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San Francisco, California 

From the collection of the 


o Prejinger 


1845 It- 




, JLUr 


c/7 Semi- Monthly Journal of 

Literary Criticism, Discussion, and Information 



JULY 1 TO DECEMBER 16, 1912 





AMERICA, MR. BENNETT VISITS Edith Kellogg Dunton .... 435 





ASSISI, THE SAINT OF Norman M. Trenholme .... 490 

ATHENS IN DECLINE Josiah Renick Smith .... 98 

BEAUTY AND UGLINESS, THE How AND WHY OF . . . . F. B. R. Hellems 335 


BRONTE, THE HOUSE OF W. E. Simonds 329 



CART WRIGHT OF LABRADOR Lawrence J. Burpee 17 


CHAUCER IN PROSE Clark S. Northup 436 



CONFEDERACY, LAST DAYS OF THE Charles Leonard Moore .... 486 


CRIMINALITY, THE CONFLICT WITH Charles Richmond Henderson . 195 


ENGLAND, THE SOCIAL REVOLUTION IN Charles Richmond Henderson . 71 

ENGLISH CATHEDRALS, NEW MEMORIALS OF THE . . . Josiah Renick Smith .... 492 


ENGLISH POETRY, A SURVEY OF Raymond Macdonald Alden , , 46 





FAR NORTH, LURE OF THE Charles Atwood Kofoid .... 70 

FEDERAL CONVENTION, RECORDS OF THE St. George L. Sioussat .... 192 

FICTION, RECENT William Morton Payne 74, 243, 383 



FURNITURE, HISTORY AND ROMANCE OF Arthur Howard Noll .... 137 

GODS, THE RETURN OF THE Charles Leonard Moore . . . 371 

GRANT WHITE SHAKESPEARE, THE NEW Alphonso Gerald Newcomer . . 332 


HISTORY, THE NEW Carl Becker 19 








LANDSCAPE, A POET IN Edward E. Hale 488 

LITERARY MARE'S-NEST, ANOTHER Charles Leonard Moore .... 277 


Louis NAPOLEON, RECOLLECTIONS OF Roy Temple House 376 

LYRIC, THE, IN ENGLISH POETRY Martha Hale Shackford . . . 131 

MAN AND CIVILIZATION Llewellyn Jones 293 







MEREDITH, GEORGE, HIMSELF George Roy Elliott 284 

MOODY, WILLIAM VAUGHN William Morton Payne .... 484 


NOMAD, THE, IN LITERATURE Charles Leonard Moore .... 181 


PATER, A DISCIPLE OF Charles H. A. Wager .... 442 

"PEOPLE'S ATTORNEY, THE" Percy F. Bicknell 11 

POETRY, RECENT William Morton Payne .... 100 





SHAKESPEARE IN RELIEF Alphonso Gerald Newcomer . . 68 





STATE GOVERNMENT, THE "NEW IDEA" IN ...'.. David Y. Thomas 134 




TWAIN, MARK Percy F. Bicknell 290 


WHISTLER THE ARTIST Frederick W. Gookin .... 241 

WHITMAN, WALT Louis I. Bredvold 323 

WILDE, OSCAR, CRITICALLY STUDIED Lewis Piaget Shanks .... 13 

WOMAN AND ECONOMICS Alvin S. Johnson 15 

WORLD'S PEACE, A WOULD-BE DISTURBER OF THE . . . Edward B. Krehbiel 334 



CASUAL COMMENT 7, 37, 65, 89, 121 ,.183, 231, 278, 325, 372, 430, 479 

BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS 22, 52, 77, 105, 139, 197, 246, 295, 339, 386 

BRIEFER MENTION 26, 56, 143, 201, 249, 298, 342, 390 

NOTES 27, 57, 80, 108, 144, 201, 251, 299, 343, 391, 461, 505 

TOPICS IN LEADING PERIODICALS 28, 81, 144, 252, 344, 462 

LISTS OF NEW BOOKS 29, 57, 82, 109, 145, 257, 300, 345, 391, 463, 506 


Academic Honors to Men of Letters 10 

Albemarle Street Centenary, An 67 

American Fiction, The Cleanness of 

American Literature, The Flippant Note in... 281 

American Pageantry, A Notable Addition to.. 326 

Anonymity, Emerging from the Shelter of 66 

Appeal, A Moving 

"Arabian Nights," A Warning from the 185 

Artistic Detachment 121 

Australia's Literary Likings 282 

Author, A Plucky Young 67 

Authors, Great What They Pride Themselves 

on 431 

Baccalaureate, Dwindling of the 

Bacon, Whitewashing 67 

Baroda, A Library Movement in 372 

Bibliography, A Notable 231 

Biographer to Erratic Genius, The Post of... 327 
Book-Buyers, Book-Borrowers, and the Par- 
cels Post 233 

Book-Buying, Co-operative, An Experiment in 

Book Catalogue, A Sumptuous 373 

Bookless People, Bringing Books to 

Book-Publisher, The Calumniated 37 

Book-Swindler, The, in the Toils 481 

Books of Moderate Price, Demand for 40 

Books, The Gender of 7 

Books and the Weather 233 

Cervantes Museum, A 432 

Chinese Sensational Fiction 233 

Chinese Tradesman, Poetry in the Soul of 281 

"Classical Foundation" as a "Practical Equip- 
ment for Life's Journey" 123 

Colvin, Sir Sidney, Work of, at British Mu- 
seum 39 

Congress of the History of Art, Tenth In- 
ternational 122 

Contemporary Greatness, The Appraisal of. ... 90 

Country Life, Improving the Conditions of... 232 

Culture in the South, The Cause of 8 

"Debrett," Our American 40 

Dofobs, Latest Publication of the 92 

"Education, A Fundamental Paradox of" 234 

Education, the Future of, High Hopes for 66 

Educational Institution, An, Launched with a 

Warning 9 

English Authors, Foggy Impressions of 430 

English Lake District. To Lovers of the 183 

Fiction, Machine-Made 183 

First Editions, High Quotations on 374 

Foreigner, Friendliness to the 234 

French Academicians, The Two Latest 433 

Friendship, A Memorable 480 

Futurist Literature, The Technique of 280 

Genius, The Puerilities of 89 

Genius and Personality 431 




Goethe Museum at Weimar, Growth of the. . . . 374 

Goldwin Smith Lectures, The, at Cornell 185 

Greek Manuscript, An Important 281 

Greek Play, A, in the Open Air 9 

Harvard, A New Library Building for 124 

Harvard's Promised Library, Details of 231 

Hauptmann's Variety in Unity 430 

He Who Rides May Read 280 

Hero, A, and His Valet 38 

Hint, A Tactful 282 

Hoe Library, Final Sale of the 184 

"Homer of the Insects," The Shy 9 

Howe, Mrs., Memorial Portrait of 328 

"Ibid," The Amazingly Prolific 123 

Index, A Monumental 184 

Information, The Desire for 183 

Intellectual Life, The 328 

Language, Our, "Guide-Post" Reformers of... 37 

Letters, The Primrose Path of 38 

Librarian, Human Side of the 279 

Librarian's Natural Ally, The 281 

Librarians, Worn-Out, Pensioning of 90 

Librarianship, Mysteries of 8 

Librarianship, Supposed Qualifications for... 232 

Library, A, in a Water-Tank 39 

Library, A Proposed, of Peculiar Character... 373 

Library, A Public, with no Dead Books 185 

Library, Discovering the 66 

Library, One Way to Advertise a 10 

Library, Public, Those Who Know not the... 480 

Library, Reorganizing a 233 

Library, The, as an Educational Force 37 

Library Building, Demolition of a Famous... 432 

Library Burglary Extraordinary, A 91 

Library Catalogues, The Vigorous Growth of. . 433 

Library Growth, A Decade of 326 

Library of Congress, A Noteworthy Gift to 

the 482 

Library Planning from the Inside 91 

Library Rivalry 92 

Library Training, A Normal Course in 10 

Library Trustee, The Dormant 184 

Library's Growth, Cumulative Rate of a 481 

Linguistic Mystery, Possible Solution of a. ... 480 


Literary Companionship, A Year's 278 

Literary Effort, Incentives to 183 

Literary Event, A 8 

Literary Property, Respect for 431 

Literary Treasure, A Possible Unearthing of.. 326 

Literary Weekly, The Appeal of the 232 

Literature, The Artistic Attitude toward 91 

Loafing, The Economic Value of 374 

Loti's Orientalism 280 

"Lucas, Mr., Lambing with" 327 

Manuscripts, The Sifting of 66 

Meredith and His Muse 122 

Muse, The, in Bonds 279 

Noise and the Book-Trade 479 

Novels Why They Multiply 327 

Philippine Library, The 481 

Poetry by Linear Measurement 328 

Poet's Emotions in the Face of Impending 

Death 373 

Prints, The First Professorship of 328 

Pros and Cons 325 

Pseudo-Latin, Spoken and Written 481 

Publisher, A, of the Old School 480 

Publishers in Petticoats 234 

Quintilian, A Hint from 433 

Reader, An Enviable 123 

Realism, Stevenson's Conception of 373 

Sanborn, Mr., at Eighty-One 185 

Schleyer, Johann Martin, Death of 124 

Scholar's Conscience, The 9 

Schoolbooks, A Use for Old 432 

Servian Poetry, Ancient 432 

Shakespeare Scholar, A Great 121 

Shaw's Conquest of Gaul 65 

Stationers' Hall in London, Fame of 92 

"Tolstoy of Germany, The" 232 

Toxins, Inspirational 89 

Transcendentalism, The Perennial Appeal of.. 282 

Translation, A Problem in 123 

"Trifling, An Epoch of Solemn and Insane".. 124 

Turkey, A Roseate View of 374 

Unproclaimed Achievement, Acknowledging the 328 

Vagabondage and the Literary Temperament. 279 

Veteran Literary Worker, Last Labors of a. 231 


Acorn, George. One of the Multitude 297 

Adams, W. Dacres. A Book of Beggars 504 

Adcock, Frederick. Famous Houses of Lon- 
don 200 

Addison, Albert C. Story of the Puritan 

Fathers 449 

Addison, Julia de Wolf. Spell of England 199 

Alden, Edward C. Fifty Water-Color Draw- 
ings of Oxford 497 

Alden, Percy. Democratic England 73 

Aldrich, T. B. The Shadow of the Flowers 500 

Allen, Percy. Burgundy, the Splendid Duchy. 448 
Allen, Phoebe. The Last Legitimate King of 

France 386 

Amsden, Dora, and Happer, J. S. Heritage of 

Hiroshige 248 

Aspinall, Algernon E. The British West In- 
dies 54 

Atkinson, Thomas D. English and Welsh 

Cathedrals 492 

Bacon, Edwin M., and Wyman, Morrill. Direct 

Elections and Law-Making by Popular Vote 246 
Balch, William M. Christianity and the Labor 

Movement 143 

Bangs, John Kendrick. Echoes of Cheer 105 

Barbour, Ralph Henry. Harbor of Love 456 

Barclay, Florence L. The Following of the 

Star, illus. by F. H. Townsend 501 

Bashkirtseff, Marie, New Journal of 341 

Bates, Lindon, Jr. Path of the Conquistadores 446 
Baum, Julius. Romanesque Architecture in 

France 26 

Bax, Ernest B. Last Episode of the French 

Revolution 142 

Beesley, Lawrence. Loss of the SS. Titanic. . . 77 

Bennett, Arnold. Your United States 435 

Benson, Arthur C. The Child of the Dawn. ... 22 

Bertram, Paul. The Shadow of Power 76 

Betham-Edwards, M. In the Heart of the 

Vosges 26 

Betz, Frederik. Deutscher Humor 57 

Bibliographical Society of America Papers, 

Vol. VI 201 

Bikie, Lucy L. C. The Voice of the Garden.. 504 
"Birmingham, G. A." Lighter Side of Irish 

Life , 502 

"Birmingham, G. A." Priscilla's Spies 384 

Blok, Petrus J. People of the Netherlands, 

Vol. V 23 

Bond, Francis. Cathedrals of England and 

Wales, fourth revised edition 493 

Bowne, Borden Parker. Kant and Spencer... 25 

Bradley, A. G. The Gateway of Scotland 448 

Breckinridge, Sophonisba P. The Child in the 

City 382 

Breckinridge, Sophonisba P., and Abbott, 

Edith. The Delinquent Child and the Home 381 

Brett-Smith, H. F. Poems of the North 102 

Brockway, Z. R. Fifty Years of Prison Serv- 
ice 196 

Bronson, Walter C. American Poems 250 

Bryan, George S. Poems of Country Life.... 505 

Bryant, Edward A. Yuletide Cheer 454 

Bryce, James. South America 444 

Bullard, F. Lauriston. Historic Summer 

Haunts 446 

"Burlington Library" 453 

Burroughs, John. Time and Change 388 

Butler, Elizabeth B. Saleswomen in Mercan- 
tile Stores 17 

Cabot, William Brooks. In Northern Labra- 
dor .- 96 

CafBn, Mr. and Mrs. Charles H. Dancing and 

Dancers of Today 451 

Cain, Georges. Byways of Paris 55 

"Cambridge Manuals of Science and Litera- 
ture" 27, 137 

Campbell, Douglas H. Plant Life and Evolu- 
tion 136 

"Canuck, Janey." Open Trails 25 

Carpenter, Edward. Towards Democracy, 

American edition 298 

Carr, Mrs. Lucien. Harriet Hosmer 106 

Cazamian, Louis. Modern England 71 

Chambers, Robert. Traditions of Edinburgh, 

illus. by James Riddell 495 

Chambers, Robert W. Blue-Bird Weather 501 

Champney, Elizabeth W. Romance of the 

French Chateaux, new edition 449 

"Chance Medley, A" 79 

Chatterton, E. Keble. Through Holland in 

the Vivette 448 




Chautauqua Books for 1912 250 

City of Sweet-Do-Nothing 200 

Clark, Sue Ainslie, and Wyatt, Edith. Mak- 
ing- Both Ends Meet 17 

Clopper, E. N. Child Labor in City Streets... 382 
Colman, Samuel. Nature's Harmonic Unity. . . 380 
Conway, John J. Footprints of Famous Amer- 
icans in Paris 298 

Cook, Albert S. Sir Eglamour 27 

Coriat, Isador H. Hysteria of Lady Macbeth. 339 
Cotterill, H. B. Homer's Odyssey, illus. by 

Patten Wilson 499 

Courthope, W. J. A History of English Poetry 46 

Craig, Charles F. Parasitic Amoebae of Man.. 107 
Crawford, Mary C. Romantic Days in the 

Early Republic 449 

Croly, Herbert. Marcus Alonzo Hanna 54 

Currier, A. H. Present-Day Problem of Crime 196 

Daingerfleld, Elliott. George Innes 42 

D'Ambes, Baron. Intimate Memoirs of Na- 
poleon III 376 

D'Auvergne, E. B. Switzerland in Sunshine 

and Snow 448 

Davenport, C. B. Heredity in Relation to 

Eugenics 49 

Davey, Richard. Sisters of Lady Jane Grey.. 199 
Davis, F. Hadland. Myths and Legends of 

Japan 455 

Davis, William S. The Friar of Wittenberg. . . 75 

Day, Holman. The Red Lane 244 

"Dehan, Richard." Between Two Thieves.... 243 
Delage, Yves, and Goldsmith, Marie. Theories 

of Evolution 137 

Denison, Elsa. Helping School Children 382 

Devon, James. The Criminal and the Com- 
munity 195 

Dick, Stewart. Master Painters 499 

Dier, J. C. A Book of Winter Sports 501 

Dinan, W. The Celts in Antiquity 342 

Doren, Carl van. Life of Thomas Love Pea- 

cock 139 

Doyle, Arthur Conan. The Lost World! 384 

Du Bose, John W. General Joseph Wheeler. . . 80 

Earle, Ferdinand. The Lyric Year 477 

Eberlein, Harold D., and Lippincott, Horace M. 

Colonial Homes of Philadelphia 502 

Edwards, Albert. A Man's World 385 

Edwards, George W. Marken and Its People. 447 

Egan, Maurice F. Everybody's Saint Francis. 492 

Ellis, Havelock. The Task of Social Hygiene. 287 

Elmendorf, Dwight L. A Camera Crusade 496 

Emerson, Edward W., and Harris, William F. 

Charles Eliot Norton 427 

English, Douglas. Tales of the Untamed 502 

"English Readings for Schools". 57 

Eucken, Rudolf. Main Currents of Modern 

Thought 293 

"Everyman's Library" 56 

Fabre, J. H. Social Life in the Insect World. . 242 

Fairchild, Arthur. The Making of Poetry.... 140 
Farnol, Jeffery. The Broad Highway, illus. 

by C. E, Brock 453 

Farrand, Max. Records of the Federal Con- 
vention 192 

Faxon, Frederick W. Dramatic Index for 1911 27 
Ferguson, William S. The Hellenistic Com- 
monwealth 98 

Figgis, Darrell. Shakespeare: A Study 68 

Flagg, James M. Adventures of Kitty Cobb. . . 503 
Fleming, W. T. General Sherman as College 

President 389 

Flemwell, G. Flower-Fields of Switzerland... 455 
Flitch, J. E. C. Modern Dancing and Dancers 450 
Foley, Edwin. Book of Decorative Furniture. 138 
Forbush, William B. The Coming Generation. 382 
Forrest, A. S., and Koebel, W. H. South Amer- 
ica 495 

Fowler, Henry T. Literature of Ancient Israel 340 
France, Anatole. At the Sign of the Reine 

Pedauque . 390 

Fraprie, Frank R. The Raphael Book 451 

Freeman, A. Martin. Thomas Love Peacock.. 139 

Fullerton, G. Stuart. The World We Live In. . 249 

Gale, Zona. Christmas 501 

Galsworthy, John. Moods, Songs, and Dog- 
gerels 101 

Garner, James W. Government in the United 

States 143 

Gaskell, Mrs. Cranford, illus. by H. M. Brock 500 

Gautier, Theophile, Works of, pocket edition. . . 453 
George, Wm. R., and Stowe, Lyman Beecher. 

Citizens Made and Remade 382 

Goddard, H. H. The Kallikak Family 247 

Goldmark, Josephine. Fatigue and Efficiency. 15 
Goldsmith's "She Stoops to Conquer," illus. 

by Hugh Thomson 499 

Goodman, Maud Wilder, and Others. Historic 

New York During Two Centuries 450 

Gosse, Edmund. Two Visits to Denmark 249 


Grant, Robert. Convictions of a Grandfather. 108 
Grant, W. L. Lescarbot's History of New 

France, Vol. II 250 

Greenlaw, E. A. Syllabus of English Litera- 
ture 138 

Gribble, Francis. Comedy of Catherine the 

Great 26 

Guerber, H. A. Shakespeare's English History 

Plays 390 

Guthrie, Anna L. Library Work 55 

Haggard, H. Rider. Red Eve 75 

Haines, Jennie D. A Book of Happiness 454 

Hale, Mr. and Mrs. Walter. Motor Journeys. . . 447 

Hale, William B. Woodrow Wilson 22 

Hall, Eliza Calvert. Hand-woven Coverlets... 450 
Hall, G. Stanley. Founders of Modern .Psy- 
chology 388 

Hallock, Ella B. Introduction to Browning... 343 
Halsey, Rosalie V. Forgotten Books of the 

American Nursery 25 

"Handasyde." The Four Gardens 503 

Hard, William. The Women of To-morrow... 17 
Hare, Maurice E. Chatterton's Rowley Poems 250 
"Harland, Marion." Colonial Homesteads, new 

edition 450 

Hay, John. Pike County Ballads, illus. by 

N. C. Wyeth 453 

Hekler, Anton. Greek and Roman Portraits.. 439 
Henderson, Helen. Art Treasures of Wash- 
ington 499 

Herter, C. A. Biological Aspects of Human 

Problems 49 

Heyl, Charles C. Art of the Uffizi Palace 498 

Hilton-Simpson, M. W. Land and Peoples of 

the Kasai 448 

Hinsdale, Mary L. History of the President's 

Cabinet 107 

Holbach, Maude M. In the Footsteps of Rich- 
ard Coeur de Lion 387 

Holme, Charles. Village Homes of England. . 201 
Holmes, Arthur. Conservation of the Child.. 380 

"Home University Library" 57, 495 

Honey, Samuel R. Referendum among the 

English 246 

Hosford, Hester E. Life of Governor Wilson, 

revised edition 109 

Howe, Frederic C. Wisconsin 135 

Howell, C. F. Around the Clock in Europe.. 447 
Hume, H. W. L. Three Comedies by Holberg. . 27 

Hunter, George L. Tapestries 498 

Hutchinson, Frances K. Our Country Life.... 454 

Hutchison, Percy A. British Poems 250 

Hutton, Edward. Cities of Lombardy 497 

Hutton, S. K. Among Eskimos of Labrador. . 96 
Hyatt, Alfred H. The Charm of London, illus. 

by Yoshio Markino 453 

Hyatt, Alfred H. The Charm of Venice, illus. 

by Harald Sund 453 

Jackson, Charles Tenney. The Midlanders. . . . 245 
James, William. On Some of Life's Ideals... 201 

Jenkins, Stephens. Story of the Bronx 449 

Johnson, Burges. Childhood 455 

Johnson, Clifton. Artemus Ward's Best Stories 441 

Johnson, Lionel. Post Liminium 442 

Jordan, Humfrey. The Joyous Wayfarer 74 

Jorgensen, Johannes. Saint Francis of Assisi. 490 
Jourdain, M. English Secular Embroidery... 53 

Judd, John W. The Coming of Evolution 137 

Kawakami, Kiyoshi K. American-Japanese 

Relations 239 

Kellicott, W. E. Social Direction of Human 


Kennedy, Elijah R. Contest for California in 


Kennedy, J. Wilmer. Newark in the Public 

Schools of Newark 

Kennedy, Sidney R., and Noble, Alden C. 

White Ashes 

Kenngott, George F. Lowell: The Record of 

a City 

Kester, Vaughan. Fortunes of the Landrays. 

King, Basil. The Street Called Straight 

Kingsley, J. S. Comparative Anatomy of Ver- 

Kipling, Rudyard. Kim, illus. by J. Lockwood 


Lacy, Mary E. With Dante in Modern Flor- 

La Farge, John. One Hundred Masterpieces 

of Painting 

Lahee, H. C. Grand Opera Singers of To-day. 
Lang, Andrew. History of English Literature 
Lang, Andrew. History of Scotland, abridged 


Lange, Algot. In the Amazon Jungle 

Lamed, J. N. William Pryor Letchworth. . . . 
Lawson, W. A. Shakespeare's Wit and Humor 

Lea, Homer. The Day of the Saxon 

Learned, Henry B. The President's Cabinet. . . 



Lee, Charles. Our Little Town 105 

Lee, Charles. Paul Carah, Cornishman 105 

Lee, Charles. The Widow Woman 105 

Lee, Vernon, and Anstruther-Thomson C. 

Beauty and Ugliness 335 

Le Gallienne, Richard. Maker of Rainbows... 501 
Lincoln, C. H. Correspondence of William 

Shirley 93 

Lincoln, Jennette E. C. The Festival Book. . . . 143 

Lloyd, Caro. Henry Demarest Lloyd 11 

London, Jack. Call of the Wild, illus. by 

Paul Bransom 501 

Lowe, Percy R. A Naturalist on Desert 

Islands 45 

Lucas, E. V. A Little of Everything 504 

Lucas, E. V. A Wanderer in Florence 496 

Luchaire, Achille. Social France at the Time 

of Philip Augustus 247 

"Lyric Year, The" 477 

Maartens, Maarten. Eve 383 

McCabe, Joseph. The Story of Evolution 137 

McCarthy, Charles. The Wisconsin Idea 134 

McCauley, Clarice V. The Garden of Dreams. . 456 
McConnell, Ray M. Criminal Responsibility 

and Social Constraint 196 

McCurdy, Edward. Roses of Psestum 505 

McCutcheon, John T. Dawson, '11 504 

Mcllwaine, H. R. Journals of the House of 

Burgesses of Virginia 56 

Mackail, J. W. Life of William Morris, pocket 

edition 343 

Mackellar, C. D. Scented Isles and Coral Gar- 
dens 142 

Mackereth, James. In the Wake of the 

Phoenix 103 

Mackie, Gascoigne. Charmides 102 

McLaughlin, A. C. Courts, Constitution, and 

Parties 337 

McLaughlin, Robert W. Washington and Lin- 
coln 390 

MacMillan, Donald. Short History of the Scot- 
tish People 54 

McSpadden, J. Walker. The Alps as Seen by 

the Poets 454 

Maeterlinck, M. Life of the Bee, illus. by 

E. J. Detmold 452 

Makower, Stanley V., and Blackwell, Basil W. 

