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From the collection of the 

n m 

o Prejinger 


San Francisco, California 

1845 1847 1853 




Semi-Monthly Journal of 

Literary Criticism, Discussion, and Information 


JULY i TO DECEMBER 16, 1897 







AMERICAN FICTION, NEW IDEAL IN . Margaret Steele Anderson . . 269 


AMERICAN LITERATURE . Anna B. McMahan .... 87 


" AMERICAN STYLE " Edmund Kemper Broadus . 139 

ART AND LIFE . .'..", Edward E. Hale, Jr. . . . 181 

BALKANS, ETERNAL PROBLEM OF THE Charles H. Cooper .... 70 

BALLIOL, THE LATE MASTER OF C. A. L. Richards .... 8 

BARD, AN ENGLISH, AND HIS SCOTCH EDITOR . . ... Melville B. Anderson . . . 113 


BIRD BOOK, A MONUMENTAL . . Sara A. Hubbard .... 333 

BISMARCK AND THE GERMAN EMPIRE Charles H. Cooper .... 250 


BOOKS FOR THE YOUNG, 1897 342, 398 





BROWNING, MRS., LETTERS OF Louis J. Block 274 



CONSTITUTION, EVOLUTION OF A James Oscar Pierce .... 67 



DRAMA, PRE-SHAKESPEARIAN Albert H. Tolman .... 389 

DRAMA, VICTORIAN Tuley Francis Huntington . , 247 

EAST, SECRET OF THE Edward E. Hale, Jr. . . . 42 

EDUCATION, RECENT STUDIES IN Hiram M. Stanley .... 219 

EGYPT, CORRESPONDENCE OF Two KINGS OF, 1500 B. C. . James Henry Breasted . . . 116 


ENGLISH WORDS, STUDY OF Margaret Cooper McGiffert . 217 

EX-PRESIDENT'S VIEWS OF HIS COUNTRY Harry Pratt Judson .... 386 



FICTION, RECENT WUliamMortonPaynel8.9l,282,389 

FRANCE PREPARING FOR THE REVOLUTION James West/all Thompson . . 277 






KNOWLEDGE, FOUNDATIONS OF Frank Chapman Sharp . . 215 

LINES, MAGIC S. R. Elliott 239 


LITERARY VALUES Charles Leonard Moore . . . 175 


MAN AND DESTINY, ESSAYS ON Frederick Starr 218 



NATURE AND WILD LIFE , Sara A. Hubbard .... 12 

NAVAJOS, LEGENDS AND Music OF THE Frederick Starr 146 



NOTHING BUT LEAVES Edward E. Hale, Jr. . , . 145 


POETRY, RECENT William Morton Payne . . . 183 


PURITAN NEW ENGLAND, A GLIMPSE OF Percy Favor Bicknell . . . 328 






SPITZBERGEN, ACROSS AND ABOUND ........ .......... 65 

STOWE, MBS., LIFE AND LETTERS OF ................... 

TEACHING ENGLISH FOB A LIVELIHOOD ....... George Beardsley ..... 27( 

TENNYSON MEMOIBS, THE ....................... 


TRAVELS, NEW BOOKS OF ............ Hiram M. Stanley . . .15 

WAGNER AND THE BAYREUTH IDEA ........ William Morton Payne . . . 

WHEN DOCTORS DISAGREE ............ William Edward Simonds . . 




Frederick Starr ..... 44 

ANNOUNCEMENTS OF FALL BOOKS OF 1897 ................... 152, 192 


BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS .............. 20, 51, 74, 93, 118, 149, 189, 220, 253, 287 

BRIEFER MENTION ................. 23, 76, 97, 120, 151, 191, 224, 256, 290 

LITERARY NOTES ............. 24, 52, 77, 97, 120, 160, 191, 224, 257, 290, 346, 403 

TOPICS IN LEADING PERIODICALS .................... 26, 77, 121, 258 

LISTS OF NEW BOOKS ......... 26, 53, 78, 98, 121, 193, 225, 258, 291, 347, 404 



Abbott, C. C. Fireside and Forest Library . . 337 
Abbott, Evelyn. Life and Letters of Jowett . . 8 
Abbott, Jacob. Hollo Books, new edition . . . 346 
About, Edmond. King of the Mountains . . . 120 
Adams, W. I. Lincoln. Sunlight and Shadow . 339 
Aflalo, F. G. The Literary Year-Book ... 76 
Alaska, Rand-McNally's pocket map of .... 162 

Alger, Abby L. In Indian Tents 399 

Allen, Francis H. Nature's Diary 289 

Allen, Grant. An African Millionaire .... 391 
Alling-Aber, Mary. An Experiment in Education 219 
Altsheler, J. A. A Soldier of Manhattan . . . 285 

America and the Americans 118 

American Colonial Tracts . . 24, 52, 121, 161, 224 

Amicis, E. de. Cuore, new edition 346 

Amicis, E. de. On Blue Water 340 

Anderson, Jessie M. Study of English Words . 217 
Angot, Alfred. The Aurora Borealis .... 76 
Argyll, Duke of. Philosophy of Belief ... 73 
Armour, Margaret. Fall of the Nibelungs . . 338 
Arnold, B. W., Jr. Tobacco Industry in Virginia 91 
Asbjornsen, P. C. Fairy Tales from the Far North 398 
Atwell, Henry. Pense*es of Joubert .... 397 
Austin, J. O. Roger Williams Calendar . . . 291 

Austin, L. F. At Random 23 

Baldwin, Joseph. School Management .... 220 
Balzac, Dent-Macmillan edition of . . 77, 97, 257 
Banks, Louis A. An Oregon Boyhood .... 346 
Barlow, Jane. Irish Idylls, ill us. by Clifton Johnson 340 

Barnes, James. A Loyal Traitor 286 

Barnes, James. Commodore Bainbridge . . . 343 
Barnes, James. Yankee Ships and Sailors . . . 403 

Barr, Robert. The Mutable Many 19 

Baskett, James N. Story of the Birds .... 14 
Baucus, Georgiana. In Journeyings Oft . . . 333 
Baum, L. Frank. Mother Goose in Prose . . . 399 
Baylor, Frances C. Miss Nina Barrow .... 401 

Bazin, Rene". Italians of To-Day 332 

Bede, Cuthbert. Verdant Green, new edition . 341 

Bellamy, Edward. Equality 49 

Belloc, Hilaire. Verses and Sonnets .... 189 
Benham, Charles. The Fourth Napoleon . . . 391 

Bennett, John. Master Skylark 344 

Benson, A. C. Lord Vyet 189 



Benson, E. W. Cyprian 96 

Berenson, B. Venetian Painters, holiday edition 339 
Besant, Sir Walter. A Fountain Sealed . . . 389 

" Bibelot " Series, new vols. in 395 

Bigelow, Poultney. White Man's Africa . . . 331 
Bigham, Clive. Through Western Asia . . .17 

Blackmore, R. D. Dariel 390 

Blaisdell, A. F. Practical Physiology . . . .151 

Blanchan, Neltje. Bird Neighbors 340 

Blanchard, Amy E. A Dear Little Girl . . .402 
BlashBeld, E. H. and E. W. Vasari's Lives . . 339 
Bloundelle-Burton, J. The Clash of Arms . . 390 
Boissier, Gaston. Cicero and his Friends ... 51 

Boix, Emile. Liver of Dyspeptics 161 

Bompiani, Sophia V. The Waldenses .... 190 

Bonehill, Ralph. Gun and Sled 346 

Boothby, Guy. Fascination of the King ... 20 
Bouvet, Marguerite. Little House in Pimlico . 345 
Brigham, J. F. Pellico's Francesca da Rimini . 161 

Brinton, D. G. Maria Candelaria 288 

Britton and Brown. An Illustrated Flora, Vol. II. 23 

" Brocade " Series, new vols. in 395 

Brooke, Stopf ord. Old Testament and Modern Life 23 
Brooks, E. S. Century Book of the Revolution . 342 

Brown, Kate L. The Plant Baby 400 

Browne, Irving. The Book- Worm 340 

Browning Society Papers 253 

Bruce, Alexander B. With Open Face .... 251 
Bryce, James. Impressions of South Africa . .331 

Buchan, John. Sir Walter Ralegh 291 

Buckham, James. The Heart of Life .... 185 

Bunner, H. C. Three Operettas 399 

Burlingame, H. J. Hermann the Magician . . 340 
Burns's Poetical Works, " Cambridge " edition . 388 
Burrage, E. Harcourt. The Vanished Yacht . . 403 
Butterworth, Hezekiah. Over the Andes . . . 345 
Butterworth, Hezekiah. True to his Home . . 343 
Butts, E. L. Manual of Physical Drill . . .191 
Cable, G. W. Old Creole Days, holiday edition . 336 

Caine, Hall. The Christian 283 

Calendars for 1898 341 

Cargill, J. F. The Big-Horn Treasure . . . .345 

Carlyle, Thomas. Montaigne 256 

Carlyle's Works, Centenary " edition . . 77, 257 




Carpenter, F. I. English Lyric Poetry . . . 223 
Carpenter, F. I. Outline Guide to Study of En- 
glish Lyric Poetry 223 

Cams, Paul. Karma, third edition 346 

Central Berkshire Illustrated 397 

Chadsey, C. E. Struggle between President John- 
son and Congress over Reconstruction ... 91 
Chamberlain, H. S. Richard Wagner .... 242 
Chamberlain, N. H. Samuel Sewall .... 328 
Chamberlain and Clark. Vocal Expression . . 403 

Chambers, R. W. With the Band 185 

Champney, Elizabeth W. Pierre and his Poodle . 345 
Champuey, Elizabeth W. Witch Winnie in Venice 401 
Chapin, Anna A. Story of the Rhinegold . . . 399 

Chapman, Abel. Wild Norway 16 

Chapman, Frank M. Bird-Life 13 

Chapman, Mrs. E. R. Marriage Questions in Mod- 
ern Fiction 94 

Chatfield-Taylor, H. C. The Vice of Fools . . 286 

Chautauqua Books for 1897-98 97 

Christian Worship 149 

Christison, J. S. Crime and Criminals .... 222 

Church, A. J. Lords of the World 343 

Church, Samuel H. John Marmaduke .... 284 
Claghorn, Kate H. College Training for Women 220 

Claretie, Jules. Brichanteau, Actor 287 

Claretie, Jules. Crime of the Boulevard . . . 287 
Clark, Imogen. Will Shakespeare's Little Lad . 344 
Clemens, S. L. How to Tell a Story .... 75 
Clifford, Mrs. W. K. Mrs. Keith's Crime, new ed. 161 
Clover, Sam T. Paul Travers' Adventures . . 345 

Clowes, W. L. The Royal Navy Ill 

Codman, John. An American Transport in the 

Crimean War 94 

Colton, Julia M. Annals of Switzerland . . . 161 

Comstock, John H. Insect Life 224 

Connell, F. Norreys. The Fool and his Heart . 20 
Conway, Sir W. M. First Crossing of Spitsbergen 65 

Coonley, Lydia A. Singing Verses 399 

Cooper, J. Fenimore. Autobiography of a Pocket- 

Handkerchief 74 

Corbett Collection of Casts, Catalogue of ... 290 
Corbin, John. School Boy Life in England . . 396 
Coues, Elliott. Henry and Thompson Journals . 40 
Courthope, W. J. English Poetry, Vol. II. . . 221 

Cox, Jacob D. Battle of Franklin 288 

Craddock, Charles Egbert. Young Mountaineers 344 
Craik, Henry. Selections from English Prose . 97 
Crane, Walter. Decorative Illustration of Books 68 
Craufurd, A. H. Christian Instincts and Modern 

Doubt 148 

Crawford, F. Marion. A Rose of Yesterday . . 18 

Crawford, F. Marion. Corleone 284 

Creevy, Caroline A. Flowers of Field, Hill, and 

Swamp 190 

Crockett, S. R. Sir Toady Lion 403 

Crowe, Eyre. Thackeray's Homes and Haunts . 52 

Cruikshank Fairy-Book 398 

Curtis, Atherton. Masters of Lithography . . 120 
Dallinger, F. W. Nominations for Elective Office 91 

Davids, E. Rhys. Buddhism 74 

Davis, R. H. Cuba in War Time . . * . . 76 

Davis, R. H. Soldiers of Fortune 18 

Dawson, A. J. Mere Sentiment 92 

Dawson, A. J. Middle Greyness 92 

Deland, Ellen D. Alan Ransford 401 

Deland, Ellen D. A Successful Venture . . . 401 
De Vere, Aubrey, Recollections of 248 


Dickens, Mamie. My Father as I Recall Him . 190 
Dickens's Works, " Gadshill " edition .... 291 
Diderot's Rameau's Nephew, new edition . . . 191 
Dixson, Zella A. Index to Prose Fiction . . . 253 
Dobson, A. English Literature, new edition . . 121 
Dodge, Mary Mapes. New Baby World . . . 400 

Dole, Edmund P. The Stand-By 284 

Dole, N. H. Matthew Arnold's Poems . . .191 
Douglas, Amanda M. Children at Sherburne . 401 

Douglas, Amanda M. Hannah Ann 401 

Douglas, Amanda M. Her Place in the World . 401 
Dowden, Edward. French Revolution and En- 
glish Literature 74 

Dowden, Edward. Selections from Wordsworth 391 

Doyle, A. Conan. Uncle Bernac 92 

Drake, Samuel A. On Plymouth Rock . . . 402 

Drummond, Henry. The Habitant 394 

Drysdale, William. The Beach Patrol .... 345 
DuBois, W. E. B. Suppression of Slave Trade . 90 

Du Maurier, George. The Martian 91 

Dunning, E. J. Genesis of Shakespeare's Art . 288 

Durrett, R. T. Bryant's Station 93 

Edgren, H. Brief Italian Grammar .... 403 
Elliot, D. G. Gallinaceous Game Birds . . . 394 

Ely, Dean of. Ely Cathedral 289 

Everett-Green, Mrs. E. A Clerk of Oxford . . 402 

Everett-Green, Mrs. E. Sister 402 

Evil and Evolution . . 73 

" Faience " editions, new vols. in 161 

Fairbrother, W. H. Philosophy of T. H. Green . 120 
Farmer, J. E. Essays on French History ... 96 

Farrar, F. W. The Bible 117 

Farrow, G. E. The Missing Prince 398 

Field, Eugene. Lullaby-Land 399 

Field, Mr. and Mrs. R. M. Muses up to Date . 398 
Fields, Annie. Life and Letters of Mrs. Stowe . 384 
Filon, Augustin. The English Stage . . . .247 
Fisher, G. P. History of Christian Doctrine . . 72 

Fiske, Amos K. Myths of Israel 118 

Fiske, John. The Critical Period, holiday edition 336 

Fletcher, J. S. Ballads of Revolt 189 

Fletcher, J. S. In the Days of Drake .... 283 

Flying Leaves 397 

Foote, Elizabeth L. Librarian of Sunday School 224 
Ford, Paul L. Story of an Untold Love . . . 285 

Foster, R. F. Complete Hoyle 161 

Fouque", De la M. Undine, illus. by Miss Pitman 339 
Franklin and Marshall College Obituary Record . 291 

Frazer, R. W. British India 96 

Freeman, E. A. In Normandy and Maine . . 16 
Frost, W. H. Knights of the Round Table . . 343 
Fuller, Anna. Pratt Portraits, holiday edition . 341 
Garrett, Edmund H. The Puritan Coast . . . 337 
Gavard, Charles. A Diplomat in London ... 21 
Gibbons, H. de B. Industry in England ... 48 

Gibson, Charles Dana. London 392 

Gibson, William Hamilton. Eye Spy . . . .289 
Gibson, William Hamilton. My Studio Neighbors 289 
Giddings, F. H. Theory of Socialization ... 52 
Gilbert, G. H. Student's Life of Jesus . . . .251 
Gilder, Richard Watson. For the Country . . 184 

Gladstone, W. E. Later Gleanings 148 

Gollancz, I. "Temple Classics" . 77, 97, 121, 256 
Gollancz, I. "Temple Dramatists" 77, 97, 121, 256 

Gomme, G. L. King's Story Book 402 

Goodwin, Maud W. Romances of Colonial Virginia 336 
Goodwin, Maud W., and others. Historic New York 337 
Gordon, H. R. Pontiac, Chief of the Ottawas . 285 




Gosse, Edmund. Seventeenth Century Studies . 95 
Graham, P. Anderson. The Victorian Era . .121 
Griffin, A. P. C. Catalogue Washington Collection 151 
Guerber, H. A. Stories of Famous Operas . . 396 

Guiney, Louise Imogen. Patrins 145 

Hale, Edward Everett. Susan's Escort . . . 287 

Hall, Bradnock. Fish-Tails 20 

Hall, Edith K. Adventures in Toyland . . . 400 
Harding, S. B. Contest over Ratification in Mass. 90 
Hardy, W. J. Book- Plates, revised edition . .120 
Harland, Marion. Old-Field School-Girl . . .401 
Harland, Marion. Some Colonial Homesteads . 336 

Harp, Story of the 341 

Harraden, Beatrice. Untold Tales of the Past . 402 
Harris, J. R. and Helen B. Letters from Armenia 17 
Harris, Joel C. Aaron in the Wildwoods . . . 344 

Harris, Samuel. God the Creator 72 

Harrison, Benjamin. This Country of Ours . . 386 
Hart, A. B. Am. History Told by Contemporaries 95 
Hart, Mrs. Ernest. Picturesque Burma . . . 330 

Harte, Bret. Three Partners 284 

Hay, Henry H. Trumpets and Shawms . . . 186 
Hay, John. Speech at Unveiling of Bust of Scott 160 
Hayens, Herbert. An Emperor's Doom . . . 402 
Hayens, Herbert. Soldiers of the Legion . . . 402 
Hazen, C. D. Contemporary American Opinion of 

French Revolution 255 

H. B. and B. T. B. Book of Beasts 400 

H. B. and B. T. B. More Beasts 400 

Henderson, W. J. Last Cruise of the Mohawk . 343 
Hendry, H. Red Apple and Silver Bells . . . 399 

Henley, W. E. Works of Byron 113 

Henty, G. A. With Frederick the Great . . .343 
Higginson, T. W. Procession of the Flowers . . 13 

Higginson, T. W. Book and Heart 183 

Hill, G. Birkbeck. Johnsonian Miscellanies . . 142 
Hillis, N. D. Foretokens of Immortality . . . 149 
Hinde, Sidney L. Fall of the Congo Arabs . . 15 
Hobhouse, L. T. Theory of Knowledge . . . 215 
Hodges, George. In this Present World . . . 149 
Holmes, William H. Monuments of Yucatan . 44 
Hommel, Fritz. The Ancient Hebrew Tradition . 117 

Hopkins, Albert. Magic 347 

Hopkins, Tighe. Dungeons of Old Paris . . . 190 

Horton, George. Constantine 286 

Horton, R. F. Oliver Cromwell 150 

Hotchkiss, C. C. A Colonial Free Lance . . .285 

Hough, E. Story of the Cowboy 255 

Housman, A. E. A Shropshire Lad 188 

Houston, D. F. Nullification in South Carolina . 90 
Hovey, H. C., and Call, R. E. The Mammoth Cave 151 
Howells, W. D. An Open-Eyed Conspiracy . . 284 
Hubbard, Elbert. Little Journeys for 1897 . . 397 
Hughes, J. L. Froebel's Educational Laws . . 220 
Humphrey, Maud. Little Grown- Ups .... 400 
Humphreys, A. L. The Private Library ... 76 
Huntington, A. M. Note-Book in Spain . . . 396 

Hurll, Estelle M. Madonna in Art 393 

Ian Maclaren Year-Book 341 

" Illustrated English Library " 290 

Ingersoll, Ernest. Golden Alaska 162 

Ingersoll, Ernest. Wild Neighbors 402 

Inman, Henry. Old Santa F<* Trail 393 

Irving, Washington. Astoria, " Tacoma " edition 36 
Jackson, Lady, Works of, new edition .... 161 
James, William. Essays in Popular Philosophy . 149 

Janes, Lewis G. Samuell Gorton 91 

Jerrold, Walter. Bon-Mots of 18th Century . . 256 


Johnson, Helen K. Sayings of Famous Men . . 341 
Johnson, Helen K. Woman and the Republic . 50 
Johnson, Henry. Exploits of Myles Standish . . 402 
Johnston, Harold W. Latin Manuscripts ... 75 
Johnston, R. M. Old Times in Middle Georgia . 287 
Johnston, Sir Harry H. British Central Africa . 178 
Jones, Chloe Blakeman. Lovers' Shakspere . . 341 
Judson, Harry P. The Young American . . . 224 

Kemble, E. W. The Blackberries 400 

Kemp, E. W. Outline of Method in History . . 161 
Kenyon, F. G. Mrs. Browning's Letters . . . 274 

Ker, W. P. Epic and Romance 47 

King, H. M. Baptism of Roger Williams . . . 151 
Kipling, Rudyard. Captains Courageous . . . 344 
Kipling, Works of, " Outward Bound " edition . 42 

Kitton, F. G. Novels of Dickens 190 

Kuhns, L. Oscar. Dante's Divine Comedy . . 256 
Kuhns, L. Oscar. Nature in " Divine Comedy " . 256 
Lang, Andrew. Modern Mythology .... 388 

Lang, Andrew. Pink Fairy Book 398 

Lang, Andrew. Selections from Wordsworth . 341 
Larned, J. N. A Talk about Books .... 76 
Lamed, W. C. Arnaud's Masterpiece .... 286 
Lathrop, Rose Hawthorne. Memories of Hawthorne 96 

Lawrence, Ruth. Colonial Verses 187 

Leask, Keith. Life of Boswell 51 

Leighton, Robert. The Golden Galleon . . . 343 
Lesser, M. A. Echoes of Halcyon Days . . . 186 
Lewis, E. H. First Book in Writing English . 224 

Life's Comedy, second series 397 

Lincklaen, John, Journals of 289 

Lincoln, Jeanie G. An Unwilling Maid . . . 402 

Locke, William J. Derelicts 19 

Logan, John A., Jr. In Joyful Russia ... 16 
Longfellow's Evangeline, holiday edition . . . 392 

Love's Messages 290 

Lummis, Charles F. King of the Broncos . . . 403 
Lummis, Charles F. The Enchanted Burro . . 403 
Lydekker, R., and others. Natural History . . 257 
Mabie, H. W. Old English Love Songs . . .396 
MacCoun, Townseud. The Holy Land .... 287 
Mach, E. The Analysis of Sensations .... 22 
MacMechan, Archibald. Carlyle's Sartor Resartus 88 
Macy, Jesse. The English Constitution ... 67 
Magnay, Sir William. The Fall of a Star . . .283 
Manly, J. M. Pre-Shaksperean Dramas . . . 389 
Manning, Miss. Mary Powell, new edition . . 341 

Mansfield, Richard. Blown Away 400 

Marchmont, A. W. By Right of Sword . . .391 
Mason, A. E. W. Lawrence Clavering .... 390 
Mason, A. E. W. The Philanderers .... 92 
Mason, A. J. Principles of Ecclesiastical Unity . 52 
Masterman, J. Howard B. Age of Milton . . 224 
Mathews, F. Schuyler. Features of the Roadside 190 
Matthew, J. E. Literature of Music .... 76 
Matthews, Washington. Navaho Legends . . . 146 
Maxwell, Sir Herbert. Memories of the Months . 13 
McCarthy, J. History of Our Own Times, Vol. IV. 220 
McCarthy, Justin. Life of Gladstone .... 393 
McDonald, R. A Princess and a Woman ... 93 
McGiffert, A. C. Christianity in Apostolic Age . 252 
Mead, W. E. Selections from Morte Darthur . 346 
Mercer, H. C. Researches on Antiquity of Man . 120 
Meredith, Owen. Lucile, illus. by M. Lemaire . 397 

Merriman, H. S. In Kedar's Tents 391 

Miall, L. C. Round the Year 13 

Mifflin, Lloyd. At the Gates of Song .... 186 
Miller, Olive Thorue. Upon the Tree Tops . . 12 



Miller, William. The Balkans 70 

Milman, Helen. In the Garden of Peace ... 14 
Mitchell, D. G. American Lands and Letters . 87 
Mitchell, D. G. English Lands, Letters, and 

Kings, Vol. IV 256 

Mitchell, S. Weir. Hugh Wynne 285 

Molesworth, Mrs. Meg Langholme 401 

Molesworth, Mrs. Miss Mouse and her Boys . . 401 
Montgomery, D. H. Students' American History 291 

Monvel, Boutet de. Joan of Arc 342 

Moore, F. Frankfort. The Impudent Comedian . 19 
Moore, F. Frankfort. The Jessamy Bride ... 19 
Morgan, T. H. Development of Frog's Egg . . 254 

Morley, John. Machiavelli 290 

Morley, Margaret W. Familiar Flowers . . . 222 
Morley, Margaret W. Flowers and their Friends 223 

Morris, Robert J. Hopkins's Pond 14 

Morris, William O'Connor. Hannibal .... 223 
Moulton, W. F., and Geden, A. S. Concordance to 

Greek Testament . 118 

Mulock, Miss. John Halifax, Crowell's edition . 224 
Munkittrick, R. K. The Slambangaree . . . 398 

Munroe, Kirk. The Painted Desert 345 

Murray, Gilbert. Ancient Greek Literature . . 89 
Nash, H. S. Genesis of Social Conscience ... 48 
Neville-Rolfe, E. Naples in the Nineties ... 15 
Newell, W. W. Arthur and the Table Round . 339 
Newton and Gadow. Dictionary of Birds . . . 333 

Nicholson, William. An Alphabet 341 

Nicholson, William. Almanac of Sports . . . 394 
Nixon, Mary F. With a Pessimist in Spain . . 333 
Noble, Harriet. Study of Literary Art . . . 255 
Norton, Charles L. Midshipman Jack .... 343 
Norwich, Dean of. Ecclesiastical History . . . 255 

Ogden, Ruth. Little Homespun 402 

" Old World " Series, new vols. in 395 

Oliphant, Mrs. Annals of a Publishing House . 325 
Orson, S. W. Rousseau's Confessions .... 256 
Otis, James. Boys of Fort Schuyler .... 342 

Otis, James. Signal Boys of '75 342 

Otis, James. Wreck of the Circus 345 

" Ouida." The Massarenes 20 

Page, T. N. Social Life in Old Virginia . . . 396 
Paine and Mayer. Autobiography of a Monkey . 400 

Paine and Ver-Beck. The Dumpies 400 

Paine, Timothy Otis, Poems of 18 

Painter, F. T. N. Introduction to Am. Literature 88 
Palgrave, F. T. Landscape in Poetry . . . .119 

Palmer, Lucia H. Oriental Days 397 

Parker, Gilbert. Pomp of the Lavilettes ... 93 
Parker, Gilbert. A Romany of the Snows ... 93 
Parkhurst, H. E. Song Birds and Water Fowl . 394 
Pasha, Slatin. Fire and Sword in Soudan, new ed. 290 
Pater, Walter. Essays from " The Guardian " . 395 

Paulian, Louis. Beggars of Paris 51 

Pearson, Karl. The Chances of Death . . . .218 
Pemberton, Max. Christine of the Hills ... 20 
Pemberton, Max. Queen of the Jesters . . . 391 
Perkins, J. B. France under Louis XV. . . . 277 

Peters, John P. Nippur 281 

Phillips, Mary E. Reminiscences of W. W. Story 397 

Piatt, John James. Odes in Ohio 184 

Pierson, Clara D. Meadow People 400 

Plehn, Carl C. Public Finance 254 

Plummer, Alfred. Commentary on Luke . . . 252 

Plympton, Miss A. G. Wanolasset 402 

Poems, Ten Noble 76 

Porter and Clarke. Clever Tales . . 191 

Porter, Charlotte, and Clarke, Helen A. Brown- 
ing's Ring and the Book 191 

Potter, H. C. Scholar and the State . . . .279 
Powers, Laura B. Missions of California . . . 223 
Poyen-Bellisle, R. de. Journe'es d'Avril . . . 187 
Praeger, S. Rosamond. Three Bold Babes . . 400 
Prang's 1897 Christmas Cards and Calendars . . 396 

Prince Uno 398 

Princeton Sesquicentennial Lectures, The ... 24 
Putnam, G. H. Authors and Bublishers, 7th ed. 191 
Pyke, Rafford. Adventures of Mabel .... 398 

Queen, Private Life of the 256 

Ramsay, W. M. Impressions of Turkey . . . 331 
Ratzel, Friedrich. History of Mankind ... 86 
Raymond, Evelyn. Little Red Schoolhouse . . 401 

Read, Opie. Bolanyo 286 

Redway, J. W. Natural Elementary Geography 161 

Remington, Frederic. Drawings 335 

Revolutionary Tendencies of the Age .... 48 
Richards, Laura E. Three Margarets .... 401 
Richardson, O. H. The National Movement . . 51 
Rideing, W. H. Boyhood of Famous Authors . 344 
Rivers, George R. R. Captain Shays .... 286 
Robinson, Frederick S. The Connoisseur ... 21 

Rodney G. B. In Buff and Blue 285 

Rossetti, D. G. The White Ship 395 

Saintsbury, George. Flourishing of Romance . . 45 
Sanford, M. Bourchier. A Jesuit Mission ... 19 
Saunders, Marshall. King of the Park .... 345 
Sawtelle, Alice E. Spenser's Classical Mythology 22 
Schulz, A., and Hammar, A. The New Africa . 330 

Scidmore, Eliza R. Java 332 

Scott, Hattie M. Organic Education .... 151 
Scott, Hugh M. The Nicene Theology ... 72 
Seawell, Molly E. Twelve Naval Captains . . 403 
See, T. J. J. Evolution of Stellar Systems . . 75 
Shakespeare's Hamlet, illus. by H. C. Christy . . 397 
Sheldon, H. I. Note,s on Nicaragua Canal . . 23 
Shelley, H. C. Ayrshire Homes of Burns . . . 341 
Shelton, W. H. The Last Three Soldiers . . .343 
Sherman, Caroline K. Dante's Vision of God . 395 

Sherman, F. D. Little-Folk Lyrics 399 

Sienkiewicz, H. Quo Vadis, holiday edition . . 334 
Skinner, C. M. Nature in a City Yard ... 12 
Sloane, W. M. Life of Napoleon, Vol. IV. . . 335 
Smeaton, Oliphant. Life of Smollett .... 51 
Smith, F. Hopkinson. Gondola Days .... 340 
Smith, Gertrude. Ten Little Comedies .... 401 
Smith, Mary P. W. Young Puritans of Old Hadley 343 
Smyth, Newman. Place of Death in Evolution . 148 
Snaith, J. C. Fierceheart the Soldier .... 92 
Spahr, C. B. Distribution of Wealth in the U. S. 254 
Spenser's Faerie Queene, illus. by L. F. Muckley . 338 
Spenser's Faerie Queene, illus. by Walter Crane . 338 
Spenser's Shepheard's Calendar, illus. by Crane . 392 
Spofford, Harriet Preseott. In Titian's Garden . 187 
Stables, Gordon. The Island of Gold . . . .403 
Staffer, E. Christ during his Ministry .... 149 
Steevens, G. W. Land of the Dollar . . . . 18 
Stephens, Riccardo. Mr. Peters . . . . . 

Sterne's Sentimental Journey, illus. by Robinson . 397 

Stevenson, Robert Louis. St. Ives 28S 

Stevenson Song-Book 399 

St. Leger, Hugh. The Rover's Quest . . . .346 

Stockard, H. J. Fugitive Lines 185 

Stockton, F. R.' A Story-Teller's Pack .... 93 
Stockton, F. R. Pomona's Travels, new edition . 341 
Stoddard, W. O. Lost Gold of the Montezumas . 343 



Stoddard, W. O. The Red Patriot 342 

Streamer, Volney. Voices of Doubt and Trust . 290 
Sturgis and Krebbiel. Bibliography of Fine Art . 24 

Sullivan, J. F. Here They Are ! 398 

Sullivan, J. F. The Flame-Flower 398 

Sweet, H. Student's Anglo-Saxon Dictionary . . 23 
Sybel, H. von. Founding of the German Empire, 

Vol. VI 250 

Taine, H. A. Journeys through France . . . 331 
Tarr, R. S. First Book of Physical Geography . 76 
Tarver, J. C. Observations of a Foster Parent . 220 

Tennyson Memoir, The 212 

Tennyson's In Memoriam, holiday edition . . . 338 
Thomson, H. C. The Outgoing Turk .... 17 

Thomson, John S. Estabelle 187 

Thompson, Francis. New Poems 188 

Thorburn, S. S. His Majesty's Greatest Subject . 283 
Thoreau, H. W. Walden, holiday edition . . .336 
" Thumb- Nail Series," new vols. in the .... 341 

Tolstoi', Lyof. The Gospel in Brief 52 

Tomlinson, E. T. Guarding the Border . . .402 
Tomlinson, E. T. Washington's Young Aids . . 342 
Tracy, Louis. An American Emperor .... 93 
Tyler, C. M. Bases of Religious Belief . . .148 
Tyler, Moses C. American Colonial Literature . 143 
Tyler, Moses C. Literary History of American 

Revolution 143, 221 

Upton, Bertha and Florence. Little Hearts . . 400 
Upton, Bertha and Florence. Vege-Men's Revenge 400 
Urmy, Clarence. A Vintage of Verse .... 185 

Vaile, Charlotte M. Sue Orcutt 401 

Van Dyke, Henry. Gospel for an Age of Doubt . 72 

Van Dyke, Henry. The Builders 184 

Van Dyke, Henry. The First Christmas Tree . 337 
Venezuelan Commission, Report of the . . 23, 120 

Vincent, Frank. The Plant World 14 

Vincent, M. R. Commentary on Philippians . . 252 
Voynich, E. L. The Gadfly 18 

Vuillier, Gaston. History of Dancing .... 392 
Wagner, Richard. A Pilgrimage to Beethoven . 161 
Walker, G. L. Religious Life of New England . 149 

Wallis, Alfred. Works of Rabelais 191 

Warner, C. D. Being a Boy, illus. by C. Johnson . 344 
Warner, C. D. People for Whom Shakespeare 

Wrote 222 

Warner, C. D. Relation of Literature to Life . 181 
Warren, Kate M. Spenser's Faerie Queene . .161 
Watson, Augusta C. Beyond the City Gates . . 285 

Watson, John. The Cure of Souls 71 

Watson, William. The Year of Shame .... 188 
Watts-Dunton, T. Jubilee Greeting at Spithead . 188 

Webster, Leigh. Rich Enough 402 

Wells, H. G. The Invisible Man 390 

Wenley, R. M. Outline of Kant's Critique . . 346 

Wetterstrand, Otto G. Hypnotism 119 

Wharton, Anne H. Martha Washington . . .21 
Whiteley, Isabel. The Falcon of Lange'ac ... 18 
Whitney, Mrs. A. D. T. The Open Mystery . . 149 
Wiedemann, A. Religion of Ancient Egyptians . 254 
Williams, R. O. Questions of Good English . . 334 
Williamson, G. C. Portrait Minatures .... 394 
Wilson, James Grant. Ulysses S. Grant . . . 150 
Wiltse, Sara E. Story of Jean Valjean . . . 256 
Winckler, Hugo. Tell-el-Amama Letters . . .116 
Windle, B. C. A. Life in Early Britain . . . 289 

Winfield, A. M. Poor but Plucky 346 

Winfield, A. M. Schooldays of Fred Harley . . 346 

Winworth, Freda. Epic of Sounds 346 

Workman, Mr. and Mrs. W. H. Awheel in Iberia 15 
Wright, Mabel O., and Coues, E. Citizen Bird . 223 
Wyllarde, Dolf. A Lonely Little Lady . . . 402 
Yeats, S. Levett. The Chevalier d'Auriac . . . 283 

Yechton, Barbara. Derick 345 

Yersin, M. and J. Phono-Rhythmic French Method 290 
Yonge, Charlotte M. Founded on Paper . . . 401 
Zogbaum, R. F. All Hands 335 


Allen, Grant, and College Education. Edgar J. 

Ooodspeed 210 

" Art and Life." F. L. Thompson 241 

Art in a Sordid Age. Lines. Edith M, Thomas . 384 
Authors and Publishers, A Proposal to Levy 

Tribute on 403 

Bateman, Newton, Death of 251 

" Century Magazine " Prizes, The 77 

Congressional Librarian, The New ... 77, 97 

Crerar Library, The. T. V. V. 241 

Crerar Library, The, and the Wishes of its Founder. 

G. H. 272 

Dana, Charles A., Death of 257 

Dante as a Tonic for To-Day. Oscar Kuhns . .110 
Dante Society among Fishermen, A. Katharine M. 

Graydon 110 

Dawn. Poem. Emily Huntington Miller ... 7 
English Correspondence. Temple Scott .... 383 
English, Preparatory. A Teacher's Experience. 

A. J. George 64 

Fiske, John, and Francis Bacon. TheronS.E.Dixon 272 
German Translation, Some Questions of. C, von 

Klenze 140 

Hutton, Richard Holt, Death of 191 

In a Volume of Lowell's Letters. Sonnet. F. L. 

Luqueer 138 

" In Memoriam," Metre of. W. J. Rolfe ... 7 

Ingelow, Jean, Death of 77 

" Inquirendo into the Wit and Other Good Parts " 

of Certain Writers. Emily Huntington Miller 177 

Inspiration. Poem. Charlotte M. Packard . . 273 
Japanese Magazine of Foreign Languages. Ernest 

W. Clement 141 

Japanese Self-Taught. Ernest W. Clement . . 64 

Logia, The Newly Discovered 53 

Meilhac, Henri, Death of 52 

Out of a Thousand. Sonnet. Edith M. Thomas 241 

Palgrave, Francis Turner, Death of 257 

" Patrins." Poem. Emily Huntington Miller . . 141 
"Philosopher Decadent." A Reply. Thomas 

Common 38 

Rhetoric, Lack of Scientific Work in. Selden F. 

Smyser 141 

Rhetoric, Scientific Work in. Willard C. Gore . 210 

Rollins, Alice Wellington, Death of 403 

" Survivals " and Archaisms." W.H.J.. . . 38 

Tariff on Books, The New 77 

Text-Books, A Text from. Tuley F. Huntington . 211 
" The Incommunicable Trees." Poem. John Vance 

Cheney 178 

Thompson, D. G., Death of 52 

Winsor, Justin, Death of 257 

World's Congresses of 1893, Bibliography of. 

Charles C. Bonney 39 

fPublic Li'.nwy, 




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No. 265. 

JULY 1, 1897. Vol. xxm. 






The Metre of " In Memoriam." W. J. EoJfe. 

DAWN. (Lines.) Emily Huntington Miller .... 7 
THE MASTER OF BALLIOL. C. A. L.Richards . 8 

NATURE AND WILD LIFE. Sara A. Hubbard . 12 
Skinner's Nature in a City Yard. Mrs. Miller's 
Upon the Tree-Tops. Chapman's Bird-Life. Hig- 
ginson's The Procession of the Flowers. Maxwell's 
Memories of the Months. Miall's Round the Year. 
Miss Milman's In the Garden of Peace. Morris's 
Hopkins's Pond, and Other Sketches. Baskett's 
The Story of the Birds. Vincent's The Plant World. 

Workman's Sketches Awheel in Modern Iberia. 
Neville- Rolfe's Naples in the Nineties. Hinde's 
The Fall of the Congo Arabs. Chapman's Wild 
Norway. Freeman's Sketches of Travel in Nor- 
mandy and Maine. Logan's In Joyful Russia. 
Harris's Letters from the Scenes of the Recent Mass- 
acres in Armenia. Thomson's The Outgoing Turk. 
Bigham's A Ride Through Western Asia. 

RECENT FICTION. William Morton Payne ... 18 
Voynich's The Gadfly. Crawford's A Rose of Yes- 
terday. Miss Whiteley's The Falcon of Lange'ac. 
Davis's Soldiers of Fortune. Sanford's The Ro- 
mance of a Jesuit Mission. Barr's The Mutable 
Many. Moore's The Jessamy Bride. Moore's The 
Impudent Comedian and Others. Locke's Dere- 
licts. Ouida's The Massarenes. Boothby's The 
Fascination of the King. Council's The Fool and 
His Heart. Max Pemberton's Christine of the Hills. 


The diversions of a serious man. A satirical French 
observer of London life. Art collectors and collect- 
ing. A book for all true American women. 
Physics and psychology. Spenser's use of classical 
mythology. Some attenuated random prattlings. 
Criticism and preaching. 








The recent celebration of the longest reign in 
English history has naturally called forth a 
great quantity of retrospective writing, and the 
history of progress during the sixty years of the 
Victorian period has been discussed in all of 
its aspects. In such a review of an eventful 
term of years, the history of literature neces- 
sarily plays a considerable part, and, in this 
case, the delimitation of a period by the dates 
of a reign is somewhat less arbitrary and arti- 
ficial than it is in others. It has often been 
pointed out that the Victorian age is one of the 
most distinctly defined in English literary his- 
tory, and it seems as certain as anything of the 
sort reasonably can be that the term " Victor- 
ian " will become as fixed a thing in our literary 
annals as the term " Elizabethan " has been for 
the past two centuries. In point of fact, as 
every student knows, the former term is a better 
fit than the latter ; for what we call Victorian 
literature really belongs to the reign of the 
present Queen, while a large part of what is 
commonly called Elizabethan is, strictly speak- 
ing, Jacobean, being seventeenth-century work. 
Mr. Saintsbury goes so far as to reckon Milton 
and his contemporaries within the Elizabethan 
period, and it is hardly probable that future 
historians will call Victorian the poets (if there 
are any) of the next mid-century. 

Perhaps the most astonishing reflection sug- 
gested by the subject of the Jubilee is that when 
Victoria came to the throne in 1837, Goethe 
and Scott had been dead only five years. The 
mood of Browning's question, " Did you once 
see Shelley plain ? " comes upon us when we 
realize that there must be a number of people 
living to-day who have seen and spoken with 
the poet at Weimar or with the novelist at 
Abbotsford, and that the reign of one monarch 
stretches back from the present year to a time 
when the loss of those two men was still fresh 
in the heart. They seem in so many ways so 
immeasurably remote from us even if we 
have taken from them daily inspiration all our 
lives long that it is difficult to imagine a 
time when men felt about them as we of to-day 
feel, for example, about Tennyson and Renan. 
When we note, also, that Coleridge and Lamb 
had died in 1834, and that, in the very year 



[July l, 

of Her Majesty's coronation, the fatal bullet 
had sped to Puskin's heart, while Leopardi 
had dashed himself to death against the 
prison-bars of an existence that ever seemed 
to him intolerable, the mood of retrospection 
becomes deepened in us, and we wonder that 
such " far-off things " can thus be linked with 
our own lives. 

We often speak of " books of the year." Let 
us see what these books were in the year of 
grace 1837. In poetry, there was Browning's 
" Strafford," which had already been preceded 
by " Pauline " and " Paracelsus," but the poet 
had not yet found his audience, and was des- 
tined to wait for a full generation before tak- 
ing his place in the temple of fame. In fiction, 
Bulwer's " Ernest Maltravers " appeared, and 
strengthened the hold upon the public already 
secured by " Rienzi," " The Last Days of Pom- 
peii," and eight or nine other novels. Far 
more popular than these works, however, were 
the productions of a young writer known as 
"Boz," who had published his famous 
" Sketches " the year before, and who, in the 
year of the coronation, completed the immortal 
"Pickwick," and began the publication of 
" Oliver Twist." In this year, also, Disraeli 
published "Venetian," and stood midway in his 
flamboyant career as a writer of fiction. As for 
Thackeray, his first serious appearance in lit- 
erature dates from this same year, with the 
publication of " The Yellowplush Papers." The 
more solid " books of the year " were Whewell's 
" History of the Inductive Sciences," Hallam's 
" Literature of Europe," Lockhart's biography 
of Scott, and Carlyle's " French Revolution," 
at last rewritten after the heartbreaking destruc- 
tion of its first draft. When we bring together 
these titles that mean so much to the student of 
English literature, we cannot help wondering 
whether any books of pure literature produced 
in the year 1897 will stand as high "sixty 
years hence " as " Strafford " and " Pickwick " 
do now ; whether the year has produced his- 
tories that will wear as well as Carlyle and 
Hallam have worn, or a biography that is worthy 
to be ranked with Lockhart's great achieve- 

We have singled out for mention nine En- 
glish books of the year 1837. Let us make the 
number ten by adding, merely for its suggest- 
iveness, Harriet Martineau's " Society in Amer- 
ica." The condition of English literature on 
this side of the Atlantic may be outlined by 
saying that Irving had produced the greater 
part of his work, that rather more than half of 

Cooper's tales had been given to the world, 
that the poetical reputation of Bryant was well 
established, while the foundations were laid for 
the reputations of Whittier and Longfellow, 
and that the very year with which we are con- 
cerned was that in which Emerson's address on 
" The American Scholar " was heard and the 
"Twice-Told Tales" of Hawthorne collected 
for publication. While the showing for the 
year is not a remarkable one, even when we 
cast Prescott's " Ferdinand and Isabella " into 
the balance, it is evident that American litera- 
ture was fairly on its feet, and that its future 
was promising enough. 

It is a curious coincidence that both the 
foremost American writer and the foremost 
English writer now living should have been 
born in the same year, and that the year of the 
accession of the Queen. With all his critical 
vagaries and artistic inequalities, the position 
of Mr. Ho wells as our leading man of letters 
to-day may hardly be disputed, while the place 
of Mr. Swinburne, as not merely the greatest 
of living English poets, but as the greatest poet 
now living in the world, is beyond any possible 
question. It is difficult to think of either of 
these men as venerable, but sixty years goes 
far toward making up the normal tale of 
human life, and both novelist and poet must 
henceforth, for as long as they shall be spared 
us, take their places among the .elders of the 
literary hierarchy. 

Mr. H. D. Traill, in a recent summary of 
the English literature of the Victorian era, 
makes a rough division of the sixty years into 
three periods. The first score of years was a 
flowering time that brought into prominence 
the seven great names of Tennyson, Browning, 
Carlyle, Macaulay, Dickens, Thackeray, and 
Ruskin. During the second period the tide " of 
high literary achievement was pretty steadily 
receding," and " with the single, if the splendid, 
exception of Mr. Swinburne, the period not 
only produced no new poet of supreme genius, 
but brought forth none with any pretensions 
to a place in the first rank." When we think 
of Arnold, Morris, and Rossetti, it is impos- 
sible to accept so rash a dictum as the above, 
yet it is no doubt true that these names, to- 
gether with that of George Eliot, are not enough 
wholly to redeem the middle Victorian era from 
the charge of being essentially " the age of 
Trollope as a novelist and of Martin Tupper as 
a poet." As for the twenty years now ended, 
the principal things that Mr. Traill finds to say 
are that the art of the novelist has displayed 



great vitality, and that if the new poets are but 
" minor," they are far better than the minor 
poets of earlier periods. 

An examination of cisatlantic English litera- 
ture during the past sixty years reveals the fact 
that Mr. Traill's three-fold division applies to 
our case also roughly, of course, because all 
such artificial divisions are rough but well 
enough to deserve employment. That is, our 
greater American writers accomplished the 
bulk of the best work during the first twenty- 
year period ; during the second period there was 
a distinct decline in productiveness, although a 
few brilliant names, as in England, redeem our 
literary annals from sterility ; and during the 
third period we find an expansion of the arts of 
fiction and poetry corresponding to what Mr. 
Traill finds in the literature of his own country. 
All of which facts go to show, what a good 
many people still need to be shown, that all the 
deeper forces operating in the development of 
our common literature operate upon both sides 
of the Atlantic, and that the " salt estranging 
sea " cannot bring about any real separation 
between the literatures of two nations having, 
up to comparatively recent times, a common 
history and a common intellectual and social 
tradition, while they still have, and always must 
retain, a common unifying speech. 


(To the Editor of THB DIAL.) 

Professor C. Alphonso Smith, in his interesting article 
on this subject in THE DIAL for June 16, says that he 
cannot believe Mr. Jennings is right in assuming that 
Tennyson " thought he had invented the metre." The 
Professor appears to be misled by the fact that Jennings 
makes this remark in commenting upon the publication 
of " In Memoriam " in 1850. At that time the poet 
doubtless was " too well versed in the lore of versifi- 
cation to consider himself the inventor of so simple 
a metrical combination"; but in 1833, when he first 
used the stanza in " You ask me why," etc., he may not 
have seen Herbert's volume, which (as I have said 
in my edition of " In Memoriam " ) is very rare and 
scarcely known even to critical students of early English 

It is more remarkable that Ilossetti should have sup- 
posed, in 1844, that he had rediscovered the metre. He 
had probably read Tennyson's early poems in this form, 
if not the examples of it in Herbert and Ben Jonson, 
but had forgotten that they were in the same metre. I 
have personally found that students and teachers who 
were well read in Tennyson had never noticed that these 
familiar early poems were in the metre of " In Memo- 
riam." I have known more than one college teacher 
who was so ignorant of the elements of versification 

that he could not read a line of Shakespeare correctly 
if it contained any peculiarity of accent or syllabication. 
The study of versification is generally neglected in the 
secondary schools, and too often in the colleges. 

Apropos of the verse of " In Memoriam," Mr. Joseph 
Jacobs, in his little book on the poem (London, 1892), 
dwells upon the " poverty and inaccuracy " of the 
rhymes. He gives in an appendix a list of the " false 
rhymes," which he makes out to be " no less than 168 
in 1448 couplets." The actual number is 48 or less, a 
few instances being open to question. Mr. Jacobs 
includes many " eye rhymes," like love, move, which all 
poets use freely; and rhymes of dissyllables with mono- 
syllables, like flower, hour, that are absolutely faultless, 
the dissyllable being treated as a monosyllable in rhythm 
as in rhyme by all our poets at will. Rhymes like ear, 
hear, the words differing only by the aspirate, are also 
reckoned by Mr. Jacobs, as by some authorities on verse, 
among his bad ones; but they are used by Milton (who 
has arms, harms, and high, I, if no others of the kind) 
and by many other poets. Tennyson, moreover, occa- 
sionally uses "identical rhymes," like here, hear, and 
ours, hours, which are allowed in Italian and certain 
other languages, and are admitted by sundry English 
poets familiar with Italian; as Milton (who has ruth, 
Ruth, etc.), and James Russell Lowell (holy, wholly, 
etc.). Besides here, ear (twice), we find in " In Me- 
moriam " art, heart (twice), hearth, earth, arm, harm, and 
here, hear, whirled, world, and moor, more. In the first 
edition there was another instance of this latter class of 
rhymes in cv., which read: 

" This holly by the cottage eave, 

To-night ungather'd shall it stand ; 

We live within the stranger's land, 
And strangely falls our Christmas eve." 
It now reads: 

" To-night ungather'd let us leave 

This laurel, let this holly stand ; " etc. 

The change was evidently made for other reasons than 
getting rid of the " identical rhyme." 

Rejecting all these rhymes regarded as faulty by 
Mr. Jacobs, we still have left some very bad ones: curse, 
horse; is, this; seas, peace; Lord, guard; sphere, there; 
I, enjoy; put, short, etc. One, on, occurs three times, to 
say nothing of gone, one, and one, alone, which, though 
" eye rhymes," are dubious examples of their class. 

Some familiar rhymes, as Mr. Jacobs notes, are often 
repeated: Jlower, hour, eight times; good, blood, seven 
times; while love is rhymed -with prove seven times, and 
with move or remove eight times. ,, T , ,, 

W . J . ZiOLFE. 

Cambridge, Mass., June 21, 1897. 


[Figure on the tomb of Lorenzo de Medici.} 

Unfinished ? Nay; the Dawn is but a soul 
That hovers, doubtful, in this mortal air; 

'T is we who mould and shape the perfect whole, 
And weave each day her garments fine and fair. 

A face half seen, with wistful, kindling eyes, 
That woos and beckons but eludes us still; 

Out of the brooding, pulsing dusk she cries, 
" Lo, I am born! come clothe me as you will ! " 


[July 1, 


Benjamin Jowett has had many pupils who 
have never paced Oxford streets, nor dined at 
Balliol's table. They rejoice to have his biog- 
raphy in their hands to-day. It is well printed, 
well illustrated, well put together. Professor 
Campbell has narrated the early life, Dr. Abbott 
the years of the Mastership. They have left 
Jowett mainly to speak for himself, and he 
speaks significantly. 

No period of religious history is likely to be 
better known than that which begins with "The 
Aids to Reflection and Guesses at Truth " in 
1825, or with "The Christian Year" in 1827, 
and ends with the close of our century. The 
materials are even too copious. With the lives 
of Dr. Martineau and Archbishop Temple, 
when they shall be written, the collection for the 
future church historian to consider will be com- 
plete. The life of Jowett is the last important 
addition. Perhaps its authors might have a 
more sensitive eye for local color, or keener 
scent for an illustrative anecdote. In their 
scrupulous exclusion of the " mythology " which 
springs up in the footprints of any marked per- 
sonality, they have perhaps gone too far. But 
we are in no mood for fault-finding. There is 
enough to enjoy and to be thankful for ; too 
much easily to digest. 

It was at the beginning of the long peace 
that followed the battle of Waterloo, in the 
year of the death of Jane Austen and Madame 
de Stael, that, on April 15, 1817, Benjamin 
Jowett was born. Through two previous Ben- 
jamins, his father and grandfather, he traced 
his lineage to an austere patriarch, a convert of 
Whitefield, a London tradesman, of a plain 
yeoman stock, two of whose sons had been men 
of mark at Cambridge, as tutor at Magdalen, 
and Professor of Civil Law. Jowett's father 
was associated with Lord Shaftesbury in Fac- 
tory Eeform. He was a reserved, disinterested, 
lovable man, unsuccessful in business and in 
journalism, a devotee of music, a stout con- 
servative and orthodox churchman. It was in 
a sincerely religious household, of narrow means 
and modest station, bright with books and 
music and the air of liberal culture, that Jowett 
passed a delicate and precocious childhood. 

Master of Balliol College, Oxford. By Evelyn Abbott, M.A 
and Lewis Campbell, M.A. In two volumes, with portrait 
and illustrations. New York : E. P. Button & Co 

When his companions were at play he would be 
stretched on the hearth-rug over Pope's Homer 
or Rollins's Ancient History. He knew his 
Cowper almost by heart, as he knew Virgil and 
Sophocles and Shakespeare afterwards. 

At St. Paul's school from the age of twelve, 
a round-faced, bright-eyed urchin, clad in " a 
perpetual sort of green sateen jacket," not at 
all a boy's boy, a serious student and voracious 
reader, Jowett held his own as the best Latinist 
of the school and as one who could speak out 
what he chose to say. It was a power that 
endured with him. 

The decisive incident of his career, " the 
happiest event of his life " as he called it, was 
winning a Balliol scholarship. Beginning at 
nineteen, " a puny chubby-faced lad," he went 
on in a natural scholastic evolution, from under- 
graduate to fellow, tutor, professor, master of 
his college, and vice-chancellor of the Univer- 
sity. Among his instructors were William 
George Ward and Archibald Tait, the future 
Archbishop. Stanley and Temple, John Cole- 
ridge and Stafford Northcote, Church, Froude, 
Brodie, and John Ruskin were among his con- 
temporaries. It was an exciting time and a 
stimulating group. Newman was still preach- 
ing at St. Mary's and Arnold still sending up 
earnest students from Rugby. Jowett was too 
busy and too poor to indulge himself much in 
society, nor was he swept away with the theo- 
logical whirlwinds about him. Already one of 
his distinctive gifts was visible. In whatever 
stress of conflict, he preserved " a characteristic 
calm, a passionless tenacity." Again, as among 
his schoolmates, he " held his own." 

Securing, while yet an undergraduate, a fel- 
lowship of his college in successful competition 
with maturer men, Jowett settled down to his 
university life. It was broken only by brief 
vacation journeys. Family cares pressed hard 
upon him, though he never married ; there was 
no money for extended travel until too late. 
Latinist as he was, he never saw Rome. Trans- 
lator of Plato and Aristotle and Thucydides 
as he was, he never saw Athens. Far and wide 
ihrough time and space ranged his discursive 
ntellect, but his outward frame kept close to 
Dxford lawns and cloisters. Early responsi- 
bility came to him. He was tutor at twenty- 
ive, with Arthur Clough and Matthew Arnold 
for pupils. The reputation of his college quickly 
rose. It came to be expected that his pupils 
should take First Classes. He was a teacher 
complete to the finger-tips, suggestive in all he 
';aught. He stimulated young minds, gave them 



methods, not results, gave them a wholesome 
distrust of the words that override things, the 
terminology which so often obscures truth. He 
began at this time to shed some of his tradi- 
tional evangelicalism, while always clinging to 
its essential verities. For a time Newman 
attracted him. He was ready to think that if 
Newman and his friends could gain in charity 
toward those who differed from them, their 
work might be " almost one of unmixed good." 
It was a vast " if," quickly followed by an 
" alas " upon further acquaintance. Now and 
always Jowett hated religious agitation, while 
believing it sometimes a duty. He disliked 
religious discussion even with close friends. 
In later years he grew to set a higher value on 
outward expression, and was willing to risk cant 
rather than banish religion from familiar talk. 
He was anything but the satisfied rationalist, 
the jaunty liberal that Mallock caricatured in 
the " New Republic." In every letter you feel 
the presence of a profoundly earnest and bur- 
dened believer, whose heart repels the doubts 
that his reason has suggested. Yet for all his 
shrinking from doubt, he would not stifle 
inquiry. The vision of the naked truth might 
be ever so terrible, Jowett must look with open 
eyes. He must champion the truth and speak 
out plainly. But he will insist that even error 
shall have fair play. He will stand with Stanley 
for Ward in a moment of universal panic, until 
the tragedy dissolved in laughter at " Hilde- 
brand the Married Man." 

It was to that " Socrates-Silenus," as Jowett 
once nicknamed William George Ward, that 
Jowett owed his introduction to metaphysics. 
The new study for a while entranced him, but 
presently he weighed it and found it wanting. 
It lifted him out of the fogs of tradition into 
other vaporous regions of its own. Presently 
all clouds dispersed and he saw clearly. He 
come to look upon metaphysics as intellectual 
exercise rather than attainment, " a necessity 
rather than a great good. Its air is too rare- 
fied to breathe long." His study of Hegel left 
behind it a permanent deposit of the Hegelian 
attitude and method, and his comment on 
Hegelianism in the introduction to Plato's 
" Sophist " is lucid and sympathetic. Yet he 
was never Hegel's, nor was he any man's, dis- 

It was about 1847 that, with Stanley and 
Goldwin Smith and others, Jowett undertook 
the cause of University Reform. Always a 
radical, he was never a revolutionist. Because 
he went to the root of things he understood 

that time must be a factor in all healthy change 
and permanent progress. " Nothing I wish 
less than to see Oxford turned into a German 
or a London University." As he said earlier, 
" I wonder people do not feel the curse of hav- 
ing no old to entwine with the new." But he 
felt strongly that Oxford needed reform, and 
that only fit reform could forbid revolution. 
In comparison with foreign universities, Ox- 
ford still remained mediaeval. " We are so far 
below the level of the German ocean that I fear 
we shall one day be utterly deluged." So 
Jowett did his part to bring his university 
nearer to his age. 

He was the natural successor to the Master- 
ship, when, in 1854, Dr. Jenkins died. Theo- 
logical prejudice prevailed and a " safer " and 
more learned, but less able, man was elected. 
It was not what Jowett had yet done which 
turned the scales, but what he was felt to be 
capable of doing. As always, he would speak 
out. He justified the anxieties of his opponents 
by publishing his volumes on certain of St. 
Paul's Epistles. The work was most original 
and bold. Before it was quite understood how 
bold, the Greek professorship fell vacant. 
Jowett's fitness for it was beyond question, and 
he was elected at the paltry stipend of forty 
pounds a year. Friends came forward with a 
gift to make up the deficiency. But Jowett re- 
fused it and waited ten years for the authori- 
ties to do what they should, and raise the sal- 
ary to the fit sum of five hundred pounds. 
Meantime he did not magnify his grievance, 
nor waste strength in bewailing it. With or 
without due compensation, he would work as if 
he perceived no connection between work and 
wages. To work was his business, to see that 
he was paid was Dr. Pusey's or any other Doc- 
tor's responsibility. It was " heroic industry " 
with him at all times. As formerly in his 
tutorship, so now in his professorship, he spent 
himself for his pupils. He treated his relation 
to them as a pastoral charge, his department 
of Christian ministry. At all hours his door 
stood open. He was at the beck and call of 
anyone who needed him. It is hard to see how 
he got through his own work, thus busy with 
every man's. He demanded from his stu- 
dents their best, implied a belief in their unde- 
veloped possibilities, " and the belief seemed to 
create the thing believed in." Nor did his in- 
terest end with the days of their pupilage. 
Letter upon letter shows how faithfully and 
lovingly he followed them, with what tact and 
wisdom he counselled or chid them. He would 



[July 1, 

not cramp or enslave them. He would not 
rivet their growing minds upon a mould of his. 
He would only help them to be most and best 
themselves. He had doubtless his disappoint- 
ments, but he had also his rich rewards in a 
devotion, an affection, as he said with tears, 
" far beyond his deserts." They judged best 
of that. 

The two stout octavos on the Epistles to the 
Thessalonians, Romans, and Galatians were a 
contribution to a Commentary on the whole 
New Testament projected by Dr. Arnold, which 
Stanley and Jowett long hoped to complete. 
If the first sample of Jowett's method had met 
with greater favor, perhaps the purpose had 
been more fully accomplished and the Church 
yet more his debtor. The time was not ripe. 
" I thought I had so expressed myself that re- 
ligious minds could not be wounded," Jowett 
wrote. He did not find it so. He had not only 
laid aside accepted terminology, but he had 
touched to the quick cherished preconceptions, 
entangled as they were with deep religious feel- 
ing. He had assumed that all men loved the 
truth as purely as he and were as ready to wel- 
come any frank presentation of it. He had 
studied St. Paul in his own light, and refused 
to subject him to controversial fires. To Jowett 
the epistles appeared to be, not dogmatic trea- 
tises, but occasional letters preserved where 
others had been lost, revealing the mind and 
character of their author, and disclosing the 
period of his labors, as well as inspired with a 
precious message. Only by implication could 
the work be held controversial. It argued with 
nobody, refuted nobody. It asserted principles, 
suggested parallels, appealed to reason and con- 
science, and left the result to the judgment of 
open-minded readers. It was not that Jowett 
rejected, but that he ignored as irrelevant, the 
authority of Greek or Latin fathers and Angli- 
can divines. What said St. Paul's Greek in 
a dialect which was Hebraic and not classical ? 
What did such words from such a man at such 
a time really signify ? What was their force, 
broadly interpreted in the spirit rather than 
the letter, not as a legal document or theolog- 
ical dogma, but as impassioned and practical 
discourse? What lessons of immediate duty 
had they for men to-day ? These were the ques- 
tions Jowett sought to ask and answer, in sim- 
ple notes that did not evade difficulties and 
luminous disquisitions which marked an epoch 
in English theology. Since the days of the 
Cambridge Platonists, if we except Coleridge 
and Arnold, no such voice had been heard as 

this. " There was no mistaking what this man 
meant." There is much of such frank discus- 
sion now ; then there was little. Divines were 
enlisted in party camps and rarely ventured 
beyond them. This man walked in the open. 
His neighbors first stared, then grew pale, then 
reddened with rage. He held that when men 
were inspired they still remained human. It 
was a dangerous proposition ; it was no better 
than Milman's calling Abraham an Arab sheik. 
It meant mischief, nobody knew exactly what 
or how, but it must be put down before it 
should go farther. Yet this was not the worst. 
Jowett had ventured upon a thorough treat- 
ment of the great theme of the Atonement. The 
subject was in the air. Independently, at the 
same period, McLeod Campbell was handling 
it in Scotland and Horace Bushnell in Con- 
necticut. It was a theme so interwoven with 
the most sacred memories and experiences that 
it could not be touched without jarring upon 
many of the simple and devout, as well as upon 
all the bigoted and dogmatic, spirits of the time. 
To use Stuart Mill's luminous distinction, it 
was not what it denoted but what it connoted 
that gave occasion for alarm. Jowett, who always 
dealt with truth as in a vacuum, forgot that 
others saw her veiled in a cloud and could not 
distinguish a dispersion of the vapor from an 
outrage upon the form. He spoke out plainly 
and gave more offence than there was need to 
give. To remove such obstructions the essay 
was rewritten for the edition of 1859. Another 
essay was not ready for either the first or the 
second edition. In the third edition of 1894 
it has found its place. It was upon the inter- 
pretation of Scripture, and formed part of the 
volume called " Essays and Reviews." 

That very unequal volume by several hands 
roused a violent commotion. The orthodoxy 
of the church was morbidly irritable. Convo- 
cation lost its head. Clamor and panic ruled 
the hour. Scholars like Thirlwall, recent her- 
esiarchs like Hampden, even liberals like Mau- 
rice, joined the cry. The heresy-hunt began. 
Jowett had spoken out, and now quietly held 
his own. Pained by the obloquy, he made 
no complaint, offered no apology. Phillips 
Brooks in like case was grandly silent. It 
was a wise attitude at a season when men 
thought " that no enlightened person should be- 
come a clergyman, and that the clergyman who 
became enlightened should be unfrocked." 
American opinion reflected English. When 
our one Broad Church bishop of that period 
denied that each particle of the buried body 




would be re-united with its fellows in the final 
resurrection, an able layman remarked that the 
denial was just, but dreadful from the lips of 
a bishop. Jowett said that if it rained mitres 
no one of them could possibly fit him. Cer- 
tainly no mitre could have muzzled him and no 
storm beating upon his mitred or unmitred head 
could have dismayed him. In a letter to Ten- 
nyson's children he gave them in capitals two 
golden counsels, Never Fear and Never Cry. 
He had tried them both before giving them. 
He stood his ground and scorned to whimper. 
He liked success, owned to a prejudice against 
those who fail, but for his own part his only 
recognition of failure was as a spur to effort. 
It did not embitter him, if it left him sore. 
He would patiently tolerate even the intoler- 
ant. But he would "wait for another world 
before joining in any closer union with them." 
It is the very instinct of self-preservation, akin 
to his who said of certain troubling spirits : 
" They are good people. We shall meet them 
in heaven, and that is soon enough." 

Jowett was seventy years old when a serious 
illness left him a chronic invalid, compelled to 
measure his tasks and reduce his hours of 
working. Still he made great plans and would 
toil to the last. " What a fate," he said, " for 
a man to retire for contemplation, and then to 
find he had nothing to think about. But per- 
haps he would never find out ! " was his play- 
ful comment. Such hapless lot could not be 
Jowett's. If he had nothing else to think of 
there were always the affairs of his friends to 
interest him. He had a marvellous genius for 
friendship and could love a score as few men 
can love anyone. The close of his life was 
shadowed by their departure. Stanley, Lord 
Iddesleigh, Matthew Arnold, Robert Brown- 
ing, Lord Sherbrooke, Alfred Tennyson, were 
gone, and it was time for an old man to 

41 Wrap the drapery of his couch 
About him and lie down to pleasant dreams." 

At Hedly Park, on a visit to dear friends, the 
not unwelcome summons came. It was a Sun- 
day afternoon, the first day of October in the 
year 1893. As he lay in his last sleep " the 
moon shone in and lit up his beautiful marble 
face and the shining white hair. There seemed 
a blending of the dignity of age and the sim- 
plicity and radiant freshness of youth." Among 
his last words were : " Mine has been a happy 
life. I bless God for my happy life." 

It had been a rarely wise and useful and dis- 
tinguished life. It had spared no labor to at- 
tain excellence, it had spent itself on others, it 

had kept ever before it noble aims. Jowett 
had early discerned the preciousness and ma- 
jesty of truth, and had followed where truth 
led him through all mazes of opinion. If he 
threw down idols it was not from love of de- 
struction, but to make room for the living 
spirit whose place they had usurped. Nothing 
can be less just than to regard Jowett as one 
who sought revolution or fostered unbelief. He 
encountered and brushed aside doubts on his 
way to positive convictions. " Doubt," he said 
in one of those earnest sermons which he 
preached to the young men with whom his 
days were spent, " is not some great exertion 
of the mind, but mere weakness. . . . We may 
hope to live through it like other disorders." 
He declared indulgence in doubt " the spirit 
most alien to that of inquiry. It might be called 
the ghost of inquiry." He bewailed the scep- 
tic mood which an age of science, not yet con- 
scious of its own limitations, had bred among 
the young. He felt that it was a mood not to 
be argued down but to be lived down. " Our 
reason is in great measure dependent upon our 
will." " Belief must radiate from life. What 
we are in a certain sense we shall believe." In 
his sermons and in his letters you feel that this 
great teacher is not primarily concerned with 
thought but with conduct and character, that 
he is moralist and pastor of souls even more 
than theologian or philosopher. You feel that 
to him simple goodness is the soul's chief good. 
" Let us know no other watchwords but the 
life of Christ, the mind of Christ, the cross of 
Christ," he said. 

The accusers of Ian Maclaren and Bishop 
Sessums might perhaps detect flaws in Jowett's 
theology. His working creed was more brief 
than the Athanasian symbol. It did not define 
miracles or state the precise limits of nature 
and the supernatural. It did not sharply dis- 
sever the inspiration of the Psalmists and St. 
Paul from that of Plato and Tennyson. It laid 
more stress on holiness than upon sin, upon 
love and pity than upon wrath and judgment. 
It emphasized the ethical elements of religion 
and found in conduct the safest criterion of 
character, and in character the surest evidence 
of life. Jowett was a man of faith, though he 
sometimes saw dimly, of hope and love always. 
He was of the pure in heart, who may be blind 
to many things, but still see God. However 
he erred in opinion, he ever sought and served 
the truth. That is the orthodoxy that will be 
worth most to us when all accounts are reck- 
oned up. Meanwhile, these are safe watch- 



[July 1, 

words : " the life of Christ, the mind of Christ, 
the cross of Christ." 

A former President of Yale, Dr. Woolsey, 
in a sonnet of great beauty, tells us how St. 
John found 

" The blindfold Plato trembling at the door " 

of Heaven, and that he 

" led the mild enthusiast on 

Towards the Eternal Word, Heaven's source of Day. 
Then loosed the bandage and the sage, no more 
A sage but saint, beheld and knelt to adore." 

If we can imagine the Master of Balliol look- 
ing on at that august presentation, we may see 
his face smiling, yet grave with a dreamy per- 
plexity, and hear from him in that " cherubic 
chirp " which his friends delight to remember, 
"I thought you had known one another all 
along." Where wisdom and goodness were, 
Jowett believed Christ must ever be. 



"We have come to that time," says Mr. 
Charles M. Skinner, in the volume mentioned 
below, " when we begin to feel as well as to see 
in the presence of woods, hills, oceans, and 
stars ; there are hints and portents in them that 
a new consciousness tries to read." It is finally 
dawning upon the human mind that there is a 

* NATURE IN A CITY YARD. Some Rambling Disserta- 
tions Thereon. By Charles M. Skinner, author of " Myths 
and Legends of Our Own Land." New York : The Century 

UPON THE TREE-TOPS. By Olive Thome Miller. Illus- 
trated by F. Carter Beard. Boston : Honghton, Mifflin & Co. 

BiRD-LiFE. A Guide to the Study of our Common Birds. 
By Frank M. Chapman. With 75 full-page Plates and nu- 
merous Text Drawings by Ernest Seton Thompson. New 
York : D. Appleton & Co. 

By Thomas Wentworth Higginson. With an Index of Plants 
and Animals Mentioned. New York: Longmans, Green, 

MEMORIES OF THE MONTHS. Being Pages from a Note- 
book of a Field-Naturalist and Antiquary. By Sir Herbert 
Maxwell, Bart. New York: Edward Arnold. 

ROUND THE YEAR. A Series of Short Nature Studies. By 
Professor L. C. Miall, F.R.S. With illustrations, chiefly by 
A. R. Hammond, F.L.S. New York : The Macmillan Co. 

IN THE GARDEN OF PEACE. By Helen Milman (Mrs. Cold- 
well Crof ton). Illustrated by Edmund H. New. New York: 
John Lane. 

Morris. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

THE STORY OF THE BIRDS. By James Newton Baskett, 
M.A., Associate Member of the American Ornithologists' 
Union. Appletons' Home Reading Books. New York : D. 
Appleton & Co. 

THE PLANT WORLD: Its Romances and Realities. A 
Reading Book of Botany. Compiled and edited by Frank 
Vincent, M.A. Appletons' Home Reading Books. New 
York : D. Appleton & Co. 

significance in the life which animates and beau- 
tifies our earth which it is worth our while to 
consider, not only for the widening of our intel- 
lectual horizon, but for the continual joy it may 
infuse into our daily experience. There are 
evidences of this late awakening in various pop- 
ular movements toward nature-study and in a 
rapidly increasing literature aiming to promote 
the same useful purpose. The array of books 
herewith presented testifies to the growing 
interest in the pages of Nature. 

Few volumes are more entertaining than that 
in which Mr. Skinner tells of the health and 
happiness to be found in cultivating " Nature 
in a City Yard." The portion of the earth's do- 
main lying in the rear of the author's Brooklyn 
residence is only eighteen feet by fifty, yet from 
this restricted area he contrives to extract mar- 
vels of enjoyment. In the height of the flower- 
ing season he feasts his eyes upon nearly sixty 
varieties of plants in bloom at the same time. All 
the pleasures of a successful gardener are his ; 
but to these he adds the refinements of the man 
of culture, the humorist, and the philosopher. 
As he digs and plants and waters and prunes 
in his tiny, thrifty precinct, his thoughts are 
as busy as his hands, and every circumstance 
connected with his work suggests some sage, 
shrewd, genial, or merry idea. His writing 
proclaims him a man of versatility, a scholar, 
a wag, with keen insight, a light heart, and a 
passionate leaning toward nature. " Pessimism 
is worse than tragedy," he avers ; " it is a 
tragedy of the soul ; the attitude of a tired-out 
race. When we keep in touch with Nature we 
share her splendid life. For Nature, even a 
yardf ul of it, makes health in her communicant. 
Get away from self-consciousness. Think not 
of your mind nor of your fate. Why be always 
thinking on your end ? as graveyard literature 
hath it. We are here to live ; not to die." He 
is content with his lot ; and, reflecting on the 
cares and miseries of the rich, cheerily observes 
that " The chief blessing of poverty is that 
other folks do n't ask you to help them to live." 
His pages are sown with wise and witty sayings, 
and provoke many a welcome laugh as well as 
serious moment of meditation. 

We have but to announce a new volume 
by Mrs. Olive Thorne Miller to assure the 
nature-lover of a literary treat. Mrs. Miller's 
writings are invariably crisp and spicy, and are 
composed of substantial as well as appetizing 
substance. "Upon the Tree - Tops " brings 
within a single pair of book -lids thirteen 
sketches of bird-life which, with one or two ex- 




ceptions, have previously attracted attention in 
the pages of " The Atlantic Monthly " and sim- 
ilar periodicals. They will bear a second pe- 
rusal, and in their present pretty setting are 
even more engaging than in their original form. 
They are accompanied by ten full-page engrav- 
ings by Mr. F. Carter Beard, which are unus- 
ually interesting in design and are exquisitely 
reproduced. The opening sketch, describing 
" Tramps with an Enthusiast," is perhaps the 
most entertaining of the entire number, from 
its abundant humor and lively incident. If 
there be a specially blissful experience in this 
mortal life, it is that which comes to a pair 
of enthusiastic ornithologists out in the field 
pursuing the objects of their affection under 
favorable conditions. Such were the circum- 
stances depicted in this opening chapter. Suc- 
ceeding portions of the volume relate with 
piquant grace Mrs. Miller's observations of the 
humming-bird in nesting-time, the winter wren 
in its Northern home, the chat, the shrike, and 
other fascinating members of the feathered race 
in the happy relations of family life. The au- 
thor is one who looks upon nature with a keen 
and attentive eye, and tells us little that she 
has not seen and studied for herself. Her con- 
tributions to bird - literature are therefore as 
trustworthy in substance as they are agreeable 
in form. 

It is two years since Mr. Frank M. Chapman 
published his valuable handbook on the " Birds 
of Eastern North America," and now he has 
followed it with a smaller supplementary work 
in which his masterly attainments in the science 
of ornithology are equally well shown. This 
second volume does not aim to give as compre- 
hensive a view of " Bird Life " in the United 
States as did the first, but it contains as much 
of the choicest information regarding a hundred 
or more of our familiar species as could be 
compressed within its limits. The opening chap- 
ters present a clear, concise summary of the 
evolution of the chief features of the bird, of 
its colors, of the curious phenomena connected 
with its migration, of its song and its domestic 
habits, together with directions for identifying 
and classifying it. The concluding portion is 
filled with attractive descriptions of the species 
we are most likely to meet in the woods and 
fields and by the wayside. The illustrations 
with which the book is generously provided are 
true to the life in form and attitude, and higher 
praise cannot be given. The student who selects 
this work as a guide to his observations of bird- 
life will not go amiss. 

A half-dozen pleasant Summer sketches by 
Mr. T. W. Higginson are included in the vol- 
ume entitled " The Procession of the Flowers." 
The papers do not now appear in print for the 
first time. Some of them bear a date several 
years back ; but they well preserve their early 
freshness and charm. Their author has truly 
said : " No person can portray nature from any 
slight or transient acquaintance." Mr. Hig- 
ginson has loved and studied the phases of the 
out-door world throughout a long life-time. He 
knows the flowers, the insects, the birds, and 
seldom errs in writing of them. Not only their 
names but their individual traits, their distinc- 
tive peculiarities, are familiar to him ; and he 
characterizes each with the right word or the 
felicitous phrase. Of the humming-bird, " the 
smallest of feathery things, and the loveliest," 
he asks : " Did gems turn to flowers, flowers 
to feathers, in that long-past dynasty of the 
Humming- Birds ? " And, lost in surprise over 
the miracle of a bird's egg, he observes won- 
deringly : " That one may bear home between 
his fingers all that winged splendor, all that 
celestial melody, coiled in mystery within these 
tiny walls ! it is as if a pearl opened and an 
angel sang." 

Such books as " Memories of the Months," 
by Sir Herbert Maxwell, exemplify the full 
value of the powers of observation and appre- 
ciation. Nothing worthy of note escapes the 
author's view or fails to yield a due degree of 
satisfaction. The precious habit of looking at 
things attentively and of transcribing at the 
instant the points exciting interest has put him 
in possession of a mass of valuable observations 
from which his present volume is drawn. They 
relate chiefly to objects in nature, and yet in 
part refer to the works of man, for the author 
is an earnest antiquarian as well as field natur- 
alist. Wide culture and a genial frame of 
mind are reflected in his literary style, which 
is unpretending and elegant. The " Memories," 
having an intimate connection with the varying 
seasons, are ranged in sections under the suc- 
cessive months of the year, and thus form a 
coherent whole. With the embellishment of 
pictures, the fine letter-press, and the dainty 
binding, the book is a most attractive one 

The volume entitled " Round the Year," by 
Professor L. C. Miall, contains a series of 
natural-history sketches suggested by incidents 
which took place under the author's observa- 
tion at different seasons and places in the year 
1895. He is a man of science and a trained 



[July 1, 

observer. No event in nature escapes his notice, 
and each is searched with a careful eye, that its 
origin and destiny may if possible be discovered. 
His sketches cover a multitude of subjects in 
astronomy, botany, meteorology, ornithology, 
entomology, and various other ologies. He 
leads the reader into studies that are profound 
although not prolonged, revealing, as he goes 
along, a mass of curious and engaging facts, 
such as lie in every object of the outer world, 
ready to disclose themselves to the inquiring 
mind. Some of his most interesting investiga- 
tions are connected with such subjects as 
" Snowflakes," "Catkins," "The Cuckoo," 
" Gossamer," " The Structure of a Feather," 
and " Tennyson as a Naturalist." But his 
work is of an earnest and even quality through- 
out, blending instruction with entertainment 
in the manner of an adroit expounder. The 
book is very handsomely produced, the illustra- 
tions being especially minute in line and clear 
in cut. 

" In the Garden of Peace " is a winning title, 
and its effect is fully sustained by the chapters 
it binds together in a unified construction. The 
" Garden " was a " Paradise of Birds," as its 
owner, " Helen Milman," asserts on the title- 
page and clearly establishes in the progress of 
her volume. It belonged to a secluded estate, 
remote from the village, almost hidden, indeed, 
by surrounding woods ; and it possessed ideal 
charms for the lover of Nature in her more quiet 
forms. " It was aglow with the colors of a thou- 
sand flowers throughout the seasons of budding 
and blooming, gay with the butterflies sipping 
their sweets, and joyous all the year round with 
the life and the song of the birds which made 
their homes in every tree and bush, secure of 
the loved protection of the Adam and Eve who 
dwelt in unalloyed happiness in the midst of 
this earthly paradise." The chapters severally 
depicting the flowers and the birds glorifying 
the " Garden of Peace " are in such harmony 
with their spirit that one is soothed and de- 
lighted as with an actual^ visit to the lovely 
scene. They impart a fresh sense of the pos- 
sibilities for the culture of our better selves, 
which the beautiful objects of nature always 

Mr. Robert J. Morris displays a decided lit- 
erary gift, as well as a keen love of sport, in 
the collection of sketches which bear the name 
of the first one in the series, " Hopkins's Pond." 
They have been written without effort and with- 
out restraint, a fine instinct permitting the au- 
thor to yield himself with entire abandon to the 

mood for description or reminiscence. He is an 
animated and engaging narrator, and has a gen- 
uine appreciation of nature, gaining our hearty 
good-will through these faculties, despite the 
lamentable fact that he rejoices in beguiling 
the duck to his death by means of a base decoy, 
and delights in torturing the captive trout until 
its last breath is expired. 

Messrs. Appleton & Co.'s promising series 
of " Home Reading Books," edited by Dr. 
William T. Harris, gives the first place in its 
Natural History division to a valuable little 
work, by Mr. James Newton Baskett, relating 
" The Story of the Birds." The title is in a 
slight degree misleading, as the book is prac- 
tically a history of the evolution of the birds 
of their structure, pedigrees, costumes, and 
customs as far as this can at present be un- 
folded. In every respect it deserves commenda- 
tion, its author exhibiting a good command of 
his subject and a persuasive way of presenting 
it. His readers are expected to be largely of 
the juvenile class ; yet the older students of 
bird-lore will take pleasure in the volume, and 
profit also, so skilfully are its contents ordered, 
so clearly and with so much charm of manner 
are they set forth. There was room in the 
naturalist's library for just such a treatise, and 
Mr. Baskett has spared no pains to fit his 
treatise for useful service. The book is very 
neatly printed and excellently illustrated, and 
to aid the reader in easy reference to its myriad 
topics a compact analysis of the chapters is fur- 
nished at the beginning with an ample index at 
the close. To crown the merits of the volume, 
it is offered at a price so low that the humblest 
home may lay it among the treasures of its 

The second number of Appletons' series of 
" Home Reading Books " is less satisfactory 
than the first. It is a compilation of passages 
from various authors, relating to strange and 
striking members of " The Plant World." In 
too many cases the extracts are not as simple 
and engaging in style as they should be. They 
lack life, and give one the feeling that they are 
done at second-hand, rather than from personal 
knowledge of the objects described. A few 
evince the enthusiasm of the botanist who 
speaks from actual experience. Surely the 
editor could have found abundant material for 
his purpose in the works of recent writers who 
depict Nature in all her forms with an intelli- 
gence and eloquence which capture the heart of 
every reader. 






The wheelman contributes a new element of 
interest to books of travel. The story of adventures 
of the steel steed, on various roads and in peculiar 
situations, takes the place of remarks, critical and 
otherwise, on horses and conveyances, or on steam- 
ers and railways, to which we have become accus- 
tomed in the older literature of travel. One of the 
latest contributions to the fast increasing books of 
bicycle travel is " Sketches Awheel in Modern 
Iberia," by Mr. and Mrs. W. H. Workman. The 
tale of their trip will hardly encourage imitators, 
for our authors suffered much from heat and from 
the villainous roads, were attacked by irate mule- 
drivers, and were stoned by malicious children. 
However, they sometimes had their reward, as in 
the forty-mile ride from Elche to Murcia, of which 
they say : 

" We have taken grand rides, desolate rides, and 
lovely rides, but never one so intoxicatingly beautiful as 
this through African Spain. And in praising we echo 
the words of a German, one of the few writers on Spain 
who appear to have visited this region, Why is this 
lovely corner of the world so little known ? ' " 

They made the tour of the principal cities of Spain, 
and varied their travels by a mule-back ride from 
Tangier to Tetuan, Morocco. The writers have 
little that is new or notable to tell, and the style is 
for the most part rather commonplace, though an 
occasional sketch, as that of their stay at the inn of 
Tarancon, shows considerable descriptive power. 
Foreign words are too much in evidence : in the 
space of three sentences we notice Spanish, German, 
and French. The book contains a fair map, and 
the photographic illustrations are clear. 

In "Naples in the Nineties," Mr. E. Neville- 
Rolfe, English Consul for South Italy, gives in 
attractive style some instructive chapters on the 
Naples of yesterday and to-day, on the survivals of 
ancient paganism and mediaeval witchcraft, on ex- 
cursions to the buried cities of Campania, to a 
garden-farm, and to various places of interest near 
Naples and its famous bay, and closing with an 

Bullock Workman and William Hunter Workman. Illus- 
trated. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

NAPLES IN THE NINETIES. A Sequel to Naples in 1888. 
By E. Neville-Rolfe. Illustrated. London : A. & C. Black. 

Hinde. New York : Thomas Whittaker. 

WILD NORWAY. By Abel Chapman. Illustrated. New 
York : Edward Arnold. 

Edward A. Freeman. Illustrated. New York : Macmillan Co. 

