dangers and 



disasters which their oscillations occasion in the polit- 
ical and social world; for, in the domain of the Beau- 
tiful, Genius alone is the authority, and hence, Dualism 
disappearing, the notions of liberty and authority are 
brought back to their original identity. Manzoni, in de- 
fining genius as ' a stronger imprint of Divinity,' has elo- 
quently expressed this very truth." 

It is well known that Liszt virtually defrayed 
the expenses (about 60,000 francs) of the Bonn 
monument to Beethoven out of his own purse. 
The contributions had flowed in very meagerly, 
and Liszt impatiently wrote to Berlioz, " such 
a niggardly almsgiving, got together with such 
trouble and sending round the hat, must not 
be allowed to help towards building our Beet- 
hoven's monument." There is perhaps a shade 
of sarcasm in his letter to the Bonn committee : 

" As the subscription for Beethoven's monument is 
only getting on slowly, and as the carrying out of this 
undertaking seems to be rather far distant, I venture 
to make a proposal to you, the acceptance of which would 
make me very happy. I offer myself to make up, from 
my own means, the sum still wanting for the erection 
of the monument, and ask no other privilege than that 
of naming the artist who shall execute the work. . . ." 

Writing to Brendel (1854), he styles Ru- 
binstein " the pseudo-Musician of the Future." 
He continues : 

" He is a clever fellow, possessed of talent and char- 
acter in an exceptional degree, and therefore no one can 
be more just to him than I have been for years. Still 
I do not want to preach to him he may sow his wild 
oats and fish deeper in the Mendelssohn waters, and 
even swim away if he likes." 

Of Hans von Biilow he writes to Lessman : 
" His knowledge, ability, experience are astounding, 
and border on the fabulous. Especially has he, by long 
years of study, so thoroughly steeped himself in the un- 
derstanding of Beethoven, that it seems scarcely pos- 
sible for any one else to approach nearer to him in that 

A brief note to Edvard Grieg indicates 
Liszt's esteem for this clever leader of the 
Young Northern School : 

" I am very glad to tell you what pleasure it has 
given me to read your Sonata. It bears testimony to 
a talent of vigorous, reflective, and inventive composition 
of excellent quality, which has only to follow its natural 
bent in order to rise to a high rank. . . ." 

Chopin's genius is finely characterized in a 
letter to Lenz (1872) : 

" Let us reascend to Chopin, the enchanting aristocrat, 
the most refined in his magic. Pascal's epigraph, ' One 
must not get one's nourishment from it, but use it as 
one would an essence,' is only appropriate to a certain 
extent. Let us inhale the essence and leave it to the 
druggists to make use of it. You also, I think, exag- 
gerate the influence which the Parisian salons exercised 
on Chopin. His soul was not in the least affected by 
them, and his work as an artist remains transparent, 
marvellous, ethereal, and of an incomparable genius 
quite outside the errors of a school and the silly trifling 

of a salon. He is akin to the angel and the fairy ; more 
than this, he sets in motion the heroic string which has 
nowhere else vibrated with so much grandeur, passion, 
and fresh energy as in his Polonaises, which you bril- 
liantly designate as ' Pindaric Hymns of Victory.' " 

In a note to Schumann (1839) there is a 
playful touch worthy of Heine, which shows 
the master in a warmer light than usual. He 
says: J, 

" As to the Kinderscenen, I owe to them one of the 
greatest pleasures of my life. You know, or you don't 
know, that I have a little gir.1 of three years old, whom 
everybody agrees in considering angelic (did you ever 
hear such a commonplace ?). Her name is Blandine- 
Rachel, and her surname Moucheron. It goes without 
saying that she has a complexion of roses and milk, and 
that her fair golden hair reaches to her feet just like 
a savage. She is, however, tie most silent child, the 
most sweetly grave, the most philosophically gay in the 
world. I have every reason to hope also that she will 
not be a musician, from which may Heaven preserve 

There is a fine ring of patriotic pride and 
wounded dignity in a letter (1840) to Buloz, 
editor of the " Revue des Deux Mondes." That 
the national honor paid him in his native Hun- 
gary should be confounded with the plaudits 
bestowed on an artist whose art lay (as Carlyle 
once put it) in " making a Manx penny of her- 
self," was too much even for Liszt's serenity ; 
and he wrote to the offending editor : 

" In your Revue Musicale for October last my name 
was mixed iip with the outrageous pretensions and ex- 
aggerated success of some executant artists ; I take the 
liberty to address a few remarks to you on this subject. 
The wreaths thrown at the feet of Mesdemoiselles Elssler 
and Pixis by the amateurs of New York and Palermo 
are striking manifestations of the enthusiasm of a pub- 
lic ; the sabre which was given to me at Pest is a re- 
ward given by a nation in an entirely national form. 
In Hungary, sir, in that country of antique and chiv- 
alrous manners, the sabre has a patriotic signification. 
It is the special token of manhood; it is the weapon of 
every man who has a right to carry a weapon. When 
six of the chief men of note in my country presented 
me with it amidst the acclamations of my compatriots, 
whilst at the same moment the towns of Pest and Oeden- 
burg conferred upon me the freedom of the city, and 
the civic authorities of Pest asked His Majesty for let- 
ters of nobility for me, it was an act to acknowledge 
me afresh as a Hungarian, after an absence of fifteen 
years; it was a reward of some slight services rendered 
to Art in my country; it was especially, and so I felt it, 
to unite me gloriously to her by imposing on me serious 
duties, and obligations for life as man and as artist. I 
agree with you, sir, that it was, without doubt, going 
far beyond my deserts up to the present time. There- 
fore I saw in that solemnity the expression of a hope 
far more than of a satisfaction. Hungary hailed in me 
the man from whom she expects artistic illustriousness, 
after all the illustrious soldiers and politicians she has 
so plentifully produced. As a child I received from my 
country precious tokens of interest, and the means of 
going abroad to develop my artistic vocation. When 



[July 1, 

grown up, and after long years, the young man returns 
to bring her the fruits of his work and the future of 
his will, the enthusiasm of the hearts which open to re- 
ceive him must not be confounded with the frantic dem- 
onstrations of an audience of amateurs. In placing 
these two things side by side it seems to me there is 
something which must wflund a just national pride and 
sympathies by which I am honored." 

While somewhat lacking, perhaps, on the 
personal side, the Letters of Liszt make an ar- 
tistic biography, of rare inner truth and, form 
considered, fulness. The editing is helpful and 
thorough, and the translation acceptable. At 
one point the translator " misses it " rather 
oddly. Writing of the bringing out of the 
" Faust Symphony for 2 Pianofortes," Liszt 
went on to say, punning (like Homer, he sins 
once), "None the less . . . bully him [Schu- 
berth the publisher] into action with ' Faust- 
Recht ' " meaning, of course, with club-law, 
law of might. Miss Bache gravely renders it, 
in parenthesis, " Faust rights or Faust justice " 
a small matter, but worth mending. There 
is a fine portrait of Liszt, and the work resem- 
bles in size and typography the Wagner-Liszt 

In preparing a volume of Mendelssohn's let- 
ters, the editor, Mr. W. F. Alexander, has 
made a fair selection and an excellent transla- 
tion, and Sir George Grove has added an In- 
troduction which, like the annals of the poor, 
is " short and simple." Sir George tells us, 
first, that he was asked to write which we 
should have taken for granted ; and, second, 
that he approves of both author and editor 
which will be gratifying to the latter. There 
are thirty-three letters in all, sixteen of them 
addressed to the writer's relatives, and the rest 
to Zelter, Moscheles, Pastor Schubring, von 
Falkenstein, Julius Rietz, and other friends 
and acquaintances. In the earlier ones there 
are some suggestive glimpses of Goethe, nota- 
bly in an account of a family dinner at the 
poet's. Mendelssohn says : 

" I found him outwardly unchanged, but at first some- 
what silent and reserved; I fancy he must have wanted 
to observe me, but at the moment I felt disappointed, 
and thought to myself, ' Now he is always like that.' " 

Presently, however, the talk turning on the 
Weimar "Women's Association " and the Wei- 
mar women's newspaper matters in them- 
selves provocative of Teutonic wit, 

" The old man all at once became jovial, and began 
to quiz the ladies about their philanthropy and their in- 
tellect, also about their subscriptions and their visita- 
tions of the sick, which seemed particularly to move his 
wrath. He appealed to me to join him in a revolt 
against these things, and, when I would not, he re- 

turned to his former indifference, but at last he became 
more friendly and intimate than I had ever known him 
before. It was beyond everything ! . . . After din- 
ner, he all at once began to hum, Gute Kinder hiib- 
sche Kinder miissen immer lustig sein tolles Volk,' and 
his eyes grew like those of an old lion just falling asleep. 
So presently I had to play to him, and he said it was 
very strange to him to think how long it was since he 
had heard my music, and meanwhile great advances 
had been made and he knew nothing of them." 

Goethe seems to have made unsparing drafts 
upon his young friend's abilities both of ex- 
position and execution. Says Mendelssohn : 

" In the morning I have to play the piano to him for 
an hour, pieces from all the great composers arranged 
in the order of dates, and then explain to him how mu- 
sic has progressed in their hands; meanwhile he sits in 
a dark corner, like a Jupiter Tonans, and his old eyes 
flash fire. About Beethoven he was indifferent. But 
I said he must endure some, and played him the first 
movement of the symphony in C minor. It affected him 
very strangely. First he said, < That does not touch one 
at all, it only astonishes one.' Then he murmured to 
himself, and said presently, ' It is very great, it is wild ; 
it seems as though the house were falling; what must 
it be with the whole orchestra ! ' ' 

Mendelssohn was in Italy in 1830-31 ; and 
his letters from thence, especially the Roman 
ones, show how fully he was in harmony with 
his new surroundings. Like Goethe, he drank 
deep of the cup that Italia proffers to those who 
understand and love her, his descriptions re- 
calling the poet's paradox that " one finds in 
Rome only what one brings there." But every- 
one, the poorest, finds something ; and the bar- 
renest /Sjnessburger^who grunts his disapproval 
of the Pantheon and the tomb of the Scipios, 
relents before the wicker-bound Orvieto and 
the purple figs of Spoleto. Felix Mendelssohn 
brought to Rome a mind open and receptive 
to the best she had to offer. The traditions of 
her two-fold past, the memorials of the Em- 
perors and the Pontiffs, alike filled him with a 
" measureless delight." " I proceeded with 
these free gifts of hers," he says, " very leis- 
urely." One day it was a ramble in the Forum 
or on the Aventine, the next a visit to the Bor- 
ghese Gallery, the Capitol, or the Vatican ; 
" so each day is one never to be forgotten, and 
this sort of dallying leaves each impression 
firmer and stronger." Reading now for the first 
time the " Italian Journey," it pleases Mendels- 
sohn to find that he and Goethe reached Rome 
on the same day, and that Goethe, too, went first 
to the Quirinal and heard a requiem there. 

" He says also that at Florence and Bologna a sort of 
impatience took possession of him, and on arrival here 
he felt calm again, and, as he calls it, well-knit in mind ; 
so I have experienced all he describes, a reflection 
which pleases me." 




His reverence, however, for his " old hero " 
of Weimar results in no mean subservience of 
opinion. He can doubt his oracle where most 
men, or most Germans, would incline to accept 
the judgment as final. So when Goethe finds 
a certain Titian " meaningless " a mere set 
scene or elegantly-arranged tableau, in the style 
of Veronese Mendelssohn says : 

" I flatter myself, however, that I have found a deep 
significance in this picture, and maintain that he is right 
who sees most in a Titian, for the man was simply di- 
vine. He, indeed, found no opportunity to display the 
whole breadth of his inspiration, as Raphael did here 
in the Vatican; yet one can never forget his three pic- 
tures at Venice, and this of the Vatican, which I first 
saw this morning, stands in a line with them." 

Mendelssohn waxes wroth over the Philis- 
tinism of the artists he saw in Rome a poor 
lot mostly, it seems, distinguished as a class 
chiefly by eccentricities of dress and manners. 
The chronic delusion that fustian coats, long 
hair and loose habits make the painter, was rife 
with these degenerate pittori, and their chief 
professional concern was to find, not the color- 
secret of Titian, but where the most brandy 
was to be had for the least money. Mendels- 
sohn says : 

" It is terrible to see them at their Cafd Greco. I 
seldom go there, for I am rather afraid of them and 
the place they haunt. It is a small dark room about 
eight paces wide; on one side it is permitted to smoke 
tobacco, on the other not. They sit round on the benches 
with their brigand- hats and their big bloodhounds; their 
throats, chins, and faces are entirely covered with hair, 
and they pout- out dense volumes of smoke and exchange 
incivilities with one another while the dogs are ex- 
changing their insects. A necktie or a frock-coat 
would be a modern weakness; all the face that's left 
by the beard is concealed by their spectacles; they 
swill their coffee and discourse of Titian and Porde- 
none as though these persons were sitting there with 
beards and brigand-hats like themselves. Their busi- 
ness is to paint sickly madonnas, ricketty saints, and 
effeminate knights, things one longs to dash one's fist 
through. As for Titian's picture in the Vatican, which 
you ask about, these infernal critics have no respect for 
it. According to them it has neither subject nor con- 
ception, and it never occurs to one of them that a mas- 
ter who gave laborious days of love and reverence to a 
picture, may still have seen as far as they can through 
their glistening spectacles, and if all my life I never 
contrive to do anything else, I am resolved, at least, to 
be as rude as I can to people who have no respect for 
the great masters; that will be one good work accom- 

The many who know Mendelssohn only through 
his music will find in this little book a fair test 
of his quality as a letter- writer a character 
in which he is unusually attractive. The vol- 
ume has a good portrait. 

E. G. J. 


There are in Paris during the Spring of the 
year a good many exhibitions of pictures which 
trouble the soul of the conscientious lover of 
the arts. Not only at the two great Salons are 
there generally certain alarming manifestations, 
but there are also smaller collections gathered 
together by Independents, Rosicrucians, or other 
such persons, in which the wildest gymnastics 
in the name of art are not only allowed but en- 
couraged. Dazed and antagonized by these 
indulgences, the feeling of many an ordinary 
and honest art-lover must be, " Almost thou 
persuadest me to be a Philistine." Fortunately, 
however, Paris herself furnishes an antidote to 
any such despair, in the annual exhibition of 
the pictures and sculptures entered in compe- 
tition for the Prix de Rome. One goes to these 
shameless revelations of academic horror, and 
becomes in a great degree reconciled to the ex- 
istence of new notions in art, however extrava- 
gant. They really do but little harm (except 
to their ingenious sponsors), and they are ex- 
tremely useful in keeping up a healthy circula- 
tion of ideas. 

Now I am not familiar with any evil things 
in literature analogous to these Prix de Rome 
exhibitions, unless perhaps we might count col- 
lege oratorical contests and commencements. 
But the feeling that there might be something 
worse should make us look with benignity, if 
not pleasure, on such books as Mr. Hamlin 
Garland's " Crumbling Idols " and Mr. Oscar 
Wilde's " Salome." Different as they are in 
all other points, both books are of that foam 
and froth of literature which is indicative of 
true life and action somewhere, which is itself 
shortly blown away and lost to sight and re- 

Mr. Garland's book, we are informed by an 
unknown sponsor, is " a vigorous plea for the 
recognition of youth and a protest against the 
despotism of tradition." It might have been 
added that it is an assertion of the necessity of 
Americanism in American Literature. Surely 
these things are very good things, looked at in 
their ordinary light. But when we look at them 
in Mr. Garland's light, it must be confessed 
that the feeling is not one of approbation but 
of irritation. One is led to inquire, What 

* CRUMBLING IDOLS. Twelve Essays on Art. By Hamlin 
Garland. Chicago and Cambridge : Stone & Kimball. 

SALOME : A Tragedy in One Act. Translated from the 
French of Oscar Wilde. Pictured by Aubrey Beardsley. Bos- 
ton : Copeland <k Day. 



[July 1, 

earthly use can there be in Mr. Garland's say- 
ing all this ? For the main points in Mr. Gar- 
land's discourse are by no means new. He 
takes Walt Whitman's thesis as to a native 
literature, looks at it in the light of the expe- 
rience of the last twenty-five years, and puts 
forth the whole thing as his own prophecy for 
the future. 

As one reads " Crumbling Idols " it comes 
more and more strongly to mind that the book 
is a sort of apology for existence on the part 
of its author. Now Mr. Garland of course need 
make no such apology. "Main Travelled Roads" 
and " Prairie Songs " are reasons enough for 
anyone's existing, temporarily. They are their 
own excuse for being : no one doubted the fact, 
until Mr. Garland set himself to force us into 
admitting it. For, unfortunately, Mr. Gar- 
land is not persuasive : he is bellicose, obstrep- 
erous, blatant. Nobody could possibly agree 
with him, whatever he said. 

The real difficulty seems to be that Mr. Gar- 
land, being himself able to write excellent things 
of a certain sort, cannot conceive that there 
can be anything else excellent of a kind totally 
different. Feeling himself very virtuous, he 
becomes enraged that anyone else should ven- 
ture to be still attached to cakes and ale. Now 
this is all wrong. Literature in America may 
never come to anything without plenty of local 
color and provincialism (to use Mr. Garland's 
expressions), but it will never be a great liter- 
ature so long as it has nothing besides. Mr. 
Garland would do us but poor service if he 
could persuade people to write nothing but 
" local novels." 

But of course one need not take the book 
very seriously. Mr. Garland's engrossing fear 
seems to be that Americans will turn their en- 
tire attention to writing " blank- verse tragedies 
on Columbus or Washington," or that they will 
" copy the last epics of feudalism." Such an 
apprehension seems to have very slight basis. 
It is probable that during the last year there 
have been thousands of what Mr. Garland would 
call " local " stories written by young America 
for every single blank-verse tragedy or epic of 
feudalism that has seen the light this side the 
Atlantic. Everybody writes " local " stories 
nowadays ; it is as natural as whooping-cough. 
There is no need of encouragement : to tell 
the truth, a little restraint would do no harm. 
For, even with the best of intentions, one may 
write a " local " story so badly that it will be 
worse than a blank-verse tragedy on Washing- 
ton or anybody else, 

But to turn from such serious foolishness to 
a more sprightly trifler. Mr. Oscar Wilde 
never troubles one with taking himself too se- 
riously, and the history of " Salome " is Oscar 
Wilde all over. It was written in French and 
produced in Paris. Desirous then of favoring 
his own countrymen, Mr. Wilde made prepara- 
tion to present it in London. In this worthy 
attempt, however, he was hindered so the 
papers told us by some official folly which 
enraged him so much that he was even strongly 
tempted to stop being an Englishman, in favor 
of that less imbecile people across the Chan- 
nel. But not wishing to keep his anger for- 
ever, Mr. Wilde finally allowed his noble friend 
Lord Alfred Bruce Douglas to do the play into 
English. It was then " pictured," as the phrase 
is, by Mr. Aubrey Beardsley, and is now ready 
for the delight of a somewhat indifferent world. 

Such an extraordinary conjunction of affecta- 
tions is ominous. But, strangely enough, there 
are some things in " Salome " that are good. 
It is impossible to read it without feeling cu- 
riously moved and stirred. The careless talk 
of the loungers on the terrace, the soldiers and 
the Cappadocian, is good ; the squabbling of 
the Jews, the Pharisee, the Sadducee, the Naz- 
arene, is good. So, also, is Herod, indeed 
the character of Herod is quite the best con- 
ceived thing in the play, as his description of 
his treasure is the best written. The play may 
well have been very effective on the stage, for 
there is a constant feeling of movement, of life, 
and it is certainly worth reading now that it is 

With all this, however, the play is wholly 
ephemeral. Its action is trivial and its dia- 
logue affected. Its ideas, and its language too, 
are extravagances, without much more founda- 
tion than the extravagances of Mr. Hamlin 
Garland. But while in Mr. Garland we have 
the prophet of Literature as Life, we have in 
Mr. Wilde the follower of Literature as Art. 
Mr. Garland is a " veritist," and prefers the 
fresh novelties of nature. But Mr. Wilde 
seeks beauty, in art and art's most latent sub- 
tleties. He contrives expressions and concep- 
tions of the most curious and self-conscious 
refinement, of the strangest and most ultra- 
precious distinction. As ever, he scorns the 
ordinary, the every-day, the generally pleasing, 
and is unremitting to attain the romantic 
beauty, the strange, the wonderful, the remote, 
the reward of no art but the most devoted, the 
delight of no taste but the most distinguished. 

As suchj his work lends itself eminently to 




the illustration of Mr. Aubrey Beardsley. * 
Mr. Aubrey" Beardsley receives a good many 
hard words nowadays, and certainly his pic- 
tures are strange things, more affected than 
Oscar Wilde himself, and more remote from 
obvious apprehension. What one is first in- 
clined to criticise in Mr. Beardsley is his lack 
of originality. His pictures remind us of al- 
most every phase of art that has ever existed ; 
or, at any rate, of every phase which had ever 
a tinge of the grotesque or the trivial in its 
character. From the bald priestly pictures 
mingled among Egyptian hieroglyphics, down 
to the graceful frivolities of Willette of the 
Red Windmill, Mr. Beardsley seems to have 
laid everything under contribution. His work 
seems by turns one thing and then another 
Japanese, Gothic, Preraphaelite, what you will. 
So it seems at first. But the great excellence 
is that, however Protean, Mr. Aubrey Beards- 
ley, like Satan in " Paradise Lost," is always 
himself, even in the midst of his disguises. 
Just what is his own quality, is hard to say ; 
but there can be little doubt that it exists, and 
it would be worth somebody's while to de- 
termine it in the shifting dazzle of his influ- 
ences, to fix it for an instant for us, to get 
its true character and flavor unadulterated. 
But whatever be his quality, it is eminently in 
keeping with the work of Mr. Oscar Wilde. 

Of our two literary eccentrics, some will pre- 
fer Mr. Wilde and some Mr. Garland. If they 
could be seized each with an admiration for the 
other, it would have an excellent effect on the 
work of both. But even as they are, they are 
good evidence of life in literature, and an as- 
surance that it will not yet awhile harden down 
into utter conventionalism. 


* Characteristic of author and artist is the tribute of ad- 
miration which we see in the portrait of the former, opposite 
page 24. That Mr. Wilde should care to be presented to the 
world with the sensual lips, sodden eyes, and double chin, 
that are here so conscientiously pictured, is a somewhat re- 
markable thing. 


William Allingham, during his life, was 
known almost exclusively as a poet ; but a three- 
volume edition of " Varieties in Prose," just 
published by his wife, proves him to have been 
a delightful prose writer as well. " Patricius 
Walker " he calls himself in the first two vol- 

* VAHIKTI us IN PKOSE. By William Allingham. In three 
volumes. New York ; Longmans, Green, $ Co, 

umes, which consist of " Rambles " through 
England, Scotland, and Wales, and furnish the 
opportunity for much charming description of 
natural scenery, flavored with literary and ar- 
tistic comment and generalizations. Few ex- 
periences in life are more enjoyable than long 
and leisurely out-door strolls through a pleas- 
ing country, with a chatty companion who has 
an eye for the picturesque, a well-stored mind, 
and a ready fancy. Something of the same 
satisfaction we feel in these books ; for the time 
being, we are fellow-ramblers with Patricius, 
and share in his quiet but responsive moods. 
He calls attention to much that would have 
escaped our own more prosaic eyes and minds : 
while the physical aspects of the country might 
have been apparent, its sentiment and associa- 
tions would probably have continued un re- 
vealed. For example, Winchester is perhaps 
not specially interesting to the average man, 
but our companion recalls that it was here, one 
Sunday evening, " a certain young poet now 
forever young," felt and sung the rich sadness 
of Autumn. 

" Young Keats 's gaze that Sunday evening was upon 
the Winchester stubble-fields like a spiritual setting-sun, 
and left them lying enchanted in its fadeless light. . . . 
After all, it is permissible to believe, the poet draws the 
best lot from Fortune's urn. Whom could he envy ? 
Not alone is his delight in life the keenest, but his in- 
sight the most veracious. Yet, ah me ! how thin-skinned 
he is how open to suffering how sure to suffer, in a 
world such as this ! Is it partly the world's fault for 
being such a world ? Was Keats, pensive among the 
sheaves, a happier man than Hodge, who reaped them, 
and quaffed his ale-cup at the harvest-home ? ' Hap- 
pier ' what is happiness 1 Would any man deliberately 
give up a grain of his intellect or sensibility to win a 
lower kind of happiness than he was born capable of ? 
escape suffering by stupidity ? Here truly is a cat- 
echism of questions, and food for meditation." 

We get very close to our companion's idio- 
syncrasies, know his likes and dislikes, and 
though not always agreeing, learn to expect 
something spontaneous and entertaining at each 
step of the way. A cathedral service on a Brit- 
ish Sunday he finds a great resource, and " the 
sermon keeps it from appearing too pleasant 
a set-off against the music and the architec- 
ture." As an easy and most valuable reform 
in the Church of England, he suggests the to- 
tal abolition of sermons in connection with the 
ordinary service. Modern life, whether pub- 
lic or private, does not interest him ; it is 
neither romantic nor picturesque, and nothing 
arouses his indignation more than to see an old 
building " restored " (that is, defaced) by mod- 
ern hands. Words cannot express his disgust 
at what he calls the uglifiers of the world. He 



[July 1, 

admits that such an evil may be sometimes ab- 
solutely unavoidable, like shaving a sick man's 
head, or cutting off his leg ; but ithe necessity 
ought to be clear and real, not, as is so often 
the case, a pretended need, generated in a com- 
post of stupidity, weak desire of novelty, and 
some kind of low self-interest. On this point 
he says : 

" The world is not ours absol utely, or any part of it ; 
but only ours in trust. We have ' a user' as the lawyers 
say, and that without prejudice to all others, born or to 
be born. Pray, how can mortal do, in a common way, 
worse turn to mankind than by permanently lessening 
the world's beauty, in landscape, in architecture, in dress, 
in (what is sure to go with the rest) manners, tastes, 
sympathies ? An evil governor, or the writer of a 
clever vile book, perhaps does worse, but that is not in 
a common way." 

But we prefer to quote our friend when he 
is in his usual more serene mood. The true 
poet's power of seeing the beautiful in the com- 
mon is quickly stirred in him. This is what 
he finds in an idle hour at the little railway- 
station of Wimbourne Minster : 

" Narrow streets hem in the Minster. I first reached 
the market-place, an irregular open; and then, through 
bye-lanes, a pretty field-path on the west side of the 
town, where, amidst broad meadows, guarded north and 
south by heavily wooded slopes, winds the tranquil 
Stour, with deep pools, where, looking into the trans- 
parent water, I could see some of the inhabitants, little 
pike at feed, who know nothing of Wimbourne, or Dor- 
set, or the South Western Railways, but have their own 
towns and districts and lines of travelling. Two young 
ladies came along the path from the town, sat down on 
the grassy margin close to an island or promontory 
shaded with tall green withes, and began to read un- 
known mysterious books; it was poetry, I felt sure, and 
finer than any I have yet seen in print. Yet could I have 
looked over their shoulder it would doubtless have 
changed into . The damsels themselves seemed, in 
that sunny spring meadow by the clear river, more 
than semi-celestial; yet already their features have 
mingled irrevocably with the cloudy past." 

Patricius believes firmly in the educating 
power of fair and noble landscape. Even the 
peasant, who does not consciously notice it, is 
better for the beauty, as he is better for the 
pure air he unconsciously breathes, and he 
would soon miss both. Yet our enthusiastic 
Nature-lover is forced to admit that even the 
most responsive do not at all times feel Nature's 
charms. Like other pleasures, it is apt to evade 
too eager pursuit. One may find the mountain 
or the cataract, but cannot always command 
the mood for enjoying them. Often, in the 
fairest scenes, we may repeat Coleridge's line, 

" I see, not feel, that it is fair," 

and unawares, in some happy hour or moment, 
" reap the harvest of a quiet eye." 

Inspired by a stroll through Devonshire lanes, 
and the sight of Dean Prior where Robert Iler- 
rick was vicar two centuries ago, he treats 
us to a disquisition 011 Herrick's poetry, com- 
paring him to Martial, and calling him by 
names less harsh than are sometimes used. 
Robert Herrick is a name that echoes pleas- 
antly, after all, and he can drink a health to 
the " half-disreputable shade " who was so un- 
like his contemporary brother-poet and brother- 
clergyman whose memories are also revived 
the " almost too respectable vicar of Fugglc- 
ston, near Salisbury George Herbert ! " 

The " Rambles " come to an end with the 
second volume. In the third are seven Irish 
Sketches, and about as many essays on various 
literary themes, all agreeable though not re- 
markable. Like most poets, Mr. Allingham 
seems to have had some ambition towards 
drama, and the work concludes with a serio- 
comic play in one act, " Hopgood & Go." Be- 
ing far inferior to the rest of the collection, 
it might better have been omitted. The pub- 
lishers have given the book a beautiful dress, 
and a pleasing photograph of the author, from 
a drawing by his wife, serves as frontispiece. 



The Algonkin family of Indian tribes was 
one of the most widely spread in America. To 
it belonged tribes so different as the Blackfeet 
of the far West, the Sacs and Foxes and the 
Ojibways of the interior, the Delawares of 
Pennsylvania, and the New England Indians. 
To it, too, the Micmacs of Nova Scotia and 
Prince Edward's Island belong. The Rev. Silas 
Tertius Rand in many ways a remarkable man 
was for forty years or more a missionary to 
this tribe. Scholarly in his tastes and pro- 
foundly interested in the people among whom 
he labored, he gathered a great mass of mate- 
rial, both linguistic and mythological, of much 
value. Part of this material is in the volume 
before us. It contains eighty-seven stories, of 
varying interest and importance, simply told. 

There is already considerable Algonkin folk- 
lore in print. Ojibway legends have been often 
studied and told with more or less of accuracy. 
Mr. George Bird Grinnell has beautifully 
put the Blackfeet Lodge-Tales into English. 

* LEGENDS OF THE MICMACS. By Silas Tertius Rand. 
(Wellesley Philological Publications.) New York : Longmans, 
Greeu, & Co. 




Others have busied themselves with other tribes; 
and Mr. Charles G. Leland has given us in his 
*' Algonkin Legends of New England " a 
wonderful book stories from the Indians of 
Maine and Nova Scotia. In fact, Mr. Leland's 
book contains many of these very Micmac 
legends, for he was permitted by Mr. Rand to 
make liberal use of the manuscript of these in 
preparing his book. Thus, much of the choic- 
est part of Mr. Rand's book was already in 
print. It is, however, very desirable to have 
as here the whole collection in the very form 
in which it was gathered. 

The reader is at once impressed with the 
profound difference between the best of these 
Micmac tales and those of the more Western 
tribes of the Algonkin group such as the 
Blackfeet. They are more massive in struct- 
ure, bolder in conception, more wild in spirit. 
This is true only of those which are plainly un- 
touched by modern European influence. There 
are some stories in the collection which are 
plainly modifications of European fairy-tales 
of recent introduction. Most of this latter 
class betray themselves, but are interesting as 
illustrations of myth-changes due to new con- 

Curious heroes figure in the better of these 
stories : giants, magicians, chenoo. The Al- 
gonkins have sorcerers, and medicine and magic 
were realities in their old life ; they figure in 
these stories. The great hero is Glooskap. 
He is a mighty magician, kind usually, ready 
to help the poor and punish the bad, a joker 
withal whose jokes are sometimes rather grim. 
He knows the language of beast and bird, he 
can control nature's powers (though with cu- 
rious limitations), he can change the size and 
form of himself or others. Cheated and robbed, 
he can yet overtake his spoilers and put them 
to confusion. As he can grant fulfilment of 
wishes, he is much sought by men ; but often, 
in granting their desires, he shows them their 
folly and weakness. Very common, too, in 
Micmac stories is it to hear of the remarkable 
adventures of the Rabbit. He is cunning and 
has great " medicine " power, but he is hasty 
and thoughtless, often putting himself into 
strange predicaments, although he usually 
comes forth the victor. But most curious of 
all the curious beings in Micmac stories are 
the Chenoo dreadful, wild, cannibalistic, 
with heart of ice, endowed with more than hu- 
man powers for both good and ill, but seldom 
exercising the power. Scarcely anywhere will 
we find a more beautiful bit in folk-lore than 

the story of the Chenoo converted by kindness. 
His savage nature is tamed by love, but with 
the change comes, necessarily, death. Some 
of the legends are, or appear to be, simple nar- 
ratives of real events battles, incidents of 
tribal history : in some of these there is no im- 
probability in the narrative, in others an ele- 
ment of magic enters in which weakens our 
faith. From these to pure hero myths is not 
a long step. The modified fairy-stories of Eu- 
rope, but recently introduced, are interesting. 
They are plainly exotic, but they often have 
acquired some new flavor and undergone some 
curious modification. A fair example is the 
story of " The Magical Food, Belt, and Flute." 
The widow's stupid son Jack goes to sell a cow 
to get money for the rent ; he is inveigled into 
parting with it for an apparent trifle a tiny 
dish with a bit of food upon it. A second cow 
goes for a belt, and a third one for a flute. 
All are magical, but will not pay the rent, and 
the mother is in despair. Of course the stu- 
pid boy with his magical treasures gets the rent 
remitted, seeks his fortune and marries a king's 

The most interesting fact in these Micmac 
stories remains to be stated. In many points 
they show unquestionable and startling resem- 
blance to old Scandinavian sagas. This re- 
semblance has been well stated and ably dis- 
cussed by Mr. Leland, to whose book we must 
refer for the argument. Sometime, somehow, 
somewhere, a Scandinavian influence deep and 
profound has come into the life and thought of 
the olden Micmacs ; the resemblance is too 
great and too minute to be of no significance. 
And here, curiously, is a vital matter, so far as 
the book before us is concerned. The late Pro- 
fessor Horsford's interest in Norse settlement 
of New England is well known. Everyone has 
heard of " Norumbega " and Professor Hors- 
ford's belief that he had discovered the very 
site of that " city of the past." There is no 
doubt that it was the Norse strain in these Mic- 
mac legends which led him to purchase Dr. 
Rand's manuscripts and present them to Welles- 
ley College. It was his belief that " traces 
of the Northmen might be found in these 
Indian tales, and that the language of the 
Micmacs might, upon closer study, reveal the 
impress of the early Norse invaders. In this 
belief he helped toward the publication of the 
material. " The Legends of the Micmacs " is 
the first of the " Wellesley Philological Pub- 
lications." It is edited by Miss Helen L. Web- 
ster, and is, we hope, only the forerunner of a 



[July 1, 

valuable series of volumes. The Library of 
American Linguistics of Wellesley College is 
rich both in manuscripts and printed material. 
Of Mr. Rand's manuscripts it possesses nearly 
all, amounting to more than a score of volumes 
upon Micmac and Maliseet. Of his printed 
works it has a fine series of about fifty num- 
bers ; of the Bible in various Indian languages 
it has a notable collection ; and Major Powell's 
private collection of over a thousand linguistic 
papers and books is in its keeping* From such 
a wealth of matter we shall expert to receive 
important results. A second volume is already 
in preparation ; it will consist of grammatical 
material from the Micmac language. Besides 
gathering this library and publishing these vol- 
umes, the college is moving toward instruction 
in American Linguistics and Ethnology. A 
beginning has been made, with a small class, 
under Miss Webster. Workers in anthropol- 
ogy everywhere will watch the growth and de- 
velopment of this promising work with great 

More of the 
Letters of 


If there are in the English language 
any more delightful letters than those 
of Edward FitzGerald, we would not 
at this moment venture to name them. Cowper's, 
much belauded ; Shelley's, with their sweetness and 
dignity ; Thackeray's, with their boyish exuberance 
even these seem less attractive when one is per- 
mitted to enjoy the intimacy of Omar's translator. 
Lamb's ? but " comparisons are odorous." Those 
who already have the " Letters and Literary Re- 
mains " will none the less welcome the new edition 
of the " Letters " (Macmillan), and will find a place 
for them upon the shelf, for divers reasons. First 
of all, they are prettily published in two " Eversley " 
volumes ; second, there are some forty hitherto un- 
published letters ; third, there is a good index to the 
whole. If these be not sufficient reasons, we know 
nought of logic. The happy reader will of course 
begin by picking out all the plums (being the new 
letters) if we may apply the metaphor to a pud- 
ding which is all plums ; he will then read the old 
letters over again. Last of all, he will rejoice (while 
impatient of delay) at the announcement of Mr. 
William Aldis Wright, the editor, who promises a 
wholly new volume to be devoted to the letters 
written by FitzGerald to Fanny Kemble. The new 
letters contained in the present edition are ad- 
dressed to a number of people. Fully half of them 
are added to those of which Professor E. B. Cowell 
was the fortunate original recipient, and from these 
are the following selections. Writing in 1857, Fitz- 

Gerald says : " In truth I take old Omar rather 
more as my property than yours : he and I are more 
akin, are we not ? You see all [his] Beauty, but 
you don't feel with him in some respects as I do. 
I think you would almost feel obliged to leave out 
the part of Hamlet in representing him to your Au- 
dience, for fear of Mischief. Now I do not wish to 
show Hamlet at bis maddest : but mad he must be 
shown, or he is no Hamlet at all. G. de Tassy eluded 
all that was dangerous, and all that was character- 
istic. I think these free opinions are less danger- 
ous in an old Mahometan, or an old Roman (like 
Lucretius), than when they are returned to by those 
who have lived on happier Food." Two years later, 
after telling his friend of a great bereavement, he 
writes : " Well, this is so : and there is no more to 
be said about it. It is one of the things that rec- 
oncile me to my own stupid Decline of Life to the 
crazy state of the world Well no more about it. 
I sent you poor old Omar, who has his kind of Con- 
solation for all these Things. I doubt you will re- 
gret you ever introduced him to me. ... I hardly 
know why I print any of these things, which no- 
body buys ; and I scarce now see the few I give 
them to. But when one has done one's best, and 
is sure that that best is better than so many will 
take pains to do, though far from the best that 
might be done, one likes to make an end of the 
matter by Print. I suppose very few People have 
taken such Pains in Translation as I have : though 
certainly not to be literal. But at all Cost, a Thing 
must live : with a transfusion of one's own worse 
Life if one can 't retain the Original's better. Bet- 
ter a live Sparrow than a stuffed Eagle." The fol- 
lowing characteristic bit is dated 1863 : " Oh dear, 
when I do look into Homer, Dante, and Virgil, 
^Eschylus, Shakespeare, etc., those Orientals look 
silly ! Do n't resent my saying so. Do n't they ? 
I am now a good [deal] about in a new Boat I have 
built, and thought (as Johnson took Cocker's Arith- 
metic with him on travel, because he shouldn't ex- 
haust it) so I would take Dante and Homer with 
me, instead of Mudie's Books which I read through 
directly. I took Dante by way of slow Digestion : 
not having looked at him for some years : but I am 
glad to find I relish him as much as ever : he atones 
with the Sea ; as you know does the ' Odyssey ' 
these are the Men." We note that Mr. Wright has 
omitted from this edition (as was proper) the ref- 
erence to Mrs. Browning which gave such offence 
to her husband, and impelled him to an outburst of 
temper, which, however great the provocation, must 
always be regarded as deplorable. The only refer- 
ence to Browning in the present edition is a new 
one, dated 1882, and with it we end our extracts : 
" Browning told Mrs. Kemble he knew there was 
' a grotesque side ' to his society, etc., but he could 
not refuse the kind solicitations of his Friends, Fur- 
nival and Co. Mrs. K. had been asked to join : but 
declined, because of her somewhat admiring him ; 
nay, much admiring what he might have done." 



Language and ^ more valuable contribution to the 
Linguistic Method pedagogy of a special branch of edu- 
in the School. cation has been made in recent years 
than the series of " Lectures on Language and Lin- 
guistic Method in the School," delivered in the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge, by Prof. S. S. Laurie, of 
the University of Edinburgh, which first appeared 
in 1890, and a new edition of which has lately 
been published (James Thin, Edinburgh). The 
new edition is improved in several respects. The 
quantity of matter has been increased from 147 
pages to 197 pages; all the lectures have been re- 
written in part, the matter has been rearranged 
with a view to make the volume more suitable as 
a text -book ; and a lecture on the teaching of 
French has been added, as well as a supplement. 
In no other way can the scope of the book so well 
be given as to present the heads of lectures. " Lan- 
guage the Supreme Instrument in Education " ; 
" The Real and Formal in Language" ; " Language 
as a Real Study Conveying Substance of Thought" 
(three lectures) ; " Language as a Formal Study " ; 
" Grammar of the Vernacular Tongue " ; " Lan- 
guage as Literature " ; " Foreign Tongues, Latin as 
Type " ; " Method ot Teaching Latin " ; " Method 
of Teaching Foreign Languages"; "Language vs. 
Science in the School." These lectures are all marked 
by that clearness of thought and expression, and that 
completeness and balance of view, which are so char- 
acteristic of their author. The volume opens with 
this suggestive paragraph : " Every human being is 
educated by the experiences of life. The experiences 
begin very early. The babe at its mother's breast 
is receiving impressions for good or for evil as cer- 
tainly as a seed, which has just begun to sprout, is 
already absorbing from the soil what is to make it 
or mar it as a vigorous plant of its kind. There- 
after, as the child walks non cequis possibles at his 
mother's side, the whole world of nature is seeking 
to form him. Earth and sky, the events of his lit- 
tle life, the words and acts, nay, even the gestures, 
of those about him, are all busy in the work of his 
education. Unconsciously at first, and thereafter con- 
sciously, he is organising into himself the vast and 
infinite material of outer impression and inner feel- 
ing. Every human being undergoes this process of 
education ; and it is not at all a question whether 
he is to be educated or not, but simply how and to 
what end he is to be educated." A passage on the 
meaning and influence of the mother-tongue is also 
well worth quoting : " Mind grows only in so far as 
it finds expression for itself ; it cannot find it through 
a foreign tongue. It is round the language learned 
at the mother's knee that the whole life of feeling, 
emotion, thought, gathers. If it were possible for a 
child or boy to live in two languages at once equally 
well, so much the worse for him. His intellectual 
and spiritual growth would not thereby be doubled, 
but halved. Unity of mind and of character would 
have great difficulty in asserting itself in such cir- 
cumstances. Language, remember, is at best only 
symbolic of a world of consciousness, and almost 

Thought and 

every word is rich in unexpressed associations of 
experience which give it its full value for the life 
of mind. Subtleties, and delicacies, and refinements 
of feeling and perception are, at best, only suggested 
by the words we use. The major part lies deep in 
our conscious or half-conscious life, and is the source 
of the tone and colour of language, and of its wide- 
reaching unexpressed relations. Words, accordingly, 
must be steeped in life to be living ; and as we have 
not two lives, tut only one, so we can have only one 


Two volumes of leaders and reviews 
written for the London " Spectator " 
by Mr. Richard Holt Hutton have 
been collected under the title, " Criticisms on Con- 
temporary Thought and Thinkers" (Macmillan). 
They range over the past twenty years, and include 
articles upon such men as Carlyle, Emerson, Long- 
fellow, Dickens, Mill, Arnold, Renan, Maurice, 
Bagehot, Darwin, Stanley, Church, and Newman. 
They also include reviews of many remarkable 
works, such as Carlyle's " Reminiscences," Mr. Les- 
lie Stephen's Essays, Mill's "Autobiography," Mori- 
son's "The Service of Man," Dr. Martineau's "Types 
of Ethical Theory," and some of Tennyson's later 
poems. The papers are all brief, but several are 
often devoted to the same subject. There are groups 
of four each upon Carlyle and Dr. Martineau, of . 
three each upon Mill and Mr. Stephen, and a group 
of no less than eight upon Sir John Lubbock's studies 
of insect life. These groups produce something of 
the effect of extensive essays, and serve to make the 
book less fragmentary than at first appears. It will 
be seen from the above incomplete enumeration of 
topics that the papers touch upon a wide range 
of subjects ; it might almost be said that no move- 
ment or tendency of the last twenty years, having 
to do with religious philosophy or the spiritual life, 
escapes the author's attention. Mr. Hutton's stand- 
point and the solidity of his culture are well known 
to thoughtful readers, and to such only do these vol- 
umes appeal. He is a journalist, but his journalism 
is so dignified as to make the name almost a mis- 
nomer. His position upon philosophical and relig- 
ious questions and with him the two are almost 
one is ultra-conservative ; he is entrenched behind 
a barricade of prejudices, and from their shelter con- 
ducts a skilfully defensive campaign. One must 
not expect from him anything like sympathetic treat- 
ment of such men as Arnold and Renan, for ex- 
ample ; the spirit of such men seems almost wholly 
to escape him. But he is always urbane, or nearly 
always. In the case of Clifford, indeed, his tem- 
per nearly deserts him, but then Clifford was exas- 
perating at times. And the author pays for his 
lapse into something like invective by allowing him- 
self to be detected in such puerile reasoning as the 
following: "If Professor Clifford's theory were 
worth anything, consciousness would develope pari 
passu with the organic development of all forms 
of matter, and we ought to have as much con- 
sciousness behind the action of the motor nerves as 



[July 1, 

Us Principles 
and Practice, 

behind the action of the sensitive neives, as much 
consciousness of the growth of our hair, as of the 
flush on our cheeks or the music in ofir ears." We 
might extract equally childish passages from what 
is said upon that dangerous subject or free will and 
moral responsibility. We are almost jiempted to say 
that Mr. Hutton is too good a writer to be an exact 
thinker. His rhetoric is doubtless of a high char- 
acter, but his fate is nevertheless that bf far cheaper 
rhetoricians : he is entangled in the Network of his 
own verbiage. Still, he has a point of view, and 
those who wish to know what can be isaid from that 
point of view upon the most serious aspects of mod- 
ern thought cannot do better than read these vol- 

Mr. Joseph Landon, the author of 
" Principles and Practice of Teach- 
ing" (Macmillan), tells us in his pre- 
face that his work is "the outcome of nearly a quar- 
ter of a century's experience as lecturer on school 
management in a training college, and of a still larger 
experience as a teacher, as well as of a considerable 
amount of reading, and of numerous observations 
and experiments in teaching carried out at various 
times and in various ways " ; and the work itself 
amply confirms this testimony. He has produced, 
not an original or a brilliant book, but a useful one, 
well thought out, solid, and methodical from cover 
to cover. He adheres to the tradition in including 
" principles " as well as " practice " ; but, as he 
frankly tells us, the book treats the subject " on the 
art side rather than on the scientific side," so that 
it may be of as thoroughly practical and useful a 
character as possible. Still, the underlying science 
he has carefully kept in mind. The art of the ex- 
perienced teacher and of the experienced teacher 
of teachers is apparent in the minuteness of the 
discussion, and in the detail with which the analysis 
is carried out. While this minutiae and detail may 
commend the book to many private readers, it will 
not conduce to its popularity as a text-book, at least 
in the United States. Like all the new books of 
like character, this one emphasizes the study and 
teaching of English. Mr. Landon pronounces the 
neglect of the study of the subject in England " aston- 
ishing" ; and he fortifies his general argument with 
this neat quotation : " That a language should be, as 
English is, so apt and clear in expression as to com- 
mend itself to almost universal use, so wide and full 
in its capacity to voice high thought and deep feeling 
as to win universal acclaim, and yet should be com- 
paratively worthless for the training of Us own chil- 
dren, is a paradox that falls below the dignity of 
a tolerable joke." 

Bibliography in Sumptuousness in all details of form, 
its historical and paper, type, presswork, and illus- 
irtistic aspects. tration5S characterizes Bibliograph- 
ica," a quarterly magazine of bibliography in its 
historical and artistic aspects, issued by Messrs. 
Charles Scribner's Sons in connection with Messrs. 
Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. of London. The 

plan of publication is certainly novel. The first 
number made its appearance early in April, and the 
last will be issued at the end of 1896. Subscrip- 
tions are only received for the complete set of twelve 
parts, payable yearly in advance. Only as many 
sets will be issued as are subscribed for in advance, 
and subscribers are thus guaranteed against broken 
sets and depreciation in value. The publishers be- 
lieve that an opportunity has now presented itself 
to give to those interested a series of papers by 
writers of authority on various points of book-lore 
which require special treatment, without being of 
sufficient importance to be made the subject of sep- 
arate works. A special feature in the magazine 
will be the admission of articles in French as well 
as English. In Part I., Mr. W. Y. Fletcher writes 
on " A Copy of Celsus from the Library of Gro- 
lier"; Mr. Charles I. Elton on "Christina of Swe- 
den and her Books "; M. Octave Uzanne on " La 
Bibliophile Moderne "; Mr. E. Gordon Duff on 
" The Stationers at the Sign of the Trinity "; Mr. 
Alfred W. Pollard on "The Books of Hours of 
Geoffroy Tory "; while Mr. Andrew Lang writes 
felicitously about " Names and Notes in Books." 
Names are to be preferred to book-plates, Mr. Lang 
thinks, and he finds appropriate and inoffensive 
such pointed notes as that written by Sir Walter 
Scott on a fly-leaf of Maule's " History of the Picts ": 
" Very rare, therefore worth a guinea ; very sense- 
less, therefore not worth a shilling." A word must 
be added in commendation of the decorative ini- 
tials and tail-pieces specially designed by Mr. Lau- 
rence Housman. To the individual collector, the 
librarian, the professional bibliographer, and the 
book-lover, if not to the general reader, "Biblio- 
graphica " will not make its appeal in vain. 

"My Paris Note -Book" (Lippin- 
cott), an aftermath of memories by 
that amusing quidnunc who set us 
all guessing some months ago with his " An En- 
glishman in Paris," should find favor with lovers 
of light literature. Like its predecessor, the book 
is a racy medley of stories and pen-pictures of nota- 
ble people Louis Napoleon, Renan, Thiers, Victor 
Emmanuel, GreVy, Simon, de Kock, MM. Erckmann- 
Chatrian, de Musset, etc. From the mass of quo- 
table matter we select one extract a caustic news- 
paper hit at Thiers : "The Minister of the Interior 
is no doubt the man who in a given time can ' spout ' 
the greatest number of words and ' squirt ' the 
largest number of verbal blue-bottles upon the air. 
He is, moreover, the man who can talk for the 
longest period without taking ti'ouble to think. As 
a rule, one idea is all-sufficient for him ; one idea, 
and a tumbler of water with a lump of sugar in it. 
With these, M. Thiers will go on prating for twenty- 
four hours at a stretch, like the skilful wire-drawer 
who from an ounce of metal will produce twenty- 
four leagues of wire." The book is a capital one 
for dog-day reading, and contains a good many odds 
and ends of curious information withal. 

Leaves from 
a Parisian 





Mr. Mark Samuel, of Columbia College, publishes 
"The Amateur Aquarist" (Baker & Taylor Co.), a lit- 
tle book of instructions on the subject of aquaria. The 
preface, commendably brief, is as follows: "A collec- 
tion of simply-expressed suggestions to amateur aquar- 
ists is all this book claims to be. Its descriptions are 
terse, tried, and true." The book gives full and exact 
information about the collection of fresh-water fishes 
and plants, and tells how they are to be kept alive and 
in good health. It is simply written and well illustrated. 

What is described as a " first series " of " Fairy Tales 
from the Arabian Nights " comes to us with the imprints 
of Messrs. J. M. Dent & Co. and Messrs. G. P. Putnam's 
Sons. The text is selected from Galland, and edited 
virginibus puerisque by Miss E. Dixon, of Girton College. 
There are fifteen tales in this volume, among them be- 
ing the seven voyages of Sindbad, whose name is un- 
accountably printed " Sinbad." The illustrations of the 
book, by Mr. J. D. Batten, are its most striking feature, 
and are very artistic, particularly the five full-page 
plates. We hope that there will be as many more se- 
ries of this work as there are " Nights " to fill them. 
Among books for the young not one in a hundred de- 
serves such hearty commendation as this. 

We quote the preface of Mr. T. M. Clark's " Build- 
ing Superintendence " (Macmillan) as the best descrip- 
tion of a work of value so approved that it has now 
reached its twelfth edition. " This is not a treatise on 
the architectural art, or the science of construction, but 
a simple exposition of the ordinary practice of building 
in this country, with suggestions for supervising such 
work efficiently. Architects of experience probably know 
already nearly everything that the book contains, but 
their younger brethren, as well as those persons not of 
the profession who are occasionally called upon to di- 
rect building operations, will perhaps be glad of its 

Mr. Frederick Jones Bliss, in " A Mound of Many 
Cities " (Macmillan), describes the excavations carried 
on from 1890 to 1893 by officers of the Palestine Ex- 
ploration Fund at Tell el Hesy, a mound situated in 
Judsea, between Hebron and Gaza. The Tell in ques- 
tion was about sixty feet high, and was found to con- 
tain the ruins of no less than eight cities, in superim- 
posed strata. The conjectural chronology of these 
cities, fairly well supported by the evidence, ranges 
from about 1700 B.C. to 400 B.C. The book is extra- 
ordinarily interesting; hardly less so to the general 
reader than to the archaeologist and historian. 


New York, June 25, 1894. 

The death of Howard Seely by his own hand at the 
home of his parents in Brooklyn last Friday night was 
a severe shock to his many friends among the younger 
men of letters in this city. Only a few of them knew 
that he was subject to recurrent attacks of insanity, 
especially in the early summer of each year. At other 
times he preserved a cheerful interested manner which 
endeared him to all who knew him. Edward Howard 
Seely, Jr., to give his full name, was a member of the 
Class of 1878 at Yale, where he distinguished himself 
in literary work, becoming one of the editors of the 

"Yale Literary Magazine." Two years later he grad- 
uated at the Columbia law school, but overstudy brought 
on attacks of nervous prostration and he was obliged to 
abandon his profession. He then travelled in Texas 
and through the Southwest, and thus gained the mate- 
rial which he made use of in his stories, which some- 
what resemble in scope and character those of Mr. 
Owen Wister. Mr. Seely's first volume, " A Lone Star 
Bo-peep, and Other Tales of Texan Ranch Life," was 
published in 1885, and has been followed by " A Ranch- 
man's Stories,"" A Nymph of the West," "The Jonah of 
Lucky Valley,' 1 and one or two others. He was a mem- 
ber of the Authors Club, and for sometime held an as- 
sistant-editorship on the newly-revived " Peterson's Mag- 
azine," for which he wrote quite freely. 

"The Publisher's Weekly" prints a report of the 
proceedings in the German Reichstag in relation to the 
Copyright treaty with this country, referred to in my 
letter of May 1. In reply to the petition to annul the 
treaty on account of the unfairness of the Copyright 
Act to Germans, the Royal Commissioner, Dr. Leh- 
mann, " advised strongly against annulling the treaty, as 
by so doing the branches now fully protected (music, 
art works, maps, etc.) would again fall into the hands 
of ruthless plunderers without anything being gained 
for authors or publishers of books. He hoped that lit- 
tle by little the terms of contract could be modified, 
and felt sure that Americans themselves would realize 
more and more the weaknesses of the Copyright Act, 
for which so many had made so brave a struggle, sub- 
mitting to the restriction of the unsatisfactory clause 
only because without it the whole Copyright question 
would again have dropped for years. After a short de- 
bate, in which all the speakers showed a remarkably 
full knowledge of the situation, it was decided to refer 
the proceedings and further action to the Reichskanzler." 
This would indicate a conciliatory attitude on the part 
of the German government, and that little is to be feared 
from the recent aggressiveness of German publishers. 

The " Overheard in Arcady " of Mr. Robert Bridges, 
so warmly praised by your reviewer, has reached a sec- 
ond edition, of which the Messrs. Dent & Co. of Lon- 
don will be the English publishers. The American pub- 
lishers of this book, Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons, 
are to bring out in book form the lectures recently de- 
livered at Oxford by Mr. James A. Froude on the Life 
and Writings of Erasmus. This firm will also publish 
in America Mr. Gladstone's translations of the odes of 

It is interesting to learn that Mr. Theodore Stanton, 
who was the resident commissioner in France of the 
Columbian Exposition, has been invited to prepare the 
European chapter for the official history of the Fair to 
be published by the Federal government. Among the 
contributors to this chapter will be the Hon. Andrew D. 
White, American minister to Russia, and Col. Freder- 
ick D. Grant, ex-minister to Austria. Mr. Stanton is 
also busily engaged on a series of lectures on the third 
French republic, which are to be delivered at Cornell 
University and later at the University of Wisconsin. 

Some of the friends and admirers of Walt Whitman 
who have for some time met annually at Philadelphia 
on the occasion of his birthday, inaugurated at their 
last meeting, May 31, a Walt Whitman Fellowship, 
which is intended to be international in character. The 
purpose of the association is not entirely literary, but 
for human advancement according to Whitman's ideas. 
Dr. Daniel G. Brinton, of Philadelphia, has been chosen 



[July 1, 

president. Any person can become a iiember by de- 
claring himself such to the secretary and upon payment 
of small annual dues. 

The removal of the firm of Messrs. D. Appleton & Co. 
from 1, 3, and 5 Bond street to 72 Fiftlj avenue, where 
they will occupy the new building at the( northwest cor- 
ner of Fifth avenue and Thirteenth street, is in har- 
mony with the uptown movement of Ifew York pub- 
lishers. When the founder of the house Daniel Ap- 
pleton came to New York from Boston) in 1825, he be- 
gan the importation of English books in connection with 
other business in Exchange Place. The book business 
was in charge of his oldest son, Willianj Henry Apple- 
ton, the present head of the firm, who has well earned 
his title as the Nestor of American publishers, occupy- 
ing as he does in this country a place! similar to that 
held by the late John Murray in England. After a 
short stay in Exchange Place, Daniel Appleton removed 
to Clinton Hall, Beekman street, and devoted himself 
entirely to the importation and sale of books. In 1835 
William H. Appleton was sent to Loidon, where he 
founded an agency. The first publishing venture of the 
firm was a little 32mo book called " Daily Crumbs from 
the Master's Table," issued in 1831. In January, 1838, 
William H. Appleton was taken into partnership, and 
the firm removed to 200 Broadway. In 1848 Daniel 
Appleton retired, and W. H. Appleton formed a part- 
nership with his brother, John Adams Appleton. Three 
other sons subsequently became partners Daniel Sid- 
ney, George Swett, and Samuel Francis. The business 
was removed from 200 Broadway to the old Society 
Library building at Broadway and Leonard street. The 
next removal of the firm was to 443-5 Broadway. 
Later a building was erected at 94 Grand street, corner 
of Green, and occupied for some years until a change 
was made to 549-51 Broadway. About 1880 Messrs. 
Appleton removed to 1, 3, and 5 Bond street. Each 
one of these periods has witnessed some increase and 
development. There are now five members of the firm 
Messrs. William H. Appleton, William W. Appleton, 
Daniel Appleton, Edward Dale Appleton, and D. Sid- 
ney Appleton. ARTHUR STEDMAN. 


A new work by General Gordon a sort of journal 
written at Khartoum is soon to be published. 

It is reported that Mr. Howells, during his European 
sojourn this summer, will make a thorough study of 

A number of unpublished letters by Poe are being 
edited for the " Century Magazine " by Professor G. L. 

Mr. Charles DeKay, the New York journalist and 
poet, has been appointed Consul-General of the United 
States at Berlin. 

The Tennyson memorial at Freshwater is to be an 
Ionic cross thirty-four feet high, called the Tennyson 
Beacon. It has been designed by Mr. John L. Pearson. 

The uniform limited edition of Mr. R. L. Stevenson's 
works will be published in this country by the Scrib- 
ner's. Mr. Stevenson has just completed one historical 
novel, " St. Ives," and is well along with another, " The 
Lord Justice-Clerk." 

The management of " Public Opinion " has been re- 
organized, and new features will be added to that already 

excellent paper. The publishers send us a handsome 
Albertype reproduction of the photographs of fifty well- 
known American writers, grouped upon one sheet. 

Professor Herbert Tuttle, of Cornell University, died 
recently at the age of forty-seven. He was one of 
the most brilliant of our historical scholars, his chief 
work being a history of Prussia, not completed. He 
was at one time a valued contributor to THE DIAL. 

The^Rev. Stopford A. Brooke will give a course of 
lectures at the Lowell Institute in the autumn. Apro- 
pos of this subject, the " London Literary World " sup- 
plies an anxious correspondent with the following extra- 
ordinary information: "The Lowell Lectures are anew 
foundation, in commemoration of the late James Rus- 
sell Lowell, and in connection with the new University 
at Chicago. Professor Drummond was the lecturer last 
year, and his course formed the basis of ' The Lowell 
Lectures on the Ascent of Man,' which has just been 

A writer in the " Revue de Paris " tells the following 
anecdote of Baudelaire: "Passing the shop of a coal- 
dealer one evening, he saw the proprietor, in a back 
room, seated at the table with his family. He seemed 
happy ; the cloth was white ; the wine smiled in the fla- 
gons. Baudelaire entered. The dealer came towards 
him, obsequious, delighted at a customer, awaiting or- 
ders. ' Is that yours, all that coal ? ' he asked. The 
man nodded in affirmation, not understanding. ' And 
all those piles of wood ? ' The man assented again, 
thinking the purchaser undecided. 'And that, is it 
coke ? is that charcoal ? Is that yours, too ? ' Baud- 
elaire examined carefully all the heaped-up merchand- 
ise ; then, looking the dealer in the face : < What, that 
is all yours ! And you do not asphyxiate yourself ? ' * 

The Western Reserve University has conferred the 
honorary degree of Doctor of Laws upon Professor C. 
A. Young, Professor Thomas D. Seymour, and Mr. John 
Hay. A brief Latin address was given in each case. 
Colonel Hay was described in these terms: " Johannis 
Hay, vir ingeniosus et liberalitate sua de hac universi- 
tate optime meritus, in rebus publicis, potissimum in 
eis quae apud exteras nationes administrandae essent, 
acriter et diligenter versatus est. Idem per multos 
annos litteris operam dedit. Mores Hispanorum felic- 
iter descripsit. Carmina condidit partim rudem et 
agrestem populi occidentalis linguam optime imitantia, 
alia summa arte expolita. Quod vitam et res gestas 
Abrahami Lincoln descripsit patriae nostrae beneficium 
dedit. Ob talia merita sumnais honoribus dignus gradu 
amplissimo Legum Doctoris ornatur." 

The Turkish papers are publishing some statistics to 
illustrate the great progress of public instruction in 
Turkey under the present Sultan. Since his accession 
the increase in the number of schools is estimated at 
25,000, said to be attended by a million and a quarter 
scholars of both sexes. It is difficult to ascertain what 
the number formerly was, but there is no doubt the in- 
crease is great. This is largely due to the measures 
taken by the late Sultans, Abd ul Mejid and Abd ul 
Aziz, in laying the foundation of a Ministry of Instruc- 
tion, which of late years have been bearing fruit. The 
progress is also greatly due to the successful working 
of the reform of the administration of pious or eccles- 
iastical foundations. Thus, not only have numerous 
mosques and schools been founded, particularly in con- 
nection with the large immigration of refugees, and re- 




ligious fervor aroused, but the revenues of the local 
religious establishments have been considerably aug- 
mented. Formerly education in the country districts 
was very backward, particularly for girls, as parents 
did not value it; but since education has become com- 
pulsory the attendance has much improved. The 


Mr. Charles Henry Pearson, the author of " National 
Life and Character," died on the 29th of May. He 
was born in 1830, became a fellow of Oriel College, 
Oxford, in 1854, and held this place until 1872, when 
he married, and emigrated to Australia. In 1892 he 
returned to England. He was the author of numerous 
historical works, and took high rank as an educator. 
One of his friends writes of him in these terms: "He 
was a most indefatigable worker his whole life long. 
He had a most marvellous memory, and a most rapid 
power of generalization from the long array of facts 
and precedents which marshalled themselves spontan- 
eously before his mind when called upon to pronounce 
judgment. He was a profound classical scholar, but 
his knowledge of modern literature, English as well as 
Continental, was equally remarkable. He was acquainted 
with most of the modern European languages, and en- 
joyed Ibsen and Gogol in the original no less than Vic- 
tor Hugo and Goethe. As a newspaper writer he dis- 
tinguished himself by the possession of a most earnest 
and trenchant style, which he was able at will to vary 
with the most racy banter. His conversation was always 
striking and fascinating. His manner seemed at first 
sight somewhat cold, but his unruffled exterior concealed 
the warmest and truest of hearts. He especially de- 
lighted in the society of the young, and he would spare 
no pains to put an earnest student on the right track. 
As a politician, he was feared by his political opponents 
on account of his knowledge and intellectual power; he 
inspired absolute trust and confidence in his own party. 
He was regarded by both sides as absolutely incorrupt- 


We are indebted to the New York " Evening Post " 
for the following paragraph : 

Liberality and progress have made two great strides 
in the University of Oxford. A last attack upon the 
establishment of the eighth final school, the " Final 
Honour School of English Language and Literature," 
was defeated in congregation on May 1, when the form 
of statute establishing the new school was promulgated, 
and its preamble was finally adopted by 120 placets 
against 46 non-placets. The details of this statute are 
now open to amendment, but the establishment of the 
school is assured. The preamble adopted runs as fol- 
lows: " Whereas it is expedient to establish a Final 
Honour School of English Language and Literature, 
the University enacts as follows." This school must 
include authors " belonging to the different periods of 
English literature," and " the history of the English 
language and the history of English literature." Spe- 
cial subjects " falling within or usually studied in con- 
nection with the English language and literature " are 
also provided for. Candidates must have studied their 
authors " (1) with reference to the forms of the lan- 
guage, (2) as examples of literature, and (3) in their 
relation to the history and thought of the period to 
which they belong." The study of Anglo-Saxon, and 
of the relation of English to " the languages with which 

it is etymologically connected," and of the history of 
English literature, is made the centre of the whole school, 
and a board of at least twenty examiners is provided 
for. Their duty shall be " to see that, as far as possi- 
ble, equal weight is given to language and literature " 
in the conduct of the examination, " provided always 
that candidates who offer special subjects shall be at 
liberty to choose subjects connected either with lan- 
guage or with literature or with both." 


July, 1894 (First List). 

America, Australian Impressions. Miss C. H. Spence. Harper. 
American Boy's Ideal Training. Thomas Davidson. Forum. 
American Protective Association. F. R. Coudert. Forum. 
Baltimore Social Life. Amy Wetmore. Southern Magazine. 
Billroth, Death of Professor. Popular Science. 
Bluestone Industry, The. Illus. H. B. Ingram. Pop. Set. 
Boston and Philadelphia, Health of. J. S. Billings. Forum. 
Carlyle's Place in Literature. Frederic Harrison. Forum. 
Co-Educated, The. Martha F. Crow. Forum. 
Coinage, A New System of. M. D. Barter. Forum. 
Colonial Weather-Service, A. Illus. A. McAdie. Pop. Sci. 
" Conscience Fund " of the Treasury. F. L. Chrisman. Lipp. 
Corporations and Trusts. L. G. McPherson. Popular Science. 
Education, Secondary. Dial. 

English at Indiana University. M. W. Sampson. Dial. 
Facial Expressions, Acquired. Louis Robinson. Pop. Science. 
Government's Failure as a Builder. M. Schuyler. Forum. 
Harvard and Yale Boat-Race. Illus. W. A. Brooks. Harper. 
Hertz, Heinrich. H. Bonfort. Popular Science. 
Kentucky Whisky. Illus. W. E. Bradley. Southern Mag. 
Kiln-Drying Hard Wood. 0. S. Whitmore. Popular Science. 
Know-Nothings, Career of the. J. B. McMaster. Forum. 
Latitude and Vertebrae. D. S. Jordan. Popular Science. 
Literature, Signs of Life in. E. E. Hale, Jr. Dial. 
Manly Virtues and Politics. Theodore Roosevelt. Forum. 
Mill-Girls. Elizabeth Morris. Lippincott. 
Mitla, Ruins of. Illus. Evelyn Steger. Southern Magazine. 
Montague, Lady, and Bacteriology. Popular Science. 
Musicians, Letters of Two. Dial. 

New England, My First Visit. Illus. W. D. Howells. Harper. 
Nova Scotian Indian Folk-Tales. Frederick Starr. Dial. 
Panama, Up the Coast from. Illus. W. S. Hale. So. Mag. 
President at Home, The. Illus. H. L. Nelson. Harper. 
Rambles of a Nature-Lover. Anna B. McMahan. Dial. 
Research the Spirit of Teaching. G. S. Hall. Forum. 
Savagery and Survivals. J. W. Black. Popular Science. 
Social Insects' Homes. Illus. L. N. Badenoch. Pop. Sci. 
Stage as a Career. R. De Cordova. Forum. 
Storage Battery of the Air. Alexander McAdie. Harper. 
Sunshine in the Woods. Illus. B. D. Halsted. Pop. Science. 
U. S. Naval Gun Factory. Illus. T. F. Jewell. Harper. 


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Oliver Cromwell: A History, Comprising a Narrative of 
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uncut, pp. 524. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $>3. 



[July 1, 

Life of St. Francis of Assisi. By Paul Sabatier. Trans- 
lated by Louise Seymour Houghton. 8-yo, pp. 448, gilt 
top. Chas. Scribner's Sons. $2.50. 

The Life of John Paterson, Major-General in the Revolu- 
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nam's Sons. $2.50. 

Newton Booth of California : His Speeches and Addresses. 
Edited with Introduction and Notes by Lauren E. Crane. 
With portrait, 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 521. G. P. Put- 
nam's Sons. $2.50. 

Arthur Lee, LL.D., as Seen in History, 1770-1781. By 
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The Carolina Pirates and Colonial Commerce, 1670-1740. 
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Prom Milton to Tennyson: Masterpieces of English Po- 
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plays, histories, monographs, poems ; letters of unbiased criticism and 
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[July .1, 1894. 


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By the Author of " An Englishman in Paris." 12mo, cloth. Price, $1.25. 

Were it possible to surpass in sensational interest the author's earlier volume, we should say that these startling revela- 
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A Dream of the World's Tragedy. By MARIE CORELLI. 
12mo, cloth, $1.00. 

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To the Gilbert and Sullivan operas play-goers are indebted 
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[July 16, 1894. 




THE COMPLETE WORKS OF GEOFFREY CHAUCER. Edited, from Numerous Manuscripts, by the 
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Journal of ILtterarg (Erfticfem, J9iscug0ton, anfc Information. 

No. 104. 

JULY 16, 1894. Vol. XVII. 



NIA. Charles Mills Gayley 29 


An Historian's " Literary Style." John J. Halsey. 


B.A.Hinsdale 33 


McClurg 36 


Earle 39 

Bowers's Across Tibet. Montbard ; s Among the 
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NEW YORK TOPICS. Arthur Sted man 44 





The proceedings of the International Con- 
gress of Education, held in Chicago last sum- 
mer, have just been published in a carefully- 
edited volume of a thousand pages. The work 
is an almost inexhaustible storehouse of inform- 
ation and comment upon most subjects of cur- 
rent educational interest, and ought to prove 
helpful and stimulating in the highest degree 
to the thousands of teachers into whose hands 
it will come. One department in particular, 
that devoted to the subject of Higher Educa- 
tion, is noteworthy for the breadth and schol- 
arly character of the papers and discussions 
included. There are addresses by Presidents 
Gilman, Kellogg, Raymond, Low, Angell, Jor- 
dan, and Keane, by Professors Hale, Shorey, 
West, Wilson, and Sproull. Upon some of 
these addresses we commented at the time of 

the Congress, and are glad to see that perma- 
nent form has now been given them. But our 
special purpose just now is to direct attention 
to the paper on " The Study of English Liter- 
ature in French Universities," prepared for the 
Congress by M. Chevrillon of the Lille Fac- 
ulte des Lettres, but, owing to some misunder- 
standing, not read, and now made public for 
the first time. 

Few who have not made a special investiga- 
tion of the subject have any idea of the im- 
mense achievement of the Third French Repub- 
lic in the reorganization of public instruction. 
To the thinking mind, the work done in this 
direction is greater and more significant than 
the work of political or of military or of social 
reorganization. But it is not of a nature to 
attract public attention, and is practically un- 
known outside of France. M. Chevrillon gives 
us an amusing illustration of the attitude of 
the foreigner in this matter : 

" I remember, a few years ago, reading an article in 
the great English Philistine paper < The Daily Tele- 
graph' in wl ich it was said that the great majority 
of French people thought that Shakespeare was a lieu- 
tenant of Wellington, who had helped him to win the 
battle of Waterloo. Now, this was unfortunate, as not 
less than four plays of Shakespeare had just been per- 
formed in Paris. But the prejudice tinder which the 
writer in ' The Daily Telegraph ' was laboring is per- 
fectly natural, when we notice that a nation never knows 
what its neighbor is, but what it was twenty years ago." 

This closing statement is only too true when 
applied to knowledge of any other than the 
spectacular aspect of life in a neighboring coun- 
try, and it is peculiarly true of so unobtrusive 
a thing as education. A quarter of a century 
ago, when the French nation had sunk to its 
lowest level in the degration of a sham impe- 
rialism, when the frenzied populace was shout- 
ing " a Berlin ! " and thought the Prussian 
capital really lay just across the Rhine, the 
stricture of the English journalist might have 
been taken as approximately true ; to-day, how- 
ever seriously meant, it becomes the merest 

Turning now to the specific subject of M. 
Chevrillon's article, we will first reproduce his 
account of the educational position of English 
in the sixties. 

" Twenty or thirty years ago, French boys and stu- 
dents wrote better Latin verse than they do now, but 
of English literature they knew nothing, except the 



[July 16, 

names of Shakespeare, Milton, and Byron. Our great 
arch-critic, M. Sarcey, says that they made fun of Taine 
at the Ecole Normale because he was reading English. 
Foreign literatures were, indeed, supposed to be taught ; 
but any man who had graduated in classics, whether he 
knew English or not, was supposed to be good enough 
for that kind of work. When he left the Ecole Nor- 
male, after a course of studies in Plato and Aristotle, 
he would receive notice that he was appointed professor 
of foreign literatures, and had to begin work at once. 
One of these, I believe, it was who was complaining of 
the difficulties of. his task. ' What a language,' he said, 
' English is to pronounce ! They write Boz and they 
pronounce Dickens.' M. Ernest Lavisse, who has seen 
this generation of professors of English literature, was 
telling me, the other day, the following authentic and 
typical fact: When he was a student at Nancy, at the 
faculty of letters he heard a lecture on the literature of 
England in the sixteenth century. After three-quarters 
of an hour the professor had exhausted his subject, but 
his time was not up. ' Gentlemen,' he said, pulling out 
his watch, ' we have a quarter of an hour yet. We have 
time to do Shakespeare.'" 

Let us contrast the state of affairs thus hinted 
at with the present requirements for a student 
of English. After leaving the lycee, he regis- 
ters with one of the faculties, and begins to 
specialize. The licence and the agregation 
are the two stages of the work now before him. 
The lycee has given him the baccalaureate de- 
gree ; the licence (which means two years' work) 
may be taken as fairly equivalent to the degree 
of master ; and the agregation (which means 
two years or more of further work) as stand- 
ing for the German or American doctorate. 
The work of the licence candidate is thus de- 
scribed : 

" Side by side with the classics, he may take up En- 
glish or German literature, philosophy, history, or clas- 
sical philology. Every candidate for the licence has to 
write a French essay on French literature, a Latin es- 
say on Latin literature. Then, according to the spe- 
cialty he has selected, he writes papers on historical or 
philosophical subjects, or translations from French into 
English or German, or from English or German into 
French. The viva voce examination consists, for all can- 
didates, in questions on French, Latin, and Greek liter- 
ature, and extempore translations from the classics ; and 
for those of the candidates who make English a special 
subject, in questions on English literature, and transla- 
tions into English and French of the French and En- 
glish authors on the programme." 

The first of the two years required for the 
licence, the student works at the university. 

" During this first year, the chief purpose of the En- 
glish professor is not so much to acquaint him with the 
whole field of English literature as to give him an insight 
into the spirit, the genius, of English literature, and to 
make him feel the artistic element in the great writers. 
A French youth, fresh from his Tacitus, his Racine, and 
his Voltaire, cannot, unless he has great natural talent, 
understand, or rather, feel at once Carlyle or Tennyson, 
whis is done through minute translations, the aim of 
Thich is not to acquaint the student with new words or 

new constructions, but to teach him how to find those 
French forms that will best express something of the 
beauty peculiar to the original English text. The ten- 
dency is thus to develop the artistic sense in the stu- 
dent, and to give him a mastery of his own language. 
At the last examination for the licence, at Lille, the En- 
glish translation being Milton's ' II Penseroso,' several 
candidates were dropped who had understood every 
word and the literal meaning of the text, but it was 
clear from their translations that they had not felt the 
spirit of Milton's poem, or had failed to express it." 

The second year of preparation for the li- 
cence is spent in absentia, the students being- 
sent to England for twelve months. 

"They remain correspondents of the university; that 
is to say, they have to send papers to the professors of 
French, Greek, and Latin, thus preparing themselves 
for those general parts of the licence which are demanded 
of all candidates to the degree. With the English pro- 
fessor they of course correspond also, and the main 
thing that he requires them to do is to steep themselves 
in English life to go to the theatres, sermons, public 
meetings, to see English university life, to make English 
friends, to think in English, to assume English forms 
of habit and prejudices in short, for one year to throw 
off the Frenchman, to make themselves Englishmen, and 
to step out of the natural limits of the national mind 
and sensibility. After this experience, when they come 
back to France and settle into the old man again, they 
have become able to look at English writers from the 
English point of view." 

The work of this Wander jahr is perhaps the 
most admirable feature of the French system. 
The force with which such men as Montes- 
quieu and Voltaire brought English ideals to 
bear upon French thought was the consequence 
of the protracted visits of these men to En- 
gland, and much may be expected, in the way 
of a sympathetic comprehension of English 
thought, from this yearly sending of picked 
men from the French faculties to England, for 
the purpose of studying English life and liter- 
ature upon their own soil. 

The work of the agregation is essentially the 
work of preparation for a professorship in a 
government lycee. Since the number of candi- 
dates is much greater than the number of places 
to be filled, competition becomes keen and the 
tests applied are very severe. A new list of 
authors and works is prepared each year, and 
every candidate for the agregation has fitted 
himself for examination on two or more of these 
lists. A specimen programme offered by M. 
Chevrillon begins with " Piers Plowman " and 
ends with " Richard Feverel." It includes works 
of Spenser, Greene, Shakespeare, Sir Thomas 
Browne, Pope, Cowper, Burke, Byron, Lan- 
dor, and Tennyson. 

" By their fruits ye shall know them." The 
fruits of this system are found in such works, 




now rapidly multiplying, as M. Angelier's vol- 
ume of twelve hundred pages on the work, life, 
and surroundings of Robert Burns, M. Bel- 
jame's work on English men of letters and their 
public in the eighteenth century, and M. Jus- 
serand's book on English wayfaring life in the 
eighteenth century. M. Chevrillon claims for 
the study of English that it opens for French 

4t a vast field of interesting, often passionating, artistic 
literature, instinct with the loftiest ideals, with the deep- 
est human sympathy ; full of pathos, of feeling, of life ; 
full of the sense of the good, of the righteous, of reli- 
gious earnestness, as ours is full with the sense of the 
true and of the beautiful one of the most powerful 
to instill into a young mind the germs that will develop 
upwards. . . The modern novels of England, the pure, 
idealistic utterances of a Carlyle, of a Tennyson, of an 
Emerson, are among the greatest means of education 
of the present time. Of course, the first thing for a 
Frenchman for every man is to remain in contact 
with his own race; to read those writers of the past 
that have moulded the soul and mind of his own nation, 
and those writers of the present that discuss the pro- 
blems which the people of his own blood have to solve 
in order to live on and to transmit to their posterity 
the national inheritance. But when he has done that, 
let him turn to those foreign books in which he finds 
an ideal, a philosophy, an aesthetics views of life 
widely different from those which prevail in the French 
books of his own time. The national ideal will then 
ease to appear to him as a central one toward which 
the whole universe ought to be moved. On that day 
when he becomes able to enjoy a novel of Eliot as well 
as a novel of Flaubert nay, on that day when he en- 
joys the very difference between the two types of novel 
let him be a business man or a bourgeois, he is a man 
of broader culture, in the true sense of the word, than 
the scholar who devotes his life to the study of the da- 
tive case." 

It is the spirit of M. Chevrillon's paper, even 
more than the matter, that makes it note- 
worthy, and it may not be amiss to wish that a 
little more of this spirit were infused into the 
English instruction given at our own univer- 


The teaching force in English in the University of 
California consists of six men: three instructors, Messrs. 
Armes, Syle, and Sanford; an assistant professor, Dr. 
A. F. Lange, in charge of the courses in linguistics; a 
professor of Rhetoric, Mr. C. B. Bradley; and a pro- 

* This article is the twelfth of an extended series on the 
Teaching of English at American Colleges and Universities, 
of which the following have already appeared in THE DIAL : 
English at Yale University, by Professor Albert S. Cook 
(Feb. 1) ; English at Columbia College, by Professor Bran- 
der Matthews (Feb. 16) ; English at Harvard University, by 
Professor Barrett Wendell (March 1); English at Stanford 
University, by Professor Melville B. Anderson (March 16); 
English at Cornell University, by Professor Hiram Corson 

fessor of the English Language and Literature, who is 
head of the department. For the year 1894-5 the de- 
partment offers thirty-one courses. Of these, twenty- 
four, covering seventy-five hours of work (slightly more 
than three hours a week each for half the year), are 
designed for undergraduates, and seven (of two hours 
a week each) for graduates. There are in the univer- 
sity 1369 students, of whom 820, attending the Acad- 
emic and Technical Colleges in Berkeley, fall to a 
greater or less extent within the jurisdiction of the 
English department. Last year, including the class 
of 317 Freshmen, there were, during the first term, 
sixty per cent of the students in Berkeley in the En- 
glish classes; during the year there were about seventy 
per cent. The total enrollment of students in English 
courses during the first term was 873, of whom 397, or 
forty-eight per cent of the students in Berkeley, were 
taking more than one course in English. 

In the .consideration of University work in any line, 
four things must be taken into account: the specific pre- 
paration with which students enter, the equipment and 
administration of the department in question, the organ- 
ization of studies, and the methods of instruction and 

In the matter of entrance requirements in English 
the University has adopted an increasingly high stand- 
ard. It calls for a High School course of at least 
three years, at the rate of five hours a week ; and it ad- 
vocates, and from some schools secures, a four years' 
course. These requirements can scarcely be described, 
as in the fourth article of this series, as similar to those 
of the New England Association. The requirements of 
that Association, so far as they go, are similar to those 
of California; but they do not go more than two-thirds 
of the way in extent or in stringency. There is noth- 
ing, to my knowledge, in the English requirements of 
other universities that is equivalent to our course in 
Greek, Norse, and German mythology as illustrated by 
English literature (required of all applicants for admis- 
sion), or to the course in Arguments and Orations 
(hitherto, three of Burke's) or to the course in English 
poetry which covers some twenty-five of the longer mas- 
terpieces. These are additional to the usual requirements 
in essay, drama, and narrative. While this preparatory 
work in literature is generally well done, the work in 
rhetoric and composition is not yet up to the mark. 
Our system of examining and accrediting schools is, 
however, so strict, and the supervision of English teach- 
ing in the schools so minute, that we look for decided 
improvement, within a reasonable period, in the matter 
of composition. The department does not content itself 
with requiring a satisfactory test-composition of stu- 
dents at matriculation; for, although that would be an 
easy way of shifting the burden from the University to 
the schools, it is but a poor substitute for the pedagog- 
ical assistance due to the schools. With the annual ap- 
plication for accrediting in English, each school is re- 
quired to send for inspection samples of compositions and 
other exercises written by pupils of all classes. If these 
samples are satisfactory, the school is visited by one of 

(April 1 ) ; English at the University of Virginia, by Professor 
Charles W. Kent (April 16 ); English at the University of 
Illinois, by Professor D. K. Dodge (May 1) ; English at La- 
fayette College, by Professor F. A. March (May 16) ; English 
at the State University of Iowa, by Professor E. E. Hale, Jr. 
(June 1 ) ; English at the University of Chicago, by Professor 
Albert H. Tolman (June 16) ; and English at Indiana Uni- 
versity, by Professor Martin W. Sampson (July 1). [DK. 