A Book of English Essays 201 

Mann, Francis O. Works of Thomas Deloney. 26 

Marden, Philip S. Egyptian Days 446 

Marks, Jeannette. Gallant Little Wales 341 

Masefleld, John. Multitude and Solitude 75 

Masefleld, John. The Everlasting Mercy 100 

Mason, A. E. W. The Turnstile 75 

Mather, Frank Jewett, Jr. Homer Martin.... 488 
May, Thomas E. Constitutional History of 

England 57 

Melville, Lewis. Life and Letters of Sterne. . . 51 

Meneval, Baron de. The Empress Josephine. .. 296 

Meredith, George, Letters of 284 

Meredith's Poems, revised one-volume edition 504 
Merejkowski, Dmitri. Leonardo da Vinci, holi- 
day edition 452 

Merwin, Samuel. The Citadel 244 

Moir, David M. Mansie Wauch, illus. by C. 

M. Hardie 452 

Moody, William Vaughn. Poems and Plays, 

collected edition 484 

Morgan, C. Lloyd. Instinct and Experience. . 341 
Morley, Henry. First Sketch of English Litera- 
ture, revised edition 343 

Morris, Harrison S. William T. Richards... 452 
Morse, Edwin W. Causes and Effects in Amer- 
ican History 342 

Mortimer, F. G. Photograms for 1912 499 

Mosher, Thomas .rf. Amphora 503 

Munro, W. B. Initiative, Referendum, and 

Recall 246 

Murray, John. The Depths of the Ocean.... 330 

Musgrove, Eugene R. White Hills in Poetry. 56 
Myers, Cortland. Where Heaven Touched the 

Earth 498 

Myers, Gustavus. History of the Supreme 

Court 337 

Nansen, Fridtjof. In Northern Mists 70 

Needham, Mary M. Folk Festivals 108 

Neihardt, J. G. The Stranger at the Gate 103 

Nicholson, Meredith. The Provincial Ameri- 
can 339 

Nicolay, Helen. Personal Traits of Lincoln.. 390 

Nietzsche, Frau Forster. Life of Nietzsche.. 127 

Northend, Mary H. Colonial Homes 451 

Norton, Clara, and Others. Modern DraTna and 

Opera 143 

Ogburn, William F. Child-Labor Legislation 381 

Osborne, Albert B. Picture Towns of Europe. 497 

Packard, Winthrop. White Mountain Trails.. 105 

Paine, Albert Bigelow. Mark Twain 290 

Palmer, Frederick. Over the Pass 76 


Parrish, Randall. Molly McDonald 77 

Parry, Hubert. Style in Musical Art 389 

Parsons, Albert R. Road Map of the Stars. ... 27 

Patten, William. Evolution of the Vertebrates 136 

Patterson, J. G. A Zola Dictionary 250 

Pawlowska, Yoi. A Year of Strangers 140 

Peabody, R. E. Merchant Venturers of Old 

Salem 296 

Pennell, Elizabeth R. Our House, illus. by 

Joseph Pennell 456 

Pennell, Joseph. The Panama Canal 451 

Perry, Bliss. The American Mind 378 

Poe's The Bells, illus. by Edmund Dulac 500 

Porter, Charlotte, and Clarke, Helen* A. Brown- 
ing's Works, pocket edition 343 

Porter, Charlotte, and Clarke, Helen A. "First 

Folio" Shakespeare 505 

Porter, E. C., and Warner, F. L. A Mount 

Holyoke Book 250 

Pugh, Edwin. Charles Dickens Originals 502 

Purdy, Helen T. San Francisco 497 

Putnam, George Haven. A Prisoner of War 

in Virginia, 1864-5 198 

Putnam, George Haven. George Palmer Put- 
nam 237 

Rabelais's Works, illus, by W. Heath Robin- 
son 453 

Randall, J. Herman. Culture of Personality.. 343 
Ransom, W. L. Majority Rule and the Ju- 
diciary 338 

Ransome, Arthur. Oscar Wilde 13 

"Redfleld, Martin." My Love and I 385 

Reed, Edward Bliss. English Lyrical Poetry. . 131 

Repplier, Agnes. The Cat 504 

Ricci, Corrado. Baroque Architecture and 

Sculpture in Italy 26 

Robertson, J. G. Outlines of German Litera- 
ture 297 

Robinson, James H. The New History 19 

Robinson, W. Heath. Bill the Minder 454 

Rodin, Auguste. Venus 504 

Rodway, James. In the Guiana Forest 44 

Roe, Gilbert E. Our Judicial Oligarchy 336 

Rogers, John. Sport in Vancouver 95 

Rogers, R. W. Cuneiform Parallels to the Old 

Testament ' 142 

Root, Jean Christie. Edward Irving 198 

Ross, John D. Sixty Years in the Far East. . . 97 

Royce, Josiah. Sources of Religious Insight. 140 

Russell, George W. E. One Look Back 106 

Sale, Edith T. Old Time Belles and Cavaliers. 501 

Sangster, Margaret. The Mother Book 504 

Schaff, Morris. Sunset of the Confederacy... 486 

Schauffler, Robert H. Scum o' the Earth 104 

Scott, Mrs. Maxwell. Marquise de la Roche- 

jaquelin 200 

Scribner, Frank K. The Secret of Frontellac. . 386 

Scudder, Vida D. Socialism and Character... 190 

Sears, Lorenzo. John Hancock 248 

Sermon on the Mount, decorated by Alberto 

Sangorski 500 

Seton, Ernest Thompson. The Forester's 

Manual 56 

Seymour, Currey J. Story of Old Fort Dear- 
born 129 

Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, illus. by W. 

Hatherell 500 

Sharp, William. Studies and Appreciations... 141 

Shaylor, Joseph. The Fascination of Books.. 295 

Shuster, W. Morgan. Strangling of Persia.... 139 

Sibree, James. Our English Cathedrals 494 

Simpson, Harold. Rambles in Norway 496 

Sinclair, May. The Three Brontes 329 

Singleton, Esther. Furniture 137 

Singleton, Esther. How to Visit the English 

Cathedrals 26 

Sladen, F. W. L. The Humble-Bee 377 

Smalley, George W. Anglo-American Memo- 
ries 78 

Smith, Adolphe. Monaco and Monte Carlo 497 

Smith, C. Alphonso. The Short Story 143 

Snaith, J. C. The Principal Girl 244 

Sneath, Anna S. C. Poet's Song of Poets 143 

Soule, C. C. How to Plan a Library Build- 
ing 78 

Spargo, John. Applied Socialism 192 

Spargo, John, and Arner, George L. Elements 

of Socialism 191 

Squire, Jack Collings. William the Silent 53 

Steele, Robert. The Revival of Printing 55 

Steiner, Rudolf. The Gates of Knowledge.... 298 

Stephens, James. The Hill of Vision 103 

Stewart, Martha M. Greyhound Fanny 108 

Stratton -Porter, Gene. Moths of the Limber- 
lost 143 

Straus, Ralph. The Prison without a Wall... 74 

Swettenham, Frank. Also and Perhaps 340 

Swift, Edgar J. Youth and the Race 382 

Talbot, L. Raymond. Le Frangais et Sa Patrie 26 




Talmage, T.. De "Witt As I Knew Him 339 

Tatlock, J. S. P., and MacKaye, Percy. Mod- 
ern Reader's Chaucer 436 

Temple, Oliver P. Notable Men of Tennessee. 80 

"Temple Primers" 57 

Thaddeus, H. Jones. Recollections of a Court 

Painter 24 

Thurston, E. Temple. The "Flower of Gloster" 447 
Thurston, Edgar. Omens and Superstitions of 

Southern India 388 

Tollemache, Stratford. Reminiscences of the 

Yukon 95 

Townsend, Charles W. Captain Cartwright. . 17 
Train, Arthur. "C. Q"; or, In the Wireless 

House 245 

Train, Arthur. Courts, Criminals, and the 

Camorra 341 

Trent, W. P., and Erskine, John. Great Amer- 
ican Writers 495 

Trent, W. P., Wells, B. W., and Henneman, 

J. B. The New Grant White Shakespeare. . 332 
Trevelyan, George Otto. George the Third 

and Charles James Fox, Vol. 1 292 

Tweedie, Mrs. Alec. Thirteen Years of a Busy 

Woman's Life 389 

Tyndale, Walter. An Artist in Egypt 496 

Urlin, Ethel L. Dancing, Ancient and Mod- 
ern 450 

Van Dyke, Harry W. Through South Amer- 
ica 446 

Van Dyke, Henry. The Unknown Quantity. . . . 500 
Vedder, Henry C. Socialism and the Ethics 

of Jesus 190 

Viereck, G. S. The Candle and the Flame 104 

Vizetelly, Ernest A. The Anarchists 141 

Voltaire's Toleration and Other Essays, trans- 
lated by Joseph McCabe 342 

Wace, A. J. B., and Thompson, M. S. Pre- 
historic Thessaly 107 

Wallls, Louis. Sociological Study of the Bible. 79 
Washington, Booker T. The Man Farthest 

Down . 387 


Watt, Francis. Edinburgh and the Lothians.. 496 

Way, T. R. Memories of Whistler the Artist.. 241 

Weekley, Ernest. The Romance of Words.... 198 

Weitenkampf, Frank. American Graphic Art. 498 

Wells, H. G. Marriage 383 

Wells, H. G., and Others. Socialism and the 

Great State 191 

Wentz, W. Y. Evans. Fairy-Faith in Celtic 

Countries 194 

Westermann, W. L. Story of the Ancient 

Nations 250 

Whibley, Charles. Studies in Frankness 197 

White, Arnold. The Views of "Vanoc" 23 

White, Bouck. Call of the Carpenter, holi- 
day edition 503 

Whipple, E. P. Dickens: The Man and His 

Work, Riverside Press edition 56 

Whitin, E. Stagg. Penal Servitude 196 

Whitman, Walt. Memories of Lincoln, Mosher 

edition 503 

Whitney, Caspar. The Flowing Road 445 

Wilcox, Delos F. Government by All the 

People 246 

Williams, Orlo. Life of John Rickman 246 

Wilson, James Harrison. Under the Old Flag. 188 
Wood, Walter. North Sea Fishers and Fight- 
ers 55 

Wood, Walter. The Battleship 503 

Woodruff, C. Eveleigh. Memorials of Canter- 
bury Cathedral 494 

"World's Romances" 504 

Wormeley, Katharine P. Illustrious Dames of 

the Court of the Valois Kings, new edition 455 
Wormeley, Katharine P. Ruin of a Princess, 

new edition 455 

Wrench, G. T. The Mastery of Life 296 

Wright, C. H. C. History of French Litera- 
ture 24 

Wright, Kate A. Sweet Songs of Many Voices. 505 
Wyneken, F. A. Rousseau's Einfluss auf Klin- 

ger 342 

Young, Martha. Behind the Dark Pines 504 


Bagehot, Walter, Proposed Biography of 81 

Barr, Robert, Death of 343 

"Bedrock," a New English Quarterly 330 

Blackwood, William, Death of 462 

Boston Public Library, Completion of the 80 

Browne, F. G., & Co., The New Publishing 

House of 505 

Brumbach Library of Van Wert County, Ohio, 

Annual Report of the 56 

Business and Agricultural Research, A Pro- 
posed Institute of. Aksel G. S. Jo&ephso-n . . 375 
Business and Agricultural Research, Coopera- 
tion in. Max Batt 483 

"Cadillac and Early Detroit" 56 

"Classical Rubbish," Uses of. James P. Kelley.. 283 
Cleveland Public Library, Work of the, with 

the Children 28 

Collyer, Robert, Death of 505 

Contemporary Greatness, The Appraisal of. W. 

T. Larned 186 

Culture, The Paralysis of. Llewellyn Jones. . . . 483 

Culture and Socialism. B. R. Wilton 434 

Detroit Public Library List of Books Dealing 

with the Industrial Arts 57 

"Externalism, The Peril of." An American Pro- 
fessor 433 

"Externalism" in Our Colleges. Joseph Jastrow 482 
"Filipino People, The," a New Monthly Journal 251 
Fort Dearborn, More about the Story of. J. Sey- 
mour Currey 282 

Fort Dearborn, Some Disputed Points in the Story 

of. J. Seymour Currey 186 

Fort Dearborn, Some Points in the History of. 

Milo Milton Quaife 236 

Goodwin, William Watson, Death of 28 

"Hibbert Journal, The," for October, 1912 344 

International Arbitration, Lake Mohonk Prize 

Essay on 461 

Jenkins, Herbert, a New London Publisher... 57 

Joline, Adrian Hoffman, Death of 344 

Kuhnemann, Eugen Carl Schurz Professor at 

the University of Wisconsin 252 

Lea, Homer, Death of 391 

Leroy-Beaulieu, Anatole, Death of 27 

Librarians' Pensions A Librarian's View. J.C.B. 126 
Library, A, in a Powder Magazine. Walter L. 

Fleming 127 

Lincoln City Library, Annual Report of the 249 

Literature, Great, Early Prejudices against. Gil- 
more Iden 283 

Mark Twain Memorial Library, Endowment of 

the 81 

National Council of Teachers of English, Sec- 
ond Annual Meeting of the 251 

Newberry Library, Publications of, No. 2 56 

"New York Art," a New Monthly Magazine. ... 391 
Phi Beta Kappa Address, Professor Alvin S. 

Johnson's 250 

Phrases, Hackneyed. G. M. G 375 

"Poetry," a New Monthly Magazine 300 

Eugene F. 


Poincare, Jules Henri, Death of 

Research and Intercommunication. 

San Francisco Public Library, Mr. Carnegie's 
Gift to the 

Scott, Frank Hall, Death of 

Seattle Public Library, Twenty-first Annual Re- 
port of 

Shakespeare in Japanese. Ernest W. Clement... 

Skeat, Walter William, Death of 

Swett, Sophie, Death of 461 

Torrey, Bradford, Death of 299 







Critirism, gbtwsshm, anfr 



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Victor Hugo: His Life and Work Goethe: The Man and His Character 


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[July 1, 

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>zmi*ffi(cmttj[i3 Journal of 3Literarg Criticism, iscussion, ano Information. 

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No. 625. 

JULY 1, 1912. 

Vol. LIU. 




The gender of books. Bringing books to bookless 
people. A literary event. The mysteries of libra- 
rianship. The cause of culture in the South. The 
scholar's conscience. An educational institution 
launched with a warning. The shy " Homer of the 
Insects." A Greek play in the open air. Well- 
earned academic honors to men of letters. A normal 
course in library training. One way to advertise a 
public library. 


Shakespeare in Japanese. Ernest W . Clement. 

" THE PEOPLE'S ATTORNEY." Percy F. Bicknell 11 


Piaget Shanks 13 

WOMAN AND ECONOMICS. Alvin S. Johnson . . 15 
Miss Goldmark's Fatigue and Efficiency. Mrs. 
Clark's and Miss Wyatt's Making Both Ends Meet. 

Miss Butler's Saleswomen in Mercantile Stores. 

Hard's The Women of To-morrow. 


Burpee 17 

THE NEW HISTORY. Carl Becker 19 


An American leader of men. The story of a 
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The literary development of France. Saunterings 
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dren. Two superb architectural picture-books. 
How to visit the English cathedrals. 






The political doings of the past fortnight 
would seem to provide a suitable occasion for a 
few reflections upon the relation between lit- 
erature and life, or upon the revelations of 
national character which are made during sea- 
sons of excitement both of which subjects 
come within the scope of a journal like ours. 
From a literary point of view, one of the two 
opposing chieftains in the factional republican 
struggle now happily past its first crisis may 
be regarded as a negligible quantity, whose 
writings are likely to be preserved only in some 
future edition of " Messages of the Presidents " 
preserved and entombed, as is the fate of 
such compositions. But with the other the case 
is different. Not only is he the " contributing 
editor '* to a popular organ of sterilized culture, 
but he is also an author of respectable rank, 
whose dozen or more volumes have rightfully 
earned for him the distinction of election to 
the American Academy of Arts and Letters, 
making him one of the Fifty whose names are 
(more or less) household words in circles where 
intellectual and artistic interests are held to be 
of importance. He illustrates, among other 
things, the danger, which ever lurks in the path 
of the politician, of expressing views in print 
which it is afterwards most inconvenient to have 
tactless persons recall for the purpose of refuting 
his latest set of opinions out of his own mouth. 
It must be indeed galling to a candidate for 
popular favor, after he has formulated and ex- 
pressed the life-long convictions that are clearly 
demanded by the exigencies of his immediate 
political situation, to be confronted with quota- 
tions from his own books, in which diametrically 
opposite convictions are voiced with the same 
apparent fervor and sincerity. 

Mr. Roosevelt has experienced this sort of 
discomfiture on many occasions, and has be- 
come an adept in the art of defending his own 
reversals of judgment, and making the worse 
appear the better reason when expediency coun- 
sels such a logical masquerade. A correspon- 
dent of the New York " Nation " has recently 
given him a fairly hard nut to crack, shaken 
from the tree of his earlier writings. The pas- 
sage is from the life of Gouverneur Morris, who, 
we are told, 
" Denounced with a fierce scorn that they richly merit, 


[July 1, 

the despicable demagogues and witless fools who 
teach that in all cases the voice of the majority must 
be implicitly obeyed, and that public men have only 
to carry out its will, and thus ' acknowledge themselves 
the willing instruments of folly and vice. They declare 
that, in order to please the people, they will, regard- 
less alike of what conscience may dictate or reason 
approve, make the profligate sacrifice of public right on 
the altar of private interest. What more can be asked 
by the sternest tyrant of the most despicable slave ? 
Creatures of this sort are the tools which usurpers em- 
ploy in building despotism.' Sounder and truer maxims 
never were uttered. " 

The appeal from Philip drunk to Philip sober 
which this citation prompts has now, however, 
to reckon with a conscience so elastic and a 
sophistry so barefaced that they dare attempt 
to justify such a shameless act as the rape of 
Colombia in defiance of every dictate of inter- 
national good faith. The only plea ever made 
by the author of that outrage in its extenuation 
is that it was committed " to please the people." 
Those who are not satisfied with this plea or with 
its author's attempts to justify many another in- 
defensible act or tortuous policy, have no need to 
echo the wish " that mine adversary had written 
a book." The books are there, for anyone to 
read, and they throw a most revealing light 
upon the workings of the opportunist mind to 
which principles are but playthings, or pretexts 
for the exercise of ingenious casuistry. The 
game is too easy in this case, for their author 
has himself furnished a running ironical com- 
mentary upon most of the incidents of his later 

Literature provides many suggestive parallels 
to the words and acts of the now discomfited 
leader. The Homeric student will be reminded, 
here of Achilles sulking in his tent, there of 
Thersites and his railings. The satire of Juvenal 
and the indignation of Tacitus find in him a 
predestined mark. Milton supplies many apt 
texts, such as 

" The strongest and the fiercest spirit 
That fought in heaven, now fiercer by despair," 


" His form had not yet lost 
All her original brightness, nor appeared 
Less than archangel ruined," 

which seems to fit the leader's case; or these 
that might be applied to his frenzied supporters 
in the Convention : 

" The universal host upsent 
A shout that tore hell's concave, and beyond 
Frighted the reign of Chaos and old Night," 


" When night 

Darkens the street, then wander forth the sons 
Of Belial, flown with insolence and wine." 

In the mouthings of Jack Cade, Shakespeare has 
limned the demagogue for all times, and Cade's 
declared purpose to hang all the lawyers is only a 
blunt way of stating the hatred of legal restraint 
which has been so ominous a feature of the recent 
agitation against the constitutional safeguards 
of order. Shelley's " Mask of Anarchy " yields 
the following stanza, which is not without its 
suggestiveness : 

"And he wore a kingly crown; 

And in his grasp a sceptre shone ; 

On his brow this mark I saw 
1 1 am God, and King, and Law ! ' " 

Perhaps the most apposite of all these literary 
parallels is that to be found in Dante's " Para- 
diso," where the poet is informed by Cacciaguida 
of the evil company into which he is destined to 
fall, and is told that he will be well-advised to 
become his own political party. " Of its besti- 
ality, its own procedure will give the proof; so 
that it will be seemly for thee to have made 
thyself a party by thyself." 

Turning from the aggressive personality which 
has been so conspicuously to the fore of late, and 
looking at the Convention turbulence as a reve- 
lation of national character, we are prompted to 
some grave reflections. After making a liberal 
allowance for the exuberance of youth and the 
ebullition of party feeling, after indulgently ac- 
counting for many distasteful happenings on 
the ground that a large section of the American 
public regards politics as a form of sport, and 
has no inclination to deal with it in a serious 
and sober fashion, there nevertheless remains a 
condition which should give pause to our optim- 
ism and lead us to a searching self-examination. 
Is it really necessary, even in a presidential year r 
that reason should abdicate almost altogether in 
favor of impulse and emotion? If we let our- 
selves go in this fashion too often, may we not 
some time be carried so far that our balance will 
be regained only at the terrible cost of bloodshed 
and the overthrow of social order? We got into 
that position half a century ago, and the results 
were appalling. Civilization at best is but a 
thin crust beneath which the primal forces of 
human nature greed and passion are seeth- 
ing in the effort to find vent. Whoever seeks 
to weaken that restraining shell has small appre- 
ciation of the forces that may be unloosed if it 
once breaks. We are at all times nearer than 
we think to 

" Red ruin, and the breaking up of laws." 

The Anglo-Saxon peoples have ever prided 
themselves on their self-restraint upon critical 
occasions, and in their devotion to the principle 



of " laws, not men " in the ordering of their 
political life. But the English people were 
rudely aroused from their pharisaical self- 
sufficiency by the ugly demonstrations of 
" mafficking," and who can say that, under a 
similar excitement, the American people would 
not lose their heads to even more disastrous 
effect ? That " added drop of nervous fluid " 
which Colonel Higginson used to talk about as 
differentiating us from our English cousins may 
sometime prove a menace to our social stability. 
We already enjoy the international reputation 
of being a strikingly lawless community, and 
our statistics of homicide are so appalling that 
we cannot comtemplate them without hiding 
our heads in shame. The frenzied passions, 
the charges and counter-charges, and the con- 
tempt for law, that have characterized this 
Convention period have been deeply humiliating 
to all sober-minded Americans, who have felt 
like exclaiming " A plague on both your 
houses!" to the two political parties and to 
the two warring factions in each of them. The 
spectacle has not only been humiliating but 
ominous, and few can have failed to be reminded 
of the resemblance to the situation which a 
quarter of a century ago came near to over- 
throwing the French Republic in the interests 
of General Boulanger, and which sixty years 
ago witnessed its actual overthrow by a self- 
acclaimed " savior of society." Not a few of us 
have trembled at the possibility that this chap- 
ter of French history might be provided with 
a parallel in the history of our own republic. 


