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Full text of "The Dial"

From the collection of the 



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LIBRARY 

ESTABLISHED 1872 

LAWRENCE, MASS. 



THE DIAL 



Semi-Montbly Journal of 



Literary Criticism, Discussion, and Information 




VOLUME XXVI. 



JANUARY 1 TO JUNE 16, 1899 



CHICAGO: 

THE DIAL COMPANY, PUBLISHERS 
1899 



INDEX TO VOLUME XXVI. 

ACADEMY, AN AMERICAN 359 

ARISTOTELIANISM AND THE MODERN SPIRIT William A. Hammond .... 193 

ASIA, IN UNEXPLORED Hiram M. Stanley 44 

AUTHOR AND PUBLISHER 187 

BEARDSLEY, AUBREY, IN PERSPECTIVE G. M. R. Twose 391 

BIOGRAPHER, LESLIE STEPHEN'S STUDIES OF A . . . . Ellen C. Hinsdale 46 

BOOKS, THE DISTRIBUTION OF 

BORROW, GEORGE, KNAPP'S LIFE OF 363 

BOYS AND GIRLS AND BOOKS $87 

BROWNING LOVE-LETTERS, THE Anna B. McMahan 238 

BURTON, SIR RICHARD, POSTHUMOUS PAPERS OF ... Josiah Renick Smith .... 196 

BUTTERFLY BOOK, THE AMERICAN Charles A. Kofoid 267 

BYRON, MR. MURRAY'S Melville B. Anderson .... 330 

CHICAGO EDUCATIONAL COMMISSION, REPORT OF THE 37 

CHINA IN HISTORY AND IN FACT Selim H. Peabody 48 

CIVIL WAR, SECOND YEAR OF THE Charles H. Cooper 151 

CRITICS, Two ORDERS OF Charles Leonard Moore .... 360 

DANTE, BOOKS ABOUT William Morton Payne .... 81 

DAUDET AND HIS FAMILY Benjamin W. Wells 242 

DEGREES, CONCERNING 105 

"DiAL," THE, OF 1840-45 J. F. A. Pyre 297 

ECONOMIC THOUGHT, PRESENT TENDENCIES IN .... Arthur B. Woodford 

EDUCATION, SOME RECENT BOOKS ON B. A. Hinsdale 115 

EDUCATIONAL OUTLOOK, THE 261 

ENGLISH CONSTITUTION, THE John J. Halsey 15 

EVANGELISTS, Two GREAT Hiram M. Stanley 154 

EVIL, AN IDEALIST'S IDEAS OF Caroline K. Sherman .... 121 

FAITH AND FANTASY John Bascom 198 

FAMOUS IMPOSTURE, STORY OF A B. A. Hinsdale 240 

FICTION, RECENT William Morton Payne 123, 244, 309 

FOLK-LORE TALES OF AMERICAN INDIANS Frederick Starr 370 

FREE DISCUSSION, THE MENACE TO 

GENERALS, GREAT, IN BLUE AND GRAY Francis W. Shepardson .... 302 

GOVERNMENT, FUNCTIONS AND REVENUES OF .... Max West 153 

HISTORICAL TREASURE TROVE James Oscar Pierce 197 

HOMER, THE SUCCESSORS OF Paul Shorey 78 

ISLAND POSSESSIONS, OUR NEW . Ira M. Price 394 

JASPER PETULENGRO, THE FRIEND OF Alfred Sumner Bradford . , . 263 

KIPLING HYSTERIA, THE Henry Austin 327 

LANDOR, OLD-AGE LETTERS OF Tuley Francis Huntington . . . 305 

"LEWIS CARROLL" OF WONDERLAND 191 

LITERARY LIFE, THE 143 

LITERARY STANDARDS R. W. Conant 145 

LOWELL AND HIS FRIENDS Tuley Francis Huntington . . - 367 

MEXICO AND THE UNITED STATES Frederick Starr 243 

MONROE, PRESIDENT, WRITINGS OF B. A. Hinsdale 333 

MUSICAL MATTERS, AND OTHERS William Morton Payne .... 338 

NEWSPAPER SCIENCE 233 

OLD WORLD, NEW EAST AND NEW SOUTH OF THE . . Hiram M. Stanley 370 

PARNELL, IRISH PATRIOT AND NATIONALIST 74 

PLAY, MODERN, ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE Edward E. Hale, Jr 334 

PLAY, THE " LITERARY " Edward E. Hale, Jr 269 

POE, THE AMERICAN REJECTION OF Charles Leonard Moore .... 40 

POETRY, RECENT William Morton Payne . . 50, 274 

POLITICAL TONIC, A TIMELY Edward E. Hale, Jr 76 

ROMAN EMPIRE, Two EPOCHS OF THE William Cranston Lawton . . . 306 

ROMANCE, NEW PHASES OF THE . James 0. Pierce 69 



IV. 



INDEX. 



PAGE 

RUSKIN, ECONOMICS AND PHILANTHROPY OF Max West 396 

RUSKIN, ROSSETTI, PR^ERAPHAELiTisM Margaret Steele Anderson . . . 336 

SCHOOL LEGISLATION FOR CITIES, RECENT B. A. Hinsdale 107 

SELBORNE, LORD, MEMORIALS OF 149 

SHAKESPEARE, SOME RECENT ILLUSTRATIONS OF ... Melville B. Anderson .... 11 

SKEIN OF MANY YARNS 265 

SOCIAL MOVEMENT, DISCUSSIONS OF THE C. R. Henderson 19 

SOCIETY AND HUMANITY, STUDIES OF C. R. Henderson 398 

STAGE OR STUDY, FOR THE Edward E. Hale, Jr 17 

STATESMAN'S RETROSPECT, A 

THEATRE, THE ENDOWED 295 

THEATRICAL CRITICISM, CURRENT Edward E. Hale, Jr 119 

TRAVEL IN MANY LANDS Ira M. Price 156 

UNDERGROUND RAILROAD, THE Samuel Willard 112 

WAR, BOOKS OF THE, A ROUND-UP OF John J. Culver 272 

WHITE MAN'S PROBLEM, THE E. M. Hopkins 308 

WORKER FOR THE INSANE, A DISTINGUISHED .... Richard Dewey 79 

ANNOUNCEMENTS OF SPRING BOOKS, 1899 . . 204 

BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS 23, 56, 86, 127, 158, 200, 246, 278, 311, 343, 373, 400 

BRIEFER MENTION 60, 90, 131, 162, 203, 248, 281, 314, 346, 376, 403 

LITERARY NOTES 25, 61, 90, 132, 163, 210, 249, 282, 314, 347, 377, 404 

TOPICS IN LEADING PERIODICALS 26, 91, 163, 250, 315 

LISTS OF NEW BOOKS 26, 61, 91, 133, 164, 250, 282, 315, 348, 377, 404 



AUTHORS AND TITLES OF BOOKS REVIEWED. 



Adarns, G. B. European History 403 

Adams, H. C. Science of Finance 153 

Altsheler, J. A. A Herald of the West . . . 124 
Ames, J. S. Harper's Scientific Memoirs . 162, 314 
Andrews, E. B. Historical Development of Mod- 
ern Europe, Vol. II 87 

Andrews, S. J. Christianity and Anti- Christianity 199 
Ansorge, W. J. Under the African Sun . . . 372 

Apthorp, W. F. By the Way 341 

Arber, Edward. British Anthologies .... 250 
Armstrong-Hopkins, S. Within the Purdah . . 157 
Arnold's Sweetness and Light, and Pater's Essay 

on Style, in " Miniature Series " 282 

Astrup, Eivind. With Peary Near the Pole . . 345 
Austin, Alfred. Lamia's Winter Quarters . . 203 
Bache, R. M. Life of General Meade .... 304 
Bacon, E. M. Historical Pilgrimages .... 162 
Baedeker's United States, second revised ed. 377, 404 
Bailey, L. H. Principles of Agriculture . . . 132 
Balch, Thomas. International Courts of Arbitration 404 
Balfour, Graham. Educational Systems of Great 

Britain 117 

Balzac's Works, " Centenary " edition . . . .376 

Barren, Elwyn. Manders 124 

Beale, Harriet S. B. Stories from Old Testament 162 
Beardsley, Aubrey. Second Book of Drawings . 391 

Beddard, F. E. Structure of Birds 246 

Beerbohm, Max. More 402 

Bell, Mackenzie. Pictures of Travel .... 55 

Belloc, Bessie R. Historic Nuns . . . . . . 203 

Bentley, C. S., and Scribner, F. K. Fifth of Nov- 
ember 245 

Bergerac, C. de. Voyage to the Moon .... 282 
Besant, Sir Walter. The Pen and the Book . 143, 187 



Besant, Sir Walter. South London 161 

Besant, Sir Walter. The Changeling . . . .126 
Bible, Revised Version, with American Preferences 23 
Birrell, Augustine. Law of Copyright .... 346 

Bismarck, Autobiography of 8 

Black, Margaret M. R. L. Stevenson .... 58 
Blackburn, Vernon. Fringe of an Art .... 342 
Blair, Emma H. Catalogue of Newspaper Files . 132 
Blanc, Mme. Nouvelle - France et Nouvelle- 

Angleterre 346 

Bloundelle-Burton, J. The Scourge of God . . 126 
Bonsai, Stephen. The Fight for Santiago . . . 273 

Books I Have Read 377 

Bosanquet, Mrs. Bernard. Standard of Life . . 399 
Botsford, George W. History of Greece . . . 376 
Boulger, Demetrius C. History of China ... 48 

Bourget, Paul. Antigone 310 

Bradford's History of Plimoth Plantation," fac- 
simile edition 197 

Bragdon, C. F. Golden Person in the Heart . . 51 
Briggs, Charles A. Study of Holy Scripture . . 313 

British Army, Social Life in the 160 

Bronson, T. B. Scenes de Voyages de Victor Hugo 163 
Brooke, S. A. English Literature from Beginning 

to Norman Conquest 60 

Brown, A. E. John Hancock, his Book ... 24 
Brown, W. H. On the South African Frontier 308, 371 
Browning, Robert, and Barrett, Elizabeth, Let- 
ters of 238 

Browning's Works, " Camberwell " edition . . . 247 

Brownlee, J. H. War-Time Echoes 314 

Brunetiere, F. Essays in French Literature . . 130 
Brunetiere, F. Manual of History of French Lit- 
erature . . 130 



INDEX. 



v. 



Buck, Gertrude. The Metaphor 404 

Buckley, Arabella B. Fairy Land of Science, new 

edition 282 

Bugbee, L. G. Slavery in Early Texas, and Some 

Difficulties of a Texas Empresario .... 404 
Bullen, F. T. Cruise of the Cachalot . . . .265 
Burrows, Guy. Land of the Pigmies .... 158 
Burton, Sir Richard. Jew, Gypsy, and El Islam 196 

Butler, Samuel. Homer's Iliad 60 

Byrd, Mary E. Laboratory Manual in Astronomy 210 
Caine, Hall. The Scapegoat, new edition . . . 210 
Caird, Edward. University Addresses .... 128 
Caldwell, H. W. Studies in American History . . 132 
California Club, The. War Poems, 1898 ... 61 
Call,R. E. Rafinesque's Ichthyologia Ohiensis . 376 

Canfield, Arthur G. French Lyrics 133 

Capes, Bernard. The Cointe de la Muette . . 126 

Card, Fred W. Bush-Fruits 90 

Carlin, Eva V. A Berkeley Year 282 

Carlyle's Works, " Centenary " edition . . 25, 377 
Carpenter, Edward. Angels' Wings .... 342 
Carpenter, E. J. America in Hawaii .... 248 
Carpenter, F. I. Cox's Rhethoryke . . . . . 162 
Carrington, FitzRoy. The Queen's Garland . . 90 
Cawein, Madison. Idyllic Monologues .... 51 

Century Magazine, Vol. LVI 133 

Cesaresco, Countess. Cavour 281 

Chamberlain, Mellen. John Adams 162 

Chambers, R. W. Ashes of Empire 123 

Channing, Edward. Students' History of the U. S. 60 
Chapman, John Jay. Causes and Consequences . 76 
Church, S. H. Oliver Cromwell, " Commemora- 
tion " edition 377 

Claretie, Jules. Vicornte de Puyjoli . . . .311 
Clowes, W. L. The Royal Navy, Vol. III. . . 158 

Coe, Charles H. Red Patriots 203 

Colby, C. W. Selections from Sources of English 

History 

Coleman, Oliver. Successful Houses .... 163 

College Requirements in English 156 

Collingwood, S. D. Lewis Carroll 191 

Collins, G. W., and Cowley, A. E. Kautzsch's 

Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar 59 

Conway, Sir Martin. With Ski and Sledge . . 156 
Conybeare, F. C. The Dreyfus Case .... 127 

Cook, Theodore A. Rouen 345 

Cooke, George W. John Sullivan Dwight . . 341 
Cooley, H. S. Slavery in New Jersey .... 210 
Corelli, Marie. Modern Marriage Market . . 88 
Costelloe, B. F. C., and Muirhead, J. H. Aristotle 

and the Earlier Peripatetics 193 

Crockett, Ingram. Beneath Blue Skies and Gray 276 

Crockett, S. R. The Red Axe 126 

Crook, James W. German Wage Theories . . 86 
Crocker, J. H. Plea for Sincerity in Religious 

Thought 61 

Crowell, J. F. Logical Process of Social Devel- 
opment ' 19 

Crozier, John B. My Inner Life 344 

Cumulative Periodical Index 393 

Curtin, Jeremiah. Creation Myths of Primitive 

America 370 

Dana, C. A. Recollections of the Civil War . . 160 
Dandliker, Karl. Short History of Switzerland . 248 

Darwin, George H. Tides 401 

Daudet, Le'on. Alphonse Daudet 242 

Daudet's Works, Little, Brown, & Co.'s edition . 376 
Davidson, John. Bargain Theory of Wages . . 21 



Davis, John D. Bible Dictionary 130 

Davis, R. H. Cuban and Porto Rican Campaigns 273 
Davis, W. M., and Snyder, W. H. Physical 

Geography 133 

De Burgh, A. Elizabeth, Empress of Austria . 344 

DeKay, Charles. Bird Gods 57 

Devine, E. D. Economics 60 

Dickens's Works, " Gadshill " edition .... 132 
Dill, Samuel. Roman Society in the Last Cen- 
tury of the Western Empire 307 

Didsy, Arthur. The New Far East 370 

Dix, Morgan. History of Trinity Parish . . . 128 
Dixon, W. M. In the Republic of Letters . . 375 

Dobson, Austin. Miscellanies 131 

Dodd, Anna B. Cathedral Days, and In and Out 

of Three Normandy Inns, new editions . . . 376 
Dole, Nathan H. Mistakes We Make .... 25 

Dole, N. H. Omar the Tentmaker 245 

Doumic, Rene". Contemporary French Novelists . 400 

Dow, Arthur W. Composition 314 

Doyle, A. Conan. Songs of Action 55 

Drummond, W. H. Phil-o-rum's Canoe ... 54 
Dunbar, J. B. Cooper's Last of the Mohicans . 132 

Elizabeth and her German Garden 58 

Elliot, D. G. Wild Fowl of the United States . 282 

Emerson, O. F. Gibbon's Memoirs 25 

Empress, Martyrdom of an 344 

Etiquette for Americans 313 

Fisher, S. G. The True Benjamin Franklin . . 203 
Fitz, G. W. Martin's The Human Body . . .131 
FitzGerald'sRubaiyat, "Golden Treasury "edition 315 
Fleming, W. H. How to Study Shakespeare . . 15 

Fletcher, Horace. That Last Waif 400 

Ford, P. L. Writings of Jefferson, Vol. IX. . . 60 
Ford, W. C. Washington's Farewell Address . 249 
Foulke, W. D. Slav or Saxon, revised edition . 163 
Francke, Kuno. Modern German Culture . . . 161 

Fraser, Campbell. Thomas Reid 313 

Fraser, Mrs. Hugh. Letters from Japan . . . 371 
Frederic, Harold. Return of the O'Mahony, new. ed. 314 
Furness, H. H. Variorum Shakespeare, Vol. XI. 11 

Gade, John A. Book Plates 89 

Gannon, Anna. Song of Stradella 277 

Gardner, E. G. Dante's Ten Heavens .... 82 
Garland, Hamlin. Life and Character of Grant . 25 
Garland, Hamlin. Rose of Dutcher's Coolly, ne w ed . 347 
Garnett, Richard. Original Poetry by Victor and 

Cazire 160 

Garnett, R. Edward Gibbon Wakefield . . .201 

Garrison, W. P. The New Gulliver 90 

Gates, L. E. Three Studies in Literature . . . 203 

Geikie, James. Earth Sculpture 129 

Gell, Mrs. Lyttelton. The More Excellent Way 131 
Giddings, F. H. Elements of Sociology . . . 398 

Gilder, R. W. In Palestine 50 

Gilman, D. C. University Problems .... 116 

Girls' Schools, Work and Play in 118 

Gladden, Washington. The Christian Pastor . 22 
Godfrey, Elizabeth. Poor Human Nature . . 245 
Goode, W. A. M. With Sampson through the War 273 
Gordon, A. C. For Truth and Freedom . . . 277 
Green, A. H. First Lessons in Geology . . . 132 
Gregorovius, F. The Emperor Hadrian . . . 306 
Gronlund, Laurence. The New Economy ... 83 
Grosvenor, E. A. Contemporary History of the 

World 314 

Guiney, Louise Imogen. England and Yesterday 53 
Guiney, Louise I. Secret of Fougereuse . . . 311 



VI. 



INDEX. 



Guthrie, W. D. Lectures on 14th Amendment . 90 
Guthrie, William N. A Booklet of Verse . . .276 
Hale, E. E. Lowell and his Friends . . . .367 

Hall, Newman, Autobiography of 156 

Halstead, Murat. Story of the Philippines . . 274 
Halstead, W. R. Christ in the Industries . . .199 
Hambleton, C. J. A Gold Hunter's Experience . 210 
Hamilton, S. M. Writings of James Monroe . 333 
Hamilton, Sir Edward W. Gladstone .... 130 
Hammond, M. B. The Cotton Industry ... 86 
Hancock, A. E. French Revolution and the English 

Poets 281 

Hardy, Thomas. Wessex Poems 274 

Harkness, Albert. Complete Latin Grammar . 132 
Hart, James M. Composition and Rhetoric . . 347 
Hastings, C. S., and Beach, F. E. General Physics 346 

Hay, Helen. Some Verses 278 

Hearn, Lafcadio. Boy Who Drew Cats ... 90 

Hedin, Sven. Through Asia 44 

Hemment, John C. Cannon and Camera . . . 274 

Henderson, C. R. Social Elements 84 

Henderson, C. R. Social Settlements .... 247 
Henderson, G. F. R. Stonewall Jackson . . . 302 
Henderson, W. J. How Music Developed . . 339 
Henderson, W. J. Orchestra and Orchestral Music 340 
Heron- Allen, E. Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam . . 90 
Hewlett,Maurice. Earthwork out of Tuscany,2d ed. 249 
Hewlett, Maurice. Songs and Meditations . .275 
Higginson, Ella. When Birds Go North Again . 52 
Higginson, T. W. Tales of the Enchanted Islands 88 
Hill, Constance. The Princess des Ursins . . . 375 
Hill, Mary. Margaret of Denmark . . . . . 346 

Hird, Frank. Cry of the Children 400 

" Hobbes, John Oliver." The Ambassador . . 269 
Hobson, R. P. Sinking of the " Merrimae " . . 272 
Hobson, J. A. John Ruskin, Social Reformer . 396 
Hoffman, F. S. The Sphere of Science . . .162 
Holland, W. J. The Butterfly Book .... 267 
Horsmonden School " Budget," Reprint of . . .314 

Hovey, Richard. Along the Trail 276 

Hovey, Richard. Launcelot and Guenevere . . 17 
Houghton, Mifflin & Co.'s Catalogue of Authors . 347 
Howard, O. O. Fighting for Humanity . . . 274 
Howe, Julia Ward. From Sunset Ridge ... 52 
Howe, M. A. De Wolfe. American Bookmen . . 374 
Howe, M. A. DeWolfe. Memory of Lincoln . . 249 

Hoyt, D. L. The World's Painters 132 

Huddilston, J. H. Attitude of Greek Tragedians 

toward Art 202 

Hume, Martin A. S. Spain ....... 312 

Hume, M. A. S. The Great Lord Burghley . . 278 
Huneker, James. Mezzotints in Modern Music . 340 
Hutchiuson, Woods. Gospel according to Darwin 25 
Hutton, R. H. Religious and Scientific Thought .314 
Hyne, Cutcliffe. Through Arctic Lapland . . 157 

Hyslop, James H. Democracy 278 

Jacobs, Joseph. Story of Geographical Discovery 282 
Janes, Lewis G. Our Nation's Peril .... 163 

Johnson, Clifton. Don Quixote 249 

Johnson, R. Brimley. Eighteenth Century Letters 373 
Johnson, R. Brimley. Modern Plays .... 334 
Johnston, W. D. Annoted Catalog Cards ... 25 
Jokai, Maurus. A Hungarian Nabob .... 310 
Jokai, Maurus. The Nameless Castle .... 309 

Jones, Henry A. The Physician 376 

Jones, Henry A. The Rogue's Comedy . . . 280 

Jordan, Charlotte B. Mother-Song 25 

Jordan, D. S. Foot-Notes to Evolution . . . 280 



PAOB 

Kelly, James F. Spanish Literature .... 86 
Kennan, George. Campaigning in Cuba . . . 273 

King, Grace. De Soto in Florida 162 

Kingsley, Mary H. West African Studies . . 372 
Knackf uss' Monographs on Artists, English edition 249 
Knapp, W. I. Life of George Borrow .... 363 
Krehbiel, H. E. Music and Manners in the Clas- 
sical Period 339 

Kuhns, Oscar. Cyrano de Bergerac 314 

Lagerlof, Seltna. Miracles of Antichrist . . . 310 
Lagerlof, Selma. Story of Gb'sta Berling . . . 310 

Lala, R. R. The Philippine Islands 394 

Langlois, Ch. V., and Seignobos, Ch. Introduction 

to Study of History 118 

Lanier, Sidney. Music and Poetry 338 

Lanier, Sidney. Retrospects and Prospects . . 404 

Lamed, W. C. Rembrandt 246 

Larpenteur, Chas. Forty Years a Fur Trader . . 201 
Latimer, Elizabeth W. Scrap-Book of the French 

Revolution 129 

Laughton, J. K. Life of Henry Reeve .... 374 
Lavignac, Albert. Music and Musicians . . . 343 
Lawler, John. Book Auctions in England in the 

17th Century 374 

Lawrence, R. M. Magic of the Horse-shoe . . 57 
Lawton, W. C. New England Poets .... 127 
Lawton, W. C. Successors of Homer .... 78 
Lecky, W. E. H. Democracy and Liberty, 2d ed. 131 
Lee, Albert. Key of the Holy House .... 245 

Lee, Sidney. Life of Shakespeare 14 

Leudet, Maurice. Emperor of Germany at Home . 200 
Levy, Florence N. American Art Annual . . . 314 
Library Journal, General Index to the .... 202 
Little, A. J. Through the Yangtse Gorges . . . 157 

Lloyd, H. D. Labor Copartnership 22 

Lodge, George C. Song of the Wave .... 51 
Lord, Eleanor L. Industrial Experiments in Brit- 
ish Colonies 22 

Lovewell, Bertha E. Life of St. Cecilia . . .132 

Lowe, Martha P. The Immortals 277 

Lowndes, M. E. Michel de Montaigne .... 60 
Lucas, E. V. Charles Lamb and the Lloyds . . 311 

Lucas, Fred W. The Zeno Annals 240 

Maartens, Maarten. Her Memory 125 

Machray, Robert. Grace O'Malley 126 

Maclachan, T. Banks. Mungo Park 57 

Macmillan's English Classics 61 

Madden, D. H. Diary of Master William Silence 12 

Maeterlinck, Maurice. Three Plays 336 

Manners, Robert. Cuba and Other Verse ... 61 
Marillier, H. C. Early Work of Beardsley . . 391 
Marshall, Edward. Story of Rough Riders . . 273 
Masson, Rosalie. Pollok and Aytoun .... 403 
McCarthy, Justin. England in the 19th Century 400 
McCarthy, J. H. Short History of the U. S. . 280 
McLaughlin, A. C. History of American Nation 404 
McQuilkin, A. H. Asheville Pictures and Pencil- 
lings 61 

Mead, E. C. Historic Homes of Virginia ... 87 
Meredith, George. Odes in Contribution to the 

Song of French History 55 

Merrill, F. J. H. Guide to Geological Collections 

of New York State Museum 163 

Meynell, Alice. The Spirit of Place .... 403 

Miley, J. D. In Cuba with Shafter 272 

Mivart, St. George. Groundwork of Science . . 161 
Molenaer, S. P. De Regimine Principium . . 314 
Monthly Cumulative Book Index 25 



INDEX. 



vn. 



Moody, W. V. Milton's Works, Cambridge ed. . 403 
Moore, Benjamin. Elementary Physiology . . 249 
More, Paul E. Century of Indian Epigrams . . 54 
Morris, Charles. Our Island Empire .... 395 
Morris, Charles. Spanish Historical Tales . . 61 
Morris, Charles. The War with Spain .... 274 
Morris, W. O'Connor. Great Campaigns of Nelson 89 
Morris, William. Art and the Beauty of Earth . 249 
Morris, Wm., and Wyatt, A. J. Tale of Beowulf 50 
Morton, Agnes H. Our Conversational Circle . 25 
Moses, Bernard. Democracy and Social Growth in 

America 20 

Moulton, R. G. Bible Stories 162 

Muirhead, J. F. The Land of Contrasts ... 56 
Murison, A. F. Sir William Wallace . . . .130 
Musgrove, Charles M. The Dream Beautiful . 276 
Newcomb, H. T. Railway Economics .... 89 
Newcomer, A. G. Elements of Rhetoric . . . 129 
Nichols, A. B. Lessing's Minna von Barnhelm . 163 

Noa, F. M. Pearl of the Antilles 395 

O'Brien, R. Barry. Life of Parnell 74 

Ober, F. A. Puerto Rico 279 

Old South Leaflets 132 

Ostrovsky, Alexander. The Storm 335 

Oxenham, John. God's Prisoner 245 

Palmer, Roundell, Earl of Selborne. Memorials . 149 
Parker, Gilbert. Battle of the Strong .... 125 
Parker, J. H. The Gatlings at Santiago . . . 272 

Parker, W. B. Religion of Kipling 314 

Peabody, F. G. Afternoons in a College Chapel . 203 
Peabody, Josephine P. The Wayfarers . . . 277 
Peck, Charles H. The Jacksonian Epoch . . . 343 
Peck, Harry T. Trimalchio's Dinner .... 159 
Peixotto, E. C. Ten Drawings in Chinatown . . 88 
Pemberton, Max. The Phantom Army .... 245 

Perry, Lilla Cabot. Impressions 53 

Phillimore, Catherine M. Dante at Ravenna . . 82 

Phipson, T. L. Voice and Violin 341 

Pollock, Sir Frederick. Spinoza, second edition . 314 
Potter, Bishop. Addresses to Women Engaged in 

Church Work 199 

Proal, Louis. Political Crime 20 

Prothero, R. E., and Coleridge, E. H. Works of 

Byron 330 

" Raimond, C. E." The Open Question . . . 244 
Ramsay, Sir J. H. Foundations of Englapd . . 159 
Rathborne, A. B. Camping and Tramping in 

Malaya 157 

Ratzel, Friedrich. History of Mankind, Vol. III. 402 
Rausehenbusch-Clough, Emma. Mary Wollstone- 

craft 312 

Repplier, Agnes. Philadelphia 88 

Rettger, L. J. Studies in Advanced Physiology . 248 
Rhead, George and Louis. Idylls of the King . 87 

Rice, Wallace. Flying Sands 52 

Rice, Wallace. Poems of Francis Brooks ... 53 
Riis, Jacob A. Out of Mulberry Street . . . 399 
Rivers, G. R. R. The Count's Snuff-Box . . .124 

Robertson, Sir George S. Chitral 157 

Robinson, A. G. Porto Rico of To-day . . . 279 
Robinson, Harriet H. Loom and Spindle . . . 127 
Robinson, J. H., and Rolfe, H. W. Petrarch . . 373 
Rocca, Count E. D. Autobiography of a Veteran 281 
Romero, Matias. Mexico and the U. S., Vol. I. . 243 

Ropes, J. C. The Civil War, Vol. II 151 

Rose, W. K. With the Greeks in Thessaly . . 158 
Rosenfeld, Morris. Songs from the Ghetto . . 54 
Rossetti,W . M. Ruskin, Rossetti, Preraphaelitism 336 



PAGE 

Rouse, -W. H. D. History of Rugby School . . 116 
Royce, Josiah. Studies of Good and Evil . . . 121 
Runciman, J. F. Old Scores and New Readings 342 
Russell, Frank. Explorations in the Far North . 314 
Russell, I. C. Rivers of North America . . . 129 
Russell, James E. German Higher Schools . .116 

Russell, Lady, Memoirs of 246 

Saint-Amand, I. de. Court of the Second Empire 131 
Sanborn, F. B. Memoirs of Pliny Earle ... 79 

Sanders, George A. Reality 22 

Sanderson, Edgar. History of the World . . . 126 
Sands, B. F. Reefer to Rear-Admiral .... 375 

Savage, Philip Henry. Poems. ...... 276 

Scollard, Clinton. A Christmas Garland ... 52 
Scott, Duncan C. Labor and the Angel ... 54 
Scott, William. Rock Villages of the Riviera . .313 
Scott's Works, Temple " edition . . 25, 249, 377 
Scudder, Vida D. Social Ideals in English Letters 246 

Sears, Lorenzo. Literary Criticism 60 

Seklemian, A. G. The Golden Maiden .... 24 
Seligman, E. R. A. Shifting and Incidence of 

Taxation 162 

Sergyeenko, P. A. How Tolstoy Lives and Works 346 
Shaw, Bernard. The Perfect Wagnerite . . . 342 
Shaylor, Joseph. Pleasures of Literature ... 60 
Shearman, T. G. Natural Taxation, enlarged ed. 22 
Shepard, Irwin. National Educational Association 

Proceedings for 1898 123 

Siebert, W. H. The Underground Railroad . .112 

Sienkiewicz, Henryk. Sielanka 310 

Sigsbee, C. D. The Maine " 272 

Smith, E. Franklin. Anatomy, Physiology, and 

Hygiene 131 

Smith, Eleanor. Songs of Life and Nature ... 60 
Smith, G. A. Life of Henry Drummond . . . 154 

Smith, Pamela C. Color Prints 131 

Smithsonian Institution Report for 1896 . . . 267 
Smithsonian Institution, Report of Board of Re- 
gents for 1896-97 332 

Sombart, Werner. Socialism and the Social Move- 
ment 20 

Spanish-American War, by Eye-Witnesses . . . 274 
Sparks, F. E. Causes of Maryland Revolution of 

1689 210 

Spears, J. R. Our Navy in the War with Spain . 273 
Starr, Frederick. American Indians .... 132 
Statbam, H. Heathcote. Architecture among the 

Poets 247 

Steevens, G. W. With Kitchener to Khartum . . 128 
Stephen, Leslie. Studies of a Biographer ... 46 
Stephens, R. N. The Road to Paris .... 124 
Stetson, Charlotte P. Women and Economics . 85 

Stillman, W. J. Union of Italy 159 

Stockton, Frank R. The Associate Hermits . . 124 
Stoddard, C. W. Cruise under the Crescent . . 158 
Stone, W. J. Use of Classical Metres in English . 210 
Strobel, E. H. The Spanish Revolution .... 248' 
Strunk, W., Jr. Dryden's Essays on the Drama . 121 
Sturgis, Julian. A Boy in the Peninsular War . . 280 
Suffolk and Berkshire, Earl of, Encyclopaedia of 

Sport, Vol. II 345 

Sullivan, E. J. Carlyle's Sartor Resartus ... 89 
Syle, L. Dupont. Essays in Dramatic Criticism . 119 
Symonds, J. A. Sketches and Studies, new ed. 60, 250 
Symons, Arthur. Aubrey Beardsley .... 391 

Talbot, E. S. Degeneracy 312 

Tarelli, Charles Camp. Persephone 56 

Taylor, F. G. Introduction to Calculus . . . 314 



Vlll. 



INDEX. 



Taylor, Hannis. English Constitution, Vol. It. . 15 

Temple Classics " 249, 282, 314, 346 

Thackeray's Works, " Biographical " edition 

59, 89, 248, 314, 327 

Thomas, Augustus. Alabama 402 

Thomas, D. M. Day-Book of Wonders, 2d edition 282 
Thomas, Grace P. Where to Educate .... 131 

Thompson, Sylvanus P. Faraday 345 

Torrey, Bradford. A World of Green Hills . . 59 

Toynbee, Paget. Dante Dictionary 81 

Tschudi, Clara. Marie Antoinette 23 

Van Noppen, L. C. Vondel's Lucifer .... 58 

Verhaeren, Emile. The Dawn 336 

Vibart, Edward. The Sepoy Mutiny .... 200 

Vincent, Leon H. The Bibliotaph 24 

Vivian, T. J., and Smith, R. P. Everything about 

Our New Possessions 395 

Wace, Henry. Sacrifice of Christ 199 

Walker, Francis A. Discussions in Education . 115 
Wallace, Alfred R. The Wonderful Century . 130 
Ward, Mrs. Humphry. New Forms of Christian 

Education 198 

Warman, Cy. Story of the Railroad . . . .281 
Waterman, Nixon. Ben King's Verse .... 53 
Watson, H. B. Marriott. The Adventurers . . 126 
Webb, Sidney and Beatrice. Problems of Modern 

Industry 22 



PAGE 

Welldon, J. E. E. Hope of Immortality . . .199 
Wells, B. W. Century of French Fiction . . .311 
Wenley, R. N. Preparation for Christianity . . 199 
Weston, Jessie L. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight 25 
Wheeler, Joseph. The Santiago Campaign . . 272 
Wheeler, Stephen. Letters of Landor . . . . 305 
White, E. R. Songs of Good Fighting . . . .277 
Whiting, Lilian. From Dreamland Sent, new ed. 314 
Whittaker, J. T. Exiled for Lese Majeste . .125 
Wilcox, Marrion. Short History of War with Spain 274 
Wilkinson, F. Story of the Cotton Plant . . . 163 

Willert, P. F. Mirabeau 202 

Willoughby, W. F. Workingmen's Insurance . 21 
Willoughby, W. W. American Citizenship . . 281 
Wilson, David. Mr. Froude and Carlyle . . . 312 
Wilson, R. B. Shadows of the Trees . . . .275 
Winslow, L. Forbes. Mad Humanity .... 313 

With Bought Swords 125 

Witte, Karl. Essays on Dante 82 

Woods, Robert A. The City Wilderness . . . 399 

Wright, C. D. Practical Sociology 399 

Wright, C. D. Statesman's Year-Book, 1899 . 376 
Wyckoff, W. A. The Workers in the West . . 399 
Wyndham, George. Poems of Shakespeare . . 14 
Yaraada, K. Scenes in Life of Buddha ... 60 
Yarnall, Ellis. Wordsworth and the Coleridges . 401 
Younghusband, G. J. Philippines and Round About 394 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



Airs of Spring. Poem. John Vance Cheney . . 301 

Anti-Expansion Literature, Recent 61 

" Barbara Freitchie," An English Version of. 

J.G.M. 148 

Bond and Free. Poem. W. C. Lawton . . .329 
Book Distribution: A Suggestion. W.H.Johnson 43 

Boutell, Louis Henry, Death of 90 

Boyd, Rev. A. K. H., Death of . 210 

" Cambridge " Tennyson, Notes to the. W. J. Rolfe 72 
Central Modern Language Association, Nebraska 

Meeting of. W. H. Carruth 43 

Collegiate Alumnae, Association of, " Magazine 

Number" 133 

Critics, What Are They For ? E. E. Slosson .111 
" Death to the Spanish Yoke." Alexander Jessup 148 

Erckmann, Emile, Death of 249 

Free Speech, Right of. W. H. Johnson .... 363 
Goethe Monument in Strassburg, The Proposed. 

James Taft Hatfield 8 

History, Machine Theory of. James F. Morton . 190 
Japan, Renaissances in. Ernest W. Clement . . 147 
Japanese, What They Read. Ernest W. Clement 301 
Kipling, Suit of, against G. P. Putnam's Sons . . 347 
Kipling's " Cynical Jingoism " toward the Brown 

Man. Henry Wysham Lanier 389 

Lampman, Archibald, Death of 133 

Lee, Sidney, Sonnet by Professor Dowden to . . 26 

" Literature," American edition of 91 

Man-Poet, Passing of the. Philister 329 

" Man- Poet," the, Is he Passing ? S. E. B. . . 362 
Mason, Edward Gay, Death of 7 



Modern Language Association, Virginia Meeting of. 

Thomas S. Baker 42 

Nursery Classics, American Variants of. Charles 

Welsh , .... 189 

Philippine Question, Free Discussion of the. David 

Starr Jordan 390 

Pinnace, The White. Poem. Katharine Lee Bates 8 

Poe Again. Charles Leonard Moore 236 

" Poe, American Rejection of," Some Causes of. 

Caroline Sheldon 110 

Poe, Is he " Rejected " in America ? John L. Hervey 73 
Poe, Was he Mathematically Accurate ? Albert 

H. Tolman 189 

Poe, Why Is He Rejected" in America ? A. C. 

Barrows 109 

Poetry, A Philistine View of. Wallace Rice . . 362 

Publisher's Protest, A. Alfred Null 300 

Sampson at Santiago A Correction. W. A. M. 

Goode 301 

School Legislation for Large Cities and Small. 

Aaron Gove 147 

Scorn Not the Ass. W. R. K 390 

Scouts of Spring. Sonnet. Emily Huntington Miller 237 
Shakespeare. Sonnet. Edith C. Banfield ... 72 

Shorey, Daniel Lewis, Death of 211 

Spirit of Song. Poem. Clinton Scollard . . . 389 

Sullivan, William K., Death of 90 

Tennyson Bibliographies. Albert E. Jack . . . 329 
Thackeray and the American Newspapers. Emily 

Huntington Miller 73 

University of Chicago College for Teachers . . 19 



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PATTEN. The Development of English Thought. 

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ENCYCLOPAEDIA BIBLICA. A Dictionary of the 
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McCURDY. The History, Prophecy, and the 
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CONTENTS. 



THE DISTRIBUTION OF BOOKS 



PAGE 
5 



EDWARD GAY MASON .......... 7 

THE WHITE PINNACE. (Poem.) Katharine Lee Bates 8 

COMMUNICATION ............. 8 

The Proposed Goethe Monument in Strassburg. 
James Taft Hatfield. 



A STATESMAN'S RETROSPECT. E.G.J.. 



8 



SOME RECENT ILLUSTRATIONS OP SHAKE- 

SPEARE. Melville B.Anderson ...... 11 

The Winter's Tale, variorum edition. Madden's 
The Diary of Master William Silence. Wyndham's 
The Poems of Shakespeare. Lee's A Life of Will- 
iam Shakespeare. Fleming's How to Study Shake- 
speare. 

THE ENGLISH CONSTITUTION. John J. Halsey 15 

FOR THE STAGE OR THE STUDY. Edward E. 

Hale, Jr ................ 17 

DISCUSSIONS OF THE SOCIAL MOVEMENT, 
THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL. C. R. 
Henderson .............. 19 

Crowell's The Logical Process of Social Progress. 
Moses' Democracy and Social Growth in America. 
Proal's Political Crime. Willoughby's Working- 
men's Insurance. Davidson's The Bargain Theory 
of Wages. Lloyd's Labor Copartnership. Webb's 
Problems of Modern Industry. Shearman's Natural 
Taxation, enlarged edition. Miss Lord's Industrial 
Experiments in the British Colonies of North Amer- 
ica. Sander's Reality. Gladden's The Christian 
Pastor and the Working Church. 

BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS .......... 23 

A new life of Marie Antoinette. A new reference 
Bible. Folk-tales of Armenia. Literary essays in 
lighter vein. A Boston merchant in colonial days. 
The latest biographer of General Grant. A popular 
treatment of Darwinism. The revival of a lost art. 

LITERARY NOTES ............ 25 

TOPICS IN LEADING PERIODICALS ..... 26 

LIST OF NEW BOOKS . . 26 



THE DISTRIBUTION OF BOOKS. 

Once more the plaint of the bookseller is 
heard in the land, and one would be indeed 
stony-hearted who could view his condition 
without concern. His occupation is slipping 
from him, through the action of irresistible 
economic laws, and the thoughtless public pays 
little heed to his plight. The great dealers in 
miscellaneous merchandise are slowly but surely 
absorbing the retail trade in books, and, not 
content to supply the customers who can come 
to their vast stores, are reaching out, by adver- 
tisements and other devices, to get possession 
of the customers who have hitherto supported 
the booksellers of the smaller towns. The old- 
fashioned type of bookseller is by way of join- 
ing the dodo and the megathesium, just as the 
old-fashioned college president, and the all- 
around lawyer, and the general medical prac- 
titioner, are passing from the places that soon 
shall know them no more. It is a melancholy 
sight for those who cling to old ways and old 
institutions, but " there is no help for these 
things," as the poet has it, and we must learn 
to adapt ourselves to the new conditions. The 
quiet and venerable scholar who formerly ruled 
over his college as a world apart has given place 
to the energetic young man of business instincts 
and capacity for advertising his institution ; 
the professional man in whose hands you once 
placed your case, whatever it might be, with 
confidence that he would know how to deal with 
it, has given place to the specialist who nine 
times out of ten would n't understand your case 
at all. And, coming to the point of our pres- 
ent theme, the bookseller who used to think fifty 
per cent not too large a profit upon his wares, 
considering that he offered as a bonus his good 
advice and genial friendship, has given place 
to the merchant who can wax fat upon ten per 
cent, or less, of profit, but is too busy to have 
either advice or friendship to spare for you. 

It is evident that the entire business of the 
distribution of books is just now in a transition 
state, and that its immediate condition is dis- 
tressing, or at least has distressing features, to 
the more conservative and thoughtful part of 
the public. We are inclined to believe, as will 
be suggested later on, that this transition state 



6 



THE DIAL, 



[Jan. 1, 



is not altogether unpromising for the future, 
and that the outcome may be of a nature not 
inimical to the best interests of culture. But 
the present condition of affairs is an unques- 
tionable hardship for the bookseller, who is a 
middleman, and who is bound to suffer from 
the , general and undiscriminating onslaught 
upon middlemen which is characteristic of the 
existing economic situation. As the organiza- 
tion of business becomes more and more com- 
plete, it is inevitable that the profits of the 
middleman should be reduced, and the more 
compact social arrangements toward which we 
are tending must mean for the bookseller, as 
for so many others, a sharper struggle for ex- 
istence than he has heretofore been called upon 
to make. 

One of the experiments most ominous to 
the bookseller is that recently made by a pub- 
lishing house which advertises broadcast its 
willingness to send any of its publications to 
any address upon the receipt of a postal card re- 
quest, trusting to the honesty of the prospective 
purchaser either to return the book or to pay 
for it. This plan shows a remarkable confi- 
dence in human nature at least in the human 
nature of the book-buying public and we 
shall be much interested to learn how successful 
it proves. Its general adoption by publishers 
would tend to eliminate retail bookselling from 
the list of business occupations. Still another 
experiment of which the bookseller makes com- 
plaint is that of selling books of the more ex- 
pensive sort upon the instalment plan, the 
entire work being delivered upon receipt of 
the order and the first payment. This method 
of depleting the book-buyer's purse has long 
found favor with the publishers of works sold 
by subscription, and now certain publishers of 
the regular sort seem inclined to see what they 
can do with it. Such experiments as these, and 
others that might be mentioned, are extremely 
interesting to the economist, and both interest- 
ing and enjoyable to those tradesmen who profit 
by them directly, but they are " death to the 
frogs," who may be excused for croaking rather 
more vociferously than usual at the ingenious 
devices of which they are victims. 

Still another onslaught upon the bookseller's 
peace of mind, an onslaught so unexpected and 
so startling that it left him gasping for breath, 
was that made a few months ago by Librarian 
Dewey, who calmly proposed that the public 
libraries throughout the country should become 
book-selling as well as book-circulating agen- 
cies. In other words, he proposed to sweep the 



private bookseller out of existence as completely 
as his namesake swept out of existence the 
Spanish fleet at Manila. Booksellers have 
always looked askance at public libraries, not 
understanding how they create an appetite for 
reading that is sure in the end to redound to 
the bookseller's advantage, but their suspicious 
fears never anticipated the explosion in their 
camp of such a bombshell as this. Fortunately 
for them, the suggestion was not taken very 
seriously by those to whom it was made, its 
flavor of state socialism being too strong for the 
public mind, even in the lax and receptive con- 
dition to which that mind has become reduced 
of recent years. If the state or the municipality 
were to go into the business of selling books at 
cost, what should prevent it from doing the like 
with groceries ? 

All these insidious devices for supplanting the 
bookseller must be met, if they are to be met at 
all, by the more effective organization of his 
trade. The most promising suggestion put for- 
ward in his behalf has been "made in Germany," 
or rather practised there, and explained to En- 
glish readers by Professor J. G. Robertson in 
a recent number of " Literature." " So com- 
plete is the organization," we are informed, 
of the German retail bookselling trade, " that 
a publisher can rely on having whatever special 
treatises he may undertake to publish brought 
directly under the eyes of every scholar in the 
country who is in the least likely to become 
a purchaser, and this without any trouble or 
expense for advertising on his part. Every 
retail bookseller, even in the smallest German 
town, is, thanks to the excellence of the German 
system, in a position to send, and, as a matter 
of course, does send, his customers copies on 
approbation (Exemplare zur Ansicht) of all 
new books in which they are interested." Com- 
pare such a practice with that of the American 
bookseller, whose utmost effort in this direction 
is to send to his customers a classified list of all 
the publications of the month, leaving the cus- 
tomers to hunt out the titles that seem attract- 
ive, and to order the books on the chances of 
their proving satisfactory. If our booksellers 
would cooperate in such fashion as this with our 
publishers, there would be small danger of the 
publishers' resorting to ingenious methods for 
the elimination of the booksellers from the field 
of competition. Or rather, there would no longer 
be any real competition between the two classes, 
but a relation of mutual helpfulness that would 
impel each of them to cherish the interests of 
the other. 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



7 



We said, early in this discussion, that the 
future of bookselling does not seem to us, on 
the whole, unpromising. Beyond such special 
suggestions, as have already been made and 
that might be made, looking toward an improved 
organization and a closer cooperation, there is 
the broad general fact that the appetite for 
books is constantly growing among our popu- 
lation. The increasing importance of books as 
a part of the household furnishings is a phenom- 
enon that cannot fail to attract the attention of 
all observers. The sort of household that, a 
generation ago, had only a few nondescript vol- 
umes piled away upon the shelf of some closet 
now has a neat and well-filled bookcase. The 
household that then had a few shelves now has 
as many cases. They may be cheap books 
but books they are and the proportion among 
them of really good literature is surprising. 
This seems to be an entirely natural develop- 
ment, and the time is coming when reading- 
matter will be as staple a commodity as gro- 
ceries, and as necessary for the daily needs. 
Nor will these needs be supplied, in the long 
run, by newspapers and magazines, or by the 
providence of the public libraries. These things 
merely create an appetite which nothing but 
books can eventually satisfy. It is folly, then, 
to assume that bookstores will be lacking to 
satisfy this appetite for the possession of liter- 
ature, since the book- buyer, as a rule, wants to 
inspect his books before buying, and the retail 
trade in books is as sure of customers as the 
retail trade in eggs and poultry. That trade, 
we have not the least doubt, will emerge tri- 
umphant from its seeming temporary eclipse, 
but it will be adapted to the new conditions, it 
will be reorganized to meet the new demands, 
and it will be willing to find in its larger sales 
a compensation for its lessened percentage of 
profit. 



EDWARD GAY MASON. 



In the death of Edward Gay Mason, on the 
eighteenth of December, THE DIAL lost a valued 
contributor, and Chicago one of its most distin- 
guished citizens. Men of his type are not common in 
any community, and are rare indeed in such a place 
as Chicago, where the hitherto all-important spirit 
of commercialism is but just beginning to recognize 
the claims of other than business interests upon the 
life of man. It was in this city that Mr. Mason, 
a native of Connecticut, lived for nearly forty of the 
best years of the fifty-nine allotted him. And it is 
this city alone that realizes to the full the loss that 



comes from his untimely taking-off . The outside 
world heard of him from time to time as an eminent 
lawyer, as a member of the governing body of Yale 
University, and as a specialist in American history. 
Chicago knew- him continuously and intimately, as 
the active friend of all worthy enterprises, as an intel- 
lectual force in the society of which he was a part, as 
a good citizen in the highest sense of the term. As 
a leader of the Chicago bar, as a controlling spirit in 
the higher club life of the city, as a brilliant public 
speaker upon occasions both formal and informal, 
his memory will fade as those who knew him in these 
activities pass from the stage. But one monument, 
at least, remains to keep his memory green and 
that is the impressive building of the Chicago Histori- 
cal Society, which, with its rich collection of books 
and manuscripts, of portraits and autographs, relat- 
ing to the early Northwest, is a memorial of his zeal 
as a collector, his enthusiasm as a student, and his 
power to enlist the aid of his fellows in giving per- 
manent embodiment to a fine conception. He was by 
no means the only man deserving of remembrance in 
this connection, but for a score of years past his was 
the leading spirit in the common endeavor of the 
members of the Society to bring together for future 
historians the mass of material now contained within 
the fine structure in Dearborn Avenue. Since the 
Society had, upon two occasions in its earlier days, 
lost all of its collections by fire, he was determined 
to make a third disaster of the sort impossible, and 
it was due to his insistence upon Ibis point that the 
permanent home of the organization is a building 
into whose construction nothing combustible enters, 
a building fireproof in the literal sense of the word. 
As a writer, Mr. Mason never found time to do the 
work that it was in him to perform. His publica- 
tions take the fugitive form of such papers and 
pamphlets as " The March of the Spaniards across 
Illinois," "Old Fort Chartres," "Illinois in the 
Eighteenth Century," " Kaskaskia and its Parish 
Records," and many other titles. Some years ago 
he was commissioned by Messrs. Houghton, Miffiin 
& Co. to write the history of " Illinois " for the 
" American Commonwealths " series, and accepted 
the task. No man was better equipped for this work, 
and it is cause for deep regret that he should not have 
lived to complete it. A portion of the manuscript 
exists, and it is possible that the work is sufficiently 
advanced to make its completion by another hand 
a work of no great difficulty. If this be the case, 
no time should be lost in carrying out the plan, and 
in utilizing whatever it still be possible to utilize of 
the material collected by him. If, more particularly, 
the portion of the work substantially completed 
covers the early period of Illinois history, with which 
no other man was so competent to deal, it should 
not be a matter of great difficulty to supply chapters 
upon the later period, and thus bring the work down 
to our own times. The performance of this task 
would be the best possible service to his memory, 
besides making an important contribution to Amer- 
ican historical literature. 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 1, 



THE WHITE PINNACE. 



[IN MEMORY OF MARY SHELDON BARNES.] 

" And nowe being here mored in Port Desire." 

Ho, the White Pinnace! the Foam- white Pinnace! 

Blithe and free as the seagull's wing! 
A-leap to discover the dim seas over 

Lovelier lands than the poets sing. 

Ho, the White Pinnace! the Joy-bright Pinnace! 

The blue wave creams at her eager blow. 
'T is well with the sail that hears her hail, 

And sees her pass like a flight of snow. 

Ho, the White Pinnace! the Dove- white Pinnace! 

Tender for rock and fragile for gale! 
Her Indies rise where to mortal eyes 

Is only the mid-sea moonshine pale. 

Ah, the White Pinnace! the Moon-light Pinnace! 

Trembling from view in that strange white fire! 
Yet mariners know, where God's tides flow, 

And only there, lies Port Desire. 

KATHARINE LEE BATES. 



COMMUNICA TION. 



THE PROPOSED GOETHE MONUMENT IN 

STRASSBURG. 
(To the Editor of THE DIAL. ) 

The year 1899 brings with it the 150th anniversary 
of Goethe's birth. An influential German committee, 
under the protectorate of the Grand Duke Carl Alex- 
ander of Weimar, has invited not only the inhabitants 
of Alsace, German students, and patriotic Germans in 
general, but also people of culture everywhere who 
acknowledge a debt to the great author, to lend their 
aid toward erecting a statue of " the young Goethe " in 
Strassburg. The project is progressing steadily, and 
already more than 12,000 marks have been subscribed 
in Germany. 

Many Americans recall with great pleasure the very 
active interest and participation shown by a number of 
the most influential professors and scholars of Berlin last 
year at the time when our students instituted a celebra- 
tion of Lowell's birthday, an interest which carried the 
project to a distinct success which it could not have hoped 
for otherwise. Doubtless many who have responded to 
the idyllic charm of Goethe's imperishable Sesenheim 
idyl, who recall that " Goetz " and " Faust " were planned 
while the poet was a student at Strassburg, and who have 
had pleasure in his delightful descriptions of that city 
and Alsace, will be glad to add some share to the noble 
and substantial tribute which is to be erected. To give 
Americans this opportunity, an American committee has 
been named, to assist in making the plan known, and to 
receive any contributions, however small, which are in- 
spired by the idea. The committee consists of Professor 
Kuno Francke of Harvard University, Professor Horatio 
S. White of Cornell University, and the undersigned. 
Contributions can be sent directly to any member of the 
committee, or to Messrs. Ladenburg, Thalmann & Co., 
bankers, 46 Wall Street, New York City. 

JAMES TAFT HATFIELD. 

Evanston, Illinois, Dec. 24, 1898. 



A STATESMAN'S RETROSPECT.* 

Bismarck's autobiography, at last before us, 
is a better book than Dr. Busch's discouraging 
forecast led us to expect. Doubtless Busch 
foresaw in it, or fancied that he foresaw, a 
dangerous rival of his own performance ; and, 
not being bred in a school of over-scrupulosity, 
he did not hesitate to brand by innuendo the 
impending competitor in advance as a dull 
book. He might have spared himself the 
trouble. The work is of a quite different cast 
and genre from his own racy and scandal- 
mongering volumes, and so is not likely to enter 
into, or at least to remain long in, competition 
with them. One cannot imagine Dr. Johnson 
writing an autobiography, however good, that 
would have supplanted Boswell's book ; and 
what Boswell did for the lexicographer, Busch 
has done, in a comparatively limited way of 
course, for the great Chancellor. Bismarck's 
book is essentially one for the student of po- 
litical history, who wants clews and explana- 
tions, and cares little for the lighter matters of 
personality and anecdote. It is a complete key 
to the Bismarckian system of politics (it a 
scheme so tempered or alloyed with opportun- 
ism can properly be called a system), as car- 
ried into practice during the period of its hold- 
er's ascendency in Prussian counsels. There 
need in the future be no debate as to why the 
masterful Chancellor acted so or so in this or 
that important political juncture. Such doubts 
are now solved for us in the most authoritative 
way. Of narrative proper the autobiography 
contains but little. It presupposes in the reader 
a competent knowledge of the events of which 
it supplies, in so far as the author's own share 
in them went, the rationale. Those who look 
to it mainly for the spectacle of a discarded 
and embittered statesman indulging his turn 
for satire at the expense of his whilom foes 
will be disappointed. Compared with Busch's 
examples of the Chancellor's ordinary manner 
of speech, these two volumes seem even elabo- 
rately circumspect in phrase and temperate in 
judgment. What the deferred third and con- 
cluding volume, in which the present Emperor 
is to be brought upon the scene, may develop, 

* BISMARCK, the Man and the Statesman: Being the Re- 
flections and Reminiscences of Otto, Prince von Bismarck. 
Written and dictated by himself. Translated from the Ger- 
man under the supervision of A. J. Butler. In two volumes, 
with portraits. New York : Harper & Brothers. 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



9 



we can only conjecture. But in the present 
instalment of the memoirs there seems to be 
little that " Herr Lehmann " himself, the 
touchiest of created mortals (if one may ven- 
ture to call Him mortal) can take umbrage at 
which must be a comfort to the judicious 
editor, Herr Kohl. 

In his youth Bismarck did not altogether 
escape the liberal contagion, then in the air, 
and he had brought away with him from the 
preparatory school, which was conducted on 
Jahn's principles, certain German-National im- 
pressions on which, he says, " I lived from my 
sixth to my twelfth year." These impressions 
remained in the stage of theoretical reflections, 
his historical and innate sympathies leaning 
to the side of authority as embodied in the 
Prussian monarchy. Nevertheless, on entering 
the University, he joined a students' corps 
whose watchword was German nationalism. 
Mingled with the Germanism of these young 
men, however, were certain social and political 
extravagances not so much to the taste of the 
well-born Prussian Junker, on whose nerves, 
too, the under-bred ways of his democratically 
minded associates grated. Their ideas gave 
him a lasting impression of an " association 
between Utopian theories and defective breed- 
ing." But he managed to retain a sound leaven 
of practical National sentiment, and a belief 
that events would lead in the not remote future 
to German unity. " I made," he says, " a bet 
with my American friend Coffin that this aim 
would be attained in twenty years." Bismarck's 
always modest stock of liberalism was percep- 
tibly lessened by the Frankfort riot of 1833, 
and dwindled to a for the time quite negligible 
quantity when the tocsin of actual revolution 
affrighted Berlin in the March days of 1848. 
The Prussian capital, which once cowered under 
the rattan stick of a decrepit and half-crazy 
tyrant, now fairly took the bit in its teeth, and 
seemed, while the fit was on, not unlikely to 
furnish a clumsy German analogue of the Paris 
drama of '89. The part enacted by Bismarck 
in that momentous year is well known. The 
course he favored as against the riotous Ber- 
liners is well indicated in the marginal note 
made by the King against his name in a list of 
suggested Councillors : " Only to be employed 
when the bayonet governs unrestricted." A 
conversation Bismarck had with the King in 
June at Sans-Souci is worth recording : 

" After dinner the King took me onto the terrace, 
and asked me in a friendly way : ' How are you getting 
on? ' In the irritable state I had been in ever since 



the March days, I replied: 'Badly.' The King said: 
' I think the feeling is good in your parts.' Thereupon, 
under the impression made by some regulations, the 
contents of which I do not remember, I replied : ' The 
feeling was very good, but since we have been inocu- 
lated with the revolution by the King's officials under 
the royal sign-manual, it has become bad. What we 
lack is confidence in the support of the King.' At that 
moment the Queen stepped out from the shrubbery and 
said: ' How can you speak so to the King.' 'Let me 
alone, Elise,' replied the King, ' I shall soon settle his 
business'; and turning to me, he said: 'What do you 
really reproach me with, then? ' ' The evacuation of 
Berlin.' 'I did not want it done,' replied the King; 
and the Queen, who had remained within hearing, added: 
' Of that the King is quite innocent. He had not slept 
for three days.' A King ought to be able to sleep,' I 
replied. Unmoved by this blunt remark, the King said: 
' It is always easier to prophesy when you know. What 
would be gained if I admitted that I had behaved like 
a donkey? Something more than reproaches is needed 
to set an overturned throne up again. To do that I 
need assistance and active devotion, not criticism? ' The 
kindness with which he said all this, and more to the 
same effect, overpowered me. I had come in the spirit 
of afrondeur, who would not have cared if he had been 
dismissed ungraciously; I went away completely dis- 
armed and won over." 

In his interesting chapter setting forth the 
opinions he held and the course he advocated 
as to the conduct of the siege of Paris, Bis- 
marck states that in the Council of War Roon 
was the only supporter of his view that the sur- 
render of the city should be forced at once by 
a bombardment. The slower " method of fam- 
ine " (as being the " humaner " one) found 
powerful support " in the circles where exalted 
ladies met," and where " philanthropic hypoc- 
risy," harping on the "English catchwords 
' Humanity and Civilization,' " held sway. The 
intervention of neutrals, taking the form of a 
congress which in the name of justice and mod- 
eration should rob Germany of the substantial 
fruits of victory, was what Bismarck dreaded. 
He accordingly reversed his moderate counsels 
of 1866, and pressed for vigorous action. His 
opinion, backed by Roon, prevailed ; and with 
the bombardment of Mont Avron came the be- 
ginning of the end. Bismarck's reflections on 
these matters are characteristic : 

"In setting one's-self the question as to what can 
have induced other generals to oppose Roon's view, it 
is difficult to discover any technical reasons for the de- 
lay in the measures taken towards the close of the 
year. . . . The notion that Paris, although fortified and 
the strongest bulwark of our opponents, might not be 
attacked in the same way as any other fortress had been 
imported into our camp from England by the roundabout 
route of Berlin, together with the phrase about the 
' Mecca of civilization,' and other expressions of human- 
itarian feeling rife and effective in the cant of English 
public opinion a feeling which England expects other 
Powers to respect, though she does not always allow 



10 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 1, 



her opponents to have the benefit of it. It was from 
London that representations were received in our most 
influential circles that the capitulation of Paris ought 
not to be brought about by bombardment, but only by 
hunger. . . . Trustworthy information from Berlin ap- 
prised me that the cessation of our activity gave rise to 
anxiety and dissatisfaction in expert circles, and that 
Queen Augusta was said to be influencing her royal hus- 
band by letters, in the interests of humanity. An allu- 
sion to information of this kind which I made to the 
King occasioned a violent outburst of anger, not to the 
effect that the rumors were untrue, but in a sharp rep- 
rimand against the utterance of any such dissatisfaction 
respecting the Queen." 

Discussing universal suffrage Bismarck avers 
the principle to be a just one, not only in theory 
but also in practice, " provided always that vot- 
ing be not secret, for secresy is a quality incom- 
patible with the best characteristics of German 
blood ": 

" The influences and the dependence on others that the 
practical life of man brings in its train are God-given re- 
alities which we cannot and must not ignore. If we refuse 
to transfer them to political life, and base the public life 
of the country on the belief in the secret insight of all, 
we fall into a contradiction between public law and the 
realities of human life which practically leads to constant 
frictions, and finally to an explosion, and to which there 
is no theoretical solution except in the way of the insani- 
ties of social-democracy, the support given to which rests 
on the fact that the judgment of the masses is sufficiently 
stultified and undeveloped to allow them, with the assist- 
ance of their own greed, to be continually caught by the 
rhetoric of clever and ambitious leaders. ... A state, 
the control of which lies in the hands of the greedy, of the 
novarum rerum cupidi, and of orators who have the capac- 
ity for deceiving the unreasoning masses in a higher 
degree than others, will constantly be doomed to a rest- 
lessness of development, which so ponderous a mass as 
the commonwealth of the state cannot follow with injury 
to its organism." 

The Chancellor's satiric turn peeps out occa- 
sionally, as in his references to Gortchakoff : 

" His subordinates in the ministry said of Gortchakoff: 
< II se mire dans son encrier,' just as Bettina used to say 
of her brother-in-law, Savigny, He cannot cross a gutter 
without looking at himself in it.' . . . When he dictated 
he used to take a regular pose, which he introduced with 
the word ' ecrivez '! and if the secretary thoroughly ap- 
preciated his position he turned at particularly well- 
rounded phrases an admiring glance on his chief, who 
was very sensible to it." 

When Gortchakoff accepted the presidency 
of the diplomatic conference at Berlin in May, 
1876, Bismarck relates that during the delivery 
of the presidential address *' I wrote in pencil : 
' Pompous, pompo, pomp, pom, po.' My 
neighbor, Lord Odo Russell, snatched the paper 
from me and kept it." 

A striking anecdote is told of Emperor 
Nicholas of Russia. Bismarck had it from 
Frederick William IV.: 

" The Emperor Nicholas asked him to send two cor- 



porals of the Prussian guard for the purpose of per- 
forming a certain massage treatment prescribed by the 
doctors, which was to be carried out on the back of the 
patient while he lay on his stomach. He added: I can 
always manage my Russians when I can look them in 
the face, but on my back and without eyes, I should not 
like them to come near me.' The corporals were sent 
confidentially, and were employed and handsomely paid. 
This shows how, in spite of the religious devotion of the 
Russian people to their Czar, the Emperor Nicholas did 
not absolutely trust his personal safety in a tete-a-tete 
even to the ordinary man among his subjects; and it is 
a sign of great strength of character that up to the end 
of his life he did not allow himself to be depressed by 
these feelings." 

The impression of Bismarck that one gathers 
from these volumes quite bears out the Gladston- 
ian verdict : " A big man, but very unscrupu- 
lous." They fail to disclose, so far as we can dis- 
cern, a single distinctive humane, amiable trait 
on the part of their author. It was in his time, 
and apparently still is, to the advantage of 
Prussia that the guidance of her affairs fell into 
the powerful hands of this Colossus. So far 
she has been a great gainer, in prestige at least ; 
and in this gain the Empire has shared. But 
there are nevertheless those who maintain that 
the cynically confessed unscrupulosity with 
which the Chancellor sought and gained his 
ends will bear its natural fruit in the fulness 
of time ; and that as those who live by the sword 
shall perish by the sword, so a political struc- 
ture welded through " blood and iron " is shad- 
owed by no uncertain Nemesis. The powerful 
bond of the common danger that lowers over 
Germany from the North and the South once 
removed, the formal federal tie may prove to 
be a rope of sand. Dynastic jealousies, reli- 
gious differences, inbred sectional patriotisms 
far more intense and deeply rooted than the 
State sentiment that once threatened to wreck 
our own Federal Union, are centrifugal forces 
constantly tending to drag the still sovereign 
German states from their new orbit ; and that 
the spectre of " Particularism " will not down 
was forcibly shown only the other day by the 
petty but significant Lippe-Detmold incident. 
The smallest German house refuses to be dra- 
gooned in respect of its own local and dynastic 
concerns by the Emperor ; and the larger ones, 
glad of an opportunity to indirectly assert their 
own dignities, ostentatiously support the recal- 
citrant, to the infinite chagrin of the Hallowed 
Person at Berlin. 

We cannot unreservedly praise the present 
translation of this important work, nor can we 
accept as a sufficient excuse for its imperfec- 
tions the English editor's statement that the 



1899.] 



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11 



work was " produced under severe pressure of 
time." Mechanically the volumes are satisfac- 
tory, though we notice a few misprints, notably 
an absurd one (" Ylarr " for Year) in the Table 
of Contents of the opening volume. There are 
a brace of fine portraits of the Chancellor, and 
a specimen leaf of his handwriting. 



E G 



SOME RECENT ILLUSTRATIONS OF 
SHAKESPEARE.* 



In his introduction to the last book on our 
present list, Dr. Rolfe expresses the opinion 
that most intelligent people are acquainted with 
Shakespeare chiefly through the half-dozen 
plays that are commonly put upon the stage. 
This view has been often expressed, notably 
by Robert Browning in one of his epilogues : 

" For see your cellarage ! 

There are forty barrels with Shakespeare's brand. 
Some five or six are abroach : the rest 
Stand spigoted, fauceted. Try and test 
What yourselves call of the very best ! 

How comes it that still untouched they stand ? 
Why don't you try tap, advance a stage 
With the rest in cellarage ? " 

It was in 1876 that this taunt, which then had, 
doubtless, the sting of truth, was flung at the 
British public. Since then, what battalions 
of annotated editions of the plays, bristling with 
scholastic weapons, have been thrown forward 
in support of the supremacy of Shakespeare ! 

" Advanced in view they stand a horrid front 
Of dreadful length " 

Truly " the kingdom of heaven suffereth vio- 
lence "; and there is a certain mournful justice 
in the circumstance that one of the most promi- 
nent leaders in this attempt to force special 
scholarship upon a bewildered public should 
now admit by implication the defeat of the 
enterprise. I would not be understood as dis- 
paraging the labors of so excellent a Shake- 
pearian as Dr. Rolfe. It is a question not of 
a man but of a system. When such a man as Dr. 



* A NEW VARIORUM EDITION OF SHAKESPEARE. Edited 
by Horace Howard Furness, Hon. Ph.D. (Halle), etc. Vol- 
ume XI., the Winter's Tale. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott 
Company. 

THE DIARY OF MASTER WILLIAM SILENCE. A Study 
of Shakespeare and of Elizabethan Sport. By the Right 
Hon. D. H. Madden, Vice-Chancellor of the University of Dub- 
lin. New York : Longmans, Green, & Co. 

THE POEMS OF SHAKESPEARE. Edited, with an Introduc- 
tion and Notes, by George Wyndham. Boston : T. Y. Crowell 
<feCo. 

A LIFE OF WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE. By Sidney Lee. With 
Portraits and Facsimiles. New York : The Macmillan Co. 

How TO STUDY SHAKESPEARE. By William H. Fleming. 
With an Introduction by W. J. Rolfe, Litt.D. New York : 
Doubleday & McClure Co. 



Rolfe avers that the majority of cultivated 
people who fancy they know Shakespeare well 
"have only a smattering of this education," 
we understand what the standard of judgment 
is. Few persons, indeed, are in readiness to sub- 
mit to an English civil-service examination in 
Shakespeare, or, what amounts to the same 
thing, to such a test as Dr. Rolfe would impose. 
It is likewise probable that few intelligent 
Greeks of the time of Pericles could have passed 
such an examination in Homer as a modern pro- 
fessor would exact. 

But unless some signs fail, popular interest in 
Shakespeare is steadily widening, and with that 
interest Shakespeare scholarship itself is sus- 
taining a healthy growth. Of the many signs 
that Shakespeare appeals now to the popular 
mind and heart more widely than ever before, 
I instance only the immediate and enormous 
success of the beautiful " Temple Edition." 
Attractive to the eye, seductive to the touch, 
provided with all necessary and no superfluous 
apparatus, this edition captivates learned and 
unlearned alike. It has been argued plausibly, 
but, I think, paradoxically, that the success 
is due to the outward form of these dainty little 
volumes. Any well-bound edition in tall vol- 
umes makes, however, a greater show in the 
library. The " Temple Edition," being handy 
to carry to the fireside, to the brookside, or to 
bed, appeals to the appetite of the actual reader. 

Of the spread of Shakespeare scholarship, 
in the best sense, the progress of the magnum 
opus of Dr. Furness is a cheering sign. That 
the " New Variorum Shakespeare " is one of the 
signal monuments of American scholarship was 
long ago agreed by those qualified to judge, 
at home and abroad. In relation to the plays 
whereof they treat, these noble volumes are 
a veritable library, " The best that has been 
thought and said in the world " on these sub- 
jects. A brief recapitulation of the history of 
this great work may be of interest. The ten 
plays thus far edited, with the dates of publica- 
tion, are as follows : Romeo and Juliet (1871), 
Macbeth (1873), Hamlet (2 vols., 1877), King 
Lear (1880), Othello (1886), The Merchant 
of Venice (1888), As You Like It (1890), 
The Tempest (1892), A Midsummer Night's 
Dream (1895), The Winter's Tale (1898). 
It will be noticed that, except in the cases 
of Hamlet and Othello, these editions have 
followed one another quite regularly at inter- 
vals of two or three years. In the cases of the 
first four plays, Dr. Furness followed the tra- 
ditional practice of editors in presenting us with 



12 



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[Jan. 1, 



a text of his own. Beginning with Othello, he 
introduced a notable innovation, from which he 
has not since seen reason to swerve. This inno- 
vation consisted in the reprint, line for line, 
word for word, letter for letter, point for point, 
error for error, of the text of the First Folio, 
with all its imperfections on its head. The inno- 
vation had the boldness as well as the simplicity 
of genius, and has amply justified itself. It is 
not too much to say that this is one of the most 
valuable features of the great work, although 
the earlier volumes, which lacked this feature, 
were sufficient to win for the author recognition 
as one of the first Shakespearians of the world. 
In an edition which gives on every page a con- 
spectus of all the variant readings, and which 
is intended solely for the student, there is indeed 
no reason why an original text should not be lit- 
erally reprinted. Yet such is the force of custom 
and opinion that it was only after he had spent 
years upon the work and had completed the 
edition of four of the most important plays, that 
Dr. Furness came to see what now, partly by 
virtue of his example, seems so obvious. 

This edition of the Winter's Tale contains 
then, first, a minutely accurate reprint of the text 
of the First Folio (1623), in the case of this 
play, the earliest known text. Fortunately, in 
spite of the compression of the style, frequently 
amounting to crabbeduess, the text is unusually 
accurate, presenting almost none of the cruces 
which are the despair of the reader and the 
opportunity of the commentator. The commen- 
tators have, however, not allowed themselves 
to be discouraged by so small a circumstance ; 
Dr. Furness's citations from them indicate that 
they have been as busy over this play as over 
some of those whose texts are less pure. The 
most apposite comments of all the editors are 
cited in chronological order, the banquet being 
frequently sauced with excellent foolery which is 
none the less entertaining for being so seriously 
meant. Over all, Dr. Furness presides with wis- 
dom, moderation, and an unfailing good-temper, 
which contrasts wholesomely with the " savage 
and tartar ly" tone of some of the eighteenth- 
century editors, while not excluding a vein of 
delightful irony. A marked feature of the en- 
tire work, from first to last, is the growing con- 
fidence of the modest editor in his own judgment. 
In the later volumes he more frequently cuts 
short the droning commentators and gives us of 
his own, but never a word too much. Surely 
Dr. Furness is the most genial of editors ; and 
I think it not too much to add that he is for the 
most part the most convincing. Unlike Homer, 



he never nods ; at least, after communing with 
him for several years I have never caught him 
napping. His fault is of an opposite character, 
and might be said to be a fault that leans to 
virtue's side: namely, supersubtlety. The acute- 
ness that renders him formidable in detecting 
the fallacies of other commentators sometimes 
makes him over-ingenious in his own interpre- 
tations. It is the defect of his quality. Inas- 
much as his criticism of his venerated author 
is habitually constructive, this subtlety spends 
itself in the discovery of possible meanings, and 
is never seriously misleading. 

In many cases in which the commentators 
with their darkness do affront Shakespeare's 
light, Dr. Furness scatters the fog in a masterly 
way. Take for example the passage from Her- 
mione's last speech at the trial, thought by 
Hudson to be " the solidest piece of eloquence 
in the language ": * 

"Now (my Liege) 

Tell me what blessings I have here alive 
That I should feare to die ? Therefore proceed : 
But yet heare this : mistake me not : no Life, 
( I prize it not a straw ) but for mine Honor, 
Which I would free : if I shall be condemn'd 
Upon surmizes (all proof es sleeping else, 
But what your Jealousies awake) I tell you 
'Tis Rigor, and not Law." (III., ii., 113.) 

The commentators all stick upon the exclama- 
tion " no Life ": some of them scent a misprint. 
White and Hudson read " my life "; Dyce and 
Rolfe, " for life." Whereupon Dr. Furness : 

" I cannot but believe that this phrase has been mis- 
understood. With line 115, Hermione ends her defence, 
by commanding the trial to proceed. Then the thought 
of a sullied name flashes upon her, and that she has not 
with sufficient emphasis contended for the preservation 
of her honour; she hastily resumes, but fearing lest the 
king should misinterpret, and suppose that it is to plead 
for life, and not for what was, for her boy's sake, 
infinitely dearer to her, she exclaims: 'Mistake me 
not ! No life ! Give me not that ! I prize it not a straw ! ' 
It is really the climax of the speech. Self-commiseration 
has vanished, and she speaks for her honour with the last 
fire of her exhausted strength. The lines from ' mistake 
me not ' to ' I would free,' inclusive, are parenthetical. 
'Tis rigor and not law!' the last words she ever ad- 
dresses throughout the play to her husband, are full 
of the sternness of Fate, and mean, of course, that her 
honour will remain unblemished." 

Mr. Justice Madden's " Study of Shake- 
speare and of Elizabethan Sport " may be pro- 
nounced a fair model of what such a book 
should be. It is exact without being pedantic 
and systematic without being tedious, bearing 
evidence on every page that Ingram and Dow- 
den are not, in our time, the only representa- 
tives of Shakespeare scholarship connected with 

* The quotations from the Winter's Tale in this article are 
uniformly from Dr. Furness's reprint of the Folio text. 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



13 



the University of Dublin. Through the whole 
runs an agreeable vein of fiction based upon 
the fragment of a diary supposed to have been 
written by William Silence, which contains 
allusions to the presence at Shallow (Chatel- 
hault) Hall in Gloucestershire of another Will- 
iam, a quiet observant young gentleman from 
Stratford on Avon (See the Second Part of 
Henry IV., Act III., Scene ii.). Not the 
least interesting feature of the book is the by 
no means baseless suggestion that, at one time 
or another, Shakespeare spent a good deal of 
time in Gloucestershire ; that he there partici- 
pated in the field sports of country gentlemen 
and yeomen ; and that in this particular way 
he picked up his astonishing knowledge of all 
matters connected with falconry, horseman- 
ship, and the chase. The author maintains 
that Shakespeare's allusions to these matters 
differ from those of all other writers, ancient 
and modern, both in number and, on the whole, 
in quality. True, there are hundreds of such 
allusions which appear in themselves of an or- 
dinary kind, but even these acquire significance 
" from the circumstance that they are seldom 
suggested by any necessary action of the drama, 
but seem to spring forth out of the abundance 
of the poet's heart." Those which are more 
distinctly Shakespearian are divided into five 
classes, accordingly as they embody " 1, a 
secret of woodcraft or horsemanship ; 2, an 
illustration therefrom of human nature and 
conduct; 3, a lively image ; 4, a conceit ; or, 5, 
an irrelevance ; by which I mean an idea some- 
what out of place with its surroundings " 
(p. 313). The accumulation of illustrations 
of all these classes of allusions, and the very 
great clearing up of obscurities which results 
from their systematic treatment by an expert 
in field sports, give -very high and doubtless 
permanent value to the book. In the follow- 
ing metaphor of Hermione, for example, he 
finds a secret both of horsemanship and of 
human conduct: 

" You may ride 's 

With one soft kisse a thousand Furlongs, ere 
With Spur we heat an Acre." (I., ii., 117). 

It is interesting that both Madden and Furness 
accept without question the reading of the 
Folio, although Furness quotes without com- 
ment from Capell the statement that the phrase 
"heat an acre" has not been traced. Is it pos- 
sible that the French parallel, bruler le pave, 
has never been suggested by any commentator ? 
Had the Diary of Master Silence been given 
to the world a little earlier, Dr. Furness might 



have found his account in it for his edition of 
the Winter's Tale. Referring to Leontes's 
" note infallible of breaking honesty " 

" Stopping the Cariere 
Of Laughter, with a sigh." (I., ii., 332), 

Dr. Furness annotates merely as follows : 

" Cariere, A term of horsemanship, meaning a 
gallop at full speed." 

Madden points out that our present use of the 
word "career," as defined by Dr. Furness, is 
not at all what was present to the mind of 
Shakespeare. 

" We mean something that continues for an indefi- 
nite time. He meant something that soon comes to an 
abrupt ending. . . . The length of the career was four 
or five score yards at the most. The essential charac- 
teristic of the career, wherein it differed from the ordi- 
nary gallop, was its abrupt ending, technically known as 
' the stop,' by which the horse was suddenly and firmly 
thrown upon his haunches. Wherever Shakespeare 
uses the word, this stop is present to his mind "(p. 298). 

Thus the word " stop," no less than the word 
"career," is a term of manage, a term used 
again by Leontes near the end of the first scene 
of Act II.: 

" Now, from the Oracle 

They will bring all, whose spirituall counsaile had 
Shall stop, or spurreme." 

Dr. Furness would also have found here some- 
thing to add to his note upon "The Mort o' 
th' Deere" (I., ii., 144), which words, he 
thinks, refer " to the dying sighs of the deer 
rather than to the raucous sound of a horn." 
Madden contributes a third interpretation, ac- 
cording to which the sound of the sighing is 
compared neither to the sound of a horn nor 
to the sighing of the deer. He says: 

" To some, the notes which tell that all is over with 
a noble beast of venery summon up sad associations, for 
Leonatus (sic), among the tokens of woman's frailty, 
includes 

4 To sigh, as 'twere 
The Mort o' th' Deere.' 

This feeling was certainly not generally shared by sports- 
men," etc. 

In other words, the sighs of the supposed lovers 
are such sighs as would escape a person of 
effeminate sympathies at hearing the blast of 
the horns in token that the deer was slain. 

Madden also suggests a metaphor from the 
chase as the key to some words of Hermione 
which have been regarded as among the ob- 
scurest in the play : 

" With what encounter so uncurrant, I 
Have strayn'd t' appeare thus." (III., ii., 51). 

He quotes from "The Noble Arte of Venerie" : 
" When he (the hart) runneth verie fast, then 
he streyneth." Madden is probably right in 
thinking that this interpretation of the word 



14 



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[Jan. 1, 



"strayn'd" disposes of the guesses of some of 
the commentators (strayed, stained); but the 
real stumbling-block is in the preceding line, 
and one still gets no convincing answer to the 
question what "encounter so uncurrant"? 

Mr. Justice Madden's researches, in the light 
of his special knowledge of field-sports, have 
disclosed many other facts of interest to stu- 
dents of Shakespeare. The race-horse is, it 
appears, " the only horse in whom and in whose 
doings Shakespeare took no interest, and the 
horse-race is the only popular pastime to which 
no allusion can be found in his writings." To 
bear-baiting there are many allusions, all of 
which suggest dislike or contempt for the 
sport. Baconian fanatics will get little comfort 
from the discovery that in Bacon there are no 
references of any significance to field-sports, 
for which even the " studious recluse " who 
wrote the "Anatomy of Melancholy" mani- 
fests some enthusiasm (p. 223). Madden 
makes a half-humorous classification of Shakes- 
peare's works upon the basis of his allusions to 
horses, and the classification is as judicious 
as some others that have been made. In " Venus 
and Adonis" he celebrates the home-bred En- 
glish horse ; but before beginning his English 
historical plays he becomes acquainted with the 
merits of the Eastern horse and his conception 
of the perfect horse was changed. The roan 
Barb, "prince of palfreys," appears and re- 
appears in these plays. Madden thinks that 
Shakespeare was personally able to say, as early 
as 1592, "This roan shall be my throne." 

" Indeed, if I were disposed to adopt the language 
of criticism, I should class the historical plays as the 
roan Barbary group. In the tragedies we meet with 
Barbary horses now and then, but ' the bonny beast he 
loved so well ' is no more. Can one wonder that the 
period when they were written was, in Professor Dow- 
den's language, a period of depression and gloom?" 
(p. 262^. 

Perhaps the most interesting result of these 
researches is that they have led in all cases 
of dispute to the support of the readings of the 
Folio as opposed to those of the quartos. In 
view of this, it seems strange that Madden 
should twice refer to the " thirty-four " plays 
in the Folio (there are thirty-six), and should 
twice silently alter the Folio reading in a quota- 
tion from the Winter's Tale. In borrowing the 
words of the shepherd, " I would there were no 
age between ten and three and twenty," Madden 
in two places prints, " age between sixteen and 
three and twenty." These and a few other 
oversights, one of which has already been ex- 
emplified (Leonatus for Leontes), are very 



nearly the only faults I can find in this inter- 
esting and instructive book. 

I have left myself too little space in which 
to speak adequately of Mr. George Wyndham's 
edition of the Poems of Shakespeare *- a work 
certainly not second in importance to either 
of those we have been considering. Let me 
say at once, without going into detail, that this 
seems to me to be the completest edition for the 
student. For enjoyment of the poetry, nothing 
could be better than the Temple edition. In his 
notes Mr. Wyndham has met the main difficul- 
ties with the patience and acuteness of a scholar. 
He discusses in detail the identity of the rival 
poet (or poets) and of the youth addressed in 
the first series of sonnets. He inclines to Dray ton 
as the rival poet, and thinks that Tyler's argu- 
ment for William Herbert and Mary Fitton 
might win a verdict from a Scotch jury. If he 
means that the verdict would be " not proven," 
I heartily agree with him. He believes, however, 
that such attempts at identification must "prove 
detrimental to an aesthetic appreciation " of the 
lyrical excellence of the Sonnets. He admits, 
what so many critics have urged, that the 
Sonnets " express Shakespeare's own feelings 
in his own person " (Dowden). But he deems 
it " equally true, and vastly more important, 
that the Sonnets are not an Autobiography." 
Accordingly, at least half of the hundred and 
forty pages of his sympathetic and well-written 
introduction are devoted to a consideration of 
the poems as works of art. This is a refresh- 
ing innovation ; would that it might mark an 
epoch ! His texts are based upon the earliest 
editions, the readings of which he has adhered 
to, whenever possible, and all the variations are 
conscientiously set down in the notes. The 
chief weakness of Mr. Wyndham is that he 
seems unable to find the holes in Tyler's argu- 
ments. But he has a true appreciation of the 
Sonnets and the other poems, and his remarks 
upon these are at once instructive and com- 
forting. 

Mr. Sidney Lee's Life of Shakespeare is based 
upon the already well-known article which ap- 
peared last year in the " Dictionary of National 
Biography," and which is here expanded and 
provided with a long appendix, containing ex- 
haustive discussions of several interesting ques- 
tions. It is especially significant that, after 
" very narrow scrutiny," Mr. Lee rejects the 
claim made for the Sonnets to rank as autobio- 
graphical material. His detailed discussion of 
this subject is of interest to all students of the 
great poet. Perhaps by virtue of his patient 



1899.] 



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15 



investigations and cogent exposition future gen- 
erations will be able to read the Sonnets without 
thinking of the delectable amours of William 
Herbert and Mary Fitton. Those whose minds 
have been tainted by the reading of Dr. Bran- 
des's romance about Shakespeare (misnamed 
" a critical study ") will find Mr. Lee's book 
an effective antiseptic. It is provided with 
a good index. 

Mr. Fleming's " How to Study Shakespeare " 
may be commended with some confidence to read- 
ing-clubs and to individual beginners. Its prin- 
cipal features are, first, a collection of selected 
annotations to eight of the more popular plays ; 
secondly, a number of questions upon the plot 
and structure of each of these plays, questions 
which will encourage the student to think about 
what he has read. 

MELVILLE B. ANDERSON. 



THE ENGLISH CONSTITUTION.* 



The first volume of Mr. Hannis Taylor's 
history of the English Constitution, which now 
extends to twelve hundred octavo pages, was 
published nearly ten years ago. In the preface 
to that volume, as on the title-page to both first 
and second, the reader is informed that here 
" is drawn out " the " development of the En- 
glish constitutional system, and the growth out 
of that system of the federal republic of the 
United States." This is " a large order " even 
for twelve hundred pages ; and a survey of the 
contents does not justify the statement. Aside 
from an introductory chapter of eighty pages, 
in which "the English origin of the federal 
republic " is necessarily somewhat scantily 
treated, this history is occupied with the growth 
of English institutions on English soil. 

It may be said at the outset that Mr. Taylor 
has made a useful compend. Among the mul- 
titude of works on the English Constitution 
which have seen the light since Dr. Stubbs 
made the subject popular in 1875, there has 
been produced no adequate sketch of the whole 
field. Stubbs's great work in three volumes 
was intended only to bring the student to the 
point where Hallam began his work with the 
Tudors ; and Hallam, wonderful as his genius 
was in his day, is too ancient to be a guide for 
the present age inquirer. Anson's fine descrip- 
tion of " The Law and Custom of the Consti- 

* THE ORIGIN AND GKOWTH OF THE ENGLISH CONSTITU- 
TION. By Hannis Taylor. Volume II. Boston : Houghton, 
Mifflin & Co. 



tution " deals with things as they are, rather 
than as they have come to be. Medley's text- 
book, made only four years ago, would be just 
the needed work, if he had not adopted the 
bewildering method of chasing up and down 
the centuries to trace each institution from 
start to finish in a separate section. One who 
reads is in the state of mind of Yankee Doodle, 
who could not see the town for the houses. 
This is most unfortunate, for Mr. Medley covers 
the ground, and is judicious and critical in his 
dependence upon authorities. Moreover, he has 
read his subject and is up to date. Taswell- 
Langmead's one-volume history is a fine piece 
of work, but neglects some important aspects of 
the subject, and is now twenty-three years old, 
and therefore hardly up to date. Only the 
great master, Stubbs, in the face of the large 
additions made to our knowledge in the last 
fifteen years by Maitland and Round, Vino- 
gradoff and Liebermann, and the school of 
" diggers " which they represent, can grow old 
creditably. Gneist is nearly as shelf-worn as 
Taswell, and in addition has that color blind- 
ness to the inner truth of English institutions 
not to be wondered at in one nursed under the 
shadow of the Prussian bureaucracy. 

Mr. Taylor is not so much a scholar as a 
popularizer of the work of scholars. It would be 
hard to find in his pages anything original, and 
his references show that he has worked largely, 
not with " sources," but with authorities. In 
the main he has chosen his authorities well, 
and although not as keen in his evaluation of 
them as is Medley, he cites continually the 
master workers, from Stubbs down. Still, one 
would hardly guess through his guidance that 
Green is not an authority for any period since 
the Conquest, or that he does not rank with 
Gardiner, or even with Lingard on the seven- 
teenth century. One misses the flavor, too, of 
the great scholars mentioned after Stubbs in 
the preceding paragraph, and finds himself 
wondering if Mr. Taylor knows them well. In 
the light of what they have done since he first 
began to publish, a large portion of his first 
volume will need to be rewritten for a new 
edition, and that speedily, if this work is to 
hold its place as a convenient vade mecum. 

It is not a light undertaking to provide a 
readable and accurate sketch of the many cen- 
turies that such a history as this covers, and 
the critic who himself has spent many years of 
study in this field is likely to be the most char- 
itable one. Mr. Taylor has put this story of 
the constitution into the vigorous and graceful 



16 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 1, 



English of which he is a master, and he has 
also kept always before him the larger move- 
ment of the national life whose details he dis- 
cusses, so that the inexperienced reader may 
be entrusted to his guidance with the assurance 
that he will not miss the " form and pressure " 
of the times through which he passes. And 
yet at times there is blundering in details 
which makes one feel that portions of the nar- 
rative deal with subjects that were " gotten 
up " solely for this narrative, and that the 
writer of it has never entered their atmosphere. 
When one reads in the first volume about ven- 
derers in connection with the forest courts, even 
although the word is repeated in this mis- 
spelled form in the margin and in the table of 
contents, he lays the blunder to the account of 
careless proof-reading ; but when, after eight 
years of waiting, he comes to the index in the 
second volume, and, looking in vain for verder- 
ers> reads only the old error repeated, he is 
inclined to wonder. When one reads at the 
beginning of this second volume, just as he did 
in the earlier volume, that " the development 
of military tenures in England was gradual," 
and that " the transition from the military sys- 
tem by the thegn's service to the new system 
by knight service was also gradual," he feels 
that all the words so recently and so well said 
by Mr. Round on that subject have been writ- 
ten in vain. So the recent pushing back by Mr. 
Round of the scutage composition from the 
fourth year of Henry II. to a date at least as 
early as the reign of Henry I., finds no recog- 
nition ; and the author, in spite even of Stubbs, 
finds the last vestiges of scutage in 1332. Tal- 
lage is a good enough word for Stubbs and 
Maitland, Vinogradoff and Dowell ; we see no 
reason for giving us tattiage. Hubert Hall on 
the " Customs Revenues " might correct the 
statement that " prisage " was " the right to 
take from each English or foreign wine ship one 
cask out of every ten " the italics are ours. 
In the third line, on page 39, the occurrence 
of the word " and," when " but " is the proper 
word, makes nonsense ; and even with the cor- 
rection one does not learn what is vital to an 
understanding of the statement that Henry 
Prince of Wales, when fourteen years of age, 
was required to repudiate his betrothal to 
Katharine, that his father's foreign policy had 
changed since the betrothal. The doubt that 
is apparently expressed on page 82, whether 
the appropriation by the crown of the lands of 
the monastic houses in 1536 was confiscation, 
seems to be grounded on the contention that 



it was not unconstitutional, and in its confound- 
ing of principles suggests the remarkable posi- 
tion maintained by Mr. Taylor in a recent num- 
ber of the " North American Review " concern- 
ing the moral quality of our " steal " from 
Mexico in 1848. The writer knows no more 
in the second volume than he did in the first 
that the court baron was probably not coeval 
in its beginnings with the court leet and the 
customary court, and yet Viuogradoff pub- 
lished his English edition of " Villainage in 
England " in 1892. We are told that commis- 
sioners of array were " employed by the crown 
as early as the fourteenth century," and referred 
in a footnote to 1324, although Stubbs in his 
second volume has much to say about them 
from 1282 on. 

One of the things that need most to be done 
for students of American institutions is to trace 
adequately the evolution of English local insti- 
tutions down to the time when the founders of 
our American states came away. This is espe- 
cially needed for the system of courts. Pollock 
and Maitland have done the work exhaustively 
down to 1272 in their great " History of En- 
glish Law," but a more general survey of the 
whole field is desirable to thread the way 
through the maze of local jurisdictions and itin- 
erant commissions which gradually gave place 
to the more modern system which our fathers 
brought to the new home over seas. One looks 
with assurance for this in a work designed to 
trace the growth of the federal republic out of 
the English system. But this work is still to 
be done, although Mr. Taylor's occasional ex- 
cursions into that field suggest that he might 
have given a satisfactory account had he es- 
sayed the task. In fact, throughout the book 
one feels that the institutional side has not been 
sufficiently recognized, and is inclined to class 
this work rather with Gardiner and Froude and 
Green, among the narrative histories which 
deal principally with political history, than with 
the treatises of Hallam and Stubbs. The two 
chapters which treat of the Civil War and the 
Protectorate are outside the Constitution, and 
the space might better have been utilized in 
presenting some of the interesting constitu- 
tional conflicts of the Stuart period between 
the two houses or between the houses and the 
law courts. Attention to Pike's recent work 
on the " Constitutional History of the House 
of Lords," which finds no recognition, might 
have been fruitful of suggestion in that direc- 
tion. Still, it may be said that no better nar- 
rative of the bulk and scope of this one can be 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



17 



found by one who cannot spare the time to run 
through the series of specialists in the history 
of England which, with some lamented breaks, 
stretches from Green in the Old English period 
and Freeman and Norgate on the Normans and 
Angevins through Gardiner in the seventeenth 
century to Lecky in the eighteenth and Wai- 
pole in the nineteenth. If Mr. Taylor is more 
interested in men and principles than he is in 
institutions and processes, he is in most reput- 
able and brilliant company, and his predilec- 
tions make him eminently agreeable and read- 
able. JOHN J. HALSEY. 



FOB THE STAGE OR THE STUDY.* 

Almost every age of English literature has 
proved the vitality and the national character 
of the legend of King Arthur by translating it 
into its own language. Geoffrey made it a chron- 
icle, Malory made it a romance of chivalry, 
Spenser made it a renaissance epic, Milton 
might have made it but Milton is the great 
exception. Blackmore I never read, and so 
cannot say what he did about the matter. In 
the time just before our own, Swinburne, 
Matthew Arnold, William Morris put life into 
certain bits of the old story, and Tennyson gave 
it a form that was characteristic of himself and 
his time. Is the time ripe for a new expression ? 
Literature has lived quickly in the last twenty 
years : in a way, we are no longer Tennyson- 
ians. Has enough something been secreted to 
enable a new poet to write of Arthur and still 
be original ? 

Mr. Hovey, who has just completed " Laun- 
celot and Guenevere," which he began some 
years ago, practically offers his work to a very 
searching test. I may as well say at once that 
much of it does not appeal to me. Why mingle 
Scandinavian and German and Greek mythol- 
ogy with Celtic mysteries ? I am as confused 
as poor old Merlin was by this kaleidoscope of 
Norns and Goblins and Angels and Bassarids. 
Or, in the second play, why spend so much 
trouble in showing the world that Arthur was 
the real adulterer, not Launcelot ? I fear that 
not even a mystical moralist will be thus pla- 
cated. Then why, when all 's over and done, 
is there no end ? I believe there are to be other 
plays, but I mean an end to this third play. 

* LAUNCELOT AND GUENEVERE : A Poem in Dramas. 
I. Merlin, a Masque. II. The Marriage of Guenevere, a Trag- 
edy. III. The Birth of Galahad, a Romantic Drama. By 
Richard Hovey. Boston : Small, Maynard & Co. 



What has all the scheming and plotting done 
but throw a little more dust into the already 
darkened eyes of the king? 

These objections seem to me to go pretty 
deep, for they show a lack of creative power. 
They also show what is more to the present 
purpose, namely, an absence of character of 
the time. Our time will stand visions, and also 
a certain amount of material anachronism. But 
the mingling together of half-a-dozen mythol- 
ogies, pagan and Christian, is an artistic incon- 
gruity very uncharacteristic of the present. 
Further, however, our time will stand a good 
deal of immorality, or even of cynical disdain 
of current morals ; but it does not care to have 
passion try to justify itself by other laws than 
its own. "The Marriage of Guenevere" is 
based on the idea that Guenevere was truly 
married to Launcelot ; which is a matter of 
no importance in the minds of most people 
nowadays. We can stand justification by fate, 
as with Tristram and Isolde ; but justification 
by accident seems, to me at least, absurd 
and even gross. Then, lastly, the present time 
will stand even heroics ; but it wants the old- 
time swordsman to be approved by some law 
higher than the sword. We do not want alle- 
gory, to be sure, but we do want something a 
little more grown-up than fights and rescues 
and escapes and love-trysts. 

