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From the collection of the 

z _ m 



v JJibrary 

San Francisco, California 


c/7 Semi-Monthly Journal of 

Literary Criticism, Discussion, and Information 

Public Library, 


JULY 1 TO DECEMBER 16, 1899 




ACCAWMACKE TO ApPOMATTOX .......... Francis Wat/land Shepardson . 418 

ALASKA, LATE BOOKS OK ............ Hiram M. Stanley .... 72 

AMERICAN CITIZEN, MEMOIRS OF AN ................... 269 


ARNOLD, MATTHEW, " PASSING "OF ........ W. H . Johnson ..... 

ART, VALUE OF HISTORY OF ........... Edward K. Hale, Jr. . . . 421 

AUSTRALIAN WILDS, IN ............ Ira M. Price ...... 126 

BOOKS FOR THE YOUNO, 1899 ................... 432, 500 

BOOKS OF THE FALL SEASON OF 1899 ................... 163 

BRITAIN AND THE BOERS ............ Wallace Rice ...... 237 

BYRON, THE NEW .............. Melville B. Anderson . . . 420 

CHERBULIEZ, VICTOR ......................... 39 

CHICAGO SCHOOLS .......................... 9 

CIVIL WAR, HEART OF THE ........... Francis Wayland Shepardson . 312 

COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE, STUDIES IN ........ Dwight H. Perkins .... 97 

COMMERCE, CONGRESSIONAL REGULATION OF ...... James Oscar Pierce .... 98 

CONFEDERACY, A FIGHTER FOR THE ................... 231 

CONSTITUTION, NATIONAL, THEORIES OF THE ..... James Oscar Pierce .... 233 

CONTINENTAL LITERATURE, A YEAR OF ................. 65, 87 

CUBA, AGAIN THE CASE OF ........... Sclim H. Peabody .... 128 

DANTON AS MAN AND LEADER .......... Henry E. Bourne ..... 70 


EGYPT OF TO-DAY .............. Shailer Mathews . ... 488 

ENGLISH DRAMA, HISTORY OF THE ......... Richard Burton ..... 120 

ENGLISH GRAMMAR, AN ORIGINAL ......... Edward A. Allen ..... 272 

ENGLISH IN GERMANY, STUDY OF ......... E. I. Antrim ...... 268 

EPIC QUESTION, THE ENDLESS .......... Albert H. Tolman .... 94 

ETHICS, A QUESTION OF ....................... 479 

FICTION, RECENT ............... Wm. Morton Payne 17, 73, 174, 490 

FISKE'S DUTCH AND QUAKER COLONIES ....... B. A. Hinsdale ..... 357 

FRENCH POETRY AND ENGLISH ..................... 227 

GAMES, ORIGIN OF .............. Frederick Starr ..... 123 

GARDENING, GENTLE ART OF ........... Wallace Rice ...... 16 

GOETHE IN STRASSBURG ............. James Taft Hatfield .... 113 

GREEK LITERATURE, RELIGION IN ......... Paul Shorey ...... 170 


HAWAII, VARIOUS ASPECTS OF .......... Charles A. Kofoid .... 489 

HOLIDAY PUBLICATIONS, 1899 ................... 424, 494 

HUGO MEMOIRS, THE ........................ 355 

IBSEN AND BJ&RNSON .... ......... William Morton Payne . . . 314 

IDIOM AND IDEAL .......................... 305 

JAPANESE EYES, SEEN WITH ........... Wallace Rice ...... 172 

LIDDELL, DEAN, MEMOIR OF ...................... 310 

LIFE, MAKING THE MOST OF ........... />. L. Maulsby ..... 486 

LITERATURE, Music, AND MORALS ......... Charles Leonard Moore . . . 165 

MCCARTHY'S RECOLLECTIONS ...................... 42 

MEMORY FOREVER, A ........................ 349 

MlLLAIS AND THE PRE-RAPHAELITES ................... 482 

MISSOURI COMPROMISE AND ITS REPEAL ....... F. H. Hodder ...... 124 

NATIONAL POLICY, OUR ............ John J. Halsey ..... 45 

NATURE- BOOKS FOR SUMMER OUTINGS ........ Charles A. Kofoid .... 13 


OPERA IN CHICAGO ......................... 413 

PATRIOTIC IMPULSE, THE NEW ..................... 266 

PEACE, WAR, AND HISTORY ........... Wallace Rice ...... 99 

PLAYS AND PLAYERS OF A SEASON ......... W. E. Simonds ..... 11 

POB COMING TO HIS KINGDOM .......... Henry Austin ...... 307 


POETRY, RECENT BOOKS OF ........... William Morton Payne . . . 239 

SPAIN, WAR WITH. AND AFTER .......... Wallace Rice ...... 363 

STANTON, EDWIN M., LIFE OF .......... George W. Julian .... 48 

STEVENS, THADDEUS .............. George W. Julian .... 117 





" THRONE-MAKERS " AND OTHERS Percy Favor Bicknell . . . 122 

TRAVEL, RECENT BOOKS OF Hiram M. Stanley . . . 14, 316 



BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS 22, 52, 77, 101, 131, 177, 244, 279, 319, 366 

BRIEFER MENTION 24, 54, 80, 134, 180, 247, 282, 323, 370 

LITERARY NOTES 25, 55, 80, 103, 135, 193, 248, 283, 324, 371, 437, 503 

TOPICS IN LEADING PERIODICALS 27, 135, 250, 325, 438 

LISTS OF NEW BOOKS 27, 55, 81, 104, 135, 251, 283, 325, 372, 438, 504 



Abbot, W. J. Blue Jackets of 1898 .... 501 
Abercromby, John. Pre- and Proto-Historic Finns 97 
Adams, Elinor D. Little Miss Conceit .... 435 
Adams, J. C. Nature Studies in Berkshire . . 22 
Adams, W. T. An Undivided Union . . . .433 

Ade, George. Fables in Slang 370 

JSsop's Fables, illus. by P. J. Billinghurst . . . 437 
Alger, Horatio, Jr. Rupert's Ambition . . . 434 
Allen, Grant. Miss Cayley's Adventures . . . 176 
Allen, Grant. The European Tour ..... 134 
Allen, Katharine. Treatment of Nature in Poetry 

of the Roman Republic 247 

Allen, Willis Boyd. Cleared for Action . . . 433 
American Art Annual Supplement for 1899 . . 437 
Amicis, E. de. Cuore, trans, by G. Mantellini . 135 
Andersen's Fairy Tales, illus. by Helen Stratton . 437 
Annesley, Charles. Standard Operaglass, 15th ed. 437 

Arnold, Sir Edwin. The Gulistan 135 

Aston, W. G. Japanese Literature 23 

Avery, Harold. Mobsley's Mohicans .... 502 
Bailey, Alice W. Outside of Things .... 436 
Baker, Louise R. Sunbeams and Moonbeams . 435 
Baker, R. S. Boy's Book of Inventions . . . 434 

Baker-Baker, M. Animal Jokes 501 

Baldry, A. L. Sir John E. Millais 485 

Ballard, Susan. Fairy Tales from Far Japan . 437 

Barbour, R. H. The 'Half Back 432 

Barnes, Annie M. Ferry Maid of the Chattahoochee 436 
Barnes, James. Drake and his Yeomen . . . 502 
Barnett, E. A. Common Sense in Education . . 277 

Barr, Amelia E. Trinity Bells 499 

Barr, Robert. The Unchanging East .... 496 
Barrett, John. Admiral George Dewey . . . 370 

Barren, Elwyn. Manders 248 

Barry, Etheldred B. Little Tong's Mission . . 436 
Barry, William. The Two Standards .... 17 

Baum, L. Frank. Father Goose 436 

Baylor, Frances C. The Ladder of Fortune . .175 

Beesly, A. H. Life of Danton 70 

Bell, Mrs. Hugh. Conversational Openings, rev. ed. 503 
Bellamy, C. J. Return of the Fairies .... 436 

Belloc, Hilaire. Dauton 70 

Bennett, W. H. Book of Joshua 281 

Benson, E. F. The Capsina 19 

Benton, Joel. In the Poe Circle 367 

Beresford, Lord Charles. The Break-Up of China 131 
Bergengren, Ralph. In Case of Need .... 501 
Besant, Walter, and Palmer, Prof. Jerusalem . 324 
Bigelow, Capt. John. The Santiago Campaign . 364 
Bingham, Jennie M. Seventh Earl of Shaftesbury 248 

Birt, Archibald. Castle Czvargas 176 

Black, Alexander. Captain Kodak 434 



Black, Alexander. Modern Daughters . . . .427 
Blackman, W. F. Making of Hawaii .... 490 

Blake, Paul. Phil and I 502 

Blake, William. Designs to Thornton's Virgil . 54 
Blanchard, Amy E. A Revolutionary Maid . . 433 
Blanchard, Amy E. A Sweet Little Maid . . . 502 

Blanchard, Amy E. Miss Vanity 436 

Bloch, I. S. The Future of War 244 

Blow, Susan E. Letters to a Mother .... 277 

Boissier, Gaston. Roman Africa 282 

Booth, Maud B. Sleepy Time Stories .... 435 
Boothby, Guy. Pharos, the Egyptian . . . . 19 
Bourdillon, F. W., Poems of, new edition . . . 371 
Bouvet, Margaret. Tales of an Old Chateau . . 437 
Boyer, C. C. Principles and Methods of Teaching 276 

Bradley, L. D. Our Indians 436 

Brady, J. E. Tales of the Telegraph . . . .323 
Brain, Belle M. Transformation of Hawaii . . 489 
Braine, Sheila E. Princess of Hearts . . . . 501 
Brandes, Georg. Ibsen and Bjornson .... 314 
Brandes, Georg. Shakespeare, one- volume edition 371 
Brenan, Gerald. Rambles in Dickens-Land . . 500 
Bridge, Norman. The Penalties of Taste . . . 321 
Britton, Wiley. Civil War on the Border ... 23 

Brocade Series, new volumes in 498 

Brocklebank, W. E. Poems and Songs . . . 240 
Bronte Sisters, Novels of, " Haworth " edition . 371 
Bronte Sisters, Novels of, " Thornton " edition 80, 503 
Brooks, Edward. Story of the JDneid .... 437 

Brooks, E. S. Historic Americans 433 

Brooks, E. S. In Blue and White 433 

Brooks, E. S. On Wood Cove Island .... 435 
Brooks, E. S. Under the Tamaracks .... 435 
Browne, G. Waldo. The Woodranger .... 433 
Browne, G. Waldo. Two American Boys in Hawaii 433 
Browne, Irving. Ballads of a Book- Worm . . 103 

Bruce, Miner. Alaska 73 

Brun, S. J. Tales of Languedoc 437 

Buckley, J. M. Christian Science 371 

Buckley, J. M. Extemporaneous Oratory . . . 369 
Budge, E. A. W. Oriental Wit and Wisdom . 247 

Bullen, F. T. Idylls of the Sea 77 

Bullen, F. T. Log of a Sea- Waif 366 

Burberry, H. A. Orchid Cultivator's Guide . . 371 
Burgess, Gelett. Lively City o' Ligg . . . . 500 
Burt, Mary E., and Cable, Lucy L. Cable Story Book 25 
Busch, W. Plish and Plum, and Max and Maurice 436 
Butler, W. A. Nothing to Wear, new edition . 134 
Butterworth, Hezekiah. Story of Magellan . . 432 
Butterworth, Hezekiah. The Treasure Ship . . 433 

Cable, G. W. Strong Hearts 76 

Cable, G. W. Grandissimes, illus. by A. Herter . 495 



Caghill, Mrs. Harry. Autobiography of Mrs. 

Olipbaot 22 

Caine, O. V. In the Year of Waterloo .... 433 
Campbell, Lewis. Religion in Greek Literature . 170 

Canavan, M. J. Ben Coraee 502 

Capes, Bernard. At a Winter's Fire .... 76 

Carey, Roaa N. My Lady Frivol 43.-, 

Carlyle's French Revolution, Holiday edition . . 427 
Carlyle's Works, Centenary " edition . 25, 283, 503 
Carnegie, David W. Spinifex and Sand . . .126 
Carpenter, 6. R. Elements of Rhetoric . . . 437 
Carrington, Fitzroy. The Kings' Lyrics . . . 498 
"Carroll, Lewis." The Alice Books, illus. by 

Blanche McManns 437 

Carruth, W. H. Lathers Deutochen Schriften . 370 

Carter, C. F. Katooticut 501 

Cary, Elisabeth L. Browning 496 

Castle, Egerton. Young April 493 

Castlemon, Harry. The White Beaver .... 434 
Catherwood, Mary H. Spanish Peggy .... 600 
Cawein, Madison. Myth and Romance . . . 243 

Century Magazine, Vol. LVII 55 

Cbanning, Grace E. Sea Drift 241 

Child, F. S. AD Unknown Patriot 502 

Child, F. S. House with Sixty Closets .... 435 

Cholmondeley, Mary. Red Pottage 492 

Chopin, Kate. The Awakening 75 

Churchill, Lady. Anglo-Saxon Review, Vol. I. . 102 
Churchill, Winston. Richard Carrel .... 74 

Clark, F. H. Outlines of Civics 369 

Clark, William T. Commercial Cuba . . . . 129 

Clement, Clara E. Saints in Art 135 

Clougb, A. H., Poems of, Crowell's editions . . 248 
Clow, F. R. Economics as a School Study . . 53 
Colby, C. W. English History Sources .... 24 
Colby, F. M., and Peck, H. T. International Year 

Book, 1898 54 

Coleridge, Ernest Hartley. Poems 240 

Colloquies of Edward Osborne 499 

Colorado in Color and Song 495 

Colvin, Sidney. Letters of R. L. Stevenson . . 416 
Coman, Katharine, and Kendall, Elizabeth. History 

of England 362 

Comparetti, D. Traditional Poetry of the Finns . 94 
Cook, Jane E. Sculptor Caught Napping . . . 501 

Cook, Joel. England 427 

Copley Series 248, 431 

Costello, F. H. On Fighting Decks in 1812 . . 433 
Cottin, Paul. Memoirs of Sergeant Burgoyne . 134 

Coulter, John M. Plant Relations 80 

Craft, Mabel. Hawaii Nei 489 

Cragin, Belle S. Our Insect Friends and Foes . 79 

Crane, Stephen. Active Service 491 

Crane, Walter. The Sirens Three 430 

Crawford, F. Marion. Saracinesca, illus. by Orson 

Lowell 494 

Cripps, W. J. Old English Plate, sixth edition . 437 

Crockett, S. R. Kit Kennedy 434 

Crockett, S. R. The Black Douglas 19 

Crowninshield, Mrs. Schuyler. Latitude 19 . 20 
Culin, Stewart. Chess and Playing Cards . . . 123 

Culin, Stewart. Hawaiian Games 124 

Cumulative Book Index for 1899 180 

Darling, Mary G. We Four Girls 435 

Darrow, Clarence S. A Persian Pearl .... f>4 

Davidson, John. Godfrida 23 

Davis, O. K. Our Conquests in the Pacific . . 364 
Davis, K. H., Works of, "Olive Leather" edition 498 

Dawe, Carlton. Voyage of the Pulo Way . . 

Decle, Lionel. Trooper 3809 ...."... 

Deming, E. W. Indian Child Life 

Denio, Elizabeth. Nicholas Poussin 

Dewey, Byrd S. Bruno 

Dexter, T. F. G., and Garlick, A. H. Psychology 
in the Schoolroom 

Dickens's Pickwick Papers, India paper edition . 

Dickinson, Martha G. Within the Hedge . . . 

Dill, Samuel. Roman Society, revised edition . 

Dinwiddie, William. Puerto Rico 

Dix, Beulah M. Soldier Rigdale 

Dixon, Mrs. Archibald. The Missouri Compromise 

Dobell, Bertram. Poems of James Thomson . . 

Doubleday, Russell. Cattle Ranch to College . 

Douglas, Amanda M. A Little Girl in Old Phil- 

Douglas, Amanda M. The Heir of Sherburne . 

Dowson, Ernest, and Moore, Arthur. Adrian Rome 

Doyle, A. Conan. A Duet 

Drake, S. A. Historic Mansions and Highways . 

Draper, Andrew S. The Rescue of Cuba . 

Dreyfus' Letters to his Wife 

Dromgoole, Will Allen. Harum-Scarum Joe . 

Drysdale, William. Helps for Ambitious Boys . 

Du Chaillu, Paul. Land of the Long Night . . 

Dudeney, Mrs. H. Maternity of Harriott Wicken 

Dunn, B. A. On General Thomas's Staff . . . 

Dunne, F. P. Mr. Dooley in the Hearts of his 

Dutton, S. T. Social Phases of Education . . 

Earle, Alice M. Child Life in Colonial Days 

Eaton, Seymour. Home Study Circle . . 324, 

Eggert, C. A. Goethe, and Moliere's Misanthrope 

Eliot, George. Middleman:!), illus. by Alice 
Barber Stephens 248, 

Eliot, George. Silas Marner, illus. by R. B. Birch 

Ellis, E. S. Dorsey, the Young Inventor . . . 

Ellis, E. S. Iron Heart 

Ellis, E. S. The Young Goldseekers . . . . 

Ellis, E. S. Uncrowning a King 

Elson, H. W. Side Lights on American History . 

Emerson, R. W. Letters to a Friend . . . . 

Engelhard t, A. P. Russian Province of the North 

Everett-Green, Evelyn. A Pair of Pickles . . 

Faience editions, new volumes 

Farrar, F. W. Westminster Abbey . . 248, 

Farrer, J. A. The New Leviathan 

Field, Caroline L. Nannie's Happy Childhood . 

Field, Lilian F. Introduction to Study of the Re- 

Finley, Martha. Elsie in the South 

Fish, Williston. Short Rations 

Fiske, A. K. History of the West Indies . . . 

Fiske, John. Dutch and Quaker Colonies . . . 

FitzGerald's Rubaiyal, Vest Pocket edition . . 

Fling, F. M. Outline of Historical Method . . 

Fling, F. M. Studies in European History . . 

Foote, Mary H. Little Fig Tree Stories . . . 

Force, M. F., and Cox, J. D. Gen. W. T. Sherman 

Ford, J. L. Cupid and the Footlights . . . . 

Ford, Mrs. Gerard. King Pippin 

Ford, P. L. Janice Meredith 

Ford, P. L. Janice Meredith, holiday edition 

Ford, P. L. Writings of Jefferson, Vol. X. . . 

Foas, C. D. Himalayas to the Equator . . . 

Fox, John, Jr. A Mountain Europa, new edition 

Prater, Mrt. C. F. Strawberry Hill . . . . 












i: 1 ,.-, 





















I '.) I 

31 s 




Frederic, Harold. The Market- Place .... 21 
Froebel's Education by Development, trans, by 

Josephine Jarvis 277 

Ganong, W. F. The Teaching Botanist . . .283 
Garland, Hamlin. Boy Life on the Prairie . . 500 
Garland, Hamlin. Trail of the Goldseekers . . 72 
Gayley, C. M., and Scott, F. N. Methods and 

Materials of Literary Criticism 319 

Georgian Period, The 97 

Gibbs, George. Pike and Cutlass 501 

Gibson, C. D. Education of Mr. Pipp .... 425 

Gibson, C. D. Sketches in Egypt 317 

Gilbert, Frances F. Annals of My College Life . 432 
Glenn, T. A. Some Colonial Mansions . 134, 500 
Going, Maud. Field, Forest, and Wayside Flowers 13 

Gollancz, I. Temple Classics 25, 370 

Golschmann, Le*on. A Siberian Cub 436 

Gomme, G. L. Prince's Story Book .... 437 

Gore-Booth, Eva. Poems 240 

Gorham, George C. Edwin M. Stanton ... 48 
Grahame, Kenneth. The Golden Age, illus. by 

Maxfield Parrish 503 

Greenough, D'Ooge, and Daniell. 2d Year Latin 282 
Grego, J. Reminiscences of Captain Gronow . 321 

Griffis, W. E. America in the East 365 

Griffith, William. The House of Dreams . . .243 
Grinnell, G. B. Jack the Young Ranchman . . 434 
Gudeman, Alfred. Latin Literature, Vol. II. . 503 
Guerber, H. A. Legends of Switzerland . . . 499 

"Gugu." Mother Duck's Children 502 

Guinness, Lucy E. Across India 15 

Gwynn, Stephen. Donegal and Antrim ... 15 
Haggard, H. Rider. A Farmer's Year .... 497 
Hale, Edward Everett, Works of, Library edition 46 
Hale, Richard W. The Dreyfus Story .... 25 

Hall, Ruth. Boys of Scrooby 433 

Hall, Tom. Fun and Fighting of Rough Riders . 364 
Hamblen, H. E. Yarn of a Bucko Mate . . . 245 
Hamp, S. F. Treasure of Mushroom Rock . . 434 
Hanus,-P. H. Educational Aims and Values . .278 
Hapgood, Norman. Abraham Lincoln .... 369 
Harland, Marion. Literary Hearthstones . . .429 
Harland, Marion. More Colonial Homesteads . 430 

Harpers' Scientific Memoirs 323 

Harraden, Beatrice. The Fowler 74 

Harris, Joel Chandler. Plantation Pageants . . 435 
Harrison, Mrs. Burton. The Carcellini Emerald . 76 
Hart, A. B. Source- Book of American History . 80 
Harte, Bret. Stories in Light and Shadow . . 76 
Hartshorne, Grace. For Thee Alone .... 431 
Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, Vol. IX. 54 
Hastings, James. Dictionary of the Bible, Vol. II. 53 
Hawthorne's Marble Faun, " Roman " edition . . 428 
Hayward, Abraham. Art of Dining, new edition 324 
H. B. and B. T. B. A Moral Alphabet . . .501 
Hearn, Lafcadio. Exotics and Retrospectives . 52 
Heilprin, Angelo. Alaska and the Klondike . . 72 
Hemstreet, Charles. Nooks and Corners of Old 

New York 430 

Henty, G. A. A Roving Commission .... 432 

Henty, G. A. No Surrender 432 

Henty, G. A. The Brahmin's Treasure . . . 432 

Henty, G. A. Won by the Sword 432 

Heuty, G. A. Yule Tide Yarns 432 

Herford, C. H. " Eversley " Shakespeare 180,248 
Herford, Oliver. Alphabet of Celebrities . ' . . 497 
Herford, Oliver. Child's Natural History . . . 436 
Herrick, Robert. Love's Dilemmas 76 

Herrick, Robert, and Damon, L. T. Composition 

and Rhetoric 80 

Hewlett, Maurice. Pan and the Young Shepherd 102 
Higginson, T. W. In Old Cambridge .... 282 

Hill, J. A. Stories of the Railroad 323 

Hill, Robert T. Cuba and Porto Rico . . . .128 
Hillegas, H. C. Oom Paul's People . . . .368 
Hind, Lewis. The Enchanted Stone . . . . 19 
Hitchcock, Mrs. R. D. Two Women in the Klondike 72 

Hole, S. Reynolds. Our Gardens 17 

Holmes, Edmond. The Silence of Love . . . 240 

Home, James. Lady Louisa Stuart 133 

Hope, Anthony. The King's Mirror .... 493 

Horton, George. A Fair Brigand 174 

Howard, Blanche W. Dionysius the Weaver's 

Heart's Dearest 492 

Howard, Gen. O. O. Henry in the War . . .433 
Howard, W. S. Old Father Gander . . . .502 
Howe, M. A. De Wolfe. Beacon Biographies . . 239 
Howe, R. H., Jr. On the Birds' Highway . . 14 

Howells, W. D. Ragged Lady 20 

Howells, W. D. Their Silver Wedding Journey 495 
Hoyt, Deristhe L. Barbara's Heritage .... 435 
Hubbard, Elbert. Little Journeys to the Homes 

of Celebrated Painters 499 

Hughes, Rupert. The Dozen from Lakerim . . 432 
Hughes, Sarah F. John Murray Forbes . . . 269 

Hugo, Victor, Memoirs of 355 

Humphrey, Maud. Gallant Little Patriots . . 436 

Humphrey, Maud. The Golf Girl 499 

Hunt, Theodore W. English Meditative Lyrics . 180 
Hunt, Violet. The Human Interest .... 493 

Huret, Jules. Sarah Bernhardt 280 

Kuril, Estelle M. Raphael 500 

Hyde, Douglas. Literary History of Ireland . 101 
Irving's Rip Van Winkle and Legend of Sleepy 

Hollow, Holiday editions 427 

Jacks, W. T. Life of Prince Bismarck . . . 180 
Jackson, F. G. Thousand Days in the Arctic . 14 
Jacobs, Joseph. Tales from Boccaccio .... 496 

James, Henry. The Awkward Age 21 

James, Wm. Talks to Teachers on Psychology . 276 
Jekyll, Gertrude. Wood and Garden .... 16 

Jennings, N. A. A Texas Ranger 101 

Jewett, Sarah O. Betty Leicester's Christmas . 435 
Johnson, Annie F. Two Little Knights of Kentucky 436 
Johnson, Clifton. Among English Hedgerows . 427 
Johnson, Jesse. Testimony of the Sonnets . . 366 
Johnson, Rossiter. The Hero of Manila . . . 433 
Johnson, William. Tom Graham, V.C. . . .434 

Johnson, W. H. King or Knave 174 

Johnston, Sir H. H. Colonization of Africa . . 279 
Johnston, William A. History up to Date . . 100 
Jones, Augustine. Life of Thomas Dudley . . 245 
Jordan, D. S. Book of Knight and Barbara . . 501 

Jordan, D. S. Imperial Democracy 45 

Karageorgevitch, Prince. Enchanted India . . 318 

Keats and Shelley, Poems by 499 

Keats, Works and Letters of, " Cambridge" ed. . 481 
Keeler, Charles and Louise. A Season's Sowing . 500 

Keightley, S. R. The Silver Cross 19 

Kemble's Sketch Book 498 

Kennedy, Wardlaw. Beasts 502 

Kingsley, Rose G. History of French Art . . 133 
Kipling, Rudyard. From Sea to Sea .... 16 
Kipling, Rudyard. Single Story Series . . . 283 

Kipling, Rudyard. Stalky & Co 432 

Kipling, R. Brushwood Boy, illus. by Orson Lowell 499 




Kirk, Klleu O. Dorothy and her Friends . . . 435 
Kirk, K. C. Twelve Month* in Klondike . . . 319 

Knackfuss, H. Rembrandt 135 

Knaufft, Ernest. Drawing for Printers ... 80 
Ladd, G. T. Essays on the Higher Education . 276 
La Fontaine's Fables, illus. by P. J. Billinghurst . 503 

Lagerliif, Selma. Invisible Links 371 

Lahee, H. C. Famous Violinists 498 

Lamb, Charles and Mary. Mrs. Leicester's School, 

illus. by Winifred Green 437 

Lamb's Essays of Elia, illus. by C. E. Brock . . 496 
Lamb's Tales from Shakespeare, illus. by R. A. Bell 437 

Land of Sunshine, Vols. IX. and X 25 

Lang, Andrew. Red Book of Animal Stories . 436 

Lanier, Sidney. Bob 498 

Le Baron, Grace. Told under the Cherry Trees . 436 

Lecky, W. E. H. The Map of Life 486 

Lee, Guy C. Principles of Public Speaking . . 503 

Le Feuvre, Amy. Roses 435 

Le Gallienne, Richard. Young Lives . . . . 18 

Legge, Arthur E. J. Mutineers 73 

Leonard, J. W. Who 's Who in America . . .101 
Lewes, G. H. Robespierre, new edition ... 25 
Lewis, E. H. First Manual of Composition . . 437 
Lillie, Lucy C. Margaret Thorp's Trial . . . 435 
Little Folks' Illustrated Annual, 1899 .... 502 
Little, Mrs. Archibald. Intimate China . . . 318 
Little, W. J. Knojc. Sketches in South Africa . 237 

Locke, W. J. Idols 18 

Lodge, H. C. The War with Spain 363 

Long, William J. Ways of Wood Folk . . .502 

Loomis, Chester. Zodiac Calendar 500 

Lord, W. S. Best Short Poems of 19th Century . 504 
Lounsberry, Alice. Guide to the Wild Flowers . 13 

Lucas, Winifred. Fugitives 241 

Lust, Adelina C. A Tent of Grace 175 

Liitzow, Count. Bohemian Literature .... 80 

Lynch, Hannah. Toledo 282 

Lyte, E. Oram. Advanced Grammar .... 272 
Lytteltoo, Katharine. Selections from Joubert . 78 
Mabie, H. W. My Study Fire, illus. by the Misses 

Cowles 496 

McCabe, Joseph, and Darien, Georges. Can We 

Disarm? 100 

McCall, Samuel W. Thaddeus Stevens . . .117 

McCarthy, Justin. Reminiscences 42 

MeCrady, Edward. South Carolina under Royal 

Government 179 

MacDonagb, Michael. Irish Life and Character 54 
MacDonald, A. Experimental Study of Children 25 

Macdonald, Miss M. P. Trefoil 435 

Macdonald, William. Select Charters .... 503 
MacDougall, Donald. Conversion of the Maoris . 370 
Mackail, J. W. Georgics of Virgil, Mosher's ed. 498 
Mackail, J. W. Life of William Morris ... 90 
Mackennal, Alexander. Homes and Haunts of the 

Pilgrim Fathers 425 

Mackern, Louie, and Boys, M. Our Lady of the 

Green 102 

MacManus, Seumas. In Chimney Corners . . 430 
Macpherson, Hector C. Adam Smith .... 77 
Madge, H. D. Leaves from the Golden Legend 323 
Madison, Lucy F. Maid of the First Century . 436 
Mahaffy, J. P. Rambles in Greece, Holiday ed. 428 
Malao, A. H. Famous Homes of Great Britain . 425 

Mallock, W. H. Tristram Lacy 73 

Marchmont, A. W. A Dash for a Throne . .176 
Marholm, Laura. Psychology of Woman ... 24 


Markham, Edwin. The Man with the Hoe . .849 
Marshall, Carrie L. Two Wyoming Girls . . . I :''' 

Marshall, Emma. Master Martin 502 

Martin, B. E. and Charlotte M. Stones of Paris l'.', 
Mason, A. E. W. Miranda of the Balcony . .408 
Mason, A. K. W., and Lang, Andrew. Parson Kelly 493 
Mathews, Franklin. The New Born Cuba . . 364 
Matthews, Brander. A Confident To- Morrow . 491 
Matthews, Brander. Ballads of Books, new edition 283 
Maupassant's Boule de Suif, trans, by A. Symons 134 
Maury, Max. Lee's Guide to Gay Paree " . . 80 

Mav, Sophie. Wee Lucy's Secret 435 

Meidrum, D. S. Holland and the Hollanders . 317 
Mendes, 1 1 Periera. Looking Ahead .... 247 
Menefee, Maud. Child Stories from the Masters 502 

Merriman, H. S. Dross . . . 18 

Merwin- Webster. The Short Line War . . . .Vj 

Michel, Emile. Rubens 424 

Millais, J. G. Life of Sir John E. Millais . . 482 
Miller, Olive Thome. First Book of Birds . . 14 
Mitchell, D. G. Leather-Stocking to Poe's Raven 168 
Mitchell, S. Weir. Hugh Wynne, "Continental"ed. 426 

Molesworth, Mrs. This and That 502 

Money-Coutts, F. B. The Alhambra .... 239 
Monkhouse, Cosmo. British Contemporary Artists 495 
Moore's Lalla Rookh, Holiday edition .... 498 
Morgan, Harriet. The Island Impossible . . . 435 
Morrow, W. C. Bohemian Paris of To-day . . 426 
Moscbeles, Felix. Fragments of Autobiography . 368 
Moulton, R. G. Literary Study of the Bible . . 369 
Miiller, Max. Auld Lang Syne, second series . 281 
Munger, Theodore L. Horace Bushnell . . . 362 

Munroe, Kirk. Forward March 433 

Munroe, Kirk. Midshipman Stuart 433 

Neisb, Mrs. R. A World in a Garden . . . .499 

Nesbit, E. The Treasure Seekers 502 

Xeufeld, Charles. Prisoner of the Khaleefa . . 317 
Newbolt, Henry. Stories from Froissart . . . 1 ">-' 
Newell, Peter. Pictures and Rhymes .... 501 
Nicholl, Edith M. A Ranchwoman in New Mexico 54 
Nicholson, H. H., and Avery, Samuel. Laboratory 

Exercises 283 

Nicholson, Wm. Square Book of Animals . . 501 
Nirdlinger, C. F. Masques and Mummers . . 367 
Noble-Ives, Sarah. Songs of the Shining Way . 501 
Norton, Charles L. The Queen's Rangers . . 433 
Ogden, Ruth. Loyal Hearts and True .... 501 
Old- Fashioned Fairy Tales, and Old French Fairy 

Tales 436 

Old South Leaflets, bound volume (Nos. 76-100) 371 

Old World Series, new volumes in 498 

Oman, C. W. England in the 19th Century . . 503 

Opper, F. Mother Goose 437 

Osgood, Mabel O. Wabeno the Magician . . . 501 

Otis, James. Captain Tom 433 

Otis, James. Christmas at Deacon Hackett's . 436 
Otis, James. Off Santiago with Sampson . . . 433 
Otis, James. Telegraph Tom's Ventures . . . .~>02 
Otis, James. When Dewey Came to Manila . . 433 
Otis, James. With Perry on Lake Erie . . . 502 
Oxenham, John. A Princess of Vascovy . . .176 
Oxford English Dictionary, re-issue in monthly parts 248 
Oxley, J. Macdonald. Fife and Drum at Louisbourg 
Page, Thomas N. Santa Claus's Partner . . . 435 

Paine, A. B. In the Deep Woods 501 

Paine, A. B. The Beacon Prize Medals . . . 434 
Palgrave, Gwenllian F. Francis Turner Palgrave 240 
Palmer, Frederick. In the Klondyke .... 15 




Pancoast, H. S. Standard English Poems . . 503 

Parker, W. Gordon. Grant Burton 434 

Parkman, Francis. Montcalm and Wolfe, Hoi. ed. 426 
Parsons, Frances T. How to Know the Ferns . 13 

Paterson, Arthur. Cromwell's Own 74 

Patterson, Virginia S. Dickey Downey . . . 502 
Payne, E. J. History of America, Vol. II. . . 24 
Peixotto, Ernest C. Revolutionary Calendar . . 500 
Pemberton, Max. The Garden of Swords . . .176 

Penfield, F. C. Present-Day Egypt 488 

Pennell, Joseph and Elizabeth. Two Pilgrims' 

Progress, new edition 371 

Penrose, Margaret. The Burglar's Daughter . 502 

Perry, Bliss. Little Masterpieces 248 

Phillips, J. Campbell. Plantation Sketches . . 497 

Phillips, W. S. Just about a Boy 500 

Pier, Arthur S. The Pedagogues 75 

Pluinmer, Mary W. Contemporary Spain . . 78 
Plympton, A. G. A Flower of the Wilderness . 435 
Pollard, Eliza F. A Daughter of France . . . 435 
Pollock, Sir Frederick, and Maitland, Mrs. Fuller. 

The Etchingham Letters 281 

Polychrome Bible, new volumes in 281 

Porter, Pobert P. Industrial Cuba 129 

Powers, George W. Important Events . . . 324 
Prentice, E. Parmalee, and Egan, J. G. The 

Commerce Clause 98 

" Pritchard, Martin J." Passion of Rosamund 

Keith 20 

Prothero, R. E., and Coleridge, E. H. Byron's 

Works 420 

Pyle, Howard. The Price of Blood 429 

Rand, W. B. Lilliput Lyrics, illus. by Charles 

Robinson 437 

Ransome, Stafford. Japan in Transition . . .172 
Raymond, Evelyn. Boys and Girls of Brantham 432 
Raymond, Evelyn. My Lady Barefoot . . . 436 
Reade, Charles. Peg Woffington, illus. by Hugh 

Thomson 494 

Re'ce'jac, M. Bases of the Mystic Knowledge . 79 
Rector, L. E. Montaigne's Education of Children 277 
Reid, Sir Wemyss. Life of Gladstone . . . .103 
Rhodes, J. F. History of the U. S., Vol. IV. . 312 

Richards, Laura E. Peggy 435 

Richards, Laura E. Quicksilver Sue .... 435 
Riddle, George. Modern Reader and Speaker . 502 
Ripley, W. Z. Bibliography of the Anthropology 

and Ethnology of Europe 54 

Risley, R. V. Men's Tragedies ...... 76 

Rob and Kit 436 

Robertson, J. M. History of Free Thought . . 322 
Robinson, Edith. A Little Daughter of Liberty . 436 
Rogers, Fairman. A Manual of Coaching . . . 428 

Rogers, Robert C. For the King 242 

Roosevelt, Theodore. The Rough Riders . . . 363 
Rosebery, Lord. Appreciations and Addresses . 178 
Rostand, Edmond. La Princesse Lointaine . . 320 

Rostand, Edmond. The Romancers 320 

" Rouge et Noir." The Gambling World . . . 79 
Rouse, W. H. D. The Talking Thrush . . .437 

Rowan, Mrs. Ellis. Wild Flowers 428 

Rowe, S. H. Physical Nature of the Child . . 278 

Russell, T. Baron. The Mandate 175 

Sabatier, Paul. Mirror of Perfection .... 503 
Sage, Agnes C. A Little Daughter of the Revolution 501 
Saint-Amand, Imbert de. France and Italy . . 319 
St. Barbe, Reginald. In Modern Spain ... 15 
St. John, Henry. Voyage of the Avenger . . 432 

St. Nicholas Christmas Book 437 

Saintsbury, George. Matthew Arnold .... 279 
Salmon, David. The Art of Teaching .... 276 

Samuels, E. Shadows 240 

Sartain, John, Recollections of 359 

Schreiner, Olive. The South African Question . 238 
Scott, Mary A. Elizabethan Translations from the 

Italian 282 

Scott's Works, " Temple " edition . . 25, 283, 503 
Scudder, S. H. Every-Day Butterflies .... 14 
Seawell, Molly Elliot. Gavin Hamilton . . . 433 
Semon, Richard. In the Australian Bush . . . 127 
Sewall, Alice Archer. An Ode to Girlhood . . 241 
Shakespeare's Sonnets, illus. by Henry Ospovat . 431 
Shakespeare's Sonnets, " Roycroft " editiou . . 497 
Shakespeare's Works, " Chiswick " edition . . .371 
Shaw, Albert. Historic Towns of the Middle States 431 
Sherwood, Margaret. Henry Worthington, Idealist 492 
Shoemaker, M. M. Corners of Ancient Empires . 318 

Sienkiewicz, Henry k. In Vain 176 

Sigerson, Dora. My Lady's Slipper 240 

Sill, Edward R. Hermione 244 

Singleton, Esther. Great Pictures Described by 

Great Writers 496 

Skinner, Henrietta D. Espiritu Santo .... 20 
Skram, Amalie. Professor Hieronymus . . .177 
Smedley, W. T. Life and Character . . . .426 
Smith, Gertrude. Boys of Marmiton Prairie . . 434 
Smith, Gertrude. Stories of Jane and John . . 501 
Smith, Mary P. W. Young Puritans in Captivity 433 
Smith, Nora A. Under the Cactus Flag . . . 435 

Smith, Pamela C. Annancy Stories 500 

Snedden, Genevra S. Docas 436 

Snell, F. J. The Fourteenth Century . . . .179 

Soul, An Epic of the 243 

Spears, John R. The Fugitive 435 

Spingarn, J. E. Literary Criticism in Renaissance 282 
Stables, Gordon. Remember the Maine . . . 502 
Stacpoole, Henry De Vere. Pierrette .... 501 
Stacpoole, Henry De Vere. The Rapin ... 18 
Stallard, J. H. True Basis of Economics . . . 323 
Stanley, H. M. Psychology for Beginners . . 80 
Stead, William T. United States of Europe . . 99 

Stephen, H. L. State Trials 247 

Stephens, H. Morse. Syllabus of Modern Euro- 
pean History 503 

Stephens, R. N. A Gentleman Player .... 175 
Stern, S. M. Jung's Lebensgeschichte .... 80 

Stevenson, R. A. M. Velasquez 423 

Stevenson, R. L. Morality of the Profession of 

Letters 135 

Stevenson, Sara Y. Maximilian in Mexico . . 370 
Stockton, F. R. Young Master of Hyson Hall . 435 
Stoddard, W. O. Running the Cuban Blockade . 501 

Stoddard, W. O. Ulric the Jarl 434 

Stone, R. H. In Afric's Forest 16 

Storr, F. Life of R. H. Quick 278 

Strang, L. C. Famous Actors of the Day . . . 499 
Strang, L. C. Famous Actresses of the Day . . 430 
Stratemeyer, Edward. Minute Boys of Bunker Hill 433 
Straterneyer, Edward. To Alaska for Gold . . 434 
Stratemeyer, Edward. Under Otis in Philippines 433 
Strauss, Malcolm. Cupid and Coronet .... 499 

Streamer, D. Ruthless Rhymes 501 

Streamer, Volney. In Friendship's Name, and 

What Makes a Friend 430 

Swift's Gulliver's Travels, illus. by Herbert Cole 503 
Symonds, J. H. Introduction to Dante, new ed. 180 



Tabb, J. B. Child Vene 501 

Taylor, C. J. England 405 

Taylor, C. M., Jr. British Isles through an Opera 

Glass 497 

Temple Classics for Children 371 

Ten Brink, Jan. Robespierre and the Red Terror 246 
Tennyson's Poems, " Household " edition . . . 283 
Tezte, Joseph. Jean- Jacques Rosseau . . . .!.'>! 
Thacher, Lucy W. The Listening Child ... 437 
Thackeray's Vanity Fair, " Becky Sharp " edition 404 
Thompson, Adele . Beck's Fortune . . . .432 
Thompson, E. Seton. The Sandhill Stag . . .420 
Thompson, E. W. The Young Boss .... 434 
Thompson, H. L. Henry George Liddell . . . 310 

Three Times Three 434 

Thumb-Nail Series, new vols. for 1809 .... 420 
Thnrston, I. T. The Bishop's Shadow .... 434 
Timrod, Henry, Poems of, " Memorial " edition . 244 
Todd, David P. Stars and Telescopes .... 103 
Tomlinson, E. T. A Jersey Boy in the Revolution 43.'$ 
Tomlinson, E. T. Camping on the St. Lawreuce 434 
Tomlinson, E. T. Ward Hill at College ... 432 
Torrey, Joseph, Jr. Elementary Chemistry . . 282 
Tourgue*nieff's Works, trans, by Mrs. Garnett . 248 

Toy, C. H. Book of Kzekiel 281 

Trent, W. P. John Milton 77 

Trent, W. P. The Authority of Criticism . . . 280 
Trneblood, B. F. The Federation of the World . 100 

Tschudi, Clara. Empress Eugenie 53 

Tucker, J. R. Constitution of the United States 233 
University of Pennsylvania Publications . . . 323 
Upton, Bertha and Florence. Golliwogg in War 436 
Vachell, H. A. A Drama in Sunshine .... 401 
Vachell, H. A. The Procession of Life ... 21 
Vaile, Charlotte M. Wheat and Huckleberries . 435 
Van Dyke, Henry. Fisherman's Luck .... :i'Jl 

Verbeck, Frank. Three Bears 501 

Vivekananda, S. Vedanta Philosophy, new edition 180 

Vivian, Herbert. Tunisia 317 

Waliszewski, K. Marysienka 70 

Ward, A. W. English Dramatic Literature, rev. ed. 120 
Ward, Mrs. Wilfrid. One Poor Scruple ... 20 
Warner, Charles Dudley. That Fortune ... 75 

Warner Classics, The 247 

Warren, Kate M. Piers Plowman 248 

Waterloo, Stanley. Launching of a Man . . .174 


Waterman, Lucius. The Post- Apostolic Age . . 70 
Watson, H. B. Marriott. Heart of Miranda . . 76 
Watt, Francis. Law's Lumber Room, 2d series . l:;t 

\Y< liter's Collegiate Dictionary 

Weed, G. L. Life of St. Paul for the Young . 501 
Weeden, Howard. Bandanna Ballads .... 407 
Welch, Lewis S., and Camp, Walter. Yale . .178 

Wells, Carolyn. Jingle Book 501 

Wells, Carolyn. Story of Betty 435 

Wells, H. G. When the Sleeper Wakes . . .176 
Wesselhoeft, Lily F. Madam Mary of the Zoo . 436 
Westley, G. Hembert. For Love's Sweet Sake . 431 
Wharton, Edith. The Greater Inclination . . 7C 
What Is Worth While Series, new volumes in . . 248 

What Women Can Earn !<>:; 

Wherry, Albinia. Greek Sculpture . . . . 80 
Wbishaw, Fred. Brothers of the People . . . _'<> 
Whistler, J. McNeil. Baronet and the Butterfly . 1 >-' 
White, W. A. The Court of Boyville . . . .4*4 
Whitman, Sidney. Reminiscences of the King of 

Roumania 177 

Whitmarsb, H. Phelps. The Golden Talisman . 4:54 
Whitney, Caspar. Hawaiian-America .... 318 
Whitney, Mm. A. D. T. Square Pegs .... 435 
Wiener, L. Yiddish Literature in 10th Century . !."_' 
Wightman, F. P. Little Leather Breeches . . 502 
Wildmau, Rounsevelle. Tales of Malayan Coast 180 
Wilkinson, Florence. Lady of the Flag- Flowers . 7~> 
Wilkinson, Spenser. From Cromwell to Wellington 247 
Willard, C. D. The Free- Harbor Contest . . .177 
Williams, Jesse L. Adventures of a Freshman . 1 >_' 

Williamson, G. C. Luini 423 

Wilson, Epiphanius. Dante Interpreted . . . 180 
Wilson, Sarah. Romance of our Ancient Churches 431 
Wise, B. H. Life of Henry A. Wise .... 410 

Wise, John S. The End of an Era 418 

Woodberry, George E. Heart of Man .... 320 
Woolf, M. A. Sketches of Lowly Life . . . .408 
Wotton, Mabel E. The Little Browns .... 50'J 
Wyeth, J. A. Life of General Forrest . . . .231 
Wyndham, Charles. The Queen's Service . . 280 

Yeats, S. Levett. Heart of Denise 7."> 

Yonge, Charlotte M. Herd Boy and his Hermit . ""_ 
Yorke, Curtis. The Wild Ruthvens .... 436 
Young, E. R. Winter Adventures of Three Boys 434 
Young, Lucien. The Real Hawaii 489 


Allen, Grant, Death of 324 

American History, A Projected Annotated Bibliog- 
raphy of 372 

Arnold as an Abiding Force. Vida D. Scudder . 481 
" Baldoon " and " David Harum." Rand, Me ff ally 

& Co 167 

Bibliographical Society of Chicago, Organization of 503 

Book Review, Uses of the. W. R. K 220 

Brinton, Daniel Garrison, Death of 103 

Children, Right Books for. Charlet Welsh . .116 
Children's Books, Problem of. Walter Taylor Field 68 
Civil War and National Sovereignty. E. Parmalee 

Prentice 167 

Civil War and National Sovereignty. James Oscar 

Pierce 230 

Clarke, Robert, Death of 103 

College Man, The Uneducated. W. R, K. . . 353 

Godkin, E. L., Retirement of 

Goethe, Bismarck's Debt to. Charles Bundy Wilton 168 

Greek with Tears. William Cranston Latoton . 354 

Griswold, W. M., Death of 168 

Harper & Brothers, Reorganization of .... 438 
Hast Thou Seen Your Father ? W. H. Camtth . 309 

International Monthly," The 504 

Julian, George W., Death of 41 

Lippincott Co., J. B., Loss by Fire of .... 504 
" Man with the Hoe," Meaning of. Granville 

Davision Hall 308 

Markhatu's Interpretation of his Hoe Poem. Edn-in 

Markham 354 

Nursery Rhymes and Jingles, An Appeal for. 

Charles Welsh 230 

Poe, Music and Color of. John B. Tabb . . . .V, } 
Reviewer out of Perspective. Frederick W. Goolcin 1 1 

Ropes, John Codman, Death of '.''- 

Sartain and Poe. A. G. Newcomer 

West Wind, The. Poem. C. K. Binldey . , . IS 
Young, Good Literature for the. F. M. R. . .11 "> 




Criticism, gisatssiort, anb Information. 

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full-page Illustrations by E. H. New, etc. 2 vols., 
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" Mr. Mackail's life is in every respect a worthy memorial 
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concerned in its production. An admirably written life of a 
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The Poetical Work* of William Morris. 

The Tale of Beowulf, 

Sometime King of the Folk of the 

Translated by WILLIAM MORRIS and A. J. WTATT. 
New edition. Crown 8vo, 82.00. 

Among My Books. 

Papers on Literary Subjects by Various Writers. 
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H. D. TRAILL, D.C.L. Crown 8vo, gilt top, 81.60. 

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Memories of Half a Century. 

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Manual of the Principles of 
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Castle Czvargas. A Romance. 

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ited by ARCHIBALD BIRT. Crown 8vo, 81.25. 

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LONGMANS, GREEN, & CO., Publishers, 91-93 Fifth Ave., New York. 




18th Thousand. 


By Harold Frederic. 

The critics are unanimous in the opinion that this, the last 
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1 ' The Market-Place ' is a novel combining power in its 
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18th Thousand. 


Occupations of Women and Their Compensation. By GRACE 
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By Sara Jeanette Duncan, 

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(Ready Next Week.) 


By Oscar King Davis, 

Correspondent of The New York Sun with the forces of the 
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With sixteen illustrations from photographs. 
12mo, cloth. $1.50. 

(Just Published.) 


By Robert Barr. 

This story is one of the same region the Rhine and Moselle 
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latest, and perhups the most successful, of Mr. Barr's works. 
It is a romance full of action, and the reader is never wearied. 
Ten shorter stories are given in the book following "The 
Strong Arm." 

" Good fighting " and love are delightfully handled by Mr. 
Barr, and his thousands of admirers will enjoy this new work 

12mo, cloth, uniform with " Tekla." $1.25. 


By Robert W. Chambers, 

Author of " Ashes of Empire," " The Haunts of Men," etc. 
The first of a series of novels of New York life by this tal- 
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that it has an artists' colony and life almost as picturesque as 
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By Edgar Morette. 

A detective story of intense interest. The author is a New 
Yorker, and the hero and the villain in his story are both 
New York clubmen. A crack New York newspaper reporter 
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lectual struggle of these two men makes a plot as interesting 
as that of "The Leavenworth Case." 

The binding of this book is a decided novelty. Boards, with 
an attractive design, at the low price of 50 cents ; cloth, $1.00. 


By Fred Whishaw. 

A Russian story issued as a companion to the successful 
"The Son of the Czar." 

The period of Russian history covered by Mr. Whishaw's 
book, while later than that of " The Son of the Czar," is no 
less fertile in exciting incident, and the weaknesses of the 
great Empress and the peculiarities of her wretched husband 
afford excellent opportunities for one that writes with discre- 
tion as well as ingenuity. 

P-'mo, buckram. $1.25. 

(Beady Next Week.) 


By Josephine Bontecou Stetfens. 

A powerful novel by a new writer of the greatest promise. 

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For sale by all Booksellers, or sent, postpaid, on receipt of price, by 




[July 1, 



Young Lives, bjr Richard Lt Gallienne . . . 

A Daughter of the Vine, by Gertrude Atberton /.;. 

A Lost Lady of Old Years, byjobn 'Bucban . /.<;<> 

Defender of the Faith, by Frank fMatbew . . i.$o 

Idols, by W.J. Locke 7.50 

A Deliverance, by tAlla* Momkbouse . . . . 1.2^ 

Both Great and Small, by *A. E.J. Legge . . i.<;o 

The Mandate, by T. Baron Russell /.;<> 

The Heart of Miranda, by H. B. Marriott Watson $1.50 

A Man from the North, by E. A. Bennett . . u$ 
The Repentance of a Private Secretary, 

br Slepben Gvtynne 1.35 

Professor Hieronimus, by ^malit Skrani . . 7.50 

Heart's Desire, by Vanda Watben-Bartlett . . 1.50 

Sunbeetles, by G. Tinherton 1.35 

Of Necessity, by H. M. Gilbert MJ 


THE ISLAND RACE. By HBWRT NRWBOLT, author of " Admirals All." 12mo, $1.00. 

" If thU new volume doe* no more than establish the reputation won by ' Admiral* All,' it is itill an achievement. ... In ' The Death 
of Admiral Blake ' there i* real pathos and dignity. The wune haunting charm U found, with quite another measure, in the dirge music 
of Messmates.' " A then tf urn. 


" Mr. YeaU bat written not a little of readable rene, and a new volume from hii pen I* sure to meet with a kindly welcome from 
many reader*. In the little book called * The Wind Among the Reed* ' the author ha* Bought to embody hi* feeling for Irian song. 
He ha* endeavored to voice the emotion* of the humbler Irish people, and to view the poetic aide of their life." ffeif York Ttmtt. 


" I prefer the poet who *ing* of my immortal aoul to the chap who alng* of windlasses and team -wine he*. And ao I prefer William 
Wataon to Kipling." Mr. VASCI THOMPSON in The Criterion. 

THE LAST BALLAD, and Other Poems. By JOHN DAVIDSON. Fcap SYO, $1.50. 

The London Timtt ssys : " Mr. John Davidson, when the fine f rensy of inspiration 1* upon him, write* vene that mu*t appeal to all 
who have any poetical instinct. Hi* imagination glow* and hi* ph rases strike home. He stands among the few writer* of the day who 
really write poetry, and 'The Last Ballad and Other Poem* ' U a volume in which hi* finer qualities are evident" 

THE SILENCE OF LOVE. Poems. By EDMOND HOLMES. Post 4to, $1.50. 

" Thoae lover* of what 1* lovely, who have long treasured Mr*. Browning'* ' Bonnet* from the Portuguese ' and Roaaetti'* ' House of 
Life,' will rejoice to find in thi* new volume a legitimate successor." Boston Transcript. 

THE ALHAMBRA, and Other Poems. By F. B. MONKY-COUTTB. Crown 8vo, $1.25. 

The London Daily Chronicle aay* : " He U a strong poetic craftsman, and hi* work is always carefully and delicately finished. It 1* 
plain on every page that Mr. CoutU is a serious and strenuous craf tsman, who place* a fine and Individual faculty at the service of 
a lofty ideal." 

THE COMING OF LOVE: Rhona Boswell's Story, and Other Poems. By THBODORR WATTS- 

DrjUTON, author of " Aylwin." Crown SYO, $2.00. 

Literature says : " In ' The Coming of Love ' (which, though published earlier, 1* a sequel to ' Aylwin ') he ha* given us an unforget- 
able, we cannot but believe an enduring, portrait one of the few Immortal women of the imagination. Rhona Boswell come* again 


" Bone of them are very striking and unique." New York Commercial Advertiser. 

POEMS OF EMILE VERHAEREN. Selected and rendered into English by ALMA STRATTELL. $1.50. 

MORE. By MAX BEERBOHM, author of " Works," etc. 12mo, $1.25. 

" In the greater part of thi* volume we have the perfection of whim- 
aical fooling, many flashes of true insight, and a style to excellent 
that the reviewer hail* U thankfully a* a beacon shining across the 
latter-day deluge of bald bad English." London Daily Chronicle. 

Literature aay* : " In his hand* the knack of graceful impertinence 
1* raised by dint of sheer mastery to the dignity of a serious art : 
there are momenta, indeed, when he bring* it within measurable dis- 
tance of the sublime. 

Number I. Ready Early in July. Price, $6.00 net. 



The principal contents of the opening number include an article by LORD ROSEBKRY on 8IR ROBERT PEEL, giving some highly 
og note* on toe British system of Government by Cabinet ; a paper by the Hon. WHITELAW REID on the LAST TREATY OF 

PARIS; some private letter* of the famous GKORGIANA, DUCHESS OF DEVONSHIRE, edited by the present Duche**; an article on 
the Sudan by 8LATIN PASHA ; a complete story by HKNRT JAMES ; a poem by ALGERNON CHARLES SWINBURNE, and ao on. 

256 pages in all, with 7 photogravure plates, handsomely bound In leather, 
ith gilt top, $6.00 net. 

JOHN LANE, 140 Fifth Ave., New York, and all Booksellers 



New Books for Summer Reading 

THE BEST NEW NOVELS. Each Bound in Cloth. 12mo. $1.50. 

Richard Carvel. 

" The Celebrity." With illustrations 
by Malcolm Fraser. Fourth Edition. 
" Wholesome, thrilling, inspiring." 

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The Short- Line War. 

By MEBWIN- WEBSTER. Second edition, 
the first having been exhausted in three 
"A capital story of adventure in the 

field of railroading. " The Outlook. 

The Maternity of Harriott 

" It falls but little short of being a 
masterpiece ... a remarkable book." 
and Express. 

The Custom of the Country. 

By Mrs. HUGH FRASER, author of 
"Letters from Japan," etc. 

Nearly Ready. 


Elizabeth and her German 

" The chronicle of days spent in and 
about one of the most delightful gar- 
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author's exquisite humor is ever present, 
and her descriptions . . . have wonder- 
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Cloth, $1.75. 
The Solitary Summer. 

A continuation of the above. $1.50. 

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inal work, and that is saying a great 
deal." Glasgow Herald. 

Our Gardens. 

By S. REYNOLDS HOLE, author of 
"Memories of Dean Hole," etc. 

Cloth, $3.00. 

With illustrations in color and photo- 
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practical hints for even experienced gar- 
deners, and a wealth of reminiscence 
full of the Dean's characteristic humor. 

Lamia's Winter Quarters. 

By ALFRED AUSTIN, Poet Laureate. 
Crown 8vo, $2.50. 
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By W. H. MALLOCK, author of " Is Life 

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" A witty, incisive, acute satire." 
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merly Consul General in Mexico. 
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Four-Footed Americans and 
Their Kin. 

By MABEL O. WRIGHT. Edited by 
FRANK M. CHAPMAN. Illustrated by 
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Citizen Bird. 

COUES. Illustrated by Louis AGASSIZ 
FUERTES. $1.50 net. 

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Letters from Japan. 

A Record of Modern Life in the Island 
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thor of " Palladia," etc. Beautifully 
illustrated. 2 vols. Cloth, $7.50. 
" Every one of her letters is a valuable 

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The Philippines and Round 

An up-to-date account of conditions and 
events of the past year ; an admirable 
complement to Prof. Worcester's stand- 
ard work. Cloth, $2.50. 

The Trail of the Gold- 


By HAMLIN GARLAND, author of " Main 

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Describing a trip with a pack train 
overland to the gold country. 

The Making of Hawaii. 


MAN, Yale University. Cloth, $2.0O. 
A careful study, clear and concise, 
of the social, political, and moral devel- 
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The Philippine Islands 
and Their People. 

A Record of Personal Observation. By 
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pine Commission. 5th Edition. $4.00. 
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On Many Seas. 

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" The General Manager's Story," etc. 

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Old Cambridge. 


"Col. Higginson's delightful book ... is 
altogether a most enjoyable and valuable one. " 
Evening Telegraph (Philadelphia). 

Wordsworth and the 

And Other Memories. Literary and Po- 
litical. By ELLIS YARNALL. 

Cloth, $3.00. 

"A notable volume of reminiscences. No 
more interesting personal memories have been 
published in recent years." Public Ledger 

The Life of Henry A. Wise. 

By his Grandson, the late BARTON H. 

WISE, of Richmond, Va. $3.00. 

" One of the most interesting figures 
of the civil war . . . of whom both sec- 
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(New York). 

Heart of Man. 

By GEORGE E. WOODBERRY. author of 
" The North Shore Watch," etc. 

Cloth, $1.50. 
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ideal." The Nation. 

Three Studies in Literature. 

University. Cloth, $1.50. 

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the hands of all students of our litera- 
ture in this century." The Outlook. 

Home Life in Colonial Days. 

Written by ALICE MORSE EARLE. Pro- 
fusely illustrated. Cloth, $2.50. 
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structs with such completeness, fairness, 
and suggestiveness. the atmosphere of 
colonial homes." The Herald (Boston). 


THE MACMILLAN COMPANY, 66 Fifth Avenue, New York. 

THE DIAL [July 1,1899. 

Fiction, Nature Study, and Travel. 


Price, each, $150. 

A Double Thread. 

Bj ELLEN THORHEYCROFT FOWLER, author of " Concerning 
Isabel Carnaby." 
" A brilliant uccea." Baltimore Herald. 

The Mormon Prophet. 

" A masterpiece of historical fiction." Botton Journal. 

A Duet with an Occasional Chorus. 

" Bright, brave, simple, natural, delicate." Chicago Timet- 



" A supremely interesting and wholesome book." Black- 
wood's Magazine. 

Snow on the Headlight. 

A Story of the Great Burlington Strike. By CY WAHMAK, author of " The Story of the Railroad," etc. 12mo. Cloth, $1.25. 
The author has pictured the intimate and usually unknown phases of a great railroad strike. 


12mo. Cloth, price, $1 00 ; paper, 50 cent*. 

A Cosmopolitan Comedy. Pursued by the Law. 

By ANNA ROBESON BROWN, author of " Sir Mark," etc. 

By J. MACLARKN COBBAN, author of "The King of An- 

daman," etc. 
Madame I/an. 
By M. CAMP.LL-PRAED, author of ' Nnlma," etc. Paul Carah, Cormshman. 

By CHARLES LEE, author of "A Widow Woman," etc. 

Fortune *s My Foe. 

By J. BLOUNDELLK-BCRTON, author of "The Scourge of 
God," etc. 

The Kingdom of Hate. 

By T. GALLON, author of "Tatterly," etc. 

Alaska and the Klondike. 

A Journey to the New Eldorado. With Hints to the Traveller and Observations on the Physical History and Geology of the 
Gold Regions, the Condition of and Methods of Working the Klondike Placers, and the Laws Governing and Regulating 
Mining in the Northwest Territory of Canada. By ANOELO HRILPRIN, Professor of Geology at the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia. Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society of I xindon, Past-President of the Geographical Society 
of Philadelphia, etc. Fully illustrated from Photographs and with a New Map of the Gold Regions. 12mo, cloth, $1.75. 

Idylls of the Sea. By FRANK T. BULLEN. 
r.'iiio. Cloth, price SI. 25. 

The Cruise of the Cachalot. By FRANK T. BULLKN. 

1-' in... Cloth, price Si. 50. 

Bird Life: A Guide to the Study of Our Common Birds. 

By FRANK M. CHAPMAN. With 75 full-page Plates and Numerous Text- Drawings. 12mo. Cloth, price $1.75. The 
with Lithographic Plates in colon. 8vo. Cloth, price $5.00. 

Handbook of Birds of Eastern North America. 

By FRANK M. CHAPMAN. Library Edition. Cloth, price $3.00 ; Pocket Edition, flexible morocco, price $3.50. 

The Art of Taxidermy. 

By JOHN ROWLEY. Cloth, price $2.00. 

Insect Life. 

By JOHN HKNRY COMCTOCK. Library Edition. Cloth, price $2.50; Teachers' and Students' Edition, price $1.50. 

Familiar Life in Field and Forest. Familiar Features of the Roadside. 

Familiar Trees and Their Leaves. Familiar Flowers of Field and Garden. 

By F. SCHCYLEB MATHBWS. Priea $1.75 each. 

For tale by all Bookseller*, or tent by mail on receipt oj price by the PMiihert, 

D. APPLETON & COMPANY, No. 72 Fifth Avenue, New York. 


Snrn-iiJlontfjlg Journal of ILiterarg Criticism, Biscussion, ano Information. 

No. sis. 

JULY 1, 1899. Vol. XXVII. 





Simonds . 11 

THE WEST WIND. (Sonnet.) C. K. Binkley 



Charles A. Kofoid 13 

Mrs. Parsons's How to Know the Ferns. Miss 
Lounsberry's A Guide to the Wild Flowers. Miss 
Going's Field, Forest, and Wayside Flowers. Mrs. 
Miller's The First Book of Birds. Scudder's Every- 
day Butterflies. Howe's On the Birds' Highway. 


Stanley 14 

Jackson's A Thousand Days in the Arctic. Palmer's 
In the Klondyke. Gwynn's Highways and Byways 
in Donegal and Antrim. St. Barbe's In Modern 
Spain. Miss Guinness's Across India at the Dawn 
of the 20th Century. Stone's In Af ric's Forest and 
Jungle. Kipling's From Sea to Sea. 


Bice 16 

RECENT FICTION. William Morton Payne ... 17 
Barry's The Two Standards. Stacpoole's The 
Rapin. Merriman's Dross. Locke's Idols. Doyle's 
A Duet with an Occasional Chorus. Le Gallienne's 
Young Lives. Crockett's The Black Douglas. 
Keightley's The Silver Cross. Boothby's Pharos, 
the Egyptian. Hind's The Enchanted Stone. 
Benson's The Capsina. Whishaw's The Brothers 
of the People. Mrs. Moore's The Passion of Rosa- 
mund Keith. Mrs. Ward's One Poor Scruple. 
Mrs. Crowninshield's Latitude 19. Miss Skinner's 
Espiritu Santo. Howells's Ragged Lady. Vachell's 
The Procession of Life. James's The Awkward 
Age. Frederic's The Market- Place. 


Letters and autobiography of Mrs. Oliphant. Berk- 
shire hills and meadows. The story of Japanese 
letters. Border fighting in the Civil War. A play- 
wright and his prologue. Feminine psychology. 
The New World of America. 



ING. A classified list of some of the best recent 
publications 25 




There has been much discussion during the 
past month, voiced chiefly in the newspapers 
and in the meetings of various bodies interested 
in public education, of what has been somewhat 
sensationally termed a " crisis " in the school 
affairs of Chicago. An agitation of sentiment 
against the present management of the city 
educational system has been so sedulously stim- 
ulated by the busybodies that the resulting 
state of things may indeed be called serious, 
although not exactly in the sense intended by 
those who have brought it to pass. For a con- 
dition is certainly serious which makes it pos- 
sible that the unworthy influences which suc- 
ceeded, a few months ago, in defeating for the 
time being the important reforms proposed by 
the Chicago Educational Commission, should 
command any considerable following in such 
an attack as has just been made upon the policy 
of Superintendent Andrews. This attack has 
proceeded from motives so obviously preju- 
diced, and has been so utterly lacking in the 
elements of fairness and generosity, that we 
feel half-ashamed to dignify it by serious con- 
sideration. Perhaps it would be better to dis- 
miss it with some such phrase as that used by 
Schopenhauer, speaking of the metamorphosis 
of serious thought when transferred to " the 
narrow lodging and low roofing of the confined, 
contracted, thick-walled skull from which dull 
glances steal directed to personal ends." 

On the whole, however, it seems desirable to 
say something more than this, because preju- 
dices are active forces in the social organi- 
zation, and because interested activities are 
sometimes successful in disguising themselves 
under the garb of the fairest philanthropy. It 
is not easy to disengage from the tangled skein 
of rumor and recrimination the thread of any 
coherent argument, and the more one examines 
the charges brought against the present policy 
of school administration, the more bewildered 
one becomes at the infusion of personal feeling 
and the confusion of thought. As far, however, 
as any argument is discernible, it seems to be 
directed against two of the aims of Superin- 
tendent Andrews that of establishing a sys- 
tem of true executive control and responsibility, 



[July 1, 

and that of raising the standard of efficiency 
and intellectual ability among the body of 
instructors and administrative officers. It 
would seem that a Superintendent who kept 
these aims in view should deserve and receive 
the heartiest support from all sections of the 
community. For the past score of years these 
aims have been set, by all the organs of serious 
educational opinion, foremost among those that 
should be worked for in the betterment of 
public school education. They have become 
the merest commonplaces of educational dis- 
cussion, and it is rather late in the day to be 
called upon to defend them anew. But such 
is the distorting power of prejudice over the 
simplest and clearest ideas, that the guarded an- 
nunciation of these aims by the present school 
administration has evoked an attack of the 
most violent nature, in which the plain promises 
of the Superintendent have been ignored, his 
motives impugned, and even (as in the case of 
the shameless resolutions of the Chicago Feder- 
ation of Labor) his personal character aspersed. 
An attack of this sort is sure in the end to 
defeat itself, but it is a sorry exhibition for the 
time being, and it calls for an indignant re- 
monstrance from all the friends of fair play. 

To take the first of the aims above men- 
tioned, the consensus of opinion to the effect 
that both power and responsibility should be 
centralized in the executive head of a city school 
system is such that the official who stands for 
this principle is backed by wellnigh all the 
educational authority worth taking into ac- 
count. This principle was properly made the 
foundation of the recommendations of the Chi- 
cago Educational Commission, and has been 
energetically maintained by Superintendent 
Andrews during the year of his incumbency. 
Those who have opposed it have brought no 
arguments to bear against it, but have sup- 
ported their contention by a plentiful use of 
invective, and of the catchwords that the dem- 
agogic spirit has ever at hand for these emer- 
gencies. Such words as "autocracy," * 4 tyr- 
anny," and despotism " have been freely used, 
and the magic word " democracy " has once 
more been worked into the service of the reac- 
tionary party. In the sense in which the 
phrase " democratic management " has been 
employed in this controversy, it seems to con- 
note a government of the schools by the meth- 
ods of the town-meeting, if not of the mob. 
Questions of educational policy should be de- 
cided by councils and committees instead of by 
a responsible officer, so that no individual shall 

be much to blame if a decision turns out unfor- 
tunately. No more vicious absurdity than this 
was ever put forward in the name of democ- 
racy, or sought to be engrafted upon a system 
of .schools. Its practical workings have recently 
appeared in the antics of certain of the teach- 
ers' organizations of Chicago. The methods 
of these bodies have resembled those of the 
trade union or the political caucus rather than 
those of the professional organization, and the 
situation they have been striving to create is 
one that would be simply intolerable were it to 

The second of the major aims put forward 
by the Educational Commission and the Super- 
intendent is that of securing a higher average 
of educational qualification than heretofore for 
the teachers and other officers of the schools. 
Now, the obvious way of doing this is to set a 
standard of some sort, and, since the large ma- 
jority of educated people get the beginnings of 
their culture in some institution of the higher 
learning, it is quite proper to require of candi- 
dates for positions such an education or its 
equivalent. What goes by the name of a " col- 
lege education " means very little in very many 
cases, but it at least affords a starting-point for 
a test. We think, however, that the willing- 
ness to accept an " equivalent " has not been 
sufficiently emphasized in the present case, and 
much irritation might have been avoided had 
the declaration been made without reserve that 
unquestionable intellectual equipment, however 
obtained, should be enough to qualify for any 
post whatsoever in the system. Hard-and-fast 
rules are to be avoided in such matters. We 
have only to reflect that a John Stuart Mill 
would be excluded from teaching by the " col- 
lege education " requirement, to realize the 
unwisdom of a too specific statement of quali- 

This, however, is an aside, and does not 
touch the point mainly at issue, which is that of 
enlisting the highest obtainable scholarship in 
the work of teaching. The attempt to cripple 
Superintendent Andrews in this endeavor has 
been characterized by the use of the memor- 
able phrase " educational trust," and by a line 
of reasoning which is not parodied in the fol- 
lowing statement : President Harper of the 
University of Chicago was a member of the 
Commission which urged the need of higher 
qualifications for teachers. Superintendent 
Andrews was one of his old-time friends, and 
was brought to Chicago through his influence. 
These two then conspired to convert the public 




school system of Chicago into an appendix to 
the University, and at the same time devised a 
sinister scheme whereby all the desirable posts 
in the city system were to be manned by grad- 
uates of the University. The conspirators were, 
moreover, being used as tools in a far-reaching 
plan of the " plutocracy " to get possession of 
the machinery of public education in the United 
States, in order that free discussion might be 
suppressed and the clutch of organized capital 
strengthened about the throats of the toiling 
masses. This, we repeat, is not parody, but the 
clearest exposition we know how to make of the 
theory of the " educational trust " as it has been 
set forth of late in connection with educational 
affairs in Chicago. False and even grotesque 
as they are, these charges, with others of like 
sort, and all that they imply, have been made 
seriously in the public press, and have influ- 
enced the opinions of thousands of unthinking 
people. We are inclined to believe that this 
monstrous explanation of what is, after all, the 
simple matter of an effort to elevate the stand- 
ard of the teaching profession in Chicago is 
nothing more than an inflated defence of what 
" The Educational Review " describes as " the 
detestable theory that one purpose of the pub- 
lic schools is to provide young women with 
'places' in which to earn a livelihood." To 
such a complexion is reduced, when we look 
the facts squarely in the face, all this pother 
about " discrimination " and the substitution 
of " monarchical " for " democratic " ideals. 

To the intelligent mind, of course, these wild 
and whirling words are simply amusing, and 
the tissue of actual fact about which they cling 
the merest cobweb obstruction of vision. The 
last thing in the world that capital is trying to 
do is to control the machinery of education. It 
is too busily occupied in its own work of self- 
protection to be concerned with so extraneous 
a matter. The University of Chicago has no 
other interest in the city school system than 
that of stimulating it to a more healthful activ- 
ity. And there is nothing in the course of 
Superintendent Andrews to indicate that he has 
any other object at heart than that of strength- 
ening the system under his charge by the 
application to its work of the most enlightened 
ideas and the recruiting of the most efficient 
co-laborers in this great service. He has been 
less than a year at his difficult task, and it is 
not yet time to demand results. But in the 
course of that year he has at least shown to all 
who have eyes to see, and who are in a position 
to take a disinterested view of his position, that 

he has his work earnestly at heart, and that he 
deserves from the whole community that cor- 
dial support with which the best elements of 
the community (including those that viewed his 
original appointment with some apprehension) 
have already expressed their recognition of the 
strength and the sincerity of his purpose. 


Continuing our annual midsummer survey of 
the drama in Chicago,* we find that the season of 
1898-99 has not passed without leaving for our 
theatre-goers the memory of several noteworthy 
events. Those autocrats of the stage who live in 
New York and dominate theatrical affairs the 
country over, have seen fit to deny Chicago audi- 
ences the enjoyment of some of the novelties under 
their control, while at the same time two or three 
of the sensations with which they have afflicted us 
could much better have been spared ; and yet there 
has been no lack in standard attractions, excellent in 
quality and generally worthy of the patronage ac- 
corded them. 

Early in the season Mr. Gillette's ever-popular 
melodrama, ' b Secret Service," began a run of five 
weeks at Powers's Theatre, closing with the end of 
October. During this same month Mrs. Julia Mar- 
lowe-Taber was seen at the Columbia for two weeks 
in " The Countess Valeska," while Mdme. Modjeska 
appeared for three weeks at the Grand Opera House 
in " Canaille," " Magda," " Mary Stuart," and 
Shakespearian roles. Mr. Goodwin and Miss Elliott 
were at Powers's throughout November, presenting 
" Nathan Hale," though not continuously, during 
the month's engagement. Mrs. Fiske came to the 
Grand for two weeks in November, where she was 
seen in " Tess of the D'Urbervilles " and " Love 
Will Find a Way." The great novelty of the year 
was Mr. Mansfield's elaborate and finely artistic 
production of Rostand's " Cyrano de Bergerac," 
which won phenomenal success, holding the stage 
at the Grand Opera House for five weeks, Decem- 
ber 4 to January 7. For three weeks in December 
and January, Mr. Sothern was at Powers's Theatre 
in " The King's Musketeer," and in the latter part 
of January Mr. Hackett played a week's engage- 
ment at the Columbia in the dramatization of 
Anthony Hope's " Rupert of Hentzau." 

The last two weeks of February brought Miss 
Nethersole to Powers's where she appeared in "The 
Second Mrs. Tanqueray," " The Termagant," "Car- 
men," and " Canaille." She was followed by Miss 
Maude Adams in the dramatized version of Barrie's 
" The Little Minister " next to Mr. Mansfield's 
" Cyrano " the most popular attraction of the year. 
Miss Adams's engagement continued six weeks ; 
then followed the presentation of " Catherine," with 

*See THE DIAL, June 16, 1896 ; July 16, 1897 ; July 1, 1898. 



[July 1, 

Miss Annie Russell in the rule, and afterwards the 
appearance of Mr. Drew in "The Liars." The 
month of April was also distinguished by Miss Julia 
Arthur's interpretation of "Juliet." In May, Mr. 
Frohman's Lyceum Theatre Company began at 
Powers's an important engagement of four weeks, 
their most important production being last season's 
Eastern success (new this year in Chicago), Mr. 
Pinero's pleasing comedy, "Trelawny of the Wells." 
Daring this month also Mr. Otis Skinner came to 
the Grand for a week in the old favorite, " Rose- 
mary." During the first week of June occurred the 
much advertised production of " Romeo and Juliet," 
at Powers's Theatre, with its expensive cast includ- 
ing Miss Adams, Mr. Faversham, and Mr. Hackett. 
A new play by Augustus Thomas, " Arizona," began 
on June 12, at the Grand, a run of indefinite 

This constitutes a rather notable list of attractions 
for the year just closing, more comfortably dis- 
tributed too than always happens. It should be 
mentioned also that during the season engagements 
have been played by a number of steady standbys, 
including Mr. Roland Reed, Mr. Sol Smith Russell, 
Mr. William Crane, Mr. Stuart Robson, Mr. Digby 
Bell, and Miss May Irwin, although the plays 
presented by these people were none of them sat- 
isfactory, while some proved most unfortunate fail- 

One of the features of the season has been the 
series of popular successes at McVicker's Theatre, 
now under the management of Mr. Jacob Litt. The 
most important of these productions were " Shen- 
andoah," which ran for three weeks in November ; 
' The Prisoner of Zenda," which followed for two 
weeks ; " At Piney Ridge," one week ; " In Old 
Kentucky," two weeks ; and an elaborate staging 
of a new melodrama, " Sporting Life," which was 
played to crowded houses for twelve weeks, Febru- 
ary 19 to May 13. 

At the minor theatres, nothing noteworthy has 
occurred. Conventional melodrama has held the 
boards, with occasional allowances of farce-comedy. 
The Academy, Adelphi, Alhambra, and Lincoln 
opened in August with plays appropriately reflecting 
the national situation. " The Commodore " showed 
the gun-deck of a cruiser in action, special attention 
being called to the four-inch guns, very properly 
introduced thus to the realm of realistic drama. 
" For Liberty and Love " made good use of flash- 
light signals sent from a tower under fire of Spanish 
sharpshooters. Mr. Lincoln J. Carter's " Remem- 
ber the Maine " was one of the new productions. 
"Cuba's Vow" and "Heroes of '98" celebrated 
generally the recent war. As matter of fact, ex- 
cepting these, very few war-plays have been put 
upon the local stage, and only occasionally has a 
play like " Chattanooga," " Held by the Enemy," 
or '> The Girl I Left Behind Me " made its appeal 
to the military spirit of the multitude. One popu- 
lar melodrama, " Devil's Island," has utilized the 
very natural material of the Dreyfus affair. 

In the presentation of Shakespearian plays, the 
falling off from the record of previous years is 
startling, although some of the causes are not far 
to seek. Mr. Thomas Keene and Miss Margaret 
Mather are no longer living. Mr. Mansfield has 
been sufficiently employed upon his splendid pro- 
duction of Cyrano "; Mrs. Marlowe-Taber has 
been busy with experiments in modern drama ; Miss 
Rehan and Mr. Walker Whiteside we have not seen. 
Mr. Warde and Mr. James, and Mr. Otis Skinner 
as well, have found it safer not to attempt " revivals " 
which prove too costly for many successive seasons. 
Who is left? In reality, there is but one, so far as 
we at present are aware ; and but for the somewhat 
erratic course of two stellar bodies of lesser magni- 
tude, Mdme. Modjeska has ruled, solitary, queen of 
the tragic stage. 

During the season of 1895-96, thirteen of the 
Shakespearian plays were presented in Chicago ; 
the number of performances was eighty-eight. In 
1896-97 also, thirteen plays were given, sixty-eight 
performances in all. In 1897-98, ten were staged 
and the performances numbered fifty. During the 
season just ended, only four were produced, and 
the number of performances is twenty-eight. 

Following is the tabulated record for the season. 

Playt. Jfo. Plnyert. Datet. 

1 Antony and Cleop^. 8 { 

2 Macbeth. 6 Modieaka. Oct.22,26,28,29,31, NoT.5. 

3 A* You Like It 1 Modjeeka. NOT. 6. 

( Julia Arthur. Apr. 12, 13, 14, 15 (twicej. 

4 Romeo and Juliet 13 \ Maude Adam*. June 5, 6, 7 (twice), 8, 9, 

( 10 (twice). 

4 28 3 

During the month of April there were three or four 
Sunday evening performances by German artists at 
Powers's Theatre, which should not be left unre- 
corded. April 16, Herr Emanuel Reicher, of Ber- 
lin, appeared in - Othello," and April 23 the great 
Herr von Sonnenthal,of the Imperial Hof burg Thea- 
tre in Vienna, was seen in "Nathan der Weise." 



The pale-green poplars shimmer in the sun, 
And wave and rustle ; the dry grasses sway ; 
The oaks and eucalyptus far away 
Take up a moaning music one by one. 
Here from the shadows mark the tremor run 
Over the hillside to the mountains gray 
Dim gray and purple, moveless, only they 
Are silent in the West Wind's carillon. 
This is the bearer of all mysteries, 
Whose fleet-winged cohorts are the messengers 
Bringing o'er unseen mountains the dim roar 
And surge and glitter of what magic seas, 
The dream-spray dashing where upon the shore 
Are harps and timbrels and bright islanders. 


Palo Alto, California. 





Popular interest in the subject of natural 
history must be on the increase, if the number 
and variety of recent books devoted to this 
subject can be taken as an index. Indeed, the 
introduction of nature-study in the grades of 
the public schools, and the growing attention 
paid to technical instruction in biology in our 
best high schools, must in time create and con- 
tinue a legitimate popular demand for trust- 
worthy and well-presented information on nat- 
ural history subjects by those who pursue these 
lines of study not as a vocation but as an avo- 
cation. Whatever the hobby be birds or 
butterflies, flowers or ferns the enthusiastic 
amateur may be sure of finding some helpful 
and reliable manual to stimulate his interest 
and guide his efforts. 

One of the most successful and attractive of 
these recent handbooks for nature study is Mrs. 
Frances Theodora Parsons's " How to Know 
the Ferns." From cover to index the book 
is tastefully and skilfully gotten up, and will 
prove to be a useful and satisfactory guide for 
those who go a-ferniug. An introductory chap- 
ter on ferns as a hobby is followed by a discus- 
sion of the seasons and situations in which ferns 
may be found, a brief illustrated explanation of 
the technical terms employed, and an account 
of the interesting life-cycle of the fern. The 
greater part of the book is taken up with the 
descriptions of the fifty-seven species found in 
the eastern United States. This is accom- 
plished with a minimum of technicalities and a 

*How TO KNOW THE FERNS. A Guide to the Names, 
Haunts, and Habits of our Common Ferns. By Frances Theo- 
dora Parsons. Illustrated by Marion Satterlee and Alice 
Josephine Smith. New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 

A GUIDE TO THE WILD FLOWERS. By Alice Lounsberry. 
With 64 colored and 100 black-and-white plates and 54 dia- 
grams by Mrs. Ellis Rowan. With an Introduction by Dr. 
N. L. Britton. New York : Frederick A. Stokes Co. 

on Grasses, Sedges, and Ferns. Untechnical Studies for Un- 
learned Lovers of Nature. By Maud Going (E. M. Hardinge). 
Illustrated in part with Drawings from Life by S. G. Porter 
and Photographs by Edwin M. Lincoln. New York : The 
Baker & Taylor Co. 

THE FIRST BOOK OF BIRDS. By Olive Thome Miller. 
With eight colored and twelve plain plates, and twenty figures 
in the text. Boston : Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

EVERY-DAT BUTTERFLIES. A Group of Biographies. By 
Samuel Hubbard Scudder. With 71 Illustrations, plain and 
colored. Boston : Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

ON THE BIRDS' HIGHWAY. By Reginald Heber Howe, Jr. 
With photographic illustrations by the author and a frontis- 
piece in colors from a painting by Louis Agassiz Fuertes. 
Boston : Small, Maynard & Co. 

maximum of fern lore and facts of biological 
interest. The illustrations are abundant and 
well executed. The work cannot fail to prove 
a most enticing introduction to these shy inhab- 
itants of our woods and glens, though the au- 
thor evidently intends an intention deserving 
commendation that the ferns shall not suffer 
as a result of her efforts, for there is no chap- 
ter devoted to methods of collecting and pre- 
serving fern specimens. 

Two books upon flowers have appeared which 
differ widely in method, purpose, and execution. 
Miss Going's " Field, Forest, and Wayside 
Flowers " is a series of popular essays re- 
printed in large part from the New York " Even- 
ing Post " and the " Popular Science Monthly " 
on botanical subjects suggested by the wax- 
ing and waning of plant life through the chang- 
ing seasons of the year in the northeastern 
United States. The work contains, in very 
attractive form, much information concerning 
the adaptations, the structural peculiarities, the 
physiological activities and the oscological rela- 
tions of many of our common flowering plants. 
It is intended for general readers with little 
knowledge of technical terms, rather than for 
students afield, though the latter will find in 
its pages much that will lend zest to an outing 
among our flowers in their native haunts. It 
abounds in suggestions for observation lessons. 
The illustrations are abundant, those from pho- 
tographs being especially commendable ; but 
the original pen-and-ink sketches are faulty in 
execution, and suffer by contrast with the re- 
printed figures. 

Miss Lounsberry's " Guide to the Wild 
Flowers," on the other hand, is a field manual, 
a sort of a " royal road " to a quick and ready 
identification of our common and most striking 
flowering plants. In this book all principles 
of systematic classification usually found in 
botanical manuals are set aside, and the plants 
are listed according to their haunts and asso- 
ciates. Thus, we find grouped together the 
plants which grow in water, in dry soil, and so 
on. In place of keys for identification we find 
abundant and most excellent illustrations, many 
of them from paintings by Mrs. Rowan repro- 
duced here by the color-printing process. The 
descriptions are brief and simple, and are skil- 
fully arranged according to a simple system. 
The author has also given for each of the spe- 
cies a summary of the plant lore and the 
literary allusions appropriate to the flower. 
Teachers of nature work will find in this book 
much that is suggestive and helpful, and the 



[July 1, 

unscientific student of plants will find it a con- 
venient handbook. 

The " First Book of Birds," by Mrs. Olive 
Thome Miller, is the outgrowth of her experi- 
ence in talking to school children on birds and 
their ways. It is not so much a primer in 
ornithology as it is an appeal to the sympathy 
of children and an effort to interest them in 
the living bird " neither as a target nor as a 
producer of eggs, but as a fellow-creature whose 
acquaintance it would be pleasant to make." 
This is an excellent motive, and it is well sus- 
tained throughout the book. Perhaps for this 
reason we can ignore the feeling that at times 
the facts are put to a slight tension. 

The gentler sex has no monopoly on the 
authorship of science works of popular interest. 
" Every-day Butterflies," by Dr. Scudder, is a 
model work of its kind. From the pen of a 
specialist, the book is authoritative and will 
command the interest alike of the biologist and 
of the general reader. It is gratuitous to sug- 
gest that it is dignified in statement and free 
from the extravagances and ofttimes unwar- 
ranted inferences that occasionally appear in 
the work of those who do not speak from ful- 
ness of knowledge, but compile at random. It 
is a plain and simple story of the life-histories 
of sixty-two of our common butterflies, all of 
which are illustrated, either in color or by ex- 
cellent cuts. The species are discussed in the 
order of their appearance during the year, and 
the story of their fleeting lives is told with 
wonderful minuteness of detail and withal with 
charming simplicity and directness. Students 
of nature and teachers of nature work will find 
this book a mine of suggestive information, and 
one well fitted to impart the spirit of patient 
investigation and to inculcate the habit of keen 

Mr. Howe in his " On the Birds' Highway " 
takes his readers afield on a series of ornitho- 
logical outings at various seasons of the year. 
One spends a charming winter's day among the 
birds on the sands of Ipswich, and another in 
the shadow of the Presidential Range. The 
shores of Rhode Island, the shadow of Wachu- 
sett, and the " Land of Norumbega " are also 
visited. We are introduced to summer birds, 
to the resorters along Atlantic beaches, and 
to the frequenters of the Adirondack in the 
early autumn. Indeed, the author seems to 
have made the rounds of most of the popular 
Eastern resorts. The essays are pervaded by 
a decided literary flavor, and finished with 
an artistic, and at times poetic, touch. The au- 

thor has caught the spirit of the forest and 
shore, and his chapters breathe the monotony 
as well as the variety of nature. The book is 
handsomely gotten up and the illustrations are 
a fitting complement to the artistic text. 



" A Thousand Days in the Arctic," by Mr. 
Frederick G. Jackson, describing three years' 
residence and exploration in Franz-Josef Land, 
is a disappointing book. In fact, it is not a 
book at all, but a mere aggregate of material 
for a book, as diary, letters, reports, etc. We 
have a great many such entries as : " At 2 A. M. 
moderate north wind. At 4 A. M. strong north- 
east wind, increasing to fresh gale at noon and 
gradually decreasing and veering at 8 p. M. to 
moderate north wind." Or, " The mate came 
up to ask if I can let them have a little paraffin, 
as they have run out at the ship. I gave him 
ten gallons to go on with." If the nine hundred 
pages had been reduced to three hundred, and 
the material well written up in chapters on 
Polar Bears, Walrus, Sledging Journeys, etc., 
we should have had a travel book of the first 
class instead of a bare record without literary 
quality. Nor can we speak well for the man- 
ufacture of the book, it being a heavy, clumsy 
volume, with highly glazed paper. 

The most interesting episode in the work is 
the author's dramatic meeting with Nansen. 

" On our approaching each other, about three miles 
distant from the land, I saw a tall man on .*i-i, with 
roughly-made clothes, and an old felt hat on his head. 
He was covered with oil and grease, and black from 
head to foot. I at once concluded from his wearing ski 
that he was no English sailor, but that he must be a 
man from some Norwegian walrus sloop who had come 
to grief, and wintered somewhere on Franz-Josef Land 
in very rough circumstances. His hair was very long 

Jackson. With Preface by Admiral Sir F. Leopold McCUn- 
tock, R. N. Illustrated. New York : Harper A Brothers. 

IN TUB KLONDYKB. By Frederick Palmer. Illustrated. 
New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 

Stephen Gwynn. Illustrated by Hugh Thompson. New York: 
The Mmomillan Co. 

IN MODERN SPAIN. By Reginald St. Barbe. London : 
Kl Hot Stock. 

By Lucy E. OuinneM. Illustrated. Chicago: Fleming 11. 
Rerell Co. 

the Yorubans. By Key. R. H. Stone. Illustrated. Chicago : 
Fleming H. Revell Co. 