THE GENDER OF BOOKS is sometimes as marked 
as the gender of human beings. Some books have a 
masculine strength, and some a feminine grace and 
tenderness. " Daniel Deronda " and " Felix Holt " 
and "Jane Eyre," though written by women, are 
marked by virility rather than by femininity. " The 
Essays of Elia" and "Marius the Epicurean " do 
not fall in the class of rugged masculine books; no 
one would place them beside Borrow's "Lavengro," 
Burton's "Pilgrimage to Al-Madinah and Meccah," 
or Scott's Waverley novels* Certain studies, too, have 
the softness of the gentle sex rather than the hardness 
of the sterner one. Professor Earl Barnes, discours- 
ing in the June "Atlantic" on "The Feminization of 
Culture," finds what seems to him rather disquieting 
evidence that our system of education is losing its 
virile qualities and becoming unduly feminine in 
character. He considers it "taken for granted 
that, in education, feminization means emphasis on 
languages, literature, and history, as opposed to 

mathematics, physics, chemistry, and civics." In 
general, the abstract presents itself to him in female 
garb, the concrete in male attire. The fine arts are, 
of course, feminine, the sciences masculine. Sta- 
tistics from high schools and seminaries for the last 
two decades are examined by the writer, and he 
finds that the study of Latin, for example, has in 
that time increased fifteen per cent, French four per 
cent, German thirteen per cent, European history 
twenty-seven per cent, and English literature (since 
1901) seven per cent. Physics, chemistry, physical 
geography, physiology, and civics have all fallen off 
at rates varying from three to fifteen per cent. "A 
careful study of these figures," he maintains, "must 
convince any fair-minded person that our school cur- 
riculum, even in the secondary field where women's 
control is least complete, is moving rapidly in the 
direction of what we have called feminization." 
Nevertheless, it is probable that not all his readers 
will allow their slumbers to be disturbed by this 
demonstration of tendencies in current culture. 
There is a grain of comfort in the fact that not 
even the difficulties of Latin have caused a decline 
in its vogue, nor the easiness of French greatly 
increased the popularity of Moliere's tongue. Latin 
has gained fifteen per cent, and the rugged Teutonic 
tongue has gained thirteen. English literature, the 
"softest snap" of all, has advanced only four per 
cent in ten years. And even if the whole statistical 
showing were much more impressive than it is, can- 
not the finer qualities of manhood as well as the more 
admirable qualities of womanhood be nurtured on 
gentle studies ? Must one study bridge-building and 
mining engineering in order to escape becoming a 
milksop or a mollycoddle ? But perhaps the best reply 
to the alarmist is now being made by Minnesota, 
where more than fifty thousand persons are taking 
university extension courses, in which such mascu- 
line studies as sociology and economics are enjoying 
the highest favor. 

dwellers in rural communities whose remoteness 
from public libraries deprives them almost wholly of 
library advantages is just now a subject of very 
lively interest in the library world. It was the dom- 
inant theme at the Convention of County Librarians 
held in connection with the June meeting of the 
California State Library Association at Lake Tahoe. 
California has recently enacted some very good laws 
for systematic "library extension" work in that State 
through the agency of County Free Libraries, under 
whose direction books are sent to remote commu- 
nities, very much as letters are sent there by the 
Rural Free Delivery. This system has now been on 
trial long enough to make the detailed reports of its 
practical operation, such as were presented at the 
Lake Tahoe conference, of special significance. The 
system is of course still in its experimental stages as 
to details and methods, but the intelligent and often 
enthusiastic reports of those who have been engaged 
in the work leave no room for doubt as to its gen- 



[July 1, 

eral success and its future importance as a branch of 
the general system of popular education in this coun- 
try. Particularly telling, and often touching, were 
the instances related of the joy and gratitude of 
people living in remote mountain regions, to whom 
the arrival of a dozen books is an event in the life of 
a community whose hunger for books could hardly 
be met in any other way than by these periodical dis- 
pensations from the county library. It was noticeable 
at the Tahoe meeting, as at other recent gatherings 
of librarians, that problems of library administration 
received but scant attention, matters relating to the 
widening of the library's sphere and the extension 
of its benefits being clearly in the foreground. This 
was illustrated throughout the reports and discus- 
sions, and was the key-note of an excellent talk on 
the influence of museums and art-galleries as auxil- 
iaries of the public library, by Mr. C. S. Greene, of 
the Free Public Library at Oakland. 

A LITERARY EVENT of an unusual nature, and, in 
strict accuracy, more an athletic than a purely liter- 
ary event, was the spirited contest, on Lincoln Field 
at Providence, between the forces of "The Brown 
Herald" and "The Brunonian," in a game of base- 
ball, umpired by the president-elect of Amherst Col- 
lege, Dr. Alexander Meiklejohn, who with the close 
of the present academic year relinquishes his office 
of Dean at Brown University to assume the larger 
duties awaiting him at the sister institution in the 
Connecticut valley. His election to the Amherst 
presidency may itself be regarded as an event in the 
world of letters, so ardent a zeal has he shown for 
that form of learning which is something more than 
a mere vocational training or specialist's grind. Dis- 
approving the increasing latitude of the elective sys- 
tem, which, he is said to have declared, has brought 
with it "educational chaos," he cannot but find him- 
self heartily in accord with Amherst's spirit of reac- 
tion and of reversion to the older ideals of liberal 
culture. It was Dr. Meiklejohn who took the initia- 
tive in shaping the new course at Brown leading to 
the degree of bachelor of philosophy, a course which 
he tersely described as " a vigorous attempt to single 
out and to require the most significant and funda- 
mental elements of human culture." Another quo- 
table utterance from the same source, delivered in an 
address before the Brown alumni of Boston last year, 
will here be not out of order. "I have lately heard 
a correction of an old saying, ' You can drive a horse 
to water, but you can't make him drink.' 'No,' it 
was added, 'but you can make him thirsty.' Just so 
you can't force boys into learning, but if your zeal 
be hot enough you can develop a thirst. To do that 
is to win." ... 


word "mysteries" be here understood in its Greek 
sense are probably mysteries indeed to. the great 
general public, no large fraction of whom ever gets 
so far toward an initiation into them as to give them 
even a passing thought. Library administration, 

systems of cataloguing, shelf-listing, accessions-lists, 
charging systems, fixed location, decimal classifica- 
tion, all these and many other terms familiar to the 
initiated are vague or meaningless technicalities to 
those unversed in library science. Consequently a 
sentence or two from the current " Circular of Infor- 
mation " issued by the Library Training School of the 
Carnegie Library of Atlanta one of our most ac- 
tive and enterprising institutions of the sort, despite 
its location in the sultry South may have for the 
casual reader the charm at least of novelty. Under 
"Course of Study" it is announced that "especial 
attention is given to administrative work, including 
the study of plans for small buildings and the details 
of organization of new libraries continually springing 
up in this section." Also, " In addition to the strictly 
technical subjects the course includes the study of the 
English novel, tracing its sources; the appraisal of 
fiction, English and foreign; the survey of the li- 
braiy field, enabling the students to keep pace with 
the leading movements of the library world; field 
work, consisting of visits of observation to other 
libraries; and the history of printing." Almost a 
liberal education is here outlined, one would say, 
and not simply a narrow technical training out of 
touch with the warm and living interests of hu- 
manity at large. 

late received much encouraging support, both moral 
and material. Conspicuous among recent gifts of 
money is the fund of a quarter-million dollars voted 
by the General Education Board to the George 
Peabody College for Teachers, at Nashville, in 
memory of the life and work of the late Dr. Seaman 
A. Knapp, the organizer of cooperative demonstra- 
tion work, the promoter of boys' corn clubs and 
girls' canning clubs, the successful fighter against 
the boll weevil, and the advocate of diversified 
farming, deeper ploughing, and increased stock- 
raising. This same Teachers' College, which is 
the successor to the Peabody Normal College, but 
planned on a larger scale, has lately received one 
million dollars from the Peabody Educational Fund, 
and other considerable gifts from the state, the 
county, and the city in which it is situated. Also, 
the trustees of the Peabody Fund, who have voted 
"to close the Trust and to distribute the moneys 
remaining in their hands," have offered to endow the 
College with an additional gift of half a million 
dollars, provided that before November 1, 1913, the 
College raise the further sum of one million dollars. 
The graduates themselves*, teachers earning salaries 
that average not over four hundred dollars a year, 
have pledged themselves to raise a fifth part of this 
required million, but for the remaining four-fifths 
the wealthier friends of Southern education are 
asked and expected to open their purses. A " State- 
ment and Appeal," signed by the Hon. Joseph H. 
Choate and the Hon. Samuel A. Green for the 
Trustees of the Peabody Educational Fund, invites 
subscriptions, and requests that all communications 



be addressed to James C. Bradford, Chairman 
Executive Committee, George Peabody School for 
Teachers, Nashville, Tennessee. 

THE SCHOLAR'S CONSCIENCE ought to be pecul- 
iarly sensitive, inasmuch as he, far more than the un- 
thinking, uncritical, carelessly observing person, has 
abundant opportunity to learn from his studies how 
futile and foolish in the long run are all evasions of 
either intellectual or moral truth, all dishonorable sub- 
terfuges, all attempted short-cuts to the good things 
of life. And yet we who use public libraries know 
that we have among us not a few book-thieves who 
pass in the world as persons of liberal culture. Even 
the highly-educated and intellectually-accomplished 
biblioklept is not unknown. On the open shelves 
near the centre desk in Bates Hall, at the Boston 
Public Library, are temporarily displayed the more 
recent accessions in literature of a more serious and 
scholarly character than the average reader is inter- 
ested in; and to these shelves resort each day the 
serious and the bespectacled students whom such a 
display naturally attracts. But, as is regretfully 
recorded in the library's latest Report, "the loss of 
books by theft from these shelves, affecting as it does 
new books, just published and in active demand, has 
become so great that, in the public interest, a new 
arrangement with some limitation upon freedom of 
access is required. It is proposed to place such 
books upon guarded shelving in the delivery room, 
immediately under the control of an attendant, to 
permit anyone to examine them upon request, but 
to require the use of a call slip before they can be re- 
moved to the reading tables." Not even the soothing 
conjecture that these thefts have been mostly effected 
by the unscholarly for purposes of pecuniary gain is 
tenable, since the perforated stamp and other marks 
of ownership make the books difficult of sale. It 
must be sadly admitted that a love of good literature 
is not incompatible with schemes for its unlawful 
acquisition. ... 


A WARNING to the public to think twice before pat- 
ronizing it would seem destined, according to the 
theories of our modern promoters, to a short and 
circumscribed career. Yet Mount Holyoke Col- 
lege, which plans to celebrate in October next the 
seventy-fifth anniversary of its founding, was first 
advertised on a strictly look-before-you-leap basis. 
In a pink-covered pamphlet that bears the imprint 
of South Hadley, 1835, Mary Lyon wrote: "It is 
very desirable that friends of this cause should 
carefully consider the real design of founding this 
institution before they use their influence to induce 
any of their friends and acquaintances to avail 
themselves of its privileges." " Harmless cumberers 
of the ground" were notified that they would be 
persona non grata, in the new type of woman's 
school. It was "to meet public, not private, wants"; 
to send forth women "to exert power over society 
which cannot be exerted by mere goodness without 
intellectual strength." Such a type of school ap- 

pears to have required a good deal of explanation to 
make the idea of it intelligible to the public of 1837. 
So perhaps its hard-headed builder did well to fling 
out warning rather than inducement. Otherwise the 
young Mount Holyoke might have been swamped 
under a rush of utterly unfit students ; and the edu- 
cational world, instead of gathering in October to 
honor this first small beginning of colleges for 
women, would pass heedlessly over the grave of 
another idea born too soon. 

thor of " The Life of the Bee " and " The Blue Bird " 
has called the nonagenarian French naturalist, M. J. 
Henri Fabre, whom Mr. Frank Harris has styled 
"the wisest man and certainly the best read in the 
books of nature of whom the centuries have left us 
any record," is likely soon to become better known 
than at present to the English-reading world through 
the issue of a complete edition, in our language, of 
his fascinating " Entomological Memories." A nona- 
genarian he is not quite yet, to be accurate, for he 
was born in 1823, but the indications point encour- 
agingly to his attainment of that and even of a riper 
age. The story of his lowly birth, of his long strug- 
gle with poverty before he could devote himself to 
his beloved insects, of his shyness and his panic-fear 
of public recognition, and of his warm attachment 
to his native Provence, rivals in interest anything 
that his own gifted pen has produced. His life, 
like all great and noble lives, has had its keen dis- 
appointments, its crushing sorrows. In his struggle 
to win the independence that should leave him at 
liberty to pursue his chosen studies, he was once on 
the verge of an important invention that promised 
him a handsome fortune. He had perfected a 
process for extracting dye from the madder, a fac- 
tory was being built, and an assured income seemed 
all but within his grasp, when a heartless chemist 
discovered a cheap artificial substitute for the nat- 
ural dye, and all the high hopes of the entomologist 
fell to the ground and thus was wrought, it may 
be, a fortunate deliverance from the clutch of com- 
merce. . . . 

A GREEK PLAT IN THE OPEN AIR, after the man- 
ner of the ancients, was one of the commencement 
events of the season. The young ladies of Rose- 
mary Hall, at Greenwich, Connecticut, presented the 
"Alcestis" of Euripides, in Mr. Arthur S. Way's 
excellent metrical version, under the trees of the 
school orchard, and, let us imagine, to the accom- 
paniment of the feathered musicians there having 
their abode. Not the least interesting feature of 
the entertainment was the devotion of the pecuniary 
proceeds 'to the newly-planned Connecticut College 
for Women. The recent exclusion of women from 
Wesleyan University (at Middletown) has made it 
necessary for Connecticut girls desiring a college edu- 
cation to seek it beyond the borders of the Nutmeg 
State. Agitation for a girls' college within these 
borders was started by certain Hartford women of 
light and leading, and ere long the movement spread 



[July 1, 

over the commonwealth until New London felt 
prompted to offer a site for such a college, with a 
grant of fifty thousand dollars. Acceptance of this 
generosity was not slow to follow, and then Mr. 
Morton F. Plant contributed a handsome endowment 
fund of a million dollars. A commensurate building 
fund is now the crying need, and it was to help raise 
this that the Greek play was presented by the stu- 
dents of Rosemary Hall. 

LETTERS are to be noted as one glances over the sea- 
son's list of degrees conferred ; and no one has more 
richly deserved the decorative letters indicating such 
honors than Mr. Howells, who is now entitled to write 
"L.H.D. (Princeton)" after his name. "The dean 
of the guild of belles-lettres in America " is Prince- 
ton's appropriate designation of the distinguished 
author. No less appropriately it characterizes Dr. 
James Ford Rhodes as "our first living American 
political historian," and emphasizes the characteri- 
zation by making him a doctor of laws. Of course in 
both these instances this is a betitling of the already 
much-betitled, and one is reminded of the witty re- 
joinder of another eminent man of letters (our fore- 
most Shakespeare scholar, to be more definite) who, 
on having his attention called to the fact that he 
was decorated with about all the coveted academic 
initials in vogue, but was not yet a D.D., instantly 

replied: "Oh, I am that too; I'm d d deaf" a 

rejoinder to which the ear-trumpet, carried now for 
some weary decades by the speaker, gave manifest 
point. . . . 


announced as a new departure at the Pratt Institute 
School of Library Science. The purpose of the 
course, which will first be offered in 1912-13, is 
"to prepare students to teach in library schools, to 
take charge of training classes or school depart- 
ments in public library systems, and for librarianship 
in normal schools or other educational institutions 
where courses in library science are given. The 
experience of those who have had to seek trained 
library workers who are also qualified to teach 
library science shows that the required combination 
of qualifications is extremely difficult to find among 
the members of the profession. Furthermore, there 
is an increasing number of positions to be filled due 
to the development of library schools and the grow- 
ing demand for trained service in all libraries." 
A descriptive outline of the course is issued by the 
school. ... 


that will not have occurred to all librarians, comes 
to our attention in turning the interesting pages of 
the " Minnesota Library Commission Library Notes 
and News." In the June number a news item from 
Owatonna reports that "the librarian has been 
doing some effective work in advertising the library 
throughout the county. One of the ministers at 
Deerfield devoted a Sunday sermon to the Library 
and its work, and distributed the leaflets 'Don't be a 

quitter.'" The library and the school are becoming 
every day more closely and usefully affiliated ; why, 
then, may not the library and the church join 
forces, wherever practicable and as opportunity pre- 
sents itself, in the work of mental and moral uplift ? 


(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

One evidence of the universality of the genius of 
Shakespeare is to be found in the fact that his dramas 
are translated into so many different languages all over 
the world. This is true not only of the Indo-European 
tongues that are so nearly related to the English, but 
also of Semitic and Turanian languages that are not thus 
closely related to our own. It seems to be an axiom 
that Shakespeare put into expression the common uni- 
versal human feelings, which can be translated from 
one language to another without great difficulty. 

This is not saying that literal translation is possible. 
It is, of course, necessary to adapt more or less, accord- 
ing to circumstances, to cut out, to add, to explain. 
Absolutely literal word-for-word translations are much 
less in vogue than formerly; it is not the form, but the 
spirit, that is important. " The letter killeth, but the 
spirit giveth life." 

This is the sort of translation of Shakespeare that Dr. 
Tsubouchi is giving to the Japanese. He is himself a 
fine Shakespearean scholar, sensitive and appreciative; 
and he seems to know how to interest others, for his 
lectures on Shakespeare at Waseda University are so 
popular that students scarcely have standing room. 

Dr. Tsubouchi has recently published his fourth trans- 
lation of a Shakespearean drama. The first three were 
" Hamlet," " Othello," and " Romeo and Juliet " ; and the 
fourth is " King Lear." He has also translated portions 
of other plays, such as "The Tempest," " The Merchant 
of Venice," etc. We have often thought that the Japa- 
nese would take naturally to " King Lear," because the 
motive of filial piety is so strong in Japan and other 
countries of the Orient. We have doubted whether 
" Romeo and Juliet " would be successful here, unless 
the sentimental love-scenes were toned down and modi- 
fied considerably on the stage. 

It has been suggested, not without reason, that, " as 
Japan has so recently emerged from the feudal age," 
" the modern Japanese can understand the spirit of 
Elizabeth's time better even than the present-day peo- 
ple of England." The same writer also says: "That 
Shakespeare has taken deep root in the dramatic soil of 
Japan is evidenced by the remarkable interest that has 
recently been shown in the great English dramatist." 
The court scene in " The Merchant of Venice " is one in 
which Japanese actors feel not a little at home, partly 
on account of the formalities demanded by the occasion. 
And a man in Portia's part as a lawyer is not out of 
place ! 

It is pleasant to be able to add, in conclusion, that 
the work of Dr. Tsubouchi meets with suitable recogni- 
tion. The newly organized Institute of Literature and 
Arts made its very first award, in the forms of a diploma, 
a bronze medal, and the sum of 2,200 yen ($1,100), to 
this great Shakespearean scholar. 

Tokyo, Japan, June 4, 1912. 




Clxe |teto 


But for the fact that Henry Demarest Lloyd 
was not yet born when the words were uttered, 
Emerson might have had him in mind when he 
said: "The face which character wears to me 
is self -sufficingn ess. I revere the person who has 
riches ; so that I cannot think of him as alone, 
or poor, or exiled, or unhappy, or a client, but 
as perpetual patron, benefactor, and beatified 

In her life of her brother, now, nearly nine 
years after his too- early death, issued in two 
handsome volumes, a beautifully appreciative 
and in every way worthy tribute to his memory, 
his sister draws with the hand of sympathy and 
affection the noble outlines and the lovable traits 
of a character such as might well prompt one to 
exclaim, paraphrasing the old poet, "He had his 
faults, perhaps ; I wish I had them too ! " In his 
biographer's words, " his personality was happily 
so proper an expression of his spirit that men 
and women loved him at first sight. Some who 
saw him only once spoke of him ever after with 
a kind of exaltation. Many loved him who never 
saw him, as one who said, ' I never had the un- 
speakable joy of looking upon his face.' " 

Mr. Lloyd was born May 1, 1847, the first 
child of Aaron Lloyd, minister of the Dutch Re- 
formed Church, and Maria Christie Demarest. 
It was at the home of his mother's father, David 
Demarest, in Sixth Avenue, New York, that he 
achieved his entrance into the world, and in that 
city most of his early life was passed. There he 
went to school and college, and there he prepared 
himself for the practice of the law. His father, 
having no pulpit at the time, had tried to make a 
living as a bookseller, starting an " Olde Booke 
Store" in Nassau Street, and afterward remov- 
ing to busier Broadway. But it was a hard fight, 
and the boys of the family had to work their 
own way in large part. The Mercantile Library 
gave them employment out of school-hours, and 
at the same time ministered to their love of read- 
ing. A scholarship at Columbia, with the earn- 
ings of his hours snatched from study, enabled 
Henry to finish his academic and his legal edu- 
cation, after which journalism, book- writing, re- 
form movements, and other interests of a nature 
to appeal to one so generously devoted to the 

*HENBY DEMAKEST LLOYD, 1847-1903. A Biography. 
By Caro Lloyd. With an Introduction by Charles Edward 
Russell. In two volumes. Illustrated. New York: G. P. 
Putnam's Sons. 

good of humanity, engrossed his attention and 
left him little time or inclination for the narrower 
field of the law. In fact, his " first case," as he 
called it, did not come to him until 1902, when 
the anthracite coal miners' strike enlisted his 
sympathies and he took part in the proceedings 
of the arbitration court at Scranton. His work 
as a journalist, largely as a writer of editorials 
on questions of the day, began in New York, 
but was continued in Chicago from the autumn 
of 1872, when he formed a connection with the 
"Tribune"of that city, beginning as a paragraph- 
writer, then being placed in charge of the liter- 
ary department, and before many years rising 
to the dignity of leader-writer. 

But the things for which he will long be 
remembered are the unpaid and at the time too 
little appreciated services rendered to his fellow- 
men wherever they were seen to be in need of an 
eloquent and fearless advocate and champion. 
The Pullman strikers, the Spring Valley miners, 
the so-called anarchists of the Haymarket trag- 
edy of 1886, the struggling People's Party of a 
few years later, the workers for municipal own- 
ership of public utilities, these and other fighters 
found in him a valiant leader whose utter disre- 
gard of his own personal interests is illustrated 
by his cheerfully risking the loss of fortune and 
the estrangement of friends which did not fail 
to follow upon his defense of the unfortunate 
men who suffered capital punishment because 
of the explosion of a bomb thrown by an un- 
known hand. It was impossible for him not to 
take sides with the under dog ; and -Mrs. Lloyd 
was always with him, heart and soul. When 
the probability of her father's extreme displeas- 
ure at her husband's course was pointed out to 
her, she replied : " Do you suppose that any 
such consideration will stop Henry Lloyd from 
doing what he believes is right?" The warn- 
ing, as appeared later, was no idle one. 

"In conseqence of their course, the Lloyds suffered 
the loss of fortune. Between Henry Lloyd and his 
father-in-law there had always existed sincere respect 
and affection which made this honest difference all the 
more painful. Mr. Bross declared that Mr. Lloyd had 
disgraced the family. The ample fortune was entailed 
to the grandchildren, and Mr. and Mrs. Lloyd were not 
entrusted with the guardianship nor the care of the 
property of their children, a sting even more keen than 
the financial loss." 

In connection with Mr. Lloyd's early and 
ardent espousal of the cause of labor, of the 
right of laborers to organize for mutual defense, 
it is worth while to quote here a few words 
defining his position as a peaceful but uncom- 
promising trades-unionist, or labor-unionist. To 



[July 1, 

him, says his biographer, " the labor movement 
was not a movement of hate, but of love." In 
his own words : 

" It pities the man who can stand at the helm of any 
of the great concerns of modern industrial life, made 
possible only by the countless efforts, loyalty, and genius 
of thousands of his fellow men living and dead, and say, 
' This is my business.' It says to him, ' This is not your 
business, not my business. It is our business.' ... It 
pities him as robbing himself of the greatest joys and 
triumphs of leadership. It seeks to lift him from the low 
level of selfish and cruel milliouairism to that of a gen- 
eral of great cooperative hosts of industrial brothers." 

Probably there are many among Mr. Lloyd's 
warmest admirers who would hesitate to go all 
the way with him in his enthusiastic champion- 
ship of the cause of labor. In defending the 
sympathetic strike he draws illustrations, or 
analogies, from history, and puts the case thus : 

"Americans cannot forget that America is free from 
Great Britain because France ordered a sympathetic 
strike. The negro is free because of the sympathetic 
strike of the North. What greater love hath any man 
than this, that he lay down his life for his friend? The 
sympathetic strike in a good cause is orthodox Christian- 
ity in action." 

Following the successive events in Mr. 
Lloyd's strenuous advocacy of the people's 
rights, an advocacy that earned him his self- 
bestowed title of " the people's attorney," one 
is likely to receive the impression that he lived 
in an unusually troubled time. The financial 
panic of 1873 was followed by distress and 
unrest among the laboring classes. The year 
1877 was so marked by the occurrence of 
strikes that at one time no fewer than ten 
governors were calling for national troops to 
suppress disorder. We are inclined to regard 
the present period as one of unprecedented dis- 
content and turmoil, and unquestionably there 
is reason for grave apprehension unless the 
growing antagonism between capital and labor 
can be softened and the selfish greed of million- 
airedom be made to listen to reason ; but even 
in the " good old days " there were problems 
of this sort in plenty, as the book under review 
makes abundantly evident. From a chapter 
devoted to the late Governor Altgeld, a cordial 
friend and admirer of Mr. Lloyd, a short passage 
of the latter's writing calls for insertion here. 