IN JOYFUL RUSSIA. By John A. Logan, Jr. Illustrated. 
New York : D. Appleton & Co. 

IN ARMENIA. By J. Rendel Harris and Helen B. Harris. 
Illustrated. Chicago : Fleming H. Revell Co. 

THE OUTGOING TURK. By H. C. Thomson. Illustrated. 
New York : D. Appleton & Co. 

Illustrated. New York : The Macmillan Co. 

eighteenth-century diary of an Italian tour. The 
book seems primarily designed for the tourist ; and 
while of especial value to him, it will yet be of ser- 
vice to any reader who wishes to understand the 
Italy of to-day. Naples of late years has felt the 
progressive spirit which has been permeating all 
Italy. Streets have been widened, slums removed, 
sewers constructed, new industries started, and 
the play of the Nativity suppressed. Says our 
author : 

" The time is coming when a Neapolitan will answer 
a letter, keep an appointment, have some little regard 
for truth and some small respect for the feelings of his 
neighbors. The cabman will some day drive with whips 
which do not rend the air with their terrible cracking; 
they will learn kindness to animals, and the use of soap 
and water; insect life will be kept at bay, and the city 
will fall to the dead level of Paris, Berlin, or any other 
civilized town." 

Yet we are glad to believe him when he elsewhere 
says that " Naples has a quaintness and charm of 
her own, which municipalities cannot destroy, and 
civilization cannot altogether wreck." The author 
has long been resident in Italy, and, writing from 
full knowledge, has given us an excellent handbook 
to Naples and to Campania in general. 

Captain S. L. Hinde tells us, in " The Fall of the 
Congo Arabs," a simple but graphic story of the 
conquest and expulsion of the Arab traders from 
Nyangwe and Kasongo by the Belgians of the Congo 
Free State. This struggle the author regards as " a 
turning-point in African history," in that it crushed 
out an incipient Mohammedan Empire of slave 
raiders in the Congo Basin. Besides this first-hand 
account of a notable conflict between European and 
Arab, we find in this book many entertaining and 
instructive remarks on the country and its inhabit- 
ants. For instance, the author's descriptions of the 
African road, of the " water people," and of the 
pigmies, are distinctly interesting. On cannibals 
and their practices he gives the fullest information 
we have come across. He learned that 
" The prisoner or slave who was to form the piece de 
resistance had always his arms and legs broken three 
days beforehand, and was then placed in a stream, or 
pool of water, chin-deep, with his head tied to a stick to 
prevent his committing suicide, or perhaps falling asleep 
and thus getting drowned. On the third day he was taken 
out and killed, the meat then being very tender." 

Again, he says that 

" When the chief of the town who is of course an 
absolute monarch decides that a man must die, he 
hands him over to the people. He is immediately torn 
to pieces, and disappears as quickly as a hare is broken 
up by a pack of hounds. Every man lays hold of him 
at once with one hand, and with the other whips off the 
piece with his knife; no one stops to kill him first, for 
he would by doing so lose his piece." 

During the two years' war with Arabs, cannibalism 
was rife after battles and the storming of towns ; 
the " human wolves disposed of all the dead, leaving 
nothing even for the jackals." Finally, as a picture 



[July 1, 

of African savagery, we cannot refrain from quoting 
Captain Hinde's description of N' Gandu. 

" The village, containing from ten to fifteen thousand 
inhabitants, was oval in form, and strongly fortified by 
a double ditch and loopholed earthwork, the whole 
being surrounded by a palisade. The top of every tree 
in this palisade was crowned with a human skull. Six 
gateways defended the village; and, after passing 
through each gate, it was necessary to traverse a tunnel, 
some thirty yards long, made out of piles of large tim- 
ber, and loopholed throughout its whole length. On the 
top of this tunnel was a guardhouse, the floor of which 
was honeycombed into holes, through which the guard 
above could spear an unsuspecting passenger on the 
road below. The approach to each of these six gates 
was ornamented by a pavement of human skulls, the 
bregma being the only part that showed above ground. 
This pavement was of snowy whiteness, and polished to 
the smoothness of ivory by the daily passage of hundreds 
of naked feet. I counted more than two thousand skulls 
in the pavement of one of the gates alone." 

We cordially commend this volume as a fresh, enter- 
taining, and valuable account of a very dark spot in 
" darkest Africa." The book contains in its final 
chapters a description of an exploring trip up the 
Lualaba River and into the Lukuga River, when the 
author was forced to turn back by serious illness. 
An elaborate map of a part of the Congo Basin adds 
to the value of the work. 

As a mighty hunter and fisher, Mr. Abel Chap- 
man has ranged Western Europe from South Spain 
to Spitzbergen, and has written several accounts of 
his experiences, the present volume, "Wild Nor- 
way," being the fourth and last of the series. Mr. 
Chapman is of the best type of English big-game 
hunter. He is no butcher, but takes an intelligent 
interest in wild animals, and is a close student and 
fervent admirer of all wild life. He is a seeker of 
trophies, and obtains splendid specimens of reindeer 
and elk heads ; but he also has an interest in smaller 
animals, as witness this account of the lemming: 

" If his powers were proportioned to his pluck, the 
lemming would make things lively for the hunter. Had 
the bear, the lynx, or the mighty elk but a thousandth 
part of the lemming's aggressive ferocity, the relative 
position of hunter and hunted would be reversed, and 
an expedition to the f jeld would require an advance 
guard of cavalry and a support of Maxim guns. The 
lemming attacks with reckless fury the harmless passer- 
by. One small creature (smaller than a rat) will assail, 
without second thought, a couple of human beings 
weighing a hundred and fifty pounds apiece; it will 
spring at one's knees, biting and barking, and in pur- 
blind fury fall back all-ends-up to earth, only to renew 
the attack again and again. To-day, while one lemming 
was flying at me, another from a small stream joined in 
the demonstration, presently swimming across to get to 
close quarters." 

The author's observations on birds will have some 
value for the ornithologist. His remarks on the 
Norwegian peasantry, on the Lapp, and on Nor- 
wegian scenery, are frequently of interest. The 
opening of the Northern summer is thus mentioned : 
" Leaf bursts forth on tree and shrub while one 

watches it ; on all sides is heard the cracking of the 
buds of birch and plane-trees, the unfolding of 
fern-fronds is well-nigh visible." The greatest de- 
fects of this book are its fragmentary character, 
and also that lack of sentiment and imagination 
which is a trait of most English travellers. The 
illustrations, which are drawn from life, are ex- 
tremely clear, accurate, and interesting. 

Professor E. A. Freeman's " Sketches of Travel 
in Normandy and Maine," as reprinted from the 
"Saturday Review" and the "Guardian," may be 
considered as an appendix to his " Sketches of 
French Travel," and as a series of notes illustrative 
of " The Norman Conquest." Their interest is not 
so much in their accounts of travels as in their anti- 
quarian description and discussion ; and hence they 
will hardly appeal to the general reader. But the 
connoisseur of mediaeval history and architecture 
will find these brief papers very suggestive and in- 
structive, being saturated with lore, and always 
competent, accurate, and incisive. The book con- 
tains much information, not easily found elsewhere, 
concerning out-of-the way historic places in north- 
western France. In this work, as in all his works, 
Mr. Freeman brusquely speaks his mind on all 
occasions. For instance, his remarks on " the brutal 
work " of architectural restorations is full of sav- 
age denunciations. Mr. Freeman's drawings of 
ancient buildings will appeal more to the architect 
than the artist. The volume contains an index, but 
has no map. 

Quite in contrast to " In Tolstoi Land," lately 
noticed in THE DIAL, which depicted Russia fam- 
ishing, we now have a book giving a picture of 
Russia feasting. " In Joyful Russia," by Mr. John 
A. Logan, Jr., is a rather highly-colored narrative 
of the recent coronation proceedings, and a very 
eulogistic account of the Imperial family. The 
author also gives some interesting notes on Russian 
baths, restaurants, houses, horses, etc. As a sample 
of his descriptions, we quote his account of the 
netting of the famous fish, the sterlet, in Moscow 

" The perfection of the sterlet is so dependent upon 
its size and freshness that in many of the crack res- 
taurants of Moscow, and of a few other cities that are 
near enough to the Volga, a great marble basin forms 
the centre of the dining-room. This basin is three- 
quarters filled with limpid water water in which great 
aquatic plants dwell plants between whose splendid 
leaves magnificent sterlet dart, lifting now and again 
their shapely heads to catch the spray falling from the 
fountain, that, with a slim, straight, and then gracefully- 
falling shaft of water, punctuates the small pool's 
centre. The Russian gourmet who is old enough, and 
the Russian gourmet who is young enough, to take a 
keen satisfaction in the display of his gastronomical 
judgment and exquisite taste goes to the marble brink 
of this artificial lake and nets his own sterlet. The 
waiter hands him a net, fanciful of handle and silken 
of web. He grasps it, looks critical, then wise, and 
thrusts it into the pool. If he is lucky he brings up a 
fish. If not, he tries again. When, sooner or later, he 




captures his prey, with a gesture of triumph he hands 
his net to the attendant and hies to his potage. Almost 
before his soup is removed, the sterlet is brought to him, 
dressed in any way he has ordered, and cooked to per- 
fection. I noticed that most of the travellers dining 
at the Moscow restaurants liked to net their own ster- 
let. I did it once. But it was stupid sport, and after 
that I always left the selection of my fish to the waiter, 
who understood what I did not which were the choice 

As a narrative of a few weeks' trip through Rus- 
sia, by a young, lively, impressionable, enthusiastic 
American, who was most magnificently treated by 
Russian officialdom, this book is very pleasant and 
readable ; but it cannot well be taken as a serious, 
impartial, and thorough account of the Russia of 
to-day, although the author expresses very strongly 
his decided optimistic opinions on Russian society 
and government. The style sometimes over-does 
itself in point of vividness, and the way in which the 
author frequently alludes to his mother can hardly 
be called in good taste. The photographic illustra- 
tions are in the main fresh and interesting, and the 
colored pictures are fairly successful. 

The Armenian massacre has been somewhat dis- 
placed in popular interest by the Turko-Greek war, 
yet the volume of "Letters from Armenia," by 
Professor J. Rendel Harris and Mrs. Harris, will be 
found of considerable interest by many. Mr. and 
Mrs. Harris went to Armenia in 1896, as dispensers 
of an English relief fund, and these letters to friends 
in England relate some of their experiences. They 
fully corroborate other accounts of the Turkish and 
Kurdish atrocities in Ourfa, Harpoot, Eghin, and 
other towns ; they show the apostolic unction and 
fervent piety of their Quaker authors, and make 
plain how in Asia Minor to-day, as of old, " the 
blood of the martyrs is the seed of the church." 
The writers have the highest praise for the Ameri- 
can missionaries. As information, the letters are 
only very brief and sketchy. As to style, they have 
little literary quality, being mostly familiar and 
commonplace in tone, and sometimes careless, as 
" nice talks," '< met us to tea," etc. Professor Harris, 
who is best known as a specialist on ancient Chris- 
tian manuscripts, made some rather ineffective 
search for treasures in this line. The book contains 
a route map, and some photographic illustrations. 

It is pleasant to turn from the sufferings of 
Armenia, and view the prosperity of a country 
lately Turkish, but now under Austrian rule. That 
country is Bosnia, described by Mr. H. C. Thomson 
in his book entitled " The Outgoing Turk." Twenty 
years ago Bosnia was, like Armenia to-day, a land 
of extortion, robbery, and massacre; but now, thanks 
to the enlightened administration of Austria, she 
can be depicted as a land of peace and prosperity. 
Our author visited not only the main cities, but also 
the remoter districts, and gives a careful and trust- 
worthy account of the social and industrial status of 
the inhabitants, throwing much light on the former 
Mohammedan government. The main cause of the 

Turkish misrule everywhere is, as he points out, the 
autocratic power of the Sultan, by which favorites 
are appointed to govern provinces, and a thorough- 
going spoils system is established. A subsidiary 
cause is the fact that the methods of modern com- 
mercial success are debarred the true Mohammedan, 
and he must turn to brute force to maintain himself 
in the luxury he loves. 

" And there are many things to make it hard for a 
conscientious Mohammedan to succeed in business. His 
religious observances alone take up so much valuable 
time. Five times a day he must go to the mosque to 
pray. How is it possible for a man to compete with 
others, in the face of such interruptions as that ? More- 
over, the whole teaching of the Koran is against the 
spirit of modern trade. So, too, is that of Christianity. 
But, as a rule, in commercial matters, Mohammedans 
conform to what their religion teaches them, while the 
Christians frequently do not. Certain precepts of the 
Prophet have moulded the lives of his followers, and 
purified their every-day dealings. All over Bosnia, a 
Mohammedan's word may be trusted in matters of buy- 
ing and selling. He is bloodthirsty and treacherous and 
cruel, but he will not lie or cheat or steal. Go into the 
Carcija in Serajevo, and buy from a Christian or a Jew, 
and you must haggle with him, for you may be sure that 
he will ask you three or four times the proper price; 
but it is not necessary to do so when you are buying 
from a Turk, for he will ask you only the real value of 
what he is selling." 

Mr. Thomson made some incursions into Herce- 
govina, Dalmatia, and Slavonia, and gives a few 
observations on these countries. He concludes his 
valuable work with a general review of the Eastern 
question and a vigorous arraignment of English 
policy. The book contains some good maps, and 
the illustrations are admirably clear, serviceable, 
and artistic. 

"A Ride Through Western Asia," by Clive Big- 
ham, is a summary sketch of a rapid trip through 
Asia Minor, Persia, Central Asia to China, and back 
by way of Siberia and Russia. The jottings on the 
earlier journeys seem somewhat perfunctory ; but 
the author shows greater interest in his Central 
Asian travels, and gives some useful information 
about Russian progress there. He notes that " Rus- 
sia does not colonize in the sense that England 
does ; she annexes and absorbs. In a comparatively 
short time after she has occupied a country and 
subdued the inhabitants, that country becomes an 
integral part of Russia and the inhabitants try to 
become Russians." The power of Russia lies in its 
militiarism, with the Czar at its head, who is prac- 
tically a deity to his people. Away to the northwest 
frontier of China, at Vierny, Mr. Bigham and com- 
panion attended a service at the Basilica on the 
" Imperial Name-Day." 

" We went into the church with an officer, and found 
it full of men in uniform. The Imperial prayer was 
being sung. The Bishop was standing on the altar 
steps making genuflexions, while a priest in the centre 
of the clmrch was chanting the prayer, his voice rising 
higher and higher as it proceeded. When he reached 
the last triumphant clause, ' Nicholas, son of Alexander, 



[July 1, 

Emperor of All the Russias,' the choir and congrega- 
tion joined in, the trumpets blared, and outside the 
field-guns boomed out one after the other. The effect 
was so splendid that one felt as if at a momentary 
glimpse the power of Russia was suddenly revealed." 

Mr. Bigham's account in general is too cursory, 
superficial, and matter-of-fact to be distinctly inter- 
esting; though it is evidently trustworthy as far as 
it goes. The book is provided with useful maps 
and illustrations. HlRAM M> STANLEY. 


It has often seemed surprising to us that the 
novelist, in his eager search for unexploited romantic 
material, should have made so little of one of the 
most interesting phases of the history of nineteenth- 
century Europe. The story of the Italian revolu- 
tionary movement, from the intrigues of Young 
Italy to the definitive setting of the seat of govern- 
ment upon the Quirinal, is full of such incidents as 
the novelist most desires, and is informed by 
motives of the sort that best lend themselves to the 
purposes of romantic fiction. The subject, as a 
whole, is hardly inferior to that of the French Revo- 
lution, yet the latter has furnished forth ten times 
as many historical novels as the former. The author 
of " The Gadfly," then, in taking for his theme the 
Italian conspiracies of the thirties and forties, has 
had the advantage of dealing with comparatively 
unhackneyed material, and we trust that his novel 
may be the forerunner of many others that shall 
deal with the same stirring period. Who Mr. E. L. 
Voynich may be we cannot say, but we have no 
hesitation in asserting that his novel is one of the 
strongest of the year, vivid in conception and dra- 
matic in execution, filled with intense human feel- 
ing, and worked up to a tremendously impressive 

*THB GADFLY. By E. L. Voynich. New York : Henry 
Holt & Co. 

A ROSE OF YESTERDAY. By F. Marion Crawford. New 
York : The Macmillan Co. 

THE FALCON OF LANGEAC. By Isabel Whiteley. Boston: 
Copeland & Day. 

SOLDIERS OF FORTUNE. By Richard Harding Davis. New 
York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 

By M. Bourchier Sanford. New York : The Baker & Taylor 

THE MUTABLE MANY. A Novel. By Robert Barr. New 
York : Frederick A. Stokes Co. 

THE JESSAMY BRIDE. By F. Frankfort Moore. Chicago : 
H. S. Stone & Co. 

Moore. Chicago : H. S. Stone & Co. 

DERELICTS. By William J. Locke. New York : John Lane. 

THE MASSARENES. By Ouida. New York : R. F. Fenno 

cago : Rand, McNally & Co. 

THE FOOL AND His HEART. By F. Norreys Connell. New 
York : George H. Richmond & Co. 

CHRISTINE OF THE HILLS. By Max Pemberton. New 
York : Dodd, Mead & Co. 

climax. The hero is a person whose life has been 
hopelessly embittered by deceit practiced upon his 
youth, and whom fierce sufferings, both physical and 
mental, have transformed from a dreamy and confid- 
ing boy into a reckless and cynical man, whose watch- 
word is the Voltairean ecrasez I'infdme, and who 
throws himself heart and soul into the struggle 
against priestcraft and tyranny. The book is ex- 
tremely outspoken at times, and will probably give 
to many of its readers the same sort of offence that 
is given, let us say, by such a poem as Mr. Swin- 
burne's " Before a Crucifix." The note of revolt 
is certainly very insistent and very shrill. Those 
who have a sense of the stern realities that underlie 
even the most traditionally sacred conventions of 
life will be able to enter into the spirit of this book 
and share the mood of the author ; those who have 
not that sense will probably read it with suspicion 
and shudder at its denouement. 

In " A Rose of Yesterday," Mr. Crawford pre- 
serves the unity of time in a rather remarkable way. 
The entire novel of more than two hundred pages 
is concerned with the happenings of a single day. 
These happenings, as may be surmised, are mostly 
conversations, and Mr. Crawford's skill in the man- 
agement of dialogue is too well known to need 
further emphasis. The subject of the talk is divorce, 
and the book is little more than a lengthy plea for 
the sanctity of the marriage relation, sometimes 
made by the heroine herself, sometimes by the au- 
thor in those disquisitions which he never hesitates 
to introduce when padding is needed. Mr. Craw- 
ford's facility in composition sometimes degenerates 
into mere carelessness, as in his description of " a 
young woman in black," who " received the pay- 
ments of passing customers with a grieved manner." 
The book is a very tame performance, and adds 
nothing to the reputation of the author as a serious 

" The Falcon of Lange*ac " ( but why the accent ?) 
is a story of the type made familiar by Mr. Stanley 
Weyman and other romancers of that school. The 
scene is partly in Brittany and partly in Mont St. 
Michel, the time that of Francis I. Historically, 
the book has been adorned with much conscientious 
detail, and while the plot shows slight powers of 
invention, the general effect is pleasing, an effect 
produced in large measure by the purity of the 
style. Mrs. Whiteley is to be congratulated upon 
a piece of honest workmanship, imbued with the 
true romantic spirit, and provided with the most 
picturesque of settings. 

There is a wealth of picturesque and romantic 
material for the novelist in the life of Spanish 
America, and the field is as yet almost wholly un- 
worked. Mr. Richard Harding Davis, in realizing 
the possibilities of this field, and in qualifying him- 
self for its cultivation by personal observation, has 
been enabled to produce a book that combines fresh- 
ness of interest with the excellent literary qualities 
otherwise to be expected of his work. His new 
" Soldiers of Fortune " is one of the most readable 




and entertaining books of the season. Its chief 
characters are North Americans interested in a min- 
ing concession obtained from the government of 
Olancho, which lively little Republic appears to be 
situated somewhere on the coast near Venezuela. 
There is a fine revolutionary scrimmage in which 
the American hero gets mixed up, and as romantic 
a love-story as the youngest of readers could wish 
for. Indeed, the book appeals to uncritical youth 
rather than to adult sobriety, for the former is un- 
mindful of flaws that might easily mar the enjoy- 
ment of the latter, and a sort of irrepressible boy- 
ishness is the chief note of the narrative. 

Mr. M. Bourchier Sanf ord has found the material 
for an interesting narrative in the history of the 
Jesuit mission to the Hurons in the middle of the 
seventeenth century. The scene of the story is in 
the region which includes Sainte-Marie and St. 
Ignace, and the authorities for the historical part of 
the romance are, of course, the " Relations des 
Je'suites," as filtered through the pages of Parkman. 
The story is full of sympathy for the devotion and 
the heroism of the Jesuit fathers who spent laborious 
lives in the wilderness, and who shrank from no 
hardship and no danger in the performance of their 
task. In its' earlier chapters, the book is deficient 
in vitality, and it is not until near the close that the 
dry bones of historical fact are made to live in a 
narrative that engages our interests. The story has 
the same sort of charm that we find in Mrs. Gather- 
wood's work dealing with similar material, and is 
informed throughout by the loftiest ideals of conduct. 

" The Mutable Many " is a story that shows the 
hand of the trained journalist rather than the hand 
of the man of letters. There is no style to speak of, 
no genuine analysis of character, and but slight 
sense of the demands of literary art. But there is 
instead abundant action that does not flag, and a 
thoughtful presentation of a great social problem. 
There have been many other novels dealing with the 
conflict between labor and capital, but few that have 
done such even-handed justice to both aspects of the 
controversy, or that have produced the impression 
of being so closely in touch with the machinery of 
production, on the one hand, of strikes and labor 
organizations on the other. It is a far cry from 
" Put Yourself in His Place," for example, to this 
up-to-date study of a similar subject. The funda- 
mental passions concerned are much the same, but 
the conditions and the methods are so different now 
that Reade's novel is a matter of ancient history. 
Perhaps the best of Mr. Barr's characters is the 
artist in his own conceit, who plays but a minor part 
in the narrative, but whose appearance the reader 
soon learns to welcome. We are told at the start 
that Barney is a cad, and he probably is, but the 
epithet is inadequate, and we end with a real liking 
for him. Mr. Barr's method of story-telling sug- 
gests that of Sir Walter Besant in its breeziness 
and its actuality, thus deriving, in a measure, from 
Dickens himself. Entertainment, at least, may 
safely be promised the purchaser of this book. 

Mr. Frankfort Moore has been studying to good 
effect the manners and literary history of eighteenth- 
century England, and has turned out two books that 
are honestly, and almost brilliantly, written. " The 
Jessamy Bride " has Goldsmith for its central figure, 
and his romantic attachment for Mary Horneck for 
its theme. This part of the story is sweet, tender, 
and pathetic, and one can hardly read with dry eyes 
the closing pages, with their record of Goldsmith's 
death. The famous production of " She Stoops to 
Conquer " forms a leading episode of the work, and 
thereby introduces us to the pleasant company of 
the player-folk. Besides these Garrick, Colman, 
and Mrs. Abington we have sketches of the other 
people in Goldsmith's immediate circle, of Burke, 
Reynolds, Boswell, and the redoubtable Dr. Johnson. 
There is nothing better in the whole volume than 
the scene (in one of the early chapters) in which 
Garrick, disguised as a country clergyman, imposes 
upon the little group of Goldsmith's friends, and 
administers such a snub to the author of the " Dic- 
tionary " that we cannot help sharing in the awe- 
stricken mood of the hearers. Mr. Moore has 
imitated the ponderous Johnsonian manner with 
marked success, and has limned the other historical 
characters with much verisimilitude. His task was 
a daring one, but it is at least not so ill-performed 
as to make us regret the attempt. Mr. Moore's 
other book is a collection of six short stories, having 
for their leading figures such historical personages 
as the uxorious Duke of Marlborough and his wife, 
Nell Gwyn, Kitty Clive, Peg Woffington, and Sarah 
Siddons. The stories are well-conceived and amus- 
ing, bearing upon every page the impress of an 
intimate study of the fascinating period wherein 
they are laid. 

Mr. William J. Locke, the author of " Derelicts," 
is credited upon the title-page with two other nov- 
els, which we do not remember to have seen, but 
which we should certainly be glad to read if they 
in any measure approach his present performance. 
There is nothing novel about " Derelicts," either in 
plot or construction, and merely to summarize the 
story would give no notion of the true value of the 
book. The qualities that make it really noteworthy 
are the crystal purity of its style, the strength of 
its characterization, the delicacy and refinement of 
its motives, and its careful poise above the danger- 
ous depths of sensationalism on the one side, and 
sentimentalism on the other. It affords a sympa- 
thetic portrayal of warm human life, neither too 
idealized to lack substance, nor led too far astray 
into the thickets of realism to lose its distinctive 
character as artistic work. In theme, it is a study 
of guilt and expiation of a guilt that derives 
from weakness rather than from vicious predispo- 
sition, and of an expiation that is not merely exter- 
nal, but takes the form of a gradual and genuine 
upbuilding of character. It is not as strong a book, 
or as consummate a piece of workmanship, as Mr. 
Allen's "The Choir Invisible," but we cannot refrain 
from bringing the two books into juxtaposition, for 



[July 1, 

the author of one would understand the other, and 
both are refreshing and purifying in their influence. 
A few more such hooks as these would suffice to 
turn the stream of current fiction into channels less 
muddied than those in which it has been running of 
late years. 

William Massarene was an American from Da- 
kota. He was described in the vernacular of the 
northwest as " a bull-dozing boss," and enjoyed the 
soubriquet of the " Blasted Blizzard." He was an 
Irishman by birth, but emigrated to " the States " 
early in life, and amassed a colossal fortune by dis- 
reputable means. Having made his " pile," he 
crossed the Atlantic and set about the conquest of 
English society. Of his success in this noble ambi- 
tion we may read at great length in the latest work 
of fiction to bear the name of " Ouida " as its author. 
" The Massarenes " is, like most of the imaginings 
of that ingenious writer, a curious mixture of 
strength, cleverness, vulgarity, and pretentious igno- 
rance. Its good qualities save it from utter condem- 
nation ; its bad qualities are beneath contempt. In 
the predominance of the latter, it is something of a 
reversion to the author's older and worse manner, 
and its general tone of exaggerated sensationalism 
is quite unworthy of her. No one will be convinced 
that English society is so essentially corrupt as she 
would have us think, and no one will take very 
seriously her impossible " Mouse " and her equally 
impossible Lord Hurstmanceaux. There are so 
many misprints in the book that we must be care- 
ful about ascribing to " Ouida " all of the curious 
things that meet the eye ; it is possible that the 
printer is responsible for " the congenial country of 
mug-wamps and roarbacks," and even for "smelted 
gold," but even the printer could not have invented 
such bad French as " des bons gens." 

" The Fascination of the King " is an entertaining 
story of imaginary politics, the scene being laid in 
some unknown region of the Far East, and the hero 
being a European adventurer who has created a 
new State and made himself ruler thereof. How 
his throne is assailed, and how, with the help of 
some English friends, he quells the conspirator and 
repulses the foreign foe, are matters that are made 
highly exciting by Mr. Boothby's facile and prac- 
tised pen. The book is one of the lightly read and 
easily forgotten, but will serve for the occupation 
of a pleasant hour or two. 

The story of a sensitive nature, given up alter- 
nately to religious aspiration and debauchery, trying 
various ways of life, and making but poor success 
of them, is what we are given in " The Fool and 
His Heart." The story has neither symmetry of 
design nor distinction of style, and although the 
hero, in his better moods, appeals to our sympathies, 
his waywardness and weakness of will prevents us 
from greatly caring what becomes of him. The 
book derives a certain interest from the glimpses 
which it affords of the Catholic schools in which 
the hero is educated, and from the semi-Bohemian 

episodes of his subsequent career as a struggling 
novelist. But the execution as a whole is slovenly, 
and the ethical tone disheartening. 

" Christine of the Hills " is the story of a girl of 
Dalmatia, endowed with beauty and musical talent, 
who marries a brutal peasant before she knows 
what marriage means, and afterwards, believing 
her husband to have been shot, gives her heart to a 
nobleman who has befriended her. Presently the 
husband reappears, drags his reluctant wife away to 
Vienna, and lives upon her earnings as a singer. 
Mr. Max Pemberton has told this story prettily 
enough, but he is never quite successful in creating 
a strong situation, or in giving vitality to his pup- 
pets. The book is saved from insipidity by its 
romantic atmosphere and by the fascinating Dal- 
matian setting of its scene. 



Mr. Bradnock Hall's "Fish-Tails 
. f ~ and Some True Ones (Edward 

Arnold) is a seasonable little book, 
wherein the author tells some good fishing yarns 
and chats pleasantly about his own angling experi- 
ences in Great Britain and Norway. Mr. Hall, as 
we gather, is an M.P., with a distressing, and, as 
he claims, undeserved, reputation for an almost 
puritanical sobriety. To this reputation he is, as a 
public man, of course obliged to live up. In sup- 
port of it, he has even put forth a book on " Bimet- 
allism as a Panacea for Pauperism " a dreary chef 
d'ceuvre which, he believes, nobody has ever read, 
and which he plainly regards with loathing. He is, 
in fact, a slave to his reputation as a serious man. 
The harmless relaxations of others would be re- 
garded as breaches of propriety in him lapses 
which might cost him his reputation and his seat in 
the House. " I must not," he complains, " be absent 
from my place in church, I must not play golf on 
Sunday, I must eschew clay pipes and beer, and 
books which others read with interest and enjoy- 
ment must not lie upon my table : in fact, I have 
to eat, drink, smoke, and read to order, and to 
travel three hundred miles to find a desert place 
to laugh in." In this country we do not regard our 
legislators so seriously. Fancy anybody here re- 
garding his " Congressman," or even his Senator, 
as necessarily and ex officio a paragon ! Mr. Hall 
admits that in private, and when he feels sure no- 
body is looking, he shakes off his shackles. In the 
safe retirement of his library he relaxes, indulges 
in refreshing and unhallowed pranks as Richard 
Swiveller used to relieve his feelings by stealthily 
flourishing a ruler over the head-dress of Miss Brass, 
when that maiden was safely engrossed with an Eject- 
ment or a Writ of Replevin. Mr. Hall's pranks 
have usually taken a literary form. " Oh," he ex- 
claims, " that you could have seen my Post-obiter 




Dicta, or my Laughable Lyrics, by a Liliputian 
Laureate ! " Some of these trifles have even been 
surreptitiously published among them the papers 
embraced in the volume before us. They are, says 
the author, " some of the least trivial and the least 
slangy of their fellows." We find them crisp, 
readable, and chatty enough, and well suited to 
leaven the writer's undeservedly grievous reputa- 
tion. They are accompanied by some passable 
washed drawings by Mr. T. H. McLachlan, and 
there is an etched plate by the author. The Amer- 
ican " brother of the angle " will do well to slip Mr. 
Hall's little book in his satchel when next he goes 

A satirical Very chatty and piquant is the little 

French observer book entitled " A Diplomat in Lon- 
/ London life. don ( H olt), translated from the 
French of M. Charles Gavard. The author was, 
from 1871 to 1877, a member of the French 
Embassy at London, first as Chief Secretary, and 
then as Minister Plenipotentiary acting as Charge 
d 1 Affaires. M. Gavard was a notably shrewd and 
withal slightly satirical observer. His official posi- 
tion gave him opportunities scarcely second to those 
enjoyed by our courted fellow-countryman, Mr. 
Smalley, for studying at close range the smartest of 
England's " smart set." That he made good use 
of those opportunities, his notes and letters amus- 
ingly attest. M. Gavard's attitude, we may add, 
toward what " Mr. Guppy's " fashionable friend 
" Mr. Jobling " termed a " swanlike aristocracy " 
is by no means so deferential as is Mr. Smalley's. 
The habitual note of unctuous reverence, tinged with 
respectful familiarity, which pervades Mr. Smalley's 
reminiscences is not apparent in M. Gavard's 
sprightly and rather caustic pages. Of the two 
writers, it is seemingly the Frenchman who is the 
better republican. Mr. Smalley displays at times 
a strong Tory, almost a Jacobitical, bias ; M. Gavard 
can speak of Royalty itself in a most unconcerned 
way. He glances merely en passant at Mr. Smalley's 
friend the Prince as " a man of pleasure, a heavy 
drinker, a great eater, impecunious," and so on. 
He paints the Queen as " fat and short, with a dis- 
contented-looking face," and certainly no one 
familiar with the stock cuts in the London weeklies 
showing a stout, dissatisfied matron looking on 
crossly at the laying of this or that corner-stone 
or the genuflections of this or that Lord Mayor, 
will impeach the truth of his description. M. Gavard, 
like most Frenchmen, is disposed to make merry 
over English art. The older men he can endure, 
despite contrasts of color that remind him " of 
toast-and-jam." As for the moderns, he says, 
" molasses candy if that 's what you like, there 
you have it, and there the mob stays ; I was liter- 
ally sick." At an " afternoon " at Lady Burdett- 
Coutts's M. Gavard saw a masterpiece " represent- 
ing two thick-booted legs in air, incomprehensible 
and mediocre from the point of view of art." As 
with painting, so with music. At one entertainment 

M. Gavard records that he was regaled with the bag- 
pipes. " Nothing is impossible," he concludes, " in 
this absurd country." The impressions of this cul- 
tivated and observant Frenchman as to English poli- 
tics, art, manners, and humors, are graphic and amus- 
ing, and, in their light way, instructive. M. Gavard 
is very frank the more so, doubtless, as he clearly 
had no idea that his jottings would one day find their 
way into print. 

There are many matters of interest 
ind C cMecHng. that cluster about art which really 
have nothing to do with it as art. 
Just as an immense mass of scholarship gathers 
around every great name in literature, so there has 
gathered about the various fine arts, in the narrower 
meaning of the term, an immense mass of anecdot- 
age and gossip and technical information that is 
often very amusing and entertaining. Mr. Frederick 
S. Robinson, in his book on " The Connoisseur " 
(Longmans), has put together eighteen interesting 
chapters touching artists and works of art. The 
word " connoisseur " is a good one, for it means 
" one who knows." Connoisseurs are the cherubs 
of art, i. e., the second order in the hierarchy ; the 
seraphs, or those who love, coming first. Mr. Rob- 
inson is deeply interested and widely informed. It 
is true that he does not seem really to apprehend 
the essential character of his subject, for he begins 
with the inquiry, " What do lovers of art collect? " 
The real answer is that, as lovers of art, they collect 
nothing. When they collect, they become collectors 
or connoisseurs : not those who love, but those who 
know. This minor matter aside, however, Mr. 
Robinson will be allowed to write of collecting on a 
good large scale ; and some of his early chapters 
arouse a fine glow of pleasure. When he comes to 
Pliny and Vasari he seems to us not so happy ; for 
he can hardly be said to give, even remotely, an 
accurate idea of the work of either. If one is going 
to know about Pliny, one should begin, we think, by 
knowing something as to what it really was that 
he got together in his chapters on art. And as to 
Vasari, it is well to know that although he was a 
most estimable man, his work has drawbacks as a 
foundation for study. The chapters on Gems, how- 
ever, on Jewels, and on the Goldsmith and Silver- 
smith, do give us something of an idea of those very 
attractive minor arts. And the book as a whole is one 
which art-lovers will doubtless read with pleasure, 
although it can hardly be said to include a single 

artistic idea. 

We should like to see the admir- 
able little series of biographies of 
"Women of Colonial and Revolu- 
tionary Times," now issuing from the press of 
Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons, placed within reach 
of every American woman. The books have the right 
ring. Their tone is sympathetic, yet critical ; they 
are evidently the fruit of patient reflection and re- 
search. They present in a concise and attractive 
way facts which a true American woman should 



[July 1, 

blush to be ignorant of. Patriotism needs, as it 
craves, a past of its own a national Golden Age of 
exemplary deeds and virtues, a heroic era which looms 
larger through the mists of time. It is not enough 
to feed the imagination on the annals of Greece and 
Rome. That America too has a past to be proud of, 
that American women need not look abroad for 
patterns of high conduct in the day of trial, these 
beautiful little volumes abundantly attest. The 
latest of the set is Mrs. Anne Hollingsworth 
Wharton's " Martha Washington." Mrs. Whar- 
ton's fluent and animated pen shows no signs of 
flagging ; and she has really succeeded in the diffi- 
cult task of making her worthy, if not in herself 
very brilliant or distinguished, heroine the chief 
figure of her own biography. One closes the book 
with a clear impression of Martha Washington as a 
distinct and not inconsiderable personality a 
stanch and devoted Virginian lady who decidedly 
counted for something even when viewed apart 
from her illustrious husband. To the high enter- 
prise of which he was the soul, and of which he re- 
mains the most splendid figure, she gave ungrudg- 
ingly all she had to give. Her counsels must have 
assisted in shaping his conduct; and his conduct 
was singularly beyond reproach. Mrs. Wharton's 
portrait of her is painstaking and truthful a real 
portrait, and not a fancy sketch of the conventional 
" Lady Washington " idealized in the spirit of a 
certain fad now prevalent. In following her hero- 
ine's career, Mrs. Wharton gives us incidentally 
some pleasing pictures of the manners of the time, 
notably as exemplified in the home-life of the Wash- 
ingtons. The little book is not only a capital one 
for popular reading : it cannot fail to win the ap- 
proval of the more critical. There is an attractive 
portrait, after the original painting by Woolaston. 

The most noteworthy characteristic 
* Professor Mach's " Contributions 
to the Analysis of Sensations " (Open 
Court Publishing Co.) is the point of view by which 
they are inspired, rather than the facts therein re- 
corded or the results reached. It is the point of 
view prominent in the writings of Helmholtz, and 
insists upon the essential unity of the underlying 
aspects of sensation and their causes. It is a point 
of view at once physical and psychological ; or, still 
better, it is the analysis of the essential nature of 
things underlying the methods and scope of both 
these sciences. Because physics was one science 
and psychology another and in many ways a totally 
different science, men seem to believe that the prov- 
inces of these two divisions of knowledge, their con- 
tent and fact-material, were necessarily diverse. 
Sensation is the common ground of physics and 
psychology, and, indeed, of physiology as well. The 
difference between these sciences, Professor Mach 
insists, is not that they deal with totally different 
phenomena but that they deal with them in different 
ways. When we are discussing the objective forms 
of energy by which our senses may be impressed, we 

are physicists ; when we are analyzing the nature of 
the impression thus made upon us, the manner of 
our becoming acquainted with our environment, we 
are psychologists. The study of sensations from all 
possible points of view, the union of physical and 
psychological methods, holds out the promise of a 
wider and deeper insight into the true nature of 
sensation than would ever be possible if we hold 
apart what should be brought together. This domi- 
nant note of warning was more necessary, because 
less familiar, a dozen years ago, when the original of 
the present translation appeared, than it is now ; the 
predicted rejuvenation of interest in the study of 
sensation has in the main come to pass, and along 
the lines suggested. The contents of Professor 
Mach's contributions will interest several classes of 
specialists, and it is a merited tribute to their inher- 
ent value to present them in an attractive English 
garb. It has been said of the late Professor Sylvester 
that in writing he stood very close to his subject, 
and made things large and important which others 
might be inclined to consider as of little consequence. 
Professor Mach has the same tendency ; and in both 
men it is the outcome of an enviable enthusiasm for 
their chosen subjects, which gives to their pages a 
spice that is often lacking in works of pure science. 
Both in manner and in matter, the little volume is a 
valuable contribution to the analysis of sensations. 

No English poet is more steeped in 
. classical mythology JJpn Spenser, 

and nowhere else can the purely E.n- 
glish student find so complete and attractive an 
exercise-book for the study of the subject as is 
afforded by the " Faerie Queene." As an aid in such 
study, Miss Alice E. Sawtelle has compiled a dic- 
tionary to the " Sources of Spenser's Classical Myth- 
ology " (Silver, Burdett & Co.), as her thesis for the 
doctor's degree at Yale University. The work seems 
to be very carefully done, and it is a great conven- 
ience to the student of Spenser to have at his hand 
so compact and orderly a presentation of the sub- 
ject, although little seems to be added to the knowl- 
edge presented in scattered notes by the various 
commentators and editors of the poet. We regret 
that Dr. Sawtelle has not carried out further the too- 
brief general introduction to her book, even at the 
risk of repeating in part some of the generalizations 
of Jortin, Warton, Percival, and other critics. Thus, 
it would be interesting to hear more in regard to 
such topics as the artistic methods employed by 
Spenser in handling his myths, the proportion of use 
and the sort of use made of the various classical 
poets, the kinds of myths he particularly affects and 
which he loves to elaborate, and the like. A serious 
omission in a field offering room for profitable re- 
search is the lack of investigation in the thesis into 
the subject of the coloring and the transmission of 
some of these myths to Spenser through the inter- 
mediary of the Italian literature of the Renaissance. 
We conjecture that a study of the annotations to 
Tasso, Ariosto, and Boiardo, as well as of the writ- 




ings of some of the Italian Platonists and humanists, 
would contribute to the rather scanty information 
now supplied us in relation to such topics as the 
Garden of Adonis, the story of Hippolytus and 
^Esculapius, and the dreaded name of Demogorgon. 
The last especially is a mysterious and interesting 
figure in literature, appearing in the verse not only 
of Spenser, but also of Milton, Dryden, Shelley, and 
other English poets ; and yet the classical diction- 
aries and Dr. Sawtelle give us very little help in 
regard to him. Besides the quotation from Dr. 
Jortin, Dr. Sawtelle might well have added the brief 
passage on Demogorgon from Milton's Latin writ- 
ings cited in Todd's Milton in the note to Paradise 
Lost, Book II., line 964. 

If easy writing makes hard reading, 
U * niay be that what is written at 

random will be read with concen- 
trated interest. The reader curious in the question 
may like to experiment with Mr. L. F. Austin's 
" At Random" (Ward, Locke & Co.). Our own 
experience in this case was that we read the book 
much as it was written. In the last essay (if they 
be essays) the author tells how he met Olivia, a 
sparkling journalist, gazing into the window of a 
print-shop. She used to go there to look for ideas. 
Such, we fancy, must be the fate of anyone who has 
to write a weekly column about things in general. 
From such columns Mr. Austin's book is made up, 
but we do not feel quite sure whither he went in 
search of ideas. Sometimes, obliviously, it was to 
the theatre ; sometimes it was to what he calls Mr. 
Judson of the Dog- Licensing Department ; often 
he seems to have merely looked out of the window 
of some club. A few ideas he has got from America : 
American cider he thinks bad ; American after- 
dinner speeches begin during the oysters ; he was 
once cajoled and deceived by an American female 
interviewer. But practically his subject-matter is 
whatever you choose ; it is the treatment that is 
really the thing. Each number is a series of sections 
of about the same length, commonly of one para- 
graph each, with an indented heading and a few 
leads between every two. This literary form, as 
our readers are aware, allows the essayist much 
opportunity for easy badinage, good-natured satire, 
and quaint common-sense. We have already ex- 
pressed the opinion in these columns that such con- 
versation, while excellent in its weekly place, is 
hardly worth preserving. 

Criticism and 

In " The Old Testament and Modern 
Life " (Dodd, Mead & Co.), the Rev. 
Stopford Brooke endeavors in a se- 
ries of sermons to show that the modern critical 
view of the Old Testament is not incompatible with 
its use as a moral and spiritual guide for this age. 
That he has been successful in this attempt is, on 
the whole, questionable. The ideas of people in 
general about the application of criticism to the Old 
Testament are so indefinite that sermons prepared 

from this critical point of view have to admit too 
much of the apparatus of the scholar. The moral 
and spiritual emphasis is constantly weakened by 
acknowledgments that this or that story is mythical 
or legendary, or by defence and exposition of crit- 
ical results. The hearer's degree of appreciation 
and the impulses toward better living are in fact 
limited in such a case to the influence of the person- 
ality of the preacher. When all this has been said, 
it remains true that such a book helps toward a truer 
appreciation of the Old Testament, and thus lays 
the foundation for more successful achievements in 
the same direction. It is especially interesting to 
students of the religious life of our time. 


Mr. Henry I. Sheldon's "Notes on the Nicaragua 
Canal " (McClurg) comprise a brief descriptive account 
of this project by a man who has evidently made a care- 
ful first-hand examination of the route, and has become 
thoroughly convinced of both the desirability and feasi- 
bility of the canal. This book discusses the subject in 
all aspects, legislative, sanitary, and financial, and con- 
veys much useful information in a modest way. The 
volume is furnished with sketch-maps and some good 

With commendable promptitude the second volume of 
Messrs. Britton and Brown's " Illustrated Flora of the 
Northern United States, Canada, and the British Posses- 
sions " (Scribner) follows upon the first, which we praised 
in the highest terms when it appeared last winter. A third 
volume, soon to follow, will complete the work. There 
is little to say upon the present occasion beyond the 
reiteration of our former praises, and the statement 
that we are now taken through the Orders of the Chori- 
petalfe (polypetalous flowers) and part way into the 
Gamopetalse. The volume before us include Orders 
20 to 92 of the former series, and Orders 1 to 16 of the 
latter. The work should be in every school library, as 
a matter of course, and no summer house in the country, 
the home of an educated family, can afford to omit it 
from the furnishings. 

Dr. Henry Sweet's " Student's Dictionary of Anglo- 
Saxon " (Macmillan) is a volume of about two hundred 
pages, which will serve as a makeshift pending the 
hoped-for completion of the exhaustive Bosworth-Toller 
work. It comes chiefly into competition with Dr. Clark 
Hall's dictionary, which Dr. Sweet pronounced " ter- 
ribly uncritical." Condensation and trustworthiness (as 
far as the work goes) are the objects chiefly aimed at 
in the preparation of the present work. 

The Venezuelan Commission send us an instalment 
of their " Report upon the True Divisional Line between 
the Republic of Venezuela and British Guiana." Two 
volumes are now published, one of text and one of 
maps. The text is devoted to the geography of the 
subject, and includes six papers, by expert writers, upon 
the maps of the territory in dispute. The accompanying 
atlas contains seventy-six maps, fifteen of which are 
new, the others being facsimile reproductions of old 
ones. As an example of book-making, this work does 
great credit to the Government Printing Office, and 
stands in striking contrast to most of the productions 
that come from that source. 



[July 1, 


Volume III. of Professor J. B. Bury's new edition of 
Gibbon's " Decline and Fall " has just been published 
by the Macmillan Co. 

"Browning's Verse-Form: Its Organic Character," 
is a doctoral dissertation presented to Columbia Uni- 
versity by Mr. Arthur Beatty. 

The Western Association of Writers is at present 
(June 28-July 2) holding its twelfth annual meeting at 
Winona Park, near Warsaw, Indiana. 

The American edition of the Queen Victoria jubilee 
book has been nearly all sold, on advance orders, by the 
Century Co. It is published at $50 and $15 a copy. 

Messrs. Ginn & Co. are the publishers of Mr. William 
H. Mace's " Method in History for Teachers and Stu- 
dents," a work of considerable pedagogical helpfulness. 

Messrs. Little, Brown, & Co. are about to issue, in 
conjunction with the English publishers, the first volume 
of the " History of the Royal Navy," to be completed in 
five volumes. 

The very interesting chapters of General Horace 
Porter's recollections of his " Campaigning with Grant," 
lately running in " The Century," will be issued in book 
form in the autumn. 

A study of Simms, by Mr. Samuel A. Link, appears 
in the interesting series of pamphlets on " Pioneers of 
Southern Literature," published by Messrs. Barbee & 
Smith, Nashville, Tenn. 

" Germany," by Mrs. Kate Freiligrath Kroeker, and 
" England," by Miss Frances E. Cooke, are two volumes 
in the " History for Young Readers " series, published 
by Messrs. D. Appleton & Co. 

" The American Journal of Archaeology," published 
by the Macmillan Co., begins a second series this sum- 
mer, and will be published six times a year, instead of 
four as hitherto. Professor John H. Wright is editor- 

" A Brief Account of the Establishment of the Colony 
of Georgia, under General James Oglethorpe, Feb- 
ruary 1, 1733," is the second in the series of " Ameri- 
can Colonial Tracts," published by Mr. George P. 

Publication of the English text of the " Polychrome " 
Bible will be begun in the autumn. It is stated that 
Professor Haupt intends to secure the services of the 
Rev. John Watson in translating certain portions of the 
work into the Scotch dialect. 

" The Westminster Press " is the style of imprint 
hereafter to be used for those publications of the Pres- 
byterian Board that are not denominational in character. 
Mr. John H. Scribner remains in general charge of the 
publishing business of the house. 

" The Theory of Electricity and Magnetism, being 
Lectures on Mathematical Physics," is the title of a 
voluminous treatise by Dr. Arthur Gordon Webster, 
Director of the Physical Laboratory of Clark Univer- 
sity. The work is published by the Macmillan Co. 

An " Annotated Bibliography of Fine Art," in which 
Mr. Russell Sturgis has the subjects of painting, sculp- 
ture, architecture, decoration, and illustration, while 
Mr. H. E. Krebbiel takes the department of music is 
published by the Library Bureau for the American 
Library Association. Such books as these are of the 
greatest usefulness, and the present example can hardly 
be commended too highly. 

Messrs. Morton, Bliss, & Co., 38 Nassau St., New 
York, are the designated American agents for the 
Thomas Hughes Memorial Fund, and subscriptions from 
this country are solicited by them, as well as by a dis- 
tinguished committee of educators and divines. The 
objects of the Fund are to erect a statue of Judge 
Hughes and to provide endowments for the Rugby 
School Missions in London and Birmingham. 

The poems of Mrs. Anne Bradstreet, who is called 
" the first American authoress," are about to be repub- 
lished, with an introduction by Professor Norton, by the 
book club known as " The Duodecimos," whose treasurer 
is Mr. Irving Way, Monadnock Building, Chicago. The 
edition is to be limited to 144 copies, of which 132 will 
be offered for sale at $12.50 each. A previous publi- 
cation by this club, " Poor Richard's Almanack," is now 
quoted at $35 a copy. 

The June number of the " Publications of the Amer- 
ican Statistical Association " will contain the address on 
Francis Amasa Walker, delivered by Colonel Carroll D. 
Wright at the Quarterly Meeting of the Association, 
April 16, 1897. This number will also contain a care- 
fully prepared bibliography of General Walker's writ- 
ings. Copies may be had from the Secretary of the 
American Statistical Association, 491 Boylston Street, 
Boston, at fifty cents each. 

A circular, just issued by the Dante Society, sums up 
the work done by that organization during the fifteen 
years of its existence, outlines the tasks that it hopes to 
perform in the near future, and appeals " to lovers of 
Dante and of poetry for an increase in the member- 
ship." The annual fee is five dollars, and any person 
interested in the objects of the Society may become a 
member by sending his name and one year's subscrip- 
tion to the Secretary, Professor A. R. Marsh, Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 

The recently organized Chicago Society of Egyptian 
Research appeals to the public for annual memberships 
at five dollars each, and for personal subscriptions of 
larger amounts. Each member will receive the large 
illustrated volume to be published annually by the 
Society. The Chicago Society will also come into pos- 
session of a share of the antiquities unearthed by Mr. 
Petrie, in whose hands the expenditure of the funds will 
be placed. Mrs. Hart Rawson, 5854 Rosalie Court, 
Chicago, is authorized to receive subscriptions. 

The Princeton Sesquicentennial has already borne lit- 
erary fruit in the shape of a volume containing Profes- 
sor Dowden's lectures (which we shall review at a later 
date), and in three booklets containing other lectures 
given upon that occasion. They are " Two Lectures 
on Theism," by Professor Andrew Seth; two on "The 
Claims of the Old Testament," by Professor Stanley 
Leathes ; and one upon " The Descent of the Primates," 
by Professor A. A. W. Hubrecht. Messrs. Charles 
Scribner's Sons are the publishers of all these volumes. 

" Dans la Brume," the latest novel by M. Le*on de 
Tinseau, evinces once more the author's frequently- 
declared admiration for American ways and American 
life, and will on that account, if on no other, find many 
appreciative readers in this country. The heroine is a 
Chicago woman, and it is interesting to learn that in 
delineating her the author had constantly in mind the 
late Mrs. George Rowswell Grant, whose acquaintance 
he made in Paris several years ago. It is not a portrait 
that he offers us, but a sketch that is at least in many 
ways suggestive. 






[Fuller descriptions of the following books may be 
found in the advertising pages of this number or of 
recent numbers of THE DIAL. Titles appearing in this 
issue's List of New Books (page 26) are not given here.] 

The Choir Invisible. By James Lane Allen. Macmillan Co. 


Equality. By Edward Bellamy. D. Appleton & Co. $1.25. 
The Martian. By George du Maurier. Harper & Bros. $1.75. 
The Landlord at Lion's Head. By W. D. Howells. Harper 

& Bros. $1.75. 
Soldiers of Fortune. By Richard Harding Davis. Charles 

Scribner's Sons. $1.50. 

Lads' Love. By S. R. Crockett. D. Appleton & Co. $1.50. 
Uncle Bernac : A Memory of the Empire. By A. Conan Doyle. 

D. Appleton & Co. $1.50. 

A Story-Teller's Pack. By F. R. Stockton. Charles Scrib- 
ner's Sons. $1.50. 

Mr. Peters. By Riccardo Stephens. Harper & Bros. $1.50. 
" Bobbo," and Other Fancies. By Thomas Wharton. Harper 

& Bros. $1.50. 

The Wheels of Chance. By H. Q. Wells. Macmillan Co. $1.50. 
Old Times in Middle Georgia. By R. Malcolm Johnston. 

Macmillan Co. $1.50. 
The Master-Beggars. By L. Cope Cornford. J. B. Lippin- 

cott Co. $1.50. 
Brichanteau, Actor. From the French of Jules Claretie. 

Little, Brown, & Co. $1.50. 
Susan's Escort and Others. By Edward Everett Hale. Harper 

& Bros. $1.50. 
The Grey Man. By Henry Seton Merriman. The Macmillan 

Co. $1.50. 
In the Land of the Snow Pearls. By Mrs. Ella Higginson. 

Macmillan Co. $1.50. 
In Buff and Blue, being Certain Portions from the Diary of 

Richard Hilton, of Haslet's Foot. By George B. Rodney. 

Little, Brown, & Co. $1.25. 
Captain Shays, a Populist of 1786. By George R. Rivers. 

Little, Brown, & Co. $1.25. 

In the Tideway. By Flora Annie Steel. Macmillan Co. $1.25. 
Uncanny Tales. By Mrs. Molesworth. Longmans, Green, & 

Co. $1.25. 
Flames, a London Fantasy. By Robert Hichens. H. S. Stone 

&Co. $1.50. 
The Red Scaur. By P. Anderson Graham. Longmans, 

Green, & Co. $1.25. 
In Plain Air. A New England novel. By Elizabeth L. Cabot. 

Henry Holt & Co. $1.25. 
Thirty Strange Stories. By H. G. Wells. Edward Arnold. 

The Port of Missing Ships. By John R. Spears. Macmillan 

Co. $1.25. 
Patience Sparhawk and her Times. By Gertrude Atherton. 

John Lane. $1.50. 
The Pursuit of the House-boat. By John Kendrick Bangs. 

Harper & Bros. $1.25. 
Miss Archer Archer. By Clara Louise Burnham. Houghton, 

Mifflin & Co. $1.25. 
The Wisdom of Fools. By Margaret Deland. Houghton, 

Mifflin & Co. $1.25. 
Sketches in Lavender, Blue, and Green. By Jerome K. 

Jerome. Henry Holt & Co. $1.25. 
The House of Dreams, an Allegory. Anonymous. Dodd, 

Mead & Co. $1.25. 

The Third Violet. By Stephen Crane. D. Appleton & Co. $1. 
Wayside Courtships. By Hamlin Garland. D. Appleton & 

Co. $1.25. 
The Missionary Sheriff. By Octave Thanet. Harper & Bros. 

The Burglar Who Moved Paradise. By Herbert D. Ward. 

Houghton, Mifflin & Co. $1.25. 
Doctor Luttrell's First Patient. By Rosa N. Carey. J. B. 

Lippincott Co. $1.25. 

Bolanyo. By Opie Read. Way & Williams. $1.25. 
Constantino. By George Horton. Way and Williams. $1.25. 

Lovice. By "The Duchess." J. B. Lippincott Co. $1.25. 
When the Century Was New. By C. C. Abbott. J. B. Lip- 
pincott Co. $1. 
One Man Who Was Content. By Mrs. S. Van Rensselaer. 

Century Co. $1. 
Hopkins's Pond. By Robert J. Morris. G. P. Putnam's 

Sons. $1.25. 
A Daughter of the Philistines. By Leonard Merrick. R. F. 

Fenno & Co. $1.25. 
Marrietta's Marriage. By W. E. Norris. D. Appleton 

&Co. $1. 
Dorcas Hobday. By Charles Rokeby. Longmans, Green, & 

Co. $1.25. 
"Hell for Sartain," and Other Stories. By John Fox, Jr. 

Harper & Bros. $1. 
King of the Mountains. By Edmond About. Rand, McNally 

&Co. $1. 
His Fortunate Grace. By Gertrude Atherton. D. Appleton 

&Co. $1. 
The Violet. By Julia Magruder. Longmans, Green, & Co. 


The Massarenes. By"0uida." R. F. Fenno & Co. $1.25. 
A Modern Corsair. By Richard Henry Savage. Rand, 

McNally & Co. $1. 
The Mill of Silence. By B. E. J. Capes. Rand, McNally & 

Co. $1.25. 
The Devil's Dice. By William Le Queux. Rand, McNally 

& Co. $1. 

One Man's View. By Leonard Merrick. H. S. Stone & Co. $1. 
The White Hecatomb, and Other Stories. By W. C. Scully. 

Henry Holt & Co. 75 cts. 
Spanish Castles by the Rhine. By D. S. Foster. Henry Holt 

& Co. 75 cts. 


Round the Year. ByL.C.Miall. The Macmillan Co. $1.50. 
The Procession of the Flowers. By Thomas Wentworth 

Higginson. Longmans, Green, & Co. $1.25. 
Upon the Tree-Tops. By Olive Thorne Miller. Honghton, 

Mifflin & Co. $1.25. 
Citizen Bird. A Story of Bird Life. By Mabel Osgood 

Wright and Dr. Elliott Coues. Macmillan Co. 
Bird-Life, a Guide to our Common Birds. By F. M. Chapman. 

D. Appleton & Co. $1.75. 

Insect- Life. By J. H. Comstock. D. Appleton & Co. $2.50. 
Life Histories of American Insects. By C. M. Weed. Mac- 
millan Co. 
Familiar Features of the Roadside. By F. Schuyler Mathews. 

D. Appleton & Co. $1.75. 
Flowers of Field, Hill, and Swamp. By Caroline A. Creevey. 

Harper & Bros. $2.50. 

A Book about Roses. By Dean Hole. Edward Arnold. $1.25. 
Lawns and Gardens. By M. Jonsson-Rose. G. P. Putnam's 

Sons. $3.50. 

In the Garden of Peace. ByMelenMilman. John Lane. $1.50. 
Nature in a City Yard. By Charles M. Skinner. The Century 

Co. $1. 
The Plant-Lore and Garden-Craft of Shakespeare. By H. N. 

Ellacombe. Edward Arnold. $3.50. 

Nature in Dante. By L. Oscar Kuhns. Edward Arnold. $1.50. 
Out-of-Door Library, new volumes : Mountain-Climbing, and 

Athletic Sports. Charles Scribner's Sons. Per vol., $1.50. 


Wild Norway. By Abel Chapman. Edward Arnold. $5. 
In Joyful Russia. By John A. Logan, Jr. D. Appleton & Co. 

Siain on the Meinam. With three Romances of Siamese Life. 

By Maxwell Sommerville. J. B. Lippincott Co. $3. 
Sketches of Travel in Normandy and Maine. By E. A. Free- 
man. Macmillan Co. $2.50. 
Sketches Awheel in Modern Iberia. By Fanny B. and W. H. 

Workman. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $2. 
A Sunshine Trip, Glimpses of the Orient. By Margaret 

Bottome. Edward Arnold. $1. 
The Land of the Dollar, an Englishman's Views of America. 

By G. W. Steevens. Dodd, Mead & Co. $1.50. 
On Many Seas. Life and exploits of a Yankee Sailor. By 

F. B. Williams. Macmillan Co. $1.50. 
Literary Landmarks of Florence. By Laurence Hutton. 

Harper & Bros. $1. 
Literary Landmarks of Rome. By Laurence Hutton. Harper 

ABros. $1. 



[July 1, 


July, 1897. 

American Drama. I. A. Pyle. Lippincott. 

American Mood, The. W. D. Howells. Harper. 

Burke, Edmund. Kate H. Claghorn. Atlantic. 

California Alps WUd Flowers. Miss B. F. Herrick. Pop.Sci. 

Deaf -mute Education in America. A.W. Qreely. Rev. of Rev. 

Disloyal Wife in Literature, The. Poet-Lore. 

Economy in Evolution. E. Noble. Popular Science. 

Fiction, Recent. W. M. Payne. Dial. 

" Homewood," a Model Suburb. E. R. L. Gould. Rev. of Rev. 

House of Commons Celebrities. T. P. O'Connor. Harper. 

Invention, Forecasting. W. Baxter, Jr. Popular Science. 

Jowett. C. A. L. Richards. Dial. 

Jowett, and the University Ideal. J. Ashley. Atlantic. 

Legislatures, Decline of. E. L. Godkin. Atlantic. 

Literature of Victoria's Reign. Dial. 

Low, Seth. Edward Gary. Review of Reviews. 

Natal. Ponltney Bigelow. Harper. 

Nation, The Making of the. Woodrow Wilson. Atlantic. 

Nature, Studies in. Sara A. Hubbard. Dial. 

New England, Future of. A. F. Sanborn. Atlantic. 

Newspaper Advertising, Evolution of. O. Herzberg. Lip'coti. 

North and South. S. Trotter. Popular Science. 

Quarantine for Cattle. H. H. Bowen. Lippincott. 

Racial Geography of Europe. W. R. Ripley. Pop. Science. 

Saturn the Planet. C. A. Howes. Popular Science. 

Shakespeare as Critic. J. W. Bray. Poet-Lore. 

Sheridan's Ride. G. A. Forsyth. Harper. 

Suicide among the Ancients. L. Irwell. Lippincott. 

Sterling-Emerson Correspondence, The. E. W. Emerson. Atla. 

Travels, Recent. H. M. Stanley. Dial. 

Wasps and Bees. R. W. Shufeldt. Popular Science. 

Women and Freedom in Whitman. Helen Michael. Poet-Lore. 


[The following list, containing 75 titles, includes books 
received by THE DIAL since its last issue.] 


The Meddling Hussy. Being H Tales Retold. By Clinton 

Ross. Illns., 16mo, pp. 400. Stone & Kimball. $1.50. 
Max. By Julian Croskey. 16mo, pp. 500, gilt top, uncut. 

John Lane. $1.50. 
A Rose of Yesterday. By F. Marion Crawford. 12mo, 

pp. 220, gilt top, uncut edges. Macmillan Co. $1.25. 
Arnaud's Masterpiece. A Romance of the Pyrenees. By 

Walter Cranston Larned. 12mo, pp. 215, gilt top, uncut 

edges. Charles Scribner's Sons. $1.25. 
My Run Home. By Rolf Bolderwood, author of " Robbery 

under Arms." 12mo, pp. 458. Macmillan Co. $1.25. 
Pink Marsh. By George Ade, author of " Artie." Illus. 

by John T. McCntcheon. 16mo, uncut, pp. 197. H. S. 

Stone & Co. $1.25. 
The Gadfly. By E. L. Voynich. 12mo, pp. 373. Henry 

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enabling one to visit the very interesting scenery and 
important battle-grounds in and about Chattanooga, 
Lookout Mountain and Chickamauga National Military 
Park. Tickets to Nashville to visit the Centennial can 
be re-purchased at Chattanooga for $3.40 round trip. 
Ask your ticket agent for tickets via Cincinnati and the 
Q. & C. Route South, or write to 

General Passenger Agent, Cincinnati, O. 




A Magazine designed to repro- 
duce, in convenient form, 
and at a low price, the more im- 
portant pamphlets relating to the 
History of the American Colonies 
before 1776, that have hitherto 
been inaccessible, by reason of 
their scarcity and high price. 
Single numbers are 25 cents each, 
or yearly subscription $3.00. 
The number for July contains "A 
State of the Province of Georgia, 
attested upon oath, in the Court 
of Savannah, November loth, 
1740. London: Printed for W. 
Meadows, at the Angel in Corn- 
hill, 1742." 





For What? 


A First Class Ticket from Chicago to 

At the time of the Christian Endeavor 
Convention in July. 

By What Route? 

The Santa Fe, 

The same rate will also apply to inter- 
mediate points, and in the reverse 

Open to Everybody. 

Send for descriptive books and detailed 
information to any agent of the Santa 
Fe Route, or to the undersigned. 

W. J. BLACK, G. P. A., A. T. & S. F. R'y, 
Room 146, Ninth and Jackson Streets, Topeka, Kan. 

C. A. HIQQINS, A. G. P. A., 
Room 1346 Great Northern Building, Chicago. 



[July 1, 1897. 



By Mrs. JAMES T. FIELDS. Sixth Thousand. 12mo, 

A delightful book, containing reminiscences, anecdotes, and letters 
of Longfellow, Emerson, Holmes, Mrs. Thaxter, Mrs. Stowe, Whittier, 
Tennyson, and Lady Tennyson. 


By ELIZABETH STUART PHELPS, author of " A Singu- 
lar Life," etc. With 24 portraits and other illus- 
trations. Eighth Thousand. 12mo, $1.50. 
The Congregationalitt pronounces this " one of the most readable 

and stimulating among recent volumes." 


By FRANCIS C. LOWELL. With maps. Crown 8vo, $2. 

"As a piece of historical biography 'Joan of Arc' is a noble suc- 
cess." American Historical Review. 

" A remarkable piece of work and entitled to high rank. " The Out- 
look, New York. 


By ALBERT H. SMYTH. In " American Men of Let- 
ters." With portrait. $1.25. 

" In all the notable series of ' American Men of Letters ' there is not 
one that can surpass in compact and animated completeness this biog- 
raphy of Bayard Taylor." Chicago Tribune. 


By THORNTON K. LOTHROP. In the "American States- 
men Series." $1.25. 
"The public will be grateful for his conscientious efforts to write a 

popular vindication of one of the ablest, most brilliant, fascinating, 

energetic, ambitious and patriotic men in American history." New 

York Evening Post. 


By Mrs. A. D. T. WHITNEY, author of Faith Gart- 
ney's Girlhood," " Patience Strong's Outings," " The 
Gayworthys," etc. 16mo, $1.25. 
" It is a wonderful and a suggestive book. I am enchanted with the 

simplicity of the language in which great thoughts are told." MABIAN 



Bird Ways; In Nesting Time; Little Brothers of the 
Air; A Bird-Lover in the West; Four-Handed Folk 
(mostly Monkeys), illustrated; Upon the Tree Tops, 
illustrated. Six charming Summer Books. Each 
16mo, $1.25. 
" Among the many agreeable studies of bird life and bird character 

none have been more charming than those from the pen of Olive 

Thorne Miller." Chrittian Union, New York. 


A Rambler's Lease; Birds in the Bush; The Foot-Path 
Way; A Florida Sketeh-Book; Spring Notes from 
Tennessee. Five very delightful out-door books. 
Each 16mo, $1.25. 

"Admirable essays, most delightful for out-door reading." Jour- 
nal of Education, Boston. 


By HENRY JAMES, author of " The Portrait of a Lady," 
etc. 12mo, $1.50. 

" One gets from Mr. James's work at its best an intimation of per- 
fection, a deep consciousness that there is something so fine that it 
could not be bettered ; and this consciousness becomes almost over- 
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New York. 


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" Philip and His Wife," " Mr. Tommy Dove," etc. 
Second Edition. 16mo, $1.25. 

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Christine Rochefort." Second Edition. 16mo, $1.25. 
" The heroine's peculiar history on each side of the ocean is most 

interesting, and the author has drawn in her a distinct and delightful 

character." The Congregationalist, Boston. 


Lady of Fort St. John," " Old Kaskaskia," etc. Sec- 
ond Edition. 16mo, $1.25. 

" Mrs. Catherwood has done no finer work than in 'The Spirit of an 
Illinois Town,' which has a combination of masculine vigor and fem- 
inine delicacy rare to find." The Literary World, Boston. 


By CLARA LOUISE BURNHAM, author of " The Wise 
Woman," etc. Sixth Thousand. 16mo, $1.25. 
" A cool, quiet, delicious love-story, with the most natural and lov- 
able of men and women, amid attractive surroundings. " Buffalo Com- 


By ALICE BROWN, author of " Meadow Grass," " By 
Oak and Thorn," etc. 16mo, $1.00. 

" A book quite out of the ordinary, written with a distinct charm of 
style." The Outlook, New York. 

" An exquisite piece of work." Cincinnati Commercial-Tribune. 
" An extraordinarily strong story." Minneapolis Journal. 


By HERBERT D. WARD, author of " The White Crown, 

and Other Stories." 16mo, $1.25; Riverside Paper 

Series, 50 cts. 

Good readers will remember Miss Phelps's stories, " An Old Maid's 
Paradise "and "Burglars in Paradise." Mr. Ward has taken posses- 
sion of Paradise, and in this entertaining book tells how it was moved 
by water. It is an excellent Summer book. 

" The ability to write a book that is bright and laughable without 
being silly is not common, but Mr. Ward has given abundant evidence 
that he possesses just the qualities for so desirable an undertaking. 
Every chapter is full of delicious humor, yet not at all forced or over- 
strained, and with it all there is a vein of earnestness." Boston Beacon. 

*#* For sale by all Booksellers, or mil be sent postpaid, upon receipt of price, by the Publishers, 





iftttrariJ Criticism, gisotssiott, attb Jfttformaiiott. 


FRANCIS F. BROWNE. \ No. 266. 

CHICAGO, JULY 16, 1897. 

10 cts. a copy. ( 315 WABASH AVE. 
82. a year. ( Opposite Auditorium. 

Lamson, Wolffe & Company's New Books. 

^500 Copies Sold Before Publication. 
Just Out: 

The Life, Travels, and Observations of a Dog. 

With one hundred illustrations by J. LINTON CHAPMAN. 
Price, $2.00. 
"In many respects one of the cleverest books of the year." 
SI. Louis Globe-Democrat. 

Lowell Lectures by Prince SERGE WOLKONSKY. 

With a portrait of the author. $2.00 net. 


" A tale of human interest palpitating with emotion and throbbing 
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" The story is strong in movement from beginning to end, and is 
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Boston Herald. 
" The story is a strenuous romance, full of action and passion, yet 
its characters are wonderfully true to life." Chicago Tribune. 

A Summer Novel by WILLIAM SHARP. 

A Comedy in Romance. $1.25. 
" Not even Stockton is a more legitimate creator of fun than Mr. 
Sharp . . . Not even Clark Russell could have woven a brief yachting 
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" Several of the descriptions of sea and shore are little less than 
masterpieces." Boston Transcript. 
"The book ought to prove a panacea for the blues." Boston 

A New Book by Mrs. BURTON HARRISON. 
LORDSHIP, and Other Stories. 

Illustrated, $1.50. 
" Mrs. Harrison depicts society with a sunny carelessness, per- 
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A New Novel by CLINTON ROSS. 

Being the history of an adventure in the life of an American 
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" Mr. Ross has told us a good story." The Critic. 

Just Out: 
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With five full -page illustrations by HENRY SANDHAM, 
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turesqueness or virility." Boston Advertiser. 

A History and a Historical Novel by CHARLES 

With a Chronological Chart and Map of the Dominion of 
Canada, and Newfoundland ; containing nearly five hun- 
dred pages, including appendices giving the British North 
American and Imperial acts in full. $2.00 net. 

An Acadian Romance. 

Being the narrative of the Acadian ranger, Jean de Mer, 
Seigneur de Briart, and how he crossed the Black Abbe* ; 
and of his adventures in a strange fellowship. With seven 
full-page illustrations by HENRY SANDHAM, R.C. A. $1.50. 
" It is a story to shake the torpor from the brain, and to keep the 
soul alive. It is charged with romance and works like wine." The 

By F. J. STIMSON (J. S. of Dale). 

A story of Old Virginia and the Massachusetts Bay. With 
twelve full-page illustrations by HENKYSANDHAM, R.C. A. 
Bound in cloth, $2.00. 
" Mr. Stiinson's work is, in many ways, one of the best of its kind 
that has appeared since the publication of ' Lorna Doone ' itself, 
almost thirty years ago. Miles Courtenay and Jennife are admirably 
drawn, and the secret of the identity of the titular character, well 
kept until the very close of the tale, is one of the genuine surprises 
of fiction. King Noanett will live, as he deserves to live, long after 
many of his contemporary heroes of early adventure in this country 
are altogether forgotten. And his creator knows how to tell a story. " 
LAWRENCE BUTTON, in Harper's Magazine. 





[July 16, 1897. 





CITIZEN BIRD. A Story of Bird Life. 

Cloth, Crown 8vo. 



Author of " Birdcraft," " Tommy-Anne," etc. "ice, $1.50. Author of "Birds of North America," etc. 

Illustrated with drawings from nature by Louis AGASSIZ FUERTES. 

The .young folks who are making their first study of bird life find in this a charming story, and a guide to all 
the chief varieties of North American birds, with information about their habits, economic value, etc. 


Edited by Professor L. H. BAILEY, Cornell University. New Volumes. 



By L. H. BAILEY. Cloth, $1.25. 
This book is designed to treat all those underlying 
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that Grew in the Sand," of which the Chicago Tribune said: 

" She has shown a breadth of treatment and knowledge of the everlasting human verities that equals much of the best 
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of Forgiveness," etc. 

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&etnt=i8l0nt!jl3J Journal 0f ILtterarg Criticism, Biscuggion, anb Information. 

No. 266. 

JULY 16, 1897. Vol. XXIII. 




"A Philosopher Decadent." A Reply. Thomas 

What are "Survivals" and "Archaisms"? 

W. H. J. 

Bibliography of the World's Congresses of 1893. 
Charles C. Bonney. 


HISTORY. B.A.Hinsdale 40 

THE SECRET OF THE EAST. Edward E. Hale, Jr. 42 


YUCATAN. Frederick Starr 44 


Morton Payne 45 


Henderson 48 

Gibbins's Industry in England. The Revolutionary 
Tendencies of the Age. Nash's Genesis of the So- 
cial Conscience. Bellamy's Equality. Helen Ken- 
drick Johnson's Woman and the Republic. 


Cicero and his friends. A fine pair of un-Scottish 
Scots. English politics and the development of the 
national spirit. Begging as a fine art. The theory 
of socialization. Haunts and homes of Thackeray. 
The conditions of our Lord's life on earth. Tolstoi's 
gospel in brief. 




The teaching of English in our universities 
is a subject that has reached an acute phase of 
discussion of recent years, and in that discus- 
sion THE DIAL, as our readers know, has had 
its share. Still more recently, the discussion 
seems to have shifted its ground from the field 
of higher to that of secondary education, and 
pedagogical interest in the subject is now cen- 
tred upon the work of the preparatory schools 
and upon the admission requirements of the 
colleges. While both the theory and the prac- 
tice of the subject are still in a tentative and 
transitional state, it may be affirmed that we 
are at last on the way toward something like 

uniformity of methods and ideals, and that 
from the now seemingly chaotic condition of 
affairs something like a definite set of conclu- 
sions is on the way toward emergence. 

In " The School Review " for June we are 
provided with the means for taking as distinct 
a view of this important matter as it is possible 
at present to gain, and we propose to glance at 
the subject in the light of the documentary evi- 
dence there collected. The report of Dr. A. F. 
Nightingale as Chairman of the Denver Com- 
mittee on College Entrance Requirements, the 
report of Mr. J. E. Russell on the subject of 
Requirements in English, and the report of 
Mr. C. W. French on the English Conference 
of May 31, are the three documents upon which 
we have drawn, and an examination of their 
contents will be found both helpful and sug- 

The English Conference in question was 
held in New York, and the participants were a 
committee of fifteen delegates from the five 
associations of secondary schools and colleges 
that have played so important a part in the 
educational activity of recent years, and that 
are doing so much to make us hopeful of real 
progress in the matter of intermediate and 
higher education. Considerable differences of 
opinion were developed in the Conference, and 
adjournment until next December was had 
without outlining any permanent policy. It is 
interesting, however, to learn that " the speak- 
ers were nearly unanimous in the opinion that 
there should be no difference between the reg- 
ular and college-preparatory courses in En- 
glish." The discussion was for the most part 
focussed upon a series of resolutions presented 
by Mr. French. These resolutions called for a 
full four years of preparatory work, and offered 
a scheme for each of the four years. The 
scheme embodied one year of rhetoric and 
composition, one devoted to the history of the 
English language, and two devoted to a histor- 
ical survey of English literature. It also pro- 
vided for continuous essay-writing and for con- 
tinuous reading, both intensive and cursory, of 
carefully selected books. The resolutions also 
called for a settlement of college entrance 
requirements upon the basis of the work called 
for by the above scheme, and urged the adop- 
tion of a list " of not less than one hundred and 



[July 16, 

fifty books " from which preparatory schools 
might select the required reading for their 

This last resolution, which is perhaps the 
most important of all, and which is certainly a 
step in the right direction, seemed to meet with 
scant favor, since about the only thing defi- 
nitely done by the Conference was the adoption 
of a brief and narrow fixed list for 1901 and 
1902, this being substantially the list hitherto 
adopted for 1900. Dr. Nightingale, who was 
not present at the meeting, sent a letter in ad- 
vocacy of what we believe to be the wiser policy 
of elasticity and latitude in the matter of 
required reading. This letter urges the adop- 
tion of long lists of books for both kinds of 
reading. Such questions as the following will 
not down, however conferences may try to sup- 
press them. " Why designate a particular set 
for 1897, another for 1898, and so on ? Why 
not present a list good until 1905, for ' read- 
ing ' and for ' study and practice ' out of which 
selections may be made according to the judg- 
ment of the school ? " Why not, indeed ? The 
only reason which the partisans of rigidity have 
to offer is that college examiners would find it 
difficult to shape their questions with reference 
to such an extended list. " Oh, the farce and 
the folly," Dr. Nightingale exclaims, " of shap- 
ing requirements for admission to college for 
the purpose of facilitating the making of exam- 
ination questions ! " 

We are in hearty agreement with this posi- 
tion, and always ready to share the indignation 
of those who protest against rigid uniformity in 
anything but the veriest essentials of educa- 
tional policy. As for this particular policy of 
uniform reading, devised solely in the interest 
of the examiner, and almost fatal to the work 
of the instructor, it recalls nothing so much as 
the puerile plea of Mr. Dingley in defence of 
his recent atrocious proposal for the taxation 
of knowledge. It will never do, he said in sub- 
stance, to permit books of any kind to enter the 
country without taxation, because we cannot 
expect our overworked customs officials to 
waste their energies in determining whether 
books are more than twenty years old, or in 
what language they are printed. It is much 
simpler to clap a tax upon them all, and spare 
the tax-collector at the expense of all the stu- 
dents and readers in the land. Or, if this 
parallel be not sufficient, another may be found 
in Lamb's famous essay on the economical 
Chinese method of roasting pig. 

Mr. Russell's interesting report is largely in 

tabulated form, being based upon the replies to 
two circulars of inquiry sent to about three 
hundred teachers of English in the secondary 
schools and colleges. A few of the results of 
this investigation may be given. The first 
questions called for an opinion concerning the 
satisfactoriness of the present entrance require- 
ments, which are considered satisfactory by 
large majorities. The number of years of pre- 
paratory work needed to meet these require- 
ments is variously estimated at from one to four, 
the term of two years receiving the largest 
number of votes. These replies taken together 
seem to indicate a lower standard than should 
prevail. The preparatory work in English 
should certainly call for three or four years of 
study. An overwhelming majority of votes 
were recorded in favor of the proposition that 
in the selection of books for the required work, 
the governing principles should be : (1) the 
representation of distinct periods and types of 
literature, (2) the consideration of historical 
sequence, and (3) the equal representation of 
prose and poetry. Opinions were solicited con- 
cerning the fitness of the books in a list of 
forty-four, compiled from the actual require- 
ments of different colleges. Each book is 
marked as desirable, very desirable, unsatisfac- 
tory, or very unsatisfactory. " The Merchant 
of Venice " is the only book in the list that does 
not get a single vote under the two adverse 
categories. Those that come next in accepta- 
bility are " Miles Standish," " Evangeline," 
" Ivanhoe," " Julius Caesar," " The Lady of 
the Lake," " Marmion," " The Sketch Book," 
and " The Vision of Sir Launf al." Among the 
very desirable books are also " As You Like 
It," " Macbeth," and "Silas Marner." The 
most unsatisfactory book in the list is Defoe's 
" History of the Plague," the adoption of which 
by the colleges has always been a dark mys- 
tery. One hundred and seventy-eight votes 
are cast against it, and only thirty-seven in its 
favor. Other books that get at least fifty ad- 
verse votes (out of from three to five times that 
number) are " Comus," Pope's " Iliad," " Ly- 
cidas," Dryden's " Palamon and Arcite," and 
Macaulay's " Second Essay on Chatham." The 
majority of the books in the list are ratified 
by decided majorities. A question calling for 
additional suggestions elicited two hundred 
titles, among which Tennyson's " Idylls of 
the King " received twenty-four suffrages, 
Emerson's " Essays " twenty-one, Franklin's 
" Autobiography " thirteen, " The Deserted 
Village," " The Essays of Elia," and " Henry 




Esmond " each twelve, and " Hamlet " ten. 
A second circular of inquiry sent out by 
Mr. Russell included questions of more gen- 
eral scope, and elicited some interesting ex- 
pressions of opinion. The vote was almost 
unanimous that English should be pursued by 
all classes in the high school during the entire 
course, but opinion was about evenly divided 
between three, four, and five periods per week 
for the time allotment. A large majority voted 
for basing composition work chiefly upon the 
required reading. Exercises in paraphrasing 
poetry, correcting bad English, and condensa- 
tion were all recommended by fair majorities. 
Opinion was rather against the formal study 
of English literary history, and very strongly 
against courses in Anglo-Saxon and Early En- 
glish. Rhetoric and formal grammar as sepa- 
rate studies received large votes, but again 
opinion was very much at sea when it came to 
fixing the year in which these studies should 
best be pursued. Some of the questions were 
of such a nature that the replies to them did not 
admit of statistical presentation. In one case, 
for example, the replies " show a widespread 
dissatisfaction with the English requirement 
even by those who accept it tentatively as the 
best possible at the present time." And the 
question which called for a statement of the 
main objects to be sought in the teaching of 
secondary English showed so great a diversity 
of opinion that we may well conclude that the 
real difficulty lies just here, and that we can- 
not expect anything but chaos in our work 
until we are substantially agreed upon what it 
is most desirable to do. The answers to this 
question ranged all the way from " the analysis 
of a typical English sentence " to a " famili- 
arity with the greatest minds of all times," 
although from them all five ideals emerged in 
the following order of emphasis : *' Habits of 
good expression, oral and written," " a taste for 
good literature," " an acquaintance with the 
outlines of English literature," " culture and 
discipline," and " the ability to read under- 
standingly." These are all worthy aims, no 
doubt, and if agreement can once be had upon 
their relative importance, we may well relegate 
to the limbo of the unimportant most of the 
other questions raised by the investigation now 
under consideration. " If the main objects of 
teaching English are attained," to conclude 
our discussion with Mr. Russell's most perti- 
nent closing inquiry, " what matters it to the 
colleges, or to anyone outside of the schools, 
what list of books is studied ? " 


The dramatic record of the past year in Chicago 
is an average one. It has been rather interesting 
to note the frequency with which adaptations of 
popular works of fiction have held the stage, and 
this tendency in dramatic productions may have 
some significance for one who at all studies the 
theatre of to-day. Old-time melodrama of the type 
represented by " Monte Cristo " and " The Man in 
the Iron Mask," based on popular French romance, 
has held its own and shows some new development. 
To the unreasonable popularity of " Trilby " in its 
barbarous stage version of the past two seasons is 
undoubtedly due the attempt of Mr. Clyde Fitch to 
reconstruct "Bohemia" out of Miirger's romance. 
" The Prisoner of Zenda " has pursued its triumphal 
course, with the adaptation of Mr. Townsend's 
" Chimmie Fadden " as an odd competitor for pub- 
lic favor. Miss Phipps's " A Social Highwayman " 
has achieved success in the hands of the Hollands, 
and Mr. Theodore Hamilton's work in " Pudd'n- 
head Wilson " has won public approval. Mr. Stuart 
Bobson has also made a success in the dramatization 
of Opie Head's " The Jucklins." Most interesting 
of all has been the appearance of Mr. Mansfield in 
" The Scarlet Letter," and that of Mrs. Marlowe- 
Taber in Mr. Barren's arrangement of " Romola." 