FROM SEA TO SEA. Letters of Travel. By Rudyard Kip- 
ling. New York : Donbleday A McClure Co. 



and dirty, his complexion appeared to be fair, but dirt 
prevented me from being sure on the point, and his 
beard was straggly and dirty also. We shook hands 
heartily, and I expressed the greatest pleasure at seeing 
him. I inquired if he had a ship. No,' he replied, 
' my ship is not here,' rather sadly I thought, and 
then he remarked, in reply to my question, that he had 
only one companion, who was at the floe edge. It then 
struck me that his features, in spite of the black grease 
and long hair and beard, resembled Nansen, whom I 
had met once in London before he started in 1893, and 
I exclaimed, Are n't you Nansen ? ' to which he re- 
plied, 'Yes, I am Nansen.' With much heartiness I 
shook him warmly by the hand and said, ' By Jove, I 'm 

d d glad to see you,' and congratulated him on his 

safe arrival. Then I inquired, Where have you come 
from ? ' He gave me a brief sketch of what had oc- 
curred, and replied, ' I left the " Fram " in 84 north lat- 
itude and 102 east longitude after drifting for two years, 
and I reached the 86 15' parallel, and I have now 
come here." 

Mr. Jackson had much experience with bears 
and walrus, and mentions some observations of 
interest, for instance, of a walrus lying on 
his back, digging through the ice with his tusks. 
Ponies were found useful in the sledge jour- 
neys, and one pony even learned to eat bear- 
meat with relish. The scientific results of the 
expedition were considerable, and to some ex- 
tent are embodied in the appendices. The 
maps are good, the photographic illustrations 
only fair. 

Mr. Frederick Palmer's " In the Klondyke " 
is a lively, sketchy, well illustrated book, de- 
scribing a trip made in the spring of 1898, 
during the great rush, when thirty-five thousand 
pilgrims poured into the Klondyke. The ex- 
citing pioneer life, with its vast variety of char- 
acters, is very cleverly drawn. The first boat 
into Dawson had a cargo of two hundred dozen 
eggs, for which the dealer, " a proud Seattle- 
ite," received $3,600 in less than an hour after 
he had landed. 

" Those of the crowd who could afford it hurried off 
to the restaurant for a ' squar ' ' composed entirely of 
' ham and.' The others, having to bide their time until 
luxuries were cheaper, found compensation in the items 

of news which were passed from tongue to tongue, 

for it had not occurred to the Seattleite to bring a 
newspaper with him. Thought there was more money 
in eggs,' was his aggravating explanation. 'Sposed you 
fellers wanted to eat, not to read.' As he had heard it, 
within a week after the declaration of war with Spain, 
the cruiser "New York," Captain Evans in command, 
had reduced the fortifications of Havana in three hours. 
The second Cheechawko to arrive assured us that this 
was quite untrue, and that two of Admiral Sampson's 
squadron had been sunk and the Spaniards were win- 
ning on every hand. The crowd refused to believe any- 
thing of the kind, and the second Cheechawko received 
only $14. a dozen for his eggs. With the next boat 
came a single newspaper, soiled with bacon grease. A 

curbstone speculator bought it for fifteen dollars, stuffed 
it instantly into his inside coat pocket, and a few min- 
utes later was posting signs to the effect that all might 
hear the news of Admiral Dewey's victory read by pay- 
ing a dollar apiece that evening. His entertainment 
would have netted him twice as much as it did if more 
than three hundred and fifty people could have been 
packed in the hall in which it was held. Some of the 
wealthy men considered this proceeding an outrage on 
personal liberty, and made it a point to buy between 
them any single copy of a paper later than any others 
that had arrived and have it read at once in the streets." 

We find in this book a very readable and ap- 
parently accurate account of the trails, of Daw- 
son and its life, of miners and mining, and of 
government and its policy, as they were in the 
spring and summer of 1898. 

" Highways and Byways in Donegal and 
Antrim," by Mr. Stephen Gwynn, is a pleas- 
antly written guide-book, from a cyclist point 
of view, to the northwestern Irish coast, " from 
the wildest corners of the West, where Irish 
is still the language even of trade, business, 
and schools, into the very neighborhood of 
prosperous, commercial, up-to-date Belfast." 
As seeking to lure the visitor to this part of 
Ireland, it must be pronounced successful. It 
contains much on the history and customs of 
the people, and throws light on the peasantry 
past and present. One important recommend- 
ation is worth quoting for the benefit of tour- 
ists everywhere. 

" There is one point which every Irishman writing a 
book for Englishmen in his country would wish to im- 
press, and that is to beg that tourists will not spoil the 
countryside by indiscriminate generosity. Killarney 
with its swarming beggars is an awful example. Even 
on the Antrim Coast small boys pursue the car or bicy- 
cle clamoring for pennies, and expect, on the beaten 
line of travel, to be paid for telling you the way. In 
Donegal happily none of these things exist." 

The numerous drawings by Mr. Hugh Thom- 
son are good, and a refreshing change from 
the inartistic photographic illustrations now so 

Mr. Keginald St. Barbe's little book " In 
Modern Spain " is a series of slight impression- 
ist sketches on such topics as the Prado, 
" Manana," Bull-fights, Village Fiesta, Spanish 
Newspapers in the War, etc. They well con- 
vey the spirit of the country, and are pleas- 
antly written. 

" Across India at the Dawn of the Twentieth 
Century," by Miss Lucy E. Guinness, is a very 
ardent missionary book by one of the most 
noted of English evangelists. We have glimpses 
of mission work as seen in a three months' tour 
through the principal missionary centres, and 



[July 1, 

there is a summary, gleaned from various 
sources, for the empire as a whole, making a 
very popular and vigorous sketch. It is illus- 
trated with many diagrams and photographic 

Another missionary book is " In Afric's 
Forest and Jungle," by Mr. R. II. Stone. It is 
largely concerned with the appearance of the 
country and people, and with native wars in 
the section of Africa between the Bight of 
Benin and the Niger River. Here is a lively 
description of a party < > F Kroos : 

" The Kroos live almost entirely on rice, and the quan- 
tity they can eat at a single sitting is quite incredible. 
I once saw a party take breakfast and I never shall 
forget the incident. Several Kroos formed a circle 
around a vessel full of steaming hot rice. The leader 
pot in his hand, took a quantity, tossed it over and over 
until it assumed the form of a ball about the size of a 
baseball and then pitched it into his widely distended 
mouth. As he was swallowing the mass he gave bis 
body a snake-like squirm so as to leave as much space 
as possible for more to follow. All the others of the 
party followed the example of their leader, going round 
and round with clock-like regularity until the rice was 
all gone. By this time their stomachs were distended 
like those of cattle in early summer." 

This book is a simple, direct account, and 
touches on some points not often mentioned by 
other writers. 

" From Sea to Sea," by Rudyard Kipling, is 
a resuscitation of letters of travel on India, 
Burmah, China, Japan, and America. Mr. 
Kipling prefaces this book with the remark 
that he has been forced to collect these news- 
paper letters of 1887 to 1889 " by the enter- 
prise of various publishers, who, not content 
with disinterring old newspaper work from the 
decent seclusion of the office files, have in sev- 
eral instances seen fit to embellish it with addi- 
tions and interpolations." This purely com- 
mercial remark rather prejudices the critic at 
the start ; and we regret that the impression is 
confirmed by perusal. These letters are quite 
too journalistic, crude, smart, and diffuse to 
warrant taking any place in the acknowledged 
works of Rudyard Kipling. We quote this 
paragraph (a fair sample) on Chicago : 

" I have struck a city, a real city, and they call 
it Chicago. The other places do not count. San Francisco 
is a pleasure resort as well as a city, and Salt Lake was 
a phenomenon. This place is the first American city I 
have encountered. It holds rather more than a million 
people with bodies, and stands on the same sort of soil 
as Calcutta. Having seen it, I urgently desire never to 
see it again. It is inhabited by savages. Its water is 
the water of the Hngli, and its air is dirt. Also it says 
that it is the < boss ' town of America." 



From Abel to Virgil, and from Virgil to the 
present time, that branch of human endeavor which 
the encyclopaedias style " Gardening ; see Horticul- 
ture " has been held in high favor among gods and 
men. If it is to the sturdier elder brother, Agri- 
culture, that we owe the staff of life and the few- 
score plants which afford us most of our sustenance, 
such joys as the strawberry and the prettily deli- 
cious family of small fruits, the herbs that lend 
flavor to life, and the trees, shrubs, and flowers that 
blossom within our days, are all within the province 
of the gardener as Miss Gertrude Jekyll practices 
the gentle art. Though her admirable book, Wood 
and Garden," lacks the literary charm that apper- 
tains to " Oar Gardens " as seen by her distin- 
guished co-laborer, the Very Reverend S. Reynolds 
Hole, dean of Rochester, it is none the less a book 
with a distinction and fascination of its own. 

One of the things assuredly the chief thing 
which distinguishes the work of Miss Jekyll from 
all of its kind is the attention she has paid to that 
lost sister among the seven, the sense of smell. 
Physiologists like Mr. Havelock Ellis would have 
us believe that woman is lacking in the useful and 
neglected faculty of discerning and discriminating 
odors. But if this be true, Miss Jekyll it is whose 
exceptional gifts in this direction proved a rule to 
the contrary. " Passing upward through the copse," 
she writes of April, " the warm air draws a fra- 
grance almost as sweet, but infinitely more subtle 
[than that of sweetbriar], from the fresh green of 
the young birches ; it is like a distant whiff of lilies 
of the valley." There is not one man in a hundred 
who knows of the delicate scents from bourgeoning 
leafage in April, such odoriferous joys as inhere in 
the bursting shoots of the hackmatack or the great 
cotton woods. But Miss Jekyll has so far progressed 
in the art that she is able to devote a chapter, almost 
unique, to " The Scents of the Garden," beginning 
it with a sentence which has in it the root of the 
whole matter : " The sweet scents of a garden are 
by no means the least of its many delights." From 
this grows a most exquisite essay on smells that 
are not merely " sweet," but spicy, and suggestive, 
and balmy, and so near to stenches that no hard 
and fast line can be drawn ; for the connoisseurs 
in such matters know that distance and almost 
homoeopathic dilution can lend enchantment to 
carrion itself. This is true of some tropical plants : 
the tuberose in warmer countries, the jasmines and 
some of the lilies ; even, as is recorded here, the 
Balm of Gilead (Cedronella triphylla) in England, 
all hover over the dividing line between delight and 
disgust. It suffices, this interesting chapter, to call 
to mind the slender tributes brought by the poets 

WOOD AMD GAKDKN : Notes and Thought*, Practical and 
Critical, of a Working Amateur. By Gertrude Jekyll. New 
York : Longman*, Green, & Co. 

OUB GARDENS. By S. Reynolds Hole. New York : The 
Macmillan Co. 




to a charming and sadly neglected source of pleas- 
ure and instruction. But it would be doing Miss 
Jekyll's volume an injustice to leave the impression 
that its excellence is all bound up in this nicety of 
olfactory discernment. The ancient question of art 
and nature crops out in dissertations scattered 
through the book on the possibilities of cultivation 
and domestication in detracting from as well as 
adding to the delights brought by flowers. The 
author shows more than one case of real degenera- 
tion, of colors made ugly and forms made uncouth 
by gardeners lacking in taste. There is, too, a most 
useful following of the plants from January through 
December, making one wish for such a climate as 
the south of England, where flowers out of doors 
are possible in each of the twelve months. 

If one looks to Dean Hole for a higher literary 
perfection in his amiable discourse upon " Our 
Gardens," one hardly expects at the same time to 
find a greater exhibition of technical knowledge 
than that displayed by his gentle fellow-author and 
fellow-enthusiast. But the versatile cleric proves 
himself no less adept in dealing with matters of 
somewhat recondite botany. Such a book for the 
gardener as Izaak Walton wrote for the fisherman 
or Gilbert White for the naturalist has yet to be 
written ; but something of the reward which will fall 
to the successful performer of this graceful task falls 
to Dean Hole here, as it has already fallen to Jef- 
frey in the matter of the field flowers. For his work 
teems with delicate scholarship, now Greek, now 
Latin, now a harking back to reproach Lord Baeon 
for what he did not know about gardening or to 
praise Addison for being in advance of his time, 
horticulturally speaking, and now citing the modern- 
est of instances in a manner he has made almost 
peculiar to himself, until the reader wonders if all 
cultivation, after all, does not come to the same 
thing, and culture and horticulture differ only as a 
part from the whole. " What is the garden for? " 
he asks a " middle-aged nymph," and she tells him : 
" For the soul, sir, for the soul of the poet ! For 
visions of the invisible, for grasping the intangible, 
for hearing the inaudible, for exaltations," and a 
page or two later there is a sigh for what might 
have befallen the dinner were the garden unknown : 
" No tomatoes for the soup, no cucumbers for the 
salmon, no new potatoes, no crisp salad, no mint 
sauce for the lamb, no peas for the duck, no apples 
for the goose, " proving the art to be not less 
worthy of the inner than the outer poet. 

It is summer now, when nature herself is supple- 
menting the plentiful illustrations of these two books 
in her own inimitable manner ; yet the volumes will 
furnish the letter-press for a better understanding 
of the part man plays when he leads with sympathy 
and reverence the footsteps of the Great Mother. 
And when the winter frosts have left us sighing anew 
for the climate of southern England, these pages will 
refresh the weariest with the thought of coming 

greenery and bloom. 



It is now something like twelve years since a 
novel called " The New Antigone," published anony- 
mously, attracted widespread attention on account 
of its somewhat audacious treatment of the problem 
of love without legal sanction. When it transpired 
that the novel had been written by Dr. William 
Barry, a Catholic priest, it seemed still more remark- 
able, because clerical novelists, when they handle 
such subjects at all, are apt to do it gingerly, and 
with much parade of didacticism. But here was a 
clerical writer who frankly accepted the artistic 
rule of leaving the moral implicit, instead of forc- 
ing it upon the reader's attention. The moral was 
unquestionably there, but the book gave offense to 
too many people who would like to exclude certain 
subjects altogether from literary treatment. Now, 
after this long silence, we have a second novel, this 
time acknowledged, from the same hand. It is 
called " The Two Standards," a title suggested 
by the " Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius," and 
this is to be taken in the obvious sense. That is, 
the two ideals that struggle for the mastery over 
the two human souls in whom our interest chiefly 
centres are, on the one hand, the ideal of worldly 
prosperity and sensual gratification ; on the other, 

* THE Two STANDARDS. By William Barry. New York : 
The Century Co. 

THE RAPIN. By Henry De Vere Stacpoole. New York : 
Henry Holt & Co. 

DROSS. By Henry Seton Merriman. Chicago : Herbert 8. 
Stone & Co. 

IDOLS. By William J. Locke. New York : John Lane. 

A DUET, with an Occasional Chorus. By A. Conan Doyle. 
New York : D. Appleton & Co. 

YOUNG LIVES. By Richard Le Gallienne. New York : 
John Lane. 

THE BLACK DOUGLAS. By S. R. Crockett. New York : 
Doubleday & HcClure Co. 

THE SILVER CROSS. By S. R. Keightley. New York: 
Dodd, Mead & Co. 

PHAROS, THE EGYPTIAN : A Romance. By Guy Boothby. 
New York : D. Appleton & Co. 

THE ENCHANTED STONE. By Lewis Hind. New York : 
Dodd, Mead & Co. 

THE CAPSINA. By E. F. Benson. New York : Harper & 

New York : M. F. Mansfield & Co. 

ard. Chicago : Herbert S. Stone & Co. 

ONE POOR SCRUPLE. A Seven Weeks' Story. By Mrs. 
Wilfrid Ward. New York : Longmans, Green, & Co. 

LATITUDE 19. A Romance of the West Indies in the Year 
of Our Lord Eighteen Hundred and Twenty. By Mrs. Schuy- 
ler Crowninshield. New York : D. Appleton & Co. 

ESPIRITU SANTO. A Novel. By Henrietta Dana Skinner. 
New York : Harper & Brothers. 

RAGGED LADY. A Novel. By W. D. Howells. New 
York : Harper & Brothers. 

THE PROCESSION OF LIFE. A Novel. By Horace Annesley 
Vachell. New York : D. Appleton & Co. 

THE AWKWARD AGE. A Novel. By Henry James. New 
York : Harper & Brothers. 

THE MARKET-PLACE. By Harold Frederic. New York : 
Frederic A. Stokes Co. 



[July 1, 

the ideal of renunciation and spiritual triumph. 
The story reminds us not a little of " Evelyn 
Innes," although not brought to so conclusive a ter- 
mination. In both there is a woman tempted, and 
in both music is made the means of temptation. 
But in the cace of Dr. Barry's novel, we are left 
in no doubt whatever of the reality of the spiritual 
recoil of the heroine. ' The Two Standards " is an 
improvement upon " The New Antigone " in its 
strictly literary aspects, although it is still too rhe- 
torical, too overloaded with discursive reflection. 
We lose sight of the story for long periods, but it 
must be admitted that during these periods we have 
for recompense the constant contact with an acute 
and brilliant intellect For it is evident that the 
author's life has not been cloistered in any deaden- 
ing sense ; he has not lost sight of the intellectual 
and artistic currents of the age ; he has realized 
that the problems of life are to be faced and not 
ignored. In brief, the book has so many fine qual- 
ities that its technical shortcomings considered in 
the light of mere fiction do not impel us to deal 
with it harshly, or to make our final word anything 
but one of praise. 

It is a " Boheme " something like that of Henri 
Murger or as nearly like it as possible under mod- 
ern conditions into which we are taken by " The 
Rapin," a story by Mr. Henry De Vere Stacpoole. 
The chief variant from Murger's theme is that the 
hero is not naturalized in the Pays Latin, being 
rather an aristocratic youth of the Rive Droite who 
takes up his abode in Bohemia to escape from the 
emptiness of his former fashionable surroundings. 
How he lives there with Celestin, but wearies of that 
life no less than of the other, how he is bled by vari- 
ous sorts of parasites, how he discovers that he is an 
artist only in the flattering words of his interested 
followers, how Ce'lestin dies of pneumonia, and her 
lover goes back to conventionality, all these 
things, and many more, are told with much anima- 
tion and some humor in this book of " The Rapin." 
Some of the minor characters, too, are engagingly 
interesting Gaillard the poet, and the people 
whom he invents upon the spur of the moment, 
Pelisson the journalist, and Nani the vicious old 
roue who plays his patrons such tricks. As for the 
hero, who is called Toto, we will simply say that 
the name fits him like a glove. 

Mr. Merriman's novels have always reminded us 
of something vaguely familiar, but it was not until 
reading " Dross " the other day that the reminis 
cence took concrete shape. In the crisp precision 
of his manner, in his exhibition of the dry sort of 
intellectuality that never allows emotion to get the 
upper hand, in his display of wide interests and 
information, and, we must add, in his inability to 
sound more than half-way the depths of the soul 
he writes as does M. Cherbuliez, and makes to his 
readers much the same sort of appeal. " Dross," 
which is certainly as good as the best of his pre- 
vious work, is a novel of the annee terrible, although 
the sinister happenings of that period are kept well 

in the background, and serve but ax the framework 
for a tale of private life, suitably romantic, and 
waxing into melodrama for one brief hour. The 
author's characters are not all clearly realized, and 
his whole story is based upon a vast structural im- 
probability, but the management of it all is so 
ingenious, and the minor technique BO admirable, 
that it amply fulfils its promise made manifest in 
the opening pages, of an hour of exceptionally 
pleasant entertainment. 

One or two of his previous novels, " Derelicts " 
in particular, have accustomed us to expect good lit- 
erary workmanship from Mr. William J. Locke, 
and his new novel, called " Idols," brings with it 
no disappointment. Yet it does not seem to be of 
his very best, and its failure to reach his previous 
high standard is probably attributable to a resort 
to something suspiciously like melodrama, and his 
evident determination to create a startling situation, 
at whatever cost of probability. The woman who 
commits perjury to save a friend, and who at the 
same time deliberately assumes as far as the eye 
of the public is concerned the role of a dishon- 
ored wife, acts in a way that only casuistry can 
justify, and the purity of her motive cannot con- 
done the offense. Such is the substance of the 
tragic story that Mr. Locke has woven for us, and, 
interesting as it is, there is an ethically unwhole- 
some flavor that remains, while the interest fades 
in the memory. 

Dr. Conan Doyle must have great confidence in 
his public, judging from the experiments that he 
tries upon it from time to time. Since his deserved 
early successes in historical romance, he has pro- 
duced a series of books in various manners that 
were either confessed pot-boilers, and consequently 
calling for no serious consideration, or attempts to 
do things for which he had obviously no aptitude 
whatever. His latest book touches what we must 
believe to be the very bottom of the pit into which 
he has fallen. For absolute imbecility it would be 
hard to match a book of which the following extract 
is fairly illustrative : 

" For the underground railway is blessed as regards 
privacy above all other lines, and where could a loving 
couple be more happy who have been torn apart by 
cruel fate for seven long hours or so ? It was with a 
groan that Frank remarked that they had reached 
Mark Lane. 

" ' Bother ! ' said Maude, and wondered if there was 
any shop near where she could buy hairpins. As every 
lady knows or will know there is a very intimate con- 
nection between hairpins and a loviug husband." 

There are whole chapters of this maudlin drivel ; 
in fact, there is little else. The story is concerned 
with nothing under the sun but the courtship and 
early married life of two commonplace young peo- 
ple, described in the minutest detail. It should 
have appeared (and remained buried) in The 
Ladies' Home Journal." 

After this book, even Mr. Le Gallienne's " Young 
Lives," which is also concerned with the same cal- 




low period in the development of its characters, 
seems fresh and delightful reading, although a nor- 
mal critical judgment would doubtless feel bound 
to bear down rather heavily upon its sentimental- 
ism and lack of any sort of virility. But there is 
a curious mixture of strength with weakness in this, 
as in the author's other books, and, unsatisfactory 
as it may be in some aspects, in others it compels 
our admiration for its delicacy and its insight. For 
example, it gives us such a glimpse as no writer 
could have imagined of the inner life of middle- 
class nonconformist society in Liverpool. The au- 
thor has clearly lived that life in his youth, and 
knows it from the inside. However, this is no new 
thing for readers of Mr. Le Gallienne's books, but 
merely the restatement of a familiar and redeeming 
quality. " Young Lives " is a pleasant little book, 
marred by but one very conspicuous fault of taste, 
which may be found in the chapter entitled " The 
Wits." Here the hero, a youth with aspirations 
toward literature, is introduced to a London gath- 
ering, among whom it is very easy to pick out cer- 
tain actual individuals. The " learned homunculus " 
is not difficult to identify, nor is the " short, firmly 
built clerkly fellow, with a head like a billiard-ball 
in need of a shave, a big brown moustache, and enor- 
mous spectacles." These things by themselves 
would not be so bad, but the author goes rather be- 
yond the limit when he brings himself into the com- 
pany with the following sentence : " There entered 
a tall young man with a long, thin face, curtained 
on either side with enormous masses of black hair, 
like a slip of the young moon glimmering through 
a pine-wood." Presently this " moon-in-the-pine- 
wood " apparition is contrasted with the billiard- 
headed and bespectacled individual in the following 
terms : " That is our young apostle of sentiment, 
our new man of feeling, the best-hated man we 
have ; and the other is our young apostle of blood. 
He is all for muscle and brutality and he makes all 
the money. . . . But my impression is that our 
young man of feeling will have his day, though 
he will have to wait for it." The naivete of this 
observation is so refreshing that one almost forgets 
that it should have been left to someone else to 

In " The Black Douglas," Mr. Crockett takes 
for his subject the fall of the great house that dom- 
inates the picturesque tradition of fifteenth century 
Scotland. He varies his theme, however, by intro- 
ducing the sinister figure of Gilles de Retz, and the 
latter half of the romance takes us to France and 
tells the grewsome story that Dumas has embodied 
in " Les Louves de Machecoul." There is no new 
thing in this romance, and no new manner ; the 
book is a typical example of Mr. Crockett's work- 
manship, exhibiting its virtues and its defects. 
Among the latter, garrulity has always been prom- 
inent, and in the present instance it seems to have 
grown upon the writer. 

We have previously expressed the opinion that 
Mr. S. R. Keightley was quite as ingenious as Mr. 

Weyman as an artificer of what has come to be of 
late years the popular sort of historical romance. 
This opinion is fortified by "The Silver Cross," 
which, if it be not quite equal to " The Cavaliers," 
is all that one could reasonably expect of such a 
book. The story is concerned with the intrigues 
of Madame de Chevreuse against Cardinal Maz- 
arin, and is packed with excitement of the most 
romantic sort. Books of this pattern are usually as 
much alike as so many peas, and the conventional 
pattern is followed by Mr. Keightley, but this is no 
reproach to a narrative that is so successful in pro- 
viding entertainment for its readers. 

Mr. Guy Boothby seems to have taken the hint 
that his public is a little tired of Dr. Nikola, and 
has ostensibly shelved that fiendish individual. Yet 
we cannot help feeling that it is the same malignant 
personality that lurks beneath the mask of Pharos 
the Egyptian in Mr. Boothby's new novel. Pharos, 
we learn, was master of the magicians at the court 
of the Pharoah of the Exodus, and found his arts 
pitted against those of Moses, much to his discom- 
fiture. In due time, he became a mummy, but he 
really did n't die at all, getting in some unexplained 
way a new frame in which to prowl about the world. 
Thus we are introduced to him in the nineteenth 
century, concerned with getting possession of his 
own mummy (which has been brought to England 
by an Egyptologist), and also with a diabolical 
scheme for getting even with mankind by infecting 
Europe with the plague. How he accomplishes 
these ends, making an English artist his unwitting 
accomplice, and how he finally dies (for good, let 
us hope), is told us in Mr. Boothby's romance, 
which finds no trick of sensationalism too cheap to 
be used, and which has not the slightest claim (any 
more than its predecessors) to be considered a lit- 
erary production. 

" The Enchanted Stone," by Mr. Lewis Hind, 
is another fantastic romance which brings the ancient 
Orient and the modern Occident into juxtaposition, 
just as Mr. Boothby does, only with greater inge- 
nuity and a finer sense of what is demanded by lit- 
erary art. The stone in question is a miraculous 
jewel that finds its way from India to England, and 
is tracked by an uncanny " yellow man " who sticks 
at nothing in bis efforts to regain possession of the 
talisman. Having done so, he takes advantage of 
the credulity of an eccentric and wealthy English- 
woman, and they proceed together to start a new 
religion, erecting for its service a temple of unex- 
ampled splendor upon the coast of Cornwall. The 
unsophisticated Cornishmen, looking upon the tem- 
ple with disfavor, organize a raid, and proceed to 
demolish it. The credulous Englishwoman dies, 
and the yellow man (with his jewel) escapes, pre- 
sumably to his own India. The story is one of the 
wildest of extravaganzas, yet it has a certain fas- 
cination, and even, in its earlier chapters, reminds 
us slightly of the " New Arabian Nights." 

Mr. E. F. Benson achieved so pronounced a suc- 
cess in " The Vintage " that he has done well to 



[July 1, 

write a second romance of the Greek Revolution. 
This new story is entitled "The Capsina," and is a 
sequel to the earlier one in that it continues the 
chronicle of the heroic cause for which Byron fought 
and Shelley sang. It also has for its hero the lit- 
tle Mitaos " of " The Vintage," who in this book 
takes to the sea, and proves himself no less a fighter 
there than on the land. Bat the interest in Mitaos 
ia overshadowed by that which we take in the hero- 
ine the Capsina for whom the book is named. 
This fine and inspired figure is a true creation, who 
in her glowing life and heroic death so compels our 
admiration that we are ready to overlook the defects 
of the work its occasional trivialities, longueurs, 
and confusions. 

" The Brothers of the People " is a romance of 
revolutionary Balkania, garnished with villainies, 
conspiracies, and bombs. A young English girl goes 
to the country to act as companion to the daughter 
of an influential statesman, and becomes mixed up 
in many affairs of which she had no anticipation 
when she accepted the position. The story is a com- 
bination of sentimentalism, improbability, and puer- 
ilily. entirely out of the reach of serious criticism. 

Mrs. Augustus Moore, who writes under the name 
of Martin J. Pritchard," is bent upon being start- 
ling, whatever the cost in probability and good taste. 
Her first novel, " Without Sin," told the story of a 
woman laboring under the singular delusion that 
she waa in very truth the reincarnation of the mother 
of God. Her second venture, "The Passion of 
Rosamund Keith," now before us, has for its climax 
the physical crucifixion of a woman by a mob of 
superstitious Albanian mountaineers. This scene 
cannot be described as other than revoltingly sensa- 
tional, yet it must be admitted that the book as a 
whole has literary quality beyond what is common 
in sensational and sentimental fiction. The writer 
has no mean powers of vivid delineation, applied to 
both scenes and situations, and the advance in crafts- 
manship over her earlier book is unquestionable. 
The plot hinges upon the love of Paul Carr for 
Rosamund Keith. This is at first crossed by a bit 
of scandal that any sensible lovers would have 
ignored, then Paul goea into a monastic retreat and 
joins the Catholic church, then he remembers the 
fact (strangely forgotten up to this moment) that he 
baa a divorced wife still living, and finally (for by 
such tortuous logic does the story proceed), his 
newly-made vows so weigh upon him that he deter- 
mines to renounce Rosamund. Thus far, the book 
ia a story of English society. It is only toward the 
close that the scene shifts to Eastern Europe, and 
we come to the startling episode already mentioned. 
It must be added that Paul's divorced wife dies 
moat conveniently, and that the literal " passion " of 
Rosamund does not terminate fatally. 

Curiously enough, the same problem of marriage 
with a man whose divorced wife is still living occu- 
pies the central place in Mrs. Wilfred Ward's "One 
Poor Scruple." The object of thia book, aside from 
the discussion of thia central problem, ia clearly to 

place before its readers a picture of everyday life in 
the Catholic households of English society, and to 
sketch society itself from the Catholic point of view. 
Were it not that Mrs. Ward speaks of her book aa 
having been in course of preparation for the past 
seven years, we should be tempted to speak of it as 
a studied attempt to counteract the effect of the 
latest novel of another and more famous Mrs. Ward 
that is, the effect of Helbeck of Banniadale." 
In a word, it presents what may be called the nor- 
mal type of English Catholicism, and thus stands in 
marked contrast to the striking, but surely abnormal, 
type in which Mrs. Humphry Ward so deeply en- 
gages our interest Viewed in relation to its central 
problem, " One Poor Scruple " is a story of sharp 
temptation and eventual spiritual triumph. Con- 
sidered aa an unpretentious delineation of social 
conditions, it is faithfully studied and deserving of 
every praise. Taken as a portrait gallery of many 
sorts and conditions of men and women, it achieves 
an unusual degree of success in its delineations. We 
get to know these people from the inside, although 
the external trick of manner is by no means ignored, 
and as we close the book, we feel that of its many 
admirable qualities this penetrative insight into 
character is the one that chiefly calls for praise. 

The romantic materials of Mrs. Crowninshield's 
Latitude 19 " are promising enough. The Island 
of Haiti in the twenties, the reign of terror estab- 
lished by Christophe the Caligula or Tiberius of 
the island the horrid mysteries of vuudou fetich- 
ism, the cannibalism of the natives, the buccaneers 
that infested the coast and made their lairs in its 
caves, all these things are exciting indeed, and when 
we bring a party of shipwrecked Yankees into such 
surroundings, we seem to have an embarrassment 
of riches. Unfortunately, the writer ia without the 
constructive skill needful for the shaping of a con- 
nected story out of these matters, and her book re- 
mains a congeries of imperfectly connected episodes, 
a jumble of excitements and terrors, a kaleidoscope 
of fantastic unrealities. 

The Espiritu Santo " of Miss Skinner, a daugh- 
ter of the author of " Two Years before the Mast," 
is a book about French, Spanish, and Italian people, 
mostly connected with the operatic stage, and about 
as unreal as attempts at characterization could 
easily be. They constantly express " such noble senti- 
ments " that the Marquis of Posa would have taken 
them to his heart, but they never impress us as being 
living people of flesh and blood. The religious 
feeling of the story is so tender and beautiful that 
we cannot speak of its spirit in terms of too cordial 
commendation, but the application of these terms 
must ceane with the spirit ; when we come to the 
execution of the book, considered simply as a novel, 
and not aa didacticiam or fine writing, it is impos- 
sible to call it anything but a failure. 

The peculiar charm of Mr. Howells when he is at 
his best reappears, after several recent eclipses, in 
the novel which he has fantastically styled " Ragged 
Lady." It ia a charm compounded of several ele- 




ments, and not easy of analysis. It is not merely 
the quality of minute observation, tinged with lam- 
bent humor, because we find that in some of his 
least satisfactory performances. It is something 
beyond this, and in the present instance it is found, 
at least in part, in his recurrence to those Italian 
scenes which have before proved his best inspiration, 
and in still greater part to his gentle heroine, whose 
imperturbable spirit no splendors can dazzle and no 
vicissitudes can embitter. The placidity and sweet- 
ness of Clementina, the " ragged lady " of this tale, 
offers so refreshing a contrast to the high-strung and 
emotional heroines of so much of our fiction that we 
can be only grateful for the acquaintance, even if 
Clementina is a trifle anaemic, besides being afflicted 
at moments by an aggravated and distressing form 
of the celebrated New England conscience. Mr. 
Howells still likes to puzzle his readers by the play 
of elusive motives, and Clementina's several senti- 
mental entanglements come upon us as a series of 
imperfect surprises, causing us to observe her career 
with a certain zest, but not quite in accordance with 
the canons of clear-cut art. The minor figures in 
this gallery are also interesting, every one, from the 
Russian socialist to the Michigan parson, and their 
characters are drawn for us with touches that are 
as delicate as those of a Meissonier, and far more 
revealing withal. 

If California sends us many more such novels as 
" The Procession of Life," it will have to be reck- 
oned with in our literary geography more seriously 
than hitherto. The California once revealed to us 
by Mr. Bret Harte has passed so completely away 
from the actual world that the stories still written 
by him, in the seclusion of the Athenaeum Club, 
delightful as they are, must be described as the 
productions of a literary Rip Van Winkle, whose 
present is the remote past of everybody else. Since 
the Harte period of Californian society, so great an 
evolution has taken place that Mr. Vachell's novel 
seems to come from an entirely different world. It 
is a world that has not remained absolutely unre- 
vealed to us, for it has already lived a sort of lit- 
erary life in the brilliant crudity of Mrs. Atherton's 
novels, in the slighter and far more delicate work 
of Mrs. Graham, and, of course, in " Ramona." 
We have also been brought close to it by Mr. Van 
Dyke's " Millionaires of a Day," a book which, 
although not a novel, has a far greater interest than 
most fiction, and which is suggested by the new 
book now under consideration. The connecting 
link in this case is provided by the story of the 
"boom" that struck Southern California in the early 
eighties. The leading characters in Mr. Vachell's 
novel are made to pass through the storm and stress 
of that speculative period, to suffer in the swift reac- 
tion, and at last to share in the temperate prosperity 
of still more recent years. The book is rich in 
human interest, and is distinctly the best novel that 
has thus far been written of latter-day California. 

If drawing-rooms were the world, and those who 
have their being in them the whole of mankind, one 

could have no reasonable ground for dissatisfaction 
with the novels of Mr. Henry James. We certainly 
do get from his books about everything, in the way 
of both conversation and action, that a decorous 
drawing-room can shelter, and we get it in such 
delicate forms of artistic presentation that no pre- 
text is left us for adverse criticism. In " The Awk- 
ward Age," for example, than which even Mr. 
James has produced no better book, there are nearly 
five hundred pages of drawing-room talk and inci- 
dent, all delightfully finished and subtle, all dis- 
playing workmanship of the highest cherry-stone 
order, and yet we are inexpressibly wearied by it, 
because it has so little to do with anything that 
makes life really worth having, and we worry 
through it from a sense of duty rather than for sat- 
isfaction with its message. The outcome is naught, 
as far as we are able to discern, and not one ac- 
quaintance has been made with whom we would 
desire further commerce. 

It will be remembered that the death of Harold 
Frederic left among his manuscripts two unpub- 
lished novels, both dealing with English society. 
The first of them, which appeared promptly, was 
called " Gloria Mundi," and the best efforts of his 
friends to deal kindly with it could not conceal the 
fact that it was relatively a failure, and a failure pre- 
cisely because its author had gained only a superficial 
knowledge of the society which he sought to depict. 
His other posthumous novel, " The Market- Place," 
has now been published, and proves to be a far 
more satisfactory piece of work. The author is 
still clearly not at home in his new environment, 
but he has at least chosen a theme fairly within the 
reach of his intelligence. The business of company- 
promotion is comprehensible enough to an alert 
and clear-headed American writer, whether it be 
carried on in Wall Street or Capel Court, and 
this novel deals with the flotation of a Mexican 
rubber company by the devices made so familiar 
during the Hooley investigation of last year. The 
hero of this speculation is an Americanized English- 
man who plans his coup with Napoleonic strategy, 
and wins for himself a colossal fortune at the ex- 
pense of the " shorts," who have been tricked into 
selling shares of which he alone has absolute con- 
trol. When the settlement comes, they are bled 
white, and the buccaneer retires with his spoils. 
This is a very unconventional sort of morality, for 
the ethics of such a story are supposed to demand 
that the speculator shall be exposed and come to 
grief. Instead of this, our speculator covers up all 
the traces of his swindle, wins an aristocratic wife, 
and realizes his ambition of settling down as an 
English country gentleman. The moral that the 
author points is something quite different from what 
is expected, and we are by no means sure that it is 
not equally satisfactory. Certainly it is more subtle 
than the conventional moral, for it emphasizes the 
lesson that riches, however acquired, are a doubtful 
good to the man who is without inner resources to 
make possible their enjoyment. We leave him in 


[July 1, 

lion of all the externals of happiness, yet a 
profoundly unhappy and discontented mortal. And 
at least there is the negative satisfaction of know- 
ing that his wealth has been gained at the expense 
of men who deserve no sympathy, and the positive 
satisfaction of witnessing his achievement, under 
highly exciting and dramatic circumstances, of his 
purpose. The hook is not exactly fine, but it is 
unquestionably both strong and interesting. 



LtlUrt ^ The comely volume containing " The 

aidoWopmpAy Autobiography and Letters" (one- 
ojMrt. oilplant. f ourtn autobiography and three- 
fourths letters) of that worthy woman and gifted 
writer, Mrs. M. O. W. Oliphant, will appeal to a 
large circle of readers. Mrs. Harry Caghill is the 
editor, and she has done her work with due care and 
tact Mrs. Oliphant once described herself as " a 
writer very little given to explanations or to any 
personal appearance." Her work was for the pub- 
lic, her life for her family and chosen friends ; and 
when, toward the close of June, 1897, she lay dying 
in her sunny little home at Wimbledon, she laid 
upon those about her the injunction that no biogra- 
phy of her was to be written. Those familiar with 
Mrs. Oliphant's writings as a whole will have noted 
in some of the latest of them a certain tendency to 
depart from her habitual altitude of reserve. And 
that she realized that the biography she dreaded 
was in one form or another inevitable, and that no 
injunction she could lay on her friends would avail 
to baffle the public's desire to know something of 
the story of her life, is shown by the fact that long 
before her death she began to jot down at odd times 
scraps more or less autobiographical, to which were 
added, later, some account of her earliest years. 
Later still, at the request of her last surviving child, 
she continued this fragmentary memoir, bringing it 
down to the date at which her sons entered Oxford. 
These writings form the narrative portion of the 
volume now before us, and they have been supple- 
mented with the letters, which Mrs. Caghill has 
arranged in their chronological order, and connected 
with a thread of story where needed. It should be 
added that Mrs. Oliphant's wishes were not disre- 
garded in publishing this material. " She bade as," 
says Mrs. Caghill, " deal with it as we thought best." 
While Mrs. Oliphant's narrative is thoroughly read- 
able, and, in its light way, informing, it is the let- 
ters that form the more important and interesting 
portion of the volume. The largest part of these 
are to members of the Blackwood family, and they 
give an almost connected history of Mrs. Oliphant's 
work. Their general readableness, it must be owned, 
is not impaired by a certain note of asperity in the 
writer's tone when she is speaking of literary people. 
Even George Eliot (whom Mrs. Oliphant for a long 

time " cannot believe to be a woman ") does not 
quite escape. Macaulay is styled " the historian of 
sophistication, who writes only and always for so- 
ciety," whom "everybody admires," and in whom 
" nobody believes." As to Miss Martineau, Mrs. 
Oliphant is struck by "the curious limited folly of 
her apparent common-sense," and can only wonder 
how such a commonplace mind could have attained 
the literary position she did." In one letter to 
Mr. W. Blackwood, Mrs. Oliphant grimly expresses 
a wish to review Mr. Howells and certain other 
American writers, promising to do her best to put 
these Jacobs of literature on their true level." A 
note to Mr. Blackwood, from Oxford, comments 
amusingly on the tone of the town and its notabili- 
ties. The writer goes on to say : " Almost every- 
body who is anybody has called, I think ; but intel- 
lectualism, like every other ism, is monotonous, and 
the timidity and mutual alarm of the younger po- 
tentates strikes me a good deal. They are so much 
afraid of committing themselves or risking any- 
thing that may be found wanting in any minutiae of 
correctness. Scholarship is a sort of poison tree 
that kills everything." While the present volume 
is not, actually or ostensibly, a full and sufficient 
life of Mrs. Oliphant, it is fresh and entertaining, 
well leavened with 'personal comment and anecdote, 
and just the sort of biography one may venture upon 
with a light heart in the dog-days. There are two 
portraits, and there ought to have been an index. 
(Dodd, Mead & Co.) 

It is with a sigh for hills and moun- 
tains that the dweller on the western 
prairie lays down Mr. John Cole- 
man Adams's " Nature Studies in Berkshire " (Put- 
nam), with its beautiful pictures of hill and dale, 
climbing road and falling meadow. The inevita- 
bility of the association of " flat " with " stale and 
unprofitable " is more apparent with the progress of 
every chapter, till the sigh that brought forth the 
hanging gardens of Babylon is repeated after many 
ages. So many American artists and poets have 
gone to these self-same scenes for inspiration, it is 
only wonderful that the pleasant duty of celebration 
which Mr. Adams has imposed upon himself should 
have been reserved for him by a kindly fate. And 
that the fate was kindly, for the reader no less than 
the writer, these pleasant pages tell. Western 
Massachusetts, the scene of Dr. Underwood's New 
England town, has long awaited the coming of some 
American Jeffrey, someone who should add to the 
love of wild nature and sympathy with all its phases 
the flavor of the children of the soil. Than Dr. 
Adams no one could be better fitted for the task, 
either by birth or nurture, and his book in informed 
with the spirit of the place and the spirit of the 
people of the place. A higher morality, the moral- 
ity of fitness, takes the place of too obvious preach- 
ing ; the contrasts of the external world find inter- 
pretation in the contrasts of words which bespeak 
wit ; the erudition of nature is interpreted by the 

hill i and 




erudition of broad cultivation ; and the result is 
wholly pleasing. The very chapter titles prove it : 
"The Dome of the Taconics," " The Circumvention 
of Greylock," "The Social Flowers," "At the 
Sign of the Beautiful Star," "The Great Cloud 
Drive," all these and many more speak the thought 
of the lover and friend, who sets down a moment 
in literature, less enduring than the everlasting hills 
he writes of, but one which will make a lasting 
appeal nevertheless. " The hot and steaming city 
is leagues away," he tells us in one place. " All 
that is vanished ; and instead of it, a scene meets 
the eye in which one loses sense and thought in a 
sweet oblivion of content. . . . The air quivers and 
throbs over a rye-field. The far hills retreat still 
farther behind a blue haze. . . . Under the maples 
here in Berkshire is an incomparable vantage- 
ground from which to behold the glories of mid- 
summer as they pass by." This vantage-ground 
we do not begrudge the good Doctor, nor, since we 
may not share it, do we cease to be thankful for 
this reminiscence of it ; but we wish it were with 
us a personal memory, even as it is with him. For 
this new longing and aspiration in a life too short 
for the fulfilment of half the old ones, his graphic 
pages must be held responsible. 

Mr. W. G. Aston's " History of Jap- 
The story of anege Lj terature " (Appleton) is the 

Japanese tetters. . PII-II. 

sixth volume thus far published in the. 
series called " Literatures of the World." The au- 
thor opens this preface with the following remarks : 
" The Japanese have a voluminous literature, ex- 
tending over twelve centuries, which to this day has 
been very imperfectly explored by European stu- 
dents. Forty years ago no Englishman had read 
a page of a Japanese book, and although some 
Continental scholars had a useful acquaintance with 
the language, their contributions to our knowledge 
are unimportant. . . . Beyond a few brief detached 
notices, there is no body of critical opinion on Jap- 
anese books in any European language." Mr. 
Aston's position in putting forth such a " body of 
critical opinion " is in one respect enviable. No 
reviewer is likely to assume the superior airs of his 
kind, and play the pedagogue with the author. The 
latter has things all his own way, and the former, 
however omniscient he may upon other occasions 
seem, is for once humbled. We can say nothing of 
this book beyond testifying to its thoroughly read- 
able character, which is largely due to the free use 
of translated passages, biographical notices, and 
historical data. In other words, the things that a 
reader would be expected to know beforehand in 
the case of a European literature could not possibly 
be expected of him in this case, and Mr. Aston has 
done well to keep this fact constantly in mind. As 
for the difficulties encountered in the translations, 
the following observations are much to the point : 
" The cherry is, in Japan, the queen of flowers, 
and is not valued for its fruit, while the rose is re- 
garded as a mere thorny bush. Valerian, which to 

us is suggestive principally of cats, takes the place 
of the rosebud as the recognized metaphor for the 
early bloom of womanhood." A still more curi- 
ous illustration of the vagaries of association is 
offered by " The Ladies of New Style," an advanced 
novel of to-day, in which the new woman heroine 
is a dairymaid, not, forsooth, to indicate pastoral 
simplicity, but rather the most advanced radicalism. 
" Formerly," we are told, " cow's milk was not 
used as food in Japan, and when this novel ap- 
peared (1887) none but a truly enlightened person 
would dare to affront the old-fashioned prejudices 
against it." We congratulate Mr. Aston upon the 
acceptable manner in which he has told us the long 
story of Japanese letters, and we certainly have no 
reason to doubt that he is as trustworthy an author- 
ity as he is an interesting historian. 

There were stirring times in Mis- 
Border fighting j in th ope ning months of the 

in the Civil War. . n - r 

great civil conflict of a generation 
ago. The history of the struggle to keep the Bor- 
der States in the Union is an interesting one, and 
one which is always told with intense emotions, be- 
cause brother rose against brother, and the feud-like 
character of the fighting was marked. But the 
great movements of later years obscured the fron- 
tier contests, and the historians have been accus- 
tomed to dismiss with a few paragraphs what Mr. 
Britton in his "Civil War on the Border" (Put- 
nam) describes with the detail of an eye-witness. 
The second volume of this work continues the tale 
of the activities of local militia in Missouri, Arkansas, 
Indian Territory, and Kansas, against the bands of 
guerrillas under such leaders as the infamous Quan- 
trill or the desperate bandit, Bill Anderson. General 
Sherman's oft-quoted words descriptive of war cer- 
tainly have apt illustration in the stories told in 
these volumes, and perhaps there can be no better 
preventive of internal commotions than the re- 
hearsal of the experiences of the frontier folk dur- 
ing the years when the armies of the two sections 
were fighting, now in the West and later in Vir- 
ginia, for the settlement of the great struggle. 
What the raids of the Tories were in days of the Rev- 
olution, the swift and awful descents of the bandits 
of the Western frontier were to the loyal people in 
days of the Rebellion. Possibly war cannot be 
refined, and yet it seems likely that the changes in 
American life during the last quarter of a century 
have made it impossible that our land should ever 
again witness such scenes as those described by 
writers about the border fights of the Civil War. 

Readers of Mr. John Davidson who 

A playwright remember with pleasure his '> Plays " 

and AM prologue. J 

of five years ago have probably by 
this time read his " Godfrida " (John Lane). Those 
who remember the " Plays " with only a confused 
feeling akin to anger, may have neglected the book. 
To these latter, however, we must recommend at 
least the Prologue, which will not trouble them long 



[July 1, 

It presents us with a conversation between the Poet 
himself and an Interviewer, and thus gives Mr. 
Davidson a chance to speak of his ideas and inten- 
tions. This we rather like. Probably every author 
has sometime had a vague feeling that be would 
like to write reviews explaining the point of his 
work, even if he has also had a counter feeling that 
his work ought to explain itself. Mr. Davidson's 
views are good. We like particularly his disclaimer 
of any attempt to revive the Jacobean drama or the 
Elizabethan eclogue, or to follow in the path of 
Ibsen, which last few would have supposed a temp- 
tation to him. We like, too, his view of Romance 
as the essence of Reality. Certainly the Prologue 
should find readers. And as to the play, well, it 
is impossible to say anything about Mr. Davidson's 
plays without explaining and arguing a good deal, and 
for that we have not now the time. Those who would 
like a dramatist to come to them with an amusing 
or even instructive tale will be disappointed. Those 
who are intoxicated at a snuff or two of the fresh 
air of poetry, or with the lifting now and then of 
the cloud that generally dulls our horizon, will be 
amply satisfied. Between these two groups is the 
great majority of readers of plays (like ourselves) 
who will find a good deal to like, and will yet wish 
that Mr. Davidson had a little more skill in getting 
his real conceptions to stand out clear of all inferior 

" Studies in the Psychology of Wo- 
man " (H. S. Stone & Co.) is a 
translation by Georgia A. Etchison, 
from the German of Laura Marholm. The author's 
object is to ascertain the causes of the present dis- 
satisfaction among women, and she announces her- 
self as one who has " sought to grasp the points of 
view and facts which are most affected by the social 
position of woman in the present and most recent 
past." The effort is sincere, but the result is a ram- 
bling and flighty little book, with no coherence or 
sustained argument. Like most books of its kind, 
it shows an empirical astuteness, and offers some 
interesting criticism ; but its touch is, as a rule, both 
clumsy and uncertain. In denunciation, it is at 
once vague and glaring ; its " practical " sugges- 
tions are indefinite ; and its main conclusion as to 
the destiny of woman is not at all different from 
that of the world in general. Altogether, there 
would seem no very good reason for not leaving it 
in its original German. 

During the World's Fair year, the 
first volume of a "History of the 
New World called America" ap- 
peared from the pen of Mr. E. J. Payne. It was 
in two " books," the one relating the story of the 
discovery, and the second beginning a study of the 
aboriginal conditions. The style of the work was 
pleasing, and many kind words were written regard- 
ing it. After an interval of six years the second 
volume is at hand, bringing the history down to 
the period of the conquest of Mexico and Peru by 

Th' \f,r World 
o/ America. 

the Spaniards. The ethnographic and linguistic 
characteristics of the aborigines are set forth with 
painstaking care, and many interesting matters are 
presented with minuteness of detail. Considering 
the eleven hundred pages thus far given to the New 
World, with hardly a beginning of the study of the 
effects produced upon the Old World by the discov- 
ery of this Western land, the question naturally 
arises : For what special constituency is the author 
writing? It is doubtful whether the average Amer- 
ican reader will care to go much further than the 
extremely interesting volumes of John Fiske on 
" The Discovery of America," and it likewise seems 
questionable whether there is a demand for a re- 
writing of the history of the New World in such an 
elaborate way as to require over a thousand pages 
of detail about the pre- historic days, or rather the 
pre-Columbian era, before the story of the Western 
hemisphere is interwoven with the movements in 
the Eastern which are of vastly more importance in 
a well-balanced account of American history. If, 
however, there is a constituency which seeks such 
elaboration, these volumes of Mr. Payne will prove 
satisfying. (Oxford University Press.) 


Teachers of the history of England will be grateful 
to Dr. Charles W. Colby, of McGill University, for his 
volume of " Selections from the Sources of English 
History" (Longmans). The selections average less 
than three pages each and number upwards of one hun- 
dred. They throw interesting side-lights upon the whole 
course of English history, from Julius Csesar to the 
Reform Bill, and are made with judicious care. The 
work is designed for a younger class of students than are 
aimed at by such publications as the " Select Charters " 
of Bishop Stubhs and the " Old South Leaflets," but no 
student can be too young to he taught the distinction 
between historical sources and historical compilations. 

Recent German text-books include the following: 
Freytag's " A us dem Jahrhundert ties Grossen Kriegis," 
edited by Dr. L. A. Rhodes; "Stille Wasser," stories 
from several writers, edited by Dr. Wilhelm Bern- 
hardt; and " Eingeschneit," by Emil Frommel, also 
edited by Dr. Bernhardt, these three are issued by 
Messrs. D. C. Heath & Co. Messrs. Henry Holt & Co. 
send us a volume called " Aus Deutschen Meisterwer- 
ken," being stories from the mediaeval epics, retold in 
simple modern German by Mr. Sigmon M. Stern. From 
the Macmillan Co. comes a tasteful edition of " Hermann 
und Dorothea," edited by Professor James Taft Hat- 
field, and embodying a corrected text. Lastly, the 
same publishers send us a " Pitt Press " edition of 
" Iphigenie auf Tauris," prepared by Dr. Karl Breul. 

Among the many books recently issued upon the West 
Indian islands, the " History " of Mr. Amos Kidder 
Fiske (Putnam) deserves notice for the excellence of its 
maps and its index. These render the work valuable 
for handy reference. The material of the book itself is 
interesting, though the subjects included in the forty 
chapters are so numerous as to prevent scholarly treat- 
ment of any one of them. 





A revised edition of G. A. Wentworth's "Plane 
Geometry " has just been published by Messrs. Ginn 
& Co. 

A new and revised edition of Captain A. T. Mahan's 
" Life of Nelson " is published by Messrs. Little, 
Brown, & Co. 

Dr. W. C. Hollopeter's " Hay-Fever and Its Success- 
ful Treatment" (Blakiston) has passed into a second 
edition, revised and enlarged. 

" The Life of Friedrich Schiller " has just been added 
to the " Centenary " edition of Carlyle, published by 
Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons. 

" First Lessons in Civics " is a text-book of the most 
elementary sort, the work of Dr. S. E. Forman, pub- 
lished by the American Book Co. 

A translation of Maupassant's " Pierre et Jean," the 
work of Mr. Hugh Craig, has been published by Bren- 
tano's in a handsome illustrated edition. 

A third edition, almost entirely rewritten, of Dr. 
Arthur Newsholme's " Elements of Vital Statistics " 
has just been published by the Macmillan Co. 

A second edition of " The Messages of the Earlier 
Prophets," by Messrs. Frank Knight Sanders and 
Charles Foster Kent, has just been published by the 
Messrs. Scribner. 

"The Talisman," "The Betrothed," and "Wood- 
stock " (the latter in two volumes), are the latest addi- 
tions to the " Temple " Scott, which the Messrs. Scrib- 
ner publish in the United States. 

At last we have an authorized American edition, 
published by the Doubleday & McClure Co., of Mr. Kip- 
ling's " Departmental Ditties and Ballads and Barrack- 
Room Ballads," all in a single volume, with the swastika 
for a trade-mark. 

A two- volume translation of Epictetus, made by Mrs. 
Elizabeth Carter, has been recently issued in the " Tem- 
ple Classics " series (Macmillan). Three new volumes 
have been added also to the ten- volume edition of North's 
Plutarch, in the same series. 

The United States Bureau of Education issues a val- 
uable monograph by Mr. Arthur MacDonald upon the 
" Experimental Study of Children." It is really an 
advance section of the forthcoming report for 1897-98 
of the Commissioner of Education. 

The recently reawakened interest in Robespierre has 
led to a new edition of the biography of that worthy by 
George Henry Lewes. Published fifty years ago, it is 
still a most readable book, and this edition, imported 
by the Messrs. Scribner, should find many readers. 

The " Handbook of British, Continental, and Cana- 
dian Universities, with Special Mention of the Courses 
Open to Women," compiled by Dr. Isabel Maddison 
for the graduate club of Bryn Mawr College, has just 
been published in its second edition by the Macmillan Co. 

" The Dreyfus Story," by Mr. Richard W. Hale, is 
a small book published by Messrs. Small, Maynard & 
Co. It takes for its motto Hamlet's " Report me and 
my cause aright to the unsatisfied," and seeks to tell its 
tangled tale clearly and succinctly. The book should 
find many readers. 

"The Cable Story Book" (Scribner) is a volume of 
selections from the work of Mr. G. W. Cable, prepared 
by Miss Mary E. Burt and Miss Lucy Leffingwell Cable, 
and designed for use in schools. It has an introduction, 

a biographical sketch, several illustrations, and five 
stories the latter slightly simplified, with the author's 
approval, for their present special purpose. It is a good 
book of a good sort, and deserves to be widely used. 

It is reported that Mr. Maurice Hewlett has under- 
taken to prepare for the Macmillan Co. a volume on 
Florence, to serve as a companion to Mr. Crawford's 
" Ave Roma Immortalis." This is as welcome an an- 
nouncement as there could well be, for Mr. Hewlett 
knows both the body and the soul of Florence as do 
few if any other men. 

Messrs. D. C. Heath & Co. publish Racine's " An- 
dromaque," edited by Dr. B. W. Wells, and a thin book 
of " Geschichten und Marchen fur Anfanger," edited by 
Miss Lillian Foster. Messrs. Ginn & Co. publish La- 
biche's " La Grammaire," edited by Dr. Herman S. 
Piatt. Messrs. Henry Holt & Co. publish Lessing's 
" Minna von Barnhelm," edited, with a rather extensive 
apparatus, by Dr. Starr Willard Cutting. 

Volumes IX. and X. of " The Land of Sunshine," 
forming the numbers for the year just ended, and 
bound within a single set of covers, has just been sent 
us by the publishers. We have often had occasion to 
speak a good word for this brave little magazine, and 
to wish it success. The contents include much matter 
of permanent value, besides those sections in which the 
editor keeps up a running fire of comment upon the 
literary and political happenings of the day. In the 
matter of our Spanish and Philippine wars, particularly, 
Mr. Lummis has spoken many sober and fearless words, 
for which patriotic Americans cannot thank him too 



[Fuller descriptions of the following books, of the 
sort popularly known as " Summer reading," may be 
found in the advertising pages of this number or of 
recent numbers of THE DIAL.] 

The Awkward Age. By Henry James. Harper & Brothers. 

The Market-Place. By Harold Frederic. F. A. Stokes Co. 


Richard Carvel. By Winston Churchill. Macmillan Co. $1.50. 
A Duet with an Occasional Chorus. By A. Conan Doyle. 

D. Appleton & Co. $1.50. 
When the Sleeper Wakes. By H. G. Wells. Harper & 

Brothers. $1.50. 
Strong Hearts. By George W. Cable. Charles Scribner's 

Sons. $1.25. 
The Castle Inn. By Stanley J. Weyman. Longmans, Green, 

& Co. $1.50. 

Young Lives. By Richard Le Gallienne. John Lane. $1.50. 
A Daughter of the Vine. By Gertrude Atherton. John Lane. 

Gerald Fitzgerald, the Chevalier. By Charles Lever. New 

Amsterdam Book Co. $1.50. 

The Greater Inclination. By Edith Wharton. Charles Scrib- 
ner's Sons. $1.50. 
Swallow. By H. Rider Haggard. Longmans, Green, & Co. 

The Hooligan Nights. By Clarence Rook. Henry Holt & 

Co. $1.25. 
The Launching of a Man. By Stanley Waterloo. Rand, 

McNally&Co. $1.25. 
In Castle and Colony. By . Rayner. H. S. Stone & Co. 

The Carcellini Emerald. By Mrs. Burton Harrison. H. S. 

Stone & Co. $1.50. 



[July 1, 

The Strong Arm. By Robert Barr. F. A. Stoke. Co. Mfek 
Lore's Dilemma*. 67 Robert Herrick. H. 8. Stone A Co. 

Adrian Rome. By Messrs. DOWMM and Moore. Henry Holt 

A Co. 

Outsider*. By Robert W. Chamber*. F. A. Stoke* Co. $1.25. 
The Wolf* LOOK Howl. By Stanley Waterloo. H. S. Stone 

A Co. 91.50. 

Hilda. By Sara Jeannette Duncan. F. A. Stoke* Co. $1.25. 
The Taming of the Jungle. By Dr. C. W. Doyle. J. B. 

Lippinoott Co. $1. 
Prisoners and Captire*. By Henry Seton Merritnan. R. F. 

Fenno A Co. $1.25. 

The Custom of the Country. By Mr*. Hugh Fraser. Mac- 
ro Ulan Co. $1.50. 
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July, 1899. 

"Americanism," True and False. Win. Barry. No. American. 
Anglo- American Entente. Lord Charles Beresford. Pall Mall. 
Art Sales of 1898. W. Roberts. Magazine of Art. 
Australian Horseman, The. H. C. Macllwaine. Harper. 
Bird Rock. Frank M. Chapman. Century. 
Bonheur. Rosa. . Knaufft. Review of Reviews. 
Channel Passage, A, 1855. A.C.Swinburne. No. American. 
Chicago, Modern Architecture in. P. B. Wight. Pall Mall. 
Chinese Sketches. Elizabeth Washburn. Atlantic. 
Colonial Diary, A. Agnes Repplier. Atlantic. 
Colonies, Trade Policy with the. W. C. Ford. Harper. 
Columbus, Was he Morally Irresponsible ? Forum. 
Cuba, Our Position in, The Logic of. North American. 
Drama, A Theory of the. Ferris Greenslet. Forum. 
Eliot, George. Annie Fields. Century. 

England and Transvaal. Sydney Brooks. North American. 
England, English Writer's Notes on. Vernon Lee. Atlantic. 
English Literature, Right Approach to. M. H. Liddell. Atlan. 
Foreign Mail Service at New York. Scribner. 
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International Law in Late War. H. W. Rogers. Forum. 
Kipling and Racial Instinct. H. R. Marshall. Century. 
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Vedder, Elihu, and his Exhibition. E. Radford. Mag. of Art. 
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Reminiscences. By Justin McCarthy, M.P. In 2 vols., with 

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The Autobiography of Mrs. Oliphant. Edited by Mrs. Cag- 

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The Life of Nelson: The Embodiment of the Sea Power of 
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John Milton : A Short Study of his Life and Works. By 
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The Rough Riders. By Theodore Roosevelt. Illus., 8 vo, 

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The Making of Hawaii : A Study in Social Evolution. By 

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The Real Hawaii: Its History and Present Condition, 

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Young, U. S. N. Illus., 12mo, pp. 371. Doubleday & 

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A History of the Jewish People during the Babylonian, 

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The Labadist Colony in Maryland. By Bartlett B. James, 

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An Introduction to the Study of Dante. By John Ad- 

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pp.288. Maemillan Co. $2. 
Dante Interpreted. By Epiphanius Wilson. 12mo, gilt top, 

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The Century Illustrated Monthly Magazine. Vol. LVIL, 

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Black Canyon, Not I, and Other Stevensoniana : A Fac- 
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Departmental Ditties and Ballads and Barrack-Room 
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The Works of Shakespeare, " Eversley " edition. Edited 
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The Prometheus Bound of .aSschylus. Trans., with Intro- 
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Temple Classics. Edited by Israel Gollancz, M.A. New 
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When the Sleeper Wakes. By H. G. Wells. Illus., 12mo, 

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Richard Carvel. By Winston Churchill. Illus., 12mo, gilt 

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Miss Cayley's Adventures. By Grant Allen. Illus., 12mo, 

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The Garden of Swords. By Max Pemberton. Illus., 12mo, 

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In Vain. By Henry k Sienkie wicz ; trans, from the Polish by 

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A Gentleman Player: His Adventures on a Secret Mission 

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The Cathedral Church of Durham: A Description of its 
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Reprinted in the Old South Leaflet series. Among 
others are: 

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The Inaugurals. 

The Circular Letter to the Governors 

of the States, 1783. 
The Capture of Boston. 

Price, 5 cents a copy. $4-00 per 100. 
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[July 1, 


MARY CAMERON, A Romance of Fisherman's Island 

225 Pages, Cloth and Gilt. 
Price, $1.00. 

" The story is one of great promise." --HARRIET PBESCOTT SPOFFORD. 

For tale by all booktellert, or tent POSTPAID on receipt of price, by 

BENJ. H. SANBORN & CO., Publishers, Boston. 

A Summer 
Vacation m 

Can be most en joy ably spent at Milwau- 
kee, Waukesha, Madison, Devil's Lake, 
Green Lake, Gogebic Lake, Lake Geneva, 
St. Paul, Minneapolis, Lake Minnetonka, 
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and the resorts of Wisconsin, Northern 
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For pamphlet of " Summer Tours," and " Fishing and 
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Numbers 6, 7, and 8 


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A Record and a Study, 1558-1899. With Appendix, Index, and 12 Maps. 8vo. 

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Being the life and opinions of a young and unrepentant criminal recounted by himself, as set forth by 

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The actual experiences of "The Hooligan," a London thief, are here set down by his quondam acquaintance, Mr. 
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34 THE DIAL [Julyl 



Intended for the Sabbath-School Teacher and all other Students of the Bible. 

By JOHN D. DAVIS, Ph.D., D.D., 
Professor of Semitic Philology and Old Testament History in the Theological Seminary at Princeton, N. J. 

With many New and Original Mapt and Plant, and Fully Jlluitrated. 
One Volume, Octavo, 802 Pages. Price, $2.00 net ; Postage, 25 Cents. 

From The Independent, New York : 

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them drawn specially for the work. . . . Such a dictionary cannot fail of being extremely useful. In fact it stands alone at 
the present time as the only available compendium of up-to-date Biblical information in the English language." 



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1899] THE DIAL, 35 





A stirring story of love and adventure in Colonial times. 16nio, cloth, price $1.25 



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A new romance by the author of " Free to Serve." 12 mo, cloth 1.50 



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36 TIIK DIAL [July 1,1899. 


An Attractive List of Books 



Just Published. ' The story of the year." 


Author of "The Story of Ab," "A Man and a Woman," etc. 

This is one of the few late novels whose pages make good the title of the book. The author has constructed 
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after receiving his sheepskin from the university. He takes his hero, duly laureated, out into the exacting 
world of American business life, where he fully developes his manhood. 

12mo, cloth. Price, $1.25. 



12mo, cloth; price, 81.00; paper, Rialto Series, 50 cents. 
A pleasing romance of Russia. 


12mo, eloth. Price, 81.00. 


A Japanese-American romance. 12mo, cloth. Price, 81-25. 









Price each, Twenty-five cents. 


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(PuW ..f*r 



Critrrism, gtscussicnt, antr Jfnfcrmafron. 

EDITED BY ) Volume xxvu. r 1 wir 1 A rr\ TTTT v 1 R t SQQ J0 c< *' a copy> I ^" INE ARTS BUILDING 

FRANCIS F. BROWNE. I No. 314. L/llIv^AllU, J UljJL Ib, loyy. SZ.ayear. ( Rooms 610-630-631. 


His Adventures on a Secret Mission for Queen Elizabeth 



Illustrated by FRANK T. MERRILL 

One Volume, Library 12mo, Cloth, 450 pages. Price, $1.50. 

Early Press Notices of "A Gentleman Player." 

" The best book that Mr. Stephens has yet written." New York Times. 

" Nothing better has been done since * The Prisoner of Zenda ' took two reading 
worlds by storm." Philadelphia Item. 

" The story is a lively one, and the entanglements of the plot chain the attention." 
Portland Transcript. 

" In ' An Enemy to the King ' Robert Neilson Stephens achieved so great a success 
that his last venture, ' A Gentleman Player,' has been anticipated with an interest which 
the reading of the book fully justifies." Detroit Free Press. 

" An altogether interesting romance, well conceived and well told." Boston Journal. 

AN ENEMY TO THE KING (Eighteenth Thousand) 
THE ROAD TO PARIS (Fifteenth Thousand) 




[July 16, 1899. 


" One of the greatest of American novels." 


Published June 1. 
Second Edition, June 8. 
Third Edition, June IS. 
Fourth Edition, June SI. 

Fifth Edition, completing By WINSTON CHURCHILL, author of 

tS,OOO t in Prtts. " The Celebrity." 

"One of the most delightful and fascinating studies of manners and stories of adventure which has yet appeared in our 
literature.*' HAMILTON W. MABIB, in The Outlook. 

Cloth Extra, 
Crown 8vo, 
Price, $1.50. 

Side Lights on American History. 

By HKKRT W. ELBOK, A.M.. Lecturer of the American 
{Society for the Extension of University Teaching. 

ifimii. Cloth, price 75 cents. 

Intended to illustrate and nipplement the too meagre outlines in 
common use. A most attractive teacher'* aid. 

Source Book of American History. 

Edited for Schools and Readers by ALBKHT HI-HHNKLI- HART, 
Ph.D., Professor of History in Harvard University. With 
Practical Introductions. Illustrated by facsimiles, etc. 

12mo. Cloth, price 6O cents net. 

On the MUM plan as the larger work described below, but the selec- 
tions are briefer and intended (or more elementary work. 

To be Complete 

Four Volumes. 

tfow Ready. 

Volume I. THE ERA OF COLONIZATION. (1492-16) 
Volume II. THE BUILDING OP THE REPUBLIC. (1689-1783.) 

Students' History of the United States. 

By EDWARD CRANKING, Professor of History in Harvard 
University. With maps, illustrations, etc. New Edition, 
up-to-date. Cloth, Crown 8vo, $1.40 net. 

'There is a breadth of view and a loftineu of exposition which i 
acientiflc, and much more profitable than a mere string of dates and 
events. The scheme for study, the outlines for reading, and the sug- 
gestions to teachers, ought to make the book very helpful." FamsucK 
A. VOST, Buffalo Central High School. 

American History Told by Contemporaries. 

Edited by Professor ALBERT BUSHNELL HART, of Harvard 
University. Selected passages from original sources. 

Price per Set, $8.00. 

Volume I. or II., 


In Preparation. 
Volume HL NATIONAL EXPANSION. (1783-1845.) 
Volume IV. THE WELDING OF THE NATION. (1846-1806.) 

The Rise and Growth of American Politics. 

By HENRY JONES FORD. Cloth, 12mo, $1.50. 

" A valuable text-book for every thoughtful citisen. It 1* a concise 
account of American democracy." The Outlook. 

'A valuable contribution to the literature of our political and gov. 
ernmental development. It contains a vast amount of information." 
Baltimore Sun. 


Cloth, Crown 8vo. 
Price, $1.50. 

Other volumes are 
to follow soon. 


The Story of Old Fort Lou don. 

A Tale of the Cherokee* and the Pioneer* of Tennessee, 1766. 

" This story . . . impresses one with its historical accuracy, and clings to the memory like a living experience." Botton 

Tales of the Enchanted Isles of the Atlantic. 

Legend* current before the discovery of America. 
ALBERT HBRTBR. Cloth, $1.50. 

" Stories which, rich in fancy and incident, demand an unconscious 
grace OB the part of the narrator . . . who sings these legends straight 

to the hearts of young sad old." Botton Herald. 

DeSoto and his Men in the Land of Florida. 

The 16th Century. 
By GRACE KINO, author of " New Orleans." Illustrated by 

GEORGE GIBBS. Cloth, $1.50. 

" It has about it all the fascination of a novel, ... a rigorous and 
well-written story of one of the most remarkable and romantic episodes 
of early American history." Evening Pott. 

Buccaneers and Pirates of Our Coast. 

Stories of the 17th and 18th Centuries. 

By FRANK R. STOCKTON. Illustrated by C. VARIAH and B. W. CLINEDINST. Cloth, $1.50. 

" Full of startling adventure, almost superhuman endurance, and dash and daring enough to satisfy and fascinate the 
most exacting." New York Time*. 

Yankee Ships and Yankee Sailors. 

Tales of 18 It. 
By JAMBS BARNES. Illustrated by R. F. ZOOBAOM and 

C. T. CHAPMAN. Cloth, $1.5O. 

"The tales are of the kind that appeal to patriotism and pride of 
country. The deeds done are part of the nation's record ; It should 
inspire her young sons to read them." Dr trail free Press. 

Southern Soldier Stories. 

Tales of the Civil War. 

By GEORGE CART EOOLBSTON. Illustrated by R. F. ZOO- 
BAOM. Cloth, $1.50. 
A tale to make a boy's heart beat l*A."Indepen<ient. 
" Crisp, bright, often thrilling, . . . full of Southern ginger and the 

roar of battle." Education, 

Smdjor Circular wtiA name* / FO/MMM ttiU It oome. 

e* For sale by all Bookseller*, or unll be sent pott paid, upon receipt of price, by the Publishers, 

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Journal of Eiterarg Criticism, Biscussion, anti Information. 

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No. S14. 

JULY 16, 1899. Vol. XXVII. 





A Reviewer Out of Perspective. Frederick W. 


E.G.J. 42 

OUR NATIONAL POLICY. John J. Halsey ... 45 


Burton .46 


Julian 48 


The latest from Lafcadio Hearn. Railroading up- 
to-date. An entertaining and truthful book on 
Empress Eugenie. More of the Bible Dictionary. 
Study of Economics in schools. Recreations of a 
lawyer. A capital Hibernian jest-book. A woman 
on a Western ranch. 





There are readers not a few to whom the 
death of Victor Cherbuliez will prove a loss 
altogether out of proportion to his importance 
as a figure in French literature. " I could have 
better spared a better man " will be the feeling, 
if not the utterance, of the many thousands to 
whom the long series of his novels have been an 
unfailing source of entertainment and delight. 
The appearance of a new book by this talented 
writer never brought with it the thrill of a 
prospective sensation, and never led, as far as 
we are aware, to any excited public discussion, 
ranging its friends and its enemies in two op- 
posing camps. But the promise of each new 
novel (after the first few had given evidence 
of the writer's quality) aroused in the novelist's 
ever-widening audience a sense of quiet antici- 
patory satisfaction that was, perhaps, as fine a 
tribute to his merit as the loud outcries which 
heralded the books of the more conspicuous 
among his contemporaries. 

No less than twenty-two novels have come 
from the pen of this industrious writer during 
the past thirty-five years. Most of them made 
their first appearance in " La Revue des Deux 
Mondes," for which periodical Cherbuliez be- 
came as much of a stand-by as George Sand 
had been during the preceding quarter-century 
or more. The list of the novels is as follows : 
" Le Comte Kostia," " Prosper Randoce," 
" Paule Mere," " Le Roman d'une Honnete 
Femme," " Le Grand-Oeuvre," " L'Aventure 
de Ladislas Bolski," " La Revanche de Joseph 
Noirel," " Meta Holdenis," "Miss Rovel," 
" Le Fiance de Mile. Saint-Maur," " Samuel 
Brohl et Cie.," " L'Idee de Jean Teterol," 
" Amours Fragiles," " Noirs et Rouges," " La 
Ferine du Choquard," " Olivier Maugant," 
"La Bete," "La Vocation du Comte Ghis- 
lain," " Une Gageure," " Le Secret du Pre- 
ceptetir," " Apres Fortune Faite," and " Jac- 
quine Vanesse." A number of these novels 
have been translated into English, but the ma- 
jority, we should say, have not thus been made 
accessible to those who do not read the original. 
And, in our opinion, an enterprising publisher 
in England or the United States would find his 



[July 16, 

account in a complete uniform edition of this 
series of books. 

In attempting to characterize the work of 
Cherbuliez, it will be best to begin with a few 
negative statements. We have already said 
that his novels are not sensational ; this state- 
ment may be amplified by noting that they offer 
no devotion to the goddess of lubricity, that 
they are neither erotic nor neurotic, and that 
they are concerned with problems only as the 
novelist finds problems useful for the illus- 
tration of character. Their delineative power 
is, moreover, not remarkable ; it betrays the 
hand of the master-craftsman rather than that 
of the creative artist, and the entire gallery 
of figures includes few that remain living in 
the memory. When we compare the most 
studied of the types offered us by Cherbuliez 
with even the minor types of the " Comedie 
Humaine," this distinction becomes so obvious 
that it needs no argument. It may also be said 
that the novels of Cherbuliez have little or no 
atmosphere ; they have instead a great deal 
of careful local coloring, and over them all is 
shed the dry light of the philosophical intelli- 

Essaying now a more positive sort of criti- 
cism, we must emphasize once more the unfail- 
ing interest of these books. The characters 
are galvanized into just enough of vitality to 
produce a fairly complete illusion when they 
are before us. They are, furthermore, arranged 
in extremely interesting relations with one an- 
other, and the ingenuity of the author in devis- 
ing new situations is really extraordinary. An 
additional element of freshness is provided by 
the great variety of scenes to which we are 
introduced, and by the extent to which char- 
acters of other nationalities than the author's 
own are made to figure. The descriptive powers 
of the novelist are admirable, and we " skip " 
in reading him at the peril of missing some- 
thing delightful or important. In fact, his 
readers soon learn that they cannot afford to 
" skip " him, for his books have almost no pad- 
ding, and are finished in the minutest details. 
Economy of material, united with crispness in 
expression and deftness in the lesser touches of 
his brush, form a combination of qualities that 
go far toward explaining his charm. That he 
is both a man of the world and a scholar trained 
in the processes of exact thought are two fur- 
ther facts that are frequently borne in upon the 
reader's mind ; the former by the ease of the 
author's manner when dealing with many 
diverse conditions of society, the latter by the 

minute and accurate knowledge of a great range 
of subjects, displayed by him without ostenta- 
tion as the particular occasion demands, and iu 
the aggregate too extensive and solid to be 
accounted for by any theory of cramming or 
" reading up " for the special purpose at hand. 
When we add to all that has been said the fact 
that a gentle irony pervades his work, temper- 
ing its good sense and general sanity just enough 
to keep it from being dull and prosaic, we have, 
in a measure, at least, accounted for the feel- 
ing with which, having read every one of the 
twenty-two novels, and expecting to read all 
of them again in default of fresh ones, we 
heard the other day of the death of Victor 

There is little to be learned from a chrono- 
logical study of this man's books. He was one 
of those writers who early make their mark, 
and never alter it very much after it is once 
made. His first books and his last display about 
the same characteristics, and his qualities, 
together with their attendant defects, appear 
about as distinctly in the " Comte Kostia " of 
1863 as in the "Jacquine Vanesse" of 1898. 
His best books are scattered among the others, 
and bear dates widely separated. We might 
name among them Le Roman d'une Honnete 
Femme," " Me*ta Holdenis," and " Le Secret 
du Pre'cepteur," but it seems invidious to sin- 
gle out even two or three, because the others 
are nearly as good. Still, those just named 
may be recommended to readers desirous of 
making the acquaintance of Cherbuliez ; the 
taste once acquired may be trusted not to con- 
tent itself with so little. 

It should be remembered, also, that Cher- 
buliez did a great deal of writing that was not 
in the form of fiction. Indeed, his debut as a 
man of letters marked him out for a critic of 
art and a student of antiquity rather than for 
a novelist. This book was entitled " Un Cheval 
de Phidias," further described as a series of 
" Causeries Atheniennes." A later volume of 
what was essentially art criticism was called 
" L'Art et la Nature." Cherbuliez was also a 
publicist and critic of contemporary society and 
politics, in this capacity writing regularly for 
La Revue des Deux Mondes," under the 
pseudonym of " G. Valbert," for a long term of 
years. His miscellaneous papers upon these 
subjects were collected into a series of volumes 
bearing such titles as " Profils Etrangers," 
" L'Espagne Politique," " L'Allemagne Poli- 
tique," "llommes et Choses d'Allemagne," and 
" llommes et Choses du Temps Present." 




Finally, we mention the fact that two of his 
novels, " Samuel Brohl" and "Ladislas Bolski," 
were dramatized by him, and won a certain 
success upon the boards. 

Charles Victor Cherbuliez (to give him for 
once his unfamiliar full name) was born in 
Geneva, July 19, 1829. His death on the first 
of the present month thus found him within a 
few days of the completion of his seventieth 
year. He was descended from a Protestant 
family that had found refuge in Switzerland 
after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, 
and in 1880 reclaimed his French citizenship 
under the provisions of the law provided for 
that purpose. His education was cosmopolitan, 
begun in Geneva, and continued in Paris, Bonn, 
and Berlin. In 1881 he became one of the 
Forty, and in 1892, an officer of the Legion of 
Honor. Long after his resumption of French 
citizenship he continued to live in Geneva, 
where he occupied a chair in the University. 
These are the chief facts of his externally un- 
eventful career ; his real life is revealed to us 
in the many volumes of his published writings. 


George W. Julian, a public man and writer of 
distinction, died on the seventh hist, at his home near 
Indianapolis, Indiana, the State where he was born, 
in 1817. Mr. Julian was a lawyer by profession, 
but early in life entered politics, and became one of 
the most influential public men in the Middle West. 
He was one of the earliest and most determined of 
the abolitionists, and one of the founders of the 
Free Soil party, whose candidate for Vice President 
he was in the campaign of 1852. One of the or- 
ganizers of the Republican party, he was allied with 
Lincoln and Trumbull and the great men who led 
that party to victory in 1860; and in Congress as a 
member of the Committee on the Conduct of the 
War, he had an important part in the events of that 
heroic time. Leaving the Republican party in 1872, 
to support Greeley for the Presidency, he did not 
again take a prominent part in politics, although he 
held the office of Surveyor-General of New Mexico 
under President Cleveland. Since that time he has 
devoted himself chiefly to books and writing. He 
published a volume of Political Recollections some 
ten years ago, and was a frequent contributor to 
periodicals. Many of THE DIAL'S reviews of books 
in American history of the last half-century were by 
him, and his last literary work, a review of Mr. 
Gorham's Life of Secretary Stanton, appears in the 
present issue. In temperament and moral fibre, 
Mr. Julian represented the old school of public men 
now so nearly passed from American life. 


(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

In reading the review entitled " Aubrey Beardsley in 
Perspective," in THE DIAL of June 16, one is forcibly 
reminded of the saying that the domain of art is " a very 
paradise for the philosopher," so easy is it to make a 
show of wisdom, and by the use of high-sounding phrase 
and the exercise of skill in gliding over difficulties to 
lend to fallacious reasoning an air of plausibility. 
Nevertheless, he who has the temerity to pass upon the 
merit of a work of art ought to be very certain that his 
premises are sound and based upon a clearly-visioned 
" fundamental metapbysic," and that his logic is irref- 
ragable. How often, one is tempted to ask, must the 
fundamental principle be iterated, before it becomes 
plain to every understanding, that, aesthetically consid- 
ered, it is not so much what is done as how it is done 
that makes the difference in works of art. Granted 
equal merit in treatment and handling, that work will 
be the nobler which has the more exalted subject: but 
the subject, although there may be art in choosing it, is 
not in itself art; nor can the value of any man's work as 
art be estimated properly by discussing its ethical ten- 
dencies. Still less can we hope to arrive at a sound 
conclusion by the not uncommon practice of reading into 
the work meanings of which the artist never dreamt. 
It is true that art, in so far as it is a medium of expres- 
sion, may be pressed into the service of any cause, eth- 
ical or other. Yet is it equally true that art, as such, is 
not ethical, neither moral nor non-moral, but aesthetic. 

Whatever relative rank as an artist we may assign to 
Aubrey Beardsley, it must be admitted that he was an 
artist in the full sense of the word, and that, too, an 
artist who at the early age of twenty-two had already 
marked out a path and made a name for himself, who 
had so impressed his personality upon others that he had 
become the leader of a school and had a numerous band 
of followers, most of whom, be it said, only succeeded 
in copying the weaknesses rather than the strong points 
of the master. That many of his drawings are fantas- 
tically grotesque, and some of them even repulsive, no 
candid critic can deny. That this grotesquery was de- 
liberately meant by Beardsley to be an expression of 
" evil " is in my opinion a reading into his work of some- 
thing foreign to his intention. To me it appears rather 
as the expression of amused delight in shocking the 
supersensitiveness of prudes and in confounding the 
ignorance of those who confuse sentiment with art, whilst 
entertaining those who, with him, could see the drollery 
of it all, and feel the charm of the refinement of line, 
the carefully studied composition, and the beauty of de- 
tail, that are after all the chief qualities in his work. As 
Mr. Arthur Symons puts it: "The secret of Beardsley 
is there; in the line itself rather than in anything, intel- 
lectually realised, which the line is intended to express." 

Every young artist in the formative stages of his 
career is influenced to a greater or less extent by the 
works of other artists whom he admires. Even though 
we were not told by those who were close to him, it is 
apparent in his drawings that Beardsley was profoundly 
impressed by the subtle harmony, the exquisite bal- 
ancing of the masses and flow of line, in the compositions 
of Botticelli ; that he also found the same qualities in quite 
a different, yet related, manifestation in Japanese color- 
prints by the masters of the last century; that having 
studied the principles upon which these works were 



[.Inly 16, 

baaed, he tried to carry them into his own productions. 
His delight and the aim which is plainly shown in every- 
thing he did, from the least to the greatest, is in beauty 
beauty of composition, of line, of mass, of light and 
dark as related to each other, of all the elements that 
combine to make up what for want of a better term we 
call decorative effect. Being a man of strong imagina- 
tion, be let his pencil play over the paper, and, being 
quick to seiie upon any accidental form thus produced, 
he gradually developed a style having originality as well 
as individuality. As might be expected, only a small 
part of the public appreciated the flner qualities in his 
work, although they appealed readily enough to his 
brother artists. For the public generally be became 
merely the producer of amusing pictorial extravaganzas; 
and for the public, so far as its views about art are con- 
cerned, he became imbued with a lofty contempt. As 
Mr. Symons tells us, many of his drawings were merely 
" outrageous practical jokes," done simply from the de- 
sire " to kick the public into admiration, and then to 
kick it for admiring the wrong thing or not knowing 
why it was admiring." Yet in this way he gained the 
public eye, so to speak, and not only made himself famous 
but secured a ready market for his wares. Naturally 
his publishers influenced him in this course by giving 
commissions for the most ultra designs that he could 
produce. Thus, we may be assured, was he led on. 

While Beardsley's work has thus a two-fold phase, 
the only side upon which it can be seriously considered 
is the decorative. The grotesque features are interest- 
ing because of the cleverness of the drawing and the 
unexpected touches that made each new production a 
thing unlike its predecessors. And there is always the 
subtle quality which we call style: the stamp of a strong 
individuality. This often redeems what would other- 
wise be hopelessly vulgar. Then, too, his work is dar- 
ing, aggressive; it forces itself upon one's attention, and, 
whatever else it may be or may not be, it is never weak. 

From the point of view of decorative effect, Beards- 
ley's drawings have very considerable importance. Curi- 
ously enough, this is not so much because his achieve- 
ment was great, for he never really advanced beyond the 
stage of interesting performance and brilliant promise. 
But he had decorative feeling of a high order; and when 
the force of bis idiosyncrasies shall have been spent, it 
will, I am sure, be apparent that he rendered a great 
service to the cause of art in opening the eyes of the 
western world to the aesthetic value of dark and light 
masses as elements in pictorial composition. Had he 
lived, it is more than likely that he would have contin- 
ued to point the way to a better knowledge of others of 
the fundamental principles that have been lost sight of, 
or so covered up as to be scarcely discernible, iu the mad 
rush after ultra realism which until quite recently has 
dominated the art movement of the present generation. 

In spite of its immaturity, I confidently predict that 
it is the early work of Beardsley which will earn for 
him the most enduring fame. What may be called his 
second manner is less vigorous, more labored, less spon- 
taneous. Failing health undoubtedly accounts for some- 
thing. Be that as it may, the second manner would 
probably have given way shortly to a third, and very 
likely a saner manner than either. If, on the other hand, 
he would have continued to produce only the trivial 
and bizarre, deliberately turning aside from subjects 
affording scope for the higher beauty which his friends 
assert that be bad the power to create, then the world is 
little poorer because his career came to an early end. 

Chicago, July 6, 1899. FREDERICK W. GOOKIX. 

Cjje flrto Joohs. 


An English reviewer of Mr. Justin McCar- 
thy's " Reminiscences," who evidently felt bound 
by his office to say something or other in dis- 
praise of his author, scores him for being so per- 
tinaciously and unconscionably good-humored. 
He admits that the book is fresh and entertain- 
ing really a much better book than a man of 
Mr. McCarthy's unfortunate political views and 
party affiliations might be expected to write ; 
and he, the reviewer, therefore regrets the more 
that Mr. McCarthy should prove so disappoint- 
ingly unable to rise above his uniform dead 
level of amiability and sweet reasonableness, 
and say something unpleasant about somebody. 
We have not, of course, quoted this fastidious 
critic verbatim ; but the above is about the 
substance of his finding. There is no disputing 
about tastes ; and we own that our English 
friend's verdict struck us as being tantamount 
to asserting that Mr. McCarthy's book is im- 
paired by one of its conspicuous merits. In 
fact, when taking a preliminary and pleasantly 
anticipatory glance through Mr. McCarthy's 
pages we had been charmed to note how fairly 
and considerately, with what unfailing urban- 
ity, this active politician and journalist (prac- 
tical politician and daily journalist, mark you) 
speaks even of people who must, in the usual 
course of things, have spoken quite otherwise of 
himself and his party. Not that Mr. McCarthy 
is all honey, or, better, all " blarney," throughout 
his eight hundred pages of retrospect. There 
are passages here and there that may possibly 
have escaped the eye of his Saxon censor : for 
example, his anything but flattering account of 
Charles Kingsley. This reverend champion of 
the unestablished order of things is roundly 
characterized as " about the most perverse and 
wrong-headed supporter of every political 
abuse, the most dogmatic champion of every 
wrong cause in domestic and foreign politics 
that his time had produced "; and his appear- 
ance upon the platform is thus described : 

" Rather tall, very angular, surprisingly awkward, 
with staggering legs, a hatchet face adorned with 
scraggy gray whiskers, a faculty for falling into the 
most ungainly attitudes, and making the most hideous 
contortions of visage and frame; with a rough provincial 
accent, and an uncouth way of speaking which would be 
set down for caricature on the boards of a theatre. . . . 
Since Brougham's time nothing so ungainly and eccen- 
tric had been displayed upon an English platform." 

' RnmntOBVOM. By Justin McCarthy, M.P. In two 
volume*. With portrait. New York : Harper & Brother*. 




Mr. McCarthy's " Reminiscences " are not 
autobiographical. They are simply the author's 
recorded impressions and recollections of dis- 
tinguished people he has known during his 
career, and they certainly go to show that from 
his youth up Mr. McCarthy has practised with 
skill the gentle art of making desirable ac- 
quaintances. From such prescriptive celebri- 
ties as Robert Owen and Lord Brougham down 
(chronologically, we mean) to Mr. Kipling, 
few of the larger literary, political, and social 
fish of Victorian times seem to have escaped 
the sweep of his net. The first great personage 
who figures in his pages is the Duke of Well- 
ington. Mr. McCarthy did not exactly know 
the Duke, but he once heard him make a speech 
in the House of Lords. The speech was neither 
long nor eloquent; but it was Wellingtonian, 
and Mr. McCarthy was greatly impressed by it. 
A rash peer, it seems, had in the course of debate 
mildly ventured to say that he feared the "illus- 
trious Duke " had not quite understood the 
measure before the House. The Duke rose, 
morally and physically, like Mrs. Gamp : 

" ' My lords,' he said, striking the table with an indig- 
nant gesture, ' the noble and learned lord has said that 
I do n't understand this Bill. Well, my lords, all I can 
say is that I read the Bill once, that I read it twice, that 
I read it three times, and if after that I don't under- 
stand the Bill, why then, my lords, all I have to say is 
that I must be a damned stupid fellow.' " 

Apropos of Thackeray's alleged weakness 
for aristocratic rank, Mr. McCarthy tells a 
good story of a rather dense and notoriously 
tuft-hunting young acquaintance of his own, 
who also knew the great novelist, and had evi- 
dently bored him, as he had everyone else, with 
the list of his titled friends and connections. 
Says Mr. McCarthy : 

" One day I met him at the Garrick Club, and he 
suddenly began to talk to me about Thackeray. Now, 
look here,' he said, you always refuse to believe that 
Thackeray worships the aristocracy. I '11 give you a 
convincing proof that he does, a proof that I got only 
this very day. Do you see this cigar ? ' He held one 
out between his fingers, and I admitted that I did see it. 
' Well,' he said, c that cigar was given me by Thackeray; 
and do you know what he said when he was giving it to 
me ? ' I had to own that I could not form any guess 
as to what Thackeray might have said. So he went on 
with an air of triumph. Well,' he said, Thackeray's 
words to me were these: "Now, my dear fellow, here 
is a cigar which I know you will be delighted to have, 
because it is one of a box that was given to me by a 
marquis." Now what have you to say ? ' " 

Mr. McCarthy admits that he had nothing to 
say, not even in praise of his young friend's 
nice sense of satire. 