"I was an eye-witness of Governor Altgeld's conduct 
during the great Pullman strike of 1894. ... I spent 
a number of hours with him at the most critical point 
of those eventful July days. Almost universally the 
American desires to treat even a political opponent with 
fairness and trust, however sharply he may criticise his 
opinions and actions. Not one of those who are so volu- 
bly joining in the fashionable denunciation of Governor 
Altgeld on account of what they believe, upon informa- 

tion at second hand, to have been his attitude and be- 
havior at that time would indulge in this hue and cry if 
they knew the facts." 

The facts which the writer of the foregoing is 
able to cite in refutation of the familiar charges 
against Altgeld are nothing short of convincing, 
and they cannot but leave the reader with a deep 
sense of the injustice suffered by one placed in 
a difficult public position, and with a feeling of 
admiration for the staunch friend who hastened 
to his defense. 

Concerning Mr. Lloyd's best-known piece of 
writing, the fraud-exposing, greed-condemning 
" Wealth against Commonwealth," there is here 
but little space to write. The sensation its 
appearance made is partly described in the fol- 
lowing : 

" From all parts of the land there now came to him 
the warm response from an unknown host whose eyes 
had never looked into his. Into the study where he had 
wrestled with his task, there came words of blessing, 
gratitude, courage from men whose ideals rose to meet 
his own. He began to feel the beat of the people's 
hearts. He woke to find his self-controlled method of 
recital producing the most startling effects. Men read 
the book with the same absorbing interest which as boys 
they gave to pirate stories. So exciting was it that they 
could read only a little at a time. . . . On all sides 
was echoed Edward Everett Hale's verdict, that it was 
an epoch-making book, an ' Uncle Tom's Cabin ' of the 
labor movement. ... It startled many Americans out 
of that comfortable assurance that, having the franchise, 
their liberties were secure. To lawyers it was partic- 
ularly convincing. Ministers and writers preached and 
wrote upon it, thrilled with a sense of the peril before 
the Republic. Robert Louis Stevenson decided to found 
a novel upon its disclosures. John Burroughs said that 
after an hour's reading he was so angry that he ' had to 
go out and kick stumps.' Those indeed were days when 
good men swore and even a minister confessed that he 
threw down the book and cried, < Damn those rascals.'" 

In illustration of the personal charm of this 
noble champion of the right who wore himself 
out at the age of fifty-six, and whose full tale 
of good works cannot here be even epitomized, 
many passages might be quoted from the biog- 
raphy; but one must suffice. 

" He himself, free from the restraint of the public ear, 
lavishly gave his thought however radical and his hopes 
however lofty or shy. His talk was brilliant and fasci- 
nating, full of startling prophecy, firm in its convictions ; 
it was now hard as steel, and now tender. It seethed 
with indignation. It touched earth, firm-footed, and 
again it soared, in a creative flight, far off into theory. 
It was interesting to see him throw out the line of a 
theory tentatively, so that he might watch its impression 
on various minds, testing its value, even prankishly see- 
ing how near he could come to the quick of his hearer's 
prejudices, tickling the talk, as it were. All was moreover 
touched with wit and suffused with grace and courtesy. 
Like Emerson's wise man he went to this game of conver- 
sation ' to play upon others and to be played upon.' " 




The vehemence and ardor of the man are re- 
flected, in a curiously interesting way, in certain 
verbal short-cuts that arrest the attention in 
reading such passages from his writings as the 
book contains. The verb "re volute" is expedi- 
tiously formed by him from the noun " revolu- 
tion," and he uses the very convenient and 
self-explanatory "ambiguity." 

The biographer has done her work well, draw- 
ing upon many and sometimes not easily acces- 
sible sources for her rich store of information 
concerning the varied activities of her gifted 
brother. The illustrations are numerous and 
always closely related to the reading matter. Mr. 
Charles Edward Russell's introductory words 
help to illuminate the character portrayed in the 
chapters that follow. Appended matter, includ- 
ing a chronological list, necessarily incomplete 
but of surprising length, of Mr. Lloyd's writ- 
ings, fills nearly forty pages, and is followed by 
a full index. PERCY F. BICKNELL. 


Modern literary criticism loves the exception. 
It delights in types like Wilde and Verlaine ; it 
is fond of flaunting its romantic individualism 
in a large contempt of prejudice. And being 
individualistic, it devotes itself all the more 
willingly to subjects in which a truly impartial 
attitude is to-day quite beyond our grasp. 

Thus Mr. Arthur Ransome follows up his 
work on Poe with "a critical study" of Oscar 
Wilde. The book is really an essay in biograph- 
ical interpretation. No man's work, as Mr. 
Ransome reminds us in his introductory chapter, 
can be treated as a mere disembodied result; and, 
in the case of Wilde, "whose books are the by- 
products of a life more important than they in 
his own eyes," a biographical criticism is "not 
only legitimate but necessary." The method is 
none the less most discreetly employed : a spirit 
of moderation characterizes, in the main, this 
study of one who, in spite of his life, has a cer- 
tain importance in the history of contemporary 

For the present influence of Wilde is beyond 
question. "He has been translated into French, 
German, Italian, Spanish, Swedish, Yiddish, 
Polish, and Russian." (The statement prob- 
ably refers to separate works, possibly only to 
"Salome.") In his own country, says Mr. 
Ransome, " he left no form of literature exactly 

* OSCAR WILDE. A Critical Study. By Arthur Ransome. 
With portrait. New York : Mitchell Kennerley. 

as he found it. He brought back to the English 
stage a spirit of comedy that had been for many 
years in mourning. He showed both in practice 
and in theory the possibilities of creation open 
to the critic. He found a new use for dialogue, 
and brought to England a new variety of the 
novel." And so the volume takes up, one after 
the other, Wilde's various phases of literary 
activity, interpreting them by such reference to 
his life as the subject demands. 

The Poems receive a rather extended treat- 
ment. To be sure they constitute a literary debut, 
and every critic must take account of origins. 
Wilde's origins were numerous: his verses 
echo nearly every poet whose note impressed his 
ear. Mere lyric exercises these, according to 
Mr. Ransome, a parodic imitation which is in 
itself a form of criticism. But he overlooks 
the deeper significance of all this open plagiary, 
which makes Wilde's poetry a summary of the 
poetic tendencies of his age. Beneath all this 
epiphytic verse we see no mere literary disci- 
pline, but a real inability to derive poetic impulse 
or inspiration from life untouched by art. 

An unemotional temperament, I believe, we 
must surely call Wilde, in spite of his sensuous- 
ness and his sensuality. Possibly the latter was 
the direct result of his frenzied search for emo- 
tion, which we may note, even in these early 
poems, turning him from the delights of the 
pagan world to the no less sensuous mysticism 
of his Catholic verses. However that may be, 
we shall all agree with Mr. Ransome that this 
"youthful" volume of poems is "too immediate 
an attempt to turn life into literature." It has 
suggested to others, as to him, that its author 
has now and again "tried to make life simply 
for the purpose of transcribing it." But did he 
ever quite outlive this characteristic? 

Those who doubt it may point to his "aes- 
thetic" period. Shades of John Ruskin! It 
appears that Wilde was sent to America, not 
primarily to lecture, but to ensure the success 
of " Patience " by giving the Americans a speci- 
men of the genus a3sthete to illustrate- the satire 
of the opera. Like Gautier in the thirties, Wilde 
at this time was already famous for his eccen- 
tricities of dress his velveteen knee-breeches 
and his lace- trimmed shirts. So he came to 
America, and filled thereby his ever-gaping 
pockets. That accomplished, " tired of prophecy 
and ready to take a part in a new play," he went 
to Paris, where he imitated Balzac down to his 
dressing-gown and jewel-set cane. The result 
of this visit was that Elizabethan pastiche, " The 
Duchess of Padua," and "The Sphinx," a "rare 



[July 1, 

incantation," perhaps, but one which certainly 
contains a deal of Romantic rigmarole. 

Was it Flaubert, Heredia, or Huysmans who 
inspired this curious production, wherein one can 
scarcely see the poem for the words? Mr. Ran- 
some does not tell us. So we must leave " The 
Sphinx" and follow Wilde back to London 
an unintentional expatriate to whom Provi- 
dence had denied the boon of a Gallic nativity. 
Brought home by an empty purse, he resumes 
his lecturing, marries, becomes a book-reviewer, 
and edits "The Woman's World," gaining from 
all this journalistic work a lighter touch and a 
number of good paragraphs for which he will find 
a further use in his later books. He writes a 
few rather mediocre stories, imitates Hans Chris- 
tian Andersen in "The Happy Prince" and "A 
House of Pomegranates," but imitates him with 
pen tempered in the far richer diction of Gautier 
and Flaubert. Decorative prose that is his 
new experiment, just as in "The Sphinx" he 
had anglicized decorative verse. And when, 
several years later, Wilde wrote " The Picture 
of Dorian Gray," he calls it frankly "an essay 
on decorative art," a book which " reacts against 
the brutality of plain realism." 

Certainly "Dorian Gray" is not realistic. 
Yet it is modelled upon a Gallic type, probably 
" A Rebours," and constitutes "the first French 
novel to be written in the English language." 
We can allow this, if the phrase be limited to 
a certain kind of modern novel. Not all of our 
contemporary French fiction, however, is of the 
type of " Dorian Gray." 

But we have outstripped our chronology. 
We must turn from this curious book, disre- 
garding, as our critic does, its pathological sig- 
nificance, and take up Wilde's work in literary 
criticism, which also derived much from his 
journalistic period. Half story, half essay, 
" The Portrait of Mr. W. H." may serve as a 
transition. And, like " Dorian Gray," the story 
has its biographical value ; in none of his work 
can Wilde keep from self -portrayal. In another 
essay he defends Wainewright the murderer, 
perhaps with a prophetic intuition of his own 
destiny; and then, in "The Decay of Lying" 
and "The Critic as Artist," he brings together 
his decadent Socrates and Alcibiades, the bril- 
liant sophist and the languid disciple of these 
essays in dialogue. 

Here, says Mr. Ransome, we find "the domi- 
nant mood of his life"; herein best of all may 
we taste "that elixir of intellectual vitality that 
he royally spilled over his conversation." This 
is probably true; at any rate these essays give 

us his whole aesthetic and literary theory. Criti- 
cism, for Wilde, means "the delicate adven- 
tures of the intellect," precisely the attitude of 
Monsieur Anatole France, whose charming essays 
in dilettanteism had already begun to appear in 
"Le Temps" two years before. The fact might 
well be added to Mr. Ransome's enumeration 
of Wilde's French models. Furthermore, not 
only did Anatole France provide Wilde the critic 
with a theory, but his "Thai's " gave Wilde the 
dramatist the plot of " La Sainte Courtisane." 

For in the drama, as elsewhere, this genius 
was not " unready to work with bouts-rimes" 
He knew the favorite characters of the French 
stage as well as the British, and he used them. 
Wilde was no respecter of dramatis personce. 
Of these characters he made mouth-pieces for 
his epigrams ; once more he finds a use for the 
puns that rose so readily to his Irish lips. Into 
these stage dialogues go all the paradoxes of his 
other works ; and when one notes the frequency 
of these repetitions, one is tempted to doubt the 
vitality of that conversational " elixir." Cer- 
tainly " The Importance of Being Earnest " has 
little of the intellectual element in its laughter. 
Best of the comedies, because of its consistent 
triviality, across the footlights it produces the 
aching cheeks of farce. 

All this makes it hard to place " Salome." 
Mr. Ransome connects the play with the two 
early tragedies ; and reminds us that if Wilde 
was a jester for love of money and popularity, 
he always preferred to think of himself as "a 
person with magnificent dreams." Maeterlinck, 
too, was dreaming in drama just then, and many 
of the qualities of that expression passed by some 
mysterious influence into Wilde's production. 
That fact may even account for its being written 
in French, as the most immediate vehicle of its 
morbid symbolism. In any case, " Salome " 
was not written in that language for Bernhardt, 
but only offered to the divine Sarah when she 
asked Wilde for a play. Three French authors, 
it appears, had a hand in the revision of the 
text, the final touches being given by Pierre 

But before " Salome " was presented, Wilde's 
own life-drama had reached its climax, and he 
was serving a two-year sentence in Reading Gaol. 
Here he came into contact with physical pain, 
rebelled, and then yielded to its teaching, casting 
up accounts with himself in the introspective 
pages of " De Profundis." Not that the book 
had any continuous practical relation to his 
life afterwards. No, it is a pure piece of artistic 
feeling, vivified by the emotional unity that pain 




alone can give a nature such as Wilde's. "Re- 
pentance like that in ' De Profundis,' " observes 
Mr. Ransome, " is a guarantee of a moment of 
humility, but not of a life of reform." And 
once out of prison, he soon became a mere straw 
in the current of events, having lost once and for- 
ever "his power of turning life into tapestry." 

It is a different Wilde that we have now, not 
a reformed one. The difference appears in the 
"Ballad of Reading Gaol."' Within the prison 
walls he could still dream, as he did in " De 
Profundis," of what his life to come might be; 
now at last he knew what it was. It was a rude 
awakening, and the violence of the ballad does 
but reflect it. This delicate artist, this dilettante 
of emotion, has come into contact with pain, with 
a reality so harsh as to tear from him the cry 
of Marsyas. And so the decorative mood gives 
way to realism, a realism which is only partially 
obscured by the completion of the ballad in a 
more " artistic " mood. The result is interesting, 
because it shows Wilde's art for once deficient 
in unity. Thoroughly artificial in his conception 
of literature, a real emotion has almost shattered 
his lyre. 

Mr. Ransome, it must be said, does not go 
so far as this. He is quite impressed with the 
" Ballad of Reading Gaol," and pursues a long 
digression on what he calls "kinetic" and "po- 
tential" literature, which those interested in es- 
thetic theory may best peruse in his own words. 
They may also read his "After Thought," with 
its discussion of Wilde's prose, of his love of 
admiration, and his virtuosity. "He leaves 
three things behind him," says Mr. Ransome, 
" his legend, his conversation, and his works. 
. . . Much of his work fails; much of it has 
already faded, but ' Intentions,' ' The Sphinx,' 
'The Ballad of Reading Gaol,' 'Salome,' 'The 
Importance of Being Earnest,' one or two of 
the fairy tales, and ' De Profundis,' are surely 
enough with which to challenge the attention 
of posterity." 

The attention of posterity! Perhaps, if we 
take the word in its most immediate connotation. 
But for all but the greatest art there is no pos- 
terity, unless we consider the handful of scholars 
and writers of doctors' theses who alone concern 
themselves with the secondary works of a bygone 
age. Wilde has his part in literary history as 
a precursor, but to believe that another century 
will occupy itself with him requires strong faith. 
He has no message for which he will be remem- 
bered, unless it be the one essay which is so ex- 
ploited by advancing socialism. He has artistic 
qualities, indeed ; he has beauties of style, but 

no style fades more quickly than one which is 
inspired by a pure love of decoration. 

The man, of course, will continue to have his 
interest for the pathologist, for the student of 
literary types, for the morbidly romantic person. 
" Some day it will be possible to write of him," 
asserts Mr. Ransome, "with the ecstatic acquies- 
cence that Nietzsche calls Amor Fati, as we 
write of Csesar Borgia sinning in purple, 
Cleopatra sinning in gold, and Roberto Greene 
hastening his end by drab iniquity and gray 
repentance." The gods preserve us from all 
such ecstasy, no matter what the color-scheme! 
Various and changeable as moral codes have 
been and may be, the virtue of self-control must 
always remain at least a distinction. 

Possibly this is a narrow attitude. I have 
said that it is altogether too soon to claim impar- 
tiality ; one can only state one's personal view. 
But as a critic of life and an exponent of a new 
" philosophy " of conduct, we have the right to 
adopt a personal standpoint toward Wilde. As 
a representative of the last phase of a decadent 
Romanticism, its cult of sentiment transformed 
to a mere worship of sense and sense-impressions 
in themselves, we have the right to confront 
his theories with his life. As a socialist, an 
individualist, an intellectual dilettante without 
a concept of the social function of art, we have 
every right to judge him. And however a sen- 
timental or " aesthetic " liberal may bring him- 
self to disregard the life of this gifted degener- 
ate, he cannot obscure the fact that Oscar Wilde, 
with his poses and his follies, has done more than 
any other writer to degrade the adjective " artis- 
tic," and to further the growing contempt of the 
workaday world for art. 



If, by some miracle, we were suddenly to 
become alive to the fact that ours is an organic 
society, pervaded by organic needs and common 
purposes, if our phrases, " the public interest " 
and " the social welfare," were suddenly to be- 
come imbued with real meaning, an extraordi- 

* FATIGUE AND EFFICIENCY. By Josephine Goldmark. 
Russell Sage Foundation Publications. New York : Char- 
ities Publication Committee. 

MAKING BOTH ENDS MEET. By Sue Ainslie Clark and 
Edith Wyatt. Illustrated. New York : The Macmillan Co. 

Beardsley Butler. Russell Sage Foundation Publications. 
New York : Charities Publication Committee. 

THE WOMEN OF TO-MORROW. By William Hard. Illus- 
trated. New York : Doubleday, Page & Co. 



[July 1, 

nary shifting would no doubt take place among 
the objects at the focus of our attention. It is 
needless to specify the public issues that would 
be crowded toward the extreme margin of our 
field of vision ; among those that would continue 
to force themselves upon us insistently and pain- 
fully is that of the conservation of our human 
resources. Are we certain that our human re- 
sources are not going the way of our forests, the 
native fertility of our soils, our mineral wealth, 
exploited in haste and waste ? It is obvious 
enough that our industrial system draws largely 
upon human energy stored up under different 
conditions of life. Our own farms and villages, 
the rural districts of European countries, have 
provided us with an indispensable part of our 
industrial labor supply. How are we using this 
source of our power ? 

We know that among the waste products of 
our industry along with tailings, slag, and 
culm heaps are great numbers of men, women, 
and children with warped bodies and shattered 
nerves, with dulled intelligence and blunted 
morals, victims of the racking strain of the 
machine process. We know that great numbers 
are chronically underfed, wretchedly housed and 
clad. We know that the overstrain and the un- 
derpayment rest especially heavily upon women, 
to whom, we are wont gallantly to assert, is 
entrusted the destiny of the next generation. 
These things we all know, but our knowledge is 
of a vague and abstract character, ill calculated 
to arouse us to action. Fortunately there is 
now a group of valiant men and women who 
have undertaken the gigantic task of making 
concrete our knowledge of the human aspect of 
industrialism. Of this group the writers whose 
books are here under review deserve to rank as 
honored members. 

The point upon which Miss Goldmark lays 
chief emphasis in her work on " Fatigue and 
Efficiency " is the fatigue from which industrial 
workers suffer. Everyone who has lived in a 
factory town has observed that large classes qf 
workers, especially women and girls, appear 
excessively weary, not merely at the end of the 
day, but often at its beginning. Observers of 
optimistic temperament usually assume that this 
is merely an incident to adjustment to the work, 
or a result of the strain of seasonal labor, soon 
to be relaxed by the approach of dull seasons. 
Miss Goldmark places the facts of overwork and 
overstrain in a new light through an analysis of 
laboratory studies in the problem of fatigue. 
The phenomena of fatigue, the physiologists tell 
us, are phenomena of poisoning. Long continued 

exertion produces various toxins that must be re- 
moved by complete rest, on pain of serious dis- 
turbance of all organic functions. A working 
population whose periods of rest are insufficient 
to remove the toxins of fatigue generated in its 
working periods is a population suffering under 
chronic poisoning. The resistance of such a 
population to general infections is lowered in a 
marked degree. Such evidence as we have, 
though fragmentary, indicates pretty clearly 
that the morbidity rate is higher among indus- 
trial workers than among other classes of the 
same age-groups. It also indicates that the 
morbidity rate is especially high among women 
engaged in industry. It is no doubt the deterior- 
ation of the general health of women industrial 
workers that is largely responsible for the fright- 
ful infant mortality of some of our textile towns. 
In Lowell, for example, out of 1000 children 
born, 231 die under one year of age. New York 
City, not over-merciful to its children, destroys 
only 125. 

We cannot return to the simpler and more 
wholesome conditions of an earlier age. Our 
machines will continue to increase their speed; 
labor will be further subdivided, and grow still 
more monotonous. We cannot expel women 
from industry : our society needs the services of 
the millions of women and girls in its stores and 
factories and workshops, and these millions of 
women and girls need their opportunities for 
employment. We can, however, reduce the 
working day to a reasonable length ; we can pro- 
hibit night work and restrict overtime to narrow 
limits. To judge from past experience in the 
reduction of working hours, these reforms would 
not involve even an immediate loss in productive 
power. They would force a readjiistment of 
work, and more careful planning on the part of 
employers. They would eliminate a few em- 
ployers too incompetent to adapt themselves to 
a new situation. In the long run, without doubt, 
their influence would be wholly salutary. 

Miss Goldmark recognizes that fatigue is not 
the only evil afflicting the working class. But 
the evil of fatigue is, in her view, fundamental. 
As long as the worker remains, in effect, a vic- 
tim of chronic poisoning, better wages, greater 
security of employment, and improved housing 
can avail him little. 

As the purpose of the writer is purely prac- 
tical, she does not confine herself narrowly to 
her main theme, but introduces whatever mate- 
rial she conceives may prove useful to the re- 
former. Much of the space of the book is given 
to an analysis of existing labor laws and a criti- 




cism of the methods employed in their enforce- 
ment. The book contains, in addition to its 
three hundred pages of text, the substance of 
the briefs submitted to the courts by Mr. Louis 
D. Brandeis and Miss Goldmark in defense of 
the ten-hour laws of Oregon and Illinois and 
the fifty-four-hour law of Ohio. This material 
is excellent; it gives ready access to the best 
expert opinion, both American and foreign, on 
the physical effects of industrial labor. Miss 
Goldmark's book may justly be appraised as the 
most important recent contribution to the litera- 
ture of the labor problem. 

" Making Both Ends Meet " also deals with 
the strain and weariness of women's labor, the 
waste of women's strength and life in the fac- 
tories and workshops of the modern city. Chief 
emphasis, however, is laid upon the question of 
wages. The method employed by Mrs. Clark 
and Miss Wyatt differs radically from that of 
Miss Goldmark. The latter works, by pref- 
erence, with statistics, laboratory tests, expert 
opinion ; the authors of " Making Both Ends 
Meet" describe the life of the workers as it has 
fallen under their direct observation, and narrate 
the histories, more or less typical, of workers 
whose confidence they have gained. The au- 
thors enable us to see exactly what these workers 
earn and how they spend their earnings ; what 
is their home life, if we may thus distort the 
meaning of that phrase; what opportunities 
they have for recreation and enjoyment ; what 
chances offer of substantial improvement in their 
lot. At best the story is one of barely making 
both ends meet ; at worst, it is a story no one 
will read with pleasure. The book gives evi- 
dence of much patient and courageous work on 
the part of the authors and their collaborators. 
Its intensely personal note makes it an excellent 
complement of the work of Miss Goldmark. 

Miss Butler's " Saleswomen in Mercantile 
Stores " is a detailed study of the conditions of 
work and pay in the mercantile establishments 
in Baltimore. The author's work is thorough 
and systematic ; and it is to be hoped that similar 
investigations will be made in other cities. The 
saleswomen of Baltimore work 56.9 hours a 
week (70.7 hours the week before Christmas). 
Half of them earn five dollars a week or less ; not 
one-fifth of them earn above six dollars a week. 
Overwork and underpay, these form the com- 
mon lot of women in "gainful occupations." 

In " The Women of To-morrow," Mr. William 
Hard addresses himself to another aspect of the 
modern industrial situation : the assumption by 
industry of manifold functions formerly exercised 

by the household, and the consequent acquisition 
of leisure by women of the middle class. That 
this problem is a serious one, Mrs. Schreiner 
and Mrs. Gilman have already convinced us. 
Half the women of the middle class do not marry; 
those who do marry have few children, as a rule, 
and consequently find difficulties in occupying 
themselves fully difficulties possibly somewhat 
exaggerated by our sociological writers. Mr. 
Hard sees in present-day educational tendencies 
the promise of a solution of the problem. The 
women of to-morrow will be trained for an inde- 
pendent part in economic life; they will be 
trained in the art of spending ; they will be 
trained for the assumption of civic duties Mr. 
Hard is, however, no dealer in solutions; he is 
an enthusiastic inquirer with an optimistic trend, 
and his book is so attractively written that the 
reader himself is almost constrained to assume 
an attitude of enthusiastic optimism. Who 
knows? Possibly the well-trained women of 
to-morrow will solve the problems of industrial 
labor now so hopelessly bungled by the men of 
to-day. ALVIN S. JOHNSON. 