In comparing the season just closed with that of 
1895-96, we find an apparent lessening of interest 
in the Shakespearian drama. However, the season 
of 1895-96 was a remarkable one in this respect, 
and the mere falling off in the number of plays 
presented should not be regarded as especially sig- 
nificant. The following facts are noteworthy. 
While in the previous season eighty-eight Shake- 
spearian presentations are recorded, such presenta- 
tions number sixty-eight for the season of 1896-97; 
the number of plays staged, however, is the same in 
both seasons thirteen. "Julius Csesar," " Two 
Gentlemen of Verona," " Macbeth," and " Mid- 
summer Night's Dream," included in the repertory 
of 1895-96, were replaced by " Much Ado About 
Nothing," " Cymbeline," " King Lear," and " The 
Tempest." " Hamlet," which received twenty-six 
representations in the season before the last, was 
given but six in 1896-97. "The Merchant of 
Venice " also fell from a record of eleven to one of 
five. " Othello," presented eight times in 1895-96, 
was staged but once the past season ; a similar state- 
ment holds for " The Taming of the Shrew," which 
in 1895-96 was given ten times. On the other 
hand, " Richard III." was brought out seven times 
in each season, while "Romeo and Juliet" received 
fourteen presentations during the past year as 
against four in that preceding. The notable fea- 
tures of 1896-97 were undoubtedly the revival of 
"King Lear" by Frederick Warde, and that of 

*This article is in continuation of one in THE DIAL ol 
June 16, 1896, giving the record of Shakespearian representa- 
tions in Chicago for a year preceding. 


[July 16, 

" The Tempest " by Mr. Daly's company. Courtesy 
demands mention also of the spectacular production 
of " Cymbeline," which was at least a novelty to 
our stage. 

Following is the tabulated record of Shake- 
spearian productions for the year. 


1 Richard III. 

2 Hamlet. 


3 Romeo and Juliet. 14 

4 Merchant of Venice. 5 

Players. Dales. 

("Otis Skinner. Sept. 21, Oct. 3. 

Richard Mansfield. Nov. 2, 5, Mar. 29, 

Apr. 9. 
Apr. 7. 

Sept. 22, 23, 25, (2). 
Oct. 30. 
Mar. 5. 

Sept. 23, 26, Oct. 1, 3. 
Dec. 28 Jan. 2 (7 

times), Jan. 16. 
May 15 (2). 
Sept. 24. 

Frederick Warde. 
( Otis Skinner. 
6 ! Robert Mantell. 
( James O'Neill. 
f Otis Skinner. 
i Marlowe-Taber. 



Taming of the Shrew. 


As You Like It. 

Twelfth Night. 

Much Ado. 

King Lear. 
Henry IV. 
The Tempest. 

1^ Margaret Mather. 
( Otis Skinner. 

] Richard Mansfield. Nov. 4, Mar. 30. 
( Frederick Warde. Apr. 4, 10. 
1 Otis Skinner. 

1 Robert Mantell. 
3 Marlowe-Taber. 

2 Marlowe-Taber. 
- ( Marlowe-Taber. 


3 Frederick Warde. 

1 Frederick Warde. 
5 Margaret Mather. 
5 Ada Rehan. 

Sept. 24. 

Oct. 31. 

Jan. 1, 11, 16. 

Jan. 18. 

Jan. 9, 12. 

May 28, 29 (2). 

Apr. 4, 6, 10. 

Apr. 9. 

May 2-13 (15 times). 

May 31, June 1(2), 3. 



(To the Editor of THIS DIAL.) 

Mr. Camillo von Klenze's remarks on the translations 
of Volumes VIII. and XI. of the English version of 
Nietzsche's Works, in THE DIAL for June 16, can hardly 
be allowed to pass unnoticed. When approaching the 
end of his article, he seems to have suddenly bethought 
himself that it is always the proper thing for a reviewer 
to portion out strong doses of praise and blame. He 
deals out these articles in a great hurry, like a person 
who has been kept beyond his hours, and is anxious to 
get home. I happen to get the strong dose of blame. 
Of my translation, which compares at least favorably 
enough with the one he praises, he says, "It is bad 
throughout, and in parts ignominious"; and after fur- 
nishing what purports to be a list of bad and ignominous 
passages, he adds, " Such things ought never to be 

But none of the four errors which he adduces as bad 
and ignominious are errors at all, except in the imagina- 
tion of a person in a flurried state of mind. He errone- 
ously refers to a passage as on page 9 (it is on page 19 
in the English edition), where he thinks I have com- 
mitted the terrible blunder of putting is instead of are. 
I insist, however, on the authority of grammarians (e. g. t 
Bain in his " Higher English Grammar ") that is is per- 
fectly correct in the passage, " In his art there is mixed, 
in the most seductive manner, the things at present 
most necessary for everybody the three great stimu- 
lants of the exhausted." (A discussion of the same 
trivial question, which the " Saturday Review " justly 
ridicules, has been going on in a London newspaper, 
with reference to the expression used by Mr. Jerome K. 
Jerome, " A good woman's arms ... is a life-belt.") 

I am further blamed for translating Romane as ro- 
mances, which is certainly not an incorrect rendering. 
Neither is it erroneous to use the expression, "prohibit 

themselves every ' if ' and for,' " when the Germans are 
spoken of in contrast to the " aesthetic gentlemen " who 
used " if " and " for." (I understand that themselves is 
objected to, as redundant, which it certainly is not.) In 
the next passage I am blamed for preserving a metaphor 
by translating it literally, though not obscurely. Besides 
preserving the metaphor, the literal rendering seems 
best suited to the context. Here, however, Mr. von 
Klenze again falls into an incidental mistake when he 
gives the original as " Ich weiss nicht wo aus noch ein." 
The wo is redundant, and is not in the original. 

I know only too well that there are sufficient imper- 
fections in my translation, but in being the first to un- 
dertake voluntarily a difficult and important work (Dr. 
Haussmann, the translator of the " Genealogy of Morals," 
was the second to voluntarily undertake and complete 
a translation of one of Nietzsche's volumes), I do not 
wish to be blamed for things which are not real errors. 

Apart, however, from his concluding paragraph, 
which is a curiosity in criticism, Mr. von Klenze's arti- 
cle on Nietzsche's philosophy is valuable on the whole. 
It is an immense advance on the criticism in Nordau's 
" Degeneration," and on some of the earlier criticisms of 
Nietzsche which appeared in English (e. g., the dis- 
graceful attack on Nietzsche which appeared in the 
" International Journal of Ethics " for July, 1892, 
p. 533). Surely, however, Mr. von Klenze insists too 
dogmatically on Nietzsche's lack of the historical sense. 
The course of social development from the Renaissance 
to the present time is far too brief and exceptional to 
furnish data from which we can deduce with certainty 
the permanency of democratic institutions. Others than 
Mr. John Morley, who believe in democratic institutions, 
would do well to study Machiavelli, to whom, along 
with Thucydides, Nietzsche claims to be nearest akin. 

Nietzsche's careful distinction, also, between hose 
(evil) and schlecht (bad) seems hardly to be grasped by 
Mr. von Klenze. The word evil should therefore be 
substituted for bad in the passage: "'Good' in other 
words is tantamount to harmless, ' tad ' to strong, pow- 
erful." We find Nietzsche almost continually contem- 
plating moral phenomena of one kind or other in his 
voluminous writings ; it is therefore not at all correct to 
say, " These revolutionary views Nietzsche does not 
base on a careful comparative study of morality, but on 
the etymology of a few words." THOMAS COMMON. 

9 Caird Drive, Partickhill, Glasgow, July 1, 1897. 


(To the Editor of THE DIAL. ) 

The discussion concerning the use of the verbs "learn" 
and " teach " reveals, as it seems to me, a surprising 
lack of accurate definition. I suppose it to be unques- 
tionable that the verb " learn " in a causative sense has 
had a widely extended and uninterrupted currency 
among English-speaking people for centuries. It is only 
the careful who consistently avoid it, and the careful 
are not the majority. Where one writer (as Tennyson) 
employs the construction with the English of an earlier 
day in mind, a thousand men, women, and children, of 
the masses, use it spontaneously, because with them it 
is the ordinary expression for the thought in mind. To 
call it either an " archaism " or a " survival " under such 
circumstances is to use language altogether too loosely 
for the purposes of philological investigation. May we 
not confine the term " archaism " to expressions not 
handed down in usage from age to age, but obtained 




directly from an older time across an expanse of gener- 
ations to which the usage was not known? and is not a 
" survival," strictly speaking, an expression which has 
been handed down from generation to generation in 
spontaneous usage, but within such narrow limits as to 
have escaped general attention and acceptance? If I 
am wrong in this restriction of the terms, I am willing 
to be corrected; but if there be not some such restric- 
tion they should be dropped from the vocabulary of 
philology as of no scientific value. W H J 

Granville, Ohio, July 2, 1897, 


OF 1893. 
(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

In THE DIAL of January 1, 1896, was published a 
Bibliography of publications growing out of the pro- 
ceedings of the World's Congresses of the Columbian 
Exposition of 1893. The list numbered 102 titles; and 
to it I now beg to add 23 supplementary titles, the pub- 
lication of which in your journal will no doubt be of 
interest to many among the thousands of persons who 
participated in the Congresses, and will also show the 
continued and world-wide interest in the results of those 
memorable world-gatherings. For convenience of refer- 
ence, the titles are numbered consecutively from the 
previous list. CHARLES C. BONNET. 

President of the World's Congresses. 

Chicago, July 1, 1897. 

(Department of Agriculture.) 

103. The World's Congress on Ornithology. [Bird Culture.] 
Papers presented to the World's Congress on Ornithology; 
edited by Mrs. E. Irene Rood, under the direction of Dr. 
Elliott Coues. Chicago, C. H. Sergei & Co., 8vo, gilt top, 
uncut, pp. 208. 


104. Report of the Commissioner of Education for the year 
1892-93, Vol. I., Parts I. and II.; Government Printing Office, 
1895, 8vo, pp. 1224. Part II., containing 804 pages, is devoted 
to "Education at the World's Columbian Exposition," and 
includes a part of the proceedings of the second series of 
Educational Congresses. 

105. Report of the Commissioner of Education for 1893-94. 
Chapter XIX. contains the General Programme of the World's 
Congresses of 1893, and the programme for the first series of 
the International Edncational Congress of that year ; also a 
Summary of the World's Congress Work ; and a Bibliography 
of World's Congress Publications ; 8vo, pp. 26. 

106. The Philosophy of the Tool ; by Dr. Paul Carus. A 
lecture delivered on Tuesday, July 18, 1893, before the Depart- 
ment of Manual and Art Education of the World's Congress 
Auxiliary. Chicago, The Open Court Publishing Co., 1893, 
12mo, pp. 25. 


107. The Story of the Congress on Africa, by Frederic Perry 
Noble, Secretary of the Congress ; Our Day, October, 18, 1893. 
Boston, Mass., 8vo, pp. 39. 


108. Appleton's Cyclopedia, 1893 ; World's Congress Aux- 
iliary, 768-772, a brief account of the Congresses held in each 
department, with a separate article on the Parliament of 
Religions, 607-8 ; 8vo, pp. 10. 

109. Kirkland's Story of Chicago ; The World's Congresses 
of 1893. Dibble Publishing Company, Vol. II., pp. 65-84. 

110. The World's Congresses of 1893 ; Review of Reviews, 
New York, April and October, 1892 ; April and July, 1893, 
and March, 1894. 


111. Nationalism and Internationalism, by George Dana 
Boardman, D.D., LL.D.; a paper read before the Chicago 

Peace Congress, August 18, 1893. Advocate of Peace, Boston, 
December, 1893, 8vo, pp. 12. 

112. "The White City by the Inland Sea," by Hezekiah 
Bntterworth ; an ode read at the opening of the World's Peace 
Congress held August 14, 1893; also "The White Bordered 
Flag," a poem by the same author, read at the Representa- 
tive Youth's Congress, July 17, 1893. American Publication 
Society, 3 Somerset Street, Boston, Mass., 8vo, pp. 16. 

113. The World's Congress on Jurisprudence and Law Re- 
form, Chicago, 1893 : Publication of papers read before this 
Congress commenced in the American Law Register for April, 
1896, Philadelphia ; published monthly by members of the 
Department of Law of the University of Pennsylvania. 


114. The World's Library Congress of 1893. The papers 
read at this Congress are printed in Part II. of Vol. I. of the 
Report of the Commissioner of Education for 1892-1893 ; 8vo, 
pp. 324. 

115. The World's Congress on Philology and Literary Arch- 
aeology : Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893. Papers on< 
Literary Archaeology printed in " Progress," the magazine of 
the University Association, commencing in Vol. I., No. 5, and 
continued in Nos. 7, 8, 9, 10. The University Association, 
Association Bldg., Chicago, 1896. 


116. The Dawn of a New Religions Era, by Paul Carus, 
Ph.D.; The Forum, November 18, 1893 ; The Monist, April 18, 
1894 ; 8vo, pp. 20. The same number of the Monist also con- 
tains an article on " The Parliament of Religions," by Gen. 
M. M. Trumbull, pp. 22. 

117. Proposal of Two Parliaments of Religion in 1900, by 
Bishop John P. Newman, of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
The Independent, New York, January 18, 1894. The same 
paper contains Words of Congratulation to the Parliament of 
Religions by Pnrnshottam Balkushua Joshi, of Bombay ; 
8vo, pp. 6. 

118. The Parliament of Religions, by Rev. F. A. Noble 
D.D. The Advance, Chicago, January 17, 1895, 8vo, pp. 3. 

119. The Friendship of the Faiths, by Louis James Block, 
inscribed to the International Congress of Religions. Chicago, 
Charles H. Kerr & Co., 1893, 12mo, pp. 16. 

120. Missions, as seen at the Parliament of Religions by 
H. R. Bender, D.D. Methodist Review, November-December, 
1895, New York and Cincinnati, 8vo, pp. 6. 

121. An Essay on Religion for the Parliament of Religious 
Thoughts Regarding a Classification of Information contained 
in the Religions Books of the World, by Ishar Parshad. Mitra 
Press, Lahore, India, 1893, 8vo, pp. 20. 

122. The Parliament of Religions, a Retrospective Survey, 
by George Dana Boardman, D.D., LL.D. Philadelphia Na- 
tional Baptist print, 1893, 8vo, pp. 20. 

123. The White City and the Parliament of Religions ; two 
sermons by Rev. M. J. Savage. Boston, George H. Ellis, 1893, 
8vo, pp. 32. 

124. Science a Religious Revelation; by Dr. Paul Carus. 
An address delivered on September 19, 1893, before the 
World's Congress of Religions. Chicago, The Open Court 
Publishing Co., 1893, 12mo, pp. 21. 


125. Our Need of Philosophy ; an Appeal to the American 
People ; by Dr. Paul Carus. An address delivered on Au- 
gust 24, 1893, before the World's Congress on Philosophy, at 
Chicago, Illinois. Chicago, The Open Court Publishing Co., 
1893, 12mo, pp. 14. 

126. In former publication. The International Meteoro- 
logical Congress, Parts I. and II. previously noted, as No. 85 : 
Part III. subsequently issued completing the publication ; 
8vo, 189 additional pages total pp. 772. 

127. Mathematical papers read at the International Mathe- 
matical Congress held in connection with the World's Colum- 
bian Exposition, Chicago, 1893 ; edited by the Committee of 
the Congress, E. Hastings Moore, Oskar Boka, Heinrich 
Maschke, Henry S. White ; New York, The Macmillan Co., 
for the American Mathematical Society, 1896, 8vo, pp. 411.. 
(Previously noted as in press, No. 100.) 



[July 16, 



In the Henry and Thompson Journals, Dr. 
Coues has found another rich store of materials 
such as he loves to handle. It is material, too, 
that he is admirably qualified to handle. No 
reader who has looked intelligently into the 
Doctor's splendid editions of what he calls on 
his present title-page " Lewis and Clark " and 
" Pike " can doubt his perfect competency to 
edit any mass of material relating to early 
Northwestern affairs that, for its elucidation, 
demands an extensive knowledge of geography, 
ethnography, natural history, and of earlier or 
contemporary exploration and adventure in the 
same region. Lewis and Clark ascended the 
Missouri River to its headwaters, crossed the 
continental Divide, and then descended by the 
Columbia to the Pacific Ocean, in the years 
1804-05. Pike, in 1805-06, ascended far to- 
wards the sources of the Mississippi, and in 
1806-07 penetrated the region southwest of 
the Missouri, until he found himself in Spanish 
territory and fell into the hands of the officers 
of Spain, who carried him away a prisoner into 
Mexico, but soon set him at liberty and per- 
mitted him to return to the United States. 
The Henry and Thompson explorations and 
adventures were in the regions of the Red 
River of the North, the Saskatchawan, the 
Missouri, and the Columbia. The experiences 
of all these explorers and adventurers, with 
many points of divergence, agree in their grand 
features : they all extend deeply into new 
regions, and lay open to the world new ter- 
ritories previously known only to aboriginal 
man. It will be seen, also, that the " Henry 
and Thompson" to a degree overlaps the 
" Lewis and Clark " territorially. The four 
men whose names figure in these titles were 
on the Missouri near the same time, and 
also on the Columbia. To a great degree 
Dr. Coues's studies of Lewis and Clark fitted 
him directly for his present work on Henry and 

The amount of exact and detailed information 

NORTHWEST. The Manuscript Journals of Alexander Henry, 
Fur Trader of the Northwest Company, and David Thompson, 
Official Geographer and Explorer of the same Company, 
1792-1814. Exploration and Adventure among the Indians 
on the Red, Saskatchawan, Missouri, and Columbia Rivers. 
Edited, with copious critical commentary, by Elliott Coues, 
editor of " Lewis and Clark," of " Pike," etc., etc. In three 
volumes. New York : Francis P. Harper. 

that the editor has brought to the elucidation 
of these Journals will not surprise those persons 
who are familiar with the " Lewis and Clark " 
and the " Pike." It suffices to say that the 
same patience, the same unwearied research, the 
same conscientious thoroughness, that marked 
the earlier works mark the present one as well. 
Dr. Coues states in his preface that when he 
had completed his researches he found himself 
" in the possession of some 4,500 memorandum 
cards, alphabetically arranged by subjects, and 
collectively constituting a sort of private cyclo- 
pedia of information concerning the Northwest 
Company, the X. Y. Company, the fur-trade of 
those days, the bourgeoise, their voyageurs and 
other engages, their Indian customers, their 
trading posts, their canoe routes and what 
not. in the way of biography, geography, eth- 
nography, and natural history." This vast 
amount of material is arranged in foot-notes to 
the text, and fills, if we may venture a hasty 
estimate, about a third of the total amount of 
space. The editor is so conscientious that he 
holds himself responsible for the antecedents 
and consequents of every person who is even 
named in the narrative. It is only rarely that 
we come upon a confession of inability to give 
some account of even the most obscure person. 
Indeed, some, if not much, of the information 
that is presented in these notes can never be 
of the slightest value to anybody, save to those 
specialists who may have occasion to go over 
the ground with a microscope. But these spe- 
cialists, we must remember, are the men for 
whom Dr. Coues is writing. The work can 
never greatly interest the mere general reader. 
This is not because it does not contain much 
interesting matter, but because it is too minute, 
too much loaded down with unimportant things, 
and is wholly wanting in attractiveness of style. 
Still, for what it purports to be, and what it is, 
the work has great value. It is a modest state- 
ment to say, as the editor does on his title-page, 
that it sheds new light on the early history of 
the Greater Northwest. 

Hitherto it has been easy to follow the steps 
of the explorers, traders, missionaries, and sol- 
diers, who first penetrated the country lying 
between the Lower Lakes and the Ohio River 
and the head of Lake Superior and the Mis- 
sissippi, and let in the light of day ; nor has it 
been difficult to follow the main lines of dis- 
covery and adventure that led from the Upper 
Lakes and the Mississippi to the Missouri, the 
Rocky Mountains, and beyond the mountains 
to the Western ocean. But it has been diffi- 




cult to get other than general ideas of the con- 
temporaneous explorations, travels, and adven- 
tures by which the vast region beyond Lake 
Superior, west and northwest, was laid open to 
the knowledge of men. Even now, it is not 
easy for well-read men, at least south of the 
international boundary line, to grasp the fact 
that discovery at the North kept even pace 
with discovery at the South, and in some cases 
led the advance. Civilized men crossed the 
continent from Canada before they crossed it 
from the United States. In 1789 Mackenzie, 
starting from Lake Athabasca, followed the 
great river that bears his name to the frozen 
ocean ; and four years later, having crossed the 
Divide beyond the sources of Peace River, wrote 
in vermillion on a cliff overlooking the Pacific : 
" Alexander Mackenzie from Canada by 
land the twenty-second day of July one 
thousand seven hundred and ninety- three." 
But it was not until twelve years later that 
Lewis and Clark, having disentangled them- 
selves from the mazes of the Rocky Mountains, 
made their way by the Columbia to the ocean ; 
and it was not until thirty-nine years later, 
1832, that Schoolcraft discovered Lake Itasca. 
These remarks prepare the way for a proper 
appreciation of the Henry and Thompson Jour- 
nals. These writings will assist materially in pro- 
moting a fuller knowledge of the history of the 
Greater Northwest. 

The Editor's Preface, while comparatively 
brief, tells us plainly who Henry and Thomp- 
son were, gives a history of their journals, 
with their present location, and explains the 
methods that the editor has employed in pre- 
paring the material for the press. Henry was 
one of the proprietors of the Northwest Com- 
pany, and a trader. He is sometimes known 
as Alexander Henry the Younger, and was 
the nephew of the Elder of the same name 
who is associated with the famous massacre at 
Mackinaw. Thompson, the editor explains, 
" was a celebrated astronomer, geographer, ex- 
plorer, and discoverer in a word, the scien- 
tist, first of the Hudson Bay Company, then, 
during the whole period covered by Henry, of 
the Northwest Company, and later still of the 
International Boundary Commission, which ran 
the line between the British Possessions and 
the United States." Henry alone furnishes the 
text ; Thompson goes into the foot-notes along 
with the editor himself. 

Mention of the preface suggests the serious 
criticism that we have to make on Dr. Coues's 
editing. This is that he should not have prefixed 

to his work an introduction giving a rapid gen- 
eral account of the progress of discovery in the 
Greater Northwest from the very first down to 
1799, or at least have given a view of the exist- 
ing state of affairs at the time when Henry 
comes upon the scene. It is true that much of 
this information will be found in the notes, but 
in a scattered form. Such an account or view 
would have been of much assistance to nearly 
every reader who will turn these pages. 

Part III., " The Columbia," brings us upon 
the headwaters of some interesting American 
history. David Thompson, we are told, was 
not only the discoverer of the Saskatchawan 
and Athabascan passes over the Continental 
Divide, and of the sources of the Columbia 
River and all the country of its headwaters and 
upper tributaries, but he was the first white 
man who ever descended the great river to the 
confluence of Lewis's Fork or Snake River. 
On arriving at this point, Thompson took 
formal possession of the whole region in the 
name of the British Crown. Dr. Coues quotes 
the following memorandum from Thompson's 
Journal : 

" July 9, Tuesday, [1811]. . . \ a mile to the Junc- 
tion of the Shawpatin [Snake] River with this the 
Columbia, here I erected a small Pole, with a half 
Sheet of Paper well tied about it, with these words on 
it Know hereby that this country is claimed by Great 
Britain as part of its territories, and that the N. W. 
Company of Merchants from Canada, finding the fac- 
tory for this people inconvenient for them, do hereby 
intend to erect a Factory in this Place for the Com- 
merce of the Country around. D. Thompson." 

Another interesting f actis that Henry arrived 
at Astoria about a month before it was trans- 
ferred, along with John Jacob Astor's other 
property, to British hands. This is Henry's 
formal account of the transaction : 

" Dec. 13th. [1813]. The Dolly had anchored oppo- 
site the fort; before daybreak we got the powder on 
shore, and at 8 a. m. saluted the captain with seven 
guns. Mr. Verdier, midshipman, four marines, and 
three seamen from the Raccoon, came ashore, having 
hauled the Dolly near the wharf. At 3 p. m. we fired 
three guns as a signal to the Racoon, and then hoisted 
the Union Jack given us by the Captain. We collected 
all our men, armed with muskets; the marines were 
drawn up in uniform under arms, and the sailors with 
Quartermaster Hill attended to the guns. The captain, 
in full uniform, broke a bottle of Madeira on the flag- 
staff, and took possession of this country and place in, 
the name of His Britanic Majesty, calling this post Fort 
George. Three cheers were given by us all, and three 
rounds of musketry were then fired by our men and the 
marines. One of the latter had a narrow escape from 
shooting himself in the face, his gun having flashed and 
then gone off on being grounded. Eleven guns were 
fired from our four-pounder. We drank His Majesty's 
health, and a speech to Comcomly's son [was made by 



[July 16, 

Mr. Franchere]. The ceremony ended by taking a few 
extra glasses of wine."* 

Henry was not a traveller or an explorer 
properly so-called, but a business man intent 
on gain. He had a keen eye for the savage 
humanity that he saw around him, and does 
not mince his words when describing the miser- 
able beings that they were. Their drunken- 
ness, filth, thievery, murders, licentiousness, 
and superstitions are told in the most realistic 
fashion. Still, justice is done to such good 
qualities as the Indians had. Such a passage 
as the following, showing to what an acuteness 
the human senses may be cultivated, should 
delight the souls of some of our sense-realistic 

" We had not gone far from the house before we fell 
upon the fresh tracks of some red deer, and soon after 
discovered the herd in a thicket of willows and poplars ; 
we both fired, and the deer disappeared in different 
directions. We pursued them, but to no purpose, as 
the country was unfavorable. We then returned to the 
spot where we had fired, as the Indian suspected that 
we had wounded some of them. We searched to see 
if we could find any blood; on my part I could find 
tracks, but no blood. The Indian soon called out, and 
I went to him, but could see no blood, nor any sign that 
an animal had been wounded. However, he pointed out 
the track of a large buck among the many others, and 
told me that from the manner in which this buck had 
started off, he was certain the animal had been wounded. 
As the ground was beaten in every direction by animals, 
it was only after a tedious search that he found where 
the buck had struck off. But no blood was seen until, 
passing through a thicket of willows, he observed a drop 
upon a leaf, and next a little more. He then began to 
examine more strictly, to find out in what part of the 
body the animal had been wounded; and judging by 
the height and other signs, he told me that the wound 
must have been somewhere between the shoulder and 
neck. We advanced about a mile, but saw nothing of 
the deer, and no more blood. I was for giving up the 
chase; but he assured me the wound was mortal, and 
that if the animal should lie down he could not rise 
again. We proceeded two miles further, when, coming 
out upon a small open space, he told me the animal was 
at no great distance, and very probably in this meadow. 
We accordingly advanced a few yards, and there we 
could see the deer lying at the last gasp. The wound 
was exactly as I had been told. The sagacity of the 
Saulteurs in tracing strong wood animals is astonishing. 
I have frequently witnessed occurrences of this nature; 
the bend of a leaf or blade of grass is enough to show 
the hunter the direction the game has taken. Their 
ability is of equally great service to war-parties, when 
they discover the footsteps of their enemies." 

Two good maps are found in the pocket. 
The principal one is entitled "Map of the 
Northwest Territory of the Province of Canada 
from Actual Surveys during the years 1792- 

*The "Dolly" was a small craft that Mr. Aster's people 
had just built for their trade; the "Raccoon," a British 
armed vessel that had come into the river a few days before. 

1812," and is attributed to Thompson. Some 
section maps introduced into the body of the 
work would have been of much value to the 
reader. The carefully prepared Index fills a 
hundred double-column pages. The " Henry 
and Thompson " is brought out by Mr. Harper 
in the same admirable style as the " Lewis and 
Clark " and Pike." B< A . HINSDALE. 


There is now on many a bookshelf a certain 
lot of tattered, may be, and well-thumbed books 
of various appearance which is gradually being 
replaced by the more respectable and appro- 
priate set, mulberry-covered and already begin- 
ning to be well-known. They did good work, 
the old ones, some of them paper-covered, 
" Plain Tales from the Hills " in a roughly- 
printed "Library," and "The Light that 
Failed " No. 1 in the Heinemann and Bales- 
tier collection ; some of them in American 
editions, the two Jungle Books or " The Seven 
Seas "; perhaps some stray Indian Railway edi- 
tion, " Under the Deodars " or " Wee Willie 
Winkie," or Thacker, Spink & Co.'s " Depart- 
mental Ditties "; a motley lot, not much to 
look at, doubtless, but still a noteworthy set of 

It seems a little ungrateful to replace them, 
but the new ones are certainly very pleasing. 
Paper and print, of course, of the best ; other 
things interesting, too, the binding of the color 
of an old Bokhara rug, the little white medal- 
lions on the side with the elephant's head and 
the lotus flowers, the curious pottery-pictures of 
Mr. Lockwood Kipling, and here and there the 
added preface of the author. 

The first reading of the old books and the 
re-reading of the new ones are two different 
things. At first there was a sort of enchanting 
novelty ; each story as it came was something 
new, and one read it without bother of criticism 
or definition. Rudyard Kipling is now a per- 
fectly well-known element in literature, but 
even now not easily criticised or defined for all 

Nor are the " Plain Tales from the Hills " an 
obvious help in the definition. What might 
be their impression could we read them now, 

KIPLING. Volume I., Plain Tales from the Hills ; Volumes II. 
and III., Soldiers Three, and Military Tales ; Volume IV., 
In Black and White; Volume V., The Phantom Rickshaw; 
Volume VI., Under the Deodars, The Story of the Gadsbys, 
Wee Willie Winkie. New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 




knowing nothing of the others, is hard to say ; 
as it is, reading them with the others in mind, 
we take their most obvious quality to be smart- 
ness a careless, carefully-concealed knowing- 
ness, that is well acquainted with the great 
things of the world as well as the little, and 
which can therefore tell each story " as it hap- 
pened " with a clear appreciation of the signifi- 
cance of it all, whatever it be, and often with a 
sort of pity for those less well informed. Some- 
times, in " Lispeth " or " Tod's Amendment," 
it is a story of that native life of which the 
English in India are so complacently ignorant ; 
sometimes, in " Thrown Away," " Bitters 
Neat," " Consequences," " Kidnapped," " A 
Bank Fraud," it is one of those strange things 
of life in general which people pass over with 
a stare, perhaps, because only an inner ring 
know the facts at bottom ; now and then, " His 
Chance in Life," " The Other Man," "In Error," 
" On the Strength of a Likeness," it is one of 
those unexplained ironies where no one really 
knows why it should not have been otherwise ; 
once or twice, " By Word of Mouth," " The 
Bisara of Pooree," it is a frankly mysterious 
matter that one might as well acknowledge 
without attempt at explanation. And all this 
strange secrecy with which Nature veils its 
matters of true import is imitated in various 
absurd satiric grotesques, in which the con- 
cealed irony is nothing more than the exploita- 
tion of a germ-destroyer or the consummating 
of an engagement, while the secretive and 
avenging Nature appears in the guise of Lieu- 
tenant Hogan-Yale or the unscrupulous owner 
of Lady Regula Baddun. 

All these matters are detailed with a simple 
directness, a complacent sententiousness, and 
an affectation of epigram which is wholly in 
keeping. Generally a snatch of simple-hearted 
cynicism ; generally a shrug of the shoulders at 
the end ; never any exhibition of sympathy 
with human passion, or interest in any indi- 
vidual human heart. And yet in this collection 
of cross-purposes and tragedies and whimsical- 
ities and clever dodges, melting down for the 
time the curt superiority, the unperturbed ac- 
quaintance with the world, the impassive inter- 
est in the event, are some half a dozen stories 
of native life, " The Gate of the Hundred Sor- 
rows," " In the House of Suddhoo," " Beyond 
the Pale," " Muhammad Din," which show that 
there is real power in all this, although not 
always power that understands itself. 

Still, although " Plain Tales from the Hills " 
are not an exhibition of Mr. Kipling's full 

strength by any means, the book does much to 
give an insight into some of his later work. 
Whatever was mere smart knowingness passed 
away, or, more accurately, developed into a 
surer and truer feeling, the feeling that the real 
forces in life are not spread open to view, that 
the real thing is hidden from us, that the super- 
ficial is for fools ; that these hidden forces, the 
passions beneath the surface, which influence 
all men or many men, not one or two, are the 
matters of real fascination, the great but secret 
currents, which crop up here and there but are 
far more apt to work unseen ; that few men 
(and fewer women) know them, but that those 
who do are the worthy ones, soldiers, tramps, old 
beggars, outlaws, officers, or no matter what. 
If men can see beneath the surface they are 
men, and brothers. 

Such a feeling, at least, seems to be at the 
bottom of things, as we read the later volumes. 
Whence, otherwise, the greatness of Mulvaney, 
with the unfaltering melancholy under his deep 
brows, a modern Odysseus without the youthful 
buoyancy of the Greek ? Could Ortheris or 
Learoyd have been friends of R. K. had it 
not been for Mulvaney ? Yet being friends of 
Mulvaney they partook at times of his high- 
souled woes. They feel, although intuitively, 
subconsciously, not with the direct assurance of 
Mulvaney, that the world moves on in its own 
strange ways, not those mentioned in books. 
And those who see them clearly will smile, may 
be, at first, but after the first will rarely smile 
again, for on the whole, between four and twenty 
soldiers swimming the Irrawaddy to get into 
Lungtungpen, and one man shooting another 
for interference in family affairs, there is only 
a difference of circumstance ; the fact in each 
case is that the true springs of action are as 
usual unknown or ignored, and that people play 
merrily in cooled lava which they think is rock. 

So it is with other things. Native India has 
its charm, aside from color and romance, be- 
cause life has gone on unchangingly for twenty 
centuries, according to its own unwritten laws 
whereof few Europeans know or care. The 
jungle fascinates one, too, because its inhabi- 
tants, more clever than humankind, know the 
laws of the life whereof they are a part. So 
children, understanding nothing perhaps, take 
matters far more simply with an adequate recog- 
nition of the springs of their simple action. 
Decent conventional society is futile enough, but 
those who fall from it like " Love o' Women " 
and Mclntosh Jellaludin are more patent ex- 
amples than anyone else. Such is the charm 



[July 16, 

of any life, where there is such an esprit du 
corps that important things may be taken for 
granted, whether it be the mess of a cavalry 
regiment, the guild of mendicants, or the scat- 
tered confraternity of those who go down to 
the sea in ships. Those who know and who 
else is worth bothering about ? are aware 
of the hidden powers of life and are thereby 
rendered grave. All the same, on the surface 
for men who know how to take it life is 
a hustling, breezy, invigorating affair. Take it 
all in the day's work, be your task to personate 
an Indian God or make friends with an ele- 
phant, take it easily as it comes, and you will 
feel the blood in your body ; and a man of 
sense won't ask for much more. And if he 
keep a stiff upper-lip, never show the white 
feather, and be always fair and square, no one 
need ask any more of him. 

Realising this, and discarding or disowning 
the futilities and ineptitudes of conventional 
goings and comings, one may observe the 
strange things " of Life and Death and men 
and women and Love and Fate," and take 
them at their worth. Hence the threescore tales 
of Soldiers Three," " Military Tales," In 
Black and White," " The Phantom Rickshaw." 
The feeling never takes direct form but it is 
never absent, in the rattling soldier-scrapes of 
Mulvaney, Ortheris, and Learoyd, in the charm 
and color of the native episodes, in the later 
wonders and wanderings here and there nar- 
rated by soldier, sailor, or traveller. 

There is always a story or an event or a 
something done, save in half a dozen like "The 
Amir's Homily," "The Children of the Zodiac," 
" One View of the Question," " The Enlighten- 
ments of Paget, M.P.," there is always the 
interest in life in action. And in these later 
volumes most of the futile charms of the " Plain 
Tales " are dropped ; the mannerisms of " other 
stories " and shrugging ending are mostly gone, 
while the naive cynicism and the grandstand 
fireworks have merged into the general point of 
view and a confidence in the general power of 
the idea. So we have the grateful directness 
and avoidance of immaterial delicacies of dic- 
tion. Told " through the voice of one, two, or 
more people," there are thousands of details, 
but they all have something to do with the 
matter, and we get the story and are satisfied 
with it as a story. Then when we think about 
it afterward, it seems as though there were 
something more to it. 

As to the real value of all this, it is some- 
thing which would require a fresh discussion. 

We think it a standpoint which enables the 
story-teller to find stories and to compel the 
hearer to listen to them. We think it one of 
the secrets of Mr. Kipling's hold on the reader. 
But we must be content with the suggestion, 
for there is no space here to develope it. 

And even such as it is, it does not account 
for Mr. Kipling's power of emotional phrasing, 
as we might call it, nor for his power as a poet, 
which is much the same thing thrown in a dif- 
ferent direction, nor for a certain discernment 
of general trends of emotion in this world. But 
these matters appear in the volumes now in 
hand, only here and there, and in a rather un- 
developed form, so they need not be commented 
upon at present. EDWARD E. HALE, JK. 


The Field Columbian Museum wisely en- 
courages study and publication. The paper on 
the Monuments of Yucatan, now before us, is 
the eighth in its series of printed documents, 
although the first in the line of Anthropology. 
In the winter of 1894-5, Mr. Allison V. 
Armour invited certain scientific gentlemen to 
make a trip with him, in his yacht " Ituna," to 
Yucatan and Mexico. The three months were 
busily employed by all, and in this book Mr. 
Holmes presents some of the archaeological re- 
sults of the trip. 

Notwithstanding all that has been written 
about Yucatan's archeology, the greater part 
of the work still remains undone. No single 
locality has yet been completely investigated. 
Some have never been examined since John L. 
Stephens wrote, as carefully as they were by 
him. Chichen-Itza, thanks to Mr. Thompson, 
has been much studied and will no doubt finally 
be adequately described. Thorough investiga- 
tion in Yucatan is no child's-play. Conditions 
of climate, life, surroundings, render it difficult 
in the extreme. Each visitor to Yucatec ruins 
ought to make an exact and accurate statement 
of his observations ; thus little by little a mass 
of reliable data will be accumulated. 

Mr. Armour's party visited Mugeres, Can- 
cun, and Cozumel Islands, and the mainland 
sites El Meco and Tuloom in Eastern Yuca- 
tan ; they visited Progreso, Uxmal, Izamal, and 

OF MEXICO. Part L, Monuments of Yucatan. By William H. 
Holmes. With plates and cuts. Chicago : Field Columbian 




Chichen-Itza, in Middle North Yucatan. The 
time spent at these localities was far too short 
for systematic observation. Mr. Holmes pre- 
sents us several new ground-plans and some 
new descriptions. His book also contains many 
plates from photographic originals. This is all 
good. There are, however, two features in his 
work which deserve special mention and render 
it one of the most important contributions in 
this field. 

(a) From a reading of the literature and 
from his field work, Mr. Holmes has prepared 
a valuable comprehensive study of the archi- 
tectural details of Maya buildings ; this material 
classified suggests the line of architectural evo- 
lution. The figures in illustration of this study 
are of much importance. In figure 1, a series 
of outline drawings, showing examples of ter- 
races and pyramids, illustrates the range and 
variation of these structures ; the cut teaches 
more than a hundred descriptions and views 
would do. Once seen by the student, it renders 
such descriptions and views thereafter compre- 
hensible. The cut showing a series of ground- 
plans of Maya temples is equally helpful ; the 
plans are arrayed in order of complexity, be- 
ginning with the single room, with one simple 
doorway. Study of this cut alone will do more 
to orientate the student than anything before 
written. There is danger, however, that some 
readers will imagine that the series represents 
an evolution, which must always pursue the 
same line and ever pass through the same stages 
which is not, of course, true. 

(b) Notable are the panoramas. Few who 
have not been among the ruined cities of Yuca- 
tan and Central America can conceive the dif- 
ficulties that their study presents. Most of 
them are in forest or thicket. Often one may 
travel within a few rods of important structures 
without knowing of their existence. To secure 
a photograph of a single building it is necessary 
to employ a considerable force of men to clear 
away the vegetable growth that hides it. Fre- 
quently one building cannot be seen from a 
neighboring building, and it is difficult for the 
student to keep clear ideas of orientation. Of 
course, carefully made ground-plans give the 
relation in position of the different structures, 
but to most persons ground-plans mean little. 
Mr. Holmes presents ground-plans of Uxmal 
and Chichen-Itza ; but he does more. Opposite 
them he places panoramic views of the two 
places, as gained from an imaginary standpoint 
above. The gain in definiteness of conception 
is astonishing. Study of the ground-plan, 

indeed, gives the idea that certain buildings 
occupy certain positions with reference to each 
other. Study of the panorama gives the feeling 
that this was once really a place where men 
lived, and thought of the buildings as in use 
and hints of their purpose force themselves upon 
us. In these two features in the clear study 
of architectural details and in the panoramic 
views Mr. Holmes's book is preeminently 


There are two ways of dealing with the his- 
tory of general literature. One of them is the 
long-practised method of treating a literature 
as a national product, and studying its devel- 
opment with but slight reference to the parallel 
development of its contemporaries, ignoring 
the fact that all the literatures of modern 
Europe are to a considerable extent spiritually 
cognate. The other is the comparative method, 
which has gained much ground of late, and 
which rests upon the fundamental assumption 
that the literature of one country may best be 
understood when we take into account the con- 
temporary literature of the others, and that 
the conception of a literary species held by one 
race may be brought most clearly into view 
when we study the development of that species 
under other conditions of race and historical 
environment. It is in this comparative spirit 
that the series of volumes entitled " Periods of 
European Literature " has recently been under- 
taken and entrusted to the general editorial 
direction of Professor George Saintsbury, who 
himself provides the volume which covers the 
literary product of the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries. For the series as a whole twelve 
volumes have been planned, and assigned to 
men of excellent authority in their respective 
fields. Professor W. P. Ker, for example, will 
write of " The Dark Ages," Mr. Edmund 
Gosse of " The Romantic Revolt " of the close 
of the eighteenth century, and Mr. Walter H. 
Pollock of "The Romantic Triumph" of the 
early nineteenth century. Such a programme 
as this arouses high anticipations, and the vol- 
ume first to appear (which is the second in the 
chronological order) invites a careful scrutiny. 

ALLEGORY. By George Saintsbury, M.A. New York : 
Charles Scribner's Sons. 

EPIC AND ROMANCE. Essays on Mediaeval Literature. By 
W. P. Ker. New York : The Macmillan Co. 



[July 16, 

Mr. Saintsbury gives to the book which deals 
with his particular cross-section of the literary 
tree the title of " The Flourishing of Romance 
and the Rise of Allegory." In an editorial 
preface, he tells us at considerable length how 
particularly well he is qualified for his task. 
Lest his readers should still be in doubt, he 
afterwards recurs to this subject upon a number 
of occasions, telling us how much he has read, 
and how diligently he has devoted himself to 
the literature in question. This writing is 
mostly superfluous, for the test of a work is 
the way in which it is done, not the volubility 
with which the writer professes his competence, 
and, for the rest, the public knows tolerably 
well what are Mr. Saintsbury's achievements, 
what his limitations, and what his idiosyn- 
crasies. It knows, for example, that he is an 
enormous reader and has a retentive memory ; 
it knows also that his strength is in the depart- 
ments of English, French, and German litera- 
ture, while it expects from him only second- 
hand information concerning most of the other 
departments that come within the scope of his 
survey. It knows, moreover, that he frequently 
indulges in obiter dicta that are more plausible 
than convincing, and that he is capable of 
writing in a most exasperating style. 

After an introductory chapter upon " The 
Function of Latin " as a vehicle for the mes- 
sage of medieval thought, the author plunges 
into his subject proper, taking Bodel's familiar 
couplet for a text. 

" Ne sont que trois matte res k mil home attendant, 
De France et de Bretaigne et de Rome la grant." 

Each of these three " matters " forms the sub- 
ject of a separate chapter. Of the chansons 
de geste he writes at length and with an exag- 
gerated enthusiasm which calls for a few pages 
of M. Brunetiere as a corrective. He charac- 
terizes the chansons as " the half -million or 
million verses of majestic cadence written in 
one of the noblest languages, for at least first 
effect, to be found in the history of the world, 
possessing that character of distinction, of 
separate and unique peculiarity in matter and 
form, which has such extraordinary charm, and 
endowed besides, more perhaps than any other 
division, with the attraction of presenting an 
utterly vanished Past." In a later passage he 
writes of the fabliaux in almost equally impas- 
sioned strain, and again we must refer to 
M. Brunetiere for a saner sort of appreciation. 
In discussing "The Matter of Britain," the 
author shows reasonable familiarity with the 
latest efforts of scholarship to bring some sort 

of order out of the curious tangle of fact and 
surmise that surrounds the Arthurian tale, and 
makes a strong argument for the claim of 
Walter Map to be considered as chiefly respon- 
sible for the moulding of the Legend into the 
form which gave it a literary vitality so great 
and so enduring. Having discussed these sub- 
jects, and the " matter of Rome " (which deals 
chiefly with the tales of Troy and of Alexander), 
Mr. Saintsbury proceeds to the making of the 
English language and the settlement of its 
prosody. Here we come to the beginnings of 
English lyric, and the refrain, 

" Blow, northerne wynd, 
Send thou me my suetyng, 
Blow, northerne wynd, blou, blou, blou," 

is not inaptly described as " Tennysonian verse 
five hundred years before Tennyson." 

A chapter entitled " Middle High German 
Poetry," which is too brief to consist of much 
more than a series of phrases, is followed by a 
long disquisition upon " The 'Fox,' the 'Rose,' 
and the Minor Contributions of France." The 
following passage upon the literary predom- 
inance of twelfth and thirteenth-century France 
is strikingly put, but hardly overdrawn: 

" France, if not Paris, was in reality the eye and 
brain of Europe, the place of origin of almost every 
literary form, the place of finishing and polishing, even 
for those forms which she did not originate. She not 
merely taught, she wrought and wrought consum- 
mately. She revived and transformed the fable; per- 
fected, if she did not invent, the beast-epic; brought the 
short prose tale to an exquisite completeness; enlarged, 
suppled, chequered, the somewhat stiff and monotonous 
forms of Provencal lyric into myriad-noted variety; 
devised the prose-memoir, and left capital examples of 
it; made attempts at the prose history; ventured upon 
much and performed no little in the vernacular drama; 
besides the vast performance, sometimes inspired from 
elsewhere but never as literature copied, which we 
have already seen, in her fostering if not mothering of 

In still another passage, we are told more suc- 
cinctly : 

" It is the simplest truth to say that in the twelfth 
and thirteenth centuries France kept the literary school 
of Europe, and that with the single exception of Iceland, 
during a part, and only a part, of the time, all the 
nations of Europe were content to do, each in its own 
tongue, and sometimes even in hers, the lessons which 
she taught, the exercises which she set them." 

The chapter which closes up the French section 
of the history is brought to an end by a few 
paragraphs upon Ruteboeuf, the chronicles of 
Villehardouin and Joinville, and the lovely tale 
of " Aucassin et Nicolete." 

The remainder of Mr. Saintsbury's work is 
devoted to chapters upon " Icelandic and Pro- 
ven9al " (thus curiously bracketed together) 




and " The Literature of the Peninsulas." Here 
the author's knowledge is most evidently de- 
fective, and he gives us little more than a 
meagre compilation ; but he is hardly to be 
blamed for not having made all the provinces 
of mediaeval literature his own, and, when all 
is said, there are probably few men living who 
could have covered the two centuries as satis- 
factorily as he has done. And his style, in 
spite of its mannerisms, is always sprightly 
and attractive, lending interest to the dullest 
subjects, and carrying the reader on without 
much jolting from theme to theme. We shall 
be pleased indeed if Mr. Saintsbury's collab- 
orators contrive to make their several volumes 
as readable as we have found this one to be. 

Published almost simultaneously with the 
book just now under review, Professor W. P. 
Ker's " Epic and Romance," being a collection 
of essays on mediaeval literature, calls for con- 
sideration at the same time. As a collection of 
essays, rather than a continuous history, this 
book does not have the unity and the symmetry 
of Mr. Saintsbury's volume, yet it has far more 
of these qualities than might be supposed. In 
scope, it is somewhat broader, ranging from 
the earliest productions of Teutonic poetry all 
the way down to the finished and self-conscious 
art of Chaucer and Boccaccio. In the arrange- 
ment of its material, we find a twofold basis of 
classification. First, there is the division sug- 
gested by the title, and, throughout his treat- 
ment, the author keeps steadily in view the dis- 
tinction between the epic and the romantic 
forms. This distinction is set forth as follows : 

" Whatever Epic may mean, it implies some weight 
and solidity; Romance means nothing, if it does not 
convey some notion of mystery and fantasy. A general 
distinction of this kind, whatever names may be used to 
render it, can be shown, in mediaeval literature, to hold 
good of the two large groups of narrative belonging to 
the earlier and the later Middle Ages respectively. 
Beowulf might stand for the one side, Lancelot or 
Gawain for the other. It is a difference not confined 
to literature. The two groups are distinguished from 
one another, as the respectable piratical gentleman of 
the North Sea coast in the ninth or tenth century differs 
from one of the companions of St. Louis. The latter 
has something fantastic in his ideas which the other has 

The other division of the author's material 
causes it to be grouped (after the preliminaries 
are disposed of) under the three heads of Teu- 
tonic Epic, Icelandic Saga, and Old French 
Epic, and to each of these subjects a main sec- 
tion of the work is devoted. The first of them 
lies without the scope of Mr. Saintsbury's book, 
but the other two run parallel with it, and a 

comparison of the respective treatments is 
instructive. Mr. Saintsbury is at his best on 
the ground of French epic, and at his worst in 
the domain of Icelandic saga. Professor Ker, 
on the other hand, is distinctly at his best in 
dealing with the latter subject, and the inade- 
quacy of Mr. Saintsbury's treatment becomes 
very apparent when we compare it with this 
work of a real scholar in Icelandic. We know 
of no better treatment of the subject in English 
than may be found in -these chapters, and for 
them, even more than for the others, Professor 
Ker has earned our gratitude. No truer thing 
than the following was ever said of Icelandic 
literature : 

" Clear self-consciousness is the distinction of Ice- 
landic civilization and literature. It is not vanity or 
conceit. It does not make the Icelandic writers anx- 
ious about their own fame or merits. It is simply clear 
intelligence, applied under a dry light to subjects that 
in themselves are primitive, such as never before or 
since have been represented in the same way. The life 
is their own life; the record is that of a dispassionate 

We might say many other things in praise of 
these essays upon mediaeval literature. They 
display, for one thing, a happy gift of tren- 
chant epigrammatic expression, as in this state- 
ment : " Ulysses quoting Aristotle is an anach- 
ronism ; but King Alfred's translation of 
Boethius is almost as much of a paradox." Or 
in this : " The comprehensiveness of the greater 
kinds of poetry, of Homer and Shakespeare, 
is a different thing from the premeditated and 
self-assertive realism of the authors who take 
viciously to common life by way of protest 
against the romantic extreme." As here ap- 
plied, " viciously " is a genuine critical epithet. 
We must find space, also, for praise of the 
author's fine characterization of a heroic age, 
whether exemplified by Homer or by the 
chronicles of Njal or Kiartan Olafsson. Above 
all, we must praise the scholarly thoroughness 
of the entire work, and the mastery with which 
the author has handled his intricate and diffi- 
cult subject. WlLLIAM MORTON PAYNE. 

RECENT modern language texts include the following: 
"Gotz von Berlichingin " (Holt), edited by Dr. Frank 
Goodrich; Drei Kleine Lustspiele " (Heath), by Ben- 
dix and Zechmeister, edited by Professor B. W.Weils; 
Baumbach's "Die Nonna " (Heath), edited by Dr. 
Wilhelm Bernhardt; Frey tag's "Die Journalisten " 
(American Book Co.), edited by Dr. J. Norton Johnson; 
Selections from Pierre Loti" (Holt), edited by Dr. A. 
Guyot Cameron; and Labiche and Martin's ever mirth- 
inspiring " La Poudre aux Yeux " (Heath), edited by 
Professor B. W. Wells. 



[July 16, 


Mr. H. de B. Gibbins, the author of a popular 
" Industrial History of England," has prepared an 
enlarged work with the same aim and outline, to 
which he gives the title " Industry in England." 
The purpose of the author was to relate a concise 
story of economic history which might serve as a 
preliminary sketch for those who wished to gain 
the essential elements of the subject or to proceed 
to more elaborate treatises. The materials are 
divided into five historical, periods, from the Nor- 
man Conquest to Modern England. In each period 
the industrial life is brought into the foreground. 
Political, military, and ecclesiastical changes are 
noted only as they affect or are affected by economic 
activities. The productive processes, exchange, 
methods of agriculture and stock-raising, internal 
and foreign traffic, markets, roads, division of labor, 
regulative institutions, guilds, corporations, and 
industrial laws, are among the chief topics discussed. 

The book is written in the spirit of Green, Rogers, 
Cunningham, and Ashley. The common daily life 
of the people is brought before us as in a drama, 
and is shown to have surpassing interest. As the 
author approaches the modern time, the materials 
become more abundant and the treatment more 
vivid and partisan. Sympathy for the workers is 
not concealed. It is the modern note throughout. 
Those who were once ignored by princes, historians, 
politicians, poets laureate, and ecclesiastics, are 
coming into recognition. Democracy not only insists 
upon the rights of the living but upon the rights of 
the dead. The proletarian is vindicating the per- 
sonal reputation of the poor. It is marvellous how 
much has been concealed, stowed away as insignifi- 
cant rubbish, barely alluded to in the effort to 
glorify the great. The emphasis falls now upon a 
different place. Such a book as the one under 
notice has more than antiquarian interest ; it reveals 
to us the master-thought of our own age while it 
describes the past. 

The maps, while few, are very valuable and 
instructive. The footnotes furnish a bibliography 
which directs to the best accessible sources and 
gives suggestive criticism of their contents and 
value. It would be a good book to put in the hands 
of a University Extension class during the progress 
of a course of lectures on the labor movement. It 
is more special than Green's " Short History," and 
brings up the discussion of such subjects as the 
manor, village, mark, and f uedal organization to our 
own day. The factory system, factory legislation, 

* INDUSTRY IN ENGLAND. By H. de B. Gibbins. New 
York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 

York: G. P.Putnam's Sons. 

New York : The Macmillan Co. 

EQUALITY. By Edward Bellamy. New York : D. Appleton 

WOMAN AND THE REPUBLIC. By Helen Ken drick Johnson. 
New York : D. Appleton & Co. 

the condition of the working classes, and agricul- 
tural depression, are carefully treated, and the 
account has great contemporary interest. 

If any reader can learn anything new from the 
work entitled " The Revolutionary Tendencies of 
the Age," his knowledge of economics and social 
history must be very limited. The inequalities of 
human life are described in somewhat florid style 
and with numerous dreamy allegories. Economic 
power is the goal of Democracy. Revolution is 
inevitable now that the people have come to their 
senses through universal education. If the horse 
were intelligent he would let no man ride him. But 
what will be the nature of the revolution? Not 
absolute Socialism. What then? It is not quite 
clear. But we needed no ghost to come from the 
abyss to tell us that riches give power and that 
poverty is exceedingly inconvenient. Perhaps this 
judgment should be tempered by the consideration 
that the author earnestly and forcefully urges the 
responsibility of the possessors of wealth, and places 
in very clear light the central aspiration of the 
working classes and their certain control of the 
future. He will not consider methods of violence, 
but hints at limitation of inheritance and other legal 
measures of redistribution of accumulated fortunes. 

The aim of the interesting little volume entitled 
" Genesis of the Social Conscience " is, as indicated 
in the sub-title, to show " the relation between the 
establishment of Christianity in Europe and the 
Social Question." The method is the exact opposite 
of that followed by Loria and Marx from the 
economic to the spiritual. With a fixed and an- 
nounced purpose, political and economic history "are 
passed coolly by." The germination and growth of 
a new valuation of the individual man are traced 
through the ages of Christian history. Christianity 
set an infinite price upon the soul. The idea of the 
one God involves the unity of the race, since all are 
equally made in the divine image. Personality 
implies freedom. The sense of sin reduced aristoc- 
racy to a level with the lowest ; " all equal are within 
the Church's gate." The notions of humanity, the 
Kingdom of God, duty, help to furnish " the Re- 
former's Conscience." Out of these beliefs are 
born the French Revolution, Democracy, universal 
suffrage, care for the " downmost man." 

The book is more than a tacit protest against the 
materialistic explanation of history. It takes life at 
a higher level than the phrase " Man is what he 
eats." It assumes that man cannot live by bread 
alone, and indicates the social power of forces which 
seem small and dim only because attention is not 
bestowed upon them. The pages glitter with bright 
sayings, and there are many attractive passages. 
The reader may find some difficulty in keeping the 
thread of the argument, because the author leaps 
back and forth, from Aquinas to Aristotle, from 
Augustine to Rousseau, with alarming agility. He 
himself says : " The vast bulk of events is untouched. 




I shall seem to make ideas advance to the sound of 
the trumpet, like the things that happen in one of 
Dumas' novels." The absence of events gives at 
times a rather unearthly impression ; but the mod- 
ern instances quickly remind one that a thoroughly 
practical man is teaching him. Incidentally, we 
wonder what the author means by saying (p. 225), 
" Lincoln's Gettysburg address, without the name 
of God in it, is religious to the core." Which text, 
of the three extant, did he have before him? 

Mr. Bellamy's new book, " Equality," is written 
in a style that may seem to many tedious. To one 
acquainted with Socialistic literature, there is noth- 
ing in its principles that is new. The book is a 
re-statement of ideas already made familiar by 
Marx, Lassalle, Proudhom, Fourier, " Merrie En- 
gland," and all the rest. But for all that, we must 
not ignore the message it bears. One-sided it is ; 
often unjust and exaggerated ; concealing the good 
of an age and minifying the difficulties of Socialism ; 
but honest, searching, earnest, all must concede it 
to be. The sins of our day are unsparingly exposed 
to view ; modern instances illustrate many pages ; 
the wrongs and cruelties that make the conscience 
of all good cities gnaw at the heart are graphically 
set forth. 

The story of the book is soon told : two lovers 
talk economics, the Socialist always coming off with 
easy victory because the capitalist advocate had 
already given up his cause. This is kept up through 
four hundred pages. It will not pay to buy the book 
for its dramatic interest. 

The gallery of pictures of " Looking Backward " 
is here somewhat enlarged. Marx never tried to 
tell what a socialistic society would be like. Even 
Bebel's " Die Frau " carefully kept out of the proph- 
ecy business. Kantzby's " Erfurt Program " dis- 
tinctly asserts that a Socialist ought not to try to 
depict the future state of the terrestrial New Jeru- 
salem. The weather prophets, dealing in their high 
towers with relatively simple elements, do not fore- 
tell the meteoric changes of the next week, and they 
are in luck if they are right for forty hours in ad- 
vance. But here is a prophet who makes a pano- 
rama of a city which is not yet to exist for a century. 
It looks like courage. 

The fundamental doctrine of " Equality " is Com- 

" The corner-stone of our state is economic equality. 
. . . What is life without its material basis, and what 
is an equal right to life but a right to an equal material 
basis for it ? What is liberty ? How can men be free 
who must ask the right to labor and to live from their 
fellow-men and seek their bread from the hands of 
others ? How else can any government guarantee lib- 
erty to men save by providing them a means of labor 
and of life coupled with independence ? . . . What 
form of happiness, so far as it depends at all on material 
facts, is not bound up with economic conditions ? " 

The Declaration of Independence, therefore, logic- 
ally leads to Socialism of a communistic type. Lib- 

erty and happiness are impossible without a secure 

The imaginative writer of " Equality " distributes 
promises of a salary of $4000 a year to all citizens 
with a lavish hand. Why that particular sum was 
fixed, and out of what annual national income it is 
to be paid, are questions which are easily waved 
aside. The poet is under no such vulgar obligations 
as a statistician or an economist. And in judging 
the book we must steadily remember that we are 
reading a poet, like the author of Utopia, and not a 
serious work on economics. 

All through the book there seems a protest against 
the law of competition, as being cruel and unjust, 
as immoral. But the author usually fails to see 
that it is a simple wnmoral force, which can be used 
for good or evil according to human intelligence, 
character, and social organization. He does catch 
a glimpse of the idea that this blind energy, like 
gravity and lightning, may be harnessed and driven 
when he writes (p. 38) about " ranking," by which 
he means " the figure which indicates his previous 
standing in the schools and during his service as an 
unclassified worker, and is supposed to give the 
best attainable criterion thus far of his relative in- 
telligence, efficiency, and devotion to duty. When 
there are more volunteers for particular occupations 
than there is room for, the lowest in ranking have 
to be content with a second or third preference." 
The horns of the beast of competition are tipped 
with gold and the tail is decorated with ribbons, 
but they are there, even in the Communistic Heaven. 

The address (p. 99) to the Masters of the Bread 
is a very incisive piece of irony. It is an appeal 
to capitalists for permission to be their slaves for a 
morsel of bread. 

" O Lords of the Bread [say the laborers], feel our 
thews and sinews, our arms and our legs; see how strong 
we are. Take us and use us. ... Let us freeze and 
starve in the forecastles of your ships. . . . Do what 
you will with us, but let us serve you, that we may eat 
and not die." 

The professional men, college professors, editors, 
and lawyers, cringe before the same potentates : 

" O Masters of the Bread, take us to be your servant. 
. . . Give us to eat, and we will betray the people to 
you, for we must live. We will plead for you in the 
courts against the widow and the fatherless. We will 
speak and write in your praise, and with cunning words 
confound those who speak against you and your power 
and State." 
The preachers also beg of the capitalists : 

"We must have bread to eat like others. ... In 
the name of God the Father will we forbid them to claim 
the rights of brothers, and in the name of the Prince of 
Peace will we preach your law of competition." 

The cry of the women and the children is almost 
too pathetic and suggestive to repeat. And there 
is only too much truth in the picture. 

When we come to look closely at the facts, how- 
ever, things are not so bad or so dark. Not all 
great publishing-houses, for example, are dominated 



[July 16, 

by heartless Capitalism, for on the title-page of this 
vigorous plea for Socialism stands the name of the 
great house of D. Appleton & Co. The contrast 
starts a smile, and emphasizes the promise that the 
Revolution is to he bloodless. 

The treatment of the question of police and mil- 
itary force (p. 318) deserves study on the part of 
all who desire to know what wage-workers almost 
universally feel in the cities of this country. They 
regard the National Guard simply as a Capitalist 

"In 1892 the militia of five States, aided by the 
regulars, were under arms against strikers simultan- 
eously, the aggregate force of troops probably making 
a larger body than General Washington ever com- 
manded. Here surely was civil war already. . . . To 
this pass the industrial system of the United States was 
fast coming it was becoming a government of bay- 

This state of things is rightly regarded as full of 

The morality of family inheritance is absolutely 
denied, but general social inheritance is not ques- 
tioned. According to the author, the people of a 
county or state or nation may hold as their own 
goods which their ancestors toiled for, but the 
immediate children of the particular persons who 
earned this property have no claim as members of 
the family. This discrepancy seems to have escaped 
the attention of the author. He says : 

" While the moralists and the clergy solemnly justified 
the inequalities of wealth and reproved the discontent 
of the poor on the ground that those inequalities were 
justified by natural differences in ability and diligence, 
they knew all the time, and everybody knew who 
listened to them, that the foundation principle of the 
whole property system was not ability, effort, or de- 
sert of any kind whatever, but merely the accident of 
birth, than which no possible claim could more com- 
pletely mock at ethics." 

When the Revolution comes, capitalists will not be 
reimbursed for their losses; they will be glad 
enough to escape punishment for their former 

The book entitled " Woman and the Republic," 
by Helen Kendrick Johnson, is calculated to make 
summer weather in some quarters pass rapidly from 
warm to hot. A man who has for many years advo- 
cated woman suffrage almost feels the courage ooze 
out of him when he reads this woman's book accus- 
ing the universal-suffrage movement of being un- 
just, undemocratic, and all that is evil. To what 
are we coming? Chivalry is at a discount; the 
desire to be fair is not appreciated. But these 
vigorous chapters will provoke discussion. One can 
already hear the champions of " equal franchise " 
cutting the rods with which to chasten this "slave" 
who dares defend her oppressor, the tyrant man. 
Just imagine a woman, one who has studied history 
and law books, retailing such rank heresy and trea- 
son as this book contains. "The movement to 
obtain the elective franchise for woman is not in 

harmony with those through which woman and gov- 
ernment have made progress." The universal suf- 
frage has not helped, but has hindered, the anti- 
slavery movement, missions, charities, the war for 
the Union, the opening of trades and professions to 
women. Woman suffrage is at war with democratic 
principles, and is allied with monarchy, aristocracy, 
and ecclesiastical oppression. The author subjects 
to criticism the claim that woman suffrage can rest 
on the maxims " Taxation without representation is 
tyranny " and "There is no just government with- 
out the consent of the governed." The laws relating 
to property, it is claimed, have been improved by 
men far more rapidly than if women had votes. 
The influence of women on political life is great 
because it is non-partisan. The Suffrage Woman's 
Bible is declared to be so poorly edited that the 
women who gave it to the world have no claim to a 
respectful hearing on educational subjects. In rela- 
tion to religious preaching, it is said : " While the 
possibilities of her nature tend to make her supreme 
in capacity to point the way to higher regions, it 
also contains qualities that may render her pecu- 
liarly dangerous as a public leader." 

The disabilities of sex are such that women can- 
not perform the duties of a voting citizen, and there- 
fore ought not to be clothed with power to get the 
country into trouble when force is required to de- 
fend it. " To attempt to put it [the ballot] into the 
hands of those who are not physically fitted to main- 
tain the obligations that may result from any vote 
or any legislative act, is to render law a farce, and 
to betray the trust imposed upon them by the con- 
stitution they have sworn to uphold." The privi- 
leges of a voting citizen imply police, jury, and 
military duty, and it is not enough to " distribute 
tracts and hold conventions." 

In relation to the Home, the author believes that 
" the Suffrage movement strikes a blow squarely at 
the home and the marriage relation." And, to sum 
up all : 

" The greatest danger with which this land is threat- 
ened comes from the ignorant and persistent zeal of 
some of its women. They abuse the freedom under 
which they live, and to gain an impossible power would 
fain destroy the Government that alone can protect 
them. The majority of women have no sympathy with 
this movement; and in their enlightenment, and in the 
consistent wisdom of our men, lies our hope of defeating 
this unpatriotic, unintelligent, and unjustifiable assault 
upon the integrity of the American Republic." 


THE following books for school reading have lately 
been published : " Lord Chesterfield's Letters " (May- 
nard), selected by Dr. H. H. Belfield; Dr. Johnson's 
" Alexander Pope " (Harper), edited by Miss Kate 
Stephens; "Bible Readings for Schools" (American 
Book Co.), edited by Dr. N. C. Schaeffer; " Stories of 
Long Ago in a New Dress " (Heath), by Miss Grace H. 
Kupfer; and " In Brook and Bayou; or, Life in the Still 
Waters " (Appleton), by Miss Clara Kern Bayliss. 





Cicero and 
his friends. 

One is not surprised to see the name 
of a new translator on the title-page 
of " Cicero and His Friends," the 
third volume of Boissier's works, which the Putnams 
have put forth in English dress, and the change 
proves on examination to be a decided improve- 
ment. We find none of the glaring blunders in 
classical names, references to classical literature, 
Latin quotations, etc., which marred the other two 
volumes, and the thought of the original seems to 
have been reproduced with a fair degree of accuracy 
as a general thing. To the latter point, however, 
some surprising exceptions will be noticed, as the 
reversal of the sense of a passage on page 328 by 
the reproduction of a double negative, and the 
weak " all that he wills he means," page 309, for 
" tout ce qu'il veut, il le veut bien." Perhaps it is 
too much to ask a translator to correct inaccuracies 
in his original, but one who takes up such a work 
as this for translation ought to know the twenty- 
first book of Livy well enough not to let omnibus 
take the place of omnis in the words " Qucestus 
omnis patribus indecorus visus" The faults of 
this translation are irritating to the reader because 
they are faults which might easily have been re- 
moved had the translator (Adnah David Jones^ 
taken a little time for revision. A sentence here 
and there shows that he can place the word " only " 
in a fitting position, but we have counted more than 
fifty passages in which he has failed to do so. He 
splits infinitives with the barbarous glee of an 
Indian splitting skulls, and does not care enough 
for accuracy of expression even to avoid such 
bungling as " Cicero was perhaps more indebted for 
this union ... to Catiline rather than to himself." 
And yet the reader will find that the charm of 
Boissier rises above all these infelicities, and makes 
the book well worth the time necessary for its 

The "Famous Scots Series" (im- 
tn fi Sco P t r hLts. Parted by Scribner) has pretty well 

established its reputation by this 
time, so that we have now a good idea as to what 
to expect of new volumes. The last two to reach us 
that on Smollett, by Mr. Oliphant Smeaton, and 
that on Boswell, by Mr. Keith Leask are as good 
as the volumes already published. Mr. Smeaton 
gives a brisk hearty account of the great novelist, 
in a good broad style, and succeeds in keeping the 
sympathy of the reader with his rather difficult sub- 
ject. We are a little puzzled at his thinking that 
Smollett died in his fifty-second year, when he has 
given the dates of his birth and death as 17211771, 
and also at his saying that Thackeray achieved with 
rare effect " the evolution of character through the 
medium of letters." Probably, however, there are 
letters in some of Thackeray's novels, and certainly 
a year more or less in a man's age is a minor matter. 
As for Boswell, Mr. Leask rescues him from the pil- 

lory of Macaulay only to gibbet him anew. His con- 
ception of Boswell, more complete and accurate than 
Macaulay's, differs from it chiefly, we are inclined 
to think, as 1831 differs from 1897. The present 
Boswell is nearly as contemptible as Macaulay's ; he 
seems more natural to us, because some of his traits 
an exaggerated sensibility and versatility and an 
exaggerated self-importance are rather common 
to-day. Boswell seems also to have been quite 
lacking in principle and in power, so that we under- 
stand his being able to write Johnson's life no better 
after we have read his own. Both Smollett and 
Boswell are men worth writing of. But in a series 
of Famous Scots they are in curiously incongruous 
company. Taking them all in all, they were, we 
suppose, as lacking in Scotch characteristics as any 
Scots one would readily think of. 

English politic* and subject of English politics of 
the development of eight hundred years ago is not of 
the national spirit. itgel ver y interesting, yet when set 
forth to show the development of national character, 
and the danger of permanent deterioration that was 
then escaped, it takes on both interest and value. 
Professor O. H. Richardson has rewritten the his- 
tory of the middle portion of the thirteenth century 
in his monograph, " The National Movement in the 
Reign of Henry III. and its Culmination in the 
Barons' War " (Macmillan), in such a way as to 
present clearly, first, the denationalization of En- 
gland under the exactions and aggressions of the 
papacy, the swarm of foreign favorites, and the 
weak wilf ullness of the King ; then the reaction of 
these upon the national spirit in church and people, 
resulting in the rise of a strong national spirit and 
the firm establishment of the fundamental rights of 
the people. It is a thoroughly creditable piece of 
work, based on an independent study of the sources, 
yet steadied by the work of the master in this field, 
Bishop Stubbs. It is not without a spice of hero- 
worship in the sympathetic account of the great 
earl Simon, yet this is not so strong as to vitiate the 
work, while adding zest to it. It is interesting to 
note that the publication of the book is followed 
immediately by the election of its author to a pro- 
fessorship at Yale. 

From the press of Edward Arnold 
comes " The Beggars of Paris," 
written by Louis Paulian. Lady 
Herschell's name is on the outside, but she is merely 
the translator. The author turned beggar and ex- 
plored Paris. He lived by begging, and beat his 
way with delightful success. He discovered that 
begging is a lucrative profession which thrives on 
thoughtless almsgiving. One stands by a wall, rubs 
his eyes till they smart, and collects twice the wages 
of a mechanic simply by holding out his dirty cap. 
All the tricks of the trade are here exposed in de- 
tail, and the story is enlivened by anecdote. The 
records of the Bureau of Associated Charities, or 
of the Relief and Aid Society, would furnish par- 

Segging as 
a fine art. 



[July 16, 

allels for nearly every type. The social need is a 
radical treatment of the whole class ; an offer of 
work to the able-hodied, prompt arrest of every 
beggar, humane hiding from publicity in suitable 
almshouses of those whose infirmities and friendless 
condition make it impossible for them to be self- 
supporting. This lesson applies to America as well 
as to France. The story is so interesting that it is 
a good book for charity workers to circulate. 

Professor Giddings of Columbia has 
rendered no small service in prepar- 
ing, under the title " Theory of So- 
cialization" (Macmillan), a syllabus of his larger 
work on "The Principles of Sociology," already 
noticed in THE DIAL. It is a great advantage to 
have the argument outlined by the author himself, 
apart from the vast mass of material by which he 
illustrates and establishes his vital ideas. The sylla- 
bus is enriched with some new examples, and cer- 
tain propositions about appreciation, utilization, and 
characterization appear here for the first time. The 
definition of his famous phrase, " consciousness of 
kind," as now given is, " the state of consciousness 
in which a perception of resemblance, sympathy, 
and liking, and a desire for recognition, are com- 
bined." The statement of the modes of equality 
(p. 35) is very suggestive, and helps to give defi- 
niteness to a word which expresses the aspirations 
of the democracy, but is misleading and hurtful 
unless it is explained and its limits accurately and 
rationally bounded. 

The volume entitled "Thackeray's 
Haunts and Homes" ( Scribner ) 
allures in the first place by its title, 
and in the second place by the beauty of the illus- 
trations, which occupy the larger part of the space 
in the volume. The illustrator is also the author, 
and was Thackeray's personal friend, Eyre Crowe, 
A.R.A. His book consists of a sheaf of sketches 
made for the sake of preserving the outward look of 
Thackeray's habitations before the inevitable house- 
wrecker shall sweep away these literary vestiges. 
The text follows, in approximate chronological se- 
quence, the connecting links in the chain of events 
which led to the various changes of Thackeray's 
surroundings. The book is welcome both for its 
artistic and biographic value, since it brings one 
quite near to the immortal Thackeray " in his habit 
as he lived." 

The conditions 
of our Lord't 
life on Earth. 

The questions involved in a discus- 
sion of the life of Jesus while on 
earth are again in the front rank. 
Professor Mason delivered five lectures on this 
theme before the General Seminary in New York 
in 1896, on the Bishop Paddock foundation, and 
they are now published in book form by Messrs. 
Longmans, Green, & Co. Though somewhat over- 
grown with verbiage, the lectures reveal a careful 
study of the Gospels and of the literature of the topic. 
Of the five lectures, the most strikingly new in inan- 

in brief. 

ner is that on "Our Lord's Knowledge upon Earth," 
though the position is practically the same as that 
held by the most illustrious of the Church Fathers. 
While the book is modern in construction it is 
ancient in position, and adds next to nothing to our 
weapons of warfare. 

Count Lyof N. Tolstoi has crowned 
his literary works with one which, 
though a condensation of a larger 
work, should be entitled " My Gospel in Brief." 
It is a fusion of the four New Testament gospels 
into one, but into the one that the author conceives 
to be the true one. He omits " all passages relating 
to the life of John the Baptist, Christ's birth and 
genealogy, his miracles, his resurrection, and the 
references to prophesies fulfilled in his life." With 
these expunged, Christ's teaching is, according to 
Count Tolstoi, the most conventional presentment 
of metaphysics and morals, the purest and most 
complete doctrine of life, and the highest light 
which the human mind has ever reached. (Pub- 
lished by Messrs. T. Y. Crowell & Co.) 


The third of Mr. G. P. Humphrey's " American 
Colonial Tracts " is a reprint of " A State of the 
Province of Georgia, Attested upon Oath, in the Court 
of Savannah, November 10, 1740." The date of the 
original is 1742. 

The most northern paper in the world is printed at 
Godthaab, in Greenland, and is called " Lsesestof ." It 
is a missionary sheet, made for the Eskimos, and has 
been the means of teaching many of them to read the 
Danish language. 

The New Amsterdam Book Co. announce for imme- 
diate publication " Women Novelists of Queen Victoria's 
Reign," and a new revised edition of " Lady Hamilton 
and Lord Nelson," an historical biography by Mr. John 
Cordy Jeaffreson. 

Daniel Greenleaf Thompson, of New York, the 
author of " The Philosophy of Fiction in Literature " 
and other works, died at his home on the tenth of June. 
He was a lawyer by profession, and was for a term of 
years President of the Nineteenth Century Club. 

Henri Meilhac, who, both by his own unaided pen 
and in collaboration with M. Hale"vy, has contributed 
so much to the gaiety of theatre-going people, died in 
Paris on the sixth of June, at the age of sixty-five. He 
succeeded Labiche in the Academy about ten years ago. 

Mr. Edward Arnold will shortly publish Sir Harry 
Johnston's " British Central Africa," and announces 
for immediate publication Mr. Grant Allen's new book, 
" An African Millionaire." The same firm will also 
issue in sumptuous form the unique work on which Mr. 
Albert Hartshorne has been engaged so many years, 
" Old English Glasses." 

" The American Monthly Review of Reviews " is the 
new title of the popular periodical edited by Mr. Albert 
Shaw. In course of time, it will doubtless come to 
be known more briefly as " The American Monthly," 
which reminds us (obsit omen) that a magazine thus 
entitled was once published in Chicago, and came to an 




early end. We are glad that the change has been 
made, although for a time it may be found a little con- 
fusing, but the magazine in question is so different from, 
and so vast an improvement upon, its English prototype, 
that it ought to have a distinctive name of its own. 

We have received the first four numbers of " La 
Diplomatic," a new semi-monthly review published in 
Paris, and edited by M. Rene" BreViaire. Its special 
field is that of diplomatic affairs and international poli- 
tics, but it has also departments of musical and theat- 
rical affairs, of society, sport, and finance. It thus 
appeals to a considerable range of interests, and we 
have found it very readable. It is attractively printed 
and well illustrated. 

Mr. Henry Frowde of the Oxford University Press 
is about to publish for the Egypt Exploration Fund 
part of a papyrus book found at Behnesa, on the edge 
of the Libyan desert, by Mr. Bernard P. Grenfell and 
Mr. A. S. Hunt of Oxford. There will be much con- 
troversy as to the antiquity of these " Logia," but it is 
not improbable that the collection was made at the be- 
ginning of the second century, or even earlier, and the 
writing of the sentences may date from the second cen- 
tury. The sayings are detached, without context, and 
each begins with the words " Jesus saith." In addition 
to reproducing the leaf by collotype process, it has been 
decided to print a cheaper edition for a few cents so 
that the treasure may be brought within the reach of 


[The following list, containing 64 titles, includes books 
received by THE DIAL since its last issue.] 


The Royal Navy: A History from the Earliest Times to the 
Present. By William Laird Clowes. 5 vols.. profusely 
illus. in photogravure, etc. Vol. I., 4to, pp. 698, gilt top. 
Little, Brown, & Co. 

A History of Our Own Times, from 1880 to the Diamond 
Jubilee. By Justin McCarthy, M.P. Illus., 8vo, pp. 473. 
Harper & Bros. $1.75. 

The Dungeons of Old Paris : Being the Story and Romance 
of the most celebrated Prisons of the Monarchy and the 
Revolution. By Tighe Hopkins, author of " Kilniainham 
Memories." Illus., large 8vo, pp. 265, gilt top. Q. P. 
Putnam's Sons. $1.75. 


The Private Life of the Queen. By a member of the Royal 
Household. Illus., 12mo, pp. 306, gilt top, uncut edges. 
D. Appleton & Co. $1.50. 

Hannibal and the Struggle between Carthage and Rome. By 
William O'Connor Morris. Illus., 12mo, pp. 376. " Heroes 
of the Nations." G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.50. 

Bertrand de Guesclin, Constable of France : His Life and 
Times. By Enoch Vine Stoddard, A.M. Illus., 12mo, 
pp. 295, gilt top, uncut edges. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.75. 

The Blackwood Group. By Sir George Douglas. 16mo, 
pp. 158. "Famous Scots Series." Imported by Charles 
Scribner's Sons. 75 cts. 


Johnsonian Miscellanies. Arranged and edited by George 

Birkbeck Hill, D.C.L. 2 vols., large 8vo, gilt tops, uncut 

edges. Harper & Bros. In box. 
English Lyric Poetry, 15OO-17OO. With Introduction by 

Frederick Ives Carpenter. 12mo, pp. 276. Imported by 

Charles Scribner's Sons. $1.50. 
Ten Noble Poems in English Literature : Suggestions for 

Clubs and Private Readings. 18mo, pp. 48. Unity Pab'g 

Co. Paper, 25 cts. 

Book-Plates. By W. J. Hardy, F.S.A. 2d edition, illus., 
8vo, pp. 240, uncut. Imported by Charles Scribner's Sons. 

Machiavelli. The Romanes Lecture delivered in the Shel- 
donian Theatre, June 2, 1897. By John Morley, M.P. 
Large 8vo, pp. 64. Macmillan Co. 50 cts. 

Mary, Queen of Scots: A Historical Drama. By Bjorn- 
stjerne Bjornson ; from the Norwegian, by Dr. Clemens 
Peterson. 16mo, pp. 121. Chicago : Sterling Pub'g Co. 


Illustrated Standard Novels. New Volume : Snarleyyow. 
By Captain Marryat ; with introduction by David Hannay. 
Illus., 8vo, pp. 405, uncut. Macmillan Co. $1.50. 

Lost Illusions. By H. de Balzac ; trans, by Ellen Marriage, 
with preface by George Saintsbury. Illus., 8vo, pp. 385, 
gilt top, uncut edges. Macmillan Co. $1.50. 

Carlyle's Works, Centenary Edition. New Volumes : 
Oliver Cromwell's Letters and Speeches, II. and III. Illus., 
8vo, uncut. Imported by Charles Scribner's Sons. Per 
vol., $1.25. 

Turgenev's Novels. New Volume: Dream Tales, and 
Prose Poems. By Ivan Turgenev ; trans, from the Rus- 
sian by Constance Garnett. LHmo, pp. 324. Macmillan Co. 

Essayes of Michael, Lord of Montaigne. Translated by 
John Florio. Vol. III., 24mo, pp. 427, gilt top, uncut edges. 
Macmillan Co. 50 cts. 

Le Morte Darthur. By Sir Thomas Malory. Part IV., with 
frontispiece, 24mo, pp. 324, gilt top, uncut edges. Mac- 
millan Co. 45 cts. 

A Woman Killed with Kindness: A Play. By Thomas 
Heywood ; edited by A. W. Ward, Litt.D. 24mo, pp. 107, 
gilt top, uncut edges. Macmillan Co. 45 cts. 


The Martian. By George du Maurier, author of " Trilby." 
Illus. by author, 12mo, pp. 477. Harper & Bros. $1.75. 

Equality. By Edward Bellamy, author of "Looking Back- 
ward." 12mo, pp. 412. D. Appleton & Co. $1.25. 

Uncle Bernac: A Memory of the Empire. By A. Conan 
Doyle, author of " Round the Red Lamp." Illus., 12mo, 
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An American Emperor. 

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Under the general Editorship of 

University Lecturer in English, Cambridge 

University, and Editor of " The Temple 

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III. and IV. 
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numerous full - page Illustrations. 
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The Relation Between the Establish- 
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the Social Question. 

Professor in the Episcopal Theological School, 


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Author of " The Jewish Scriptures," etc. 

Cloth, 12mo, $1.50. 
The author resolves the Ancient Hebrew 
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Cloth, 12mo. (In Press.) 
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Memorials Of Christies. A Record of Art Sales from 1766 to 1896. 

By W. ROBERTS, Author of "The Bookhunter in London," etc. 

With 75 Collotype and other Illustrations, and a full Index. Two vols., royal 8vo, buckram, gilt top, pp. (Vol. I.) xxi. 
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Travels in West Africa, Congo Francais, Corisco, and Cameroons. 

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the dense forests of the most dangerous regions of 
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really a wonderful book." 

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Boston. o f valuable scientific information is packed in the ap- 

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY, NO. 66 Fifth Avenue, New York. 



[Aug. 1, 1897. 

D. Appleton & Company's New Books 

Beady in August, Hall Caine's New Novel : 


By HALL CAINE, author of " The Manxman," " The Deemster," " The Bondman," etc. Uniform edition. 

12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

This is a drama of frail human nature aspiring to perfection and struggling to attain the highest ideal. The 
story opens in the Isle of Man, but the action takes place for the most part in London, and the author's strenuous 
preparation for this book is suggested by the succession of moving and dramatic scenes from a strange and unknown 
life in the world's metropolis. His mastery of the human drama has never been shown so forcibly. The romance 
throbs with life, and the emotional force of these pictures of aspiration, temptation, love, and tragedy reaches a 
height which will make a lasting impression upon the literature of our time. 

Second Edition. 


By EDWARD BELLAMY, author of " Looking Backward," etc. 12mo, cloth, $1.25. 
" The book is so full of ideas, so replete with suggestive aspects, so rich hi quotable parts, as to form an arsenal of argu- 
ment for apostles of the new democracy. . . . The humane and thoughtful reader will lay down ' Equality ' and regard the 
world about him with a feeling akin to that with which the child of the tenement returns from his ' country week ' to the foul 
smells, the discordant noises, the incessant strife of the wonted environment. Immense changes are undoubtedly in store for 
the coming century. The industrial transformations of the world for the past hundred years seem to assure for the next 
hundred a mutation in social conditions commensurately radical. The tendency is undoubtedly toward human unity, social 
solidarity. Science will more and more make social evolution a voluntary, self- directing process on the part of man." 
SYLVESTER BAXTER, in the Review of Reviews. 


By K. WALISZBWSKI, author of " The Romance of an Em- 
press," (Catherine II. of Russia). Translated by Lady 
MART LOYD. With Portrait. Small 8vo, cloth, $2.00. 
" One of the most interesting biographies of the historical kind we 

have read for a long time. . . . Intensely interesting because absolutely 

unique." London Daily Chronicle. 

"A finished and artistic portrait of this extraordinary man. . . . 

An elaborate character sketch." London Standard. 


By F. SCHUYLER MATHEWB, author of " Familiar Flowers of 

Field and Garden," " Familiar Trees and Their Leaves," 

etc. With 130 illustrations by the author. 12mo, cloth, $1.75. 