[July 16, 

the professors of English, who carefully scrutinizes the 
work of teachers and pupils. The department is con- 
servative in accrediting; and English is generally con- 
sidered to be the most difficult study in the curriculum 
of the schools of California. Non-accredited pupils are, 
of course, subjected to the usual entrance examination 
in literature, rhetoric, and composition. In addition to 
this labor. of supervision, the professors of English have 
recently published for the guidance of teachers a pam- 
phlet entitled " English in the Secondary Schools," out- 
lining the preparatory course, indicating the proper se- 
quence of studies, and suggesting methods of instruc- 

With regard to the equipment and administration of 
the department, while the divisions of rhetoric, lin- 
guistics, and literature and criticism are severally rep- 
resented by Professor Bradley, Professor Lange, and 
myself, and while each of the instructors is held re- 
sponsible for a certain subject and certain sections of 
students, it is the policy of the department to observe 
a reasonable Lehrfreiheit. This it accomplishes, first, 
by maintaining a conservative rotation (say, once in 
three years) of the teachers in charge of courses in- 
volving drill and routine; and, secondly, by encourag- 
ing each teacher of preliminary courses, when once he 
has his prescribed work well in hand, to offer at least 
one elective higher course. Accordingly, of our instruc- 
tors, Mr. Armes offers the courses in the History of the 
Drama, and in Nineteenth Century Poets; Mr. Syle in 
Literature of the Eighteenth Century, and Mr. San- 
ford in Spenser, and in the Romantic movement. That 
the same man should teach the elements of style, or of 
literary history, or should correct themes, year in and 
year out, is, even though texts and methods be varied, 
pedagogical suicide. The plan here described does 
much to counteract the insensibility, or disgust, that 
frequently attends prolonged indulgence in the habit 
of theme-correcting. We find also that the occasional 
conduct of preliminary courses acts as a tonic upon 
teachers habituated to higher, and graduate, courses. 
While in all cases the specialty is still pursued, the field 
of information is widened, methods are liberalized, and 
the zest of teaching is enhanced by the adoption of the 
principle of Lehrfreiheit. 

The administration of the department is republican. 
Each instructor is independent within his sphere of ac- 
tivity. When, as in the matter of texts or methods, 
concerted action is necessary, the decision is made by 
the instructors concerned, subject to the approval of the 
head of the department. The advisability of new courses, 
the scope and form of the annual announcement, and 
matters of general departmental policy, are discussed 
at the appropriate monthly meeting of the English fac- 
ulty. Ordinarily, and primarily, however, the depart- 
ment meets as a Critical Thought Club. The purpose 
of the club is to keep abreast of recent contributions to 
comparative literature, philology, aesthetics, and educa- 
tional theory. The field of reading is apportioned among 
the members, and informal reports are had on books and 
articles bearing in any way upon the study of English. 

The organization of studies in a department is per- 
haps a surer index of the purpose of instruction than 
any carefully formulated statement of aims. The En- 

* Since the policy of issuing departmental monographs on 
methods of secondary instruction is perhaps novel, it may be 
well to say that teachers in the public schools may obtain 
copies of this pamphlet from the Recorder of the University, 
Berkeley, Cal. Postage, two cents. 

glish courses are classified as Preliminary and Higher. 
The Preliminary Courses, whether prescribed or elect- 
ive, are prerequisite to all advanced work. They at- 
tempt to furnish (1) the principles of style and the prac- 
tice of written and oral composition; (2) the common- 
places of literary tradition; and (3) a synoptic view of 
English literature by the study of the principal authors. 
The Higher Courses are subdivided in the usual way, 
as primarily for juniors and seniors, and primarily for 

The Preliminary Courses are announced as Types of 
English Prose Style, Supplementary Reading, Practical 
Rhetoric, English Masterpieces, General History of En- 
glish Literature, and Argumentation. The first is re- 
quired, at the rate of four hours a week through the 
year, of all freshmen in the academic colleges; the sec- 
ond (one hour any two consecutive terms) of non-clas- 
sical students in these colleges. The third and the fourth 
are prescribed in the Colleges of Chemistry and Agri- 
culture. All other English courses are elective; and in 
the Engineering Colleges English is altogether elective. 
Of prescribed preliminary courses, that in English Prose 
Style aims to acquaint the student, at first hand, with 
the features and elements of effective workmanship in 
prose-writing, and to train him to discern the salient 
qualities of any well-marked prose style presented for 
his consideration. The course is based upon the direct 
study of selected groups of authors. The course entitled 
Supplementary Reading extends, as far as time will per- 
mit, the acquaintance of the student with the Hellenic, 
Teutonic, or Romance Epics, or other classics in trans- 
lation. It serves as an introduction to the common and 
traditional store of literary reference, allusion, and im- 
agery, and as a basis for paragraph-writing. This year 
translations of the Iliad, the Odyssey, and the Beowulf, 
and Morris's Sigurd the Volsung, have been studied. 
These courses, and the course in Practical Rhetoric for 
scientific students, in general serve to stimulate con- 
structive effort and practical skill in writing pari passu 
with analytical effort and the acquisition of information. 
They accordingly include first the weekly exercise in 
paragraph-writing, written in the class-room upon some 
topic not previously announced but involving acquaint- 
ance with the Supplementary Reading assigned for the 
week; and, secondly, a carefully supervised series of com- 
positions. Three themes have been required each term. 
The supervision, which is personal, extends to methods 
of using the Library, of securing material and of taking 
notes in scholarly fashion, to limitation and definition 
of subject; to construction of a scheme of presentation 
in advance of the writing, as well as to careful criticism 
of the finished work. The organization and develop- 
ment of these courses is in large measure due to the 
exertions of Professor Bradley, to whom I am indebted 
for the details of this description. It should be added 
that essays are required in connection with all work in 
the English department. The course in English Mas- 
terpieces for scientific students, given by Mr. Armes, 
involves the careful reading in class of representative 
poems and essays of the foremost writers, and supple- 
mentary reading out of class. Of elective preliminary 
courses, that in the General History of English Litera- 
ture is the sine qua non for all higher work. It presents 
a synoptical view of English literature as the outcome 
of, and the index to, English thought in the course of 
its development. It is accordingly based upon a text- 
book of English history, and the copious reading of au- 
thors illustrative of social and literary movements. It 




runs as a three-hour course throughout the Sophomore 
year, and involves the reading by each student, and the 
discussion in class, of some thirty masterpieces. The 
course entitled Argumentation comprises the analysis 
of masterpieces, the preparation of briefs, and the de- 
livery of arguments exemplifying the use of the syllo- 
gism and the exposure of fallacies. It must be preceded 
by a course in formal logic, and is introductory to a 
course in Forensics. 

The Higher Courses for undergraduates are grouped 
as (1) Rhetoric and the Theory of Criticism: four 
courses; (2) Linguistics: four courses, including, be- 
side grammar, history, and criticism, the comparative 
study of the Germanic sources of English culture, and 
Germanic philology; (3) The Historical and Critical 
Study of Literature: eleven courses in chronological 
sequence, by (a) periods, (b) authors, (c) literary move- 
ments, (d) the evolution of types. The first of these 
groups is essential to the other two. It involves the 
differentiation, for advanced work, of rhetoric into its 
species (Exposition, including methods of literary re- 
search and interpretation; Forensics, Narration, etc.), 
and an introduction to the comparative and aesthetic 
methods. A course in Poetics outlines the theory of 
art, the theory and development of literature, the rela- 
tions of poetry and prose, the principles of versification, 
and the canons, inductive and deductive, of dramatic 
criticism. It is usually accompanied by lectures on the 
..Esthetics of Literature. This course is followed by the 
Problems of Literary Criticism: a comparative inquiry 
into the growth, technique, and function of literary types 
other than the drama. The attempt is made to arrive 
by induction at the characteristics common to the na- 
tional varieties of a type, and to formulate these in the 
light of aesthetic theory. The resulting laws are ap- 
plied as canons of criticism to English masterpieces of 
that type. The method has been described by a former 
student in the "Century Magazine," Jan., 1891. The 
reading and discussions are guided by questions, sug- 
gestions, and reference lists part of a manual of Lit- 
erary Theories now in press. For lack of space the 
courses in Linguistics and Literature cannot be enum- 
erated. Students making English their principal study 
must include in their elections Exposition or Linguistics, 
Poetics, Criticism, and the intensive study of at least 
one literary master or one literary type. For the teach- 
er's certificate Linguistics is indispensable. 

The courses primarily for Graduates have a two-fold 
aim: First, to impart information; secondly, and prin- 
cipally, to encourage original research. This differen- 
tiation by purpose is necessarily relative. Under the 
former heading, however, falls one of the philological 
courses, Old Icelandic (Lange). Under the latter falls 
another philological course, First Modern English (an 
investigation into the orthographic, phonetic, and syn- 
tactical changes of Sixteenth Century English (Lange), 
and various literary courses which may be classified as 
aesthetic, comparative, and critical. The course in the 
History of ^Esthetic Theory, which, by the courtesy of 
the professor of philosophy, is at present in my hands, 
is a study at first hand of the principal authorities in 
esthetics, and of the literary art that chiefly influenced 
them. The course may be said to deal with fundamen- 
tal literary forces. It is given both terms and extends 
through three years. This year Plato and Aristotle were 
studied and Plotinus begun. Next year we shall at- 
tempt to come down to Winckelmann. The year after 
we shall begin with Kant. The courses which I have 

called comparative deal with literary movements. They 
are two in number: The Mediaeval Spirit as related to 
Art, its chief exponents in English literature and its 
modern revivals (Bradley) ; and The Influence of Ger- 
many on English literature of the eighteenth and nine- 
teenth centuries (Lange). A purely critical course, deal- 
ing with literary methods, is offered by Professor Brad- 
ley, in the study of the entire production of some author 
of limited scope. 

To graduate courses of information and of research 
might legitimately be added courses having a third pur- 
pose : the encouragement of literary creation. We have 
as yet none such in the University of California, unless 
one denominated Special Study, under which we an- 
nounce ourselves ready to assist and advise compe- 
tent graduates in approved plans of work, may be con- 
strued as sufficient for the emergency. Academic schol- 
arship does not look with favor upon the attempt to 
stimulate or foster creative production. But, if char- 
ily advised, sagaciously circumscribed, and conducted 
under the personal supervision of a competent critic, 
constructive literary effort may surely find a place in 
the curriculum of an exceptional graduate, never, of 
course, unattended by other study with informative or 
disciplinary purpose in view. There is, nowadays, no 
reason why genius should be untutored or its early pro- 
ductions unkempt. 

With regard to methods of instruction no stereotyped 
habit obtains. In our lower classes the text-book is not 
always used. When used it is treated as a guide, not 
as a bible. In both lower and higher classes, recitations, 
reports on reading, discussion of topics, informal or for- 
mal lectures, interpretative reading, and personal con- 
ference prevail, in such combination or with such pref- 
erence as the instructor may deem wise. Students, 
however, are always put to work on the masterpieces 

With regard to methods of investigation, we believe 
that a certain catholicity of attitude not inconsistent 
with alertness should be observed. The present an- 
archy, sometimes tyranny, of method is due generally 
to a deficient organization of studies; and that, in turn, 
to an incomprehensive view of the field. Hence, the 
uncertainty of aim with which instruction in English is. 
frequently reproached. This lack of system is, how- 
ever, indicative only of the fact that literary science is. 
in a transitional stage : no longer static, not yet organic,, 
but dynamic. The study of literature in the sentimen- 
tal, the formally stylistic, or the second-hand-historical 
fashion, is out of date. Scholars in philology narrowed 
to linguistics have set the new pace by making of 
their branch a dynamic study: a study of sources, causes, 
relations, movements, and effects. Professors of liter- 
ature and criticism are now, as rapidly as may be, adapt- 
ing dynamic methods, whether historical or asthetic, to 
their lines of research. But each is naturally liable to 
urge the method that he favors or thinks that he has 
invented. One, therefore, advocates ethical and reli- 
gious exegesis, another sesthetic interpretation, another- 
comparative inquiry, another the historical study of 
style. This is to be expected; and the dynamic, or spo- 
radic, stage of literary science cannot be terminated until, 
by elimination, attrition, and adjustment of results, we 
are ready to substitute something organic. Hospitality 
to ideas and conservative liberality of method will hasten 
the advent of systematic investigation. Even now there 
are those who study the masterpiece, not only in genetic 
relation to author and type, but also in organic relation/ 



[July 16 

to the social and artistic movements of which author 
and type are integral factors. The sum of the methods 
of any literary inquiry in any college course should be 
exhaustive so far as circumstances permit. The exi- 
gencies of time, training, and material are, however, 
such that due regard, in turn, for Historical Criticism 
(linguistic, textual, genetic), Technical Criticism (dis- 
tinctive of the type: its evolution, characteristic, and 
function), and Literary Criticism (ethical, psychological, 
aesthetic) can rarely be observed in the study of one spec- 
imen with one class. The method, moreover, adapted 
to one author, masterpiece, or type, is not necessarily 
of universal applicability. But the duty of the English 
department in the teaching of literature is fulfilled if 
the student, after mastering the prime courses, with 
their appropriate means and ends, has acquired a syn- 
optic view of literary art and science, an organic method 
of study, and a critical sensitiveness to good literature 

no matter in what intensive spirit it be approached. 

To this end, it is essential that the synthesis of the 
courses and the methods of a department furnish a sys- 

With these considerations in mind it is evident that 
the attempt to limit the teaching of English literature 
to " literary history, literary aesthetics, the theory and 
analysis of style, versification, and rhetoric, and the nec- 
essary philological apparatus " would, though attract- 
ive in its apparent simplicity, end in formalism : that is, 
remand the science to its static stage. But the limita- 
tion would be impossible. For form and thought are 
as inseparable in literature as in life: the expression is 
inherent in the idea. To appreciate the art of Dis Ali- 
ter Visum is to understand the ethics of Browning: that 
is, to be a philosopher. Sociological, metaphysical, and 
ethical themes are within the function of the belles- 
lettrist as soon as, emotionalized and clad in aesthetic 
form, they enter the field of letters. Nay, further, the 
methods of the laboratory, chemical or biological, are 
within his function as soon as their adaptation may as- 
sist him to weigh aesthetic values or to trace the devel- 
opment of literary organisms. It is, consequently, un- 
wise to contemn scientific methods, even though in the 
hands of enthusiasts they appear to countervail aesthetic 
interpretation and discipline. Monomaniacs are forces 
in periods of transition. It is for those of far gaze and 
patient temper to compute results and perform the syn- 

One thing is certain: that, for the determination of 
critical principles and methods, organized effort is nec- 
essary. To this end I propose the formation of a So- 
ciety of Comparative Literature, the general scope of 
which will be indicated hereafter.* 

Professor of the English Language and Literature, 
University of California. 

THE " Critic " Lounger has the following : " ' Three 
years ago, in London, at dinner,' said Chauncey M. De- 
pew in 1890, ' I sat beside Robert Browning, the poet. 
He said to me, " Of all the places in the world, the one 
which from its literary societies sends me the most in- 
telligent and thoughtful criticisms upon my poetry, is 
Chicago." ' And this was six years before the Fair had 
come to quicken the intelligence and refine the taste of 
our neighbors beyond the Lake." 

* Professor Gayley's communication on the subject referred 
to will appear in our next issue. [DR. DIAL.] 



(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

In an article in " The Yale Review " for May, enti- 
tled " Historical Industries," the historian Schouler dis- 
cusses methods of writing history, and, with a glow 
of pride, illustrates from his own experience. Em- 
phasizing his contention that a writer should do his 
work in absolute independence of the help of anyone, 
he says: 

" In fine, every real research, where I have published, and 
every page of composition, has been my own ; and having 
regularly contracted with my publishers to create a book, in- 
stead of hawking about its manuscript when completed, and 
having always been permitted, when ready, to hand my copy 
to the printers, without submitting it to any mortal's inspec- 
tion, I have pursued my own bent, in shaping out the task as 
I had projected it. I have shown my manuscript to no one at 
all for criticism or approval ; nor have I received suggestions, 
even as to literary style and expression, except upon printed 
sheets from the casual proof-reader, as the book went finally 
through the press." 

In view of the above paragraph, one wonders if Mr. 
Schouler has not forgotten his earlier efforts, before he 
could say " my publishers." As one turns back through 
the five volumes of that very useful work, " Schouler's 
History of the United States," he finds such illustra- 
tions of " literary style and expression " as the follow- 
ing : 

" The high horse the ruling party bestrode for the internal 
discipline of the Union at length threatened to cast it. Of 
the approaching catastrophe the first warning came from 
the middle section of the country, where the daring exam- 
ple of Virginia and Kentucky bore ripening fruit." (Vol. 
I., p. 444.) 

"In the fall elections of these New England States, over 
which political excitement ran breakers, Federalism made 
more tangible profit by opposing the new national policy." 
(II., p. 184.) 

" Less submissive was the strain of Boston. The old cradle 
rocked in town meeting with an assemblage of tax-payers 
which adjourned over one night to complete its work. Thomas 
H. Perkins serving as moderator." (II., p. 191.) 

"In 1835 that institution [slavery] was growing and swell- 
ing, though not as yet so large as to rock to and fro and agi- 
tate the chamber of the Constitution, upon whose imprisoning 
walls it finally broke." (IV., p. 203. ) 

"A man whose clear intellect and sense of justice needed 
no swathe of citations to pierce a legal principle to the bot- 
tom." (IV., p. 232.) 

" A second time had the curtailed monster of a National 
Bank suspended payment, crushing by its fall a whole heca- 
tomb of minion institutions which were staggering behind ; 
its drafts dishonored abroad and scandals spreading of its 
ballooning exploits which all at last seriously believed ." ( I V . , 
p. 324.) 

" A man whose name in twenty years was to echo down the 
grooves of time." (V., p. 112.) 

As one reads these and similar passages from the pages 
of this useful historian who may be characterized 
by his own words concerning Jacob Crowninshield as " a 
man of ... vivacity bubbling over with a copiousness 
of expression which irrigated in all directions" he 
is led to regret that the rule of not submitting man- 
uscript to any mortal's inspection has been so rigidly 


Lake Forest University, July 5, 1894. 





The editors of Abraham Lincoln's Complete 
Works have prepared them on the same grand 
scale as their Life of Lincoln. They had ap- 
parently sought to collect and publish every- 
thing extant that claims Lincoln for its author, 
at least in the period after he reached man- 
hood ; and if anything has escaped their vigi- 
lant search it must be something minute and 
obscure indeed. No other great American has 
received such faithful attention from an editor, 
neither Washington, nor Franklin, nor Jef- 
ferson. The result is 1414 solid octavo pages 
of the most diverse material, personal letters, 
business notes, orders on shopkeepers, frag- 
mentary memoranda, party resolutions and cir- 
culars, outlines of speeches and law arguments, 
lectures, love letters, remarks, formal addresses, 
telegrams, state papers, etc., thousands in num- 
ber, all presented in the order of their produc- 
tion. Much of this matter has no more im- 
portance or interest in itself than bushels of 
similar material that never see the light ; and 
the only reason for publishing it that can be 
assigned is its authorship. The same may be 
said, however, of the complete works of every 
other great man. And with all reasonable de- 
ductions there remains in Lincoln's Works a 
great mass of matter that, for the illustration 
of American history, is second to none in ex- 
istence. For Lincoln's own life and times, and 
particularly for the years 1860-1865, the vol- 
umes are of course invaluable. On that point, 
words can add no emphasis. It must be said, 
too, that many of the documents which at first 
seem unimportant, at least in such a place, 
have a decided personal interest and value. 
For instance, here are scores of pages filled 
with telegrams of the war period, many of 
them only a line or two in length, that, one 
might at first think, should have been left to 
sleep in the ponderous volumes called " The 
War of the Rebellion." But even these are 
often characteristic, and, as a collection, they 
exemplify the sleepless vigilance with which 
the President and Commander-in-Chief of the 
Army followed the events of the war, both po- 
litical and military. Here are the orders re- 
prieving or pardoning soldiers condemned to 

Speeches, Letters, State Papers, and Miscellaneous Writings. 
Edited by John G. Nicolay and John Hay. In two volumes. 
New York : The Century Co. (McDonnell Brothers, Chicago.) 

death for breach of military duty, that were 
generally so unwelcome to the officers com- 
manding, but that, as we now see, detracted 
nothing in the long run from the strength of 
the Republic. Three sentences from a brief 
letter written to Secretary Chase, May 13, 
1863, will show that Lincoln knew, not merely 
the operations in General Roseerans's com- 
mand at that time, but also whose was the per- 
sonal initiative of operations. " I return," he 
says, " the letters of General Garfield and Mr. 
Flanders. I am sorry to know that the Gen- 
eral's pet expedition under Colonel Streight 
has already been captured. Whether it had 
paid for itself, as he hoped, I do not know." 
We remember a story that at the time of its 
currency was attributed to Secretary Seward. 
It was to the effect that, at the opening of his 
administration, Lincoln, when presented with 
documents for his signature, would require 
the Secretary to read them to him in full ; as 
time wore on and burdens multiplied, Lincoln 
would say, " Seward, give me the substance of 
this paper "; while at a still later date his only 
request was, " Where do you want my name ? " 
These volumes are hardly in accord with the 
spirit of this story. 

There is no better place than these volumes 
in which to study the slow but steady growth 
of opinion and conviction in the Northern mind 
on the subject of slavery for the period that 
they cover, opinion and conviction, we mean, 
that followed the lines of real politics. The 
first utterance found on the subject is the fol- 
lowing protest, which was presented to the Illi- 
nois House of Representatives, March 3, 1837, 
and signed " Dan Stone and A. Lincoln, Rep- 
resentatives from the County of Sangamon." 

" Resolutions upon the subject of domestic slavery 
having passed both branches of the General Assembly 
at its present session, the undersigned hereby protest 
against the passage of the same. 

" They believe that the institution of slavery is founded 
on both injustice and bad policy, but that the promul- 
gation of abolition doctrines tends rather to increase 
than abate its evils. 

" They believe that the Congress of the United States 
has no power under the Constitution to interfere with 
the institution of slavery in the different States. 

" They believe that the Congress of the United States 
has the power, under the Constitution, to abolish slavery 
in the District of Columbia, but that the power ought 
not to be exercised, unless at the request of the people 
of the District. 

" The difference between these opinions and those 
contained in the said resolutions is their reason for en- 
tering this protest." 

This was the high-water mark of what would 
be called practical anti-slavery opinion at that 


[July 16, 

time. To remark upon the interval between 
March 3, 1837, and January 1, 1863, only 
twenty-six years, as measured by dates, is 
quite superfluous. 

At the opening of his public career Lincoln 
appears to have been a believer in woman's suf- 
frage. In an "announcement of political views" 
published in a newspaper in 1836, when a can- 
didate for the General Assembly, he said over 
his signature : 

" I go for all sharing the privileges of the Govern- 
ment who assist in bearing its burdens. Consequently, 
I go for admitting all whites to the right of suffrage 
who pay taxes or bear arms (by no means excluding fe- 

The index does not point to any later expres- 
sion of opinion on the subject. 

The value of these Works does not consist 
alone in their subject-matter. Lincoln has not 
contributed many lessons to the school " read- 
ers," or declamations to the " speakers." Yet 
his style, when at the best, will bear the most 
careful study. His diction lacked the majesty 
of Webster, the learning of Sumner, the finish 
of Seward ; but he excelled them all on occa- 
sions in depth, in ability to find the way to the 
thought and feeling of unconventional human 
nature, and in the insight which fits the word 
to the time and place. In his popular ad- 
dresses his strength lay in the clear and direct 
statement of his thought, in the iteration of his 
main ideas, in the avoidance of all superfluities 
of meaning and expression, in the homely yet 
apt illustration, all vitalized by the depth of 
his convictions. For the peculiar work that he 
was called to do, and particularly in the West, 
it is hard to imagine a happier combination of 
qualities. His good humor and his downright 
moral seriousness sprung from the same root. 
The Cooper Institute address, made in 1860, 
shows him at his very best as a popular ora- 
tor. Taking as a text some words that Judge 
Douglas had uttered at Columbus, Ohio, the 
previous autumn, "Our fathers, when they 
framed the Government under which we live, 
understood this question just as well, and even 
better than we do now," he proceeded to build 
up an argument to show that those fathers had 
occupied the very ground in respect to the 
extension of slavery on which he then stood, 
which it was surely difficult for intelligent sin- 
cerity to resist. A popular orator who desires 
permanently to impress the public mind could 
hardly find a better model to study than this 
masterly address. Perhaps it is not going be- 
yond the proper limits of a review like this to 

suggest that there are scores of politicians prom- 
inent in public life to-day who might profitably 
make that choice. 

Lincoln's best qualities appear also in the 
joint debates with Judge Douglas, held in 1858, 
which debates are here reproduced in full on 
both sides. Douglas was a man of vigorous 
faculties, a practiced stump speaker, popular 
in Illinois, the politics of which State he, more 
than any other, had long controlled ; but in an 
evil hour for his reputation he accepted Lin- 
coln's challenge to discuss the political ques- 
tions of the day before the people of the State. 
We now see Lincoln's great superiority to his 
long-time antagonist even more clearly than 
the hearers of those debates saw it at the time. 
On his nomination for Senator by the Spring- 
field Convention, June 16 of that year, Lin- 
coln had opened his address with the following 
deliberate and weighty declaration : 

"Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Convention: If 
we could first know where we are, and whither we are 
tending, we could better judge what to do, and how to 
do it. We are now far into the fifth year since a policy 
was initiated with the avowed object and confident prom- 
ise of putting an end to slavery agitation. Under the 
operation of that policy, that agitation has not only not 
ceased, but has constantly augmented. In my opinion, 
it will not cease until a crisis shall have been reached 
and passed. ' A house divided against itself cannot 
stand.' I believe this Government cannot endure per- 
manently half slave and half free. I do not expect the 
Union to be dissolved I do not expect the house to 
fall but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It 
will become all one thing, or all the other. Either the 
opponents of slavery will arrest the further spread of 
it, and place it where the public mind shall rest in the 
belief that it is in the course of ultimate extinction; or 
its advocates will push it forward till it shall become 
alike lawful in all the States, old as well as new, North 
as well as South." 

This speech was made four full months be- 
fore Mr. Seward delivered his celebrated " irre- 
pressible conflict " speech (Rochester, October 
25, 1858) in which he declared : " It is an 
irrepressible conflict between opposing and en- 
during forces, and it means that the United 
States must and will, sooner or later, become 
either entirely a slaveholding nation or entirely 
a free-labor nation. Either the cotton and rice 
fields of South Carolina and the sugar planta- 
tions of Louisiana will ultimately be tilled by 
free labor, and Charleston and New Orleans 
become marts for legitimate merchandise alone, 
or else the rye fields and wheat fields of Massa- 
chusetts and New York must again be surren- 
dered by their farmers to slave culture and to 
the production of slaves, and Boston and New 
York become once more markets for trade in 




the bodies and souls of men." Lincoln's words 
are no less weighty than Seward's, and they 
attracted less attention at the time only because 
Lincoln then occupied an obscure station as 
compared with Seward. 

Naturally, Douglas strove to make the most 
of Lincoln's frank avowal on the slavery ques- 
tion. In the joint debates he demanded to know 
why the country could not continue half free 
and half slave, as in the days of Washington 
and the other fathers. Lincoln repeated what 
he had said, and put to his antagonist a tu 
quoque which he never answered. 

" He has read from my speech in Springfield in which 
I say that ' a house divided against itself cannot stand.' 
Does the Judge say it can stand ? I do n't know whether 
he does or not. The Judge does not seem to be at- 
tending to me just now, but I would like to know if it 
is his opinion that a house divided against itself can 
stand. If he does, then there is a question of veracity, 
not between him and me, but between the Judge and 
an authority of a somewhat higher character." 

At this distance it seems amazing that men 
of perspicacity could fail to see the truth of 
what Lincoln and Seward asserted ; but we 
must remember the dulling effect that the pe- 
culiar institution had on the insight of those 
who were subject to its bondage. In an un- 
fortunate hour, Douglas, to show his inde- 
pendence of the jarring discord about slavery, 
flaunted the declaration on the floor of the Sen- 
ate that he " did not care whether it was voted 
up or voted down "; and he never wearied of 
repeating the utterance. Here, too, we must 
remember the environment of Democratic poli- 
ticians of national reputation and national am- 
bition in the decade 1850-1860. Judge 
Douglas was also fond of making another dec- 
laration that is due to the same causes. This 
one involved a fallacious assumption, not to 
speak of moral obtuseness, that Lincoln ex- 
posed in his speech made at Cincinnati Sep- 
tember 17, 1859. He is addressing for the 
moment a real or imaginary audience of Ken- 

" At this same meeting at Memphis, he [Douglas] 
declared that in all contests between the negro and the 
white man, he was for the white man; but that in all 
questions between the negro and the crocodile, he was 
for the negro. He did not make that declaration acci- 
dentally at Memphis. He made it a great many times 
in the canvass in Illinois last year (though I do n't know 
that it was reported in any of his speeches there; but 
he frequently made it). I believe he repeated it at 
Columbus, and I should not wonder if he repeated it 
here. It is, then, a deliberate way of expressing him- 
self upon that subject. It is a matter of mature delib- 
eration with him thus to express himself upon that 
point of his case. It therefore requires some deliberate 

" The first inference seems to be that if you do not 
enslave the negro you are wronging the white man in 
some way or other ; and that whoever is opposed to the 
negro being enslaved is, in some way or other, against 
the white man. Is not that a falsehood ? If there was 
a necessary conflict between the white man and the ne- 
gro, I should be for the white man as much as Judge 
Douglas; but I say there is no such necessary conflict. 
I say that there is room enough for us all to be free, 
and that it not only does not wrong the white man that 
the negro should be free, but it positively wrongs the 
mass of the white men that the negro should be en- 
slaved; tlint the mass of white men are really injured 
by the effects of slave-labor in the vicinity of the fields 
of their own labor. 

"But I do not desire to dwell upon 'this branch of 
the question, more than to say that this assumption of 
his is false, and I do hope that that fallacy will not long 
prevail in the minds of intelligent white men. At all 
events, you ought to thank Judge Douglas for it. It 
is for your benefit it is made. 

"The other branch of it is, that in a struggle be- 
tween the negro and the crocodile, he is for the negro. 
Well, I do n't know that there is any struggle between 
the negro and the crocodile, either. I suppose that if 
a crocodile (or, as we old Ohio River boatmen used to 
call them, alligators) should come across a white man, 
he would kill him if he could, and so he would a negro. 
But what, at last, is this proposition ? I believe that 
it is a sort of proposition in proportion, which may be 
stated thus : ' As the negro is to the white man, so is 
the crocodile to the negro ; and as the negro may right- 
fully treat the crocodile as a beast or reptile, so the white 
man may rightfully treat the negro as a beast or reptile.' 
That is really the point of all that argument of his. 

" Now, my brother Kentuckians who believe in this, 
you ought to thank Judge Douglas for having put that 
in a much more taking way than any of yourselves have 

At this distance of time these paragraphs 
may not seem very uplifting to the mind ; but 
considered with reference to their object, it is 
hard to see how they could have been improved. 
However, Lincoln did say many things that 
are uplifting which it is not necessary here for- 
mally to point out. We have sometimes won- 
dered at the extreme frigidity of style that 
marked the Emancipation Proclamations. It 
would be hard to compose documents more 
pragmatical or less marked by felicity of phrase. 
How unlike they are to the pronunciamentos 
that a liberator of a Latin race would have put 
forth under similar circumstances. The only 
words in either document that are impressive 
in themselves form the last paragraph of the 
second Proclamation : " And upon this act, 
sincerely believed to be an act of justice war- 
ranted by the Constitution under military ne- 
cessity, I invoke the considerate judgment of 
mankind and the gracious favor of Almighty 
God." And these words, or at least the more 
impressive of them, were contributed by Sec- 
retary Chase. 



[July 16, 

These Works will be sure to find their way 
into all libraries, public and private, the own- 
ers or managers of which make any pretension 
to keeping abreast of the political history of 
the country. It remains only to speak of the 
admirable manner in which their publishers 
have brought them out, and of the excellent 
index with which they are furnished. 



If the errors and uncertainty of history are 
proverbial, it is equally certain that few biog- 
raphies, however conscientiously written, pre- 
sent a truthful and complete likeness of the 
man whom they attempt to portray. The reader 
sees the man through the bias, be it admiration 
and love, or indifference and prejudice, of the 
writer. No writer's mind is an entirely trans- 
parent medium, clear and unspecked ; but the 
nearer the biographer's mind comes to this con- 
dition (full information and narrative skill be- 
ing assumed), the better should be the biog- 
raphy. At first we naturally think that the 
subject of the biography will fare best at the 
hands of a friend and admirer ; but we soon 
find that the admirer and friend, unless con- 
trolled by a peculiarly clear judgment, may 
really injure the reputation of his hero more 
than the recognized prejudice of another writer. 
It is a pity to be compelled to say that Colonel 
Donn Piatt's Life of General George H. Thomas 
is an example of the injury that can be done by 
the indiscreet friend and admirer. 

It is certain that up to the time of the ap- 
pearance of this Life no adequate biography 
had been published of this patriot and soldier 
who had achieved so much for his country and 
had impressed himself so strongly upon the 
minds and hearts of thousands who came in 
contact with him. The field was comparatively 
unoccupied, the opportunity a fine one ; and 
many, especially among the soldiers who served 
under General Thomas, will turn eagerly to 
this book, hoping it may at last make known 
the true stature of the hero whom they love, but 
whom their countrymen are still sadly ignorant 
of. They will be disappointed. The book will 
not spread a favorable knowledge of General 
Thomas. To those who knew him it will not 
bring increased respect ; to those who did not 

* GENERAL GEORGE H. THOMAS: A Critical Biography. 
By Donn Piatt, with concluding chapters by Henry V. Boyn- 
ton. With portrait. Cincinnati : Robert Clarke & Co. 

know him it cannot bring a pleasant impres- 
sion. Its main faults can be summed up in a 
sentence. It is too bitterly partisan, too argu- 
mentative, too discursive, too full of vitupera- 
tion of others. It seems as if written quite as 
much to discredit others as to exalt Thomas. 
The plan of knocking down all who stand 
around your hero in order that his stature may 
more fully appear does not attract the sym- 
pathy of the reader, and does not meet his 
sense of justice ; on the contrary, it alienates 
and offends him. A simple and graphic nar- 
rative of General Thomas's career and of his 
great achievements, which shall at the same 
time fitly describe the charm of his personality 
and the loftiness and purity of his character, is 
all that is needed to establish his fame as one 
of the greatest men our country has produced. 
Such a book still remains to be written. 

Were Colonel Piatt's book not utterly ruined 
by its constant and unjustifiable partisanship, 
it still would be far from satisfactory. It is 
weak and faulty in almost every way, and te- 
dious by reason of its interminable digressions 
upon all sorts of subjects not connected with 
its subject. It has a preface of ten pages, and 
an introduction of twenty-three pages, the sub- 
ject or object of either of which it is not easy 
to determine. They seem to have absolutely 
no connection with the life of Thomas, but 
weary the reader with disquisitions, not very 
lucid, upon all sorts of irrelevant subjects. 
Throughout the biography this tendency to 
drop the narrative and indulge in philosophical 
and argumentative digressions appears to an 
exasperating extent. Indeed, the reader very 
soon finds to his regret that the author is not 
a narrator, not fitted to tell the simple straight- 
forward story of a life, but a fighter, a contro- 
versialist, and an acrimonious disputant. He 
goes out of his way to discuss every man, be 
he statesman or soldier, who rose to high dis- 
tinction during the war. Grant, Sherman, and 
Sheridan are all evil, and have no redeeming 
qualities ; indeed, in one place they are summed 
up as " That trinity of incompetents." Lin- 
coln, Stanton, and Chase are sometimes right, 
but more often wrong ; and yet on the whole 
they seem to have the author's approval. 

There may be many bad institutions in the 
country, but the worst of all, in the opinion of 
Colonel Piatt, is " that little school upon the 
Hudson," West Point, which is " popularly 
supposed not only to give instruction in the 
so-called art of war, but to supply through such 
process the lack of brains found in many of its 




graduates." He contends that it is impossible 
to teach the art of war, and adds, " The Al- 
mighty has not seen fit to endow its [West 
Point's] graduates with military qualities, to 
say nothing of his refusal to give that little 
school the monopoly of military talent." He 
asserts, " The fact is, President Lincoln knew 
so little how to conduct the war that he feebly 
left the entire business to West Point, when 
he could as well have given it to an orphan 
asylum or a medical college." What a singu- 
lar power of reasoning there must be in a man 
who can write so sneeringly of West Point, 
when every . man, including his hero, whom 
through the book he praises as a soldier on the 
Union or the Confederate side was a graduate 
of West Point ! He is, however, in despair 
about this " little school " to the end, and thinks 
" were war to be declared to-day, our govern- 
ment would again call upon the cotton-breasted, 
full-stomached young men of West Point to 
leave their drill-rooms and be great generals 
by the grace of God and the magic of a com- 
mission." To the angry man, any good round 
epithet is as useful as an argument, or cer- 
tainly Colonel Piatt would not have fallen into 
the absurd error of giving the epithet "full- 
stomached " to the young men of that school, 
where constant and severe physical training 
has eliminated every superfluous pound of flesh, 
and rendered their stomachs as flat as their 
backs. West Point is a constant irritation to 
the gallant Colonel ; and whenever it or its 
graduates appear throughout his book which 
means, of course, nearly everywhere, he must 
go out of the way to have a tilt at it or them. 
And yet, after all, strange to say, he never 
once hints who were the great and heaven- born 
soldiers, uncontaminated by West Point train- 
ing, who could and should have relieved the 
West Pointers of the burden of commanding 
the great armies and ending the war. 

It must seem strange to any reader, and 
almost incredible, that in this ponderous octavo 
volume of 600 pages, excluding the preface and 
introduction, the story of the life of General 
Thomas, after being only fairly started, is at 
page 214 absolutely dropped, and not resumed 
again until page 452. The first fifteen pages 
of this digression are devoted to the ill-doing of 
the army of the Potomac, and the next ninety- 
five to a very severe review of Grant's cam- 
paign against Vicksburg. Here the author 
encounters another officer (strange to say, also 
a West Pointer), for whom he has a great ad- 
miration, in the person of William S. Rose- 

crans ; and although he is writing, or profess- 
ing to write, the life of General Thomas, 126 
successive pages are devoted to the glorification 
of Rosecrans. The whole Chickamauga cam- 
paign, with Rosecrans as the hero, is narrated 
and analyzed with the utmost minuteness, and 
is styled " the most brilliant achievement of 
the war," and to the end it is made to reflect 
only glory upon Rosecrans. This is a curious 
dictum, in view of the final ending, where an- 
other had to step in and by his own unsup- 
ported efforts save Rosecrans 's army, and his 
objective point, Chattanooga. Undoubtedly 
there is much to admire in the planning and 
in the earlier conduct of this campaign ; but 
while our author sees everything that is good 
and brilliant, he has little or no comment to be- 
stow on the later, but no less noticeable, errors 
and mistakes. It would be difficult for Col- 
onel Piatt to explain or defend the sending of 
McCook's corps to Alpine, where he was not 
only many miles away from any supports, but 
was directly exposed to overwhelming masses 
of the enemy, while his back was against an 
almost impassable mountain range. If we grant 
that his appearance there was an effective men- 
ace to the enemy, it cannot be granted that the 
orders to remain there, and even to attack the 
enemy, could have come from anyone but a 
commander who was utterly deceived as to the 
position and movements of the enemy. Had 
not General McCook very promptly disobeyed 
those orders and moved his trains, artillery, 
and troops up the mountain range to the rear, 
a disaster would probably have happened which 
our author would have found it difficult to ex- 
plain. Fortune favored Rosecrans in the ulti- 
mate concentration of his scattered forces ; but 
the mistakes on the field were numerous, and 
what shall we say of a commander who abso- 
lutely becomes panic-stricken, and deserts the 
battle-field early in the morning of the decisive 
day, because one portion of his army has been 
routed by overwhelming numbers and driven 
back while the remainder is stubbornly main- 
taining its position ? Whatever else is expected 
of a commander, it is expected that he shall 
stay by his army while there is a possibility of 
success. There can be little doubt that Rose- 
crans's sudden flight to the rear caused the dis- 
astrous panic which carried the right wing off 
the field. The fact that he was gone and had 
left no orders was speedily known all along the 
line. In the face of this knowledge, who can 
blame his troops and his commanders for fol- 
lowing him ? Had McCook not known that 



[July 16, 

Rosecrans had gone he certainly would not have 
left the field. Deserted by his commander-in- 
chief and the right wing, which he had demor- 
alized, Thomas alone never thought of retreat, 
but, without orders, stemmed the tide of utter 
defeat, controlled his troops, inspired them with 
invincible courage, won the field, and saved 
the point for which the campaign was fought 
Chattanooga. As the faithful biographer 
of General Thomas, Colonel Piatt surely ought 
to have shown all this, and thus have done jus- 
tice to one of his hero's most glorious achieve- 
ments. But at the time he is too much en- 
grossed with the eulogy and defence of his sec- 
ond hero, Rosecrans, and so fails to show in 
bright colors one of the greatest acts of the 
man whose life he has undertaken to write. 
But the great facts of history cannot easily be 
changed, and Thomas is and always will be the 
hero of that field, " the Rock of Chickamauga." 
He alone was the rock which stayed the course 
of the already triumphant enemy, saved the 
Union army, and prevented Braggs's recap- 
ture of Chattanooga. 

Colonel Piatt died before completing the 
book, and from this point on the story is con- 
tinued by General Boynton. He too has a sec- 
ond hero, and devotes sixty-six pages of the 
biography of Thomas to the gallant leader of 
the Western cavalry, General James H. Wil- 
son. This story is an interesting one, and well 
worth telling at even greater length than is 
here given to it ; but it does not properly be- 
long in a biography of General Thomas. This 
story could well justify another volume, and 
should some day be so told, and much more in 

We have pointed out only some of the de- 
fects of Colonel Piatt's work ; but there are 
many more. He gives no authorities, but al- 
ways leaves the reader, in a volume in which 
he constantly opposes the statements of other 
writers, to take his word for his statement of 
controverted points. This is not satisfactory 
in either history or biography. Again, one 
cannot too much condemn the absurd lengths 
to which he carries his constant arguments and 
controversies. Narrative and statements of 
facts are well-nigh lost sight of in the innum- 
erable discussions. The proverbial u if's " of 
the many battle-fields and the many command- 
ers are almost interminably dilated upon. Still 
worse, the work is evidently very hastily and 
inconsiderately thrown together, and is filled 
with bad writing. We take to illustrate this 
four sentences from four successive pages : 

" William S. Rosecrans prided himself in deeds that 
will live in history to be a man of eminent military 
genius." [Page 196.] 

" McClellan, having got no word from his gallant 
subordinate, naturally believed, for McClellan, that he 
was being defeated, and idly rested in his tent until late 
in the day, when a portion of Rosecrans's command 
came into camp through Pegram's works." [Page 197.] 

" We have no access to the response that Mr. Stan- 
ton did not make of record other than in a nature that 
was strangely bitter, vindictive, and tenacious in its 
memory of insults." [Page 198.] 

" To those who have been busy in egotistical memoirs, 
letters, and addresses, damning General Thomas in faint 
praise by saying that he was a good officer, but too slow 
for a subordinate and too cautious for an independent 
command, and that he shrunk from all responsibility, 
had better read the letter he addressed General Halleck 
on that occasion." [Page 199.] 

When four such unformed sentences appear on 
four successive pages, the reader can imagine 
what an amount of atrociously bad writing the 
600 pages contain. It is singular that the pub- 
lishers have not had such a manuscript care- 
fully revised for the correction of such faults. 

If our article were not already too long it 
would be easy to point out many misstatements 
in the book, and evident contradictions on suc- 
cessive pages, all of which ought to have been 
eliminated. The book nowhere does justice to 
the splendid personal qualities of General Tho- 
mas. Among the leading generals of the war, 
none was so striking in personal appearance. 
He was tall, broad-shouldered and heroic in 
stature, extremely dignified in bearing, and 
with a countenance unsurpassed in impressive 
manly beauty. The expression of his face was 
at once commanding and kindly; and everyone 
who came in contact with him was filled with 
confidence in him, and with admiration and 
affection as well. No commander in history 
ever impressed his officers and men more uni- 
versally with confidence and esteem ; most am- 
ple evidence of this is to be found in the papers 
on military subjects published since the war by 
the various commanderies of the Loyal Legion 
throughout the country. It was said of him by 
a well-known writer just at the close of the war : 

" General Thomas is the purest man I met in the 
army. He was the Bayard of our army ' sans peur, 
sans reproche,' and I have endeavored in vain to find a 
flaw in his character. His character is free from every 
stain, and he stands forth in the army as above suspi- 
cion. He has gone through the war without apparently 
exciting the jealousy of a single officer. He has so reg- 
ulated his advancement so retarded, in fact, his pro- 
motion, that when, as the climax to two years' hard ser- 
vice, he fought a great battle and saved a great army, 
and was hailed and recognized by the whole country as 
a hero, not one jealous or defeated officer was found to 
utter dissent to this popular verdict." 




Just after General Thomas's death, in an 
address delivered in New York, W. C. Bryant 
said of hirn: 

" When I contemplate his character, and compare it 
with that of the generality of public men, it seems to 
me as if I were transported to some other age of the 
world, in which greater and better men were produced 
than are brought forth by the mothers of to-day. Gen- 
eral Thomas was one of that class, of whom Goethe 
speaks somewhere as antique-minded men characters 
cast in that noble mould which those who are fond of 
dwelling upon modern degeneracy place among the 
years that are never more to return." 

No one who reads this querulous book would 
get an idea that the subject of the biography 
was a man who could elicit such eulogiums as 



The "Diary of a Journey across Tibet" is, the 
author declares, " the plain unvarnished diary 
kept during a journey across Tibet and China, 
written often with half-frozen fingers in a tent 
on the Chang, or by a flickering light in Chi- 
nese rest-houses." He assures his readers that 
the book lays no claim to literary merit or 
style ; but his readers can reply that it has the 
best of literary merit, and the greatest desid- 
erata of style lucidity, simplicity, and force 
of expression. If the manner of telling is good, 
the matter is still better, being novel and in- 
teresting. Much discrimination and good taste 
are also shown in the information given. Cap- 
tain Bower thus writes of the Tibetans : 

" The Kushok rather astonished me one day by ex- 
pressing admiration of our beards, and asking if we had 
any medicine that would make his grow. As anything 
like a decent beard is almost unknown in Tibet, I should 
have thought a hairless face would have been more 
admired. The Lama was very curious to know if we 
had any English poisons. Poisoning is very prevalent 
in Tibet. If one offers a man tea he generally refuses 
it unless someone first drinks some in his presence; and 
when offering anything to eat or drink, a Tibetan in- 
variably ostentatiously takes some in order to show 
there is nothing to be afraid of. We were asked if 
gold, pearls, and rubies found a place in the European 
pharmacopeia, and much surprise was expressed when 
Dr. Thorold assured them that they had no medicinal 

ilton Bower. With Illustrations. New York : Macmillan 

AMONG THE MOORS. Sketches of Oriental Life. By Georges 
Montbard. New York : Imported by Charles Scribner's Sons. 

ON THE WALLABY ; or, Through the East and Across Aus- 
tralia. By Guy Boothby. Illustrated by Ben Boothby. New 
York : Longmans, Green, & Co. 

THE GYPSY ROAD. By Grenville A. J. Cole, M.R.I.A., 
F.G.S. Illustrated by Edmund H. New. New York : Mac- 
millan & Co. 

value. The Talai Lama is regularly dosed with medi- 
cines composed of those ingredients, so there is little 
marvel that all Talai Lamas die young." 

The Tibetans are not so very many years be- 
hind the English in medical knowledge. I have 
seen many medical prescriptions in use in En- 
gland and America a century ago, of which 
pearls, coral, and rubies formed a part ; and 
we know that in Chaucer's day " Gold in phis- 
ike was a cordial." It is a curious fact, how- 
ever, that, as our author states, every Talai 
Lama, the head of the Tibetan government, 
dies young. A Talai Lama would come of age 
at eighteen, and until then the power is in the 
hands of a regent. With the universal preva- 
lence of poisoning, and the fact that the power 
remains with the regent while another young 
Lama is growing up, it is not difficult to see 
the reason of their deaths. The priests find 
for a new Lama a child in whom the spirit of 
the old one has of course become incarnate ; 
and to prove this, when he becomes four years 
old he identifies his royal property, and then is 
removed to a monastery where he remains 
till his convenient and timely death. 

The Tibetans are very religious. Every man 
has a praying-wheel in his hand, which he con- 
tinually turns, even when on horseback. Piles 
of stones, manes, flags, and inscriptions, all of 
religious meaning or mystic significance, are 
met with in the loneliest spots. The differ- 
ences in religion form a great drawback to the 
success of the Tibetan traveller's caravan. No 
Oriental will work or travel unless his stomach 
is full, and the follower of one religion will not 
eat meat killed by the believer of another faith. 
And none will eat aught slain, or hallaled, by 
a heretic European. That is, they will not pub- 
licly violate their vows ; but Captain Bower 
adopted the expedient of sending a single Mus- 
sulman out to bring in the game which had 
been shot, when the pious man always returned 
with the animal's throat cut in the orthodox 
manner, swearing he found the game still living. 
A very interesting map shows the traveller's 
profile route, much of it above the level of the 
top of Mont Blanc, and at times reaching 18,- 
760 feet above the sea level. This map gives a 
good notion of the Chang or great Tibetan pla- 
teau, the highest on the face of the earth, com- 
pared with which the Pamirs, called the Roof of 
the World, sink into insignificance. One of 
the most interesting features of the country 
explored was the vast salt lakes which lie on 
elevations much greater than that of the sum- 
mit of Mont Blanc. The observations on so- 



[July 16, 

ciological questions especially on polyandry, 
which prevails in Tibet, and, the author asserts, 
wisely prevails, the illustrations and descrip- 
tions of the game and fowl of the country, are 
most interesting. 

The journey through Morocco of a group of 
artists and newspaper correspondents and well- 
to-do Englishmen evolved the handsome book 
" Among the Moors." The author, Georges 
Montbard, is both writer and illustrator ; and 
through a phenomenal use of descriptive ad- 
jectives he has managed to endow his narrative 
of this much-travelled region with a certain 
amount of new interest. But the book is es- 
sentially from an artist's standpoint ; and its 
sub-title, " Sketches of Oriental Life," might 
better read " Sketches of Oriental Still Life " 
as action there is little, and dialogue there 
is none. Its chapters consist of a series of vivid 
and often voluptuous descriptions of Moorish 
scenes, such as Constant and Regnault paint, 
and are rich in color-terms. There is not the 
slightest attempt at any sociological or ethno- 
logical research or information. The sense of 
sight is the only one appealed to except that 
of smell ; for the various Oriental scents and 
fumes and stenches especially the latter are 
dwelt upon with much minuteness, plainness of 
speech, and a reeking opulence of adjectives 
which dims that of the color-terms. The sen- 
suousuess, even sensuality, shown in the Pref- 
ace, in the rhapsodic description of the vicious 
traits and alluring persons of the Semitic wo- 
men, finds but rare outlet throughout the book, 
which does, however, in one or two instances, 
sink into repelling coarseness. Still, nothing 
odious or repulsive seems to have escaped the 
author's sight and note-book, and much of the 
cruelty, filth, disease, and degradation are dis- 
closed to us. But many of the descriptions are 
also exceedingly beautiful word-pictures, though 
somewhat cloying in their continued richness, 
and sometimes too smoothly unctuous. The 
presentments in words of the architecture of 
the country far excel its representations by the 
author's pencil. The portraiture of Oriental 
race-types, which form the tail-pieces of all the 
chapters, are the most interesting and pictur- 
esque illustrations ; and in spite of the author's 
violent invectives against the camera, these are 
suspiciously suggestive of dry plates and posing, 
and differ wholly in method from his other 
drawings. The frontispiece is a portrait, from 
a drawing by Godefroy Durand, of the hand- 
some author of whom it may be said that he 
looks precisely as one would expect the author 

of such a book to look. He is a Burgundian, 
and his use of the English language is won- 
derful, showing a large vocabulary, great fit- 
ness of expression, and at times much ingen- 
uity and inventiveness. I quote at random these 
passages : 

" Here is a file of camels, the first we have met as 
yet, slouching along with that intolerable jerking of the 
body, that pitching insipid movement so characteristic 
of them. Their large feet make no sound when touch- 
ing the ground ; they glide on with big strides, stretch- 
ing their long necks, with the undulating motion of rep- 
tiles; their hideous heads, with big flat lips, hover over 
yours before you begin to suspect their presence, and 
they leave behind them strong, acrid, persistent smells." 

Of the women of Fez he writes : 

"Most of the women are handsome, with a proud, 
savage, attractive beauty. Their attitudes are marked 
with a strange suppleness mixed with a surprising abrupt- 
ness, and in the feline movements of their pose, aston- 
ishingly graceful, unconsciously provocating, there is a 
suggestion of voluptuous fatigue. Some of them, their 
foreheads entwined with sequins, their eyes enlarged 
with antimony, their eyelashes and eyebrows darkened, 
their brows tattooed with blue, stand erect, motionless, 
with folded arms, fixed eyes, the look lost in space . . . 
One would think, to see them thus rigid in their straight 
pose, magnificently attired, they were mysterious idols 
who had been exposed out of their venerated temples. 
Slim young girls with big dark eyes, and a simple silk 
kerchief around their heads, move about with adder- 
like flexibility, and their long loosened tresses flow over 
their shoulders. Slaves negresses with hard profiles 
and sombre faces, with heavy metal rings in their ears, 
clad in checked garments of red or blue squares on a 
white ground, their waists encircled by red belts are 
standing by." 

It always seerns ungracious, and sometimes 
unjust and malignant, to say that one book 
constantly suggests another, or seems modelled 
upon a predecessor ; but certainly no one who 
has read Pierre Loti's " Into Morocco " can 
fail to be impressed by the strong reflection 
shown in this book, " Among the Moors," of 
the fascinating pages on Moorish life by the 
new Academician. The topics and descriptions, 
even the expressions and phrases, are astonish- 
ingly similar in both books. Sometimes the 
Burgundian artist excels the Frenchman, but 
more often the former's pages are void of that 
nameless intangible charm that pervades every- 
thing written by Pierre Loti. The recent books 
on Morocco by De Amicis and Stephen Bon- 
sal give us many facts and phases of Mogreb 
life on which both Loti and Montbard are silent ; 
and a new work by a thoughtful American trav- 
eller, Dr. Field" The Barbary Coast "well 
supplies all that Montbard's artist-regard failed 
to see. 

" On the Wallaby " is all that " Among the 
Moors " is not. The story of Australian travel 




is told in a rollicking, familiar way, with no at- 
tempt at fine writing. The comfortable methods 
of the Moorish travellers were unknown by the 
two Englishmen who made their journey by 
steerage, or before the mast, with many amus- 
ing adventures and ingenious makeshifts. It 
is to be hoped the general reader is not so ig- 
norant of Australian geography, and also of 
Australian slang, as was one reader who noted 
and crossed patiently with the author the Dar- 
ling, Barren, Newcastle, Flinders, Spear, and 
other Australian rivers, and awaited the advent 
of the Wallaby, only to discover, after finish- 
ing the book, that a small and carefully con- 
cealed note revealed " On the Wallaby "to be 
an Australianism for " on the march " a term 
applied to persons tramping the bush in search 
of work. The book is certainly a most valuable 
addition to our knowledge of Australia of to- 
day, and gives us wonderfully vivid though sim- 
ply expressed pictures of Australian life. Oc- 
casionally such a clear description as this of 
Barron Falls occurs : 

" Imagine yourself standing on a mass of rocks, with 
jungle-covered hills rising, on either hand, a thousand 
feet above your head. Imagine yourself overlooking a 
river, in low water, perhaps a hundred and fifty yards 
in width, rushing headlong, tearing, racing in wildest 
confusion to hurl itself over one of the most gigantic 
precipices the mind of mortal man can conceive, a pre- 
cipice of solid rock a thousand feet or more in height. 
Then fancy that fall of water crashing with the roar of 
a mighty ocean a roar that can be heard many miles 
away deep down into a seething, boiling cauldron of 
whitest foam, lying small as a half-crown in the great 
abyss below, out of which rises continually a dense mist 
holding all the colors of a king opal. Imagine all that, 
and you have grasped but a hundredth part of its beauty. 
Everything resounds with the force and majesty of the 
fall. Its thunder is awful; its grandeur is terrific. It 
is five hundred feet higher than Niagara. It is more 
than that it is surely without its equal on the face of 
the known globe." 

On the Wallaby, these Englishmen saw much 
that was beautiful, much that was pathetic. 
More than once they were in great danger. In 
Windorah " bounded on three sides by de- 
spair and on the fourth by the Day of Judg- 
ment "- they were in very sore straits. But 
in that wild country they found as a fellow- 
traveller a young and comely woman, a widow, 
with her baby strapped to her saddle, camping 
in the lonely bush, and hunting for work as a 
bushman, searching a contract to set poles. 
*' Poor little kinchin," she said of her baby, " it 
aint every kiddie, I reckon, as has to have the 
front of a saddle for a cradle." 

"The Gypsy Road " is the story of a jour- 
ney over a thousand miles, made by two bicy- 

clers on their wheels, from Krakow to Coblenz, 
through part of Gralicia, Hungary, Moravia, 
and Bohemia. Though told in a vivacious and 
intelligent style, and though seen from the un- 
usual standpoint of the roadway instead of the 
railway, and on two wheels instead of four, the 
account contains little that is novel or startling. 
All the world is now close at hand, and Bohe- 
mia and Hungary have recently been much 
written about for instance, in the sparkling 
pages of Menie Muriel Dowie. Pliny says, 
Nullus est liber tarn malus, ut non aliquaparte 
prosit. This book is not at all bad, and would 
certainly prove most useful to intending trav- 
ellers on the wheel in those gypsy lands. The 
illustrations, by Edmund H. New, are suggest- 
ive, though sketchy. His drawings of the ini- 
tial letters of the chapters, of the cover, and 
especially of the title-page, are exceedingly 
clever and ingenious. 



Studies in The la . te Edward Tompkins Mc- 

Mediceval Life Laughlin, of Yale University, was a 
and Literature. man o unusua i promise, and his 

early death removed from the educational ranks a 
teacher of literature having no touch of pedantry, 
and singularly endowed with the power of impart- 
ing to students his own intense sympathy with the 
beautiful in literary art. At the time of his death, 
little of his work had been published only a school 
text of " Edward II.," and a volume of selections 
from the English critical writers, and it has been 
left to the pious care of a colleague to prepare for 
publication the first volume of McLaughlin's own 
work. This volume includes half a dozen " Studies 
in Mediaeval Life and Literature" (Putnam), not 
altogether finished in form, yet distinctly deserving 
of preservation. Professor Lounsbury's editorial 
introduction to the volume gives the chief facts of 
interest concerning these papers and concerning the 
brief life of their author. It also includes some 
sensible reflections upon the subject of instruction 
in English. These reflections deal with " the easy 
process " of " turning the study into one of a purely 
linguistic character, in which the discussion of words 
will take the place of the discussion of literature." 
The following is Professor Lounsbury's opinion of 
such methods, and we need hardly say that it has 
our emphatic approval : " This is a cheap though 
convenient method for the teacher to evade the real 
work he is called upon to perform, and while it may 
be followed by some incidental advantages, it is 
almost in the nature of a crime against letters to 
associate in the minds of young men. at the most 
impressionable period of their lives, the writings of 



[July 16, 

a great author with a drill that is mainly verbal or 
philological." The first of the six studies in this 
volume is devoted to " The Mediaeval Feeling for 
Nature," the author taking the common view that 
such feeling, as far as it existed at all, was rudi- 
mentary and chiefly associated with those aspects 
of nature which directly affect the comfort or well- 
being of the individual. We must confess that we 
have never been quite willing to accept this proposi- 
tion, supported, as it must be, by negative evidence 
only. It takes a great deal of negative evidence to 
prove that human nature undergoes sensible altera- 
tions from age to age. Even the author seems to 
have had his doubts, for he inserted into his essay 
these significant sentences : " The point, however, 
should be observed in any inquiry into the reasons 
for the inadequateness of these ages' feeling for na- 
ture ; that many latent sympathies may never have 
found a voice. Many through the centuries before 
our later ease of publication may have felt the 
modern sensations, without ever thinking of putting 
them into words." The remaining studies in this 
volume are devoted to u Childhood in Mediaeval 
Literature," the story of Abelard and Heloise, the 
poems of Neidhardt von Reuenthal, the " Frauen- 
dienst" of Ulrich von Liechtenstein, and the "Meier 
Helmbrecht " of Wernher the Gardener. They are 
all interesting, and help to an acquaintance with a 
literary period almost absolutely unknown to the 
general reader of our day. 

Literary uses of " Tennyson's Idylls of the King and 
the Arthurian story Arthurian Story from the XVIth 
in four centuries. Century" (Macmillan) is the title of 
a literary study by Professor M. W. Maccallum, of 
the University of Sydney. The title is not exactly 
descriptive, for an introduction of more than a hun- 
dred pages discusses the beginnings and the earlier 
fortunes of the Arthurian tale ; its Celtic proven- 
ance, its treatment by the chroniclers and romancers, 
its transformations when touched by the spirit of 
chivalry, and the forms which it took in the Ger- 
man epics, the English ballads, and the compilation 
of Malory. This preliminary matter is an integral 
part of the work, and in many respects the most 
interesting, since the author has availed himself of 
the results of recent research, such as that under- 
taken by Mr. Nutt and Professor Rhys. Having 
thus cleared the way, Mr. Maccallum proceeds to 
comment upon the literary uses to which the Ar- 
thurian material was put during the sixteenth, seven- 
teenth, and eighteenth centuries. The Elizabethan 
dramatists, Hans Sachs, Spenser, Milton, and Black- 
more, are among the writers discussed in this sec- 
tion of the work. We then come to " The Romantic 
Revival," and consider the impression made by the 
Arthurian legends upon minds so diverse as those 
of Scott, Heber, Peacock, Southey, and Words- 
worth. " Tennyson's Contemporaries Abroad " and 
" Tennyson's Contemporaries at Home " are the sub- 
jects of the following two chapters ; the first of 
them deals with such men as Quinet, Immermann, 

and Wagner, to mention only the most familiar 
names ; the second discusses Matthew Arnold, Mr. 
William Morris, Mr. Swinburne, and many others. 
Finally, there are four chapters upon the Tenny- 
sonian " Idylls." Our enumeration of the books 
and authors discussed has been very incomplete, 
and no one not a specialist in the subject can read 
Mr. Maccallum's work without being impressed to 
the point of surprise at the extent to which the 
Round Table story with its associated legends has 
furnished poetical material for the writers of many 
centuries. It is fortunate that the facts should have 
been thus collected, and the author must be highly 
praised for the attractive and scholarly character of 
his work. In this connection we will make belated 
mention of the new and beautiful edition of Malory 
that came to us some months ago. It has the im- 
print of Messrs. J. M. Dent & Co., and is the most 
ambitious publication yet attempted by that house. 
There are to be two thick volumes, of almost quarto 
dimensions, only the first having yet appeared (Mac- 
millan). The text is that of Caxton, as published 
in 1817 by Southey. Spelling and punctuation alone 
have been modernized. Professor Rhys contributes 
a critical and historical preface, and Mr. Aubrey 
Beardsley a series of fantastic illustrations in which 
his imagination runs riot more unrestrainedly, if pos- 
sible, than usual. 

When Rossetti, in 1845, went up to 
A new biography th Academy schools, he, with the 

of Dante Rossetti. J . , . 

other candidates, was required to give 
his name to the keeper, Mr. Jones. " When it came 
his turn, Rossetti, who was rather proud of his mel- 
lifluous designation, greatly amused his companions 
and impressed the venerable official by slowly roll- 
ing out, in his rich, sonorous tones, ' Gabriel 
Charles Dante Rossetti ! ' ' Dear me, sir,' stam- 
mered Mr. Jones, in confused amazement, ' dear 
me, sir, you have a fine name ! " A fine name 
Rossetti undoubtedly has, and in a sense far beyond 
any implied by the surprised expression of the Acad- 
emy official, a name now and f orevermore associated 
with all that is most ardent in artistic aspiration, all 
that is most beautiful in graphic and poetic achieve- 
ment. The above anecdote is taken from Mrs. J. 
W. Wood's book entitled " Dante Rossetti, and the 
Pre-Raphaelite Movement" (Scribner), one of the 
best books, if not the very best, yet devoted to the 
life and work of the great painter-poet. Until Mr. 
Theodore Watts shall be moved to write the defini- 
tive biography of his friend, Mrs. Wood's book will 
serve admirably, although it is an account of the 
painter rather than of the poet and the man, and 
although it has some slight defects of discursiveness 
and turgidity, and such an occasional inaccuracy as 
the quotation, 

" Night, Night, Night ! art thou not known to me ? " 
instead of 

" O lonely night, art thou not known to me ? " 
The following characterization of Rossetti's work 
with the brush may be taken to illustrate Mrs. 




Wood's manner, sympathy, and insight : " Here 
for the first time in English art is colour supreme, 
triumphant, as in Titian ; form ethereal and chas- 
tened, like the visions of a Fra Angelico ; siibjects, 
rather than objects, set forth in so direct and often 
crude an imagery ; not figures merely, but symbols ; 
fragments of human history, actual and urgent, full 
of problems and wonders, weighty with meanings 
and desires." The illustrations of this beautiful 
book are deserving of particular mention, for they 
include the first engravings thus far made of a num- 
ber of subjects. Among them are " The Boat of 
Love " and " Our Lady of Pity," belonging to the 
Corporation of Birmingham ; " The Day-dream " 
and " Pandora," belonging to Mr. Watts ; and the 
study for a " Head of Christ," belonging to Mr. 
Moncure D. Conway. We are sorry to say that the 
chapter on " Rossetti's Poetry," excellent as far as 
it goes, is much too brief to be adequate. 

An illustrated pic- Dr. George M. Gould is the author 
aSfflS*** of a number of elementary medical 
Allied Sciences. hand-books that have found popular 
favor. Encouraged by his success in this direction, 
he undertook, some years ago, the preparation of a 
much larger and more ambitious work of reference 
for physicians, and the result of his labor now ap- 
pears in a quarto volume of about the size of Web- 
ster's or Worcester's Dictionary. The work is 
entitled " An Illustrated Dictionary of Medicine, 
Biology, and Allied Sciences" (Blakiston). There 
are over 1600 double -column pages and a great 
many cuts. Dr. Gould and his assistants have gone 
through an enormous mass of recent scientific lit- 
erature for the purpose of collecting new words 
and definitions, and the fact that the work is thus 
brought strictly to date is not the least of its many 
claims to consideration. The term " allied sciences" 
of the title has been construed liberally, and the 
book is almost as much a dictionary of biology, 
chemistry, electricity, or microscopy as it is of sur- 
gery, therapeutics, materia medica, or toxicology. 
Hence we think it particularly important to say that 
Dr. Gould's dictionary belongs with the standard 
reference works that should be found in every well- 
appointed library. It is far more than a manual 
for the specialist in medical science. The work is 
distinctly encyclopaedic in character, a statement 
which may be illustrated in many ways, but by none 
better than calling attention to the many tables that 
have been introduced. A few of the most note- 
worthy of these are Bacteria (30 pages), Eponymic 
Diseases (12 pages), Eponymic Operations (30 
pages), Parasites (40 pages), Stains and Tests (40 
pages each). The pronunciation of terms is indi- 
cated by a simple but adequate phonetic method. 
In the matter of spelling, a fairly conservative 
course has been taken. The typography of the book 
is very attractive, and the binding plain but sub- 
stantial. Altogether, the work is one of which Amer- 
ican scholarship has reason to be proud. 

Mr. Goidwin Smith Mr - Goldwin Smith is nothing if not 
on "Questions at the same time interesting, conser- 
vative, and partisan ; and in all three 
ways his reputation is well maintained by his vol- 
ume of " Essays on Questions of the Day " (Mac- 
millan). It should also be added that even though 
unable to accept many of Mr. Smith's versions of 
history and economics, the reader will almost always 
be stimulated by the author's forcible style. In the 
face of the fall in the value of silver in June, 1893, 
consequent upon the action of the Indian govern- 
ment, it is quite amusing to read his statement that 
" Gold and silver are two commodities, each of which 
has its value settled by qualities and circumstances 
over which legislatures have no control." His liking 
for sweeping and misleading generalizations is illus- 
trated in his claim that all our communistic societies 
" have failed utterly, except in the cases where the 
rule of celibacy has been enforced." Yet in an- 
other essay he quotes from Noyes several cases 
where this is not true. He might add the famous 
and prosperous Amana communities of Iowa, where 
complete family life prevails. In the first essay 
Mr. Smith pays his respects to socialists, single 
taxers, greenbackers, strikers, and cooperators. In 
his second essay he favors disestablishment in Great 
Britain. In his third, he makes a wry face over 
the increasing democracy of England, and longs for 
our constitutional restrictions on the power of the 
fffc^ple. In other essays he opposes prohibitory legis- 
latioii, woman suffrage, imperial federation, and 
Bo'me rule, and accounts for Russian opposition to 
the Jews. The rich historical reviews which intro- 
duce each essay seem often one-sided, yet they ably 
correct certain tendencies to an opposite bias that 
sometimes appears in the popular thought of the 
day. The book undoubtedly expresses the conserva- 
tive thoughts and fears of a very influential portion 
of every community. 

Anthropological The seventh volume of Professor 
Essays of Huxley's collected essays is entitled 

Prof. Hu^ey. u Man > s p lace in Nature, and Other 

Anthropological Essays " (Appleton). The contents 
include the three essays on " Man's Place in Nature," 
first published in 1863, two ethnological papers of 
later date, and the discussion of " The Aryan Ques- 
tion " that was published in 1890 in " The Nine- 
teenth Century." The preface to this volume is 
brief but interesting. The author admits that the 
first three essays have little more than a historical 
interest, since their main conclusions have now be- 
come almost the commonplaces of accepted scien- 
tific truth. Referring to the reception given them 
thirty years ago, he says : " The Boreas of criticism 
blew his hardest blasts of misrepresentation and rid- 
icule for some years ; and I was even as one of the 
wicked. Indeed, it surprises me, at times, to think 
how anyone who had sunk so low could have since 
emerged into, at any rate, relative respectability." 
Although the essays in question represent what is now 



[July 16, 

an iiberwundener Standpunkt, they are still valuable 
as masterly examples of scientific exposition, and 
the moral to be drawn from their history will always 
be useful. Professor Huxley draws this moral in 
the following eloquent terms : " To my observation, 
human nature has not sensibly changed during the 
last thirty years. I doubt not that there are truths 
as plainly obvious and as generally denied as those 
contained in ' Man's Place in Nature ' now awaiting 
enunciation. If there is a young man of the present 
generation who has taken as much trouble as I did 
to assure himself that they are truths, let him come 
out with them, without troubling his head about the 
barking of the dogs of St. Ernulphus. Veritas prce- 
valebit some day ; and, even if she does not pre- 
vail in his time, he himself will be all the better 
and the wiser for having tried to help her. And 
let him recollect that such great reward is full pay- 
ment for all his labor and pains." 


The extension department of the University of the 
State of New York has published another syllabus on 
American history, by Professor W. H. Mace of Syra- 
cuse University. This forms a supplement to the two 
prepared by him last year, the first on the American 
revolution and the second on the American constitution. 
Besides the careful thought shown in the outline^pf 
events during the periods of study, the value olJ^e 
three syllabuses is greatly increased by adding reprint)} 
of original documents referred to in the lecture notes. 
These are used as the basis of further study ana re- 
search and are specially appreciated by home students 
or in small villages where historic papers are difficult 
or impossible to find. As in all the syllabuses issued 
by this department, a carefully selected bibliography 
is given at the end, with publishers' names and prices 
of books. 

Some years ago, Mr. Brander Matthews, we think 
it was, published a very clever and amusing story en- 
titled "The Documents in the Case." The story was 
told by printing, without comment, a series of letters, 
telegrams, advertisements, bills, etc. Mr. Henry M. 
Blossom, Jr. has taken up the idea and carried it a step 
farther, for the story told by " The Documents in Evi- 
dence " (St Louis : Buxton & Skinner) must be read 
from photographic facsimiles of the letters exchanged 
by the principal characters. We cannot say that it is 
much of a story, but the form of publication is calcu- 
lated to attract attention, being both neat and novel. 

Mr. Langdon S. Thompson is the author of an " Ed- 
ucational and Industrial System of Drawing " (Heath) 
embodied in no less than thirty drawing-books and man- 
uals, and accompanied by models, colored tablets, and 
other apparatus. The books and manuals are thus div- 
ided: manual training, two; free hand (primary and ad- 
vanced), ten; model and object, four; aesthetic and me- 
chanical series, seven each. The entire system provides 
for a very complete course of instruction. " An Ideal 
Course in Elementary Art Education " is the title of an 
explanatory pamphlet accompanying the books. In this 
pamphlet Mr. Thompson discusses not only his own sys- 
tem, but also the philosophical relations of art to the gen- 
eral scheme of education. 


New York, July 10, 1894. 

The committee in charge of the commemoration ex- 
ercises iu honor of the hundredth anniversary of Will- 
iam Cullen Bryant's birth have announced that they will 
take place on August 16, instead of the actual date of 
his birth, November 3, for the better convenience of 
those who are to be present. The house at Cumming- 
ton, Mass., near which the celebration is to take place, 
is known as the Bryant Homestead. It is not, however, 
the house in which Bryant was born, but was the resi- 
dence of his maternal grandfather, to whose home the 
Bryant family removed when the poet was a small 
child. Bryant's father settled in Cummington in 1789, 
ten years after the town's incorporation, and the birth- 
place of the poet was the log cabin built by the first 
settler in the place. It was composed of square-hewn 
logs, and it disappeared many years before Bryant's 
death. The latter purchased the present Bryant home- 
stead and farm in 1866, and built the house now occu- 
pied by his son-in-law, Mr. Parke Godwin, at that time. 
The homestead itself is the property of his daughter, 
Miss Bryant. Mr. Godwin is now as venerable and 
striking in appearance as was Bryant himself, and will 
make an ideal presiding officer for this important occa- 
sion. His noteworthy discourses at the commemorative 
meetings in honor of the deaths of George William 
Curtis and Edwin Booth, held by the Century and Play- 
ers Clubs, are fresh in the memory of all New Yorkers. 
He is perhaps the last of the orators of the old school 
left in this city. Mr. John Howard Bryant, the younger 
brother of Mr. Bryant, and himself a poet of some note, 
now residing at Princeton, 111., will attend and partici- 
pate in the Bryant centennial. 

" A London Rose, and Other Rhymes," by Mr. Ernest 
Rhys, already mentioned in this correspondence, will 
shortly be published by Messrs. Matthews & Lane, of 
London, and by Messrs. Dodd, Mead & Co., of New 
York. Mr. Rhys's experiments with Kymric measures 
in English verse seem to be quite successful. Among 
these poems and ballads of Wales is an old favorite, 
" The Wedding of Pale Bronwen," which first appeared 
in the New York " Independent." The volume also in- 
cludes Mr. Rhys's fine poem, " Chatterton in Holborn," 
which makes one of a section of " London Rhymes." 

" Pembroke," by Miss Wilkins, continues to receive 
most flattering notices in the English reviews, some of 
which declare this novel to be the author's most impor- 
tant effort thus far. It is curious to observe that in a 
list of the seventeen most popular books, according to 
June sales in England, given by the London " Book- 
man," only two are by American authors " Pembroke," 
and " Tom Sawyer Abroad," by Mark Twain. 

Messrs. Harper & Brothers announce two new novels 
by authors comparatively unknown to this country, 
"Music Hath Charms," by V. Munro Ferguson, and 
" The Maiden's Progress " by Violet Hunt. The first 
of these deals with some interesting points in the rela- 
tions of the young men and women of to-day; the sec- 
ond is evidently reactionary in character, as it is in- 
tended to show the dangers which may be encountered 
through ignoring the conventions and conformities of 
society. Both will be suitable for summer reading. 

The new building of the " Cosmopolitan Magazine " 
at Irvington-on-the-Hudson is progressing rapidly, Mr. 
John Brisben Walker devoting much personal attention 
to its construction. It will be a handsome affair, de- 




signed in the popular Italian Renaissance style. It 
will be nearly 300 feet long and 75 feet wide, occupy- 
ing a conspicuous site on the shore of the Hudson. The 
central dome of three will be surmounted by a repro- 
duction of one of the World's Fair groups. A special 
siding has been laid down from the railroad which runs 
below the building, and a chute or tunnel has been 
constructed from the basement of the building to this 
siding for the receipt of paper and ink and the delivery 
of magazines, some ten carloads of which go out each 
month. The saving in carting and transfers made in 
this way will be enormous. The building is situated on 
the old Barney estate, Mr. Walker himself having taken 
up his residence in the Barney house. He now expects 
to remove the publishing plant from New York to Irv- 
ington before September 15. Prof. Arthur Sherburne 
Hardy will remain in charge of the New York editorial 
office. I notice, by the way, that four Smith College 
girls have dramatized Professor Hardy's " Passe Rose," 
and that a performance was given last month by some 
of the students. The dramatization of this novel for 
the professional theatre has often been talked of here, 
and may yet be attempted. ARTHUR STEDMAN. 


The historian Gibbon, who died in 1794, will be the 
subject of a celebration in the autumn, under the care 
of the Royal Historical Society. 

Mr. J. G. Cupples, the Boston publisher, has associ- 
ated with himself as partner Mr. H. W. Patterson, the 
style of the new firm being Cupples and Patterson. 

The Walt Whitman Fellowship has elected Mr. Dan- 
iel G. Brinton president, Mr. Horace L. Traubel secre- 
tary and treasurer, Messrs. R. G. Ingersoll, John Bur- 
roughs and others vice-presidents. 

" Le Monde Moderne," an illustrated monthly of the 
American type, will begin publication next November. 
Each number will have 160 pages, and circa 100 illus- 
trations, and will be sold for thirty sous. 

The "Letters of Franz Liszt," reviewed in our last 
issue, was credited by mistake to Messrs. Longmans, 
Green & Co. The work is published in this country by 
Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons, to whom we make our 

The unpublished letters of Lowell written to Edgar 
Poe during the years 1842-4, to appear in " Scribner's 
Magazine " for August, will prove more interesting than 
most of such correspondence, not only on account of the 
information they give concerning the early literary in- 
terests and ambitions of the two authors, but especially 
for their perfect frankness and revelation of the cordial 
personal relations that marked Lowell's young admira- 
tion for Poe, before the days of " The Fable for Critics." 

Messrs. D. Appleton & Co. are about to publish by 
subscription a two-volume work on " The United States 
of America," edited by Professor N. S. Shaler. We 
quote the titles of a few specimen chapters. " What 
Nature Has Done for the West," by Professor Shaler ; 
" The North American Indians," by Major J. W. Pow- 
ell; "The Pacific Coast," by Mr. H. H. Bancroft; "Our 
Military Resources," by Colonel T. A. Dodge ; " Pro- 
ductive Industry," by Mr. Edward Atkinson ; " Educa- 
tion in the United States," by Dr. W. T. Harris ; " Sci- 
ence in America," by President D. C. Gilman ; and 
" American Literature," by Mr. C. D. Warner. 

The Columbian Exposition has given rise, first and 
last, to a good amount of poetry. Just a year ago THE 
DIAL published (July 16, '93) Mr. Gilder's lines entitled 
" The Tower of Flame," written on the occasion of the 
burning of the Cold Storage Warehouse, with its tragic 
accompaniment of the loss of the lives of nearly two- 
score firemen. Another poet, Miss Florence Wilkinson, 
now commemorates the recent more spectacular though 
happily less tragic event by which all the great build- 
ings bordering the Court of Honor were obliterated 
almost in an hour, leaving alone the colossal gilded fig- 
ure of Columbia standing unscathed amid the ruins. 


(Jackson Park, July 5, 1894.) 


In glimmering solitude she lay, a melancholy dream ; 
The golden Goddess gazed no more 
On curious crowds, the surge and roar 
Of human stream. 

About her vacant palaces the lazy lake-gull flew ; 
Her carven eagles high upraised, 
An empty vaunt, where no one gazed, 
Against the blue. 

Untrodden, sloped her marble steps down to the dim lagoon ; 
Where myriad brilliances had quavered, 
Now in its quiet waters wavered 
The sickle moon. 

A buried bourg she might have been, forgotten long ago, 
Where, 'neath deep strata of the soil, 
Still, fluted columns wreathe and coil, 
Still, statues glow. 


But one midsummer's night she woke from marble dreams of 


And saw the ruin men had done, 
Spoiling her temples, one by one. . . . 
Better to cease ! 

Once more to draw the slavish crowd ! One last illumination ! 
To let the elements defend her, 
And snatch her palaces, in splendor, 
From degradation ! 

A Bacchanalian reveller she, with death intoxicated ! 
Red-flushed with triumph over shame, 
She wreathed her sculptured halls in flame. . . . 
The people waited. 

They watched the wild transfiguration, standing in awe, aloof ; 
They saw her lurid towers crumble, 
They heard the doom, the din, the rumble 
Of ruining roof. 

Her soul exhaled in fire and smoke, fled as a comet flashes. . . . 
But still the golden Goddess stands, 
Outstretching calm Olympian hands 
O'er heaps of ashes. 



A correspondent of " Book News," writing from Ber- 
lin, has the following upon the recent intellectual devel- 
opment of Bulgaria: " Within this little territory, until 
recently almost as Oriental in character as any of the 
provinces of Asia Minor, are now published seventy- 
three newspapers and magazines, not including two in 
Constantinople, and one in Salonica, devoted to Bulga- 
rian interests. Of these, twenty-one are political, and 
eight are official organs, either of the central or provin- 
cial government. Among the rest, twelve are literary or 
scientific reviews, three are judicial, three military, one 
is a < Home Journal,' and one is a ' Journal of Fash- 



[July 16, 

ion,' published, strange to say, not in Sofia, the capital, 
but in the little town of Sevljevo, deep in the innermost 
fastnesses of the Balkan Mountains. Of the political 
papers, four are socialistic. The chief organ of the gov- 
ernment is the ' Swoboda ' (Freedom) ; its most active 
opponent is the ' Swobodno Slovo ' (Free Speech), both 
published in Sofia. The Bulgarians are a branch of the 
great Slavic race, to which we are apt to attribute a 
degree of intellectual inactivity amounting almost to 
torpor; there can be no better evidence to the contrary 
than this sudden awakening of popular interest in af- 
fairs, under the happy influence of a few years of com- 
parative freedom." 


July, 1894 (Second List). 

Allen, William V. Albert Shaw. Review of Reviews. 

Antarctica. Illus. A. W. Greelv. Cosmopolitan. 

" A. P. A.," The. W. J. H. Traynor. North American. 

Battle-ship, Evolution of a. Illus. Century. 

British Politics. Goldwin Smith. North American. 

"Coxeyism." Illus. William T. Stead. Eev. of Reviews. 

Egypt, France and England in. Madame Adam. No. Am. 

" Fliegende Blatter," The. Illus. Century. 

Gold Export and Its Dangers. Social Economist. 

" Gresham " Law, The. Social Economist, 

High Buildings in England and America. Chautauquan. 

Holy Sepulchre, Life at the. North American. 

Japan, Justice for. B. 0. Flower. Arena. 

Kantian Theism, The. C. W. Hodge, Jr. Presbyterian Rev. 

Kossuth, Louis. Illus. Madame Adam. Cosmopolitan. 

Lucretius. R. Y. Tyrrell. Atlantic. 

Mayor and the City, The. H. N. Shepard. Atlantic. 

Monetary Reform in Santo Domingo. Atlantic. 

Monism in Arithmetic. Hermann Schubert. Monist. 

Monometallism and Protection. C. S. Thomas. Arena. 

Moses of the Critics. W. H. Green. Presbyterian Review. 

Napoleonic Medals, Rare. Illus. Cosmopolitan. 

Occult Science in Thibet. Heinrich Hensoldt. Arena. 

Outdoor Sports. Illus. J. H. Mandigo. Chautauquan. 

Painting at the Fair. J. C. Van Dyke. Century. 

Philosophy and Industrial Life. J. Clark Murray. Monist. 

Romanes, George John. Paul Carus. Monist. 

Schubert, Franz. Antonin Dvorak. Century. 

Senate, Attack on the. C. D. Warner. Century. 

Socialism vs. Protection. ' Social Economist. 

South Carolina Liquor Law, The. North American. 

" Star Spangled Banner," The. Illus. Century. 

Universities of Italy. F. Martini. Chautauquan. 

Whittier's Religion. W. H. Savage. Arena. 

Woman's Enfranchisement. J. L. Hughes. Arena. 


[The following list, embracing 44 titles, includes all books 
received by THE DIAL since last issue.] 


Memoirs of Edmund Ludlow, Lieutenant-General of the 
Horse in the Army of the Commonwealth of England, 
1625-1672. Edited, with appendices, by C. H. Firth, M.A. 
2 vols., with portrait, 8vo, uncut. Macmillan & Co. $9. 

General Washington. By General Bradley T. Johnson. 
Illus., 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 338. Appletons' " Great 
Commanders." $1.50. 


Illustrated Dictionary of Medicine, Biology, and Allied 
Sciences. Including the pronunciation, accentuation, etc., 
of the terms used. By George M. Gould, A.M., M.D. 
( Based upon recent scientific literature.) Large 8vo, pp. 
1633. P. Blakiston, Son & Co. $10. 