Toward the close of the eighteenth century 
there appeared a formidable narrative, in three 
volumes, bearing in the manner of the period 
this comprehensive title: "Journal of Transac- 
tions and Events during a Residence of nearly 
Sixteen Years on the Coast of Labrador; con- 
taining Many Interesting Particulars both of the 
Country and its Inhabitants not hitherto Known; 
Illustrated with Proper Charts." The Journal 
of Captain George Cartwright now ranks among 
the rare Americana, and is seldom found even 
in the larger libraries. It has always seemed 
matter for regret that someone had not under- 
taken a reprint of this valuable narrative ; for it 
is such from several points of view. Cartwright 
was a man of untiring energy and wide observa- 
tion. During his long residence on the Labrador 
coast he was almost constantly on the move, 
hunting, trapping, fishing, visiting Indian and 
Eskimo encampments, exploring the country; 
wherever he went he found something new to 
interest him, and whatever he saw he made a 
note of, for his own sake in the first instance, 
and ultimately for ours. What he tells us is 
well worth the telling, and it gains double value 

Edited by Charles Wendell Townsend, M.D. With an Intro- 
duction by Dr. Wilfred T. Grenf ell. Boston: Dana Estes & Co. 



[July 1, 

from the simple and graphic frankness of the 
author's style. The Journal in its original form 
is a delightfully entertaining narrative, with only 
two faults its inaccessibility and its inordinate 
length. Thanks to Dr. Townsend, to whom we 
were already indebted for several books on Lab- 
rador, both these faults have now been elimi- 
nated. He has not only given us a reprint of 
Cartwright's Journal, but he has succeeded in 
reducing it to the compass of a single volume 
without destroying any of the charm of the ori- 

In his own Preface and Introduction, Dr. 
Townsend presents an interesting account of 
Cartwright as he appeared to his contemporaries, 
and of his life before and after he engaged in 
the Labrador fur-trade. Southey's picture of 
this Robinson Crusoe of the north, as he ap- 
peared in 1791, is too good to pass by. 

"I was visiting with the Lambs, at Hampstead, in 
Kent, at the house of Hodges, his brother-in-law; we 
had nearly finished dinner when he came in. He de- 
sired the servant to cut him a plate of beef from the 
sideboard. I thought the footman meant to insult him: 
the plate was piled to a height which no ploughboy after 
a hard day's fasting could have levelled ; but the moment 
he took up his knife and fork and arranged the plate, I 
saw this was no common man. A second and third sup- 
ply soon vanished. Mr. and Mrs. Lamb, who had never 
before seen him, glanced at each other; but Tom and I, 
with schoolboys' privilege, kept our eyes riveted upon 
him with what Doctor Butt would have called the gaze 
of admiration. ' I see you have been looking at me,' 
(said he, when he had done). 'I have a very great 
appetite. I once fell in with a stranger in the shooting 
season, and we dined together at an inn. There was a 
leg of mutton, v/hich he did not touch. I never make 
more than two cuts off a leg of mutton; the first takes 
all one side, the second all the other; and when I had 
done this, I laid the bone across my knife for the mar- 
row. The stranger could refrain no longer. ' By God, 
sir,' said he, ' I never saw a man eat like you!'" 

It is difficult to give an adequate idea of the 
range of subjects that engaged Cartwright's rest- 
less curiosity and found a place in his Journal. 
Nothing was too trivial to escape his notice. He 
gives many pages to a minute and remarkably 
accurate account of the beaver; and elsewhere 
he gravely describes the adventure of the ship's 
goat with a bucket of rum. She got through 
nearly a gallon of that insidious beverage, it ap- 
pears, "and has continued ever since in so com- 
plete a state of intoxication as to be unable to 
get upon her legs." His description of a mid- 
winter camp will appeal to some of us who have 
tried that sort of thing. 

"At midnight the frost increased; the wind blew the 
fire about, and made it smoke most intolerably. The 
fuel was not of a good kind for burning, and the trees in 
the wood being small and rather thinly scattered, those 
parts of us which were not immediately next to the fire 

were ready to freeze; we were therefore obliged to turn 
ourselves continually; during which time I often wished 
to be lashed to a spit, and turned like a roasting goose, 
without the trouble of doing it myself." 

One gets some idea of the profits of the 
fur-trade in its palmy days from Cartwright's 

" Shuglawina (an Eskimo) made me a present of a 
very fine silver fox skin; but he insisted on having the 
same price for the brush of it as I had just paid for an 
entire skin. However, as he only demanded a small 
ivory comb, which cost me no more than twopence half- 
penny, and the skin was worth four guineas, I made no 
scruple in completing the purchase." 

After what Southey tells us, it is not sur- 
prising to find frequent mention of meals in the 
Journal, and some of them were odd enough. 
Traders wintering on the Labrador could not 
afford to be squeamish. " I had a loin of white 
bear roasted for dinner," he says in one place, 
" which proved very good ; although, to say the 
truth, it was much like beef basted with seal 
oil ; however, for want of the beef without the 
oil, I ate near two pounds of it." On another 
occasion he and his men were reduced to a 
fore-quarter of wolf, which proved so hard, 
dry, tough, and rank, that at first he could not 
swallow it. A day or two later, he mentions 
that he had finished the wolf, and adds, with an 
air of sly triumph, that he has at last got the 
better of his squeamish stomach. But as a 
trencherman he has to admit that he is not in 
the same class with the average Eskimo. He 
entertained a party of them at his camp. " Nine 
salmon were boiled for them, and, although the 
fish were fifteen pounds weight each, on an 
average, they ate the whole at a meal. I can eat 
pretty well myself ; but my performances in that 
way are not worth recording in the history of men 
of such superior talents." 

In addition to a very complete account of the 
Eskimo, and the Indians of Labrador, Cart- 
wright gives from personal knowledge a de- 
scription of the since extinct Beothuk tribe of 
Newfoundland. So little is known of this unfor- 
tunate race that this record, based on personal 
observation, is exceedingly valuable. He de- 
scribes them as " the most forlorn of any of the 
human species which have yet come to my knowl- 
edge, the Indians of Terra del Fuego excepted." 

Of his many adventures by land and sea, 
none is perhaps more exciting than a raid which 
he suffered in August, 1778, at the hands of a 
Boston privateer, commanded by one John 
Grimes. Grimes swooped down on the Labra- 
dor settlement, took possession of Cartwright's 
vessels, loaded them with his furs and stores, 
and sailed away to the south. " May the devil 




go with them!" feelingly exclaims poor Cart- 

On his last voyage home, Cartwright had as 
cabin-mate no less a personage than Benedict 
Arnold, of whom he gives no very flattering ac- 
count. The voyage was a long one, and before 
they reached England passengers and crew were 
on short allowance. Water was particularly 
scarce, and the passengers were only allowed a 
pint a day. When the ship came into port, 
Cartwright examined the lockers in his cabin 
and found a number of bottles of wine missing. 
"I was informed by the mate," he says, "that 
at such times as I was upon deck, General 
Arnold, through the medium of his servant, had 
stolen most of the wine, which belonged to us 
both, and had sold it to the sailors for water, 
which he kept for his own use." 



Every now and then the omniscient reviewer 
pronounces some historical work to be "definitive." 
I confess to an entire lack of interest in all such 
works, if they really are definitive. Why study 
a subject about which nothing more can be learned? 
It is a desolating thought that a period once impor- 
tant, such as the Reformation, or a great movement 
as fascinating as it is elusive, like the French Revo- 
lution, has been put on the shelf finally: quite fin- 
ished and done with, and done for; nothing more 
to be said about it, henceforth useless except to be 
conned by rote. Who cares to open a book that is 
without defect or amiable weakness? The impec- 
cable thing paralyzes the will and makes pedants of 
us all. 

Fortunately, the definitive book in history is 
never definitive for more than a short while. The 
appearance of many definitive works, the flourishing 
of "standard" histories, is most usually an indica- 
tion, not that history is exhausted, but that a certain 
method of treating it is about played out. Sooner 
or later some disturbing genius takes a new point of 
view, some heretic comes along with a novel method 
of treatment, and everything has to be done over 
again. The "new history " is announced before the 
old has become fairly complacent. 

"The present," says Professor Robinson in his 
volume entitled "The New History," "has hitherto 
been the willing victim of the past ; the time has now 
come when it should turn on the past and exploit it 
in the interest of advance." In one sense it might 
be maintained that the present has never been the 
victim of the past, but that its instinct has always 

*THE NEW HISTORY. Essays Illustrating the Modern 
Historical Outlook. By James Harvey Robinson, Professor 
of History in Columbia University. New York : The Mac- 
millan Co. 

been to exploit the past for its own purposes. In 
some periods the interest of the present has seemed 
to lie in sustaining existing social arrangements, in 
justifying certain prevailing theories of life; and in 
such periods history has been a conservative force. 
At other times the interest of the present has seemed 
to lie in transforming existing institutions, in de- 
stroying certain prevailing conceptions; and then 
men have turned to the past and have found in it 
arguments suited to revolution. History, when it 
has not been merely edifying, has usually served 
primarily either as a justification or as a criticism 
of the existing regime. 

Thus Saint Augustine exploited the past to dis- 
credit Paganism and to propagate Christian doctrine ; 
and his conception of history, after Christianity 
almost destroyed Paganism, was for many centuries 
a powerful conservative force, an instrument for 
maintaining the supremacy of the Church. But the 
Protestants appealed to history to justify their revolt 
from that same Church, quite definitely and con- 
sciously they " exploited the past in the interest of 
advance." Quite as definitely, though perhaps less 
consciously, the erudite scholars of the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries contributed an intellectual 
prop for the absolutist system of that age. But 
when the main currents of social life in France set 
in the direction of reform the patient Benedictine 
engaged in collecting documents for the history of his 
order, or the learned layman, a Fre'ret for example, 
with his twenty volumes of impartial and disinter- 
ested scholarship, suffered eclipse. It was about 
the middle of the eighteenth century that the " Phi- 
losophers" announced a "new history," a history 
which was to tell the average man, not what actually 
happened, but what he ought to think about what 
had happened, and especially about what might 
happen; and this new history did indeed exploit 
the past most effectively in the interest of advance, 
or what was supposed to be advance. 

But what of the nineteenth century, with its de- 
tachment and scientific method ? Have we not been 
assured that the writing of history has at last been 
put on a sound and permanent foundation ? Un- 
doubtedly we have, but that is an old story. Every 
generation is disposed to think "we are the people 
and wisdom will die with us." Still one may hope 
that historical wisdom will survive Leopold von 
Ranke, and even Mr. Round. The future student 
of the intellectual life of our day will doubtless see 
shat the historical writing of the nineteenth century, 
ike the historical writing of other times, has been 
shaped by the pressure of social needs; will point 
out how it has served a certain social purpose; will 
perhaps admit, from his superior vantage, that much 
rood work was done in spite of inadequate knowl- 
dge and an imperfect criticism. Perhaps it will then 
>e seen that the method inaugurated by Savigny, and 
>rought to some sort of perfection by Ranke and his 
disciples, was one of the forms assumed by the intel- 
ectual reaction from the philosophy of the French 
devolution ; that the historical school was in the in 



[July 1, 

tellectual life of the century what the Historic Rights 
party was in political life, a most effective bulwark 
against those insurgent principles that were regarded 
as having played havoc with Europe for a generation. 
Convinced by sharp experience that conscious at- 
tempts at radical social reconstruction were danger- 
ous, the nineteenth century wished to exploit the past 
to disprove the doctrine of natural rights and to con- 
demn the methods of the French Revolution. And 
so, working in such an atmosphere, historians nat- 
urally enough became interested in historic rights 
rather than in natural rights ; preoccupied with what 
happened, they were studiously non-commital about 
what ought to have happened; disposed to make 
much of changes that came very slowly and little of 
changes that came suddenly; inclined to belittle con- 
scious purpose as an influence in shaping institutions ; 
well content if it turned out that some great affair 
could be traced to an obscure origin, as, for exam- 
ple, the expense involved in equipping a cavalry 
service. And after much patient investigation along 
the lines of these initial preconceptions, it was discov- 
ered that in fact there were no natural rights ; that 
what happened was nearly if not quite the thing that 
had to happen, so that it was useless to inquire what 
ought to have happened ; that change in institutions 
and ideas was, to be sure, the fundamental thing in 
history; but that change was most fruitful if it came 
slowly without anyone's wishing for it, and least 
fruitful if it came quite suddenly as the result of 
everybody's wishing for it very much, and working 
to bring it about. For purposes of illustration, the 
history of England was found, rather providentially, 
to be wonderfully well adapted. And so, by a most 
happy chance, history itself, scientifically conceived 
and impartially studied, proved that the French 
Revolution was undoubtedly a necessary mistake, 
an historical event which had done a certain amount 
of good surely, but which, by virtue of having de- 
parted from the most approved precedents, had done 
it in a very bad way. 

But the shadow which the Reign of Terror cast 
over Europe for a century is passing, while at the 
same time it is perfectly certain that neither the 
formulas of the Manchester school, nor the resound- 
ing phrases of Liberalism, nor reliance upon the 
Manifest Destiny of Historic Rights, is ushering in 
any millenium. At present there are signs of a re- 
turn to earlier ideas, a disposition, in certain quar- 
ters, to rehabilitate the "rags and tags and paltry 
blurred shreds of paper about the rights of man." 
The resplendent vision of Perfectibility, although it 
has doubtless taken on some neutral litmus paper 
tints, has never been quite lost; transformed into the 
idea of Progress the belief that society can by its 
own efforts indefinitely increase the happiness and 
welfare of all men it is perhaps the one really vital 
faith of our day. It is not impossible, therefore, that 
the great task of the present century will centre in 
a second attempt to bring to fruition those splendid 
ideals of social justice which the generous minds of 
the eighteenth century conceived, and which the men 

of the Revolution, with the courage of their emotions, 
embodied in " glittering generalities " for the edifica- 
tion of mankind. As the problem of " social better- 
ment" becomes more insistent, discontent with the ex- 
isting regime gathers force. It is not unreasonable to 
suppose that in the next half century intellectual inter- 
ests will be somewhat withdrawn from the past and 
concentrated somewhat more in the future, less con- 
cerned about what actually happened and rather more 
concerned about what ought to happen. That this 
change of emphasis will profoundly affect the study 
and writing of history, is a prediction which may be 
safely ventured. 

The purpose of Professor Robinson's little volume 
(which is only a collection of essays and addresses 
prepared for different occasions during the last ten 
years, and which, for that reason, lacks something of 
the definiteness, consistency, and structural coordi- 
nation which the title might lead one to expect) is to 
venture just that prediction, to suggest that the time 
is ripe for historians to ask themselves whether the 
aims and methods by which so much has been achieved 
in the last sixty years are precisely those which will 
serve best for the future. Professor Robinson is con- 
vinced that they are not ; and, without professing to 
formulate any definite programme, he wishes to em- 
phasize the fact " that history should not be regarded 
as a stationary subject which can only progress by 
refining its methods and accumulating, criticizing, 
and assimilating new material, but that it is bound 
to alter its ideals and aims with the general progress 
of society and of the social sciences, and that it should 
ultimately play an infinitely more important role in 
our intellectual life than it has hitherto done." Not 
unnaturally, therefore, one characteristic note of the 
book is discontent; and in this it voices the feeling 
of many historical students, especially of the younger 
generation. What is the use, they are asking them- 
selves, of so many learned volumes which nobody 
reads? What is the use of so much erudition that 
contributes so little to "the instant need of things"? 
In reading these essays one often wonders if Profes- 
sor Robinson does not regret that Fate made him an 
historian at all, and not a real scientist, an anthro- 
pologist perhaps, or comparative psychologist. In the 
end, however, one is convinced that such is not the 
case ; for if he sees the "plight in which history finds 
itself " just now, he is confident that there is a bril- 
liant future in store for it ; and this note of confidence 
in the future of history is only less marked than the 
note of dissatisfaction with its present condition. 

In both respects Professor Robinson's attitude 
inevitably recalls the point of view of the eighteenth 
century Philosophe. "All the weighty substance 
of our historians," said Grimm in 1755, "consists in 
a tedious and pedantic discussion of facts which are 
ordinarily as indifferent as they are uncertain." 
Professor Robinson, in like manner, employs his dry 
humor at the expense of a certain type of historian 
solemnly engaged in determining "whether Charles 
the Fat was in Ingelheim or Lustnau on July 1, 887," 
or in pointing out "the spot where Nehemiah 




Abbot's ox met an untimely and suspicious end by 
choking on a turnip." With the dull chronicle, how- 
ever adequately "documented," Professor Robinson 
is dissatisfied, not because it is dull, but because it 
so often does not help us in the least to understand 
the present, and so does not help us to deal with its 
problems intelligently. This was also the point of 
view of the eighteenth century reformer. "Other 
historians," Diderot told Voltaire, "relate facts to 
inform us of facts. You relate them in order to 
excite in us an intense hatred of lying, ignorance, 
hypocrisy, superstition, fanaticism, tyranny ; and this 
anger remains, even after the memory of the facts 
has passed away." Professor Robinson is as far as 
possible from wishing the historian to relate facts 
in order to excite hatred and anger. The point of 
resemblance is that he, like Grimm and Diderot, 
wishes to exploit the past in the interest of advance. 
Now, in the eighteenth century the histories which 
exploited the past in the interest of advance were 
precisely those which aroused discontent with the 
existing regime. It is perhaps a fair question 
whether histories written in the twentieth century, 
if they are consciously to exploit the past in the 
interest of advance, will do it in the same way, 
by arousing discontent with the existing regime. 

Yes, Professor Robinson would reply; provided 
it arouses an intelligent discontent, that is precisely 
the best thing history can possibly do. The business 
of history is to arouse an intelligent discontent, to 
foster a fruitful radicalism; but it should do this, 
not by becoming less scientific than it is now, but 
by becoming more scientific. And this, again, is 
the attitude of the eighteenth century philosophers. 
Diderot and Grimm and their fellows were con- 
vinced that history could be properly written only 
"by Philosophers," by men, that is, who were 
thoroughly familiar with the scientific knowledge 
of the day. Now, the most definite contention in 
Professor Robinson's book, the one which he would 
doubtless consider most important, is precisely that 
historians have hitherto failed to make use of the 
results of what he calls the newer sciences of man- 
kind, "Anthropology, in a comprehensive sense, 
Prehistoric Archaeology, Social and Animal Psy- 
chology, and the Comparative Study of Religions." 
History, professing to deal with man in the past, 
has concerned itself much with the past but very 
little with man. In the future, "if history is to 
reach its highest development, it must confess that 
it is based on sister sciences, that it can progress 
only with them, must lean largely on them for 
support, and in return should repay its debt by the 
contributions it makes to our understanding of our 
species." The most vital concern of our day is the 
progress of the race through conscious effort. Such 
progress will be permanent and real only if based 
upon a genuine scientific knowledge of man; and 
only by assimilating thoroughly this scientific knowl- 
edge of man can the historian point out to us how 
real progress has been made in the past and so help 
us to proceed aright in the future. It is in this way 

that history will arouse an intelligent discontent and 
foster a fruitful radicalism. 

I have insisted, perhaps unduly, upon the analogy 
between Professor Robinson's point of view and that 
of the eighteenth century reformers, because it seems 
to me that his conception of history raises a funda- 
mental difficulty, a difficulty which also confronted 
them. This difficulty is in respect to the idea of 
progress. What, after all, is progress ? What is the 
test, the standard of value, which is to determine the 
direction of conscious effort towards social recon- 
struction? Professor Robinson's only reply to this 
question is that " no one who realizes the relative 
barbarism of our whole civilization . . . will have 
the patience to formulate any definition of progress 
when the most bewildering opportunities for social 
betterment summon us on every side." This is very 
well if it is only a matter of doing what our hands 
find to do: one may venture to feed the starving 
before formulating a definition of progress. But if 
one wishes to remove the causes of poverty, a defi- 
nition of progress might prove most useful. And 
certainly if the historian is to renounce his present 
aims and methods, and to set himself the task of 
" exploiting the past in the interest of advance," he 
needs a far more definite notion of what advance is 
than can be found in the statement that "the most 
bewildering opportunities for betterment summon us 
on every side "; he needs, in fact, a genuinely scien- 
tific definition of progress. 

It need hardly be said that present-day ideas of 
progress are most intangible. A profound faith in 
progress, we have ; a world of light talk about it, 
that we have also; but the truth is we never know 
what form progress will take until after the event. 
Opposing principles are reconciled by falling into 
chronological sequence, and socialism, for example, 
acquires virtue by the mere passing of liberalism 
into the limbo of yesterday. And this would seem 
to be the necessary result of a philosophy which 
identifies man and nature, thus reducing all values 
to the relative test. The price of not having dogmatic 
creeds is that the content of our faith is successively 
unfolded, as it were, only in the daily practice of it. 
In the eighteenth century the conclusions drawn from 
the premises of Locke left the reformers facing a 
similar difficulty: man is an irresponsible product 
of uniform natural law, said the materialist ; in that 
case, asked the reformer, is not society in all its forms 
necessary too ; this Old Regime, which we have con- 
demned, is it not a very "state of nature " after all? 
The dilemma had been succinctly stated by Pascal 
long before. "Custom," he said, "is a second nature 
which destroys the first. But what is this nature? 
I fear that nature itself is only a first custom." No 
French Revolution could issue from a dilemma which 
brought everything to a stand. It was Rousseau who 
cut the Gordian knot by giving a new form to the 
old dualism of man and nature : " Man is naturally 
good, it is society which corrupts him." The modern 
social reformer is confronted by much the same di- 
lemma; and if conscious effort towards social regen- 



[July 1, 

eration is to issue in anything more than temporary 
expedients, the distinction between what is natural 
and permanent in human society and what is artificial 
and temporary must be drawn again in some manner 
or other. But to be in any way effective, the distinc- 
tion must be based upon genuine scientific knowledge 
as well as upon an emotional faith. Perhaps it is 
the task of religion to furnish the latter ; it certainly 
rests with science to furnish the former. Science, 
rather than history, must discover, as Kant said, "the 
constant elements in man's nature, in order to under- 
stand what sort of perfection it is that suits him, alike 
in a state of rude simplicity, in a state of wise simpli- 
city, and in a state which transcends both of these." 
It may be that the "newer sciences of mankind" 
can achieve this. Who shall say ? But until they do, 
it is infinitely true, as Professor Robinson himself 
says, that "one may find solace and intellectual re- 
pose in surrendering all attempts to define history, 
and in conceding that it is the business of the his- 
torian to find out anything about mankind in the 
past which he believes to be interesting or important 
and about which there are sources of information." 
This is a franchise which surely includes us all. 
Meanwhile, by all means let the historian learn all 
he possibly can about the newer sciences of mankind, 
and about the older sciences too, and about philoso- 
phy, about literature, about art, about everything 
that is under the sun : all this knowledge will serve, 
"if judiciously practised, greatly to strengthen and 
deepen the whole range of historical study and 
render its results far more valuable than they have 
hitherto been." CAKL BECKER. 