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properly guided, and Mr. Mathews has written his book in order to set 

forth the life of the trees, bushes, flowers, insects, and birds which are 

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By JOHN HENRY COMSTOCK, Professor of Entomology in Cor- 
nell University. With illustrations by ANNA BOTSFORD 
COMSTOCK, Member of the Society of American Wood En- 
gravers. 12mo, cloth, $2.50. 

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An Inquiry into the Causes of Physical Phenomena, with 
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of the action of force on various bodies it is hoped that a new light may 
be thrown on the laws of Nature, including the causation of phenomena. 


A Historical Romance. By Dr. GEOKO EBERS, author of 
"Uarda," "Cleopatra," "Joshua," etc. Translated by 
MARY J. SAFFORD. Two vols., 16mo, cloth, $1.50 ; paper, 

The time of this strong historical romance is the period of turmoil 
which followed the death of Luther, when Protestants and Catholics 
were struggling for the mastery in Germany and the Netherlands. The 
story opens in the city of Ratisbon, where Charles V. meets Barbara 
Blomberg, and is captivated by her voice, in spite of the distractions 
caused by warring princes and burghers. Later the story changes to 
the Netherlands and pictures the stirring scenes preceding the work of 
liberation. The romance offers a series of vivid sketches of dramatic 
events which had far-reaching consequences. 


By HAMLIN GARLAND. 12mo, cloth, $1.25. 
One of the most characteristic phases of life in the West is the 
movement of its people, particularly of its young men. The latter are 
always on the road to college, to the city, to places farther west. On 
the way a woman's face often causes the young man to pause, turn, and 
perhaps remain. This motive underlies the book. On her part the 
woman finds a peculiar fascination in the passing of the stranger and 
the effect upon her life. A deeper interest still is suggested in the proem 
and elsewhere in the book. " Wayside Courtships " will be found to be a 
most significant expression of the author's strong and individual talent. 

Uniform with " Wayside Courtships." New editions of Mr. 

Garland's other books. Each, 12mo, cloth, $1.25. 
A SPOIL OF OFFICE. A Story of the Modern West. 
A MEMBER OF THE THIRD HOUSE. A Story of Political Warfare. 
JASON EDWARDS. An Average Man. 


By C. C. HOTCHKISS, author of " In Defiance of the King." 
No. 222, Town and Country Library. 12mo, cloth, $1.00 ; 
paper, 50 eta. 

The welcome given to " In Defiance of the King " proves the growth 
of American appreciation of new American writers of genuine talent. 
In this new romance of the Revolution Mr. Hotchkiss shows a power of 
sustained interest and a command of dramatic effects which will make 
his book a notable addition to our fiction. The scene of his stirring tale 
is laid for the most part in old New York during the British occupancy, 
on Long Island Sound, and on Martha's Vineyard. It is certain that no 
one who baa begun this spirited and fascinating story will leave it un- 

For sale by all Booksellers, or will be sent, postpaid, upon receipt of the price, by 

D, APPLETON & COMPANY, 72 Fifth Avenue, New York. 


Semi* fHontfjlg Journal at Ettcrarg Criticism, J9iscu00um, anfc Information. 

No. 267. 

AUGUST 1, 1897. Vol. XXIII. 




Japanese Self -Taught. Ernest W. Clement. 
Preparatory English A Teacher's Experience. 
A. J. George. 



Oscar Pierce 67 


Frederick W. Gookin 68 


Charles H. Cooper 70 

FAITH AND PHILOSOPHY. John Bascom ... 71 
Watson's The Cure of Souls. Van Dyke's The 
Gospel for an Age of Doubt. Scott's Origin and 
Development of the Nicene Theology. Harris's God 
the Creator and Lord of All. Fisher's History of 
Christian Doctrine. Evil and Evolution. Duke of 
Argyll's The Philosophy of Belief. 


English literature as affected by the French Revolu- 
tion. Revival of a forgotten work by Cooper. All 
by Mark Twain. Evolution of the stars. Buddhism 
sympathetically expounded. Latin classics in origi- 
nal manuscript. Literature of music. 






Following our custom of several years, we 
print in this and the following issue of THE 
DIAL a summary of the literary activity of the 
past twelvemonth in the principal European 
countries, based upon the invaluable series of 
special reports contributed to the " Athenaeum " 
for July 3. Thirteen countries are covered 
altogether, and we follow the alphabetical 
arrangement of our English contemporary. ' 

Professor Paul Fredericq, writing from Bel- 
gium, records a considerable achievement in 
the department of national history, noting 
many monographs and collections of import- 
ance. Among books of travel there is " En 

Congolie," by M. Edmond Picard, who went 
out to Africa to scoff and remained to pray ; 
and a posthumous volume of " Lettres de 
Voyage," by Emile de Laveleye. In literary 
criticism there is " Dante et Ses Precurseurs," 
by M. Zanardelli, and a "Discours sur le 
Renouveau au Theatre," by the M. Picard 
already named. In belles-lettres, the " original 
and extravagant " M. Emile Verhaeren has 
produced two volumes of verse, and M. Mae- 
terlinck a collection of " Douze Chansons." 
The same M. Maeterlinck has also printed 
the prose drama " Aglavaine et Selysette," 
which certainly has an enticing title. " While 
the Flemish movement agitates all Belgium 
violently in view of a law which is to place the 
Flemish language on a complete footing of 
equality with French, which has been recog- 
nized as the official language of the kingdom 
since 1830, Flemish literature does not share 
in the polemics and the agitation of French 
literature in Belgium. It is in a state of dull 
placidity." The most noteworthy Flemish pro- 
ductions are M. Cyriel Buysse's novel, " Op't 
Blauwhuis," and a few historical studies. 

Professor V. Tille's Bohemian report may 
be illustrated by the following extracts : 

" Bohemian literature during the period 1896-7 has 
not shown so much vigour as in the preceding twelve 
months, although the number of publications is still 
very large. Many collections of verse have appeared, 
but few of them rise above mediocrity. . . . One of 
the most beautiful and powerful collections of patriotic 
verse is Neruda's posthumous Friday Songs,' which 
sprang from passionate love of his country and people, 
and show anew what a mind was lost to the Bohemian 
nation by his death. ... In fiction Bohemian litera- 
ture still lacks the modern novel of character a want 
not compensated by some attempts at shorter tales of 
this class. Stories of all kinds and shades are coming 
out as numerously as poems, but the majority of them 
do not rise above the average, and many of the produc- 
tions of even older story-tellers follow the beaten path, 
without attempting to be artistic. The best of them are 
still those that delineate minutely the life of the Bo- 
hemian country people, as the subject itself secures 

Denmark, whose literary affairs are chroni- 
cled by Dr. Alfred Ipsen, has a somewhat more 
interesting story to tell. " Our sesthetic liter- 
ture appears to have reached a point where 
form has been developed to the highest perfec- 
tion, but it would also now and then seem as if 
we were at a loss for the material to fill in the 



[Aug. 1, 

form." Herr H. F. Ewald, "the Nestor of 
Danish authors," has published " Liden Kir- 
sten," a new historical novel which combines 
the romantic feeling of Ingemann with the 
more exacting scholarship of the present day. 
Mollen " (" The Mill "), by Herr Karl Gjel- 
lerup, is "a big novel of country life," and 
" Ludvigsbakke," by Herr H. Bang, shows its 
author to be possessed of " some of Charles 
Dickens's keen perception of the small things 
in character and human life." Herr K. Larsen, 
in " Uden for Rangklasserne " (" Outside the 
Upper Classes"), " sketches certain sections of 
Copenhagen life and their Copenhagen slang, 
for which he has a very sharp ear." He has 
also begun publication of an intimate history of 
the War of 1864, based upon contemporary 
letters and journals. " Herr Holger Drach- 
mann, our brilliant poet, celebrated in October 
last the completion of twenty-five years of lit- 
erary work, and received recognition from 
many quarters. From the King and the Court, 
however, he received no sign of sympathy or 
regard, owing to the unsatisfactory character of 
his domestic life. The inspired and rich quality 
of his work is a feature of our literature in these 
times of spiritual decline and mannerism. Gen- 
erally so fertile, he has not this year produced 
any new volume, but has only revised and altered 
one of his plays of earlier years." An important 
undertaking in a more serious field is the great 
subscription history of Denmark, upon which 
seven of the foremost Danish historians are 
now engaged. 

M. Joseph Reinach opens his interesting ac- 
count of the year in France with some remarks 
upon the effects of free trade in literature. 
" It is probable," he says, " that the second half 
of the nineteenth century will seem to future 
history chiefly characterized, from this special 
point of view, by the activity of the literary 
exchanges between France on the one side, and 
on the other certain foreign countries, notably 
Russia, the Scandinavian peoples, England, 
and even Germany. No one can doubt that 
Tolstoy owes much to Balzac and George Sand ; 
but Tolstoy, in his turn, has exercised a con- 
siderable influence on several of our country- 
men of to-day. Ibsen, he too, derives from 
George Sand, and above all Alexandre Dumas 
the younger. ... I am ready to believe that 
the French novel has for several years past left 
its mark on the English novel, which now attacks 
subjects before which it once recoiled." M. 
Zola, we are told by M. Reinach, is losing his 
prestige in France. " All his old disciples have 

deserted him to enter on other paths, and he is 
visibly outliving his reputation." M. Bourget, 
also, has less vogue than heretofore. " It would 
be too much to say that adultery has ceased to 
take a chief place in the French novel ; but its 
place is growing less year by year. People are 
decidedly tired of this sort of story." The one 
masterpiece of the year is the Basque story of 
" Ramountcho," by " Loti." Other works of 
fiction that have attracted much attention are 
the " Jardin Secret " of M. Prevost, the " Jean 
d'Agreve " of M. de Vogue, the " Image " of 
M. Emile Pouvillon, and the " Orme du Mail " 
of M. France. The latter book " is a succes- 
sion of sketches of administrative, ecclesiastical, 
and political life in the provinces. These 
sketches are lively, witty, and their style recalls 
at once Renan and Voltaire ; but I really must 
ask readers not to believe that all our prefects 
and all our bishops resemble the figures in 
M. France's book." As for poetry, " M. Cop- 
pee has deserted it for journalism, M. Sully- 
Prudhomme for philosophy and science. M. de 
Heredia has never written, as the world knows, 
more than one volume of sonnets ; Leconte de 
L'Isle and Banville are dead, and have left no 
heirs to their places." Two new writers of 
verse, MM. F. Gregh and Rivoire, show signs 
of promise. Literary criticism and history are 
in a flourishing condition, and are illustrated 
by many good books. The Due de Broglie has 
written on Malherbe, and M. Hallays on Beau- 
marchais, for the " Grands Ecrivains Fran- 
9ais." M. Petit de Julleville's monumental 
history of French literature is making satisfac- 
tory progress. M. V. Rossel has written an 
important book on the literary relations be- 
tween France and Germany. M. Henry Har- 
risse has left Columbus for the Abbe Prevost, 
and has brought the author of " Manon Les- 
caut " into the clear light of history. M. 
Duclaux's " Pasteur " attempts " a history of 
this great spirit, the genesis of his discoveries, 
the outcome of his struggles." The celebrated 
history of " Elle et Lui " has been revived, and 
has resulted in the publication of much new 
material concerning both George Sand and 
Alfred de Musset. " The controversy, it seems, 
is lasting long enough to provide still a theme 
of animated discussion at literary dinners. I 
am not at all clear whether it would not have 
been better to let these dead people sleep undis- 
turbed in their graves." Among the more 
solid publications of the year are M. Fouillee's 
work on " The Positivist Movement," the " Car- 
nets," written in 1863-64 by Taine (" there 




is in this small volume almost all the substance 
of the * Origines ' "), the Vicomte d'Avenel's 
researches on " Le Mecanisme de la Vie So- 
ciale," Leon Say's posthumous "Les Finances," 
M. Block's " Petit Dictionnaire Politique et 
Social," M. Perrens's "Les Libertins en France 
au XVIIme. Siecle," the tenth volume of MM. 
Lavisse and Rambaud's " Histoire de France," 
and endless books and memoirs relating to the 
First and Second Empires. This documentary 
literature includes the " Correspondance Ine- 
dite " of Merimee, the " Correspondance " of 
Victor Hugo, and the " Derniers Me moires 
des Autres," by Jules Simon. Even the real 
history of the Third Republic is " beginning to 
emerge from the farrago of occasional publica- 
tions," and is in a way summed up in the single 
volume of Challemel-Lacour's speeches, " a 
manual of philosophy from which all students 
of public affairs, whatever their country, can 
draw equal profit." 

" The imaginative literature of Germany," 
says Hofrath Robert Zimmermann, " is arrayed 
under the banners of realism and symbolism. 
Its strength lies in the drama. . . . On the 
other hand, lyric and narrative poetry is de- 
clining." The dramatic " prize juries " have 
awarded the honors of the year to Herr Haupt- 
mann and Herr von Wildenbruch. Probably 
the most important work of the year is Herr 
Hauptmann's fairy drama, " Die Versunkene 
Glocke." Here " the writer transports himself 
and his audience to the realm of fairyland ; the 
supernatural weapons, the elfs, the spirits of 
the water and the wood, who take part in the 
action, possess the same reality as the human 
beings, the bell-founder Heinrich and his 
family, with whose destiny elfs and mortals 
interfere, mingling in the play as in ' A Mid- 
summer Night's Dream.' " Other dramatic 
productions of the year are Herr Sudermann's 
three one-act pieces called " Morituri," Herr 
Fulda's " The Son of the Caliph," also a sort 
of fairy tale, with a Nietzschean Uebermensch 
for a hero, Herr Hirschfeld's " Die Mutter," 
Herr Hango's "Nausicaa," and Herr Eber- 
mann's " Die Athenerin." The two works last 
mentioned are Viennese productions, deriving 
from Grillparzer and Munch -Bellinghausen. 
In poetry, a new volume by Herr Detleff von 
Liliencron, including " Poggfred," styled by 
the author " a topsy-turvy epic in twelve can- 
tos," occupies the place of first importance. In 
this lyric-narrative work, " descriptions of na- 
ture, sketches of moor and heath, literary out- 
bursts of indignation and enthusiasm, Ariosto- 

like pictures of love, and Verestschaginesque 
pictures of battles alternate with pessimistic 
reflections, passages of mystical devotion, and 
references to the world's history." The author, 
we are told, " is deemed by his admirers the 
first lyric poet of the age," while " by many 
others he is regarded as one of the most gifted." 
The most important novel of the year is Herr 
Spielhagen's " Faustulus," a Pomeranian story, 
having for its hero " a doctor transferred from 
the over-intellectual atmosphere of a large town 
to a small one," and playing therein the parts 
of both Faust and Mephistopheles. "There 
are few novels which afford the reader such a 
feeling of a?sthetic contentment through scenic 
excellence and living characterization, of eth- 
ical satisfaction through the dramatic conse- 
quentially and impartial justice." Other works 
of fiction that have attracted considerable atten- 
tion are " Das Rathsel des Lebens," by Herr 
Heyse ; " Herbstreigen," by Herr von Saar ; 
" Die Siegerin," by Frau Clara Sudermann ; 
" Der Zauberer Cyprianus," by Herr von 
Wildenbruch ; " Friihschein," by Herr J. J. 
David; "Heimkehr," by " Ossip Schubin "; 
Schleichendes Gift," by Herr Adolf Wil- 
brandt ; " Im Chiemgau," a historical novel 
by Herr Felix Dahn ; and a narrative of old 
Ratisbon, by Dr. Georg Ebers. The historical 
literature of the year centres mainly about the 
Emperor William I., whose centenary was cele- 
brated in March. Professor Oncken's " Unser 
Heldenkaiser " is an " inspired " account of the 
career of the restorer of the Empire. Herr von 
Strautz's " Illustrirfce Kriegschronik " pictures 
the wars of 1864, 1866, and 1870. The death 
of the three great historians, Treitschke, Sybel, 
and Ernst Curtius, has given a heavy blow to 
historical scholarship. The quater-centenary 
of Melanchthon's birth has also called forth a 
considerable literature. Gottfried Keller's let- 
ters is the most important book of the year in 
the way of literary memoirs. There are several 
noteworthy books in philosophy and aesthetics, 
among them being Alfred von Berger's volume 
of critical essays, a monograph on the Greek 
philosophers by Herr Gompertz, a work on the 
esthetics of tragedy by Herr Johannes Volkelt, 
and Herr von Hartmann's " Kategorienlehre," 
which forms the tenth volume of the philoso- 
pher's collected works. "A publication at 
once original and symptomatic of the tendencies 
of thought among the present generation in the 
field of literature, and more especially of the 
pictorial arts, is the periodical " Pan," which 
is now in the second year of its existence, and 



[Aug. 1, 

may be regarded as the organ of the modern 

Greece, represented in this symposium by 
Professor Lambros, contributes few items of 
interest to the year's chronicle. " The Muses 
are no friends of Mars." Dr. Kerameus has 
published some unedited letters of the Patriarch 
Photius from manuscripts preserved at Mt. 
Athos, and Professor Lambros has printed from 
the same source the fables of George -ZEtolos, 
a Greek author of the sixteenth century. More 
important for the history of modern Greek cul- 
ture is the following announcement : 

" The chief event in literature is the beginning of a 
project due to the generosity of a rich Greek who is 
settled at Odessa, a former burgomaster of that town. 
Gregor Maraslis has undertaken to make the Greeks 
acquainted with masterpieces of the historical, philo- 
logical, archaeological, and philosophical literature of 
other countries by means of the best possible translations. 
The series will be printed at Athens, and arrangements 
provide for the appearance of a part of one hundred and 
sixty large octave pages every month; the get-up is excel- 
lent, the price very low. From another point of view 
also the collection is of interest even for foreigners, as it 
will supply the best materials for the study of modern 
Greek. Later on the yearly parts will be doubled in 
number, and the library will, in accordance with the 
founder's design, also include original works, perhaps 
even pay attention to jurisprudence and medicine." 


(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

I have already called your attention to the increasing 
popularity of the English language in educational and 
journalistic enterprises in Japan. This renewed interest 
in that well-nigh " universal language " has arisen, of 
course, from the fact that, in about two years from 
now, when the new treaties go into effect, this entire 
Empire will be thrown wide-open. In view, therefore, 
of the near approach of " mixed residence," the Japanese 
people realize the necessity of becoming familiar with 
that language which will be spoken by the largest num- 
ber of foreigners coming to, or resident in, Japan. But 
mixed residence will not impose a duty on the Japanese 
alone; it will also bring upon the foreigners the neces- 
sity of knowing more or less of the vernacular. 

This shows to us the raison d'etre of a book recently 
published, under the ambitious title of " Japanese Self- 
Taught," by Messrs. Kelly & Walsh, of Yokohama. 
The author is a European, who has become a natural- 
ized Japanese, has taken a Japanese name, and has a 
good practical knowledge of the Japanese language. 
He says in the preface: "The book is not intended for 
learned sinologues, but for persons who, while having 
only a limited time at their disposal, desire to gain some 
insight into the construction of Japanese colloquial sen- 
tences, and to familiarize themselves with words useful 
to them in their vocations without wading through an 
intricate mass of confusing grammatical rules." 

The book is not, therefore, a grammatical treatise or 

a scientific exposition of this peculiar language ; nor is 
it ungrammatical or unscientific. It is preeminently a 
practical handbook, of which one special feature is a 
collection of five hundred colloquial phrases, given in 
both the " familiar " and the " polite " styles of speech. 
This distinction is a very important one, and is also 
very difficult; but it is very carefully expressed and 
explained in these colloquial exercises. The commercial 
vocabulary is especially comprehensive and valuable. 
On the whole, the book seems to be one which will 
prove very useful to travellers and business men in giving 
a good working knowledge of the Japanese language. 
Tokyo, July 7, 1897. 


(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

After reading your interesting editorial on " The 
Teaching of English Once More," I am tempted to give 
a bit of my own experience in preparing pupils for col- 
lege in English, an experience covering fifteen years. 

When I began the work, I found that by keeping my 
eye upon the examination likely to be set it was not a 
difficult task to prepare the pupils to pass " with credit "; 
but I soon found also that this method was not devel- 
oping any literary taste or love of the study; and I con- 
cluded that it would be better to give up the study en- 
tirely than that such results should follow. From that 
time I have valued the student's disposition toward his 
work his enthusiasm and love of reading far more 
than his ability to reproduce the story of which he read. 
The former I consider a much better preparation for 
doing the English work in college. I have been con- 
firmed in this opinion by the testimony of my pupils 
and the opinion of the best teachers of English in the 
colleges, Harvard, Yale, the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology, and the smaller colleges generally. 

I do not imply by this that I make less of written 
work than formerly ; as a matter of fact, written work i& 
much more frequent; but after there has been created 
an interest in the subject this work loses its terrors and 
is done with pleasure and profit. 

Again, when properly related to written work, as a 
means and not an end, rhetoric becomes one of the most 
interesting of studies. Instead of having the pupil cor- 
rect the bad English of others, I set him to work upon 
his own. When I return his themebook with marginal 
signs indicating faults of diction or construction, he is 
required to rewrite the sentence in which such errors 
occur and to make a reference to the rhetoric where the 
error is discussed. This literary study, composition, 
and rhetoric are correlated in such a way that the pupil 
sees at once the organic relation of one to the other. 
The pleasure and profit of this work, both to teacher 
and pupil, may not admit of the test by the formal 
examination, but it is as real as life itself, and gives to 
every exercise its most enduring quality. 

The question which I would now ask is this : Is it not 
possible to order the examinations in English for en- 
trance to college so that the student may reveal some- 
thing of these essentials for college work, literary 
taste and love of the subject; ability to write clear, con- 
cise, and vigorous English, which in itself is evidence of 
a knowledge of the principles of rhetoric ? I believe 
that there are many classrooms where this is being done 
every day. A- j. GEORGE. 

High School, Newton, Mass., July 23, 1897. 






The gratification of the (to most of us) rather 
unaccountable impulse which periodically drives 
men like Sir William Martin Conway, Mr. 
MacCormick, and Mr. Whymper from the 
snug security of their " ain firesides " to the 
uttermost parts of the earth in quest of wastes 
unexplored and peaks unclimbed, is becoming 
a matter of some difficulty. To people with a 
taste for real pioneering, an up-to-date map 
offers a comparatively barren and perplexing 
prospect. The once vast areas which the old 
cartographers used to embellish with figures of 
griffins and other then not incredible monsters 
have shrunk to an insignificant stretch or two 
near the Poles. Africa is no longer a Dark 
Continent save in respect of the alleged 
" shadiness " of its stock-jobbing and land- 
grabbing operations ; and, since Nansen, people 
have already begun speaking of the North 
Pole in that tone which Jeffrey was charged 
with using toward the Equator. 

Sir William Martin Conway could hardly, 
one would think, have been beset with an em- 
barrassment of riches in the way of alluring 
fields for exploration and adventure when he 
elected to go to Spitsbergen last summer. The 
island was not inaptly described by the sport- 
ing member of Sir William's party as a land 
" botched in the making and chucked aside 
unfinished." Being the most accessible of all 
Arctic lands, Spitsbergen is the one that has 
been most frequently visited. The Gulf Stream, 
pushing its warm waters northward, melts in 
the ice-covered polar sea, an open bay extend- 
ing in summer to the 80th and sometimes even 
to the 82d parallel of north latitude. This 
bay forms a convenient avenue of approach to 
Spitsbergen, which skirts, through several de- 
grees of latitude, its eastern side. The com- 
parative accessibility of the island has marked 
it as a goal of the summer tourist. The ubi- 
quitous " trippers " are already carrying droves 
of cockneys of all nations to its ice-girt shores 
a fact that was once brought home to our 
author and his companions in a rather amusing 
way. They discovered in a particularly bleak 
and desolate spot on the coast what appeared 
to be the grave of a sailor, a lone mound 

Martin Conway, M. A., with contributions by J. W. Gregory, 
D.Sc., A. Trevor-Battye, and E. J. Qarwood. Illustrated. 
New York : Imported by Charles Scribner's Sons. 

framed in a ring of stones, and bearing the 
legend : " KAPT. VOGELGESANG. S. S. Colum- 
bia. Hamburg. D. 29, 7, 1893." Much valu- 
able sentiment was bestowed on this tumulus, 
and the fate of the apparently ill-starred 
" Vogelgesang " was duly deplored : but it was 
learned some weeks later that the monument 
was one raised to commemorate a gigantic beer- 
drinking bout or Kneipe enjoyed by a party of 
tourists who had come up in the big Hamburg- 
American liner on the date given. " Assur- 
edly," says the narrator, " the vulgarization of 
Spitsbergen has begun." 

While, however, the coasts and outlying 
islands of Spitsbergen have been pretty fre- 
quently visited and partially explored, its in- 
terior was, up to the date of Sir William's 
expedition last summer, practically unknown. 
To reveal the character of this unknown in- 
terior was the main object of his journey, the 
expense of which was partly borne by the Royal 
Geographical Society. With Sir William went 
Dr. J. W. Gregory (author of the " Great Rift 
Valley of Africa "), Mr. A. Trevor-Battye, and 
Mr. E. J. Garwood, each of whom contributes 
a special chapter to the present work. The 
results of the venture in some respects sur- 
passed, in others fell short of, expectations. 
The party crossed overland from Advent Bay 
(their base of operations) to Klok Bay, from 
Klok Bay to Sassen Bay, and from Sassen to 
Agardh Bay, on the east coast, and back to 
Advent Bay. Thirteen mountain ascents were 
made. A sketch survey of a specimen area of 
about six hundred square miles in the heart of 
the middle belt of the country was brought 
home, besides a more rapid outline chart of the 
hills bordering Wijde Bay. In addition to the 
main cross-country expedition, a subsidiary one 
was made in the little touring steamer " Ex- 
pres," chartered for the purpose, round the 
coasts of Spitsbergen. The main island was 
(the condition of the ice proving exceptionally 
favorable) nearly circumnavigated, this trip 
thus forming the most complete voyage of 
reconnaissance ever accomplished in a single 
season. Almost all the great fjords that pen- 
etrate Spitsbergen were entered to their heads. 
The west, north, and south coasts of North- 
East Land were viewed, from Cape Platen 
round to Cape Mohn. Landings were made 
at the Seven Islands, and Wiches Land (King 
Carl's Land) was closely approached. Some 
six hundred photographs of all parts of Spits- 
bergen were brought back. Such were the 
topographical results. The scientific ones, says 



[Aug. 1, 

the author, " were more important, and will be 
duly chronicled hereafter." About two months 
in all were spent at Spitsbergen, of which time 
thirty-six consecutive days were employed in 
the journey into the interior. More could have 
been accomplished had the weather been less 
persistently foggy, and had the party not been 
handicapped by their Nansen sledges. These, 
says the author, " while excellent for ice-work, 
are the worst for boggy and stony places. . . . 
Our combination of ponies with Nansen sledges 
was about the worst possible." The practical 
results of the journey were, however, as we 
have said, on the whole satisfactory ; while, 
adds Sir William, " even had we accomplished 
no exploration nor added aught to scientific 
knowledge, the journey would have been worth 
while for the mere pleasure of it." Among the 
" pleasures " may be reckoned, we presume, 
the spectacle of the vagaries of certain tourists 
found disporting themselves at Advent Bay. 
One of these especially, a gentleman who had 
come up from Trondhjen to see Herr Andree 
and his balloon, added much to the general joy. 

" His costume was most picturesque long boots, a 
long ulster, a great fur cap, a revolver slung round his 
waist, a horn over one shoulder, and a camera over the 
other. The horn, he explained, would be valuable if 
he were to be lost on the mountains whose gentlest 
sloping foot he never approached. He walked up and 
down the beach with dramatic gait, then turned towards 
the bay and solemnly fired off all the chambers of his 
revolver, after which he blew a blast on the horn. 
Then he fired off his camera in all directions, and so re- 
turned to the ship and vanished." 

Most of the tourists brought rifles with them, 
under the impression that " bears, or at least 
reindeer, herded at every point along the 
shore." Many were the narrow escapes from 
the stray shots of these " Nathaniel Winkles." 

" A bullet came close over the tent of one of my 
companions. Others whizzed near the heads of the sal- 
vage men working at the winterers' wreck. One fool- 
ish creature is said to have mistaken a photographer with 
his head under the cloth of his camera for a reindeer, 
and put a bullet through his hat. Another, when we 
were away in the little steamer on the north coast, 
stalked, and I believe fired, upon our inoffensive ponies." 

In August, while circumnavigating Spits- 
bergen in the " Expres," Sir William touched 
at Danes Island, the scene of Herr Andree's 
preparations for his proposed aerial voyage to 
the Pole. The invitation of this intrepid (some 
say rash) aeronaut to go over his balloon-house 
with him was eagerly accepted. 

". . . We were shown how the gas was made, and 
the long silk pipe meandering among the stones to con- 
vey it into the balloon. The great distended sphere 

filled the roofless wooden house and bulged out above. 
Like all balloons, when seen near at hand, it appeared 
surprisingly large. It is related of a shy curate, who 
had sat in absolute silence throughout a dinner at the 
squire's house, that with the coming of desert he sud- 
denly remarked, apropos of nothing, ' The cuckoo is a 
larger bird than you 'd suppose.' The same general 
statement I maintain to be true of balloons. They are 
all larger than you would suppose. . . . No one could 
see Andre*e and not be struck by the evident force and 
capacity of the man. In his presence, the idea that any 
wavering of intention found place in his mind was 
inconceivable. Pestered, as he had been for weeks, by 
inquisitive visitors, he seemed on the defensive, and 
suspicious of criticism in every question. He had been 
told that his scheme was in every respect impracticable. 
' They said I could not set up and inflate my balloon in 
this place. I have set it up and inflated it. They said 
it would not hold the gas for a sufficient time without 
leakage. It has now been inflated for ten days or more, 
and it does not leak. There were two little needle-point 
holes only, and those were easily mended. We have 
considered everything and provided against every acci- 
dent, and now we are certain that, whenever the right 
wind blows, we can start without a hitch. It is not 
enough for me that the wind should be from the right 
quarter. I must have a chance of decent weather, so 
that we may be able to see something. . . . There is 
always plenty of wind early in the season. Three days 
of a moderate wind, blowing approximately from the 
south, is all we need. After that the wind may blow 
how it pleases, it cannot help taking us toward some of 
the land that encircles the polar ocean. We can re- 
main afloat for three weeks, and in that time, with any 
luck, we ought to be carried down to some habitable 
country.' " 

It seems clear that good luck, no less than good 
management, is relied upon by Herr Andree to 
bring his venture to a successful issue. 

While Sir William's adventures in the frozen 
north were not, comparatively speaking, of a 
specially thrilling or novel order, the story of 
them is pleasantly told and affords a clear 
impression of a considerable specimen tract in 
the hitherto unknown interior of Spitsbergen. 
The descriptions of Arctic scenery are notably 
graphic, supplemented as they are by a profu- 
sion of excellent pictures, comprising eight 
large colored plates reproduced in facsimile 
from Mr. H. E. Conway's drawings, and about 
one hundred full-page and text illustrations 
from photographs and sketches. There are 
two maps (engraved originally for the Royal 
Geographical Society), one a sketch map of 
the mountains along the shores of Wijde Bay, 
the other a sketch map of the interior tract 
traversed by the author. The volume is a 
notable specimen of sound and elegant English 
book-making, and forms a handsome addition 
to Messrs. Scribner's Sons' creditable list of 
recent importations. E> G> j. 





The American concept of a Constitution 
differs radically and fundamentally from the 
British concept. The difference is so great 
that the ordinary student of his own system is 
constantly embarrassed in his efforts to under- 
stand the corresponding features of the trans- 
Atlantic system. The American constitution 
is established, surrounded by a protective en- 
vironment, made independent of legislative 
changes, and has an appearance of fixity. The 
British constitution seems, to an American 
versed in the principles of his own system, to 
be so variable, so transitory, and so illusive, as 
to scarcely deserve the name of " constitution." 
Yet the Briton prefers his own system, believes 
it a true " constitution," and deems the Amer- 
ican plan to be straight-laced, repressive, and 
tyrannical, and therefore less fitted than his 
own to the genius of a free people. So variant 
from each other are these two systems of gov- 
ernment, that the provisions of the one are 
scarcely " thinkable " to those immersed in the 
ideas and concepts which distinguish the other. 

It is the object of Professor Macy's treatise 
on " The English Constitution " to make its 
peculiar principles " thinkable " to the average 
American. By this means, he seeks to enable 
students in our colleges more fully to contrast 
the British institutions with our own, and thus 
to understand more clearly the features which 
distinguish the American constitution. Such a 
treatise naturally takes a popular form, which 
will commend it to the attention of a wide circle 
of readers. Very properly, the author presents 
it, not as a substitute for the treatises of English 
jurists on their own constitution, but as an 
introduction to those treatises for American 

The period of the estrangement and separa- 
tion of the American colonies from the mother- 
country was one of protracted discussion con- 
cerning the nature and character of the British 
constitution. The plan of artificial alterations 
of that constitution, to conform to modern 
views, had been proposed, only to be rejected, 
in England. With the exception of the changes 
introduced by the Bill of Rights and the Suc- 
cession Act, the development of the constitution 
of the empire was allowed to " drift." That 
changes in that constitution were imminent, 
was apparent to the colonists ; indeed, it was 

Nature and Growth. By Jesse Macy, M.A. New York: 
The Macmillan Co. 

their unalterable opposition to the changes pro- 
posed by the parliamentary party, and their 
adherence to the constitutional principles under 
which they had built up their colonial govern- 
ments, that brought upon the colonists the mil- 
itary power of England, resulting in the war of 
the Revolution and the withdrawal from the 
empire. The Atlantic-wide isolation of the 
colonies, and the extent of their reliance on the 
provisions of their charters, naturally developed 
a disposition toward written constitutions. 
Given this disposition, joined to a conservatism 
which adhered to the principles of the old con- 
stitution of the empire, given, on the other 
hand, the laissez-faire disposition in the islands 
to allow the constitution to be changed by leg- 
islation, as occasion might arise, and we have 
two distinctive theories of government, which 
in a little more than a century have developed 
into the two types of constitution, so radically 
diverse that each has its own vernacular, which 
must be studied by itself, and for a thorough 
comparison of the two there must be transla- 
tion of the terms of the one into the language 
appropriate to the other. Mr. Macy furnishes 
the key for such a translation of the principles 
of the unwritten British constitution into the 
American vernacular. 

The first part of his treatise sets forth the 
powers of the several governmental agencies of 
the British system, namely, the two houses of 
Parliament, the Crown, the Ministry, and the 
Courts, and explains the " checks and bal- 
ances " of that system. The essentials of these 
several agencies, in the constitution as now 
operative, are tersely stated, and their points of 
difference from their American correlatives are 
sharply accentuated. The "checks and bal- 
ances " which in America inhere in the written 
constitution are in England found, not in the 
law, but in what Mr. Dicey happily calls " the 
conventions of the constitution." Says Mr. 
Macy : 

" The constitution, viewed simply as a combination of 
the forces which centre in the House of Commons, con- 
sists of certain habits, customs, and understandings, in 
accordance with which the separate parts are harmonized 
and prevented from mutual encroachments." 

And how are these understandings enforced 
and these encroachments prevented ? Not by 
appeal to the courts. Following Mr. Dicey in 
his "Law of the Constitution," Mr. Macy 
explains in more condensed form the mode in 
which the English " conventions " check and 
balance. The conservatism of old political 
habits has as full sway in government as the 



[Aug. 1, 

conservatism of old fashions has in the cus- 
tomary dress of the people. He says : 

" I once tried to point out to a Birmingham Radical 
the perils of the English Constitution. He replied that 
every Englishman was at heart conservative; that this 
was as true of the laboring man as of the nobility. The 
checks which the American expects to enforce by judi- 
cial process, the Englishman expects to maintain by the 
state of mind of the citizen." 

And what is the office of the English courts ? 
Do they not enforce the principles of Magna 
Charta, and protect the liberty and rights of 
the free man ? Yes ; but not against the legis- 
lature. It is against encroachments by the 
ministerial officers that the courts set them- 
selves. The judiciary do not undertake to check 
the legislative department, as under the Amer- 
ican system. Hence there is no such vast 
growth or development of constitutional juris- 
prudence as in this country. 

How the present governmental agencies have 
been evolved out of those which distinguished 
the earlier constitution of England, is enter- 
tainingly shown by Mr. Macy. The old prin- 
ciples which were thought to be essential to that 
constitution, have been ostensibly preserved ; 
but how transformed ! The prerogative of the 
Crown, that relic of despotism, that ready 
weapon of the tyrant, that bulwark of " the 
divine right to rule," has not been abolished, 
but has been perpetuated as a power of the 
cabinet, and transmuted in their hands into the 
active agent of modern democracy. To illus- 
trate in these columns the details of the evolu- 
tion, in this and other features of the British 
constitutional system, would be to reprint here 
page after page of Mr. Macy's treatise. 

The second part of his work is a commentary 
upon the constitutional history of England. 
Here the processes of political evolution, which 
have given to the majority of the House of Com- 
mons the extensive powers of government which 
were once exercised by Tudors and Stuarts, are 
traced with sufficient detail to make them clear 
to non-British readers. The revolution is shown 
to have been more evolutionary than revolu- 
tionary, the principal change effected thereby 
having been the final rooting up and destruc- 
tion of the old pretense of a divine right to rule, 
while the Tudor and Stuart idea of a unified 
and concentrated government has been retained 
as a distinguishing feature of rule by the House 
of Commons. The genesis and the develop- 
ment of the Cabinet ; the rise of political par- 
ties ; the continuing antithesis of the " conserv- 
ative " and " liberal " party principles ; the 
respective offices of cabinet, ministry, and par- 

ties, in the work of government ; the general 
tendency toward democracy, and the increase 
of that tendency under the Reform Act, all 
these are illustrated in running commentary by 
Mr. Macy. The present English idea of a 
" Constitution " as a something fundamental in 
the government of the empire, is of modern 
origin ; and its genesis and evolution are traced 
by our author. The puzzle, the mystery, as 
that constitution appears to be to numerous 
Americans, is analysed and explained : it is 
shown to inhere largely in the conservative re- 
tention of old forms and doctrines of govern- 
ment put to new uses. The powers once exer- 
cised by tyrants are harnessed to the plough of 
modern democracy, and are made to prepare 
the fallow fields for the growth of progressive 
ideas. A stubborn conservatism adheres to old 
forms, while it fills them full of radical ideas. 
" The Queen, the Lords, and the Commons " 
profess to unite in enacting measures that work 
the will of the Commons only ; and the Com- 
mons find it easier to work their own absolute 
will by the employment of what seem to Amer- 
icans to be merely effete fictions in government. 
If, after all, the system still appears to us to be 
an anomaly, Professor Macy helps us to see 
how it happens that the anomalous can have a 
normal and useful operation. 



The history of the fine arts is everywhere, 
among civilized peoples, a record of the influ- 
ence of a succession of ideas, each in turn dom- 
inating for a longer or shorter period the char- 
acter of what is produced. As soon as an idea 
becomes commonplace it ceases to yield full 
aesthetic satisfaction to cultivated minds. In 
the search for novelty some one among the 
many seekers happens upon a conception that 
captivates popular fancy ; other artists lay hold 
of it also, work it over, develope and extend it, 
until it too becomes commonplace, and some 
new notion, or an old one resurrected, attracts 
attention instead. Time was when these move- 
ments were of sufficient duration for the forma- 
tion of schools and of styles. But with the 
increased knowledge of past achievement placed 
before us through the invention of numerous 

NEW. By Walter Crane. Illustrated. New York: The 
Macmillan Co. 




cheap reproductive processes, and the restless 
craving for constant change which is so con- 
spicuous a feature in modern life, they tend 
to become shorter and shorter and to degen- 
erate into mere passing fads ; nor is it unusual 
for more than one to be in progress at the same 

The closing decades of the nineteenth cen- 
tury have witnessed many such movements. 
Among them none is more noteworthy than 
the development of what bids fair to reach the 
dignity of a distinct school of decorative book 
illustration. The pioneer in this movement, 
and for many years almost its sole exponent, 
was Walter Crane. It seems, therefore, pecu- 
liarly fitting that a book treating u Of the Dec- 
orative Illustration of Books, Old and New " 
should come from his hand ; it is all the more 
disappointing that the result should be meagre 
and unsatisfying. Mr. Crane takes pains to 
state that his book, which owes its origin to 
three Cantor Lectures delivered by him before 
the Society of Arts in 1889, was written " in 
the intervals snatched from the absorbing work 
of designing." While this in a measure ac- 
counts for its deficiencies, it hardly explains 
why so much should be left unsaid. Instead 
of carefully tracing out the causes of the move- 
ment and following its development from year 
to year and from hand to hand, as we should 
naturally expect, he has given us merely a con- 
siderable number of pictures, accompanied by 
a collection of rather disconnected remarks 
upon illuminated manuscripts and the illustra- 
tion of early printed books ; some appreciative, 
if not always discriminating, comment on the 
work of contemporary artists ; and here and 
there a few words upon decorative principles. 
What he says is for the most part sound and 
well-considered, but it falls far short of consti- 
tuting a comprehensive survey of his subject. 
It may be noted, also, that the English is occa- 
sionally slipshod, as in the following sentence : 
" Although the designs have no Persian char- 
acter about them which one would have thought 
the poem and its imagery would naturally have 
suggested, yet they are a fine series." 

The movement now in progress Mr. Crane 
calls a " revival," but this is true in a limited 
sense only. There is a world of difference 
between the purely adventitious qualities, the 
crude simplicity and naivete resulting from 
inability to overcome technical difficulties, 
which the works of the early designers exhibit, 
and the deliberate self-restraint that distin- 
guishes the designs of the modern men. In 

spite of superficial resemblance, the difference 
is not merely one of degree or of process : it is 
a difference in kind. Imitation being much 
easier than invention, with but few exceptions 
the general tendency of graphic art in all coun- 
tries and in all times has been toward as much 
realism as the artists were able to represent. 
The earlier designers of book illustrations, 
although dominated by conventional ideas in 
regard to treatment, achieved decorative effect 
less through conscious aim in that direction 
than from inability to compass greater realism. 
Concurrently, with increased command of the 
resources of expression came a decline in per- 
ception of the higher qualities of harmonic rela- 
tion of line, mass, and light-and-dark, which are 
distinguishing characteristics of all enduring 
achievement. The reopening of our eyes to 
these fundamental qualities is directly attribu- 
table to the influence of the art of Japan the 
one country in the world where they have never 
been lost sight of, but on the contrary have 
ever been insisted upon as prime essentials. 
Perhaps the most interesting item of informa- 
tion which Mr. Crane gives is the statement 
made in speaking of his early designs for chil- 
dren's books which have made his name a 
household word on both sides of the Atlantic : 
" It was, however, the influence of some Japanese 
printed pictures given to me by a lieutenant in the navy, 
who had brought them from there [sic] as curiosities, 
which I believe, though I drew inspiration from many 
sources, gave the real impulse to that treatment in 
strong outlines, and flat tints and solid blacks, which I 
adopted with variations in books of this kind from that 
time (about 1870) onwards." 

In spite of this admission, it is apparent from 
what he says a few pages further on that Mr. 
Crane has never really learned to understand 
Japanese art nor to appreciate its higher qual- 
ities. Why this should be so, considering his 
accomplishments as a designer, it is difficult to 
comprehend. When he says that " They may 
be able to throw a spray of leaves or a bird or 
fish across a blank panel or sheet of paper, 
drawing them with such consummate skill and 
certainty that it may delude us into the belief 
that it is decorative design ; but if an artist of 
less skill essays to do the like the mistake be- 
comes obvious," it is plain that he does not 
perceive that the controlling idea in the mind 
of the Japanese artist is composition compo- 
sition of line in which each leaf or branch or 
smallest detail must be right in its harmonic 
relation to every other detail without violating 
truth of form or of structure, and composition 
of mass in which the shape and proportion of 



[Aug. 1, 

the blank spaces and the value of the contrast 
afforded by them is as much a matter for 
thoughtful consideration as any other element 
that enters into the result. If this is not deco- 
rative design, then what is it? Surely it is 
widely removed from what Mr. Crane aptly 
denominates " the art of pictorial statement." 
As if further to emphasize his misunderstand- 
ing, he reproduces as examples of Japanese 
decorative illustration a drawing (divided into 
two) by Hokusai, from the " Mangwa," a book 
of miscellaneous sketches entirely pictorial in 
their intention. It is true, as Mr. Crane says, 
that Japanese books " do not furnish fine ex- 
amples of page decoration as a rule." But, on 
the other hand, neither do English, French, 
German, or American books ; in Japan, as 
elsewhere, we must turn to the works of par- 
ticular men for that. Were Mr. Crane familiar 
with the range of Japanese book- illustration, 
he would have had no difficulty in finding ex- 
amples in which the design is arranged so as to 
fill the space completely a point he lays much 
stress upon, but which is far easier to accom- 
plish than the subtle balancing of form and 
blank space that he does not seem to appre- 

The real value of the book lies in the pictures, 
which fill nearly two- thirds of its 335 pages. 
For the most part they have been selected with 
excellent judgment, but are distributed through- 
out the text in such a manner as to make the 
book a troublesome one to read ; while their con- 
nection with the author's remarks is so slight 
that they cannot in any exact sense of the word 
be said to illustrate them. With scarcely an 
exception, however, each one is interesting for 
itself, and while some of them suffer from too 
great reduction and others from inharmonious 
setting, they are on the whole very well repro- 
duced. Taken together, they form a service- 
able collection for students of decorative illus- 
tration. While it cannot be said of the examples 
given of works by contemporary artists that 
they furnish an adequate representation of the 
aims and tendencies of the school, it is perhaps 
inevitable that a collection made up from the 
works of a considerable number of men of vary- 
ing merit should reveal the weakness inherent 
in the movement rather than its strength, to 
show which it should be limited to the best 
works of the leading men. And this is espe- 
cially true of a movement which as yet has 
been more fruitful of promise than of matured 

performance. -n, m ^ 



A book that throws light on the Eastern 
Question is always timely, for the question is 
eternal ; but the present complications in the 
peninsula give special interest and value to 
Mr. William Miller's work on Roumania, Bul- 
garia, Servia, and Montenegro. Each of the 
petty divisions is a sensitive spot, and the 
interests of no one of them can be touched 
without an instant disturbance in the others. 
There are the conflicting race feelings, first of 
Turk and Christian, then of Slav and Greek ; 
there are the mighty plans and jealousies, racial 
and commercial, of Russia and Austria, and the 
petty race and national animosities of Bulgaria 
and Servia and Greece. Anything that ex- 
plains the historical origins of these animosities, 
and lays bare their roots, has interest for the 
reading public in its inquiries into present con- 
ditions and its forecasts of the future. 

Mr. Miller's book is a collection of four brief 
outline histories of about a hundred pages each, 
written in a straightforward way without pre- 
tense and without special literary skill, cover- 
ing the whole period in each from the times of 
the Roman sway to the present day. It is not 
easy to find pleasure in the long series of brawls, 
assassinations, raids, and treacheries that make 
up most of the annals of these countries. But 
for the present interest in the relations of these 
states, few would read them whose patriotism 
did not glorify them. But the book explains 
so much in which we have an interest that it 
commends itself to students of current politics 
for its matter as well as for its impartiality. 

It is the author's belief that " the only true 
settlement of the mutually conflicting claims of 
these historic states, which periodically endan- 
ger the peace of Europe, is a Balkan Confed- 
eration, such as was sketched by the late 
M. Tricoupis." Yet he lets the facts speak 
for themselves, and hints at no method of 
bringing about this hoped-for settlement. And 
the facts, one must admit, offer little promise 
of a settlement based on any compromise of 
national claims, or of any firm union of the hos- 
tile races. There is not yet developed enough 
of political self-control or of practical political 
sense among these new nations to permit such 
a settlement or such a union for a long time to 
come. And yet, increasing familiarity with 

*THE BALKANS: Roumania, Bulgaria, Servia, and Mon- 
tenegro. By William Miller. ("Story of the Nations" 
Series. ) New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 




modern political methods and increasing pres- 
sure of financial and political conditions may 
bring about the subordination of sentimental 
considerations and the compromise of opposing 
claims sooner than might be expected. 

The individuality of these several peoples is 
brought out by Mr. Miller in an interesting way. 

" It has been truly said that the Montenegrin is the 
exact opposite of the Bulgarian. Put both in a drawing- 
room, and the Montenegrin, who has never bowed his 
neck to a foreign master, will look and behave like a 
gentleman, while the Bulgarian, but lately set free from 
the Turkish bondage, will look and behave like a boor. 
Put the two upon a waste plot of ground, and the Bul- 
garian will convert it into a garden of roses, while the 
Montenegrin will look on. This is the result of the 
national history." 

This history is Homeric, as are the political 
institutions of the people. The author quotes 
with approval Mr. Gladstone's extravagant 
utterance : " In my deliberate opinion, the 
traditions of Montenegro, now committed to 
His Highness (Prince Nicholas) as a sacred 
trust, exceed in glory those of Marathon and 
Thermopylae, and all the war-traditions of the 
world." But this Homeric glory gives less 
promise of prosperity under twentieth-century 
conditions than the common plodding virtues of 
their plebeian neighbors. Yet even the Mon- 
tenegrins are abandoning the patriarchal and 
predatory life for a constitution and trade. 

Full justice is done in this work to the states- 
manship of M. Stambuloff, but his serious 
faults are not covered. Prince Alexander is 
portrayed with enthusiastic admiration. His 
military prowess, his organization of the army 
of Bulgaria, and his social charms, made him 
" the best possible ruler of a country like Bul- 
garia in time of war ; but he was lamentably 
deficient in the arts of a statesman." And this 
was the cause of his undoing at the hands of 
Eussia, whose plans for the absolute control of 
Bulgaria his patriotism had brought to naught. 
This story of Alexander's reign and fall is the 
most spirited portion of the book. As to 
Alexander's Machiavellean successor, Mr. 
Miller is non-committal, giving a negative 
description that is much more favorable to him 
than is the current opinion. Prince Nicholas 
of Montenegro is evidently a favorite with the 
author, and King Charles of Roumania receives 
high praise for his civic and military virtues. 

The way in which Eussia has wrested one 
Balkan state after another from the Turks, only 
to turn gratitude to hostility by her domineer- 
ing and grasping policy, is one of the interesting 
points of the book. Russia's position in the 

peninsula was a few months ago hardly stronger 
than at the beginning of the century ; while 
broader statesmanship would have put her at 
the head of a group of loyal dependent states, 
and thus in virtual control of the whole pen- 


Some time since, in commenting on a group of 
religious books, we drew attention to the increasing 
force of the historical element in the interpretation 
of religion. We have occasion to renew the obser- 
vation in connection with the books now before us. 
A thorough study of doctrine, in its historical de- 
velopment, is sure to carry with it a new estimate 
of its value and its relation to human life. It is in 
the record of events that the potency and the impo- 
tency of beliefs finally declare themselves. 

To this statement we add, as an associated truth, 
the ultimate identity of faith and philosophy. A 
sound philosophy gives us the basis of faith ; and 
faith, in pushing its inquiries, encounters constantly 
the reasons for and against its conclusions found in 
the underlying philosophy. Whatever objections 
or confirmations science may offer to faith, the ulti- 
mate tribunal is that higher reason which we desig- 
nate as philosophy. Philosophy is sure to renew 
itself with every generation. It is the unfailing 
effort of the mind to understand itself of the 
reason to complete itself, returning to its own centre 
with all its stores of knowledge. This fellowship 
of faith and philosophy has always been apparent, 
and is the more apparent as the capricious elements 
involved in the supernatural are eliminated. The 
thought of faith is the strength of reason in the 
highest range of our experience the conjoint edu- 
cation of the mind and heart in apprehending and 
comprehending the spiritual world in which we are. 
Science deals with the world as physical ; philosophy 
deals with it as spiritual ; and religion works the 
results of both into the most comprehensive and 
vital experience. 

" The Cure of Souls " is a volume containing a 

*THE CURE OF SOULS. Lyman Beecher Lectures at Yale 
University. By John Watson, M.A., D.D. (Ian Maclaren). 
New York : Dodd, Mead & Co. 

Henry Van Dyke, D.D. New York : The Macmillan Co. 

Lectures, by Hugh M. Scott, D.D. Chicago: Theological 
Seminary Press. 

GOD THE CREATOR and Lord of All. By Samuel Harris, 
D.D., LL.D. Volumes I. and II. New York : Charles Scrib- 
ner's Sons. 

Fisher, D.D., LL.D. New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 

EVIL AND EVOLUTION. By the Author of "The Social 
Horizon." New York : The Macmillan Co. 

THE PHILOSOPHY OF BELIEF ; or, Law in Christian The- 
ology. By the Duke of Argyll, K.G., H.G. New York : 
Imported by Charles Scribner's Sons. 



[Aug. 1, 

course of the Lyman Beecher Lectures at Yale. 
These lectures have usually been of a sprightly 
character, growing directly out of the experience of 
some large-minded preacher, and delivered under the 
stimulus of being directed to those about to engage 
in the same form of service. They have been stim- 
ulating rather than instructive, and practical in a 
large rather than in a narrow way. The nine lec- 
tures before us are a favorable example of their 
kind. They are on such themes as " The Genesis 
of a Sermon," " Problems of Preaching," " The 
New Dogma," " The Minister's Care of Himself." 
They are full of the inner life of the speaker, are 
clear and pleasing in style, and are sustained by a 
constant and light play of the imagination. They 
cannot fail to interest all who hold in high esteem 
the work of the minister. They are the expression 
of successful service, and enter in a familiar man- 
ner into the secrets of its power. 

" The Gospel for an Age of Doubt " is also a 
volume of Yale Lectures. It does not stand for 
quite as spontaneous, free, and varied a personal 
experience as the previous volume ; but it flows none 
the less with a strong, full current, from the heart 
of the man. It is an excellent representation of 
what we are having manifold examples of an 
effort to make the words and character of Christ 
the centre of belief and persuasion. " The deep 
question, the important question, the question of 
widest interest, is what to preach to the men and 
women of to-day, to cheer them, to uplift them, to 
lead them back to faith and through faith to a brave, 
full, noble life" (page VI.). The volume has a 
finished form. The thought is quickened by a wide 
familiarity with stimulating religious literature, and 
supported by a voluminous appendix of excerpts. 
The author has spared no pains to make the lectures 
a suitable utterance of the overruling idea. They 
have a deep inspiration of faith which adapts them, 
not merely to those who preach Christ, but to all 
who believe in him. 

The volume on " The Nicene Theology " is com- 
posed of lectures given in the Princeton Theological 
Seminary by Professor Scott of Chicago Theological 
Seminary. Their purpose is to establish the essen- 
tial soundness of that Christian development of doc- 
trine which issued in the Council of Nice and the 
Nicene Creed. The discussion is especially influ- 
enced by the distinctive criticism of Schultz and 
others, separating the words of Christ from the doc- 
trinal and historical facts associated with them. 
' A recent critic of this position maintains that 
Bitschl lands in only three fundamental doctrines, 
namely, trust in God, faithfulness to duty, and uni- 
versal love to man" (page 17). The cry in the- 
ology, Back to Christ, has much the same difficulty 
as the cry in philosophy, Back to Kant. Neither of 
them is profitable as an exact direction. Both of 
them should mean a divesting of the mind of un- 
profitable subtleties, and returning to more practical 
spiritual ideas. Our wisdom lies not so much in 
going back to Christ, trying once more to construct 

the doctrinal force and exact historical settings of 
His words, as in going forward with Christ, appre- 
hending and fulfilling His regenerative purpose. 
We are to arrive at the heart of His doctrine by 
doing His will. A discussion which critically undoes 
past work in theology or critically does it over 
again is not going back to Christ as a spiritual 
power, but is a fresh casting of lots over His vest- 
ments. Christ becomes the plaything of philosophy, 
as a doll is the plaything of children who dress and 
undress it in endless sequence. Professor Scott is 
erudite, and full of material, but he does not show 
much analytic and condensing power in presenting 
his subject. The less learned pupil would be quite 
sure to lose his way in this accumulation of state- 
ment and criticism. We are at a loss to understand 
why the opinions of every German every blessed 
one of them should be regarded as a new and 
important fact to be dealt with in theology. A 
generation so superheated by scholarship yields a 
good deal of very volatile matter. 

The two volumes entitled " God the Creator and 
Lord of All " are made up of eleven hundred and 
thirty compact pages. They discuss the nature of 
God, His creation, His government, physical and 
moral. The attitude of the author is one of mild 
orthodoxy. Reason, with him, underlies the entire 
framework of thoughts and things. The basis of 
his philosophy is intuitional. The work is carefully 
elaborated, and, without being brilliant or impres- 
sive, is full of sober thought. It neither goes astray 
nor leads astray. The work is a philosophy of our 
higher spiritual conceptions. While one would not 
venture to say that these volumes are the last of 
this species, he cannot but feel that the species is 
one soon to disappear. It has already much fallen 
off since the twenty sound volumes of Gerhard. 
Like some noble form of life that frequented the 
mountains or abounded on the plains, and in its own 
era drew at once the attention, but is now hard to 
be found, the systems of systematic theology which 
have followed each other in prolific generation no 
longer express the power nor claim the position that 
once fell to them. They are too much elaborated 
from within ; they are too exact and rigid in their 
conclusions ; they give more attention to the pro- 
cesses of thought than to the ever-growing data of 
thought, and often overlook data because they have 
found no sufficient place for them. The practical 
empirical side of life is nearer to us than ever, mak- 
ing its own demand on our speculative processes. 

The " History of Christian Doctrine " belongs to 
the " International Theological Library." This 
itself is a promise of careful and adequate work, a 
promise the volume fulfils. A history of doctrine, 
like a history of philosophy, though the doctrines 
and the systems may disappear, always remains an 
intensely interesting record of human life. Such a 
history calls for keen insight and wide sympathy. 
The volume before us is comprehensive and com- 
pact. It is exceedingly full, and at the same time 
very concise. It is thus better fitted for reference, 




and less fitted to make a single and forceful impres- 
sion. It treats of ancient, mediaeval, and modern 
theology. The last division is especially complete 
and interesting. The author enters into his narra- 
tive as one of living experiences, and gives it a 
biographical cast. The personal side attracts him 
quite as much as the speculative side. Professor 
Fisher makes a distinction between theology and 
philosophy which is hardly satisfactory, and which 
affects somewhat his own presentation. " The- 
ology discusses the facts of Christianity. Philos- 
ophy begins with the data of consciousness, and 
builds them into a system by a process in which 
historical events have no place." We should hold, 
rather, that the explanatory process is essentially 
the same in theology and in philosophy. The facts 
of Christianity must be rendered on their rational 
side as the basis of doctrine, and the data of con- 
sciousness must be interpreted as the experiences of 
mind in contact with the world, or they can give no 
safe footing to thought. Neither set of data can be 
separated from their historic evolution. 

" Evil and Evolution " is a noteworthy book. It 
is a piece of well-reasoned philosophy on the origin 
of evil. The presentation is clear, comprehensive, 
and penetrating. The author justly feels that the 
central idea the idea most of all to be watched over 
in a rational construction of the spiritual world is 
the conception of the character of God, the good- 
ness of God. If we lose or obscure this, all is doubt, 
confusion, fear. The writer returns to the concep- 
tion which has been so prevalent in faith, that of a 
perverse principle a Satanic Personality as the 
source of evil ; thus relieving the character of God 
from a burden not otherwise to be escaped. The 
point is argued with much fulness and large re- 
sources of physical knowledge. It is not made to 
rest on Christian faith or any phase of faith. The 
volume is one fitted to deeply interest those whose 
minds linger about such inquiries. It is in many 
ways suggestive, and is a good antidote to a dog- 
matic and flippant temper. Its conclusions are, 
however, so directly against the entire drift of 
speculative thought at present, that it will hardly 
do more than make a ripple. While there are many 
points of which one would desire to speak, we must 
satisfy ourselves with referring to two or three. 
The author, in common with a good many others, 
seems to us to misrender the omnipotence of God. 
Omnipotence can only mean the power to do what 
is capable of being done. It looks to physical re- 
sources. Omnipotence cannot make one scheme of 
action to include the advantages of all schemes, nor 
enable it to escape the evils incident to it. A scheme 
is to be judged by its entire makeup of tendencies. 
These are not capable of every combination, but 
only of certain combinations. The question con- 
cerning the Spiritual Universe is not whether it 
includes evil, but whether, taken as one whole, it is 
an inadmissible combination of good and evil. The 
evil must in every case be weighed with the good with 
which it is associated. The author would not deny 

this assertion, but he has not felt its full force. Nor 
does the writer feel, as fully as he ought, the present 
entire coherence of the spiritual world, rendering 
any intervention of Satan, any conflict between the 
two Principles of Evil and Good, inadmissible. The 
world is being rid of evil, but by exactly the same 
processes as those which include it. The author 
makes too much of happiness as happiness. He is 
in the empirical slough on that subject. Selfishness 
and love extend down to the vegetable kingdom. 
His new adjustments would primarily make the 
world more pleasurable, not more spiritually power- 
ful ; would give it an instinctive and organic cast, 
not a free and holy one. The dramatic power of 
the spiritual world is not adequately rendered by 

" The Philosophy of Belief " is the most imposing 
volume of our present series. It stands associated 
with and in completion of " The Reign of Law " 
and " The Unity of Nature " by the same author. 
The characteristic of all three books is their vigorous 
hold of the physical world on the one hand, and of 
the spiritual world on the other. Very few authors 
pursue so unswerving a path between science and 
faith ; few so well apprehend the unity of the world as 
a physical and spiritual product. The present vol- 
ume lays emphasis on the spiritual side of life, dis- 
closes it as thoroughly interwoven in the framework 
of things, and as immutable in its leading principles 
as are the physical laws with which it is associated. 
The spiritual world is as much a part of the entire 
world as are the atmosphere and sunlight and clouds 
of the earth they enclose. The topics of the volume 
are intuitive theology in which the interlock of 
perceptive and intuitive truths is traced, the the- 
ology of the Hebrews and Christian theology in 
which spiritual principles find fullest expression, 
and Christian belief in its relation to philosophy. 
The style of the author is voluminous and discur- 
sive, but the thought is easily intelligible, and gains 
great cumulative power. To those who at all share 
the convictions of the writer, the unmistakable and 
eternal foundations of truth seem to be disclosed. 
He thus defines the purpose of philosophy : 

" But we must never forget that the original meaning 
of the word denotes no less than the love and desire of 
knowledge in that largest sense which is identified with 
the pursuit of Wisdom. It represents the constant 
struggle and desire of men to bring their own thoughts 
and conceptions more and more into conscious corre- 
spondence with the system of the universe in which they 
live. There can be no higher aim than this. It affords 
room for the exercise of all the most powerful faculties 
we possess. It is an aim which not only must include 
theology, but must regard it as the central and ultimate 
object of attainment. If there be a universe at all, the 
great endeavor of philosophy must be to conceive how 
its unity can be made intelligible, and on the other 
hand to understand how it is that, in some aspects, it so 
often appears as if it were divided." 
Philosophy and religion both rest on the intelligi- 
bility pervasive and complete of the world in 
which we are. JOHN BASCOM. 



[Aug. 1, 


lish literature Professor Edward Dowden's Prince- 
a* affected by the ton lectures upon " The French Revo- 
French Revolution. lution and English Literature" have 
been published in a neat volume (Scribner), and 
make interesting reading, although they traverse 
exceedingly familiar ground, and bring to their sub- 
ject in the way of illumination little that is new. 
In this respect they are something of a disappoint- 
ment ; for we have a right to expect much of Pro- 
fessor Dowden in the way of interpretative comment 
and philosophical treatment. We get, however, 
little of these things, but instead a straightforward 
history of revolutionary thought in England, begin- 
ning with the precursors and theorists of the move- 
ment, with Cowper and the author of " Sandf ord 
and Merton," with Godwin and Mary Wollstone- 
craft, going on with the conservative reaction so 
eloquently championed by Burke, and finally dis- 
cussing the effect of the new ideas upon Burns, 
Southey, Coleridge, Wordsworth, Shelley, and 
Landor. The subject is of so intense an inherent 
interest that a dull book could hardly be made of it, 
and nothing akin to dulness may be predicated of 
the book before us. It is simply sober rather than 
brilliant, although it now and then, in some epi- 
grammatic sentence, almost partakes of the latter 
quality. It is pleasant to be told of eighteenth 
century sentimentalism that " the first of duties was 
no longer to act aright, but to be touched by a deli- 
cate distress." Likewise there is point in saying 
that " the gospel of Rousseau is translated by Cow- 
per into the gospel according to St. Paul," and in 
the statement that " whether Burke help us to under- 
stand the Revolution or not, assuredly the Revolu- 
tion should help us to understand Burke." Here is 
a very judicial estimate of Byron : " To acquire a 
right feeling for Byron and his poetry is a discipline 
in equity. It is easy to yield to a sense of his power, 
to the force and sweep of his genius ; it is easy to be 
repelled by his superficial insincerity, his license, his 
cynicism, his poverty of thought, his looseness of 
construction, his carelessness in execution." And 
there is food for ample reflection in such a passage 
as the following, which contrasts the Eastern heroes 
and heroines of Byron once so very much alive 
and now so completely dead with certain popular 
figures in recent works of fiction, such as Robert 
Elsmere and Dodo. " Perhaps Nora Helmer and 
Hedda Gabler may by and by repose in the old 
marionette box, and the wires by which their limbs 
are convulsed may have grown rusty ; perhaps the 
sawdust already escapes from a clerical garb that 
was so fresh a few years since ; perhaps a sprightly 
heroine of two or three seasons ago is no longer so 
atrociously sprightly." There is little in the main 
line of Professor Dowden's thought that will not 
find general critical acceptance, but we are some- 
what surprised to find him saying that " Shelley, 
unlike Wordsworth, and unlike Coleridge, was defi- 
cient in the power of original thought." Can one 

be so sure of that, when we consider how rare a 
thing " original thought " must always be? Strictly 
speaking, is there so very much of it in Wordsworth 
and Coleridge? And is it fair to say that Shelley 
does not produce the impression of a forceful 
thinker (setting aside as practically insoluble the 
question of originality) in almost as marked a de- 
gree as either of the others? He was less than 
thirty when he died, to be sure, while the others 
lived on into the time of ripeness, and this fact alone 
makes the comparison a trifle unfair ; but the real 
difficulty seems to be that some people find exact 
thought incompatible with melodious utterance. 
One gift should be enough for a poet, and the poet 
who presumes to think should remain rugged in his 
utterance. The same preconception has, in our own 
day, discredited the intellectual force of Mr. Swin- 
burne, and given rise to the curious notion that 
Browning was a more profound and exact thinker 
than Tennyson. _ 

Buddhism A- voluntary association of gentlemen 

sympathetically interested in the study of religions 
expounded. invited Professor Rhys Davids to 

deliver a series of lectures upon Buddhism, which 
have been printed in a neat volume of 230 pages, 
under the title, " Buddhism, Its History and Liter- 
ature" (Putnam). The keynote of the exposition 
is a thorough sympathy with the Buddhistic explana- 
tion of the universe and Buddha's panacea for all 
its woes. This fact, coupled with Professor Davids's 
ample and exact knowledge of his field, makes the 
contents of the book interesting and profitable read- 
ing. The treatment is somewhat too brief to be 
altogether satisfactory who could present Chris- 
tianity adequately in two hundred pages? But the 
writer has succeeded in putting forth with clearness 
and force his own conception of the salient features 
of this fascinating religious system. He is an 
advocate of the originality of Buddha in his psy- 
chological and ethical positions, and contrasts the 
traditionalism of the rest of the world, which is still 
bound in the fetters of the primitive " soul " theory. 
Of course, one does not look for criticism of Bud- 
dhism in these lectures, though they are, so far, it 
would seem, defective. How anyone can trace the 
history of Buddhism without a critical estimate of 
its defects is hard to understand. But Professor 
Davids successfully accomplishes even this. He is 
an optimist with respect to both the past and the 
future of Buddhism. 

Cooper is at his best in out-of-door 
stories. When, in an ill-advised hour, 
jje set himself to berating the Amer- 
ican people for their imperfections as judged by 
European standards, he was repaid with the outcry 
of disturbed complacency, an outcry which might be 
to-day translated, without losing force, into a crit- 
ical dictum against these damnatory works as litera- 
ture. Similar treatment has been accorded "Martin 
Chuzzlewit," and might well be extended to Mr. Kip- 
ling's " American Notes," both of which sketches of 

Revival of a 
forgotten work 
by Cooper. 




American life lack that essential part of truth which 
lies in observing facts in their due proportion. And 
so some persons may question whether, after all, 
the reprinting of the " Autobiography of a Pocket- 
Handkerchief " (The Golden Booke Press, Evans- 
ton, 111.) is worth while. Certainly Mr. Walter Lee 
Brown has done his full duty in his laborious foot- 
notes of the variant readings found in the three 
printed forms of 1843 ; and corrected by compari- 
son with the original manuscript, fortunately at 
hand. It is evident from these foot-notes that 
Cooper was more painstaking in his revision than 
he is usually given credit for. It appears, however, 
that the first half of this volume was more carefully 
re-read than the somewhat slovenly and hurried 
remainder. One asks if there was a " period of 
French influence " in American letters at this time, 
for the characters affect French terms in their con- 
versation, and even the descriptive passages are be- 
spattered with French phrases. Yet the story is 
distinctly better than many amateur compositions 
or similar subjects, and, as the publishers say in 
their advertisement, here is an opportunity to com- 
plete your set of Cooper an opportunity never 
before offered by an American publisher. It is but 
just to add that the book is made attractive enough 
in appearance, and handsome enough in its heavy 
paper, to open the purse of any bibliophile suscep- 
tible to such blandishment. 

All by 
Mark Twain. 

The eight pieces in Mark Twain's 
"How to Tell a Story, and other 
Essays " (Harper) may be classified 
as follows : Two are professional recollections of a 
professional humorist ; two are appropriations, by 
the same humorist, of material which the literary 
critic has commonly thought of as his own property ; 
one is a seizing of that inestimable privilege of the 
humorist, the utterance of true wisdom ; one is a 
collection of material for the Society for the Pro- 
motion of Psychical Research ; two are subversions 
of the opinions of M. Paul Bourget and Mr. Max 
O'Rell. Of these, " Travelling with a Reformer " 
has long been sealed with the seal of universal ap- 
proval : the essay is a good thing, and a service to 
the American people. It is also very funny in 
places, as, indeed, are the other essays, though 
why " essays " it would be hard to say. The two 
rambles of the professional humorist are of course 
humorous, but they have so much professionalism 
about them as to be a trifle wearisome, at least to 
such as like to have a little spontaneity in life. The 
two invasions of literary territory, " In Defence of 
Harriet Shelley " and an indictment of James Feni- 
more Cooper, will suffer, we fear, from being found 
in company with the " Jumping Frog " and the 
" Golden Arm." They will not generally be regarded 
as contributions to critical literature, although the 
first, we think, holds the right ground, and the 
second says some very sensible things. The articles 
on Paul Bourget 's book throw light on what is 
already the most ancient of history, that of the day 

before yesterday. The examples of mental tele- 
pathy should be filed away for future reference and 
further information on the subject. Such are the 
separate parts of a book which is all by Mark Twain, 
a matter far more important than the particular 
facts just communicated. We hope that the author 
will soon offer us a companion volume entitled " How 
to Write an Essay, and other Stories." 

of the stars. 

Under the title, " Researches on the 
Evolution of Stellar Systems " (Nich- 
ols Press, Lynn, Mass.), Professor 
T. J. J. See, of the Lowell Astronomical Observa- 
tory, presents a compilation of researches valuable 
to the student of physical astronomy, but not to be 
recommended to the layman for seaside reading. 
Prefacing with a general account of double-star 
investigations " from Herschel to Burnham," and 
an acute mathematical discussion of the methods by 
which delicate observations are translated into de- 
lineations or orbits, Professor See has collated the 
observations, wherever made, upon forty binary 
stars, and presents the diagrams of their orbits. In 
each case, a star in the remote heavens, found to be 
separable into components only by telescopes of the 
finest definition when used by eyes of the acutest 
perception, has been by various persons separately 
observed, and the relative distances of the com- 
panion from its central sun have been determined, 
as well as its corresponding angular positions. 
These data, duly discussed and accurately platted, 
show that the companion moves in a planetary orbit 
about a masterful central body, and that the laws 
of gravitation, as discovered by Newton and form- 
ulated by Kepler, are dominant at those remote 
distances in the celestial universe as certainly as 
where the moon cycles its monthly circuit about the 
earth, and the planets weave their annual tracery 
upon the Zodiac. Conclusions of this sort produce 
the prof oundest impression upon the unprofessional 


Professor Harold W. Johnston, of 
the University of Indiana, has done 
a very timely service to the cause of 
classical study by the preparation of a volume on 
"Latin Manuscripts" (Scott, Foresman & Co.). 
It is true that the pupils in our secondary schools, 
and even in our colleges, can come into contact 
with Latin literature only in printed editions, but 
many questions arise in the minds of such pupils as 
to the production and transmission of Latin books, 
and it is well that the answers to such questions 
should be put into accessible form. The subject is 
treated under three heads, the History of the Man- 
uscripts, the Science of Palaeography, and the 
Science of Criticism. The book is copiously illus- 
trated by reproductions of pages from famous 
manuscripts, among them the " Codex Romanus " 
of Catullus, which had lain hidden from the learned 
world under a mistaken classification in the Vatican 
Library, and was brought to light during the past 
year by Professor Hale of the University of Chi- 

Latin classict 
in original 



[Aug. 1, 

cago. Perhaps the book would have been im- 
proved if a larger number of the critical processes 
described had been illustrated by concrete ex- 
amples ; but it is sufficiently plain to serve a good 
purpose in the hands of Latin teachers, and no such 
teacher should be without it unless he is provided 
with something more extensive in the same line. 

of mutic. 

Although music was the first of the 
arts to possess a special dictionary 
of its own, no classification of the 
works most useful to the student in the principal 
departments of musical literature has been in ex- 
istence. This want has now been supplied by Mr. 
James E. Matthew in his work on " The Literature 
of Music " (Armstrong). The first five chapters 
of this work trace the principal objects with which 
musical literature occupied itself in the different 
countries of Europe down to the end of the eigh- 
teenth century. The remaining six chapters con- 
sider some of the special branches into which it has 
been directed, under the headings : Histories of 
Music, Dictionaries of Music, The Literature of 
Sacred Music, The Literature of the Opera, The 
Literature of Musical Instruments, The Literature 
of Music as a Science. Thus an inquirer in any 
one of these fields is furnished with an admirable 
guide showing how and where to go for the books 
which are of special interest and up-to-date, as well 
as those which are notable either for their curiosity, 
their scarceness, or for the important influence they 
have exercised in a past age. 


The average buyer and reader of books, even when 
he imagines himself an ardent " book-lover," is too apt 
to be ignorant of the proper methods of handling and 
caring for his volumes. He will handle a book as he 
does his newspaper, and care for it as he might for a 
brick or a block of wood. In an attempt to dispel some 
of this ignorance, Mr. Arthur L. Humphreys, a member 
of the great London bookselling firm of " Hatchards," 
has written an excellent little volume entitled " The 
Private Library What we Do Know, What we Do n't 
Know, What we Ought to Know, about our Books " 
(London: Strange ways & Sons). In addition to much 
sound practical advice on the care and treatment of 
books, the arrangement of libraries, etc., Mr. Hum- 
phreys writes pleasantly on many such subjects as " Book 
Values," " The Art of Reading," " Old Country Libra- 
ries," " Book Hobbies," etc. In print, paper, and bind- 
ing, the volume should please the most fastidious. 

In " Cuba in War Time " (R. H. Russell), Mr. Richard 
Harding Davis expresses his contempt for the numerous 
" Cuban war-correspondents " so-called, who, while pop- 
ularly supposed to be in the midst of the fray on the 
island, are in reality turning out their " copy " from the 
security of Florida hotel piazzas. There are rumors 
afloat that Mr. Davis's own war sketches, contained in 
the present volume, were produced in this way ; but we 
think any impartial reader of his book will readily 
acquit him of the charge. Although nothing more than 

a collection of newspaper sketches, Mr. Davis's book is 
graphic and interesting, and from it may be gained a 
very good idea of the present condition of affairs on the 
ill-fated island. Mr. Frederic Remington, who accom- 
panied Mr. Davis on his trip to Cuba, contributes a 
number of illustrations to the volume, which, with a 
few exceptions, are sensational and poorly- drawn. 

In " The Aurora Borealis " (Appleton), M. Alfred 
Angot, of the Central Meteorological Office of France, 
gives a concise resume of the history of these always 
interesting and often strikingly beautiful phenomena, 
illusive and evanescent meteors of the upper air. Facts 
are stated and illustrated and explanatory theories are 
discussed. With most modern physicists, the author 
prefers that which recognizes in the aurora a mani- 
festation of electric energy, active in the upper atmos- 
phere and most frequently in polar latitudes, but ad- 
mits that much remains in this field to be explained or 
discovered. The volume closes with a list of all re- 
corded auroras since 1700. 

Mr. J. N. Lamed, editor of the successful " History 
for Ready Reference " and Public Librarian of Buffalo, 
has printed "A Talk about Books" (Peter Paul Book 
Co.) originally addressed to a body of high school stu- 
dents. It is pleasantly written and contains much sound 
and sensible advice about reading. It may be warmly 
recommended to the attention of young persons and their 
parents, being the same sort of thing, in spirit if not in 
eloquence, as Mr. Frederic Harrison's " The Choice of 
Books " and Mr. Ruskin's lecture " On King's Treas- 

Rev. Jenkin Lloyd Jones, who some years ago pub- 
lished a pamphlet entitled "Ten Great Novels," the 
outcome of correspondence with a number of critical 
readers, has now sought to obtain a similar consensus of 
opinion in the field of poetry. " Ten Noble Poems " is 
the title of the pamphlet now issued, and it contains 
lists and explanatory letters from sixty-seven corre- 
spondents. The poems were to be measured by " the 
test of poetic form, ethical insight, and spiritual inspira- 
tion." Wordsworth's " Intimations " gets the largest 
vote, followed by " In Memoriam," " Saul," and Gray's 
"Elegy." No less than two hundred and thirty-eight 
poems are named altogether. The pamphlet makes very 
interesting reading. 

Professor Ralph S. Tarr publishes, through the 
Macmillan Co., a " First Book of Physical Geography," 
a treatise for still younger students than those for whom 
the author's " Elementary Physical Geography " was 
designed. This is the third text-book produced recently 
by Professor Tarr, and has the admirable qualities of 
clearness and strictly scientific method that characterize 
its predecessors. The illustrations are numerous and 
attractive, helping out the text in a highly satisfactory 

The Literary Year-Book " (Dodd), edited for 1897 
by Mr. F. G. Aflalo, is a venture of a new sort, and 
must be judged leniently. Its contents consist of liter- 
ary causeries, alternating with portraits and biographical 
sketches of writers who have recently come to the fore. 
This reading-matter is distinctly readable, although any- 
thing but profound. The reference features of the book 
include a literary calendar for the year, lists of public 
libraries and literary clubs in England, and very useful 
(although far from complete) directories of British 
authors, publishers, and booksellers. Altogether it is a 
useful compendium and one to be recommended to 
bookmen of all sorts. 





Mr. E. W. Porter, of St. Paul, publishes a pretty text 
of FitzGerald's " Omar," with the various readings of 
the four editions. 

Messrs. Ginn & Co. publish an " Elementary Arith- 
metic," by Mr. William W. Speer, Assistant Superin- 
tendent of the Chicago public schools. 

Two new volumes in the " Centenary " edition of Car- 
lyle have just been published by Messrs. Charles Scrib- 
ner's Sons. They are two of the four which will contain 
the complete " Cromwell." 

It is said that Professor W. I. Knapp's long-expected 
life of George Borrow will be ready for publication in 
the Autumn. Dr. Knapp is probably the most learned 
of living Borrovians, and has traced the wanderings of 
his scholar-gypsy all over Spain. 

The doctoral dissertation of Miss Ellen C. Hinsdale, 
daughter of Professor B. A. Hinsdale of Ann Arbor, is 
entitled: " Ueber die Wiedergabe der Lateinischen 
Futurums bei den Althochdeutschen Uebersetzern des 
8.-10. Jahrhunderts." It is printed at Gottingen, at 
which university Miss Hinsdale took her degree. 

The Macmillan Co. have sent us Volume III. of 
Montaigne and Volume IV. of the " Morte d' Arthur " 
in their "Temple Classics," Heywood's "A Woman 
Killed with Kindness " in their " Temple Dramatists," 
" Lost Illusions " in their edition of Balzac, " Snarley- 
yow " in their collection of standard English novels, and 
" Dream Tales " in their edition of the novels of Tour- 

The death of Mrs. Oliphant last month has been fol- 
lowed by the death, on July 20, of Miss Jean Ingelow, 
a woman whose poetical reputation was once consider- 
able, but seems to have declined of recent years, although 
a few of her pieces are still among the most generally 
familiar in the English language. Her several novels 
once had a considerable vogue but are now almost 
wholly forgotten. 

Several scholars in Japan are now making a special 
study of Dante. Among them is the Rev. Masahisa 
Uyemura, who is said to have under contemplation the 
composition of an essay on the great Italian poet. A 
society under the title of " Danate Kenkyukwai," an 
association for studying Dante's writings, is likely to be 
organized by the admirers of the poet. These interest- 
ing facts are furnished by the " Japan Times." 

It is with great pleasure that we note the unanimity 
with which all the periodicals that stand for an enlight- 
ened civilization have expressed their condemnation of 
the President's appointment of a new Librarian of Con- 
gress. Instead of selecting a professional librarian for 
this important post (assuming that Mr. Spofford was to 
be displaced) a politician with no qualification whatever 
for the work is chosen, presumably at the dictation of 
some local " boss." We did not expect that President 
McKinley would deal civil service reform such a slap in 
the face as this, and his protestations of friendship for 
the movement must hereafter be taken subject to a 
considerable discount. 

We are glad to state that the new tariff law of the 
United States, objectionable as it is in many of its fea- 
tures, does not embody the crowning atrocity of a tax 
upon all kinds of books. The provisions of the old law 
are substantially retained, leaving untaxed all books for 
public institutions, all books printed in foreign lan- 
guages, and all English books more than twenty years 

old. Even such a Congress as that now in office found 
itself unable to ignore the unanimous protest made by 
all who represent intelligent public opinion when the 
Dingley tax upon education was first bruited, and in this 
matter, at least, the law has not taken a step backward. 
The shameful tax upon art, however, has been made a 
part of the law, and refutes any idea that our latest 
tariff-makers could have had the interests of civilization 
really at heart. 

" The Century " for September will make the follow- 
ing announcement: 

" With the aim of encouraging literary activity among col- 
lege graduates, ' The Century Magazine ' offers to give, during 
four successive years, three prizes of $250, open to persons 
who receive the degree of Bachelor of Arts in any college or 
university in the United States during the commencement 
seasons of 1897, 1898, 1899, and 1900. 

" 1st, for the best metrical writing of not fewer than fifty 
lines. 2d, lor the best essay in the field of biography, history, 
or literary criticism, of not fewer than four thousand or more 
than eight thousand words. 3d, for the best story of not fewer 
than four thousand or more than eight thousand words. 

" On or before June 1st of the year succeeding graduation, 
competitors must submit type-written manuscript to the editor 
of ' The Century Magazine,' marked, outside and inside, ' For 
the College Competition,' signed by a pen-name, and accom- 
panied by the name and address of the author in a separate 
sealed envelope, which will not be opened until the decision 
has been made. It is to be understood that the article sub- 
mitted has not been previously published. The editor, at his 
discretion, may withhold the award in any class in case no 
manuscript is thought worthy of the prize. ' The Century 
Magazine ' reserves the right to print the prize manuscripts 
without further payments, the copyright to revert to the au- 
thors three months after the date of publication." 


August, 1897. 

Alaska Trip, The. John Mnir. Century, 

Balkans, Problem of the. C. H. Cooper. Dial. 

Bird Artists. Frank H. Sweet. Lippincott. 

Burroughs, John. H. W. Mabie. Century. 

Constitution, Evolution of a. James O. Pierce. Dial. 

Continental Literature, A Year of. Dial. 

Criticism, The Pause in, and After. W. R. Thayer. Atlan. 

Delinquent, The, in Art and Literature. . Fern. Atlantic. 

Faith and Philosophy. John Bascom. Dial. 

Forests, American. John Mnir. Atlantic. 

Hudson River, The. Clarence Cook. Century. 

Hungarian Millennium, The. F. Hopkinson Smith. Ilarper. 

Illustration, Decorative. Frederick W. Qookin. Dial. 

Inauguration, The. R. H. Davis. Ilarper. 

Inexact, Charm of the. Charles C. Abbott. Lippincott. 

Java. Eliza R. Scidmore. Century. 

Kansas Community, A Typical. W. A. White. Atlantic. 

Lind, Jenny, and America. Fanny M. Smith. Century. 

Lind, Jenny, Characteristics of. Henri Appy. Century. 

Margate. Elizabeth R. Pennell. Century. 

Marine Hospital Service, The. Joanna Nicholls. Lippincott. 

Massachusetts Shoe Town, A. A. F. Sanborn. Atlantic. 

Negro People, Strivings of the. W. E. B. Du Bois. Atlantic. 

Norway. H. E. Scudder and H. H. Boyesen. Century. 

Physics, Century's Progress in. H. S. Williams. Harper. 

Rainier, Mount, Impressions of. I. C. Russell. Scribner. 

Singing. Gertrude E. Wall. Lippincott. 

Spitsbergen, Across and around. Dial. 

Street Names, Our. William W. Crane. Lippincott. 

Swift, Dean, Unpubh'shed Letters of. Q. B. Hill. Atlantic. 

Thessaly, A Journey in. T. D. Goodell. Century. 

War Department, Controversies in. J. M. Schofield. Century. 