Classical Studies in Honour of Henry Drisler. Illus., 8vo, 

pp. 310. Macmillan & Co. $4. 
Verona, and Other Lectures. By John Ruskin. Illus. from 

drawings by the author, 8vo, pp. 204. Macmillan & Co. 

Prose Fancies. By Richard Le Gallienne. With portrait, 

12mo, uncut, pp. 204. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1. 
The Temple Shakespeare: The Comedy of Errors, and 

Measure for Measure. With prefaces, etc., by Israel Gol- 

lancz, M.A. 18mo, gilt top, uncut. Macmillan & Co. 

Each, 1 vol., 45 cts. 


The Tragedies of Euripides in English Verse. By Arthur 
S. Way, M.A., author of " The Iliad Done into English 
Verse." In 3 vols. Vol. I., 12mo, uncut, pp. 424. Macmil- 
lan & Co. $2. 

Selections from the Poems of Arthur Hugh Clough. 
With portrait, 16mo, uncut, pp. 208. Macmillan's " Golden 
Treasury Series." $1. 

Sketches in Rhyme. By Jeaf Sherman, author of "The 
Gyralune." 16mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 107. Chicago: 
The Mouat Co. 


Carlotta's Intended, and Other Tales. By Ruth McEnery 
Stuart, author of "A Golden Wedding." Illus., 12mo 
pp. 277. Harper & Bros. $1.50. 

An Interloper. By Frances Mary Peard, author of " Cath- 
erine." l'2mo, pp. 315. Harper & Bros. $1.25. 

A Pound of Cure : A Story of Monte Carlo. By William 
Henry Bishop. IGmo, pp. 200. Chas. Scribner's Sons. $1. 

Tales of the Maine Coast. By Noah Brooks. 16mo, pp. 
271. Chas. Scribner's Sons. $1. 

Rudin. By Ivan Turgenev ; trans, by Constance Garnett. 
With portrait, 16mo, gilt top, pp. 260. Macmillan & Co. 

After the Manner of Men : A Novel of To-day. By Robert 
Appleton, author of " Viera." 12mo, pp. 406. Boston : 
Franklin Pub'g Co. $1. 

Between Two Forces: A Record of a Theory and a Pas- 
sion. By Flora Helm. 12mo, pp. 238. Arena Pub'g Co. 

A Burne-Jones Head, and Other Sketches. By Clara Sher- 
wood Rollins. With frontispiece, 16mo, pp. 164, gilt top. 
Lovell, Coryell & Co. $1. 

Three Weeks in Politics. By John Kendrick Bangs, au- 
thor of "Coffee and Repartee." Illus., 24mo, pp. 82. 
Harper's " Black and White Series." 50 cts. 

Five o'clock Tea. By W. D. Howells. Illus., 24mo, pp. 
46. Harper's " Black and White Series." 50 cts. 


Appletons' Town and Country Library : A Daughter of 
Music, by G. Colmore ; 16mo, pp. 371. 50 cts. 

Rand, McNally's Rialto Series: A Modern Rosalind, by 
Edith Carpenter; 12mo, pp. 251. The Red House, by 
" The Duchess "; 12mo, pp. 259. Each, 50 cts. 

Lippincott's Select Novels: Every Inch a Soldier, by John 
Strange Winter ; 12mo, pp. 282. 50 cts. 

Longmans' Paper Library: A Moral Dilemma, by Annie 
Thompson ; 12mo, pp. 312. 50 cts. 

Harper's Franklin Square Library : Van Bibber and 
Others, by Richard Harding Davis ; illus., 12mo, pp. 249, 
60 cts. The Women's Conquest of New York, by a Mem- 
ber of the Committee of Safety of 1908 ; 12mo, pp. 84, 25c. 

The Mascot Library: The Sorrows of Werther, by Johann 
Wolfgang von Goethe ; 12mo, pp. 249. 50 cts. 


Our Home Pets: How to Keep Them Well and Happy. By 
Olive Thorne Miller. Illus., 16mo, pp. 273. Harper & 
Bros. $1.25. 

The Psychic Factor : An Outline of Psychology. By Charles 

Van Norden, D.D. 12mo, uncut, pp. 223. D. Appleton 

& Co. $1.25. 
The Elements of Metaphysics : Being a Guide for Lectures 

and Private Use. By Dr. Paul Deussen ; trans, by C. M. 

Duff. 12mo, pp. 337. Macmillan & Co. $1.50. 
Matter, Ether, and Motion : The Factors and Relations of 

Physical Science. By A. E. Dolbear, Ph.D., author of 

" The Telephone." 12mo,pp. 407. Lee & Shepard. $2. 





Primitive Civilizations ; or, Outlines of the History of Own- 
ership in Archaic Communities. By E. J. Simcox, author 
of " Natural Law." In 2 vols., 8vo, uncut. Macmillan 
& Co. $10. 

Journal of American Ethnology and Archaeology, Vol. 
IV. Edited by J. Walter Fewkes. Illus., 8vo, uncut, 
pp. 126. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. $2. 

The Maya Year. By Cyrus Thomas. 12mo, uncut, pp. 64. 
Government Printing Office. 

The Pamunky Indians of Virginia. By John Garland 
Pollard. 12mo, uncut, pp. 19. Government Printing 

Bibliography of the Wakasham Languages. By James 
Constantino Pilling. 12mo, uncut, pp. 70. Government 
Printing Office. 


The Special Kinesiology of Educational Gymnastics. 

By Baron Nils Posse, M.G. Illus., 8vo, pp. 380. Lee & 

Shepard. $3. 
Dialogus De Oratoribus P. Cornelii Taciti. Edited with 

Prolegomena, Notes, etc., by Alfred Gudeman. 8vo, pp. 

447. Ginn&Co. $3. 

A Laboratory Manual of Physics and Applied Elec- 
tricity. Arranged and edited by Edward L. Nichols. 

In 2 vols. Vol. I., Junior Course in General Physics, by 

Ernest Merritt and Frederick J. Rogers. 12mo, pp. 294. 

Macmillan & Co. $3. 
The Cult of Asklepios. By Alice Walton, Ph.D. 8vo, pp. 

136. " Cornell Studies in Classical Philology." Ginn & 

Co. $1.25. 
An Educational and Industrial System of Drawing: 

Comprising Manuals and Drawing Books for a complete 

course in Drawing. By Langdon S. Thompson, A.M. 

D. C. Heath & Co. 

Rare Books. Prints. Autographs. 



Catalogues Issued Continually. 


SCARCE BOOKS. BACK-NUMBER MAGAZINES. For any book on any sub- 
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1793. MAJOR R. BINGHAM, Superintendent. 1894. 


No. 55 West 47th st. Mrs. SARAH H. EMERSON, Prin- 
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and Architecture. 

Subscription price : $1.00 per month $10.00 per year. 
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vol. in paper and 85 cts. in cloth ; and CONTES CHOISIS 
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[July 16, 1894. 

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Harper's Magazine 



Old Monmouth. 

By JULIAN RALPH. With 10 Illustrations by W. T. SMED- 

The Editor's Story. 


Up the Norway Coast. 

By GEORGE CARD PEASE. With 1 Illustrations by T. DE 
THULSTRUP, and a Map. 

The Serenade at Siskiyou. 


A Few Edible Toadstools and Mushrooms. 

By W. HAMILTON GIBSON. 17 Illustrations by the Author. 

The Golden House. 

5 Illustrations by W. T. SMEDLEY. 


Chapters in Journalism. 


Step= Brothers to Dives A floral without a Story 


My First Visit to New England. 

By WILLIAM DEAN HOWELLS. Fourth Part. (Conclusion.) 
With 8 Illustrations. 

Stubble and Slough in Dakota. 

By FREDERIC REMINGTON. 8 Illustrations by the Author. 

Vignettes of Manhattan. VIII. A Vista in 
Central Park. 

By BRANDER MATTHEWS. With 3 Illustrations by W. T. 

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[Aug. 1, 1894. 

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Semi=Pl0ntf)l2 Journal of ILiterarg Criticism, JBigntssion, anb Information. 

No. 195. 

AUGUST 1, 1894. Vol. XVII. 




Genung 54 


J. E. S 56 


The Teaching of Literature. W. H. Johnson. 

A Society of Comparative Literature. Charles Mills 

The Shakespeare Society of New York and Its 

" Bankside " Shakespeare. Appleton Morgan. 
To the Memory of Tennyson. Annie Fields. 



W. Shepardson 61 


Pratt Judson 62 

RECENT POETRY. William Morton Payne .... 63 
Lang's Ban and Arriere Ban. LeGallienne's English 
Poems. Mrs. Hinkson's Cuckoo Songs. Cochrane's 
The Kestrel's Nest. Mitchell's Poems. Smith's 
Lyrics and Sonnets. Parker's A Lover's Diary. 
McCulloch's The Quest of Heracles. Hall's When 
Hearts Are Trumps. 


A favorite book about Venice. A new volume of es- 
says by Mr. Ruskin. West Irish Folk-tales. Lights 
and shadows of a Celtic Twilight. The historian of 
the Council of Trent. Life and works of Richard 
Steele. Value and growth of the British empire. 


NEW YORK TOPICS. Arthur Stedman 71 





In " The Athenaeum " for July 7 is published 
the annual summary of literary production upon 
the Continent that has of late years been so 
important a feature of that valuable journal. 
There are twelve articles altogether, devoted 
respectively to Belgium, Bohemia, Denmark, 
France, Germany, Greece, Holland, Hungary, 
Italy, Poland, Russia, and Spain. For some 
unexplained reason, Norway, Sweden, and Por- 

tugal are unrepresented in this survey, an 
unfortunate omission, since the literary import- 
ance of those countries is considerable, and since 
their inclusion would have made the review 
practically complete. Following the precedent 
of last year, we have thought it desirable to 
summarize these summaries for the readers of 
THE DIAL, reproducing the most salient of 
their comments, and enumerating the more im- 
portant of the works discussed. 

M. Joseph Reinach, who makes the French 
contribution to this symposium, opens the dis- 
cussion by presenting a classified abstract of a 
year's output, representing a total of more than 
eleven thousand publications of one or more 
volumes each. Medical science is credited with 
over a thousand titles, and Catholic theology 
with nearly that number. Education, law, his- 
tory, biography, and fiction are responsible for 
something like half a thousand each. Russian 
grammar foots the list with three works. It is 
obviously no easy task to single out from this 
enormous number of publications the few that 
may be mentioned in a brief article. M. Rein- 
ach gives first place to " the altogether excep- 
tional abundance of books dealing with Na- 
poleon and his times." Among these he men- 
tions M. Levy's " Napoleon Intime," M. F. 
Masson's " Napoleon et les Femmes " and "Na- 
poleon chez Lui," and the memoirs of General 
Thiebault and Chancellor Pasquier. Among 
other historical works, the highest rank must 
of course be given to the two posthumous vol- 
umes that complete Renan's " Histoire du Peu- 
ple d'Israel." 

" They exhibit the same decisive handling, the same 
lucid historical instinct, as ever; more than ever do they 
display the same wonderfully luminous style, with the 
brilliant parallels and unexpected collocations which 
were so characteristic of Renan's imaginative and fas- 
tidious literary sense." 

Mention is also made of M. Lavisse's " Le 
Grand Frederic avant 1'Avenement," M. Hano- 
teaux's " Histoire du Cardinal de Richelieu," 
and M. de Mazade's " L'Europe et les Neu- 
tralites." Among literary studies there are 
volumes on Hugo by MM. Bire and Mabilleau, 
a biography of Alfred de Musset by Arvedfe 
Barine, and a collection of posthumous essays 
on English literature and philosophy by M. J. 
Milsand. In fiction, M. Zola leads off with 
" Le Docteur Pascal," the very last of the 



[Aug. 1, 

seemingly interminable Rougon-Macquart se- 
ries, ending a task entered upon a quarter-cen- 
tury ago, and pursued with unflagging energy 
ever since. M. Reinach finds nothing else that 
is particularly noteworthy in the year's fiction, 
although he gives a long list of novels, and com- 
ments briefly upon a number of them. In 
poetry, the two most important publications 
have been Hugo's " Toute la Lyre " and M. de 
Heredia's " Les Trophees." Of the former 
work we read : 

" This collection of separate poems, which is the fit- 
ting sequel to the former series issued under the same 
title, exhibits every side of Victor Hugo's genius. He 
is now the visionary who, in spite of perpetual struggle, 
believes in a better time to come and in the ultimate 
triumph of justice; now the poet whose exquisite sen- 
sibility comprehends the voice of nature and interprets 
it unerringly, singing of love in idyls which have an old- 
world grace; now the ironical cynic who turns all to 
ridicule ; now the sympathetic painter of scenes of every- 
day life ; now ' the mouthpiece of the people's conscience,' 
as he called himself, the singer whose stirring and ter- 
rible tones pursue with fiery impetuosity all who had to 
do with the Coup d'Etat, represented in this volume by 
several poems whose vengeful spirit might well have 
fitted them for a place in the magnificent pages of Les 
Chatiments.' It is surprising that these verses were not 
collected by the poet in his lifetime, for in vigor of in- 
spiration and beauty of form they are equal to any he 
published; but what is far more amazing is the wealth 
of genius that could hold such poems in reserve, the 
gigantic and almost appalling productive power which 
has made it possible for us, even after we had grown 
familiar with so many immortal masterpieces, to hear 
anew the splendid sounds of the poet's lyre." 

The German article, by Hof rath Robert Zim- 
mermann, tells at relatively great length a story 
of no great importance. " The combat between 
' ancients ' and ' moderns,' ' idealists ' and ' real- 
ists.' still continues," he tells us. One-fourth 
of his article is given up to an account of Herr 
Hauptmann's new play, " Hannele Mattern's 
Himmelfahrt," which we should judge to be an 
exceptionally dreary composition. It " describes 
the death-struggle of an ill-treated child of the 
proletariate," and, we are further informed, 
" has no action whatever." Herr Halbe's " Ju- 
gend " and Herr David's " Hagar's Sohn " are 
two other plays discussed at some length. Poetry 
in Germany seems to be mostly submerged be- 
neath floods of verse. The figure is the au- 
thor's, who connects poetry with fiction by an- 
other figure equally suggestive. 

" If lyric poetry resembles a flooded plain, from which 
rise but a few peaks on which perch real singing-birds, 
we might not inaptly compare prose literature of an 
imaginative sort to a sandy plain of moderate elevation, 
on the almost endless surface of which, overspread with 
vegetation, are scattered here and there a few erratic 
blocks of the ancient formation." 

The " Kleopatra " of Dr. Ebers appears to have 
been the most striking novel of the year. 

" It deals with the romantic life of the last queen of 
the Ptolemies, so full of changing fate and advent- 
ures of love; but it is not the rosy morning and bright 
noonday that he depicts, but instead its blood-red sun- 
set and tragic end in the gloom of a mausoleum built 
by the heroine herself. It is strange that the author 
should have refrained from the world-famous duet be- 
tween Antony and the Armida of antiquity, in order to 
begin with the gloomy concluding scene of the fifth act 
of the tragedy." 

Other works of fiction are Herr Hopfen's 
" Glanzendes Elend," Herr Sudermann's " Es 
War," and Herr Heyse's short story, " Melu- 
sine." The most noteworthy feature of the 
year's production seems to be found in the 
numerous memoirs of men of letters that have 
appeared. The period of literature which be- 
gan with the foundation of the Empire is near- 
ing its close, and many of its authors are tell- 
ing the story of their lives. Among these nar- 
ratives are those of Dr. Ebers and Herr Felix 
Dahn, Herr Hanslick's " Erinnerungen aus 
Meinem Leben," and Herr Fontane's " Meine 
Knabenjahre." A few other books of interest 
are Herr Baechthold's life of Gottfried Keller, 
a volume of five lectures by the late Bernhard 
ten Brink, two additional volumes of Prince 
Bismarck's speeches, and a work upon Dr. Ib- 
sen's plays, by Herr Emil Reich. 

Dr. Alfred Ipsen, writing of Danish litera- 
ture, is " strictly careful not to mingle it with 
the Norwegian," which is something of a pity, 
since Norwegian literature, as well as Swedish, 
does not appear in the " Athenaeum " series of 
articles. The number of books produced dur- 
ing the year in Denmark, Dr. Ipsen writes, 
" Has been very great much too great, indeed, for so 
small a nation, as, although I do not doubt that we are 
one of the nations of Europe which read most, still 
there is a limit to what even we can consume. And be- 
sides what our own authors can produce, we import and 
translate numbers of foreign works from all parts of 
Europe, from France, Kussia, Germany, and England 
even some from Italy and Spain. I am inclined to be- 
lieve that with our small market we introduce more 
from foreign languages than the English people." 

A movement is on foot to check this general 
onslaught upon foreign preserves by bringing 
Denmark into the Convention of Berne. This 
movement has not yet been successful, but the 
Danish literary guild has organized an authors' 
union, similar to those established last year in 
Sweden and Norway. The writer of this ar- 
ticle gives most of his attention to historical 
works, including Librarian Jorgensen's book 
on Chancellor Griffenfeld and Librarian Frid- 
ericia's book on the revolution of 1660, which 




largely transferred the Danish power from the 
nobility to the king. Another work of great 
value is that of Herr Troels Lund, who has 
told the history of sixteenth century daily life 
in Denmark at great length. 

" In vivid, picturesque language he depicts the cus- 
toms and manners of the nation. He follows the citizen 
of that half-civilized century through all the changes of 
his life from the cradle and nursery to the school, from 
the school to the shop or the battle-field, through all 
the civil and ecclesiastical ceremonies through which he 
had to pass, to the grave. It is only natural that such 
a work, which fills the empty frames of political history 
with lifelike pictures of people as they were, has found 
warm admirers not merely in Denmark, but also in Ger- 
many, where it seems to have caused a revolution in the 
conventional treatment of history as Staatsgeschichte." 

There has been nothing very noticeable in Dan- 
ish belles-lettres, unless we except " Solblom- 
ster," a volume of poems by Herr Michaelis. But 
it is interesting to be told that " dry, descript- 
ive realism is passing out of favor," and that 
" there is a search for ideals of a higher order." 
The Belgian literature of the year, in both 
French and Flemish, is described by Professor 
Fredericq. " La Jeune Belgique " is to the fore, 
represented by M. Georges Rodenbach, whose 
" Le Voile" has been performed at the Theatre 
Francais, and M. Georges Eekhoud, whose "La 
Nouvelle Carthage," a study of modern Ant- 
werpian life, has been awarded the quinquen- 
nial prize of five thousand francs for French 
literature in Belgium. M. Rodenbach has 
also published " Le Musee de Beguines," a 
vivid account of the life led by the inmates of 
the famous institution of Bruges. Three "mari- 
onette plays," by M. Maeterlinck, are entitled 
" Alladine et Palomides," " Interieur," and 
" La Mort de Tintagiles." As becomes a 
country that has done so much for the produc- 
tion of the Wagnerian music- dramas, Belgium 
offers us " L'Esthetique de Richard Wagner," 
in two volumes, by M. J. G. Freson, and a 
further instalment of M. Kufferath's analytical 
studies. A few other works are the conclud- 
ing volume of " Belgique Illustree," an anony- 
mous book about Emile de Laveleye, a volume 
of essays by that writer, and Librarian van der 
Haeghen's bibliography, preliminary to his 
forthcoming essay upon the works, of the great 
Erasmus. In Flemish Belgium, the greatest 
sensation of the year has been M. Cyriel 
Buysse's " Het Recht van der Sterkste," which 
" furnishes a painful and repulsive picture of 
the conditions under which the lives of beggars, 
thieves, and poachers are passed on the Flem- 
ish countryside." The most important poet- 
ical publications of the year have been " Clar- 

ibella," by M. Pol de Mont, and " Verzen," by 
Mile. Helene Swarth. A succession of mono- 
graphs upon the towns and villages of Flem- 
ish Belgium have also appeared. 

The event of the year in Holland, according 
to M. Taco de Beer, has been the publication 
of " Majesteit," by Heer Couperus. The book 
seems to be " modern " in the morbid sense, as 
was to be expected, but " the decorative scen- 
ery is done in so good a style, and there is so 
much aristocracy introduced, that the tale is 
making a deep impression." Other notable 
novels are Heer Lapidoth's " Goetia," a nihil- 
ist story, Heer Adema's " Thea," a tale of oc- 
cultism, Heer Slothouwer's " In een Groote 
Stad," " a picture of pessimism and melan- 
choly," and Heer Kops's "Op Leven en Dood," 
a story of the French Revolution. In poetry, 
the writer claims for Holland the two volumes 
already named under Flemish Belgium, and 
Dr. Roster's " Niobe," said to be finished in 
the Tennysonian manner. Five plays are chron- 
icled, all of which " tend to glorify the nervous 
youngster who claims the right to leave labor 
to others, and do any mischief he likes." Sev- 
eral works of serious aim are enumerated, such 
as Professor Pierson's " Geestelijke Vooroud- 
ers," or studies in the history of civilization. 
" Literary criticism and the study of the his- 
tory of literature are extinct " in Holland, ac- 
cording to the present writer, and this pessim- 
istic observation is in keeping with the tone of 
his entire article. We reserve for our next 
issue a summary of the year's literature in 
Southern and Eastern Europe. 


August Dillmann, the great Semitic scholar, died at 
Berlin on the fourth of July, at the age of seventy-one. 
Professor Cheyne writes of him in " The Academy " as 
follows: " Dillmann and Schrader were both pupils of 
Ewald, and carried on that tradition of a philological 
treatment of theological documents which Ewald him- 
self joined with Gesenius to initiate. But if it was at Gb't- 
tingen that Dillmann caught his enthusiasm for the study 
of languages and of the Bible, to Tubingen and Berlin 
he owed a full scope for learned labor. Like Schrader, 
he was induced by Ewald to take up Ethiopic; his Ethi- 
opic Grammar and Dictionary, and his edition of part 
of the Ethiopic Old Testament, and of the Book of 
Enoch, have won for him the abiding gratitude of stu- 
dents of that interesting language. Quite lately Dill- 
mann expressed his hope of revising his text and trans- 
lation of Enoch. Dillmann's Old Testament commen- 
taries are well known. His restless energy in bringing 
out new editions of them, in some respects thoroughly 
up to date, was a perpetual surprise to younger scholars. 
The study of Hexateuch-criticism owes much to him; 



[Aug. 1, 

and if it was provoking to some of his opponents that 
one so clear-sighted could not join them in their revo- 
lutionary theories, it surprised and touched them when 
they saw him, from sheer love of truth, making con- 
cessions which seemed to them next door to complete 
surrender. As a theologian, he held the cautiously pro- 
gressive views which might be expected from a disciple 
of Ewald. His dissertation on prophecy may still be 
read with instruction. But it is as an historical scholar 
and a philologist that he will be remembered." 

From " The Academy " we also take these remarks 
upon Sir Austen Henry Layard, who died on the fifth 
of July, at the age of seventy-seven : " He was born in 
Paris, and educated in Italy, which country he always 
regarded as a second home. When little more than 
twenty years of age he set off on his travels to the East, 
the account of which is contained in his latest book 
' Early Adventures in Persia, Susiaua, and Babylonia,' 
including a residence among the Bakhtiyari and other 
wild tribes before the discovery of Nineveh (1887). It 
was from Lord Stratford de Redcliffe that he received 
both encouragement and pecuniary means to excavate 
the site of Birs Nimrud, near Mosul, in 1845. His dis- 
covery of the famous Winged Bulls arrested public at- 
tention to an extent that has been granted to no subse- 
quent archaeologist. A second expedition, under the 
auspices of the Trustees of the British Museum, re- 
vealed the library of Sardanapalus. The results were 
published in two portfolios of 171 plates (1848-53), 
under the title of ' Monuments of Nineveh,' and also 
in a succession of popular volumes. Oxford was the 
first to recognize his services to learning by conferring 
upon him the degree of D.C.L. at the Commemoration 
of 1848; and seven years later he was elected Lord 
Rector of the University of Aberdeen. Layard now en- 
tered upon a fresh career as Radical politician and Tur- 
cophile diplomatist, which it is not necessary to follow 
here. But we must not pass over his devotion to Italian 
art, which occupied the later years of his life. Since 
1868 he has been one of the most active trustees of the 
National Gallery; and he had formed, in his palazzo at 
Venice, a choice collection of pictures of the schools of 
Northern Italy, under the guidance of his friend, the 
late Signor Morelli. In 1868, he wrote, for the Arun- 
del Society, an account of the Brancacci Chapel at Flor- 
ence, and of the painters Masolino, Masaccio, and Filip- 
pino Lippi. In 1887, when he was already seventy 
years of age, he undertook single-handed a revision of 
Kugler's ' Handbook of Painting,' in the light of the 
most recent discoveries ; and yet more recently he wrote 
a preface to the English translation of Morelli's ' Ital- 
ian Painters.'" 

Charles-Marie Leconte de Lisle, the leader of the 
Parnassiens from the death of Gautier, was born on the 
Island of Reunion October 23, 1818, and died at Paris 
on the seventeenth of July, at the age of seventy-five. 
After much travel in his early years, in 1846 he took up 
permanent residence in Paris. His " Poemes Antiques," 
published in 1852, was the first of many volumes of 
verse. He also made numerous translations from the 
Greek, including Theocritus, Anacreon, the "Iliad," 
Hesiod, ^Eschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides. In 1886 
he succeeded to Hugo's chair in the Academy. His 
original verse is characterized by perfection of form 
and rich coloring, and reflects a pantheistic mode of 
thought. He was at the time of his death the greatest 
of the remaining French poets, with the possible excep- 
tion of M. Sully-Prudhomme. 


No study in our American colleges is so directly 
and practically important as the study of English ; 
yet none is so beset with problems of administra- 
tion and method. To detail all of these would take 
up too much space here ; I will merely indicate 
some of the leading ones, to the solution of which 
the teachers of English at Amherst have been de- 
voting their attention during the last dozen years. 
There is, first of all, the question what to do with 
it as a required study. For the old idea seems a 
sound one, that whatever the predominance of elect- 
ive studies, English, at least English composition, 
should he required of all ; that is, that no possibil- 
ity should be opened for any student to gain his de- 
gree without some training in the practical use of 
his mother-tongue. Yet as a required study in the 
midst of electives, English is at a disadvantage ; 
the very fact that it is compulsory weights it with 
an odium which in many colleges makes it the bug- 
bear of the course. This ill repute was increased 
in the old-fashioned college course by the makeshift 
way in which time was grudged out to it in the cur- 
riculum. Under the name of " rhetoricals," En- 
glish declamations, orations, and essays used to be 
sandwiched in where some little crevice opened be- 
tween other studies, once a week perhaps, or at some 
irregular hour supposably unavailable for anything 
else. Now every teacher knows that a once-a-week 
study cannot be carried on with much profit or in- 
terest ; it cannot but be a weariness to student and 
instructor alike. It finds its way into the hands of 
incompetent and inexperienced teachers ; it has to 
rank as the Ishmael among the studies. 

It was the conviction of the teachers of English 
at Amherst that such ill repute was by no means a 
necessary accompaniment of their department. They 
believe that English, if granted a fair chance, could 
trust to its own intrinsic value and interest for sur- 
vival, as confidently as could any other study. I 
need not here recount the history of their quiet and 
steady work, first to gain a fair meed of time for 
the various branches of their department, then to 
obtain recognition for it as an elective study by the 
side of other electives, finally to retain the proper 

* This article is the thirteenth of an extended series on the 
Teaching of English at American Colleges and Universities, 
of which the following have already appeared in THE DIAL : 
English at Yale University, by Professor Albert S. Cook 
(Feb. 1); English at Columbia College, by Professor Bran- 
der Matthews (Feb. 16) ; English at Harvard University, by 
Professor Barrett Wendell (March 1); English at Stanford 
University, by Professor Melville B. Anderson (March 1C); 
English at Cornell University, by Professor Hiram Corson 
( April 1) ; English at the University of Virginia, by Professor 
Charles W. Kent (April 16) ; English at the University of 
Illinois, by Professor D. K. Dodge (May 1) ; English at La- 
fayette College, by Professor F. A. March (May 16) ; English 
at the State University of Iowa, by Professor E. E. Hale, Jr. 
(June 1) ; English at the University of Chicago, by Professor 
Albert H. Tolman (June 16) ; English at Indiana University, 
by Professor Martin W. Sampson (July 1 ) ; and English at 
the University of California, by Professor Charles Mills Gay- 
ley (July 16). [EDB. DIAL.] 




relation and balance of elective and required study. 
All this came about so naturally as to seem a spon- 
taneous evolution rather than what it actually was, 
a strenuous and determined working out of a plan. 

The best name by which to characterize the work 
in English as now conducted at Amherst is labora- 
tory work. Whatever the diversities of aim and 
method between the teachers, in this respect they 
are at one : each of their courses is a veritable work- 
shop, wherein, by systematized daily drill, details are 
mastered one by one, and that unity of result is ob- 
tained which is more for practical use than for show. 
The required work in English, which is all under 
the charge of Professor Henry A. Frink, has to do 
with the English of oral expression. It consists of 
two terms of elocutionary drill, or declamation, in 
Freshman year, and one in Sophomore year ; two 
terms of rhetoric, carried on by means of essays, 
exercises, and lectures, in Freshman year ; and 
three terms of debates, both extemporaneous and 
prepared, in Senior year. This comprises in itself 
a body of work fully as large as obtained in the old 
days of " rhetoricals "; and when we consider the 
careful emphasis given to individual drill and crit- 
icism, in which work the services of five assistants 
are employed, we may well regard it as far beyond 
the average of the old courses in efficiency. 

In the elective study of English, each college year 
has its course characteristic of the year. These 
courses, in the way in which they supplement each 
other, form a natural sequence ; yet they are inde- 
pendent of each other, each professor being supreme 
in his sphere, to plan, carry out, and complete, ac- 
cording to his own ideas. A trio in which the mem- 
bers work side by side, in cooperation rather than 
in subordination. 

The elective English of the Sophomore year, un- 
der the charge of the writer, centres in written ex- 
pression, the study and practice of rhetoric. The 
rhetoric thus pursued as the many users of the 
writer's text-books throughout the country need not 
be reminded is not the mere broadened study of 
grammar ; it is a study of the organizing of dis- 
course, from the choice of words up, as a real au- 
thor must seek to effect it : a determinate study, in 
however humble way, of literature in the making. 
Two terms of work, based on the text-book and on 
the " Handbook of Rhetorical Analysis," are carried 
on by daily recitations and written exercises ; these 
latter, invented to illustrate in succession the rhe- 
torical principles under consideration, being progres- 
sive in character and requiring as they advance 
more originative work on the part of the student. 
The course has too many interesting and novel fea- 
tures to detail here ; one of these, which has proved 
very profitable and interesting, is the setting up in 
type of many of the students' written productions 
and the reading and criticism of them in proof. 

The third term is devoted to the writing of essays 
and careful individual criticism of each one in per- 
sonal interviews. Each man in the class presents 
an essay about once a fortnight. By the side of 

this work there is carried on, as time and numbers 
permit, a course of reading and discussion of the lead- 
ing prose writers ; also a voluntary English semin- 
ary, after the manner of the German universities. 

In the Junior year begin the elective classes of 
Professor Frink. Two hours a week in the first term 
are devoted to the study of logic, and two hours to 
a progressive and systematic course of Public Speak- 
ing. The work of this foundation term takes the 
form of debates, study and analysis of American 
and British orations, and Shakespearean readings. 
In a similar manner, public speaking is continued 
through the second term; the debates, discussions, 
and speeches of various kinds having to do with 
the rhetoric of oral expression. Much stimulus to 
these studies under Professor Frink is supplied by 
the numerous prizes offered for proficiency in the 
work of each term. Nor, though the number of 
men concerned and the extent and variety of the 
work would seem to necessitate much that is merely 
perfunctory, is this work anything like a mere rou- 
tine. The industry and genius of Professor Frink 
in adapting his labors and interests to the personal 
peculiarities of each individual precludes that ; and 
in the sunshine of such friendly relations many a 
man finds powers awakened that he had not sus- 
pected in himself, or powers that were running wild 
ordered and steadied. 

With the third term of the Junior year begins, 
under Professor H. Humphrey Neill, the study of 
English literature. Here the aim is to do with a 
good degree of thoroughness whatever is done ; 
hence familiarity with a limited number of the great 
writers is sought, rather than a smattering inform- 
ation about many. The method of work, as in the 
other English studies, is eminently the laboratory 
method; and this, while based in just proportion 
on facts and details, is so aimed as to get at the 
spirit of the literature. The opening term of the 
course is devoted, in part through text-books and 
in part through lectures and discussion of the prin- 
ciples of literary criticism, to the course of the litera- 
ture down to the end of the sixteenth century ; spe- 
cial attention being given to Chaucer, Spenser, Bacon, 
Milton, and Dryden. Shakespeare is reserved for 
a special term. In the study of these, dependence 
is placed not so much on reading about the author 
as on familiarity with the author himself. 

With the beginning of the Senior year the stu- 
dents work more independently. The first term is 
devoted to the prose writers of the eighteenth and 
the early part of the nineteenth century ; the sec- 
ond to the poets of the same period. Two weeks 
are given to the study of each author ; and on each 
author certain members of the class read extended 
and carefully studied essays. These essays, in con- 
nection with the readings and topics prescribed, are 
made the basis of the class discussions and exam- 
inations. In this way the men are taught to form 
and test their own opinions. In the third term of 
Senior year (the fourth of the course) the study is 
Shakespeare. A minute exegesis of one or two of 



[Aug. 1, 

the greatest plays is given by means of lectures and 
topics for reading. In addition to this, four other 
plays are studied as a collateral course by the class, 
and made the subject of written examinations. This 
Shakespearean course is open to all, whether they 
have elected the three preceding terms or not. 

A special course is also given to a few who in 
every class, having pursued the course of the three 
prescribed terms, wish to carry their literary studies 
further. It consists of special investigation under 
the direction of the professor, but with no stated 

Such, in a very meagre outline, is the course of 
English study at Amherst. To pass judgment on 
it is for others, rather than for us who conduct it. 

Professor of Rhetoric, Amherst College. 


This well-known body of American scholars has com- 
pleted the twenty-fifth year of its organization; an event 
which in Germany would probably be called a Jubildum, 
and celebrated accordingly. The Association, however, 
remained content with the usual annual meeting, which 
was held at Williamstown, Mass., beginning on July 10. 
An unusually large number of members were in attend- 
ance, and the papers read, to the number of two dozen, 
were well received, and generally worthy of the occa- 
sion. Perhaps as interesting, from their novelty, as 
any, were the paper of Professor Wright, of Harvard 
University, on the votive tablet to Artemis Anaitis and 
Men Tiamou, recently picked up in a Boston curiosity 
shop, and now in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts; and 
that of Professor Allen, of Harvard, on the music of 
the hymn to Apollo recently discovered by the French 
savans at Delphi, and transcribed by M. Reinach in 
modern musical notation. The hymn as thus modern- 
ized was sung by Professor Sihler, to piano accompani- 
ment, in the parlor of the hotel next morning, much to 
the entertainment of the assembled scholars. 

The Association was handsomely treated by the Trus- 
tees and Faculty of Williams College. President and 
Mrs. Carter gave a noon reception and luncheon to the 
members on Wednesday ; after which the majestic sum- 
mit of Greylock was reached by an excursion, which ab- 
sorbed the entire afternoon, but well repaid all fatigue 
incurred by affording one of the most superb mountain 
panoramas in New England. 

At one of the sessions a resolution was adopted ex- 
pressive of the Association's sorrow for the death of 
Professor W. D. Whitney, and its sense of the loss thus 
sustained by American scholarship. Professor Whitney 
was one of the founders of the Association, and its first 
President, and has always remained deeply interested 
in its welfare. It was also resolved to hold a joint 
meeting with the American Oriental Society and other 
similar bodies, at Philadelphia, in the Christmas holi- 
days, to unite in memorial exercises in honor of Profes- 
sor Whitney. This, of course, will not supersede the 
next regular annual meeting, which will be held at Cleve- 
land, Ohio, July 9, 1895. As some objection was made 
to coming so far " West," on the ground that the East- 
ern members are the most numerous and active, it seems 

especially incumbent on members, and those who ought 
to be members, living in the Central and Western States, 
to rally in large numbers at Cleveland next summer. 
Readers of THE DIAL will, it is hoped, aid in further- 
ing this desirable end. J R S 


(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

Your correspondent who asks, in THE DIAL of June 1, 
"How Shall English Literature Be Taught?" sug- 
gests difficulties which meet the teacher of any other 
literature, as well as of English. Those difficulties are 
less serious with the classical teacher, for instance, only 
because his pupils are compelled, even to the end of the 
college course, to devote so large a portion of their time 
to purely linguistic study. The college teacher of En- 
glish, however, begins with pupils who can read their 
texts at sight, as far as merely linguistic difficulties are 
concerned. If any material portion of the time be given 
to linguistics, it is from choice, not absolute necessity. 
If the teacher wishes to devote the time to "litera- 
ture," he may do so. But what is " literature " ? " The 
teacher of English who concerns himself with the sub- 
ject-matter of his text soon wanders into forbidden 
fields and lo! the dilettante," says your correspondent. 
Has the subject-matter, then, so little to do with litera- 
ture that it can be ignored, and " literature," not simply 
some one or more aspects of the same, still be taught? 
It would be interesting to see a detailed argument for 
such a position. In fact, some of the single phases of 
literary study cannot be adequately treated apart from 
the subject-matter. Take the rhetorical, for instance, 
what is responsible for the wide rhetorical difference be- 
tween Lowell's " Present Crisis," " Fountain of Youth," 
and " Commemoration Ode " ? between the Twenty-third 
Psalm and Whittier's scathing review of Carlyle's " Oc- 
casional Discourse on the Negro Question " ? Simply 
the subject-matter. Will any teacher attempt to con- 
sider these specimens of literature from the rhetorical 
standpoint, and leave subject-matter out of the account ? 

But the subject-matter leads into " forbidden fields," 
we are told. Why forbidden ? Because they " im- 
pinge more or less " upon the territory of other chairs 
" concerned with the humanities " ? Has specialization 
gone so far, then, that there must be a sort of " Devil's 
lane " between my field and that of each of my col- 
leagues ? Is it not well, on the contrary, that the dif- 
ferent departments should impinge upon one another 
here and there ? Let us not give the pupil an impres- 
sion that he is storing various compartments of his brain 
with materials which are in danger of explosion in case 
of accidental contact. 

Given the point of view which your correspondent 
seems to take, and the question should be, not how 
shall English, or any other, literature be taught, but, 
can it be taught at all ? In the fulness of its meaning, 
ninety-nine in every hundred of those of us who are 
trying must humbly answer No ! But many of us will 
prefer to work toward such an ideal, even at the risk 
of " poaching " on the territory of our colleagues, or sub- 
jecting ourselves to that dread term of reproach, " di- 
lettante." w. H. JOHNSON. 

Denison University, Granville, Ohio, July 12, 1894. 





(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

Since trustworthy principles of literary criticism de- 
pend upon the substantiation of aesthetic theory by scien- 
tific inquiry, and since for lack of systematic effort the 
comparative investigation of literary types, species, 
movements, and themes is not yet adequately prosecuted, 
I should like to call the attention of my fellow-workers 
to the need of collaboration. No individual can, unaided, 
gather from various literatures the materials necessary 
for an induction to the characteristic of even one literary 
type. The time has come for organization of effort. An 
association should be formed, as proposed by me in the 
last issue of THE DIAL, for the comparative investiga- 
tion of literary growths. In this Society of Compara- 
tive Literature (or of Literary Evolution) each mem- 
ber should devote himself to the study of a given type 
or movement in a literature with which he is specially, 
and at first hand, familiar. Thus, gradually, wherever 
the type or movement has existed its evolution and 
characteristics may be observed and registered. In 
time, by systematization of results, an induction to the 
common and therefore essential characteristics of the 
phenomenon, to the laws governing its origin, growth, 
and differentiation, may be made. The history of na- 
tional criticism, and the aesthetics of sporadic critical 
theory, are, of course, interesting subjects of study; but 
to adopt canons of criticism from Boileau, or Vida, or 
Puttenham, or Sidney, or Corneille, or even Lessing and 
Aristotle, and apply them to types or varieties of type 
with which these critics were unacquainted, is to sit in 
the well in your backyard and study the stars through 
a smoked glass. To come at the laws which govern 
the drama, for instance, it is not sufficient that we mod- 
ify by generally accepted aesthetic principles the canons 
of a school of dramatic critics, and then revise the re- 
sults in the light of our inductions from the drama of 
the charmed Grasco - Roman - Celto - Teutonic circle in 
which we contentedly expatiate. The specific principles 
of technical (or typical) criticism must be based upon 
the characteristics of the type not only in well-known 
but in less-known literatures, among aboriginal as well 
as civilized peoples, and in all stages of its evolution. 
Arrangements should be made for the preparation and 
publication of scientific monographs on national de- 
velopments of the drama. The comparative formula- 
tion of results would assist us to corroborate or to reno- 
vate current aesthetic canons of dramatic criticism. So, 

also, with other types lyric, epic, etc and with the 

evolution of literary movements and themes. Of course 
the labor is arduous, and the limit undefined. But the 
work is not yet undertaken by any English or American 
organization, or by any periodical or series of publica- 
tions in the English language. The members of this So- 
ciety of Comparative Literature must be hewers of wood 
and drawers of water. Even though they cannot hope 
to see the completion of a temple of criticism, they may 
have the joy of construction: the reward of the phil- 
ologist. For several years I have hoped that some 
one else would set this ball a-rolling. If the idea be re- 
ceived with favor, I intend to issue a detailed statement 
of the purposes and plans of such an organization. As- 
sistance and criticism from those whom the suggestion 
may interest are respectfully solicited. 

University of California, Berkeley, Cal., July 20, 1894. 



(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

My attention is called to a letter addressed to Dr. 
W. J. Rolfe, which, though personal and not literary 
in character, is printed in the department of " Shakes- 
peariana " in " The Critic " of this date. 

This letter is signed by four persons, who attach to 
their names the titles of offices which they suppose them- 
selves to hold in The Shakespeare Society of New York. 
Neither of these four persons is at present a Trustee of 
that Society. Only one of them has even a colorable 
claim to membership in good standing therein, and one 
of them is not a member at all. Not one of them has 
been present at a meeting or council of that Society for 
two years last past ; and not one of them has ever con- 
tributed one cent to, nor has an interest to the amount 
of one cent in, the twenty-nine volumes which that So- 
ciety has published, nor in the eighteen which are now 
leaving its press. There is no such officer as " Chair- 
man of the Executive Committee " of that Society. Its 
charter provides for a Recording, and for an Assistant- 
Recording, Secretary, and for a Corresponding Secre- 
tary (whose duties are literary only). But there is no 
officer entitled to describe himself as "Secretary of the 
New York Shakespeare Society." 

No attention need, therefore, be paid to the perform- 
ances of these persons, nor to any statements which they 
may see fit to make concerning the Shakespeare Society 
of New York, especially to their statement that that 
Society has not " authorized " the Supplementary Vol- 
umes to " The Bankside Shakespeare," or that L. L. 
Lawrence, Clerk of the Publication Committee of that 
Society, is taking subscriptions for those volumes with- 
out authority. APPLETON MORGAN, 

President of the Shakespeare Society of New York. 
21 Park Row, New York, July 14, 1894. 

(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

As I believe there are among THE DIAL'S readers 
men and women willing to contribute to the proposed 
Tennyson memorial, I trust you will kindly print the 

Funds are being received for the erection of a lofty 
granite monolith, in the form of an lona cross, to the 
memory of Alfred Tennyson. It has been decided to 
erect the memorial on the highest point of the famous 
down which overlooks the western end of the Isle of 
Wight, and the spot chosen is the " edge of the noble 
down," which Tennyson loved so well, and where he al- 
most daily walked. The permission of the masters of 
Trinity House has been granted for the removal of the 
present wooden pile known to mariners as the Nodes 
Beacon, and the erection in its place of the Tennyson 
Beacon. As a land and sea mark visible from every 
point for many miles, the beacon cross should form a 
conspicuous and fitting memorial to the poet. 

The amounts contributed by subscribers to the fund 
will not be published, but as a tribute to the great poet 
it is hoped to send to England the names of every man 
and woman " whose life has been touched ' to finer is- 
sues ' by the poetry of Tennyson." Subscriptions may 
be sent to Miss Fay Davis, Secretary, in care of the un- 
dersigned. AKNIE FlELD8 

Manchester, Mass., July 22, 1894. 



[Aug. 1, 




Mr. William Martin Conway's " Climbing 
in the Himalayas " is decidedly a notable book, 
and at all points a worthy shelf-companion to 
Mr. Whymper's fine work on the Andes issued 
two years ago. Apart from its scientific in- 
terest as the record of an important geograph- 
ical enterprise, it presents a vivid picture of 
the perils and, to the Anglo-Saxon apprehen- 
sion, the pleasures of mountaineering a form 
of " sport " not yet seriously affected by ath- 
letic faddists on this side the water. In point 
of illustration the volume rather surpasses, to 
our thinking, even the best of the many beau- 
tiful books of travel heretofore issued. The 
artist is Mr. A. D. McCormick, and he has 
throughout treated the motives furnished him 
by the magnificent scenery of the Himalayas 
with a breadth and feeling that lift his work 
far above the average level of book illustra- 
tion. As these plates are an important factor 
in the work, forming as they do a pictorial 
narrative ancillary to the text, we may quote 
Mr. Conway's testimony in the " Alpine Jour- 
nal " as to their descriptive value : 

" I was careful to impress on McCormick at the start 
that I wanted no topographical accuracy in his sketches 
only the rendering of the impression a scene made 
upon him in light and color, a transfer of his vision of 
it to paper, so that, if possible, I might learn better how 
to see the hills by finding out how he saw them. As a 
matter of fact, his eye was so true to form that truth- 
fulness of form was a part of his normal vision, and 
whoever looks at his works may be assured that they 
are accurate in outline and mass to a remarkable de- 
gree. His excellence and rapidity as a draughtsman 
are points that it is only fair that I should emphasize, 
for I reaped from them the most valuable fruit." 

The expedition of which the volume is the 
record was made in 1892, under the auspices 
of the Eoyal Geographical Society, the Royal 
Society, the British Association, and the In- 
dian Government. The party consisted of Mr. 
Con way, Lieutenant Bruce (5th Gurkhas), Mr. 
McCormick, Lieut.-Col. Dickin, Mr. Roude- 
bush, Mr. Eckenstein, and the Swiss guide, M. 
Zurbriggen. Starting from Abbottabad, they 
went to Srinagar, the capital of Kashmir, and 
thence crossed the main Himalaya chain by the 
Burzil Pass to Astor and Bunji to the Indus 
Valley. They followed the road to Gilgit, an 

ALAYAS. By William M. Conway, M.A. Profusely illus- 
trated. New York : D. Appleton & Co. 

important British frontier station. A month 
was spent in exploring the glaciers at the head 
of the Bagrot Valley and the great peaks near 
Rakipushi (25,500 feet). Returning to Gil- 
git, they went up the recently-annexed Hunza- 
Nagyr Valley and visited the towns of Hunza 
and Nagyr. From Nagyr two long expeditions 
were made into the snowy region to the south 
and southeast, before advancing to Hispar, at 
the foot of the longest glacier in the world out- 
side the polar regions. Here dividing into two 
parties, they made the first passage by Euro- 
peans of the Mushik Pass, and the first defin- 
itely-recorded passage of the Hispar Pass, the 
longest known pass in the world. Uniting again 
at Askole, in Baltistan, they marched eastward 
up the Braldo Valley to the foot of the great 
Baltoro Glacier, which drains what is probably 
the greatest mountain group in the world. From 
this glacier valley tower K. 2 (28,250 feet), 
Gusherbrum (26,378), the Hidden Peak (26,- 
480), the Golden Throne (23,600), the Bride 
(25,119), and Masherbrum (25,676). Forcing 
their way to the glacier head, where they camped 
for two nights at an altitude of 20,000 feet, they 
climbed Pioneer Peak (about 23,000 feet), the 
highest ascent yet authentically made. Return- 
ing to Askole, they crossed the Skoro Pass to 
Shigar and Skardo, whence they rode up the 
Indus Valley to Leh, the capital of Ladak. 
They went thence over the Zoji Pass to Kash- 
mir and returned home from Srinagar to En- 
gland, after an absence of about a year, 84 days 
of which were spent on snow or glacier. 

It is impossible to give here anything like a 
fair epitome of the story of this tremendous 
journey, and we must content ourselves with 
a few extracts serving to indicate its general 
drift and style. Mr. Conway reached Srin- 
agar on April 3, duly prepared to enjoy and to 
celebrate in his turn the oft-sung beauties of 
this "Venice of Kashmir." These beauties 
seem to have been considerably overpainted. 
Mr. Conway says, unfeelingly : 

" It is the shabbiest and filthiest Venice imaginable, 
picturesque no doubt, but with the picturesqueness of a 
dirty Alpine village a mere Zermath extended for 
miles along the banks of a big sewer. There is no ar- 
chitecture visible from the water highway, if one ex- 
cepts the fine mosque of Shah Hamadan, a second-rate 
Hindu temple or two, and a ruined tomb-mosque. The 
rest is a mere patchwork of crazy wooden houses and 
ugly palaces. There is plenteous interest about the life 
on the river, the boats and barges, the cries of the 
rowers, the people washing by the dirty shore, the 
glimpses up foul alleys and what not; but there is no 
art in all this, only materials from which the artist can 
rend forth beauty by educated skill." 




Describing the New Bazar, one of the stock 
sights of Srinagar, Mr. Conway continues : 

" Craftsmen were working in the open rooms on the 
ground floor; most of the shops were upstairs. We were 
at once surrounded by a crowd, crying, ' I sell you this ! ' 
' I make you this ! ' ' Come and see my worrk ! ' ' You 
not buy from me; you buy from other man; see my 
things; I do good worrk; this is my shop ! ' and so on. 
We climbed crazy stairs and entered a small room 
wherein were tables covered with silver, copper, and 
brass inlaid with gay enamel. The dealer and his friends 
stood or squatted round; no one in particular seemed 
to own the shop. . . . We visited the papier-machie 
man, and noticed that English purchasers were steadily 
ruining his art by preferring his worst designs. He 
thought to capture us with one in particular. ' Last 
year I sold great many of these, every gentleman one 
pair, two pairs, mostly devil pattern I sold great many 
devil pattern devil pattern very much admired.' Thus 
do the English befoul the world's art." 

As the writer was formerly Professor of Art 
at Liverpool University, his testimony as to the 
art phase of the spreading " Anglo-Saxon con- 
tagion " carries some weight. John Bull, in 
fact, holding the power of the purse, would 
seem to have stimulated the once slow and 
scrupulous artificers of the Orient into a " pot- 
boiling " or Birmingham celerity, with not the 
happiest results as in Japan, where art is 
largely sinking into a trade regulated by the 
demand of the western market. 

Leaving Gilgit on May 10, the party reached 
the Hun/a river on the day following, and 
crossed it by means of ajhula a sort of prim- 
itive suspension bridge, cleverly enough con- 
structed and curiously analogous in the main to 
the complex structures at Niagara and Brook- 
lyn. As the natives let these bridges get into 
a rotten state before they mend them, it will 
be seen that, as the author feelingly testifies, 
Sijhula out of repair is " about as nasty a thing 
for a landsman to cross as may well be imag- 
ined." Mr. McCormick gives a view of the 
one at Dainyor, a giddy affair spun like a cob- 
web over a gorge that might shake the nerves 
of a Blondin. Says Mr. Conway : 

" Jhulas are formed of cables of twisted birch or other 
suitable twigs, each cable having a diameter of from 
two to three inches. Three of these cables, hanging in 
close contact side by side, and here and there tied to- 
gether, formed the floor of the bridge. There 'is a 
hand-rope at a suitable level on each side, hanging in a 
similar curve to that of the floor cable. Each of the 
hand-ropes is formed of a couple of cables twisted 
round one another. They are uncomfortable things to 
hold, being too thick to grasp, and spiked all along with 
the sharp projecting ends of the birch-twigs, whose 
points keep catching the sleeve at awkward moments. 
The gaping void between the hand-ropes and the floor- 
rope is interrupted every couple of yards by a weak tie, 
or V, of twisted withe, fastened to the hand-ropes, and 

passing under and partly supporting the floor-rope. At 
intervals of twelve yards or so there is a horizontal 
cross-piece of wood, firmly tied to the two hand-ropes, 
to keep them apart and to prevent them from spread- 
ing too wide. The cross-pieces are about at the level 
of the waist of a man standing on the bridge. These 
have to be climbed over as they occur. . . . One bridge, 
however, was new and strong, and the novelty of the 
thing was exciting; so that I crossed without discom- 
fort, and in a merely inquisitive frame of mind, such as 
one might have on a first occasion of dying. To be 
quite truthful it should be added that, when I reached 
the swiftest part of the current, the situation was none 
of the pleasantest; for the deceived eye deluded the 
imagination, and made believe that the water was stand- 
ing still, and the bridge itself swinging furiously up- 

Mr. Conway has duly brightened his pages 
with descriptions of the people of the remote 
regions visited. Very interesting were the vil- 
lagers about Hopar in northern Kashmir, a 
race carrying on a primitive and fairly pros- 
perous agriculture, though still living in a state 
of chronic inter-tribal or inter-communal war- 
fare. At Hopar, he says, 

" We wandered leisurely by a winding path, through 
fields of green corn and blossoming beans, amongst which 
there was a quantity of mint in flower. Here, or else- 
where, whenever we approached women or children, 
they bolted away from us or tried to hide themselves. 
If their houses were near at hand, they ran for them like 
rabbits into their holes. If a familiar shelter was too 
far away, they hurried into the cornfields and cast them- 
selves down amongst the corn, by which they were com- 
pletely concealed. These people have the habit of war 
deeply ingrained. A stranger in their fields, who is not 
a prisoner, is a conqueror. Their attitude towards one 
who travels freely amongst them is thus an attitude of 
fear, which, however, is easily dispelled, and then they 
become the friendliest folk in the world, and will do 
anything for you." 

During his stay Mr. Conway witnessed an 
overt act of tribal hostility which, offering a fair 
casus belli, nearly led to a general conflict. 

" As we were returning through the fields to camp, a 
man rushed frantically amongst the growing corn and 
seized two kids. He broke their backs, one after an- 
other, and cast the carcasses on to the path. His act 
was seen by the owner of the kids, a peasant belonging 
to the next village, who cried aloud and summoned his 
friends. In a few minutes the population of both vil- 
lages came together and drew up opposite each other, 
gesticulating and shouting in great anger. A peasant 
war seemed on the point of breaking out. We thus 
had experience of the moods to which the villagers of 
these parts owe their strongly battlemented walls." 

Before leaving Hopar accounts had to be set- 
tled with the natives ; and the author gives an 
amusing description of his dealings with the 
Raja's Munshi a sort of local expert account- 
ant, the ex qfficio representative of the villagers 
in the arithmetical battle which ensued. As 
the Munshi a transparent humbug in point 



[Aug. 1, 

of his supposed attainments did his addition 
on his fingers and was totally incapable of mul- 
tiplication and division, there was much " hig- 
gling of the market " as Adam Smith says. 
" Well, what have I to pay for ? " began Mr. 

" ' There is dud, atar, gJii yes, and there is wood too.' 
' How much atar ? ' The Munshi, looking hopeless 
Oh ! you have had atar; let us say for ten rupees.' 
Nonsense ! How much ? How many seers ? ' Why, 
hazor, these are poor people, and have little atar ; let 
us say eight rupees ! ' Habiba and the Gurkhas are 
called, and inform me of the exact number of seers 
each has had. ' Yes, that is quite right,' says the Mun- 
shi. ' But that is not worth eight rupees.' Well, how 
much does it come to, hazor? Tell me, for I do not 
know.' And so on. ' Now how many seers of milk ? ' 
' Well, the Khansama knows ; how much would you 
say ? ' Fifteen.' < All right; fifteen is right.' " 

In point of understanding the Hunshi's clients 
seem to have been worthy of their deputy, lo- 
cal information having to be screwed out of 
them piecemeal. " What do you call that val- 
ley ? " Mr. Conway would ask. 

" ' I have no tongue.' That valley is it Bualtar ? ' 
Ah ! Bualtar.' And that hill is it Shaltar ? ' ' Ah ! 
Shaltar Shaltar i Chish.' ' Good ! now that village 
what 's its name ? ' Ah ! village.' No. Begin again. 
The name of that is Bualtar ? ' ' Ah ! Bualtar.' And 
that is Shaltar ? ' Ah ! Shaltar.' < And that village 
what is it ? ' Ah ! village.' " 

Of the record of the party's mountaineering 
experiences, which takes up most of the vol- 
ume, the following extracts from the chapter 
on the " Ascent of Pioneer Peak " may serve 
as a sample. The ascent of the Peak proper 
was begun on August 25 from " Upper Pla- 
teau Camp," a point at which an altitude of 
20,000 feet had already been gained. The 
preceding night, says Mr. Conway, was bit- 
terly cold, and by five o'clock Zurbriggen, the 
Alpine guide, was stirring, and began prepara- 
tions for the journey. 

" His was the laborious duty of preparing a warm 
drink of chocolate, with indifferent spirit to burn, and 
no space to manoauvre the apparatus in. The Russian 
lamp began to roar like a falling avalanche ; and, while 
the chocolate was cooking, we struggled out of our sleep- 
ing bags and into our boots, and wound the pattis round 
our legs, first greasing our feet with marmot fat, for 
protection against the cold. Every movement was a 
toil. After lacing a boot, one had to lie down and take 
breath before one could lace the next." 

Shortly before six all was ready, and the trav- 
ellers faced the long snow slope stretching be- 
tween them and the ridge along which the rest 
of the way was to lie. 

" For an hour we plodded steadily upwards in the bit- 
ter cold. The risen sun left us still in the shadow, and 
moment by moment our limbs grew colder and our 

strength seemed to be evaporating. Gradually the se- 
vere exercise warmed our bodies, but our feet lost all 
sensation. We crunched our toes inside our boots with 
every step, and stamped our feet upon the ground ; but 
nothing gave the smallest relief. At last it became 
necessary to halt and pull off our boots, to bring life 
back to our feet by rubbing. We were all on the point 
of being frost-bitten, and only saved ourselves by the 
most vigorous measures. During our halt the sun came 
upon us; and though our feet were numbed for the rest 
of the day, our bodies were soon far too hot to be com- 
fortable. These variations between biting cold and 
grilling heat are one of the great impediments to moun- 
taineering at high altitudes in these parts." 

After a quarter of an hour's walk along the 
ridge, the first peak (20,700 feet) was reached, 
and the second peak (21,350 feet) after a rough 
scramble through rocks and over hard ice in 
which " every step taken " had to be cut with 
the axe in an hour and ten minutes. This 
labor of step-cutting Zurbriggen found infin- 
itely more fatiguing than at the ordinary Swiss 
levels. The rest of the ascent was altogether 
monotonous a dogged struggle of nearly three 
hours, with axe, rope, and alpenstock, up an 
arete heavily corniced on the left, so that the 
view on that side was completely shut out. 

" Our advance was necessarily slow, and the terrible 
heat which the burning rays of the sun poured upon our 
heads did not add to its rapidity. There was plenty of 
air upon the actual ridge, and now and again a puff 
would come down upon us and quicken us into a little 
life; but for the most part we were in the midst of utter 
aerial stagnation which made life intolerable. I heard 
the click ! click ! of Zurbriggen's axe, making the long 
striding steps, and I mechanically struggled from one 
to another. I was dimly conscious of a vast depth down 
below on the right, filled with tortured glacier and gap- 
ing crevasses of monstrous size. Sometimes I would 
picture the frail ice-steps giving way, and the whole 
party falling down the precipitous slope. I asked my- 
self upon which of the rocks projecting below should 
we meet with our final smash; and I inspected the 
schrunds for the one that might be our last not unwel- 
come resting-place. Then there would come a reaction, 
and for a moment the grandeur of the scenery would 
make itself felt. ... At length the slope we were 
climbing became less steep. To avoid a larger mass of 
cornice than usual we kept away horizontally to the 
right, and presently discovered that the cornice was the 
actual summit of the third peak on the ridge. We held 
the rope tight with all imaginable precautions whilst 
Zurbriggen climbed to the top. He found a firm place 
where all could cut out seats for themselves, and there 
at 2.45 P. M. we entered upon well-earned repose." 

The victory was won, for the halting-place was 
the top of Pioneer Peak, the highest point yet 
authentically reached by man. 

" The moment we looked round we saw that the peak 
we were on was the highest point of our ridge. Beyond 
it was a deep depression, on the other side of which a 
long face of snow led up to the south ridge of the Golden 
Throne. From the Throne, therefore, we were utterly 
cut off. Ours was a separate mountain, a satellite of 




its greater neighbor, whose summit still looked down 
upon us from a height of 1,000 feet, and whose broad 
extended arms shut out the view to the north-east which 
I so ardently desired to behold. Framed in the passes 
I have mentioned there were glorious mountain pictures ; 
that to the south, looking straight down the great Kon- 
dus valley and away over the bewildering intricacy of 
the lower Ladak ranges being especially fine, and ren- 
dered all the more solemn by the still roof of cloud 
poised over it at a height of 25,000 feet. When one 
beholds a small portion of Nature near at hand, the ac- 
tion of avalanches, rivers, and winds seems tremendous, 
but in a deep-extending view over range after range of 
mountains, and valley beyond valley, Nature's forces 
are reduced to a mere trembling insignificance, and the 
effect of the whole is majestic repose. The clouds 
seemed stationary above the mountain kingdom; not a 
sound broke the utter stillness of the air. We ceased 
to pant for breath the moment the need for exertion was 
withdrawn, and a delicious lassitude and forgetfulness 
of past labor supervened upon our over-wrought frames." 

The barometer, standing at 13.30 inches, gave 
an altitude of 22,600 feet. The summit of the 
Golden Throne, towering high above the Peak, 
was about 800 yards away horizontally, and 
elevated at an angle of 25. " We were there- 
fore," says Mr. Con way, "approximately, 1,100 
feet below it. ... If the G. T. S. value for 
the height of K.2 is correct, the Golden Throne 
must be 24,100 feet high, and the height of 
Pioneer Peak is over 23,000 feet." Tracings 
taken with the sphygmograph of the author's 
and M. Zurbriggen's pulse showed the damag- 
ing effect of the altitude. " Our breathing ap- 
paratus," says Mr. Con way, " was working well 
enough, but our hearts were being sorely tried, 
and mine was in a parlous state." Further climb- 
ing was out of the question even for the hardy 
Swiss, who owned that " another step he could 
not cut. All recognized that the greatest we 
were going to accomplish was done, and that 
thenceforward nothing remained for us but 
downwards and homewards." 

The total result of the expedition can be es- 
timated from the present volume, and from the 
reports and scientific memoranda to be pub- 
lished separately, with maps, in the coming 
autumn. It is hardly necessary to say of Mr. 
Con way that no better man could have been 
chosen either as leader or chronicler of the ex- 
pedition. A copious author, a Fellow of the 
Society of Arts and of the Royal Geographical 
Society, the Vice-President of the Alpine Club 
and editor of "The Alpine Journal," his name is 
familiar to the scientist and the general reader. 
We can point to no more readable, solidly in- 
forming, and outwardly attractive book of trav- 
els than " Climbing in the Himalayas." 

E. G. J. 


The making of history is a gradual process. 
There are occasional wars, or political or social 
commotions ; but the every-day life of the peo- 
ple occupies by far the greater part of the years 
of a nation's life. Little things are apt to pass 
unnoticed ; local customs change ; the charac- 
ter of a community is altered ; old landmarks 
are swept away, and in the busy rush of our 
American life a new generation forgets the 
old, and the familiar customs of the fathers 
become strange to the children. 

The writers of our history have too often 
been content with a recital of the leading events 
of military and political life, or have confined 
their attention to constitutional discussions, 
neglecting to note the fact that the develop- 
ment of the people, in their social, economic, 
and industrial conditions, gives the substantial 
basis to the nation's strength, and that much 
of history is made in quiet ways, without the 
scenic effects of the thunder-and-lightning of 

But when once the writers turned their 
thought to the people, manifest differences ap- 
peared, strange and surprising difficulties ; and 
various methods were adopted to harmonize 
these with the old theory that the American peo- 
ple are but transplanted Englishmen. Douglas 
Campbell stirred up a great deal of interest 
when he published his " Puritan in England, 
Holland, and America," two years ago. It led 
to the examination of the origin of certain 
features of American institutions, by a gentle- 
man who has but recently published the results 
of his study in " Sources of the Constitution 
of the United States "; and it no doubt stim- 
ulated Dr. Griffis to reexamine the facts of 
Dutch history, which had already appealed to 
him, and which he had collected into readable 
form in a pamphlet of his own. His volume 
on " Brave Little Holland, and What She 
Taught Us " is valuable for two reasons, cer- 
tainly : it puts in a very attractive form the 
story of the growth of Holland, and, more espe- 
cially, it presents many new and important con- 
siderations affecting the question, Just what 
influence did New Netherlands have upon 
American life, and how large an increment of 
population was thus added to the cosmopolitan 
colonies ? 

The claim is set forth that the foundations 
of the Empire State were laid by the Dutch, 

By William Elliott Griffis. Boston : Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 



[Aug. 1, 

and that, notwithstanding the short life of the 
colony before the occupation by the English 
in 1664, impressions had been made which 
were lasting, so that when New York, as a 
State of the American Union, formed its con- 
stitution and developed its institutions, the pre- 
cedents from the monarchical form of govern- 
ment of England were disregarded for the 
principles of the republic across the sea. De- 
tails are given in illustration, and the array of 
claims is quite imposing. The list is somewhat 
familiar to students, but it goes without saying 
that there is a vast deal of importance in the 
sentence : 

" From the Dutch system they [our fathers] borrowed 
the idea of a written constitution, a Senate, or States- 
General, the Hague, or District of Columbia, the Su- 
preme Court (with vast improvements), the land laws, 
registration of deeds and mortgages, local self-govern- 
ment from the town and county to the government of 
governments at Washington, the common-school sys- 
tem, freedom of religion and of the press, and many of 
the details of the Dutch state and national systems." 

But the interest of the volume does not come 
from this grouping of claims for Dutch influ- 
ence, so much as from the many chance sug- 
gestions and references found all through the 
chapters, accounting for names and symbols, 
and throwing light upon peculiar customs or 
characteristics, noticed by others, but not so 
fully explained. No one can read the little 
book without feeling the truth of what is said 
about the relations existing between the Dutch 
Eepublic and that of the United States of 
America. Following the story of the one, the 
impression grows that when Benjamin Frank- 
lin declared, " In love of liberty and bravery 
in the defense of it, she has been our great ex- 
ample," he told but part of the truth. There 
must have been the influence of the example 
of a republic struggling for the improvement 
of constitutional government, and there must 
have been untold and hardly described influ- 
ences which permeated the society of the mid- 
dle colonies, where the seven thousand Dutch 
made their homes, weaving into the life of the 
people the web of Dutch character and Dutch 

Even if the reader be one of those who con- 
tend that there was no influence but the En- 
glish affecting American life and character be- 
fore the great tides of immigration began to 
set in, there will be positive enjoyment in read- 
ing again the accounts of the various ways in 
which the people of Holland showed their sym- 
pathy for the American cause during the Rev- 
olution. Friends were scarce enough in those 

times, and " Brave Little Holland " should 
have a warm place in our hearts for her ex- 
pressions of friendship then. 

There is a lack of footnotes and references 
to support the statements of the text, but the 
book was not written for students and histo- 
rians. The story is put in simple language for 
the young folks of America, and the author 
expresses his trust that by the book a deeper 
interest may be awakened in the little country 
of which John Adams wrote : " The originals 
of the two Republicks are so much alike, that 
the History of One seems but a Transcript 
from that of the other." 



Mr. Coxe's work on "Judicial Power and 
Unconstitutional Legislation " is incomplete. 
He planned two volumes, the first to contain a 
history of the relation of judicial power to a 
superior binding rule of right, the second to 
be a commentary on the text of our Constitu- 
tion and devoted to establishing the thesis that 
the power to declare acts unconstitutional and 
void is expressly granted. The author died 
leaving the second volume so incomplete that 
his executors did not feel warranted in sending 
it to the press. The first volume, therefore, is 
the one before us. It is a very elaborate dis- 
cussion of cases in Roman Law, Canon Law, 
English Law, and Modern Law, on the conti- 
nent of Europe, as well as in the American 
colonies before the Revolution and in the 
United States under the Articles of Confeder- 
ation. Cases are found in each division in 
which a court held a specific legislative enact- 
ment void because repugnant to what was held 
to be a superior rule. 

These scattered cases, however, would hardly 
have sufficed to set up a distinct legal prece- 
dent. What doubtless weighed most with the 
Constitutional Convention of 1787 was not 
precedent at all, but the absolute necessity of 
the situation and the impracticability of any 
other plan. Under the Articles of Confedera- 
tion the Congress was impotent because there 
was no means of bringing its will to bear on any 
individual citizen. The legislation of the sep- 
arate States might, and not infrequently did, 
directly nullify acts of Congress or treaties of 

LEGISLATION. By Brinton Coxe, of the Philadelphia Bar. 
Philadelphia : Kay & Brothers. 




the United States. This must be remedied or 
the Union was doomed. Two ways were sug- 
gested. One was for a Federal veto on State 
legislation ; the other relegated the matter to 
the courts, and merely provided that the or- 
ganic law of the nation should be the supreme 
law of the land. The first was preventive ; the 
second was remedial. The latter was adopted, 
doubtless as being less objectionable in the view 
of those who would be opposed to great cen- 
tralization. And no other way of dealing with 
the difficulty than these two can easily be im- 
agined. So the action of the Convention is 
easily accounted for. 

The power in question is by no means inher- 
ent in a written constitution. Switzerland has 
such a constitution, in large part formed after 
the pattern of our own. But by that instru- 
ment the Swiss judiciary is expressly forbid- 
den to pass on the constitutionality of statutes. 
Nearly every nation on the European continent 
has now a written constitution. But in none 
is the judicial power allowed to extend to con- 
stitutional questions. The reasons for this jeal- 
ousy of the courts are partly historical ; the 
judges have always been in a more or less de- 
pendent position. At the same time the Eu- 
ropean conception of the nature of government 
is radically different from that which prevails 
here. We regard court, executive, and legis- 
lature, as alike merely the agents of sover- 
eignty, and each as strictly limited by specific- 
ally delegated powers. The European view is 
substantially that of England and that is, the 
omnipotence of the legislature. Such varia- 
tions in detail as exist may tend to the inde- 
pendence of the executive, as is the case in the 
German Empire. But the historic causes which 
have left the monarch strong have not acted to 
add power to the courts. They still hold a 
subordinate place. 

The whole question has a new interest to the 
American student of political science in the 
light of the extraordinary position of the Su- 
preme Court in the memorable case of Juil- 
liard vs. Greenman. That ground is substan- 
tially this : that Congress has all the powers 
which the national legislatures of foreign sov- 
ereign and civilized governments have and use, 
as incidental to powers identical with the ex- 
press powers given to our Congress provided 
only that such powers are not prohibited to 
Congress by the constitution. 

It is difficult to see how this doctrine does 
not come very near to confounding the radical 
difference between the European and American 

views of government. It certainly stops little 
short of vesting in Congress the English par- 
liamentary omnipotence. And if, as Mr. Coxe 
suggests, Congress were to enact that the Su- 
preme Court should under no circumstances 
declare a Federal statute unconstitutional, so 
long as the decision in Juilliard vs. Greenman 
remains law the court would certainly be bound 
to accept such supposed enactment as valid. 
And that at one blow would destroy the coor- 
dinate independence of the judiciary. Is not 
the decision in Juilliard vs. Greenman, then, 
in effect a grave menace to the very power of 
the court which we have come to regard as one 
of the strongest bulwarks of constitutional free- 

In the light of these considerations, the ques- 
tion of judicial power as related to unconstitu- 
tional laws is worthy of careful and renewed 
attention. It lies at the very heart of the vital 
distinction which we have been accustomed to 
make between the State and the government of 

the State. 



Mr. Lang's recent " rally of fugitive rhymes " 
consists mostly of trifles, but trifles of the exquisite 
sort that he almost alone knows how to throw off. 
Of the small number of wholly serious poems in- 
cluded, the place of honor must be given as in- 
deed it is in the volume to "A Scot to Jeanne 
d'Arc." Happily, it is not too long to quote. 

" Dark Lily without blame, 

Not upon us the shame, 
Whose sires were to the Auld Alliance true, 
They, by the Maiden's side, 
Victorious fought and died, 
One stood by thee that fiery torment through, 
Till the White Dove from thy pure lips had passed, 
And thou wert with thine own St. Catherine at the last. 

* BAN AND ARRIERE BAN. A Rally of Fugitive Rhymes. 
By Andrew Lang. New York : Longmans, Green, & Co. 

ENGLISH POEMS. By Richard LeGallienne. Boston : Cope- 
land & Day. 

CUCKOO SONGS. By Katharine Tynan Hinkson. Boston : 
Copeland & Day. 

Cochrane. New York : Longmans, Green, & Co. 

POEMS. By Langdon Elwyn Mitchell. Boston: Hough- 
ton, Mifflin & Co. 

LYRICS AND SONNETS. By Harry B. Smith. Chicago : 
The Dial Press. 

A LOVER'S DIARY. Songs in Sequence. By Gilbert Parker. 
Chicago : Stone & Kimball. 

McCulloch, Junior. Chicago : Stone & Kimball. 

WHEN HEARTS ARE TRUMPS. By Tom Hall. Chicago : 
Stone & Kimball. 



[Aug. 1, 

" Once only didst thou see 

In artists' imagery, 

Thine own face painted, and that precious thing 
Was in an Archer's hand 
From the leal Northern land. 
Alas, what price would not thy people bring 
To win that portrait of the ruinous 
Gulf of devouring years that hide the Maid from us ! 

" Born of a lowly line, 

Noteless as once was thine, 
One of that name I would were kin to me, 
Who, in the Scottish Guard, 
Won this for his reward, 
To fight for France, and memory of thee 
Not upon us, dark Lily, without blame, 
Not on the North may fall the shadow of that shame. 

" On France and England both 

The shame of broken troth, 
Of coward hate and treason black must be ; 
If England slew thee, France 
Sent not one word, one lance, 
One coin to rescue or to ransom thee. 
And still thy Church unto the Maid denies 
The halo and the palms, the Beatific prize. 

" But yet thy people calls 
Within the rescued walls 
Of Orleans ; and makes its prayer to thee ; 
What though the Church have chidden 
These orisons forbidden. 

Yet art thou with this earth's immortal Three, 
With him in Athens that of hemlock died, 
And with thy Master dear whom the world crucified." 

It seems, according to Mr. Lang's notes, that Jeanne 
d'Arc led a Scottish force at Lagny, that she her- 
self declared her portrait to have been made by a 
Scottish archer, and that two Langs (or Lains) were 
in the French service about 1507. All of which 
afford excellent reasons, if any were needed, why 
a fin de dix-neuvieme siecle Scot should have paid 
this beautiful tribute to the Maid of Orleans. Be- 
fore turning to Mr. Lang's lighter verse, we must 
find room for this characteristic erratum concern- 
ing the sonnet "Britannia": 

" Reader, a blot hath escaped the watchfulness of the set- 
ter-f orth : if thou wilt thou mayst amend it. The sonnet on 
the forty-fourth page, against all right Italianate laws, hath 
but thirteen lines withal : add another to thy liking, if thou 
art a Maker ; or, if thou art none, even be content with what 
is set before thee. If it be scant measure, be sure it is choicely 

But how could a man who is a Maker let such a 
thing escape him ? The sonnet called " Gallia," at 
least, is correct in scheme, and is worth reproducing 
because of the abbreviated verse so rarely employed 
by English sonneteers. 

" Lady, lady neat 

Of the roguish eye, 

Wherefore dost thou hie, 
Stealthy, down the street, 
On well-booted feet ? 

From French novels I 

Gather that you fly 
Guy or Jules to meet. 

"Furtive dost thou range 
Oft thy cab to change ; 

So ; at least, 't is said : 
Oh, the sad old tale 
Passionately stale, 

We 've so often read ! " 

This is something of a tour de force, although less 
so than the Frenchman's sonnet-epitaph for a young 

S M: "Fort 


" Rose 

In " The Restoration of Romance" and "The Tour- 
ney of the Heroes " we have two poems in celebra- 
tion of the Haggard - Stevenson - Doyle - Weyman 
school of fiction. Mr. Lang, as he has often let us 
know before, does not like novels that lead to soul- 
searching, and Mrs. Humphry Ward is his bete 
noire. The second of these poems is a spirited bal- 
lad in which Ivanhoe, Hereward, Gotz, Porthos, and 
others, do battle with a motley crowd of such mod- 
erns as Felix Holt and Silas Lapham and David 
Grieve. The fight is soon narrowed down, until, 

" At length but two are left on ground, and David Grieve is 


Mafoy, what deeds of derring-do that bookseller hath done ! 
The other, mark the giant frame, the great portentous fist ! 
'Tis Porthos ! David Grieve may call on Kuenen an he list." 

But why should David call on Kuenen ? That might 
have been Robert Elsmere's refuge, but Friar Tuck 
settled him before he had time to call upon any sort 
of patron saint. It is needless to say that Porthos 
remains in possession of the field. There are a 
number of personal tributes in Mr. Lang's volume, 
and from that written "For Mark Twain's Jubilee " 
we make one inimitable extract. 

" How many and many a weary day, 
When sad enough were we, ' Mark's way ' 

(Unlike the Laureate's Mark's) 
Has made us laugh until we cried, 
And, sinking back exhausted, sighed, 

Like Gargery, Wot larx ! " 

One looks askance at a group of poems described as 
" written under the influence of Wordsworth," but 
the following example will show that it is only Mr. 
Lang's f-f-fun : 

" Mist, though I love thee not, who puttest down 

Trout in the Lochs (they feed not, as a rule, 

At least on fly, in mere or river-pool 
When fogs have fallen, and the air is lown, 
And on each Ben, a pillow not a crown, 

The fat folds rest), thou, Mist, hast power to cool 

The blatant declamations of the fool 
Who raves reciting through the heather brown. 

" Much do I bar the matron, man, or lass 

Who cries ' How lovely ! ' and who does not spare, 

When light and shadow on the mountain pass, 
Shadow and light, and gleams exceeding fair, 

O'er rock, and glade, and glen, to shout, the Ass, 
To me, to me the Poet, ' Oh, look there ! ' " 

But we must leave something for readers of the 



book itself, and will close with a few lines inscribed 

"The Unknown Correspondent, who, 

With nndefatigable pen, 
And nothing in the world to do, 
Perplexes literary men," 

and to whom is addressed this solemn adjuration : 
' ' friends with time upon your hands, 

O friends with postage stamps in plenty, 
poets out of many lands, 

youths and maidens under twenty, 
Seek out some other wretch to bore, 

Or wreak yourselves upon your neighbours, 
And leave me to my dusty lore, 
And my unprofitable labours ! " 

Mr. Richard LeGallienne's volume of " English 
Poems " opens with some lines " to the reader," from 
which we make this quotation : 

" O shall we hear an English song again ! 
Still English larks mount in the merry morn, 
And English May still brings an English thorn, 
Still English daisies up and down the grass, 
Still English love for English lad and lass 
Yet youngsters blush to sing an English song ! " 

We should not call attention to these verses if they 
were not obviously intended to provide the collec- 
tion with a keynote, and if the poems that follow 
seemed to bear out the suggested claim. But the 
quality of Mr. LeGallienne's work seems to us any- 
thing but distinctively English. If it reminds us of 
one poet more than of another, Rossetti is the man ; 
and we can never think of Rossetti as other than 
an exotic in the English garden of song. The fol- 
lowing lines on " The House of Venus " will illus- 
trate our meaning: 

" Not that Queen Venus of adulterous fame, 
Whose love was lust's insatiable flame 
Not hers the house I would be singer in 
Whose loose-lipped servants seek a weary sin : 
But mine the Venus of that morning flood 
With all the dawn's young passion in her blood, 
With great blue eyes and unpressed bosom sweet. 
Her would I sing and of the shy retreat 
Where Love first kissed her wondering maidenhood, 
And He and She first stood, with eyes afraid, 
In the most golden house that God has made." 

This is charming verse, but its inspiration is not ex- 
actly English. The first half of Mr. LeGallienne's 
book is given up to " Paolo and Francesca," a poem 
in Spenserian stanza ; " Love Platonic," a group of 
poems having the common motive suggested by their 
title ; and " Cor Cordium," another group similarly 
linked together. These three divisions of the book 
are apparently intended (we quote from a recent 
English critic) " to contrast three phases of sexual 
affection : passion overleaping social law, passion re- 
strained by social law, and passion sanctioned by 
social law." The idea is a good one, and the parts 
of the trilogy are well contrasted. Our own selec- 
tion shall be taken, not from these groups, but from 
the miscellaneous portion of the book, and is enti- 
tled " Sunset in the City." 

" Above the town a monstrous wheel is turning, 

With glowing spokes of red, 
Low in the west its fiery axle burning ; 
And, lost amid the spaces overhead, 
A vague white moth, the moon, is fluttering. 

"Above the town an azure sea is flowing, 

'Mid long peninsulas of shining sand, 
From opal unto pearl the moon is growing, 
Dropped like a shell upon the changing strand. 

" Within the town the streets grow strange and haunted, 

And, dark against the western lakes of green, 
The buildings change to temples, and unwonted 
Shadows and sounds creep in where day has been. 

" Within the town, the lamps of sin are flaring, 

Poor foolish men that know not what ye are ! 
Tired traffic still upon his feet is faring 
Two lovers meet and kiss and watch a star." 

Mr. LeGallienne's work is very uneven, but is prom- 
ising at its best. He is still a minor poet, but is pos- 
sibly in the chrysalis stage of development into some- 
thing better. 

Mrs. Hinkson's " Cuckoo Songs" are mostly sim- 
ple lyrics and ballads, versified Irish legends, and 
mediaeval aspects of religious emotion. 
" A small monotonous song I sing, 

My notes are faint and few, 
Like his whose coming wakes the Spring, 
Cuckoo ! Cuckoo ! " 

" The Resurrection : a Miracle Play," is the most 
pretentious and perhaps the best of these pieces. 
" God's Bird " is a pretty conceit, and may be taken 
for our illustration. 

"Nay, not Thine eagle, Lord, 

No golden eagle I, 

That creep half-fainting on the sward, 
And have not wings to fly. 

" Nor yet Thy swallow dear, 

That, faring home to Thee, 
Looks on the storm and hath no fear, 
And broods above the sea. 

" Nor yet Thy tender dove, 

Meek as Thyself, Thou Lamb ! 
I would I were the dove, Thy love, 
And not that thing I am ! 

" But take me in Thy hand, 

To be Thy sparrow, then ; 
Were two sparrows in Holy Land, 
One farthing bought the twain. 

" Make me Thy sparrow, then, 
That trembles in Thy hold ; 
And who shall pluck me out again, 
And cast me in the cold ? 

" But if I fall at last, 

A thing of little price, 
If Thou one thought on me hast cast, 
Lo, then my Paradise ! " 

A defective sense of rhythm is manifest in most of 
these " Cuckoo Songs," marring what would often 
otherwise have been an effective bit of lyric. 

In the season which is, at least theoretically, one 
of rest, relaxation, and recuperation, one might do 
worse than heed the voice of the summer philoso- 
pher who persuades us to join him in his rustic re- 
treat with such arguments as these : 

" Here the sleek shorthorns in the shade 

Crop clover by the gate, 
Without (thank heav'n) a dairymaid 

Who, tossed by savage Fate, 
Comes our weak intellect to vex, 

Like D'Urbervilian Tess, 
With sombre riddles of the sex, 

Far too abstruse to guess. 



[Aug. 1, 

" When the spruce chaffinch twitters clear, 

Amid the apple bloom, 
No social problems bore my ear, 

No prophecies of gloom ; 
And when the sparrows in the eaves 

Salute the morning haze, 
I catch among the ivy leaves 

No word of Ibsen's plays." 

These stanzas are extracted from " The Kestrel's 
Nest, and Other Verses," by Mr. Alfred Cochrane, 
a volume of vers de societS which we do not hesitate 
to place among the best of its class with the work 
of Mr. Dobson, Mr. Locker, and Mr. Lang. Which 
position we proceed to defend by these lines from 
" Omnia Vincit ": 

" Love, I said in my wisdom, Love is dead, 
For all his fabled triumphs and instead 
We find a calm affectionate respect 
Doled forth by Intellect to Intellect. 

" Yet when Love, taking vengeance, smote me sore, 
My Siren called me from no classic shore ; 
It was no Girton trumpet that laid low 
The walls of this Platonic Jericho. 