It is a most attractive personality that 

Hale's volume entitled "Woodrow 
Wilson: The Story of His Life" (Doubleday). 
Whatever may be the outcome of the present presi- 
dential campaign, no one who reads this sketch can 
doubt that our political life has already received a 
much-needed impetus upward by Dr. Wilson's en- 
trance from the seclusion of academic labor into the 
strenuous activities of politics. Dr. Wilson comes 
naturally by his seriousness of purpose, his strength 
of conviction, and his devotion to the cause of edu- 
cation and good government. He is descended from 
an ancestry that has always stood for what is sturdy 
and honorable in American history. The Wilsons 
were Scotch-Irish and the Woodrows (the mother's 
family) were Scotch. One fancies there must have 
been village dominies in the line of the mother's 
descent, and that one of them was reincarnated in the 
friendly, sane, and vigorous president of Princeton, 
who fought so faithfully for sincerity in academic 
life and work and for democracy in the university. 
Most interesting is the story of this batttle of a 
president of one of our greatest universities to 

restore the preeminence of intellectual concerns over 
the shallow and abnormal social interests and the 
baneful athletic craze, which together called forth 
the remark of a cynical observer that Princeton was 
the finest country club in America. Dr. Wilson was 
not content to alter radically the system of election 
of studies, so as to secure better coordination in the 
studies of each student; but he also introduced the 
system of preceptors, in order that young and imma- 
ture minds might have the steady guidance and 
inspiration of trained intelligence in the pursuit of 
their university careers. He went yet a step further, 
and proposed to cut through the artificial stratifica- 
tion of university society, to house all students in 
dormitories and to have men from all college classes 
in the same buildings, and with them young profes- 
sors. It was just when this plan for making uni- 
versity life democratic, and his allied plan for the 
graduate school to be erected on the same campus 
with the college, had received a serious setback, and 
seemed doomed to temporary defeat, that Dr. Wilson 
was summoned into public life. No one who had 
observed his career at Princeton could fail to foresee 
that he would be unswerving in his adherence to 
democracy and honesty in politics ; yet the bosses who 
helped to seat him in the governor's chair seem to 
have estimated the sincerity of his campaign declar- 
ations at the same rate as their own. When they 
learned too late that he meant to keep every promise 
he had made, there was bitter denunciation. He 
had proved recalcitrant and ungrateful. In the pic- 
turesque language of the campaign, Dr. Wilson had 
warned all concerned that it was plain that Provi- 
dence had not intended him to be ornamental and 
that he would be a very busy governor. The record 
of what he accomplished for the people of New 
Jersey against the combined rings of both the Dem- 
ocrats and the Republicans is as thrilling as a story 
of knight-errantry. It is a record that harmonizes 
with the rare quality of Dr. Wilson's stump oratory 
clear, vivid, picturesque, and yet always flavored 
with the dignity that we associate with scholars- 
whose culture has not killed their humanity. 

The story of J . n an allegory or fantasy clothed in 
a heavenly simple and beautiful language that 

pilgrimage. occasionally reminds one of "The 
Pilgrim's Progress," Mr. Arthur C. Benson relates, 
in " The Child of the Dawn " (Putnam) , the supposed 
experiences of a soul privileged to visit heaven and 
to see God in the timeless interval between two suc- 
cessive reincarnations. In an interesting preface 
the author says: "The fact that underlies the book 
is this : that in the course of a very sad and strange 
experience an illness which lasted for some two 
years, involving me in a dark cloud of dejection 
I came to believe practically, instead of merely theo- 
retically, in the personal immortality of the human 
soul. I was conscious, during the whole time, that 
though the physical machinery of the nerves was out 
of gear, the soul and the mind remained, not only 




intact, but practically unaffected by the disease, im- 
prisoned, like a bird in a cage, but perfectly free in 
themselves, and uninjured by the bodily weakness 
which enveloped them." Nor was that all. He was 
led to see that his hitherto accepted standards of value 
were more or less false, and "that what really mat- 
tered to the soul was the relation in which it stood 
to other souls ; that affection was the native air 
of the spirit; and that anything which distracted 
the heart from the duty of love was a kind of bodily 
delusion, and simply hindered the spirit in its pil- 
grimage." The picture presented in the succeeding 
pages of the joys and sorrows of discarnate spirits 
is admirably drawn, enriched with many a stroke of 
wit and wisdom, of tenderness and humor, of insight 
and sympathy. The prospect of an indefinite series 
of earthly lives for each soul, as conceived by the 
author, is of course not new or startling, but so for- 
bidding to most of us that we prefer to dream our 
own dreams about the tremendous possibilities of the 
future. What the book teaches most impressively 
and acceptably is the supreme importance of love, 
compared with which nothing else matters. To show 
that the book is not unworthy of mention in the same 
breath with Bunyan's masterpiece, let us quote, as 
an example of its style, a paragraph from its closing 
pages. "Then I took Cynthia's hand and laid it in 
the hand of Lucius ; and I left them there upon the 
peak, and turned no more. And no more woeful 
spirit was in the land of heaven that day than mine 
as I stumbled wearily down the slope, and found the 
valley. And then, for I did not know the way to de- 
scend, I commended myself to God; and he took me." 

A history ^ n 1892, Professor Petrus Johannes 

of the people Blok of the University of Leyden 
of Holland. published the first two volumes of a 
" History of the People of the Netherlands," and in 
1900 these volumes were translated into English by 
Miss Ruth Putnam. As subsequent instalments ap- 
peared in Holland, the translation has been continued; 
until now the fifth and concluding volume, translated 
(as was the fourth) by Mr. Oscar Bierstadt, is pre- 
sented to the public. At the outset the author asserted 
that he desired to present not so much the evolution 
of Holland as a State, but rather the life of the peo- 
ple in " civilization, commerce, industry, agriculture, 
navigation, law, and economic development," and he 
avowedly modelled his work on that of the English 
historian, John Richard Green. In the execution of 
his plan, however, he failed, in the earlier volumes, in 
the attempt to interweave political events and popu- 
lar reaction to those events ; and in this last volume, 
covering the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, he 
has largely altered his method. Political events and 
institutional change are here segregated in separate 
chapters, as are intellectual, industrial, and cultural 
topics, the result being a distinct improvement in 
clarity. The work now completed is an important 
contribution to historical knowledge, at least for En- 
glish readers, since it presents a continuous narrative 

of Dutch history not elsewhere duplicated, while 
the present volume offers a clear resume of political 
conditions in Holland since 1850, by a careful and 
scholarly observer. The most interesting personality 
of this period is Thorbecke, professor at the Univer- 
sity of Leyden, leader of the liberal movement of 
1848, and during three terms chief minister of the 
state. Under his guidance, ministerial responsibility 
and direct election of the popular branch of the 
legislature were secured, and without the strain of a 
revolution, such as swept over Europe in 1848. For 
over a quarter of a century he exercised a tremen- 
dous influence. Mr. Blok tells us that "Thorbecke 
created the forms in which the government was to 
move for a long time ; his strong hand had pointed 
out the way to progress in constitutional development, 
in material prosperity, and intellectual emancipation. 
His name is bound to the history of this important 
period ; his statue on the Thorbecke square in Am- 
sterdam is the memorial of a remarkable phase of 
Holland's national history." A few good maps and 
a wholly inadequate index conclude the volume. 

Observation* Contributed originally to "The Ref- 
and warnings eree " of London, the short and timely 
of a journalist. ar ti c l es now collected by Mr. Arnold 
White under the title, "The Views of 'Vanoc'" 
(Dutton), furnish considerable matter of interest to 
the desultory reader,- and not a few pages fraught 
with advice or warning of an attention-compelling 
nature to any reader. The reason of the pseu- 
donym, "Vanoc," is explained, or an explanation is 
attempted, in a dedicatory note to the Editor of 
"The Referee." The half- hundred short chapters 
of the book are grouped in nine sections, and have 
to do chiefly with political and social questions. 
Already familiar to Mr. White's readers are his 
views on the necessity of an invincible navy for 
England, and he fails not to sound the alarmist note 
in his book, in an article picturing the supposed 
eagerness of Germany to make a banquet on the 
British Empire. "Russia has Siberia," the author 
points out; "France, a rich soil and a stationary or 
dwindling population; America, ample room to ex- 
pand ; Japan, the whole Far East ; Britain, her own 
Empire. Germany, the greatest military Power, 
has no place under her own flag outside her borders 
where Germans can live and thrive. . . . Germany 
wants that which England possesses." But does 
not all the world know by this time, what "The 
Great Illusion" has so lately been reiterating and 
redemonstrating, that trade and migration do not 
necessarily or exclusively follow the flag? Is not the 
Teutonic portion of New York one of the largest 
German cities in the world, and are there not countless 
acres of new land open to and clamoring for German 
or any other immigrants in the great Northwest of 
America? Here, to change the subject, is a suggestive 
passage from the section devoted to eugenics : " The 
work of the world is mainly done by the gouty; to 
speak by the card, by the irritable, sanguine, nervy, 



[July 1, 

resolute people with great engine-driving power, not 
by the stolid men and women whose physical ma- 
chinery is perfect. That each of us is among the 
unfit is known to every soul honest with itself." The 
book is already in its second edition, or impression, 
which speaks well for its readable qualities. 

Masterpieces of As with everything that the late 
art illustrated John La Farge wrote, his comments 
and described. upon u One Hundred Masterpieces 
of Painting" (Doubleday, Page & Co.), originally 
published in " McClure's Magazine," and now put 
together in book form, bear the impress of a 
thoughtful and well-stored mind. The pictures 
one hundred and six in all selected for repro- 
duction have been chosen to exemplify the point of 
view that art is " the mirror of life," and they are 
arranged accordingly, in subject groups. This 
classification, though an arbitrary one, serves well 
enough, especially as care has been exercised to 
include only works that have enduring charm and 
are free from what the author stigmatizes as " the 
bad taste of fashion." His descriptions of the 
paintings, though engagingly written, sometimes, it 
must be said, seem to start nowhere and to lead 
nowhither. In a measure this impression is attrib- 
utable to the way in which, while advancing in an 
apparently leisurely manner, he touches lightly upon 
this thing and that, and passes on to another before 
the reader quite realizes that the transmigration 
has taken place ; but in larger part it is due to the 
avoidance of technical explanation. This omission, 
however, necessarily precludes an adequate expo- 
sition of the really vital qualities in the works 
described. Herein lies the futility of so-called 
" popular " writing about works of art. The nature 
of art forbids that the essential qualities can be 
apprehended without some understanding of the 
laws of aesthetic relationship. Still, the other and 
more usually considered qualities are not unimport- 
ant, and it is instructive to note how they impress 
an artist of such distinction and a man of such 
broad culture as John La Farge. The volume is 
illustrated with excellent half-tone reproductions of 
the famous paintings that he has taken as his text. 
The range is a wide one, extending from Botticelli 
and Memling to Puvis de Chavannes, and even in- 
cluding one picture by an early Japanese master. 

The cheerful l n a volume bearing the title " Recol- 
"cheerfui artist's lections of a Court Painter" (Lane), 
experience. the genial Irish portrait-painter Mr. 
H. Jones Thaddeus tells how he painted the portraits 
of Pope Leo XIII. and his successor Pius X.; how 
he dined with Robert Browning, who looked "like 
a portly shopkeeper" and "whose whole attention 
was centered on the good things before him"; how 
he found it possible to paint Gladstone in peace 
only by agreeing with everything that the irascible 
statesman happened to say; and how he played the 
part of actor or spectator in a hundred other incidents 
which were quite as amusing, even though the par- 

ticipants were less celebrated. Now and then he is 
too much of an artist to be followed patiently by the 
lay reader. Now and then, also, he is perhaps a little 
too much of a Bohemian to please the strait-laced 
and the orthodox; but he is so hearty and genuine 
through it all that it is not difficult to overlook an 
occasional instance of unnecessary frankness or indis- 
creet levity. In his anxiety to make his book attract- 
ive he drags in by the heels a good many anecdotes 
which have not the remotest connection either with 
himself or with his art, certainly one of the most 
noticeable of "the many defects of this my maiden 
effort to wield that which is mightier than the sword." 
The first few chapters are filled with delightful ac- 
counts of youthful pranks in the art schools of Cork, 
London, and Paris. Mr. Thaddeus has been an invet- 
erate traveller, and his impressions of Algiers, Cey- 
lon, and Australia are something more than witty. 
Like some other Britons of even greater celebrity, he 
has little use for America, although a number of 
Americans have sat for him, and contributed gener- 
ously toward his princely income. Of the seventeen 
illustrations scattered through his book, the most 
interesting is a reproduction of a photograph which 
represents him painting a portrait of Pius X. This 
photograph, he says, he secured " partly from a his- 
torical point of view, and partly to disarm calumny, 
to which I had been exposed while painting his 

A convenient yet comprehensive his- 
tory of French literature in English 
has long been a desideratum. We 
have, to be sure, manuals like Professor Dowden's 
and Mr. Saintsbury's, as well as the somewhat anti- 
quated longer work of Van Laun, but still no one- 
volume history to place beside the admirable French 
production of M. Lanson. So Professor C. H. C. 
Wright of Harvard has undertaken to give us "A 
History of French Literature," and his well-printed 
octavo of 964 pages has just been issued by the 
Clarendon Press. It is a conscientious piece of 
work, this account of the literary development of 
France; indeed, it yields to none of its American 
or English predecessors in soundness of scholarship 
or in range of information. The index, for exam- 
ple, contains over two thousand names a signifi- 
cant number when it is considered that only in his 
final chapter does the author show that inclination 
to enumerate minor writers which is so frequent a 
characteristic of manuals of literature. Professor 
Wright, be it said, devotes his attention mainly to 
the great movements and the great names. Admir- 
able in this respect, the book commends itself to the 
college student and the general reader by its pro- 
portion, its judgment, and its recognition of the lat- 
est discoveries and theories of scholarship. The 
advanced student and the teacher will be grateful 
to the author for his bibliographies and bibliogra- 
phical hints a closely-printed section of 54 pages. 
And both graduate and undergraduate will recog- 
nize in this volume, as in practically all the so-called 

The literary 
of France. 




"literary" productions of our Germanized Ameri- 
can scholarship, the tone of the class-room. Clear 
as the narrative is, it possesses neither grace of 
phrasing nor beauty of structure; its diction is 
in every sense commonplace and undistinguished. 
There are, to be sure, occasional sentences or 
epithets borrowed from colloquial or journalistic 
sources picturesque expressions such as "tabloid," 
"swagger," "he has toned down," "high priest 
of nudity," etc. But defensible as these things 
may be in lectures to ennui-laden seniors, they 
hardly seem well-placed in a "literary history of 
France," especially in one written by an avowed 
partisan of French classicism and the classic sim- 
plicity of style. 

Sauntering in From the vicinity .of Edmonton in 
Saskatchewan Alberta to Toronto, twenty-five hun- 
and elsewhere. <jred miles to the east, the sprightly 
chronicler who signs herself " Janey Canuck," with 
an explanatory "Emily Ferguson" added in paren- 
theses, made her leisurely and observant way with 
a single companion and by various modes of con- 
veyance. Her account of this journey she calls 
"Open Trails" (Cassell), and it is enlivened, if it 
needs further enlivenment than her own pen has 
given it, by a gorgeously colored frontispiece and a 
multitude of well-executed smaller drawings. The 
story is one that excels rather in the telling of it 
than in the things told. In other words, it has 
more manner than matter. So abundant is the 
literary drapery clothing the body of facts that 
one can hardly discern the merest outlines of the 
body. In the matter of proper names alone the 
heroine of the adventure, the narrator herself, is 
"Janey," or "dear old girl," as her companion 
styles her; the travelling companion is for literary 
purposes "the Padre," but in plain English, as one 
makes out at last, the husband of the woman with 
whom he is on so intimate terms and whom he 
addresses so familiarly; the author's birthplace is 
"X," and she apparently, near the end of the book, 
almost falls a victim to "cholecystitis," which to most 
readers will be about the vaguest thing in the whole 
narrative. As a specimen of the author's buoyant 
style, here is what she says of Alberta : " Alberta has 
no past to speak of, but has a future beyond com- 
parison. Tut! I bite my thumb at the past. A 
past may be as great a detriment to a country 
as to a woman." The writer of " Open Trails " is 
already known through her previous book entitled 
"Janey Canuck in the West," and most of her 
readers will hope for still further books in the same 
jaunty and spontaneous manner. 

Kant and 

Students of the late Professor Borden 
Parker Bowne will welcome the post- 
humous work from his pen entitled 
"Kant and Spencer: A Critical Exposition" (Hough- 
ton Mifflin Co.) which has been edited from the au- 
thor's rough notes by a number of friends who were 
sufficiently familiar with his thought to supply what 

seemed the necessary corrections. The book deals 
with Kant and Spencer from the standpoint of Mr. 
Bowne's own philosophical interpretation of the uni- 
verse, which was a spiritual and personal one. It 
is therefore quite natural that Kant, the philosopher 
who criticised the intellect as a revealer of religious 
truth only to supplant it by the practical reason, and 
who therefore placed the religious interpretation of 
the universe on a stronger basis than ever before, 
comes in for sympathetic treatment.. Kant, however, 
was not final, and Mr. Bowne criticises incisively his 
doctrine of the understanding and of time and space. 
He recognizes, however, Kant's permanent contribu- 
tions to thought, and points out how pragmatism has 
its original source in Kant's doctrine of the activity 
of the mind and the need for an interpretation of 
the universe which shall satisfy the soul as well as 
the intellect of man. The exposition of Herbert 
Spencer is a very thorough piece of destructive criti- 
cism, dealing especially with the "First Principles" 
and the "Principles of Psychology." The author's 
summing up of the matter is that Spencer's philoso- 
phy, apart from the suggestions thrown out by the 
way throughout its course, has no value as a system, 
and that it has passed away with that reliance on 
physical science which was the intellectual feature of 
its generation and which gave it so great a vogue. 

Early American A11 who are interested in children's 
story-books story-books, except the children them- 

for children. 8e lves, will find pleasure and profit 
in Miss Rosalie V. Halsey's " Forgotten Books of the 
American Nursery : A History of the Development 
of the American Story-Book," published in Boston 
by Messrs. Charles E. Goodspeed & Co. From John 
Cotton's " Milk for Babes. Drawn out of the Breast 
of Both Testaments. Chiefly for the spiritual nour- 
ishme.nt of Boston Babes in either England: But 
may be of like use for any children," to Peter Parley's 
and Jacob Abbott's and Miss Sedgwick's little books 
of harmless fiction for innocent children, the author 
traces, in seven carefully-written chapters, the genesis 
of the American story-book for young people, bring- 
ing out for the benefit of the philosophical student 
of the subject the influence exerted by the spirit of 
each successive age upon the character of its juven- 
ile literature. It is this constant even though grad- 
ual change of atmosphere, in the family life and in 
the nursery as well as in the greater world, that 
largely accounts for the obsoleteness of most of the 
children's books of the past ; but the author puts it 
too strongly when she says that "there is nothing 
more rare in the fiction of any nation than the pop- 
ular child's story that endures." What, pray, are 
the favorite collections of fairy-stories and nursery 
rhymes made up of to-day if not of the good old 
tales and jingles that, in many cases, have in sub- 
stance if not in form come down from a more or 
less remote past ? Does our current adult fiction 
show as many hoary survivals ? Miss Halsey's book, 
besides being well printed in a handsome limited 



[July 1, 

edition, is liberally provided with facsimile repro- 
ductions of curious old title-pages, rude wood-cuts, 
and other illustrative details. 

The life of ^ r * Francis Gribble, clever purveyor 

an imperial of breezy scandal, gives us in his 
adventuress. i atest vo i unie w h a t he calls "The 

Comedy of Catherine the Great" (Putnam). His 
title is a shrewd warning that he intends to deal, 
not with Russian politics or the serious side of 
Catherine's life, but solely or principally with her 
amours. Mr. Gribble does not reprobate his heroine, 
and hold her up as a horrible warning; he reminds 
us again and again that she was more sinned against 
than sinning, that her faults were the faults of her 
age and position, and that she was at bottom a very 
capable and very good-hearted woman. The latter 
quality he proves by abundant anecdote, the former 
he contents himself with repeating earnestly and 
frequently. The substance of his book, however, is 
a sensationally detailed account of the woman's end- 
less series of love affairs. Such works have not even 
the merit of historical trustworthiness. Mr. Gribble, 
who has undeniably put much labor into the making 
of his compilation and brought together material 
from a hundred different sources, conscientiously 
admits that many of the salacious morsels which he 
dishes up most carefully are only matters of rumor 
and cannot be verified. His book has little value 
for the historian, and in spite of the ostentation of a 
moral attitude it can scarcely be reckoned a treatise 
on morals. Nevertheless, it is a breathlessly inter- 
esting story, built of vigorous and rapid sentences 
and strewn from beginning to end with examples of 
witty phrase-making. If Mr. Gribble had chosen 
to study Catherine and her reign from a different 
and less questionable point of view, he might have 
produced a permanently valuable book, instead of 
merely a readable one. 

TWO superb " He who runs mav read " mi g nt seem 
architectural to be the best counsel to offer to an 
picture-books. aspiring student of architecture. Un- 
doubtedly, the training of the eye before the actual 
masterpieces of the builder's art is the most valuable 
apprenticeship. Yet for those who cannot take such 
a travel-course, good photographs are really not a 
bad substitute : they afford an easy means of making 
an art-pilgrimage by proxy. And we are all fond 
of this sedentary kind of travel, made so enticing 
recently by the perfecting of reproductive processes 
and the zeal of the publishers. Such books as 
Dr. Julius Baum's "Romanesque Architecture in 
France " and Signer Ricci's " Baroque Architecture 
and Sculpture in Italy" (Button) offer the most 
alluring opportunities to art-student and arm-chair 
tourist ; they are perfection in their class. Made up 
respectively of 226 and 274 full-page plates, these 
splendid folios present their subjects mainly through 
the range and choice of their illustrations ; they are 
practically art-albums, prepared by experts and pro- 
vided with brief introductions and full indexes. Our 

profit from such books is dependent, of course, upon 
our previous knowledge ; but not our pleasure. Even 
the most indolent arm-chair traveller will not be 
daunted by a prefatory essay which fills scarcely a 
dozen pages. He will skip it, pass at once to the 
plates, and feast his eyes thereon, his pleasure unal- 
loyed except by a possible consciousness of his ignor- 
ance. He will learn as the tourist learns, with or 
without a guide-book. And if he will not run, he need 
not even read! 

How to visit Specialization being as necessary in 
the English sight-seeing as in most other mat- 
cathedrais. tergj the English Cathedral tour finds 
much favor with travellers abroad. And since these 
wonderful buildings make a many-sided appeal 
through their history and associations as well as 
through their architecture many handbooks more 
or less satisfactory have been offered from time to 
time on the subject. The latest of these, "How 
to Visit the English Cathedrals" (Dodd), by Miss 
Esther Singleton, is by no means the least welcome. 
Those who are familiar with the long list of this 
writer's other works know her method. Frankly 
compiled from various sources duly acknowledged, 
the citations are tied together with a thread of 
original matter which adds greatly both to the 
value and the interest. The introductory chapter 
of thirty-one pages deals with "Styles of English 
Architecture"; the twenty-nine chapters following 
consider as many different cathedrals, and each is 
illustrated by several charming photographs. It is a 
book suitable for the rapid but intelligent traveller 
who may not have either time or inclination for ex- 
haustive study. 


The name of Thomas Deloney will not commonly be 
found in manuals of the history of English literature, 
yet future compilers of such books will hardly be able 
to escape giving some attention to this Elizabethan 
novelist and poet, now that his complete works have 
been put forth by the Oxford Clarendon Press in a 
stout volume edited by Mr. Francis Oscar Mann. 

"Le Frangais et Sa Patrie," by Mr. L. Raymond 
Talbot (Sanborn), is a French reading-book for the first 
or second year, planned to put the student into posses- 
sion of much interesting information about French home 
life, and the history and geography of the country. The 
matter is partly conversational and partly epistolary. 
There are also pictures, songs, poems, notes, and a vocab- 
ulary. It seems to be a particularly praiseworthy text- 

If Miss Betham-Edwards's handsomely-illustrated 
volume, "In the Heart of the Vosges" (McClurg), 
had been entitled "In Gustave Dora's Country," with 
the appended " and other sketches," the reviewer would 
have had little occasion to find fault. One half of the 
book deals with regions outside the Vosges, while the 
first half has no eye for anyone but Dore". The admirer 
of the Alsatian artist will find much to interest and sat- 
isfy him in the notes concerning Dord's youth and his 
world-success ; and the testimony regarding the attitude 




of the Alsatians toward the Prussian government is 
valuable. But it is strange to be led through "the 
heart of the Vosges " and hear no mention of the fine 
old Meistersaenger, Johann Georg Wickram, who there 
presided over the Meistergesangschule. And no less 
strange is it to meet no reminiscences of Walther und 
Hildegund, who made their famous flight and fought 
their valiant battle in these passes. 

The Boston Book Co. sends us " The Dramatic Index 
for 1911," being the third volume of an annual biblio- 
graphy of " articles and illustrations concerning the 
stage and its players in the periodicals of America and 
England, with a record of books on the drama and of 
texts of plays published during 1911." Mr. Frederick 
Winthrop Faxon is the compiler of this useful book of 
reference, which makes a stout volume of about two 
hundred and fifty pages. 

Messrs. G. P. Putnam's Sons are the American pub- 
lishers of "The Cambridge Manuals of Science and 
Literature," a useful enterprise not unlike the " Home 
University Library." New volumes at hand are " Prehis- 
toric Man," by Mr. W. L. H. Duckworth ; " The Nat- 
ural History of Clay," by Mr. Alfred B. Searle; "The 
Migration of Birds," by Mr. E. A. Coward; "Earth- 
worms and Their Allies," by Mr. Frank E. Beddard; 
and "The Modern Locomotive," by Mr. C. Edgar Allen. 