Woman Collegian, The. Helen W. Moody. Scribner. 

Workers, The. Walter A, Wyckoff. Scribner, 



[Aug. 1, 


[The following list, containing 47 titles, includes books 
received by THE DIAL since its last issue,] 


Social England : A Record of the Progress of the People. By 
various writers ; edited by H. D. Traill, D.C.L. Vol. VI., 
From the Battle of Waterloo to the General Election of 
1885. 8vo, uncut, pp. 700. Q. P. Putnam's Sons. $3.50. 

A Short History of Mediaeval Europe. By Oliver J. 
Thatcher, Ph.D. 12mo, pp. 309. " Chautauqua Reading 
Circle Literature." Flood & Vincent. $1. 

Roman Life in Pliny's Time. By Maurice Pellison : trans, 
from the French by Maud Wilkinson ; with Introduction 
by Frank Justus Miller. Illus., I'-'mo, pp. 315. "Chau- 
tauqua Reading Circle Literature." Flood & Vincent. $1. 

Journals of John Lincklaen, Agent of the Holland Land 
Company, 1791-1792. With biographical Sketch and Notes. 
8vo, uncut, pp. 162. 6. P. Putnam's Sons. $2.50. 

The Gladwin Manuscripts. With Introduction and Sketch 
of the Conspiracy of Pontiac. By Charles Moore. Large 
8vo, pp. 90. Lansing, Mich.: Robt. Smith Ptg. Co. Paper. 


Peter the Great. By K. Waliszewski; trans, from the 
French by Lady Mary Loyd. With portrait, 8vo, gilt top, 
uncut, pp. 562. D. Appleton & Co. $2. 

The People for whom Shakespeare Wrote. By Charles 

Dudley Warner. Illus., IGnio, pp. 187. Harper & Bros. 

The Novels of Charles Dickens : A Bibliography and 

Sketch. By Frederic 6. Kittou. _ With portrait, 16mo, 

uncut, pp. 245. " Book-Lover's Library." A. C. Arm- 
strong & Son. $1.25. 
Authors and Publishers: A Manual of Suggestions for 

Beginners in Literature. By 6. H. P. and J. B. B. 

Seventh edition, rewritten, with additional material. 

12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 292. 6. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.75. 
More " Copy " : A Second Series of Essays from an Editor's 

Drawer. By Hugh Miller Thompson, D.D. 12mo, pp. 244. 

Thomas Whittaker. $1. 

Spenser's The Faerie Queene. Edited from the original 

editions by Kate M. Warren. Book I.; 18mo, pp. 243. 

Macmillan Co. 50 cts. 


Selections from the Poems of Timothy Otis Paine. 16mo, 
pp. 89, gilt top, uncut edges. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.25. 


In Simpkinsville: Character Tales. By Ruth McEnery 

Stuart. Illus., 12mo, pp. 244. Harper & Bros. $1.25. 
Muriella; or, Le Selve. By Louise de la Ramie (Ouidat. 

Illus., 12mo, pp. 240. L. C. Page & Co. $1.25. 
The Half-Caste: An old Governess's Tale. By the author 

of "John Halifax, Gentleman." Illus., 12mo, uncut, 

pp. 238. Thomas Whittaker. $1. 
Nulma : An Anglo- Australian Romance. By Mia. Campbell- 

Praed. 12mo, pp. 291. D. Appleton & Co. $1. 
The Professor's Dilemma. By Annette Lucile Noble. 

12mo, pp. 316. G. P. Putnam's Son's. $1. 
Their Marriage Bond. By Albert Ross. 12mo, pp. 288. 

G. W. Dillingham Co. $1. 
" Odd Folks." By Opie Read. 12mo, pp. 207. F. Tennyson 

Neely. $1. 
The Evolution of Dodd's Sister: A Tragedy of Everyday 

Life. By Charlotte Whitney Eastman. 12mo, gilt top, 

pp. 230. Rand, McNally & Co. 75 cts. 
An Expectant Heir to Millions. By Charles Macknight 

Sain. 12mo, pp. 241. New York : Robert Lewis Weed Co. 

75 cts. 


Band, McNally & Co.'s Globe Library. Danesbnry House. 
By Mrs. Henry Wood. 12mo, pp. 294. 25 cts. 


Lectures on Ecclesiastical History, Delivered in Norwich 
Cathedral. With Preface by the Dean of Norwich. 12mo, 
gilt top, pp. 502, Thomas Whittaker. $2.25. 

Bases of Religious Belief, Historic and Ideal. An Outline 
of Religious Study. By Charles Mellen Tyler, A.M. 12mo, 
pp. 272, uncut. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.50. 

The Growing Revelation. By Amory H. Bradford, author 
of "Spirit and Life." 12mo,pp. 254. Macmillan Co. $1.50. 

Evolution and Religion, or Faith as a Part of a Complete 
Cosmic System. By John Bascom, author of " The New 
Theology." 12mo, pp. 205. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.25. 

The Baptism of Roger Williams. By Henry M. King. 
16mo, pp. 145. Providence : Preston & Rounds Co. $1 net. 

Shall We Continue in Sin? Addresses by Rev. Arthur P. 
Piersen, D.D. 16mo, pp. 122, gilt top. Baker & Taylor Co. 
75 cts. 

Reconsiderations and Reinforcements. By James Morris 
Whiton, Ph.D. 16mo, uncut, pp. 149. Thomas Whit- 
taker. 50 cents. 

Mischievous Goodness, and Other Papers. By Charles A. 
Berry, D.D. 16mo, uncut, pp. 144. Thomas Whittaker. 
50 cts. 


Imperial Germany : A Critical Study of Fact and Character. 
By Sidney Whitman, F. R. G. S. Illus.. 12mo, pp. 330. 
" Chautauqua Reading Circle Literature." Flood & Vin- 
cent. $1. 

The Social Spirit in America. By C. R. Henderson. 12mo, 

pp. 350. " Chautauqua Reading Circle Literature." Flood 

& Vincent. $1. 
Daniel Raymond: An Early Chapter in the History of 

Economic Theory in the United States. By Charles 

Patrick Neill, A.M. 8vo, uncut, pp. 63. " Johns Hopkins 

University Studies." Paper, 50 cts. 


Philosophy of Ancient India. By Richard Garbe. 16mo, 
pp. 89. Open Court Pub'g Co. 50 cts. 


Roman and Mediaeval Art. By W- H. Goodyear, M.A. 
Revised and enlarged edition ; illus., 12mo, pp. 307. 
" Chantuaqua Reading Circle Literature." Flood & Vin- 
cent. $1. 


Eye Spy : Afield with Nature among Flowers and Animate 
Things. By William Hamilton Gibson. Illus., 8vo, pp. 
264. Harper & Bros. $2.50. 

The Story of the Rbinegold (Der Ring des Nibelungen). 

Told for young people. By Anna Alice Chapin. Illus., 

12mo, pp. 138. Harper & Bros. $1.25. 
The Life of Victoria, Queen and Empress. Simply told 

for children. By Mrs. L. Valentine. Illus., large 8vo, 

pp. 94. Frederick Warne & Co. 50 cts. 
The Making of a School Girl. By Evelyn Sharp. 16mo, 

uncut, pp. 114. "Bodley Booklets." John Lane. Paper, 

35 cts. 


Some Observations of a Foster Parent. By John Charles 

Tarver, author of " Gustavo Flaubert." 12mo, pp. 282, 

uncut. Macmillan Co. $1.75. 
The Student's American History- By D. H. Montgomery, 

author of " Leading Facts of History." With maps, 

12mo, pp. 576. Ginn & Co. $1.55. 
First Book of Physical Geography. By Ralph S. Tarr, B.S. 

Illus., 16mo, pp. 368. Macmillan Co. $1.10. 
The Public School Arithmetic. Based on McLellan and 

Dewey's " Psychology of Number." By J. A. McLellan, 

A.M., and A. F. Ames, A.B. 12mo, pp. 346. Macmillan 

Co. 60 cts. 
Elementary Arithmetic. By William W. Speer. 12mo, 

pp. 314. Ginn & Co. 55 cts. 
Short Stories from English History. Edited by Albert 

F. Blaisdell. Illus., 16mo, pp. 191. Ginn & Co. 50 cts. 
Fifth Book of Xenophon's Anabasis. Edited by Alfred 

G. Rolfe. 18mo, pp. 115. "School Classics." Ginn & Co. 
45 cts. 


The Monist: A Quarterly Magazine. Vol. VII.; large 8vo, 
pp. 640. Chicago : Open Court Pub'g Co. 




H WILLIAMS, No. 25 East Tenth Street, New York. 

MAGAZINES, and other Periodicals. Sets, volumes, or single numbers. 

FOR OBTAINING 100 QUESTIONS upon any play of Shakespeare, 
with or without answers, address Mrs. ANNA RANDALL-DIBHL, 

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STORY- WRITERS, Biographers, Historians, Poets Do 

^ ^ -~ you desire the honest criticism of your 
book, or its skilled revision and correction, or advice as to publication ? 
Such work, said George William Curtis, is " done as it should be by The 
Easy Chair's friend and fellow laborer in letters, Dr. Titus M. Coan." 
Terms by agreement. Send for circular D, or forward your book or MS. 
to the New York Bureau of Revision, 70 Fifth Ave., New York. 

l\J VY /A. Complete CivU) Political, and Military History of the 
County from earliest period to 1896. Sketches of Pioneer Life, Biog- 
raphy, Late War, etc. 12mo, cloth, pp. 360, Albia, 1896 (Pub. at $2.00). 
Will send a copy prepaid for 65 cts. Address A. J. CRAWFORD, 
Send for Catalogue. 312 N. 7th Street, ST. Louis, Mo. 


" You have gleaned and put together, in very readable shape, a world 
of facts touching your own and surrounding counties. The work is a 
marked and decided advance upon the general run of county histories. 
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embalming their memories." CHAS. ALDRICH, Curator and Secretary. 

The Standard Blank Books. 

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Other Styles to suit all Hands. Gold Medals at Paris Exposition, 
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Corner Clark and Adams Streets, - - CHICAGO. 








On the crest of the Alleghany Mountains, enjoy a Delightful 

Bummer Climate. 

OLD POINT COMFORT (Fortress Monroe, Va.) and VIRGINIA 
BEACH are the Most Popular Seaside Resorts on the Atlantic Coast. 
Summer Board in the Mountains, $5.00 a Week and upward. 
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During the Tennessee Centennial and International 
Exposition at Nashville, Tenn., a low-rate special tariff 
has been established for the sale of tickets from 
Cincinnati and other terminal points on the Queen & 
Crescent Route. 

Tickets are on sale daily until further notice to Chat- 
tanooga at $6.75 one way, or $7.20 round trip from 
Cincinnati, the round trip tickets being good seven days 
to return; other tickets, with longer return limit, at 
$9.90 and it $13.60 for the round trip. 

These rrtes enable the public to visit Nashville and 
other Southern points at rates never before offered. 
Vestibuledtrains of the finest class are at the disposal 
of the pasenger, affording a most pleasant trip, and 
enabling oie to visit the very interesting scenery and 
important >attle-grounds in and about Chattanooga, 
Lookout Muntain and Chickamauga National Military 
Park. Tiotets to Nashville to visit the Centennial can 
be re-purchsed at Chattanooga for $3.40 round trip. 
Ask your teket agent for tickets via Cincinnati and the 
Q. & C. Rute South, or write to 

General Passenger Agent, Cincinnati, O. 




Is tbe title of an illustrated 
book descriptive of T{esorts 
in Colorado reached via tbe 
where a vacation may be 
pleasantly spent. 

Address C. *A. Higgins, 
A. G. P. A., A. T. & S. F. 
Ky, Chicago, for a free copy. 

Summer tourist rates now 
in effect from the East to 

/wf J 

Tueblo, Colorado Springs, 
Manitou, and Denver. The 
way to go is via tbe 




[Aug. 1, 1897. 

Robert Lewis Weed Company. 






embossed in silver, 241 pp., 75 cents. 
Mr. Sain has written a novel filled with original situafr 
dialogue. His hero and heroine, in their endeavor to p 
relative, and at the same time please themselves, beccxn 
a network of comical adventures. Mr. Sain is a mas:e 
elaborating a well-conceived plot. 


Novelettes and short stories. By MARIE ED 
12mo, cloth, embossed, 341 pp., $1.00. 
After perusing the above volume, one must admit t 
produced a new author of undoubted ability and drama 


embossed in gold, 215 pp., 75 cents. 
In this thoroughly interesting novel the reader is not 
being called upon to thoughtfully consider one of the gr 
of the day, until the last page is turned, so successfully hi 
entertained him. 



12mo, cloth, 

ons and bright 
ease a wealthy 
e entangled in 
r in the art of 



tt Canada has 
c power. 

.2mo, cloth, 

ware that he is 
itest problems 
i the authoress 


A Magazine designed to repro- 
duce, in convenient form, 
and at a low price, the more im- 
portant pamphlets relating to the 
History of the American Colonies 
before 1776, that have hitherto 
been inaccessible, by reason of 
their scarcity and high price. 
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or yearly subscriptions, $3.00. 
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The Johns Hopkins Univt 



y be 




^Announcements of tbe Grad 
Medical, and Collegiate Courst 
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trations by HENRY SANDHAM, R.C.A. Bound in cloth, 
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" Mr. Stimson's work is, in many ways, one of the best of its kind 
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[Aug. 16, 1897. 



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THE DIAL, 315 Wabash Ave., Chicago. 

No. 268. AUGUST 16, 1897. Vol. XXIII. 




Frederick Starr 86 


Maulsby 88 


Martin L. JfOoge 89 


E. Sparks 90 

DnBois's The Suppression of the Slave Trade. 
Harding's The Contest over the Ratification of the 
Federal Constitution in Massachusetts. Houston's 
A Study of Nullification in South Carolina. Dal- 
linger's Nominations for Elective Offices in the U. S. 
Chadsey's The Struggle between President Johnson 
and Congress over Reconstruction. Arnold's His- 
tory of the Tobacco Industry in Virginia. Janes's 
Samuell Gorton. 

RECENT FICTION. William Morton Payne ... 91 
Du Manner's The Martian. Snaith's Fierceheart 
the Soldier. Doyle's Uncle Bernac. Dawson's Mid- 
dle Greyness. Dawson's Mere Sentiment. Mason's 
The Philanderers. Stephens's Mr. Peters. Parker's 
The Pomp of the Lavilettes. Parker's A Romany 
of the Snows. Tracy's An American Emperor. 
McDonald's A Princess and a Woman. Stockton's 
A Story-Teller's Pack. 


Historical sketches of the ' ' dark and bloody ground . ' ' 

A Yankee skipper in the Crimean war. Marriage 
questions in literature. The original materials of 
American history. Early critical work of Mr. Gosse. 

A converted pagan of the third century. Memo- 
ries of Hawthorne. Monographs on French history. 

The history of British India. 





Mr. H. M. S. van Wickevoort Crommelin, 
in summarizing the literary activity of the 
twelvemonth in Holland, remarks that " some 
of our younger novelists are more struck by the 
problems which life offers than by their influ- 
ence on man. They attempt to analyze doubt, 
dejection, hereditary crime ; they show the wan- 
ing influence of moral and religious principles, 
and the great mass of superficial thinkers, of 
which the reading public largely consists, revels 
in this very modern work, which is recom- 
mended by its agreeable form." He instances 
in support of this thesis such books as Mr. 
Adema's " Wormstekigen," Miss Lohman's 
" Vragensmolde," Mr. van Doorne's "Twij- 
fel," and Mr. Coenen's " Een Zwakke." This 
last work, the gloomy and depressing tale of a 
cowardly suicide, is said to be " the last word 
of realism." To the question, " Will romanti- 
cism revive ? " the writer replies : " I have to 
chronicle two novels and one dramatic poem 
which are all but romantic." In " Drogon," by 
Mr. van Schendel, " we meet with the man who 
scorns worldly power, and whose ideal is to find 
the ' Ring of Jesus.' The wisdom this ring 
carries with it he hopes to impart to mankind." 
In " Irmenlo," by Mr. van Oordt, " the conflict 
between heathenism and Christendom in the 
Middle Ages is treated with singular dramatic 
power." The poem referred to is " Lioba," by 
Mr. van Eeden. The author " has with this 
work captivated once more the hearts of his 
countrymen. It marks a considerable advance 
in his artistic development, being much more 
truly poetical and less philosophical than his 
recent works. The influence of the great mas- 
ters, of Swinburne and Shakespeare, is unmis- 
takable ; the descriptions of nature are equal 
to those of our best modern poets, and in many 
parts the writer surpasses our great seventeenth 
century poet Vondel, of whom he often reminds 
us." On the whole, Dutch poetry keeps rather 
ahead of Flemish, and " the literary regenera- 
tion in the north has been followed by no equal 
movement on the part of our southern neigh- 
bors." Other works of fiction are " Jeanne Col- 



[Aug. 16, 

lette," described as " a big anti-Semitic novel 
in two volumes," by Mr. Willem Paap; and 
" Metamorfose," a " dissection of a modern nov- 
elist," by Mr. Couperus, " whose delicate writ- 
ing is one of the features of to-day." The most 
important of learned works are Dr. van Deven- 
ter's " Hellenic Studies," and Professor Mul- 
ler's " Onze Gouden Eeuw " of Dutch history. 

Herr Leopold Katscher's article on Hungary 
begins with a long list of publications called 
forth by the millennial celebration. These 
include Mr. Szilagyi's " Millennial History of 
Hungary," Mr. Beothy's histories of Hungarian 
literature, Mr. Laurencic's " The Mellennium 
of Hungary and the National Exhibition," and 
Mr. Ferencczi's life of Petbfi. In fiction, Mr. 
Jokai has been silent, but Mr. Herczeg has pub- 
lished two volumes, " Szabolcs' Marriage," and 
" The First Swallow." There are also the " Sep- 
tember" of Mr. Ambrus, "our bitterest scep- 
tic," and books by Mr. Szomahazy, " one of the 
best among our lighter storytellers," Mr. Brody, 
"our leading realist," and Mr. Timar, "a 
young and able writer." As for poetry, Mr. 
Endrbdi's " Kurucz Songs " come first. " None 
of our poetry since Petbf i's has appealed to our 
patriotism with such force and perfection as this 
splendid production." There are young poets 
in Hungary as elsewhere, and among them are 
mentioned Baron Nikolics de Rudna, Mr. Fer- 
encz Martos, and Mr. Emil Makai. The most 
popular play of the year has been a translation 
of " Trilby " ! Scholarly publications include a 
history of Italian Literature by Mr. Antal 
Rado, a collection of essays by Mr. Diner- 
Denes, and an " Old Hungarian Library " of 
critical annotated texts, started under the edi- 
torship of Professor Gustav Heinrich. 

Signer Giuseppe Giacosa, writing of Italy, 
says that during the year " most of our greatest 
writers have either produced little or nothing, 
or published works not of a purely literary char- 
acter." Despite this fact, however, the article 
proves to be of considerable interest, and tempts 
to fuller illustration than we have space here 
to give. " In poetry, the influence of Carducci 
and d'Annunzio is less marked than formerly. 
Nor, notwithstanding the vogue of the French 
and Belgium symbolists, has the lily of mystical 
aspiration hitherto flourished among us. Faith- 
ful in this respect to its traditions, the lyric 
poetry of Italy has no affinity for the occult." 
Among volumes of new poetry may be men- 
tioned Signer Vitali's sonnets on the " Epopea 
del Risorgimento," Signer Rossi's " Ore Cam- 
pestri," and the "Nuovi Versi" of the late 

Contessa Lara. A very recent small volume 
of verse entitled " Madre," by Signer Cena, 
impels the writer to hail a new poet, and to say : 
" For some years past I have read no verses of 
such pure and continuous inspiration." 

" The novel is developing in two different directions 
under the influence of two powerful minds. D'Annun- 
zio has founded a school ; Fogazzaro has inspired, not 
disciples, but followers. The formal qualities of the 
first are, in part at least, of a kind easily acquired, while 
the intense inward fevour of the second attracts to him 
none but spirits already kindled. Both are idealists : 
Fogazzaro through his passion for the ideal, d'Annun- 
zio through the habit of idealization. Fogazzaro contem- 
plates life in its reality and complexity ; there is no 
person too insignificant, no action too trifling for him to 
regard it as material for art ; yet there breathes through- 
out every one of his writings a vivid transcendentalism, 
indicating that he yearns and strives after an unseen 
world after some supersensual good, D'Annunzio 
thinks nothing worthy of artistic treatment but himself, 
and himself not in as far as he resembles the rest of 
humanity, but in those points wherein he differs from 
them. By dint of collecting and refining with wonderful 
mastery his own sensations, and making of them, as it 
were, the pivot of the universe, he has attained to an 
idealized sensuality, a wantonness of the intellect, in 
which he places the quintessence of life and the nobility 
of human nature, as shown by his .recognizing in those 
so endowed the right of ruling over other men. D'An- 
nunzio will take a permanent place in our literary his- 
tory, but his literary influence will have benefited those 
only who admire him without wishing to take him as a 
model. It is a good thing to have noted in his verse and 
in his prose the capacity of the Italian language for 
renewed and genuine freshness and for the most inti- 
mate actuality, but only so far as it encourages every 
one to carry on for himself the task of linguistic puri- 
fication, seeking for himself at first hand, guided by his 
own inclinations and his own aims." 

The new works of fiction chiefly noted are " La 
Morte di Orfeo " and " Roberta," by Signor 
Zuccoli; " L'Incantesimo," by Signor Butti; 
" La Signorina X. di X," a philosophical novel 
published anonymously ; " La Prova," by Sig- 
nora di Luanto ; and " L'Arauleto," by the 
writer who signs herself " Neera." The " most 
interesting book of the year " is stated to be 
" L' Europa Giovane," by Signor Ferrero, the 
sociologist. In this book " he collects the im- 
pressions and observations gathered on a jour- 
ney through Europe, and especially during his 
stay at Berlin, London, and Moscow. Though 
not fond of diffuse word-painting, which, on 
the contrary, he avoids as far as possible, his 
delineation of things, actions, and people is clear 
and definite. Ferrero possesses in an eminent 
degree the artistic faculty of seizing on salient 
points, of marshalling them in brief and effec- 
tive sentences, and of embodying them in vivid 
images." Other works of a serious character 
are a continuation of the facsimile reproduc- 




tion of Leonardo da Vinci's " Codex Atlanti- 
cus "; Dr. Ridella's " Una Sventura Postuma 
di Giacomo Leopardi," clearing the poet's 
memory from the calumnies of Ranieri ; the 
two volumes of the work entitled "Per Antonio 
llosmini nel Primo Centenario dalla Sua Nas- 
cita "; and Signor Negri's " Meditazioni Vaga- 
bonde," a volume of religio-philosophical es- 
says, which " treat metaphysics pretty much as 
Eenan treated the character of Christ." 

The Norwegian " books of the year " have, 
of course, been Dr. Nansen's account of his 
Arctic expedition and Dr. Ibsen's " John 
Gabriel Borkman." Herr C. Brinchmann, who 
is our annalist, takes these two books as too 
well known to need any description. Herr 
Bjornson has published nothing, but Herr Lie 
has produced " Dyre Rein," and Herr Garborg 
" Laeraren," both of these works being dis- 
tinctly problem-novels. Other fiction includes 
Herr Obstfelder's "Korset," Herr Krag's 
Ada Wilde," Herr Kinck's Sus," and Herr 
Tryggve Andersen's " I Kancelliraaden's 
Dage," " a grand historical novel." The re- 
mainder of this article is devoted chiefly to 
Dr. Bing's " Tider og Idealer," a treatise on 
French ideals in painting and literature ; a new 
edition of Wergeland, edited by his latest 
champion, Herr Naerup ; a new translation of 
Snorre Storlasson, the work of Professor Storm ; 
and a monograph on " Helge-Digtene i den 
^Eldre Edda," by Professor Sophus Bugge. 
" Following his revolutionary, and hence much- 
impugned, opinions on the origin of the Norse 
myths, he has also in this instance employed 
his vast learning to place the very core and 
centre of Northern heroic myths among the 
settlements of the Norsemen, surrounded by 
Kelts and Anglo-Saxons, in the British Isles." 

Contemporary Polish literature, for most 
readers outside of Poland, is summed up in the 
one name of Henryk Sienkiewicz. This name, 
however, does not occur in Professor Adam 
Belcikowski's summary of the year, but we have 
instead the unfamiliar names of Mr. Boleslaw 
Prus, author of "The Pharaoh," Mr. Przy- 
borowski, author of " The Knight Mora," Mr. 
Choinski, author of " The Last Romans," Mr. 
Gawalewicz, author of " Belonging to Nobody," 
and a long list of other writers with other works 
of fiction. The remainder of the paper is little 
more than a catalogue of the more noteworthy 
books of poetry, drama, history, and biography. 

The annals of literary Russia are told at 
great length by Mr. L. A. de Bogdanovitch, 
who mentions few names of which English 

readers have ever heard. Most contemporary 
literature in Russia sees the light in the monthly 
reviews, on account of the special conditions of 
the book-market and the risks involved in any 
more permanent form of publication. Among 
the few actual books described are the follow- 
ing : " The Russian Novel and Russian So- 
ciety," by Mr. K. Golovin ; some extremely 
pessimistic " Thoughts on the Essential Points 
of Public Activity," by Professor Kareieff ; 
and the " splendid " biography of A. S. Kho- 
miakoff, the theologian, by Mr. V. N. Lias- 
kovsky. Various novels, published as serials 
in the reviews, are discussed in the closing half 
of the paper. 

Spain is the last country in the "Athenaeum " 
list, since Sweden is for some unexplained rea- 
son ignored, and works in history and other 
departments of serious scholarship form, as in 
past years, the substance of the report. Don 
Rafael Altamira writes the article, and singles 
out the following three historical works as being 
of the greatest importance : The " History of 
the Social Institutions of Gothic Spain," by 
D. Eduardo Perez Pujol ; " The Despatches of 
the Pontificial Diplomatists in Spain," by D. 
Ricardo de Hinojosa ; and the second volume 
of the " Spanish Navy from the Union of the 
Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon," by Senor 
Fernandez Duro. Two works of great interest 
to the student of literature are thus described : 

" Senor Perez Pastor's ' Documentos Cervantinos 
hasta ahora IneMitos' contains more than fifty docu- 
ments, notes, various facsimiles, and an index of proper 
names. Some of the documents refer to the private 
life of Cervantes and his family, in particular his 
daughter, and others to the writings of the immortal 
author, from ' Don Quixote ' to ' Persiles and Sigis- 
munda.' All of them throw fresh light upon the biog- 
raphy of Cervantes and the bibliography of his writings, 
and although the critics may perhaps find matter for 
dispute in the significance and interpretation of some of 
the documents, there can be no doubt, generally speak- 
ing, of their historical value. . . . Quite as important 
as the volume of SeHor Pastor is that of Don Ramdn 
Mene*ndez Pidal, ' La Leyenda de los Infantes de Lara.' 
The writer studies this famous legend in the chansons de 
geste, in the ancient chronicles, in histories and ballads, 
in the drama, in modern poetry, finally in the folk-lore 
of to-day, paying special attention to the philological 
and critical examination of ancient documents." 

Senor Cotarelo's " D. Enrique de Villena : du 
Vida y Obras " and Senor Yxart's " El Arte 
Escenico en Espana " are two critical works of 
value. In fiction, the chief items chronicled 
are D. Juan Valera's " Genio y Figura," Senor 
Galdos's " Misericordia," and Senor Una- 
muno's "Paz en la Guerra," a story of the 
Carlist struggle in the north of Spain. 



[Aug. 16, 



" When the first edition of Katzel's VolJcer- 
Jcunde was published in 1885-8, it at once took 
its position as a guide book to the study of 
Man and Civilization." So says Mr. Tylor in 
his introduction to the translation of that work, 
which appears in English under the name " The 
History of Mankind." This translation is made 
by Mr. A. J. Butler, from the second German 
edition. The later edition differs somewhat in 
arrangement from the earlier, and is more con- 
densed, being in two volumes instead of three. 
Mr. Tylor's commendation is none too high ; 
every student is under real obligation to Pro- 
fessor Ratzel for his work. 

" The History of Mankind " is really a man- 
ual of general ethnography. It is a descrip- 
tion of peoples : a study not only of their phys- 
ical characters, but also and even more fully 
of their life and institutions. In many of 
his positions the author is a conservative. He 
emphasizes somewhat strongly the common 
humanity of all races, and minimizes racial dif- 
ferences. He appears to attribute much of phys- 
ical racial difference to difference in form of 
culture. He seems to consider all races capable 
of easily acquiring civilization if they are placed 
within reach of civilized life. In fact, he says : 
" The introduction of the so-called lower races into 
the circle of the higher civilization, and the overthrow 
of the barriers which once were raised high against such 
introduction, is not only a brilliant feat of humanity but 
at the same time an event of the deepest scientific inter- 
est. For the first time, millions of what was considered the 
lowest race the blacks have had all the ad vantages, all 
the rights and duties, of the highest civilization thrown 
open to them; nothing prevents them from employing 
all the means of self -formation which and herein lies 
the anthropological interest of the process will neces- 
sarily be transformation. If we could say to-day with 
approximate certainty what will become in the course of 
generations of the 12,000,000 of negro slaves who have 
within the last thirty years been freed in America, and 
who will, in the enjoyment of freedom and the most 
modern acquisitions of culture, have multiplied to 
100,000,000, we could with certainty answer the ques- 
tion as to the effect of culture upon race distinctions." 

And before the ink is dry on the page, Hoff- 
man's book appears, giving a searching analy- 
sis the first adequate study so far of the 
race traits and tendencies of the American 
negro. There are not to-day even 12,000,000 

*THB HISTORY OF MANKIND. By Friedrich Ratzel. 
Translated by A. J. Butler, with Introduction by E. B. Tylor. 
In two volumes. New York : The Macmillan Co. 

of them; there never will be 100,000,000. 
They are not being hopefully affected by our 
civilization, and it looks as if their last state 
might be worse than their first. As for the 
distant future what is their outlook ? Is it 
not extinction ? And why ? Because they are 
negroes, and race traits are terribly strong. 
Ratzel's position is always one of happy optim- 
ism, curiously blind to the reality and pro- 
fundity of race unlikeness. Of course all men 
are human ; of course human brains everywhere 
and always are capable of great achievement. 
We believe that the apparently simple inven- 
tions of early man were as great victories of the 
intellect as are our complex inventions of to-day. 
But to give a white man's civilization to the negro, 
and to have him assimilate it, is no easy task. 
Many generations of time and constant action of 
many influences changing the whole man phy- 
sical, mental, moral are necessary. And dur- 
ing the experiment the lower race is like to die. 
Ratzel's work as it now appears is handsomely 
printed and illustrated. The illustrations are 
chiefly portraits of peoples made from direct 
photographs and pictures of museum speci- 
mens ; while not always exactly fitting the text, 
they are interesting and instructive. There are 
nine colored plates, which show groups of na- 
tives, habitations, or carefully arranged masses 
of their art products. The work is divided into 
" books," of which the first and part of the 
second are contained in the first volume. 
Book I. in 144 pages, presents the " Principles 
of Ethnography." In thirteen chapters it 
sketches the field and makes a comparative 
study of human achievements and institutions. 
How civilization rises and spreads, and some of 
the elements of culture, are discussed. This 
book issued separately would make a good text 
in ethnography for class use. It shows, as no 
other book in our language, the value of ethno- 
graphic specimens and the mode of using them 
in study. The author believes in migration of 
arts and borrowing between tribes. Two sets 
of opinions are urged at present in this matter. 
The one claims that the finding of a given art 
or object, just the same among widely separated 
peoples, proves contact and mutual influence 
between these in the past, or community of 
descent. The other asserts that mankind is 
psychically a unit, and that everywhere, given 
a certain need or certain conditions, men widely 
sundered will independently invent the same 
things and think the same thoughts. As a con- 
crete illustration, some authors find the begin- 
nings at least of native American art in some 



other district, and look upon it as an importa- 
tion ; others find nothing here that suggests a 
foreign origin, and assert that North American 
art has grown up here from the beginning. 
Our author is one of the former class. He 
believes that the geographical distribution of 
an art, of a decorative style, of a peculiar belief 
or custom, is often a means of tracing relation- 
ships and contact between peoples and of fol- 
lowing lines of migration. Just at the present 
in our country the contrary view is carried to 
an astonishing extreme ; the principle is a good 
one, but may be easily carried too far. Ratzel's 
book is then particularly important here at this 
time. While a whole culture may not be readily 
assimilated by a race far below those to whom 
it belongs, elements of arts and industries may 
easily be borrowed and are sure to be carried to 
new homes by tribes in migration. 

The second part of this volume is devoted to 
the American Pacific Group of Races. Three 
clusters of peoples are studied the races of 
Oceania, the Australians, the Malays and 
Malagasies. In the study of these, the same 
course practically is pursued for each. The 
physical geography of the area occupied is ex- 
amined, the flora and fauna are described in 
their human relationships, and the races them- 
selves characterized. Then follow descriptions 
of the houses, dress, weapons, and other belong- 
ings, the mode of life, the social structure, the 
government, the religion. The mass of ma- 
terial presented is enormous, and it is extremely 
condensed. It is not easy reading, but is care- 
fully put and of great importance. The work 
deserves a great success in America, both among 
special students and more general readers. 


Two books about American literature, quite 
different but each very good in its way, are evi- 
dence that America has produced a literature 
that is more than an echo of English literature, 
since it is filled with American scenery, Amer- 
ican thought, American character, and that this 
literature is well worthy of consideration. 

Our old friend Donald G. Mitchell talks 
about this literature in his book entitled "Amer- 
ican Lands and Letters "; and when he talks, 

New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 

P. T. N. Painter, A.M., D.D. Boston: Leach, Shewell & 

who does not love to listen ? Indeed, no one 
with less gifts as a raconteur could hope to take 
a period seemingly so barren for letters as that 
which began with the arrival of the "May- 
flower" and ended with Irving's "Rip Van 
Winkle," and make a book of four hundred 
pages without a dull line in it. What he says 
of Benjamin Franklin and his " Poor Richard " 
sayings may with truth be applied to himself : 
" Whoever can put new force and new beauty into an 
old truth by his method of re-stating it, is doing good 
work doing indeed what most of the good sermonizers 
are bent upon. No matter what old metal you may use, 
if you can put enough of your own powder behind it 
't will reach the mark." 

Only those authors whose birth-date falls 
before the beginning of the present century are 
included in this survey, the three names of 
principal importance being Cooper, Irving, and 
Bryant. Of all these, Mr. Mitchell can speak 
from personal friendship, or at least acquain- 
tance, and the touches of personal reminiscence 
are very happy. It makes us realize how near 
our past really is when we read our author's 
personal recollections of the memorial meeting 
at the death of James Fenimore Cooper, a meet- 
ing which was called to order by Washington 
Irving and presided over by Daniel Webster, 
and where eulogistic speeches were made by 
Bancroft and Bryant. 

Mr. Mitchell's characterization of Cooper's 
powers and limitations may be cited as an ex- 
ample of the happy art with which he can put 
a bit of sound criticism in a taking form. 

" There are writers to whom the details are every- 
thing; and to whom elaborate finish, happy turns of 
expression, illustrative streaks of humor, give largest 
value and most consequence. With Cooper 't is far 
otherwise; there's little finish, there's no humor; no 
ingenious turn of a sentence or a thought brings yon to 
pause either to weigh it or enjoy it. He is making 
his way to some dramatic end by bold, broad dashes of 
descriptive color, which he may multiply or vary with 
tedious divergencies, without spoiling his main chance. 
Hence there is no American author, scarce any popular 
author, who loses so little by translation. The charm 
that lies in light, graceful play of language about trifles 
is unknown to him." 

As the guest of Washington Irving at Sunny- 
side, Mr. Mitchell has visited Sleepy Hollow, 
the creator of " Rip" and " Ichabod Crane " 
pointing out the exact route of the memorable 
night-ride of a certain headless horseman, and 
dwelling with roguish delight on his own boyish 
escapades in the region afterwards made famous 
by his pen. Irving was doubtless the best loved 
by his contemporaries of any of this early group. 
He was not one of those strenuous souls who 
delve new channels for thought ; but his charac- 



[Aug. 16, 

ter was so clean, his language so full of grace, his 
sympathies so true and noble, his humor so genu- 
ine and abiding, that his books beam with a kind- 
liness that should not and will not be forgotten. 
The illustrations in Mr. Mitchell's book are 
of great value, including pictures taken from 
rare portraits or engravings, facsimiles of old 
manuscripts or fragments of scarce books, maps, 
and a chronological chart showing the sequence 
of events having relation to development of 
American lands and letters. Like the three 
volumes of "English Lands, Letters, and 
Kings " previously published, this book and its 
probable successor bringing the story into the 
present time, may be commended especially for 
young persons as a stimulus to further study. 

Professor Painter's " Introduction to Amer- 
ican Literature " begins with John Smith and 
includes the present day. The classification is 
into five periods : First Colonial, Second Colo- 
nial, Revolutionary, First National, and Second 
National. Quite properly, the " First National " 
period occupies the principal space, including 
as it does all of our greatest names Emerson, 
Hawthorne, Longfellow, Lowell, Whittier, 
Holmes. It would be difficult to better, in an 
equal number of pages, the characterizations of 
these men, and their respective parts in the life 
of the times are well differentiated. The Tran- 
scendental movement, the founding of the 
"Atlantic Monthly," the formation of the 
Saturday Club, the publication of " The Dial," 
the Brook Farm experiment, are all given a 
place, but no more than their due place, as fac- 
tors in the evolution of American thought and 
letters. The book, though primarily designed 
for the use of schools, has a critical value and 
a largeness of treatment entitling it to a wider 
audience. ANNA B. McMAHAN. 


In the sixty-three years that have passed 
since Carlyle's most characteristic book was 
reluctantly admitted in instalments to the pages 
of " Eraser's Magazine," this " prose poem " 
has steadily grown in importance, until now it 
marks, perhaps better than any other single 
work, the transition in English thought from 
the sense-philosophy of Locke to the faith in 
spiritual realities that followed in due time. 
At last a worthy annotated edition of " Sartor 

*SABTOK RESARTUS. Edited by Archibald MacMechan, 
Professor in Dalhoosie College. ( Athen;eum Press Series.) 
Boston : Ginn & Co. 

Resartus " has appeared, and Professor Mac- 
Mechan, the editor, is to be congratulated upon 
the industry, sympathy, and erudition with 
which his task has been accomplished. Of the 
four sources of the original work, copious ex- 
tracts from Carlyle's journal are here given in 
the notes, revealing a surprising fidelity of 
transcription in the process by which the au- 
thor thus turned the product of his private 
meditation to account. The use made, too, of 
his unfinished novel, " Wotton Reinfred," is 
striking in its ready adaptation, sometimes with 
very slight changes, to the new purpose in hand. 
As to the parallelism discovered between " Sar- 
tor " and on the one hand the earlier essays, as 
well as on the other the translations from the 
German, there is doubtless room for some 
further work to be done, although the editor 
has also tilled this field faithfully. The inter- 
esting query, " Who was Blumine ? " is an- 
swered with a triple reference to Margaret 
Gordon, Catherine Fitzpatrick, and Jane 
Welsh, with convincing data in each case, leav- 
ing the reader in agreement with the editor that 
the " flower goddess " is a composite portrait. 
But why should not the same liberal view 
prevail touching Carlyle's style ? In general, 
the editorial analysis at this point is distinctly 
a service ; yet there is an apparent jealousy for 
the author's originality that will not suffer ad- 
mission of any palpable degree of indebtedness 
to the Germans, and in particular to Richter. 
It is declared that Carlylese is the product of 
early years at home, showing itself in letters 
antedating German influence. There is not 
space for an extended argument upon this dis- 
puted question, but a few facts may be stated 
and left to show their own bearing. Professor 
MacMechan regards the use of Germanisms as 
artfully designed to give the book an atmos- 
phere. But the earlier essays also are dotted 
with capitalized nouns, and show a gradual 
approach from an ordinary style to that with 
which later readers are familiar. Also, when 
the translation of " Wilhelm Meister " ap- 
peared, it was blamed for its too frequent Ger- 
manisms, a fault that received censure again on 
the appearance of the specimens of German Ro- 
mance. Moreover, there is at least an attempt 
in " Sartor " to write in two different styles, 
that of the professor and that of the editor. 
That of the former, by a singular coincidence, 
is characterized by Carlyle in almost the same 
language as he had formerly employed in de- 
scribing the eccentricity of Richter's literary 
manner. Which of the two styles is Carlyle's 




own ? Both are his, in so far as he is unsuc- 
cessful in differentiating the two. He confesses 
such failure by repeatedly using the device of 
apology, because the editorial style has been 
contaminated by contact with the professional 
metaphor and crabbedness. Is not the truth, 
in this instance as in the case of Blumine, that 
Carlylese is a composite product, the result of 
a tendency plus an influence ? 

The Notes contain many grateful rays of 
light, from a variety of sources. It is here, if 
anywhere, that the results of collaboration are 
manifest. Many recondite allusions are satis- 
factorily traced to the fountain-head, while 
many other quotations are given that are chiefly 
illustrative of the similar products that the 
time-spirit may evoke from different men. 
About a dozen hard nuts are left uncracked, to 
tempt the teeth of future editors. The indebt- 
edness of Carlyle to the Bible and to Shake- 
speare appears, to the degree of the assimilation 
of these two books into the very flesh and bone 
of his diction. The long passage, afterward 
suppressed, from the first edition of " Pelham," 
shows on how firm a basis of fact rests the pro- 
fessorial satire against the luckless dandiacal 
body. But was there any need, one asks, for 
striving to identify the alleged defect in the 
Latinity of the famous Swiftian epitaph, a de- 
fect alleged as excuse for not carving these 
muddy sentences upon the Zahdarm tombstone? 

The only serious omission from the body of 
editorial contribution is an apt discussion of the 
place held historically by " Sartor " in the devel- 
opment of English thought. There are hints 
of such relations, here and there ; but it would 
seem that a work of so great significance should 
be accompanied by some formal account of the 
larger causes and conditions out of which it 
grew. The fact still remains that the first anno- 
tated edition of Carlyle's most original work is 
a valuable aid to the study of nineteenth-century 
literature. D. L. MAULSBY. 


A history of Greek literature, well written, 
concise yet full enough to give the reader an 
appreciative sense of its spirit and form, would 
be a real boon. Of this not too high ideal, the 
volume before us falls short. The book might 
more properly be called a critique than a his- 

Murray, Professor of Greek in the University of Glasgow. 
New York : D. Appleton & Co. 

tory of Greek literature. The writer has mani- 
festly a close and large acquaintance with his 
subject, and a just appreciation of many ele- 
ments of Greek life and thought. But some- 
how he fails to give that account of the litera- 
ture of the ancient Hellenes, and that insight 
into the forces and ideas that made it what it 
was and still is, that we have a right to expect 
from an historian. 

After reading the first chapter, which treats 
of Homer, one must still ask what are the char- 
acteristic features of the Greek epic, and what 
is Homer as literature ? A good deal that is 
instructive is said about the Homeric Question, 
but one not familiar with the discussion would 
hardly get a distinct idea of the chief theories 
and points at issue. 

With Professor Murray's characterization of 
Pindar, the admirers of the " Theban Eagle " 
are likely to find fault, and the opinion of the 
rest is not worth considering. 

The chapter on Herodotus, while giving a just 
estimate of the scope and credibility of the his- 
tory, fails to do justice to the style and diction 
of this delightful story-teller. 

In the chapter on ^Eschylus, the author 
speaks of Thespis' own deme Icaria as being 
near to Eleusis, evidently in ignorance of the 
brilliant discovery of the true location of this 
deme by the late Professor Merriam. It is 
rather a novel view to hold that JEschylus is in 
religious thought generally the precursor of 
Euripides. The chapters on Sophocles and 
Euripides are perhaps the most satisfactory of 
the book, though both writers are not closely 
enough related to the trend and tendencies of 
their own times. 

In spite of the caveat in the Preface, Aris- 
totle's rank and influence as a writer entitle 
him to more space than is allowed. 

There is plenty of fine writing in the book ; 
occasionally, indeed, there is an attempt at 
" smartness." No one will find it dull reading. 
But, as was said at the outset, the layman still 
needs a clear, objective, reasonably complete 
outline of the history of Greek literature within 
the compass of a single octavo volume. 


THE October number of " The Atlantic Monthly " will 
complete forty years of publication of that most distinc- 
tively literary and characteristically American of all our 
magazines. The occasion will be fitly and brilliantly 
celebrated in the pages of the number, which will con- 
tain contributions by Henry M. Stanley, M. Brunetiere, 
John Fiske, and many other well-known writers. 



[Aug. 16, 


The facility and economy of modern printing 
have made possible the preservation of all worthy 
results of investigation in every field of human ac- 
tivity. Formerly, the fruit of perhaps years of study 
and patient inquiry was embodied in a "thesis," 
which, after presentation and as careful reading as 
the penmanship would allow, was carefully filed 
away in some dusty drawer as a counterweight in 
the balance against the diploma which was issued 
upon its authority. At the present day, the " thesis " 
is presented ready for the printer, and, indeed, fre- 
quently comes to the examiner in the desirable form 
of print. Thus issued, it is ready for exchange and 
for general distribution, carrying its information or 
message to the bounds of the reading world. Nor, 
indeed, is such publication confined to the student 
body. The modern teacher feels the pressure from 
a class larger than the one within his classroom ; he 
responds to the demand for the utilization of his 
time, aside from teaching, in investigation and sum- 
ming of results. In addition to these classes of 
contributors, professional men who find the ardor of 
student days returning to them give the benefits of 
their trained powers of examination to some subject, 
often in close touch with the teacher, and finally 
entrusting to the medium of the university the pub- 
lication of the results. 

In this way has grown up the present extensive 
system of monograph publication through regularly 
established channels. No university can now afford 
to be without its " Studies " or " Annals." So rapidly 
these accumulate and so far they extend that one 
may picture the future investigator buried, like the 
maiden of old, beneath a mass of treasure, or imagine 
him lamenting the preemption of the last bit of un- 
occupied ground. Many of these efforts show the 
cramped hand of the student ; many of the conclu- 
sions reached exhibit the callowness of youthful 
minds ; the larger number of them would be much 
improved by being allowed to ripen in the sun of a 
few post-doctorate years. But as " contributions to 
knowledge," as sometimes being the fruit of ma- 

* HARVARD HISTORICAL STUDIES. The Suppression of the 
Slave Trade, by W. E. Burghardt DuBois, Ph.D., Professor 
in Wilberforce University. The Contest over the Ratification 
of the Federal Constitution in Massachusetts, by Samuel 
Bannister Harding, A.M., Assistant Professor of History in 
Indiana University. A Study of Nullification in South Caro- 
lina, by David Franklin Houston, A.M., Adjunct Professor of 
Political Science in the University of Texas. Nominations 
for Elective Office in the United States, by Frederick W. 
Dallinger. New York : Longmans, Green, & Co. 

GRESS OVER RECONSTRUCTION. By Charles Ernest Chadsey, 
Ph.D. (Columbia University Studies.) New York: The 
Macmillan Co. 

1860 to 1894. By B. W. Arnold, Jr., Ph.D., McCabe's Uni- 
versity School, Richmond. Baltimore : Johns Hopkins Uni- 

SAMUELL GORTON, the First Settler of Warwick, Rhode 
Island. By Lewis G. Janes. Providence : The Preston & 
Rounds Co. 

ture judgment, and as frequently clearing the ground 
for subsequent work, they are worthy of a promi- 
nent place in the literature of their respective sub- 

The field of American History, with the adjacent 
grounds of Political Science, has been occupied 
with publications which compare favorably with 
other subjects both in number and quality. The 
materials are to be found on every hand, the sub- 
ject is inviting, and in probably no people of the 
world will the history of its growth and develop- 
ment be so fully described as in our own. 

Harvard University, under the skilled direction 
of Professor Albert Bushnell Hart, began several 
years since a series of studies in History and Polit- 
ical Science which were described at the time in 
THE DIAL. He has recently revived the plan under 
the certainty of the Henry Warren Torrey fund. 
The four numbers issued, bearing the title " Har- 
vard Historical Studies," are the largest and most 
scholarly set of monographs given out by any insti- 
tution. The first is from the pen of a negro, Mr. 
William E. Burghardt DuBois, of Massachusetts, 
now conducting a special investigation into the con- 
dition of the negro people of Philadelphia, under the 
direction of the University of Pennsylvania. He 
presents a history of the " Suppression of the African 
Slave Trade to the United States of America, 1638- 
1870," with copious references, an exhaustive chron- 
ological conspectus of slave-trade legislation, and a 
very full bibliography. 

The second volume of the series, " The Contest 
over the Ratification of the Federal Constitution in 
the State of Massachusetts," by Professor Samuel 
B. Harding of the Indiana University, is in line 
with the many recent investigations into the birth- 
years of American political parties. The frequently 
discussed attitude of Hancock toward the Constitu- 
tion is here shown to be that of a politician who 
lends his influence for the sake of being supported 
as a possible candidate for the presidency or the 
vice-presidency. Samuel Adams is described as also 
wishing to make some political popularity out of the 
struggle. Such revelations, together with the de- 
scription of the haste of these patriots to be favor- 
able to the new instrument when the Boston 
mechanics had declared for it, must prove an icono- 
clastic shock to the old style eulogistic conception of 
our political fathers and bring nearer the day when 
we shall study our men of affairs as they were. 

The third volume, " A Study of Nullification in 
South Carolina," by Professor David F. Houston of 
the University of Texas, is devoted largely to refut- 
ing the statement in Draper's " Civil War " that 
Calhoun fostered and led the Nullification movement 
of 1828-32. The economic and political changes 
occurring soon after 1820, and the consciousness of 
the coming danger to slavery, produced a revulsion 
and a discontent in the people which Calhoun simply 
followed. The author finds no direct, and but two 
indirect, results of the Nullification agitation : a 
deepened conviction of the conflict of interest be- 



tween the North and the South, and a hastening to 
the belief that secession was the only remedy left 
for the state against the Federal government. The 
investigation has been broad, the results are clearly 
stated, but the collocation is rather desultory. 

The fourth volume of the series, on " Nominations 
for Elective Office in the United States," departs 
from the purely historical ground which the preced- 
ing numbers assume. It comes from the hand of 
a scholar who has had later training in the practical 
aspect of the subject under consideration. Mr. Dai- 
linger has served as a member of the Massachusetts 
Senate, and his opinion upon the growth of nomina- 
ting machinery in the United States, its present 
status, its defects, and especially upon the remedies 
to be applied to existing evils, will be worthy of a 
hearing even from those who complain that the ordi- 
nary " studies " of the seminar are remote from the 
bounds of practicability. " Three reforms " says 
Mr. Dallinger, "are urgently needed: a diminution 
in the number of elective offices ; the absolute sep- 
aration of national and State politics from local 
affairs; and above all, the radication of the spoils 
system in the public service, and the consequent de- 
struction of the class of professional politicians." In 
connection with the sketch of the growth of the nom- 
inating system, Mr. Dallinger gives a number of re- 
productions of ballots, blanks, etc., which are most 
interesting and commonly inaccessible. 

A recent number of the " Columbia University 
Studies in History, Economics, and Public Law " 
deals with " The Struggle between President John- 
son and Congress over Reconstruction." In follow- 
ing the well-known lines of "The Congressional 
Globe," this monograph furnishes a fresh illustra- 
tion of the difficulty in making a broad estimate of 
an event so recent as Reconstruction. When occur- 
rences fresh from the mould of time shall be allowed 
to cool, and additional evidence be brought from 
reserved papers and material added from private 
resources, a clearer crystallization of facts may re- 
sult. The author finds it "a fortunate thing for the 
country that the attempt [to convict Johnson] failed." 
Lincoln had been sustained in his assumption of 
powers ; but, with Johnson in the chair, Congress 
determined to resume its powers. In the violence 
of the reaction with which the country responded, 
the pendulum went too far and "our institutions 
were in greater danger than they were before. But 
just as the Civil War had settled the question as 
to the indissolubility of the Union, so no less em- 
phatically did the failure of the impeachment trial 
confirm the equality of the three departments of our 

The tobacco industry of Virginia was so intimately 
connected with the slavery question before 1860 that 
it was an object of frequent and comprehensive 
study. Its later development and present conditions 
form the subject of a monograph by Professor 
B. W. Arnold, Jr., published in the series of " Johns 
Hopkins Studies." Although the tobacco industry 
declined immediately after the close of the Civil 

War, owing to the necessary diversion of labor to 
food-producing crops, the loss of slave labor, the rise 
of competing manufactures and the growth of urban 
population, yet in 1894 the state added over two 
and a half millions of dollars to the internal revenue, 
and " the finest residences, hotels, chambers of com- 
merce, educational institutions and public buildings 
have, for the most part, been built by profits from 
tobacco." The conclusion reached in the paper is 
that only fine tobacco will repay the cultivator, that 
the farmer must be educated to more skilful pro- 
duction, and that the evils of unrestricted competi- 
tion seem quite as pernicious as those of trusts. 

Rather remote from the intensive studies of the 
universities is a set of monographs most daintily 
gotten up by the Preston & Rounds Co., of Provi- 
dence, R. I. This Rhode Island series treats of the 
early colonial history of that state, the last number 
being the life of the pious Samuell Gorton, the first 
settler of Warwick, who rejoiced in bestowing upon 
his daughter the remarkable Scriptural name of 
Mahershallalhashbaz, and contested all his life for 
the privilege of independent thought. 



Mr. Du Maurier is a writer who must be taken 
upon his own terms. Judged by any of the tests 
ordinarily applied to works of fiction, his three 
novels are everything that they should not be. They 
have no organic structure, and lack even coherency. 
Their style exhibits a garrulous disregard of the 
rules. To expect from them delineation of character 
in any true sense is like expecting figs of thistles. 
And yet their charm is undeniable, whatever their 
technical shortcomings, and we cannot help wonder- 
ing what the author's talent might have accom- 
plished for him had he taken it seriously, and set 
about writing early enough to allow it to develope 

* THE MARTIAN. A Novel. By George Du Maurier. New 
York : Harper & Brothers. 

J. C. Snaith. New York : D. Appleton & Co. 

UNCLE BERNAC. A Memory of the Empire. By A. Conan 
Doyle. New York : D. Appleton & Co. 

MIDDLE GREYNESS. By A. J. Dawson. New York : John 

MERE SENTIMENT. By A. J. Dawson. New York : John 

THE PHILANDERERS. By A. E. W. Mason. New York : 
The Macmillan Co. 

MR. PETERS. A Novel. By Riccardo Stephens, M.B., C.M. 
New York : Harper & Brothers. 

Boston : Larason, Wolffe, & Co. 

A ROMANY OF THE SNOWS. By Gilbert Parker. New 
York : Stone & Kimball. 

AN AMERICAN EMPEROR. A Story of the Fourth Empire 
of France. By Louis Tracy. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

A PRINCESS AND A WOMAN. A Romance of Carpathia. 
By Robert McDonald. New York : Frank A. Mnnsey. 

A STORY-TELLER'S PACK. By Frank R. Stockton. New 
York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 



[Aug. 16, 

for a score of years. " The Martian " is a rather 
more harum-scarum performance than either of its 
predecessors. The hypnotic nonsense of " Trilby " 
was had enough, in all conscience, hut the astral 
influence nonsense of the new novel is even more 
pitifully puerile. The story is made up of tags, 
reminiscent and reflective, and only the fact that 
they come from a genial mind and a warm heart, 
and that somehow they produce in their scrappy 
way the impression of superabundant life, do they 
save the hook from inanity and encourage the reader 
to persevere to the end. The first chapters of the 
hook are much the best, and, taken by themselves as 
a picture of French schoolboy life half a century 
ago, they are a fitting pendant to the story of Tom 
Brown at Rugby. The famous construction of 
" triste lupus," for example, is at least equalled by 
the achievement of the youth who makes " J'estime 
les Danois et leurs dents de fer " out of " Timeo 
Danaos." We are sorry when Barty leaves school, 
for he becomes far less interesting, and the people 
with whom he associates bore us not a little. Of 
course the book is attractive in spots throughout, 
made bright by sparkling bubbles of humor and 
serious by touches of poignant pathos, but in spite 
of these things it drags undeniably especially from 
the time when Martia begins to get in her uncanny 
work just as " Trilby " drags after the ill-advised 
introduction of the hypnotic motive. " The Mar- 
tian " will doubtless have many readers, just as 
" Trilby " had them, but we cannot predict for it 
any measure of enduring fame, however brilliantly 
the author's talent flashes out here and there. 

When a writer starts out to cultivate a Mere- 
dithian style he should at least be equipped with an 
elementary knowledge of English syntax. Mr. J. C. 
Snaith, to whom this observation refers, mars what 
would otherwise be a good piece of work by the 
grossest of solecisms. He repeatedly uses " like " 
as a conjunction, and is so enamored of split infini- 
tives that he seems to go out of his way to make 
them. As for the Meredithian quality of his style, 
an extract may serve as illustration. " Softly, softly ! 
she twisted the knob within her cunning palm, she 
made no sound, she let no faint creak arise, but 
there it was unlatched with a secrecy excelling 
feline. Now she jammed one taut finger-tip against 
the panel's face, applied the most expert nicety of 
pressure, and the door opened one-eighth of an inch, 
nor made no sound. A thread of lamplight curled 
out and made love to her sparkling face. It ad- 
mired her nostrils most, it saw the throb of battle 
in them. Success was now piping to her blood ; it 
swelled on the martial song and incited her eyes to 
flash rebellion." Not a bad imitation, surely, and 
" Fierceheart the Soldier " is written throughout in 
this sort of English. It purports to be a romance 
of the Forty-five, and it really is concerned in a way 
with the events from Prestoupans to Culloden. But 
its chief interest is domestic, and lies in its extremely 
strong and subtle characterization of some half- 
dozen persons. Fierceheart himself is a character 

not unlike the Nelson of history and the Volodyovski 
of fiction, a brave soldier and an exceeding fop, 
equally concerned with love of country and the curl- 
ing of his wig, and inexorable when some point of 
honor is in question. And he is only one of the 
several strong and vital figures by which this book 
is made something distinctly out of the common. 

In Dr. Doyle's recent novels we look in vain for 
the qualities that won for "Micah Clarke" and 
" The White Company " such deserved admiration. 
In " Uncle Bernac," the latest of these productions, 
there is a fair degree of interest and a certain vigor 
of handling, but one would never think of reading 
the book a second time. The story is of Napoleon 
at Boulogne, about to set out for the conquest of 
England, and is concerned chiefly with the adven- 
tures of the son of a French refugee royalist, who 
returns to France to offer his sword to the Emperor. 
The figure of Napoleon is sketched in a theatrical, 
" Madame Bejane " sort of fashion, and one gets 
from it no impression of vitality. It portrays a few 
of the man's humors, but not the man himself. The 
whole narrative, in fact, is sketchy, written currents 
calamo, and hurried to a tame conclusion. 

" Middle Greyness " is a novel whose scenes are 
laid alternately in Australia and in England. It 
tells of a man who has make a wreck of his own 
life (although we are not told just how), and who 
relinquishes his two sons to a wealthy relative, who 
agrees to provide for them on condition that the 
father shall disappear completely. So the father 
takes to the Bush and the sons are sent to the Uni- 
versity. How the father, despite his agreement, 
does come into the lives of his sons, unknown to 
them, and how the latter go their several ways 
the one to degradation and the other to fame is 
set forth with much prolixity. The father, con- 
scious of " the black streak " in his own character, 
hopes to find it subdued to " middle greyness " in 
the characters of his sons. This is the explanation 
of the title, and it must be said that the author harps 
upon these and some other favorite phrases with 
undue persistence. The book is not very well writ- 
ten, and its best passages are those which relate to 
Australia. Here we have pages of description which 
fairly glow with color, and which are filled with 
what may be called the passion of the Bush. On 
the whole, the book is not a strong one, although it 
has flashes of genuine power. Similar characteristics 
must be ascribed to the collection of a dozen sketches 
that the author of " Middle Greyness " has brought 
into a volume entitled " Mere Sentiment." Some of 
these, also, are Australian in theme, and all of them 
lie rather without the usual rut of the teller of 
stories. They are not very carefully worked out, 
and are brought to somewhat abrupt conclusions. 

Mr. A. E. W. Mason's thrilling story of " The 
Courtship of Morrice Buckler " gave us a taste for 
its author which is hardly satisfied by his new book, 
" The Philanderers." He is better at intrigue and 
adventure than in the analysis of character which he 
attempts in the present work, and the reader feels 




but a languid interest in his London society figures 
the fickle maiden who adds conquest to conquest, 
the vain and petty litterateur, and even the late 
leader of an African expedition, now turned pro- 
moter and busied with the floating of a new enter- 
prise. We should have liked him better had he 
remained in Africa where the beginning of the story 
finds him. 

"Mr. Peters" is a novel that begins with a 
lynching-bee in Western America, and ends by drop- 
ping the hero into the sea at Leith. This hero is a 
gentleman of Swiss-Italian extraction, the son of the 
innocent victim of the lynchers, and a child at the 
time of the fatal occurrence. When he grows up, 
his one object in life is to track the two men who 
were chiefly responsible for the tragedy, and to 
avenge upon them his father's death. The scene is 
mostly laid in Edinburgh, to which the two men find 
their way, and the tedium of the motive above out- 
lined is relieved by the introduction of a number of 
minor characters none of whom turn out very inter- 
esting. The book has some touches of grim humor 
and a few fairly animated scenes, but it undoubt- 
edly drags in many places, and the general effect is 
one of incoherency. Nearly every one of the char- 
acters is blurred in the delineation, and we search 
in vain for some clean-cut and vividly-conceived 
figure with an unmistakable personality of its own. 
On the whole, one is glad when the victims of Mr. 
Peters are out of the way and he himself is drowned, 
for he might have gone on fumbling indefinitely with 
his ineffectual plans for revenge. 

Mr. Gilbert Parker's work is always carefully 
conceived and elaborated with much artistic finish. 
He has recently added two books to his lengthening 
list. One of them, " The Pomp of the Lavilettes," 
is the story of a French Canadian village at the time 
of Papineau's abortive rebellion (1837-8). It is a 
strong piece of work, dramatic and stirring, per- 
haps not quite as good as " Valmoml," but holding 
the attention absorbed in the fortunes of its leading 
characters, and brought to a finely tragic ending. 
"A Romany of the Snows," Mr. Parker's other 
new book, is a volume of nine short stories, in many 
of which our old friend Pierre figures. It has the 
crisp atmosphere of the Northern wilderness, the 
mystery and the romance of life among a simple 
people who live close to nature, and are none the 
worse for being without the trappings of a sophis- 
ticated civilization. 

Some months ago our readers were informed of 
the fund of entertainment awaiting them in Mr. 
Louis Tracy's " The Final War." No less auda- 
cious in conception, and fully as beguiling for an 
idle day, is Mr. Tracy's new romance of " An Amer- 
ican Emperor." Just why the book should be fur- 
ther styled "A Story of the Fourth Empire of 
France " is not altogether clear, and we fear that 
the author has got the two historical empires mixed 
up with the three republics. Be that as it may, this 
story of an American multimillionaire, who makes 
himself Emperor of France, without shedding any 

blood in the attempt, is what unconventional youth 
would call " a rattling good book," and what sober 
reflection is bound to admit to be animated and 
exciting in a very marked degree. It is a sort of 
compound of the daring of Dumas, Sue, and Jules 
Verne, with no style to speak of, and with nothing 
that could be called delineation of character, but 
with inventive and narrative qualities that do some- 
thing to make up for the lack of more serious ones. 

" A Princess and a Woman " is a romance of the 
"Zenda" type, and tells how a dashing young 
American officer won the heart and the hand of a 
princess, in spite of the determination of the Rus- 
sian court to force her marriage with the ill-favored 
Prince of Carpathia. It is a fairly clever and well- 
managed book, written by Mr. Robert McDonald, 
and published as the first of a new copyright series 
of cloth-bound volumes to be sold at the very low 
price of twenty-five cents each. The projector of 
this commendable enterprise is Mr. Frank Munsey, 
the proprietor of a well-known monthly magazine. 

When one of Mr. Stockton's books has been de- 
scribed, the epithets needed for the rest of them are 
exhausted. "A Story-Teller's Pack," containing 
eleven tales, exhibits the whimsical humor with 
which we are so familiar, the ingenuity of invention, 
and the cheery outlook upon life. The stories are 
certainly amusing, particularly those called " The 
Staying Power of Sir Rohan," "As One Woman to 
Another," and "The Widow's Cruise." Perhaps it 
is because this latter title was already preempted 
that the author did not give it to the story of " Mrs. 
Cliff's Yacht," which it would have fitted so admir- 


Historical sketch Reuben T ' Dttrrett LL ' D " 

of the "dark and of the Filson Club of Kentucky, has 
bloody ground." prepared for publication Number 
Twelve of the Publications that bear the name of this 
organization. It is entitled " Bryant's Station and 
the Memorial Proceedings held on its Site under the 
Auspices of the Lexington Chapter D.A.R. August 
the 18th, 1896, in Honor of its Heroic Mothers." 
The contents, which are contributed by different 
authors, are entitled "The Lexington Chapter, 
D.A.R.," "The First Act in the Siege of Bryant's 
Station," "The Women of the Station," an original 
poem, "The Story of the Station," "The Battle of 
the Blue Licks," and an " Historical Sketch of the 
Filson Club." The "dark and bloody ground," 
strange to say, was not inhabited by Indians at the 
time when the men from Virginia and the Carolinas 
began to enter in and take possession ; it was the 
bone of contention between the tribes lying to the 
south and the north, and the familiar name was 
given to it for this very reason ; still, the northern 
savages held the region in a firm grasp, and it was 
rescued from them only by bloody and desperate 



[Aug. 16, 

contests like those of Bryant's Station and the Blue 
Licks. It is difficult to make students of old-world 
history believe that these conflicts in the western 
wilderness rank in importance with the battles that 
brought the countries of central and northern 
Europe under the dominion of civilized man ; but 
time is showing that such is the fact. The Kentucky 
stories are the more important because they fre- 
quently show British officers from Canada leading 
the Indians on their forays. It was at Bryant's 
Station, the reader will remember, that the women 
and girls, twenty-eight in number, when the garrison 
was on the point of perishing for water, issued from 
the gate, covered as it was by the rifles of the war- 
riors in hiding, proceeded to the spring, filled their 
pails and piggins, and returned in safety to their hus- 
bands, fathers, and brothers who were standing to 
their guns behind the stockade, the savages refrain- 
ing from firing upon them or seizing them because 
their white commander had ordered them to wait 
until guns were heard on the other side of the station. 
A Kentucky orator has compared the act to the deed 
of David's three mighty men of war who broke 
through the ranks of the Philistines and brought 
water for their chieftain from the well at Bethlehem. 
The act was in fact a more daring one. " The basin 
of the spring was not deep enough to plunge the 
vessels and thus fill them at once. They had to dip 
the water with gourds, and thus tediously and slowly 
fill their vessels. During this slow process, which 
lengthened moments into hours, a glance to the right 
or left might have met the glittering black eyes of 
bloodthirsty savages peeping from behind trees or 
from among the undergrowth which concealed them. 
. . . The girls were not probably fully aware of the 
danger incurred, but the women comprehended the 
situation fully," says one of the writers, " and by an 
act of cool and deliberate courage won for them- 
selves a name which should never pass from the 
memorial page of our history." The present num- 
ber is one of the largest of the Filson Club Publica- 
tions, and appears, in the same sumptuous style as 
its predecessors, from the press of Messrs. John P. 
Morton & Co., of Louisville. 

An entertaining little book that comes 
with a certain timeliness, after recent 
events in the East, is Captain John 
Codman's " An American Transport in the Crimean 
War " (Bonnell, Silver & Co.). Mr. John Codman 
Ropes, the author's cousin, has supplied a brief 
commendatory introduction. The book forms at 
once a capital sailor's yarn and an instructive foot- 
note to the history of the Crimean war. Captain 
Codman sailed for Marseilles, May 20, 1854, in 
command of the " William Penn," a small steam 
freighter with accommodations for twenty odd 
passengers. The " Penn " was a pioneer vessel of 
her class, and her experimental venture proved a 
failure. After lying idle at Marseilles for a time, 
she was chartered by the French government for 
transport service, and sent to the Crimea with a 

A Yankee 
skipper in the 
Crimean war. 

cargo of stores and ammunition and a detach- 
ment of troops. The author's account of this trip, 
and of the " Penn's " subsequent adventures as a 
transport plying between the scene of hostilities 
in the Crimea and the various bases of supplies, 
is decidedly readable. After the expiration of his 
contract with the French, he took service with the 
Turks, the runs being mostly between Constanti- 
nople and Varna or Eupatoria. His experiences 
with the Turks were on the whole agreeable. In 
their service, he says, " we had an exceedingly easy 
time. The French idea of putting off nothing for 
the morrow that could be done to-day was exactly 
reversed. ... I honestly think there was a great 
deal of pay for very little work." Captain Cod- 
man's account of Turkish officials and their ways is 
amusing and not unfavorable. His first encounter 
with the Turk, officially, was at Nagara Point in 
the Dardanelles, where the " Penn " went aground 
" on the very spot where Leander landed when he 
swam the Hellespont." The reigning official of 
the place, Suleyman Pasha, was most kind and 
attentive to the stranded "Giaours," and it was 
mainly through his aid that the " Penn " was finally 
floated. When the question of remuneration was 
delicately broached to this good Samaritan, he 
seized Captain Codman's hand, and placing it upon 
his heart, replied : " God pays me, my brother." 
Could (or would) a Christian have said more? 
Suleyman Pasha was a strict (if literal) observer 
of the forms described by the Prophet. When he 
dined on board the " Penn," Captain Codman, on 
the principle of not tempting one's brother to offend, 
carefully excluded wine from the table. " Think, 
then," he says, " of my astonishment at a gentle 
hint from the Pasha as to champagne ! It was of 
course immediately produced. Upon my remark- 
ing that it had not been offered before on account 
of what I supposed to be his religious scruples, he 
replied with an air of perfect sincerity, ' Wine was 
forbidden by the prophet ; not champagne. Cham- 
pagne did not exist in his day ; how then could he 
have forbidden it ? Marshallah ! God is great,' con- 
tinned Suleyman, smoothing his beard and soothing 
his conscience. ' Pass the bottle.' " Captain Cod- 
man's little book is well worth reading. 

The essay which gives title to Mrs. 
Marriage question* E R Chapman's "Marriage Ques- 

in literature. . . / , _. . , , 

tions in Modern fiction, and other 
Essays " (John Lane) is recent ; the others belong 
to different years in the past decade, although all 
have been carefully revised for publication. The 
book is therefore interesting, if only as giving some 
idea of the increase of a tendency which most of us 
have got so used to that we hardly appreciate it. 
Yet it certainly is remarkable that the chief novels 
of the last few years should so often deal in one way 
or another with what may be vaguely called " mar- 
riage questions." And this larger sphere the 
sphere of " Tess of the d'Urbervilles," of " Trilby," 
of " Lord Ormont," of " The Manxman " is only 




the nebula (so far as this matter is concerned) of 
the more intense core furnished by such books as 
" The Story of an African Farm," " The Heavenly 
Twins," " The Woman who Did," " Jude the Ob- 
scure." Books like these latter are more or less 
propogandist ; but even books like the former show 
the workings of the thought of our time. In view 
of all this, Mrs. Chapman argues, simply enough, 
and sensibly, for indissoluble marriage and no 
divorce at all. The conclusion is a difficult one to 
avoid, if one accepts the idea of a life-union of one 
man and one woman as being the ideal to be ulti- 
mately attained. We need not, however, give Mrs. 
Chapman's arguments nor our own commentary ; it 
is enough here to mention her rational tone and her 
success in avoiding the absurdity and tediousness 
one sometimes finds in discussions on the subject. 
Beside the title-essay, and four others on marriage 
and divorce, there are two on literary topics : one 
on " The Disparagement of Women in Literature," 
and one on u St. Paul and the Woman Movement," 
both interesting. The first amazes us (trained as 
we were to an opposite view by Mr. Ruskin in his 
monograph on " Queen's Gardens " ) by the devel- 
opment of the thesis that Shakespeare arrogantly, 
and in a domineering way, regarded women as 
inferior to men. The second essay shows that St. 
Paul emphasized the inferior position of women, 
a matter of very slight importance, since there are 
few wives who, however sound on the question of 
verbal inspiration, regard the word " obey " as other 
than an empty conventionality. This matter of the 
inferiority of woman does not appear to us to be one 
to be settled by present argument. There can be 
little doubt that woman was the inferior sex, phys- 
ically and mentally. Without inquiry into the rea- 
son, such was the fact, and on that fact arose tradi- 
tion and convention. Now, we understand, the fact 
is otherwise, or at least ought to be. New traditions 
and new conventions will doubtless accommodate 
themselves to the new fact. Meanwhile, why not 
let St. Paul and Shakespeare rest in peace? 

The original Prof essor Hart's "American History 

materials of Told by Contemporaries " (Macmil- 

American history. lan ) J 8 ft cont ribution to the Source, 

or laboratory, method of teaching history. Stated 
in its extreme form, this method puts the pupil, as 
soon as he is furnished with any, even the slender- 
est, thread of historical narrative, at the sources, or 
documents, and leaves him, with more or less help, 
to elaborate his own history from the materials. 
Stated in a more conservative manner, it introduces 
the student, when he has made a certain rather indef- 
inite degree of progress in the study of historical 
text-books, to original material, and leaves him, 
under competent direction, to check and work out 
results for himself, and, what is more important, 
to master the method of historical investigation. At 
the core, the two forms of statement do not disagree ; 
the only open question is, How soon the pupil shall 
be introduced to the source method ? The truth is, 

this question cannot be answered in term ; sources 
will be so gradually introduced in good history teach- 
ing, and text-books so progressively laid aside, that 
there is no abrupt passage from the one method to 
the other. Carried to an extreme, the new method 
will do much harm ; used judiciously, it is capable 
of accomplishing great good. In fact, it is not so 
" new " as it seems to be ; to read the Declaration 
of Independence, the Constitution of the United 
States, Washington's Farewell Address, or Lincoln's 
Inaugural Addresses, is to study history in its 
sources ; so that what is really new is the enhanced 
emphasis and the new methods of providing and 
handling material. Professor Hart holds to the 
source method in its more conservative form, and 
has undertaken to prepare a series of volumes of 
sources to promote its use. Volume I. ("Era of 
Colonization, 1492-1689 "), now before us, is the 
first of the series. The selections are well made, 
well arranged, and well printed ; and the volume, 
like those that are to follow, cannot fail to receive 
a warm welcome from all teachers and students of 
American history. We have heard a very competent 
professor of American history express regret that 
the apparatus of annotation and criticism is not more 
abundant; and the point seems to be well taken. 
Still, considerable assistance of this kind is afforded 
the reader. The book takes its place at once on the 
shelf as indispensable. 

Early critical The " Quarterly Review " was once 
work of much vexed at Mr. Edmund Gosse 

Mr. GO***. because, while Clark Professor of 

Poetry at the University of Cambridge, he prefaced 
his learned work " From Shakespeare to Pope " with 
a poem in which he represented himself as a spar- 
row sitting on a clothes-line in Mr. W. D. Howells's 
back-yard. We think that this was a harmless fancy 
on the part of the amiable critic, and we regret that 
he has not prefaced the revised edition of his 
"Seventeenth Century Studies" (Dodd, Mead & 
Co.) with a little poem representing himself as a 
lark, disdaining the earth in the roseate dawn and 
blithely singing of divine things while lost in the 
empyrean. Such a conception would, we think, 
attune the mind of the reader to the " criticism " in 
the book, which is called " a contribution to the his- 
tory of English Poetry." Mr. Gosse himself has 
elsewhere expressed his idea of the advantage to the 
writer of literary history of " a rare combination of 
exact knowledge with the power of graceful com- 
position." The fact that he does not mention sound 
judgment as another useful possession will not sur- 
prise those familiar with his work. This book cer- 
tainly shows graceful composition : Mr. Gosse has 
the gift, or art, of writing, in a way that interests 
one. But as for exact knowledge and sound judg- 
ment, these are things that no one need expect from 
him. This book has been before the public fourteen 
years, in part more. In that time it has been criti- 
cised for absurdities of judgment and statement, 
not so much as some of the works of Mr. Gosse, 



[Aug. 16, 

it is true, but still enough to be noticed. In the 
present edition, some additions have been made, 
but not a single correction ; nor is there any allu- 
sion to any criticism, except a letter from Mr. Lowell 
in regard to one of his poems, concerning which 
Mr. Gosse appeared to have a false idea. The book 
is the same charming composition which has attracted 
so many to various half-forgotten poets of the seven- 
teenth century that its sins of omission and com- 
mission are doubtless often forgiven it. 

A converted Thirty years of recreative study fill 

pagan of the the fat volume containing Archbishop 

third century. Benson's "Cyprian, his Life, his 
Time, his Work " (Appleton). The author found 
peculiar fascination in the story of this converted 
pagan. As a sort of mental athletics, and retreat 
from the duties of his church, be has pursued for 
thirty years a very minute investigation of the lit- 
erature on this ancient church father, and his book 
represents monumental and scholarly and loving 
sympathetic industry. The period of history whose 
story is told here covers fifteen years (246-260 
B. C.) in the third century. The charming city of 
Carthage, the queen of Northern Africa, is the 
principal scene of the Cyprianic trials, triumphs, 
and tragedy. Cyprian's heathen education, his con- 
version to Christianity, his promotion in the Church, 
his sacrifices, his sufferings, his theological beliefs, 
his persecutions, and his martyrdom, are all fol- 
lowed out with such nicety of detail and keenness of 
discrimination as to leave nothing further to be de- 
sired. The persecutions of Roman emperors, the 
Church councils, the dogmas of leaders, are analyzed 
and set forth with scholarly exactness. Though he 
was a close imitator and admirer of Tertullian, we 
are led to see that Cyprian occupies a unique place 
in the African Church. It is refreshing to see that 
the author has utilized the best and latest literature 
on the subject; the Index gives the titles of ninety- 
four works, in Latin, German, and French, quoted 
and referred to in the body of the book. Foot-notes 
abound, as they should, in confirmation of the views 
advanced by the author. Ten appendices deal with 
special themes touching the times of Cyprian. A 
few woodcuts and three elegant maps add to the 
attractiveness of the volume. Though not easy read- 
ing for other than Church historians and similar 
specialists, this sumptuous volume will not for long 
years cease to be the standard life of the great 
African churchman. 

Memories of 

No American author has achieved a 
reputation more secure than that of 
Hawthorne. Hence, perhaps, it will 
be with many that of no American author would 
they more gladly see a volume of Memories. It is 
pretty certain, however, that the real interest in 
Hawthorne concerns itself more with his work than 
with his personal character, and it is very probable, 
too, that no matter how many volumes of reminis- 
cence might appear, we should never know much 

more of him than we might now. Hawthorne would 
seem to have been more or less like the man in 
" Wakefield ": he habitually lived in the next street 
from his family. Still, they sometimes saw him, and 
these little snatches make Mrs. Rose Hawthorne 
Lathrop's " Memories of Hawthorne " (Houghton) 
an exceedingly interesting book, as indeed every- 
one would imagine. It is, as Mrs. Lathrop says, 
really written by her mother, being largely made up 
from Sophia Hawthorne's letters. The interest in 
the book is partly domestic: it is the picture of 
Hawthorne playing blindman's buff with the " Old 
People " (as he called his children), or of Hawthorne 
cultivating incomparable vegetables in the garden of 
the Manse, or harvesting water-lilies on the Assahet ; 
and it is partly historical : as with the skating-party, 
for instance, of Hawthorne wrapped in a cloak, 
skating like a Greek statue, Thoreau figuring dithy- 
rambic dances and Bacchic leaps, and Emerson all 
tired out coming to rest by Mrs. Hawthorne. Lit- 
erary the book is not, in the sense, that is, that we 
do not learn from it much of Hawthorne the man 
of letters. It is as well that we do not : Hawthorne 
the genius is to be found sufficiently in what he 
wrote. In this volume Hawthorne the man, amid 
his surroundings, comes to view cordially and even 
intimately. He was a man rather different from 
what any reader of his books would imagine, and 
although in this book he is always in the background, 
yet even though he be not clearly presented, we get 
probably a truer idea of his personality than we 
could from a more definite presentation. 

Mr. J. E. Farmer's "Essays on 
French History " (Putnam) are two 
in number, and they make but a 
slender volume. The author has not burrowed 
very deeply into the sources of history, and his style 
is somewhat crude ; yet he has got together many 
details in the history of two important periods that 
even careful readers could find only with some dif- 
ficulty. The opening essay is on " The Rise of the 
Reformation in France and its Relation to Martin 
Luther ; " the other, which is a stronger piece of 
work, is a sketch of the history of " The Club of 
the Jacobins." The description of the methods 
used in controlling the Assembly and directing the 
current of affairs by organized mob violence is of 
special interest. 

The history of British India, as told 
by R. W. Frazer in his recent addi- 
tion to the " Story of the Nations " 
series (Putnam), is a most interesting narrative and 
a good piece of popular history-writing. Beginning 
with the early history of Indian commerce, Mr. 
Frazer traces the rise of English influence through 
the founding and growth of the East India Company ; 
England's bitter struggles with the Portuguese, 
Dutch, and French; the gradual conquest of the 
vast country ; and the later history of the organiza- 
tion and strengthening of the government. In the 

The hi-slory of 
British India. 




final chapter the author discusses the moral and 
material progress under British rule. The thrilling 
events associated with the names of Dupleix, Clive, 
Hastings, Havelock, and Lawrence, are described 
briefly but with spirit. England's policy in seizing 
the principalities and appropriating the wealth of the 
princes is not upheld from the strictly moral point 
of view, but the author significantly likens it to her 
present policy in South Africa and Russia's policy 
in the Northern Pacific which he regards as justi- 
fiable aggressions for the sake of trade and imperial 


The fifth volume of Henry Craik's " Selections from 
English Prose " (Macmillan) concludes an important 
work, which was reviewed at length in THE DIAL of 
Sept. 1, 1893. The volume includes passages from 
forty-six different writers, beginning with Scott and 
ending with Stevenson. The original plan for four vol- 
umes only has been enlarged to include a fifth, owing to 
the riches of our prose literature, so that the number 
and variety of the examples chosen have been corre- 
spondingly increased. The selections have been well 
made, the introductions are by the same well-known 
critics and men of letters, and, owing to its nearness to 
ourselves, the last volume of the set surpasses in interest 
and value any that have preceded. The complete work 
is now published in a handsome library edition, in the 
same number of volumes. 

The Chautauqua books for the coming year, five in 
number as usual, have just been published by Messrs. 
Flood & Vincent, and are as usual well-chosen and 
attractive. " Roman Life in Pliny's Time," by M. Mau- 
rice Pellison, is translated from the French by Miss 
Maud Wilkinson. "A Short History of Mediseval 
Europe," by Dr. Oliver J. Thatcher, is an abridgment 
of the larger " Europe in the Middle Age," by the au- 
thor and Dr. Schwill. This work is also published by 
Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons. " Imperial Germany," 
by Mr. Sidney Whitman, is a new edition of a work 
nearly ten years old. Mr. W. H. Goodyear's " Roman 
and Mediaeval Art " is also the revision of an earlier 
publication. Last of all, we have a volume upon " The 
Social Spirit in America," by Prof. C. R. Henderson, 
whose name is very familiar to our readers, and whose 
work forms an admirable introduction to the subject of 
social science. 


"The Story of the Atmosphere," by Mr. Douglas 
Archibald, has been issued by Messrs. D. Appleton & 
Co. in their Library of Useful Stories." 

Madame Sarah Grand's new novel, the first that she 
has published since "The Heavenly Twins," will be 
issued in November by Messrs. D. Appleton & Co. 

A new one-volume edition of the perennial " Boswell's 
Life of Johnson," edited by Mr. Percy Fitzgerald, will 
be published early in September by Mr. Thomas Whit- 

"The Public School Arithmetic," by Messrs. J. A. 

McLellan and A. F. Ames, based on Messrs. McLellan 
and Dewey's Psychology of Number," is issued by the 
Macmillan Co. 

Mr. Hall Caine's new novel, The Christian," has just 
been published by Messrs. D. Appleton & Co. The 
first London edition, published by Mr. William Heine- 
mann, consisted of 50,000 copies. 

Carlyle's " French Revolution," in three volumes, has 
been added to the Dent-Macmillan series of " Temple 
Classics." A welcome feature of this beautiful little 
edition is the special biographical index prepared by the 
editor, Mr. G. Lowes Dickinson. 

" The Merry Devil of Edmonton," edited by Mr. 
Hugh Walker, is the latest addition to the series of 
" Temple Dramatists," published in this country by the 
Macmillan Co. The same publishers send us " A Distin- 
guished Provincial at Paris," in their handsome edition 
of Balzac. 

Biographical dictionaries seem to be a feature of the 
closing years of the century. The latest one announced 
is "Lamb's Biographical Dictionary of the United 
States," in six large volumes, edited by Mr. John 
Howard Brown and published by the Cyclopaedia Pub- 
lishing Co. of Boston. 

We are glad to note such excellent appointments, 
under the new Librarian of Congress, as those of Mr. 
Spofford, Mr. Solberg, and Mr. Hutcheson, to leading 
and responsible positions in the library. While it must 
be a matter of regret that the selection of a chief for 
our national library was not made from among profes- 
sional library managers, rather than made on political 
grounds, yet it is to Mr. Young's credit that he under- 
stands so well the kind of men needed for the successful 
working of the great institution under his charge. 