" For when my peace of mind at length was stole, 
I thought no whit of Intellect or Soul ; 
Nay ! I was cast in pitiful distress 
By brown eyes wide with truth and tenderness." 

Another example may be taken from the stanzas 
" To Anthea," which illustrate a form of self-abase- 
ment not uncommon among lovers. 

" My taste in Art she hailed with groans, 
And I, once charmed with bolder tones, 
Now love the yellows of Bume- Jones : 

But then, She likes them. 
My tuneful soul no longer hoards 
Stray jewels from the Empire boards ; 
I revel now in Dvorak's chords : 

But then, She strikes them. 

Our age distinctly cramps a knight ; 
Yet, though debarred from tilt and fight, 
I can admit that black is white, 

If she asserts it. 
Heroes of old were luckier men 
Than I I venture now and then 
To hint retracting meekly when 

She controverts it." 

What could be more delicious in its humor than 
"The Ballade of Classical Music" 

" What time the string quintette is long, 

And concert chairs grow hard, may be, 
While strange-named fiddlers, going strong, 
Have ntt yet finished ' Movement 3,' 

" Think not our saddened air ennui, 
Others have this dejection had ; 
We do but with the poet agree, 
And still sweet music makes us sad " 

with its " Envoy " 

" Be merciful, fair devotee, 

The Lett motiv, which makes you glad, 
Sometimes the novice fails to see, 

And still sweet music makes us sad." 

One complete poem " Upon Lesbia, Arguing " 
must end our extracts. 

" My Lesbia, I will not deny, 

Bewitches me completely ; 
She has the usual beaming eye, 

And smiles upon me sweetly : 
But she has an unseemly way 
Of contradicting what I say. 

" And, though I am her closest friend, 

And find her fascinating, 
I cannot cordially commend 

Her method of debating : 
Her logic, though she is divine, 
Is singularly feminine. 

" Her reasoning is full of tricks, 

And butterfly suggestions ; 
I know no point to which she sticks, 

She begs the simplest questions ; 
And, when her premises are strong, 
She always draws her inference wrong. 

" Broad, liberal views on men and things 

She will not hear a word of ; 
To prove herself correct she brings 

Some instance she has heard of ; 
The argument ad hominem 
Appears her favorite stratagem. 

' ' Old Socrates, with sage replies 
To questions put to suit him, 
Would not, I think, have looked so wise 

With Lesbia to confute him ; 
He would more probably have bade 
Xantippe hasten to his aid. 

" Ah ! well, my fair philosopher, 

With clear brown eyes that glisten 
So sweetly, that I much prefer 
To look at them than listen, 
Preach me your sermon : have your way, 
The voice is yours, whate'er you say." 

We commend this masterly study to those inter- 
ested in the comparative psychology of the sexes. 

The " Poems " of Mr. Langdon Elwyn Mitchell 
are grave, thoughtful, and refined. While never 
rising to great altitudes, they exhibit mastery of 
material, and the restraint of one who recognizes 
his limitations. They have, for the most part, a 
healthy objectivity that removes them as far as pos- 
sible from the mere Hirngespinnst of most amateur 
writers of verse. Mr. Mitchell can paint a quiet 
picture or give expression to a passing mood with 
much command of subtle verbal effect. For a pic- 
ture, let us take these lines : 

" There is an old town by the sea, 
That lies alone and quietly. 
Behind, the sand-dunes bleak and gray 
Stretch to the low hills away ; 
Before, the ripple laps and calls, 
Running along the weedy walls ; 
Like crescents pale, on either side 
The silver sands receive the tide ; 
And from the winding streets you see 
The great green waters of the sea." 

And for a mood, these verses, that follow upon the 
highly poetical description of an autumn day : 

" And my deep heart within, 
Like a calm lake, reflects the golden scene, 
Distinct in all its glory, e'en to where 
The distant hills loom up in the warm air, 
Melting in silvery haze. 

" How sweet, how good 
It is to be reborn into this mood 
Of natural ending : to be satisfied 
With the world's age, and ebb of its great tide. 
Too often do we fall from such content ; 




Estranged from our own nature, wryed and bent, 

As saplings in the forest by the snow, 

Heavily fallen, and which never grow 

Erect again ; Life falls on us e'en so ! 

And, wrenched at heart too rudely, we become 

Like those whose spirits, fading on the gloom 

And bitterness of things, see naught to please 

Where others find a blessedness or ease ; 

Whom nothing satisfies : nor love, nor mirth ; 

Not clouds, and not the sun's bright looking forth ; 

Not Life ! forever sliding into change ; 

Not Death ! for death 's unnatural and strange. 

Not with the stillness, and not with the stream, 

Are such content : they feed upon a Dream, 

And waking from it hunger ceaselessly ; 

Their heaven a desire, eternity 

Of vain desire." 

The list of poets that, by virtue of birth or long 
residence, may be claimed by Chicago is not a 
lengthy one, but it at least claims respectful consid- 
eration. It includes the names of B. F. Taylor and 
H. N. Powers, of Mr. Block, Mr. Horton, Mr. 
Field, and Mr. McGaffey, of Miss Harriet Monroe, 
Miss Amanda Jones, and Miss Blanche Fearing. 
To this list the name of Mr. Harry B. Smith must 
now be added, and his privately-printed collection 
of " Lyrics and Sonnets " takes a high place among 
the works of his fellow-singers. The first impres- 
sion made by this volume is of unusual range. The 
serious tone is dominant so much so that it would 
seem to preclude exercises in lighter vein yet when 
we near the end of the collection we come upon 
some vers de societe and a group of semi-humorous 
songs of a bibliophile. Perhaps the best of these 
" bookish ballads " is the " Editio Princeps," of 
which one stanza may be given. 

" The contents of this work are found 

In new editions lately dated, 
Uncut, gilt tops, good type, well bound, 

And admirably illustrated. 
But connoisseurs give these no heed ; 

To own such things they 've no ambition ; 
For though they 're good enough to read, 

They are not like a first edition." 

We must find room, also, before turning to Mr. 
Smith's more thoughtful verse, for one of the stanzas 
addressed " To My Old Pipe (if I had one)." 

" Old pipe, 't is true thou hast seen better days, 

Thou 'rt shabby and much worn ; 
Thou art malodorous. My lady says 

Thou art not to be borne. 
And yet 't is true that thou hast served me well 

Despite thy gruesome mien. 
No one, save I, thy master, e'er can tell 

How faithful thou hast been. 
(One little thing this sentiment debars 

I only smoke cigars.) " 

The author, when serious, is very serious indeed, 
often falling into a vein of religious sentiment that 
recalls the accent of Clough. That poet might easily 
have penned the following quatrain : 

" 'Twas Doubt that solved the riddles of the past, 
Slew Error's faiths, red-handed and uncouth. 
This will perfect the souls of men at last : 
Men must be doubters ere they see the truth." 

The note is still graver in such a poem as " The 
Fortunate Ones " : 

" Are not the dead God's favorites after all ? 

Is death the goal ? At least they are at rest 

Whom the great mother lulls upon her breast 
To sleep in silence. Not for them the brawl 

And tumult that are life's when life is best ; 

For where is living one, however blest, 
Into whose chalice bitter drops ne'er fall ? 
If the sad echo of an anguished cry 

That ever haunts the minds that darkly grope 

Speaks truth, if man clings to a shadowy hope, 
His Maker's likeness only born to die, 

Still are the dead God's favorites, mocked no more 

By a poor faith we cling to and adore 
Like helpless slaves of chance. At rest they lie." 

Among Mr. Smith's sonnets, the most noteworthy are 
the group upon Egyptian themes and the "Shake- 
speare." The latter has already done duty as a pre- 
face to the author's comedy of the player-poet, and 
we reproduce it here as an example of his best work. 

" soul of mine, thou farest in strange ways 
On thy mind- journey ; meadows sunlit bright 
Thou traversest where variant flowers delight 

And lure aside ; in grey mysterious haze 

Thou wand'rest phantom-led thro' many a maze ; 
Thou bravest rivers rolling with swift might, 
Lingerest on little hills of graceful height ; 

In stately woods thou dreamest happy days, 

Until a lonely mountain-top is won, 
Font of the streams and mother of the vales, 

Whose verdant slope all Elfland plays upon, 
On whose fair brow Truth's star faints not nor pales, 

Whence in the noontide eagles seek the sun, 
Where in the moonlight sob the nightingales." 

The sestet of this sonnet, while not absolutely fault- 
less, is deserving of very high praise. 

" A Lover's Diary " is a sequence of over a hun- 
dred sonnets, recording the various modulations of 
the lover's mood. Such a work naturally challenges 
comparison with " The House of Life " and " Son- 
nets from the Portuguese," and these works have 
but to be named to make it clear how far Mr. 
Parker has fallen short from such achievement as 
they denote. In spite of the true and tender sen- 
timent that runs like a golden thread through the 
fabric of his weaving, and in spite of the happy 
phrases and exquisite single verses that occasionally 
reward the reader, the general level of this series 
of poems is bardly above the commonplace. In this 
case, as in so many others, facility seems to have 
been the successful foe of that concentration of feel- 
ing demanded by the sonnet form. We quote one 
of the best of the pieces : 

" It is enough that in this burdened time 

The soul sees all its purposes aright. 

The rest what does it matter ? Soon the night 
Will come to whelm us, then the morning chime. 
What does it matter, if but in the way 

One hand clasps ours, one heart believes us true ; 

One understands the work we try to do, 
And strives through Love to teach us what to say ? 
Between me and the chilly outer air 

Which blows in from the world, there standeth one 

Who draws Love's curtains closely everywhere, 
As God folds down the banners of the sun. 

Warm is the place about me, and above 

Where was the raven, I behold the dove." 

We have called these poems sonnets, although they 
depart (as the above example shows) from the or- 



[Aug. 1, 

thodox form. But as long as Shakespeare's sonnets 
go by that name, there will be warrant for the lib- 
erty we have taken. 

Mr. McCulloch's " The Quest of Heracles, and 
Other Poems," includes classical idyls, sonnets, and 
a few miscellaneous pieces. The rhymed couplet 
and the terza rima are the forms chiefly favored in 
the longer poems, and are used with graceful pre- 
cision, although hardly with display of poetic en- 
ergy. The following sonnet is a fair sample of this 
writer's work : 

" Fain would I journey from these barren lands 
Where I was born, unto the magic isles 
Of tropic seas, where Winter kindlier smiles 
Than doth the Summer of our northern strands. 
And I would wander on the golden sands 
Of tropic rivers, reaching miles on miles 
Thro' orchid-bowers, where the sun beguiles 
Our hearts with scattered gifts from lavish hands. 
Then Homer to the Old World carries me 
In hollow ships across the crested main ; 
And Chaucer shows each April-haunted lane 
Of England. Spenser gives enchanted sea, 
His summer woods, and purple pageantry, 
While Dante guides me through the world of pain." 

" When Hearts Are Trumps " is a collection of 
trifles, by turn sentimental and jocose. They are 
lamentably lacking in finish, and not always in good 


" Why was it always my fate to endure ? " 

will not do for the closing verse of a sonnet, and 
" She 's accustomed to sitting on rocks in the glen ; 
She is also accustomed to sitting on men," 

will not do for the closing couplet of any kind of 
a jingle that is expected to be taken seriously. We 
are not sure that " When You Are Rejected " will 
do, either ; but we leave that question for our read- 
ers to decide. 

"Don't say, 
' Good day,' 

Then grab the door and slam it. 
Be quite 
Polite : 
Go out, and then say, ' it ! ' " 

The neatest thing we have found in the volume is 
" A Drop Too Much ": 

" I praised her hair, I praised her lips, 

She looked up with surprise ; 
I bowed to kiss her finger-tips, 
And then she dropped her eyes. 

" I said love ruled the world, that 1 
Adored her ; called her ' Nan.' 
She merely looked a little shy, 
And then she dropped her fan. 

" I took the hint, and at her feet 
I knelt yes, quite absurd ; 
But oh, my fond heart wildly beat 
To hear her drop a word. 

" I told her all : my talents few, 

My direful lack of pelf. 
(We all have erred. ) She said ' Ahem,' 
And then dropped me myself." 

A word of praise should be given to the dainty 
dress given by the publishers to this and the two 
preceding volumes. 



Amid the multitude of books about 
A favorite book Venice, Life on the Lagoons," by 

about Venice. ' . ' 

Mr. Horatio r . Brown, well deserves 
the new and fuller edition just given it by Messrs. 
Macmillan & Co. It represents minute investiga- 
tion and a well-nigh complete acquaintance with the 
history and customs of that city of many vicissitudes. 
Every fact is verified by painstaking research, in 
museum and library, from architect and gondolier. 
Here is no mere " afterglow " of European travel, 
but all that long residence and daily familiarity 
with picturesque scenes can give to the scholar. 
The author's faults are all on the side of diffuseness 
and breadth. We feel that with a threefold point 
of view the historical, the archaeological, and the 
artistic he is wittingly attempting the work of a 
Lanciani, a Symonds, and a Howells or Hopkinson 
Smith, all in one volume. We are even slightly an- 
noyed to find so able and conscientious a writer go- 
ing so widely afield. While he nobly proves his 
own versatility, he leaves the reader uncertain as to 
his real object. The title, " Life on the Lagoons," 
is itself misleading. One recalls, at so poetic a title, 
the roseate hues and warmth of the " pink " city, 
and scarcely forgives the writer for the matter-of- 
fact and prosaic method of treatment apparent in 
the opening chapters especially. The two points 
open to criticism are alike due to the book's com- 
prehensiveness. It is scarcely to be expected that 
a couple of dozen topics, ranging from banks and 
ferros to villottes, should be woven together into a 
consistent whole. And if such a collection of odd 
sketches is necessarily fragmentary, it is likely also 
to be deficient in that indefinable and peculiarly 
Venetian quality, atmosphere. The first paper 
we will not say chapter, the sketches are so evi- 
dently written with no aim at continuity is a pre- 
cise condensation of all Venetian history, which the 
author " trusts may prove useful " to visitors. The 
papers following, " The Gondola," " The Traghetti," 
" A Gondolier's Bank," " Sails and Sail-making," 
reveal an almost technical accuracy, and from the 
very novelty of their separate treatment are inter- 
esting as well as " useful." Perhaps the nearest 
approach to color is in the pages descriptive of All 
Souls' Day and popular superstitions. Information, 
pressed down and running over, is occasionally en- 
livened by a gleam of quaint humor ; as when the 
author drolly says, " Dreams are so important in 
the conduct of life, and it is so dangerous to lose one, 
that this belief may in part account for the univer- 
sal custom of sleeping with the outer shutters closed." 
The illustrations of the book are either too few or 
too many, according as it is viewed as a descriptive 
sketch-book or a collection of information. In the 
latter case, they do not illustrate as well as the dia- 
grams, though it would doubtless be considered a 
manifest absurdity to print a book about Venice, 
however learned or scholarly, without pictures of a 
gondola, San Giorgio, and the bathers at Lido. 




West Irish 

The two earlier volumes of " The 
Camden Library " (Elliot Stock, Lon- 
don) dealt with the Antiquities and 
Curiosities of the Exchequer, and the Sculptured 
Signs of London. The third number contains a very 
good collection of "West Irish Folk-Tales," by Will- 
iam Larminie. The field of Irish folk-lore is but 
little worked, and a large part of the work already 
done lacks definiteness and scientific value. Mr. 
Larminie's work appears to be accurate and pains- 
taking. His stories at times approach those of Ger- 
many, at other times those of the Highland Scotch. 
He believes that they show influence of two or more 
ethnic streams presenting a curious mixture of 
the domesticity of the Teutonic and the wildness of 
the Gaelic races. This peculiarly wild character 
emotional, variable, explosive, is shown repeatedly 
in the stories. Very conspicuous in the style is that 
remarkable involution where subordinate and sub- 
subordinate matter is introduced into the narrative 
until one is almost in despair of ever again finding 
the "thread of the story." Certain set passages re- 
cur in story after story, and certain stock incidents 
appear again and again. Thus, " she smothered 
him with kisses and drowned him with tears : she 
dried him with the finest cloths and with silk," is 
a favorite passage. These " runs " are frequently 
in mysterious language, incomprehensible now and 
perhaps always meaningless. Besides comparisons 
pointed out by the author, others might be men- 
tioned. Thus, the incident of the hunter who kills 
a raven, whose red blood staining the white snow 
leads him to vow that he will never marry a woman 
" whose head was not as black as the bird's wing, 
and her skin as white as the snow and her cheeks 
as red as the blood," recurs in American Indian 
folk-lore. The decision of the girl-wife as to whether 
a foal belongs to the mare or the horse suggests that 
in Chatelain's Angola Tale of " The Lawsuit of Leop- 
ard and Antelope." Mr. Larminie urges the im- 
portance of writing down folk-lore in the Gaelic 
language, and gives specimens in Gaelic phonetically 

The new volume by Mr. Ruskin, en- 
titled " Verona and Other Lectures," 
is published in this country by Messrs. 
Macmillan & Co. In order to secure copyright 
under the American law, the type has been reset ; 
and we mention this fact mainly for the purpose of 
calling attention to the remarkable way in which 
the mechanical features of Mr. Ruskin's own edi- 
tions have been imitated. Typography, paper, and 
binding all follow so closely the books issuing from 
Mr. George Allen's establishment that one has to 
look twice before realizing that he has to do with 
an American imitation. As long as the objection- 
able clause of our copyright law remains, we shall 
have to put up with imitations ; and thanks are due 
to any publisher who will copy so well a good En- 
glish edition. The difference between a good copy 
and a poor one is well illustrated by a comparison 

A new volume 
of Essays by 
Mr, Ruskin. 

of this volume with the volumes in which Professor 
Huxley's " Collected Essays " are now issuing from 
the American press. The contents of this volume 
(which Mr. Collingwood edits) are five lectures 
dating from 1870 to 1885. The first and most gen- 
erally interesting is a talk about " Verona and Its 
Rivers." It touches not only upon the history and 
art of the beautiful city of the Adige, but also upon 
the importance of properly controlling the rivers 
of Italy, in avoidance of the havoc wrought by 
freshets and for increase of the fruitfulness of the 
soil. Of the other lectures, one is a sort of supple- 
ment to " Aratra Pentelici," and two were intended 
for a new volume of "Our Fathers Have Told Us." 
The editor explains just how these latter two were 
to fit into the scheme of the work as originally 
planned. The remaining lecture, " The Story of 
Arachne," is a brief address to students at Wool- 
wich, made in 1870. If we are to have an extract, 
it may as well come from this lecture, and the clos- 
ing passage is now not without a certain timeliness. 
"I have some workmen myself, and have had, for 
many years, under me. Heaven knows I am not 
independent of them ; and I do not think they either 
are, or wish to be, independent of me. We depend 
heartily, and always, they upon my word, and 
upon my desire for their welfare ; I, upon their 
work, and their pride in doing it well, and, I think, 
also, their desire tc do it well for me. Believe me, 
my friends, there is no such thing as independence 
till we die. In the grave we shall be independent 
to purpose, not till then. While we live, the de- 
fence and prosperity of our country depends less 
even on hearts of oak than on hearts of flesh ; on 
the patience which seeks improvement with hope 
but not with haste ; on the science which discerns 
what is lovely in character and honorable in act ; 
and on the Fine Art and tact of happy submission 
to the guidance of good men, and the laws of na- 
ture, and of heaven." 

Lights and Mr - J- B - Yeate's "A Celtic Twi- 

shadows of a light " (Macmillan) is a pretty book 

Celtic Twilight. O f gome two hundred pages, contain- 
ing twenty brief tales and sketches written mostly 
for "The National Observer." Most of the stories 
were told Mr. Yeats by one Paddy Flynn, a " little 
bright-eyed old man who lived in a leaky and one- 
roomed cabin in the village of Ballisadore " the 
most " gentle," that is the most faery, place in 
County Sligo. So full was Paddy's head of the lore 
of dhouls and fairies, water-horses, kelpies, house- 
ghosts, and the like local hobgoblins, that he was 
more than suspected of being a little uncanny him- 
self. It was whispered about that he had " strange 
sights to keep him cheerful or to make him sad "; 
and he owned that he had once seen the banshee 
" down there," as he said, " by the water, batting 
the river with its hands." That Paddy's vision on 
this occasion was artificially quickened seems prob- 
able. Like many of the " finest pisanthry in the 
world," he had a liking for potheen ; and, indeed, 



[Aug. 1, 

his death was brought about by the gift of a large 
bottle of it. The sight of so much liquor, says the 
author quaintly, " filled him with a great enthusiasm, 
and he lived upon it for some days, and then died." 
Death kindly closed his eyes to the fact when the 
potheen was nearly exhausted. Mr. Yeats filled his 
note-book with Paddy's tales and sayings, and re- 
produces them with good effect in the present vol- 
ume. Besides the folk-lore, there are some amus- 
ing character sketches notably " The Last Glee- 
man," being the account of one Michael Moran, a 
blind beggar and ballad-singer, and the admitted 
rector of his class in Dublin. " He was not much 
to look at, with his coarse frieze coat with its cape 
and scalloped edge, his old corduroy trousers and 
great brogues, and his stout stick made fast to his 
wrist by a thong of leather ; and he would have 
been a woeful shock to the gleeman Maclonglinne 
could that friend of kings have beheld him in pro- 
phetic vision from the pillar stone at Cork." Yet 
Michael was a true gleeman, being poet, jester, and 
newsman of the people. In the morning his wife or 
a neighbor would read the newspaper to him until 
interrupted with, '' That'll do I have me medita- 
tions " ; and he would sally forth duly inspired for 
the day's store of jest and rhyme. We subjoin a 
specimen of his lighter improvisation: 

" In Egypt's land contagious to the Nile, 

King Pharaoh's daughter went to bathe in style. 

She tuk her dip, then walked unto the land ; 

To dry her royal pelt she ran along the strand. 

A bulrush tripped her, whereupon she saw 

A smiling babby in a wad o' straw. 

She tuk it up, and said, with accents mild, 
' Tare-an'-agers, girls, which av yez owns the child ? ' " 

The book is fresh and amusing, and it is beautifully 
made and printed. 

The historian - Alexander Robertson's Life 

of the Council of Fra Paolo Sarpi, the heroic and 
of Trent. learned Venetian friar (1552-1623), 

is interesting and timely. The long-decreed monu- 
ment to Fra Paolo has recently been unveiled in 
Venice, and his body, after two centuries of con- 
cealment, has found an honored resting-place in the 
church of the Campo Santo on the island of San 
Michele. There are many tributes from eminent 
pens to the worth and learning of Fra Paolo. Gib- 
bon calls him " the incomparable historian of the 
Council of Trent," and Galileo owned him " My 
father and my master." As a metaphysician, says 
Macaulay, " he anticipated Locke "; and, he adds, 
"what he did, he did better than anybody." In 
Walton's " Life of Sanderson " we find the Bishop 
quoted as lamenting a lost opportunity of seeing 
" one of the late miracles of general learning, pru- 
dence, and modesty, Sir Henry Wotton's dear friend 
Padre Paolo ... a man whose fame must never 
die till virtue and learning shall become so useless 
as not to be regarded." Dr. Robertson's Life of 
Fra Paola Sarpi (published by Thomas Whittaker ) 
is compact and readable, and it contains portraits 
and a fac-simile of a letter of Fra Paolo's. 

A new volume of the " Mermaid " 
Life and works - (imported by Scribner) is de- 

of Richard Steele. -i^-rT-i 10 IT 

voted to Kichard oteele, and edited 
by Mr. G. A. Aitken, of all persons the most com- 
petent for such a task. In this case we have, not 
the " best plays," but all the plays of our author 
that is, the four comedies, and the fragments of two 
others, first printed by Nichols in 1809. We have 
also a surprise in the shape of two plates instead of 
the one that has been the rule in this series, Colley 
Gibber being the subject of the second. Mr. Ait- 
ken's introduction is lengthy, and is here and there 
indebted to his exhaustive biography for such phrases 
and sentences as were found convenient for use. 

value and In " The Empire, Its Value and 

growth of the Growth " (Longmans ), an inaugural 
British Empire. address delivered last year at the 
Imperial Institute, Mr. W. E. H. Lecky briefly dis- 
cusses the vexed question of the utility to England 
of her dependencies. The issue is clearly presented, 
and the broader reasons pro and con are fairly stated. 
Mr. Lecky is plainly no friend to the plan of gradu- 
ally paring down British domain to the sweet simpli- 
city of two islands ; and he combats the views of 
Cobden and Mill and the Manchester School gener- 
ally with his usual force. The little book may be read 
through at a sitting, and it will repay the reading. 


Two recent classical texts are a revised edition (Ginn) 
of Professors Goodwin and White's " Anabasis " (the 
first four books), and Cicero's " Laelius," edited by Mr. 
E. S. Shuckburgh, and revised for American use by Mr. 
Henry Clark Johnson (Macmillan). Among modern lan- 
guage texts we have " A Preparatory German Reader " 
(Ginn), by Mr. C. L. Van Daell; George Sand's "La 
Petite Fadette " (Heath), edited by Mr. F. Aston- 
Binns; and the whole of Schiller's Wallenstein " (Holt) 
in a very attractive volume edited by Professor W. H. 
Carruth. The notes, illustrations, and other apparatus 
of this latter text indicate careful and judicious selec- 
tion from the vast amount of material upon which an 
editor of " Wallenstein " must draw. 

We note the receipt of two excellent grammar-school 
text-books. Mr. G. A. Wentworth's " The First Steps 
in Algebra " (Ginn) is opportune at a time when it really 
looks as though the much-needed educational reform of 
the lower grades were impending. One of the first 
steps of that reform will be to put elementary algebra 
and geometry into the seventh and eighth grades, and 
Mr. Wentworth's book is just the sort of help that is 
needed. Mr. John Fiske's "The War of Independ- 
ence" (Houghton) appears in the "Riverside Litera- 
ture " series, and makes the best kind of supplementary 
reading for boys and girls struggling with United States 

"From Milton to Tennyson" (Allyn & Bacon), by 
Mr. L. DuPont Syle, is a volume of selected master- 
pieces followed by an almost equal volume of notes. It 
is intended for high-school and possibly for college use. 
The selection of texts is good, and the notes are help- 
ful, although an occasional exhibition of irrational pre- 




judice on the part of the writer does not conduce to con- 
fidence in his judgment. Shelley, in particular, is made 
the subject of his spleen, and Mr. Swinburne, for stat- 
ing the perfectly obvious fact that Shelley was the first 
of English lyrists, is promptly classed with humorists 
of the Hosea Bigelow type. Even innuendo is not 
wanting, as in the reference to Shelley's " religious (?) 

Mr. Lauren E. Crane has edited the speeches and ad- 
dresses of Newton Booth of California (1825-1892), 
and they are now published in a handsome volume, with 
introduction, notes, and a portrait. Their author was 
Governor of California from 1871 to 1873, and after- 
wards represented that State in the United States Sen- 
ate. His political speeches are patriotic in tone, and 
discuss a great variety of local and national questions. 
Two of his lectures are entitled " Charles James Fox," 
and " Morals and Politics." Some newspaper and mag- 
azine articles are also published. The book is issued 
by Messrs. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

Baron Nils Posse's " The Swedish System of Educa- 
tional Gymnastics " was first published four years ago, 
and has now i cached a third edition. For its present 
issue the book has been rewritten and otherwise elabor- 
ated, besides being provided with a new and formidable 
title, " The Special Kinesiology of Educational Gym- 
nastics" (Lee & Shepard). The general aim of this 
system is to secure a harmonious and symmetrical de- 
velopment of the entire body. The text is very fully 
illustrated, and the book is thus adapted for the work 
of self-instruction. 

Mr. A. E. Dolbear's book on "Matter, Ether, and 
Motion " (Lee & Shepard) has reached a second edi- 
tion, and the author has taken occasion, not only to re- 
vise the original text, but to add some new chapters. 
As a popular exposition of fundamental physical prin- 
ciples, the work will do well enough, but confidence in 
the author's judgment is a little shaken by the way in 
which he toys with the vagaries of spiritualism and 
telepathy, and suggests that the ingenious speculations 
of the non-Euclidean geometers may be subject to ex- 
perimental confirmation. 

Mr. Samuel Harden Church's "Oliver Cromwell" 
(Putnam) is an octavo of more than five hundred pages. 
The author claims to have taken a middle course be- 
tween Hume's severe treatment of the subject and Car- 
lyle's somewhat extravagant hero-worship. He has de- 
voted six years to the work, and has collected a large 
library of Cromwellian literature. " I have written my 
book not as a biographical sketch," he says, " but as a 
narrative or study which aims to present, with sufficient 
detail, the formation of the commonwealth and its 
strange paradox of the permanent establishment of civil 
and religious liberty through a Dictator who respected 
no law, in working out England's salvation, but the law 
of necessity; and this for a nation whose fortunes are 
happily and inseparably linked with the forms of pop- 
ular monarchy." The work is thoughtful and pains- 
taking, readable rather than brilliant. 

Mr. Isaac Meyer is the author of a monograph on 
"Scarabs" (New York: E. W. Dayton), or to repro- 
duce in full the sub-title of the work, " the history, man- 
ufacture, and religious symbolism of the Scarabseus in 
ancient Egypt, Phoanicia, Sardinia, Etruria, etc.: also, 
remarks on the learning, philosophy, arts, ethics, psy- 
chology, ideas as to the immortality of the soul, etc., of the 
ancient Egyptians, Phcenicians," etc. Mr. Meyer's work 

seems to be a very thorough and scholarly study of the 
subject. His remarks upon the modern forgeries of 
scarabs are particularly interesting, as well as profitable 
to the would-be amateur Egyptologist. 

In " The Sacred City of the Ethiopians " (Longmans), 
Mr. Theodore Bent records the results of an expedition 
into Abyssinia undertaken last year, and extending over 
a period of four months. Mrs. Bent accompanied and 
acted as photographer for the expedition, which proved 
highly fruitful of archaeological results. The objective 
point of the expedition was Aksum, the ancient capital 
of Ethiopia. Mr. Bent predicts that the work of inves- 
tigation thus begun will eventually " place before our 
view a vast, powerful, and commercial empire an em- 
pire which extended its discoveries to parts of the world 
which are only now being rediscovered, and possessing 
a commerce which supplied the ancient world with its 
most valued luxuries." The book is of great interest. 

The booklet on " English in the Secondary Schools," 
mentioned in our last number, is a quasi-official publi- 
cation of the University of California. It is interest- 
ing both for the practical and wholesome character of 
the suggestions made by Professors Gayley and Brad- 
ley, its authors, and because it illustrates a new method 
of bringing the university influence to bear upon the 
lower schools. Other departments of the University 
are about to follow the lead thus taken, and issue simi- 
lar special monographs. The English pamphlet may 
be had from the Recorder of the Faculties at Berkeley. 


New York, July S6, 1894. 

The chief event of the month in the literary world is 
of course the publication in the " Century Magazine " 
of the first instalment of the Poe-Griswold correspond- 
ence. The existence of these papers has been known 
to a number of people for many years, but all efforts to 
persuade the late Dr. George H. Moore, their custodian, 
to allow them to be inspected, failed utterly. It was 
understood that Dr. Moore, who was Griswold's literary 
executor, intended to publish selections from them him- 
self, but if this were his intention, it was never fulfilled. 
Dr. Moore having died, Griswold's son, Mr. William 
M. Griswold, of Cambridge, Mass., was appointed ad- 
ministrator of his father's estate, and in this way was 
able to recover the papers. Nearly everybody who has 
written about Poe since Griswold's death has applied in 
vain to Dr. Moore for their use. The instalment in 
the August number of the " Century " comprises a num- 
ber of Poe's own letters, and letters to him from John 
P. Kennedy, T. W. White, proprietor of the " Southern 
Literary Messenger," Nathaniel Beverly Tucker, au- 
thor of " The Partisan Leader," J. K. Paulding, Charles 
Anthon, and James E. Heath. 

The correspondence chiefly relates to the period of 
Poe's connection with the " Messenger." An interest- 
ing feature is the picture given of publishing conditions 
in New York at that time. A New York firm having 
declined a volume of Poe's " Messenger " tales in 1836, 
Paulding, who acted as his agent, was constrained to 
write him that " it would afford me much pleasure to 
have proposed the publication of your book to some 
one [other] respectable Bookseller of this city. But 
the truth is, there is only one other who publishes any- 
thing but School Books, religious works, and the like, 


[Aug. 1, 

and with him I am not on terms that would make it 
agreeable to me to make any proposition of this nature, 
either in my own behalf or that of another." I presume 
the other firm referred to was that of Messrs. Wiley & 
Putnam. The Poe correspondence is illustrated with 
selected drawings by Mr. Sterner, made for the forth- 
coming complete edition of Poe's works to be published 
by Messrs. Stone & Kimball. 

Another notable feature of the August " Century " 
is an article on " Conversation in France " by Mme. 
Blanc Bentzon. In the September number there will 
be an interesting study of " School Excursions in Ger- 
many," by Dr. J. M. Rice, author of several important 
studies of schools in American cities, recently published 
in the " Forum." Dr. Rice visited Germany for the 
purpose of taking part in a typical excursion which is 
here described. It consisted of a tour of two weeks, 
on foot or by rail, through the country of the Reforma- 
tion, which had been the particular study of this party 
of school children for the preceding term. Students of 
pedagogy accompany these excursions and observe their 
effect upon the children. The thorough identification 
of localities is indicated by the fact that Luther's hymn 
was sung by them in the room in which it was written. 

A new novel by " Maarteu Maartens " will be printed 
serially in " Harper's Bazar " during the first part of 
1895. The author, Mr. J. M. W. van der Poorten 
Schwarz, has removed his residence from " Kasteel 
Lunenburgh," Neerlangbrock, to the Chateau de Zuy- 
lestein, near Leersum, also in Holland. In a recent let- 
ter to an American friend, he expressed himself as much 
gratified by the tender of honorary membership in the 
Authors Club of New York lately made to him. He 
considered it " a delicate and kindly compliment " which 
gave him much encouragement. Mr. van der Poorten 
Schwarz is just thirty-five years old, and not thirty- 
eight, as stated in various biographical articles. 

Mr. James Ford Rhodes is spending the summer at 
Rye Beach, N. H., busily engaged on the third volume 
of his " History of the United States, from the Com- 
promise of 1850," which the Messrs. Harper now expect 
to publish during the coming season. 

" George Mandeville's Husband," a novel just about 
to be published by Messrs. D. Appleton & Co., is de- 
cidedly reactionary in character in so far as it touches 
upon the woman question, and indeed it touches upon 
little else. Its author apparently has become disgusted 
with advanced views on this subject. The downtrodden 
husband of a " woman of mind " expresses himself in 
advice to their daughter as follows : 

" 'Never breakfast in bed, Rosina, unless you're actually 
ill,' he would often say ; ' it 's the first step on the downward 

" ' No, father.' 

" ' Of course your mother is an exceptional woman. She 
may do things that wouldn't look well in an ordinary mor- 

" ' Yes, father.' 

" ' And never wear a dressing-gown out of your own room. 
Put on decent clothes as soon as you step out of your bath.' 

'"Yes, father.'" 

The author is a well-known English writer who has as- 
sumed a pseudonym. 

Preparations for holiday books go on apace. Messrs. 
Lovell, Coryell, & Co. will issue this fall a handsome 
edition of " The Last Days of Pompeii " with views of 
the excavations, landscapes, and reproductions of fa- 
mous paintings. The same firm will also publish an 
edition de luxe of Mrs. Oliphant's " Victorian Age of 

English Literature," with portraits of the principal 
writers considered. Mrs. Oliphant's articles now ap- 
pearing in the " Century Magazine," which deal with 
" The Reign of Queen Anne," will be published as a 
holiday book with this title. The publishers have ex- 
erted themselves to insure a beautiful piece of book- 
making. The work in the wood engravings is not likely 
to be exceeded this year, if at all, as it seems as nearly 
perfect as possible. ARTHUR STEDMAN. 


Mr. Gladstone's translation of the Odes and "Car- 
men Sseculare " of Horace will be published in Septem- 
ber or October next. 

Mr. T. Wemyss Reid, editor of the " Speaker," and 
author of " Charlotte Bronte, a Monograph," and other 
good books, has been knighted by the Queen. 

The last work on which the late Sir Henry Layard 
was engaged was the condensation of his " Early Ad- 
ventures " into one volume, of which he had just finished 
the revision. 

Messrs. T. Y. Crowell & Co. have in press for imme- 
diate publication a complete edition of the poetical works 
of Sir Walter Scott, in two volumes, illustrated, with 
introduction by Professor Charles Eliot Norton. 

The literary historian Herr Heinrich Diintzer, who 
celebrated last week his eighty-first birthday, has com- 
pleted an exhaustive monograph on J. II. Merck, who 
exercised such a remarkable influence on the develop- 
ment of Goethe's genius. 

Professor Fiske is lecturing at Oxford this summer 
on " Virginia and Her Neighbors," and will repeat the 
course before the Lowell Institute next year. Eventu- 
ally, the lectures will make a new volume in the author's 
history of America. 

In " The Bookman's " lists of books most in demand 
at the chief bookselling centres of the United Kingdom, 
Professor Drummond's " The Ascent of Man " and Mrs. 
Caffyn's " A Yellow Aster " run almost neck-and-neck. 
Out of the thirteen lists, seven are headed by the for- 
mer and five by the latter work. 

The Fe*libres are going to indulge in more elaborate 
fetes this year. They are to begin at Lyons on the 9th 
of August, and to finish at the fountain of Vaucluse on 
the 15th of August. On Saturday, the llth, the Com- 
die Franchise will act " CEdipe Roi," and on Sunday, 
the 12th, " Antigone," at the Roman theatre at Orange. 

Professor Maspdro's great work on " Les Origines," 
treating of Egypt and Chaldsea, will appear some time 
in the autumn, simultaneously in Paris, London, and 
New York. It will consist of over eight hundred pages, 
copiously illustrated with drawings and maps made ex- 
pressly for the work. The English translation, edited 
by Professor Sayce, will be published by the S. P. C. K. 

It is interesting to learn that Lionardo da Vinci's 
"Codice Atlantico," which contains 1,750 writings and 
drawings by this celebrated man, is at last to be pub- 
lished, presumably by private subscription, in 35 parts, 
each containing 40 heliotype plates of reproduction, to- 
gether with a double transcription of the text and notes. 
The entire work will be printed on special handmade 
paper. U. Hoepli is the publisher who has been en- 
trusted with this great Italian work. 

Italy will have a Tasso celebration April 25 of next 




year, the tercentenary of the poet's death. A new life 
of Tasso is being written for this occasion by Professor 
Angelo Solerti, of Bologna. This book will embody 
the valuable matter contained in some 500 documents 
hitherto unpublished, and will be illustrated with pho- 
togravures of all the portraits of which copies can be 
obtained, besides other interesting memorials. Profes- 
sor Solerti is also preparing a new and critical edition 
of the minor poems of Tasso, of which two volumes 
have been already published. 

The Toronto " Week " has the following screed from 
an enraged correspondent : " Sir Can you or any of 
your numerous readers inform me how it is that Amer- 
ican daily and weekly papers are allowed to be carried 
and called in our streets by newsboys ? It is most of- 
fensive to my ideas of the fitness of things to have the 
low-class papers of Detroit, Buffalo, and Chicago flouted 
in the streets of Toronto. It is bad enough to have our 
second-class booksellers' shops slopping over with the 
trash that proceeds from the low American daily and 
weekly press, without having it stuck under our noses 
at every corner of the street." 

The " Athenjeum " furnishes the following note: 
" That ' Hamlet ' has been more variously treated and 
ill treated than any other Shakespearean play we all 
know, but it will be news to our readers that the Ham- 
let-Problem as the Germans call it, is shortly to figure 
in the courts of law. The bone of contention is the pri- 
ority of a certain ingenious analysis of Hamlet's char- 
acter. Herr H. Tiirck, a well-known Shakespearean 
scholar, maintains that he propounded it first, whilst 
Professor Kuno Fischer claims the priority of its excog- 
itation. In consequence of this literary squabble, Herr 
Tiirck has placed the ' Hamlet-Problem ' in the hands 
of a lawyer. It will occupy the law courts at Munich, 
Professor Kuno Fischer's remarks having appeared in a 
Bavarian paper." 

The George William Curtis Memorial Committee 
publish the following statement: " The committee has 
unanimously voted to raise a fund of $25,000, to be de- 
voted in part to the procurement and erection of an appro- 
priate artistic monument in the city of New York, as a 
permanent record of the outward presence of Mr. Cur- 
tis, and in part to the foundation and endowment of an 
annual course of lectures upon the duties of American 
citizenship and kindred subjects, under the title of the 
'Curtis Lectureship,' or some similar designation, the 
lectures delivered in such course to be annually pub- 
lished for distribution. The details of these two fea- 
tures of the memorial will be determined and announced 
by the committee hereafter. The committee is now 
ready to receive subscriptions to the fund required, 
which subscriptions should be addressed to Mr. William 
L. Trenholm, treasurer, No. 160 Broadway, New York." 


Mr. Walter Besant, in a recent number of " The Au- 
thor," raises an interesting question as to why matter 
for serial publication in periodicals should be limited to 
fiction, and suggests that " editors do not as yet recog- 
nize the fact that an extremely attractive serial may be 
made of a subject not belonging to fiction at all. For 
instance, many volumes of poetry are run through va- 
rious magazines first. I would run them through one 
magazine only. Mr. Austin Dobson's new volume of 
verse will be commenced in the January number of the 
" New Year " ; it will run through twelve months and will 
be published in volume form in November.' Would not 

such an announcement be attractive ? Or this: 'Pro- 
fessor Dowden's new work on Shakespeare is nearly 
completed. It consists of twelve chapters, and is to run 
through twelve numbers of the " Cheapside " magazine; 
it will then be published in the autumn books of Messrs. 
Bungay.' Does anyone pretend that the comparatively 
wide circulation of the magazine would not assist the 
author in disseminating his teaching and the publisher 
in afterwards distributing the book ? " 


(For the unveiling, by Edmund Grosse, of the American memorial bust 
to the poet Keats in Hampstead Parish Church, July 16, 1894.) 

Thy gardens bright with limbs of gods at play 
Those bowers whose flowers are fruits, Hesperian sweets 
That light with heaven the soul of him who eats, 

And lend his veins Olympian blood of day 

Were only lent, and, since thou couldst not stay, 
Better to die than wake in sorrow, Keats, 
Where even the Siren's song no longer cheats 

Where Love's long " Street of Tombs " still lengthens grey. 

Better to nestle there in arms of Flora, 
Ere Youth, the king of Earth and Beauty's heir, 

Drinking such breath in meadows of Aurora 
As bards of morning drank, ./Egean air, 

Woke in Eld's lonely caverns of Ellora, 
Carven with visions dead and sights that were ! 

Theodore Watts, in The Athenceum. 


From tattered volumes, old and sere, 

Some friends I have evolve delight ; 
The shabbiest the most prized appear 

By antiquarians erudite. 

These think me a Philistine wight 
For choosing bindings of the best ; 

Yet to my taste I have a right, 
I like to see my friends well drest. 

I love the antique and the queer, 

The curious, quaint, and recondite ; 
I own the spell of Elzevir, 

The charm of pages Aldine bight ; 

Yet why should age and dirt invite ? 
Their beauty is not manifest ; 

Let modern art put them to flight, 
I like to see my friends well drest. 

Eve and Le Gascon are too dear ; 

I cannot have them would I might ! 
But Bedford, Michel, and Riviere 

Have wrought me leathern marvels bright. 

The armor of the bravest knight 
Should shine the brightest on his breast. 

No moth, no rust, my books shall blight, 
I like to see my friends well drest. 


Friend, wouldst thou fain in sorry plight 
Behold a loved and honored guest ? 

In goodly garb I 'd have him dight, 
I like to see my friends well drest. 

From " Bookish Ballads" by Harry B. Smith. 


Judge Dallas, of the United States Circuit Court, sit- 
ting in the Eastern District of Pennsylvania, recently 
made a decision of much importance to authors. It was 
occasioned by a garbled and incomplete report of Pro- 
fessor Drummond's lecture on " The Ascent of Man," 
published in Philadelphia. The question involved was 
not copyright, but the right of an English author to pro- 
tection against reprints that misrepresent the character 
of his works. We print the significant parts of Judge 


[Aug. 1, 

Dallas's decision: " It appears that the defendant has 
published, and to a considerable extent has sold, a book 
purporting to contain certain Lectures delivered by the 
plaintiff, which in fact does not present those Lectures 
correctly, but with additions and omissions which essen- 
tially alter the productions of the author. This is sought 
to be justified by the averment that the lectures in ques- 
tion had not been copyrighted, and that their author 
had dedicated them to the public. 

" The subject of copyright is not directly involved. 
The complainant does not base his claim to relief upon 
the statute, but upon his right, quite distinct from any 
conferred by copyright, to protection against having any 
literary matter published as his work which is not ac- 
tually his creation, and, incidentally, to prevent fraud 
upon purchasers. That such right exists is too well set- 
tled, upou reason and authority, to require demonstra- 
tion, and, although it is equally well established that an 
author may, by dedication of any product of his pen to 
the public, irrevocably abandon his title, yet in this case 
the fact relied on by the defendant to support his asser- 
tion of dedication wholly fails to vindicate the publica- 
tion complained of. 

" The defendant's book is founded on the matter which 
has appeared in the ' British Weekly,' and if that mat- 
ter had been literally copied, and so as not to misrep- 
resent its character and extent, the plaintiff would be 
without remedy; but the fatal weakness in the defend- 
ant's position is, that, under color of editing the author's 
work, he has represented a part of it as the whole, and 
even as to the portion published has materially departed 
from the reports which he sets up in justification." 


August, 1894 (First List). 

Anarchists, Punishment of. Henry Holt. Forum. 

Birds, Nocturnal Migration of. Popular Science. 

Church Communion Tokens. Alice M. Earle. Atlantic. 

Carnot. Sadi. M. Henry Minaud. Chautauquan. 

Cats, Un-cared for. Charles H. Webb. Lippincott. 

Chinese Shops. Will Clemens. Lippincott. 

College Graduates and Public Life. T. Roosevelt. Atlantic. 

Consular Service, Evils of Our. A. H. Washburn. Atlantic. 

Continental Literature, A Year of. Dial. 

Crime, Increase, and Positivist Criminology. H.C.Lea. Forum. 

Dutch Influence upon America. F. W. Shepardson. Dial. 

Egypt, Ancient, The Poetry of. Chautauquan. 

English at Amherst. J. F. Genung. Dial. 

English Mines and Miners. S. P. Cadman. Chautauquan. 

Feminine Phases. Thomas S. Jarvis. Lippincott. 

Form and Life. M. Georges Pouchet. Popular Science. 

Government Publications, Distribution of. Pop. Science. 

Hand- Writing and Character. W. Preyer. Chautauquan. 

Harrison, Mrs. Burton. Caroline W. Martin. Southern Mag. 

Horsemen, Professional. H. C. Merwin. Atlantic. 

Journalism, Chapters in. G. W. Smalley. Harper. 

Karakoram Himalayas, In the. Dial. 

Laboratory Mind-Study. G.S.Hall and E.W.Scripture. Forum. 

Lowell's Letters to Poe. Scribner. 

Monmouth. Illus. Julian Ralph. Harper. 

Moral Training. John Dewey. Popular Science. 

Newport. Illus. W. C. Brownell. Scribner. 

Norway Coast, The. Illus. G. C. Pease. Harper. 

Photography of Colors. M. Lazare Weiller. Pop. Science. 

Poetry, Recent. William Morton Payne. Dial. 

Preachers, Pay of. H. K. Carroll. Forum. 

Rain-Making. Fernando Sanford. Popular Science. 

Stonewall Jackson. Illus. W. W. Scott. Southern Mag. 

Toadstools and Mushrooms, Edible. Illus. Harper. 


[The following list, embracing 60 titles, includes all books 
received by THE DIAL since last issue.] 


Memoirs Illustrating the History of Napoleon I. from 
1802 to 1815. By Baron Claude-Francois de Me"neval ; 
edited by his grandson, Baron Napoleon Joseph de Me*n- 
eval. Vols. I. and II.; illus., 12mo, gilt tops, uncut. D. 
Appleton & Co. Per vol., $2. 


History of Modern Times : From the Fall of Constantinople 
to the French Revolution. By Victor Duruy ; trans., 
with notes, etc., by Edwin A. Grosvenor. 12mo, pp. 540. 
Henry Holt & Co. $1.60. 

Judas Maccabseus and the Jewish War of Independence. 
By Claude Reignier Conder, LL.D. New edition, illus., 
12mo, uncut, pp. 218. Macmillan & Co. $1.25. 

Christianity and the Roman Government : A Study in 
Imperial Administration. By E. G. Hardy, M.A. 12mo, 
uncut, pp. 208. Longmans, Green, & Co. $1.50. 

Recollections of Old Country Life : Social, Political, Sport- 
ing, and Agricultural. By J. K. Fowler (" Rusticus"), 
author of "Echoes of Old Country Life." Illus., 8vo, 
uncut, pp. 235. Longmans, Green, & Co. $3. 


Cock Lane and Common-Sense. By Andrew Lang. 12mo, 
uncut, pp. 357. Longmans, Green, & Co. $2.25. 

An English Anthology from Chaucer to Tennyson. Se- 
lected and Edited by John Bradshaw, M.A. Fourth edi- 
tion ; 12mo, pp. 509. Longmans, Green, & Co. $1.50. 

Essays and Letters Selected from the Writings of John 
Ruskin ; with introductory interpretations and annota- 
tions. Edited by Mrs. Lois G. Hufford. With portrait, 
12mo, pp. 441. Ginn & Co. $1.10. 

Grimm's Fairy Tales and Household Stories. Trans, by 
Mrs. H. B. Paull and L. A. Wheatley. 12mo, gilt top, 
pp.623. Warne's " Chandos Classics." $1. 

Scenes from the Persse of ^Eschylus. By the Rev. F. S. 
Ramsbotham, M. A. 16mo. Longmans, Green, & Co. 
50 cts. 

Stories from Plato and Other Classic Writers. By Mary E. 
Burt, author of " Literary Landmarks." Illus., 12mo, 
pp. 262. Ginn & Co. 50 cts. 

Lincoln's Grave. By Maurice Thompson. 16mo, uncut. 

Stone & Kimball. $1. 

Quaker Idyls. By Sarah M. H. Gardner. With frontis- 
piece, 16mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 223. Henry Holt & Co. 
75 cts. 


The Ebb Tide: A Trio and Quartette. By Robert Louis 
Stevenson and Lloyd Osbourne. 16mo, gilt top, uncut, 
pp. 204. Stone & Kimball. $1.25. 

Outlaw and Lawmaker. By Mrs. Campbell-Praed, author 
of "Christina Chard." 12mo, pp. 359. D. Appleton & 
Co. $1. 

Major Joshua. By Francis Forster. 12mo, pp. 326. Long- 
mans, Green, & Co. $1. 

Poor Folk. By F. Dostoievsky ; trans, by Lena Milman. 
12mo, pp. 187. Roberts Bros. $1. 

Between Two Forces : A Record of a Theory and a Pas- 
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[Aug. 16, 1894. 





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No. 196. AUGUST 16, 1894. Vol. XVII. 




Fred N. Scott 82 




The Teaching of Literature, Again. Frederick Ives 

A GREAT PUBLIC SERVANT. Melville B . Anderson 86 

ISM. Edward W. Bemis . . 91 


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Town Life in the Fifteenth Century. Pleasing Pic- 
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NEW YORK TOPICS. Arthur Stedman 96 




Resuming the survey begun in our last is- 
sue of the year's literary production upon the 
European continent, we will first turn to the 
Commendatore Bonghi's report of Italian let- 
ters. The death of Adolfo Bartoli, the liter- 
ary historian, appears to have been the most 
important event of the year. He " was largely 
instrumental in introducing a method of crit- 
icism which, in more respects than one, was 
new to Italy." He found many followers in his 

work, and the way is gradually being prepared, 
in the author's view, " for a full and elaborate 
history of Italian literature conceived upon a 
more comprehensive scale than anything that 
is yet in existence." Signer d'Annunzio's last 
novel, " II Trionfo della Morte," is the most 
important work of fiction mentioned. " The 
triumph of death in this case is due to a lover 
who ends his career by killing his mistress and 
himself." Final judgment upon the work is 
thus rendered : 

" The whole book seems to me false and exaggerated, 
and I must confess that I found the perusal of its five 
hundred pages an irksome task. Nevertheless there 
are fine passages in it, for Signer d'Annunzio possesses 
a real talent for description, and he occasionally strikes 
the note of passion with a ring of sincerity. The mor- 
ality of the book is anything but wholesome; it shows 
the influence of Zola on every page." 

Signora Serao, who is the favorite authoress 
with the novel-reading public, has published 
two volumes of tales and sketches. In poetry, 
Signor Carducci has published nothing, but 
his " evolution " has " been made the subject 
of a discreetly successful book by a young man 
named Panzini." We are further told that 
" bad poets, as usual, abound, although the 
newspapers tell a different tale. But news- 
papers, whether political or literary, as a rule 
merely reproduce in their criticisms the pub- 
lisher's advertisements, which are, of course, 
extravagantly laudatory." None of the poets 
of the year " is quite equal to a journey across 
the Alps, except perhaps Alfredo Baccelli. 
. . . His style is refined, his language well 
chosen, and his subjects interesting. His book 
is called ' Vittime e Rebelli,' and I should be 
inclined to rank it above any other contribution 
to the poetry of the year." In history, the 
writer calls for more art and less matter, com- 
plaining that we get nothing but documents 
and special researches. " In this department of 
literature the book of the year was undoubt- 
edly the collected edition of the letters of Col- 
uccio Salutati, a celebrated philologist and 
statesman of the fourteenth century, brought 
out by the historical Institute." Finally, men- 
tion is made of the newly organized Society of 
French Studies in Italy, which, by encourag- 
ing a wider acquaintance with French litera- 
ture, will make things uncomfortable for the 
too obvious plagiarist and imitator. 



[Aug. 16, 

Don Juan F. Riano gives much interest to 
the story of the literary year in Spain. That 
country is fortunate in the possession of acad- 
emies that are willing " to undertake the pub- 
lication of costly works not likely to have a 
large circulation." The Academy of History, 
for example, has superintended the issue of 
several important works, and the Academia 
Espanola has published " La Filologia Castel- 
lana," by Count de la Vinaza, and the " Teatro 
Complete de Juan de la Encino," besides con- 
tinuing its monumental edition of Lope de 
Vega, and its " Antologia de Poetas Hispano- 
Americanos." Columbus and the Melilla af- 
fair have been the most " actual " subjects of 
historical writing during the year. The most 
important contribution to the former is Senor 
Castelar's " Colon," while the latter has called 
forth many books and pamphlets. A work 
upon " La Toma de Granada," by Senor Da- 
valos y Lerchundi, calls for the following in- 
teresting note : 

" Ever since the capture of Granada on the 2d of 
January, 1492, the Royal Maestranza has celebrated 
that event by meeting in the Bibarambla, and other 
squares in Granada, for the purpose of celebrating a 
mock tournament, jousting and tilting with canas. On 
the 2d of January last, which happened to be the quar- 
ter-centenary of the conquest of that city as well as that 
of the discovery of the New World, the master riders 
of Granada decided that, instead of holding the anti- 
quated tournament, a prize should be offered to the best 
composition in prose or verse recording the taking of 
Granada. This the above-mentioned writer has accom- 
plished in a creditable manner, at the same time giving 
the names and particulars of the titled nobility, prelates, 
and knights who appended their signatures to the ca- 

Among works of a belletristic character, men- 
tion is made of " Margaritas," a volume of 
poems by Senor Li meres ; " Torquemada en 
la Cruz," a novel by Senor Perez Galdos ; and 
" Origin del Pensamiento " and " El Maes- 
trante," novels by Senor Palacio Valdes. Two 
important dramas, the "Mariana" of Senor 
Echegaray and the " Dolores " of Senor Felin 
y Codina, have been performed during the year, 
and have disputed for the dramatic prize of a 
thousand dollars. 

" At last the Academy by a majority of votes de- 
cided in favour of Echegaray, a decision which the dis- 
appointed party resented, a somewhat fierce polemic in 
the newspapers of Madrid being the consequence." 

The author concludes with these remarks upon 
the general literary situation : 

" The demand for books is great and constant, and 
authors and publishers are making efforts to supply it, 
no matter how: the consequence is that all is in con- 
fusion, and anarchy prevails in every branch of litera- 
ture, some few still holding tenaciously to the old school 

with slight modifications, whilst others (and they are 
unluckily the greater number) follow no school and 
recognize no rule whatever. No wonder then if Zola's 
novels and Count Tolstoy's lucubrations are the fashion 
of the day." 

Professor S. O. Lambros writes of literary 
Greece, and tells as long a story as was to be 
expected of so small a country. He begins 
with a summary of " Mycena3 and the Mycen- 
aean Culture," by Christos Tsuntas, the most 
important publication of the year. The mem- 
oirs of Spyridon Pilikas and Alexander Rhan- 
gabe are of much historical value. Kleon 
Rhangabe, a son of the diplomatist just men- 
tioned, is the author of " Poems of Sorrow," 
the most important verse of the year. Fiction 
is represented by " Our Athens," a social novel 
by Nicolas Spandonis ; " The Prime Minister," 
a political romance by G. Vokos ; and volumes 
of tales by Constantine Passajiannis, Deme- 
trius Hatzopulos, and the late Constantine 

" Tobacco Juliet," a novel by Zsigmond 
Justh, is the best Hungarian novel of the year, 
according to Herr Leopold Katscher : 

" In this book Justh, who is at the head of the more 
distinguished Hungarian realists of our day, presents a 
picture, equally ideal and natural, of plain, simple coun- 
try life. Truth is here turned into fiction in a manner 
strongly resembling Tolstoy's, and it is not too much to 
say that the author has, by this latest work of his, 
reached the front rank of Hungarian fiction." 

A long list of other novels is given, but their 
authors are practically unknown outside of 
Hungary. The same remark may be made of 
the poets, of whom Gybzb Dolmady, with his 
patriotic songs, Erno Erodi, with his monody 
on Kossuth, and Jenb Heltai, with his Kipling- 
like lyrics, are singled out for honorable men- 
tion. The following remarks are of general 
interest : 

" Of the many lives of Kossuth which have appeared 
the best is the one written by Lajos Hentaller. Of 
course, Jdkai's jubilee (his seventieth birthday, which, 
by the way, was celebrated in the most enthusiastic 
manner throughout the country) has also called forth 
various biographical publications. The first ten vol- 
umes of the hundred-volume edition of this master's 
novels (about two thousand copies of which at 201. have 
been subscribed for) have just been issued." 

Gebauer's " Historical Grammar of the Bo- 
hemian Language " is described by Mr. V. 
Tille as " the most important [Bohemian] pub- 
lication of the past twelve months." The first 
part only has appeared, but others will soon 
follow. Mr. Tille gives most of his attention 
to belles-lettres, which 

" are from year to year becoming more subject to the 
new ideas which have for some time stirred all European 




literature, and are symptoms of a deep intellectual rev- 
olution. Their influence is most conspicuous in the pro- 
ductions of the younger generation." 

In poetry, there are volumes by Vrchlicky, 
Machar, Dvorak, and others ; in fiction, many 
interesting things. Two novels are thus char- 
acterized : 

" V. Mristfk strives to describe in his novel ' Santa 
Lucia ' the struggle for existence and the impressions 
of a poor student in Prague. But the leading ideas 
grow misty, and the want of a skilful hand, which could 
bring order into the multitude of scenes and characters, 
is sorely felt. Much the same thing may be said with 
regard to F. A. Simacek's ' Two Loves.' Life amongst 
the superior and inferior employes on country estates 
and in sugar manufactories is minutely and ably de- 
scribed ; still the leading idea of the whole, the new at- 
tachment of an official who had been engaged for many 
years to another girl, and the conflicts of his conscience, 
is touched upon only in its outward phases, reminding 
the reader of many old similar romantic types, and 
forming merely a frame for details of life well worked 

The following bit of information is particularly 
welcome : 

" At last a few competent writers are beginning to 
bestow some pains upon literature for children. A for- 
eigner can hardly conceive with what trash Bohemian 
children nsed to be supplied by writers, male and fe- 
male, and how hopeless the search for a good chil- 
dren's book was. Only quite lately an improvement 
has been noticeable, and last year two particularly nice 
books appeared an illustrated Bohemian history by 
Dolensky, under the supervision of Professor Rezek, 
of Prague University, and ' Old Bohemian Historical 
Tales,' by Jirdsek." 

Two or three noteworthy historical works, 
one play, one book of poems, several novels, 
and a considerable quantity of Kosciuszko lit- 
erature, are the leading features of Dr. Adam 
Belcikowski's report of Polish letters. The 
poems are by A. Asnyk, "the most remarka- 
ble Polish poet of the day, at once a finished 
artist and a deep thinker." The play is K. 
Zalewski's " What Mean You by It ? " having 
" for its subject an ethical question, which the 
author answers in somewhat pessimistic fashion, 
viz., whether an honorable deed completed in 
obedience to the dictates of conscience is ap- 
preciated by the world or not." Of the works 
of fiction mentioned, five seem to be of excep- 
tional interest. " Emancipation," by B. Prus, 
deals with the " woman question." " Naphtha," 
by Maciejowski, " describes with uncommon 
energy and much spirit the life of the great 
contractors and the poor workmen in a Gali- 
cian petroleum bed." "The Two Poles," by 
E. Orzeszko, is a psychological romance of two 
young people who love one another, but who 
" separate because they perceive that the dif- 

ference between their ideas and their views of 
the world is so great that they could find no 
happiness in living together." " There Am I," 
by A. Krechowiecki, is upon the theme " that 
an artist cannot attain to intellectual ripeness 
so long as he has not through suffering and 
higher feelings reached a moral equilibrium." 
Finally, the " Mechesy " of Gawalewicz, which 
has made " a great stir," is thus described : 

" The plot turns upon the marriage of a young lady 
belonging to the nobility with the son of a banker of 
Jewish extraction. The bride finds herself so strange 
and uncomfortable in her novel surroundings that she 
separates from her husband, although she sees and ac- 
knowledges his many merits. The dt/serted husband 
seeks in his turn to get rid of the stamp of his origin 
by developing a great activity as a patriot." 

The absence of Sienkiewicz from the list of the 
year's novelists is conspicuous. 

The latest of the nations to enter into the 
literary comity of Europe shall be the subject 
of the last of these summaries. M. Paul Mil- 
youkov writes of Russian literature in the phil- 
osophical spirit, and his account is of much in- 
terest, although few important works are men- 
tioned. The most important, perhaps, is " The 
Turning Point," by Boborikin, a novel not yet 
completed, which reflects the successive phases 
of Russian thought during the past half-cen- 
tury. The great social discussion of the pres- 
ent in Russia is between the " peasantists " and 
the " Marxists." 

" While ' peasant ism ' puts its faith exclusively in the 
character and < spirit ' of the people, ' Marxism ' rests all 
its hopes on ' institutions ' ; while the former is inclined 
to regard the fundamental principles of national life as 
primordial and immutable, the latter believes in the 
necessity of social evolution; and, lastly, while the for- 
mer limits its practical programme to social reforms by 
the people, the latter is ready to join in the bourgeois 
demand for political reforms for the people." 

This discussion is voiced in many current pub- 
lications. Among the many books named by 
the writer, only two others appear of sufficient 
interest to be mentioned here. One is Alex- 
ander Veselovsky's study of Boccaccio, and the 
other is Count Tolstoy's " The Kingdom of 
God is Within You." Veselovsky, we are told, 
" is at once the greatest authority on the liter- 
ature of the Middle Ages and one of the most 
brilliant representatives of the comparative his- 
torical method in literature." Of Count Tol- 
stoy's work, already put into English, a sum- 
mary is given, ending with the following sug- 
gestive statement: 

"It is scarcely necessary on this occasion to add that 
the sphere of influence of Tolstoy's ideas grows nar- 
rower every year." 



[Aug. 16, 


For the collegiate year 1894-95, the University 
of Michigan announces twenty-one courses in En- 
glish and rhetoric. Ten are courses in literature, 
historical or critical ; five are in linguistics ; and 
six are in rhetoric and composition. There is the 
usual division into courses which may and courses 
which must be taken by those who intend to grad- 
uate, but with us the requirements differ for the 
different degrees. Candidates for the engineering 
degrees, and for the degree of Bachelor of Science 
in chemistry or biology, are let off with a single 
course in composition. Candidates for the degree 
of Bachelor of Letters must take two courses in 
composition, besides one in literature and one in 
linguistics. All others are required to elect two 
courses in composition. The work is in charge of 
four men : a professor of English and rhetoric, who 
is head of the department ; a junior professor of 
English, an assistant professor of rhetoric, and an 
instructor in English composition. In addition to 
this, the regular force, there are two graduate stu- 
dents who devote a part of their time to teaching 
composition or reading essays. 

The number of students who elected courses in 
English the past year, not allowing for names counted 
twice, was 1198. To this number should perhaps 
be added 110 applicants for work in composition 
for whom provision could not be made. The dis- 
tribution of the elections was as follows : In mod- 
ern literature, 225 ; in Old and Middle English 
literature, and linguistics, 252 ; in rhetoric and com- 
position, 721. 

In considering the various courses in English, it 
will be convenient to follow the division I have 
used above ; that is, into modern literature, Old and 
Middle English, and linguistics, rhetoric, and com- 
position. The first is the province of Professor 
Demmon, who is head of the department ; Profes- 
sor Hempl is in charge of the second ; and the bur- 
den of the rhetoric and composition work falls upon 

* This article is the fourteenth of an extended series on the 
Teaching of English at American Colleges and Universities, 
of which the following have already appeared in THE DIAL : 
English at Yale University, by Professor Albert S. Cook 
(Feb. 1); English at Columbia College, by Professor Bran- 
der Matthews (Feb. 16) ; English at Harvard University, by 
Professor Barrett Wendell (March 1); English at Stanford 
University, by Professor Melville B. Anderson (March 16); 
English at Cornell University, by Professor Hiram Corson 
( April 1) ; English at the University of Virginia, by Professor 
Charles W. Kent (April 16) ; English at the University of 
Illinois, by Professor D. K. Dodge (May 1) ; English at La- 
fayette College, by Professor F. A. March (May 16) ; English 
at the State University of Iowa, by Professor E. E. Hale, Jr. 
(June 1) ; English at the University of Chicago, by Professor 
Albert H. Tolman (June 16) ; English at Indiana University, 
by Professor Martin W. Sampson (July 1) ; English at the 
University of California, by Professor Charles Mills Gayley 
(July 16) ; and English at Amherst College, by Professor John 
F. Genung (Aug. 1). [EDK. DIAL.] 

the shoulders of the instructor (Mr. Dawson), the 
two assistants, and myself. 

In modern literature, the department offers a be- 
ginning course and three seminary courses, asso- 
ciating with the latter ancillary lectures in criticism 
and the history of the drama. The beginning course, 
in charge of Professor Hempl, is a general intro- 
duction to the subject. It is a three-hour course, 
running through one semester. In this, a text-book 
is used to furnish a historical outline, and very brief 
quizzes are given upon it. Most of the time in 
class is taken up by the presentation of reports by 
some half-dozen members of the class to whom the 
lesson of the day had previously been assigned for 
special study in the University library. The object 
of these reports is to bring the student into direct 
contact with the literature and to familiarize him 
somewhat with critical methods and the leading 
books on the subject. 

The seminary courses are conducted by Professor 
Demmon, and aim to give the student an intimate 
first-hand acquaintance with representative mas- 
terpieces. To secure admission to this advanced 
work is somewhat difficult, since at least five pre- 
scribed courses must precede, and there is some sift- 
ing even of those who are technically qualified. 
Professor Demmon offers a seminary in English 
literature, another in American literature, and a 
Shakespeare seminary. The programme of work 
is as follows : At the beginning of the semester, each 
member of the class is assigned a masterpiece and 
asked to prepare upon it a comprehensive biograph- 
ical and critical essay. He is also expected to present 
at some time during the semester a critique of an essay 
by a fellow-member. As soon as his task is assigned, 
he begins reading upon it in the seminary rooms con- 
nected with the library, with the assistance of refer- 
ences prepared by Professor Demmon. If he is a 
member of the Shakespeare course, he has the oppor- 
tunity of using the McMillan Shakespeare collection 
of 3500 volumes. When the work is under way, each 
section of the seminary (a section containing about 
twelve students) meets every week in a two-hour ses- 
sion. The first hour is spent in listening to the essay 
and the critique, and the second hour in an extempor- 
aneous discussion of the work in hand. Each mem- 
ber is called upon in turn, and says what the spirit 
moves him to say. He makes report upon what he 
has read, or agrees or disagrees with the judgments 
of the essayist or the critic, or advances individual 
appreciations of the work. When all opinions have 
been aired and generally some little fencing takes 
place over nice points of criticism there is usually 
time for a summing-up of the arguments and a dis- 
cussion of a special question or two by the conduc- 
tor of the seminary. Both in the selection of master- 
pieces and the conduct of the classes, the aim is to 
supply the necessities rather than the luxuries of 
literature. For literary fads and vagaries there is 
neither time nor inclination. The student finds in 
the seminary courses the best that English and 




American literature have to offer. If he goes no 
further, he has already travelled far ; if he con- 
tinues his studies after leaving the University, he 
will know at least the chief landmarks of the coun- 
try he is to traverse. 

With reference to the work in Old and Middle 
English, Professor Hempl has kindly written out for 
me the following statement : 

" My work may generally be designated as lin- 
guistic ; but some of the undergraduate courses are 
necessarily only linguistic in a simple and practical 
way, and consider also the literary side of what is 
read. This is particularly true of the two courses in 
Middle English each twice a week for half a year, 
the second devoted mostly to Chaucer. There is 
also an elementary course in Old English, which, 
as well as the course in Early Middle English, is 
required of candidates for the degree of B.L. 

" Advanced study of Old English is provided for 
in three courses, each half a year: Old English 
poetry twice a week ; phonology and morphology, 
three times a week ; syntax, twice a week. 

" In historical English Grammar a general sur- 
vey is made of the subject, and the students are 
given some practice in methods of investigation by 
being required to trace in English literature the de- 
velopment of various idioms, especially such as are 
often impugned. 

" In alternate years a course is offered in pres- 
ent-spoken English. The students have been set 
to study their own speech and that of those about 
them, and have gathered numerous facts of interest 
as to American English. But the course has been 
more fruitful in opening their eyes to the real state 
of so-called ' standard English,' and in removing 
prejudice and establishing a more reasonable basis 
of judgment in dealing with matters of speech-usage. 
It also appears that a quicker and clearer insight 
into general linguistic facts and principles may be 
obtained by such a study of one's native speech (pro- 
vided various forms and stages of it be represented 
by members of the class) than can be had from a 
study of foreign languages. Alternating with this 
course from year to year is a course in general 

Of the six courses which fall under the division 
" Rhetoric and Composition," four, each for one 
semester, have for their main object the cultivation 
of good writing ; though one of the four, known as 
the Science of Rhetoric, combines with a large 
amount of practice a small amount of instruction in 
theory. In addition to these, there are two, one 
for graduates and one for undergraduates, which 
deal with rhetoric in its scientific aspects. For the 
required Freshman work, there is provided this year 
a two-hour course in paragraph-writing under Mr. 
Dawson and an assistant. As in other large uni- 
versities, this part of the work presents peculiar 
difficulties. The big classes are about as hetero- 
geneous as they well can be, most of the students 
writing crudely, some execrably, and only a few as 

well as could be wished. These differences call for 
differences of treatment, yet it is impossible with 
our present teaching force to give adequate atten- 
tion to individuals or to distinguish grades of pro- 
ficiency. The most that can be done is to put in 
a section by themselves the Engineering students, 
whose performances in prose are often at the out- 
set of a quite distressing character. 

The course in paragraph-writing is followed by 
a two-hour elective course in theme-writing under 
Mr. Dawson ; and this by a three-hour course, con- 
ducted by myself. The latter is required of all ex- 
cept the engineers and candidates for the degree 
of B.S. in chemistry and biology. It must be pre- 
ceded by a course in psychology or logic, and hence 
is usually taken in the second semester of the Soph- 
omore year or the first semester of the Junior year. 
An advanced course in composition completes the 
list of practical courses. For those who wish to sup- 
plement practice by theory, there is a course in the 
principles of prose style, and a graduate seminary 
course in which the evolution of rhetoric is traced 
from Aristotle to the present time. 

It will appear, I hope, from this outline, that the 
work in composition is intended, first and foremost, 
to be practical. The aim is not to inspire students 
to produce pure literature, if there be any such 
thing, or even to help them to acquire a beautiful 
style. If we can get them first to think straight- 
forwardly about subjects in which they are genu- 
inely interested, and then, after such fashion as na- 
ture has fitted them for, to express themselves 
clearly and connectedly, we have done about all we 
can hope to do. Perhaps the other things will then 
come of themselves. In trying to accomplish these 
ends, I have been accustomed in my own work to 
aim at three essentials : first, continuity and regu- 
larity of written exercises ; second, much writing, 
much criticism, and much consultation ; third, adapt- 
ation of method to the needs of the individual stu- 
dent. To secure the first, the student is made to 
write frequently and at regularly recurring periods, 
and is encouraged to write at set hours regardless 
of mood or inspiration. The second point I may 
be permitted to illustrate by saying that I have 
read and re-read this year something over 3000 
essays, most of them written by a class of 216 
students. The third essential seems to me the most 
important of the three. That the instructor should 
somehow lay hold of the student as an individual 
is, for successful composition work, simply indis- 
pensable. This was the secret of the older method 
of instruction, such as that of Edward Channing, 
described by the Rev. E. E. Hale in " My College 

" You sat down in the recitation-room, and were called 
man by man, or boy by boy, in the order in which you 
came into the room; you therefore heard his criticism 
on each of your predecessors. Why do you write with 
blue ink on blue paper ? When I was young, we wrote 
with black ink on white paper; now you write with blue 
ink on blue paper.' < Hale, you do not mean to say 



[Aug. 16, 

that you think a Grub Street hack is the superior of 
John Milton ? ' " 

I think all teachers of composition will feel that 
Ned Channing's method was good, and will under- 
stand very well how it happened that Hale and his 
seatmates " came out with at least some mechanical 
knowledge of the mechanical method of handling 
the English language." But it must be borne in 
mind that in the larger universities the day of small 
and cosy classes is long past. Now the hungry gener- 
ations tread us down. We hardly learn the names 
and faces of our hundreds of students before they 
break ranks and go their ways, and then we must 
resume our Sisyphaean labors. Is there no way in 
which we can return to the Arcadian methods of 
those early days ? For my part, I think there is 
a way, and a very simple one : Increase the teach- 
ing force and the equipment to the point where the 
instructor can again meet his students as individ- 
uals, and can again have leisure for deliberate con- 
sultation and personal criticism. As Professor Ge- 
nung has well said, the teaching of composition is 
properly laboratory work. If that is true, why 
should it not be placed on the same footing as other 
laboratory work as regards manning and equip- 
ment ? I confess that I now and then cast envious 
eyes upon our Laboratory of Chemistry, with its 
ten instructors and its annual expenditure of ten 
thousand dollars, and try to imagine what might be 
done in a rhetorical laboratory with an equal force 
and a fraction of the expenditure. Nor is the com- 
parison absurd. The amount of business which 
needs to be done in order to secure dexterity in the 
use of language is not less than that which is needed 
to secure dexterity in the manipulation of chemicals. 
The student in composition needs as much personal 
attention as the student in chemistry. The teacher 
of composition, if he is to do his work without loss 
of time and energy, and if he is to secure the ben- 
efit which comes from constant variation in meth- 
ods of instruction, needs all the mechanical helps 
which he can devise. He needs, for example, con- 
veniences for the collection, the distribution, and the 
preservation of the written work. He needs a set 
of " Poole's Index," not in a far-off library, but at 
his elbow. He needs a card-catalogue, revised daily, 
with thousands of subjects of current interest espe- 
cially adapted to the uses of his class. He needs a 
mimeograph and a typewriter ; possibly he needs a 
compositor and a printing-press. Above all (and I 
do not mean to include these among the mechan- 
ical aids) he needs, not one or two, but a score, of 
bright, active, enthusiastic young assistants to share 
his arduous labors with him.. Under these Utopian 
conditions perhaps not wholly Utopian after all 
the teacher of composition could no longer pose as a 
martyr, and so might miss the sympathy he has 
been so long accustomed to ; but I believe that on 
the whole he would be a happier man, and I am cer- 
tain that in the end he would do a vast deal more 
of good in the world. 

In running over the list of courses offered, it will 
doubtless be noticed that the department does not 
announce many which are exclusively for graduate 
students. This must not be taken to imply, how- 
ever, that provision for such students is not made. 
As a fact, there is always a considerable body who 
are pursuing advanced work in English. Many go 
into undergraduate courses and there find what is 
suited to them. But for a large proportion special 
advanced courses are arranged, as they are needed, 
after consultation with the student. These are ob- 
viously too variable in character to be enumerated 

here - FRED N. SCOTT. 

Assistant Professor of Rhetoric at the University of Michigan. 


English prose could have suffered no heavier loss 
than that of Walter Pater, who died suddenly at 
Oxford on the thirtieth of July. He was born in 
London on the fourth of August, 1839, and was 
thus within a few days of completing his fifty-fifth 
year. His life was that of the typical scholar, out- 
wardly uneventful. Educated at Canterbury and 
Oxford, he took his degree in 1862, and was elected 
to a fellowship at Brasenose. Since then he has 
occupied various offices in that college. His works 
are as follows: "The Renaissance" (1873), "Ma- 
rius the Epicurean " (1885), a Imaginary Portraits " 
(1887), "Appreciations" (1890), and "Plato and 
Platonism " (1893). A series of articles on the 
French cathedrals, in course of publication in one 
of the English reviews, will probably add a sixth 
volume to the definitive edition of his works. "Ma- 
rius the Epicurean " was reviewed by the late H. 
N. Powers in THE DIAL for August, 1885 ; " Im- 
aginary Portraits" in September, 1887 ; "Appre- 
ciations " by the Rev. C. A. L. Richards in June, 
1890 ; and " Plato and Platonism " by Professor 
Paul Shorey in April, 1893. The five volumes of 
Pater's works constitute one of the choicest treasures 
of English prose. Great as is their value considered 
merely as so much criticism of art, literature, and 
life, they have a still greater value as masterpieces 
of literary expression. It would hardly be too much 
to claim that since the deaths of Matthew Arnold 
and Cardinal Newman, at least, Pater has been the 
greatest of English prose-writers, just as Tennyson 
was for so many years the greatest of English poets. 
" Marius the Epicurean " is a classic if there ever 
was one, and, what is more, it bore so manifestly 
the sign and seal of artistic excellence that it won 
instant recognition as a classic from all competent 
critics. The four " Imaginary Portraits " of the 
volume that soon followed are akin to " Marius " 
in their method and aim. In the two volumes of 
essays, art and literature receive attention about 
equally, and both of these great subjects are han- 
dled with equal mastery. The grace, the insight, 
the subtle discrimination, and the delicate art dis- 




played in these collections are almost beyond praise. 
As for the " Plato and Platonism," we cannot do 
better than quote from our own pages the dictum 
of the foremost American Platonist, that " it has 
the rare distinction of being right and just through- 
out," that " it is the first true and correctly pro- 
portioned presentation of Platonism that has been 
given to the general reader." 


Francis H. Underwood, born in Enfield, Mass., 
on the twelfth of January, 1825, died at Leith, 
Scotland, on the seventh of August. He was edu- 
cated at Amherst, taught school for a while, and 
then practised law. He became literary adviser for 
the house of Phillips and Sampson, and was one of 
the founders of " The Atlantic Monthly," being as- 
sociated with Lowell in its editorship. From 1859 
to 1870 he served as Clerk of the Superior Court 
at Boston. He was also a member of the Boston 
school board for thirteen years. He was one of the 
founders of the St. Botolph's and Papyrus Clubs. 
Since 1885 he has lived in Europe, with the ex- 
ception of the year 1892-93. He succeeded Mr. 
Harte at Glasgow as United States Consul, and was 
appointed to a similar post at Edinburgh (Leith) 
only last year. He wrote biographies of Long- 
fellow, Whittier, and Lowell, and expected to com- 
plete this quartette of famous New Englanders by 
a biography of Dr. Holmes. These biographies are 
reminiscential rather than critical, and in this char- 
acter are of great value. His latest writings were 
"The Poet and the Man " (a second and still more 
intimate study of Lowell), and the first volume of 
a projected series on " The Builders of American 
Literature." During the period of his Scottish con- 
sulate, he lectured frequently upon subjects con- 
nected with American literature, and also contrib- 
uted to the English reviews. Other publications 
were a " Handbook of English Literature," a " Hand- 
book of American Literature," a series of musical 
stories called " Cloud Pictures," and a novel called 
" Lord of Himself." His most important book, pub- 
lished in 1892, and reviewed in THE DIAL for Feb- 
ruary 1, 1893, was " Quabbin, the Story of a Small 
Town, with Outlooks upon Puritan Life." It would 
be difficult to set too high the interest (as well as 
the historical value) of this picture of a Massachu- 
setts town early in the century. We said of it upon 
its appearance : " So careful and detailed an ex- 
hibit of a community, of its outer and inner life, 
has seldom been attempted, and never more suc- 
cessfully made. To the descendants of Pilgrims 
and Puritans the work is dedicated, and they, at 
least, cannot read it without being thrilled to the 
inmost fibre by its sympathetic delineation of their 
ancestral past, for New England is Quabbin very 
much as Freiligrath declared Germany to be Ham- 


(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

A certain amount taken for granted goes to the un- 
derstanding of any utterance; and in the discussion of 
current topics in public prints a certain point of view, 
once assumed, is usually understood and respected. Mr. 
W. H. Johnson of Denison University, who objects to 
my distinctions and strictures directed to certain phases 
of the current discussion in THE DIAL on the teaching of 
literature, seems to me to disregard these obvious rules. 

The question under discussion is concerned with the 
organization of the teaching of literature in English in 
the higher institutions of learning in America. The dif- 
ficulties suggested by me occur to the mind, I think, 
solely in considering this particular question. In sec- 
ondary institutions, or for the independent and excep- 
tional teacher, they obviously have little weight. Now 
my intention was to state the difficulty somewhat para- 
doxically, and not without a feeling for the lurking irony 
of the logic of the argument. Mr. Johnson writes ad- 
mirably of the essential inseparableness of subject-mat- 
ter and form in matters of art, and we all applaud. But 
this is also elementary, while at the same time the gist 
of the real difficulty resides precisely in this point. How 
far, from the psychological or pedagogical point of view, 
does the teacher of literature need to go in the exposi- 
tion of the subject-matter of his text ? The extreme 
in one way, the extreme of license, is well exemplified 
in the condition of things a few years ago at the Uni- 
versity of Indiana, as revealed by Professor Sampson's 
moving account in a recent number of THE DIAL. The 
reaction from the other extreme is voiced in the modern 
appeal for the teaching of " mere literature " again. It 
is perhaps well to understand the dangers on either side, 
as it is also well to attempt to define, to really define, 
what the teaching of literature in English from estab- 
lished chairs actually comprehends. Is it literary folk- 
lore and rudimentary monuments of speech in gen- 
eral ? is it the theory and history of criticism and the 
various sciences and tentative laws of literary aesthetics ? 
is it the old-fashioned literary history ? is it psychology 
and sociology studied in the documents which record the 
long imagination of the race ? is it a miscellaneous and 
emotional " ethics " ? is it solidly philology in the Ger- 
man sense ? What is it ? After all, perhaps it would 
not be a bad thing frankly to retain in every university 
one professorship at least of Things in General as In- 
terpreted in the Emotional and Imaginative Records of 
the Race. I for one believe it would not be a bad 
thing, if the right occupant for the chair could always 
be found. Only, of course, there are other dangers, and 
the thing should be understood. 

The pupil, as pupil, I take it, has really no concern 
with these distinctions. Mr. Johnson's metaphor from 
explosives is pretty, and one enjoys the sarcasm of it; 
but has it anything to do with the case ? 

If our universities insist on specializing in every direc- 
tion, let it be done orderly and with understanding; and 
if there is to be a department of Omuiana let it be rec- 
ognized as such. But from organizers and theorists, at 
one extreme or the other, let us save the real study of 
literature, namely, the actual and enthusiastic reading, 
after whatever method, of the great masterpieces, by the 
college student. FREDERIC IVES CARPENTER. 

Chicago, August 8, 1894. 



[Aug. 16, 

Nefo Books. 