" Sir Eglamour " is not one of the most interesting 
of the Middle English romances ; but it is simple and 
brief, and hence well adapted to use in college classes. 
A carefully-prepared edition of the poem, intended for 
college use, has recently been made by Prof. Albert S. 
Cook and published by Messrs. Holt. The editor dis- 
penses with glossary and critical and interpretative notes, 
but explains difficult words and lines on the pages upon 
which they occur. A brief introduction gives necessary 
information as to the history of the poem and as to its 
more important analogues. 

A clear and convenient chart of the heavens that 
should find decided favor with amateur star-gazers is 
Mr. Albert Ross Parsons's " Road Map of the Stars " 
(Kennerley). It consists of forty-eight star maps, 
mounted on a strong piece of linen and folded to fit the 
pocket, showing in separate views (North, South, East, 
and West) the positions of the stars at any hour of 
any night in the year. Unfolded, as a single sheet, the 
entire circle of the constellations visible in the Northern 
Hemisphere are shown. An accompanying volume 
contains the same charts on separate pages, with explan- 
atory matter, tables, etc. 

It is a singular fact that the greatest of all Scandi- 
navian authors is no more than a name to English read- 
ers, and is not even that to the vast majority of them. 
Ludvig Holberg was not only the creator of Danish 
literature, but he was one of the most illustrious of the 
world's writers for the comic stage, making up, with 
Moliere and Goldoni, the great triad of modern comedy. 
He was, besides, philosopher, historian, and moralist, 
and altogether the embodiment of all the thought of 
his time to a degree in which Voltaire was perhaps his 
only rival. His comedies have never received any 
effective translation into English, for which reason we 
welcome the "Three Comedies by Ludvig Holberg" 
(Longmans), which Lieut.-Colonel H. W. L. Hume has 
just published. The translation is a poor one, and the 
selection is almost the last which we would have thought 
of making; but it is something to have any part of Hol- 
berg available in our language. 


It is announced that the subject of Mr. Bernard Shaw's 
coming play will be the fable of Androcles and the Lion. 

Mr. W. J. Henderson, the well-known musical critic, 
will publish through Messrs. Holt next autumn a novel 
entitled " The Soul of a Tenor." 

Mr. Andrew Lang is now engaged upon a history of 
English literature, from the beginnings to Swinburne. 
Messrs. Longmans will publish the work next autumn. 

Professor Bliss Perry of Harvard University is com- 
pleting a new volume of essays entitled " The American 
Mind," which Houghton Mifflin Co. will publish next 

Prince Kropotkin is revising a new edition of his pow- 
erful indictment of the English land question, " Fields, 
Factories and Workshops," which will appear, with many 
additions, in a few weeks. 

The two concluding volumes of the late John Bige- 
low's " Retrospections of an Active Life," covering the 
period from 1866 to 1879, will be published during the 
autumn by Messrs. Doubleday, Page & Co. 

" John Forster and his Friendships " is the title of a 
forthcoming book by Mr. R. Renton which is likely to 
present much new material concerning the famous 
biographer of Dickens, Goldsmith, Landor, and Sir 
John Eliot. 

Mr. E. T. Cook, author of the recently-published Life 
of Ruskin and joint editor with Mr. Wedderburn of the 
monumental " Library Edition " of Ruskin's works, has 
been chosen to write the authorized biography of 
Florence Nightingale. 

" Religion and Thought in Ancient Egypt," by Pro- 
fessor James H. Breasted, is announced for early pub- 
lication by Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons. Among 
the immediately forthcoming importations of this house 
is a volume on " Social Insurance in Germany," by 
Mr. W. H. Dawson, author of " The Evolution of Mod- 
ern Germany." 

A new biography of William Morris by Mr. Arthur 
Compton Rickett is announced by Messrs. Dent. It will 
contain a good deal of unpublished matter, and promises 
to throw fresh light upon Morris, both as a man and as 
a poet. We note that Messrs. Longmans announce a 
new and cheaper edition of Mr. Mackail's authorized 
biography, which first appeared in 1899. 

" The Correspondence of William Shirley," to be 
issued at once by the Macmillan Co., is the third in the 
series of letters of famous statesmen prominent in the 
colonial history of America issued under the auspices of 
the National Society of Colonial Dames, the previous 
publications being " The Correspondence of William 
Pitt " and " The Letters of Richard Henry Lee." 

Among immediately forthcoming Dutton publications 
are the following: " Posthumous Essays of John Churton 
Collins," edited by his son, Mr. L. C. Collins; "An In- 
troduction to the History of Life Insurance," by Mr. A. 
Fingland Jack, M. Com. ; " The Good Girl," a novel by 
Mr. Vincent O'Sullivan; and "The Roll-Call of Honour," 
a collection of inspiring biographies for younger readers 
by Sir A. T. Quiller-Couch. 

Anatole Leroy-Beaulieu, the French writer and pub- 
licist, died in Paris on June 16. He was the author of 
a long list of books dealing with the social and political 
life both of his own country and of Russia. Among his 
best-known works are the following : " L'Antiprotes- 
tantisme," " Etudes russes et europe'ennes," " Les Con- 



[July 1, 

grdgations religieuses et 1'expansion de la France," 
" Christianisme et Socialisme," and " Les Juifs et 1'anti- 
semitisme." He was a Chevalier of the Legion of 
Honor and director of the Institute. Several of his 
books have appeared in English translation. 

A full selection from Bjornson's private correspond- 
ence, edited by Professor Halfdan Koht, a Norwegian 
writer well known as an authority on Ibsen, will before 
long be given to the public in probably three languages. 
The first volume, containing correspondence to the year 
1871, is expected to come from the press simultaneously 
in Copenhagen and Berlin, in the autumn, while an 
English edition is also under consideration. 

A third edition is now issued of that interesting and 
well-illustrated pamphlet, " The Work of the Cleveland 
Public Library with the Children." Prepared originally 
at the time of the convention of the National Educational 
Association in Cleveland, four years ago, it appeared in 
a second edition two years later. It contains thirty-two 
pages of descriptive matter, a map of Cleveland, with 
library districts and branches plainly indicated, and ten 
pages exhibiting the scheme of administration adopted 
by the library. 

William Watson Goodwin, known to thousands of 
school and college graduates by reason of his widely- 
used " Greek Grammar," " Greek Moods and Tenses," 
and an excellent edition of Xenophon's " Anabasis," died 
June 15, at his home in Cambridge. He was born 
at Concord, Mass., May 9, 1831. After taking his 
bachelor's degree at Harvard in 1851, he studied at 
three German universities, travelled in Italy and Greece, 
and served four years as tutor in the college that had 
given him his academic training, and was then, in 1860, 
appointed to the Greek chair which he held until his 
resignation in 1901, when he professed to have "taught 
himself out." That he was no mere grammarian is 
proved by the fact that he was the first Director of the 
American School of Classical Studies at Athens, and 
that his lectures at Harvard concerned themselves with 
broader interests than the niceties of the Greek tongue. 
His published version of Plutarch's " Morals " also 
shows him to have been something more than a gerund- 
grinder. In short, he was a fine example and exponent 
of academic culture at its best. 


July, 1912. 

Aborigine, The Last. A. L. Kroeber . . World's Work. 
Actors, Educating. David Belasco . . . World's Work. 
American Impressions IV. Arnold Bennett . Harper. 
Arabian Nights, Coming of the II. Ameen 

Rihani Bookman. 

Arctic Mountaineering by a Woman. Dora Keen. Scribner. 
Baseball, Business Side of. Edward M. Woolley. McClure. 
Bench, " Big Business" and the. C. P. Connolly. Everybody's. 
" Big Business " and the Citizen II. Holland 

Thompson Review of Reviews. 

Caricatures, Living. Ell-wood Hendrick . . . Atlantic. 
Caveman as Artist, The. George G. MacCurdy . Century. 
Columbia, Dramatic Museum at. D.H. Miles. Eev. of Revs. 
Competition, The New in. A.J.Eddy. World's Work. 
Confederacy, Sunset of the V. Morris Schaff . Atlantic. 
Constitution, The, and Its Makers. H. C. Lodge. No. Amer. 
Cuba and the Cuban Question. Sydney Brooks. No. Amer. 
Danish Heath, Children of the. Jacob A. Riis . Century. 

Dewey, Admiral, Autobiography of Hearst's. 

Dinner Pail, The "Full." F.I.Anderson . Everybody's. 
Direct-Primary Experiment, The. Evans Woollen. Atlantic. 
Divorce versus Democracy. G. K. Chesterton . Hearst's. 

Efficiency, ^Esthetic Value of. Ethel P. Howes. Atlantic. 

Fagan, James O., Autobiography of Atlantic. 

Faith, The Age of. Robert K. Root Atlantic. 

Fez, Within the Walls of. Sydney Adamson . . Harper. 
Fools, A Scientific Study of. Edwin T. Brewster. McClure. 
French Bourgeois Family, Standards of a. 

Elizabeth S. Sergeant. Scribner. 

Garden Cities of England, The. F. C. Howe . . Scribner. 

Gardens and Gardens. H. G. Dwight Atlantic. 

Germany as a Sea Power. W. H. Beehler . . . Century. 

Gettysburg. Mary Johnston Atlantic. 

Glasgow and New York City : A Contrast. 

Frank I. Cohen Hearst's. 

Government and the Corporations. F. L. Stetson. Atlantic. 

Gutter-Babies. Dorothea Slade Atlantic. 

Hichens, Robert. Frederic T. Cooper .... Bookman. 

Howard, Arthur His Own Story McClure. 

India's Social Advance, Woman's Part in. 

Basanta K.Roy Review of Reviews. 

Judicial Decisions, Kecall of. K. T. Frederick . Atlantic. 
Knox Mission to Central America, With the II. 

W. B. Hale World's Work. 

Korea, Japan's Task in. David Starr Jordan. Rev. of Revs. 
Maidstone, A Woman of. Robert Shackleton . Scribner. 
Methodist Bishops, The New. F. C. Iglehart. Rev. of Revs. 
Milholland, Inez The Spokesman for Suffrage 

in America McClure. 

Militia, The, not a National Force. W. H. Carter. No. Amer. 
Mission Pageant, The, at San Gabriel. W. H. 

Wright Bookman. 

Monastery, In a. Louise C. Willcox . . North American. 
Morse, Samuel, Letters of 1812. E. L. Morse. No. Amer. 
Mountaineering by Motor. Arthur Train . . Everybody's. 
Museum, The, and the Teaching of Art in the 

Public Schools. Kenyon Cox Scribner. 

Naval War College, The. A. T. Mahan . North American. 
New York, Picturesque. F. Hopkinson Smith. World's Work. 
Nicaragua, Our Mission in. Charles A. Conant. No. Amer. 
Ohio, Making a New Constitution for. Henry 

W. Elson Review of Reviews. 

Olympic Idea, The. William M. Sloane .... Century. 
Pacific Coast Suburb, A New. Elmer Grey . . Scribner. 
Panama, What the West Expects from. Agnes 

C. Laut Review of Reviews. 

Parrish, Maxfield : A Master of Make-Believe. 

Christian Brinton Century. 

Pommerais Affair, The. Marie B. Lowndes . . McClure. 
Postal Savings Banks. Frank P. Stockbridge World's Work. 
Presidential Press Bureaus. George K. Turner . McClure. 
Public School, Dilemma of the. R. W. Bruere . Harper. 
Russian Fiction, Recent. W. D. H. and T. S. P. No. Amer. 
St. Francis, Life of III. Maurice F. Egan . . Century. 
Santa Fe" Railroad, Work of the. Henry Oyen. World's Work. 

Sea, Safety at. Charles D. Sigsbee Century. 

Social-ism, Social Justice and. George Harvey. No. Amer. 
Socialism in England. Samuel P. Orth . World's Work. 
Standard Oil Letters, New, and Their Lessons . Hearst's. 
Sunday Evening Club, The, of Chicago. Jacob 

Riis World's Work. 

Syndicalism. Louis Levine North American. 

Tariff Board, Need of a. A. G. Robinson . Rev. of Revs. 
Taste, The Crisis in. Wilbur M. Urban . . r Atlantic. 
Towns, Model, in America. Grosvenor 4-tterbnry. Scribner. 
Trees, Big, Secret of the. Ellsworth Huntington. Harper. 
Twain, Mark IX. Albert Bigelow Paine . . Harper. 
Unity Church, Montclair, N. J. Mary and 

Lewis Theiss World's Work. 

Valladolid, The Variety of. W. D. Howells . . Harper. 
Woman The New and the Old. Guglielmo Ferrero. Hearst's. 
Woman, The New, of China and Japan. Adachi 

Kinnosuke Review of Reviews. 

Women in Industry. Earl Barnes Atlantic. 

Wood Engraver, Passing of the. William A. 

Bradley Bookman. 

Yuan Shi Kai, An Acquaintance with. H. N. 

Allen North American. 





[The following list, containing 82 titles, includes books 
received by THE DIAL since its last issue.] 


The Memoirs of Francesco Crlspl. Translated by 
Mary Prichard-Agnetti, from documents col- 
lected and edited by Thomas Palamenghi Crispi. 
Volumes I. and II., with portraits, 8vo. George 
H. Doran Co. $7. net. 

The Life of Nietzsche. By Frau Foerster-Nietzsche; 
translated from the German by Anthony M. Lu- 
dovici. Volume I., The Young Nietzsche. Illus- 
trated, 8vo, 399 pages. Sturgis & Walton Co. 
$4. net. 

The Life, Lectures, and Essays of William Robert- 
son Smith. By John Sutherland and George 
Chrystal. In 2 volumes, illustrated, 8vo. Mac- 
millan Co. $8. net. 

The "World's Leading Poets: Homer, Virgil, Dante, 
Shakespeare, Milton, Goethe. By H. W. Boyn- 
ton. Illustrated, 8vo, 346 pages. "The World's 
Leaders." Henry Holt & Co. $1.75 net. 

The World's Leading Painters: Leonardo da Vinci, 
Raphael, Titian, Rubens, Velasquez, and Rem- 
brandt. By George B. Rose. Illustrated, 8vo, 
371 pages. Henry Holt & Co. $1.75 net. 

Charles Dickens: The Man and His Work. By Ed- 
win Percy Whipple; with Introduction by Arlo 
Bates. In 2 volumes, 16mo. Houghton Mifflin 
Co. $7.50 net. 

Christopher Columbus and the New World of His 
Discovery. By Filson Young. Third edition; 
illustrated in color, etc., 8vo, 464 pages. Henry 
Holt & Co. $2.50 net. 


Mesopotumian Archaeology: An Introduction to the 
Archaeology of Babylonia and Assyria. By Percy 
S. P. Handcock, M.A. Illustrated in color, etc., 
8vo, 423 pages. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $3.50 net. 

The History of New France. By Marc Lescarbot; 
with an English translation, notes, and appen- 
dices, by W. L. Grant, M.A., and an introduction 
by H. P. Biggar, B. Litt. Volume II., large 8vo, 
584 pages. Toronto: The Champlain Society. 

Reconstruction and Union, 1865-1912. By Paul Le- 
land Haworth, Ph.D. 12mo, 255 pages. "Home 
University Library." Henry Holt & Co. 50 


The Making of Poetry: A Critical Study of its Na- 
ture and Value. By Arthur H. R. Fairchild, 
Ph.D. 12mo, 263 pages. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 
$1.50 net. 

Henrik Ibsen: Plays and Problems. By Otto Heller. 
With photogravure frontispiece, 8vo, 356 pages. 
Houghton Mifflin Co. $2. net. 

Paul the Minstrel, and Other Stories. By Arthur 
Christopher Benson. 12mo, 443 pages. G. P. 
Putnam's Sons. $1.75 net. 

The Promise of the Christ-Age In Recent Litera- 
ture. By William Eugene Mosher, Ph.D. 12mo, 
175 pages. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.25 net. 

The Romance of Words. By Ernest Weekley, M.A. 
12mo, 210 pages. E. P. Dutton & Co. $1.25 net. 

English Literature: Medieval. By W. P. Ker, M.A. 
12mo, 256 pages. "Home University Library." 
Henry Holt & Co. 

The English Language. By Logan Pearsall Smith, 
M.A. 12mo, 256 pages. "Home University Li- 
brary." Henry Holt & Co. 

Sulzer's Short Speeches. Carefully compiled from 
the records of Congress, with other official data 
and a brief biographical sketch, by George W. 
Blake. With portrait, 12mo, 303 pages. New 
York: J. S. Ogilvie Publishing Co. $1. net. 

The Brothers Karnmazov. By Fyodor Dostoevsky; 
translated from the Russian by Constance Gar- 
nett. 12mo, 838 pages. Macmillan Co. $1.50 net. 

Everyman's Library. Edited by Ernest Rhys. New 
volumes: The Invisible Playmate and W. V.: Her 
Book, by William Canton; Arthurian Chronicles, 
represented by Wace and Layamon; Piers Plow- 
man, by William Langland; The Life of Mazzini, 
by Bolton King. Each 12mo. E. P. Dutton & Co. 
Per volume, 35 cts. net. 


The Land of Lost Music, and Other Poems. By Rob- 
ert Munger, 12mo, 110 pages. Dodd, Mead & Co. 

$1.25 net. 
A Prairie Prayer, and Other Poems. By Hilton R. 

Greer. 12mo, 65 pages. Sherman, French & Co. 

$1. net. 
"Where It Listeth." By Mary Norsworthy Shepard. 

12mo, 77 pages. Sherman, French & Co. $1. net. 
The Poets' Song of Poets. By Anna Sheldon Camp 

Sneath. Illustrated, 12mo, 250 pages. Boston: 

Richard G. Badger. $1.50 net. 
Lone Star Lyrics. By Will P. Lockhart. 12mo, 

90 pages. Boston: Richard G. Badger. $1. net. 
Songs before Birth. By Isabelle Howe Fiske. 16mo, 

39 pages. Portland: The Mosher Press. $1. net. 
Poems and Sonnets. By F. C. Goldsborough. 12mo, 

89 pages. London: David Nutt. 
Bells: An Anthology. By Mary J. Taber. 12mo, 199 

pages. Boston: Richard G. Badger. $1. net. 
In Cupid's Chains, and Other Poems. By Benjamin 

F. Woodcox. 12mo, 64 pages. Battle Creek: 

Woodcox & Fanner. 50 cts. net. 
Wayside Blossoms. By Mary Matthews Brady. 12mo, 

115 pages. Boston: Richard G. Badger. 
Poems of the "West. By S. Gertsmon. Illustrated, 

12mo, 67 pages. Boston: Richard G. Badger. 
Madawaska. By Thomas G. Devine. 12mo, 56 pages. 

Boston: Richard G. Badger. 


The Blue "Wall. By Richard Washburn Child. Illus- 
trated, 12mo, 377 pages. Houghton Mifflin Co. 
$1.25 net. 

Whispers about "Women. By Leonard Merrick. 12mo, 
278 pages. Mitchell Kennerley. $1.20 net. 

The Dewpond. By Charles Marriott. 12mo, 342 
pages. John Lane Co. $1.30 net. 

Mrs. Spring Fragrance. By Sui Sin Far (Edith 
Eaton). Decorated 12mo, 347 pages. A. C. Mc- 
Clurg&Co. $1.40 net. 

A Butterfly on the "Wheel. By C. Ranger Gull. Illus- 
trated, 12mo, 241 pages. New York: William 
Rickey & Co. $1.25 net. 

Baby Grand. By John Luther Long. 12mo, 197 
pages. Boston: Richard G. Badger, $1.25 net. 

A Plaything of the Gods. By Carl Gray. Illus- 
trated, 12mo, 260 pages. Sherman, French & Co. 
$1.25 net. 

Elizabeth in Retreat. By Margaret Westrup (Mrs. 
W. Sydney Stacey). 12mo, 428 pages. John Lane 
Co. $1.25 net. 

The Sheriff of Badger: A Tale of the Southwest 
Borderland. By George Pattullo. Illustrated, 
12mo, 313 pages. D. Appleton & Co. $1.25 net. 

Tales of Madingley. By Col. T. Walter Harding. 
Illustrated, 8vo, 423 pages. Century Co. 2.50 net. 
and Bowes. 

Damosel Croft. By R. Murray Gilchrist. 12mo, 317 
pages. London: Stanley Paul & Co. 

Danger. 12mo, 198 pages. Boston: Richard G. 
Badger. $1.25 net. 

Exotic Martha. By Dorothea Gerard. 12mo, 335 
pages. London: Stanley Paul & Co. 

The Strangling of Persia. By W. Morgan Shuster. 

Illustrated, 8vo, 423 pages. Century Co. $2.50 net. 
Replanning Small Cities: Six Typical Studies. By 

John Nolen. Illustrated, large 8vo, 218 pages. 

B. W. Huebsch. $2.50 net. 
Waterways versus Railways. By Harold G. Moul- 

ton. With maps, 8vo, 468 pages. "Hart, Schaff- 

ner, and Marx Economics Series." Houghton 

Mifflin Co. $2. net. 



[July 1, 

The Day of the Saxon. By Homer Lea. 12mo, 249 

pages. Harper & Brothers. $1.80 net. 
The Standard Kate in American Trade Unions. By 

David A. McCabe, Ph.D. 8vo, 251 pages. Balti- 
more: Johns Hopkins Press. Paper, $1.25 net. 

"Tin Soldiers": The Organized Militia and What It 
Really Is. By Walter Merriam Pratt; with Fore- 
word by Capt. George E. Thome. Illustrated, 
12mo, 185 pages. Boston: Richard G. Badger. 
$1.50 net. 

Womanhood and Race-Regreneration. By Mary 
Scharlieb, M.D. 12mo, 54 pages. "New Tracts 
for the Times." Moffat, Yard & Co. 50 cts. net. 

National Ideal* and Race-Regeneration. By Rev. R. 
F. Horton, M.A. 12mo, 57 pages. "New Tracts 
for the Times." Moffat. Yard & Co. 50 cts. net. 


The Story of Evolution. By Joseph McCabe. Illus- 
trated, 8vo, 340 pages. Small, Maynard & Co. 
$3.50 net. 

Astronomy in a Nutshell: The Chief Facts and Prin- 
ciples Explained in Popular Language for the 
General Reader and for Schools. By Garrett P. 
Serviss. Illustrated, 12mo, 261 pages. G. P. Put- 
nam's Sons. $1.25 net. 

Field Museum of Natural History Publications. 
New volumes: Antiquities from Boscoreale in 
Field Museum of Natural History, by Herbert F. 
DeCou; The Mammals of Illinois and Wisconsin, 
by Charles B. Cory; Jade, a Study in Chinese 
Archaeology and Religion, by Berthold Laufer; 
Mammals from Western Venezuela and Eastern 
Colombia, by Wilfred H. Osgood; The Oraibi 
Marau Ceremony, by H. R. Voth; Brief Miscella- 
neous Hopi Papers, by H. R. Voth; Descriptions 
of New Fishes from Panama, by S. E. Meek and 
S. F. Hildebrand. Each 8vo. Chicago: Field 
Museum of Natural History. Paper. 

Matter and Energy. By Frederick Soddy, F. R. S. 
12mo, 255 pages. "Home University Library." 
Henry Holt & Co. 50 cts. net. 


Illustrated Key to the Wild and Commonly Culti- 
vated Trees of the Northeastern United States 
and Adjacent Canada. By J. Franklin Collins 
and Howard W. Preston. Illustrated, 16mo, 184 
pages. Henry Holt & Co. $1.35 net. 

Handbook of Birds of Eastern North America: With 
Introductory Chapters on the Study of Birds in 
Nature. By Frank M. Chapman. Revised edi- 
tion; illustrated in color, etc., 12mo, 530 pages. 
D. Appleton & Co. $3.50 net. 

A Farmer's Note Book. By C. E. D. Phelps. 12mo, 
300 pages. Boston: Richard G. Badger. $1.50 net. 


English Philosophers and Schools of Philosophy. 
By James Seth, M.A. 12mo, 372 pages. "Chan- 
nels of English Literature." E. P. Dutton & Co 
$1.50 net. 

Psychology: The Study of Behaviour. By William 
MacDougall, M.B. 12mo, 252 pages. "Home Uni- 
versity Library." Henry Holt & Co. 50 cts. net. 