Baron Pierre de Coubertin is a young French writer 
who is rapidly making his mark in serious literature. 
We received some time ago his valuable work on 
" L'Evolution Franchise sous la Froisieme Re'publique," 
which is now soon to appear in an English translation. 
Still more recently, his " Souvenirs d'Ame'rique et de 
Grece " has been published, and we have found the 
sketches of travel which it contains interesting without 
being frothy. The author is a keen observer of men 
and manners, and his style has an agreeable animation. 
The London " Review of Reviews " announces that 
the seventh volume of the valuable and exhaustive 
" Annual Index to Periodicals," covering the year 1896, 
is now ready. The indexing and compilation of the 
volume is the work of Miss E. Hetherington. In this 
connection we may repeat our commendation of the 
u Cumulative Index " to a selected list of periodicals, a 
publication which is searchingly thorough for the ground 
it covers, and has the distinctive feature of embodying 
in each monthly issue all the matter printed in previous 
issues since the beginning of the year. It is published 
by the Cleveland Public Library. 

An important movement for the higher education of 
Catholic young women in this country has been under- 
taken under the direction and control of the Sisters of 
Notre Dame, who announce the purchase of twenty 
acres of land in Washington, adjoining the site of the 
Catholic University, on which they will establish an 
institution to be known as Trinity College for Catholic 
Women. It will be devoted to post-graduate work 
exclusively, and will offer three regular courses, extend- 
ing through four years. The requirements for admis- 
sion are already issued. 



[Aug. 16, 


[The following list, containing 48 titles, includes books 
received by THE DIAL since its last issue.] 


Montaigne, and Other Essays, chiefly Biographical. Now 
first collected. By Thomas Carlyle ; with Foreword by 
S. R. Crockett. With frontispiece, 8vo, gilt top, uncut, 
pp. 297. J. B. Lippincott Co. $3. 

The Genesis of Shakespeare's Art: A Study of his Son- 
nets and Poems. By Edwin James Dunning. 8vo, gilt top, 
uncut, pp. 336. Lee & Shepard. $2. 

Speech of John Hay at the Unveiling of the Bust of Sir 
Walter Scott in Westminster Abbey, May 21, 1897. With 
frontispiece, 12mo, uncut, pp. 14. John Lane. 35 cts. 


A Distinguished Provincial at Paris. By H. de Balzac ; 
trans, by Ellen Marriage ; with Preface by George Saints- 
bury, lllns., 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 368. Macmillan Co. 

The French Revolution. By Thomas Carlyle. Vol. III.; 
with portrait, 24mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 464. "Temple 
Classics." Macmillan Co. 50 cts. 

The Merry Devil of Edmonton: A Comedy. Edited by 
Hugh Walker, M.A. With frontispiece, 24mo, gilt top, 
uncut, pp. 79. "Temple Dramatists." Macmillan Co. 
45 cts. 

Cabot's Discovery of North America. By G. E. Weare. 

lllns., 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 343. J. B. Lippincott Co. 

The Victorian Era. By P. Anderson Graham. Illus., 12mo, 

gilt edges, pp. 245. Longmans, Green, & Co. $1. 
Report and Accompaning Papers of the Venezuela 

Commission. Vol. 2, Extracts from Archives. Large 

8vo, uncut, pp. 723. Government Printing Office. Paper. 


Jubilee Greeting at Spithead to the Men of Greater Britain. 

By Theodore Watts-Dnnton. 12mo, uncut, pp. 32. John 

Lane. Paper, 50 cts. 
At the Gates of Song: Sonnets. By Lloyd Mifflin ; illus. 

by Thomas Moran, M.A. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 162. 

Estes & Lauriat. $1.50. 
The Island Lily : An Idyl of the Isles of Shoals. By Blanche 

Fearing. lllns., 12mo, pp. 50. Donohue & Henneberry. 


Old Times in Middle Georgia. By Richard Malcolm John- 
ston. 12mo, pp. 249. Macmillan Co. $1.50. 

The Chevalier d'Auriac. By S. Levett Yeats. 12mo, 
pp. 323. Longmans, Green, & Co. $1.25. 

Wayside Courtships. By Hamlin Garland. 12mo, pp. 281. 
D. Appleton & Co. $1.25. 

New Uniform Edition of Books by Hamlin Garland. 
Including : A Spoil of Office, Jason Edwards, and A Mem- 
ber of the Third House. 12mo. D. Appleton & Co. Per 
vol., $1.25. 

Wolfville. By Alfred Henry Lewis (Dan Quin); illus. by 
Frederic Remington. 12mo, pp. 337. F. A. Stokes Co. 

The Stepmother: A Tale of Modern Athens. By Gregory 
Xenopoulos ; done into English by Mrs. Edmonds. 12mo, 
uncut, pp. 143. John Lane. $1. 

Clever Tales. By foreign authors ; selected and edited by 
Charlotte Porter and Helen A. Clarke. 16mo, uncut, 
pp. 242. Copeland & Day. $1.25. 

The Ways of Life: Two Stories. By Mrs. Oliphant. 12mo, 
pp. 330. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 81. 

The Folly of Pen Harrington. By Julian Sturgis. 12mo, 
pp. 269. D. Appleton & Co. $1. 

Mrs. Crichton's Creditor. By Mrs. Alexander. Illus., 
18mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 181. J. B. Lippincott Co. 75c. 

The Mills of God. By Helen Davies. 12mo, pp. 274. 
F. Tennyson Neely. $1. 

The Touchstone of Life. By Ella MacMahon. Illus., 18mo, 
uncut, pp. 286. F. A. Stokes Co. 75 cts. 

A Noble Haul. By W. Clark Russell. With frontispiece, 
18mo, uncut, pp. 158. New Amsterdam Book Co. 50 cts. 

The Quest of the Gilt-Edged Girl. By Richard de Ly- 
rienne. 16mo, uncut, pp. 98. " Bodley Booklets." John 
Lane. Paper, 35 cts. 


Rand, McNally & Co.'s Globe Library : For Another's Sin. 
By Bertha M. Clay. 12mo, pp. 352. Prince Charlie's 
Daughter. By Bertha M. Clay. 12mo, pp. 354. The 
Deemster. By Hall Caine. 12mo, pp. 361. Per vol., 25c. 


Impressions of Turkey during Twelve Years' Wanderings. 
By W. M. Ramsay, D.C.L. 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 296. 
G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.75. 


Sayings of our Lord. From an early Greek Papyrus. 
Discovered and edited by Bernard P. Grenfell, M.A., and 
Arthur S. Hunt, M.A. Illus., 8vo, uncut, pp. 20. Henry 
Frowde. Paper, 15 cts. net. 


Crime and Criminals. By J. Sanderson Christison, M.D. 
Dins., 12mo, pp. 117. Chicago: W. T. Keener Co. $1 net. 

Essays on Social Subjects. By Lady Cook. With portraits, 
12mo, pp. 126. London : Roxbnrghe Press ; Chicago (7419 
Euclid Ave.) : Mr. Hebern. 50 cts. 

The Economic History of the Baltimore & Ohio Rail- 
road, 1827-1853. By Milton Reizenstein, Ph.D. Large 
8vo, uncut, pp. 89. " Johns Hopkins University Studies." 
Paper, 50 cts. 

Gold and Silver: An Elementary Treatise on Bimetalism. 
By James Henry Hallard, M.A. 12mo, uncut, pp. 122. 
London : Rivington, Percival & Co. 


Some Unrecognized Laws of Nature: An Inquiry into 
the Causes of Physical Phenomena, with Special Reference 
to Gravitation. By Ignatius Singer and Lewis H. Berens. 
lllns., 8vo, pp. 511. D. Appleton & Co. $2.50. 

Familiar Features of the Roadside : The Flowers, Shrubs, 
Birds, and Insects. By F. Schuyler Mathews. lllns., 
12mo, pp. 269. D. Appleton & Co. $1.75. 

The Principles of Fruit-Gro wing. By L. H. Bailey. Illus., 
12mo, pp. 508. " Rural Science Series." Macmillan Co. 

The Story of the Earth's Atmosphere. By Douglas Archi- 
bald, M.A. lllns., 18mo, pp. 194. " Library of Useful 
Stories." D. Appleton & Co. 40 cts. 

Fifteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology 
to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1893-' 94. 
By J. W. Powell. Director. Illus., 4to, pp. 366. Govern- 
ment Printing Office. 

Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smith- 
sonian Institution for 1895. Illus., large 8vo, pp. 837. 
Government Printing Office. 

An Outline of Method in History. By Ellwood W. Kemp. 

12mo, pp. 300. Terre Haute, Ind.: Inland Pnb'g Co. $1. 
Fra le Corde di un Contrabasso. By Salvatore Farina ; with 

English Notes by Prof. T. E. Comba. 18mo, pp. 98. 

" Novelle Italiane." William R. Jenkins. Paper, 35 cts. 
L'Abbe" Constantin: ComeMie en Trois Actes. By Hector 

Cr4mieux and Pierre Deconrcelle ; edited by Victor E. 

Francois. 12mo, pp. 111. American Book Co. 35 cts. 
Graduate Courses, 1897-98: A Handbook for Graduate 

Students. 12mo, pp. 156. Macmillan Co. 25 cts. net. 
L'Oncle et le Neveu, et Lea Jnmeaux de 1' Hotel Corneille. 

Par Edmond About; with Notes by G. Castegnier, B.S. 

18mo, pp. 120. " Contes Choisis." William R. Jenkins. 

Paper, 25 cts. 

fi PACIFIC COAST. To anyone of the right qualifications, 
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and other particulars, which he will be glad to make known to 
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Address PATHFINDER, Washington, D. C. 

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Including Dickens, Thackeray, Lever, Ainsworth, Stevenson, 
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A SIXTH YEAR. Advice, Criticism, Revision, 

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CFfl(3V REPBKBNCBS: Noah Brooks, Mrs. Deland, 

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W. D. Howells, Mrs. Moulton, Charles Dudley Warner, Mary E. Wilkins, 
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Other Styles to suit all Hands. Gold Medals at Paris Exposition, 
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Corner Clark and Adams Streets, - - CHICAGO. 


1W TT f\ complete Civil, Political, and Military History of the 
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Readers of French desiring good literature will take pleas- 
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vol. in paper and 85 cts. in cloth ; and CONTES CHOISIS 
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Of an extraordinary collection of Autograph Letters, Docu- 
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Also List of rare old Books of Emblems, early Imprints, curi- 
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On the crest of the Alleghany Mountains, enjoy a Delightful 

Summer Climate. 

OLD POINT COMFORT (Fortress Monroe, Va.) and VIRGINIA 
BEACH are the Most Popular Seaside Resorts on the Atlantic Coast. 
Summer Board in the Mountains, 15.00 a Week and upward. 

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Pass. Traffic Manager. Gen. Pass. & Ticket Agt. 


[Aug. 16, 1897. 




A Magazine designed to repro- 
duce, in convenient form, 
and at a low price, the more im- 
portant pamphlets relating to the 
History of the American Colonies 
before 1776, that have hitherto 
been inaccessible, by reason of 
their scarcity and high price. 
Single numbers are 25 cents each, 
or yearly subscriptions, $3.00. 
Descriptive circulars will be 
mailed on application. 











the SUPREME RESULT of our 



Retail Salesrooms: 

752 Dearborn Street. 87-89 Ashland *A-ve. 

During the Tennessee Centennial and International 
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has been established for the sale of tickets from 
Cincinnati and other terminal points on the Queen & 
Crescent Route. 

Tickets are on sale daily until further notice to Chat- 
tanooga at $6.75 one way, or $7.20 round trip from 
Cincinnati, the round trip tickets being good seven days 
to return; other tickets, with longer return limit, at 
$9.90 and at $13.50 for the round trip. 

These rates enable the public to visit Nashville and 
other Southern points at rates never before offered. 
Vestibuled trains of the finest class are at the disposal 
of the passenger, affording a most pleasant trip, and 
enabling one to visit the very interesting scenery and 
important battle-grounds in and about Chattanooga, 
Lookout Mountain and Chickamauga National Military 
Park. Tickets to Nashville to visit the Centennial can 
be re-purchased at Chattanooga for $3.40 round trip. 
Ask your ticket agent for tickets via Cincinnati and the 
Q. & C. Route South, or write to 

General Passenger Agent, Cincinnati, O. 


Colorado ; ^ 


Is the title of an illustrated 
book descriptive of T{esorts 
in Colorado reached via the 
where a vacation may be 
pleasantly spent. 

Address C. *A. Higgins, 
Ry, Chicago, for a free copy. 

Summer tourist rates now 
in effect from the East to 

// J 

Tueblo, Colorado Springs, 
Manitou, and Denver. The 
way to go is via 





Critkism, gisotssiflti, sitb 

EDITED BY ) Volume XXIII. nWTnArTl QTTPT 1 1CQ7 10 els. a copy. ( 315 WABASH A VE. 

FRANCIS F. BROWNE. ) No. 269. ^rUl^AVjU, OH<1: 1 . 1, loy 1 . 82. a year. ( Opposite Auditorium. 



Du Mauriers Last Novel. 

The Martian. A Novel. By GEORGE DU MATJRIER, Author of "Peter Ibbetson," "Trilby," etc. 

Illustrated by the Author. Post 8vo, Cloth, Ornamental, $1.75; Three-quarter Calf, $3.50; Three-quarter 

Crushed Levant, $4.50. A Glossary of the French expressions is included. 

You are sure to be held in delightful thrall to the end by the subtle charm which breathes from every page. It is a 

great book. Brooklyn Eagle. 

Jerome, A Poor Man. 

In Simpkinsville. 

By MARY E. WILKINS, Author of " Jane Field," " Pem- 

Stories. By RUTH McENERY STUART. Illustrated. Post 

broke," etc. Illustrated by A. I. KELLER. Kirno, Cloth, 

8vo, Cloth, Ornamental, $1.25. 

Ornamental, $1.50. 

The author has emphasized her strong yet graceful power of com- 

In portraying such scenes of American life no one excels Miss 

bining the pathetic with a quiet humor that is distinctly a peculiarity 

Wilkins. New York Herald. 

of her own, and which, with the dialect, gives distinct quality to the 

Flowers of Field, Hill, and Swamp. 

book. Springfield Union. 


The Landlord at Lion's Head. 

LANDER. Crown 8vo, Cloth, Ornamental, $2.50. 

A Novel. By W. D. HOWELLS. Illustrated by W. T. 

This book is practically invaluable. It persuades to observation, 

SMEDLEY. Post 8vo, Cloth, $1.75. 

rewards effort, and adds delight to every walk that is taken. Those 
who do not " make company " of it. but admit it to daily intimacy, 
stand a fair chance of going home much wiser as well as much healthier 

A masterly piece of intellectual and moral portraiture. New 
York Mail and Express. 

than they came. New York Times. 

' Hell fer Sartain," 

The People for Whom Shakespeare Wrote. 

And Other Stories. By JOHN Fox, Jr. Post 8vo, Cloth, 

By CHARLES DUDLEY WARNER. Illu8tr<t.ed. 16mo, 

Ornamental, Uncut Edges and Colored Top, $1.00. 

Cloth, Ornamental, Deckel Edges and Gilt Top, $1.25. 

" On Hell-fer-Sartin Creek " is a masterpiece of condensed dra- 

The book is one that every collector of Shakespearean literature 

matic narrative. Mr. Fox has, in this volume, achieved a distinct 

should possess. Indianapolis Journal. 

success. Dial, Chicago. 

The Story of the Rhinegold. 


(Der Ring des Nibelungen.) Told 
for Young People. By ANNA ALICE 
CHAPIN. Illustrated. Post 8vo, Cloth, 


Ornamental, $1.25. 
For a study of Wagner's operas, no better 

book could be secured. Springfield Union. 


Eye Spy. 

This is a view of the artist and writer as he appeared to 
an intimate friend and fellow-craftsman, and is important 

Afield with Flowers and Animate 
Things. Written and Illustrated by 

as an interpretation, as well as exceedingly interesting. 

thor of "Sharp Eyes," "Highways 


and Byways." etc. 8vo, Cloth, Orna- 
mental, $2.50. 


Its pages and illustrations will be just as 

By Capt. A. T. MAHAN, U. S. N. By JAMES BARNES. 

helpful to the wanderer in Central Park as to 
the tourist in the Berkshire Hills. Its pages 

A significant forecast of the part This historical 

sketch is richly 

are replete with many interesting facts. New 

the United States must be prepared illustrated from old and rare prints 

York Commercial Advertiser. 

to take in future conflicts. in the possession of the author. 

An Epistle to Posterity. 


Being Rambling Recollections of 
Many Years of My Life. By Mrs. 

SERIALS : The Great Stone of Sardis, by FRANK R. 


JOHN SHERWOOD. With a Photo- 

Kentuckians, by JOHN Fox, Jr. SHORT STORIES: The 

Great Medicine- 

gravure Portrait. Crown 8vo, Cloth, 

Horse, written and illustrated by FREDERICK REMINGTON. The Lost Ball, by 

Uncut Edges and Gilt Top, Orna- 

W. G. VAN T. SUTPHEN, illustr'd by W. H. HYDE. The Look in a Man's Face, 
by M. URQUHART, illustrated by GUSTAVE VERBEEK. Without Incumbrance, 

mental, $2.50. 
Replete with delightfully varied informa- 
tion Mrs. Sherwood has a retentive mind i 


and is abundantly able to chatter intelligently 

The Various Tempers of Grandmother Gregg, by RUTH MCENERY STUART. 

about her life and times. Boston Herald. 

HARPER & BROTHERS, Publishers, New York and London. 



[Sept. 1, 

Nelson's New Series of 
Teachers' Bibles. 

New Illustrations. 
New Helps. 

New Concordance. 
New Maps. 

These TEACHERS' BIBLES contain new Bible Helps 


GREAT BRITAIN, and are entitled 


Upward of 350 Illustrations 

Of Ancient Monuments, Scenes in Bible Lands, Animals, 

Plants, Antiquities, Coins, etc., are distributed 

through the text of the Helps. 



"It is a practical hand-book of the highest value for 
Biblical study." February 4, 1897. 

THE DIAL says : 

" The new ' Illustrated Bible Treasury ' reaches the acme 
in the field of Bible students' helps. The catalogue of themes 
treated and the compactness and lucidity of the articles are a 
delight to the reader. The wealth of illustrations of the best 
sort not old worn-out cuts adds greatly to the beauty and 
completeness of the articles. The natural history sections 
are especially fine in matter and make-up. The Concordance 
is the most complete yet produced, being adapted both to 
the Authorized and to the Revised Versions, and containing 
also proper names. ... Is nearest the ideal Bible student's 
manual of any publication in its field." 


" 'The Illustrated Bible Treasury,' edited by William 
Wright, D.D., is one of the most valuable ' helps ' to Bible 
study within our knowledge. . . . Such a publication as this 
attests not only the advance in Biblical scholarship, but the 
widespread interest there is in the Book of books." 

"... It has no superior, . . . the best series of ' Helps ' 
in existence. It is, indeed, a ' Treasury ' filled with pearls 
of great price." March 10, 1897. 


" The 'Bold Type Bible ' is a treasure, but the ' Dlustrated 
Bible Treasury ' is a marvel of sacred art and learning. 
Nothing that I have seen equals this new provision for the 
Bible student." August 13, 1897. 


"... Looking at the ' Treasury ' in its broader features, 
and as the latest ' Helps ' for Teachers' Bibles, the intelligent 
reader will, we think, pronounce it a decided advance upon 
any that have hitherto appeared. ... IT WILL EASILY TAKE 


Prices from $1.50 to $7.00. 

Write for a complete list, giving sizes of type, prices, etc. 


33 East Seventeenth Street (Union Square), NEW YORK. 




A Magazine designed to repro- 
duce, in convenient form, 
and at a low price, the more im- 
portant pamphlets relating to the 
History of the American Colonies 
before 1776, that have hitherto 
been inaccessible, by reason of 
their scarcity and high price. 
Single numbers are 25 cents each, 
or yearly subscriptions, $3.00. 
Descriptive circulars will be 
mailed on application. 










the SUPREME RESULT of our 





Retail Salesrooms : 

1 52 Dearborn Street. 87-89 Ashland 





To be Published in October. 



With numerous Illustrations, Photogravure Portraits, etc. 2 vols., cloth, medium 8vo, $10.00. 
In addition to the portraits of Lord Tennyson, of Lady Tennyson, etc., and facsimiles of portions of 
poems, there are illustrations by Mrs. Allingham, Richard Doyle, Biscombe Gardner, etc. The insertion 
of poems never before published, and of letters to friends of the poet, to which a less closely related 
biographer could not have access, will make this Life of Lord Tennyson finally authoritative. 

BALDWIN Social Interpretations of the Princi- 

ples of Mental Development. By J. MARK BALDWIN, 
author of " Mental Development in the Child and the 

to Represent the Work of the Society from 1886 to 
1897. Cloth, 8vo, $3.00. 

BROWNING The Letters of Elizabeth Barrett 

Browning. With portraits, etc. Two vols., medium 8vo. 

CHANNING A Student's History of the United 

States. By Prof. EDWARD CHANNING, of Harvard Uni- 
versity, author of " The United States of America, 1765- 
1865." With Maps and Illustrations. 

COON LEY Singing Verses for Children. Songs 
illustrated in colors and set to music. Words by LYDIA 
AVERY COONLBY. Illustrations and ornamental borders 
ROOT, ELEANOR SMITH, and others. 4to, $2.00. 

author of "Saracinesca," etc. Two vols., $2.00. 

FIELDE Political Primer of New York State and 

City. By ADELE FIELDE. With Maps. 

GLADSTONE The Story of Gladstone's Life. 

By JUSTIN MCCARTHY, author of " A History of our Own 
Times," etc. With many illustrations. 


Second Series. Modern Poetry. Selected and arranged 
with notes, by FRANCIS T. PALGRAVE, late Professor in 
* the University of Oxford. 

HAMBLEN The General Manager's Story. Old- 
Time experiences in a Railroad Office. By HERBERT E. 
HAMBLEN, author of " On Many Seas." 

HIGGINSON A Forest Orchid and Other Tales. 

By ELLA HIGGINSON, author of " From the Land of the 
Snow Pearls." 

HYDE Practical Idealism. By HENRY 

HYDE, President of Bowdoin College, author of " Outlines 
of Social Theology." 

INGERSOLL Wild Neighbors. A Book about Ani- 
mals. By ERNEST INGERSOLL. With 20 full-page illus- 
trations, and others in the text. 

INMAN The Old Sante Fe Trail. By Col. HENRY 
INMAN, late of the U. S. Army. With portraits and other 
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MATHEWS The Social Teaching of Jesus. An 

Essay in Christian Sociology. By Professor SHAILER 
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MARBLE Carlyle's Heroes and Hero- Worship. 


NASH Genesis of the Social Conscience. By 

Prof. HENRY S. NASH, Episcopal Theological School, 
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MABIE. A companion to " Old English Ballads." 

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By Prof. ISRAEL C. RUSSELL, University of Michigan. 
With numerous illustrations, full-page and in the text. 

STEEL Indian Tales. By FLORA ANNIE STEEL, author 
of "On the Face of the Waters," etc. 

WATSON Christianity and Idealism. By Prof. 
JOHN WATSON, LL.D., Queen's University, Kingston, Can. 
Second edition with additions. Cloth, crown 8vo, $1.75 net. 

WEED Life Histories of American Insects. By 

Prof. CLARENCE M. WEED, New Hampshire College of 
Agriculture and Mechanical Arts. With numerous illus- 
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WILCOX An Outline for the Study of City Gov- 
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WRIGHT Citizen Bird. A Story of Bird Life. By 
trated with drawings from nature by Louis AGASSIZ 
FUERTES. Fifth Thousand. Cloth, $1.50. 

Birdcraft. By MABEL OSGOOD WRIGHT, author of 
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by Louis AGASSIZ FUERTES. Cloth, 12mo. New and 
cheaper edition. $2.50. 

For further particulars, address 

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY, No. 66 Fifth Avenue, New York. 



[Sept. 1, 1897. 

D. Appleton & Company's New Books 



By HALL CAINE, author of "The Manxman," "The Deemster," "The Bondman," etc. 

12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

"The public is hardly prepared for so remarkable a performance as 'The Christian.' It is a great social 
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acting creature. ... As great as ' The Christian ' undoubtedly is, considered as a portrayal of certain portions of 
the social fabric, it is even greater when considered as a story. . . . The Christian ' will almost certainly be the 
book of the year. It is a permanent addition to English literature. It is bound to be very popular, but it is above 
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By EDWARD BELLAMY, author of " Looking Backward," 

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The time of this strong historical romance is the period of turmoil 
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&emi=ilttontf)lg Journal of ILiterarg Criticism, Biscussion, anb Information. 

THE DIAL (founded in 1880 ) is published on the 1st and 16th of 
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No. 269. SEPTEMBER 1, 1897. Vol. XXIII. 


TOR AT BERLIN. James Taft Hatfield . . 107 


Dante as a Tonic for To-day. Oscar Kuhns. 
A Dante Society among Fishermen. Katharine 
Merrill Graydon. 



Melville B. Anderson 113 


EGYPT, 1500 B. C. James Henry Breasted . 116 

FOCALIZED ON THE BIBLE. Ira M. Price . . 117 
Farrar's The Bible : Its Meaning and its Supremacy. 
Hommel's The Ancient Hebrew Tradition. 
Fiske's The Myths of Israel. Monlton and Geden's 
A Concordance to the Greek Testament. 


A doubtful French critic of America. Hypnotism 
as a curative agent. Nature and the Poets. Man's 
antiquity in the Eastern United States. Introduc- 
tion to modern Idealism. 






Two or three years ago, Professor John W. 
Burgess made some suggestive remarks, which 
we are about to quote, upon the ethics of hero- 
worship. Their immediate application was to 
the American anti- slavery agitation and the 
John Brown cult, but they convey a lesson and 
a warning that should be taken to heart in con- 
nection with many other subjects, not only in 
the department of political history, but in all 
the fields of human endeavor. " I consider," 
he said, " that the highest responsibility resting 

upon an historian is the right selection of those 
personalities which he holds up for the worship 
of after generations. The morals of the age 
are determined most largely by the character 
of its heroes. No amount of precept, religious 
or ethical, will have one tithe of the influence 
in forming the ideals of our youth that hero- 
worship possesses. If there is, then, one mo- 
ment more solemn than another in the life of 
the historian, one when he should seek more 
earnestly than at another to be delivered from 
all prejudice, error, and weakness, it is when 
he essays the role of the hero-maker. If he 
fails in this, he may well question if all the 
other good he may have accomplished has not 
been over-balanced. There is a mawkish notion 
prevalent among the members of a certain very 
advanced class of people in almost all parts of 
the world, that if you add cant to crime you 
lessen the crime. Some of them think that the 
outcome of such a combination is the most 
heroic virtue. All of us judge crime more 
leniently when committed by persons who have 
views in common with us upon some important 
subject, and against persons whom we regard 
with feelings of hostility. But the moralist, the 
historian, and the inventor of epics are under 
bonds to civilization to rise above such weak- 

The false kind of sentiment that is here con- 
demned in such impressive terms has done 
much mischief in perverting the ethical judg- 
ments passed by mankind upon the conspicuous 
figures of history. In ancient times, it deified 
Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar, to say 
nothing of a long line of lesser conquerors 
and leaders of victorious hosts. In our own 
century, it has made of Napoleon a subject for 
eulogy rather than for execration, it has in a 
measure justified the career of the man of 
" blood and iron " who looms so large in the 
history of modern Germany, and it is now en- 
gaged in glossing over the unscrupulous methods 
of the ambitious adventurer who has come to 
regard South Africa as his own personal ap- 
panage. It would seem, indeed, when we con- 
sider these and the many similar cases which 
history presents to our view, that success, by 
whatever means achieved, is too often taken by 
the public as the adequate test of greatness, 
and that a man's career passes for heroic if 



[Sept. 1, 

only it be sufficiently brilliant to attract wide- 
spread attention, and sufficiently daring to 
impose upon the imagination of men. The 
ethical philosopher, of course, bases his judg- 
ment upon other criteria than these, for he 
knows that failure is often more heroic than 
success, and that many a mute inglorious ca- 
reer, with which only the few are acquainted, 
may offer a finer example for the emulation of 
mankind than is offered by the lives of those 
who shine in the fierce light that beats upon 
the seats of the mighty. 

Carlyle has done much to glorify the type 
of man who succeeds by sheer strength of will, 
and the gospel of brute force has collected a 
singular company in his gallery of heroic 
figures. Yet it is from Carlyle himself that we 
have chosen a passage which emphasizes, better 
than it has often been emphasized, the eternal 
distinction between the strength that should 
command our admiration and the strength that 
is perversely employed. " A certain strong 
man, of former time, fought stoutly at Lepanto ; 
worked stoutly as Algerine slave ; stoutly de- 
livered himself from such working ; with stout 
cheerfulness endured famine and nakedness 
and the world's ingratitude ; and, sitting in jail, 
with the one arm left him, wrote our joyfullest, 
and all but our deepest, modern book, and 
named it ' Don Quijote ': this was a genuine 
strong man. A strong man, of recent time, 
fights little for any good cause anywhere ; works 
weakly as an English lord ; weakly delivers 
himself from such working ; with weak despon- 
dency endures the cackling of plucked geese at 
St. James's ; and, sitting in sunny Italy, in his 
coach- and-f our, at a distance of two thousand 
miles from them, writes, over many reams of 
paper, the following sentence, with variations : 
' Saw ever the world one greater or un happier? ' 
This was a sham strong man. Choose ye." 
While this comparison, in its straining for 
antithetical effects, is not altogether fair to 
Byron, whose life was at least closed by a piece 
of genuine heroism, yet in the main it enforces 
a lesson that should be taken to heart. The 
Byronic cult was undoubtedly in its day respon- 
sible for a great deal of sickly sentimentalism, 
and its influence still lingers in English litera- 
ture. As contrasted with Shelley's ardent and 
high-souled devotion to great causes and fine 
ideals, the passion of Byron at its best seems 
theatrical and insincere, and the gospel of 
" Childe Harold " is but a poor thing when 
viewed in the glowing light of the " Prometheus 

In literature, as in other departments of hu- 
man activity, there are sham heroes as well as 
genuine ones. This statement is not meant to 
imply that a writer whose private life will not 
bear the closest scrutiny is for that reason un- 
heroic as a literary figure, for the weakness of 
will by which personal conduct is so often mis- 
shapen may coexist with an intellectual life of 
the rarest distinction. And since the essential 
thing about a writer is his work, he has a right 
to be judged by that work, almost irrespective 
of the life that lies behind it. The figure of 
Schopenhauer, for example, is one of the most 
heroic in literature, although the character of 
the man, as apart from the writer, left much 
to be desired. But the noble sincerity of his 
work, and its exaltation of fine ideals in both 
thought and conduct, are qualities so marked 
that we are quite justified in ignoring the un- 
lovely aspects of the personal biography. On 
the other hand, the most conspicuous of literary 
figures may fail to assume heroic proportions 
if the work for which it stands have any sug- 
gestion of pose or insincerity. We may be very 
indulgent to the infirmities of the flesh, pro- 
vided only they do not fetter or drag down the 
spirit. There is a false ring, which no sound- 
ing rhetoric can altogether deaden to the dis-. 
cerning ear, in the work of many masterful 
writers, and when that ring is once detected, 
the power of the voice to shape our intellectual 
ideals becomes sadly weakened. This false 
note may be caught over and over again in 
Byron ; it makes the Whitman cult seem a 
strange phenomenon to minds entirely well- 
balanced and sane, and it lessens the effect- 
ive appeal of even such giants as Hugo and 

When we think of certain figures in litera- 
ture as peculiarly heroic, we do not usually stop 
for analysis, but are content to rest the judg- 
ment upon a mixture of impressions, in part 
derived from the life, and in part from the work. 
Scott and Balzac are good examples of this, for 
both are heroic figures in a very genuine sense, 
and we hardly know whether to admire them the 
more for their courageous struggle against ad- 
verse material conditions or for their resolute 
pursuit of a great creative purpose. Instead 
of taking these men for our illustration, let us 
take instead a man who was a hero of litera- 
ture pure and simple, a man whose career has 
for the literary worker the same sort of lessons 
that the career of Spinoza has for the philoso- 
pher, of Gordon for the soldier, or of Mazzini 
for the statesman. The man is Gustave Flau- 




bert, and our task is made easy by borrowing 
from the eloquent address made at Oxford last 
June by M. Paul Bourget. " No man was ever 
more richly endowed with the higher virtues of 
a great literary artist," says M. Bourget. " His 
whole existence was one long struggle against 
circumstances and against himself, to live up 
to that ideal standard as a writer which he had 
set before himself from his earliest years. . . . 
He remains ever present among us, in spite of 
the new developments assumed by contempo- 
rary French literature, for he gave to all writ- 
ers the most splendid example of passionate, 
exclusive love of literature. With his long 
years of patient and scrupulous toil, his noble 
contempt of wealth, honours, and popularity, 
with his courage in pursuing to the end the 
realization of his dream, he looms upon us an 
intellectual hero." 

And yet, with all his passion for the imper- 
sonal, with all his striving to view life from the 
outside, holding, or at least expressing, "no 
form of creed, but contemplating all," the final 
lesson of Flaubert's life is, as his eulogist ad- 
mits, that no man may wholly exclude himself 
from his writings. Had the author of " Madame 
Bo vary " really done so, " they would not have 
reached us all imbued with that melancholy 
savour, that subdued pathos which makes them 
so dear to us. ... This gift of expressing in 
their writings more than they themselves sus- 
pect, and of achieving results exceeding their 
ambition, is only granted to those courageous 
and sincere geniuses whose past trials have 
gained for them the priceless treasure of wide 
experience. Thus did Cervantes write ' Don 
Quijote,' and Defoe ' Robinson Crusoe,' little 
dreaming that they infused into their writings, 
the former all the glowing heroism of Spain, 
the latter the dogged self-reliance of the Anglo- 
Saxon. If they had not themselves for many 
years practised these virtues of chivalrous enter- 
prise in the one case, of indomitable endurance 
in the other, their books would have been what 
they intended them to be mere tales of adven- 
ture. But their souls were greater than their 
art, and imbued it throughout with that sym- 
bolic power which is the efficient vitality of 
books. In the same way Flaubert's soul was 
greater than his art, and it is that soul which, 
in spite of his own will, he breathed into his 
writings, gaining for them a place apart in the 
history of the contemporary French novel." 
Thus we come back, after all, to the position 
that heroism in literary production is somehow 
the outcome or reflex of something heroic in 

the character and the temper of the writer. 
It may be only a streak, so blended with others 
as to be almost undiscernible to observers of 
the man apart from his books, yet it is the 
deepest and truest part of him, and a noble 
book of any sort may well give pause to the 
judgment that too hastily condemns a man's 
life because it is visibly flawed. But those men 
are the fittest subjects for hero-worship in whom 
the life and the word are the most fully conso- 
nant, whose lives are poems, and whose words 
are acts. Such a hero was Goethe, with his 
life-long devotion to the ideal that held the 
whole of life to be even more important than 
its separate elements of the good and the beau- 
tiful ; such was Milton, whose " soul was like 
a star, and dwelt apart," and yet whose heart 
" the lowliest duties on herself did lay "; such 
was Dante, whose exiled soul still " possessed 
the sun and stars," and whose divine poem was 
wrought not as a poem merely, but 

" With close heed 

Lest, having spent for the work's sake 
Six days, the man be left to make." 


The treatment of German literature in universi- 
ties has been as varied as the philosophical, political, 
aesthetic, philological, and psychological ideals of 
those who have represented it. During recent years, 
the " Young Grammarian " school, to which the 
monuments of literature have served chiefly as a 
medium for the exhibition of organic processes in 
language, has exercised great influence in America. 
The attractiveness of this school is not hard to ex- 
plain: it had, while still "young," the freshness of 
all beginnings, and it was a field in which a given 
amount of specialized research was rewarded by a 
maximum quantity of material and new results. 
Whether the school has already reaped its best 
fruits, is a fair question, though one which does not 
properly belong here. Certain it is that its methods 
of research have intruded entirely too much into the 
field of literary history ; and the inquiry cannot be 
avoided, especially in the United States, whether the 
great widening of the scope of Germanic courses 
has been accompanied by a corresponding deepening 
of their contents. 

The most successful and popular among the pro- 
fessors of the humanities in the University of Berlin 
is one who deals with the broadest realities, and 
who lays the chief accent upon the aesthetic element. 
I have not been able to get figures as to the attend- 
ance upon the three courses given by Professor 
Erich Schmidt during the winter semester, but they 
were all crowded ; the " private " course on Faust 



[Sept. 1, 

must have included five hundred enthusiastic 
hearers. The underlying conception of Professor 
Schmidt's influential position in this central uni- 
versity is that he stands as a guardian of the na- 
tional literary treasure, and has the duty of being 
fully acquainted with it himself, of preserving it 
unimpaired, and of demonstrating it to others. His 
ideal of criticism aims at arriving at the sum-total 
of all those factors which have united to produce 
literature : on the one hand, the historical and philo- 
logical treatment of national culture, of the " spirit 
of the times," and of general intellectual move- 
ments ; and, on the other hand, the sharpest possible 
characterization of the individual author. His chief 
virtuosity lies in tracing the historical genesis of a 
given work after the method of natural science, 
following the sources, with much elegance of demon- 
stration, back to their earliest germs, and controlling 
for this purpose an immense store of information, 
embracing the ancient classics and the literature of 
France, England, Spain, and Italy. 

The most convincing impression which Professor 
Schmidt's lectures have made upon me has been 
that of the absolute interdependence of the peoples 
of culture, the emphasis of the fact that no author 
or period can be conceived of as standing alone, 
unconnected with a long chain of preexisting influ- 
ences ; that a pedantic conception of " plagiarism " 
is most irrational. Particularly has he placed in 
the light of a new revelation the enormous influence 
of the great and noble English national literature 
upon Germany. In the treatment of this matter, 
as in many other ways, he shows absolute candor, 
fearlessness of results, and disregard of popular 
prejudices in dealing with scientific truths. The 
treatment is throughout objective rather than dog- 
matically philosophical. He is equally masterful in 
estimating the total tendency of a period, in an 
appreciation of the entire personality of an author 
or of a single work ; as a rule, such concrete judg- 
ments disclose the larger points of view. Every 
product is scrupulously tested and stamped with its 
exact value, a very different thing from a reca- 
pitulation of its contents. These estimates are the 
perfection of condensed expression ; each word is 
weighed on the gold-balance, and produces its full 
effect. One lively epithet sometimes fixes for good 
the final worth of an elaborate work. In these 
judgments, with all their directness and finality, 
there is to be noticed the self-restraint and reserve 
of a large nature, and an abstinence from arbitrary 
personal bias. In treating of a period, while much 
attention is paid to the workings of international 
influence, there is also a consideration of the force 
of political life upon literature. In dealing with 
an author, an estimate is made of the various sides 
of his personality, his growth and development, his 
methods, his merits and limitations, how far he is 
the child of his age, and how far he reaches beyond 
it ; his biography is considered as far as it is con- 
nected with his literary activity, and, especially, an 
estimate is given of his permanent contribution to 

the national literary stock. In the discussion of an 
individual work, there is the consideration of its 
relation to the times in which it was written, of its 
structural technique, style, movement, and psycho- 
logical workings ; of its nearer and remoter sources, 
especially the history, as far as it can be traced, of 
its chief motif. The influence of the work upon its 
own and later times is weighed. In matters relating 
to form and metrical values, Professor Schmidt 
shows, what all professors do not possess, the finest 
feeling for rhythm and delicate internal harmo- 
j nies. Not less admirable than these positive critical 
| deliverances are the wise omissions : the throwing 
j overboard of merely microscopic details in linguis- 
tics, biography, and bibliography. The last matter 
is usually disposed of by naming the best edition of 
the text, and perhaps the titles of one or two new 
books ; and then come the words, " for the rest, see 
Goedeke." Professor Schmidt, as was also the case 
with Scherer, has made Goethe-studies the crown of 
his work ; and it is particularly in the presentation 
of the results of his detailed researches in this field 
that one notices a favorable contrast with that phi- 
lology which of late years has lavished such elabo- 
rate pains upon the publication of Unedited Scraps 
from Goethe's Waste-basket. 

I cannot speak too highly in praise of Professor 
Schmidt's own literary style : it is clear, direct, and 
penetrating ; not a word is to be spared, and yet it 
is wrought out to a finished perfection of form not 
unworthy of one who in literary criticism stands in 
direct succession to Lessing and Herder, Goethe 
and Schiller. This praise must often be withheld 
from eminent critics : one needs only to mention 
the choppy, English-Channel style of the admirable 
Herman Grimm, which, over here, is usually as- 
cribed to the influence of our own Emerson, but 
which, in my opinion, stands about as near to that 
of Walt Whitman. There is lively movement, 
trenchant diction, brilliant wit, and unreserved hu- 
mor, but no cheap embellishment ; though occasion- 
ally metaphorical, the style is always chaste. At 
the same time, Professor Schmidt by no means 
abhors the crisp, forcible, idiomatic phrases, bor- 
dering on the very colloquial, in which the German 
language is so rich, and which often hit the mark 
squarely in the centre. I note with less enthusiasm 
occasional touches of the distinctively national Ger- 
man flavor of Derbheit, a term which Anglo-Saxons 
are prone to translate by the very rude word " coarse- 
ness." Now that co-education has become estab- 
lished in Germany, this feature is at times trying. 
I partly sympathize with the standpoint, and prefer 
it to that of another professor, who excluded all 
women from his courses this term because he felt 
that their presence would lay some restraint upon 
his freedom of treatment. In the academic field, 
if anywhere, plain facts must be handled without 
circumlocution, and Professor Schmidt resolutely 
asserts " das gute Recht der Kritik " in this direc- 
tion. Good. This is quite different, however, from 
a gratuitous amplification of Aristophanic features, 




which has more than once been accompanied by 
hilarious merriment and rapturous applause on the 
part of the gentlemen of the audience, who looked 
around gleefully to see how the young women 
present were " taking it," in an unchivalrous way 
which made one's blood boil, but then, chivalry is 
perhaps not the most strongly emphasized trait in 
Bismarck's Germany. The delivery is in a power- 
ful, resonant, dramatic voice, and the lecturer looks 
his audience squarely in the face, although he fol- 
lows his manuscript closely. 

Among the select group of young scholars who 
make up the Seminar, one has a freer opportunity 
of coming to know the resources which are at the 
disposal of its leader, to become more and more 
impressed with his broad grasp of general relations, 
joined to an immense mass of detailed information, 
and to see what demands of actual work the great 
scholar lays upon himself and his students. Woe to 
the youth who attempts by " brilliancy " to cover up 
any negligence in scientific research ! Still more 
intimate is the circle of the " Germanistic Kneipe," 
which comes together every Monday night at the 
" Great Elector." The group includes some of the 
most brilliant men in Berlin literary circles, as well 
as a small number of advanced students. Professor 
Schmidt is always there, even when he has to come 
late after lectures or receptions, and dominates the 
conversation, which is lively and free and darts with 
most unexpected bounds into new paths. The whole 
tone of the gatherings is that of harmless, entirely 
informal good-fellowship, and the talk is less on 
professional questions than on those of general 
interest in a highly-cultured society. Now and then 
the evening is given over to pure fun on the part of 
the students, which the Professor enters into and 
enjoys more heartily than anyone else. At Christ- 
mas-time there was a tree, with presents, poems, 
music, and a Bierzeitung ; at the close of the 
semester there was resurrected and presented an 
ancient comedy of Holberg's, with all its archaic 
accessories. Professor Schmidt's influence on the 
students is a goodly thing to witness : a free asso- 
ciation, free imparting, and the great stimulus of 
personal contact. 

A few words as to Professor Schmidt's career 
may not be unwelcome. He was born in Jena, 
where his father was a well-known professor of zo- 
ology. From his early days in the gymnasium, his 
chief interest has lain in modern German literature. 
In Strassburg he became an intimate disciple of 
Scherer. He began teaching in Wttrzburg, was for 
three years decent in Strassburg, and later became 
professor in Vienna. In 1885, when the Goethe 
archives were made public, the Grand Duchess of 
Weimar invited him, along with Loeper and Scherer, 
to take charge of them, and he has had a responsi- 
ble share in the Weimar edition of Goethe's Works. 
It was during this period, about ten years ago, that 
his discovery of Fraulein Gochhausen's copy of the 
" original " text of Faust opened up a new era in 
the criticism of that work. After the death of 

Scherer, in 1886, Professor Schmidt was called to 
Berlin to succeed that unequaled master in the field 
of the history of German literature. He is one of 
the youngest members of the Royal Academy of 
Sciences. His great work on Lessing, and his fre- 
quent essays in the field of literary investigation 
and criticism, show his fertility in production as 
well as in exposition. Personally, he is very hand- 
some : in the prime of life, with a commanding 
presence, a superb physique, and overflowing vigor 
and energy. I fancy that I recognize in him vari- 
ous points of resemblance to Goethe. A rapid, 
intense worker in the study, he allows himself to 
throw off its constraints completely and to enjoy the 
rich and varied social life which Berlin affords ; and 
he is a much-sought guest in that upper world which 
unites the leaders of society, the statesmen, thinkers, 
artists, musicians, and men of letters, and especially 
where that large group of brilliant and cultured 
women is to be encountered who lend a fineness and 
elegance to social life which are missed in regions 
where the Kneipe of the men is practically the only 
form of intercourse, but which have been a distin- 
guishing ornament of Berlin for generations. For 
music and the drama, especially, he has the liveliest 
appreciation. Like Helmholtz, he has broken com- 
pletely with the traditions of the pedantic, distraught, 
slipshod " typical " German professor, and offers an 
instance of that particularly modern type a uni- 
versity instructor of highest rank who is at the same 
time a finished man of the world in all that con- 
cerns outward appearance, sense of form, social 
facility, and address. In this may perhaps be traced 
some influence of his Vienna period. 

Probably no Germanic scholar would question 
the value and legitimacy of any of the points of 
view from which Professor Schmidt approaches the 
treatment of literature : the difficult question, as in 
most of the practical philosophy of life, is one of 
proportions. It is in his successful harmony of com- 
bination that I find most to admire. An adequate 
discussion of the whole theme would require an ex- 
act estimate of the relative treatment of the different 
factors involved. To dismiss the subject with a 
word, I would say that there is perhaps at times 
too much dwelling upon that which must be sub- 
tracted from an author before the essence of his own 
personality is to be considered. In following the 
elaborate demonstration of external sources, I have 
sometimes thought of Goethe's sharp criticism of 
Herder for venturing to mention, in a discussion of 
" The Diver," the old chronicle in which Schiller 
had found the tale. The lines laid down by Pro- 
fessor Wetz of Giessen in his interesting and sug- 
gestive tract on the study of the history of litera- 
ture, in which he maintains that the chief emphasis 
must always be laid upon the psychology of the 
author, seem to me correct. 

At a time when militarism and industrialism have 
more than ever before drawn men's thoughts away 
from the intellectual inheritance of the past, it is 
most encouraging that the perennial mission of lit- 


[Sept. 1, 

erature in its highest and deepest sense is being so 
successfully demonstrated in the great centre of 
German civilization. Nor is this fact without its 
wholesome lesson of humility to those who have been 
entrusted with the duty of representing and expound- 
ing literature, in view of the emphasis which it lays 
upon the demand for the fullest equipment on the 
part of those who attempt to carry out this respon- 
sible task. j AMEg TAFT HATFIELD. 


(To the Editor of THE DIAL. ) 

I have been unpleasantly surprised lately at some dis- 
paraging remarks on Dante made by well-known writers. 
One of your contributors, in a recent communication to 
THE DIAL, speaks rather proudly of the fact that the 
dust on his copy of Dante is undisturbed from year to 
year; and a professor of English literature in one of 
our largest universities, lecturing on the world's great 
poets, denies (according to the statement of one of his 
students) to Dante the highest rank in poetry, the 
basis of his criticism being that the Divine Comedy is 
too grotesque and too mediaeval to appeal to the modern 

Without desiring to enter into a (surely unnecessary) 
discussion of Dante's claims to greatness, I should like 
to indicate briefly why, contrary to the implications in 
the above remarks, the Divine Comedy is of especial 
value to-day as an antidote to many morbid tendencies 
in literature. 

1. The poem is a practical one, it is the work of an 
ardent reformer. Many of his ideas on bartering and 
corrupt politics remind us irresistibly of Dr. Parkhurst 
and the Lexow Commission. His remarks on the evils 
of indiscriminate and unrestricted immigration might 
furnish our own congressmen with arguments on this 
live question of the day. His contemptuous and indig- 
nant rebuke of the vanity of sensational preaching might 
be read, studied, and inwardly digested by many a pop- 
ular preacher of the present time. His religious ideals 
are high, and as sound as those of to-day (due allowance 
being made for the difference of the times). In many 
respects they coincide with those of Luther himself. 

2. There has been a great deal of discussion in recent 
years on the conflict between realism and idealism. It 
is interesting to note how Dante illustrates and com- 
bines both of these theories. Many of his pictures of 
Hell are repulsive almost disgusting and photo- 
graphic in their minuteness. He never hesitates to call 
a thing by its right name. He, as well as the modern 
novelists, saw the grossness of life the sensuousness, 
the lust for power and wealth, and all the meanness of 
the heart of man; yet he, unlike them, saw also the 
noble, the sweet, and the tender side of life. Balzac 
and Zola have written only Infernos ; Dante has given 
us a Purgatory and a Paradise. 

3. One of the noblest qualities of Dante is his indom- 
itable optimism, in spite of sorrows, injustice, hardships; 
and his unfailing belief in the inherent goodness of man 
and the final triumph of right. Throughout these 
scenes of sin and vice, of violence and of spiritual wick- 
edness in high places, we hear, as it were, a clear, sweet 

voice, like that in Browning's " Pippa Passes " singing 
the words, 

" God 's in his heaven, 
All 's right with the world. 1 ' 

There is no moral weakness in the Divine Comedy, no 
whining despair, none of that melancholy which brooded 
over the early nineteenth century literature, and which 
still lingers on in the form of a cynical pessimism. 

4. But the greatest of all benefits to be derived from 
the study of Dante lies in his deep and all-pervading 
spirituality. Endowed with marvellous intellectual 
power, with an ardent interest in all kinds of science 
and learning, a practical politician and man of affairs, 
he yet saw all earthly things against the background of 
eternity. No poem ever written has left the reader so 
impressed with the reality of the unseen world. Surely 
never were such lessons needed more than in the present 
materialistic age. 

I believe, with Mr. Frederic Harrison, that the lover 
of books should first of all seek to become intimate with 
the great poets in the world's literature; and I have 
endeavored to carry out this theory in my own case. 
I trust that I do not undervalue the genius and power 
of Homer, Shakespeare, Goethe, and Milton; but were 
I to be asked " What one book outside of the Bible 
would you recommend as a life-long companion, not 
merely from an intellectual or literary standpoint, but 
as a moral and spiritual aid ? " I should unhesitatingly 
answer, "The Divine Comedy of Dante." It is a de- 
lightful thing to yield to the charm of the sensuous 
beauty of Keats, to drink in the elegant music of Ten- 
nyson, to penetrate the spirit of Nature with Words- 
worth. The joy thus inspired may be compared to that 
inspired by moonlit summer nights; or by long golden 
afternoons spent beneath forest trees or in sunny glades 
touched with the magic beauty of fairy-land; or by 
those hours of quiet reflection when 

" Even the motion of our human blood 
Almost suspended, we are laid asleep 
In body, and become a living soul.'' 

But how inferior are even such elevated joys as these to 
the exultation felt by the mountain climber, when after 
long hours of toil and hardship and escape from danger, 
in which every faculty of mind and body has been called 
into action, he reaches the summit and experiences what 
Mr. Whymper calls "one glorious hour of life." Such 
is the joy, deep, lasting, ennobling, that fills the soul of 
the patient student of Dante; this is the reward of him 
who reads the Divine Comedy " with the spirit and 
with the understanding also." QgCAR KuHNS< 

Wesleyan University, August 17, 1897, 


(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

In your issue for June 1, the article upon " Dante in 
America " suggests the publication of an interesting 

About San Francisco Bay is a settlement of Italian 
fishermen whose condition is apparently without an aspir- 
ation other than to have a supply of the black bread they 
eat and the sour wine they drink ; yet these people sup- 
port a society for the study of Dante. 

One wonders whether a similar organization could be 
found among English miners, for a knowledge of their 
great Shakespeare! 

Berkeley, Cal., August 15, 1897. 






The initial volume of Mr. Laird Clowes's 
History of the Royal Navy gives abundant 
assurance that the completed work will satis- 
factorily supply what has been a long- felt want. 
The work is planned upon a sufficiently liberal 
and comprehensive scale. It is to be divided 
into fifteen historical sections (of which six are 
included in the opening volume), each corre- 
sponding either with the duration of a dynasty, 
or of a political period, or of a great war. The 
first section covers the period previous to 1066, 
beginning with the primitive and partly conjec- 
tural maritime activities of the early Britons ; 
the second covers the Norman Age 1066 to 
1154 ; the third, the Angevin Age 1154 to 
1399 ; the fourth, the Lancastrian and Yorkist 
Age 1399 to 1485 ; the fifth, the Tudor Age 
1485 to 1603 ; the sixth, the first Stuart 
Age 1603 to 1649 ; the seventh, the time of 
the Commonwealth 1649 to 1660 ; the eighth, 
the age of the Restoration and the Revolution 
1660 to 1714 ; the ninth, the early Han- 
overian Age 1714 to 1763 ; the tenth, the 
period of American Revolution 1763 to 1793 ; 
the eleventh, the wars of the French Revolu- 
tion 1793 to 1802; the twelfth, the Napo- 
leonic and American wars 1802 to 1815 ; the 
thirteenth, the period from 1815 to the build- 
ing of the first ironclads in 1856 ; the four- 
teenth and last section, the period since 1856. 
Each section is subdivided into chapters deal- 
ing respectively with the civil and the military 
sides of British naval history and with the his- 
tory of voyages and maritime discovery during 
the period under review. The work will be 
completed in five royal octavo volumes, appear- 
ing at the rate of a volume every six months. 
The volumes are to be separately indexed. 
Warned by the example of his too sanguine 
predecessor, Sir Harris Nicolas (who undertook 
single-handed a work of considerably more than 
Gibbonian proportions, and died at the outset 
of it), Mr. Clowes has planned his book upon 
a liberal yet feasible scale, and has availed 
himself to a judicious extent of the advantages 
of cooperation. An ample corps of assistants 
has aided him in the preparatory work of mak- 
ing researches, copying documents, hunting up 
portraits, plans, and so on. Besides these sub- 

* THE ROYAL NAVY : A History from the Earliest Times 
to the Present. By William Laird Clowes. In fire volumes, 
illustrated. Boston : Little, Brown, & Co. 

altern helpers, eminent writers especially qual- 
ified for their respective tasks have aided Mr. 
Clowes in the treatment of those periods into 
the records of which his own researches have 
been confessedly relatively imperfect. Sir 
Clements Markham has contributed ten chap- 
ters on the history of voyages and discoveries 
from 1485 to present times ; the very important 
chapter on the major naval campaigns of 1763- 
1793 falls to the share of Captain A. T. Mahan 
to whom, we fancy, is mainly due the newly- 
awakened interest of our English friends in 
the comparatively neglected maritime history 
of their country ; Mr. H. W. Wilson (author 
of " Ironclads in Action ") contributes chapters 
on the history of voyages and discoveries up to 
1485, and upon that of the minor naval opera- 
tions from 1763 to 1815 (except those of the 
War of 1812) ; the story of the War of 1812 
is magnanimously entrusted to Mr. Theodore 
Roosevelt ; Mr. Edward Fraser writes the two 
chapters on the military history of the Navy, 
from 1603 to 1660. It will be noticed that 
the delicate task (Mr. Clowes's book being of 
course intended scarcely less for the use of 
American readers than of English ones) of 
treating of the periods of active hostilities be- 
tween this country and England has been 
entrusted to two American writers. On this 
point Mr. Clowes feels constrained to add a 
word or so incidentally, though he does it " a 
little unwillingly." 

" When it became known in the United States that 
my friends Captain Mahan and Mr. Theodore Roosevelt 
were to contribute to the book chapters dealing with 
our unhappy conflicts with America, a certain New York 
literary journal, which generally displays better taste, 
congratulated itself that at last English readers would 
be told the whole truth about those wars. It went on 
to insinuate with gratuitous offensiveness that, although 
Captain Mahan, being perhaps spoilt by British appre- 
ciation of his books, might hesitate to speak out, Mr. 
Roosevelt might be trusted to reflect American opinion 
in its most uncompromising form, and that I might live 
to be sorry for having secured the cooperation of that 
distinguished writer and administrator." 

Trusting that the offending journal will, " if 
only for the sake of international and personal 
comity," refrain from repeating the observa- 
tions in question, the writer goes on to say : 

" The point that struck me as being most ungenerous 
in the attack of the New York paper was the sugges- 
tion directed, not against us Britons, but against Captain 
Mahan and Mr. Roosevelt. To insinuate that one of 
these is capable of deliberately subtracting from the 
truth in order to pander to English vanity and that the 
other is capable of deliberately adorning the truth in 
order to pander to American Chauvinism, is surely to 
outrage the honor of both and to besmirch the dignity 
of American history." 



[Sept. 1, 

Mr. Clowes takes this matter altogether too 
seriously ; and it was certainly unwise to devote 
an entire page or more of what is meant to be 
a durable and authoritative historical work to 
a casual newspaper fling that would have other- 
wise escaped general notice. The New York 
allusion to Captain Mahan certainly seems ill- 
advised, if not ill-natured ; and it may perhaps 
be construed as hinting an opinion that that 
distinguished author has been guilty of grow- 
ing suspiciously warm over the achievements of 
British valor and seamanship, in a book whose 
success was largely conditioned upon its fav- 
orable reception at the hands of the British 
public. But it must be remembered that Captain 
Mahan is himself a seaman. He has written 
of his profession with professional enthusiasm. 
The annals of Trafalgar, Lepanto, and Mobile 
Bay, of the exploits of Nelson, De Euyter, and 
Jean Bart, of Farragut and Decatur, are alike 
the muniments of his calling. Captain Mahan 
undertook the task of demonstrating the his- 
torical glory and importance of that calling ; of 
making clear the potent influence of Sea Power 
upon history. A moment's reflection ought to 
show any American mentally above the "jingo " 
stage of patriotism that it would have been 
impossible for Captain Mahan to do justice to 
his thesis without dilating somewhat warmly 
upon the achievements of that nation whose 
annals afford him by far the most cogent proofs 
of the soundness of it that is to say, without 
producing a book that English readers would 
find especially palatable. No one conversant 
with Captain Mahan 's works, and capable of 
appreciating their characteristically candid and 
philosophical spirit, will doubt for a moment that 
his promised contribution to Mr. Clowes's book 
will be, whatever the international issues he is 
called upon to discuss, as free from the appre- 
hended tendency to " pander to British vanity," 
on the one hand, as from that to defer to Amer- 
ican " jingoism," on the other. If there be in 
England or America a writer upon whom intel- 
ligent and liberal people of both countries 
would be likely to cordially unite as a specially 
desirable expositor and judge of those issues, 
that writer is undoubtedly Captain Mahan. 

Mr. Clowes's not unrighteous indignation 
over the innuendo at Captain Mahan's expense 
leads him perhaps into some misconception of 
his critic's comfortable prediction as to Mr. 
Roosevelt. To predict that in the forthcoming 
history the honeyed words of the former would 
be duly offset by the plain truths of the latter, 
is not necessarily to brand Mr. Roosevelt as a 

" good American " of the obstreperous type so 
distressing to " The Nation," for example, or 
to insinuate that he is morally capable of re- 
garding the task entrusted to him by the con- 
fiding Mr. Clowes chiefly as a splendid oppor- 
tunity to advance his political prospects at 
home by treating his countrymen to an ener- 
getic display of " tail-twisting." Probably all 
that the New York writer meant to convey as 
to Mr. Roosevelt was his conviction that that 
plain-spoken and somewhat positive gentleman 
might safely be looked to for a more forcible 
and explicit statement of the American side of 
the standing disputes arising out of the unlooked- 
for results of the naval engagements of 1812 
than our English friends have been accustomed 
to find in the accounts of their own historians. 
That the British Navy can be worsted, is a 
proposition the average Briton finds next to 
impossible to entertain ; that the British Navy 
was worsted, disastrously and almost uniformly, 
by the American in 1812, is the plainest of 
historical facts, and is no more to be denied 
than that the French were beaten at Trafalgar, 
or, we may say (with some misgivings), than 
that the American land forces were pretty gen- 
erally and rather ignominiously beaten by the 
British at the outset of the war in question. 
The fact, then, of British naval defeat in 1812 
being sun-clear and undeniable, it has obviously 
remained for British patriotism to solace and 
reassure itself by accounting for that fact in a 
way that may not only save, but even redound 
to, the credit of the vanquished. Essentially, 
these explanations amount to the plea that in 
nearly every one of the famous sea-duels of 
1812 the British ship was at the outset so 
greatly overmatched in point of tonnage or 
armament or general condition, that, even 
though defeated, she bore off the real honors 
of the day, while her antagonist was entitled 
only to that dubious sort of glory a big or a 
strong man may claim as the victor in a phys- 
ical encounter with a small or a weak one. 
Such is the relatively comfortable view most 
English authorities incline to of the actions 
between the " United States " and the " Mace- 
donian," the " Constitution " and the " Guer- 
riere," the " Constitution " and the " Java," 
and so on. The view taken of them in England 
at the time they occurred was hardly so cheer- 
ful, judging from the tenor of some extracts 
from the press given in Mr. Maclay's interest- 
ing work. Even the " Times " seems to have 
been wrought up into a state bordering on hys- 
teria, as the tidings of successive British defeats 




came in. The loss of the first frigate is an- 
nounced with grave surprise, as a passing 
instance of the inscrutable ways of Providence, 
and is duly deplored in a tone of funereal de- 
corum. But when the news of the loss of the 
second frigate came in, the " Thunderer " was 
moved to exclaim : 

" In the name of God, what was done with this im- 
mense superiority of [British] force! Oh, what a charm 
is hereby dissolved ! The land spell of the French is 
broken [alluding to Napoleon's retreat from Moscow], 
and so is our sea spell ! " 

Still deeper and more genuine is the note of 
consternation in the " Times's " comments on 
the loss of the " Java," the third frigate in suc- 
cession beaten in single fight by the vessels of 
the young Republic that had dared question 
the right of the Mistress of the Seas to rule 
her empire with the irresponsible sway of a 
Turkish pasha : 

" This is an occurrence that calls for serious reflec- 
tion this, and the fact stated in our paper of yester- 
day, that Lloyd's list contains notices of upward of five 
hundred British vessels captured in seven months by the 
Americans. Five hundred merchantmen and three fri- 
gates! Can these statements be true ? And can the 
English people hear them unmoved ? Anyone who had 
predicted such a result of the American war this time 
last year would have been treated as a madman or a 
traitor. He would have been told, if his opponents had 
condescended to argue with him, that long ere seven 
months had elapsed the American flag would have been 
swept from the seas, the contemptible navy of the United 
States annihilated, and their marine arsenals rendered 
a heap of ruins. Yet down to this moment not a single 
American frigate has struck her flag." 

It would be ungenerous to grudge our En- 
glish friends any reasonable lenitive to the 
smarts of their admitted maritime reverses of 
1812 ; but we fervently hope that Mr. Roose- 
velt, in his forthcoming chapter on those events, 
will, while doing full justice to British valor 
and seamanship (to belittle which would be to 
belittle our own achievements), at least politely 
but firmly insist, with due marshalling of admis- 
sible evidence, that the American victories were 
not on the whole, what some English writers in 
effect labor to show, rather discreditable than 
otherwise to the victors. To recur to and widen 
the application of our former Biblical illustra- 
tion, it was assuredly the navy of the infant 
Republic, not that of Great Britain, that in 
1812 paralleled the conduct of the Hebrew 
stripling who braved the might of Goliath of 

Mr. Clowes's work is not, of course, to be, 
what usually passes for naval history, a mere 
narrative of sea-fights. In addition to giving 
the more familiar story of military exploits and 

great voyages of exploration and discovery, it 
will deal extensively with what may be called the 
natural history of the Navy. The evolution of the 
Navy as a national establishment will be traced 
in reasonable detail, as will the development of 
naval architecture, from the pinnace (picta), 
or great British war-canoe of Caesar's day, 
down to the huge and complex constructions of 
modern times. The later chapters of the work 
are to contain copious accounts of the evolution 
of modern ships and armament. The social 
life of the Navy, a rather promising topic, will 
not be neglected. Judging from the profusion 
of interesting specimens before us, the illustra- 
tions are to be precisely what they should be 
real lights on the text, and not mere embellish- 
ments. They cannot be better or more com- 
plimentarily characterized than by likening 
them to the invaluable plates in Mrs. J. R. 
Green's admirable edition of her late husband's 
magnum opus. Mr. Clowes's undertaking is a 
very important one, largely and liberally con- 
ceived, and, thus far, carried out in a way upon 
which he and his publishers are to be warmly 
congratulated. As the only complete history 
of the British Navy, the work can scarcely fail 
of the substantial success it now bids fair to 

E. G. J. 


Mr. Henley's edition of the Letters of Lord 
Byron form the initial volume of what ought to 
prove a work of prime importance in its kind : 
a definitive edition or at least an amply anno- 
tated edition of the works in prose and verse 
of one of the greatest of English poets. Mr. 
Henley's purpose in writing these very full and 
excursive notes may best be set forth in his own 
words : 

" I have written on the theory that to know something 
of Byron, one should know something of the aims and 
lives and personalities of contemporary men and 
women, with something of the social and political con- 
ditions which made his triumph possible. I cannot 
believe that this first instalment, for all its bulk, will 
go far towards the accomplishment of such an end. But 
I confess to cherishing a hope that, by the time I have 
finished my task, I shall be found to have formed a col- 
lection of facts and portraitures, which, by making for a 
juster apprehension of the quality and temper of Byron's 
environment, will make for a more intimate understand- 
ing of Byron's character and Byron's achievement. Both 
these are extraordinary ; neither can be explained, or 

* THE WORKS OF LORD BYRON. Edited by William Ernest 
Henley. Volume I., Letters, 1803-1813. New York: The 
Macmillan Co. 



[Sept. 1, 

shouted, or sniffed away ; and it is merely futile to 
attempt an estimate of either till one can do so with some 
knowledge of revelant and significant circumstances, 
and with a certain sympathy (or the reverse, if it must 
be so), with the influences under which the character 
was developed and the achievement done." 

From these prefatory remarks it is evident 
that Mr. Henley has formed a clear and bold 
conception of his duty as an editor ; and, from 
this first completed volume, it is equally evident 
that he is competent to the energetic carrying- 
out of this considerable enterprise. Indeed, 
whatever editorial defects Mr. Henley may ex- 
hibit, deficiency in energy is certainly not one 
of them. If sympathy with his author, and an 
energy and vivacity scarcely second to the en- 
ergy and vivacity of his author, were the only 
qualifications of an editor, then might Mr. 
Henley be pronounced an almost ideal editor 
of Byron. In one respect these notes to Byron's 
letters may be considered a greater achievement 
than the letters themselves. Mr. Henley in his 
notes is as far from being dull as is Byron in 
the letters. Considering how much rarer a lit- 
erary product than a body of interesting letters 
is a body of interesting notes about equal in 
bulk, Mr. Henley's performance is certainly 
remarkable, perhaps unprecedented. After 
reading one of Byron's racy letters one learns 
to turn with something like instinctive eagerness 
to the notes, which are seldom disappointing, 
after the usual manner of notes, and which fre- 
quently surprise by their fulness and apposite- 
ness of illustration. As might be expected from 
the programme laid down by Mr. Henley in his 
Preface, a large portion of the notes is devoted 
to biographical comment upon Byron's friends 
and acquaintances. The material for this por- 
tion of the notes is evidently selected for the 
illustration it furnishes of those characteristics 
in which Byron's times differ from our own, and 
it is put together with great literary skill. 

We shall look forward with unusual interest 
to the volumes of this edition which are to fol- 
low. We would not say one word that might 
tend to do aught but encourage Mr. Henley in 
his enterprise. But a Scotchman is not easily 
discouraged ; and no harm is likely to come of 
a frank statement of the defects of an editor 
who has already scored so signal a success. In 
a word, then, Mr. Henley's defect is a defect of 
temper. He annotates a passionate author pas- 
sionately. His confident and minatory attitude 
excites suspicion or irritation. He fails to treat 
persons who in any way incurred Byron's dis- 
pleasure with anything of what the French 
nicely term menagement. As an example of a 

note which is probably as untrue as it is brutal, 
take this upon Byron's mother : 

" In person she was dumpy and plain, in disposition 
passionate, in temper furious and tyrannical, in mind a 
superstitious dullard, and in manners a naturally awk- 
ward and untrained provincial." 

The notes upon Byron's sporting proclivities 
are full of curious information. In 1807, Byron 
mentions to Miss Pigot a swim of three miles 
" in the Thames from Lambeth through the two 
bridges, Westminster and Blackfriars." Mr. 
Henley notes : 

" This was Leigh Hunt's first glimpse of Byron. He 
witnessed the performance in part, and he ' noticed a 
respectable, manly-looking person, who was eying some- 
thing in the distance ' (Byron's head). The < manly- 
looking ' one was Gentleman Jackson." 

Upon this worthy there is a long and entertain- 
ing note, from which we make an excerpt or two : 
" Yet for over thirty years he was the most picture- 
esque and commanding figure in the sporting world, and 
exercised an influence unique in its annals. The truth 
is, he was a vast deal more than an accomplished boxer 
and teacher of boxing and a brilliant all-round athlete. 
He was also a man of character and integrity polite, 
agreeable, reputable, a capital talker, a person of tact 
and energy and charm. . . . Byron had always a great 
regard for Jackson ; walked with him at Cambridge, 
and told an excited remonstrant that ' Jackson's man- 
ners are infinitely superior to those of the fellows of 
my college whom I meet at the high table.' " 

After a good deal more about Jackson, the 
annotator goes on to relate how Moore went 
with him in 1818 to see the fight between Tur- 
ner and " the Nonpareil " at Crawley Downs : 
" It lasted two hours and twenty minutes, and Keats, 
who saw it, ' tapped his fingers on the window pane,' to 
give Cowden Clarke an idea of the rapidity of the Non- 
pareil's hits." 

Had Byron been in England at the time, there 
would have been three poets among the spec- 
tators. In the still longer and not less inter- 
esting note apropos of " ' Bob Gregson, P.P.' 
('Poet of Pugilism')," Mr. Henley reminds us 
that Byron was " a member of the Pugilistic 
Club one of the hundred and fifty Corin- 
thians, that is, with whose countenance and 
inside whose ropes and stakes all decent mills 
were done." This note after a long digres- 
sion containing a Scotch laird's account of a 
fight (at which Byron must have been present) 
between Cribb, the renowned " glutton," and 
Jem Belcher, " the man of genius who had re- 
inspired and renewed the art," concludes as 
follows : 

" A dreadful age, no doubt: for all its solid founda- 
tions, of faith and dogma in the Church, and of virtue 
and solvency in the State, a fierce, drunken, gambling, 
' keeping,' adulterous, high-living, hard-drinking, hard- 
hitting, brutal age. But it was Byron's; and Don Juan 




and The Giaour me as naturally its outcomes as Absalom 
and Achitophel is an expression of the Restoration, and 
In Memoriam a product of Victorian England." 

It is in the note of five pages in small type 
upon Leigh Hunt that Mr. Henley gives the 
freest play to his satirical vein. For Hunt's 
book on "Lord Byron and his Contemporaries " 
there can be no forgiveness : accordingly Mr. 
Henley pursues Hunt with a ferocity which 
the good-natured Byron would himself have 
been the first, at least in his cooler moments, to 
deprecate. The reputation of Hunt is macer- 
ated in a caldron containing all the most spiteful 
things ever said about him, the whole steeped 
in the vitriol which is Mr. Henley's peculiar 
product. This " character " (as they used to 
say in the seventeenth century) concludes as 
follows : 

" It is fair to add that Hunt wrote with true piety of 
Shelley (but if, as Trelawney says, he really did pre- 
fer his own Muse before Shelley's, the density of his 
conceit is not to be expressed in terms of words) and 
Keats ; that he lived to a green old age ; that he num- 
bered Carlyle among his many friends ; and that another 
of them, Charles Dickens, was severely taken to task 
for presenting him as the Harold Skimpole of Bleak 
House. A person of parts, no doubt of parts, and a 
certain charm, and a facile, amiable, liquorish tempera- 
ment. But there was no clearer, keener vision than 
Keats's; and I fear that Keats's word about Leigh Hunt 
must be remembered as the last." 

It is evident that the fear expressed by Mr. 
Henley in the last sentence is not very distress- 
ing to him. Keats's remark that Hunt was 
" vain, egotistical, and disgusting in taste and 
morals " was probably born of a passing mood 
of suspicious irritability. That it could not 
have been his settled conviction seems to be 
shown by his friendly relations with Hunt be- 
fore and after. To quote such a remark as a 
final judgment is something more than uncrit- 
ical, it is malicious. Keats's vision was un- 
doubtedly at times clear and keen, although apt 
to be colored by his moods ; Carlyle's vision 
especially his eye for a charlatan was cer- 
tainly " clearer and keener "; and Carlyle, after 
the searching test of a house-to-house intimacy 
with Hunt for many years, wrote of him and to 
him with warm and reverent admiration. Our 
own Lowell, whose fault was certainly not lack 
of clearness and keenness of vision, found it in 
his heart to pronounce Leigh Hunt " as pure- 
minded a man as ever lived." A good rule is 
to distrust a critic of Mr. Henley's acerbity 
when he begins with a profession of fairness 
(" it is fair to add ") : it means mischief. Had 
Mr. Henley really meant to be fair, he would 
have added that Dickens earnestly disclaimed 

any intention of portraying Leigh Hunt in the 
character of Harold Skimpole. " He was in all 
public and private transactions the very soul of 
truth and honor," said Dickens. While not 
one of the masterful minds of his time, Leigh 
Hunt was one of the most educative writers. 
Few men have exhibited in the profession of 
letters more genuine heroism. Happy would it 
be for the world if some men of more vivid 
genius had set an example of equal magnan- 
imity and equal purity in the exercise of the 
literary craft. 

Even Moore, the devoted friend of Byron, 
does not wholly escape Mr. Henley's lash. His 
translation of the "Odes of Anacreon," to 
which he owed the nickname of Anacreon 
Moore, is done " as it were into scented soap." 
His " Loves of the Angels " is " a mild Whig 
Paradise, done by a tame, suburban Byron." 
As to character, " For all the smirk in his 
love-songs and the sting (as of nettles) in his 
satire, he was a worthy and magnanimous little 
man." (And such we trust, little or big, is 
Mr. Henley !) 

In Francis Jeffrey, Mr. Henley has a fair 
mark, which he hits square in the bull's-eye : 

" At the time of Byron's writing, Jeffrey, a sound 
enough critic according to his lights, had edited The 
Edinburgh Review (1802) for some ten years, and had 
made it the first periodical in the world. His chief faults 
as an editor were (1) a trick of mixing politics with criti- 
cism, so that your Tory seldom, if ever, got fair play at 
his hands; and (2) a tendency to be ' high-sniffing' and 
superior, which prevented him from considering anybody, 
or anything, excepting from his own peculiar point of 
view, which was that of a flippant (because divinely 
gifted) Whig. Hence some enormous blunders and an 
influence which made on the whole for mischief, and was 
not more bitterly resented than it deserved." 

If Mr. Henley carries out his undertaking 
in the spirit and with the verve of the present 
volume, he is likely to produce the most vivid 
and interesting body of notes with which the 
life and works of any English author have been 
illustrated. But Mr. Henley, like Byron him- 
self, has the defect of his quality. He is either 
too kindred in spirit to Byron, or else he is too 
opinionated a Scotchman, to be a critic of dis- 
crimination. He is over-vigorous, over-confi- 
dent, over-much in sympathy with his author. 
All his portraits are sharply etched in black- 
and-white, his penchant for black has been 
sufficiently exemplified. He pays court to 
Clio in much the same cavalier way in which 
John Byron paid court to Miss Gordon of 
Gight. Having possessed himself of her ma- 
terial treasures, he leaves her, little dreaming 
that the Muse of History never yields her most 



[Sept. 1, 

precious secrets either to the cajoler or to the 
bully. It is not of the Kingdom of the Truth 
that it was said that men of violence take it by 
force. The Truth most frequently lies in the 
nuance, the delicate distinction, the fleeting 
glimpse, the anxiously qualified phrase ; and 
in these your men of violence, your Byrons, 
Macaulays, and Henleys, deal not. To say 
this is not to deny their usefulness, but to de- 
termine their limitation. Writers of this class 
may be interesting in a thousand ways : they 
may whip us into wholesome activity with their 
passion, sting us with their satire, move us with 
their eloquence, melt us with their pathos, en- 
ergise us with their power. But one function, 
at least, is reserved for writers of a more con- 
templative cast, of a quieter style : and that is, 
to make us give ear to the " still small voice " 


Ten years ago, on the shores of the Nile, at 
Tell-el-Amarna, two hundred miles above Cairo, 
the natives accidentally happened upon a large 
number of clay tablets, containing cuneiform 
writing which had previously been found only 
on the banks of the Tigris or Euphrates.! Late 
in 1887 many of these tablets were offered for 
sale in Cairo ; and it was then discovered that 
the natives had ruthlessly broken the larger 
tablets in order to conceal and carry them more 
easily. Of their content, nothing was known. 
In the London "Academy" of February 18 
and March 24, 1888, Professor Sayce offered 
an account of some of the tablets in the pos- 
session of M. Bouriant in Cairo. He stated 
that the tablets contained " despatches sent to 
the Babylonian King by his officers in Upper 
Egypt " (sic !) ; he dated these despatches in 
the time of Nebuchadnezzar ; and added : "The 
conquest of Egypt by Nebuchadnezzar, so long 
doubted, is now, therefore, become a fact of 
history." Herr Graf had already secured from 
the natives a large number of pieces of the tab- 
lets for the Royal Museum of Berlin. Of course 
the Germans soon discerned the real character 
and correct date of the letters, and the facts 

New York : Lemcke & Buechner. 

t With the trifling exception of three cylinders bought in 
1883 by Maspero, and found by the natives near the Suez Canal . 
They were stereotyped documents of Nebuchadnezzar, refer- 
ring to his western campaigns. (Cf. Sayce, Proceedings of 
the Soc. of Biblical Arch., 1887-1888, p. 490.) 

were published on May 3, 1888, in the pro- 
ceedings of the Royal Prussian Academy by 
Erman. Then for the first time the world was 
informed of the most remarkable archaeological 
discovery of modern times, being the corre- 
spondence of two kings of Egypt, Amenhotep 
III. and IV., in the fifteenth century before 
Christ (nine hundred years before Nebuchad- 
nezzar !), with various kings and officials of 
Western Asia. The names of the two Pharaohs 
written in cuneiform were identified with their 
hieroglyphic forms by Erman ; and thus at once 
it was clear why the letters were found at 
Tell-el-Amarna, the capital built by Amenho- 
tep IV. 

Such a find as this has necessarily brought 
out an extensive literature of the subject (see 
Bezold-Budge, " Tell-el-Amarna Tablets," pp. 
Ixxxvii.-xcii.) ; but it is only in Dr. Winckler's 
book on " The Tell-el-Amarna Letters " that 
all the texts have been collected and transla- 
ted. It therefore forms the most convenient 
source for this material which the historian 
can find. 

The letters, of which there are two hundred 
and ninety-six, fall into two main classes, ac- 
cording to Dr. Winckler : I., " Letters from 
Kings of Western Asia," thirty-six in number ; 
and II., " Letters from Phosnician and Canaan- 
ite Princes," two hundred and fifty-seven in 
number ; the remaining three are catalogues of 
presents. These letters are all transliterated 
carefully and accompanied by page-for-page 
translations, both occupying 404 pages. A 
series of registers at the end include : a com- 
plete vocabulary (34 pages) ; a complete list of 
proper names (8 pages) ; and a special vocab- 
ulary of the last three letters. 

The work is very well done, and every Ori- 
entalist will be grateful to Dr. Winckler for 
making this important material so conveniently 
accessible. Space will not permit any detailed 
criticism of the translations, or any account of 
the content of this remarkable correspondence. 
The translation from the German very notice- 
ably shows the influence of the German idiom, 
especially in the preface ; and a few misprints 
are also present, e. g., Rainapa for Rianapa 
(p. 337), and " loin " for loan (on p. 413). 

MESSRS. Harper & Brothers, who are the sole pub- 
lishers in the United States of Dr. Nansen's " Farthest 
North," caution the public against certain infringements 
that have been made upon their rights. 





The versatile mind and pen of Dean Farrar have 
brightened and lightened many a page within the 
past quarter- century. Biblical literature and Chris- 
tian history have received rich bequests from the 
fertility of his brain and the deftness of his hand. 
His latest volume contains a collection of some of 
his choicest thoughts on the meaning and supremacy 
of the Bible. The book contains twenty-three chap- 
ters on a wide scope of themes. But these may be 
classified as treating (1) of biblical introduction, 
(2) of methods of interpretation, (3) of the effects 
of the Bible on the lives and literature of great men. 
To one already familiar with the books of the au- 
thor, this volume contains nothing new. Its pages 
abound with references to his earlier books, and 
exhibit the same breadth of learning and fullness of 
culture. The style is strikingly Farrarian, and for 
the most wins the confidence of the reader by the 
mere force of rhetoric. The views presented are in 
the front ranks of the most progressive churchmen ; 
in fact, they often overstep the bounds of the pro- 
gressive conservative school. Too much space is 
wasted in showing the irrationality of positions long 
ago left in the rear. Even " the allegorical method" 
of interpretation now employed by no reputable 
interpreter covers nearly twenty pages. Then 
farther on in his book (p. 238), the author himself 
suggests that the allegorical interpretation of Lot's 
actions in the mountain is the most reasonable. The 
" verbal dictation " chapter (p. 104 sq.) is equally 
a skeleton of past beliefs. " Plenary inspiration " 
(p. 114 sq.) is merely a " general inspiration " such 
as inspires Christians to-day. The chapter (XVIII.) 
on the " Supremacy of the Bible " is a collation of 
the opinions of sixty-five prominent litterateurs, 
philosophers, scientists, statesmen, generals, and 
philanthropists, as gathered from their writings on 
the value of the Bible as literature and as a guide 
to right living. The whole book is peculiarly mis- 
cellaneous to be from the pen of Dean Farrar. It 
is full of good things, mingled with obsolete and 
exploded views of other days. It adds nothing to 
the wide reputation of the author, but may be the 
means of arousing and stimulating the minds of new 
readers of his works. 

The apparent lethargy of the conservative school 

F. W. Farrar, D.D., F.R.S., Dean of Canterbury. New York : 
Longmans, Green, & Co. 

THE ANCIENT HEBREW TRADITION, as illustrated by the 
Monuments: A Protest against the Modern School of Old 
Testament Criticism. By Dr. Fritz Hommel, Professor of 
Semitic Languages at the University of Munich. Translated 
from the German by Edmund McClure and L. Crossle*. New 
York : E. & J. B. Young & Co. 

THE MYTHS OF ISRAEL : The Ancient Book of Genesis, with 
Analysis and Explanation of its Composition. By Amos Kidder 
Fiske. New York : The Macmillan Co. 

the Texts of Westcott and Hort, Tischendorf , and the English 
Revisers. Edited by Rev. W. F. Moulton, M.A., D.D., and 
Rev. A. S. Geden, M. A. New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 

of Old Testament criticism is quickened to action by 
the accession of such recruits as Professor Hommel. 
This protest, though uttered in sharp terms, is com- 
paratively mild. The author does not sever his 
connection with the analyst school, for in the early 
part of his book he says, in apparent sincerity, " At 
the present time, students of the Old Testament are 
almost unanimous in recognizing the existence of four 
different main sources " of the Pentateuch, namely, 
the Priestly code, the Jehovist, the Elohist, and the 
Deuteronomist. Also in his treatment of the texts 
(e. g., Gen. 14) is reconstructed on a purely subjective 
basis, with as much positiveness as would be done by 
any disciple of Wellhausen. On the basis of style and 
language, he conceives that we can separate chapters 
and parts of chapters and assign them to their proper 
sources. The only noteworthy difference between 
the radical school and Professor Hommel lies in the 
value attached by the latter to Hebrew tradition. 
Our author traverses in the main the field of per- 
sonal names, and on the philological composition of 
these attempts to trace the origin of the language, 
the people, and the religion of old Babylonia and 
Palestine. The names in Babylonian, Egyptian, 
Arabian, and Palestinian documents are analyzed 
with a distressing amount of detail, such as can be 
followed out only by an expert in oriental learning. 
These tests precipitate for the author two important 
facts : (1) the Arabian origin of the Hammurabi 
dynasty of Babylonia and the Hyksos dynasty in 
Egypt, (2) the purely mionotheistic character of the 
early religion of Arabia there being no traces of 
either Fetishism or Totemism. The identifications, 
though often convincing, are now and then exceed- 
ingly questionable. The palaeographic methods of 
Professor Hommel in his earlier works have fore- 
warned scholars against his frequent phrases, " ab- 
solutely proved," "unquestioned," etc., appended 
sometimes to purely hypothetical cases (e. g., p. 39 
and 129, 157 top, 199 bottom, etc.). The author, 
too, dashes ahead with conjectures where caution 
should suggest silence. The material is not new, 
except in a few cases, but has received large atten- 
tion from archaeologists during the past score of 
years. The endless wrangle over the order and date 
of dynasties whose discovered remains are as yet 
mere fragments is next to a waste of time. The 
contested results are at best conjectures, and any 
scheme based thereon is insecure. The position of 
the author, in antagonizing extremists, is this : the 
Priest's Code is preexilic ; Deuteronomy was known 
to Hosea, and was not a pious fraud of Josiah's day ; 
the law and the account of its origin arose in Moses's 
day ; and the parables of Balaam and the Song of 
Deborah were contemporary documents. These 
conclusions are reached chiefly through the use of 
personal names. The book is almost wholly tech- 
nical ; it is popularly uninteresting, and of value 
only to Orientalists. It reads almost like a Hebrew 
lexicon, and will yield its best results in the fields of 
philology and ethnology. There was no gain in 
translating it into English, for all who can follow 


[Sept. 1, 

the author to profit are acquainted with the German 

Mr. Amos Kidder Fiske, the author of "The 
Myths of Israel," has made his debut too late in 
history. His mythical scheme for Genesis has re- 
ceived an archaeological blow from which it can 
never recover. Even admitting a documentary ori- 
gin of the book, there is still enough of archaeolog- 
ical evidence to drive him from the field. Does the 
monumental testimony set before us within the past 
quarter-century pass for nothing ? For example : he 
sees simply a legend in the fourteenth chapter of 
Genesis, " The picture of Melchisedek is a device 
for giving an ancient sanctity to Salem," etc. But 
Professors Sayce, Hommel, and others could point 
out on the monuments to Mr. Fiske the names of 
the legendary kings here mentioned, as well as con- 
firmation of some of the facts connected with the 
description of Melchisedek. A disregard of the 
best and latest results of archaeological research nul- 
lifies the value of this beautifully printed book. 