The editor of these welcome volumes, much 
as he merits our gratitude for opening to us so 
much good literature, is hardly to be ranked 
among those who practice that eternal vigil- 
ance which is the price of accuracy. I have 
prepared a rather formidable list of misprints, 
wrong dates, misquotations, and other editorial 
oversights, and my list is not exhaustive. There 
is no room for these things here ; but my notes 
are at the service of the editor or the publisher. 
These beautiful volumes are uniform with the 
edition of Lowell's Letters recently issued by 
the same publishers, beside which, both as to 
form and as to contents, they are in every way 
worthy to find a place on the bookshelf. 

There is something impressive in the very 
titles of the several papers and addresses here 
collected ; they inspire confidence in the Re- 
public by suggesting the moral foundations 
upon which alone free institutions can rest 
down, and by reminding us of the worth, the 
beauty, the dignity of the American character 
at its best. Curtis is gone, and we are sure 
of him. While he lived we seemed to discern 
in him, through the dust of party conflict and 
the fog of prejudice, the outlines of a singu- 
larly high and symmetrical manhood. Now 
that the fog is lifted and the dust laid, we per- 
ceive him to be of loftier height and more ideal 
proportions than we had thought. Himself the 
eulogist of so many approved American wor- 
thies of Sumner and Phillips, of Sedgwick 
and Garfield, of Bryant and Lowell, and of 
Washington, he can afford to await the fu- 
ture eulogist who shall inscribe his name upon 
the same " eternal bead-roll." His fame as a 
great public character at length is safe, 

" Safe from the wolf's black jaw, and the dull ass's hoof." 

George William Curtis was, in the words 
applied by Edmund Burke to his son, " born 
to be a public creature." His training for public 
affairs was, however, entirely different from that 
of most American politicians. For the first 
thirty-two years of his life his road led him 
through the most flowery and inviting fields of 
literature. He had ample time for study and for 

Edited by Charles Eliot Norton. In three volumes. Volume 
I., On the Principles and Character of American Institutions 
and the Duties of American Citizens, 1856-1891 . Volume II., 
Addresses and Reports on the Reform of the Civil Service of 
the United States. Volume III., Historical and Memorial 
Addresses. New York : Harper & Brothers. 

wide and select reading ; he enjoyed opportu- 
nities unequalled, at least in America, for inti- 
macy with literary people ; and he knew how 
to profit by the advantages of leisurely travel. 
He received also a somewhat careful business 
training. He became known as the author of 
some dainty, almost euphuistic, novels, notes 
of travel, and satirical sketches of society. In 
all this there was no prophecy of the future 
politician and reformer. 

In 1853 Mr. Curtis associated himself with 
C. F. Briggs and Parke Godwin in the editor- 
ship of " Putnam's Magazine," the most prom- 
ising literary periodical in America before the 
founding of " The Atlantic Monthly "; and in 
October, 1853, he first took his seat in the 
"Easy Chair" of "Harper's Monthly," the 
original occupant of which was Donald G. 
Mitchell. Curtis was preeminently a man of 
poetic tastes, artistic temperament, and literary 
aptitudes ; and if any man of his times might 
reasonably have devoted himself exclusively to 
a career of letters, he was the man. But those 
were the darkest hours of the conflict against 
the extension of slavery, and Curtis had in him 
something of the strain of Milton and of Roger 
Williams. He could not soar " in the high 
reason of his fancies, with his garland and sing- 
ing-robes about him," so long as that " troubled 
sea of noises and hoarse disputes " resounded 
in his ears. One of the most deeply-felt and 
touching passages in all Curtis's orations is 
that in which he describes the coming of Wen- 
dell Phillip's first and only client, on the mem- 
orable October afternoon in 1835. 

"As the jail-doors closed upon Garrison to save his 
life, Garrison and his cause had won their most power- 
ful and renowned ally. With the setting of that Octo- 
ber sun vanished forever the career of prosperous ease, 
the gratification of ordinary ambition, which the genius 
and the accomplishment of Wendell Phillips had seemed 
to foretell. Yes, the long-awaited client had come at 
last. Scarred, scorned, and forsaken, that cowering and 
friendless client was wronged and degraded humanity. 
The great soul saw and understood" (III., 277). 

Twenty years later the same client interrupted 
Curtis's fine dream of a career like that of Irv- 
ing. He also understood and obeyed. From 
that moment, politics by which I understand 
the application of morality and reason to public 
affairs became the chief business of his life. 
He became a public creature. In the last of 
his memorial addresses, that upon Lowell, he 
applauds the fine insight of his old friend, C. 
F. Briggs, in remarking " that Lowell was nat- 
urally a politician, and a politician like Milton 
a man, that is to say, with an instinctive 




grasp of the higher politics, of the duties and 
relations of the citizen to his country, and of 
those moral principles which are as essential 
to the welfare of states as oxygen to the breath 
of human life " (III., 374). It can hardly be 
disputed that Briggs would have shown still 
finer insight in saying this of Curtis. For while 
the remark is eminently true of Lowell as a 
thinker and as a writer, he was of too impa- 
tient a temper to illustrate the duties of the 
citizen in his daily life, as did Curtis. In say- 
ing this I would not be understood as dispar- 
aging Lowell, whose political service was equal 
to his great political sagacity. But Curtis's 
sense of his own political duty prompted him 
to carry the knowledge of the higher politics 
into that lower politics which is called " prac- 
tical." He became a political editor ; he at- 
tended the primary ; he was regularly a dele- 
gate to political conventions, state and national ; 
he was for many years Chairman of the Repub- 
lican Committee of his county ; he accepted 
the labors of the chairmanship of the first 
Civil Service Commission, in which capacity 
he determined the lines along which that re- 
form has since proceeded ; and he was, from 
its inception in 1881 until his death in 1892, 
the laborious President of the National Civil- 
Service Reform League. This may faintly 
suggest the enormous scope of his self-sacrific- 
ing political services. His public spirit led 
him to accept other offices, none of them, I 
think, offices of emolument, all of them offices 
of trust and honor, such as that of Regent of 
the University of the State of New York, which 
he held for many years ; and that of President 
of the Metropolitan Museum. All these mul- 
tifarious duties he performed with pains and 
punctuality. It is scarcely necessary to add 
that he was never in the ordinary sense either 
an office-seeker or an office-holder. 

The contents of these three volumes group 
themselves readily into several great classes, 
which indicate the chief preoccupations of the 
author's mind. The first class consists of those 
addresses delivered before, during, and after 
the war, the object of which was the awaken- 
ing of the conscience of the nation touching the 
monstrous injustice of slavery, and, later, the 
assurance of fair treatment, civilly and educa- 
tionally, to the freedman. The second class is 
made up of the addresses advocating woman 
suffrage, and defending the right of women to 
the same education as men. The third class 
is well characterized by the title of one of the 
addresses : " The Spirit and Influence of the 

Higher Education." The fourth class com- 
prises all the reports and addresses relating to 
the Reform of the Civil Service. The fifth 
class consists of the historical and memorial 
addresses. The first three classes of addresses 
are contained in Volume I., the fourth fills Vol- 
ume II., and the fifth Volume III. The ora- 
tions upon Sumner and Phillips, in the last 
volume, should be read in connection with the 
first six addresses of Volume I. 

The first address in Volume I. is Curtis's 
answer to the appeal which the client of Wen- 
dell Phillips had made in turn to him. It is 
an oration before the literary societies of Wes- 
leyan University, delivered in August, 1856, 
in the heat of the great Presidential campaign 
and of the struggle for the rescue of bleeding 
Kansas, and only ten weeks after the dastardly 
assault upon Sumner. In that hour there could 
be but one subject for Curtis : "The Duty of the 
American Scholar to Politics and the Times." 
How severe the inward struggle had been be- 
tween the promptings of genius and the claims 
of duty, we do not yet know, probably we 
shall never know. But this oration shows de- 
cisively that genius had wheeled into line with 
duty. Speaking as a young man to young men, 
as a scholar to scholars, he throws all the noble 
ardor of his nature into this powerful appeal, 
and compels them to face squarely the grave 
question of the hour, rehearses the shameful 
history of American slavery, points out the 
momentous issues of the present struggle, and 
calls upon generous youth to obey the call of 
duty in the spirit of John Milton and Joseph 

" Gentlemen, the scholar is the representative of 
thought among men, and his duty to society is the ef- 
fort to introduce thought and the sense of justice into 
human affairs. He was not made a scholar to satisfy 
the newspapers or the parish beadles, but to serve God 
and man. While other men pursue what is expedient 
and watch with alarm the flickering of the funds, he is 
to pursue the truth and watch the eternal law of jus- 
tice " (I., 14). 

Reprinted in the " Weekly Tribune," this speech 
went to every farm-house in the Northland, and 
it had further circulation as a pamphlet. Later 
orations of Curtis are chaster in style, more 
classic in form, riper in political wisdom, more 
quotable, more what you will ; but none prob- 
ably was more effective in its time, none more 
historically noteworthy. Mr. Norton does not 
go beyond the mark in saying : " It helped to 
define the political ideals, and to confirm the 
political principles, of the educated youth of 
the land" (I., 2). 



[Aug. 16, 

The next oration, entitled u Patriotism," was 
delivered in the following year at several col- 
leges, and was likewise widely circulated. Dur- 
ing the year which had intervened, Buchanan 
had become President and the Dred Scott de- 
cision had been rendered. Patriotism, he ar- 
gued, is simply fidelity to the American idea 
the sentiment of human liberty. In reply 
to the specious charge that the harborers of 
fugitive slaves were law-breakers, he had no 
difficulty in showing that laws are of two kinds, 
"Those which concern us as citizens, and 
those which affect us as men." The former 
we obey, even when they are unjust, for " in 
themselves they have no moral character or im- 
portance." The latter, when unjust, " God 
and man require of you to disobey." As times 
were, such words as these were deeds. For 
such words Sumner had been struck down ; by 
deeds which were the logical outcome of such 
words, John Brown was soon to become the 
immortal Winkelreid of the anti-slavery cause. 
On the very day on which John Brown was 
taken at Harper's Ferry, Curtis delivered at 
Plymouth Church his address on " The Pres- 
ent Aspect of the Slavery Question." Two 
months later, when John Brown's soul had just 
begun its eternal march, Curtis repeated the 
address in Philadelphia. The whole power of 
the police force of Philadelphia, aided by the 
armed friends of Curtis, was scarcely sufficient 
to prevent him from being mobbed. As it was, 
paving stones and vitriol were hurled through 
the windows. Even in December, 1860, after 
the election of Lincoln, an engagement with 
Curtis to deliver a lecture on Thackeray in 
Philadelphia had to be cancelled, on account 
of fear of mob violence. Such was the temper 
of the people of the City of Brotherly Love at 
the very time of the investment of Fort Sum- 
ter ! Small wonder that the Slave Power was 
arrogantly confident. 

During those years the constant habit of pub- 
lic speaking, conversance with public affairs, 
and no doubt also the stress and excitement of 
those trying times, had rapidly matured the 
mind and strengthened the style of Curtis. His 
logic becomes more cogent, his tone more states- 
manlike, his phrase more trenchant. There are 
terse, curt dicta that remind one of Burke : 
" A wrong does not become a right by being 
vested " (I., 85). There is something of Burke, 
too, in comparisons like the following : "In 
great emergencies men always rise to cardinal 
principles, as, in sailing out of sight of land, 
the mariner looks up and steers by the sun and 

stars" (I., 103). But he takes care to make 
no sacrifice of matter for decorative effect. The 
soft light of his poetic genius, which shines in 
the memorial addresses, is converted, in the 
argumentative ones, into a lantern to light the 
road. No man is happier in showing up the 
specious arts by which the people are made to 
believe a lie. His kindly eye is keen to de- 
tect the weak points in the enemy's armor, and 
his gentle hand is sure at the rapier-thrust. 
With what consummate art he expresses, as 
early as 1862, the judgment of history upon 
Stephen A. Douglas : " The parties were in 
earnest. Yet he could not be in earnest, for 
he was only playing for the presidency. ' " The 
mills of God! " there are no mills of God,' 
he smiled and said ; and instantly he was caught 
up and politically ground to powder between 
the whirring millstones of liberty and slavery " 
(I., 117). There is a shrewd characterization 
thrown off with the quiet elegance native to the 
author of the " Easy Chair." 

It would be easy to multiply indefinitely these 
illustrations, as it would be delightful to follow 
him through all the addresses of that time. 
They are " thoughts that breathe and words 
that burn." But to go into such details would 
be far beyond the scope of this article. I have 
spoken particularly of the earlier addresses, 
because of their double interest in illustrating 
the great choice of Curtis's life and in recall- 
ing a heroic period of our history. Some of 
the later addresses are doubtless intrinsically 
more valuable : they are more moderate in tone, 
chaster in style, solider in substance, fruitier 
in flavor, more weighted with experience, in 
short, they have the qualities that assure per- 

Of the Memorial Addresses I will not speak, 
further than to say that they exhibit the sure- 
ness of touch, the intimacy of knowledge, the 
selection of matter, and selectness of phrase, 
which mark the classic. The addresses upon 
Sumner, Phillips, Bryant, and Lowell would 
live, even were their quality less fine, because 
they are sketches of eminent men from the 
hand of an intimate friend. But they will be 
read for themselves and for Curtis. To Gen- 
eral Sedgwick he did not stand so near. There 
is no evidence that they had met ; but the ad- 
dress commemorative of him, though slighter, 
is of fascinating interest. The centennial ora- 
tions upon Concord fight and Burgoyne's defeat 
will continue to have for Americans something 
more than the charm of Macaulay's essays upon 
Clive and Frederick. No writer has given us 



more vivid and inspiring battle-pictures ; and 
in Curtis the motive and end of it all are always 
present, the human heart-beat is heard above 
the roar of the guns, the human hope shines 
through the battle-smoke. 

There are two addresses which are more 
creditable to his courage in avowing and de- 
fending his convictions and to his chivalry in 
the advocacy of unpopular causes, than to his 
reputation as a statesmanlike leader of opinion. 
I refer to the pleas for woman suffrage. He 
makes very plain, indeed, the justice of admit- 
ting woman to " the same position with men 
so far as property rights and remedies are con- 
cerned," and this necessarily includes the right 
to vote upon local concerns. It is unfortunate 
for this great and inevitable reform that so dis- 
tinguished and eloquent an advocate should 
have mixed it up with a larger question, and 
that he should have defended both with argu- 
ments that seem to be borrowed from the wo 
men. What the cause really needed was a 
man's logic and a statesman's moderation ; and 
here Curtis missed a great opportunity. To 
begin with, he all along assumes, and even 
roundly asserts, that the fact that a thing is a 
novelty is " a presumption in its favor " (I., 
182). That does not remind one of Burke! 
To compel women to do military service would 
be a novelty ; but would Curtis have admitted 
the presumption to be in its favor ? Then he 
constantly speaks of men and women as sep- 
arate social classes ; indeed, this grotesque use 
of the word class will be found, I believe, to 
carry nearly the whole weight of the argument. 
This would be delightfully feminine if it were 
not so misleading. A sense of the danger of 
class legislation prompted men to restore the 
ballot to the late rebel leaders. But the very 
men who performed this act of justice refuse 
the ballot to women. If, then, one class of 
men with the ballot is likely to be unjust to 
another class without it, " how much truer is 
it that one sex as a class will be unjust to the 
other." " Woman " is some far-off object of 
oppression, like the negro or the Hindoo, to 
whom " man " will be more unjust than to his 
political enemies or to an alien race. But when 
we leave off speculating about the class " wo- 
man " and the class " man," and look at men 
and women, we perceive that in actual life men 
and women, outside of Amazonia, are never 
separate classes, but that every social class in- 
cludes both sexes. 

' The woman's cause is man's : they rise or sink 
Together, dwarf'd or godlike, bond or free." 

Had Curtis read his Burke to better purpose 
he would never have beclouded a political and 
social discussion by the introduction of meta- 
physical considerations, concerning which Burke 
cried : " I hate the very sound of them ! " He 
would not have accused men, as he does by 
implication (I., 219), of constant audacity, 
tyranny, and inhumanity toward women, 
i. e., toward their mothers, sisters, sweethearts, 
wives, and daughters. He would hardly have 
imagined that he had conclusively refuted the 
theory of the virtual representation of women, 
by adverting to the illusory nature of that the- 
ory in the case of the British Colonies. Nor 
would he have asserted in the New York Con- 
stitutional Convention that the action of that 
Convention in withholding the ballot from 
women was an injustice as monstrous, an incon- 
sistency as gross, as would be the disfranchise- 
ment of the county of Richmond, from which 
Mr. Curtis was a delegate. Finally, he would 
certainly have been more guarded in assuming, 
as he repeatedly does, that the ballot is one of 
the natural political rights of women, not see- 
ing that by such an assumption he begs the 
whole question. The most ardent follower of 
Rousseau would scarcely deny that a natural 
political right, if such a thing there be, must be 
something good both for the individual and for 
the community. I do not say that the partici- 
pation of shop-girls in the quadrennial scramble 
for office, and the voting of ballet-dancers " in 
blocks of five," would not be a good thing : I 
merely point out that Curtis begs the question. 

In the discussion of this grave question Cur- 
tis loses his usual sense and balance. This is 
very likely not his fault ; there seems to be a 
certain fallacious glamour, a something more 
than natural, in the atmosphere of this agita- 
tion, " airs from heaven or blasts from hell," 
that bereave people of their senses, and impel 
them to indulge in " wild and whirling words." 
Under the platform of the woman-suffrage con- 
vention, as under the platform at Elsinore, 
there lurks a ghost that cries " Swear ! " to him 
who shrinks from complicity with the over- 
strained declarations of the place. 

The contents of the second volume, consist- 
ing entirely of addresses and reports on the re- 
form of the Civil Service, are of a far more 
serious and statesmanlike character. This vol- 
ume is at present most timely. One hazards 
little in asserting that there is no other book 
comparable to it for doctrine and discipline in 
right political action at the present time. In 
the anti-slavery addresses we are dealing with 


[Aug. 16, 

one who is in the formative stage of early man- 
hood. Working under the guidance of great 
and inspiring leaders, Garrison, Phillips, 
Sumner, Lowell, Beecher, he plants himself 
impregnably upon the rock of fundamental 
morality. It was really a simple question, as 
questions of duty always are ; he clearly saw 
the solution ; and he could bring to bear upon 
his hearers all his mental equipment, all his 
spiritual elevation, all the force of ardent con- 
viction. In the woman-suffrage addresses he 
is doing what he believes to be his duty ; he is 
honestly taking his oath in obedience to the 
mandate of the ghost. In the commemorative 
addresses he is more purely reminiscential, de- 
scriptive, and decorative. He is following his 
genius in pronouncing the fitting word upon 
a great public occasion, in recounting the life 
and services of some one of the great men he 
had known, in celebrating the Puritan char- 
acter, or, what is almost equivalent, in recall- 
ing the great words and deeds of the founders 
of American liberty. But after the settlement 
of the issues of the Civil War, Curtis finds 
himself suddenly confronted by a public evil 
scarcely less insidious and gigantic than negro 
slavery. His old masters have fallen away : 
he himself is no longer distinctively a young 
man ; he is surrounded by generous youth, 
awake to the danger, eager for the struggle, 
and needing only a leader. Almost from the 
first the chief advocate of Civil-Service Reform, 
he lived to be its chief agent ; and, in order to 
be both, he had to become the political philos- 
opher of the Reform. It is in the last capac- 
ity that this volume presents him to us. 

The first of these addresses was delivered as 
long ago as 1869 ; the last, entitled " Party and 
Patronage," was read (but not by the author) 
at the meeting of the National Civil-Service 
Reform League in 1892, only four months be- 
fore his death. He had been occupied with 
the subject for a quarter of a century. When 
his name first became identified with the Re- 
form, it had been advocated in Congress by 
one member, Mr. Jenckes, and before the pub- 
lic by two weekly papers, " The Nation," ed- 
ited by Mr. Godkin, and " Harper's Weekly," 
edited by Mr. Curtis. " To the general pub- 
lic it was necessary to explain what the Civil 
Service was, how it was recruited, what the 
abuses were, and why and how they were to 
be remedied" (II., 173). Our politics had 
reached a stage when, in his own vigorous 
phrase, " Servility to party takes the place of 
individual independence of action " (II., 492). 

Curtis was in every way admirably fitted for 
the leadership that fell to him. The breadth 
of his historical reading, and especially his ac- 
curate studies in American history, enabled 
him to see the reform of the enormous evils re- 
sulting from the spoils system, a system grow- 
ing out of the unconstitutional diversion of 
patronage from the President to the members 
of Congress, to be " but another successive 
step in the development of liberty under law " 
(II., 488). The great oratorical and persuasive 
powers of Curtis, his skill in winning the good- 
will of his audience before introducing the moral 
consideration, made him the Wendell Phillips 
of this movement. His patience, his firmness, 
his humor, his urbanity, his knowledge of pol- 
itics, were all brought into play. But what 
gave his advocacy of the cause most weight was 
the well-known loftiness of his character. For 
example, in the address at the unveiling of the 
statue of Washington, Curtis, referring to the 
air of American patriotism about the hallowed 
spot, says : " To breathe it, charged with such 
memories, is to be inspired with the loftiest 
human purpose, to be strengthened for the no- 
blest endeavor" (III., 183). When Curtis 
speaks thus, those acquainted with his life know 
that this is not mere sentiment with him ; but 
that he is himself fired with this inspiration 
and energized with this strength. Like the 
anti-slavery movement, this reform is essen- 
tially a moral one, and it was indispensable 
that it should find a leader without fear and 
without reproach. Curtis's chief effective- 
ness and value as a public teacher are due to 
the high ground he takes, to his magnanim- 
ity to opponents, to the fairness of his argu- 
ments, to the public confidence in his absolute 
truthfulness, and to the fact that he never 
makes appeal to the selfishness of men. Per- 
haps young Americans will owe more, in the 
long run, to his steady opposition to the blind, 
partisanship against which Washington warned 
us, than to any of his specific public services. 
Himself a party man, he was strong enough to 
make himself (to borrow his own words con- 
cerning the true function of the press) preem- 
inently " the voice of the patriotic intelligence 
and public spirit which, even while accepting 
a party name, rejects a party collar " (I., 311). 
From the year 1880 until the year of his 
death, Curtis prepared thirteen addresses upon 
Civil-Service Reform, all but the first two of 
which were given as Presidential addresses at 
the successive annual meetings of the National 
Civil-Service Reform League. These, in their 



way, are of unequalled interest, embodying as 
they do a history of the progress of the Re- 
form from year to year, sober criticisms of the 
conduct of presidents and public officials, and 
a whole arsenal of arguments and illustrations 
making for the reform. Literary style and 
finish are here, of course, distinctly subordin- 
ated to substance and matter ; and yet there 
are perhaps no more signal illustrations than 
some of these addresses of the strength and 
chastity of Curtis's later style. Among his 
other titles to honorable remembrance is the 
respect he always exhibited for the English 
language. In a time when the relaxation of 
moral standards seemed to mirror itself in the 
vulgarity of newspaper diction, Curtis kept his 
tongue, like his heart and conduct, pure and 
undefiled. The example of taste and high 
breeding he sets in this particular should not 
be without its influence. 

Curtis will have a place in our literature on 
the one hand with the elegant essayists, on the 
other with those orators who have been great 
public characters. Kant is said to have des- 
pised oratory as too rhetorical, too much af- 
fected by feeling, too much the art of making 
the worse appear the better reason. But what 
would he have said of the orator who employed 
his gracious gift always in the service of jus- 
tice and humanity ; who, in a time of bitter 
partisanship, never flattered an unworthy pre- 
judice ; and who never flinched, for clamor 
and calumny, from championing an unpopular 
cause ? Such a man has his function no less 
than the philosopher who coldly analyzes the 
final principles of things. Such a man has his 
place beside the statesman and the hero ; and 
when we enumerate the men who have rendered 
eminent public service, the noble leader in the 
Civil-Service Reform will be named along with 
Alexander Hamilton, with Samuel Adams, with 
Wendell Phillips, and with Charles Sumner. 


The distinctive feature of Dr. Ely's new work 
on Socialism lies in bringing together for the 
first time within the same covers both the fair- 
est and most appreciative treatment of the 
strength of socialism and of its weaknesses. In 
the emphasis laid upon practicable and much- 

* SOCIALISM. An Examination of its Nature, its Strength, 
and its Weakness ; with Suggestions for Social Reform. By 
Richard T. Ely. New York : Thomas Y. Crowell & Co. 

needed social reforms, and the discrimination 
between the sphere of state and of private, of 
monopolistic and of competitive business, this 
work is likely to prove the most useful of all 
works on the subject. 

Professor Ely most clearly shows how he and 
other social reformers can stand side by side 
with the socialists in the treatment of monop- 
olies of situation, such as gas, street and steam 
railways, the electric light, telephone and tele- 
graph, and in factory legislation in its widest 
meaning, without holding at all with the social- 
ists as to the desirability or practicability of 
collective management of most manufacturing 
and commercial enterprises. Never before has 
so strong a sympathizer with most of the truly 
noble socialist ideals criticised so keenly the 
methods proposed for their realization or the 
over-confidence in human nature revealed by 
their authors. Recognizing the value of social- 
ism in its arousing of the social conscience and 
the exposure of existing abuses, Professor Ely 
admits that if the present tendency to the forma- 
tion of trusts shall continue until each industry 
is monopolized, then public management may 
have to come ; but he wisely holds that we can- 
not yet be sure that the trust idea will go so far. 
A fuller treatment of this subject, however, 
might well have been given ; and the classifica- 
tion of such industrial types as artificial mon- 
opolies, instead of as monopolies of large capi- 
tal, which, so far as they go, are as natural as 
any other, might be criticised. 

Our author speaks of the " hesitation and 
timidity " which is apt to attend collective ac- 
tion, though elsewhere he holds that this is less 
important in monopolies of situation than the 
advantages in such of public operation. The 
most serious objections to socialism he finds in 

" the tendencies to revolutionary dissatisfaction which 
it would be likely to carry with it; the difficulties in 
the way of the organization of several important fac- 
tors of production under socialism, notably agriculture; 
difficulties in the way of determining any standard of 
distributive justice that would be generally acceptable, 
and at the same time would enlist the whole-hearted 
services of the most gifted and talented members of 
the community; and, finally, the danger that the re- 
quirements of these persons engaged in higher pur- 
suits would be underestimated, and the importance of 
those occupations which contribute most to the advance- 
ment of civilization should fail to secure adequate ap- 

His dissent from the tenets of socialism is also 
shown in his belief that the wastes which he 
fully admits in the true competitive field of in- 
dustry are " counterbalanced by the gains aris- 
ing from competition, such as alertness and the 



[Aug. 16, 

free exercise of one's powers by active efforts 
to meet wants as they arise." 

Occupying so conservative a position, it is 
noteworthy how vigorously our author cham- 
pions social reforms in the line of factory and 
sanitary legislation, public ownership of what 
I call monopolies of situation, and the recogni- 
tion of our duty to serve the humanity about 
us and our state and city with our wealth and 
talents. He truly holds that the longer we 
delay these moderate and really conservative 
reforms, the farther will we have to go along 
untried and uncertain paths in order to meet 
the fast rising discontent of the masses. 

A few years ago, when the reviewer enjoyed 
the privilege of listening to Professor Ely's first 
courses of lectures in America, many, as now, 
called him a radical and a socialist ; but he 
then said, what this book confirms, that the 
time would come when, if his suggestions for 
social reform in the interest of true conserva- 
tism were not heeded, the mass of men would 
be driven past him into such radical views as 
would make his seem conservative. Such a 
result has already come ; for although the au- 
thor now holds substantially the economic posi- 
tion he did then, many, on reading the second 
and third parts of the present noteworthy book, 
will be surprised to find how conservative Pro- 
fessor Ely now appears, beside the rising tide 
of socialistic thought about us. To those who, 
like the reviewer, are agnostics as to our remote 
social future, but prefer steady and peaceful 
evolution toward a greater equality of oppor- 
tunity for all for the development of individ- 
uality and manhood, rather than a damming of 
the current until destruction must attend its 
ultimate and inevitable sweep onward, the les- 
sons of Professor Ely's chapters on social re- 
form seem well worth heeding. 



Sir Harry Parkes was a household name in 
China and Japan, both to foreigners and na- 
tives. To most Europeans the man was best 
and familiarly known as " Sir Harry "; by 
Chinese he was called " Pa Hia-li " and " Pa 
Tajin " names which might well have been 
as awe-inspiring and perhaps even as terrify- 

Majesty's Minister to China and Japan. By Stanley Lane- 
Poole, author of " Life of Viscount Stratford de Redcliffe." 
In two volumes. Illustrated. New York : Macmillan & Co. 

ing as was that of Richard Coeur de Leon 
among the Saracens. The story of the life of 
Sir Harry Parkes has been interestingly told 
by Stanley Lane-Poole, who treats of his ca- 
reer in China and Siam, and Frederick V. 
Dickins, who treats of that in Japan and Ko- 
rea. This composite biography reads like a 
novel ; but on disputed points of policy it is 
a work of special pleading, the conclusions of 
which must not be too freely accepted. 

Though the schooling of Harry Parkes, on 
account of the straitened circumstances of the 
family, was limited, "his education really 
opened on the decks of men-of-war, in the 
council-chambers of plenipotentiaries, and on 
the field of battle," where he gained a wide 
knowledge of men and of affairs. His first ap- 
pearance on the stage of action in the Orient 
was in 1842 at Nanking. To this place Im- 
perial Commissioners of China " had at last 
condescended to come," impelled by fear of a 
British army and men-of-war, "with full 
powers from the Son of Heaven to treat for 
peace " with those " outer barbarians." 

" In the midst of this pomp and pageantry of court 
and war, a slim fair-haired boy with eager young face 
and vivid blue eyes was formally presented to the Im- 
perial Commissioners. It was thus that Harry Parkes 
at the age of fourteen took his place in a great histor- 
ical scene. From this day for more than forty years 
there were few events in the history of British rela- 
tions with the Far East in which he did not play a con- 
spicuous part ; till the lad who carried ' chops ' and dis- 
patches for Sir Henry Pottinger at Nanking in 1842 
ended his busy and eventful life in 1885, in the high sta- 
tion of Her Majesty's Minister to the Court of Peking." 

As Interpreter at Amoy, Foochow, Shanghai, 
and Canton, Parkes showed " ability, tact, and 
ready fluency in the language." He early be- 
came convinced that " all mandarins are like 
eels," and that the only way of dealing with 
these delusive officials was by means of " firm 
persistence." In 1855, as Secretary to Sir John 
Bowring, who was sent to Bangkok to nego- 
tiate a treaty with the King of Siam, he was 
entrusted with the duty of carrying home the 
documents for the Queen's ratification. When 
he returned to China, he was made Acting 
Consul at Canton ; and afterwards, when that 
city was captured by the British, he, facile 
princeps of a commission of three, was " prac- 
tically Governor" of the place. In 1860, as 
an interpreter for Lord Elgin, he accompanied 
that commander on the march to Peking. In 
this duty whether in dealing with the Chinese 
coolies, or in capturing "almost single-handed " 
the Peh-tang fort, or in negotiating with the 




wily and slippery officials, he displayed his 
characteristic energy, courage, and cleverness. 
But even Harry Parkes was once duped by 
horrible treachery. In a pretended negotiation 
for peace, he and a few companions, though 
under the protection of a flag of truce, were 
seized and conducted in triumph to Peking. 
Cruel treatment in prison for twenty-one days 
seemed only the prelude of certain death. The 
order for their execution was actually issued by 
the Chinese Emperor ; but a friendly manda- 
rin " succeeded in getting the captives out of 
Peking by order of the Prince of Kung [Peace 
Commissioner] barely a quarter of an hour 
before the Emperor's messenger arrived." Six- 
teen days after the release, a British Embassy 
for the first time took up its quarters in the 
city of Peking. 

In 1862 Parkes attained the unique distinc- 
tion of being made a K.C.B. at the early age 
of thirty-four ; and in 1865 he was appointed 
Minister to Japan. His career in Japan ex- 
tended over eighteen years (1865-1883), and 
covered the " Eestoration," or " Eevolution," 
of 1868, with its subsequent marvellous trans- 
formations in social and political affairs. One 
writer has said that " the history of Sir Harry's 
career in Japan was the history of Japan." 
His policy in this country, as well as in China, 
has been the cause of much criticism, both fav- 
orable and unfavorable, which, to a great ex- 
tent, has been tinged by national predilections 
and rivalries. His biographer speaks of the 
Yedo Court as " terrorized by the American 
envoy, Townsend Harris, into compliance with 
his demands," and adds : " It is not too much 
to say that to Harris's ill-advised and selfish 
policy were due many of the troubles that at- 
tended the emergence of Japan from her long 
isolation." Americans, on the other hand, de- 
fending with spirit their own representatives, 
have been unsparing in their denunciations of 
the " British, brutish," domineering policy self- 
ishly employed against Japan, China, and other 
Asiatic nations. An Englishman, Professor 
Basil Hall Chamberlain, writes : 

" Sir Harry was always a stanch supporter of his 
country's commercial interests, and a believer in the 
' gun-boat policy ' of his master, Lord Palmerston. His 
outspoken threats and occasional fits of passion earned 
for him the dread and dislike of the Japanese during 
his sojourn in Japan. But no sooner had he quitted 
Tokyo than they began to acknowledge that his high- 
handed policy had been founded in reason." 

A high Japanese official once remarked : " Sir 
Harry Parkes was the only foreigner in Japan 
whom we could not twist round our little finger." 

And the Rev. William Elliot Griffis, D.D., in 
" The Mikado's Empire," gives this apprecia- 
tive American judgment : 

" It was the English Minister, Sir Harry Parkes, who 
first risked his life to find the truth; stripped the Sho- 
gun of his fictitious title of ' Majesty ' ; asked for at 
home, obtained, and presented credentials to the Mi- 
kado, the Sovereign of Japan; recognized the new Na- 
tional Government, and thus laid the foundation of true 
diplomacy in Japan." 

But it is at least certain that, however much 
Sir Harry may have accomplished in obtaining 
the imperial signature to the treaties, and in 
assisting indirectly and recognizing the unifi- 
cation of the government, he and subsequent 
British Ministers to Japan have doggedly pre- 
vented the revision of those same treaties, 
which still hold Japan, in spite of her forty 
years of wonderful progress, in an unreasona- 
ble thraldom. 

In 1883 "the great British Minister in Ja- 
pan " received promotion to the position of 
Minister to China, and returned to the scene 
of his early achievements. In Peking, into 
which he had once been carried prisoner in a 
cart, and where he had languished in the com- 
mon jail, he was received with honor at the 
Imperial Court. The principal event of his 
term in this office was the negotiation of a 
treaty with Korea, to which country also he 
became Minister. The new positions entailed 
unceasing routine labor, not only for the sub- 
ordinates, but also for the chief, who, though 
he had often accused himself of " indolence " 
and " apathy," was a hard worker, always 
''opera inter talia primus " Early in 1885 a 
fever seized him ; and in April of that year 
death came, less from fever than from over- 
work, to the distinguished diplomat whose en- 
tire service had been in the Orient. He has 
since been honored with a marble bust in St. 
Paul's Cathedral, London, and in Shanghai 
with a marble statue, " the first public statue 
in the metropolis of European China." 

Apart from the biographical interest, the 
great value of these two volumes, and espe- 
cially of that part relating to Japan, is in the 
search-lights thrown upon contemporaneous his- 
tory in the Orient. In fact, the private cor- 
respondence of Sir Harry during his life in 
Japan was so scanty that Mr. Dickins was 
compelled to be less biographical than histor- 
ical, and to give the results of his own obser- 
vations and studies. We may not yet be ready 
to accept all his inferences ; but we are forced, 
by the vigor of his arguments, to give careful 



[Aug. 16, 

consideration to the disputed points. It rather 
startles us, for instance, to read this icono- 
clastic statement : 

" The so-called Restoration of 1868 has been com- 
pletely misunderstood by most recent writers on Japan ; 
it was no Restoration, but a Revolution, that gave the 
Mikado a power he had never previously possessed." 

And, in connection with the ante-Revolution 
outbreaks, or " Revolutionary Preludes," as 
Dr. Murray aptly calls them in " The Story of 
Japan," Mr. Dickins upholds a theory which 
investigation tends more and more to establish : 
that " there never was any intelligent opposi- 
tion to foreign intercourse on the part of the 
Japanese "; and that the joi, or anti-foreign, 
spirit of Satsuma, Choshiu, Tosa, and even 
Mito, was only a popular slogan with which to 
stir up the clans in hostility against the Sho- 
gun. It is a curious coincidence that at the 
present time a similar spirit of hostility to for- 
eigners is revived by the radical opposition to 
the Government. Thus " history repeats it- 
self," even in Japan. And while the present 
seems a critical period in the history of that 
country, and constitutional government and 
representative institutions are there undergoing 
a severe test, there is occasion not merely for 
anxiety, but also for hope. As Mr. Dickins has 
well expressed it, " There is a silent strength 
underlying the sound and fury of Japanese pol- 
itics which will enable the country to weather 
much worse storms than any that threaten it." 
It may be confidently predicted that during 
the coming years Japan will continue in a rapid 
course of progress, and that the twentieth cen- 
tury will see yet more wonderful transforma- 
tions and developments in civilization than 
those watched with great interest by Sir Harry 


Town Life in The attempt of a brave woman to 
the fifteenth carry on worthily any great work 

entrusted to her by her husband when 
he lays it down at death's inexorable summons can 
hardly fail to command our respectful sympathy 
and interest. Still more should this be the case 
when the woman is the widow of such a man as 
the late John Richard Green, and the great work 
is a study of life in the English towns of the fif- 
teenth century. When the possibility of such a 
thing as American cities was not so much as dreamt 
of, and while the English royalty and nobility were 
exterminating each other in the Wars of the Roses, 
the commoners of the English towns were learn- 

ing lessons of self-government, and engaging for 
the sake of commercial and municipal liberties in 
obscure and tedious struggles, which, though hith- 
erto overlooked by historians, are far more impor- 
tant factors in the growth of the nation than the 
tragic fate of the houses of York and Lancaster. 
In the first volume of " Town Life in the Fifteenth 
Century" (Macmillan), Mrs. Green treats of the 
industrial and commercial revolutions of the fif- 
teenth century, of the townspeople and their com- 
mon life, and of their struggles with the king, the 
feudal lord, or the church, for enfranchisement and 
for independent government. In her second vol- 
ume, the author treats of subjects more abstruse and 
more open to discussion, such as the relation of in- 
ternal traffic to free trade and protection, the gen- 
eral organization of labor, the position of the guild 
towards the hired worker, the attitude of the mu- 
nicipality to the industrial system, and of the cap- 
italist to the town councillor. Mrs. Green thinks 
she has found an explanation for the position of the 
" communitas " side by side with the " cives," and 
rejects the theory of an early triumph and rapid 
decay of democratic government, while she attrib- 
utes great importance to the growth of the common 
council. Even if one does not agree with the au- 
thor's conclusions, or even accept all of her data as 
unimpeachable, one must acknowledge that her ar- 
duous labors in a comparatively new field have not 
been in vain, and that her book will incite the se- 
rious student of municipal history to new efforts in 
the search for truth. Perhaps there never was a 
time when it was so important for Americans to 
make a thorough study of all the problems of mu- 
nicipal government and of all the various solutions 
that have been proposed. 

Pleasing The perusal of Florence A. Merriam's 

pictures of a " My Summer in a Mormon Village " 

Mormon village. (Houghton) leads to the conclusion 
that the advantages of Utah as a summer resort 
(and not in a matrimonial way only) are yet unap- 
preciated. Miss Merriam assures us that the cli- 
mate, which is that of the dry elevated region be- 
tween the Rockies and the Sierra Nevada known 
as " The Great Basin," is unsurpassed. Utah and 
Arizona, having this basin climate, are, she thinks, 
the natural sanitariums of the continent, far excel- 
ling the Adirondacks, Florida, and California, in 
elevation, dry ness, and recuperative effect. Cer- 
tainly it would be hard to picture anything pleas- 
anter than Miss Merriam's particular " Mormon 
village," a typical one, it seems, belonging to a line 
of closely connected settlements in the valley be- 
tween the Wasatch and the Great Lake. Hilly 
streets bordered with fragrant locusts under which 
run mountain brooks (in lieu of prosaic gutters), 
cool low stone houses set well back in shrubby yards, 
vine-clad piazzas, delightful old overgrown orchards 
with their shady lanes and slow-ripening fruit, form 
an ensemble charming to the fancy these sweltering 
days. One is not surprised to learn that " children 




were everywhere," and that each house, the hum- 
blest, had its baby. One local patriarch, an ex- 
bishop boasted no less than sixty-three of these 
little olive branches. The author was gratified one 
day by a sight of this notable anti-Malthusian as he 
stood in the garden, gravely wagging his gray beard 
in the shrubbery, and looking, we should fancy, un- 
commonly like an elderly Satyr. Altogether Miss 
Merriam's picture of the Latter-Day Saints is more 
favorable than that usually drawn ; and she seems to 
have seen nothing of the woe-begone men, listless 
bedraggled women, and squalid children, described 
by most pilgrims to Mormondom. The book is 
brightly written, with plenty of local color and char- 
acter sketching, and with some discussion of the 
doctrine and present practice of the " Saints." 
There is a pretty frontispiece illustration. 

and Social 

Mr. H. H. Boyesen's " Literary and 
Social Silhouettes " (Harper) are 
brief essays, which, to the number 
of a dozen or more, fill a most companionable pocket 
volume. The social element of the book is found 
mainly in the studies of German and American 
women, and the capital paper on "Philistinism." Lit- 
erature gets more attention than society, however, 
and is illustrated by such sketches as " The Hero 
in Fiction," "America in European Literature," 
and " Some Stray Notes on Alphonse Daudet." In 
" My Lost Self " we have an account of the im- 
pressions of a long-exiled Norwegian upon a visit to 
his native land. Mr. Boyesen records the curious 
fact that he found himself taken for a foreigner 
by his fellow-countrymen, and that his Norwegian 
had taken upon itself an English accent. We 
are bound to speak well of the essay on "Amer- 
ican Literary Criticism," for does it not describe 
THE DIAL as " distinguished for its broad-minded 
impartiality and scholarship " ? The gentle satirical 
vein that streaks many of these papers gives them 
flavor and zest, even when it verges upon cynicism. 
The author makes mild sport of himself no less than 
of others, as appears in a few sentences devoted 
to his own novels : " I marvel, in retrospect, that 
a humane, kind-hearted man (as I believe I am) 
could have heaped up so much gratuitous misery. 
. . . A fiendish ingenuity assisted me in inventing 
distressing situations, from which there seemed no 
issue possible except death by frost or fire, or a long 
self-imposed martyrdom of sorrow and suffering." 

Jewish influence 
in American 

There seems to be no end of the 
changes to be rung upon the theme 
of Christopher Columbus. We had 
thought that the flood of " Columbian literature " 
had fairly subsided at last ; but it seems not. In a 
compact volume of some 200 pages, entitled " Chris- 
topher Columbus " (Longmans), Dr. M. Kayser- 
ling re-tells the story from a novel and not uninter- 
esting standpoint. The question of Jewish partici- 
pation in Columbus's discoveries has already been 
propounded, but it has never before been fully dis- 

cussed. It is to this question, primarily, that Dr. 
Kayserling devotes the present volume, basing his 
narrative upon recent exploration of Spanish ar- 
chives and libraries. He tells the story of the serv- 
ices rendered to Columbus by wealthy Jews, sketches 
the dramatic history of the Marranos or " secret 
Jews," and makes it pretty clear throughout that 
the race had a good deal to do with things maritime 
in the palmy days of the Spanish and the Portu- 
guese navies. We own that (despite the Phoenicians) 
a Jewish sailor has hitherto appeared to us in the 
light of a roc or a hippogriff the rarest kind of a 
rara avis, in fact, and almost contra naturam. 
Imagination balks at the notion of a son of Abra- 
ham bestriding a yard-arm, or having anything 
whatever to do with a ship except, indeed, in the 
way of a bottomry bond. But now comes Dr. Kay- 
serling and shows that with Columbus's armada there 
were " several men of Jewish stock," including the 
fleet-physician ; and he even offers some evidence 
that the man who first shouted " Land ho ! " (or its 
Spanish equivalent) from the deck of the " Pinta " 
was an " 'Ebrew Jew." The Doctor's narrative is 
readable, and, in its way, informing; and it is 
smoothly translated by Professor Charles Gross of 
Harvard College. The documents embodied in the 
text are printed in extenso in the Appendix, and 
form an element of considerable interest. 

Recollections Mr - J - K - Fowler's " Recollections 

of English of Old Country Life" (Longmans) 

country life. reminds one not a little of that cap- 

ital book "The Memories'of Dean Hole." The laugh 
is not quite so merry or the manner so taking as 
that of the incomparable Dean ; but the book is 
full of good stories and curious odds and ends from 
the memory of a typical English country gentleman 
" one of the olden time," we fancy. Of course 
the " sporting parson " figures pretty largely in Mr. 
Fowler's jottings. There is a good story of one 
notable shoot of this variety a rector in the north, 
whose horsemanship justly made him the dulce de- 
cits of his rough-riding Yorkshire parishioners. " His 
rectory-house," says the author, " was on a hill about 
a mile distant from the church, which was also on 
a hill, with a valley between them. The rector often 
rode to church, sometimes across country, putting 
his horse up at one of the farmers' stables near the 
church, and the parishioners assembled in the church- 
yard, waiting for his advent, would watch his pro- 
gress from the rectory with keen relish, expressing 
themselves enthusiastically as one fence after the 
other was safely negotiated. One of them would 
say, ' He 's safely over the single '; another, ' Now 
he 's at the double '; ' Yes, he 's all right '; ' What '11 
he do at the rails ? " ' He 's well over '; and the 
last thing he jumped was the churchyard wall, sav- 
ing his time by three minutes." Mr. Fowler ranges 
at random over topics social, political, sporting, and 
agricultural, and his book is informing as well as 
amusing. There are several illustrations, including 
a portrait. 



[Aug. 16, 


The welcome series of pamphlets issued by the Open 
Court Publishing Co., and known as the " Religion of 
Science " library, appear bi-monthly. The issue for 
July is divided into two " half-numbers," one of which 
is a new edition of M. Alfred Binet's important studies 
" On Double Consciousness," and the other a reprint of 
sundry articles from " The Open Court," upon the gen- 
eral subject of " The Nature of the State," all by Dr. 
Paul Carus, the learned editor of " The Open Court " 
and " The Monist." 

Mr. Andrew Lang touches nothing that he does not 
adorn, and his historical monograph upon " St. Andrews " 
(Longmans) gives an unexpected charm to the dusty an- 
nals of the old Scotch university town. " Very many per- 
sons yearly visit St. Andrews," the author observes, and 
some of these, he adds, " may care to know more of 
that venerable town than can be learned from assiduous 
application to golf." Mr. Lang himself shows unex- 
pected and praiseworthy restraint in putting next to 
nothing about golf into these pages. The town of Wal- 
lace and Bruce and the Black Douglas is certainly not 
devoid of picturesque and romantic interest, and Mr. 
Lang's account, enforced by Mr. T. Hodge's tasteful 
pictures, is likely to make the future annual influx of 
summer visitors larger than ever. 

Mr. Herbert Spencer has just published " A System 
of Lucid Shorthand " (Apple ton), devised fifty years ago 
by his father, William George Spencer, and left in man- 
uscript up to the present time. The present publica- 
tion results, Mr. Spencer tells us, " from the conviction, 
long since formed and still unshaken, that the Lucid 
Shorthand ought to replace ordinary writing." He 
claims for it great brevity, and greater legibility than 
belongs to ordinary longhand. The book is a very thin 
one, and the system correspondingly simple. It ought 
not to take long for anyone to master the system suf- 
ficiently to determine whether he is likely to find it 
practically useful. 

" The Study of the Biology of Ferns by the Collodion 
Method " (Macmillan), by Mr. George F. Atkinson, is 
a text-book for advanced students of biology, beauti- 
fully printed, and illustrated from original drawings. 
Mr. F. O. Bowers's " Practical Botany for Beginners " 
(Macmillan) is also a laboratory manual for students, de- 
scribing a variety of typical plant-forms, and packed with 
practical instructions. The " Introduction to Elementary 
Practical Biology" (Harper) of Mr. Charles Wright 
Dodge is designed for high-school and college students, 
is a larger book than either of the preceding, and in- 
cludes both plant and animal types. We ought also to 
mention in this connection Mr. Charles H. Clark's ad- 
mirable treatise on " Practical Methods in Microscopy " 
(Heath). The multiplication of such text-books as these 
marks a highly significant advance in our methods of 
science teaching. 

Two more volumes ( making seven in all ) of the 
"Temple" Shakespeare have been published (Mac- 
millan). " Love's Labour's Lost " has for its frontispiece 
a pretty etching of Anne Hathaway's cottage, while 
" Much Ado about Nothing " gives us a similar view of 
Trinity Church at Stratford. Mr. Israel Gollancz sup- 
plies the critical apparatus, as usual, and takes good 
heed not to make it in the slightest degree formidable. 
For a play-a- volume edition, this one comes very close 
to perfection. 


New York, August 12, 1894. 

Messrs. Macmillan & Co. will publish in about three 
weeks " A New and Complete Concordance, or Verbal 
Index, to Words, Phrases, and Passages in the Dra- 
matic Works of Shakespeare, with a Supplementary 
Concordance to the Poems," by John Bartlett, A.M., 
Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 
It is difficult to express the imposing character of this 
work in a few words, more especially in view of its hav- 
ing been accomplished by one person. The Concord- 
ance is a large quarto volume, containing almost two 
thousand pages, closely though plainly set in small type. 
As an exhibition of patient industry and scholarship it 
probably has not been exceeded in this country. Mr. 
John Bartlett is of course known the world over by his 
" Familiar Quotations," of which the ninth revised edi- 
tion, representing many thousands of copies sold, was 
published in 1891. There has been no figure more fa- 
miliar than his in Cambridge, Mass., for half a century. 
He was born in Plymouth in 1820, removing to Cam- 
bridge and entering the publishing business about 1836. 
He succeeded to the management of his firm in 1849, 
and held this position for ten years. Mr. Bartlett 
served in the U. S. Navy during the Civil War, and 
afterwards became connected with the firm of Messrs. 
Little, Brown, & Co., reaching the senior partnership 
in 1878. He took up his work on the Concordance 
shortly after the publication of the " Globe " edition of 
Shakespeare in 1875, the first cheap complete edition 
of the dramatist. He has steadily worked on it during 
most of the daylight hours ever since. The appearance 
of the revised edition of the "Globe" Shakespeare, still 
published by Messrs. Macmillan, in 1891, necessitated 
a certain amount of additional work. This was finished, 
and the Concordance is now ready to be placed upon 
the market. It will be sold regularly through the book- 
sellers, these publishers not being engaged in the sub- 
scription business, and not, I understand, believing in 
that method of sale. Mr. Bartlett says in his Introduc- 
tion: "Apart from the merit of presenting the latest 
and most approved text, now the standard with scholars 
and critics, the plan of this Concordance to the Dra- 
matic Works of Shakespeare is more comprehensive than 
that of any which has preceded it, in that it aims to 
give passages of some length for the most part inde- 
pendent of the context." The work, he adds, is made 
more nearly complete by the inclusion of select exam- 
ples of certain auxiliary verbs, of various adjectives in 
common use, and of pronouns, prepositions, interjections, 
and conjunctions. 

The first volume of Mr. John Codman Ropes's " Story 
of the Civil War " is now passing through the Knicker- 
bocker Press, and will be published at the end of Sep- 
tember by Messrs. G. P. Putnam's Sons. This work 
will deal less with accounts of battles and sensational 
episodes generally than has been the case with some of 
its predecessors, and will treat of the conflict in a more 
critical and judicial spirit than has been usual. " The 
Story of the Civil War " has been in preparation for 
Messrs. Putnam's Sons for several years, and the author 
has supplied his publishers with a regularly printed vol- 
ume instead of the usual manuscript, it being his custom 
to put his work in type and have it printed, before hand- 
ing it over for publication, in order that he may see it 
in print and that absolute accuracy may be secured. 

Mr. Moncure D. Con way is making a brief visit to 



the States, during the intermission of his duties at the 
South Place Chapel, London. He is passing a month or 
two on the Massachusetts coast, and after a brief rest 
will complete his editorial labors on " The Writings of 
Thomas Paine," the third and fourth volumes of which 
will be published by Messrs. Putnam's Sons during the 
coming season. Mr. Conway will continue his discourses 
at South Place Chapel next winter, it now being twenty- 
one years since he first became connected with the or- 
ganization which meets there. 

That band of young Arcadians, the Rhymers' Club 
of London, to whom several references have been made 
in this correspondence, has just published through Messrs. 
Elkins & Lane, of London, and Messrs. Dodd, Mead & 
Co. of New York, " The Second Book of the Rhymers' 
Club." I have never seen the first book of the Rhymers' 
Club, if such there be. The present volume is composed 
of poems presumably written for the meetings of the 
Club. They are signed by Messrs. Ernest Dowson, Ed- 
win J. Ellis, G. A. Greene, Arthur Cecil Hillier, Lionel 
Johnson, Richard LeGallienne, Victor Plarr, Ernest 
Radford, Ernest Rhys, T. W. Rolleston, Arthur Sy- 
inons, John Todhunter, and W. B. Yeats, who make up 
this company of troubadors. The names of Richard 
LeGallienne, W. B. Yeats, and Ernest Rhys, " Rhys 
the Rhymer," as his friends playfully call him, are best 
known to American ears, but doubtless we shall know 
more of all of them ere long. 

Mr. Gilbert Parker has been contributing some inter- 
esting comments on life in the United States to the " In- 
dependent," of this city. He will revisit this country 
in the fall, being now hard at work on a new novel at 
his Harpenden home. I remember that we were dis- 
cussing present tendencies of fiction last winter, and 
that I referred to various expeditions to different parts 
of the world on the part of novelists in search of fresh 
material. The question arose as to whether the liter- 
ary results of these tours had been commensurate with 
the expectations of those who made them. Mr. Parker 
replied by saying that if a novelist goes forth for re- 
portorial purposes and writes immediately after he has 
visited a country, it seemed to him that he would write 
pretty largely as a tourist. Mr. Parker believed that 
a man could not write as well of a thing when he was 
very close to it, as when he has obtained distance and 
perspective of memory. He himself had travelled a 
great deal, but he had never kept a diary regularly, and 
he always believed that the things which were really 
worth remembering printed themselves upon the mem- 
ory and upon the eye, and that in due time they would 
come up and fall into their proper places in one's work. 
Mr. Parker did think that the most unfortunate thing 
for any author to undertake is to go " fiction-stalking." 

Now that the " Athenaeum " has declared that the 
last volume of stories by our most promising young 
writer has the " common defects in American stories of 
feebleness in motive and unsatisfactoriuess in the con- 
clusion," it would seem to be a good time to consider a 
few of the reasons for the overshadowing of our home 
novelists by the rising school of British romancers, and 
this I shall try to do in another letter. 


A VOLUME of selections from Mr. John Burroughs, 
edited by Miss M. E. Burt, and entitled "Little Nature 
Studies for Little People," is announced by Messrs. 
Ginn & Co. 


" The Religion of India," by Professor Hopkins, is in 
the press of Messrs. Ginn & Co. 

Mr. Marion Crawford's " Saracinesca " novels have 
been translated into German under the title of " Eine 
Romische Fiirotenfamilie." 

Dr. E. E. Hale is reported as saying that he once 
gave throughout the West "a lecture on sleep, with 
illustrations by the audience." 

The first volume of M. Jusserand's " Histoire Litte'r- 
aire du Peuple Anglais " has just appeared in Paris. 
Three volumes will complete the work. 

Professor F. N. Scott, of Ann Arbor, has prepared a 
circular of questions upon disputed points of English 
usage, which he will send to anyone interested in the 
subject who will take the trouble to answer the questions. 

Mr. George Meredith's new novel, "Lord Ormont 
and his Aminto," will be published in America by the 
Scribners about the middle of August. Another new 
story by Mr. Meredith, entitled " The Amazing Mar- 
riage," will be published serially in " Scribner's Maga- 
zine," beginning in an early number. 

Professor Edward Dowden is preparing two volumes 
of selections from Wordsworth for the " Athenaeum 
Press " series. A similar selection from Tennyson will 
be edited by the Rev. Henry Van Dyke. Other vol- 
umes soon to appear in this series are Carlyle's " Sartor 
Resartus," edited by Professor McMechan, and selections 
from Herrick, edited by Professor Edward E. Hale, Jr. 

New editions of standard authors seem likely to be 
a notable feature of the Fall book trade. Messrs. 
Frederick Warne & Co. will have a new edition of 
Scott's novels, the " Edinburgh " Waverley in twelve and 
twenty-five volumes 12mo; of Shakespeare, the "Lans- 
downe Handy Volume " edition, in six pocket volumes ; 
and of Pope's Homer, with Flaxman's outline illustra- 

We have received the first two issues, dated May and 
June, of a new sixteen-page monthly entitled " Shake- 
speare," and stated to be " The Journal of the Edwin 
Booth Shakespeare League." The periodical presents 
an interesting Shakespearian miscellany, and these num- 
bers give excellent portraits of Mr. Irving and Dr. Fur- 
ness. It is very attractively printed, and decidedly de- 
serving of success. 

We have received the first fourteen numbers of " Le 
Module," a semi-monthly publication of M. H. Laurens, 
6 Rue de Tournon, Paris. Each issue of this work con- 
sists of four plates of original designs or sketches suit- 
able for working up by artists, professional or amateur. 
There is a great variety of subjects, landscapes, figure- 
pieces, monograms, subjects for china-painting, etc. The 
only text is that printed upon the covers. 

Owners and collectors of book-plates in America will 
be interested in the announcement of an exhibition of 
these plates, to be held at the rooms of the Grolier 
Club, New York, October 4-20, to which they are in- 
vited to contribute specimens. Particulars may be had 
by addressing the Secretary, Mr. Charles Dexter Allen, 
P. O. Box 925, Hartford, Conn. A work on American 
Book-plates, by Mr. Allen, with many illustrations, is 
to be published this fall by Messrs. Macmillan & Co. 

" Euphorion " is the title of a new " Zeitschrift fiir 
Literaturgeschichte," published at Bamberg. It is in- 
tended to embrace the whole field of literary research 


[Aug. 16, 

from the close of the middle ages to the present time, 
and will comprise essays of a general character, special 
studies, important contributions in the form of letters, 
diaries, archival documents, texts, criticisms, and biblio- 
graphical communications. Although chiefly German, 
the periodical will be somewhat international in char- 
acter, and will include brief reports on American, En- 
glish, Russian, Hungarian, and other foreigh literatures. 


Mr. Arthur Symons writes of the late Leconte de 
Lisle in these terms: "Never was a poet more actually 
or more fundamentally a scholar; and his poetry both 
gains and loses, but certainly becomes what it is, through 
this scholarship, which was not merely concerned with 
Greece and Rome, but with the East as well a scholar- 
ship not only of texts, but of the very spirit of antiquity. 
That tragic calmness which was his favorite attitude 
towards life and fate ; that haughty dissatisfaction with 
the ugliness and triviality of the present, the pettiness 
and unreason of humanity; that exclusive worship of 
immoral beauty ; that single longing after the annihilat- 
ing repose of Nirvana, was it not the all-embracing 
pessimism (if we like to call it, for convenience, by 
such a name) which is the wisdom of the East, modi- 
fied, certainly, by a temperament which had none of the 
true Eastern serenity ? In spite of his theory of im- 
passibility, Leconte de Lisle has expressed only himself, 
whether through the mouth of Cain or of Hypatia; and 
in the man, as I just knew him, I seemed to see all the 
qualities of his work; in the rigid, impressive head, the 
tenacity of the cold eyes, the ideality of the forehead, 
the singularly unsensuous lips, a certain primness, even, 
in the severity, the sarcasm, of the mouth. Passion in 
Leconte de Lisle is only an intellectual passion; emo- 
tion is never less than epical ; the self which he expresses 
through so many immobile masks is almost never a 
realizable human being, who has lived and loved. Thus 
it is, not merely that all this splendid writing, so fine 
as literature in the abstract, can never touch the multi- 
tude, but that for the critic of literature also there is 
a sense of something lacking. Never was fine work in 
verse so absolutely the negation of Milton's three re- 
quirements, that poetry should be simple, sensuous, and 


We make the following extract from one of the let- 
ters of Sidney Lanier in the August issue of " The At- 
lantic Monthly." Among the many " prophetic voices " 
concerning University Extension, we know of none quite 
so clear and sure as this. 

"During my studies for the last six or eight months 
a thought which was at first vague has slowly crystal- 
lized into a purpose, of quite decisive aim. The lec- 
tures which I was invited to deliver last winter before 
a private class met with such an enthusiastic reception 
as to set me thinking very seriously of the evident de- 
light with which grown people found themselves receiv- 
ing systematic instruction in a definite study. This 
again put me upon reviewing the whole business of Lec- 
turing, which has risen to such proportions in our country, 
but which, every one must feel, has now reached its 
climax and must soon give way like all things to 
something better. The fault of the lecture system as 
at present conducted a fault which must finally prove 
fatal to it is that it is too fragmentary, and presents 
too fragmentary a mass indigesta moles of facts be- 
fore the hearers. Now if, instead of such a series as that 

of the popular Star Course (for instance) in Philadelphia, 
a scheme of lectures should be arranged which would 
amount to the systematic presentation of a given subject, 
then the audience would receive a substantial benefit, 
and would carry away some genuine possession at the 
end of the course. The subject thus systematically 
presented might be either scientific (as Botany, for ex- 
ample, or Biology popularized, and the like), or domes- 
tic (as detailed in the accompanying printed extract 
under the ' Household ' School), or artistic, or literary. 

" This stage of the investigation put me to thinking 
of schools for grown people. Men and women leave 
college nowadays just at the time when they are really 
prepared to study with effect. There is indeed a vague 
notion of this abroad; but it remains vague. Any in- 
telligent grown man or woman readily admits that it 
would be well indeed, many whom I have met sin- 
cerely desire to pursue some regular course of thought ; 
but there is no guidance, no organized means of any 
sort, by which people engaged in ordinary avocations 
can accomplish such an aim. 

" Here, then, seems to be, first, a universal admission 
of the usefulness of organized intellectual pursuit for 
business people; secondly, an underlying desire for it 
by many of the people themselves ; and thirdly, an ex- 
isting institution (the lecture system) which, if the idea 
were once started, would quickly adapt itself to the new 

" In short, the present miscellaneous lecture courses 
ought to die and be borne again as Schools for Grown 



" We do not know which to admire the most, Mrs. Peary's 
delightfully entertaining story or the wonderful pictures which 
are reproduced from her camera." Boston Herald. 
Price ........ $2.00. 

CONTEMPORARY PUB. CO., 5 Beekman St., New York. 

Rare Books. Prints. Autographs. 



Catalogues Issued Continually. 



25 Exchange Street, . . . ROCHESTER, N. Y. 

Catalogues of Rare Books are frequently issued, and will be 
mailed to any address. 

Bingham School for Boys, Ashpville N C 

Established in 1793. 


MAJOR R. BINGHAM, Superintendent. 


No. 55 West 47th st. Mrs. SARAH H. EMERSON, Prin- 
cipal. Will reopen October 4. A few boarding pupils taken. 

TTODD SEMINARY FOR BOYS, Woodstock, III. An ideal home 
' school near Chicago. Forty-seventh year. 

NOBLE HILL, Principal. 


1 Prepares pupils for College. Broader Seminary Course. 
Room for twenty-five boarders. Individual care of pupils. 
Pleasant family life. Fall terra opens Sept. 12, 1894. 

Miss EUNICE D. SEWALL, Principal. 



European Architecture. 

A monthly publication of Photogravure Illustrations, taken 
from the best monuments of European Art 

and Architecture. 

Subscription price : $1.00 per month $10.00 per year. 
Send for sample plate and circulars. 

SMITH & PACKARD, Publishers, 

801 Medinah Building, CHICAGO. 


SCARCE BOOKS. BACK-NUMBER MAGAZINES. For any book on any sub- 
ject write to The Book Shop. Catalogues free. 

^^ skilled revision and correction of novels, biographies, short stories, 
plays, histories, monographs, poems ; letters of unbiased criticism and 
advice ; the compilation and editing of standard works. Send your MS. 
to the N. Y. Bureau of Revision, the only thoroughly-equipped literary 
bureau in the country. Established 1880 : unique in position and suc- 
cess. Terms by agreement. Circulars. Address 

Dr. TITUS M. COAN, 70 Fifth Ave., New York. 

Rare Books 

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Picking Up Scarce 'Books a 


Literary Curios Bought and Sold. 

AMERICAN PRESS CO., Baltimore, Md. 




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Readers of French desiring good literature will take pleas- 
ure in reading our ROMANS CHOISIS SERIES, 60 cts. per 
vol. in paper and 85 cts. in cloth ; and CONTES CHOISIS 
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Catalogues of new and second-hand books free on application. 

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tA Large Collection of Rare Prints 

for Extra III titrating. 
Nos. 5 & 7 East Monroe St., . . . CHICAGO. 

Type -Writing for t/lutbors, 

Professional Men, and others, done by a competent copyist, 
in the neatest and most artistic manner. Estimates on appli- 
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Realistic Stories by Henry Herman, author of " One Trav- 
eller Returns" etc. 

A Dead Man's Secret. I2mo, paper, 50 cents. 
The Postman's Daughter. I2mo, paper, 50 cents. 

A New Volume in the Continental Novel Library. 
In Love with the Czarina and Other Stories. 

Historical Romances by MAURICE JOKAI, carefully translated. 

12mo, paper cover, 50 cents. 

Uniform with the above in size and price. Carefully translated, 
COUSIN PONS. By Honore 1 de Balzac. 
ALIETTE. By Octave Feuillet. 
EDMEE. By Georges Ohnet. 

IRENE. By the Princess Olga Cantacuzene-Altieri. 
HELENS. By Leon de Tinseau. 
ZYTE. By Hector Malot. 
THE IRONMASTER. Le Maitre de Forges. By Georges 


A VILLAGE PRIEST. By Henri Cauvain. Translated 
by the author of " An Englishman in Paris." 

The Tavistock Series of Novelettes. 

Pure, bright, and elevating. Daintily produced, with good 
type, in pocket size. Small foolscap, 8vo, neat paper covers, 
50 cents ; cloth binding, 75 cents. 

"Fresh, vigorous, and dramatic." Boston Daily Traveller. 

MISS HONORI A: A Tale of a Remote Corner of Ireland. By 

"Well written." New York Times, 
"A good, wholesome tale." The Churchman, New York. 

A LIBERAL EDUCATION: A Tale of the Army. By Mrs. 


" A very fascinating little story." New Orleans Picayune. 

Charades for Acting in Town and Country. 

By Capt. E. C. NUGENT. In all styles of acting ; Operatic, 
Farcial, Burlesque, etc., with directions and hints on cos- 
tumes. 12mo, paper, 50 cents. 

Heraldry : Ancient and Modern. 

Including Boutell's Heraldry. Edited and revised, with ad- 
ditions, by S. T. AVELING. With 488 illustrations. Crown 
8vo, cloth, $1.50. 
An excellent elementary work on a very fascinating historical study. 

John Ruskin, His Life and Teaching. 

By J. MARSHALL MATHER. Fourth edition. 12mo, cloth, $1. 
A simple outline of Ruskin's life and teaching, intended for those 
who purpose a detailed study of his writings. 

Popular Studies of Nineteenth Century Poets. 

By J. MARSHALL MATHER. 12mo, cloth, $1.00. 
A series of talks, or studies, on the style and characteristics of the 
modern British poets. 

Just Ready. In square 8vo, cloth, price, $1.50. 
Puzzles Old and New. 

Containing over 400 puzzles : Mechanical, Arithmetical, and 
Curious, of every conceivable variety. Puzzles with cubes, 
wire, matches, and ingenious ideas of all sorts fully ex- 
plained. Illustrated with over 500 diagrams, etc., a Key 
and an Index. By Professor HOFFMAN (The Conjurer). 

Just Ready. A new and cheaper edition of 
Warne's Model Cookery and Housekeeping Book. 

With complete instructions in household management and 
3,000 practical and economical receipts, with copious infor- 
mation on the chemistry of cookery ; how to boil, roast, 
broil, etc.; dressing of various dishes, embellished with 
page- illustrations in colors ; carving, breakfast dishes, etc., 
and an exhaustive index. Crown 8vo, cloth, $1.50 ; leather 
back, strong, $2.00. 
*** Warne's Model Cookery has been distributed as a prize at the 

South Kensington School of Cookery. 

May be obtained from any bookseller, or will be sent free by mail, on 
receipt of price by the publishers, 




[Aug. 16, 1894. 



The Picturesque Geographical Reader Series. 

By CHARLES F. KING, Master Dearborn School. 

Fifth Book: The Rocky Mountains and Pacific 
Slope. 276 pages. Over 180 illustrations. 56 cts. net. 

First Book: Home and School. 240 pages. Over 125 
illustrations. 50 cts. net. 

Second Book: This Continent of Ours. 320 pages. Fully 
illustrated. 72 cts. net. 

Third Book: The New England and Middle States. 

240 pages. 153 illustrations. 56 cts. net. 

Fourth Book: The Southern, Middle, and Central 
States. 240 pages. 153 illustrations. 56 cts. net. 

Methods and Aids in Geography. For the Use of 

Teachers. By Charles F. King. New and revised edition. Illus- 
trated. $1.20 net. 

The Special Kinesiology of Educational Qym= 
nasties. By Baron Nils Posse, M.G., Graduate Royal 
Gymnastic Central Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. Director Posse 
Gymnasium, Boston. With 267 illustrations and an analytical chart. 
$2.40 net. 

Handbook of School Gymnastics of the Swedish 
System. By Baron Nils Posse, M.G. Cloth. Illustrated. 

50 cts. net. 

A Script Primer. Easy Reading Lessons for the Young- 
est Readers on Form and Elementary Science. By Frances E. Oliver, 
William Penn Charter School, Philadelphia. 25 cts. net. 

A General Outline of Civil Government. Instates, 

Counties, Townships, Cities, and Towns. By Clinton D. Higby, Ph.D. 
30 cts. net. 

Frcebel Letters. With explanatory notes and additional 
matter. By Arnold H. Heinemann. Cloth, $1.25. 

A Pathfinder in American History. ByW.F.Gordy 

and W. I. Twitchell. Part I., GO cts. net ; Part II., 90 cts. net. Com- 
plete in one volume, $1.20 net. 

Builders of American Literature. First Series. 

Biographical Sketches of American Authors born previous to 1826. 
By Francis H. Underwood, LL.D., author of "Handbook of English 
Literature," "The Poet and the Man," "Quabbin," etc. $1.20 net. 

Mother=Play and Nursery Songs. By Friedrich 

Frosbel. Translated from the German by Miss Jarvis and Miss Dwight. 
Edited by Elizabeth P. Peabody. Quarto, boards, $1.50 net. 

Reminiscences of Friedrich Froebel. By Baroness 

B. von Marenholz-Biilow. Translated by Mrs. Horace Mann, with a 
sketch of the life of Friedrich Froebel, by Miss Emily Shirreff. 12mo, 
cloth, $1.50. 

Elementary Woodwork for Manual Training 
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First Steps with American and British Authors. 

By Albert F. Blaisdell, A.M. Cloth, illustrated, 75 cts. net. 

American History Stories. Illustrated. Boards, per 

volume, 30 cts. net. 

Stories from American History. By N. S. Dodge. 

Noble Deeds of Our Fathers as Told by Soldiers of the Revolution. 

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The Story of Our Country. By Mrs. L. B. Monroe. 

Illustrated. Boards, 60 cts.; cloth, 80 cts. net. 

In Press : 

Manual of Analysis and Parsing. 

Orne. 30 cts. net. 

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Copies for examination sent prepaid upon receipt of above introductory net prices. Catalogues mailed free. 

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" This series of linen-covered volumes that have contained so 
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Small 16mo, Buckram. With Frontispieces. 
Price, 75 cents each. 

By the author of " The Prisoner of Zenda," 


With portrait and notice of ANTHONY HOPE. 
The experiences of Dale Bannister, poet, in Market Denborough. A 
genial, dramatic story with a tragic and exciting undercurrent, charac- 
terized by the briskness and humor of "The Prisoner of Zenda," but 
with a more prominent love interest. It suggests through action, not 
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Fourth Edition of the Romance of To-day, ANTHONY HOPE'S 

" A grand story. ... It is dignified, quick in action, thrilling, terri- 
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readable style." Atlantic. 

Mrs. S. M. H. GARDINER'S Sketches of the "Friends," 

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be de 

Second Edition of BEERS'S American Tales, 

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of our story-tellers." Mail and Express. 

"Writing which is permeated with delicate fancy." Life. 

Second Edition of JEROME'S Love-Tragedy of Old London 
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" One of the sweetest, saddest stories we ever read." Chicago Times. 
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e descriptions of actual happenings, and she describes men and inci- 
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Volume XVII. 
No. 197. 

CHICAGO, SEPT. 1, 1894. 

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The Royal Marine: an Idyl of Narragansett 

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A New England Prophet. 


Where Time Has Slumbered. 

By JULIAN RALPH. With 10 Illustrations by FRED- 

Riding to Hounds in England. 

By CASPAR W. WHITNEY. With 18 Illustrations. 

The General's Bluff. 

By OWEN WISTER. With 3 Illustrations by FREDERIC 

Early Summer in Japan. 

By ALFRED PARSONS. With 18 Illustrations by the 

The Tug of War. 

A Story. By W. E. NORRIS. 

Some Records of the Ice Age about New York. 

By T. MITCHELL PRUDDEN. With 7 Illustrations. 

The Origin of a Great Poem ("Thanatopsis"). 

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[Sept. 1, 1894. 



By HALL CAINE, author of "The Deemster," "Capt'u Davy's Honeymoon," etc. 12mo. Cloth, $1.50. 

After a comparatively long period of silence the author of " The Deemster " and " The Scapegoat " reappears hefore the 
public with a romance which is pronounced by critics his strongest work. In "The Manxman" Mr..Caine returns to the 
field in which he won his first success. To this novel he has devoted the best powers of his active brain, and it embodies 
the most vivid pictures which his splendid imagination had drawn. It is a romance which seizes upon and enthralls the 
reader by its tremendous power, intense vitality, and succession of dramatic effects. In a time when so much fiction is written 
with the finger-tip in dilettante fashion, it is like a sudden awakening to meet with a romance so deep in its analysis, so intense 
in feeling, and so irresistible in its hold upon the reader's imagination and intellect. Mr. Caine himself is understood to 
regard "The Manxman " as his strongest work, and the great success of his other books promises a remarkable career for this. 


OR, A CHURCH FAIR AND ITS VICTIMS. By WILLIAM ALLEN BUTLER. New edition. 12mo. Cloth, 75 cents. 
This brilliant little satire, by the author of "Nothing to Wear," is to appear now under his name, in a revised and 
enlarged form. 


By KATE SANBORN, author of " Adopting an Abandoned Farm," " A Truthful Woman in Southern California," etc. 

12mo. Cloth, 75 cents. 

As a promoter of good spirits, a contributor to the gayety of nations, Miss Kate Sanborn has gained a most enviable 
place among the writers of the day. Everybody laughed over her " Adoption " of her farm. Her *' Abandonment " is, if 
possible, more vivacious and entertaining, and in view of the large sales of her former book, the new story of her extraordinary 
visitors, her agricultural misadventures, and the reasons for her flitting, seems certain to prove one of the most popular books 
of the season. 


With a Biographical Sketch. By WILLIAM HENRY HUDSON, Associate Professor of English 

Literature in the Stanford University. 12mo. Cloth, $1.25. 

" My object is a very unambitious one. I do not propose to trace over the arguments or summarize the conclusions of the Spencerian phil- 
osophy. Still less do I feel called upon to enter into any discussion of its more debatable aspects. Nor, beyond all things, is it my intention to 
offer a substitute for the Synthetic System itself. Those who would really understand Mr. Spencer's ideas must themselves go to his writings. 
But experience on the platform and in private conversation has shown me that something may be done to smooth the way for untrained feet. . . . 
If the Introduction serves to bring others under the more immediate influence of a teacher to whom my own personal debt is so great, its exist- 
ence will be amply justified." from the Preface. 


By THOMAS H. HUXLEY. The eighth volume of the author's Collected Essays. 12mo. Cloth, $1.25. 

CONTENTS : A Piece of Chalk. The Problems of the Deep Sea. Some Results of the Expedition of H. M. S. " Challenger." 
Yeast. The Formation of Coal. The Border Territory between the Animal and the Vegetable Kingdoms. A Lobster, or 
the Study of Zoology. Biogenesis and Abiogenesis. Geological Contemporaneity and Persistent Types of Life. Geological 
Reform. Palaeontology and the Doctrine of Evolution. 


By General FITZHUGH LEE. A new volume in the Great Commanders Series, edited by General JAMES GRANT 

WILSON. With Portrait and Maps. 12mo. Cloth, gilt top, $1.50. 

Here is a popular biography of the great soldier which offers an intimate picture of every side of his life. It is written 
by his nephew and cavalry commander, a member of his family, who therefore knew him as no outsider could, and a soldier 
who served under him, understood his strategical conduct of his army, and aided in executing many of his plans. As a mili- 
tary and personal biography nothing equal to this has been written. These peculiar qualifications and the convenient size of 
the book give it, as the publishers believe, an unexcelled rank among the biographies of this class. 

RAGNAROK: The Age of Fire and Gravel. 

By IGNATIUS DONNELLY, author of "Atlantis: The Antediluvian World," etc. Illustrated. Thirteenth edition. 

12mo. Cloth, $2.00. 

" This stupendous speculator in cosmogony begins and ends with ' Drift,' on the summit of which temporary pile of successive superincumbent 

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lyed by convulsions or by comet, at vast intervals of time, the human race breathes out its moment of life. . . . 
iberate eccentricities, is often eloquent and suggestive." London Daily News. 

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Timar's Two Worlds. By MAUBUS JOKAI. 

George Mandeville's Husband. By C. E. RAIMOND. 

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author of "Molly and her Man-o'-War," etc. 

Outlaw and Lawmaker. By Mrs. CAMPBELL-PRAED, 
author of " Christina Chard," " December Roses," etc. 

A Daughter of Music. By G. COLMORE, author of 
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D. APPLETON & COMPANY, 72 Fifth Avenue, NEW YORK. 


tfjlg Journal of Etterarg Criticism, Bigcttssion, anb Information. 

THE DIAL (founded in 1880) is published on the 1st and 16th of 
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THE DIAL, 315 Wabash Ave., Chicago. 

No. 197. SEPTEMBER 1, 1894. Vol. XVII. 




L. A. Sherman 105 

THE BRYANT CENTENARY. Arthur Stedman . . 107 


The Proposed Society of Comparative Literature. 
Albert S. Cook. 

The New York " Nation " and Its " College Anarch- 
ist." C.E.S. 



Merritt Starr 115 

erick Starr 117 


Elliott 118 

Nicholson's Principles of Political Economy. Com- 
mons's Distribution of Wealth. Osborne's Principles 
of Economics. 

RECENT FICTION. William Morton Payne . . .121 
Dunn's Red Cap and Blue Jacket. Forster's Major 
Joshua. Miss Peard's The Interloper. Miss Dick- 
ens's A Valiant Ignorance. Miss Steel's The Potter's 
Thumb. Stevenson's and Osbourne's The Ebb-Tide. 
Mrs. Cotes's A Daughter of To-day. Miss Crad- 
dock's His Vanished Star. Miss Baylor's Claudie 
Hyde. Turgenev's Rudin. Ponshkin's Prose Tales. 
Dostoievsky's Poor Folk. 


Howells and James as comedy writers. John David- 
son, Scotch Dramatist. A commendable discussion 
of the " Jewish Question." Mr. Andrew Lang as a 
ghost-hunter. History of the South Place Society of 
London. Dumas's Napoleon Romances. Early let- 
ters of Mr. Ruskin. 






The trial for heresy has become of late years 
so common an incident in theological circles 
that a new case, unless marked by distinctive 
features of a sensational character, would now 
attract little or no attention outside of the 
church organization directly concerned. We 
have also been provided with the amusing spec- 
tacle, particularly in the South, of professors 
in sectarian institutions of learning brought to 
book for their failure to teach an astronomy 
or a geology or a biology in accordance with 
certain theological tenets based upon a strictly 
literal interpretation of the Scriptures. But it 
has been reserved for the University of Wis- 
consin to offer the first example, to our knowl- 
edge, of a trial for heresy in which theology 
has no part. To hale a public teacher of science 
before an investigating committee, for the pur- 
pose of examining his opinions and pronounc- 
ing upon their orthodoxy from a purely scien- 
tific standpoint, is a procedure so novel, and, 
we may add, so startling, that one may well 
pause to consider its significance, and the pos- 
sible consequences of an extension of the prin- 
ciple thus involved. 

Before discussing the subject, it may be well 
to recapitulate the facts. Some weeks ago, the 
Wisconsin State Superintendent of Public In- 
struction, Mr. Wells, published in a New York 
journal a communication upon the subject of 
Professor Ely, Director of the School of Eco- 
nomics at the University of Wisconsin. This 
communication, which was headed " The Col- 
lege Anarchist," charged Professor Ely with 
the justification of strikes and the practice of 
boycotts. He was reported to have entertained 
and consulted with a walking-delegate, abetted 
a strike in a printing-office at Madison, threat- 
ened to withdraw his custom unless it were 
made a union office, and to have said in con- 
versation that union men should be employed 
in preference to non-union men, that only cranks 
had conscientious scruples against joining un- 
ions. His books, assumed to represent his teach- 
ings, were described as containing " utopian, 
impracticable, [and] pernicious doctrines," and 
as furnishing " a seeming moral justification of 
attacks upon life and property." 



[Sept. 1, 

Allowing for the obvious animus of this com- 
munication, the charges made do not seem to 
have been very formidable. To entertain a 
walking-delegate may be questionable as a mat- 
ter of taste, but hardly comes in the category 
of heinous social offences. And we do not 
know that a man is to be condemned outright 
for wishing to have his printing done in a union 
office. As for the other charges, it may be said 
that there are strikes and strikes, that second- 
hand reports of conversation are vague and 
readily colorable, and that the perniciousness 
of Professor Ely's doctrines, which, as Mr. 
Wells himself admits, " only the careful stu- 
dent will discover," is obviously not to be made 
the subject of an off-hand pronouncement. But 
Professor Ely's accuser, by virtue of his posi- 
tion at the head of the State Department of 
Public Instruction, making him ex officio a mem- 
ber of the Board of Eegents of the State Uni- 
versity, could not well be ignored ; and, in 
consequence of his charges, a committee of in- 
vestigation was appointed, before which Pro- 
fessor Ely and his accuser were summoned. 
The " trial " was set for the twentieth of Au- 
gust. As a preliminary, the committee had 
laid down the general principle that the inves- 
tigation should not go outside the personal 
charges made against Professor Ely, and his 
actual teachings as an instructor in the Uni- 
versity. When the committee met for its in- 
vestigation, Superintendent Wells failed to 
appear, but was represented by a lengthy com- 
munication, of which the substance was that 
his opinion of Professor Ely's teachings was 
based mainly upon Professor Ely's books, and 
that to rule those books out of the investiga- 
tion was to deprive the accuser of the only 
available means of substantiating his charges, 
as far as these related to the university teach- 
ing of the Professor of Economics. In the 
meanwhile, Professor Ely had made public de- 
nial of the personal charges, accompanying the 
denial with this stinging comment : " The man 
who makes these charges against me is well 
known to his neighbors as a politician of the 
meaner sort, who, too small to appreciate the 
most important trust ever committed to him, 
betrayed it in his insensate love of notoriety." 
This denial Professor Ely repeated before the 
committee ; and Superintendent Wells, in an- 
other communication, admitted that he was 
unable to produce evidence in support of the 
charges reflecting upon Professor Ely's char- 
acter as a citizen. With this episode, and some 
further elaboration of the controversial amen- 

ities already illustrated, the proceedings prac- 
tically collapsed ; and at last accounts Super- 
intendent Wells was studying Professor Ely's 
books for the purpose of making out his case 
on the score of economic heterodoxy. 

Since trials for heresy are almost the order 
of the day, it was perhaps hardly natural to 
expect that they would remain confined to the 
domain of theology. If they are to seek other 
territories and other victims, there is no doubt 
that political science offers a promising field 
for the heresy-hunter. The irritant quality of 
political discussion is well known, and its ca- 
pacity for inflaming the passions is hardly ex- 
ceeded by that of theological controversy itself. 
Political or economic principles are often at- 
tacked and defended in a spirit of partisan bit- 
terness which might prove instructive to the 
polemics of Catholicism and Protestantism, and 
from which Arians and Athanasians might have 
taken useful hints. Hence we are not surprised 
that a professor of political science should at 
last have been brought to book in the good old 
theological fashion, although it is of course 
deeply to be regretted that any field of science 
should suffer invasion from the spirit of intol- 
erance, that any attempt should be made to im- 
pose opinions upon men whose only aim in life 
is to form rational opinions of their own and 
to help others in the hard struggle for truth. 