Taken by and large, then, we can hardly 
accept this rendering. I do not say every ren- 
dering of the Arthurian legend must be char- 
acteristic of its time. But the great ones have 
been, and any rendering that is not runs the 
danger of being the outcome of a striving to be 
different, which rarely brings about large re- 
sults. So I am not much taken by these poems 
in general : in the details, on the other hand, 
I find much that is delightful. I feel the charm 
of the girlhood of Guenevere, and also (al- 
though an anti-neo-celticist) of her song in the 
palace of Cameliard. I think the last words of 
" The Marriage of Guenevere " make a fine 
ending. I like especially to look out on the 
fresh barbarian British from the crumbling 
walls of the worn-out empire. These things 
are good and typical, and other things, too, are 
good, as the reader will easily see for himself. 

So far, however, nothing has been said that 
might not have been said were these plays poQms 
and nothing more ; and this is manifestly wrong. 
For we have here, obviously, productions in- 
tended for the stage. At any rate, they are 
fortified by copyright " as dramatic composi- 
tion," and, indeed, I believe that Mr. Hovey 



18 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 1, 



considers himself more of a playwright than 
a poet. Doubtless he meant these plays to be 
acted. 

This is a matter which interests me. Can we 
read these plays with a satisfaction perfect in 
its kind and of a good kind, or must we lay them 
by with an unfinished feeling while we wait for 
an appreciative manager who will bring them 
out somewhere where we may never see them ? 
Or, in other words, is it ever really worth while 
to read a play ? 

These dramas of Mr. Hovey's furnish mate- 
rial for some observations on this point. Let us 
take the first one, "The Quest of Merlin, 
a Masque." As we all know, the Masque 
vanished from the public stage some time since. 
If this masque ever comes to be performed, it 
will, however, in a measure answer the same 
tastes on the part of an audience that the old 
masques did. These tastes were, I suppose, 
speaking very generally, the same that exist in 
the mind of an audience nowadays that gathers 
at the performance of any grand spectacular 
play. The masques were not exactly ballets, but 
they depended immensely on costume, dancing, 
and scenery. They had the accompaniment, also, 
of music and of poetry, sometimes of very beau- 
tiful poetry. But the spectacular elements were 
very important and often enormously elaborate. 
Indeed, I think that the poetry, even when by 
John Milton, was a minor consideration with the 
on-lookers. It seems almost as if this must have 
been so. Consider an audience, even of the most 
cultivated : what will seize their immediate in- 
terest when both are offered at once ; beautiful 
dancing, elaborate and gorgeous scenery and 
costume, things that strike the passive eye 
and mind irresistibly, or poetry, of which the 
greatest charm is that it stimulates the imagi- 
nation and makes the mind active through the 
unconscious service of the eye or ear ? I cannot 
resist the idea that the poetry in a masque must 
have always passed more or less unappreciated. 
It is true that the Elizabethans had a taste for 
oratorical poetry, if I may so call it, which we 
have not ; but I fancy that even an Elizabethan, 
like anyone else, must have given his attention 
chiefly to the beautiful things that presented 
themselves outright to his eye and ear, and only 
in a minor way to the poetry which would have 
forced him to imagine, to feel, to sympathize. 
Now, in Mr. Hovey's masque the poetry is the 
main thing. Yet I cannot conceive these succes- 
sive entries on the stage of angels, bassarids, 
maenads, fairies, elves, loves, valkyrs, maidens, 
these anti-masques of satyrs, fauns, goblins, 



gnomes, without at the same time imagining the 
poetry relegated to a wholly secondary place. I 
think of myself at a production of the masque, 
probably not catching much of what was sung, 
not noticing what was accompanied by a charm- 
ing dance, and in various natural ways overlook- 
ing the poetry. On the other hand, as I read 
it, the masques and the anti-masques are second- 
ary : I imagine them but feebly, for my mind 
is taken up with the poetry, is taken up with 
those little black characters* that demand in- 
terpretation by me, by the very mind that is 
vaguely conceiving the bassarids and gnomes. 
Here the poetry has a chance : I can pause over 
it, think over it, dream over it, if I so de- 
sire. In other words, I am doing an entirely 
different thing from sitting passively at a 
theatre with some hundreds of others. I am 
alone, and my mind has to work if it expects 
to get anything. 

Two different things we have here. This par- 
ticular masque is good, if it suits either case. 
The greatest masques serve both. 

And not so very different is the case with 
" The Marriage of Guenevere, a Tragedy," and 
" The Birth of Galahad, a Romantic Drama." 
Here in a less degree, could we see them on the 
stage, would the poetry as poetry be lost. I take 
what seems to me the best scene in the first play, 
that in which Guenevere first appears. The 
beauty of the opening song would be lost or 
subordinated in a performance, but the dialogue 
between the handsome girl and the disappointed 
woman of the world would be much more effect- 
ive ; Dagonet might be humorous in a perform- 
ance according to the actor and the business, but 
the full sense of his jesting can be perceived 
only in reading ; the general entry of king, 
queen, and court would be much more effective 
on the stage, but the succeeding scenes, Guene- 
vere and her mother, Guenevere alone, and then 
with her brother, these are very different 
things as seen and as read, and it is hard to say 
that either would be better : the end of the act 
would probably be more effective on the stage. 
The stage performance would give something, 
certainly, but it would as certainly lack some- 
thing. 

I am very fond of the theatre. I incline to 
think that I enjoy seeing a play more than I do 
reading one.f But I believe the reason for this 
lies largely in the many attendant circumstances 
that always accompany theatre-going : the un- 
conscious effect of the public place, the people 

* I beg to acknowledge a hint from M. Anatole France. 
f I find at least that I habitually pay more for the privilege. 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



19 



you go with, the other people there, the lights, 
and what not. I doubt if I should enjoy a play 
in the same way if I could look out of my win- 
dow at any time and see a stage with a play upon 
it, as I sat in my room by myself. But aside 
from that matter, I can hardly think that the 
pleasure at the theatre and the pleasure of read- 
ing poetry have so very much in common. 

This is, perhaps, something of an excursus. 
But here are plays meant to be acted ; and I 
have not seen them acted. What am I to do ? 
Read them and say, " In a tentative, general, 
and altogether indecisive way, I imagine that 
the plays, if they ever reach the stage, may be 
thus and so ? " Could I say that ? Of course 
not. Here are poems. They are printed in 
books ; as books they come to me, and as books 
I read them. They are poems : but the author 
has chosen to write them in dramatic form. It 
pleased him, or it enabled him to put certain 
things he could not otherwise, or he thought it 
would call ideas to my mind in such and such 
a way, or something of the sort. Will anyone 
ever act these plays ? I have no idea, nor, for 
the purposes of present enjoyment, do I in the 
least care. If ever the dramatic performance 
comes, I will welcome it gladly and allow myself 
to be stirred and moved by the glittering magic 
of the charm put in action by poet, actor, 
musician, scene-painter, costumer, property- 
man, and I do n't know who else. But now 
I am by myself, and I read ; the books, for 
the moment, are all I know, or need to know, 
either. 

But why so much bother on a matter that 
nobody ever troubles his head about ? Why not 
tell us whether they are good plays or not ? 

Ah, that is another matter : I fear I have 
written enough already. 

EDWARD E. HALE, JR. 



THE experiment of the University of Chicago in es- 
tablishing a down town college, and arranging its courses 
at such times as would suit the convenience of the 
teachers of the city and others who could not enter the 
regular classes at the University, has met with a success 
beyond the expectations of the warmest friends of the 
movement. The determination of the University to 
admit without examination all teachers who are gradu- 
ates of the Chicago High Schools, or an equivalent 
course, and the lowering of the fees to them, has helped 
both the University and the public. At the opening of 
the College few thought that the enrollment would be 
more than 100 or 150, but there are already 286 ma- 
triculants, nearly all teachers, and about 150 schools 
are represented. All the classes begun in October will 
continue until the first of April, and new classes will 
begin with the present month. 



DISCUSSIONS OF THE SOCIAL, MOVEMENT, 
THEORETICAL, AND PRACTICAL,.* 

In " The Logical Process of Social Development " 
we have, in the words of the author, " a theoretical 
attempt to introduce orderly arrangement into the 
study of the phenomena of social life by the rigid 
application of a single logical hypothesis the selec- 
tive survival of sociological types." The main topics 
are the societary process, the sociological postulates, 
the sociological axioms, and the sociological prin- 
ciples. The societary process is from the natural, 
organic or animal, upward to the ideal, and involves 
in succession consciousness of typal kinship, of typal 
conditions, of typal relations, and of typal possibili- 
ties. Progress is mediated by sociological types 
which are defined to be either " a potentially normal 
type of personality or a theoretically superior type 
of social organization projected as a goal of practice." 
The sociological postulates are the social situation, 
which secures the type from dissolution ; the social 
interests, which set up a tendency to variation ; the 
social system, in which tendencies are coordinated ; 
and the social mind, in which the ideals of a higher 
state become curative and harmonizing forces. 

Under the head of sociological axioms are dis- 
cussed typicality, normality, institutionality, and 
ideality. The main purpose of the work is to show 
that human association rises above and upon a purely 
organic state toward an ideal state of personality and 
organization, by a constant process of selecting and 
acting upon new types of being. It is the function 
of sociology to formulate the materials of the various 
sciences in a way to guide this process. The normal 
tendency toward the higher type can be compre- 
hended by scientific method, and errors of direction 
may be corrected. When these ideals and methods 
have been thus formulated we have a more reliable 
basis for the pedagogic art. " Social policy must 

* THE LOGICAL PROCESS OF SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT. By 
J. F. Crowell, Ph.D., L.H.D. New York : Henry Holt & Co. 

DEMOCRACY AND SOCIAL GROWTH IN AMERICA. By Ber- 
nard Moses, Ph.D. New York: Q. P. Putnam's Sons. 

SOCIALISM AND THE SOCIAL MOVEMENT in the 19th Cen- 
tury. By Werner Sombart. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

POLITICAL CRIME. By Louis Proal. New York : D. Apple- 
ton & Co. 

WORKINGMEN'S INSURANCE. By W. F. Willoughby. New 
York: T. Y. Crowell & Co. 

THE BARGAIN THEORY OF WAGES. By John Davidson, 
M. A., D.Phil. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

LABOR COPARTNERSHIP. By H. D. Lloyd. New York : 
Harper & Brothers. 

PROBLEMS OF MODERN INDUSTRY. By Sidney and Beatrice 
Webb. New York : Longmans, Green, & Co. 

NATURAL TAXATION.- (New and enlarged edition.) By 
Thomas G. Shearman. New York : Doubleday & McClure Co. 

INDUSTRIAL EXPERIMENTS IN THE BRITISH COLONIES OF 
NORTH AMERICA. By Eleanor Louisa Lord. Baltimore : 
The Johns Hopkins Press. 

REALITY. By George A. Sanders, M.A. Cleveland : The 
Burrows Brothers Co. 

THE CHRISTIAN PASTOR AND THE WORKING CHURCH. 
By Washington Gladden, D.D., LL.D. New York : Charles 
Scribner's Sons. 



20 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 1, 



take into account (1) the facts or conditions of natu- 
ral association, (2) the forces that belong to social 
organization, and (3) the coordination of these fac- 
tors in the individuation of the type of character that 
normally tends to prevail toward the ideal. The social 
process being a type-developing process, educational 
policy must organize knowledge and its uses to that 
supreme end." 

The practised student of sociology will derive 
many original and thought-provoking hints from this 
orderly and systematic treatment. In the circles 
of specialists it will be one of the books for fruitful 
criticism and debate. For persons not already well 
equipped for close reasoning, the book will require 
a translator ; for the technical terms and the words 
used in a sense peculiar to the author will bewilder 
the amateur. Under a hard crust there is solid food 
for adults. The formulas or principles proposed need 
to be used with great caution. It is so easy to accept 
imaginative constructions as verified laws of reality. 
It is true that the author calls his theory a hypothesis, 
and warns us that it is to be used as a guide to induc- 
tion. But the mode of discussion is such that the 
incautious student may be strongly tempted to em- 
ploy this hypothesis as a premiss for deduction, and 
in some parts of the book the author himself seems 
under control of this tendency. The corrective, 
however, is suggested in the array of the scientific 
preparation required for discovery of the ideal type 
and of the necessary means of its realization. 

In the treatment of the social ideal, does our 
author give a suitable place of dignity and value to 
the creative minds in literature? He declares that 
science and religion are the two sources of the ideals 
toward which progressive society normally tends. 
But in no place is a distinct or at least adequate 
place assigned to the greatest poets and literary 
artists who, apart from beautiful forms of speech, 
have helped us to see life as it is and to see it as a 
whole. Without Shakespeare, Goethe, Dante, 
Browning, Tennyson, the scientific and philosoph- 
ical and theological formulations of social ideals 
would be empty as a drum and cold as steel. Ab- 
stract thinkers, system-builders, offer us a strong 
osseous skeleton, but great literature reveals the 
warm heart, the sensitive nerves, the rounded flesh, 
the perfect form, and, best of all, the endlessly va- 
ried yet harmonious world of sentiments, hopes, 
fears, and mysteries of the inmost spirit. 

It is the mind of a master which carries us for- 
ward in the lucid argument of " Democracy and 
Social Growth in America." The appeal is to facts 
commonly known ; the interpretation is that of a 
man familiar with economic and political history. 
Equality belongs to simple rural conditions, and 
those conditions gave us a democracy. Industrial 
revolution has caused inequality and complexity and 
a pure democracy is impossible. There is an inev- 
itable tendency to bring industry under some form 
of political control, and so far the Socialists have 
rightly interpreted the process of history. But 
those who imagine that Socialism will make presi- 



dents of railroads and section-hands change places 
each month or year, or who fancy that the highest 
places will be easily reached, build on the shadows 
of dreams. Inequality and conflict will continue 
under all forms of government. The last chapter 
is a noble plea for a " political revival," for the 
preaching of social duty above individual rights, for 
simplicity of living, for standards of goodness, 
intelligence, and taste, to compete with the social 
criterion of wealth, and for religion as a necessary 
conservative force. The teaching of this volume 
should be pondered by everyone who desires to appre- 
ciate and promote the most sane, elevated, and inspir- 
ing ideals of our economic and political movement. 

Sombart's popular and sympathetic lectures on 
Socialism have been translated in a delightful way 
by Rev. Anson P. Atterbury, and Professor J. B. 
Clark thinks the book worth a special introduction 
from his pen. A social movement is defined to be 
" the aggregate of all those endeavors of a social 
class which are directed to a rational overturning 
of an existing social order to suit the interests of a 
class." The central aim of the movement in this 
century is toward a socialistic, communal order of 
society, in place of the existing method of private 
ownership. The formation of the proletariat is 
shown to be the inevitable result of capitalistic 
modes of production. Misery, contrast, uncertainty 
spring from the same system, and the intensity of 
all life heightens class feeling. The Utopian forms 
of Socialism, the agitation of Lassalle, the masterly 
discussions of Marx, and the tendencies toward unity 
in all lands where the wage-class has been formed, 
are neatly described. The lesson from the history 
of Socialism is that class strife is the cause of move- 
ment and progress, but that strife should be carried 
on within legal limits and without the poisoned 
weapons of hate, revenge, and misrepresentation. 

Monsieur Louis Proal is a French judge who has 
contributed important works to the discussion of 
crime and punishment. In the work on Political 
Crime the main topics are the anti-social actions 
done in the name of government, Machiavelism, 
assassination and tyrannicide, anarchism, political 
hatreds and hypocrisy, spoilation under legal forms, 
partisan corruption, electoral corruption, corruption 
of law and justice by politics, and the corruption of 
morals by evil example in high places. The plan 
of the author is to present historical illustrations of 
these subjects from ancient, mediaeval, and modern 
sources. The result is a rogue's gallery of very 
forbidding pictures, and the effect is depressing. 
Strictly speaking, many of these actions are not 
legally criminal, because they do not come under 
the condemnation and penalty of particular statutes ; 
but they are all instances of violation of the " higher 
law " of social and international morality. At this 
moment we have experience of the subversive influ- 
ence of war, even in as righteous a cause as one can 
imagine. Acts which in times of peace were called 
lying, treachery, robbery, and murder are now the 
duty and the business of representatives of national 



1899.] 



THE DIAJL 



21 



honor. The contradictions of the situation, if long 
continued, would destroy the socializing and elevat- 
ing influences of generations of peaceful education. 
So awful is the responsibility for world-wide retro- 
gression of those who force upon us war. Monsieur 
Proal has massed his illustrations in an effective 
way, and he has compelled us to judge all the con- 
duct of parties, rulers, and nations by the standards 
of ideal ethics. The author misses no opportunity 
to expose the destructive tendency of social agitators 
who poison and irritate the minds of men and sub- 
vert the moral judgments on which the security of 
life, person, property, and culture rest. He believes 
the ills of society are far more due to defective ideals 
and morals than to economic suffering. He sees 
clearly that educated men must take hold of the 
work of social education in earnest. " Those who 
do not defend society betray it. To the proselytism 
of evil must be opposed the proselytism of good. 
It is the strict duty of all those who have the good 
fortune to hold salutary beliefs, derived from their 
education, their family, or their studies, to propa- 
gate them, and not to allow sophisms to pass with- 
out challenge. . . . The real remedy for the crisis 
we are traversing is a return to Christianity." 

The wage-worker is daily haunted by the fear of 
sickness or accident which may reduce or suspend 
his earning power, by the dread of old age and death, 
with all their possible consequences to his family. 
The process of saving a sufficient hoard to provide 
for all these emergencies is painfully slow and un- 
certain. For the vast majority of men it is next to 
impossible to erect a fortress of accumulated wealth 
whose interest will be a wall of protection against 
extreme destitution. Americans have not yet been 
compelled to face this situation, because most men 
could escape from the vicissitudes of city life to the 
relatively certain income of the isolated farm home- 
stead. The rapid transformation of a great popu- 
lation into a manufacturing community is compelling 
reflecting and far-seeing men to cast about for meas- 
ures which will remove the terrors of poverty and 
beggary in times of feebleness and loss of bread- 
winning power. Benjamin Franklin's method was to 
save the pennies and lend the capital. That would be 
adequate for his age, but it is not applicable in our 
conditions. Individualism breaks down under the 
circumstances of urban life and the factory system, 
and men have the choice between some form of col- 
lectivism and pauperism, which is itself communism 
in disgrace. At this point of transition we may 
avail ourselves of the experience of older countries, 
and when we come to organize our insurance against 
sickness, accident, old age, death, and even unem- 
ployment, or shall not be compelled to try experi- 
ments in the dark. Mr. W. F. Willoughby has set 
before the American reader and student a clear, 
concise, and accurate account of the aims, scope, 
methods, and results of " Workingmen's Insurance " 
in all civilized countries. Mr. John Graham Brooks 
had already presented an admirable account of the 
German system of State insurance, and his book is 



not altogether superseded by this work, which covers 
wider ground. Perhaps there is no single measure 
relating to the welfare of the wage-workers in Amer- 
ica, next to the question of wages, so important as 
this matter of insurance. Our Building and Loan 
Associations are growing in wealth and favor ; but 
they are by no means adequate, and they do riot 
touch the demand of the average urban laborer. 
The trade unions of the better class do very much 
in case of unemployment and sickness ; but their 
insurance work is still based on crude actuarial cal- 
culations and is avowedly subordinate to the fighting 
function of the union. The " benevolent " societies 
and some of the great railroad companies have made 
fair beginnings in the right direction. The author 
rightly directs attention to the vital principle of acci- 
dent insurance, now universally accepted in Europe 
but scarcely discussed in the United States : that each 
business should provide for losses incurred by acci- 
dents incident to it. Every prudent manufacturer sets 
aside in each inventory a certain per cent for repairs, 
restoration, and loss of machinery, because experi- 
ence shows this to be inevitable. But a similar loss 
is caused to the human beings who make the ma- 
chinery effective, and it is reasonable that this cer- 
tain waste should be borne by the business. Our- 
employer's liability laws are no longer abreast with 
economic conditions. They are based on the old 
conditions, when each man worked alone or in a 
small group, and was responsible for exposure to 
danger. But in a huge factory or on a railroad the 
individual workman is a fixed part of a mass which 
is under military orders and rigid discipline. It is 
unjust to compel him to have a lawsuit with his em- 
ployer every time he crushes a finger or is poisoned 
by chemical fumes. The business should insure 
each workman, and the cost be charged in the price 
of goods to the community. 

Professor Davidson, author of " The Bargain 
Theory of Wages," discusses the wages problem in 
its historical and theoretical aspects. He offers an 
exposition of the subsistence theory, the wages-fund 
theory, the productivity theory, and the bargain 
theory, and shows that these various views are not 
antagonistic but complementary. The phenomena 
to be explained are not social conditions of former 
ages but of our own time. Many of the illustrations 
would be understood most clearly by a resident of 
the maritime provinces of British America, where 
the book was prepared ; but nothing is obscure, and 
the author is constantly in touch with reality. The 
chapter on the mobility of labor should be read by 
those who are free enough from the prejudices of 
capitalistic employers, and also of wage-earners, to 
study impartially the hidden causes of the troubles 
in Illinois coal-fields, where the maddened miners 
and the demagogues are seeking by illegal methods 
to correct the abuses of excessive mobility of labor. 
There is no longer the excuse for migration of work- 
men which existed when Mr. Greeley gave his 
famous advice about going West. Statistics collected 
by Professor Willcox, and given by the author, show 



22 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 1, 



that steady home-making is coming to be the habit of 
our people. Trade-unions are discouraging the tramp 
habit among their own members on both sides of the 
Atlantic. The moral consequences of greater sta- 
bility justify the policy. The problem is to promote 
stability by legislation without restricting liberty of 
travel in search of better conditions. The author 
gives a suggestive illustration of legal restriction of 
imported labor by a heavy tax on the interlopers who 
hurt the trade-unions. The chapters on the influence 
of trade-unions and of methods of remuneration on 
the rate of wages and industrial efficiency of working- 
men are full of fresh and important materials. 

In his work on " Labor Copartnership," Mr. 
Henry D. Lloyd has set before the public, in his 
usual forceful way, the more recent developments of 
one form of the cooperative movement in Great 
Britain. The materials were collected during a 
personal visit to the chief centres of the movement 
in Ireland, Scotland, and England. The author is 
an enthusiastic advocate and prophet of that form 
of cooperation in which the producing agents, the 
direct workers, share in profits, responsibilities, and 
management. The arguments of Mrs. Webb on the 
side of the English custom of dividing profits among 
shareholders are not fully set forth, and Mrs. Webb's 
book must be read along with this one in order to 
have the whole case in mind. Mr. Lloyd writes 
with the faith and fervor of a socialistic seer, but he 
certainly gives solid statistical grounds for his hopes. 
Those who are content to measure the future of 
industrial democracy by the past are quite likely to 
miss the germinating forces of the present. A de- 
voted coOperationist may be a dreamer of dreams, 
but when one-seventh of the population of a great 
realm has become interested in a scheme which is 
backed already by one hundred millions of property, 
and has more capital than it can invest, we may 
excuse the enthusiasm. All who sincerely desire to 
see general growth in business ability, self-govern- 
ment, and independent position of the workers, are 
justified in studying British cooperation with hope 
and confidence. If the " proletariate " really has 
the power and ability to direct the gigantic enter- 
prises of modern business, it must prove this by 
cooperative success in production, not by mere blus- 
ter and flattery of demagogues. The conservative 
doubt and scorn and the optimist's hope are not to 
the point : action must be decisive. 

In " Problems of Modern Industry," Mr. and 
Mrs. Webb have published a series of interesting 
essays on various aspects of the labor question, ten- 
ement house life, women's wages, factory acts, hours 
of labor, surating system, poor law, cooperation, 
trade-unions, and the theory of Felian socialism. 
The chapters are crowded with interesting and sug- 
gestive materials, and the closing papers reveal the 
most recent phases of English collectivism. 

A new and enlarged edition of Mr. Thomas G. 
Shearman's " Natural Taxation " brings before the 
public a modified form of Henry George's theory of 
taxation. Mr. Shearman's doctrine, in contrast with 



that of Mr. George, is thus stated (p. 226): "The ob- 
jection to the alleged inelasticity of the tax applies to 
that full and rather forced measure of taxation advo- 
cated by Henry George, taking the whole economic 
rent, so far as it is possible to do so, for the use of the 
State." The additions in the new edition are replies 
to objections and an analysis of the incidence of tax- 
ation. The refutation of the single tax, by Professor 
Seligman, is the text of this fresh presentation of the 
plea for making land-values the sole object of the 
assessor's zeal. The matter is presented in the con- 
cise, clear, and cogent, if somewhat one-sided, style 
of a very able lawyer advocate. There is much just 
criticism of the iniquities of current methods, and the 
book deserves careful and candid consideration. 

The British archives have preserved most inter- 
esting records of the commercial dealings between 
the colonies and the mother country. In " Industrial 
Experiments," by Eleanor Louisa Lord, the author 
draws upon these documents of the period previous 
to the Revolution for materials which throw light on 
the economical causes of the conflict which issued in 
political independence. The chief topic of this mono- 
graph is the attempt of the British government to 
compel or induce New England to furnish it naval 
supplies. The statesmen in control imagined that 
they understood the economic interests of the colonies 
better than the colonists. Gradually the children were 
becoming industrially independent, and when the 
time came to enforce a fiscal policy which seemed 
unjust, the young and vigorous communities revealed 
their economic power in war. The monograph pre- 
sents evidence, in a limited field, for the assertion that 
the economists and statesmen of England failed to 
understand the situation in North America, and that 
their error cost the mother country her most valu- 
able dependency. 

The book called "Reality," by Mr. George A. San- 
ders, is put forward as a "reply to Edward Bellamy's 
'Looking Backward' and 'Equality,' " an optimistic 
presentation for the existing industrial system. It can 
hardly be claimed as a novel or profound discussion 
of a well-worn theme. Mr. Bellamy is regarded by 
this author as an impracticable dreamer ; the basis 
of civilization is character and culture ; our indus- 
trial order is the best possible. A chapter of statis- 
tics from Mr. Mulhall is printed. The law of evolution 
is stated. The perils and advantages of mammon- 
ism are set in the balance. The parable of the 
" Masters of Bread " is dissected on a marble table, 
but " brotherly love " comes immediately after as 
a counterpoise. Theological speculation on " what 
God might have done " closes the book. 

Dr. Gladden's work on " The Christian Pastor 
and the Working Church," although published in a 
theological series, is an important contribution to 
the study of social tendencies and institutions. The 
eminent writer has given explicit form to certain 
beliefs and convictions which have been gradually 
shaping themselves in the minds of religious people 
and manifesting themselves in institutions. The 
distinction between " sacred " and " secular " has 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



23 



broken down at every point, as the church has come 
to believe in the transmutation of species. The 
abandonment of theories of ecclesiastical authority 
and of logical systems of theological speculation 
has driven the people to concentrate attention 
upon practical applications of common religious 
principles to the life of the world. The creeds have 
been condensed from many unverifiable articles into 
a few directly ethical declarations relating to the 
meaning of the universe and the duty of man. It 
was inevitable that the text-books on pastoral duties 
and church work must be re-written. The institu- 
tional church, the organization of voluntary chari- 
ties, the various attempts to socialize selfish conduct 
in politics and business, the recognition of health 
and innocent recreation as suitable subjects for 
ecclesiastical discussion and action, found small 
place in the earlier works which formulated the 
technical education of the preacher and pastor. The 
publishers who selected Dr. Gladden for the task of 
re-stating the theory of the pastoral office according 
to modern lights have made a most happy choice. 
While the discussion is radical and at points revo- 
lutionary, the tone is moderate, the style free from 
exaggeration, the argument considerate, and the 
vital matters of positive Christian conviction are 
not obscured or feebly set forth. The range of 
thought is considerably wider than that covered by 
traditional text-books on pastoral duties. The sub- 
title, " Working Church," indicates the fact that the 
pastor is only one factor in the institution of religion. 
The duties of the pastor and the best methods of 
his professional work are, indeed, carefully treated. 
We see him in his study, in the pulpit, as conductor 
of public services, and as counsellor and guide of 
those who trust him as friend. But the modern 
activities of the other members have vastly increased. 
The Sunday school, the midweek service, evangeli- 
zation, social life, woman's work, associations of 
youth, societies of children, missionary organization s. 
philanthropic enterprises of many forms have grown 
up in response to new social needs and out of the 
inspirations of a renaissance of primitive Christian 
impulse. The Church is simply an instrument of 
service, not an end in itself. In some points the 
volume requires to be supplemented by other works. 
The discussion of charity methods is very brief and 
meagre, although the author insists on the social 
importance of this work. Those who desire to know 
more about the " institutional church " will do well 
to consult Mead's "Modern Methods of Church 
Work," which is not mentioned in this book. The 
plan of the volume did not permit a treatment of 
the many social problems in which the church is 
more or less directly interested as inspirer and or- 
ganizer of the conscience. It is not to be expected that 
all the statements and teachings will be greeted with 
nnanimous approval. Yet one fact remains clear : 
that we have here, for the pastor, the most modern 
practical treatise yet published, sagacious, bal- 
anced, devout, inspiring. ~ TT 

C. R. HENDERSON. 



BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS. 

Still another " Life of Marie An- 
toinette"! There is apparently to 
be no end of repetitions of the story 
of the career of this questionable "martyr." This 
time the biographer of " Madame Veto " is Miss 
Clara Tschudi, a popular Norwegian author ; and 
the Macmillan Co. are the American publishers of 
a translation of her book by Mr. E. M. Cope. Miss 
Tschudi is a decidedly pleasant writer, and the 
translator (despite occasional flaws in his English) 
echoes very cleverly her easy, rippling style. Aside 
from its unusual readableness, the best thing about 
Miss Tschudi's book is its sanity of view. Her 
heroine is neither martyr nor monster, but a quite 
intelligible woman who was forced to play a part 
in history that was far too large for her. Miss 
Tschudi's book is thus neither soaked in tears, like 
the tomes of M. de la Rocheterie, whose lamentations 
for his " martyr queen " remind one of Mark Twain 
at the tomb of Adam, nor does it defer too much 
to the republican view of this bad sovereign and 
pity-compelling victim. A "tigress" Marie An- 
toinette certainly was not ; but she was a giddy, 
shallow creature, as ill-fitted as possible for the high 
station to which an ironic destiny called her. While 
deploring her all too tragic end, impartial history 
cannot forget that, in her day of triumph, she had 
no thought for the hard lot of the toiling poor who 
lacked bread while she and her worthless favorites 
were squandering the revenues of France. But her 
nature was a shallow rather than a bad one ; and 
with a better training she would have been a better 
queen. The " Widow Capet " paid in tears and 
blood for the follies of the mistress of the Little 
Trianon ; and we may agree with our author that 
in the hour of misfortune Marie Antoinette devel- 
oped qualities of soul worthy of a daughter of Maria 
Theresa. Miss Tschudi's book is accurate, sensible, 
vivacious ; there is perhaps no better popular Life 
of its heroine. The book is well printed, but an 
occasional slip in the proof-reading must be noted. 
Vergniaud, for instance, is printed " Verginaud." 
There is an attractive frontispiece portrait in colors. 

Ever since the appearance of the 
Revised Version of the Old Testa- 
ment in 1885, there has been a de- 
sire on the part of Bible students for this same ver- 
sion provided with a new set of marginal references. 
Just now, thirteen years after its first appearance, 
we have the desired book. It has been prepared 
by scholars connected with the Universities of Ox- 
ford and Cambridge, and issued from the Oxford 
University Press. This is the British edition newly 
set with the American Preferences at the end, as in 
the regular British Revised Version. The principles 
governing the matter of marginal references in this 
volume are five, as follows : (1) Quotations, or exact 
verbal parallels ; (2) Passages referred to for sim- 
ilarity of idea or of expression ; (3) Passages re- 



A new reference 
Bible. 



24 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 1, 



ferred to by way of explanation or illustration ; 
(4) Historical or geographical references : names of 
persons, places, etc., which recur ; (5) Passages 
referred to as illustrating differences of rendering 
between the Authorized and Revised Versions. Ap- 
propriate signs are used to indicate the character of 
each of the references, so that the reader may know 
in advance just what he is looking for. These same 
principles of reference will save the margins of our 
Bible from the numerous misinterpretations and 
bad exegeses found in the Authorized Version. No- 
tably in the " Song of Songs " do we find the tracks 
of clear-headed workmen, who have not, as in the 
old version, foisted upon us a groundless symbolical 
interpretation. Another commendable feature of 
this Bible is the printing of the verse-numbers in 
black-faced type in the prose text, and not on the 
margins. This feature meets the objection of many 
people to the use of the Revised Version. If, now, 
this Bible embodied in the text the American Com- 
mittee's preferences, we should be content for the 
time being with this admirable book. 

"The Golden Maiden" (Helman- 
Foik-taie, Taylor Co.) is a collection of Ar- 

of Armenia. . ' . 

meman folk tales written by one who 
is himself an Armenian, Mr. A. G. Seklemian. The 
antiquity of the people, the tenacity with which they 
have kept their ideas and customs, the retention of 
race characteristics, which may be likened to the 
Jewish race-survival, and the fact that the Armenian 
Church is the oldest national Christian Church in the 
world, all lend interest to the study of the country. 
The reader is at once struck by resemblances to the 
folk-lore of other Aryan peoples. Traces of Persian, 
Arabic, and Turkish influence are found, since Ar- 
menia was successively conquered by those nations. 
The book abounds in stories of magic swords and 
rings, treacherous elder brothers, jealous and wicked 
stepmothers, kindly old fairies, and hazardous expe- 
ditions undertaken by disguised princes to rescue 
beautiful captive princesses after killing dragons, 
and giants even to the number of forty. From a 
literary point of view, this collection suffers, of 
course, from comparison with such works as Hans 
Andersen's fairy tales. To be sure, Andersen did not 
gather all his tales from the lips of peasants and make 
a great effort, for scientific purposes, to secure fidelity 
to the original. Many of his stories are conscious 
creations with the element of feeling strong in them 
creations of a man of genius with a deep love for 
humanity and nature. Mr. Seklemian's book is a 
distinct addition to the existing collection of folk- 
lore literature. 

In these times so popular is the 
p ntle ^ of eay.writing!-the 
book of slender, clever, half loitering 
criticism is by no means a rarity, though, very often, 
a pleasant thing to have at hand. Such a book is 
the collection of essays by Mr. Leon H. Vincent, 
entitled "The Bibliotaph and Other People" 
(Hough ton). The subjects chosen are, for the most 



part, literary subjects, but, except in the essay on 
Thomas Hardy and in one on Stevenson's " St. 
Ives," there is no attempt at serious literary criti- 
cism. Seriousness, indeed, is not in any sense a 
leading quality of the book, which is distinguished 
rather by a disposition toward the blither and more 
humorous aspects of life. The author's fancy has 
led him to themes widely different as different, 
for example, as the letters of a poet and the me- 
moirs of a man of science ; but from each he selects 
the same wholesome elements, and the same vein of 
gayety may be observed in all his treatment. Of 
the distinctly critical essays, that on Hardy is the 
more noticeable, showing a complete appreciation of 
the powerful imaginative realism which is Hardy's 
main strength. In his essay on Stevenson, Mr. Vin- 
cent says what anyone is expected to say ; in the 
one on Keats's letters, he says what is expected 
only from the close lovers of that young and manly 
genius. The first three essays the hero of which 
is the Bibliotaph have too much of the air which 
we know as " off-hand," and a humor which is de- 
cidedly too insistent. Their task, however, is diffi- 
cult ; for the portrait they have to paint is that of a 
large, mirthful, and erratic character, much harder 
of delineation than one delicate and subtle. The 
selection from the Bibliotaph's speeches seems un- 
fortunate, but all that he said was doubtless very 
delightful in the hearing. 

A Boston ^ r> Abram English Brown, an en- 

merchant in thusiastic antiquary and genealogist, 

colonial days. ^ g j ven j n u j onn Hancock, his 

Book " (Lee & Shepard) a liberal selection from 
Hancock's commercial correspondence, as taken 
from his letter-book, the letters being strung together 
by the compiler on a slender thread of explanatory 
and biographical narrative. Mr. Brown does not 
pretend to call his book a life of Hancock, but merely 
a contribution to such a work, which he hopes may 
ere long be written by another hand. Unlike many 
of our latter-day " Freemanikins," he does not pre- 
sume to dignify with the name of history original 
documents which are but its raw material. Different 
readers will find different food for entertainment and 
instruction in these business letters of a wholesale 
dealer in tar, oyl, pott ash, codd fish, etc. Their quaint 
spelling and phraseology and grammar cannot but 
arrest the attention. Occasional indignant refer- 
ences to the Stamp Act of 1765 bespeak the patriot 
who, with Samuel Adams, enjoyed the distinction 
of being excluded from General Gage's proclama- 
tion of amnesty. The orders for household and fam- 
ily supplies show the comfortable, even luxurious, 
style of living at the Hancock mansion. The nu- 
merous illustrations in the book add no little to its 
value. It is a singular fact that the first signer of the 
Declaration of Independence, the first Governor of 
the State of Massachusetts, and one of her foremost 
patriots, should have been so long neglected by biog- 
raphers, and that even his grave should have been, 
until very recently, without an enduring monument. 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



25 



The latest To write a book on General Grant 
biographer of which shall have all the human in- 
Generai Grant. terest of that remarkable character, 
preserving all the well-known facts without diminu- 
tion and adding to them from a great store of per- 
sonal gleanings, is no slight nor unworthy achieve- 
ment. This Mr. Hamlin Garland, in his " Life 
and Character of General U. S. Grant " (Doubleday 
& McClure), has done. One fact that Mr. Gar- 
land's vivid succession of pictures brings to mind is 
the possibility of the sword-and-cloak romance with 
an every-day American for hero : Grant, plain and 
simple to a degree, would make such an one, with 
adventures undreamed of by Dumas. Another point 
is, that here was a man who was, above everything, 
staunch and loyal to his friends, his family, and 
his country. And another is that he was a man 
who always held much besides language in reserve. 
There is hardly an interesting phase of Grant in 
either his public or private career, his civic or mili- 
tary life, which is not brought out plainly in this 
work. If, under the circumstances, the biographer 
has fallen in love with the character he has evolved 
from so much study and research, he is little to be 
blamed. 

A popular ^ confusion of methods, or, rather, 
treatment of the attempt to treat in a popular 
manner subjects set apart from popu- 
lar discussion by convention, has made Dr. Woods 
Hutchinson's " Gospel according to Darwin " (The 
Open Court) neither popular nor scientific. It affords 
a proof of the hold which conventionality has obtained 
upon us, to feel a distinct sense of shock at the setting 
forth in everyday phrase of some forbidden topics 
not taken in the least amiss when clad in more 
scholarly phrase. The writer is a thorough- going 
Darwinian with the courage of his convictions, and 
rather to be suspected of an endeavor to stir up the 
feelings of those who cling to an older faith. What 
he says is not novel in substance nor prepossessing 
in form ; but it may do some good in the same way 
that a breaking plough does when the soil is some- 
what too hard for receptivity and subsequent germi- 
nation. 

An essay on a lost art is apt to be 
more curious than interesting, but 
" Our Conversational Circle " (Cen- 
tury Co. ) is an exception to this rule. The author, 
Agnes H. Morton, applies herself, not to the decline 
of true conversation, but to the means of its revival, 
and her suggestions are, in the main, wise and prac- 
tical. She shows very clearly the nature of conversa- 
tion as distinguished from debate and from public 
address, defining it as " the exchange of views with- 
out the spirit of antagonism." The book is quite 
deserving of the graceful praise given it by Mr. 
Mabie's introduction a praise which he sums up 
by saying, " The book ought to be read because it 
brings into clear view a resource which many people 
have lost, and because it shows clearly how that re- 
source may be developed." 



The revival 
of a lost art. 



LITERARY NOTES. 



" Peveril of the Peak," forming three volumes in the 
" Temple " edition of Scott, is imported by Messrs. 
Charles Scribner's Sons. 

The anthology of " Mother-Song and Child-Song," 
edited by Miss Charlotte Brewster Jordan, and pub- 
lished by the Frederick A. Stokes Co., is an acceptable 
compilation made from a great variety of sources. 

" German Romance," in two volumes, being the famil- 
iar translations from Musseus, Tieck, Fouque', Hoffmann, 
and Richter, is the latest issue of the " Centenary " Car- 
lyle, imported by Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons. 

The " Monthly Cumulative Book Index," published 
by Messrs. Morris & Wilson, Minneapolis, has become, 
in its December issue, a volume of 237 pages, and gives 
an author, title, and subject index of all the books pub- 
lished in this country since the beginning of last year. 
It is a valuable work for reference, and the subscription 
price is moderate. 

The publishing section of the American Library As- 
sociation issues a series of " annoted catalog [sic] cards 
for books on English history " (also the same matter in 
pamphlet form), prepared by Mr. W. Dawson Johnston. 
The series for 1897 is now ready, and covers twenty- 
five titles. More than twice that number will be included 
in the series for 1898. 

Mr. David Nutt of London has started the publication 
of a series of booklets to contain " Arthurian Romances 
Unrepresented in Malory's ' Morte d' Arthur,' " and the 
first publication of the series gives us " Sir Gawain and 
the Green Knight," turned from Middle English into 
Modern by Miss Jessie L. Weston, who has supplied an 
introduction and notes. 

The valuable series of historical manuals called 
" Events of Our Own Time," imported by the Messrs. 
Scribner, has recently been enlarged by the addition of 
two interesting volumes: "The War in the Peninsula," 
by Mr. Alexander Innes Shand; and "Africa in the 
Nineteenth Century," by Mr. Edgar Sanderson. Maps, 
plans, and copper-plate portraits illustrate these vol- 
umes. 

Two recent additions to the " Athenseum Press " pub- 
lications of Messrs. Ginn & Co. are " The Poems of Will- 
iam Collins," edited by Mr. Walter C. Bronson; and 
" Memoirs of the Life and Writings of Edward Gibbon," 
edited by Dr. Oliver F. Emerson. The text of the latter 
volume forms a connected narrative based upon the 
recently published " Autobiographies," and provides a 
critical edition of a kind that has been much needed. It 
should supersede the old " Memoirs " altogether. 

" The Mistakes We Make " (Crowell) is a " practical 
manual of corrections in history, language, and fact, for 
readers and writers," edited with much display of curi- 
ous information, by Mr. Nathan Haskell Dole. A some- 
what similar compilation prepared for the English 
market by Mr. C. E. Clark has served as a basis for 
this volume, but Mr. Dole has made so many changes 
and additions that he is entitled to the major share of 
the credit for producing so readable and useful a book. 

Our weekly contemporary " Unity," which has been 
published in Chicago for twenty years, announces an 
enlargement of scope whereby it will in future champion 
the cause of civic integrity in addition to its services in 
behalf of broad religious truth. Mr. William Kent is 
now associated with Mr. Jenkin Lloyd Jones in the 
editorship, a conjunction from which much may be ex- 



26 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 1, 



pected. Mr. Kent has long been a fighter in the good 
cause of upright politics, and is, besides, a direct and 
vigorous writer. 

We reproduce from " The Academy " the following 
sonnet addressed by Professor Dowden to Mr. Sidney 
Lee, " that bestowed upon me a coppie of his Life of 
Shake-speare." 
" Swete Boye, whose name revives dead Astrophell, 

Fame through her goolden trumpe now blows it wide 
With his who, gazing in Conceit's deepe well, 

Saw Life and Death, and Love yew-crown'd, star-eyed. 
O he them too a wrestler with old Time, 

Blunt his dread sickle, scatter his red sand ! 
Let men of Inde in their outlandish ryme 

Rename thee queinte to men of Samarcand ! 
One globe brawn-shouldher'd, broad-hipp'd Herc'les bore ; 

Lightly thon Hf test two of dreame and deed ; 
Is ' t not enough, but thou wilt venter more, 
And roll reverting stones that aitches breed ? 
Leave H, and W, Hall, and Thorpe for me, 
Who love them not, yet love this frnitfull Lea" 



TOPICS IN LEADING PERIODICALS. 

January, 1899. 

Actor of To-day, The. Norman Hapgood. Atlantic. 
Alligator, The Florida. I. W. Blake. Popular Science. 
Biography, Educational Value of. Sadie Simons. Educ'l Rev. 
Bismarck. Charlton T. Lewis. Harper. 
British Army Manceuvres, Recent. W. . Cairnes. Scribner 
Garlotta, Wife of Maximilian. Lucy C. Lillie. Lippincott. 
Carlyle's Dramatic Portrayal of Character. Century. 
Carlyles, The, in Scotland. John Patrick. Century. 
Colonies, Brother Jonathan's. A. B. Hart. Harper. 
Debate of 1833, The Great. C. C. Pinckney. Lippincott. 
Diplomacy, Our, in Spanish War. H. Macfarland. Rev. of Revs. 
Draper, Herbert J. A. L. Baldry. Magazine of Art. 
Executive Power in Democracy, Weakness of. Harper. 
Fathers, Mothers, and Freshmen. L. B. R. Briggs. Atlantic. 
Francis Joseph, Fifty Years of. Sidney Brooks. Harper. 
Franconia, Autumn in. Bradford Torrey. Atlantic. 
Garcia, General Calixto. George Reno. Review of Reviews. 
Government, Energies of our. C. W. Eliot. Atlantic. 
Indian, The Wild. G. B. Griunell. Atlantic. 
Individualism, Fin de Sie'cle. Gertrude E. King. Lippincott. 
Industrial Evolution of Mankind. James Collier. Pop. Science. 
Jewish Head Form. W. Z. Ripley. Popular Science. 
Keene, Charles, A Memorial to. Magazine of Art. 
Klinger, Max, Etchings of. Gleeson White. Mag. of Art. 
Liberty, An International Study on. F. L. Oswald. Lippincott. 
Madrid during the War, An American in. E. Kelly. Century. 
"Maine" Inquiry, The. C. D. Sigsbee. Century. 
Martyrs, A Mother of. Chalmers Roberts. Atlantic. 
" Merrimac," Sinking of the. R. P. Hobson. Century. 
Mind's Eye, The. Joseph Jastrow. Popular Science. 
Naval Campaign in West Indies. S. A. Staunton. Harper. 
Negro Schoolmaster, A, in the New South. Atlantic. 
Nicaragua Canal, Advantages of. A. S. Crowninshield. Cent. 
Nicholas II. of Russia. W. T. Stead. Review of Reviews. 
Normal School, Future of the. W. T. Harris. EducaCl Rev. 
Nubia, A Glimpse at. T. C. S. Speedy. Harper. 
Psychology and Mysticism. Hugo Miinsterberg. Atlantic. 
Reading for Children, Course of. Geo. Griffith. EducaflRev. 
Red Cross in Spanish War. Margherita Harura. Rev. of Revs. 
R4pin, Professor. Prince Karageorgevitch. Magazine of Art. 
Rough Riders, Forming the. Theo. Roosevelt. Scribner. 
Schools, Professional and Academic. R. H. Tluirstou.Ed.Rev. 
Science-Teaching, Sentimentality in. E. Thorndike. Ed. Rev. 
Sculptor, A Great American. Laura C. Dennis. Rev. of Revs. 
Sirdar, With the. Major E. S. Wortley. Scribner. 
Stevenson, R. L., Letters of. Sidney Colvin. Scribner. 
Sultan at Home, The. Sidney Whitman. Harper. 
Taxes, Diffusion of. David A. Wells. Popular Science. 
War, Naval Lessons of the. H. W. Wilson. Harper. 



LIST OF NEW BOOKS. 



[The following list, containing 177 titles, includes books 
received by THB DIAL since its last issue.] 

BIOGRAPHY AND MEMOIRS. 

Bismarck, the Man and the Statesman : Being the Reflections 
and Reminiscences of Otto, Prince von Bismarck. Written 
and dictated by himself ; trans, from the German under the 
supervision of A. J. Butler. In 2 vols., 8vo, gilt tops, uncut. 
Harper & Brothers. $7.50. 

Stonewall Jackson and the American Civil War. By Lieut.- 
Col. G. F. R. Henderson. In 2 vols., with portraits and 
maps, large 8vo, uncut. Longmans, Green, & Co. $10. 

The Life and Correspondence of Henry Reeve, C.B., 
D.C.L. By John Knox Laughton, M.A. In 2 vols., with 
portraits, 8vo, uncut. Longmans, Green, & Co. $8. 

Pitt : Some Chapters of his Life and Times. By the Right 
Hon. Edward Gibson, Lord Ashbourne. With portraits, 
large 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 395. Longmans, Green, & 
Co. $6. 

A Life of William Shakespeare. By Sidney Lee. With 
portraits and facsimiles, 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 476. 
Macmillan Co. $1.75 net. 

Mr. Froude and Carlyle. By David Wilson. Large 8vo, 
gilt top, uncut, pp. 360. Dodd, Mead & Co. $3. 

American Bookmen: Sketches, chiefly Biographical, of 
Certain Writers of the Nineteenth Century. By M. A. 
De Wolfe Howe. Illus., 8vo, uncut, pp. 295. Dodd, Mead 
& Co. $2.50. 

The Great Lord Burghley: A Study in Elizabethan State- 
craft. By Martin A. S. Hume. With portrait, 8vo, gilt 
top, pp. 511. Longmans, Green, & Co. $3.50. 

The Emperor of Germany at Home. By Maurice Leudet ; 
trans, from the French by Virginia Taylour. Illus., 8vo, 
uncut, pp. 354. Dodd, Mead & Co. $2.50. 

Saladin and the Fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. By 
Stanley Lane-Poole, M.A. Illus., 12mo, pp. 416. " Heroes 
of the Nations." G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.50. 

Edward Gibbon Wakefleld and the Colonization of South 
Australia and New Zealand. By R. Garnett, C.B. With 
portrait and maps, 12mo, pp. 386. " Builders of Greater 
Britain." Longmans, Green, & Co. $1.50. 

A Prisoner of France: The Memoirs, Diary, and Corre- 
spondence of Charles Boothby, Captain Royal Engineers, 
during his last Campaign. Illus., 12mo, uncut, pp. 282. 
Macmillan Co. $2. 

Memoirs of Lady Russell and Lady Herbert, 1623-1723. 
Compiled from original family documents by Lady Step- 
ney. 12mo, uncut, pp. 244. Macmillan Co. $1.75. 

Thomas Reid. By A. Campbell Fraser. 16mo, pp. 160. 
" Famous Scots." Charles Scribner's Sons. 75 cts. 

HISTORY. 

The Foundations of England; or, Twelve Centuries of 
British History (B. C. 55 A. D. 1154). By Sir James H. 
Ramsay of BamfF, Bart., M.A. In 2 vols., illus., large 
8vo. Macmillan Co. $7.50. 

The Story of the Revolution. By Henry Cabot Lodge. 
In 2 vols., illus., large 8vo, gilt tops, uncut. Charles Scrib- 
ner's Sons. $6. 

Recollections of the Civil War : With the Leaders at 
Washington and in the Field in the Sixties. By Charles A. 
Dana. With portrait, 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 296. D. Apple- 
ton & Co. $2. 

Chitral: The Story of a Minor Siege. By Sir George S. 
Robertson, K.C.S.I. Illus., large 8vo, gilt top, uncut, 
pp. 368. Charles Scribner's Sons. $5 net. 

The Underground Railway from Slavery to Freedom. 
By Wilbur H. Siebert ; with Introduction by Albert Bush- 
nell Hart. Illus., 8vo, gilt top, pp. 478. Macmillan Co. $4. 

History of the People of the Netherlands. By Petrus 
Johannes Blok ; trans, by Oscar A. Bierstadt and Ruth 
Putnam. Part I., To the Beginning of the Fifteenth Cen- 
tury. Large 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 374. G. P. Putnam's 
Sons. $2.50. 

Letters of a War Correspondent. By Charles A. Page ; 
edited by James R. Gilmore. With portraits and maps, 
large 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 397. L. C. Page & Co. $3. 

Historic New York: Being the Second Series of the Half 
Moon Papers. Edited by Maud Wilder Goodwin and 
others. Illus., 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 470. G. P. Put- 
nam's Sons. $2.50. 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



27 



The Santiago Campaign, 1898. By Major-General Joseph 
Wheeler, U. S. A. With portrait and maps, large 8vo, 
pp. 369. Lamson, Wolffe & Co. $3. 

The Cuban and Porto Rican Campaigns. By Richard 
Harding Davis, lllus., 12mo, pp. 360. Charles Scribner's 
Sons. 81.50. 

Cannon and Camera : Sea and Land Battles of the Spanish- 
American War in Cuba, Camp Life, and the Return of the 
Soldiers. Described and illustrated by John C. Hemment ; 
with Index and Introduction by W. I. Lincoln Adams. 
12mo, pp. 282. D. Appleton & Co. 82. 

Fighting for Humanity ; or, Camp and Quarter-Deck. By 
General Oliver Otis Howard. 12mo, pp. 221. F. Tennyson 
Neely. 

Africa in the Nineteenth Century. By Edgar Sanderson, 
M.A. With portraits, 12mo, uncut, pp. 335. Charles 
Scribner's Sons. $1.75. 

The War in the Peninsula, 1808-1814. By Alexander 
Innes Shand. With portraits, 12mo, uncut, pp. 316. 
Charles Scribner's Sons. $1.75. 

With the Greeks in Thessaly. By W. Kinnaird Rose, 
lllus., 12mo, uncut, pp. 278. L. C. Page & Co. $1.75. 

The Court of the Second Empire. By Imbert de Saint- 
Amand ; trans, by Elizabeth Gilbert Martin. With por- 
traits, 12mo, uncut, pp. 346. Charles Scribner's Sons. $1.50. 

An Introduction to the Study of the Renaissance. By 
Lilian F. Field. 12mo, pp. 307. Charles Scribner's Sons. 
$1.50. 

A Survey of American History. By Howard W. Caldwell, 
A.M. 12mo, pp. 246. Lincoln, Nebr.: J. H. Miller. 

Red Patriots: The Story of the Seminoles. By Charles H. 
Coe. lllus., 12mo, pp. 290. Cincinnati : Editor Pub'g Co. 

GENERAL LITERATURE. 

Lamia's Winter Quarters. By Alfred Austin. lllus., 
TJiiio, uncut, pp. 164. Macmillan Co. $2.50. 

Music and Poetry : Essays upon Some Aspects and Inter- 
Relations of the Two Arts. By Sidney Lanier. 12mo, 
pp. 248. Charles Scribner's Sons. $1.50. 

Original Poetry. By Victor and Cazire (Percy Bysshe Shelley 
and Elizabeth Shelley) : edited by Richard Garnet t, C.B. 
8vo, uncut, pp. 66. John Lane. $1.50. 

In the Republic of Letters. By W. MacNeile Dixon, M.A. 
12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 222. Charles Scribner's Sons. 
$1.25. 

Maids, Wives, and Bachelors. By Amelia E. Barr. 12mo, 
pp. 323. Dodd, Mead & Co. $1.25. 

Among My Books: Papers on Literary Subjects Reprinted 
from " Literature." By various writers ; with Preface by 
H. D. Traill, D.C.L. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 158. Long- 
mans, Green, & Co. $1.50. 

Essays in Dramatic Criticism, with Impressions of Some 
Modern Plays. By L. Dupont Syle. 18mo, gilt top, uncut, 
pp. 161. William R. Jenkins. 75 cts. 

Mother-Song and Child-Song: An Anthology. Edited by 
Charlotte Brewster Jordan. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 306. 
F. A. Stokes Co. $1.50. 

NEW EDITIONS OF STANDARD LITERATURE. 

The Rubaiydt of Omar Khayyam. As rendered into En- 
glish verse by Edward FitzGerald. Edition de luxe, with 
decorations by W. B. Macdougall. Large 8vo. Macmillan 
Co. $3.50. 

The Rubaiydt of Omar Khayyam : Being a Facsimile of 
the Manuscript in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, with a 
Transcript into Modern Persian Characters. Trans, and 
edited by Edward Heron-Allen. Second edition, revised 
and enlarged ; large 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 320. L. C. 
Page & Co. $3.50. 

The Novels of Charles Dickens, " Temple " edition. First 
vols.: Pickwick Papers, in 3 vols. With frontispieces in 
colors, 24mo, gilt tops. Doubleday & McClnre Co. Per 
vol., 80 cts. 

The Works of Edward Everett Hale, new Library edition. 
First vol.: The Man without a Country, and Other Stories. 
With photogravure portrait, 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 397. 
Little, Brown, & Co. $1.50. 

The Works of Lord Byron. New vol.: Letters and Jour- 
nals, Vol. II., edited by Rowland E. Prothero, M.A. With 
portraits, 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 492. Charles Scribner's 
Sons. $2. 

Sketches and Studies in Italy and Greece. By John 
Addington Symonds. Second series. New edition, 12mo, 
uncut, pp. 368. Charles Scribner's Sons. $2. 



Works of Thomas Carlyle, "Centenary" edition. New 
vols.: German Romance, in 2 vols. With portraits, 8vo, 
uncut. Charles Scribner's Sons. $2.50. 

Absalom's Hair, and A Painful Memory. By Bjorstjerne 
Bjornson ; trans from the Norwegian. 16mo, gilt top, 
pp. 210. Macmillan Co. $1.25. 

A Lear of the Steppes, and Other Stories. By Ivan Tur- 
genev ; trans from the Russian by Constance Garnett. 
16mo, gilt top, pp. 318. Macmillan Co. $1.25. 

Departmental Ditties, and Other Verses. By Rudyard 
Kipling. With portrait, 16mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 198. 
M. F. Mansfield & Co. $1.25. 

Works of George Meredith, Popular edition. New vols.: 
One of our Conquerors, The Amazing Marriage, Lord 
Ormont and his Aminta, and Poems. Each with photo- 
gravure frontispiece, 12mo. Charles Scribner's Sons. Per 
vol., $1.50. 

Peveril of the Peak. By Sir Walter Scott. " Temple " 
edition; in 3 vols., with frontispieces, 24mo, gilt tops. 
Charles Scribner's Sons. $2.40. 

POETRY. 
Labor and the Angel. By Duncan Campbell Scott. 16mo, 

uncut, pp. 59. Copelana & Day. $1.25. 
Poems. By Philip Henry Savage. 16mo, uncut, pp. 49. 

Copeland & Day. $1.25. 
" England and Yesterday " : A Book of Short Poems. By 

Louise Imogen Guiney. Kimo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 60. 

London : Grant Richards. 
The Wayfarers. By Josephine Preston Peabody. 16mo, 

uncut, pp. 83. Copeland & Day. $1.25. 
Impressions: A Book of Verse. By Lilla Cabot Perry. 

16mo, uncut, pp. 81. Copeland & Day. $1.25. 
Songs of Good Fighting. By Eugene R. White. 8vo, uncut, 

pp. 48. Lamson, Wolffe & Co. $1. 
From Me to You. By Lilian Gertrude Shuman. 12mo, 

gilt top, uncut, pp. 92. Lee & Shepard. $1. 
Intimations of Heaven, and Other Poems. By Horace 

Eaton Walker. Large 8vo, pp. 130. Claremont, N. H.: 

George I. Putnam Co. 
A Booklet of Verse. By William Norman Guthrie. 18mo, 

uncut, pp. 44. Robert Clarke Co. Paper, 50 cts. 
Tent of the Plains. By Shannon Birch. Kimo, gilt top, 

uncut, pp. 47. E. R. Herrick & Co. $1. 

FICTION. 

Dream Days. By Kenneth Grahame. 16mo, gilt top, uncut, 

pp. 275. John Lane. $1.25. 
Old Chester Tales. By Margaret Deland ; illus. by Howard 

Pyle. 12mo, pp. 360. Harper & Brothers. $1.50. 
A Sister of Evangeline : The Story of Yvonne de Lamourie. 

By Charles G. D. Roberts. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 289. 

Lamson, Wolffe & Co. $1.50. 
Omar the Tentmaker: A Romance of Old Persia. By 

Nathan Haskell Dole. lllus., 12mo, pp. 365. L. C. Page 

& Co. $1.50. 
The Road to Paris: A Story of Adventure. By Robert 

Neilson Stephens. lllus., 12mo, pp. 552. L. C. Page & 

Co. $1.50. 
Peeps at People : Being Certain Papers from the Writings 

of Anne Warrington Witherup. Collected by John Ken- 

drick Bangs ; illns. by Edward Penneld. 16mo, uncut, 

pp. 185. Harper & Brothers. $1.25. 
Doctor Therne. By H. Rider Haggard. 12mo, pp. 209. 

Longmans, Green, & Co. $1. 
Rembrandt : A Romance of Holland. By Walter Cranston 

Lamed. lllus., 8vo, pp. 400. Charles Scribner's Sons. $1.50. 
Cartagena; or, the Lost Brigade: A Story of Heroism in 

the British War with Spain, 1740-1742. By Charles W. 

Hall. 12mo, pp. 574. Lamson, Wolffe & Co. $1.50. 
An Angel in a Web. By Julian Ralph. lllus., 12mo, 

pp. 239. Harper & Brothers. $1.50. 
Latitude 19: A Romance of the West Indies in 1820. By 

Mrs. Schuyler Crowninshield. Illns., 1'Jmo, pp. 418. 

D. Appleton & Co. $1.50. 
The New God: A Tale of the Early Christians. By Richard 

Voss ; trans, from the German by Mary A. Robinson. 

16mo, uncut, pp. 241. Harper & Brothers. $1.25. 
The Story of a Genius. By Ossip Schubin ; trans, from the 

German by E. H. Lockwood. 12m<>, pp. 212. R. F. Fenno 

& Co. 75 cts. 
At Friendly Point. By G. Firth Scott. lllus., 12mo, 

pp. 305. M. F. Mansfield & Co. $1.25. 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 1, 



Waldtraut. By M. Rudiger ; trans, from the German by 

Corinth Le Due Crook, Ph.D. Illus., 16mo, gilt top, uncut, 

pp.285. Chicago : H. S. Elliott. $1.25. 
The Impediment. By Dorothea Gerard (Madame Longard 

de Longgarde). 12mo, pp. 322. D. Appleton & Co. $1.; 

paper, 50 cts. 
As Told by the Typewriter Girl. By Mabel Clare Ervin. 

Illus., 12mo, uncut, pp. 245. E. R. Herrick & Co. $1.25. 
Bodley Booklets. New vols.: Some Notes of a Struggling 

Genius, by G. S. Street ; and Stories Toto Told Me, by 

Baron Corvo. Each 16mo, uncut. John Lane. Per vol., 

35 cts. 
The Forest of Bourg-Marie. By S. Frances Harrison 

(Seranus). 12mo, uncut, pp. 306. London: Edward 

Arnold. 
The Rainbow Feather. By Fergus Hume. 12mo, pp. 255. 

G. W. Dillingham Co. $1.25. 
The White Devil of Verde : A Story of the West. By Lucie 

France Pierce. 12mo, gilt top, pp. 236. G. W. Dillingham 

Co. $1.25. 
God's Pay Day. By Edgar Clifton Bross. 12mo, gilt top, 

uncut, pp. 235. G. W. Dillingham Co. $1.25. 
Lost Prince Almon. By Louis Pendleton. Illus., 12mo, 

pp. 218. Jewish Publication Society. 75 cts. 
As the Hart Panteth. By Hallie Erminie Rives. 12mo, 

gilt top, uncut, pp. 237. G. W. Dillingham Co. $1.25. 
The New Gulliver. By Wendell Phillips Garrison. 12mo, 

uncut, pp. 51. Jamaica, N. Y.: The Marion Press. 
Doomsday. By Crabtree Hemenway. 16mo, uncut, pp. 128. 

Copeland & Day. 50 cts. 
Meri vale ; or, Phases of Southern Life. By James Robert- 

shaw. 12mo, pp. 245. G. W. Dillingham Co. $1.25. 
Two Summer Girls and I. By Theodore Burt Sayre. 

Illus., 16mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 255. New York : Godfrey 

A. S. Wieners. 

TRAVEL AND DESCRIPTION. 

Commercial Cuba: A Book for Business Men. By William 
J. Clark ; with Introduction by E. Sherman Gould. Illus., 
large 8vo, pp. 514. Charles Scribner's Sons. $4. 

Through Arctic Lapland. By Cutcliffe Hyne. Illus., 
8vo, uncut, pp. 284. Macmillan Co. $3.50. 

Camping and Tramping in Malaya: Fifteen Years' Pio- 
neering in the Native States of the Malay Peninsula. By 
Ambrose B. Rathborne, F.R.G.S. Illus., 8vo, uncut, 
pp. 339. Macmillan Co. $3.50. 

South London. By Sir Walter Besant, M.A. Illus., 8vo, 
gilt top, uncut, pp. 332. F. A. Stokes Co. $3. 

The Land of the Pigmies. By Captain Guy Burrows ; with 
Introduction by H. M. Stanley, M.P. Illus., 8vo, pp. 299. 
T. Y. Crowell & Co. $3. 

Through the Yang-tse Gorges ; or, Trade and Travel in 
Western China. By Archibald John Little, F.R.G.S. 
Third and revised edition ; illus., 12mo, gilt top, uncut, 
pp. 315. Charles Scribner's Sons. $2.50. 

With Ski and Sledge over Arctic Glaciers. By Sir Martin 
Conway. Illus. in photogravure, etc., 12mo, gilt top, 
uncut, pp. 240. M. F. Mansfield & Co. $2. 

Historic Pilgrimages in New England among Landmarks 
of Pilgrim and Puritan Days and of the Provincial and 
Revolutionary Periods. By Edwin M. Bacon. 12mo, 
uncut, pp. 475. Silver, Burdett & Co. $1.50. 

Within the Purdah : Personal Reminiscences of a Medical 
Missionary in India. By S. Armstrong-Hopkins, M.D. 
Illus., 12mo, pp. 248. Eaton & Mains. $1.25. 

SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC STUDIES. 
John Buskin, Social Reformer. By J. A. Hobson. 12mo, 

gilt top, uncut, pp. 357. Dana Estes & Co. $1.50. 
Overproduction and Crises. By Karl Rodbertus ; trans. 

by Julia Franklin ; with Introduction by John B. Clark. 

12mo, uncut, pp. 140. Charles Scribner's Sons. $1. 
Economics. By Edward Thomas Devine, Ph.D. 16mo, 

pp. 404. Macmillan Co. $1. net, 

SCIENCE AND NATURE. 

Foot-Notes to Evolution : A Series of Popular Addresses 
on the Evolution of Life. By David Starr Jordan, Ph.D.; 
with three supplementary essays by various writers. Illus., 
12mo, pp. 392. D. Appleton & Co. $1.50. 

The Butterfly Book : A Popular Guide to a Knowledge of the 
Butterflies of North America. By W. J. Holland, Ph.D., 
Illus. in colors, etc., 4to, uncut, pp. 382. Doubleday & 
McClure Co. $3. net. 



The Principles of Biology. By Herbert Spencer. Revised 
and enlarged edition, in 2 volumes ; Vol. 1., 12mo, pp. 706. 
D. Appleton & Co. $2. 

Earth Sculpture ; or, The Origin of Land Forms. By James 
Geikie, LL.D. Illns., 8vo, pp. 397. " Science Series." 
G. P. Putnam's Sons. $2. 

Organic Evolution Cross- Examined ; or. Some Sugges- 
tions on the Great Secret of Biology. By the Duke of 
Argyll, K.G. 12mo, uncut, pp. 201. Little, Brown, & Co. $2. 

Harper's Scientific Memors. Edited by J. S. Ames, Ph.D. 
First vols.: The Free Expansion of Gases, by Gay-Lussac, 
Joule, and Joule and Thomson (75 cts.); and Prismatic 
and Diffraction Spectra, by Joseph von Fraunhofer 
(60 cts.). Each illus., 8 vo. Harper & Brothers. 

Matter, Energy, Force, and Work : A Plain Presentation 
of Fundamental Physical Concepts and Theories. By Silas 
W. Holman. 12mo, pp. 257. Macmillan Co. $2.50 net. 

Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian 
Institution, for 1896. Illus., large 8vo, pp. 727. Govern- 
ment Printing Office. 

PHILOSOPHY. 

Instinct and Reason : An Essay concerning the Relation of 
Instinct to Reason, with Some Special Study of the Na- 
ture of Religion. By Henry Rutgers Marshall, M.A. 
Large 8vo, uncut, pp. 574. Macmillan Co. $3.50 net. 

Leibniz' The Monadology and Other Philosophical Writ- 
ings. Trans, and edited by Robert Latta, M.A. 12mo, 
uncut, pp. 437. Oxford University Press. $2.10. 

The Philosophy of Greece, Considered in Relation to the 
Character and History of its People. By Alfred William 
Benn. 12mo, uncut, pp. 308. London : Grant Richards. 

Truth and Error; or, The Science of Intellection. By J. W. 
Powell. 12mo, gilt top, pp. 428. Chicago : Open Court 
Pub'g Co. $1.75. 

THEOLOGY AND RELIGION. 

The Gospel of Joy. By Stopford A. Brooke. 12mo, uncut, 

pp. 378. Dodd, Mead & Co. $1.50. 
The Apostolic Age. By Lucius Waterman, D.D.; with 

Introduction by Henry Codman Potter, D.D. 12mo, 

pp. 505. "Ten Epochs of Church History." Charles 

Scribner's Sons. $2. 
The Life and Letters of Paul the Apostle. By Lyman 

Abbott. 12mo, gilt top, pp. 332. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

$1.50. 
The Life and Teachings of Jesus Christ: A Continuous 

Narrative Collated from the Gospels of the Four Evangel- 
ists. With Introduction by Canon Farrar. Illus., 12mo, 

pp. 176. Doubleday & McClure Co. $1. 
The Student's Life of Jesus. By George Holley Gilbert, 

Ph.D. 12mo, pp. 412. Macmillan Co. $1.25. 
From Day to Day : Passages from the Bible, with Transla- 
tions into Other Languages. By Theodora W. Woolsey. 

18mo, gilt top, pp. 365. Little, Brown, & Co. $1.25. 
Temple Talks. By Myron W. Reed. With portrait, 16mo, 

gilt top, pp. 256. Bowen-Merrill Co. $1.25. 
Quiet Talks with Ernest People in My Study. By Charles 

Edward Jefferson. 16mo, gilt top, pp. 180. T. Y. Crowell 

& Co. $1. 
Twentieth Century New Testament : A Translation into 

Modern English from the Original Greek. Part I., The 

Five Historical Books. 16mo, pp. 254. London : The 

Review of Reviews. 
The Bible-School : A Manual for Sunday-School Workers. 

By A. H. McKinney, Ph.D. 18mo, pp. 206. New York : 

Lentilhon & Co. 50 cts. 
The Living Saviour. By the Rev. S. F. Hotchkin, M.A. 

16mo, pp. 181. George W. Jacobs & Co. 50 cts. 
One of the Two. By Charles M. Sheldon. 16mo, pp. 50. 

F. H. Revell Co. 30 cts. 
Psyche : A Study of the Soul. By William Reed Huntington, 

D.D. 12mo, pp. 97. Thomas Whittaker. Paper, 25 cts. 

REFERENCE. 

A Dictionary of Proper Names and Notable Matters in the 
Works of Dante. By Paget Toynbee, M.A. Large 8vo, 
gilt top, pp. 616. Oxford University Press. $7.25. 

ART AND ARCHITECTURE. 

History of Modern Italian Art. By Ashton Rollins Willard. 
Illus. in photogravure, etc., large 8vo, gilt top, uncut, 
pp. 586. Longmans, Green, & Co. $5. 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



29 



The Bayeux Tapestry: A History and Description. By 
Frank Rede Fowke. Illus., 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 230. 
" Ex-Libris Series." Macmillan Co. $3.50. 

The Column and the Arch: Essays on Architectural His- 
tory. By William P. P. Longfellow. Illus., 8vo, gilt top, 
uncut, pp. 301. Charles Scribner's Sons. $2. 

The Homeric Palace. By Norman Morrison Isham, A.M. 
Illus., large 8vo, pp. 64. Providence : Preston & Rounds 
Co. $1. net. 

GIFT-BOOKS AND CALENDARS. 
Sketches and Cartoons : A Book of Drawings. By Charles 

Dana Gibson. Folio. E. R. Herrick & Co. $5. 
Lest We Forget: A Book of Drawings in Colors by Various 

Artists. Large oblong folio. R. II. Russell. $5. 
Ten Drawings in Chinatown. By Ernest C. Peixotto; 

with certain observations by Robert Howe Fletcher. Folio. 

San Francisco : A.M.Robertson. $3.50 net. 
Old World Memories. By Edward Lowe Temple. In 2 

vols., illus. in photogravure, etc., 16mo, gilt tops, uncut. 

L. C. Page & Co. $3. 
London Types. Drawings by William Nicholson ; quator- 

zains by W. E. Henley. 4to. R. H. Russell. $1.50. 
The Frank Lockwood Sketch Book: A Selection from 

the Drawings of the late Sir Frank Lockwood, Q.C., M.P. 

Oblong 4to, gilt top, pp. 80. London : Edward Arnold. 
Life's Comedy, Third Series. Illus., 4to. Charles Scribner's 

Sons. $1.50. 
Mandalay. By Rudyard Kipling : with drawings by Blanche 

McManus. 16mo, uncut. M. F. Mansfield & Co. 
Golf Calendar for 1899. By Edward Penfield. 4to. R. H. 

Russell. $1.50. 
Shakespeare's Heroines Calendar for 1899. Folio. R. H. 

Russell. $1.25. 
Stanford Calendar for 1899. Illustrated by Blanche 

Letcher. 4to. San Francisco : A. M. Robertson. $1. 
The Boys of '98: A Calendar for 1899. Designed by Gordon 

Ross. Large folio. San Francisco : A. M. Robertson. Si. 
On Christmas Day. By Ellen M. H. Gates ; decorations by 

Agnes O. Crane. 8vo. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 50 cts. 

BOOKS FOR THE YOUNG. 
Two Little Runaways. By James Buckland. Illus., 12mo, 

gilt top, pp. 358. Longmans, Green, & Co. $2. 
W. V.'s Golden Legend. By William Canton ; illus. by 

T. H. Robinson. 12mo, uncut, pp. 309. Dodd, Mead & 

Co. $1.50. 
King Longbeard ; or, Annals of the Golden Dreamland : A 

Book of Fairy Tales. By Barrington MacGregor ; illus. 

by Charles Robinson. 8vo, pp. 262. John Lane. $1.50. 
Paleface and Redskin, and Other Stories for Boys and Girls. 

By F. Anstey ; illus. by Gordon Browne. 8vo, pp. 295. 

D. Appleton & Co. $1.50. 
Courage, True Hearts: The Story of Three Boys Who 

Sailed in Search of Fortune. By Gordon Stables, M.D. 

Illus., 12mo, pp. 288. Charles Scribner's Sons. $1.25. 
The New Noah's Ark. Written and illus. in colors by J. J. 

Bell. Large 8vo, pp. 64. John Lane. $1.25. 
Reuben's Hindrances, and How he Made Them Helps 

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34 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 16, 



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1899.] 



THE DIAL 



35 



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THE DIAL 



[Jan. 16, 1899. 



THE STORY OF FRANCE 



Just Ready. 
Vol. I. 



Vol. I. 



From the Earliest Times to the Consulate 
of Napoleon Bonaparte. 

By 
The Hon. THOMAS E. WATSON. 

From the Settlement by the Gauls to the 
Death of Louis XV. 



Cloth, 8vo, 
Two Vols. 



Just Ready. 



Vol. II. In Preparation. To be ready next Fall. 

Mr. Watson's treatment of history is from a new and entirely modern point of view. The well-known political 
leader says in his Preface that it has been his purpose to lay before his readers " a clear narrative of the gradual 
development of a great people ... to note the varying forms of government, to trace the ancient origins of 
modern laws and customs, to mark the encroachments of absolutism upon popular rights, to describe the long 
continued struggle of the many to throw off the yoke of the few, to emphasize the corrupting influence of the 
union between Church and State; to illustrate once more the blighting effects of superstition, ignorance, blind 
obedience, unjust laws, confiscation under the disguise of unequal taxes, and a systematic plunder year by year of 
the weaker classes by the stronger." The author is in very keen sympathy with the mass of the people, and for 
the first time we have the historical point of view of the laborer and mechanic told in a style that is bold, racy, and 
unconventional. It is a vigorous and democratic presentation of history. 



BOOKS OF HISTORICAL INTEREST RECENTLY ISSUED. 



THE AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A 
VETERAN: 1807-1893. 

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Full of personal information about the 

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WEIR. The Dawn of Reason. 

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THE DIAL, 315 Wabash Ave., Chicago. 

No. 302. JANUARY 16, 1899. Vol. XXVI. 
CONTENTS. 



THE REPORT OF THE CHICAGO EDUCATIONAL 

COMMISSION 37 

THE AMERICAN REJECTION OF POE. Charles 

Leonard Moore 40 

THE VIRGINIA MEETING OF THE MODERN 
LANGUAGE ASSOCIATION. Thomas Stock- 
ham Baktr 42 

THE NEBRASKA MEETING OF THE CENTRAL 
MODERN LANGUAGE ASSOCIATION. 
W. H. Carruth . 43 

COMMUNICATION 43 

Book Distribution : A Suggestion. W. S. Johnson. 

IN UNEXPLORED ASIA. E. G. J. . . . . . . 44 

MR. LESLIE STEPHEN'S STUDIES OF A BIOG- 
RAPHER. Ellen C. Hinsdale 46 

CHINA IN HISTORY AND IN FACT. Selim H. 

Pedbody 48 

RECENT POETRY. William Morton Payne ... 50 
Gilder's In Palestine. Cawein's Idyllic Monologues. 

Lodge's The Song of the Wave. Bragdon's The 
Golden Person in the Heart. Rice's The Flying 
Sands. Scollard's A Christmas Garland. Mrs. 
Howe's From Sunset Ridge. Mrs. Higginson's 
When the Birds Go North Again. Mrs. Perry's 
Impressions. Miss Guiney's England and Yesterday. 

Ben King's Verse. Ppems of Francis Brooks. 
More's A Century of Indian Epigrams. Rosenfeld's 
Songs from the Ghetto. Drummond's Phil-o-rum's 
Canoe. Scott's Labor and the Angel. Meredith's 
Odes in Contribution to the Song of French History. 

Bell's Pictures of Travel. Doyle's Songs of Ac- 
tion. Tarelli's Persephone. 

BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS . 56 

A Briton's view of his American kin. The prede- 
cessor of Major Marchand. Birds and bird-worship 
in antiquity. Horse-shoe magic and other folk-lore. 
Vondel's Lucifer in English verse. German Eliza- 
beth and her garden. A Scotch life of Stevenson. 
A naturalist in the Southern Alleghanies. A mar- 
vellous perpetuation of a Hebrew grammar. Thack- 
eray in America. 

BRIEFER MENTION 60 

LITERARY NOTES 61 

LIST OF NEW BOOKS . .61 



THE REPORT OF THE CHICAGO 
ED UCA TIONAL COMMISSION. 

The public schools of Chicago constitute one 
of the two largest city systems in the United 
States, and, previous to the very recent infusion 
of new methods and progressive ideas into the 
management of the New York schools, the 
Chicago system might fairly claim the place of 
first importance, both for the efficiency of its 
work and for its exemplification of that gener- 
osity of public support given to the cause of 
education which is the highest mark of Amer- 
ican civilization. Recently, the attention of 
the educational world has been focussed more 
sharply than ever upon the Chicago schools, 
owing to a series of incidents connected with 
the appointment of the former president of 
Brown University to the superintendency, and 
to the energetic way in which Dr. Andrews has 
asserted the prerogatives that should rightfully 
attach to the high office which he holds. Dur- 
ing the few months that have passed since his 
tenure began, he has not only impressed a vig- 
orous personality upon the management of the 
schools under his charge, but also, which is still 
more noteworthy, he has gained the suffrages 
of those who were at the outset most strongly 
opposed to his appointment. 

The call of Dr. Andrews to Chicago, for 
which Mayor Harrison was largely responsible, 
must be considered, in one sense at least, as 
but an incident in a far-reaching plan of school 
reorganization conceived by the latter early in 
the term of his executive office. For the pur- 
pose of giving effect to this plan, the Mayor, 
with the authority of the City Council, ap- 
pointed, more than a year ago, an Educational 
Commission of eleven members, headed by 
President Harper of the University of Chicago. 
This Commission was directed to make a thor- 
ough examination of the school system, as well 
as of the statutes under which it is conducted, 
to deliberate, with the aid of the best expert 
opinion anywhere obtainable, upon the changes 
in law and organization made desirable by the 
growth of the city as well as by the progress of 
educational methods and ideals, and to embody 
the conclusions reached in a report which might 
become the basis of future action. The Com- 
mission, consisting of members of the Chicago 



38 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 16, 



Board of Education and the Chicago Council, 
of men prominent in affairs and the professions, 
entered with enthusiasm upon the work assigned 
it, invited suggestions from all quarters that 
seemed to promise help, held weekly sessions, 
and sometimes daily sessions, all through the 
year just ended, and has at last published its 
conclusions in a Report of nearly three hundred 
pages addressed to the Mayor and the City 
Council. The result of all this labor is one of 
the most important educational documents ever 
produced ; it cannot fail to attract widespread 
attention and excite deep interest wherever the 
importance of public education is understood. 
It affords a striking example of a necessary 
piece of work done in the right way, and it is 
much to the credit of Mayor Harrison that he 
should have taken the initiative in this com- 
mendable enterprise. We have said more than 
once that of the duties incumbent upon the 
chief executive of a great city those which re- 
late to the conduct of the public schools are 
paramount to all others, and in the present 
case, as perhaps never before in the history of 
Chicago, the importance of these duties seems 
to have been realized. 

Of the Report as a whole, two or three pre- 
liminary general statements should be made. 
In the first place, it does not assume that things 
have been going badly in school affairs up to 
the present time, but rather gives full recogni- 
tion to the efficiency already attained and to 
the self-sacrificing devotion of past and present 
Boards of Education. But it recognizes also 
the fact that both the school law of the State 
and the school machinery of the city have 
become defective by the mere process of be- 
coming outgrown. As is remarked by Dr. 
G. F. James, who has served as Secretary to 
the Commission, and prepared the Report for 
publication, " the city has grown at a rapid 
rate, and in this department, as in some others, 
a plan of administration has been retained 
which, although good for a city of moderate 
size, is entirely inadequate for one of nearly 
two millions." Mayor Harrison gave expres- 
sion to the same thought when he said, in ask- 
ing for authority to create the Commission, that 
" with the continual growth of the city, addi- 
tional burdens keep coming to the door of the 
Board of Education, which is seriously handi- 
capped by having to deal with new conditions 
and difficult developments in the harness of 
antiquated methods." The spirit of the entire 
Report is thus not complainingly critical, for it 
aims far more at construction than at destruc- 



tion, and all those who have heretofore been 
working for the good of the Chicago schools, 
under adverse conditions, will find in it the 
fullest sympathy with what they have done, and 
the most cordial recognition of their disinter- 
ested devotion. 

A reconstruction of the school law of the 
State is essential to the carrying out of the 
recommendations of the Commission, and it has 
been an important part of the work done by that 
body to draft, under competent legal advice, a 
new and comprehensive statute. Since the most 
important of the recommendations made find a 
place in the proposed new legislation, we may as 
well direct attention at once to those pages of the 
Report in which this draft of a law is found. It 
takes the form of " an act to amend " the act 
of 1889 by repealing twelve sections of the 
sixth article, and substituting therefor nineteen 
new sections. Applying only to cities of more 
than one hundred thousand inhabitants, it would 
affect Chicago alone, and afford one more illus- 
tration of the way in which the special legisla- 
tion, denied by the Constitution of Illinois, may 
be had without doing violence to the funda- 
mental law of the State. The most important 
features of the proposed law are : (1) A reduc- 
tion of membership in the Board of Education 
from twenty-one to eleven. (2) The power to 
exercise the right of eminent domain in the ac- 
quisition of land needed for school purposes. 
(3) The duty of establishing several kinds of 
schools not specifically named under preceding 
legislation . (4 ) The creation of a defin ite status 
for the Superintendent, with a tenure of six 
years, a right to participate in the discussions 
of the Board of Education, and full executive 
power (subject only to a two-thirds vote of dis- 
approval) in all educational matters. (5) The 
creation of a similar status, with ample powers, 
for the Business Manager. (6) The creation 
of a Board of Examiners for the purpose of cer- 
tificating eligible candidates for appointment 
and promotion. There are, of course, many 
other provisions, but these six are of prime im- 
portance, and deserve to be thus singled out 
from the rest. It will be evident enough to 
all readers who are in touch with the best edu- 
cational thought of the age that these recom- 
mendations are not merely sound, but that they 
are absolutely necessary for the proper admin- 
istration of a great municipal system of schools. 
We can hardly imagine a serious argument 
directed against any one of them, and no effort 
should be spared to give them the force of law 
at the earliest opportunity. 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



39 



There are, indeed, a few minor points in all 
this suggested legislation that may need modi- 
fication before the final action is taken. This 
fact is realized by the members of the Commis- 
sion, who unite in saying that " the interests 
which are here involved are so weighty and are 
of such supreme import to the community that 
hasty and inconsiderate action in these matters 
is above all to be deprecated. We hope, there- 
fore, that the system of school management 
which is here proposed will be entirely and 
thoroughly reviewed, before any attempt is 
made to embody its provisions in the school 
law." These are counsels of soberness, and, 
while we believe that the proposed law would, 
as a whole, prove inestimably valuable to the 
interests of the public, we are in doubt con- 
cerning the substance of two or three among 
the minor provisions, and concerning the exact 
wording of some of the more significant ones. 
At present we will call attention to but two 
points, of which the first relates to appointment 
upon the Board of Examiners. " To be eligi- 
ble as a special examiner, an applicant must 
possess either a bachelor's degree from a college 
or university, or an equivalent educational 
training, together with at least five years' suc- 
cessful experience in teaching since gradua- 
tion." These qualifications are certainly not 
too high, and possibly are not high enough. 
The required number of years of experience 
might be doubled without doing harm, and a 
great deal more than the amount of education 
represented by the bachelor's degree might 
reasonably be demanded. Our doubt relates to 
the construction of the words " or an equiva- 
lent educational training." They do not seem 
to make sufficiently emphatic the idea that the 
education itself, however got, " is the thing," 
and not the particular way in which the begin- 
nings of it happened to be acquired. The ques- 
tion arises, would Mr. Herbert Spencer, for 
example, who had no " training " in the nar- 
row technical sense, be eligible for appointment 
under this provision ? If he would not, some 
modification of the phrase is obviously called 
for. Our other point relates to the power to 
dismiss teachers, which is given to the Superin- 
tendent. Here is an ambiguity that should be 
cleared away, for the closing section of the pro- 
posed law provides that " nothing herein con- 
tained shall be construed as repealing" the 
Pension Act of 1895. Now, the latter act ex- 
pressly declares that teachers shall not be dis- 
missed " except for cause upon written charges, 
which shall be investigated and determined by 



the said Board of Education, whose action and 
decision in the matter shall be final." This 
would certainly lead to troublesome litigation 
were the new law to contradict the old one as 
is now proposed. Between these two conflicting 
ways of dealing with this difficult question, we 
must decide for the law as it now stands. It 
ought to be difficult to dismiss a teacher. The 
responsibility of appointment is greater than 
is commonly realized, and this fact cannot be 
brought too forcibly home to those upon whom 
the responsibility devolves. Let appointments 
be safe-guarded in every way, by academic and 
physical examinations, by certificates of moral 
character, by probationary periods under reg- 
ular supervision, but let them also, when once 
definitely made, bring with them the same se- 
curity of tenure that is enjoyed by a Federal 
judge. The retention of poor teachers in the 
service is a heavy penalty to pay for laxity in 
the methods of their appointment ; but the 
arbitrary power of dismissal, lodged in the 
hands of any one official, would embody a still 
greater wrong. 

We have said so much about the legislative 
appendix of this Report that we have but little 
space to devote to the elaborate discussions 
which make up its* substance. Not only the 
matters which reappear in the proposed law, 
but many others, are discussed from every point 
of view, and in the most elaborate fashion. The 
Report consists of an introduction, twenty arti- 
cles, and eleven appendices. Most of the articles 
have numerous sections, each of the latter with 
its own thesis, argument, and illustrative mate- 
rial. We would like to dwell at much greater 
length than is at present possible upon this illus- 
trative material. It appears in the form of 
lengthy footnotes, and consists of apposite ex- 
tracts from the best recent educational litera- 
ture, of resolutions sent to the Commission by 
the various professional bodies of the city, and 
of the opinions upon special points, solicited 
for the purpose, of a great number of experts 
in the art pedagogical. There is nothing so 
discouraging as the feeling, which often comes 
over those who are in contact with large edu- 
cational systems, that the most vital thought 
upon the subject seems to produce no visible 
effect upon the machinery. There is so much 
inertia to overcome, and the impact of the force 
seems so inadequate. The right way of doing 
things is pointed out so clearly, as well as so 
frequently, that one almost wearies of reading 
about it ; yet the wrong way continues to be 
practised despite all logic and all enlightened 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 16, 



leadership. It is, then, peculiarly refreshing 
to read an educational document which, like 
the one before us, actually goes to the best 
sources for light and counsel, and seeks to make 
a direct practical application, upon the very 
largest scale, of the ideas thus obtained. It 
gives heart to the educational thinker, making 
him feel that his work may not have been done in 
vain after all, that the empty air, which seemed 
to swallow up his words, has really wafted 
them to a fruitful soil, where they may hope to 
be productive after their kind. Over and over 
again, in reading this Report (and we have 
studied it from the first page to the last), we 
have found both in the argument itself and 
in the passages adduced in support thereof, 
ideas so enlightened, so far in advance of any- 
thing that has heretofore come within the range 
of practical possibilities, so full of promise to 
the toilers in a profession that has often been 
made, through wantonness or mere indiffer- 
ence, far more thankless than was necessary, 
that we have stopped to wonder if it could all 
be real, if in very fact it could be true that 
these things were actually included in a plan 
offered for serious consideration by a body of 
practically-minded men, and under auspices 
that bid fair to bring about its adoption. Upon 
some future occasion we shall probably call 
specific attention to some of these matters, as 
well as point out a few things here and there 
that seem to us mistakes, but we must now be 
content to conclude by saying that the Report 
is one of the strongest educational documents 
that we have ever seen ; as a model of compact 
statement and cogent reasoning it is a product 
of the trained intelligence that cannot fail to 
impress all who examine it, and is sure to exert 
a wide influence upon the administration of 
public education in our great cities. 



THE AMERICAN REJECTION OF POE. 

Accepted authors are like those old estates which 
were held by the annual rent of a rose or a piece of 
fruit : we have nothing to do but to enjoy them and 
pay them a passing tribute of praise. A poet such 
as Poe, however, is like the feudal tenures which 
were retained on condition of service at arms. Every 
new admirer has to fight against the prejudices and 
lingering malignities which obscure and injure his 
chief. Burke complained that with all his services 
to the state he could get no credence or acceptance 
anywhere. At every gate he had to show his pass- 
port. In his own country, at least, Foe's fame is 
continually under arrest, and his friends have always 



to be giving bail for him. Perhaps this demand for 
defense evokes a love and loyalty which are in them- 
selves a reward. 

Why is it that America has always set its face 
against Poe ? What defect was there in his life and 
art, or what deficiency in the American character 
and aesthetic sense, or what incompatibility between 
these factors in the case, to produce such a result? 
That to a great extent he is ignored and repudiated 
is unquestionable. His life has been written and 
his works edited of late in a spirit of cold hostility. 
Volumes of specimen selections of prose or verse 
appear with his work omitted. In those foolish 
lists of American great men which it was the fashion 
recently to cause school-children to memorize, he was 
always left out. Meanwhile, Europe has but one 
opinion in the matter ; and whereas Tennyson is 
domesticated in English-speaking lands, Poe is domi- 
ciled and a dominant force wherever there is a living 
literature. 

Poe never had a good back, such as the New 
England writers obtained, to push him to the front 
and keep him there. He was of the South the 
very incarnation of the South ; and the South has 
always ordered its authors to move on, for fear they 
might die on the parish. The South wreaked itself 
on politics ruined itself by politics and has 
never had the will or desire to stand up for its great- 
est son. The North has always had plenty of plain 
livers and high thinkers who ought to have wel- 
comed the martyr of thought and imagination; but 
something exotic in Poe, which hinted of another 
clime and age, repelled these cold and clannish 
spirits. So, homeless in his life, Poe is still beating 
about like the Flying Dutchman, ever seeking and 
always denied a harbor in his country-people's 
hearts. 

Poe had of course a part in this tragedy of errors 
and misconceptions, but, as I should judge, an 
entirely honorable one. There are three excellent 
ways in which a man can get himself disliked by his 
fellows : he may stand aloof from them, he may 
indulge in the practice of irony, and he may be 
" ever right, Menenius, ever right." Poe was an 
offender in all these respects. He never seems to 
have had an intimate friend anyone who could 
do for him what Hamlet craved of Horatio with his 
dying breath. Somebody said of Calhoun that he 
looked like one who had lost the power of communi- 
cating with his fellow beings. A like spell of isola- 
tion is upon Poe. Wanting in humor, he sometimes 
tried to range his mind with others by the use of 
irony ; or he assumed an air which I suppose he 
thought that of a man of the world, but which is 
quite detestable. He wrote an essay on Diddling as 
an exact science, and people jumped to the conclusion 
that he was Jeremy himself in person. He took a 
grim delight in scenes of horror, and people imag- 
ined he acted them in life. " The Raven " has been 
described as an utterance of remorse. Remorse for 
what ? I have read everything that has been gathered 
about Poe, and I cannot, for my life, imagine him as 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



anything but a stainless and chivalrous knight. The 
few, trivial, and usually unsubstantiated smutches 
which microscopic industry has found on his armor 
would not show at all against a panoply less pure 
and white. 

I remember reading an anecdote of a lieutenant 
in the British Navy who entertained Byron on his 
ship in the Levant. Byron was proud of his sea- 
manship, and the acute officer would carefully have 
something disarranged in the top hamper of the 
ship before the poet came on deck in the morn- 
ing. When the latter did so, he would cock his eye 
aloft and immediately discover and point out the 
irregularity. The lieutenant would apologize, and 
have it remedied. Byron liked that lieutenant, 
and men in general like those who give them some- 
thing to forgive. Poe, a logic machine, was abso- 
lutely incapable of those pleasing flaws and defi- 
ciencies which allow other people to have a good 
opinion of themselves. He always added up true. 
The tradition is that he was a drunkard. There is 
not evidence enough against him to hang a dog. All 
the testimony actually produced all the witnesses 
who give their names and addresses, people who 
lived with him and knew him best, deny it. That 
he was easily affected by liquor and sometimes over- 
come by it, is possible, and what does it matter ? 
That there was any debauchery is impossible. His 
poverty proves it the amount of work he did 
proves it ; and, most of all, the quality of what he 
wrote, which grew in power and concentration to 
the last. There is more plausibility in the accusa- 
tion of irregularity in money matters. In a life so 
harassed as Foe's, a few ragged debts might easily 
be left. But here again there is nothing definite. 
Nobody has come forward with notes of hand or 
evidences of defalcation. On the contrary, letter 
after letter has come to light showing Foe's scrup- 
ulous exactitude about obligations. Practically, he 
was cheated by almost everyone with whom he came 
in contact and then these, to shield themselves, 
cried after him " Stop thief ! " He built up two or 
three magazines for others, and when, dissatisfied 
with the pittance thrown him, he designed a maga- 
zine of his own, he was laughed at and decried. 
Really, my only grievance against Poe is that he 
was too good. He ought to have taken to the road 
and compelled a just tribute at the point of the 
pistol. 

Foe's principles of criticism are true enough 
within limits, but they are far from being the whole 
truth. His lack of humor, deficient knowledge of 
human nature, and insensibility to that side of great- 
ness which results from mere mass, quite incapaci- 
tated him from criticising the mightiest works of 
literature. But he never attempted such criticism ; 
and for the work he had to do the appreciation 
of our modern English or American masters he 
was almost infallible. And surely no writer has 
ever praised his contemporaries and rivals as he did. 
He seems to have written with no thought of self, 
with a humility almost pathetic. He may be said 



to have discovered Hawthorne, and he crowned him 
king of the short story. His article on Bryant is still 
a just estimate. The innocently imitative quality 
of Longfellow's genius offended him, but he speaks 
of the New England poet otherwise with respect, 
and calls him the leading poet of the day. He 
fairly returned Lowell's praise. His enthusiasm for 
Tennyson was excessive : it was idolatry. He pointed 
out Mrs. Browning's faults, but wrote of her with a 
fervor which no one else has imitated. His eulogy 
of the singularly neglected R. H. Home sets one in 
a glow. This high and generous appreciation of the 
best in contemporary literature was coupled with a 
decided distaste for trash, and, unfortunately, his 
calling as a critic compelled him to deal more with 
trash than with excellence. He wrote his Dunciad, 
and after his death the dunces had their revenge. 

Every one of Foe's greater poems is a distinct 
and original effort. He could not repeat himself. 
In the case of the majority of poets, the style is the 
same throughout or at most they have two or 
three different manners. It would not be difficult, 
for example, to piece together, into a seamless whole, 
portions of separate poems by Wordsworth or Ten- 
nyson. But each one of Foe's is a vital entity 
born once, and not again. He is not, in poetry, one 
of those constellations which spread over half the 
sky, which hold their heads in the zenith while their 
skirts are obscured below the horizon, rather, he 
is a small compact cluster of stars. If we could 
imagine the stars of the Pleiades differently colored 
one red, one yellow, one green, and so forth, 
but each one vividly aflame in its several hue we 
should get a good image of Poe's poetry. He is not, 
like Shelley, a poet of the fourth dimension, yet 
neither is he distinctly sensuous, and he furnishes 
but few copy-book maxims or proverbial phrases. 
Rather in him imagery, diction, music, merge into 
one effect, as fire is a compound of a hundred dif- 
ferent things. His thought, too, does not obtrude 
itself. He has, indeed, what I might call the senti- 
ment of profundity rather than special precision of 
thought. 