Mr. McCarthy devotes a few pages to Car- 

lyle, of whom he tells a characteristic story, in 
connection with the poet Allingham. Ailing- 
ham, the gentlest of men, disliked nothing more 
than a dispute. " A duel in the form of a de- 
bate " was positively painful to him ; and while 
he had convictions, and the courage of them as 
well, the gentleness of his nature rendered him 
shy of asserting them. One evening, at Car- 
lyle's, there was a discussion of the policy of a 
statesman then in office, and the sage denounced 
this politician and all his works at great length 
and with unusual energy. When his fury had 
spent itself, Allingham, who had been listening 
throughout in silence, mildly suggested that 
after all something might be said on the other 
side. Carlyle broke out with : 

"Eh! William Allingham, ye 're just about the most 
disputatious man I ever met. Eh ! man, when ye 're in 
one of your humors you 'd just dispute about anything." 

Mr. McCarthy knew John Bright well, and 
he once had an argument with him as to the 
propriety of introducing or portraying bad 
characters in imaginative literature. Every 
novel, Mr. Bright held, would be better were 
there no bad people in it. When asked if he 
thought the public would take an interest in 
romances that were written on this plan, he 
contended that the public would be very glad 
in the end to be educated up to such a point of 
artistic morality. Confronted with the exam- 
ples of Scott, Dickens, Thackeray, and Gold- 
smith, Mr. Bright stood by his colors, and 
maintained that "Ivanhoe" would be better 
without Bois-Guilbert, " Nicholas Nickleby " 
without Squeers, "Vanity Fair " without Becky 
Sharp, the "Vicar of Wakefield " without 
Squire Thornhill, and so on. Hard pushed 
with the example of Shakespeare, he nailed his 
colors to the mast, and held that " Othello " 
would be better without lago. Had Mr. Mc- 
Carthy cited Falstaff, we fancy Mr. Bright 
must have struck ; but as it was, he went on 
with the feeble old argument (we have seen it 
applied, mutatis mutandis, much more effec- 
tively to the " bores " of Messrs. Howells and 
James) that: 

" The very fact that there are bad persons in real life 
and that we are sometimes compelled to meet them is 
the strongest reason why we should not be compelled to 
meet them in the pages of fiction, to which we turn for 
relief and refreshment after our dreary experience of 
unwelcome realities." 

At this point Mr. McCarthy did not make 
bold to say, with Dr. Johnson, " Sir, this is 
sorry stuff ; do n't let me hear you say it any 
more," but went on to stagger, as he hoped, 
Mr. Bright with the instance of his favorite 



[July 16, 

Milton. Here, says Mr. McCarthy, " I thought 
I had got him at last." For how on earth could 
anybody, even the most scrupulous of " parlia- 
mentary hands," argue seriously that " Para- 
dise Lost " would be a better poem were Satan 
cast out of it ! But Mr. Bright was ready with 
his defense : 

" He argued that the demoralizing effect of introduc- 
ing bad men and women into novels, or into poems, was 
because weak-minded readers might be led into admira- 
tion for them, and might be filled with a desire to imitate 
them ; whereas it was absolutely out of the power of any 
mortal man or woman to imitate Satan or Beelzebub." 

Thinking the thing over calmly, we have our 
doubts as to the exact truth of Mr. Bright'* 
closing statement. 

Mr. McCarthy has a capital chapter on 
" Boston's Literary Men." He met Emerson 
in 1871, and spoke with him of Walt Whitman : 

' Emerson told me that he bad had and still retained 
a strong faith in Whitman as possibly the first poet to 
spring straight from the American soil without foreign 
graft or culture of any kind. But he explained that 
Whitman had an artistic creed of his own, which it was 
difficult for anyone else to accept a creed which de- 
nied the right of artistic ezclnsiveness, and even of 
artistic selection a creed which held that everything 
that was found in nature was entitled to a place in art. 
. . . Emerson spoke with gentle amused deprecation of 
Whitman's theory, bnt frankly owned that it made 
Whitman almost an impossibility for ordinary social 

Some months later, the author met Whitman 
himself, in Washington. The poet was shab- 
bily lodged in a garret, in a crowded building ; 
and at first glance Mr. McCarthy was rather 
in doubt which of the two current conceptions 
of him to accept the one which figured him 
as really a man absolutely indifferent to public 
opinion, to comforts and conventions, or the one 
which represented him as a poseur who delib- 
erately " went in for " being a penniless poet, 
who got himself up picturesquely for the part, 
and who thrust his poverty on the public as 
vainly and ostentatiously as Jim Fisk flaunted 
his wealth. The mise en scene was perfect. 
There was the truckle-bed, the shaky wash- 
stand, the pair or so of rickety chairs, the shelf 
with the cut loaf of bread, the shabby desk and 
table strewn with the scribbled sheets of ill-paid 
genius. A theatre-goer " would only have to 
see the curtain rise on such a scene to know 
that the poverty-stricken poet was about to be 
* discovered.' " Mr. McCarthy was not long 
kept halting between the two current opinions : 

" I read the story of Walt Whitman's room the mo- 
ment I had looked into the eyes of the good old poet 
himself. If ever sincerity and candor shone from the 
face of a man, these qualities shone from the face of 

Walt Whitman. . . . There was a simple dignity in his 
manner which marked him out as one of nature's gentle- 
men. . . . He found good-natured fault with some of 
the friends who had gone too far, he thought, in sound- 
ing his praises throughout England ; and he altogether 
disclaimed the idea that he considered himself as a man 
with a grand mission to open a new era for the poetry of 
his country. . . . Nothing could be less like the man- 
ner of a man who desires to attitudinize than was the 
whole bearing of Walt Whitman. ... I felt sure that 
I now knew what Walt Whitman was himself, and that 
the charm of real manhood was in him and in all that 
he wrote." . 

It may be remembered that Matthew Arnold, 
when lecturing in this country, usually reso- 
lutely declined to conform to the custom which 
often compels the distinguished foreign lecturer, 
after he has finished his address, to remain in the 
hall and undergo the felicitations and the scru- 
tiny of his audience. Not a few worthy people 
incline to regard this informal social function 
or levee at the close of the lecture as the re- 
deeming feature of an evening of unwonted 
intellectual strain, and as a gratification to 
which the purchase of a ticket of admission 
fairly entitles the bearer. They therefore felt 
themselves slighted, and even deprived of some- 
thing they had paid for, by Mr. Arnold's insu- 
lar habit of eluding them by leaving the hall 
by the back-door or the fire-escape, as soon as 
he had finished what he conceived to be his part 
of the contract. This conduct on Mr. Arnold's 
part was due, Mr. McCarthy assures us, mainly 
to his native unpretentiousness and dislike of 
being lionized, and not at all to supercilious- 
ness or to the unsociable promptings of that 
refrigerator-like temperament ascribed to him 
by the American press. Says Mr. McCarthy : 

"There was nothing ungracious in the mood which 
prompted this resolve; indeed, nobody who knew Mat- 
thew Arnold could easily conceive the idea of anything 
ungracious on his part; only he was not endowed with 
that ' terrible gift of familiarity ' which an envious op- 
ponent ascribed to Mirabeau, and he knew that he never 
could be in his element in trying to exchange compli- 
ments with a crowd of perfectly unknown admirers. 
. . . Travelling in the States, three years after Matthew 
Arnold had returned to Europe, I can say that he had 
not shown himself in any sense an ungenial or unsocia- 
ble visitor; and that I came across many a household 
which he had gladdened by his ready and kindly accept- 
ance of a hospitable invitation, and by his pleasant and 
companionable ways as a guest." 

Mr. McCarthy's book is the fruit of a so- 
journ at a quiet seaside resort, where the mak- 
ing at odd times of uncompulsory ** copy " was 
a recreation. Had Mr. McCarthy written amid 
the stress and fever of London life his pages 
might not have been so thoroughly imbued with 
that kindliness which stung the soul of his 




English reviewer. The book reflects the con- 
ditions of its composition. It is easy, rambling, 
informal ; and it has the charm and the defects 
of those qualities. The author has plainly 
given the rein to memory, and the stream of 
reminiscence wanders at will. One name, one 
story, has suggested another ; and the pen has 
followed the pleasantly devious current of the 
thought. The book might have been bettered 
in some ways by careful revision. The reader 
familiar with Mr. McCarthy's " History of Our 
Own Times " will note here and there in the 
" Reminiscences " an old story re-told, an old 
thought re- worded. The style is, as usual, rich, 
picturesque, and allusive rather founded on 
Macaulay, we should say, but not imitative. 
We have long regarded Mr. McCarthy as the 
prince of literary journalists and journalistic 
historians ; and it is pleasant to find that years 
have not staled his attractiveness or dulled his 
animation. These beautifully-made volumes 
stand very near the top of the list of the season's 
reminiscential books. . G. J. 


Dr. Jordan's volume entitled " Imperial De- 
mocracy " contains eight essays and addresses, 
published or delivered, with one exception, since 
the war with Spain began. One notes with 
gratification that President Jordan's literary 
style has gained, in finish as well as in preci- 
sion, since he went to Leland Stanford Univer- 
sity. One notes also, with a deeper satisfaction, 
that throughout these pages one is speaking who 
has abiding convictions as to the " manifest 
destiny " of the American people, and who is 
fearless to utter them in the face of one of the 
fiercest jehads that has ever threatened free 
speech. Not since the days of the assault in 
the United States' Congress on John Quincy 
Adams and Joshua Giddings for their grand 
defence of the sacred right of petition, has 
public opinion in this country been so swayed 
by ignorant and servile intolerance as during 
the past six months. The press of the country, 
with a few honorable exceptions, has worked 
itself into such a state of mind as would be 
gratefully appreciated by a Caesar or a Napo- 
leon, and a state of popular opinion has been 
produced which it requires considerable cour- 
age to question. Men are already debating 
the proposition that instructors in our univer- 
sities are to be required to express no opinions 

* IMPERIAL DEMOCRACY. By David Starr Jordan. New 
York : D. Appleton & Co. 

publicly on questions of public policy unless 
they agree with the powers that be. In the 
face of such an attempt at terrorism as savors 
of Russia rather than of America, it is refresh- 
ing to read such calm and deliberate discussion 
of this vexed subject of American " imperial 
policy " as President Jordan gives us in these 
addresses. Under date of May 25, 1898, he 
says to the graduating class of his university : 

" The war has stirred the fires of patriotism, we say. 
Certainly, but they were already there, else they could 
not be stirred. I doubt if there is more love of country 
with us to-day than there was a year ago. Real love of 
country is not easily moved. Its guarantee is its per- 
manence. Love of adventure, love of fight, these are 
soon kindled. It is these to which the battle spirit 
appeals. Love of adventure we may not despise. It is 
the precious heritage of new races; it is the basis of 
personal courage; but it is not patriotism; it is push. 
. . . Patriotism is the will to serve one's country; to 
make one's country better worth serving. It is a course 
of action rather than a sentiment. It is serious rather 
than stirring. 

" Our heroes were with us already. In times of peace 
they were ready for heroism. The real hero is the man 
who does his duty. It does not matter whether his 
name be on the headlines of the newspapers or not. His 
greatness is not enhanced when a street or a trotting 
horse is named for him. It is the business of the Re- 
public to make a nation of heroes. The making of brave 
soldiers is only a part of the work of making men. The 
glare of battle shows men in false perspective. To one 
who stands in its light we give the glory of a thousand." 

In the address before the Graduate Club of 
Leland Stanford University, delivered Feb- 
ruary 14, 1899, he says : 

" I hear many saying, < If only Dewey had sailed out 
of Manila harbor, all would have been well.' This 
ssems to me the acme of weakness. Dewey did his duty 
at Manila; he has done his duty ever since. Let us do 
ours. If his duty makes it harder for us, so much the 
more we must strive. It is pure cowardice to throw 
the responsibility on him. ... If Dewey captured land 
we do not want to hold, then let go of it. It is for us 
to say, not for him. It is foolish to say that our victory 
last May settled once for all our future as a world power. 
It is not thus that I read our history. Chance decides 
nothing. The Declaration of Independence, the Consti- 
tution, the Emancipation Proclamation, were not mat- 
ters of chance. They belong to the category of states- 
manship. A statesman knows no chance. It is his 
business to foresee the future and to control it. Chance 
is the terror of despotism." 

In a letter to the editor of " The Outlook," 
dated April 26, 1899, after asking some search- 
ing questions of that jingoistic representative of 
the religious press, Dr. Jordan thus concludes : 

" Do what you will with the Philippines, if you can 
do it in peace, but stop this war. 

" It is our fault, and ours alone, that this war began. 
It is our crime that it continues. 

" We make no criticism of the kindly and popular 
President of the United States, save this one: He does 
not realize the wild fury of the forces he has unwillingly 



[July 16, 

and unwittingly brought into action. These must be 
kept instantly and constantly in hand. The authority 
to do rests with him alone, and if ever ' strenuous life ' 
was needed in the nation, it is in the guiding hand of 
to-day. The ship is on fire. The Captain sleeps. The 
sailors storm in vain at his door. When he shall rise, 
we doff our hats in respectful obeisance. If we have 
brought a false alarm, on our heads rests the penalty." 

The whole attitude of the jingo press since 
February toward the opponents of the adminis- 
tration policy in the Philippines has been one 
of misconception and misrepresentation. A 
large number of thoughtful American citizens 
were of the opinion, after the " Maine " disaster, 
that war with Spain was not necessary to the 
liberation of Cuba from Spanish tyranny. They 
believed that the steady pressure which Presi- 
dent McKinley had for more than a year been 
exerting in Cuban affairs would in good time 
bring its reward in autonomous government for 
that unhappy island. But when Congress, 
driven by popular excitement and newspaper 
frenzy, rushed the administration into war, they 
gave it their loyal and hearty support. In due 
process of time the conquest was completed and 
military governments were set up in Porto Rico 
and Cuba, where in the best spirit of American 
institutions a class of administrators who can- 
not be bought or intimidated have done much 
to make American rule acceptable and popular. 
All that was done in those islands was done in 
close touch and sympathy with their representa- 
tive men. The contention of the so-called anti- 
imperialists is that this has not been done in 
the island of Luzon. They maintain that the 
same masterful and wise policy that was pur- 
sued in the Antilles should have been pursued 
in the Philippines that there should have 
been a policy, instead of the hand-to-mouth 
methods initiated as far back as the Protocol. 
They see no reason to believe that if adroit 
conciliation had been used with Aguinaldo, as 
with Gomez, the superiority of the Saxon, mor- 
ally and intellectually, would have triumphed 
peaceably in the one case as it did in the other. 
Moreover, those among them who have a 
knowledge of international and political as well 
as of constitutional law have never questioned 
the full and sovereign power of the United 
States to perform any sovereign act open to any 
other nation, and consequently to annex any 
territory wherever its power was physically 
adequate, if thought expedient. Their propo- 
sition has been, not that this attempt to force a 
government on the Filipinos is unconstitutional, 
but that it is wrong. As Dr. Jordan well says 
The Constitution is an agreement to secure 

justice and prudence in our internal affairs. 
Its validity is between state and state and be- 
tween man and man." It does not govern our 
international relations. Those are governed by 
a higher than man-made law the law of God 
as evolved in human conscience and human 
recognition of eternal justice. To this law the 
thoughtful opponent of jingoism points the 
American people to-day. He holds, moreover, 
that an administration which has pursued a firm 
and wise course in Cuba has adopted, without 
due reason, a dissimilar one in the Philippines. 
Admiral Dewey, and more than one prominent 
officer of our army, have borne testimony to 
the political intelligence and general fitness for 
good government of the Filipinos ; and yet 
these are the people who have been forced into 
those occasional acts of savagery which may 
always be expected among those who resent 
injustice by a policy the very reverse of that 
conceded to the Cubans. It would seem that 
nearly every presumption that existed a year 
ago in the Malay mind in favor of the sons of 
free and fair and tolerant America has been 
destroyed, and that it has been gone about de- 
liberately to make these inferior races feel that 
the autocracy of the Yankee differs from that 
of the Don only in the superior military ability 
with which it can enforce injustice. If we can- 
not by persuasion and moral superiority induce 
other races to accept the better government 
which we are undoubtedly capable of giving 
them, it were better that they go ungoverned 
all their days. For the thoughtful student of 
American institutions must ever continue to 
maintain that our highest mission among the 
nations of the world is to set a high and mu- 
table example of good and fair government, 
based always upon the intellectual acceptance 
of, and enshrined in the hearts of, the governed. 



When the works of a contemporaneous writer 
receive embodiment in a definitive edition, a 
certain stamp of classicality seems to be set 
upon him, so far, at least, as the word " clas- 
sical " can be applied to literature that is cur- 
rent. This distinction has befallen Dr. Edward 
Everett Hale in his ripe old age ; and not 
improperly. With Colonel Higginson, Dr. 
Hale stands as the last of the Old Guard whose 

Library edition, in ten volume*, with Photogravure Frontis- 
piece*. Boston : Little, Brown, A Co. 




services to our native literature have been so 
important for its formative period. Dr. Hale's 
intimate knowledge of the older Boston, Cam- 
bridge, and Concord, his familiar association 
with the elder group of New England literati, 
are in themselves enough to make him an inter- 
esting figure in American letters. But he has 
been not only in it, but of it ; contributing his 
share to a culture-centre whose influence has 
shaped all subsequent development. Some 
sense of this is got as one dips into his recent 
book of memories of Lowell and his friends, 
which, like Mr. Higginson's " Cheerful Yes- 
terdays," recalls so much of a time already 
touched with the glamour of the historic, and 
hence fascinating to read about. 

But Dr. Hale's own contributions to our lit- 
erature have been voluminous and in some cases 
conspicuous. He has been, as everybody knows, 
a man of great and varied activity, within and 
without literature. He has written with his 
eye on the object, in the foreign phrase, 
and that object the amelioration of humanity. 
Life has, to him, meant more than literature, 
as it has come to mean more to Mr. Howells ; 
and literature has had its chief value as it has 
expressed the highest life. This aim, and this 
manifold display of energy, unite to explain his 
merits and his shortcomings as a writer. The 
fact that he has produced rapidly, and has not 
always judged his own work with the extreme 
rigor of the conscientious stickler for technique, 
is understood when we realize that he has writ- 
ten as a moral teacher rather than as an artist 
primarily. It is with a consciousness of the 
practical pressure and purpose behind his labor 
that he uses these words in the very charming 
preface to the opening volume of this beautiful 
ten- volume edition ; words intended to apply to 
another, but also, as he implies, well fitting his 
own case : 

" If it were his duty to write verses, he wrote verses; 
to fight slavers, he fought slavers; to write sermons, he 
wrote sermons ; and he did one of these things with just 
as much alacrity as another." 

We all know that absolute accomplishment in 
one particular genre is not thus attained ; but 
we also know that the life and the life influence 
may be broader and better for that very reason. 
In this tendency to disperse himself generously 
according to the needs of the moment, Dr. Hale 
is like such other of the elder writing men as 
Whittier and Lowell. Indeed, one might go 
further, and say that this is a characteristic of 
American literature, as a whole, especially in 
its earlier manifestations. 

It is in fiction that Dr. Hale made his ten- 
strike : once at least he produced in this kind 
a representative piece of creative literature 
something that must always rank high amongst 
our short story writing. With a sense of this, 
no doubt, the publishers have introduced the 
series with a volume entitled " The Man With- 
out a Country, and Other Stories." The famous 
title- tale, to which the author furnishes some 
valuable prefatory comment, remains a brilliant 
allegory, an inspiration to patriotism in the 
noblest sense, and an example of flawlessly 
wrought imaginative fiction. Dr. Hale could 
afford to rest on his laurels, after doing it. 
Very interesting is his explanation of the curi- 
ous muddle arising from his use of the name 
of Philip Nolan for the hero of the story a 
mistake he tried to rectify afterwards by writ- 
ing " Philip Nolan's Friends," included in one 
of the later volumes of the present edition. 
When the Doctor chose the name, he was quite 
unaware that it was borne by any real person ; 
and not till later did he discover that the his- 
torical Philip Nolan, well remembered in the 
Southwest, was shot by the Spaniards in Texas 
in 1801, so that the story-teller had (appar- 
ently) been taking unwarrantable liberties. 
The whole episode is an amusing illustration of 
the dangers of fictional nomenclature. 

Of the other nine short tales making up this 
initial volume, the best known is " My Double 
and How He Undid Me," an ingenious idea not 
worked off with quite the lightness of touch 
necessary to complete success. It is just the 
motive for a Stockton. The second volume is 
headed by Dr. Hale's most acceptable piece of 
longer fiction, " In His Name," the sterling 
historical sketch which deals with the pathetic 
story of the Waldenses of Lyon in the twelfth 
century ; the balance of the book being taken 
up with holiday stories like " Christmas Waits 
in Boston," " They Saw a Great Light," and 
"Daily Bread." The frank didacticism does not 
seriously interfere with the author's freshness 
of invention and vigor of narrative, though it 
does lend his work, confessedly, an old-fashioned 
flavor. The brief " Hands Off " is a striking 
handling of the text " From what I call evil, He 
educes good." The plan of the edition embraces 
half a dozen works of fiction and social sketches, 
a volume of sermons (which shows a sternly 
selective instinct in so steady a sermonizer as 
Dr. Hale has been, ex officio) ; a volume of 
essays on social subjects ; a volume devoted to 
the autobiographic sketch " A New England 
Boyhood " (possessing an interest similar to 



[July 16, 

that of the books in the same vein by Mr. 
Warner and Mr. Howells) ; and a volume on 
The History and Antiquities of Boston." As 
an essayist, Dr. Male's qualities are familiar. 
He has a sense of humor which gratefully re- 
lieves the strenuousness of his tone and seri- 
ousness of his purpose. It may be said of his 
writings in general that the reader is perfonv 
bidden into personal relations with the author : 
the manner is heartily confidential. This is 
always a head-mark of your true essayist. The 
new prefaces, written expressly for this edition, 
are one of its main attractions : unlike most 
prefaces, they justify themselves, for Dr. Hale 
is peculiarly happy when talking about these 
children of his brain and heart. He hits just 
the right note of genial reminiscence. It must 
be a comfort to him to feel that his collected 
writings have thus received a permanent and 
handsome embodiment, for on the mechanical 
side these volumes, in aesthetic gray-green with 
gold lettering, and bold agreeable type, are a 
credit to all concerned. The beloved author's 
many admirers, new and old, will welcome the 
opportunity to add to their libraries what we 
trust may not be called, in the horrid idiom, 
for years to come, his " literary remains." 



The chief interest and importance of Mr. 
Gorham's two octavo volumes must lie in the 
history of Stanton's work in the War Depart- 
ment. It was there that his great qualities 
intellectual power, masterful will, integrity, 
patriotism, tireless activity, and intense enthus- 
iasm enabled him to perform a service sec- 
ond to none during the most stormy and critical 
period of our national life. The public has 
waited long for this biography. Why so many 
years have passed without any attempt to tell 
the story it is hard to say. Perhaps the chief 
reason may be found in the fact of Stanton's 
absolute independence, and the further fact 
that in the vast ant) many-sided work he had to 
do he had not time for the little courtesies and 
amenities which attract people. He offended 
many by the abruptness and unceremoniousness 
of his manner. " He was the man who said 
4 no ' for the government when it had to be said, 
no matter how distasteful or offensive it might 
be to those to whom it was addressed." The 

M. STAXTOX. Life and Public Swriow. By 
George C. Gotham. Boston : Hough ton, Mifflin A Co. 

man who says " no " is bound to be disliked by 
narrow partisans and place-hunters, who com- 
municate their petty prejudices to others. Of 
all public men, 8 tan ton seems to have cared 
the least about what was said of him. He never 
replied to attacks upon himself. But when 
Horace Greeley, after the victories of Fort 
Henry and Fort Donelson, wrote of Stanton as 
the minister who organized " those victories, 
he was quick to disclaim such credit in a letter 
to the " Tribune " in which he said : 

' Who can organize victory ? Who combine the ele- 
ments of success on the battlefield ? We owe our rec-nit 
victories to the spirit of the Lord, that moved our sol- 
diers to rush into battle, and filled the hearts of our 
enemies with terror and dismay. . . . What, under the 
blessing of Providence, I conceive to be the true organ- 
ization of victory and military combination to end this 
war was declared in a few words by General Grant's 
message to General Buckner, I propose to move 
immediately upon your works.' " 

Men might tell all manner of lies to his dis- 
credit : this troubled him only because it grieved 
and dismayed his friends ; but such was his 
sense of honor that undue praise he could not 
bear. In a private letter to the Rev. Heman 
Dyer, a friend of his youth, in May, 1862, 
giving the real facts of the difficulty between 
himself and McClellan, it plainly and beauti- 
fully appears that the motives governing all 
his conduct of public affairs were such as over- 
leap time and look forward to eternity." The 
deep religious strain in Stanton's make-up con- 
stantly appears, and it was his implicit trust in 
the success of righteousness and justice that 
gave him so little patience with halters and 
trimmers. He was one of the rare crucible 
men, in contact with whom individuals were at 
once reduced to their component parts. His 
instinctive insight into men and things was 
what gave him his marvellous grasp of the whole 
situation throughout the war. The man who 
thus sees through other men, and shows that he 
sees through them, may be a very great power ; 
he is not likely to be popular, or " by flatterers 
besieged." Perhaps it is well that his biography 
has been delayed so long. There has been time 
for many passions and prejudices to die out, 
and it is more possible to view the scene and 
its actors in their true light. 

Edwin McMasters Stanton was born at 
Steubenville, Ohio, in 1814. His father, a 
physician with a good practice, died thirteen 
years later, leaving a family of four children 
with very limited means, so that Edwin, the 
oldest, had to leave school and take employ- 
ment in a bookstore, where he remained four 




years. He kept up his studies all the while, 
and being ambitious for further educational 
advantages he entered Kenyon College at the 
age of seventeen ; but he was not able for 
financial reasons to finish the course, and left 
during his junior year, to enter upon the study 
of law. In 1836 he was admitted to the bar, 
married, and entered with energy upon what 
seemed his life work in the profession in which 
his whole ambition was centred and in which 
he had a singularly successful and brilliant 
career for twenty-five years, until he took his 
seat in the cabinet of President Buchanan. 
The chapter detailing how the boy Stanton 
" went over to Jackson " is exceedingly read- 
able, and illustrates one or two characteristics 
that manifested themselves very early in his 
life. Dr. Stanton had been a firm adherent of 
Clay and Adams, and if his son had been like 
most sons he would doubtless have inherited 
his father's political and other views. But 
even as a small boy he had been considered 
self-reliant, positive, and somewhat imperious, 
though not combative or abusive. When the 
promulgation of Calhoun's nulification doctrine 
called forth President Jackson's immortal proc- 
lamation of December, 1832, in which he as- 
serted the supreme authority of the national 
government on all subjects intrusted by the 
Constitution to federal control, young Stanton 
at once turned his back upon old political asso- 
ciations and enlisted with all the enthusiasm 
and zeal of his nature in the cause of the Union. 
This was significant, as showing his disposition 
to think for himself and to stand on his own 
feet, and his sympathy with Democracy ; for 
Jackson, whatever his faults, was a real be- 
liever in the people the rank and file of 

Stanton's career as a lawyer is admirably 
given. He steadily rose in his profession, and 
was engaged in many important cases, some of 
them of national fame. As a speaker he was 
earnest and eloquent, having, it is said, two 
different styles, one a vehement style adapted 
for a jury, while before the Supreme Court at 
Washington he was calm, deliberate, and 
impressive, carefully avoiding all exuberance 
of feeling. Perhaps no lawyer ever better pre- 
pared himself in advance. He carefully mas- 
tered both sides of every case, and few men 
have been capable of such prodigious and inces- 
sant mental labor. Activity was his delight, 
and when one piece of work was finished he 
turned to fresh tasks with the appetite and 
inspiration of youth. 

Being much engaged in Supreme Court prac- 
tice, he removed to Washington in 1856, after 
residing successively at Cadiz, Steubenville, 
and Pittsburg. Although his legal business 
occupied him to the exclusion of all political 
interests, such a man could not but have very 
pronounced views on the questions then before 
the public. The supporter of Jackson and Van 
Buren, he had been opposed to nullification, 
secession, a national bank, state bank monop- 
oly, and a high tariff. With the defeat of Van 
Buren, in 1844, his political enthusiasm some- 
what cooled; but in 1848 he was for the Free 
Soil ticket, his sympathies being openly with 
the Northern Democrats in their resistance to 
Southern domination within the party. In 1852 
Stanton's interest in politics was so slight that 
he did not even attend the National convention 
which met in Baltimore, although he was in 
Washington at the time. Although he took no 
part in the canvass of 1856, and had no vote, 
being a resident of Washington, he stood un- 
mistakably on the side of President Buchanan 
in his Kansas policy of 18578, and two years 
later regarded the salvation of the country as 
hanging on the election of Breckenridge. In 
a word, Stanton was a Democrat prior to and 
including 1861, opposed to slavery, but a firm 
upholder of the laws constitutionally enacted 
for its protection. 

" That he believed the success of the Republican 
party would endanger the Union, and that he adhered 
to the extreme wing of the Democratic party after it 
had subordinated all other questions to the protection of 
slavery in the rights guaranteed it by the Constitution, 
as interpreted by the United States Supreme Court in 
the Dred Scott case, must be admitted. That when the 
apprehended danger to the Union followed Republican 
success, he rose superior to all party trammels, and in 
the cabinet of Mr. Buchanan acted with high courage 
and the most unselfish patriotism, none can deny." 

On the 20th of December, 1860, Stanton 
was appointed Attorney-General by President 
Buchanan. The review of the political situa- 
tion at that time is graphically given in Chap- 
ter XII., in which it appears that the election 
of Lincoln was expressly desired and planned 
for by the extreme Southern leaders as a pre- 
text for the long-threatened dissolution of 
the Union, for which steps had been taken in 
advance by South Carolina. The disunion 
conspiracy, involving Secretary of the Treasury 
Howell Cobb, Secretary of War Floyd, Assist- 
ant Secretary of State Trescott, Quartermaster- 
General Joseph E. Johnston, and others, is 
well stated ; and one is simply amazed that 
treason should ever have gained such a foot- 
hold in the national councils, or, having gained 



[July 16, 

it. that it should ever have been circumvented. 
It was well known during the closing months 
of Buchanan's term that a revolution was brew- 
ing ; but what was its extent, and whether it 
would be precipitated immediately after the 
election, thus taxing all the patriotism and 
energies of the outgoing administration, or 
whether the crisis might be delayed until the 
advent of Lincoln to power, were questions 
earnestly considered by Buchanan and his ad- 
visers, as is shown in the next few chapters. 
The attitude of Judge Jeremiah 8. Black, then 
Attorney-General, in November, 1860, as to the 
authority of the Federal Government over a 
State that asserts its independence, and the 
way in which President Buchanan bettered his 
instructions in his message of December 3, are 
well sketched. It is sickening to consider the 
miserable weakness and cowardice and blind- 
ness of Buchanan during those days while 
bloody treason flourished all around him. On 
the 20th of December, South Carolina declared 
the Union dissolved ; and on the same day 
Edwin M. Stanton was appointed Attorney 
General in place of J. S. Black, who had suc- 
ceeded Lewis Cass as Secretary of State and 
refused to accept this latter position when 
Stanton was made Attorney-General. They 
had long been close friends, and Black was cer- 
tainly not calculating without his host in this 
matter, for if anyone could guide him and his 
chief out of the perils that surrounded them, it 
was Stanton. 

Space forbids us to go into the details of 
Stanton's work for the Northern cause, which 
he clearly saw was the cause of his country, 
during the closing months of Buchanan's ad- 
ministration. It is all summed up in the state- 
ment that his loyalty to the Union was a pas- 
sion, dominating his every thought and act. 
" He set on foot inquiries as to the purposes of 
the secessionists in Washington and vicinity, 
and prosecuted them with untiring zeal. He 
made proselytes and denounced heretics. To 
Democrats and Republicans he set the example 
of sinking partisanship in the service of the 
Union." He took the lead, and was most assid- 
uous in creating the pressure under which 
President Buchanan finally gave orders for the 
presence of troops to guard the capital against 
the secessionists. If with Stanton at that time 
patriotism went before humanity, the same 
must be admitted of Abraham Lincoln, who 
was willing to place the nation under perpetual 
bonds to keep the peace toward slavery, and 
even to see it extended into New Mexico rather 

than see the Union perish or even encounter 
the perils of a war for its preservation. Stan- 
ton's presence in Buchanan's cabinet was felt at 
once. Mr. Gorham says he instantly changed 
the tone of its deliberations, and in a 
" Discussion as to the binding force of a shuffling unoffi- 
cial agreement to leave Sumter unprotected thundered 
out the blunt truth to Floyd and Thompson, that they 
were advocating the commission of a crime for which, if 
committed, they ought to be hanged, and were urging 
the President to an act of treason for which, if per- 
formed, he could be impeached, removed from office, 
and punished under the penal code. Floyd, who bad 
up to that very time posed as a unionist, now appeared 
in his true character, and gave up the contest by resign- 
ing. Thompson soon followed, on a false pretense, and 
Thomas, Cobb's successor, followed him. The President 
surrounded himself with a patriotic cabinet, and thus 
escaped the fate false friends had been preparing for 

Well did Attorney-General Hoar, after Stan- 
ton's death, picture him as standing manfully 
at his post during those ten dark weeks of that 
winter of national agony and shame, giving 
what nerve he could to timid and trembling 
imbecility, and meeting the secret plotters of 
their country's ruin with an undaunted front, 
until before that resolute presence the demons 
of treason and civil discord appeared in their 
own shape as at the touch of Ithuriel's spear, 
and fled baffled and howling away. 

Stanton's distrust and dislike of Lincoln 
during the first months of his administration 
are clearly set forth, and the story of how these 
two men found each other out and gradually 
came to see through the same glasses is one of 
those pleasing features which give to history 
the charm of romance. During all the time 
from March 4, 1861, to January 15, 1862, 
although a member of Lincoln's cabinet, Stan- 
ton never once met the President. He was not 
alone in his harsh and bitter feeling toward 
Lincoln's administration for its early halting 
movements ; and the Union Democrats were no 
more outspoken in their denunciations than 
were many Republicans at that time. The dis- 
graceful scramble for office which turned the 
government into a vast patronage distributor 
when the nation seemed literally " lying su- 
pinely on its back, while its enemies bound it 
hand and foot," aroused the indignation of 
earnest patriots in all parts of the country. 
Men of Stanton's temperament could have no 
patience with the policy which spent the sum- 
mer in explaining to weak Unionists that it 
was quite constitutional to return rebel blows 
and that the Constitution did not forbid the 
exercise by the nation of the law of self-preser- 




vation. To such men, these were not open 

Perhaps that part of the biography devoted 
to the pitiful failures of McClellan is one of 
the most interesting in the work. Some may 
think too much emphasis is laid on McClellan's 
shortcomings. But an author must be in sym- 
pathy with his subject. This is a Life of 
Stan ton. Stan ton and McClellan were as un- 
like in temperaments, characters, and methods 
as it is possible to imagine. Stanton is cer- 
tainly just the background against which Mc- 
Clellan's weaknesses are most sharply defined, 
and the latter's crookedness seems particularly 
perverse as seen against the absolute straight- 
forwardness of the Secretary of War. 

When, on January 13, 1862, Stanton was 
transferred by Lincoln from the office of Attor- 
ney-General to that of Secretary of the War 
Department, he did not accept the latter place 
till he had called upon McClellan for advice, 
so says McClellan in his " Own Story." 
Both were Union Democrats, whose relations 
were known to be friendly, and Stanton's resist- 
less energy and strong will seemed to promise 
an aggressive course against the enemies of the 
government from that time forth. Northern 
newspapers and men of all parties hailed the 
appointment with joy and fresh hope. He was 
a lawyer, with a knowledge of just what powers 
the Constitution gave to the government ; and 
his contention was that Congress possessed the 
war-making power without limit, and that the 
President was vested by Congress with full 
authority to do all that may be done in civilized 
warfare. It was through his influence that 
Lincoln at length asserted himself as de facto 
Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy of 
the United States. In the words of Mr. Gor- 
ham, Stanton was gifted with the rarest execu- 
tive faculty, which, while keeping the main 
object in view, masters the knowledge of all 
details, divides the labor between wisely se- 
lected subordinates, and energizes their action 
by his own vigilant supervision and by holding 
them to a strict accountability for their work. 
He seems to have had his eye constantly on 
every part of the field of national affairs in any 
way connected with his department. He knew 
all about the vessels and forts in our command, 
the size of every gun, and how it was mounted ; 
he knew the condition of health of every officer ; 
he had " feelers " in all directions. He was all 
day at his post, and late into the night ; not 
infrequently morning found him still on duty. 
He went to the front, or half across the conti- 

nent, when necessary for investigation or con- 
sultation. He was one of those rare men who 
seem made of iron, and are uttery tireless and 
sleepless in the service of whatever cause they 
have at heart. 

There is not time to rehearse the thrilling 
scenes of the war, nor is it necessary here. 
The story never grows old, and it is set forth 
in this Life with spirit and fairness. Lincoln's 
patience, which to men of Stanton's type ceased 
to be a virtue, when, although he believed Mc- 
Clellan had played false to the army and had 
contributed to Pope's defeat, he still kept him 
in command, is well portrayed. Stanton's fight 
for the country against Johnson, and his death 
just after his appointment by Grant as a Jus- 
tice of the Supreme Court in December, 1869, 
with many kindred matters, are given in detail, 
and constitute one of the most thrilling portions 
of the biography. 

The second volume is largely devoted to the 
question of Reconstruction. Stanton was the 
only member of the cabinet who totally repudi- 
ated Johnson's scheme of reconstruction. He 
stated his opinions with great clearness, and 
never lost sight of the mischievous tactics of 
Seward and Johnson. When the Attorney- 
General gave an opinion which would have 
made the Reconstruction Act a nullity and re- 
stored the rebel element to power, the supple- 
mentary Reconstruction Act was promptly 
passed, at the suggestion of Stanton, which 
made it unequivocally certain that Congress, 
as the war power of the government, must be 
obeyed. Federal officials in the South con- 
tinued their efforts to get rid of the military 
orders of commanding generals by invoking the 
civil power, but they were promptly advised 
that the military authorities were absolutely 
supreme. The President was commander-in- 
chief of the armies, but his champions forgot 
that in this case Congress had relieved him from 
that duty. It was in dealing with this question 
that Stanton overhauled the action of the gov- 
ernment from the beginning respecting the 
authority of the Secretary of War. This he 
did at the request of the Committee on the Con- 
duct of the War. He found that under the 
law the several chiefs of the bureaus in the War 
Department, including the Adjutant- General, 
were subordinates of the Secretary of War, and 
that all orders to them should go through him. 
This rule considerably extended the authority 
of the Secretary of War, and General Grant 
hesitated at first to follow it, as did Generals 
Scott, Schofield, and Sherman. But the care- 



[July 16, 

f ul statement of the case, as presented by Stan- 
ton, brought them to his way of thinking, and 
the rule which had prevailed for more than a 
hundred years was abrogated. 

From a literary standpoint, the second vol- 
ume is not equal to the first. It lacks smooth- 
ness, and evidently did not receive the pruning 
that was given to Volume I. This is not the 
final Life of Edwin M. Stanton ; but the work is 
conscientiously and sympathetically done, and 
it contains the material from which in time a 
more concise and popular biography will be 
compiled. It is a healthy and inspiring story, 
and one that young men especially should pon- 
der. As the friends who have sat with you 
about the family hearthstone have helped to 
create the atmosphere of your home, and as 
the visits of certain rarely-gifted souls seem to 
leave a sort of blessed influence behind which 
you feel long after they have passed beyond 
your porch, so the knowledge of such lives as 
this, so full of consecration and zeal and high 
endeavor, adds to our sense of the preciousness 
of our government and of the worth of human 

The stamp of the Riverside Press denotes 

that from a mechanical point of view the book 

is without a flaw ; and the illustrations and 

facsimiles add much to its interest and value. 



One may take Mr. Lafcadio Hearn's 
" Erotics and Retrospectives " (Lit- 
tle, Brown, & Co.), or at least the last 
half of it, aa a contribution to science, if one likes. 
Some people, when they read these derivations from 
ancestral feeling of oar pleasure at red sunsets, at 
the blue of the sky (aa in other things), will like to 
compare them with those evolutionary speculations 
on the color-sense of which Mr. Grant Allen's books, 
now twenty years old, are interesting examples. 
Bat perhaps that is taking it too seriously not for 
Mr. Hearn, bat for the reader ; one may prefer to 
be reminded of M. Maeterlinck's " in the very tem- 
ple of love we do but obey the unvarying orders of 
an invisible throne." We do not mention these two 
names with any idea that Mr. Hearn's treatment of 
Heredity, if we may so call it, was suggested either 
by Mr. Allen or M. Maeterlinck. We suppose it 
most probable that Mr. Hearn was led to form his 
opinions by the general tendencies of the thought of 
Japan ; and, indeed, we hope that this is the case, 
for, if so, we have rather an interesting coincidence. 
M. Maeterlinck is a descendant of the Christian 
mystics of the middle ages : Mr. Allen is a follower 

of Darwin. Mr. Hearn by the thought of the East 
comes to some of the same conclusions. There is 
probably some mutual influence ; but this is only an 
example of what is otherwise well known namely, 
that the tendencies of Eastern, Mystic, and Evolu- 
tionary philosophies are in more than minor points 
alike. It is not proper, however, to leave the idea 
in mind that in Mr. Hearn's latest book we have 
merely the popular development of a philosophic 
theory. The last half of the book, the Retro- 
spectives," does consist of a series of studies of this 
sort, suggested by various little things which natur- 
ally occur in an Eastern life and have their analo- 
gies in our own. And as Mr. Hearn holds very 
strongly to the opinion that we are largely the re- 
salt of the known causes which in ages past have 
gone to our making, the first part of the book is 
naturally not without color of the same idea. Other- 
wise the " Exotics " are not connected, but are dif- 
ferent Japanese sketches, one of an ascent of Fuji, 
one of singing insects, one on the Literature of 
the Dead, and on other matters, all very distinctive 
and very distinctly of Mr. Hearn's quality, though 
some of them are more categorical than is usual 
with him. Still, all are good, for Mr. Hearn always 
writes with that intimate sentiment of comprehen- 
sion that comes from his real knowledge and appre- 
ciation of Japan, which is probably surer than that 
of any other Englishman or American. For our- 
selves, we rather prefer the " Exotics "; with the 
" Retrospectives " we are constantly oppressed by 
the existence of a pervasive, half-apparent philoso- 
phical theory, which we cannot define and put into 
form, at least not without more material than is here 
offered us. But the other sketches or fantasias, 
as Mr. Hearn calls them are by no means with- 
out their interest, even to those who care nothing 
for their philosophy. 

Messrs. Merwin- Webster's narrative 

Railroading Q f 4 . The gh LJne Waf , Mftc 

up-to-date. ... x . it* i r 

niillan) is a good thing to read as far 
as the story is concerned, but we fear its moral effect 
cannot be of the best. The chief figure is not pre- 
sented to as as a noble-minded ideal of our own 
time, bat as a sort of Homeric hero, more like 
Ulysses than Ajax as suits the march of modern 
intellect. He wishes to defend the Short Line, and 
that end covers all means. He fights the unscrupu- 
lous bribes of his opponents with more bribes ; when 
they buy one judge to issue injunctions, he gets an- 
other ; when they hire rowdies to capture trains and 
stations, he hires other rowdies to recapture them. 
What a lesson for the youth of America ! Success 
comes of meeting political fraud, judicial corruption, 
and open violence, with more fraud, more corrup- 
tion, more violence. Trifling aside, however, this is 
the weak part of the book : Jim Weeks, the paladin 
of the Western railroad world, is no different from 
anybody else ; he is only a little more so than most. 
In other words he is not a person but an abstrac- 
tion. The creation of characters is not so easy as 




the telling of stories, so that it is not remarkable 
that the authors of " The Short Line War " have 
been more successful in giving us a rattling account 
of plot and counter-plot than in really conveying to 
us an idea of the railroad champion, his devoted 
young secretary, and the beautiful maiden who 
wanders charming and unsustained, somewhat per- 
plexed though never shocked, through a jarring 
labyrinth of utter unmorality. In spite of all this, 
we are not much afraid of recommending the work 
to our readers as a summer diversion. It is to be 
regarded as one of the realistic extravaganzas which 
the present romanticism has called to light. We 
must not think of it as a transcript of life, but must 
look at it in the spirit in which Charles Lamb viewed 
the Restoration drama. So regarding it, we may 
easily enjoy the verve and cleverness of the authors, 
without being shocked at their lack of high principle 
and moral impulse. 

An pertaining Miss Clara Tschudi's popular sketch 
truthful book on of "Eugdnie, Empress of the French " 
Empress Eugenie. (Macmillan), is characterized by the 
same good qualities that we noted in our comments 
on her life of Marie Antoinette. Mr. E. M. Cope 
is again the translator, and English readers may 
well thank him for making the books of this talented 
Norwegian writer thus accessible. Miss Tschudi is 
one of the easiest and pleasantest of narrators ; and 
we remember what a relief it was to read her clear, 
just, and unpretentious little monograph on Marie 
Antoinette shortly after having waded through (or 
well into) a two-volume Serbonian bog of verbiage 
and labored special-pleading, in which a lachrymose 
and tireless Frenchman tried to make a heroine of 
that bad sovereign and trumpery character. Miss 
Tschudi is not profound or exhaustive, and does not 
pretend to bs. She writes mainly to entertain, and 
she tries honestly to write the truth. Her book is 
sympathetic, yet she is aware of Eugenie's faults ; 
and she does not try to gloss them. We do not, how- 
ever, think she has sufficiently emphasized the fact 
that the Empress was largely to blame for the heart- 
less, spectacular way in which the ill-starred Prince 
Imperial was thrust into danger whenever a scrap 
of political capital or cheap popularity was to be 
gained by it. The farcical " baptism of fire " busi- 
ness at Saarbruck was prompted and approved by 
Eugenie. Think of setting this mere child on the 
firing line to be " potted at " by the Germans, in 
order that a sensational ^efo'2-Napoleonic bulletin 
might be sent to Paris ! Miss Tschudi may be right 
in stating that the Empress opposed the titular 
Prince Imperial's fatal expedition to Africa in 1879 ; 
but such is not our conception of the matter. At 
all events, the adventure was at bottom a contemp- 
tible " grandstand play," in popular phraseology ; 
and the Zulus were least of all to blame for its issue. 
Miss Tschudi's book seems to us the most readable 
and the least misleading of the popular ones on the 
subject. There is a pretty frontispiece portrait in 

of the 

The second volume of Prof. Hast- 

in 8 > 8 great Dictionary of the Bible " 

Bible Dictionary. & & . 

(Scnbner) continues the impression 
made by the first. To it falls a number of matters 
among the most important in Biblical study, and 
the mere enumeration of subjects of some of the 
papers Flood, Galatia, Genealogy, God, Gospels, 
Epistle to the Hebrews, Hell, Hexateuch, Incarna- 
tion, Isaiah, Jesus Christ, the Johannine writings 
will show the influence it is certain to have upon 
future religious teachings. As in the preceding 
volume, the point of view is thoroughly modern, but 
the treatment is reverent perhaps all the more so 
in that no attempt is made to brush away or blink 
difficulties. Sometimes the conservative will feel 
this frankness is perhaps a little over-frank, as in 
the article upon Genealogy ; but the radical will 
find little to his liking, so sober is the work in all 
the important papers. Occasionally, as is natural, 
one feels a trifle disappointed, as in the article upon 
the Gospels ; and at other times it is hard to feel 
the wisdom of taking space for discussions of some 
of the more obsolete words (like " glisten ") of the 
Authorized Version. But there can be nothing but 
admiration for an article like that upon Jesus Christ, 
in which there is maintained an almost impossible 
balance between caution and absolute liberty in 
investigation. It marks a long step forward in the 
evangelical-critical study of this most important sub- 
ject. The difference in spirit between English Old 
and New Testament criticism is well shown by a 
comparison of the papers on the Hexateuch and the 
Gospel of John ; while those upon Jerusalem and 
the Herods are good examples of unbiased archaeo- 
logical and historical studies. Taken altogether, 
there is little but praise for the volume, and for the 
work as a whole. 

Study of 
in schools. 

The series of " Economic Studies," 
published as a bi-monthly periodical 
by the American Economic Associa- 
tion (Macmillan), is now in its fifth year, and num- 
bers a score or more of valuable monographs. The 
latest of them is the work of Mr. Frederick R. Clow, 
and has for its subject "Economics as a School 
Study." It will be remembered that the Committee 
of Ten reported adversely to the inclusion of eco- 
nomics in secondary school work, and that Dr. F. H. 
Dixon has made a notable plea for economic his- 
tory as a substitute for economic science in secondary 
education. Mr. Clow, on the other hand, presents 
a brief for economic science ; and his argument is, 
we believe, incontrovertible. Both for knowledge 
and for disciplinary power, economics is of the 
highest value for young persons about to be gradu- 
ated from secondary schools, and Mr. Clow has 
made the most convincing statement in behalf of 
this proposition that we have ever seen. There is 
a world of truth, moreover, in his statement that 
recent " discussions have left the fundamentals of 
the science unchanged," and that the traditional 
arrangement of the subject is still the proper frame- 



[July 16, 

work within which the teacher may work. This 
monograph should fall into the hands of every 
teacher of the subject in our high schools and col- 


To turn from law to literature has 
been the recreation and delight of 
many a man at the bar, from the 
time of Bacon and Fletcher of Saltoun to the pres- 
ent, so far as English is concerned. To follow the 
thought of Mr. Clarence S. Darrow through the five 
essays which make op the book named from the 
first of them A Persian Pearl " (The Royoroft 
Shop), is to find the critical faculty of the lawyer at 
its best. To Omar Khayyam, to Walt Whitman, 
and to Robert Barns, Mr. Darrow brings a fine 
sense of analysis coupled with a vivifying sympathy 
which proves his own enjoyment of those three 
writers, different as are their several appeals. From 
them to a strong plea for " Realism in Art " is not 
a long stop, and the brief for realism is argued out 
with good humor and a perfect understanding of the 
necessity for idealism as well. Of another and more 
personal sort is " The Skeleton in the Closet." The 
skeleton is an uncomfortable combination of dese- 
crated ideals and a bad conscience, with an insistent 
plea for the betterment of character almost as 
insistently disregarded by its possessor. The book 
as a whole leaves a pleasant impression of broad 
and catholic interests in life. 

A capital 



Pleasurable emotions not a few await 
the reader of Mr. Michael Mac- 
Donagh's stories of " Irish Life and 
Character" (Whittaker), among them the occa- 
sional joy of meeting an old friend. We do not 
mean to carp at Mr. MacDonagh for introducing 
now and then a good old favorite ; but he really 
might have spared us Sir Boyle Roche's bird 
which seems to have the gift of being in as many 
places in literature at once as has, say, Mr. Andrew 
Lang. Mr. MacDonagh attempts in his book to do 
for Ireland what Dean Ramsay has done in his 
" Reminiscences " for Scotland. He has given us, 
at all events, a capital Hibernian jest-book, which 
shows " Pat " as he really is, with all his delightful 
native wit and simplicity, and not as the caricatur- 
ists of the comic " Weeklies " paint him. The book 
is a faithful mirror of the lighter traits of Irish 
character, and it* popularity is attested by the fact 
that it has now reached a second edition. 

A iromanon a 
Wetter* ranch. 

The great West is the paradise of 
the health-seeker. Mrs. Edith M. 
Nicholl's " Observations of a Ranch- 
woman in New Mexico " (Macmillan) is what an 
acute observer, on a search for physical strength, 
jotted down as of general interest. She gives us a 
sketch of the Mexican on his native heath, of his 
methods of work, and the results he achieves. The 
politics and sectionalism of the territory are sub- 
mitted to the caustic criticism of her ready pen. 
The enchanting scenery, the equable climate, and 

the special attractions of the country engage her 
attention through many pages. As long as the au- 
thor confines her attention to the peculiarities and 
conditions about her, she can carry along the intel- 
ligent reader; but when she attempts to dilate on 
wages, education, our help, and such themes, weari- 
ness and monotony take the place of interest. The 
earlier half of the book is a contribution of some 
value on affairs in that section of the frontier. 


A reproduction of the designs made by William 
Blake to illustrate Thornton's Virgil (1821) is sent us 
by Mr. Thomas B. Moeher, in the form of one of the 
most beautiful volumes that bear his imprint. The mea- 
gre material afforded by these designs alone is pieced 
out by means of an introduction, some notes, Samuel 
Palmer's translation of the first eclogue, and the imita- 
tive eclogue of " Thenot and Colinet," by Ambrose 
Philips, the whole, aided by thick paper with generous 
margins, forming a sizable octavo volume. The work is, 
we need hardly say, a delight to the book-lover's sense. 

Volume IX. of the " Harvard Studies in Classical 
Philology " (Ginn) is in a certain sense a memorial 
volume to Professors Lane and Allen, who left among 
their manuscripts " several papers in different stages of 
completion." Portraits of both men are given, as well 
as memoirs, Professor Morgan writing of Lane ami 
Professor Geenough of Allen. This matter tills about 
one-third of the volume; the remaining contents are by 
several hands, and relate mainly to various aspects of 
the work of Plautus. 

The Bostpn Public Library has just made an import- 
ant contribution to scientific literature in the publication 
of " A Selected Bibliography of the Anthropology and 
Ethnology of Europe, compiled by Dr. William Z. 
Ripley. Dr. Ripley has had much learned collaboration 
in his task, and the result is a volume of 160 pages, 
comprising about 2000 titles. The interesting state- 
ment is made that all of the works mentioned (excepting 
possibly five per cent) are on the shelves of the library 
whence this bibliography issues. In a sense, the present 
work is a companion volume to Dr. Ripley's forthcoming 
treatise on " The Races of Europe." 

"The International Year Book" for 1898, published 
by Messrs. Dodd, Mead & Co., is " a compendium of 
the world's progress in every department of human 
knowledge for the year." It has been edited by Pro- 
fessors Frank Moore Colby and Harry Thurston Peck, 
and is an octavo volume of nearly a thousand pages. 
The arrangement is alphabetical. There are numerous 
maps and illustrations. The Spanish- American War, 
the African complications, the affairs of Crete and 
Greece, are a few of the subjects dealt with at much 
length. The work will be found very useful for refer- 
ence, and to supplement the encyclopaedias. We trust 
that it will be continued annually. 

The American Book Co. send us a " Latin Prose Com- 
position," based on Ccesar, Nepos, and Cicero, by Messrs. 
C. C. Dodge and H. A. Tuttle; "The Beginner's Latin 
Book," by Mr. James B. Smiley and Miss Helen L. 
Storke; and a text of Eutropius, edited for school use 
by Dr. J. C. Hazzard. 




Chamisso's " Peter Schlemihl," in Dr. Hedge's trans- 
lation, has just been published by Messrs. Ginn & Co. 
in a small volume intended for school use. 

The second series of Dr. Edward Moore's " Studies in 
Dante " will be published at once by the Clarendon 
Press. These papers relate chiefly to the poet consid- 
ered as a religious teacher. 

" The Story of the Thirteen Colonies " and " The 
Story of the Great Republic," both by Miss H. A. 
Guerber, are two history readers for schools, published 
by the American Book Co. 

Milton's " Conius, Lycidas, and Other Poems," and 
Byron's " Childe Harold's Pilgrimage," both edited for 
school use by Mr. A. J. George, are the latest volumes 
in the " Pocket English Classics," published by the 
Macmillan Co. 

Volume LVII. of " The Century Magazine," for the 
half-year ending last April, has just been sent us by the 
publishers. The recent war naturally occupies the chief 
place of interest among the contents, and makes the vol- 
ume particularly valuable as a work of reference. 

A sheaf of recent reports from the Field Columbian 
Museum include four numbers in the geological series, 
and five in the zoological series. They relate, for the 
most part, to investigations of the fossils and the living 
fauna of the Western States, the chief exception being 
an account of " The Ores of Colombia." 

Mr. Henry W. Elson's " Side Lights on American 
History " (Macmillan) is a good book to be put in the 
hands of young students for collateral reading. It 
deals, simply and interestingly, with nearly a score of 
subjects, among them being the alien and sedition laws, 
the conspiracy of Burr, Lafayette's visit to the United 
States, the Underground Railroad, and the Lincoln- 
Douglas debates. 

Still another edition of Fitz Gerald's " Omar " has 
been issued by Mr. T. B. Mosher, whose imprint has 
come to mean so much to lovers of beautiful books. It 
is an oblong tome of vest pocket dimensions, with a 
preface by Mr. Nathan Haskell Dole, a pronouncing 
vocabulary, the text of the so-called fifth edition, and 
the notes of the translator. All of this may be had for 
the modest sum of twenty-five cents. 

Messrs. Small, Maynard, & Co. announce that they 
have acquired the greater part of the publications of 
Messrs. Copeland & Day, who are retiring from busi- 
ness. The list is a good one, comprising books by 
Father Tabb, Messrs. Bliss Carman, Richard Burton, 
Miss Rayner, and Miss Guiney, besides Mr. Rosenfeld's 
" Songs from the Ghetto," and the exquisitely printed 
" English Love Sonnet " series. Miss Alice Brown's 
two volumes, " Meadow Grass " and " On the Road to 
Castaly," have been taken over by Messrs. Houghton, 
Mifflin & Co., the publishers of Miss Brown's recent 
successful " Tiverton Tales." 

Mr. Charles A. Eggert, of the Chicago High Schools, 
has sent us reprints of two of his recent papers one on 
Moliere's " Misanthrope " from " Modern Language 
Notes," and one on Goethe from " Americana Ger- 
manica." The latter is a reply to " The Case against 
Goethe," by Professor Dowden, and protests vigorously 
against the plea of that essay, although it seems to us 
that Professor Dowdeu's position as an advocatus diaboli 
in that case is not clearly enough recognized. In other 
words, the English scholar holds practically the view of 

Mr. Eggert, although for the special purpose of his 
essay he assumed a hypercritical standpoint. Mr. 
Eggert's two papers are interesting to us not alone for 
their intrinsic value, but still more so as illustrating the 
tendency of our secondary teachers to do good scholarly 
work. The number of men in our secondary schools 
who can do such work is growing yearly, and would 
grow much more rapidly were our school authorities 
wise enough to attract scholars to these posts by giving 
them the same freedom in their work as is accorded to 
instructors in the colleges. 


[The following list, containing 92 titles, includes books 
received by THE DIAL since its last issue.} 

The Life of William Morris. By J. W. Mackail. In 2 vols., 

illus. in photogravure, etc., 8vo, uncut. Longmans, Green, 

&Co. $7.50 net. 
Reminiscences of the King of Roumania. Edited from 

the original, with an Introduction, by Sidney Whitman. 

Authorized edition ; -with portrait, 8vo, gilt top, uncut, 

pp. 367. Harper & Brothers. $3. 
Eugenie, Empress of the French : A Popular Sketch. By 

Clara Tschudi ; authorized translation from the Norwegian 

by E. M. Cope. With portrait in colors, 8vo, uncut, pp. 283. 

Macmillan Co. $3. 
The Life of Maximilien Robespierre, with Extracts from 

his Unpublished Correspondence. By George Henry 

Lewes. New edition ; illus., 12mo, uncut, pp. 399. Charles 

Scribner's Sons. $1.50. 
Cosimo de' Medici. By K. Dorothea Ewart. 12mo, pp. 240. 

"Foreign Statesmen." Macmillan Co. 75 cts. 


Reminiscences of the Santiago Campaign. By John 

Bigelow, Jr. With map, 12mo, pp. 188. Harper & 

Brothers. 81.25. 
Side Lights on American History. By Henry W. Elson, 

A.M. 16mo, pp. 398. Macmillan Co. 75 cts. 
Outline of Historical Method. By Fred Morrow Fling, 

Ph.D. 12mo, pp. 124. Lincoln, Nebr.: J.H. Miller. 60 cts. 


Henrik Ibsen Bjornstjerne Bjornson: Critical Studies. 
By George Brandes. 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 171. Mac- 
millan Co. $2.50. 

Lady Louisa Stuart: Selections from her Manuscripts. 
Edited by Hon. James Home. With portrait, 8vo, gilt top, 
uncut, pp. 310. Harper & Brothers. $2. 

The Baronet and the Butterfly : A Valentine with a Ver- 
dict. By James McNeil Whistler. 8vo, uncut, pp. 79. 
R. H. Russell. $1.25. 

Greek Sculpture with Story and Song. By Albinia 
Wherry. Illus., 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 322. Charles 
Scribner's Sons. $2.50. 


The Poetry of Lord Byron. Edited by Ernest Hartley 
Coleridge, M.A. Vol. II.; illus., 8vo, gilt top, uncut, 
pp. 525. Charles Scribner's Sons. $2. 

The Works of Shakespeare, " Eversley " edition. Edited 
by C. H. Herford. Litt.D. Vol. V.; 12mo, uncut, pp. 542. 
Macmillan Co. $1.50. 

Scott's Waverley Novels, " Temple " edition. New vols.: 
Woodstock (2 vols.), The Talisman, and The Betrothed. 
Each with photogravure frontispiece, 24mo, gilt top. 
Charles Scribner's Sons. Per vol., 80 cts. 

FitzGerald's Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam. Vest Pocket 
edition. With Preface by Nathan Haskell Dole. 32mo, 
uncut, pp. 50. Portland, Maine : Thomas B. Mosher. 
Paper, 25 cts. net. 

The Life of Friedrich Schiller. By Thomas Carlyle. "Cen- 
tenary" edition; illus., 8vo, uncut, pp. 357. Charles 
Scribner's Sons. $1.25. 



[July 16, 


Sea Drift. By Grace Ellery Churning. V-'mo, gilt top, un- 
cut, pp. 90. Small, Maynard. A Co. $1.50. 

An Ode to Girlhood, and Other Poems. By Alice Archer 
Sewell. With frotiapieoe, 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 7:5. 
Harper & Brothers. $1.25. 

That Fortune. By Charles Dudley Warner, l-'mo, gilt top. 

uncut, pp. 394. Harper A brothers. $1.50. 
Ridan the Devil, and Other Stories. By Louis Becke. 12mo, 

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64 THE DIAL [Aug. 1,1899. 

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Semisffilontfjlg Journal of SLitcrarg Criticism, Discussion, anfc Information. 

No. sis. AUGUST 1, 1899. Vol. XXVII. 




The Problem of Children's Books. Walter Taylor 


Bourne 70 

LATE BOOKS ON ALASKA. H. M. Stanley . . 72 
Garland's The Trail of the Goldseeker. Heilprin's 
Alaska and the Klondike. Mrs. Hitchcock's Two 
Women in the Klondike. Bruce's Alaska. 

RECENT FICTION. William Morton Payne ... 73 
Mai lock's Tristram Lacy. Legge's Mutineers. 
Miss Harraden's The Fowler. Mrs. Dudeney's The 
Maternity of Harriott Wicken. Churchill's Richard 
Carvel. Paterson's Cromwell's Own. Pier's The 
Pedagogues. Warner's That Fortune. Kate 
Chopin's The Awakening. Florence Wilkinson's 
The Lady of the Flag-Flowers. Yeats's The Heart 
of Denise. Risley's Men's Tragedies. Capes's At 
a Winter's Fire. Watson's The Heart of Miranda. 
Bret Harte's Stories in Light and Shadow. Fish's 
Short Rations. Cable's Strong Hearts. Herrick's 
Love's Dilemmas. Mrs. Harrison's The Carcellini 
Emerald. Edith Wharton's The Greater Inclination. 


The best sea-writer since Dana. A new study of 
Milton. A modern view of Adam Smith. Spanish 
society as portrayed in Spanish fiction. A helpful 
study of the Renaissance. Selections from the 
Thoughts of Joubert. The wife of John Sobieska 
of Poland. A modern interpretation of Mysticism. 
An amateur's handbook of insects. Gambling as 
a folly and an art. A belated Epoch of Church 





Following our midsummer custom of several 
years past, we have prepared a summary of the 
reports, published in the London "Athenaeum," 
upon the literary output of the past year in the 
most important European countries. These 
reports are so valuable that we offer no apology 
for making this condensation for the benefit of 
American readers, and we take pleasure in once 
more acknowledging our indebtedness to our 

English contemporary for the material which is 
here reproduced. Eleven countries are included 
this year, there being no reports from Bohemia, 
Greece, and Sweden. We follow the alpha- 
betical order, and include in this issue the facts 
relating to Belgium, Denmark, France, Ger- 
many, and Holland. The authors quoted from 
are, respectively, Professor Paul Fredericq, 
Dr. Alfred Ipsen, M. Jules Pravieux, Herr 
Ernst Heilborn, and Heer H. S. M. van Wicke- 
voort Crommelin. 

Belgium, mourning the loss of Georges 
Rodenbach, has given the world two posthu- 
mous books from his pen, " L'Arbre " and " Le 
Miroir du Ciel Natal." His name suggests 
that of M. Maeterlinck, whose " La Sagesse et 
la Destinee " is also a book of the past year. 
There have been a score or more volumes of 
verse, among them two by M. Etnile Verhaeren. 
In criticism, there is M. Fierens-Gevaert, who 
has " set himself to study the great moral and 
intellectual currents which influence literature 
at the end of our century," and has published 
his conclusions under the title of " La Tristesse 
Contemporaine." There have been many books 
of political and social science, one of them by 
M. W. J. Kerby, on the subject of " Le Social- 
isme aux Etats-Unis." The most important 
historical work of the year is a history of Bel- 
gium by M. Henri Pirenne, printed in German 
in advance of its appearance in French. Congo 
literature and the editing of many original 
documents are two departments of historical 
writing both of which are well represented. It 
is interesting to note that " the German move- 
ment along the frontier of the Rhine provinces 
of Prussia and the Grand Duchy of Luxem- 
bourg still continues." There is a periodical 
called " Deutsch Belgien," a review in both 
Flemish and German, called " Germania," and 
a five-act play, " Papst und Fiirst," by M. P. 
Bourg. On the Flemish side, there are chron- 
icled several collections of verse, such fiction as 
the "Lenteleven " of M. Stijn Streuvels and the 
posthumous stories of Mme. Cogen, and such 
miscellaneous volumes as M. Buysse's "Uit 
Vlaanderen " and M. Pol de Mont's " Inleiding 
tot de Poe'zie." The theatre is not neglected, 
as is attested by the Flemish stages of Brussels 
and Antwerp, soon to be followed by one in 



[Aug. 1, 

Ghent, but good Flemish plays to produce in 
these theatres are still to seek. 

Denmark, we are told, " is by preference a 
lyrical nation." 

" Among our natural gift* are humor, a strong sense 
of irony, and a feeling for beauty and the contrast be- 
tween joy and melancholy. Our national character has 
often by our writers and poets been compared to the 
sea, the ever-wandering, ever-changing, and it is re- 
flected, as in a mirror, in our literary perfections and 
shortcomings, the glory of our literature being good, 
melodious verse, now heavy with melancholy, now care- 
less and unconcerned." 

The past year has produced " a rich crop of 
poetry," of which the most conspicuous exam- 
ples are Herr Rordam's retelling of the Beo- 
wulf story, the " Sirener " of Herr Michaelis, 
the " Portraits in Verse " of Herr Schandorph, 
and the " Digte " of Herr Jorgensen, most 
wonderful in his particular style of august 
serenity." As for fiction, the writer feels that 
in the best Danish work, if not so striking as 
the Norwegian, "there is something untrans- 
latable, something that will scarcely be felt and 
understood outside the borders of our small 
kingdom." The fiction particularly mentioned 
in this survey includes " A Recruit of '64," by 
Herr P. F. Rist ; " Donna Ysabel," a tale of 
the Peninsular War, by Fru Mailing; and 
Danske Maend," a study of low life in Copen- 
hagen, by Herr K. Larsen. The tendency, in 
spite of such works as the one last named, 
seems to be away from the bare realism of a 
few years ago, a fact which our writer rather 
regrets. The chief Danish writer of to-day is 
the critic, Dr. Georg Brandes, a complete uni- 
form edition of whose works is now in course of 
publication. Dr. Brandes has written a biog- 
raphy of Dr. Julius Lange, the late critic of 
art, and a pamphlet on " The Danishness of 
Sleswick." The latter work is 

" An address to Germany, in which the author reproaches 
the Germans for their system of oppression and acts of 
violence against the Danish in the conquered province, 
and compares German culture with Danish, not exactly 
to the credit of the former, showing how much the Ger- 
mans lack in different fields of spiritual culture, and 
how little, with their knowledge of history, they finder- 
stand their opponents." 

Finally, Herr Vilhelm Andersen has finished 
the first volume of a great critical and bio- 
graphical study of CEhlenschlager. 

"A certain case" has so monopolized the 
attention of the French poeple during the past 
year that literature " has had to give place to 
the excited manifestations of daily polemic." 

" Artists and thinkers have been living in an atmos- 
phere of contention. Who, then, could boast of retain- 

ing his calmness in the thick of a battle ? A glance at 
some recent publications, such as M. France's ' L'An- 
neau d'Ame'thyste,' for instance, will prove that the 
idealists most famous for the dile(tant<rcb&rncler of their 
convictions have not escaped the influence of their en- 
vironment. Writers who, if their past record means 
anything, seemed destined to seek nothing in life but 
new expressions of beauty, have shown their talents on 
a most unexpected side; they have revealed themselves 
to be brilliant and aggressive controversialists." 

The playwrights are the first to be noticed 
among the literary workers of the year. The 
most noteworthy dramas have been the " Nou- 
velle Idole " of M. Curel, the " Berceau " of 
M. Brieux, the " Vieux Marcheur " of M. La- 
vedan, the " Plus que Reine " of M. Bergerat, 
the " Judith Renaudin " of " Pierre Loti," the 
" Struense'e " of M. Paul Meurice, and the 
" Truands " of M. Jean Richepin. Of these, 
perhaps the most significant are the pieces of 
MM. Brieux and Meurice. The latter, which 
is in verse, " represents a return to the romantic 
manner of which Victor Hugo was the chief 
master. The best praise one can accord to 
4 Struensee ' is to say that the writer has dis- 
played in it some of Victor Hugo's lyric ardor." 
Of the play by M. Brieux, we are given the 
following interesting comment : 

44 He demands praise by his obstinate departure from 
beaten paths, his disdain of methods and recipes for 
winning the favor of the general public. All his pieces 
reveal an intention, an idea, a thesis. And in this con- 
nection the evolution our theatre is undergoing may 
well be stated. For a long while love was the sole 
thing our theatre lived on. No good pieces some years 
ago could do without an adulterer. Times have changed. 
Authors seem to be abandoning increasingly the formula 
of art for art's sake.' They wish to speak to the public, 
attack the follies of the age, lash the vices of certain 
social classes. It seems as if there was a tendency 
clearly defined towards the drama of ideas. This evo- 
lution of drama is very palpable in the pieces of M. 
Brieux. In Le Berceau ' his aim is to display the 
inconveniences of divorce. It is more like a disserta- 
tion than a play." 

The novel, also, has undergone an evolution 
not unlike that of the play. " The novelists 
have given up studying love only. They have 
set themselves free from the obsession of the 
Seventh Commandment." In this connection 
we will call attention to Mme. Darmesteter's 
discussion of the subject in the June " Con- 
temporary Review." The most important 
novels of the year are " La Duchesse Bleue," by 
M. Bourget ; " La Force," by M. Paul Adam ; 
"L' Anneau d'Ame'thyste," by M. France ; " Les 
Morts Qui Parlent," by M. de Vogue ; " La 
Terre Qui Meurt," by M. Rene* Bazin ; " Le 
Ferment," by M. Estaunie* ; "L'Arae d'un 
Enfant," by M. Jean Aicard ; and " Devant le 




Bonheur," by M. Jean Thorel. Of M. de 
Vogue's book we read that the author 
" Is not afraid to approach serious social problems which 
agitate minds of to-day. He introduces us to the Palais 
Bourbon, which he frequented as a deputy during one 
legislature.' He has brought away melancholy reflec- 
tions. Still, it appears that he does not regret his excur- 
sion into the world of politics, since he returns to it with 
a book like ' Les Morts Qui Parlent.' In this new novel, 
which contains a delicate love interest closely welded 
with political intrigue, M. de Vogiie' shows once more 
his mastery, his unsurpassable talent for writing. Here 
is to be found the richness of style in which splendid 
images enchant you, enlivened by a breath of strong 
eloquence which bears up the ideas bravely. It is the 
book of a poet, an artist, an original and deep thinker. 
Politics, too, are touched on in ' L'Anneau d'Ame'thyste,' 
the third volume of the series which M. France has 
called ' Histoire Contemporaine,' which is a mordant 
satire on our faults and vices. The best thing in the 
book, the quite first-rate part, is contained in the comic 
scenes. M. France is an admirable writer of comedy. 
In his latest novel he shows himself a little more bitter 
and pessimistic than usual; but to set against this he 
presents readers with a sympathetic being, and that is a 
happy novelty ! " 

M. Estaunie's " Le Ferment " 
" Might be called a social novel. By ferment ' he 
means the restless, ardent intelligence of sons of work- 
men and peasants who have been taught too much, and 
had longings and desires unknown to their fathers de- 
veloped in them. M. Kstaunid studies the social crisis. 
He uses his realistic talent with moderation in order to 
display the debasement of those who are mixed up in 
the desperate struggle of ambitions and appetites." 

The French poets have not been idle, although 
nothing very noteworthy has been done by them. 
Mention is made of " La Chanson de la Bre- 
tagne," by M. A. Le Braz ; of " Les Poemes 
de 1' Amour et la Mort," by M. Lebey ; of "La 
Chanson des Hommes," by M. Maurice Magre ; 
of " Artiste et Poete," by M. Jean Bach-Sisley ; 
of " L'Ideale Jeunesse," by M. Montier ; and of 
" Paysages et Paysans," by M. Maurice Rol- 
linat, who " has been styled the pupil of George 
Sand and Edgar Poe." There has also been 
published " Les Annees Funestes," a posthu- 
mous volume by Hugo. In literary history and 
criticism there are such books as the new series 
of " Impressions de Theatre," by M. Jules 
Lemaitre ; the " Racine," by M. Larroumet ; 
the " Essai sur Goethe," by M. Edouard Rod ; 
and the " De Dumas a Rostand," by M. Au- 
guste Filon. In the domain of a stricter scholar- 
ship, there are M. Masson's "Josephine de 
Beauharnais," M. Houssaye's " Waterloo," M. 
Demolins's " Les Franc,ais d'Aujourd'hui," 
and " L'Education Nouvelle," M. Fouillee's 
"Les Etudes Classiques et la Democratic," 
and M. Laffite's " Le Faust de Goethe." A 
book not easily classified, but which must be 

mentioned, is M. Coppee's " La Bonne Souf- 
france," in which the author, " in a familiar 
and often eloquent style, tells the occasion and 
influences which resulted in his return to the 
Faith." Concluding his review, the writer says : 

" In France there are no longer literary schools, though 
it is easy to recognize c tendencies.' It would be a para- 
doxical and most unjust thing to say that all the literary 
schools which have come forth and had their day of 
glory in our times have gone bankrupt. They have 
undergone the law of evolution; they have disappeared 
in obedience to the manifestations of a new code of lit- 
erary aesthetics, or, in plain terms, because the public 
have gone after new gods. Certainly M. Zola, the head 
of the realistic school, and M. Bourget, the undisputed 
master of the psychological novel, have not stopped 
writing (and of that we are very glad) ; but who of the 
young novelists makes their methods his model ? There 
are no more schools because no more masters are wanted 
in literature. The first act of a writer born into the 
literary world is to declare his independence, and assert, 
as best he can, his autonomy. In the novel, in poetry, 
history, philosophy, criticism, isolation is the thing, and 
everyone is at least an individualist." 

The past year in Germany witnessed the 
death of Bismarck, and gave us his memoirs, 
" Bismarck, the Man and Statesman." 

" His monument is composed of no perishable mate- 
rial, and its construction reveals his individuality, even 
in the smallest details. Everything in this book is per- 
sonal. The five-and-twenty years and more of German 
and other than German history became a mirror of his 
personality. Actions and men appear as he saw them, 
and he allows them to be rated at no other value. . . . 
He disliked fine phrases, and the result was a feeling of 
distrust for mere phrase-making in literature. His 
politics were concerned with actualities; literature, too, 
was reared on a basis of fact. Fidelity to nature be- 
came the catchword. Active, unsentimental characters 
rose in general esteem; the sentimental went out of 
favor. And as so often happens, in the attempt to root 
out the weeds the flowers too suffered. Not only senti- 
mentality, but also noble and right feeling, or at any 
rate its expression, was tabooed. The young literature 
of the eighties made no mention of feeling. It expresses 
a skepticism which, however, yielded humbly before the 
advent of reality, one in which the peculiarity of Bis- 
marck's personality had its full share." 

The death of Theodor Fontane also serves to 
mark the past year. 

" He lived just long enough to write a charming little 
ode on the statesman's death, then he too passed away. 
Only a few weeks before his death his autobiographical 
sketches ' Von Zwanzig bis Dreissig ' appeared. Before 
his last novel ' Der Stechlin ' left the press we had stood 
beside his grave. It is impossible to make those of 
another nation understand what Fontane was and still is 
to us. He was distinctly a North German, Prussian, even 
Brandenburg writer, and even in Vienna he attracted 
little notice. But we loved him, and named him the 
best among us. He depicted the men whom we know 
as we see or should wish to see them. He was a distinct 
realist, but his realism had a subjective character." 

The most important works of pure literature 



[Aug. 1, 

have been two plays Herr Hauptmann's 
"Fuhrmann Henschel" and Herr Sudermann's 
** Die Drei Reiherfedern." The former is thus 
described : 

" Henschel's wife when dying forces him to promise 
that after her death he will not marry the girl who U at 
this time in their service. He promises, and his wife 
dies. But his household cannot get on without a woman, 
the child needs a mother, and he marries the servant 
after all. Then she deceives him, makes his life a bur- 
den, and stirs up strife between her husband and his 
friends and neighbors. One day at the inn he has a 
quarrel with his brother-in-law, who tells him the truth 
about his wife. He demands proofs and sends for his 
wife, and she can find no defence. Then the truth 
flashes on him either he or bis wife must die. So he 
goes away and hangs himself." 

As Herr Sudermann's first novel was called 
** Frau Sorge," his latest play might well be 
styled " Frau Sehnsucht." 

It leads Sudermann back to the moods of his youth, 
and restores the elements of lyric feeling and person- 
ality which were so regrettably wanting in his recent 
successful plays. All the same, the new play is a 
failure; it lacks clearness, and with it scenic effective- 
ness and human interest. But the element of longing 
has been fathomed to its depths. It is this unending 
desire that drives the young Northern hero Prince 
Witte ceaselessly about the world; it is the eternal 
tragedy of the delusion of desire that prevents him, 
when once he has attained the idol of his longings, from 
recognizing his dream, and he casts it from him to pur- 
sue the phantom once more. 

Other plays are " Die Gefahrtin " and " Das 
Gemachtniss," both by Herr Arthur Schnitz- 
ler ; " Die Hoohzeit der Sobeide," by Herr 
Hugo von Hof mannsthal ; " Herostrat," by 
Herr Ludwig Fulda ; " Die Heimathslosen," 
by Herr Max Halbe ; and " Gewitternacht," 
a patriotic tragedy of the Silesian wars, by 
Herr Ernst von Wildenbruch. In poetry, 
there are three small volumes by Herr Stefan 
George, who is compared with Rossetti. In 
fiction, a new volume of stories by Herr Paul 
Heyse is called "Der Sohn Seines Vaters." 
Other fiction includes two volumes of stories 
by Frau Lou Andreas-Salome', Herr Raabe's 
" Hastenbeck," a story of the Seven Years' 
War, Herr Wilbrandt's "Vater Robinson," 
Fraulien Bohlau's Halbtier," Fraulein Fra- 
pan's "Wir Haben Kein Vaterland," Herr 
Lindau's "Agent," and Herr Spielhageu's 
Urn-ill ." Finally, a book of the deepest 
interest is Frau von Meysenbug's " Lebensa- 
bend einer Idealistin." 

"Malvida von Meysenbug, the friend of Richard 
Wagner, Nietzsche, and Mazzini, was also an advanced 
woman. This noble lady, who freed herself from the 
narrow conditions of her home, and lived in London 
among the political exiles, helping on their schemes, 
also turned her thoughts to female education, and never 

shrank from entering the lists for her ideas. But this 
1 Lebensabeud,' the sequel to the Meinoiren eiuer Ideal- 
istin," is a book of peace. She presents charming pic- 
tures of her intercourse with Wagner and Nietzsche, 
Mazzini and Liszt; but what is specially charming abuut 
this book, in spite of its somewhat highflown manner, is 
the evidence that she has attained contentment and 
inward freedom in herself." 

In the report upon Dutch literature, the first 
place is given to Heer Paap's anti-Semitic 
novel, "Vincent Haman," which is " a violent 
attack on the leaders of modern literature." 
There is not much good original work to men- 
tion. Volumes of verse are Dr. van Eeden's 
"Enkele Verzen," Helene Lapidoth-Swarth's 
" Stille Dalen," Heer Albert Verwey's " De 
Nieuwe Tuin," Mr. G. C. van 't Hoog's " Ge- 
luk," and Miss Reyneke van Stuwe's " Impres- 
sies." The stage has witnessed two important 
productions Breero's "Spaansche Brabanter" 
and Mr. H. Heyermans's " Ghetto." 

" From poetry to prose Dr. van den Bergh van Eys- 
inga has built a golden bridge with bis ' Boek van 
Toevertrouwen,' an elaborate specimen of lyric prose, 
the work of a clergyman under strong Biblical infiuence. 
It breathes soothing confidence and hope, real faith and 
firm conviction." 

The most erudite and entertaining book of the 
year is Professor van Hamel's " Letterkundig 
Leven van Frankrijk." Professor P. L. Mul- 
ler's " great popular history, * Onze Gouden 
Eeuw,' describing the rise, growth, and the 
beginning of decay of Holland at her best, is 
now completed. The last volume, which deals 
with the government, life, religion, and morals 
of our ancestors, is perhaps the most interest- 
ing of the three." Last of all, we mention 
two essays in ecclesiastical history, " Rome en 
de Geschiedenis " and " Petrns en Rome," both 
by Professor Bolland of Leyden, which have 
given rise to a violent controversy between the 
conservative and advanced schools of religious 


(To the Editor of THK DIAL.) 

Your recent suggestive article upon Boys and (iirls 
and Books, referring to the differences in the literary 
tastes of high-school pupils, leads one to inquire whether 
these differences are not due in a greater measure to the 
pupil's earlier training than to his native bias. 

The mind of a child is formed as his muscles are 
formed by food and exercise; and his earliest mental 
pabulum is supplied by the jingles of the nursery, and 
by the classic tales which are selected, it is to be hoped, 
by a judicious mother. At this age he becomes acquainted 
with Mother Goose, and there is nothing better for him, 
provided always it is the real simon-pure Mother Goose, 




and not the miscellaneous stuff which masquerades in 
cheap editions under that name. The parent must not 
think that any story which will amuse a child is useful. 
The individual taste has not at this period of develop- 
ment become pronounced; the child will accept any- 
thing eagerly; a story is a story. But the influence of 
the stories which are told him is deep and lasting. If 
he is fed upon tales of ogres and giants who eat up little 
boys, a taste is formed which will continue to demand 
extravagant and blood-curdling fiction. Jack the Giant 
Killer is the logical antecedent of Jack the Indian Killer 
and Jack the Ripper, which our children see a little 
later upon the news-stands, more 's the pity. We 
sometimes ask why these outrageous yellow-covered 
tales are written; but the explanation is quite easy. 
There is a demand for them; and we should see to it 
that the demand is not fostered by the tales which our 
children hear from their nurses in the days before the 
little ones can read for themselves. 

The next important step in the formation of the child's 
taste is taken when he finds out the meaning of the 
printed word and wanders away from his school reader 
to test for himself his newly acquired powers. This is 
the point at which the child particularly needs help. 
Doubtless some latitude should be allowed to him in the 
selection of his reading matter. If he himself chooses 
one from a half-dozen books, all of which are equally 
good, the chances are that he will better enjoy the read- 
ing of it and will get more real good from it than if it 
were presented to him alone as something to be read 
because of the good it would do him. Do not make his 
reading a duty, but let it be a privilege and a pleasure. 
He may prefer Robinson Crusoe to Pilgrim's Progress, 
and if he does he should be allowed to read it. But 
beware how widely his choice is allowed to extend. 
Fruits are good for children, but there are unripe 
fruits and there are partly decayed fruits which are not 
good. The average parent will be quite careful as to 
what his children are putting into their stomachs, but is 
apt to be equally careless as to their mental fare. 

The boy-baudit, wild-west, sensational stories of the 
news-stands, to which reference has already been made, 
are not, after all, the most dangerous species of chil- 
dren's literature. They are so glaringly bad that par- 
ents instinctively scent their presence and banish them 
from the household. Their influence is happily becom- 
ing limited to those homes in which the parents them- 
selves are not above the moral standard of the tales, 
and in such homes there is little chance for the growth 
of a pure literary taste or a high moral character. It 
will be observed that the influence of all literature is 
felt along these two lines, the jesthetic and the moral: 
that which affects the taste and that which affects the 
character. While these remarks apply chiefly to the 
aesthetic influence, the two are so blended that it be- 
comes quite impossible to avoid reference to the moral 
influence as well. That which we love, we are. 

The most dangerous class of children's literature is 
that in which sensationalism is respectably clothed. 
There are stories quite as bad in their influence as the 
border-ruffian type, but more refined in their setting. 
The boys and girls move in good society, but they are 
always getting into the most impossible situations and 
having the most startling adventures, hair-breadth 
escapes, encounters with burglars, and all that sort of 
thing. These stories appear in reputable children's 
magazines, and are interspersed with items of useful 
information science, history, and biography. The 

story is inserted to make the magazine popular; and it 
answers its purpose. In the family of my friend A, 
three well-known children's periodicals are taken and 
read. Several days before the time for the appearance 
of each issue, the children are in a fever of excitement; 
and when the paper at last appears, everything is dropped 
until the fate of the hero of the continued story is ascer- 
tained. In this family there is no library worthy of the 
name. The periodicals already referred to supply all the 
reading matter for which the children care, or for which 
they have time after their school duties are fulfilled. 

But while this sugar-coated sensationalism is bad, 
there is another class of children's literature which is 
quite as objectionable. I refer to the sentimental stuff 
which is written in the name of religion and morality, 
but which is effective only in vitiating the taste, weak- 
ening the intellect, and giving false views of life. It 
appears notably in the " children's column " of certain 
religious papers, and in books intended for Sunday- 
school consumption, which, happily, the best Sunday- 
schools have long ago repudiated and cast out. 

It is one of the most significant facts of modern life, 
that a surfeit of periodical literature, both juvenile and 
adult, is operating against the reading of books and 
the formation of libraries. The magazine has its place, 
but it also has its limitations; and we should lead our 
children to understand that, after all, the vital and per- 
manent literature is that preserved for them in good 
books. Let every child have his little book-case in the 
nursery, or, better yet, a shelf in the library which he 
may call his own. Let him be encouraged to read good 
books and to care for them. He will then come to feel 
the friendship with them which is the greatest joy of the 
literary life. A good book presented to a child on each 
succeeding birthday a book chosen wisely with respect 
to the child's tastes and abilities, but of sterling worth 
will soon put him in possession of a library which will 
be a lasting source of strength and satisfaction. It is 
a mistake to think that the child must be continually 
supplied with fresh reading matter, that a book once 
read is finished. Indeed, the strong intellects of the 
last century are those which have been nourished in 
childhood upon a few good books, read and re-read 
until the thought and style became a part of the read- 
er's permanent possession. Nor does a child lose interest 
in a good book after a single reading. What boy ever 
tired of Gulliver's Travels ? 

Such books as those of Kingsley, Church, and Jane 
Andrews, Lamb's Tales from Shakespeare and Adven- 
tures of Ulysses, the fairy tales of Andersen and 
Grimm, .<Esop's Fables, Robinson Crusoe and the Swiss 
Family Robinson, Pilgrim's Progress, Franklin's Auto- 
biography, Tom Brown at Rugby, and the stories of 
Scott and Dickens, all these are genuine classics, and 
they never grow old. Then there is a multitude of new 
books written for children by men and women who love 
and understand the needs of child-life. Never was 
there a wider range of selection, and never a time when 
the possession of children's libraries was so inexcusable. 

While nothing can quite take the place of the library 
in the home, the best substitute for it is the library in 
the school. Educational sentiment is alert upon this 
subject, and the growth of school libraries during the 
past decade is a hopeful sign, not only of a healthier 
literary taste, but of a sounder morality in the men and 
women of the next generation. 


Chicago, July 20, 1899. 



[Aug. 1, 



A writer of biography is fortunate if his hero 
lived in a period of tragic events, when the 
problem of public conduct was complex and 
baffling ; for it is singularly interesting to study 
the behavior of character subjected to extraor- 
dinary strain. The men of the French Revolu- 
tion certainly fell upon such times. It was not 
theirs simply to fight for recognized liberties 
against an encroaching government, as the 
English, and more recently the Americans, 
had fought before. When these Frenchmen 
attempted the task, the very foundations of 
society crumbled beneath their feet, and while 
they looked about for a footing they saw all 
Europe advancing in arms toward their fron- 
tiers. Beset by fears, jealousies, and hatreds, 
they were driven to form opinions while stand- 
ards of judgment were changing ; they must 
act, though the objects which France sought 
to-day might be abandoned tomorrow. 

To change the direction of the thought if 
one would penetrate the secret of the Revolu- 
tion the surest path is along the line of just 
such individual experience, following ade- 
quately tested men into the " welter," and inter- 
preting its nature and tendencies by its effects 
upon them. It is strange, therefore, that so 
few biographies of the Revolutionists have been 
written, even in France. Without prejudging 
the two volumes under review, it may be said 
that no satisfactory life of Danton has yet ap- 
peared. The works of Aulard, Robinet, and 
Bongeart are rather studies of aspects of his 
life than complete descriptions of it. They are, 
moreover, chiefly attempts to meet the charges 
which have always been brought against him. 