We are not particularly concerned to defend 
Professor Ely's economic views. There is not 
a little justice in the charge that his books are 
" innocent of clear-cut thought." He is a fa- 
cile writer, and an exceptionally diffuse one. 
His phraseology is often vague and bewilder- 
ing, if not actually misleading. In reading 
his books, one gets the impression that the most 
permanent facts of political science have some- 
how gone into solution, and that there is little 
prospect of a new crystallization. These char- 
acteristics are shared with many other writers 
of the so-called " new school " of economics, 
but they are unusually prominent in Professor 
Ely's writings. Nor do we doubt that his doc- 
trines have a general socialistic trend, however 
ingeniously he may narrow the definition of 
socialism for the purpose of escaping its stigma, 
or urge that there are far more radical socialists 
than himself. We do not believe that true so- 
cial progress is always to be sought along the 
lines that he suggests, or that the principles 
of " orthodox " economic science are by any 
means as badly discredited as he insinuates. 

But all this is beside the real question at is- 
sue. That question is nothing less than whether 




university teaching shall be fettered or free. 
The great principle of Lehrfreiheit is involved 
in this episode of the trial of Professor Ely, 
and no one who has Yi realizing sense of the vast 
importance of defending that principle from 
attack can take long in judging of this partic- 
ular case. We do not hesitate to characterize 
as an outrage the arraignment of Professor 
Ely before a committee charged with investi- 
gating the soundness of his scientific teaching. 
It is an indignity which he is justified in resent- 
ing, and which every teacher in the United 
States should resent with him. He was ap- 
pointed to his present position on account of 
his scholarly reputation. That reputation has 
not sensibly altered in quality during his pres- 
ent incumbency, while it has noticeably grown 
with his widened opportunities. Those respon- 
sible for his appointment presumably had their 
eyes open, and knew what his reputation was. 
The position of a teacher of Professor Ely's 
experience should be practically unassailable, 
and he should be absolutely free to do his own 
work in his own way. The time for examina- 
tion and investigation is before appointments 
are made, or during what may be called the 
years of apprenticeship, the first two or three 
years of work, in which a man and those re- 
sponsible for him find out whether he has hit 
his vocation or missed it. That the beginner 
should be appointed from year to year, and upon 
probation, is both natural and necessary ; that 
the man who has once won his professional 
spurs should be subject to any such chances is 
monstrous. Only for some offence of the gross- 
est sort, only for something far more serious 
than the worst that has ever been alleged 
against Professor Ely, would any board of ed- 
ucational trustees be justified in questioning 
the tenure of a duly appointed teacher of expe- 
rience and reputation. 

For what is the alternative, the fatal ad- 
mission once made that teaching is to be con- 
trolled by boards of regents and superintend- 
ents of education ? There is but one possible 
answer to this question. Official history, offi- 
cial science, and official philosophy will take 
the place of a teaching based upon untram- 
melled research and the unbiased pursuit of 
truth. Such a course can only spell inefficiency, 
hypocrisy, stagnation. " Der Wahrheit ist die 
Atmosphare der Freiheit unentbehrlich," says 
Schopenhauer in his vigorous onslaught upon 
the official philosophy prevalent among the Ger- 
man universities in his time. Peculiarly in our 
own country, with a democracy that has not 

yet learned the natural limitations of all de- 
mocracies, that still childishly assumes the 
voice of the people to be the voice of God even 
in matters only to be judged of by the trained 
intellect, is such a warning needed. The au- 
thorities of the University of Wisconsin, how- 
ever excellent their intentions, and however 
worthy their official zeal, have set, in this trial 
of a public teacher of science, an example of 
the most unfortunate character, an example 
only too likely to be followed elsewhere, and 
which, in assailing the principle of Lehrfrei- 
heit, assails intellectual advancement itself in 
one of its most fundamental conditions. 


The study of English as rhetoric and composition, 
and as English literature and philology, is com- 
pletely differentiated in the University of Nebraska. 
Writing is taught on the theory that constant tech- 
nical practice is necessary, but practice in the de- 
velopment and adjustment of meaning in the mind 
as well as in appropriate and effective statement. 
In other words, not facility with the media, of ex- 
pression, not automatism in phrasing merely, but 
organic, completed communication, in both matter 
and manner, is the aim of the study. As contribu- 
tive to this end, work in oral composition or public 
speaking not required, but elected very generally 
by the students at some period in their course is 
arranged for and emphasized by the department 
head. Of thirteen hundred students in attendance 
last year, almost the entire number, excepting spe- 
cials, and including nearly eight hundred young men 
and women in college courses, were under rhetorical 
instruction of some kind. One professor, two instruct- 
ors, and one assistant are exclusively responsible for 
this work. As a division of the general subject and 
of university instruction, this department is known 

* This article is the fifteenth of an extended series on the 
Teaching of English at American Colleges and Universities, 
of which the following have already appeared in THE DIAL : 
English at Yale University, by Professor Albert S. Cook 
(Feb. 1) ; English at Columbia College, by Professor Bran- 
der Matthews (Feb. 16) ; English at Harvard University, by 
Professor Barrett Wendell (March 1) ; English at Stanford 
University, by Professor Melville B. Anderson (March 16); 
English at Cornell University, by Professor Hiram Corson 
(April 1 ) ; English at the University of Virginia, by Professor 
Charles W. Kent (April 16) ; English at the University of 
Illinois, by Professor D. K. Dodge (May 1) ; English at La- 
fayette College, by Professor F. A. March (May 16) ; English 
at the State University of Iowa, by Professor E. E. Hale, Jr. 
(June 1) ; English at the University of Chicago, by Professor 
Albert H. Tolman (June 16) ; English at Indiana University, 
by Professor Martin W. Sampson (July 1 ) ; English at the 
University of California, by Professor Charles Mills Gayley 
(July 16) ; English at Amherst College, by Professor John F. 
Genung (Aug. 1 ) ; and English at the University of Michigan, 
by Professor Fred N. Scott (Aug. 16). [EDK. DIAL.] 


[Sept. 1, 

as the Department of English. The Department of 
English Literature, on the other hand, confines itself 
to instruction in literature proper, including both the 
earlier as well as the latest forms of development, 
with recognition of linguistic relations and differ- 
ences between. The work begins in the second year 
of residence, with Anglo-Saxon and Early English. 
In this study there are four exercises a week through- 
out the year. The class is drilled daily from the 
start in writing forms, until, after reading fifteen 
or twenty pages of prose, and practically mastering 
the verb-groups and inflections, it is ready to begin 
poetry. The most imaginative parts of the " Genesis " 
and the " Exodus " are then used as an introduction, 
and by the middle of December " Bedwulf " is begun. 
This poem is studied almost wholly as literature, and 
by the end of March has been read to the extent of 
2000 lines or over. By making the study literary 
and not philologic, there is no difficulty in keeping 
up the enthusiasm of the class, and for three years 
only one student has been dropped from the roll on 
account of inability to carry the work. From April 
to the end of the year the class reads Middle En- 
glish, generally in Morris's " Specimens," with 
such illustration and appropriation of historical prin- 
ciples as can be gained by two months' companion 
study of Lounsbury 's " History." By this year's work 
the student gets a general idea of the development 
of the literature and language to Chaucer, as also 
a clear appreciation of the fundamental forms and 
modes of sentiment in Teutonic poetry. 

The study of Anglo-Saxon and Early English is 
prescribed in but two of the eight groups of under- 
graduate work. It is followed by a general survey 
of English literary development from Chaucer to 
Tennyson, three exercises a week through two sem- 
esters. This subject is taken by nearly all the stu- 
dents at some point in the course, being required in 
six out of the eight groups. Here students from 
the Anglo-Saxon studies of the year preceding, as 
also from the classical and the philosophical courses, 
are put at work along with men from the industrial 
sections, from the scientific, the agricultural, and 
the electrical engineering groups of study. Of the 
hundred and twenty members of a given class thus 
made up, more than two-thirds are without literary 
traditions or taste or training, or interest in pure 
literature of any sort. The theory of the work done 
with this class is simply that students in college 
have generally not yet taste for the best literature, 
or prepared capacity to appropriate its aesthetic 
meaning, but must have both aroused or enabled 
in them at the outset. To do this a month is de- 
voted to inductive exercises in discriminating poetic 
or emotional terms and phrases from prosaic, and 
in interpreting metres, figures, and force. It is 
steadfastly believed that the study of literature as 
literature is impossible to minds insensible to the 
inner differences between prose and poetry, and 
blank to aesthetic challenge or suggestion. More- 
over, experience with the work has not proved the 
existence of minds so blank or insensible as not 

to yield, along with others of better traditions or 
training, to the influence of such first culture, or 
less completely and readily than they. Students 
from the so-called classical or literary groups do 
not prove superior, either in aptness or preparation, 
after the opening and quickening of the sensibili- 
ties, to those from the technical courses of study. 
Last year a University Browning Club, conceived 
and planned wholly from among pupils under in- 
struction, was organized and put in operation upon 
a permanent basis. But the young men and wo- 
men projecting it and having it in charge were from 
the scientific rather than the literary side of the class 
in question. Indeed, the success of all later courses in 
the department is found to be largely dependent upon 
the interest aroused in the first month's study. The 
attention of teachers yet troubled about getting their 
classes interested in literature is invited to the re- 
sults from this manner of opening the year. It must 
not be imagined that the work here done has been 
in any way the result of expert teaching, for the 
tutor in charge is but a recent graduate, not yet 
strong in handling college classes. It is demon- 
strated that, with perfected instruction, out of a 
hundred average students fit to carry work above 
secondary grades, practically and positively a full 
hundred appreciative and even enthusiastic readers 
of best literature may be made. When a class has 
learned to read literature as literature, with true 
aesthetic discernment of its spiritual quality, it will 
go forward of its own momentum. When it is all 
agog, even to the last member, over " Lycidas " or the 
" Adonais," teaching becomes merely guidance, sug- 
gestion, is no longer dogmatic exposition or author- 
ity. It is neither just nor necessary to allow col- 
lege credit for reading vernacular masterpieces, just 
as for Sophocles or Terence, even should consider- 
able attention be given to the notes. The mere 
reading should be taken for granted, as also, 
when enabled and attained, the higher experiences 
from the reading. Credit should not be entered 
upon the books of a college for such higher expe- 
riences, but only for knowledge gained or culture 
won at first hand. But on the strength of interest 
aroused beforehand the college pupil may be led to 
do work that will make him a life-long interpreter 
of aesthetic literature, or at least save him from 
skepticism concerning its pretensions. 

The work of this general survey, when fairly 
begun, consists in class study of Chaucer, Spenser, 
Milton, Shelley, Wordsworth, and Browning. There 
is accompanying study of biographies and general 
literary history, including evolution of new princi- 
ples, with systematic library readings, and prepara- 
tion of notes, in a hundred representative authors. 
No further work in this department is prescribed. 
There are elective courses in advanced Anglo-Saxon 
and philology, Browning, Tennyson, in conjunc- 
tion with systematic criticism, American Litera- 
ture, Old Testament poetry, and theory of literary 
teaching. Shakespeare is made a subject by itself, 
being given in a first-year course on simple princi- 



pies of everyday interpretation, in second-year work 
of a more advanced and systematic character, and 
finally in third-year seminary interpretation and re- 
search. There is also seminary work through two 
semesters in the development of literature, given last 
year in the evolution and history of character hints 
in poetry and fiction, and of certain other fundamen- 
tal modes of imagination. In all there are twenty- 
two semester courses offered by the department, 
with an enrollment last year of something over 
three hundred and fifty names. The work is car- 
ried by one professor, one tutor, and an assistant. 
The energy of the department has been largely de- 
voted for some years to the effort of securing the 
same definiteness and sureness of results in litera- 
ture for all minds as have been reached in other 
subjects. Such success as has been attained has 
been emulated among the high schools of our State, 
and to a degree worthy at least of mention here. 
Several of the accredited schools have begun, at 
their own instance, to do the preliminary work of 
the survey class, and so well as to establish their 
ability to fit for college work in literature just as 
in Greek, mathematics, and the sciences. In fact, 
they have demonstrated that the proper place to 
open the mind to the inspiration of literature is in 
the secondary schools, and not the college. Some 
fifteen teachers of English in our fifty-five accredited 
academies and high schools will do the preliminary 
work of our survey course this year, and will do it 
essentially as well as we. It is our intention to recog- 
nize the quality of the work by admitting their pu- 
pils to immediate instruction in literature, by the de- 
vice of an advanced division, upon entrance. Withal, 
the benefit of such training to those students who 
never go up to college is hardly to be estimated. 


Professor of English Literature, University of Nebraska. 


(Special Correspondence of THE DIAL.) 

"O Master of imperial lays ! 

Crowned in the fulness of thy days ; 

One heart that owned thy gracious spell 

Thy reverend mien remembers well ; 
" For mine it was, ere fell the snow 

Upon this head of long ago, 

My modest wreath to intertwine 

With richer offerings at thy shrine. 
" A guest upon that day of days, 

How leapt my heart to hymn thy praise ! 

Yea, from that hour my spirit wore 

A high content unknown before." 

So read Mrs. Julia Ward Howe, with clear musical 
voice, from the low platform in the Bryant maple grove 
at Cummington, while the many invited guests beside 
her, and the assembled thousands in front, hung breath- 
lessly upon her words. Of all that vast company, per- 
haps five thousand in number, I do not think that more 
than one (Mr. Parke Godwin) was present on the occa- 
sion, thirty years before, to which she made this allu- 
sion in her poem. It was the Bryant Festival at the 

Century Club of New York to which she referred, held 
in honor of the poet's seventieth birthday, and at which 
George Bancroft presided as president of the club, and 
Emerson and Mrs. Howe were the principal invited 
guests. That distinguished company also included Bay- 
ard Taylor, George H. Boker, Oliver Wendell Holmes, 
Thomas Buchanan Read, Christopher P. Cranch, Rich- 
ard H. Dana, Jr., William M. Evarts, and Richard 
Henry Stoddard, all of whom read poems or made 
speeches, besides the brilliant galaxy of artists for which 
the Century Club has always been noted, among them 
Huntington, Durand, La Farge, Bierstadt, Gifford, Ken- 
sett, J. Q. A. Ward, Whittredge, Hennessy, and Brown. 
The volume containing the exercises of that occasion is 
before me as I write, and among the numerous por- 
traits shown is a photograph of Mrs. Howe in 1864. 
Time has indeed whitened her hair and deepened the 
lines of her face, but the firm, thoughtful brow and 
poetic mouth are unchanged. 

Mrs. Howe's first appearance in the morning at Cum- 
mington, and the singing of her " Battle Hymn of the 
Republic " by the company, had been the occasion of a 
spontaneous burst of applause not equalled during the 
day ; but her reading of her poem in the afternoon was 
marked by a quieter, if more intense, demonstration. 

It was somewhat by accident that the writer found 
himself among the invited guests of the Bryant Cen- 
tenary at Cummington, Mass., on August 16, held in 
honor of the one hundredth anniversary of the poet's 
birth at that place. How to describe the many events 
of the journey there and of the day itself, in one short 
letter, is somewhat puzzling. While the programme of 
exercises was carried out with complete success, and 
while the speakers were distinguished and their re- 
marks worthy of the occasion, yet it was what might 
be called the accessories of the celebration which most 
impressed one visitor. 

When I saw an announcement last spring that the 
centenary of Bryant's birth (November 3, 1794) was 
to be celebrated next November at Great Barrington, 
Berkshire county, Mass., I was somewhat surprised, for 
Bryant was born in Cummington, in Hampshire county, 
and only practiced law for a few years at Great Bar- 
rington, soon giving up the profession and leaving the 
place through disgust at being non-suited because of 
some technical neglect of a case on his part. Then last 
month the announcement was made that the day of birth 
would be anticipated for the better convenience of those 
who were to be present, and that the celebration would 
be held at Cummington. I then realized, what was 
probably the fact, that the Cummington people did not 
intend to be robbed of their town's distinction as the 
birthplace of the poet. Their committee, under the 
leadership of Wesley Guruey, Lorenzo H. Tower, and 
Mrs. Henrietta S. Nahmer, the secretary, took active 
steps to ensure a successful affair. Mr. Parke Godwin 
presided. He was introduced by Mr. Tower, who is 
librarian of the library founded by Mr. Bryant at Cum- 
mington, and who made an address to which I shall 
again refer. Mr. Godwin spoke, and was followed by 
Edwin R. Brown, of Elmwood, 111., a native of Cum- 
mington, selected for this reason and because of his per- 
sonal friendship with John Howard Bryant, only sur- 
viving brother of William Cullen, and himself a poet, 
also a resident of Elmwood. Mr. Brown delivered the 
memorial address, a scholarly production, which held 
the close attention of the audience for over an hour. 
Mr. John Howard Bryant, who carries his eighty-seven 



[Sept. 1, 

years with a nervous yet delicate vigor, read " A Mon- 
ody " on the death of his brother. Then came the sing- 
ing of Mrs. Howe's " Battle Hymn," and an intermis- 
sion for refreshments. 

In the afternoon, besides Mrs. Howe's poem, there 
were addresses by John Bigelow, Charles Dudley War- 
ner, Charles Eliot Norton, Rev. John W. Chadwick, and 
President G. Stanley Hall of Clark University. Con- 
troller James H. Eckels was also called on for a speech, 
and Mr. John Howard Bryant recited another poem, 
" At Eighty-Seven." 

Cummington lies on the crest and at the foot of a hill 
in western Hampshire county, which is itself surrounded 
by an amphitheatre of similar hills. The nearest rail- 
way station on the east is distant some thirteen miles, 
and stations on the west and north are distant twenty 
miles. It is the centre of what are called the " hill 
towns " of Hampshire county, a region quite distinct 
from the Berkshire district made famous by the mem- 
ory of Hawthorne, Herman Melville, and Miss Sedg- 
wick. To reach Cummington from any direction, you 
must go over a hill, Goshen hill on the east, from 
Northampton, where Cable lives, or Lightning Bug hill 
on the north, from Ashfield, where Curtis spent his sum- 
mers for so many years, and where Charles Eliot Nor- 
ton now has his summer abode. The Bryant houses are 
near the top of Cummington hill, the old homestead 
where the poet was brought up being two or three hun- 
dred feet below the other house, and it was near the 
homestead that the exercises were held. 

A relative of the Bryant family and myself took an 
early start on the " electric " from Northampton to the 
stage terminus, the afternoon before the celebration, 
and it was well for us that we did so. We established 
ourselves in the stage a full half-hour before the horses 
were attached, and found, to our surprise, that more 
than twice the people it would carry were waiting to 
take it as it was driven out. Most of these people were 
obliged to seek private conveyances or wait over until 
the next morning. Then followed a dreary three hours' 
pull up Goshen hill, two horses having to do the work 
of four. We arrived at Cummington in time to take 
supper and to attend a children's concert at the village 
church. There was a local orchestra of four or five 
pieces, and a chorus, both of which also took part in 
the exercises next day; and there were recitations from 
Bryant's poems and compositions by the children, all 
under the management of a tireless young lady resident. 
Looking at the children, as they were grouped in the 
front pews, I was struck by the preponderance of pure 
New England types, such a collection of which I had 
not seen in twenty years, or before familiar districts in 
New England were invaded by foreign immigration. 
So I was not surprised next day to learn from Mr. 
Tower's admirable address that " the town is still one 
of pure New England stock, and out of two hundred 
voters only three are not of American birth. ... It 
is still a farming community, as it was a hundred years 
ago, and the farmers win a scanty living from rebellious 
soil." To me, this children's concert, with its manifes- 
tation of the pure native stock, was the most interest- 
ing feature of the Bryant Centenary. 

Something of the same showing was evident next day, 
at the exercises. Many driving parties came over from 
the now fashionable towns of Berkshire, but the society 
people were practically lost in the mass of village peo- 
ple, numbers of whom had driven thirty or forty miles 
and camped out over night on the way. And such " old, 

old, old, old ladies," and men, too, as there were among 
them, with deep lines of toil and narrow living cut into 
their faces. There were fashions a great deal older 
than those of the revived 1830 type, and there were 
hats worn by some old men which no words of mine 
could describe. Squalling babies were occasionally in 
evidence, and people on the outskirts of the crowd could 
have heard but little of the speakers' remarks, although 
they stood through the proceedings with eyes glued on 
the more distinguished, and even on the less distin- 
guished, occupants of the platform. Among the former, 
in addition to the speakers, were Miss Julia S. Bryant, 
the daughter of William Cullen Bryant, and many mem- 
bers of the Bryant family, Miss Sarah Orne Jewett, and 
Mrs. Kate Upson Clark. A feature of the celebration 
was the singing of the bard-like John W. Hutchinson, 
the last of the Hutchinson family, who stirred the au- 
dience with his rendering of Mrs. Howe's hymn and 
with some of his old-time songs. 

The residents of Cummington covered themselves 
with credit in all their arrangements for the Centenary. 
The disposition of the platform and seats rising up the 
slope of a small elevation in the grove, the plain but 
bountiful collation for the two hundred guests of the 
committee, and the convenience for stabling probably 
five times the number of horses ever collected in the 
town before, were perfect in every respect. All but the 
special guests of the committee brought their provisions 
with them, and the sight of several thousand people 
picnicking in the grove was something to be remem- 
bered. After the exercises I walked along " the rivu- 
let " (the subject of Bryant's poem of that name) which 
runs by the old homestead, and down the hill to the 
monument which marks the sight of his birthplace. 
Looking about the wide amphitheatre of hills which 
stretch away on every side, in the evening glow of a 
perfect summer's day, it was not difficult to guess the 
inspiration of " Thanatopsis." ARTHUR STEDMAN. 


Mrs. Celia Thaxter died at her home at Appledore, 
Isles of Shoals, the evening of August 26, at the age 
of fifty-eight. A daughter of Thomas B. Laighton, of 
Portsmouth, she was born June 29, 1836, in that town. 
When an infant, her father became a lighthouse-keeper 
upon White Island, and there the child spent her first 
eleven years. Her family then moved to Appledore, 
where she lived for the remainder of her life. At the 
age of sixteen she married Levi Thaxter, who is de- 
scribed as " a cultivated man who preferred this quiet 
spot to the noisy world." Mrs. Thaxter's first vol- 
ume of poems appeared in 1872. It was followed 
by Driftwood " (1879), " Poems for Children " (1883), 
" The Cruise of the Mystery and Other Poems " (1886), 
and "Idyls and Pastorals " (1887). Mr. Stedman fit- 
tingly says of her verse that it gives us " the dip of the 
sea-bird's wing, the foam and tangle of ocean, varied 
interpretations of clambering sunrise mists and evening's 
fiery cloud above the main." She was peculiarly happy 
as a writer of verse for children. In prose, a pretty 
volume called " Among the Isles of Shoals " was widely 
read ; and her latest work, " An Island Garden " (re- 
viewed in THE DIAL a few months ago), has been re- 
ceived with an exceptional degree of cordiality, bestowed 
upon the text quite as much as upon Mr. Childe Has- 
sam's exquisite illustrations. 




(Special Correspondence of THE DIAL.) 

Madison, Wis., August 25, 1894. 

The Wisconsin State Superintendent of Public In- 
struction, Mr. O. E. Wells, has done for Professor R. 
T. Ely, of the State University, a like service to that 
which Professor Patton rendered Professor Swing. 
Whatever Mr. Wells's intention may have been, the 
only result can be to intrench more strongly than ever 
the man he has attacked, while at the same time giving 
him an instant national prominence which could in the 
usual course of things come only as the long result of 
time and labor. Professor Ely has the great advantage 
of being the first sociological heretic to be brought to 
book ; the first of a long line to come if we are to be- 
lieve the charges and insinuations which have been lately 
going the rounds, that the increasing boldness of radi- 
cal socialism, and even of anarchy itself, is in a large 
measure due to encouragement in high places. He will 
have the further satisfaction of not being obliged to 
pose as a sociological martyr also; for to be a religious 
martyr is not half bad in these latter days, while to be 
suspected of favoring strikes and anarchy butters no 
professor's parsnips. 

Professor Ely has very likely felt that his affliction, 
though it endure but for a moment, is more chastening 
than providential; yet he may well congratulate him- 
self that Providence chose such a very feeble rod of 
chastisement as Mr. Wells. No man could teach and 
write so much as Professor Ely without laying himself 
open to skilful attack at some unguarded point; but Mr. 
Wells has succeeded simply in furnishing in his own per- 
son another brilliant illustration of the madness which 
goes before the destruction of the gods. 

In " The Nation " of New York, of July 12, when the 
public excitement over the railroad strike was at its 
height, there appeared a letter signed O. E. Wells, and 
bearing the somewhat startling heading " The College 
Anarchist." The letter was a column in length, but 
the gist of it is as follows: First, "that there is a sort 
of moral justification for the attack on life and prop- 
erty based on a theory which comes from the colleges, 
lecture-rooms, and latterly from the churches, and is 
supported by the teaching and practice of the Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin." Secondly, Professor Ely entertained, 
and was in frequent consultation with, a certain " walk- 
ing-delegate " during a strike which occurred in Madi- 
son in the beginning of the present year. Third, Pro- 
fessor Ely threatened to take his printing from a certain 
firm unless they employed union men. Fourth, Pro- 
fessor Ely declared that " a dirty, dissipated, unmar- 
ried, unreliable, and unskilled tramp, if a union man, 
should be employed in preference to an industrious, skil- 
ful, trustworthy, non-union man who is the head of a 
family." Fifth, " Only a careful student will discover 
the Utopian, impracticable, or pernicious doctrines [of 
Professor Ely's books], but their general acceptance will 
furnish a seeming moral justification for attacks on life 
and property such as the country is already becoming 
so familiar with." 

To the Regents of the Wisconsin State University 
all this was " mighty interesting reading," especially as 
the newspapers all over the country were soon in full 
cry. It was " important if true," and it did not take 
the Honorable Board long to appoint a committee of 
three, which should summon accuser and accused to ap- 
pear in their august presence and elucidate things. After 

two postponements, all parties concerned were finally 
gotten together in the Law Building of the University 
on the evening of August 21, each of the opposing par- 
ties being represented by a lawyer. After considerable 
preliminary sparring between the lawyers, it became 
evident that the policy of the plaintiff was one of delay 
and of readiness to back out on any decent pretext. Mr. 
Wells, having accomplished his object in spreading his 
accusations broadcast, seemed not to be greatly inter- 
ested in the investigation. The defence filed an em- 
phatic denial of each and every charge contained in the 
accusations, in order. Then appeared the weakness of 
the plaintiff's case. Although the letter begins by first 
attacking Professor Ely's teachings, then his personal 
acts, and finally his writings, the lawyer for Mr. Wells 
made every possible effort to ignore all the first part 
and confine the inquiry to the last count only; namely, 
the writings. At last they were forced to confess that 
Mr. Wells could not possibly testify anything about the 
teaching, because he had never heard a single lecture 
by Professor Ely, and had not even read the only one 
of the Professor's books which is prescribed as part of 
the university course. Thus the first and most impor- 
tant part of the attack fell flat. 

Much against the wish of the plaintiff, the charges 
referring to Professor Ely's personal acts was next , 
taken up ; and the reason of the reluctance became man- 
ifest as soon as the testimony of witnesses was taken. 
Every charge under the third and fourth counts was 
flatly contradicted, and showed conclusively that Mr. 
Wells had either carelessly or maliciously taken mere 
street gossip as a basis of his very serious public accusa- 
tions, without taking the trouble to ascertain the truth. 
The proceedings were enlivened by several sharp ver- 
bal scrimmages between the two lawyers and the com- 
mittee, to the great delight of the audience. 

At this point, and at the desire of the plaintiff, an ad- 
journment of three days was interposed to give him time 
to recover breath, and to collect all the damning ex- 
tracts which he could find in Professor Ely's works. 
Thus far the investigation had been a farce; but now 
we were promised something very serious. The second 
hearing was attended by a still larger audience, includ- 
ing many ladies; but Mr. Wells was not in it. He had 
had enough. 

Under such circumstances it would probably have oc- 
curred to a fair-minded man that a great wrong had 
been done Professor Ely, and that the least reparation 
possible was a full retraction and ample apology. But 
Mr. Wells thought otherwise. He regarded it as a fit- 
ting opportunity to send another long letter to the com- 
mittee, in which he refused to be present at the inves- 
tigation any further, on the plea of having been so 
advised by friends because of some applause that had 
occurred at the opening of the trial, and because of 
" restrictions " imposed by the committee. He reiterated 
several of his exploded charges, in the face of the fact 
that they had been disproved, and then proceeded to 
consider the main point, viz., the socialistic character of 
Professor Ely's writings. The latter part of the letter 
was therefore the total residuum of this formidable at- 
tack which had called forth so much comment from the 
press. It was chiefly an exposition of the impression 
produced by their perusal upon the mind of the reader; 
i. e., Mr. Wells's mind. He found this to be very bad. 
He endeavored to support his impressions by a few quo- 
tations, which, isolated from their connection, might 
easily assume to a willing eye the outlines of a cloven 



[Sept. 1, 

foot. It is hardly necessary to say that almost any- 
thing could be deduced from any author by this ex- 
tremely naive method of exegesis ; but when the quota- 
tions were afterward read by the defence in their proper 
connection, the disingenuousness of the method became 

That was the end of Wells. The defence now had 
the easy and pleasant task of repelling his last feeble 
attacks, by quotations from Professor Ely's works, by 
the oral testimony of his former students now teachers 
in other institutions, and by many written assurances of 
high regard which had been received from prominent 
men. Against the " impressions " which Mr. Wells's 
mind received from a perusal of Professor Ely's works 
were opposed the scholarly criticisms and endorsements 
of President Adams of Wisconsin University, President 
Andrews of Brown, Professor Small of the University 
of Chicago, Dr. Shaw, editor of " Review of Reviews," 
Mr. Carroll D. Wright, Federal Commissioner, and 
others. All this cloud of witnesses, while admitting 
differences of opinion in matters of detail, united in em- 
phatically endorsing Professor Ely, and in repelling all 
insinuations that there was in his teachings, writings, 
or personal influence anything leaning toward or pro- 
vocative of anarchy in the slightest degree. On the con- 
trary, he has always deprecated strikes and boycotts as 
resulting in more harm than good to the cause of Labor. 

Finally, Professor Ely, being sworn, testified that to 
his knowledge he had never even seen the walking-dele- 
gate whom he was accused of entertaining, nor had he 
consulted with any walking-delegate whatsoever. 

The committee is to make its formal report to the 
Board of Regents, whose next meeting comes on the 
eighteenth of September; but there can be little doubt 
what that report will be. Dogberry complained, " O, 
that I had been written down an ass." Poor old Dog- 
berry ! If he only could have been State Superintend- 
ent of Wisconsin ! R w CONANT. 



(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

I confess I have less confidence than Professor Gay- 
ley seems to have in the study of the literature of sav- 
age tribes as affecting present canons of criticism. 
Literature, as we know it and are interested in it, is es- 
sentially a product of culture. What primarily concerns 
us is the literature of the Aryan peoples, and among 
them the literature which has been tinctured by, if it is 
not a product of, the civilizations of Greece and Rome. 
Among the latter I include the Scandinavian, and of 
course the oldest English. Among non-Aryan peoples, 
the Hebrews have profoundly influenced all modern Oc- 
cidental literature; and among non-European civiliza- 
tions belonging to the Aryan branch, we may fairly in- 
clude the Hindoos, as represented by Sanskrit, and to 
some extent by more modern literature. If to these we 
add the Finnish Kalevala, and a few folk-songs which 
may lie beyond the Aryan pale, we have a corpus which, 
in my opinion, it would be well to master first, before 
prosecuting too far our researches into the drama of 
the Papuans, or the epic of Dahomey. There may well 
be societies of comparative literature, I grant; but I 
conceive that our most pressing need in this country at 

present is to understand the English literature, and 
those most nearly allied to it, and that this object may 
be more directly subserved than by devoting too large 
a portion of our leisure to the literature of the South 
Sea islands. ALBERT S. COOK. 

Yale University, New Haven, Conn., August 16, 1894. 

(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

Now that the charge against Professor Ely has been* 
exploded and proved to have come from a breechless 
cannon, hurting most the meddlesome one who foolishly 
or recklessly touched it off, one beholding the vanishing 
smoke-cloud may well ask how it is that so much smudge 
and racket should have come about so needlessly. The 
responsibility for the accusation and trial of Dr. Ely 
must be divided, it seems, between Mr. Wells, the Su- 
perintendent of Public Instruction of Wisconsin, and 
"The Nation" of New York; the one having written 
the letter containing the charges, and the other having 
printed it with the title of " The College Anarchist " 
and endorsed and followed it up editorially. Surely 
such charges and such an epithet could be justified, 
if at all, only by the most ample and unequivocal evi- 
dence of their truthfulness. The word "anarchist," 
as applied to a college professor, is about the most in- 
jurious that could be chosen; hardly less damaging, at 
the present time, than the term ex-murderer or horse- 
thief. It is worse, really, than to call a lawyer a shys- 
ter, a physician a quack, or a clergyman a mountebank. 
These have the world before them ; if a public stigma 
is placed upon their name in one place, they can go to 
another region and begin anew. But a college profes- 
sor has at best but few openings, and a reproach or 
doubt clinging to him in one quarter is pretty certain 
to follow him elsewhere and effectually check his career. 
These considerations show how serious was the moral,, 
and presumably the legal, responsibility assumed in call- 
ing Professor Ely " The College Anarchist," and will 
cause the public, particularly members of Dr. Ely's 
profession, to look with interest for whatever of repara- 
tion may be accorded him. Even though he may have 
gained rather than lost by the unjust attack upon him, 
the principle involved is the same as in the case of those 
who might be equally innocent yet not so strong or able 
to defend themselves so successfully. Words are dan- 
gerous things, and the injury they may do is often irre- 
parable. The word "anarchist" is coming to be used 
a little too freely in modern economic discussion, re- 
minding one unpleasantly of the religious " heretic " or 
the political " suspect " of not so very long ago. We 
have had, perhaps, almost too much of the " College 
Anarchist," the " Anarchist Governor," the " Anarchist 
Preacher," etc. Sinister epithets are no better argu- 
ments than brickbats are. They ill become a dignified 
and influential journal, least of all one whose mission in 
part is to raise the standard of journalistic ethics. Such 
are not the examples of amenity and justice by which 
the manners and morals of journalism are to be im- 
proved- C. E. S. 

Chicago, August 28, 1894, 

MR. THEODORE STANTON has been engaged in Paris 
during the last year in preparing a series of lectures on 
the Third French Republic, which he will deliver before 
the Wisconsin State University. 





Neither the flight of time nor the growing 
urgency of current questions seems to abate 
public curiosity concerning Napoleon. In view 
of the multiplicity of books on the Emperor 
and of the temptations held out for the last 
half century to write them, it is rather remark- 
able that one of the fullest, freshest, and, in 
point of narrative, most trustworthy accounts, 
the "Memoirs of the Baron de Meneval," should 
appear at this late day. Few readers, certainly, 
are likely to accept the writer's exaggerated 
estimate of his hero ; none, on the other hand, 
will question the exceptional worth of his evi- 
dence as to facts. " An honorable and a truth- 
ful man whose lips were never stained with a 
lie " as M. Thiers testified in the French Par- 
liament Meneval was for years (1802-15) 
Napoleon's private secretary, his close friend, 
and a member of his household. He knew the 
Emperor as few were privileged to know him ; 
and it is a fact to be weighed that although 
custom accorded Meneval the valet's prover- 
bially fatal degree of intimacy, Napoleon re- 
mained in his eyes a hero to the end. " Faith- 
ful to his master till the grave," observes his 
editor, " he sought always and everywhere, with 
a complete conviction and the most absolute 
good faith, to defend the memory of this great 
man." Unhappily for the defender, the changed 
standards of a later day have wrought disas- 
trously with the Emperor's title to greatness. 
The Alexanders and Tamerlanes, men whose 
genius for destruction filled the rude ideal of 
their contemporaries and made the soil they 
touched a Golgotha, no longer engross history ; 
and the glory of the victor of Marengo and 
Austerlitz is happily paling before that of the 
Colberts and Turgots, real patriots whose goal 
was the solid prosperity of their countrymen. 
In view of the actual verdict of time, there is 
a strain of pathos in Meneval's prediction that 
this " common arbitrator " would justify his 
estimate of his master. He says : 

" The revelations which time will bring will show 
Napoleon raised on the summit of greatness by means 
of which morality approves; they will show him free 
from all baseness, straightforward, magnanimous, ex- 

From 1802 to 1815. By Baron CLAUDE-FRANCOIS DE MENE- 
VAL, Private Secretary to Napoleon. Edited by his Grand- 
son, Baron NAPOLEON JOSEPH DE MENEVAL. With Portraits 
and Autograph Letters. In three volumes. New York : D. 
Appleton & Co. 

empt from low passions, endowed with every kind of 
courage, constantly occupied with the care of ameliorat- 
ing the condition of humanity, and finally moved by the 
noble ambition to have desired to make of France the- 
most glorious and the most prosperous of nations; am- 
bition too great, perhaps, in a worn-out society, for the 1 
rejuvenation of which time as well as the constancy of 
fortune were lacking to him." 

Meneval might well have given his memoir 
Chancellor Pasquier's sub-title, "A History of 
My Time," the book being really a continuous 
historical narrative, interspersed with pen pic- 
tures and anecdotes of Napoleon and his en- 
tourage. The stories of the Emperor serve 
mostly to illustrate his private character, rather 
than to depict him as the soldier and the ruler ; 
and here nothing is related of which the writer 
was not " an eye-witness or the direct deposi- 
tary." Familiar historical facts are passed 
over or but briefly touched upon, save when the 
writer is able to furnish fresh light, or where 
his version differs materially from the one ac- 
cepted. The tragic story, for instance, of the 
Due d'Enghien is graphically re-told with some 
considerable additions as to Napoleon's per- 
sonal share and degree of culpability in the 
matter. Meneval was a fairly good hand at a 
portrait. His characterizations of leading per- 
sonages Talleyrand, Fouche, Murat, Moreau, 
the members of the Bonaparte family, Mme. 
de Stael, Mme. de Recamier, and many others 
are clear and pithy ; and a propos of these 
portraits we may cite in passing blunt Marshall 
Lannes's summary, approvingly quoted by the 
author, of the wily Bishop of Autun : 

" He used to say of Talleyrand's impassiveness that 
if he were to receive a kick in his seat of honor his face 
would not betray the event, and summed him up in this 
saying, which is perhaps strictly true, if expressed in 

somewhat too military language : ' It 's a lot of mud 

in a silk stocking.' " 

Opening with a brief retrospect of his early 
life, Meneval passes on to the date of his en- 
trance (April, 1802) into Napoleon's Cabinet, 
as the actual, though at first not the titular, suc- 
cessor of Bourrienne, who was already in dis- 
favor. Meneval was present at the latter's final 
dismissal which was certainly abrupt enough : 

"The Consul said to him in a severe tone of voice: 
' Give any papers and keys which you have of mine to 
Me'neval, and withdraw. And never let me see you 
again.' After these few words he went back to the 
council, slamming the door violently behind him." 

Meneval's opinion of his predecessor's cele- 
brated memoirs deserves attention : 

" I do not think that Bourrienne was the author of the 
memoirs published under his name. I met him, in 1825, 
in Paris, and he told me that he had been asked to write 
against the Emperor: ' In spite of all the wrong he did 



[Sept. 1, 

me,' he added, ' I could never make up my mind to do 
so. My hand would wither rather.' . . . His entire 
cooperation in this book consisted in some stray incom- 
plete notes which were worked out by certain profes- 
sional writers. These writers, whose names are men- 
tioned, had to make up for the insufficiency of these 
notes by their own researches, and with the help of ma- 
terials supplied by the publisher." 

Meneval ascribes Bourrienne's consent to the 
use of his name to the enfeeblement of his fac- 
ulties, and to the financial straits which made 
him at the time accessible to the temptations 
of the publisher. Allowing, however, all pos- 
sible weight to the writer's candor and oppor- 
tunities, his limitation of Bourrienne's collab- 
oration to " some stray incomplete notes " seems 
too patent an understatement to need disproof. 
Meneval's first impressions of Napoleon were 
most favorable : 

" He spoke of my studies and of Palissot [the satir- 
ist and in the writer's youth the doyen of French litter- 
ateurs] with a kindness and a simplicity which put me 
entirely at my ease, and showed me how gentle and 
simple this man, who bore on his forehead and in his 
eyes the mark of such imposing superiority, was in his 
private life." 

The portrait of the First Consul as the writer 
then saw him is thus traced : 

" Napoleon was at that time moderately stout.* He 
was of middle height (about five feet two inches), and 
well built, though the bust was rather long. His head 
was big and the skull largely developed. His neck was 
short and his shoulders broad. The size of his chest 
bespoke a robust constitution, less robust, however, than 
his mind. His legs were well shaped, his foot was small 
and well formed. His hand, and he was rather proud 
of it, was delicate and plump, with tapering fingers. His 
forehead was high and broad, his eyes grey, penetrating, 
and wonderfully mobile; his nose was straight and well 
shaped. His teeth were fairly good, the mouth perfectly 
modelled, the upper lip slightly drawn down toward the 
corner of the mouth, and the chin slightly prominent. His 
skin was smooth and his complexion pale, but of a pal- 
lor which denoted a good circulation of the blood. His 
very fine chestnut hair, which, until the time of the ex- 
pedition to Egypt, he had worn long, cut square and 
covering his ears, was clipped short. The shape of his 
face and the ensemble of his features were remarkably 
regular. In one word, his head and his bust were in no 
way inferior in nobility and dignity to the most beauti- 
ful bust which antiquity has bequeathed to us. ... 
When in a good humor, or when anxious to please, his 
expression was sweet and caressing, and his face was 
lighted up by a most beautiful smile. Amongst famil- 
iars his laugh was loud and mocking. . . . My portrait 
of Napoleon would be incomplete did I not mention the 
hat, without trimming or lace, which was ornamented 
by a little tri-color cockade, fastened with a black silk 
cord, and the grey surtout which covered the simple 
uniform of colonel of his guard. This hat and this 
surtout, which became historical with him, shone in the 

* A lady who saw him in 1795, speaks of Napoleon as " the 
thinnest and queerest being I ever met ... so thin that he 
inspired pity." (Stendhal.) 

midst of the coats covered with gold and silver embroid- 
ery which were worn by his generals and the officers of 
his household." 

This simplicity of dress was really a matter of 
choice and not of affectation as is sometimes 
charged. Meneval relates that, pending the 
arrival of Marie Louise in France, the Emperor 
yielded to the entreaties of the princess Pauline, 
an acknowledged authority in matters of taste, 
and ordered a magnificent suit, loaded with lace 
and embroidery, to grace the coming event. 
The finery, however, was worn but once, and 
was then laid aside for the plain habit of or- 
dinary days. 

Readers fond of the minuter espials of biog- 
raphy will not find Meneval's narrative want- 
ing. There are many curious details as to the 
Emperor's domestic life and his personal hab- 
its. Of that virtue which is " next to godli- 
ness " we learn that he had his full share : 

" He took frequent baths. He used to brush his arms 
and his broad chest himself. His valet finished by rub- 
bing him very vigorously on the back and shoulders. He 
formerly used to be shaved, but for a long time, that is 
to say since 1803, he had shaved himself after he had 
changed his valet. A small mirror was held before him, 
and turned as required. He then used to wash himself 
with a great quantity of water in a silver basin, which 
from its size might have been taken for a vat. A sponge 
dipped in eau de cologne was passed over his hair, and 
the rest of the bottle was poured over his shoulders. 
. . . His allowance for dress had at first been fixed at 
60,000 francs; he reduced this amount to 20,000 francs, 
all included. He was fond of saying that with an in- 
come of 12,000 francs, and a horse, he should have all 
he wanted." 

Like M. Levy, Meneval is at some pains to 
show that Napoleon possessed as he probably 
did a fair share of the domestic virtues, be- 
ing an affectionate husband and father, and 
the best of sons and brothers. Among his many 
engaging pictures of the Emperor's home life 
there is one that seems especially attractive 
and characteristic. Ever bent on the game or 
the reality of war, Napoleon had some little 
manoeuvre-pieces made bits of wood of dif- 
ferent lengths and colors, representing regi- 
ments and divisions with which he would try 
new military evolutions and combinations, set- 
ting them up on the floor to gain a larger field 
for the mimic campaign. Sometimes his son, 
the little King of Rome, would surprise him 
occupied with these pieces and working out be- 
forehand one of those brilliant coups which so 
often turned the scale in favor of the French 

" The child, lying on the floor at his side, pleased with 
the color and the form of these manoeuvre pieces 
which reminded him of his toys would at each instant 




touch them with his hand and disturb the order of bat- 
tle at a decisive moment just when the enemy was about 
to be beaten. But so great was Napoleon's presence of 
mind, and his affection for his son, that he did not allow 
himself to be disturbed by the disorder into which the 
child had thrown his strategical combinations, and con- 
tented himself, without manifesting any impatience, with 
putting the pieces back into their right order. His pa- 
tience and kindness for his child were inexhaustible." 

In this connection Meneval tells a touching 
story of the Empress Josephine. She had 
begged as a favor to have the King of Rome 
taken to her, and Napoleon yielded, despite 
the jealous opposition of Marie Louise, who 
feared the ascendancy which a woman who had 
once been so loved by her husband might still 
retain over him. Describing the meeting, Men- 
eval says : 

" The excellent Princess could not restrain her tears at the 
sight of a child who recalled such painful memories and 
the privation of a happiness which Heaven had refused to 
her. She embraced him with transports. She seemed to 
take pleasure in the illusion produced by the thought that 
she was lavishing her caresses on her own child. She 
never wearied of admiring his strength and beauty, and 
could not detach herself from him." 

For this wronged woman Meneval has nothing 
but kindness, though he faintly approves, on 
political grounds, of Napoleon's resolution to 
put her aside. He was an eye-witness of the 
painful scene immediately following the cere- 
mony that, as he says, " unloosened the bonds 
of a union which, had Josephine been fruitful, 
would have lasted as long as their lives ": 

" The Emperor re-entered his study, sad and silent, 
and let himself fall on the sofa where he usually sat, in 
complete depression. He remained there some mo- 
ments, his head leaning on his hand, and when he rose 
his face was distorted. Orders for the departure to 
Trianon had been given in advance. When it was an- 
nounced that the carriages were ready, Napoleon took 
his hat and said, ' Me"neval, come with me ! ' I followed 
him up the little winding staircase which communicated 
between his study and the Empress's apartment. Jose- 
phine was alone, and seemed wrapped in the most pain- 
ful reflection. The noise we made in entering attracted 
her attention, and springing up she threw herself on the 
Emperor's neck, sobbing and crying. He pressed her 
to his breast, kissing her over and over again, but in the 
excess of her emotion she had fainted. I ran to the 
bell and summoned help. The Emperor, wishing to 
avoid the sight of a grief which he was unable to as- 
suage, placed the Empress in my arms as soon as he saw 
she was coming back to consciousness, ordered me not 
to leave her, and withdrew rapidly by the drawing- 
rooms of the ground floor, at the door of which his car- 
riage was waiting. After the Emperor's disappearance, 
women who entered laid her on a couch and did what 
was necessary for her recovery. In her confusion she 
took my hands and earnestly prayed me to tell the Em- 
peror not to forget her, and to assure him of an affec- 
tion which would survive any and every event. It 
seemed to be difficult for her to allow me to depart, as 

if my departure would break the last tie by which she 
was connected with Napoleon." 

Josephine, says Meneval, "had an irresist- 
ible attraction." 

" She was not a woman of regular beauty (she had 
that grace which is more beautiful than beauty's self, 
as our good La Fontaine used to say); she had the 
soft abandon, the supple and elegant movements, the 
graceful negligence, of Creole women. Her temper was 
always even. Good and kind, she was affable and in- 
dulgent to everybody without exception of persons. She 
was not a woman of superior intellect, but her exquisite 
politeness, her great familiarity with society and court 
life and their innocent artifices, always taught her at a 
moment's notice what to say and do." 

Lacking the subtler charms of the wife she 
supplanted, Marie Louise had in full measure 
the attractions inseparable from youth and 
health. The author sketches her as she ap- 
peared to him on her arrival in France : 

" Marie Louise, then in the splendor of her youth, 
had a bust of perfect regularity. The bodice of her 
dress was longer than used to be worn at the time, 
which added to her natural dignity, and contrasted very 
well with the ugly, short bodices of our ladies. Her 
face was flushed with the journey and by her nervous- 
ness. Pale chestnut hair, silky and- abundant, framed 
a fresh full face, over which eyes, full of sweetness, 
spread a charming expression. Her lips, which were 
rather thick, recalled the type of the Austrian ruling 
family, just as a slight convexity of the nose is the char- 
acteristic of the House of Bourbon." 

Meneval's post was no sinecure. The Em- 
peror's prodigious activity grew with the ob- 
stacles put in his way, and taxed the strength 
of his secretary to the utmost. Night and day 
he was bound to the wheel of that restless, ever- 
scheming, and, in its final conceptions, vaguely- 
defined ambition. Says Meneval : 

" It often happened that I would hand him some doc- 
ument to sign in the evening. ' I will not sign it now,' 
he would say, ' be here to-night at one o'clock, or at four 
in the morning; we will work together.' On these oc- 
casions I would have myself waked some minutes before 
the appointed hour. As, in coming down stairs, I used 
to pass in front of the door of his apartment, I used to 
enter to ask if he had been waked. The invariable 
answer was, 'He has just rung for Constant,' and at the 
same moment he used to make his appearance, dressed 
in his white dressing-gown, with a Madras handkerchief 
round his head. When, by chance, he had got to the 
study before me, I used to find him walking up and 
down with his hands behind his back, or helping him- 
self from his snuff-box, less from taste than from pre- 
occupation, for he only used to smell at his pinches, and 
his handkerchiefs were never soiled with the snuff. 
His ideas developed as he dictated, with an abundance 
and a clearness which showed that his attention was 
firmly riveted to the subject with which he was dealing; 
they sprang from his head as Minerva sprang, fully 
armed, from the head of Jupiter. . . . Napoleon used 
to explain the clearness of his mind, and his faculty of 
being able at will to prolong his work to extreme limits, 
by saying that the various subjects were arranged in 



[Sept. 1, 

his head, as though in a cupboard. < When I want to 
interrupt one piece of work,' he said, ' I close the drawer 
in which it is, and open another. The two pieces of 
business never get mixed up together, and never trouble 
or tire me. When I want to rest, I close up all the 
drawers, and then I am ready to go off to sleep.' " 

We should be sorry if the foregoing extracts, 
selected chiefly for their graphic quality and 
separableness from the context, should convey 
the impression that the book before us is a 
mosaic of chit-chat and haphazard portraiture. 
We recall no memoir of the Napoleonic period 
which is less open to the charge of " scrappi- 
ness " and triviality. Meneval was a serious, 
retiring,* even a melancholy man many de- 
grees removed from the mere court quidnunc. 
His bias in Napoleon's favor was pronounced ; 
but, allowing for this, his political and personal 
reflections are calm and penetrating, and they 
are the ripened fruit of his later years. We 
have alluded to his version of the d'Enghien 
tragedy one of the darkest stains on Napo- 
leon's career. The pith of the matter, as com- 
monly understood, and the defense offered by 
Meneval, can be briefly stated. In 1803-4, 
Bonaparte, justly alarmed and enraged by the 
royalist plots against his life, resolved to deal 
his enemies a blow that should effectually check 
such enterprises for the future. The blow de- 
cided on was the execution of one of the royal- 
ist princes, and the victim selected was the Due 
d'Enghein, the last of the Condes, a known 
leader of the emigres, and a supposed sharer 
in the murderous attempt of Cadoudal and 
Pichegru. That the arrest of d'Enghien, then 
living at Ettenheim, in Baden, would involve 
a flagrant breach of the law of nations, gave 
no pause to the imperious will of the First Con- 
sul. On the night of March 15, 1804, d'En- 
ghien was seized at Ettenheim by French gen- 
darmes, haled over the frontier to Strasburg 
and thence to the castle of Vincennes, where 
he was tried by court martial, found guilty, 
sentenced, and put to death, all during the 
night of March 20, and the early morning of 
March 21. His request to see the First Con- 
sul might possibly have been granted by his 
judges ; but Savary, a devoted tool of Napo- 
leon, who had been put in charge of the platoon 
detailed for the execution, roughly interposed 
in the debate, and led his prisoner away to the 
castle-moat, where he was shot, with a summary 
barbarity worthy of the days of the Terror. 

* In a note on Fleury de Chaboulon's Memoirs, Napoleon 
says : " Mineral and Fain lived in such a retired way that 
there were chamberlains who, after four years' service in the 
palace, had never seen them." 

Broadly viewed, the murder (or, to use the 
common euphemism, the execution) of d'En- 
ghien seems the only logical outcome of the 
affair from the beginning. The extraordinary 
preliminary step ; the trial before a tribunal 
certain as Meneval admits to convict ; the 
selection of Savary and his obvious conviction 
of his duty ; the swiftness and secrecy of the 
entire proceedings all point to the fact that 
the unfortunate Prince was doomed from the 
first, and that Napoleon was his judge. It is 
admitted that had d'Enghien been taken on 
French soil, or in battle, his sentence, while 
severe, would have been legal. Taken as he 
was on the soil of a country with which France 
was on the friendliest terms, it was murder. 
Meneval's chief defense of his master is that, 
expecting a final request from his prisoner for 
an audience, he meant to exercise clemency. 
He knew that conviction was certain ; but he 
took measures not, as is generally held, to 
prevent but to assure the Prince's request 
for an interview reaching him. These meas- 
ures, according to Meneval, were thwarted by 
the following singular (we are inclined to add, 
suspicious) incident, the facts of which, how- 
ever, whatever our interpretation of them may 
be, the relator's character for veracity does not 
permit us to doubt. Pending d'Enghien's trial, 
Napoleon ordered his Secretary of State, Maret, 
to write in his name to the Councillor of State, 
Real, directing the latter " to go to Vincennes, 
and to personally examine the Due d'Enghien, 
and then to come and report the result of this 
examination to him, Napoleon." The fateful 
letter reached Real's house at ten o'clock on 
the evening of the trial : but Real, suffering 
from unusual fatigue, had gone to bed, after 
having peremptorily " forbidden his valet to 
wake him before five in the morning, no matter 
what message might be sent to him" The next 
morning M. Real received the letter, dressed 
with all speed, and hastened to Vincennes 
too late. " On the way he met Col. Savary, 
who informed him that the Due d'Enghien's 
execution had taken place." 

Meneval, with other panegyrists of Napo- 
leon, failed to see or was loth to admit that his 
hero, like Bacon and Marlborough, strongly ex- 
emplified the truth that great mental gifts by no 
means imply corresponding moral ones. Napo- 
leon's character was strangely inconsistent, and 
even intellectually it presents contradictions. 
His marvellous genius for appreciating and 
shaping special facts and situations was coupled 
with the feeblest incoherence of general policy ; 




and his dreams of the future, where we can di- 
vine them, were so vague, fantastic, and gran- 
diose as almost to warrant the doubt sometimes 
cast upon his sanity during his later years. 
What was Napoleon's final goal the consum- 
mation he had in view and toward which he 
strove and planned ? Has anyone yet answered 
the question explicitly ? Could Napoleon him- 
self have answered it? The good Meneval's 
response, touching the " ameliorating the con- 
dition of humanity," and other benign Napo- 
leonic aims, seems, in the light of recorded 
deeds, scarcely satisfactory. Nor can we ad- 
mit that the crimes of a man who sacrificed to 
his own ends, with appalling indifference, the 
lives, liberties, and happiness of scores of thou- 
sands, are in the faintest degree redeemed by 
his half-dozen putative bourgeois virtues. 

It remains to add that the publishers of this 
important work have given it the setting it de- 
serves ; and we venture to say the edition will 
bear comparison with the concurring French 
and English ones. The good work of the trans- 
lator, Mr. Robt. H. Sherard, calls for a word 
of praise. 

E. G. J. 


Judge Dillon's entertaining and suggestive 
book on " The Laws and Jurisprudence of En- 
gland and America " has many great excel- 
lences, though it is not without some striking 
defects of style. It is a revision of a series 
of lectures to the law students of Yale Uni- 
versity on " Our Law in its old and in its new 
home England and America." It deals with 
the sources and development of our law, and 
with its qualities and tendencies as now admin- 
istered. Although the form of cursory oral lec- 
tures is preserved, yet Judge Dillon evidently 
kept in his eye several other sorts of men, among 
whom, plainly, were the lawyers, the guild of 
professors and learned men, the court -room 
audience to whom he for many years talked as 
judge, and the greater audience of the plain 
people to whom he was wont to speak on the 
Fourth of July. The book is technical without 
being obscure, learned in a somewhat general 
way, concrete and practical ; and throughout it 
is inflated by a florid eloquence and an ampli- 
tude of quotation and literary allusion in which 
the author delights, and from which he cannot 
always restrain himself. Judge Dillon has evi- 

AMERICA. By John F. Dillon. Boston : Little, Brown & Co. 

dently modelled his style after Dr. Johnson ; 
and his learning is of the stucco and decorative 
order, rather than of the solid and structural. 
In the early part of the work he seeks to in- 
terest his students by excursions into the an- 
tiquities of the law, the ancient degrees and 
ceremonies of the English lawyers, descriptions 
of Westminster Hall and of the Inns of Court, 
and the like. He then didactically explains 
the development of the judicial system of the 
United States, the adoption of our written con- 
stitutions, with their rationale, limitations, and 

In the last five lectures he takes up his real 
theme, the development of our law by the au- 
thority of judicial precedent ; or, in other 
words, the rule that a decision by a court of 
competent jurisdiction, in a question of law 
directly involved in the case before it, is (until 
overruled by the same or a superior court) 
binding, not only in that case, but in all sub- 
sequent cases in which that question is involved. 
To this doctrine we owe the accumulation of 
some eight thousand volumes of the best law 
in the world. And Judge Dillon concedes that 
if these eight thousand volumes (together with 
sundry other thousand volumes of statutes and 
text-books) were only all studied by our lawyers 
and legislators, they would scarcely need to 
take a step in the dark. But our author rec- 
ognizes that the legislatures have never done 
this to any great extent ; that even the judges 
are now beginning to lose something of the stu- 
dious habits which aimed to keep these books 
in mind ; and that as the courts and report-fac- 
tories go on turning out precedents at the rate 
of upwards of a hundred volumes a year, even 
the lawyers most patient of men are likely to 
be overwhelmed, and lose their studious habits 
ere long. Judge Dillon therefore maintains that 
the time has come for a systematic restatement 
of the body of our statutory and case law. 

Judge Dillon is by nature a progressive man 
and a reformer ; he is at the same time a lover 
of learning and a diplomat. Even forty years 
of experience in the legal profession, twenty 
of which have been passed at the bar and 
twenty upon the bench, have not sufficed to 
extinguish his native tendencies. They have, 
however, developed in him to an unusual degree 
the conviction that the reformation of the law is 
best to be accomplished by conserving the fruits 
of our legal development, and by securing, first 
of all, an adequate re-statement of the law as 
it exists to-day, omitting all that has been re- 
pealed or overruled, and all that has become 



[Sept. 1, 

obsolete. He is therefore among the most prac- 
tical of law reformers. Many years ago Tocque- 
ville pointed out that the effect of a lawyer's 
experience is to render him conservative, and 
that in America the legal profession constitutes 
both the real aristocracy and the bulwark of 
the state. These ideas are strikingly illustrated 
in the conservative and patriotic tone of Judge 
Dillon's addresses, and the moderate and care- 
ful limits within which he advocates legal re- 
forms. In his argument for a re-statement 
of the law, he avoids the breakers upon which 
most schemes of law reform have already gone 
down. He sums up his views in the following 
words : 

" There inevitably comes a stage in the legal history 
of every people when its laws become ' so voluminous 
and vast ' that an authoritative and systematic re-com- 
pilation or re-statement of them is necessary, to the end 
that they may be accessible, and of (to use, in default 
of a better, Bentham's uncouth but expressive word) 
cognoscible bulk, if not to those who are governed by 
them, at least to those whose business it is to advise con- 
cerning them, and to those whose duty it is to administer 
and apply them." (P. 269.) 

This, indeed, is the real lesson of Judge Dil- 
lon's book. At the same time he does not fall 
into the common error of the advocates of a 
code, that of recommending the remodelling of 
our law after the Roman or civil code. He in- 
sists that his purpose is 

" To delineate the characteristics and to exhibit the ex- 
cellences of our legal system as it now exists, with a view 
to show that for the people subject to its rule it is, with 
all its faults, better than any Roman or any other alien 
system. It is an argument, intended to be so earnestly 
and strongly put as to amount to a protest, against the 
Conlinentalization of our law. I have a profound con- 
viction of the superiority of our system of law, at least 
for our people; but I know that this estimate is not so 
fully and firmly held by the body of lawyers and law 
teachers as I think it ought to be. I have therefore 
thought it a fitting, if not needful, aim to inspire on the 
part of the profession a more thorough appreciation 
of it." 

What Judge Dillon favors is the re-statement 
and gradual codification of our law, in a code 
which should be the natural outgrowth and ex- 
pression of our law as it is ; i. e., it should be 
truly an American code, and not an imitation 
of any Continental code. 

The special points of superiority of the com- 
mon law over the civil law, namely, the decis- 
ion and settlement of the law only upon ques- 
tions actually arising and duly argued and de- 
liberated, the jury system, the careful develop- 
ment of the law of evidence, the supreme value 
of the American system of written constitutions 
setting definite limits to the departments of 

Government, and the independence of the ju- 
diciary in maintaining the limits set by the Con- 
stitution, are set forth in a way to re-con- 
vince both the practical man and the student 
of institutions. Students of the latter class 
are apt to find their most abundant materials 
and the most learned and scholarly treatment 
of them in the Continental systems, and are apt 
to overlook the substantial and permanent ad- 
vances made at home. Judge Dillon thinks, 
and shows, that this is simply another case of 
the far-away field which looks green, compared 
with the brown and rusty look of the field at 
our feet. Yet none the less does he perceive 
the defects in our laws, both of system and of 
administration. Indicating some of these de- 
fects, he says : 

" Most of our appellate courts are crowded with causes, 
and the effect upon the judges is that they too often 
feel it to be an ever-pressing, paramount, all-absorbing 
duty to clear the docket. This mistakenly becomes the 
chief object to be attained, the primary instead of a 
quite subordinate consideration. In the accomplishment 
of this end, the judges are as impatient of delay as was 
the wedding-guest in the Rime of the Ancient Mariner. 
Added to this, a majority of the appellate judges gen- 
erally reside elsewhere than at the capital or place 
where the courts are held, and the desire is constantly 
felt to bring a laborious session to an end as speedily as 
possible, in order that they may rejoin their families 
and do their work in the fatigue-dress of their libraries, 
rather than under the necessary restraints of the term. 
They begrudge the time necessary for full argument at 
the bar. They dislike to hear counsel at length. They pre- 
fer to receive briefs. As a result, two practices have 
grown up too generally throughout the country, which 
have, as I think, done more to impair the value of judicial 
judgments and opinions than perhaps all other causes 
combined. The first is that the submission of causes 
upon printed briefs is favored, and oral arguments at the 
bar are discouraged, and the time allowed therefore is 
usually inadequate. On this subject I hold very strong 
opinions ; but also hold that no opinion can be too strong. 
As a means of enabling the court to understand the 
exact case brought thither for its judgment, as a means 
of eliciting the very truth of the matter both of law 
and fact, there is no substitute for oral argument. 
None ! 

" The other practice among some, I fear many, of our 
appellate courts which injuriously affects our case-law 
is the practice of assigning the record of causes submitted 
on printed arguments to one of the judges to look into and 
write an opinion, without a previous examination of the 
record and arguments by the judges in consultation. This 
course ought to be forbidden, peremptorily forbidden, by 
statute. What is the most difficult function of an ap- 
pellate court ? It is, as I think, after the record is fully 
opened and the argument understood, to determine pre- 
cisely upon what point or points the judgment of the 
case ought to rest. This most delicate and important 
of all judicial duties ought always to be performed by 
the judges in full conference before the record is deliv- 
ered to one of their number to write the opinion of the 
court; which, when written, should be confined to the 




precise grounds thus pre-determined. In respect to 
oral arguments, the time allowed therefore, the willing- 
ness to hear counsel, and full conferences among the 
judges in the presence of each other prior to decision or 
assigning the record to a judge to write the opinion, the 
Supreme Court of the United States is a model for 
every appellate tribunal in the country." 

A stronger argument for the consolidation of 
our Supreme Court could not be desired. We 
wish that this book might be in the hands of 
all our judges, and especially in the hands and 
hearts of the present Commissioners for the 
Revision of the Illinois Statutes. 



Mr. John S. Hittell has presented in four 
handsome and impressive volumes his " His- 
tory of the Mental Growth of Mankind in An- 
cient Times." The idea underlying this work 
is excellent. To successfully develop it would 
be the achievement of genius. To say that the 
author fails is not severe criticism, for most 
men would fail. The scope of the work is out- 
lined in a series of introductory questions oc- 
cupying several pages. These questions are 
suggestive, and the final ones are : " Has the 
Celt any natural fitness for free government ? 
Is he superior to the Teuton in delicacy of sen- 
timent ? Are the nations of Southern Europe 
superior to those of the North in artistic genius ? 
Are those of the North superior in mental and 
physical energy ? " Having propounded these 
and many other queries, our author says : " To 
these questions, which have never been an- 
swered satisfactorily, I shall offer replies, which, 
however weak they may be in many points, will 
yet, I hope, contribute a little to the stock of 
historical truth." One naturally feels some 
surprise when he fails to find any of these final 
questions answered. 

The author coins words when he needs them. 
To this we have no objection, but we do wish 
he would not give new meanings to old words. 
He discusses the three culture stages, Savag- 
ism, Barbarism, Civilization ; but he uses the 
terms in his own way. 

The four volumes treat of Savagism, Heathen 
Barbarism, Judea and Greece, Rome and Early 
Christianity. The volume on Savagism is in- 
teresting, but does not Tylor cover the same 
ground as well, or better ? Some chapters are 

ANCIENT TIMES. By John S. Hittell. In four volumes. 
New York : Henry Holt & Co. 

weak. The discussion regarding the Primi- 
tive Family is particularly unsatisfactory. Has 
Hittell really read Bachofen ? In his appen- 
dix we read : " Bachofen, who was the first to 
call attention to the subject, has but little to 
interest readers who are familiar with later 
writers, such as Lubbock and Lippert." If our 
author has read Bachofen, he deserves notice 
for having performed a feat which few have 
done. But he certainly has not read Starcke. 
Nowhere has he made a citation from the great 
Dane's work, certainly the most important of 
the many discussions in this subject. In this 
connection it is curious to read : " Other works 
worthy of attention are Lubbock's ' Origin of 
Civilization,' which gives a good summary of 
Morgan's ideas, Starcke's ' Primitive Family,* 
and Lippert's ' Kulturgeschichte ' and ' Ges- 
chichte der Familie.' " There is no apparent 
realization on our author's part of the fact that 
Starcke is the exponent of ideas somewhat un- 
like his own or of the authors cited. 

The Aztecs are discussed in Volume II., 
upon "Heathen Barbarism." Morgan's "An- 
cient Society " is quoted, but his other writings 
are apparently unknown, and the romantic views 
of past and unscientific writers are usually pre- 
sented. Bandelier, unquestionably the most 
cautious and critical authority upon the Aztecs, 
is neither cited nor mentioned. The value of 
the discussion is at once evident. 

Were we to spend time in picking out here 
and there the small slips and careless argu- 
ments of the four volumes, we should justly be 
accused of trifling. The author intends to be 
judicial and fair, but is dogmatic both in thought 
and expression. His partiality for the Greeks 
is marked ; his dislike of the Romans is equally 
plain. The very word Christianity is a chal- 
lenge to him. Committed to evolution, filled 
with admiration for Kulturgeschichte, optim- 
istic in all human affairs, Hittell is delightedly 
conscious that the present is better than any 
past, that our race is better than all other races, 
that life is improving, and that the future is a 
time for still higher achievement. 

We have criticised : we might criticise still 
more ; but we admire the earnestness shown r 
the extensive reading displayed, and the sug- 
gestiveness of the work. To find out what con- 
tribution each culture stage and each great 
nation has made to the sum total of human 
progress, is surpassingly important. This work 
is an honest effort, fairly successful, to do this. 
As such we welcome it. 



[Sept. 1, 


Professor Nicholson's " Principles of Political 
Economy," his preface tells us, has grown up out of 
the class-room use of Mill, and from the need of 
recasting Mill's statements in the light of modern 
conditions and established modifications of the clas- 
sical theory. This fact has determined the order 
and general content, and, in a highly complimentary 
sense, the work is an annotated Mill. Professor 
Nicholson, however, is by no means a mere editor. 
The point of view and the essential positions are 
those of Adam Smith ; and of the economy of Adam 
Smith, Mill is justly taken as the classic expounder. 
But Professor Nicholson is himself a trained and 
vigorous thinker, and his treatment is fresh and dis- 
passionate. Although frankly conservative, he has 
restated the English economy in full view of the 
criticisms of the " younger generation of economists," 
to whom he is inclined to concede not a little. Com- 
pared with Marshall, the book is avowedly reaction- 
ary ; but it is also less original and less vital. 

Professor Nicholson's excellent judgment is shown, 
to cite examples, in his brief exposition of methods 
(pp. 18-20), in his analysis of labor (pp. 75-86, 
the treatment of moral activities excepted), in his 
criticisms of Mill's propositions regarding capital 
(pp. 98 sqq.), and in his exposition of the law of 
population and criticism upon Mill's deductions from 
Malthus (pp. 164, 169, 175 sqq.). His conserva- 
tism on minor points is exemplified by his attitude 
toward the attempt to establish small farms in 
England (146, 149), and by his condemnation of 
judicial rents as applied to Ireland (316, 317). Pro- 
fessor Nicholson's exposition of Value is reserved 
for the second volume ; but the discussion is antici- 
pated by a heated criticism of the notion that util- 
ity can be measured by price. For the Austrian 
nomenclature the author has bare tolerance, although 
he intimates that the "extreme limits of popular 
phraseology and comprehension" have long been 
.passed (7). 

In the matter of definition, Professor Nicholson 
reaffirms, with some asperity, the rigid boundaries 
of the classical school. He acknowledges, indeed, 
the influence of religion, art, morality, and other 
forces, upon the nature and causes of the wealth 
-of nations, concedes that wealth must be considered 
with reference to human wants, and admits that 
there can be no complete isolation of economic phe- 
nomena; but 

" The economist regards man as a being who pro- 
duces, distributes, exchanges, and consumes wealth, and 

olson, M.A., D.Sc., Professor of Political Economy in the 
University of Edinburgh. Volume I. New York : Macmil- 
lan & Co. 

Professor of Economics and Social Science in Indiana Univer- 
sity. New York : Macmillan & Co. 

PRINCIPLES OF ECONOMICS. By Grover Pease Osborne. 
Cincinnati : Robert Clarke & Co. 

considers him as a member of society, one of the ob- 
jects of which is to deal with wealth " (13). " The econ- 
omist fixes his attention on wealth, and only considers 
other social factors as far as they appreciably affect 
wealth; as in every other science minor causes are neg- 
lected. . . . Political economy classifies and explains 
certain social facts, and discovers their laws and re- 
lations, just as the natural sciences deal with phenom- 
ena of a different order. Thus, starting with private 
property and freedom of competition as existing facts, 
we may discover certain laws of rent, profit, and wages ; 
but whether this distribution of the nation's wealth is 
morally just or unjust, is relegated, together with the 
question wherein justice consists, to ethics " (14). 

Political economy may consider the influence and 
powers of governments, trades unions, and other 
groups and authorities, in altering this hypothetical 
distribution ; it may point out the objects govern- 
ments have had in mind in this regard and the dif- 
ficulties in the way of attainment ; it may consider 
possible reforms, etc. " Discussions on Socialism 
and similar topics have a didactic value in that they 
make clear by way of contrast the meaning of pres- 
ent institutions and methods." 

So far as mere definition is concerned, there seems 
to be little difference among economists. Even 
the most wayward of the " younger generation " 
recognize the value of isolation and separation for 
purposes of analysis. But Professor Nicholson's 
cautions against passing from the economic to the 
ethical must be taken in view of his definition of 
sociology as an " aspiration," and his evident sat- 
isfaction (ethically speaking) with the existing or- 
der of things. Obviously, if ethics are to be rig- 
orously excluded from economics, there can be no 
pertinence in the question, " What scheme of dis- 
tribution is economically best ? " Yet Professor 
Nicholson would create a sort of economic ethic, 
and answer, as Adam Smith did, That which en- 
forces the greatest possible production of wealth. 
And, in general, if the author will not discuss the 
ought, he contrives to let us know what he thinks 
of other people's oughts. He may not say whether 
the " greatest happiness" theory is ethically correct 
or not, but if he were to doff the economic and put 
on the ethical ermine he would point out that "max- 
imum freedom " is at least as attractive as " great- 
est happiness." 

" For my own part I should not care to regard equal- 
ity of distribution, even if it could be shown to be both 
practical and also productive of maximum happiness, 
as the ultimate goal of human progress. Human ener- 
gies, activities, and ambitions are not to be satisfied with 
a dead level of placid content. . . . Even on the ver- 
bal question, I submit that the distribution which ad- 
mits of the greatest liberty may be more properly de- 
scribed as economic than that which aims at greatest 
utility" (233). 

But political economy is a positive science, and has 
to try to discover the real causes which have been 
and still are at work, as regards the distribution of 
wealth, and deduce the consequences. 

" We have to explain the nature and effects of the 




institution of private property, and describe and account 
for various species of income. Rents, wages, and profits 
are as definite facts as any treated of in the physical 

Professor Nicholson's analysis of private property, 
and of freedom of competition and contract, is not 
especially profound or luminous, but it explains 
how, in his view, ethical, biological, and other con- 
siderations, are so foreign to economic discussion. 
The possibility of change in the methods of pro- 
duction, distribution, consumption, the possibility of 
doing away with poverty, for example, is what 
makes economics so fascinating to the " younger 
generation." To Professor Nicholson things are 
practically unalterable, or at least change so slowly 
and imperceptibly as not to interfere with the pos- 
itive nature of the science. He does not merely 
start with private property and free competition. 
The permanence of competition and private prop- 
erty, the persistence of the virtue of selfishness, the 
adequacy of existing methods of distribution these 
are the facts which make an appeal to ethics so fu- 
tile. Mill had held to a sharp distinction between 
the laws of Production and those of Distribution, 
the former partaking of the character of physical 
laws, the latter being a matter of human institution 
only, and subject to radical change even. This dis- 
tinction Professor Nicholson vigorously combats. 
As to the progressive betterment of society through 
the gradual evolution of the altruistic motives, he 
announces his disagreement with Professor Mar- 
shall, and holds with Stuart that " were public 
spirit, instead of private utility, to become the spring 
of action in the individuals of a well-governed state, 
I apprehend it would spoil all" (86). 

" For my own part, in the main, I follow the older 
writers in thinking that the great majority of people 
will do most good to the public by minding their own 
business " (85). 

" Common-sense morality, altogether apart from the 
sanctions of positive law, suffices with the great mass 
of a nation to enforce the fulfilment of what are pro- 
nounced to be the ordinary obligations of social life; 
but from the point of view of common sense, a man who 
does any work for a less price than his services will 
command is considered either an enthusiast, or a fool, and 
if he has others dependent upon him, the condemnation 
is more severe. The minister of religion and the min- 
ister of politics, the teacher, the physician, the lawyer, the 
author, and the artist, one and all if we take the average 
type need the spur of self-interest to surmount the or- 
dinary drudgery of their calling. Being ordinary men 
and not brutes, they are on various occasions moved by 
other impulses, just as a few of their extraordinary fel- 
lows are constantly so moved. When, however, Chris- 
-tianity itself, dispassionately regarded by the economist, 
finds its earthly support in earthly rewards and honors, 
how can it be expected or maintained that a substitute 
for self-interest can be found for the ordinary business 
of life ? The appeal to history is still more decisive, 
as showing that the main-spring of economic progress 
has been economic interest" (81, 82). 

Even the abolition of slavery has been due, not to 
philanthropy and Christian (altruistic) principles, 

but to economic interest : " It was the discovery, 
not that Christ had proclaimed the equality of men, 
but that freedom and rewards were more efficient 
than slavery and punishments in calling forth the 
energies of labor." So profit-sharing and other 
forms of cooperation are justified by the increased 
efficiency of labor. 

In the concluding chapter, on Economic Utopias, 
the aims of modern socialism are condemned, and 
its success heralded as the death-blow to individual 
liberty, self-reliance, independence, and enterprise. 
And this condemnation, in due measure, is visited 
upon all efforts which tend to break down the prin- 
ciple of competition or to substitute the altruistic 
for the economic motive. It is only fair, however, 
to note Professor Nicholson's conservatism : 

" I do not mean to assert that governments and so- 
cieties have no industrial functions, nor did Adam Smith 
nor any of the great economists who have lauded the 
benefits of freedom and exposed the weakness of gov- 
ernments. But it is desirable to emphasize most that 
which is most apt to be forgotten, and in these days no 
one is likely to forget that the state and trades-unions 
and cooperative societies have power for good" (432). 

Professor Commons's treatise on " The Distribu- 
tion of Wealth " is not easy reading. It bristles 
with the new nomenclature, and its analysis is in- 
tricate and exhaustive, and not always helped out 
by the mathematical figures and formulae. Thus, 
the diagram on page 147, where one side of a paral- 
lelogram represents one of capital and labor, 
the opposite side the quantity of product produced 
by the marginal dose, and the base the total num- 
ber of doses, seems to strain geometry quite to the 
breaking point. These, however, are accidental 
features, partly due to the difficulty of the subject 
and partly to the unsettled condition of economic 
terminology. For the work itself is one of the best re- 
sults of the American renaissance in pure economics. 
It is thorough in investigation and modest but straight- 
forward in deduction. It nowhere departs from 
the rigid character of a scientific treatise, yet it has 
none of the painful exclusiveness with which Pro- 
fessor Nicholson finds it necessary to hedge about 
the term economic. Professor Commons does not 
seem to be aware that ethical considerations are 
uneconomic. There is no appeal to sentiment, no 
squinting Utopia-ward, but a profounder analysis 
of the nature of social and legal rights, and a clearer 
interpretation of the tendencies of modern civiliza- 

After a preliminary discussion of Value, setting 
forth the Austrian theory, and a brief analysis of 
Cost and Price, the subjects taken up in detail are. 
The Factors in Distribution, Diminishing Returns 
and Rent, and Diminishing Returns and Distribu- 
tion. Land is defined as that which furnishes room 
and situation, the Ricardian conception of the " orig- 
inal and indestructible powers of the soil " being re- 

" Not land, but capital, embodies the forces, energies, 
and material of nature " (29). " Soil is capital, and its 



[Sept. 1, 

returns are governed by the same law as that which 
governs returns from machinery " (137). 

Personal abilities and business privileges are not to 
be classed as capital. 

" Capital, strictly defined, apart from individual abil- 
ities, has become the dominating instrument in the pro- 
duction of wealth. ... It is the ownership of capital 
rather than the possession of abilities that has impor- 
tant bearings on the social problems of wages, interest, 
and profits " (44). 

The law of diminishing returns is shown to be uni- 
versal, applying to manufactures not less than to 
agriculture. The law of rent is extended to in- 
clude the monopoly privileges of patents, copyrights, 
trade-marks, franchises, and good-will, but not cap- 
ital (157, 161). The familiar no-rent agricultural 
land of the " older generation of economists " dis- 
appears, and with Adam Smith we again include 
rent in expenses of production (221). President 
Walker's theory of the laborer as the " residual 
claimant " is effectually disposed of, and monopoly 
privileges fall heir to the coveted position. One of 
the clearest pieces of analysis in the book is that 
of the law of wages, and of the relative influence 
of the standard of living and of the laborer's con- 
trol over the supply of labor in determining wages 

The most interesting discussion, because most 
closely touching current social problems, is that which 
deals with Law and Rights. The discussion is based 
on the theory of the sovereignty of the government : 
"the all-powerful factor in the distribution ef wealth 
is the sovereignty of the government" a theory 
which Professor Nicholson virtually denies. All 
rights considered by political economy of persons 
and of property are legal rights. " Government 
creates, defines, and enforces these rights." 

" The place of law in political economy is a subject 
which has received from English economists no atten- 
tion at all commensurate with its far-reaching impor- 
tance. . . . The English economists have taken the 
laws of private property for granted, assuming that 
they are fixed and immutable in the nature of things, 
and therefore needed no investigation. But such laws 
are changeable they differ for different peoples and 
places, and they have profound influence upon the pro- 
duction and distribution of wealth" (59). " There are 
in society two lines of economic activity, the voluntary 
activity of individuals and associations, and the com- 
pulsory activity of governments. The first is the field 
of free competition and self interest; the one hitherto 
solely treated by the English economists. The second 
is the field of coercion, of force " (61). 

" Private self-interest is too powerful, or too ignorant, 
or too immoral to promote the common good without 
compulsion. The common wants of society justice, 

roads, military defence, etc can be supplied only by 

compulsory contributions from individuals, and compul- 
sory administration of government" (61). 

Personal rights are life, liberty, employment, and 
marriage. The right to life is primary and funda- 
mental, and this means not merely the right to 
protection against violence but to a share of the so- 

cial product equal to the minimum of subsistence. 
" And this is what the State has done in two ways, 
through slavery and poor relief ; the first for the 
slave and serf, the second for the freeman " (66). 

It is rather startling to have the right to employ- 
ment defined not merely as a legal right, but as one 
in effect already recognized by the State. But it 
is only a more intelligent and higher application of 
the right to live. Professor Commons insists upon 
the personal rights of freedom of movement and 
freedom of industry. And " freedom of contract 
is the essential right of freedom in industry." But 

" The skilled, the intelligent, the educated, the gifted, 
laborers, those in whom intellectual and moral qualities 
predominate, are benefited by the freedom of contract; 
for the unskilled, the unorganized, the redundant labor- 
ers, those whose marginal utility is low, freedom of 
contract offers no help" (75). "Though the slave was 
compelled to work, he never suffered from that terrible 
evil of the modern laborer, lack of work. With the 
coming of freedom, the laborer was divorced from his 
means of livelihood, and now that all available land has 
become private property, and all capital is private prop- 
erty, the propertyless man is a dependent when work 
is plenty, and a vagabond when work is slack" (79). 

" The right to work, for every man that is willing, is 
the next great human right to be defined and enforced 
by law " (80). 

" The right to employment is simply a new applica- 
tion, under modern conditions, of the old right to free- 
dom of industry. Free industry meant essentially the 
right to free access to nature for the production and ac- 
quisition of wealth. . . . But to-day freedom of indus- 
try is no boon except to the wealthy capitalist. . . . 
The great mass of the people must remain wage-and- 
salary-receivers. Consequently, the only way in which 
these people can get access to nature for production is 
through the recognition of the right to employment " 
(80, 81). 

The first recognition of this right is that "wages, 
hours of labor, conditions of work, are to be adju- 
dicated by the courts." But this solves only the 
easier half of the problem. " The most difficult 
part for solution is that involuntary idleness which 
attacks both employer and employee, and closes fac- 
tories as a result of industrial crises and depres- 
sions." Professor Commons does not flinch from 
the legitimate conclusion the right of the unem- 
ployed to have work furnished by the government. 
A thousand hands will be held up in horror, but 
when the heavens have fallen it will be found that 
Professor Commons has advanced the whole ques- 
tion to a higher plane of discussion than it has hith- 
erto occupied. He has no cheap and ready expe- 
dients for working out so difficult a problem ; but 
he has forecast, as Mr. Kidd has so brilliantly done, 
the line of social and economic evolution for the 
coming century. 

Mr. Grover Pease Osborne's book, " Principles 
of Economics," is strictly unacademic. The author 
is widely read, he is an intelligent and acute ob- 
server, and his maxims and deductions are mainly 
sound and wholesome. Yet he professes to be ad- 
dressing an audience nine out of ten of whom re- 




gard political economy as the " science of free-trade 
or protection " ! Such an audience could not be 
supposed to be familiar with modern economic rea- 
soning, nor capable of much sustained economic anal- 
ysis, and the author has strictly humored his audi- 
ence. He has departed somewhat from the ordin- 
ary terms of political economy, which enables him, 
among other things, to escape from the rigid limit- 
ations of accurate definition. The difficult question 
of Value is reduced to simplicity by making a new 
term of utility, which is straightway confused with 
value-in-use. ''Capital" is the most misleading 
term in political economy, and so we have a discus- 
sion of the " Economical Use of Produced Wealth." 
The necessity of the constant employment of labor 
is enforced, but labor-unions and strikes are classed 
together as causes of idleness, and cooperation is 
mildly recommended. If we can regard Mr. Os- 
borne's book, not as an independent exposition of 
economic principles, but as a commentary on some 
standard treatise, we shall do most justice to the 
wealth of fresh illustration and the suggestiveness 
of many of the positions advanced. 