Poe's tales seem to me the third collection in 
point of merit in literature the other two being 
the Arabian Nights and Boccaccio. He has not the 
humor of the one nor the human nature of the other ; 
but he surpasses them both in depth and imagina- 
tion, and for originality he is unrivalled anywhere. 
No one else has opened so many paths, burst into- 
so many new regions of romance. Indeed, as one 
sees authors all over the world painfully following 
in his tracks, each one exploring a single region 
which Poe discovered and dismissed in a few pages, 
one feels that he was the compendium of all possible 
literary pioneers and explorers a dozen Colum- 
buses rolled into one. 

There is a small group of Poe's tales, usually 
passed over, which is worth a moment's mention. 
It consists of " The Power of Words," " The Col- 
loquy of Monus and Una," " The Conversation of 
Eiros and Charmion," " Shadow, a Fable," and 



42 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 16, 



" Silence, a Parable." They are not wanting in a 
certain alloy of De Quinceyism which at times mars 
Foe's style of perfect plainness ; but they are singu- 
larly impressive in thought. They have that man- 
ner or sentiment of profundity which I have spoken 
of, more even than his poems ; and they lead up to 
Poe's final work, " Eureka." 

" Eureka " has, I judge, been less read than any- 
thing else Poe wrote. Certainly it has been little dis- 
cussed. The average critic probably finds it difficult 
to place, and so lets it alone. It is difficult to place. 
It is too scientific for rhapsody too plain for 
mysticism ; and yet it is hardly either science or 
metaphysics. It might be tersely described as the 
ideas of Spinoza in the language of Newton. Poe 
as a thinker resembles those old Greek philosophers 
Pythagoras, Parmenides, or Empedocles who 
chanted in verse their luminous guesses as to the 
origin and constitution of things, without troubling 
themselves as to any analysis of their knowledge. 
Coleridge said of Spinoza that if It rather than I 
was the central fact of existence, Spinoza would be 
right. It and not I was the basis of the Pre-Socratic 
Greek thinkers ; and perhaps our most modern 
philosophy has the same foundation. Schopenhauer's 
substitution of Will for Consciousness as the final 
fact, and the Darwinian theory, both tend that way. 
Without knowing anything of Schopenhauer, and 
anterior to Darwin, Poe's thought also tends that 
way. He has nothing of the mathematical pedantry 
of Spinoza, and of course none of the immense sci- 
entific detail of the evolutionists ; but I do not see 
why his guess is not as good as theirs. In one very 
startling idea he seems to have been anticipated. 
Deducing that the Universe is finite mainly be- 
cause laws cannot be conceived to exist in the 
unlimited he goes on to say there may yet exist 
other worlds and other universes, each in the bosom 
of its own private and peculiar God. Cardinal 
Newman is authority for the statement that Franklin 
used to dally with this idea in conversation. Poe, 
while in Philadelphia, may possibly have heard of 
Franklin's speculation. I can recall nothing like it 
elsewhere. 

I have not space to follow Poe into the other 
spheres of his intellectual activity into his studies 
in Landscape Gardening and Household Decoration, 
on Versification and the Philosophy of Composition, 
and much else. Poe, in my judgment, was the great- 
est intellect America has produced assuredly the 
best artist. He reminds me of a sower stalking down 
a furrow and scattering broadcast seed which a mul- 
titude of crows attendant upon him appropriate to 
their own use and behoof without a single croak of 
thanks. In a crude new world, a spirit was born to 
whom even the old world, where time has mellowed 
and enriched men's lives by layer on layer of myth 
and metaphysic, drift after drift of legend and his- 
tory, decay above decay of citadels and cities and 
empires, to whom even this soil and surrounding 
would have seemed harsh and strange. The crude 
new world could make nothing of this spirit, except 



that it was not worth while to waste good provisions 
on such an uninvited guest, and that it was best to 
huddle him into his grave with lies. But enough ! 
The little that Poe got is gone. The much that he 
gave remains a glory forever. 

CHARLES LEONARD MOORE. 



THE VIRGINIA MEETING OF 
THE MODERN LANGUAGE ASSOCIATION. 



The most important feature of the sixteenth annual 
meeting of the Modern Language Association of Amer- 
ica, which was held December 27, 28, and 29, in the 
buildings of the University of Virginia, at Charlottes- 
ville, was the announcement of the completion of the 
Report of the Committee of Twelve, which had been 
appointed two years ago at the meeting held in Cleve- 
land. As stated in the resolution creating the Com- 
mittee, the object was, " (a) to consider the position of 
the Modern Languages French and German in 
Secondary Education; (ft) to examine into and make 
recommendations upon methods of instruction, the train- 
ing of teachers, and such other questions connected with 
the teaching of the Modern Languages in the Secondary 
Schools and the Colleges as in the judgment of the 
Committee may require consideration." The personnel 
of the Committee was as follows: Prof. Calvin Thomas, 
Columbia University, Chairman; E. H. Babbitt, Secre- 
tary; B. L. Bowen, H. C. G. Brandt, W. H. Carruth, 
S. W. Cutting, A. M. Elliott, C. H. Grandgent, G. A. 
Hench, H. A. Rennert, W. B. Snow, and B. W. Wells. 

The Report is about twenty-five thousand words in 
length, and its presentation in full was therefore impos- 
sible. Professor Thomas gave a summary, which showed 
the thoroughness with which every phase of the subject 
had been studied, and indicated conclusively that the 
document must be considered as final and decisive for 
many of the points investigated. The historical part 
of the paper is of very great interest, while the con- 
structive value of the suggestions will depend upon 
their general adoption. The Report has been asked 
for by the United States Bureau of Education, and will 
doubtless be published in the series of educational pub- 
lications. It will be finally acted upon by the Associa- 
tion at its next annual meeting. 

The attendance at the meeting was in round numbers 
one hundred, which must be regarded as a large repre- 
sentation. The various Eastern universities and colleges 
all sent good delegations. Harvard had an unusually 
strong representation, while Johns Hopkins, Yale, and 
Columbia contributed materially to the success of the 
meeting. As was to be expected, the Southern colleges 
were also represented in large numbers. 

The great number of papers read made it necessary 
to limit each speaker to twenty minutes. This was felt 
to be a hardship by some of the delegates, but most of 
those who came with papers had reduced their studies 
to the form of abstracts or presented merely a part of 
their investigations. To these the shortness of the time 
allowed was in no sense an inconvenience. An unusual 
number of the papers had more than special interest, 
and there can be observed from year to year a distinct 
effort to select topics which will be of value to the larger 
body of the delegates present. Until this effort is con- 
sistently carried out, the reading of the essays will not 
attract the attention that they in most cases merit. 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



43 



An invitation from the Central Association to hold a 
joint meeting in Indianapolis next December was de- 
clined because it had been proposed to have a Philolog- 
ical Congress in the year 1900. 

The election of Professor H. C. G. von Jagemann, 
one of the founders of the Association, to the Presidency 
for next year was generally regarded as peculiarly ap- 
propriate. The other changes in officers included merely 
the substitution of Messrs. L. E. Menger, H. S. White, 
and W. D. Toy, for Messrs. C. T. Winchester, Bliss 
Perry, and A. R. Hohlfeld, on the Executive Council. 

The social arrangements, which were in the hands of 
the local committee, Professors Charles W. Kent, James 
A. Harrison, and Paul B. Barringer, included two very 
handsome receptions, a luncheon, and an excursion to 
the home of Thomas Jefferson at Monticello. The gen- 
uine Southern hospitality accorded on all hands to the 
members contributed greatly to the success of one of 
the best meetings ever held by the Association. 

THOMAS STOCKHAM BAKER. 

Johns Hopkins University, Jan. 2, 1899. 



THE NEBRASKA MEETING OF THE 

CENTRAL MODERN LANGUAGE 

ASSOCIATION. 

The fourth annual meeting of the Central Division 
of the Modern Language Association of America was 
held December 27, 28, and 29, in the library building 
of the University of Nebraska, at Lincoln. There was 
a relatively small attendance, as was to be expected at 
a meeting held so far to one side of the district, yet 
there was a representation of many states and of all the 
departments interested. Moreover, there was some gain 
in the way of closer contact and greater freedom of 
intercourse and discussion, due perhaps to the smaller 
circle. Doubtless one element in determining the choice 
of Lincoln as a meeting-place was the presence of that 
veteran scholar, Professor Edgren, and his participation 
was a powerful attraction of the sessions. 

In addition to the address by the President, Professor 
C. Alphonso Smith, of the University of Louisiana, on 
" The Work of the Modern Language Association," the 
following papers were read : " Certain Peculiarities of 
the Structure of the I-Novel," by Miss Katherine Mer- 
rill, of Austin, 111. ; " The Root-changing Verbs in Span- 
ish " and " Historical Dictionaries," by Professor A. H. 
Edgren, of the University of Nebraska; "Leonard Cox 
and the First English Rhetoric," by Dr. F. I. Carpenter, 
of the University of Chicago; "Tense Limitations of 
the Modal Auxiliaries in German," by Professor W. H. 
Carruth, of the University of Kansas; " The Poetic 
Value of Long Words," by Professor A. H. Tolman, of 
the University of Chicago; " The Origin of Some Ideas 
of Sense-perception," by Professor E. A. Wood, of Cor- 
nell College, Iowa; "Dramatic Renaissance," by Miss 
Anstice Harris, of Rockford College, 111. ; " A Method 
of Teaching Metrics," by Mr. Edward P. Morton, of the 
University of Indiana; " Wilhelm Miiller and the Ital- 
ian Folksong," by Dr. Philip S. Allen, of the Univer- 
sity of Chicago; " Le Covenant Vivien," by Professor 
Raymond Weeks, of the University of Missouri; "Anglo- 
Saxon Readers," by Miss Louise Pound, of the Univer- 
sity of Nebraska; "Poe's Critique of Hawthorne," by 
Dr. H. M. Belden, of the University of Missouri; and 
" The Concord of Collectives," by Professor C. Alphonso 



Smith, of the University of Louisiana. Several other 
papers that were announced did not arrive in time to 
be presented, or were read by title. In addition to these 
papers, Professor Starr W. Cutting, of the University 
of Chicago, on behalf of the Committee of Twelve, pre- 
sented its report on Entrance Requirements in Modern 
Languages. This is a committee of the whole Associa- 
tion, which has been working for two years on the sub- 
ject named, and the report, which is to be printed by 
the National Bureau of Education, will probably go far 
toward establishing approximate standards in modern 
language teaching, while tending to improve the quality 
of the work done as well as of the ideals for the future. 
It would be impossible in the space of such a notice 
as this even to mark the striking features of the many 
interesting papers read. Besides the scholarly and 
charming address of the President, some of the papers 
that aroused particular interest and discussion were 
those by Miss Merrill, Mr. Morton, Dr. Allen, and Dr. 
Carpenter. President Smith and Secretary Schmidt- 
Wartenberg were reflected. Receptions were given to 
the members of the Association by Professor Edgren, 
and by the University Club. w H CARRUTH- 

Lawrence, Kas., Jan. 5, 1899. 



COMMUNICA TION. 

BOOK DISTRIBUTION: A SUGGESTION. 
(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

Your editorial of January 1 on the Distribution of 
Books reminds me of a letter which I had in my hands 
a year or two ago, in which Mr. Caleb Atwater gave a 
contemporaneous account of his method of disposing of 
his " History of Ohio." He simply loaded the edition 
into a wagon, took the lines into his own hands, and 
drove up and down the settled portions of the state dis- 
posing of copies wherever he could find a buyer, as any 
honest farmer might dispose of his surplus cabbages. 
There was no furnishing of innumerable copies to hun- 
gry reviewers, no tribute to the newspapers for adver- 
tising, no division of income with the middle-man in 
any shape or form. 

Now here is a bonanza for some literary celebrity who 
is bold enough to embrace it. Imagine Mr. Marion 
Crawford drawing up to your door in a Roman chariot 
with a supply of " Ave Roma Immortalis," or Mr. 
Manilla Garland in an ox-cart with his newest illustra- 
tion of Western freshness and unconventionality in lit- 
erature, or Mr. Lafcadio Hearn in a jinrikisba with a lap 
full of his latest Japanese studies, or Colonel Roosevelt 
dashing up on a mustang with a knapsack full of his 
forthcoming " Rough Riders " and a commissary wagon 
with the rest of the edition following behind ! Who 
could resist the temptation to buy, especially when the 
distinguished author could without any extra charge put 
his autograph on the fly-leaf while you were fumbling 
in your pockets for the money ? We have been told 
again and again that the production of literature is a 
business and should be conducted on business principles, 
and we have seen a growing tendency to adopt any 
method of securing a market which has proved success- 
ful in other lines of business: now here is something 
which will be an attractive novelty to a novelty-loving 
generation, let us see who will be the first to start. 

W. H. JOHNSON. 

Granville, Ohio, Jan. 12, 1899. 



44 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 16, 



UNEXPLORED ASIA.* 



The appetite of the public, which has been 
whetted for Dr. Hedin's book, "Through Asia," 
by some preliminary tid-bits, can now judge of 
the feast as a whole. Certainly we find here an 
interesting record of very large achievements, 
perhaps we might say unique achievements, 
in exploration. By quite primitive means of 
travel, Dr. Hedin, between 1893 and 1897, 
covered more than 6500 miles of rough and 
desert country, and over 2000 miles of this 
was through regions wholly unexplored, while 
the rest was only very partially known through 
one, two, or at the most three predecessors. 

The field of Dr. Hedin's very remarkable 
exploits was the largest unknown territory on 
the globe. We know more of Central Africa, 
perhaps even of Central South America, than 
of the vast central plateau of Asia, called the 
Pamirs, and of the great mountain systems 
radiating thence, the Hindu-Kush, Kwen-Lun, 
Kara-Korum, and Himalayas. In these stu- 
pendous solitudes, in the immense weird wastes 
of this " Roof of the World," amidst awful 
scenery, more lunar than terrestrial, Dr. Hedin, 
alone save for a few native guides, journeyed 
for months and years, observing, measuring, 
and mapping, with unfaltering scientific enthu- 
siasm. 

The most salient episode in these volumes is 
undoubtedly Dr. Hedin's account of his well- 
nigh disastrous trip across a portion of the 
Gobi Desert. Lost in the desert, he records 
in his diary, April 30, 1895 : 

" Rested on a bigh dune, where the camels gave up. 
We scanned the eastern horizon with a field-glass 
nothing but mountains of sand in every direction ; not a 
blade of vegetation, not a sign of life. Nothing heard 
of Yollehi, either in the evening or during the night. 
My men maintained he had gone back to the stores we 
had left behind, intending to keep himself alive on the 
tinned provisions, while he fetched help to carry off the 
rest. Islam believed he was dead. There were still a 
few drops of water left from the morning, about a tum- 
blerful in all. Half of this was used in moistening the 
men's lips. The little that remained was to be divided 
equally between us all in the evening. But when even- 
ing came we discovered that Kasim and Mohammed 
Shah, who led the caravan, had stolen every drop! We 
were all terribly weak, men as well as camels. God 
help us all!" 

The days immediately succeeding were ter- 
rible days, most of his men and animals per- 

* THROUGH ASIA. By Sven Hedin. In two volumes, 
illustrated. New York : Harper & Brothers. 



ishing with thirst. At length, on May 5, his 
faithful companion Kasim failed him, and he 
crawled and hobbled painfully through a forest 
to the dry bed of the Khotan-daria River. 
However, after searching he found a pool in a 
thicket. 

" It would be in vain for me to try to describe the 
feelings which now overpowered me. They may be 
imagined; they cannot be described. Before drinking 
I counted my pulse: it was forty-nine. Then I took 
the tin box out of my pocket, filled it, and drank. How 
sweet that water tasted! Nobody can conceive it who 
has not been within an ace of dying of thirst. I lifted 
the tin to my lips, calmly, slowly, deliberately, and 
drank, drank, drank, time after time. How delicious! 
What exquisite pleasure ! The noblest wine ever pressed 
out of the grape, the divinest nectar ever made, was 
never half so sweet. My hopes had not deceived me. 
The star of my fortunes shone brightly as ever it did. 
I do not think that I at all exaggerate if I say that dur- 
ing the first ten minutes I drank between five and six 
pints. The tin box held not quite an ordinary tumbler- 
ful, and I emptied it quite a score of times. At that 
moment it never entered my head that, after such a long 
fast, it might be dangerous to drink in such a quantity. 
But I experienced not the slightest ill effects from it. 
On the contrary, I felt that cold, clear, delicious water 
infused new energy into me. Every blood-vessel and 
tissue of my body sucked up the life-giving liquid like 
a sponge. My pulse, which had been so feeble, now 
beat strong again. At the end of a few minutes it was 
already fifty-six. My blood, which had lately been so 
sluggish and so slow that it was scarce able to creep 
through the capillaries, now coursed easily through every 
blood-vessel. My hands, which had been dry, parched, 
and hard as wood, swelled out again. My skin, which 
had been like parchment, turned moist and elastic. And 
soon afterwards an active prespiration broke out upon 
my brow. In a word, I felt my whole body was imbib- 
ing fresh life and fresh strength. It was a solemn and 
awe-inspiring moment." 

Dr. Hedin then filled his water-proof boots 
with the water, and went back for Kasim, but 
did not find him till the following morning. 

" When I came to Kasim, he was lying in the same 
position in which I left him. He glared at me with the 
wild, startled eyes of a faun; but upon recognizing me, 
made an effort, and crept a yard or two nearer, gasping 
out, ' I am dying.' ' Would you like some water ? ' I 
asked, quite calmly. He merely shook his head, and 
collapsed again. He had no conception of what was in 
the boots. I placed one of the boots near him, and 
shook it so that he might hear the splashing of the 
water. He started, uttered an inarticulate cry; and 
when I put the boot to his lips, he emptied it at one 
draught without once stopping; and the next moment he 
emptied the second." 

Having revived Kasim and started him toward 
the pool, Dr. Hedin set out to find assistance, 
and proceeded along the river bed for more 
than two days, subsisting on grass, reeds, and 
frogs, and drinking from occasional pools, till 
he fell in with some shepherds, and at length 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



45 



recovered Kasim and a second companion 
Islam Bai, and one camel with its load. 

Another salient episode is the account of the 
discovery of buried cities in the Gobi desert. 
Of these cities other travellers have reported 
rumors, but Dr. Hedin is, we believe, the first 
traveller to find and explore them. He found 
a portion of the desert which contained dead 
forests, dead rivers, their beds filled with sand, 
and dead and buried cities. A flourishing re- 
gion had been engulfed by the ever-shifting 
sands. Of the first city he says : 

" This city of Takla-raakan, for that is the name my 
guides gave to it we will retain the name, for it is 
instinct with a wealth of mysterious secrets, of puzzling 
problems, which it is reserved for future inquiry to 
solve this city, of whose existence no European had 
hitherto any inkling, was one of the most unexpected 
discoveries that I made throughout the whole of my 
travel in Asia. Who could have imagined that in the 
interior of the dread Desert of Gobi, and precisely in 
that part of it which in dreariness and desolation ex- 
ceeds all other deserts on the face of the earth, actual 
cities slumbered under the sand, cities wind-driven for 
thousands of years, the ruined survivals of a once flour- 
ishing civilization ? And yet there stood I amid the 
wreck and devastation of an ancient people, within 
whose dwellings none had entered save the sandstorm 
in its days of maddest revelry; there stood I like the 
Prince in the enchanted wood, having awakened to new 
life the city which had slumbered for a thousand years, 
or at any rate rescued the memory of its existence from 
oblivion." 

He gives reasons, from the remains found, for 
thinking that this city dates back perhaps 1500 
years and was the work of Buddhistic Aryans. 
Further on in the desert another city was found. 
The party continued on the way to the north 
across the desert, and fell in with numbers of 
wild camels, which, however, Dr. Hedin thinks 
are descended from tame animals. He crossed 
the desert successfully, reaching the Tarim 
River, and explored in the region of the Lop- 
nor Lakes. In one marshy place he notes that 
the reeds were 

" As tightly packed together as the palings in a wooden 
palisade. In some places they were indeed so densely 
matted together, and so strong, that we actually walked 
along the top of the tangled mat they made, without 
for a single instant being reminded that there was ten 
feet of water immediately under our feet." 

Shortly after this expedition he made his final 
trip, going through unexplored Northern Tibet 
and Tsaidam to China. In this high barren 
plateau region he travelled for two months with- 
out seeing men, and even animals were rather 
rare. He describes quite fully the wild asses 
and wild yaks. The latter he pictures as the 
Royal monarch of the desolate wilds of Tibet an 
animal which excites our admiration not only in virtue 



of its imposing appearance, but also because it alone of 
living creatures is able to defy the loftiest altitudes, the 
bitterest cold, the most violent snow-storms and hail- 
storms which occur in any part of the earth. To all 
these things the wild yak is indifferent. He seems 
rather to enjoy it when the hail pelts down upon his 
back; and when the snows envelope him in their blind- 
ing whirl he goes on quietly grazing as though nothing 
were the matter. The only extremity of climate which 
seems to disturb his equanimity is the summer sunshine. 
When it gets too warm for him he takes a bath in the 
nearest stream, climbs up the mountains to the cool ex- 
panses of the snow-fields and the curving hollows of the 
glaciers, where he finds an especial pleasure in rolling 
himself, and lying down to rest in the powdery snows 
of the neves" 

In this Dr. Hedin rather forgets the musk-ox, 
which has similar habits. 

We could wish that Dr. Hedin had given a 
fuller account of the natives of the various 
countries he visited ; but his notices of them are 
mainly incidental. He throws, however, some 
light on the Kirghiz of the Pamirs, and on the 
shepherds, hunters, and fishermen of the Tarim 
Basin, and we have some interesting and even 
amusing accounts of the Chinese in Turke- 
stan. He thus describes a Chinese dinner at 
Kashgar : 

" I recollect something about an ancient Greek deity 
who swallowed his own offspring. I have read in Persian 
legend about the giant Zohak, who devoured two men's 
brains every day at a meal ! I have heard rumors of 
certain African savages who invite missionaries to din- 
ner and give their guests the place of honor inside the 
pot. I have been set agape by stories of monstrous big 
eaters, who at a single meal could dispose of broken 
ale-bottles, open pen-knives, and old boots. But where 
are all these things as compared with a Chinese dinner 
of state, with its six-and-forty courses, embracing the 
most extraordinary products of the animal and vegetable 
worlds it is possible to imagine? For one thing, to 
mention no more, you need to be blessed with an extra- 
ordinarily fine appetite or else be a Chinaman to 
appreciate smoked ham dripping with molasses. . . . 
On one of the walls there were painted two or three 
black flourishes. I enquired what they signified, and 
was told that they meant, ' Drink and tell racy stories.' 
There was no need for any such admonition, for the 
spirit which reigned over the company was so hilarious, 
and we transgressed so wantonly against the strict rules 
of Chinese etiquette, that the Dao Tai and his compa- 
triots must surely have blushed for us a score of times 
had not their skins been from infancy as yellow as sun- 
dried haddocks." 

As to the accessories and manufacture of 
these volumes, we have a word of criticism. 
The many illustrations from photographs and 
sketches are fairly good, and the maps are ex- 
cellent. The map of the route is divided into 
two parts, one being appended to each volume ; 
but it would have served the reader much better 
to have had one large map of the whole in a 



46 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 16, 



pocket. The volumes are bulky and heavy, 
and the paper so highly glazed as to be un- 
pleasant and even painful to the eye. We wish 
our American publishers could take lessons 
from the English in these regards, say from 
Bentley, whose books are both easy to the hand 
and a delight to the eye. 

As to the matter, the main defect of this 
work of 1200 pages is, strange to say, its undue 
brevity. The author evidently has abundance 
of material for a half-dozen such books, and, 
in the effort to cover the ground in one, the 
work suffers greatly from compression. A 
sketchy summary takes us along too fast. We 
do not want to ride at sixty miles an hour 
through charming scenery. Besides, in his 
endeavor to address both scientists and the 
general public, Dr. Hedin fails to satisfy either 
fully. If he could have devoted one volume 
to his journeys in the Gobi Desert, written up 
on the same detailed scale as that used to de- 
scribe his narrow escape from death on his first 
journey, and if he had given a second volume 
to a scientific summary of all his travels, it 
might have been an improvement. However, 
Dr. Hedin has certainly shown that he is one 
of the most remarkable explorers of this cen- 
tury, and this book is much the most important 
work on Central Asia that has appeared of 
recent years, and so deserves the attention of 
the specialist and the general reader alike. 

HIRAM M. STANLEY. 



MR. LESLIE STEPHEN'S STUDIES OF A 
BIOGRAPHER.* 



Mr. Leslie Stephen always amply repays us 
for time spent in his perusal, and this is emi- 
nently true of. his latest work, a collection, in 
two handsome volumes, of recent essays and 
occasional addresses which have in most cases 
already appeared in different periodicals. The 
contents embrace a range of subjects as wide 
apart as the causes of Scott's financial ruin and 
the history of the English newspaper, and a 
space of time bounded by Pascal and Tennyson. 

The introductory essay, entitled " National 
Biography," suggests Mr. Stephen's editorship 
of " The Dictionary of National Biography," 
which contains the fruits of so many years of 
his literary activity. The author starts out by 
quoting a contemptuous remark of Cowper on 

* STUDIES OF A BIOGRAPHER. By Leslie Stephen. In two 
volumes. New York : Q. P. Putnam's Sons. 



the " Biographia Britannica," the forerunner 
of the " Dictionary," that it was 

" A fond attempt to give a deathless lot 
To names ignoble, born to be forgot." 

With reference to his own labors in increasing 
the length of this long procession of the hope- 
lessly insignificant, Mr. Stephen first looks at 
the matter from the point of view of a certain 
Simon Browne, a Non-conformist divine of the 
last century, who had received a terrible shock 
of such a nature that his mind became affected. 
" He fancied that his ' spiritual substance ' had 
been annihilated ; he was a mere empty shell, 
a body without a soul." Under these distress- 
ing circumstances he turned to an employment 
which did not require a soul : he became a dic- 
tionary-maker ! The author then proceeds to 
justify his own dictionary-making in a delight- 
ful essay, which might very well be the preface 
to the " Dictionary of National Biography." 
The sound sense is spiced with biographical 
lore, which no soulless dictionary-maker of the 
Browne variety could ever have amassed. 

The study entitled " John Byrom " is a prac- 
tical illustration of Mr. Stephen's belief in & 
justification of rescuing pastworthies from ob- 
livion. Every reader will thank him heartily 
for reviving the memory of a man who, to his 
long-forgotten merits, has added the new one of 
calling forth a most enjoyable essay from one 
of the best of living prose writers. The reader 
also learns, if he did not already know (as 
probably he did not), who was the author of 
" tweedle-dum and tweedle-dee." 

" Johnsoniana " is primarily a review of the 
" Johnsonian Miscellanies," the concluding vol- 
ume of Dr. Birkbeck Hill's great work on the 
life of Dr. Johnson ; secondarily, although first 
in point of interest, it is a resume of Johnson- 
ian anecdotes not to be found in Boswell's Life. 
Mr. Stephen has brought together most inter- 
esting extracts from Miss Reynolds, who em- 
phasizes the " asperous " side of her brother's 
friend, from Mrs. Piozzi, Madame D'Arblay, 
and other lesser lights of the Johnsonian circle. 
In a few keen sentences the author analyzes the 
genius which made a vain little toady the most 
celebrated of modern biographers. The essay 
is a valuable supplement to the author's own 
" Life of Johnson." 

Two of the articles are valuable as sources 
of information. " The Evolution of Editors " 
traces the history of the English newspaper 
from its feeble beginnings in Grub Street, when 
the editor was both publisher and contributor, 
to its present position of power. " The Impor- 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



47 



tation of German " is a brief account of the intro- 
duction of the German language and literature 
into England. It suggests a similar history of 
the importation of German into America. 

The study of Matthew Arnold, originally 
delivered as an address before an academic 
body, is full of interest as coming from a man 
of an entirely different intellectual type. Mr. 
Stephen insists, with frequent repetition, that 
he is himself a good Philistine, that he certainly 
would have been pronounced such by Arnold. 
This is, of course, a pardonable bit of self- 
banter that we do not take seriously ; but the 
lack of intellectual sympathy is unmistakable. 
As the author himself puts it, it is the funda- 
mental difference between the poetic and the 
prosaic, or, as we would say, scientific mind. 
While expressing the highest esteem for Ar- 
nold, whom he knew personally, Mr. Stephen 
cannot help regarding him as the " over-fastid- 
ious don," and must have his little fling at 
" intellectual coxcombry and dandyism." His 
contempt for that great " movement " which 
was so potent a factor in Arnold's development, 
he does not conceal. Nevertheless, he renders 
full justice to Arnold's powers as poet and 
critic, and freely acknowledges his services as 
the prophet of culture. Mr. Stephen's criti- 
cism of Arnold's criticism is keen and search- 
ing. Arnold's strength as a critic was also his 
weakness. He was " too much inclined to trust 
to his intuitions, as if they were equivalent to 
scientific and measurable statements." Instead 
of scientific analysis, we are told, Arnold's pro- 
cess was to fix a certain aspect of things by an 
appropriate phrase, thus substituting one set 
of prejudices for another. These " appropriate 
phrases " are repeated to weariness, " with a 
certain air of laying down a genuine scientific 
distinction as clear-cut and unequivocal as a 
chemist's analysis." Arnold's merits as a critic 
are thus summed up : 

" His criticism is anything but final, but it is to be 
taken into account by every man who believes in the 
importance of really civilising the coming world. How 
the huge all-devouring monster which we call Democ- 
racy is to be dealt with, how he is to be coaxed or lec- 
tured or preached into taking as large a dose as possible 
of culture, is really one of the most pressing of prob- 
lems. Some look on with despair, doubting only by 
whatever particular process we shall be crushed into a 
dead level of monotonous mediocrity. I do not suppose 
that Arnold or anyone else could give any solution of 
the great problems; what he could do, and did, I think 
more effectually than anyone, was to wake us out of our 
dull complacency to help to break through the solid 
crust, whatever seeds may be sown by other hands." 

Mr. Stephen has naturally little or no sym- 



pathy with Arnold's criticism of religion. As a 
member of the " prosaic class of mankind," he 
does not think that Arnold has solved the great 
problem by relegating religion to the sphere of 
poetry. The prosaic mind (and the majority 
of mankind are prosaic) requires plain state- 
ments of facts as well as poetic statements of 
moral ideals. Arnold's mode of treating great 
problems is too " airy and bewildering " for 
Mr. Stephen's acceptance ; the poet has got the 
upper hand of the critic. Whether the reader 
will agree with this estimate of the great apostle 
of culture, will depend a good deal on his hav- 
ing the prosaic or the poetic temperament. But 
whatever his personal attitude to Arnold, he 
will feel the sincerity of Mr. Stephen's con- 
cluding remark : 

" Putting on a mask, sometimes of levity, sometimes 
of mere literary dandyism, with an irony which some- 
times is a little too elaborate, but which often expresses 
the keenest intelligence trying to pass itself off as sim- 
plicity, he was a skirmisher, but a skirmisher who did 
more than most heavily-armed warriors, against the vast 
oppressive reign of stupidity and prejudice." 

The essay on Tennyson is another brilliant 
piece of criticism. Mr. Stephen is not an un- 
qualified admirer of the late Laureate, or, as 
he himself puts it, " not quite of the inner circle 
of true worshippers." He cannot call him a 
vates. His own type of mind prevents this, his 
intellectual dissent from Tennyson being as 
marked as in the case of Arnold. He does not 
like Tennyson's philosophy ; in his judgment 
the poet "is always haunted by the fear of 
depriving your sister of her ' happy views,' and 
praises a philosopher for keeping his doubts to 
himself." 

" Tennyson, even in the In Memoriam, always seems 
to me to be like a man clinging to a spar left floating 
after a shipwreck, knowing that it will not support him, 
and yet never able to make up his mind to strike out 
and take his chance of sinking. That may be infinitely 
affecting, but it is not the attitude of the poet who can 
give a war-cry to his followers, or of the philosopher 
who really dares to ' face the spectres of the mind.' " 

Those who have read Mr. Stephen's essay 
entitled " An Apology for Plainspeaking " will 
understand this criticism more fully. In 
Matthew Arnold's phrase, it is the judgment of 
incompatibility, and but few would be willing 
to accept it as a final word on Tennyson. u The 
judgment of gratitude and sympathy " and that 
of conscientious incompatibility must supple- 
ment and rectify each other. The ardent Tenny- 
sonian will resent an estimate of the Laureate 
which excludes him from the rank of the " great 
sage poets," but can hardly refuse to accept the 
explanation of Tennyson's extraordinary popu- 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 16, 



larity as owing to the fact that " he could ex- 
press what occurred to everybody in language 
that could be approached by nobody." 

Mere mention must suffice for the remaining 
studies, which are more or less delightful ac- 
cording to the reader's interest in the subject. 
" Jowett's Life," " Oliver Wendell Holmes," 
" The Story of Scott's Euin," " Pascal," " Gib- 
bon's Autobiography," " Arthur Young," and 
" Wordsworth," in addition to those particu- 
larly noted, make up a menu of much variety. 
The admirers of Mr. Stephen will find in these 
volumes all his excellences vigorous think- 
ing, plain speaking, and great charm of style. 
ELLEN C. HINSDALE. 



CHINA IN HISTORY AND IN FACT.* 

Now that the ancient empire of the Middle 
Kingdom seems to be crumbling in decay, a 
History of China which bears evidence of con- 
scientious study and a judicial habit of mind 
deserves a cordial welcome. Such appears to 
be the character of the work which Mr. Boul- 
ger reissues after a thorough revision. The 
narrative is well sustained, the style lucid, and 
the author has done what he could to relieve 
from dulness a work constructed upon the lines 
which the scope of this history required. 

The sources of all ancient history lie in the 
realms of myths and mystery ; and we cannot 
expect Chinese history to be an exception. It 
is a comfort to learn that we may go back so 
far before we strike the debatable border-land. 
The first ruler of China who seems to have se- 
cured for his nation a position of influence was 
one Hwangti, who lived 2637-2577 B. C. It 
is said of him that he subdued his enemies, 
built roads for traffic and ships for commerce, 
revised the calendar, regulated weights, meas- 
ures, and provinces upon a decimal system, and 
that to his inspirations and aspirations much 
of the subsequent glory of China may be attrib- 
uted. There is also mention of an earlier Em- 
peror, Fohi, whose date was 2950 B. C., and 
whose authenticity was approved by Confucius. 

These dates take us at a bound beyond most 
of the periods whose history we are accustomed 
to consider ancient. They reach beyond the 
founding of Rome, the siege of Troy, the sheik- 
ship of Abraham, five hundred years beyond 
Sargon of Babylon, to the time of Amenemhat 



* THE HISTORY OF CHINA. By Demetrius C. Boulger. In 
two volumes. New York : The Macmillan Co. 



of Egypt, when Thebes was in her glory. From 
the reign of Hwangti until this day the sceptre 
has not departed from China. For more than 
four and a half millenniums, the Middle King- 
dom has been governed by a continuous suc- 
cession of rulers, numbering nearly two hun- 
dred and sixty princes belonging to twenty- 
eight dynasties. Other than Chinamen have 
sat upon the throne, including Tartars, Mon- 
gols, and Manchus ; but the ruler of China has 
always been within China. She was never the 
vassal of a government seated in a foreign land. 

The position of China is, and has always 
been, geographically unique. She has occupied 
the broad area of southeastern Asia, a country 
well watered and fertile, diversified in aspect, 
climate, soil, and productions, unrivalled in 
its capacity to support a teeming population. 
Northwardly this country extended to arctic 
Siberia, inhabited by nomadic and untutored 
tribes ; east and south lay the oriental seas, 
which until the fifteenth century were never fur- 
rowed by an occidental keel ; to the southwest 
were a few disunited peoples with no cohesion 
to make them formidable ; while along the 
western borders lay the vast mountain ranges of 
the Himalayah and the Karakorum, the " roof 
of the world," which no western horde ever 
traversed, and none from the east ever passed 
save when Genghis Khan led his victorious 
Mongols beyond the remotest borders of the 
Caspian and the Euxine seas, to the conquest 
of Russia, Hungary, and Poland. 

China was thus enclosed within a large but 
limited area, and this area she usually domin- 
ated. Her quarrels were with the neighbors who 
dwelt with her within these natural boundaries. 
Otherwise she had no commerce nor contact with 
the nations of the world. Children who grow 
up in isolation lack a certain sturdy discipline 
gained in conflicts with other children. It is 
not strange that China should come to estimate 
at more than its true value her culture, her 
prowess, and her right of empire. Until the 
earlier years of the seventeeth century the lit- 
terati of China had not learned that the round 
world had another side, where dwelt people 
both strong and learned. Still less did they 
imagine that such people would come to chal- 
lenge their authority or to disturb the internal 
economy of their empire. 

During twenty-seven of her twenty-eight dy- 
nasties, China was self-contained. Her political 
history, which is all that Mr. Boulger attempts 
to give, is merely an account of the rise and 
demise of families and princes. Kingti sue- 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



49 



ceeded Wenti and was succeeded by Vouti. 
Some rulers were good, some bad, some worse. 
The only parallel is the Book of the Chronicles 
of the Kings of Israel. No one can realize the 
utter nakedness of history sitting in the rattling 
panoply of her bones, so fully as when he fol- 
lows this procession of two hundred and fifty 
kings in their weary march through five hun- 
dred octavo pages. There is little sign of flesh 
and blood, of the humanity that lived and loved 
or hated and suffered in those ancient days. 

A new element entered into the life of China 
when the western nations, in their quest of dis- 
covery, trade, and colonies, began to push their 
ships into Chinese ports. For two centuries 
these nations came in peaceful ways upon mis- 
sions of peace. They asked the privilege of 
trade, to buy the commodities which China had 
in abundance to sell ; to sell such merchandise 
as Chinamen might wish to buy. Especially 
did they wish that their representatives might 
be received by the Emperor, and might treat 
on equal and honorable terms with function- 
aries of suitable rank whom he might deign to 
appoint. From the first the western nations 
determined to allow their representatives to 
submit to no ceremony degrading in form or 
meant to typify homage or vassalage towards a 
superior. For a long time the Chinese author- 
ities evidenced a purpose not to permit any 
approach to the emperor under other conditions. 

There was also a rooted aversion to trade. 
The Chinese feared and believed that the bal- 
ance of trade would be against them ; that her 
people would buy more than they could sell, 
the balance to be paid by the withdrawal of 
coin, which they were convinced would result 
in bankruptcy. They had not learned that 
trade begets trade. 

From time to time these conflicts of ideas 
developed into conflicts of arms, in which the 
Chinese were unable to contend successfully. 
The first passage at arms was with England in 
1840. Unfortunately, the admission of opium 
was one of the points at issue. As to this, Mr. 
Boulger contends, and with apparent reason, 
that the opium question was raised by the Chi- 
nese only as a pretext. In the discussions which 
preceded the appeal to arms, English merchants 
gave up opium to the amount of $10,000,000 
for confiscation ; but the lives of eighteen En- 
glishmen, to be yielded without trial or pro- 
cess of law, they would not concede. After a 
critical study of the facts, our own ex-President 
John Quincy Adams asserted that the real issue 
of this so-called opium war was not opium but 



the Kotow, and that the English were in the 
right. 

The English were victorious, and a treaty of 
amity was negotiated at Nankin, only to be 
evaded, and its ratification avoided, until, in a 
later resort to arms, the English forced the 
defenses at Pekin and dictated terms of sur- 
render. Conflicts with other nations have re- 
sulted in like misfortune to the Chinese. 

An interesting chapter describes the rise and 
progress of the Taeping Rebellion, and its 
desultory character, too weak to succeed, yet 
fighting a government too weak to overcome it. 
An American named Ward collected and drilled 
a force of 5000 Chinese, to which he gave, by 
way of bravado, the name of the Ever Victo- 
rious Army, a name which it presently earned 
the right to wear. Ward was killed in action. 
His successor, an adventurer named Burgevine, 
after hiring himself in turn to both rebels and 
the imperial power, was repudiated by both. 
Then began the remarkable career of one Cap- 
tain Charles Gordon, afterwards known as 
" Chinese " Gordon. He gathered, drilled, 
disciplined, and fought an army of Chinese 
with phenomenal success, and destroyed the 
rebellion. His sad fortune when, in Africa, he 
was abandoned to the fury of the Mahdists, is 
too well remembered. 

The story of the war with Japan, sharp, 
short, and decisive, is told with a true appre- 
ciation of this highly dramatic event. The 
lessons taught by this war only repeat those 
which should have been learned before. Under 
stress of suffering, China spent her treasure for 
weapons of the best manufacture, ships of the 
most approved design, and fortresses which by 
nature and art should have been impregnable. 
The only use she has been able to make of her 
forts, her ships, and her guns, is to hand them 
over to her victorious foes. Her soldiers can 
fight under proper officers, and they can die ; 
but they did not avail against the Japanese. 
Her officers and diplomats appear to be equally 
deficient. Defeats teach them no principles of 
public policy. The logic of artillery is effect- 
ive only within the range of the piece. 

The distressing feature of the Chinese situ- 
ation exists in the conditions of its intellectual 
life. For centuries this has suffered from a 
sort of creeping paralysis. It is permeated by 
an intellectual dry-rot, which has consumed all 
personal, social, and political vitality. The ex- 
terior may have been fair to see, but when the 
armor of exclusiveness is pierced the whole 
structure crumbles. The cause of the disease 



50 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 16 r 



must be coextensive with the disease. It will 
be found in the combined systems of civil ser- 
vice and of education. Much has been heard 
in praise of both. Every public officer must 
win his appointment by merit, and that merit 
is judged by the accuracy of his education. 
Without considering the utilities which might 
grow out of such conditions, we observe that 
they fail to follow here because the education 
required is that of the Chinese type, an educa- 
tion which does not educate. It is an education 
that is purely formal and without vitality. It 
has no stimulus, no power of development, no 
illumination. Its vision is ever backward, never 
forward. Only the thing that hath been is that 
which shall be. The wise maxims of Confucius 
and of Mencius appear to have little influence 
upon life and action. The scientific phase is 
conspicuously absent. The stimulus of the 
science of the nineteenth century has not been 
felt in China. 

In marked contrast has been the action of 
the Japanese. After an earnest resistance, sud- 
denly the Japanese saw a great light, and be- 
gan to glean from the science and the discipline 
of the Occident whatever could be adapted in 
the Orient. The whole nation rejoices in the 
consequent revival. But the Chinese persist- 
ently debars not merely Western merchandise 
but also Western science and Western culture 
as well. 

The impending fall of the Manchu dynasty 
need cause no regrets. It had no natural rights 
in China, and it has been an insurmountable 
barrier to national development. The world 
must wish that a better fate might befall an 
empire so ancient and venerable. The situation 
is thus stated by Mr. Boulger : 

" If the Chinese realized their position there would 
be ground for hope; but so far as can be judged, there 
is not a public man in China who perceives that the 
state is on the verge of dissolution, and that nothing 
short of the most strenuous exertion will avail to save 
not the dynasty but the country from death." 

SELIM H. PEABODY. 



THE " Tale of Beowulf sometime King of the Folk 
of the Wedergeats," as translated by Messrs. William 
Morris and A. J. Wyatt, has hitherto been obtainable only 
as a publication of the Kelmscott Press, whence it issued 
in 1895. An edition for the general purchaser, as distin- 
guished from the bibliophile, is now offered by Messrs. 
Longmans, Green, & Co. An index of persons and 
places is provided, as also a glossary of the archaic words 
used by the translators. There are only seventy or 
eighty of the latter, and many of these are familiar to 
the reader of average intelligence. The publication of 
this edition is a great boon to teachers and students of 
English poetry. 



RECENT POETRY.* 

A few reminiscences of a sojourn " In Palestine" 
gives the title to a new volume of verse now put forth, 
by Mr. Richard Watson Gilder, after a silence of 
nearly five years. The volume contains, besides 
versified memories of Egypt, Greece, and Provence, 
songs of the finer heroism, and many of those per- 
sonal and occasional pieces in the writing of which 
Mr. Gilder is an adept. The following irregular 
sonnet may he taken as an example of the best of 
the work here offered us. 

" Love's look finds loveliness in all the world : 

Ah, who shall say This, this is loveliest ! 
Forgetting that pure beauty is impearled 

A thousand perfect ways, and none is best. 
Sometimes I deem that dawn upon the ocean 

Thrills deeper than all else ; but, sudden, there, 
With serpent gleam and hue, and fixed motion, 

Niagara curves its scimetar in air. 
So when I dream of sunset, oft I gaze 

Again from Bellosguardo's misty height, 
Or memory ends once more one day of days 

Carrara's mountains purpling into night. 
There is no loveliest, dear Love, but thee 
Through whom all loveliness I breathe and see." 

* IN PALESTINE, and Other Poems. By Richard Watson, 
Gilder. New York : The Century Co. 

IDYLLIC MONOLOGUES. Poems by Madison Cawein. Lou- 
isville : John P. Morton & Co. 

THE SONG OF THE WAVE, and Other Poems. By George 
Cabot Lodge. New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 

THE GOLDEN PERSON IN THE HEART. By Claude Fayette 
Bragdon. Gouverneur, N. Y. : Brothers of the Book. 

THE FLYING SANDS. By Wallace Rice. Chicago : R. R. 
Donnelly & Sons Co. 

A CHRISTMAS GARLAND, with a Few Flowers for the New 
Year. By Clinton Scollard. Privately Printed. 

FROM SUNSET RIDGE. Poems Old and New. By Julia 
Ward Howe. Boston : Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

WHEN THE BIRDS Go NORTH AGAIN. By Ella Higginson.. 
New York : The Macmillan Co. 

IMPRESSIONS. A Book of Verse. By Lilla Cabot Perry.. 
Boston : Copeland & Day. 

ENGLAND AND YESTERDAY. A Book of Short Poems. By 
Louise Imogen Guiney. London : Grant Richards. 

BEN KING'S VERSE. Edited by Nixon Waterman. Intro- 
duction by John McGovern. Biography by Opie Read.. 
Chicago : Forbes & Co. 

THE POEMS OF FRANCIS BROOKS. Edited, with a Prefatory 
Memoir, by Wallace Rice. Chicago : R. R. Donnelly & Sons Co. 

A CENTURY OF INDIAN EPIGRAMS. Chiefly from the San- 
skrit of Bhartrihari. By Paul Elmer More. Boston : Hough- 
ton, Mifflin & Co. 

SONGS FROM THE GHETTO. By Morris Rosenfeld. With 
Prose Translation, Glossary, and Introduction by Leo Wiener. 
Boston : Copeland & Day. 

PHIL-O-RUM'S CANOE AND MADELEINE VERCHERES. Two. 
Poems by William Henry Drummond. New York : G. P. 
Putnam's Sons. 

LABOR AND THE ANGEL. By Duncan Campbell Scott- 
Boston : Copeland & Day. 

ODES IN CONTRIBUTION TO THE SONG OF FRENCH HIS- 
TORY. By George Meredith. New York : Charles Scribner's 
Sons. 

PICTURES OF TRAVEL, and Other Poems. By Mackenzie 
Bell. Boston : Little, Brown, & Co. 

SONGS OF ACTION. By A. Conan Doyle. New York : 
Doubleday & McClure Co. 

PERSEPHONE, and Other Poems. By Charles Camp Tarelli. 
New York : The Macmillan Co. 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



The following passage, from " A Winter Twilight 
in Provence " a poem inspired by thought of the 
wars that once ravaged that fair land was written 
two years ago, and is not without an ironic applica- 
tion to the events of the past few months. 

" Dear country mine ! far in that viewless west, 
And ocean-warded, strife thou too hast known ; 
But may thy sun hereafter bloodless shine, 
And may thy way be onward without wrath, 
And upward on no carcass of the slain ; 
And if thou smitest, let it be for peace 
And justice not in hate, or pride, or lust 
Of empire. Mayst thou ever be, O land, 
Noble and pure as thou art free and strong ! 
So shalt thou lift a light for all the world 
And for all time, and bring the Age of Peace." 

Two years ago these ideals seemed to earnest Amer- 
icans not impossible of realization ; to-day, they are 
clearly considered by great numbers of our fellow- 
citizens as the merest counsels of perfection, not to be 
taken into serious account by the practical statesman. 
Will not Mr. Gilder write for us a new " Ichabod," 
inscribed this time, not to an individual, but to a 
nation, in danger of proving recreant? 

Mr. Madison Cawein has put forth numerous 
volumes of verse, and the last of them is like the 
first and all the others in the general impression 
left by their perusal. That impression is of marked 
poetical powers carelessly employed. The author 
has sensibility, and even passion ; he has also con- 
siderable facility in the use of poetic diction ; but 
he has none of the restraint that should go with 
these qualities, and it is obvious that much of his 
verse is hastily flung from him with little care for 
its fate. In his new volume of " Idyllic Mono- 
logues," for example, there is no justification for so 
rough a line as this from " The Moated Manse," 

"The year-old scars, made by the Royalists' balls," 
or for the violence of language that characterizes 
the greater part of this poem. Half a dozen or more 
of these versified narratives fill all but a few pages 
of the volume. In these few latter pages the author 
gets greatly excited about the destruction of the 
" Maine " and the atrocities of Spanish rule, showing 
that his verse can be as hot-tempered when it deals 
with actual history as when it is concerned with vain 
romantic imaginings. For an extract since there 
should be one we will take a stanza in which Mr. 
Cawein is at his best, because at his simplest. 
" Here where the season turns the land to gold, 
Among the fields our feet have known of old, 
When we were children who could laugh and run, 
Glad little playmates of the wind and sun, 
Before came toil and care and years went ill, 
And one forgot and one remembered still, 
Heart of my heart, among the old fields here, 
Give me your hands and let me draw you near, 
Heart of my heart." 

Early in the examination of Mr. George Cabot 
Lodge's volume of verse, on two pages that face 
each other, we find this stanza, the ocean speaking : 
" I have lavished my largess of comfort, 

Taken earth in mine arms like a child, 
Taught the children of life of its splendour, 
Brought their eyes to the light unbeguiled." 



And this, of the wave : 

" This is the song of the wave ! the mighty one ! 
Child of the soul of silence, beating the air to sound : 
White as a live terror, as a drawn sword, 
This is the wave." 

Mr. Swinburne and Mr. Henley, we say at once, 
and these names are suggested many times over in 
what follows. A little later, we come upon an 
" After- Word " in this strain : 

" What of life-songs then, and what of death-songs ? 
Sound and fury down the babbling ages, 
They shall cease, the echoes pass and perish ; 
On the void the 'stablishment eternal 
Bides alone the Soul's gigantic silence," 

and we know that Mr. Lodge has taken his Brown- 
ing to heart. These things, and work so frankly 
imitative as " The Gates of Life," which is a vari- 
ation upon Mr. Swinburne's " Hesperia," are not 
set down to Mr. Lodge's discredit. He is clearly a 
young writer such gloom and world -weariness, 
such echoes of Leconte de 1'Isle and Leopardi, are 
the certain evidence of that, and he is without the 
saving sense of humor, as one may see from the 
appeal to his own soul to " be stern and adequate," 
which somehow reminds us of the 

"Terrible, indigne", calme, extraordinaire" 
of Victor Hugo, who thus describes the attitude 
which he will assume when face to face with God. 
But Mr. Lodge has studied good models of the sort 
of poetry young men most affect, and most poets 
find themselves by first sitting at the feet of their 
masters. In spite of all that we have said, Mr. 
Lodge's work seems to us to be full of promise ; its 
utterance is large, and its rhythmic power is unde- 
niable. He is most clearly himself in such a poem 
as " Fall," from which we extract, with genuine 
pleasure, these closing lines, inspired by an autumn 
dawn : 

"This moment stolen from the centuries, 
This foretaste of the soul's oblivion 
We hold and cherish, and because of this 
Are life and death made perfect, and thy woes 
Turn lyric through the glory we have won. 
The morning flower that drew its petals close 
And slept the cold night through is now unfurled 
To catch the breathless moment ; big and sane 
Our autumn day forsakes the gates of rose, 
And like a lion shakes its golden mane 
And leaps upon the world." 

Mr. Claude Fayette Bragdon's book is easily re- 
viewed. There are about forty pages of it, averag- 
ing seven lines to a page. " The Golden Person in 
the Heart," the titular poem, is a versified statement 
of the essentials of Brahmanism. This is the sort 
of thing : 

" A man, to cleanse this inward mirror, should 

Before all else, learn and obey the law, 
And next acquire a blameless livelihood : 
Steadfast in duty and in doing good, 
His mind from things of sense let him withdraw." 

A captious person might think that the author of 
this poem had complied with the counsel of the last 
line, but Emerson's " Brahma " met with the same 
criticism. Our objection is that it is not poetry. 



52 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 16, 



The rest of the book consists of such things as 
" Cities." 

" New York, London, Paris, Rome, 

Seemed vast and grand while I staid home, 

But seeing them, I soon found that 

I held them all beneath my hat." 

All of which is not very promising. 

The sheaf of verses gleaned by Mr. Wallace Rice 
from the growth of many years of preoccupation 
with poetical matters contains a number of skilfully- 
wrought pieces. " Chryseis on the Sands " is partic- 
ularly charming, and here is the last of its three 
stanzas : 

" Ages ago old Chryses clasped his daughter, 

Happy that she was his and not the King's ; 
Smiling through tears beside that Asian water 
Lovely Chryseis, home at last, still stands. 
Many another bard some maiden sings 
Dearer to me Chryseis on the sands, 
Ages ago." 

Mr. Rice has been the artificer of many sonnets, but 
with rare restraint has adjudged only one of them 
deserving of a place in this little volume. Would 
that other poets might submit their work to this 
process of natural selection ! The sonnet in ques- 
tion is a fine improvisation upon the greatest of 
Spinoza's great words. 

" No freeman, saith the wise, thinks much on death: 
No man with soul he dareth call his own 
Liveth in dread lest there be no atone 
In time to come for yesterday's warm breath, 
No more than he for such end hungereth 
As falls to those who speed their souls a-groan ; 
Death may be King, to sit a tottering throne 
And hale men hence let cowards cringe to Death ! 

" Who giveth, taketh ; and the days go by, 

No seed sowed we ; let him who did come reap : 

Sweet peace is ours and everlastingly, 
A little sleep, a little slumber : Aye, 

This much is known : there is for thee and me 
A little folding of the hands to sleep." 

Songs and sonnets alternate, with almost unfailing 
regularity, in Mr. Clinton Scollard's fifty pages of 
new verse. " Summer by the Sea " is one of the 
best of the sonnets. 

" If thou wonldst win the rhythmic heart of things, 

Go sit in solitude beside the shore, 

Giving thine ear to the eternal roar 
And every mystic message that it brings 
Eddas of ancient, nnremembered kings, 

And runes that ring with long-forgotten lore. 

All myths and mysteries from the years of yore 
Ere Time grew weary on his journeyings. 

" And more from that imperious sibyl, Sea, 

Thou mayest learn if thou wilt hearken well, 

When God's white star-fires beacon home the ships : 
The solemn secrets of infinity, 
Unto the inner sense translatable, 

Hang trembling ever on her darkling lips." 

This might have for its text the " Time's self it is, 
made audible," of Rossetti's matchless lyric. 

The poems of Mrs. Julia Ward Howe have been 
collected into a volume which bears the title " From 
Sunset Ridge." 

" Of all my verses, say that one is good " 
is her modest plea to the critic, but the author of 



the " Battle-Hymn of the Republic " may safely 
await a larger measure of approval than that. Still, 
the famous poem just named remains almost the 
only one in the volume that makes the impression 
of spontaneity ; no doubt it was thought out, like 
the others ; but the difference is that the others 
show that they have been studied, and the " Battle- 
Hymn " does not. The poems are mostly personal 
or occasional, strongly infused with religious senti- 
ment, and pointing some very marked moral. Mrs. 
Howe is at her best in such verses as these addressed 
to Pio Nono : 

" Where glory should have crowned thee, failure whelms, 
Truth judges thee, that should have made thee great ; 
Thine is the doom of souls that cannot bring 
Their highest courage to their highest fate," 

or these upon Dante : 

"See, beneath the hood of grief, 
Muffled bays engird the brow. 
Fame shall yield her topmost bough 
Ere that laurel moult a leaf." 

At first sight Mrs. Higginson's collection of 
poems, " When the Birds Go North Again," seems 
to be the usual sort of thing. There are sonnets, 
and lyrics, and bits of religious or didactic verse 
all upon such themes as every versifier attempts. A 
closer examination, however, reveals the fact that this 
writer, while often amateurish in manner and crude 
in technique, has an unusual gift of passionate imag- 
ination, and at her best rises high above the plane 
whereon most minor poets disport themselves. We 
take Mrs. Higginson's best to be such work as this : 
" God, let me be a mountain when I die, 

Stung by the hail, lashed by tormenting rains ! 
Let lava fires surge, turbulent and high, 

With fiercest torture thro' my bursting veins ; 
Let lightnings flame around my lonely brow, 

And mighty storm-clouds race, and break, and roar 
About me ; let the melted lava plough 

Raw furrows in my breast, torment me sore, 
O God ! Let me hate loneliness, yet see 
My very forest felled beneath my eyes. 
Give me all Time's distilled agony, 

Yet let me still stand, mute, beneath the skies ; 
Thro' storms that beat and inward fires that burn, 

Tortured, yet silent ; suffering, yet pure, 
That torn and tempted hearts may lift and learn 
The noble meaning of the word, endure. 1 ' 

The ending is feeble enough, but what precedes has 
no small measure of daring strength. " A Thank- 
Offering " is another poem from which we must 
quote three stanzas : 

" Lord God, for some of us the days and years 

Have bitter been ; 

For some of us the burden and the tears. 
The gnawing sin. 

" For some of us, God, the scanty store, 

The failing bin ; 
For some of us the gray wolf at the door, 

The red, within ! 
" But to the hungry Thou hast given meat, 

Hast clothed the cold ; 

And Thou hast given courage strong and sweet 
To the sad and old." 

If we had space for further quotation, the two son- 
nets, " Yet Am I not for Pity," should be given, but 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



53 



we must be content to say that the volume which 
contains them will well repay examination, and is a 
promising addition to American minor poetry. 

Mrs. Perry's " Impressions " are lyrical pieces, 
taking the form of the song, the sonnet, or the ron- 
deau, and embodying in graceful verse many a mood 
of rapture, tenderness, and spiritual aspiration. We 
choose for our example the lines which go with 
" A Flower from Carnac." 
" I plucked this bit of yellow gorse for thee 
By a huge menhir where on Carnac's shore 
The long waves murmur dirges evermore 
For men dead ere the birth of history. 
Here once they lived whom Time's immensity 
Hath quite o'erwhelmed, and blotted out their page 
From the world's book ! On them may learned sage 
Descant, and poet dream, here by the sea! 

" But none may know what were their thoughts, their lives 
None e'er may know ! none living or unborn ! 
Were these their tombs built where the strong sea strives 
In vain to hold the warm elusive sands ? 
Were these hard by their altars, where forlorn 
They stretched to Heaven imploring empty hands? " 

The spiritual quality, so marked in this sonnet, is 

the predominant characteristic of Mrs. Perry's pure 

and heartfelt song. 

A slight volume of sonnets and lyrics by Miss 

Guiney, entitled " England and Yesterday," proves 

one of the most acceptable collections of the year ; 

its finished and delicate art may be illustrated by 

" A Porch in Belgravia." 

" When, after dawn, the lordly houses hide 
Till you fall foul of it, some piteous guest, 
(Some girl the damp stones gather to their breast, 
Her gold hair rough, her rebel garment wide, 
Who sleeps, with all that luck and life denied 
Camped round, and dreams how seaward and southwest 
Blue over Devon farms the smoke- rings rest, 
And sheep and lambs ascend the lit hillside), 
Dear, of your charity, speak low, step soft, 
Pray for a sinner. Planet-like and still, 
Best hearts of all are sometimes set aloft 
Only to see and pass, nor yet deplore 
Even Wrong itself, crowned Wrong inscrutable, 
Which cannot but have been, forever more." 

Suggestions of the history and literature of England 
provide themes for most of these poems, the one we 
have quoted being made somewhat exceptional, not 
so much by its sympathy with suffering as by its 
note of modernity. 

Two neat volumes contain the verses left by two 
men, residents of Chicago, who died at an early age. 
Ben King, who died in 1894, and whose literary 
remains are gathered up and edited by three of his 
devoted friends, was a journalist whose marked 
talent found expression in dialect verses of the rustic 
type, in rollicking negro songs, and in such broadly 
pointed jests as " That Valentine." 

" Once, I remember, years ago, 

I sent a tender valentine ; 
I know it caused a deal of woe. 
Once, I remember, years ago, 
Her father's boots were large, you know. 

I do regret the hasty line, 
Once, I remember, years ago, 

I sent a tender valentine." 



The best-known pieces of this writer are the two 
beginning 

" If I should die to-night " 
and 

" Nothing to do but work, 
Nothing to eat but food." 

These have been widely reprinted and praised by 
his admirers. 

The " Poems " left by Francis Brooks, who died 
early last year, make a volume far more serious and 
significant than the one just mentioned. The inter- 
esting introductory memoir supplied by the editor, 
Mr. Wallace Rice, tells us of the life of the poet, 
how he became, first a lawyer, then a physician, 
and how, when " professional success was in his very 
grasp, the voice within him grew too strong to be 
disregarded," and he set about becoming a poet. 
Nearly two years ago, the first-fruits of his literary 
labors took shape in a small volume called " Mar- 
gins." It was distinctly promising, but the writer 
still knew that he had much to learn, of both nature 
and life, and determined upon an experiment simi- 
lar to that made by Mr. Walter Wyckoff, the results 
of which are recorded in the fascinating volumes of 
" The Workers." In a word, Brooks set out to work 
his way from Chicago to California, and to learn 
the common lot of mankind by accepting to the full 
its responsibilities and its hardships. The under- 
taking was too much for his physical powers, and he 
returned to his home in the grasp of a fever that 
resulted in his untimely death at the age of thirty- 
one. Of the three sections which comprise this 
volume of his work, the first reproduces the " Mar- 
gins " that formed his only publication during life. 
They are somewhat too irregular to be good poetry, 
and betray the influence of Whitman, although in 
attitude and spirit rather than in form. They were, 
in fact, dedicated " To Him " 

" Whose plenteous hand and fertile brain 
Bid flowers that fade to bloom again, 
Whose eyes are sanctity, whose brow 
Doth wear the aureole e'en now." 

The second section, called " Preludes," reveals an 
advance in finish and an increasing depth of thought, 
and closes with four really remarkable quatorzains 
suggested by the life of Christ. One of them 
" Jesus Wept " we quote. 

" At eve He rested there amidst the grass, 

And as the stars shone out He dreamed of God, 
His destiny, the distant kingdom all of glass 

And gold ; He watched the reapers homeward plod ; 
Became aware of strength for holy deeds 

Astir within Him ; turned His eyes to where 
The Great Sea rolled a sight that ever breeds 

A hunger for deep powers ; felt that there 
A symbol was of His far-spreading mind, 

His restless strong desire, and marked perchance 
The tiny specks of moving sail ; divined 

Of time and space the secret circumstance, 
And when His gaze was wearied, softly wept 
And was consoled then to His shelter crept." 

The third section contains nearly a hundred pieces, 
all in the same simple yet elaborate form of verse, 
a variation devised by the author upon the basis of 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 16, 



the roundel. We may take " The Reformer " to 
illustrate at once the form of the verse and the ar- 
dent aspiration of the writer for a purer national life. 

" He sought not fame, he made no claim, 
He longed to see the spirit's flame 
Burn out a venal nation's shame, 
He sought not fame. 

" But faithful still through scorn, neglect, 
Through ridicule and dear hopes wrecked. 
Always with love he struck the lyre, 
Ne'er in revenge, hatred, nor ire. 

11 Here but a shard I bring the bard, 
Misfortune's own and evil-starred 
Burnt in the glaze, unbroken, hard. 
He sought not fame." 

" Blots on the fair fame of his country," says the 
editor, " affected him like personal disgrace, and, 
next to singleness of purpose, patriotism sounds the 
fundamental note of his best lines." We may add 
that we have rarely been so impressed with a poet's 
absolute sincerity as we have in reading this volume. 

Bhartrihari was a Brahman of princely lineage, 
who is said to have reigned in Oujein early in the 
Christian era. Like Buddha, he forsook his state, 
and went to cultivate philosophy in a cave for the 
rest of his life. A little book of epigrams bearing 
his name has come down to us, and Mr. Paul Elmer 
More has put an even hundred of them into English 
verse, not, however, without taking liberties like 
those taken by FitzGerald in his dealings with the 
Tent-maker. The motive that made a philosopher 
of the prince is given in this quatrain : 

"Better, I said, in trackless woods to roam 

With chattering apes or the dumb grazing herds, 
Than dwell with fools, though in a prince's home, 
And bear the dropping of their ceaseless words." 

It is the full-grown philosopher who speaks in the 
following verses : 

" Like as our outworn garments we discard, 
And other new ones don : 

So doth the Soul these bodies doff when marred 
And others new put on. 

" Fire doth not kindle It, nor sword divides, 
Nor winds nor waters harm ; 
Eternal and unchanged the One abides, 
And smiles at all alarm." 

Finally, it is the deepest of all spiritual experiences 
that is reflected in this counsel : 

" Like an uneasy fool thou wanderest far 
Into the nether deeps, 
Or upward climbest where the dim-lit star 
Of utmost heaven sleeps. 

"Through all the world thou rangest, O my soul, 
Seeking and wilt not rest ; 
Behold, the peace of Brahma, and thy goal, 
Hideth in thine own breast." 

The thought of this Sanskrit sage is well worth 
studying in Mr. More's agreeable transcription. 

Yiddish is the dialect, compounded of German 
and Hebrew, with some admixture of Slavonic, 
spoken by many of the Jews in Russia and Austria. 
It has had a sort of literature of its own for some 
four centuries, but nothing noteworthy until of late, 
when it has become the vehicle of a considerable 



amount of folk-song. Its most remarkable achieve- 
ment, however, is found in the songs of Mr. Morris 
Rosenfeld, a Polish Jew who learned the tailor's 
trade, and as an American immigrant spent many 
years of weary toil in the sweat-shops of New York. 
His verses, recently brought to the attention of the 
critic by Mr. Leo Wiener, are now published in a 
volume that sets the Yiddish and the English trans- 
lation face to face with one another. They are true 
lyrical treasure-trove, and, lest the name of Yiddish 
terrify our reader overmuch, we hasten to explain 
that to read these poems is merely to read German 
and hunt up an occasional unfamiliar word in the 
glossary. An illustration will make this clear. 

" Nit vun Friihling's siissen Wetter, 
Nit vun Engel, nit vun Gotter 
Singt der ehrlicher Poet ; 
Nit vun Felder, nit vun Teichen, 
Was gehoren jetzt zum Reichen, 
Nor vun Kworin, was er seht. 

" Elend seht er, Not un' Schmerzen, 
Wunden tragt er tief im Herzen, 
Nit gelindert, nit gestillt ; 
Auf dem grossen Welt-bessalmen 
Kraehzt er trauerige Psalmen, 
Sfeimmt er an sein Harf un' spielt." 

Given " Bessalmen " = cemetery, and " Kworim " = 
graves, the rest is plain enough. It must be said, 
however, that the poet fails to live up to his own 
principles, for he does sing, and very melodiously, 
of spring and green fields and nightingales. Still, 
the most insistent note of his song is doubtless that 
of sympathy for the toiler, a sympathy born from 
bitter personal experience, and poignant in its 
pathos. He might almost be called the Heine of 
the sweat-shop and the factory, and his message is 
one that should strike deep into the heart of every 
generous reader. 

Dr. William Henry Drummond, of Montreal, 
whose verses in portrayal of the life and dialect of 
the Canadian habitant have won so much favor for 
both author and subject, now publishes a small illus- 
trated volume containing two poems. The first, 
called " Phil-o-rum's Canoe," is in the dialect the 
author knows so intimately, the last stanza being : 
" You can only steer, an' if rock be near, wit' wave dashin' 

all aroun', 
Better mak' leetle prayer, for on Dead Riviere, some very 

smart man get drown ; 
But if you be locky an' watch yourse'f , mebbe reever won't 

seem so wide, 
An firse t'ing you know you '11 ronne ashore, safe on de 'nodder 

side." 

" Madeleine Vercheres," on the other hand, is in 
orthodox English, and tells a stirring tale of how a 
French maiden defended a fort from the Iroquois 
for six days, and until succor came from a distance. 
It is a ballad not unlike those of which Whittier 
had so many to tell. 

Few poets get so near as Mr. Duncan Campbell 
Scott to the very heart of nature. 

" In every heart the heart of spring 

Bursts into leaf and bud ; 
The heart of love in every heart 
Leaps with its eager flood." 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



55 



His new volume, " Labor and the Angel," is full of 
lovely songs, and none of them are more captivating 
than the four inscribed to the four seasons, and to 
the singer's " love Armitage." We reluctantly pass 
the first three by, to select the " Winter Song " 
which follows : 

"Sing me a song of the dead world, 

Of the great frost deep and still, 

Of the sword of fire the wind hurled 

On the iron hill. 

" Sing me a song of the driving snow, 
Of the reeling cloud and the smoky drift, 
Where the sheeted wraiths like ghosts go 
Through the gloomy rift. 

*' Sing me a song of the ringing blade, 
Of the snarl and shatter the light ice makes, 
Of the whoop and the swing of the snow-shoe raid 
Through the cedar brakes. 

44 Sing me a song of the apple-loft, 
Of the corn and the nuts and the mounds of meal, 
Of the sweeping whir of the spindle soft, 
And the spinning-wheel. 

' Sing me a song of the open page, 
Where the ruddy gleams of the firelight dance, 
Where bends my love Armitage, 
Reading an old romance. 

" Sing me a song of the still nights, 
Of the large stars steady and high, 
The aurora darting its phosphor lights 
In the purple sky." 

Of this poet we may safely say that the vision of 
the world is his, and the sentiment that lends beauty 
to the interpretation. 

Toward the close of the year 1870, Mr. George 
Meredith wrote an ode to France, then suffering 
the double humiliation of defeat and invasion. It 
was a noble poem, perhaps the finest that Mr. Mere- 
dith has ever written. This we said when it made 
its first appearance in one of the author's books, and 
'this we repeat after thinking the matter over for a 
number of years. Such a passage as the following 
would probably have been accepted by Matthew 
.Arnold as an example of the grand style in poetry. 
" Forgetful is green earth ; the Gods alone 
Remember everlastingly : they strike 
Remorselessly, and ever like for like. 
By their great memories Gods are known." 

.Nearly thirty years have passed since this ode was 
written, and the author now gives us three new "Odes 
in Contribution to the Song of French History," 
.their subjects being " The Revolution," " Napoleon," 
and " Alsace-Lorraine." In the volume that con- 
tains them he defiantly reprints the " France " of 
1870, deliberately forcing a comparison between 
the two manners thus illustrated. We have made 
a quotation from the early poem, let us now extract 
a characteristic passage from one of the later odes. 
The subject of the passage we surmise to be Napo- 
,leon ; but this is a world of uncertainties, and we will 
,not be dogmatic. 

" Hugest of engines, a much limited man, 
She saw the Lustrous, her great lord, appear 
Through that smoked glass her last privation brought 
To point her critic eye and spur her thought : 
A heart but to propel Leviathan ; 
A spirit that breathed but in earth's atmosphere. 



Amid the plumed and sceptred ones 
Irradiatingly Jovian, 

The mountain tower capped by the floating cloud ; 
A nursery screamer where dialectics ruled : 
Mannerless, graceless, laughterless, unlike 
Herself in all, yet with such power to strike 
That she the various features she could scan, 
Dared not to sum, though seeing : and befooled 
By power that beamed omnipotent, she bowed, 
Subservient as roused echo round his guns." 

In the name of all that is clear and sane and sym- 
metrical, we feel bound to protest against this riot 
of the parts of speech. We have not singled out 
an extremely unintelligible passage ; the poems con- 
tain scores of others just as muddy as this, and com- 
pared with them the most violent conceits of Donne 
or Sir Thomas Browne would seem to be reading 
for infant minds. We have no doubt that this pas- 
sage and its fellows have meanings ; we have no 
doubt that many readers might with due diligence 
work out those meanings ; but we have also no 
doubt that such an effort would be a woeful misap- 
plication of energy. These tailings of Mr. Mere- 
dith's ore are not rich enough to be worth treatment. 
What was once merely an affectation with him has 
become a disease, and we have no wish to inquire 
too curiously into his understanding of " incalescent 
scorpions " and " hydrocephalic aerolites," or to ask 
his interpretation of that Jabberwocky verse, 
"The friable and the grumous, dizzards both." 
But it may be observed, in concluding these remarks 
about a most perverse book, that not only have 
lucidity and proportion and style disappeared from 
Mr. Meredith's verse, but even music has accompa- 
nied them in their dismayed flight. " Rightly, then, 
should France worship, and deafen the disaccord 
of those who dare withstand an irresistible sword 
to thwart his predestined subjection of Europe." 
Would anyone, reading this, have the remotest sus- 
picion that it claimed to be poetry ? And of such 
verbiage as this are the " Odes " largely composed. 
If we have ever read verses more stale, flat, and 
unprofitable than Mr. Mackenzie Bell's " Pictures 
of Travel, and Other Poems," we cannot now recall 
the occasion. Why on earth should a man write 
and publish such stuff as this ? 

" 'Tis true amid our earthly life there runs 
A tangled thread of strange perplexity 
And much injustice ; yet comes by and by 
A nobler state of being, when that which seems 
Unjust will be explained or set aright." 

Or this? 

" Yet God who gave the pureness 

To yon fair mountain snow 
Gives also the secureness 
Whereby these roses blow." 

We have found nothing in the entire volume that 
rises much above the bald commonplace of these 
extracts. Yet it is a printed book. " This also is 
a mystery of life," as Mr. Ruskin says. 

If Dr. Conan Doyle has any regard for what is 
left of his literary reputation, he will allow his 
" Songs of Action " to remain the only volume of 
verses to which his name is attached. He is not a 



56 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 16, 



poet, and could never by any possibility become 
one. We have looked through this volume in vain 
for a single gleam of poetic feeling or a single 
instance of felicitous expression. We get instead 
martial episodes done in verse, horsey ballads, a 
poor imitation of Mr. Kipling's patriotic fervor, but 
nothing much nearer poetry than this " Parable ": 

" The cheese-mites asked how the cheese got there, 

And warmly debated the matter ; 
The Orthodox said that it came from the air, 

And the heretics said from the platter. 
They argued it long and they argued it strong, 

And I hear they are arguing now ; 
But of all the choice spirits who lived in the cheese, 

Not one of them thought of a cow." 

Mr. Charles Camp Tarelli's " Persephone " is a 
metrical version of the familiar form of the myth, 
done in easy hexameters like these : 
" Wide is the peopled earth, and many the hosts of the living ; 
Wider the realms of the shade, and the crowded legions of 

silent, 

Pale, and bodiless ghosts more numberless far than the toiling, 
Striving, rejoicing men who bless thee for prosperous har- 
vests." 

The poem is a pleasing performance, but praise must 
end with that statement. It is followed by two 
longish pieces, " Magna Mater " and " A Song of 
Arrival and Departure," which have in common the 
minor chord of Weltschmerz, which in both cases 
works into a crashing and triumphant resolution. 
The remaining contents are short things, sonnets, 
rondeaus, sestinas, and the like. The elegiac ode 
to Catullus is happily achieved, both as verse and 
characterization, and is not un suggestive of the 
classical experiments of Tennyson. Perhaps the 
most distinctive feature of these charming poems is 
the ever-recurring appeal to Nature as the sure 
refuge of the soul in distress. 

" O Mother ! lift again my head low- bowed, 
My aching head the bitter garland binds ; 
Quicken me with new life ; let thy great winds 

Blow on me through the swaying of thy trees ; 
Sweep by me with thy pageants of grey cloud, 
And rock me with the rolling of thy seas." 

This note occurs again and again, ringing and clear ; 
it is the final word of the poet's philosophy. 

WILLIAM MORTON PAYNE. 



BRIEFS ox NEW BOOKS. 

A Briton's Readers of that fascinating work, 

view of his Baedeker's "United States," will 

American kin. welcome a new book by the author, 
Mr. James Fullarton Muirhead, who now, in a less 
formal style than that conditioned by the guide- 
book, gives us " a Briton's view of his American 
kin " in a volume entitled " The Land of Contrasts " 
(Lamson). It is an attractive volume throughout, 
and not the least so in the penultimate chapter of 
" Baedekeriana," which empties the ragbag of the 
writer's recollections into the receptive lap of the 
reader. Why the book is entitled as it is may be 
illustrated by one of the many reasons given. " I 



have hailed with delight the democratic spirit dis- 
played in the greeting of my friend and myself by 
the porter of a hotel as ' You fellows,' and then had 
the cup of pleasure dashed from my lips by being 
told by the same porter that 'the other gentleman 
would attend to my baggage ! " A great many 
other contrasts are noted with similar good-humored 
acceptance of the conditions of life in a strange 
country. Mr. Muirhead knows us better than do 
most of the Englishmen who undertake to write 
about " the States," for he gave three years of travel 
and observation to the preparation of his " Bae- 
deker," and has since then become almost as good 
an American as the rest of us. He is as fair-minded 
as Mr. Bryce, and is ever ready to match our short- 
comings with those of his own people. Like most 
visitors from other countries, he is amazed at the 
easy-going way with which we put up with nuisances. 
" Americans invented the slang word ' kicker,' but 
so far as I could see, their vocabulary is here miles 
ahead of their practice ; they dream noble deeds, 
but do not do them. Englishmen ' kick ' much 
better, without having a name for it." Mr. Muir- 
head's tribute to the beauty of the White City is 
worth quoting in part. " We expected that America 
would produce the largest, most costly, and most 
gorgeous of all international exhibitions ; but who 
expected that she would produce anything so inex- 
pressibly poetic, chaste, and restrained, such an 
absolutely refined and soul-satisfying picture, as the 
Court of Honour, with its lagoon and gondolas, its 
white marble steps and balustrades, its varied yet 
harmonious buildings, its colonnaded vista of the 
great lake, its impressive fountain, its fairy-like out- 
lining after dark by the gems of electricity, its 
spacious and well-modulated proportions which 
made the largest crowd in it but an unobtrusive 
detail, its air of spontaneity and inevitableness 
which suggested nature itself, rather than art ? . . . 
It will to all time remain impossibly ridiculous to 
speak of a country or a city as wholly given over to 
the worship of Mammon which almost involuntarily 
gave birth to this ethereal emanation of pure and 
uneconomic beauty." It is still another of the au- 
thor's " contrasts " which impels him, on the next 
page, to speak of Chicago church architecture as 
" a studied insult to religion," a criticism which we 
must admit to be only too true. One of Mr. Muir- 
head's meatiest chapters is devoted to that calamity 
of our civilization that is known as American jour- 
nalism. The Sunday newspaper is pleasantly styled 
a " hog-trough," which it frequently is, and the 
severest strictures are made upon the sensational- 
ism, the vulgarity, the puerility, the flippant bru- 
tality, and the general disregard of everything that 
is true and lovely so characteristic of the " enter- 
prise " of our newspaper proprietors. All this, too, 
we must admit is richly deserved, and we thank the 
author for saying it. One more observation, timely 
and well framed, must close these extracts. It was 
made before the outbreak of the recent war, and is 
even more apposite now than it was when the words 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



57 



were written down. " The spectacle of a section 
in the United States apparently ready to step down 
from its pedestal of honorable neutrality, and run 
its head into the ignoble web of European compli- 
cations, was indeed one to make both gods and 
mortals weep." Whereby we may see that edifica- 
tion, as well as entertainment, is to be got from this 
most readable book. 

Readers of the last series of " Fors 
The predecessor of Clavigera," some fifteen years ago, 

Major Marchand. M i i i ,1 . -r T 

will perhaps remember that Mr. Kus- 
kin had some words on Mungo Park. In writing 
of Scott, Mr. Ruskin tells of some conversations 
which Sir Walter had with the famous explorer, and 
speaks severely of the man who was willing to quit 
the devoted work of a country doctor by the Tweed 
for the sake of tracing " the lonely brinks of useless 
rivers." Mungo Park was a loyal and unselfish man 
in the performance of his duties among the hills of 
Selkirkshire. Mr. Ruskin thought it was the desire 
for personal gain that forced him into his fatal jour- 
ney. Such an idea is by no means given in the sketch 
of Mungo Park written by Mr. T. Banks Maclachan 
for the " Famous Scots " series (imported by Scrib- 
ner), and we are inclined to think that Mr. Ruskin 
was in this one case mistaken. The fascination of 
exploration and the curiosity of science, these were 
the causes of Mungo Park's embarking on his second 
expedition, these and the desire to carry out what he 
had worthily begun . Mungo Park was the discoverer 
of the Niger. When Mr. Ruskin calls the Niger 
a useless river, he speaks as many Englishmen would 
have spoken fifteen years ago. Last spring, however, 
a different opinion was prevalent. This book, contain- 
ing a good account of Mungo Park's explorations on 
behalf of England a hundred years ago, is especially 
pertinent now that England is beginning to be vexed 
that the French are taking to themselves all the ad- 
vantages of those discoveries. All the upper Niger, 
the whole of the course that Mungo Park in 1805 
sailed to his death, is now claimed and exploited by 
the French. From St. Louis they went to the Niger, 
from the Niger to Lake Chad and the Upper Congo, 
from the Upper Congo to Fashoda. Even Timbuctu, 
which Tennyson discovered for poetry, was discov- 
ered for commerce by the French, and perhaps 
with equal advantage. However that may be, this 
little book will be read just now, as much as a sort 
of political pamphlet as for any other reason. But 
although present affairs on the Niger are of instant 
interest, Mungo Park should not be forgotten. He 
journeyed from Gambia, almost alone, and discov- 
ered the upper waters of the river that had been so 
long a mystery. He went again ten years afterwards 
with a company of forty-four, found the Niger again, 
and sailed down it. From that expedition no one 
ever returned, nor did any account of the death of 
Mungo Park reach Europe for some years. One by 
one his men had perished, till at the last there were 
but three with him, when the remnant of the expe- 
dition was swallowed up in the great river in a des- 



perate attempt to escape from unnumbered enemies. 
It was a heroic end : nor shall we take it upon our- 
selves to say that Mungo Park would have done 
better to have lived and died a country doctor by the 
Tweed. A man who is willing to die in pursuit of his 
duty has some right to say what that duty is. 

Birds and ^ n a nea * vo ^ ume entitled " Bird 

bird-worship Gods " (A. S. Barnes & Co.), Mr. 
in antiquity. Charles De Kay presents some at- 

tractive essays discussing the ideas held in ancient 
Europe regarding birds. The subject has been 
strangely neglected by folk-lorists and anthropolo- 
gists. Many of the heroes and gods of antiquity 
are accompanied by or associated with bird compan- 
ions, messengers, or servants. These birds share 
more or less the divinity of their masters. Mr. 
De Kay thinks that in many cases the birds are 
themselves regarded as divine, and that the respect 
and worship shown their masters or companions 
were originally theirs alone. A number of cases 
are cited where the god-character of the birds them- 
selves is clearly shown. The birds most respected 
by the ancients appear to be the dove, woodpecker, 
cuckoo, peacock, owl, swan, and eagle. Their inde- 
pendent attributes are usually well distinguished, 
but considerable confusion of them exists both in 
the popular ideas and in Mr. De Kay's treatment. 
Some of the author's suggestions are striking and 
original. Thus, he connects our vulgar expression 
" I swan " with an ancient practice of " swearing 
by the swan." His effort to explain the couvade 
by popular ideas concerning the brooding bird and 
the cuckoo is ingenious. Unfortunately, however, 
this chapter " The Couvade in Ireland and Persia " 
is so lacking in clearness that it must be consid- 
ered simply as a suggestion along a line which, 
clearly developed, may prove important. While 
admitting the great interest and value of the book, 
we feel that the author somewhat overrates the 
weight of his evidence regarding bird -worship, 
although the previous neglect of so interesting a 
field is some excuse for this over-estimate. It is 
also interesting to see how easily ingenious authors 
can use the same data to support extremely diver- 
gent theories. What Mr. George Cox insists are 
sun-myths are equally well interpreted as dawn- 
stories by Professor Max Mtiller or as bird-god tales 
by Mr. De Kay. The decorations of this book really 
deserve the special mention they hold in the title. 
They are original, quaint, and truly artistic. The 
artist's ingenuity in his pictures is almost equal to 
that of the author in his text. On the whole, " Bird 
Gods " is distinctly interesting, alike to folk-lorists, 
students of mythology, and general readers. 

Horse-shoe Another volume of folk-lore studies 

magic and other is presented by Dr. Robert M. Law- 
joik-iore. rence, under the title of the opening 

chapter, " The Magic of the Horse-shoe " (Hough- 
ton). Dr. Lawrence has chosen a popular subject 
and treats it popularly. His book consists of a 



58 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 16, 



tn En 



number of essays covering a considerable range of 
topics. In the first of them he traces the history 
of the horse-shoe, states the superstitions connected 
with it, and discusses the theories regarding their 
origin. While always interesting, the argument 
lacks definiteness and coherence. The other essays 
are : " Fortune and Luck," " Folk-lore of Common 
Salt," " Omens of Sneezing," " Days of Good and 
Evil Omen," " Superstitious Dealings with Ani- 
mals," and " The Luck of Odd Numbers." These 
are uneven in interest and treatment, although all 
of them show diligence in gathering data and some 
originality in treatment. A rather tiresome feature 
of Dr. Lawrence's work is the homily thrown into 
most of his essays, in which he deplores the exist- 
ence of the ideas and superstitions studied. This 
seems an unnecessary regret. A streak of super- 
stition is human : it will last while man lasts. 

A nation which has delighted in 
Dietrich Knickerbocker, and has 

' 

taken to its heart Sleepy Hollow and 
Rip Van Winkle, rather owes it to itself to become 
acquainted with Vondel and his " Lucifer." Look- 
ing back to the Dutch episode in our history, we 
sometimes fail to estimate rightly that vigorous 
people which produced Rembrandt, De Ruyter, Huy- 
gens, and various other noteworthy persons, among 
whom we might mention also Spinoza, since he was 
cast out by his own people. These gained wide 
fame largely because they did not have to trust to 
the feeble powers of speech: pictures, sea-fights, 
pendulums, philosophies, are all independent of lin- 
guistic boundaries. Like Milton, Vondel had the 
courage to write his great poem in his own tongue. 
Mr. Leonard C. Van Noppen has just translated it 
into ours (Vondel's Lucifer : Continental Publishing 
Co.), in a book that deserves mention for a number 
of reasons. It is excellently printed and bound, 
interestingly illustrated, and enriched with an Intro- 
duction by Professor W. H. Carpenter of Columbia, 
an Essay by Dr. G. Kalff of Utrecht, a sketch of 
Vondel's life and times by the author, and also an 
Interpretation of the poem by him. There is, there- 
fore, everything that one would ask for in such a 
book. Or, rather porro unum, we had almost 
forgotten everything that one could ask, provided 
that the translation be good. There is always a 
moment of suspense, in turning to a well-published 
translation, in which we wonder whether it will be 
readable. Mr. Van Noppen has in this matter been 
singularly successful : his translation seems almost 
like an original. We do not mean that it has pre- 
cisely the poetic character of Vondel himself ; that 
would be a risky assertion. But it does have a 
poetic character, it is not obviously a translation, it 
will be read by many, we suspect, without that 
frantic desire to know the original which accom- 
panies the reading of some translations. There is 
much more to say about this book. We would 
gladly speak of the pictures, curious things like old 
wood engravings, by John Aarts. We would gladly 



say a word on the position taken as to Milton's 
poetic relations with Vondel, but the parallel pas- 
sages cited give others a good opportunity to judge. 
We regret also that we have not room for a few 
words of comment on the poem itself, which might 
show that it was just now worth reading. But the 
exigencies of time and space must be our apology 
for merely calling attention to a book that will come 
into relation with a good many lines of reading. 

There are not a few English ladies 
German Elisabeth wno nave married German husbands, 

and her garden. , . ,,,, -mi- i .1 > 

and we imagine that " Elizabeth is 
one of them. Further, we believe that Elizabeth 
(rather bored with kaffeeklatches and other German 
festivities) spent most of her time in her garden, and 
there allowed herself to write down things about it 
and herself. Then her friends in England, to whom on 
visits she read select portions, kept saying " Oh, that 
is so charming ! Really, you must publish it "; and 
the result was " Elizabeth and her German Garden " 
(Macmillan). So much is our opinion of course, 
more or less doubtful : more like a fact is it that 
Elizabeth (whoever she may be) had a genuine love 
of flowers and gardens, and a keen appreciation of 
the colors of nature. We are sure that all garden- 
lovers will detect this in her. She may not have known 
very much about flowers probably she did not 
but she appreciated them, and for a rambling sort 
of garden- journal her book is very pleasant. So far 
as the garden is concerned, the author may well 
enough remain impersonal. But her opinions on 
other matters, or rather her mental attitudes, are 
such that it is of interest to know whether she is 
really German or not. If we may judge from the 
book, she is the wife of a man of good family, living 
upon his estate in Pomerania. She speaks of herself 
as a German. But we think it would be unlikely that 
a German girl of fifteen should have the chance to 
fall in love with the parish organist who wore a sur- 
plice on Sundays and a frockcoat and " bowler " 
hat other days, or that a German mother should 
call her children's mixture of German and English 
" Justice tempered with Mercy," or that any Ger- 
man at all should speak of a " German gardening- 
book," a " German Sunday," a " German rose," as 
this lady does, or in general show the same contempt 
for Germany. As an Englishwoman exiled to Ger- 
many, Elizabeth's ideas and ways of thought and 
life are not so very remarkable. But they are not 
uninteresting therefor ; in fact, there is enough in 
them to induce a second reading. 

A really good life of Robert Louis 
Stevenson will find many readers. 
We look forward to its appearance, 
that we may be able to go over the chances and 
triumphs of that life with the help of someone who 
knows ; that we may try to see just the way it was 
that Stevenson's work took shape and was moulded 
into form, to appreciate just the place he filled 
among us, to estimate, it may be, his genius. We 



A. Scotch 
life of 
Stevenson. 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



turned to the volume on Stevenson by Margaret 
Moyes Black in the " Famous Scots " series (im- 
ported by Scribner), with the hope of finding some- 
thing which should put us in the right direction. 
A Life need not be long to be useful. A thorough 
knowledge of the facts of your man's life, a keen 
appreciation of his books if he be a man of letters, and 
a matured estimate of his genius, will give motive 
power and character for an interesting narrative, 
which may be very short, as the plan of this series 
requires. Miss Black hardly reaches the ideal of 
such attainment, although she has written a not 
uninte'resting book. There are some minor annoy- 
ances : she almost always speaks of " Mr. Steven- 
son "; she describes his writings as if to people 
quite unfamiliar with them ; and so on. Nor does she 
quite meet one's desire in ease of narration (not to 
demand charm ), or in critical power. One element, 
however, her book does have which we in America 
more than others, perhaps, should value : namely, 
a familiarity with the Edinburgh life of which Stev- 
enson made a part until his health sent him else- 
where. We are apt not to appreciate enough the 
Scottish temper of one whom we are rather inclined 
to think of as a great writer in our own language. 
But here is the intimate and almost unconscious 
familiarity with Edinburgh that is needed to fill 
out our remembrance of Stevenson. Had it noth- 
ing more than this, Miss Black's book would not be 
without interest to the many who love the greatest 
of the romancers of our generation. 

A natural^ Among our lighter essayists who deal 

in the Southern with themes belonging to Nature, 

Alleghanie,. 



gift Q f 

greater degree than Mr. Bradford Torrey. There 
is a delicacy, a humor, a grace in expression, an 
aptness in allusion, and a genial disposition appar- 
ent in his writings which give them a distinctive 
fascination. His latest volume, "A World of 
Green Hills " (Houghton), is an itinerary, in sepa- 
rate yet coherent sketches, of a series of rambles in 
the Southern Alleghanies in quest of birds and 
flowers and mountain scenery. " I sauntered along," 
he . writes, "with frequent interruptions, of course 
(that was part of the game), here for a bird, 
there for a flower, a tree, or a bit of landscape." 
The main object which inspired him was the study 
of the raven, said to be common in the highlands of 
North Carolina. " But ravens or no ravens, I meant 
to enjoy myself," he declares ; and he did enjoy 
everything that came to him with such zest, and 
he tells the story of it with such quiet feeling, that 
the reader becomes an active sharer in his experi- 
ence. Unfortunately, no ravens appeared to crown 
the naturalist's satisfaction ; indeed, " as far as 
ravens were concerned " he carried home " a lean 
bag a brace of interrogation points " only. His 
readers have little occasion to lament this fact, how- 
ever, so abundant are the subjects of his observation 
and so magical is the interest he manages to throw 
around every incident in his adventures. " I relish 



natural country talk," he says, and hence he accosts 
every man and woman and child met on the lonely 
highway, and calls from each by his friendly man- 
ner the best that lay under the rustic exterior, gain- 
ing thereby many a glimpse of a strong and pleasing 
individuality. If Tolstoi's assertion be true, that 
" infection is a sure sign of art," then Mr. Torrey 
is an artist of the finest type, for there is not a page 
in his volume which fails to communicate the subtle 
contagion of his cheerful, tranquil, serious spirit. 



A marvellous 



The first edition of Gesenius's He- 
perpetuation of a brew Grammar appeared in Germany 

Hebrew grammar. in 1813 j t g0()n took itg pos i t i on as a 

standard work, and since the death of the original 
editor has been kept abreast the times, first by Pro- 
fessor Roediger, and afterwards by Professor Emil 
Kautzsch of the University of Halle. This English 
edition was translated by the late Rev. G. W. Collins, 
M.A., from the twenty-fifth German edition, and 
after his death was replenished by the new material 
of the twenty-sixth German edition, by A. E. Cowley, 
M.A., of Oxford. So that the book is now entitled 
" Kautzsch's Gesenius's Hebrew Grammar " (Oxford 
University Press), translated by Collins and Cowley. 
As it now stands, this is the best up-to-date compre- 
hensive Hebrew grammar in existence. The work 
of translating the German into English, never an 
easy task, seems to have been well done, though 
there are some idioms upon which translators can 
never agree. The type of the book is skilfully 
arranged, the larger representing the statements of 
principles, and the smaller the citations of examples 
and their translations. We are somewhat amazed 
to note that the Clarendon Press should not have 
required and published a Hebrew index to a gram- 
mar which it was desired to make as complete as 
possible. This is a serious omission, and detracts 
greatly from the usefulness of a book which the 
student desires as a vade mecum in Hebrew work. 



The seventh volume of the biograph- 
Thackeray ical e( jition of Thackeray (Harper) 

in America. __ _ J ,\, _, ' 

includes " Henry Esmond," " The 
English Humourists," "The Four Georges," and 
the brief essay on " Charity and Humour." The 
introduction, by Mrs. Ritchie, is rather longer than 
usual, with many illustrations, and particularly 
interesting to us because it deals, in part, with 
Thackeray's American lecture tour. He liked Boston 
society, and said that it was " like the society of a 
rich Cathedral-town in England grave and de- 
corous, and very pleasant and well read." He found 
that a man might lecture in America without being 
thought infra dig. He also had this experience : 
"When I came here they told me it was usual for 
lecturers (Mr. B. of London had done it) to call 
upon all the editors of all the papers, hat in hand, 
and ask them to puff my lectures. Says I, 'I'll 

see them all ,' here I used a strong expression, 

which you will find in the Athanasian Creed. Well, 
they were pleased rather than otherwise, and now 



60 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 16, 



the papers are puffing me so as to make me blush." 
Finally, he got very tired of the business (although 
he was to repeat it two years later), and wrote : 
" The idleness of the life is dreary and demoralizing 
all through, and the bore and humiliation of deliv- 
ering these stale old lectures is growing intolerable. 
Why, what a superior heroism is Albert Smith's 
who has ascended Mont Blanc four hundred times ! " 



BRIEFER MENTION. 



In one sense, there cannot be too many translations 
of Homer, yet it is difficult to discover wherein Mr. 
Samuel Butler, in his recent prose version of the " Iliad " 
(Longmans), has improved upon the translation of 
Messrs. Leaf, Lang, and Myers. But Mr. Butler has 
his own ideas about translation, and had a right to give 
them shape. His version is rather freer than others of 
recent making, and he seeks to avoid hackneyed epi- 
thets and phrases. At all events he is better employed 
in this task than in his endeavor to prove that Nausicao 
wrote the " Odyssey." 

The Open Court Publishing Co. has just issued a 
gift-book as beautiful in execution as it is unusual in 
character. It consists of a series of eight colored repro- 
ductions of paintings representing " Scenes in the Life 
of Buddha," the work of Professor Keichyu Yamada of 
Tokyo. These paintings are selected from a series 
made by the artist to illustrate the Japanese translation 
of " The Gospel of Buddha," by Dr. Paul Carus, which 
work is used as a text-book in some of the Buddhist 
schools of Japan. The present reproduction is highly 
successful as to the coloring, which is exceptionally deli- 
cate. Mr. Frederick W. Gookin has designed an appro- 
priate and artistic cover-stamp for this unique volume. 