Mr. Beesly and Mr. Belloc, who seek to bring 
to English readers the results of the later inves- 
tigations in France, are both enthusiastic ad- 
mirers of the great Cordelier. Mr. Beesly's 
book is distinctly apologetic from beginning to 
end, although a biographical study with 
apology as its dominant note is itself a damag- 
ing criticism of its hero. This is not altogether 
Mr. Beesly's fault, because any bold strong 
man who rose to leadership during such days 
could hardly come through without leaving 
some memories to trouble zealous eulogists. 

DAHTON. A Study. By Hilaire Belloc, B.A., lato Brack- 
enbury Scholar of Balliol College, Oxford. New York : Chariot 
Scribner'a Sons. 

LIFE or DANTON. 87 A. H. Beesly. New York : Long- 
mails, Green, A Co. 

It was first as a dramatic poet, in his " Danton 
and Other Verse," that Mr. Beesly seems to 
have approached his hero. In this new vol- 
ume he shows a wide familiarity with French 
researches, but he has apparently paid little 
attention to the documentary sources of inform- 
ation, aside from the " Moniteur," which he 
has used for Danton's speeches. And his use 
of the " Moniteur " is not critical, else, for ex- 
ample, he would not have fallen into the com- 
mon error of attributing the phrase " Plarons 
la terreur a 1'ordre du jour " to Berrere, who 
merely quoted it from an orator of the Com- 
mune in September, 1793. 

Consciously or unconsciously, Mr. Beesly has 
sought to palliate the darker deeds of the Revo- 
lution by setting everything of the Old Regime 
in a dismal light. He begins with a miscel- 
laneous assortment of evils and an incredible 
story or two. He says Louis XIV. left France 
" two and one-half milliards of debt," and that 
the Regency added to this 750 millions. With- 
out another word of explanation he remarks, 
" But the Queen went on gambling," as if the 
years from 1723 to 1774 were dropped out 
entirely. When he reaches the overthrow of 
the monarchy, August 10, instead of a word of 
pity for the poor old king, he gathers from the 
gossip of the memoir writers four pages, giving 
the impression that Louis was a boorish, greedy, 
cruel nobody. 

Mr. Belloc's " Study " of Danton is a more 
important contribution to the subject, for by 
his own independent investigations he has been 
able to control and occasionally to supplement 
his French predecessors. His treatment reveals 
vigorous thinking and clear conceptions of 
many of the characteristic features of the great 
struggle. There are passages of remarkable de- 
scriptive power, sometimes rising to eloquence. 
This is particularly true of the chapter on the 
death of Danton. Here and there a phrase 
gathers the significance of all the varied inci- 
dents of a whole situation. But besides these 
good qualities there are certain surprising de- 
fects. And, first, inaccuracies. Such things 
as " jerrymander," " Golier " for Gohier, and 
" suppliants " for suppleants, are probably mere 
misprints. But on page 218 he says Danton 
opposed, April 10, the " prosecution of those 
who sent a petition from the Halle aux Blcs 
for the resignation of Roland." Now Roland 
had resigned January 22. Moreover, this pe- 
tition was not sent in ; it was discovered by 
1 V t ion while it was being circulated, who asked 
that its authors be prosecuted. Danton's inter- 




vention was accidental and had no significance, 
for he had not heard the first part of the peti- 
tion, in which the offensive words occurred, and 
misunderstood the intent of the discussion. A 
cursory reading of the Moniteur would have 
set the author right. 

A similar blunder occurs on page 179, in 
speaking of Gohier's report on the "civil list." 
Here Mr. Belloc was misled by a statement in 
one of Aulard's articles in the " Revolution 
frangaise." The formal report did not come 
out August 18, as Mr. Belloc says, but on 
September 16. However, Gohier had outlined 
the discoveries in August, though not for the 
first time on the date Mr. Belloc suggests, but 
several days earlier. M. Aulard quoted only 
from " Moniteur XIII., 445," though he might 
have found practically the same statements in 
an earlier reference, " Moniteur XIII., 430." 
In Mr. Belloc's footnote the reference is 
" Moniteur XII., 445." 

Errors of this sort are of minor importance. 
But when Mr. Belloc attempts to answer the 
question concerning the consequences of Valmy, 
" Why then did the King of Prussia retreat ? " 
he becomes puerile. He gives the credit to 
Danton which belongs to Dumouriez, confuses 
dates and incidents, and sacrifices clearness to 
mere phrasing. What can anybody make out 
of a sentence like this, in reference to D'Eglan- 
tine's mission to compose the jealous ambitions 
of Kellerman and Dumouriez : " That foolish 
man, D'Eglantine, followed him, but his folly 
was swallowed up in the wisdom of Danton, 
who sent him," etc. 

It is impossible here to more than allude to 
Mr. Belloc's inadequate treatment of the First 
Committee of Public Safety, of which Danton 
was the most influential member. He seems to 
have laid little emphasis in his studies on the 
records and correspondence of the Committee 
itself, edited by M. Aulard. Otherwise he 
would hardly have so greatly over-estimated 
the importance of Berrere's report in behalf of 
the Committee, presented May 29. He has 
printed long extracts from this iii an Appendix, 
under the erroneous impression that it had never 
been printed elsewhere. 

Vigorous and clear as Mr. Belloc's style is in 
many passages, it occasionally becomes meta- 
phorical, oracular, and bombastic. He remarks 
that Danton was chary of metaphor, a virtue 
he might have himself better appreciated. A 
few rhetorical curiosities are worth mentioning. 
" When spring had melted their enthusiasm " 
almost defies analysis. This seems a little thing 

compared with the following, apropos of the 
Flight to Varennes : 

" France was also afraid. . . . She feared the divine 
sunstroke that threatens the road to Damascus. In that 
passage which was bounded on either side by an abyss, 
her feet went slowly, one before the other, and she 
looked backward continually. In the twisting tides at 
night her one anchor to the old time was the monarchy. 
Thus when Louis fled the feeling was of a prop broken." 

Here is a delightful going and coming of the 
fancy from sacred to profane, from land to sea, 
and back again. In another case the author is 
obliged to escape from his metaphor argumenta- 
tively, and by main strength, as it were. A 
quarrel between Paris and the departments he 
says " would have been a fight between the 
members and the brain, and the brain would 
have died fighting, leaving a body dead because 
the brain had died." The anatomical impos- 
sibilities of such an affair quite make one forget 
Paris and the departments and Danton himself, 
so that one must finally go back to find what 
it is all about. 

Both writers under consideration would have 
made Danton's earlier career more comprehen- 
sible had they explained at somewhat greater 
length the municipal history of Paris in 1789 
and 1790. This is not so difficult to do, now 
that many of the records have been edited. 
And without such an explanation one starts out 
with the impression that Danton was merely a 
noisy demagogue, though with greater legal acu- 
men and more ability than some of the others. 

The word " September " is after all the ugli- 
est obstacle for a Danton biographer to sur- 
mount. Few writers now accuse him of direct 
complicity in the massacres. But some years 
ago, when it was proposed to name a new street 
near Danton's house after the great Revolu- 
tionist, there was a lively debate in the Senate, 
and the distinguished historian, M. Wallon, 
refused to be convinced that Danton was not 
their real author. He suggested six panels for 
the pedestal of a Danton statue : " Massacre 
de 1'Abbaye, Massacre des Carmes, Massacre 
de la Force," etc. Both Mr. Belloc and Mr. 
Beesly advocate the theory that, in the perilous 
situation of Paris, Danton did not dare antago- 
nize the bloodthirsty radicals who hounded on 
the mob to these murders. This is according 
to the evidence or rather the absence of evi- 
dence, but there is a suggestion in a part of 
the record of the Commune on the first day of 
the massacres which is significant. The Com- 
mune sent to rescue innocent prisoners for 
debt : it seemed at first indifferent to the fate 
of the political prisoners who were regarded as 



[Aug. 1, 

criminal conspirators. Danton probably shared 
this first impulse, realizing only later, to use 
the words of Belloc, - that a thing had hap- 
pened which was to hurt the future of the Rev- 
olution more than all the armies." This reaction 
must have been for him, as for the rest, " like 
the breaking of day after that moral night." 

When a brief history of the First Committee 
of Public Safety was published some time ago, 
M. Aulard remarked how hazardous it was to 
attempt such a task without spending years in 
the archives. This reveals also the difficulty of 
doing more than scratch the surface of Danton's 
work in the First Committee. Here these two 
books show their least satisfactory pages. 

In spite of the defects and inadequacies 
already noted, the large and generous outlines 
of Danton's figure as a man and as a political 
leader are fairly clear in these volumes, and 
the reader confined to English descriptions of 
the great Cordelier will find in them the first 
opportunity to gain a modern view of him based 
on the results of the critical scholarship of 
France. The writers will have done a service 
to the popular understanding of Revolutionary 
history if they have succeeded in dissolving that 
figment of uninstructed imagination, the Tri- 
umvirate, Danton, Robespierre, Marat. 



The historian, in his survey of the history of 
the United States for this century, will remark 
two epoch-making years, namely, 1861, the 
outbreak of the Civil War as resistance to con- 
traction, and 1898 as a positive movement 
toward expansion in the Spanish War and the 
great influx into the Alaskan Gold Fields. The 
literature of this latter phase has been lately 
increased by four books of note, which treat 
the subject from different points of view. Mr. 
Hamlin Garland, in The Trail of the Gold- 
seekers," deals with the great Alaskan rush 
from the point of view of the literary man, and 
gives us a work of real and vivid power, at 
once poetic, romantic, realistic. The larger 

New York : The Maomillan Co. 

ALASKA AMD THB KLONDIKE. By Angelo Heilprin. New 
York : D. Appleton A Co. 

Hitchcock. New York : Q. P. Putnam's Sons. 

ALASKA : Its History and Resources, Gold Fields, Routes, 
and Scenery. By Miner Brace. New York : Q. P. Putnam's 

part of the book is taken up with the descrip- 
tion of the trail by the inland route through 
British Colombia to Glenora on the Stikine. 
This story of the trail through savage wilder- 
ness and pleasant land is well told, and inter- 
spersed with bits of impromptu verse, which 
are not without charm. The migration of hu- 
man beings often became a craze. 

" I had been among the miners and hunters for four 
months. I had been one of them. I had lived the 
essentials of their lives, and had been able to catch from 
them some hint of their outlook on life. They were a 
disappointment to me in some ways. They seemed like 
mechanisms. They moved as if drawn by some great 
magnet whose centre was Dawson City. They appeared 
to drift on and in toward that human maelstrom, going 
irresolutely to their rutn. They did not seem to me 
strong men, on the contrary, they seemed weak men, 
or men strong with one insane purpose. They set 
their faces toward the Golden North, and went on 
through every obstacle like men dreaming, like som- 
nambulists, bending their backs to the most crushing 
burdens, their faces distorted with effort. ' On to 
Dawson! ' < To the Klondike! ' that was all they knew." 

From Glenora Mr. Garland went by water to 
Skagway, and thence to the Atlin Lakes, where 
the scenery greatly impressed him. The story 
of his horse Ladrone makes a very pretty tale. 
The book has no map. 

"Alaska and the Klondike," by Professor 
Angelo Heilprin, the distinguished geologist, is 
written from the scientific point of view, de- 
scribing the journey to Dawson as made in 
1898 by way of the White Pass and out by the 
Chilkoot. The author made a stay of some 
weeks in Dawson, which he quite fully de- 
scribes, and he found the summer weather and 
scenery superb. 

" For hours at a time could I sit watching the exqui- 
site beauty of the landscape; and to one endowed with 
a proper appreciation for the works of quiet nature it 
would be difficult to recommend a more enjoyable exer- 
cise than to take in a bit of this wonderful land of the 
North, and with it a mellow sunshine that is not to be 
found elsewhere. The jays and cross-bills are gambolling 
in the thickets back of you, the merry hum of the saw- 
mill breaks the stillness of the day below; but far off a 
peace and quiet reigns impressive by their silence. With 
a claim to having seen many distant lands, I can truth- 
fully say that never before has it been my fortune to 
experience such a succession of wonderful summer days 
as during my stay in the region about Dawson." 

Professor Heilprin examined the Klondike 
Gold Fields and reports on their geology and 
on the methods of working. The style of the 
book is at times diffuse, strained, and affected. 
Maps and illustrations are good. 

In " Two Women in the Klondike," by Mrs. 
Roswell D. Hitchcock, we have the Alaskan 
trip of 1898 from the feminine point of view. 




This diary of a tour to Dawson by way of the 
Yukon and out by the White Pass is full of 
petty details and small adventures. Yet, though 
lacking in artistic selection and compression, it 
is still attractive as a vivid picture of interest- 
ing scenes and personalities. So, also, the con- 
stantly effervescing jollity, humor, enthusiasm, 
and optimism of these two travelled ladies 
who are " doing " the Klondike as " a lark " 
make pleasant and amusing reading. We 
cannot say that we gain much information, but 
we certainly derive considerable entertainment 
from this work. The many illustrations are 
for the most part indifferent. 

Mr. Miner Bruce's book on Alaska is a hand- 
book to the Territory from the point of view of 
the practical man. It contains instructive chap- 
ters on the history, animals, inhabitants, and 
minerals of Alaska, with special directions to 
prospectors. Illustrations and maps are satis- 
factory. H. M. STANLEY. 


" The Fortnightly Review " has been publishing, 
for some months past, a serial novel called "The Indi- 
vidualist," and attributed to " Wentworth Moore." 
The novel was printed in small type, and the pages 
had a leaden look, which circumstances have, we 
imagine, prevented many readers from making its 
acquaintance. Those who were not deterred by its 
forbidding accidents, however, probably recognized 
a familiar voice speaking under an unfamiliar mask, 
and had little difficulty in reading Mr. W. H. Mai- 
lock for " Wentworth Moore." The mask is now 
removed, and the novel, acknowledged by its author, 
appears in book form, with a few added pages, and 
the new title of " Tristram Lacy ; or, The Individ- 
ualist." It is certainly a novel that the reader can- 

* TRISTRAM LACY ; or, The Individualist. By W. H. Mai- 
lock. New York : The Macmillan Co. 

MUTINEERS. By Arthur E. J. Legge. New York : John 

THE FOWLER. By Beatrice Harraden. New York : Dodd, 
Mead & Co. 

Dudeney. New York : The Macmillan Co. 

RICHARD CARVEL. By Winston Churchill. New York : 
The Macmillan Co. 

CROMWELL'S OWN. A Story of the Great Civil War. By 
Arthur Paterson. New York : Harper & Brothers. 

THE PEDAGOGUES. A Story of the Harvard Summer 
School. By Arthur Stanwood Pier. Boston : Small, Maynard, 

THAT FORTUNE. By Charles Dudley Warner. New York : 
Harper & Brothers. 

THE AWAKENING. By Kate Chopin. Chicago : Herbert 
S. Stone & Co. 

son. Chicago : Herbert S. Stone & Co. 

not afford to miss. The leaden effect becomes less 
noticeable upon closer acquaintance, and attracts 
less attention than the remarkable finish of the style. 
The defects of Mr. Mallock's qualities are clearly 
exhibited, and there runs through the book a faint 
streak of what must be called nastiness which 
will be no discovery to readers of the author's pre- 
vious books. But, on the other hand, the peculiar 
satirical gift of the writer is exhibited almost as 
brilliantly as in the pages of " The New Republic," 
and constitutes the real strength of " Tristram 
Lacy," although the interest of the story is itself 
considerable. In this case, the social reformer is 
the target at which Mr. Mallock aims his shafts, and 
their penetrative force is not to be denied. Various 
types of reformers are satirized, and particularly the 
advanced woman who delights in vague abstractions 
about the new gospel of altruism and the uplifting 
of the masses through the blessed instrumentality of 
culture. The character of Mrs. Norham is one of 
the most effective pieces of satirical delineation with 
which we are acquainted. But if the doings of these 
people were all, the book would prove monotonous 
reading ; fortunately, Mr. Mallock has enough of 
artistic tact to diversify his scenes, and bring 
together a great variety of other social types, includ- 
ing a Prime Minister of England, into interesting 
relations with each other. Still, the book is essen- 
tially one of discussion rather than of action, and, 
aside from its effective scene-setting, appeals almost 
wholly to the intellectual sense. It is a book which, 
with its obvious defects, will be found enjoyable by 
cultivated readers in proportion to their degree of 
cultivation and the closeness of the attention they 
give to the perusal. It is certainly one of the nota- 
ble novels of the year. 

Mr. Legge's " Mutineers " is, like the book just 
mentioned, preoccupied with the social problem, but 
the treatment is conventional and dull. The hero, 
who is the chief mutineer, is a rather sullen and 
unattractive person, and the heroine, who begins by 
exciting our sympathies, soon forfeits them by a 
marriage into which no girl of fine feelings could 

THE HEART OF DENISE, and Other Tales. By S. Leavett 
Yeats. New York : Longmans, Green, & Co. 

MEN'S TRAGEDIES. By R. V. Risley. New York : The 
Macmillan Co. 

AT A WINTER'S FIRE. By Bernard Capes. New York : 
Doubleday & McClure Co. 

THE HEART OF MIRANDA, and Other Stories, Being Mostly 
Winter Tales. By H. B. Marriott Watson. New York : John 

Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

SHORT RATIONS. By Williston Fish. New York : Harper 
& Brothers. 

STRONG HEARTS. By George W. Cable. New York: 
Charles Scribner's Sons. 

LOVE'S DILEMMAS. By Robert Herrick. Chicago : Herbert 
S. Stone & Co. 

THE CARCELLINI EMERALD, with Other Tales. By Mrs. 
Burton Harrison. Chicago : Herbert S. Stone & Co. 

York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 



[Aug. 1, 

possibly enter. There is a great deal of assorted 
agony in the book, and a rather lame working-out 
of the plot The story is one of English society in 
our own time. 

"The Fowler" offers a pathetic illustration of 
what follows when a slender talent is stretched be- 
yond its limits. When Miss Harraden's " Ships That 
Pass in the Night " caught the capricious favor of 
the public, and, pretty as the story was, received 
ten times the praise that was rationally its due, the 
writer could do no less than attempt to justify all 
this laudation by planning a new book upon a more 
liberal scale. The result of this misdirected ambi- 
tion is a novel in which the characters have no 
vitality and slight individuality, all speaking the 
same language, and all the merest puppets in the 
hands of the show-woman. We hesitate to describe 
in these terms what is no doubt a conscientious piece 
of workmanship, but Miss Harraden's failure is so 
obvious that it seems best to mince no words about 
it. The heroine is a young woman whose weakness 
in allowing herself to become ensnared flatly con- 
tradicts everything that we are told about her char- 
acter ; the villain-hero, who is crafty enough to en- 
snare the heroine, is yet such a fool as to write a 
detailed description of his methods in a private 
journal and send it to the young woman by mistake. 
In her conception of this character, we cannot help 
thinking that Miss Harraden has been unconsciously 
influenced by " The Tormentor " of Mr. Benjamin 
Swift, for the two figures are fundamentally akin, 
although the latter has some reality about him, while 
the former has almost none. 

It is difficult to speak kindly of such a book as 
The Maternity of Harriott Wicken," in spite of 
the writer's obvious talent for vivid portraiture and 
striking dramatic effect. The objection to this novel 
is not that it deals with people who have their being 
in an uninteresting section of middle-class society, 
or even that its method of treatment is that of re- 
morseless realism. The objection is rather that the 
author takes a wanton delight in the introduction of 
sordid and offensive bits of detail, not necessary 
for the development of her conception, and, it would 
seem, deliberately calculated to make her work re- 
pulsive. The life which she depicts is a sort of 
dismal swamp of dank sliminess and miasmatic exha- 
lations. There is no more art about it than there 
is about the crudest of M. Zola's productions ; there 
is only a certain crude and brutal power which fas- 
cinates but does not impress. Dealing with a prob- 
lem which above all others calls for delicate treat- 
ment, the writer knows nothing of reticence, and 
defeats her own ethical purpose. Her pages are 
thronged with horrors which the sunlight of life 
never softens. If the world were such a charnel- 
house as this depressing book would have us think, 
the process of putrefaction would long since have 
exterminated our race. 

American fiction is setting a higher mark every 
year for the historical novel, and the charge that 
our writers are neglecting their opportunities in this 

field is losing its force. Such recent books as Dr. 
Mitchell's Hugh Wynne " and Miss Johnston's 
" Prisoners of Hope " gave us a new sense of the 
possibilities of our colonial past as material for ro- 
mance, and now Mr. Winston Churchill's Richard 
Carvel " has achieved a still higher triumph, and at 
once takes its place in the very front rank of our 
historical fiction. That the author of that amusing 
sketch, The Celebrity," had it in him to produce 
this full-bodied romance was, we must admit, a great 
surprise to us, for the gift of the light social satirist 
is one thing, and the gift of the successful delineator 
of a bygone period in all its political, social, and 
human aspects with the presentation of its acci- 
dents as well as of its essentials is quite another 
thing. Yet this latter thing Mr. Churchill has accom- 
plished, and in a way that betokens the infinite 
capacity for taking pains " which, although much of 
our slapdash criticism of modern slapdash work is apt 
to forget the fact, is still as characteristic of genius 
as it ever was. We should hesitate to designate as 
outright genius the power that shaped the present 
work, but it is, at all events, a power of character- 
ization and of description, a power of sympathetic 
insight and vivid dramatic presentation, such as only 
the best writers of fiction have at their command. 
When we say that this novel of Maryland in the 
days just before the Revolution is constantly remind- 
ing us of " The Virginians," it is for deeper reasons 
than tHe mere similarity of theme and situation. It 
is the equipment of the mind that has produced the 
book, it is the fulness of the life that is depicted. 
These things, even more than the convincing 
character-studies of John Paul Jones and Charles 
James Fox, and the forcible manner in which 
Richard Carvel is made the spokesman of patriotic 
American sentiment in a great historical moment, 
these are what distinguish the present novel, and 
set it upon a plane that hardly any other of our 
novelists has succeeded in occupying. 

There is probably no other period of English 
history that has occasioned so many romances as 
the period of the Civil War, and a writer must have 
considerable confidence in his powers to enter the 
lists with still another. In " Cromwell's Own," Mr. 
Arthur Paterson deals with the period that begins 
with the Long Parliament and ends with Marston 
' Moor. He has been greatly daring in his treatment 
of Cromwell, for the great general appears, not as 
an imposing figure whose shadow is from time to 
time cast over the scene, but rather as the central 
character of the romance, and overshadows the pri- 
vate figures with which the story is nominally con- 
cerned. This attempt at historical portraiture is 
measurably successful ; it gives us at once the grim- 
ness and the tenderness of Cromwell, it shows us 
the man who could be great enough to be inconsistent 
at critical moments, and allow the logic of the heart 
to oppose the dictates of the more formal logic of 
the intellect. Cromwell's household and family life, 
too, are portrayed with sympathetic insight. All 
this, however, does not prevent the story from being 




a charming one considered merely as the romance 
of a young soldier and a Puritan maiden, and it is 
a satisfaction to know that the generous heroism of 
the one and the tender steadfastness of the other do 
not go in the end unrewarded, although many perils 
have to be surmounted before that consummation is 
reached. Mr. Paterson has told a thoroughly good 
story, which it is a pleasure to praise. 

" The Pedagogues " is a mere sketch, but it dis- 
plays unmistakable talent, besides having the ad- 
vantage of dealing with a subject almost unexplored 
by the novelist. The summer school is a compara- 
tively recent development of collegiate work, and, 
however it may try to make itself like the rest of 
the year, there remain certain features peculiar to 
the conditions of the summer season. This is the 
fact upon which Mr. Arthur Stanwood Pier has 
seized, and with which he has successfully dealt. 
His characters are a young instructor of the languid 
and supercilious type, and a group of the students 
who take his summer course in composition and lit- 
erature. Among these students are two teachers 
from a country town in the West an ambitious 
girl who knows nothing of the finer graces of thought 
or of life, and an equally graceless young man who is 
besides a misunderstood genius. The girl has great 
self-confidence, but understands that there is much 
she may learn, and has considerable powers of adap- 
tation. The man is simply a bumptious clodhopper 
even if he does contribute turgid verses to his 
county newspaper. The two are engaged to be 
married, although we may hardly call them lovers. 
This is the situation set forth by Mr. Pier, with a fine 
sense of the humorous contrast between instructor 
and instructed. And the outcome is helpful on both 
sides. The roughness of the students becomes soft- 
ened, and the stiff superiority of the teacher melts 
into a more human sort of feeling through his con- 
tact with these students of a sort so different from 
any he has hitherto known. For there is a pathetic 
side to even the most ungainly of the seekers after 
culture who throng to the summer schools of the 
great universities ; and this is the thing that chiefly 
claims the attention upon continued acquaintance. 

" That Fortune," by Mr. Charles Dudley Warner, 
is in some sense a continuation of " A Little Jour- 
ney in the World " and " The Golden House," the 
three novels taken together forming a sort of trilogy 
of American society as it is focalized in New York. 
Carmen Henderson of " The Golden House," and 
Mavick, whom she married after the death of her 
first husband, reappear in the present novel, and the 
ill-gotten wealth acquired by Henderson, and to 
which the interest of all three books attaches, is in 
the end lost, to the chastening of all concerned. 
Fresh interest is supplied in the characters of two 
young people, who seem to embody the hope of our 
society in their reversion to simpler and saner ideals 
of life than those illustrated by the generation be- 
fore them a hope which Mr. Warner has sufficient 
optimism to entertain, in spite of what seems to us the 
steady and alarming disintegration of our social mor- 

ality. The new volume in this series is not quite on 
the level of its two predecessors, and all three suffer, 
from the artistic standpoint, in being the product of 
the critical rather than of the creative intellect. In 
other words, the gift of the essayist rather than that 
of the novelist is what they exhibit most conspicu- 
ously. But of their charm arid of their wholesome- 
ness there cannot be the least doubt, and we are 
inclined to consider them the most important con- 
tribution which their writer has made to American 

" The Awakening," by Mrs. Chopin, is a story in 
which, with no other accessories than the trivial 
details of everyday life in and about New Orleans, 
there is worked out a poignant spiritual tragedy. 
The story is familiar enough. A woman is married 
without knowing what it is to love. Her husband 
is kind but commonplace. He cares overmuch for 
the conventions of life ; she, finding them a bar to 
the free development of her wayward personality, 
casts them off when " the awakening " comes to her, 
and discovers, too late, that she has cast off the 
anchor which alone could have saved her from ship- 
wreck. It is needless to say that the agency by 
which she becomes awakened is provided by another 
man. But he proves strong enough to resist temp- 
tation, while she is too weak to think of atoning for 
her fault. To her distraught thinking, self-destruction 
is the only way out, and the tragedy is accomplished 
in picturesque fashion. The story is a simple one, 
not without charm, but not altogether wholesome in 
its tendency. 

Miss Florence Wilkinson is a new writer, and her 
first book has many amateurish characteristics. It 
is called " The Lady of the Flag-Flowers," and is 
the story of a Canadian girl of mixed French and 
Indian blood. Her soul is awakened to the pos- 
sibilities of life in the great world by companion- 
ship with a young American student who comes to 
pass a summer among the habitants of the Lower 
Province. Later, she finds her way into this world 
that she has longed to know, and realizes some of 
the joys of life and more of its bitterness. But her 
wild spirit is not to be tamed, and so in the end it 
is broken, for that is the only alternative possible. 
The story is pathetically told, with much evidence 
of close observation of things French-Canadian, and 
with a sympathetic affection for the heroine that 
frail flower uprooted from the native soil in which 
alone it could hope to flourish. The chief fault of 
the book is that it has too many loose ends. Fresh 
starts are taken so frequently that the interest of 
the reader becomes unhinged, and he longs for a 
more straightforward manner of narration. 

Among recent volumes of short stories, that 
bearing the name of Mr. S. Levett Yeats is sure to 
arrest the attention of readers who remember " The 
Chevalier d'Auriac." It is called " The Heart of 
Denise," from the first of the nine pieces which it 
contains. This titular story is practically a novel- 
ette in dimensions, and has for its theme the period 
of latter sixteenth century history, and the struggle 



[Aug. 1, 

between the Queen-Mother and the Be*arnais. It is 
a good story, with a valiant hero and a pert heroine, 
coming to a happy conclusion. Of the other stories, 
it remains to say that they are slight in comparison, 
and that several of them seem to poach upon Mr. 
Kipling's preserves, a fact to he explained by the 
statement that Mr. Yeats has seen much service in 
India, and thus writes from fulness of knowledge. 

The nine stories which Mr. R. V. Risley has called 
" Men's Tragedies " with such specific titles as 
"The Man Who Loved," "The Man Who Fell," 
and " The Man Who Cared " are all studies of an 
intense sort of character, and, in a sense, are all 
concerned with " men who cared " most earnestly 
for their ideals. These are mostly men of middle 
age, whose outward lives have been touched by 
failure, but who have held fast to some of the inner 
realities, and achieved a sort of spiritual triumph 
over adverse circumstances. There is distinct power 
in this book, although not here applied upon a scale 
sufficiently large to show what the writer has it in 
him to accomplish. We shall look forward with 
peculiar interest to the literary future which it 
seems safe to say is in store for him. 

" At a Winter's Fire " is not a thick volume, but 
it contains eleven stories, the work of Mr. Bernard 
Capes. The author seeks to be weird after the fan- 
tastic fashion of Foe, but his horrors are of a rather 
cheap sort, and he does not succeed in giving his 
imagined impossibilities the garb of verisimilitude. 
His method of narration, moreover, is frequently so 
tortuous as to make the stories difficult reading. 

Mr. Marriott Watson's six stories are described 
by the author as ' mostly winter tales," which would 
seem to imply that they, too, were best read " at a 
winter's fire." But, with one exception, they are 
not like the ghostly productions of Mr. Capes, being 
rather romantic fancies with a core of tragedy. The 
titular story alone, " The Heart of Miranda," has no 
tragical suggestion about it, but is simply a delicate 
and elusive study of the several approaches to a 
maiden's love, and not strictly a story at all. 

There is really nothing new to say about the new 
volume of short stories by Mr. Bret Harte. They 
are partly European and partly Calif ornian in theme, 
and they are better stories than almost anybody else 
can write nowadays. But it must be confessed that 
Mr. Harte's characters and situations are growing a 
little hackneyed, and these " Stories in Light and 
Shadow " are rather less interesting than most of 
their predecessors. 

The volume of " Short Rations " issued to the 
public by Mr. Williston Fish contains a series of 
sketches of life in the American army, all the way 
from West Point to the frontier post. Each sketch 
is a story, or the next thing to a story, and nearly 
all are concerned with the fortunes of one McVay, 
whose career is traced from his entrance into the 
Academy to the successful termination, many years 
later, of the romantic courtship which was there 
begun. Mr. Fish writes from knowledge, which is 
a strong claim to our attention, and with a crispnesa 

of literary manner, relieved by dry and effective 
humor, which is a still more cogent claim. He has 
given us a highly readable little volume, which we 
can recommend with a clear conscience. 

From Mr. Cable we hear too rarely of late, but 
when he does put forth a book, we are at least as- 
sured that his powers suffer no decline for lack of 
the old-time exercise. His " Strong Hearts," just 
now published, is a collection of three short stories 
illustrating once more the types of Southern char- 
acter that he knows so sympathetically and well. 
Stories of " heroic natures and poetic fates " he calls 
them, and insists that the three tales are but one in 
essence, meaning that the humblest and narrowest 
life may be turned into song by high purpose and 
strenuous endeavor, and that this is the all-important 
thing about his several heroes and heroines. In 
this book, the author seems to take us into a finer 
spiritual atmosphere than is his wont, and the eth- 
ical subtleties of the situations devised for us will 
hardly be penetrated by him who runs as he reads. 

The six stories called " Love's Dilemmas," by 
Mr. Robert Herrick, are in a sense prentice work, 
having been written from two to four years ago. 
They exhibit the promise of which The Gospel of 
Freedom " has been the subsequent fulfilment, and 
are marked by much fastidiousness of manner and 
subtlety of delineation. But Mr. Herrick has ad- 
vanced far beyond the stage represented by these 
slight performances, and it seems almost a pity to 
call attention to his early work. 

Mrs. Burton Harrison's volume of seven stories is 
characterized by lively invention, animated action, 
and an infusion of tender sentiment. The stories 
are mostly told of people who move in the most 
conventional and least humanly interesting section 
of American society, and it does no small credit to 
Mrs. Harrison's gift for entertainment to say that 
she keeps her readers interested. One reason is 
that she does not take her people too seriously, and 
knows how to treat "social aspirations" with deli- 
cate satire. " An Author's Reading " is a good 
illustration of this aspect of her work, and is as 
different as possible from the straightforward nar- 
rative of The Carcellini Emerald," which gives a 
title to the collection. 

The note of distinction (as the French would 
understand it) is rarely met with in the English or 
American short story, but it may certainly be found 
upon almost every page of the book by Mrs. Edith 
Wharton, with which this hurried review must close. 
Under the collective title "The Greater Inclina- 
tion," which belongs to no one of the stories in par- 
ticular, Mrs. Wharton has brought together eight 
pieces of delicate texture and artistic conception. 
Every one of them has the external shape and col- 
oring of the world in which we mingle day by day, 
and every one of them is at heart a poignant spirit- 
ual tragedy. The veils that are spread over most 
lives by wont and custom conceal the inner work- 
ings from the eyes of all but a few ; it is the privi- 
1 lege of the artist to penetrate their enveloping folds 




and scan the bare soul within. The present writer 
does not neglect the outward aspect of the lives 
which she depicts, but, as the conception becomes 
developed by touches so deft that we never think of 
the conscious artistic endeavor, the subjective reality 
is in each case brought by insensible degrees into 
the field of vision, until the gaze is at last focussed 
upon that alone, and the full triumph of the work- 
manship bursts upon us. This may sound like ex- 
travagant praise, but no conventional commendation 
would be adequate for such a book. Between these 
stories and those of the ordinary entertaining sort 
there is a great gulf fixed there is all the differ- 
ence between the pure gold of art and its pinchbeck 

The best 
since Dana. 


In his Introduction to Mr. Frank T. 
Bullen's " Idylls of the Sea " (Apple- 
ton) Mr. J. St. Loe Strachey rightly 
observes that " Mr. Bullen's work in literature re- 
quires no introduction." Mr. Strachey then pro- 
ceeds at some length to perform the ceremony he 
thinks superfluous. Mr. Kipling, it will be remem- 
bered, stood sponsor for Mr. Bullen's first book ; 
and as it was a first book, perhaps some little ad- 
vance trumpeting of this sort was admissible. But 
once was enough. " The Cruise of the Cachalot " 
established the reputation of Mr. Bullen's literary 
wares, and it was quite unnecessary to call in Mr. 
St. Loe Strachey or anybody else to vouch for their 
quality. We dislike these transparent devices ex- 
tremely, and Mr. Bullen's books are precisely of 
the sort to make their way perfectly well without 
them. Besides, Mr. Bullen's good wine is well 
known now, and needs no bush. He is the best sea- 
writer since Dana, and we earnestly hope that he 
will take to heart the lesson that Dana's book is a 
masterpiece mainly because it is simple, straight- 
forward, and true. Mr. Bullen is somewhat given 
to fine language and lurid melodramatic effects ; 
and wherever these tendencies discover themselves 
he becomes comparatively tame and rings a little 
false. What one wants from a writer of Mr. Bul- 
len's stamp is plain truth, and not flowers of speech. 
The " Cruise of the Cachalot " just missed being a 
masterpiece because Mr. Bullen would occasionally 
" spread himself " in a rhetorical way, and turn on 
the lime-lights. The forced episode of the death of 
Captain Slocum and " Goliah," for instance, is dis- 
tinctly bad and incredible nearly as bad and 
incredible as Mr. Bullen's Yankee dialect, which is 
easily hors concours in this way. Of Mr. Bullen's 
Yankee dialect there are, we regret to say, certain 
weird specimens in the little volume now before us. 
" Idylls of the Sea " is a budget of thirty brief sea- 
sketches, all replete with the lore of ocean, for, be 
it said, the author joins to the actual experiences of 
the " foremast-hand " a fair measure of scientific 

acquirement. But what makes Mr. Bullen a rather 
unique literary figure is the blending in him of the 
born writer and the common sailor. Pen or mar- 
linespike, it 's clearly all one to Mr. Bullen. In the 
" Idylls " he has given us a gallery of sea-pictures 
hard to beat in English literature. In fine, Mr. 
Bullen is facile princeps among sea-writers to-day; 
and we trust he will eschew in the future " fine 
writing," red-fire effects, Yankee dialect, and catch- 
penny puffery. 

It takes courage to write a book 

about Milton in view of the critical 
and biographical literature already 
existing, from Masson's ponderous " Life " to the 
admirable small books by Mark Pattison and Dr. 
Garnett. But the little book by Professor W. P. 
Trent, entitled " John Milton : A Short Study of 
His Life and Works " (Macmillan) finds its produc- 
tion amply justified by the generous enthusiasm and 
the fine critical sense which it displays. It is a 
panegyric, but a reasoned one ; and its obvious sin- 
cerity compels us to accept a judgment which can, 
when most severe, say nothing harsher than that 
some of Milton's controversial writing is " less edi- 
fying " than the rest of his work, and which de- 
clares of Milton at the outset that " he is the greatest 
artist, man of letters, and ideal patriot, that the 
world has ever known." The book is particularly 
justified by its solid treatment of the Latin poems, 
its comparative criticism of the elegiac verse, and 
its well-weighed comparisons of Milton with Dante 
and Shakespeare. Professor Trent is of those 
to whom the " Paradise Lost " means even more 
than does " The Divine Comedy," and who find it 
difficult to admit outright that even Shakespeare 
was the greater poet. We cannot go with him quite 
as far as this, but we are at one with him in pro- 
nouncing Milton " the great idealist of our Anglo- 
Saxon race," and in accepting the doctrine of the 
following fine passage : " It is this pure idealism of 
his that makes him by far the most important fig- 
ure, from a moral point of view, among all Anglo- 
Saxons ; for the genius of the race is practical, not 
ideal, compromise is everywhere regarded with 
favor as a working principle, and the main lesson 
we all have to learn is how to stand out unflinchingly 
for the true, the beautiful, and the good, regardless 
of merely present and practical considerations. . . . 
A due admiration for Milton's unflinching idealism, 
both of thought and action, will at least make it 
impossible for us to tolerate the charlatanism of 

The prefix " neo-" has still something 
of a v g ue : neo-Christians and neo- 
Celts have not yet lost all their 
original brightness. We esteem it, then, rather a 
compliment to call Mr. Hector C. Macpherson a 
neo-Smithian : he would return to the purity of the 
ideas of Adam Smith, unadulterated by the perver- 
sities of Malthus and Ricardo. The volume on Smith 
in the " Famous Scots " series (imported by Scrib- 



[Aug. 1, 

ner ) is rather more on Smith's thoughts than on 
his actions ; but this is as it should be. An emi- 
nent critic once remarked that people were silly 
always to ask, What are you doing? when the really 
important question is, What are you thinking? It 
does not appear that Adam Smith's life was more 
interesting than that of many another man of his 
day : save for his ideas, be was really what Mr. 
Macpherson says he seemed, " simply a sedate, 
absent-minded Scotsman, who lived a humdrum life 
in the region of dry and forbidding speculation." 
But " The Wealth of Nations " is a matter of inter- 
est, of how much interest, few lay readers will sus- 
pect until they read Mr. Macpherson's book. It is 
an admirable study, a thoroughly modern criticism. 
The author speaks of it as " the outcome of a desire 
to show the vitality of the principles of Smith's great 
work, and to trace their relations to the fruitful gen- 
eralizations associated with the Evolution theory." 
We should ourselves think the book quite as much 
the outcome of a desire to show the unsound founda- 
tion of certain political and commercial conditions 
of to-day, a pamphlet against ultra-imperialism and 
jingoism abroad and trades-unionism and socialism 
at home, a pamphlet meant for England, to be 
sure ; but we who have also some experience of the 
conditions against which the aid of Adam Smith is 
invoked will find our own ideas stimulated. Inci- 
dentally, we may note the author would rescue 
Political Economy from the verbal vice of Carlyle, 
by demonstrating that it is not " the dismal science." 

Spmith todety 

^ a ^ me wnen Spain has come to 
fill a larger place than usual in our 
8p<miih fiction. thoughts, and when the evil passions 
excited by war have provided a hospitable harbor for 
every prejudice against that unhappy country, there 
is a peculiar value in such a book as " Contemporary 
Spain as Shown by her Novelists " (Truslove, Hanson , 
& Comba). Thanks to the numerous existing trans- 
lations, most readers know that, whatever her polit- 
ical shortcomings, Spain has produced a group of 
contemporary writers of fiction of which any coun- 
try might be proud. Those who have read the books 
of these novelists are aware, moreover, that they 
have documentary value of a very high sort, and 
that from all the hysterical journalism of the past 
year there could not be constructed so truthful a 
panorama of the Spanish society of to-day as may 
be viewed in the pages of the Spanish novelist*. It 
was, then, distinctly a happy thought on the part of 
Miss Mary W. Plnmmer to prepare the little book 
of selections now under consideration. Miss Plnm- 
mer has examined seventeen books by five writers 
Sefiora Bazan and Seftores Alarcdn, Galdtfa, Vald^s, 
and Valera and has extracted from them such 
passages as seem most illuminative of the present- 
day aspects of Spanish life. These passages are 
classified under the heads of local description, reli- 
gion, politics, manners and customs, and society, 
and make up a highly interesting and instructive 
volume. The books drawn upon have all been pub- 

lished during the past quarter-century, so that the 
picture they present is strictly modern. The Rev. 
Edward Everett Hale contributes a brief introduc- 
tion to this book, which we commend most heartily, 
both because of its interest as a study of contem- 
porary society, and because it may pave the way to a 
wider acquaintance with the remarkable literature 
upon which it is based. 

A helpful 
ttudy of the 

If Miss Lilian F. Field, in her " Intro- 
duction to the Study of the Renais- 
sance " (Scribner), had done nothing 
more than make it clear when and where the series 
of movements gathered into the meaning of that 
single word took place, she would deserve well of 
the student. But she does a great deal more. It 
is plain from the most cursory glance at her pages 
that not only was the Renaissance a series of phe- 
nomena of varied origin and scene, but that there 
were as many renaissances as there were arts, some- 
times several within the limits of a single nation ; 
while it is likely that the English-speaking peoples 
have not had their awakening in painting and sculp- 
ture to this day. This will serve to strike down a 
popular fancy, obtained from "study clubs" and 
the like, that the movement was a definite one, 
involving all the beaux arts and capable of precise 
and cogent treatment within narrow compass. Once 
it is made clear, as Miss Field makes it clear, that 
the word describes the entire transition from the 
middle ages to the modern fulness of spirit, and is 
a continuing and most highly diversified movement 
extending over the whole field of civilization, it will 
become capable of a popular treatment that is also 
scientific. The author is careful to accent the fact 
that her volume, compendious and well written as it 
is, must be taken as nothing more than a guide past 
the threshold of a very large topic ; and her readers 
are to be congratulated accordingly. 

M 88 Katharine Lyttelton's volume 
of Selections from the Thoughts of 
Joubert (Dodd) has a charming pre- 
face by Mrs. Humphry Ward, which deals mainly 
with the facts and relations of Joubert's personal 
life because, as Mrs. Ward says, - the reader who 
takes with him the memory of these personal inci- 
dents and affections will find, as he turns to the 
PensieS) that it interests them with a new charm, 
that it neutralizes that slight air of pedantry which 
perhaps such a book must always wear in the eyes 
of after-generations, and makes him docile and 
friendly toward the writer even when he is most fine- 
spun or most dogmatic." The determining points 
in the man's personal history were his marriage, and 
his two great friendships, the one with Pauline de 
Beaumont, the other with Madame de Timtimille ; 
and these Mrs. Ward treats with the acuteness, the 
delicacy, and the sympathetic imagination which we 
have learned to expect of her. Turning to Miss 
Lyttelton's work, we find an admirable selection, 
and translation in which the Gallic qualities of the 

ike Thoughtt 




The wife of 
John Sobifski 
of Poland. 

original are well preserved. The book is valuable, 
and will be distinctly welcome ; for there are many 
people perhaps a greater number than we think, 
even when we think most sensibly who, while 
unable to read the Pensees in the language in which 
they were written, are yet keenly alive to all such 
fastidiousness of expression and all such delicate 
wisdom as they contain. 

More interesting than most histories 
and far more true than most ro- 
mances, the translation made by 
Lady Mary Loyd of K. Waliszewski's " Mary- 
sienka " (Dodd) affords excellent reading, whether 
for diversion or instruction. Marie de la Grange 
d'Arquien, daughter of a French house, noble and 
decadent, was taken in the train of that Marie de 
Gonzague who became the wife of Ladislaw IV. of 
Poland. A mere child at the time of her expatria- 
tion, and a dependent child as well through her 
parents' poverty, she nevertheless rose to be the 
queen of Poland, having been married to the great 
Sobieski. Her elevation in that elective monarchy 
was due primarily to her husband's great military 
talents, but these as has happened so often in his- 
tory might very well have gone without the honor 
of the Polish crown had Marysienka been less of a 
courtier and politician. The author has been wise 
in weaving the facts into a rapid, easy narrative, 
the charm of which has been caught and retained by 
the translator. _ 

A modem Bases of the Mystic Knowl- 

interpretation edge" (Scribner), M. Re'ce'jac has 
of Mysticism. giyen & nota },i e mo dern interpreta- 

tion and vindication of mysticism. The author is 
well acquainted both with the latest tendencies in 
science and philosophy and with mediaeval and an- 
cient mysticism ; he can quote Ribot and Tylor with 
the same intelligence as St. Augustine and St. 
Francis. What is the psychic essence and the real 
significance of mysticism, with its intuition of God, 
its symbolism and its ecstacy ? The author's answer 
is that mysticism as a true factor in humanity is 
purely subjective, a moral aspiration which lifts man 
to the heights of real freedom and love, and giving 
him peace in the sense of his being thus in the Ab- 
solute and the Absolute in him. " The mystical 
faculty is in reality the moral consciousness confided 
to its own sole initiative." But symbolism is only 
a language of the imagination, and denotes no more 
than the vision of the artist as to external realities. 
We commend this essay on the higher Pantheism as 
being eminently sane, suggestive, and penetrating. 

A popular handbook for young col- 
lectors and students of insects has 
been a desideratum for many years. 
Miss Belle S. Cragin's " Oar Insect Friends and 
Foes " (Putnam) bids fair to meet this need. It is 
a compact and yet very comprehensive guide for 
the amateur student of insects and their allies, con- 
taining as it does simple directions for collecting, 

An amateur's 
of insects. 

as a folly 
and an art. 

mounting, and preserving insects of various kinds, 
and plans for cases and cabinets. Instructions are 
also given for field-work and the haunts and habits 
of insects are discussed. The book contains a brief 
account of the anatomy of insects, both in the adult 
and larval stages, and a discussion of their trans- 
formations. The greater part of the work is taken 
up with an extended treatment of the various orders, 
representatives being chosen from the more com- 
mon insects of the United States. Over 250 figures 
illustrate the text and obviate the necessity of the 
introduction of technical descriptions, thus permit- 
ting more attention to the life histories and habits. 
In this feature especially the work deserves high 
commendation. The system of classification used is 
up to date, and the information which the book con- 
tains is trustworthy and is told in simple language. 
The work is well done and admirably suited to its 
purpose, and the book will be a boon to school and 
public libraries as well as to students of the insect 


The author of the book called " The 
Gambling World " (Dodd), a well- 
known writer on sporting topics 
under the pen-name of " Rouge et Noir," has put 
forth a work which may be taken as encyclopaedic 
in its scope, classing the various sorts of specula- 
tion, in stock-markets and the like, along with the 
other games of chance, differentiating them only by 
showing that the risks which are well defined and 
ascertainable in ordinary gambling defy computa- 
tion " on 'Change." There is an explanation of that 
mysterious something-nothing commonly called 
" luck " which is exceedingly ingenious. Showing 
that the whole limit of chance as mathematically 
demonstrated is equal to a circle of wide circum- 
ference, he figures the impossibility of covering more 
than a minute arc of this within the limits of a sin- 
gle lifetime. Did one live long enough, he argues, 
matters would have equalized themselves and the 
mathematical law been justified ; as it is, the unfor- 
tunate segment of the circle may fall to one man's 
share, while his neighbor has the compensating por- 
tion. The entire book is filled with interesting expe- 
rience, and is quite free from that pseudo- classical 
knowledge which disfigures so many works of a 
similar nature. 

A belated When the tenth volume of the ad- 

Epoch of mirable series of " Epochs of Church 

Church history. History " was noticed in these col- 
umns, some months since, the fact was overlooked 
that the second volume had not yet made its appear- 
ance. That volume is now before us. It is on u The 
Post-Apostolic Age," is by the Rev. Lucius Water- 
man, D.D., and has an introduction by Bishop 
Potter of New York. It is the largest of the vol- 
umes by twenty or thirty pages, and is published, 
not by the Christian Literature Company, as were 
all the others, but by Messrs. Charles Scribner's 
Sons. We have no hesitancy in regarding this be- 
lated volume as the best of the series. The Post- 



[Aug. 1, 

Apostolic Age is not a promising subject for a 
book of popular interest ; but Dr. Waterman has 
succeeded in presenting the fruits of his wide re- 
searches among works embodying the most recent 
scholarship, in such form as to command a fair 
degree of attention and interest at the end of this 
nineteenth century. 


One of the clearest and best-arranged text books of 
rhetoric that have come to our notice is the " Composi- 
tion and Rhetoric for Schools " just published by Messrs. 
Scott, Foresman & Co. It is the joint work of Messrs. 
Robert Herrick and Lindsay Todd Damon, of the Uni- 
versity of Chicago. It provides preliminary chapters 
upon constructive work, and then proceeds to discuss 
usage, diction, and the rhetorical laws of sentences and 
paragraphs. Finally, the whole composition is dealt 
with, and the various forms of composition described. 
Rhetoric and composition go hand in hand throughout 
the work, and the exercises are chosen and grouped 
with a skill evidently born of experience in dealing with 
the difficulties of young students. 

A compact and attractive little book that should 
appeal to all intending visitors to the approaching Paris 
Exposition is " Lee's Guide to Gay Paree ' and Every- 
day French Conversation " (Laird & Lee). The author, 
Prof. Max Maury. has departed from the usual prosaic 
manner of the stereotyped guide-book, and writes in a 
vivacious and entertaining way that makes his little 
volume something more than a dry catalogue of facts. 
Much odd and out of the way information is given, and 
the text is supplemented by a number of useful maps 
and illustrations. The volume is of vest-pocket dimen- 
sions, and is serviceably and artistically bound in 

The " Source-Book of American History " (Mac- 
millan) which Dr. Albert Bushnell Hart has " edited 
for schools and readers " is a volume that we have ex- 
amined with close attention and can commend with con- 
fidence. In about four hundred pages of text, it finds 
room for something like one hundred and fifty examples 
of the original material of our history, ranging all the 
way from the voyages of Columbus to the Spanish- 
American war. The selections are judiciously made, 
edited, and annotated; the introductory chapters for 
teachers are of the most helpful sort, and the book is 
sold at so low a price that no secondary school in which 
American history is taught can find a reasonable ex- 
cuse for not employing it as an adjunct to the regular 

The " Lebensgeschichte " of Julian n Heinrich Jung, 
genaunt Stilling, has been edited by Mr. Sigmon M. 
Stern for Messrs. Henry Holt & Co. This is a pecu- 
liarly timely publication, in view of the approaching 
Goethe anniversary, and the book is a welcome addition 
to the texts available for school use. A " Second Year 
in German," by Mr. I. Keller, is a recent publication of 
the American Book Co., who also send us a small book 
of " French Sight Reading," prepared by Mr. L. C. 
Rogers. We may mention, too, the neat text of Mol- 
iere's " Le Misanthrope," edited for Messrs. D. C. Heath 
& Co. by Dr. Charles A. Eggert. 


Mr. Edward L. Gulick is the editor of "Silas Mar- 

ner," as published for school use by the Macmillan Co. 

"The Cathedral Church of Durham," by Mr. .1. E. 

Bygate, is published by the Macmillan Co. in " Bell's 

Cathedral Series" of handbooks. 

Messrs. Ginn & Co. are the publishers of a " New 
Plane and Solid Geometry," by Messrs. Wooster Wood- 
ruff and David Eugene Smith. 

A school edition of " Kenilworth," abridged and 
edited by Miss Mary Harriott Norris, is published by 
the American Book Co. The same firm issue ten selected 
orations of Lysias, edited by Dr. William H. Watt, as a 
school text. 

Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons are the importers of 
a handsome volume entitled "Greek Sculpture with 
Story and Song," by Miss Albinia Wherry. It is a book 
for young people and for the general reading public not 
desirous of a too technical and archeological treatment 
of the subject. 

A handsome library edition, styled the " Thornton," 
of the novels of the Bronte sisters, edited by Mr. Temple 
Scott, is now in course of publication by Messrs. Downey 
& Co. of London. " Agnes Grey " is the first volume 
to appear. The Messrs. Scribner are the American 
importers of this edition. 

"Drawing for Printers," by Mr. Ernest Knaufft, is 
" a practical treatise on the art of designing and illus- 
trating in connection with typography." It is designed 
for both beginners and advanced students, is amply 
illustrated, and is a manual of the most practically help- 
ful sort. It is published by the Inland Printer Co. 

" Plant Relations: A First Book of Botany," by Pro- 
fessor John M. Coulter, is published by the Messrs. 
Appleton in their series of " Twentieth Century Text- 
Books." This volume is devoted to the outlines of 
ecology, and will be followed by a companion work hav- 
ing morphology for its predominant subject. The text 
is planned for secondary schools, and is beautifully 

M The Study of History in Schools," being the report 
made to the American Historical Association upon that 
subject by the Committee of Seven appointed in 1896, 
has just been published in a volume by the Macmillan 
Co. The importance of the work is sufficiently guar- 
anteed by the names attached to it. They include 
Professors A. C. McLaughliu, H. B. Adams, A. B. Hart, 
and H. Morse Stephens. 

The seventh volume to be published in the series of 
" Literatures of the World," as edited by Mr. Edmund 
Gosse, is " A History of Bohemian Literature," by 
Francis, Count Liitzow (Appleton). Since Bohemian 
writers, excepting Huss and Comenius, are all but abso- 
lutely unknown to English readers, the author of this 
volume has departed from the general plan of the series 
in giving a large amount of space to translated extracts. 
Psychology reduced to its lowest terms is what we 
find in An Outline Sketch of Psychology for Begin- 
ners," issued by the Open Court Publishing Co. That 
the work is sound in principle and modern in treatment 
may safely be inferred from the fact that it is written 
by Professor H. M. Stanley. If it be advisable (which 
we doubt) to attempt the instruction of children in 
psychology, this little manual of forty pages may be 




[The following list, containing 56 titles, includes books 
received by THE DIAL since its last issue.] 


The Beacon Biographies. Edited by M. A. De Wolfe Howe. 
First vols.: Robert E. Lee, by William P. Trent; David 
Q. Farragnt, by James Barnes ; Daniel Webster, by Nor- 
man Hapgood ; Phillips Brooks, by M. A. De Wolfe Howe ; 
J. R. Lowell, by Edward E. Hale, Jr. Each with photo- 
gravure portrait, 24mo, gilt top, uncut. Small, Maynard, 
& Co. Per vol., 75 cts. 

Cromwell as a Soldier. By Lieut.-Col. T. S. Baldock, P.S.C. 
With maps, 8vo, uncut, pp. 538. "Wolseley Series." 
Charles Scribner's Sons. $6. 

Andrew Melville. By William Morison. 12mo, pp. 156. 
" Famous Scots." Charles Scribner's Sons. 75 cts. 


The History of South Carolina under the Royal Govern- 
ment, 1719-1776. By Edward McCrady. With map, 8vo, 
gilt top, uncut, pp. 847. Macmillan Co. $3.50. 

La Guerre de Sept Ans: Histoire Diplomatique et Mili- 
taire. Par Richard Waddington. 8vo, uncut, pp. 755. 
Paris : Firmin-Didot et Cie. Paper. 

A History of Westminster College. By Arthur F. Leach, 
M.A. Illns., 12mo, uncut, pp. 564. Charles Scribner's 
Sous. $1.50. 

The Study of History in Schools : Report to the American 
Historical Association by the Committee of Seven. 12mo, 
pp. 267. Macmillan Co. 50 cts. 

The Sunken Bell: A Fairy Play in Five Acts. By Gerhart 

Hauptmann ; freely rendered into English verse by Charles 

Henry Meltzer. 12mo, uncut, pp. 125. R.H.Russell. $1. 
The Morality of the Profession of Letters. By Robert 

Louis Stevenson. 24mo, uncut, pp. 47. Gouverneur, N. Y.: 

Brothers of the Book. 


Agnes Gray. By Anne Bronte ; with a Memoir of her Sis- 
ters by Charlotte Bronte. "Thornton" edition; with 
photogravure frontispiece, 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 302. 
Charles Scribner's Sons. $2. 

Temple Classics. New vol.: North's Plutarch's Lives, 
Vol. VI. With photogravure frontispiece, 24mo, gilt top, 
uncut, pp. 358. Macmillan Co. 50 cts. 

Cassell's National Library, New Series. New vols.: Scott's 
The Lady of the Lake, Macaulay's Warren Hastings, 
Addison's Essays and Tales, Goldsmith's Comedies, 
Carlyle's Essays on Burns and Scott, Franklin's Auto- 
biography. Each 24mo. Cassell & Co., Ltd. Per vol., 
paper, 10 cts. 


Myth and Romance : Being a Book of Verses. By Madison 
Cawein. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 85. G. P. Putnam's 
Sons. $1.25. 


In Castle and Colony. By Emma Rayner. 12mo, gilt top, 
uncut, pp. 467. H. S. Stone & Co. $1.50. 

Rupert, by the Grace of God: The Story of an Unre- 
corded Plot Set Forth by Will Fortescue. Edited and re- 
vised by Dora Greenwell McChesney. With frontispiece, 
8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 355. Macmillan Co. $1.50. 

Agatha Webb. By Anna Katharine Green. 12mo, pp. 360. 
G. P. Putnam's Sons. 81.25. 

The Kingdom of Hate: A Romance. By T. Gallon. 12mo, 
pp. 307. D. Appleton & Co. $1.; paper, 50 cts. 

A Silent Singer. By Clara Morris. 12mo, pp. 308. Bren- 
tano's. $1.25. 

The Untold Half. By "Alien." 12mo, pp. 373. G. P. 
Putnam's Sons. $1.25 ; paper, 50 cts. 

Equality. By Edward Bellamy. Popular edition. With 
portrait and biographical sketch ; 12mo, pp. 412. D. 
Appleton & Co. Paper, 50 cts. 

A Ducal Skeleton : A Story of the Time. By Heloise Durant 
Rose. 12mo, pp. 252. F. Tennyson Neely. $1.25. 

Queer Luck : Poker Stories from the New York Sun. By 
David A. Curtis. 16mo, uncut, pp. 235. Brentano's. $1. 

The Arcadians. By H. C. Minchin. 12mo, uncut, pp. 151. 

Oxford, England : B. H. Blackwell. 
Pabo, the Priest. By S. Baring-Gould. 12mo, pp. 274. F. A. 

Stokes Co. 50 cts. 
The Ides of March. By Florie Willingham Pickard. 12mo, 

pp. 232. F. Tennyson Neely. $1. 


F. Tennyson Neely's Universal Library: The Caruthers 
Affair. By Will N. Harben. 12rao, pp. 224. 25 cts. 

Street & Smith's Eagle Library: A Crushed Lily. By 
Mrs. Alex. McVeigh Miller. 12mo, pp. 214. Half a 
Truth. By A Popular Author. 12mo, pp. 243. A Fair 
Revolutionist. By St. George Rathborne. 12mo, pp. 320. 
Per vol., 10 cts. 

F. Tennyson Neely's Author's Library: Out of Nazareth. 
By Charles R. Hardy. 12mo, pp. 97. In the Maelstrom. 
By A. Estelle Mather. 12mo, pp. 110. Per vol., 10 cts. 


Holy Baptism. By Darwell Stone, M.A. 12mo. uncut, 
pp. 303. "Oxford Library of Practical Theology." Long- 
mans, Green, & Co. $1.50. 

An Introduction to the Fifth Book of Hooker's Treatise 
of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity. By the Very Rev. 
Francis Paget, D.D. Large 8vo, uncut, pp. 265. Oxford 
University Press. 

A Handbook of Comparative Religion. By Rev. S. H. 
Kellogg, D.D. 12mo, uncut, pp. 179. Philadelphia: 
Westminster Press. 

The Fundamental Ideas of the Roman Catholic Church, 
Explained and Discussed for Protestants and Catholics. 
By Frank Hugh Foster, Ph.D. 12mo, pp. 366. Presby- 
terian Board of Publication. 

The First Epistle of John ; or, God Revealed in Life, Light, 
and Love. By Robert Cameron. 12mo, pp. 274. Phila- 
delphia: A. J. Rowland. $1.25. 

The Conversion of the Maoris. By the Rev. Donald Mac- 
Dougall, B.D. Illus., 12mo, uncut, pp. 216. Philadelphia : 
Presbyterian Board of Publication. $1.25. 

Things that Make a Man. By Robert E. Speer. 16mo, 
pp. 28. Philadelphia : Westminster Press. Paper. 

The Races of Europe : A Sociological Study. By William 

Z. Ripley, Ph.D. In 2 vols., illus., 8vo. D. Appleton & 

Co. $6. 
Authority and Archaeology, Sacred and Profane : Essays 

on the Relation of Monuments to Biblical and Classical 

Literature. By various writers ; edited by David G. 

Hogarth. 8vo, uncut, pp. 440. Scribner's Sons. $5. 
Naturalism and Agnosticism : Giff ord Lectures Delivered 

before the University of Aberdeen, 1896-98. By James 

Ward, Sc.D. In 2 vols., 8vo, gilt top, uncut. Macmillan 

Co. $4. 

When Grandmamma Was New : The Story of a Virginia 

Childhood. By Marion Harland. Illns., 12mo, pp. 305. 

Lothrop Publishing Co. $1.25. 
Uncle Sam's Soldiers: A Story of the War with Spain. By 

Oscar Phelps Austin. Illus. in colors, etc., 12mo, pp. 346. 

" Home Reading Books." D. Appleton & Co. 75 cts. 
Stick-and-Pea Plays: Pastimes for the Children's Year. 

By Charles Stuart Pratt. Illus., 12mo, pp. 112. Lothrop 

Publishing Co. 75 cts. 


Educational Aims and Educational Values. By Paul 
H. Hanns. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 211. Macmillan 
Co. $1. 

New Plane and Solid Geometry. By Wooster Woodruff 
Beman and David Eugene Smith. 12mo, pp. 382. Ginn 
&Co. $1.35. 

Ten Orations of Cicero. With Selections from the Let- 
ters. Edited by William R. Harper, Ph.D., and Frank 
A. Gallup, A.B. Illus., 12mo, pp. 566. American Book 
Co. $1.30. 

Jung-Stilling's Lebensgeschichte. Von Sigmon M. Stern. 
12mo, pp. 285. Henry Holt & Co. $1.20. 

Lysias: Ten Selected Orations. Edited by William H. Wait, 
Ph.D. With portrait, 12mo, pp. 240. American Book Co. 



[Aug. 1, 

Plant Life: A First Book of Botany. 67 John M. Coulter. 

lllus., 12mo, pp. 264. D. Appleton A Co. $1.10 nft. 
Clay Modelling- for Schools. By Anna M. Holland. Ulna., 

Kvo, pp. 90. Ginn A Co. 80 oU. 
Psychology for Beginners: An Outline Sketch. By 

Hiram M. Stanley. 1-mo, pp. 44. Open Court I'U\>'K 

Co. 40 ot>. 
George Eliot's Silas Marner. Edited by E. L. Oaliok. 

With portrait, J4mo, pp. '-'Hi. Macmillan Co. ^5 cts. 
My Stops In Spelling. By M. W. Hszen, M.A. First 

book ; 1-Jroo. pp. 96. Ginn <fc Co. 20 cts. 
Chamlaao's Peter Scblemibl. Trans, by Frederic Henry 

Hedge. D.D.; edited by William R. Alger. 1'Jmo, pp. 1 IH. 

Ginn A Co. 35 cts. 
La Orammalre : Comridie en un Acte. Par Eugene Lsbiche ; 

edited by Hertnan S. Piatt, Ph.D. 12nio, pp. ''-'. Ginn 

A Co. 40 cts. 

Our Conqueata In the Pacific. By Oscar King Davis. 

Illus., 12mo, pp. 352. F. A. Stokes Co. $1.25. 
Drawing for Printers: A Practical Treatise. By Eraest 

Kaamfft. lllus., Igme, pp. 246. Ckioayo: Imlaad Printer Co. 

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A fresh and original contribution to political economy SYRACUSE HERALD. 

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[Aug. 1, 1899. 


A Thoroughly Modern and Practical 
Text-Book in 

Composition and Rhetoric 
for Schools 


DAMON, A. B., both of the Department of 

English, The University of Chicago. 

This book embodies the most recently accepted 
method in English teaching in secondary schools. 
It has some distinctive features. 

INVENTIONAL WORK in shaping and ar- 
ranging thought receives the first attention. The 
student is aided in discovering and developing his 
powers of expression both by the skilful directions 
of the book and by the work of theme-writing. The 
criticism of themes is at first suggestive, not re- 
pressive and discouraging. Genuine interest and 
self-confidence will follow this method of work, 
and the student will rapidly mature the power of 
written expression. 

RHETORICAL THEORY as such is not pre- 
sented until the second part of the book, where it 
is taken up systematically. The study of good use 
in words, of diction, and of the rhetorical laws of 
the sentence and the paragraph, is followed by a 
general review of literary laws as applied to the 
whole composition. 

THE EXERCISES present many original and 
valuable features. They are suggestive, interest- 
ing, carefully chosen as to subject matter, and 
within the range of the average student's experi- 
ence and knowledge. 

" The arrangement and method please me exceed- 
ingly. The freshness of the illustrations, the order of 
subjects treated in Part I., the plan of the book as a 
whole, commend it especially." Professor W. . 
SlMONDS, Knox College, Galesburg, III. 

" The book commends itself to me as wholly admir- 
able in arrangement, method, and style of treatment. 
I particularly approve of the idea of the authors that 
the beginning work should stimulate invention in com- 
position, should be constructive, and that the minute 
criticism of details should come later. I shall put the 
book on the list of books recommended by the English 
Department to preparatory schools fitting for Welles- 
ley." S. C. HART, Auociate Professor of Rhetoric and 
Acting Head of Engluh Department, Wellesley College. 

Cloth, 476 pages, with full Index and Synopsis for 

Copies will be mailed on receipt of the price, $ 1 .00. 

Lake English Classics 

ln.l.-rth l.t. 


Instructor in Eugluh in the UnJvertity of Chicago. 



-SHAKSPERE Macbeth ..... 25c 
JOHN HENRY BOYNTON, Ph.D.. Syracuse Unir. 
W. A. NBILSON, Ph.D., Bryn Mawr College. 

*M1LTON Paradise Lost, Books I., II. 25c 

FRANK . KAKI.EY, Ph.D., Syracuse University. 

*BURKE-Speech on Conciliation with 

America ...... 25c 

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*MACAULAY Essays on Milton and 

Addison ..... 

ford, Junior, University. 

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tPOPE Homer's Iliad, Books I., VI., 

XXII., XXIV ....... 25c 

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tQOLDSMITH The Vicar of Wakef ield 30c 

EDWARD P. MOKTON, A.M., Indiana University. 

fSCOTT Ivanhoe ........ 45e 

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Tribe ...... 25c 

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COLERIDGE Ancient Mariner) 

tLOWELL-Vision of Sir Launfal \ 


t ADDISON The Sir Roger de Coverley 
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CARLYLE Essay on Burns . . . 

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H A WTHORNE-House of Seven Gables 

ROHBRT HERRICK, A.B., University of Chicago. 

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For Study and Practice. ) OoUsf* Kntnujc* 
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SCOTT, FORESMAN & COMPANY, Publishers, Chicago 




Crttinsm, gismssbn, atttr Information. 

FRANCIS F. BROWNE. < No. 316. 

1 1COQ -ZO efc. a copy. ( FINE ARTS BUILDING. 

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This last work by the greatest American author of this decade 

has been published a short time only, but it is 

already in its eighteenth thousand. 


" The most fascinating book Mr. Frederic ever wrote. ' The Market-Place ' 
is a novel combining power in its plan and portrayal of character with a literary 
style that is uniformly engaging" PHILADELPHIA PRESS. 


"It is hard to refuse Harold Frederic a claim to genius" -CINCINNATI 

" One of the most notable books of the year" MAIL AND EXPRESS. 


This novel is intensely human." - NEWARK DAILY ADVERTISER. 
A strong and intensely interesting story" CHICAGO EVENING POST. 

With excellent Illustrations by Harrison Fisher. 
12mo, cloth. Price, $1.50. 





[Aug. 16, 1899. 


"Must be put among the best of recent American historical novel*" SPRINGFIELD REPUBLICAN. 


June 1. 

By Winston Churchill. 

Price, $1.50. 

" Mr. Churchill knows his London of the last cen- 
tury thoroughly, just a> he knows the province of Mary- 
land, where the spirit of revolution is slowly but surely 
developing. . . . Goldsmith dots not give a more vivid 
description of the debtor 1 ! jail or De Quincey of the piti- 
less heart of the metropolis than is found in the volume 
before us." Indianapolis Sentinel. 

"This novel is the most extensive piece of semi- 
historical fiction which has yet come from an American 
hand; and the skill with which the materials have 
been handled justifies the largeness of the plan." 
HAMILTON MABIE in the New York Times. 

" To say that it reminds us of ' The Virginians ' is to 
make an audacious comparison, but one which will nat- 
rally occur to many readers. That ' Richard Carvel ' 
is able to stand the comparison is a great feather in Mr. 
Churchill 1 * cap. ... In short, this is a strong and 
notable novel." The News and Courier (Charleston, 
S. C.)- 

" The charm of the book, which is very great, lies in 
the vividness of its pictures of the life of London and 
the colonies in those picturesque days. The characters 
are alive. One feels as if conning the pages of some old 
volume of the 'Spectator.'" Washington Times. 


" The young writer, with his head full of the great 
romances, is tempted to emulate them all, to excel by 
piling up merits. Thus, the author of ' Richard Carvel,' 
in setting out to write a romance of the American Revo- 
lution, has boldly vied with the author of ' Kidnapped ' in 
the usurping uncle and the kidnapping of Richard by the 
slaver, with the author of 1 The Virginians ' in his pictures 
of the colonial gentry and the visit of the young colonial 
to the fashionable life of London, with the author of' Henry 
Esmond ' in the description of a reigning London beauty, 
with the romancers of the sea in the fight of John Paul 
Jones with the slaver and with the Serapis." Spring- 
Jield Republican. 

" ' Richard Carvel ' may in time become a classic of 
Maryland's romantic history." The Bookman. 

"The style achieves the direct, smart, frank, quaint 
vigor of the old times which so many have unsuccess- 
fully attempted." Boston Transcript. 

" Cooper, in ' The Spy,' was the first to show the wealth 
of interesting material in the Revolution, and his broadly 
blazed trail has been followed in recent years with great 
success by Dr. Weir Mitchell, Archdeacon Brady, and 
J. A. Altsheler. . . . To this small circle of writers of 
American historical romance must now be added Winston 
Churchill." San Francisco Chronicle. 

" Mr. Churchill has done that almost-impossible thing, 
in introducing historical personages into a work of fic- 
tion and vitalizing them so that they seem very flesh 
and blood, and not mere shadows." St. Louis Globe- 


M It is a further cause for congratulation that one 
more of our younger school of writers has been able to 
add another volume to the shelf, so vigorous, so delicate 
in fancy, so sentient with the qualities which make life 
worth living as ' Richard Carvel ' is. It is a great story." 
The Brooklyn Eagle. 

" It contains besides a score of characters which are 
worth remembering, and a few which one could not 
forget if one should try." Commercial Advertiser (New 

' The adoption of the autobiographic form, the good- 
natured diffuseness of the story, the antique nobility of 
the style, as well as the locality, remind the reader of 
'Henry Esmond.'" Picayune (New Orleans). 

"There is, indeed, an indescribable charm about all the 
author's sketches of London celebrities." Philadelphia 
Evening Telegraph. 

" It is a daring thing that Winston Churchill has done 
in his novel, ' Richard Carvel,' to tread the path made 
smooth by Thackeray, and, withal, to do it so well that 
one is forced to admire the resemblance. . . . The interest 
in the story never Hags, whether the scene is the Lon- 
don of Walpole's day, Maryland of Lord Baltimore's 
day, or on the sea. Dorothy Manners is nearly if not 
quite as lovable as Beatrice Esmond, for she has the 
saving grace of honesty, and as for Richard Carvel, he 
is quite as much a hero in London as was The Vir- 
ginian,' for he compelled respect, which Thackeray's 
America and London was not always able to do. This 
is the best- written novel we have seen for a long time, 
and really deserves all the success it attains." The 
Indianapolis News. 

" ' Richard Carvel ' is one of the most brilliant works 
of imagination of the decade." Philadelphia Press. 

RICHARD CARVEL. By Winston Churchill. 



Snrn-iWontfjIg Journal of fLiteratg Crtttctam, IBtscugsion, antu Information. 

THE DIAL (founded in 1880 ) if published on the 1st and 16th of 
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on application. All communications should be addressed to 

THE DIAL, Fine Arts Building, Chicago. 

No. 316. AUGUST 16, 1899. Vol.XXVII. 






Dvright H. Perkins 97 


James O. Pierce 98 

PEACE, WAR, AND HISTORY. Wallace Bice . . 99 
Johnston's History Up to Date. Stead's The United 
States of Europe. McCabe and Darien's Can We 
Disarm ? Farrer's The New Leviathan. True- 
blood's The Federation of the World. 


Experiences of a Texas Ranger. The literary his- 
tory of Ireland. Who 's Who in America. The 
new periodical de luxe. A modern pastoral. 
Women and golf. Stars and Telescopes. Ballads 
for book- lovers. A composite life of Gladstone. 






Continuing from our last issue the summary, 
based upon reports written for the London 
" Athenaeum," of the literary productivity of 
the past year in Continental Europe, we now 
present the facts of chief importance for Hun- 
gary, Italy, Norway, Poland, Russia, and Spain. 
The writers who have furnished them are, re- 
spectively, Herr Leopold Katscher, Signer 
Guido Biagi, Herr C. Brinchmann, Professor 
Adam Belcikowski, Mr. Constantine Balmont, 
and Don Rafael Altamira. 

" Hitherto," says the writer upon Hungarian 

literary affairs, " I have never had to dwell at 
any length upon books on art, for the simple 
reason that our writers have been persistently 
neglectful of this branch of literature. Within 
the last twelvemonth their views seem to have 
changed, for the output of art books has per- 
haps been far greater than ever before, and is 
all the more striking as it includes the two 
most important publications of the whole season. 
First stands ' Italia,' an attractive externally 
and internally attractive volume of studies 
in Italian art by Mr. Albert Berzeviczy." Sec- 
ond comes the two folio volumes on "Hunga- 
rian Art Treasures," edited by Mr. E. de 
Radisics. Three volumes are yet to come, and 
Mr. Jokai introduces the publication. History 
comes next on the list, and the writer notes 
progress in several important many-volumed 
undertakings, besides announcing the " Great 
Illustrated History of the World," a collabo- 
rative publication in twelve volumes, under the 
editorship of Mr. Henrik Marczali. Fiction 
embraces the " Story of a Girl," by Mr. F. 
Herczeg ; " The Silver Goal," by Mr. Brody ; 
" Uneven Wednesdays," by Mr. Szomahazy ; 
and " Autumn Hunting," by Mr. Arpad Berc- 
zik. The latter, who is also a successful writer 
of comedies, " takes his subjects from common- 
place life ; this offers quite enough matter for 
banter. He is a serene, smiling, quiet observer, 
who takes Horace's advice, tidendo dicere 
verum, and he invariably writes in the most 
amiable style." He has also produced this 
year a comedy, " Himfy's Songs," in his best 
style. Other dramatic works are two by Mr. 
Jokai, and two by Mr. Herczeg. Allied with 
this subject are Mr. Joseph Bayer's " History 
of Hungarian Dramatic Literature " and Mr. 
Sziiry's " Dramatic Impressions," dealing 
chiefly with Shakespeare. Mr. Albert Popipi's 
" Byron and Shelley " shows, at least, that the 
interest of Hungarians in English literature is 
not confined to our greatest poet. 

The year's literary harvest in Italy, we are 
told at the outset, has been neither prosperous 
nor abundant. " Hailstorms and drought have 
ruined the crops and impeded the productive- 
ness of the soil, restricting the yield almost 
entirely to learned works or occasional writ- 
ings." The riots of a year ago, and the various 
centenaries of the past twelvemonth have been 



[Aug. 16, 

partly responsible for this result. " We have 
commemorated Amerigo Vespucci and Paolo 
Toscanelli, Savonarola, Leopardi, Moretto of 
Brescia, Bernini, and these celebrations have 
involved a shower of speeches, biographical 
writings, critical studies and occasional mono- 
graphs which now take the place of those poems 
under which, in former times, the printing- 
presses used to groan, substituting for the 
Arcadia of poetry another boredom, the Ar- 
cadia of erudition." 

" The Italo- American centenary dedicated to Tosca- 
nelli and Vespucci baa produced one good volume, the 
' Life of Amerigo Vespucci,' written originally by Signer 
A. M. fiandini, published under the superintendence of 
the committee for the Florence celebrations. The Sa- 
vonarola centenary, besides the annual flowering of roses 
in the Piazza della Signoria (on the day of the historic 
bonfire), has produced the excellent selection from the 
works of Savonarola published by Professor Villari and 
Signer E. Casanova, to which volume the publishers 
hare added the ' Cronaca ' of Filipepi, the brother of 
Alessandro Botticelli, a new and important document 
of the Reformer's times. The Leopardi centenary has 
yielded a still better harvest. Apart from the speeches 
I should mention some publications of prime importance 
for the study of the poet of Recanati: in the first place, 
Signer Giosue Carducci's volume, ' Form and Spirit in the 
Poems of Giacomo Leopardi,' and in the next, Signor 
Federioo di Roberto's psychological study entitled ' Leo- 
pardi,' which is in reality the history of a soul the soul 
of the unhappy poet. We have also the long-expected 
' Pensieri Inediti di G. Leopardi,' edited by a government 
commission from MSS. formerly in the possession of 
Antonio Ranieri, claimed by the government on grounds 
of public utility. Three volumes of these ' Pensieri ' 
have already seen the light, and seven more are to fol- 
low. This work, hitherto unknown, reveals the whole 
development of the poet's mind ; it forms, as it were, a 
forest of thoughts and reflections which are the raw 
material of the work afterwards matured and polished 
by Leopardi in such artistic perfection. 

Just now in Italy, lectures and public readings 
take the place of books for many people. 

" A most intimate friend of mine affirms that the lec- 
ture is the bicycle of literature: it has created a sportive 
literature, a literature of diversion, easily digested, and 
often limited in aim. Time was when Italy was the 
country of academies; a century ago they were counted 
by hundreds. Now it threatens to become the classic 
land of lectures. ... At Florence, for the last ten 
years, there has been going on a series of lectures on 
' La Vita Italiana ' at various periods, beginning with 
the least known of medieval times. The most illus- 
trious Italian men of letters, and some foreigners, includ- 
ing Symonds and Vernon Lee,' have contributed to this 
work, which, carrying out a design prepared beforehand 
by the promoting committee, constitutes a complete 
course on the history of Italian culture, and which, pub- 
lished in volume form, is now in the hands of all of pu- 
pils in secondary schools as well as of private students." 

Dante has by no means been neglected in these 
lectures, and the following statement is ex- 
tremely interesting : 

"The Florentine committee of the Italian Dante 
Society has renewed, in the historic ball of Or San 
Mil-hell- now dedicated to Dante the reading and 
explanation of the ' Divina Commedia,' which began in 
the poet's own city by Boccaccio in 1373, and ceased 
fifteen years ago, with the death of Father G. B. Giu- 
liani. Every Thursday from November to June, a canto 
of the poem is read and explained every time by a 
fresh commentator. The first canto, after the expla- 
nation, was recited by Signor Tommaso Salvini. The 
best-known Dante scholars, such as Signori Pio Rajna, 
Guido Mazzoni, Corrado Ricci, have recently inaugu- 
rated this new Dante professorship. In next November 
and the following months the readings will be given 
by Signori Carducci, Del Luugo, Panzacchi, Casini, and, 
in short, the most illustrious men, who count it an honour 
to render this homage to the poet and the Baptist's city." 

Critical literature is chiefly represented by 
studies in Dante from the hands of Signor Pio 
Rajna and Signor Nidoro del Lungo, by Pro- 
fessor Lisio's edition of the " Principe," and 
by Signor Carducci's edition of the " Rime " 
of Petrarch. The latter is " a work gathering 
up the results of forty years' study of Petrarch, 
completed by the poet with admirable perse- 
verance a work indeed above the average, 
both in its method and in its abundant stores 
of learning, sifted and discussed with critical 
and artistic taste. No one will henceforth care 
to read Petrarch except under the guidance of 
Carducci." Classical studies have been numer- 
ous, and the interest taken in them at the pres- 
ent time is well illustrated by the following : 

" Very curious is a bi-monthly published at Rome 
(bis in mense prodit) under the title of < Vox Urbis,' 
written entirely in Latin. The editor prefers prose 
writings (soluta oratione); those in verse (numeris fusa) 
are condemned to the waste-paper basket, which here 
appears as cistellula. This shows that the love of Latin 
is not dead among us, and this is confirmed by another 
circumstance, still more grotesque: the 'Ri vista d'ltalia' 
publishes an elegant Latin ode by the octogenarian 
Senator G. B. Giorgini under the title ' In Bicyclettam.' " 

In miscellaneous literature there is a second 
volume of General della Rocca's autobiography, 
and a volume by Signor de Amicis, entitled 
" La Carrozza di Tutti," which studies " the 
physiology of city life as it can be observed 
from a tramcar." The best verse of the year 
is found in volumes by Signori Angelo Orvieto 
and Alfredo Baccelli. Novels and short stories 
of any value are almost non-existent. As for 
the stage, all other interests are overshadowed 
by that taken in Signor d'Annunzio's " La 
Giooonda." In this play the author " has 
striven to bring back poetry where a grotesque 
realism has prevailed too long. A noble at- 
tempt, but the stage is the realm of the probable, 
and often not to say always poetry departs 
from truth and appears improbable and absurd." 




Herr Bjornson's powerful drama, " Paul 
Lange and Tora Parsberg " has been the great 
event of the twelvemonth in Norway. 

" Admirably adapted for scenic representation though 
it be, it has as yet not been produced on any stage in 
Norway, though it has been played several times in 
Germany. The obvious reason of this is, of course, that, 
through the inevitable publicity attending all social 
events in our small community, too abnormal a sensation 
was called forth by the fact that the principal character 
of the play is a but thinly veiled impersonation of a well- 
known politician, who some years ago committed suicide 
during a political crisis intensified, and all but brought 
to a point, by the author of this drama." 

The writer cannot restrain his enthusiasm for 
this remarkable work, saying further of the 
hero that " to this highly finished study of char- 
acter the author has brought all his knowledge 
of human nature and eager sympathy," and of 
the heroine that she " may be considered the 
finest womanly character in modern literature." 
In another way the year is important for dra- 
matic art since it has just witnessed the open- 
ing of the new National Theatre of Christiania. 
This will be " the special home of Norwegian 
plays," and has already acquired the right of 
production for the new piece by Dr. Ibsen, 
promised for the coming autumn. The only 
other books that we need mention are " Byens 
Fffidre," by Herr E. Kraemmer; "Fugl Fonix," 
by Herr G. Scott ; " Hugormen," by Herr 
H. E. Kinck ; Afkom," by Fru A. Skram ; 
" Trondere," by Herr P. Egge ; " Vestlands- 
viser," by Herr V. Krag ; " Digte," by Herr 
T. Andersen ; " Norske Digte og Digtere," by 
Herr J. Bing ; and Herr Kjaer's revised and 
critical edition of the comedies of Holberg. 

Polish literature has little to report of inter- 
est to the outside world. " Mr. Sienkiewicz 
has not yet completed his great historical ro- 
mance ' The Crusaders,' nor Madame E. Or- 
zeszko her ' Argonauts,' a picture of moral 
depravity and the most recent times. Many, 
also, of our elder writers have been completely 
silent, so that new names as, of course, is 
the natural way of things gain constantly 
more space in our literature." Works of fic- 
tion that have actually appeared include " At 
the Edge of the Forest," by Mr. W. Sieros- 
zewski ; *' The Promised Land," by Mr. W. 
Reymont ; " The Swindlers," by Mr. A. Grus- 
zecki ; " In the Old Mansion," by the same 
author ; " The Labors of Sisyphus," by Mr. 
J. Lych ; " The Distaff," by Mr. M. Rodzie- 
wicz ; " The Young Lady," by Miss Emma 
Jelenska; and "Brothers and Elective Affin- 
ity," by Mrs. Z. Kowerska. 

" The only representative of the historical novel in 
the past twelvemonth has been the new work of Mr. A. 
Krechowiecki, ' For the Throne,' in which he brings be- 
fore the reader in many effective scenes and with great 
skill, the bloodless struggle which broke out in Poland 
after the abdication of John Casimir. The best of the 
many characters introduced is undoubtedly that of the 
great Elector of Brandenburg, who took a leading part 
in the intrigues." 

Of lyric poets, two are mentioned, Mr. J. Kas- 
prowicz, with " The Wild Rose Shrub," and 
Mr. L. Rydel, with a volume of poems. " There 
are three monographs to record on Mickiewicz : 
a brilliant essay by the poetess Mrs. Konop- 
nicka ; ' Adam Mickiewicz : a Psychological 
Study of the Poet,' by Mr. A. Belcikowski ; 
and ' The Esthetic of Mickiewicz,' by Mr. P. 
Chmielowski, a book full of profound and orig- 
inal views." 

Russia is still a country in which literature 
seeks, to an unusual extent, periodical and 
other ephemeral outlets. 

" With us the colourless monthly magazine is in full 
vigour; it is accompanied by the empty newspaper. The 
main contents of these publications are feeble stories of 
life among the people, or, even worse, those that deal 
with the purposeless life of the so-called ' intelligent 
class.' To these we must add melancholy essays on 
economic questions and scientific compilations weak 
critical studies which continually repeat thoughts uttered 
years ago by abler journalists. The ethical element in 
our romances is at the same time the lever of Archi- 
medes and the heel of Achilles in Russian literature. 
The everlasting confusion of two entirely different 
spheres of literary production gives the world at one 
time such splendid productions as ' Crime and Punish- 
ment,' by Dostoievski, and the ' Anna Karenina ' of 
Tolstoi, and at another lands Russian literature in the 
hopeless quagmire in which it is now found." 

Count Tolstoy's " The Resurrection " is, of 
course, the chief work of the year. The follow- 
ing is a part of the criticism made upon it : 

" It is impossible to utter a decisive opinion on this 
novel, because it is not yet finished, but, judging by the 
chapters which have already been published, we can see 
the literary methods of the contemporary Tolstoi. Hav- 
ing planned a whole series of astonishing artistic com- 
binations, he himself destroys them, by underscoring for 
greater emphasis what is obvious; he furnishes them 
with a commentary, and converts his novel into a com- 
monplace sermon on truths which no one disputes. He 
lowers his genius to the attitude of a schoolmaster with 
a ferule in his hand." 

A complete edition of the works of Mr. K. K. 
Sluchevski is a noteworthy publication. This 
poet, largely ignored until recently, " occupies 
quite a peculiar position : he imitates no one, 
he speaks his own language, which is full of 
that expressiveness which we find in a harmo- 
niously constructed mind which has the pro- 
fundity of an inviolate sincerity. If among 



[Aug. 16, 

Russian poets there is one who has never lied, 
has not gone in quest of phrases, but has 
been true to himself," that poet is the one 
under consideration. In poems of " a dark 
and terrible beauty" he suggests Baudelaire 
and M. Richepin. An important work of his- 
torical scholarship is the just completed four- 
volume biography of Alexander I., by Mr. 
N. K. Shilder. 

" This is no ordinary historical work, but rather an 
historico- psychological monograph. The author has 
concentrated all his attention on the personality of the 
Tsar. He submits it to a minute analysis, full of sci- 
entific and artistic merit. It is a character composed 
of contradictions: at one time full of heroism, decision, 
and manliness; at another, timid and yielding like a 
reed in the wind. Such a person is fitted to become 
the hero of a poem." 

The three- volume history of Russian literature, 
from the earliest times to Lemonosov, by Mr. 
A. Pypin, has also been completed. 

" The end of the best month of this year I mean 
the last week of May was made memorable for 
Russia by a national festival, the centenary of the birth 
of Pushkin. Pushkin is our glory, our pride, our sun. 
His songs, full of native beauty for us, were the dawn 
of Russian poetry. In the last hours of the century 
that has passed, when the horizon of the intellectual 
life of Russia is enveloped in mist, it is consoling to see 
that on the edges of the dark clouds the beams of that 
sun still shine which illumined us in the morning hour. 
These beams promise us a new dawn, new happiness, 
new youth." 

Spanish literature remains chiefly noteworthy 
for its voluminous production of books in the 
historical field, including much local history, 
and the publication of many unprinted docu- 
ments. These books have little interest out- 
side of the country of their origin, and we pass 
them without special mention, noting, however, 
that subjects " relating to our former colonies 
in America and Oceania " have been in special 
favor. " Belles-lettres are positively in a state 
of decay." Among novels, there are two " Epi- 
sodios Nacionales," by SeHor Galdos ; " La 
Alegria del Capitan Ribot," by SeSor Valdes ; 
" Cuentos Sacroprofanos," by Sefiora Bazan ; 
44 Carmela Rediviva," by SeSor Matteu ; and 
the forthcoming * 4 Morsamor " of Sefior Valera. 
Of poems and plays, none seem particularly 
important, and we are even told that "Eche- 
garay has not succeeded in pleasing the public 
with any of his recent efforts." But it is inter- 
esting to note that there have been successful 
performances of such translated plays as the 
44 Persse " and the 4t Prometheus" of ^Eschylus, 
the "Iphigenie auf Tauris" of Goethe, and 
the " Hamlet " and 44 Twelfth Night " (Cuento 
de Amor) of Shakespeare. 