The author of " Red Cap and Blue Jacket " is 
unknown to us, but he is one of those who will clearly 
have to be reckoned with. By the publication of this 
book he at once takes a place in the front rank of our 
recent tellers of tales. At first sight, his affinities 
seem to be with such writers as Mr. Stanley Wey- 
man and Dr. Conan Doyle, and his mastery of the 
romance of adventure is quite equal to theirs. But 
there is another element, lacking in them, to which 
much of Mr. Dunn's success must be attributed. It 
is the element, if we may so express it, that comes 

* RED CAP AND BLUE JACKET. A Story of the Time of 
the French Revolution. By George Dunn. New York : G. 
P. Putnam's Sons. 

MAJOR JOSHUA. A Novel. By Francis Forster. New 
York : Longmans, Green, & Co. 

THE INTERLOPER. A Novel. By Frances Mary Peard. 
New York : Harper & Brothers. 

A VALIANT IGNORANCE. By Mary Angela Dickens. New 
York : Macmillan & Co. 

THE POTTER'S THUMB. A Novel. By Flora Annie Steel. 
New York : Harper & Brothers. 

THE EBB-TIDE. By Robert Louis Stevenson and Lloyd 
Osbourne. Chicago : Stone & Kimball. 

A DAUGHTER OF TO-DAY. By Mrs. Everard Cotes (Sara 
Jeannette Duncan J. New York : D. Appleton & Co. 

His VANISHED STAR. By Charles Egbert Craddock. Bos- 
ton: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

CLAUDIA HYDE, By Frances Courtenay Baylor. Boston : 
Houghton, Mifflin &, Co. 

RUDIN. By Ivan Turgenev. Translated from the Russian 
by Constance Garnett. New York : Macmillan & Co. 

lated from the Russian by T. Keane. New York : Macmillan 

POOR FOLK. Translated from the Russian of F. Dostoiev- 
sky by Lena Milman. Boston : Roberts Brothers. 

from humanistic culture, and adds to the universal 
appeal of romantic charm a special appeal to those 
who can appreciate the subtle qualities that elevate 
mere fiction into literature. Mr. Blackmore, at his 
best, illustrates this happy combination of attributes; 
as does also Mr. Stevenson, in a certain degree. 
Even the slight discursive element in Mr. Dunn's 
book adds to its attractiveness, for it derives from 
the best literary tradition. We do not seriously 
object to the irrelevant pages of Fielding or the 
rambling method of Thackeray, because we feel 
ourselves in the presence of a master, and the rich- 
ness of the mind excuses the waywardness of its out- 
pourings. It is something of this feeling that makes 
us unwilling to miss the least significant of Mr. 
Dunn's pages, for, if they do not always contribute 
to advance the story, they always provide something 
good in itself. It must not be imagined from the 
above that our author's digressions are very numer- 
ous, very long, or very far-fetched. They clearly 
do not produce the effect of padding, and that is 
enough to justify them. We quote one of them as 
a good specimen of the author's easy style. 

" In the present refined and philanthropic age pugil- 
istic encounters are justly reprobated, and a minute de- 
scription of one would not be tolerated except in the 
pure pages of a Transatlantic newspaper. And, as a 
former Mayor of Dublin used to put out the gas when 
members of the Council began to exhibit the usual 
symptoms of Home Rule, so a prudent and scrupulous 
author will wrap in obscurity the degrading details of 
such a scene. Nowadays, personal hostilities being out 
of vogue a cheering indication of social progress 
people blacken each others' characters instead of each 
others' eyes, an easy process, involving no bleeding 
except that of the pockets; and we may hopefully look 
forward to the time when parliamentary language, in 
the present revised signification of the term, will de- 
mand neither pistolary nor epistolary amends. The as- 
certained fact that hard names break no bones is one 
of the most brilliant discoveries of this enlightened age." 

The following pretty conceit is one of the many pas- 
sages that remind us of Mr. Blackmore's manner : 
" Bell then accompanied Sibylla to her carriage, and 
the two young ladies exchanged kisses a part of fem- 
inine ritual rarely omitted, however tepid may be the 
affection lodged within feminine bosoms. For a kiss is 
a species of counterpart, ranging over the diapason of 
feeling, from the insipidity of the octave and the coun- 
terfeit harmony of the fourth to the melting sweetness 
of the third, which only the mating of male and female 
lips may compass." 

The scene of " Red Cap and Blue Jacket " is first 
laid (for a brief prologue only) in one of the South 
Sea Islands, and the time is late in the eighteenth 
century. The scene then shifts to a village in Scot- 
land, whence sundry of the characters are trans- 
ported to Paris. They reach the French capital in 
the midst of the Terror, and the Revolutionary 
episodes that follow make the most exciting part 
of the book. The character of Andrew Prosser, 
the Scotch pedagogue, who finds that revolution in 
practice is very different from what it has appeared 



[Sept. 1, 

in theory, and who discovers that even the tyranny 
of the Hanoverians may have its good points, is one 
of the best things that have been done in fiction for 
many a day. The faults of the book are slight a 
touch of the melodramatic here and there, and a 
reticence in the prologue that seems to have been 
designed for the express purpose of perplexing the 
reader (which is always bad art), and which mis- 
leads him completely until he is well along in the 

Mr. Forster's "Major Joshua" is essentially a 
study of two types of character that of the su- 
premely selfish man for whom the book is named, 
and that of the woman who has never been taught 
the meaning of love, and whose awakening to its 
power may be likened to the freeing of a spring 
freshet in some mountain valley. Both types are 
considerably exaggerated, and no abnormal condi- 
tions of training or environment would make them 
quite probable ; but the author has made them seem 
as real as possible, and has carried out his design 
consistently and forcibly. Aside from these two 
studies, the interest of the story is slight ; but a far 
duller book would be redeemed by two or three 
such episodes as that, for example, in which the 
Major finds consolation for his rejection in an un- 
usually good dinner, and in which the satisfied gour- 
met comes to think unregretfully of the disappoint- 
ment of the suitor. 

Mrs. Peard is too experienced a writer of novels 
to produce a poor story, and one may take up " The 
Interloper " confident of entertainment and a mod- 
erate degree of excitement. Besides these qualities, 
he will find much nice discrimination of character, 
and a pleasant equable manner of narration. The 
story is French, and a criminal trial furnishes it 
with a climax. The closing chapters, however, are 
the least satisfactory, and the real charm of the 
book is to be sought in its picture of the intimate 
life of a Tourangian chateau. 

Heredity is the main theme of " A Valiant Ig- 
norance," the latest work of the talented grand- 
daughter of Charles Dickens. Although this hobby 
has been ridden nearly to death of late, particularly 
by the women, it cannot be denied that the conse- 
quences of an inherited predisposition to criminal- 
ity are powerfully presented in the book before us. 
Incidentally, we may remark that the grotesquely 
inaccurate attribution of " nastiness " to the writings 
of Dr. Ibsen does not come with the best of grace 
from a writer whose strength is, after all, but a re- 
flection from that master of dramatic analysis. Aside 
from its treatment of the central idea, which is so 
relentlessly worked out as to be rather impressive, 
the book is neither interesting nor exactly whole- 
some. Most of the characters are fairly repulsive, 
and those that are not, with a single exception, must 
be described as unsympathetic. The writer has 
tipped her pen with wormwood, and her work is not 
a fair transcript of life, not even of the artificial 
and empty life of London society. It is pieced out 

to conventional dimensions by the trivial episodes 
and the drawing-room chatter to which too many 
of our novelists have recourse. 

We all remember the thrill of gratitude with 
which Mr. Rudyard Kipling's first stories of India 
were received, and the eagerness with which we 
awaited further transcripts of that mysterious life 
which he alone seemed to have the power to inter- 
pret in terms at once intelligible to the heart and 
the intellect. For it was not merely a sensation 
that they supplied; it was rather the revelation of 
a hitherto dumb civilization. No one before him 
had made us so vividly to realize the almost unfath- 
omable gulf between oriental and occidental modes 
of thought, or the fact that life in the far East is 
in some respects more complex than that which is 
our own inheritance. The facts have been so hope- 
lessly distorted by missionaries and other biased or 
superficial observers that the Hindoo, in our popu- 
lar consciousness, is roughly lumped with idolatrous 
barbarians in general, with bushmen and South Sea 
islanders. Mr. Kipling did not a little to adjust 
our ethnological perspective, and richly deserved 
our thanks for the instruction. We are inclined to 
think that the instruction is bettered by the work 
of a newer writer, the woman who gave us first 
" Miss Stuart's Legacy," then a volume of tales 
"From the Five Rivers," and who now gives us a 
stronger book than either of those. Mrs. Steel has 
an eye for the picturesqueness of Indian life and a 
sense of its psychological differentiations. She knows 
also the Anglo-Indian and his ways, and never for- 
gets that in spite of his imperious grasp and firm 
guidance he remains a purely extraneous element 
in the civilization of British India. " The Potter's 
Thumb " is a very remarkable book. The narra- 
tive is not as lucid or as symmetrically put together 
as it ought to be (although in this respect it offers 
a marked improvement upon " Miss Stuart's Leg- 
acy "), but it displays an insight unsurpassed by the 
best of Mr. Kipling's work, and a rich careful color- 
ing that makes that writer's brilliant impressionism 
seem relatively ineffective. Artistically, the best 
feature of the work is to be found in its use of the 
symbolism suggested by the title. It is one of the 
oldest figures in literature this similitude between 
the shaping of the potter's clay and the making of 
man from the dust of the earth and one of the 
most beautiful. We are constantly reminded, in 
reading the story, of such well-remembered lines as 
the Tentmaker's 

" What I did the Hand then of the Potter shake ? " 
or of Rossetti's 

" Of the same lump (as it is said) 
For honour and dishonour made, 
Two sister vessels," 

and haunted by other suggestions of the sort, more 
vaguely evoked. Yet this symbolism is not ob- 
truded, or made too much of in any literal way. 

In writing " The Ebb-Tide," Mr. Stevenson, with 
the collaboration of Mr. Osbourne, has once more 




proved the possibility of getting along without the 
feminine element, of making a story so interesting 
that the reader forgets, until he rubs his eyes in 
amazement after perusal, that love has not appeared 
or even been suggested as a motive. Instead of a 
" hankering after some person of the opposite sex," 
to borrow a phrase of which Mr. Robert Buchanan 
once made unhappy use, "The Ebb-Tide " gives us 
hankerings after gold and revenge. It is a South 
Sea story, like "The Wrecker," and its characters 
are a precious trio of disreputables, driven, as a 
last resort, to piracy and the attempted murder of 
the fourth character, an eccentric fanatic who fishes 
for pearls upon an isolated atoll. This fourth char- 
acter does not seem to us well realized, but the three 
others are admirably delineated with their respect- 
ive and skilfully differentiated weaknesses and in- 
iquities. One does not often find in the pages of a 
book men as thoroughly alive as the vicious and 
vulgar cockney, the passionate and besotted sea- 
captain, and the decayed gentleman whose better 
impulses usually turn out to be nothing more than 
velleities all three united in the vagrant estate of 
the beach-comber, for the purposes of this ingenious 
and highly entertaining fiction. 

Miss Elfrida Bell is a young woman with aspi- 
rations, born to the uncongenial conditions that ob- 
tain in rural Illinois. She breaks her birth's invi- 
dious bar, and goes to Paris, where she becomes an 
art student in a famous atelier, and acquires eman- 
cipated views and a lofty scorn of plodding Philis- 
tine humanity. Art does not smile upon her, and 
so she turns to literature, removing her abode to 
London. She develops an enormous capacity for 
pose, gleefully rejects a number of devoted admirers, 
alienates her best friends, and finally, in a fit of 
pique, puts an end to her useless existence. The 
delineator of her career, Mrs. Everard Cotes, calls 
her "A Daughter of To-day," an ascription not to 
be admitted as truthful in any general or typical 
sense. Such characters are doubtless to be found 
among the by-products of so unsettled and feverish 
a civilization as just now happens to be ours, but 
they are in no sense characteristic of its deeper aims 
and energies. The author does violence, too, in 
more than one instance, to the probabilities of even 
such a study of morbid development. But she has 
told the story with a certain crisp animation, re- 
lieved by humorous touches ; and these qualities 
make it interesting in episodes, if not attractive as 
a whole. 

Miss Murfree is a novelist wise enough to limit 
production in the interests of patient and careful 
workmanship; and she has her reward. While 
there is nothing new in " His Vanished Star," there 
is complete mastery of the old material, and a suffi- 
cient differentiation of incident to nullify any pos- 
sible charge of mere self-repetition. Here, as in 
earlier books, she succeeds in so charging with poetic 
energy the description of natural phenomena as to 
maintain the high position won by her ten or twelve 

years ago. Nothing better of the sort is to be found 
in contemporary American literature. Nor does her 
sympathy with the rough Tennessee mountaineers 
whom she knows so well fail in any respect ; the 
picturesqueness of their primitive society and the 
rude pathos of their sequestered lives appeal to us 
as powerfully as they did when " In the Tennessee 
Mountains " was published. The almost impass- 
able gulf between such people and those produced 
by our bookish and sophisticated civilization is made 
startlingly clear, and at the same time a sort of 
sympathetic bridge is provided by means of which 
we may after a fashion mingle in feeling and thought 
with these untaught dwellers in the mountain fast- 
nesses. We have noticed a few false notes in the 
style of this novel such, for example, as the fre- 
quent use of the word " stellular " where " stellar " 
would have done as well, or better ; or the conceit 
embodied in the description of dynamite as a " co- 
gent compound," and the propriety of the inci- 
dent that gives the book its name may be questioned, 
since no new star or nova brilliant enough to attract 
general attention has been recorded for many years ; 
but these are trifling matters to set against the posi- 
tive achievement of the book in characterization, con- 
struction, and literary form. 

" Claudia Hyde " is a love story of the sweet, 
wholesome, old-fashioned type, refreshing as an 
ozone-laden sea-breeze that purifies the air from 
malarious exhalations. Such a book, welcome at 
any time, is doubly so in an age when the art of fic- 
tion has fallen so largely into the hands of sensa- 
tionalists, when morbid tales of the " Dodo " and 
"Yellow Aster" and " Heavenly Twins " sort "have 
the cry," and when popular success seems to await 
the most slovenly compositions, provided only they 
overstep the modesty of nature, scoff at the conven- 
tionalities, and ignore the fine reticence which is 
the last and best achievement of literary art. " Clau- 
dia Hyde " tells of the wooing of a Virginian gentle- 
woman by an English gentleman, makes of the tale 
a sweetness long drawn out, sustains the interest by 
many a subtle touch, and leaves the reader with a 
sense that somehow love has been once more set upon ; 
her rightful pedestal, after having been temporarily 
cast down by lewd fellows of the baser sort. The 
book has no ambitious aim, it struggles with no 
problem, it has no moral except the everlasting one 
of the purifying and exalting influence of a noble 
passion ; it is simply a piece of satisfactory work- 
manship, embodying a lofty ideal of character, ap- 
pealing to, and calculated to strengthen, the deeper 
and better parts of our nature. 

A group of translations from the Russian claims 
some attention, and will be made the subject of our 
closing remarks. It is with peculiar satisfaction 
that we greet the promise of a new translation of 
Tourgue'nieff, undertaken by Mrs. Constance Gar- 
nett. It is to be made directly from the Russian, 
and will include the six longer novels, with intro- 
ductions by " Stepniak." " Rudin," which has just 



[Sept. 1, 

appeared, reads well in the new version, and the 
author of the Introduction calls it " as near an ap- 
proach to the elegance and poetry of the original as 
I have ever come across." We have compared it 
with the anonymous English translation that ap- 
peared in " Every Saturday " more than twenty 
years ago, and the comparison is to the advantage 
of the newer version. Still, there are phrases in 
the earlier that do not appear in the later transla- 
tion, which is a suspicious circumstance. The eth- 
ics of translation demand scrupulous accuracy in 
nearly all cases, and certainly in the case of the su- 
preme masterpieces of literary art. It is an offence 
beyond forgiveness to omit a phrase or even a word 
of Tourgue'nieff without some note explanatory of 
the circumstances. The Introduction does not over- 
state the case of Tourgue'nieff in saying that " as an 
artist, as master of the combination of details into 
a harmonious whole, as an architect of imaginative 
work, he surpasses all the prose writers of his coun- 
try, and has but few equals among the great novel- 
ists of other lands." We are sorry to find the ab- 
surd spelling " Turgenev " given new currency by 
this edition. It is also unsatisfactory to learn that 
only translations of the longer novels are contem- 
plated. What we need in English, even more than 
those, is an absolutely complete translation of the 
shorter tales and sketches. At present, those who 
want to read " Assja," " Spring Floods," " Punin 
and Baburin," " First Love," " The Song of Tri- 
umphant Love," " A Lear of the Steppe," and all 
the others, must pick them up here and there. Even 
" Faust," that marvellous example of psychological 
insight, that piece of art absolutely without flaw, is 
only to be found in English in the magazines a 
poor translation appearing in " The Galaxy " many 
years ago, a better one in " The Fortnightly Re- 
view," for last July. 

The work whose performance, in the case of 
Tourgue'nieff, seems so desirable, has just been done 
for Poushkin by Mr. T. Keane, whose translation 
of the " Prose tales " of that writer fills a stout and 
handsomely-printed volume. The longest and most 
important of these tales, " The Captain's Daughter," 
has often been translated ; the others are less fa- 
miliar. Of these others there are eight, some of 
them mere sketches, but one, " Doubrovsky," almost 
equal in length and interest to "The Captain's 
Daughter." One cannot help contrasting the purely 
romantic art of Poushkin with the finished realism 
of Tourgue'nieff, and it is not easy to realize that 
the two men were hardly more than one generation 

Dostoieffski is in some respects closely akin to 
Tourgue'nieff, a relation made particularly apparent 
by " Poor Folk," which Miss Lena Milman has now 
for the first time put into English. In this delicate 
piece of work, with its simple story and its poignant 
pathos, we hardly recognize the Dostoieffski of 
" Crime and Punishment." It was the author's first 
tale, written at the age of twenty-three. When the 

critic Bielinski had read the manuscript of this 
story, he is reported to have exclaimed to the trem- 
bling author : " Do you comprehend, young man, 
all the truth that you have described ? No ! at your 
age, that is quite impossible. This is a revelation 
of art, an inspiration, a gift from on high." The 
enthusiasm was fairly justified by the work. Mr. 
George Moore, who writes an introduction for the 
present translation, makes this interesting comment : 
" ' Poor Folk ' challenges comparison with Tour- 
( gue'nieff. I mean that we ask ourselves if it is as 
perfect as Tourgue'nieff ; that it is not goes without 
saying. For is not Tourgue'nieff the greatest artist 
that has existed since antiquity ? The form is not 
so pure, the divination is not so subtle, the touch is 
heavier. When we turn to Balzac we see that it has 
not the eagle flight of his genius. The subject is 
not grasped and torn with such fierce talons. Bal- 
zac is to Tourgue'nieff what Michel Angelo is to a 
great Greek sculptor, more complete and less per- 
fect. Dostoieffski, in this story, may be not in- 
aptly compared to one of the Florentine sculptors, 
Delia Robbia, for instance. A certain coarseness 
of texture alone seems to me to separate it from 
work of the very highest class." The Vicomte de 
Vogue 1 says of " Poor Folk ": " Into this tender pro- 
duction Dostoieffski has poured his own nature, all 
his sensibility, his longing for sympathy and devo- 
tion, his bitter conception of life, his savage, piti- 
able pride." We do not need to further commend 
a work that has elicited, from critics so widely sep- 
arated in time and place, such substantially unani- 
mous tributes of praise. 



After having brought to a successful 

Howells and James market the more kindly flowers of 
as Comedy writers. . . . . J 

his proper imagining, the man-or-let- 
ters of to-day is very apt to turn some little atten- 
tion to the cultivation of blue roses. They grew 
well in England once, these wonders, though 'twas 
a good while ago. In the fifty years from Lilly to 
Shirley the Drama seemed a most natural product. 
But nowadays the case is very different: everyone 
tries his hand, although, unfortunately, no one suc- 
ceeds any too well. Tennyson, Browning, Swin- 
burne, Longfellow, and who not, have produced inter- 
esting specimens ; but while each new plant has gen- 
erally a certain charm, none of them are very hardy. 
There are not a few varieties, the modern classic, 
the strictly closet drama, the historical play, the 
society comedy. Some are pretty for a season ; 
some can be pressed, and so keep a pale beauty for 
a longer time ; but none show signs of any great 
vitality. Among other workers in these flowery 
fields are Mr. Howells and Mr. James. As for the 
former, without attempting any very great things, 
he has certainly made a delightful success in a little 




species peculiarly his own. His farces, which have 
been appearing in " Harper's Magazine " during the 
last ten years, are now coming out in the Harper's 
" Black and White Series." " Five O'Clock Tea " 
and " The Mousetrap " are hardly the best of these 
fantasies, but still they are characteristically good, 
and it will doubtless be a pleasure to many to see 
them. Whatever else may be said, it will be allowed 
that the action is usually amusing and ingenious, 
that the characters are remarkably consistent and 
natural, and that the farces read as well as they act 
and vice versa. Somewhat more ambitious than 
these charming miniatures is the recent departure 
of Mr. James. " Theatricals " (Harper) contains 
two of four comedies which, as we learn from a note, 
were written for representation under peculiar cir- 
cumstances which never came to fulfilment. Not 
unnaturally, then, the reader starts at a great dis- 
advantage ; and to begin anything by Mr. James 
with a handicap gives one but a sorry chance. One 
must be content, however, as the author cheerfully 
remarks, to get such comfort as one can, namely, 
in this case, a good deal of amusement from the 
dialogue, joined with a wonder if, supposing the 
comedies had been presented, one could have fol- 
lowed the action and got any idea of the characters. 
It is not hard to give a notion of these plays of Mr. 
James. Imagine any of his stories with everything 
but the conversation cut out, and you will have 
something not unlike. To read them is rather more 
like an exacting game than one relishes at this 
time of the year; indeed, it may almost be won- 
dered if the game will be worth the candle at any 
season. The dialogue has the usual ultra-delicate 
flavor, the action (where one discovers it from the 
enigmatic utterances) is usually preposterous, and 
as to the characters, so far as one ventures to infer, 
they are extraordinarily conventional and colorless. 
In a word, the plays have an interest, of course; 
but Mr. James's other work has so much more that 
one can hardly fancy that they will ever be great 


" An Unhistorical Pastoral ; A Ro- 

mantic Farce ' Bruce > A Chronicle 
Play ; Smith, A Tragic Farce ; and 
Scaramouch in Naxos," this on the title-page, with 
a frontispiece by Aubrey Beardsley, is but an om- 
inous welcome to the reader of Mr. John David- 
son's " Plays " (Stone & Kimball). And yet when 
one turns beyond it is not as bad as one might fear. 
Our author, it is true, would seem to be one of the 
modern band of younger poets, and his work has 
many marks of end o' the century affectation. But 
still, here and there, and in some of the plays not 
infrequently, come snatches of very lovely verse 
notes of that same fresh and pure quality that, it 
often seems, was last heard in England in the plays 
and poems of the Elizabethans. That strange de- 
licious atmosphere that one knows so well, one feels 
again at times in Mr. Davidson's plays ; and it is a 
pleasure to find the strain in work that is done to- 
day. It is a curious minglement, the preciosities 

of our own time and the natural birdlike utterance 
of three hundred years ago. One is tempted to ask 
which is the natural Davidson a decadent who has 
caught the trick of Elizabethan utterance, or an 
Elizabethan who has come too late. Whichever he 
be, he has written some exquisite poetry, which may 
to great advantage be looked to, although in some 
cases the poetry is in hiding, like a bunch of violets 
growing behind a lumber-pile. For, unfortunately, 
this happy figured speech of our older poets degen- 
erates with fearful ease into the most tedious and 
prolix verbiage ; and Mr. Davidson has not always 
been able to distinguish in his own work between 
one and the other. It must be confessed that there 
are many arid tracts in his kingdom. And another 
point worth mentioning is that, as one reader might 
say, our author has a strange sense of humor ; or, 
as another might say, no sense of humor at all. In 
a writer of farces (among other things) this is 
hardly to the advantage of the reader. Some of 
Mr. Davidson's humors are not merely stupid, 
they are simply marvellous, and remind us again, but 
by no means so pleasantly, of the Elizabethans, of 
interpolated comic scenes. One must certainly pick 
and choose with Mr. Davidson : if one pick rightly, 
one has an excellent reward ; if wrongly, one is much 
bored. " An Unhistorical Pastoral " and " Scara- 
mouch in Naxos " contain most frequently passages 
of fine quality, and the reader will do well to take 
them first. The volume is one of those nice speci- 
mens of book-making produced by Elkin Matthews 
and John Lane of London, and in Chicago by Stone 
& Kimball. It is pleasant to see such pretty books, 
and to handle them, even if the inside be not the 
finest thing in the world. 

A commendable While . the author f . " The Jewi h 

discussion of the Question " (Harper) is very much in 
Jewish Question, earnest, his pages are commendably 
free from the acrimony usually imported into the 
discussion. The tone of the book throughout is so- 
ber and liberal, and the author takes up the cudgels 
for the Chosen People with a breadth of view and 
a candor as to the flaws in his own case worthy the 
imitation of those who disagree with him. Oddly 
enough, he opens with a denial that there is a Jew- 
ish Question at all that is, a definite one capable 
of exact statement. Now it seems to us that there 
is and has been from time immemorial a Jewish 
Question, and that the Jew himself, with his extra- 
ordinary fealty to the spirit of archaic tribal law 
and tradition, is primarily responsible for it. The 
observation of Tacitus, who speaks of the Jews as 
hostile to all races but their own (adversus omnes 
olios hostile odium), measurably holds good to-day ; 
as does that of Spinoza, who says that the racial 
solidarity of the Jews, despite their disorganized or 
dispersed condition, " is not to be wondered at when 
we consider how they separate themselves from all 
other nationalities in a way to bring upon them- 
selves the hatred of all." Racial exclusiveness, an 
arrogated racial superiority, lies at the root of the 



[Sept. 1, 

Jewish Question and keeps it alive. So long as the 
Jew, broadly speaking, maintains in his daily deal- 
ings one code for the Gentile and another for his 
brethren ; so long as he refuses to blend socially 
with the people about him, making it a point of 
duty to remain essentially a stranger within the gates 
that shelter him, so long will there be a Jewish 
Question. It is easily shown that the Question loses 
definiteness precisely in proportion as the Jew, shak- 
ing off the superstition of his fathers, fuses with the 
people around him and becomes something more 
than a quasi-citizen with a quasi-patriotism. In the 
United States there is no Jewish Question or there 
is at most only an inchoate one. To impute anti- 
Semitism to Gentile jealousy is sheer nonsense: It is 
not the finer superiorities of the Jew that rouse the ire 
of the Gentile, nor is it the Spinozas, the Mendels- 
sohns, the Heines, or even the Rothschilds, that are 
responsible for the existence of the Jew-baiter. The 
true glory of Israel, the inspired thoughts and winged 
words of her poets and sages, is a part of the com- 
mon glory of humanity ; and humanity does not 
grudge the splendor of the flame that makes its 
own light the brighter. In the volume before us 
the writer discusses severally the " Mission of the 
Jews," their status during and influence upon the 
Middle Ages, " Hebraic Societies," " Money and the 
Jews," and he closes with a review of M. Leroy- 
Beaulieu's notable work, " Israel chez les Nations." 
The book shows learning and acumen, and should 
not be neglected. 

Mr. Andrew Lang seems to have a 
penchant for strange titles. In a re- 
cent issue of THE DIAL was reviewed 
his " Ban and Arriere Ban," a sheaf of fugitive 
rhymes ; and now comes a volume of prose quaintly 
entitled " Cock Lane and Common Sense " (Long- 
mans). The book is not, what the reader may guess 
it to be, a belated version of Dr. Johnson's ghost- 
hunt though some space is given to that venerable 
tale. It is largely a compilation of the (to some 
minds) fascinating order of narratives known as 
"ghost stories " though to secure a place in Mr. 
Lang's anthology the story must be, not a piece of 
acknowledged fiction, but an attested "occurrence," 
and a matter of actual belief on the part of the wit- 
nesses. Besides the stories proper, spirit rappings, 
hypnotic phenomena, magic, demoniac affections, sec- 
ond sight, and other pleasantly " creepy " matters, 
are discussed, with learning and acumen, and, we 
need scarcely add, with some humor. Humor, how- 
ever, this time by no means supplies the dominant 
note. Mr. Lang is, or seems to be, thoroughly in 
earnest the scientific, slightly skeptical, curious 
investigator. Struck by the constant, wide-spread, 
and well-attested recurrence of the abnormal phe- 
nomena in question, and believing that the explana- 
tions hitherto offered are often absurd, seldom plaus- 
ible, and never scientifically conclusive, he urges 
that here is a subject worthy not of the cheap ridi- 
cule often bestowed on it but of serious and impar- 

tial investigation. While "Common Sense " figures 
in Mr. Lang's title, he freely disclaims in his pre- 
face any bias in favor of that boastful and overrated 
quality. " Common sense," he sharply observes, 
" bullied several generations till they were positively 
afraid to attest their own unusual experiences." 
He might have added that common sense, having 
discredited itself often enough by deriding Coper- 
nicus, spurning Columbus, scouting Watt, Steven- 
son, and Fulton, refuting Berkeley by grinning and 
kicking posts, etc., ought now to be convinced of its 
fallibility in matters out of its range ; in short, that 
it ought by this time to have gained common sense 
enough to confine itself to common speculations. 
As to the objectivity (to risk a contradiction in 
terms) of the phenomena he cites, Mr. Lang re- 
mains a sturdy skeptic up to his closing pages, where 
he faintly admits that while "the undesigned co- 
incidences of testimony represent a great deal of 
smoke," "proverbial wisdom suggests a presump- 
tion in favor of a few sparks of fire." We suspect 
that the " fire " will always, on investigation, turn 
out to be of a subjective and hallucinatory nature, 
and that the spectral noumena will continue, as 
heretofore, to elude the clutches of the keenest 
spook-hunter. The essays, thirteen in number, are 
reprinted from leading English reviews, and they 
contain a great deal of curious and suggestive matter. 

History of the In a neat volume of 180 odd pages, 
South Place Society entitled " The Centenary History of 
of London. the g outh p lace g oc i ety (London : 

Williams & Norgate), Mr. Moncure D. Conway 
sketches the story of a small but distinguished fra- 
ternity honorably known for its zeal in the cause of 
civil, religious, and intellectual liberty. Rooted in 
no fixed theological creed, and adopting as a body 
no set of opinions that could fetter its members, the 
society has endeavored throughout its career " to 
study carefully, and keep abreast of, the growing 
knowledge of the world, at whatever cost to tradi- 
tional opinions or prejudices ; to do this in a spirit 
of tolerance no less than of sincerity." The organi- 
zation was founded in London by an American, El- 
hanan Winchester " a true forerunner," Mr. Con- 
way thinks, " of Channing, Emerson, and Theodore 
Parker." Winchester, who was by a touching in- 
cident led to give up his early Calvinism for Uni- 
tarianism, sailed for England in 1797, where he 
was well received by Priestley, Price, John Wesley, 
and others. His doctrines were still under the En- 
glish penal laws ; but he at once began preaching, 
and his congregations rapidly outgrew their chapels. 
It was a time of spiritual ferment, and the dissent- 
ers and the Anythingarians of all shades and de- 
grees of nonconformity who flocked to the fold of 
the liberal American shepherd soon had to build for 
him the Parliament Court Chapel, in Artillery Lane ; 
and there the South Place Society was organized, 
February 14, 1793. Mr. Conway gives a rather 
full account of Winchester and of his more impor- 
tant successors notably William Johnson Fox, a 




really eminent man. Fox was a member of Par- 
liament, a fearless though a distinguishing radical, 
a noted Anti-Corn-Law leader, the founder, with 
Mill and Dr. Brabant, of "The Westminster Re- 
view," and the close friend of the chief English 
literati of the day. " He gave," says the author, 
" the first welcome to the Martineaus ; and he first 
recognized the genius of Tennyson, and over Rob- 
ert Browning's youthful work cried Eureka ! " 
Carlyle said of him that " his eloquence was like 
opening a window through London fog into the blue 
sky " adding, however, " I went away feeling that 
Fox had been summoning these people to sit in 
judgment on matters of which they were no judges 
at all." Mr. Conway was himself for twenty-one 
years the incumbent at South Place Chapel ; and 
his account of the Society, based on four discourses 
given by him in 1893, may be taken to be as accu- 
rate as it is lively and sympathetic. There are a 
number of portraits, together with an interesting 
copy in facsimile of the first draft of Sarah Flower 
Adams's fine hymn, " Nearer, my God, to Thee." 


Under the general title of " The Na- 
poleon Romances," Messrs. Little, 
Brown & Co. have added six vol- 
umes to their neat library edition of the romances 
of Alexandre Dumas. The works translated for 
this set of volumes are " Les Blancs et les Bleus," 
" Les Compagnons de Jdhu," " Les Louves de 
Machecoul," and " Les Freres Corses." These works 
make a tolerably connected series, and there is no 
doubt that a reader may get from them an exceed- 
ingly vivid, as well as a fairly accurate, impression 
of the Napoleonic period of French history. In 
saying this, we do not need to take the author as 
seriously as he took himself, in these words, for ex- 
ample : " We shall soon have covered an immense 
period with our stories : between the ' Countess of 
Salisbury ' and the ' Count of Monte Cristo ' lie five 
centuries and a half ; and we are bold enough to 
think that concerning those five centuries and a 
half we have taught France more history than any 
historian." The present translation is in most re- 
spects satisfactory. We note, however, that in many 
instances proper geographical names appear in their 
French spelling, as Sagonte for Saguntum, Cannes 
for Cannae, Perouse for Perugia, and Genes for 
Genoa. These are curious lapses for anyone suf- 
ficiently familiar with French to translate at all. 

The " Letters Addressed to a Col- 

Early letters j Fri d d th years 1840- 

ofMr.Ruskin. -,o^i HT T i -r> i- i 

1845, by Mr. John Ruskm, are pub- 
lished in this country by Messrs. Macmillan & Co., 
although the imprint of the book is that of Mr. George 
Allen, the author's own (we might almost say pri- 
vate) English publisher. As a contribution to our 
knowledge of Mr. Ruskin's intellectual development, 
these letters are of course interesting, for they show 
us at how early a stage certain principles of criticism 
had become a fixed part of his creed. They are 

also interesting as showing that Mr. Ruskin's ac- 
tivities when just out of college were quite as mul- 
tifarious as they were in later years. Absolutely, 
the letters have slight value, for they merely give 
crude expression to some of . the ideas that later 
found much more adequate presentation. They in- 
clude an essay on the question " Was there death 
before Adam fell, in other parts of creation ? " 
which recalls the disputations of the schoolmen. 
That sort of thing, at least, Mr. Ruskin outgrew, 
and definitely, before he was much older. His en- 
thusiasm for Turner appears more than once, as 
when, speaking of a book concerning which his 
opinion had been asked, he says : " I have not seen 
the book you speak of, but if it praises Turner un- 
qualifiedly you may trust to it." The whole of Mr. 
Ruskin's Turnerian creed is in the following pas- 
sage : "He is the epitome of all art, the concentra- 
tion of all power ; there is nothing that ever artist 
was celebrated for that he cannot do better than 
the most celebrated. He seems to have seen every- 
thing, remembered everything, spiritualized every- 
thing in the visible world ; there is nothing he has 
not done, nothing he dares not do ; when he dies, 
there will be more of nature and her mysteries for- 
gotten in one sob, than will be learned again by the 
eyes of a generation." 


Three reading-books for primary schools attest the 
growing desire to provide children with a better sort of 
pabulum than they have been accustomed to. " Fairy 
Tales for Little Readers" (Lovell),by Miss Sarah D. 
Burke, gives simple paraphrases of five familiar nursery 
classics. Miss Sarah E. Wiltse's selection of " Grimm's 
Fairy Tales " (Ginn) includes " stories illustrating kind- 
ness to animals and the unity of life in a variety of con- 
ditions. " A more ambitious undertaking is that of Miss 
Mary E. Burt, whose " Stories from Plato and Other 
Classic Writers " (Ginn) are taken from Hesiod, Homer, 
Ovid, Pliny, and others, and retold in the simplest of 
language. These stories have stood the test of repeated 
use by the author, and are particularly to be commended 
to kindergarten and primary school teachers. 

The " Elementary Algebra " written by Mr. Charles 
Smith and revised by Mr. Irving Stringham (Mac- 
millan) is designed to render less abrupt " the transi- 
tion from the traditional algebra of many of our sec- 
ondary schools to the reconstructed algebra of the best 
American colleges." The book constitutes " a rounded 
course in what may be called the newer elementary al- 
gebra, and includes the subject-matter specified by 
nearly all American colleges as the requirement for ad- 
mission." A book of far more elementary mathemat- 
ics is Miss Florence N. Sloane's " Practical Lessons in 
Fractions " (Heath), following the inductive method, 
and accompanied by "fraction cards," a device of the 
writer, used with marked success in her own teaching. 

The first volume of Mr. James Hamilton Wylie's 
" History of England under Henry the Fourth " (Long- 
mans) was published ten years ago. It has just been 
reissued, iu connection with a second volume, which now 



[Sept. 1, 

first sees the light. A third volume, completing the 
work, is promised for next year. The volumes already 
published show that the labor involved in the work has 
been of great magnitude, and the result is in accord- 
ance with the methods of the best modern scholarship. 
The chronicle is too thickly crammed with notes to be 
easily readable, but the author's style, when it takes the 
form of plain narrative, has an honest directness that 
is at least engaging. 

Mrs. Lois G. Hufford's " Essays and Letters Selected 
from the Writings of John Ruskin " (Ginn) is intended 
for use as a reading-book in secondary schools. It in- 
cludes the two " Sesame and Lilies " lectures, " Unto 
this Last," six letters from " Fors Clavigera," and a 
part of "The Queen of the Air." It is supplied with 
notes and introductory matter, the latter appreciative 
and judicious in the main. While we know of no liv- 
ing writing of prose better fitted for school reading 
than Mr. Ruskin, and while we are in hearty sympathy 
with the general purpose of this book, we cannot regard 
as wise the inclusion of such matter as the chapters on 
what Mr. Ruskin (but no one else) fancies to be polit- 
ical economy. High school students are too young to 
discriminate between the ethical wheat and chaff of 
" Unto this Last," and loose thinking upon economic 
questions is about the last thing that should find encour- 
agement in these days. 

One of the most substantial contributions to knowl- 
edge that have resulted from the Chicago Congresses 
of 1893 is the handsome volume (Schulte) which con- 
tains the " Memoirs of the International Congress of 
Anthropology," edited by Mr. C. Staniland Wake. The 
papers are classified under physical anthropology, ar- 
chaeology, ethnology, folk-lore, religions, and linguistics. 
Two supplementary papers are printed in the German 
language. Among the authors are Messrs. Franz Boas, 
Carl Lumholtz, W. H. Holmes, D. G. Brinton, Alice C. 
Fletcher, J. C. Fillmore, Stephen D. Peet, Cyrus Adler, 
and M. Jastrow, Jr. Mrs. Nuttall's paper on " The 
Mexican Calendar System " is to appear as a separate 
monograph, and is consequently not here included. 

" A Gauntlet " (Longmans) is the title given by Mr. 
Osman Edwards to his translation of Herr Bjornson's 
" En Hanske." It is curious that the social dramas of this 
great writer should have remained so long untranslated, 
in view of the vogue of the similar productions of Dr. 
Ibsen. Both writers are at their best in their earlier 
and more poetical works, but the pictures of society to 
which their later years have been devoted constitute 
the most striking dramatic manifestation of the present 
day. Between the two it is hard to choose, but in this 
newer field Herr Bjornson is at least the equal of his 
famous contemporary, while a comparison of their ear- 
lier work shows him to be distinctly the greater artist. 
The subject of " En Hanske " has become somewhat in- 
sistent in recent literature, and it is well to remember 
that the discussion was practically started by the pub- 
lication of this drama. 

Mr. R. D. Cortina publishes a series of paper-cov- 
ered texts for students of the Spanish language. This 
" Serie de Cortina " now includes " Despuds de la Llu- 
via el Sol ," a prose comedy in one act by an unnamed 
writter; "El Indiano," a prose comedy in three acts 
adopted from Garcia de la Vega ; and " Amparo," a story 
from Seiior Enrigue Pe'rez Escrich. The latter two 
publications give the Spanish text with the English 
translation, a page of the one facing a page of the other. 
Mr. Cortina has supplied all these texts with notes. 


Mr. Thomas J. Wise has just begun publication, in 
the pages of " The Athenaeum," of his " Bibliography 
of the Works of Robert Browning." It will afterwards 
be extended, and issued in parts to subscribers. 

Mr. Shad well, of Oriel College, will select from Wal- 
ter Pater's papers such matter as he thinks it advisable 
to publish. It is also proposed that several of Pater's 
friends prepare a memorial volume from their remin- 

The Prussian Academy of Sciences has granted to 
Professors Zeller and Diels $2,000 for continuing the 
publication of the writings of the commentators of Aris- 
totle. Professor Zeller took leave of his classes at the 
University of Berlin on August 2 with a speech in which 
he said that his health had always been so good that in 
his 110 semesters he had never missed his lectures for 
a single week. 

Messrs. Charles L. W T ebster & Co. will at once pub- 
lish " Max O'Rell's " new book, John Bull & Co.," 
which deals with " the great colonial branches of the 
firm, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Af- 
rica." If we may judge of the whole book from the 
Australian chapter, which we read the other day in " La 
Revue de Paris," the author has abated nothing of the 
wit, the shrewdness, and the lively intelligence charac- 
teristic of his earlier writings. 

Messrs. G. P. Putnam's Sons will publish early this 
month a collection of the poems of Mr. Francis How- 
ard Williams, of Philadelphia, author of the novel " At- 
man, or Documents in a Strange Case," several lyric 
dramas, and of a remarkable story entitled "Boscosel," 
published in "The Septameron" in 1888. Mr. Will- 
iams's volume of verse will be called " The Flute- 
Player, and Other Poems," and while containing a few 
pieces which have already appeared in the magazines, 
will be chiefly composed of unpublished poems from 
this poet's portfolio. 

The public library at Los Angeles, Cal., recently pur- 
chased a number of French books, including the works 
of M. Jean Richepin. A local clergyman of the Meth- 
odist persuasion got wind of the affair, and delivered a 
sermon attacking the librarian (a woman, by the way), 
and containing this fervent supplication : " O Lord, 
vouchsafe Thy saving grace to the librarian of the Los 
Angeles City Library and cleanse her of all sin and 
make her a woman worthy of her office." The librarian 
has promptly brought suit for damages against the of- 
fending preacher. 

Professor Charles Eliot Norton thus writes of Scott 
in his preface to the new edition of the latter's poems: 
" In looking back over this century, which is now so 
near its close, there is none among its conspicuous fig- 
ures of pleasanter aspect than that of Scott; and of all 
the men who have lived during its course there is not 
one who has contributed more largely to the pleasure 
of its successive generations. This is a great eulogy; 
no man could desire a better. To amuse men ration- 
ally, to give them wholesome entertainment, is to do 
them a great service ; and to do this through a lifetime 
more successfully than any one else, is to be worthy of 
lasting gratitude. This is what Scott did for our fath- 
ers, and has done for many of us, and will continue to 
do for many of our children. At this moment, more 
than sixty years after the last of his novels was written, 




two popular editions of them are in course of publica- 
tion ; while his poems, ninety years after the ' Lay of 
the Last Minstrel ' was first published, are still the de- 
light of youthful readers, and still charm readers of all 
ages by the interest of their animated narrative, the 
ease of the versification, and the manliness of their 
spirit. . . . Let us be grateful for such a gift. There 
is space even on the narrow shelves of the immortals 
for books such as his. Shakespeare, Milton, Words- 
worth may rest on a higher shelf, but Scott will be 
nearer at hand for the multitude of readers, and his vol- 
umes will require more frequent re-binding." 


(July 30, 1894.) 

The freshness of the light, its secrecy, 
Spices, or honey from sweet-smelling bower, 
The harmony of time, love's trembling hour 
Struck on thee with a new felicity. 
Standing, a child, by a red hawthorn-tree, 
Its perishing, small petals' flame had power 
To fill with masses of soft, ruddy flower 
A certain roadside in thy memory : 
And haply when the tragic clouds of night 
Were slowly wrapping round thee, in the cold 
Of which men always die, a sense renewed 
Of the things sweet to touch and breath and sight, 
That thou didst touch and breathe and see of old, 
Stole on thee with the warmth of gratitude. 

Michael Field in " The Academy." 

Mr. Edmund Gosse tells us in one of his books that 
if fortune made him the possessor of one volume of ex- 
cessive value, he should hasten to part with it. And 
yet in Mr. Gosse's library are many books of " exces- 
sive value," which, in " their redolent crushed Levant," 
no " Bonanza King, with millions in his bank," could 
restore if lost or destroyed. From a list originally 
started for insurance purposes, Mr. Gosse was encour- 
aged by the solicitation of friends to make a catalogue 
of his collection which should serve a double purpose. 
" The silliest people who collect books might be consid- 
ered benefactors to their species if they only would cat- 
alogue their collections," said Mr. Falconer Madan to 
Mr. Gosse ; and his catalogue is really a benefaction for 
all book-lovers. Mr. Austin Dobson provides it with 
this cheerful Epilogue: 

" I doubt your painful Pedants who 
Can read a Dictionary through ; 
But he must he a dismal dog 
Who can 't enjoy this Catalogue ! " 

It is not given to many collectors of books to number 
so many poets and men of letters among his friends as 
does Mr. Gosse ; hence few collections embrace so many 
volumes calculated to excite the greed of the biblio- 
maniac. There is a matchless set of Edward FitzGer- 
ald's books, those privately-printed Dramas of Calderon, 
" freely translated," the first " Rubaiyat," and the rest, 
nearly all of which are presentation copies, and some 
of which are enriched with the translator's notes in au- 
tograph. There is also a notable collection of " Restora- 
tion Dramatists," in which department Mr. Gosse's li- 
brary has " no rival, public or private " ; and another 
special department, rich in such books as Mr. William 
Morris's " The Defence of Guenevere " (1858) " rub- 
bishy minor verse," Mr. Gosse pere called it the 
mere enumeration of a few items of which might make 
a bibliomaniac green with envy. If " an affecting and 
chronic want of pounds " has precluded Mr. Gosse from 
purchasing " the white elephants of bibliography," the 

same distressful condition has not stood in the way of 
his forming valuable friendships. 

" ' Book against book.' ' Agreed,' I said : 

But 't was the trick of Diomed ! 

And yet, in Fairy-land, I 'm told, 

Dead leaves as these will turn to gold. 

Take them, Sir Alchemist, and see ! 

Nothing transmutes like sympathy." 

Thus does Mr. Dobson inscribe a copy of his " At the 
Sign of the Lyre," To E. W. G." And many another 
tome in Mr. Gosse's library bears poetical inscriptions 
from his " Neighbor of the near domain," and from many 
another friend, inscriptions that are destined never to 
see the light outside the pages of this catalogue. Many 
of these inscriptions are reproduced in facsimile. A 
facsimile of a letter from Matthew Arnold, acknowl- 
edging the authorship of his Rugby prize poem, " Alaric 
at Rome"; and another of Tennyson's poem, "The 
Throstle," possess a melancholy interest. And so does 
the volume of Rossetti " Relics," which comprehends 
among other items a set of pages from " The Germ," 
containing the story of " Hand and Soul," with frequent 
corrections in Rossetti's handwriting; a corrected proof 
of the Sonnet on the Mulberry Tree planted by Shake- 
speare and felled by the Rev. E. Gastrell, 

" deaf drudge, to whom no length of ears 

Sufficed to catch the music of the spheres ! " 

and the first draft of the " Czar Alexander II." sonnet, 
the text of which differs in almost every line from that 
first published in " Ballads and Sonnets," and which 
may therefore be quoted here: 
"From him did forty thousand Serfs, endow'd 
Each with six feet of death-claim'd soil, receive 
Rich lifelong freeborn land, whereon to sheave 
Their country's harvest. Who to-day aloud 
Demand of Heaven their Father's blood, sore bow'd 
With tears and thrilled with wrath ; and burn to achieve 
On every guilty head without reprieve 
All torment by his edicts disallow'd. 
He stayed the knout's red-ravening fangs ; and first 
Of Russian traitors his own murderers go 
White to the tomb. While he, laid foully low 
With limbs red-lopp'd, with blood-clogg'd brain which nursed 
The Nation's charter, from fell Nihil flown 
No Nought finds now, a witness at God's Throne." 

Nearly all the introuvables of Mr. Andrew Lang are 
in this precious collection, many with brief inscriptions 
by their author; also a complete set of those by Mr. 
Robert Louis Stevenson, booklets that are almost un- 
known beyond the circle of his literary friends, and 
would bring their weight in five-pound notes if offered 
for sale. These were printed by the author's stepson, 
Mr. S. L. Osbourne, and are as limited in the number 
of their pages as in the number of copies printed. One 
of the booklets is entitled " Not I, and Other Poems " 
(1881), and the last poem, reprinted from the catalogue, 
with apologies to Mr. Gosse, states that 
" The pamphlet here presented 
Was planned and printed by 
A printer unindented, 

A bard whom all decry. 
" The author and the printer, 

With various kinds of skill, 
Concocted it in Winter 

At Davos on the Hill. 
" They burned the nightly taper ; 

But now the work is ripe. 
Observe the costly paper, 
Remark the perfect type." 




[Sept. 1, 


September, 1894 (First List). 

Acting. Richard Mansfield. North American. 
Administrative Law, American. Ernst Freund. Political Sci. 
Africa, The Study of. C. C. Adams. Chautauquan. 
Aerial Navigation. H. S. Maxim. North American. 
Bar Harbor. Illus. F. Marion Crawford. Scribner. 
Battle-Songs. Laura A. Smith. Lippincott. 
Bells, Foreign. W. Shaw-Sparrow. Magazine of Art. 
Cane Sugar Industry, The. Illus. Southern Magazine. 
Catholicism and Apaism. Bishop Spalding. No. American. 
Church Choir and Organ. C. A. Richmond. Chautauquan. 
Economic Principles Newly Stated. O. L. Elliott. Dial. 
English at the University of Nebraska. L. A. Sherman. Dial. 
Fiction, Recent. William Morton Payne. Dial. 
Greek Vase Paintings. Illus. Magazine of Art. 
Head-Lines. W. T. Lamed. Lippincott. 
Heroine, Evolution of the. H. H. Boyesen. Lippincott. 
Home-Life in India : Child Marriages and Widows. Forum. 
Human Horses. W. R. Furness. Lippincott. 
Hunting in England. Illus. C.W.Whitney. Harper. 
Ice Age in New York. T. M. Prudden. Harper. 
Income Tax, The. Charles W. Buck. Southern Magazine. 
Law Reform, Am., Problems of. Merritt Starr. Dial. 
Monopolies, Capitalistic. J. W. Jenks. Political Science. 
Napoleonic Pictures. E. G. J. Dial. 
New York, The City and State of. Political Science. 
Parliament of Religions, Echoes of the. Forum. 
Physicians, Pay of. George F. Shrady. Forum. 
Poverty, Modern. W. H. Mallock. North American. 
Scotland, Peasantry of. W. G. Blaikie. North American. 
Scotland Yard, New. Illus. Magazine of Art. 
Southern Art. Illus. Wm. Sartain. Southern Magazine. 
Tapestry of the New World. Illus. Scribner. 
Tarahumari Life. Illus. Carl Lumholtz. Scribner. 
Teaching, The Freedom of. Dial. 

"Thanatopsis," The Origin of. J. W. Chadwick. Harper. 
Universities in France. Ch. V. Langlois. Political Science. 
Venetian Fetes. Illus. F. Cooley. Chautauquan. 
West Virginia. Illus. Julian Ralph. Harper. 


[The following list, embracing 50 titles, includes all books 
received by THE DIAL since last issue.] 

London and the Kingdom: A History Derived Mainly 

from the Archives at Guild-Hall. By Reginald R. Sharpe, 

D.C.L. In 3 vols. Vol. L, with frontispiece, 8vo, pp. 

566. Longmans, Green, & Co. $3.50. 
A History of Germany in the Middle Ages. By Ernest 

F. Henderson, A.B. 12mo, uncut, pp. 437. Macmillan 


Centenary History of the South Place Society: Based 
on Four Discourses Given in the Chapel in May and June, 
1893. By Moncure D. Conway, M.A. Illus., 12mo, un- 
cut, pp. 186. London : Williams & Norgate. $2. 

The Life and Letters of James MacPherson. By Bailey 

Saunders. With portrait, 12mo, pp. 327. Macmillan & 

Co. $2.50. 
Masters of German Music. By J. A. Fuller Maitland. 

Illus., 12mo, uncut, pp. 289. Chas. Scribner's Sons. $1.75. 
Dictionary of National Biography. Edited by Sidney 

Lee. Vol. XXXIX., Morehead-Myles ; 8vo, gilt top, pp. 

452. Macmillan & Co. $3.75. 


Literary Associations of the English Lakes. By Rev. 
H. D. Rawnsley. In 2 vols., 12mo, uncut. Macmillan 

& Co. $4. 

Letters Addressed to a College Friend During the Years 
1840-1845. By John Ruskin. 12mo, gilt top, pp. 210. 
Macmillan & Co. $1.50. 

An Introduction to the Philosophy of Herbert Spencer. 
With a Biographical Sketch. By William Henry .Hud- 
son. 12mo, pp. 234. D. Appleton & Co. $1.25. 

The Yellow Book: An Illustrated Quarterly. Vol. II., 
July, 1894 ; 8vo, uncut, pp. 363. Copeland & Day. $1.50. 

The Great Indian Epics, the Stories of the Ramayana and 
the Mahabharata. By John Campbell Oman, author of 
" Indian Life, Religious and Social." Illus., 12mo, uncut, 
pp. 231. Macmillan & Co. $1.50. 

Libraries in the Mediaeval and Renaissance Periods : 
Being the Rede Lecture, delivered June 13, 1894. By J. 
W. Clark, M.A. Illus., 12mo, uncut, pp. 62. Macmillan 
&Co. $1. 

The Temple Shakespeare : Much Ado about Nothing, and 
Love's Labour's Lost. With Prefaces, etc. By Israel Gol- 
lancz, M.A. Each with frontispiece, 16mo, gilt top, un- 
cut. Macmillan & Co. Each, 45 cts. 

Grimm's Fairy Tales. Edited by Sara E. Wiltse, author 
of "Stories for Kindergartens." Part I., illus., 12mo, 
pp. 237. Ginn & Co. 45 cts. 


A Book of Song. By Julian Sturgis. Sq. 12mo, gilt top, 

uncut, pp. 73. Longmans, Green, & Co. $1.75. 
Songs from Dreamland. By May Kendall, author of " From 

a Garret." 16mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 136. Longmans, 

Green, & Co. $1.75. 
The Universal Name; or, One Hundred Songs to Mary. 

Selected and arranged by Mrs. E. Vale Blake. 12mo, pp. 

149. C. W. Moulton. $1. 


The Napoleon Romances. By Alexander Dumas. In 6 
vols., comprising The Companions of Jehu, The Whites 
and the Blues, The She- Wolves of Machecoul, and The 
Corsican Brothers. Each vol. illus., 12mo, gilt top. Little, 
Brown, & Co. Boxed, $7.50. 

Music Hath Charms. By V. Munro-Ferguson, author of 
"Betsy." 12mo, pp. 300. Harper & Bros. $1.25. 

Out of Step. By Maria Louise Pool, author of " Dally." 
12mo, pp. 300. Harper & Bros. $1.25. 

Dr. Janet of Harley Street. By Arabella Kenealy. 12mo, 
pp. 340. D. Appleton & Co. $1. 

Vashti and Esther: A Story of Society To-day. 12mo, pp. 
271. D. Appleton & Co. $1. 

Her Fair Fame. By Edgar Fawcett, author of " Solarion." 
12mo, pp. 220. New York: Merrill & Baker. $1. 

A Change of Air. By Anthony Hope, author of " The Pris- 
oner of Zenda." With portrait, 16mo, uncut, gilt top, 
pp. 248. Henry Holt & Co. 75 cts. 

The Purple Light of Love. By Henry Goelet McVickar, 
author of " A Precious Trio." 16mo, pp. 176. D. Ap- 
pleton & Co. 75 cts. 

The Maiden's Progress : A Novel in Dialogue. By Violet 
Hunt. 12mo, pp. 252. Harper & Bros. $1. 

The Garroters. By W. D. Howells. Illus., 18mo, pp. 90. 
Harper's " Black and White Series." 50 cts. 


Lippincott's Select Novels : Peter's Wife, by The Duchess ; 

12mo, pp. 364. 50 cts. 
Rand, McNally's Rialto Series: The Red Sultan, by J. 

MacLaren Cobban ; 12mo, pp. 313. 75 cts. 
Rand, McNally's Globe Library : The House of the Wolf, 

by Stanley J. Weyman ; 12mo, pp. 250. 50 cts. 
Putnam's Hudson Library: Love and Shawl-Straps, by 

Annette L. Noble, author of " Uncle Jack's Executors "; 

12mo, pp. 291. 50 cts. 
Bonner's Choice Series: Two Gentlemen of Hawaii, by 

Seward W. Hopkins ; illus., 12mo, pp. 303. 50 cts. 


Climbing in the British Isles. By W. P. Basket Smith, 
M.A. Vol. I., England ; illus., 16mo, pp. 162. Long- 
mans, Green, & Co. $1.25. 

The Book of the Fair. By Hubert Howe Bancroft. Parts 
12, 13, and 14. Each, illus., imp. 4to. Chicago: The 
Bancroft Co. Per part, $1. 





The Ills of the South ; or, Related Causes Hostile to the 
General Prosperity of the Southern People. By Charles 
H. Otken, LL.D. 12mo, pp. 277. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

The Evolution of Modern Capitalism : A Study of Ma- 
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"Problems of Poverty." 12mo, pp. 383. Chas. Scrib- 
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Representation and Suffrage in Massachusetts, 162O- 
1691. By George H. Haynes, Ph.D. 8vo, uncut, pp. 90. 
Johns Hopkins University Studies. 50 cts. 


Discourses, Biological and Geological: Essays, by 
Thomas H. Huxley. 12mo, pp. 388. D. Appleton & Co. 

The Evolution of Worlds from Nebulae. By Lee Parker 
Dean, 12mo, pp. 84. Bridgeport, Conn.: Marigold Print- 
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The Footprints of the Jesuits. By R. W. Thompson, au- 
thor of "The Papacy and the Civil Power." With por- 
trait, 12mo, pp. 509. T. Y. Crowell & Co. $1.75. 

Bible, Science, and Faith. By the Rev. J. A. Zahm, C.S.C., 
author of "Sound and Music." 12mo, pp.316. Balti- 
more : John Murphy & Co. $1.25. 

The Unknown Life of Jesus Christ: From a Recently Dis- 
covered Manuscript. By Nicholas Notovitch ; trans, by 
Virchand R. Gandhi, B.A. Illus., 12mo, pp. 128. Chi- 
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Aspects of Modern Study: Being University Extension 
Addresses. By Lord Playfair, Canon Browne, and others. 
12mo, uncut, pp. 187. Macmillan & Co. $1. 

Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction 
for Tennessee, for the year ending June 30, 1893. By 
Frank M. Smith, Supt. 8vo, pp. 207. Nashville : F. M. 

Short Comparative Grammar of English and German, 
as Traced back to Their Common Origin. By Victor 
Henry, author of "A Comparative Grammar of Greek 
and Latin." 12mo, pp. 394. Macmillan & Co. $1.90. 

Elementary Algebra for the Use of Preparatory Schools. 
By Charles Smith, M.A.; revised and adapted to Amer- 
ican Schools, by Irving Stringham, Ph.D. 12mo, pp. 408. 
Macmillan & Co. $1.10. 

An Introduction to French Authors: Being a Reader for 
Beginners. By Alphonse N. Van Daell. 12mo, pp. 251. 
Ginn & Co. 90 cts. 

The Gate to the Anabasis. With Notes, etc., by Clarence 
W. Gleason, A.M. 16mo, pp. 47. Ginn's " School Clas- 
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His labors, indeed, have been 
immense. . . . A work which 
(very student must needs pos- 
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tA work unsurpassed and unrivalled in its field. No other deals so broadly, so fully, or so inter- 
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Origin of the Union State Sovereignty and Slavery. 
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Compromise of 1850 Kansas-Nebraska Bill. 

Kansas-Nebraska Bill. Buchanan's Election. 
Buchanan's Election. End of the 35th Congress. 
Harper's Ferry Lincoln's Inauguration. 

VOL. I. 
VOL. V. 

Index and B 

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[Sept. 16, 

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[Sept. 1G, 

T. Y. Crowell & Co.'s New Publications, 

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September, 1894. 



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[Sept. 16, 



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With 90 Illustrations by HUGH THOMSON. Crown 8vo, cloth, gilt, 
uniform with " Cranford," "Shakespeare's England," "Our Vil- 
lage," etc. $2.25. 

*** Also an Edition de Luxe, limited, on hand-made paper. Super 
royal 8vo. $18.00, net. 

quelae, and Treatment. By GEORGE W. BALFOUR, M. D., LL. D. 

BROWNING. A. New and Complete Edition of the Works 
of ROBERT BROWNING, in nine volumes, crown Svo. In addition to 
the matter heretofore included in the sixteen-volume edition, this 
will contain Asolando : Fancies and Facts, together with Historical 
Notes to the Poems by ROBERT BROWNING, making for the first time 
a Complete Definitive Edition of the poet's works. 
ASOLANDO: FANCIES AND FACTS. To which are added His- 
torical Notes to the Poems by ROBERT BROWNING. A Supplement, 
ary Volume to the sixteen-volume edition, making the Library Edi- 
tion complete in seventeen uniform volumes. 

Hon. JAMES BRYCE, D.C.L., author of "The Holy Roman Empire," 
etc. New Third Edition revised, with additional chapters. Vol. II. 
Large 12mo. 

LARD, author of " English Miracle Plays," etc. In two volumes, uni- 
form with the works of Matthew Arnold, R. H. Button, John Mor- 
ley, etc. 12mo. 

the Rev. Prof. T. K. CHEYNE, D.D. 

Rev. ALFRED J. CHURCH, author of "The Story of the Odyssey," 
" The Story of the Iliad," etc. 

Portraits. New Edition in two volumes, uniform with the works of 
Matthew Arnold, John Morley, James Smeetham, R. H. Hutton, 
etc. 12mo. 

by J. W. CLARK, M.A., S. F. HARMER, M.A., and A. E. SHIPLEY, 
M.A. Svo. 
Vol. I. MOLLUSCS. By Rev. A. H. COOKE, M.A. 

"CRANFORD SERIES" (The). New Volumes in Mac- 
millan's Popular Series of Illustrated Books, uniform with " Cran- 
ford," " The Vicar of Wakefield," " Shakespeare's England," etc. 
Crown Svo, gilt, or edges uncut, $2.00 each. 

OLD ENGLISH SONGS. With Introduction and Notes by AUSTIN 
DOBSON, and 100 Illustrations by HUGH THOMSON. 

C.B., and 100 Illustrations by C. E. BROCK. 

THE FABLES OF ^SOP. Selected. Told anew, and their His- 
tory traced, by JOSEPH JACOBS, with nearly 200 Illustrations by 

ICS. With Illustrations. New Edition, corrected and revised through- 
out. Svo. $4.00, net. 

DICKENS New Volumes of Macmillan's Popular Edi- 
tion. This edition contains in all cases accurate reprints of the 
texts of the first editions, all the original illustrations, and a valu- 
able introduction to each novel by the younger Charles Dickens. 
Each novel complete in one volume. Crown Svo. Each volume, 



ERMAN. Translated by H. M. TIRARD, with numerous Illustrations 
aud Maps. Super royal Svo. 


ART. By FREDERIC W. FARRAR, D. D., F. R. 8., Archdeacon and 
Canon of Westminster, author of " The Life of Christ," etc. With 
numerous Illustrations and Frontispiece. Svo. 

volumes. With Illustrations. ICmo, gilt top. 



H OLE. MORE MEMORIES. By the Very Rev. S. REY- 
NOLDS HOLE, Dean of Rochester, author of " The Memories of Dean 
Hole," "A Book about Roses," etc. 12mo. $2.25. 

HOLM. Authorized Translation. In four volumes. Crown Svo. 

Being the Bampton Lectures for 1894. By Rev. J. R. ILLINGWORTH, 
author of "University and Cathedral Sermons," etc. Svo. 

LUBBOCK TsE USE OF LIFE. By the Right Hon. Sir 
JOHN LUBBOCK, D.C.L., F.R.S., author of "The Pleasures of Life," 
" Beauties of Nature," etc. 

ICAL. Translated from the Italian. Edited, with Introduction, by 
BOLTON KING, M. A. In one volume, including a new translation of 
Faith and the Future, and five Essays translated into English for 
the first time, and an unpublished Letter, with Photogravure Por- 
trait. Crown Svo. 


FOSTER-MELLIAR. Illustrated. Crown Svo. 

Children by Mrs. MOLESWORTH, author of "The Cuckoo Clock," 
"The Rectory Children," etc. 12mo, uniform with the New Edi- 
tion of Mrs. Molesworth's Stories. $1.00. 

THEODOR SCHREIBEH. Edited for English use by Prof. W. C. F. 
ANDERSON, Fifth College, Sheffield. Oblong 4to. 


author of "Miss Stuart's Legacy," "The Flower of Forgiveness," 
etc. Illustrated by J. L. KIPLING. 

PENNELL. Ex-Libris Series. Imperial 16mo, gilt top. 
Also a limited edition on Japanese vellum. 

Their Work and their Methods. By JOSEPH PENNELL. New and En- 
larged Edition, with over 400 Illustrations, including many Exam- 
ples from Original Drawings. 4to. Buckram. $15.00. 



WILLIAMSON. JOHN RUSSELL, R. A., "the Prince of 
Crayon Portrait Painters." By GEORGE C. WILLIAMSON, Member of 
the Counsel of the Royal Society of Literature. With an Introduc- 
tion by Lord RONALD GOWER, F.S.A. With numerous Illustrations. 
Small Columbier Svo, handsomely bound. 

OGY. Translated from the Second and Revised German Edition 
(1892) by J. E. CRBIGHTON, A.B. (Dalhousie), Ph.D. (Cornell), and 
E. B. TITCHENER A.B. (Oxon.), Ph.D. (Leipzig). 




[Sept. 16, 1894. 

Macmillan & Co.'s List of Forthcoming Books 

' -* * * * * 

By American Authors (Autumn of 1894). 

ALLEN. American Book Plates. A Guide to their 
Study, with Examples. By CHARLES DEXTER ALLEN, 
Member Ex-Libris Society, London ; Member Grolier 
Club, New York. With a Bibliography by EBEN NEW- 
ELL HEWINS, Member Ex-Libris Society. Illustrated 
with many reproductions of rare and interesting book- 
plates, and in the finer editions with many prints from the 
original coppers, both old and recent. Imperial IGmo, 
gilt top. $3.50, net. 

BALDWIN Mental Development in the Child and the 

Race. By J. MARK BALDWIN, Stuart Professor of Ex- 
perimental Psychology, Princeton. In 2 vols. Vol. I., 
Facts and Theories. 

BARTLETT A New and Complete Concordance, or 

Verbal Index to Words, Phrases, and Passages in the 
Dramatic Works of Shakespeare. With a Supplementary 
Concordance to the Poems. By JOHN BARTLETT, A.M., 
author of "Familiar Quotations," etc. In 1 vol. 4to, 
pp. 1900. Half morocco, in box, $14.00, net. 

CATTELL. A Course in Experimental Psychology. 
By J. McKEEN CATTELL, Ph.D., Professor of Experi- 
mental Psychology in Columbia College. 

CLARK. Architect, Owner, and Builder before the Law. 
By T. M. CLARK, Fellow of the American Institute of 
Architects. Square 8vo. 

Costa Professor of Biology in Columbia College. 

Volumes Nearly Ready. 

From the Greeks to Darwin. By HENRY F. OSBORN. 
Amphioxus and the Ancestry of the Vertebrates. By AR- 
THUR WILLEY. With Illustrations. 

COMEY. A Dictionary of Chemical Solubilities. In- 
organic. By A. M. COMEY. 

CRAWFORD Love in Idleness. With numerous 

Illustrations. Cranford Series, uniform with " The Vicar 
of Wakefield," " Cranford," etc. Crown 8vo, cloth gilt, 
gilt edges. $2.00. 

TheEalstons. A Sequel to " Katharine Lauderdale." With 
Illustrations. 2 vols., small 12mo, buckram. 

DE VERE Selected Poems of Aubrey De Vere. Ed- 
ited, with an Introduction, by GEORGE E. WOODBERRY, 
Professor of Literature in Columbia College. 

EMERSON History of the English Language. By 

OLIVER FARRAR EMERSON, Professor of Rhetoric and 
English Philology in Cornell University. 

EURIPIDES The Alcestis of Euripides. Edited, 

with Introduction and Notes, by MORTIMER LAMSON 
EARLE, Professor of Greek in Barnard College. Clas- 
sical Series. 16mo. 

FIELDE. A Corner of Cathay. Studies from Life 
among the Chinese. By ADELE M. FIELDE. With Col- 
ored Plates from Illustrations by Artists in the celebrated 
School of Go Leng at Swatow, China. Small 4to. $3.00. 

KIMBER Text-Book of Anatomy and Physiology foi 
Nurses. Compiled by DIANA CLIFFORD KIMBER, Assist- 
ant Superintendent New York City Training School 
Blackwell's Island. With Illustrations. 8vo. 

KAROLY. Raphael's Madonnas and other Great Pic- 
tures, reproduced from the Original Paintings. With a 
Life of Raphael and an Account of his Chief Works. By 
KARL KAROLY, author of " The Paintings of Florence." 
With 53 Illustrations, including 9 Photogravures. Go- 
lumbier 8vo. 

McCURDY. History, Prophecy, and the Monuments. 
By J. F. McCuRDY, Professor in the University of To- 
ronto. In 2 vols. Vol. I., To the Fall of Samaria. 8vo. 
$3.00, net. 

NICHOLS. A Laboratory Manual of Physics and 
Applied Electricity. Arranged and edited by EDWARD 
L. NICHOLS, Professor of Physics in Cornell University . 
With Illustrations. Vol. II., Senior Course and Outlines 
of Advanced Work. By G. S. MOLER, F. BEDELL, H. 
J. HOTCHKISS, C. P. MATHEWS, and the Editor. 8vo. 

PAULSEN.' Character and Historical Development of 
the Universities of Germany. By F. PAULSEN. Trans- 
lated by E. D. PERRY, Professor in Columbia College. 
With an Introduction by N. M. BUTLER, Professor in 
Columbia College. 

RICHARDSON Laboratory Manual and Principles 
of Chemistry for Beginners. By GEORGE M. RICHARD- 
SON, Associate Professor of Chemistry in the Leland Stan- 
ford Junior University. With Illustrations. 12mo. $1.10, 

RUSSELL. Weather and Flood Forecasting Methods. 
By THOMAS RUSSELL, United States Engineer Office, 
Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan. 

SALT. Animal Rights Considered in Relation to Social 
Progress. With Bibliographical Appendix. New Edi- 
tion, with an Essay on Vivisection in America by Dr. 

SMITH. Essays on Questions of the Day, Political 

and Social. By GOLDWIN SMITH, D.C.L., author of " The 

United States, an Outline of Political History," etc. New 

Revised Edition, with Additional Essays. 8vo. $2.25. 

Sketch of the Political History of England. 

VIOLLET LE DUC. Construction. Translated by 
GEORGE MARTIN Huss. With numerous Illustrations. 

WHITCOMB. Chronological Outlines of American 
Literature. By SELDEN L. WHITCOMB. With a Preface 
by BRANDER MATTHEWS. Uniform with " Chronological 
Outlines of English Literature," by FREDERICK RYLAND. 
Crown 8vo. 

WINTER The Life and Art of Edwin Booth. By 

WILLIAM WINTER. New cheaper Edition, with New 
Frontispiece Portrait in Character (Hamlet). 18mo, gilt 
top. 75 cts. 

The Life and Art of Joseph Jefferson. Together with some 
Account of his Ancestry and of the Jefferson Family of 
Actors. With Portraits and Illustrations. Crown 8vo, 
gilt top, uniform with " The Life and Art of Edwin 
Booth." $2.25. 

ZIWET. An Elementary Treatise on Theoretical Me- 
chanics. By ALEXANDER ZIWET, Professor in the Uni- 
versity of Michigan. Part III. Kinetics. 8vo. 



J_ J I- i A -M^-S _E_^i m M M \^ l^\ 

Journal 0f 3Lttetarg &rfttn0m, IKscttggfon, ano Enformatton. 

THE DIAL (founded in 1880) is published on the 1st and 16th of 
each month. TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION, S2.00 a year in advance, postage 
prepaid in the United Stales, Canada, and Mexico; in other countries 
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and SAMPLE COPT on receipt of 10 cents. ADVERTISING RATES furnished 
on application. All communications should be addressed to 

THE DIAL, 315 Wabash Am., Chicago. 

No. 198. SEPTEMBER 16, 1894. Vol. XVII. 



. 143 


" TELL US A STORY ! " Jessie Macmillan Anderson 145 

VANIA. Felix E. Schelling 146 

AUTUMN (Poem). John Vance Cheney 147 


The Study of English Literature from the Standpoint 

of the Student. Charles W. Hodell. 
A Word Unfitly Spoken. W. R. K. 
"The Freedom of Teaching." Duane Mowry. 

TURY. C. A. L. Richards 150 

A LIBRARY OF HISTORY. A. H. Noll . . . . 151 , 

derson 153 

Small and Vincent's Introduction to the Study of So- 
ciety. Howells's A Traveler from Altruria. Kidd's 
Social Evolution. Booth's The Aged Poor in En- 
gland and Wales. Giddings's Theory of Sociology. 
Jessopp's Random Roamings. Heath's The English 
Peasant. Druge's The Unemployed. Commons's 
Social Reform and the Church. Tolman and Hull's 
Handbook of Sociological Information. 

EXTREMES OF FAITH. John Bascom 156 

Little's Sacerdotalism. Gould's The Meaning and 
Method of Life. Bradford's TheiQuestion of Unity. 
Allen's Historical Sketch of the Unitarian Move- 
ment. Weirsacker's The Apostolic Age of the Chris- 
tian Church. Mackintosh's Natural History of the 
Christian Religion. 


Macpherson and the Ossianic Poetry. A Help to the 
student of Herbert Spencer. The Savoy operas and 
their authors. More numbers of the Book of the 
Fair. Books about Nature. New French reading- 



NEW YORK TOPICS. Arthur Stedman 167 



Several pages of the present issue of THE 
DIAL are devoted to a classified list of publish- 
ers' announcements for the coming fall. In com- 
menting upon the similar lists of six months and 
a year ago, we expressed our surprise and grati- 
fication at the fact that the publishing trade 
should have been so little affected by the de- 
pression so general during the past year in 
commercial circles. The list of announcements 
published by us last spring was even longer than 
any previous showing made at that season of 
the year. It is of course true, as we then re- 
marked, that the publishing trade, as far as its 
announcements are concerned, is slow to exhibit 
the effects of a diminished demand. The pub- 
lications of any given season are well under way 
six months before the public hears of them, and 
many of them are arranged for a year or more 
in advance. Some shrinkage might therefore 
reasonably have been expected in the list for 
the coming season, and it is a matter of peculiar 
gratification to us to note the fact that not only 
is there no such falling-off, but that the list 
shows a marked increase over any published in 
a previous year. A close examination, more- 
over, discloses more than the usual number 
of very important and expensive works, with 
at least the usual number of books of unques- 
tionable and serious interest. If the effect of 
a period of commercial depression is to thus 
stimulate to unwonted exertions the trade of 
the publisher, it cannot be regarded as an evil 
wholly unmixed. That such is to a certain ex- 
tent the case, appears quite clear when the 
mind's eye scans the shelves that a bookish 
imagination will at once fill with the volumes 
now promised for early issue. 

Of all the books now announced, the great- 
est interest probably attaches to the long prom- 
ised and impatiently awaited letters of Mat- 
thew Arnold, which have been edited by Mr. 
G. W. E. Russell. This book will occupy a 
place in the literature of the year similar to 
that occupied last year by the letters of James 
Russell Lowell. As next in interest, we may 
mention Mr. Samuel T. Pickard's authorized 
biography of Whittier, which will also include 
many of the poet's letters. Several other 
" lives and letters " are promised, among them 



[Sept. 16, 

Edwin Booth, by his daughter ; Lucy Larcom, 
by the Rev. D. D. Addison ; Erasmus, by Mr. 
J. A. Froude ; and the late Dean of St. Paul's, 
by an editor unnamed. Biographies whose 
titles make no special mention of letters are 
Mr. Edward Gary's George William Curtis, 
Mr. William Winter's Joseph Jefferson, and 
Mr. E. S. Purcell's Cardinal Manning, prom- 
ised for last year, but unavoidably delayed. 
On the other hand, letters without biographies 
are promised for Thoreau by Mr. F. B. San- 
born, for Emily Dickinson by Mrs. Mabel 
Loomis Todd, and for General Sherman and 
his brother, Senator John Sherman. Literary 
history and criticism are to be enriched by Mr. 
Barrett Wendell's " William Shakespeare," 
Mr. J. Churton Collins's " Essays and Stud- 
ies," Mr. O. F. Emerson's "History of the 
English Language," Mr. Horace E. Scudder's 
" Childhood in Literature and Art," Miss Vida 
E. Scudder's " The Life of the Spirit in Mod- 
ern English Poets," Mr. W. E. Simonds's "An 
Introduction to the Study of English Fiction," 
Mr. George Saintsbury's " Corrected Impres- 
sions," and a translation of M. Jusserand's 
new study of English life and literature in the 
times of Langland. Mr. Selden L. Whitcomb's 
" Chronological Outlines of American Litera- 
ture " we expect to find a very useful work. 

In poetry and fiction, it has been our expe- 
rience that announcements are fragmentary, 
and that many of the best books of every sea- ' 
son come almost unheralded. The poetry 
already promised includes new volumes by Mr. 
Aldrich and Miss Thomas ; Mr. Lee-Hamil- 
ton's "Sonnets of the Wingless Hours" ; a reis- 
sue, with additions, of Mr. Gilder's poems ; and 
Mr. Stedman's " Victorian Anthology," which 
is sure to take place immediately among the 
standard works of its class. The most im- 
portant books of fiction in sight are " Trilby," 
by Mr. Du Maurier ; " The Ealstons," by 
Mr. Crawford ; " Highland Cousins," by Mr. 
Black ; " The Vagabonds," by Mrs. Margaret 
L. Woods ; " The Chase of St. Castin, and 
Other Tales," by Mrs. M. H. Catherwood ; 
"Philip and His Wife," by Mrs. Margaret 
Deland; " Coeur d'Alene," by Mrs. M. H. 
Foote ; " Tales of the Punjaub," by Mrs. F. 
A. Steel ; " A Bachelor Maid," by Mrs. Bur- 
ton Harrison ; " When All the Woods are 
Green," by Dr. S. Wier Mitchell ; " Eound 
the Red Lamp," by Dr. Conan Doyle ; " A 
Flash of Summer," by Mrs. W. K. Clifford ; 
and a new volume of short stories from the 
Polish of Henryk Sienkiewicz. 

A few important historical works must find 
mention. We are to have a history of the 
United States by President E. Benjamin An- 
drews, and a history of the Civil War by Mr. 
John C. Ropes. Mr. Theodore Roosevelt, in 
his " The Founding of the Trans- Alleghany 
Commonwealths," will make another excursion 
into his favorite field of investigation. A vol- 
ume of historical essays by Mr. Frederic Har- 
rison will be awaited with interest, as will 
also Professor von Hoist's lectures on " The 
French Revolution tested by the Career of Mira- 
beau," and two posthumous volumes by Profes- 
sor Freeman, one upon "Western Europe in the 
Fifth Century," the other a last instalment 
of the colossal but fragmentary history of 
Sicily. A translation, in six volumes, of Herr 
Duncker's " Geschichte des Alterthums," is 
one of the most ambitious of enterprises in the 
department of historical publication. Even 
more ambitious is the promised facsimile re- 
print, in no less than fifty-four volumes, of 
" Les Relations des Jesuites," that important 
source of the raw material of American history. 

The most attractive announcement in class- 
ical study is the volume of lectures on Latin 
poetry, delivered upon the Turnbull founda- 
tion by Professor R. Y. Tyrrell. A certain 
adventitious interest of course attaches to Mr. 
Gladstone's new translation of Horace, also 
promised for early publication. Mr. Thomas 
Davidson will have a book on " The Educa- 
tion of the Greek People." Since we are 
upon the subject of education, we may men- 
tion Professor Paulsen's history of the Ger- 
man universities, and call attention to the 
unusual activity of the producers of educa- 
tional treatises, manuals, and texts. These 
are so numerous, and of so high a character, 
that selection would be invidious. But our 
readers will be interested to learn that THE 
DIAL'S papers upon the teaching of English in 
the American universities are to be edited for 
publication in book form. 

Of the hundreds of announcements in other 
departments, our space forbids the selection 
of more than a very few titles. Two great 
works of reference, Mr. John Bartlett's Shake- 
spearian Concordance and " The Century 
Cyclopaedia of Names," cannot go unnoticed. 
Among illustrated holiday books, Mr. Karoly's 
" Raphael's Madonnas and Other Great Pic- 
tures," and Walpole's " Memoirs of the Reign 
of George III.," assume special prominence. 
Two new editions of Omar Khayyam are also 
promised. " The Art of the American Wood- 




Engraver," by Mr. P. G. Hamerton, with forty 
signed artists' proofs on India paper, is a 
sumptuous work that will be eagerly awaited. 
The new edition of Poe, in ten volumes, to be 
edited by Mr. Stedman and Professor Wood- 
berry, will supply a long-felt want. Among 
books of travel, Messrs. Allen and Sachtleben's 
"Across Asia on a Bicycle," Mr. Lafcadio 
Hearn's " Glimpses of Unfamiliar Japan," and 
Mrs. Bishop's " The Hawaiian Archipelago " 
promise rich entertainment for those who like 
to visit foreign parts without leaving home. 
Finally, we will mention "The Religions of Ja- 
pan," by the Rev. W. E. Griffis ; and a new 
translation, with many plates, of the Egyptian 
"Book of the Dead," for which we are to thank 
the industrious scholarship of Dr. Charles H. 
S. Davis. And with these random selections 
we think we have sustained our preliminary con- 
tention that the list of announcements for the 
season is even richer than the list of its prede- 
cessors in its promise of entertainment, instruc- 
tion, and helpfulness. 


Kant was not the first to mark out Time and Space 
as categorical imperatives in man's sense-perception of 
the external world. Carlyle was not the first to see that 
Time and Space are for our eyes the garments of spir- 
itual mysteries. Lessing was not the first to write a 
sharp division between the Arts of these two lords of 
our imagination, shutting up Sculpture to the Beauty of 
Color and Form, which Space can give us without Time; 
allowing to Poetry the Beauty of Movement and Suc- 
cessive Moments. 

These masters of analysis we anticipated when we 
were infants. We found out that our cradle stood in 
a nursery, and the nursery in a house, and the house in 
a yard ; that things happened and were over, and to-days 
rolled into yesterdays. We felt the mystery of Time 
and Space, when we so loved the little girl in Grandma's 
stories, who lived over in England, and was really 
" Mamma, when she was a little girl." We saw that there 
was one Beauty of Rest and another of Motion, when 
the horse in the park statuary did not quite satisfy us, 
because he never put his other two feet down, like that 
other most fascinating horse that " brought the good 
news from Ghent to Aix " : 

" I sprang to the stirrup, and Joris, and he ; 
I galloped, Dirck galloped, we galloped all three ; 
' Good speed ! ' cried the watch, as the gatebolts withdrew ; 
' Speed ! ' echoed the wall, to us galloping through ; 
Behind shut the postern, the lights sank to rest, 
And into the midnight we galloped abreast." 
That was the start. And the finish ! 
" Then I cast loose my buff coat, each holster let fall, 
Shook off both my jackboots, let go belt and all, 
Stood up in the stirrups, leaned, patted his ear, 
Called my Roland his pet-name, my horse without peer ; 
Clapped my hands, laughed and sang, any noise, bad or good, 
Till at length into Aix Eoland galloped and stood ! " 

But clear as is this distinction between the statue and 
the poem felt by a child, analyzed by a Lessing, 
must it be absolute ? Must a picture be all repose, and a 
story all movement ? Must a picture never suggest a, 
story, and a story never stay for a picture ? These are 
the burning questions that divide Mr. Whistler from 
Mr. J. G. Brown, Mr. Howells from Mr. Stevenson. 