The collection of " Songs of Life and Nature " (Scott, 
Foresman & Co.) which has been made by Eleanor 
Smith for the use of schools for girls, is a work which 
displays intelligence and good taste in unusual degree. 
Classical selections and folk-songs are interspersed with 
good modern compositions, and the selections are made 
with reference, not only to their musical value, but also 
with regard to the literary value of the texts, the eth- 
ical inspiration to be derived from them, and their fit- 
ness to the general plan of educational work adopted in 
progressive schools.' The book is one to be heartily 
commended. ' 

Mr. M. E. Lowndes is the author of a biographical 
;study of " Michel de Montaigne," which is published at 
the Cambridge University Press (Macinillan). This 
essay embodies the facts unearthed by the researches 
of MM. Payen aud Malvezin, and interprets them in the 
light of the immortal " Essays " themselves. The author 
'is in full sympathy with his subject, and has produced 
what is probably the most readable account existing in 
English of the pleasant egotist whose name this study 
bears. A considerable body of notes supplements the 
text of this monograph. 

Mr. Lorenzo Sears is the author of a treatise, running 
to some three hundred and fifty pages, upon the " Prin- 
ciples and Methods of Literary Criticism " (Putnam). 
The work has grown, we are told, out of " an attempt 
to guide a class in literature in making critical estimates 
of their reading." The subject is dealt with in a care- 
fully classified and logically grouped series of chapters, 



characterized by admirable good sense, but by no strik- 
ing literary excellence. The work is a plain and not 
particularly attractive statement of obvious truths and 
commonplace judgments. It will probably be useful to 
students who are beginning the study of literature. 

Mr. Joseph Shaylor is the compiler of a small book, 
for which Mr. Andrew Lang has penned an introduction, 
which gives a selection of extracts pertinent to the sub- 
ject of " The Pleasures of Literature and the Solace of 
Books " (Truslove & Comba). The work is like Mr. Ire- 
land's " Enchiridion," but planned on a smaller scale, and 
including extracts from many writers too recent to be 
found in that compendium. 

Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons are the importers of 
" Sketches and Studies in Italy and Greece," by John 
Addington Symonds. The work is to occupy three vol- 
umes, of which two are now at hand, and will include the 
contents of the three separate works entitled " Sketches 
in Italy and Greece," " Sketches and Studies in Italy," 
and " Italian Byways." Readers of Symonds know 
that these collections comprise much of his most fascin- 
ating and suggestive writing, and will be glad to have 
their contents topographically arranged, as they are now 
to be. 

Long experience in the popular exposition of the 
principles of political economy has given Dr. Edward 
Thomas Devine peculiar qualifications for the prepara- 
tion of a text-book upon this subject, and his recently 
published " Economics " (Macmillan) is an excellent 
book of its sort. While not perhaps the best kind of a 
book for daily use in the schools, it would serve admir- 
ably to supplement some more formal text-book, and 
for this purpose, as well as for the use of the general 
reader, it may be warmly recommended. It is, in the 
main, a treatise readable, lucid, and sound in doctrine. 

Mr. Stopford A. Brooke's " English Literature from 
the Beginning to the Norman Conquest " (Macmillan) 
is essentially a recast of the author's previous work on 
" Early English Literature up to the Days of Alfred." 
The original text has been shortened, rewritten, and 
rearranged, besides being supplemented for the present 
volume by a long chapter on Alfred, and four other 
chapters on the subsequent period. There are many 
translated passages in the text, and a number of others 
in the appendix, where we find " The Wanderer " and 
" The Battle of Maldon." A bibliography is appended. 

Mr. Paul Leicester Ford's edition of " The Writings 
of Thomas Jeiferson" (Putnam) has reached its ninth 
volume, and already draws near the close of the great 
President's life. The correspondence' for the years 
1807-1815 is given in this volume, and we should sup- 
pose that one more volume ought to complete the col- 
lection. Mr. Ford's services to American historical 
scholarship are so many and varied that we hardly need 
to characterize them with every new book that bears 
his name. Possessors of the set now in question will be 
glad to learn that it will soon stand complete upon 
their shelves. 

A revised edition of Professor Edward Channing's 
" Students' History of the United States " (Macmillan), 
with additions taking in the war with Spain, has re- 
cently come to us, and we are once more impressed with 
the admirable character of the book. The recent ten- 
dency to include in the last year of secondary school 
work a serious study of American history cannot fail to 
receive new impetus from the mere fact that such a 
volume as this of Mr. Channing, so suitable for the 
purpose, is to be had. 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



61 



LITERARY NOTES. 



" Some Notes of a Struggling Genius," by Mr. G. S. 
Street, and " Stories Toto Told Me," by Baron Corvo, 
are two new " Bodley Booklets," published by Mr. John 
Lane. 

Mr. Charles Morris adds a " Spanish " volume to his 
series of " Historical Tales," of which nine volumes have 
previously appeared. The tales are brief, and told in a 
way to be interesting to young people. The Lippincott 
Co. are the publishers. 

Macaulay's essays on Addison and Milton, and Shake- 
speare's " Macbeth," all edited by Mr. Charles W. 
French, form three volumes in a new series of annotated 
English texts published by the Macmillan Co. in a form 
at once tasteful and inexpensive. Tennyson's " Prin- 
cess," edited by Mr. Wilson Farrand, is a fourth volume 
of the same series. 

The American Unitarian Association (25 Beacon 
Street, Boston) has printed for free distribution a pam- 
phlet of twenty-eight pages entitled " A Plea for Sin- 
cerity in Religious Thought," by Rev. Joseph Henry 
Crocker, the author of " Jesus Brought Back," and 
" Problems in American Society." 

" Asheville Pictures and Pencillings " is the title of an 
attractive and novel little booklet published in the famous 
Southern winter resort by Mr. A. H. McQuilkin, editor 
of " The Inland Printer." It is prettily illustrated and 
contains much interesting information, and we hope Mr. 
McQuilkin's intention to issue such a pamphlet fort- 
nightly will be fulfilled. 

" Cuba and Other Verse " is a reprint of a volume 
published pseudonymously several years ago. The au- 
thorship is now acknowledged by Mr. Robert Manners, 
who puts forth this new edition through the press of 
Messrs. Way & Williams in a tasteful book. The con- 
tents, while not in any way remarkable, are not unde- 
serving of attention from readers of poetry. 

Messrs. Ginn & Co. publish Goethe's " Egmont," 
edited by Dr. Max Winkler; " Deutsche Gedichte for 
High Schools," selected by Mr. Hermann Mueller, and 
" The Easiest German Reading for Learners Young or 
Old," prepared by Dr. George Hempl. " Auf der Son- 
nenseite," a selection of stories and sketches from mod- 
ern authors, edited by Dr. Wilhelm Bernhardt, is pub- 
lished by Messrs. D. C. Heath & Co. 

The Macmillan Company announces the publication 
in February, under the editorship of Mr. Frank M. 
Chapman, of the first number of a popular bi-monthly 
magazine of ornithology to be known as " Bird Lore." 
The magazine will be the official organ of the Audubon 
Societies for the protection of birds and a department 
devoted to their work will be under the charge of Mrs. 
Mabel Osgood Wright. 

Messrs. Henry Holt & Co. expect to issue at once the 
American edition of " Eighteenth Century Letters," 
under the general editorship of Mr. R. Brimley Johnson. 
The letters of Swift, Addison, and Steele are selected 
and edited with an introduction by Mr. Stanley Lane 
Poole, in one volume, and Mr. George Birkbeck Hill has 
performed the same offices for those of Johnson and 
Lord Chesterfield in another volume. 

"War Poems, 1898," compiled by the California 
Club, comes to us from the Murdock Press of San Fran- 
cisco. There are respectable names in the table of 
contents, Messrs. Clinton Scollard, Marrion Wilcox, 
Robert Burns Wilson, and Theodore C. Williams, Misses 



Ina D. Coolbrith and Edith M. Thomas but the aver- 
age quality of the work is low, to say nothing of the 
average quality of the ideals by which it is inspired. 

There is a rapidly growing literature of protest 
against the expansion madness that has seized upon 
so many normally sane Americans. One by one the 
sober opinions of our really serious thinkers are finding 
voice, and a movement of thought has begun which we 
trust will soon acquire volume enough to save the Re- 
public from the threatened repudiation of its own best 
ideals. Among the recently published utterances of 
conservative scholars upon this all-important subject, we 
note the magnificent address called " American Impe- 
rialism," made early this month by Mr. Carl Schurz 
before the University of Chicago in quarterly Convo- 
cation, and now printed in the "University Record"; 
the fine and scholarly paper of Mr. Charles Francis 
Adams, read on last Forefathers' Day before the Lex- 
ington Historical Society, and now published in pam- 
phlet form by Messrs. Dana Estes & Co.; and the 
acute and effective argument of Mr. Edwin Burritt 
Smith, upon the subject of " National Expansion under 
the Constitution," published by the R. R. Donnelly & 
Sons Co. Armed with these three documents, and a 
copy of Senator Hoar's recent speech, the opponent of 
expansion would find himself well equipped for dis- 
cussion. 



LIST OF NEW BOOKS. 

[The following list, containing 103 titles, includes books 
received by THE DIAL since its last issue.] 

BIOGRAPHY AND MEMOIRS. 

Alphonse Daudet. By Lt-on Daudet. To which is added 
" The Daudet Family," by Ernest Daudet. Trans, from 
the French by Charles de Kay. With portrait, 12mo, gilt 
top, pp. 466. Little, Brown, & Co. $1.50. 

The Life of Charles Stewart Parnell, 1846-1891. By R. 
Barry O' Brien. With portrait, 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 775. 
Harper & Brothers. $2.50. 

The Life of Henry Drummond. By George Adam Smith. 
With portrait, large 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 541. Double- 
day & McClure Co. $3. net. 

Newman Hall: An Autobiography. With portrait, 8vo, 
gilt top, uncut, pp. 383. T. Y. Crowell & Co. $3. 

Historic Nuns. By Bessie R. Belloc. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, 
pp. 223. London : Duckworth & Co. 

HISTORY. 

The Companions of Pickle. A Sequel to "Pickle the 
Spy." By Andrew Lang. With portraits, large 8vo, gilt 
top, uncut, pp. 308. Longmans, Green, & Co. $5. 

Our Navy in the War with Spain. By John R. Spears. 
Illus., 12mo, pp. 406. Charles Scribner's Sons. $2. 

The Sepoy Mutiny, as Seen by a Subaltern, from Delhi to 
Lucknow. By Colonel Edward Vibart. Illus., 12mo, 
uncut, pp. 308. Charles Scribner's Sons. $2.50. 

The Dreyfus Case. By Fred. C. Conybeare, M.A. Illus., 
12mo, pp. 318. Dodd, Mead & Co. $1.50. 

History of the World. By Edgar Sanderson, M.A. With 
maps, 8vo, pp. 790. "Concise Knowledge Library." 
D. Appleton & Co. $2. 

The Great Campaigns of Nelson. By William O'Connor 
Morris. Illus., 12mo, pp. 160. Charles Scribner's Sons. $1.25. 

Spanish Historical Tales : The Romance of Reality. By 
Charles Morris. Illus., 12mo, gilt top, pp. 331. J. B. Lip- 
pincott Co. $1.25. 

GENERAL LITERATURE. 

Exotics and Retrospectives. By Lafcadio Hearn. 12mo, 
gilt top, uncut, pp. 299. Little, Brown, & Co. $2. 

The Adventure of the Lady Ursula: A Comedy in Four 
Acts. By Anthony Hope. Illus. in photogravure, large 
8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 125. R. H. Russell. $1.50. 



62 



THE DIAL, 



[Jan. 16, 



A Critical Study of " In Memoriam." By the Rev. John 

M. King:, M.A. 16mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 253. Toronto : 

George N. Morang. 
The More Excellent Way: Words of the Wise on the Life 

of Love. Compiled by the Hon. Mrs. Lyttelton Qell. 

Kimo, pp. 325. Oxford University Press. 
The Queen's Garland: Chosen Lyrics of the Reign of 

Queen Elizabeth. Selected and arranged by FitzRoy Car- 

rington. With portraits, 16mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 105. 

R. H. Russell. 75 cts. 
Fantastic Fables. By Ambrose Bierce. 16mo, pp. 194. 

G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1. 
War Poems of 1898. Compiled by the California Club. 

Illus., 8vo, pp. 147. San Francisco : Murdock Press. 

NEW EDITIONS OF STANDARD LITERATURE. 

Idylls of the King. By Alfred Tennyson ; with 60 original 
decorations by George Wooliscroft Rhead and Louis 
Rhead. 4to, gilt top. R. H. Russell. $3.75. 

Thackeray's Christmas Books, " Biographical " edition. 
With Introduction by Anne Thackeray Ritchie. Illus., 
8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 400. Harper <& Brothers. $1.75. 

BOOKS OF VERSE. 
The Song of the Wave, and Other Poems. By George 

Cabot Lodge. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 135. Charles 

Scribner's Sons. $1.50. 
The Golden Person in the Heart. By Claude Fayette 

Bragdon. 18mo, uncut, pp. 42. Gouverneur, N. ~Y.: 

Brothers of the Book. 
Phil-o-rum's Canoe, and Madeleine Vercheres. By William 

Henry Drummond. Illus. in photogravure, 12mo, pp. 12. 

G. P. Putnam's Sons. 75 cts. 
The Seven Voices. By J. Hooker Hamersley. Illus., 8vo, 

gilt edges, pp. 143. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.75. 
When Cupid Calls. By Tom Hall ; with decorations by 

Blanche McManus. 16mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 119. E. R. 

Herrick & Co. $1.50. 
Ashes of Roses. By Paul Shivell. 18mo, gilt top, uncut, 

E. 192. Dayton, O.: Press of United Brethren Pub'g 
>use. 

Songs from Puget Sea. By Herbert Bashford. 12mo, gilt 
top, uncut, pp. 100. San Francisco : Whitaker & Ray 
Co. $1. 

For Truth and Freedom: Poems of Commemoration. By 
Armistead C. Gordon. Kimo, uncut, pp. 48. Staunton, 
Va.: Albert Shultz. Paper, 50 cts. 

FICTION. 

Bismillah. By A. J. Dawson. 12mo, pp. 327. Macmillan 

Co. $1.25. 
The Journalist. By C. F. Keary. 12mo, uncut, pp. 307. 

New Amsterdam Book Co. $1.50. 
A Yankee from the West. By Opie Read. 12mo, pp. 277. 

Rand, McNally & Co. $1. 
The Adventures of Cyrano de Bergerac. By Louis 

Gallet ; trans, from the French by Hettie E. Miller. With 

frontispiece, 12mo, pp. 460. R. F. Fenno & Co. $1.25. 
The Secret of Fougereuse : A Romance of the Fifteenth 

Century. Trans, from the French by Louise Imogen 

Guiney. Illus., 12mo, pp. 347. Boston : Marlier, Callanan 

& Co. $1.25. 
An Experimental Wooing. By Tom Hall.l 12mo, uncut, 

pp. 180. E. R. Herrick & Co. $1.25. 
The Little Lady, Some Other People, and Myself. By 

Tom Hall. Illus., 12mo, uncut, pp. 222. E. R. Herrick 

& Co. $1.25. 
Belinda and Some Others. 12mo, pp. 236. D. Appleton 

& Co. $1.; paper, 50 cts. 
Houses of Glass: A Philosophical Romance. By Wallace 

Lloyd, M. D. 12mo, pp. 398. G. W. Dillingham Co. 

$1.50. 
Bound by the Law. By Kate Thyson Marr. 12mo, pp. 362. 

G. W. Dillingham Co. $1.50. 
His Neighbor's Wife. By Gilson Willets. 12mo, pp. 320. 

F. Tennyson Neely. $1.25. 
Bed, White, and Blue Days. By Ruth Louise Sheldon. 

12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 230. New York : H. Ingalls 

Kimball. 
Anita, the Cuban Spy. By Gilson Willets. Illus., 12mo, 

pp. 405. F. Tennyson Neely. 50 cts. 



TRAVEL AND DESCRIPTION. 

With Peary Near the Pole. By Eivind Astrup; trans, 
from the Norwegian by H. J. Bull. Illus., 8vo, gilt top, 
uncut, pp. 362. J. B. Lippincott Co. $3.50. 

A Cruise under the Crescent: From Suez to San Marco. 
By Charles Warren Stoddard. Illus., 12mo, gilt top, uncut, 
pp. 358. Rand, McNally & Co. $1.50. 

With Kitchener to Khartum. By G. W. Steevens. With 
maps and plans, IL'mo, pp. 326. Dodd, Mead & Co. $1.50. 

Historic Homes of the South- West Mountains, Vir- 
ginia. By Edward C. Mead. Illus., 8vo, gilt top, uncut, 
pp. 275. J. B. Lippincott Co. $3.50 net. 

Neely's Panorama of Cuba, and Marching through Cuba. 
Each oblong 12mo. F. Tennyson Neely. Paper, each lOc. 

RELIGION. 

The Great Affirmations of Religion : An Introduction to 
Real Religion. By Thomas R. Slicer. 12mo, gilt top, 
pp. 273. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. $1.50. 

Men and Movements in the English Church. By Arthur 
Rogers. With photogravure portraits, 12mo, gilt top, 
pp. 375. Longmans, Green, & Co. $1.50. 

Lights and Shadows of American Life. By Rev. A. C. 
Dixon, D.D. 12mo, pp. 197. F. H. Revell Co. $1. 

The Pledge of Endeavor: A Study. By Rev. William M. 
Campbell, Ph.D. 12mo, pp.63. F. H. Revell Co. 35c.net. 

SOCIAL AND FINANCIAL STUDIES. 

The City Wilderness: A Settlement Study. By Residents 
and Associates of the South End House, Boston. Edited 
by Robert A. Woods. 12mo, pp. 319. Houghton, Mifflin 
& Co. $1.50. 

Money and Bimetallism. By Henry A. Miller. 12mo, 
pp.308. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.25. 

SCIENCE. 

Degeneracy: Its Causes, Signs, and Results. By Eugene S. 

Talbot, M.D. Illus., 12mo, pp. 372. " Contemporary 

Science Series." Charles Scribner's Sons. $1.50. 
The Study and Difficulties of Mathematics. By Augustus 

De Morgan. With portrait, 12mo, pp. 288. Open Court 

Pub'g Co. $1.25. 

MUSIC AND ART. 

How Music Developed : A Critical and Explanatory 
Account of the Growth of Modern Music. By W. J. Hen- 
derson. 12mo, gilt top, pp.413. F. A. Stokes Co. $1.25 net. 

Voice and Violin : Sketches, Anecdotes, and Reminiscences. 
By Dr. T. L. Phipson. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 226. 
J. B. Lippincott Co. $1.75. 

Book-Plates Old and New. By John A. Gade. Illus., 
16mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 52. M. F. Mansfield & Co. $1.25. 

Scenes from the Life of Buddha. Reproduced from paint- 
ings by Keichyu Yamada. Large 8vo, gilt edges. Open 
Court Pub'g Co. 

REFERENCE. 

A Dictionary of the Bible. By John D. Davis, Ph.D. 

Illus., 8vo, pp. 802. Philadelphia : The Westminster Press. 

$2. net. 
The Daily News Almanac and Political Register for 1899. 

Compiled by George E. Plumbe, A.B. 12mo, pp. 484. 

Chicago Daily News Co. 50 cts.; paper, 25 cts. 

BOOKS FOR THE YOUNG. 

The Boys of '98. By James Otis. Illus., 8vo, pp. 386. Dana 

Estes & Co. $1.50. 
The Modern Traveller. By H. B. and B. T. B. Illus., 

8vo, pp. 80. Macmillan Co. $1. 
Little Bertha. By W. J. Stillman. 24mo, uncut, pp. 111. 

London : Grant Richards. 
Bible Stories in Bible Language. By Edward Tuckennan 

Potter; with Introduction by the Right Rev. Henry C. 

Potter, D.D. New edition ; illus., 12mo, pp. 197. D. Apple- 
ton & Co. $1. 
How Polly and Ned Found Santa Glaus. By Anna Chapin 

Ray. Illus., 8vo. Privately Printed. 
Cis Martin ; or. The Furriners in the Tennessee Mountains. 

By Louise R. Baker. Illus., 12mo, pp. 270. Eaton & 

Mains. $1. 



1898.] 



THE DIAL 



63 



Starlight Sterlingr, and Other Stories and Poems for Boys 
and Girls. By Effie Kline Merwine. With frontispiece, 
large 8vo, uncut, pp. 56. Columbus : Champlin Printing 
Co. 50 cts. 

The Time O'Day. By Prescott Bailey Bull ; illus. by Eleanor 
Withey Willard. Oblong 8vo, pp. 32. Grand Rapids: 
Michigan Trust Co. Paper. 

EDUCATION BOOKS FOR SCHOOL AND 

COLLEGE. 
A History of Rugby School. By W. H. D. Rouse, M.A. 

Illus., 12mo, uncut, pp. 420. Charles Scribner's Sons. $1.50. 
The Educational Systems of Great Britain and Ireland. 

By Graham Balfour, M.A. 12mo, pp. 320. Oxford Uni- 
versity Press. 
An Educational Experiment. By "Erato." 12mo,pp. 139. 

Chicago : Orville Brewer. 

Physical Geography. By William Morris Davis and Will- 
iam Henry Snyder. Illus., 12mo, pp. 428. Ginn & Co. 

$1.40. 
Studies in Advanced Physiology. By Louis J. Rettger, 

A.M. Illus., large 8vo, pp. 592. Terre Haute : Inland 

Pub'g Co. 

Songs of Life and Nature, for the Use of Schools. Com- 
posed and selected by Eleanor Smith. Large 8vo, pp. 208. 

Scott, Foresman & Co. $1.25. 
Memoirs of Edward Gibbon. Edited by Oliver Farrar 

Emerson, A.M. 12mo, pp. 279. "Athenaeum Press Series." 

Ginn & Co. $1.20. 
The Poems of William Collins. Edited by Walter C. 

Bronson, A.M. With frontispiece, 12mo, pp. 135. "Athe- 
naeum Press Series." Ginn & Co. $1. 
First Lessons in Modern Geology. By the late A. H. 

Green, M.A.; edited by J. F. Blake, M.A. 12mo, pp. 212. 

Oxford University Press. 
Cooper's The Last of the Mohicans. Edited by John B. 

Dnnbar, Ph.D. 12mo, pp. 512. Ginn & Co. 75 cts. 
Bird World : A Bird Book for Children. By J. H. Stickney 

and Ralph Hoffman. Illus. in colors, etc., 12mo, pp. 214. 

Ginn & Co. 70 cts. 
First Steps in the History of our Country. By William 

A. Mowry, Ph.D., and Arthur May Mowry, A.M. Illus., 

12mo, pp. 315. Silver, Burdett & Co. 60 cts. 
French Heroes of the Middle West. By Mary Hartwell 

Catherwood. Illus., 16mo, pp. 141. Ginn & Co. 60 cts. 
Laboratory Exercises in Anatomy and Physiology. By 

James Edward Peabody, A.M. 12mo, pp. 79. Henry 

Holt & Co. 60 cts. 
Poetry of the Seasons. Compiled by Mary I. Lovejoy. 

Illus., 12mo, pp. 336. Silver, Bnrdett & Co. 60 cts. 
Historic Boston and its Neighborhood. By Edward Everett 

Hale. Illus., 12mo, pp. 186. "Home Reading Books." 

D. Appleton & Co. 50 cts. net. 
Conjugaison des Verbes Franc.ais. Par Paul Bercy, B.L. 

12mo, pp. 84. William R. Jenkins. Paper, 50 cts. 
Deutsche Gedichte for High Schools. Selected and ar- 
ranged by Hermann Mueller, L.M. 12mo, pp. 71. Ginn 

& Co. 45 cts. 
Braided Straws. By Elizabeth E. Fonlke. Illus., 12mo, 

pp. 135. Silver, Burdett & Co. 40 cts. 
Auf der Sonnenseite. Von Heinrich Seidel, Hermann 

Sndermann, Emil Frommel, and Nataly von Eschstruth ; 

selected and edited by Dr. Wilhelm Bernhardt. With 

portrait, 12mo, pp. 146. D. C. Heath & Co. 35 cts. 
The Easiest German Reading for Learners, Young or Old. 

By George Hempl, Ph.D. 12mo, pp.82. Ginn & Co. 45 cts. 
Sarcey's Le Siege de Paris. Edited by I. H. B. Spiers. 

With portrait, 12mo, pp. 188. D. C. Heath & Co. 35 cts. 
Macaulay's Essays on Milton and Addison. Edited by 

Charles Wallace French. Each in 1 vol., with portrait, 

18mo. Macmillan Co. Per vol., 25 cts. 
Tennyson's The Princess. Edited by Wilson Farrand, A.M. 

With portrait, 18mo, pp. 173. Macmillan Co. 25 cts. 
Lessons for Beginners in Reading. By Florence Bass. 

Illus. in colors, etc., 18mo, pp. 110. D. C. Heath & Co. 

25 cts. 
Shakespeare's Macbeth. Edited by Charles W. French. 

With portrait, 24mo, pp. 185. Macmillan Co. 25 cts. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Diet in Illness and Convalescence. By Alice Worthington 
Winthrop. Illus., 12mo, pp. 287. Harper & Brothers. 
$1.50. 



The Depew Story Book. Edited by Will M. Clemens. 

Illus., 12mo, pp. 207. F. Tennyson Neely. $1. 
Our Children in Old Scotland and Nova Scotia. By 

Emma M. Stirling. 12mo, pp. 184. Coatesville, Pa.: C. N. 

Speakman. 
Church Sociables and Entertainments. Illus., 24mo, 

gilt top, uncut, pp. 168. Donbleday & McClure Co. 50 cts. 
The Purple Cow. Written and illus., by Gelett Burgess. 

8vo, uncut. San Francisco : William Doxey. Paper, 50 cts. 
The Lark Almanac for 1899. Illus., 8vo. San Francisco : 

William Doxey. Paper, 50 cts. 
What Good Does Wishing Do? By Anna Robertson 

Brown Lindsay, Ph.D. 12mo, pp. 32. T. Y. Crowell & 

Co. 35 cts. 

Auld Lang Syne. By Robert Burns. 16mo. M. F. Mans- 
field & Co. Paper, 25 cts. 
The Gawktown Revival Club. By J. Walter Davis. 

16mo, pp. 89. Minneapolis : Gleaner Pub'g Co. Paper, 50c. 

AMERICAN SHAKESPEAREAN MAGAZINE. $1.50 per Tear; 
** single numbers, 15 cts. ANNA RANDALL-DIEHL, Editor, 

251 Fifth Avenue, New York City. 

PAVI AW/C an( l other Newspaper Clippings for Authors. 
IVC V 1C Wa O ne Dollar a Month, or Four Dollars per 100. 
AUTHORS LEAGUE. P. O. Box 1716, NEW YOBK. 

"TVO YOU WISH COLLABORATION, author's revision, dramatiza- 
-*-' tion, or aid in securing publication of your books, stories, and 
magazine articles ? If so, address 

ROYAL MANUSCRIPT SOCIETY, 63 Fifth Ave., NEW YOBK. 

A CARD sent to CHARLES P. EVERITT, 18 East Twenty-third 
/\ VrVlxLf street, New York, will bring by return mail a catalogue 
of old books Americana, Drama, Biography, Art, Fine Editions and 
First Editions, etc., etc. 

DWIQHT H. PERKINS, 
Architect, 

Telephone, Harrison 783. Steinway Hall, Chicago. 

STORY- WRITERS, Biographers, Historians, Poets Do 

^^^^^^^^-^^^^^^ you desire the honest criticism of your 
book, or its skilled revision and correction, or advice as to publication ? 
Such work, said George William Curtis, is " done as it should be by The 
Easy Chair's friend and fellow laborer in letters, Dr. Titus M. Coan." 
Terms by agreement. Send for circular D, or forward your book or MS. 
to the New York Bureau of Revision. 70 Fifth Ave.. New York. 

FIRST EDITIONS OF MODERN AUTHORS, 

Including Dickens, Thackeray, Lever, Ainsworth, Stevenson, 
Jeff eries, Hardy. Books illustrated by G. and R. Cruikshank, 
Phiz, Rowlandson, Leech, etc. The Largest and Choicest Col- 
lection offered for Sale in the World. Catalogues issued and 
sent post free on application. Books bought. WALTER T. 
SPENCER, 27 New Oxford St., London, W. C., England. 

TTO PUBLISHERS. Young man of 32, capable, energetic, and of 
clean record, wishes to connect himself with a good publishing 
house or literary periodical, preferably one operating its own mechan- 
ical plant. Has good knowledge of books and printing, and is experi- 
enced as executive and buyer ; is now employed, but wants to get into 
publishing as affording field for best development of natural qualifica- 
tions. Invites closest scrutiny of character and record. 

Address C. H., care The Dial, Chicago. 

L'ECHO DE LA SEMAINE. 

Revue Litteraire et Mondaine, Paraissant le Samedi. 
Abonnement, $2.00 par an. 175 Tremont Street, BOSTON, MASS. 

Nuuiero specimen envoys' sur demands. 

CTUDY AND PRACTICE OF FRENCH IN SCHOOL. In three 
** Parts. By L. C.BONAME, 258 S.16th St., Philadelphia, Pa. A care- 
fully graded course, meeting requirements for entrance examination at 
college. Practice in conversation and thorough drill in Pronunciation 
and Grammar. From Education (Boston) : " A well made series." 

FRENCH BOOKS. 

Readers of French desiring good literature will take pleas- 
ure in reading our ROMANS CHOISIS SERIES, 60 cts. per 
vol. in paper and 85 cents in cloth ; and CONTES CHOISIS 
SERIES, 25 cents per vol. Each a masterpiece and by a well- 
known author. Lists sent on application. Also complete cata- 
logue of all French and other Foreign books when desired. 

WILLIAM R. JENKINS, 

Nos. 851 and 853 Sixth Ave. (cor. 48th St.), NEW YORK. 



64 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 16, 1899. 



THE OPEN COURT PUBLISHING Co. 



MATHEMATICAL BOOKS. 
Lectures on Elementary Mathematics. 

By JOSEPH Louis LAGRANGE. Being the Course of Lectures delivered at 
the Ecole Normale, Paris, 1795. Translated from the French by 
THOMAS J. McCoRMACK. A Masterpiece of Mathematical Exposition. 
First Separate Edition in English or French. With a fine photogravure 
portrait of the great mathematician, notes, bibliographical sketch of 
Lagrange, marginal analyses, index, etc.; handsomely bound in red 
cloth, pp. 172. $1.00 net. 

" The book ought to be in the hands of every high-school teacher of 
mathematics in America, for the sake of getting Lagrange'g point of 
view." Prof. HBNBY CREW, Norlhwetlern University, Evanston, III, 

On the Study and Difficulties of Mathematics. 

By AUGUSTUS DE MORGAN. New corrected and annotated edition, with 
references to date, of the work published in 1831, by the Society for 
the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. The original is now scarce. 
With a fine portrait of the great mathematical teacher, complete 
index, and bibliographies of modern works on algebra. The Philos- 
ophy of Mathematics, Pangeometry, etc.; pp. viii.+288, cloth, 1.25. 
" A valuable essay." Prof. JBVONS, in the Encyclopedia Briltannica. 
" The mathematical writings of De Morgan can be commended unre- 
servedly." Prof. W. W. BEMAN, University of Michigan. 

Mathematical Essays and Recreations. 

By HERMANN SCHUBERT ; from the German by THOMAS J. McCoRM ACK. 
A collection of six articles bearing the following titles : (1) " The Defi- 
nition and Notion of Number "; (2) " Monism in Arithmetic "; (3) " On 
the Nature of Mathematical Knowledge"; (4) "Magic Squares"; 
(5) " The Fourth Dimension "; (6) " The History of the Squaring of the 
Circle." The first three articles are concerned with the construction of 
arithmetic as a monistic science, all the consequences of which flow as 
a matter of pure logic from a few simple principles. The article on the 
" Fourth Dimension " is popular and shows clearly what is meant by 
" dimension " in science and what the legitimate function of a " fourth 
dimension" is in mathematics; of the claims of spiritualism to this 
beautiful and convenient concept, it disposes definitely. The article on 
" Magic Squares " is a pleasing recreation. That on the " Squaring of 
the Circle " gives the history of one of the most instructive and inter- 
esting episodes in the history of human thought. Both these essays are 
very complete popular accounts of their subjects, more complete per- 
haps than any generally accessible accounts in English. 



RECENT PUBLICATIONS. 
Truth and Error; 

Or, The Science of Intellection. By J. W. POWELL. A new book by the 
Director of the United States Bureau of American Ethnology and 
sometime Director of the United States Geological Survey. Pp. 423, 
cloth, $1.75. 

History of the People of Israel. 

From the Beginning to the Destruction of Jerusalem. By Prof. C. H. 

CORNILL, of the University of Koenigsberg, Germany. Translated by 

W. H. CARRUTH, Professor of German in the University of Kansas. 

Pp. 325, S1.50 (7*. 6<f). 

" Its brevity and clear style make it very readable." Outlook. 

" It is concise and graphic." Congregalionalist. 

" Many attempts have been made since Old Testament criticism set- 
tled down into a science, to write the history of Israel popularly. And 
some of these attempts are highly meritorious, especially Kittel's and 
Kent's. But Cornill has been most successful. His book is smallest 
and it is easiest to read. He has the master faculty of seizing the es- 
sential and passing by the accidental. His style (especially as freely 
translated into English by Professor Carruth of Kansas) is pleasing and 
restful. Nor is be excessively radical. If Isaac and Ishmael are races, 
Abraham is an individual still. And above all, he has a distinct heroic 
faith in the Divine mission of Israel." The Expository Times (London). 

The Prohibited Land. 

The Travels in Tartary, Thibet, and China of MM. Hue and GABET. 

New Edition. From the French. Handsomely bound in Oriental 

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LITERATURE 



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THE CENTURY CO.'S 

NEW BOOKS 



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"MAINE' 

An Account of her Destruction 

in Havana Harbor. 
THE PERSONAL NARRATIVE 



OF 



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CAMPAIGNING 
IN CUBA 

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Author of " Siberia and the 

Exile System." 



THE LIFE AND LETTERS OF 

LEWIS 
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Author of 
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STANDARDS 

An International Romance 

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LITHOGRAPHY 
LITHOGRAPHERS 

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and 

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67 



THE STORY OF FRANCE 



Just Ready. 
Vol. I., $2.50. 

Vol. I. 
Vol. II. 



FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TO THE 
CONSULATE OF NAPOLEON BONAPARTE 

BY 

The Hon. THOMAS E. WATSON. 

From the Settlement by the Gauls to the 
End of the Reign of Louis XV. 

In Press. 



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Two Vols. 

Just Ready. 
8vo, $2.50. 



Mr. Watson's treatment of history is from a new and entirely modern point of view. The well-known political 
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development of a great people ... to note the varying forms of government, to trace the ancient origins of 
T Id 1 h 1 1 modern laws and customs, to mark the encroachments of absolutism upon popular rights, 

'. r ' to describe the long-continued struggle of the many to throw off the yoke of the few, 
style, unconventional, tQ emphasize the corrupting influence of the union between Church and State; to illus- 
v ** ' * trate once more the blighting effects of superstition, ignorance, blind obedience, unjust 

laws, confiscation under the disguise of unequal taxes, and a systematic plunder year by year of the weaker classes 
by the stronger." The author is in very keen sympathy with the mass of the people, and for the first time we 
have the historical point of view of the laborer and mechanic told in a style that is bold, racy, and unconventional. 
It is a vigorous and democratic presentation of history. 



NEW AND FORTHCOMING BOOKS OF INTEREST. 



On the History of the 
United States. 

HENRY A. WISE. 

The Life of Henry A. Wise. 

By his Grandson, BARTON H. WISE, 
of the Richmond, Virginia, Bar. 
Nearly Ready. 

Cloth, Crown 8vo, $2.50. 
Prominent in the history of the South, 
Minister to Brazil, Member of Congress 
during exciting times, and Governor of 
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raid, his Life is of unusual value and 
interest. 

THE UNDERGROUND 
RAILROAD 

From Slavery to Freedom. 

By WILBUR H. SIEBERT, Associate 
Professor of European History, 
Ohio State University. Very fully 
illustrated with portraits, views, 
facsimiles, and maps. 

Cloth extra, cr. 8vo, $4.00. 

THE STORY OF OLD FORT 
LOUDON. 

A Tale of the Cherokees and the 
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author of "The Prophet of the 
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trated by C. P. PEIXOTTO, etc. 
" Stories from American History " 
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THE HISTORY OF 
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and illustrations. Volume III. 
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THE PRINCIPLES OF 
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A Text-Book for Schools and 
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in the Garden - Craft Series of 
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Cloth, Crown 8vo, $1.25. 

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68 



THE DIAL. 



[Feb. 1, 1899. 



D. Appleton & Company's New Books 



PUERTO RICO AND ITS RESOURCES. 

A Book for Travellers, Investors, and Others, containing full 
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A HISTORY OF JAPANESE LITERATURE. 

By W. G. ASTON, C.M.Q., D.Lit., late Japanese Secretary to 
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of the World Series. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

f The author begins by defining the individual characteristics of the 
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translations, will be new to almost all readers, and it is safe to say that 
the book as a whole will introduce the majority of readers to a compar- 
atively new and fascinating field. 

EARTHQUAKES AND OTHER EARTH 
MOVEMENTS. 

By JOHN MILNE, F.R.S., F.Q.S., late Professor of Mining 
and Geology in the Imperial College of Engineering, Tokio, 
Japan. International Scientific Series. With 38 figures. 
New edition. Entirely reset. 12mo, cloth, $1.75. 
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GENERAL SHERMAN. 

By General M. F. FORCE. A new volume in the Great Com- 
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With portraits and maps. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 
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maps of his most important battlefields, and a carefully prepared index. 

CANNON AND CAMERA. 

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THE STORY OF THE COTTON PLANT. 

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PLAYTIME AND SEEDTIME. 

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BY THE AUTHOR OF " MONA MACLEAN." 

WINDYHAUGH. 

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THE CRUISE OF THE CACHALOT, 

Hound the World after Sperm Whales. By FRANK T. BUL- 
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Academy. 

NEW EDITION. 

THE SCAPEGOAT. 

A Romance and a Parable. By HALL CAINE, author of " The 
Deemster," "The Bondman," "The Manxman," "The 
Christian," etc. New and revised edition. Uniform with 
the author's works. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 
This new edition will present itself as practically a new book. It 
will be found to differ materially from the edition heretofore published, 
which was issued some years since without the benefit of the author's 
revision. This powerful romance and expressive "parable" will be 
certain to obtain a greatly enlarged meed of popularity. 

A ROMANCE OF THE WEST INDIES. 

LATITUDE 19. 

A Romance of the West Indies in the Year of Our Lord Eigh- 
teen Hundred and Twenty. Being a faithful account and 
true of the painful adventures of the Skipper, the Bo's'n, 
the Smith, the Mate, and Cynthia. By Mrs. SCHUYLER 
CROWNINSHIELD. Illustrated. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

"A BOOK THAT WILL LIVE." 
DAVID HARUM. 

A Story of American Life. By EDWARD NOTES WESTCOTT. 

12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

A HERALD OF THE WEST. 
An American Story of 1811-1815. By J. A. ALTSHELER, 

author of "A Soldier of Manhattan" and "The Sun of 

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THE PHANTOM ARMY. 

By MAX PEMBERTON, author of "Kronstadt." Uniform 
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RECENT VOLUMES IN 

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Each, 12mo, cloth, $1.00; paper, 50 cents. 
No. 256. A WRITER OF BOOKS. By GEORGE PASTON, au- 
thor of " The Career of Candida " and " A Study 
in Prejudices." 

" This is a witty book. All George Paston's work has been clever, 
but A Writer of Books ' is a distinct advance upon her previous books. ' ' 
London Academy. 
No. 255. THE KEY OF THE HOLY HOUSE. A Romance 

of Old Antwerp. By ALBERT LEE. 

This is a stirring romance of Holland's struggle for liberty against 
the Spaniards in the latter part of the sixteenth century, when Don 
Luis de Eequesens succeeded the Duke of Alva as Viceroy of the Neth- 
erlands. The story pictures the terrors of the Inquisition and thrilling 
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Orange, on the land, and the "Water Beggars" on the sea. The de- 
struction of the Spanish fleet, after a fashion repeated at Manila, is 
among the dramatic chapters of this fascinating romance. 



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THE DIAL 

Journal of ititerarg Criticism, JUiscuggion, anto Information. 



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THE DIAL, 315 Wabash Ave., Chicago. 

No. sos. FEBRUARY 1, 1899. Vol. XXVI. 
CONTENTS. 



NEW PHASES OF THE ROMANCE. James O. 

Pierce 69 

SHAKESPEARE (Sonnet). Edith C. Banfield ... 72 

COMMUNICATIONS 72 

The Notes to the Cambridge Tennyson. W. J. Rolfe. 
Is Poe " Rejected " in America ? John L. Hervey. 
Thackeray and the American Newpapers. Emily 
Huntington Miller. 

PARNELL, IRISH PATRIOT AND NATIONALIST. 

E.G.J 74 

A TIMELY POLITICAL TONIC. Edward E. 

Hale,Jr 76 

THE SUCCESSORS OF HOMER. Paul Shorty . . 78 

A DISTINGUISHED WORKER FOR THE INSANE. 

Richard Dewey , ... 79 

BOOKS ABOUT DANTE. William Morton Payne . 81 
Toynbee's Dante Dictionary. Gardner's Dante's 
Ten Heavens. Miss Phillimore's Dante at Ravenna. 

Witte's Essays on Dante. 

PRESENT TENDENCIES IN ECONOMIC 

THOUGHT. Arthur B. Woodford 83 

Gronlund's The New Economy. Mrs. Stetson's Wo- 
men and Economics. Henderson's Social Elements. 

Hammond's The Cotton Industry. Crook's Ger- 
man Wage Theories. 

BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS 86 

An English handbook of Spanish literature. The 

' Historical Development of Modern Europe. Historic 

homes in the mountains of Virginia. Two belated 

holiday books. Marriage markets and Corellian logic. 

Enchanted islands of the Atlantic. A pleasant 
history of Philadelphia. " Sartor Resartus " illus- 
trated. More of the biographical Thackeray. 
Book-plate lore and fancies. Three great campaigns 
of Nelson. The economics of transportation. The 
Fourteenth Amendment. 

BRIEFER MENTION 90 

LITERARY NOTES 90 

TOPICS IN LEADING PERIODICALS 91 

LIST OF NEW BOOKS . . 91 



NEW PHASES OF THE ROMANCE. 

When the Wizard of the North laid aside 
his pen and closed his series of romantic fiction, 
the reading world had already accorded him a 
unique place in modern literature. He had 
done for letters a work unequalled in value by 
that of any writer since Shakespeare ; he had 
advanced the historical romance to eminence, 
and shown it to be worthy of discriminating 
criticism. Romance was no longer to be repre- 
sented by " The Castle of Otranto." Scott had 
re-created Romance. 

Nor was current opinion satisfied with con- 
ferring this meed of praise ; there were those 
who felt that so brilliant a genius must have 
exhausted the resources of Romance, and that 
Scott could have no successor. 

This record of Romantic tales began with a 
novel. It was in the life of an era then only 
sixty years past that Scott found the mate- 
rial for his " Waverley." Does it seem incon- 
gruous that his entire series of fiction should 
have come to bear the title of the " Waverley 
Novels " ? It will be remembered that the 
genius for Romance which made him illustrious 
had shown itself in that initial novel. It was 
the romantic element in " Waverley " which 
convinced the reading world that a new era in 
fiction had opened. 

Sixty years have passed since the close of 
that series of romances, and the belief that 
Scott is to have no rival seems to be more and 
more confirmed. Dumas has surpassed and 
others have emulated him in fertility of produc- 
tion. Nevertheless, there is no real rivalry ; 
the charm of the Wizard's style remains his 
own. But Romance does not die ; and though 
Scott stands alone in his chosen field, new op- 
portunities are revealed for the work of the 
romancer, and new achievements crown his 
fertile imagination. Great as was Scott's 
departure from the earlier canons of romantic 
fiction, the romance of the present time exhibits 
even greater departure from the Waverley 
pattern. 

In the old Romance, realism had no proper 
place. The more unreal the events chronicled, 
and the farther removed from the actualities of 
life, the greater the credit to the imagination of 



70 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 1, 



the romancer. Tried by this standard, " The 
Castle of Otranto " was awarded place and 
fame. As Dr. Johnson said : " In the romance 
formerly written, every transaction and senti- 
ment was so remote from all that passes among 
men, that the reader was in little danger of 
making any application to himself." 

But there is no necessity which compels the 
Imagination to bear false witness in order that 
it may be honored. The modern historical 
romance, by its faithful representations of the 
characters and motives and deeds of past eras, 
has shown the imagination at work in con- 
formity to realistic standards. Scott's followers 
have sedulously observed this essential of their 
art, and truthfulness has become an accepted 
canon of the historical romance. Bulwer's 
" Last Days of Pompeii " and " Last of the 
Barons," and Thackeray's " Henry Esmond " 
and " The Virginians," attest its admitted au- 
thority. 

Hawthorne came, and an avenue was opened 
to new fields for the work of the Romancer. 
The imagination now found its required mate- 
rial in the social life of a new world, a world 
with no history, in which there were no ruins, 
no venerable traditions. The ancient, the un- 
known, the mysterious, the startling, were the 
elements theretofore conceded to be essential to 
romantic fiction. Hawthorne found, in the 
simple life of New England, sufficient of these 
elements to constitute real Romance. Even 
with his exuberant imagination, this was no 
light task, as his own words declare. " No 
author, without a trial, can conceive of the 
difficulty of writing a romance about a country 
where there is no shadow, no antiquity, no 
mystery, no picturesque and gloomy wrong, 
nor anything but a commonplace prosperity, 
in broad and simple daylight, as is happily 
the case with my dear native land." This 
inevitable difficulty, once conquered by Haw- 
thorne, has seemed less formidable to later 
romancers. 

But Hawthorne did even a greater service to 
romantic fiction. In the New England life 
not only of the past, but of to-day, he found the 
elements of romance latent, and brought them 
into play. His quick imagination had flashed 
upon the romantic elements in his own life at 
Brook Farm ; and he employed these and sim- 
ilar features in other personal episodes, in 
weaving for us a tale of modern life, the 
" Blithedale Romance," which has opened up 
for the present age a new phase of romantic 
literature. 



Doubtless some will say that the Romance of 
Real Life is a contradiction in terms, and that 
the Romantic and the Realistic are not only anti- 
thetic but antagonistic. Realism has been well 
exploited in late years, and its disciples seem 
disposed to conquer, and by conquering to con- 
vert the world. The recent novel has been 
almost uniformly realistic, and this is usually 
claimed as its chief merit. George Eliot's 
novels of real life have won her the highest 
rank as a novelist, and the leadership of an 
army of admiring followers ; and " Marcella " 
is pronounced the greatest novel of the realistic 
school since " Middlemarch," entitling its au- 
thor to succeed to George Eliot's honors. 

But even realism as thus expounded fails to 
satisfy some honest critics. A new school 
charges the realists with giving too loose rein 
to fancy, and advocates a fiction so faithfully 
true to actual life that it is to be properly called 
veritism. The imagination is so dangerous a 
steed that it must be effectually curbed and 
bridled ; the truth, the very truth only, must be 
told ; and the realist must confess his failure to 
be exact, and must abandon the field of fiction 
to the veritist. Gradgrind reappears, and again 
insists upon the inestimable value and the prime 
importance of facts. 

At the very time of this exaltation of Real- 
ism, there comes a revival of the Romance. 
We observe not only a renewed feeling among 
authors that this form of fiction has still a 
career before it, and a revived interest in it 
among readers of fiction, but indications also of 
new worlds to be opened to its conquests. 

It should be noted first, that the novelists 
themselves, even the realists, do not despise the 
Romance. George Eliot was not wholly satis- 
fied with depicting real life, and she went back 
to the romantic period in Florentine history for 
her " Romola," a romance which well contends 
with her novels for high place. The romances 
of Thackeray and Bulwer were children of their 
affection, and still find appreciative readers no 
less than their novels. Novelists like Black, 
Hardy, and Besant turn aside from the attrac- 
tions of real life to revel in romance. Charles 
Reade wins more fame by " The Cloister and 
the Hearth " than by any other of his novels, 
and the industrious Mr. Crawford begins his 
career by introducing " Mr. Isaacs," a tale well 
suiting the old definition of romance. 

Again, a new school of writers has appeared, 
who have adopted the historical romance as their 
field, and seek to assure us of its renewed claims 
to our attention. In England, Mr. Stanley 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



71 



Weyman presents a series of romantic tales, 
founded upon some of the remarkable episodes 
in French history, which improve upon earlier 
efforts in the same class, in illustrating the de- 
velopment of high traits of character under the 
stress of adverse circumstances. In America, 
Mrs. Mary Hartwell Catherwood has felt the 
inspiration of strange episodes in the early 
French occupation of our northern frontier, and 
in her historical sketches has well reinforced 
Hawthorne's testimony to the romantic features 
of the settlement epoch in this country. In the 
conflicts between the English and French civ- 
ilizations on this and another continent, Mr. 
Gilbert Parker has found the materials for more 
extended romances, in relating which he has 
caught the secret of that picturesque presenta- 
tion of situations which suggests more than it 
expresses. Helen Hunt Jackson's " Ramona " 
is, on its literary side, an enthusiastic outburst 
of appreciation of the essentially romantic inci- 
dents attending the American dispossession of 
the Indian holdings in California. Mr. Arthur 
Sherburne Hardy, in his " Passe Rose," takes 
his readers back to the era of Charlemagne, 
amid the adventurous phases of a state of so- 
ciety in which civilization was struggling with 
barbarism. Gen. Lew Wallace found in Mex- 
ican history the material for his " Fair God," 
and in the advent of Christ the inspiration for 
his " Ben Hur." Later, he has felt the fasci- 
nation of the old myth of the Wandering Jew, 
a subject essentially romantic, and one which 
has allured so many romancers ; and in his 
" Prince of India " he has invested this myth- 
ical character with new and engaging attri- 
butes, and has made him an actor in the 
intricacies of that most romantic epoch, the fall 
of Constantinople. 

We have still another school, who aim to show 
us the romantic features of the everyday life 
around us ; who find the romantic in the midst 
of the real ; in a word, who transmute the Novel 
into the Romance. Their tales may or may not 
be labelled romantic, but such is their character. 
Those elements of the adventurous, the marvel- 
lous, or the mysterious, which the romancer is 
accustomed to seek afar off, among groups of 
people little known, or in past epochs, these 
writers find in their own time and among their 
own acquaintance. The marvels of the pre- 
sent day in science, in the arts, in psychology, 
and in occult learning and the dreams of the 
mystic, the ambitions of the philosopher, and 
the schemes of the social reformer, all these 
are proved to have their romantic phases, 



which are illustrated for the reading world of 
to-day. 

Thus, Dr. Holmes, in his " Elsie Venner," 
has pressed medical science into the service of 
the romance. Jules Verne has made free with 
not only the achievements, but also the aims 
and the ambitions, of modern skill in median 
ics and engineering. Dr. Conan Doyle's detec- 
tive stories are, in an eminent degree, what 
Poe's similar efforts already were in a small 
way, studies in the recent accomplishments of 
psychology. Mr. W. H. Mallock has found 
romantic characteristics in the manner in which, 
at this very hour, " The Old Order Changes " 
and a new social fabric takes its place. Charles 
Egbert Craddock's tales of life in the Tennes- 
see mountains would be tiresome indeed, but 
for the subtle manner in which those heights 
breed romantic feelings and sentiments in their 
mountain-dwellers. Mr. Crawford's " Children 
of the King " picturesquely exhibits the essen- 
tially romantic characteristics and experiences 
of life in southern Italy, in our own time. Miss 
Anna Fuller's group of sketches, " Peak and 
Prairie," each but a little dash of color upon a 
bit of canvas, are of similar character, and show 
the romantic features inherent in the ranch and 
mining camp life of Colorado. 

In this new tendency of Romance, we find 
it competing with Realism in its own field. 
The realists, to champion the superiority of the, 
Novel, argue that "truth is stranger than fic- 
tion." But it is the truth that is stranger than 
fiction, in modern life, which furnishes the mate- 
rial for these new exploits in Romance. The ex- 
traordinary, the marvellous, the startling, which 
always distinguished the romantic, were never 
found in chivalric strife, in feudal contests, or 
in internecine warfare, in greater abundance 
or more ready to the cunning hand of the story- 
teller, than they are now in the everyday inci- 
dents of this wonderful era. Now comes Ro- 
mance and says to this age, " I find at your very 
doors, and in your very homes, the warp and 
woof for my web, which I once went so far to 
seek." 

The Possible disputing ground with the Im- 
probable, and pushing it to the rear, this is 
always the basis of the marvellous, this is always 
involved in the romantic as its fundamental 
characteristic. The romancer is an explorer, a 
skirmisher ; he is always on the farther verge 
of neutral ground, always apparently in peril. 
As Hawthorne said of his own work, while 
writing " The House of the Seven Gables ": 
" In writing a romance, a man is always, or 



72 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 1, 



always ought to be, careering on the utmost 
verge of a precipitous absurdity, and the skill 
lies in coming as close as possible without actu- 
ally tumbling over." 

The present age does not cease to startle us 
with new developments, crowding close, one 
upon another, in all fields open to the investi- 
gations of the human intellect. Every day we 
see new territory wrested from the Improbable 
and occupied by the Possible. The Imagina- 
tion does not sleep while the Intellect is at work ; 
and the precipitous absurdity of the romancer 
is daily a step further removed. 

This new field of the romancer's work is that 
upon which Hawthorne ventured in the " Blithe- 
dale Romance." Psychology, with its myste- 
ries so little appreciated, so slightly explored, 
so often quite undiscovered, furnished the basis 
for those elements of the marvellous which 
made that tale a Romance. So wonderful are 
the recent developments in psychology that it 
is but natural that much of the work of the 
modern romancer should take him into the same 
field. It will be remembered that Hawthorne 
in that story anticipated many of the recent 
disclosures in hypnotism. 

So the Romantic has left the realm of tradi- 
tion and myth, and has come to sit down with 
us by the firesides of the Nineteenth Century. 
Distinctions between Realism and Romanti- 
cism are now but definitions ; the old antag- 
onism vanishes. While the Real occupies one 
chimney-corner in our libraries, the Romantic 
is at home in the other. Literature is still One, 
and the Imagination is to remain one of its 
high-priests. It may, doubtless will, have new 
work for Romance to do, such as has never 
before been attempted. 

JAMES OSCAR PIERCE. 



SHAKESPEARE. 



Glad have I drunk of Chaucer's living spring, 

And I have followed Spenser's silver stream 

Through new-awakened meadows; traced the gleam 

Of many fertile rivers issuing: 

In sterner regions I have heard the roll 

Of Milton's torrent harmonies, that sweep 

Reverberating chords through chasms deep; 

And in pure waters I have seen the soul 

Of gentle Keats. But Shakespeare ! Ah, the sea, 

With its great pulses throbbing mightily, 

Bears all the commerce of our human-kind, 

And touches every shore in friendliness. 

A trackless thoroughfare, and measureless 

As the eternal ocean, is that mind. 

EDITH C. BANFIELD. 



COMMUNICA TIONS. 



THE NOTES TO THE CAMBRIDGE TENNYSON. 

(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

I have delayed asking permission to comment on the 
criticism of the " Cambridge Tennyson," in THE DIAL 
of December 16, partly that I might correspond with 
the writer, and partly that I might reexamine my work 
on the book and find out how far it deserved the un- 
qualified condemnation it had received. One might infer 
from the tone of the criticism that I was a literary 
charlatan whom the writer felt it his duty to show up; 
but he assures me that this was not the case. He says : " I 
was confident all the time, as will all be who know your 
work, that you were the victim of misplaced confidence 
in assistants." It happens that this is true of the poems 
(with one exception) referred to in the criticism; and 
I may add that it is the only instance in which I have 
ever had such assistance in the collation of texts, or, 
indeed, in any work I have done as an editor. 

In collating Tennyson's volumes of 1830 and 1833 at 
the British Museum some years ago, as I had not time 
(to say nothing of the strain upon my eyes in the poor 
light of the reading-room in average English weather) 
to examine all the poems thoroughly, I worked chiefly 
on the longer ones (" The Lady of Shalott," The Mil- 
ler's Daughter," " The Palace of Art," the Dream of 
Fair Women," etc.) in which I was most interested, and 
which had been most altered by the author. After I 
came home I had the collation of the remaining poems 
done by a person recommended for the purpose by the 
Museum authorities. Suspecting some errors in the 
work, I returned it for revision, and, as I remember, 
ten or twelve corrections were made. It appears now 
that there were other errors or omissions which I did 
not suspect, and did not detect when, later, I had the 
loan of copies of the original volumes for a short time; 
but then, as at the Museum, I gave my attention almost 
exclusively to the longer poems; and these, which he 
" had not noted before," Professor Jack tells me he finds 
" substantially correct." I find, after carefully verify- 
ing my notes, that this is also true of " The Princess " 
and " In Memoriam," and I do not doubt that I shall 
find it true of the " Idylls of the King " and the other 
poems that I have studied somewhat thoroughly. 

It should be understood, however, that the book makes 
no pretensions to being a complete " variorum " edition. 
The " Publishers' Note " (which I did not write) states 
that the collation of texts has been limited to the edi- 
tions " accessible " to me, and these (English editions I 
mean) except the very earliest and the latest (from 
1884 to 1898) have been comparatively few. For 
instance, I have never been able to get hold of the edi- 
tion of 1851, in which the lines " To the Queen " first 
appeared. For the reading of the " Crystal Palace " 
stanza I had to depend on quotations in criticisms and 
commentaries, and four of these (Shepherd's " Tenny- 
soniana," second edition, 1879; Wace's Alfred Tenny- 
son," 1881; Luce's "Handbook to Tennyson," 1895; 
and Miss E. L. Gary's " Tennyson," 1898, the only 
authorities accessible to me) give " did meet as friends "; 
and Luce remarks: "The stanza has defects, the exple- 
tive did meet, for example." No authority refers to the 
subsequent insertion of the fourth stanza; and Luce 
distinctly says that the stanzas were " one more in num- 
ber " in 1851 than subsequently, on account of the 
" Crystal Palace " one. 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



73 



I have found and corrected many errors in Luce, 
Shepherd, and the rest, but this one I did not suspect 
and had no means of correcting. It is a curious ques- 
tion, by the by, how this error originated, since the 
stanza appeared only in the edition of 1851. There is 
no such stanza in the first manuscript version of the 
poem printed by Professor Jones in his " Growth of the 
Idylls," 1895. 

That no complete " variorum " edition was attempted 
by me ought to be clear to any reader of the notes from 
such carefully qualified statements as that on " Mari- 
ana," quoted in the criticism (" The line was changed in 
the printed poem at least as early as 1875.") Professor 
Jack says it is " not correct " for me to assert that " the 
original ' sung i' the pane ' was retained in all the editions 
I have seen down to 1875"; but I include American 
editions (the " authorized " Boston ones only), and one 
now in my possession dated 1856 has that reading, and 
I feel quite sure that it must have been in the edition of 
1875, which has somehow disappeared from my library. 
His statement that it is in " none of the editions be- 
tween 1850 and 1875 " is doubtless true of the English 
editions. 

I was rash in saying, in a number of instances besides 
those pointed out by Professor Jack, that " the only 
changes " in the text are those I mentioned. Having 
found Shepherd and others so often wrong in statements 
of this kind, I ought to have verified them, if possible, 
in every instance. Thus far, however, in my reexam- 
ination of my notes on the minor poems, I have found 
only two or three various readings that seem to me 
worth recording in an edition not intended to be com- 
plete in this respect. These, and any others like them 
which I may detect hereafter, will be duly incor- 
porated in the notes, together with corrections of the 
occasional misprints and other little errors inevitable 
in a first edition. If any reader of THE DIAL dis- 
covers such errors, I shall be grateful for a memoran- 
dum of them. For myself, I have always felt it a duty 
to send authors or publishers information of this kind 
concerning books that I read or use for reference. In 
the last forty years or more I must have sent them 
several thousand such corrections sometimes from 
fifty to a hundred in a single work involving many minute 
details. In my own books I have detected and corrected 
many more misprints and mistakes than have been 
kindly pointed out to me by others ; and finding that 
my literary work, though faithfully done as well as I 
know how, is far from perfect, I learn, in printed re- 
views (of which I write many) to be charitable in crit- 
icising the little shortcomings of others, preferring often 
to call attention to these in a private letter rather than 
in a public journal. 



W. J. ROLFE. 



Cambridge, Mass., Jan. 16, 1899. 



IS POE "REJECTED" IN AMERICA? 

(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

Mr. Charles Leonard Moore, in his very well-put 
article on " The American Rejection of Poe " in your 
last issue, has, I believe, somewhat overstated his case 
in his eagerness to state it strongly. That Poe is at the 
present day " to a great extent ignored or repudiated " 
by the American public seems to me very questionable, 
instead of unquestionable, as Mr. Moore thinks. In 
proof of this I need only cite the innumerable editions 
of his poems and tales, in every conceivable shape, from 
those in paper covers at five cents a copy to editions de 



luxe at fancy or fabulous prices. If Mr. Moore would 
attempt a collection of even the cheaper editions of Poe, 
I think he would at least modify his point of view. 
Nor have I ever yet examined any reputable volume of 
specimen selections of American prose or verse in which 
he was unrepresented. And is not " The Raven " as 
inevitable in every school " reader " or " speaker " as 
the "Psalm of Life" or "Charge of the Light Bri- 
gade " ? There can also be small doubt that " The 
Raven " and " The Bells " have been recited more dif- 
ferent times by more different " elocutionists " in these 
United States than any other two poems by any other 
American poet. As for the popularity of Poe's prose, 
it may be recalled that not long since a literary period- 
ical offered a prize for the best list of ten short stories 
by American authors, the ten to be selected from those 
receiving the highest number of votes; and in the prize 
list there were two of Poe's tales. 

Mr. Moore is undoubtedly correct in his complaint 
that Poe has never been taken into the heart of his 
native public as, for instance, Longfellow was. But the 
man who " never had an intimate friend," who seemed 
to have a positive genius for alienating friendship, could 
hardly be expected to pose as the intimate of his public 
which has, nevertheless, both critically and popularly 
stamped him a classic and quite sui generis. If the 
acceptance of Poe is in any way doubtful, it is not 
because of the antique Poe legends, not because his 
mastery of technic or imaginative power ever fails of 
appreciation, but because of the apotheosis of the " gro- 
tesque and arabesque," miasmas of the pit and the 
charnel-house, the ghastly light of the baleful planets 
from which the work of Poe the name of Poe may 
never be disassociated. Poe's metier was his of delib- 
erate choice; his atmosphere is of his own creation; 
there is not a breath of plain air in it. The " fascina- 
tion of corruption " was strong upon him, his work 
reeks of it; and it would be strange indeed if Poe the 
man were ever to escape from the atmosphere of Poe 
the artist. The " seeds scattered broadcast " by him 
have brought forth the fleurs du mal whose blossom 
is not the dew-drenched rose with head lifted to the 
sunshine in the garden of the world. 

JOHN L. HERVEY. 
Chicago, Jan. SI, 1899. 

THACKERAY AND THE AMERICAN NEWSPAPERS. 
(To the Editor of THE DIAL. ) 

Apropos of Thackeray's confession, as quoted in a 
current periodical, that the American papers were puff- 
ing him so as to make him blush, in spite of his neglect 
to throw a sop to Cerberus, it may be amusing to re- 
member that the " Boston Courier " in 1853 advised 
its readers that these American lectures of Thackeray's 
were " a mere retailing of old anecdotes, fragments 
without originality or any sense of judgment, containing 
nothing which anybody with a file of old newspapers 
and magazines might not have said." 

Which shows that Cerberus preserves the tradition 
of being many-headed. 

EMILY HUNTING-TON MILLER. 
Evanston, III., Jan. 20, 1899. 



THE rapidly increasing literature of " anti-expansion 
is being systematically collected and issued for general 
circulation by the Anti-Imperialist League, whose Secre- 
tary, at Washington, D. C., will supply the same on 
application. 



THE DIAL 



(.Feb. 1, 



iloi PARNELL, IRISH PATRIOT 
NATIONALIST.* 

In one respect Mr. R. Barry O'Brien's inter- 
esting Life of Parnell recalls Dr. Busch's 
" Bismarck ": it leaves with the reader a dis- 
agreeable impression of the man its author 
means to eulogize. We have always thought 
that Mr. Parnell was a patriot in the higher 
and correcter sense of the term, and that his 
extraordinary public career, his " really great 
career," as Mr. Gladstone expressed it, was 
inspired primarily by love of his country and 
the desire to advance what he conceived to be 
her interests ; nor are we yet prepared to sur- 
render that opinion. But the hero of Mr. 
O'Brien's pages, if we have read them aright, 
so far from being actuated mainly by the gen- 
erous emotions which the world rightly asso- 
ciates with patriotism, was spurred primarily 
by a mere fanatical hatred of England, partly 
inherited from his mother and partly grounded 
in his foolish early notion that people " despised 
him because he was an Irishman," and which 
did not have even a rudimentary knowledge of 
Irish history to justify it for, be it said, the 
story of English rule in Ireland, from Strong- 
bow's day down to the Smith O'Brien fiasco in 
the famous cabbage garden at Ballingarry, was 
a sealed book to this man who came within an 
ace of putting an end to it. If hatred for an 
entire nation was ever incarnate in a man, that 
man was Parnell, as our present author por- 
trays him ; nor does Mr. O'Brien, so far as we 
can discern, furnish any evidence of Parnell's 
actually loving anything or anyone barring, 
of course, a notorious and fatal exception in 
the case of the wife of his political associate, 
Captain O'Shea. 

We confess we find it impossible to believe 
that the career of this great parliamentary 
leader, whose genius and persistency brought 
his party within actual view of their political 
Goshen, was mainly prompted by an ignoble 
emotion such as might incite a Kerry peasant 
to fire a rick or shoot a bailiff. A lover of 
England Parnell certainly was not. But his 
course in Parliament, his very policy of obstruc- 
tion, goes to show his faith in the ultimate 
soundness and honesty of the English people, 
and his belief that if, from the forum of the 

*THK LIFE OF CHARLES STEWART PARNELL, 1846-1891. 
By R. Barry O'Brien. With portrait. New York : Harper 
& Brothers. 



House of Commons, he could once really gain 
the ear of the English electorate the conscience 
of the nation would be roused to the justice of 
the Irish national appeal. Nothing could be 
more untrue than the charge that Parnell was 
a mere sower of discord who loved obstruction 
for its own sake and took a malignant pleasure 
in thwarting the deliberations and blocking the 
business of the House. If Parnell disapproved 
of the rose-water methods of Butt, he also dis- 
approved of the uncouth and brutal methods of 
Biggar from whom, however, he really took 
his cue. His ground idea was, as we have said, 
that the real reason why the Irish question, as 
it presented itself in his day, had not been satis- 
factorily settled was that it had not had a hear- 
ing. To force that question upon the attention 
of the English democracy through constitu- 
tional methods was his plan. Therefore, he in 
effect served notice upon the House of Com- 
mons that until the demands of Ireland had 
been duly heard dhd passed upon no other ques- 
tion whatever should be discussed by it as long 
as he and his colleagues could prevent it. Par- 
nell's attitude has been well illustrated by the 
story of the Eastern woman who, having long 
tried in vain to get a petition to the Sultan, at 
last took her station in the public street with 
her little children, and when the Sultan rode 
that way flung herself in the road before him, 
declaring that he must either listen to her ap- 
peal or trample her and her babes to death 
beneath his horse's hoofs. 

In his concluding chapter Mr. O'Brien quotes 
some interesting statements regarding Parnell 
made by Mr. Gladstone in the course of a spe- 
cial interview in 1890. Asked what it was that 
first attracted his attention to Parnell, Mr. 
Gladstone replied : 

" Parnell was the most remarkable man I ever met. 
I do not say the ablest man; I say the most remarkable 
and most interesting. He was an intellectual phenom- 
enon. He was unlike anyone I ever met. He did 
things and he said things unlike other men. . . . There 
was no one in the House of Commons I would place 
with him. As I have said, he was an intellectual phe- 
nomenon." 

As to Parnell's much debated release from 
Kilmainham, Mr. Gladstone said : 

"... What is this they call it? The Kilmainham 
treaty. How ridiculous ! There was no treaty.* There 
could not be a treaty. Just think what the Habeas 
Corpus Act means. You put a man into gaol on suspi- 



* Mr. Chamberlain, on the contrary, said, when questioned 
on this point : " There was a treaty. And the terms on our 
side were that we should deal with some phases of the land 
question." Parnell's agreement seems to have been that he 
would "slow down the agitation." 



1899.] 



75 



cion. You are bound to let him out when the circum- 
stances justifying your suspicion have changed. And 
that was the case with Parnell." 

Replying to the question as to the time when 
his attention was first seriously turned to the 
demand for Home Rule, Mr. Gladstone went 
on to say : 

"... I could not, of course, support Butt's move- 
ment, because it was not a national movement. I had 
no evidence that Ireland was behind it. ParnelFs move- 
ment was very different. It came to this: we granted 
a fuller franchise to Ireland in 1884, and Ireland then 
sent eighty-five members to the Imperial Parliament. 
That settled the question. When the people express 
their determination in that decisive way, you must give 
them what they ask. It would be the same in Scotland. 
I do n't say that Home Rule is necessary for the Scotch. 
But if ever they ask for it, as the Irish have asked for 
it, they must get it. ... The union with Ireland has 
no moral force. It has the force of law, no doubt, but it 
rests on no moral basis. That is the line which I should 
always take, were I an Irishman. That is the line which 
as an Englishman I take now. Ah ! had Parnell lived, 
had there been no divorce proceedings, J do solemnly 
believe there would be a Parliament in Ireland now." 

To Parn ell's admirers, Mr. O'Brien's dra- 
matic account of his fight to retain the lead- 
ership of his party after he had forfeited it 
through his misconduct in the O'Shea matter 
makes painful reading. Mr. Gladstone was 
sufficiently explicit in regard to the course 
Parnell ought to have taken : 

"... I do not say that the private question ought 
to have affected the public movement. What I say is, 
it did affect it, and, having affected it, Parnell was bound 
to go. ... All said it would be impossible for the 
movement to go on with him. ... I think Parnell 
acted badly. I think he ought to have gone right away. 
He would have come back, nothing could have prevented 
him; he would have been as supreme as ever, for he was 
a most extraordinary man. Was he callous to every- 
thing? I never could tell how much he felt, or how 
much he did not feel. He was generally immovable." 

Parnell was originally a poor speaker the 
poorest of speakers. He had a harsh, if strong 
and penetrating, voice, and absolutely no flow 
of words. As time went on he acquired a con- 
cise, effective style of oratory an eloquence 
which consists in saying all that needs to be 
said in the fewest and strongest words. But his 
debut as a speaker, at the time of the Dublin 
election in 1874, was most unpromising. Mr. 
Sullivan describes the scene : 

"... To our dismay, Parnell broke down utterly. 
He faltered, he paused, went on, got confused, and, pale 
with intense but subdued nervous anxiety, caused every- 
one to feel deep sympathy for him. The audience saw 
it all, and cheered him kindly and heartily; but many 
on the platform shook their heads sagely, prophesying 
that if he ever got to Westminster, no matter how long 
he stayed there, he would either be a ' silent member ' 
or be known as ' single-speech Parnell.' " 



Equally unfavorable was the impression made 
by the young candidate upon Mr. O'Connor 
Power. He says : 

" Parnell seemed to me a nice gentlemanly fellow, 
but he was hopelessly ignorant, and seemed to me to 
have no political capacity whatever. He could not speak 
at all. He was hardly able to get up and say, Gen- 
tlemen, I am a candidate for the representation of the 
county of Dublin.' We all listened to him with pain 
while he was on his legs, and felt immensely relieved 
when he sat down. No one ever thought he would cut 
a figure in politics. We thought he would be a respect- 
able mediocrity." 

So much for early promises. It was not long 
before this feeble stammerer acquired the power 
to hold his Irish audiences, great open - air 
meetings, such as had been swept along on the 
torrent of O'Connell's eloquence, hanging upon 
his words, and even to fix the attention of 
the critical and hostile House of Commons 
upon every sentence he uttered. Defeated at 
Dublin in 1874, Parnell was returned at the 
head of the poll for Meath in the following 
year. His maiden speech in Parliament was 
" short, modest, spoken in a thin voice and with 
manifest nervousness "; but it went to the root 
of the business, as he saw it : 

" I trust that England will give to Irishmen the right 
which they claim the right of self-government. Why 
should Ireland be treated as a geographical fragment of 
England, as I heard an ex-Chancellor of the Exchequer 
call her some time ago ? Ireland is not a geographical 
fragment. She is a nation." 

Parnell has at least one claim upon the re- 
gard of the entire American nation. He was 
opposed to what was known as the " dynamite 
policy " a crude and murderous scheme based 
on the childish notion that England could be 
terrified into granting Irish demands by ex- 
ploding dynamite in the streets of London. 
That such a plan was hatched, fostered, and 
allowed to be publicly advocated in the press 
and from the platform in this country would 
have been a burning disgrace to us were it not 
for the fact that American humor refused to 
take the vaporings of the " professional patriot " 
seriously. He was regarded as a " blather- 
skite," a passing nuisance that could easily be 
abated when he grew too offensive, and politi- 
cians cynically stooped to humor his vagaries 
when they wanted his vote. His real objective 
was believed to be, not Irish freedom, but Irish 
pocket-books ; and so the law left Irish morality 
and Irish good sense to deal with him. Mr. 
Parnell, we are sorry to say, appears to have 
opposed the dynamitard line of action more on 
the ground of its impolicy than of its odious 
and cowardly criminality. He knew the iron 



76 



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[Feb. 1, 



temper of England well enough to see that 
nothing would be more certain to turn back 
the hands of the clock of Home Rule than the 
detestable methods of the "outrage men" 
methods which would be far more likely to land 
him and his friends in an English jail than in 
the coveted national " Parliament on College 
Green." Therefore, while his native caution 
and his conviction of the necessity of keeping 
the various Irish political clans and sections 
" pulling together " prompted him to keep in 
touch so far as possible with them all, he did 
not (as Mr. O'Brien states) " conceal his pri- 
vate repugnance to the methods of the Amer- 
ican extremists. He spoke of Ford and Finerty 
as d d fools." Mr. Parnell's epithet is not 
just the one Americans are commonly accus- 
tomed to use in the case. 

Mr. O'Brien has given us a good and an ex- 
tremely readable biography, as well as a fairly 
comprehensive account, largely from the inside, 
of the political movement to which Parnell 
gave his life, and which now seems to be, if an 
American may be permitted to say so, percepti- 
bly and happily on the wane. It appears not 
improbable that in the course of time and 
through the exercise of wise and liberal states- 
manship Ireland may come to rest under the 
Union as contentedly and with as little sense of 
racial degradation as Scotland does. To that 
end a consummation, as we venture to think, 
devoutly to be wished Parnell, though his 
aim was otherwise, will have materially con- 
tributed. For it was he, more than any other 
Irish party leader, who roused England to the 
necessity of devising a more rational and right- 
eous remedy for Irish unrest than perpetual 
coercion. E. G. J. 



A TIMELT POLITICAL, TONIC.* 

Now that the election is long over and the 
Governors and other servants of the people 
have sworn to do their duty, one may turn again 
to Mr. Chapman's account of the state of things 
here in America, with a mind more unbiassed 
than was probable when the book was pub- 
lished. " Causes and Consequences " is a book 
that had certain relations to the politics of 
New York and of the city of New York. It 
was begun, says the author, " in an attempt to 
explain an election," namely, the first municipal 
election in Greater New York under the new 

* CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES. By John Jay Chapman. 
New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 



charter, in which Mr. Seth Low, on an Inde- 
pendent ticket, was defeated. It was published 
on the eve of the last state campaign, in 
which Colonel Theodore Roosevelt, who had by 
many been regarded as the obvious Independ- 
ent candidate, refused the Independent nom- 
ination for governor and was elected on the 
Republican ticket. Its particular relation to 
the campaign lies in the fact that Mr. Chapman 
was one of the Independents who offered Col- 
onel Roosevelt the nomination, and who, when 
the nomination was refused, helped to put an 
Independent ticket into the field. During the 
campaign, then, anyone who knew something of 
the conditions that gave rise to the book was 
likely to be especially interested on one side or 
the other, and thus the book was probably 
prejudged by many. Now that the election is 
long past, there will be less prejudice. 

Further, however, it is well enough to know 
something of these things before reading Mr. 
Chapman's book, not because the politics of 
New York are necessarily of singular import- 
ance to the rest of the Union, but because we 
are thereby assured that we have here the pro- 
duction of a man practically acquainted with 
what he is writing about. It does not follow 
from a man's being practically acquainted with 
anything that he knows all about it in any large 
and intelligent way the reverse is often enough 
the case ; and it does not follow from the fact 
that Mr. Chapman has had his hand in poli- 
tics that the nation should be led by his views 
any more than by the views of any district 
leader or state boss. The importance of the 
matter lies in the fact that we thus have here, 
not the product of scholarly seclusion nor of 
club conversation, but of actual daily activity. 
And such an origin gives reality to a work. 
Doubtless the especial kind of activity will not 
by some readers be esteemed much more prac- 
tical than the intellectual activity of the aca- 
demic theorist or the linguistic activity of the 
man in the smoking-room. But on the whole 
it is more practical. If I, for instance, should 
write a book on American politics, I should feel 
the want of all that stored-up result of absolute 
everyday impression that Mr. Chapman pos- 
sesses. We should, therefore, consider his book 
as expert testimony, recollecting all the time 
the way expert testimony should be considered. 

Mr. Chapman's book is the statement of what 
will be the character of the reformation of 
American public life. The book and its author 
will be variously regarded. Some will think of 
Mr. Chapman as wearing a white plume and 



1899.] 



THE DIAL, 



77 



bearing an oriflamme of war. Others will regard 
him as the leader of a forlorn hope, and will 
expect only after a long time to find his body 
by the wall of the fallen fort. Others still will 
consider him a sort of Richard Harding Davis in 
politics. But none of these figures exactly suits 
the case. In fact, it is better to get the matter 
out of politics for the moment, to consider the 
book only. So here are some very simple im- 
pressions, put down, as nearly as I can manage, 
in the order in which they occurred to me. 

In the first place, the book is eminently 
interesting, a matter that might, perhaps, 
have been expected. I am not so sure of that, 
though : books on political and social conditions 
rarely attract lay readers unless their main ideas 
are distinctly popular. Now, the fundamental 
idea of this book is not at all popular : it is, on 
the other hand, a little recondite, I should say. 
Yet the book is so well written, it is so clearly 
the natural and current expression of the work- 
ing of a brilliant mind, that almost of necessity 
it starts up that counter-working in the mind of 
the reader which we call " interest." Mr. Chap- 
man's style is by this time well enough known : 
it is naturally effervescing, or perhaps we should 
say fermenting. It is true also that it is Emer- 
sonian ; but that is probably an accident. 

So much occurs to one who reads along in 
the book, through Mr. Chapman's account of 
present politics and of social life. Next comes 
the essay on Education ; and this essay I take 
to be cardinal to the book. It is a development 
of the principles of Froebel on which the Kin- 
dergarten is based. Mr. Chapman employed a 
governess for his children. " After a couple of 
months," says he, " I discovered that it was I 
who was being educated." He is pretty sure 
that anyone else who gets hold of these ideas 
will be educated, too. Of one of them he re- 
marks that " the consequences of a belief in it 
are so tremendous, that no man who is not pre- 
pared to spend his life completely dominated 
by the idea, ought even to pause to consider it." 
As to the value of these ideas, as to the sound- 
ness of Mr. Chapman's exposition of them, I 
shall not make even an effort to decide, much 
less to make any statement. I will, however, 
indulge myself so far as to make one remark. 
The influence of action upon belief is, I sup- 
pose, unquestionable. Mr. Chapman, for in- 
stance, writes well because he realizes his idea ; 
and he realizes his idea because it has taken 
form through action. But why did he act thus 
and so? Not, I imagine, from accident, but 
from belief. And whence that belief? from 



previous action only ? and so on back ? That 
must land in chance somewhere. 

Now, I have, on the whole, thought it prob- 
able that a man's action was as often the result 
as the cause of his belief. Mr. Chapman would 
perhaps say that this is because I am a logician, 
a professor of rhetoric, a student, a theorizer, 
a doctrinaire, one who fancies that an idea is a 
definite something that may be dropped into 
the mind, much as a little medicine may be 
dropped into a glass of water, or, rather, a tonic 
into a person. Well, it is true that I am all 
those things more or less, and doubtless that is 
one reason why I prefer to wander with Plato. 

But why this trouble as to which comes first, 
idea or act? Because Mr. Chapman would seem 
to infer from his view that right action (spon- 
taneously induced, pefhaps, or perhaps from 
right example) will bring about a right dispo- 
sition here in America, and particularly that 
action in reform movements will give us all 
such a feeling about Democracy that the United 
States will become really what she now is only 
potentially. That is his theory, as far as I can 
see. He shows that politics is debased through 
selfishness encouraged by commerce ; he shows 
that society is debased by the low tone of pol- 
itics. Then he propounds the great truth that, 
to be, men must do ; and also that they must do 
for others, and not only that they must do so, but 
that they want to do so, and that they do do so. 
This is the constant tendency ; commercialism 
is temporary and will pass away. Men will be 
brought to right action by (among other things) 
reform movements. More and more will people 
learn to act in politics unselfishly, and thus they 
will become individualized and independent, 
and the nation as a whole will be purified. 

This rather puts the boot on the other leg : 
Mr. Chapman is now the logician and all the 
other kinds of star-gazer noted above. 

Why should we have right action ? " Let it 
take care of itself," Mr. Chapman seems to say ; 
" people prefer to be unselfish ; they will insist 
on being so ; they can 't help it in the long run." 
That is to some degree true. Still, people will 
be a little better for good advice in the matter 
of government as in other matters. 

For it is worth noting that Mr. Chapman 
seems to regard government almost as an end 
in itself. He says : " Here is the American 
people ill-governed. It is a shameful thing. 
But by a certain means the American people 
will surely be so toned up that they will govern 
themselves well. Then it will be all right." 
Mr. Chapman believes " a virtuous ruler to be 



78 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 1, 



the prototype of all possible human fulfilment." 
Now, of course every man thinks that his own 
trade is the most important. The schoolmaster 
says that education is the panacea. The clergy- 
man says that religion will reconstitute society. 
The politician thinks that government is the 
main thing. Mr. Chapman likes good govern- 
ment : he agrees with the poet (may for aught 
I know be the poet) who sings : 

" Tilings are there that I wish and I mast have 
Will have them for they suit me. It 's my whim. 
A decent class of men in public life, 
Some tolerably honest courts of law, 
A friend or two that would not steal a watch, 
And above all a riot of free speech 
Where every man may revel to his fill 
And not be hounded for a lunatic." 

Those are good things, to be sure ; but there 
are other things more satisfying to me, and in 
reading the book I could n't help thinking : 
'* This government is only machinery, after all. 
If the government only is improved, people will 
go wrong in other ways. If the whole plane of 
living is lifted up, government is merely a de- 
tail." It is true that something like this may 
be said to everybody who tries to better man- 
kind in some special direction. I rather think 
it cannot be said of what may be called the 
fourth dimensional method, which works in a 
direction quite unperceivable to most of us. 

But I had no intention of going so far in 
criticism. The idea that in a couple of columns 
you can criticize fairly and fully what a man 
^has thought out and expressed in two hundred 
pages, arouses little enthusiasm in me. I do n't 
feel that there is a fair show for either. Nor 
would I try to summarize the book, for that 
might make people think that they knew what 
was in it without a reading. It must be enough 
if I have given something of an idea as to the 
kind of book it is. Then those who like that 
kind will go and read it, and, it may be 
added, they will find it very entertaining and 
also beneficial. EDWARD E. HALE, JR. 



THE SUCCESSORS OF HOMER.* 

Professor Lawton's little volume on " The 
Successors of Homer," a companion and sequel 
to his " Art and Humanity in Homer," offers 
the English student an untechnical and very 
readable survey of the remains of Greek hexa- 
meter poetry outside of the two great epics. 
In successive chapters he treats of the lost epics 
of the " Cycle," the Works and Days and Theo- 

*THE SUCCESSORS OF HOMER. By W. C. Lawton. New 
York : The Macmillan Co. 



gony of Hesiod, the so-called Homeric Hymns, 
and the hexameters of the pre-Socratic philo- 
sophical poets Parmenides and Empedocles. 

Professor Lawton is right in claiming a cer- 
tain unity for his theme, whether we find that 
unity in the metre, the prolongation and grad- 
ual decay of the epic tradition, or the conven- 
ience of the modern student. The epic Cycle is 
discussed in Lang's " Homer and the Epic." 
There is a fair account of Hesiod in Black- 
wood's Ancient Classics, and there are excel- 
lent short chapters on him in Jebb and Sy- 
monds. The Hymn to Demeter is the theme 
of one of Walter Pater's fascinating studies, 
and is enthusiastically interpreted in Professor 
Dyer's " Gods in Greece." The Hymn to 
Homer is accessible in Shelley's delicious trans- 
lation. But there is no one work in English 
so well adapted as the one before us to bridge 
over for the general reader and young student 
the gap between Homer and the lyric and 
dramatic poetry of Greece. 

Professor Lawton's method resembles that of 
the well-known " Ancient Classics for English 
Readers," and is for its purpose more effective 
than a more pretentious and less direct way of 
approach would be. The reader who desires 
information about books which he cannot study 
in the original tongue does not want a double 
distillation of subtle critical epithets. He wishes 
to get at the content of the books with as little 
hindrance as possible from the scholastic and 
critical scaffoldings that have been built up 
about them. This want Professor Lawton 
meets by translating in the metre of the orig- 
inal all the more beautiful or significant pas- 
sages. The translations are prefaced or accom- 
panied by just enough prologue and commentary 
to make them intelligible, and connected by a 
running summary of the duller or more tech- 
nical omitted passages. 

These translations bring up again the eternal 
question of the English hexameter. We may 
say at once that we like Professor Lawton's 
hexameters here better than in his Homer. The 
English hexameter, except as an occasional ex- 
periment in the hands of a great poet, not only 
fails to satisfy a nice ear but is fatally lacking 
in distinction. Such a line, for example, as 

" Zeus, 
Who as he sits with Themis engages in chat confidential," 

may pass in a Homeric Hymn. In the Iliad 
it would be intolerable. Professor Lawton, of 
course, has better lines than this. It would be 
a very sensitive ear indeed that felt a jar in the 
description of Apollo, 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



79 



"Stepping graceful and high, and the splendor glimmers 

about him, 
Flash of the gleaming feet, and of garments cunningly woven." 

And when the critic has said his worst, it re- 
mains true that the line-for-line translation in 
the measure, if not quite the metre, of the orig- 
inal, conveys a truer average impression than 
could easily be given in any other way. What, 
for example, could be done in English rhyme 
or iambic blank verse with such lines as : 

" Glaukonome, who in laughter delights, and Pontoporeia, 
Leiagore and Euagore and Laomedeia " ? 

At the close of each chapter, Professor Law- 
ton gives brief references to the chief German 
authorities. The commentary is enlivened by 
modern touches and a few poetic parallels. We 
miss an allusion to the beautiful imitation of 
the Hesiodic prologue found in Matthew Ar- 
nold's " Empedocles." Schiller's line, 

" Patroclus liegt hegraben und Thersites kommt zuriick," 

proves not so much ignorance of the Aethiopis 
as acquaintance with Sophocles's Philoctetes, 
4 34-442. PAUL SHOREY. 



A DISTINGUISHED WORKER FOR THE 

INSANE.* 



Pliny Earle was born in 1809 that annus 
mirdbilis so prolific in great men the world 
over ; and in his field, which was a restricted 
one, his talents were great, while, if he had not 
genius, he had the industry and power of taking 
pains, which, we are told, are of the essence of 
genius. He did not have a great part to play, 
yet he was as remarkable in his field as many 
of the great men of 1809 were in their larger 
fields. It was in work among and for the insane 
that the significance of Dr. Earle's life lay ; yet 
there are many scenes and episodes related in 
his memoirs which have an interest and a charm 
for every reader. 

Pliny Earle was of Quaker parentage, being 
descended from Ralph Earle, one of the found- 
ers of Rhode Island ; and through life he main- 
tained the best characteristics and traditions of 
the Society of Friends, though, apparently, not 
formally adhering to that communion. His 
early travels in Europe brought him into con- 
tact, in both England and France, with many 
of the makers of Quaker history, and many 
other men and women who left their impress 
on their time, and the reception he had from 

* MEMOIRS OF PLINY EARLE. M.D. With Extracts from 
his Diary and Letters (1830-1892), and Selections from his 
Professional Writings (1839-1891). Edited, with a general 
introduction, by F. B. Sanborn. Boston : Damrell & Upham. 



them was in itself a tribute to great personal 
excellence and attractiveness. There is some- 
thing most refreshing in the account of these 
European travels at a period (1839) when Eu- 
rope would seem to have been more interesting 
to the tourist than it is now. The pictures given 
in this book of the official life in Washington 
during the administrations of Pierce, Buchanan, 
and Lincoln, and of social scenes in Washington 
and Charleston, are also most interesting. To 
read at one's ease to-day about being " jammed " 
through the various colored rooms of the White 
House at the official receptions in the days of 
crinoline mingled with Republican simplicity 
not to say rudeness is more amusing than 
the actual experience could have been ; for Dr. 
Earle tells of seeing people go and come by 
jumping through the windows, and of a foreign 
Ambassador and his lady climbing over piles 
of coats when an effective blockade of humanity 
barred all the doors, at a reception of President 
Pierce. 

Again, the accounts of the trip to Cuba in 
1852, and of the visit to Havana, Cardenas, and 
Matanzas, have an especial interest in the light 
of more recent events. Dr. Earle found Cuba 
most attractive as it was then in its brief hey- 
day of prosperity. Incidentally, one learns with 
interest that President Polk made an offer to 
Spain of $100,000,000 for the island now so 
disastrously lost to her. 

Dr. Earle was" brought during his visit to 
England into immediate contact, as a Quaker 
and the guest of Quakers, with the work done 
for the insane by the Tuke family of York, the 
founders of the York Retreat. The work of 
this family for three generations, but especially 
of William Tuke in 1790 to 1800, forms as 
famous an historical landmark of philanthropy 
in England as does Pinel's universally ap- 
plauded contemporary heroism in France, in 
being the first to remove, and at his personal 
risk, the chains from the mad men and women 
who had worn them for years in the " bedlams " 
of Paris, the Bicetre and Salpetriere. Dr. 
Earle met Samuel Tuke, a son of William ; 
and in becoming familiar with the progress 
wrought at the York Retreat he no doubt de- 
rived inspiration further intensifying his inter- 
est in the insane, and leading him later not only 
to oppose the abuses of mechanical restraint 
in caring for these unfortunates, but also to 
speak and write against the scarcely less abhor- 
rent " chemical " restraint by use of nauseating 
and narcotizing drugs, and also of blood-letting, 
which, under the teachings of Rush, the leading 



80 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 1, 



American authority at this time in the treat- 
ment of insanity, was commonly practiced. 

Dr. Earle met Elizabeth Fry, Fowell Bux- 
ton, and other famous Quakers and philan- 
thropists in England. He visited institutions 
for the insane in England, Ireland, Germany, 
France, Turkey, and even the Island of Malta. 
In the Turkish asylum, hard by the Mosque of 
Suleiman at Constantinople, he found the un- 
happy insane with chains round their necks to 
the number of over thirty. All, indeed, were 
chained but one, and that one was securely 
locked up because he had so often broken his 
chains. This seems barbarous now ; but it 
does not mean that Turkey was more barbarous 
than other countries in that day, for barbarity 
toward the insane was then well-nigh universal. 
Nothing was attempted for any of the insane 
except those dangerous to life and limb, and in 
Turkey mild cases were looked upon as sacred 
objects. Even in civilized Paris, a worse abuse 
than chains was practiced, or authorized, in the 
Bicetre, by the son of the illustrious friend of 
the insane, Pinel. Here patients affected with 
delusions, or neglectful of their tasks, were 
fastened in bath-tubs with covers over the tops 
through which their heads projected, and if 
they insisted upon their delusions or were other- 
wise intractable, the cold-water douche was 
thrown upon them until they would deny their 
delusions or promise to perform what was re- 
quired of them. 

In 1840, shortly after his return home, Dr. 
Earle was engaged to care for the institution of 
the Friends at Frankford, Pennsylvania. This 
was not a " lunatic asylum," as such establish- 
ments were generally called in that day, but a 
" Retreat for Persons deprived of the Use of 
their Reason." Here he had an invaluable 
experience, preparing him well for the larger 
work to which he was called in 1847, when he 
took charge of the Bloomingdale Asylum, the 
department for the insane of the Hospital of 
the City of New York. His five years' service 
at this latter place where he saw and de- 
scribed the first case of " paresis " brought to 
light in America, which malady has become so 
common since was marked by noteworthy 
labors and researches. After resigning from 
Bloomingdale, Dr. Earle engaged in studies, 
travels, practice, and work as an expert on 
insanity cases, for the years from 1849 to 1864, 
and spent much time at the Government Hos- 
pital for the Insane, having charge of a portion 
of the work, and meeting with many remarka- 
ble experiences in the development of this 



institution which received and cared for all the 
insane of the army and navy. Here he met 
many of the famous officials, legislators, and 
persons of scientific and social distinction 
abounding in Washington at this period. It is 
in this portion of the book that we get some of 
the cleverest touches of nature and interesting 
side-lights on historical times and persons. In 
1864 Dr. Earle was made the head of the State 
Asylum for the Insane at Northampton, Mass., 
and there he spent twenty-one years of rare 
usefulness and renown. 

Dr. Earle is presented to us in the portrai- 
ture of his biographer as a man with few fail- 
ings. Mr. Sanborn is not like some biographers 
who have the air of saying throughout their 
work, " Oh, how good ! " He does not seem to 
unduly exalt his hero, but gives us, as a rule, 
an exceptionally sedate and sober-minded por- 
trayal ; hence, a letter incorporated in the 
Washington reminiscences, from Dr. Godding, 
an associate of Dr. Earle at the Government 
Hospital for the Insane, which refreshingly 
shows some of the human foibles of our subject, 
is especially interesting. Dr. Godding tells us 
that the renowned alienist chewed tobacco, and 
that he endeavored for some time to leave off 
by weighing out a few grains less daily, but 
finally desisted ; also that he hated inordinately 
to be beaten at any game of skill or hazard. 
We also learn in another connection that Dr. 
Earle was a punster, and a depraved one at 
that. This, and the laconic way of telling of 
some unseemly things in Cuba like a cocking 
main, a bull-baiting, or Sunday festivities by 
saying, " My barber related these things," or, 
" A man who was in Europe when I was saw 
so and so" (meaning himself), these, as I 
said, are pleasingly humorous touches. 

We have not left ourselves space to speak of 
Dr. Earle's great work at Northampton, where 
he introduced economy, order, industry, com- 
fort, enjoyment, and beauty into the work of 
caring for the insane, and made an establish- 
ment famous the world over. Dr. Earle was 
the first to introduce lectures and readings be- 
fore the insane ; he even lectured to them upon 
insanity with interest and advantage. He was 
also the first to occupy a chair of psychiatry in 
a medical school in the United States. 

Dr. Earle could hardly have had a better 
biographer than Mr. Sanborn, whose biog- 
raphies of Emerson, John Brown, and others, 
are so well known. The material is handled 
with excellent judgment, and from his abound- 
ing stores of knowledge he gives us many side- 



1899.] 



THE DIAL, 



81 



lights, not to speak of digressions into scarcely 
related fields. The virtues of a biographer and 
those of his subject are so different that we 
may often see very interesting lives rendered 
dull, vicious lives made saintly, charming lives 
divested of every attraction, and simple lives 
made complex ; and one does not wonder that 
Thackeray left commands that no biography 
of him should be prepared, to inform, or mis- 
inform, coming generations. Mr. Sanborn's 
book may be commended to all who are inter- 
ested in social, industrial and educational con- 
ditions during the middle third of our century, 
and especially to philanthropists and others who 
wish to follow the development of men and 
institutions devoted to the care of the insane 
during the same period at home and abroad. 

RICHARD DEWEY. 



BOOKS ABOUT DANTE.* 



Matthew Arnold, in an address made upon 
the occasion of the unveiling of the Milton 
Memorial Window in St. Margaret's Church, 
Westminster, made the following weighty sug- 
gestion : 

" In our race there are thousands of readers, pres- 
ently there will be millions, who know not a word of 
Greek and Latin, and will never learn those languages. 
If this host of readers are ever to gain any sense of the 
power and charm of the great poets of antiquity, their 
way to gain it is not through translations of the ancients, 
but through the original poetry of Milton, who has the 
like power and charm, because he has the like great 
style." 

We call this a weighty saying, because it points 
out a path whereby the education of the future, 
accepting as inevitable the relegation of clas- 
sical studies to a band of scholars growing ever 
smaller and smaller in their proportion to the 
whole body of educated men, may yet remain 
possessed of a key to unlock the doors of a cul- 
ture not wholly different in kind from that hith- 
erto chiefly obtainable by the study of Homer 
and Sophocles, of Horace and Virgil. Now, 
there is one other modern poet, and only one, 
who may in this respect be ranked with Milton, 

*A DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES AND NOTABLE MAT- 
TERS IN THE WORKS OF DANTE. By Paget Toynbee, M.A. 
Oxford : At the Clarendon Press. New York : Henry Frowde. 