In writing the Life of William Morris 
Mr. Mackail has bad an unusually difficult 
biographical task. Morris's career was many- 
stranded, and his unique and somewhat eccen- 
tric personality was one to tax the art and the 
discretion of the delineator. It is therefore 
particularly gratifying to find how well and 
satisfy ingly, with what patience, candor, and 
constructive skill, Mr. Mackail has done his 
work. The spirit of truth, as well as of sym- 
pathy, has presided over his labors ; and it 
would scarcely be possible to tell the story of 
William Morris's life and work more effec- 
tively and attractively than it is told in these 
two beautiful volumes. Mr. Mackail has per- 
haps laid more stress upon and devoted more 
space to the doings and dream ings and literary 
and esthetic philanderings of Morris and his 
set at Oxford than the American reader will 
think necessary. It may well be that the En- 
glish undergraduate is in general a more ma- 
ture and intellectually considerable creature 
than his American counterpart ; but at all 
events we are not accustomed here to take very 
seriously the performances of youths at col- 
lege, and their views on the deeper problems 
of life, art, and society. But Mr. Mackail ap- 
pears to take Morris and his young friends of 
the " Brotherhood " quite as seriously as they 
took themselves, which is saying a good deal. 

We have spoken of Morris's career as "many- 
stranded." Threefold would perhaps be the 
better term, for in regarding his pursuits or 
activities as a whole, his early and quickly 
abandoned essays as painter and as architect 
proper may be left out of view as incidental 
and abortive. It was as poet, artist-manufac- 
turer, and Socialist that William Morris made 
his impression upon his time and is likely to 
live for a while in the world's remembrance. 
His poetry began at Oxford, and went on con- 
currently with his manufacturing during the 
greater part of his career. It may be added 
that evidence is not lacking that Morris re- 
garded the manufacturing, the production of 
sound and artistic furniture, chintzes, wall- 
paper, carpets, and so on, as the worthier and 
more dignified of his two pursuits. " Poetry," 
he once impatiently observed, 44 is tommy rot "; 

LITE OF WILLIAM MORRIS. By J. W. Mackail. In two 
volume*. Illustrated. New York : Ixjnpiuans, Oreea, A Co. 



and, in so far as poetry takes the form of a 
mere shell of verbal filigree and sham mediae- 
valism, we may largely agree with him. His 
Socialistic apostolate began relatively late, with 
the formation of the Democratic Federation in 
1883, and had lapsed into a sort of passive 
Socialism, a philosophic repose on the bosom 
of the stream of tendency, toward 1890, when 
reflection induced by experience of his col- 
leagues in the various organizations, and of the 
masses who were to be " elevated " (largely 
in spite of themselves, as he came to see) 
forced him to admit that the movement toward 
higher things must be a gradual one of educa- 
tion, of evolution, of normal and secular na- 
tional change, and not of active and immediate 
revolution and the overthrow of the existing 
social fabric through the use of the newly ac- 
quired lever of popular suffrage. Socialism, 
in fine, might be expected to come, in one form 
or another, when England had grown up to it, 
not before ; and, like the present system, could 
only prevail by virtue of being a reflection of 
actual English needs and capacities, in a word, of 
average English character. Morris, whose So- 
cialism was temperamental or emotional rather 
than a fruit of scientific study and conviction, 
though at one time he applied himself manfully 
to 'the doctrinal abstrusities of the authorities, 
was keenly touched by the hard lot of the poor. 
But, it is curious to note, the hard lot of the 
poor meant to his mind mainly the being cut 
off, to so great a degree, from the enjoyment 
of and the production of works of art ! The 
wage-worker he characteristically conceived as 
a pathetic figure knocking in vain for admis- 
sion at the gates of the Palace of Art, which 
were closed against him by the ruthless hand 
of the " profit-grinder." The Birmingham 
operative, the " navvy," Devonshire " Giles," 
and even London " 'Arry " himself, were sup- 
posed to be yearning for that degree of grace- 
ful leisure which would enable them to enter 
freely into the joys of painted windows, medi- 
aeval brasses, illuminated folios, and (last but 
not least) the pictures of Kossetti and Co.! Of 
course the cold fact was, and Morris came to 
realize it, that the " profit-grinder's " victim, in 
nine cases out of ten, did not care a rush for 
the Palace of Art, as compared with the beer- 
shop and the race-track. He even showed an 
ungrateful inclination to take a comic, not to 
say blackguardly, view of Morris himself and 
his performances, to turn his outdoor meetings 
into occasions for starting an enjoyable row 
with the police, and to vaguely identify his 

preachings in behalf of the art -hungering 
masses with the corybantic exercises of the Sal- 
vation Army. Morris used to recount in a 
serio-comic way instances of the unpleasant 
notoriety which his well-meant efforts gained 
for him. Jeers and insults at the hands of the 
very class he championed were hard to bear. 
Even the Hammersmith green-grocer's boy, 
he wrote sadly, took to bawling " Socialist ! 
Morris ! " in no flattering tones after him in 
the streets ; while passing " 'Arrys," fertile in 
sarcasm, once added cuttingly to the usual epi- 
thet, " Shakespeare, yah ! " In short, Morris, 
taking to heart the lesson that England's 
" lower class brutalized " was scarcely ripe for 
his collectivistic millenium, with its superadded 
aesthetic refinements, and admitting the fact 
(palpable everywhere outside of Utopia) that 
the advent of a higher social system presup- 
poses the advent of a higher type of men, lat- 
terly eschewed militant Socialism, pinned his 
faith to education rather than agitation, and 
returned to his true province of creative art 
and artistic handicraft. His growing modera- 
tion and opportunism naturally offended his 
colleagues of the League ; and he soon found 
himself deposed from the control of its organ, 
the " Commonweal," and replaced by one 
Frank Kitz, an extremist of the ordinary type, 
who presently got the sheet and its managers 
into the hands of the police, who found it high 
time to repress its attacks on the principle of 
law and order and its constructive incitements 
to murder. The article that was the immediate 
cause of the ruin of the paper (which was already 
on the brink of ruin through lack of funds) was 
angrily characterized by Morris as " idiotic." 
Thus, while abandoning his early dream of 
regenerating England overnight and producing 
roses from her thorns and figs from her thistles 
through the spell of some legislative incantation 
or miracle of constitution-making, Morris by no 
means abandoned his faith in Socialism as an 
ideal of future approximation, as a goal toward 
which society is gradually tending. " Some 
approach to it," he said, " is sure to be tried." 
Morris's inborn medievalism, let us note in 
passing, his habit of looking backward for 
canons and models of excellence, was oddly 
blended with a vein of thoroughgoing eight- 
eenth-century perfecibilitarianism, of faith in, 
the continuity and theoretically boundless pos- 
sibilities of human progress. With Rousseau 
he turned for the Golden Age to the past ; 
with Condorcet he discerned it in the future. 
There is perhaps an inconsistency too (and 



[Aug. 16, 

men of genius like Morris must not be grudged 
their inconsistencies) in his supreme exaltation 
of an art that began and flourished amid the 
wide inequalities, the rigid class distinctions, 
of feudal society, and his doctrine that it is the 
kindred, though far less stringent, inequalities 
and distinctions of modern society that stunt 
and stifle art. Art cannot flourish to-day be- 
cause of the survival of conditions under which 
it flourished so magnificently five centuries ago ! 
It is not to be inferred from the fact of 
Morris's abandonment of militant and aggres- 
sive Socialism that he thenceforth ingloriously 
sank into a comfortable, not to say an indolent, 
reliance on the virtues of laisser-fairc. The 
good work of sowing the seed of Socialism, he 
strenuously urged, must go on ; but the sower 
must arm his soul with patience, must be pre- 
pared to wait long for the harvest, nay, must 
be content to scatter the seed of a harvest which 
a generation yet unborn will reap. Education 
must be the watchword. In his final manifesto 
to the League, he says : 

" . . . I say for us to make Socialiit* is the business 
at present, and at present I do not think we can have 
any other useful business. . . . When we have enough 
people of that way of thinking, they will find out what 
action is necessary for putting their principles in prac- 
tice. Therefore, I say, make Socialists. We Socialists 
can do nothing else that is useful." 

This calm and reasoned counsel drew forth 
a volley of protest and abuse from the extrem- 
ists of the sect, who were already babbling of 
dynamite and open war upon society, and who 
had now awakened in Scotland Yard a languid 
interest in their proceedings, through their 
sage deliberations as to the ways and means for 
barricading the streets of London. But Morris, 
says Mr. Mackail, " had already left the 
League, and the moment he did so it began to 
crumble away like sand," as in fact it must, 
since the withdrawal of Morris meant the with- 
drawal of its main source of pecuniary sup- 
plies. Morris, let us say, was not one of that 
order of Socialists who have been described as 
yearning to do good with other people's money. 
He was a liberal supporter, financially, of the 
various reforming organizations. But he was 
not, nevertheless, by any means what the world 
is used to call a liberal, an open-handed man. 
This statement brings us to a searching criti- 
cism of his character made by Mr. Mackail, 
which serves not only to help us understand 
Morris, but to exemplify Mr. Mac-kail's com- 
mend ably fair and judicial attitude as a biog- 
rapher. Morris, holds Mr. Mackail, was inter- 
ested in things much more than in people, in 

classes much more than in men. The thing 
done, whatever it might be, was what he cared 
about in the work of his contemporaries and 
friends no less than in that of other ages and 
countries. So too in the common concerns of 
life he was strangely incurious of individuals 

a quality of mind which took, on the one 
hand, the form of absolute indifference to gos- 
sip, and a capacity of working with the most dis- 
agreeable and jarring colleagues, so long as they 
were useful to the work in hand, and, on the other, 
of an almost equally marked inconsiderate- 
ness." For sympathy in distress, for aid in 
trouble, it was not to him one would have gone : 

" The lot of the poor, as a class, when he thought of 
it, had always lain heavily on his spirit. . . . But the 
sufferings of individuals often only moved him to a cer- 
tain impatience. Many years before, Kossetti, in one 
of those flashes of hard insight that made him so ter- 
rible a friend, had said of him, ' Did you ever notice 
that Top (Morris's nickname) never gives a penny to a 
beggar ? ' Inconsiderate and even unscrupulous as 
Rossetti was himself in some of the larger affairs of 
life, this particular instinct of generosity was one which 
never failed him. For the individual in distress were 
it a friend in difficulties, or some unknown poor woman 
on the streets he was always ready to empty his own 
pockets, and plunge deeply into those of his friends. 
Morris's virtues were of a completely different type. 
. . . That habit of magnificence, which to the Greek 
mind was the crown of virtues, was Kossetti's most re- 
markable quality. In the nature of Morris it had no 
place. ' I am bourgeois, you know, and therefore with- 
out the point of honor,' be had written many years 
before to Madox Brown in a moment of real self- 
appreciation; and his virtues were therefore those of 
the bourgeois class industrious, honest, fair-minded 
up to their lights, but unexpansive and unsympathetic 

so far as the touch of genius did not transform him 
into something quite unique and incalculable." 

A unique figure in English life, in more 
ways than one, Morris certainly was ; and he 
paid the penalty of the offence of being un- 
like other people." As a pronounced (though 
entirely unaffected) social non-conformist he 
met with the usual obloquy and misconstruc- 
tion. Morris did not care three straws for 
Mrs. Grundy, and was indeed seemingly un- 
aware of her existence ; and Mrs. Grundy 
fumed accordingly. He did what he liked and 
wore what he liked at London, just as he had 
read what he liked and worn " purple trousers " 
at Oxford. British philistinism disapproved of 
him ; Podsnap shook his head at him ; 'Arry," 
as we have seen, jeered at him. " I have had," 
he said, " a life of insults and suoking of 
brains." English university education is mainly 
bent on the formation and conservation of a 
type, rather than on the detection and foster- 
ing of special individual gifts and capacities. 



There is a certain academic mould into which 
each young gentleman is assiduously pressed 
during the period of his academic career ; and 
while the process is in average cases followed 
by desirable and agreeable results, it must 
prove a largely abortive, and may very con- 
ceivably prove a cramping and deadening pro- 
cess, in cases where, as in that of Morris, it 
happens to run counter to the promptings and 
to block the line of natural expansion of genius. 
Morris derived little profit from the prescribed 
tasks at Oxford ; and, says Mr. Mackail : 

" ... to the end of his life the educational system 
and the intellectual life of modern Oxford were mat- 
ters as to which he remained bitterly prejudiced, and 
the name of ' Don ' was used by him as a synonym for 
all that was narrow, ignorant, and pedantic." 

But an " Oxford man " he nominally was ; 
and, therefore, as at once a man of means and 
University education who deliberately kept a 
shop, a poet who chose to ply a handicraft, to 
weave, dye, and carve, not as a gentleman ama- 
teur, but under the usual conditions of handi- 
craftsman, he was to the average mind a figure 
so unique as to be scarcely comprehensible. 
Sir E. Beckett once sarcastically called him 
the " poet upholsterer "; but Morris, who had 
no taint of the snob in his soul, and to whom 
the feelings of the snob were as unintelligible 
as his own feelings were to people like Sir E. 
Beckett, calmly accepted the epithet as " a 
harmless statement of fact," and seemed on 
the whole to plume himself more on his " up- 
holstering " than his poetry. That he should do 
so is hardly surprising when we reflect that the 
efforts of William Morris to replace in En- 
gland the house hideous by the house beautiful 
resulted in a salutary and perhaps a saving 
revolution in her art-manufactures. 

It may be interesting to know what Mr. 
Mackail has to say of the debate over the be- 
stowal of the laureateship in 1892. The claims 
of Morris, as based on the amount and quality of 
his poetic work, were of course such as could not 
be ignored. But his political views would have 
assorted strangely with his occupancy of the 
office, and it would have been difficult for those 
who knew him even slightly to seriously figure 
him as the official eulogist of the existing order 
and celebrant of its triumphs. Says the author : 
"As regards his personal views on the matter, Mr. 
Gladstone, who had then just become for the fourth 
time Prime Minister, kept his own counsel: and it is 
matter of common knowledge that no recommendation 
was ever made by him to the Queen, and that the office 
remained unfilled for three years during his Govern- 
ment and the administration which succeeded it. But 

after this lapse of time it may not be indiscreet to say 
that Morris was sounded by a member of the Cabinet, 
with Mr. Gladstone's approval, to ascertain whether he 
would accept the office in the event of its being offered 
to him. His answer was unhesitating. He was frankly 
pleased that it had been thought of, and did not under- 
value the implied honor: but it was one which his prin- 
ciples and tastes alike made it impossible for him to 
accept. The matter went no further. In private con- 
versation Morris always held that the proper function 
of a Poet Laureate was that of a ceremonial writer of 
official verse, and that in this particular case the Mar- 
quis of Lome was the person pointed out for the office 
should the office be thought one worth keeping up under 
modern conditions by position and acquirements." 

Not the least interesting part of Mr. Mac- 
kail's book is the story of the inception and 
growth of the unique manufacturing business 
of Morris and Co. Characterizing Morris as 
a manufacturer, Mr. Mackail goes on to say : 

" He carried on his business as a manufacturer not 
because he wished to make money, but because he 
wished to make the things he manufactured. The art 
of commerce as it consists in buying material and labor 
cheaply, and forcing the largest possible sale of the 
product, was one for which he had little aptitude and 
less liking. In every manual art which he touched, he 
was a skilled expert: in the art of money-making he 
remained to the last an amateur. Throughout he re- 
garded material with the eye of an artist, and labor with 
the eye of a fellow-laborer. He never grudged or hag- 
gled over the price of anything which he thought really 
excellent of its kind and really desirable for him to 
have; he would dye with kermes instead of cochineal if 
he could gain an almost imperceptible richness of tone by 
doing so: he would condemn piece after piece of his man- 
ufacture that did not satisfy his own severe judgment." 

Mrs. Kitchie thus describes a visit to the 
shop in its early and rudimentary days : 

" I perfectly remember going with Val Prinsep one 
foggy morning to some square, miles away; we came 
into an empty ground-floor room, and Val Prinsep 
called Topsy ! ' very loud, and someone came from 
above with hair on end and in a nonchalant way began 
to show one or two of bis curious, and to my uninitiated 
soul, bewildering treasures. I think Morris said the 
glasses would stand firm when he put them on the table. 
I bought two tumblers of which Val Prinsep praised 
the shape. He and Val wrapped them up in paper, and 
I came away very much amused and interested, with a 
general impression of sympathetic shyness and shadows 
and dim green glass." 

Mr. Mackail has given us a model biog- 
raphy, and the publishers have issued it in a 
form that the fastidious taste of its hero would 
have approved. There are several excellent por- 
traits of Morris, and Mr. New's drawings are 
capital in themselves and have a certain sugges- 
tion of special adaptation in point of style or 
treatment to their setting and occasion. A few 
plates illustrative of Morris's designing might 
have formed a desirable addition to the pictorial 
attractions of the work. E. G. J. 



[Aug. 16, 


The interesting and important work upon the 
epic of the Finns, the Kalevala, by the Italian 
scholar Comparetti, appeared in Italian in 
1891 and in German in 1892. It now pre- 
sents itself to us in a smooth and comely En- 
glish dress, and Mr. Andrew Lang makes the 
introduction. A complete English translation 
of the poem itself, by an American scholar, 
Mr. John Martin Crawford, was published at 
New York in 1888. 

The English translation of Comparetti vio- 
lates literary ethics by appearing without an 
index, though the table of contents is somewhat 
full. I shall therefore give some page-refer- 
ences. Mr. Lang's own book, " Homer and 
the Epic," which contains a short chapter about 
the Kalevala, has no index and the briefest pos- 
sible table of contents. When will scholars take 
up the bookmaker's burden, and see to it that 
their volumes are published in a usable form ? 

The Kalevala has usually been looked upon 
" as an ancient national epos, orally preserved 
by tradition, and collected from the mouths of 
the people, principally by Lonnrot" (p. 10). In 
point of fact it was in many ways constructed 
by Lonnrot, not simply collected. The idea of 
combining the folk-songs of the Finns which 
treat the same or related subjects was first sug- 
gested to this scholar by the popular singers 
themselves, who feel free to combine several 
songs into a larger whole. Lonnrot finally 
went far beyond this, and attempted to weave 
into a great unified poem all that was most 
interesting and significant in the entire mass 
of Finnish folk-poetry. To do this he made 
alterations in the ballads somewhat freely, 
though in most cases he either followed some 
one of the various versions of the particular 
song, or at least made changes that could easily 
be paralleled from the actual folk-poetry. The 
unity of the Kalevala thus obtained, however, 
is something very imperfect ; sometimes there 
is very little attempt to unify the various stories 
(p. 144) ; at times fundamental inconsistencies 
have been allowed to remain (pp. 148, 847^*.) ; 
and what unity exists is often external rather 
than intrinsic. For example, the runes (songs) 

Comparetti, etc. Translated by Isabella M. Anderton ; with 
Introduction by Andrew Lang. New York: Longmans, 
Green, & Co. 

THK PBK- and PROTO-HurrORic FINNH, both Eastern and 
Western, with the Magic Songs of the West Finns. By the 
Honourable John Aberoromby, etc. In two rols. [ Vols. IX. 
and X. of The Grimra Library]. London : Day id Nutt. 

concerning Lemminkainen are brought into a 
superficial connection with those about Wain- 
amoinen and Ilmarinen by making him join 
those two heroes in the expedition for the recov- 
ery of the Sampo. " A third companion often 
actually occurs in the songs of the people, but 
this is never Lemminkainen," except in a single 
fragment (pp. 182, 135 n.). Chapter III. of 
Part I., " The Composition of the Kalevala," 
tells in detail just how Lbnnrot built up the 
great poem from the materials furnished him 
in the folk-songs. This is perhaps the most 
interesting portion of the book. We learn here 
how it happens that the story of the making of 
the first harp from the bones of the great pike 
and of the exquisite singing of Wainamoinen 
(Runes 40, 41) is followed later by the loss 
of this harp (close of Rune 42) and the making 
of a second from the sacred birch-tree (Rune 
44). In reality, no Finnish singer knows of 
two harps. The loss of the first instrument 
was a pure invention of Lonnrot, in order that 
he might thereby weave into his poem another 
charming version of the origin of the harp. 
The changing of the tears of Wainamoinen 
into sea-pearls (Rune 41) is a striking incident 
which seems to have originated wholly with 
Lonnrot (p. 156 ; see also p. 257 concerning 
the making of the Sampo). 

The magic song, or charm, is the funda- 
mental product of Finnish folk-poetry (pp. 24, 
187, 232) ; the interesting belief that one who 
recites correctly the account of the origin of 
any evil force takes away thereby its power 
for harm (pp. 27, 229) explains why these 
magic songs are narrative in form, and sug- 
gests in a strange way the wise philosophy of 
Bacon. The Finns are perhaps the only people 
who have produced poetry of a high degree 
of excellence while still believing in the uni- 
versal efficacy of magic (p. 24). The aesthetic 
power of song seems to be a later conception 
(p. 821). The hero in this poetry is the wiz- 
ard, the magician (pp. 172, 185, 230). The 
deeds of separate hero-wizards make up the 
poem ; " no peoples or social masses appear in 
collective action or in conflict" (pp. 22 /'., 
329). The thoroughly non-historical character 
of the Kalevala is a constant surprise to the 
student whose ideas have been formed by read- 
ing the other great folk-epics (pp. 23, 60, 246, 

" The Finns of Russia and of the Russian church are 
still quite illiterate and in a state of primitive simplic- 
ity; among them the tradition of the songs has remained 
singularly fresh. For the genuine traditional rune is in 




its essence the poetry of the illiterate, the poetry of 
nature " (p. 19). "The northern region in which the 
ancient Russian songs most abound and are most un- 
changed is the same in which the poetical tradition of 
the Finns also is best preserved : the government of Arch- 
angel, and Olonetz from Lake Onega to Lake Ladoga " 
(p. 311). 

Mr. Lang's main interest in the Kalevala 
and in the work of Comparetti is because of 
the light thrown by them upon the broader 
Homeric question, better called the epic ques- 
tion, the problem concerning the mode of 
origin of the world's great national epics. In- 
deed, this larger question was probably the 
especial stimulus which led Comparetti him- 
self to study the epic of the Finns. 

The reason why this problem is an endless 
one is not far to seek. Since Wolf in 1795 
advocated the view that the Iliad was put to- 
gether from separate songs, two tendencies have 
been clearly developed in the theorizings con- 
cerning the origin of folk-epics. One tendency 
accents the element of folk-poetry, popular 
poetry, as the fundamental fact. Since most 
popular poetry is narrative, and this exists 
almost entirely in the form of separate ballads, 
this view makes much of the individual folk- 
songs, and makes little of the grave difficulties 
which confront one who tries to explain how 
any particular epic was put together from these 
elements. These difficulties are somewhat 
mitigated by the theory that the Iliad, for ex- 
ample, existed at one time as a simpler though 
complete poem, a primary Iliad, to which suc- 
cessive additions have been made. We must 
remember, also, that in folk-poetry itself we 
find ballads combined into larger compositions. 
The English " Gest of Robin Hood " is ad- 
mitted to be a composite of different ballads. 
Compound ballads are well-known to the Finns. 
Comparetti gives one which corresponds to five 
different runes of the Kalevala and parts of 
three others (pp. 158^.). It is somewhat mis- 
leading, therefore, to suggest that no " song 
existing independently ever figures in a large 
poem " (viii.). 

The second tendency in explaining the origin 
of popular epics is to accent the element of 
plan and the organic unity of the great mass of 
material, and either to overlook the precedent 
folk-songs or at least to minimize their import- 
ance. The origin of a popular epic, however, 
cannot possibly be explained without the pres- 
ence in some measure of both factors, the 
creative but unconscious folk-spirit and the con- 
scious master-poet. Inasmuch as folk-poetry 
cannot flourish except in a society uncultured 

and free from self-consciousness, incapable of 
observing and reporting the phenomena of its 
own mental life, both the general problem and 
that with reference to each particular epic be- 
come impossible of exact solution. The import- 
ance of the Kalevala in this line of inquiry is 
very great, since it is " the only example we 
have of a national poem actually resulting from 
minor songs ; these songs being not discovera- 
ble in it according to some preconceived idea by 
means of inductive analysis, but known as really 
existing independently of the large composi- 
tion " (ix.). Lonnrot thought himself to be a 
Finnish Homer, composing the epic of his race 
from their stores of song. Comparetti points 
out that Lonnrot, though a folk-poet at heart, 
was also a scholar, filled with modern theoriz- 
ings concerning the making of popular epics 
(p. 340) ; and " the processes of such a man 
are no argument for early Greece" (Lang, xvi.). 
Moreover, although Lbnnrot alters and trans- 
poses with great freedom, and sometimes inserts 
original passages, the Kalevala comes far short 
of possessing a unity like that of the Iliad or 
the Odyssey. Though charming in all its parts, 
the Finnish epic, when considered as a whole, 
remains in many respects a piece of patchwork. 

There can be no doubt, I think, that Mr. 
Lang underestimates the importance of the folk 
element in the Homeric poems. He says, using 
in part the language of Comparetti : 

" In my opinion the maker of the Iliad did just what 
was done by the maker of The Lay of the Last Minstrel. 
Out of his knowledge of facts or fancies, as existing in 
lays and traditions, he fashioned a long poem with be- 
ginning, middle, and end, with organic unity, harmony, 
proportion of parts coordinated among themselves, and 
converging towards a final catastrophe ' " (xxi.). 

But the two cases are far from parallel. The 
conception of a body of songs concerning the 
Trojan War, which give an accurate version of 
the events, is distinctly assumed in the Odyssey 
itself (Bk., i. 11. 350 j., viii. 74J., 489J., 500 
S) ; without insisting that this conception is 
correct for the lifetime of an actual Odysseus, it 
seems clear that the nature of the popular liter- 
ature in existence at the time when the Odys- 
sey was composed made this conception appear 
natural and unquestionable. 

Comparetti declares : " A long poem, created 
by the people, does not exist, cannot exist ; 
epic popular songs, such as could be put together 
into a true poem, have never been seen and are 
not likely to be seen among any people " 
(p. 352). This seems extreme in view of what 
a Russian scholar named Radloff has told us 
about the popular poetry of a Turkish tribe, 



[Aug. 16, 

the Kara-Kirghis.* These people dwell among 
the mountains of Central Asia, in the general 
neighborhood of Lake Issyk-kul and the city of 
Kashgar, near the westernmost border of the 
Chinese Empire. The poetry of this tribe, 
according to liadloff, is still " in a certain ori- 
ginal period which is best called the genuinely 
epic period, that same period in which the 
Greeks were found when their epio songs of 
the Trojan war were not yet written, but lived 
in the form of genuine folk-poetry in the mouths 
of the people." The national feeling of the 
Kara-Kirghis " has united separate epic songs 
into one undivided whole . . . the different 
traditions and stories, historical recollections, 
tales, and ballads, as though in obedience to 
some force of attraction combine about an epic 
centre and in all their dismemberment appear 
parts of a comprehensive general picture." 
" Only a people which has not reached indi- 
vidual culture," says Radloff, " can create bards 
from its midst and develop a period of contem- 
poraneous epic. With the spread of culture " 
come " rhapsodists who do not compose them- 
selves but sing songs borrowed from others." 
Radloff cites the following passage from Stein- 
thai : f " Up to 1832 no one knew of a whole 
Finnish epic. . . . No one had knowledge of 
the unity, and yet ... it was existent in the 
songs themselves." Radloff comments on this 
as follows : " From this I venture only to con- 
clude that among the Finns in the year 1832 
the period of contemporaneous epic (as it now 
exists among the Kara-Kirghis) was already 
past. In the epic period the consciousness of 
the unity of the epic is still living in each por- 
tion of the whole." 

It must be admitted that so far as Radloff 
enters into details concerning the poetry of the 
Kara-Kirghis, the epic unity which binds to- 
gether the various songs of the tribe seems to 
be somewhat loose and vague ; but it seems 
clear that a real unity is felt, and that Com- 
paretti has gone too far in the assertion cited 
above. The following comprehensive state- 
ment of Comparetti seems entirely just ; but I 
take the liberty to emphasize two adjectives : 
" In proportion as the epic songs unite to form 
a wide, well -defined and stable organism, 
strictly popular and collective work is lost sight 

Proben der Volkslitteratnr der nbrdlichen ttirkuchen 
SULmme. Gesamiuelt und iibereetzt von Dr. W. Radloff. 
V. Tail, Dialect der Kara-Kirgiaen. The book U in RuMian. 
A copy i in the English Library of the University of Chicago. 
I am very greatly indebted to Professor George C. Ilowland 
of the same University for making me a written translation of 
the entire Introduction. 

t DM Epoe. Zeitachrift fur Volker-psychologie, V. 

of, while the work of the individual is accen- 
tuated and brought to light" (p. 339). 

It is a striking fact that the most important 
poems in English which have some right to be 
regarded as epics of art approximate closely to 
the folk-epic in some essential respects. " Sig- 
urd the Volsnng," by William Morris, is a fas- 
cinating re-telling in a continuous poem of the 
various Eddie poems concerning Sigurd and of 
the prose Volsunga Saga. The poet makes 
no attempt to remove all the difficulties and 
inconsistencies which he found in his sources. 
The story which Tennyson chose for his theme 
in " The Idylls of the King " took its rise in 
remote Celtic tradition, and, becoming later a 
literary tradition, had attracted other stories to 
itself and had been fashioned and re-fashioned 
in countless ways centuries before Tennyson. 
The general story of Milton's " Paradise Lost " 
was first told in a form destined to dominate 
subsequent writers, by Bishop Avitus of Vienne, 
about 500 A.D., in his Latin epic poem, "De 
Spiritalis Historiae Gestis." Professor Marsh 
of Harvard University tells us that this poem 
was itself the outcome of a precedent poetic 
tradition, and that it was especially poetical 
and powerful " largely because Avitus made 
use freely and skilfully of what his predeces- 
sors had done."* Yet Avitus wrote nearly 
1200 years before Milton. Some of the more 
important English versions of this story be- 
tween Avitus and Milton are to be found in 
the poems formerly attributed to Caedmon, in 
the Cursor Mundi^ and in the cycles of mys- 
tery plays. The last editor of " Paradise Lost," 
Mr. Moody, in his admirable " Cambridge 
Milton," discusses only the different Renais- 
sance poems which treat of the Fall of Man 
and which may have directly influenced Milton. 
If we bear in mind the entire tradition, the 
following words of Mr. Moody become so much 
more expressive : In a " restricted but still 
significant sense, Paradise Lost is a ' natural 
epic,' with a law of growth like that of Beo- 
wulf* or the Iliad." 

We can say in general that the two concep- 
tions, that of an epic with a story wholly 
invented by its author, so far as invention is 
possible, and that of one made up of folk-songs 
unaltered but arranged in the most effective 
order, are the polar opposites of each other. 
It is probably impossible that a large, impres- 
sive, and unified poem, one which we could 
properly term an epic, a masterpiece of grand 
narrative, could approximate very closely to 

Article on Avitus, Johnson'* Universal Cyclopedia. 




either of these poles. Among all the epics 
accessible to the general reader, the Kalevala 
comes nearest to one of these extremes, that 
of a simple arrangement of folk-songs. 

The first volume of the work of Abercromby 
is mainly occupied in discussing the geograph- 
ical distribution, the craniology, and the pre- 
historic civilization of the Finns. The last 
chapter of this volume treats of the beliefs of the 
West Finns as exhibited in their magic songs ; 
while the second volume is almost entirely occu- 
pied by a translation of a very large portion of 
the great collection of magic songs published by 
Lonnrot in 1880. The lover of the Kalevala 
can here study in English some of the original 
materials from which that epic was made. 

Political happenings also call our attention 
at present to Finland. Since Russia wrested 
this district from Sweden in 1809, the inhabi- 
tants have enjoyed more freedom and a better 
government than any other portion of the 
empire. But now their cherished rights are 
being taken away, and the Finns are appeal- 
ing to the civilized world for sympathy and 
moral support. Would that the recent acts of 
our own republic had not taken away from us 
the right and the power to speak out effectively 
in behalf of freedom and self- government for the 

distressed Finns ! TT m 



The portfolio of plates issued under the title 
of " The Georgian Period " includes a collec- 
tion of measured drawings, details, picturesque 
sketches, and photographic reproductions of 
Colonial work in Massachusetts, New York, 
New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and 
South Carolina ; and represents the work of 
such well-known architectural artists as Messrs. 
Frank W. Wallis, David A. Gregg, Claude 
Fayette Bragdon, E. Eldon Deane, Pierre G. 
Gulbranson, George C. Tolmau, and others. 

This work is especially pleasing and valuable 
to the historian and to the lover of Colonial 
associations. If taken in the spirit of one of 
Fiske's histories, and studied in connection 
with it, its delight and charm would be great. 
As a setting for incidents in Colonial history, 
it is not only consistent, but necessary, in order 
that a complete idea of the lives of our fore- 
fathers may be obtained. 

* THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. Being Measured Drawings of 
Colonial Work. Boston : American Architect and Building 
News Company. 

To the architect, this volume is also useful 
if viewed in a reminiscent way. He must dis- 
criminate between that which is straightfor- 
ward and unaffected and that which is mere 
adaptation. The architect who looks beyond 
many of the Colonial porches to the simple and 
dignified walls, with their well-proportioned 
openings, will find much value in these plates. 
Our meaning is illustrated by the very first 
plate in the collection, in which the portion 
which it is meant to illustrate (the porch) is the 
least valuable part ; while the background (the 
house) is charming in its straightforwardness 
and simplicity. The perspective sketches of 
the Royal Mansion, by Mr. Deane, give a Col- 
onial atmosphere which we moderns would do 
well to emulate, much more than do the meas- 
ured drawings of details of the same building 
which follow. Architects should not go to 
such sources for their classic detail. If they 
are unable to relate their detail to the time and 
the conditions under which they work, and feel 
that they must go to precedent, it is much safer 
for them to go to that period which was the 
guiding one for our Colonial ancestors. The 
value of this work is therefore suggestive rather 
than literal. We should not use it as an ency- 
clopaedia of definite forms and proportions. We 
must use it rather as an encouragement and 
inspiration along the lines of simple straight- 
forward design. To put it more tersely, the 
measured drawings are very apt to do our 
thinking for us, whereas we should compel our 
architects to make an independent problem of 
every commission that is given them. 

The Colonial church is a delightful building 
to enter. When there, we step back into the 
last century. There is danger, however, if our 
architects accept this model, that they will 
ignore the increasing democratic tendencies and 
the changes in ecclesiastical forms which have 
come upon us since those churches were built. 
The architect who would do the parallel thing, 
emulating in the best way the examples left by 
the architects of these churches, would realize 
the institutional character which is to govern 
our churches in the future, and would give his 
building the same relation to that institutional 
and democratic tendency that those Colonial 
churches have to the Colonial times with which 
they most charmingly correspond. 

Through this delightful series, many Colo- 
nial mantels are shown. They are, most of 
them, faithful applications of classic or renais- 
sance architecture as designed for stone ; and 
as such they fail. If one turns to Plate 26, 


[Aug. 16, 

and notes the plain mantel in the living-room 
of the Fairbanks house, he will find a spirit of 
directness, a consistent use of material, with 
simplicity and harmonious proportions ; and 
that sheet alone would justify the publication 
of this work. Combined as it is with the pho- 
tographic reproduction of the exterior, it makes 
one of the most valuable portions of the volume. 

The plate giving the Jonathan Childs house 
in Rochester shows a detail of the porch which 
is very faithfully worked out, and may be use- 
ful if one wishes to build for archaeological or 
museum purposes. It is distinctly stone archi- 
tecture, it implies a temple, and it is not con- 
sistent when executed in wood or used as a 
dwelling ; and it is to this problem of consist- 
ency that we would especially bring the atten- 
tion of our architects. 

It has often been said that art is most free 
when its media are most restricted. Compar- 
ison between Plate No. 1, Part II., on one 
hand, and the iron work shown on Plates 27 
'and 30, Part II., will illustrate this point. 
Our early Colonial builders had planes which 
enabled them to copy stone forms in wood ; and 
the result was a debased art. But at the same 
time they did not have such power over iron. 
The railing referred to, which is in the New 
York City Hall, is distinctly an iron railing. 
It is the work of a man with hammer and 
anvil ; and being compelled by the nature of 
the material to work along more or less orig- 
inal lines, the designer, either consciously or 
unconsciously, depended upon beautiful line, 
good proportion, proper spacing, proper bal- 
ance between straight lines and curved lines, 
and thus he produced a beautiful thing. He gave 
another example of the power of independent 
thought combined with artistic perception. 

In Part No. III., Plate 6, the sketches by 
Mr. Gregg give us a delightful historic sug- 
gestion. Plate 30 gives us a charming glimpse 
of Providence life. Plate 16 is an illustration 
of what we would have our architects avoid. 
It is a mantel designed in stone and executed 
in wood, and covered with draperies from some 
antique funeral. There is a certain refinement, 
which we must admit, in the character of the 
moulding, but we should compel our architects 
to work with equal refinement along progres- 
sive lines. To be consistent they should derive 
the motives for their geometrical and conven- 
tional ornament from the plants, animals, or 
things of any nature that we love and with 
which we surround ourselves. 



A treatise upon one clause of the Constitu- 
tion of the United States is an innovation, but 
a wholesome and serviceable one. The clause 
selected in this instance is the one by which 
the people of America sought to remedy that 
evil in their former system of government 
which, of all others, they seemed to feel most 
deeply. It was a consultation between certain 
States as to the best means of securing a gen- 
eral commercial system, which proved the ini- 
tial step toward the Constitutional Convention 
of 1787. To provide remedial measures in this 
respect, it was suggested that a convention be 
assembled for the purpose of amending the 
Articles of Union ; and that assembly, when 
convened, prepared the frame of constitution 
which the people afterward adopted. The pro- 
vision committing to Congress the power to 
regulate foreign and domestic commerce did 
not for several decades excite friction sufficient 
to call for the interposition of the courts. By 
reason of this, the lines of demarkation between 
the proper province of State legislation upon 
commercial subjects, and the field within which 
power was given to Congress, were for a long 
time not clearly seen. The States, legislating 
over subjects incidental and germane to com- 
merce, often passed laws which in fact assumed 
to regulate commerce. But in time it became 
necessary for the Federal courts to interfere, 
and to expound the " Commerce Clause." In 
1823, the legislation of South Carolina against 
the introduction of free negroes into that State 
was, by Mr. Justice Johnson in the United 
States Circuit Court, declared to be an infringe- 
ment upon the exclusive power of Congress to 
regulate commerce. In 1824, the Supreme 
Court of the United States declared void the 
legislation of New York which gave to Robert 
Fulton and his associates the monopoly of nav- 
igating public waters with the lately perfected 
steamboats. Since then, the occasions have 
been numerous for similar interpositions by 
the courts between the action of State Legis- 
latures and the constitutional powers of Con- 
gress. Only one other clause of the Federal 
Constitution, and that the one which forbids 
State laws impairing the obligation of con- 
tracts, has called for a larger number of judi- 
cial deliverances. 

Messrs. Prentice and Egan have furnished 

TION. ByE. Parmalee Prentice and Job a G. Kgan. Chicago: 
CalUghma & Co. 




a treatise on the Commerce Clause of the 
Constitution which will be instructive, not to 
lawyers alone, but to all who have observed the 
wonderful development of commercial spirit 
and enterprise in the United States. As im- 
portant as are the Police power and the Taxing 
power of the States, in our Federal system, and 
as efficiently as these powers are sustained by 
the Federal courts, they are required to yield 
precedence and are subordinated to the Com- 
merce power of the central government when- 
ever they are found to be in conflict with it. 
The theories by which these sometimes warring 
powers are adjusted to harmonious action will 
interest all students of our national institutions. 
The various subjects in respect to which the 
Congressional power is exercised namely, the 
control of navigable waters, port regulations, 
carriers, rates, and taxation are treated by 
the authors in separate chapters, and as to each 
the course of jurisprudence is traced in its de- 
velopment. The question whether the consti- 
tutional grant of power to Congress is ipso 
facto exclusive of State action, when not exer- 
cised by Congress, has been variously answered 
by the Federal courts. The vacillations of 
judicial opinion on this feature of the subject 
are traced instructively in this treatise. 

The history of the development of judicial 
opinion concerning the Commerce Clause, as 
here presented, is disappointing in one respect. 
The authors advocate the untenable theory that 
the United States did not become a Nation 
until made so by the results of the Civil War. 
Politicians and partisans often find this a con- 
venient postulate. But the jurisprudence of 
our country confutes the proposition, and the 
constitutional arguments which rest upon it 
prove to be misleading. Our authors assume 
that " the issue of the Civil War finally estab- 
lished, on a new basis, the relations between 
the states and the federal government," and 

" We pass from the old regime to the new, not by 
the slow processes of judicial construction, but at a 
single step, as the national sovereignty which the war 
established as a fact is given place in the constitutional 
law of the nation by the decisions of the Court." 

From these premises the conclusion is easily 
drawn that the post-bellum decisions of the 
Supreme Court under the Commerce Clause, 
in respect to national and State action on com- 
mercial subjects, have worked a great change 
" in the construction of the Federal powers." 
To enforce this theory the authors say, 
" In Crandall v. Nevada (1867) may be found the 

substance of what was accomplished by that great 
struggle. All the triumph of the armies of the Union 
breathes in its stately judgment that ' the people of 
these United States constitute one nation.' " 

But in fact, so far as the Federal jurisprudence 
is concerned, that doctrine is one of its earliest 
principles. In the case of Chisholm v. Georgia, 
the Supreme Court in 1793 delivered its stately 
judgment, answering affirmatively the question, 
" Do the people of the United States form a 
Nation ? " This principle has continuously 
been adhered to by the courts, and it formed 
the basis of the early decisions in respect to the 
Commerce Clause in 1823 and 1824, above 
mentioned. In the light of constitutional juris- 
prudence, the United States has always been a 
Nation, and the war worked no change in this 
respect. What it did accomplish was to silence 
the murmurs of discontent against the settled 
law of the land. How misleading is the theory 
adopted in this treatise may be seen in the 
attempt to prove it, as to the Commerce Clause 
and the law applicable thereto, by the case of 
Crandall v. Nevada. The Supreme Court in 
that case declined to apply the Commerce 
Clause, but based its decision upon the consti- 
tutional rights which appertain to United States 
citizenship. To illustrate its views, the court 
in this Nevada case quoted with approval from 
an opinion of Chief Justice Taney, given in 
1848, sustaining the constitutional rights of 
citizens of the United States, and declaring 
that " For all the great purposes for which the 
Federal government was formed, we are one 
people, with one common country." 



Mr. William T. Stead begins his book on " The 
United States of Europe " with the statement that 
" In the year 1898 two strange things happened." 
These, he explains at some length, were the call to 
arms and conquest by the United States of America, 
and the call to a parliament of peace by the Czar. 
The two are placed in forcible contrast. He says : 
" In the West the American Republic, which for 

* HISTORY UP TO DATE. By William A. Johnston. New 
York : A. S. Barnes & Co. 

New York : Doubleday & McClure Co. 

CAN WE DISARM ? By Joseph McCabe and Georges Darien. 
Chicago : H. S. Stone & Co. 

J. A. Farrer. London : Elliot Stock. 

Trueblood. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 



[Aug. 16, 

more than a hundred years had made as its proudest 
boast its haughty indifference to the temptation of 
territorial conquest, suddenly abjured its secular 
creed, and concluded a war upon which it had en- 
tered with every protestation of absolute disinter- 
estedness by annexations so sweeping as to invest 
the United States with all that was left of the her- 
itage of imperial Spain." Against this he sets a 
paragraph of equal length describing the military 
autocracy which now heads the world in an overt 
expression of the love for peace. 

Mr. William A. Johnston, who is an editorial 
writer for the New York " Herald," begins his " His- 
tory up to Date " with the statement that " This 
book is a concise account of the birth of a new era 
in the United States. It is a record of the dying 
moments of the Monroe Doctrine, the spirit that 
for more than one hundred years inspired the civic 
body born in the Revolution of the American Col- 
onies of Great Britain near the end of the last cen- 
tury." It is hardly necessary to recall that the 
United States has recently annexed Hawaii in the 
face of a majority of its inhabitants ; that it has 
had in the Philippines a larger army than King 
George ever imported into its own territories during 
the Revolution, engaged in teaching the people there 
that governments do not derive their just rights 
from the consent of the governed ; that, with the 
Declaration of Independence and the Monroe Doc- 
trine, the injunctions of Washington's Farewell 
Address and Lincoln's Gettysburg Speech have 
been disregarded, the fear of standing armies wiped 
away, and the solemn pledges of the Nation thrown 
aside, with all the teachings of its former history 
and best tradition. 

As a consequence, Mr. Stead observed the rep- 
resentatives of the United States at the Hague in 
the interests of peace when their country is actu- 
ally engaged in a war against the independence of 
a people armed by itself, and proposing a method 
of international arbitration in the face of its own 
flat and unexplained refusal to arbitrate its differ- 
ences with Spain when that unhappy nation pleaded 
for it. And the American who remains at home 
finds other things not less contradictory and strange, 
all of them indicating that the methods of Europe, 
which made us great only because for a century and 
a quarter of national life they were carefully avoided, 
are now to make us greater by our adopting them 
in minute detail. And over all the wrench given 
our institutions is spread a pall of silence, the re- 
fusal on the part of the Government of the United 
States to make known the truth in respect of its 
military or other operations in its newly conquered 
territories, and the refusal of the dominant political 
party to permit any expression of dissent from a 
policy which Russia itself sees that the world has 
fairly outgrown. 

These considerations make the majority of these 
books dismal and unsatisfactory reading. Mr. 
Stead's work is the result of an extended journey 

through continental Europe, and while it speaks 
with no uncertain voice for peace, it finds in the 
prospect of a united Europe the best means of 
meeting the new menace to the world's harmony in 
the form of the Great Republic militant. Through- 
out the capitals of the great powers he found an 
increasing feeling that the burden of war was grow- 
ing too heavy to be borne, armaments over there 
causing an expenditure almost as great as the bribes 
offered to the American electorate in the form of 
pensions in the case of several of the nations 
involved. His argument is carried to its logical 
conclusion by Mr. Farrer's New Leviathan," in 
which is shown the curious fact that socialism and 
other means for the elimination of national bound- 
aries have their rise in the very standing armies 
created for the insurance of national feeling. The 
work of Messrs. McCabe and Darien, " Can We 
Disarm? " takes the question on its economical side 
and returns a cautious answer, seeing in the return 
to civil life of the present array of soldiery, and in 
the disturbance to manufactures caused by the 
cessation of the demand for warlike material, a 
double objection not to be lightly overcome. And 
Dr. Trueblood's " Federation of the World " is, 
again, a plea for the world-wide solidarity which 
Kant dreamed of and Tennyson sang : well consid- 
ered, logical, cogent, conclusive, and, in the light 
of America's present attitude, impossible. 

Mr. Johnston's history is, of all issued so far, the 
only one which pretends to philosophy. Though 
himself carried away by the glamour of empire, he 
is not wholly blinded to the possibilities of the 
overthrow of our national inheritance. His work 
is succinct, never discursive, manifestly fair as such 
histories are, but not sufficiently extended to take in 
the present struggle for liberty on behalf of the 
Filipinos. The other books, without exception, 
point to the fact that Russia is merely the leader 
of a sentiment toward disarmament which i- grow- 
ing rapidly in all the world outside the United 
States except in some of the adjacent countries, 
like Mexico, which are arming in fear of this coun- 
try's present sinister attitude. All serve to empha- 
size the shameful fact that lack of statesmanship in 
America permits us to clamor for empire to extend 
our trade in the face of a tariff designed for no pur- 
pose but to prevent it now carried to its logical 
and unconstitutional extremity in being raised 
against Puerto Rico ; in blaming Russia for wrest- 
ing autonomy from Finland, while we are seeking 
to deprive the Philippines and Cuba of all govern- 
ment not based upon the sword ; of preaching the 
benefits of a republic, when we deny, either actu- 
ally or theoretically, our suffrage to all who are not 
of the white race ; of advocating arbitration after 
engaging in a war in which we had refused it ; and 
of interesting ourselves in international disarma- 
ment at the very moment we are increasing our 
standing army and navy to an extent unprecedented 
in our history. WALLACE RICK. 





Mr. N. A. Jennings's lively account 
Experiences of a o f hig experiences as "A Texas 

Texas Ranger. f 

Hanger (ocribner) forms a capital 
yarn, a rather perilous one, we should think, to 
put in the hands of a boy of adventurous tastes. 
When we say "yarn " we do n't mean to hint a doubt 
of Mr. Jennings's veracity. On the contrary, we 
find reason to think that he has been, as he claims, 
a veritable " Ranger," a hunter of outlaws, in 
the storied days when the Lone Star State was 
the paradise of gentlemen who lived as they listed 
and died with their boots on. Mr. Jennings went 
out to Texas, a youth of eighteen, in 1874. He 
was the home-bred son of a Philadelphia merchant, 
enticed from the sober ideals of the city of broad- 
brims by the lurid articles of Colonel J. A. Knox, 
in the " Texas New Yorker." Colonel Knox's paper 
assured Mr. Jennings that he need only go to Texas 
to become a cattle-king and the owner of a county 
or so of land ; so he set out, with his father's bless- 
ing and one hundred dollars in cash, to take pos- 
session. Arrived at San Antonio, his $100 had 
shrunk to $3.25. A Mexican gaming-house relieved 
him of this last shot in the locker; and a brief 
career of " cow-punching," clerking, filibustering, 
and what not, followed. At last Mr. Jennings 
succeeded in joining the famous " Rangers," under 
Captain McNelly, with which corps he served 
until late in 1879. The story of his adventures is 
simply and graphically told, and it gives one a very 
fair idea of the character of the Rangers, as well as 
of the more famous of the desperadoes who were 
" wanted " by the authorities for one atrocious 
crime or another. In his opening chapter the 
author bears witness to the great change for the 
better in the social conditions of Texas, since the 
seventies. " In no State in the Union is the law 
more respected than it is in Texas to-day." Mr. 
Jennings has in some instances changed the names 
of persons introduced in the narrative ; for, he sig- 
nificantly says : " During a recent visit to Texas, 
for the purpose of going over the scenes of the ad- 
ventures of early days, I found a number of highly 
respected citizens, living exemplary lives, who had 
formerly been eagerly hunted by officers of the law." 

Mr. Fisher Unwin's " Library of 
Literary History," of which the 
Messrs. Scribner are the American 
publishers, has proved thus far to be an extremely 
creditable undertaking. Mr. Frazer's " Literary 
History of India," which opened the series, has 
already been noticed by us, and there now comes 
to our table " A Literary History of Ireland," by 
Dr. Douglas Hyde. An interesting announcement 
is that of "A Literary History of the United States," 
by Professor Barrett Wendell. The publishers and 
editors have been well advised in placing the pre- 
paration of the present volume in the hands of Dr. 
Hyde, who is probably the most competent scholar 

The literary 
history of 

living for the performance of such a piece of work. 
His acquaintance with the subject is both extensive 
and profound, and he is the master of a polished 
and interesting style. Moreover, the distinction 
between " A Literary History of Ireland " and a 
" History of Irish Literature " gives the author suit- 
able latitude for the development of his theme. Had 
his subject taken the latter form, this big book of 
six hundred and fifty pages could hardly have been 
justified ; as it is, the author remains within legiti- 
mate bounds, and is yet free to express himself 
fully. A " Literary History of Irish Ireland " he 
himself calls the book, for he has nothing to say of 
what was done by Swift, Goldsmith, and Burke, 
but confines himself to writings in the vernacular. 
The book is largely the history of an unprinted lit- 
erature a literature preserved only in manuscripts 
and oral tradition. Over a thousand such manu- 
scripts are known, with contents extending to per- 
haps twenty thousand pieces of all lengths, from 
the single quatrain to the epic saga. It was less 
than twenty years ago when, in the author's own 
alma mater, a popular lecturer said, "in gross 
ignorance but perfect good faith, that the sooner 
the Irish recognized that before the arrival of 
Cromwell they were utter savages, the better it 
would be for all concerned." It is to controvert 
such reckless statements as this that Dr. Hyde has 
so effectively labored, and it is not suprising that 
the note of indignation escapes him now and then. 
We do not pretend to review this book, which is 
the first attempt at a consecutive treatment of the 
subject that has been made. We doubt if there is 
a Celtic scholar in America whose attempt to pass 
critical judgment upon it would not be an imperti- 
nence. But we record with pleasure this tribute to 
Dr. Hyde's scholarship and to the attractiveness of 
his work, and we place the book among our stand- 
ard literary histories with the greatest satisfaction. 

" Who 's Who " has been for many 
Who ' Who an E n gii 8 tj reference book, 

tn America. J 

published annually, and of the great- 
est usefulness to editors and literary workers. The 
publishers of " Who 's Who in America " (A. N. Mar- 
quis & Co.) have taken the English work as a model, 
although not for slavish imitation, and have produced 
a volume that in the strictest sense supplies a long- felt 
want. It is a biographical dictionary of Americans 
now living, and distinguished for their achievements 
in literature, education, statesmanship, science, com- 
merce, or other fields of activity. The biographies 
give only the essential facts, and the form of state- 
ment is as condensed as possible. Since, in nearly 
all cases, the facts stated have been submitted for 
verification to the subjects concerned, the work is 
highly trustworthy. We hasten to add that the 
editor has been duly critical of the material offered 
him, and has strictly suppressed the efforts of self- 
seeking mediocrities to gain admission to its pages. 
He claims for his book " the virtue of being honestly 
and conscientiously compiled," and, after a rather 



[Aug. 16 r 

The new 



close examination, we see no reason to suspect the 
genuineness of the claim. The preface gives some 
amusing incidents concerning, on the one hand, the 
difficulties experienced in extracting information 
from some of the people approached, and, on the 
other, the sort of wire-pulling done by people who 
were not approached in order to attract attention 
to their unimportant selves. The exact number of 
biographies included is 8602, which is rather more 
than one to ten thousand of our population. To 
the State of New York 2039 are credited, to Massa- 
chusetts 742, to the District of Columbia 724, to 
Pennsylvania 622, and to Illinois 564. There is 
an interesting table of educational statistics, show- 
ing that 3237 are graduates of colleges, besides 
an odd thousand of graduates from professional 
schools. Another useful feature is a necrology of 
persons who have died since January 1, 1895. Mr. 
John W. Leonard is the editor of this work, which 
will be found indispensable by many classes of 

The first number of "The Anglo- 
Saxon Review," Lady Randolph 
Spencer Churchill's new periodical, 
has come to hand, and justifies all that has been 
promised for it from the artistic and mechanical 
points of view. The sumptuous binding in full 
morocco copies a cover made in Paris by some un- 
known artist of the late sixteenth century for King 
James I. The illustrations are reproductions of 
seven famous portraits, including Stuart's Washing- 
ton, Reynolds's Georgians, Duchess of Devonshire, 
Rubens's Anne of Austria, and Mr. Onslow Ford's 
bust of Queen Victoria. As for the literary con- 
tributors, it would take archangels to live up to all 
this magnificence of decoration and typography, and 
Mr. Whitelaw Reid, for example, is not exactly an 
archangel. He discourses of " Some Consequences 
of the Last Treaty of Paris." There are stories by 
Mr. Henry James, Miss Elizabeth Robins, and Mr. 
Gilbert Parker, a three-act play by Mrs. Craigie, a 
great poem by Mr. Swinburne, a masterly study of 
Peel by Lord Rosebery, and many other interest- 
ing things. Altogether, the literary make-up of the 
number is highly creditable to the taste and sagac- 
ity of the editor. The volume is one of more than 
two hundred and fifty pages, and Mr. John Lane 
is the American publisher. 

How to write a pastoral nowadays 
is a curious question. Pastorals, in 
the strict sense of the word, have 
been for some time lacking in our poetry. Herrick's 
" Hock-cart " was one of the last genuine pastorals ; 
Thomson and Crabbe seem, on different sides, a 
little wide of the line. What would a modern pas- 
toral be? We suppose it must be realistic to a cer- 
tain degree : a generation which has known Joseph 
Poorgrass and the other worthies of Wessex is not 
likely to accept vague shepherds piping on banks 
of lilies or swains leading up the dance beneath the 
village tree. Then it must be romantic, too, with 

A modern 

the romance of nature, with that feeling for the 
strangeness and mystery of the deep woods and 
open uplands that is one of the notes of the poetry 
of this century. Then probably it must be idealistic, 
in that each figure and character must be sur- 
charged with the feeling or atmosphere of some 
mood or tendency in thought ; for that is something 
we cannot escape now. And it should also be 
classic: for the pastoral is a traditional form, it 
reminds us of the best periods of our literature, it 
is a form moulded by the touch of masters who are 
classic. All this perhaps one could say a priori. 
But we have not done so : we have run over these 
necessities only after reading Mr. Maurice Hewlett's 
" Pan and the Young Shepherd " (Lane). It is a 
delightful book for this time of the year. We have 
mentioned some characteristics that it may amuse 
the reader to note. But it may well be that the 
reader will prefer to pay no heed to such matters, 
but rather to follow simply the half-real dream as 
he lies on some summer hillside that stretches itself 
out to the sun and the sea. If this be his feeling, 
we shall not quarrel with it. 

There are possibly golf-players in 
this country who will remember the 
opinion prevailing, say five or six 
years ago, concerning the proper sphere of woman 
in the golfing universe. Such readers will smile 
(or sigh) as they look at " Our Lady of the Green : 
A Book about Ladies' Golf." by Louie Mackern 
and M. Boys (Lippincott). We shall not presume 
to judge the precise value of this work to feminine 
readers. So far as playing the game is concerned, 
we are inclined to think that if any book be useful 
it will be some book without distinction of sex. 
There is but one game of golf, and men and women 
play it, or try to, in much the same way. There 
are, however, certain minor matters concerning 
which women may well have something to say to 
each other, and these points our authors wisely 
make their chief topics. The special necessities of 
ladies' links, the delicacies incident to ladies' clubs 
and club teams, some particular points of play, 
notes on clothes, and so on, these are matters 
which an ordinary golf-book rather neglects, and 
the chapters here devoted to them may well find 
interested readers. It must also be remarked that 
this is an English book, and that about two-thirds 
of it will be useful on this side the water chiefly 
for reference. The account of the Ladies' Golf 
Union, the descriptions of ladies' links and of good 
" lady players," especially the directory of fifty 
ladies' clubs, which last takes up almost half the 
book, these parts are hardly exciting over here. 
Still, even these matters, while they are not of 
great immediate interest to us, make the book a 
useful one for a club library. One chapter will 
perhaps be a subject of serious interest to some en- 
terprising Americans, namely, that which discusses 
the advantages of the (possible) profession of Lady 
Greenkeeper and Professional. 




Stars and 

Professor Todd's " Stars and Tele- 
scopes " (Little, Brown, & Co.) is not 
a school text-book in astronomy (al- 
though it might be put to that use), but rather a 
popular account of the subject for general reading. 
It is largely based upon Mr. William T. Lynn's 
" Celestial Motions," a book widely popular in En- 
gland, only a few of the chapters being Professor 
Todd's own. The subject of " The Cosmogony " 
receives special treatment in a chapter mainly writ- 
ten by Dr. See. The leading features of this vol- 
ume are found in its wealth of illustration (the 
plates and cuts are literally numbered by hundreds), 
its inclusion of the very latest results of research, 
its full account of existing observatories, and the 
space which it gives to the history of the science. 
Besides this, it succeeds in condensing an immense 
amount of information within reasonable limits, and 
without any sacrifice of clearness. Indeed, it is one 
of the most readable books upon astronomy that we 
have ever seen, being in this respect as attractive 
as the books of the late R. A. Proctor. Making 
no demands upon the mathematical resources of its 
readers, the book is admirably calculated to interest 
the layman in its fascinating subject. 

The late Irving Browne of Buffalo 
was known and beloved by book- 
collectors everywhere, and the sump- 
tuous volume containing his " Ballads of a Book- 
Worm " will not lack of readers. " Unless you 
love books aside from their contents do not read 
this book at all, it is not meant for mere readers," 
says Mr. Browne in his " Foreword "; but we think 
there are few, whether collectors or not, who could 
fail to enjoy the genial humor and good-natured 
satire of these pleasant little " thoughts, fancies, 
and adventures a-collecting." In the mechanical 
production of the volume Mr. Hubbard and his 
associates of the Roycroft Press have surpassed 
even themselves. Paper, presswork, and binding 
are all of the best, and the large hand-colored ini- 
tial letters scattered throughout the book are beau- 
tifully executed. Altogether it is a volume to 
gladden the heart of the bibliophile, and one of 
which the Roycrofters may well be proud. 

A composite 
Life of 

The two-volume " Life of Gladstone" 
(Putnam), edited by Sir Wemyss 
Reid, is put together on factory prin- 
ciples, each part of the finished product being the 
work of a special hand to whom was assigned the 
" job " he was thought best qualified to cope with. 
The political portion of the narrative is mainly 
from the pen of Mr. F. W. Hirst, who contributes 
twelve out of the total of twenty chapters. Mr. 
F. A. Robbins writes of Mr. Gladstone's ancestry 
and earlier years ; Mr. Arthur J. Butler describes 
him as Scholar, Canon McColl as Theologian, the 
Rev. W. Tuckwell as Critic, Sir Henry W. Lucy as 
Orator, and so on. As a result of all this collab- 
oration and specialization the work gives an impres- 

sion of scrappiness, and it must be read in parts and 
passim to be enjoyed. But it is matterful and 
graphic, and its pictures are profuse and pleasantly 
miscellaneous. Meanwhile, the critical world looks 
expectantly to Mr. John Morley, who will, we trust, in 
his forthcoming biographical venture, give us mainly 
biography proper, and not political and social philos- 
ophy with a slight leaven of biography, as his wont has 
been heretofore. 


" How to Swim " is the title of a practical treatise 
upon the art in question, by Captain Davis Dalton (who 
certainly knows how), just published by Messrs. Putnam. 

A new edition of " What Women Can Earn " has 
just been published by the Frederick A. Stokes Co. 
Many young women who seek to become self-supporting 
are likely to find helpful guidance in this volume of 
papers by many hands. 

An announcement of interest to librarians, book- 
sellers, and all book buyers, is " The United States 
Catalog," [stc] giving author and title of all books in 
print to date. It is issued by Mr. H. W. Wilson, of 
Messrs. Morris & Wilson, Minneapolis. 

The publishers of " The Atlantic Monthly " announce 
that Mr. Walter H. Page has resigned the editorship of 
the magazine to accept a position in the allied houses of 
Harper & Brothers and the Doubleday & McClure Co. 
He will be succeeded by Mr. Bliss Perry, well-known as 
essayist and story writer, and lately professor of English 
at Princeton University. 

A new series of literary primers is about to be pub- 
lished by the Macmillaii Co. " Temple Primers " they 
are called, being similar in form to the " Temple " edi- 
tions of Shakespeare and other English classics. A 
primer on Dante, by Mr. E. G. Gardner, will be the 
first publication in this series. Apropos of the " Temple" 
Shakespeare, the publishers anuounce a reissue, reset in 
larger type, and richly illustrated from antiquarian 
sources. It will fill twelve volumes, designed for the 
library, not for the pocket, and will remain under the 
editorship of Mr. Gollancz. 

Mrs. Voynich, whose novel, " The Gadfly," has 
already had to be printed in this country seventeen 
times, arrived in New York the other day. The drama- 
tization of the novel will be given in September, with 
Mr. Stuart Robson as the Gadfly and Miss Marie Bur- 
roughs as the Amazonian Gemma. Mrs. Voynich brings 
with her numerous photographs and sketches of the 
quaint architecture and characteristic scenery amid 
which the plot of the story takes its course. 

The death of Dr. Daniel Garrison Brinton, on the last 
day of July, at the age of sixty-two, was a serious loss 
to American scholarship. Dr. Brinton's authority upon 
matters of American ethnology and archaeology was of 
the highest, and his publications very numerous. Among 
them we may mention " Myths of the New World," 
" American Hero Myths," " Maya Chronicles," " Essays 
of an Americanist," and "Races and Peoples." Dr. 
Brinton was also a soldier in the Civil War, an editor 
of various scientific journals, and a professor in the 
University of Pennsylvania. Not long ago he presented 
to that institution his entire collection of books and 
manuscripts relating to the aboriginal languages of 
America, over two thousand titles in all. 



[Aug. 16, 


[Tke following lift, containing 59 title*, include* book* 
received by TH DIAL line* it* Itut i**ve.] 

Russia In Asia: A Record and a Study, 1658-1899. By 

Alexis Krausse. With maps, large 8vo, uncut, pp. 411. 

Henry Holt A Co. $4. 
China. By Robert K. Dontlas. lllus., 12rao, pp. 456. 

" Story of the Nation*." O. P. Putnam's Sons. 91.50. 

Alfred the Great: Chapter* on his Life and Times. By 

various writer* ; edited, with Preface, by Alfred Bowker. 

lllus., 12mo, uncut, pp. 260. London : Adam and Charles 

Rembrandt. By H. Knack funs ; trans, from the German 

by Campbell Dodftson. lllus., large 8vo. gilt top, uncut, 

pp. 160. " Monographs on Artists. Lemcke A Buechner. 


The Letters of Captain Dreyfus to his Wife. Trans, by 

L. O. Morean. With portraits, 12mo, pp. 234. Harper & 

Brothers. $1. 

The Anirlo-Sazon Review: A Quarterly Miscellany. Ed- 
ited by Lady Randolph Spencer Churchill. Vol. I., June, 

1899. With photogravure portraits, 4to, gilt top, uncut, 

pp. 256. John Lane. $6. net. 
A History of Literary Criticism in the Renaissance. By 

Joel Elias Spingarn. l'-ruo, uncut, pp. 330. Macmillan 

Co. $1.50. 
Books Worth Reading: A Plea for the Best. By Frank 

W. Rafferty. 12mo, uncut, pp. 175. E. P. Dntton & Co. 

Oriental Wit and Wisdom; or. The " Laughable Stories." 

Collected by Mar Gregory John Bar-Hebnens ; trans. 

from the Syriao by E. A. Wall is Budge, M. A. 8ro, uncut, 

pp. 204. Ixindon : Lnzac A Co. 
Patriotic Nuggets. Gathered by John R. Howard. 32mo, 

gilt top, pp. 204. Fords, Howard, & Hulbert. 40 eta. 


Boule de Suif. Trans, from the French of Guy de Maupas- 
sant ; with Introduction by Arthur Syraons ; illns. by F. 
Th6 vonet. Large 8vo, uncut, pp. 92. London : William 

The City of Dreadful Night, and Other Poems. Selected 
from the works of James Thomson (" B. V."). IHmo, 
gilt top, uncut, pp. 256. A. C. McClurg & Co. $1.25. 


Ballads of a Book- Worm: Being a Rhythmic Record of 
Thoughts, Fancies, and Adventures a-collecting. By 
Irving Browne. 8vo, uncut, pp. 121. East Aurora, N. Y.: 
The Roycrof t Shop. $5. 

Fugitives. By Winifred Lucas. 16mo, uncut, pp. 95. John 
Lane. $1.25. 

The House of Dreams, and Other Poems. By William 
Griffith. 12rao. uncut, pp. 105. Kansas City, Mo.: Hud- 
son- Kimberly Pub'g Co. $1. 

The War for the Union ; or, The Duel between North and 
South : A Poetical Panorama, Historical and Descriptive. 
By Kinahan Cornwallis. l-'mo, pp. 341. New York: 
Office of the Wall Street Daily Investigator. 

The Custom of the Country: Tales of New Japan. By 

Mrs. Hugh Fraser. 12mo. pp. 305. Macmillan Co. $1.50. 
Defender of the Faith: A Romance. By Frank Mathew. 

With portraits, 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 296. John Lane. 


Adrian Rome: A Contemporary Portrait. By Ernest Daw- 
son and Arthur Moore. I'-'mo, pp. 342. Henry Holt A 

Co. $1.25. 
The Slave of the Lamp. By Henry Seton Merriman. 

Illns., r.'mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 327. G. W. Dillingham 

Co. $1.50. 
The Bushwhackers, and Other Stories. By Charles Egbert 

Craddock. 16mo, uncut, pp. 312. H. S. Stone & Co. $1.25. 
The Mandate. By T. Baron Russell. 12mo, uncut, pp. 848. 

John Lane. $1.50. 

Snow on the Headlight: A Story of the Great Burlington 

Mrike. By Cy Warman. 12mo, pp. _ > 4H. D. Appleton 

&Co. $1.25. 
The Sacrifice of Silence. By Edouard Rod ; trans, from 

the French by John W. Harding. 1 - mo. gilt top, pp. -'.<<>. 

G. W. Dillingham Co. $1.50. 
Mr. Milo Bush and Other Worthies: Their Recollections. 

By Hayden Carrnth. lllus., 12mo, pp. 218. Harper A 

Brothers. $1. 
Letitia Berkeley, VM. By Josephine Bontocou Steffens. 

r-'nio. pp. L-.r.-. F. A. Stokes Co. $1 
Both Great and Small. By Arthur E. J. Legge. 12mo, 

gilt top. uncut, pp. 409. John Lane. $1 .50. 
Doc* Home: A Story of the Streets and Town. By George 

Ade. Illns., 16mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. _".'-'. II. >. Stone 

4 Co. $1.25. 
The Game and the Candle. By Rhoda Bronghton. 1'Jiuo, 

pp. 305. D. Appleton A Co. 21.; paper. 50 ots. 
Baldoon. By Le Roy Hooker, 12mo, pp. 278. Rand, 

McNallyACo. $1.25. 
Rosalba: The Story of her Development. By Olive Pratt 

Rayner. l-'mo, pp. 396. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.; 

paper. 50 eta. 
Hats Off! By Arthur Henry Veysey. 12mo,pp. 225. G. W. 

Dillingham Co. $1.25 ; paper, 50 eta. 
How to Cook Husbands. By Elizabeth Strong Worthing- 

ton. Illns., 16mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 190. Dodge Pub- 
lishing Co. $1.25. 
The Naked Truth. By Albert Ross. 12mo, pp. 275. G. W. 

Dillinghara Co. $1.; paper, 50 cts. 
The Book of Bander: A Scripture- Form Story of Past and 

Present Times. By the author of "The New Koran." 

12mo, pp. 169. London : Williams & Norgate. 

Japan in Transition : A Comparative Study of the Japanese 

since their War with China. By Stafford Ransorne. lllus., 

8vo, pp. 2(51. Harper & Brothers. $3. 
Enchanted India. By Prince Bojidar Karageorgevitch. 

With portrait, 12mo, gilt top, pp. 3O5. Harper A Brothers. 

From the Himalayas to the Equator: A Tour in India 

and Malaysia. By Cyrus D. Foes, D.D. Illns., pp. 

Eaton & Mains. $1. 


The Government of Municipalities. By Dorm an B. Eaton. 

Large 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 512. Maomillan Co. $4. 
The Growth of Cities in the Nineteenth Century : A Study 

in Statistics. By Adna Ferrin Weber. Ph.D. Larxe Xvo, 

uncut, pp. 495. " Columbia College Studies." Macmillan 

Co. Paper, $3.50. 
The Federal Census: Critical Essays by Members of the 

American Economic Association. Large hvo, uncut, 

pp. 516. Macmillan Co. Paper, $2. 
Crime and Criminals. By J. Sanderson Christison, M.D. 

Second edition ; illns., 12mo, pp. 177. Chicago : S. T. 

Hurst. $1. net. 

The Foundations of the Creed. By Harvey Goodwin, 

D.D. Third edition ; large 8vo, uncut, pp. 448. E. P. 

Dntton A Co. $2.50. 
Sin. By Randolph S. Foster, D.D. 8vo, pp. 308. "Studies 

in Theology." Eaton A Mains. $3. 
Thoughts on the Collects for the Trinity Season. By Ethel 

Romanes. 18mo, gilt edges, pp. 296. Longmans, Green, 

&Co. $1. 

The Six Systems of Indian Philosophy. By the Right 

Hon. F. Max Miiller, K.M. Xvo, uncut, pp. 618. Long- 
mans, Green, A Co. $5. 


Who's Who in America: A Biographical Dictionary of 
Living Men and Women, 1MW-1900. Edited by John W. 
Leonard. 12mo, pp. 822. Chicago : A. N. Marquis A Co. 


Bulletin de la Society Neucbatelolse de Qrfographle. 
Tome XI., 1899. lllus., 8vo. uncut, pp. 321. Nenchatel : 
Imprimerie Paul Attinger. Paper. 




Scientific Chemistry in our Own Times : A Short History 
of its Progress. By William A. Tilden, D.Sc. 12mo, 
pp. 276. Longmans, Green, & Co. $1.50. 


Gyp's Fifth Reader. By Ellen M. Cyr. Illus., 12mo, pp. 432. 

Qinn & Co. 80 eta. 
Our Navy in Time of War (1861-1898). By Franklin 

Matthews. Illus. in colors, etc., 12mo, pp. 275. " Home 

Reading Books." D. Appleton & Co. 75 cts. 
Lessons in Language and Grammar. By Horace S. 

Tarbell, LL.D., and Martha Tarbell, Ph.D. Book I. 

12mo, pp. 148. Qinn & Co. 50 cts. 
Child Life in Tale and Fable : A Second Reader. By Etta 

Austin Blaisdell and Mary Frances Blaisdell. Illus. in 

colors, etc., 8vo, pp. 159. Macmillan Co. 35 cts. 
Burke's Speech on Conciliation. Edited by Anna A. 

Fisher, A.M. With portrait, 16mo, pp. 150. Benj. H. 

Sanborn & Co. 30 cts. 

The Physical Nature of the Child, and How to Stndy It. 

By Stuart H. Rowe, Ph.D. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 207. 

Macmillan Co. 
How to Swim. By Captain Davis Dalton. Illus., 12mo, 

pp. 133. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1. 
What Women Can Earn: Occupations of Women and 

their Compensation. By various writers. 12mo, pp. 354. 

F. A. Stokes Co. $1. 
Christian Science. By Rev. William Short, M.A. 16mo, 

pp. 63. Thomas Whittaker. Paper, 25 cts. 
New Pointers for Amateur Photographers. By George 

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the Author. Paper, 15 cts. 

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STORY- WRITERS, Biographers, Historians, Poets -Do 

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Author, title, and subject catalog of books published 
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Sample pages andpricei on application. 

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Austin Scholarships for Teachers. 

Eight Scholarships, each with an annual value of $250, to be awarded 
for one year to superintendents of schools, and to teachers in secondary 
schools and in colleges, who have been recently in service and intend to 
return to service. For full information and for application blanks apply 
to the Corresponding Secretary, 2 University Hall, Cambridge, Mass. 

*- just out, price 10 cents, or will be mailed upon approval to any 
address by 


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fully graded course, meeting requirements for entrance examination at 
college. Practice in conversation and thorough drill in Pronunciation 
and Grammar. From Education (Boston) : " A well made series." 


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[Aug. 16, 


Early Books and AUp oa America. 
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Graham & Morton Line. 

Operating the steel side-wheel 
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and the popular passenger propeller 


Between Chicago, St. Joseph and Benton Harbor, 


Leaving dock, foot of Wabash Avenue, Chicago, at 
9:30 A. M., daily, and 12:30 noon, daily (Saturday and 
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mer resort region adjacent to Chicago. 

J. H. GRAHAM, Pres., 

Benton Harbor, Mich. 
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Wvckoff, Seamans r Benedict, 


A Summer 

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American Citizen Series. 

Outline of Practical Sociology. 

With Special Reference to American Conditions. 

By CARROLL D. WRIGHT, LL.D., United States Com- 
missioner of Labor, author of " Industrial Evolution 
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The Life of William Morris. 

By J. W. MACKAIL, M.A., Fellow of Balliol College, 
Oxford. With 6 Portraits in Photogravure and 16 
full-page Illustrations by E. H. New, etc. 2 vols., 
8vo, $7.50 net. 

"Mr. Mackail's life is in every respect a worthy memorial 
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A History of French Art, 


By ROSE G. KINGSLEY, Officier de PInstruction Pub- 

lique. 8vo, $5.00. 

" A remarkable work. . . . Taken as a whole, the book is 
full of interesting matter intelligently dealt with, and without 
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ful, and unprejudiced." The Art Collector (New York). 

A New Book by Max Miiller. 

The Six Systems 
of Indian Philosophy. 

By the Right Hon. F. MAX MULLER, K.M., Foreign 
Member of the French Institute. 8vo, $5.00. 
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ples the intellectual treasures of ancient India, and cannot but 
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Memories of Half a Century. 

By the Rev. R. W. HILEY, D.D., Wighill Vicarage, 

Tadcaster. With Portrait. 8vo, pp. xx.-412, $5.00. 

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interest sustained to the end." Church Gazette. 

Among My Books. 

Papers on Literary Subjects by Various Writers. 

Reprinted from " Literature." With a Preface by 
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" They are as conversational as the reflections of scholars 
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The volume is further varied by Mr. Percy Fitzgerald's 
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Mahaffy 's essay on style, and ' Ian Maclaren's ' on * Ugliness 
in Fiction,' and one finds here much excellent matter on the 
subject of criticism." Commercial Advertiser. 

LONGMANS, GREEN, & CO., Publishers, 91=93 Fifth Ave., New York. 

Big Four Route 



Indianapolis, Cincinnati, 


South and Southeast. 

J. C. TUCKER, Q. N. A., 

No. 234 South Clark Street, - - CHICAGO. 

Chain o' Lakes 


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A RTICLES of current artistic interest in all branches. 
** Essentially American in spirit. The recognized 
exponent of artistic progress. Beautiful reproductions of 
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BURTON SOCIETY is printing, for dis- 
tribution among its members, an illustrated 
facsimile of the First Edition of 


Absolutely Unabridged. 

In 1 6 volumes, Royal 8vo. First -volume now 
ready, ^ol. II. , Sept. i. Subsequent volumes 
to follow at intervals of six weeks. Full par- 
ticulars, etc., upon application. 

.. ....... 22 Bartb Block, Denver, Colo. 

THE DIAL [Aug. 16, 1899. 



\ X 7 HEN it takes over a year to sell two thousand 
copies of a new novel by a popular author, the 
public and the publishers are apparently justified in 
thinking it a failure. If, however, it goes on selling 
steadily, if not largely, it evidently has some good 
qualities. When, then, at the end of three years, it 
has sold out four editions, a fifth is nearly exhausted, 
a sixth is in rapid preparation, and the sale is one 
thousand a month, the publisher is forced to believe 
that people like it. This is the case of 


by FRANKFORT MOORE. It is the story of Oliver 
Goldsmith most lovable of men and the beautiful 
Mary Horneck. It will be sent by mail, postpaid, on 
receipt of $1.JO, by booksellers generally or by the 


Eldridge Court, Chicago, or 111 Fifth Ave., New York 

TH DIAL run, ono*o 


Criticism, Disatssioit, attfr Jf ^formation. 

EDITED BY ) Volume XXVII. r*lJ~If^ \ C*C\ CT?PT 1 1 QQQ .70 ete. a copy. ( FlNE ARTS BuiLDING. 

FRANCIS F. BROWNE. ) No. 317. UHiOAWV/, Di^l/l. 1, lOyy. SZ.ayear. ( Rooms 610-630-631. 


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CENTS (& *% f\n A 


HARPER & BROTHERS, Publishers, Franklin Sq., New York, N. Y. 



[Sept. 1, 



Part I. Miscellaneous Selection* of Easy I*tin. Part II. 
Selections from Cwwr's Gallic War. Edited by Pro- 
feMor J. B. GREEMOUOH of Harvard University, B. L. 
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ETRY. Revised. By G. A. WBMTWOBTH. Half mor- 
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Master in Science in Worcester Academy. 428 pages. 
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versity of Wisconsin. 272 pages. 90 cents. 


By HORACE S. TARBELL. Superintendent of Schools, 
Providence. R. I., and MARTHA TARBELL. 

Book I., 148 pages. Illustrated. 35 cents. 

Book II., 331 pages. Illustrated. 60 cents. 


Edition of 1KW. including the Spanish War. 4O f Ixxxii. 
pages. Illustrated. $1.00. 


Edited by CHARLES LANE HANSON. Instructor in English 
in the Mechanics Arts High School, Boston. 

HOMER'S ILIAD. Books \l\-\\IV. 

Edited on the basis of the Atuein-Huntze Edition. By 
EDWARD B. CLAPP. Professor of (Jr.-. k in the University 
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By CHARLES MILLS GATLET. Professor of the English 
Language and Literature in the University of California, 
and PRRD NRWTOM SOOTT. Junior Professor of Rhetoric 
in the University of Michigan. Vol. I., The Bases in 
^Esthetics and Poetics. Vol. II., Literary Types. 


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ology, 1H!*>- 1*'.I7, University of Pennsylvania. Univertity 
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By GKOHOE L. KITTREDOR, Professor of English in Har- 
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By ELLEN M. CTR. 432 pages. Illustrated. 70 cents. 




Houghton, Mifflin & Co.'s Early September Books. 


The Poetic and Dramatic Works of Lord Tennyson. New Household Edition, from new plate*. With 
a Biographical Sketch, numbered lines, Indexes to Titles and First Lines, a Portrait, and 127 Illus- 
trations. Crown 8vo, $1.50 ; full gilt, $2.00 ; half calf, $3.00 ; levant or tree calf, $4.50. 
This is an entirely new issue of Tennyson's Poetic and Dramatic Works iu the popular Household Edition. 
It is produced on practically the same lines as the original edition, but with entirely new plates of larger type; 
it is profusely illustrated from the best designs of English, American, and French artists, and contains also por- 
traits and pictures of historic buildings, and is, in fact, the most thoroughly illustrated Tennyson so far offered to 
the public. The volume is carefully printed on opaque paper, and is attractively bound iu a new and original 
style. It is unquestionably the most desirable single-volume illustrated edition ever published of Tennyson. 


The Poetical Works of 



JOHN G. Win n IKK. 

Printed from type much larger than that of previous 
Cabinet Editions, very carefully edited, the lines of the 
longer poems numbered, with Indexes to Titles and 
First Lines, and in each volume a fine Portrait of the 
poet framed in an engraved border which lends it an 
attractive distinction. Bound in a new, firm, and taste- 
ful style, making beautiful, compact, and inexpensive 
volumes which promise to be very popular. Each, 16mo, 
cloth, gilt top, $1 00; half calf, 92.00; tree calf or 
flexible levant, 83.00. 


Complete Poetic and Dramatic Works of ROBERT 
BROWNING. New Riverside Edition. With Intro- 
duction and Notes by GEORGE WILLIS COOKK, an<! r. 
Portraits. 6 vols., crown 8vo, bound in new and attrac- 
tive style, with gilt top, 89.00. (Sold only in set*.} 
This is a very desirable Library Edition of Browning's 



By ALICE BROWN. 12 mo, 81 50. 
This delightful book of New England stories is now 
emphatically recalled to public attention by Miss 
Brown's new book of similar stories, " Tiverton Tales." 
Both books are among the very best of their kind, aud 
the kind is peculiarly good. 

Sold by all Booksellers. 

Sent, postpaid, by the Publishers. 









CASTLE. Young: April. By EGERTON 
CASTLE, author of " The Pride of Jennico," 
etc. Cloth, 12mo, $1.50. Rendy in October. 
Illustrated from drawings by Wenzell. 

GIBSON. My Lady and Allan Darke. 


Cloth, 12mo, $1.50. Ready in October. 

A fascinating picture of life on a last-century 
plantation, with a cleverly constructed under- 
current of love and mystery. 

HEWLETT.- Little Novels of Italy. By 

MAURICE HEWLETT, author of " The Forest 

Lovers," etc. 

Cloth, 12mo, $1 .50. Ready in September. 

MASON. Miranda of the Balcony. By 

A. E. W. MASON, author of "The Courtship 
of Morrice Buckler," etc. 
Cloth, 12mo, $1.50. Ready in September. 
Scenes in Spain and Morocco, etc. 

SHERWOOD. Henry Worthington, 
Idealist. By MAUOAIU.T SHERWOOD, author 
of " An Experiment in Altruism," etc. 
Cloth, 12mo, $1 .50. Ready in September. 
A vigorous study of social and economic 
problems, underlying which is a simple, at- 
tractive love story. 

ZANQWILL. They That Walk In Dark- 
author of " Children of the Ghetto," etc. 
Cloth, 12ino, $1.50. Ready in November. 

ZOLA. Fruitfulness. By EMILE ZOLA, 

author of "Lourdes," "Rome," "Paris," 


Two vols, 12mo, $2.00. Ready in October. 

The first of a new series, of which the other 
volumes are to be "Work," "Truth," and 
" Justice." 


HAPGOOD. Abraham Lincoln. THEMAN 

thor of " Daniel Webster," etc. Illustrated. 
Cloth, crown Svo. Ready in October. 

LIEBER. Francis Lieber. His LIFE, 
by LEWIS R. HARTLEY, Central High School, 

Cloth, crown Svo. Ready in September. 
Of interest to all, and preeminently to those 

who knew Professor Lieber as a distinguished 

member for fifteen years of the faculty of 

Columbia College. 

PEPYS. The Diary of Samuel Pepys. 

Kdited by HENRY B. WHEATLEY, F.S. A. Vol. 
IX. Containing Pepsyiana and Index, con- 
cluding the work. Cloth, 12mo, $1.50 net. 
Ready in September. 

SPARKS. The Men Who Made the 
Nation. By EDWIN E. SPARKS, University 
of Chicago. Fully illustrated. 

Cloth, 12mo. Ready in October. 
Practically an outline of the history of the 

United States in a series of biographical 



CRAWFORD, author of " Saraciuesca," " Cor- 
leone," etc. 

Cloth, 12mo, $1 .50. Ready in Oct'tber. 
Illustrated from drawings by Louis Loeb. 

BARNES. Drake and His Yeomen. A 

JAMES BARKBS, author of " Yankee Ships and 
Yankee Sailors," etc. Illustrations by 
Carlton Chapman. 

Cloth, 12ino, $2.00. Ready in Octnber. 
Based on a matter of absolute record in his- 
tory, but such history aa reads like a romance. 

DIX. Soldier Rlgdale. How RE SAILED 



author of " Hugh Gwyeth." 

Cloth, 8vo, $1 .50. Beady in September. 


Cloth, 12mo, $1.50 Ready in October. 
With illustrations by George Gibbs. 

FROISSART. Stories from Froissart. 

Edited by H. NEWBOLT. With many full- 
page illustrations after the early MS. 

Cloth, 12tno. Ready in September. 


APPI AN. The Roman History of Appian 
of Alexandria. Translated from the Greek 
by HORACE WHITE, LL.D. Two volumes. 

Cloth, 8vo. Ready in September. 

MACDONALD. Select Charters and 
Other Documents Illustrative of Amer- 
ican History, 1606-1775. Edited, with 
notes, by WILLIAM MACDONALD, editor of 
"Select Documents Illustrative of the His- 
tory of the United States, 1776-1861." 

Cloth, 8vo. Ready in, September. 

SMITH. The United Kingdom : A Polit- 
ical History. By GOLDWIN SMITH, D.C.L., 
author of "The United Stales : A Political 
History," etc. 
Two vols., crown 8vo. Ready in November. 

WATSON. The Story of France. By 

the Hon. THOMAS E. WATSON. Two volumes. 



Cloth, 8vo, $2.50. Ready in September. 

" It will be the crown of the entire work. 
We have every right to expect it to be an ex- 
position which will attract the notice of the 
world." The Evening Telegraph (Philadel- 


CRAWFORD. Saracinesca. Illustrated 
tditinn. By F. MABION CRAWFORD, author 
of " Corleone," etc. With illustrations by 
Orson Lowell. Two volumes. 
Cloth, 12 wo, $5 00. Ready in November. 

EARLB. Child Life in Colonial Days. 

By ALICE MORSE EARLE, author of " Home 
Life in Colonial Days," etc. Profusely illus- 
Cloth, 12mo, $2.50. Ready in November. 

BRUN. Tales of Languedoc. By SAMUEL 
JACQUES BRUN. With an Introduction by 

Cloth, 12mo, $1.50. Ready in October. 
Folk-lore and fairy tales illustrated by 

Ernest C. Peixotto. 

JOHNSON. Among English Hedgerows. 
By CLIFTON JOHNSON. Introduction by 
HAMILTON W. MABIB. Illustrated from orig- 
inal photographs. 

' Cloth, crown Svo. Ready in October. 

MARBLE. Nature Pictures by Amer- 
ican Poets. Edited by Mrs. ANNIE RUS- 
SELL MARBLE. With illustrations in photo- 

Cloth, crown Svo. Ready in October. 
Aims to foster acquaintance with American 

poets and painters. 

WELLS. A Jingle Book. By CABOLYN 
WELLS. Illustrated by Oliver Herter. 

Cloth, crown Svo. Rmdy in S'ptember. 
The charm of the bright jingles is heightened 

by appropriate drawings, full of quaint humor. 

GEANT WISE. Over 100 illustrations by J. 
Linton Chapman. 

Cloth, 12mo. Ready in September. 
A story of Virginian home life from a setter 

dog's point of view, being his autobiography 

and philosophy. 
*#* Special illustrated books are described in 

other groups. 


GARLAND. Boy Life on the Prairies. 

By HAMLIN GARLAND, author of "Prairie 
Folks," etc. 

Cloth, 12mo, $ 1 .50. Ready in November. 
Full of graphic, healthy realism. 

THACHER. The Listening Child. A 

Introduction by THOMAS WENTWORTH Hia- 
GINSON. Cloth, 12mo. Rendii in October. 
A well-considered, discriminating selection 

from the treasures of verse by English and 

American poets. 

WRIGHT.- Wabbeno the Magician. By 

MABEL O*GOOD WRIGHT, author of "Bird- 
craft," " Fourfooted Americans," etc. Fully 
illustrated by Joseph M. Gleeson. 

Cloth, 12uio. Ready in September. 
The sequel to " Tommy Anne and the Three 

The MaemiUan Announcement List for the coming season contains so many titles that 
but a few are mentioned here. A similar selection of Forthcoming Books on Literature, 
Archaeology, Education, Politics, Philosophy, and the Sciences will follow on September 16. 

Send for a fuller and complete List now in Press of the Forthcoming Books of 


112 THE DIAL [Sept. 1, 1899. 




MR. HOPE'S new romance pictures the life of a prince and king under conditions modern, 
and yet shared by representatives of royalty almost throughout history. The inter- 
actions of the people and royalty, the aspirations of the prince, the intrigues surrounding 
him, the cares of state, and the craving for love, are some of the motives developed, with the 
accompaniments of incident and adventure, wherein the author proves his mastery of sus- 
pended interest and dramatic effect. In the subtle development of character nothing that 
this brilliant author has written is shrewder than this vivid picture of a king's inner life. It 
is a romance which will not only absorb the attention of readers, but impress them with a 
new admiration for the author's power. The novel is aptly and effectively illustrated by Mr. 
Frank T. Merrill. 


By ELEANOR STUART, Author of " Stone Pastures." 

NOVELS of New York have sometimes failed through lack of knowledge of the theme, 
but the brilliant author of " Averages " and " Stone Pastures " has had every oppor- 
tunity to know her New York well. She has been able, therefore, to avoid the extremes of 
"high life " and " low life," which have seemed to many to constitute the only salient phases 
of New York, and she paints men and women of every day, and sketches the curious inter- 
dependence and association or impingement of differing circles in New York. There is a 
suggestion of the adventurer, a figure not unfamiliar to New Yorkers, and there are glimpses 
of professional life, and the existence of idlers. " Averages " is not a story of froth or slums, 
but a brilliant study of actualities, and its publication will attract increased attention to the 
rare talent of the author. 