Since the appearance of the critical editions of 
the Greek text of the New Testament by Tischen- 
dorf and Wescott and Hort, scholars have had no 
up-to-date Greek Concordance. The great work of 
Bruder has served its day with distinction. Neither 
the original work nor the repaired edition of 1888 
has made it what scholars need and demand in order 
to do the most effective work in New Testament 
lexicography and exegesis. The new Concordance, 
edited by Dr. W. F. Moulton and the Rev. A. S. 
Geden will therefore be welcomed. The real author 
of the book, Mr. Geden, has done a work monu- 
mental in character and amount. He has embodied 
in this Concordance all the critical results of three 
of the best critical editions of the New Testament, 
namely, Tischendorf (8th edition), Westcott and 
Hort, and the English Revisers. The Westcott and 
Hort Greek text has been assumed as the standard, 
and with it have been compared the other two texts. 
Marginal readings also have in all cases been in- 
cluded. It is thus seen that this work includes all 
the marginal critical material of three great editions 
of the Greek New Testament. These are each indi- 
cated by appropriate abbreviations. Differences of 
reading are set forth in a line immediately beneath 
the text concerned, but to avoid unnecessary repeti- 
tion or useless bulkiness only such variations are 
noted as affect the form or construction of the word 
under consideration. Care has been exercised to 
secure in the form of the quotation, as far as pos- 
sible, grammatical completeness. Special usages 
and constructions are indicated by small prefixed 
numerals, whose significance is noted at the head of 
each article. Every attempt has been made to re- 
duce the element of personal preference in these 
cases to a minimum. Abbreviations have been em- 
ployed in the text only in the case of indeclinable 
words and of the article. Another important fea- 
ture of the Concordance is that in which the usage 
of words in the New Testament is compared with 
the Greek of the Old Testament and of classical 

writers. These variations are noted by asterisks 
and a dagger ; and are based, regarding the Sep- 
tuagint, for the most part upon the new Oxford 
Concordance. This, we do not hesitate to say, is 
the part of the work which must be tested before 
adoption. It opens a field that few scholars are 
able to enter with any great familiarity, and one in 
which fewer can put forth decisions of real value. 
Mr. Geden, however, has done his part cautiously 
and carefully, and would no doubt claim slight credit 
for originality in his announced opinions. Still one 
more point adds to the efficiency of this Concord- 
ance as a tool for New Testament workmen. " Of 
all direct quotations from the Old Testament, the 
Hebrew text is given immediately beneath the 
Greek ; occasionally also of passages in which only 
an indirect or disputed reference is present." The 
Hebrew text followed is that of Baer (as far as 
published) and Theile. But a question arises here 
which will not down, namely : Why cite the Hebrew 
text of the Old Testament, when the majority of 
the quotations in the New Testament are from the 
LXX.? Why would it not have been better to give 
us the LXX. where it agrees with the quotation, or 
the Hebrew where the same result is apparent, or 
both where neither exactly agrees? Such a pre- 
sentation would have materially aided the user of 
the book, and would have imposed no great burden 
on the editor. The volume is beautifully printed, 
with but few Greek and Hebrew accents broken off 
in the presswork. Errors are rare compared with 
the immense care necessary to secure correctness. 
The book is a boon for every biblical scholar who 

wil1 use it- IRA M. PRICE. 


A doubtful 
French critic 
of America. 

" America and the Americans from 
a French Point of View" (Scribner) 
is not a very easy book to deal with, 
for it is full of sharp criticism of Americans and of 
American life. Now, where such criticism is well- 
founded, the thing to do is to get some good out of 
it ; and where it is not well-founded, the thing to do 
is to do nothing. But there is always a difficulty 
in determining whether adverse criticism is well- 
founded. It is always easy for a traveller to pick 
faults with the life he happens to observe, and 
travellers are very apt to do so. Our reception of 
a work on America is very apt to be influenced by 
the spirit in which the author observes and the sin- 
cerity with which he writes, and, it may be added, 
by the value of the positive suggestions he makes. 
In the present case there are no positive suggestions, 
so that that matter may be passed over : the author 
does not affect to be able to rearrange matters and 
make them better than they are, he merely points 
out where there are possibilities of improvement. 
Unfortunately, however, it is obvious that the writer 
got together his material with a mind quite set on 




making the sharpest attack possible. It is true, he 
says a great deal about kindly feeling for America, 
and about the kindly manner in which he was there 
received. We have no doubt that he may have been 
received with kindness, but there is no reason to 
suppose that he has any kind feeling in return. The 
tone of the book is, from beginning to end, carping ; 
now and then it is malicious, now and then it is 
hypocritically benevolent. So one cannot think the 
book the work of an open-minded observer : it is 
the work of a man on the lookout for flaws. Nor 
is it a sincere book. Although said to be the diary 
of a Frenchman which he wrote for the pleasure of 
his sister, but which he permits to be translated at 
the suggestion of two American friends, it seems 
much more like the original work of an American. 
Without going into particulars, there is a good deal 
that seems to us inconsistent with the chosen char- 
acter. It seems to us that the author would have 
done better had he pretended he was a Russian who 
knew the English language. Since it would seem, 
then, that the book is written by someone who has 
adopted a silly mask for the pleasure of saying 
sharp things, it is hard to take just the right atti- 
tude about it. It certainly does note many points 
about our national life which deserve adverse criti- 
cism, as, for example, that we are too confident 
that machinery can do everything ; that we are too 
devoted to seeming to be busy ; that our politics are 
not worthy a great republic ; that we have too great 
admiration for money and material comfort, and so 
on. These criticisms, which we must acknowledge 
to be well-founded, though not especially new, give 
the book a sort of value. Probably, however, they 
will not have much more effect on America and the 
Americans than usually attends the efforts of an 
anonymous fault-finder. 

Dr. Otto Georg Wetterstrand is a 

Hypnotism as a o j v. u t. v. A 

curative agent. Swedish physician who has intro- 
duced into the countries of the far 
north the methods of treating disease by suggestion, 
which has been so completely and successfully de- 
veloped in the south, notably in Paris and Nancy. 
His experience with hypnotic suggestion as a thero- 
peutic agent he has recorded in a volume recently 
translated into English by Dr. H. G. Petersen, with 
the title " Hypnotism and its Application to Prac- 
tical Medicine" (Putnam). The volume is largely 
composed of extracts from a physician's case-book, 
properly classified and annotated. The claims made 
for this agency are modestly urged, and with no 
straining to exhibit it as infallible, as supernatural, 
or as a panacea. Like all legitimate forms of treat- 
ment, it has its successes and failures, is better 
adapted in some cases than in others, and is based 
upon well-recognized principles of physiological ac- 
tion. Almost the entire gamut of ills that flesh is heir 
to is represented in the record of cases successfully 
treated, from insomnia and neuralgia to paralysis 
and epilepsy ; from stuttering and neurasthenia to 
hysteria and blindness ; from anaemia and rheuma- 

tism to asthma and heart disease, on the whole, 
an array of evidence which no unprejudiced reader 
can afford to ignore. It is, however, in nervous 
complaints of functional origin that hypnotic sug- 
gestion finds its most potent application, acting in 
other troubles by influencing general conditions of 
recuperation rather than directly upon the parts 
affected. Dr. Wetterstrand allows the facts to speak 
for themselves, and indulges in no theories or strained 
explanations. He is an adherent of the Nancy 
school of hypnotism, and thus regards the essential 
nature of suggestion as a purely psychical process, 
which the physician should utilize advisedly and 
judiciously, and not leave to the ill-considered and 
pernicious manipulations of charlatans. The trans- 
lator has added to the volume a few essays on kin- 
dred topics, which detract from rather than add to 
the value of the work. His remarks on hypnotism 
and other topics are mere random observations, 
furnishing the author an opportunity of gathering 
about them quasi-philosophical discussions in which 
the scientific method is conspicuously absent. 

To the art-student and the speculator 

a?p d on art ' the 8ub 3 ect of Landscape in 

Poetry is a singularly interesting one. 
There are various ways of looking at the matter. 
The most useful way is to consider how far poetry 
can deal with landscape and how it does deal with 
it, to attempt something of the task of Lessing in 
the light of a hundred years' observation of Nature. 
The landscape of the last century, in poetry and in 
painting, is worth all the landscape in the world, in 
all preceding centuries. So if one wished to talk about 
something that would really count, one would revise 
the conclusions of the " Laokoon " in the light of Tur- 
ner and Monet on the one hand, and of Wordsworth 
and Tennyson on the other. This Mr. Palgrave has 
not done in his " Landscape in Poetry " (Macmillan). 
He remarks that "to trace landscape in colour 
through its parallel course to landscape in words 
would be a most interesting study "; but he has him- 
self been content to trace historically the sense of 
nature in the poetry of the world from Homer down. 
This treatment, we think, rather misconceives the 
subject. Nature in Poetry is one thing ; Landscape 
in Poetry is another. One may conceive of Nature 
in a philosophic way ; the word Landscape connotes 
an artistic apprehension. And the study of an 
artistic apprehension necessitates the study of pos- 
sibilities and methods, and the comparison of dif- 
ferent arts. Mr. Palgrave attempts to conceive of 
landscape philosophically ; but when he says " land- 
scape " he means what is commonly called " nature," 
though in a somewhat restricted sense. We cannot, 
however, think it right to call Wordsworth a "poet- 
landscapist," when one really means to explain his 
sense of the "pre-ordained secret harmony" be- 
tween Nature and the heart of man. Mr. Palgrave's 
view is probably of more general interest to the 
student of human thought than our own, but our 
view is the one that is interesting to the artist and 



[Sept. 1, 

the lover of poetry as poetry. Taking his book for 
what he meant it to be, however, and not despising 
it for what it might better have been, it will be found 
a very good work on the subject. It is a little too 
much of a golden treasury of pictures in poetry, and 
too often leaves the reader to make his own general- 
izations. Still, the English reader has not anywhere 
else such a view as is here given, and Mr. Palgrave's 
book must be valued accordingly. 

m*', antiquity A 8eries of papers, varying greatly in 
in the Eastern character and value, upon the Arch- 
United state*. geology of the Eastern United States, 
by Mr. Henry C. Mercer, appear in the publications 
of the University of Pennsylvania, with the title 
" Researches upon the Antiquity of Man in the 
Delaware Valley and the Eastern United States " 
(Ginn & Co.). In the leading paper Mr. Mercer 
investigates the question of the argillite "turtle- 
back " and other rudely-chipped implements which 
Dr. Abbott claims to have found in undisturbed 
glacial gravels. He analyzes the material, showing 
that actual finding in situ is claimed for compara- 
tively few specimens. Mr. Mercer's own investiga- 
tions have yielded no truly glacial relics. On the 
other hand, they have brought to light a quarry 
where argillite was taken out, and a site where it 
was worked up into form, both plainly modern. 
Mr. Mercer, while finding no evidence of Quater- 
nary man in the Delaware Valley gravels, does find 
evidence at one site of two periods of occupancy by 
early peoples. During the older of these, argillite 
was used almost to the exclusion of chert, jasper, 
etc., in the manufacture of implements ; during the 
later, it is relatively an uncommon material. This, 
though an interesting fact, is not new. The other 
papers in this volume deal with ossuariez, shell- 
heaps, and cave exploration. The material has 
little general interest, but well deserves record. The 
present interest of the University of Pennsylvania 
in archaeology is most fortunate, and may be ex- 
pected to yield important additions to the science. 

The late Professor T. H. Green the 
"Professor Gray"of Mrs. Humphry 
Ward was unquestionably the most 
influential philosophical thinker of this generation 
in England. As an interpreter of certain of the 
great masters of the past, he pointed out the real 
nature and the bearing of the problems they were 
dealing with, and the extent and the grounds alike 
of their successes and failures, with an insight and 
skill such as we find in no professed historian of 
philosophy ; while as a constructive thinker he ranks 
among the leaders of the idealistic school. For 
these reasons, no student of the subject can afford 
to neglect his writings ; but as these are by no means 
easy reading, a connected statement of Professor 
Green's views, with the grounds on which they are 
based, will be of obvious value at least to the begin- 
ner. Such a service Mr. W. H. Fairbrother has 
aimed to perform in his volume entitled "The 

Philosophy of T. H. Green" (Macmillan). In a 
comparatively short space he has given a clear, sys- 
tematic, and accurate presentation of Green's meta- 
physical, ethical, and political theories. Some por- 
tions of the work, indeed, will hardly be intelligible 
except when read in the light of the text they are 
intended to explain. But this cannot be urged as 
an objection, since the aim of the book is distinctly 
stated to be " to help the younger student to read 
Green for himself." This useful mission it is admir- 
ably adapted to fulfil. 


Both amateurs and artists interested in lithography 
will admire the handsome quarto volume entitled " Some 
Masters of Lithography " (Appleton), containing twenty- 
two representative lithographs reproduced in photogra- 
ure, with full descriptive text. The author, Mr. Atherton 
Curtis, has made such selections from the plates of the 
greatest lithographic artists as would best set forth the 
resources and the highest achievements of the art, from 
Senefelder to Gavarni. The twelve artists whose careers 
and work are presented include Ge'ricault, Bonington, 
Isabey, Delacroix, Daumier, and Raffet. These critical 
studies are the results of careful work, which has 
included the examination of over 15,000 prints at the 
Bibliotheque Nationale ; and the plates may be regarded 
as successful reproductions of the original lithographs. 

A revised and enlarged edition of Mr. W. J. Hardy's 
well-known work on " Book- Plates " is imported by 
Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons. The number of per- 
sons interested in this subject has largely increased, says 
Mr. Hardy, since the work first appeared, in 1893; and 
these will welcome this improved edition, which con- 
tains considerable additional matter and at least one 
interesting new plate. We glean the curious bit of 
information that in America the taste for book-plates 
seems to prevail chiefly among lawyers. 

Messrs. Rand, McNally & Co. have published a trans- 
lation, made by Mrs. C. A. Kingsbury, of About's " The 
King of the Mountains." We do not recollect any pre- 
vious translation, and, if this be indeed the first, it cer- 
tainly was high time for the work to be done, for in the 
" Rod des Montagues " About is at his best, and the story 
has a perennial interest, to say nothing of its timeliness 
just now when the Greeks are getting so much attention. 
The satire of the tale is somewhat extravagant, but 
events have justified a great deal of it, and there is at 
least no doubt of the entertaining qualities of the ro- 


Messrs. T. Y. Crowell & Co. are to publish an English 
translation of " The Pharaoh," a remarkable historical 
novel by Mr. Boleslaw Prus, a Polish writer. 

Volumes 2 and 3 of the report of the Venezuelan 
Boundary Commission have been issued from the Gov- 
ernment Printing Office, completing that very thorough, 
although hardly very valuable, work. 

The " Examination Bulletin " for June of the Univer- 
sity of the State of New York is devoted to the subject 
of " College-Entrance English," and is a document of 
great value to all engaged in that department of educa- 




tional work. It is edited by Dr. Richard Jones, and 
contains articles by a number of competent specialists, 
as well as a great variety of specimen examination 
papers sent by colleges all over the country. 

Messrs. D. Appleton & Co. have just published three 
of Mr. Hamlin Garland's novels in a neat uniform edi- 
tion. The titles are: " A Spoil of Office," " A Member 
of the Third House," and " Wayside Courtships." 

The " Graduate Courses " for 1897-98, just issued by 
the Macmillan Co., is the fifth annual publication of 
that useful work. It is both concise and accurate, and 
wisely conservative in its definition of " graduate " work. 

The third volume of Mrs. Martha Foote Crow's 
" Elizabethan Sonnet-Cycles " contains Michael Dray- 
ton's " Idea," Bartholomew Griffin's " Fidessa," and 
William Smith's " Chloris." The complete series will 
consist of four volumes, and is published by Messrs. 
A. C. McClurg & Co. 

The first of six volumes to contain Boswell's " Life 
of Johnson," edited by Mr. Arnold Glover, is published 
by the Macmillan Co. in their Temple Classics." The 
same publishers have added Sheridan's " The School for 
Scandal," edited by Mr. G. A. Aitken, to their series of 
" Temple Dramatists." 

" The Victorian Era," by Mr. P. Anderson Graham 
(Longmans), is a well printed and richly illustrated 
book, designed for the reading of young people. It 
states briefly and clearly the history of England during 
the past sixty years, and makes an admirable gift for 
any intelligent boy or girl. 

Messrs. Small, Maynard & Company is the style of a 
new Boston publishing firm that will begin operations 
this fall. The members composing the firm are Messrs. 
Herbert Small, Laurens Maynard, and Bliss Carman, 
and the first work to bear their imprint will be a new 
edition of the works of Walt Whitman. 

Number four of the " American Colonial Tracts " 
(Humphrey) is a reprint of the " True and Historical 
Narrative of the Colony of Georgia in America," printed 
in Charlestown in 1741, for the three landholders whose 
names appear as those of the authors. It is a thick 
pamphlet of nearly a hundred pages, sold at the mod- 
erate price of twenty-five cents. 

Mr. Nathan Haskell Dole's variorum edition of the 
" Rubaiyat " will be published this fall in holiday form 
by Messrs. L. C. Page & Co. of Boston. The new edi- 
tion will be revised and somewhat enlarged, and will 
contain some Danish and Italian versions, selections 
from Mr. Le Gallienne's recent translations, and a num- 
ber of drawings by Mr. E. H. Garrett. 

The ever-lengthening list of periodicals sent forth 
from the University of Chicago is now made to include 
a " Zoological Bulletin," edited by Professors Whitman 
and Wheeler. The new publication is a bi-monthly, 
and intended as a companion serial to the " Journal of 
Morphology." It will publish the shorter papers that 
do not require to be illustrated by plates. 

About twenty-five years ago Mr. Austin Dobson com- 
piled a " Handbook of English Literature " which, while 
intended primarily to assist candidates in the English 
Civil Service examinations, met with a good deal of 
success in other fields than the one for which it was 
originally planned. With the author's consent, the work 
has now been carefully revised and extended to the 
present time by Professor W. Hall Griffin of Queen's 
College, London, and published in a handsome new edi- 
tion by Messrs. Longmans, Green, & Co. 


September, 1897. 

Astronomical Experience in Japan. Mabel L.Todd. Atlantic. 
Bible, Recent Books on the. Ira M. Price. Dial. 
Books that Girls have Loved. Erin Graham. Lippincott. 
Botany, The Scope of. George J. Pierce. Popular Science. 
Browning's Summers in Britany. A. M. Mosher. Century. 
Byron in the Greek Revolution. F. B. Sanborn. Scribner. 
Byron, Henley's Edition of. M. B. Anderson. Dial. 
Character, Forming of. M. V. O'Shea. Popular Science. 
Chicago Drainage Canal, The. John L. Wright. Lippincott. 
Coinage, Spanish Experiments in. H. C. Lea. Pop. Science. 
Congo Free State, Cruelty in. E. J. Glave. Century. 
Du Maurier, George. Henry James. Harper. 
Electricity during Last Five Years. F. Bendt. Chautauquan. 
Equality, American Notion of. H. C. Merwin. Atlantic. 
European Housekeeping. Frances C. Baylor. Lippincott. 
Gladstone, Glimpses of. Harry Furniss. Century. 
Gold Seeker in the West, The. Sam Davis. Chautauquan. 
Hero-Worship. Dial. 

Horticulture, The Trend of. George E. Walsh. Lippincott. 
Human Quality in Literature. Woodrow Wilson. Atlantic. 
London, Around, by Bicycle. Elizabeth R. Pennell. Harper. 
Mignan Seigniory, Shores of the. Frederic Irland. Scribner. 
Milkweed, The. William Hamilton Gibson. Harper. 
Mormons, The. William T. Lamed. Lippincott. 
Musical Mexico. Arthur Howard Noll. Lippincott. 
New York Police Force, Reform in. Theo. Roosevelt. Ada. 
Navy, American, Beginnings of the. James Barnes. Harper. 
Navy, British, History of the. Dial. 

Navy, The New, Organization for. Ira N. Hollis. Atlantic. 
Paris Exposition of 1900, The. Theodore Stanton. Lippincott. 
Peloponnesian War, A Southerner in the. Atlantic. 
Plato and his Republic. Paul Shorey. Chautauquan. 
Polar Research. George Gerland. Popular Science. 
Prisoners of State at Boro Boeder. Eliza R. Scidmore. Century. 
Rich and Poor, Present Status of. C. D. Wright. Atlantic. 
Royalists and Republicans. Pierre de Coubertin. Century. 
Samoa. John H. Wagner. Harper. 

San Sebastian, the Spanish Newport. W. H. Bishop. Scribner. 
Schmidt, Professor Erich. James T. Hatfield. Dial. 
Sculpture, American, A New Note in. A. Hoeber. Century. 
Tell-el-Amarna Letters, The. J. H. Breasted. Dial. 
Tenement- House Reform in New York. Chautauquan. 
Tennessee's Centennial, Notes on. F. H. Smith. Scribner. 
Twentieth-Century Outlook, A. A. T. Mahan. Harper. 
Washington, Life in. W. E. Curtis. Chautauquan. 


[The following list, containing 41 titles, includes books 
received by THE DIAL since its last issue.] 

Elizabethan Sonnet-Cycles. Edited by. Martha Foote 

Crow. Vol. III., containing Drayton's Idea, Griffin's 

Fidessa, and Smith's Chloris. 16mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 

199. A. C. McClurg & Co. $1.50 net. 
Authors' Readings. Compiled and illustrated by Art Young. 

12mo, pp. 215. F. A. Stokes Co. $1.25. 
Literary Art : A Handbook for its Study. By Harriet Noble. 

12iuo, pp. 241. Terre Haute, Ind.: Inland Pub'g Co. $1. 


" Outward Bound " Edition of Rudyard Kiplingr's 
Works. New vols.: The Jungle Book, and The Second 
Jungle Book. Each illus., 8vo, gilt top, uncut. Charles 
Scribner's Sons. Per vol., $2. (Sold only by subscrip- 

Sheridan's The School for Scandal. Edited by G. A. 
Aitken. With portrait, 24mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 166. 
"Temple Dramatists." Macmillan Co. 45 cts. 

Boswell's Life of Johnson. Edited by Arnold Glover. 
Vol. I.; with portrait, 18mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 331. 
" Temple Classics." Macmillan Co. 50 cts. 



[Sept. 1, 


The Court of the Tuileries. From the Restoration to the 

Flight of Louis Philippe. By Catherine Charlotte, Lady 

Jackson. In 2 vols., illus., I'-'mo, gilt tops, uncut. L. C. 

Page & Co. $3.50. 
Annals of Switzerland. By Julia M. Colton. Illus., 12mo, 

uncut, pp. 301. A. S. Barnes & Co. $1.25. 
The Missions of California : Their Establishment, Progress, 

and Decay. By Laura Bride Powers. Illus., 12mo, gilt 

top, pp. 106. William Doxey. $1.25. 
A Short History of the Italian Waldenses, Who Have 

Inhabitated the Valleys of the Cottian Alps, from Ancient 

Times to the Present. By Sophia V. Bompiani. 12mo, 

uncut, pp. 175. A. 8. Barnes & Co. $1. 
The Hebrews in Egypt, and their Exodus. By Alexander 

Wheelock Thayer. 12mo, pp. 315. Peoria, 111.: E. S. 


Sir Walter Ralegh: The Stanhope Essay, 1897. By John 

Buchan. 12rao, uncut, pp. 78. Oxford, England : B. H. 



Colonial Verses (Mount Vernon). By Ruth Lawrence. 
Illus., Itimo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 33. Brentano's. $1.25. 


Jerome, a Poor Man. By Mary E. Wilkins. Illus., 16mo, 

pp. 506. Harper & Bros. $1.50. 
A Colonial Free-Lance. By Channcey C. Hotchkiss. 12mo, 

pp. 312. D. Appleton & Co. $1. 
For Her Life : A Story of Great Petersburg. By Richard 

Henry Savage. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 448. Rand, 

McNally&Co. $1. 
Then, and Not 'Til Then. By Clara Nevada McLeod. 

12mo, pp. 215. New York: Robert Louis Weed Co. 



The Age of the Renascence (1377-1527). By Paul Van 
Dyke. With Introduction by Henry Van Dyke. 12mo, 
pp. 397. "Ten Epochs of Church History." Christian 
Literature Co. $1.50. 

Daniel and the Minor Prophets. Edited by Richard G. 
Moulton, M. A. 24mo, gilt top, pp. 286. " Modern Reader's 
Bible." MacmillanCo. 50 cts. 


Sound Money Monographs. By William C. Cornwell. 

12mo, uncut, pp. 178. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1. 
An Essay on Value. With a short account of American 

Currency. By John Borden. 12mo, pp. 232. Rand, 

McNaUy&Co. $1. 
Monetary Problems and Reforms. By Charles H. Swan, 

Jr. 12mo, pp. 81. " Questions of the Day." G. P. Put- 
nam's Sons. 75 cts. 
English Local Government of To-Day: A Study of the 

Relations of Central and Local Government. By Milo Roy 

Maltbie, Ph.D. 8vo, uncut, pp. 296. "Columbia College 

Studies." Macmillan Co. Paper, $2. 
Massachusetts Tax Problems. By Henry Winn. 8vo, 

pp. 52. Boston : J. A. Cummings Ptg. Co. Paper. 


The Encyclopaedia of Sport. Edited by the Earl of Suf- 
folk and Berkshire. Hedley Peek, and F. G. Aflalo. 
Parts II., III., and IV.; each illus. in photogravure, etc., 
4to, uncut. G. P. Putnam's Sons. Per part, paper, $1. 


Citizen Bird: Scenes from Bird- Life in Plain English for 
Beginners. By Mabel Osgood Wright and Elliott Coues. 
Illus., 12mo, pp. 430. Macmillan Co. $1.50 net. 

Ole Mammy's Torment. By Annie Fellows Johnston. 

Illus., 12mo, pp. 118. L. C. Page & Co. 50 cts. 
The Farrier's Dog and his Fellow. By Will Allen Drom- 

goole. Illus., 12mo, pp. 75. L. C. Page & Co. 50 cts. 
The Prince of the Pin Elves. By Charles Lee Sleight. 

Illus., 12mo, pp. 159. L. C. Page & Co. 50 cts. 


German Orthography and Phonology: A Treatise, with 
a Word-List. By George Hempl, Ph.D. Part First, The 
Treatise ; 12mo, pp. 264. Ginn & Co. $2.10. 

Practical Physiology: A Text-Book for Higher Schools. 
By Albert F. Blaisdell, M.D. Illns., 12mo, pp. 448. Ginn 
&Co. $1.30. 

Fragments of Roman Satire from Ennius to Apuleius. 
Selected and arranged by Elmer Truesdell Merrill. 12mo, 
pp. 178. American Book Co. 75 cts. 

Stories from the Arabian Nights. Selected and edited by 
M. Clarke. Illus., 12mo, pp. 271. American Book Co. 60c. 

A Study of English Words. By Jessie Macmillan Ander- 
son. 12mo, pp. 118. American Book Co. 40 cts. 

A Catalogue of the Washington Collection in the Boston 

Athenaeum. Compiled and annotated by Appleton P. C. 

Griffin ; with Appendix by William Coolidge Lane. Illus., 

large 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 566. Boston Athenaeum. $5. 
Outlines of the History of Classical Philology. By 

Alfred Gudeman. Third edition, revised and enlarged ; 

12mo, pp. 81. Ginn & Co. $1. 
Obituary Record of Franklin and Marshall College. 

Edited for the Alumni Association. Large 8vo, uncut, 

pp. 245. Lancaster, Pa.: Alumni Association of Franklin 

and Marshall College. Paper, $1. 
Infancy and Childhood. By Frances Fisher Wood. Itimo, 

pp. 154. Harper & Bros. $1. 
Manners for Men. By Mrs. Humphry ("Madge" of 

" Truth "). 16mo, pp. 160. New York : M. F. Mansfield. 

50 cts. 
The Librarian of the Sunday School: A Manual. By 

Elizabeth Louisa Foote, A.B. 16mo, pp. 81. Eaton & 

Mams. 35 cts. 


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[Sept. 1, 1897. 



r'PMTDAI APDIPA An attempt to give some account of a portion of the Territories under 
Wd'N 1 K/\L, /*ri^!W\ British influence North of the Zambezi. By Sir HARRY H.JOHNSTON, 
K.C.B., F.Z.S., F.R.G.S., F.R.S.G.S. ; H. M. Commissioner and Consul-General in British Central Africa. With six 
maps and two hundred and twenty illustrations, reproduced from the author's drawings or from photographs. Large 
8vo. Price, $10.00. 

In presenting Sir Harry Johnston's work on " British Central Africa " the publisher believes that he is issuing a book of exceptional 
interest, not only as connected with current events, but as forming a contribution of permanent value to the study of Africa. He considers 
that in some respects this book is worthy to be ranked with Dr. Schweinfurth's "Heart of Africa," and Emin Pasha's "Journals." Conse- 
quently no expense has been spared in producing this study of British Central Africa in a manner suitable to the author's literary style and 
artistic illustrations. 

B y GRANT ALLEN, Author of "The Woman Who Did," etc. 

iii ustrate d. i2mo, cloth, $1.50. 

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entertain. One's sympathies will be enlisted in behalf of the clever and quick-witted rogue whose methods of victii 

startling and audacious, and full of the mystery which keeps one's interest unabated. 

ctimizing the millionaire are 


WII n NOPWAY with Chapters on the Swedish Highlands, Jutland and Spitzbergen. By ABEL 
^ WIV T CHAPMAN, Author of " Wild Spain," etc. With seventeen full-page illustrations and 

numerous smaller ones by the author and CHARLES WHTMPER. Demy 8vo, $5.00. 

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THP MONTHS Leaves from a Field Naturalist's Note Book. By Sir HERBERT 
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etc. With photogravure illustrations. Crown octavo, $i. 75* 
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During the Tennessee Centennial and International 
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has been established for the sale of tickets from 
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Ask your ticket agent for tickets via Cinqinnati and the 
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General Passenger Agent, Cincinnati, O. 

A -;-- , 

Colorado * </ 

Summer ^;J--- n 

Is the title of an illustrated 
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Address C. c/7. Higgins, 
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Summer tourist rates now 
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Tueblo, Colorado Springs, 
Manitou, and Denver. The 
way to go is via 





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cfe - a c py- J 315 WABASH AVE. 

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126 THE DIAL [Sept. 16, 



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1897.] THE DIAL 127 



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[Sept. 16, 


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[Sept. 16, 

Ready September 24. Published by The Century Co. 



Sometime Brevet Lieut.-Colonel on the Staff of his Excellency, General Washington." 

Pictures by Howard Pyle. In two vols., small 8vo, $2.00. 

"I am almost tempted to say that with the exception of Cooper's Spy it is the only successful Revolutionary 
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8vo, cloth, 355 pages, $2.00. 

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Issued under the Auspices of the Empire State Sons of the American Revolution. 
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Gleanings in Buddha- Fields. 

Studies of Hand and Soul in the Far East. By 
LAFCADIO HEARN, author of " Glimpses of Un- 
familiar Japan " (2 vols., crown 8vo, $4.00) ; " Out 
of the East" ($1.25); and "Kokoro" ($1.25). 
16mo, $1.25. [Sept. #5.] 

This book, like the three named herewith, justifies 
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Talks on the Study of Literature. 

By ARLO BATES, Professor of English in the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and author 
of " Talks on Writing English," etc. Crown 8vo, 
$1.50. [Sept. 18.] 
A clear, strong, helpful book, like his previous volume ; 

a competent and interesting guide in a most delightful 

region of study. 

c/7 Dictionary of American Authors. 

By OSCAR FAY ADAMS, author of " A Handbook 
of English Authors," etc. Crown 8vo, $3.00. 
[Sept. 25.] 

This dictionary has grown out of Mr. Adams's " Hand- 
book of American Authors," but it has been greatly 
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It is a very convenient, almost indispensable, book of 
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The Ruins and Excavations of Ancient 

By RODOLFO LANCIANI, author of " Ancient 
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and Christian Rome," etc. With numerous illustra- 
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$4.00. [Oat. ft] 

This is a book of great value and interest for students 
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France under Louis XV. 

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succession, and the war of France with England which 
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The Story of an Untold Love. 

By PAUL LEICESTER FORD, author of " The Hon- 
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The Federal Judge. 

A Novel. By CHARLES K. LUSH. 16mo, $1.25. 
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Uncle Lisba's Outing. 

By ROWLAND E. ROBINSON, author of " Danvis 
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etc. 16mo, $1.25. 

This book is largely filled with stories of hunting and 
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Three "Partners; 

Or, The Big Strike on Heavy -Tree Hill. By BRET 
HARTE. 16mo, $1.25. 

Several characters who have figured in previous stories 
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only he can write dashing, original, entertaining. 

The Young {Mountaineers. 

(Mary N. Murfree), author of " In the Tennessee 
Mountains," etc. With illustrations. 12mo. $1.50. 
This book contains stories of adventure in the moun- 
tains of East Tennessee; they all have boys for heroes, 
and are told in a vigorous, dramatic manner. 

*** For sale by all Booksellers, or will be sent postpaid, upon receipt of price, by the Publishers, 


132 THE DIAL [Sept. 16, 



FREE TO SER VE. A Tale of Colonial New York. By EMMA RAYNER. Cover designed by 

Maxfield Parish. $1.50. 

For the background of this romantic story the author has chosen a little-worked but extremely interesting time and 
place, New York in the early 18th century, when the manners and customs were part Datch and part English, with 
Indians and Frenchmen lurking in the shadows. The romance has a new scheme of plot, and hurries on through a series 
of vivid adventures in the lives of two brothers and the handmaid who is free to serve, but not to plight her troth, till 
the end of the story. A Puritan maid from New England lends a piquant contrast to her Dutch relatives, and thus all 
types of colonial Americans are on the stage. 


In this book Mr. Flandrau has departed widely from the usual college story. He has, in a series of short, vivid sketches, 
drawn the modern " Harvard Man " as he is, not as he has been or as he ought to be, but truthfully as he is. The book 
does not, naturally, detail all sides of the present complex Harvard life ; but for the side which it does treat, the typical 
prosperous, happy side, it does the best thing, tells the truth, and tells it in a most delightful fashion. We feel sure 
that so accurate a picture of modern college life has not yet been drawn, and that all college men will appreciate this and 
heartily welcome the book. 

SHAD O WS. A Book of Poems. By M. A. DE WOLFE HOWE. Cloth, octavo. $1.25. 
VICTORY. A Book of Poems. By HANNAH PARKER KIMBALL. Cloth, octavo. $1.25. 
MIDDLEWAY. New England Sketches. By KATE WHITING PATCH. $1.25. 

OUT OF THE SILENCE. By JOHN VANCE CHENEY. Cloth, octavo. $1.50. 

For Mr. Cheney's new book, which presents the best poems he has written since the publication of " Wood Blooms" 
(New York, 1888), it is safe to predict the same cordial welcome that greeted his earlier volumes. 

VIVETTE ; or, The Memoirs of the Romance Association. By GELLETT BURGESS. $1.25. 

L A SANTA YERBA. A Book of Verse in Praise of Tobacco and Smoking. By W. L. SHOEMAKER. 
12mo, leather back and marbled paper sides. 18th century style. $1.00. 

ONE WAY TO THE WOODS. By EVALEEN STEIN. No. VII. Oaten Stop Series. 12mo, 75c. 

DUKE CARL OF ROSENMOLD. By WALTER PATER. Second in the series of Imaginary 
Portraits so successfully commenced with " The Child in the House." Printed on hand-made paper. $1.00. 

SONNETS OF SHAKESPEARE. No. IV. English Love Sonnet Series. 750 copies on hand- 
made paper. $2.50. 

O UR LAD Y* S TUMBLER. A Tale of Medieval France, newly translated by ISABEL BUTLER. 
Uniform with " Aucassin and Nicolette," small square octavo. 75 cents. 


THE FAL CON OF LANGEA C. By ISABEL WHITELY. Cloth, octavo. $1.50. 

Of its kind, " The Falcon of Langeac " is one of the strongest of a year of books. Boston Courier. 

Some of the best romantic works of to-day are from the pens of those writers who go to the distant past for their inspiration and ideas. 
Of this class of writers, they are the most successful when historical knowledge enables them to tell a simple tale in which human nature 
throbs strongly, and not pedantically, amid the glamour of by-gone days, when faith was strong, and life was painted in more glowing tales 
than it can be to-day. Such a story is "The Falcon of Langeac." It is more idyllic and sweet in character than a Hope tale. . . . The 
spirit of the Middle Ages has rarely been better reflected in a story by a modern author. Worcester Daily Spy. 

NEW POEMS. By FRANCIS THOMPSON, author of Poems," etc. Cloth. $1.50. 

With one exception the poems in this, Mr. Thompson's third volume, have hitherto been uncollected. The book is larger 
than its predecessors, and the work is of equal, if not superior, quality. It may be confidently predicted that its appear- 
ance will be one of the literary events of the season in America and England. 

PATRINS. A Volume of Essays. By LOUISE IMOGEN GUINEY. Cloth, octavo. $1.25. 

A number of short essays of a speculative and whimsical character on disconnected subjects. An extract from the dedi- 
cation (to Mr. Bliss Carman) explains the curious title. " A patrin, according to George Borrow, in ' Romano Lavo-Lil,' 
is * a Gypsy trail, handf uls of leaves or grass cast by the Gypsies on the road, to denote to those behind the way which 
they have taken.' " 

The Literary World says: " 'Patrins ' is full of charm for the man or woman who knows how to read, as Miss Guiney says, ' by instinct 
and favor, for wantoness, for private adventure's sake ; and incidental profit be hanged, drawn, and quartered ! ' . . . We should like to 
quote many of Miss Guiney's clever sayings, but it is a pity to tear them from their settings. We leave them for her readers to enjoy with 
the pleasure of private discovery." 


The poems here gathered are eminently representative of the author's genius. To many readers they will recall and 
justify the cordial words with which Mr. Stedman greeted one of Mrs. Spofford's earlier works. 

Few volumes of poetry have recently appeared which equal this in interest, dramatic power, and the subtle mastery of lyric forms. 
New Orleans Picayune. 





G. P. Putnam's Sons' Fall Announcements. 


Or, Anecdotes of an Enterprise Beyond the Rocky 
Mountains. By WASHINGTON IRVING. Tacoma Edition, 
uniform in general style with the previous holiday 
editions of Irving's works. Twovols., large 8vo, beauti- 
fully printed and bound. Cloth extra, gilt tops, $6.00; 
three-quarters levant, $12.00. 

This edition is printed from entirely new plates, and is by far the 
most sumptuous presentation of " Astoria" ever issued. It is em- 
bellished with borders, printed in colors, especially designed by 
Margaret Armstrong. The photogravure illustrations have been 
specially prepared for this edition by the well-known artists R. F. 
Zogbaum, F. S. Church, C. Harry Eaton, J. C. Beard, and others. 


By MARION HARLAND. Fully illustrated. 8vo, gilt top. 

In this volume the author tells the stories of some Colonial Home- 
steads whose names have become household words. The book is 
charmingly written, and is embellished by a large number of illustra- 
tions, very carefully selected and engraved. Among the home- 
steads presented are: Brandon, Westover, Shirley, Marshall House, 
Cliveden (Chew House), Morris House, Van Cortlandt, Manor House, 
Oak Hill (The Home of the Livingstons), Philipse Manor House, 
Jumel House (Fort Washington), Smith House (Shardn,Conn.), Pierce 
Homestead, Parson Williams's House, Varina (Pocahontas), James- 
town, and Williamsburg. 


The Half Moon Series. Edited by MAUD WILDER 
NAM. Illustrated. 8vo, gilt top. 

The volume includes the papers which have appeared under the 
title of the "Half Moon Series." The book is quaintly illustrated, 
and affords glimpses of New York in the olden time, which cannot 
fail to interest those who know the city only in its strenuous modern 

ICAN REVOLUTION, 1763-1783. 

By MOSES COIT TYLER, Professor of American Litera- 
ture in Cornell University, author of "American Litera- 
ture During the Colonial Time." Two vols., 8vo, gilt 
tops, sold separately, each $3.00. Vol. I., 1763-1776; 
Vol. II., 1776-1783. 

" A work certain to be welcomed by students of history through- 
out the world." AT. Y. Sun. 

" The most noteworthy addition of recent years to the historical 
literature of America." Buffalo Express. 


By THEODORE ROOSEVELT, author of "The Wilderness 
Hunter," etc. 12mo. 


History of the Six Attempts in the First Century of the ' 
Republic. By EDWARD PAYSON POWELL, D.D. 12mo. 

NIPPUR; or, Explorations and Adventures 
on the Euphrates. 

The Narrative of the University of Pennsylvania Ex- 
pedition to Babylonia, in the years 1889-1890. By JOHN 
PUNNETT PETERS, Ph.D., Sc.D., D.D., Director of the 
Expedition. Very fully illustrated. Two volumes, sold 
separately, each 8vo, $2.50. 

Vol. I. The First Campaign. Vol. II. The Second 
Campaign. ' 

" The story is told with simplicity, directness, and precision. The 
book has a marked individuality, and forms a fit companion for the 
classic works of Layard, Loftus, etc. It is of itself a credit to 
American learning and to literary skill pleasant to read and well 
worth the reading. "New Yurk Nation. 


By HENRY C. SHELLEY. With illustrations by the 
author. 16mo, gilt top, $1.25. 


To the Homes of Famous Women. Being: the series for 
1897. Uniform with previous series. Bound in one 
volume, with portraits. 16mo, gilt top, $1.75. 


Sketched in a New England Suburb. BY ANNA 
FULLER, author of "A Literary Courtship," "A Ven- 
etian June," etc. New holiday edition, with illustrations 
by GEORGE SLOANE. 8vo, gilt top, f 2.00. 


A Romance of the English Invasion of Ireland in 1649. 
By SAMUEL HARDEN CHURCH, author of "Life of Oliver 
Cromwell." Illustrated. 12mo, $1.25. 


By EDMONDO DE AMICIS, author of "Holland and its 
People," "Spain and the Spaniards," "Constantinople," 
etc. Translated by J. B. BROWN. With 59 illustra- 
tions. Uniform in general style with the illustrated 
editions of Amicis' works. 8vo, gilt top, $2.25. 


Monthly. Registered as second-class matter. 16mo, 

paper, 50 cents. The volumes of this Library are also 

issued in cloth. 






Printed on antique cream-laid paper, with numerous 
original illustrations. Large crown 8vo, each, $1.00. 


Illustrated by LANCELOT SPEED. 

No. 8. SHIRLEY. By CHARLOTTE BRONTH. Illustrated. 
No. 9. PENDENNIS. By W. M. THACKERAY. Illustrated. 


New Issues. Large 12mo, fully illustrated, each cloth, 

$1.50. Half leather, gilt tops, $1.75. 

Lieut.-Col. U. S. Vols., Editor of Army and Navy 
Journal, author of "The Life of John Ericsson." 

Washington and Lee University. 



Being an account of the early inhabitants of this Island 
and the memorials which they have left behind them. 
By BERTRAM C. A.WINDLE. D.Sc., M.D., M.A.,Trinity 
College, Dublin, F. S. A. (London and Ireland). Dean 
of the Medical Faculty and Professor of Anatomy, 
Mason College, Birmingham. With maps, plans, and 
illustrations, $1.25 net. 

" The manual is an admirable introduction of prehistoric archaeo- 
logy, and we heartily commend it to beginners who stand dismayed 
before the more elaborate works upon the subject. . . . The 
practical value of this learned little book is greatly enhanced by the 
addition of a list of objects arranged under counties, which illustrate 
the statements made in the text." London Speaker. 

Notes on New Books, a quarterly Bulletin; list of Autumn Announcements; circulars of the "Story" and "Heroes of the 
Nations "; list of successful fiction, etc., on application. 


27 and 29 West 23d Street, NEW YORK. 
24 Bedford Street, Strand - - LONDON. 



[Sept. 16, 

Little, Brown, & Co.'s New Books for 1897. 

Romance and Reality of the Puritan 

with " Three Heroines of New England Romance." 
12mo, cloth, extra, gilt top, $2.00; full crushed 
morocco, gilt edges, $4.50. 

e/7 New Novel by Mrs. Goodwin, author 
of " Wbite Aprons." 

of "The Head of a Hundred," "White Aprons," 
" The Colonial Cavalier," etc. 16mo, cloth, extra, 
gilt top, $1.25. 

Stories for Girls. By Gertrude Smith. 

TEN LITTLE COMEDIES. Tales of the troubles of 
Ten Little Girls whose Tears were turned into 
Smiles. By GERTRUDE SMITH. With ten full-page 
illustrations by E. B. Barry. 16mo, cloth, extra, 
gilt top, $1.25. 

Mrs. Goodwin's Romances of Colonial 

Virginia. Illustrated Holiday Edition. 

I. THE HEAD OF A HUNDRED. Being an account of 
certain passages in the Life of Humphrey Huntoon, 
Esq., sometyme an officer in the Colony of Virginia. 
By Maud Wilder Goodwin. Illustrated with five 
full- page photogravure plates from drawings by Jes- 
sie Willcox 'Smith, Sophie B. Steel, Charlotte Hard- 
ing, and Winfield S. Lukens; four decorative head- 
ings by Clyde O. DeLand, and an ornamental title- 
page by K. Pyle. 

II. WHITE APRONS. A Romance of Bacon's Rebel- 
lion, Virginia, 1676. By MAUD WILDER GOODWIN. 
Illustrated with five full-page photogravure plates 
from drawings by A. McMakin, Clyde O. DeLand, 
L. R. Dougherty, Margaret F. Winner, and Violet 
Oakley; four decorative headings by Clyde O. De- 
Land, and an ornamental title-page by K. Pyle. 
Two vols., 16mo, cloth, extra, gilt tops, put up in neat 

box, $3.00. 

c/7 New Book by Captain ZMaban. 

By Captain A. T. MAHAN, author of " The Influence 
of Sea Power upon History," " The Influence of Sea 
Power upon the French Revolution and Empire," 
" The Life of Nelson," etc. 12mo, cloth, $2.00. 

Verdant Green. <A popular edition of this 
favorite College Story. 

etched frontispiece, and nearly 200 illustrations by 
the author. 12mo, cloth, extra, gilt top, $1.50. 

c/7 New Series of TDumas' Romances. 

EDITION. NEW SERIES, II. With eighteen photo- 
gravure plates. 6 vols., 12mo, decorated cloth, gilt 
top, $9.00; plain cloth, gilt top, $7.50; half calf, 
extra, gilt top, $18.00; half morocco, extra, gilt top, 

c/7 New History of the English U^aty. 

CLOWES, Fellow of King's College, London, Gold 
Medallist, U. S. Naval Institution, etc., assisted by 
Sir Clements Markham, Captain A. T. Mahan, H. W. 
Wilson, Theodore Roosevelt, E. Fraser, and others. 
With twenty-five full-page photogravures, and nu- 
merous full-page and other illustrations, maps, charts, 
etc. To be complete in five volumes. Vol. I. now 
ready. Royal 8vo, cloth, $6.50 net. 

An Illustrated Holiday Edition of 
"Quo Vadis." 

Translated from the Polish of HENRYK SIENKIEWICZ 
by Jeremiah Curtin. A new and beautiful holiday 
edition, printed from new type, with corrections, a 
map of Ancient Rome, a map of the route from Ant- 
ium to Rome, and twenty-four photogravure plates, 
including original pictures by Howard Pyle, Evert 
Van Muyden, and Edmund H. Garrett; a new por- 
trait of Sienkiewicz; and reproductions from ancient 
sculptures of Nero, Poppsea, etc. 2 vols., 8vo, cloth, 
extra, gilt top, with ornamental cover design. Each 
volume in cloth wrapper, and the set in a cloth box 
to match, $6.00; half crushed Levant morocco, gilt 
top, $12.00. 

{Miss 'Belladonna. 

of " A Hypocritical Romance and Other Stories." 
Illustrated by L. J. Bridgman. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

c/f New Volume by the Author of 
" Quo Vadti." 

RYK SIENKIEWICZ, author of " With Fire and 
Sword," The Deluge," " Pan Michael," etc. 
Translated from the Polish by Jeremiah Curtin. 
Crown 8vo, cloth, $2.00. 

A New Book on Shore Birds* 

CORY, Curator of Ornithology in the Field Colum- 
bian Museum, Chicago, author of " Hunting and 
Fishing in Florida," " Beautiful and Curious Birds 
of the World," " Birds of the Bahama Islands," etc. 
With one hundred illustrations, including numerous 
full-length figures. Small 4to, paper, 75 cts. 

LITTLE, BROWN, & CO., 254 Washington Street, Boston. 





Preliminary List of Autumn Publications. 


From the Earliest Ages to Our Own Times. By GASTON VUIL- 
LIER. Illustrated with 25 full-page photogravure plates, and over 
400 illustrations in the text. Large quarto. 


Edited by M. LEON LECESTRE, Curator of the French Archives. 
Translated by Lady MARY LOYD. Uniform with Meneval'a Memoirs 
of Napoleon. 12mo, cloth, $2.00. 


By E. HOUGH, author of "The Singing Mouse Stories," etc. 
Illustrated by WILLIAM L. WELLS and C. M. RUSSELL. The Story 
of the West Series. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 


M. A., and others. The first volume in The Concise Knowledge 
Library. Nearly 800 pages and 500 illustrations, 8vo, half binding, 


By EDWARD DOWDEN, D.Litt., LL.D., D.C.L., Professor of 
English Literature in the University of Dublin. Literatures of 
the World Series. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 


A Research Into the Subconscious Nature of Man and Society. 
By BORIS SIDIS, M.A., Ph.D., Associate in Psychology at the 
Pathological Institute of the New York State Hospitals. With an 
Introduction by Prof. WILLIAM JAMES, of Harvard University. 
12mo, cloth. 


By DAVID MACGREGOR MEANS. With an Introduction by the 
Hon. DAVID A. WELLS. 12mo, cloth. 


By E. P. EVANS, author of " Animal Symbolism in Ecclesiastical 
Architecture," etc. 12mo, cloth. 


And Other Matters of Form, Hyphenization, Capitalization, Spell- 
ing. By F. HORACE TEALL, author of " The Compounding of 
English Words " and " English Compound Words and Phrases." 
16mo, cloth. 

Appletons' Home Reading Books. 


By JAMES CARTER BEARD. Illustrated. 12mo, cloth, 65 cents 


By MRS. A. S. HARDY, author of " Three Singers," etc. Illus- 
trated. 12mo, cloth, 65 cents net. 


By F. A. OBER. Illustrated. 12mo, cloth. 


A Story of National Affairs for the Youth of the Nation. By O. P. 
AUSTIN. Illustrated. 12mo, cloth. 


(Five Volumes.) By J. F. TROEGER. Illustrated. 12mo, cloth. 


Edited by FRANCIS W. PARKER. 1st Vol. ON THE FAEM. 
By NELLIE L. HELM and FRANCIS W. PARKER. Illustrated. 
12mo, cloth. 


By SARAH GRAND, author of "The Heavenly Twins," etc. 
12mo, cloth. 


By R. W. CHAMBERS, author of "The King in Yellow," "The 
Red Republic," etc. 12mo, cloth, $1.25. 


By MRS. EVERARD COTES (Sarah Jeannette Duncan), author of 
" An American Girl In London," " A Social Departure," " His 
Honour and a Lady," etc. Illustrated. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 


By F. F. MONTRESOR, author of "Into the Highways and 
Hedges," "False Coin or True," "The One Who Looked On." 
12mo, cloth. 


By MAX PEMBERTON, author of "The Impregnable City," 
"The Little Huguenot," " The Iron Pirate," etc. 


By F. ANSTEY, author of " Vice Versa," " The Giant's Robe," 
etc. Illustrated. 

Appletons' Town and Country 

Each, 12mo. Cloth, $1.00; paper, 50 cents. 

By DOROTHEA GERARD, author of " An Arranged Marriage," 
" The Wrong Man," " The Rich Miss Riddell," etc. 


By J. BLOUNDELLE-BURTON, author of " In the Day of Adver- 
sity," "Denounced," etc. 


By GEORGE B. BURGIN, author of " Tomalyn's Guest," etc. 


By A. J. DAWSON, author of " Mere Sentiment," " Middle Grey- 
ness," etc. 


By M. HAMILTON, author of " McLeod of the Camerons," " A 
Self-Denying Ordinance," etc. 


By BEATRICE WHITBY, author of " The Awakening of Marjr 
Fenwick," " In the Runtime of Her Youth," etc. 

Good Books for Young Readers. 


A Tale of the Boyhood of Franklin. By HEZEKIAH BUTTER- 
WORTH, author of " The Wampum Belt," " The Boyhood of Lin- 
coln," "The Patriot Schoolmaster," etc. Illustrated by H. WIN- 
THEOP PIERCE. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 


A Story of the American Revolution. By W. O. STODDARD, 
author of "The Windfall," " Little Smoke," "On the Old Frontier," 
etc. Illustrated by B. WEST CLINBDINST. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 


By HENRY JOHNSON (Muirhead Robertson), author of " From 
Scrooby to Plymouth Rock," etc. Illustrated. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 


From the Gun-Room to the Quarter-deck. By JAMES BARNES, 
author of " Midshipman Farragut," " For King or Country," etc. 
Illustrated by GEOKOE GIBBS and others. Young Heroes of Our 
Navy Series. 12mo, cloth, $1.00. 

D. APPLETON & COMPANY, 72 Fifth Avenue, New York. 



[Sept. 16, 1897. 




To be Published in October. 



With numerous Illustrations, Photogravure Portraits, etc. vols., cloth, medium 8vo, $10.00. 
In addition to the portraits of Lord Tennyson, of Lady Tennyson, etc., and facsimiles of portions of 
poems, there are illustrations by Mrs. Allingham, Richard Doyle, Biscombe Gardner, etc. The insertion 
of poems never before published, and of letters to friends of the poet, to which a less closely related 
biographer could not have access, will make this Life of Lord Tennyson finally authoritative. 

BALDWIN Social Interpretations of the Princi- 
ples of Mental Development. By J. MARK BALDWIN, 
author of " Mental Development in the Child and the 

to Represent the Work of the Society from 1886 to 
1897. Cloth, 8vo, $3.00. 

BROWNING The Letters of Elizabeth Barrett 
Browning. With portraits, etc. Two vols., medium 8vo. 

CHANNING A Student's History of the United 

States. By Prof. EDWARD CHANNING, of Harvard Uni- 
versity, author of " The United States of America, 1765- 
1865." With Maps and Illustrations. 

COONLEY Singing Verses for Children. Songs 
illustrated in colors and set to music. Words hy LTDIA 
AVERT COONLBY. Illustrations and ornamental horders 
ROOT, ELEANOR SMITH, and others. 4to, $2.00. 

author of " Saracinesca," etc. Two vols., $2.00. 

FIELDE Political Primer of New York State and 
City. By ADELE FIELDS. With Maps. 

GLADSTONE The Story of Gladstone's Life. 

By JUSTIN MCCARTHY, author of " A History of our Own 
Times," etc. With many illustrations. 


Second Series. Modern Poetry. Selected and arranged 
with notes, by FRANCIS T. PALGRAVE, late Professor in 
the University of Oxford. 

HAMBLEN The General Manager's Story. Old- 
Time experiences in a Railroad Office. By HERBERT E. 
HAMBLEN, author of " On Many Seas." 

HIGGINSON A Forest Orchid and Other Tales. 

By ELLA HIGGINSON, author of "From the Land of the 
Snow Pearls." 

HYDE Practical Idealism. By HENRY 

HYDE, President of Bbwdoin College, author of " Outlines 
of Social Theology." 

INGERSOLL Wild Neighbors. A Book about Ani- 
mals. By ERNEST INGERSOLL. With 20 full-page illus- 
trations, and others in the text. 

INMAN The Old Sante Fe Trail. By Col. HENRY 
INMAN, late of the U. S. Army. With portraits and other 
illustrations specially drawn. 

MATHEWS The Social Teaching of Jesus. An 

Essay in Christian Sociology. By Professor SHAILER 
MATHEWS, Chicago University. 

MARBLE Carlyle's Heroes and Hero- Worship. 


NASH Genesis of the Social Conscience. By 

Prof. HENRY S. NASH, Episcopal Theological School, 
Cambridge. Second Edition. 

MABIE. A companion to " Old English Ballads." 

ROYCE The Conception of God. A Philosophical 
Discussion by JOSIAH ROYCE, Ph.D., of Harvard Univer- 
LL.D., Professors in the University of California. 

RUSSELL The Volcanoes of North America. 

By Prof. ISRAEL C. RUSSELL, University of Michigan. 
With numerous illustrations, full-page and in the text. 

STEEL Indian Tales . By FLORA ANNIE STEEL, author 
of " On the Face of the Waters," etc. 

WATSON Christianity and Idealism. By Prof. 
JOHN WATSON, LL.D., Queen's University, Kingston, Can. 
Second edition with additions. Cloth, crown 8vo, $1.75 net. 

WEED Life Histories of American Insects. By 

Prof. CLARENCE M. WEED, New Hampshire College of 
Agriculture and Mechanical Arts. With numerous illus- 
trations, full-page and in the text. 

WILCOX An Outline for the Study of City Gov- 
ernment. By DELOS F. WILCOX, Ph.D. of Columbia 

WRIGHT Citizen Bird. A Story of Bird Life. By 
trated with drawings from nature by Louis AGASSIZ 
FUERTES. Fifth Thousand. Cloth, $1.50. 

Birdcraft. By MABEL OSGOOD WRIGHT, author of 
" Tommy-Anne and the Three Hearts," etc. Illustrations 
by Louis AGASSIZ FUERTES. Cloth, 12mo. New and 
cheaper edition. $2.50. 

For further particulars, address 

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY, No. 66 Fifth Avenue, New York. 


<emi=jlfiantf)lg Journal of SLiterarg Criticism, iscussion, anti Information. 

TITS DIAL (founded in 1880 ) is published on the 1st and 16th of 
each month. TBBMS OP SUBSCRIPTION, 82.00 a year in advance, postage 
prepaid in the United Slates, Canada, and Mexico; in other countries 
comprised in the Postal Union, 50 cents a year for extra postage must 
be added. Unless otherwise ordered, subscriptions will begin with the 
current number. REMITTANCES should be by draft, or by express or 
postal order, payable to THE DIAL. SPECIAL BATES TO CLUBS and 
for subscriptions with other publications will be sent on application; 
and SAMPLE COPY on receipt of 10 cents. ADVERTISING RATES furnished 
on application. All communications should be addressed to 

THE DIAL, 315 Wabash Ave., Chicago. 

No. 270. SEPTEMBER 16, 1897. Vol. xxm. 




(Sonnet.) Frederic L. Luqueer 138 


Kemper Broadus 139 


Some Questions of German Translation. Camilla 

von Klenze. 
A Japanese Magazine of Foreign Languages. 

Ernest W. Clement. 
The Lack of Scientific Work in Rhetoric. Selden 

F. Smyser. 

"PATRINS." (Poem.) Emily Huntington Miller . .141 
A PENDANT TO BOSWELL. E. G. J. . . . .142 


REVOLUTION. B. A. Hinsdale 143 

NOTHING BUT LEAVES. Edward E. Hale, Jr. . 145 


Frederick Starr 146 


Gladstone's Later Gleanings. Craufurd's Christian 
Instincts and Modern Doubt. Smyth's The Place 
of Death in Evolution. Tyler's Bases of Religious 
Belief. Whitney's The Open Mystery. Hillis's 
Foretokens of Immortality. Hodges's In the Present 
World. Staffer's Jesus Christ. Christian Worship. 
Walker's Religious Life of New England. 


A volume of essays by Professor James. Two por- 
traits of Cromwell. General Grant. Inside of Mam- 
moth Cave. The baptism of Roger Williams. 
Organic Education. 


(A classified list of over 1100 books announced for 
publication during the coming season. ) 



The rich and varied list of publications an- 
nounced for the coming season, which appears 
in the present number of THE DIAL, com- 
prises well over a thousand titles, and is the 
most extensive that we have ever published. 
To call especial attention to a few of these 
forthcoming books is a somewhat invidious 
task, except in the case of the small number 
of those whose appearance has long been await- 
ed, and which are sure to command a wide 
circle of interested readers. These, at least, 
may properly be singled out from the mass for 
special notice, and with them a few others that, 
either from the standing of their authors or on 
account of the inherent importance of their 
subject-matter, seem to deserve a word of at- 
tention in advance of their publication. But 
there will doubtless be many others, of no less 
importance, that we shall fail to mention, and 
the coming months will doubtless bring the 
usual number of surprises in the shape of im- 
portant publications that will come to our table 

It is not difficult, upon this occasion, to 
name the work which will unquestionably stand 
as " the book of the year." The biography 
of Lord Tennyson, to which the son of the poet 
has devoted five years of pious toil, will appear 
on October 6, the anniversary of Tennyson's 
death. It will be a handsomely-illustrated 
work in two volumes. We cannot help regret- 
ting the rather noticeable tendency of publish- 
ers, during recent years, to produce works of 
such universal interest as this in so expensive 
a form as to place them beyond the reach of 
purchasers with modestly-lined purses. The 
authoritative life of Tennyson is a work that 
every reader will wish to possess, but that few 
will be able to acquire on account of the cost. 
Most book-lovers and literary students will 
have to go without it until the publishers see 
fit to prepare a popular edition. In this case, 
and in such others, say, as those of Dr. Nan- 
sen's book, Lowell's letters, and the life of 
J. A. Symonds, it seems ill-advised, even from 
the business standpoint, to produce them in a 
style that makes necessary a price that is almost 
prohibitive. Another case in point is that of 



[Sept. 16, 

the most important book upon Richard Wag- 
ner yet produced in English. Mr. H. S. 
Chamberlain's forthcoming biography of the 
great composer is a work so necessary for the 
library of both the musical student and the 
general reader that many hearts will be made 
heavy by the price that is set upon it. In this 
case, however, our complaint is perhaps not 
wholly reasonable, for the value of the work 
(as we can testify from inspection of an ad- 
vance copy) depends largely upon the illustra- 
tions, and such plates are expensive things to 
prepare. The book will certainly be cheap at 
its price, although the fact will hardly console 
the many who cannot afford to place it upon 
their shelves. 

After naming the above two works of pre- 
eminent importance, we may call attention to 
a few others in the department of literary 
biography, history, and criticism. We are 
promised the life of Harriet Beecher Stowe, by 
Mrs. James T. Fields; the recollections of Mr. 
Aubrey de Vere; and a volume upon Thomas 
and Matthew Arnold as educators, by Sir J. G. 
Fitch. We are also to have, at last, Mr. 
Archer's translation of the important Shakes- 
pearian work of Dr. Georg Brandes. The let- 
ters of Mrs. Browning and a second series of 
letters by Victor Hugo are among the most in- 
teresting of our announcements. We must also 
mention Professor Palgrave's new " Golden 
Treasury " of modern English poetry, Dr. 
Skeat's "Chaucerian and Other Pieces" (a 
volume supplementary to the Oxford Chaucer), 
Professor Dowden'ja " French Literature," Mr. 
David Hannay's volume on " The Later Re- 
naissance," and President C. W. Eliot's col- 
lection of essays and addresses entitled " Amer- 
ican Contributions to Civilization." Mr. 
Mosher's charming reprints will appear, as 
heretofore, just before Christmas, and will add 
ten choice numbers to his catalogue. 

In the domain of pure literature, mention 
must first be made of " The Water of the 
Wondrous Isles," one of the two romances left 
by William Morris for posthumous publica- 
tion. No announcement of the other, " The 
Sundering Flood," is made as yet. American 
song will be worthily represented by Mr. E. C. 
Stedman's " Poems Now First Collected." 
The output of fiction promises to be of great 
and varied interest. Among the more import- 
ant titles are the following : " St. Ives," by 
R. L. Stevenson; " Light Shineth Through the 
Darkness," by Mr. Henryk Sienkiewicz ; 
*' Captains Courageous," by Mr. Rudyard Kip- 

ling ; " Hugh Wynne, Free Quaker," by Dr. 
S. Weir Mitchell; "The Days of Jeanne 
d'Arc," by Mrs. M. H. Catherwood; " Cor- 
leone," by Mr. Marion Crawford ; " Paris," by 
M. Zola (completing the trilogy of Lourdes, 
Rome, Paris); " Dariel, A Romance of Sur- 
rey," by Mr. R. D. Blackmore ; " The Jug- 
gler," by Miss Mary N. Murfree; " The Story 
of an Untold Love," by Mr. Paul Leicester 
Ford ; and " Three Partners ; or, The Big 
Strike on Heavy-Tree Hill," by Mr. Bret 

From the numerous titles belonging to 
books of the more solid and erudite classes 
we hardly know what to choose. In history, 
there are, besides some important continua- 
tions, such works as " Old Virginia and Her 
Neighbors," by Professor John Fiske ; " The 
Westward Movement," by Mr. Justin Win- 
sor ; " France under Louis XV.," by Mr. 
James Breck Perkins ; " The Evolution of 
the Aryan," by Rudolph von Ihering ; and 
"Sea Power and the Future of the United 
States," by Captain A. T. Mahan. There is 
to be a sumptuous illustrated translation of 
Pausanias, and several volumes in an import- 
ant series of " Handbooks of Archaeology and 
Antiquities." " The English Stage," by the 
acute and ingenious French critic, M. Augus- 
tin Filon, will be a very interesting book. 
" The Meaning of Education, and Other Es- 
says," by Dr. Nicholas Murray Butler, will 
deserve and get the attention of all educators. 
Mr. Oscar Fay Adams's " Dictionary of Am- 
erican Authors," an entirely new work, will 
be a valuable aid to the bibliographer, as will 
also the third supplement (1892-96 inclusive) 
to Poole's " Index to Periodical Literature." 


Lowell, I never met thee while on earth ; 
Yet thou so livest in these words of thine 
That thy rich nature friendly seemeth mine 
While musing on their golden-freighted worth 
In these thou speakest, and my heart's deep dearth 
Is springing with sweet flowers, and new wine 
Of Cyprus gladdens, while o'erhead entwine 
Leafy traceries 'gainst the blue ; and mirth 
Draws smiles that soften into deeper look, 

As closer breathes thy soul's most dear aspiring 
For life beloved and finely truthful art. 
Thou yearnedst after love : grateful I took 
The hand thou openedst here, silent desiring 
Thou knewest the winning of thy reader's heart. 





In attempting dispassionately to analyze our lit- 
erary characteristics, we are met at the threshold 
by a difficult and fundamental question What is 
style ? Style is as difficult to define as it is easy to 
recognize ; but only by getting a conception of it, at 
least approximately clear, can we intelligently dis- 
cuss a distinctively national style. 

And first let us see what it is not. Style is fre- 
quently confused, to a degree at least, with subject- 
matter ; for example, it is thought that Whittier, 
having written much concerning the subject of 
Slavery, would therefore possess a distinctively 
American style. Such an opinion, however, is too 
easily susceptible of a reductio ad absurdum to be 
tenable. Keats's fruitless attempt to enter into the 
spirit of the majestic Greek myths; Corneille's in- 
ability to put into the mouth of Horace or his two 
brothers other than XVII. century Frenchisms, and 
other examples innumerable, demonstrate the im- 
possibility of reproducing the style of an author or 
a period by mere skilful use of subject-matter. It is 
true that subject-matter, in proportion as it is trivial 
or ennobling, weakens or elevates the style; but, in 
jest or earnest, the same distinctive qualities inhere. 

Nor is style dialect a proposition by no means 
so self-evident as the first. For we are accustomed 
to determine a writer's style, more or less, by his 
phraseology and trick of expression ; not only by 
his accustomed sequence of words, but by his 
methods of constructing the words themselves ; that 
is, by his " form of language," or dialect. But dia- 
lect is, essentially, local spoken language or patois ; 
written dialect being therefore only an attempt to 
reproduce that external form, the shell, rather than 
its internal essence, or kernel. This kernel, the 
true style, is what we are seeking to examine. There- 
fore, to say that the " Yankeeisms " of Lowell's 
"Biglow Papers," or the military jargon of Kip- 
ling's soldier-ballads, constitutes the one American 
or the other English national style, is to stigmatize 
our language as vulgar and ridiculous. 

It is true that the ideal style is said to be "the 
speech of the people in the mouth of the scholar," 
but it must be the rough pig-iron of the people's 
speech worked into the tempered steel of the schol- 
ar's pen, not pedantic but symmetrically simple. 
Mr. Brander Matthews struck the key-note when 
he called this "the wild flowers of speech plucked 
betimes with the dew still on them." 

But if style is neither matter nor dialect, is it 
then grammar and rhetoric ? Plainly not ; a man 
may be minutely accurate in grammar, and struc- 
turally perfect in phrase, yet lack the individuality 
of thought and facility of expression which stamp 
the hall-mark of " self " upon every sentence of an 
Emerson or a Carlyle. Clearly, then, we must go 
deeper than matter or dialect, grammar or rhetoric, 
down to the man himself. " Le style, c'est 1'homme," 
said Buffon. This definition, so terse, so strik- 
ing, so famous, is, like most epigrams, the truth, 

but not the whole truth. If by the man we mean 
the character of the man, and what else could we 
mean? character and style are not always in ac- 
cord. The gross sensuality sometimes displayed 
by Poe, the man, is strangely out of tune with the 
refined delicacy of "Anabel Lee." The weakness 
and immorality of Jean Jacques Rousseau, the man, 
make the subtle eloquence of Jean Jacques Rous- 
seau, the author, hard to explain. 

A man's style is frequently not what he is, but 
what he thinks he is. He may reverse Robert Louis 
Stevenson's description, and by a sparkling goblet 
of imagination, become temporarily a Dr. Jekyl in 
what he writes, but in character be still Mr. Hyde. 

Nor are thoughts ever the " self " alone. " Ideas 
cannot go about naked," said Bui veer Lytton. They 
must wear the apparel of the national clothing- 
house, so to speak, the garments of Race, Sur- 
roundings, and Epoch. 

It is evident, then, that style is the man, yet 
more than the man ; it is the dynamic of the ma- 
chine, whose parts are the material characteristics 
into which language can be analyzed. 

From another point of view, Lowell defines it 
charmingly, but in a fashion too poetic to be scien- 
tifically exact, as "that exquisite something called 
Style, which makes itself felt by the skill with 
which it effaces itself, and masters us at last with 
a sense of indefinable completeness." 

Having attempted to reach some comprehension 
of what style is, viewed from the standpoint of the 
scientist and of the poet, we are next led to inquire 
what, if there be such a thing, is a national style? 
This has been defined as "an average style de- 
duced from the examination of many or most of a 
nation's authors"; but such a definition is super- 
ficial. If a style is personal, it partakes of the 
character of the person, as evidenced in his daily 
life. If a style is national, it partakes of the 
character of the nation as evidenced in its daily 
life. In other words, it is not the " average of the 
best styles " which constitutes a national style, but 
it is rather the style of those who, be they great 
or small, most truly voice the national character. 

There is as much individuality in a nation as 
there is in an individual. If we can analyze these 
national characteristics, and, taking them as a test, 
try the writers of a nation by them, we shall arrive 
thus, and only thus, at a true conception of the lit- 
erary style of that nation. 

Let us take the French as an example. For a 
just, even though a French, analysis of their psy- 
chological process, let us turn to Taine: "When 
the Frenchman conceives an event or an object, 
he conceives quickly and distinctly. ... At once 
and without effort he seizes upon his idea. But he 
seizes that alone. ... He is only moved super- 
ficially; he is without large sympathy; he does not 
perceive an object as it is, complex and combined, 
but in part, with a discursive and superficial knowl- 

The style that could be called "distinctively 



[Sept. 16, 

French " would be, speaking broadly, that possess- 
ing the characteristics described above. 

So, in solving the problem of a distinctively 
American style, we would first ask ourselves 
whether there is a distinctively American charac- 
ter, and if so what are its essentials. That there 
is, universal opinion attests. From England to 
Japan, from Norway to the Cape of Good Hope, 
none is so easily recognizable as the American type. 
Though Englishmen, at least sensible Englishmen, 
have ceased to expect the typical American to pass 
his waking hours and, for that matter, most of 
his sleeping hours with trousers in boots and 
pistols in belt, Jonathan has still every whit as 
much individuality as John. 

What are the forces whose resultant is this indi- 
viduality ? In so far as I can analyze them, they are : 

1. The youthf ulness of the national life. From 
this youthfulness comes, naturally enough, a cer- 
tain intensity and rush of life, characteristic of all 
youth, which tends to make us lacking in precision, 
careless of detail, somewhat superficial in reasoning, 
quick to grasp but weak to hold. 

2. Democracy. Our intensely democratic feel- 
ing engenders self-respect and self-sufficiency; a 
breadth, though not a depth, of view ; independ- 
ence and disrespect for old institutions ; and a lack 
of that conservatism which should subordinate the 
warm heart to the cool head. 

3. Heterogeneity. We are a hybrid nation,|and 
though pride of birth is sometimes a correcting and 
restraining influence, the consciousness of our some- 
what hazy lineage tends to destroy prejudice and 
render us cosmopolitan and broad. 

4. Natural variety. No other people on the face 
of the globe can see greater contrasts of scenery, 
greater extremes of climate, or greater varieties of 
products, than those who dwell between the Great 
Lakes and the Rio Grande, the Atlantic and the 
Pacific oceans. This engenders a bold, free, broad 
conception of nature, an intense appreciation of 
her various moods, and an expression of those 
moods excelling that of any other nation in its un- 
trammelled artlessness. Here, nature is young, as 
well as we ; sometimes she is stately and grand, with 
all the self-conscious dignity of young womanhood ; 
sometimes she is impetuous, effervescent, sparkling, 
and free, with the memory of her childhood, un- 
touched by human artificiality, still vivid ; but in 
whatever mood she be, we have had and still have 
poets to appreciate and express her. 

These, then, are the forces, these the effects, 
observable in our national character. If there be 
any other nation having these same characteristics, 
and writers to express them, distinctively American 
style is an impossibility. But it needs no argu- 
ment to show that no other nation is the resultant 
of such forces in such proportions. Wherever, there- 
fore, we can find within our borders prose or poetry 
having such characteristics as have been enumerated, 
we shall have found a distinctively American style. 


(To the Editor of THB DIAL.) 

In your issue of July 16, Mr. Thomas Common of 
Glasgow, whose translation of Nietzsche's Works I re- 
viewed in an earlier issue, claims that my criticism of 
his translation is altogether unfair; that I dealt out my 
blame of it " in a great hurry "; that the errors I adduce 
are no errors at all " except in the imagination of a per- 
son in a flurried state of mind." It hence becomes my 
unpleasant duty to show why I was bound to regard 
this translation as " bad throughout, and in parts igno- 

First, as regards the four errors I quoted. I, for one, 
am offended by a construction like " in his art there is 
mixed . . . the things," etc. I am, however, willing to 
yield to higher authority, aud admit that on that point 
I was over-severe. But to translate " Die Romane Dos- 
toiewsky's " (Vol. VIII., p. 48 of the German edition) 
by "the romances of Dostoiewsky" shows a lack of 
linguistic sensitiveness. Dostoiewsky's works are not 
romances, they are distinctly novels. No one ever 
spoke of Flaubert's " Madame Borary " or Zola's " La 
Terre " as " romances," though he might apply that term 
to " Guy Mannering " or to Me'rime'e's " Colomba." 
Similarly, to translate sick verbieten " (p. 38) by " pro- 
hibit oneself " is awkward. All these translations are, 
however, excusable compared with Mr. Common's ren- 
dering of " ich weiss nicht aus noch ein " (p. 217) by " I do 
not know out or in." Mr. Common naively calls this 
" a metaphor," and says: " I am blamed for preserving 
a metaphor by translating it literally, though not ob- 
scurely. Besides preserving the metaphor, the literal 
rendering seems best suited to the context." " Ich weiss 
nicht aus noch ein " is an idiomatic phrase which every 
German understands. " I know not out or in " is no 
English at all, and is totally unintelligible. 

These last three passages are, however, not the only 
ones open to criticism. The book is freckled with bits 
of bad translation. I subjoin a list, which, for lack of 
space, cannot lay claim to completeness. 

Page 61. "I have my readers everywhere. . . . / 
have not them in Germany." 

Page 73. " A God who is quite specially a God for the 
sick." This to me is an exceedingly awkward rendering 
of the German " ganz eigentlich ein Gott" etc. 

Page 73. " Understandableness " (" begriffliche Ver- 
standlichkeit "). 

Page 74. "Where Wagner belongs to." (If that 
phrase can be proved correct on the authority of some 
" higher grammar," then we may be justified in asking 
" Where are we AT ? ") 

Page 101. "The trodden worm turns himself" (for 
" writhes "; " krummt sich "). 

Page 145. " The distinguished Germanics " (the 
original is " die vornehmen Germanen" " Germanics " 
signifies the study of German language and literature, 
but not the people of Germany, and does not correspond 
to " Germanen " over against " Deutsche "). 

Page 189. "Ring of the chain" for "link in the 
chain " ( Ring der Kette "). 

Page 210. " The Siberian convicts, in whose midst he 
lived." Let us hope he lived among them, and not " in 
their midst," for that might have injured them more 
than all the hardships of convict life. Of course, the 
translator was misled by the German " in deren Mitte." 

Page 350. "Healthiness." "Health" would have 




been the more natural word, especially as it is grouped 
with "beauty." 

These samples of Mr. Common's method of transla- 
tion will suffice to show that he must have worked care- 
lessly and in haste, and that he lacks literary sense. 
Furthermore, he seems not sufficiently to master German 
to understand thoroughly idiomatic constructions. 


University of Chicago, Sept. 2, 1897. 


(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

I beg leave to call your attention to one more 
manifestation of the broad spirit which now prevails in 
this empire with reference to the necessity of a better 
knowledge of foreign things. Another magazine has 
just been launched on the crowded sea of journalism ; 
it is called " Gwaikoku Gogaku Zasshi," or " Foreign 
Language Magazine." Its object is to assist students 
to acquire English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, 
Russian, Chinese, and Korean. The first number con- 
tains exactly 200 pages in the body of the work ; the 
table of contents, printed in each of these languages, 
occupies eight pages ; and there are several pages of 
advertisements in both Japanese and English. It is 
published by the Hakubunkwan, Tokyo, and sells at 25 
sen a copy, or 2.70 yen per year. The first edition of 
6,000 was exhausted at once ; and a second edition is in 
print. A cursory examination of the English portion 
reveals comparatively few mistakes or misprints, and 
indicates that, in general, the work has been well done. 

The English section takes up more than half the 
issue ; the German section occupies one-fifth ; the 
French section not quite one-tenth ; the Russian, 
Italian and Spanish sections four pages each ; and the 
Chinese and Korean sections six pages each. The con- 
tents include lessons, conversations, letters, news items, 
current events, extracts from literature, essays, poems, 
etc. Each language is taught under such headings as 
the following : " Pronunciation, conversation, gram- 
mar, composition, translation, reading matter, current 
notes, etc." There are also illustrations, including one 
of Queen Victoria. The editor-in-chief is Mr. S. 
Ohashi, who is assisted in each department by a special- 
ist (a Japanese) in that language. The Spanish sec- 
tion, however, is under the supervision of Prof. Emilio 
Binda. The publisher's note speaks of " the import- 
ance to our people of all these languages, whether 
considered from political, educational, commercial, or 
any other point of view " ; and also says that, " as 
mixed residence will soon be a matter of reality," " the 
study of foreign languages is, therefore, of urgent 
necessity." ERNEST W. CLEMENT. 

Tokyo, August 20, 1897. 


(To the Editor of THE DIAL. ) 

The inadequacy of recent books on rhetoric, and the 
generally feeble and unscientific way in which the sub- 
ject is at present taught in our schools and colleges, 
seem to me to call for comment and for protest. If 
we may judge from their writings, many authors of 
text-books on this subject neither conceive the pos- 
sibility nor appreciate the desirability of a Rhetoric 
having its basis in definitely known psychological 
principles, studies of development of language power 

in race and individual, and in perfected methods of 
investigation. The science of rhetoric is fifty to a 
hundred years behind economics and psychology, and 
in many respects its present condition is like the ear- 
lier stages of these and other sciences. The work 
of each writer is generally unadvantageously individ- 
ual in some respects each author usually attempt- 
ing to cover the whole field of the subject. There 
also is much less division of labor and intelligent co- 
operation than in a highly developed science. Such is 
the necessary result of the comparative absence of scien- 
tific methods methods capable of being accurately 
described and criticised, thus rendering the results 
verifiable and making it possible rationally to estimate 
their value. The broader generalizations from which 
each author makes his deductions, as in the abstract 
economics and the old psychology, are reached by pro- 
cesses of which the authors themselves are not clearly 
conscious. Although philology, sociology, and psycho- 
logy stand ready to make contributions of methods and 
conclusions, students of rhetoric have been much slower 
than students of more progressive sciences to avail them- 
selves of such aid. How many college text-books treat 
general principles at all adequately ? In how many pop- 
ular texts do we find expositions of the real nature of 
language power, its relation to mental development and 
to ultimate aims in life, and of its value to human 
society ? The broader ethical, aesthetic, and social im- 
ports of the power of verbal expression are generally 
ignored. An occasional reference to commercial utility, 
and appeals to class pride or ambition, are frequently 
the only references to any rational aim in the science. 

Notwithstanding various merits of some recent works, 
and that some are in part to be excepted from these 
criticisms, there is a very real need of a science of 
rhetoric employing the methods of modern sciences. 


Mattoon, III., September 10, 1897. 


["Patrins" (the title of Miss Louise Imogen Guiney's charming 
book) is a word signifying the trails of Gypsies, who scatter handfuls 
of leaves or grass along their path to show the way to those who follow.] 

This way she went, with Iris for her guide, 
Through beds of mint along the meadow-side; 
The scattered sprigs, dropt idly from her palm, 
With their bruised leaves fill all the air with balm. 

Here lies her track upon the uplands dun, 
Where the wild berries ripen in the sun; 
The brown bees follow, drinking at their will 
From brimming cups that half their nectar spill. 

This way she passed, for at the crossing see 
A messenger, new come from Arcady, 
Leading an elfin troop that wait to dine 
On cates and honey at the thistle's sign. 

Here was her camp-fire : from its embers gray 
A faint blue smoke steals upwards and away; 
Here with great Pan in converse gay she stood, 
And strolled with Dian through the scented wood. 

O happy vagrant, singing as you pass, 
Drop still your trail of bloom across the grass; 
Pitch y9ur white tent, and in some cool retreat 
Wait with a welcome for our slower feet. 