DANTE'S TEN HEAVENS. A Study of the Paradise. By 
Edmund G. Gardner, M.A. New York : Imported by Charles 
Scribner's Sons. 

DANTE AT RAVENNA. A Study. By Catherine Mary Phil- 
limore. London : Elliot Stock. 

ESSAYS ON DANTE. By Dr. Karl Witte. Translated and 
edited by C. Mabel Lawrence, B.A., and Philip H. Wick- 
steed, M.A. Boston : Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 



and who offers in addition the great advantage 
of being approachable only through the medium 
of a foreign language. It is almost needless 
to add that this poet is Dante, or to say that a 
student bent upon attaining the special type of 
culture known as " classical," yet determined 
to get it through the modern rather than through 
the ancient languages through the tongues 
that are still spoken rather than through the 
tongues that are no longer heard can most 
nearly accomplish his purpose by devoting him- 
self to the works of the immortal Florentine. 
The substitute will not be an an exact one, for 
the spirit of medievalism is not the spirit of 
classical antiquity, but it is a closer substitute 
than most people imagine, and Arnold's plea 
for the study of Milton applies with twofold 
force to the study of Dante. 

It is, then, with much satisfaction that we 
note the signs, multiplying upon every hand, 
of the growing hold of Dante upon the world 
of modern culture, and especially of the increase 
of interest with which the study of this poet is 
being pursued in England and America. Re- 
viewing Mr. T. W. Koch's " Dante in Amer- 
ica," a year or two ago, we commented upon the 
American phase of Dante studies, and we are 
now called upon to give a brief account of sev- 
eral Dante publications that have recently come 
from the other side of the Atlantic. Foremost 
in importance among them is the " Dante Dic- 
tionary " of Mr. Paget Toynbee, a work fore- 
shadowed by the index of " nomi propri e cose 
notabili" prepared by Mr. Toynbee for Dr. 
Moore's " Oxford " Dante, and now expanded 
from the few pages which it occupied in that 
work to the dimensions of a quarto volume. 
The amount of industry that has gone to the 
making of this book, henceforth an indispens- 
able adjunct to the labors of every student of 
Dante and his period, is something enormous. 
Besides the 565 double-columned pages of the 
" Dictionary " proper, there are about fifty 
more of tables, genealogies, plates, indexes, and 
the like. The articles average several to the 
page, and include not only the proper names 
occurring in Dante, but also such miscellaneous 
subjects as " Rosa celestiale," " Carnali pec- 
catori," " Imperio Romano," as well as the 
titles of all the books mentioned in the works 
of the poet. The material has been brought 
together from the most varied sources, includ- 
ing the scattered Dante literature found in 
periodicals. The " Vocabolario Dantesco " of 
Blanc suggested the " Dictionary," which, how- 
ever, differs from the former work in its restric- 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 1, 



tion to the matters described by the title, while, 
on the other hand, it is not confined to the 
" Divina Commedia " alone. We note, in pass- 
ing, that Mr. Toynbee is now engaged upon the 
preparation of a " Dante Vocabulary " of his 
own. Together with Mr. Fay's " Concordance," 
and the " Enciclopedia Dantesca " of Herr 
Scartazzini (the latter now in course of publi- 
cation), the new " Dictionary " takes its place 
among the half-dozen of reference works abso- 
lutely indispensable to the student of Dante. 

Mr. Edmund Gardner's " Dante's Ten 
Heavens " is a running commentary upon the 
" Paradiso," with a supplementary chapter de- 
voted to the " Epistolae." We are particularly 
glad to find, in the publication of this and other 
recent works, an increasing attention given to 
that section of the Sacred Poem which has suf- 
fered the most from neglect. While the best 
students and critics have never failed to appre- 
ciate the ineffable beauty of the " Paradiso," 
there is no doubt that the general reader has 
come to be more familiar with the first two 
cantiche* or with the first alone, than with the 
third. We still meet with the curious opinion 
that Dante's essential characteristics were 
cruelty and vindictiveness ; we still find, even 
among spiritually-minded people, a lack of 
sympathetic understanding of the poet only to 
be accounted for by their undue attention to 
the more lurid and forbidding aspects of the 
" Inferno." That Dante, so far from being cruel 
by nature, was the very soul of tenderness, and 
that his alleged vindictiveness is in truth a 
quality so far removed from that base passion 
that it is in reality a revelation of the justice of 
God made through the utterance of an inspired 
spokesman, if such there ever were, are propo- 
sitions so self-evident to all who have penetrated 
into the secret chambers of the poet's conscious- 
ness that one almost scorns to support them by 
argument. The vulgar view of this matter is 
akin to the self-revelation of those who charac- 
terize Othello as jealous, unconscious of the 
fact that they thereby place themselves upon 
the moral level of lago, to whom, indeed, the 
noble Moor is but a man of like passions to 
his own. A reverent study of the whole of 
Dante is the best corrective of the grotesque 
popular judgment, and such books as this of 
Mr. Gardner are exceedingly helpful to the 
student who is in good earnest desirous of en- 
tering into communion with the loftiest of poets. 
The author's attitude toward his subject is 
expressed in the following passage : " Here, 
perhaps more than in any other part of the 



poem, does Dante show himself in thorough 
sympathy with his age, its doctrines and rudi- 
mentary science, its yearning for knowledge, its 
delight in the beauty of intellectual satisfaction. 
It is such works as the ' Paradiso ' that enable 
us to realise what were the noblest thoughts 
and aspirations of those ages whose exceeding 
light has so dazzled weak modern eyesight that 
they have sometimes been called dark, for in 
them 

" L'occhio si smarria 
Come virtii che a troppo si confonda.' " 

To the discerning critic, certainly, the " Para- 
diso " appears, not merely a part of the great 
Epic of the Soul absolutely necessary for the 
comprehension of the other parts, but, consid- 
ered as poetry and nothing else, from its initial 
vision of 

" La gloria di Colui che tutto muove," 

to its final glorification of 

" L'Amor che muove il sole e 1'altre stelle," 
one long outpouring of divinely rapturous song. 

Miss Phillimore's " Dante at Ravenna," the 
third book upon our list, is modestly " offered 
as a humble contribution to the mass of litera- 
ture and research which centres in that great 
name." It is based, in the main, upon Signer 
Ricci's "I/Ultimo Rifugio di Dante Alighieri," 
which has been to some extent supplemented by 
the researches of the writer, made in London 
and Oxford, in Paris and Ravenna. The book 
must be described as a pleasant performance, 
but a discursive and amateurish one, not as 
scrupulous as it should have been in the veri- 
fication of its statements, and fitted rather for 
a popular than for a scholarly audience. The 
most interesting part of the book is the closing 
chapter, which gives the strange history of the 
mortal remains of Dante and of their discovery 
in our own time. The poet himself, his tomb, 
and his beloved Pineta, supply subjects for the 
three illustrations of the volume. 

We owe to the collaboration of Mr. Philip 
H. Wicksteed and Miss C. Mabel Lawrence the 
last work upon our list, which is a translation 
of certain " Essays on Dante," selected from 
the voluminous writings of Karl Witte. It is 
not too much to say, with Mr. Wicksteed, that 
" if the history of the revival of interest in 
Dante which has characterized this century 
should ever be written, Karl Witte will be the 
chief hero of the tale." It is to his efforts, 
more than to those of any other man, that the 
study of the poet was brought out of the morass 
of allegorical interpretation and mystical spec- 
ulation to be set upon the firm path of sound 



1899.] 



83 



and sane scholarship. The list of his writings 
upon the subject, in German, Italian, and 
Latin, begins with the classical essay " Ueber 
das Missverstandniss Dantes," published in 
1823, and extends to the close of Witte's long 
and useful life in 1883, when his years num- 
bered those of the century in which he lived. 
The writings include twenty-five separate pub- 
lications, ranging from articles in the " Dante 
Jahrbuch " to the great critical edition of the 
" Gottliche Kombdie," besides the two thick vol- 
umes of " Dan te-Forschungen," from which Mr. 
Wicksteed has selected sixteen of the fifty-two. 
There are some interesting things about Witte's 
life. His father gave him a John Stuart Mill 
education, preparing him to enter the Univer- 
sity of Leipzig at the age of nine and a half, 
and to take the doctor's degree, with a mathe- 
matical thesis, before he was fourteen. And 
as Mill claimed that whatever he had accom- 
plished was the result, not of special abilities, 
but of proper training, so Witte's father 
claimed that his son had no exceptional talents, 
and was so delighted with what his system had 
produced that he published a work in two vol- 
umes upon the development of the boy's intel- 
lect. It is not strange, then, that at eighteen 
Witte found his way to Dante, or that at twenty- 
three, by publishing the essay already mentioned, 
he " entered the lists against existing Dante 
scholars, all and sundry, demonstrated that 
there was not one of them that knew his trade, 
and announced his readiness to teach it to 
them." This essay stands second among the six- 
teen in Mr. Wicksteed's selection, and among 
the most important of the others are " Dante's 
Trilogy," " Dante's Cosmography," " The Eth- 
ical Systems of the Inferno and the Purga- 
torio," "The Topography of Florence about 
the Year 1300," and "Dante and United 
Italy." Most of these chapters are not merely 
monographs of the pedantic German type, but 
rather essays of a highly readable sort, brilliant 
and even eloquent in their manner. In the 
matter of extracts, Mr. Wicksteed has, reluct- 
antly, adopted the plan of translating every- 
thing, Italian, Latin, and French, into English, 
although he admits that " the logic is all the 
other way." We do not think him well-advised 
in so doing ; the translations are not objection- 
able in themselves, but they should have been 
accompanied by the originals, even at the cost 
of adding another fifty pages to the volume. 
In dealing with matters of controversy he has 
shown better judgment, avoiding the " running 
corrective and refuting commentary " which 



disfigure so many scholarly works of this de- 
scription, yet supplying footnotes where abso- 
lutely indispensable, and discussing in an ap- 
pendix the main difficulties involved in Witte's 
positions upon controverted themes. On the 
whole, we are extremely grateful to the trans- 
lators for this book, which provides what is 
certainly the best of Witte's work, and prac- 
tically all of it that students who will not take 
the trouble to learn German have a right to 
expect. WILLIAM MORTON PAYNE. 



PRESENT TENDENCIES IN ECONOMIC 
THOUGHT.* 



One of the most successful professors of English 
literature used to advise his students to read only 
the one best novel of any author, and then to read 
a book of the same general sort by some other writer 
of prominence : having read " John Halifax, Gen- 
tleman," for example, as the one work on which its 
author's reputation in the main rests, follow it with 
" Felix Holt "; or, if you have been enjoying Scott's 
" Legend of Montrose," then, and not till then, read 
Stevenson's " Kidnapped." 

This advice to read books in pairs is particularly 
applicable to works relating to economics and to the 
many schemes of political and social reform which are 
so forcibly and so persistently urged upon the public. 
Such an essay in American economic history, for in- 
stance, as that by Professor Hammond on " The Cot- 
ton Industry," in our present category, is a most sav- 
ory dish with which to supplement the dry bones of 
German economic theory in Professor Crook's ex- 
amination of " Wage Theories," especially as the 
one book is excellent of its kind and the other is at 
best only indifferently well done ; while books like 
Mr. Gronlund's " New Economy " and Mrs. Stet- 
son's " Women and Economics " need the wholesome 
antidote of Professor Henderson's systematic trea- 

* THE NEW ECONOMY : A Peaceful Solution of the Social 
Problem. By Laurence Qronlund, M. A., author of " The Co- 
operative Commonwealth," etc. Chicago: Herbert S. Stone 
&Co. 

WOMEN AND ECONOMICS : A Study of the Economic Rela- 
tion between Men and Women as a Factor in Social Evolution. 
By Charlotte Perkins Stetson. Boston : Small, Maynard & Co. 

SOCIAL ELEMENTS : Institutions, Character, Progress. By 
Charles Richmond Henderson. New York : Charles Scrib- 
ner's Sons. 

THE COTTON INDUSTRY : An Essay in American Economic 
History. By M. B. Hammond, Ph.D., Assistant Professor 
in Economics, University of Illinois. Part I., The Cotton 
Culture and the Cotton Trade. Publications of the American 
Economic Association New Series, No. 1. New York : The 
Macmillan Co. 

GERMAN WAGE THEORIES : A History of their Develop- 
ment. By James W. Crook, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of 
Political Economy, Amherst College. Studies in History, 
Economics, and Public Law. Edited by the Faculty of Polit- 
ical Science of Columbia University. Volume IX., No. 2. 
New York : Published by the University. 



84 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 1, 



tise on " Social Elements " to help us maintain a 
stable mental equilibrium. 

" The New Economy " is an exceptionally clever 
bit of special pleading ; " Social Elements " is a 
judicial review of the several and often discordant 
phases of our complex social life. The author of 
the one is preaching a doctrine, and he naturally 
writes with all the ardor of a reformer and even of 
an evangelist ; the author of the other is writing a 
text-book, or, rather, he is lecturing to students, 
for his book still retains many of the marks of the 
lecture form. He therefore carefully avoids argu- 
ing the case, but takes you up on the mountain-peak 
of highest scholarship and gives you a comprehen- 
sive view of the whole field of social activities, point- 
ing out the peculiar institutions, with the character- 
istics and significance of each. 

Professor Henderson has also given a distinctly 
literary flavor to his book, not only by crowding his 
pages with the noble thoughts of the poets and prose 
writers of all ages and of every nation, but by having 
a care to his own thought, giving it beauty of form as 
well as strength of substance. This does not mean that 
he has attempted any of that " fine writing " which 
disfigures, but that he has chosen his words and 
phrases with that simplicity which gives elegance to 
his style and pleasure to his readers ; he has not 
forgotten that books are written to be read, and that 
the aim of an author should be to have his thoughts 
easily understood. His work consequently com- 
mends itself to those " whom extended experience 
in the classroom has taught to view with profound- 
est respect the infinite capability of the human mind 
to resist the introduction of knowledge." There is, 
moreover, a skilful arrangement of chapters, by 
which we are led easily up from the simple and the 
familiar things about us to those less known and 
more difficult of comprehension, our interest never 
flagging, until at last we find ourselves wrestling 
with " Some Problems of Social Psychology," in 
Chapter XV. 

Mr. Gronlund's logic is simple in the extreme, 
and his programme of social reform sounds so per- 
fectly feasible and so thoroughly practical that the 
wonder is we do not adopt it at once. Indeed, the 
casual reader, differing though he might with the 
author at nearly every conclusion he reaches, would 
find it difficult to tell why they should have parted 
company, and where or how one can admit the pre- 
mises of Mr. Gronlund (1) that "something must 
be done," and (2) that "industrial democracy is 
inevitable " and still deny the truth of his appar- 
ently logical inference, (3) that " collectivism is the 
climax " and the noble ideal toward which we should 
all strive with every means in our power. Our im- 
mediate aim, he says, should be to give to our work- 
ingmen as much security and independence as pos- 
sible short of the Cooperative Commonwealth, so 
that we may soften, though not solve, the labor 
problem (p. 135). To this end he proposes a party 
programme of eleven measures, six of state (p. 150) 
and five of national activity (p. 227), as follows : 



1. Obligatory Industrial Arbitration. 

2. Effective Labor Organizations. 

3. State Productive Work for Unemployed (Road -mak- 
ing, e. g.) 

4. Municipal Enterprises under State Control water, gas, 
and electric light supply, street-car accommodation, telephone 
service, etc. 

5. State Control of the Liquor Traffic. This "is right, 
mainly because it will abolish the saloon while not depriving 
any one of the indulgence in moderate drinking, which the 
State has no right to do " (p. 209). 

6. State Socialization of Mines. 

7. Nationalization of the Telegraph and Express Business. 

8. Government Banking in its two divisions (a) savings- 
banks, (b) loan-offices, to which 

9. Postal Savings Banks afford a first step. 

10. National Control of all Fares and Freight Rates, as a 
step to the Nationalization of the Railroads. 

11. The Department of Agriculture constituted an effective 
organ for the farmers, "for buying them the machinery, the 
fertilizers, the seeds, the breeding animals which they may 
need, their organ for selling their surplus products for 
them" (p. 291). 

For each of these steps Mr. Gronlund offers careful 
explanation of how it has worked, and ample justi- 
fication of how it would work for the uplift of hu- 
manity and the betterment of the race. He urges, 
moreover, that the peculiar note of collectivism is 
wholly absent from these measures, and that there 
is a good deal more collectivism in any one of our 
trusts than in all of them (p. 296). Singularly 
enough, the means by which Mr. Gronlund expects 
to secure the adoption of this platform with eleven 
planks is popular education in the public school : 
the substitution, that is, of Kindergarten and Man- 
ual Training methods for the present undemocratic 
system of primary and secondary education. In 
addition to this pedagogical campaign to secure 
higher ideals in the next generation, Mr. Gronlund 
proposes civic churches (p. 350) where " well- 
informed, thoughtful men and women will on Sun- 
days listen to lectures by competent, trained teach- 
ers on political, economical, and educational sub- 
jects, and take part in sober discussions thereon 
not with a sort of apology as is done even in so-called 
'People's Churches,' but conscious that they are 
acting in unison with the powers and forces that 
are working out the destiny of humanity." 

"It should not be difficult to make every public- 
spirited citizen see that, if we could gather the squalid 
children teeming in the tenements of our large cities 
into sunny Kindergartens, teach them neatness and gen- 
tleness, open their eyes to beauty, train their hands in 
useful activities aud develop their minds naturally and 
by an orderly method, the gravest dangers to our civili- 
zation would be averted" (p. 313). 

" Manual training will finally solve the problem we 
have set ourselves. It will, in the first place, give the 
pupil power to make the most of himself, to know some- 
thing thoroughly, and this it will accomplish by leading 
the youthful mind to form habits of observation, of self- 
activity, of self-development, and thus to become a self- 
educator. And, in the second place, it will actually 
make of the youth an all-around man and an all-around 
woman, too, for that matter; it is in very truth itself a 
liberal education; manual training, properly understood, 
opens up the whole universe of knowledge and culture " 
(pp. 323-324). 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



85 



Mr. Gronlund is confident that a fourteen-year-old 
boy, educated as he suggests (and the experiment 
has already been tried, both in Boston and in a 
suburb of Chicago) " will be fully the peer in knowl- 
edge, in mental acumen and moral perceptions, of 
any of our young men of twenty-one who has just 
graduated from Harvard" (p. 325). But it is not 
on this account that he advocates a new education ; 
it is, rather, as his sub-title suggests, as a means to 
the peaceful solution of the social problem. A higher 
body of ideals and a growing consciousness of our 
being social functionaries will alone " relegate pay, 
profits, and property to the secondary position, where 
in fact they belong" (p. 42). He depends upon 
the school to supply the one, and the civic church 
the other. Both are essential, he insists, as the 
only means of preventing that civil war of classes 
for which socialists are preparing us. 

" The plain fact is, that every one of us, industrially 
or socially employed, whether as a banker, a baker, a 
teacher, or a hod-carrier, is doing his work, because so- 
ciety, and only because society, needs his services and 
needs them then and there. A man may choose his 
function in the community, but its duties are not of his 
choosing" (p. 40). 

It is the conscious social recognition of this fact that 
will bring about and will mark the new economy. 
" The Trust is the last evolutionary term of the pres- 
ent social order. Democracy in any real sense is as 
yet but a tendency, though an irresistible tendency " 
(p. 27). This practical programme Mr. Gronlund 
proposes as the best we can hope for in the interim 
which must elapse before mankind is ready for the 
Cooperative Commonwealth. 

Standing near Mr. Gronlund's Civic Church, we 
may confidently look in the next century for Mrs. 
Stetson's " commodious and well-served apartment 
house for professional women with families " 
(p. 242). It will be without kitchens, but there will 
be a kitchen belonging to the house from which 
meals can be served to the families in their rooms 
or in a common dining-room as preferred. It will 
be a home where the cleaning will be done by effi- 
cient workers, not hired separately by the families, 
but engaged by the manager of the establishment ; 
and a roof-garden, day-nursery, and kindergarten, 
under well-trained professional nurses and teachers, 
will insure proper care of the children. . 

" The demand for such provision is increasing daily 
and must soon be met, not by a boarding-house or a 
lodging-house, a hotel, a restaurant, or any makeshift 
patching together of these; but by a permanent pro- 
vision for the needs of women and children, of family 
privacy with collective advantage. This must be offered 
on a business basis to prove a substantial business suc- 
cess; and it will so prove, for it is a growing social need." 

The author's contention is that our homes as at 
present constituted afford none of those things which 
we have been accustomed to associate with them, 
and that the several professions involved in our 
clumsy method of housekeeping should be special- 
ized to make the home of the twentieth century in 



keeping with church and state and industry. She 
wastes no sympathy mourning over the past, but 
urges that the economic dependence and consequent 
social subjection of women has fulfilled its evolu- 
tionary function and is rapidly becoming socially 
destructive, not constructive ; that the insufficient 
and irritating character of our existing form of 
marriage is shown by the fact (p. 300) " that women 
must be forced to it by the need of food and clothes, 
and men by the need of cooks and housekeepers "; 
that the home (p. 313) should no longer be an eco- 
nomic entity, with its cumbrous industrial machinery 
huddled behind it, but that the industries of the 
home life should be managed professionally ; that 
the existing relation of economic dependence does 
not contribute to the development of either of the 
three essential elements of society beautiful 
women, strong men, and intelligent children ; that 
what we need are changes which shall minister to 
the social uplift of the newly specialized American 
wife and mother, and homes which shall give play 
for her increasing specialization. 

"Where the embryonic combination of cook-nurse- 
laundress-chambermaid-housekeeper-waitress-governess 
was content to be " jack of all trades " and mistress of 
none, the woman who is able to be one of these things 
perfectly suffers doubly from not being able to do what 
she wants to do, and from being forced to do what she 
does not want to do. To the delicately differentiated 
modern brain the jar and shock of changing from trade 
to trade a dozen times a day is a distinct injury, a 
waste of nervous force " (p. 155) . 

There is a sense, therefore, in which Mrs. Stet- 
son's attractive volume will serve as a suitable 
counter-irritant both to Professor Henderson's sci- 
entific analysis of the five elementary social institu- 
tions the family, the schoolhouse, industry, the 
church, and the government, and to Mr. Gron- 
lund's advocacy of the Collectivist Republic : both 
books are written from what might be called the 
masculine point of view, if a point could be said to 
have life ; " Women and Economics " shows us the 
woman's side of the case in an entirely new light. 
The author is not arguing a case in court, but stat- 
ing a profound social philosophy ; and she does this 
with enough wit and sarcasm to make the book 
very entertaining reading, and with such a wealth 
of illustration from the study of man's development 
from primitive conditions, and of the sex relations 
of animal life, as to make her theory seem almost 
startling in the vividness of its truth. 

" This change is not a thing to prophesy and plead 
for. It is a change already instituted, and gaining 
ground among us these many years with marvellous 
rapidity " (p. 316). 

" It is worth while for us to consider the case fully 
and fairly; to introduce conditions that will change hu- 
manity from within, making for better motherhood and 
fatherhood, better babyhood and childhood, better food, 
better homes, better society, this is to work for human 
improvement along natural lines. It means enormous 
racial advance, and that with great swiftness; for this 
change does not wait to create new forces, but sets free 



86 



THE DIAL, 



[Feb. 1, 



those already potentially strong, so that humanity will 
fly up like a released spring. And it is already hap- 
pening. All we need to do is to understand and help " 
(p. 317). 

We are the only animal species in which the female 
depends on the male for food, the only animal spe- 
cies in which the sex-relation is also an economic 
relation. Mrs. Stetson's, book is written to offer a 
simple and natural explanation of this fact, to show 
its present significance, and " to reach in especial 
the thinking women of to-day, and urge upon them 
a new sense, not only of their social responsibility as 
individuals, but of their measureless racial import- 
ance as makers of men." Herein her book em- 
bodies the idea which marks perhaps the most pro- 
nounced tendency of recent thought along economic 
lines, namely, that social progress is more and more 
becoming a conscious process, and that, while it is 
perfectly true that there is a natural and physical 
basis for society and for social institutions, it is 
equally true that in a large measure man is as he 
thinks he is and as he wills he shall be. 

The two books remaining to be noticed in this 
review also illustrate this tendency, though in a less 
degree. They are both of them doctors' theses 
offered at Columbia, and therefore represent uni- 
versity tendencies in part rather than those of the 
thinking world at large. They deal with the history 
of a particular line of industry and the evolution of 
a special phase of German thought ; these are of 
necessity impersonal in character, and do not involve 
controversy and criticism ; they are to be judged 
on the accuracy and comprehensiveness of the inves- 
tigation and the attractiveness with which results 
are presented. 

Professor Hammond has made a careful study 
of the cotton culture and trade, and tells us what we 
want to know about it. The effect of the agricul- 
tural economy of the Southern States produced by 
the cultivation of cotton is shown in the introduc- 
tory chapter. In his second chapter the connection 
beween slavery and cotton-growing at the South is 
set forth in a systematic, judicial, and critical man- 
ner ; we are shown the necessary relation of cause 
and effect in social as well as chemical matters. 
" Cotton was not responsible for the origin of slav- 
ery in the South, but to it was wholly due the ex- 
tension of that institution. The movement towards 
emancipation was checked by the discovery that 
cotton could be profitably cultivated throughout the 
whole Southern country" (p. 42). After three 
chapters devoted to the history of Southern agri- 
culture, Book I. closes with two chapters on the 
present condition of the cotton culture and the 
remedy for over-production. This latter, Mr. Ham- 
mond thinks, is only to be found in the establishment 
and extension of a proper system of agricultural 
credit (p. 196). Book II. is a study of the cotton 
trade and the evolution of the cotton market, the 
most noticeable feature of which, since the Civil 
War, has been the growth of the cotton manufacture 
near the seat of the supply of the raw material 



(p. 343). The cotton industry will form the sub- 
ject of another volume. 

All history will have to be rewritten, was the 
reply of one of America's greatest historians, Mot- 
ley, to the question as to what field he would advise 
a young man to cultivate. Each succeeding century 
each generation, almost gains a new outlook 
and higher standards of truth by which to measure 
the thought and life of the past. We study what 
has been and what is, to show us what will be. An 
essay which does not show this contrast, and which 
does not afford better light to our path and lamps 
to our feet, is subject to the criticism that it begins 
nowhere, ends nowhere, and has nothing scientific 
between : it has not even an academic interest. 

This criticism is in part applicable to the attempt 
of Professor Crook to write a history of the de- 
velopment of German Wage Theories. He be- 
gins well, by showing the dependence of German 
economists on Adam Smith and the definite reason 
for this : " The conditions of economic life in the 
two countries were very different. There was want- 
ing on German soil the stimulating influence of 
unsolved practical problems of economics" (p. 8). 
Germany had no factory system during the first half 
of the century ; as late as 1882 " 42 per cent of 
the German textile industry was still conducted in 
the home or domestic workshop" (p. 9). But the 
author's conclusion (p. 113) that, when we have 
made all allowances, the residual theory fails to 
satisfy the mind completely, is not, to say the least, 
eminently satisfying in itself, and there is nothing 
exceptionally scientific between the beginning and 
the end : one is forced to query why such history is 
written. ARTHUR B. WOODFORD. 



BRIEFS ox NEW BOOKS. 

An English The D6ed f &n English history of 

handbook of Spanish literature, authoritative and 

Spanish literature. U p-t -date, has long been felt, for 
the want has been but imperfectly supplied by 
Mr. Butler Clarke's manual and by Mr. David 
Hannay's volume upon "The Later Renaissance." 
As for Ticknor, while that monumental work is 
not likely to be wholly displaced for a long time, 
it must be admitted that it is very defective in the 
light of later research. The need is now supplied, 
as far as a single volume of moderate dimensions 
can supply it, by the " Spanish Literature " written 
for the series of " Literatures of the World " (Ap- 
pleton) by Mr. James Fitzmaurice Kelly, of all 
living English writers the most competent to pre- 
pare such a book. This accomplished Spanish 
scholar and Cervantist not only knows his subject, 
but he has also the literary faculty required to make 
thoroughly interesting reading of such a manual, in 
which latter respect his volume does not derogate 
from the high standard already set for this series 
by Dr. Garnett and Professor Dowden. He has, 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



87 



too, opinions of his own, which is rather refreshing 
in view of the colorless and perfunctory character 
usually attaching to condensed surveys of this gen- 
eral description. For example, he remarks of 
Senor Echegaray that, " a delightfully middle-class 
writer, his appreciation by middle-class audiences 
calls for no special comment." This comment will 
cause exquisite pain to the " advanced " critics who 
hail every new experimental literary product as a 
revelation of hitherto unequalled genius. In the 
matter of extracts, the author is rather more liberal 
than his predecessors in the preparation of this 
series, and he is not afraid to use an occasional line 
or two of Spanish. We are minded to suggest one 
bit of criticism that he would probably have used 
had he known of it. Schopenhauer, after reading 
the " Numancia " of Cervantes, made it the subject 
of the following quatrain : 

" Den Selbstmord einer ganzen Stadt 
Cervantes bier geschildert hat ; 
Wenn alles bricht, so bleibt uns nur 
Riickkehr zum Urquell der Natur." 
We mention this because it is the sort of thing that 
Mr. Kelly likes to introduce, and the introduction 
of which makes his volume so more than usually 
readable. We may add, by way of closing, that the 
author's theme is Castilian literature, and has little 
to say of books written in the Asturian, Galician, 
and Catalan dialects, or in that " spoiled child of 
philologers," the Basque tongue. 

The historical T he second volume of the "Histor- 
deveiopment of ical Development of Modern Europe 
Modem Europe. _ 1849-97 " ( Putnam) is equal in 
scholarship and similar in treatment to its prede- 
cessor. The history of Europe is shown as a devel- 
opment ; movements and subjects are dealt with as 
" logical wholes." The separate parts or movements 
considered are such as the Second Empire, European 
diplomacy in the Crimean War, the constitutional 
development of Piedmont and the union of Italy, 
the growth of Prussia and the struggle for German 
hegemony, the establishment of the Austro-Hunga- 
rian Monarchy, the Progress of the Eastern Ques- 
tion. If we were called upon to choose out of these 
splendid chapters, we would say Mr. Andrews is 
particularly happy in treating of Napoleon III. and 
European politics in his time. A single sentence 
summarizes the causes of the rise of this charlatan : 
" Lamartine, the idol of the Parisians ten months 
before, and Cavaignac the dictator of the June days, 
were both defeated by a name and a legend." The 
author shows how the Crimean War indirectly was 
the revenge of Europe for its reactionary policy in 
1848 ; how Louis Napoleon himself, hypocritically 
pretending liberal ideas, profited by the discon- 
tent to acquire glory, calculating that the political 
theories of England would force her to the French 
side. Another chapter in which Mr. Andrews so 
successfully treats European history as a "logical 
whole" is that narrating the unification of Italy. 
The combination of circumstances which led to the 
French intervention in Italy, the arrest of Ital- 



ian unity at the very gates of Rome, the effect of 
'66 and Sedan upon Italian politics, all these 
are skilfully woven into one compact account, mas- 
terful in clearness and in grasp. The book, how- 
ever, has a false end. The year 1878 had been a 
much better terminal point, for since that time new 
policies and purposes have initiated changes the 
wide ends of which no man can guess. What with 
the Dreyfus affair in France, the crisis in Austria- 
Hungary, and the Far Eastern Question, the future 
of Europe is uncertain. The last quarter of the 
nineteenth century to the coming historian will be 
rather the prologue to the twentieth century than 
an epilogue to the nineteenth. 

Historic homes In a tasteful volume of 275 pages, 
in the mountains entitled "Historic Homes of the 
of Virginia. South-West Mountains, Virginia" 

(Lippincott), Mr. Edward C. Mead essays to per- 
petuate the characteristics of the famous old houses 
of this cynosural section of the Old Dominion, and 
gives a brief anecdotal and genealogical account of 
the families whose names are more closely and his- 
torically connected with them. Some of these names 
as Jefferson and Randolph are of national, and 
all of them are of local, historic interest. There are 
twenty-eight papers in all, the list being headed with 
an account of Monticello that political shrine of 
serio-comic memory which is well symbolized in its 
quaintly composite architecture, showing, in front, 
the chaste portico of a Doric temple, through which 
the votary passes on to the domestic and culinary 
arrangements of the interior and the rear. Thither 
the philosophic Jefferson retired, an honored Pali- 
nurus, from the helm of state, to prune his vines 
and plant his cabbages, and, as the event showed, 
to be literally eaten out of house and home by 
intrusive swarms of the " plain people " who came 
ostensibly to pay their respects to, but really to stare 
at, the future Patron Saint of American democracy. 
One scarcely knows whether to be more amused or 
disgusted at the picture of these Vandals lighting 
like locusts on Monticello, " eating up all the pro- 
duce of the estate," and committing a thousand vul- 
gar impertinences under the veil of admiration for 
the persecuted proprietor, upon whom they bestowed 
nothing in return for his enormously abused hospi- 
tality save the crown of martyrdom. Mr. Mead 
writes sympathetically and with an intimate knowl- 
edge of his theme. There are many pleasing half- 
tone plates, and the volume is got up in the sump- 
tuous style of a gift-book. The edition is limited to 
750 copies. 

" Idylls of the King" (R. H. Russell), 
and " Ten Drawings in Chinatown " 
(San Francisco : A. M. Robertson), 
two publications of the pronounced " Holiday " type, 
reached us too late for inclusion in our regular De- 
cember reviews of books of their class. The first- 
named volume is a profusely decorated and rubri- 
cated flat octavo containing Tennyson's noble epic, 
with sixty drawings and decorations by Messrs. 



Two belated 
Holiday books. 



88 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 1, 



George and Louis Rhead. The decorations remind 
one of Mr. Walter Crane, and are in the main sat- 
isfactory. The full-page drawings are in the pre- 
Raphaelite or neo-mediseval manner, and range in 
quality from good to indifferent though one or 
two examples (as the preposterous plate on page 88) 
must in candor he pronounced positively had. The 
drawings by the brothers Rhead are undeniably 
clever and striking in their way ; hut in too many 
instances they are marred by a certain stiffness, one 
might almost say woodenness, which becomes un- 
pleasantly apparent when one compares them men- 
tally (as is inevitable) with the work of such illus- 
trators as Hunt and Rossetti, or even of Madox 
Brown, with whose manner they have closest affin- 
ity. But altogether the publication is a pleasing, as 
it certainly is a striking one, and should find favor 
as a gift-book. The text is printed in black letter 
in double columns, and the cover is of white buck- 
ram showily stamped in black, red, and gilt. " Ten 
Drawings in Chinatown," a sort of combination of 
book and portfolio, is the joint work of Mr. Ernest 
C. Peixotto, who supplies the pictures, and Mr. 
Robert Howe Fletcher, who is responsible for the 
text. The whole is the result of a trip, or rather 
of several trips, through Chinatown, undertaken by 
these gentlemen under the guidance of a resident 
pilot, Wong Sue ; and anyone who has " done " the 
sights (and smells) of San Francisco's bit of the 
Far East will vouch for the accuracy of the recorded 
impressions of both narrator and artist. Mr. 
Fletcher develops a very happy vein of quiet humor, 
and his knack of neat and graphic description is 
undeniable. The drawings are on thin paper 
mounted on boards, and they are sprightly and 
artistic. The edition is limited to 750 copies. 

It may be suspected that if the amen- 
ities of legal debate were preserved, 
and Marie Corelli allowed to close 
the argument in "The Modern Marriage Market" 
(Lippincott), as she was to open it, its forensics 
would resemble nothing so much as the Kilkenny 
cats of fable. For Miss Corelli falls afoul of the 
" Modern Marriage Market " (whatever that is) ; 
Lady Jeune falls afoul of Miss Corelli, and the 
M. M. M.; Mrs. Flora Annie Steel of L. J., M. C., 
and the M. M. M.; and Susan, Countess of Malmes- 
bury, of all the foregoing, in a manner which has 
the elaborate constructive detail of " The House that 
Jack Built " and the style of the contest between 
the famous cats aforesaid. Only, Miss Corelli not 
being permitted a rejoinder, there is a very small 
tip left of her argument indeed, while the Countess 
of Malmesbury's flourishes like a green bay tree : if 
the tropes are here confused, they are assuredly 
much less so than the topic after it has passed 
through so many distinguished inkstands. For it is 
a hopeless undertaking to save even shreds of " The 
Modern Marriage Market." It is, and it is n't. 
One of the contestants avers one thing, only to be 
supported and contradicted by each of those who 



come after. Miss Corelli speaking, it is to be 
hoped, without her own experience regards it as 
something dreadful, and descants upon it in a way 
which is nothing less than passionate. Lady Jeune 
thinks pretty well of it, and discusses it in relation 
to the colonial empire of Great Britain and other 
closely related matters. Mrs. Steel is not quite sure, 
but believes upon the whole that the Hindoo custom 
of child-marriage is better. And Lady Malmesbury 
thinks all the other things that are left for anybody 
to think of. It can hardly be expected that the 
reader will think at all if he is a man, he will 
not, in self-defence. 

In his chastely elegant little volume 
entitled "Tales of the Enchanted 
Islands of the Atlantic " (Macmillan), 
Colonel Thomas Wentworth Higginson turns to 
graceful account the riches of the hitherto similarly 
unexploited field of legendary lore that the European 
fancy for more than a thousand years wove about 
the mysterious isles, real or fancied, of the Western 
Ocean. Although we cannot quite admit the accu- 
racy of Colonel Higginson's sweeping claim that 
these legends are " a part of the mythical period of 
American history," we have nothing but approval 
for the way in which he has treated them. The vol- 
ume is conceived in the spirit and written in the 
style of Hawthorne's " Wonder Book," of which it 
forms a worthy and desirable counterpart. There 
are twenty tales in all, under such alluring titles as 
" The Story of Atlantis," " Taliessin of the Radiant 
Brow," " Merlin the Enchanter," " Sir Lancelot of 
the Lake," " Maelduin's Voyage," " The Island of 
Satan's Hand," " Harald the Viking," Bimini and 
the Fountain of Youth." Mr. Albert Herter has 
supplied a half-dozen full-page illustrations, which 
are both charmingly fancied and artistically done, 
and add decidedly to the attractiveness of the pret- 
tily bound, well-printed volume. It is an especially 
acceptable and stimulating book for young readers, 
whose imaginations are certainly in little danger of 
over-feeding in these practical times. 

The city of Penn and Franklin has 
$&* found a graceful and sympathetic 

popular historian in Miss Agnes 
Repplier, whose " Philadelphia, the Place and the 
People " (Macmillan) forms a suitably sober pendant 
to Miss King's romantic and stirring story of New 
Orleans, its companion volume. Miss Repplier's 
always rather prim style, with its old-time graces 
and mannerisms and verbal tags out of Pepys and 
the " Spectator," accords well with her present 
theme. Beginning with a kindly sketch of its ex- 
cellent though maligned founder, she sketches with a 
light and fluent touch the generally serene though 
not untroubled history of the Quaker City down to 
present times. The treatment is popular, and from 
a literary point of view especially the book calls for 
cordial approval. There are many illustrations, 
comprising a charming portrait of Penn who 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



must, it would seem, have been extremely unlike 
the unctuous philosopher-farmer of West's pictorial 
idyl, "The Treaty at Shackamaxon." We have 
nothing but praise for these two delightful compan- 
ion studies in civic history, and we hope to see other 
volumes added to the series. 



41 Sartor 
Resartus " 
illustrated. 



At first thought, " Sartor Resartus " 
would seem to be one of the last 
books to tempt the hand of an illus- 
trator. But even the Bible is " pictured " and " dec- 
orated " nowadays, and it was probably inevitable 
that the illustrators would sooner or later get around 
to Carlyle. We can therefore only be grateful that 
the task has been elected by such a capable artist 
as Mr. Edmund J. Sullivan, whose seventy-five pen- 
and-ink drawings for " Sartor Resartus " are em- 
bodied in a handsome new edition of that work just 
issued in this country by the Maemillan Co. Mr. 
Sullivan has not attempted to depict the complete 
scenes and episodes of the book, but has confined 
himself, in the main, to portraits of the principal 
characters and to pictures of an allegorical or dec- 
orative nature. With few exceptions, the drawings 
show considerable originality and strength, and en- 
title the artist to a place in the front rank of pen-and- 
ink draughtsmen of the day. We fancy the true 
Carlylean will prefer his " Sartor " unillust rated, 
but in any case he cannot fail to be interested in 
Mr. Sullivan's clever drawings. 

if ore of the Two more volumes have appeared of 

biographical the biographical edition of Thack- 
Thackeray. eray > 8 workg (Harper). The eighth 

contains "The Newcomes," and extends to more 
than eight hundred pages, besides the usual forty of 
introduction. Mrs. Ritchie's selection of material 
for her part of the book consists of reminiscences 
and letters of Thackeray's schoolboyhood, and notes 
on his continental wanderings during the years 
1853-55, when the novel was written. It came, as 
will be noticed, between his two visits to America, 
and filled in the period fairly well, when we con- 
sider that it took nearly half a million words to tell 
the story. The ninth volume gives us the <l Christ- 
mas Books," with all their wealth of caricature 
illustration. The introduction to this volume is the 
longest yet written, extending to sixty pages, and 
made proportionally interesting by its account of 
the relations between Thackeray and FitzGerald. 
Headers will remember the quoted reply of the 
novelist when asked, late in life, whom of his friends 
he loved best. " Old Fitz and Brookfield." The 
story is here corroborated by Mrs. Ritchie. She 
says : " I have been wondering whereabouts in my 
father's life the FitzGerald chapter should come in. 
It lasted from 1829 to 1863, sometimes carried on 
with words and signs, sometimes in silence, but it 
did not ever break off, though at times it passed 
through the phases to which all that is alive must be 
subject : it is only the dead friendships which do 
not vary any more." After the novelist's death, 



FitzGerald put together a book of Thackeray's let- 
ters to him, including many drawings, and it is this 
unique volume that has supplied most of the mate- 
rial for the present chapter. It contains nothing 
more touching than some verses written by Fitz- 
Gerald in the early years of the friendship. Here 
is one of the stanzas : 

" If I get to be fifty, may Willy get too. 
And we '11 laugh, Will, at all that grim sixties can do. 
Old age ! Let him do of what poets complain, 
We '11 thank him for making us children again ; 
Let him make us grey, gouty, blind, toothless, or silly, 
Still old Ned shall be Ned, and old Willy be Willy." 

Mrs. Ritchie adds : " All through our own childish 
days the dear and impressionable friend, so gener- 
ous and helpful in time of trouble, used to appear 
and disappear, just as a benevolent supernatural 
being might be expected to do, whose laws were 
somewhat different from ours, and for whom com- 
monplace and dull routine hardly existed." 

Mr. John A. Gade has compiled from 
original and orther sources a reada- 
ble little work on " Book Plates, Old 
and New " (Mansfield). Within small compass and 
in an interesting manner, he has told the story of 
the ex-libris from its small mediaeval beginnings 
to its acceptance as a latter-day fad. He is accurate 
and sufficiently scholarly within the narrow limits he 
sets himself. It is not quite true to say that Lord 
de Tabley is better known to-day as John Leicester 
Warren, though to a collector of book-plates his 
works in verse would hardly commend themselves 
as contributing to a fame won as a connoisseur when 
book-plate collectors were comparatively few. The 
volume is suitably illustrated, and its price will 

make it useful. 

The story of Lord Nelson's life being 
what it is, and his private affairs 
being readily dissociable from his 
career as the greatest of all sea-fighters, there seems 
to be room for an account which shall include his 
three greatest campaigns and nothing more. Such 
a book appears in " The Great Campaigns of Nel- 
son" (imported by Charles Scribner's Sons), pre- 
pared by Mr. Wm. O'Connor Morris from papers 
originally contributed to the " Fall Mall Magazine." 
Maps have been added, and the lucid chapters may 
be said to serve as a compendious hand-book for 
Captain Mahan's great work. Necessarily, some of 
the fascinating tales of Nelson's early courage are 
omitted, but the gain in succinctness is great, and 
the book seems destined to serve a useful end. For 
our own part, however, we prefer Southey. 

Mr. H. T. Newcomb's little volume 
Railway Economics " (Railway 
World Publishing Co.) may be read 
with profit by all who are interested in the trans- 
portation problem, and especially by those who are 
in the habit of regarding the railways as all-powerful 
and grasping monopolies engaged in plundering the 
public. Mr. Newcomb shows that railway rates are 



Three great 

campaigns 
of Nelson. 



90 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 1, 



The Fourteenth 
Amendment. 



subject to definite laws, which are largely beyond 
the control of railway managers ; and that while 
competition among the railways themselves cannot 
be relied upon to regulate rates, or for any other 
useful purpose, there is a competition among pro- 
ducers which keeps freight rates down to the lowest 
possible point. A study of the undesirable and 
wasteful features of the other kind of competition 
leads to the conclusion that the Interstate Com- 
merce Act should be so amended as to legalize 
pooling. 

Mr. William D. Guthrie's " Lectures 
on the Fourteenth Article of Amend- 
ment to the Constitution of the 
United States," delivered last spring before the 
Dwight Alumni Association in New York, have 
been published in book form by Messrs. Little, 
Brown, & Co. The lectures deal first with the his- 
tory of the amendment and the principles of inter- 
pretation, and then with the meaning of such phrases 
as " due process of law " and " the equal protection 
of the laws " as expounded in decisions of the Su- 
preme Court. A multitude of cases are cited, in 
some of which Mr. Guthrie himself took part as 
counsel, urging a broad interpretation of the amend- 
ment which " has done more than any other cause to 
protect our civil rights from invasion, to strengthen 
the bonds of the Union, to make us truly a nation, 
and to assure the perpetuity of our institutions." 
At the end of the book the Constitution is conven- 
iently annotated with references to cases in which 
it has been construed. 



BRIEFER MENTION. 

The Bodleian manuscript of Omar Khayyam, discov- 
ered in 1856 by Professor Cowell, and transcribed by 
him, is the oldest codex of the poet as yet known, and 
dates from the year 1460. It has, furthermore, the 
special interest of being the manuscript upon which 
FitzGerald based his immortal poem. A photographic 
reproduction of this manuscript, with a transcript into 
modern Persian characters, a prose translation into En- 
glish, a learned commentary, and a great variety of 
bibliographical and miscellaneous annotation, are all 
provided by Mr. Edward Heron- Allen in "The Rubaiyat 
of Omar Khayyam," a sumptuous volume published in 
this country (in its second edition) by Messrs. L. C. 
Page & Co. It is a book that no Omarian can possibly 
spare from his collection. 

" The New Gulliver," by Mr. Wendell Phillips Gar- 
rison, is in form a very tastefully printed little book 
, issued from the Marion Press of Jamaica, New York. 
In content, it is the story of the strange experience of 
Mr. Theophilus Brocklebank, who rediscovered the coun- 
try of the Houyhnhnms, left unvisited by any Yahoo 
from the time of its original explorer. In purpose, it 
is a mild satire upon the relativity of human knowledge 
and the futility of theological speculation, although this 
purpose is left rather vaguely defined, with the inten- 
tion, we suspect, of mystifying the reader rather than 
qf contributing to his real enlightenment. 



LITERARY NOTES. 



The next publication of the " Brothers of the Book " 
will consist of a reprint of Robert Louis Stevenson's 
essay on " The Morality of the Profession of Letters," 
taken from the " Fortnightly Review " for April, 1881. 

" Bush-Fruits," by Mr. Fred W. Card, is " a horti- 
cultural monograph of raspberries, blackberries, dew- 
berries, currants, gooseberries, and other shrub -like 
fruits," just published by the Macmillan Co. 

" The Boy Who Drew Cats " is a Japanese fable told; 
in English by Mr. Lafcadio Hearn, and printed on 
crepe paper with colored illustrations as an issue of the 
" Japanese Fairy Tale Series " published in Tokyo by 
Mr. T. Hasegawa. It is a charming little book as to both 
text and illustration. 

One of the daintiest little books of the season, a book 
that brings joy to the eye and the heart alike, is a se- 
lection of Elizabethan lyrics made by Mr. FitzRoy 
Carrington, illustrated with portraits of famous Eliza- 
bethans, printed with sixteenth century spelling and 
typography, and entitled " The Queen's Garland." Mr. 
R. H. Russell is the publisher. 

One of the most interesting of recent announcements 
comes in prompt fulfilment of our wish, expressed in 
writing of the Tolstoy anniversary, that we might soon, 
have a uniform English edition of the books of the great 
Russian. Such an edition, in twenty volumes, is now 
under way, to be edited by Mr. Nathan Haskell Dole,, 
and published by Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons. 

It is announced that the competitive examinations for 
the fellowships of the American School of Classical 
Studies at Athens will be held this year on March 16,, 
17, and 18. Candidates are to enter their names on or 
before February 1 with Professor B. I. Wheeler (Ith- 
aca, N. Y.), Chairman of Fellowship Committee, from 
whom all information as to place, subjects, etc., may be 
obtained. These fellowships yield $600 each. The 
Hoppin Fellowship, open to women only, yields $1000. 

Lewis Henry Boutell, of Evanston, Illinois, who died 
on the sixteenth of January at the age of seventy-two, 
was a soldier and lawyer of much distinction. His death 
deprives THE DIAL of a valued contributor, and histor- 
ical scholarship of a zealous student whose published 
work, although inconsiderable in quantity, exhibited 
qualities of a high order. His most important publica- 
tion was a " Life of Roger Sherman," which appeared 
about two years ago. This biography was undertaken 
at the request of Senator Hoar, who had himself made 
preparations to write it, and who transferred the task, 
together with the materials collected, to the competent 
hands of Mr. Boutell. 

In the death of William K. Sullivan, on the seventeenth 
of January, Chicago lost one of the best-known and most 
highly-esteemed of its public men. THE DIAL records 
his death for two reasons : As a member of the Chicago 
Board of Education, and for a term of years its Presi- 
dent, he always stood for the highest standards and the 
most enlightened ideals of public education. As a pro- 
fessional newspaper worker for the greater part of hi* 
active life, first with Mr. Dana on the New York " Sun," 
then with Mr. Horace White on the Chicago " Tribune," 
and eventually as editor of the Chicago " Evening Jour- 
nal," his influence was always on the side of those tra- 
ditions of dignity and seriousness that are now fast 
disappearing from journalism. Born in 1843, in. Water- 
ford, Ireland, he came to this country in time to serve 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



as a volunteer in the closing period of the Civil War. 
He was also a member of the Illinois Legislature, and 
a President of the Chicago Press Club. In 1890 he 
went to Bermuda as United States consul, remaining a 
year in that position. Personally, he was endeared to 
all who knew him by his sincerity, his generosity, and 
the fine courtesy of his manner. There was nothing 
superficial about these qualities; they were rooted in 
the depths of his nature. 

After experimenting for some months with an Amer- 
ican issue of " Literature " which was merely the English 
edition imported in sheets and supplied with new covers 
and a belated date, the publishers, Messrs. Harper & 
Brothers, have at last come to a conclusion which was 
inevitable from the start, and have begun the issue of 
what is in the genuine sense an American edition of this 
periodical. That is, the English matter is used only in 
part, and is supplemented by at least an equal amount 
of new matter prepared in this country. Some of the 
reviews are signed, and others are not. The total matter 
included is less than we have had heretofore (especially 
in the readable department of "notes "), but it is all 
chosen with reference to the interests of American 
readers, and consequently far more likely to attract 
subscribers. January 10 is the date with which this 
" new series " begins. 



TOPICS IN HEADING PERIODICALS. 

February, 1899. 

Anglo-Saxon Affinities. Julian Ralph. Harper. 
Aguinaldo, a Character Sketch of. Review of Reviews. 
Astronomical Outlook, The. C. A. Young. Harper. 
Charity, Subtle Problems of. Jane Addams. Atlantic. 
College Property, Taxation of. C. F. Thwing. Educafl Rev. 
Colonial Expansion of U. S. A. Lawrence Lowell. Atlantic. 
Colonial Governments, Drift toward. Review of Reviews. 
Constructive Work in Common Schools. Educational Review. 
Conventions, Four National. George F. Hoar. Scribner. 
Cubans, Character of the. Crittenden Marriott. Rev. of Revs. 
Cyrano de Bergerac. Lionel Strachey. Lippincott. 
Dewey at Manila, With. Joseph L. Stickney. Harper. 
Dickens, Suppressed Plates of. G. S. Layard. Pall Mall. 
Diplomatic Forecast, A. Austin Bierbuwer. Lippincott. 
Dyaks, Among the. J. T. Van Gestel. Cosmopolitan. 
Forrest, Lieut.-Col., at Ft. Donelson. J. A. Wyeth. Harper. 
History, How to Study. Anna B. Thompson. Educ'l Rev. 
Indian on the Reservation. G. B. Grinnell. Atlantic. 
Interstate Commerce, Federal Taxation of. Rev. of Reviews. 
Lincoln, Recollections of. James M. Scovel. Lippincott. 
Mathematics, Limitations of. J. H. Gore. Educational Rev. 
Military Ballooning, European. Pall Mall. 
Newfoundland. Sir Charles Dilke. Pall Mall. 
Northwestern State University. W. K. Clement. Educ'l Rev. 
Phil anthropy, Practical, Training for. P. W.A.jTes.Rev.ofRevs. 
Poetry, Enjoyment of. Samuel M. Crothers. Atlantic. 
Poetry: Will it Disappear ? H.E.Warner. Lippincott. 
Psychology, Practical Aspects of. Jos. Jastrow. Educ'l Rev. 
Psychology, Talks to Teachers on. Wm. James. Atlantic. 
Riordan's Last Campaign. Anne O'Hagan. Scribner. 
Rough Riders, Journey of, to Cuba. Theo. Roosevelt. Scribner. 
Signal Corps of the Army in the War. Review of Reviews. 
Spanish-American War, The. H. C. Lodge. Harper. 
Stevenson's Life in Edinburgh, Told in his Letters. Scribner. 
Subways, City. H. F. Bryant. Cosmopolitan. 
Thackeray. W. C. Brownell. Scribner. 
Tropical Islands, Dutch Management of. Review of Reviews. 
United States as a World Power. A. B. Hart. Harper. 
War Relief Associations. W. H. Tolman. Rev. of Reviews. 
Westminster Abbey, Naval Heroes in. Pall Mall. 
William, Emperor, in Holy Land. S. I. Curtiss. Cosmopolitan. 
Wilson, James, and his Times. D. O. Kellogg. Lippincott. 



LIST OF NEW BOOKS. 

\_The following list, containing 58 titles, includes books 
received by THE DIAL since its last issue.] 

BIOGRAPHY AND MEMOIRS. 

Memorials, Personal and Political, 1865-1895. By 
Roundell Palmer, Earl of Selborue. In 2 vols., with por- 
traits, large Svo, uncut. Macmillan Co. $8. net. 

Forty Years a Fur Trader on the Upper Missouri: The 
Personal Narrative of Charles Larpenteur, 1833-1872 
Edited by Elliott Cones. In 2 yols., illus., large Svo, un- 
cut. " American Explorers Series." Francis P. Harper. 
$6. net. 

The Emperor Hadrian: A Picture of the Graeco-Roman 
World in his Time. By Ferdinand Gregorovius ; trans, by 
Mary E. Robinson. Large 8vo, uncut, pp. 415. Macmillan 
Co. 8*. net. 

Zoroaster : The Prophet of Ancient Iran. By A. V. Williams 
Jackson. Large Svo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 314. Macmillan 
Co. $3. net. 

The Autobiography of a Veteran, 1807-1893. By General 
Count Enrico Delia Rocco ; trans, from the Italian and 
edited by Janet Ross. With portrait, large Svo, gilt top, 
uncut, pp. 299. Macmillan Co. 82.50. 

Michael Faraday: His Life and Work. By Silvanus P. 
Thompson, D.Sc. With portrait, 12mo, pp. 308. " Century 
Science Series." Macmillan Co. 81-25. 

Cavour. By the Countess Evelyn Martinengo Cesaresco. 
12mo, pp. 222. "Foreign Statesmen." Macmillan Co. 75c. 

James Hunter: An Address. By Joseph M. Morehead. 
Svo, pp. 76. Greensboro, N. C.: C. F. Thomas. Paper. 

HISTORY. 

The Medieval Empire. By Herbert Fisher. In 2 vols., 

large Svo, uncut. Macmillan Co. 87. net. 
The Royal Navy: A History from the Earliest Times to the 

Present. By William Laird Clowes. Vol. III., illus. in 

photogravure, etc., 4to, gilt top, uncut, pp. 609. Little, 

Brown, & Co. $6.50 net. 
Roman Society in the Last Century of the Western Empire. 

By Samuel Dill, M.A. Large Svo, uncut, pp. 382. Mac- 
millan Co. 84. net. 
The American Revolution. By the Right Hon. Sir George 

Otto Trevelyan, Bart. Part 1, 1766-1776. Svo, gilt top, 

pp. 434. Longmans, Green, & Co. $3. 
A Short History of Switzerland. By Dr. Karl Dandliker ; 

trans, by E. Salisbury. With maps, large Svo, uncut, 

pp. 322. Macmillan Co. $2.50. 
Spain: Its Greatness and Decay (1479-1788). By Martin 

A. S. Hume ; with Introduction by Edward Armstrong. 

12mo, uncut, pp. 460. " Cambridge Historical Series." 

Macmillan Co. 81.50 net. 

GENERAL LITERATURE. 
Creation Myths of Primitive America in Relation to the 

Religious History and Mental Development of Mankind. 

By Jeremiah Cnrtin. With photogravure frontispiece, Svo, 

gilt top, uncut, pp. 532. Little, Brown, & Co. $2.50. 
Scottish Vernacular Literature : A Succinct History. By 

T. F. Henderson. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 462. London : 

David Nutt. 
The Century Illustrated Monthly Magazine. Vol. LVL, 

May to October, 1898. Illus., large 8vo, gilt top, pp. 960. 

Century Co. $3. 
The Rogue's Comedy: A Play in Three Acts. By Henry 

Arthur Jones. 16mo, gilt top, pp. 131. Macmillan Co. 75c. 
Sursum Corda : A Defence of Idealism. 16mo, uncut, pp. 212. 

Macmillan Co. 81. 
Extemporaneous Oratory for Professional and Amateur 

Speakers. By James M. Buckley, LL.D. 12mo, pp. 40. 

Eaton & Mains. 81.50. 
Sermons from Shakespeare. By William Day Simonds. 

12mo, pp. 110. Chicago : Alfred C. Clark & Co. 
Why, When, How, and What We Ought to Read. By 

Rev. J. L. O'Neil, O.P. Third edition ; 12mo, pp. 135. 

Marlier, Callanan & Co. 50 cts. 

NEW EDITIONS OF STANDARD LITERATURE. 
Sartor Resartus. By Thomas Carlyle ; illus. by Edmund J. 

Sullivan. 12mo, gilt edges, pp. 352. Macmillan Co. 82. 
The Uncommercial Traveller. By Charles Dickens. 

" Gadshill " edition ; with Introduction by Andrew Lang. 

Svo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 425. Charles Scribner's Sons. $1.50. 



92 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 1, 



BOOKS OF VERSE. 
Songs and Meditations. By Maurice Hewlett. 12mo, 

uncut, pp. 136. Macmillan Co. $1.25. 
Beneath Blue Skies and Gray. By Ingram Crockett. 

12mo, uncut, pp. 108. R. H. Russell. $1. 
'76 Lyrics of the Revolution. By Rev. Edward C. Jones, 

A.M. With portrait, 16mo, pp. 134. H. T. Coates & Co. 

75cts. 
Yale Verse. Compiled by Charles Edmund Merrill, Jr. 

12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 160. Maynard, Merrill & Co. $1.25. 
Tales Told in a Country Store. By Rev. Alvin Lincoln 

Snow. Illus., 8vo, pp. 311. Creston, Iowa: Snow Pub'g 

Firm. $1.40. 
Rural Rhymes. By Hon. S. B. McManus. Illus., 12mo, 

pp. 157. Curts & Jennings. $1. 
Verses. By J. C. L. Clark. 18mo,pp.24. Lancaster, Mass.: 

Published by the author. Paper. 

FICTION. 
The Key of the Holy House: A Romance of Old Antwerp. 

By Albert Lee. 12mo, pp. 315. D. Appleton & Co. $1.; 

paper, 50 cts. 
Some Marked Passages, and Other Stories. By Jeanne G. 

Pennington. Itimo, gilt top, pp. 219. Fords, Howard & 

Hulbert. $1. 

TRAVEL AND DESCRIPTION. 
Rock Villages of the Riviera. By William Scott. Illus., 

12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 218. Macmillan Co. $2.50. 
Puerto Rico and its Resources. By Frederick A. Ober. 

Illus., 12mo, ' pp. 282. D. Appleton & Co. $1.50. 
Observations of a Ranchwoman in New Mexico. By 

Edith M. Nicholl. Illus., 12mo, uncut, pp. 271. Macmillan 

Co. $1.75. 

NATURE. 
The Wild Fowl of North America. By Daniel Girand 

Elliot, F.R.S.E. Illus., 12mo, pp. 316. Francis P. Harper. 

$2.50. 

ART. 
Angels' Wings: A Series of Essays on Art and its Relation 

to Life. By Edward Carpenter. Illus., 12mo, uncut, 

pp. 248. Macmillan Co. $2. 

SPORT. 

The Encyclopaedia of Sport. Edited by the Earl of Suf- 
folk and Berkshire, Hedley Peek, and F. G. Aflalo. Parts 
XIX. and XX., completing the work. Each illus. in pho- 
togravure, etc., large 8vo, uncut. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 
Per part, $1. 

EDUCATION. BOOKS FOR SCHOOL AND 
COLLEGE. 

Journal of Proceedings and Addresses of the Thirty- 
seventh Annual Meeting of the National Educational As- 
sociation, Held at Washington, D. C., July, 1898. Large 
8vo, pp. 1139. Published by the Association. 

Report of the Commissioner of Education for the Year 
1896-97. Vol. II., large 8vo, pp. 1200. Washington : 
Government Printing Office. 

A Complete Latin Grammar. By Albert Harkness, Ph.D. 
12mo, pp. 448. American Book Co. $1.25. 

Plane and Solid Geometry. By James Howard Gore, 
Ph.D. 12mo, pp. 210. Longmans, Green, & Co. $1. 

Our Country's Flag, and the Flags of Foreign Countries. 
By Edward S. Holden, LL.D. Illus. in colors, etc., 12mo, 
pp.165. "Home Reading Books." D. Appleton & Co. 
$1. net. 

Rights and Duties of American Citizenship. By Westel 
Woodbury Willoughby, Ph.D. 12mo, pp. 336. American 
Book Co. 

Text-Book of Anatomy, Physiology, and Hygiene. By 
E. Franklin Smith, M.D. Illus., 12mo, pp. 198. Wm. R. 
Jenkins. 

Critique of Some Recent Subjunctive Theories. By 
Charles Edwin Bennett. 8vo, pp. 76. "Cornell Studies 
in Classical Philology." Macmillan Co. 50 cts. 

Altes und Neues: A German Reader for Young Beginners. 
By Karl Seeligmann. 12mo, pp. 125. Ginn & Co. 45 cts. 

Seed Dispersal. By W. J. Beal, M.S. Illus., 12mo, pp. 89. 
Ginn & Co. 40 cts. 

Playtime and Seedtime. By Francis W. Parker and Nellie 
Lathrop Helm. Illus. in colors, etc., 12mo, pp. 158. 
" Home Reading Books." D. Appleton & Co. 32 cts. 



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United States History in Elementary Schools. By L. L. W. 
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Three Narrative Poems. Edited by George A. Watrous, 
A.M. 12mo, pp. 107. Allyn & Bacon. 30 cts. 

Select Essays and Poems of Emerson. Edited by Eva 
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Spyri's Rosenresli. Edited by Helene H. Boll. 12010, 
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La Main Malheureuse. Edited by H. A. Guerber. 12mo, 
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MISCELLANEO US. 
St. Nicholas. Conducted by Mary Mapes Dodge. Vol. XXV., 

November, 1897, to October, 1898. In 2 parts, illus., large 

8vo. Century Co. $4. 
The World's Exchanges in 1898. By John Henry Norman. 

8vo, pp. 54. G. P. Putnam's Sons. Paper. 
The Methodist Year Book for 1899. Edited by A. B. 

Sanford, D.D. Illus., 12mo, pp. 140. Eaton & Mains. 

Paper, 10 cts. net. 

(i rVRyZTTT " The Aztec Legend, by LBROY LEACH. Second 
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STUDY AND PRACTICE OF FRENCH IN SCHOOL. In three 
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1899.] 



THE DIAL 



93 



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1899] THE DIAL 95 

THE VICTORIAN ERA SERIES 

The series is designed to form a record of the great movements and developments of the 
age, in politics, economics, religion, industry, literature, science, and art, and of the life-work 
of its typical and influential men. 

Under the general editorship of Mr. J. Holland Kose, M.A., late scholar of Christ's College, 
Cambridge, England, the individual volumes will be contributed by leading specialists in the 
various branches of knowledge which fall to be treated in the series. 

The volumes will be handsomely bound in cloth, with good paper and large type, suitable 
for the library. Price, $1.25 per volume. 

NOW READY 

THE RISE OF DEMOCRACY 

By J. HOLLAND ROSE, M.A., late scholar of Christ's College, Cambridge (editor of the series). 

An interesting historical account of British Radicalism of the first half of the century fills a large part of the 
volume. . . . On the whole, we are able to praise the volume as a moderate and impartial view of the demo- 
cratization of the Constitution Athenceum. 

In dealing with his subject Mr. Rose displays considerable independence of thought, joined to accuracy of 
detail and clearness of exposition. His style, too, is vigorous; and on the whole he has made a good start for 
what promises to be a useful and instructive series Glasgow Herald. 

If the remaining volumes of the " Victorian Era Series " are written in as able, temperate, and judicious a 
spirit as the first, " The Rise of Democracy," by J. H. Rose, M.A., we anticipate for it a great and deserved 
success. Manchester Guardian. 

For all who wish to get an unbiased view of the Radical movement in England during the present century 
its benefits, its faults, and its limitations this little book can be unhesitatingly recommended Aberdeen Journal. 

THE ANGLICAN REVIVAL pi| .*?.! .'.'- 

By J. H. OVERTON, D.D., Kector of Epworth and Canon of Lincoln. 

We can highly recommend this able history of Canon Overton's, and we hope it may clear the minds of 
many as to the history of " The Anglican Revival." It is by no means a party or an extreme statement of facts, 
but rather a judicial record of the religious events that have moulded " The Anglican Revival " in the Church of 
England during the reign of Queen Victoria. Church Review. 

Dr. Overton's contribution to this series of handy books is a volume that is well worth reading by men and 
women who care to know just where the Established Church is now, and what are its tendencies. Norwich 
Mercury. 

The author . . . writes without bias and with the true spirit of the historian only anxious to secure his 
facts and to "nothing extenuate nor aught set down in malice." Weekly Echo. 

Of the movement itself, and its main actors, Canon Overton gives an excellent account. He has the literature 
of the subject at his fingers' ends, and the story could not be better told. Sheffield Telegraph. 

JOHN BRIGHT t 

By C. A. VINCE, M.A., late Fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge. 

We have every reason to regard this as the sanest, most impartial, and intelligent life of John Bright that 
has been given to the public. Birmingham Gazette. 

Mr. Vince has had the good sense to allow John Bright, as far as possible, to speak for himself, and he has 
shown great discrimination in the selection of pithy typical passages from memorable speeches at critical junctures 
in the Queen's reign. Speaker. 

An excellent little life of Bright, with a chapter on Bright's oratory which is admirable and most remarkable. 
It constitutes a brief but careful examination of the characteristics which made Bright the first orator of our 
time, and appears to us the best examination of the peculiarities of modern English oratory extant. Athenceum. 

This little book seems to us, in its way, a remarkable success. It is a model of what such a sketch should be 
sober, well-written, with the matter well-ordered, and throughout a tone of judicial care not unmixed with 
enthusiasm. A cademy. 

Mr. Vince's biography of Bright is a model of its kind. It gives us an admirable picture of the man whom 
Lord Salisbury rightly characterized as the greatest master of English oratory that recent generations have seen. 
Morning Post. 

For sale by all Booksellers, or sent, postpaid, on receipt of price, by the Publishers, 

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THE DIAL 



[Feb. 1, 1899 



(Second Edition.) 

An American Cruiser 
in the East. 

By JOHN D. FORD, U. S. N., 

Fleet Engineer, Pacific Station. 
With Admiral Dewey at Manila. 

1 Vol. 12mo, cloth. Fully Illustrated. 
Price, $2.50. 

Describes a recent voyage to our Eastern neigh- 
bors and new possessions : the Aleutian 
Islands, China, Korea, Japan, and the Philip- 
pines ; with numerous Photographic Illustra- 
tions and Maps ; with accounts of life on an 
American warship ; and the battles of the 
Yalu, of Cavite, and of Manila, at which 
the author was present. 

ADMIRAL DEWEY writes: 

"Manila, Nov. 11, 1898. 
"I find it a most interesting and valu- 
able work, especially at the present time." 

THE SUN, New York (Dec. 15, 1898), says : 
" There has appeared since the events of 
last May no clearer, and at the same time 
less pretentious, description of the Philip= 
pine Islands, the people, and their charac- 
teristics and needs." 

" A straightforward and agreeable story, and a 
valuable as well as an entertaining book, and beau- 
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Navy Journal. 

" An excellent book of travels. . . . There is a 
freshness in the relation and a cleverness of study 
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102 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 16, 



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104 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 16, 1899. 



MACMILLAN COMPANY 



- 

and original, power- 
fu. and convince." 



THE STORY OF FRANCE 

From he Eari "*t Times * the 

consulate of Napoleon Bonaparte 

THOMAS E . WATSON 



Two Vols., Med. 8vo. 

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VOLUME I. FROM THE SETTLEMENT BY THE GAULS TO THE END OF THE REIGN OF Louis XV. Cloth, 8vo, $2.50. 

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"though the one writer is cold-blooded, and the other warm with the vitality of a most modern life." The Sun (Baltimore, Md.). 

The Lesson of Popular Government. 

By GAMALIEL BRADFORD, A. B. In press. Two vols., cloth. 
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European History. 

AN OUTLINE OF ITS DEVELOPMENT. By 
GEORGE BURTON ADAMS, Professor 
of History, Yale University, author of 
^ The Growth of the French Nation." 
Illustrated. Crown 8vo, $1.40 net. 

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A History of Greece. 

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The Development of Thrift. 

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The Dawn of Reason. 

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THE DIAL 

&nrn*|H0ntf)l2 Journal of 3Literarg Criticism, Biscussion, mitt Information. 



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THE DIAL, 315 Wabash Ave., Chicago, 

No. 304. FEBRUARY 16, 1899. Vol. XXVI. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 
. 105 



CONCERNING DEGREES 

RECENT SCHOOL LEGISLATION FOR CITIES. 

B. A. Hinsdale 107 

COMMUNICATIONS 109 

Why is Poe " Rejected " in America ? A. C. Barrows. 
Some Causes of " The American Rejection of Poe." 

Caroline Sheldon, 
What are Critics for ? E. E. Slosson. 

THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD. Samuel Willard 112 

SOME RECENT BOOKS ON EDUCATION. B. A. 

Hinsdale 115 

Walker's Discussions in Education. Oilman's Uni- 
versity Problems in the United States. Russell's 
German Higher Schools. Rouse's History of Rugby 
School. Balfour's Educational Systems of Great 
Britain and Ireland. Work and Play in Girls' 
Schools. Introduction to the Study of History. 

CURRENT THEATRICAL CRITICISM. Edward 

E. Hale, Jr 119 

AN IDEALIST'S IDEAS OF EVIL. Caroline K. 

Sherman 121 

RECENT FICTION. William Morton Payne . . .123 
Chambers's Ashes of Empire. Stephens's The Road 
to Paris. Rivera's The Count's Snuff-Box. Alt- 
sheler's A Herald of the West. Barren's Mandera. 
Stockton's The Associate Hermits. Whittaker's 
Exiled for Lese Majeste". Fowler's With Bought 
Swords. Parker's The Battle of the Strong. 
Maarten Maartens's Her Memory. Besant's The 
Changeling. Marriott- Watson's The Adventurers. 

Crockett's The Red Axe. Machray's Grace 
O'Malley. Capes's Adventures of the Comte de la 
Muette. Bloundelle-Burton's The Scourge of God. 

BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS 127 

New England letters and New England life. France 
as elucidated by the Dreyfus case. University ad- 
dresses by Principal Caird. The recent bloody busi- 
ness in the Sudan. Parochial history extraordinary. 

Two recent books on Physiography. Scrap-book 
of the French Revolution. " The New Rhetoric." 
A new one-volume Bible Dictionary. A review of 
the century. Ferdinand Brnnetiere in English. A 
minor biography of Gladstone. Biography of a 
famous Scot. Court of the Second Empire. 

BRIEFER MENTION 131 

LITERARY NOTES 132 

LIST OF NEW BOOKS . . 133 



CONCERNING DEGREES. 

The measure providing for a regulation of 
academic degrees in the State of Illinois, pre- 
pared by President Henry Wade Rogers of 
Evanston, and recently introduced into the 
Legislature through his initiative, marks the 
first serious attempt to do away with what has 
long been a great evil and a scandal to the good 
name of the State. For several years past, 
Chicago has harbored certain institutions, ex- 
isting chiefly on paper, incorporated under the 
lax educational statutes of the commonwealth, 
and engaged in the nefarious business of fur- 
nishing academic or professional degrees to all 
applicants offering the stipulated consideration 
in cold cash. These rascally traffickers in titles 
to distinction have published their alluring 
offers far and wide, and have found gullible 
victims in considerable numbers, mostly in 
other States and other lands. A number of 
Englishmen, for example, have become bache- 
lors or doctors of these bogus institutions, and 
the swindle has attracted enough attention to 
be made a subject of inquiry in the English 
Parliament. It is certainly time that the abuse 
should be ended, and the measure to which we 
have referred is designed to accomplish that 
desirable purpose. 

In general terms, it is proposed that the 
granting of degrees in Illinois be restricted to 
institutions of approved educational standing, 
and to this end a State Commission is to be 
established, with power to pass upon the claims 
and pretensions of institutions that wish to 
bestow degrees upon their students. So far, 
the proposed measure corresponds to the sort of 
regulation that already obtains in other States, 
and that has been enforced with such conspic- 
uous success in the State of New York. Fur- 
ther, it is proposed that, in the case of colleges 
to be incorporated in the future, a minimum 
endowment of one hundred thousand dollars 
shall be an imperative condition of the degree- 
conferring power. There is also the wise pro- 
viso that degrees may not be granted by any 
institutions carried on for private gain. It is 
extremely desirable that the measure which 
embodies these salutary provisions should be 
given statutory force by the present Legisla- 
ture ; and we urge upon everyone interested 



106 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 16, 



in the cause of serious education, as distin- 
guished from sham education, to lend his influ- 
ence to the enactment of the proposed law. A 
great many narrow and selfish interests to 
say nothing of dishonest interests will be 
arrayed against it, and the work of distortion 
and misrepresentation, which began as soon as 
the measure was made public, will create an 
opposition not easily to be overcome. Yet the 
good name and the dignity of the State demand 
that the title-factories should be suppressed, 
demand that every degree henceforth granted 
under the authority of Illinois should stand 
for good work done, or, in the case of the 
honorary degree, for an achievement judged 
to be worthy by some reputable institution of 
learning. 

For the weak-minded persons who are willing 
to purchase the fraudulent degrees so obligingly 
offered we must confess that we have little 
sympathy. It is a pitiful form of vanity to 
which the allurements of the diploma-shops 
appeal, and we are not particularly concerned 
to protect that sort of ambition from the conse- 
quences of its own foolishness. But the public 
has a right to be protected from charlatans of 
all descriptions, and the granting of a degree 
is an act that touches public interests so nearly 
that the process should be hedged about with 
all reasonable restrictions. Indeed, the pro- 
visions of the proposed legislation seem to us 
to err, if anything, upon the side of leniency, 
and we view with no little suspicion the stipu- 
lation of one hundred thousand dollars as the 
minimum endowment of degree -conferring 
institutions hereafter to be incorporated. The 
New York requirement of five times this en- 
dowment seems to be the wiser provision of 
the two, for surely the latter sum is none too 
large for the needs of any new college that 
would be a desirable addition to those we 
already have in this State. It is to be noted 
that the bill is not made retroactive in this 
matter of endowment, so that no injustice to 
existing institutions would result from its en- 
actment. 

The desire to parade a degree of some kind 
is, no doubt, one more illustration of the instinct 
that has created orders of nobility in the older 
civilizations, that has given Frenchmen the 
mania for decorations, and made Germans 
such sticklers for the use of whatever official 
titles they may bear. The American character 
is popularly supposed to have risen above these 
vanities, but this is only a superstition. The 
desire of the individual to be in some way dis- 



tinguished from his fellows is so inherent in 
the human nature which all peoples have in 
common, that, if denied vent in one direction, 
it will find it in another that, if not allowed 
the gewgaws of knighthood and rank, it will 
find a substitute in the mock distinctions that 
come from membership in societies which shall 
here be nameless, but of which no reader will 
have to look far for as many examples as he 
needs. Of course, the ambition to possess an 
academic degree is a shade worthier than the 
ambition to be a Grand Commander of some- 
thing or other, or to sport the proud badge of 
the Scions of Colonial Tax-Gatherers. The 
former ambition betrays, at least, some trace of 
the feeling that intellectual distinctions have 
more intrinsic worth than any others ; yet even 
in this case how often is it true that the exter- 
nal mark of the distinction is the thing sought 
after, rather than the powers for which it 
should rightfully stand. 

The full force of this observation requires 
for its realization that we take into account not 
only the poor souls who stand ready to pur- 
chase degrees outright at the current market 
rates, but also those who bid for them indi- 
rectly, who make gifts to colleges, for example, 
anticipating in return the honorary doctorate. 
We look with righteous scorn upon the English 
ministry that is willing to traffic in titles of 
nobility making peers out of brewers and 
stockbrokers whose political contributions have 
been sufficiently liberal and how much more 
contemptible is the action of the American col- 
lege that is willing to degrade in similar fashion 
the titles of intellectual aristocracy which it 
ought to guard as a sacred trust. There is a 
good deal that might be said also about the 
motives of those who earn their degrees in legit- 
imate ways. Many students seem to think that 
getting a degree is the be-all and the end-all of 
college life. " Will it count for a degree ? " is 
the question they ask when some new kind of 
work is recommended to them. Every teacher 
knows this spirit, and knows how deadly an 
enemy it is of all culture for the sake of cul- 
ture. If the spectacle of young men and young 
women actuated mainly by this motive is a dis- 
heartening one, a spectacle even more disheart- 
ening is offered by those students of advanced 
age who so often are found in the classes of 
our larger universities, and who are so obviously 
out of place there. We make no reference to 
men and women seeking to round out, in later 
life, the defective education of their youth. 
Their pathetic case calls for nothing but sym- 



1899.] 



107 



pathy and respect. We do, however, refer to 
those who, having got far beyond the period of 
their lives when training of the university type 
was what they most needed, submit themselves 
to that training for the sake of its prizes. It 
is not the best sort of discipline for them ; it is 
intellectually wasteful rather than economical ; 
nothing but the incentive of the doctorate im- 
pels them to undergo it ; the act is, in short, 
an unworthy concession to an artificial standard 
of culture. 

It is this tendency to make a fetich of the de- 
gree as if there were no other possible criterion 
of a man's attainments that is responsible, 
on the one hand, for the disreputable business 
of diploma-selling, and, on the other, for the 
spectacle of gray beards engaged in the perform- 
ance of tasks fitted only for youth. If a ficti- 
tious value were not attached to degrees in the 
pedagogical estimation, we should have neither 
the one nor the other of these evils to deplore. 
The common university attitude toward degrees 
is not unsuggestive of the attitude of the 
church toward the consecration of priests : it is 
tacitly assumed that the scholarship has no 
validity which is not thus certified at the hands 
of men who have themselves gone through the 
academic routine and received the consecrating 
cowl. Yet the cowl no more makes the scholar 
than it does the monk. Again, those who are 
banded together by the common possession of 
degrees, especially if they are engaged in the 
professional work of education, are too apt to 
assume an attitude similar to that assumed by 
trade unions toward the outsider. They seem 
to say that, whatever distinction a man may 
have achieved in irregular and unorthodox ways, 
he cannot really be a superior person, because 
he has dared to court fame while forsaking 
the beaten path. The tendencies which we 
have thus noted do not often go to the extremes 
of arrogance or fatuousness, but they go farther 
than they should be allowed to, and they some- 
times work grave injustice. The president of 
one of our leading universities spoke, a few 
years ago, of the Roman emperor who wished 
that all his enemies had a single neck that 
he might cut it off at one stroke, and then 
said that, for his part, he wished that all de- 
grees had a single neck that a single blow 
might put an end to them. While we should 
hardly express our own opinion in so hot a 
fashion as this, we can neither help feeling a 
certain sympathy with the utterance, nor help 
sharing in the indignation by which it was 
inspired. 



RECENT SCHOOL LEGISLATION 
FOR CITIES. 

When the article entitled " City School Systems " 
appeared in THE DIAL (Oct. 16, 1898), I hoped 
at no distant day to return to the subject, going 
more into detail, but dealing with it in a less critical 
and in a more constructive way. Such an article I 
thought might, at the present stage of discussion, 
prove helpful to some readers ; but now that the 
time to carry out this plan has come, I am per- 
suaded that a still better one will be to review, in 
a general way, some recent school legislation that 
illustrates the later movements of public thought. 

The first act of legislation to be noticed related 
to the city of Cincinnati, where, as was widely be- 
lieved at the time, the evils of the old system had 
become intolerable and the need of reform very 
urgent. In 1887 the General Assembly of Ohio 
enacted that henceforth the superintendent of the 
public schools of Cincinnati should appoint all the 
teachers of said schools, by and with the advice 
and consent of the board of education, and that the 
board or superintendent might remove teachers for 
cause. It will be seen that this is putting the super- 
intendent and the board in the same relation to 
appointments that the President and Senate of the 
United States occupy, as prescribed by the Consti- 
tution, in relation to appointments in tbe National 
service. The superintendent nominates teachers to 
the board, which confirms or rejects the person or per- 
sons nominated ; but if the board rejects one of the 
superintendent's nominees, it can do nothing toward 
filling the place until the superintendent sends in a 
second nomination. As we shall see, this method 
of appointing teachers has since been adopted in 
other cities. This law made no other change in the 
administration of tbe Cincinnati schools. 

The Reorganization Act for the Board of Edu- 
cation of Cleveland, passed in 1892, was a far more 
radical piece of legislation than the one just con- 
sidered. It is, indeed, the most radical act of the 
kind that has been passed for any city up to date, and 
deserves the careful study of all men who are inter- 
ested in the reform of city school administration. 
As amended, this act offers to our consideration the 
following principal features : 

1. The board of education consists of a school 
council and a school director. 

2. The legislative power and authority of the 
city school district is vested in a school council of 
seven members, elected biennially for the city at 
large in two groups consisting of three and four mem- 
bers each, who receive each a compensation of $240 
annually. They are chosen by the legally qualified 
electors for school purposes. All legislation enacted 
by this council is by resolution ; and every resolu- 
tion involving expenditure of money or the approval 
of a contract for the payment of money, or for the 
purchase, sale, lease, or transfer of property or levy- 
ing any tax, or for the change or adoption of any 



108 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 16, 



text-book, must, before it takes effect, be presented 
certified to the school director for his approval. If 
the director approves of the resolution, he shall sign 
it, and it becomes law ; but if he does not approve 
it, and refuses to sign it, he shall return it with his 
objections to the council, and it can then become 
law only when it receives the votes of two-thirds of 
all the members. The council has power to provide 
for the appointment of all necessary teachers and 
employees, and prescribes their duties and fixes 
their compensation. 

3. The executive power is vested in a school 
director, who, like the members of the council, is 
elected on a city ticket by the qualified voters of 
the city, and, like them, holds his office for the term 
of two years. He is required to devote his entire 
time to the duties of his office, and he receives a 
salary, fixed by law, of $5000 a year. The duties 
of the director in regard to purchasing property, 
entering into contracts, building buildings, making 
repairs, providing supplies, etc., are important, but 
do not come within the range of this article. It 
will be seen that the director is wholly independent 
of the council, standing to the people of the city in 
precisely the same relation as the members of the 
council themselves. 

4. The provisions of the law relative to the ap- 
pointment and duties of the superintendent of 
instruction are so important that I shall quote the 
entire section that contains them. 

"Sec. 10. The school director shall, subject to the approval 
of and confirmation by the council, appoint a superintendent 
of instruction, who shall remain in office during good behavior, 
and the school director may at any time, for sufficient cause, 
remove him ; but the order for such removal shall be in writing, 
specifying the cause therefor, and shall be entered upon the rec- 
ords of his office ; and he shall forthwith report the same to the 
council, together with the reasons therefore. The superintend- 
dent of instruction shall have the sole power to appoint and dis- 
charge all assistants and teachers authorized by the council to 
be employed, and shall report to the school director in writing 
annually, and oftener if required, as to all matters under his 
supervision, and may be required by the council to attend any 
or all of its meetings, and, except as otherwise provided in 
this act, all employees of the board of education shall be ap- 
pointed or employed by the school director. He shall report 
to the council annually, or oftener if required, as to all mat- 
ters under his supervision. He shall attend all meetings of 
the council and may take part in its deliberations, subject to 
its rules, but shall not have the right to vote." 

5. The auditor of the city is the auditor of the 
board of education. 

This important enactment has exerted a consider- 
able influence upon subsequent legislation, although 
it has not been copied in its most radical features. 

A law to reorganize the school system of the city 
of St. Louis passed the State legislature in 1897. 
According to this law the superintendent of instruc- 
tion is appointed by the board of education, which 
consists of twelve members, for a term of four years, 
during which term his compensation cannot be re- 
duced. On his nomination, the board appoints as 
many assistant superintendents as it deems neces- 
sary, and they may be removed by him with the 
board's approval. The superintendent has general 



supervision, subject to the control of the board, of 
the course of instruction, discipline, and conduct of 
the schools, of text-books and studies ; and all ap- 
pointments, promotions, and transfers of teachers, 
and introduction and changes of text-books and 
apparatus, are made only upon his recommendation. 

One more act may be mentioned, that for Toledo, 
passed in 1898. The city board of education con- 
sists of five members, elected for the city at large 
by the electors who are qualified to vote at school 
elections, to serve for the term of five years. Only 
such persons can have their names put on the offi- 
cial ballot, and receive votes, as are endorsed in 
writing for members of the board to the city hoard 
of elections by two hundred of the legal voters of 
the city (as above), of either sex, not less than ten 
days previous to the election. The names of all 
persons who are thus certified, the board of elec- 
tions must publish in the daily papers, and prepare 
ballots containing them, which ballots must be voted 
at the annual municipal election and be deposited 
in a separate ballot-box provided for this purpose. 
Every elector may vote for as many of the candi- 
dates on the ballot as there are members to be 
elected. This provision in regard to making up the 
official ballot is believed to be a novel feature. The 
superintendent of instruction has the power to ap- 
point, subject to the approval and confirmation of 
the board, all teachers authorized to be employed. 

The tendencies of recent school legislation makes 
some things very clear, the more important of which 
may well be set down in numbered order. 

1. There is a strong and a growing conviction 
in the minds of the people most interested, that the 
old-fashioned system of school provision, mainten- 

ance, and administration is not now adapted to ex- 
isting conditions, and must be thrown aside as 
obsolete. At least, it is very clear that such is the 
case in the cities that have been passed in review, 
for the thing has already been done. 

2. While the new laws show considerable differ- 
ences in details, there is nevertheless a substantial 
agreement upon the main points. One of these 
points is that the old board of education was too 
large, was too carelessly selected, and exercised 
powers that were both too many and too much 
diversified. A second point is that the board should 
be practically kept within legislative limits, and not 
be allowed to roam at will, directly or indirectly, 
over the whole field of administration. The third 
point, and perhaps the most important of all, is that 
executive powers and duties should be entrusted to 
properly qualified executive departments or officers, 
that should have a status clearly recognized by law, 
and so be independent, to a greater or less extent, 
of the action of the board. Every one of these 
new laws recognizes two such departments, and the 
Cleveland law recognizes three. The latter would 
seem to be the proper number. In a report sub- 
mitted to the National Council of Education in 1888, 
I contended that there should be three executive 
departments: the Department of Finance, Ac- 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



109 



counts, and Records ; the Department of Construc- 
tion, Repairs, and Supplies ; the Department of 
Instruction and Discipline. I contended, further, 
that the heads of these departments might he called 
the auditor, the superintendent of construction, 
and the superintendent of schools ; and that they 
should he men of decided ability and character, 
having each an expert knowledge of the important 
duties committed to their charge. Such modifica- 
tion of this recommendation as is suggested by the 
school director of Cleveland and the business man- 
ager of some of the other cities is perhaps a desir- 
able modification of my former plan. 

On one point the testimony, so far as it goes, is 
quite conclusive ; namely, the great evils" that have 
affected the public schools, so far as they originated 
on the business side of the city system, are mainly 
due to the composition, character, and methods of 
school boards. Of course, conditions existing in the 
cities must be taken into the account ; for the prob- 
lem of city school reform is most distinctly a part 
of the great American problem of the reform of 
municipal government. 

The argument could be strengthened by taking 
account of reform movements that have not yet 
crystalized into legislation. Mention may be made 
of Boston, where the subject of reorganization on 
new lines has attracted sufficient attention to bring 
it before the State legislature. The Report of the 
Chicago School Commission has already been made 
the subject of an elaborate editorial article in this 
journal. The two largest cities of Michigan, De- 
troit and Grand Rapids, are now moving to bring 
the reorganization of their school systems before 
the legislature at the present session. No doubt 
there are other movements that have escaped my 
notice. The general subject is sure to attract the 
increasing attention of the public mind for some 
time to come. What the final type of school organ- 
ization for an American city will be, I do not un- 
dertake to say ; indeed, there is no reason to think 
that there will be, in a close sense of the term, a 
single type of system ; but there is little room to 
doubt that the recent legislation which has been re- 
viewed has been on lines that the future will approve. 

B. A. HINSDALE. 



COMMUNICA TIONS. 

WHY IS POE "REJECTED" IN AMERICA? 

(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

A writer who is a " logic machine," who is marked 
by " lack of humor " and " deficient knowledge of human 
nature," is hardly fitted to secure lodgment in the Amer- 
ican heart, though he be " the greatest intellect America 
has produced assuredly the best artist." The writer 
on Poe, in your issue of Jan. 16, should hardly wonder 
at the rejection of such a writer, however he may regret 
it. But, as he seems to remain puzzled by the fact, it 
may be worth while to point out two peculiarities of the 
writings of Poe, pervading them all, though more notice- 



able in his prose tales than in his poems, peculiarities 
which, as I happen to know, have prevented some read- 
ers who fully appreciate his marvellous mastery of lit- 
erary form from taking much delight in him. 

He is astonishingly unrealistic : it is utterly impossible 
to persuade oneself to care much for the outcome of his 
fictions, because we cannot bring ourselves to that degree 
of faith in them which is necessary for sympathy. A 
rapid review of a few typical tales will make this plain; 
and it will be most satisfactory to select for that purpose 
the seven tales lately edited by Professor Perry for 
Poe is entitled to be judged by his best. 

No house ever fell after the manner of the " Fall of 
the House of Usher"; the assertion is true of the story 
as a whole, and of the details generally, from the queer 
observations made by the narrator as he approached the 
house to its final sinking. The weakness of " Ligeia " 
lies not in its being a study of an impossible problem 
the return to life, in another person's body, of a woman 
long dead, but in the unreality of the scenery amid 
which, following his usual taste, the struggle is located. 
The process by which the victim in "The Cask of 
Amontillado " is lured to his doom is certainly thought 
out by a " logic machine," but the only motive for the 
horrible crime is the difference between being injured 
and insulted, disposed of in one sentence of twenty- 
one words. To secure for the story that moderate 
amount of credence which is required for fiction, the 
author should have enlarged upon the insult enough to- 
make it seem possible that such revenge could be taken 
by a human being. Shakespeare did not lead up to the 
murder of Desdemona by saying in one short sentence 
that Othello suspected Cassio. A similar absence of 
reported motive makes it impossible to sympathize with 
the couple who made an " Assignation" to -meet in sui- 
cide. We could care for them by first getting to have 
faith in them; we might actually wish that their pro- 
posed elopement from life might not be thwarted, if we 
knew enough about their past lives and relationships to 
feel that they had indeed become inseparable. The 
" Manuscript found in a Bottle " reports dream-storms 
and dream-waves. The particular " Black Cat " of the 
tale has a way of coming to life after being killed that 
reminds us of the other cat which, the day after being 
beheaded, appeared at the door carrying its head in its 
mouth. The investigations of the hero of " The Gold 
Bug," though certainly told by a perfect " logic ma- 
chine," carry not the slightest conviction, as is discovered 
by the reader who notices that he remains perfectly 
passive; he does not share the excitement of the digger 
for the hid treasure, does not care whether the spade 
turns up gold or sand. And as to the cryptogram, we 
all feel from the very start that it is a " put-up job." 

This strange lack of realism, or naturalness, in all Poe's 
writings for it characterizes his poetry also doubt- 
less results from his " deficient knowledge of human 
nature." And " this effect defective comes by cause." 
It is originally due to a deficient interest in morals. It 
is a sort and a degree of deficiency that becomes a de- 
fect in art; for it is severe criticism on a man's artistic 
quality to assert that his work is not so grounded on 
the passions of mankind as to carry the reader through 
to the end with a vitalizing interest in the outcome. 
This assertion of the artistic importance of morals is 
frequently misunderstood : it has become almost a fash- 
ion to misinterpret it. It is supposed to imply only a 
desire for didactic morality ; but it is simply a demand 
for moral motive as the impelling power of human ac- 



110 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 16, 



tion. We do not demand of Poe, or of any other liter- 
ary man, that he write goody-goody tales, that he aim 
to show "young persons " ho w to live, or mistake Sunday- 
school books for a high type of literature. We only 
rememember that men are supremely interested in the 
moral aspects of life, so that the way to interest one's 
fellows is to appeal to moral motives. It is a maxim of 
art, which should be familiar to every artist in whatsoever 
medium he works, that the moral creates enthusiasm 
and so secures belief. In point of fact, literary illusion 
is obtained by moral warmth rather than by clear-cut 
logical consistency. 

The absence of the moral element from Poe's writings 
will appear the moment one attempts to state the sub- 
jects of bis tales in moral terms. Shakespeare's " Mac- 
beth " is a study of the effect upon a man under tempta- 
tion of the assurance that he can succeed by crime 
the co-working of fatalism and ill-desire. Hawthorne's 
" The Birthmark " works out the results of impatience 
with a slight blemish in what is otherwise perfect. The 
" Fall of the House of Usher " might have shown how 
gloomy anticipations tend to fulfil themselves, if the 
author had not involved stone and mortar in the ruin. 
The problem of " Ligeia " the victory of will over 
death, can be stated, and there would have been a 
satisfactory basis for the action, if Poe could have kept 
to the subject if he had not, as is his wont, over- 
emphasized the eyes, the squirming draperies, and other 
such details, and if he had not confused all moral sense 
by the notion that there was something criminal in taking 
a bride into such an apartment. If the murder included 
in " The Black Cat " is not utterly motiveless, it is at 
least to be hoped that a long time must pass before men 
take to wife - murder with no more rational promptings 
thereto. Comparison of " The Gold Bug " with Stev- 
enson's " Treasure Island " reveals at once the defect in 
Poe: Stevenson leads his reader gradually up to interest 
in the success of the quest, and arouses a distinctly 
moral prejudice, to which much of our interest is due; 
we take sides against the party among whom are to be 
found some of the most cruel of the pirates who had 
by murder and pillage gathered the treasure. 

I do not care to weigh against each other Poe's won- 
derful linguistic perfection and his weakness in that part 
of art which has to do with the gathering and marshall- 
ing of fact and motives. I only wish to remind those 
who are charmed by his mastery of the resources of 
speech that it is vain to expect our people, for the pres- 
ent at least, to everlook the absence of moral motive 
and of consequent realism. For the present: if the 
time ever comes when the creations of the opium-eater's 
imagination are actually born into the world and live 
out their careers, they will be apt to take him " home 
to their business and bosoms," at least they will ad- 
mire the prophetic genius which enabled him to write 
their biographies beforehand. A. C. BARROWS. 

Columbus, Ohio, Feb. 7, 1899. 



SOME CAUSES OF "THE AMERICAN REJECTION 

OF POE." 

(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

Is it altogether a matter of unfairness and prejudice 
that American readers as a rule make little of Poe ? 
Surely Griswold's misrepresentations have been so often 
and so convincingly answered by Poe's friends and ac- 
quaintances that no serious student of American letters 
is influenced by their manifest injustice. Does not the 
real reason lie deeper in the nature of the poet him- 



self, and in that of the nation which, as a rule, does not 
read him? 