By CY WARMAN, author of " The Story of the Railroad," etc. 
" As a writer of tales of the modern rail Mr. Warmau is without a peer." Philadelphia Record. 


By ELLEN THORNEYCROFT FOWLER, author of "Concerning Isabel Carnaby." 
"Even more gay, clever, and bright than 'Concerning Isabel Carnaby.'" Boston Herald. 

A DUET, with an Occasional Chorus. 

By A. CONAN DOYLE, author of "Uncle Bernac," " Brigadier Gerard," etc. 
'It is all very sweet and graceful." London Telegraph. 


By LILY DOUQALL, author of "The Mermaid," "The Madonna of a Day," etc. 
' A striking story. . . . Immensely interesting and diverting." Boston Herald. 


By QRAH AM TRAVERS, author of " Mona Maclean, Medical Student," etc. 
"The author draws her characters with the clever strokes of the successful artist; . . . the story never 
for a moment palls." Boston Herald. 

Thete books are for tale by all Booksellers; or they will be sent by mail, postpaid, on receipt of price by the publishers, 

D. APPLETON & COMPANY, 72 Fifth Ave., New York. 

Setm'siUUmtfjIs Journal of ILiterarg Criticism, Discussion, anto Information. 

THE DIAL (founded in 1880 ) is published on the 1st and 16th of 
each month,. TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION, S2.00 a year in advance, postage 
prepaid in the United States, Canada, and Mexico; in other countries 
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and SAMPLK COPT on receipt of 10 cents. ADVERTISING RATES furnished 
on application. All communications should be addressed to 

THE DIAL, Fine Arts Building, Chicago. 

No. 317. 

SEPT. 1, 1899. Vol. xxvn. 


GOETHE IN STRASSBURG. James Toft Hatfield 113 


The Right Books for Children. Charles Welsh. 

THADDEUS STEVENS. George W. Julian . . .117 


Burton 120 


Favor Bicknell 122 

THE ORIGIN OF GAMES. Frederic Starr . . .123 

PEAL. F. H. Hodder 124 

IN AUSTRALIAN WILDS. Ira M. Price .... 126 

AGAIN THE CASE OF CUBA. Selim H. Peabody 128 
Hill's Cuba and Porto Rico. Clark's Commercial 
Cuba. Porter's Industrial Cuba. 


Literary relations between France and England. 
The looked- for " break-up " of China. The mystery 
of what is called " Yiddish." Mr. Whistler's incon- 
gruities. A concise manual of French art. Some 
sprightly old-time gossip. A volume of papers on Old 
English Law. Memoirs of a soldier under Napoleon. 
Some Colonial mansions and their tenants. 






Goethe reached StraSsburg on the second of 
April, 1770, being twenty years and seven months 
old. He remained there until August of the fol- 
lowing year, or until he had reached the age of 
twenty-two. If, as Uhland maintains, the Minster 
rustled all its stony foliage as young Goethe was 
carving his name into its tower, then may the ven- 
erable city itself well have felt a thrill throughout 
its foundations at the moment when the splendid 
youth first stepped down from the Frankfort post- 
coach in front of the " Spirit Inn." The three years 
of university life in Leipzig had been in many re- 
spects a disappointment to the young student, still 
more so to his ambitious father. It will not do to 
exalt one ideal of culture by depreciating the best 
which has been developed elsewhere: it was no 
wonder that, in the middle of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, the proud splendors of the French power and 
intellect arrested the wondering attention of "Vet- 
ter Michel," just rubbing his eyes and coming to the 
consciousness of his own possibilities. Paris was 
recognized as the centre of the world's elegance and 
civilization, and these things are not so cheap or 
powerless that they can be lightly reckoned with. 
If Esau, by association with his " smooth " brother, 
can subdue something of his own redness and hair- 
iness, it will not be to his disadvantage : but let him 
give good heed to it that he do not at the same time 
part with his peculiar birthright for a mess of pot- 
tage. Our accusation against Leipzig, the " Paris in 
miniature" that " refined its people," is that it subsist- 
ed entirely on borrowed culture: elegance, gallantry, 
and fine taste were its law and gospel, and this code 
was enforced by the dictation of an unusually close 
corporation of organized social influences. 

The youth from Frankfort, who had by no means 
come from a milieu which represented the ultra- 
exclusive set even in that somewhat patriarchal city, 
was imposed upon and brought into subjection by 
this affected, precious, superficially-clever, heart- 
suppressing, conventional aristocracy : his Pegasus, 
docked and groomed, in a gilded harness and with 
the tightest of check-reins, minced along before a 
stylish barouche, instead of soaring with mighty 
wing over the tops of all mountains. On returning 
to Frankfort, he finds that very German place a 
rude, cheerless den of Philistinism, and it is in hope 
of going farther under the tutelage of the " grand 
nation " that he betakes himself to the French city, 
Strassburg, to complete his studies. He makes a 
goodly sight as he steps down from the post-coach 
lately mentioned. Robert Louis Stevenson remarks 



[Sept. 1, 

that he never saw any man who seemed worthy to 
inspire love, no, nor read of any, except Leonardo 
da Vinci, and perhaps Goethe in his youth. The 
year and a half of imprisonment in the sick-room is 
over : his powers are equal to what is to be de- 
mantled of them ; he brings once more ebullient 
youthful spirits, joy, courage, and the fire of life, 
a wealth of sensibility and responsiveness to all j 
esthetic influences. He is ready to win immediate 
confidence, and is of a nature which goes out to 
others and delights to make friend*. Moreover, he 
has all the prepossession which derives from a beau- 
tiful person, elegance of fashion, and an abundance 
of money. Under the influence of the " beautiful 
spirit," Fraulein von Klettenberg, there has lately 
occurred an awakening of the religious nature, and 
be holds that earnest theory of life which gives it 
dignity and meaning. 

A discovery which the young man soon makes is, 
that Strassburg, upon nominally French soil, is far 
more German than had been Leipzig, in the very 
heart of Germany. The result of his life here is 
the opening of his eyes to what the spirit of bis own 
people is, and his being forever saved for that spirit, 
to become its embodiment and its prophet. The 
intellectually-ambitious group of men at his boarding- 
house is German, using his native tongue. As was 
natural enough, these striving young spirits made 
themselves acquainted with the superb achieve- 
ments of the French mind, and received therefrom 
a quickening of power and an expanded ideal, but 
they were too earnest, genuine, and hearty to be 
bound over to the worship of passing idols. 

It was in Strassburg that Goethe's heart re- 
sponded to the mighty charm of the natural beauty 
of his own country, an element in the German tem- 
perament which has been of priceless poetic value, 
and one which we, in our great and beautiful and 
rich land, for the most part have either failed to 
develope, or have tamely allowed ourselves to be 
robbed of. Industrialism, the selfishness of capital, 
which rushes by the shortest way to get the largest 
immediate money-returns without waiting until the 
natural right of the people to beauty in their daily 
surroundings has been made sure, builds its ugly fac- 
tories, disfigures our cities with tasteless buildings, 
uncared-for streets, telegraph-poles, grim skeletons 
of bridges and elevated roads, cuts up our landscape 
with hideous fences, and seizes upon natural points of 
picturesque vantage which should be forever held by 
the people and for the people, as they are in Ger- 
many ! The man among us who puts up unsightly 
houses and unpainted sheds is neither molested by 
law nor visited by lynching-parties, whereas in 
Germany there would be as universal a riot in such 
a case as if a well-known brewery should attempt to 
adulterate a favorite beer. The German landscape 
(for such it must be called) of Alsace disclosed itself 
with magic beauty to Goethe upon his very arrival, 
for almost the first thing which he did was to climb 
to the top of the cathedral and gain a view of the 
panorama which lay spread before him. He never 

wearied of celebrating the praises of the beauty of 
Alsace, its rocks and hills, its forests and fields, 
rivers, meadows, and towns. From Goethe in 
Strassburg we date that masterly treatment of Na- 
ture in literature, at the same time sentimental and 
realistic, which came as an enlivening power into 
German letters, and to which we owe no little of 
the imperishable charm of " Werther " and a thou- 
sand secondary streams which flowed from that 
refreshing source. 

As medieval Strassburg had itself been one of 
the greatest achievements of German national spirit 
and character, so was its cathedral a mighty work 
of Gothic architecture, an expression of the vigor of 
the German soul which had long waited the voice 
which should tell abroad its power and meaning. 
In Goethe the voice was found to herald forth this 
truth in joyous polemic. In Leipzig, under the 
influence of the pseudo-Grecian French classicism, 
the term "Gothic " had meant to him (as to other 
people who made a conscience of being strictly 
"correct" and contemporary in matters of taste) 
the sum-total of all that was chaotic, inorganic, un- 
natural, over-loaded, and patched-together ; signifi- 
cantly, however, the object to which he eagerly 
turned his first footsteps was this great monument, 
and it made the complete conquest of his great 
spirit; from the moment of this visit, he was its 
victim, its devotee, and in silence and apart he gave 
himself up to it, immersed himself in it, until it 
began like every majestic work of art, and upon 
the only conditions under which anything superla- 
tively great and good ever yields up its riddle to 
gradually whisper to him who had so reverently 
surrendered himself to it the secret of its spell. 
With the awakening of the native German spirit 
within him, he began to look upon this cathedral as 
an organic outgrowth of the German soul, and to 
recognize its significance in that great lesson for his 
age and his people : 

" Ans Vaterland, ana teure, schlieas dich an. 
Das halte feat niit deinem ganzen Herzen ! 
Hier Bind die starken Wurzeln deiner Kraft." 

" Our age," he cries out in his tribute to the noble 
building, has surrendered its own heritage, it has 
sent its sons abroad to gather foreign products to 
their own destruction. Our native genius must not 
consent to soar aloft on any borrowed wings even 
though they were the very wings of the morning! " 
This new consciousness, which dared to assert the 
right-to-be of an architecture not appropriated bod- 
ily from ancient Greece, has in our own century 
brought to conclusion the Cathedral of Cologne and 
the Minster of Ulrn, and rescued them, in full beauty 
and honor, to be a joy to ages yet to come. 

Our young student by no means adopts that 
hedonistic theory of life which makes beer ami 
skittles " the object of existence: he has an almost 
unnatural appreciation of the unique formative value 
of this period for his whole future. As he writes, 
' The years at the university by right demand the 
concentrated exercise of all of one's intellectual 




powers. It is the time, the good or careless use of 
which we continue to feel throughout life." Emer- 
son, in " Representative Men," sums up Goethe's 
aim as Culture : not what a man can accomplish, but 
what can be accomplished in him. This earnest and 
untiring striving " in virum perfectum " is the note 
of Goethe's entire student-lite in Strassburg. He 
recognizes that the student must not lay claim to be, 
but must be content to become ; that when he ven- 
tures to look with complacency upon any complete 
attainment, that very hour he ceases to be a true 
student. The group to which he belongs is domi- 
nated by a passion for right critical judgment, and 
for an understanding of the reasons which underlie 
it ;' and yet he perceives that the attempt to make a 
final analysis of aesthetic sensations is an elusive 
quest. " Beauty is, once for all, inexplicable : it is 
a wavering, glittering vision, whose contour can be 
fixed by no definition ; the case is like catching 
butterflies : the poor creature flutters in the net and 
rubs off its most beautiful colors ; even if we can 
capture it uninjured, we keep it as something stiff 
and lifeless the dead body is not the entire crea- 
ture, something is missing, an important something, 
and, in this instance, as in all similar ones, a very 
superlatively important thing : the life, the spirit 
which animates the whole." Pretty sound aesthetics 
this, in a familiar letter of a student who is not 
twenty-one years old ! Along with theory goes prac- 
tice in writing, which brings his best resources into 
play, and which developes, even here, a sound, clear, 
and full-flowing style. How catholic and mature 
the tastes, how full the acquisitions, which 'he has 
brought with him, can only be indicated. In Leip- 
zig and Frankfort he had already taken on a stately 
freight of information in the fields of philosophy 
and theology, jurisprudence and political economy, 
medicine and natural sciences, history and antiqui- 
ties, art and poetry. His eager mind lays hold of 
everything which interests the human spirit. There 
were the ancient classics, works on art, law-studies 
taken up vigorously ; German history and antiqui- 
ties, German authors, from Luther down ; studies of 
the Strassburg dialect and the folk-songs of Alsace ; 
natural history, electricity, travel, and medicine ; 
the young man also elected some serious courses in 
chemistry and anatomy. In English there were 
Shakespeare, Goldsmith, and Smollet, Percy's Re- 
liques, Ossian and ancient Scottish ballads ; in French, 
an energetic and penetrating study of the poets and 
thinkers, and as was natural in Strassburg an 
attempt at the practical mastery of the language 
itself, in which (in spite of the most favorable con- 
ditions) Goethe himself concludes to be content with 
a relative perfection. Goethe's practical achieve- 
ments in English, which he had pursued from youth 
up, and to which he had especially applied himself 
in the Leipzig days, have left some monuments be- 
hind them. Some comfort may be derived by those 
who are struggling with an alien idiom in reading 
his English letters to his sister during this period. 

" The father . . . would see if I write as good en- 
glish as Lupton german. . . . Lupton is a good fellow, 
a marry, invetious fellow as I see it in his letter, which 
is wroten whit a spirit of jest, much laudably moderated 
by the respect, he owes to his master. But one can see, 
that he is no yet acquainted, with the fair and delicate 
manners of our language. . . . Think on it sister thou 
art a happy maiden, to have a brother who makes english 
veses. I pray thee be not haugty thereof. 


" Thou knowest how heappily they Freind 

Walks upon florid Ways ; 
Thou knowst how heavens bounteous hand 
Leads him to golden days. 

" But hah ! a cruel ennemy 
Destroies all that Bless ; 
In Moments of Melancholy 
Flies all my Heappiness. . . . 

" But when they then my prayer not hear 

I break my wispring lire ; 
Then from my eyes runns down a tear, 
Extinguish th' incensed fire. 

" Then curse I. Freind, the fated sky, 

And from th' altar I fly ; 
And to my Freinds aloud I cry 
Be happier then I. ... 

" Truely, my english knowledge is very little, but i'll 
gather all my forces, to perfection it. Visiting my let- 
ters, ye shall have found many faults, ye may pardon." 

Further, we have this gallant defence of a maiden 
who has made an undesirable match : 

" But sister, let us dam no man. I 've courage enough 
to take her party. Think her education sister, and then 
dam her if thou darest. A maiden, of no great natural 
genius, she lives her first Years in the company of her 
parents and sisters. They are all homiest men, but how 
form a womens heart to his heapyness they understand 

The psychological truth here is perhaps more to be 
admired than the form in which it is put. 

The hundred varied interests, all so keenly pur- 
sued, split up the days, to be sure, but as Goethe 
said, " One has always time enough when one wishes 
to employ it well," and he accomplished roundly 
whatever he undertook. There is no priggishness 
or arid self-consciousness in all this striving : he has 
a fresh sympathy which causes other young men to 
seek his advice, a pretty good test. He warns 
such a friend against idealizing him, and, with all 
that he has done and learned, he counts himself far 
from wise enough to give counsel, in both respects 
offering suggestions for our own generation of stu- 
dents, among whom a talented and moderately- 
equipped young head has often the manner of know- 
ing more about everything than any one person can 
possibly know about anything. 

Who shall do justice to that simple love-story of 
Sesenheim, in its happy, peaceful rural setting, an 
idyl imperishable in its power to make us forget 
" The fardel coarse of customary life 's 
Exceeding injucundity ." 

Friederike is one of those dear maidens who are 
forever surrounded by a refreshing ether, a hover- 



[Sept. 1, 

ing minister of joy to others, full of capable help- 
fulness, worthy of all respect and love, combining in 
rare balance those happy extremes of gaiety and 
discretion, prudence and light-hearted ness, naivete 
and self-consciousness. She is an " out-of-doors " 
girl, seen at her beat when running like a light- 
footed deer over a rustic path, vying in graceful 
charm with the flowering fields, and in indestructi- 
ble cheerfulness with the blue sky above her little 
blonde head, 

" And round her happy fooUtep* blow 
The authentic ain of ParadiM." 

The love came naturally and truly, " as though in 
sport." Five days after their meeting we have the 
young man's first letter, which reveals to us that 
two hearts have found and understood each other. 
It is a love that makes him thrice a man," in 
Tennyson's phrase, that heightened his powers of 
creation and expression, which had been starved and 
frozen in superfine society : in " Kleine Blunaen, 
kleine Blatter " is reached the crowning glory of all 
lighter German lyrics (thus Erich Schmidt, princeps 
literatorum). We do not excuse the young man's 
though tleasness in not having fully reasoned out the 
result, while allowing himself to gravitate easily and 
deeply into the relation of accepted son-in-law ; if it 
was really due to the integrity of his great life- plan 
that he should not be permanently hampered by a 
nature as limited in certain directions as waa hers 
(though some later facts cast a grim light on this 
theory), he should have had courage to rend sooner 
the flowery fetters which were binding two lives 
closer and closer. 

In Strassburg, then, Goethe found the true canon 
of poetry, " Look in thy heart, and write "; he 
escaped from conceits and conventionalities to life, 
and to the faith that poetry is the necessary outlet 
for the pressure of deep, powerful emotions. 

Nor will we by any means reckon it the least 
important gain of the student-days in Strassburg 
that it was there that the youth, with all his gaiety, 
came under the tonic influence of Herder, the man 
who had fought his way, with baffled blows, on a 
bitter field of adversity, and had learned the reali- 
ties of life, and how to estimate them comparatively. 
Irritable and censorious, he never approved or was 
satisfied with Goethe's work, and the greatness with 
which the cheerful student submitted to this trench- 
ant dogmatism is not to be unnoticed as a mark of 
his magnanimity. Herder taught him the popular 
nature of true poetry, that it is the necessary pro- 
duct of the inner consciousness of a nation or a 
race; he disclosed to him the poverty of German 
literature, caused Goethe even to doubt his own 
powers, and led him to the deep well of the Hebrew 
poets, to Odsian, and above all to Shakespeare. As 
Keats, on first looking into Chapman's Homer, felt 

" like some watcher of the ikies 
When a new planet iwims into hi ken," 

so our young poet, under the magisterial guidance 
of Herder, experienced with a wonderful power that 

by Shakespeare his being had been infinitely wid- 
ened, that all things had become new and strange. 
' The first page which I read made me his captive 
forever ; and when I had finished one work of his, 
I stood like a man born blind, whose sight had been 
restored by a miracle." To Shakespeare he sur- 
rendered himself unconditionally, even as he had 
already capitulated to the cathedral. 

From this Strassburg stage, equipped with the 
resources which it has brought, our young hero goes 
forth to create, one after another, those noble works 
of art which have become the priceless treasure of 
humanity. It is one of the sacred trusts committed 
to each generation, that it shall preserve these works 
in their freshness and perfection, and transmit them, 
unimpaired, to the ages which are to come. 



(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

In the matter of selecting the right books for our 
children, we still have to " educate our educators," and 
your recent article on the subject, Mr. Walter Taylor 
Field's letter in your issue of August 1, together with 
many other important utterances of men and women of 
authority, which have been put forth during the past 
few years, all tend to show a steady growth of a wiser 
and healthier public opinion. 

We can reach our little ones only through the home 
and through the school, and I believe that the old- 
fashioned reading books, full of orts and scraps of lit- 
erature, thrown together with no intelligent grouping 
or with no plan of correlation, have had much to do with 
the begetting of the craving for the " tidbit " class of 
reading which is so much to be deplored. Newspapers 
and magazines have long fostered and encouraged this 

An important duty devolving upon those who pro- 
vide and select reading for the young is that of encour- 
aging more concentration and less desultoriness; and 
we shall secure the concentrated attention of the chil- 
dren if we give them the right books. The world's 
literature is full of pleasure-books which stimulate and 
uplift while they delight, books which the children 
can enjoy without taking barm. "There is a land of 
pure delight, where books immortal reign," and it is to 
this land that we would guide the willing feet of our 
little ones. These views are recognized by all our ad- 
vanced educational authorities, and there is a growing 
tendency to give children books in their entirety, instead 
of bits from books, or editions of classic works in which 
everything but the movement and incident have been 

No book has suffered more from this treatment than 
" Robinson Crusoe," and of the countless editions on 
the market there are scarcely any complete ones issued 
at a popular price. When I read " Robinson Crusoe " 
as a boy at school, in an edition denuded of everything 
but the doings of the hero, I wondered in a boyish way 
how he must have felt at being thus alone on a desert 
island. I imagined his fears and his terrors, and when 




in later years I read the book in its completed form I 
found that its author had made it not only a book of 
exciting action, but full of psychological interest, 
scarcely any of which would be beyond the understand- 
ing of the young reader, because it is the logical out- 
come of the situation in which Robinson Crusoe found 

Books should be as carefully selected for children as 
the food they eat, and young people should not be 
allowed to browse among books that have not been se- 
lected for them, to range free over every field and pas- 
ture. They may have an instinct of food which more 
cultivated palates lose; but it is an error to suppose 
that evil will always fall off their minds like water 
from a duck's back. If they are not harmed by what 
they do not understand, and if they often assimilate 
what is of use to them, and what no one would ever 
have dreamed of suggesting to them, it is difficult for 
any of us to say exactly when the understanding of 
harm does begin, and it is better to keep children alto- 
gether away from the possibility of it in their reading. 
" Art is noble, but the sanctity of a human soul is 
nobler still," and it is impossible to say at what stage 
the passions cease to be silent, and tastes have been 

Dr. Johnson says: " I would put a child into a library 
where no unfit books are, and let him read at his choice. 
A child should not be discouraged from reading any- 
thing which he takes a liking to, because it is above his 
reach. If this is the case, the child will soon find out 
and desist; if not, he of course gains the instruction, 
which is so much the more likely to come from the 
inclination with which he takes up the study." All very 
good and true; but books are good for boys and girls 
only as they are ready for them. It often happens that 
when a child has taken up a book that has failed to 
interest him, it has left a memory behind which has 
prevented him from looking into it when he has come 
across it again in later life. If he had found the book 
when he was ready for it, it would have fallen on good 
ground and brought forth fruit. So we should provide 
groups of books for children to select from, not seeking 
books which we think a child ought to be ready for at 
a certain stage of his development, and force them 
upon him, but we should let him have a wide range, 
within certain very broad limits; and in making the 
selection it may be generally said that the prime requi- 
sites in the reading to be provided for the child are, 
that it should be interesting, wholesome, true, and good 
literature. With these criteria in mind, the task should 
not be so difficult as it may at first sight appear. 

While I am generally in sympathy with all that Mr. 
Walter Taylor Field says in the letter to which I have 
referred above, I think that he is a little hard on "Jack 
the Giant-Killer." I would not feed children on tales 
of ogres and giants who eat up little boys, nor encour- 
age the reading of the boy bandit and Wild West 
stories of the news stand; but we cannot shut our eyes 
to the fact that boys must have their fights with the 
Indians, their adventures by sea and land, their hair- 
breadth escapes by flood and field, in their reading. 
The love of fight is biological and self-preservative. We 
cannot eradicate it if we would, and we would not erad- 
icate it if we could. There is plenty of it, however,, in 
the classic works' of our great authors, without going 
to the dime novel to find it. 


Boston, August 24, 1899. 



The Life of Tbaddeus Stevens fitly takes its 
rank in the " American Statesmen " series, and 
will be welcomed by a large constituency of 
appreciative readers. He was the son of Joshua 
and Sally Stevens, and was born on the 4th of 
April, 1792, in Danville, Vermont, where the 
principal peaks of the White and Franconia 
Mountains and the Green Mountains are vis- 
ible. Of his ancestry but little is known, but 
they were of Anglo-Saxon stock. His father 
was desperately poor, and wanting in enterprise 
and thrift ; but according to all accounts his 
mother was a woman of remarkable character 
and strength of mind. Thaddeus was a sickly 
child, and as he could not work on the farm 
his mother sent him to Dartmouth College, in 
which he graduated at the age of twenty-two. 
Mr. McCall gives the chief incidents in the 
pioneer life of Stevens, and the story recalls 
the kindred experience of many famous Amer- 
icans who have fought their way through pov- 
erty and hardship to distinction and usefulness. 
We cannot dwell upon details. He chose the 
law as his profession, and finally located in 
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, where his brilliant 
success in the management of a remarkable 
murder case at once made him locally famous. 
In 1842 he removed to Lancaster, where he 
immediately took high rank as a lawyer. 

In the early days of his practice he took no 
part in politics. The Federal party, to which 
he had been attached, had passed away. The 
party headed by Jackson had no charm for him. 
When the abduction and murder of Morgan 
created the Anti-Masonic party, he became one 
of its leaders. The movement disappointed 
him, however, and he identified himself with 
the Whig party, which was then coming to the 
front. He took the stump for Harrison in 
1840, and for Clay in 1844. In the meantime 
he had distinguished himself in the convention 
which met in 1837 to amend the constitution 
of the State, boldly avowing the radical anti- 
slavery opinions of his later life. In the leg- 
islature of 1834 he had espoused the policy of 
free public schools, which aroused a perfect 
tempest of opposition throughout the State ; 
but by the phenomenal power of a single great 
speech he turned the tables upon his opponents, 

* THADDEUS STEVENS. By Samuel W. McCall. " Amer- 
ican Statesmen Series." Boston : Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 



[Sept. 1, 

made himself the idol of the State, and won a 
victory which he regarded as the greatest 
achievement of his life. His service in the state 
legislature extending through a series of years, 
was distinguished by rare courage and inde- 
pendence, by great ability in debate, and by a 
ready wit which he always employed with un- 
erring effect. His reputation, however, was 
bounded by State lines until his first election 
to Congress in 1849, when fifty-eight years of 
age. The way was now opened for his leader- 
ship in a wider field. The acquisition of for- 
eign territory had made slavery the overshadow- 
ing question, and the seriousness of the crisis 
was unprecedented. Probably no Congress 
since the formation of the government had con- 
tained more eminent men. Stevens was a new 
member, though well advanced in years. He 
was in no haste to assert himself, and when 
urged to do so said, " I will tarry at Jericho till 
my beard grows." He did not dream of the 
fame which awaited him as a great party leader. 
The slave power was then in the ascendant, 
and of course would handicap such a man in 
the organization of the committees ; but it could 
not silence him. His training as a lawyer and 
his extended experience in the State legislature 
had prepared him for his task. Stevens was 
an anti-slavery Whig, and the nine Free Soil 
members of the House held the balance of 
power between the old parties, and voted for 
him for Speaker. Cobb of Georgia was finally 
elected. Stevens hated slavery with an in- 
tensity which would be difficult to characterize. 
It was a passion, as seen in the several 
speeches made in this Congress, which com- 
pare favorably with the best literature of the 
anti-slavery crusade. He voted and spoke 
against all the compromise measures of 1850, 
and rebuked the servility of both Webster and 
Clay. He was a member of the House in the 
Thirty-second Congress, but the Anti-slavery 
agitation had greatly subsided, and his prin- 
cipal speech was devoted to the tariff. In 1859 
he reappeared in the Thirty-sixth Congress, in 
which he distinguished himself by his masterly 
leadership of the minority which resisted the 
cowardly tactics of the famous Committee of 

Buf the great fact in the life of Stevens was 
his matchless leadership in dealing with the 
question of Reconstruction. That question 
involved the whole problem of the Civil War. 
Stevens so understood it, and in the very be- 
ginning of the war he sounded the cry of dan- 
ger. The plan of Reconstruction proposed by 

Lincoln, on the 8th of December, 1863, and 
known as the Presidential plan, under which 
Louisiana proceeded to establish a State gov- 
ernment, provided for no guardianship of the 
United States over the organization of State 
governments, no law to prescribe who should 
vote, no civil functionaries to see that the law 
was faithfully executed, no supervising author- 
ity to control the election. President Johnson's 
North Carolina order was exactly one in theory 
with Lincoln's Louisiana plan. It appointed 
a governor of North Carolina, and ordered him 
at the earliest practicable time to prescribe rules 
for convening a convention composed of dele- 
gates chosen by the loyal people of the State, the 
" loyal people" to include only those who should 
take the oath and receive the pardon provided 
for in the amnesty proclamation ; and they 
must be qualified voters according to the laws 
in force at the time of secession. Thus the 
work of Reconstruction was placed in the hands 
of the white race, and in effect was put in the 
control of those who had participated in the Re- 
bellion. Since the latter were greatly in the 
majority, the formation of the new Constitu- 
tion which was to establish the conditions of 
the suffrage and other fundamental rights was 
to be committed to their hands. In all these 
proceedings Congress had no voice. Recon- 
struction was dealt with as the exclusive prov- 
ince of the Executive, and was to be initiated 
in all the States whenever demanded by one- 
tenth as many votes as were cast in that State 
for President in 1860. Stevens had no patience 
with such hasty and slipshod legislation, which 
so plainly opened the way for the return of the 
rebels to power and the surrender of all that 
the war had established. 

The scheme of Reconstruction known as the 
Congressional plan, supported in the Senate by 
Wade and in the House by Winter Davis, pro- 
vided that the President should appoint a pro- 
visional governor in each of the States in Re- 
bellion, and that so soon as resistance to the 
national authority had ceased in any State the 
governor should enroll the white male citizens, 
and if a majority of them should take an oath 
to support the Constitution of the United 
States, then the election of delegates to a con- 
stitutional convention should be ordered. The 
State constitution should contain certain pro- 
visions, and when these had been complied with 
to the satisfaction of Congress the President 
should recognize the State government, and the 
State should thereupon be entitled to repre- 
sentation in Congress. Although the bill em- 




bodying this plan was more stringent in its 
provisions than Lincoln's plan, Stevens would 
not accept it. He declared that it partially 
acknowledged the rebel States to have rights 
under the constitution, which he denied, insist- 
ing that war had abrogated them all. In this 
particular the supporters of the Congressional 
Plan agreed with the Democrats, who talked 
about " an indissoluble union of indestructible 
States " and opposed any sort of Reconstruc- 
tion. All that was necessary was for each of 
the seceded States to resume its place in the 
Union under the Constitution and laws of such 
State at the close of the conflict. 

It is true that if the Rebellion had been 
nipped in the bud, or had been abandoned be- 
fore it assumed its gigantic proportions, no 
reconstruction of the government would have 
been necessary. But when the conflict ceased 
to be any longer a mere insurrection against 
the national authority, and took upon itself the 
character of a war with a foreign power, as the 
Supreme Court of the United States decided, 
the insurgents became public enemies, and when 
conquered were the conquered enemies of the 
United States and subject to the power of the 
conqueror, according to the laws of war appli- 
cable to such a conflict. The nation had a per- 
fect right to prescribe just such conditions as 
it saw fit, looking to indemnity for the past and 
security for the future. To argue that the men 
who carried on this work of devastation for four 
years in the name of State Rights should be 
allowed at the end of the conflict to set up 
State Rights as a bar to their accountability 
and a reason for their unconditional restoration 
to power, was a mockery of justice and an insult 
to common sense. As citizens of the United 
States, they could no more escape their obliga- 
tions than they could run away from their own 
shadows. Through their treason and rebellion 
they lost their rights under the Union, but the 
Union lost none of its rights over them. Stevens 
so understood matters as early as the session of 
Congress beginning in December, 1861, and in 
every speech which he made on the subject he 
reiterated his views, which were far more rad- 
ical than those of his party, but which the party 
finally adopted, in substance. In opening the 
debate on Reconstruction, December 18, 1865, 
he attacked the position of both Lincoln and 
Johnson, which assumed that Reconstruction 
was within the province of the Executive. His 
argument was a Constitutional one, and after 
expounding his well-known views on this ques- 
tion he said that the Rebel States should not 

be admitted to the Union until the principles 
embodied in his proposed amendments to the 
Constitution should be established in that in- 
strument, and especially the amendment basing 
representation upon the number of legal voters. 
If they should be admitted with the basis un- 
changed, they would, with the aid of Northern 
Democrats, " at the very first election take pos- 
session of the White House and the halls of 
Congress." They might assume the Confed- 
erate debt, repudiate the Union debt, and re- 
establish slavery. He proposed to take no such 
chances while the North was the conqueror, and 
boldly proposed negro suffrage, declaring the 
doctrine that this was a " white man's govern- 
ment " to be " as atrocious as the infamous 
sentiment that damned the late chief justice to 
everlasting fame, and I fear to everlasting fire." 

On the 30th of April, 1866, Stevens reported 
to the House the important Fourteenth Amend- 
ment, for submission to the States ; and with 
a few changes in form it ultimately became a 
part of the Constitution. The report of the 
Committee on Reconstruction, although largely 
the work of Stevens, did not go so far as he 
had desired, and on the last day of the session 
he offered amendments giving the blacks an 
equal right of suffrage with the white race, and 
supported these amendments in a speech which 
was one of the most impressive ever delivered 
in the National House of Representatives. He 
was at the time worn out with the work of 
the session, his health was slender, he bore the 
burden of more than the allotted number of 
years, and very probably the fear that he might 
not be permitted to return to his seat in the 
House imparted an unusual solemnity to his 
manner and inspired him to " make one more 
perhaps an expiring effort to do some- 
thing which shall be useful to my fellowmen ; 
something to elevate and enlighten the poor, 
the oppressed, and the ignorant in this great 
crisis of human affairs." He declared that the 
black man must have the ballot or he would 
continue to be a slave. There was some alle- 
viation to the lot of a bondsman, but " a free- 
man deprived of every human right is the most 
degraded of human beings." 

" I know it is easy to protect the interests of the rich 
and powerful; but it is a great labor to guard the rights 
of the poor and down-trodden it is the eternal labor 
of Sisyphus forever to be renewed. In this, perhaps 
my final action on this great question, I can see noth- 
ing in my political course, especially in regard to hu- 
man freedom, which I could wish to have expurgated or 
changed. I believe that we must all account hereafter 
for deeds done in the body, and that political deeds will 



[Sept. 1, 

be among those account*. I desire to take to the bar 
of that final, settlement the record which I shall this 
day make on the great question of human rights. While 
I am sure it will not make atonement for half my 
errors, I hope it will be some palliation. Are there any 
who will venture to take the list with their negative 
seal upon it, and will dare to unroll it before that stern 
Judge who is the Father of the immortal beings whom 
they have been trampling under foot, and whose souls 
they have been crushing out ? " 

As has been stated, the plan of Reconstruc- 
tion which was finally adopted conformed very 
closely to the ideas that Stevens had long and 
persistently advocated. It was promulgated 
by Congress, and not by the Executive, as he 
had never ceased to contend should be the case. 
It applied a radical dogma, which he had long 
proclaimed with the voice of one crying in the 
wilderness, and practically treated the Southern 
States as conquered provinces and as entitled 
to no rights under the Constitution. It pre- 
scribed universal suffrage for the black as well 
as for the white man, not merely in the forma- 
tion of the new State constitutions, but as an 
enduring part of those instruments. All this 
Mr. McCall well sets forth, with more of detail 
than is possible in a review like this ; and he 
concludes the subject by pointing out that the 
wisdom which passes judgment upon a situa- 
tion a third of a century afterwards has an ob- 
vious advantage over the wisdom which has to 
deal with it at the time. 

" We of to-day also lose sight of many of the diffi- 
culties with which the problem was surrounded, and 
which have disappeared in the distance. The choice which 
Stevens and the statesmen associated with him were 
compelled to make did not lie between the course actu- 
ally adopted and an ideal condition of things. In the 
light in which they acted, they were compelled to deal 
with as grave a national situation as ever existed. It 
was beyond the power of any surgery at once to deliver 
society, well and whole, from the condition in which its 
errors and crimes had placed it." 

The chapter devoted to Stevens's personal 
characteristics, particularly his wit and humor, 
is exceedingly readable. Those who knew him 
will recall other examples as good as those here 
given, for his humor was unfailing ; but his 
own personality was so large a part of what he 
said that the point must be somewhat dulled 
in the telling. 

Stevens passed away on August 11, 1868, 
and his body was buried, according to his ex- 
pressed wish, in a small cemetery where black 
as well as white were admitted, thus illustrat- 
ing in death the principles which he had advo- 
cated through a long life, the equality of man 
before his Creator. He was preeminently a 

democrat, the friend of the poor and oppressed, 
and his biographer well says that privilege 
never had a more powerful nor a more con- 
sistent foe. GEORGE W. JULIAN.* 

In a not* on the death of the Hon. George W. Julian, in 
THE DIAL for July 16, we stated that the review of the life 
of . M. Stan ton, appearing in that issue, was Mr. Julian's 
last literary work. He was, however, at the time of his death 
engaged on this review of the Life of Thaddeus Stevens, and 
worked upon it during his hut few days, but leaving the task 
to be finished by another hand. Mr. Julian was a great ad- 
mirer of Stevens, and his association with him in Congress 
during the eventfnl War and Reconstruction periods gives a 
special value to his review of a book which was the subject 
of his hut earthly interests. EDB. THE DIAL. 


A new edition of Dr. A. W. Ward's may- 
num. opus, " A History of English Dramatic 
Literature," is particularly welcome, for several 
reasons. In the first place, the work is beyond 
all compare the most exhaustive and important 
in our tongue in its field. And secondly, un- 
like most new editions (which are more prop- 
erly described as " impressions," being simply 
reprints of the same matter), this present issue 
contains so much in the way of rectification, 
improved arrangement, re-phrasing, and en- 
largement, that it might almost be called a new 
work upon the lines of the original study of a 
quarter of a century ago. The earlier intro- 
duction disappears, in order to allow a fuller 
treatment in the body of the study. Much 
valuable new critical material is made use of 
and the desire to throw upon the study all pos- 
sible light is everywhere apparent. When this 
monument of scholarly investigation appeared, 
in 1874, it was at once recognized as authori- 
tative, and has held the position ever since : 
this new issue serves to clinch its claim. It is 
no disparagement of the similar labors of 
scholars like Collier and (later) Fleay, to de- 
clare that Dr. Ward's survey of the native 
drama on its objective side as stage product, 
and on its subjective as literature, stands alone 
among scholarly achievements by Englishmen. 

The prime merit of the work, aside from 
thoroughness, good judgment in ample illustra- 
tion, and the deduction of sound principles 
therefrom, lies in this giving of due attention 
to the history of the stage, while at the samf 
time keeping the student to a realization of the 

Death of Queen Anne. By Adolphus William Ward, Litt.D. 
New and revised edition ; in three volumes. New York : 
The Macmillan Co. 




drama's literary splendors. The futility of 
much of the conventional older criticism has 
been the result of a disproportionate treatment 
of the product as literature alone, overlooking 
the fact that, being in play-form, it demands 
attention first of all as drama drama in its 
technique as well as in its imaginative triumphs. 
Dr. Ward interweaves the two complementary 
aspects of the study with noteworthy skill, and 
this generates a feeling of reliance upon his 
conclusions. The scope of his investigation is, 
of course, very wide. It involves tracing the 
rise of the earliest English drama from the 
altar-end of the Mother Church (with a side- 
glance at the secular influence of minstrelsy), 
its rapid development in the cruder forms of 
miracle, mystery, and morality ; its first at- 
tempts at tragedy and comedy formed on the 
classic (mostly Latin) model ; the growth of 
Shakespeare and his school ; the decadence of 
that golden product through the Stuart reigns ; 
the change to the Restoration Comedy, with its 
brilliant wit, its literary polish, and its social 
indecency, all this conducting the student to 
the epoch of Queen Anne and closing with a 
look at Steele and Addison as dramatists, 
thus stopping short of the classic late eight- 
eenth century comedy of Sheridan and Gold- 
smith. It would be a great service to the cause 
of dramatic criticism if some scholar equally 
equipped should take up the discussion here, 
tell us the story of the drama under the Georges, 
and then trace the now evident, and not unim- 
portant, revival of English-speaking drama 
within the past twenty years under such foreign 
influence as that of Ibsen and Maeterlinck. 
Enough has been accomplished already in cur- 
rent stage literature to justify such a study and 
to forecast the future in no pessimistic mood. 
Dr. Ward exhibits what I may call a sort of 
sublimated common-sense when it comes to the 
enunciation of principles. He has a literary 
perception (not to be gained necessarily by any 
amount of study) which one trusts more and 
more as one reads further. The survey of the 
scholar work done outside our own language is 
broad, showing a critic quite free from insu- 
larity. And while the manner of these illumi- 
nating essays can hardly be called brilliant, it 
is entirely free from pedantic stiffness or ob- 
scurity, and makes an impression, on the whole, 
of sober elegance. Mr. Swinburne on the elder 
dramatists, for example, gives us more sensa- 
tional reading, but is as unsafe a guide as Dr. 
Ward is a safe one. As an instance of the 
value of this contribution to the study of the 

poetic drama, take his admirable monograph 
(Vol. I., Chap. IV.) on Shakespeare, in which 
is given an account of the growth of the mas- 
ter's fame. It would be difficult, even in the 
mass of similar attempts, to indicate another 
eighty pages which tell so much so well, and are 
so little open to criticism. Dr. Ward's sense 
of proportion is happily demonstrated here by 
the half-page he devotes to a mention of the 
Baconian theory. The critical estimate of 
Shakespeare's qualities as a writer is also 
worthy of all praise for its union of perception 
and balance : the power of character-creation 
being placed above all else, and some very sen- 
sible words spoken concerning the poet's ability 
in construction, which, however much it has 
been surpassed by modern playwrights, was 
certainly vastly ahead of his time. 

In view of the amount of excellent criticism 
on the Elizabethan period which exists in En- 
glish, the treatment in the third volume of the 
later writers, and especially the Queen Anne 
writers, has particular value. This critic's 
independence and originality of thought appear 
to advantage in his closing remarks on the tail- 
end of the Stuart drama. Nothing in the whole 
course of the exposition better illustrates his 
method and habit of bringing a literary pro- 
duct into vital connection with the national 
life, thereby to explain both its merits and 
defects. It was because the plays of the Stuart 
reigns were untrue to " the higher purposes of 
the dramatic art, to the nobler tendencies of 
the national life, and to the eternal demands 
of moral law," says Dr. Ward, " that its his- 
tory is that of a decay such as no brilliancy, 
either borrowed or original, can conceal." In 
tracing the personal history of the dramatists, 
he spares no pains to sift all the evidence and 
present the reader with the probabilities ; but 
dogmatism is refreshingly absent the kind of 
theorizing which makes such criticism as that 
of Fleay so attractive that the student is in 
danger of forgetting that clever assumption, 
not fact, is before him. 

A word should be said as to the very hand- 
some and handy three-volume form which the 
publishers have given to this revision of a 
standard work, this form being an indication 
of the amount of new matter which has been 
incorporated. The dress is at once dignified 
and cheerful, and will of itself serve to win 
general readers for a work which the special 
student will need no external allurements to 
possess himself of and absorb. 




[Sept. 1, 


The men and the nations that fight for free- 
dom and justice, as was said by Senator Hoar 
in a recent speech, are the men and the nations 
that live in the grateful memory of mankind 
not the men or nations who fight for domin- 
ion or empire. The sketches of Kossuth and 
Garibaldi, in Mr. William Roscoe Thayer's 
" Throne-Makers," will probably give greater 
pleasure to his readers than those on Bismarck 
and Napoleon III. 

The title of " throne-maker " strikes one as 
not the happiest possible to apply to Kossuth, 
the president-governor of independent Hun- 
gary : nor, for that matter, do we think of 
Garibaldi " the lifelong champion of democ- 
racy," as Mr. Thayer himself calls him as 
preeminently a king-maker. But the two 
studies are welcome under any title, that on 
the Hungarian hero the more so from the 
widely prevalent ignorance on all matters per- 
taining to Austro-Hungarian history. The 
historian Freeman has told how it was not un- 
usual for him to " come across people who 
believed that Austria was one land inhabited 
by ' Austrians ' who spoke the ' Austrian ' lan- 
guage "; and M. Louis Leger relates, in a pre- 
fatory note to the fourth edition of his history 
of Austro-Hungary, that when the municipality 
of Prague sent a set of its publications to a cer- 
tain French society, the president of the latter, 
in acknowledging the gift, expressed his regret 
at not being able to profit by the favor, owing 
to his ignorance of the Hungarian language* 

The story of Hungary's struggle for the 
restoration of her acknowledged rights will 
always be an interesting one, and certain de- 
tails in that story point a useful object lesson 
at the present time. The quarrels between the 
Hungarian generals and the civil authorities, 
the unfortunate refusal of the Magyars to grant 
to the Croats, the Serbs and the Wallachs, 
those very privileges for which they themselves 
were fighting, these and other incidents of 
the upheaval of 1848 in Hungary suggest cer- 
tain parallels in more recent history. 

Garibaldi takes the author into what is 
apparently his favorite field of study, Italian 
history. " When men look back two or three 
hundred years hence, upon the nineteenth cen- 
tury," he says in opening, " it may well be that 
they will discern its salient characteristic to 
have been, not scientific, not inventive, as we 

THBOJCE-MAKIW. By WillUm Rowoe Th*yr. Bottom 
Hooghton, Mifflin A Co. 

popularly suppose, but romanti-." The very 
paradox here goes far toward convincing us, 
but when we read elsewhere in the book that 
" it is a truism that Science has advanced 
farther in our century than in all preceding 
time," we are inclined to doubt whether the 
author himself is fully persuaded that this is 
not, first and foremost, an age of material 
progress, after all. Garibaldi's autobiography 
furnishes a large part of the material for Mr. 
Thayer's sketch, and it will surprise most read- 
ers to learn how comparatively small a part of 
the Italian hero's eventful career and martial 
exploits had to do with the land of his birth 
and of his affections. 

The secret of Napoleon the Little's power is 
put in a way that is worth quoting. 

"In oar individual lives we realize the power of 
memory, suggestion, association. If we have ever yielded 
to a vice, we have felt, it may be years after, how the 
sight of the old conditions revives the old temptation. 
A glance, a sound, a smell, may be enough to conjure 
up a long series of events, whether to grieve or to tempt 
us, with more than their original intensity. So we learn 
that the safest way to escape the enticement is to avoid 
the conditions. Recent psychology has at last begun to 
measure the subtle power of suggestion. 

" But now suppose that instead of an individual a 
whole nation has had a terrific experience of succumbing 
to temptation, and that a cunning, unscrupulous man, 
aware of the force of association and reminiscence, de- 
liberately applies both to reproduce those conditions in 
which the nation first abandoned itself to excess: the 
case we have supposed is that of France and Louis 
Napoleon. Before the reality of their story the ro- 
mances of hypnotism pale." 

Apropos of Napoleon's appeal to his country- 
men's patriotism, that " last refuge of a scoun- 
drel," Mr. Thayer takes occasion to distinguish 
between glory and gloire, as follows : 

" Glory implies something essentially noble, nay in 
the Lord's Prayer it is a quality attributed to God him- 
self: but gloire suggests vanity; it is the food braggarts 
famish after. The minute men at Concord earned true 
glory; but when the United States, listening to the 
seductions of evil politicians, attacked and blasted a 
decrepit power, fivefold smaller in population, twenty- 
fold weaker in resources, they might find gloire among 
their booty, but glory, never." 

Following the " Throne-Makers " are four 
" Portraits,"-- of Carlyle, Tintoretto (or Tin- 
toret, as Mr. Thayer chooses to write it), Gior- 
dano Bruno, and Bryant. Of these the Italian 
studies show the most pains. That on Bruno, 
which is based largely on Berti's life of the 
martyr and on the minutes of the Venetian 
Inquisition, closes with perhaps not the very 
happiest attempt to point the moral of the 
story. The writer gravely assures his readers 
that " no tribunal, whether religious or political, 




has a right to coerce the conscience and inmost 
thoughts of any human being"; and he adds 
the stock allusions to Torquemada and Loyola 
and Galileo, duly informing us that the latter 
was threatened with the rack for daring to 
oppose a theory of the solar system which no 
school-boy of ten could now uphold without 
being set in the corner with a fool's-cap on his 
head all of which would be most excellent in 
an undergraduate's prize essay. 

The chapter on Tintoretto in which, from 
the meagerest of materials, the man is made to 
stand before us, living and breathing, while 
from his works we are made acquainted with 
the painter merits high praise, although the 
writer's enthusiasm will be generally thought 
to have broken bounds when he pronounces this 
artist " the mightiest genius who ever honored 
painting." An eloquent plea for the preserva- 
tion of Tintoretto's fading canvasses is followed 
by a series of vivid word-pictures of his prin- 
cipal paintings. 

Mr. Thayer shows in these brief studies a 
faculty for going straight to the heart of the 
matter and for carrying his readers with him. 
The apt statement of some truth, whether new 
or old, is not infrequently met with in his pages, 
as when he says that " Bryant interprets nature 
morally, Emerson spiritually, and Shelley emo- 
tionally," and again when he calls Carlyle the 
Michael Angelo of British prose-writers. Oc- 
casionally, too, his style betrays a refreshing 
originality and picturesqueness, as in his ref- 
erence to Walt Whitman, " with cowboy gait, 
swaggering up Parnassus, shouting nicknames 
at the Muses and ready to slap Apollo on the 
back." Some of his verdicts as, for exam- 
ple, his estimate of Carlyle as " a historian 
without rival " will not pass unchallenged ; 
but they are honest opinions and ably defended. 
Most of these essays, be it said in conclusion, 
were first published in various periodicals. 


No American student of games has done so 
much work as Mr. Culin. Beginning with 
street games of American children he passed 
to the games of the Chinese especially those 
into which the element of chance or the lot 

* CHESS AND PLAYING CARDS. By Stewart Culin. Wash- 
ington, D. C.: Government Printing Office. 

HAWAIIAN GAMES. By Stewart Culin. From The Amer- 
ican Anthropologist (N.S.). Vol. I., April, 1899. New York: 
G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

entered. At the time of the World's Colum- 
bian Exposition at Chicago, he displayed a 
large exhibit, and printed a paper upon its clas- 
sification and bearings that was notably sug- 
gestive. Later, and in part at least from the 
influence of the Exposition, he studied the 
games of the Hermit Kingdom and prepared 
his beautiful book "Korean Games." This 
book, while chiefly devoted to Korean, made 
use also of Chinese and Japanese games for 
comparison and was the most important Amer- 
ican contribution to game study at that time. 
Mr. Culin's attention was then turned to Amer- 
ican Indian games, of which, with the aid of 
Mr. Frank Hamilton Gushing, he made a dili- 
gent investigation. Some results of this and 
preceding studies were exhibited at the Cotton 
States and International Exposition at Atlanta 
in 1885. The exhibit was considered of such 
interest and value that a gold medal was 
awarded it. 

In Mr. Culin's latest work, "Chess and 
Play ing-Cards," we have a treatise based upon 
and growing out of this collection. It fills some 
270 pages, and is amply illustrated. The atti- 
tude of the author may be best shown by a quo- 
tation : 

" The object of this collection is to illustrate the 
probable origin, significance, and development of the 
games of chess and playing-cards. Following up the 
suggestion made to the writer by Mr. Frank H. Gush- 
ing, they are both regarded as derived from the divin- 
atory use of the arrow, and as representing the two 
principal methods of arrow-divination. Incidental to 
the main subjects, various games and divinatory pro- 
cesses having a like origin, although not leading directly 
to chess or cards, are exhibited, as well as specimens of 
each class from various countries. The basis of the 
divinatory systems from which games have arisen is 
assumed to be the classification of all things according 
to the Four Directions. This method of classification 
is practically universal among primitive peoples both in 
Asia and America. In order to classify objects and 
events which did not in themselves reveal their proper 
assignment resort was had to magic. Survivals of these 
magical processes constitute our present games. . . . 
In the classification of things according to the four 
quarters we find that a numerical ratio was assumed to 
exist between the several categories. The discovery of 
this ratio was regarded as an all-important clue. The 
cubical dotted die represented one of the implements 
of magic employed for this purpose. The cubical die 
belongs, however, to a comparatively late period in the 
history of games and divination. The almost universal 
object for determining number, and thence by counting, 
place or direction, is three or more wooden staves, usu- 
ally flat on one side and rounded upon the other. Nu- 
merical counts are attributed to their several falls." 

As an example of a simple game, where moves 
along a definite track are determined by the 
fall of staves, our author cites the Korean 



[Sept. 1, 

nyout. A game, identically the same in prin- 
ciple, is found throughout a wide range in Asia 
and America. It is represented by our Par- 
cheesl or Royal Game of India. Such games 
in Asia are usually clearly related to lot-sticks, 
or slips. These in turn are considered successors 
of ancient thrown arrows. Our author's presen- 
tation of American Indian games is most inter- 
esting. The game of plumstones is widespread. 
This is a gambling game in which dice made 
usually of fruit pits are shaken in a basket and 
the result counted. In some cases games are 
played with teeth of the beaver or woodchuck, 
which are marked : these are thrown and the 
marks showing are counted. Distinct from 
these are the staves games, with a diagram 
along which pieces are moved according to 
counts thrown. In some of these latter games 
these staves are or can be shown to be divina- 
tion arrows. One interesting fact brought out 
by Mr. Culin is that in sets of four staves, 
three are of one form while the fourth is dif- 
ferent. There is evidence, both morphological 
and linguistic, that this fourth distinctive staff 
represents the ancient arrow-throwing stick, 
while the others represent ancient arrows. 

Of course most students of games study them 
for evidence of migrations and contacts. Mr. 
Culin is cautious in making statements along 
this line. Presumably though he may be 
undergoing conversion he holds the view 
now in vogue in this country, that no such evi- 
dence is carried by them and that similarities 
are due to psychic uniformity and are inde- 
pendent growths. The psychic .uniformity ar- 
gument is just now so popular that it begins 
to look somewhat threadbare. It is suggest- 
ive that Mr. Culin finds the nyout series of 
games, abundant in Asia and America two 
areas where we should expect to find similari- 
ties on the basis of theories that antedate the 
present psychic uniformity craze. The present 
reviewer would suggest that it may be worth 
while to separate American Indians into groups 
of probably differing origins. From such a 
point of view it might be interesting to map 
the tribes, on the basis of games, into areas of 
the nyout type and the plumstone type. The 
areas would certainly overlap, but presumably 
an area would be found where the nyout type 
is absent and the plumstone game prevails. This 
area might be profitably studied in connection 
with the old-world area, where cubical dice are 
used independent of a nyout diagram. Europe, 
on the whole, appears to be such an area. Cu- 
bical dice with marked faces were there used 

in prehistoric times. The story of their origin 
from astragali, first natural and then artificial, 
has been made out: Mr. Culin restates it. 
Perhaps these suggestions will prove worthless 
in the light of increased knowledge. 

That the plays in chess were at first deter- 
mined by throws is quite certain. That Chi- 
nese and Korean playing-cards are derived 
from divination arrows and that lot-slips have 
the same origin, Mr. Culin makes clear. Our 
chess and our playing-cards have been derived 
from, or largely influenced by, the Oriental 
games. Wonder is sometimes expressed why 
cards, apparently devised for simple play, are 
used in fortune telling. The truth is the play, 
not the divination, is derived. The gypsy wo- 
men telling fates with cards is survival, not 

One may see how much of curious interest 
comes out in Mr. Culm's book. Yet he has 
not printed all his important studies. He is 
working along a dozen other lines. Just as we 
write this notice, his paper on u Hawaiian 
Games " comes to hand. It aims at fair com- 
pleteness, but is entirely descriptive, going 
into neither discussion nor theory. Ninety-one 
games are described. Some are simple : others 
are quite complex. Some, like cat's-cradle, 
maika (the famous bowling game, played with 
discoidal stones upon a specially prepared 
course) and pu-he-ne-he-ne (a gambling, hiding, 
game) present particularly interesting points 
for investigation. While the treatment is 
specifically of Hawaiian games, comparative 
material is continually introduced from other 
Polynesian islands. FREDERICK STARR. 


The vacancy in the United States Senate, 
caused by the resignation and subsequent 
death of Henry Clay, was filled by the election 
for the remainder of the unexpired term of 
Archibald Dixon of Kentucky. Mr. Dixon 
was a pro-slavery Whig of some local reputa- 
tion. He had been Lieutenant-Governor of his 
State, had strenuously opposed gradual eman- 
cipation in the Constitutional Convention of 
1849, and had been defeated for the governor- 
ship in the state election just passed. Illness 
compelled Mr. Dixon's absence from the Sen- 

ITS REPEAL. By Mra. Archibald Dixon. Cincinnati : The 
Robert Clarke Company. 




ate during the greater part of the second session 
of the Thirty-second Congress. At this session, 
a bill for the organization, without mention 
of slavery, of the territory west of Missouri, 
passed the House and failed in the Senate. 
The South would not organize that territory 
without slavery, and the North would not or- 
ganize it with slavery. At the next session of 
Congress, Douglas introduced his celebrated 
Nebraska Bill. The bill and its accompanying 
report were artfully constructed in order to 
draw Southern votes, upon the theory that the 
bill repealed the Missouri Compromise, and 
Northern ones upon the theory that it did not. 
On January 16, 1854, Mr. Dixon, either fear- 
ing the issue or preferring a straightforward 
course, gave notice of a motion to amend the 
bill by a direct repeal of the Missouri restric- 
tion, and thus forced Douglas to incorporate 
direct repeal in his bill very nearly in the form 
in which it finally passed. But for this motion, 
Mr. Dixon would never have been heard of. As 
it constitutes his only connection with Amer- 
ican history, we might not inappropriately call 
him " single motion " Dixon. 

With this motion as a climax, Mr. Dixon's 
widow has written a bulky book of over six 
hundred pages, which she calls "The True 
History of the Missouri Compromise and its 
Repeal," and dedicates it to " The Truth of 
History and the People of the United States." 
The author tells us that the work was begun 
the year after Mr. Dixon's death, in 1876 ; 
that her library and the partially completed 
manuscript were destroyed by fire in 1893, so 
that the work had to be re-written. The book 
is evidently a labor of love, undertaken as a 
memorial to her husband and completed with 
great difficulty. Under the circumstances we 
sincerely regret that we cannot commend the 
result. Mrs. Dixon possesses the qualifications 
neither for writing impartial history nor for 
making a special plea. Her material is drawn 
almost exclusively from the speeches of radical 
pro-slavery members of Congress, a study of 
which seems to have warped her judgment and 
corrupted her English. The book is encum- 
bered with long quotations from these speeches, 
many of them of slight importance, and the 
style is marred by such expressions as " defeat 
was a bitter pill " and " hypocrite of the first 
water." She treats successively the slavery 
compromises of the Constitution, the Compro- 
mises of 1820 and 1850, and the Kansas- 
Nebraska Act. In her view, the continuance 
of the slave trade until 1808 resulted from a 

bargain between the New England States on 
the one hand, and South Carolina and Georgia 
on the other, which made the North responsible 
for Southern slavery ; the Missouri Compro- 
mise was an unjust and unconstitutional act 
forced upon the South by Northern men, and 
the wrong of this act was finally redressed by 
the courage and sagacity of the " Hon. Archi- 
bald Dixon of Kentucky, true Author of the 
Repeal of the Missouri Compromise and be- 
loved husband of the writer," and these con- 
clusions are enforced by repeated assertion 
rather than by evidence and argument. 

The treatment of the Missouri Compromise 
is especially inconsistent and contradictory. 
Page after page is devoted to proof that Clay 
was not the author of the first Compromise, a 
fact now so well known that not even the tra- 
ditional schoolboy would need to be informed 
of it. Mrs. Dixon admits that slavery excluded 
free labor from the territories "as effectually as 
an act of Congress," and then denounces the 
Compromise of 1820 as working great injus- 
tice to the South by its exclusion of slave 
property. Why it was more unjust to exclude 
the Southern slave-owner by prohibiting slav- 
ery than to exclude the Northern laborer by 
admitting it, does not appear. She insists that 
the Compromise was not a Southern measure; 
though it was passed by Southern votes and 
was hailed by Southern men at the time as " a 
great triumph." She denies that the Missouri 
act was a " solemn compromise " between the 
sections, though Clay so described it ; and then 
she reproaches the North for breaking a com- 
pact by delaying the admission of Missouri. 
She seems to consider that the United States 
and Missouri were the parties to the compact, 
as if the State, in return for its admission by 
the United States, could guarantee the exclu- 
sion of slavery from territory beyond its limits. 
It is the same old chaff threshed over again. 
No amount of sophistry can make the Missouri 
act anything but a compact between the sec- 
tions. That it was not legally binding, must 
be admitted. That it was morally binding, can- 
not be gainsaid. 

The only contribution to history that Mrs. 
Dixon's book makes is contained in the few 
pages devoted to the drafting of Mr. Dixon's 
motion. Mrs. Dixon was married in October 
of 1853, and acted as her husband's amanuen- 
sis during the ensuing session of Congress. 
The value of her testimony is somewhat im- 
paired by her admission that at the time she 
understood little of what was going on, " being 



[Sept. 1, 

in fact another edition of Dora holding the 
pens," but it is nevertheless the testimony of 
an eye-witness. Mr. Dixon dictated the motion 
to her the evening before it was introduced. 
She re-wrote it a number of times until it suited 
him, and he afterwards copied in his own hand 
the draft that he introduced in the Senate. In 
the days following the motion, Mr. Dixon's 
friends called to congratulate him upon the 
step he had taken, and Douglas took him for 
the drive, during which he accepted the prin- 
ciple of Mr. Dixon's motion and the two men 
made to each other the grandiloquent speeches, 
expressive of mutual esteem, which Dixon after- 
wards repeated in his letter to Foote. The 
important point of the narrative is that the 
motion came as a surprise to everyone, and 
that Dixon made it upon his own initiative and 
without collusion with anyone. 

It has been charged that Seward inspired 
Dixon's motion, and this charge has recently 
been given an added importance by its accept- 
ance by so prominent and able a writer upon 
American history as is Professor Burgess of Co- 
lumbia University. In a review of Mr. Rhodes 's 
history, in the " Political Science Quarterly," 
Mr. Burgess said : 

" Mr. Seward ridiculed the doctrine of popular sov- 
ereignty, and knew that the passage of the Nebraska 
bill, with its ambiguous language about the abolition of 
the Missouri Compromise by the principle of the Com- 
promise of 1850, would set the whole country on fire 
again over the subject of slavery. Yet, according to his 
own confession, he incited his Whig friend, Senator 
Dixon of Kentucky, to move the amendment to the bill 
which cleared away all ambiguity and proposed directly 
the abolition of the Compromise of 1820; and he did 
this with the purpose of destroying the quiet of his 
country, rousing the slaveholders to violent words and 
deeds, and creating an issue upon which he might be 
borne into the presidency." 

Mr. Burgess repeats this charge, though some- 
what less positively, in his admirable little 
book entitled The Middle Period." The only 
evidence upon which it rests is a statement by 
Montgomery Blair that Seward told him that 
" he was the man who put Archy Dixon up to 
moving the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, 
as an amendment to Douglas's first Kansas bill, 
and had himself forced the repeal by that 
movement, and had thus brought to life the 
Republican party." This statement was made 
in a letter written immediately after Seward's 
death, for publication in an attack upon his 
memory. If it were true, it is certainly very 
extraordinary that Seward should have made 
Blair bis sole confidant, and that no other evi- 
dence of it has ever come to light. The charge 

is antecedently improbable. Seward and Dixon 
were not friends, as is assumed ; and though 
nominally members of the same party, they 
were really as far apart politically as the poles. 
Neither of them was likely to do a service for 
or put himself in the power of the other. As 
the charge was not made until after Seward's 
death, he never had an opportunity to meet it. 
Mr. Dixon indignantly denied it as soon as it 
came to his notice, and now Mrs. Dixon, nar- 
nating as an eye-witness the circumstances 
under which the motion was drafted, contrib- 
utes her testimony in support of the conclusion 
that Mr. Dixon acted independently and with- 
out consultation with anyone. Whatever credit 
or discredit attaches to his motion belongs to 
him and to him alone. j\ j-j HODDER. 


The great continent of Australia has a pecu- 
liar fascination for adventurous spirits. Its as- 
tounding dimensions about 2500 miles from 
east to west, and 1600 miles from north to 
south, containing about 3,000,000 square miles 
furnish adequate territory for explorers 
through many years to come. The last quarter 
century has seen hundreds and thousands of 
prospectors rush to the wilds of that land in 
search of gold. While a few had " a streak of 
luck," the great majority lost their all and 
many even their lives. Only a little rim around 
the coast of that new continent is occupied by 
enlightened peoples. The so-called districts of 
Australia flourish within easy reach of the sea, 
while the centre of the continent is almost one 
wild arid waste, covered with spinifex, a kind 
of desert grass, sand, and rocks, with only 
slight traces of life. 

Mr. Carnegie and a few companions landed 
in Western Australia in September, 1892, with 
their heads full of golden castles in the air. 
Into the mining regions of Coolgardie they 
plunged, eager to strike a vein of shiny metal. 
The fortunes of the early-on-the-ground pros- 
pectors drove them nearly frantic. But only 
after long searching and desperate circum- 
stances did they yield to the inevitable and 

SriNiFEX AMD SAND: A Narrative of Five Yean' Pio- 
neering and Exploration in Western Australia. With pocket 
charts and illustrations. By the Hon. David W. Carnegie. 
New York : M. F. Mansfield A Co. 

CORAL SKA. Being the Experience* and Observations of a 
Naturalist in Australia, New Guinea, and the Moluccas. By 
Richard Senion. With eighty-six illustrations and four 
map*. New York : The Macmillan Co. 




nter the employ of a company. In this capac- 
ity they found a salable mine, and wisely sold 
out. The small section of Mr. Carnegie's vol- 
ume dealing with these experiences is full of 
valuable hints and facts regarding the gold 
hunter's and miner's life in that sandy, almost 
waterless, region of Western Australia. The 
most instructive, though somewhat extended, 
portion of the book recites the daring of Mr. 
Carnegie in setting out to traverse this great 
desert from south to north a distance of one 
thousand miles in a bee line. Other explorers 
of Central Australia had met various fates : 
some had gone never to return ; others had 
started with fully equipped expeditions, and 
had barely reached civilization again. This 
adventurer chose a route of his own ; and with 
four companions, nine camels, a dog, and food 
and equipment for six months, he started in 
midwinter to penetrate the desert from south 
to north. After four and a half months of weary 
wandering over a deviating course of 1,413 
miles, he reached the northern rim of civiliza- 
tion. The most desperate want of explorers 
in this desert is water ; for days at a time, and 
sometimes even weeks, not a trace of water can 
be found, except dried-up or filthy pools in the 
hollows of rocks. But this desert is not abso- 
lutely uninhabited. The wild natives roam 
about in their solitude, living upon wild rats, 
snakes, birds, or whatever they can find. 
When the expedition had almost despaired of 
ever again finding water, a human footprint 
was found in the sand. It was followed, 
and a hundred yards ahead a wild man was 
seen digging up an iguana for his supper. He 
was caught, though only after a desperate 
struggle, and made fast by a rope. He was 
" about five feet, eight inches, thin but muscu- 
lar, with very large feet and small hands, very 
black, very dirty ; his only garment consisted 
of a band of string round his forehead, holding 
his hair back in a ragged mop-like mass. On 
his chest, raised scars ; through his nose, a hole 
ready to hold a bone or stick such was this 
child of the wilderness." He was fed on salt 
beef, with the double object of cementing friend- 
ship and promoting thirst. With the native 
leading the way, the caravan marched many 
weary hours. He often deceived them by tak- 
ing them to dry pits or dirty pools. But finding 
that he could not escape from his captors, nor 
obtain a drink of water, he led the caravan to 
an out-of-the-way place, where one could see 
merely a hole in the rocks. Climbing down 
into this recess, Mr. Carnegie discovered signs 

of water ; after lighting a fire and sliding down 
another narrow opening, he found at the bot- 
tom of it an abundant well of cool fresh water. 
The native had saved their lives, for not one 
man in a thousand could have found this hidden 

" From Sep. 16th t Nov. 16th we were never out of 
sight of a sand-ridge, and during that time traveled 420 
miles, taking into account all deviations consequent 
upon steering for smokes and tracking up natives, giv- 
ing an average of not quite seven miles a day, including 
stoppages. This ghastly desert is somewhat broken in 
its northern portion by the occurrence of sandstone 
tablelands, the Southesk Tablelands ; the southern part, 
. . . presents nothing to the eye but ridge upon ridge 
of sand, running with the regularity of the drills in a 
ploughed field. A vast, howling wilderness of high, 
spinifex-clad ridges of red sand, so close together that 
in a day's march we crossed from sixty to eighty ridges, 
so steep that often the camels had to crest them on their 
knees, and so barren and destitute of vegetation (sav- 
ing spinifex) that one marvels how even camels could 
pick up a living. I estimate their average vertical 
height from trough to crest at fifty to sixty feet. Some 
. . . reached a height of considerably over one hundred 
feet. Sometimes the ridges would be a quarter of a 
mile apart, and sometimes ridge succeeded ridge like 
the waves of the sea." 

The expedition's only salvation through all 
these weary marches was the frequent captivity 
of the wild natives of these trackless regions. 
Their familiarity with their roaming ground 
made them valuable to Mr. Carnegie, as they 
always knew where good water could be found. 
By December 4 Hall's Creek was reached, with 
the loss of one member of the expedition 
through an accident. After enjoying the good 
things of civilization for a time, the same com- 
pany, with a somewhat different equipment, 
plunged into the desert to return to Coolgardie, 
but by a somewhat different route. Their skill 
in capturing and controlling the natives, and 
in finding through them an abundance of water 
at frequent intervals, made this a much more 
satisfactory campaign. 

The author has prepared useful folding 
charts of the routes followed in these cam- 
paigns. They are so fully detailed as to make 
them of invaluable service to other explorers 
of these regions. Useful appendices describe 
some of the customs and weapons of the little- 
known natives, and the principal features of 
Western Australia. The whole story is told 
in direct, clear, plain English, with few pre- 
tenses of literary merit. 

Professor Semon, of Jena, Germany, is a 
naturalist who was so fortunate as to secure 
pecuniary support for a journey to Australia, 
to study the fauna, the oviparous animals, 



[Sept. 1, 

marsupials, and the ceratodus, a fish. This 
volume (the English edition of a work which 
first appeared in German) is a narrative, almost 
a diary, of the author's two years' experience, 
observations, and thoughts. Its style is some- 
what grandiose, and its method of telling things 
rather long drawn out and often wearisome. 
One cannot but feel that there is often a studied 
effort to say as much as can be said about 
almost every event or thing mentioned (for 
example pp. 118, 121). The translator, too, 
is often at fault in not rendering the German 
into idiomatic English, for example (p. 161), 
in speaking of the egg of echidna, the author 
is made to say, " it is very remindful of a tor- 
toise egg." 

But aside from the somewhat wearisome 
method of detail, to be seen in quotations given 
below, the book is full of genuine interest. 
This lies entirely in the facts presented, and in 
the author's masterful knowledge of his own 
specialty. Although not writing a technical 
treatise, he still describes in a popular manner 
quite a variety of the fauna of Australia. His 
experience, however, on this continent was lim- 
ited to the eastern coast of Queensland, and to 
the islands adjacent to its most northern cape, 
with a short run through the East Indies. He 
describes in one long chapter and with ample 
detail the character of the natives with whom 
he dealt. His conclusion on one point is as 
follows : 

" We find the intellect and senses of the Australian 
brilliantly developed in all directions bearing on the 
hunt, i. e., an excessively sharp power of observation, 
topographic sense and memory, and a particular fac- 
ulty of drawing conclusions from the smallest signs and 
traces, as to the whereabouts, the occupations, and the 
actual state of the game. All this, combined with great 
dexterity in the use of weapons, makes any Australian 
game the helpless prey of these perfect huntsmen. 
Therefore it is a great error to represent Australians 
as a half-starved miserable race struggling for life 
under the hardest conditions. The very contrary is the 

Mr. Carnegie, who travelled more than three 
thousand miles through the wilds of Australia, 
and had larger observation, came to quite a 
different general conclusion in his " Spinifex 
and Sand. 1 ' 

But the really valuable information con- 
tributed in Professor Semon's book lies not in its 
generalizations, but in its specific descriptions 
of local conditions and things. The habits of 
life, the character and peculiar significance of 
the Ceratodus (p. 90 Jr.), the Ornithorhyn- 
chus (p. 42/V), the Echidna (p. 157/.), and 
other less famous life of Australia, are set forth 

in a manner that will make a naturalist, for 
the time being, of any reader. The peculiar 
fauna, the topography of the islands, the lux- 
urious vegetation, the shrewd natives of the 
East Indies, are pictured with the same detail 
that we find regarding Australia. His descrip- 
tion of the Papuans of New Guinea possesses 

" The disposition of the Papuans is light and gay. 
Solemn and grave as is the mein and deportment of the 
old gentlemen, the laughing youth forms the domineer- 
ing element in every village. The Papuan is of a de- 
cidedly domestic turn, and has much taste for the joys 
of family life. Man and wife though most of the 
men boast several spouses are generally very fond of 
each other, the women especially being much attached 
to their husbands, by whom they are in general kindly 
treated. . . . The children grow up in full freedom and 
without restraint, drilling, or bullying of any kind. 
They thus form a happy assemblage, amiable and sym- 
pathetic if somewhat boisterous, ... so pleasing in 
their boldness and freedom from restraint that it is 
impossible to be angry with them." 

Regarding the Malays of Java, he says : 

" I believe the Malays to be the cleanest of all un- 
civilized races. A warm climate in itself is by no means 
a guarantee of cleanly habits, and African negroes, 
Papuans, and, above all, the inhabitants of tropical Aus- 
tralia, show a deplorable disregard of these. . . . We 
may regard cleanliness as a national Malayan virtue." 

The greatest value of this work must be seen, 
then, in the careful observations of the author, 
the popular scientific descriptions he gives of 
men, beasts, fishes, fowls, lands, seas, jungles, 
villages, cities, governments, customs, rites, 
and everyday life as he found it in the south- 
eastern hemisphere. Four good maps aid the 
reader in following the journeys of the nat- 
uralist. IRA M. PRICE. 


Three soberly-written and thoughtful volumes, 
now before us, seem especially adapted to facilitate 
the consideration of what is now established in the 
public mind aa the Case of Cuba. The first, by 
Mr. Robert T. Hill, of the U. S. Geological Survey, 
is a well-digested and compact manual of the West 
India Islands as studied by a trained scientific ob- 

* CUBA AND POKTO Rico. With the Other Islands of the 
West Indies : Their Topography, Climate, Flora, Products, 
Industries, Cities, Political Conditions, etc. By Robert T. 
Hill, of the United States Geological Surrey. New York : 
The Century Co. 

COMMERCIAL CUBA : A Book for Business Men. By Will- 
liam T. Clark. New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 

INDUSTRIAL CUBA. Being a Study of Present Industrial 
and Commercial Conditions, with Suggestions as to Opportu- 
nities Presented in the Island for American Capital, Enter- 
prise, and Labor. By Robert P. Porter, Special Commissioner 
for the United States to Cuba and Porto Rico. With illus- 
trations and maps. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 




server. It appears to have been prepared, chiefly, 
before the late war with Spain, with the purpose of 
presenting to the people of the United States a 
plain, unvarnished, and unprejudiced account of 
our neighbors that skirt the Caribbean waters. 

The second of these volumes, by Mr. William T. 
Clark, applies to Cuba only. Its author has inves- 
tigated the island with direct reference to its prom- 
ise as an opening for business enterprises from the 
United States. The book contains much important 
statistical information, and a pretty full gazetteer 
of the Cuban cities and towns. One who proposes 
entering Cuba for business, agricultural, mining, or 
commercial purposes will find that Mr. Clark has 
foreseen and answered many of the questions which 
would naturally arise. 

The third is by Mr. Robert P. Porter, well known 
as a publicist and as the Commissioner of the United 
States Census of 1890. Soon after the signing of 
the protocol of peace between Spain and the United 
States, August 12, 1898, Mr. Porter was sent to 
Cuba by President McKinley as a special commis- 
sioner to observe and report upon the conditions of 
the island, industrial, commercial, and financial. 
In the prosecution of his mission Mr. Porter visited 
all the provinces and most of the cities and prin- 
cipal towns of Cuba, examined many witnesses, and 
collected a vast amount of evidence, personal and 
documentary. This volume, if not his report in 
exact form as made to the President, may be ac- 
cepted as his report to the American people, deal- 
ing with the vital questions that confront the repub- 
lic as to the new life to be presently entered upon 
by this hitherto unfortunate island, once called the 
Key of the New World. The official position of 
the writer and his recognized fitness for such a 
mission, lends to his work peculiar interest as well 
as a large measure of authority. 

Questions of great moment confront the people, 
both of the United States and of Cuba, as to the 
relations which these peoples may rightfully main- 
tain towards each other, and as to the wisest methods 
by which the solution of pending questions may be 
reached. These problems must receive immediate 
consideration. It is to be hoped that passion, pre- 
judice, and greed may not be permitted to dictate 
the adjustment of interests so momentous. 

But little more than a year ago, the strained rela- 
tions between our government and that of Spain 
came to a rupture. The conflict between Spain and 
her colony had assumed the phase of a war of ex- 
termination. In a brief period, five hundred thou- 
sand human beings, men, women, and children, had 
perished, a few in fight, most of them by starvation. 
The war was pitiless in its methods and inhuman 
in its purposes against the insurgents, including in 
general all born in the island, and all occupied as 
planters, with their employees and dependants. 
Impelled by motives both of humanity and self- 
interest, the government of the United States flung 
its sword into the scale. None, whether Spaniards, 
Cubans, or Americans, in the arena of combat, or 

of the throng of European spectators who crowded 
the galleries as interested observers, doubted for a 
moment the outcome of the combat. Few supposed 
that the Spaniard would or could yield to a demand 
upon paper until the virility of the demand was 
shown by the actual clash of arms. The lightning 
strokes came swiftly, and with an intensity which 
astonished even those who manipulated the dread 
artillery. Three rounds, one in the Bay of Manila, 
one on the heights above Santiago, and one in the 
sea before its harbor, sufficed to demonstrate even 
to Spanish pride the imperative logic of superior 
force. Then followed the overture of peace, the 
protocol, the treaty, the evacuation, the transfer of 
authority, the exchange of ratifications, and under 
the proclamation of the President peace again 
reigns at least as to our relations with Spain. 

The combatants may now estimate their losses, 
count their gains, and strike a balance. The Span- 
ish Queen Regent may enter up the loss of prestige, 
the loss of fleets, and the loss of the last of her once 
imperial colonies. As to this, may we not find in 
Queen Christina another Christiana, from whose 
weary shoulders falls a most oppressive burden? 
One can imagine her, like the Apostle, having long 
prayed, " Who shall deliver me from the body of 
this death ? " Perhaps before the altar of her hu- 
miliation, the wailing music of the Miserere becomes 
transposed into the rejoicing strains of the Te Deum. 

Our venerated Uncle Sam will write in his note- 
book that he has fulfilled his promise by lifting the 
yoke from the suffering Cubans, that he has ac- 
quired a fine collection of islands, and that he has 
paid twenty millions for a white elephant still at 
large in the jungle. The actual value of the ele- 
phant as yet appears to be res non adjudicata. 

Here, as everywhere, the future treads upon the 
heels of the past. From the President to the hum- 
blest citizen, everyone is asking, What is to be done 
with Cuba? Can there be any doubt that our gov- 
ernment should, with wise deliberation, proceed to 
fulfil the promise made when Congress declared 
that " Cuba is, and of right ought to be, free " ? Is 
there any reason to doubt that events are moving 
toward that end as rapidly as the conditions will 
reasonably permit ? A most important step was the 
payment and disbanding of the Cuban army. Now 
the pressing need is the active resumption of agri- 
cultural occupations, which will signalize the actual 
return to the normal conditions of peaceful life. 

To the American mind there can be little doubt 
that the ultimate good of Cuba, to herself, will be 
found in annexation to the United States. Her 
position among the nations as a member of this 
powerful republic will be of far more importance 
than that which she could maintain as a young and 
feeble, though independent state, even if she were 
to continue to enjoy the protection of her strong 
neighbor. Entering into the republic, she would 
enjoy, as fully as do the other states, the benefits of 
home rule in all questions that concern local inter- 
ests and social life, and perhaps more fully than, 



[Sept. 1, 

in her present stage of political education, she could 
profit by in the highest degree. At the same 
time she would participate in all the advantages 
arising from a strong national organization, with- 
out either the cost or the difficulty of establishing 
and maintaining them by herself. It is like the 
opportunity offered to a young advocate of admis- 
sion to an old, strong, and successful firm. Her 
share in the support of an army and navy, in the 
conduct of foreign affairs, the collection of revenue, 
the maintenance of a postal service, etc., would be 
far less in amount and far greater in returns if she 
were e pluribus unum than if she were doing all 
these things for herself, by herself. 

Since the close of hostilities, time has not sufficed 
for a readjustment of affairs in accordance with 
changed conditions, but some financial reliefs have 
already made themselves felt The most important 
of these is the removal of excessive Spanish exac- 
tions. The assessments of the Spanish govern- 
ment upon Cuba in the fiscal year 1895-96 were 
$24,756,760, increased by the peculations of public 
officials, estimated at ten millions more, making 
a grand total of about $35,000,000. Of this 
sum, $17,996,842 was applied to purposes deter- 
mined by dependency upon Spain, as the army, 
navy, military and civil pensions, and especially ten 
and one-half millions of interest upon the Spanish 
debt. Of the thirty-five millions exacted under 
Spanish misrule, only about seven millions, or twenty 
per cent, will survive liberation from Spanish sov- 
ereignty. The sums formerly expended for local 
government, for public improvement, for education, 
may be largely increased, as doubtless they ought 
to be, and still the exactions by government be only 
a small fraction of their former extravagance. This 
result would be certain to follow under the methods 
of United States rule. 

Moreover, the United States has been and is the 
Cuban's best customer. In 1890, Cuba's exports to 
the United States amounted roundly to $58,500,- 
000, or 88 per cent of the total for the year. Spain 
was the next best customer, taking II. 1 , per cent. 
In the five years ending June 30, 1895, Cuba's ex- 
ports to the United States amounted to nearly 
$347,000,000. These aggregates will surely be 
subject to large expansion whenever the barriers 
are removed which separate the two countries as 
foreign nations. The devices adopted by the Span- 
ish government to repress production, and by so 
doing to increase importations, and therefore rev- 
enue, strike an American singularly. In Cuba, cul- 
tivators of cocoa have paid on their product a 
revenue tax of 5.7 cents per pound ; of coffee, 5.4 
cents per pound. In Porto Rico, such agricultural 
products as maize and potatoes paid an internal 
revenue tax. Importation, which added to customs 
dues, was preferred to cultivation. 

The pledge of our nation will forbid annexation 
on any terms that do not command the sentiment 
and the suffrages of the Cubans themselves. Will 

they discern the facts and the trend of their true 
interests ? 

Should any doubt arise as to the desirability of 
the annexation of Cuba to the United States, it 
should be found among the citizens of the Union 
rather than from Cubans. The American is very 
likely to be incredulous as to the capacity of the 
Cuban for self-government. The examples shown 
by other nations of the same stock are hardly en- 
couraging. For four hundred years the islander 
has vegetated under the enervating rigiine of a 
colonial despotism. He has suffered under constant 
disabilities and ruinous exactions. What immuni- 
ties he has enjoyed he has bought secretly on terms 
as injurious to his own fine fibre as to that of him 
whom he bribed. It takes a long and patient 
schooling to educate national character, and, un- 
fortunately, the only school is that of experience, 
which allows nothing for novices. Such education 
the English colonist received during a century and 
a half before he took up the burden of a separate 
national existence. The experience was severe, but 
it stiffened his muscular fibre and developed his 
backbone ; and such an experience the Spaniard has 
not received. The English and the Spanish races 
were not cast in the same moulds, and are not likely 
to run smoothly in the same grooves. 

Americans err who imagine that there is terri- 
tory in Cuba in a condition similar to that of the 
once wild country of the great American plains, or 
that of the Pacific Coast. Uncultivated lands are 
plenty, but, technically considered, no lands are un- 
occupied. There are no land titles to be vacated, 
no lands to be surveyed and brought into market, 
to be sold by government agents to any purchasers 
who may lay down a price fixed by law. Lands 
may be bought and sold, but only as in Connecticut 
or Virginia, at the option of a present owner. 

The Cuban will be glad to deal with the Amer- 
ican, if he will stay on his own side of the water. 
He will be most happy to use American capital, if 
the American will not insist on sitting down beside 
him and sharing the management. The cry of 
Cuba for Cubans " has already arisen, and it will 
become more intense should large inroads be made 
by Americans upon Cuban territory. The carpet- 
bag will be quite as serious an offense in Cuba as 
it ever was in our own South. 

The development of Cuba is likely to benefit the 
colored race. The repulsion which exists between 
the races in the States shows itself in no compar- 
able degree in the island. The twilight zone of 
mixed blood is wide in Cuba, and the gradations 
are not clearly marked, while the lines in the South 
are becoming more sharply defined. In 1887 the 
population of Cuba was 1,631,677, of whom 485,- 
187 were of African dtwent. The present popu- 
lation is supposed to be about 1,300,000, of whom 
300,000 are of African blood. The differences 
indicate in a degree the loss of life produced by the 
system called reconcentration," which was most 




severely felt by the laboring classes. These losses 
point to a loss in the supply of labor, and to a future 
demand that may draw labor from the Southern 

The commercial interests of both Cuba and the 
United States will be favored by the admission of 
Cuba into the Union ; and such interests are likely 
to prevail. The sentiment of the Cuban may pre- 
fer independence. The sentiment of a considerable 
body of the people of the States doubts the wisdom 
of bringing into the American system any country 
not educated in American political and social econ- 
omy, and dreads to have such an element as one of 
Spanish descent domiciled in the American Senate. 
Under the pledges solemnly given by our govern- 
ment to Cuba, to Spain, and to the world, the United 
States may not lay upon Cuba the mailed hand of 
the conqueror. She must be joined to the United 
States, if at all, as the result of her own choice, 

freely made. 



Literary relation, M ' Joseph Texte's Jean-Jacques 

between France Rousseau and the Cosmopolitan 
and England. g pirit in Literature" (Macmillan) 
is a study of the literary relations between France 
and England during the eighteenth century. M. 
Texte has produced a decidedly acute and valuable 
essay in this rich yet comparatively unworked field 
of critical research, and in Mr. J. W. Matthews he 
has found a competent translator. Mme. De 
StaeTs observation that " There exist two entirely 
distinct literatures, that which springs from the 
South and that which springs from the North," 
would not to-day meet with that unqualified assent 
with which Frenchmen, especially, used to hail it. 
The central idea of Mme. De StaeTs theory, the 
habit of contrasting Latin with non-Latin tradition, 
Southern literature with Northern " humanism," 
remains ; but it is recognized that while Mme. De 
StaeTs distinction still holds good in substance, 
the sway of the old " classical " spirit is no longer 
supreme and undisputed in French literature, and 
it is now a question whether or no France will in 
the future preserve that veneration for antiquity to 
which the national intellect adhered for three or 
four centuries. She has for a hundred years past 
drifted in a measure from her ancient moorings 
into the current followed by the younger and more 
self-sufficing literatures. Will she return to Greece, 
to Rome, to the French classics ? Or will she turn 
to England, to Germany, to Russia, in fine, to the 
North ? The origin of the influence of the classical 
spirit upon the French genius has been fully dis- 
cussed ; that of the rival cosmopolitan spirit has 
been infrequently, and, M. Texte thinks, very 
inaccurately, dealt with. In the present work he 
endeavors to supply this want of a thorough 

and impartial inquest into the origin and bearings 
of cosmopolitanism, going back not merely, as is 
usually done, to the romantic school, but to the 
eighteenth century and to Rousseau for it was he 
who, " on behalf of the Germanic races of Europe, 
struck a blow at the time-honored supremacy of the 
Latin races." M. Texte's central aim is to exhibit 
Rousseau as the great creator of a taste and need 
in France for the literatures of the North. " The 
cosmopolitan spirit was born, during the eighteenth 
century, of the fruitful union between the English 
genius and that of Jean-Jacques." Such is the 
thesis of M. Texte's book. It is quite true, as the 
author concedes, that English influence was potent 
in France before Rousseau had begun to write. The 
revocation of the Edict of Nantes founded in England 
a colony of French propagandists in their fatherland, 
of English ideas, not alone nor most momentously in 
the field of literature. Conceive for an instant the 
normal and inevitable effect of the doctrines of 
Locke upon a keenly intelligent, profoundly discon- 
tented, and barbarously misgoverned nation, like 
the French of the eighteenth century. When the 
Grand Monarch drove that band of active-minded, 
observant Protestant subjects of his to speculative, 
freedom-loving England it was as if he had in effect 
bade them : " Go among these rebellious, free- 
thinking islanders, study their ways, taste their 
liberty, imbibe their ideas, and send the results of 
your observations and comparisons back to France 
that she, too, may understand the rationale and 
learn the lessons of the movements of 1649 and 
1688." M. Texte's appreciations of Sterne and 
Richardson are most interesting. On the whole, 
the book is one of the freshest and most stimulating 
critical studies that it has been our good fortune 
to meet with of late, and it is decidedly readable, as 
well as instructive. 

Theiooked-for Lord Charles Beresford's "The 
"Break-up" Break-Up of China" (Harper) is 
of China. substantially a printed report of the 

author's recent tour of investigation in China at the 
instance of the Associated Chambers of Commerce 
of Great Britain. It is a volume of statistics rather 
than a travel-book proper, written without literary 
pretension, and with little or no view to the mere 
entertainment of the reader. While the report deals 
chiefly with purely commercial questions, the author 
has not denied himself an occasional flight into the 
region of " high politics "; and his familiar, and we 
think substantially sound, views as to the expedi- 
ency and propriety of upholding the political and 
geographical integrity of the Chinese Empire and 
the securing therein a fair, free, and well safe- 
guarded field for trade, in the interest of all, China 
not excepted, are restated and reinforced. Lord 
Beresf ord takes a too sanguine view, apparently, of 
the not remote future possibilities of the present, 
we fear, rather ephemeral and sentimental Anglo- 
American entente cordiale. Does not Anglo-Sax- 
onism mean, after all, to the British mind something 



[Sept. 1, 

very like anti-Russianism ? Is there not at the root 
of this new idea, as it floats in the mind of the av- 
erage Briton, more of apprehension than of broth- 
erly love? Then there is our "foreign vote," so 
largely and bitterly an anti-English vote, and a 
most formidable bar in the way of our government's 
accomplishing or even proposing anything however 
useful or broadly philanthropic in the way of a for- 
mal understanding with England. A Dreibund, 
uniting for certain specific commercial purposes 
America, England, and Germany, might be feasible 
certainly more feasible than anything in the 
nature of an Anglo-American alliance, against 
which our imperfectly Americanized fellow-citizens 
would at once join forces, and for whose support 
one or other of our leading political parties would 
infallibly bid. To an American these considera- 
tions may be obvious and elementary enough ; but 
our English friends seem to overlook them. Lord 
Beresford noted, manifestly to his disappointment, 
that the pretty general acquiescence in this country 
in the " Open Door " principle had not got beyond 
the stage of mere sentiment. People here applauded 
his remarks on the subject, and were very friendly 
and cordial ; but they were evidently not inclined 
to view the question of devising a definite policy 
looking to the furtherance and safe-guarding of 
American trade in China as yet within the range 
of practical politics. In Japan, on the contrary, 
there was " every indication of a desire to act in 
some practical manner in order to secure the " Open 
Door." Lord Beresford's book is a useful and 
thorough presentation of current trade conditions 
in the Chinese Empire, and it conveys a fair idea 
of what may be done and must be done if the pres- 
ent political status quo is to be usefully maintained 
as against the alternative of dismemberment and 
division into tariff-walled dependencies. The vol- 
ume is well equipped with maps and statistical 
tables, and there is a capital portrait of the author, 
showing a sturdy, sailor-like figure standing with 
legs well apart as if braced against any sudden 
twist or capriole in the roll of the ship. 