[Sept. 16, 



In the preface to his edition of the " Letters 
of Samuel Johnson " Dr. George Birkbeck Hill 
expresses the hope that he may live to complete 
the main work of his life as a scholar by a new 
edition of the " Lives of the Poets." From 
this projected task he has been turned aside, 
temporarily, as we trust, by a suggestion from 
Mr, Leslie Stephen to edit all those writ- 
ings which have long been included under the 
general title of " Johnsoniana." The fruit of 
Mr. Stephen's happy proposal now lies before 
us two beautiful volumes, at all points such 
as the nice judgment of their lamented pro- 
moter would have approved of, elucidated and 
enriched editorially as only Dr. Birkbeck Hill 
could have done it. The work contains nearly 
everything worth reading (outside of Boswell) 
that has been written about, or that is trust- 
worthily recorded as having been said about, 
the Sage of Bolt Court by people who knew 
him in life, besides certain matter of an auto- 
biographical character or interest from the 
hand of the great man himself. Dr. Hill has 
not, of course, been able to offer much that is 
new or even tolerably unfamiliar in the way of 
Johnsonian lore ; but he has put the old in the 
best possible shape for reading or for reference. 
The main omission is Madame D'Arblay's 
" Diary," from which he had at first thought 
of giving extracts, but which, he concluded 
after reflection, " is too good a piece of work 
to be hacked in pieces." Readers, therefore, 
who would fain know "gay Sam, agreeable 
Sam, pleasant Sam," as contra-distinguished 
from the more familiar brusque Sam, overbear- 
ing Sam, Sam of the dingy linen and the sting- 
ing retort discourteous, must still turn mainly 
to " Burney's " sprightly pages. Miss Seward's 
" Letters " have been passed over by Dr. Hill 
as untrustworthy. Some slight additions have 
been made to the hitherto general stock of 
Johnsoniana. By collating the text of " Prayers 
and Meditations," with the original manuscript 
preserved at Pembroke College, Dr. Hill has 
been enabled to make some corrections and to 
supply some omissions. Certain defects and 
omissions in Croker's edition of Miss Rey- 
nolds's " Recollections of Dr. Johnson " have 
also been rectified and supplied, Dr. Hill hav- 

* JOHNSONIAN MISCELLANIES. Arranged and edited by 
George Birkbeck Hill, D.C.L. In two volumes. New York : 
Harper & Brothers. 

ing been entrusted, to that end, with the MSS., 
by their present owner, Lady Colomb, a de- 
scendant of Sir Joshua's sister, Mary. Some 
letters which Croker had not seen or had passed 
over are now printed for the first time, as well 
as the corrections made by the Doctor in 
" Renny's " verses when he " mended some bad 
rhymes." To the rich collection of "Johnson- 
iana " owned by Mr. Robert B. Adam, of 
Buffalo, N. Y., Dr. Hill warmly expresses his 
indebtedness. Several hitherto unpublished 
letters to and from Dr. Johnson are added 
through the kindness of the owners of the 

Dr. Hill's opening volume is devoted to the 
longer pieces, including the "Prayers and 
Meditations," printed with George Strahan's 
Preface to his first edition, of 1785 ; Dr. John- 
son's " Annals " of his life up to his eleventh 
year ; Mrs. Piozzi's " Anecdotes "; and Arthur 
Murphy's " Essays on Johnson's Life and 
Genius." Volume II. forms a rich storehouse 
of Johnsonian miscellany. There is a great 
array of " Anecdotes," and a collection of let- 
ters most of which are now printed for the first 
time ; there are Apophthegms from Hawkins's 
edition of Johnson, Extracts from Boswell's 
Letters to Malone, and the " Recollections " of 
Miss Reynolds ; there are Hoole's and Wind- 
ham's narratives of Johnson's closing days ; 
there is the Biographical Sketch by Tyers ; 
there are two papers by Reynolds, on Johnson's 
" Character " and on his " Influence," together 
with the genial painter's two capital " Dia- 
logues in Imitation of Johnson's Style of Con- 
versation." Among the letters given we note 
an interesting one (from the collection of Mr. 
Adam) setting forth Dr. Johnson's views on 
literary property. It is dated March 7, 1774, 
and was written, as Dr. Hill surmises, to 
William Strahan. 

" SIR: I will tell you in a few words, what is, in my 
opinion, the most desirable state of Copyright or literary 
Property. The Authour has a natural and peculiar right 
to the profits of his own work. But as every Man who 
claims the protection of Society, must purchase it by 
resigning some part of his natural right, the authour 
must recede from so much of his claim as shall be 
deemed injurious or inconvenient to Society. It is incon- 
venient to Society that an useful book should become 
perpetual and exclusive property. The Judgement of 
the Lords f was therefore legally and politically right. 
But the authour's enjoyment of his natural right might 

* Messrs. J. Pearson & Co., of 5 Pall Mall Place, London. 

t Reversing the verdict of the Court of King's Bench against 
one Donaldson, a Scotch bookseller, who, Boswell relates, 
"had for some years opened a shop in London, and sold his 
cheap editions of the most popular English books, in defiance 
of the supposed common-law right of Literary Property." 




without any inconvenience be protracted beyond the 
term settled by the Statute. And it is, I think, to be 
desired (1) That an Authour should retain during his 
life the sole right of printing and selling his work. This 
is agreeable to moral right, and not inconvenient to the 
publick, for who will be so diligent as the authour to 
improve the book, and who can know so well how to 
improve it ? (2) That the authour be allowed, as by 
the present act [8th of Queen Anne], to alienate his 
right only for fourteen years. A shorter time would 
not procure a sufficient price, and a longer would cut 
off all hope of future profit, and consequently all solici- 
tude for correction or addition. (3) That when after 
fourteen years the copy shall revert to the authour, he 
be allowed to alienate it again only for seven years at a 
time. After fourteen years the value of the work will 
be known, and it will be no longer bought at hazard. 
Seven years of possession will therefore have an assign- 
able price. It is proper that the authour be always 
incited to polish and improve his work, by that prospect 
of accruing interest which those shorter periods of alien- 
ation will afford. (4) That after the authour's death 
his work should continue an exclusive property capable 
of bequest and inheritance, and of conveyance by gift 
or sale for thirty years. By these regulations a book 
may continue the property of the authour, or of those 
who claim from him, about fifty years, a term sufficient 
to reward the writer without any loss to the publick. In 
fifty years far the greater number of books are forgotten 
and annihilated, and it is for the advantage of learning 
that those which fifty years have not destroyed should 
become bona communia, to be used by every Scholar as 
he shall think best. In fifty years every book begins to 
require notes either to explain forgotten allusions and 
obsolete words; or to subjoin those discoveries which 
have been made by the gradual advancement of knowl- 
edge ; or to correct those mistakes which time may have 
discovered. Such Notes cannot be written to any useful 
purpose without the text, and the text will frequently 
be refused while it is any man's property." 

One of the more unfamiliar anecdotes, tell- 
ing of an amusing rencontre between the Doctor 
and Gilbert Stuart, the American painter, at 
that time studying under Benjamin West, is 
taken from Stuart's " History of the Rise of 
the Arts of Design in the United States." 

" Dr. Johnson called one morning on Mr. West to 
converse with him on American affairs. After some time 
Mr. West said that he had a young American (Gilbert 
Stuart) living with him, from whom he might derive 
some information, and introduced Stuart. The conver- 
sation continued (Stuart being thus invited to take a 
part in it), when the Doctor observed to Mr. West that 
the young man spoke very good English; and turning 
to Stuart rudely asked him where he had learned it. 
Stuart very promptly replied, Sir, I can better tell you 
where I did not learn it it was not from your diction- 
ary.' Johnson seemed aware of his own abruptness, and 
was not offended." 

Dr. Birkbeck Hill has, as usual, enriched his 
margins with a mass of notes that are often as 
good reading as the text and rarely fail to 
requite the added bulk of volume they entail. 
His encyclopaedic knowledge of his theme is 

mated with a faculty of anticipating reasonable 
doubts and queries and an honest zeal to clear 
the path of the reader. The work is a rarely 
rich and diversified one a book of intensest 
human interest, that one opens at random with 
the assurance that the eye will be caught and 
the attention fixed by some word, wise or witty 
or vividly pictorial. For all considerable libra- 
ries, it forms the indispensable pendant to 
Boswell's indispensable book. E. G. j. 


In the work that he originally entitled " The 
History of American Literature," Professor 
Moses Coit Tyler undertook " to examine the 
entire mass of American writings during the 
Colonial period so far as they now exist in the 
public and private libraries of the country," 
even to the extent of " making an appropriate 
mention of every one of our early authors whose 
writings, whether many or few, have any appre- 
ciable literary merit, or throw any helpful light 
upon the evolution of thought and style during 
those flourishing and indispensable days "; and 
to present all the valuable fruits of his exami- 
nation in such literary form as would commend 
them to the public favor. How well he succeeded 
in this arduous undertaking is shown by the 
place that the work has steadily held during 
the almost score of years that have elapsed 
since its publication. Professor Tyler, how- 
ever, did not abandon the child of his study at 
its birth, but has continued to watch over it, 
remedying its defects as he discovered them or 
they were pointed out to him, until he has now 
presented us with a revised and improved edi- 
tion, bearing a title somewhat changed. But, 
what is more to our present purpose, he also 
gives us the first volume of a new work, or 
perhaps it would be better to say an extension 
of the old one ; for his original scheme, as he 
first described it, embraced "the history of 
American literature from the earliest English 
settlements in this country down to the present 
time." The language of this avowal suggests 
a still greater literary scheme, the author of 

TION, 1763-1783. By Moses Coit Tyler, Professor of American 
History in Cornell University. Volume I., 1763-1766. New 
York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

NIAL TIME. Volume I., 1607-1776 ; Volume II., 1676-1763. 
By Moses Coit Tyler, Professor of American History in Cornell 
University. New York : Q. P. Putnam's Sons. 



[Sept. 16, 

which never lived to complete it ; but we may 
hope that to Professor Tyler will be accorded 
a happier lot. 

In " The Literary History of the American 
Revolution " Professor Tyler attempts a thing 
before unattempted, so far as we are aware, to 
say nothing of performance. It will be well to 
let him state the case in his own words : 

" There would, perhaps, be no injustice in describing 
this book as the product of a new method, at least of a 
method never before so fully applied in the critical 
treatment of the American Revolution. The outward 
history of that famous procedure has been many times 
written, and is now, by a new breed of American scholars, 
being freshly rewritten in the light of larger evidence, 
and under the direction of a more disinterested and a 
more judicial spirit. In the present work, for the first 
time in a systematic and a fairly complete way, is set 
forth the inward history of our Revolution the his- 
tory of its ideas, its spiritual moods, its motives, its pas- 
sions, even of its sportive caprices and its whims, as 
these uttered themselves at the time, whether con- 
sciously or not, in the various writings of the two parties 
of Americans who promoted or resisted that great 

" The plan of the author has been to let both parties 
in the controversy the Whigs and the Tories, the 
Revolutionists and the Loyalists tell their own story 
freely in their own way, and without either of them 
being liable, at our hands, to posthumous outrage in the 
shape of partisan imputations on their sincerity, their 
magnanimity, their patriotism, or their courage. More- 
over, for the purpose of historic interpretation, the au- 
thor has recognized the value of the lighter, as well as 
of the graver, forms of literature, and consequently has 
here given full room to the lyrical, the humorous, and 
the satirical aspects of our Revolutionary record its 
songs, ballads, sarcasms, its literary facetice. The entire 
body of American writings, from 1763 to 1783, whether 
serious or mirthful, in prose or in verse, is here deline- 
ated in its most characteristic examples, for the purpose 
of exhibiting the several stages of thought and emotion 
through which the American people passed during the 
two decades of the struggle which resulted in our na- 
tional Independence." 

The older writers dealt almost wholly with the 
political and military aspects of the Revolu- 
tion ; some of the younger ones have widened 
the view, taking in economical, social, and other 
factors ; but it remained for Professor Tyler to 
conceive and execute a work that is exclusively 
devoted to the subjective or spiritual factors of 
the period as they are expressed in literature. 
Professor Tyler first teaches us to " distin- 
guish between those writings which were the re- 
sult of certain general intellectual interests and 
tendencies, apart from the Revolutionary move- 
ment ; and, secondly, those writings which were 
the result of intellectual interests and activities 
directly awakened and sustained by that move- 
ment." The writings of the second class, which 
give the period its character, he divides as fol- 

lows : Correspondence, State papers, oral ad- 
dresses, secular and sacred, political essays, 
political satires in verse, popular lyric poetry, 
minor literary facetice, dramatic compositions, 
prose narratives of actual experiences, indi- 
vidual or collective. This classification, how- 
ever, does not impose upon him his method of 
treatment, for he chiefly holds to historical se- 
quence, the very " order of time whenever they 
severally came into life, and wrought their work 
in the world, thus permitting the principal 
members of those different groups of literature 
to appear upon these pages and to unfold their 
message to us somewhat as they actually made 
their first appearance in the successive scenes 
of that great transaction in which they were so 
significant a part." Again, his purpose is not 
so much to call attention to the independent 
artistic value of these writings as to their hu- 
manistic and historic value. 

These are the main lines of the work, and 
surely it is necessary only to draw them to indi- 
cate at least the great value of a well-educated 
work that should follow them out. Professor 
Tyler has given us the first volume of such a 
work, in more than five hundred pages, with a 
promise of a companion volume that shall bring 
the story down to the close of the war. 

The new work has the qualities of the earlier 
one : thorough research, judicious handling of 
materials, and a clear, vigorous, pleasing style, 
dashed with plenty of the writer's personality. 
As in the earlier work, it is not always easy to 
see in a writer or in a writing all that Professor 
Tyler sees in it. But this fact gives us no 
offence. This is a case where an author is not 
only permitted but expected to imitate the good 
bishop in magnifying his office. In other words, 
an enthusiasm born of the/acA is required in 
order to see and write the history of American 
literature down to 1783 as large as Professor 
Tyler sees and writes it. 

The work offers many interesting points for 
discussion, and we shall draw attention to one 
of them. It does full justice to the Loyalists, 
both in the amount of space that is devoted to 
them five full chapters, to say nothing of 
frequent occasional mention, and in the view 
that is taken of their attitude toward the great 
questions of the period. At the close of one of 
these chapters the writer corrects what he calls 
" three grave errors closely connected with the 
whole subject, and still prevalent in popular 
American expositions of it." These errors are 
(1) " to represent the Tories of the American 
Revolution as a party of mere negation and 




obstruction "; (2) to represent them " as a 
party opposed either to any reform in the rela- 
tions of the colonies with the mother country, 
or to the extension of human rights and liber- 
ties here or elsewhere "; (3) to represent them 
" as composed of Americans lacking in love for 
their native country, or in zeal for its liberty, 
or in unwillingness to labor or fight, or even 
to die, for what they conceived to be its inter- 
ests." While it is impossible for any man 
holding the traditionary view to accept this 
criticism, historical investigation is neverthe- 
less leading us to it slowly but irresistibly. 
Professor Tyler goes so far, as we understand 
him, as to yield the old contention that the 
course pursued by the British Parliament in 
taxing America contravened the ancient prin- 
ciple of no taxation without representation. At 
the same time, we understand him to be a good 
American patriot and a believer in the Amer- 
ican Revolution. What is by no means uni- 
versal now among American scholars and his- 
torians, he maintains that the two central 
charges of the Declaration of Independence 
were true, namely, that the ministerial policy, 
which was the royal policy, evinced a design to 
reduce the Americans under absolute despot- 
ism, and had as its direct object the establish- 
ment of an absolute tyranny over them. In 
fact, his view of the Declaration is altogether 
more enthusiastic than the one we sometimes 
find American historical scholars upholding. 
How, then, does Professor Tyler reconcile his 
high estimate both of the Loyalists and of 
Thomas Jefferson? 

This question brings us to what we consider, 
logically speaking, the greatest defect of the 
book. This is the failure anywhere to present, 
so far as we have observed, a consistent general 
statement of the author's own theory of the 
Revolution. No doubt he has such a theory. 
Perhaps, too, the well-read student will be able 
to extract this theory from scattered passages 
in the volume ; but this student should not 
have been put to this labor, or the less well- 
equipped reader exposed to the hazard of mis- 
conceiving the author's meaning, as is now the 
case. Perhaps Professor Tyler holds in reserve 
a statement of the lines of argument on which 
he vindicates the Revolution. We sincerely 
hope such is the case. 

In one view, the American Revolution was 
one of the tragedies of history. As though it 
were not enough to put asunder two peoples of 
a common origin that had many reasons for 
working out their destiny together, it ruthlessly 

divided the younger of these peoples into two 
not very unequal and altogether implacable 
factions, ending in the complete suppression 
or extirpation of the weaker one. When one 
witnesses the qualities of mind, culture, and 
character that the American Loyalists show in 
Professor Tyler's History, and contemplates the 
prosperous communities they established in the 
great nation to the north of us, he recalls the 
curse that William of Orange, as he beheld in 
battle the splendid valor of the Irish regiments 
in the French army, pronounced upon the 
cruel fate that had denied to him the services 
of such soldiers. B A HINSDALE. 


" Patrins " are bunches of leaves by which 
Miss Guiney shows the path she has taken. On 
the whole, however, it is a pity that she should 
not have marked her path with great sign- 
boards, so that it might be avoided. It is a 
dangerous path : Miss Guiney may have trod- 
den it in safety, but there have been many and 
there will be many who have tried to follow it 
without success. To speak directly, we dissent 
from the attitude in life commended by Miss 

For instance, the scholar, to her mind, is one 
who knows already all he wants to, and goes 
about smilingly diffusing the scorn of education, 
" conversing consumedly about the weather "; 
the " out-of-doorling " does not do anything while 
he is out-of-doors, but " simply moves or sits in 
eternal amalgamation with the eternal." Now, 
though everyone knows that there is some sense 
in the attitude which Miss Guiney has in mind, 
it must also be plain that for one who can attain 
a sensible state to be humorously described as 
above, there will be a thousand Miss Nancies, 
Willieboys, and absolutely imbecile chumps, 
who are rejoiced at such an opportunity for 
mere blatant assumption. And these nonenti- 
ties, who hope that they will be thought some- 
thing of by dint of doing nothing, are an awful 
bore of which we have already too many. 

" The oddest and choicest of social attitudes," 
says Miss Guiney, is an attitude of sacred 
indifference. For heaven's sake, do n't strive 
or cry, do n't think anything or do anything 
(it 's so easy to be commonplace), keep your- 

* PATRINS : To which is added an Inquirendo into the Wit 
and Other Good Parts of His Late Majesty King Charles the 
Second. By Louise Imogen Guiney. Boston : Copeland & 



[Sept. 16, 

self out of the stupid turmoil of life. It is true 
you must n't fall into anything so foolish as the 
" cheap indifferentism so called ; the sickness 
of sophomores ": you must be something more 
distinguished, something like Lucius Gary, 
Viscount Falkland. Now, of course, there is 
a fine indifference to foolish things, as well as 
a foolish indifference to fine things and foolish 
things alike. And equally, of course, Miss 
Guiney has somewhere in mind the hope that 
she has really got the right article. But, not 
to be personal, we do not think she has. Her 
essays not only have no backbone and no other 
bones, but they have no vitals and no breath of 
life. It may be more vulgar, but we should 
prefer a man who, if a scholar, would always 
gladly learn and gladly teach, and who knew 
what was worth learning and teaching and 
what was not ; we prefer a man who, if he loves 
out-of-doors, loves to do things out-of-doors, 
even if it be to shoot deer or catch salmon ; we 
prefer a man who says something when he opens 
his mouth, even if it be not always the best 
and choicest remark possible, to one who smiles 
and can think of nothing worth saying. It 's 
a good thing to be willing to commit yourself. 

Miss Guiney likes to think of London as 
being a quiet place ; we prefer to think of it as 
noisy and hustling and full of people, cads as 
well as others. Miss Guiney likes to think of 
domestic animals conquered by man and curb- 
ing their great power to the melancholy superi- 
ority of unfeeling intellect ; we prefer leviathans 
which we can't hook and bulls in (somebody 
else's) china-shop. Miss Guiney thinks that 
art is made of seemly abstinences : some art 
may be, but to an art made of seemly absti- 
nences and nothing else, we prefer an art made 
of unseemly affirmations. At bottom, doubt- 
less, it does n't really matter what you do, and 
it doesn't really matter whether or not you do 
anything ; but this fundamental principle must 
be kept well out of sight, unless you are willing 
to go still-born to the grave. 

Historically speaking, this indifferentism is 
partly a reaction against the violence of Car- 
lyle and partly a conventional imitation of the 
descendants of the French-romantic reaction 
against conventionalism. It has manifested 
itself in fine forms, and, more often, in forms 
like the present. We think, on the whole, it 
is a sort of dry-rot in art. We will bet a big 
red apple that anyone who reads " Patrins " 
can see what the effect of such an attitude has 
been on Miss Guiney. It has deprived her of 
the power of thought and the power of style. 

Each essay is based on a fancy, not on an idea. 
Each sentence is set down with tender solici- 
tude as to how it will look, rather than with a 
compelling desire that it shall mean something. 
This is a pity. Miss Guiney could do some- 
thing, perhaps, if she would give up the idea 
that there was nothing worth her doing. 

We have spoken of Miss Guiney's style, and 
it is best to be more particular on the subject. 
Miss Guiney's style is a combination of meti- 
culated Emersonianism and effeminate imita- 
tion of Stevenson. It takes for fundamental 
principle the theory that an essay is a string of 
aphorisms, a sequence of declarative sentences, 
without formal connection. This crude and 
unrhythmical kind of prose is adorned with an 
enormous accumulation of figures of speech and 
painfully selected adverbs and adjectives. To 
what is original is added an equal amount of 
quotation. The whole is stuck over with such 
expressions as " marry " and " methinks " and 
all the syntactic affectations adopted by those 
who have rediscovered the Elizabethans. Such 
a style we have no hesitation in pronouncing 
bad, no matter how clever. 

For clever this book of essays undoubtedly 
is, clever and " charming " as well. But certain 
things will have been taken for granted about 
Miss Guiney's work, so we have thought it 
worth while to allude to some others. 



Few native tribes of America are more inter- 
esting than the Navajo ; no one is more compe- 
tent to describe them or to discuss their folk-lore 
than Dr. Matthews, who was for many years, 
as U. S. Army Surgeon, located near them. 
Dr. Matthews is a diligent worker in the field 
of American Ethnography. Years ago, his book 
on "The Ethnography and Philology of the 
Hidatsa Indians " appeared. Since then he has 
been stationed in the Southwest, and has pub- 
lished nearly a score of important papers about 
the Navajo, among which "Navajo Silver- 
smiths," "Navajo Weavers," and " The Moun- 
tain Chant " have most attracted popular atten- 
tion. He has also made useful contributions 
to Physical Anthropology. 

In " Navaho Legends " (when we quote the 
title we must spell the name as the author now 

* NAVAHO LEGENDS. By Washington Matthews. Memoirs 
of the American Folk-Lore Society, No. V. Boston : Hough- 
ton, Mifflin & Co. 




does, notwithstanding our disapproval of the 
innovation) Dr. Matthews presents us, first, a 
brief but valuable picture of Navajo ethnog- 
raphy ; second, three interesting legends, copi- 
ously annotated; third, a study of Navajo 
music by Prof. John Comfort Fillmore of 
Pomona College. The Navajo are the most 
advanced tribe of the great Athapascan family 
of Indians. Their linguistic relatives are usually 
of the wilder, and in some respects least attrac- 
tive, tribes of the continent. The Apaches, 
Montagnais, Slaves, are among their speech 
kindred. The people are not, however, pure of 
blood, but are much mixed with their neighbors, 
notably with various Pueblo and Shoshonean 
peoples. They have borrowed much from con- 
tact, and, being energetic, they have often im- 
proved their borrowings. Possibly they learned 
smithing and weaving of the Pueblos ; but if 
so, they now surpass their teachers. Their daily 
life and arts, their houses and industries, tales 
and religion, all have been profoundly influ- 
enced by the arid environment in which they 
live. The ethnographic sketch given by Dr. 
Matthews well prepares the reader for an intel- 
ligent study of the legends. 

Three classes of legends are preeminent 
among the stories of our Indian tribes the 
origin or cosmogonic legend, the migration 
legend, the culture-hero legend. Sometimes the 
three are clearly separated ; sometimes one story 
presents one element overshadowing the rest ; 
sometimes the three are inextricably combined. 
It is the origin legend of the Navajo that occu- 
pies the chief place in this book. In it are 
included elements of migration and culture-hero 
stories. The legend is long and detailed. It is 
subdivided into four sections, headed " The 
story of the Emergence," "Early events in the 
Fifth World," " The War-Gods," The Growth 
of the Navajo Nation." The people have come 
up from one after another of four previous 
worlds into this present stage of existence the 
fifth world. Each of the worlds has its own 
characteristics ; in each, the people had strange 
experiences. Nothing has happened without 
significance, and the impress of the past is upon 
the present, and the songs and ceremonials of 
this time are the result, and in some cases the 
dramatization, of those ancient happenings. 
All things around that need explanation are 
dealt with in this native philosophy. Dr. Mat- 
thews has translated the legends simply and 
with directness. On the whole, the Navajo 
Origin Legend appears more consistent and 
definite than most American Indian cosmogo- 

nies. One or two passages taken quite at ran- 
dom will illustrate the style and content. Sec- 
tion 163 describes the making of First Man 
and First Woman. The people " mentioned 
were not truly human beings : 

" The gods laid one buckskin on the ground with the 
head to the west; on this they placed two ears of corn, 
with their tips to the east, and over the corn they spread 
the other buckskin with its head to the east; under the 
white ear they put the feather of a white eagle, under 
the yellow ear the feather of a yellow eagle. Then they 
told the people to stand at a distance and allow the wind 
to enter. The white wind blew from the east, and the 
yellow wind blew from the west, between the skins. 
While the wind was blowing, eight of the Mirage Peo- 
ple came and walked around the objects on the ground 
four times, and as they walked the eagle feathers, whose 
tips protruded from between the buckskins, were seen 
to move. When the Mirage People had finished their 
walk the upper buckskin was lifted the ears of corn 
had disappeared ; a man and a woman lay there in their 

Sometimes the incidents narrated contain a 
hint at real happenings in the tribal history. 
Thus, it is likely that the Navajo first got maize, 
or corn, from the Pueblos or Kisdni, as is sug- 
gested by section 189. 

" After this it was told around that the Kisani, who 
were in camp at a little distance from the others, had 
brought with them from the lower world an ear of corn 
for seed. Some of the unruly ones proposed to go to 
the camp of the Eisani and take the corn away from 
them; but others, of better counsel, said that this would 
be wrong, that the Kisani had had as much trouble as 
the rest, and if they had more foresight they had a right 
to profit by it. In spite of these words, some of the 
young men went and demanded the corn of the Kisani. 
The latter said, after some angry talk on both sides, 
' We will break the ear in two and give you whichever 
half you choose.' The young men agreed to this bar- 
gain, and the woman who owned the ear broke it in the 
middle and laid the pieces down for the others to choose. 
The young men looked at the pieces, and were consid- 
ering which they would take, when Coyote, getting 
impatient, picked up the tip end of the ear and made 
off with it. The Kisani kept the butt, and this is the 
reason the Pueblo Indians have to-day better crops of 
corn than the Navajos. But the Pueblos had become 
alarmed at the threats and angry language of their 
neighbors and moved away from them, and this is why 
the Navajos and the Pueblos now live apart from one 

Throughout the legends, of course, are items 
of belief, tribal practices, religious customs, 
either described or incidentally mentioned. In 
explanation of these, Dr. Matthews's notes and 
pictures are most valuable. 

Professor Fillmore's discussion of the Navajo 
music is both interesting and valuable. It is 
based upon a considerable collection of phono- 
graphic records. While Navajo music presents 
perhaps little that is truly characteristic, it 
fairly represents American Indian music gen- 



[Sept. 16, 

erally. In the words, figurative language 
especially metaphor and simile abounds. Of 
rhetorical forms, antithesis, synecdoche, and 
climax are not uncommon. Those peculiarly 
favorite devices among savage and barbarous 
races, repetition and refrain are everywhere. 
Rhyme is rare. The words of a number of the 
songs are given with interlinear translation into 
English, and the melodies of ten are written 
out in ordinary musical notation. 

All in all, the volume is an important con- 
tribution to American Ethnography. It is the 
only one of the later Memoirs of the American 
Folk-Lore Society good as they all are 
that is really to be placed alongside of No. I., 
Chatelain's " Folk-Tales of Angola." 



We may accept reason as our proper guide when- 
ever it is present, but there are many times when it 
does not cover the ground. We are bringing reason 
very freely to the task of correcting religious belief ; 
and yet much of that belief rests, and must continue 
for a long time to rest, on instinctive tendencies, 
and on the force of events only partially amenable 
to reason. Religion has not arisen primarily as the 
product of reason, but as the result of feelings and 
of instinctive influences, inevitable in their action, 
and capable only of the slowest correction by later 
inquiry. " The heart has its reasonings which the 
reason knoweth nothing of." A hasty application 
of reason results in increasing the unreason already 
present in these obscure fields of thought in which 
so many impulses contend with each other. If one 
explores a mountain range by torchlight, he may 
reach a few certain conclusions, but there will re- 

* LATER GLEANINGS. By the Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone. 
New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 

A. H. Crauf urd, M.A. New York : Thomas Whittaker. 

New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 

BASES OF RELIGIOUS BELIEF, Historic and Ideal. By 
Charles Mellon Tyler, A.M., D.D. New York : G. P. Put- 
nam's Sons. 

THE OPEN MYSTERY. By A. D. T. Whitney. Boston : 
Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

Chicago : Fleming H. Rev ell Co. 

IN THIS PRESENT WORLD. By George Hodges. New 
York : Thomas Whittaker. 

Staffer. Translated by Louise Seymour Houghton. New 
York : Charles Scribner's Sous. 

CHRISTIAN WORSHIP. Ten Lectures Delivered in the Union 
Theological Seminary. New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 

Lectures before Hartford Theological Seminary. By George 
Leon Walker, D.D. New York : Silver, Burdett & Co. 

main a vast amount of mystery and darkness unre- 

The books under criticism enforce this relation 
between the clear and the obscure in faith. " Later 
Gleanings," by Mr. Gladstone, occupies itself chiefly 
in putting limitations on the quick skepticism of our 
time. It is congenial to the mind of a statesman to 
give great force to the familiar renderings of belief, 
to the conceptions which, over large surfaces and 
for long periods, have governed men's thoughts and 
actions. The volume is especially valuable as en- 
countering the feeling that the old beliefs must give 
way at once to the attacks of modern criticism. 
The work is made up of thirteen essays, most of 
them occupied with a presentation and qualified 
defence of current topics of religious discussion. 
Colonel Ingersoll, Mrs. Humphry Ward, and Pro- 
fessor Huxley come under consideration. The vol- 
ume also contains several historical essays on the 
early history of the Church of England. 

The volume on " Christian Instincts and Modern 
Doubt " contains five essays. The one entitled " The 
Present State of Religious Thought in Great Brit- 
ain " comprises most of the volume. The author 
shows much insight. While feeling the force of 
current criticism, he is in hearty sympathy with the 
faith-tendency which idealizes the world and makes 
it primarily the realm of mind. He does not set 
himself the task of a systematic defence, but ex- 
poses sharply in many ways the spiritual barrenness 
of the assaults that come from a physical rendering 
of the world. Emerson, Browning, and Martineau 
are discussed with considerable fulness and much 
sympathy. Among the secondary essays is one 
entitled "The Unwisdom of Secularism." The 
volume arises from a sense of the ruling force of 
spiritual intuitions, and yet of the many ways in 
which they still need reconciliation in our thoughts 
with the facts and events which envelope us. 

" The Place of Death in Evolution " involves a 
still deeper conviction of the spiritual thread of life 
appearing but obscurely and slowly in the physical 
history of the world, and at length separating itself 
out in an adequate revelation of its own higher nature. 
The book is well conceived, but the thought is atten- 
uated, and receives more emphasis than it will easily 
bear. If the physical relations of death had been 
treated as incidental to its moral relations, the pro- 
portion of parts would have been better preserved, 
and the resources of the author been more fairly 
dealt with. 

" Bases of Religious Belief, Historic and Ideal," 
is a work of scholarship and insight. It rests on 
the intuitional philosophy applied with reason and 
correction. It is made up of two parts. The first 
treats of the religious questionings which have 
arisen in connection with historic and scientific crit- 
icism ; and the second, of the belief in an imma- 
nent intelligence, as urged on metaphysical, ethical, 
aesthetical, and spiritual grounds. The author says 
in the preface that he has aimed to give simply 
a resume of the conclusions of modern thought. 




This is more apparent in the first than in the 
second part. The result is some want of firm 
direction in the thought. It is neither definitely 
historical nor critical. In the second part, the 
author gives more freedom to his own mind. The 
result is a well-balanced and careful statement of 
the grounds of belief. We are disposed to criticise 
such expressions as " the God-consciousness " as 
inaccurate and misleading, even when the under- 
lying idea is unobjectionable. The word, con- 
sciousness, is slipping very much away from its 
direct and needed use. Consciousness can no more 
be made to stand for the elements involved in 
consciousness than the sunlit, rippling surface of 
the ocean for the obscure depths hidden under it. 

" The Open Mystery " can hardly be pronounced 
a successful volume. It is a re-cast of the early his- 
toric parts of the Old Testament. The author 
assigned herself a difficult task, and had neither the 
insight nor the critical power necessary to make its 
execution interesting to the well-informed reader. 

4< Foretokens of Immortality " is not an unpleas- 
ing rendering of the familiar convictions on immor- 
tality. It will soothe and assure the thoughts of 
those predisposed to belief. It is doubtless a result 
of the shifting farm of religious beliefs that so 
many are turning to the doctrine of immortality, 
struggling to give it a firmer and more vital hold. 
An exhortation to courage quickens the courageous, 
but makes slight appeal to the timid. So is it with 
the proofs of a future life. 

" In this Present World " is a volume of sermons 
of a plain, practical, and somewhat penetrative 
order. It is a good specimen of the prolific species 
to which it belongs. 

" Jesus Christ During His Ministry " is an inter- 
mediate volume between two others, " Jesus Christ 
Before His Ministry," and " The Death and Resur- 
rection of Jesus Christ," which is to follow. The 
author expresses his aims in these words : " I pro- 
pose, in fact, to speak above all things of Jesus 
himself, to ask what he thought, what he proposed 
to do, what he professed to be, and, as my general 
title says, what he said of his person, what authority 
he claimed, and what work he desired to do." The 
book deserves warm commendation. The thought 
is clear, penetrative, and free from prolixity. It 
helps to a more realistic grasp of the life and char- 
acter of Christ, and of the circumstances of his 

" Christian Worship " is composed of a series of 
lectures, given in Union Theological Seminary, on 
Liturgies, by leading men of different forms of faith. 
The introductory lecture, 'by Dr. Charles Cuthbert 
Hall, is on " The Principles of Christian Worship "; 
the closing lecture, by Dr. Thomas S. Hastings, is 
on "The Ideal of Christian Worship." The eight 
intervening lectures present Primitive Christian 
Liturgies, The Greek Liturgies, Roman Liturgies, 
Lutheran Liturgies, The Liturgies of the Reformed 
Church, The Book of Common Prayer, The Book 
of Common Order, Worship in Non-Liturgical 

Churches. The reader is thus put in pretty full 
possession of what is current in forms of Worship, 
and of the feeling which underlies liturgical worship. 
" Some Aspects of the Religious Life of New 
England " is a book quite in order, and interesting. 
The purpose of the author is to give " the religious 
life itself its dominating motives, its characteriz- 
ing experiences, its manifestations of spiritual power 
in the careers of the men and women of the nine 
generations that have dwelt upon New England soil 
since the landing of the Pilgrims." This task he 
has accomplished with insight, fairness, and con- 
siderable fulness. The volume serves to emphasize 
in still another way the force of events in determin- 
ing the current tendency of religious thought. The 
reason busies itself narrowly with the particular 
phase of work the circumstances assign it. The 
chapter on the present period is especially interest- 
ing ; a period in which the sense of sin is widening 
out into that of ethical law, in which doctrine is 
displaced by social theory, and the general welfare 
is substituted for personal piety. Religious devel- 
opment is cyclic, with actions and reactions ; a 
thorough recognition of the fact makes us at once 
more charitable, more peaceful, and more useful. 



A volume of ^ n one ^ ms recently-published let- 

essays by ters, the late Master of Balliol wrote 

Prof essor James. ag f O H OW8 : I f ee l very deeply 

that one cannot live without religion, and that 
in proportion as we believe less, that little, if it 
be only an aweful feeling about existence, must be 
more constantly present with us; as faith loses 
in extent it must gain in intensity, if we do not 
mean to shipwreck altogether." This passage 
would serve very well as a text for the " Essays in 
Popular Philosophy" (Longmans) that Professor 
William James has brought together into a volume 
made up from his occasional addresses and con- 
tributions to periodicals during the past score of 
years. This choice of a text is chiefly justified by 
the first four of the essays, " which are largely con- 
cerned with defending the legitimacy of religious 
faith." The essential position of the author might 
almost be illustrated by Shelley's " Prometheus," 
wherein we are exhorted 

" To hope till hope creates 
From its own wreck the thing it contemplates." 
There are cases, says Professor James, " where a 
fact cannot come at all unless a preliminary faith 
exists in its coming." Now while this is unde- 
niable as a general proposition, it is a dangerous 
principle to be taken as a guide by the untrained 
seeker after religious and philosophical truth. It 
is doubtless sometimes true, as in the case of the 
mountain-climber who can save his life only by a 
dangerous and terrible leap, that "faith before- 



[Sept. 16, 

hand in an uncertified result is the only thing that 
makes the result come true," hut this is not quite 
the same thing as saying that faith in the cardinal 
doctrines of religion is the condition upon which 
their realization depends in any other than a sub- 
jective sense. Professor James might retort that 
this is, after all, only an ingenious way of begging 
the question, and that the subjective sense is the 
one most important to be considered in these high 
matters. But the defense that he actually does 
bring forward is made from a very different point 
of vantage, being substantially that his book is not 
addressed to a popular audience, exposed to the 
dangers of over-credulity, but rather to an aca- 
demic audience suffering from a " mental weakness 
brought about by the notion, carefully instilled, 
that there is something called scientific evidence 
by waiting upon which they shall escape all danger 
of shipwreck in regard to death." There is some- 
thing in this, to be sure, but not quite as much as 
the author would have us think, and the opposed 
view of such men as Clifford, for example, seems 
to us supported by a closer-knit logical cogency. 
It is all a question of degree, and the author's 
chapter on " Psychical Research " affords evidence 
that he carries his own principle of believing the 
things that we want to believe a little farther than 
most clear-sighted thinkers are willing to carry it. 
But there is no escaping the fascination of the 
author's exposition of his characteristic views, and 
the reader is ready to say more than once: "Al- 
most thou persuadest me to set in abeyance the 
thinking part of myself, and to let the heart dictate 
where the reason has held sway hitherto." The 
felicity of expression, the charm of manner, and 
the sympathetic hold upon life that are so richly 
displayed in these pages, make them remarkable 
among recent contributions to philosophical thought. 
Were the reader to reject in toto the fundamental 
teachings of this book, he still could not fail to 
profit by it, for it is the product of a rich and acute 
mind, which adorns every subject that it touches. 

The uncrowned monarch of the seven- 
teenth centur y is in this latter age 
beginning to stand forth in all his 
moral and political grandeur. Dr. R. F. Horton 
has made a study of him as a religionist, and has 
embodied his results in " Oliver Cromwell : a Study 
in Personal Religion" (Thomas Whittaker). The 
trend of his study is shown in his portrayal of the 
staunch, unbending, constant, moral and religious 
force of the almost invincible Cromwell. This re- 
ligion was not a side issue of the great hero, but it 
was the hero himself. In each civil strife, in his 
clashes with monarchy, in his appeals for the people, 
sturdy, eternal, and uncompromising religious prin- 
ciples controlled his action. His devotion to the 
cause of humanity is but the fruit of an inward life 
divinely planted and nourished. To exhibit these 
traits the author recites many of the pivotal points 
in his active career, but does it with such a sincere 

and devoted purpose as to allay all differences be- 
tween him and those who may not agree with him. 
Young men, and older ones, too, will receive a gen- 
uine inspiration to nobler action in the reading of 
this book. Dr. S. R. Gardiner delivered six lec- 
tures at the University of Oxford on " Oliver Crom- 
well's Place in History " which now form a neat 
little volume of 120 pages (Longmans). These 
discourses do not deal with the biography of the 
hero, but " estimate his relation to the political and 
ecclesiastical movements of his time." Dr. Gardiner 
embodies his lectures in a wonderfully lucid, clear, 
clean-cut, and forcible tongue. His estimate of 
Cromwell is well-balanced, and eminently just, 
though not identical with some other writers. Crom- 
well, he says, " was for that which has been the 
characteristic feature in English political history, 
the policy of bit-by-bit reform " (p. 41). Cromwell's 
settlement of Ireland was simply the beating down 
of everything opposed to British supremacy, while 
the constructive work was left to others (p. 57). 
Cromwell was not constructive, he was rather a 
mediator, a moderator (p. 81), embodying within 
himself elements " of championship for liberty, of a 
crusher of free institutions, of a defender of op- 
pressed peoples, and of an asserter of the country's 
right to dominion " (p. 114). " It is time for us to 
regard him as he really was, with all his physical 
and moral audacity, with all his tenderness and 
spiritual yearnings, in the world of action what 
Shakespeare was in the world of thought, the great- 
est, because the most typical, Englishman. This, in 
the most enduring sense, is Cromwell's place in his- 
tory " (p. 116). 

General James Grant Wilson, in 
General Grant. his study of General Grant in the 

"Great Commanders Series" (D. 
Appleton & Co.), necessarily devotes most of his 
attention to the period of the Civil War. A brief 
sketch is given of the points of interest in the life 
of Grant both before and after that period, but it 
is for the most part written in a perfunctory man- 
ner. On the other hand, the story of the great 
campaigns is told with enthusiasm and with clear- 
ness, though it is possible that, to a non-military 
reader, the detailed accounts of the movements of 
this or that brigade or regiment may be somewhat 
confusing. These details will, no doubt, be of great 
interest to the old soldier who took part in the 
battles described, or to one who desires to make a 
careful study of them. But the majority of the 
readers of this book will not have had any military 
training, and therefore will not be able to estimate, 
from mere detailed battle accounts, the genius of 
the man who commanded in battle. What is needed 
is either broader and less technical descriptions of 
battles and campaigns, with more of the personality 
of Grant thrown into and illuminating them, or 
explanatory notes to indicate wherein such and such 
a movement or march gave evidence of great mili- 
tary ability. In fact, after having followed Grant, 




in this book, from his first command in Illinois to 
his final victory over Lee in Virginia, the impres- 
sion is left upon the mind of the reader that all 
that has been learned about General Grant's great 
genius in war is that he was aggressive, courageous, 
and always confident of the ultimate success of his 
cause. By far the most interesting portion of the 
work is to be found in the letters to the Hon. E. 
B. Washburne, for in these General Grant revealed 
to his friend sentiments and opinions not often 
shown even to his intimates. The concluding chap- 
ter, also, upon Grant's last days and death, is writ- 
ten with a delicacy and an affection which evince 
the author's love for his hero. 

That labyrinthian crystal palace of 
inside of Kentucky, concealed from the light 

Mammoth Cave. ... . -, 

of the sun, is attracting more and 
more the attention of the scientific, the literary, and 
the travelling public. Messrs. Hovey and Call have 
now put themselves on record, in a small manual 
(John P. Morton & Co., Louisville), as explorers 
and guides to that great net-work of caverns called 
Mammoth Cave. They present a history of its dis- 
coveries from Hutchins's legendary Bear chase, 
down to the last map whose cavernous contortions 
almost bewilder the innocent reader sitting in his 
easy study chair. After a somewhat elaborate sketch 
of that section of Kentucky, the guides lead off to 
the route of pits and domes. Such exquisite forma- 
tions ! Such splendid palatial domes, and awful 
pits ! Adjectives lose their force and the visitor 
stands or moves about, lost in wonder and in praise. 
" The chief city and fairy grotto," then " the river 
route " follow in order. Many questions of the 
visitor are answered by the well-prepared chapter 
on " the natural history of the cavern." The book- 
let is illustrated by a large number of beautiful half- 
tone cuts of some of the most pleasing and startling 
views in the cavern. The reading of this manual is 
a good preparation for a visit to that underground 
art-gallery of nature. 

A little book of 145 pages entitled 
The baptem of Th Baptism of Roger Williams " 

Roger Williams. r D T* j n \ 

(Providence : Preston & Hounds Co.) 
is one link in a chain of controversy, begun, as far 
back as 1880, by some articles published anony- 
mously in " The Independent." In 1893, President 
Whitsitt of the Southern Baptist Theological Sem- 
inary published two articles in " Johnson's Universal 
Cyclopaedia " on " Anabaptists " and " Baptists " in 
which he held that the evidence at hand does not 
warrant one in asserting that the English Baptists 
practised immersion as baptism prior to 1641. In 
the Cyclopdia Dr. Whitsitt says regarding the 
baptism of Roger Williams : " The ceremony was 
most likely performed by sprinkling ; the Baptists 
of England had not yet adopted immersion, and 
there is no reason which renders it probable that 
Williams was in advance of them in that regard." 
The venerable pastor, Dr. H. M. King, of the First 

Baptist Church of Providence, Williams's stamping 
ground, promptly calls down the Southern Seminary 
President, and, if argument and evidence settle the 
case, states and makes his point with clearness and 
precision, that Roger Williams was baptised by 


For several years Miss Hattie M. 
Scott has been trying an educational 
experiment in one of the ward 
schools of Detroit which is full of suggestion and 
instruction. The results of this experiment, and 
the theory which directed the teachers, are now 
presented in a book of 289 pages, which deserves 
the attention of teachers. Part I. " Embodies the 
philosophical interpretation of the plan. It pre- 
sents not the starting point for that was purely 
practical but the apparent meaning of that which 
has been done. Part II. is a detailed statement of 
the methods actually pursued and of the materials 
actually employed." Some of the features of Pro- 
fessor Dewey's remarkable school in Chicago are 
found in Miss Scott's book. The volume is pub- 
lished by Messrs. J. V. Sheehan & Co., Ann Arbor. 


Happy is the library that can undertake the publica- 
tion of such costly bibliographical works as the one 
recently sent us from the Boston Athenaeum. It is a 
" Catalogue of the Washington Collection " in that insti- 
tution, compiled and annotated by Mr. Appleton P. C. 
Griffin, and provided with an important Appendix by 
Mr. William C. Lane. It makes a sumptuous volume 
of nearly six hundred pages, illustrated by facsimile 
title-pages, a vignette of the interior of the Athenseum, 
and an engraving of the Stuart portrait. The Wash- 
ington collection of books was begun in 1848, when a 
number of citizens subscribed to a fund for the purchase 
of books from the Mount Vernon library of George 
Washington. The present catalogue includes all of the 
books then purchased, besides many others relating to 
Washington in various ways. It is a bibliographical 
work of the highest value, as well as an interesting 
memorial of the first President of the Republic. 

The latest text-books for teachers of the modern 
languages include the following: Part Third of " The 
Study and Practice of French in School," by Miss Louise 
C. Boname (Philadelphia: The Author); "L'Abbe* 
Constantin" (the comedy), edited by Mr. V. E. Francois 
(American Book Co.); "L'Oncle et le Neveu," by 
About, edited by Mr. G. Castegnier (Jenkins); " Fra le 
Corde di un Contrabasso," a story by Signer S. Farina, 
edited by Professor T. E. Comba (Jenkins). 

Dr. Albert F. Blaisdell is the author of " A Practical 
Physiology" (Ginn) for high schools, which is well- 
arranged, and provided with the sort of helps that 
young students most need. Our main criticism upon 
the work is that it makes too great concessions to the 
"temperance" and anti-tobacco extremists who have 
succeeded in getting a good deal of pernicious educa- 
tional legislation adopted in the several States. Al- 
cohol has thirty-three entries in the index, and tobacco 
twelve, thus leading all the other subjects. 



[Sept. 16, 


THE DIAL'S list of books announced for Fall issue by 
American publishers, which has become an important 
annual feature of the paper, is this year very much the 
largest ever given. It contains over 1100 titles, against 
900 last year ; and represents sixty houses, nine 
more than last year. The feeling of encouragement 
and general improvement that marks the business 
world at present has evidently reached the publishers, 
and the showing made by them in the following List 
reflects the greatest credit on their activity and energy. 
The outlook for a prosperous season is certainly good, 
and the American publishing trade is to be congratulated 
on its alertness to take advantage of the " turn in the 
tide." The classification of the books into departments 
adds greatly to the usefulness and interest of the List, 
and furnishes the basis of some analysis and comment 
in the leading editorial article of this issue. The 
department of Juveniles is deferred until our next 
number. All the books here given are presumably 
new books new editions not being included unless 
having new form or matter; and the List does not 
include Fall books already issued and entered in our 
regular List of New Books. 


Alfred Lord Tennyson, a memoir, by his son, 2 vols., with 
photogravure portraits and other illustrations, $10. The 
Story of Gladstone's Life, by Justin McCarthy, illus. 
The Household of the Lafayettes, a series of historical 
papers, by Edith Sichel. " Foreign Statesmen," new 
vols. : William the Silent, by Frederic Harrison ; Charles 
the Great, by Thomas Hodgkin, D.C.L. ; Philip II. of 
Spain, by Col. Martin Hume; and Mirabeau, by P. F. 
Willert ; per vol., 75 cts. ( Macmillan Co.) 

The Life of Harriet Beecher Stowe, by Mrs. James T. Fields, 
with portrait, $1.50; large-paper edition, $4. Life and 
Times of Edward Bass, first bishop of Massachusetts, 
1726-1803, by Daniel Dulany Addison, with portrait, $3. 
(Honghton, Mifflin & Co.) 

Life of Wagner, by Houston Stuart Chamberlain, illus. in 
photogravure, etc., $7.50. Life of Charles Jared Inger- 
soll, by William M. Meigs, with photogravure portraits, 
$1.50. Washington after the Revolution, 1784-1799, by 
William S. Baker. (J. B. Lippincott Co.) 

" Builders of Greater Britain," edited by H. F. Wilson, M.A., 
first vols. : Sir Walter Raleigh, by Martin A. S. Hume ; 
Sir Thomas Maitland, by Walter Frewen Lord ; John 
Cabot and his Sons ; Lord Clive, by Sir A. J. Arbuthnot ; 
Edward Gibbon Wakefield, by R. Garnett, C.B. ; Rajah 
Brooke, by Sir Spenser St. John; Admiral Philip, by 
Louis Becke and Walter Jeffrey ; and Sir Stamford Raf- 
fles, by the editor; each with portrait and map. The 
Life of Stonewall Jackson, by Lieut.-Col. G. F. Hen- 
derson, 2 vols., illus. Life of Edward Bouverie Pusey, 
D.D., by Henry Parry Liddon, D.D., Vol. IV., com- 

Sleting the work, illus. The Life of Francis Place, by 
raham Wallas. The Life of Chauncy Maples, D.D., 
bishop of Likoma, British Central Africa, by his sister, 
Ellen Maples, with portrait. (Longmans, Green, & Co.) 

Recollections of Aubrey de Vere, with portrait, $4. Auto- 
biography and Letters of the Rt. Hon. John Arthur 
Roebuck, Q. C., edited by Robert Eadon Leader, with 
portraits. A memoir of Anne J. Clough, principal of 
Newnham College, Cambridge,by her niece, Bertha Clough, 
with portraits, $3.50. (Edward Arnold.) 

Life and Correspondence of Charles Carroll, of Carrolltown, 
edited by Kate Mason Rowland, 2 vols., illus. " Heroes 
of the Nations," new vols.: Ulysses S. Grant, and the 
Maintenance of American Nationality, 1822-1885, by 
William Conant Church ; The Cid Campeador, and the 
Waning of the Crescent in the West, by W. Butler Clarke ; 
and Robert E. Lee and the Southern Confederacy, 1807- 
1870, by Henry Alexander White ; each illus., $1.50. 
Life and Correspondence of Rufus King, edited by Charles 
R. King, M.D., Vol. IV., $5. Life of Henry Bradley 
Plant, by G. Hutchinson Smyth, D.D., illus. (G. P. 
Putnam's Sons.) 

Forty-Six Years in the Army, by General John M. Schofield, 
with portrait, $3. The Story of Marie- Antoinette, by 
Anna L. Bickuell, illus., $3. The Autobiography of 
Joseph Jefferson, new edition, with supplementary chap- 
ter, illus. , $4. ( Century Co. ) 

Lady Hamilton and Lord Nelson, a historical biography, by 
John Cordy Jeaffreson, new revised edition, with portrait, 
$5. (New Amsterdam Book Co.) 

Men I Have Known, by Dean Farrar, illus., $1.75. (T. Y. 

Pictures from the Life of Nelson, by W. Clark Russell, 
$1.50. The Brontes in Fact and Fiction, by Angus 
Mackay, $1.50. James Macdonell, journalist, by W. 
Robertson Nicoll, with portrait, $2.75. (Dodd, Mead 
& Co.) 

" Women of Colonial and Revolutionary Times," final vol. : 
Catherine Schuyler, by Mary Gay Humphreys, $1.25. 
The Life of Philip Schaff, by David S. Schaff. " The 
Great Educators," new vol. : Thomas and Matthew Ar- 
nold, by J. G. Fitch, $1. Men of Achievement, new and 
cheaper edition, 4 vols., $6. (Chas. Scribner's Sons.) 

Marches! and Music, passages from the life of a famous 
singing teacher, by Mathilde Marchesi, with introduction 
by Massenet, illus., $2.50. (Harper & Bros.) 

A Memoir of Robert C. Winthrop (1809-1894), prepared for 
the Massachusetts Historical Society, by Robert C. Win- 
throp, Jr., $3. (Little, Brown, & Co.) 

St. Francis of Assisi, his times, life, and work, by Rev. W. J. 
Knox-Little, $2.50. (Thos. Whittaker.) 

Sixty Years a Queen, by Sir Herbert Maxwell, Bart., new 
, and enlarged edition, illus., $4. (E. & J. B. Young & Co.) 

Lord Shaftsbury, by Edwin Hodder, $1. Catherine Booth, 
by W. T. Stead. $1. John Bunyan, by Rev. John Brown, 
D.D., $1. (F.H. RevellCo.) 


A History of the Commonwealth and Protectorate, 1649-1660, 
by Samuel Rawson Gardiner, D.C.L., Vol. II., with 
maps. Drake and the Tudor Navy, with a history of the 
rise of England as a maritime power, by Julian Corbett, 
2 vols., illus. Harvard Historical Studies, new vols.: 
The Liberty and Free Soil Parties in the Northwest, by 
Theodore C. Smith, Ph.D. ; and A Bibliography of British 
Municipal History, by Charles Gross, Ph.D. (Longmans, 
Green, & Co.) 

The History of our Navy, by John R. Spears, 4 vols., illus., 
per vol., $2. The Battle of Franklin, by Gen. Jacob D. 
Cox, with maps, $2. The Beginning of the Second Em- 
pire, by Imbert de Saint- Amand, with portraits, $1.50. 
Oxford Manuals of English History, new vols. : The Hun- 
dred Years' War, by C. W. C. Oman, M.A.; and England 
and the Reformation, by G. W. Powers, M. A. ; per vol., 
50 cts. (Chas. Scribner's Sons.) 

Old Virginia and her Neighbors, by John Fiske, 2 vols., $4. 

The Westward Movement, the struggle for the trans- 
Allegheny region, 1763^-1797, by Justin Winsor, illus., $4. 

The First Republic in America, by Alexander Brown, 
D.C.L., with portrait, $7.50. Colonial Mobile, an histori- 
cal study, by Peter J. Hamilton, A.M., illus. France 
under Louis XV., by James Breck Perkins, 2 vols., $4. 
(Houghton, Mifflin & Co.) 

A Handbook of European History, by Arthur Hassall, M. A. 
France, by J. E. C. Bodley, M.A. "Stories from Ameri- 
can History," first vols. : Spanish Discovery and Conquest, 
by Grace King ; War of 1812. by James Barnes ; California 
History and Explorations, by Charles H. Shinn ; Stories 
of American Pirates, by Frank R. Stockton ; Tales of the 
Enchanted Isles of America, by Thomas Wentworth Hig- 
ginson ; and The Active Life of a Confederate Soldier, by 
George Gary Eggleston. "American History Told by 
Contemporaries," edited by Albert Bushnell Hart, Vol. II., 
Building of the Republic, 1689-1783. The Battle of Har- 
lem Heights, Sept. 16, 1776, by Henry P. Johnston, A.M., 
illus. (Macmillan Co.) 

The Historical Development of Modern Europe, 1815-1880, 
by Charles M. Andrews, Part II., 1850 to present time. 
$2.50. Historic New York, the " Half Moon Series," 
edited by Maud Wilder Goodwin and others, illus. 
" Story of the Nations," new vols.: The Story of Modern 
France, by Andre" Le Bon ; The Story of Austria, by 
Sidney Whitman ; and The Story of the Franks, by Lewis 
Sergeant ; each illus., $1.50. ; Nullification and Secession 
in the United States, by Edward Payson Powell, D.D. 
Life in Early Britain, by Bertram C. A. Windle, D.Sc., 
illus., $1.25. The Romance of the House of Savoy, by 
Alethea Wiel. ( G. P. Putnam's Sons. ) 




Founding of the German Empire by William I., by Heinrich 
von Sybel, Vols. VI. and VII., per vol., $2. Evolution 
of France under the Third Republic, by Baron Pierre de 
Coubertin. with introduction by Dr. Albert Shaw, illns., 
$3. (T. Y. Crowell & Co. ) 

History of the Pequot War, from the contemporary accounts 
of Mason, Underbill, Vincent, and Gardener, edited by 
Charles Orr, limited edition, $2.50. (Helman-Taylor Co.) 

Sources for Greek History between the Persian and Pelopon- 
esian Wars, collected and arranged by G. F. Hill, M. A., 
$2.60. (Henry Frowde.) 

" Story of the West " new vol.: The Story of the Cowboy, by 
E. Hough, illus., $1.50. (D. Appleton & Co.) 

The Romance of Colonization in the United States, from 
earliest times to the landing of the Pilgrims, by G. Barnett 
Smith, 81.50. (Dodd, Mead & Co.) 

Spain in the Nineteenth Century, by Elizabeth Wormeley 
Latimer, illns., $2.50. The Campaign of Marengo, by 
Herbert H. Sargent, with maps, $1.50. (A. C. McClurg 

The Jesuit Relations, edited by Reuben Gold Thwaites, Vols. 
VIII. to XIII., per vol., $3.50. (Burrows Brothers Co.) 

Afloat on the Ohio, by Reuben Gold Thwaites, 01.50. (Way 
& Williams. ) 

The Evolution of the Aryan, by Rudolph von Ihering. 
(Henry Holt & Co.) 

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[Sept. 16, 


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[Sept. 16, 

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A System of Medicine, by many writers, edited by Thomas 
Clifford Allbutt, M.A., Vol. III.. $5. Lectures on the 
Action of Medicine, by T. Lauder Brunton, M.D. Eye- 
sight, Good and Bad, by R. Brundenell Carter, third 
edition. Constipation in Adults and Children, by H. 
Illoway, M.D. A Text-Book of Pathological Anatomy 
and Pathogenesis, by Ernst Ziegler, trans, by Donald Mac- 
allister, M.A., and Henry W. Cattell, A.M., new revised 
edition. (Macmillan Co.) 

Accident and Injury, by Pearce Bailey, M.D., illus. Trau- 
matic Injuries of the Brain, by Charles Phelps, M.D., 
illus. Physical Diagnosis, by Glentworth R. Butler, 
M.D., illus. A Text-Book of Surgery, by Dr. H. Till- 
mans, Vol. II., illus. Text-Book of Anatomy, by Frank 
Baker, M.D., illus. Lectures on the Malarial Fevers, 
by William S. Thayer, M.D., illus. Operative Gyne- 
cology, by H. A. Kelly, M.D., 2 vols., illus. Cancer 
of the Uterus, by Thomas S. Cullen, M.D., illus. (D. 
Appleton & Co.) 

The Diseases of the Lungs, by James Kingston Fowler, 
M.A., and Rickman J. Godlee, B.A. A Manual of Mid- 
wifery, by William Radford Dakin, M.D., illus. Sur- 
gical Pathology and Principles, by J. Jackson Clarke, 
M.B., illus. (Longmans, Green, & Co.) 

A Text-Book of Materia Medica for Nurses, compiled by La- 
vinia L. Dock, fourth edition, revised and enlarged. 
(G. P. Putnam's Sons.) 

The Clinical Diagnosis of Lameness in the Horse, by W. E. 
A. Wyman, V. S. Veterinary Obstetrics, by W. H. Dal- 
rymple, M. R. C. V. S. Practical Toxicology, by Dr. 
Rudolf Kebert, trans, and edited by L. H. Friedburg, 
Ph.D. Charts V. and VI., Equine Anatomy, by Prof. 
Sussdorf, M. D., trans, by Prof. W. Owen Williams. 
Outlines of Veterinary Anatomy, by O. Charnock Bradley, 
M.R.C.V.S., Vol. III. A Treatise on Veterinary Surg- 
ical Therapeutics of the Domestic Animals, by Prof. 
P. J. Cadiot and J. Alvary, trans, by Prof. A. Liautard, 
M. D. V. S., Vol. I. ( Wm. R. Jenkins.) 

Poole's Index to Periodical Literature, by W. I. Fletcher 
and F. 0. Poole, Vol. IV., third supplement, Jan., 1892, 
to Jan., 1897. A Dictionary of American Authors, by 
Oscar Fay Adams, $3. (Houghton, Mifflin & Co.) 

Comprehensive Subject- Index to Universal Prose Fiction, by 
Zella Allen Dixson, $2. (Dodd, Mead & Co.) 

Reader's Reference Library, new vols. : Chambers' Concise 
Biographical Dictionary ; and Curiosities of Popular Cus- 
toms, by William S. Walsh ; per vol., $3.50. Library of 
Curiosities, by William S. Walsh, 2 vols., $7. (J. B. 
Lippincott Co. ) 

Bibliography of Education, by W. S. Munroe, $1.50. The 
Art of Punctuation, by F. Horace Teall. ( D. Appleton 

A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles, edited by 
Dr. James A. H. Murray, new part, " Doom Dziggetai," 
$1.25. (Henry Frowde.) 

Handy-Volume Dictionaries, edited by G. F. Barwick, B. A., 
3 vols., comprising : English, by E. H. Truslove ; French 
and English, by A. Mendel ; and German and English, by 
J. B. Close ; per set, $2. (E. & J. B. Young & Co.) 

Sunlight and Shadow, a book for amateur and professional 
photographers, edited by W. I. Lincoln Adams, illus., 
$2.50. ( Baker & Taylor Co. ) 




The Sale Prices of 1896, edited by J. H. Slater, limited edi- 
tion, $6. (Francis P. Harper.) 


The Queen's Hounds, and Stag-Hunting Recollections, by 
Lord Ribblesdale, illus. ; also limited large-paper edition. 
Racing and Chasing, a volume of sporting stories and 
sketches, by Alfred E. T. Watson, illus. Fur, Feather, 
and Fin series, n^w vols.: The Trout, by the Marquis of 
Granby; The Rabbit, by J. E. Harting and others; and 
The Salmon, by Hon. A. E. Gathorne Hardy; each illus. 
(Longmans, Green, & Co.) 

Sportsman's Library, new vols.: Reminiscences of a Hunts- 
man, by Hon. Grantley F. Berkeley; and The Art of 
Deer-Stalking, by William Scrope; each illus. in photo- 
gravure, colors, etc., $4; limited large-paper edition, per 
vol., $10. Rowing, by R. C. Lehmann, illus., $2. (Ed- 
ward Arnold.) 

The Grand Tactics of Chess, by Franklin K. Young. 
(Roberts Bros.) 

Complete Hoyle, by R. F. Foster, illus., $2. (F. A. Stokes 

Brentano's Pocket Library of Games, comprising : Cinch, 
Chess, Poker, and Dice and Dominoes, each illus., 50 cts. 
Whist Rules, by Kate Wheelock, revised edition, $1. 
( Brentano's. ) 


Poetical and Prose Works of Byron, edited by the Earl of 
Lovelace, 12 vols., with portraits. The Spectator, with 
introduction by Austin Dobson, 8 vols., illus. in photo- 
gravure, $12. "Cameo" editions, new vols.: Barrie's A 
Window in Thrums and Auld Licht Idylls, and Van 
Dyke's Little Rivers and The Poetry of Tennyson ; each, 
with frontispiece, $1.25. (Chas. Scribner's Sons.) 

Complete Poetical and Prose Works of Thomas Bailey Aid- 
rich, new "Riverside" edition, revised by the author, 
8 vols., $12; limited large-paper edition, $32. Complete 
Poetical Works of Robert Burns, "Cambridge" edition, 
edited by W. E. Henley, with portrait, $2. Complete 
Works of Robert Burns, "Centenary De Luxe" edition, 
edited by W. E. Henley and T. F. Henderson, Vol. IV., 
completing the work, illus., $4. Walden, or Life in the 
Woods, by Henry D. Thoreau, with biographical sketch by 
Ralph Waldo Emerson, popular edition, $1. (Houghton, 

Poems of Thomas Hood, edited, with memoir, by Alfred 
Ainger, 2 vols., with portraits. Wordsworth's Works, 
edited by William Knight, new vols.: Prose Works, Vol. 
II.; and Journals of Dorothy Wordsworth, 2 vols.; with 
portraits, per vol., $1.50. "Temple Classics," new vols.: 
Chapman's Odyssey, 2 vols.; More's Utopia ; Florio's Mon- 
taigne, 6 vols.; Boswell's Johnson, 6 vols.; Ben Jonson's 
Discoveries ; and Goldsmith's Vicar of Wakefield ; per 
vol., 50 cts. "Temple Dramatists," new vols.: Fletcher's 
Faithful Shepherdess ; Edward III.; Beaumont and Flet- 
cher's Philaster ; and Kyd's Spanish Tragedy ; per vol., 
45 cts. (Macmillan Co.) 

The Works of Francois Rabelais, trans, by Sir Thomas Urqu- 
hart and Peter Motteaux, introduction and revision by 
Alfred Wallis, 5 vols., illus. Confessions of Jean Jacques 
Rousseau, revised, corrected, and extended, 4 vols., illus., 
$4. Byron's Poetical works, edited by Thomas Moore, 4 
vols., illus. Robinson Crusoe, by Daniel Defoe, illus. with 
etchings, etc., $1.50. (J. B. Lippincott Co.) 

Library of Historical Novels and Romances, edited by Law- 
rence Gomme, first vols.: Lord Lytton's Harold ; Macfar- 
lane's Camp of Refuge ; Ruf us, or The Red King ; and 
Macfarlane's Legend of Reading Abbey ; eacli illus. 
The Spectator, with introduction and notes by George A. 
Aitken, 8 vols., with portraits. (Longmans, Green, & Co.) 

A new series of Romances by Alexandra Dumas, comprising: 
Age*nor de Maul e'en, 2 vols.; The Brigand, and Blanche 
de Beaulieu ; The Horoscope ; Sylvandire ; and Monsieur 
de Chauvelin's Will and The Woman with the Velvet 
Necklace ; 6 vols., illus. in photogravure, $9. Verdant 
Green, an Oxford Freshman, by Cuthbert Bede, illus., 
$1.50. (Little, Brown, & Co.) 

The Opus Majus of Roger Bacon, edited by John Henry 
Bridges, 2 vols., $8. (Henry Frowde.) 

Taine's English Literature, 4 vols., with portraits. (Henry 
Holt & Co.) 

English Love Sonnet Series, new vol. : Sonnets of Shakes- 
pear, $2.50. (Copeland & Day.) 

Plays and Poems of William Shakespeare, in one volume, $5. 
(New Amsterdam Book Co.) 

Dante's Divine Comedy and The New Life, edited by L.Oscar 
Kuhns, illus., $2. Luxembourg Illustrated Library of 
Standard Fiction, comprising : Kingsley's Hypatia, Miss 
Mulock's John Halifax, Bulwer -Lytton's Last Days of 
Pompeii, Blackmore's Lorna Doone, Cooper's Last of the 
Mohicans, Hugo's Notre Dame, George Eliot's Romola, 
Dumas' The Three Musketeers, Hugo's Toilers of the Sea, 
Irving's Tales of a Traveller, Dickens's Tale of Two Cities, 
and Mrs. Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin ; each illus. in pho- 
togravure, etc., $1.50. (T. Y. Crowell & Co.) 

Complete Works of Washington Irving, "Knickerbocker" 
edition, 40 vols., illus. in photogravure, etc., $50. The 
Odes of Horace, edited by Paul Shorey. Illustrated 
English Library, new vols.: Lever's Charles O'Malley; 
Lord Lytton's The Last Days of Pompeii ; Charlotte 
Bronte's Shirley ; Thackeray's Pendennis ; Lord Lytton's 
The Caxtons ; and Thackeray's The Newcomes ; per vol., 
$1. (G. P. Putnam's Sons.) 

Works of the Bronte Sisters, 6 vols., with frontispieces, $6. 
" My Lady's Classics," new vols. : A Princess of Thule, 
by William Black ; and A Thousand Miles up the Nile, by 
Amelia B. Edwards ; each illus., $2. The Golden Dog, a 
romance of Quebec, by William Kirby, authorized edition, 
illus. Round Table Library, new vol. : The Romance 
of a Poor Young Man, by Octave Feuillet, illus., 50 cts. 
(L. C. Page & Co.) 

Leaves of Grass, by Walt Whitman, with a supplement of new 
poems, illus., $2. Complete Prose Works of Walt Whit- 
man, illus., $2. (Small, Maynard & Co.) 

Moliere's Dramatic Works, trans, by Katharine Prescott 
Wormeley, Vols V. and VI., per vol., $1.50. (Roberts 

Walton's Angler, a fac-simile reprint of the first edition; with 
preface by Richard Le Gallienne, $1. (Dodd, Mead & Co.) 

Shakespeare's Complete Works, "Falstaff" edition, in one 
volume, $2. "The Apollo Poets," comprising: Burns, 
Byron, Wordsworth, Milton, and Scott : each with photo- 
gravure portrait, $1.75. Boswell's Life of Johnson, 
edited by Percy Fitzgerald, with portraits, $2. (Thos. 

Milton's Poetical Works, pocket edition. 4 vols., with frontis- 
piece, in cloth case, $3. (F. Warne & Co.) 

The Waverley Novels, new vols. : St. Ronan's Well, and 
Count Robert of Paris ; each illus., $3. (Ward, Lock & Co.) 


" Quo Vadis," by Henryk Sienkiewicz, trans, by Jeremiah 
Curtin, 2 vols., with 24 photogravures by Howard Pyle, 
E. H. Garrett, and others, $6. Romance and Reality of 
the Puritan Coast, written and illus. by Edmund H. Gar- 
rett, $2. The Head of a Hundred, and White Aprons, 
by Maud Wilder Goodwin, 2 vols., illus. in photogravure, 
etc., $3. (Little, Brown, & Co.) 

The Critical Period of American History (178^1789), by 
John Fiske, illus. in photogravure, etc., $4 ; limited large- 
paper edition, $8. Walden, or Life in the Woods, by 
Henry D. Thoreau, with introduction by Bradford Torrey, 
2 vols., illus. in photogravure. Tuscan Songs, by Esther 
Frances Alexander, with 108 photogravures ; also limited 
Edition de luxe. Evangeline, by H. W. Longfellow, with 
introduction by Miss Alice M. Longfellow, illus. in color, 
etc., by pupils of Howard Pyle. Nature's Diary, a 
year-book, compiled by Francis H. Allen, illus., $1.25. 
(Houghton, Mifflin & Co.) 

Old Creole Days, by George W. Cable, illus. in photogravure, 
etc., $6 ; limited Edition de luxe, $12. London as Seen 
by C. D. Gibson, illus., $5 ; limited Edition de luxe, $10. 
The First Christmas Tree, by Henry Van Dyke, illus. by 
Howard Pyle, $1.50. Social Life in Old Virginia before 
the War, by Thomas Nelson Page, illus., $1.50. Life's 
Comedy, second series, by various artists, $1.50. Rudder 
Grange, and Pomona's Letters, by Frank R. Stockton, 
illus. by A. B. Frost, new and cheaper edition, per vol., 
$1 .50. ( Chas. Scribner's Sons. ) 

A History of Dancing, by Gaston Vuillier, with 25 photograv- 
ures and 400 illustrations in the text. (D. Appleton & Co.) 

Astoria, or Anecdotes of an Enterprise beyond the Rocky 
Mountains, by Washington Irving, " Tacoma edition, 
2 vols., illus. in photogravure, $6.; limited edition de 
luxe, $15. Pratt Portraits, sketched in a New England 
suburb, by Anna Fuller, illus. by George Sloane. (G. P. 
Putnam's Sons.) 

Red and Black, by Marie- Henri Beyle ("De Stendhal") 
trans from the French by E. P. Robins, 3 vols., with 18 
etchings, $7.50; also editions de luxe, $12.50 and $25. 
(Geo. H. Richmond & Co.) 



[Sept. 16, 

Drawings by Frederic Remington, $5; limited Edition de luxe, 
$10. The people of Dickens, six drawings by C. D. Gibson, 
reproduced in photogravure and copper etching, So; 
limited Edition de luxe, $10. The Blackberries, or The 
Pickaninny Club, 40 drawings in color by E. W. Kemble, 
$1.50. Selected Poems of Robert Burns Wilson, with 
introduction by John Burroughs, Edition de luxe only, 
illus. from water-color drawings, $2.50. Remington 
Calendar, _four drawings by Frederic Remington, $1; 
limited Edition de luxe, $2.50. Wenzell Calendar, four 
photogravures from drawings by A. B. Wenzell, $2.50. 
Coon Calendar, reproductions of seven water-color draw- 
ings by E. W. Kemble, $1.25. Sports and Seasons Cal- 
endar, six designs in colors by various artists, $1. Fac- 
simile reproductions of seven water-color drawings of 
colored children by E. W. Kemble, $2. Four photo- 
gravure reproductions of pastel drawings by A, B. Wen- 
zell, in portfolio, $3.50. (R. H. Russell.) 

Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, multi-variorum edition, edited 
by Nathan Haskell Dole, revised and enlarged, 2 vols., 
illus. in photogravure by E. H. Garrett and from photo- 
graphs, $6. Gray's Elegy and its Author, edited by Dr. 
J. L. Williams, new edition, illus. in photogravure, etc., 
$3.50. Colonial Stories, by Nathaniel Hawthorne, illus. 
in colors by F. T. Merrill, $3. John Halifax, Gentle- 
man, by Miss Mulock, 2 vols., illus. in colors, etc., $4. 
Holiday edition of the Works of Lady Jackson, in sets of 
2 volumes, new sets: The Last of the Valois, and The 
First of the Bourbons, illus., per set, $5. Tales from 
Shakespeare, by Charles and Mary Lamb, 2 vols., illus. 
with 20 etchings, $3. The Madonna in Art, by Estelle M. 
Hurll, illus. in photogravure, etc., $2. ( L. C. Page & Co. ) 

Browning's The Ring and the Book, edited by Charlotte 
Porter and Helen A. Clarke, illus., $2.50. Faience 
Library, new vols.: Colomba, by Prosper Me'rirae'e; The 
Crime of Sylvestre Bpnnard, by Anatole France; The 
Epic of Hades, by Lewis Morris; and The Scarlet Letter, 
by Nathaniel Hawthorne; each illus. in photogravure, 
etc., $1. Love's Messages, compiled by Mary S. Cobb, 
75 cts. Bright Threads, by Julia H. Johnston, 75 cts. 
Laurel Series of Booklets, twelve vols., per vol., 25 cts. 
(T. Y. Crowell&Co.) 

A Son of the Old Dominion, by Mrs. Burton Harrison, illus. 
by Henry Sandham, R.C.A., special limited edition, $10. 
Christmas Carols, with introduction by Rev. W. 
Humphry and designs by Louis J. Rhead, $1.25. (Lam- 
son, Wolffe, & Co.) 

The Sixties, 1855-70, by Gleeson White, illus. in etching, pho- 
togravure, etc., by Lord Leighton, Millais, Burne Jones, 
and others, $12. Love Songs of France, trans, from the 
originals of Baudelaire, De Musset, Lamartine, and others, 
illus. in colors and photogravure, $1.50. A Garden of 
Romance, chosen and edited by Ernest Rhys, new 
edition, $2. Sixty and Six, chips from literary workshops, 
edited by Will Clemens, illus. ( New Amsterdam Book Co. J 

Epithalamion, by Edmund Spenser, illus. by George Wharton 
Edwards, new and cheaper edition, $3.50. Shakespeare's 
Hamlet, illus. by H. C. Christy, $2 ; large-paper edition, 
$5. Irish Idylls, by Jane Barlow, illus. from photo- 
graphs by Clifton Johnson, $2. The Secret Rose, by 
W. B. Yeats, illus. bjr J. B. Yeats, $2. The Ian 
Maclaren Year Book, $1.25. The Ian Maclaren Calen- 
dar, with decorations, $1. A Shakespeare Calendar for 
1898, compiled by Louella C. Poole and Andrea Jonsson, 
illus. by Marie Danforth Page, $1. (Dodd, Mead & Co.) 

The Wooing of Malkatoon, and Commodus, two poems, by 
Lew. Wallace, illus. All Hands, pictures of life in the 
U. S. Navy, by Rufus Fairchild Zogbaum. (Harper & 
Bros. ) 

Men, Women, and Manners in Colonial Times, by Sydney 
George Fisher, 2 vols., illus. in photogravure, $3. 
Travels in a Tree Top, and The Freedom of the Fields, 
by Charles Conrad Abbott, illus. in photogravure, $3. 
(J. B. Lippincott Co.) 

Old English Love Songs, with introduction by Hamilton W. 
Mabie and drawings by George Wharton Edwards. (Mac- 
millan Co.) 

Lorna Doone, by R. D. Blackmore, 2 vols., with many illus- 
trations, $2.50. (Rand, McNally & Co.) 

Thumb- Nail Series, new vols.: Cicero's De Amicitia, and 
Dickens's Christmas Carol ; each with frontispiece in 
colors, $1. (Century Co.) 

The Chautauqua Year Book, by Grace L. Duncan, $1. 
(Congregational S. S. and Pub'g Society.) 

The Spinning- Wheel at Rest, poems, by Edward Augustus 
Jencks, with 50 illustrations, $1.50. (Lee & Shepard.) 

Art Treasures of Italy, by Carl Von Lutzow, trans, by Susan 
Thayer Hooper, edited by Clara Erskine Clement, illus. 
with etchings, steel engravings, etc., $15. Cairo, the City 
of the Caliphs, by Eustace A. Reynolds-Ball, illus. in 
photogravure, $3. Consuelo, by George Sand, trans, by 
Frank H. Potter, 2 vols., illus. with etchings and photo- 
gravures, $5. A History of Our Own Times, by Justin 
McCarthy, 4 vols., illus. in photogravure, $8. (Estes & 
Lauriat. ) 

Tennyson's In Memoriam, with preface by Dr. Henry Van 
Dyke, illus. by Harry Fenn, $3.50. (Fords, Howard & 

Fae-similes of Water-Colors by Paul de Longre", $3.50. 
Lucile, by Owen Meredith, illus. in colors, etc., $3 ; edi- 
tion de luxe, $4. The Comedies of Oliver Goldsmith, 
with introduction by Joseph Jacobs, illus. by Chris. Ham- 
mond, $2. (F. A. Stokes Co.) 

Love Letters of a Violinist, and other poems, by Eric Mackay, 
new edition, illus., $1.25. Voices of Doubt and Trust, 
edited by Volney Streamer, $1.25. (Brentano's.) 

Sea Power and the Future of the United States, by Captain 

A. T. Mahan, $2. (Little, Brown, & Co.) 
The Green Guess Book, a book of charades, by Mary McL. 

Watson and Susan Hayes Ward. $1. A Dog of Constan- 
tinople, by Izora C. Chandler, illus. by the author, $1.50. 

(Dodd, Mead & Co.) 
A Humorous History of Greece, by Charles M. Snyder, G.A., 

illus., $2. The Beauties of Marie Correlli, selected and 

arranged by Annie Mackay, $1.25. (J. B. Lippincott Co.) 
The American Railway, by various writers, new and cheaper 

edition, illus., $3. (Chas. Scribner's Sons.) 
The Secret Societies of all Ages and Countries, by C. W. 

Heckethorn, new edition, revised and enlarged, 2 vols., 

$10. (New Amsterdam Book Co.) 
The Cross in Tradition, History, and Art, by William Wood 

Seymour, illus. Coffee and India Rubber Culture in 

Mexico, by Matias Romero. (G. P. Putnam's Sons.) 
Early Long Island Wills, with genealogical and historical 

notes by Wm. S. Pelletreau, limited edition, $5. (Francis 

P. Harper. ) 
Beside Old Hearthstones, by Abram English Brown, illus., 

$1.50. (Lee & Shepard.) 
Happiness, a successor to "Menticulture," by Horace Fletcher, 

$1. (H. S. Stone & Co.) 
The Purple Cow, by Gelett Burgess, new enlarged edition, 

illus., 50 cts. The Lark Almanac, with introduction by 

Gelett Burgess, 50 cts. ( Wm. Doxey. ) 
The History, Blazonry, and Associations of the Flags of the 

World, by F. E. Hulme, F. L. S., illus. in colors, $2.50. 

Dinners Up-to-Date, by Louisa E. Smith, illus., $1.75. 

(F. Warne & Co.) 
The Little Epicure, by Linda, Hull Larned, revised and 

enlarged edition, illus., $1. (A. S. Barnes & Co,.) 


A complete set of the Kelmscott publications num- 
bers forty-nine volumes, and is now priced at 650. 

" Sir Walter Ralegh," by Mr. John Buchan, being 
the Stanhope Essay for 1897, is published by Mr. B. H. 
Blackwell, of Oxford. 

The latest " Old South Leaflet " is a reprint of Cot- 
ton Mather's lives of Bradford and Wlnthrop, from 
the " Magnalia Christi Americana." 

Messrs. Ginn & Co. have just published a "Higher 
Arithmetic," the work of Messrs. W. W. Beman and 
D. E. Smith. 

Gustav Freytag's popular biography of " Martin 
Luther," translated by Mr. Henry E. O. Heinemann, 
and copiously illustrated, is one of the books recently 
issued by the Open Court Publishing Co. 

The speech of John Hay at the unveiling of the bust 
of Sir Walter Scott in Westminster Abbey last May has 
been issued in pamphlet form by Mr. John Lane. The 
pamphlet has but nine pages of text: but a fine reproduc- 




tion of the bust, which serves as frontispiece, together 
with binding of unusual simplicity as well as elegance, 
combine to make a most dainty souvenir of an inter- 
esting occasion. 

Professor E. T. Merrill, of Wesleyan University, has 
edited a small volume of " Fragments of Roman Satire 
from Ennius to Apuleius," and the work is published 
by the American Book Co. 

"Foster's Complete Hoyle," which the publishers 
describe as " the only entirely original book on games 
that has appeared for one hundred and fifty years," is 
issued by the Frederick A. Stokes Co. 

Dr. J. F. Brigham, of Trinity College, Hartford, has 
made a translation of Silvio Pellico's " Francesca da 
Rimini," and provided the tragedy with a critical preface 
and historical introduction. The book is published by 
Mr. C. W. Sever, of Cambridge. 

The American Book Co. has just published a 
" Natural Elementary Geography " prepared for them 
by the eminent geographer, Mr. Jacques W. Redway, 
in accordance with the most advanced ideas of scientific 

All the published works of Mr. Austin Dobson, 
including the half-dozen volumes that have appeared 
from 1873 to the present time, are to be brought out 
this fall in a one-volume edition, revised and arranged 
by the author. 

The Illinois State Historical Library, established in 
1889, has now collected over six thousand books and 
pamphlets. Contributions of suitable material, such 
as reports, educational catalogues, and old newspapers, 
will be welcomed by the trustees. 

The Inland Publishing Co., of Terre Haute, Indiana, 
has just issued " An Outline of Method in History," 
by Professor Ellwood W. Kemp. It is intended as 
a text-book for students in normal schools and for 
teachers of history. 

Mr. James Schouler, having finished the manuscript 
of his " Constitutional Studies," has begun the long- 
promised sixth and concluding volume of his " History 
of the United States," embracing the period of the civil 
war. It is hoped that this will be ready next year. 

Number 5 of Mr. G. P. Humphrey's " American 
Colonial Tracts " is " an account showing the progress 
of the colony of Georgia, in America, from its first 
establishment." The original was printed in London, 
in 1741, and reprinted the following year in Annapolis, 

We have received from Messrs. L. C. Page & Co. 
" The Court of the Tuileries," in two volumes, com- 
pleting the fourteen- volume reprint of Lady Jackson's 
works. The present edition is well illustrated, and 
far more convenient to handle than the earlier ones, 
besides being less expensive. 

"The Liver of Dyspeptics, and Particularly the 
Cirrhosis Produced by Auto-Intoxication of Gastro- 
intestinal Origin," is the cheerful title of a work 
described as a " clinical, anatomo-pathological, patho- 
genic, and experimental study," written by Dr. Emile 
Boix, translated by Dr. Paul Richard Brown, and pub- 
lished by Messrs. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

We have received from the University Publishing 
Co. a number of educational works that deserve a 
word of mention. They include a " University Series 
of Map-Studies," which are blanks for map-drawing 
upon an ingenious system ; a " Golden Rod " series of 
reading books for grades one to four, compiled by Mr. 

John H. Haaren; and a " Standard Literature " series, 
comprising twenty-three numbers, and including such 
books as " Evangeline " (edited by Dr. E. E. Hale, Jr.), 
"The Lady of the Lake," three volumes of Irving, 
three of Hawthorne, three of Cooper, three of Dickens, 
two of Scott, and a number of other novels and poems. 

Messrs. Ginn & Co. publish " Via Latina," an " easy 
Latin reader " by Mr. W. C. Collar; and Book V. of the 
"Anabasis," edited by Mr. Alfred G. Rolfe. From 
Messrs. Leach, Shewell, & Sanborn we have " M. Tulli 
Ciceronis Cato Maior de Senectute," edited by Professor 
Charles E. Bennett. The American Book Co. sends us 
" A Brief Latin Grammar," by Mr. W. D. Mooney. 

In a new book entitled " Annals of Switzerland " 
(A. S. Barnes & Co.), by Julia M. Colton, an account 
is given of all the more important events of Swiss his- 
tory. The book is well written and accurate, but the 
author confines herself so closely to the statement of 
political events that little impression or picture of the 
Swiss as a people is left to the reader. A good index 
makes the work valuable for handy reference. 

Messrs. T. Y. Crowell & Co. are still engaged in the 
praiseworthy work of publishing editions of standard 
literature that are at once attractive and inexpensive. 
Among their recent issues we note with particular 
satisfaction four volumes of their pretty " Faience " 
edition, including Hawthorne's " Scarlet Letter," Meri- 
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[Sept. 16, 



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[Oct. 1, 1897. 

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F.L.S.. R. B. WOODWABD, F.G.S., 
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