In fact, your contributor who deplores Poe's non- 
appreciation by the mass of his countrymen has himself 
supplied several good reasons for it. One is his fatal 
lack of humor. Let us take as an example the opening 
lines "To Helen": 

44 1 saw thee once once only years ago ; 

I must not say how many but not many," 
where the attempt at playfulness, taken in connection 
with the rest of the poem, produces an effect that is 
neither more nor less than ludicrous. No man with the 
faintest sense of humor could have been guilty of a 
blunder like that. Now, humor is a warm-hearted, 
kindly quality, which endears a man to his fellows. He 
who does not in some degree possess it must makeshift 
as best he can to dwell in a world apart from human- 
kind; and however this world may be lighted by poetic 
fancy and adorned by imagination, it will after all be 
only a cold moonlit region whose beauty will never com- 
pensate for its loneliness. George Eliot has told us that 
" there is no strain on friendship like a difference of 
taste in jokes," and this is one explanation of the dis- 
tance between Poe and the public whom he failed to 
reach: they had no common ground whereon to stand 
long enough to become acquainted with each other. 

Poe had in him, it is true, " something exotic which 
hinted of another clime and age." Had he lived in 
Persia one or two thousand years ago, some enter- 
prising Orientalist might have discovered him, and 
translated his writings for the benefit of a small but 
enthusiastic circle of readers, and publishers might have 
brought out his works in beautifully bound and illus- 
trated editions de luxe. There is scarcely another nine- 
teenth century author whose works afford scope for 
greater originality in illustration. 

Poe has certain qualities that the most unkindly critics 
cannot deny him: weird and powerful imagination, con- 
structive ability, and exquisite melody of expression in 
both prose and verse. His perception and handling of 
tone-color are unsurpassed by even the greatest of lit- 
erary artists. There are certain lines of his that linger 
in the memory because of their perfect beauty of sound, 
while others come back frequently because of the pic- 
tures they suggest. But to many readers, the realiza- 
tion of Poe's artistic genius is only another source of 
vexation. Great poetry must have great subjects. Per- 
fection of form is not enough, although, in spite of 
Whitman and his followers, some readers will continue 
to think beauty of form one of the essentials of genuine 
poetry. The great poet, however, the poet who lives in 
the hearts of his own countrymen and wins for himself 
a lasting place in the affections of mankind, must voice 
in some effective manner the feelings and thoughts 
common to humanity. This Poe does not do. As he 
does not laugh with those that laugh, neither does he 
weep with those that weep. His weeping he does all 
by himself. In fact, his most musical dirges, with their 
refrains of " the lost Lenore," " beautiful Annabel Lee," 
and- "Ulalume," seem less like the expression of real 
sorrow than complex and finished studies in minor 
chords. One's heart is not touched by them as by such 
simple lines as those in " After the Burial": 
44 There 's a little ridge in the churchyard 
Would scarce stay a child in its race, 
But to me and my thought it is wider 
Than the star-sown vague of space." 
This quatrain is a sincere and beautiful expression of 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



ill 



human experience. No heart that has shrunk before the 
mystery of death can fail to vibrate in response to it. 
Even pagan Horace appeals to us more than Poe, when 
he says, with sturdy manliness: 

" The sorrow that we cannot cure may yet 
Be lessened by that strength of heart 
That in all trials of our life endures." 
We are a strenuous race, we Anglo-Normans, and this 
girding-up of the loins of the soul in the face of bereave- 
ment has for us far more of pathos than the most mu- 
sical outpourings of self-pity. Herein is Poe's vital 
defect: he indulges too much in self-pity, and is too 
little moved by the sorrows and burdens of the world. 

Poe himself says that " a poem deserves its title only 
inasmuch as it excites by elevating the mind." Whether 
or not it be a defect in our make-up, it must be acknowl- 
edged that for the most part Americans, while we may 
be refreshed and soothed by poems which give us " pure 
beauty " and nothing else, are elevated only by those 
which voice the experiences of our common humanity, 
or call us to high endeavor. And is not one or the other 
or both of these elements to be found in all poems which 
have outlasted the century wherein they were produced ? 

Victor Hugo has told us that " while the poet needs 
wings, he must also have feet "; he must touch the earth 
occasionally, must come near to us, if he would persuade 
us to follow him into the blue ether. So, notwithstand- 
ing Poe's many and varied gifts of the intellect, the poet 
of our hearts will for a long time continue to be some 
other than the poet of " Lenore." 

CAROLINE SHELDON. 

Des Moines, Iowa, Feb. 5, 1899. 



WHAT ARE CRITICS FOR? 
(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

A short time ago it fell to the lot of the literary 
editor of one of Chicago's most popular dailies to re- 
view " Aylwin." He had evidently not been informed 
as to the aristocratic parentage of the book, for he 
seized upon it as the work of a green and friendless 
writer, only fitted to be a target for humorous sharp- 
shooting. Accordingly his Procrustean column was 
filled with fragments of gipsy incantations, Welsh dia- 
lect, and mystical jargon, punctuated with sic's and (!)'s, 
and supplemented with a witty commentary reflecting 
ou the sanity of a novelist who expected intelligent peo- 
ple to interest themselves in such a " farrago of non- 
sense," and to read Welsh names where the consonants 
were in such large majority. A few weeks later the 
same newspaper published another review of the same 
book, this time evidently inspired by the publishers, for 
it included all those details about Mr. Watts-Dunton 
which were published (usually in the same words) in 
other so-called critiques : all about his distinguished 
friends, the circumstances under which the book was 
written and published, an authentic key to the charac- 
ters, some remarks on the esoteric popularity of George 
Borrow and the Welsh Gipsies, etc. The Pre-Raphael- 
itism, Neo-Platonism and Post-Zolaism were neatly 
dissected out and identified with the skill of a clinical 
snrgeon, and one knew not which to admire the more: 
the author who had made these dry bones live, or the 
critic who discerned their origin and function. 

We can leave the explanation of such incidents to 
those who know what goes on behind the curtain of 
anonymity. The managing editor is not to be severely 
blamed, since there was nothing to indicate that the two 
reviews pertained to the same subject except the title of 



the book. But whether Deutero-Critic was the same 
individual as the first except for the change of heart, is 
not of importance. What does shock the reader is to 
find that the " literary column " of the average news- 
paper is its most carelessly written department, with 
the exception of the dramatic criticism, which is usually 
worse. The athletic editor, the fashion editor, the culi- 
nary editor, the dermatological editor, the horoscope 
editor, all seem to understand their business and show 
some independence of judgment; but the literary editor 
often shows neither independence nor judgment. 

What is demanded by the reader of the critic is not 
infallibility but responsibility. We will overlook his 
mistakes if we only have his assurance that he is doing 
the best that he can. A critic in discussing Mr. Paul 
Laurence Dunbar's recent novel commented on the curi- 
ous fact that all the characters were colored people; 
another critic called attention to the equally curious fact 
that Mr. Dunbar had introduced no characters of his 
own race, but had written a " white folks' story." Now 
both these critics were above the average, because they 
realized that there is a difference between black and 
white, and they resisted the prevalent tendency to call 
everything gray; and it is probable that one or the other 
of them was partly right. 

It is to be expected that a critic will err, but we wish he 
would not boast of his errancy as Mr. Andrew Lang did 
a few months ago. His attention was called to the fact 
that a book he had condemned in a few careless words 
as unworthy of notice had proved a literary success, and 
in his gracefully facetious way he explains that a critic 
has so little time to give to reading that he cannot be 
expected to know whether a book is good or not, and 
that for his part he does not care whether his judgments 
are correct or false. 

This confession disturbed me a good deal, for I had been 
relying on Mr. Lang's criticisms for many years. A book 
he condemned I always read; and if he attacked a book 
savagely I bought it at once, for I knew it must be 
worth owning. By following this rule I have acquired 
a select library of the world's best literature with not a 
trashy volume in it. But when he says he does not 
know and does not care whether the books he reviews 
are good or bad, my faith in his negative infallibility is 
rudely shaken. I may miss some important work 
through a neglected condemnation on his part. 

A respectable lawyer who, loses a case, the respect- 
able doctor who kills a patient, is properly ashamed of 
it: would it be too much to expect of a respectable 
critic who has pronounced a false judgment or killed 
a good book that he should conceal his glee over the 
achievement? What is a critic for, anyway? Is he to 
be a publisher's echo, a writer of philosophical essays 
with a book for a text, a jester at the author's expense, 
a bric-a-brac collector of second-hand personalities? or 
is it his duty to read new books and tell us what they 
are? We would like to have the critics save us time 
and money by reading .the twenty-five books published 
each day and giving us a trustworthy and impartial 
account of them, so we can tell whether we want to read 
them or not. We are not interested in the critic's likes 
and dislikes, except in so far as we can use them to fore- 
tell our own. If, after the critic has given us the nec- 
essary information, he wants to tell us about how Hall 
Caine plagiarized from the Bible, and Watts-Dunton 
Borrow-ed his Gipsies, we may be interested in that also. 

E. E. SLOSSON. 
Laramie, Wyoming, Feb. 10, 1899. 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 16, 



THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD.* 

Fifty years ago everybody that was interested 
in American politics and everybody that read 
newspapers had heard of the Underground 
Railroad. It was much talked of, but not by 
those who knew the most about it. It was as 
mysterious as the Iron Mask, or the Fehm- 
gericht, or the Old Man of the Mountain in 
the middle ages. The phrase was purely meta- 
phorical. There was no railroad, and it was 
not subterranean. There was no corporation ; 
there were no directors, no president, no stock- 
holders, no track, no cars, no engines, no time- 
table, no regular time or place of trains, no 
rates of fare, no tickets ; name everything 
that belongs to a railroad except passengers 
and conductors, and deny the existence of all 
that you have listed, and you will be in the 
right. And the so-called conductors were not 
like real railway conductors. The laws of most 
of the states were against this shadowy elusive 
thing, whatever it was : yet in every community 
where it was known or supposed to exist, some 
of the best men of the community, the most 
upright, men who feared God and wrought 
righteousness, were spoken of as deepest in its 
mysteries, most audacious in its management. 
Can we call the " U. G. R. R." (so the abbre- 
viation ran) an institution ? Slavery was called 
by one of its defenders " our peculiar institu- 
tion "; surely here was the counter peculiar 
institution. 

Slavery was well-organized, had vast wealth, 
had unlimited social support, had special pro- 
visions for its defense in the Constitution 
of the United States, had seats in Congress, 
controlled elections, made presidents, judges, 
and officers of every grade. But the unorgan- 
ized counter-institution, without money, without 
law, without political place or power, like the 
invisible antagonist in the fairy stories who 
carries a magical sword, proved to be such an 
annoying assailant and such a powerful adver- 
sary that it must be reckoned one of the great 
causes of the final ruin of slavery. 

The political importance of the escapes of 
fugitives and of the recovery of them is made 

*THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD FROM SLAVERY TO 
FREEDOM. By Wilbur H. Siebert, Associate Professor of 
European History in Ohio State University. With an Intro- 
duction by Albert Bushnell Hart, Professor of History in 
Harvard University. With illustrations. New York : The 
Macmillan Co. 



very prominent by the efforts of the South to 
recover slaves under the law of 1793 and to get 
a more stringent law. " Five bleeding wounds ! " 
said the great orator of compromise and con- 
ciliation in 1850, describing the condition of his 
country, " five bleeding wounds ! " counting 
them off on the diverging fingers of his out- 
stretched hand. Benton cynically said that if 
Clay had had more fingers he would have found 
more wounds. But Benton might have spared 
his sneer, as he would have done had he fore- 
seen. Now that the whole matter is half a cen- 
tury away, we can look with sympathy upon 
the efforts of Clay, Calhoun, and Webster 
to avoid the civil war which they believed to be 
imminent. There were indeed bleeding wounds. 
To Clay, one of the fatal five was the action of 
Northern people when they aided fugitives and 
fought the slave-hunters. 

It is wonderful that he could have thought 
Mason's Fugitive-Slave Bill to be a healing 
balm for that gaping wound. The remedy was 
like the old surgery of wounds before the days 
of Ambrose Pare, when caustic potash was ap- 
plied to every cut, " to draw out the peccant 
humors," the creation of which modern science 
finds due to the potash itself. If the law of 1793 
was offensive to the North because of its ten- 
dency to provoke breaches of the peace when 
the slaveholder sought to recover his slave by 
simple " reprisal " (which Blackstone explains 
as one's taking his property wherever he finds 
it), and because it was a cloak for kidnapping 
free men, how could it be supposed that the 
North would peaceably bear an enactment 
which increased both these evils, and contained 
several special and new grievances and provo- 
cations ? The more we have studied the pecu- 
liarities of this law and the results of its enforce- 
ment, and the subsequent career of James M. 
Mason, its author (the Confederate envoy taken 
from the Trent), the more it seems plain that 
it was not intended to make peace, but to lead 
to secession. It was a test measure : if the 
North will stand this, slavery is secure ; if it 
will not, the South will know the next step 
must be secession. The gaping, bleeding wound 
was enlarged ; but slavery, not the nation, died 
of the hemorrhage. 

Clay's curative measures were passed one by 
one : they failed to go through together, as a 
real compromise. Nevertheless, they were called 
the compromises of 1850. The admission of 
California gave an actual majority in the Sen- 
ate to the North, and shattered forever Cal- 
houn's favorite scheme of an equal balance 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



113 



there. Texas was paid not to make war upon 
the United States, and to yield her claims upon 
New Mexico. All things were indeed settled 
and compromised except Northern conscience 
and love of liberty, and Southern claims of 
property and defense of slavery. With the 
new law to help him, the Southern master or 
his agent made hunting-grounds of the North- 
ern States. He became frequent and very 
obvious. Fugitives who had long rested secure 
in Northern villages and cities or worked on 
Northern farms fled in swift alarm to Canada. 
Their absence was eloquent. Throughout the 
South the rumor spread, and suggested flight 
to daring spirits. As masters talked, slaves 
learned that there were friends of liberty in the 
North as well as officers of oppression. 

In the North every arrest excited greater 
attention, and brought the peculiar institution 
into the blaze of publicity. The Underground 
Railroad increased its business. The South 
and the North grew still more angry with each 
other as collisions were more frequent. North- 
ern states passed " Personal Liberty Laws " 
and other measures within their constitutional 
rights to make recovery difficult. The Supreme 
Court of Wisconsin came into conflict with the 
United States and its Supreme Court. " Uncle 
Tom's Cabin " was written, and sold by thou- 
sands and tens of thousands of copies. Doug- 
las's Kansas and Nebraska Bill poured oil on 
the flames by renewing the political struggle 
and rending the lately victorious Democratic 
party. 

The operators on the Underground grew 
bolder ; for men now winked at or aided them 
who had before denounced them as disturbers 
of the peace and enemies of the public welfare. 
This is well illustrated in the Garner case, in 
Cincinnati, in 1856. Rutherford B. Hayes is 
the relator of the story as given by Professor 
Siebert. Margaret Garner had escaped into 
Ohio with four children, and was hidden near 
Cincinnati. When her master found them, 
she determined to save her little ones from 
slavery by the second of Patrick Henry's alter- 
natives ; she killed the best beloved of her little 
flock, but succeeded no further. Efforts to save 
her from returning to Kentucky all failed : 
even a process against her for murder and vio- 
lation of the law of Ohio was of no avail : the 
property right of the master overrode the crim- 
inal justice of Ohio. Mr. Hayes was living 
on a street full of pro-slavery people ; but this 
tragedy converted them all ; one of the leaders 
among them called on Mr. Hayes at his house 



and declared with great fervor, " Mr. Hayes, 
hereafter I am with you. From this time for- 
ward I will not only be a Black Republican, 
but I will be a damned abolitionist! " Such 
conversions abounded. The execution of the 
law killed it. Moderate men in the North, 
Abraham Lincoln, for example, said the 
slaveholders were entitled to a law for the re- 
covery of their property ; but it must now be 
doubted whether even the allowance of a jury 
trial on the question of identity would have 
calmed the aroused and indignant Northern 
people. 

The great contests of the giants in Congress, 
and the occasional capture of a fugitive like 
Anthony Burns, or Sims, or Jerry of Syracuse, 
were matters of history open to all men ; but 
the underlying cause of much of the commo- 
tion was as secret as a fire in a peat-bog. It 
avoided the publicity that makes history. Now 
and then some daring or skilful escape would 
be told in the Northern newspapers ; but Fred- 
erick Douglas complained that all such narra- 
tions made later escapes more difficult by mak- 
ing masters and hunters aware of the tricks 
and turns and disguises and resting-places of 
the fugitives and their friends. He would not 
tell how he escaped in 1838. Henry Box 
Brown was put into a box three feet long, two 
feet wide, and two feet eight inches deep, and 
so sent by Adams Express from Richmond, 
Va., to Philadelphia. The early and triumph- 
ant publication of the story put an end to such 
escapes, and helped bring the man who had 
boxed Brown, and who had aided fugitives for 
twenty years, to the penitentiary. It was the 
policy of the shrewdest station agents and con- 
ductors to know as little as possible of the work 
of others. 

Hence, it happened that when slavery came 
to an end and there was no reason for further 
concealment, no one could write a history of 
the Underground Railroad. Occasionally some 
actor in this drama behind the scenes would 
relate and publish his reminiscences. There 
are a few interesting books of this sort, as 
the Life of Levi Coffin, or Still's account of 
things noted at Philadelphia, or Dr. R. C. 
Smedley's memoranda of Chester County. The 
men who had been most active were now for 
the most part old and grayheaded men, passing 
rapidly away. Men born sixty years ago had 
not become adult when the drama closed. The 
stories they can now tell are for the most part 
traditions from their elders. Seeing that this 
knowledge must soon be lost, Professor Siebert 



114 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 16, 



has devoted much time and labor to the collec- 
tion and arrangement of historical matter re- 
lating to the Underground Railroad, which is 
presented in the volume under review. 

Professor Siebert's book is both the most 
extensive and the most comprehensive work of 
all hitherto issued upon this subject. He dis- 
cusses his sources of information ; the origin, 
growth, methods, and managers of the Under- 
ground ; abductions from the South ; fugitives 
in the North and in Canada ; prosecutions 
under the Acts of 1793 and 1850 ; the effects 
of the Underground Railroad in politics and 
otherwise, in discussion of which he affirms that 
" the U. G. R. R. was one of the greatest forces 
which brought on the Civil War and thus de- 
stroyed slavery." He gives thirty-seven pages 
to " the map of the U. G. R. R. system," giv- 
ing one general and five local maps. He gives 
in an appendix the Acts of 1793 and of 1850, 
and the fugitive clauses in the Constitution, in 
the Ordinance of 1787, and in the Missouri 
Compromise ; and adds another appendix giv- 
ing eighty-one important fugitive-slave cases 
with reference to the sources of information 
concerning each. To these he might well have 
added from Wheeler's " Law of Slavery " the 
early case of Avis in Massachusetts, often cited 
as a leading case ; and the cases of Phoebe vs. 
Jay, Borders vs. the People, and Willard vs. the 
People in Illinois. 

Another valuable appendix is an extensive 
bibliography. This ends with " Imaginative 
Works," listing only four, of which one is 
" Uncle Tom's Cabin," and another is Whit- 
tier's Poems. Why not also Longfellow's 
" Poems on Slavery," which preceded Whit- 
tier's first book that had an anti-slavery poem ? 
Why not Lowell ? And for novels, there should 
be named Trowbridge's " Neighbor Jackwood," 
Epes Sargeant's "Peculiar," William L. G. 
Smith's pro-slavery " Uncle Tom's Cabin as it 
is," of which 15,000 copies were sold in fifteen 
days, and Mrs. Stowe's " Dred," called later 
" Nina Gordon ": to these we could add njany 
more of less importance. 

Another appendix of thirty-seven pages is 
called a " Directory of the Names of Under- 
ground-Railroad Operators." The present re- 
viewer is sorry to be obliged to say that unless 
the rest of it is more accurate than certain parts 
that come within his own personal knowledge, 
it is so unreliable as to be practically useless. 
By defect, it omits names that should be there ; 
but this fault is naturally incident to the diffi- 
culty of obtaining information at the present 



time, almost forty years after the secret coali- 
tion ceased operation. 

For example, in Sangamon County, Illinois, 
the station at Farmington, near the present 
Farmingdale, had operators Rev. Bilious Pond, 
Deacon Lyman, and Messrs. Estabrook and 
Low ; and the knowing ones sent fugitives 
thither rather than to pro-slavery Springfield, 
though the capital was honored by the residence 
of Luther Ransom, a fearless and active Gar- 
risonian. These names are not given ; but 
three names are given for Sangamon, of so 
little fame that only surnames represent two of 
them. So in Morgan, Henry Irving and W. C. 
Carter, the principal " coachmen " from Jack- 
sonville, are unnamed, as well as Julius A. 
Willard, whose name is found in our Supreme 
Court Reports. In the same volume with 
Willard's case appeared the case and name of 
Andrew Borders of Randolph, not listed. Pro- 
fessor Siebert may be excused for not getting 
these names ; but their absence may show that 
such a list or " directory " cannot be made. 

Again, men are listed who never were Under- 
ground Railroad operators, but were known only 
as anti-slavery men, and perhaps lukewarm as 
such. The reviewer knew Morgan County 
pretty well, and can say that the three names 
given for that county should have no place 
there. Still worse, in the list for Jersey County 
are three names that belong to Morgan ; and 
one of those had no active connection with the 
movement. Of the remaining four names in 
Jersey, who would recognize in the Frenchy 
name " Garesche " the sturdy Yankee miller, 
Joseph Gerrish ? In Henry County, William 
T. Allan (not Allen) appears also as William 
S. Allen, non-existent. McLean is honored 
with the single name of Deacon Moss ; but this 
is the same man as the " Dea. Mark Morse " of 
Woodford, " Mt. Hope Station," on the road in 
1840. Charles Lippincott never lived in Ran- 
dolph, but in Madison and Bond. There is a 
very suspicious identity of three names in the 
Bond County list of Illinois and the Bond 
County list of Indiana. 

Leaving Illinois, where more defects could be 
shown, let us go to Pennsylvania. Here, from 
the list for Chester County, J. Williams Thorne 
should be transferred to Lancaster, where he 
is erroneously given as I. William Thorne. 
Enoch Walker should be given to Montgomery ; 
Philip and Benjamin Price should be taken 
from Delaware to Chester, where one of them 
is listed as Pierce. Other changes should be 
made in that region ; and Mahlon Brosius 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



115 



should be added to Chester. Forty-two per 
cent of the " Directory " is given to Ohio, which 
is probably nearer to accuracy. But the " Di- 
rectory " and the maps are tentative, partial, 
and defective : a true map cannot be made. 

Let not this criticism of the weak point of 
the book (weak because its author attempted 
what no man can now do) obscure or hide 
from our readers the fact that Professor Sie- 
bert's work is the great work on its subject, 
the book to which writers on American his- 
tory must hereafter look as the best summary 
of information. It is an honest and laborious 
attempt to gather the facts of the time ; and 
they are skilfully classified and arranged. 
There is no superflous rhetoric. It must have 
cost the writer an effort to omit the romance 
of the Underground Railroad, the marvellous 
stories of escapes and perils which would have 
made the volume more readable, but would 
have made it less a sober and self-contained 
history. For those incidents one must go to 
Still and S medley and Coffin and the like. The 
present reviewer, who heard Garrison lecture 
sixty-eight years ago to a scanty audience, and 
who was an interested observer and an active 
sharer in the an ti- slavery contest to its close, is 
glad to see a presentation of one of the greatest 
agencies of the conflict so suitable to its import- 
ance and so worthy of praise. 

The last paragraph of the text speaks of " the 
cancellation of the slave clause in the Consti- 
tution by the amendment of that instrument." 
This is a not uncommon error. But that clause 
is not cancelled. If a duly-bound apprentice 
or a person who has made a contract to labor 
for a specified time should run away from Ohio 
into Indiana, under this still-valid clause the 
injured party could reclaim the fugitive, whom 
no law of Indiana could release from his obli- 
gation . This clause, used for the benefit of the 
slaveholder, is valid without slavery, and is a 
condensed form of a similar provision in the 
instrument of union of the New England col- 
onies in 1643, which was meant for indentured 
servants ; though after their treaty of 1650 
with New York, it was extended to that Dutch 
colony, and it is reported that under it one 
slave was reclaimed. 

The book is well printed, and is, except in a 
few proper names, free from typographical 
errors : it has thirty-eight pages of index. 
Having been so interested in the work as to read 
every page of its text, the reviewer congratu- 
lates Professor Siebert upon the completion of 
his monumental labor. SAMUEL WILLARD. 



SOME RECENT BOOKS ON. EDUCATION.* 

General Francis A. Walker was known to 
the country in many ways ; he was a man of 
varied talents and diversified activities. Per- 
haps it would not be an easy matter to rate his 
ability and the value of his work, relatively, 
in the several spheres of action in which he 
figured. He was a soldier of the Union and 
the historian of important phases of the Civil 
War ; he was superintendent of the National 
Censuses of 1870 and 1880 ; he was a student 
of economics, and the writer of valuable eco- 
nomical books ; and he was a practical educator. 
All this was well known to the public ; but we 
assume that the extent and value of his contri- 
butions to educational discussion were not 
equally well known. We have now before us 
the evidence of his work in this department of 
activity, in the solid and beautiful volume en- 
titled " Discussions in Education," which is 
made up of his occasional addresses and papers. 
It is a fitting memorial to its author, and a 
fresh evidence of the country's loss in his un- 
timely death. 

General Walker was a man of varied educa- 
tional experience, serving at different times as a 
college tutor, a college professor, and President 
of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 
He also served on the Boston School Board, 
and probably in other similar administrative 
offices. The breadth of his experience, as well 
as the natural range of his mind, are reflected 
in these " Discussions." The subjects dealt with 
are all live and practical subjects ; the author 
was apparently too busy to deal with educa- 
tion under its historical or philosophical aspects. 
The contents are grouped by the editor under 

* DISCUSSIONS IN EDUCATION. By Francis A. Walker, 
Ph.D., LL.D., late President of Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology. Edited by James Phinney Munroe. New York : 
Henry Holt & Co. 

UNIVERSITY PROBLEMS IN THE UNITED STATES. By 
Daniel Goit Oilman, LL.D., President of Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity. New York : The Century Co. 

GERMAN HIGHER SCHOOLS. The History, Organization, 
and Methods of Secondary Education in Germany. By James 
E. Russell, Ph.D., Dean of Teachers' College, Columbia Uni- 
versity. New York : Longmans, Green, & Co. 

A HISTORY OF RUGBY SCHOOL. By W. H. D. Rouse, M. A., 
Sometime Fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge. New York : 
Charles Scribner's Sons. 

THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND 
IRELAND. By Graham Balfour, M. A. New York : Oxford 
University Press. 

WORK AND PLAY IN GIRLS' SCHOOLS. By Three Head 
Mistresses : Dorothea Beale, Lucy H. M. Soulsby, Jane 
Frances Dove. New York : Longmans, Green, & Co. 

INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF HISTORY. By Ch. V. 
Langlois and Ch. Seignobos of the Sorbonne. Translated by 
G. G. Berry, with a Preface by F. York Powell. New York : 
Henry Holt & Co. 



116 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 16, 



four heads: "Technological Education," " Man- 
ual Education," " The Teaching of Arithme- 
tic," and " College Problems." But General 
Walker never deals with his subject in a nar- 
row or so-called " practical " way ; right or 
wrong, he always has his eye fixed on some 
valuable educational end. Nor does he tumble 
into the pitfall that always yawns for the spe- 
cialist. For example, he writes : 

" My own opinion is that engineering education is 
primarily and principally an educational and not an en- 
gineering problem; and that the judgment of a strong 
and experienced teacher who has studied this problem 
is more likely to be right than that of any engineer 
without experience as a teacher, however eminent he 
may be in his profession." 

Again, he does not find the value of industrial 
education in special utilities, but writes : 

" I heartily believe that the introduction of the me- 
chanic arts, and of sewing and cooking, into the public 
schools, will do much, very much, not only to increase 
the interest of the pupils in their work, as has been 
already indicated, but to win for the schools a far larger 
degree of interest on the part of parents and a far 
heartier support of the system on the part of the general 
community." 

And again, speaking of manual training : . 

" I care comparatively little for its influence upon 
eye or hand. Its chief work in my view is educational; 
and in that educational work I place foremost its power 
of rectifying the mind itself, of straightening the crooked 
limb, so to speak, of strengthening the weak joint, 
of healing the lesion, which, if not cured, will proceed 
to deep and irreparable injury." 

President Gilman's " University Problems," 
like General Walker's " Discussions in Edu- 
cation," consists of the more weighty utterances 
of its author, during the last twenty-five years 
or more, on educational subjects. Most of 
these utterances originally took the form of 
public addresses ; and such form they still re- 
tain. The book is a valuable contribution to 
educational discussion. Here the reader will 
find the resources and ideals, the methods and 
field, of Johns Hopkins University, with some- 
thing of its history, clearly set forth by its 
President. President Gilman throws out one 
original suggestion relative to a National uni- 
versity that may yet prove to be highly import- 
ant. It is, that the Smithsonian Institution 
shall " organize a plan by which the literary 
and scientific institutions of Washington may 
be associated and correlated so far, and so far 
only, as relates to the instruction and assist- 
ance, under proper guidance, of qualified stu- 
dents." There will be no difficulty, he assures 
us, about the funds if this were done. As we 
understand him, this is the scheme that Dr. 
Gilman has in mind in this passage : 



" If the university in Washington could be so ordered 
that all the scientific resources of the nation were avail- 
able for study, under the guidance of competent per- 
sons, without reference to honors, and without formal 
and prolonged curricula, very many well-qualified schol- 
ars some who have graduated, and some who have 
never been in college; men and women; foreigners and 
Americans; some in early and some in later life 
would there be gathered, and would be aided, taught, 
and inspired by the opportunities and influences thrown 
open to them, in an amplitude worthy of the National 
Capital." 

Professor Russell is fully justified in assum- 
ing, as he does in his preface to " German 
Higher Schools," that there was room in our 
pedagogical literature for a new book on the 
subject. As he tells us, German elementary 
schools and German universities have become 
familiar to American educators, but the sec- 
ondary schools, which could be studied by us 
with still greater advantage, are much less 
known. Not only has he discovered the want, 
but he has gone far toward meeting it : still, no 
one book could meet it fully. One hundred and 
seven pages of his handsome volume are given 
to an historical account of German education 
and schools, from the days of Columban and 
Boniface to the present time, and the remainder 
to an exposition of the existing system of sec- 
ondary education. The work is not closely 
confined, however, to secondary schools, and, if 
it were to be a good one, could not be ; it must 
present the subject in its relations to other 
parts of the educational system. The author 
shows wide reading on his subject and skilful 
use of the note-book. He sprinkles quotation 
over his pages most plentifully, but he so 
weaves them into his narrative or exposition as 
not seriously to impair the unity of his compo- 
sition. But, what is more to the purpose, he 
shows, when dealing with the secondary schools 
as they now exist, a large first-hand knowledge, 
obtained by personal visitation of schools and 
conference with teachers and educational au- 
thorities. There is no work in the English 
language known to us that contains so much 
and so valuable information about the second- 
ary schools of Germany. Nor is the book a 
book of facts merely ; the author has an eye 
also for ideas and forces, and conducts his his- 
torical narration with constant reference to 
these factors. 

We do not know how it may be with Rug- 
beans or other British readers, but it is pretty 
safe to say that such Americans as read Mr. 
Rouse's " History of Rugby School " will find 
the centre of interest in the external rather 
than the internal features, as he portrays them, 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



117 



of that famous school. While these readers 
have a considerable knowledge of the interior 
work and life of a great English public school, 
they generally know little of its exterior his- 
tory. We cannot say that, under this aspect, 
Rugby is a typical school ; undoubtedly, these 
institutions present many points of difference, 
but, after all, the great public schools, as well 
as the large class to which they belong that 
is, the endowed schools must have much ex- 
ternal history in common. Mr. Rouse has, in 
general, presented this side of his subject with 
commendable fulness. 

When Lawrence Sheriffe, member of the 
Worshipful Company of Grocers, and grocer 
to Queen Elizabeth, died in 1567, he left be- 
hind him a will and accompanying documents, 
in which Rugby School had its origin. He 
was a Rugbean by birth, and, having prospered 
in business, wished to leave to his native town 
a legacy that would be productive of lasting 
good. So he left to George Harrison and 
Barnard Field, trustees, three pieces of prop- 
erty : A mansion house that he had built at 
Rugby, together with the land round about it, 
*' being altogether one rood thirty poles or 
thereabouts "; the parsonage of Brown so ver, 
near Rugby, " with one yard of glebe, more or 
less, and the tithes "; and one-third of " the 
field hard by Holborn, some half mile outside 
of London, commonly called Conduit Close or 
Conduit Mead," these pieces of property 
being devoted to the founding of an almshouse 
and a public school. The potency of Rugby 
lay in the piece of meadow land. This was at 
the time of comparatively little value, but it 
was by and by swallowed up by the great me- 
tropolis and so became a source of great and 
increasing wealth to the double foundation. 
Although Lawrence Sheriffe added a codicil to 
his will, and then fortified both documents with 
an " intente," he still left the business in great 
confusion. As we have seen, the foundation 
was double, and it was a long time before the 
school and the almshouse could be fully sepa- 
rated ; the founder stated his intentions and 
wishes in a vague and general manner, not even 
providing for the succession of the trusteeship ; 
while some of his relatives who had some slight 
claims upon his estate did all that they could 
do to destroy the trust altogether. What with 
an imperfect devise, indifferent or incompetent 
trustees, suits and commissions in equity, acts 
of Parliament, and greedy heirs, it was not a 
little remarkable that the foundation ever be- 
came a great school, or even survived at all. 



This point we had in mind when we spoke 
above of the external history of Rugby. Of the 
many hundreds of school endowments made in 
England in the sixteenth century, some, and 
probably many, must have perished utterly, or 
have been wholly diverted from their purpose, 
by causes similar to those that came so near to 
wrecking Rugby. 

Still, the view that we get of the interior of 
the school is by no means without interest. 
Dealing with the new spirit introduced by Dr. 
Arnold, the author sets forth his own view, as 
well as Arnold's, of one important feature of 
school discipline : 

" Arnold did not in the least suffer from that false 
sentimentally common in our own generation, which 
condemns all corporeal punishment as degrading. There 
can be no degradation when none is felt, and ordinary 
boys, as every practical teacher will admit, feel none in 
corporeal punishment. They hail it, rather, as far pre- 
ferable to long and monotonous impositions; if judi- 
ciously and calmly administered, it never leaves a grudge 
behind, as impositions often do." 

The reader of this passage would naturally 
expect to find Mr. Rouse defending fags and 
fagging, and this he does. He tells us that : 

" It raises a smile to read what some eminent edu- 
cationalists have written of the fagging system, as 
though it were a thing essentially bad, and only to be 
tolerated because it cannot be abolished. If it be essen- 
tially bad, that the young should serve before they can 
rule, then the whole system of government in all organ- 
ized countries, and in the army and navy, and in com- 
merce, is essentially bad. Experience shows that the 
fagging system, if properly limited, is a good and use- 
ful institution, and an excellent training in habits of 
smartness and obedience." 

There may be some shadow of truth in this 
view of the subject, but the fagging system will 
disappear, and future masters of Rugby, suc- 
cessors of Mr. Rouse, will wonder that he ever 
defended it. 

Mr. Graham Balfour has attempted to 
describe the three grades of education in the 
four countries, England, Ireland, Scotland, 
and Wales. He defines his purpose as not to 
write a history of education, but to give " an 
account of the framework of which education 
is the life and spirit." " I have had," he says, 
" to deal only with the dry bones, for the first 
and most pressing need was a picture of the ex- 
isting skeleton." Skeletons, even if grinning 
and ghastly, are of the first importance to all 
systems, and of great interest to all students of 
anatomy. This book might be described, there- 
fore, as a treatise on the educational anatomy 
of the four countries just named. We do not 
see how the author could have done his work 
better than he has done it. He has ranged 



118 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 16, 



over the whole field for facts, and has presented 
them in a manner that shows decided power of 
analysis and combination. It is hard to see 
how more information could have been put in 
the same compass, or how what is here found 
could have been presented in clearer or more 
concise language. The book is one that all 
students of education in Great Britain and 
Ireland will find most useful, if not indispens- 
able. Still, we have some fear that readers 
who have not some considerable previous knowl- 
edge of the subject will find it too solid and 
compact for their purpose. But compendiums 
are not written, or should not be written, for 
novices. 

Mr. Balfour's book illustrates in a striking 
way the extraordinary variety of schools exist- 
ing in the four countries named, and especially 
in England and Wales, which, for the purposes 
of elementary teaching, are subject to the same 
laws. Even the reader who is already familiar 
with the field that is, if he lives on this side 
of the ocean will be impressed again by the 
utter absence of controlling ideas and princi- 
ples, and the absolute predominance of empir- 
icism and precedent, in British education. He 
will also be impressed again by the progress of 
elementary instruction in recent years. Govern- 
ment grants began with 20,000 in 1833 ; they 
amounted to 800.000 in 1860, and reached 
9,000,000 in 1897. Nor were the rates, or 
local taxes as we should call them, which 
amounted to nearly 5,000,000, counted in the 
sum given for the last year. Mr. Balfour 
counts the educational fund from public grants, 
endowments, and other sources, for Great 
Britain and Ireland, at fully 20,000,000 an- 
nually ; and estimates that this sum will have 
to be considerably increased before existing 
wants are met. 

The title-page of " Work and Play in Girls' 
Schools " suggests that the book is wholly the 
work of the three head-mistresses named, all of 
whom have at some time been members of the 
teaching staff of the Cheltenham Ladies' Col- 
lege. But such is not the fact : many other 
writers have contributed to the volume. Nor 
are Miss Soulsby and Miss Dove relatively 
prominent ; the one writes the section on the 
" Moral Side of Education " and the other that 
on the " Cultivation of the Body." The veteran 
Miss Beale is much the most abundant con- 
tributor to the book. The aim of the authors 
is to cover the whole field of girls' education. 
Some of the pedagogy that it contains is rather 
antiquated, and some of the exercises recom- 



mended are useless ; but on the whole it is a book 
of solid value and breathes a wholesome spirit. 
It may be observed that Miss Beale keeps her 
good old English faith in examinations un- 
shaken. She argues with old-time confidence, 
and with perfect truth that, provided examina- 
tions are rightly conducted, they are useful as a 
test of what we really know ; that preparation 
for them enables us to find out what are our 
permanent possessions ; that competitive exam- 
inations compel us to set these possessions in 
order and estimate their relative importance ; 
that examinations tend to produce presence of 
mind and mental self-control ; that they sup- 
press wordiness and abolish a florid style, and 
tend to make us feel the supreme importance 
of clearness and accuracy. All the current 
arguments against examinations that are now 
so popular are based on their abuses. 

It is generally agreed among scholars that no 
better university work in history is now any- 
where done than in Paris. This fact will give 
importance to the " Introduction to the Study 
of History," quite apart from its intrinsic 
merits. MM. Langlois and Seignobos are lec- 
turers on history at the Sorbonne, and they give 
us in this book, as we understand the matter, 
the view of history and the general method of 
studying it that are now in favor at this cele- 
brated seat of learning. They intend to go to 
the bottom of things, as this paragraph from 
their preface will show : 

" We propose to examine the conditions and the 
methods, to indicate the character and the limits, of his- 
torical knowledge. How do we ascertain, in respect of 
the past, what part of it is possible, what part of it is 
important, to know ? What is a document ? How are 
documents to be treated with a view to historical work ? 
What are historical facts ? How are they to be grouped 
to make history ? Whoever occupies himself with his- 
tory performs, more or less unconsciously, complicated 
operations of criticism and construction, of analysis and 
synthesis. But beginners, and the majority of those 
who have never reflected on the principles of historical 
methodology, make use, in the performance of these 
operations, of instinctive methods which, not being, in 
general, rational methods, do not usually lead to scien- 
tific truth. It is, therefore, useful to make known and 
logically justify the theory of the truly rational methods 
a theory which is now settled in some parts, though 
still incomplete in points of capital importance." 

The keynote of the work is that history is a 
science. Mr. York Powell, in introducing it 
to English readers, strikes this note in this 
manner : 

" It is not an historian's question, for instance, whether 
Napoleon was right or wrong in his conduct at Jaffa, or 
Nelson in his behavior at Naples; that is a matter for 
the student of ethic or the religious dogmatist to decide. 
All that the historian has to do is to get what conclusion 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



119 



he can get out of the conflict of evidence, and to decide 
whether Napoleon or Nelson actually did that of which 
their enemies accuse them, or, if he cannot arrive at 
fact, to state probability, and the reasons that incline 
him to lean to the affirmative or to the negative." 

The meaning of this is that the historian is to 
look upon the actions of men just as the geolo- 
gist looks upon the eruptions of a volcano and 
the spouting of a hot spring. " The historian 
very properly furnishes the ethical student with 
material," Mr. Powell tells us further, " though 
it is not right to reckon the ethical student's 
judgment upon the historian's facts as history 
in any sense." This ideal, we venture to say, 
is both false and impossible. The kind of man 
that Napoleon or Nelson was, is an historical 
question ; and neither one is to be studied as 
though he were an elemental non-moral force. 
That, no doubt, was Napoleon's own view of 
the matter. The first duty of the historian, and 
one hitherto much neglected, is to get at the 
facts ; but, this done, he is to seek out their 
causes and interpretation. Moreover, the char- 
acter of the man himself is a factor in this sec- 
ondary process. Our authors have produced a 
strong book, and one that we gladly recom- 
mend to students and teachers of history ; but 
we protest that history is not one of the natural 
sciences. B. A. HINSDALE. 



CURRENT THEATRICAL, CRITICISM.* 



It is not the custom of our dramatic critics 
to collect and publish their works. You may 
go into any well-appointed bookstore and ask 
for Mr. Alan Dale's " Life and the Stage," or 
Mr. Franklin Fyles's " Sunlight and Foot- 
lights," but you will not get them, for they do 
not exist. So many libraries consider it re- 
spectable to bind the " New York Tribune " 
that Mr. William Winter's views will be always 
accessible ; and now that Mr. Norman Hap- 
good has taken to the magazines, he is safe for 
immortality. But as a rule the press comments, 
even on our " metropolitan " stage, are breathed 
forth but once into the great expanse of news- 
paper readers, and after a day or so are as if 
they had never been. In other countries, men 
are more or less in the habit of publishing their 
theatrical criticism ; and this is a good thing, 
on the whole, for it dignifies the tone of criti- 
cism and of the stage as well. So it is of some 

* ESSAYS IN DRAMATIC CRITICISM. With Impressions of 
Some Modern Plays. By L. Dupont Syle. New York : 
William R. Jenkins. 

DRYDEN'S ESSAYS ON THE DRAMA. Edited, with Notes, 
by W. Strunk, Jr. New York : Henry Holt & Co. 



interest that Mr. Dupont Syle should have 
broken the ice in the matter.* His " Essays 
in Dramatic Criticism " contain two different 
kinds of work, first, a number of essays on 
general dramatic subjects ; and second, several 
critical notices of current plays. 

It is curious, if nothing more, that the stage 
which forms the object of Mr. Syle's criticism 
should be that of San Francisco. That will 
explain the fact that of the fifteen plays that 
he speaks of, not a single one can really be 
said to be of any permanent interest. The best 
known of them are " Trilby," " Shore Acres," 
and " The Geisha "; these, people have heard 
of and still remember ; the others were either 
never known at all or are now forgotten. Many, 
many people live in places Cone-night stands) 
where the " Opera House " offers very few real 
attractions ; but few who have any dramatic 
possibilities at all have gazed on a list of 
plays of less interest to anybody except the 
inexperienced and the confirmed theatre-goer. 
Yet in this very fact (and I think that Mr. 
Syle appreciates it perfectly) lies the chief 
interest of this book. Mr. Syle is a pretty well 
equipped dramatic critic ; he has seen good 
acting here and abroad, he is a professor of 
literature and therefore familiar with the great 
dramatists, he has the disposition and reading 
of a critic. Now, if a competent critic happen 
to live in San Francisco (or near it) what is he 
to do ? Keep quiet ? Certainly not : let him 
criticize anything in sight. A good critic should 
be something like a good portrait-painter : he 
should work on the material at hand, and not 
always demand the brightest and best. Prob- 
ably the men that Rembrandt and Franz 
Hals painted would have seemed commonplace 
enough to us, at least some of them. A good 
critic will have something to say about almost 
anything. 

These criticisms, then, were very interesting 
to me, although I do not think that I should 
have cared much about the plays. I do not 
know that they would be interesting to every- 
body, for doubtless a great part of my interest 
might be called (with an unintentional double 
meaning) professional. Perhaps the general 
run of people would not care to read about plays 
that they have never seen and never wish to see 
and for which they care absolutely nothing. It 
may be so ; and yet Mr. Syle has written well 
concerning them, written on a high plane, but 

* It seems hardly possible, in these days of republication, 
that no one should have done so before, so I am prepared to 
be wrong in this matter. But it is certainly an uncommon 
practice. 



120 



[Feb. 16, 



easily and quite without pedantry or conven- 
tionalism. 

I suppose it may be urged against these 
critiques that they are " too literary." I think I 
have heard this expression used of dramatic crit- 
icism, although I am not at all sure that I know 
just what it means. Mr. Syle rather lays him- 
self open to this allegation, for the first essays 
in the book (Essays as distinguished from Im- 
pressions) are undoubtedly " literary " in char- 
acter. The longest is an indication of the 
influence of Moliere on Congreve and Sheridan, 
good in itself, and perhaps rather better if it 
should lead anyone to carry on the inquiry and 
ask whether we can trace any influence of 
Moliere and Congreve and Sheridan upon Mr. 
Pinero and Mr. Henry Arthur Jones. The 
four other essays are much shorter ; pleasant 
reading, but without much novelty of idea. The 
last may perhaps be excepted ; Mr Syle, in 
comparing our stage with the Elizabethan 
drama, shows how several of the popular ele- 
ments of the latter, poetry, eloquence, history, 
have of late found better means of expression 
than the drama. So far he is quite right ; 
probably right also when he says that the chief 
distinctive element of the art of the present 
playwright is the construction of situation, 
and explains thus the popularity of the farce, 
wherein situation is the chief dependence. If 
this be so, however, I hardly follow Mr. Syle 
in thinking that with a decrease in our present 
commercialism, the drama will again take to 
itself " the poetical and ethical elements which 
we see flourishing in the works of the great 
playwrights." It may well be that in that 
millennium the drama will find that possession 
is nine points of the law. 

But to return to the criticism of contempo- 
rary plays. Whether the general reader be 
interested in such essays or not, it would be 
rather for the better, so far as the stage is con- 
cerned, if he were interested and if there were 
more such books as this. We have, nowadays, 
so many books anyway that a few more could 
at least do no harm. And books like this are 
in the way of doing good in so far as they tend 
to raise the tone of our theatrical criticism, both 
on the part of the critics and of play-goers as 
well. There is no doubt that, critics or not, 
people will keep on going to the theatre, and 
generally to see what they like. But there can 
be no doubt either that they will also continue 
to talk about the plays they have seen and 
therein find a great part of their pleasure. You 
buy a ticket and see a play ; but that is only 



the beginning of your good time. After the 
play there is always a fresh interchange of 
opinion or repartee at the theatre supper or in 
the street- car going home. Then for a week 
or so there is the constant, " Have you seen 
this or that ? " " Well, my dear, what did you 
think of it?" "Weren't the dresses," etc., 
a sort of conversation which, independently of 
the weight of opinion expressed, is generally 
pleasant to the conversers. And then after- 
ward, for a longer or shorter time, there is the 
general impression left by a play and its acting, 
rarely taking definite form but usually present, 
the impression which does most (when anything 
at all is done) to influence taste and character. 
Everybody knows this, and yet nobody to speak 
of thinks much of it. With a book, a picture, 
a piece of music, we all think opinion is im- 
portant enough to be worth our attention. Ah, 
but these are opinions on the great books, the 
great pictures, the great music, not of mere 
contemporary appearances,. True enough ; but 
of the great plays as acted plays, we can never 
have anything but contemporary criticism. 
Hence, if we are going to have dramatic criti- 
cism at all, it must be from day to day, and 
just as it is worth while to have criticism of 
literature, painting, music, so it is worth while 
to have some criticism of the drama. Not that 
people may thus get the right opinions ready 
made and so know what to think, but that they 
may have a chance to form for themselves more 
definite ideas and standards than they can easily 
do now, when popular theatrical criticism is 
largely impromptu and a matter of accident. 
Let anyone think whether novel-reading would 
be as much fun as it is now had we never read 
any literary criticism ; whether paintings would 
be so absorbing to us if we had never read a 
word about the art of the great painters. And 
let anyone think, too, whether " good music " 
would not be more truly attractive to many if 
people ever read any musical criticism. Criti- 
cism of anything arouses interest ; it makes us 
notice what had before escaped notice ; it gives 
a chance for opinion either by agreement or 
disagreement ; it encourages thought. So I saw 
Mr. Syle's book with pleasure, just as I see 
with pleasure the gradually increasing custom 
of publishing plays in real books. Both tend 
toward the creation of a more active, a sounder 
state of public opinion than we have now ; and 
this is the first thing necessary to having better 
plays and better acting. When people want 
the best, they will generally find a way to get it. 
A farther view of this book is suggested by 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



121 



another, published a little while ago, namely, 
Dryden's " Essays on the Drama," edited by W. 
Strunk, Jr. This is an excellent little book. It 
contains the essay " Of Dramatic Poesy," the 
" Defence " of the Essay, and the essay " Of 
Heroic Plays," with very good apparatus. Mr. 
Strunk has done his work thoroughly ; he gives 
(besides the usual biographical facts and notes 
on style and allusions) a history of the discus- 
sion of which these essays were a part, an ac- 
count of Dryden's sources and authorities, an 
index of plays cited, and, in his notes, a pretty 
constant comparison of Dryden's opinions with 
the classics of criticism of his time. The book 
gives a good opportunity for an introduction 
to Dryden's dramatic criticism. 

In the presence of a fairly definite body of 
dramatic criticism as you will find in Drydeu, 
one inclines to look to Mr. Syle to see what 
are the principles on which his remarks rest. 
It is true that Dryden's criticism was the criti- 
cism of a man who was more interested in 
writing plays than in seeing them acted. It is 
true also that he spent most of his energy upon 
the development of the action and on the ques- 
tion of rhyme ; and further, it will be allowed 
that Dryden was in his criticism too much 
bound to precedent for the best results. Still, 
it is of interest to have bases of criticism, un- 
less you mean to have absolutely impressionistic 
criticism. 

Mr. Syle does not give us impressionistic 
criticism : he gives what he calls " impressions," 
but they are really more like opinions, judg- 
ments. Now, without differing especially with 
many of these opinions, I should much like to 
know the guiding principles. " For instance, 
Mr. Syle says, " Constructively the play is 
well made " (p. 94), although it afterwards 
appears that the first and fourth acts are the 
strong acts, while in the second and third acts 
" there is nothing that one could not foresee 
after listening to the opening speeches." Else- 
where he says, " It is a thousand pities that 
the author who could conceive such a character 
had not imagination enough to set it forth in 
truly poetic form " (p. 104), whereas another 
play of apparently the same kind is at fault 
because its dialogue has not " a shred of wit, 
humor, or anything but a surface observation 
of life " (p. 94). I do not mean to be captious 
or hypercritical in calling attention to these 
remarks, but I find it hard to see from them 
just what kind of construction, what kind of 
dialogue, Mr. Syle thinks good. If I did see, 
if I got at the fundamentals, I might improve 



my own ideas. I do not myself think that con- 
struction is very good which permits us to fore- 
see the end of an act from the beginning. I 
have not, as a rule, thought that we could ask 
for poetic charm in the presentation of the 
characters in a melodrama, nor much wit or 
humor in its dialogue. But if I have been 
wrong, it would surely be interesting to me to 
have some definite bases on which I could carry 
out a re-accommodation. 

But perhaps everyone (else) knows all about 
such things already. 

EDWARD E. HALE, JR. 



IDEALIST'S IDEAS or EVIL.* 

Professor Royce's latest book is a series of 
essays, more or less related to each other, and 
all bearing upon the general subject of Good 
and Evil. As might have been expected from 
the author's previous works, his point of view 
is that of the ethical idealist. This does not 
mean that Professor Royce is an idle dreamer, 
vaguely explaining away the essential differ- 
ences between right and wrong. On the con- 
trary, he looks facts squarely in the face and 
holds closely to the realities of everyday human 
life. He is an ethical idealist in that he inter- 
prets the universe as a realm whose significance 
lies in the ethical ideals which its processes 
realize. 

Of all the problems of life, none are more 
baffling and intricate than the one which per- 
tains to the existence of Evil. If God be good, 
why does He permit Evil ? is a question that 
in one form or another has perplexed every 
thoughtful being. It is the question which 
Professor Royce attempts to answer. To put 
the matter in concrete form, he takes the case 
of Job as illustrating the experience of suffer- 
ing humanity. To Job, this world is the work 
of a Being who ought to be intelligent and 
friendly to righteousness. Yet this God seems 
at times to show himself just the reverse. What 
is the explanation? After considering vari- 
ous familiar answers which have been given as 
solutions to the problem that Evil is but 
transient discipline, that without Evil there 
could be no free-will, that we see only in part 
and a complete view would justify the belief 
that Evil is but partial good, Professor Royce 
gives his own interpretation. He regards Evil 



* STUDIES OF GOOD AND EVIL. By Josiah Royce. New 
York : D. Appleton & Co. 



122 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 16, 



as a real fact, and holds that its existence is not 
only consistent with the perfection of the world, 
but is necessary for the very existence of that 
perfection. As the hero could never be hero 
without controlling fear and pain ; as the saint 
could never be saint without overcoming temp- 
tations to sin, so a knowledge of Good is possi- 
ble only as one knows Evil and subordinates it 
to the Good. " If moral Evil were simply de- 
stroyed and wiped away from the external 
world, the knowledge of moral goodness would 
also be destroyed," is the language of Professor 
Royce. This reminds one of St. Thomas's fam- 
ous argument for the existence of God. " It 
has been asked," says St. Thomas, " if there 
is a God, whence comes Evil? We should 
rather conclude thus : If there is Evil there is 
a God, for Evil would have no existence with- 
out order in the Good, the privation of which 
is Evil. But there would not be this order if 
God did not exist." Professor Royce holds that 
Job's problem is insoluble upon Job's presup- 
position, which is that God is an external 
creator and ruler, for in this case God is either 
cruel or helpless. Only when one regards God 
as the essence and fulness of all Being, abso- 
lutely one with humanity, suffering in its pain 
and triumphing in its victory, can there be any 
satisfactory solution of the problem. God is 
not the Infinite One beyond the finite imper- 
fections, but the being whose unity determines 
the very constitution, the tension and relative 
disharmony of the finite world, and so the ex- 
istence of Evil is not only consistent with the 
perfection of the universe, but is necessary for 
the very existence of that perfection. 

To the student of Hegel, this theory of the 
justification of Evil is not new ; nor does Pro- 
fessor Royce offer it as such. The merit of the 
essay is that the most difficult of problems is 
handled in a clear and masterly way, and the 
solution given is in accordance with the views 
of some of the ablest thinkers of the present 
time. 

Professor Royce again states his fundamental 
theory in an essay on " Tennyson and Pessim- 
ism." He defends the position that " Locksley 
Hall Sixty Years After," although artistically 
inferior to the first " Locksley Hall," is ethi- 
cally higher, and, contrary to general opinion, 
far more satisfactory. The complaint is made 
by the author that while Tennyson is one of the 
most devout of men, he gives as his ideal some- 
thing that can be realized only through a more or 
less complete separation from the world of con- 
crete life. The God in whom Tennyson believes 



is a God that hides himself, or shows himself 
only on rare or romantic occasions to the devout. 
In no sense is he the God of the present. He 
is the God of the future. This is shown in the 
first " Locksley Hall." The young man is in 
the old romantic world on a quest for the ideal. 
He has nothing to do with the commonplace. 
His business is important, but vague and inde- 
scribable. Its prominent feature is that it 
takes him away from earthly relations to move 
forward, and neither he nor anyone else knows 
exactly where. This romantic idealism Pro- 
fessor Royce claims leads eventually to pessim- 
ism ; and the pessimism of the second "Locks- 
ley Hall," so far as it is pessimistic, is the 
explicit statement of what is implied in the first. 
The thought is, Unless God is here, how do 
you know he is elsewhere ? Unless the present 
has divine meaning, What proof is there of a 
far-off divine event ? It is the recognition of 
this thought, and the absence of a vain roman- 
ticism, that gives a value to the later poem. 
For here Tennyson recognizes that if this is 
God's world, then these struggles, sins, striv- 
ings, and loves must be the expression of God's 
will : a truth which Browning repeats over and 
over again. Like various other forms of Evil, 
pessimism is not to be regarded as a final ill. 
On the contrary, " the best man is the one who 
can see the truth of pessimism, can absorb and 
transcend that truth, and can be nevertheless 
an optimist, not by virtue of his failure to 
recognize the evil of life, but by virtue of his 
readiness to take part in the struggle against 
this evil." 

One of the most interesting, as well as most 
original, of thes'e essays is " The Case of John 
Bunyan." The religious experiences of the 
great writer, as given in his remarkable Con- 
fessions, " Grace Abounding to the Chief of 
Sinners," are summarized by Professor Royce, 
and then interpreted, not in terms of the soul 
and its relation to God, but in the language of 
the latest school of empirical psychology. The 
story of Bunyan's religious life offers a rare 
object-lesson to the student of normal and ab- 
normal mental processes. Bunyan was what 
psychologists would call a good visualizer. He 
was also an expert in the dialectics of the inner 
life, and a born genius as to the whole range of 
language functions, good and bad. Describing 
his early youth, he tells us that he frequently 
felt himself tempted to curse and swear, or 
speak some grievous thing against God. These 
and other insistent morbid impulses such as 
wavering hopes, gloomy doubts and question- 



1899.] 



123 



ings, all of which Banyan subsumes under the 
name Tempter are more or less inhibited by 
other automatic mental processes, the result of 
a close study of the scriptures ; for a text con- 
demning or encouraging was sure to come to 
his mind whenever the oath came to his lips or 
the doubt to his consciousness. A chaos of 
motor processes was the result. Noting these 
and similar trains of morbid association, Pro- 
fessor Royce follows them through their various 
stages, as reported in the wonderfully clear 
and definite autobiography, marking the corre- 
spondence between periods of low physical con- 
dition and certain religious depressions. Finally 
the great change came, when, under a skilful 
self-imposed mental regimen, Bunyan had no 
return of the more deeply systemized disorders, 
although always a prey to elementary insistent 
temptations and depressions. The study of 
Bunyan's Case is of value as typical of morbid 
processes which have gone on in many brains 
less exalted than that of Bunyan without Buu- 
yan's power of vivid description. While Pro- 
fessor Royce has chosen to state the case in 
psychological terms, he is careful to say that 
this does not in any wise impair its worth as an 
ethical study ; for the problem to Bunyan was 
one of moral struggle, a struggle in which he 
came out victorious, recognizing in his victory 
the value of the Tempter as well as the Com- 
forter. 

The remaining essays in the volume bear 
upon other aspects of the relation of Good and 
Evil, and serve to illustrate the author's funda- 
mental theory that Evil is essential to the real- 
ization of Good ; that it is the living strife in 
the midst of which and by which God main- 
tains Himself in the world. 

CAROLINE K. SHERMAN. 



THE annual volume for 1898 of the " Proceedings and 
Addresses " of the National Educational Association has 
just been published under the editorship of Mr. Irwin 
Shepard, secretary of the Association, and preserves for 
the members all of the papers and discussions of the 
meeting held last July in the national capital. It is a 
thick octavo of more than eleven hundred pages, and the 
contents relate to almost every conceivable phase of the 
educational problem. An elaborate index makes these 
contents readily available for reference. We should 
add that a considerable section of the volume is devoted 
to the Chattanooga meeting, held in February, of the 
Department of Superintendence. The papers here 
printed are, of course, greatly varied in their value, and 
we cannot help wishing that the general effect were not 
quite so scrappy that the longer papers might be 
longer, and many of the shorter ones suppressed alto- 
gether. 



RECENT FICTION.* 



" Ashes of Empire " is the third in order of pub- 
lication of the series of romances in which Mr. 
Robert W. Chambers has sought to write a pictur- 
esque history of the Annie Terrible. Its predeces- 
sors are " The Red Republic " and " Lorraine." It 
will be followed by a fourth, dealing with the oper- 
ations of the Army of the Loire. We are compelled 
to say that " Ashes of Empire " is distinctly the 
poorest, as " Lorraine " is distinctly the best, of the 
three books thus far published. The author's inven- 
tion seems to be flagging, and his sentimentalism to 
have become exaggerated. Still, the gift of romantic 
story-telling is his in so marked a degree that one 
may derive a good deal of pleasure from the new 
book, which begins with the news of Sedan and the 
escape of the Empress, tells the pitiful story of the 
siege, and ends with the entry of the victorious 
Prussians into the capital. Meanwhile, we are 
made to realize by ominous mutterings the gather- 
ing of the storm soon thereafter to break in the 
Commune, of which Mr. Chambers has already 
written in " The Red Republic." Upon a previous 
occasion, in speaking of these books, we have had 
to regret the author's propensity to disfigure them 
by the introduction of caricatures of some of the 
best of Frenchmen. But the prejudices hitherto 
made manifest in the treatment of Thiers and 
Gambetta and Hugo seem feeble in comparison 
with that now excited by Renan, who is caricatured 
in the present volume so offensively that one feels 
nothing but disgust for a novelist who could so per- 



* ASHES OF EMPIRE. A Romance. By Robert W. Cham- 
bers. New York : Frederick A. Stokes Co. 

THE ROAD TO PARIS. A Story of Adventure. By Robert 
Neilson Stephens. Boston : L. C. Page & Co. 

THE COUNT'S SNUFF-BOX. By George R. R. Rivers. 
Boston : Little, Brown, & Co. 

A HERALD OF THE WEST. By Joseph A. Altsheler. New 
York : D. Appleton & Co. 

MANDERS. By Elwyn Barron. London : John Macqueen. 

THE ASSOCIATE HERMITS. By Frank R. Stockton. New 
York : Harper & Brothers. 

EXILED FOR LESS MAJESTE. By James T. Whittaker. 
Cincinnati : Curts & Jennings. 

WITH BODGHT SWORDS. A Tale of a Spanish-American 
Republic. New York : M. F. Mansfield & Co. 

THE BATTLE OF THE STRONG. A Romance of Two King- 
doms. By Gilbert Parker. Boston : Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

HER MEMORY. By Maarten Maartens. New York : D. 
Appletou & Co. 

THE CHANGELING. A Novel. By Sir Walter Besant. 
New York : Frederick A. Stokes Co. 

THE ADVENTURERS. A Tale of Treasure Trove. By H. B. 
Marriott Watson. New York : Harper & Brothers. 

THE RED AXE. By S. R. Crockett. New York : Harper 
& Brothers. 

GRACE O' MALLET, PRINCESS AND PIRATE. By Robert 
Machray. New York : Frederick A. Stokes Co. 

ADVENTURES OF THE COMTE DE LA MUETTE DURING THE 
REIGN OF TERROR. By Bernard Capes. New York : Dodd, 
Mead & Co. 

THE SCOURGE OF GOD. A Romance of Religious Persecu- 
tion. By John Bloundelle-Burton. New York : D. Appleton 
&Co. 



124 



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[Feb. 16, 



vert the truth. This blot so darkens " The Ashes 
of Empire " that its real merits are likely to he 
overlooked. 

" The Road to Paris " is a long one, if we take 
the new romance by Mr. R. N. Stephens for a guide 
and cicerone. The story begins at Culloden with 
the flight into exile of the hero's father. The hero 
himself is born in the wilds of Pennsylvania, in time 
to grow up into a Revolutionary soldier, and take 
part in the fray on Bunker's Hill. He then, after 
escaping from imprisonment, joins the expedition 
to Quebec, and makes the long march through Maine 
to the St. Lawrence. In Quebec he appears as a 
spy, escapes detention, and gets carried away to 
England as a prisoner of war under the supposition 
that he is somebody else. Ethan Allen is one of 
his fellow-prisoners upon this unwilling voyage. 
Escaping from his English prison, he becomes in 
turn a strolling juggler, a gardener's assistant, and 
a fine gentleman of the town in Bath and London. 
Newgate, Vauxhall, and Hyde Park all make his 
acquaintance, and, after a surprising series of 
intrigues and adventures, he finds his way across 
the Channel in a smuggling boat, and seems at last 
to be really upon the road to Paris, the goal of his 
boyhood's ambition. But before he enters the city, 
he becomes engrossed in a sentimental episode with 
the precocious young daughter of Necker (who was 
afterwards to become the author of " Corinne"), 
and is also unwillingly mixed up in an organized 
plot for the assassination of that famous Minister. 
In consequence of all this, our hero's first entrance 
into Paris makes him a guest of the Bastille, where 
he languishes in captivity for a year or so. Escap- 
ing again (he always escapes), he makes his adven- 
turous way into Germany, and becomes a personage 
at the court of Hesse-Cassel. Here he takes part 
in a conspiracy against the Landgraf , barely escapes 
with his life, and carries off his lady-love in triumph 
to Paris, which he really enters at last in the fashion 
to be desired. The lady in the case, it should be 
added, has figured in his life both in New England 
and in Quebec, so we know she is bound to appear 
at the end and make his story all that a romance 
should be. Here, indeed, is a tangled skein of ad- 
venturous experiences, and the reader hardly knows, 
when all is over, whether to admire the more the 
author's easy and animated narrative manner, or 
the astonishing ingenuity displayed by him in mak- 
ing so many historical scenes and situations take part 
in the shaping of the hero's destiny. 

Mr. Elwyn Barron, who some years ago left 
America for an English sojourn of indefinite dura- 
tion, is now favorably recalled to the memory of 
his old circle of readers by what may fairly be 
called one of the most charming novels of the sea- 
son. " Manders " is a Europeanized production, 
almost as much so as the later stories of Mr. Henry 
Harland, which it somehow suggests, and it strik- 
ingly illustrates, when compared with Mr. Barren's 
earlier writing, the broadening influences of life in 
the great centres of European civilization. Manders 



is the name of a little boy, and he is ostensibly the 
hero of the story, but in fact he interests us less 
than his widowed mother a professional model in 
the Quarter and her vacillating but not unsym- 
pathetic lover, an American art student of ample 
means. Mr. Barren's success with his heroine is 
akin to Du Manner's success with a certain girl 
whom we need not name : it is the successful por- 
trayal of a woman who remains pure at heart amid 
surroundings that at least are not encouraging to 
purity. There is also an American heroine of pro- 
nounced and attractive type, besides the necessary 
complement of minor characters. The author has 
shown much skill in realizing these figures for us, 
besides doing it in a style that is excellent on its 
own account. He has a form of expression that is 
crisp and effective, subtly humorous upon occasion, 
but always ready to rise to the demands of a seri- 
ous situation. The book is not exactly a strong one, 
but it is exceptionally pleasing, and it rings true. 

As every reader of Mr. Stockton's books is aware, 
the stories that they tell cannot possibly be retold in 
abstract. " The Associate Hermits " is no exception 
to this rule, and an outline of its plot would give 
no notion whatever of the quaint humor, the nov- 
elty of situation, and the general whimsicality, which 
make this book a worthy companion of its many 
predecessors. About the only idea that can be de- 
tached without losing its essential flavor is the one 
with which the story opens the idea of a newly- 
wedded couple who, instead of starting on a wed- 
ding journey themselves, persuade the parents of 
the bride to do it for them. This is as Stocktonian 
a notion as can be ; to tell what follows shall be his 
affair, not ours. 

Two historical romances which stand rather above 
the usual level of merit have for their subject the 
War of 1812. Mr. George Rivers, the author of 
"The Count's Snuff-Box," has taken the episode 
of the Henry letters for a starting-point, and the 
" Count " of the title-page is the imposter who posed 
as one Edward de Grill on upon that critical occa- 
sion. Mr. Rivers supplements what is known his- 
torically of that imposter by embellishments of the 
usual romantic sort, and makes an agreeable story 
of the whole affair. The scene is laid partly on the 
shore of Buzzard's Bay and partly in Washington, 
the burning of the capital by a horde of British ruf- 
fians affording a thrilling climax to the work. 

The burning of Washington also appears in " A 
Herald of the West," by Mr. Joseph Altsheler, but 
midway in this case, for the Battle of New Orleans 
provides the climax. Mr. Altsheler's book is more 
closely historical than the one before mentioned, 
and those who have read his two earlier romances of 
American history do not need to be told that he is a 
writer of real power. In these days, which are 
witnessing a recementation of the ties that should 
and must bind together the English-speaking peo- 
ples, we are apt to forget how real were the griev- 
ances that brought on the War of 1812. These the 
author recalls to us in plain terms, with perhaps just 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



125 



a touch of the bitterness that should by this time 
have disappeared altogether, but certainly with no 
harboring of the old rancor. The story is well-knit, 
varied of interest, thrilling upon occasion, and dis- 
tinctly to be praised. 

" Exiled for Lese Majeste' " is a taking title for 
a book, and when a glance at the pages shows it to 
be a story of. Russian despotism and imprisonment 
in Siberia, a certain pleasurable anticipation is 
aroused. Bat the expectation is doomed to disap- 
pointment upon further examination, for the story 
proves but a tenuous thread upon which the author 
hangs a heavy burden of miscellaneous information 
concerning all subjects under the sun (and others). 
Interminable conversations of a semi-didactic sort 
are the substance of the book, while the romantic 
interest is lost like a rivulet in the desert. We can- 
not help being amused at the audacity of the writer 
in making his characters discuss (in the time of 
Nicholas that is, in the early fifties ) such subjects 
as Darwinism and the marvellous growth of Chicago, 
and quote from FitzGerald's Omar and the later 
poems of Longfellow. No such trifling matter as 
an anachronism is going to stand in the way of this 
writer's fancy ; if he wishes to point a moral, he is 
evidently not to be deterred by any consideration 
of what the mere facts will justify. 

" With Bought Swords " is a Spanish-American 
romance of revolution and intrigue, in which the 
author has by no means ma'de the most of his mate- 
rials. The effect is too sketchy to be in any way 
impressive. Over and over again, situations that 
might have been worked up excitingly are merely 
hinted at, and one follows the story with some dif- 
ficulty. We fear that this book must be character- 
ized as a bit of amateurish effort undeserving of 
serious attention. 

Those who expected the new novel by " Maarten 
Maartens " to be a work of such elaborate interest 
as " My Lady Nobody " or " God's Fool " will be 
disappointed. It is so long since the author last 
came before the public that such an expectation was 
reasonable, but instead of fulfilling it, he now pre- 
sents us with what is little more than a sketch. The 
book is called " Her Memory," and is the study of 
a man's sorrow when bereft of a beloved wife, and 
left to face an existence made solitary save by the 
presence of the little girl who is left him. How the 
passionate soul of the man rebels, and how the first 
poignancy of grief gradually becomes tempered into 
endurance, how the lives of both father and child 
develope under the influence of the tender memory 
that remains to them, and how existence in the end 
comes once more to take on its wonted aspect ; all 
these things are imparted to our sympathies rather 
than to our intellect by the writer's graceful art. 
Few novelists have so marked a temperament as this 
Anglicized Dutchman of genius, and the tempera- 
ment is such as to suggest Thackeray in more than 
one way, although there is back of it no such wealth 
of intellectual resource as was possessed by the 
author of " Vanity Fair " and " Henry Esmond." 



" Her Memory " is a welcome visitor to our table, but 
we cannot help wishing that it were ampler in dimen- 
sions and richer in content. 

" In any case this tale has no claim to be called 
a historical novel," says Mr. Gilbert Parker in a 
note appended to " The Battle of the Strong." We 
shall take the liberty of qualifying this assertion to 
a certain extent. Admitting the fact that the char- 
acters concerned are wholly the creations of the 
author, it must yet be said that a novel may be 
historical even if no actor on the stage of actual 
history treads its boards. The setting must be taken 
into account, the manners and customs depicted, 
the truthfulness to the larger historical facts of the 
period and the place concerned. In these particu- 
lars, the book is a historical novel in a high and fine 
sense, just as Victor Hugo's " Les Mise'rables " is a 
historical novel, and would remain one without its 
description of the battle of Waterloo. There are 
more reasons than one for the suggestion, in the 
present connection, of the great French masterpiece. 
It is made inevitable by the fact that Mr. Parker's 
book is a romance of Jersey, for no one may write 
of the Channel Islands without suggesting the writer 
who lived among them during nearly twenty years' 
voluntary exile. There are, furthermore, among 
Mr. Parker's pages not a few which in manner, in 
epic breadth of treatment, and in poetic envisage- 
ment of an impressive scene or situation, constantly 
recall to the mind this or that page of " Quatre-Vingt- 
Treize " and " Les Travailleurs de la Mer." Nor is 
the comparison an unworthy one, for Mr. Parker 
here approves himself to be of the great race of story- 
tellers, and has produced a work that must be reck- 
oned among the masterpieces of recent fiction. The 
scene is Jersey, for the most part, although an im- 
portant section of the romance takes us to the Duchy 
of Bercy, and the time that of the Revolution. The 
island itself remains almost undisturbed during these 
stormy years, but echoes from Paris, and La Vende'e, 
and the high seas where English and French are 
pitted against each other, reach the scene from 
time to time, and bring the action into relief against 
an impressive historical background. Still, its inter- 
est, which runs the entire gamut from the lightest 
comedy to the deepest tragedy, is essentially domes- 
tic, and concerns the lives of a few Jerseymen and 
Jerseywomen. Among these the heroine, Guida 
de Landresse, shines like a star in the purity of her 
womanhood, and about her are grouped three men 
who love her one less than his ambition, another 
with a too dumb and dog-like devotion, a third, to 
whose life her gracious presence gives renewed no- 
bility of purpose, and who wins her in the end, after 
she has sounded all the depths of grief, and felt to 
the full the chastening influence of suffering. The 
story is one in which strength and sweetness are so 
subtly commingled that each intensifies the other. 
Mr. Parker has made judicious use of a vast amount 
of material collected for his work. The history, 
the customs, the dialect, the folk-lore, and the insti- 
tutions of the island are drawn upon most effectively. 



126 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 16, 



and when the climax is reached, it is an ancient 
legal formula that provides the keynote to an 
intensely dramatic situation. When the wronged 
Guida appeals for justice to the Cour d'He*ritage, it 
is with the old Norman cry : Haro, haro ! a Paide, 
mon Prince, on me fait tort ! The effect, as con- 
trived by Mr. Parker, is simply overwhelmning. 
We might go on almost indefinitely in praising this 
book which is an advance upon even " The Seats 
of the Mighty " but enough has been said to make 
it clear that here is a work to be reckoned with, and 
to persuade our readers of the pleasure that is in 
store for them. 

Sir Walter Besant has written so many novels 
that some of them must be poorer than the others, 
and there is no doubt that " The Changeling " is 
one of the least successful of them all. It is more 
discursive than usual, more obviously artificial, and 
has more resort to situations and coincidences of the 
kind that strain the credulity. It tells of a mother 
who, losing her infant child, seeks to spare its father 
the grief of the loss by putting another child in the 
vacant place. How this sin finds her out after many 
years, and how the history of the substituted child 
proves heredity to be stronger than environment, 
are the two main themes of this story, which is 
rather bewildering in its complications, and unim- 
pressive in its outcome. 

A few months ago, we noticed an extraordinary 
romance entitled " The Lake of Wine," by Mr. 
Bernard Capes. It will possibly be remembered 
that this title was derived from the fanciful name 
of a great ruby, for the discovery and possession of 
which many men ventured (and some of them lost) 
their lives. In reading " The Adventurers," by Mr. 
Marriott Watson, we find the same story, in its gen- 
eral outline, retold. The treasure in this case is gold 
and not jewels, but otherwise the similarity is strik- 
ing. There is an ancient country house in England, 
and the treasure which it conceals is eagerly con- 
tended for by the owner of the house and the des- 
perate gang of cutthroats who have learned of its 
existence. In both cases, also, the hiding-place of 
the treasure is as unknown to the one party as to 
the other. The chief difference is in the style of 
the two narratives, for that of " The Adventurers " 
is as plain and straightforward as that of " The Lake 
of Wine " is affected and tortuous. It is a rather 
daring thing, for either writer, thus to have framed 
in the setting of the nineteenth century conditions 
in a civilized country an action so full of lawlessness 
and bloody violence that it belongs rather to Turkey 
or to the sixteenth century. The story is certainly 
interesting, and its plot is most ingeniously contrived. 

In " The Red Axe," Mr. Crockett departs from 
his wonted scenes and his well-worn Scots, to write 
of the robber barons of mediaeval Germany. For 
once, he has for us no moss-hags and no stern Cov- 
enanters, but instead, Gothic towers and ruthless 
bands of the rough riders of several centuries ago. 
The book is very " bluggy." The hero is the son 
of the hereditary justiciar to the Dukes of the Wolf- 



mark, and is himself called upon, in the due course 
of events, to take up the axe of the executioner. 
Thrills occur upon nearly every page of this story, 
which is so swift in its action that one gasps for 
breath in trying to keep up with it. There is a love- 
story, too, as tender as any that the author has 
imagined, and, altogether, the book affords much 
exciting entertainment. .'' .f 

" Grace O'Malley, Princess and Pirate " is surely 
a fetching title, and the covers of the book add pic- 
torial effect to verbal by a poster-portrait of the 
heroine. The story turns out to be a wild history 
of love and revenge in Elizabethan Ireland, with 
the historical figure of the Earl of Desmond set 
among those drawn by the writer from his imagina- 
tion. The story is related in the first person, and 
with the usual affectation of an archaic form of 
speech. But, despite the author's endeavor, his 
book is a rather dull one, and he misses the romantic 
touch of which such men as Mr. Bloundelle-Burton, 
for instance, know the secret so well. 

The " Adventures of the Comte de la Muette dur- 
ing the Reign of Terror " is an interesting romance 
of a rather conventional sort, which tells how an 
aristocrat, by means of disguise, escaped massacre, 
and how he also saved the life of a fair aristocratic 
damsel, who naturally became his wife when their 
adventures were over. It is a picturesque and 
thrilling narrative, with the proper infusion of sen- 
timent, studied from the memoirs of the period, and 
told with considerable dramatic effect. 

Mr. Bloundelle-Burton is rapidly taking the place, 
if he has not already taken it, that clearly belongs 
to him among writers of historical romance. Few, 
if any, of his living fellow-workers in this field have 
a finer sense of the requirements of this form of 
fiction, or a better equipment for its production. In 
" The Scourge of God," he has taken for his theme 
the Huguenot persecutions that followed the Revo- 
cation. The scene is laid among the CeVennes, and 
the desolation wrought in that fair region by the 
Most Christian King's endeavor to stamp out a 
pestilent heresy is pictured with vivid and terrible 
effect. The monarch who was so justly called the 
" Scourge of God " does not appear personally in 
these pages, and the "femme funeste et terrible" 
at whose behest he acted appears only in two brief 
scenes ; but, in a certain sense, these two personages 
dominate the history, and their figures ever loom 
up in the background of the imagination. The story 
is one of the best in style, construction, information, 
and graphic power, that have been written in recent 
years. WILLIAM MORTON PAYNE. 



A " History of the World from the Earliest Histor- 
ical Time to the Year 1898," is the title of a volume 
prepared by Mr. Edgar Sanderson for " The Concise 
Knowledge Library " (Appleton). One rather gasps at 
the thought of such a book, but series have to exist, and 
volumes must be made to fit them. Mr. Sanderson is 
a careful historical scholar, and his book commands 
approval. 






\M 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 






Libr 



= 



127 



BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS. 

New England There are some things that would 
letters and lead one to keep separate in the 

New England life. mind Mr> W> C> Lawton's " New 

England Poets " (Macmillan) and Mrs. Harriet H. 
Robinson's "Loom and Spindle" (Crowell). The 
latter book will be of value to the economist and 
the historian : Mr. Carroll D. Wright, who contri- 
butes an Introduction, adds his authority on this 
point. The former, as will be inferred by the read- 
ers of Mr. Lawton's recent book on Homer, will be 
useful mainly to the literary student. But the two 
books came to us at the same time, and they con- 
nect themselves in our mind. Mr. Lawton's book 
is a good statement of the position and the work of 
Emerson, Hawthorne, Longfellow, Whittier, Lowell, 
and Holmes. Mrs. Robinson's is a very interest- 
ing account of the life and characteristics of the 
Lowell mill-girls half a century ago. Mr. Lawton, 
as one may see from his title, emphasizes the idea 
that these poets were New England poets : that 
their lives and work was conditioned by their being 
born and living in New England. Now, New En- 
gland in the middle of this century was certainly not 
all factory-life in Lowell, and yet the change is not 
very severe from Lucy Larcom's " New England 
Girlhood " to Dr. Edward Everett Kale's " New 
England Boyhood." It is not that Emerson and 
Holmes, for instance, were of the stock of which 
mill-hands were made. But the old families from 
which they sprang never held themselves very far 
above the old families from which the mill-girls 
came, and in very many forms of thought and modes 
of feeling they never separated themselves at all. 
Everywhere the same church, the same school, the 
same town-meeting served for both, and much the 
same careers were open to both. The Brahmin 
caste was really not a caste, properly speaking, at 
all, for it never shunned communion with others. 
Of course these poets were of the picked New En- 
gland stock, picked over in some cases for genera- 
tions. That is true ; but who picked them, and for 
whom were they picked ? Who was it that was to 
understand them, who did understand them, if it 
comes to that ? Not more the mill-girls of Lowell 
than the students of Harvard, doubtless ; but who 
were they ? The old Lowell factory-life is especially 
interesting because particular circumstances gave 
the opportunity for presenting in great purity the 
type of New England, the worker, the worshipper, 
the lover of the things of the mind. This is seen 
in Mrs. Robinson's book, which is of these two the 
more interesting, for it deals with matters which 
are to the most of us half familiar ; it opens a door 
into the past, as Lowell says, into a room that we 
have heard of but never entered ; it tells us of a 
life eminently characteristic and now wholly passed 
away. But its interest, to us at least, is greatly 
heightened by the fact that it enables us to read 
the other book so much more understandingly. We 
rather wish that Mr. Lawton had been able to read 



it before writing his own book. It makes one under- 
stand, better than before, all the six that he writes 
of except Hawthorne, and perhaps even Hawthorne. 
They are rightly called " New England " poets. 
But what is, or rather was, New England? That 
is something which we need not try to say just here. 
There are a hundred books to answer those that 
cannot remember, but the list will not be complete 
until it includes Mrs. Robinson's simple record of 
a phase long gone forever. 

France as France to-day, convulsed by the 

elucidated by Dreyf us matter, presents a curious, 
the Dreyfus case. a humiliating, yet a not altogether 
hopeless spectacle of national retrogression : curious 
to the social pathologist, humiliating to the opti- 
mistic champion of free institutions, not altogether, 
or indeed by any means, hopeless to those who 
understand the transient and superficial character 
of these periodic outbreaks of French, or per- 
haps more accurately speaking, Parisian hysteria. 
Broadly speaking, the Dreyfus case and the popular 
hallucinations attending it are the result of the 
momentary ascendency of forces which the Revolu- 
tion overthrew but unhappily could not extirpate. 
There were diseased parts in the national body 
which the rude and sometimes misapplied surgery 
of the soi-disant regenerators of France failed to 
cut away, and which could not have been quite cut 
away by far more skilful operators. Now a portion 
of the poisonous virus has worked its way to the 
surface ; and the civilized world looks on in amaze- 
ment at the spectacle of Jesuitry, bigotry, caste- 
tyranny, working their infamous will on an innocent 
man, quite as in the days of Galas and La Barre ; 
while a populace that a decade ago celebrated the 
centenary of the fall of the Bastille stands by ap- 
plauding and supporting the outrage. Unhappily, 
there is now no Voltaire to smite the evil. But the 
mind of France is saner and her conscience more 
sensitive than in the days when the "intellectuals " 
of Voltaire's century fought the battle against the 
foes of right and reason that M. Zola and his col- 
leagues are fighting to-day ; and there is good ground 
of hope that Frenchmen are even now shaking off 
the degrading hallucination that condemns the un- 
happy Dreyfus and the heroic Picquart to shame 
and torture, while the reptilian Esterhazy and the 
monstrous Drumont go unwhipt of justice. If there 
be to-day any rational being, outside of France, who 
is still unconvinced of the fact that Esterhazy is the 
man who ought to be where Dreyfus is, that he is 
the writer of the bordereau and the seller to the 
German attache of the military secrets therein listed, 
we earnestly commend to him Mr. F. C. Conybeare's 
concise and conclusive little book entitled "The 
Dreyfus Case" (Dodd). Through the presentation 
of documents, facsimiles of handwriting, etc., and 
through its well-marshalled history of the successive 
stages and phases of the case, it puts beyond the 
shadow of a doubt the facts of the innocence of 
Dreyfus and the guilt of Esterhazy. The volume 



128 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 16, 



is well furnished with portraits of the chief actors 
in this remarkable cause cSlebrb, beginning with the 
noble Picquart (one of the brightest names in the 
annals of contemporary France), and ending with 
Esterhazy, whose vice-seared face is a safe passport 
to the material hell of his antiquated faith. 

Universit Admirable productions of their kind 

addresses by are the " University Addresses " de- 

Prindpai Caird. ii vere( j before the students of the 
University of Glasgow by the late Principal John 
Caird, and now reprinted by the Macmillan Co. in 
a neat volume of 380 odd pages, under the editorial 
supervision of Professor Edward Caird of Balliol 
College, Oxford. The addresses here collected are 
of two kinds : those customarily delivered by Prin- 
cipal Caird at the beginning of each session, on 
some subject connected with the studies of the Uni- 
versity, or on the life and work of some great author 
with whose name one or other of these studies is 
representatively connected ; and those addresses on 
some general topic of University Education which 
Principal Caird was in the habit of delivering to 
the graduates at the end of the session, after the 
graduation ceremonies. Of the former and more 
important class of addresses, the volume contains 
twelve. Of the graduation addresses, only two are 
given : " The Personal Element in Teaching," and 
" General and Professional Education." Principal 
Caird, in one notable passage, pays a tribute to the 
universities of Scotland that may be quoted here as 
suggesting a useful ideal not, we think, kept so fully 
in view as it should be in the great educational 
foundations of our own country : " It is the glory of 
our Scottish universities that they have never been 
made places of education for a class, that no costly 
arrangements render access to them possible only for 
the rich, and that when once he has crossed their doors 
a young man finds himself in a community where 
intellectual resource is the only wealth that wins re- 
spect, brain power the only power that tells, and 
where honor and distinction await the ablest and 
worthiest, and await these alone." This special tribute 
which Principal Caird felt in conscience justified in 
paying to the universities of his own country applies, 
we think, with equal justice to those of Germany 
and France. That any superiorities other than 
those of mind and character should, in an institution 
of learning, be the marks of its acknowledged aris- 
tocracy, seems anomalous enough ; but we fear the 
anomaly is not unknown in republican America. 
Educators especially should find these sane and 
earnest addresses useful and stimulating. 

The recent ^ e COn ^ e88 we ^ n< ^ ^'tle in Mr. G. W. 

bloody business Steevens's "With Kitchener to Khar- 
inthe Sudan. tum ( D o dd ) that seems to us to 
justify the lavish encomiums heaped upon it by the 
higher class of English reviews. We can easily see 
why the ordinary newspaper should laud Mr. Stee- 
ven's book to the skies ; for it contains just the sort 
of " hot stuff " that the ordinary newspaper has been 



for the past year or so especially desirious of get- 
ting, and would have at almost any price. If war 
should break out to-morrow (which God forbid ! ) 
the enterprising owners of our " live up-to-date " 
newspapers might well put Mr. Steevens's book into 
the hands of the " bright young men " they pro- 
posed sending to the front, and say to them : " This 
is the kind of thing we want." Mr. Steevens's book, 
in fine, is a clever and well-spiced piece of war-time 
reporting, made in a hurry on the spot and meant 
for immediate home consumption : but it is nothing 
more than that. Its vogue with the British public 
is easily explained. The Sirdar is just now the 
British public's especial hero, and Mr. Steevens tells 
what he did and lauds him without stint or reserva- 
tion for doing it ; the British public, too, is for the 
first time in a quarter of a century or more unques- 
tionably in a fighting mood, and Mr. Steevens's 
battle-pictures give it much the same sort of grati- 
fication that our own public gets from " kineto- 
scope " views of the more crucial and historic pugi- 
listic events. Reading Mr. Steevens's cheery and 
often even jocular account of the Sudan campaign 
is almost as good (or as bad) as seeing the thing 
itself. Mr. Steevens has the knack of describing 
things vividly, and we do n't mean to carp at him 
for giving his employers and the public their money's 
worth of gore and grewsomeness. But he might, it 
would seem, without loss of cash or credit, have 
written less flippantly, and with a more apparent 
sense of the fact that this tragic, if perhaps una- 
voidable, Sudan business this scientific butchery 
of a half-armed mob of half-savage religionists 
is a dark and deplorable episode in the history of 
the territorial conquests of Western civilization. 
Mr. Steevens, we are glad to note, appears to recog- 
nize the fact that, when the day of Omdurman was 
done, the palm of valor lay, not (broadly speaking) 
with the men who had been behind, but with those 
who had been before, the guns. The volume is 
supplied with maps and plans, and serves to convey 
a tolerably good idea of General Kitchener's meth- 
ods of dealing with the problem his predecessors 
had so egregiously failed to solve. 

Probably there is but one religious 
Parochial history f oundation j n t hi s country whose his- 

extraordinary. * . . . 

tory, adequately told, would require 
more than a duodecimo volume of three or four 
hundred pages. That one is the Parish of Trinity 
Church, New York City. It is a notable parish in 
many respects. Its annals are closely connected 
with those of the city in which it exists. The du- 
ties and responsibilities of its rector are greater than 
those of some of the bishops. It celebrated its 
bicentennial in 1897, and the elegant volume set- 
ting forth the proceedings in the nine churches com- 
prised in this immense city parish seems to have 
whetted the appetite of the parishioners for more 
history. So records running back to the early years 
of the seventeenth century have been ransacked, 
and the Rev. Dr. Dix, Rector, has begun the prepa- 



1899.] 



THE DIAL, 



129 



ration of a complete history of the parish. The 
result thus far is a royal octavo volume of over 
500 pages, bringing the narrative down to 1783, 
that is to say, down to the close of the Revolutionary 
War and the opening of the history of the parish 
under new ecclesiastical relations. All this is given 
with the promise of an indefinite number of volumes 
in the future to bring the history down to the pres- 
ent time. The history is considerably more than a 
transcript of musty records. It contains some val- 
uable contributions to general history. The author 
(who, because the task of research was necessarily 
committed to others, modestly claims to be merely 
an editor) is not a thresher of old straw. He pur- 
sues an independent course, corrects some errors 
which have crept into general history, notably con- 
cerning the character of Governor Fletcher and that 
of Leisler ; and even corrects errors into which he 
confesses himself to have been drawn in previous 
historical writings. The volume is handsomely 
printed, and illustrated with full-page portraits and 
facsimiles of documents. The publishers (G. P. 
Putnam's Sons) announce that 750 copies of this 
edition have been printed for sale. 

A volume on " The Rivers of North 
America " (Putnam) is offered mod- 
estly by its author, Professor Israel 
C. Russell of the University of Michigan, as a " read- 
ing lesson for students " of physiography or geology. 
It proves to be a well-digested thesis upon the effects 
of rivers in fashioning the surfaces of the regions 
where they are generated or through which they 
flow. Each drop of aerial water does its work, 
infinitesimal though it may be. With its fellows, it 
takes certain substances into solution ; others it 
holds in suspension ; manifold more it pushes along, 
as, in obedience to gravity, it pursues its devious 
way toward a distant sea, ever wearing the chan- 
nels through which it flows. Even if, sooner or 
later, it should be lifted again by evaporation, it 
will have contributed something, if it be only to lay 
down in another place the atom which its solvent 
power seized elsewhere. In time, such drops will 
have carved the mountains, filled and seamed the 
valleys, eroded the canons, and transformed all the 
contours of the earth's surface ; in time, no coun- 
teracting upheaval occurring, they will have re- 
moved all elevations, and restored old ocean's vast 
and solitary reign. Professor Russell's logical and 
lucid treatment of his subject makes his " reader " 
attractive for both scientist and layman. Another 
volume from the same publishers, "Earth Sculp- 
ture," by Professor James Geikie of the University 
of Edinburgh, describes the configuration of the 
earth's surface as the resultant of every variety of 
physical activity, whether working internally or 
externally. The work includes the results of the 
latest geological surveys, notably those within the 
western half of the United States. The author has 
addressed the great body of intelligent readers not 
professionally versed in geology. 



Scrap-book M.rs. Elizabeth Wormeley Latimer's 

of the French, " Scrap-Book of the French Revolu- 
Revoiuiion. tion ( Mc ci U rg) is made up of ma- 

terial gotten together by the author in the course of 
her work as a lecturer on the French Revolution. 
The book is frankly a compilation, and as such it 
has the distinctive merit that its contents are to a 
considerable extent drawn from unfamiliar and 
comparatively inaccessible sources. Of especial 
interest are the excerpts from the series of mono- 
graphs on the events of the Revolution published 
in the Paris " Figaro " during the years 1893, 
1894, and 1895. The volume opens with some 
rather interesting reminiscences of an American, 
Thomas Waters Griffith, who resided in Paris from 
1791 to 1799, and was an eye-witness of many dra- 
matic Revolutionary episodes. He saw, for instance, 
both Louis XVI. and his unhappy consort passing 
through the streets on their way to the scaffold 
the former in " court-like dress " in " a handsome 
coach," the latter in " a common cart " like an or- 
dinary malefactor, and attracting comparatively 
little attention from the populace. It is greatly to 
be regretted that Mr. Griffith was not a keener ob- 
server, or, at least, that he did not more fully realize 
the great historical and dramatic interest of the 
remarkable scenes he skims over so carelessly in 
his too cursory narrative. Mrs. Latimer's book 
contains a good deal of curious, suggestive reading, 
and deserves its popularity. There are twenty-nine 
portraits in half-tone, including an interesting one 
of the Rev. Eleazer Williams, the alleged "lost 
Dauphin," whose singular story is given in the 
closing chapters on " Louis XVII." 

Mr. A. G. Newcomer is one of those 
professors of rhetoric who believe 
that a writer should consider first 
what he would say, and only when that is settled 
should he consider what particular words to use. 
This obvious view is not common among our writers 
on rhetoric, although Mr. Newcomer's " Elements 
of Rhetoric " (Holt) is by no means the only book 
in recent years which has been based upon it. The 
older writers Professor Bain, for instance, or 
Professor A. S. Hill prefer to begin with a study 
of words. The latter especially did great things in 
the cause of diction. Their influence has been such 
that most people (even in college faculties) think 
that there is no rhetorical fault worse than misspell- 
ing or bad grammar : such, at least, are the only 
faults ever mentioned. The newer practise is really 
not new : it has the authority of every rhetorician 
who ever put pen to paper, from the days of Korax 
and Tisias down to the time that Dr. George Camp- 
bell, with his speculations on Good Usage, knocked 
the classical rhetoric into a cocked-up hat, so far as 
authority was concerned. We do not mean that 
Mr. Newcomer is a neo-Aristotelian, or any other 
such creature : his earlier book, which had some- 
thing to do in bringing about the change of heart 
that is gradually taking place, was a very simple 



" The New 
Rhetoric." 



130 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 16, 



talk to schoolboys and schoolgirls as to what they 
could write about best. It said nothing about Aris- 
totle : but then, it had nothing of Campbell either. 
The present work, founded on the right theory, and 
the result of individual work of some years on the 
right lines, has a great deal in it that is direct and 
practical. We are glad to see it, and hope we may 
help it a bit toward a wide circulation. 

It has been long years since a thor- 
i? oughly up-to-date one-volume Bible 

Dictionary made its appearance. The 
numerous discoveries of recent years in Bible lands 
and adjacent lands, the new investigations in Bib- 
lical archaeology and in Biblical criticism, have de- 
manded a re-writing of nearly every article in the 
Bible Dictionaries of a quarter of a century ago. 
Professor John D. Davis of Princeton Theological 
Seminary, with the cooperation of two of his col- 
leagues, Drs. Warfield and Purves, and after three 
years of incessant labor, has produced the book that 
is needed (Westminster Press, Philadelphia). It is 
a volume of 800 pages, covering the whole range of 
Biblical themes, and of the First Book of Maccabees. 
It aims to confine itself to facts, and to facts of the 
Scriptures and of records and things which throw 
light on the Bible. It very wisely leaves out spec- 
ulation about the Bible, which is usually short-lived 
and always of uncertain value. It is amply, almost 
profusely, illustrated with pictures, not of the imag- 
ination, but of the actual things themselves. Several 
up-to-date maps, based on the most recent discov- 
eries and authorities, were prepared especially for 
this work. The articles are well-proportioned in 
length and fulness of treatment. Their position is 
that, not of a hide-bound conservative, but of a pro- 
gressive and safe leader in the interpretation of the 
facts of the Bible. The up-to-date character, the 
fulness of illustration, the wealth of maps, the pro- 
gressive position, and the cheapness of the volume 
ought to make this the one-volume Dictionary of the 
Bible for many years to come. 