Mr. Leo Wiener's book on " Yiddish 
Literature in the Nineteenth Cen- 
tury " (Scribner) deserves a welcome 
from a varied audience. Of the import of the book 
to those who themselves read or speak Yiddish, it 
is hardly necessary for us to say anything at all : 
they will perhaps appreciate its value rather more 
accurately than we. For we must confess ourselves 
ignorant of Yiddish, as are doubtless most of our 
readers. The name, of course, is not unfamiliar : 
further, the knowledge that the language is com- 
monly spoken in the Jewish colonies in our great 
cities, as well as abroad, may be fairly general. 
But any real appreciation of Yiddish literature, or 
even acquaintance with k, is rare among general 
readers. Yet it appears from Mr. Wiener's his- 
torical sketch, and from the extracts which make 
up a good part of his book, that there is much that 

that it called 

is worth knowing about Those who have been 
interested in social problems have long been in the 
habit of considering the Jewish element among us : 
they will find in the account of this literature much 
that should make this curious social fraction better 
understood. There are also those for whom the 
Jewish strain in literature and art has a special 
charm the strain of Spinoza, Heine, Disraeli, to 
speak of literature only ; and these will be glad to 
see what is the work in letters of the Jews who 
remain Jews, how far it has the quality and the 
spirit of those great men who seem to have out- 
stepped the boundaries of the chosen people. But 
further, and more particularly, there are many now 
who are eagerly on the lookout for a new literature. 
Think how many exotic sensations we have had in 
the last decade Bulgarian, Persian, Polish, "Afro- 
American," Scandinavian, Russian, not to speak of 
the four more common polite languages. These 
tastes of the literature of peoples very different 
from ourselves have a peculiar quality. This Yid- 
dish has a pathetic charm, a quaint delicacy which 
is very rare, although it may not perhaps precisely 
belong to it The very strangeness, the half -mystery, 
stimulates the imagination and gives a peculiar 
beauty which may vanish as one learns the language 
better, leaving in its place a sounder appreciation. 
Mr. Wiener gives a sketch of the history of the 
literature in the present century, sometimes rather 
dry on account of having to deal with commonplace 
material, sometimes most attractive and really crit- 
ical, as especially in his handling of Perez and 
Abramowitsch. From the examples of Yiddish with 
English translations it appears that the language is 
( naturally ) not very difficult to the reader of Ger- 
man, though it cannot be very easy to learn well 
without more help. Mr. Wiener says that if the 
present work arouses interest he will undertake a 
more complete Chrestomathy : we think many be- 
sides ourselves would welcome such a book. We 
may add, for the benefit of those whose interest in 
Jewish literature is aroused by Mr. Wiener's book, 
that a short history is just published in " Chapters 
on Jewish Literature " by Israel Abrahams (Jewish 
Publication Society). In short compass and in a 
popular way the author considers the literature of 
the Jewish people from the fall of Jerusalem till 
the time of Moses Mendelssohn, about the period 
at which Mr. Wiener's book begins. 

It is now some years since accounts 
appeared in the papers of the remark- 
able case concerning Mr. Whistler's 
" Brown and Gold : Portrait of Lady E.," and we 
have now Mr. Whistler's presentation of the mat- 
ter. " The Baronet and the Butterfly : A Valen- 
tine with a Verdict" (Russell) is a very curious 
work, not so clever as " The Gentle Art of Making 
Enemies " (for there is not so much really by Mr. 
Whistler himself) but still very suggestive. It is 
not worth while to recall to mind the facts in the 
case : Sir William Eden wanted damages and got 

iff. WMttltr't 




them, while Mr. Whistler wished " to expose pub- 
licly the ungrateful trickster," and did so. Nor do 
we attach very great importance to the alleged es- 
tablishment of certain advances in the sacred cause 
of Art against the Philistines. Our interest in the 
book comes largely from the light, or rather dark- 
ness, that it throws on the character of Mr. Whistler. 
Whether Sir William Eden deserves all the names 
he is here called, is not a matter to disturb us, and 
the sacred cause of Art does not seem to call for 
special championship at this moment ; but the genius 
of Mr. Whistler is something worth knowing as 
thoroughly as we can. So far as his power as a 
painter is concerned, it is now by very many greatly 
appreciated. But here comes the curious question : 
How can a man whose mood as a painter has so 
much of exquisiteness, of reserve, of dignity, of 
power (not to mention peculiarly artistic qualities), 
how can such a man conceive the nervously clever 
quips and the labored pettinesses that we see in Mr. 
Whistler's letters and comments? This has always 
appeared very strange to us. We have often found 
it hard to sympathize with Mr. Whistler in the 
fundamental right of his position, because of the 
eccentric temper in which he maintains it. We do 
not want to hold a ridiculous and conventional 
opinion of what the character of an artist should 
be, but we are jarred by such incongruity of ex- 
pression in a man whose work has such a claim 
upon one as Mr. Whistler's has. Is it only through 
the chance of time that we do not have evidence of 
the same thing in his friend Velasquez? Or is it 
that our time has really developed genius to " a 
disease of the nerves " ? Perhaps rather the last. 
Somebody, we believe, suggests that Mr. Whistler 
the artist can only exist by virtue of the purging 
ebullitions of Mr. Whistler the humorist. It may 
be so. We have nothing better to suggest : we can 
merely look forward with interest to a sympathetic 
life of Mr. Whistler by somebody else. 

Miss Rose G. Kingsley's " A History 
of French Art : 1100-1899 " (Long- 
^^ mans) is a concise, authoritative 

manual prepared for the use of those in quest of 
solid information, and therefore issued without the 
popular bait of pictorial allurements. The sober 
and solid make-up of this handsomely printed vol- 
ume does not belie its content. The author is 
officier de ^instruction publique, and the work was 
prepared at the instance and with the assistance of 
M. Antonin Barthele'my. Other well known French 
authorities have also aided in its preparation, and 
we have as a result a really sound and trustworthy 
account of the growth of French architecture, sculp- 
ture, and painting from the 12th century to the 
present day. The author has been somewhat chary, 
judiciously so perhaps, in the matter of obtruding 
her own views and personality, though the element 
of general criticism or disquisition is not altogether 
lacking. Actual information and impartial charac- 
terization has been the ideal of attainment ; and the 

A concise 
manual of 
French Art. 

result is a guide to the history, development, and 
manifestations of French art during the extended 
period treated, which we cordially recommend to 
serious inquirers. A useful modicum of biographical 
and personal matter forms an agreeable leaven, and 
characteristic masterpieces are soberly and discrim- 
inatingly described. The work, despite its wide 
chronological range, is far from being a mere cata- 
logue raisonnS. The author gives a very good ac- 
count of ''Impressionism," which movement, she 
takes occasion to say, " has too often signified the 
daubings of some young person ignorant of the very 
first principles of drawing or painting, who dares to 
call himself an ' Impressionist ' because he is too 
lazy or impatient to submit to the ceaseless training 
and study that are necessary to the artist ; too igno- 
rant to use his brush or his pencil, and takes to a 
palette-knife instead. It is such as these who bring 
discredit on the really fine artists whom they pre- 
tend to admire." These are just words, if severe 
ones ; and it is really a pity that the affectations 
and absurdities of these young daubers who cloak 
their incapacity and their ignorance of the rudiments 
of technique under the pretense of "Impressionism," 
should have brought a certain stigma upon the term 
that is used to define the methods of masters like 
Monet, Besnard, Manet, or Renoir. 

"Lady Louisa Stuart: Selections 
Some *pngMiy from hep Manuscripts" (Harper) is 

old-lime gossip. .11 i r tt . 

a sprightly volume of old-time gossip, 
edited by the Hon. James Home. Lady Stuart was 
a daughter of John, third Earl of Bute, one of 
George Third's Prime Ministers ; and the picture 
she paints of some of the personages prominent at 
the court of that monarch are racy, amusing, and 
at times slightly malicious especially where the 
sitter chances to be of the writer's own pex. Lady 
Stuart was born in 1757, and died in 1851. Her 
tastes were literary, and she had the knack of ex- 
pression ; but she was deterred from publishing by 
the fact that it was then thought beneath the dig- 
nity of people " of quality " to appear in print, like 
common Grub Street bodies. Tempora moresque 
mutantur. Nowadays " the quality " not only writes 
for print, but eke publishes ; and had Lady Stuart 
lived to-day she might, without forfeiture of caste, 
have joined the craft of Johnson to that of Cave. 
The story of the descensus of the British Aristocracy 
from the pinnacle of patronship to the depths of 
authorship might be worth writing. One regrets 
that Lady Stuart could not have foreseen the day 
(now with us) when a great lady could, with the 
applause of her order, issue a magazine, and angle, 
through the advertiser's arts, for the shillings of the 
public in support of her venture. Once, indeed, 
Lady Stuart did appear formally in print, over her 
own patrician signature to wit, in an Introduction 
to a life of her grandmother, Lady Mary Wortley 
Montagu, some share of whose ability she seems to 
us to have inherited. In fine, Lady Stuart's me- 
moir is crisp and entertaining, and not without value 



[Sept. 1, 

in the way of portraiture. An element of interest 
is the author's correspondence with Sir Walter 
Scott, Lady Montagu, and Lady Lockhart. There 
is a portrait of Lady Stuart at ninety-four, after an 
oil sketch by Hayter. 

neat little volume forming the 
Second Series of Mr. Francis Watt's 

Lane) differs from its predecessor in that its con- 
tents are of more general interest, and are treated 
with greater fulness of detail and in a style more 
suited to the entertainment of the lay reader. The 
contents comprise seven brief papers which serve to 
illustrate the old English law and its ways, and 
incidentally to make the reader feel how much bet- 
ter these matters are ordered nowadays how much 
more rationally, humanely, and scientifically. Gro- 
tesqueness and barbarity, the principle of the ven- 
geance of society on the criminal (rather than the 
preventive theory), so amply and shockingly in- 
stanced in Mr. New's pages, have pretty thoroughly 
departed from English law. Gone are the days 
when executions were public (and terribly fre- 
quent) spectacles to which people flocked as to the 
Lord Mayor's Show, and which bred " amateurs of 
executions," connoisseurs who never missed a hang- 
ing and who paid well for a choice window or bal- 
cony fronting Tyburn Tree, like Boswell and George 
Selwyn the latter of whom, when he had a tooth 
drawn, used affectedly " to let fall his handkerchief 
<i la Tyburn, as a signal for the operation." Mr. 
Watt's present titles are : Tyburn Tree ; Pillory and 
Cart's Tail ; State Trials for Witchcraft ; A Pair 
of Parricides ; Some Disused Roads to Matrimony ; 
The Border Law ; The Sergeant-at-Law. Mr. Watt 
has evidently delved deep in the mine of obsolete 
law and by-gone legal procedure and execution, and 
he. has produced a book which lawyers may read 
with profit, and laymen with interest. 

Memoir* of 

i toUlifr 

The special value of the " Memoirs of 
Sergeant Bourgogne: 1812-1813" 
** Napoiton. (Doubleday & McClure Co.) lies in 
the fact that they tell the story of Napoleon's Rus- 
sian campaign from the point of view of the com- 
mon soldier. M. de Se*gur has given us the narrative 
of the staff officer ; in Bourgogne's pages we read 
the coarser and more harrowing side of the story. 
Seldom have the horrors of war been depicted by a 
more literal and unaffected pen. In no previous 
record, we think, of this mad enterprise has the 
utter demoralization of the invading army, its grad- 
ual dissolution into a broken and fleeing horde of 
disorganized stragglers, been so impressively real- 
ized. Bourgogne's personal adventures, while 
plainly and artlessly told, were most dramatic. The 
editor, M. Paul Cottin, provides an interesting 
sketch of the author, and there are a number of 
illustrations after drawings made by an officer dur- 
ing the retreat. The memoir forms a historical 
document of no slight value. 

8*m* Count* Anything that will serve to awaken,t <md in the existing generation of Amer- 
icans a recognition of national tradi- 
tions and manners is to be welcomed at a time when 
we bid fair to throw our most highly cherished 
ideals to the fates. Quite apart from this, such an 
undertaking as is launched in the first volume of 
Some Colonial Mansions and Those Who Lived 
in Them " (Henry T. Coates & Co.), edited by Mr. 
Thomas Glenn Allen, deserves high praise. A large 
octavo, well bound, carefully printed and admirably 
illustrated, it keeps alive the memory of some of 
the families of the early day whose members exerted 
no small influence on all subsequent American life. 
Such names as Harrison, Stockton, Van Rensselaer, 
Carter, Randolph, Livingston, and Carroll, among 
others not now so well known, bring to mind the 
diverse elements which were fused together to make 
up the idea of America, and cannot fail of a useful 
purpose. Nearly all of the colonies outside of New 
England have been drawn upon, and the book 
abounds in pictures of houses and their interiors, of 
family portraits, and of many other things which 
recall a living past. 


An English translation of Maupassant's " Boule de 
Sui f," the work of Mr. Arthur Symons, is published by 
Mr. William Heinemann of London in a beautiful vol- 
ume, printed upon Japanese vellum, and illustrated with 
more than fifty wood-engravings from drawings by 
M. F. The*venot. Mr. Symons also writes a few intro- 
ductory pages. "Boule de Suifisone of the most 
artistic short stories ever written, and suffers at the 
hands of the translator no more than is absolutely un- 
avoidable. It is not exactly a story for the young per- 
son, but this warning need hardly be sounded for those 
who are likely to be attracted by the present notice. 

The versatile Mr. Grant Allen has been recently en- 
gaged, among other occupations, in the preparation 
of a series of historical guides to the chief European 
cities and countries. As a sort of complement to these 
manuals he has also prepared an outline volume entitled 
"The European Tour" (Dodd), which we heartily rec- 
ommend to travellers (whether for a year or a month) 
because it provides them with a rational plan of seeing 
Europe, and gaining the right sort of culture from their 
wanderings. Mr. Allen is so breezy a writer that his 
companionship upon such a trip is of the pleasantest 
sort, and bis advice (although touched by a dah of 
Philistinism) is generally judicious and worth taking. 

Messrs. Harper & Brothers have collected into a 
single handsome volume the poems of Mr. William Allen 
Butler, who is best known as the author of " Nothing 
to Wear." This poem was published without a signa- 
ture in one of the early numbers of " Harper's Weekly," 
in 1857, and speedily became popular. Mr. Butler's 
verses, to which this authorized final form has just been 
given, include " Oberannnergau " and other travel 
pieces, some poems for children, and a number of trans- 
lations from Uhlaud. The volume is dedicated to the 
writer's wife, " in the fiftieth year of our wedded life." 





An " Introduction to Rhetoric," by Dr. William B. 
Cairns, is one of Messrs. Ginn & Co.'s latest publications. 

Mr. Swinburne is about to break a long silence with 
the publication of a new drama, entitled "Rosamund," 
which is promised for the early autumn. 

" The Princess " of Tennyson, edited by Mr. Lewis 
Worthington Smith, is an English text for school use 
just published by Messrs. B. H. Sanborn & Co. 

The American Book Co. issue a volume of selections 
from the Brothers Goncourt, edited by Dr. Arnold 
Guyot Cameron, and authorized by the literary executor 
of the writers concerned. 

" Saints in Art " (Page), by Mrs. Clara Erskine 
Clement, is a readable book of the popular sort, sup- 
plied with many illustrations, and making no historical 
or critical pretensions of a serious nature. 

The latest of Sir Edwin Arnold's exercises in trans- 
lation from the classics of the East is the " Gulistan " 
of Sadi. The first four " Babs " or " Gateways " of this 
famous work have just been published for the transla- 
tor by Messrs. Harper & Brothers. 

The "Cuore" of Signor de Amicis, called "The 
Heart of a Boy," in Mr. G. Mantellini's translation, has 
been reissued by Messrs. Laird and Lee in an attractive 
illustrated edition, designed for use as a holiday gift or 
a school prize. It is a book to be warmly commended 
to young people, who can hardly fail to be the better 
for having read it. 

Rembrandt is the subject of the latest volume in the 
series of " Monographs on Artists," written by Professor 
H. Knackfuss and published by Messrs. Lemcke & 
Buechner. The translation, as in the two previous vol- 
umes of the series, is by Mr. Campbell Dodgson of the 
British Museum. The illustrations are profuse and 
carefully executed. 

The most interesting publication yet put forth by the 
" Brothers of the Book" (Gouverneur, N. Y.) is a re- 
print of Robert Louis Stevenson's essay on " The Mor- 
ality of the Profession of Letters," first published in 
the " Fortnightly Review " for April, 1881. The present 
reprint is issued in a limited edition on handmade paper, 
carefully printed, and neatly bound in buckram. 

Mr. Augustus Thomas's new American play, "Ari- 
zona," now being presented in Chicago at the Grand 
Opera House, is in the hands of the printer, and will 
soon be issued by Mr. R. H. Russell in book form, illus- 
trated by twelve pictures from the play, and with a 
striking cover design by Mr. Frederic Remington. The 
same publisher announces the " Maude Adams Edition," 
of " Romeo and Juliet." The book will be illustrated 
and attractively bound. 

The second year's work of the University of Chicago 
College for Teachers, and also that of the Class Study 
Department of the University Extension Division, will 
open at the College for Teachers, the office of which is 
in room 410 Fine Arts Building, 203-207 Michigan 
boulevard, on Saturday, September 30. Classes will 
meet also in Cobb Hall at the University, and at the 
Newberry Library. The opening exercises of the College 
for Teachers and the Class Study Department will be 
held in connection with the Autumn Convocation of the 
University at Central Music Hall, on Monday evening, 
October 2. Bishop J. L. Spalding, of Peoria, will de- 
liver the address, his subject being The University and 
the Teacher." 


September, 1899. 

Agninaldo's Capital. J. D. Miley. Scribner. 
Alnwick Castle. A. H. Malan. Pall Mall. 
America To-day. William Archer. Pall Malt. 
Antilles, Anecdotes from the. J. S. Durham. Lippincott. 
Atlantic Speedway, The. H. Phelps Whitmarsh. Century. 
Book Review, The. J. S. Tnnison. Atlantic. 
Butler, George, Painting of. W. C. Brownell. Scribner. 
Criticism and the Man. John Burroughs. Atlantic. 
Dreyfus, American Forerunner of. J. M. Morgan. Century. 
Eastern Seas, Scourge of the. J. S. Sewall. Century. 
English Royalty, Entertainment of. Lippincott. 
Equal Suffrage in Colorado, Effects of. Lippincott. 
Farming, Does It Pay ? L. H. Bailey. Review of Reviews. 
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1899.] THE DIAL 149 

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and fancies people their minds, what visions and dreams make life a 
fairyland to them. The sayings and doings of Nannie and her com- 
panions make a very attractive story, of the same charming class with 
" Little Jane and Me " and " A Little Girl of Long Ago," 

Sold by all Booksellers. 

Sent, postpaid, by the Publishers. 







A Novel. By HALDANE McFALL. With frontispiece. 12mo, $1.25. 

The scene of this remarkable and somewhat startling novel is laid in the West Indies, where the author 
was for many years an officer in a Zouave regiment. It is the most powerfully realistic representation of 
negro life ever written, and must certainly become one of the most widely discussed volumes of the year. 


A Novel. By JULIA MAORUDKB. With frontispiece. 12mo, $1.25. 
As pretty a story as this popular author has yet written. 

OLD MADAME, and Other Tragedies. 


This volume contains five novelettes, and the publishers believe 
that work showing more sustained power and genuine strength has 
seldom been offered to the public. 


By GRACE M ABO ABET GALLAHEB. Illustrated. 12mo, $1.25. 

Miss Gallaher will be remembered as the winner of the prizes for 
short stories in the Century Magazine's recent competition. In the 
present volume she has been equally happy in her selections of sub- 
jects and in her treatment of them. 


The story of four girls who "kept house " in a New York "flat." 
By FLOY CAMPBELL. Illustrated. IGmo, 75 cents. 
A decidedly picturesque and readable story of art life. 


A Novel. By PERCIVAL POLLARD. Illustrated. 12mo, $1.26. 

A thoroughly good piece of work giving . an entirely new presen- 
tation of an old theme. 


His Wanderings in Greater Gotham, His Adventures in the Spanish 
War, together with His Minor Exploits in the Field of Love and 
Fashion, and His Thoughts Thereon. Now re-cyphered and here 
set down, with many annotations, by EDWIN EMERSON, Jr. Nar- 
row IGmo, old style boards, $1.25. 


By JAMES JEFFREY ROCHE. Illustrated. 12mo, $1.25. 

Although published nearly a year ago, the sales of this clever 
satire are greater now than ever before. Three impressions have been 
called for and a /<</<, is in rapid preparation. One man recently 
bought twenty-five copies to distribute among his friends. The press 
has quite unanimously agreed with the Boston Journal in hailing it 
as " the wittiest book of the year." " It is well worth reading," says 
the Boston Transcript. 



By VANCE THOMPSON. About 80 illustrations. 300 pages. 8vo, buckram, paper label, $2.50. 
CONTENTS: 1. Paul Verlaine. 2. Ste'phane Mallarme'. 3. The Belgian Renascence: Camille Lemonnier, 
Maurice Maeterlinck, Emile Verhaeren, Georges Eekhoud, Georges Rodenback, Max Elskamp, and Fernand 
Severin. 4. The Last of the Parnassians: Catulle Mende*s. 5. Jean More'as and his Disciples. 6. The New 
Poetry: Free Verse, Adolph Rette", Henri de Re'gnier, Stuart Merrill and Francis Ville'-Griffin, Emmanuel 
Signoret and Albert Samain. 7. The Paganism of Pierre Louys. 8. Jean Richepin and the Vagrom Man. 
9. The Christ of Jehan Rictus. 10. Maurice Bar res and Egoism. 11. Fables, Ballads, Pastorals: Jules 
Renard, Paul Fort, Francis Jamrnes. 12. The New Erasmus: Marcel Schwob. 13. Naturism and St. Georges 
de Boube'lier. 14. Men of Letters and Anarchy. 15. The New Criticism, Ernest la Jeunesse. 16. "In the 
Gentlemanly Interest:" Hugues Re bell and M. le Cointe Robert de Montesquiou Fezensac. 


An Extravaganza of New York Life in 1807, written in Five Chapters 
and Illustrated by HOWARD PILE. 4to, decorative boards, $1.25. 
The illustrations consist of a frontispiece in 6 colors, 5 full-page 

illustrations in 2 colors, and a cover design in black and red. 


By CATULLB MEXDES. With pictures by MARION L. PEABODT. 4to, 
A volume of new fairy tales with many delightful pictures. 


4to, decorative boards, 75 cents. A reprint of a fascinating volume 
issued many years ago. 

JULIA MARLOWE: A Biography. 

By JOHN D. BABBT. Illustrated. 12mo, decorative boards, 75 cento. 
The first volume of " The Sock and Buskin Biographies." 


By WALTER CRANE. 4to, $1.25. 

A reprint of this noble poem with all the forty original illustrations. 


By JAMES JEPPBEY ROCHB. 12mo, $1.00. Uniform with " Her Maj- 
esty the King." 


Translated into English lyric measures by MARION MILLS 
Litt.D. IGmo, flexible leather, $1.25. 


Being a story of the recent campaign in Western Puerto Rico by the Independent Regular Brigade, under command of 
Brigadier-General Scbwan. By KARL STEPHEN HEKHMANN, late private Light Battery " D," 5th U. S. Artillery. 
With 40 full-page illustrations from photographs. 12mo, boards, $1.00. 

Send for free sample copies of THE LITERARY REVIEW and new Fall Catalogue. 


152 THE DIAL [Sept. 16, 


Under the editorial supervision of .THOMAS HALL, Jr., Harvard University. 


Prices, Imperial Paper Covert. Prices in Levantine. 

Single Numbers, 12 cents. > The usual dwooont. 
Double Numbers, 18 cents. > All books wat in any 
Triple Numbers, 24 cents. ) qtiti postpaid. 

Single Numbers, 25 cents. 
Doub, Nun-ber., 30 
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POPE'S ILIAD, Books I., VI, XXII., and XXIV, (No. 6). 

Samples will be sent FREE to any teachers of English 
Literature who will examine them with reference to clots use. 




SOLOMON, AND SOLOMONIC LITERATURE. By Moncure Daniel Conway, L.H.D. Portrays the Evolution of 
the Solomonic Legends in the History of Judaism, Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism, Parseeism, and also in ancient and modern Folklore . 
Pages, rili. -rm Cloth, $1.50 net (6*.)- Ready in September. 

THE EVOLUTION OF GENERAL IDEAS. By Th. Ribot, Professor in the College of France. Authorized transla- 
tion by Frances A. Welby. Page*, 231. Cloth, $1.26 (6f. 6.d.). Now Ready. 

tus De Morgan. New Reprint Edition. With Sub-Headings, and a brief bibliography of English, French, and German Text- Books of 
the Calculus. Pages, 144. $1.00 net (St.). Now Ready. 

A FIRST BOOK IN ORGANIC EVOLUTION. By Dr. D. Kerfoot Shute. With Nine Colored Plates and Numerous 
Illustrations. Pages, circa 800. 12.00. Ready in September. 

SCIENCE AND FAITH ; or, Man as an Animal, and Man as a Member of Society. With a Discussion 

of Animal Societies. By Dr. Paul Toplnard, editor of the Iir<ite il'Anihropologie, and Sometime Secretary of the Socit'W d'Anthropologie. 
Translated from the author's Manuscript by Thomas J. McCormack. Pages, 361. Cloth, 11.60 (It. &*.). Ready in October. 

HISTORY OF MODERN PHILOSOPHY IN FRANCE. With Twenty-three Photogravure and Half-tone Portraits 
of the Chief French Philosophers. By Prof. L. Levy-Bruhl, Maitre de Conferences In the Sorbonne, Paris. Handsomely bound. 
Pages, 600. Ready October 1. 


DESCARTES' DISCOURSE ON METHOD. With portrait of Descartee after the painting of Franz Hals. With an 
Index and Preface. Pages, 86. Paper, 25 cents (It. 6d.). The present edition of Descartes' " Discourse on Method" is an authorised 
reprint of Veitch's well-known translation. 

Descartes' " Discourse on Method " is, iu its conciseness and simplicity, the finest Introduction to philosophical study that the student 
can procure. The picture presented in this book, of his mental autobiography, is one of the most pleeilng chapters of the history of phil- 
osophy. Now Ready. 

HISTORY OF THE DEVIL. By Dr. Paul Carus. Profusely Illustrated. Page*, circa 450. In Preparation. 

HISTORY OF ELEMENTARY MATHEMATICS. By Dr. Karl Fink, late Profewor in Tubingen. Translated from 
the German by Prof. Wooster Woodruff Beman and Prof. David Eugene Smith. Pages, circa 260. In Preparation. 


No. 324 Dearborn Street, CHICAGO 








By CHARLES L. MAKSH, Author of "Opening the Oyster," etc. 
Written with consummate literary skill, this is a novel in which is depicted ex- 
citing adventures and startling situations, and throbbing with pathos, humor, and 
tragedy. Powerful in its conception, the plot is cleverly conceived and carried to a 
satisfactory conclusion in a most able manner. 

12mo, Cloth, $1.25. 



By FRANCES AYMAR MATHEWS, Author of "Joan D'Arc," "His Will 

and Her Way," etc. 

One of the strongest and most dramatic stories ever written. Original in plot, 
touching on one of the most momentous questions of the day, and powerful in treat- 
ment, it is a novel that will doubtless become famous among the works of modern 

fiction - 12mo, Cloth, $1.25. 




Illustrated, 12mo, cloth, price $1.50 


12mo, cloth, price $1.25 


Illustrated, 12mo, cloth, price $1.50 



12mo, cloth, price $1.25 



12mo, cloth, price $1.25 



12mo, cloth, price $1.25 


12mo, cloth, price $1.25 


12mo, cloth, price $1.25 


12mo, cloth, price $1.25 


Illustrated, 12 mo, cloth, price $1.25 


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154 THE DIAL [Sept. 16 t 


J. B. Lippincott Co/s Fall Announcement List. 


THE SHADOW OF QUONQ LUNG. By Dr. C. W. DOYLE, author of "The Taming of the 
Jangle." 12mo. cloth, extra, with frontispiece, $1.25. A powerful and original story of the Chi- 
nese quarter of San Francisco. 

A NEW RACE DIPLOMATIST. A Novel of the American Colony in Paris. By MRS. JENNI* 
BULLARD WATERBORY. With five illustrations by EDOUARD CUCUEL. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

BOTT. 12mo, cloth, $1.25. 

ELIZABETH SHIPPBN GREEN. 12 mo, cloth, ornamental, $1. The cleverest of recent society stories. 

THE FOX- WOMAN. By JOHN LUTHER LONG. With frontispiece, on Japanese paper, by VIRGINIA 
H. DAVISSON. 12mo, cloth, ornamental, $1.25. 

WHEN ROGUES FALL OUT. A Romance of Old London. By JOSEPH HATTON. Cloth, $1.25. 


A MAN : HIS MARK. By W. C. MORROW, author of "The Ape, the Idiot, and Other People," 
and " Bohemian Paris of To-Day." 12mo, cloth, ornamental. With frontispiece by ELENORB 

A SPLICED YARN. By GEORGE CDPPLES, author of " The Green Hand." 12mo, cloth, gilt top. $1.50. 

ON ACCOUNT OF SARAH. By EYRE HUSSET. A new English novel. 12mo, cloth, $1.25. 

A QUEEN OF ATLANTIS. By FRANK AUBREY, author of "The Devil-Tree of El Dorado." Illus- 
trated by D. MURRAY SMITH. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

THE SPLENDID PORSENNA. By Mrs. HUGH FRASER. 12mo, cloth, $1.25. The work of Mrs. 
Fraser, the sister of Marion Crawford, is now securing wide popularity. 

A SON OF EMPIRE. By MORLEY ROBERTS. 12mo, paper, 50 centa; cloth, $1. To be issued in 
Lippincott' 's Series of Select Novels. 

THE WRECK OF THE CONEMAUQH. By T. JENKINS HAINS, author of " The Wind-Jammers." 
12mo, cloth, $1.25. Mr. Hains is now in the foremost rank of sea-novelists. 

THE STEPMOTHER. By Mrs. ALEXANDER. 12mo, cloth, $1.25. 


MISS VANITY. (Uniform with "An Independent 
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by BESS GOK. 12 mo, cloth, 81.25. 

for girls. Illustrated by BERTHA NEWCOMHE. 

12mo, cloth, $1.25. 

BOTT. Boys' series. Large 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 


FRANK R. STOCKTON. Boys' series. Illustrated by 
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Lippincott's Popular Books for Boys. 

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(ieneral CHARLK8 KlNO, U. S. A. 




vi i.i.i- FENN. 




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1899.] THE DIAL 155 


J. B. Lippincott Co.'s Fall Announcement List. 


Illustrated with 106 pen drawings by EDOUARD CUCUEL. 8vo, ornamental binding, $3 50. A 
realistic account and picturing of the Latin Quarter and Montmartre. Written in most absorbing 
vein. Of special interest owing to the Paris Exposition of 1900. 

SALONS COLONIAL AND REPUBLICAN. With numerous reproductions of portraits and mini- 
atures of men and women prominent in colonial life and in the early days of the Republic. By 
ANNE H. WHARTON. Crushed buckram, $3 ; half levant, $6. 

Crushed buckram, $6. 

jamin Franklin" and "The True George Washington." Illustrated. $2; half levant, $5. The 
three volumes in a box, $6. 

MODERN MECHANISM. A Re'surnd of Recent Progress in Mechanical, Physical, and Engineering 
Science. By CHAS. HENRY COCHRANE. New and Enlarged Edition. Illustrated. 12mo, 
cloth, $1.50. 

MOTHER GOOSE. Illustrated by F. Opper. 320 pages, with 250 illustrations. Octavo, orna- 
mental cover, $1.75. 

togravure frontispiece. 8vo, cloth, $3.50. The only complete life of Bismarck. 

MYTHS AND LEGENDS OF OUR NEW POSSESSIONS. Uniform with " My ths and Legends 
of Our Own Land," etc. By CHARLES M. SKINNER. Illustrated. $1.50. 
SIONS. Two volumes in a box. $3. 


cloth, gilt top, $6. 

SARAH BERNHARDT. By JULES HURET. With a preface by EDMOND ROSTAND. Translated by 
G. A. RAPER. With fifty-five illustrations. 12mo, $2.50. 

A MANUAL OF COACHING. By FAIRMAN ROGERS. Octavo, 500 pages. Profusely illustrated. 

$6 net. 


press. Edited by HORACE HOWARD FURNESS, PH.D., LL.D., L.H.D. Royal octavo volumes. 
Superfine toned paper. Extra cloth, uncut edges, gilt top, $4 per volume. Half morocco, gilt top, 
in sets only. 

FLOWERS IN THE PAVE. By CHARLES M. SKINNER. Illustrated with four photogravures by 
ELIZABETH SHIPPEN GREEN and E. S. HOLLOW AY. Uniform with " Do-Nothing Days." 12mo, 
cloth, extra, $1.50. 

PIKE AND CUTLASS. Hero Tales of Our Navy. Written and fully illustrated by GEORGE 
GIBBS. Cloth, ornamental, $1.50. 

By WILLIAM M. MEIGS. With nine fac-similes. 8vo, cloth, $2.50. 

[Send for Complete Fall Announcement List.] 

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[Sept. 16, 




The mo*t important contribution to the hittory of Englitk art 
fKtWlhed in year*. 




By JOHH O. Maim. 

TheM two munificent volume* contain the authoritative biography 
by hi* MO of the most dUUnguiahed and popular painter of the last 
half of the century. They contain the story of hia extraordinary boy- 
hood, of hi* early strangle*, of the founding of the Pre-Raphaelite 
Brotherhood, now flnt given to the world in authentic detail, of the 
rnitipg of most of hia famoua picture*, of hia friendship* with many 
of the moat dUUnguiahed men of the day in art, letter* and politic*, of 
hi* home life, and of hi* (porting tastes and amusement*. 

Not thf ieatt attractive and remarkable feature of Ihit book will lie I 
tit magnificence of it* Uluttrationt. No mire complete repretentation 
of tike art cf any pnintrr hat ever been produced on the tarn* tcnle. 
The owner* f Sir John Mttlait' mnttfamau* picture^ have generuutly 
given their content to their reproduction in hit biography, and over 
two hundred picture* and tkelrhe* which have never been reproduced 
be/ore, and which in all probability will never be teen again by the 
ftnewtl public, tcill appear in thfte page*. Seven of Millait' Jlneet 
picture* are reproduced in photogravure. 

The early chapters contain sketches made by MilUia at the age of 
aeven. There follow aome exquisite drawing* made by him during hia 
Pre-Raphaelite period, a large number of atudie* made for hi* great 
pictures, water color and pen-and-ink sketches, and drawing* humorou* 
and Mrioua. There are ten portrait* of Millais himself, including one 
by Mr. Watt*. There is a portrait of Dickens, taken after death, and 
a sketch of D. O. Rosaetti. The book will be the moat important con- 
tribution to the hiitory of English art published in year*. 

2 vola., royal 8vo, 300 illustration*, cloth, gilt top $10.00 

One of the mott beaut(ful gift-book* ever publithed. 



Containing 24 exquisite pictures of out-door life. Twelve of these 
are facsimile* of water-color*, and their variety i* shown by their 
title*, which are a* follows: " At the Races," " Following the Hounds," 
"Coaching Parade," "Polo at Newport," "Reception Day on the 
' Brooklyn,' " "Skating at Van Cortlandt Park," " Bathing at Narra- 
gansett Pier," " A Day on a Steam Yacht," " Sleighing in Central 
Park," "Weat Point, 1 ' "Tale-Princeton Football Game," and "On 
the Link*." 

Thrie factimile* are produced by a new color procett, which pre- 
tervet abtolutely the artitC* drawing. In additi'm to the factimile* 
are 12 half-tone enfrravingt, after detignt in b'ack and white by Mr. 
de Thulttrup, alto depicting toenet of out-door life and tporl*. 

Slaw, 11 Hxl4 inches, cloth 16.00 

A valuable work of travel. 



Mr. Bookwalter took a trip through Siberia and Central Asia last 
year, and this book is the result of his journey. Owing to the excep- 
tional advantages offered him for studying the inhabitants and condi- 
tion* of these countries, hi* work i* a valuable contribution to the 
literature on the Eastern question. 
Sise, 6 <<x9 finches, 64a pages $4.00 

The mott beautiful handiwork of man. 



The story of the birth of the ship, her launch, her growth from the 
" dugout " to a great ocean steamer or an armor-clad ship of war, is 
described in this work. 

With GO illustrations by H. C. Stepping* Wright, which Mr. Russell 
pronounces beautiful and in many respects faultless. 

SiM, 754x10 inches, cloth $2.00 

A play by the freatett of French dramatittt. 


By EDMOXD ROSTAHD, author of " Cyrano de Bergerac," etc. 
Tranalated by Charles Renauld. The first publication in English. 
A play of rare poetical beauty and of as great literary merit as Cyrano. 
With a portrait of the author as frontispiece;. 

81s*. 4^x7 H inches, cloth, with a decorative cover by F. 

Berkeley Smith 60 eta 


The workt that are publithed by th* Frederick A. Stoke* Company 
have all been teleoted with the grtatett omre and are all copyrighted. 

They are manufactured in the moat perfect 
well printed and bound, and in most instances have i 
designed by well-known artist*. 

Among the novels to be published this fall are : 



Jennie Baxter was a young American woman, a journalist of the 
modern school, pretty, bright, and audacious. Visiting London, she 
began to introduce her American method* into the English and Conti- 
nental newspapers. 

Mr. Barr, a* a veteran newtpaper man, tellt the itory of her adven- 
lurr* in hit tpiriled and humorou* ttyle. Jennie Baxter it a unique 
character in the world of fiction, and a moil interetting one. 
I'.'ino, cloth $1.26 


By QBOBOB G nance. 

A strong novel by the author of "In the Tear of the Jubilee," 
" Eve'* Ransome," etc. 

Mr. Gissing's latest work. In this, as in " The Town Traveller," he 
shows little of the cynicism that marked his early books. The work, 
a* might be expected, is a social study, but of the better class of Kn- 
gli*h society. 
Site, 43-4x7^ inches, cloth $1.26 



The last work of the greatest American author of this decade, and 
the author of " The Damnation of Theron Ware," " March Hare*," etc. 

It hat only been out three month* and it already in it* 23d thoutand. 

With excellent illustration* by Harrison Fisher. 

" It is hard to refuse to Harold Frederic a' claim to genius." fin - 
cinnati Commercial Tribune. 
Bixe, 4 3-4x7' , inches, cloth $1.50 



A new novel by Mr. Crane, the first important one he has written 
since "The Red Badge of Courage." Mr. Crane was in the Gneco- 
Turkish war as a correspondent, and be has laid the scenes of his story 
in the region where this occurred. Both the hero and the heroine 
meet with many exciting adventures, and the interest in the story i* 
never allowed to flag. The general nature of the work it the tame, a* 
that of the aulhor't mo*t luccetiful book, " The Red Badge of Courage." 
8ixe, 4 3-4x7 H Inches, cloth $1.26 


By A. E. W. MASON, Author of " The Courtship of Morrice Buckler." 
The scene Is laid in the Scilly Islands. It is a story of adventure, 
and is as interesting and exciting as the author's first success. 
Sice, 4 34x7 1-2 inches $1.25 


By 8. WALEET. 

A story of adventure, being a page from the life of Vlcomte de Cham- 
pronet. The scene is laid in the early days of the last French empire. 
Sise, 4 3-4x7 1-2 inches, boards 50 eta 



The characters are all Americans, but the scene of the story is laid 
in New Tork, the West Indies, and Egypt, including a trip up the Nile 
under most romantic circumstance*. 
Sise, 5x7 1-2 Inches, boards 50 eta 



Author of " Dolly Dillenbeck," "The Literary Shop," etc. 
A very interesting and unique little love story. Told entirely by the 
documents In the case. It give* some episodes from the lives of an 
actress and a newspaper man, and is marked by Mr. Ford's delightful 
humor. Archie Gunn has Illustrated this profusely with some most 
striking picture*. 

Especially suitable for a ChrUtma* present. 
Bi*e, 9x12 inches, with an ornamental OOVSJT $1.50 

For full particular* regarding beautiful edition* of Standard Work*, please send for catalogue or call. 

FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY, 5 & 7 E. 16th St., New York. 




Some of Frederick A. Stokes Company's Forthcoming Books. 

Sidelights on the Santiago campaign. 


Author of " When Hearts are Trumps," " When Love is Lord," etc. 

Mr. Hall was adjutant of the Rough Riders, and went through all 
the Santiago campaign. In this book Mr. Hall has brought out all the 
picturesque features of Col. Roosevelt's troopers, and has omitted the 
dry details and facts that have been told in other works. 
Size, 4 3-4x7 1-2 inches, boards 50 cts. 

Artittic pictures for young and old. 

Collectionn of facsimiles of water- c.olor sketches by this famous artist, 
which have never been equalled in the beauty of the designs or the ex- 
cellence of the reproductions. As a pointer of children Miss Hum- 
phrey is admitted to be the most successful in the world. 


With twelve facsimiles of designs of little boys and girls, in scenes 
and costumes suggestive of the late war. One, entitled " The Return- 
ing Hero," represents a little boy, in a United States uniform, leaning 
on a crutch, and there is a bandage around his head. On either side is 
a pretty little girl, one holding his toy sword, while the other is offer- 
ing him a bouquet of roses. Other pictures are : " Naval Reserve 
Girl," "The Military Band," "Roosevelt's Rough Riders," " Hobson 
and the ' Merrimac,' " " A Red Cross Nurse," etc. 

These pictures represent the children acting out these scenes just as 
they would imagine them, and the effects produced are very dainty and 

With appropriate text for each picture by Miss Mabel Humphrey, 
printed in inks of different colors; and with numerous designs in black 
and white by her. 
Size, 9x11 inches, boards, with covers in colors $2.00 


These books are made up of selections from "Gallant Little 
Patriots," each containing just half the illustrations and text in the 
larger volume, and bound in exactly the same manner. 
Size, 9x11 inches, boards $1.25 


Four attractive facsimiles of water-colors, by Miss Humphrey, of 
girls playing golf, each picture representing a different season of the 
year. The costumes are bright and attractive, and the pictures are 
full of life. 

Each picture is accompanied by verses by Dr. Samuel Minium 
Peck, the papular Southern poet. 
Size, 9x11 inches, heavy boards $1.00 

A book of adventure for boys. 



Jack Danvers was a young New York boy whose health was not 
good, and who was sent in consequence by his family to spend some 
months on a Western ranch. This was before the extermination of 
the buffalo and the wild Indian, and when the cattle business was at 
its best. 

With numerous beautiful illustrations by E. W. Deming, the great 
delineator of Western life. 
Size 4 3-4x7 1-2 inches, cloth $1.50 

Works for old and young by a delightful and original humorist and 


A cycle of modern fairy tales for city children by Gelett Burgess, 
formerly editor of The Lark, author of " Vivette," etc. 

Illustrated with 3 full-page color plates, and 45 black and white 
4to, full cloth $1.50 


An almanac and calendar combined for the year 1900. Contains 14 
humorous drawings in black and white, with nonsense quatrains, dis- 
torted proverbs, etc. A most original and striking nnvelty. Cover 
design by Mr. Burgess, printed in two colors on dark-brown antique 
English paper. 
Size, 7x10 inches, 32 pages 50 cts. 

Some wonderful pictures of the red man. 


Mr. Deming's pictures of Indian life are pronounced both by art 
critics and Western men most powerful and accurate. There is no 
artist of the present time who understands and can depict Indian life 
as well as Mr. Deming. 

Containing six facsimiles of water-colors by Mr. Deming. 
Largo folio, 12 1-2x17 1-2 inches, with cover in colors, after a de- 
sign by Mr. Deming, boxed $4.00 

Three very interesting books for children by Mr. Deming 
are also offered. 


This consists of 18 stories about Indian children. Each one tells 
some anecdote, illustrating some phase of their life, describing their 
customs, their pets, and curious and interesting facts connected with 
their childhood. 

These are illustrated by 18 facsimiles of voter-colors, and 26 half- 
lone engravings after designs in black and white by the author, done in 
his inimitable style. 

Size, 81-2x11 inches, boards, with cover after a design by Mr. 
Deming $2.00 


Each of these books contain just half the illustrations and text in 
the preceding volume. 
Size, 8 1-2x11 inches, boards, with cover in colors $1.25 

A delightful book for children. 


By Miss A. C. SAGE. 

This new work by Miss Sage is in the same field as her successful 
work, "A Little Colonial Dame." It is a story of child life during 
the exciting period of the War for American Independence, and the 
scenes are laid in Boston, in Philadelphia and in New York. The book 
is one that possesses as much interest for boys as for girls. 
Size, 6 3-4x8 3-4 inches, cloth, illustrated $1.50 



A new book by this popular author, whose work has so endeared 
her to the children. This story concerns the adventures of a group of 
young children who form themselves into " The Dry Dock Club," and 
who have their headquarters near the Brooklyn Navy Yard. The war 
with Spain brings out their patriotic spirit, which they show in many 
ways. Profusely illustrated by Harry C. Ogden. 
Size, 4 3-4x7 1-2 inches, cloth, with a cover designed by F. Berk- 
eley Smith $1.50 



A charming book for children. It concerns the history of the Barn- 
stable children, and originally appeared in the Pall Mall Magazine, 
where it met with great success. With numerous illustrations by 
Gordon Browne. 
4to, cloth $1.50 



A beautiful presentation edition of this popular collection of 
"Vers de 8ocie"teV' 

With numerous illustrations by Louise E. Huestis. With cover 
designed by Berkeley Smith. 
12mo, cloth, stamped in gold and colored inks $1.25 


Over one hundred and twenty-five varieties to choose from. 

The finest line ever offered. 

Thure de Thulstrup, Rufus F. Zogbaum, Maud Humphrey, Paul 
de Longpre, Mabel Humphrey, and Archie Gunn are among the art- 
ists represented. 

The lithographed calendars are all printed in thirteen or fourteen 
colors, and are almost perfect reproductions of the original water- 
color sketches, so excellent in fact that they are well worth framing. 

Features of the line are many half-tone and photogravure calen- 
dars, with a most varied range of subjects. Mabel Humphrey and 
Archie Gunn have furnished some very beautiful examples of social 
life, and some of the best examples of modern and religious art have 
been reproduced from Salon pictures. Also a large line of imported 
calendars of all kinds. Send for catalogue. 

For full particulars regarding beautiful editions of Standard Works, please send for catalogue or call. 

FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY, 5 & 7 E. 16th St., New York. 



[Sept. 16, 


Oom Paul's People. 

By HOWARD C. HILLEOAS. With illustrations. 
12mo. cloth, 81 50. 

"Oon Paol'a Poople" U the title of an exoMdingly timely 
and intr*ating book, praaentlufi clearly for UM first time in thia 
country the Boera' aide of the Tranavaal Question. The author is 
Howard C. Hillegu, a New Tork newspaper man, who spent nearly 
two years In South Africa, enjoying special facill'iea at the hands of 
Preetdeat Knifrer and other Boer officials, as well aa from Sir Alfred 
Milner and other British represenutlres at Cape Colony. The book 
contains an important interview with Oom Paul, and a special study 
of Cecil Rhodes. The author blames stock jobbers and politicians for 
all the trouble between the Boera and the English, and believes that 
war U the probable final outcome One chapter is especially devoted 
to the American interests in South Africa, showing that, while 
British capital owns the vast gold mines, American brains operate 
them. The book la eminently readable from first to last. 


A Novel. By ELEANOR STUART, author of 
" Stonppastures." 12mo, cloth, 81.50. 
Novels of New Tork have sometimes failed through lack of knowl- 
edge of the theme, but the brilliant author of ' Averages" and 
" Btonepastures " baa bad every opportunity to know her New Tork 
well. She has been able, therefore, to avoid the extremes of " hUh 
life" and "low life," which have seemed to many to constitute the 
only salient phases of New Tork, and she paints men and women of 
every day, and sketches the curious interdependence and associa- 
tion or impingement of differing circles In New Tork. It is a story 
of social life, but of a life exhibiting ambitions and efforts, whether 
wisely or ill directed, which are quite outside of purely social func- 
tions. There is a suggestion of the adventurer, a figure not unfamiliar 
to New Yorkers, and there are glimpees of professional life and 
the existence of idlers. "Averages" 1s not a story of froth or 
alums, but a brilliant study of actualities, and its publication will 
attract increased attention to the rare talent of the author. 

The Races of Europe. 

A Sociological Study. By WILLIAM Z. RIPLET, 
Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Sociology, Mass. 
Institute Technology, Lecturer in Anthropology 
at Columbia University. Crown 8vo, cloth, 650 
pages, with 85 Maps and 235 Portrait Types. With 
a Supplementary Bibliography of nearly 2000 
Titles, separately bound in cloth (178 pages), 86. 

Uncle Sam's Soldiers. 

By O. P. AUSTIN, Chief of the Bureau of Statis- 
tics, Treasury Department; author of "Uncle 
Sam's Secrets." " Appletons' Home- Reading 
Books." Illustrated. 12mo, cloth, 75 cents net. 

Idylls of the Sea. 

By FRANK T. BULLEN, author of The Cruise of 
the Cachalot." Uniform ed'n. 12mo, cloth, 81.25. 

A Double Thread. 

" Concerning Isabel Carnaby," etc. 12mo, cloth, 
The Story of the British Race. 

By JOHN MUNRO, C.E., author of " The Story of 
Electricity." A new volume in the " Library of 
Uaeful Stories." Illustrated. IGrao, cloth, 40 cts. 

The King's Mirror. 

A Novel. By ANTHONY HOPE, author of " The 
Chronicles of Count Antonio," "The God in the 
Car," " Rupert of Hentzau." 12mo, cloth, 81 .50. 
Mr. Hope's new romance pictures the life of a prince and king 
under condition* modern, and yet shared by representatives of royalty 
almost throughout bintory. In the subtle development of character 
nothing that this brilliant author has written U shrewder than this 
vivid picture of a king's inner life. It U a romance which will not only 
absorb the attention of readers, but impress them with a new admira- 
tion for the author's power. " The King's Mirror " U accompanied 
by a aeries of apt and effective Illustrations by Mr. Frank T. Merrill. 

Mammon and Co. 

A Novel. By E. F. BENSON, author of Dodo," 
" The Rubicon," etc. 12mo, cloth, 81.50. 

This new novel by the popular author of " Dodo " is bound to 
attract much attention. It deals with personages living In the same 
society that was characterised in the former novel. Mr. Benson, it 
will be remembered, is a son of the Archbishop of Canterbury, and U 
thoroughly acquainted with the society in which he places UM scenes 
of his novels of London life. In " Mammon and Co." the good genius 
of the tale ls an American girl. 

Alaska and the Klondike. 

A Journey to the New Eldorado. With Hints to 
the Traveller and Observations on the Physical 
History and Geology of the Gold Regions, the 
Condition and Methods of Working the Klondike 
Placers, and the Laws Governing and Regulating 
Mining in the Northwest Territory of Canada. By 
ANGELO HKILPRIN, Professor of Geology Acad- 
emy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Fellow 
Royal Geographical Society of London, Past Pres. 
Geographical Society of Philadelphia, etc. Fully 
illustrated from Photographs and with a new 
Map of the Gold Regions. 12mo, cloth, 81.75. 
Imperial Democracy. 

By DAVID STARR JORDAN, Ph.D., Pres't Leland 
Stanford Junior University. 12mo, cloth, 81.50. 

Snow on the Headlight. 

A Story of the Great Burlington Strike. By C v 
WARMAN, author of "The Story of the Rail- 
road," etc. 12mo, cloth, 81.25. 

A History of Bohemian Literature. 

By Count LUTZOW. A new volume in the " Lit- 
eratures of the World " Series. Edited by Ed- 
mund Gosse. 12mo, cloth, 81.50. 

A History of the American Nation. 

By ANDREW C. MCLAUGHLIN, Professor of 
American History in the University of Michigan. 
With many Maps and Illustrations. 12mo, cloth, 
81.40 net. " Twentieth Century " Series. 

The Story of the Living Machine. 

By H. W. CONN, author of " Story of Germ Life." 
"Library of Useful Stories." 18mo, cloth, 40c. 


Each 12mo, cloth, $1.00; paper, 60 eta. 

A Romance. By J. G. SNAITH, 
* Dorothy Marvin," " Fierceheart, 


author of " Migtri 
the Soldier," etc. 

author of " Fortune's ray Foe," etc. 

by Herself. With a Prologue by G. CoiJfORK, author 
of " A Daughter of Music," etc. 

MAONAT, Bart., author of "The Pride of Life." etc. 

For tale by all liooktelleri, or $ent by mail on receipt of price by the Publiihert, 

D. APPLETON & COMPANY, No. 72 Fifth Avenue, New York, 




D. Appleton & Co.'s Forthcoming Books 

The International Geography. 

SELOUS, and others. Edited by Dr. H. R. NULL. 
The last few years have proved so rich in geograph- 
ical discoveries that there has been a pressing need 
for a resume of recent explorations and changes which 
should present in convenient and accurate form the 
latest results of geographical work. The additions to 
our knowledge have not been limited to Africa, Asia, 
and the Arctic regions, but even on our own continent 
the gold of the Klondike has led to a better knowledge 
of the region. 

A History of American Privateers. 

" A History of the United States Navy." Uni- 
form with "A History of the United States 
Navy." One vol. Illus. 8vo, cloth, $3.50. 

The Hero of Manila Bay. 

The Story of the Admiral's Younger Years. By 
ROSSITER JOHNSON. A new book in the " Young 
Heroes of Our Navy "Series. Illustrated. 12mo, 
cloth, $1.00. 

The Half-Back. 

A Story of School, Football, and Golf. By RALPH 
HENRY B ARBOUR. Illus. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

The Book of Knight and Barbara. 

By DAVID STARR JORDAN. Illustrated. 12mo, 
cloth, $1.50. 

The Treasure Ship. 

A Story of Sir William Phipps, The Regicides, 
and the Inter-Charter Period in Massachusetts. 
12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

The Story of Magellan. 

12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

The Library of Useful Stories. 
The Story of the Alphabet. 
By EDWARD CLODD. 40 cents. 

The Story of the Eclipses, and the Story 
of Organic Chemistry. 

By Prof. G. F. CHAMBERS. 40 cents. 

The Reminiscences of a Very Old Man. 

By JOHN SARTAIN. Illustrated. 12mo, cloth, 


Mr. Sartain was born in London, where as a boy he 
witnessed the Peace Jubilee and saw many picturesque 
phases of old London and its life which have since 
disappeared. He studied under Varley and Richter 
and began to engrave in Ottley's school. In this 
country his associations were literary as well as artistic. 
He knew Washington Irving and others of the Knick- 
erbocker literary circle, and his close relations with 
Edgar Allan Poe form the subject of a most interest- 
ing chapter. 

History of the People of the United States. 

By Prof. JOHN B. MCMASTER. Vol.V., 8vo. With 
Maps and Index. About 600 pages. $2.50. 

The Principles of Taxation. 

By the late DAVID A. WELLS. 

Russian Literature. 

By K. WALISZEWSKI. A new volume in the 
Literatures of the World Series. $1.50. 

The Comparative Physiology and Morphol- 
ogy of Animals. 

By Prof. JOSEPH LE CONTE. Illustrated. 

Evolution of Atrophy. 

VANDERVELDE. A new volume in the " Inter- 
national Scientific Series." 

The White Terror. 

Translated from the Provencal of FELIX GRAB 
by Miss CATHARINE M. JANVIER. $1.50. 

Some Women I Have Known. 


The Log of a Sea- Waif. 

Being Recollections of the First Four Years of 
My Sea Life. By FRANK T. BULLEN, F.R.G.S., 
author of "The Cruise of the Cachalot" and 
" Idylls of the Sea." Illustrated. Uniform edi- 
tion. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

The Secondary School System of Germany 

By FREDERICK E. BOLTON. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

A Voyage at Anchor. 

By CLARK RUSSELL. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 


The Story of the Fishes. 

By JAMES NEWTON BASKETT. 65 cents net. 
The Insect World. 

By C. M. WEED. 12mo, cloth, 60 cents net. 
The Family of the Sun. 

By EDWARD S. HOLDEN. 12mo, cloth, 42 cts. net. 

12mo, cloth, 

About the Weather. 

60 cents net. 

Harold's Quests. 

TROEGER. Illustrated. 12mo, 50 cents net. 

For sale by all Booksellers, or sent by mail on receipt of price by the Publishers, 

D. APPLETON & COMPANY, No. 72 Fifth Avenue, New York. 



[Sept. 16, 



Richard Carvel 

110th Thousand 
15th Edition 
Cloth, $1.50 


one of the most dtlightful and 
fatcinating studies of man- 
ners and stories of adventure 
which has yet appeared in 
onr literature." HAMILTON 
W. MABIB in The Outlook. 

" A third satisfaction to be derived from a reading of this 
book lies in the conviction that first dawns upon the reader's 
mind, and then grows in force and positiveness as he proceed* 
with the story, that we have in this new writer one who has 
studied his art and, to an extraordinary degree, mastered it. 
. . . is a production of which not only the author, 
but his countrymen, have every reaion to be proud. "Literature. 


is in every way strong, orig- 
inal, and delightful . . . en- 
titled to high place on the list 
of successful novels. ... It 
is a charming story." Buf- 
falo Commercial. 

" RICHARD CARVEL is a historical romance of revolutionary days, with the scenes laid partly in Maryland and partly 
in the London of Qeorge III. In breadth of canvas, massing of dramatic effect, depth of feeling, and rare wholesonieneaa of 
spirit, it has seldom if ever been surpassed by an American romance. ... It is one of the novels that are not made for 
a day." Chicago Tribune. 

" RICHARD CARVEL seems, verily, to potieti every qual- 
ity that goes to make a genuinely great work of fiction. It baa 
the reassuring solidity and the charming quaintness of ' Henry 
Esmond ' or ' The Virginians,' with an additional zest that 
must perforce be the author's own." New York Home 

" RICHARD CARVEL is the most extensive piece of 
semi-historical fiction which has yet come from an 
American hand ; it is on a larger scale than any of iu prede- 
cessors, and the skill with which the materials have been 
handled justifies the largeness of the plan." H. W. M. in 
The New York Time*. 




A. E. W. MASON, author of "The 
Courtship of Mortice Buckler," etc. 
Cloth, 12mo, $1.60. Just Ready. 
Scenes in Spain and Morocco, etc. 


thor of "An Experiment in Altruism." 
" A Puritan Bohemia," etc. Cloth, 
12mo, $1.50. Jutt Beady. 
A vigorous study of social and eco- 
nomic problems, underlying which is a 
simple, attractive, love story. 



MAURICE HEWLETT, author of " The 
Forest Lovers," " Pan and the Young 
Shepherd," etc. Cloth, 12mo, $1.50. 
Jutt Ready. 

A volume of short "novels," in the 
Italian use of the word. 



12mo, $1.50. Just Ready. 



II AM LIN GARLAND, author of " Rose 
of Dntcher's Cooly." "Prairie Folks," 
"The Trail of the Goldseeker," etc. 
New edition, with additional Stories. 
Cloth, 12mo, $1. 50. Jutt Ready. 


By BBULAH MARIB Diz, author of 
" Hugh Gwyeth, a Roundhead Cava- 
lier." In the series of Storiet from 
American History. Cloth, 8vo, $1.50. 
Just Ready. 

Miss Dix's "Hugh Gwyeth" was, it 
will be remembered, the book of which 
the Saturday Review (London) wrote, 
" We found it difficult to tear ourselves 
away from the fascinating narrative." 


TLE, author of "The Pride of Jen- 
nico." Cloth, 12mo, $1.50. Ready 
in October. 

In this book, as in its forerunner, there 
is a rare degree of beauty and distinction 
of literary style. Full of daah and color. 
It is illustrated with ten full-page half- 
tones from drawings by Weuzell. 


RANGERS. By M. J. CAN A VAN. Illus- 
trated by George Gibbs. Cloth, 12mo, 
91.50. Ready in October. 


UEL JACQUES BRCN. Vith an Intro- 
duction by Harriet W. Preston. New 
edition. Cloth, I'.'mo, $1.50. Ready 
in October. 
Folk-lore and fairy tales beautifully 

illustrated by Ernest C. Peixotto. 



A Romance of the Second Crusade. 

By F. MARION CRAWFORD, author of " Saracinesca," " Corleone," " Ave Roma Immortalis," etc. With twelve 

full-page illustrations by Louis Loeb. Buckram, 12mo. Ready in October. 

A story evincing thoroughly intimate acquaintance with the customs, manners, and events of the period, and 
full of that deep sympathy by which Mr. Crawford's stories gain such compelling interest. 









BUTLER Scotland's Ruined Abbeys. By HOWARD 
CROSBY BUTLER. Cloth, 8vo. $3.50. Ready in October. 

Illustrated with beautiful pen-and-ink drawings and plans. 

LANCIANI The Destruction of Rome. By Prof. 
RODOLFO LANCIANI, D.C.L., of the University of Rome, author of 
"Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries," etc. 

Cloth, 8vo. Ready in October. 

Translated by Prof. FRANCIS W. KELSEY, University of Michigan. 
Fully illustrated. Cloth, 8vo. Ready in November. 
The illustrations are carefully selected from the best recent pho- 
tographs, maps and plans. 

MOORE The Development and Character of Gothic 
Architecture. By CHARLES HERBERT MOORE, Ph.D., 
Harvard University. New Edition. 

Cloth, 8vo. $4.50 net. Just ready. 
In this new edition the text has been entirely rewritten, while the 

larger part of the illustration is new. 


CORSON An Introduction to the Poetical and Prose 
Works of John Milton. By HIRAM CORSON, LL.D., 
Cornell University. Cloth, 12mo. Ready in September. 

CROSS The Development of the English Novel. By 
WILBUR L. CROSS, Yale University. 

Cloth, 12ino. $1.50. Ready in September. 

MARBLE Nature Pictures by American Poets. Ed- 

Cloth, crown 8vo. Ready in October. 
A book which is intended to foster a closer acquaintance with the 

best American poets and painters. 

SH AKESPE ARE The Temple Shakespeare. Library 
edition. Edited by ISRAEL GOLLANCZ. In larger type, with illus- 
trations and notes added. 

Twelve volumes, cloth, 12mo. Ready in September. 
The success of "The Temple Shakespeare" has been so phenom- 
enal (over a million copies) that its publishers have, in consequence of 
repeated requests, arranged to issue it in a size and form more suit- 
able for library use, illustrating the notes, etc. 

TENNYSON The Life and Works of Alfred Lord 
Tennyson. Limited Edition. Including the life of 
Tennyson by his son Hallam, the present Lord Tennyson. Limited 
to 10,000 copies, to be sold in sets only. 

Ten volumes, crown 8vo. Ready in October. 

WINCHESTER Principles of Literary Criticism. By 
Prof. C. T. WINCHESTER, Wesleyan University. 

Cloth, 12mo. $1.50. Ready in September. 


CHEYNE and BLACK Encyclopedia Biblica. A DIC- 

Four volumes, cloth, 8vo. $4.00 each. Ready in October. 

GILBERT The Revelation of Jesus. By GEORGE H. 
GILBERT, author of "The Students' Life of Jesus," etc. 

Cloth, 12mo. $1.50. Ready in October. 

LLOYD JONES, editor of Unity, author of " The Faith that Makes 
Faithful," etc. Cloth, 12mo. $1.50. Ready in September. 

Vacation sermons in the guise of summer stories, full of a fresh 

hopefulness of spirit. 

MATHEWS A History of New Testament Times in 
Palestine. By SHAILER MATHEWS, University of Chi- 
cago. Cloth, 12mo. Ready in October. 
" The author is scholarly, devout, awake to all modern thought 

and yet conservative." The Congregationalist. 


CLARK Outlines of Civil Government. By F. H. 

CLAEK. Cloth, 12mo. Ready in September. 

A supplement to the students' edition of Bryce's " American 
Commonwealth. " 

IRELAND Tropical Colonization. AN INTRODUCTION 
of "Demarariania," etc. With 10 historical charts. 

Cloth, 12mo. Ready in September. 
By an author who has spent ten years in the tropics in special 

study of this subject. 

TARDE Social Laws. A translation of Tarde's "ies 
Lois Socialet" by HOWARD C. WARRKN, of Princeton University. 
With an introduction by J. MARK BALDWIN. 

Cloth, 12mo. Ready in September. 

SMITH Methods of Knowledge. AN ESSAY IN EPISTE- 
MOLOOY. By WALTER SMITH, of Lake Forest Univenity. 

Cloth, 12mo. Ready in September. 
A definition of knowledge and study of the methods by which men 

have thought it possible to attain it. 


ALLEN Topics of United States History. By JOHN 
G. ALLEN, Ph.D., Principal of the High School, Rochester, N. T. 
With illustrations, marginal references to sources, etc. 

Ready in September. 

CARPENTER Elements of Rhetoric and English 
Composition. First and Second High School Courses. 
By GEORGE R. CARPENTEB, Columbia College. 

Cloth, 12mo. Ready in September. 

COM AN and KENDALL History of England. For 
High Schools and Academies. By KATHERINE COHAN, Ph.B., and 
ELIZABETH K. KENDALL, both of Wellesley College. 

Cloth, crown 8vo. Ready in September. 

Aims to aid the student in gaining some comprehension of the vari- 
ous factors which have worked together to produce modern Britain. 

GANONG The Teaching Botanist. A MANUAL OF 
By WILLIAM F. GANONG, Ph.D., Smith College. 

Cloth, 12mo. Ready in September. 

LANGE Our Native Birds. How TO PROTECT THEM 
Nature Study in the Schools of St. Paul, Minn. Author of a 
" Manual of Nature Study." Cloth, 12mo. Ready in September. 

LEWIS A First Manual of Composition. By EDWIN 
HERBERT LEWIS, Principal of Lewis Institute, Chicago, author of 
"A First Book in Writing English," etc 

Cloth, 12mo. Ready in September. 
This "first manual," with a second in press, present a system 

theory and practice adapted to use in secondary schools. 


HARDIN The Liquefaction of Gases. ITS RISE AND 
Pennsylvania. Cloth, 12mo. Ready in September. 

fessor of Botany, University of Iowa. 

Cloth, 12mo. Ready in September. 
A list of all species described in North America, including Central 


SU TER Handbook of Optics. FOR STUDENTS OF OPH- 
THALMOLOOY. By WILLIAM N. SuTER, M.D., National University, 
Washington, D.C. Cloth, 12mo. Ready in September. 

*** These are but a few of the forthcoming Macmillan publications. A similar list of Biography, Fiction, History, 
Illustrated Books, etc., etc., appeared here a short time since, and as soon as it is ready the new complete 
Pall Announcement List, now in press, will be sent without charge to any one applying for a copy to 




[Sept. 16, 1899. 



THE BLACK WOLF'S BREED. A Story of France in the Old World 
and the New; Happening in the Reign of Louis XIV. By HARRIS DICKSON. 
Illustrations by C. M. RELYEA. Crown 8vo, gilt top, $1.50. 

This tale of adventure, by a new Southern writer, seems destined to rank high among the successes of the 
year. It is stirringly told, is full of a sort of interest which endures from beginning to the end, and the 
writer has the grip of experience in relating dashing incidents, an experience which he has gained by the most 
careful research into the history of the days of his story, and by personal jonrneyings to those parts of France 
and of America with which the story deals. 

RILEY LOVE LYRICS. With pictures by DYER. Being a collection of tin 
favorites of James Whitcomb Riley's poetry, illustrated with over fifty studies 
from life by WILLIAM B. DYER. 12mo, ornamented cloth, $1.25. 

" < Riley Love Lyrics ' is one of the most beautiful of the holiday books. It contains all the favorites of 
his dainty, tender love poems, and the illustrations, of which there are over one hundred, add greatly to the 
book's artistic beauty. Mr. Dyer shows a poetic appreciation of the author's verse and the ability to work out 
with camera and brush the central ideas in an altogether delightful way." 

THE LEGIONARIES. By HENRY SCOTT CLARK. A story of the great raid 
made by General Morgan in the Civil War. Illustrated by HOWARD McCoR- 
MACK. Crown 8vo, gilt top, $1.50. 

The book is in a field that is new and it gives a series of accurate, vivid, yet dispassionate pictures of the 
time. The description of the dashing ride made by the famous raider is dramatic in its interest. 

BOOK LOVERS' VERSE. Songs of Books and Bookmen. .Compiled from 
English and American authors. By HOWARD S. RUDDY. 12mo, gilt top, $1.25. 

Puritan Commonwealth of Massachusetts Bay. One large volume. 8vo, gilt 
top, $3.50. 

OF SUCH IS THE KINGDOM. For Children and Grown Folk Alike. A 
Book of Delicious Stories and Rhymes for Children. By CLARA VAWTER. 
With many Illustrations by WILL VAWTER. 12mo, $1.25. 

Other Recent Books. 


love story of Charles Brandon and Mary Tudor, 
sister of Henry VIII. By CHARLES MAJOR (Edwin 
Caakoden). Illustrated. 95th Thousand. Crown 
8vo, gilt top, 81.50. 

JOHNNIE. By . O. LAUOHLIN. (Third edition.) 
Illustrated with 16 pictures in photogravure. 12mo, 
gilt top, 81.25. 


STAN TON. (Second edition.) An entirely new vol- 
ume of poems by Frank L. Stanton, of the Atlanta 
Constitution, Georgia. 12 mo, gilt top, 81.25. 

LAS. (Third edition.) Ten stories of Hoosierdom. 
Printed on fine paper; with cover design by EVA- 
LEEN STEIN. 12mo, gilt top, 81.25. 

RILEY CHILD - RHYMES. With Hoosier Pictures. 
(Twenty-second edition.) The favorite child-rhymes 
by JAMES WHITCOMB RILEY. With over 100 
Hoosier pictures by WILL VAWTER. Square 12mo, 
ornamental cover, 81.25. 

edition.) Essays on questions pertinent to the 
times. With portrait. IGmo, 81. '_'">. 




J5emi*il$l0tttfjl2 Journal of Utterarjj Criticism, Uigcusgixm, antJ Information. 

THE DIAL (founded in 1880 ) is published on the 1st and 16th of 
each month. TERMS o* SUBSCRIPTION, S2.00 a year in advance, postage 
prepaid in the United States, Canada, and Mexico ; in other countries 
comprised in the Postal Union, 50 cents a year for extra postage must 
be fidded. Unless otherwise ordered, subscriptions will begin with the 
current number. REMITTANCES should be by draft, or by express or 
postal order, payable to THE DIAL. SPECIAL RATES TO CLUBS and 
for subscriptions with other publications will be sent on application; 
and SAMPLE COPT on receipt of 10 cents. ADVERTISING RATES furnished 
on application. All communications should be addressed to 

THE DIAL, Fine Arts Building, Chicago. 

No. 818. 

SEPT. 16, 1899. Vol. XXVII. 




Leonard Moore 165 


The Civil War and National Sovereignty. E. Par- 

malee Prentice. 
"Baldoon" and "David Harura." Band, McNally 

4- Co. 
Bismarck's Debt to Goethe. Charles Bundy Wilson. 


VETERAN. E.G.J. 168 


Skorey 170 

SEEN WITH JAPANESE EYES. Wallace Sice . 172 

RECENT FICTION. William Morton Payne . . .174 
Waterloo's The Launching of a Man. Horton's 
A Fair Brigand. Johnson's King or Knave. 
Stephens's A Gentleman Player. Mrs. Baylor-Bar- 
num's The Ladder of Fortune. Mrs. Lust's A Tent 
of Grace. Russell's The Mandate. Dowson and 
Moore's Adrian Rome. Grant Allen's Miss Gayley's 
Adventures. Wells's When the Sleeper Wakes. 
Oxenhani's A Princess of Vascovy. Marchmont's 
A Dash for a Throne. Birt's Castle Czvargas. 
Pemberton's The Garden of Swords. Sienkiewicz's 
In Vain. Fru Skram's Professor Hieronymus. 


Interesting reminiscences of a King. The fight of a 
corporation with the people. A statesman in let- 
ters. A commemorative volume on Yale college. 
The life of Gen. Sherman well re-told. Lessons 
from our historic past. Some discouraging revel- 
ations of the French Army. European literature in 
cross-sections. Mystifying the mystery of Dreyfus. 
A popular biography of Bismarck. 



(A classified list of 1600 titles announced for publi- 
cation during the coming season. ) 



The classified list of forthcoming publica- 
tions, which is, as in previous years, the dis- 
tinctive feature of this mid-September issue of 
THE DIAL, excites so many pleasurable antici- 
pations that the most careful selection from 
the announcements made can hardly fail to be 
somewhat invidious. As is stated in the note 
which heads the list, there are upwards of six- 
teen hundred titles already at hand, which is 
not only an increase, but a notably large in- 
crease, over any list previously published by 
us. Out of this wilderness of books of all 
sorts of interest we select, with considerable 
hesitation, a few of those that seem most at- 
tractive, confining the selection mainly to the 
departments of general literature, belles-lettres, 
history, and biography, although a few books 
from other categories are also included. 

Among works of general literature we are 
particularly glad to notice that the "American 
Anthology," upon which Mr. Stedman has for 
several years been engaged, is at last about to 
appear. Colonel T. W. Higginson will pub- 
lish a volume of reminiscences under the title 
of " Contemporaries." Professor C. E. Norton 
has edited a new volume of the correspondence 
of Ralph Waldo Emerson. A volume of the 
prose of E. R. Sill will prove a welcome com- 
panion to the three volumes of his verse already 
published. A volume of the letters of Sidney 
Lanier will be an extremely acceptable addi- 
tion to the list of the writings of a man 
whose fame grows yearly more secure. " The 
Authority of Criticism and Other Essays," 
by Professor W. P. Trent, will, we are sure, 
find many appreciative readers. Volumes of 
essays by Professor John Fiske and Professor 
H. T. Peck, those exceptionally versatile wri- 
ters, are also to appear. There will be sev- 
eral volumes in the new series of " National 
Studies in American Letters," edited by Pro- 
fessor G. E. Woodberry, whose own contribu- 
tion, " Flower of Essex," will be awaited quite 
as eagerly as any of the others. We are glad, 
too, that an enlarged issue is promised of the 
selected essays of the late Richard Malcolm 

Outside of American general literature, 



[Sept. 16, 

the most promising announcements are those 
of the letters of Robert Louis Stevenson and 
the long-heralded memoirs of Victor Hugo. 
Mr. Gosse's Life and Letters of John Donne 
has been heralded even longer, and will be 
one of the " books of the year. " The " Rus- 
sian Literature" by Mr. K. Waliszewski will 
be added to Mr. Gosse's series of " Literature 
of the World." Dr. Richard Garnett's Es- 
says in Librariauship and Bibliography " will 
appeal to all bookmen. The host of reprints 
and artistic new editions of standard litera- 
ture is so great that we hesitate to select from 
them, but must make a single exception in 
favor of Mr. Mosher's list, which is quite as 
attractive as ever, and includes sixteen titles, 
among them Mr. Swinburne's first series of 
" Poems and Balads, " his " Under the Micro- 
scope," Mr. Mat-kail's translation of the 
"Georgics," Rossetti's " Hand and Soul," and 
Stevenson's "A Child's Garden of Verses." 

Among the important biographies of the 
year will be Mr. Marion Crawford's life of 
the Pope, the two-volume life of John Everett 
Millais, Mr. L. R. Hartley's life of Francis 
Lieber, Mrs. Julia Ward Howe's " Reminis- 
cences," Prince Kropotkin's autobiography 
more fascinating than nine novels out of 
ten, as readers of " The Atlantic Monthly " 
already know, a life of Charles Sumner by 
Mr. MODI lie Id Story, Mrs. John Drew's rem- 
iniscences, Mr. Frederick Bancroft's life of 
William II. Seward, President Gilman's life 
of James D. Dana, Mr. Paul L. Ford's " The 
Many-Sided Franklin," and Mr. John Sar- 
tain's " Reminiscences of a Very Old Man." 
The various biographical series are going 
merrily along, and one or two promising new 
ones are projected. 

The literature of American History will be 
notably enriched by new volumes of such 
standard works as those of Professor McM as- 
ter, Professor John Fiske, Mr. James Scbouler, 
and Mr. J. F. Rhodes. A political history of 
" The United Kingdom," by Professor Gold- 
win Smith, is sure to be at once weighty and 
readable. A new field of description is en- 
tered upon by Dr. Lyman P. Powell, who has 
edited an important work upon the " Historic 
Towns of the Middle States." The edition of 
Monroe's writings will be continued, and an 
edition started of the writings of Madison, the 
latter edited by Mr. Gaillard Hunt. 

The most interesting announcements of 
poetry are of volumes by Mrs. Louise Chandler 
Moulton, Miss Louise Imogen Guiney, and 

Professor G. E. Woodberry. But poets seem 
to be few in number this year, or else unusually 
modest in putting forth an advance claim to 
attention. We find no American announce- 
ment of Mr. Swinburne's u Rosamund," but 
that work will, of course, be the " book of the 
year" as far as poetry is concerned. We have 
also seen reports in our English exchange 
a probable volume of miscellaneous poems by 
Mr. Swinburne, as well as of the tragedy defi- 
nitely promised. 

We may well pause for breath before at- 
tempting to select, even for this briefest of men- 
tion, a score or more of the novels that seem 
to promise the most satisfaction. In American 
fiction we note the following: "Janice Mere- 
dith," by Mr. Paul L. Ford ; " Via Crucis," 
by Mr. Marion Crawford ; " To Have and to 
Hold," by Miss Mary Johnston ; " Their Silver 
Wedding Journey," by Mr. W. D. Howells : 
"The Last Rebel," by Mr. Joseph Altsheler; 
and new volumes of short stories by Mr. Bret 
Harte, Mr. Richard Harding Davis, and the 
late Blanche Willis Howard. In English fic- 
tion we are to have " The King's Mirror," by 
"Anthony Hope"; "The Orange Girl," by 
Sir Walter Besant ; "Siren City," by " Benja- 
min Swift"; "lone March," by Mr. S. K. 
Crockett ; " Stalky & Co.," by Mr. Rudyard 
Kipling ; "The Ship of Stars," by Mr. A. T. 
Quiller-Couch ; "A White Dove," by Mr. W. 
J. Locke; and "Heronford," by Mr. S. R. 
Keightley. We suppose that " Maarten Maar- 
tens" may be considered sufficiently English 
to warrant the mention of " Some Women I 
Have Known " in this list. In translations of 
Continental fiction, six works of the first im- 
portance may be underscored. They are the 
" Knights of the Cross," by Mr. Sienkiewicz ; 
" Resurrection," by Count Tolstoy; " Fruitful- 
ness," by M. Zola ; " The White Terror," by 
M. Felix Gras; "The Poor Plutocrats," by 
Mr. Jokai ; and " Saragossa," by Sf nor Galdos. 
These are new works, with the exception of 
Mr. Jokai's romance, which has long been a 
Hungarian classic. 

Returning now to works of scholarship, we 
find space to mention only a few of the more 
promising announcements. Mr. Edward Fitz- 
gerald's "The Highest Andes" and Mr. Charles 
Neuf eld's "A Prisoner of the Khaleefa" are 
perhaps the most important works of travel 
and adventure. Among works of art, we note 
a great work on Rubens, by M. Emile Michel, 
an "Iconografia Dantesca," by Herr L. Volk- 
mann, and a new series of "Handbooks of the 




Great Masters in Painting and Sculpture," 
edited by Mr. G. C. Williamson. In science 
one important announcement is that of "Ap- 
pletons' Geographical Series," edited by Mr. 
J. H. Mackinder, and another is the " Cyclo- 
pedia of American Horticulture," edited by 
Mr. L. H. Bailey. Finally, among works of 
social science we are promised "Democracy 
and Empire," by Professor F. H. Giddings, 
"The Distribution of Wealth," by Professor 
John B.Clark, " The Principles of Taxation," 
by the late D. A. Wells, and the third and 
concluding volume of Professor Palgrave's 
" Dictionary of Political Economy," which has 
been greatly desired for several years. 


The ever-enduring discussion as to whether a 
book may picture evil, may paint scenes and char- 
acters not usually brought to the notice of women 
and children, and the somewhat similar battles over 
dancing Bacchantes and nude French art, raise a 
question as to why music is so seldom involved in such 
controversies. "Why is it that literature is by some 
regarded as a regular Upas plant, and a circulating 
library in a town as " an evergreen tree of diabol- 
ical knowledge," while music is suffered to go on 
its way serenely without any indictment for crim- 
inal conversation or corrupting ways? 

At first blush, the art which has the most power- 
ful momentary effect on our passions and emotions, 
which is used to incite men to martial ardor or sub- 
due them to sensuous reverie, which in its simplest 
and most popular forms the Soldier's March in 
Faust, or a Strauss waltz is as effective as in the 
heroic Symphony of Beethoven or the Nocturnes 
of Chopin, at first sight, it would seem that such 
an art could be most easily misused and most read- 
ily accused of wrong-doing. But such is not the case. 
Nobody except a Nietsche or a Tolstoi has ever 
accused any form of music divorced from words or 
action of being immoral. The young girl all over 
the world is not only allowed but encouraged and 
compelled to busy herself with music, which, if it 
expresses anything, must express things dangerous 
as well as things innocent. At the same time, the 
forbidden fruit of the knowledge of literature is 
carefully kept from her or selected for her. Why 
this difference? 

It is against the principles of a true American to 
go to a German philosopher for an explanation of 
anything, but perhaps Schopenhauer's metaphysic 
and theory of art will help us here. In brief, this 
is how he decides matters : The primal thing, the 
origin of all, is the Will the Will to live. This 
Will arranges itself into many grades, similar to the 
Platonic Ideas, which are the types and genera of 

existing realities. These ideas again objectify 
themselves simultaneously in the world of particu- 
lars and individuals, which is the object, and in the 
knowing mind, which is the subject. The majority 
of human beings can only realize themselves and 
the outward world of sense and perception. The 
genius in the sphere of literature and the fine arts 
generally does more than this. He rises to a knowl- 
edge of the architypal ideas, and sees the universal 
in the particular ; and he is able to make the rest 
of mankind dimly sympathize with him. The mu- 
sician, however, cannot do this. For him, neither 
the world of sense perception nor that of the prim- 
itive Ideas exists. He does not imitate the first, 
as other artists do, nor does he arrange his forms 
according to the grades and divisions of the last. 
The primal Will speaks through him directly, and 
every human being in whom the Will exists in its 
unity and totality feels and understands him with- 
out being able to reason about or explain the mat- 
ter. It follows that the poet who has to deal with 
the world of sense, in which there is as much evil as 
good, as much night as day, must, if he give his 
world correctly, indulge largely in the shadows of 
existence ; while the musician, freed from such 
world, only gives us the primal impulse of life, which 
we do not consciously disintegrate into good or bad. 

This is very flattering to the writer of music. 
Artists are envious, and the exquisite footing of the 
first act of the Bourgeois Gentilhomme mildly typ- 
ifies the cat-and-dog aversion which the members of 
the various liberal arts have for each other. Nor 
are the leading arts of expression the only ones that 
quarrel for precedence. The ancients elevated per- 
fumes almost to the level of poetry, and M. Alcide 
de Mirobolant wooed his love with symbolic sauces 
and confections, and considered himself a gentle- 
man and an artist. In short, it is doubtful if Scho- 
penhauer's theory will be widely accepted. 

For one thing, he calls music the universal lan- 
guage. If it be, it is a language which has not yet 
found its Ollendorf. The musical theorist of to-day 
decides, for example, that Greek music was non- 
existent. Yet this race, certainly not a stupid one, 
evidently thought they had attained to complete 
musical expression. Their literature is full of ref- 
erences to the art, and a great number of their 
deities were dedicated to the protection and per- 
formance of it. They unquestionably had a varied 
assortment of musical instruments, though not so 
many as their predecessors, the Egyptians. Whole 
orchestras are depicted on the Egyptian tombs, yet 
the modern musician will probably deny their knowl- 
edge of music. Again, Chinese music exists and 
gives pleasure to a large part of the human race, 
yet to our ears it seems barbarous dissonance. But 
the quarrel of European musicians among them- 
selves the battle of Wagnerites and anti-Wag- 
nerites is sufficient to plant in the ordinary mind 
a doubt of Schopenhauer's theory as to music being 
the immediate and direct utterance of the universal 



[Sept. 16, 

Will. Schopenhauer himself says that where music 
is fitted to action or words, these should be subor- 
dinated to it ; which is the direct contrary of Wag- 
ner's theory and practice of interpreting actions by 

If there exists a universal language, it is a simpler 
one than music it is the language of gesture and 
human motion : in other words, the dance. This 
is, and always has been, practiced and understood. 
If a man is shipwrecked on a desert island, and 
comes into company of its savage and possibly can- 
nibal inhabitants, how does he go about to make 
himself understood ? Does he troll a stave or sing 
a long recitative with the leit-motif dedicated to 
hunger reappearing at intervals? No. He kneels 
down in token of submission makes motions with 
his hands to his mouth and stomach to show his 
needs: and if he is received and regaled treated 
not as a meat but as a guest he probably skips 
about in a lively manner to indicate pleasure and 
gratitude. It is curious to remark that Dante's 
Paradise the farthest reach of the human imag- 
ination in picturing the unknown is a soundless 
world. There are no harps or citherns or orchestras 
there. There is nothing but light, dancing, and 
philosophical discourses. Critics there have been 
who thought it grotesque ; and unquestionably the 
spectacle of grave Doctors of the Church gyrating 
on one toe, or wheeling three times about Dante 
and his guide, or flocking together like cranes and 
writing out symbolical letters on the sky, might 
make a thoughtless reader smile. But philosoph- 
ically speaking, Dante was quite right. 

If we sub>titute motion for Will as the primal 
thing which, as Schopenhauer refuses to explain 
the cause of Will and even denies that it has any 
cause, is a legitimate thing to do we get a some- 
what different relation of the arts to life. Three of 
the fine arts dancing, music, and poetry are 
founded on motion. For sound is probably only an 
accident of music, its real essence is the differ- 
ently measured and related waves of motion. Bee- 
thoven was deaf, but that did not interfere with his 
creative power, nor, presumably, with his enjoyment 
of music. Architecture is the reverse of motion 
it expresses rest, static immobility, and is best ex- 
emplified in Egyptian and Greek buildings. Gothic 
architecture is an attempt to revolt from the law of 
the art, and to express, by means of the heaviest 
materials in nature, aspiration and upward flight. 
It is as if a sculptor should carve a statue of Gravi- 
tation and give it wings. Sculpture is the arrest of 
motion. Painting is at its best when it gives the 
vitality of life, and the scene or figure grows and 
acts before one. Dancing is motion with forms 
added. Poetry is motion with forms and ideas 
added. Music is motion without either forms or 
ideas pureunembodied motion. Whether this last 
method of expression is superior to poetry, which 
gives in its characters and ideas the whole of the 
world of sense and in its rhythm the whole of the 

world of Will, everybody will decide according to 
previous predilection. 

Roughly speaking, I should say that poetry is an 
aristocratic and music a democratic art. It requires 
intellect to appreciate the one ; while emotion, pas- 
sion, the Will-to-live, suffice for the enjoyment of 
the other. Like the Darwinian science, Schopen- 
hauer's philosophy dethrones the conscious intellect 
and substitutes the blind and spontaneous forces of 
nature. Yet no one has more loudly and continu- 
ously celebrated intellect. He is like a man whose 
head is twisted on his shoulders and who marches 
in one direction while his gaze is mournfully fixed 
another way. 

The essential and cherubic innocence of music 
comes out in this exposition. It has no relation to 
morals, for things are good or bad as we attach 
ideas to them. Its world is a world of pure impulse, 
impetus, and agitation. There can be bad music, of 
course, music hackneyed, or which does not con- 
form to the laws of the art. But it must be diffi- 
cult for true music to be base or vulgar. It is 
understood that many of the most popular strains 
of comic opera have been taken almost bodily from 
old church music ; and the reverse is possible. The 
stormiest and most passionate music, then, music, 
which, for aught we know, may be the utterance of 
the soul of one of the damned, can be given to a 
young girl to interpret without danger of its con- 
taminating her. 

But how does poetry stand in this respect? It 
has in its rhythm, though of course less peifectly 
than music, the essence of motion, pure, unembodied, 
and divine. But it is compelled to give also motion 
which is embodied in nature motion beautiful, 
life-giving, turbulent, desolating, and destroying. 
It has to give the same motion as it is repeated in 
the mind of man happy, serene, disturbed, wrath- 
ful, death-dealing. Nay, as the desolating elements 
and forms of nature fire, storm, earthquake 
are the most startling and instantaneous, as the bad 
motives and actions of men yield themselves most 
readily to effect and climax, so literature chooses to 
deal largely with evil. For it loves energy mo- 
tion in its intensest forms. It would be actionable 
if a newspaper were to give in plain prose the plots 
of many of the greatest masterpieces of literary art. 
Dr. Quincey did something like this drew up a 
resumS of Goethe's " Wilhelm Meister " and the 
bare facts were ludicrous and immoral enough. 
But the book does not seem ludicrous and immoral 
when we yield ourselves to its energy and its flow. 
Cardinal Newman, in his book on The Idea of a 
University," came to this cross-roads. He *aw that 
the profane literature of the world, and particularly 
that of the ancients, dealt overwhelmingly with evil. 
Was it, therefore, to be taught to the Htudents of a 
Catholic university ? He decided that it must : that 
it could not hurt anyone to read in a book what he 
must know if he takes a stroll on the HtreeU or lis- 
tens to the gossip of a club. Human nature is robust 




enough not to be shocked at itself. And human 
nature translated into the terms of good literature 
given, that is, for the sake of the energy and 
power of which it is capable, and not to pander to 
base thoughts, ought not to shock anyone ; but on 
the contrary, especially when it adds to the rhythm 
of poetry that unexplainable motion sprung we 
know not whence it ought to charm the tedium of 
life and leave us greater and better than we were. 



(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

The review of the work by Mr. Egan and myself on 
" The Commerce Clause of the Federal Constitution," 
which Mr. James O. Pierce contributed to the mid- 
August number of your paper, is in many ways grati- 
fying ; but I would like, if I can, to correct the 
impression that " the authors advocate the theory that 
the United States did not become a Nation until made 
so by the results of the Civil War." 