Mr. John C. Van Dyke, in a paper in a recent num- 
ber of " The Century " on Painting at the World's Fair, 
says that the wish for narrative even in a picture makes 
the difference between the Teutonic and the Latin races. 
The Italians and French, he claims, can observe directly. 
The Germans and English must get at Form and Color 
by the medium of Thought. Pictures, to please them, 
must tell a story. If among them comes a man that 
can paint a " field of waving grain with a blue sky over 
it," " he is afraid to let it stand as a harmony of blue 
and gold. He puts it to the title of 

' the happy autumn fields, 
And thinking of the days that are no more.' " 

Isn't it just the reverse of this that people are com- 
plaining of, in Mr. Howells ? If the " harmony in blue 
and gold " was really a picture, but was made to sug- 
gest a story to please people that prefer poetry to paint- 
ing, Mr. Howells's " Rise of Silas Lapham," though given 
out as a story, is really a series of sketches of certain 
types in the city of Boston, made to please people that 
prefer analysis, which is literary sketching, to a narra- 
tive of events. 

There are plenty of artists that lose faith in the pub- 
lic ever seeing the picture they saw from the day they 
chose the subject to the day of the finished painting. 
There are plenty of delicious jokes about the artists' wives 
selling these pictures to romantic old gentlemen by nam- 
ing them " His Mistake " or " It Might Have Been." 

But has the story-teller a like temptation to pass off 
his wares as belonging to another art ? If most people 
prefer narrative to picturesqueness, has he not a clear 
path to a fairly gained audience ? 

Right here comes in the difference that tells. The 
number of men and women that have had a little train- 
ing in the technique of story-writing is to the number 
of those that have had similar training in painting as a 
hundred to one. Almost all our schools, in their liter- 
ary departments, give the more advanced students hints 
of the methods by which this or that " touch " may be 
given. It is much easier to teach how to describe than 
how to narrate; for description is a critical, artificial 
process, compared with narration, which must be spon- 
taneous, the knack of it not easily to be imparted. 

So it is that in an advanced civilization, there are 
enough writers and readers trained to methods of liter- 
ary picturesqueness to keep our best magazines full of 
"stories" which are really pictures; while the masses 
of the people, secretly or openly, flee to second-rate 
periodicals with stories that have no " style " at all, but 
that have the action that belongs to a story. And the 
few far-sighted and honest critics, revolting against the 
cheap dialect-and-other methods of word-painting, are 
lamenting the days of good Sir Walter, and are loud in 
praise of the rare stories like " Trilby." 

Well ! In a year or two, according to the Persian 
proverb, " this, too, shall pass." And when the maga- 
zines shall have published their present supply of genre 
sketches, they will be found responding to the growing 
clamor of the children at bedtime, and the children of 
a larger growth, " Tell us a STORY ! " 




[Sept. 16, 


There is a well-known story in the " Autobiogra- 
phy of Benjamin Franklin," in which the author 
informs us how he anticipated the advice of Dr. 
Johnson for the acquisition of " an English style, 
familiar, but not coarse, and elegant, but not osten- 
tatious," by giving " his days and nights to the 
study of Addison." With so sagacious a recogni- 
tion of the value of English as a part of practical 
education from the founder of the University of 
Pennsylvania, it is not surprising that English has 
from colonial times held a position of recognized 
importance at the University ; although it is only 
within the last decade and a half that that position 
has been defined, with its relations to the other 
courses of the curriculum. 

The Department of English at the University of 
Pennsylvania, as at present constituted, is concerned 
with four subjects : (1 ) Composition, (2 ) English 
Literature, (3) English Language and Philology, 
and (4) Forensics. Of these, (1) and (4) are con- 
fined to undergraduates, the others extend to grad- 
uate courses. Whether for good or bad, we make 
comparatively little of Forensics, beyond care exer- 
cised incidentally in reading aloud and in opportu- 
nities offered for declamation by students of the 
lower classes. Elective and voluntary courses in 
speaking and debate follow in junior year ; but the 
chief practice of our students in these subjects is 
derived from the exercises of their literary socie- 
ties. There is an opinion prevalent at the Univer- 
sity that it is perhaps well that " elocution " be not 
too professionally taught ; but that the character 
of the individual should be developed in his utter- 
ance rather than overwhelmed with the oratorical 
mannerisms to which special teaching sometimes 
leads. , 

In composition work we set before the student 
one simple aim the plain and unaffected use of 
his mother tongue ; and we believe that the short- 

* This article is the sixteenth of an extended series on the 
Teaching of English at American Colleges and Universities, 
of which the following have already appeared in THE DIAL : 
English at Yale University, by Professor Albert S. Cook 
(Feb. 1); English at Columbia College, by Professor Bran- 
der Matthews (Feb. 16) ; English at Harvard University, by 
Professor Barrett Wendell (March 1); English at Stanford 
University, by Professor Melville B. Anderson ( March 16); 
English at Cornell University, by Professor Hiram Corson 
( April 1) ; English at the University of Virginia, by Professor 
Charles W. Kent (April 16) ; English at the University of 
Illinois, by Professor D. K. Dodge (May 1) ; English at La- 
fayette College, by Professor F. A. March (May 16) ; English 
at the State University of Iowa, by Professor E. E. Hale, Jr. 
(June 1) ; English at the University of Chicago, by Professor 
Albert H. Tolman (June 16) ; English at Indiana University, 
by Professor Martin W. Sampson (July 1) ; English at the 
University of California, by Professor Charles Mills Gayley 
(July 16) ; English at Amherst College, by Professor John F. 
Genung ( Aug. 1 ) ; English at the University of Michigan, by 
Professor Fred N. Scott (Aug. 16) ; and English at the Uni- 
versity of Nebraska, by Professor L. A. Sherman (Sept. 1). 

est way to facility of expression in writing is con- 
stant practice, and a practice unaffected and free 
from false conceptions of the purpose of such prac- 
tice. With this in view, every Freshman in the 
University writes two or three themes a week ; 
Sophomores and Juniors, except those hopelessly 
given over to technology, at least one a week ; 
whilst in Senior year the subject except as indi- 
rectly represented in the papers of the " semina- 
ries " or study-classes in literature remains op- 
tional. All of this work is carefully superintended 
by the instructors in charge ; every composition is 
read occasionally before the class or a section of 
it, corrected, annotated, if need be handed back 
to be rewritten, the faults explained with the prin- 
ciples involved, the personality of the writer stud- 
ied as far as possible, his abilities trained and 
directed. In the assignment of themes there is an 
endeavor to avoid subjects which can be read up 
and crammed for the occasion, although the stu- 
dent is kept in continual touch with good English 
style by required collateral reading. The study of 
Rhetoric is developed out of the reading and com- 
position work ; and, although systematized by ref- 
erence to a text-book, is not studied as a thing 
apart from daily practice. 

And now as to the study of English literature, 
which we confine, except for a brief estimate of the 
historical values of other products, entirely to the 
range of what is known as " the literature of pow- 
er." English literature forms a part of the require- 
ment for entrance to college, and is involved in the 
reading and instruction of Freshman year, although 
there subsidiary to the more immediate claims of 
the drill in composition. In Sophomore year the 
special study of literature begins, continuing until 
graduation in periods from two to five and six 
hours a week according to the course elected. I 
omit any enumeration of courses, as this may be 
readily gleaned by the curious from the catalogues 
and bulletins of the University. 

In our method of work we endeavor to follow 
some such course as this : Our first task is to teach 
the student to observe literary phenomena ; to have 
him read, never more, however, than he can ab- 
sorb ; to let him prove by written and oral exercise 
that he has read, and also to demand from the first 
that he formulate in words his impressions of his 
reading. These impressions are crude to a degree, 
and bear to his mature work precisely the relation 
which the antics he performs in the gymnasium 
bear to applied physical activity. But we esteem 
it no small thing to have trained a boy to think on 
something for himself. The authors chosen for 
these earlier exercises are those least distantly re- 
moved from the student's modes of daily thought. 
They are modern, and writers in prose ; as the 
problem is greatly simplified by the elimination of 
a strange or unusual medium, and the allowances 
which must be made for historic environment. 

When the student has begun to note literary 




phenomena with some degree of ease, we direct his 
attention to the relation subsisting between the va- 
rious phenomena noted, still demanding that he 
increase his data by constant reading of literature 
and frequent exercises such as those noted above. 
We are now prepared for that orderly exposition 
of the relation of literary phenomena which we 
call the history of Literature. This history should 
proceed, as far as possible, from the more familiar 
to the less familiar ; and for this reason we arrange 
the courses in the history of more recent periods to 
precede such periods as that of Chaucer or of Shake- 
speare. We aim to have such courses deepen the 
impression of the student by a minuter attention to 
the relations of things, by seeking out the begin- 
nings of various modes of literary thought and 
tracing their development in the light of contempo- 
rary conditions. Nor is this all. We require the 
student to keep himself in daily touch with the 
writings of those authors that form the subject- 
matter of the lectures, and to submit the results of 
his reading in frequent " seminary meetings " for 
correction and general discussion among his fel- 
lows. Thus we arrive at the beginning of Senior 
year with that training in the perception of the 
qualities and relations of literary products, and 
that general knowledge of the course of their de- 
velopment, which alone can render the study of 
organic and aesthetic detail practicable. In Senior 
year the whole subject is approached again from 
these points of view in the study of poetics, the his- 
tory of criticism and aesthetics, the " seminary " or 
literary workshop, continuing as in previous years. 
We insist that all talk about theories, aesthetic, 
philosophical, or other, which the student may not 
investigate for himself by actual reference to the 
authors in question, be banished from our work. 
In conclusion of the undergraduate work in En- 
glish literature, we feel that the study holds a pe- 
culiar position from its capabilities in developing 
the taste and artistic discernment, its liberalizing 
influence in broadening the student's views of life 
and man, its enormous weight against utilitarian- 
ism, and its power in giving us, when properly 
taught, the very essence of the now all but de- 
throned humanities. 

The Philology of English holds a recognized and 
important place in the undergraduate courses of 
the University of Pennsylvania, although we have 
not seen the necessity of making the sight reading 
of " Beowulf " a requirement for entrance to col- 
lege, as some of our radical friends would have it. 
The reading and philological study of Old and 
Middle English, especially Chaucer, is offered to 
undergraduates in the form of elective courses ex- 
tending through Junior and Senior year, whilst a 
brief practical course in the history of the English 
language is a required study for all Freshmen. 
Neither in Literature nor in Philology do we set 
undergraduates to what is sometimes called in the 
English of catalogues "original research," prefer- 

ring to devote these years to the laying of such 
foundation stones as we may, rather than to the 
amateurish collection of unimportant literary data 
or the perfunctory compilation of unnecessary in- 

The graduate courses in English of the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania are confined to Literature and 
Philology. Under the latter is included not only 
the Philology of English but the intensive study of 
literary products of Old and Middle English, con- 
ducted by means of lecture and seminary, with 
carefully superintended original investigation on 
the part of the student. In literature too, while 
the subject is treated in lectures and by discussion 
from the historical as well as the organic and aes- 
thetic point of view, it is the duty of each student 
pursuing English as his major subject to determine 
upon some definite literary period, movement, or 
writer, for special study and investigation, and later 
to choose some theme within the range of this 
special field for his thesis. The graduate theses in 
English, as in all other departments of the Univer- 
sity, must be submitted to the Faculty of Philoso- 
phy, and upon acceptance published. 


Professor of English Literature, University of Pennsylvania. 


Through scarlet arches and dusk corridors 
She moves, faint perfumes at her queenly feet, 
And plaintive voices calling at her side. 
Her grandeur blanches, passes. Autumn, she 
With colors of the cloud, the rose, the bird, 
Woven in her leaves, sweet-flushed as Love herself, 
She too shall fade away; and where she was 
Shall be low fluttering pulses, vanishings, 
And solemn shadow, weight of frost and rain. 
Already do the trees, those giant flowers, 
The blossoms of the gods, from their bright tops 
Begin to shed the splendor, and look down 
In silent wonder on the wealth they wore, 
Gleaming below. The maple that doth wake 
His own glad sunshine, make his own fair day, 
Begins to darken; wailing haunts the wind, 
Strange wailing from the lowlands; on the hill 
Slow spreads the fatal gray. Yea, Autumn, all 
Of loveliness, for whom strong Beauty wrought 
Till she could do no more, she too must go. 
She passes; and to listening hearts she sings, 
She and her maids, their tresses backward blown, 
Shining under the wind : 

These colors, memories are they, 

The past this beauty wore ; 
These splendors wove the charm of May, 

They all were in the summer's golden store. 

They dwelt, they shone, and passed away ; 

All, all have been before: 
'Tis but the glamour of the day, 

The glory of the day, that is no more. 




[Sept. 16, 




(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

The readers of THE DIAL have been interested dur- 
ing the past few months in the series of articles on the 
Teaching of English in our large Universities. These 
have given the standpoint of the teacher. But that of 
the student may be of no less interest. And as I am just 
completing my student life in that department, after 
the regular preparatory, college, and graduate work, 
I wish to present a few thoughts from this other side. 

The favored methods, scientific or other, of secondary 
schools do not invariably bear fruit in a thorough cul- 
ture. But wide reading in good books, not necessarily 
classics, is absolutely indispensable in forming a good 
taste for reading, and for exciting an interest in the 
study of literature; it is a sub-conscious preparation for 
the conscious activity of the matured mind. I say sub- 
conscious advisedly; for the young student has a direct 
interest in the good and beautiful in what he is reading, 
and is influenced, whether he knows it or not, by his in- 
terest; but once urge him to give conscious articulation to 
his opinions, and to dissect his sentiments, and the charm 
of his reading is decreased. Then his primitive interest 
must be supplanted by something further. The later 
process of studying the isolated fact is good in its time ; 
but if premature, it causes the student to regard his 
study of literature as a de-naturalizing, unbeautifying 
process, and he will look in later years with a horrified 
remembrance on the classics that suffered such a pro- 
cess at the hands of his teachers. 

I wish to speak of an objection to the study of liter- 
ature, which, as it meets every student, must be met by 
the teacher. As the student enters his second or third 
year in college he is confronted by lines of elective study. 
He is called on, to a certain extent, to shape the growth 
of his own mind. He is eager to make the best of his 
college course ; he wishes to choose wisely, that he may 
make the most of himself. Nine students out of ten in 
this situation say to themselves on first thought: " I can 
study literature for myself after leaving college ; I must 
not let work that can be accomplished then stand in the 
way of what must be done now or not at all ; the study 
of literature would be delightful, but it would require 
a good deal of time, and under the circumstances would 
be an indulgence." This, I repeat, is the thought of 
many students at the critical moment of their college 
lives. I must take for granted that many readers of 
THE DIAL have already answered this objection for 
themselves. Yet it is an objection that the teacher must 
carefully answer to those who enter at all on his elect- 
ive work, not with an ex-cathedra answer, but the 
silent, satisfactory answer of skilfully conducted work. 
As the Latin and Greek classics were made the instru- 
ments of culture by the instructors of English youth 
during the past centuries, so our English classics, with 
less intervention of the merely technical, can be made the 
instruments of culture for the American youth. These 
English classics were, primarily, the education of James 
Russell Lowell; and they must be the education of the 
American Chaucers and Miltons and Wordsworths who 
will yet come. Let the teacher convince the student of 
this, as every good teacher of literature does, and he 
will have the choicest students of the college in his elect- 
ive courses. 

The student, in consequence, makes certain require- 
ments of his teacher in this department. He expects a 
living, cultured personality, not a fact-hopper warranted 
to grind and sift a certain quantum of knowledge in 
a given period of recitation hours. The life in the 
teacher which adds real zest to the study is helpful in 
any line; personal enthusiasm can modify even a prop- 
osition in Euclid, though the fact that the " sum of the 
angles of a triangle is equal to two right angles " may be 
demonstrated by an automaton. But to the successful 
teaching of literature, such life is absolutely indispens- 
able ; for the study of literature is more directly a study 
of life in its wide relations, and life only can interpret 
life. The teacher needs natural and manly sentiments 
and thoughts, not technical apparatus; and these can 
find origin only in the essential character. 

The student also has his opinions as to what the teach- 
er's purpose with a student should be. It is an almost 
universal trait of young minds to rebel against being 
reduced to a means. They are still idealists in life; 
nothing presents itself to them as more worthful than 
their own life and its prospects. Hence, while they are 
willing to do almost any amount of work for their own 
growth, they are very slow to make of themselves stones 
for the temple of learning. They are still possessed by 
the thought that a whole is greater than its parts that 
the individual life is greater than learning; they are 
still in what some lament as a state of primitive egoism. 
The successful teacher must adapt himself to this state 
of the young mind. He must bring some real contribu- 
tion to that self-treasured life ; he must make the stu- 
dent feel that he considers that life worth working for, 
and must shape his methods and choice of masterpieces 
to that end. And to do this, the student must be made 
to feel that he is a man, or at least has the promise of 
manhood; that his natural sentiments are right in gen- 
eral, and need training and direction, rather than nox- 
ious weeds to be extirpated and replaced by flowers 
transplanted from the teacher's mind. Thus the pur- 
suit of his own ambition and his natural interest in good 
reading will lead him on to the most serious efforts for 
a literary education. 

Facts leave us, faculties never. No student who has 
reached the junior year doubts this. He has forgotten 
the tables for compound numbers, he is unable to name 
the figures of speech. But he knows that he himself, 
his essential manhood, in its intellectual and moral as 
well as its physical self, has been developing thews, has 
gained power to grapple with problems of much more 
importance. He even goes at times to the dangerous 
extreme of nonchalance for fact. In his studies, includ- 
ing his study of literature, he will appreciate an effort 
on the part of the teacher to form proper tastes and 
develop powers of doing within him. He will travel 
laboriously through disjointed facts of literary history 
and literary origins with an inward protest; but he will 
eagerly labor for the literary taste which he sees can 
interpret whatever literature is presented to it; for he 
is really anxious to get that invaluable secret of which 
Mr. Edward Dowden speaks the interpretation of 
one good book, and by it the power over many. Hence 
he will be ready to study that in literature which has 
essential worth, but will be less moved by historical, 
technical, or other adventitious interest. He will wel- 
come his Shakespeare, but care little for Shakespeare's 
antecedents. He will care less for origins than for life. 
And so the great treasure for which his teacher will 
ever be held in grateful remembrance will be the sound 




judgment and sympathetic heart so necessary for en- 
trance into the kingdom of intellectual and moral life. 
I do not wish to be understood as attacking the in- 
vestigation of the historical and adventitious. I simply 
speak from the standpoint of the growing young mind. 
Once let it arrive at its proper maturity, and it will see 
these things in their right relations and work for them 
accordingly. But let no teacher hasten this time unad- 

visedly> CHARLES W. HODELL. 

Shady Side Academy, Pittsburg, Pa., Sept. 12, 1894. 


(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

Many of your readers besides the personal friends of 
Professor Ely must have read with satisfaction the let- 
ter in your issue of Sept. 1, headed "The New York 
' Nation ' and Its ' College Anarchist.' " The writer is 
clearly very much in earnest, and he does his theme jus- 
tice so far as he chooses to go. He omits, however, to 
note a material point upon which he as well as others 
who have canvassed the matter might well have en- 
larged in the interests of sanity and precision in current 
economic discussion. It is surely high time that news- 
papers which assume to instruct people and even to 
speak ex cathedra on social questions should themselves 
grasp such elementary facts as that " socialist " and 
" anarchist " are not interchangeable terms of political 
philosophy. To urge this is certainly not to stickle for 
any metaphysical nicety of definition. Whatever social- 
ism may mean, it does not mean anti-socialism; and to 
style a man of Dr. Ely's views an " anarchist " is to be- 
tray a looseness of thinking and a vagueness of element- 
ary conceptions not very consistent with special preten- 
sions to accuracy. No friend of " The Nation " will 
willingly admit that, in the case in point, it stooped to 
the methods of " The Rowdy Journal," and called Pro- 
fessor Ely " anarchist," instead of socialist, simply be- 
cause the former term is the more abusive and vitriolic 
of the two. We prefer to ascribe the use of the unfor- 
tunate epithet to passing inadvertence rather than de- 
liberate scurrility. Inadvertence, however, in a journal 
of standing, may prove to be a serious matter to the 
victim of it. One does not expect much in the way of 
technical precision from the ordinary newspaper, which 
is admittedly made, like the razors in the ballad, " to 
sell." Neither its readers nor its victims take its epi- 
thets in other than a very Pickwickian sense ; but when 
a journal like " The Nation " styles this or that teacher 
or preacher an " anarchist," the public justly assumes 
that it means to characterize and not merely to abuse 
him in short, that it means what it says. For instance, 
when the good people of Wisconsin learned through its 
columns that the Director of the School of Economics 
in their State University was, presumably, moulding the 
young gentlemen in his charge into embryo Mosts and 
Bakounines, they promptly proceeded to investigate him. 
Probably the next cry of " Wolf ! " from the same quar- 
ter will receive less attention. To lump socialists and 
anarchists together, as is sometimes done, on the ground 
that both schools are dissatisfied with existing civil ar- 
rangements, seems a poor quibble. The classification 
simply makes a socialist, or an anarchist, or both, of 
every man of us whom nature has favored with the nor- 
mal capacity for thinking and feeling. Even the hardiest 
exponent of newspaper " cocksureness " would hesitate 
to rank, say, Professor Huxley with the "dangerous 
classes"; yet we find him saying: "Even the best of 

modern civilizations appears to me to exhibit a condi- 
tion of mankind which neither embodies any worthy 
ideal nor even possesses the merit of stability. I do 
not hesitate to express the opinion, that, if there is no 
hope of improvement of the condition of the greater 
part of the human family. ... I should hail the ad- 
vent of some kindly comet, which would sweep the whole 
affair away, as a desirable consummation." If there be 
anything in the writings of even our " College Anarch- 
ist " savoring more strongly of the gospel of discontent 
than this, I have failed to see it. w. R. K. 

Pittsfield, Mass., Sept. 4-. 1894. 

(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

The editorial in your last issue discussing the recent 
heresy trial in our State University, and incidentally 
the freedom of teaching, meets my cordial approval in 
the main. I cannot agree, however, that it is an " out- 
rage " to question the teaching of any person employed 
by the State in a proper case. Indeed, I believe it to 
be the paramount duty of the board of management of 
every educational institution to know that no instruc- 
tion is given subversive to the power which employs it. 
To decline to do this, the governing body would, in my 
judgment, be recreant to the important trust reposed 
in it. I do not wish to be understood that there should 
be any attempt at dictation on the part of governing 
boards. No teacher worthy the name would tolerate 
that. But I insist that teachers of whatever experience 
should not "be practically unassailable," and should not 
" be absolutely free to do their own work in their own 
way." In other words, I hold that teachers, like all the 
rest of the great army of the employed, should be al- 
ways accountable to some authority or power greater 
than they, yet freely granting to them the largest lati- 
tude and freedom in matters of detail and routine. I 
hold that in matters in which the State is concerned, 
the State, through its appropriate officers, ought to be, 
as a matter of right, consulted. So in the sense here 
indicated there should be a supervisory power and con- 
trol somewhere, not to interfere with " untrammelled 
research and the unbiased pursuit of truth," but to make 
impossible the instruction and advocacy of the wild and 
untried theories, systems, and notions of mere partisans, 
whose erudition is not above suspicion. We want the 
fullest freedom of teaching. But let that teaching be 
always subject to the scrutiny of the power which em- 
ploys it, not for the purpose of unreasonably placing; 
the brakes on intellectual progress, not to hamper meth- 
ods of teaching, not to prevent the right of personal in- 
vestigation of any question, but because there should be 
accountability to some authority. I feel certain that 
in this position I am sustained by many members of the 
teaching profession. DUANE MOWRY. 

Milwaukee, Wis., Sept. 12, 1894. 

[The question at issue in the editorial referred 
to is precisely that of what constitutes a "proper 
case " for State interference. Such interference, we 
contended, would only be justified by an " offense of 
the grossest sort." The time for inquiry and vigil- 
ance is when a man's appointment to an important 
university post is in question ; that time is past, except 
for some extraordinary emergency, when he has be- 
gun to perform the duties of his professorship. 



[Sept. 16, 



M. Paul Sabatier's Life of St. Francis of 
Assisi " is not an easy volume to review. The 
author confesses that it was hard to write. The 
translator would perhaps acknowledge that 
it was hard to put into English. If Gallic 
measure and precision seemed unsuited to 
the expression of expansive Italian emotion, 
perhaps certain delicate shades of French 
sentiment were difficult to transfer into their 
English equivalents. Some question of rival 
editions is said to have hurried the translator's 
pace and allowed small opportunity of revis- 
ion. We have not the original at hand, but 
there must be something wrong on page 445, 
where several most legendary authorities are 
said to " sin only by excessive critical scru- 
ples." The context suggests that for " sin 
only " we should read " hardly err." A single 
such lapse may be forgiven in so long a labor. 
Mrs. Houghton's English is in the main clear 
and simple, telling the story without compelling 
attention to the fact that it is a translation. 

M. Sabatier is not a novice in the art of bi- 
ography. His masterly volume upon St. Paul, 
a few years since, prepared a welcome in ad- 
vance for any of its author's subsequent writ- 
ing. There is a wide gap between the first 
century and the thirteenth, between the Apos- 
tle to the Gentiles and the founder of the Fran- 
ciscans ; but each period and each character 
unfolds its secrets under one method of labo- 
rious investigation, sound judgment, and sym- 
pathetic vision. The author looks out of his 
own eyes and suffers no mists of tradition to 
befog him. Yet he is no iconoclast. He rev- 
erences the essential humanity of his heroes. 
They may be shadowed by the hood of the 
monk or transfigured by the halo of saint or 
apostle, but they are still men, to be helped 
down from their pedestals and restored to life 
and motion. 

It is not strange if they seem cramped at 
first, and if they limp a little. M. Sabatier is 
less clear and logical in his narrative than we 
could desire. It is not always easy to see how 
far he is leading us. Perhaps his position 
makes him cautious and induces him partially 
to veil his results. Perhaps, in protracted grop- 

Translated by Louise Seymour Houghton. New York: 
Charles Scribner's Sons. 

ing among mediaeval chronicles, he has blunted 
the edge of his French instinct for form and 
order, or perhaps he has approximated too 
closely to the nature of his subject. St. Francis 
was a great heart rather than a logical intelli- 
gence. He had the " vision " rather than the 
" faculty " divine. Shall we say that his bi- 
ographer seems rather to feel him than pre- 
cisely to comprehend or clearly interpret him ? 
After all, M. Sabatier cannot be expected to 
be altogether of the thirteenth century. His 
book attracts and vexes you. You love the 
writer and are out of patience with him through 
alternate pages and paragraphs. He inserts a 
parenthetic moral or rhapsody in the midst of 
a dispassionate examination of contemporary 
authorities. You are not in the mood for it 
and resent the abrupt transition. 

M. Sabatier has critically dealt with his am- 
ple materials. He tells us that few lives in 
history are so abundantly provided with docu- 
ments as that of St. Francis. They consist of 
his well authenticated writings ; of contempo- 
rary or early memoirs ; of numerous papers of 
Cardinal Ugolini (afterwards Gregory IX.), 
the man who, " without perhaps excepting St. 
Francis, most profoundly fashioned the Fran- 
ciscan institutions "; of pontifical bulls relating 
to the order during the critical years of its in- 
fancy ; of chronicles penned by its first asso- 
ciates, including that volume of fairy tales, the 
Fioretti, in which we behold things not as they 
were but as they seemed to that imaginative 
and childlike generation ; and of other records 
by those not connected with the order, but 
brought within the range of its founder's magic 
influence, writings which still " vibrate with 
enthusiasm," while often " absolutely fantastic " 
as to the details which they relate. 

The first life of St. Francis, by Thomas of 
Celano, is a party pamphlet, to be entitled 
" The Legend of Gregory IX." It was written 
soon after the death of its subject, in the midst 
of an eager struggle between those members 
of the Franciscan order who wanted only what 
St. Francis had wanted, and those who were 
bent on remoulding his work into closer har- 
mony with the ecclesiasticism of the period. 
At least five years before his death the Papacy 
had prevailed ; the laic and popular elements 
of the work had been suppressed ; Francis had 
been gently set aside from any practical con- 
trol of affairs, and transfigured into a remote 
glory as saint and founder. Twenty years 
later Thomas of Celano, becoming better in- 
formed of the meaning of the struggle, wrote 




a revised and corrected biography, in which, 
however, the strife of factions still occupies the 
foreground, " history becomes the vehicle of a 
thesis, and instead of a poem we have a cleverly 
constructed catalogue." 

The memoir of the " Three Companions," 
the near associates of the founder through the 
formative period of the order, is very precious, 
and though in its present condition but a mu- 
tilated fragment, is still " the finest piece of 
Franciscan literature." The legends of the 
Fioretti convey the spirit of the saint, and 
" while charming as literature, are not value- 
less as history." You smile at the incidents 
and inhale with gratitude the atmosphere. 
Such things never happened, perchance, yet 
the coloring is vivid and true. Better than 
any cool daylight is the light that never was 
on sea or land. 

It was in 1260, a generation after the death 
of St. Francis, that St. Bonaventura, in the 
supposed interest of his order, prepared a new 
biography. It was voluminous but lifeless, a 
compilation with a purpose, meant to steer a 
safe middle course between " the Scylla of 
Yes and the Charybdis of No," and so satisfy 
at once the Zealots of the old Rule and the 
Liberal Constructionists who had explained it 
away into something quite different from the 
intention of St. Francis. This biography was 
declared the one authorized version, and all 
other lives were ordered to be destroyed as 
unofficial and conflicting. From these varied 
sources, with many sidelights from other quar- 
ters, M. Sabatier has constructed his picture. 
It is a portrait by an impressionist of a winning 
and simple and wise-hearted lover of mankind. 

That was his distinction. The hero of Charles 
Lamb's tragedy of " John Woodvil " describes 
himself as " in some sort a general lover." 
Being asked to specify " What is it you love " ? 
he answers 

" Simply all things that live, 
From the crook'd worm to man's imperial form 
And God-resembling likeness. The poor fly 
That makes short holiday in the sun-beam 
And dies by some child's hand. The feeble bird, 
With little wings, yet greatly venturous 
In the upper sky. The fish in the other element 
That knows no touch of eloquence." 

That was St. Francis. He loved simply all 
things that live. They were his brothers, his 
sisters, from the insects, the birds, the fishes, 
to the wolf of the Appenines or the hardly less 
predatory inhabitant of the Umbrian plain. 
Nay, to him sun, moon, and stars were of the 
one great family, and He that made them was 
loved no less simply and naturally than they. 

And just here the life of Francis becomes ob- 
scure, and to men of colder frame and less child- 
like spirit, scarcely intelligible. What gush- 
ing nonsense all that talk about his brother, 
the sun those sermons to the birds and the 
fishes, the rabbits and the wolves ! It is com- 
paratively easy to guess at the processes of a 
large intellect, but who can trace and measure 
the pulse-beats of a great throbbing heart? 
Even in his lifetime those nearest to him mis- 
conceived and misinterpreted him. They were 
dull as the disciples about our Lord. They 
meant to echo him, but lost the key and changed 
the tone. They refracted his white light even 
in transmitting and reflecting it. He, a spir- 
itual troubadour, " God's juggler," gay as a min- 
strel, soaring and singing as a lark, went, " in 
a rapture of love, from cottage to cottage, from 
castle to castle, preaching absolute poverty," 
absolute freedom from wordly care, nothing for 
self, everything for others ; and the sweet dar- 
ing strain charmed the ear and touched the 
soul, but perplexed the timid judgment. " That 
buoyant enthusiasm, that boundless idealism, 
could not last." The order was open to every- 
one ; and everyone, after the manner of men, 
fashioned it in his own likeness and wore his 
rue with a difference. For the unsystematic 
mind of St. Francis had been averse to any 
elaborate organization. He, and those drawn 
to him in spirit, undertook the simplest follow- 
ing of Jesus, the reproduction of that holy life 
under the changed conditions of their time. It 
was a monastic age, and the pallor of the clois- 
ter touched even the healthiest cheek. It was 
an ascetic age, and it was hard to escape its 
influence and not despise and maltreat the body 
in the interest of the soul. It was an eccle- 
siastical age, and it was hard to see that the 
laity were indeed the Church, and the clergy 
but its working officials. It was a dogmatic 
age, and men lived under a pressure of author- 
ity that cramped all independent thinking. But 
in spite of his time, not by virtue of an extra- 
ordinary intellect but of a great heart, hardly 
conscious of his departure from the mood of 
his period, Francis went out for himself into a 
large liberty, and sought to enfranchise others. 
His Rule was little more than a brief extract 
from the words of Jesus in the Gospels. Catch 
that spirit, he seemed to say, and all the rest 
will follow. It was enough indeed for him, and 
for those who stood nearest him. But pres- 
ently the dense environment encroached upon 
this first childlike simplicity. The mood and 
fashion of the age stole over it. The little un- 



worldly group of brothers were speedily com- 
pacted into a drilled group of mendicants. The 
Rule, which the worn saint with his dying 
breath conjured the brethren never to change 
by gloss or comment, soon was authoritatively 
interpreted into more definite conclusions, and 
subtly explained away, with wire-drawn dis- 
tinctions between the founder's counsels and 
his commands, " until poverty, as St. Francis 
understood it, became a memory." Men " for- 
got the freshness, the Italian gayety, the sunny 
poetry " of his conception. Admiring, rever- 
ing, canonizing him, they thought to give body 
and force to his somewhat vague and ineffect- 
ive dreams. They magnified and distorted the 
image of their saint. They lost sight of what 
he was, and praised him for what he was not 
and never sought to be. They made dull prose 
out of all his poetry. The institution grew as 
the impulse which originated it dwindled. There 
was a new order in the Roman Church, a new 
saint on the Roman Calendar ; but the fine 
dream of St. Francis had been dissipated. It 
had fled to the limbo of dreams that were 
dreamed too soon, of fond ideals of which the 
world was still unworthy. Meanwhile, the peo- 
ple, with their unsophisticated hearts, cherished 
the memory of the dreamer, loved this " gen- 
eral lover," and so came dimly to know him, to 
love and know him as the chiefs of his order 
never loved or knew. The popular imagina- 
tion of Italy retains his image, while grave his- 
torians, biased by preconceptions, unfamiliar 
with childlike genius touched with heavenly 
radiance, have fumbled over their records and 
missed the meaning of such gracious, guileless 
sainthood. M. Sabatier, by sheer sympathy of 
spirit, has caught the clue, and put it into his 
reader's hands. If its windings seem some- 
times obscure and labyrinthine, it is yet well 
worth their following. For character of this 
large-hearted sort is rare. The pilgrims that 
are minstrels, the saints that can laugh and 
sing, the indiscriminate lovers of God and man 
and every living thing in earth and heaven, 
are a scant company a precious possession of 
the race, not to be forgotten through the ages. 
The mitred bishops and the hooded doctors 
pass, and the dust settles upon their footprints. 
But Love, the buoyant, wayward, blundering 
child, goes singing on his way, and is immor- 

St. Francis, in an age " when men had all 
the vices except triviality and all the virtues 
save moderation," when Nature was a realm of 
magic, and all imaginations were peopled with 

visions of heaven and hell, was " not born with 
nimbus and aureole." He could say with the 
chief Captain, " With a great sum obtained I 
this freedom." At his own grave cost he en- 
tered upon his mission. He was a man of the 
people, yet at home with the privileged classes. 
He was loyal to the Church, which he persisted 
in beholding in its evangelical ideal, while im- 
patient with the actual faltering reality. He 
was a poet-prophet, no mere founder of an or- 
der. He claimed from the Papacy the privi- 
lege of owning nothing, which proved to be 
more than the Roman Curia could grant. The 
poverty he sought and sang was not a disabil- 
ity but a power, the bird's careless freedom 
on its bough, the flower's fragrant joy in the 
sunshine. The religion of the time could con- 
ceive of no such glad liberty. It brooded over 
its own soul, and sadly shrivelled from inac- 
tion. It tried to love God without serving man, 
and found in a God so loved a Moloch, stern 
and awful. St. Francis caught the secret of 
Jesus. He gave himself to the right hand and 
the left, gave his best to the neediest. His aim 
was to awaken love by loving, and transform 
character through self -consecration. It was an 
innocent, a beneficent, a Christlike aim. Such, 
however, was the unripeness of the time that 
his work was wrested from his hands and 
warped from his purpose. It was an effort 
after an ideal even now unattained, for while 
" the Revolution made us all kings, neither the 
Revolution nor the Reformation was able to 
make us all priests." That is the task that 
lies before the leader of souls to-day, and M. 
Sabatier has bravely forwarded it. 



To the present writer, as doubtless to most 
literary workers, the need of an encyclopedia 
of purely historical information has long been 
apparent ; and he once began, in a somewhat 
desultory way, to collate material for a work 
of that nature. He proceeded far enough to 
learn something of the amount of labor involved 
in such a work, and thus to appreciate the ex- 
tent of this labor when performed by another. 
A cursory glance at the first two volumes of 

* HISTORY FOB READY REFERENCE, from the best Histo- 
rians, Biographers, and Specialists. By J. N. Lamed. With 
numerous historical maps from original studies, and drawings 
by Alan C. Reiley. In five volumes. Sold only by subscrip- 
tion. Volume I., A to Elba. Volume II., Eldo to Grea. 
Springfield, Mass.: The C. A. Nichols Co. 




Mr. J. N. Larned's " History for Ready Ref- 
erence and Topical Reading " is sufficient to 
discover that they represent years of patient 
labor and exhaustive study. That Mr. Lamed 
is President of the American Library Associa- 
tion and Superintendent of the Buffalo Public 
Library implies that he has had unsurpassed 
facilities for carrying out to a satisfactory con- 
clusion his conception of a cyclopedia and 
index of history. The work is not a mere dic- 
tionary of dates. It recognizes history as em- 
bracing far more than chronology or narratives 
of events. In its preparation the entire field 
of historical literature has been laid under con- 
tribution. The articles are composed of ex- 
tracts from recognized historical experts, to 
whom due credit is given. References are 
freely given by which the study of the various 
topics can be still further extended. Abund- 
ant opportunity is found to judge of the edit- 
or's discriminating judgment and critical skill 
in an examination of the following important 
articles in the first two volumes, ranging from 
twenty to two hundred pages in length : Amer- 
ica ; American Aborigines ; Athens ; Austria ; 
Balkan and Danubian States ; Barbary States ; 
Canada ; China ; Christianity (down to the 
tenth century) ; Education ; Egypt ; England ; 
Florence ; France ; and Germany. The editor's 
only original contribution to either of these vol- 
umes is a historical review of Europe, covering 
seventy-four pages. This is sufficient, how- 
ever, to illustrate his ability to handle lucidly 
a complex subject. 

It is difficult to give in brief space a clear 
idea of the comprehensiveness of the work. But 
it is partially indicated by the fact that, the 
above-named important papers being set aside, 
each volume contains about eight hundred sub- 
jects fully treated, though in length varying 
from a single paragraph to several pages ; and 
about twenty-four hundred titles introduced as 
cross references. Biographical and geograph- 
ical names are thus treated. The wide scope 
of the work is further indicated by its treat- 
ment of such subjects as Education (an im- 
portant review of the history of education 
brought down to include the University Ex- 
tension movement), Electrical Discovery, Fac- 
tory Legislation, Debt Legislation, and Civil 
Service Reform in England and America ; by 
its giving, in extenso, the constitutions of thir- 
teen existing nations, as well as cross references 
to at least ten others ; and by explaining many 
terms of historical significance (e.g. " Bossism," 
" Sherman's Bummers," " Contraband," and 

" Creole "), for whose origin and meaning fu- 
ture generations will undoubtedly inquire. Ap- 
parently the editor is more willing to incur the 
fault of including too much than too little. 

The two volumes now ready are to be fol- 
lowed by three others at intervals of about three 
months. The paging is continuous throughout 
the volumes. The work has reached page 1564. 
The maps, supplied by Alan C. Reiley, are new 
and valuable. A> H. NOLL. 


The table of contents of the " Introduction to the 
Study of Society," by Professors Small and Vin- 
cent, is, to a student of sociology, a most appetiz- 
ing menu. Here we find discussed, in pure and 
strong English, the origin and scope of sociology, 
the natural history of society, social anatomy, phy- 
siology, pathology, and psychology. By Descriptive 
Sociology the authors mean " the organization of all 
the positive knowledge of man and of society fur- 
nished by the sciences and sub-sciences now desig- 
nated or included under the titles Biology, Anthropol- 
ogy, Psychology, Ethnology, Demography, History, 
Political and Economic Science, and Ethics." By 
Statical Sociology is meant " a qualitative and ap- 
proximate account of the society which ought to be. 
Social Statics is, in brief, social ethics." It is de- 
clared that a distinction should be made, in the 
interest of clearness of thought and of practical 
efficiency, between Statical and Dynamic Sociology. 
This last " proceeds to investigate means of employ- 
ing all the available forces of society in the interest 
of the largest human welfare." The present vol- 
ume does not attempt to go beyond Descriptive So- 
ciology. It is a " laboratory guide " for sociological 
observation and investigation. It directs attention 
upon significant facts and to the essential relations 

W. Small and G. E. Vincent. New York : American Book 

York : Harper & Brothers. 

SOCIAL EVOLUTION. By Benjamin Kidd. New York : Mac- 
millan & Co. 

Booth. New York : Macmillan & Co. 

THE THEORY OF SOCIOLOGY. By Franklin H. Giddings. 
Philadelphia : American Academy of Political and Social 

RANDOM ROAMINGS. By Augustus Jessopp. New York : 
G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

THE ENGLISH PEASANT. By Richard Heath. London: 
T. Fisher Unwin. 

THE UNEMPLOYED. By Geoffrey Druge. New York: 
Macmillan & Co. 

New York : T. Y. Crowell & Co. 

and W. I. Hull. New York : The City Vigilance League. 



[Sept. 16, 

of facts to each other. The reading of Book One 
will require the closest attention of trained students. 
In Book Two, " The Natural History of a Society," 
we have an account of the growth of a city from 
the time a single settler took his homestead on the 
prairie, through the stages of village and town and 
the transition stage, to the hour when a highly com- 
plex commercial centre conies into existence. Every 
statement is illustrated by concrete examples. The 
effort is made to hold attention to social reality, just 
as in a physical or biological laboratory the teacher 
seeks to keep the student's eyes fastened upon the 
matter of investigation. In the later Books the au- 
thors return to exposition of social doctrine. With- 
out slavish imitation of Schaffle, we have here the 
essential elements of his exposition for the first time 
in intelligible English ; but there is original treat- 
ment with local illustrations. In this work we have 
the pioneer text-book for college classes and begin- 
ners in sociology. It does not claim to offer con- 
tributions to the science, and yet so clear an expo- 
sition of so complicated a subject may legitimately 
be regarded as an actual addition to the discussion. 
The chapter on the scope of sociology will provoke 
a debate which will promote the settlement of the 
vexed question of the place of sociology in the cir- 
cle of the sciences and in a course of study. 

The romance of Mr. Howells, " A Traveler from 
Altruria," belongs in the same general category with 
Plato's " Republic," More's "Utopia," Campanella's 
" City of the Sun," and Bellamy's " Looking Back- 
ward." Every man creates for himself a picture 
of a future perfect society in his imagination, but 
once in many years some poetic mind embodies the 
vision in a description. No harm is done, so long 
as the dream is not seriously regarded as a working 
programme to be carried out in details. Fortunately 
these visions are contradictory, and one illusion cor- 
rects another. This prophetic spirit, hovering over 
those who toil along the dusty way of pain-bought 
progress, cheers the pilgrims and keeps up heart- 
courage for the journey and the strife. This seems 
to be the social function of those who write novels 
and romances. The humiliating contrast between 
our own ideals and conduct awakens the conscience 
and sets us upon immediate correction of obvious 
evils. Mr. Howells's Altrurian traveller leaves us 
angry at his rebukes, but reflecting on our deeds. 
Not in vain has he visited this green earth ; not 
in cruelty and wrath has he rudely shocked our 
apathetic complacency. 

In Mr. Benjamin Kidd's " Social Evolution " we 
have a work whose popular form, earnest spirit, and 
bristling paradox insure a wide reading. Buckle 
taught that the intellectual factor is dominant in 
social progress, and that morality is stationary. 
Draper represented that religion, as embodied in the 
Church, was the foe of advance. Marx and many 
other socialists look to materiah'stic and economic 
interests for their revolutionary forces. Here is a 
writer who regards the intellectual factor as a sub- 

ordinate element, religion as the mainspring. But 
the teachers of religion must beware of the Greeks 
who bring such gifts, for religion is not " rational," 
it is distinctly "irrational." The doctrine is so 
startling that it must be stated in the author's own 
words (pp. 185-186) : 

" The most essential conclusions to which we have 
been led . . . are as follows. First, that the process 
of social development which has been taking place, and 
which is still in progress in our Western civilization, is 
not the product of the intellect, but that the motive force 
behind it has had its seat and origin in that fund of al- 
truistic feeling with which our civilization has become 
equipped. Second, that this altruistic development, and 
the deepening and softening of character which has ac- 
companied it, are the direct and peculiar product of the 
religious system on which our civilization is founded. 
Third, that to science the significance of the resulting 
process of social evolution, in which all the people are 
being slowly brought into the rivalry of existence on 
equal conditions, consists in the single fact that this 
rivalry has tended to be thereby raised to the highest 
degree of efficiency as a cause of progress it has ever 
attained. The peoples affected by the process have been 
thereby worked up to a state of social efficiency which 
has given them preponderating advantages in the strug- 
gle for existence with other sections of the race. . . . 
The intellect continues to be a most important factor in 
enabling the system to which the individual belongs to 
maintain its place in the rivalry of life; but it is no 
longer the prime factor." 

These positions will not be read without strong 
protests. The author emphasizes the radical and 
inevitable conflict between social and individual 
interests. But the other side of social progress is 
slightly treated : the increase in numbers and sat- 
isfactions in society as it exists ; the improved con- 
dition even of paupers and criminals ; and the fact 
that all this advance is due to that social order which 
gives security to the weak. It is not altogether 
" irrational " for the strong and rich to serve the 
commonwealth, since in its prosperity alone they 
are prosperous. And as for the weakest members 
of society, they owe existence itself to this progress. 
Other questions naturally arise. Will society con- 
tinue to obey an " irrational " impulse ? If the 
sanction of an order cannot be found in human life 
itself, whence can it originate ? Is it a wise use of 
language to call that alone " rational " conduct which 
secures the immediate individual satisfaction ? Was 
the death of Socrates " irrational " ? Was the hero- 
ism of those who fell at Gettysburg insane? Can 
there be a permanent conflict between reason and 
conscience, intellect and altruism ? Many such prob- 
lems and paradoxes will present themselves to the 
reader of this interesting and suggestive book. 

Mr. Charles Booth gives the world another mon- 
umental study of the depressed classes, in a work 
entitled " The Aged Poor in England and Wales." 
The object of this book is " to make more possible 
and profitable a study of the six hundred and forty- 
eight separate lessons in administration which the 
conduct of the Poor Law Unions of England and 




Wales affords." We have here something more than 
a careful and complete description of facts. The 
method of collecting the material is very instructive. 
The causal relations between the facts of depend- 
ence in old age and the domestic, economic, educa- 
tional and ecclesiastical conditions are distinctly 
brought out. The various results of the diverse 
methods of administration are disclosed and tabu- 
lated. The book is more than a political study, more 
than an economic study; it is a social study. The 
entire social system, so far as it bears on the prob- 
lem of the aged poor, is analyzed, and its working 
explained by reference to fundamental and univer- 
sal social forces. It is a truly sociological method, 
fruitful and comprehensive. Mr. Booth is a busi- 
ness man who has the outlook of the man of science. 
He gives means and time to the pursuit of social 
inquiries. We stand in need of such men in this 
country. If our National Conference of Charities 
and Corrections could secure the services of such a 
man its lame and imperfect inquiries into the facts 
of out-door relief could in a few years be set for- 
ward to satisfactory condition. A few illustrations 
of results may be set down. Taking a census of a 
single day in 1892 : 

" While only 5 per cent, of the population are paupers, 
taking all ages together, and not half of that proportion 
taking the active years of life alone, the rate is about 
10 per cent, between 60 and 65, 20 per cent, between 
65 and 70, 30 per cent, between 70 and 75, and not 
much less than 40 per cent, over 75." 

These figures would be confirmed by the similar 
inquiry of Dr. Victor Bohmert in seventy-seven Ger- 
man cities. To see the full force of such statistics 
we must separate the <k working classes " from others, 
and then we find that amongst these and small 
traders "the rate of pauperism for all over 65 is 
not less than 40 to 45 per cent." That means that 
nearly half the working people of England must 
look forward to public support if they reach old age. 
It is such facts as these which demand some better 
method of providing for the last years of life than 
any hitherto discovered. 

Professor Giddings, whose transfer to the chair 
of Sociology in Columbia College marks distinct 
progress in the new study, gives us, in his work on 
"The Theory of Sociology," a brief sketch of "the 
theoretical positions that will be more fully described 
and defended in a work on the Principles of Sociol- 
ogy, which is now well advanced towards comple- 
tion." This treatise, which embodies the substance 
of previous publications, discusses the sociological 
idea, the promise, problems, and method of sociology. 
It is of exceeding interest to all students who are 
seeking to define the field of sociological investiga- 

In " Random Roamings," by the Rev. Augustus 
Jessopp, we have the leisurely description of a culti- 
vated Anglican clergyman who finds time to inves- 
tigate the archaeology, history, and contemporary 
conditions of rural England. The aristocratic clergy- 

man's point of view is by no means concealed in 
the chapters on "A Scheme for Clergy Pensions" 
and " Something about Village Almshouses." He 
feels like patronizing the poor, and is not sanguine 
about free schools. 

" The English Peasant," by Mr. Richard Heath, 
is a book of a different kind, written by a man with 
the descriptive powers of an artist and the sympa- 
thies of a modern layman, deeply religious but not 
sectarian. The author has travelled on foot over 
much of England, and delivers the testimony of an 
eye-witness. He can appreciate the value of free 
schools, of agricultural trades-unions, of voluntary 
efforts of church and chapel, of kindly patronage 
of rich squires, and of the narrow and fanatical, but 
morally earnest, denominational preachers. 

The able Secretary of the English Labor Com- 
mission gives the public in a volume of 277 pages 
a complete survey of contemporary schemes, Brit- 
ish and Continental, for caring for the unemployed. 
The services of trades unions, labor bureaus, news- 
papers, labor colonies, municipal agencies, and many 
associations, are here described and their relative 
values weighed. The book should be read by those 
who will this winter have to face the problems of 
want in our cities. 

Professor John R. Commons has collected several 
papers on the relation of the church to social re- 
forms into a neat volume, which he entitles " Social 
Reform and the Church." He urges that the mighty 
emotional forces of religion should be utilized for 
the amelioration of human life on this planet. Pau- 
perism, politics, temperance movements, municipal 
monopolies, and proportional representation are dis- 
cussed from this standpoint. 

The " Handbook of Sociological Information " 
prepared by the City Vigilance League of New York 
will furnish a convenient list of books and articles, 
and accounts of typical beneficent institutions in the 
metropolis. In preparing the bibliography, the edit- 
ors have sought the assistance of specialists in many 
lines of investigation and experience. It is not in- 
tended to be a complete bibliography, but a selected 
list for immediate use of busy social leaders. 

The works here noticed are typical of the various 
methods by which the study of society is to be ad- 
vanced. We need the broad study of fundamental 
principles revealed in historical investigation, the 
minute study of contemporary facts in a limited 
field, and even the inspiring ideals of romance. It 
is important to determine the limits of each special 
social science, and the theory of the relation of 
science to art. It is also essential to progress that 
all the conscious and unconscious experiments of so- 
ciety be investigated and their results revealed. This 
investigation may yield a fragmentary product and 
yet be conducted by a scientific method. It is some- 
times objected to sociology that its ability to direct 
social action falls far short of completeness. But 
this is true of each special social science, even of 



[Sept. 16, 

those whose simple character made an earlier de- 
velopment possible. Sociological literature shows 
the effort to consider all the facts of all classes, an 
attempt at coordination of all factors in thought and 
in practical action. Most of the works here exam- 
ined are " sociological " only so far as they supply 
fragments of raw material for scientific treatment. 



Mr. Knox Little's treatise on Sacerdotalism is a 
book chiefly fitted to interest those in the Church 
of England who are striving to maintain and re- 
store its current beliefs and usages, and those who 
would subject them to the modification of advanc- 
ing thought. The controversy lies in a single Church 
between a conservative and a radical or reformatory 
tendency. The interest of the book, outside of this 
narrow relation, is in leading the liberal mind to a 
more cheerful recognition of the great variety of 
ways in which a true spiritual development is open 
to men. The book is very positive and exact in its 
belief, and yet one feels that this force of assertion 
and precision of method simply express the idiosyn- 
crasies of a certain class of minds idiosyncrasies 
which we do well to respect, and well to disregard. 
The author is a warm advocate of sacerdotalism. 
"I, my dear friend, as you know, am a sacerdotalist 
from head to heel. It is difficult for me to under- 
stand how a Christian can be anything else " (page 
2). Some of the points included in sacerdotalism 
are given in the preface : " There are objective truths 
which must never be forgotten the fact of the vis- 
ible church, the truth of a spiritual succession of the 
ministry, the necessary office of bishops, the real 
functions of the priesthood, the effectual force of 
sacraments, the practical value of the penitential 
system" (p. x.). The book is made up of four let- 
ters on Confession and Absolution ; Fasting, Com- 
munion and Eucharistic Worship ; the Real Pres- 
ence and the Eucharistic Sacrifice ; the Apostolic 
Ministry. As the volume is drawn out by the pres- 
ence in the Church of England of a strong tendency 
to regard these beliefs as outworn, it is necessarily 
controversial. This contention is but a small por- 
tion of that universal conflict which lies between the 

* SACERDOTALISM. By W. J. Knox Little, M.A. New 
York : Longmans, Green, & Co. 

Gould, A.M., M.D. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

THE QUESTION OF UNITY. Edited by Amory H. Brad- 
ford, D.D. New York : The Christian Literature Co. 

since the Reformation. By Joseph Henry Allen, D.D. New 
York : The Christian Literature Co. 

Carl Von Weirsacker. Translated by James Millar, B.D. 
New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

By William Mackintosh, M.A., D.D. New York : Macmillan 

old and the new. The more coherent and consist- 
ent temper may be found with those who maintain 
the old, but the more profoundly penetrative and 
constructive thought is with those who see and seek 
the new. The reader will find in the volume an 
earnest and comparatively compact statement of the 
attitude of those who cling to the old, walk in it, 
and live by it. The defense is essentially that of 
the more conservative branch of the Tractarians, 
that the Thirty-nine Articles are directed against the 
abuses, not the uses, of the earlier forms of belief. 

There is a very striking contrast between the 
attitude of mind indicated in this volume, and that 
which gave rise to the one on " The Meaning and 
the Method of Life." The author of " Sacerdotal- 
ism " adheres tenaciously many would say ser- 
vilely to the positions in faith which have long 
been held. The author of "The Meaning and 
Method of Life " goes forth quite by himself, and 
in a path in which very few are likely to follow 
him. A discrepancy so wide as this seems to re- 
flect discredit on human faculties. Reason is not 
nearly so dominant oftentimes least dominant, 
when thought to be most dominant in the action 
of mind as the forms of discussion seem to imply. 
We fling and catch the ball in groups, but each 
group has its own ball and its own game. "The 
Meaning and the Method of Life " is a book not 
easily read, nor will it reward most minds for the 
labor. The author regards matter as eternal and 
of infinite extension. It makes no revelation of any 
supreme intelligence. Life, personified as a single 
energetic and intelligent agent, is in contention with 
these physical conditions, and slowly subjects them 
to itself. This often baffled but steadily conquer- 
ing intelligence is God, whose struggles and vic- 
tories we share. " The God we see daily at work 
all over the globe is primarily and essentially Life " 
(p. 15). The difficulties and ills and blessings of 
the world lie along the pathway of this slow evolu- 
tion of life. Here is found the promise of victory. 
These ideas are capable in their treatment of much 
poetry and pathos, and these the author liberally 
bestows on them. His convictions are as positive 
as if half the human race stood by his side. Many 
of the principles by whose aid he so boldly inter- 
prets the world are sound, but he grades the facts 
to them rather than ascends and descends by means 
of them, and winds in and out in fellowship with 
the infinitely variable things about him. 

The third volume in our list, " The Question of 
Unity," is made up of an expression of opinion by 
leading men, chiefly in the Presbyterian, Congre- 
gational, Episcopal, and Baptist churches, concern- 
ing Christian Unity. These opinions were called 
out by a paper of Dr. Shield on the Historic Epis- 
copate a discussion of a possible unity of churches 
on the basis of the Chicago-Lambeth Articles. The 
writers agree quite generally, both as to the great 
desirability, and also as to the present impossibility, 
of Church Unity. The trouble would seem to be 




that the notion of Church Unity, secured on the 
basis of a creed narrowed and sifted in its terms, 
is embarrassed by precisely the same difficulty which 
has given rise to existing divisions to-wit, attach- 
ing too much relative importance to the intellectual 
formulae of faith. A unity restored by a new form- 
ula, a unity resting on a formula, is of very secondary 
moment. The intellectual discussions and dissen- 
sions of the past have played a part in the devel- 
opment of Christian thought. They cannot be 
wiped out. Farther consideration is as likely to 
extend and deepen divisions as to efface them. The 
evil does not lie in these discrepancies of thought, 
but in the false position given to them. Unity is 
before the Church, not behind it. It is to be found 
in its action, in the objects it pursues, and not in 
its speculations. Of the papers in this volume, Dr. 
Ecob's seems to us the most faithful and just. He 
discards a unity of creeds, and counsels a unity of 
effort. Those who urge a formal unity in faith, 
will find that they are simply reviving old conflicts ; 
blowing the ashes off the burning embers. 

Our fourth volume is " An Historical Sketch of 
the Unitarian Movement." Unitarianism stands, 
and has stood from its origin, quite as much for a 
movement as for a faith. It has not so much ex- 
pressed a new type of faith, of belief, as a disposi- 
tion to secure a new liberty changeable and per- 
sonal terms in belief. It has at no time been able 
to restrain its own movement, and settle down in 
firm outlines of faith. Many would regard this in- 
capacity to say anything final, as its weakness ; 
others, more justly, would accept it as its chief ex- 
cellence. This characteristic of free movement gives 
to its history wide affiliations and a less definite 
outline. The work before us is a comprehensive 
and concise tracing of that movement of which mod- 
ern Unitarianism is the most distinct expression. 
Wherever the correction of reason begins to find its 
way freely in Christian faith, elements allied to 
Unitarianism make their appearance. The history 
is thoroughly interesting, and the more so in its 
later portions as dealing with events with which the 
author has been personally familiar. It will give 
pleasure and instruction to all who look on this gain 
of thoughtfulness in religion as truly regenerative. 

" The Apostolic Age " is the product of liberal, 
earnest, thoughtful scholarship. After a brief dis- 
cussion of the Resurrection and the first collective 
action of the Church, it dwells chiefly on the Apos- 
tle Paul, his calling, his theology, and the churches 
founded by him. As the work emanates from a 
very independent and therefore self-confident mind, 
it needs to be read with something like the same 
breadth of view and freedom of interpretation. 
Studied in this temper, it is well fitted to give clear- 
ness, accuracy, and mastery to our apprehension of 
the apostolic age. As we cease to accept an author- 
itative and conventional rendering of the Biblical 
narrative whose wise study must give us almost 
exclusively our knowledge of the facts in the early 

history of the Church we must put in its place the 
mutual correction of many considerations, and the 
reciprocal outlook of diverse minds. If we fail of 
this, we shall find ourselves substituting for the 
somewhat blind consensus of the Church the impres- 
sions which happen to have come uppermost in a 
single person. The volume is not so much argu- 
mentative as presentative, and is liable, in its posi- 
tive and confident movement, which has the advan- 
tage of directness and simplicity, to sweep along 
unduly those of less scope of knowledge. As a 
thoughtful book, it calls for a thoughtful handling. 
The style is somewhat obscure. 

The author of " The Natural History of the Chris- 
tion Religion" expresses his purpose and method 
very distinctly : 

" In few words, let it here be said, summarily, that the 
negative or < destructive ' criticism which we propose to 
direct against orthodox Christianity is based on the anti- 
supernatural view of the divine government, and that 
our positive but undogmatic construction of Christianity 
is based on the teaching of Jesus. In this section, we 
shall seek to define and to defend the anti-supernatural 
view, and to draw the inferences in regard to dogma 
which seem to flow from it. In several of the follow- 
ing sections we shall seek to show that the doctrine 
of Jesus is the doctrine of the absolute religion, or of 
that form of religion which answers to the religious 
idea; and, also, that the path by which Jesus was led 
to his great discovery was by the way of historical de- 
velopment. In the remaining sections, we shall en- 
deavor to trace the steps by which the dogma in its ca- 
nonical form grew up out of the doctrine and the life of 
Jesus" (p. 19). 

This purpose is pursued very fully. There is noth- 
ing to object either to the intention or spirit of the 
work. The labor is undertaken in behalf of truth 
as the author conceives it, and is carried forward in 
an earnest, and also, so far as the conditions of the 
effort will allow, in a constructive temper. It is by 
no means made up of simply destructive criticism. 
Those who share the author's disbelief in the super- 
natural will be likely to find in the book much that 
will strengthen them. It proceeds on the ground, 
not only that miracles do not, but that they cannot, 
happen. It is sustained throughout by the assump- 
tion that the instruction of science is complete and 
final on this point. So strong an a priori position 
h priori in reference to most of the grounds and 
proofs of faith must necessarily close the mind to 
the considerations which sustain the supernatural. 
If science, with explicit proof, precludes the super- 
natural, there is an end. There is much antecedent 
work which needs to be well done before this book 
can fairly enter on its undertaking. We need to 
know what we mean by science, the breadth of 
the ground covered by it, the nature and force of its 
affirmations touching the natural and supernatural. 
We need to know exactly what we mean by the su- 
pernatural, and the relation of the miracle to it. 
The connection of the miracle, in the form in which 
we either accept it or reject it, with the physical and 
spiritual mechanism of the world, must also be dis- 



[Sept. 16, 

tinctly put. If we assume it to be an arbitrary 
ab-extra act, we have thrown it out in advance. 
What we mean by philosophy as contrasted with 
science, and what it has to say as to the ultimate 
terms of the universe, must also be present with us. 
These inquiries, which are preliminary to most of 
what the author has written, will, we believe, en- 
tirely turn his position, and leave it untenable. A 
strictly and exclusively natural world is unmanage- 
able to thought. Reason, in its own supernatural 
relations, must be saved in order that the world, as 
a product of thought, may remain to us. Fatalism 
is a gulf in which all things finally go down. Ideas 
involved in the above points are treated briefly in 
the second chapter. As they are, however, so fun- 
damental as to determine the value of most that is 
to follow, they demand a much more searching pre- 
sentation. The governing power of the universe 
must so it seems to us be at once natural and 
supernatural. The two elements must hold each 
other in equal, even, constant interpoise. The au- 
thor destroys the truly greater notion by swinging 
the world forcefully over to the side of physical 
law; as if the physical world could stand by itself, 
or hold in itself its own tendencies. The author's 
contention is chiefly successful as directed against a 
crass notion of the supernatural. The work is able, 
candid, and instructive; one that calls out much 
assent and dissent. 

These books collectively indicate how wide are 
the yet unexplored fields of spiritual thought, and 
the very diverse conclusions, therefore, which must 
still crown our quests. We are very slow to accept 
our wealth as wealth, and tear it into fragments in 
our analysis of it. JoHN BASCOM> 


Macpherson While the Ossian problem has proved 

and the Ossianic much knottier than the Rowley prob- 
lem, competent critics, on both sides 
of the Tay, have pretty generally put down " Os- 
sian " Macpherson as an impostor. Some of them, 
zealous for the honor of literature, have even re- 
gretted that Dr. Johnson's oak twig, " six feet long, 
with a knob as big as an orange," was not put to 
its intended use. The case, however, is admittedly 
one in which there is still, to quote Sancho Panza, 
" a great deal to be said on both sides." We do not 
ourselves believe that Macpherson was all impostor, 
and that his work was, as his harsher critics allege, 
a mere patchwork of plagiarisms and forgeries. 
The first Ossianic fragments, the ones shown by 
Macpherson to Douglas " Home in 1759, and pub- 
lished in 1760, were probably actual translations 
from Gaelic originals of considerable antiquity ; and 
it was in all likelihood the prodigious and unex- 
pected vogue of these early pieces, backed by the 
patriotic importunities of the Edinburgh literati, 
that started the ambitious tutor on his career of de- 

ception. While Macpherson in his longer poems 
flagrantly abused the poet's and the translator's 
license, inserting long passages of his own, supply- 
ing chasms, and omitting and shortening incidents, 
there can now be little doubt that even these poems 
have a basis, however frail, of genuineness. Later 
researches notably those of the Highland Society's 
committee in 1805, and of Dr. Waddell in 1875 
tend to show that the " epic " (" foolishly so called,'* 
as Gray properly said) of " Fingal " consists largely 
of fragments and episodes for which there were au- 
thentic originals. Macpherson's ascription, how- 
ever, of his originals to a Gaelic bard of the third 
century seems, aside from its antecedent incredibil- 
ity, fairly thrown out of court by the verdict of the 
best Gaelic scholars, that the language of Ossian is 
a modern and mutilated form of Erse that did not 
exist five hundred years ago. Caledonian faith, 
however, where Caledonian honor is concerned, is 
strong; and it may be that there are still, as even Mr. 
Gosse admits, " some persons north of the Tay who 
indulge the pleasing supposition that Fingal fought 
and Ossian sang." It has remained for Mr. Bailey 
Saunders, the author of a comely volume entitled 
"The Life and Letters of James Macpherson" 
(Macmillan), to give a full biographical account of 
the translator (or fabricator, if the reader please) 
of the " misty songs of Ullin," and to review the 
whole controversy in a really critical and liberal 
spirit. The facts of Macpherson's life, hitherto 
vaguely known, really form, or should form, an im- 
portant factor in the dispute ; for, as Mr. Saunders 
justly observes, the question of authenticity largely 
turns on his actual proceedings, and his personal 
character and attainments. In the present volume, 
which is in itself an altogether charming piece of 
biography, the reader will find an exhaustive account 
of Macpherson, and of the controversy of which he 
was the central figure. A number of extracts from 
the Ossianic poems are given, and there is a fine 
portrait, after Romney, of Macpherson. 

A help to the ^ e ta ^ e pl easure i n calling attention 

student of to Professor William Henry Hud- 

Herbert Spencer. son > s com p ac t Introduction to the 

Philosophy of Herbert Spencer " (Appleton). The 
need of a simplified outline-map of Mr. Spencer's 
complex system has often occurred to us, and Pro- 
fessor Hudson is the first, we think, to meet it sat- 
isfactorily. No better book could be placed in the 
hands of the tyro about to face the difficulties of 
the Synthetic Philosophy, nor can we point to one 
more likely to prevent him turning back disheart- 
ened before his unsentimental journey is fairly be- 
gun. Professor Hudson has not attempted an ex- 
haustive or a critical exposition; still less does he 
hold out to the student any illusory hopes that his 
book is a royal road that does away with the need 
of a first-hand study of Mr. Spencer himself, or 
even renders such first-hand study a light and easy 
task. Still, he modestly claims, " something may 
be done to smooth the way for untrained and un- 




wary feet," and to make the approach to the Syn- 
thetic Philosophy "less thorny and toilsome than it 
would otherwise be." The beginner may be helped 
to a general conception of Mr. Spencer's ground- 
idea, and to a knowledge of its genetic history ; and 
he may be shown its relation to current intellectual 
tendencies, and its influence upon current practical 
problems. It is fair to say that Professor Hudson, 
unlike too many expositors, performs rather more 
than he promises. Possessed of a clear and agree- 
able style, he has succeeded admirably, where feas- 
ible, in smoothing the asperities, without losing the 
sense, of the Derby philosopher's rather alarming 
phrase and terminology ; and he has added, more- 
over, a good deal in the way of citation and orig- 
inal comment and illustration, that will commend 
his book to more advanced Spencerians. Of the 
lighter citations, it is worth while to note in passing 
Goldwin Smith's pregnant witticism on the world- 
famous formula of evolution a point where, in the 
matter of style at least, Mr. Spencer may fairly 
claim to have out-Kanted Kant himself. "The 
universe," observed Mr. Smith, " must have heaved 
a sigh of relief when this explanation of her pro- 
cesses was given to an astonished world through the 
cerebration of a distinguished thinker." Perhaps 
Mr. Smith, like some others, thinks the reduction 
of the phenomena of the universe to a single dy- 
namic principle more satisfactory as a proof of Mr. 
Spencer's powers of generalization than as a solu- 
tion qua solution. Professor Hudson discusses in 
separate chapters " Spencer's Earlier Work," " The 
Synthetic Philosophy," "The Spencerian Sociology" 
(considered chiefly in its logical connection with 
the general scheme), "The Ethical System," and 
" The Religious Aspects of the Synthetic Philos- 
ophy." A chronological list of Mr. Spencer's works 
is appended, and there is a biographical sketch that 
should prove specially welcome to American readers. 

Few in their generation have added 

SSSSl more to " the world ' s stock of harm - 

less pleasures " than those cheery 
inseparables, Messrs. Gilbert and Sullivan ; and we 
are glad to find their lives and performances so well 
chronicled in Mr. Percy Fitzgerald's " The Gilbert 
and Sullivan Operas" (Lippincott). The book is 
not too big, and it gives what most readers will ask 
of it. Mr. Fitzgerald has collected about every- 
thing worth knowing of the Savoy operas, authors, 
and players, and his book is a pretty and acceptable 
souvenir of the days when "Patience" and "Pin- 
afore " were sung, quoted, whistled, and barrel- 
organed from unique popularity into relative dis- 
use. A separate chapter is given to the history 
and analysis of each opera, and criticism, musical 
and dramatic, is duly mingled with quotation and 
stage gossip and anecdote. Mr. Fitzgerald's abili- 
ties as a dramatic writer are well known. He clearly 
explains the rationale of the Gilbertian play, and 
pays a just tribute to the genuine quality of Mr. Sul- 
livan's music really good music in its way, crisp, 

More numbers 
of the Book of 
the Fair. 

spontaneous, wholesome, and seldom savoring of the 
" Varieties " and the Cafe Chantant. It is amus- 
ing to learn that the early bent of the composer of 
" Little Buttercup " was strongly in the direction 
of oratorio. There are many illustrations, most of 
them portraits of well-known Savoy Thespians in 

favorite roles. 

" The Book of the Fair " (Bancroft 
Co.), which we have more than once 
had occasion to commend, is making 
rapid progress. Parts twelve to sixteen, inclusive, 
are now issued, leaving but nine more to complete 
the work. The first of these five parts concludes 
the description of the Agricultural, Horticultural, and 
Forestry exhibits, and starts the chapter on " Mines, 
Mining, and Metallurgy." This subject is con- 
cluded in the second part, and the Fisheries Build- 
ing is taken up. Some of the plates well illustrate 
the characteristic and genial decoration of that 
charming structure. In the third of these parts 
comes the Transportation Building, with its loco- 
motives, palace cars, and other objects of interest. 
A fine plate of the Viking Ship occurs in this con- 
nection. The Columbus Caravels, the U. S. Battle- 
ship, and the Moving Sidewalk also find illustration 
here. The subject of Transportation is thus carried 
through the fourth part and into the fifth, where it 
finally gives place to "The Live Stock Department." 
Many fine portraits of horses, sheep, and cattle ac- 
company this chapter. Anthropology is next taken 
up, and there the tale ends for the present. The 
plates that go with these chapters are, we need 
hardly repeat, exceptionally fine examples of pho- 
tographic process, and the selection of subjects is 
admirably judicious and comprehensive. We shall 
await with interest the concluding instalments of 
this praiseworthy publication. 

The changing seasons, the birds, the 
flowers, the trees, sea and shore, are 
themes which never fail to inspire 
the pen of the true nature-lover. A dainty little 
volume of short papers on such themes, by Miss 
Mabel Osgood Wright, comes with the title " The 
Friendship of Nature" (Macmillan). The writer 
has a sympathetic eye and touch for every face that 
nature wears in her New England home. Begin- 
ning with " A New England May-Day " and " When 
Orchards Bloom," these graceful sketches reflect 
the changing aspects of the blooming and the wan- 
ing year, and convince us that the author, though 
writing prose, is a true poet in the Emersonian sense, 
namely, in the power to see the miraculous in the 
common. From the same publishers comes another 
delightful book with nature for a theme, but with 
considerable of the human interest added, " The 
Garden that I Love," by Mr. Alfred Austin. Poet, 
story-teller, and gentle humorist, as Mr. Austin has 
frequently shown himself to be, he shines in all 
three characters in this volume. A brother and a 
sister in an old English country-house, with their 
guests the " Poet," who recites dainty verses, and 



[Sept. 16, 

" Lamia," a brilliant young woman with a rich con- 
tralto voice, who sings them are the personages 
in this setting of " The Garden," where from May 
to November all is light and bloom and fragrance. 
The charm of the text is increased by the illustra- 
tions, .which are many and choice. 

" Select Specimens of the Great 

French Writers in the 17th > 18th > 

and 19th Centuries," edited by M. 
G. E. Fasnacht (Macmillan), is one of the best 
French reading-books with which we are acquainted. 
It has the great merit of being large enough to pre- 
sent extracts of considerable length, and to allow 
the teacher wide latitude in its use. The selections 
are all from the " Great Writers who tower head 
and shoulders above their contemporaries." With 
each writer appears a selection of " appreciations " 
from the best French critics, and the whole is pre- 
ceded by a historical sketch of French literature, 
abridged from MM. Vinet and Faguet. There are 
nearly six hundred pages of rather small type. A 
much smaller reading-book, intended for beginners, 
is Mr. A. N. Van Daell's " Introduction to French 
Authors" (Ginn). It includes simple pieces in 
prose and verse from nineteenth century writers, a 
resume of French history, based upon a book by M. 
Lavisse, and a sketch of the government of the pres- 
ent Republic. There is also a vocabulary, so that 
the book may be used before the dictionary pur- 
chasing stage has been reached. 


Dr. John T. Prince is the author of a new system of 
" Arithmetic by Grades " (Ginn), which is differentiated 
into a " Teachers' Manual " and eight booklets for the 
uses of the pupil, corresponding to the accepted grading 
of lower school work. The special features of the sys- 
tem, besides the above differentiation, are a careful 
gradation of work, frequent reviews, a great amount 
and variety of oral work and problems, and the practi- 
cal character of most of the examples. The books for 
the seventh and eighth grades introduce a small amount 
of elementary work in algebra and geometry, a partic- 
ularly praiseworthy feature of the series. 

" A Laboratory Manual of Physics and Applied Elec- 
tricity," edited by Professor Edward L. Nichols, is to 
consist of two volumes, the first of which is now pub- 
lished (Macmillan). The sub-title of this instalment is 
a " Junior Course in General Physics," and it is the work 
of Messrs. Ernest Merritt and Frederick J. Rogers. 
All the persons named are teachers at Cornell Univer- 
sity. This first volume, intended for beginners (in the 
college sense) gives explicit directions for work, to- 
gether with demonstrations and occasional elementary 
statements of principles. The forthcoming volume will 
take more for granted. The use of this work presup- 
poses some knowledge of physical principles, as well as 
of analytical geometry and the calculus. 

" The Memoirs of Edmund Ludlow, Lieutenant-Gen- 
eral of the Horse in the Army of the Commonwealth of 

England, 1625-1672," edited by Mr. C. H. Firth, comes 
to us in two volumes, with the beautiful typography of 
the Oxford Clarendon Press (Macmillan). Ludlow's 
" Memoirs " were first published in 1698-9. The title- 
page of the original edition pretends that the work was 
printed at Vevay, in Switzerland, but this pretence is 
disproved by contemporary evidence. They have been 
several times reprinted in 1721, 1751, 1771, and 1807. 
" The justification of the present edition lies in the fact 
that it is the first to restore a number of passages sup- 
pressed by Ludlow's editor, and the first containing crit- 
ical and explanatory notes, and adding the letters of 


Following our annual custom, we give herewith a 
list of the books that are announced for publication in 
this country during the present season. The publishers 
have responded freely and promptly to our requests for 
information, and probably few if any important omis- 
sions will be found. The avalanche of material has 
been sifted and the list of titles classified and arranged 
with the greatest care ; and though errors in such work 
are of course inevitable, it is believed that these are in- 
significant, and due to meagre or misleading informa- 
tion. The books in the list are presumably all new 
books new editions not being included unless having 
new form or matter. The fulness and comparative ex- 
cellence of the list are matters for general congratula- 
tion, and some comments upon its more interesting fea- 
tures may be found in the leading editorial article of 
this issue. 


Continental History, a series including: France Under the 
Regency, by James Breck Perkins ; The Eve of the French 
Revolution, by E. J. Lowell ; The First Napoleon, by John 
C. Ropes ; The Dawn of Italian Independence, by William 
R. Thayer (2 vols.) ; The Reconstruction of Europe, by 
Harold Murdock ; per vol., $2 ; the set, boxed, $12. 
Side Glimpses from the Colonial Meeting House, by Will- 
iam Root Bliss. Following the Greek Cross, memories of 
the Sixth Army Corps, by Gen. T. W. Hyde, with por- 
traits. (Houghton, Mifflin & Co.) 

History of the United States, by E. Benjamin Andrews, D.D., 
2 vols. The Mogul Emperors of Hindostan, by Edward 
S. Holden, LL.D., illus. (Chas. Scribner's Sons.) 

The Story of the Civil War in America, by John Codman 
Ropes, 3 vols., illus., with maps, etc., per vol., $1.50. 
Social England, from earliest times to the present day, by 
various writers, edited by H. D. Traill, D.C.L., 6 vols., 
$3.50. New vols. in the " Story of the Nations " series. 
The Story of the Crusades, by T. S. Archer and C. L. 
Kingsford ; The Story of Venice, by Alethea Wiel ; each, 
1 vol., illus., $1.50. The Winning of the West, Vol. III.: 
The Founding of the Trans- Alleghany Commonwealths, 
1784-1790, by Theodore Roosevelt, $2.50. (G. P. Putnam's 
Sons. ) 

The Marquis de La Fayette in the War of the Revolution, 

with some account of the attitude of France toward the 

War of Independence, by Charlemagne Tower, Jr., 2 vols. 

Henry of Navarre and the Religious Wars, by Edward T. 

Blair, profusely illus. Colonial Days and Dames, by Anne 

Hollingsworth Wharton, limited edition de luxe. ( J. B. 

Lippincott Co. ) 
A History of the United States Navy, Vol. II., 1775 to 1894, 

by Edgar S. Maclay, A.M., illus., $3.50. (D. Appleton 

Mediaeval Europe, 800 to 1300 A.D., by Prof. Ephraim Emer- 

ton. A History of Greece, by Prof. P. V. N. Myers. 

(Ginn & Co.) 

The Jesuit Relations, limited edition, in exact facsimile from 
originals, 54 vols., per vol., $2.50. (George P. Humphrey.) 




Short History of English Commerce, by W. Cunningham, D.D. 
Stories from English History, by Rev. Alfred J. Church. 
The Meaning of History, and other historical pieces, by 
Frederic Harrison. Western Europe in the Fifth Century, 
by E. A. Freeman. Greek History from its Origin to the 
Destruction of the Independence of the Greek People, by 
Adolf Holm, 4 vols. Handbook of European History, by 
Arthur Hassall. The British Fleet, the growth, achieve- 
ments, and duties of the Navy of the Empire, by Com- 
mander Robinson, R. N., illus. History, Prophecy, and 
the Monuments, by J. F. McCurdy, Vol. I., To the Fall of 
Samaria, $3. i Mat-mill ;m & Co.) 

The French Revolution Tested by the Career of Mirabeau. a 
series of lectures by Dr. H. Von Hoist, 2 vols., with por- 
trait, $3.50. (Callaghan & Co.) 

History of Antiquity, by Prof. Max Duncker, in 6 vols., $30. 
(Chas. H.Sergei Co.) 

A History of the Commonwealth and the Protectorate, by 
Samuel Rawson Gardiner, M.A., Vol. I. Records of the 
Infantry Militia Battalions of the County of Southampton, 
from 1757 to 1894, by Col. G. H. Lloyd- Verney, with por- 
traits, $10. (Longmans, Green, & Co.) 


Edwin Booth, recollections by his daughter, Edwina Booth 
Grossmann, with Booth's letters to her and to his friends, 
illus., $3. (Century Co.) 

Lucy Larcom, life, letters, and diary, by Rev. Daniel D. Ad- 
dison, with portrait. George William Curtis, by Edward 
Gary, with portrait, Si. 25. The Life of Frances Power 
Cobbe, by herself, illus., 2 vols. Bishop Andrewes, by 
Rev. R. L. Ottley, with portrait, $1. Life and Letters of 
John Greenleaf Whittier, by Samuel T. Pickard, 2 vols., 
illus. (Houghton, Mifflin & Co.) 

Three Score Years and Ten, by W. J. Linton, with portrait, 
$2. Life and Letters of Erasmus, by James Anthony 
Froude, $2.50. William Shakspere, a study of Eliza- 
bethan Literature, by Barrett Wendell, $2. The Life of 
Charles Loring Brace, chiefly told in his own letters, edited 
by Emma Brace, with portraits. (Chas. Scribner's Sons.) 

Our Presidents, 1789-1894, by George Bancroft, John Fiske, 
and others, with portraits on steel and other illustrations. 
( D. Appleton & Co.) 

The Life and Correspondence of Ruf us King-comprising his 
letters, speeches, etc., edited by Charles K. King, M.D., 
5 vols., Vol. II., $5. The Life and Genius of Jacobo Ro- 
busti, called Tintoretto, by Frank Preston Stearns, illus. 
Napoleon, by Alexandre Dumas, trans, by John B. Lar- 
ner. Lives of Twelve Bad Men, original studies of emi- 
nent scoundrels, by various hands, edited by Thomas Sec- 
combe, illus. ( G- P. Putnam's Sons. ) 

Life of Henry Edward Manning, Cardinal Archbishop of 
Westminster, by Edmund Sheridan Purcell, 2 vols., illus. 
Biographies of Atterbury, Bunyan, Goldsmith, Johnson, 
and Pitt, by Lord Macaulay, 50 cts. Life and Letters of 
R. W. Church, late Dean of St. Paul's. Life of Sir A. C. 
Ramsay, by Archibald Geikie, F.R.S., illus. Life and Art 
of Joseph Jefferson, together with some account of his 
ancestry, etc., by William Winter, illus., $2.25. Life 
of Swift, by Henry Craik, C.B., new edition in 2 vols., 
with portraits. More Memories of Dean Hole, by the Very 
Rev. S. Reynolds Hole, $2.25. (Macmillan & Co.) 

Napoleon at Home, the daily life of the Emperor at the Tuil- 
eries, by Frederick Masson, 2 vols., illus. by de Myrbach. 
Napoleon and the Women of his Court, by Frederick Mas- 
son, illus. Around a Throne : Catherine II. of Russia, her 
friends and favorites, by K. Waliszewski, 2 vols. (J. B. 
Lippincott Co. ) 

Arthur O'Shaughnessy, his life and work, with selections 
from his poems ; by Louise Chandler Moulton, with por- 
trait, $1.25. (Stone & Kimball.) 

Life and Inventions of Thomas A. Edison, by W. K. L. Dick- 
son and Antonia Dickson, with 250 illustrations, $5. Fa- 
mous Leaders Among Men, by Sarah K. Bolton, illus., 
$1.50. (T. Y. Crowell&Co.) 

Memoirs of the Verney Family during the Civil War, compiled 
by Lady Verney, Vol. III., illus. Life of Edward Bou- 
veriePusey, D.D., by Henry Parry Liddon, D.D., edited by 
Rev. J. O. Johnston, Vol. III. (Longmans, Green, & Co.) 

Character Studies, with some personal recollections, by Fred- 
erick Saunders. (Thomas Whittaker.) 

Memoir of Henry Jacob Bigelow, A.M., M.D., with portraits, 
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[Sept. 16, 

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[Sept. 16, 

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