In The Wonderful Century " 
theMrl (Dodd), Mr. Alfred Russel Wallace 

discusses in two aspects the scientific 
achievements of the century now closing. In one 
group he enumerates the theoretical discoveries 
with the practical invention resting thereupon. His 
list includes twelve examples of the first such as 
the conservation of energy, organic evolution, the 
ground theories of chemistry ; and twelve of the 
second as railways, telegraphs, photography, and 
the use of anaesthetics and antiseptics. With this 
list he compares all the discoveries of preceding 
ages, of which he names fifteen as gravitation 
and the circulation of the blood, the art of printing, 
the mariner's compass, and the telescope. In a con- 
trasted group of what he calls the failures of the 
century, the author enumerates subjects as to which 
he insists that the scientific world has fallen into 
lamentable errors, either by underrating or by 



Ferdinand 
Bruneti&re 
in English. 



wholly ignoring their real significance and value, as 
in the neglect of phrenology and the opposition to 
hypnotism and psychical research; or by over- 
valuing what he holds to be delusive and mischiev- 
ous, as vaccination and militarism, which latter he 
calls the curse of civilization. The book has an 
interest as illustrating the excursions of a distin- 
guished naturalist into fields outside of his specialty. 
The first part of it almost any well-informed scien- 
tist might have written ; the second part scarcely 
any such person would have written. 

We are glad to have an English 
translation, and one which has been 
made with unusual skill, of M. 
Ferdinand Brunetiere's " Manual of the History of 
French Literature" (Crowell). The work is so 
masterly an example of such a history, so solid in 
its scholarship and so attractive in its setting-forth, 
that it is valuable both on its own account and as a 
model of how such a thing ought to be done. The 
plan is rather original. The text is a philosophical 
essay in the author's familiar manner, while the 
erudition is relegated to the footnotes which occupy 
about half of each page. The author calls his work 
" an application of the doctrine of Evolution to the 
history of a great literature." The translation 
bears the assumed name of " Ralph Derechef." 
Sixteen portraits illustrate the volume. We are 
glad also to welcome in this connection the volume 
of " Brunetiere's Essays in French Literature," 
selected and translated by Mr. D. Nichol Smith, 
and imported by Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons. 
The volume includes seven of the author's most 
characteristic essays, and a special preface written 
by him for this translation. 

Sir Edward W. Hamilton's thought- 
ful and commendably temperate 
of Gladstone. monograph on Gladstone (Scribner ) 
has the prima facie recommendation of being from 
the pen of a man who knew the great statesman 
well for nearly forty years, and was closely asso- 
ciated with him during a considerable portion of 
that period. Sir Edward aims to convey to his 
readers a just notion of Mr. Gladstone the man, 
through describing some of his intellectual powers, 
characteristics, and accomplishments, some of his 
ways, aims, and objects, his likes and dislikes, and 
his general turn of mind. The little book is well 
worth reading, and while it cannot be said to throw 
any special new light on Mr. Gladstone's singularly 
complex character, its observations are in general 
just, well-weighed, and discriminating. 

It would have been singularly im- 
P r P er to have had a Famous 
Scots " series without a life of Sir 
William Wallace : scarcely a Scot is more famous. 
Yet it was no easy task to write that life. Too 
little is known of Wallace, for one thing ; and for 
another, too little is known by the general reader of 
the history and general life of Scotland at the be- 



A minor 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



131 



ginning of the fourteenth century. At any rate, one 
gets but a hazy notion of the hero or of his oppor- 
tunity, in the volume by Professor Murison (im- 
ported by Scribner). The chief figure is shadowy; 
the circumstances are like those of a dream. The 
result may be imagined : killings and burnings, 
victories and defeats, plottings and betrayals, we 
get a confused vision of such matters, but no clear 
understanding. This volume is hardly as interest- 
ing as most of the series, a matter not entirely 
chargeable to the author. It gives us something of 
an account of a simple and violent career in a troub- 
lous and complicated time. We think most readers 
will know more of Wallace after they have read it 
than before ; but further it would be rather hard to 
go in the way of praise. 



Court of 
the Second 
Empire. 



M. de Saint-Amand's "The Court 
of the Second Empire, 1856-1858 " 
(Scribner) is a rather exceptionally 
animated and interesting number of the sub-series 
of this brilliant writer's popular historical studies 
now current. The three years bridging the time 
from the Crimean War to the Italian war of 1859 
form the epoch covered in this book. The salient 
episodes treated are the coronation of the Czar 
Alexander II., the Orsini attempt, and the diplo- 
matic preludes to the war which led immediately to 
the liberation from Austrian rule of northern Italy. 
Separate chapters are devoted to Walewski, De 
Morny, and Cavour. There are four portraits. 



BRIEFER MENTION. 



"The More Excellent Way" (Oxford University 
Press) is a volume of brief selections in verse and prose, 
all relating to the "Life of Love," compiled by the 
Hon. Mrs. Lyttelton Gell. The very wide range of au- 
thors represented would seem to bear out the statement 
that " a poet without love were a physical and moral 
impossibility." The selections are admirably classified 
under appropriate readings, and have been chosen with 
great art and taste. Less, however, is to be said for 
the taste of the publishers. The combination of dark 
blue cover with pale-green edges makes a homely exte- 
rior; the same combination within, used for type and 
decorative designs, makes a striking but not beautiful 
printed page. 

Mr. W. E. H. Lecky's " Democracy and Liberty " 
(Longmans) has just passed into a second edition, and 
the author avails himself of the opportunity thus pre- 
sented to discuss, in a special introduction of some fifty 
pages, " the experience of the last eventful years." In 
the light of this experience, the outlook seems even 
gloomier than it did before, and the new introduction, 
to say nothing of the book itself, is far from cheerful 
reading. But the problems which it raises are to be 
solved only by facing them bravely and squarely; and 
no writer of our time brings to their discussion a more 
penetrative insight or a riper wisdom. 

Judging from the example we have seen, the novel 
" Color Prints " of Miss Pamela Colman Smith should 
meet with considerable favor. The term " print " as 



applied to these pictures seems to us ill-advised and 
misleading, as it naturally suggests the use of litho- 
graphy or some other method of mechanical reproduc- 
tion. In reality, the outline only of the picture is. 
printed, this being then filled in by hand in water-color 
and retouched by the artist. The colors are chosen with 
taste, and are carefully applied, and the effect of the 
finished work is both artistic and pleasing. Five sub- 
jects have been issued, varying in price from two ta 
five dollars each, remarkably cheap, when the amount 
of work involved is considered. The prints are pub- 
lished by Mr. R. H. Russell. 

Mr. Austin Dobson's fondness for the eighteenth cen- 
tury is shown once more in his volume of " Miscellanies n 
(Dodd). Nearly all of its thirteen papers concern them- 
selves with books or authors of that period as Gold- 
smith, Steele, Dr. Johnson, Gay ; others have to do with 
London of that date or earlier. " Old Whitehall," with 
a reduced ground-plan of the Royal Palace as it was in 
the year 1680, and " Changes in Charing Cross," looking 
back to the time of Queen Elizabeth, are chapters to 
delight the antiquary; for of Dobson, as of his favorite 
Goldsmith, it may be said, " He touches nothing that he 
does not adorn. 

A fifth edition of the late Professor Martin's " briefer 
course " in " The Human Body," revised by Dr. George 
Wells Fitz, has just been published by Messrs. Henry 
Holt & Co. The work still has the perfunctory chapter 
on narcotics, without which it could not be used in the 
schools of a number of States, but Dr. Fitz takes pains 
to state that this chapter " is retained against the best 
judgment of the reviser, who believes that the questions 
involved are ethical and not physiological." The book 
is, of course, aside from this defect, one of the best 
elementary manuals of human anatomy and physiology 
that have ever been written. In another text-book of 
the same subject, written by Dr. E. Franklin Smith, 
and published by Mr. William R. Jenkins, the chapter on 
narcotics volunteers the delightful statement that " tee- 
total drinks " contain from six to fourteen per cent of 
alcohol, coming somewhere between claret and cham- 
pagne in the list. 

" Where to Educate," published by Messrs. Brown & 
Co., Boston, is described as " a guid to the best private 
schools, higher institutions of learning, etc., in the United 
States." It is a volume of nearly four hundred pages, 
and is edited by Miss Grace Powers Thomas. She sup- 
plies a good deal of information that may give the book 
value for reference, but she has not always been on her 
guard. Among the Illinois institutions which are 
included we find, to our amazement, one of the chief 
offenders in the matter of fraudulent degrees, the estab- 
lishment which more than any other has led to the pro- 
posed legislation which we discuss in the editorial pages 
of this issue. 

Miscellaneous reading-books for the young are of all 
sorts nowadays. Among the more recent of them we 
mention " Uncle Robert's Geography " (Appleton), ed- 
ited by Mr. F. W. Parker and Miss Nellie L. Helm;. 
" Our Country's Flag and the Flags of Foreign Coun- 
tries " (Appleton), by Dr. Edward S. Holden; " Poetry 
of the Seasons " (Silver), compiled by Miss Mary I. 
Lovejoy; "Historic Boston and Its Neighborhood" 
(Appleton), by Dr. Edward Everett Hale; "Heroes of 
the Middle West" (Ginn), by Mrs. Mary Hartwell 
Catherwood ; and " First Steps in the History of Our 
Country " (Silver), by Messrs. W. A. Mowry and A. M. 
Mowry. 



132 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 16, 



[LITERARY NOTES. 

Paul et Virginia," edited by Professor Oscar Kuhns, 
is one of the latest of the French texts published by 
Messrs. Henry Holt & Co. 

A teacher's manual of "United States History in 
Elementary Schools," by Mrs. L. L. W. Wilson, is 
published by the Macmillan Co. 

" Plane and Solid Germany," by Dr. James Howard 
Gore, is an elementary text-book, just published by 
Messrs. Longmans, Green, & Co. 

" The Attic Theatre," by Mr. A. E. Haigh, has passed 
into a second and considerably enlarged edition, which 
comes to us from Mr. Henry Frowde of the Oxford 
Clarendon Press. 

A " Critique of Some Recent Subjunctive Theories," 
by Mr. Charles Edwin Bennett, forms No. IX. of the 
" Cornell Studies in Classical Philology," published by 
the Macmillan Co. 

" A Complete Latin Grammar," by Professor Albert 
Harkness, is the final product of many revisions and 
much teaching experience. The American Book Co. 
are the publishers. 

"The Rig- Veda Mantras in the Grhya Sutras" is 
a doctor's dissertation prepared for the Johns Hopkins 
University by Mr. Edwin W. Fay, and published at 
Roanoke, Virginia. 

As a valentine to their friends, the " Brothers of the 
Book" have issued a beautifully-printed leaflet con- 
taining Mrs. Rosamund Marriott- Watson's poem, " Old 
Books, Fresh Flowers." 

"The Principles of Agriculture" (Macmillan), by 
Mr. L. H. Bailey, is a " text-book for schools and rural 
societies," written from the widest knowledge of its 
subject, and admirably adapted for its purpose. 

Miss Bertha Ellen Lovewell has edited " The Life of 
St. Cecilia " from a number of Middle English manu- 
scripts, and the monograph is published by Messrs. 
Lamson, Wolffe, & Co. in the series of " Yale Studies 
in English." 

Miss Emma Helen Blair has prepared a valuable 
"Annotated Catalogue of Newspaper Files in the Library 
of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin." The work, 
which is a pamphlet of nearly four hundred pages, ap- 
pears as a state publication. 

" A Short History of France " and " A Short His- 
tory of Germany," both by Miss Mary Platt Parmele, 
are now published by Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons 
in new editions, uniform with the similar volumes upon 
England, Spain, and the United States. 

Messrs. Allyn & Bacon publish two volumes of En- 
glish texts: "Select Essays and Poems " of Emerson, 
edited by Miss Eva March Tappan ; and " Three Nar- 
rative Poems " (" The Ancient Mariner," " Sohrab and 
Rustum," " Enoch Arden "), edited by Mr. George A. 
Watrous. 

Mr. F. C. Burnand, the editor of " Punch," has con- 
sented to write a series of articles giving personal remi- 
niscences of most of the authors and artists connected 
with that famous periodical during the last twenty-five 
years. The articles will appear in the " Pall Mall 
Magazine." 

A series of " Ethno-Geographic Readers " (Heath), 
by Mr. Frederick Starr, is to consist of three volumes 
41 Strange Peoples," " American Indians," and " How 
Men Do." The first and third of these are still in pre- 



paration, but the second has been issued, and proves to 
be a very readable account of the North American 
Indian, written in simple language, and attractively 
illustrated. The reading- lesson should be welcome to 
the boy who takes it from such a book as this. 

The late A. H. Green of Oxford left the manuscript 
of an unfinished text-book of elementary geology, and 
his widow commissioned Mr. J. F. Blake to prepare it 
for publication. The result is a volume called " First 
Lessons in Modern Geology," published by the Oxford 
University Press. 

The publishers of the Old South Leaflets have just 
issued two numbers entitled respectively " Lafayette in 
the American Revolution " and " Letters of Washington 
and Lafayette." The publication is most timely in view 
of the Lafayette monument, the gift of the American 
people, to be erected in Paris next year. 

Mr. John B. Dunbar has edited Cooper's " The Last 
of the Mohicans," for the series of " Standard English 
Classics " published by Messrs. Ginn & Co. It makes 
an attractive volume of more than five hundred pages, 
and the boy who has it for a school-book will surely 
think that his lot is cast in pleasant places. 

" The Technology Review " is a new quarterly peri- 
odical published by the Association of Class Secretaries 
of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. It is mod- 
elled rather closely upon the " Harvard Graduates Mag- 
azine," which amounts to saying that it is a dignified 
and creditable production which we shall welcome to 
our table. 

The volume of " Studies in American History " just 
published by Mr. J. H. Miller, Lincoln, Nebraska, 
includes the ten pamphlets of " source extracts " made 
by Mr. Howard W. Caldwell, which we have mentioned 
from time to time as they have come to us, and for 
which we are happy to find a word of renewed com- 
mendation. 

" The Uncommercial Traveller," with four illustra- 
tions by Mr. Harry Furniss, has been added to the hand- 
some " Gadshill " edition of Dickens, imported by 
Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons. The spirit of Cruik- 
shank and " Phiz " seems to have caught successfully 
by Mr. Furniss in his pictures, the frontispiece portrait 
being especially good. 

Pending the construction of a new and modern build- 
ing, which will be planned to meet the needs of their 
constantly increasing business, the Western Methodist 
Book Concern will occupy the large corner store of the 
Edson Keith Building, Wabash Avenue and Monroe 
Street, a region that seems likely to become the " book- 
sellers' row " of Chicago. 

" The World's Painters and their Pictures " (Ginn), 
by Mr. Deristhe L. Hoyt, is an elementary descriptive 
and historical manual intended for school use. It is 
little more than a compendium of the barest facts and 
the most condensed critical judgments, supplied with 
enough process illustrations to save the text from being 
absolutely meaningless to a young student. 

The total destruction by fire of Messrs. A. C. McClurg 
& Co.'s fine Chicago bookstore, which occurred on the 
12th inst., is an event not measurable by the money 
loss alone, although this approaches the sum of half a 
million dollars. The store was renowned as one of the 
largest and best in the world, and its vast stock con- 
tained many rare items that cannot be replaced, auto- 
graph copies, books in exquisite foreign bindings, treas- 
ures of the bookhunter and bibliophile, by whom the 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



133 



loss will be especially deplored. We are glad to an- 
nounce that the firm already occupies new quarters at 
the corner of Wabash Avenue and Monroe Street, one 
square south of the old location. 

We have received from the Century Co. the two 
bound volumes of " St. Nicholas " for 1898, as well as 
the volume of the " Century Magazine " for the half- 
year ending last October. There is a good deal of war 
in these volumes, which is natural enough, but there are 
also other features of interest, including (as far as the 
" Century " volume is concerned) Dr. Mitchell's " Fran- 
ois " and a half dozen of Mr. Cole's superb wood- 
engravings. 

The death of Archibald Lampman, on the tenth of 
this month, at the early age of thirty-eight, is no small 
loss to Canadian literature and English poetry. His 
two volumes, " Among the Millet " and " Lyrics of 
Earth," together with his many contributions to the 
periodicals, gave him a high place among that remark- 
able group of young Canadian poets whose work has 
made us here in the United States look somewhat search- 
ingly to our own laurels. 

Professor William Morris Davis, with the aid of Mr. 
William Henry Snyder, has prepared a school " Physical 
Geography " which is published by Messrs. Ginn & Co. 
It is a volume of ordinary dimensions not the extra- 
ordinary ones that used to be associated with text-books 
of this subject very abundantly illustrated, and thor- 
oughly praiseworthy in its presentation of theories and 
facts. The name of Professor Davis, indeed, is all the 
guarantee of excellence that such a work needs. 

That readable literary magazine, " The Bookman," 
announces the publication in its pages of Mr. Paul 
Leicester Ford's historical novel of the American Rev- 
olution, " Janice Meredith," the first instalment to ap- 
pear in the March number. This story has already, we 
believe, been running for several issues in " Collier's 
Weekly." The " syndicate " method of publication, it 
would thus appear, is to be extended to the monthly 
magazines, a doubtful experiment, as it seems to us. 

A considerable quantity of French lyrical poetry, in 
which the most recent singers are fairly represented, is 
given us in the volume of " French Lyrics " which 
Professor Arthur Graves Canfield has edited for Messrs. 
Henry Holt & Co. Upwards of sixty poets are included, 
with an average of four pieces each, although the space 
given to Hugo, Lamartine, Musset, Leconte de Lisle, 
and M. Sully-Prudhomme makes this statement one to 
be taken with allowances. The book is excellent in 
every way in taste, scholarship, and sense of propor- 
tion. 

The Committee on Libraries and Schools of the 
National Educational Association is at present engaged 
in collecting materials for a report to be made next 
July. The subjects under consideration include the 
preparation of graded lists of books suitable for chil- 
dren, the correlation of public library and school work, 
normal school work in the use of books by teachers, and 
other related topics. There is a wide field of usefulness 
before this Committee, and the cooperation of all inter- 
ested persons is solicited by the chairman, Mr. J. C. 
Dana, Springfield, Mass. 

Messrs. G. P. Putnam's Sons announce the publica- 
tion of " The American Anthropologist," a new quar- 
terly journal established under the auspices of the 
anthropological section of the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science. The Board of Editors 



comprises such men as Messrs. D. G. Brinton, F. W. 
Putnam, W. H. Holmes, Franz Boas, and J. W. Powell 
in a word, the most distinguished American scholars 
in this branch of science. Each number will contain 
two hundred pages of text and illustrations. Four dol- 
lars is the annual subscription. 

The Association of Collegiate Aluinnge has recently 
added to its publications a " Magazine Number " which 
we have examined with much interest. No announce- 
ment is made of its continuation as a serial publication, 
but we wish that such an undertaking might prove prac- 
ticable, for a monthly, or even a quarterly, periodical of 
this character would be a welcome addition to our edu- 
cational literature. The contributors include such 
women as Mrs. Alice Upton Pearmain, Miss Abby 
Leach, Miss Marion Talbot, Miss Emily James Smith, 
Miss M. Carey Thomas, Miss Louise Brownell, and 
Mrs. Paul Shorey. Mrs. Shorey's interesting paper 
upon " The Collegiate Alumiife and the Public Schools 
of Chicago " affords a typical illustration of the sort of 
work the Association is doing, good unobtrusive work of 
a kind that might accomplish much for the betterment 
of public education. The publication is issued from 
Richmond Hill, New York. 



LIST OF NEW BOOKS. 



[The following list, containing 65 titles, includes books 
received by THE DIAL since its last issue.] 

HISTORY. 

The Story of France. From the earliest times to the Con- 
sulate of Napoleon Bonaparte. By Thomas . Watson. 
Vol. I., To the End of the Reign of Louis XV. 8vo, gilt 
top, uncut, pp. 712. Macmillan Co. $2.50. 

The Story of the Civil War. By John Codman Ropes, LL.D. 
Part II., The Campaigns of 1862. With maps and plans, 
large 8vo, uncut, pp. 475. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $2.50. 

America in Hawaii: A History of United States Influence 
in the Hawaiian Islands. By Edmund Janes Carpenter. 
Illns., liimo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 275. Small, Maynard & 
Co. $1.50. 

Second Annual Report of the Historical Manuscripts Com- 
mission of the American Historical Association. Large <Svo, 
uncut, pp. 679. Government Printing Office. Paper. 

Rhode Island and the Formation of the Union. By 
Frank Greene Bates, Ph.D. Large 8vo, uncut, pp. 220. 
" Columbia College Studies." Macmillan Go. Paper. 

A Short History of France, and A Short History of Ger- 
many. By Mary Platt Parmele. 12mo. Charles Scrib- 
ner's Sons. Each, 60 cts. net. 

BIOGRAPHY AND MEMOIRS. 

My Inner Life : Being a Chapter in Personal Evolution and 
Autobiography. By John Beattie Crozier. Large 8vo, 
uncut, pp. 562. Longmans, Green, & Co. $4.50. 

John Sullivan Dwight, Brook-Farmer, Editor, and Critic 
of Music. By George Willis Cooke. With portrait, 8vo, 
uncut, pp. 297. Small, Maynard & Co. $2. 

GENERAL LITERATURE. 
A History of English Romanticism in the Eighteenth 

Century. By Henry A. Beers. 8vo, gilt top, uncut, 

pp. 455. Henry Holt & Co. $2. 
Plains and Uplands of Old France : A Book of Verse and 

Prose. By Henry Copley Greene. Illns.. 16mo, gilt top, 

uncut, pp. 139. Small, Maynard & Co. $1.50. 
The'ophile: A Miracle Play. By Henry Copley Greene. 

With frontispiece, 16mo, uncut, pp. 32. Small, Maynard 

& Co. $1. net. 
Fireside Fancies. By Beulah C. Garretson. 16mo, gilt top, 

uncut, pp. 220. J. B. Lippincott Co. $1.25. 
Adoheland Stories. By Verner Z. Reed. 12mo, uncut, 

pp. 179. Richard G. Badger & Co. $1. 
If Tarn O'Shanter'd Had a Wheel, and Other Poems and 

Sketches. By Grace Duffie Boylau. Illus., 12mo, uncut, 

pp. 222. E. R. Herrick & Co. $1.25. 



134 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 16, 



NEW EDITIONS OF STANDARD LITERATURE. 
Complete Works of Robert Browning, " Camberwell " 

edition. Edited by Charlotte Porter and Helen A. Clarke. 

In 12 vols. , with photogravure frontispieces, 24mo, gilt tops. 

T. Y. Crowell & Co. Boxed, $9. 
Eighteenth Century Letters. Edited by R. Brimley 

Johnson. In 2 vols., with photogravure portraits, 12mo, 

gilt tops, uncut. Henry Holt & Co. Per vol., $1.75 net. 
The Virginians. By W. M. Thackeray. " Biographical " 

edition, with Introduction by Anne Thackeray Ritchie. 

Illus., 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 809. Harper & Brothers. 

$1.75. 

POETRY. 
Wessex Poems, and Other Verses. By Thomas Hardy ; 

illus. by the author. 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 210. Harper 

& Brothers. $1.75. 
Along the, Trail: A Book of Lyrics. By Richard Hovey. 

16mo, pp. 115. Small, Maynard & Co. $1.50. 

FICTION. 
The Open Question : A Tale of Two Temperaments. By 

C. E. Raimond. 12mo, pp. 523. Harper & Brothers. $1.50. 
The Wheel of God. By George Egerton. 12mo, pp. 364. 

G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1 . ; paper, 50 cts. 
Windyhaugh. By Graham Travers (Margaret G. Todd, 

M.D.). 12mo, pp. 418. D. Appleton & Co. $1.50. 
The Archdeacon. By L. B. Walford. 12mo, pp. 274. 

Longmans, Green, & Co. $1.50. 
God's Prisoners. By John Oxenham. 12mo, pp. 314. Henry 

Holt & Co. $1.25. 
A Writer of Books. By George Paston. 12mo, pp. 344. 

D. Appleton & Co. $1.; paper, 50 cts. 

Sundown Leflare. Written and illustrated by Frederic 
Remington. 12mo, pp. 115. Harper & Brothers. $1.25. 

That Gay Deceiver! By Albert Ross. 12mo, pp. 306. 
G. W. Dillingham Co. $1.; paper, 50 cts. 

Van Hoff ; or. The New Faust. By Alfred Smythe. 12mo, 
pp. 322. G. W. Dillingham Co. Paper, 50 cts. 

TRAVEL AND DESCRIPTION. 
Spinifex and Sand : A Narrative of Five Years' Pioneering 

and Exploration in Western Australia. By the Hon. 

David W. Carnegie. Illus., large 8vo, gilt top, uncut, 

pp.454. M. F. Mansfield & Co. $5. 
A Gold Hunter's Experience. By Chalkley J. Hambleton. 

16mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 116. Chicago : Privately printed. 

SCIENCE. 

The History of Mankind. By Professor Friedrich Ratzel ; 
trans, from the 2d German edition by A. J. Butler, M.A.; 
with Introduction by E. B. Tylor, D.C.L. Vol. III., 
completing the work. Illus. in colors, etc., large 8vo, 
gilt top, pp. 599. Macmillan Co. $4. 

The Foundations of Zoology. By William Keith Brooks, 
Ph.D. Large 8vo, uncut, pp. 339. " Columbia Univer- 
sity Biological Series." Macmillan Co. $2.50 net. 

A Guide to 'the Study of the Geological Collections of the 
New York State Museum. By Frederick J. H. Merrill, 
Ph.D. Illus., large 8vo, pp. 262. Albany : University of 
the State of New York. Paper, 40 cts. 

POLITICAL, SOCIAL, AND ECONOMIC 
STUDIES. 

Democracy and Liberty. By William Edward Hartpole 
Lecky. New edition ; in 2 vols., 12mo, gilt tops, uncut. 
Longmans, Green, & Co. $5. 

Democracy: A Study in Government. By James H. 
Hyslop, Ph.D. 12mo, pp. 300. Charles Scribner's Sons. 
$1.50. 

Slav or Saxon: A Study of the Growth and Tendencies of 
Russian Civilization. By William Dudley Foulke. Sec- 
ond edition, revised ; 12mo, pp. 141. " Questions of the 
Day." G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1. 

Social Settlements. By C. R. Henderson. 18mo, pp. 196. 
New York : Lentilhon & Co. 50 cts. 

History of State Banking in Maryland. By Alfred Cook- 
man Bryan, Ph.D. Large Svo.uncut, pp. 144. "Johns 
Hopkins University Studies." Paper. 

THEOLOGY AND RELIGION. 

The Study of Holy Scripture: A General Introduction. 
By Charles Augustus Briggs, D.D. Large 8vo, pp. 688. 
Charles Scribner's Sons. $3. net. 



Religion in Greek Literature: A Sketch in Outline. By 
Lewis Campbell, M.A. Large 8vo, uncut, pp. 423. Long- 
mans, Green, & Co. $5. 

The Kingdom ( Basileia) : An Exegetical Study. By George 
Dana Boardman. 8vo, pp.348. Charles Scribner's Sons. $2. 

Morality as a Religion : An Exposition of Some First Prin- 
ciples. By W. R. Washington Sullivan. 12mo, uncut, 
pp. 296. Macmillan Co. $2. 

The Conception of Priesthood in the Early Church and in 
the Church of England : Four Sermons. By W. Sanday, 
D.D. 12mo, uncut, pp. 128. Longmans, Green, & Co. $1. 

Suggestive Illustrations on the Gospel of John. By Rev. 
F. N. Peloubet, D.D. 12mo, pp. 543. E. R. Herrick & 
Co. $1.25. 

ARCHITECTURE. - MUSIC. 

The Georgian Period : Being Measured Drawings of Colo- 
nial Work. By various architects. In three parts, large 
4to. Boston : Am. Architect and Building News Co. $9. 

By the Way: Being a Collection of Short Essays on Music 
and Art in General. By William Foster Apthorp. In 
2 vols., 18mo, uncut. Copeland & Day. $1.50. 

REFERENCE. 

General Index to the Library Journal, Vols. 1 22 (Sep- 
tember 1876, to December, 1897). Large 8vo, pp. 130. 
New York : The Library Journal. 

Where to Educate : A Guide to the Best Private Schools 
and Higher Institutions of Learning in the United States. 
Edited by Grace Powers Thomas. Illus., large 8vo, pp. 382. 
Boston : Brown & Co. $3. 

EDUCATION BOOKS FOR SCHOOL AND 

COLLEGE. 
Discussions in Education. By Francis A. Walker, Ph.D.; 

edited by James Phiuney Munroe. Large 8vo, uncut, 

pp. 342. Henry Holt & Co. $3. net. 
German Higher Schools : The History, Organization, and 

Methods of Secondary Education in Germany. By James 

E. Russell, Ph.D. 8vo, pp. 455. Longmans, Green, & 

Co. $2.25. 
The World's Painters and their Pictures. By Deristhe L. 

Hoyt. Illus., 12mo, pp. 272. Ginn & Co. $1.40. 
The Principles of Agriculture : A Text-Book for Schools 

and Rural Societies. Edited by L. H. Bailey. Illus., 16mo, 

pp. 300. " Rural Science Series." Macmillan Co. $1.25. 
The Human Body: A Text- Book of Anatomy, Physiology, 

and Hygiene. By H. Newell Martin, D.Sc. Fifth edition, 

revised by George Wells Fitz, M.D. Illus., 12mo, pp. 408. 

Henry Holt & Co. $1.20. 
Elements of Rhetoric : A Course in Plain Prose Composition. 

By Alphonso G. Newcomer. 12mo, pp. 382. Henry Holt 

&Co. $1. 
French Lyrics. Selected and edited by Arthur Graves 

Canfield. 16mo, pp. 382. Henry Holt & Co. $1. 
Sainte-Pierre's Paul et Virginie. Edited by Oscar Kuhns. 

16mo, pp. 160. Henry Holt & Co. 50 cts. 
Elements of Grammar and Composition. By E. Oram 

Lyte, A.M. 12mo, pp. 224. American Book Co. 50 cts. 
American Indians. By Frederick Starr. Illus., 12mo, 

pp. 227. D. C. Heath & Co. 45 cts. 
A Primary Arithmetic. By A. R. Hornbrook, A.M. 12mo, 

pp. 253. American Book Co. 40 cts. 
Elementary English, By E. Oram Lyte, A.M. Illus., 

12mo, pp. 160. American Book Co. 35 cts. 
Coleridge's Ancient Mariner, etc. Edited by Tuley Francis 

Huntington, A. M. With portrait, 18mo, pp. 109. Mac- 
millan Co. 25 cts. 

MISCELLANEO US. 

The Attic Theatre: A Description of the Stage and Theatre 
of the Athenians, and of the Dramatic Performances at 
Athens. By A. E. Haigh. M.A. Second edition, revised 
and in part rewritten. Illus., large 8vo, uncut, pp. 420. 
Oxford University Press. $3.10. 

Li Livres du Gouvernement des Rois : A XIHth Century 
French Version of Egidio Colonna's Treatise " De Regim- 
ine Principum," Now First Published from the Kerr MS. 
Edited by Samuel Paul Molenaer, A.M. With frontispiece, 
8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 461. Macmillan Co. $3. net. 

Studies in International Law. By Thomas Erskine Hol- 
land, D.C.L. Large 8vo, uncut, pp. 314. Oxford Univer- 
sity Press. $2.60. 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



135 



" The Aztec Legend, by LRROY LBACH. Second 
edition. Illustrated. Gold title. Imitation 
leather. Price, 15 cents. THE ORACLE CO., Wood Lake, Neb. 

A MERICAN SHAKESPEAREAN MAGAZINE. $1.50 per Tear ; 
" single numbers, 15 cts. ANNA RANDALI.-DIEHL, Editor, 
251 Fifth Avenue, New York City. 

Pat/fAix/c and other Newspaper Clippings for Authors. 
IVC V 1CWS one Dollar a Month, or Four Dollars per 100. 
AUTHORS LEAGUE, P. O. Box 1716, NEW YORK. 

Unitarian Publications Sent Free. 

Address Mission Committee, 3 Berkely Place, Cambridge, Mass. 



D ( 



\O YOU WISH COLLABORATION, author's revision, dramatiza- 
tion, or aid in securing publication of your books, stories, and 
magazine articles ? If so, address 

ROYAL MANUSCRIPT SOCIETY, 63 Fifth Ave., NEW YORK. 

AC A PR senfc to CHARLES p - EVERITT, 18 East Twenty-third 
V/VIVlf street, New York, will bring by return mail a catalogue 
of old books Americana, Drama, Biography, Art, Fine Editions and 
First Editions, etc., etc. 

DWIGHT H. PERKINS, 
Architect, 

Telephone, Harrison 783. Steinway Hall, Chicago. 

L'ECHO DE LA SEMAINE. 

Revue Litte'raire et Mondaine, Paraissant le Samedl. 
Abonnement, $2.00 par an. 175 Tremont Street, BOSTON, MASS. 

Numero specimen envoys sur demande. 

STUDY AND PRACTICE OF FRENCH IN SCHOOL. In three 
Parts. By L. C. BONAME, 258 S. 16th St., Philadelphia, Pa. A care- 
fully graded course, meeting requirements for entrance examination at 
college. Practice in conversation and thorough drill in Pronunciation 
and Grammar. From Education (Boston) : " A well made series." 

FRENCH BOOKS. 

Readers of French desiring good literature will take pleas- 
ure in reading our ROMANS CHOISIS SERIES, 60 cts. per 
vol. in paper and 85 cents in cloth ; and CONTES CHOISIS 
SERIES, 25 cents per vol. Each a masterpiece and by a well- 
known author. Lists sent on application. Also complete cata- 
logue of all French and other Foreign books when desired. 

WILLIAM R. JENKINS, 

Nos. 851 and 853 Sixth Ave. (cor. 48th St.), NEW YORK. 
READY FEBRUARY. 

"THE STUDENT'S BOOK OF DAYS 
AND BIRTHDAYS." 

An attractive book and a valuable gift. Sent postpaid on 
receipt of price, $1.25. 

Benj. H. Sanborn & Co., Boston. 

STORY- WRITERS, Biographers, Historians, Poets Do 

^ you desire the honest criticism of your 
book, or its skilled revision and correction, or advice as to publication ? 
Such work, said George William Curtis, is " done as it should be by The 
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Terms by agreement. Send for circular D, or forward your book or MS. 
to the New York Bureau of Revision. 70 Fifth Ave., New York. 

FIRST EDITIONS OF MODERN AUTHORS, 

Including Dickens, Thackeray, Lever, Ainsworth, Stevenson, 
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Phiz, Rowlandson Leech, etc. The Largest and Choicest Col- 
lection offered for Sale in the World. Catalogues issued and 
sent post free on application. Books bought. WALTER T. 
SPENCBR, 27 New Oxford St., London, W. C., England. 



WE solicit correspondence with book-buyers for private and 
other Libraries, and desire to submit figures on proposed lists. 
Our recently revised topically arranged Library List (mailed 
gratis on application) will be found useful by those selecting 
titles. 

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Wholesale Books, 5 & 7 East 16th St., New York. 



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JUST PUBLISHED: 

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STUDIES IN LITERATURE. 

The following ' ' guides ' ' contain full references, instruction, 
and topics for thorough study by literary clubs and students. 
The Study of Romola. (Now Ready.) 50 cents. 
The Study of Silas Marner. (Now Ready.) 
The Idylls of the King. ( In preparation. ) 
Author and publisher, Mrs. H. A. DAVIDSON, 

No. 1 Sprague Place, ALBANY, N. T. 

Joseph Gillott's Steel Pens. 

FOR GENERAL WRITING, Nos. 404, 332, 604 E. F., 601 E. F., 1044. 
FOR FINE WRITING, Nos. 303 and 170 (Ladies' Pen), No. 1. 
FOR BROAD WRITING, Nos. 294, 389; Stub Points 849, 983, 1008, 

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BLANK BOOKS 



136 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 16, 189& 



THE LAKE EDITION OF 



MACBETH. 

With Notes and a Glossary by JOHN HENRY BOTN- 
TON, Ph.D., late Instructor in English in Syracuse 
University, and an Introduction by WILLIAM 
ALLAN NEILSON, M.A., Ph.D., Associate in En- 
glish in Bryn Mawr College. 
" In this edition the aim has been to give all the 
matter-of-fact explanation that seemed absolutely nec- 
essary for the understanding of the actual text, to 
indicate directions in which research might be pushed 
further, and to leave the teacher as free as possible to 
expend his energies on the interpretation of the artistic 
and ethical aspects of the tragedy." 
Introduction, Suggestions to Teachers, Bibliogra- 
phy, Notes, and Glossary. 
16mo, limp cloth. Price, 25 cents. 



THE LAST OF THE MOHICANS. 

By 
JAMES FENIMORE COOPER. 

Edited for School Use by 

EDWIN HERBERT LEWIS, Ph.D., 

Associate Professor in Lewis Institute. 

In the preparation of editorial matter the editor has 
endeavored to insert only such material as younger stu- 
dents can readily grasp and older ones cannot afford to 
neglect. A concise and spirited sketch of Cooper's life 
and work, with suggestions for study and an outline for 
the pupil's analysis of the novelist's well-known work, 
presents a fitting introduction to the novel. 

Introduction, Suggestions for Study, Map, and 
Notes. 16mo. limp cloth. Price, 40 cents. 



THE LAKE ENGLISH CLASSICS 

UNDER THE EDITORIAL SUPERVISION OF 

LINDSAY TODD DAMON, The University of Chicago. 

THIS SERIES OF BOOKS WILL APPEAL TO TEACHERS 

First : Because of the neat binding, beautiful printing from new type, extra paper, and the general book-like character 
of the series. 

Second : Because the text in each case is that adopted by the best critics. 

Third : Because of the excellent Introductions and critical comment of the editors. 

Fourth: Because of the helpful Notes, and their scholarly arrangement (chiefly in the form of glossaries). 

Fifth : Because the price, for the character of the book, is lower than that of any other series. 

MILTON Paradise Lost 25 cents 

FRANK E. FARLEY, Ph.D., Instructor in English, Syracuse University. 

BURKE Speech on Conciliation with America 25 cents 

JOSEPH VILLIERS DENNEY, B.A., Professor Rhetoric and English Language, Ohio State University. 

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Story of the People of 
England in the 19th Century 

By JUSTIN MCCARTHY, M.P., author of 
"Life of Sir Robert Peel," "The 
Story of Gladstone's Life," etc. In 2 
vols., Nos. 53 and 54 in The Story of 
the Nations Series. Fully illustrated. 
Large 12mo, each, $1.50 ; half leather, 
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industrial science. Railways, ocean steam- 
ships, the electric telegraph, the submarine 
cable, the telephone all these are the growth 
of this wonderful century, which has done 
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A History of the Islands of the West 
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No. 55 in The Story of the Nations 
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which still remain so largely under European 
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The Life of George Borrow. 

The Life, Writings, and Correspondence 
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other Authentic Sources. By WILL- 
IAM I. KNAPP, Ph.D., LL.D., and late 
of Yale and Chicago Universities. In 
2 vols. 8vo. 

George Borrow was born in East Dereham, 
Norfolk, England, in 1803. At the age of seven- 
teen he was articled to a solicitor at Norwich. 
He spent much of his time studying languages, 
for which he had a great gift, acquiring among 
other tongues that of the gypsies. After much 
adventurous roaming and many struggles, in 
1833 he received the appointment as agent of 
the British and Foreign Bible Society, in which 
capacity he traveled extensively, learning with 
marvellous ease the language of each country 
visited by him. He was noted for his eccen- 
tricities, his fondness for the gypsies, his pas- 
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gentilities of life and his vigorous advocacy of 
the doctrines of the Church of England. Bor- 
row was the author of many works and trans- 
lations, the most important of these being 
" Lavengro " and " The Bible in Spain." 



Roman Africa. 

Archaeological Walks in Algiers and 
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Fresh Impressions of the Earlier Works of 

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Mysteries of Police and 
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A General Survey of Wrong-doing and 
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Volcanoes. 

Their Structure and Significance. By 
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Professor of Geology at University 
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New and Cheaper Edition. 

John Marmaduke. 

A Romance of the English Invasion of 
Ireland in 1649. By SAMUEL HARDEN 
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The Christ. 

A Poetical Study of His Life from Ad- 
vent to Ascension. By O. C. AURIN- 
GER and JEANIE OLIVER SMITH. 
12mo, $1.25. 



The New Far East. 

A Study of Present Political Conditions 
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The author, who is the founder of the Japan 
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race, with charming, gentle manners," but 
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China) the land of a brave and serious nation 
of fighting and thinking men a nation capa- 
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factor in the Eastern world. China, credited 
until her overthrow with boundless stores of 
latent strength, is shown to be an inert mass, 
drifting toward disintegration. Mr. Di6sy 
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that have produced " the new Japan," and 
concludes with a consideration of political con- 
ditions in the East, and a suggestion as to the 
expedient Oriental policy of England in the 
future. The book is illustrated by Kubota. 
Beisen, a Japanese artist well-known in this 
country, where he visited and held exhibitions 
of his work in 1893-1894. 

Lone Pine. 

The Story of a Lost Mine. By R. B. 

TOWNSHEND. 12mo, $1.25. 

A tale of the adventures of a white man in 
New Mexico with Indians, both honest and 
treacherous. The white man, by dint of good 
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Navajoes the girl whom they have stolen, and 
vanquishes his enemies. The book is full of 
incident and of descriptions, accurate as well 
as picturesque, of life among the Pueblos. 

The Children of the Mist. 

By EDEN PHILLPOTTS, authorof " Down 
Dartmoor Way," " Lying Prophets," 
etc. 8vo. 

A realistic novel dealing with conditions in 
a Devonshire village. The author carries sev- 
eral families through ten years of life, showing 
how remarkably their destinies are interwoven. 
The main character is a quixotic young fellow, 
whose heady disposition constantly brings 
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Mr. R. D. Blackmore, the author of " Lorna 
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The Law and History of 
Copyright in Books. 

By AUGUSTINE BIRRELL. Q.C., Mem- 
ber of Parliament and Quaim Profes- 
sor of Law at University College, Ox- 
ford. 8vo, $1.25 net. 
The author of " Obiter Dicta," in his agree- 
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from its beginnings the history of public ac- 
knowledgment that an author has legal rights 
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this book, an authority in matters of copyright 
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effective presentation of the subject-matter, 
and I judge that it ought to be of service, not 
only to the legal profession, but also to libra- 
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conditions." 



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1899] THE DIAL 139 




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142 



THE DIAL 



[March 1, 1899. 



D. Appleton & Company's New Books 



NEW AND REVISED EDITION. 

THE SCAPEGOAT. 

A Romance and a Parable. By HALL CAINE, author of " The 
Deemster," "The Bondman," "The Manxman," "The 
Christian," etc. New and revised edition. Uniform with 
the author's works. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

" This book in its present form is new to American readers, although 
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lished in America seven years ago. That was just after the passing of 
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seemed to require that the romance should be published in what I knew 
was an immature and wholly unsatisfactory form. This was the form 
in which it was being published serially in English and American jour- 
nals, without the revision usually considered necessary for any piece of 
writing before its appearance as a book, and especially desirable in the 
case of the present work. . . . When health and opportunity allowed, 
1 did my best to make the story worthy of the reception it had received 
by an effort to lift its literary execution to the level of its artistic motive. 
" With these alterations, and with amendments made very recently, 
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From the Author's Preface to the New Edition. 

A HISTORY OF JAPANESE LITERATURE. 

By W. G. ASTON, C.M.G., I). Lit., late Japanese Secretary to 
H. M. Legation, Tokio. A new volume in The Literatures 
of the World Series. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 
The author begins by denning the individual characteristics of the 
Japanese which have persisted in their literature in spite of the influ- 
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opens with the songs and Shinto ritual of the archaic period from the 
fifth to the eighth century. It has been an essential part of the author's 
plan to include a very large number of translations of verse and prose 
as illustrations of his discussion of various epochs, tendencies, and 
genres. While Fitzgerald has made Omar Khayyam universally known, 
the Tanka of Otomo in praise of sake which is included among these 
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the book as a whole will introduce the majority of readers to a compar- 
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GENERAL SHERMAN. 

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THE DIAL 

Journal of Uterarg Crittciam, Ufecuggton, auto Information. 



THE DIAL (founded in 1880 ) is published on the 1st and 16th of 
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No. 305. 



MARCH 1, 1899. Vol.XXVL 



CONTENTS. 



THE LITERARY LIFE 



PAGE 

. 143 



LITERARY STANDARDS. K. W. Conanl ... 145 

COMMUNICATIONS 147 

School Legislation for Large Cities and Small. 

Aaron Gave. 

The Renaissances in Japan. Ernest W. Clement. 
An English Version of " Barbara Freitchie." 

/. G. M. 
" Death to the Spanish Yoke." Alexander Jessup. 

THE MEMORIALS OF LORD SELBORNE. E. G. J. 149 

THE SECOND YEAR OF THE CIVIL WAR. 

Charles H. Cooper 151 

THE FUNCTIONS AND REVENUES OF GOVERN- 
MENT. Max West 153 

TWO GREAT EVANGELISTS. Hiram M. Stanley 154 

TRAVEL IN MANY LANDS. Ira M. Price . . .156 
Conway's With Ski and Sledge. Hyne's Through 
Arctic Lapland. Robertson's Chitral. Mrs. 
Armstrong-Hopkins's Within the Purdah. Little's 
Through the Yangtse Gorges. Rathborne's Camp- 
ing and Tramping in Malaya. Stoddard's A Cruise 
under the Crescent. Rose's With the Greeks in 
Thessaly. Burrows's The Land of the Pigmies. 

BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS 158 

More history of the Royal Navy. Story of the Union 
of Italy. " Trimalchio's Dinner." Twelve cen- 
turies of British history. C. A. Dana's Recollections 
of the Civil War. Newly discovered early poems of 
Shelley. Social life and requirements in the British 
Army. Modern German culture. Growth and curi- 
osities of South London. Foundations and mutual 
relations of the sciences. American essays and ad- 
dresses. Historic Pilgrimages in New England. 
With De Soto in Florida. 

BRIEFER MENTION 162 

LITERARY NOTES 163 

TOPICS IN LEADING PERIODICALS 163 

LIST OF NEW BOOKS . . 164 



THE LITERARY LIFE. 

There are many deserving persons to whom 
" The Pen and the Book " for thus is Sir 
Walter Besant's latest pronouncement entitled 
will bring cheer. They are the persons who 
fondly imagine themselves to be leading, wholly 
or in part, the Literary Life, yet who find the 
public looking somewhat askance at their pro- 
fession, and inclined to subject their pretensions 
to a considerable discount. They are haunted 
by the fear that their efforts will be disparag- 
ingly dubbed journalism ; or, even if it be ad- 
mitted that they produce what are to outward 
seeming books, that the harsh world will clas- 
sify these productions among the biblia a-biblia 
of Charles Lamb's famous catalogue. Smart- 
ing under such cynical thrusts, these worthy 
souls may take heart again at the words, 
" When, therefore, we speak of the Literary 
Life, it should include all those who produce 
literature." And, lest any modest scribbler 
should still be in doubt as to whether this 
definition is catholic enough to cover his own 
product, the assurance quickly follows : " I 
include the whole of current printed work 
good and bad, the whole production of the 
day whatever is offered." Being thus con- 
vinced that he is leading the Literary Life 
of which he may even have had no suspicion 
up to this time our supposititious writer will 
be pleased to read a little farther on, that " the 
Literary Life may be, in spite of many dangers 
and drawbacks, by far the happiest life that 
the Lord has permitted mortal man to enjoy." 
This is warming to the cockles of the heart, 
and he would be a morose penman indeed who 
could fail to catch something of the glow of the 
author's cheery optimism. 

Sir Walter's roseate imagination is at its best 
when he is engaged in a statistical presentation 
of the reading public, or when he is contrasting 
the Literary Life of the eighteenth century with 
that of the nineteenth or twentieth. " Look here, 
upon this picture, and on this," he seems to say 
as he pens the following contrasted passages : 

" Corae back with me for a moment to the middle of 
the eighteenth century. . . . Everybody proclaimed in 
some way or other by his appearance the nature of his 
calling: and everybody enjoyed in this way such dignity 
and respect as belonged to his calling. How did the 
poet appear? He was to be seen every day and all day 



144 



THE DIAL 



[March 1, 



long: he haunted the coffee-houses, the eating-houses, 
and the taverns of Fleet Street and its neighborhood. 
Alone among men he had no uniform. Yet he could be 
recognized by his rags. Everybody knew the company 
of wits in the tavern: they were notoriously, horribly 
poor; notoriously they had neither principles nor honour; 
nor dignity: for a guinea, it was said, they would write 
satires, epigrams, anything for or against either side or 
anybody. Since the people only saw the ragged side, 
they supposed that the whole army was in rags; it 
seemed to them the only profession whose normal or 
customary condition was one of rags. 

" Let us consider next what is the kind of life led 
daily by the modern man of letters not a great genius, 
not a popular author: but a good steady man of letters 
of the kind which formerly had to inhabit the garrets 
of Grub Street. This man, of whom there are many 
or this woman, for many women now belong to the pro- 
fession goes into his study every morning as regu- 
larly as a barrister goes to chambers; he finds on his 
desk two or three books waiting for review; a MS. sent 
him for an opinion ; a book of his own to go on with 
possibly *a life of some dead and gone worthy for a 
series ; an article which he has promised for a magazine ; 
a paper for the Dictionary of National Biography ' ; 
perhaps an unfinished novel to which he must give three 
hours of absorbed attention. This goes on, day after 
day, all the year round. There is never any fear of 
the work failing as soon as the writer has made himself 
known as a trustworthy and an attentive workman. The 
literary man has his club: he makes an income by his 
labour which enables him to live in comfort, and to ed- 
ucate his children properly. Now, this man a hundred 
years ago would have been what you have seen an 
object of contempt for his poverty and helplessness: the 
cause of contempt for Literature itself." 

The picture thus outlined for us of the life of 
the professional literary worker of our own 
times is certainly a pleasant one, and it does 
not seem to us overdrawn, except possibly as to 
the practical certainty of continuous employ- 
ment. It is, however, a life that is possible 
only in a very small number of the largest 
centres of population and publishing enterprise. 
In the United States, for example, it is unques- 
tionably possible in New York, precariously 
possible in about three other cities, and prac- 
tically impossible anywhere else. 

If Sir Walter works no great wonders with 
his descriptions, he certainly does with his 
figures. We may possibly allow his estimate 
that twenty thousand persons in England are 
to-day, wholly or in part, leading the Literary 
Life, although to do this the words " in part " 
must receive much emphasis, since the census 
returns show less than six thousand actually 
classified as authors, editors, and journalists. 
For the United States, we should have nearly 
to double these figures ; and we reflect, not 
without amusement, that even the lesser num- 
ber provided by the census must include the 
editors of country newspapers and the compilers 



of city directories. Still, we may admit that in 
this country forty thousand persons may pos- 
sibly, at some time or other, do some kind of 
writing for publication in books or periodicals. 
But when we come to Sir Walter's notion of 
the reading public, the imagination fairly balks 
at the figures offered for our acceptance. First 
of all, he estimates that in 1750 the " possible 
readers or inquirers after new books " numbered 
thirty thousand in the three kingdoms. Eighty 
years later, in 1830, this number may have 
increased to fifty thousand. So far, so good. 
These figures are certainly conservative enough. 
But when the author contemplates the reading 
public that to-day awaits the new English books, 
he loses the sense of proportion. Because one 
hundred and twenty millions of people all over 
the earth are able to read the English language, 
he assumes that most of them are eagerly fol- 
lowing the literary developments of the period. 
For seventy years ago, he will allow only one 
person in about five hundred to have been 
" interested in new books." Now, owing to the 
spread of popular education, he thinks of the 
whole five hundred (including children in 
arms) as readers. In other words, while mak- 
ing excessive reductions for the earlier years 
selected for comparison, he allows no deductions 
at all for the present and the future. This 
statement will seem so astonishing as to need 
a quotation in verification. Here it is : " In 
fifty years' time, unless some check some 
everwhelming national disaster happens to 
this country, or the United States, or to our 
colonies, the population of the English-speaking 
race will be more than doubled. There will be 
at least two hundred and fifty millions all of 
them, on an average, far better educated than 
at the present moment, and all readers of 
books." We are willing to allow an enormous 
increase in the present ratio of readers to non- 
readers, as compared with the ratio of 1830 ; 
but if the latter be taken as one to five hundred, 
the former can hardly be taken as larger than 
twenty-five to five hundred. 

The sort of arithmetic wherewith Sir Walter 
seeks to enhance the opportunities of the Lit- 
erary Life of the present day must be illus- 
trated more specifically. We are willing to be 
liberal, and to accept, for example, the conclu- 
sions of the following sentence : " Sixty years 
ago there was no Chicago at all : now there is 
a city with two million inhabitants, of whom 
one-half are decently educated and read books, 
and quite one hundred thousand are interested 
in new literature." Observe, however, that this 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



145 



is a ratio of only one to twenty, as compared 
with the author's ratio for 1830, and is a very 
different thing from the claim that nearly 
everybody belongs to the audience upon which 
a new writer can count. This is simply an 
appeal from Philip drunk with optimism to 
Philip sober in the presence of facts. But we 
cannot find much sobriety in the author's no- 
tions of the number of readers to be reckoned 
for each individual copy of a book or periodical. 
He actually counts an average of twenty readers 
for every copy of a magazine and five hundred 
for every copy of a book. To say that these 
estimates are wild is to use moderate language. 
One of the most popular of our American 
monthlies some years ago claimed a million 
readers on the strength of an average circu- 
lation of two hundred thousand copies. We 
thought this claim of five readers to a copy 
excessive, and the publishers obviously went as 
far as they dared in making it. But Sir Walter 
would give them four millions of readers instead 
of a poor single million. As for the five hun- 
dred readers that Sir Walter counts for each 
copy of a popular novel, we must insist upon a 
discount of at least ninety-five per cent. 
Twenty-five readers would be a generous esti- 
mate, and we doubt if a circulating- library 
copy ever got up to the five hundred mark. 
Most books would be in tatters after going 
through the hands of one hundred, or at the 
most two hundred, readers. 

It is evident that the above remarks are not 
to be taken as a review of " The Pen and the 
Book." Indeed, we have not touched upon its 
main contents, which embody an elaborate 
setting-f orth of the commercial aspect of author- 
ship, although we may take up this subject in 
the near future. As a champion of the writer 
in his relations with the publisher, Sir Walter 
has been a stout fighter for many years past, 
and in this book he presents the results of a 
thorough, practical investigation of the methods 
of publishing and the cost of producing books. 
He has made many enemies by his work in this 
field, and his assertions have occasioned a great 
deal of acrimonious debate. We have read a 
considerable quantity of this controversial mat- 
ter, and are bound to say that Sir Walter is 
armed cap-a-pie to meet his assailants, and that 
he usually has the best of the argument. We also 
wish to say that writers inexperienced in deal- 
ing with publishers will find profitable reading in 
" The Pen and the Book," to say nothing of the 
pleasure to be got from its skilful literary pre- 
sentation of a subject of much general interest. 



LITER AR Y STANDARDS. 

When and where is to appear the true Prophet of 
the Literati, he who is to stand and cry, Behold 
the ideal taste, the perfect writer, the Ultimate 
Authority ! We hear much about the " best literary 
taste," and the conscientious toilers of the pen, those 
who have not yet reached the comfortable conclu- 
sion that they know it all, spend many an anxious 
hour in self-examination, more or less illuminated by 
the feeble " glims " of favorable or adverse critics. 

What a help and comfort it would seem to be, 
alike to writers, readers, and publishers, if some 
literary Mahomet might arise to declare with con- 
vincing power, " There is but one Standard, and I 
am its Prophet ! " Then all of us or at least all 
afflicted with a conscience might give o'er the 
weary search for the ideal, for we would know just 
what to write about and how; and readers who 
valued their mental and moral status would know 
just what to read ; and the world's shelves would 
groan no more under the load of books which infal- 
lible publishers have brought to an ill-conceived 
birth. 

But would we? Even though a literary angel 
should come from Heaven with unimpeachable cre- 
dentials, would it make any appreciable difference ? 
Would the number of false and foolish books be 
seriously diminished? Would the millions leave 
off soddening their none too nimble wits in a steep 
of sickly sentiment and vapid thought? I fear not. 

And yet every writer who has high ideals, and 
has, besides, the saving grace to feel dissatisfied with 
his own accomplishment, has moments when he 
longs for one clear, sure voice amid the cackle of 
conflicting criticism, one bright, fixed polestar in 
the uncertain sky. He has tasted the " classics," 
only to be more fully persuaded how wisely and 
wittily Mark Twain has described them. He sam- 
ples modern models, only to find many men, many 
minds. Each author has his constituency of ad- 
mirers ; to others he is either indifferent or alto- 
gether anathema. One is too psychological, another 
is all " fight and love " stories ; one is naughty with- 
out being nice, another too nice to be either naughty 
or interesting ; here one discusses " problems," there 
it is a problem that he is discussing ; this one ser- 
monizes, that scandalizes ; one is too smart, another 
too simple ; this one buries his little grain of thought 
in a bushel of verbiage, that one sends forth the 
children of his brain too scantily clothed for de- 
cency ; alike in the dense air of realism and in the 
rarified air of hyper-idealism we gasp for breath : 
and so it goes. 

In such a state of things, what is the writer and 
reader to do who is ambitious to improve his style 
and cultivate his taste : is he to go with the crowd, 
calling all things good which others call good, or is 
he to lay himself open to the charge of conceit and 
presumption by daring to exercise his independent 
judgment, even of the Immortals? Is it all a delu- 
sion, anyhow, this talk about higher and lower 



146 



THE DIAL, 



[March 1, 



taste, the distinction heing as valid as that well- 
known difference between, orthodoxy and hetero- 
doxy ? If there is no absolute standard, how shall 
one taste be higher or another lower? Perhaps, 
after all, it is only a matter of time, circumstance, 
and luck. 

Worse yet, the past sheds no light on the present 
or the future. The books which delighted the 
fathers excite in us either distaste or the very gentle 
interest of the " classicist." Books change and we 
change with them ; but is it up or down ? In short, 
is there any real literary evolution? 

There is but one way out of this fog of other 
people's tastes and opinions : to see that our ques- 
tion is only one phase of a much larger one. That 
question is world-wide and world-old : Pontius Pilate 
was not the first to ask it ; it knows no bounds 
of time or space. The whole literary, moral, and 
social order, nay, even the universe itself, ravels 
out into a pitiful reductio ad dbsurdum unless we 
assume the existence of an Absolute Standard of 
truth and beauty. This is a necessity, not of reli- 
gion only, but of sanity as well. 

A second postulate is equally imperative: the 
soul of man is made in the image of that Standard, 
and its normal growth is along the lines of eternal 
verities. 

These two postulates being granted, things begin 
to clear up. Now we are less anxious to know what 
A, B, and C think of the thoughts we have written, 
than to know they are true. Now we can go on 
bravely and hopefully, our only concern being the 
normal development of that germ of the Infinite 
within us. Now we know that all distortions of 
truth, all affectations of beauty, being violations of 
eternal laws, must come to naught ; whatever vogue 
they may have at first, they are ephemerae. 

But the path, though clearer, is still far from 
easy. Eternal vigilance is the price of sanity. The 
beginnings of error are as infinitesimally insidious 
as the microscopic germs which infect the body ; 
and the mind has a fatal facility for repeating an 
error once begun, until it becomes a bias, then a 
habit, and finally a characteristic. Life is a Sisy- 
phean task of sifting and weighing, of making 
errors and correcting them, but ever " approximat- 
ing nearer and nearer to the limit of the variable," 
as the mathematicians say. That limit is Perfect 
Judgment. That is the goal and rest of all this 
fitful fever. 

In all this struggle to approximate the truih, of 
course the wise will not neglect the help to be derived 
from others' taste and judgment ; but once the evi- 
dence on any point is all before us, it is ourselves who 
must decide. Of course we shall make mistakes, 
that, all are bound to do in any case ; but better 
sometimes wrong than always servile. Let us go 
forward bravely, in the full assurance that the laws 
of our being are the laws of Infinite Right. 

But there is one essential condition, without it 
there is no progress and no sanity : we must be abso- 
lutely honest with ourselves. How can he know 



truth who lies even to his own soul ! He (or she) 
who, for love of gain or fame, cajoles himself to 
believe that wrong is right ; who, for pride or con- 
ceit of opinion, will not allow himself to see his 
error ; who twists the truth to fit a story or a theory ; 
who from love of ease seeks not to know the truth, 
or stifles it for fear of others' criticism, none such 
need ever hope for perfect judgment or perfect taste. 
Truth is the oxygen of the soul. While they im- 
agine they are clever, they are fools, for they are 
asphyxiating their own souls to an eternal death. 

But would not the subjection of all literature to the 
test of truth be a long step backward, reducing us to 
sermons and scientific theses? By no means, even 
granting that sermons and theses are invariably ves- 
sels of truth. Broadly speaking, all literature which 
makes for the betterment of man, either directly, 
or indirectly through saneful wit and humor, is true 
literature. It need not be professedly moral, but 
its influence must not be immoral. To that extent, 
Tolstoi is right. All literature which presents ideas 
with which the facts do not agree ; which excites 
silly, morbid, or vulgar feelings and aspirations ; 
which makes a jest of that which is sacred, shame- 
ful, or revolting; which vulgarizes by too great 
familiarity with vulgarity ; which makes the wrong 
appear the better reason ; which apotheosizes vice 
or calls buffoonery humor, all such literature, of 
infinite variety of shade and grade, is either dis- 
tinctly vicious or at best is trashy. No wonder that 
such fatal and fantastic notions of life and happi- 
ness shock the world by working out their logical 
and inevitable conclusions in crime and suicide from 
the flood of trash literature continually poured forth, 
even through our public libraries, to glut the morbid 
appetite of those least able to discriminate. 

But is there any best literary style? The best 
style is any style which best subserves the ends of 
true literature. It is a mistake to take for granted 
that there is no longer room for originality in style, 
treatment, or subject. Well worked though the 
field now seems to be, there are doubtless undiscov- 
ered tracts of virgin soil only awaiting the pioneer 
pen to laugh back with as rich a harvest as has 
ever yet been seen. To the fathers, who found per- 
fect satisfaction in " Rasselas " or " The Vicar of 
Wakefield," it doubtless seemed that the Ultima 
Thule of popular literature had been reached ; now 
those literary superlatives are relegated to the dig- 
nified and dubious limbo of " classics." The varia- 
tions of the written thought, as of all things human, 
are the variations of the human soul ; and they are 
infinite. 

Three examples out of many illustrate this point 
of originality : Carlyle, Emerson, Kipling. Each 
had an independent mind, which, boldly desert- 
ing the trodden paths, struck out for itself into the 
woods an original line of thought and style. At 
first the world, always shy of truth in unaccustomed 
guise, refused to follow ; now it hails them gladly 
to Parnassus. 

But these were geniuses. Verily ; yet we who, 



1899.] 



147 



alas, are only common clay, may profit by their ex- 
ample. We too are free to try new paths in style 
and subject ; perchance even we can find something 
to write about fresher than the worn-to-death rela- 
tion of the sexes, and tell it in a best way of our 
own devising. Mr. Stephen Crane made the attempt 
gallantly enough, but only half-successfully. His 
well-praised, well-execrated little book holds a few 
gems of expression which glisten like diamonds in 
a dreary waste of sand. Mr. Crane's psychology 
is positively painful ; but in " The Ked Badge of 
Courage " he really struck a new lead in flashlight 
word-pictures which is worth developing ; some day 
the man or woman is coming who will do it, if he 
does not. 

Poets are born, publishers are made : writers 
must be both born and made. None need lose 
heart, for none can say what is in him until he has 
done his best. But right here is the danger point. 
That Best is no Jonah's gourd, but a plant of slowest 
growth, fed by thought, study, and experience, 
mayhap watered by tears and watched with care, 
only to bloom as the westering shadows lengthen. 
But whether or no it bloom in this world is a minor 
matter ; the great matter is, Have we written our- 
selves down as a part of the Truth and the Beauty 
which are Eternal ? " Let each paint the thing as 
he sees it, for the God of things as they are." 

R. W. CONANT. 



COMMUNICA TIONS. 

SCHOOL LEGISLATION FOR LARGE CITIES 

AND SMALL. 
(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

Recent and current school legislation for cities is 
rightfully attracting attention. With the illustration of 
the Cleveland law and its six years of trial, sufficient 
evidence is presented of the efficacy of at least some of 
the changes thereby accomplished. The discussion and 
presentation of the subject so far contemplates and 
provides for the conduct of schools in large cities only. 
The measures presented by the Chicago Commission, 
also of the Detroit Committee, are quite similar. In a 
general way, the belief that they suggest needed reforms 
is generally accepted. For the thirty cities in the 
country reported by the Commissioner of Education as 
exceeding one hundred thousand population, the propo- 
sition stated must be accepted as pointing to a more 
efficient school administration. Provision for these 
thirty cities, if applicable to them alone, leaves nearly 
six hundred other cities with a population exceeding 
eight thousand, the schools of which are all at least of 
equal importance to the country with those of these great 
cities. 

It will be found that the two chief features of the 
proposed reform are: first, the divorce of the board of 
education from executive duty, and confining it to leg- 
islation ; second, the placing of the direct personal 
responsibility where a strict account for acts can be de- 
manded and easily given. 

While it is possible that the framers of the proposed 
legislation have in mind primarily, as the Chicago Com- 



mission announces, that organization which shall be best 
for a given city, it will be found that a city which for 
any reason is unable to provide and maintain two dis- 
tinct departments in administration namely, business 
and educational if the board confine itself to legisla- 
tion, can unite the two under one executive officer. 

The superintendent of schools in smaller cities is able, 
or should be able, to execute not only efficiently on the 
educational side but also on the business side. Observa- 
tions of several smaller cities in the country illustrate 
that where this has been the practice for a series of 
years the schools have been accorded a measure of 
reputable standing. While modifications will be de- 
manded of the Detroit, St. Louis, or Chicago plan, for 
cities of fifty thousand people, they will be slight; but 
the erection of divers departments in other than large 
cities will bring embarrassment financially, and ulti- 
mately an unsatisfactory outcome. 

As Dr. Hinsdale said in your last issue, it may be that 
no single type of system will follow the present interest 
in this subject. To my mind it is reasonably certain 
that a general type of management of schools in cities 
will be found to exist ere long, not only in the thirty great 
cities of more than one hundred thousand people, but also 
in the cities of less size. It is not so great a misfortune 
that thought and study has been exclusively for the great 
communities; but, after all, if a commission similar to 
the Chicago Commission should undertake to formulate 
a plan for cities in the neighborhood of fifty thousand 
people, more communities would be directly benefitted 
than at present. AARON GOVE. 

Denver, Colo., Feb. SO, 1899. 

THE RENAISSANCES IN JAPAN. 
(To the Editor of THE DIAL. ) 

It is a trite but none the less true saying, that " his- 
tory repeats itself." The capture of Constantinople by 
the Turks in the fifteenth century scattered the learned 
men of the East and their learning over the West, and 
produced throughout Europe a Renaissance whose vast 
influence has never yet been accurately measured, and 
which was undoubtedly one of the chief elements in 
modern civilization. Again, it was Tartar hordes, which, 
about two hundred years later, overthrew the reigning 
native dynasty of China, and unwittingly produced in 
the neighboring land of Japan a Renaissance which led 
ultimately to the Restoration of 1868, and was evidently 
one of the chief elements in the civilization of New 
Japan. For, as the Greek scholars, fleeing from Con- 
stantinople, took refuge in various countries of Europe, 
likewise many patriotic Chinese scholars fled from their 
native land and took refuge in Japan. Or, as the fugi- 
tive Greek savants stirred up throughout Western Eu- 
rope a revival of learning, in like manner the fugitive 
Chinese scholars aroused in Japan a deeper interest in 
Oriental learning. 

The influence exerted in Japan by the learned Chi- 
nese refugees, especially by one named Shu Shun-sui, was 
considerable. This one man was in 1665 invited by 
Mitsukuni, the famous Prince of Mito, to take up his 
abode with that clan. The Mito Prince was at the time 
engaged in the preparation of the " Dai Nihon Shi," or 
" Great Japanese History," which " had so powerful an 
influence in forming the public opinion which now up- 
holds the Mikado's throne "; and he invited the assist- 
ance of at least one of these Chinese scholars in correcting 
this work, which was written in Chinese. And although 
there is no positive evidence that this assistance extended 



148 



THE DIAL 



[March 1, 



beyond textual correction, yet it is not at all improbable 
that even this slight opportunity was utilized for teach- 
ing loyalty to the central authority. 

But, besides the direct and indirect literary work of 
these learned refugees, we must not lose sight of the 
deeper interest which, by their very presence, was nat- 
urally aroused in the study of Chinese literature and 
philosophy. It is, of course, a difficult matter to trace 
clearly the extent of such influence; but it is generally 
admitted by those who have studied the subject, that 
the presence of Chinese literati in Japan did give a 
greater impetus to learning. It is, indeed, true that the 
revival of learning had, before their arrival, begun un- 
der the auspices of lyeyasu himself, who, after he had 
conquered a peace, reorganized the Empire on the f uedal 
basis, and practically settled upon the policy of seclu- 
sion and crystallization, " determined also to become 
the architect of the national culture." He encouraged 
study, especially of the Chinese classics, and stimulated 
education. It is, therefore, no wonder that the Chinese 
savants received a warm welcome; and it seems, under 
the circumstances, as if they had " come to the king- 
dom for such a time as this." 

But this Renaissance had a still wider influence, which 
extended even to political affairs. There were, in fact, 
three lines along which the Japanese were gradually led 
back to Imperialism. One line was Confucianism, which 
taught loyalty ; another was historical research, which 
exhibited the Shogun as a usurper; and a third was the 
revival of Pure Shinto, which accompanied or followed 
the second. But the Japanese so modified Chinese 
Confucianism as to substitute loyalty for filial duty as 
the most important element. " The Shinto and the 
Chinese teachings became amalgamated in a common 
cause, and thus the philosophy of Chu Hi, mingling with 
the nationalism and patriotism inculcated by Shinto, 
brought about a remarkable result." To change slightly 
the figure used above, the Japanese were led over three 
roads from Feudalism to Imperialism. There was the 
broad and straight highway of historical research: on 
the right side, generally parallel with the main road, 
and often running into it, was the path of Shinto; on 
the opposite side, making frequently a wide detour to 
the left, was the road of Confucianism; but eventually 
all these roads led to Kyoto and the Emperor. 

It seems as if, with the aid of Chinese savants, the 
famous Mito Prince, Mitsukuni, the "Japanese Maece- 
nas," a scholar himself and the patron of scholars, set 
on foot a Renaissance in literature, learning, and poli- 
tics, and has been appropriately styled " the real author 
of the movement which culminated in the Revolution of 
1868." And the effects of this Renaissance aie still 
being felt in another Revival of Learning, this time along 
Occidental lines. To what will this new Revival lead ? 

ERNEST W. CLEMENT. 
Tokyo, Japan, Feb. 1, 1899. 



AN ENGLISH VERSION OF "BARBARA 

FREITCHIE." 
(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

In his admirable work on " Stonewall Jackson and 
the American Civil War," the author, Colonel Hender- 
son, says of his hero: " So general was the belief in his 
stern and merciless nature, that a great poet did not 
hesitate to link his name with a deed which, had it actu- 
ally occurred, would have been one of unexampled 
cruelty. Such calumnies as Whittier's ' Barbara Frit- 
chie,' " etc. (Vol. I., p. 80.) 



The point is not important but one wonders where 
the " calumny " is in Whittier's poem, or what sort of 
a version of it circulates in England. The poem merely 
says that when Jackson rode up the street of Frederick 
City at the head of his troops, and " the old flag met 
his sight," he ordered his men to blaze away at it, which 
they did; but later, when the owner of the flag, Dame 
Barbara, appeared on the scene and snatched the fallen 
flag, and leaned far out o'er the window-sill and shook 
it forth with a royal will, Jackson announced that any- 
one who touched a hair of her gray head should die like 
a dog, or words to that effect. 

The facts on which the poem is based have been dis- 
puted, and the whole thing is perhaps a little apochry- 
phal; but it is hard to see where the "unexampled 
cruelty " would come in, were everything actually true 
that is stated in the poem. j. Q.. j^ 

Cleveland, Ohio, Feb. 24, 1899. 



"DEATH TO THE SPANISH YOKE." 

(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

Apropos of the various discussions of war poems that 
have appeared in THE DIAL, I would like to call your 
attention to one which has no greater defects than many 
which have been exploited as the war poems of the cen- 
tury. Its publication was anonymous. 

The verses contain, at least, elements of what Stev- 
enson calls " the fervid participation of the moment." 
Whether they exhibit any marked poetic talent, the 
reader may judge for himself. 

ALEXANDER JESSUP. 
Westfeld, Mass., Feb. 16, 1899. 

[Our correspondent's letter makes us anxious to 
have it understood that the discussions, and not the 
war poems, are what have appeared in THE DIAL. 
We print this war poem, however, and with it the 
lines from which it is clumsily and impudently 
cribbed, in order that " the reader may judge for 
himself " as to its " poetic talent," and especially 
its quality of " fervid participation of the moment " 
which our correspondent discerns in it. It is a hard 
thing to say of our Jingo poetry, that this is no worse 
than most of it ; but we fear it is true. We do not 
wonder it was published anonymously. EDB. DIAL.] 



AMEKICAN JINGO POET. 
Where shall the Spaniards rest, 

Whom our shots sever, 
From all that life holds best 

Parted forever ? 
Where our shots thickly fly, 

Death is their pillow, 
As all true Spaniards die, 

Under the billow. 

There on Manila bay 

Cool waters are laving, 
There on the crested spray 

Our shots are paving 
Death to the Spanish yoke, 

Parted forever, 
Never again to wake, 

Never, oh never ! 

Her wings shall the sea-bird flap 

O'er the false-hearted, 
Their warm blood the waves shall 
lap 

Ere life be parted ; 
Shame and dishonor sit 

By their side ever, 
Victory shall hallow it 

Never, oh never ! 



SIR WALTER SCOTT. 
Where shall the lover rest, 

Whom the fates sever, 
From his true maiden's breast 

Parted forever ? 
Where thro' groves deep and high 

Sounds the far billow, 
Where early violets die 

Under the willow. 

There through the Summer day 

Cool streams are laving ; 
There while the tempests sway 

Scarce are boughs waving ; 
There thou thy rest shall take 

Parted forever, 
Never again to wake, 

Never, oh never ! 

Her wing shall the eagle flap 

O'er the false-hearted, 
His warm blood the wolf shall 
lap 

Ere life be parted ; 
Shame and dishonor sit 

By his grave ever, 
Blessing shall hallow it 

Never, oh never ! 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



149 



THE MEMORIALS OF LOUD SELBORNE.* 

The concluding instalment, in two sizable 
volumes, of the late Earl of Selborne's " Me- 
morials " is mainly a restatement of the author's 
views on the major public questions which arose 
during the period covered (1865-1895), and 
an explanation of his professional and official 
course regarding them. Some of the chapters are 
rather freely diluted with matter that will inter- 
est Lord Selborne's relatives and closer friends 
rather than the public at large ; but the volumes 
on the whole may safely be pronounced solid and 
informing, if not especially animated or graphic, 
additions to the large and growing stock of 
reminiscences of Victorian times. Lord Sel- 
borne's gifts and temperament were hardly such 
as to qualify him to shine as a writer of memoirs 
of the lighter personal and reminiscential order, 
a species of writing in which many a social 
trifler equipped with a lively pen and a taste 
for gossip might easily have excelled him. Of 
chat about notable contemporaries, therefore, 
the volumes will seem to many readers to con- 
tain disappointingly little. 

That Lord Selborne, where the subject was 
an imposing one and where his sympathies were 
deeply engaged, was no mean hand at painting 
a portrait and defining a character, his strong 
and refreshingly independent characterization 
of Gladstone conclusively shows. Now that 
Mr. Lecky has, in a recent preface, calmly pro- 
nounced " the texture of Mr. Gladstone's intel- 
lect " to have been of the " commonplace " 
order, we may confidently look to see the inev- 
itable reactionary tide of disparagement of the 
Grand Old Man of liberalism and parliament- 
ary manosuvre fairly set in. Much evil has of 
course been spoken of Mr. Gladstone in the 
past by his political foes, who, not content with 
attacking his policy, have impugned his motives, 
and even attempted to injure his character by 
the foulest aspersions. But detraction of that 
sort is politics, not criticism ; and we suspect 
that the recent verdict of Mr. Lecky himself 
regarding the quality of Mr. Gladstone's intel- 
lect is tinged by his known opinion of the 
quality of Mr. Gladstone's measures, more 
especially his Irish agrarian measures ; for it is 
difficult for even a philosopher to admit that a 

* MEMORIALS, PERSONAL AND POLITICAL, 1865-1895. By 
Ronndell Palmer, Earl of Selborne. In two volumes. With 
portraits. New York : The Macmillan Co. 



fruit he happens to personally dislike can spring 
from any but an inferior and weakly tree. Lord 
Selborne disagreed pretty sharply with Mr. 
Gladstone on some points, almost from the first 
years of their connection ; and he was very far 
from keeping pace with his early oracle and 
paragon in the latter's dramatic yet gradual 
and deliberate advance from the one extreme 
to the other of British opinion. This advance 
(the term is perhaps open to criticism as a 
question- begging one) Lord Selborne, who had 
himself gathered caution and conservatism with 
ripening years in the usual and normal way, 
must have inwardly regarded as a sort of intel- 
lectual and political Rake's Progress on the 
part of the once u rising hope " of all that was 
venerable and established in England. Nor 
does he refrain from using language of some 
bitterness when he comes to speak of the clos- 
ing phase of Mr. Gladstone's career. If it be 
true, says Lord Selborne, that down to the end 
of June, 1886, Gladstone " kept the great con- 
troversy on the heights," it was certainly not 
long afterwards that he ceased to do so, his 
power of self-persuasion affecting his moral 
judgments in a way that would have been 
deemed impossible in earlier years. In the con- 
stant stress and turmoil of electioneering since 
1886, in which he played the leading part, there 
was little to remind men of the Gladstone of 
old, save the old eloquence, energy, and daunt- 
less courage, qualities more remarkable than 
ever when displayed by the man past eighty. 

"A new ' transmigration of spirit' cauae over him; 
he accepted it with as much alacrity and apparent self- 
satisfaction as if it had always been so; he invested it 
with the authority of his age, his name, his character; 
and under its influence the statesman was transformed 
into the demagogue. Mr. Parnell became, for four years, 
until he himself broke the spell, the special object of his 
admiration ; and other violent spirits of the ' League ' 
were glorified as heroes and martyrs. . . . He became 
the apologist of the methods by which his new allies 
carried on their warfare against landlords and the law 
in Ireland. . . . All sorts of schemes for parliament- 
ary interference with rights of property, and with 
the freedom of capital and labor, budded and blos- 
soined under the capacious shelter of the new Liberal 
umbrella,' not without a sanguine hope that, in the good 
time coming, they would be entertained by the great 
leader 'with an open mind': and there was no 'plain 
speaking' to discourage that hope. What the final 
issue of these things may be, cannot be foretold; but if 
it should be the decay and degradation of British states- 
manship, and the triumph of anarchical forces, hostile 
to the life of freedom, while they shout her name,' Mr. 
Gladstone will have contributed to it more than any 
other man." 

Searching history for a parallel to Mr. Glad- 
stone's peculiarities as a statesman, Lord Sel- 



150 



THE DIAL 



[March 1, 



borne hits, not infelicitously, upon the Emperor 
Joseph II., as drawn by Mr. Lecky. 

" Ambitious, fond of power, and at the same time 
restless and impatient, his mind was to the highest de- 
gree susceptible to the political ideas that were floating 
through the intellectual atmosphere of Europe; and he 
was an inveterate dreamer of dreams. Large, compre- 
hensive, and startling schemes of policy, radical 
changes in institutions, manners, tendencies, habits, and 
traditions, had for him an irresistible fascination." 

Impatient of opposition to his opinion of the 
moment, Mr. Gladstone's opinions were in a 
constant and continuous state of flux and de- 
composition. His view of any given question 
of importance was changing, even while he was 
maintaining it with the zeal and apparent con- 
viction of a prophet. " With great appearance 
of tenacity at any given moment, his mind was 
apt to be moving indirectly down an inclined 
plane." Mr. Gladstone could be quoted against 
Mr. Gladstone on almost any leading or funda- 
mental public question whatever. To find a 
powerful and convincing plea against what 
Mr. Gladstone was urging to-day, you had only 
to turn back to what Mr. Gladstone was urging 
yesterday. Agrarian schemes that yesterday 
were stigmatized as " rapine " and " plunder " 
were extenuated and even justified to-day as 
quite excusable and useful moves in a patriotic 
Plan of Campaign. " Boycotting," that in 
1882 was denounced as " combined intimida- 
tion, made use of for the purpose of destroying 
private liberty of choice by fear of starvation, 
inflicting ruin, and driving men to do what 
they did not want to do, and preventing them 
from doing what they had a right to do," be- 
came, after 1886, under the magic of Mr. Glad- 
stone's faculty of self-persuasion and matchless 
dialectic, mere " exclusive dealing," or a form 
of trades-unionism that was " the only available 
weapon for the Irish people, in their weakness 
and poverty, against the wealthy and powerful." 

It would be easy to go on quoting from the 
tale of Mr. Gladstone's thousand and one 
" magnificent inconsistencies " (as his hardier 
admirers called them) in proof of the, to our 
thinking, not very damaging fact that the au- 
thor of them was as different as could be from 
the more common type of man who goes through 
life a complacent slave to the faith he was born 
in. But Lord Selborne's strictures clearly go 
deeper than the charge of mere inconsistency. 
If we are to accept his view unreservedly (which 
we do not), Mr. Gladstone became in his later 
years of political activity " a demagogue," 
an inflamer of popular animosities, of class 
hatreds and class cupidities, all this for the 



sake of personal popularity and party advan- 
tage. He degenerated into a sort of " Sand 
Lots " haranguer of genius, the more dangerous 
because of his genius. He was not honest, 
either with himself or with others. 

" He had a wonderful power of not seeing what he 
did not like. He was a master of the art of throwing 
dust into the eyes of those who were proper subjects for 
that operation; and he could practise it not less skil- 
fully upon himself." 

Let us turn for a moment to the lights of Lord 
Selborne's by no means altogether or intention- 
ally disparaging portrait of his former chief. 
The secret of Mr. Gladstone's great popularity 
he finds in the opinion generally entertained of 
the purity of his motives, the elevation of his 
character, in his sympathy with the people and 
desire for their good, rather than in his energy, 
eloquence, and intellectual gifts. Humanity 
turned to him naturally, as to a friend, as to 
one who felt more than other men of like gifts 
and station the common kinship of all. 

" His private life was indeed without a flaw. . . . He 
preferred misconstruction to missing opportunities of 
doing good. . . . His interests were wide and cosmo- 
politan; his acquirements were multifarious, and all at 
his command. He was a lover of music, poetry, the 
drama, and the fine arts. . . . He spoke more than one 
European language almost as easily as his own. He 
was very high, if not first, in the first rank of modern 
orators ; an orator of the diffuse florid kind, Ciceronian 
rather than Demosthenic, lofty when dignity was neces- 
sary, and at all times fluent and animated; abounding 
in illustration and metaphor ; every word in the right 
place, every sentence well turned." 

American readers will be particularly inter- 
ested in Lord Selborne's account of the 
" Alabama " arbitration. He was consulted 
professionally by his government during the 
negotiations prior to the Treaty of Washington, 
and he acted as counsel for Great Britain be- 
fore the Geneva Tribunal. The maltreatment 
of this country by the British authorities dur- 
ing the Civil War, in the matter of the Con- 
federate privateers, is now res adjudicate/, and 
admitted and deplored matter of history. But 
Lord Selborne, with an advocate's obstinacy, 
still endeavors to put America in the wrong. 
If we won our case at Geneva it was mainly 
through our bluster and chicane, through the 
bias of arbitrators, through the generous for- 
bearance of Great Britian, that is the spirit 
of his contention. He intimates that our nego- 
tiators at the outset felt the importance of 
" either complicating the question by irrelevant 
issues, or to some extent prejudicing it by the 
terms of reference." He hints darkly at the 
" wiles and subtleties " of the American law- 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



151 



yers, at the " loaded dice " with which America 
was allowed by the Rules to " play the game of 
hazard." With a wooden insensibility to the 
essential fact that in the eyes of America the 
trial at Geneva was symbolic, that America 
stood at the bar of the Tribunal, not as a mere 
claimant of so many dollars and cents in a suit 
for damages, but to demand moral satisfaction 
and moral reparation in the sight of the world 
for a great wrong, Lord Selborne sneers at 
the feeling injected into the American " Case." 
Its tone, he complains, "was acrimonious, totally 
wanting in international courtesy." Perhaps it 
was. Perhaps the American " Case " was es- 
sentially such that not to state it in strong 
language would be tantamount to not stating it 
at all. Perhaps a nation still smarting under 
the recollection of the jeers, contumely, and 
material damage inflicted upon it by a " neu- 
tral " power, while its own hands were tied by 
civil war, was justified in revealing a sense of 
wrong even in a formal statement of its griev- 
ances. The question is often asked, " Why does 
America dislike England ? " and ingenious ex- 
planations are offered. But there is a plain 
and sufficient answer to that question, and that 
is, " Because England has shown in the past 
so often and so offensively that she disliked 
America." She never showed it so conclusively 
as during our Civil War, when our difficulties 
absolved her from the immediate need of cau- 
tion. The " Alabama " incident was but a 
flagrant episode in the painful story of the atti- 
tude toward us of the British Government and 
the British cultured and influential classes dur- 
ing that period. Russia alone stood our friend, 
our friend in need ; and to forget that now 
would be the blackest ingratitude. 

What was the " Alabama " ? Let us answer 
that question in the words of a distinguished 
Englishman, Mr. W. E. Forster, the friend 
and colleague of John Bright, who stood the 
eloquent champion of the North, while Mr. 
Gladstone was complacently proclaiming that 
Jefferson Davis " had made an army, had made 
a navy, and, more than that, had made a na- 
tion." Said Mr. Forster : " The 'Alabama ' was 
a British ship, built by British ship-builders, 
and manned by a British crew ; she lured prizes 
to destruction under a British flag, and was 
paid for by money borrowed from British cap- 
italists." All the logic-chopping and learned 
technicalities of Lord Selborne at Geneva could 
not obscure those facts. During her two-years 
cruise the "Alabama" took some seventy North- 
ern vessels, and literally drove our commerce 



from the seas. As an English historian says : 
" She went upon her destroying course with the cheers 
of English sympathizers and the rapturous tirades of 
English newspapers glorifying her. Every misfortune 
that befell an American merchantman was received in 
this country with a roar of delight." 

Let us add that when the " Alabama," in 
her first encounter with an antagonist of any- 
thing like her own class and armament, was 
shot to pieces after a brief engagement, her 
fate was mourned sincerely and patriotically by 
a chagrined British public. It was the last 
action between a British and an American 
vessel. 

The student of the questions of church and 
law reform dealt with in these concluding vol- 
umes will find Lord Selborne's reflections 
thereon of no little value. The correspondence 
with which the work is freely interspersed is of 
fair interest, and the author's occasional devia- 
tions from the dignified, if somewhat diffuse, 
exposition of his own political views into the 
lighter paths of reminiscence will be welcomed 
by the average reader. The editing has been 
conscientiously done by Lady Sophia Palmer, 
Lord Selborne's daughter and literary trustee. 
The volumes are notably well made and con- 
tain several portraits. E. G. J. 



THE SECOND YEAR or THE CIVIL WAR.* 

Mr. Ropes is giving to the world what seems 
likely to be the standard history of our great 
Civil War. As we took occasion to say when 
his first volume appeared, he approaches his 
work in the spirit of a historian and not as an 
advocate of any general or any policy. Now 
that a third of a century has elapsed since the 
close of the war, the leading actors have all 
passed off the stage, and the country has en- 
tered upon a new era of its history, there seems 
to be no reason why a really impartial and 
authoritative narrative of that period cannot be 
written ; and there is much to warrant the 
opinion that Mr. Ropes has produced that nar- 
rative in its broad lines and its general judg- 
ments of individuals and of movements and 
campaigns. 

The volume opens with the startling victory 
at Forts Henry and Donelson, which broke the 
Confederate line and recovered Kentucky and 
Tennessee for the Union. The incapacity of 

*THE STORY OF THE CIVIL WAR. By John Codman 
Ropes. Volume II. The Campaigns of 1862. New York: 
G. P. Putnam's Sons. 



152 



THE DIAL 



[March 1, 



General Halleck is shown at the outset, and 
continuously through the whole volume. It 
becomes clear that he undertook this campaign 
recklessly, without the knowledge of his supe- 
riors and without the cooperation of his asso- 
ciate commanders in the West. Mr. Ropes 
asserts that Halleck "had no scheme in his 
mind," and that jealousy was a probable mo- 
tive of his precipitate action. The administra- 
tion was planning a campaign in East Tennes- 
see ; Halleck was afraid that his command 
would be absorbed in that of Buell, so he 
plunged into his campaign and compelled the 
government to follow his lead. It was probably 
the wisest move he could make ; but the man- 
ner of making it, and the way in which it was 
followed up, deserve the severest censure. 

The next step shows the "great reckless- 
ness " of General Grant at Pittsburg Landing. 
It was known to him and to his superior officer, 
General Halleck, that the enemy was near in 
great force ; yet the army was retained in an 
exceedingly faulty position, with no outposts, 
no preparation to receive the enemy, no line of 
battle or defense. The various camps were 
established without system or plan of coopera- 
tion. " All the well-known maxims of war 
applicable to such a position were absolutely 
unheeded by General Grant. Probably there 
never was an army encamped in an enemy's 
country with so little regard to the manifest 
risks which are inseparable from such a situa- 
tion." The Union generals estimated the ene- 
my's forces at eighty thousand, against forty 
thousand of their own forces ; yet they were 
blissfully unexpectant of an attack, and when 
it came it was a complete surprise. Grant was 
not on the field for several hours after the en- 
gagement opened, and even after he came every 
general acted for and by himself. He is de- 
clared to have been at that time " incapable of 
assuming the entire control and direction of a 
great battle," and " not equal to an emergency 
of this magnitude." The opportune arrival of 
Buell's troops enabled Grant to win a great 
victory the second day ; but then came his 
lamentable failure to follow up and destroy the 
demoralized enemy. There was no reason why 
he should not have done so, but " he utterly 
failed to seize the opportunity," " he entirely 
failed to rise to the height of this occasion." 
If he had done what he might have done, the 
Confederacy would have been irretrievably 
weakened by the annihilation of one of its two 
great armies. Evidently, Grant had not yet 
found himself. 



We cannot follow the interesting discussion 
of the several campaigns of the eventful year 
of 1862, and must content ourselves with stat- 
ing a few of Mr. Ropes's judgments of men 
and events. It is interesting to contrast his 
estimates of the leading Federal generals with 
those of the enemy. Those of the North, with 
the simple exception of Buell, are shown to 
have been failures more or less complete. Hal- 
leck, McClellan, Pope, and Burnside make a 
poor showing beside A. S. Johnston, J. E. 
Johnston, and Lee. The appointment of Hal- 
leck, though the natural one at the time, was as 
bad as could have been made. He was without 
insight to detect the crisis of a campaign, or 
energy to strike when the moment of advan- 
tage came. He is shown, in this impartial nar- 
rative, as a weak man, self-confident, greedy of 
power, ready to assume responsibility, unwill- 
ing to cooperate generously with his associates, 
guilty of disastrous blunders. He was not a 
soldier by temperament or ability, though he 
had written a highly esteemed book on the art 
of war and was accounted an authority on mili- 
tary questions. 

In his discussion of General McClellan and 
the famous Peninsular Campaign, Mr. Ropes is 
much less harsh than most writers, though the 
General's weaknesses are plainly indicated. 
His constitutional slowness, his excessive cau- 
tion, his inability to estimate his enemy's power 
and his consequent failure to take advantage of 
his opportunities to strike a fatal blow, all 
these well-known defects are clearly shown. 
But his skill as a tactician and organizer, and 
as a leader of men, are also set forth ; and 
though his career as a whole- is shown to be a 
failure, and his defects the cause of the loss of 
many thousands of lives and of the prolonga- 
tion of the war, the reader feels that full jus- 
tice has been done him. He, too, had oppor- 
tunities, during this eventful year, to inflict a 
fatal blow upon the enemy ; but he failed to 
use these opportunities, and hundreds of thou- 
sands of lives were the penalty of his incompe- 
tency. As for Pope and Burnside, there is no 
need of taking space to show that Mr. Ropes 
agrees with all other writers in declaring them 
almost absurdly incompetent for the high posi- 
tions to which they were appointed. 

So, while the administration was groping 
about for competent leaders for its armies, it 
was training them, at fearful cost, for future 
victories. Meanwhile, the civilians at the head 
of the government, having little confidence in 
their military agents, interfered and directed, 



1899.] 



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153 



and made the bad conditions worse. It is a sad 
story, but may as well be frankly told. 

The Confederates, on the other hand, were 
able to find at the outset competent leaders for 
their armies. These, too, made blunders, and 
many of them ; but they were able men, and 
used the forces committed to them wisely and 
on the whole successfully. Of General Lee 
Mr. Ropes says : 

" In intellect it may be doubted whether he was supe- 
rior to the able soldier whom be succeeded; . . . but 
in that fortunate combination of qualities physical, 
mental, and moral which go to make up a great com- 
mander, General Lee was unquestionably more favored 
than any of the leaders of the Civil War. . . . Lee's 
position was unique ; no army commander on either side 
was so universally believed in so absolutely trusted. 
Nor was there ever a commander who better deserved 
the support of his government, and the affection and 
confidence of his soldiers." 

Lee was undoubtedly reckless, astonishingly so, 
in his operations during this year, and gave 
many opportunities to his enemies. But he 
knew the calibre of the men opposed to him, 
and that he could take liberties with them 
which he could not have taken with competent 
generals ; and the results justified his reckless 
boldness. He depended greatly, too, on his 
able subordinates, especially Stonewall Jack- 
son, who never but once failed him. 

A portfolio of excellent maps accompanies 
the volume. We shall look with interest for 
Mr. Ropes's next volume, which will deal with 
the stirring campaigns of Chancellorsville and 
Gettysburg in the East and Vicksburg in the 
West. CHARLES H. COOPER. 



THE FUNCTIONS AND REVENUES OF 
GOVERNMENT.* 



The word " finance " has been persistently 
used in English, both in everyday usage and 
to some extent even in the works of economic 
writers, as a general term referring rather 
indefinitely to the whole range of monetary and 
commercial affairs. But the Science of Finance, 
in the more correct sense in which Professor 
Adams uses the term, has to do only with pub- 
lic expenditures and public income, and the 
relations necessarily involved in their consid- 
eration ; it " undertakes an analysis of the wants 
of the State and of the means by which those 

* THE SCIENCE OF FINANCE. An Investigation of Public 
Expenditures and Public Revenues. By Henry Carter Adams, 
Ph.D., LL.D., Professor of Political Economy and Finance at 
the University of Michigan. (American Science Series 
Advanced Course). New York : Henry Holt & Co. 



wants may be supplied." Problems of money, 
currency, and banking, which have to do merely 
with the mechanism by which financial opera- 
tions are carried on, are not admitted to a place 
in the science ; much less are questions of 
" private financiering," such as have to do with 
the management of business corporations. It 
was natural enough that the same word should 
be popularly applied to the revenues of states 
and cities and to the funds of private corpora- 
tions, but this double use of the word has led 
to no little confusion. 

Nearly all writers on the Science of Finance 
devote comparatively little attention to expendi- 
tures, or else neglect that side of the subject 
altogether ; and the result in either case is un- 
satisfactory. It would seem that public expendi- 
tures, considering the variety and importance of 
the objects for which they are incurred, might 
well receive even more attention than the man- 
ner of meeting them ; but the science of public 
expenditures is as yet undeveloped, except as a 
mere introduction to the study of revenues. 
Professor Adams has, indeed, done not a little 
to develop it, first in his " Relation of the 
State to Industrial Action " and to some extent 
in his " Public Debts," and now in his more 
comprehensive " Science of Finance." He says 
that " the Science of Finance has no opinion 
respecting the question of the proper limit of 
public duties," but his actual treatment of the 
subject is by no means so inadequate as this 
disclaimer might lead one to expect. A few 
passages by way of illustration : 

" It is futile to urge disarmament, and the consequent 
extinction of the military budget, so long as there con- 
tinues to be a conflict of legal ideas. ... It is no acci- 
dent that the first approach to a successful tribunal for 
the arbitration of international disputes should rest upon 
negotiations for a treaty between England and the 
United States, for these peoples practise the same sys- 
tem of jurisprudence. Their theory of rights, and the 
method by which they aim to enforce those rights, are 
the same. A standing international tribunal resting on 
agreement between England and Russia, however, or 
between the United States and China, is beyond the 
range of reasonable expectation at the present time ; for 
it is only upon the basis of a common system of juris- 
prudence that a system of international law can be 
developed which shall render the preparation for war 
unnecessary." 

" A local government may very properly enter upon 
a more comprehensive line of activities than the national 
government, since the more restricted the territory over 
which a government has jurisdiction, the greater likeli- 
hood will there be of community of interests among its 
citizens." 

" It seems probable, when one regards the social evils 
wrought by corporations in certain industries of collec- 
tive interests, that local governments at least will ex- 



154 



THE DIAL 



[March 1, 



pand rather than contract the sphere of government 
administration." 