The Federal Constitution is essentially national in 
character, and nowhere does it show this character 
more strongly than in the Commerce Clause itself. 
Time aud experience of the new government were re- 
quired, however, to complete the work of making a 
Nation in fact of that which the Constitution had made 
a Nation in law. 

In Chisholm v. Georgia, decided in 1793, the case to 
which Mr. Pierce refers, five judges rendered individ- 
ual opinions. No opinion was rendered on behalf of 
the court, but expressions were used which indicated 
that a majority of the justices considered that the Fed- 
eral government was national in character. The case 
was, however, followed in 1799 by the Virginia and 
Kentucky resolutions announcing views of the Consti- 
tution which are absolutely inconsistent with any actual 
national sovereignty, and which nevertheless have the 
support of the great names of Madison and Jefferson. 
In 1823 the doctrine which was afterwards known by 
the name of " Nullification " was presented to Mr. 
Justice Johnson, and subsequently, in 1824, was elab- 
orately argued before the Supreme Court in the case of 
Gibbons v. Ogden. In both cases the element of na- 
tionality involved was, as we have noticed in our book, 
explicitly disclosed and asserted by the Federal Courts 
(" Commerce Clause," page 16 ; ) but in 1832, eight 
years later, " Nullification " was still growing and in 
that year produced the famous Ordinance of South 
Carolina. It was the doctrine of State's Rights which 
enabled Southern states to exclude free persons of 
color ; which in 1836 compelled the Postmaster Gen- 
eral of the United States, upon the demand of State 
officials, to exclude anti-slavery publications from the 
mails ; which produced the dissensions in the Supreme 
Court in New York v. Miln (1837) the License Cases 
(1847), and the Passenger Cases (1848) ; and which 
drew from Mr. Justice Barbour and Mr. Justice Grier 
the statement that the police power reserved to the 
States is itself " complete, unqualified, and exclusive," 
so that State regulations enacted under this power are 
superior to Federal statutes in authority. 

It is clear, therefore, that during the time when 
Southern influence was as strong at Washington and 
upon the bench of the Supreme Court as it was for 
many years before the war, the Southern theories of 
construction had succeeded in depriving the Federal 
government of many national attributes. The influ- 
ence of the doctrine of State's Rights, as we say in our 
work, " may be seen throughout the course of decisions 
of the Supreme Court before the Civil War, and al- 
though it had the distinct disapproval of that court, it 
was a doctrine which no decision could overthrow." 
( " Commerce Clause," page 37). The war did not 
change the Constitution, but gave it for the first time 
full operation. It is in this respect that the " issue of 
the Civil War finally established on a new basis the re- 
lations between the States and the Federal govern- 
ment." Whatever their legal relations had been before 
the war, they were certainly not established in fact as 
they were afterward. The decision in Craudall v. Ne- 
vada established, in 1867, the right of free movement 
between all points within the national boundary ; but 
a greater change could hardly have been made, for 
until then no such right had in fact existed. The 
right to go from Massachusetts to South Carolina, until 
the Civil War altered matters, depended in fact not 
upon Federal law but upon State law, that is, in these 
matters there seemed to be no national boundary, for 
the citizen of the United States knew only State bound- 

After the subject of slavery first arose " like an 
alarm bell in the night," until the war disposed of se- 
cession, theories of disunion greatly influenced consti- 
tutional construction. State sovereignty was more 
thought of than national sovereignty. The government 
which began with the Constitution was not completely 
established as a national government until these ques- 
tions which dated from its commencement were at last 
settled, until the government which had so often been 
called national was given again the national powers of 
self-administration which had been taken from it, and 
the national theory of construction had been at last 
adopted by the whole people. 

Chicago, Sept. 7, 1899. 

(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

As the publishers of Mr. Le Roy Hooker's new book, 
" Baldoon," we think it desirable to correct an impres- 
sion, shared by a number of reviewers, that the work 
must have been written in imitation of Mr. Westcott's 
" David Harum." 

Singularly enough, the first accusation came from a 
newspaper published in Mr. Hooker's home city, the 
Chicago " Times-Herald." Under the conspicuous head- 
line, " David Harum Imitated," that paper said in part: 
" Such remarkable success has attended the publication 
of ' David Harum,' that it is but natural for other au- 
thors to attempt to do something in the same line. . . . 
The reader [of ' Baldoon 'J feels all the time as if the 
author is saying to himself, ' David Harum succeeded 
because it was a wonderful character sketch. Perhaps 
if I do full justice to all these peculiar people I have 
in mind I may catch the public with one of them.'" 

This was followed by a Detroit paper, which began 
its review with the remark, " It was inevitable that we 
should have a story reminiscent of David Harum," and 
added, " It [Baldoon] suggests David Harum only be- 



[Sept. 16, 

cause one of the characters is an apostle of the homely 
philosophy of honest dealing and candor of speech." 

These and other direct accusations, and insinuations 
to the same effect, are extremely unjust to Mr. Hooker, 
and tend to hinder the success of a work upon which he 
bestowed long and conscientious labor. It is proper, 
therefore, for us to say that Mr. Hooker's novel was 
completed nearly two years before " David Harum " 
was published, nnd the MS. was in our possession nearly 
a year before the appearance of that work. This will, 
we trust, be conclusive as to the falsity of the injurious 
charges, and as to the originality of a work which, in 
our judgment, has no need to climb to popularity on 
even the broad shoulders of " David Harum." 


ducago, Sept. 6, 1899. 

(To the Editor of THK DIAL.) 

The August number of the Deutsche Rundschau con- 
tains a characteristic article on Goethe by Professor 
Herman Grimm, son of one of the authors of the great 
Grimm Dictionary and son-in-law of Bettina von Arnim, 
who played a more or less important role in Goethe's 
life in Weimar. As showing Professor Grimm's opinion 
of Goethe's services to the German language, and of 
Bismarck's debt to him, the following extract, trans- 
lated from this article, has a special interest in this 
year of Goethe celebrations: 

" The German of Goethe will be the language of the 
new German Empire, just as the language of Homer 
was that of the Greek world, of which the Iliad and the 
Odyssey were the monuments, and the Gospel of 
John the last. How far the dominion of Goethe's 
language may eventually extend, nobody knows. The 
first successor of Goethe is Bismarck as writer of his 
own life, a work that may he called the first German 
work of art written in the language of Goethe without 
showing a trace of imitation. Just as Goethe's 'Her- 
mann nnd Dorothea ' would not have been possible 
without Homer, so Bismarck's ' Reminiscences and 
Reflections' (Erinnerungen und Gedanken) would not 
be imaginable without Goethe. Goethe created for 
Germany the atmosphere in which alone this fruit 

The Univer$ity qf Iowa, Sept. 6, 1899. 

MR. W. M. GRISWOLD, who died last month in 
Maine, his native State, at the age of forty-six, will be 
remembered gratefully by literary workers for his 
useful bibliographical work, which he prosecuted chiefly 
aider the queer pseudonym of "Q. P. Index." His 
series of indexes include the " North American Re- 
Tiew," "The Nation," " Lippincott's Magazine," the 
elder " Scnbner," the " Eclectic," " Harper's Weekly," 
some British and some German historical magazines, 
essays, etc., and a series of " Q. P. Annuals." His 
Descriptive Lists of Novels were also valuable. He 
was a man of eccentricities, and these marred some- 
what the mechanical form of his publications, and may 
partly explain why he was always his own publisher. 
Mr. Griswold was a graduate of Harvard in 1875. 
He was the son of the better known Rufua W. Gris- 
wold, whose attacks upon Poe in his " Poets and Poetry 
of America" have occasioned no little controversy ; 
and bis last work, published about a year ago, was a 
sort of vindication of his father from criticisms which 
this controversy entailed. 

iThe 1:U) 



Few critics, we fancy, are likely even in 
this time of the cult of the newest and latest, 
when the idol of the day before yesterday finds 
himself not uncommonly the despised " back 
number " of to-day to hint that that im- 
memorial veteran of American letters, " Ik 
Marvel," lags superfluous on the stage upon 
which he made his debut over half a cen- 
tury ago. " Ik Marvel " is a trusty perennial 
whose recurrent blossoming gladdens the sea- 
son. The second volume of " American Talks " 
from the pen of this unflagging entertainer is 
replete with pleasant and informing chat of 
Emerson, Poe, Hawthorne, Longfellow, Lowell, 
Holmes, Whittier, Alcott, Tboreau, Ripley, 
Willis, Fuller-Ossoli, and some lesser contem- 
porary lights, that are now dimmed or alto- 
gether quenched, save in the memory of the 
living remnant of the generation that knew 
them in the season of their effulgence. Is there 
anybody nowadays that knows anything of, for 
instance, David Hosack, R. II. Wilde, C. F. 
Hoffman, Thomas Smith Grimke, John San- 
derson ? all considerable writers, if we are 
to credit our author, which we implicitly do. 
Then there are the Abbotts, John S. C. and 
Jacob. Everybody knows (vaguely) of the 
Abbotts, of course. But does anybody read 
them ? Is the most " general " reader nowa- 
days guileless enough to dip into the rose-water 
histories of John ? or is there any living hu- 
man boy (to quote "Mr. Chadband ") who 
could stand the " Rollo " and " Jonas " of the 
prolific Jacob, or who could not " give points" 
on worldly matters to that superior person and 
exacting parent, " Mr. Holiday " ? Across 
Mr. Mitchell's page flits, too, the shade of Mrs. 
Sigourney. It is long since we have seen men- 
tion of Mrs. Sigourney. 

Mr. Mitchell, as we have said, is a veteran, 
perhaps the veteran, of American letters. His 
first book was published in 1847 ; his latest, 
not his last, as we have reason in his preface 
to infer, now lies before us, warm from the 
press, quickened with alert and unflagging sym- 
pathy with men and books, a little shaded with 
a certain wistful, half-diffident regret for the 
worthies and standards of Ion<r a<n>, hut written 

chell ("Ik Marvel"). Vol. 11., Leathrfockinir to Foe's 
Raven. Illustrated. New York : Charles Scribuer's Sons. 




in a vein of intrinsic grace and charm that even 
the most " contemporaneous "-minded of the 
generation whose spokesman is Kipling may 
well relish. Not that " Ik Marvel " has kept 
pace with the changing fashion of style (what 
a far cry it is in this regard from, for example, 
N. P. Willis to the author of " Plain Tales 
from the Hills"!), or that he has, out of def- 
erence to the mode, divested his thought of 
the somewhat dandified garb in vogue at the 
period to which he looks back. He is still 
" Ik Marvel," as the following passage, an ex- 
treme example, of course, may serve to indicate. 
" There are descriptions of Parisian dinners in his 
{John Sanderson's) ' American in Paris ' which fairly 
scintillate with provocatives of appetite and with con- 
stellations of cookery; all the more tempting was his talk 
of Apician delicacies, since it was broidered and savored 
by abounding Latinity and by pungent Roman flavors 
swirling down on classic tides from the days of Lucnllus." 

Mr. Mitchell writes interestingly of Emer- 
son, and thus discerningly points out the source 
of the insufficiency, as biography, of Holmes's 
pleasant Life of the Concord sage: 

"... A lithe and witty Montaigne cannot meas- 
ure for us a broad-shouldered Plato ; he is too much 
and too buoyantly himself to write the life of another. 
Scarce does the pleasant doctor begin his delightful 
task, but his own piquant flavors, queries, and humor 
bubble up through all the chinks of the story and make 
us forget the subject in the narrator. A man who is 
so used to drawing attention to his own end of the table, 
cannot serve safely as a pointer at someone else." 

Of Emerson's " aloofness " Mr. Mitchell goes on 
to say, apropos of the Rev. Henry James's com- 
plaint of " his prim and bloodless friendship ": 
". . . But James with the warmth of the New 
Jerusalem ' in him craved sympathetic speech in those 
who talked theologies with him a most acute, eager 
man with transcendental ranges of thought. The estimate 
agrees with that of many; few could get near Emer- 
son; the Marchioness Ossoli never; Hawthorne never; 
James never ; an implacable acquiescence closes the 
doors between him and very many earnest talkers. . . 
About the weather, or his neighbor's pigs, or Thoreau's 
bean-patch, he could warm ; but if one dropped such 
topics for talk about the soul, or immortality, he froze; 
on such trail his thought was too intense for any bat- 
tledore and shuttlecock ' interchange of phrase." 

Not so Alcott, who, on the slightest hint 
from his unwary interlocutor as to the " soul, 
or immortality," would go on, like Tennyson's 
brook, forever or at least till the dazed dis- 
ciple or victim broke away and fled, leaving 
the button in the grasp of the still expounding 
oracle. Emerson, it is true, spoke of Bronson 
Alcott as " a most extraordinary man, and the 
highest genius of his time." But does Mr. 
Mitchell remember the story of the window, 
at the rear of the Emerson house, which the 

artless cicerone of the place used not long 
ago to point out to visitors as "the one 
through which Mr. Emerson used to escape 
when he saw Mr. Alcott coming down the 
garden path? " We suspect not ; for he tells 
us, without reservation : 

" The sobrieties and the large dignities in which 
the Orphic philosopher wrapped even his shallowest 
speech, could not be otherwise than agreeable to the 
man [Emerson] who had a horror of noise and bounce." 

The " Orphic Sayings " (would they find 
lodgment in a magazine nowadays?) con- 
tributed to " The Dial " in Miss Fuller's time, 
Mr. Mitchell makes bold to say were " rather 
mystical than profound," and " most charac- 
teristic " of the author. 

" He delighted in forays into regions of the unknown 
with whatever timid or tentative steps and although 
he might have put a vehemence into his expression that 
would seem to imply that he was drifting into deep 
waters one cannot forbear the conviction that 't would 
be easy for this man of the explorative mentalities to 
touch ground with his feet (if he chose) in all the 
bays where he swims." 

Does Mr. Mitchell mean to hint that the 
fathomless Alcott, " the highest genius of 
his time," deliberately feigned to swim where 
he might, had he chosen to be honest, have 
waded ankle-deep ? An accurate colloquial 
version of one of the " Orphic Sayings " might, 
then, prove in a way instructive. We remember 
a young acquaintance of ours once saying that 
a sentence of Emerson's resembles a sentence 
of Alcott's as an apple resembles a puff-ball. 

Mr. Mitchell talks interestingly of the Brook 
Farm experiment, and has some kind words 
for the earnest and high-minded " Archon " of 
the little community, George Ripley. Ripley, 
it is interesting to know, was not altogether 
pleased with the " Blithedale Romance." 

" Much as he enjoyed the genius of Hawthorne, I 
do not think he had kindly thought of the Blithedale 
Romance'; not, indeed, blind to its extraordinary merit, 
or counting it an ugly picture but as one throwing a 
quasi pagan glamour over a holy undertaking. I re- 
member once asking him in that dingy Tribune office 
after the religious tendencies, or utterances of Haw- 
thorne in those Brook Farm days; he said, bluntly 
'There were none no reverence in his nature.' Very 
likely he would have hesitated before putting such 
opinions in cold type. But I could see that old mem- 
ories were seething in his thought, of that large humane 
purpose into which he had put his heart, and whereon 
the great Romancer had put only his artist eye." 

Of the "great Romancer," Mr. Mitchell 
draws the following winning portrait : 

"Mr. Hawthorne was then (1853) nearing fifty 
strong, erect, broad-shouldered, alert his abundant 
hair touched with gray, his features all cast in Greek 
mould and his fine eyes full of searchingness, and yet 



[Sept. 16, 

of kindliness; his voice deep, with weighty resounding 
quality, as if bearing echoes of things unspoken; no 
arrogance, no assurance even, but rather there hung 
about his manner and his speech a cloud of self-distrust, 
of mal-aise, as if he were on the defensive in respect of 
his own quietudes, and determined not to rest there. 
Withal, it was a winning shyness; and when some- 
what later his jolly friend Ticknor tapped him on the 
shoulder, and told him bow some lad wanted to be pre- 
sented, there was something painful in the abashed 
manner with which the famous author awaited a school- 
boy's homage cringing under such contact with con- 
ventional usage as a school-girl might." 

Mr. Mitchell's chapter on Poe amounts al- 
most, as with several other of the more con- 
siderable authors in his list, to a brief biograph- 
ical sketch. A foot-note on Foe's biographers 
briefly summarizes Mr. Mitchell's estimates of 
their several accounts. 

" Biographies: by Griswold, harsh in its judgments; 
Ingram, full, but over-defensive; Stoddard, wholly fair, 
not extended; Woodbury, faithful, painstaking, cleverly 
done, but not wholly sympathetic; the late Professor 
Minto's sketch (British Encyclopaedia), very misleading; 
and Lang's note in his piquant ' Letters to Dead Au- 
thors,' has kindred misjudgments." 

While dealing charitably and with becoming 
reticence with Foe's failings as a man, Mr. 
Mitchell says : 

" Whether by pre-natal influences or forces of educa- 
tion, the moral sense was never very strong in the poet ; 
nor was there in him any harrassing sense of the want 
of such a sense. He used a helpful untruth as freely 
and unrelentingly as a man straying in bog-land 
would put his foot upon a strong bit of ground which, 
for the time, held him above the mire." 

The death of Foe's child-wife marked in his 
career, thinks the author, the beginning of an 
epoch of general degeneracy, the detailed story 
of which had better been left untold. 

" We have hardly a right to regard what he did after 
this whether in the way of writing, of love-making, 
or of business projects as the work of a wholly re- 
sponsible creature." 

But the taint in Foe's character is never mani- 
fest in his verse. 

" Again, and in highest praise of this erratic genius, 
it must be said, that in bis pages even in the mag- 
ical renderings of Baudelaire there is no lewdness ; 
no beastly double-meanings ; not a line to pamper sen- 
sual appetites; he is clear and cool as Arctic mornings." 

Mr. Mitchell speaks in his preface of " a 
great welter of provisionary notes," yet unused, 
touching Motley, Whipple, Holland, Dr. Par- 
sons, Melville, Tuckerman, the Duykincks, and 
others. We hope to see this budget of mem- 
oranda embodied in a third book of " American 
Talks " in the near future. The volume is at- 
tractively made throughout, the profuse and 
well-chosen illustrations forming a tempting 
feature. E. o. j. 


The hopeless welter of uncoordinated fact 
and unverified hypothesis in which the study 
of Greek religion is losing itself is due to two 
causes. (1) The fundamental principles of 
the science are so involved with religious and 
philosophical prepossessions that it is vain to 
look for a reconciliation aud harmonizing of 
opposite schools in any generally accepted con- 
ception of the psychology of primitive man and 
the philosophy of prehistoric history. (2) The 
historical verification of the countless hypothe- 
ses thrown out by learned ingenuity is rarely 
possible owing to the gaps in our evidence, and 
even the attempt to win a clear oversight of 
the work accomplished is greatly embarrassed 
by the reluctance of scholars to admit any lim- 
its to the amount of information which plaus- 
ible speculation may extract from a defective 
record. In so comparatively simple a matter, 
for example, as the literary growth of Greek 
legend from Homer to Pindar and the drama- 
tists, there is much that we shall never know 
for the plain reason that the literature is lost. 
But a little difficulty like that cannot curb the 
soaring genius of a Wilamovitz-Moellendorf. 
He reconstructs an entire lost epic of Hesiod 
from three fragmentary lines, and a few no- 
tices in late mythological handbooks that may 
or may not be based on Hesiod. " Das ist ein 
stuck Ewiger Poesie," he exclaims, in ecstatic 
contemplation of his handiwork ; and he confi- 
dently looks forward to the time when the " pro- 
gress of investigation " shall have thus " recon- 
structed " all the lost poets of Greece as a 
basis for the definitive study of Greek religion 
and mythology. But those of us who lack this 
robust faith in divinatory methods must be 
content to ask many questions to which we can 
hardly expect final answers. 

What is the relative weight and significance 
for early Greek religion of the various " true 
courses " indicated by the terms totem ism, tree 
worship, disease of language ; which is the 
more important factor, Aryan personification 
of nature, the misunderstanding of ritual prac- 
tices, or half-conscious poetical symbolism? 
Are the earliest allusions in extant literature 
to a deity or a religious conception " germs " 
or " interpolations "? What is the date of ori- 
gin and the significance of the religious mys- 
ticism associated with the name of Orpheus? 
Which of the Greek cults and gods are autoch- 

New York : Longmans, Green, fc Co. 




thonous or " Pelasgic," and which came in from 
Phrygia, ^Egypt, or Phoenicia ? Are the Ary- 
ans or the Semites in possession of the key to 
all Greek mythologies ? Are resemblances be- 
tween apparently disparate cults to be ex- 
plained as coincidences or as " contaminations "? 
On what lines were the various cults diffused 
through Greece, from North to South or from 
East to West, by land or by sea ? To every 
one of these questions something in our frag- 
mentary evidence suggests a conceivable, some- 
times a plausible, answer. The " investigator " 
marshals an appalling erudition in the effort 
to convert these possibilities to certainties. His 
position is that of the coming New Zealander, 
if after two thousand years he finds himself 
confronted with about half of the best English 
poetry, and a miscellaneous collection of docu- 
ments recovered from the corner-stones of 
American churches, and attempts therewith to 
reconstruct not merely the general trend of 
religious and ethical thought in the Nineteenth 
century, but the local history of every Amer- 
ican sect and parish, and behind that the origin, 
diffusion, and history of Christianity in Europe. 

In this state of the science I am inclined to 
congratulate Professor Campbell that his " Re- 
ligion in Greek Literature " a " Sketch in 
Outline," as he modestly terms it is not an 
" investigation," and will probably, like Pater's 
admirable " Plato and Platonism," be dismissed 
by the " selten eischeinende Monatschrift " 
with the remark, " bringt nichts neues." It 
does not bring anything new in the way of bold 
original generalization and hypothesis, or even 
of patient gathering of hitherto uncollected fact. 
But the combination in Professor Campbell of 
sobriety and sanity of judgment with sound and 
intimate knowledge of the religious thought of 
the great Greek writers, and a pleasant and read- 
able style these things will be new and very 
grateful to the amateur in these difficult matters. 

As his title implies, Professor Campbell deals 
rather with the religious thought of Greece as 
reflected in the poets and philosophers than 
with picturesque superstitions and survivals, or 
the traditional cults and conventional half be- 
liefs of the multitude. In the technical science 
of religions he is, as his pretty Greek epigram 
avows, a late learner of a new-fangled wisdom. 
But he has a life-long familiarity with the best 
that was thought and said in Greece, and there 
are probably few specialists in Greek religion 
who could write as sanely, as comprehensively, 
and as sympathetically as he has done of the 
religion of Herodotus, Euripides, Socrates, and 
Plato. And it is well that scholars, in their 

preoccupation with detail, should be reminded 
that our primary concern in this matter is not 
the curiosities and the quaintnesses of folk-lore 
and popular religion, but the thought of the 
few supreme spirits of Greece : 

"That few is all the world which with a few 
Doth ever live and move and work and strive." 

It may even be that the clear utterances of the 
few will tell us more of the serious and abiding 
beliefs of the many than we can learn from 
any literal catalogue of quaint practices and 
superstitious fancies nominally surviving among 
them. In Xeuophon's " Economist," Ischo- 
machus instructs his child-wife in a gentle and 
wholesome form of Socratic natural religion. 
It may well be, as Professor Campbell sensibly 
observes, that " this glimpse of an Attic inte- 
rior, idealized though it may be, teaches us more 
about Attic religion than the information that 
the person thus instructed had danced the bear 
dance at ten years old, or had carried the bas- 
ket in honor of Athene at fifteen." And in 
another place he shows entertainingly what 
strange conceptions of the religious life of Scot- 
land might be conveyed by a travelling folk- 
lorist who should describe the rites of the local 
Bacchus, John Barleycorn, and enumerate vari- 
ous quaint observances alluded to by Burns and 
still kept up, such as burning hazel-nuts on the 
hearth-stone, hanging out horse shoes as a pro- 
tection against the evil eye, making offerings at 
sacred wells to which the sick and infirm are 
brought for healing, touching cold iron after en- 
countering a pig, etc. It will be a pity if the ana- 
logues of these things in Greece should obscure 
for us Homer and Plato and Matthew Arnold's 
four prophets of the imaginative reason, Pin- 
dar, Simonides, Sophocles, and JEschylus. 

Space fails to follow with Professor Camp- 
bell the process by which the naive but beau- 
tiful and wholesome anthropomorphism of 
Homer developed into the sublime monotheism 
(for this it virtually is) of the great religious 
odes of 2Eschylus and Sophocles. Nor can we 
pause to trace the parallel growth of ethical 
reflection whereby the prudential or political 
morality of Hesiod, Theognis, and the gnomic 
poets was transformed into the ideal and abso- 
lute ethics of Plato, perhaps the first European 
to affirm that God is not jealous, that punish- 
ment should never be vindictive, and that the 
good man will never harm even his enemy. 
The pages on Socrates, and the summing up 
on Euripides are especially good. 

These chapters were originally written for 
the Gifford lectureship on religion, to which 
Professor Campbell was elected by his col- 



[Sept. 16, 

leagues upon his retirement from the chair of 
Greek at St. Andrews. A few inaccuracies, 
to be expected in the manuscript of lectures, 
seemed to have escaped the author's eye in the 
revision for the press. Horace's line in cute 
curandaplus aequo operetta juventus is quoted 
from memory nimium studiosa juventus (p. 
88). The maxim " to give is nobler than to 
receive " is quoted as from Hesiod's Works 
and Days." The student will seek it there in 
vain. In a few instances the passages cited 
are wrongly translated. Pindar did not say 
(P- 176), * in all that is pretty there is com- 
pnlsion," but " compulsion [necessity] makes 
anything honorable" justifies anything. Aris- 
tophanes, if the reference on page 21 is to the 
well-known passage of the " Clouds," does not 
speak of " filling up the image of virtue," but 
of " polluting the image of modesty." The ren- 
derings of Heracleitus on page 91 are inexact. 
Fr. 91, for example, is not " We can speak 
with confidence only while we follow the thought 
which comprehends all things, even as the law 
of the state controls all things, only much more 
firmly," but "those who speak with intelli- 
gence must hold fast by the universal, even 
as a city holds fast by its law, and even more 
firmly." The text of the Pindaric passage on 
page 173 must follow some strangely obsolete 
edition. For Ermine Rolide (page 246 and 
index) read Erwin. It is misleading to speak 
(page 322) of a contradiction between phys- 
ical and moral courage in the " Laches." The 
" Laches " does not mention moral courage in 
our sense of the word. In a few other cases 
the views of the latest and best authorities have 
been ignored. Few scholars now mistake for 
intentional caricature the naive archaism of 
the Arcesilaus vase (page 167). The purer 
spirituality of Aphrodite Ousania is probably 
a Platonic fancy, and the contrasted epithet 
Pandemos has purely political significance. 
Demeter Achaia is probably simply Achaean 
Demeter and not "Our Lady of Sorrows." 
The Semitic origin of the Gephyraeans is 
rightly rejected by Toepfer, and the specula- 
tions about the Semitic strain in Harmodius 
and Aristogeiton are purely fantastic. 

These trifling inadvertencies in no wise impair 
the value of this readable and helpful sketch in 
outline of a great subject a worthy parergon 
of the author's more serious studies. That he 
may enjoy his Italian retirement for many fruit- 
ful years, and crown his work with the promised 
Platonic Lexicon, will be the hope of all his 
friends and admirers. PAUL SHOREY. 


It was the brilliant observation of a wise 
man that in the foreigner we have contempor- 
aneous posterity. The dispassionate eyes of 
those who are to come after us exist, in all 
their critical possibilities, just across the nar- 
row line of nationality. If this is true of the 
nations of Europe in respect of one another, 
how much more true is it of Japan and its re- 
lations with Christendom ! For the first time 
since the days of Saladin and the Saracens, a 
nation as alert mentally as any professing faith 
in the Cross is looking with clear eyes through 
the centuries, selecting with marked abilities 
the good in our polity, rejecting with scrupul- 
osity all that seems to serve no useful end, bring- 
ing itself into accord with the facts of the 
modern world, and so within a generation or 
two accomplishing by a process of artificial evo- 
lution all that we Occidentals wrought through 
dark and bloody ages. 

Mr. Stafford Ransome, an engineer of re- 
pute, and for a time the correspondent in Japan 
of the " Morning Post " of London, has pre- 
pared a book which has for its object the bring- 
ing within Western comprehension the pro- 
gress of the Japanese Empire since the over- 
throw of China. But while giving us the 
opportunity to see with his trained powers of 
observation what it is that has taken place in 
that country, he incidentally provides a pair of 
Eastern spectacles wherewith we may see our- 
selves. This, we are sure, is the greater achieve- 
ment of the two, and by much the more inter- 

Mr. Ransome has done wisely in endeavor- 
ing at the outset to overthrow any conception 
of these most capable people which the traveler 
may base upon life in the treaty ports. He 
institutes a parallel between that and the judg- 
ment a Japanese might form of England if 
there were established, say at Wapping Old 
Stairs, a foreign commercial community which 
did not acquire the speech of the country, but 
lived its own life in its own manner, preserv- 
ing its customs and costumes, and violently 
abusing in its own press all that it found in 
the stranger land inharmonious with its own 
ideas, chiefly because the English workmen, 
interpreters, cabmen, and the like, were not 
educated gentlemen. In doing this he goes 
further, and calls attention to the notions of 

JAPAN IN TRANSITION: A ComparatiTe Study of the 
ProgreM, Policy, and Methods of the Japanese Since Their 
War with China. By Stafford Ransome. New York: Harper 
A Brother*. 




morality these sojourners would form of the 
English, basing their conclusions on the dis- 
orders incident to a seafaring and transient 

The writer does not say, as he might have 
said, that with many men environment serves 
for morality, and the laying off of accustomed 
associations too often serves as an excuse for 
hideous immorality; but he calls attention to 
the fact that the complaints brought against 
the Japanese by Europeans are largely of hab- 
its formed in compliance with European de- 
mands, and, as far as native wit will serve, on 
European models ; and he goes further, and 
in an illuminating passage replies to the foreign 
critic by showing that all he urges against the 
morality of this Oriental race the Japanese 
sends back in kind as an accusation against 
foreigners as he has seen them. This is as it 
should be, and it may serve to destroy that 
cocksureness in the virtues of our own civiliza- 
tion which leads us to obtrude it upon others. 

One of the recent speeches of Count Okuma 
is translated for our benefit : 

" Comparing Europeans with Japanese, I do not think 
that the Europeans then [thirty years ago] in Japan 
were a particularly high class of persons ; nor do I think 
that those here now are particularly high class. On 
the whole, I think they would not have been reckoned 
higher than middle-class in Europe. Among diplo- 
matic officials there may have been men of high stand- 
ing, but the general run of merchants were of the middle 
and lower classes. Middle and lower classes though 
they did belong to, however, when we compare them 
with the Japanese of the time, how great was the dif- 
ference in the degree of their civilization. The for- 
eigners living in Yokohama, Nagasaki, and so forth, 
seemed to know everything, and were many degrees 
superior to the Japanese. Their ideas were so large 
that the Japanese were astounded. I was a student at 
the time, and I remember that on one occasion, think- 
ing that a certain foreigner was a wonderful scholar, I 
went to ask him a question, but when I look back now 
I recognize that he was not even equal to a Japanese 
middle-school graduate. Still, I was surprised at the 
explanations I received from him." 

Here, in a word, is set forth the facts to 
which we so-called progressive nations must 
accustom ourselves. If this is news to us, so 
is much of similar purport which Mr. Ransome 
brings. He warns us more than once against 
mistaking the present condition of Japan for a 
new thing brought about by the waging of a 
particularly successful war. What the sub- 
jects of the Mikado are to-day they have been 
fitting themselves for from a time really an- 
terior to the epoch-making voyage and diplo- 
macy of Matthew Calbraith Perry. The perti- 
nent question of " Who, among the Europeans, 

brought it about ? " is answered decisively, with- 
out pretence of modesty, and convincingly. It 
certainly was not the leading merchants of for- 
eign birth, nor their consuls, nor even their 
ministers and ambassadors. It was not even 
any one conspicuous in the European colonies 
in the various treaty ports. As will be shown 
presently in more detail, it was not the mis- 
sionaries, though these contributed to the result 
with fine unconsciousness. Who, then, was it? 

Two classes of educated persons, chiefly 
Englishmen and Americans ; one of them 
laboring in the educational world as professors 
in the Imperial University and other state 
colleges, men, as the author writes, who 
" were leading a more or less retired life, so 
far as the rest of the European world in 
Japan was concerned " ; the other laboring in 
the manufacturing world as engineers and 
executive officers, and also remote from their 
countrymen socially. It is only natural that 
these unobtrusive elements in the shaping of 
modern Japan should be overlooked, until an 
engineer, who is by reason of his attainments 
to be classed among them, brings them into 
the light ; but it is not quite what we were 

Hardly less to be foreseen is the entirely 
candid estimate which is set upon the mission- 
aries and their work. In the beginning of 
their career in Japan, each mission sought to 
gain the support of the natives by the same 
means now used in social settlements among 
our own less favored communities. Chief of 
these were schools, both secular and religious. 
Coming at a time when the Japanese were 
seeking knowledge with an avidity we can 
hardly conceive, these schools were most suc- 
cessful. But, Mr. Ransome points out, this 
was only until the government could make its 
own intelligent arrangements for the instruc- 
tion of its people ; and to-day the mission 
school which does not afford a better educa- 
tion than the government has ceased to exist 
as a factor in Japanese life. Most of them, 
indeed, have had to be secularized in order to 
survive. And as for the scholars, they gained 
their education, and, not finding Christianity 
useful, let it fall into desuetude. 

If Japan is to become Christian at all, the 
book concludes, it will be by some such process 
as the missionaries to northern Europe were 
familiar with hundreds of years ago, when the 
king declared for the new faith and his sub- 
jects meekly followed him into the fold. It 
may suit the purposes of the Japanese govern- 



[Sept. 16, 

ment, if it can see the good to be gained by 
it, to tarn the people to the Cross. If the man- 
date is given, it will be obeyed. If it is not 
given, the people will remain as they are. The 
one thoroughly effective missionary establish- 
ment in Japan to-day, says Mr. Kansome, is 
conducted by French Jesuits. 

Space does not permit consideration of other 
things in this excellent work, though many are 
of almost equal interest. There is a chapter 
on the modern drama which is a masterpiece 
of unintentional criticism of us by the native 
actors. The business man will find pages 
devoted to his needs, which he cannot afford 
to neglect. Students in many widely different 
fields of human endeavor will find matters 
falling within the scope of their specialties. 
The book is well printed, and excellently 
illustrated with half-tone reproductions of 
photographs. WALLACE RICE. 


"The Launching of a Man " seems to us the best 
piece of work thus far done by Mr. Stanley Water- 
loo. It is the story of a young man carried through 
his college life and into the busy world from which 
he expects to carve out his fortune. It is also a 
lore story of a very simple and wholesome sort. 
When it ends, the hero has won both his wife and 

THE LATNCIIINO OF A MAN. By Stanley Waterloo. 
Chicago : Rand, McNally A Co. 

A FA IK H Kin AND. By George Horton. Chicago: Her- 
bert S. Stone A Co. 

Johnson. Boston : Little, Brown, A Co. 

A GENTLEMAN PLATER. By Robert Neilson Stephens. 
Boston : L. C. Page & Co. 

THE LADDER OF FORTUNE. By Frances Coartenay Bay- 
lor. Boston : Hough ton, Mifflin A Co. 

A TENT OF GRACE. By Adelina Cohnfeldt Lost. Boston : 
Honghton, Mifflin A Co. 

THE MANDATE. A Norel. By T. Baron Russell. New 
York : John Lane. 

ADRIAN ROME. A Contemporary Portrait. By Ernest 
Dowson and Arthur Moore. New York : Henry Holt A Co. 

Mias CAYLET'S ADVENTURES. By Grant Allen. New 
York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

York : Harper A Brothers. 

A PRINCESS OF VABCOVY. By John Ozenham. New 
York : G. W. Dillinfcham Co. 

A DASH FOR A THRONE. By Arthur W. Marchmont. 
New York : New Amsterdam Book Co. 

CASTLE CZVAROAS. A Romance. By Archibald Birt. 
New York : Longmans, Green, A Co. 

THE GARDEN of SWORDS. By Max Pemberton. New 
York: Dodd. Mead A Co. 

IN VAIN. By Henryk Sienkiewicz. Translated from the 
Polish by Jeremiah Curtin. Boston : Little, Brown, A Co. 

PROFESSOR HIERONYMUS. Translated from the Danish of 
Araalie Skrara by Alice Stronach and G. B. Jaoobi. New 
York : John Lane. 

his place among the hard workers of the world. Two 
things are very marked about this hook. One of 
them is the author's sympathy for the weaknesses of 
average humanity, or his belief that the upright life 
is achieved not by a straight path, but rather by one 
that zigzags its way along with many missteps. The 
other is the curious and loving intimacy which he 
displays with the things of nature with the woods 
and fields and the living things that inhabit them. 
It is the intimacy that only a country boyhood knows, 
and that most men lose when other interests super- 
sede. Mr. Waterloo has preserved this feeling for 
nature in all its freshness, and his best pages are 
those which are given over to its expression. As to 
construction, this novel is well-planned, although the 
closing episode of the race to record a deed seems 
to be affixed like an incongruous bay-window. The 
graces of style are not given to the writer, but he 
commands homely and acceptable English of a vig- 
orous sort. 

When we took up Mr. George Morton's Greek 
story of " A Fair Brigand," we feared another idyl 
in the manner of his " Constantino," dealing mainly 
with native types, and seeking after poetic effect 
more than dramatic incident. But we found instead 
an exciting story of the same general type as About's 
Roi des Montagues," with a similarly stirring plot, 
and the substitution of exaggerated American humor 
for the more delicate French wit. Mr. Horton is 
a journalist, and the temptation to burlesque the de- 
vices of " enterprising " newspapers and their spe- 
cial correspondents was doubtless strong, yet this 
introduces a broadly farcical element into what would 
otherwise be consistent serio-comedy. The hero of 
this tale is a student in the American school at 
Athens, which institution the author has viewed at 
first hand, but with sufficient detachment of mind to 
enable him to discover the humorous aspects of this 
nest of archaeologists. The termination of the story 
is abrupt and unsatisfactory. 

Henry of Navarre has furnished material for 
more than one romancer, and his appearance in Mr. 
W. H. Johnson's "The King's Henchman " will be 
pleasantly remembered by assiduous readers of cur- 
rent fiction. In " King or Knave," by the same au- 
thor, we have a continuation of the story of Jean 
Fourcade, combined with the courtship of the King 
and Gabrielle d'Estre'es. The story of the Armada 
is introduced in the early chapters, to be followed 
by the conflict of the royalists with the League, the 
assassinations of both Guise and the King, and the 
triumphal progress of the Be"arnain to Ivry and the 
certainty of the throne. It is Henry the ardent and 
unscrupulous lover rather than Henry the warrior 
who is presented to us in these pages, and the figure 
is not a sympathetic one. As for Gabrielle, it must 
be admitted that she accepted dishonor with her 
eyes open, and neither the book of history nor the 
novel now before us can make of her a heroine to 
love and admire. Mr. Johnson has certainly caught 
the trick of the conventional romance of history and 
deals with his material in very pretty fashion. 




In " A Gentleman Player," Mr. R. N. Stephens 
adds noticeably to the laurels already won for him 
by " An Enemy to the King " and " The Road to 
Paris." The " gentleman player " of this romance 
of Elizabethan England is one of the performers at 
the Globe Theatre, reduced to this state of reverses, 
although a gentleman born and bred. The author 
is even daring enough to introduce the figure of 
Shakespeare himself into the opening chapters, and 
to set speech upon his lips. But the Globe and the 
City are soon left behind, for the substance of the 
story relates to a wild-goose chase which the hero 
leads the Queen's poursuivant, impersonating the 
friend whom he seeks to save from arrest, and with 
such success that for five days of exciting flight 
northwards, the pursuer follows the false trail thus 
laid, and misses his real object altogether. There is 
a heroine, of course, and equally of course she is 
cold and haughty until the closing chapters, when 
she melts in the approved fashion of all such hero- 
ines. The author has devised some extremely clever 
situations, chief among them being that in which 
the " gentleman player," caught at last, contrives to 
escape by enacting the part of Tybalt in a provin- 
cial performance of " Romeo and Juliet," given by 
his former associates in a town where his captors 
have been delayed for a few hours. 

It is difficult to discover the author of so sweet 
and graceful a novel as " Claudia Hyde " in " The 
Ladder of Fortune," Mrs. Frances Courtenay Bay- 
lor Barnum's latest work. Somehow or other, the 
characters with whom she deals seem to react upon 
her expression, and in the present case, since the 
characters are hopelessly commonplace and vulgar, 
the effect is unfortunate. The book tells the story 
of an uneducated and unimaginative American, with 
an extraordinary talent for making money, and of 
his wife, a woman of the hard, vulgar, unsympa- 
thetic sort, with an equal talent for elbowing her 
way into society. It is simply the record of her 
progress up the social ladder, from the frontier town 
in which the start is made to those circles of wealthy 
Americans and Europeans into which it is possible 
for the energetic parvenu to effect an entrance. 
The two characters are remorselessly depicted, and 
the writer's attitude toward them is one of mingled 
admiration and loathing. It is hardly needful to re- 
mark that no writer who thus stands outside his 
characters can make them live. By way of con- 
trast, we get near the end some refreshing glimpses 
of an unspoiled daughter of these parents, and in 
the story of her love, the charm of simple and whole- 
some ideals of life finds its way into the story. But 
the total impression is unpleasant, and we wonder 
that Mrs. Barnum should have had the resolution 
to write such a book. 

" A Tent of Grace " is a Rhineland story of the 
middle nineteenth century. The heroine is a Jew- 
ish girl, rescued as a child from a life of wretched- 
ness, and adopted into the family of the village 
pastor. She grows up to be a very beautiful girl, 
and the son of the family falls in love with her, thus 

putting to naught the ambitions of his parents, and 
raising the question of race and religion in all its 
bitterness. As a child, the heroine had been beaten 
nearly to death by a crowd of angry Christian 
children, and the same spirit of Judenhetze pursues 
her into the after years, and finally causes her murder 
at the hands of a mob of fanatical rustics. Here is 
evidently the material for an effective story, and it 
must be said that Mrs. Lust is thoroughly conver- 
sant with the scenes and situations of which she 
writes. But unfortunately she has no delicacy of 
style, and the chromo-coloring of the heightened 
episodes, as well as the awkward touches bestowed 
upon the details, are a constant offence to a refined 
taste. We should judge that English was an ac- 
quired idiom rather than the birthright of the novel- 
ist, and the very considerable force of the book is 
offset by the failure to attain to felicitous express- 

" The Mandate " is a novel of hypnotism, insom- 
nia, and insanity. Lest this cheerful summary re- 
pel prospective readers, we hasten to add that, 
granted the unpleasant stuff with which the writer 
has had to work, the novel is an example of skilful 
workmanship considerably above the average. We 
always suspect hypnotism as a motive in fiction ; it 
is apt to lend itself to the cheapest sort of sensa- 
tionalism, and to imaginings in the name of science 
which science would indignantly disavow. But in 
the present case, the motive seems to be used in a 
legitimate way. The hypnotist is a gentleman who 
happens to be in love with the wife of his subject 
(the latter being a most objectionable person of the 
cad or bounder variety), and suggests to him when 
in a trance, that he will die at a certain hour on the 
following day. The hour comes, and the man dies, 
but the situation is saved scientifically by presenting 
physical conditions amply sufficient to account for 
his taking off, without invoking the explanation of 
the hypnotic suggestion. The real centre of inter- 
est is not in the death of this most superfluous hus- 
band, but in the mental condition of the hypnotist. 
The latter firmly believes that he has committed 
murder, and it is from this conviction that we pass 
into the tragedy of insomnia and insanity that ends 
the tale. As a psychological study, it is worked out 
with considerable power, and the novel displays so 
much general ability that it is really far more inter- 
esting than this outline would indicate. 

" Adrian Rome " is a novel of modern English 
society, having for its hero one of those " problem- 
atic characters " described by Goethe, and so typi- 
cal of our modern age that many a novelist, both 
before and after Herr Spielhagen, has been im- 
pelled to deal with them. Through defect of will 
and lack of a definite purpose he makes a failure of 
a life that seems to offer every opportunity of suc- 
cess. Weakly renouncing the love that might have 
given him strength to live, he enters into an alli- 
ance of the formal sort that leaves the springs of 
feeling untouched, and a tragic ending is the only 
way out of the impasse into which he has drifted. 



[Sept. 16, 

There is much excellent observation in this story, 
combined with effective delineation, and a finished 
method of expression. 

Mr. Grant Allen's latest book is a pot-boiler un- 
abashed. This being the case, we need waste no 
words in commenting upon style, plot, or character- 
ization. It will be sufficient to state that " Miss 
Cay ley's Adventures " tells the story of a young 
woman who finds herself penniless in London, and 
who concludes that this is just the time for her to 
make a tour round the world. That she carries out 
her plan successfully, and has many entertaining 
experiences by the way, may be taken for granted 
by those who know the sprightliness of the author's 
invention. The book makes pleasant unprofitable 
reading, and holds the attention throughout. 

" When the Sleeper Wakes " is a somewhat dis- 
appointing book. The fertile fancy of the author, 
and his quasi-scientific way of dealing with vast or 
grotesque impossibilities, have not resulted, upon this 
occasion, in a story that is either clear or convinc- 
ing. We are simply dazed at the twenty-first cen- 
tury London into which we (in company with the 
awakened sleeper) are incontinently plunged, and 
the system of girders, and wind-vanes, and flying 
stages which are the author's principal marvels, 
seems to be the outcome of a cheap and confused 
invention. There is much ingenuity about the 
forecast, much skilful elaboration of details, but 
there is no imaginative reach, no real impossiveness. 

Were it not for the copyright of the present year, 
we should take " A Princess of Vascovy," by Mr. 
John Oxenham, for a reprint of some early essay 
in fiction-writing. Certainly, it has little of the 
careful style and psychological insight of " God's 
Prisoner," which we reviewed a few months ago, 
and has, in fact, nothing to recommend it save the 
interest of the plot. Considered merely as a story, 
however, as an ingenious and straightforward nar- 
rative, it holds the attention closely, and may be 
pronounced successful. The heroine is a princess 
of a quite imaginary kingdom in Eastern Europe, 
and she comes to her own after a career of the most 
varied adventure, beginning in the wilds of South 
America, continued in the islands of the Pacific, 
and ended in the little realm to which fate at last 
restores her. The book is somewhat in the fashion 
of Mr. Hope's " Zenda " tales, and its incidents are 
of a similarly exciting character. 

Still more suggestive of the " Zenda " sort of ro- 
mance is Mr. Arthur W. Marchmont's " A Dash for 
a Throne." Here we have an actual personation of 
the prince by the hero, who lends himself to the in- 
trigue, first, because it seems the only way of work- 
ing out the ends of justice, and afterwards, pour 
U* beaux yeux of the heroine, whom he cannot de- 
sert in her hour of peril. The throne in this case 
is specifically that of Bavaria, although the happen- 
ings described are as far from any actual history as 
are those chronicled in the imaginary annals of 
Ruritania. The story is a capital one, reeking with 
romantic sentiment, and filled to the full with vil- 

lanies, all of which the hero ontwiU. We have 
to thank the writer for much exciting entertainment. 

" Castle Czvargas " is a capital romance of Con- 
tinental adventure in the seventeenth century. It 
was in the year of the Great Fire that an English 
lad was sent by his parents on a journey to Munich 
for the purpose of transacting certain business con- 
nected with an inheritance. His task performed, 
he set forth on the homeward journey, but was cap- 
tured and held imprisoned by a robber-baron in the 
wilds of Southeastern Germany. News of hit* plight 
reaching England, his brother started upon an ex- 
pedition of rescue, and the story told us is that of 
the skill and strength of arm with which the two 
English youths got the better of Count Czvargas, 
captured his own stronghold from him, compassed 
his well-deserved death, and carried away from 
captivity at the same time the German maiden who 
is the heroine of the romance. It is an exciting 
tale, fit to captivate both old and young. 

"The Garden of Swords " is the fantastic title 
given by Mr. Max Pemberton to a story of the 
Franco-Prussian War, which culminates in the 
siege and capitulation of Strassburg. The heroine 
is the English wife of a French soldier, and the 
private interest of the story is centred about her 
relations with an Englishman, serving in the Prus- 
sian army, who has befriended her in an hour of 
deadly peril, and risked his own life by entering 
the doomed city to bring her news of her captured 
husband. The husband learns of all this devotion 
only to place upon it the most dishonorable inter- 
pretation, and his conduct is so contemptible that it 
is not easy to rejoice in the reconciliation between 
the two, even though it takes place at the bedside 
where he lies fatally wounded by one of the besieg- 
ers' shells. With all due pity for the sufferings of 
the French people in their year of agony, the author 
makes his lack of genuine sympathy with them a 
little too evident, and it is clear that both his ad- 
miration and his heart go with the invaders. For 
the rest, the story is prettily told, with some poetry 
of phrase, and a fairly vivid realization of its dra- 
matic possibilities. 

The great and deserved vogue of Mr. Sienkiewicz 
has had its natural consequence in the translation 
of his unimportant and immature work, his trans- 
lator relying on the magic of the author's name to 
secure a public for the least of his productions. We 
cannot say that this result is a regrettable one, for 
everything that can throw light upon the develop- 
ment of so great a talent is of interest, but readers 
must not expect too much of the book now pub- 
lished, which was the first of the author's literary 
works. Considered absolutely, " In Vain " is of 
small value ; considered as a first book, written by 
a boy of seventeen, it is one of the wonders of lit- 
erature. Glaringly crude as it is in many ways, 
there is in it a distinct foreshadowing of the power 
that was to produce " Without Dogma " and The 
Children of the Soil," and it has also a consider- 
able degree of intrinsic interest. It is a novel of 





student days at Kieff, and was written when the 
author was himself a student at Warsaw. As a 
naive portrayal of university life in Eastern Europe, 
it offers us something so radically different from 
anything that the corresponding conditions in En- 
gland or America could offer, that for this reason 
alone it deserves attention. But it gives us more 
than this. It is a story of passion, of abnegation, 
and of moral triumph ; the wine of youth courses 
through its veins, and we forgive its faults for the 
sake of its obvious sincerity. 

Fru Amalie Skram, a Norwegian woman who is 
the wife of a well-known Danish scholar, has elected 
to write fiction under the banner of " naturalism," 
and has been seriously likened to M. Zola. Her 
work is now first introduced to the English public 
by a well-made translation of " Professor Hierony- 
mus." Herr BjSrnson, who is a warm admirer of 
the writer, has characterized the book in these terms: 
It is the first time that a great author in full pos- 
session of her mental powers has had the opportu- 
nity of making such a study. Seeking quiet and 
treatment for a nervous affection, Fru Skram of 
her own free will became an inmate of a lunatic 
asylum. Thus she had a chance of studying one of 
those specialists in mental disease who are too apt 
to mistake rebelliousness for a sign of mental de- 
rangement. Of this doctor, of the patients, the 
nurses, her whole environment, she gives a picture 
so vivid, of such absorbing interest, that it can vie 
with the most thrilling romance." This praise seems 
to us overdrawn, and, assuming the writer's pur- 
pose to be that of establishing abuses in the treat- 
ment of the insane, she is only half-convincing. It 
is indeed a chamber of horrors into which she leads 
us, but, barring a few minor instances of heedless- 
ness, the asylum seems to be conducted upon hu- 
mane and scientific principles. As far as Hierony- 
mus is concerned, we cannot make out what the 
writer is driving at. He is certainly an unsympa- 
thetic figure, but certainly not the monster she 
would have us think him. We should warn pros- 
pective readers that the book has no plot whatso- 
ever ; it is the bare journal, day by day, of the 
asylum experiences of the heroine, and does not 
even end with her release. This suggests possibil- 
ities of more volumes of the same sort, which may 

Heaven avert. 



investing la reading the "Reminiscences of 

reminiscences the King of Roumania " (Harper), 
of a King. ag edlted by . Mr Sidney Whitman, 

one may naturally reflect how differently this mod- 
est yet effective story of political effort and achieve- 
ment would have been told had the hero and nar- 
rator been, not Prince Charles, but another extant 
scion of the Hohenzollerns, whose Consecrated Per- 
son we need not specify. What paeons of self- 

gratulation, what apostrophes to the irresistible 
joint might of " Ich und Gott" should we in that 
case have had ! But Prince Charles is, of all Euro- 
pean sovereigns, perhaps the one least touched with 
the royal megalomania. The task which he faced, 
when as a young lieutenant he was called upon, a 
quarter of a century ago, to assume the rule of a 
turbulent principality whose name was synonymous 
with change and alternating foreign occupation, was 
one of the utmost difficulty. His future kingdom 
lay in the cock-pit of the Near East, surrounded by 
petty powers whose governments were even more 
unstable than its own, and jealously regarded by 
both Russia and Turkey, for each of which powers 
it had for nearly a century formed a bone of con- 
tention. Out of this political and financial chaos 
the young Prince, through the exercise of really 
remarkable ability as statesman and soldier, gradu- 
ally brought Roumania to its present independent 
and comparatively stable and flourishing condition. 
The story of this achievement is interestingly and 
almost too self-effacingly told in these Reminis- 
cences. The narrator touches briefly upon his mar- 
riage to the Princess Elizabeth of Wied (the " Car- 
men Sylva " of letters) ; and his share in the Turco- 
Russian war, in which he commanded a division of 
allied Russian and Roumanian troops, is dwelt upon 
in some detail. The correspondence of Prince 
Charles with Bismarck, Queen Victoria, and the 
German Emperor, forms an element of considerable 
interest, and the book must, on the whole, be re- 
garded as a desirable and an authoritative contri- 
bution to the history of the Eastern Question. The 
editor provides an intelligently written sketch and 
appreciation of Prince Charles, a portrait of whom 
forms the frontispiece of the well-appointed volume. 

The fight of Sixty-four years ago, when Mr. R. 

a corporation H. Dana, in his adventurous cruise 
with the people. Before the Mast," visited the coast 
of Southern California, his ship one day came to 
anchor in the roadstead of San Pedro, which he de- 
scribes as " the only port for a distance of eighty 
miles." It was not much of a port, and not much 
of one was needed for the slender commerce of those 
pastoral days. But fifty years later, when the rich 
interior region had been developed, and Los Ange- 
les, its chief city, had become an important com- 
mercial centre, the need of an improved harbor was 
keenly felt. Two rival points on the sea- coast con- 
tended for the improvements which Congress was 
asked to make San Pedro on the south, and Santa 
Monica on the west, each about twenty miles from 
Los Angeles, each having railroad connection with 
that city, and each having good natural advantages 
for a harbor, though the reports of the U. S. engi- 
neers sent to make surveys were decidedly in favor 
of San Pedro. The interests of the great railroad 
corporation of California, the Southern Pacific Com- 
pany, led it to desire the selection of Santa Monica, 
and the claims of this place were pressed with great 
force and determination, and with all the known and 



[Sept. 16, 

A Statesman 

unknown resources of that almost omnipotent or- 
ganization. The citizens of Los Angeles were no 
less determined in favor of San Pedro ; and a con- 
test was began which, carried on in California and 
in Washington, was waged for eight years with great 
stubbornness and sometimes bitterness, and finally 
resulted in a complete victory for the people. A 
government appropriation of nearly three millions 
of dollars was secured, and after many vexatious 
and baffling delays, work was finally begun at San 
Pedro in April last. The story of this memorable 
contest has been well told by Mr. Charles Dwight 
Willard, a practised and graceful writer, in a volume 
entitled " The Free-Harbor Contest" (Ktngsley- 
Barnes & Neuner Co., Los Angeles). It is well 
worth reading, not only for its many interesting and 
often stirring episodes, but for its practical demon- 
stration that even the most powerful corporations 
are not all-powerful when opposed by an aroused 
and determined public sentiment. 

To be a bookish man and a states- 
man, as Lord Rosebery demon- 
strates in one of the best of his recent 
"Appreciations and Addresses" (John Lane), is 
not an easy nor necessarily a logical matter. Yet he 
goes back over the list of the prime ministers of En- 
gland for more than a century and produces results 
which must fill the American enthusiast for learn- 
ing and culture with envy. Among these, surely, 
Lord Rosebery is himself to be ranked, if only for 
the volume before us, with its interesting and mul- 
tifarious table of contents. A distinction, rather 
than a difference, is made between the Apprecia- 
tions, which include estimates of the life or work or 
character or all three of various persons, and of the 
city of London ; and the Addresses, which deal with 
subjects less personal, the best of them being on 
" Bookishness and Statesmanship." But all are 
taken from the lips of the speaker in some public 
place, and have been edited in their present form 
by Mr. Charles Geake. They still retain the flavor 
of matters which, were they less literary in content, 
would make against their reception, yet they have 
with this a certain dry humor which is only less en- 
joyable in the printed page than it must have been 
when voiced by the speaker's lips. Many other 
amiable qualities combine with this to make the 
speeches worthy attention and for those who 
intend to speak in public themselves of study. 
They are in the best of taste, they are sufficiently 
erudite, they are always happy in all the meanings 
of that greatly abused word, they are neither too 
long nor too short in fine, they have every qual- 
ity except those which enthusiasm and genius alone 

can lend. 

A clear idea of what an American 
college really is at a given moment 
was never perhaps caught with more 
success nor set down with more animation than 
characterizes " Yale : Her Campus, Class- Rooms, 
and Athletics," by Messrs. Lewis Sheldon Welch 

and Walter Camp, two graduates of that ancient 
institution whose names are a guaranty at once for 
good workmanship and for a proper Yale spirit. 
Just at what is generally felt to be a turning-point 
in the career of this great university and mother of 
universities, a large volume, almost encyclopaedic 
in scope and intention, is issued, from which may 
be had a conception of what Yale men think of 
themselves and of their college. No department 
of the great university is left without commemora- 
tion, and the sub-title gives but a faint hint of this 
inclusiveness. One of the chapters is given the 
name, " For God, for Country, and for Yale." This 
represents the feeling throughout the large work ; 
yet it must not be taken as a universal panegyric 
even though the point of view is that of Yale 
men for Yale, and the rest of the world is not con- 
sidered except as subordinate. We have a notion 
that the preparation of a work ten years hence of 
similar purpose will show a different idea back of 
the university and perhaps a better and more 
generous one. That Yale should feel the defeats 
in athletics of a single year sufficiently to call a 
general alumni meeting for the purpose of ascer- 
taining the causes leading up to them, has seemed 
to many friends of American colleges somewhat 
disproportionate when other matters in which Yale 
has been interested are taken into account. Why 
it should be so, this book explains between the 
lines as well as in them. But it is something of 
which Yale men should be proud in the main, and 
it is admirably presented by the publishers, Messrs. 
L. C. Page & Company. 

The figure of William T. Sherman 
looms large in any account of the 
Civil War, and it is tolerably certain 
that time will rather enhance than diminish its 
proportions. An intelligent and complete biography 
of the Union leader now appears in the Great 
Commanders" series (Appleton), partly from the 
pen of the late General M. F. Force, who assumes 
the entire responsibility, and partly from the pen 
of General J. D. Cox, who is even better known as 
a writer. The career of General Sherman is so 
replete with incident, and that of the more import- 
ant sort, that greater brevity could hardly be 
looked for. The work is, accordingly, somewhat 
long. It is a pity, such being the case, that the 
index should be so hastily prepared as to leave it a 
lame guide at best to the 350 closely written pages. 
Though dealing first of all with the soldier, the 
work shows Sherman in his private capacity as well. 
His steadfast refusal to be dragged into politics, on 
the ground that soldiers enough had been seated in 
the presidential chair, is brought out most strongly, 
and is greatly to the credit of the man. So, too, 
is the lifelong effort he made to bring about a re- 
form in the office of the Secretary, of War, a meas- 
ure to which Grant denied his support, yielding, as 
he did too often, to the persuasions of interested 
friends. Most of the evils and accumulated horrors 

Tke life oj 

veil re-told. 




of the recent war with Spain are directly due to 
this, and the contumely heaped upon the recent 
Secretary of War is plainly shown to be the result 
of continued refusals to adopt the plain teachings 
of prudence and common-sense on the part of the 
highest authority in the nation. The book deserves 
careful reading, and should take its place beside 
the best volumes in the series which it is intended 

to accompany. 

Those who have been watching the 

Lessons from our , , , .. .!_ 

historic past. changes in public sentiment within 

the last twelve months cannot help 
being impressed by the lack of knowledge of the 
historic past of America, and the disregard into 
which it seems to have fallen. That supposed bul- 
wark against innovation and lack of precedent, the 
American bar, has really led the people away 
from the uniform traditions of five generations of 
our citizens, back to the point of view of the loyalist 
of the Revolution, whose very name has been 
adopted, all unconscious of the Europeanizing 
tendency common to them both. Why it is that 
all history should be disregarded, unless there is a 
wide and deplorable ignorance of that history, it is 
impossible to say; but the publication at just this 
time of such a work as Mr. Edward McCrady's 
" History of South Carolina Under the Royal 
Government, 1719-1776" (Macmillan) serves to 
accent the imputation of ignorance. The entire 
period treated is one in which the inhabitants of 
the Carolinas, in common with those of the conti- 
nent generally, were preparing to throw off just 
such a series of oppressions as they are laboring 
with to-day. It will be seen, as from the chapters 
dealing with the Indians, that we have actually lost 
something of the governmental acumen which then 
characterized our colonial ancestors. We are less 
jealous of the rights of others, and far less punctil- 
io;^ regarding our own individual rights; we are 
governed with vust as little regard for our real wel- 
fare, and revenue is raised with just about the 
same conception of the interests of the taxpayers. 
Mr. McCrady's book is both voluminous and 
interesting, though not well proportioned. The 
desire to set down everything, rather than to main- 
tain due perspective, leads to loose and illogical 
writing occasionally. But of the value of the work 
there can be no doubt. 

Some discouraging Sach H g ht a8 the distinguished Afri- 

reveiaiions of can explorer, Mr. Lionel Decle, is 

the French army. aWe t() thrQW upQn ^ Q condition of 

the French army by a narration of his experience 
as un volontaire d'un an in 1879-81 is lurid, and 
the book resulting, "Trooper 3809: A Private 
Soldier of the Third Republic" (Scribner), is most 
discouraging reading for those who, like Abou ben 
Adhem, love their fellow-men. Making allow- 
ances for youth, for bitterness, for a possibly dis- 
agreeable manner, and for the personal equation, 
Mr. Decle appears to have entered the French 
service with patriotic enthusiasm in the perfection 

of an athletic vigor none too usual in France, and 
to have left it at the end of less than two years as 
an invalid not far from death, and despairing of the 
future of his country. That he eventually recovered, 
and was able to make of himself rather an English- 
man than a Frenchman, disclosing administrative 
and executive abilities such as France stands 
desperately in need of, make the pity the greater. 
His native land, indeed, stultified her earlier treat- 
ment of him by placing him in command of a native 
transport service during the war in Madagascar, 
but only to bear witness that the casualties of that 
expedition would have been annihilation had the 
enemy been otherwise than cowardly. Incidentally 
to the narrative, though affording the undoubted 
reason for its publication at this time, a bright 
light is thrown upon the astounding disclosures of 
the Dreyfus trial. No one reading these pages can 
doubt that France is virtually lying naked to her 
enemies as a result of flagrant delinquencies and 
gross favoritisms pervading her armies, and that 
the one animating purpose behind the officers now 
before the public is the prevention of further dis- 
closures of their worthless and vicious methods. 

literature in 

" The Fourteenth Century," by Mr. 
F. J. Snell, is the third volume pub- 
lished in the series called " Periods 
of European Literature" (Scribner), edited by 
Professor Saintsbury. This method of dealing with 
European literature in cross-sections has both ad- 
vantages and disadvantages ; the latter are pecu- 
liarly apparent in the case of the present volume, 
which has to include Dante, Petrarch, Boccaccio, 
Chaucer, and Froissart, on the one hand, and, on 
the other, the tag- ends of French court-poetry and 
Icelandic saga, the early stages of Scottish romance, 
the growth of the new lyric in Italy, and such 
names as Marco Polo, Sir John Maundeville, St. 
Francis of Assisi, Jean Gerson, and John Wiclif. 
There is no English scholar living who could do all 
this as it should be done, and it is no reproach to 
Mr. Snell to say that, while he is a trustworthy 
writer upon the Italian and English phases of his 
period, bis knowledge concerning others is defective. 
The drama of the fourteenth century is omitted 
altogether from this survey, being left for the 
writer of the volume that will follow in the chrono- 
logical order. Mr. Snell's style is good, although 
marred by an occasional bit of misplaced flippancy, 
and his work is thoroughly readable. 

the mystery 
of Dreyfus. 

What shall be said of a book like 
" Dreyfus : Letters Written to His 
Wife from Prison " (Harper) ? The 
writings, translated from the French by Mr. L. G. 
Moreau, cover the period from December, 1894, 
to February, 1898, and are introduced by Mr. 
Walter Littlefield with a brief summary of this 
most extraordinary case. Americans, as a whole, 
have made up their minds that the accused French- 
man is innocent ; Frenchmen, on the contrary, 



[Sept. 16, 

are resolved to believe him guilty. Real proof, 
either of guilt or innocence, xeems wholly lacking ; 
though the unfairness of the presumption of guilt 
without proof is as hateful to the mind of the 
believer in the common law as the presumption of 
innocence is to the advocates of French criminal 
procedure. If the General Staff of the French 
army has brought forth nothing of any moment in 
their attempt to show him a traitor, surely such 
letters as these afford neither proof nor presump- 
tion of innocence. If their publication at this time 
is for the purpose of influencing public sentiment 
in favor of this most unfortunate officer, it appears 
based upon the curious assumption that letters to 
a wife, written with the knowledge that they will 
be opened and read by those interested in proving 
the writer guilty, must contain the whole truth. 
The letters have no literary merit, as such. They 
are "human documents" undoubtedly, and may 
well serve as models of passion, hope, despair, 
grief, and affection, in combination. But they no 
more enlighten the understanding relative to the 
writer's character than some of the statements of 
the General Staff and that is saying a great deal. 

Mr. William T. Jacks has written 
what he styles the first consecutive 
" Life of Prince Bismarck " (Mac- 
millan) composed in the English language. Mr. 
Jacks has succeeded fairly well in his desirable 
undertaking, and his book, though rather scrimped 
and superficial and not impeccable in point of style, 
may be pronounced a good one for popular reading. 
The publishers have given it a handsome setting, and 
it is liberally illustrated. There is a map of Ger- 
many from 1815 to 1866, and the author has judi- 
ciously inserted a chapter dealing with the political 
history of Germany during the epoch immediately 
preceding 1847. It is fair to Mr. Jacks to say that 
he has been somewhat handicapped by the necessity 
of keeping his narrative within certain prescribed 
limits within which it would not be possible to com- 
press even a measurably full and satisfactory ac- 
count of the Chancellor's career. 

A popular 
of Bitmarek. 


"Dante Interpreted," by Mr. Epipbanius Wilson 
(Putnam), is a simple and straightforward account of 
the poet's life and work, illustrated by many extracts 
which the author has translated into the form of the 
Spenserian stanza. The book is of the sort that attempts 
nothing original, and that may safely be recommended 
to beginners, although it is by no means upon the plane 
of Maria Rossetti's " Shadow of Dante," or J. H. Sy- 
monds's " Introduction to the Study of Dante." Of the 
latter work, by the way, a new edition (the fourth) has 
just been published (Macmillan), at the instance of 
Mr. Horatio F. Brown, the author's literary executor. 

The " Eversley " form of book, which was devised 
by the Messrs. Macmillan many yean ago for the 
needs of a new edition of Kingaley, has proved so sat- 

isfactory to the public, that writer after writer has re- 
appeared in its tasteful dress, and no small part of the 
best English literature is now obtainable in the volumes 
of this design. We need mention only the names of 
Arnold, Church, Gray, Huxley, Lamb, Milton, Morley, 
and Wordsworth, in illustration of the scope of the 
series. At present, a Shakespeare is being added, 
under the editorship of Mr. C. 11. Herford, whose notes 
and introductions are scholarly and brief. There are 
to be ten volumes in all, of which five have now ap- 
peared. They are a little thicker than is usual with 
this series, but still most convenient to handle, and will, 
we doubt not, become very popular. 

A new edition, with an enlarged glossary of Sanscrit 
terms, of " Vedanta Philosophy," has just been pub- 
lished by the Baker & Taylor Company. The frontis- 
piece is a portrait of the author, the Swami Vivekananda, 
so well known to the attendants upon the Congress of 
Religions in 1893. The book is too well known to re- 
quire further comment, and the present edition will 
meet a growing demand for authentic information of 
this sort. 

The "Cumulative Book Index," published at Min- 
neapolis by Messrs. Morris & Wilson, appears in a 
double number for April and May. It covers a period 
of sixteen months, and makes a volume of between three 
and four hundred pages. In other words, it is a com- 
plete card catalogue, by author, title, and subject, of all 
the books published in this country from January, 1898, 
to the date of the present issue. The usefulness of such 
a publication needs no explanation. 

Consul-General Wildman's "Tales of the Malayan 
Coast" (Lothrop Pub'g Co.) were gathered during his 
three years' consular service in the Malay Peninsula. 
The tales are seventeen in number, and include such 
titles as " Baboo's Good Tiger," " A Fight with Illanum 
Pirates," "The White Rajah of Sarawak," King Solo- 
mon's Mines," " The Sarong," " The Kris," " Amok," 
" Busuk," " A Pig Hunt on Mt. Ophir," and ' A Croco- 
dile Hunt." Many of them are exciting, some are blood- 
curdling, and all derive interest from their portrayals of 
a quarter of the globe regarding which we were in so 
profound (and perhaps blissful) ignorance a year ago. 

Dr. Fred Morrow Fling, of the University of Ne- 
braska, whose helpful pamphlets of source extracts for 
the scientific study of history have frequently been com- 
mended to our readers, has just published (Lincoln: 
Miller) a little volume, entitled " Outline of Historical 
Method," designed to help the progressive teacher to 
some acquaintance with the methods of modern histor- 
ical scholarship. It is a clear analysis of the work of 
M. Seignobos and Herr Bernheim, intended to bring 
the methods of historical criticism and research within 
the range of the untrained teacher, and deserves a wide 

The little hand-book on " English Meditative Lyrics " 
(Curts & Jennings) is a companion to a similar volume 
from the same pen on similar productions in America. 
The professor of English in Princeton, Dr. Theodore W. 
Hunt, has again shown his faculty for saying much that 
is suggestive in little space, and perhaps no work of 
recent years so ably provokes the reader to better ac- 
quaintance with the lovely verses to which reference is 
had. The book will serve for the novice and for the 
critic equally, the groupings being as useful to the lat- 
ter as the large amount of information must be to the 





As we predicted some time ago, THE DIAL'S list of 
forthcoming Fall publications, presented herewith, 
eclipses that of any year in the history of the American 
book trade. The number of titles entered is nearly 
1600, against 1350 last year, which latter number was a 
considerable increase over any previous season. These 
lists are therefore a very good index perhaps the best 
that may be had to the condition and progress of the 
publishing business in this country. They are prepared 
in all cases from advance information procured espe- 
cially for the purpose, and represent the output of 62 
publishing firms: the highest number from any one 
firm being 200, and the average 25 for each firm. 
All the books here given are presumably new books 
new editions not being included unless having new form 
or matter ; and the list does not include Fall books 
already issued and entered in our regular List of New 
Books. Juvenile books are, from their great number, 
deferred to another issue. 

The more interesting literary features of this List are 
commented upon in the leading editorial in this issue. 


The Life and Letters of Sir John Everett Millais, president 
of the Royal Academy, written by his son, J. G. Millais, 
with contributions by various writers, 2 vols., illus. in pho- 
togravure, etc., $10. (F. A. Stokes Co.) 

The Memoirs of Victor Hugo, with Preface by his literary 
executor, Paul Meurice, trans, by John W. Harding, au- 
thorized edition, with photogravure portrait, $2.50. (G. W. 
Dillingham Co. ) 

Life of Pope Leo XIII., by F. Marion Crawford, illus. in photo- 
gravure, etc. Abraham Lincoln, the man of the people, 
by Norman Hapgood, illus. Autobiography of Clement 
Scott. Sir Henry Irving, a record and review, by Charles 
Hiatt, illus. Sir J. Everett Millais, a record and review, 
by J. Lys Baldey, illus. in photogravure, etc. Life and 
Letters of Archbishop Benson, edited by his son, 2 vols., 
illus. Cardinal Newman as Anglican and Catholic, to- 
gether with correspondence, by Edmund Sheridan Purcell, 
with portraits. Francis Lieber, his life, times, and phil- 
osophy, edited by Lewis R. Hartley. "Foreign States- 
men " series, new vols.: Louis XI., by G. W. Prothero ; 
Ferdinand the Catholic, by E. Armstrong; Mazarin, by 
Arthur Hassall ; Catharine II., by J. B. Bury ; Louis 
XIV.. by H. 0. Wakeman; per vol., 75 cts. The Men 
Who Made the Nation, by Edwin E. Sparks, illus. Ed- 
ward Thring, his life, diary, and letters, by George R. 
Parkin, new and cheaper edition. Life of William E. 
Gladstone, by Justin McCarthy, new and cheaper edition, 
illus. (Macmillan Co.) 

Reminiscences, by Julia Ward Howe, with portraits. Rem- 
iniscences of My Life, by Prince Kropotkin, with portraits. 
Horace Bushnell, by Theodore T. Munger, D.D., with 
portraits. $2. " American Statesmen " series, edited by 
John T. Morse, Jr., new vols.: Salmon P. Chase, by Albert 
Bushnell Hart ; Charles Snmner, by Moorfield Storey ; 
Charles Francis Adams, by Charles Francis Adams ; per 
vol., $1.25. Life of Charles Henry Davis, Rear- Admiral, 
1807-1877, by his son, Captain Charles H. Davis, U. S. N., 
with portrait, $3. Letters and Recollections of John 
Murray Forbes, edited by his daughter, Sarah F. Hughes, 
2 vols., with portraits . Life of Bishop Latimer, by Rev. 
A. J. Carlyle, $1.25. (Houghton, Mifflin & Co.) 

Life and Letters of Dr. John Donne. Dean of St. Paul's, 1573- 
1631, by Edmund Gosse, 2 vols., illus. in photogravure, 
$8. net. The Life of Goldsmith, by Austin Dobson, new 
and revised edition, $1.25. " Modern English Writers " 
series, first vols.: Matthew Arnold, by Professor Saints- 
bury ; Stevenson, by L. Cope Cornford ; Tennyson, by 
Andrew Lang ; George Eliot, by Sidney Lee : Froude, by 
"John Oliver Hobbes"; Thackeray, by Charles Whib- 
ley ; per vol., $1.25. Romance of King Ludwig II. of 
Bavaria, by Frances A. Gerard, illus., $3.50. Reminis- 
cences of the Life of Edward P. Roe, to which are added 
sketches and other papers of an autobiographical nature, 
edited by his sister, Mary A. Roe, illus., $1.50. (Dodd, 
Mead & Co. ) 

The Life of William Makepeace Thackeray, by Lewis Mel- 
ville, 2 vols., illus., $10. Famous Ladies of the English 
Court, by Mrs. Aubrey Richardson, illus., $3.50 net. 
Sir Arthur Sullivan, his life story, with letters and remi- 
nisences, by Arthur Lawrence, illus. Some Players, 
reminiscences of the principal actors of our time, by Amy 
Leslie, with portraits, autograph letters, etc., $5. net. 
edition on Japan paper, $10. net. (H. S. Stone & Co.) 
"Heroes of the Nations" series, new vols : Bismarck and 
the New German Empire, byj. W. Headlam, M. A.; Charle- 
magne (Charles the Great), by H. W. Carless Davis, M.A.; 
Alexander the Great, by Benjamin Ide Wheeler ; each 
illus., $1.50. " Heroes of the Reformation " series, new 
vols.: Desiderins Erasmus (1467-1536), by Ephraim Emer- 
ton, Ph.D.; Theodore Beza (1519-1605), by Henry Martyn 
Baird, Ph.D.; each illus., $1.50. "American Men of 
Energy " series, new vol.: A Soldier of the Revolution, 
the life and work of Henry Knox, by Noah Brooks, illus., 
$1.50. Rupert, Prince Palatine, by Eva Scott, with por- 
traits, $3.50. Literary Hearthstones, studies of the home 
life of certain writers and thinkers, by Marion Harland, 
first vols.: Charlotte Bronte, William Cowper, Hannah 
More, and John Knox ; each illus., per vol., $1.25. (G. P. 
Putnam's Sons. ) 

The Life of William H. Seward, by Frederic Bancroft, 
2 vols., with photogravure portraits, $5. Life of General 
Nathan Bedford Forrest, by Dr. John A. Wyeth, illus., 
$4. Recollections of Sir Algernon West, illus., $3. Life 
and Letters of James D. Dana, by Daniel C. Gilman, illus., 
$2.50. Admiral George Dewey, a sketch of the man, by 
Hon. John Barrett, illus., $1.25. (Harper & Brothers.) 

The Life of Prince Otto von Bismarck, by Frank Preston 
Stearns, with photogravure frontispiece, $3.50. The True 
William Penn, by Sydney George Fisher, illus., $2. Sarah 
Bernhardt, by Jules Huret. trans, from the French by G. A. 
Raper, with Preface by Edmond Rostand, illus., $2.50. 
From Howard to Nelson, twelve sailors, edited by John 
Knox Laughton, M.A., $3.50. Cromwell and his Times, 
by G. Holden Pike, $1.50. (J. B. Lippincott Co.) 

Reminiscences of a Very Old Man, 1808-1897, by John Sartain, 
illus. The Log of a Sea-Waif, by Frank T. Bullen. ( D. 
Apple ton & Co.) 

The Life of Abraham Lincoln, by Ida M. Tarbell, 2 vols., 
illus., $5. Nancy Hanks, the story of Abraham Lincoln's 
mother, by Caroline Hanks Hitchcock, illus., 50 cts. net. 
(Doubleday & McClure Co.) 

Auld Lang Syne, second series, by the Right Hon. Prof. F. 
Max Miiller, $2. Mrs. John Drew's Reminiscences, with 
Introduction by her son, John Drew, illus. (Charles Scrib- 
ner's Sons. ) 

The Many-Sided Franklin, by Paul Leicester Ford, illus., $3. 
(Century Co.) 

The Memoirs of Baronesse de Courtot, lady in waiting on 
Princesse de Lambelle, edited by Moritz von Kaisenburg, 
illus. Life of Dean Henry George Liddell, by Henry L. 
Thompson, illus. ( Henry Holt & Co. ) 

Queen Elizabeth, by Right Hon. and Rev. Mandell Creigh- 
ton, D D., with portrait, $1.50. "Builders of Greater 
Britain " series, new vol. : Admiral Philip, and the found- 
ing of New South Wales, by Louis Becke and Walter Jef- 
fery, with portrait and maps, $1.50. (Longmans, Green, 

Memoirs of the Sidney Family, by Philip Sidney, illus., 
$3.50. Nelson and his Times, by Rear-Admiral Lord 
Charles Beresford and H. W. Wilson, illus., $3 Mary, 
Queen of Scots, from the English, Spanish, and Venetian 
State Papers, edited by Robert S. Rait, illus., $1.25. 
(New Amsterdam Book Co. ) 

"The Beacon Biographies," edited by M. A. De Wolfe 
Howe, new vols.: John Brown, by Joseph Edgar Charn- 
berlin ; Aaron Burr, by Henry Childs Merwin ; Frederick 
Douglass, by Charles W . Chestnntt ; Nathaniel Hawthorne, 
by Mrs. James T. Fields; Thomas Paine, by Ellery 
Sedgwick ; each with photogravure frontispiece and en- 
graved title-page, per vol., 75 cts. (Small, Maynard 
& Co.) 

Kate Field, a record, by Lilian Whiting, with portraits, $2. 
Elizabeth Barrett Browning, a study, by Lilian Whiting, 
with portrait, $1.25. (Little, Brown, & Co.) 

A Preacher's Life, an autobiography, by Joseph Parker, 
D.D., illus. (T. Y. Crowell&Co.) 

The Autobiography of Charles Haddon Spurgeon, Vol. III., 
illus., $2.50. James Evans, the Apostle of the North, by 
Rev. Egerton R. Young, D.D., illus., $1.25. (F. H 
Revell Co.) 



[Sept. 16, 


The Dutch and Quaker Colonies in America, by John Fiske, 
2 vols., with maps, $4. The End of an Era, by John >. 
Wiee. $2. The Narraganaett Friends' Meeting in the 
Eighteenth Century, by Caroline Hazard. (Hough ton, 
Mifflin & Co.) 

The Story of France, by Thomas E. Wataon, Vol. II., The 
Herolution. The United Kingdom, a political history, by 
Gold win Smith. D.C.L.. 2 volt. The WeUh People, their 
origin, language, and history, by John Rhys and David 
Brynmor Jones, Q.C. The Roman History of Appian of 
Alexandria, trans, from the Greek by Horace White, M.A., 
2 vols. Syllabus of European History, with bibliographies, 
16CXM890. by H. Morse Stephens, M.A. A History of tl,.- 
British Army, by the Hon. J. W. Forteacue. "2 vols., illuti. 
Select Charters, and other documents illustrative of 
American history, 1606-1775, edited by William Mai- 
Dtinalil. American History Told by Contemporaries 
edited by Albert Bnshnell Hart, Vol. III., National Ex- 
pansion, 17*3-1*45. Roman Society in the Last Century of 
the Western Empire, by Samuel Dill, new and cheaper 
edition. A Survey of Greek Civilization, by J. P. Mahait'y, 
D.D., new edition, illns. The Growth of the American 
Nation, by H. P. Judson, new edition. ( Macmillan Co. ) 

History of the United States, by James Ford Rhodes. Vol. 
IV., with maps, $2.50. Historic Sidelights, by Howard 
Payson Arnold, illns., 8*2.50. The Northwest under 
Three Flags, by Charles Moore, illns., $2.50. The Philip- 

B' lie Expedition, by F. I). Millet, illns., (2.50. Grate's 
istory of Greece, new library edition, 10 vols., $17.50. 
( Harper & Brothers. ) 

The River War, an account of the recovery of the Soudan, 
by Winston Spencer Churchill, edited by Colonel F. Rhodes. 
D.S.O.,2 vols.. illus. The English Radicals, an historical 
sketch, by C. B. Roylance Kent. A History of Spain, by 
Ulick Ralph Burke. M. A., new and cheaper edition, edited 
by Major M. A. S. Hume, 2 vols. Drake and the Tudor 
Navy, by Julian Corbett, new and cheaper edition, 2 vols., 
Ulna. (Longmans, Green. A Co.) 

" American Explorer Series," new vols. : On the Trail of a 
Spanish Pioneer, being the diary of Francisco Carces, 
missionary priest, in his travels through Sonoro, Arizona, 
and California. 1775-1776. now first trans, from the orig- 
inal Spanish MS. and edited by Dr. Elliott Coues, 2 vols., 
illus., $6. net. (Francis P. Harper.) 

A History of the Dutch People, by Petrns Johannes Blok, trans, 
by Oscar A. Bierstadt and Ruth Putnam, in 3 parts. Parts 
I. and II., each with maps, $2.50. Roman Life under the 
Caesars, by Emile Thomas, illns. "Story of the Nations" 
series, new vol.: Modern Spain, 17XK-1K98, by M. A. S. 
Hume, illus.. $1.50. The Eve of the Reformation in Great 
Britain, by Francis Adrian Gasquet. Historic Towns of 
the Middle States, edited by Lyraan P. Powell, D.D.. with 
Introduction by Dr. Albert Shaw, illus., $3.50. (G. P. 
Putnam's Sons. ) 

A History of the United States during the Civil War, by 
James Schonler, $2.25. A History of the United State* 
from the Adoption of the Constitution to the Close of the 
Civil War, by James Sohonler, revised edition, (\ vols., 
$13.50. ( Dodd, Mead & Co. ) 

A History of American Privateers, by Edgar Stan ton Maclay, 
illns. History of the People of the United States, by 
Prof. John B. MoMaster, Vol. V., with maps. (D. Appleton 
A Co.) 

History of America before Columbus, by Rev. P. De Roo, 
2 vols. The Heart of Asia, a history of Russian Turkestan 
and the Central Asian Khanates, by Francis Henry Skrine 
and Edward Denison Ross, illns., $3.50. Robespierre and 
the Red Terror, by Dr. Jan Ten Brink, trans, from the 
Dutch by J. Hedeman, illns., $3.50. (J. B. Lippincott Co.) 

Napoleon's Invasion of Russia, by Hereford B. George, 
F. R. G. S.. with maps and plans. $4. The History of Cor- 
sica, by L. H. Caird, $1.75. Lockhart's Advance through 
Tireh. bv Capt. L. J. Shad well, illns., $3. (New Ams- 
terdam Book Co.) 

Seignobos's Political History of Contemporary Europe, 1814- 
1K!<H, trans, nnder the supervision of, and edited by. Prof. 
Silas M. Macvane. ( Henry Holt A Co.) 

Maximilian in Mexico, a woman's reminiscences of the French 
Intervention. WEMJW7, by Sara Yorke Stevenson, illus., 
$2.50. (Century Co.) 

East Tennessee and the Civil War, by Oliver P. Temple, 
with map and portraits, $3.50 net. (Robert Clarke Co.) 

Twenty Famous Naval Battles, Salamis to Santiago, by Prof. 
E. K. Rawson, 2 vols., illns., $4. (T. Y. Crowell A Co.) 

The Clans of the Scottish Highlands, by R. R. Mclan, with 
72 plates in colors, $3.50 net. ( F. A. Stokes Co. ) 

The Log of the " Gloucester," published bv permission of 
the Navy Department, illus.. $1.50. (J. F. Taylor A Co.) 

The Puritan Republic, by Daniel Wait Howe, $3.50. (Bowen- 
Merrill Co.) 

Essays ou Subjects connected with the Reformation in En- 
gland, by the late Samuel Roffey M.ii'lm.l. D.D.. with 
Introduction by Arthur W. Uutton, M. A., $2. (John Lane.) 

The Puritan as a (Colonist and a Reformer, by Ezra Hoyt 
Byington. illus.. $'2. ( Little, Brown, A Co. ) 

France and Italy, by Imbert de Saint-Amand, with portraits, 
$1 .50. ( Charles Scri oner's Sons. ) 

Judea, from Cyrus to Titus, 537 B. C.-70 A D., by Elizabeth 
W. Latimer, illus.. $2.50. (A. C. MoClurg & Co.) 

From Yaoco to Las Marias, the story of the recent campaign 
in Western Porto Rico, by Karl Stephen Herrmann, late 
private U. S. A., illos., $1. (R. G. Badger & Co.) 

Biographical Sketches of Some Ancient People, by S. M. 
Burnham, M. A., illus., $2. (A. I. Bradley A Co.) 

The Territorial Acquisitions of the United States, a historical 
review, by Edward Bivkwell, 50c. (Small, Maynard A Co.) 

A Pocket History of the American Navy and Naval Com- 
manders, compiled and arranged by Cromwell Childe, 
illus. , 25 ota. ( Bonnell, Silver A Co. ) 


An American Anthology, by Edmund Clarence Stedraan. 
Contemporaries, by Thomas Wentworth Higginson, $2. 
letters and Passages from letters of Ralph Waldo Emer- 
son to a Friend, 1H3H-1H53, edited by Charles Kli.-t Norton. 
A Century of Science, and other essays, by John Fiske, 
$2. Letters to Washington, edited by Stanislaus Murray 
Hamilton, Vol. II., 1756-1758, $5. net. The Prose of Ed- 
ward Rowland Sill, being essays in literature and educa- 
tion, and friendly letters. Sonnets, rendering into English 
selections from Bion, Moschus, and Bxrchylides. by Lloyd 
Mifflin. Sonnets and Madrigals of Michel Angulo Buon- 
arroti, rendered into English verse by William Wells 
Newell, with Italian text. Two Tragedies of Seneca, ren- 
dered into English verse by Ella Isabel Harris, 75 eta. 
(Houghton, Mifflin A Co.) 

The Letters of Robert Louis Stevenson, edited by Sidney 
Colvin, 2 vols.. illns., $5. American Lands and Letters, 
by Donald G. Mitchell (" Ik Marvel "), Vol. H., leather- 
Stocking to Poe's Raven, illus., $2.50. Letters of Sidney 
Lanier. selections from his correspondence, ls.ii IM;T. with 
photogravure portraits. $'2. Fisherman's Luck and Other 
Uncertain Things, by Henry Van Dyke, illns.. $2. The 
Authority of Criticism, and other essays, by William P. 
Trent. Search- Light letters, by Robert Grant, $1.50. 
(Charles Scribner's Sons.) 

New Letters and Papers of Hazlitt and Charles I -am I., edited 
by W. Carew Hazlitt, $1.50. The Etchingham Letters, 
by Sir Frederick Pollock and Mrs. Fuller Maitland, $1.25. 
-What Is Good English, and other essays, by Harry Thnrs- 
ton iVrk, $1.50. The New England Primer, a history of 
its origin and development, with a reprint of tin- earliest 
known edition, edited by Paul Leicester Ford, illns., 
$1 50. The Victorian Age of English Literature, by Mrs. 
pliphant. new edition. '2 vols., $3. Ballads of Books, ed- 
ited by Brander Matthews, $1 25. Legends of Switzer- 
land, by H. A. Gnerber, illns., $1.50. A Looker-on in 
London, by Mary H. Krout, $1.50. ( Dodd, Mead A Co. t 

Introduction to the Prose and Poetical Works of John Milton, 
by Hiram Corson, LL.D. The Development of the English 
Novel, by Wilbur L\ Cross. Studies in Literature, second 
series, by Lewis E. Gates. " National Studies in American 
letters," edited by Prof. George E. Woodberry, new vols.: 
Brook Farm, by Lindsay Swift; The Clergy in Amer- 
ican Life and Letters, by Rev. Daniel Dnlaney Addison. 
Some Principles of Literary Criticism, by C. T. Win- 
chester. Romances of Roguerv, an account of the Spanish 
picaresque novel, bv Frank Wadleigh Chandler. Ph.D. 
Spanish Literature in the England of tin- Tudors, by John 
Garret t Underbill. Ph.D. Carnac S.-thib. a play in four 
acts, by Henry Arthur Jones. TheSeege of Trove, edited 
by C. H. A. Wager. Shakespeare, a study, by Georg 
Brandes, trans, by William Archer, new and cheaper edi- 
tion in 1 vol. Letters of Elizabeth Barrett Browning, 
edited, with biographical additions, by F. (J. Kenyon, new 
edition in 1 vol., illus. From Chaucer to Tennyson, by 
Henry Augnstin Beers, new edition, illns. Nature Pic- 
tures by American Poets, illus. in photogravure, edited by 
Annie Unwell Marble. (Maviuilhtn Co.) 




The Troubadours at Home, their lives and their personalities, 
their songs and their world, by Justin H. Smith, 2 vols., 
illus., $6. The True History of Bluebeard, a contribution 
to history and folk-lore, by Thomas Wilson, LL.D., illus. 
Writings of James Madison, eHted by Gaillard Hunt, in 
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