" It is essential for the modern State to support pub- 
lic instruction, because there is no other way to guard 
against the fading of its own ideals through the rise of 
an aristocracy of learning. It is natural thatinstitutions 
that look to the wealthy for further endowments should 
be influenced in their administration by the interests of 
the wealthy class; . . . and it requires no great insight 
to perceive that the final result of exclusive reliance 
upon private benefactions for any phase or grade of ed- 
ucation will be that the instruction provided will riot 
only reflect the interests of a class, but will be confined 
to a class. ... A State which aims to perpetuate de- 
mocracy cannot decline to make ample provision at 
public expense for all phases and forms of education. 
In no other way can a system of public instruction, which 
is by far the most potent agency in shaping civilization, 
be brought to the support of democracy." 

Again, we are told that the normal law of 
public expenditures for the enforcement of fac- 
tory legislation, and for public commissions, is 
that such expenditures will continue to increase 
until industrial development has run its course, 
or until the character of government itself shall 
have been changed by some great upheaval ; 
that governments must continually increase the 
amount of money at the disposal of their statis- 
tical service ; that expenditures for forestry, 
irrigation, and public improvements for the ben- 
efit of commerce will also increase with the 
growth of society ; but that, on the other hand, 
expenditures for the protective functions of the 
State, as distinguished from its developmental 
functions, tend to decrease in proportion as the 
protective service of the State succeeds. There 
is here at least the foundation of a science of 
public activities. 

Professor Adams rejects the statistical method 
of studying public expenditures, and confines 
himself to a theoretical discussion, because the 
former could not be satisfactorily applied, and 
because the latter is essential in any case. But 
besides the a priori method on the one hand 
and the purely statistical method on the other, 
there is the historical - comparative method, 
which is often applied to particular problems 
of public economy, and might be employed in 
developing the science as a whole. A theoret- 
ical treatment, even when so philosophical as 
that of Professor Adams, is not wholly satis- 
factory, because the considerations which de- 
termine governmental action are of an eminently 
practical nature, and may easily vary from 
place to place ; while at the same time a merely 
statistical study would not be enough, chiefly 
because the more important results of govern- 
mental action are incapable of quantitative 
measurement. Neither political philosophy nor 



statistics, therefore, ought to be expected to 
determine what are the proper functions of 
government. 

The consideration of public revenues also 
involves a study of certain governmental activ- 
ities, which Professor Adams classifies into 
industries undertaken for the purpose of secur- 
ing revenue, those in which revenue is incidental 
to service, and those undertaken primarily for 
service ; and for each class a distinct rule is 
given for the adjustment of charges. The main 
division of the work, however, is devoted to 
Taxation. Here, after elucidating the princi- 
ples, and approving progressive rates as being 
most in accordance with individual ability, the 
author devotes a chapter to " Suggestions for 
a Revenue System." He would assign to the 
federal government the taxation of interstate 
commerce, in addition to the customs and ex- 
cise duties ; to the States he would give taxes 
on the business of corporations, other than 
interstate commerce, and on inheritances ; and 
to the local governments he would assign taxes 
on land, on professional incomes, on licenses, 
and on municipal franchises. The theoretical 
basis of this proposed arrangement is that each 
government should tax those industries with 
which it holds some fundamental or constitu- 
tional relation. 

Twelve years ago Professor Adams wrote 
that " one of the chief difficulties under which 
we in this country suffer, in our endeavors to 
solve the problem of monopolies, arises from 
the fact that our publicists and statesmen pro- 
ceed in profound ignorance of the meaning and 
purpose of the science of finance." For that 
ignorance they have no longer any excuse. 

MAX WEST. 



Two GREAT EVANGELISTS.* 

An evangelist, in a broad sense, is one with 
a gospel message who goes about rousing men 
to a higher and better life. Matthew Arnold 
was a literary evangelist, proclaiming every- 
where by word of voice and pen the gospel of 
literary culture. Henry Drummond, as is evi- 
dent from Dr. George Adam Smith's masterly 
biography, was above all else a Christian evan- 
gelist, filled with a glowing love, who stirred 
men of all circles and conditions, by voice and 
printed word. But Drummond's greatest work 

*THE LIFE or HENRY DRUMMOND. By George Adam 
Smith. New York : Doubleday & McClure Co. 

NEWMAN HALL, AN AUTOBIOGRAPHY. Illustrated. New 
York : Thomas Y. Crowell & Co. 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



155 



was with the educated classes, and particularly 
with college students ; and the movements which 
he set on foot with them are still powerful and 
progressive. Drummond's sincerity, open- 
mindedness, intellectuality, and sympathy with 
science, made him the friend and helper of vast 
numbers whose religious life was being troubled 
by doubts suggested by science. The enormous 
success of his " Natural Law in the Spiritual 
World," and of many of his Addresses, lay in 
his identifying Nature with Christianity, and 
showing the natural foundation of Christianity 
as a law of love. From whichever side we take 
Drummond's position, as either naturalistic 
Christianity or Christianized naturalism, it was 
a gospel of a reconciliation of science and relig- 
ion which appealed very powerfully to his read- 
ers and hearers. 

" To Henry Drummond, Christianity was the crown 
of the evolution of the whole universe. The drama 
which absorbed him is upon a stage infinitely wider than 
the moral life of man. The soul, in its battle against evil, 
in its service for Christ, is no accident or exception, thrown 
upon a world all hostile to its feeble spirit. But the 
forces it represents are the primal forces of the universe ; 
the great laws which modern science has unveiled sweep- 
ing through life from the beginning work upon the side 
of the man who seeks the things that are above." 

Professor Smith opens his work with a strong 
sketch of the man in his winning personality. 

" We watched him, our fellow-student and not yet 
twenty-three, surprised by a sudden and a fierce fame. 
Crowds of men and women in all the great cities of our 
land hung upon his lips, innumerable lives opened their 
secrets to him, and made him aware of his power over 
them. When his first book was published, he, being 
then thirty-three, found another world at his feet; the 
great of the land thronged him; his social opportunities 
were boundless; and he was urged by the chief states- 
man of our time to a political career. This was the 
kind of a trial which one has seen wither some of the 
finest characters, and distract others from the simplicity 
and resolution of their youth. He passed through it 
unscathed; it neither warped his spirit nor turned him 
from his accepted vocation as a teacher of religion. . . . 
There- was a never a glimpse of a phylactery nor a 
smudge of unction about his religion. He was one of 
the purest, most unselfish, most reverent souls you ever 
knew, but you would not have called him a saint. The 
name he went by among younger men was The Prince'; 
there was a distinction and a radiance upon him that 
compelled the title." 

While Professor Smith cannot easily and nat- 
urally call a man who plays cricket and bil- 
liards and enjoys a good cigar a " saint," yet 
he compares Drummond's influence to that of 
a mediaeval saint. He was the confessor of 
multitudes of men and women of all classes. 

" They brought him alike their mental and phys- 
ical troubles. Surest test of a man's love and holiness, 
they believed in his prayers as a remedy for their dis- 



eases and a sure mediation between their sinful souls 
and God. It is with a certain hesitation that one asserts 
so much as this, yet the evidence in his correspondence 
is indubitable; and as the members of some great 
churches are taught to direct their prayers to the fam- 
ous saints of Christendom, so, untaught and naturally, 
as we shall see, more than one have since his death 
found themselves praying to Henry Drummond." 

Professor Smith traces and emphasizes Drum- 
mond's progress from the strict orthodoxy of 
his early life to his later more enlarged and 
liberal views by which his evangelism gained 
power with men of high education and thought. 
Evolutionary Science and Biblical Criticism 
came to have great weight with him, and he 
gave up verbal inspiration, and found in rev- 
elation an evolution. ,.'.; 

A clear account is given of Drummond's 
evangelism in Glasgow, with Moody and San- 
key, and among British, American, and Aus- 
tralian students. This book also includes letters 
and diaries of travel in America, Africa, and 
the new Hebrides. These are often bright and 
vivid, as in this African sketch : 

" At Zomba, on the Sabbath, we had a service for the 
natives the real ' Missionary Record ' kind of a thing; 
white men with Bibles under a spreading tree, sur- 
rounded by a thick crowd of naked natives. We sang 
hymns from a hymn-book in the native tongue to Scotch 
psalm-tunes, and then spoke through an interpreter. 
Unfortunately, the service was brought to rather an 
abrupt conclusion. I had just finished speaking when 
a tremendous shriek rose from the crowd, and the con- 
gregation dispersed in a panic in every direction. A 
hugh snake had fallen from the tree right into the thick 
of them. A bombshell could not have done its work 
faster, but no one was hurt, and the beast disappeared 
like magic beneath some logs. The snakes rarely do 
harm, and I have never heard of a serious case." 

While we cannot say that this book is over- 
eulogistic, yet we miss the marks of common 
and weak humanity. Drummond does not ap- 
pear to have had a redeeming vice ; we should 
have felt better satisfied to have known, say, 
that at least once in his life he got angry and 
swore profanely. Peter and Paul and all the 
saintly characters of Scripture have their fail- 
ings, but Drummond stands out in these pages 
as an admirable and perfect Crichton. But, 
after all, we are glad to believe that here is the 
highest type of Christian knight, sans peur et 
sans reproche, an ideal soul, earnest, tender, 
true, of noblest spirituality and deepest sincer- 
ity. But we cannot esteem Drummond a great 
man, nor yet that he attained his full stature 
and maturity. We feel that here was a prom- 
ising tree forced to too early and abundant 
fruitage, and so exhausted for the most mature 
and permanent work. Professor Smith has 



156 



THE DIAL 



[March 1, 



certainly given us an able and interesting his- 
tory of an eager, high-wrought soul, plunged 
in the vortex of our later nineteenth century 
life, moved by most manifold currents, and yet 
attaining a most noble and useful life. 

Another great evangelist, who resembled 
Drummond in his power of Christian love, but 
was more narrow in his interests and straighter 
in his orthodoxy, was Newman Hall. We have 
from his pen a chatty and pleasant " Autobi- 
ography," in which he seeks to keep out of 
" the track of ordinary religious memoirs " in 
not speaking exclusively of his public career 
and religious experience, but also speaking 
freely of himself in all his relations with the 
men of his time, and narrating incidents of all 
kinds. He tells a number of first-rate stories, 
two of which we must quote. At Ferriby, 
"The old parish clerk one Sunday surprised the con- 
gregation by announcing, in his usual monotone, Let us 
sing to the praise and glory of God, a psalm of my own 
composing a psalm of my own composing!' ... In 
a family of my church was a devoutly-behaved dog, 
which regularly occupied its accustomed seat at family 
prayers, and remained motionless till the ' Amen ' at the 
close. One day when I was conducting the service, I 
read the fifth chapter of the Revelation, and when I 
came to the fourteenth verse, ' And the four beasts said 
Amen! ' the dog jumped from his chair and began bark- 
ing as usual, as if all were over. This was too much 
for the assembly's gravity; host and hostess, servants 
and friends, could not prevent laughter blending with 
barking, and the service ended with the dog's ' Amen.' " 

Dr. Hall gives a chapter to Gladstone, which 
throws some light on that statesman's character. 
There is also interesting mention of his ac- 
quaintance with John Bright, Lord Shaftes- 
bury, Dean Stanley, Spurgeon, and others. 
Newman Hall's pastorates, both in Hull and 
London, were thoroughly evangelistic in their 
nature. It was at Hull that he composed the 
tract " Come to Jesus," which has circulated by 
the million. During the Civil War, Dr. Hall 
was influential as a friend of the North, and 
his American evangelizing tours, of which he 
gives a sketch, will be recalled by many. The 
mild and gentle spirit, the fervid and simple 
piety, of the author pervades his book, which is 
of interest on many accounts, and has consid- 
erable value for the religious historian. 

HIRAM M. STANLEY. 



Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. have put together 
into a bound volume the six pamphlets of the " River- 
side Literature Series " which constitute the " College 
Requirements in English for Careful Study " for the 
coming three years. Milton, Shakespeare, Addison, 
Burke, and Macaulay are the authors selected for this 
ingenious form of torture. 



TRAVEL, IN MANY LANDS.* 



Arctic exploration has received a new impetus 
within the last decade. The ice-bound lands in the 
frigid zones have suddenly assumed a new import- 
ance. Sir Martin Conway's experiences in Spitz- 
bergen since the beginning of 1896 have done much 
to set us right in our estimate of that country. The 
results of his first adventures, in 1896, were em- 
bodied in his " First Crossing of Spitsbergen." The 
present volume, " With Ski and Sledge over Arctic 
Glaciers," is to be regarded as an appendix to that 
account. In company with Mr. E. J. Garwood, a 
geologist and photographer, and two Norwegians, 
this undaunted Englishman set out to investigate 
many of the tremendous glaciers, ice fjords, and 
lofty snow and ice mountains of this arctic land, 
four hundred miles north of North Cape, and unin- 
habited by any permanent population. To read 
the crisp account of their tramps over ice gorges 
and chasms, through blinding snowstorms, and on 
their ski. or snowshoes, is close akin to enjoying 
the same experiences. An expert's popular descrip- 
tion of the movements of a great glacier, and of its 
final crash into the waters of the bay, is a bit of 
exceedingly good reading. The important result of 
this brief two months' trip was the determination 
of the fact that Spitsbergen is not, as held by earlier 
explorers, covered with an ice-sheet. This term 
does not describe the condition of things in arctic 
lands, and should be expunged from the geograph- 
ical vocabulary. The so-called ice-sheets are merely 
glacial and mountain areas on either side of water- 
sheds tending toward the sea. Neither do glaciers 
excavate great valleys, as popularly held. The 
familiar, easy method of telling his story inspires 
confidence in the author's knowledge and his ability 
to arrive at sound conclusions. 

* WITH SKI AND SLEDGE OVER ARCTIC GLACIERS. With 
Map and Illustrations. By Sir Martin Conway. New York : 
M. F. Mansfield. 

THROUGH ARCTIC LAPLAND. With Map and many Illus- 
trations. By Cutcliffe Hyne. New York : The Macmillan Co. 

CHITRAL : The Story of a Minor Siege. With Maps and 
thirty-two half-tone Illustrations. By Sir George S. Robert- 
son, K.C.S.I. New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 

WITHIN THE PURDAH : Personal Reminiscences of a Med- 
ical Missionary in India. Illustrated. By S. Armstrong- 
Hopkins, M.D. New York: Eaton & Mains. 

THROUGH THE YANGTSE GORGES : or, Trade and Travel in 
Western China. With Map and Illustrations. By Archibald 
John Little, F.R.G.S. New York: Imported by Charles 
Scribner's Sons. 

CAMPING AND TRAMPING IN MALAYA : Fifteen Years' Pio- 
neering in the Native States of the Malay Peninsula. With 
Map and Illustrations. By Ambrose B. Rathborne, F.R.G.S. 
New York : The Macmillan Co. 

A CRUISE UNDER THE CRESCENT: From Suez to San 
Marco. With Illustrations in the Text. By Charles Warren 
Stoddard. Chicago : Rand, McNally & Co. 

WITH THE GREEKS IN THESSALT. With twenty-three 
Illustrations by W. T. Mand, Maps and Plans. By W. Kin- 
naird Rose. Boston : L. C. Page & Co. 

THE LAND OF THE PIGMIES. Profusely Illustrated. By 
Captain Guy Burrows ; with an Introduction by Henry M. 
Stanley. New York : T. Y. Crowell & Co. 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



157 



In " Through Arctic Lapland " we have the nar- 
rative of two daring Englishmen who set sail from 
London to test their adventurous spirits in the far 
north. They land at Yards, on the north coast of 
Finland, in early summer. Their goal is the Gulf 
of Bothnia, four hundred miles overland toward the 
south. To discourage them at the outset, they find 
that in the summer no route of travel exists in that 
direction ; in fact, the frequency of lakes and 
swamps makes such an adventure next to impossible. 
But the doughty Englishmen push ahead, secure 
short-route guides, travel double the straight-line 
distance, wade through swamps, row across lakes, 
float down rivers, tramp through forests, until, weary 
yet wiser men, they hail the sails of a Swedish ves- 
sel in the northernmost harbor of Bothnia. These 
polyglot and much-travelled travellers show a prodi- 
gious amount of pluck in enduring hardships, man- 
aging obstreperous Lapps and Finns, fighting mill- 
ions of vicious musquitos, and keeping good-natured 
through it ill. The customs and habits of the peo- 
ples of that almost solitary country are told in a 
humorous and spicy narrative by Mr. Cutcliffe 
Hyne, amply illustrated by the sketches of Mr. 
Hayter, the author's companion. 

Chitrdl is located on the Chitral river, one of the 
sources of the Indus river, up in the district of the 
Hindu Kush mountains. " The dominant note of 
Chitrdl," says Sir George S. Robertson, author of 
" Chitral, the Story of a Minor Siege," " is bigness 
combined with desolation ; vast, silent mountains 
cloaked in eternal snow, wild glacier-born torrents, 
cruel precipices, and pastureless hillsides where the 
ibex and the markhor find a precarious subsistence." 
Down deep in the gorges of these oppressive and 
ever-present mountains resides a restless and 
wretched population of natives, controlled almost 
wholly by the devotees of Mohammed. The con- 
test for sovereignty among the native claimants to 
the throne precipitated a revolution in the winter of 
1894-95. Chitnil is almost on the borderland 
between British India and Afghanistan, and was 
under the protectorate of England. The assassina- 
tion of the local ruler led to an attempt by the ruler 
at Kabul to assume control of the district. The 
British Indian troops which had gone to the rescue 
were defeated, driven within their fort, and besieged 
for nearly two months. In the meantime, detach- 
ments of native soldiers under English officers were 
hurrying, in the dead of winter, from the north and 
from the south to rescue their comrades. Some of 
these men were ambushed, others were taken by 
treachery, and still others suffered untold hardships 
in crossing snow-capped and snow-bound mountains. 
The besieged gallantly held out, through great suf- 
fering, until the approach of English troops caused 
the flight of the besiegers and the rescue of the be- 
sieged. This is a thrilling and tragical story, told 
in chaste and forceful language by the commander 
in the siege. Its political significance gives it a 
value which far outranks that of ordinary books of 
war or of travel. 



The far-reaching influence of a medical mission- 
ary, especially that of a wise woman, among the 
vast populations of India, is shown with surprising 
effect by Dr. Armstrong-Hopkins in her book en- 
titled " Within the Purdah." The down-trodden, 
hopeless condition of woman, not only in the secluded 
harems of princes but in open air everyday life, is 
enough to make one either pessimistic or actively 
energetic in inaugurating new means of relief. While 
the British government has done much to mitigate 
the deadly power of vicious customs, there is a wide 
chasm between the woman of India and ordinary 
comfort and freedom. This book shows where Great 
Britain and other enlightened nations can accom- 
plish marvels for this caste-enslaved and suffering 
people. The native princes can be won by shrewd- 
ness and skill of the right kind to banish heartless 
and harmful rites, and to order themselves and their 
subjects according to higher principles of govern- 
ment and human right. 

The Yangtse is to China what the Mississippi is 
to the United States. It drains the heart of China, 
embracing an area of 600,000 square miles, with 
a population of about 180,000,000 of as industrious 
and peaceful a people as are to be found on the 
earth's surface. This area is now known as the 
" British sphere of influence." Its great river is 
navigable by the largest ocean steamers as far as 
Hankow six hundred miles inland ; then for five 
hundred more by steamboats to Ichang. From this 
point upwards it is almost one succession of gorges 
and rapids, through a most picturesque and wild 
country, though densely populated. English trade 
on the banks of this river has reached enormous 
proportions. Ten years ago, Professor A. J. Little, 
author of " Through the Yangtse Gorges," excited 
his influence to push navigation farther up stream. 
After the China-Japanese war he succeeded in se- 
curing concessions of various kinds. Within the 
past year he has himself conducted a steamer through 
several dangerous series of rapids five hundred miles 
above Ichang to Chung-king, the highest point of 
steam navigation yet reached. In addition to a 
clear and concise narrative of the methods of navi- 
gation and difficulties encountered on the way, Mr. 
Little shows by statistics the wonderfully rich re- 
sources of this inland empire, this river empire. The 
power of English diplomats and merchants is seen 
in every gain made in the confidence of the China- 
man. The book is full of rare incidents observed 
by a wide-awake scholarly Englishman. 

The Malay peninsula proper, extending south- 
ward from Indo-China, is 850 miles long by 210 in 
its widest part, between 10 30' N. and 1 22' N. 
Its territory embraces about 82,000 square miles, 
and its population is about 1,400,000. Its most 
noted seaport is Singapore. Fifteen years in the 
jungles, on the mountain sides, and in the malarial 
plains of this little-known peninsula, form the basis 
of Mr. Rathborne's book on " Camping and Tramp- 
ing in Malaya." In his brief preface, the author 
acknowledges that he is more skilled in the use of 



158 



THE DIAL 



[March 1, 



the parang, to cut his way through the jungles, than 
in the use of the pen. Mr. Rathborne takes his 
own method of telling his story. He describes with 
great detail many of his numerous tramps and trips 
back and forth through the peninsula and along its 
shore lines. Mingled with this description of the 
immediate occurrences of his trip, we find frequently 
little scraps of early history as in the case of 
Malacca, accounts of curious habits of the wild 
animals of the jungles, illustrated by some experi- 
ence of his own, and of the character of the natives. 
Incidentally, the resources, the products, the mixed 
population, the dangers, and the prospects of the 
country receive ample mention. The lack of good 
roads, the thickness of the forests, the lurking wild 
beasts, and the enemies of human life, on the land 
and in the air, tested the patience and endurance of 
this Briton. The English government, though able 
to do much for the natives, has not lived up to its 
opportunity (p. 126). It has not suppressed, but 
rather has encouraged by licensing, some of the 
worst vices in the land. In spite of these things, 
the British forces have suppressed the state of an- 
archy of two decades ago, and are gradually lifting 
the natives up to a higher plane of living. The 
whole story is enlivened by vigorous illustration. 

Mr. Charles Warren Stoddard's " Cruise under 
the Crescent " is a chatty record of his tour along 
the conventional route of travellers to Syria. In a 
very familiar, off-hand style, he describes his jour- 
ney from Port Said to Jerusalem, to Damascus, to 
Baalbek, to Beirut, to Athens, to Stamboul, and so 
on. The text is besprinkled with sketches, many 
of them giving quite an adequate idea of the thing 
represented. The observations of the author show 
in an interesting way the impressions made upon 
the acute mind of an intelligent traveller. 

The Greco- Turkish war was short, sharp, and de- 
cisive. But its results cannot be measured. Many 
shrewd and acute correspondents were on the field 
to note for permanent preservation the events of 
each day. Mr. Rose, author of " With the Greeks 
in Thessaly," must have been, we judge, among the 
best of these. This compact little volume testifies 
to his activity and descriptive power. He was the 
special war correspondent of Reuters, London, and 
consequently had the best of opportunities for close 
observation on the field. The political matters dis- 
cussed are based, says the author, upon information 
of men who were close to the political movements 
of the day. The narrative preserves with great 
faithfulness the exact form in which it was written 
in the heat of conflict. The plans and maps help 
one to secure a very vivid picture of that sudden 
and, to the Greeks, disastrous plunge of the Turk- 
ish army into Thessaly. 

Central Africa has not ceased to be of genuine 
interest, both to the diplomat and to the anthro- 
pologist. In the heart of that Dark Continent are 
many unexplored regions and unsolved mysteries. 
Captain Burrows, author of " The Land of the Pig- 
mies," had many facilities, as an officer in the em- 



ploy of Belgium, for wide observation. The char- 
acter of the native tribes in different districts of the 
Congo Free State are extremely interesting. The 
cannibal natives are not all extinct, but rather flour- 
ish, though in the presence of the white man they 
endeavor to conceal their custom. The pigmies of 
Central Africa, though occupying but small space in 
this volume, are a unique little people, whom Cap- 
tain Burrows had good opportunities for studying. 
Many of the real problems of Central African trade 
are yielding to the introduction of the railroad and 
its increasing activities. Enough illustrations are 
inserted in this book to make it a picture-volume of 
Central African peoples and customs. 

IRA M. PRICE. 



BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS. 



More history of 
the Royal Navy. 



With Volume III., now ready, Mr. 
William Laird Clowes's monumental 
and lavishly equipped history of 
" The Royal Navy " (Little, Brown, & Co.) passes 
the half-way stage in its progress toward completion 
in the forthcoming fifth volume. The sufficiently 
comprehensive and liberal lines on which the work 
was projected we have already set forth somewhat 
fully in our review of the opening instalment (THE 
DIAL, Sept. 1, 1897). The present volume covers 
the civil history of the Navy, the major and minor 
operations of its military history, and the record of 
voyages and discoveries, during the period 1714- 
1792, inclusive. The contributors are Mr. William 
Laird Clowes, Mr. L. Carr Laughton, Sir Clements 
R. Markham, and Captain A. T. Mahan Captain 
Mahan's quota occupying about a third of the vol- 
ume, and treating in that admirable naval writer's 
usual masterly way of the major operations of the 
War of the American Revolution. Owing to the 
unexpected length of some of the articles, the editor 
has been compelled to reserve Mr. W. H. Wilson's 
chapter on the minor operations of the Revolution 
for inclusion in the volume next forthcoming. Mr. 
Clowes takes occasion to allude in his preface in 
laudatory terms to the recent exploits of the Amer- 
ican Navy at Santiago and " Manilla " (as he elects 
to spell it), and to indicate a hope that when the 
British sailor's turn at the laurels shall come he 
will be found in no way inferior to his " brothers of 
the New World." It is to be feared that the British 
sailor's professional anxiety to emulate the recent 
achievements of these same long lost and newly dis- 
covered American " brothers " may prove a not 
inconsiderable stumbling-block in the way of disarm- 
ament projects and peace ideals generally. Mr. 
Clowes's work is not, and cannot reasonably be 
expected to be, quite impeccable in point of minor 
errors of detail that might have been rectified by 
searching and constant reference to original sources. 
We are inclined to admit the reasonableness of his 
plea that " to be content with nothing short of abso- 
lute completeness and finality in an undertaking of 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



159 



this kind " would involve the drawback that " neither 
the initiator, nor, after his death, any of his suc- 
cessors, would live long enough to finish the work." 
On the whole, the volumes thus far are so much 
fairer, more accurate, and more comprehensive than 
any former presentation of British naval history 
. that only critics of the captious sort will fail to be 
truly grateful for them. The numerous illustrations 
are well selected and handsomely executed, and 
there is an index to each volume. 



Story of 
the Union 
of Italy. 



Mr. W. J. Stillman, since his retire- 
ment from active service as Italian 
correspondent of the London 
" Times," has engaged himself busily in certain 
long-projected literary undertakings. One of these 
the preparation of his memoirs will doubtless 
result in a book of the most readable sort, a book the 
appearance of which we anticipate with much pleas- 
ure. Meanwhile, Mr. Stillman has already com- 
pleted another task which he was peculiarly well- 
fitted to perform, and tells us, in a new volume of 
the " Cambridge Historical Series," the thrilling 
story of " The Union of Italy " (Macmillan). Hav- 
ing made this statement, we hasten to qualify two 
of the words which it contains. Mr. Stillman is 
certainly well-fitted to write of the Risorgimento, 
but prejudice and the disillusionment of advancing 
years have conspired to impair his powers of judg- 
ment ; the story itself is certainly thrilling, but Mr. 
Stillman's narrative is so matter-of-fact that it 
would hardly help anyone unacquainted with the 
great action which it chronicles to understand the 
Italian poems of Mrs. Browning and Mr. Swinburne. 
Still, we are much indebted to the author for what 
he has done. He was a close observer of at least 
the later phases of the revolutionary movement, in 
which he himself all but participated, and he has 
had a wide acquaintance with the men who were 
conspicuous in that movement. Admiration for 
Cavour has unfortunately had upon him the effect 
that it has had upon some other historians of the 
period : it has made him grossly unfair to Mazzini, 
unfair mainly in the negative way of saying little 
about him, but occasionally unfair in the more un- 
pleasant ways of innuendo and contemptuous char- 
acterization. That the Union of Italy was far more 
the work of Mazzini than of Cavour is a proposition 
that we hold to be beyond question, and no history 
of that achievement in which Mazzini does not ap- 
pear as the central figure can be more than a his- 
tory of its externals. 

Professor Harry Thurston Peck has 
done much for classical scholarship, 
and at the same time has shown a 
breadth of culture and a versatility of mind very 
commendable in this day of intense specialization. 
His latest production in the shape of a book at 
least is a translation of Petronius into very ver- 
nacular English (Dodd, Mead & Co.), with a con- 
siderable amount of editorial accompaniment. In 



" Trimalchio's 
Sinner." 



his introduction, the editor has sketched briefly the 
history of prose fiction in Greece and Rome. Prose 
fiction, as opposed to theological myth, derives from 
the beast fable, which is purely oriental in its origin. 
The romance, historical and of adventure, the novel 
of character, the novel of pastoral life, all find their 
beginnings here. Lost to Western Europe in the 
Dark Ages, these tales, blended with the traditions 
of the Teutonic peoples, found their way into the 
" Gesta Romanorum," that "perfect mirage of odds 
and ends," the connecting link between the fiction of 
classic times and the fiction of to-day. Following 
this, we have a brief characterization of Petronius, 
a history of the " Satira," and a word of criticism, 
or rather encomium, which closes with this dictum : 
" To seek a fitting parallel for his strangely brilliant 
fiction, we must pass over the intervening centuries 
and find it only in our own century and in the lit- 
erary art of modern France." As a third feature 
of the introduction, Professor Peck gives us a note 
of presentation to Trimalchio himself, with a hint 
of the riches in store for us. This very fittingly 
leads to the dinner itself, where we have game made 
out of pork, and peacock eggs cut from pastry. The 
extravagant luxury of the table is typical of an age 
when wealth came easily and the appetites were 
men's gods. " Trimalchio's Dinner " is valuable as 
a picture of the life of the Roman bourgeoisie. In 
Trimalchio himself, we have the Roman freedman 
who has accrued vast wealth suddenly. Proud of 
his estates, well-meaning, generous to a fault, boast- 
ful of his libraries in Greek and Latin, ignorant of 
the very forms of his own tongue, he is a veritable 
snob. To the scholar, the original, in the many little 
details of life, is of archaeological value; and the 
text offers much of linguistic interest to the gen- 
eral reader as well. The book closes with a valu- 
able bibliography of the primitive forms of fiction, 
of Greek and Roman fiction, of Roman life in the 
time of Petronius, of the text and translations. The 
translation is well done, and the rollicking humor 
of the original is sustained throughout. The Latin 
slang finds equivalents in English which are cer- 
tainly effective, although at times rather startling. 
The illustrations are very helpful, and the entire 
make-up of the book is commendable. 

A satisfactory review of Sir James H. 
Twelve Mries R am8ay ' s u Foundations of England" 

of British history. * 

(Macmillan) would require a mono- 
graph in itself if the points of interest to the eager 
historical student were to be adequately noted and 
commented upon. The work is an authoritative 
narrative, in two large volumes, of the history of 
England from 55 B. C. to 1154 A. D. It is author- 
itative in the sense that not a fact is given nor an 
opinion expressed for which the writer does not cite 
volume and page of the book or document from 
which he has drawn his material. The style is in 
no way remarkable, nor is there any novelty of 
method to attract the reader of history who looks 
for striking characterizations; but for reference 



160 



THE DIAL 



[March 1, 



purposes, for convenience to the student in discov- 
ering quickly what the best scholarship has deter- 
mined in regard to the institutions of any particular 
period, the work is simply invaluable. It will he 
a standard work of reference in every college library 
in the country. A point of somewhat unusual inter- 
est is the location fixed upon for the battle of Mons 
Grampius, or Groupius, as the author prefers to call 
it. The view taken is that in the year 84 A. D. 
Agricola advanced from Ardoch to Perth, from 
Perth to Coupar Angus, and from Coupar Angus 
to Delvine, situated on the north bank of the river 
Tay some thirty-five miles northeast of Stirling. 
This site agrees perfectly with the details of the 
battle as given by Tacitus, and explains the neces- 
sity for the curious cavalry manoeuvre which decided 
the day in favor of the Roman army. The jutting 
promontory of the Redgale Braes made it impossi- 
ble for the Roman cavalry, after its first charge on 
the Caledonian left, to wheel round the rear of the 
enemy's position, and compelled it to pass back of 
the Roman infantry in order to make the final and 
decisive charge against the right. Two excellent 
maps accompany the description of this battle. 

c A. Dana's The war articles Dv Charles A. Dana, 
Recollections of recently published in one of the mag- 
the Civil war. az i ne8 , have been gathered into a 
comely volume entitled " Recollections of the Civil 
War" (Appleton). When read as a whole they 
prove to be fascinating in the pungency of the style 
and the clear directness of the story-telling. The 
book is also important as a contribution to the his- 
tory of the time, for the author's official position took 
him into the heart of things, and he has secured the 
accuracy which is apt to be wanting in reminiscences, 
by reference to his almost daily reports of what he 
saw and heard. Mr. Dana joined Grant's army in 
March, 1863, commissioned to act as representative 
in the field for the Secretary of War, and to report 
everything that should be of interest to the govern- 
ment at Washington. He was with the armies 
through the whole Vicksburg campaign, through the 
Chattanooga campaign from September to Decem- 
ber, and through the Wilderness campaign of 1864. 
During the intervals between these campaigns, and 
during the last year of the war, he was in service 
in the War Department at Washington, in intimate 
relations with the leading men, especially President 
Lincoln and Secretary Stanton. The mere state- 
ment of these opportunities will show what the book 
must be, written by a journalistic genius like Mr. 
Dana. Its interest is all the greater from the ab- 
sence of any formal narrative of the author's ser- 
vice and adventures. He passes over the details, 
giving striking incidents, brief character sketches, 
interesting anecdotes, and vivid descriptions of such 
events as the battles of Chickamauga and Chat- 
tanooga, and Grant's death-grapple with Lee in the 
Wilderness. His chapter on Lincoln and his Cab- 
inet is one of the most satisfactory studies of the 
great War President yet put into print, while nearly 



the whole book is an indirect study of Stanton and 
Grant. The book is one of the most readable, as 
well as authentic, of those pertaining to the Civil 
War. 

Newly discovered lt is a curious feeling with which one 
early poems takes up the " all but facsimile re- 

of SMiey. print) j ust published by Mr. John 

Lane, of the " Original Poetry by Victor & Cazire." 
Forty years ago Dr. Richard Garnett discovered, in 
a rare periodical named " Stockdale's Budget," that 
a volume with the above title had been published by 
Shelley in 1810, and that subsequently, after a few 
copies had gone into circulation, the youthful poet 
had destroyed the greater part of the edition. For 
these forty years the possibility of unearthing one of 
the few copies that escaped destruction had hovered, 
as an elusive dream, over the fancies of Shelleians 
in particular and bibliophiles in general. At last a 
copy came to light, bound up with other pamphlets 
in a book that had come down from the library of 
the Rev. C. H. Grove, a brother of the Harriet 
Grove to whom many of the poems were addressed. 
To Dr. Garnett appropriately fell the task of editing 
a reprint of this unique copy, and the result is now 
before us, enriched by an editorial preface. These 
pieces, written at the age of eighteen, add nothing 
to Shelley's poetical reputation, and indeed the most 
striking thing about them is the way in which they 
illustrate the fact that a great poet may begin his 
career in the most unpromising way. But they add 
a necessary chapter to the poet's life, and it is a 
great satisfaction to have discovered what seemed 
so hopelessly lost. We have read a certain amount 
of carping comment upon this republication, to the 
general effect that it does no honor to the poet's 
memory ; but this seems to us curiously beside the 
point. Dr. Garnett puts the matter in a nutshell 
when he says of the question whether the book 
should have been reprinted, that " the question ap- 
pears pertinent, but only to the uninitiated." It 
certainly does not appear pertinent to us, and we 
shall not discuss it. 

Social life and Such a b k a8 " Social Life in the 

requirements in British Army " (Harper) serves two 
the British Army. U8e f u i en( j 8 . In Great Britain it is 
a manual of etiquette and social usage, aiding those 
ambitious of prestige in the Household Brigade in 
learning what to do, to be, and to wear ; in Amer- 
ica it points out the marked differences between that 
European army which is most like our own, and the 
small but useful body of our fellow-citizens which 
many Americans vaguely dread under the title of 
" a standing army." Nothing but such a book as 
this, written by " A British Officer," and illustrated 
by Mr. R. Caton Woodville from drawings made 
on the spot, could accent these differences, and ac- 
cent them in a manner which leaves us better satis- 
fied with our own military establishment. We learn 
that a man must have an independent income of 
no mean size if he is to hold his own in one of the 
" crack " British regiments, the maintenance of a 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



161 



stable for official duties in the cavalry comprising 
also a number of polo ponies and racing horses, 
with an occasional hunter, the original outlay run- 
ning up into several thousands of dollars or their 
British equivalents. Though England maintains 
several military academies of the highest efficiency, 
many of her officers pass through the hands of a 
military " coach," and, by undergoing a somewhat 
severe examination, enter as commissioned officers 
directly from civilian life. To obtain a commission 
in the most desirable regiments, ascertained wealth 
and social position are essentials ; and the traditions 
of the corps take the place of the American's edu- 
cation at West Point in maintaining the reputation 
of the army. It is evident that much can be said 
in argument between systems so diverse. The book 
is interestingly written, and replete with detail. 



Modern 
German, 
culture. 



The man of culture of the present 
day as distinguished from the 
scholar, the scientist, the philosopher 
on the one hand, and the artist or the amateur on 
the other probably owes more to contemporary 
France than to contemporary Germany. He has 
more of it in him. Certainly taking the whole 
century, French literature and French painting have 
been more stimulating than German ; French pol- 
itics and French life have been on the whole inter- 
esting to more people than German. We think 
this is so in America, in spite of the large German 
element with us; in spite of the number of our 
own people, students and artists, who have worked 
in Germany ; in spite of the influence of German 
music and musicians, of German philosophy and 
German scholarship. You will find a dozen who 
read a French novel to one who reads a German 
novel, a dozen plays from the French to half a 
dozen from the German, a dozen travellers familiar 
with Paris to one who knows Berlin. But it is this 
very thing, to our mind, that gives a particular value 
to Professor Kuno Francke's "Glimpses of Mod- 
ern German Culture " (Dodd). It is a book which 
may serve to open the way to a great many who are 
now unaware how wonderfully rich is Germany to- 
day in books, pictures, music, political ideas, in 
things which when once known are as keenly inter- 
esting to the cultivated mind as anything that can 
be found in France. Without going into compari- 
sons, a lover of French painting and poetry may 
find something new and worth while in the pictures 
of Boecklin and Thoma, in the poems of Johanna 
Ambrosius and Gustav Falke. And if anyone 
insists on comparing, we may say that there are no 
French dramatists superior to Hauptmann and 
Sudermann (Mr. Francke would probably add Wil- 
denbruch, but we should not), no political forces 
in France more interesting than Bismarck and the 
Social Demokratie. As to music and scholarship, 
nothing need be said except just to mention them 
in filling out the idea of what is included in the 
phrase " Modern German Culture." So far as de- 
tails are concerned, we differ here and there from 



Orowth and 
curiosities of 
South London. 



Mr. Francke : as to " The Sunken Bell," for in- 
stance, we hesitate to agree entirely, as to Bismarck 
we are very doubtful, as to Wildenbruch we heartily 
disagree. There are naturally differences of opin- 
ion in such things : Mr. Francke probably would 
have more to say for his views than appears here, 
had he the occasion. In these essays he had to say 
his say in small compass, for the papers are rather 
short, many of them having been articles in " The 
Nation " and other periodicals. We have been 
somewhat exercised of late over breakfast-books. 
If a man breakfasts alone, has a little time over his 
breakfast and does not read the daily paper just 
then, he will hardly find a better moment in the 
day for a little reading. But of course it is not 
every book that will do : one must select pretty 
carefully. We rather think that Mr. Francke's 
book would be a pleasant breakfast companion for 
a fortnight : the essays are short and suggestive. 
Afterwards one may go back to Gibbon's " Mem- 
oirs," or Lander's "Conversations," or any other 
old stand-by. 

Sir Walter Besant has taken a nota- 
ble interest in the history of what is 
now London. He has already writ- 
ten two volumes on London and Westminster, de- 
scriptive of the origin and growth of those ancient 
places, with their part in the modern London. He 
now offers a volume on " South London " (Stokes). 
It is not strictly a history, but a series of seventeen 
chapters selected out of a vast mass of material on 
the subject. He begins with South wark marsh, and 
takes up the growth of the place, the customs of the 
people, numerous tragical and humorous incidents 
in the life of those clashing times, and the growth 
in the political ideas of his forefathers. This is 
all done in the pleasing and graceful style of Mr. 
Besant. The vividness and reality of the scenes 
described are heightened by a great number of 
choice illustrations, a result of the skill of Mr. Percy 
Wadham. Londoners, and Londoners' descendants, 
will find in this luxurious volume ample fascination 
for several hours of very pleasurable reading. 

Foundation* and In " The Groundwork of Science" 
mutual relations (Putnam), Professor St. George 
os the sciences. Mivart discusses the common foun- 
dation of all the sciences and the relationships exist- 
ing between them. Epistemology is the science of 
the sciences. After an enumeration of the sciences, 
notable for some very proper omissions, his specific 
topics are the objects and the methods of science ; 
the physical, psychical, and intellectual antecedents 
of science ; the relation of science to language ; the 
causes of science, and the nature of its groundwork. 
The work is timely and is eminently suggestive. It 
is itself an example of the clearness of thought and 
of diction which should characterize all scientific 
discussions. From the conclusion we quote, as a 
fitting dominant chord : " The action of an all- 
pervading but unimaginable intelligence alone 
affords us any satisfactory conception of the uni- 



162 



THE DIAL 



[March 1, 



verse as a whole, or of any single portion of the 
cosmos which may he selected for exclusive study." 
A work of somewhat similar purpose, issued by 
the same publishers, is " The Sphere of Science," by 
Professor Hoffman of Union College. After open- 
ing his subject by a method not widely different 
from that used by Dr. Mivart, Dr. Hoffman gives 
less attention to the purely metaphysical construc- 
tion of an ideal edifice in which the various sciences 
shall appear in their true and intimate relationships, 
and more to the share which each has in the devel- 
opment of human knowledge in its present stage of 
forwardness. Particular interest attaches to the 
author's discussions of the limitations of science, 
and his resum6 of the recent progress made in vari- 
ous directions. The works of Dr. Mivart and Dr. 
Hoffman are in a large degree complementary, and 
may well be read together. 

Dr. Mellen Chamberlain, whose essay 
American esiayt on fhe Revolution Impending " is 

and addresses. 111 < ^t * i 

so valuable a feature of the Revolu- 
tionary history gathered into Winsor's " Narrative 
and Critical History of America," presents, under 
the leading title "John Adams" (Houghton), a 
series of essays and addresses which deal mainly 
with American history and American leaders. Be- 
sides the second President, Josiah Quincy and 
Daniel Webster are considered in appreciative 
sketches. Constitutional and institutional questions 
are discussed, along with critical estimates of the 
results of historical study as shown in the volumes 
by Professor McMaster and Mr. Palfrey. In the 
collection of seventeen papers much insight into 
life is shown, and many thoughts are crystallized 
into words for the inspiration of those who welcome 
each addition to the store of volumes of essays bear- 
ing upon American character and history. 



Historic 



England history is an appar- 
ently exhaustless fountain. However 
New England. muc h may be studied, some new 
phase continually presents itself for examination, 
and the apparently trivial things of daily life in the 
olden time may be so described as to make enter- 
taining and profitable reading. " Historic Pilgrim- 
ages in New England " (Silver, Burdett & Co.) is 
one of a rapidly increasing class of books given to 
details of the homes and the customs of Americans. 
The familiar plan of answering the questions of a 
bright young companion is adopted, and much that 
is valuable information is thus set forth. There are 
many illustrations, some of them uncommon, some 
very familiar ; and the book will serve to while away 
more than one hour with the fathers of New England. 

Those gay armored knights under 
De Soto must have cut a queer figure, 
roaming through the torests and 
swamps of the southern country in search of gold, 
or perhaps with a faint hope of finding the fabled 
fountain of perpetual youth. There was little of 
actual accomplishment for Spain, but there was a 



e J Sofo 

in Florida. 



great deal of romance, which culminated, perhaps, 
in the death of the leader of the expedition and his 
midnight burial in the river which so often is asso- 
ciated with his name. " De Soto in the Land of 
Florida " (Macmillan) is a very interesting book, in 
the preparation of which Miss Graqe King has 
shown the same skill she manifested in "New Or- 
leans " and in that story of Bienville which finds 
place in the " Makers of America " series. It is 
not too difficult for the pleasure and profit of youth, 
nor is it so simple in narration as to fail to attract 
the special student of American history. 



BRIEFER MENTION. 



" Harper's Scientific Memoirs " is the name given to 
a new series of small books which aim to publish, in 
careful English translations, what may be called the 
original documents of science. Professor Joseph S. 
Ames is to be the general editor of the series. The 
following two volumes have appeared: " The Free Ex- 
pansion of Gases " and " Prismatic and Diffraction 
Spectra." The former comprises papers by Gay-Lussac, 
Joule, and Thomson; the latter the classical papers of 
Joseph Fraunhofer. A few of the titles promised for 
early publication are: "Rontgen Rays," "Solutions," 
" Properties of Ions," and " The Wave Theory of Light." 

" The Shifting and Incidence of Taxation " (Macmil- 
lan), by Professor Edwin R. A. Seligman, has just passed 
into a second edition, which has given the author an oppor- 
tunity to subject the work to a thoroughgoing revision. 
It is so changed, both in its historical and positive parts, 
as to be practically a new volume. Among the altera- 
tions may be noted the fuller treatment of the early 
English literature of the subject, the addition of a chap- 
ter on the physiocrats, the rewriting of the chapter on 
the mathematical theory, the closer study of import 
duties and stamp taxes, and the added index and bibli- 
ography. The work is thus made far more valuable 
than before, and a still greater credit to American 
scholarship in this difficult field. 

" Bible Stories " is the title of a supplementary vol- 
ume of " The Modern Reader's Bible " (Macmillan) . 
Like the rest of the series to which it belongs, this vol- 
ume is prepared by Mr. Richard G. Moulton. It is 
announced as a " children's number " of the series, and 
contains stories from the Old Testament only. A sim- 
ilar volume of New Testament stories is in course 
of preparation. A much bigger book which deserves 
mention in the same connection is Mrs. Harriet S. B. 
Beale's " Stories from the Old Testament for Children " 
(Stone). Here the stories are frankly retold in simple 
language, as in Lamb's "Tales from Shakespeare," 
whereas Mr. Moulton's volume does not depart (except 
for omissions) from the revised scriptural text. 

" The Arte or Crafte of Rhethoryke," by Leonard 
Cox, who was a preacher and schoolmaster in the reigns 
of Henry VIII. and Edward VI., is the first text-book 
of rhetoric in the English language. The date of its 
first edition is uncertain, but it cannot have been far 
from 1530. It is now reprinted under the editorship 
of Dr. Frederic Ives Carpenter, with notes and a learned 
introduction, and appears as a highly acceptable addition 
to the series of " English Studies " published under the 
auspices of the University of Chicago. 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



163 



LITERARY NOTES. 



The Macmillan Co. publish a volume of selections 
from Pope's " Iliad," edited by Mr. Albert H. Smyth 
for school use. 

Miss Beatrice Harraden, it is reported, will soon make 
a second visit to the United States, with California for 
her objective point. 

" Der Letzte," a story by Herr von Wildenbruch, 
edited by Dr. F. G. G. Schmidt, is published by Messrs. 
D. C. Heath & Co. 

Mr. William Dudley Foulke's " Slav or Saxon " (Put- 
nam), already twelve years old, now appears in a revised 
edition. It is one of the " Questions of the Day," just 
as before. 

A selection of " Scenes de Voyages de Victor Hugo " 
(Holt), edited by Mr. Thomas Bertrand Bronson, makes 
a very attractive little volume for school use. The ex- 
tracts are from " Le Rhin." 

" The Story of the Cotton Plant," by Mr. F. Wilkin- 
son, is the latest addition to " The Library of Useful 
Stories," published by Messrs. D. Appleton & Co., and 
already numbering more than a dozen neat volumes. 

The series of articles on " Successful Houses," which 
have been appearing for some time in the pages of 
" The House Beautiful," are now published in a hand- 
somely-illustrated volume by Messrs. Herbert S. Stone 
& Co. 

The first monthly number of " A Kipling Note Book," 
devoted to " illustrations, anecdotes, bibliographical and 
biographical facts anent this foremost writer of fic- 
tion," is published by Messrs. M. F. Mansfield & A. 
Wessels. 

Lessing's " Minna von Barnhelm," edited by Mr. 
A. B. Nichols, is published by Messrs. Henry Holt & 
Co., and has the unusual feature (for a school book) of 
a series of twelve illustrations from the etchings by 
Chodowiecki. 

"Our Nation's Peril: Social Ideals and Social Pro- 
gress " is the title of a pamphlet by Dr. Lewis G. Janes, 
just published by Messrs. James H. West & Co. It is 
a scholarly and philosophical protest against the pre- 
vailing spirit of imperialism. 

A new novel by Count Tolstoy is to be published in 
May. English readers will be more fortunate than 
Russian, for they will get the complete work, whereas 
it is reported that the Russian censor will reduce it 
by one-third for home consumption. 

Hereafter there is to be a special American edition 
of " The Statesman's Year Book." The section upon 
the United States will be greatly enlarged, thereby 
making what has always been an indispensable work of 
reference even more indispensable than before. Mr. 
Carroll D. Wright will be the American editor and the 
Macmillan Co. the publishers. 

In emulation of the plays of the " Hasty Pudding 
Club " at Harvard and the " Students' Opera Company " 
at Columbia, the students of the University of Chicago 
will present a musical comedy entitled " The Deceitful 
Dean," on the evening of March 10, at the University 
Gymnasium. The play has been written by local Uni- 
versity talent, and the parts will be taken by fifty 
persons. 

The " Bulletin of the New York State Museum " for 
last November (a government publication) is " A Guide 
to the Study of the Geological Collections of the New 



York State Museum," prepared by Dr. Frederick J. H. 
Merrill. It is a very valuable work for students and 
teachers of geology, having over one hundred full- 
page photographic plates. To put it within the reach 
of schools, it is supplied at the merely nominal price of 
forty cents. In sending out this publication for review, 
there goes with it the following note, which is so sug- 
gestive of what other States might do that it deserves 
reproduction: "The present director and his associates 
are without exception warmly interested in securing a 
more active cooperation of the Museum and its staff 
with the teachers of science in the colleges and schools 
of the State, which the peculiar circumstances of the 
Museum have heretofore made impracticable, and will 
be very glad of suggestions from teachers in any insti- 
tution in the University. Science teachers ought to 
feel some measure of responsibility for notifying the 
Museum of matters of interest in their locality and act- 
ing as associate or honorary members of the Museum 
staff, the scientific officers of which will in turn be glad, 
as far as practicable, to visit schools where their ser- 
vices are requested, and give advice and suggestions 
regarding collections, field work, and other matters of 
interest." 



TOPICS IN HiEADING PERIODICALS. 

March, 1899. 

Alexander, John W. Harrison S. Morris. Scribner. 
Alexander's Victory at Issus. B. I. Wheeler. Century. 
British Experience in Governing Colonies. James Bryce. Cent. 
Cable-Cutting at Cienfuegos. C. McR. Winslow. Century. 
Chavannes, Puvis de. Marie L. Van Vorst. Pall Mall. 
Chinese Physicians in California. W. M. Tisdale. Lippincott. 
Cranks and their Crotchets. John Fiske. Atlantic. 
Cuba. Joseph A. Nunez. Lippincott. 

Cuban Reconstruction, Young Leaders in. Review of Reviews. 
Dickens Suppressed Plates. Q. S. Layard. Pall Mall. 
Egypt, Sketches in. C. D. Gibson. Pall Mall. 
Eliot, Pres., as Educational Reformer. W. De W. Hyde. Allan. 
English Characteristics. Julian Ralph. Harper. 
Farmer's Balance-Sheet for 1898. F. H. Spearman. Rev.ofRevs. 
Faure, M. Felix. Review of Reviews. 
Forrest, Major-General, at Brice's Cross-Roads. Harper. 
Fort Dearborn Massacre, The. Simon Pokagon. Harper. 
Hoar, Senator, Reminiscences of. Scribner. 
House, Modern City, Building of. Russell Sturgis. Harper. 
Imperialism, an Estimate. Owen Hall. Lippincott. 
Indian Prince, Court of an. R. D. Mackenzie. Century. 
Kaiser, The, in Palestine. Frederick Greenwood. Pall Mall. 
Kindergarten Child after the Kindergarten. Atlantic. 
Las Guasimas, Battle of. Theodore Roosevelt. Scribner. 
Literature of Middle West. Johnson Brigham. Rev.ofRevs. 
Literature, Vital Touch in. John Burroughs. Atlantic. 
London Lawyer, Recollections of a. G. B. Smith. Lippincott. 
Manila, Capture of. Maj.-Gen. F. V. Greene. Century. 
Mendicity as a Fine Art. Francis J. Ziegler. Lippincott. 
Otis, Maj.-Gen. E. S. W. C. Church. Review of Reviews. 
Philippine Types and Characteristics. Review of Reviews. 
Philippines, Native Population of . CaroyMora. Rev.ofRevs. 
Politics, Higher, A Wholesome Stimulus to. Atlantic. 
Porto Rico, Condition of. W. H. Ward. Review of Reviews. 
Railway Service, Heroes of the. Century. 
Sherman, General, Diary of his Tour of Europe. Century. 
Spanish Capital, Scenes in the. Arthur Houghton. Century. 
Southern Mountains, Our Contemporary Ancestors in. Allan. 
Theatre, Business of a. W. J. Henderson. Scribner. 
Theatre, Upbuilding of the. Norman Hapgood. Atlantic. 
War Censor, Experiences of a. Grant Squires. Atlantic. 
"Winslow," The, at Cardenas. J. B. Bernadou. Century. 
Woman, Modern, with Social Ambitions. Robt. Grant. Scrib. 
Writers that are Quotable. Bradford Torrey. Atlantic. 



164 



THE DIAL 



[March 1, 



OF NEW BOOKS. 



[The following list, containing 59 titles, includes books 
received by THB DIAL since its last issue.] 

GENERAL LITERATURE. 
Letters of Robert Browning and Elizabeth Barrett 

Barrett. 1845-1846. With Prefatory Note by R. Barrett 

Browning and Notes, by F. G. Kenyon, Explanatory of the 

Greek Words. In 2 vols., with portraits and facsimiles, 

8vo, gilt tops, uncut. Harper & Brothers. $5. 
Mysteries of Police and Crime : A General Survey of 

Wrongdoing and its Pursuit. By Major Arthur Griffiths. 

In 2 vols., large 8vo, gilt tops, uncut. G. P. Putnam's 

Sons. $5. 
Three Studies in Literature. By Lewis E. Gates. 16mo, 

uncut, pp. 211. Macmillan Co. $1.50. 
The Physician: An Original Play in Four Acts. By Henry 

Arthur Jones. 16mo, pp. 114. Macmillan Co. 75 cts. 
Thoughts. By Ivan Panin. Revised and augmented edition ; 

24mo, pp. 124. Graf ton, Mass.: Published by the author. 

BIOGRAPHY. 

Life of General George Gordon Meade, Commander of 
the Army of the Potomac. By Richard Meade Bache. 
Illus. in photogravure, etc., 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 596. 
Henry T. Coates & Co. $3. 

NEW EDITIONS OF STANDARD LITERATURE. 

The Temple Classics. Edited by Israel Gollancz, M.A. 
New vols.: Homer's Iliad, trans, by Chapman, 2 vols.; 
History of the Holy Graal, trans, by Sebastian Evans, 
2 vols.; Marcus Aurelius, 1 vol.; Little Flowers of St. 
Francis, newly trans, by T. W. Arnold. Each with photo- 
gravure frontispiece, 24mo, gilt top, uncut. Macmillan Co. 
Per vol., 50 cts. 

BOOKS OF VERSE. 
Poems of Expansion. By John Savary. 12mo, pp. 129. 

F. Tennyson Neely. 
Some Verses. By Helen Hay. 16mo, uncut, pp. 72. H. S. 

Stone & Co. $1. 

FICTION. 
Bagged Lady. By William Dean Howells. Illus., 12mo, 

pp. 359. Harper & Brothers. $1.75. 
The Heart of Denise, and Other Tales. By S. Levett Yeats. 

With frontispiece, 12mo, pp. 272. Longmans, Green, & 

Co. $1.25. 
The Story of Old Fort Loudon. By Charles Egbert Crad- 

dock. Illus., 12mo, pp. 409. Macmillan Co. $1.50. 
Short Rations: Short Stories. By Williston Fish. Illus., 

12mo, pp. 192. Harper & Brothers. $1.25. 
The Knight of the Golden Chain. By R. D. Chetwode. 

12mo, pp. 311. D. Appleton & Co. $1.; paper, 50 cts. 
Mammy's Reminiscences, and Other Sketches. By Martha 

S. Gielow. Illus., 12mo, pp. 109. A. S. Barnes & Co. $1. 

TRAVEL AND DESCRIPTION. 
The Porto Rico of To-Day: Pen Pictures of the People and 

the Country. By Albert Gardner Robinson. Illus., 12mo, 

pp. 240. Charles Seribner's Sons. $1.50. 
Roman Africa: Archaeological Walks in Algeria and Tunis. 

By Gaaton Boissier ; authorized English version by Ara- 

bella Ward. With maps, 12mo, uncut, pp. 344. G. P. 

Putnam's Sons. $1.75. 
The Cruise of the Cachalot : Round the World after Sperm 

Whales. By Frank T. Bullen, First Mate. Illus., 12mo, 

pp. 379. D. Appleton & Co. $1.50. 

THEOLOGY AND RELIGION. 

A Manual of Patrology : Being a Concise Account of the 
Chief Persons, Sects, Orders, etc., in Christian History up 
to the Period of the Reformation. By Wallace Nelson 
Stearns, A.M.; with Introduction by J. H. Thayer, D.D. 
Large 8vo, pp. 176. Charles Scribner's Sons. $1.50 net. 

The Profit of the Many : The Biblical Doctrine and Ethics 
of Wealth. By Edward Tallmadge Root. 12mo, pp. 321. 
F. H. Revell Co. $1.25. 

Lights and Shadows of American Life. By Rev. A. C. 
Dixon, D.D. 12mo, pp. 197. F. H. Revell Co. $1. 

" Wherein ? " : Melachi's Message to the Men of To-Day. 
By Rev. G. Campbell Morgan. 12mo, pp. 131. F. H. 
Revell Co. 75 cts. 



Stories from the Old Testament for Children. By Harriet 
S. B. Beale. 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 409. H. S. Stone & Co. 

Old Testament Bible Stories. Edited by Richard G. 
Moulton. 24mo, uncut, pp. 310. " Modern Reader's 
Bible." Macmillan Co. 50 cts. 

Mountain Tops with Jesus : Calls to a Higher Life. By 
Rev. Theodore L. Cuyler, D.D; 24mo, pp. 74. F. H. 
Revell Co. 25 cts. 

Why I Am Not an Infidel. By Robert Nourse. With por- 
trait, 12mo, pp. 62. F. H. Revell Co. Paper, 15 cts. 

SCIENCE. 

Essay on the Bases of the Mystic Knowledge. By 
E. Re"ce*jac ; trans, by Sara Carr Upton. 8vo, pp. 287. 
Charles Scribner's Sons. $2.50. 

Experimental Morphology. By Charles Benedict Daven- 
port, Ph.D. Part Second, Effect of Chemical and Physical 
Agents upon Growth. Illus., 8vo, uncut, pp. 225. Mac- 
millan Co. $2. net. 

A History of Physics in its Elementary Branches. Includ- 
ing the Evolution of Physical Laboratories. By Florian 
Cajori,Ph.D. 8vo, uncut, pp. 323. Macmillan Co. $1.60 net. 

A Short History of Astronomy. By Arthur Berry, M.A. 
Illus., 16rao, pp. 440. Charles Scribner's Sons. $1.50 net. 

Lectures on the Evolution of Plants. By Douglas 
Honghton Campbell, Ph.D. Illus., 12mo, pp. 319. Mac- 
millan Co. $1.25. 

ECONOMIC STUDIES. 

The Shifting and Incidence of Taxation. By Edwin R. A. 
Seligman. Second edition, completely revised and en- 
larged. 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 337. Macmillan Co. 
$3. net. 

Friendly Visiting among the Poor: A Handbook for 
Charity Workers. By Mary E. Richmond. 16mo, pp. 225. 
Macmillan Co. $1. 

EDUCATION BOOKS FOR SCHOOL AND 

COLLEGE. 
Essays on the Higher Education. By George Trumbull 

Ladd. 12mo, pp. 142. Charles Scribner's Sons. $1. net. 
A Laboratory Manual of Astronomy. By Mary E. Byrd, 

A.B. 8vo, pp. 273. Ginn & Co. $1.35. 
A History of Greece for High Schools and Academies. By 

George Willis Botsford, Ph.D. 8vo, pp. 381. Macmillan 

Co. $1.10. 
College Requirements in English for the Years 1900, 1901, 

1902. 12mo. Honghton, Mifflin & Co. 
Lessing's Minna von Barnhelm. Edited by A. B. Nichols. 

Illus., 16mo, pp. 163. Henry Holt & Co. 60 cts. 
Hugo's Scenes de Voyages. Edited by Thomas Bertrand 

Bronson, A.M. 24mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 277. Henry 

Holt & Co. 50 cts. 
Saintine's Picciola. Trans, and edited by Abby L. Alger. 

12mo, pp. 166. Ginn & Co. 40 cts. 
George Eliot's Silas Marner. Edited by W. Patterson 

Atkinson, A.M. 16mo, pp. 202. Allyn & Bacon. 40 cts. 
Through the Year: Supplementary School Reading. By 

Anna M. Clyde and Lillian Wallace. Books One and 

Two ; each illus., 8vo. Silver, Burdett & Co. Per vol., 

36 cts. 
Rosegger's Die Schriften des Waldschulmeisters. Ed 

ited by Laurence Fossler. With frontispiece, 16mo 

pp. 158. Henry Holt & Co. 40 cts. 
German Sight Reading. By Idelle B. Watson. 16mo, 

pp. 41. Henry Holt & Co. 25 cts. 
Moliere's Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme. Edited by F. M. 

Warren. With portrait, 12mo, pp. 128. D. C. Heath & 

Co. 30 cts. 
Public School Mental Arithmetic. By J. A. McLellan, 

A.M., and A. F. Ames, A.B. 16mo, pp. 138. Macmillan 

Co. 25 cts. 
Pope's Iliad. Edited by Albert H. Smyth. With portrait, 

24mo, pp. 169. Macmillan Co. 25 cts. 
Wildenbruch's Der Letze. Edited by F. G. G. Schmidt, 

Ph.D. With portrait, 12mo, pp. 73. D. C. Heath & Co. 

25 cts. 

Cleveland's Historical Readers. By Helen M Cleveland. 
Book I., Period of Discovery and Exploration in America. 

Illus., 12mo, pp. 131. Benj. H. Sanborn & Co. 25 cts. 
Our New Possessions. Large 8vo, pp. 32. American Book 
Co. Paper, 10 cts. 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



165 



MISCELLANEOUS. 
Foreign Courts and Foreign Homes. By A. M. F. 12mo, 

uncut, pp. 320. Longmans, Green, & Co. $2. 
Health in the Nursery. By Henry Ashby, M.D. Illus., 

12mo, pp. 227. Longmans, Green, & Co. $1.25. 
The Spanish- American "War : The Events of the War 

Described by Eye Witnesses. Illus., 8vo, pp. 228. H. S. 

Stone & Co. $1.50. 
Successful Houses. By Oliver Coleman. Illus., 8vo, gilt 

top, uncut, pp. 165. H. S. Stone & Co. $1.50. 
Annual Report of the Director of the Board of Trustees of 

the Field Columbian Museum for the Year 1897-98. Bins,, 

large 8vo, uncut, pp. 100. Chicago : Published by the 

Museum. Paper. 
The Secret of Good Health and Long Life. By Haydn 

Brown. Second edition ; 18mo, pp. 152. M. F. Mansfield 

& Co. 50 cts. 
The Story of the Cotton Plant. By F. Wilkinson, F.G.S. 

Illus., 24rao, pp. 191. "Library of Useful Stories." 

D. Appleton & Co. 40 cts. 
On the Use of Classical Metres in English. By William 

Johnson Stone. 8vo, pp. 59. London: Henry Frowde. 

Paper. 

AMERICAN SHAKESPEAREAN MAGAZINE. $1.50 per Year; 
*- single numbers, 15 cts. ANNA RANDALL-DIKHL, Editor, 

251 Fifth Avenue, New York City. 

A " Out-of-Print Books supplied, no matter on what 
subject. Acknowledged the world over as the most expert 
book-finders extant. Please state wants. BAKER'S GREAT BOOK- 
8HOP, 14-16 John Bright Street, Birmingham, England. 

u OT?T7TTT " The Aztec Legend, by LEROY LEACH. Second 
\JS\,jHjj edition. Illustrated. Gold title. Imitation 
leather. Price, 15 cents. THE ORACLE CO., Wood Lake, Neb. 

Unitarian Publications Sent Free. 

Address Mission Committee, 3 Berkely Place, Cambridge, Mass. 

k"IPI IMfi NHTP RHHk' A periodical with illustrations 
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Such work, said George William Curtis, is " done as it should be by The 
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E sale Prices. A. FLANAGAN, Publisher and Bookseller, 
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OLD SOUTH LEAFLETS 

ON LAFAYETTE. 

Just added to the series: No. 97, " Lafayette in the 
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No. 98, " The Letters of Washington and Lafayette, 
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STUDIES IN LITERATURE. 

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The Study of Romola. (Now Beady.) 50 cents. 
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Author and publisher, Mrs. H. A. DAVIDSON, 

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L'ECHO DE LA SEMAINE. 

Revue Litteraire et Mondaine, Paraissant le Samedi. 
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Nume'ro specimen envoy6 sur demande. 

CTUDY AND PRACTICE OF FRENCH IN SCHOOL. In three 
*-* Parts. By L. C. BONAME, 258 S. 16th St., Philadelphia, Pa. A care- 
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Wholesale Books, 5 & 7 East 16th St., New York. 



166 



THE DIAL 



[March 1, 



BOOKBINDING, 

FLAW AND ARTISTIC, 
in all varieties of leather, at moderate prices. 

HENRY BLACKWELL, 

56 UNIVERSITY PLACE, NEW_TO_RK. 

WHEN CALLING, PLEASE A8K FOR 
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WHENEVER YOU NEED A BOOK, 
Address MR. GRANT. 

Before buying BOOKS, write for quotations. An 
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F. E. GRANT, Books, 23 w 4Vv 2 o d r treet> 

Mention this advertisement and receive a discount. 




B 



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CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



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Joseph Gillott's Steel Pens. 

FOR GENERAL WRITING, Nos. 404, 332, 604 E. F.,601 E. P., 1044. 
FOR FINE WRITING, Nos. 303 and 170 (Ladies' Pen), No. 1. 
FOR BROAD WRITING, Nos. 294, 389; Stub Points 849, 983, 1008, 

1009, 1010, 1043. 
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Armour Institute of 
Technology . . . Chicago 



THE PLAN OF ORGANIZATION 

EMBRACES 

1. The Technical College, an engineering school 
of high grade, having thorough courses in 

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, 
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING, 
ARCHITECTURE, and 

MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

These courses are each four years in length. There 
is also a two years' course in Architecture. 

2. Armour Scientific Academy, a thorough-going 
preparatory school, which fits its students for ad- 
mission to the engineering courses of the Technical 
College, or to the leading colleges and universities 
east and west. 

3. The Associated Departments, including The 
Department of Domestic Arts, The Kindergarten 
Normal Department, The Department of Music, 
and The Department of Shorthand and Typewriting. 



Address inquiries about courses 

of instruction to 
THOS. C. RONEY, 
Dean of the Faculty. 

The Institute Year Book will be sent upon application. 



Direct general correspondence 

to 
F. W. GUNSAULUS, 

President. 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



167 



50 per cent Reduction! 

THE PRICE OF THE 

HISTORY OF THE JEWS, 

By Professor H. (iraetz, 

Reduced from $18.00 to 

$9.00 PER SET OF SIX VOLUMES. 

(An average of over six hundred octavo pages to each volume.) 
A complete description from the earliest times to the present. 
The concluding volume contains an elaborate Index, Maps, and 

Chronological Tables. 
" Prof. Graetz is the historiographer par excellence of the Jews. His 

work, at present the authority upon the subject of Jewish history, bids 

fair to hold its preeminent position for some time, perhaps decades." 

Preface to Index Volume. 

Scholars, Students, Clergymen, Laymen, 

Should avail themselves of the opportunity of placing this valuable work 
in their libraries. 

On receipt of the price, the volume* will be sent postpaid to any 
address in the United States. 

The Jewish Publication Society of America, 

1015 Arch Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

DIXIE FLYER 
TO FLORIDA 

DAILY FROM ST. LOUIS 

VIA THE 

Illinois Central Railroad 

AND THE 

"Lookout Mountain Route," 

and connecting lines, by the way of 

NASHVILLE 

CHATTANOOGA 

ATLANTA 

Leaves St. Louis every evening, is a solid train to Nashville, 
and carries a 

Through Sleeping Car 
St. Louis to Jacksonville, Fla. 

Day Express also leaves St. Louis every morning, and car- 
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168 THE DIAL [March 1, 1899. 

THE VICTORIAN ERA SERIES 

The series is designed to form a record of the great movements and developments of the 
age, in politics, economics, religion, industry, literature, science, and art, and of the life-work 
of its typical and influential men. 

Under the general editorship of Mr. J. Holland Rose, M.A., late scholar of Christ's College, 
Cambridge, England, the individual volumes will be contributed by leading specialists in the 
various branches of knowledge which fall to be treated in the series. 

The volumes will be handsomely bound in cloth, with good paper and large type, suitable 
for the library. Price, $1.25 per volume. 

NOW READY 

THE RISE OF DEMOCRACY 

By J. HOLLAND ROSE, M.A., late scholar of Christ's College, Cambridge (editor of the series). 

An interesting historical account of British Radicalism of the first half of the century fills a large part of the 
volume. . . . On the whole, we are able to praise the volume as a moderate and impartial view of the demo- 
cratization of the Constitution Athenaeum. 

In dealing with his subject Mr. Rose displays considerable independence of thought, joined to accuracy of 
detail and clearness of exposition. His style, too, is vigorous; and on the whole he has made a good start for 
what promises to be a useful and instructive series Glasgow Herald. 

If the remaining volumes of the " Victorian Era Series " are written in as able, temperate, and judicious a 
spirit as the first, "The Rise of Democracy," by J. H. Rose, M.A., we anticipate for it a great and deserved 
success. Manchester Guardian. 

For all who wish to get an unbiased view of the Radical movement in England during the present century 
its benefits, its faults, and its limitations this little book can be unhesitatingly recommended. Aberdeen Journal. 

| THE ANGLICAN REVIVAL ) I 

By J. H. OVERTON, D.D., Rector of Epworth and Canon of Lincoln. 

We can highly recommend this able history of Canon Overton's, and we hope it may clear the minds of 
many as to the history of " The Anglican Revival." It is by no means a party or an extreme statement of facts, 
but rather a judicial record of the religious events that have moulded " The Anglican Revival " in the Church of 
England during the reign of Queen Victoria. Church Review. 

Dr. Overton's contribution to this series of handy books is a volume that is well worth reading by men and 
women who care to know just where the Established Church is now, and what are its tendencies Norwich 
Mercury. 

The author . . . writes without bias and with the true spirit of the historian only anxious to secure his 
facts and to " nothing extenuate nor aught set down in malice." Weekly Echo. 

Of the movement itself, and its main actors, Canon Overton gives an excellent account. He has the literature 
of the subject at his fingers' ends, and the story could not be better told. Sheffield Telegraph. 

1 ~ JOHN BRIGHT . t 

By C. A. VINCE, M.A., late Fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge. 

We have every reason to regard this as the sanest, most impartial, and intelligent life of John Bright that 
has been given to the public. Birmingham Gazette. 

Mr. Vince has had the good sense to allow John Bright, as far as possible, to speak for himself, and he has 
shown great discrimination in the selection of pithy typical passages from memorable speeches at critical junctures 
in the Queen's reign. Speaker. 

An excellent little life of Bright, with a chapter on Bright's oratory which is admirable and most remarkable. 
It constitutes a brief but careful examination of the characteristics which made Bright the first orator of our 
time, and appears to us the best examination of the peculiarities of modern English oratory extant. Athenceum. 

This little book seems to us, in its way, a remarkable success. It is a model of what such a sketch should be 
sober, well-written, with the matter well-ordered, and throughout a tone of judicial care not unmixed with 
enthusiasm. Academy. 

Mr. Vince's biography of Bright is a model of its kind. It gives us an admirable picture of the man whom 
Lord Salisbury rightly characterized as the greatest master of English oratory that recent generations have seen. 
Morning Post. 

For sale by all Booksellers, or sent, postpaid, on receipt of price, by the Publishers, 

CHICAGO HERBERT S. STONE & CO. NEW YORK 



TRB DIAL PRESS, CHICAGO. 




i// SEMI-MONTHLY JOURNAL OF 

(ftritkism, gisntssiott, anfr Information. 



EDITED BY ) Volume xxvi. 

FRANCIS F. BROWNE, j No. 306. 



TWT A-pntr 1 A IQQO 10 ct*. a copy. \ 315 WABABH AVE. 

, MAli^tl ID, 10. 82.ayear. ( Opposite Auditorium. 



NOTABLE NEW FICTION 



Successor to 

"Old 
Creole Days." 



Contents : 
The Entomologist. 
The Taxidermist. 
The Solitary. 



STRONG HEARTS. By GEORGE W. CABLE. 

T N these stories Mr. Cable returns to the field which gave him his 
* best fame and his readers their greatest pleasure New Orleans 
and its mingled races. " The Entomologist " has for its heroine 
one of those women who are especially Cable's creation one 
who belongs with the heroines of " The Grandissimes " and with 
" Madame Delphine." That story and " The Taxidermist " have all 
the charm of " Old Creole Days," with added power. ISmo, $135. 

THE AMATEUR CRACKSMAN. By E. W. HORNUNG. 

D AFFLES, the hero of Mr. Hornung's new story, is the most fascinating rascal of modern fiction. A gentle- 
^ man born and bred, he enters upon an astonishing career of crime, and the combination which he shows 
of resource and cunning, of patience and precision, of head work and handiwork, stamps him as a veritable 
artist in crime, well worthy to rank with his counterpart, Sherlock Holmes. 12mo, $1.25. 

RED ROCK. By THOMAS NELSON PAGE. 

Illustrated by " ^"\NE cannot read this novel without being deeply impressed with its sterling Thirty-fifth 
B. West ^-^ literary beauties and its human interest. It is tender, mellow, and sweet, thousand. 

Clinedinst. exhaling the flavor of all that is best in American life." The London Daily Mail. 12mo, $1.50. 

REMBRANDT: A ROMANCE OF HOLLAND. 

By Walter Cranston Larned. 

" TTHIS is a charming romance in which art and love and adventure are interwoven 

With * with the great names of Art. The style of the story as a literary product is Second 

8 full-page elegant, and the plot so easy and simple that the reader at all times seems to feel Edition, 
illustrations, that he is reading of real people and not romance. The constant side-lights introduce 12mo, $1 .50. 

the reader to the home lives of these interesting people." Chicago Inter-Ocean. 

THE STOLEN STORY, AND OTHER NEWSPAPER STORIES. 

By Jesse Lynch Williams. 

"TO describe the life of the reporter as it is at the present day under the conditions which high-pressure 
* journalism has made imperative, is the object of these stories. They are sure to take their place as the 
best expression of the modern newspaper man. Illustrated. 12mo, $1.25. 



THE GREATER INCLINATION. 

By Edith Wharton. 12mo, $1.50. 
""THE author's wit, subtlety, and uncommon capacity 
* in character-drawing, readers of " The Pelican " 
and " The Muse's Tragedy " are already prepared to 
appreciate. Her refreshing lack of the " clever " pose 
and the essential charity behind her touches of outward 
cynicism give her work an especially attractive flavor. 



TALES OF UNREST. 

By Joseph Conrad. 12mo, $1.25. 
" /BROWNED " one of the three best books of 1898 
^ by The Academy, which says: "It is Mr. Con- 
rad's achievement to have brought the East to our 
very doors, not only its people others have done 
that conspicuously well but its feeling, its glamour, 
its beauty, and wonder." 



CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS, 153-157 Fifth Avenue, New York 



170 



THE DIAL 



[March 16, 



Books of Undoubted Value 



STANDARD POPULAR AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGIES. 

PROFESSOR DANIEL GIRAUD ELLIOT'S BIRD BOOKS. 
North American Shore Birds. Seventy-four fine plates. 
Gallinaceous Game Birds. Forty-five fine plates. 
Wild Fowl of the U. S. and British Possessions. Sixty-three fine plates. 

Three vats. Post 8vo, ornamental cloth, $2.50. (Sold separately.) 

These volumes are for popular reading and can easily be understood by all lovers of birds. They combine a 
popular description with a minute scientific explanation better than any ornithology that has yet appeared. The 
182 illustrations are especially beautiful and correct in all details, and were drawn for this work by Mr. Edwin 
Sheppard, an artist of exceptional talent for portraying birds and bird life. 

The Smithsonian Institution, in answer to a California inquiry, selected Professor Elliot's Bird Books as the best 
or popular use. 

AMERICAN EXPLORERS SERIES. 

Under Editorship of Dr. ELLIOTT COUES. 

No. 2. Forty Years a Fur Trader on the 
Upper Missouri. 

The Personal Narrative of Charles Larpenteur, from a hith- 
erto unknown MS. in the author's handwriting;. Edited, 
with full commentary, by Dr. COUES. 18 portraits, maps, 
and illustrations. Edition limited to 950 numbered copies. 



No. 1. The Journal of Major Jacob Fowler. 

Narrating an Adventure from Arkansas through the Indian 
Territory, Kansas, Colorado, and New Mexico to the source 
of Rio Grande del Nprte, 1821-22, now first printed from 
his original manuscript. Plate. Edition limited to 950 

numbered copies. 8vo, cloth net $3.00 

An important and hitherto-unknown exploration. He was the first 
white man to travel much of his route, including the ascent of the 
Arkansas as far as Pueblo, and trail through Colorado, Kansas, etc. 



2 vols., 8vo, cloth net $6.00 



ROMANCE OF BOOK COLLECTING. 

By J. H. SLATER, Editor Book Prices Current. 12mo, cloth, uncut, 168 pages $1.75 

Book-collectors and lovers of books in general will find in this interesting work much out-of-the-way matter 
and valuable hints. Nearly every page tells of some curious find, the values of certain kinds of books, or location 
of "hunting grounds." The ten chapters treat on In Eulogy of Catalogues, A Comparison of Prices, Some 
Lucky Finds, The Forgotten Lore Society, Some Hunting Grounds of London, Vagaries of Book Hunters, How 
Fashion Lives, The Rules of the Chase, The Glamour of Bindings, The Hammer and the End. 

RECOLLECTIONS OF LINCOLN AND DOUGLAS, 

FORTY YEARS AGO. 

By an Eye- Witness. 12mo, cloth, uncut, 48 pages, portraits and plates on Japan paper $1.50 

Only 200 copies privately issued for the author, 50 of which are for sale. Owing to the small number offered 
for sale this work promises to be in a short time a very rare Lincoln book. The author only tells what he saw or 
knew. Interesting description of the Chicago Wigwam, early Chicago, etc. 



PRICES OF BOOKS. 

By HBNBY B. WHEATLEY. 12mo, cloth, 275 pages . . . net $1.75 
An inquiry into the changes in the prices of books. This valuable 
work treats on Prices of Manuscripts, Early Printed Books, Prices of 
Early English Literature, Caxtons, etc., Book Collecting as an Invest- 
ment, Early Bibles, etc. 

A collector who desires to be well posted on values of rare books will 
find this volume a most important bibliographical aid. 

Dr. Couet' 1 Other Works on Western Exploration. 

ZEBULON M. PIKE'S EXPEDITIONS. 

To Headwaters of the Mississippi, Louisiana, Mexico, Texas, reprinted 
from the original edition and carefully edited by Dr. Coues, 3 vols., 

8vo net $10.00 

Large-paper edition net 20.00 

NEW LIGHT ON THE EARLY HISTORY OF 
THE GREATER NORTHWEST. 

Important hitherto unpublished Journals of ALEXANDER HENRY, Fur 
Trader, and DAVID THOMPSON, Geographer and Explorer, 1799-1814. 
Exploration and adventure among the Indians on the Red, Saskatche- 
wan, and Columbia Rivers. Carefully edited, with copious critical 
commentary, by Dr. COUES. New maps, etc. 3 vols., 8 vo net $10.00 
Large-paper edition net $20.00 



WEATHER LORE. 

A Collection of Proverbs, Sayings, and Rules, with folding Chart of 
Cloud Forms. By RICHARD INWARDS, President of the Royal Mete- 
orological Society. Third Edition, revised and augmented. 8vo, 
233 pages $2.50 

THE LIBRARY SERIES. 

Edited, with introductions, by Dr. GAHNETT, Keeper of Printed Books 

in the British Museum. Crown 8vo, cloth. Published at net $1.75 

No. 1. THE FREE LIBRARY, Its History and Present Condition. 

By J. J OGLE, of Bootle Free Library. 352 pages. 
No. 2. LIBRARY CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECTURE. By 

FRANK J. BCRGOYNE, of the Tate Central Library, Brixton. 

141 illustrations. 
No. 3. LIBRARY ADMINISTRATION. By J. MACFARLANE, British 

Museum. 
No. 4. THE PRICES OP BOOKS. By H. B. WHBATLEY, of the 

Society of Arts. 

SILAS WOOD'S SKETCHES OF THE TOWN 
OF HUNTINGTON, LONG ISLAND. 

From the First Settlement to the End of the Revolution. Reprinted 
from the excessively rare original with Notes by W. S. PELLETREAU. 
Portrait. Edition limited to 215 copies net $2.00 



Catalogue of Out-of-Print Books, issued regularly, mailed on application. 

FRANCIS P. HARPER, 17 East Sixteenth Street, New York. 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



171 



Scribner's Spring Announcement 



The Authoritative Narrative of the Santiago Campaign. 

IN CUBA WITH SHAFTER. By Lieut.- Col. J. D. Miley. 

With 12 /COLONEL MILEY was General Shatter's Chief of Staff during the Santiago With 4 

Portraits of ^ Campaign. His book is an authoritative description, from the headquarters Maps from 

leading point of view, of the difficulties and obstacles which the United States troops official 

Generals. encountered and of how they were overcome. 12mo, $1.50. sources. 



ON THE SOUTH AFRICAN FRONTIER. 
By William H. Brown. 

With 32 full-page illustrations and 2 maps. 

Crown 8vo. In press. 

A story of absorbingly interesting adventure. The 
narrative of the author's experience gives a series of 
vivid pictures of frontier life in Africa. 

A TEXAS RANGER. 
By N. A. Jennings. 

12mo. In press. 

The true story of a young man who enlisted in the 
early eighties in a company of Texas Rangers. The 
book is as thrilling as a border romance. 



IN THE KLONDYKE. 
By Frederick Palmer. 

With many illustrations. 12mo, $1.50. 
A most intelligent and satisfactory account of a 
region and conditions as to which curiosity is still un- 
satisfied. 

THE PORTO RICO OF TO-DAY. 
By A. O. Robinson. 

With 24 illustrations. 12mo, $1.50. 
" It is the able work of an able man sent to ' spy out 
the land ' and report to the people of his race what- 
ever he saw that would be valuable to them." Boston 
Daily Advertiser. 



By the author of "How to Know the Wild Flowers" 

HOW TO KNOW THE FERNS. By Frances Theodora Parsons. 

'THIS volume does for the ferns what the same author's " How to Know the Wild Flowers " did for the 
* flowers of woods and fields, and is intended as a guide for those who enjoy seeking out and gathering ferns. 
By means of its simple, clear, and brief descriptions and its accurate illustrations, it enables the unscientific 
lover of nature to identity any of our common ferns. With 144 illustrations by MARION SATTERLEE and 
ALICE J. SMITH. Crown 8vo, $1.50 net. 



THE ORCHESTRA 

AND ORCHESTRAL MUSIC. 

By W. J. Henderson. 12mo, $1 25 net. 

Mr. Henderson's book is the first volume in the 

" Music Lover's Library," a series designed for the 

amateur. The book is broad in scope and popular in 

character, dealing with the historical, biographical, 

anecdotal, and descriptive aspects of the subject as well 

as with its purely musical and aesthetic features. With 

portraits and illustrations. 



MEZZOTINTS IN MODERN MUSIC. 
By James Huneker. 

12mo, $1.50. 

Mr. Huneker's book treats of the modern masters of 
instrumental music Brahms, Tschaikowsky, Chopin, 
Richard Strauss, Liszt, and Wagner in a manner 
that will be sure to attract wide attention, for his 
biographical studies are etched in deep and strong lines, 
while his analyses of the works of these composers go 
to the very heart of the subject. 



LIFE OF DANTON. By Hilaire Belloc. 

THIS life of the great Revolutionary leader is not only a repository of facts concerning the great Conventionnel 
and a summary of the results obtained by recent researches, but is also a complete narrative of the most 
dramatic phases of the Revolution and a brilliant and original picture of France in her various Revolutionary 
aspects, political and social. With portrait and notes. 12mo. In press. 



RAMAKRISHNA: His Life and Sayings. 

By F. Max Miiller. Crown 8vo. In press. 
An interesting account of the life and philosophy of 
this Indian saint and ascetic, who was born in 1833 
and who died in 1886. 



THE HISTORY OF YIDDISH LITERATURE 

By Leo Wiener. 8vo, $2.00 net. 
Mr. Wiener has collected from scattered sources 
examples of a genuine literature especially strong in 
poetry and the drama. 



Two New Volumes in " The Ivory Series." 



IF I WERE A MAN. 
By Harrison Robertson. 16mo, 75 cents. 
A story of Kentucky in which love and politics are 
delightfully intermingled. 



SWEETHEARTS AND WIVES. 

By Anna A. Rogers. 16mo, 75 cents. 
A group of charming stories founded on incidents in 
the lives of wives and sweethearts of naval officers. 



CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS, 153-157 Fifth Avenue, New York. 



172 



THE DIAL 



[March 16, 



NEW AND TIMELY PUBLICATIONS 



A KEN OF KIPLING: 

A BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF RUDYARD KIPLING. 

By WILL M. CLEMENS. Containing an account of his career ; an appreciation of his work in 
prose and verse ; a specially interesting chapter on his religion as shown in his writings ; 
some good anecdotes and illustrations ; a bibliography of his writings ; his famous inter- 
view with Mark Twain, and a reprint of some of his more famous poems. With a superb 
portrait in photogravure. Printed on Dickinson laid paper and appropriately bound in 
cloth, with decorative design. 12 mo, 75 cents. 



THE DOWNFALL OF THE DERVISHES. 



With 4 



By E. N. BENNETT, M.A., Special Correspondent of The Westminster Gazette; Lecturer at Oxford. 

maps and a photogravure portrait of General Lord Kitchener. Crown 8vo, $1.40. 

Mr. Bennett accompanied the last expedition to the Soudan, which ended in the Battle of Omdurman, the capture of Khartoum, and the 
overthrow of the Mahdi. The author's charge that the wounded Dervishes were killed by the Sirdar's troops has excited all England, and has 
made the book a lively topic of discussion. The publishers are pleased to note an extraordinary demand for this book. Two editions have been 
entirely sold out la advance of publication, and the third edition is nearly gone. 



DEADMAN'S : 

A Romance of the Australian Gold Fields. By MARY 
GAUNT, author of " The Moving Finger," " Kirk- 
ham's Find." Crown 8vo, $1.50. 

"Written with remarkable vigor and full of life and movement. 
The details of this story form one of the most vivid pictures of camp 
life this author has yet given us." London Christian World. 



DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS. 

By FREDERIC G. KITTON. Art canvas, beveled boards, 

gilt top, thick demy 4to, $12.00 net. 

Containing 22 pnrtraitt and over 70 original drawing* by Cruik- 
shank, Seymour, Buss, "Phiz," Cattermole, Leech, Doyle, Stanfield, 
Maclise, Tenniel, Marcus Stone, Landseer, Luke Fildea, etc., now 
reproduced for the first time. Edition strictly limited. 



An Illustrated Edition of Edgar Allan Poe's Works. 

ARTHUR GORDON PYM, THE GOLD BUG, and THE MURDERS 

OF THE RUE MORGUE. 

Illustrated by A. D. McCoRMiCK. Bound in ribbed silk cloth, with richly decorated cover. Gilt top, 8vo, $1.50. 
Two volumes ready. 

THE BRITISH EMPIRE. 

By Sir CHARLES W. DILKE, author of "Greater Britain." Crown 8vo, $1.25. An English statesman's summary 

of the present conditions of Queen Victoria's realms. 

The New York Herald, in course of a page review, claiming for it " the Book of the Week," states : " Now, at the age of 56, Sir Charles Dilke 
publishes a new work on practically the same subject (Greater Britain), which may be looked upon as representing his matured opinions revised 
in the altered light of the present. As a rapid and succinct summary of the present status of the British Empire the book will prove invaluable to 
statesmen and historical and political students. It may be especially commended to the American people at a time when they are just beginning 
to wrestle with the great problems of Imperialism and Expansion, which England has so successfully mastered." 



LOVE AND A SWORD. 

A Tale of the Afridi War. By KENNEDY KING. Numer- 
ous illustrations by R. Caton Woodville, W. B. Wollen, 
and others. Crown Hvo, gilt edges, $1.50. 

EXCAVATIONS AT JERUSALEM. 

By FREDERICK J. Buss, Ph.D. Plans and illustrations by 
Archibald C. Dickie, A.R.I.B.A. Profusely illustrated. 
8vo, $4.00 net. 
Published on behalf Palestine Exploration Fund. 



NEPHELE: 
A MUSICAL ROMANCE. 

By FRANCIS WM. BOURDILLON, author of " The Night 
Has a Thousand Eyes, the Day But One." "Angelas" 
Edition. With a beautiful photogravure reproduc- 
tion of Millet's masterpiece, " The Angelus." Exqui- 
sitely bound in white vellum and gold, gilt top. 
12mo, $1.00. (In a box.) 



DR. NEESEN'S BOOK ON WHEELING. 

By VICTOR NEESEN, M.D. Beautifully illustrated. Full of hints and advice to wheelwomen and wheelmen 
from the physician's standpoint. Attractively bound, with decorative cover. 12mo, 75 cents. 



Full List of New and Recent Publications and Importations sent on application. 

NEW AMSTERDAM BOOK COMPANY, 



156 FIFTH AVENUE, 

NEW YORK CITY. 



1899.] 



THE DIAL 



173 



D. APPLETON & CO.'S 



PRELIMINARY SPRING 
ANNOUNCEMENTS. 



STANDARD AND MISCELLANEOUS. 

HISTORY OF THE PEOPLE OP THE UNITED STATES. 
By Prof. J. B. McMaster. Vol. V., covering the period 
from 1821 to 1837. 8vo, cloth, $2.50. 

A HISTORY OF AMERICAN PRIVATEERS. By Edgar 
S. Maclay. Uniform with " A History of the United 
States Navy." 8vo, cloth, $3.50. 

THE PRINCIPLES OF TAXATION. By David A. Wells. 
12 mo, cloth. 

OUTLINES OF THE COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGY AND 
MORPHOLOGY OF ANIMALS. By Joseph Le Conte. 
Illustrated. 12mo, cloth. 

THE REMINISCENCES OF A VERY OLD MAN (1808- 
1897). By John Sartain. Illustrated. 12 mo, cloth. 

ADMIRAL PORTER. By J. R. Soley. A new volume 
in the Great Commanders Series. With portrait and 
maps. 12 mo, cloth, $1.50. 

LETTERS TO A MOTHER. By Susan E. Blow. In- 
ternational Education Series. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

EDUCATION BY DEVELOPMENT. By Frederick Frce- 
bel. International Education Series. 12mo, cloth. 

MONTAIGNE'S EDUCATION OF CHILDREN. By Dr. L. 
R. Rector. International Education Series. 12mo, cloth. 

SPAIN. By F. A. Ober. History for Young Readers. 
12mo, cloth, 60 cents. 

OUR NAVY IN WAR TIME. By Franklin Matthews. 
1 11 us. Appletons' Home-Reading Books. 12 mo, cloth. 

UNCLE SAM'S SOLDIERS. By O. P. Austin. Illus. 
Appletons' Home-Reading Books. 12mo, cloth, 75c. net. 

HAROLD'S QUESTS. By J. W. Troeger. Illustrated. 
Book III., Nature Study Readers. Appletons' Home- 
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ABOUT THE WEATHER. By Mark W. Harrington. 
Illus. Appletons' Home Reading Books. 12mo, cloth. 

THE STORY OF THE FISHES. By J. N. BASKETT. 
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THE FAIRY LAND OF SCIENCE. By Arabella B. 
Buckley, author of " Life and Her Children," " A Short 
History of Natural Science," etc. New and revised 
edition. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

BIRD-LIFE. A Guide to the Study of our Common 
Birds. By FRANK M. CHAPMAN, Assistant Curator of 
Vertebrate Zoology, American Musem of Natural His- 
tory; author of "Handbook of Birds of Eastern North 
America." 

TEACHERS' EDITION. Containing an Appendix with new matter de- 
signed for the use of teachers, and including lists of birds for each 
month of the year. With 75 full-page uncolored plates and 25 draw- 
ings in the text by Ernest Seton Thompson. 12mo, cloth, $2.00. 

TEACHERS' MANUAL. To accompany Portfolios of 
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plates, as follows: 

PORTFOLIO No. I. Permanent Residents and Winter Visitants. 32 
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PORTFOLIO No. III. May Migrants, Types of Birds' Eggs, and Nine Half- 
tone Plates showing Types of Birds' Nests from Photographs from 
Nature. 34 plates. Price of Portfolios, each, $1.25 ; with the Manual, 
82.00 ; the three Portfolios, with the Manual, 34.00. 



FICTION. 

A DUET WITH AN OCCASIONAL CHORUS. By A. Conan 
Doyle, author of " Uncle Bernac," " The Memoirs of 
Sherlock Holmes," etc. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

A DOUBLE THREAD. By Ellen Thorneycroft Fowler, 
author of " Concerning Isabel Carnaby." 12mo, cloth. 

THE MORMON PROPHET. By Lily Dougall, author 
of " The Mermaid," " The Madonna of a Day," etc. 
12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

LOVE AMONG THE LIONS. By F. Anstey, author of 
" Vice Versa," etc. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

SNOW ON THE HEADLIGHT. A Story of the Great 
Burlington Strike. By Cy Warman, author of " The 
Story of the Railroad," etc. 12mo, cloth. 

IDYLLS OF THE SEA. By Frank T. Bullen, F.R.G.S., 
First Mate, author of " The Cruise of the Cachalot." 
12mo, cloth. 

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SYMONS. 



Translated by ARTHUR 



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176 



THE DIAL 



[March 16, 



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THE DIAL 



177 



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THE DIAL 



[March 16 r 



LONGMANS, GREEN, & Co.'s NEW BOOKS 



A NEW BOOK BY SIR GEORGE TREVELYAN. 

THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION, 1766=1776. 

By Sir GEORGE OTTO TREVELYAN, Bart., 

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8vo. Pp. xiv.-434. With a Map of Boston. Cloth, gilt top, $3.00. 

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Under the African Sun. 

A Description of Native Races in Uganda 
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There are no fewer than 16 full-page plates, 117 text illustra- 
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England in the Age of Wycliffe. 

By GEORGE MACAULAY TREVELYAN, B.A., Fellow of 
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*#* The object of this volume is to give a general picture 
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their progress. It recounts also the leading and characteristic 
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A NEW BOOK BY MB. ANDREW LANG. 

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Being a Sequel to "Pickle the Spy." By ANDREW 
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*** Certain criticisms on the theory that " Pickle the Spy'" 
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A NEW HISTORY OF BRITISH INDIA IN FIVE 
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A History of British India. 

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Selected Examples of Decorative Art from 
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Democracy and Liberty. 

By WILLIAM EDWARD HARTPOLE LECKY. With en- 
tirely new introduction (52 pages). Vol. I., pp. 
xxiii.^568 ; Vol. II., pp. xix.-601, $5.00. 
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Wood and Garden. 

Notes and Thoughts, Practical and Critical, of a Work- 
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Health in the Nursery. 

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The Traditional Poetry of the 
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Lectures on the National Gallery. 

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Early Italian Love Stories. 

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180 THE DIAL [March 16, 



JOHN LANE'S NEW BOOKS 



THE COLLECTED POEMS OF WILLIAM WATSON. 

With Portrait by EDMUND H. NEW. Crown 8vo, $2.50. 

Also a LARGE PAPER EDITION of 20 Copies, for America, $10.00 net. 

The London Daily News says : " The swing and rush of the verse in the great themes ; its epigrammatic felicity in others ; its 
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JUST OUT, THIRD EDITION Revised, with a long Prefatory Note upon the character of SINFI LOVELL. 

THE SEQUEL TO "AYLWIN." 

THE COMING OF LOVE: Rhona Boswell's Story, and Other Poems. 

By THEODORE WATTS- DUNTON,