The Philosophy of the Future. By S. S. Hebberd. 
12mo, 210 pages. New York: Maspeth Publish- 
ing House. 


From Religion to Philosophy! A Study in the Ori- 
gins of Western Speculation. By Francis Mac- 
donald Cornford. 8vo, 276 pages. Longmans, 
Green & Co. $3. net. 

Revelation and Its Record. By William W. Guth. 
12mo, 255 pages. Sherman, French & Co. $1.25 net. 

The Strenuous Life Spiritual, and The Submissive 
Life. By A. Van Der Naillen. With portrait, 
12mo, 125 pages. New York: R. F. Fenno & Co 
$1. net. 

Christ among the Cattle: A Sermon. By Frederick 
Rowland Marvin. Sixth edition, revised; with 
portrait, 12mo, 58 pages. Sherman, French & Co. 
50 cts. net. 

The Culture of Religion: Elements of Religious 
Education. By Emil Carl Wilm, Ph.D. 12mo, 
204 pages. Pilgrim Press. 75 cts. net. 

Buddhism: A Study of the Buddhist Norm. By Mrs. 
Rhys David, M.A. 12mo, 255 pages. "Home Uni- 
versity Library." Henry Holt & Co. 50 cts. net. 

English Sects: A History of Nonconformity. By W. 
B. Selbie, D.D. 12mo, 256 pages. "Home Uni- 
versity Library." Henry Holt & Co. 50 cts. net. 


Nature's* Harmonic Unity: A Treatise on its Rela- 
tion to Proportional Form. By Samuel Colman, 
N.A. ; edited by C. Arthur Coan, LL.B. Illus- 
trated, large 8vo, 327 pages. G. P. Putnam's 
Sons. $3.50 net. 

The Cathedral Churches of England: Their Archi- 
tecture, History, and Antiquities. By Helen 
Marshall Pratt. Illustrated, 12mo, 593 pages. 
Duffield & Co. $2.50 net. 

Concrete and Stucco Houses. By Oswald C. Hering. 
Illustrated in color, etc., 4to, 105 pages. McBride, 
Nast & Co. $2. net. 

How to Plan a Library Building for Library Work. 
By Charles C. Soule. 8vo, 403 pages. Boston 
Book Co. $2.50 net. 


The Statesman's Year-Book: Statistical and Histor- 
ical Annual of the States of the World for the 
Year 1912. Edited by J. Scott Keltie, LL.D. With 
maps, 12mo, 1428 pages. Macmillan Co. $3. net. 

The American Library Annual, 1911-1912: Includ- 
ing Index to Dates of Current Events, Necrology 
of Writers, Bibliographies, Statistics of Book 
Production, Select Lists of Libraries, Directories 
of Publishers and Booksellers, and List of Pri- 
vate Collectors of Books. Large 8vo, 325 pages. 
New York: Publishers' Weekly. $5. net. 

The China Year Book, 1912. By H. T. Montague 
Bell, B.A., and H. G. W. Woodhead, M.J.I. 12mo, 
463 pages. E. P. Dutton & Co. $3.50 net. 

A Descriptive Catalogue of Manuscripts in the Li- 
braries of the University of Chicago. Prepared 
by Edgar J. Goodspeed, with the assistance of 
Martin Sprengling. 8vo, 128 pages. University 
of Chicago Press. $1. net. 

A Glossary of Important Symbols in their Hebrew, 
Pagan, and Christian Forms. Compiled by Ade- 
laide S. Hall. 12mo, 103 pages. Boston: Bates & 
Guild Co. 

The New Cushing's Manual of Parliamentary Law 
and Practice, According to Present American 
Usage, together with a Working Code for Socie- 
ties. Revised and enlarged by Charles Kelsey 
Gaines, Ph.D.; authorized revision, 12mo, 263 
pages. Boston: Thompson Brown Co. 

Jacobs' Friend to Friend Cable Code. 18mo, 27 
pages. George W. Jacobs Co. 50 cts. net. 


Genetic Philosophy of Education: An Epitome of 
the Published Educational Writings of President 
G. Stanley Hall of Clark University. By G. E. 
Partridge, Ph.D.; with an introductory note by 
President Hall. 12mo, 401 pages. Sturgis & 
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[July 1, 1912. 


The Home University Library 

Cloth Bound 50c. per volume net ; by mail 56c. 


Every volume is absolutely new, and specially written for the Library. There 
are no reprints. 

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contains a bibliography as an aid to further study. 

Every volume is written by a recognized authority on its subject, and the 
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H. A. L. FISHER, of Oxford ; J. ARTHUR THOMSON, of Aberdeen ; and W. T. 
BREWSTER, of Columbia. 

Every subject is of living and permanent interest. These books tell whatever 
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" Covering almost every conceivable intellectual interest from astronomy to socialism, written in a popular 
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interesting freedom of a specialist dealing with his own subject." The London Times. 

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The Socialist Movement 

The Science of Wealth 

The School By J. J. FINDLAY. 
The Stock Exchange 

By F. W. HIRST. 
Parliament By C. P. ILBERT. 
The Evolution of Industry 

Elements of English Law 


The History of England 

Canada By A. G. BRADLEY. 
The Opening Up of Africa 

The Civilization of China 

By H. A. GILES. 
History of Our Time (1885-1911) 

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Vol. LIU. 


. 35 



The public library as an educational force. "Guide- 
post " reformers of our language. The calumniated 
book-publisher. The primrose path of letters. A 
moving appeal. A hero and his valet. The dwind- 
ling of the baccalaureate. An experiment in cooper- 
ative book-buying. Sir Sidney Colvin'swork at the 
British Museum. A library in a water-tank. The 
demand for good books of moderate price. Our 
American "Debrett." 


Research and Intercommunication : A Partial Survey 
of Ways and Means. Eugene F. McPike. 


Edward E. Hale, Jr 42 


Cockerell 44 

Rodway's In the Guiana Forest. Lowe's A Natur- 
alist on Desert Islands. 


Macdonald Alden 46 


Pearl 49 

Davenport's Heredity in Relation to Eugenics. 
Herter's Biological Aspects of Human Problems. 
Kellicott's The Social Direction of Human Evolution. 


Tupper 51 


A minister of public benevolence. Chapters on the 
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Taciturne." A business man in party politics. A 
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Out of the political turmoil of the past month 
one result has emerged which is peculiarly grat- 
ifying to all who take a serious interest in our 
national life and problems. One of the great 
political parties has chosen as its candidate for 
the office of chief magistrate a man who embodies 
that ideal of the scholar in politics which has 
hitherto seemed to be impossible of realization 
in a democracy like ours, short-sighted in its vis- 
ion and deaf to the purely intellectual appeal. 
It is hard even now to believe that the incredi- 
ble has become fact, and equally hard to account 
for it, considering in what contempt the " intel- 
lectual" and the theorist are held by most of 
those who think themselves practical politicians. 
In a truly enlightened community nothing could 
be more natural than the selection for its leader 
of a man who had devoted his life to the inves- 
tigation of the problems of statecraft, and spent 
his days in teaching young men to understand 
them. Who should be competent to lead, if not 
one who for many years had given his attention 
to the questions for which leadership is expected 
to find answers, and who could bring to bear 
upon them a wide knowledge of the art of gov- 
ernment in all countries, at all times, and under 
all conditions ? Yet, plain as the matter is, there 
is a surprising number of persons who fail to see 
in a man of this type the most essential of all 
qualifications for high administrative office the 
wide range of knowledge, the trained analytical 
faculty, and the habit of forming disinterested 
judgments upon political issues. 

Although we have been a working democracy 
for upwards of a hundred years, we have in all 
that time acquired only a rudimentary percep- 
tion of what constitutes fitness for office. We 
have complacently witnessed the placing of men 
without scientific equipment in positions whose 
duties involved the management of observatories 
and laboratories and museums, we have seen with 
nothing more than a shrug of the shoulders, 
translated into the words "another political ap- 
pointment," the selection of men without expert 
knowledge for posts in which such knowledge 
was imperative, we have seen surgeons trans- 
formed into generals, and politicians into judges, 
and sportsmen into civil service commissioners, 
and illiterates into ministers and consuls, de 



[July 16, 

spatched to countries of which they could not 
even speak the language we have seen all these 
grotesque administrative misfits, and, if we have 
felt anything like adequate indignation, have 
failed to express it, and all because of our na- 
tional habit of viewing politics as a form of sport 
instead of as a business to be dealt with accord- 
ing to the dictates of reason and in a spirit of 
high seriousness. When it comes to choosing 
people for office ourselves, by exercising the 
sacred privilege of the ballot, we do not, once 
in a score of times, make a decent effort to find 
out whether the men for whom we are voting 
have either the knowledge or the character that 
the offices require. As far as knowledge goes, 
we pretend to believe that any American citizen 
can learn to do anything if he is only given an 
opportunity, and, as far as character goes, we 
take our chances, or fall back upon a cynical 
disbelief in the integrity of any man whose duties 
are found to conflict with his interests. 

Aside from the suspicion with which the 
scholar in politics is widely regarded, taking 
shape in abstract allegations barbed with such 
.damning epithets as theorist, visionary, Utopian, 
dreamer, idealist, and reformer, his entrance 
into the field has to encounter the very serious 
obstacle presented by the damaged reputations 
of men who have been supposed to be con- 
spicuous examples of the principle which he 
represents. We have undoubtedly had scholars 
in politics for whom the noblesse oblige of their 
rank has had no constraining force, and who 
promptly sold themselves to the devil as soon 
as they were taken up on the high mountain. 
Two of these lost souls are particularly prom- 
inent in our national affairs because their sin 
against the light has been more than commonly 
flagrant, but there are many others of lesser 
stature who, with the scholar's equipment, have 
not had the character needed to steel them in 
the hour of temptation, and so have helped to 
bring into disrepute what is nevertheless the 
unquestionable truth that high (and to a certain 
extent specialized) education is above all things 
else to be desired in a public officer. We must 
not be disheartened by the cases in which intel- 
lect has been put to shame by deed, but hold 
fast to the principle that education ought to 
count as a very large percentage of the total of 
what we require in a candidate for high public 

It is amazing that this matter should be even 
arguable in a country like the United States, 
which does more lip-service to education, and 
goes down deeper into its pocket to pay the 

bills, than any other on earth. But the fact is 
that along with our devotion to popular educa- 
tion we cherish as a nation a certain distrust of 
all education that goes beyond the elementary 
stages, excepting that which is definitely shaped 
to practical ends. The absurd notion that the 
higher education somehow disqualifies a man 
for the real work of life is entertained by a sur- 
prisingly large number of people, and urged by 
them with a zeal worthy of a better cause. It 
is but a step from this general prejudice to the 
more specific one that would hold it rather 
against a candidate for high office that his 
education had been of a nature to win for him 
academic honors, even if they were honors in 
the very field of scholarship that prepares a 
man to deal with political and economic prob- 
lems upon a basis of scientific knowledge. We 
take for granted that expert chemists are needed 
in the direction of our industrial organizations, 
and trained electricians and mathematicians in 
the management of our traction systems and 
engineering enterprises. But we balk at the 
idea that our executive and legislative officers 
need to be trained in the niceties of interna- 
tional law or the theories of the tariff, and scout 
the notion that a knowledge of political and 
economic history can alone supply the examples 
and the warnings by which a government may 
learn what is wise and do what is right. We 
prefer to do what unintelligent impulse directs 
and interested ignorance counsels, disregarding 
the accumulated experience of mankind which 
might so easily save us from mistaken courses 
and pernicious policies. In the impending pres- 
idential campaign, when almost for the first 
time in our history we have the opportunity of 
placing a mind trained in political science at the 
head of national affairs, we shall have to contend 
with a stout opposition whose chief "argument" 
will be the multiplication of cheap gibes about 
misguided pedagogues who foolishly aspire to 
become statesmen. 

Governor Baldwin, in the last number of 
" The Yale Review," has some pertinent remarks 
about placing educated men in public office. 

" The indirect consequences of any new piece of 
legislation are far more numerous and far more import- 
ant than those which are direct. Only well-trained 
minds can anticipate many of them. And the highest 
education can never enable a man to forecast them all. 
In America one is quite sure that well-trained minds, 
sooner or later, will trace out these consequences. This 
falls to our judges. They will be quick to see how an 
alteration in one of the rules of law may affect the 
working of others, because this will tell in determining 
whether the new statute does or does not square with 
the constitutional guaranties of individual right. Often 




its effect will be found such as to produce a benefit to 
a few at the cost of injustice to the community. He 
who finds this out first, without waiting for some law- 
suit to develop the wrong, has won a place among 
public benefactors. Still more of a benefactor is the 
member of a legislature who perceives the impractica- 
bility of some such proposition, before it can take the 
shape of law, and see to it that it is rejected." 

All of this illustrates the importance of Bastiat's 
"Ce qu'on voit et ce qu'on ne voit pas.'' It is 
what people do not foresee of the consequences 
of the legislation for which they clamor that 
makes all the mischief. It is the special func- 
tion of the trained mind in office, of the scholar 
in politics, to trace out these ulterior conse- 
quences, and, perceiving them to be seriously 
dangerous to prosperity, to justice, and even to 
liberty, to stand firmly against them, no matter 
at what cost of immediate public favor. He 
may suffer for his stand at the time, but he will 
have his reward in the end, if he only have the 
patience to wait. " The huge world will come 
round to him" when the clamor has died away. 



was a subject of marked prominence at the thirty- 
fourth annual conference of the American Library 
Association, just held at Ottawa, Canada. The con- 
viction was emphasized that the library constitutes 
not only a great civic force, but the one educational 
agency which must be relied upon to reach the citi- 
zenship of the country, since it is only a small minor- 
ity who are privileged to give up other occupations 
in order to attend academic institutions. This feeling 
was voiced especially in an address by Mr. William 
H. Hatton of Wisconsin, who said that "Society is 
required to educate the man of forty just as much as 
the boy of five; the training of the school can only 
be a beginning in learning how to assimilate knowl- 
edge. The student should be trained to find knowl- 
edge for himself. There is no place more fitted to 
accomplish this task than the library. The public 
library is the university of the people. It is the 
dominant factor in civic efficiency." Another dis- 
tinct impression received was that it is more than 
ever the thought of the library profession that good 
librarianship demands a keen sense of society's needs, 
together with a clear appreciation of literary values ; 
that knowledge of people and books is more import- 
ant than the technical side of library administration. 
That this conception was so definitely impressed 
upon those in attendance was in a large measure 
due to the preliminary work of the first woman who 
has ever been president of the A. L. A., Mrs. Theresa 
West Elmendorf of Buffalo. It was in the main her 
views upon this subject which were worked out upon 
the programme, and her personality which dominated 
the conference. Our Chicago librarian, Mr. Henry 

E. Legler, won merited recognition in the form of 
a unanimous election to the presidency of the Asso- 
ciation for the coming year. The eloquent and 
progressive head of the University of Minnesota 
bore to Ottawa the greetings of the National Edu- 
cation Association, and delivered one of the best 
addresses of the week. An especially enjoyable 
session was the fourth, for which a Dominion Day 
programme had been prepared, in which Sir Wilfrid 
Laurier and other notables took part. On the whole, 
this year's conference was one of the most interest- 
ing and stimulating that have been held. More than 
700 members were in attendance, and the bonds 
uniting library workers in this country with those 
across the Canadian border were more closely knit. 

respect to its spelling or, in other words, those 
who cheerfully consent to point the doubtful and 
difficult road to some imaginary orthographic happy 
land, but prefer for their own part to stay where 
they are and bear those ills they have rather than 
fly to others that they know not of receive a word 
of reproof in the June issue of that vivacious organ 
of a doleful cause, the "Simplified Spelling Bul- 
letin." In an editorial paragraph we read: "As one 
of our members has put it, too many reformers are 
inclined to take the offis of a gide-post, and thus to 
point bravely the road of reform, while taking no 
steps themselvs. We need gide-posts, but if the 
road of reform is not traveld by some more pedes- 
trians, to say nothing of those who prefer the more 
rapid rate of vehicular progression, the grass will 
grow, and the evening sun will throw a tender but 
fading light upon the faithful gide-post, with its 
sturdy motto, 'Here I am, here I stay.'" The 
printed list of the officers and board of the S.S.S. 
(the official abbreviation for Simplified Spelling 
Society) contains so many names of writers and 
others whom the world in general has had no 
reason to suspect of inoculation with the S. S. virus, 
that one is inclined to believe there may indeed be 
not a few of these "gide-post" reformers in the 
S. S. S. ranks. The general tone of this number of 
the "Bulletin" conveys a certain sense of some- 
thing like despondency in the cause. Possibly this 
is a false impression; certainly it need not be the 
one given by the following paragraph, from the 
department of facetice, contributed by a correspon- 
dent: "One man to whom I had the BULLETIN 
sent was suffering from prejuditis and fossilization 
of the spelling bump. After taking three bottles 
of your cure he shows markt symptoms [why not 
simptoms?] of improvement, the foren substances 
o, g and h in his through having been painlessly re- 
moved." . . . 

eloquent advocate in Mr. Filson Young, who writes 
ably in his defence in the London " Eye- Witness." 
Much has been said and printed about the sins of 
publishers, almost nothing about those of authors in 



[July 16, 

their dealings with these same wicked publishers; 
societies have been formed for protecting the author 
from his hereditary foe, the publisher, but no societies 
exist for shielding the publisher from the madness 
or malevolence or unreasonableness of the author. 
" I have taken considerable interest in this question," 
says Mr. Young, "and both as an author and a pub- 
lisher's reader have had opportunities of examining 
it from both sides. Since my income is derived solely 
from writing, and not from publishing, I am naturally 
on the author's side; but I am bound to admit that 
in most of the cases of discontent and jealousy which 
exist, the wrong is on the side of the author. It is 
quite commonly supposed by the world at large that 
publishers are a dangerous set of criminals, who in 
reality sell immense editions of every book they pub- 
lish, but only account for a small number of copies 
to the author. And it seriously believes also that 
except for the vigilance of societies and agents, au- 
thors would all be starving in the gutter and publish- 
ers would all be millionaires. But I know more rich 
authors than publishers." Most assuredly one half 
of the world does not know how the other half has 
to struggle and contend with all sorts of unimagined 
and indescribable difficulties. Life is a rough road 
for most of us, and not for the publisher any more 
than for anyone else has it been sandpapered down 
to a polished smoothness. 

what is imagined by the uninitiated to be the flower- 
carpeted road travelled by those who earn their bread 
by writing will doubtless, as a matter of fact, always 
have more thorns than roses for the feet of the way- 
farers. But a pleasing fiction will survive. A rather 
well-known writer of our acquaintance received a 
letter, such as probably many other prominent writers 
have received, asking, as if it were the simplest 
thing in the world, advice that would enable the 
ingenuous correspondent to become a successful 
author. Unintentionally diverting as this letter was, 
an even more amusing one, addressed likewise to a 
person known in the literary world, is printed in 
" Public Libraries " for June. " Pardon this intru- 
sion upon your time," it begins, " but seeing your like- 
ness in a magazine and reading some of your articles 
prompts me to ask a favor of you and it is if you will 
write me a short article on ' The Novels of Maurice 
Hewlett.' I know you will think me very presump- 
tuous but it will be no exertion for you and will be 
granting a great favor." It continues, with a mix- 
ture of frankness and flattery : " I do n't believe you 
want to be paid for every article, do you, when you 
will be conferring such a favor? Your countenance 
appeals to me and so I write asking this favor. I 
have access to so few of his books and really do not 
care for him as a writer, so I find it quite a task to 
prepare a lengthy article for our literary club on 
the subject, especially as I am a very busy mother 
and have had so much sickness and have so short a 
time to prepare an article. If you can write me a 

humorous statement or two on the subject please do 
so, as long dry articles are so tiresome." What a vast 
amount of benefit that busy mother must get from 
her literary club! 

A MOVING APPEAL to the citizens of St. Joseph, 
Missouri, to visit and use more freely and frequently 
their excellent public library has been made in the 
past year through the agency of a local moving- 
picture theatre, which, says Librarian Rush in his 
unusually attractive and cleverly illustrated Report, 
"kindly exhibited a specially prepared lantern slide 
showing at each performance photographic repro- 
ductions of the Library buildings, together with the 
following note: 'Your Free Public Library has ar- 
ranged with this management to select interesting 
books and magazine articles upon the historical, lit- 
erary, and industrial subjects treated in these pic- 
tures. It is a bright idea to see something good and 
then learn more about it.' " Even more moving than 
this appeal would have been, let us say, a cinemato- 
graphic representation of some of the library's bene- 
ficent activities. For instance, a worried club-woman, 
seeking material for a paper to be read at the next 
meeting of the St. Joseph Culture Club, might be 
pictured in the process of applying for and promptly 
obtaining just the book or books that she needs, and 
departing with smiles of gratitude on her face and 
her precious data under her arm. Or the simple 
ceremony of applying for and receiving a book at 
the delivery desk might be thrown on the screen, to 
show how prompt and efficient is the library service. 
If all the world, or at least all the juvenile world, 
will endanger its eye-sight by visiting the moving- 
picture show, why not give it something well worth 
seeing, and worth thinking about afterward? 

A HERO AND HIS VALET are not always pictured 
in such pleasant relations to each other as in the 
" Recollections of Guy de Maupassant," by his body- 
servant, Francois a French book that has recently 
achieved the distinction of being translated into En- 
glish. Not all valets, it is true, are equal to the 
task of putting their reminiscences of their masters 
into book-form, else we might have more refutations 
of the familiar dictum ascribed, with varying weight 
of authority, to Madame de SeVigne", to Madame 
Cornuel, to Marshal Catinat, and perhaps to others. 
Evidently Francois was a faithful servant and a 
minute observer; and that, with all this minuteness 
of observation under the somewhat disenchanting 
conditions of domestic service, he still felt sufficiently 
moved with admiration to present the world with a 
portrait of his master in undress, so to say, speaks 
well for both master and servant. In addition to 
those intimate personal details about which only a 
valet would be qualified to write fully and accurately, 
there are matters touched upon of far greater pith 
and moment, questions of literary taste, even, and 
discussions (somewhat one-sided, naturally) of Zola 
and his writings. Maupassant, as appears from his 




valet's book, was a veritable steam engine for work 
when once the creative impulse seized him ; he could 
cover no fewer than thirty-seven foolscap pages in 
a day. Those who wish to know the real Guy de 
Maupassant, to become better acquainted with the 
man behind his writings, will not fail to read these 
entertaining recollections from the pen of Francois. 


degree that a few decades ago stood as a symbol for 
all that was best in college culture for an intimate 
and loving acquaintance with the humanities, and an 
ardent devotion to the highest ideals both of scholar- 
ship and of conduct, conduct being the very art of 
arts, and so not to be ignored by the holder of a B. A. 
diploma is sadly attested by this year's record of 
our college and university graduates. In a list of 
thirty-nine of our leading institutions of higher learn- 
ing, graduating at the recent commencement nearly 
thirteen thousand students, there were bestowed not 
quite four thousand degrees of bachelor of arts, or 
less than thirty-three per cent of the total number of 
diplomas awarded. Only one of these colleges and 
universities is found to confine itself, with commend- 
able restraint, to the B. A. degree as the official attes- 
tation that the student has successfully completed its 
curriculum ; and that one is, of course, a New En- 
gland country college Williams. The sister insti- 
tution at Amherst graduated ninety-five students (to 
Williams's ninety-three), but allowed twenty of these 
to go forth with some sort of substitute for the time- 
honored parchment of our ancestors probably a B. S. 
diploma. Lehigh University makes, on the whole, 
about the poorest showing in this connection, with 
only four B. A.'s to its credit, out of eighty-five grad- 
uates ; and, sad to relate, the University of Vermont 
sends forth this year but five bachelors of arts in a 
graduating class of ninety-six afalling-off of three 
from last year's B. A. record. At this rate, the time 
may come, within our own lifetime, when bachelors of 
arts will constitute a smaller and more distinguished 
company of scholars than doctors of philosophy. 


forms the subject of an interesting section in the 
latest Report of the John Crerar Library, and it 
seems not unlikely to lead to still further and larger 
enterprises of the same sort. After a preliminary 
reference to the matter, the librarian continues: 
"The purchases of the year were greatly affected 
in character by the experiment already mentioned. 
Four libraries, Harvard University, Northwestern 
University, The University of Chicago, and The 
John Crerar, sent a joint representative to Europe. 
They were fortunate in securing, through the cour- 
tesy of Northwestern University, the services of its 
Librarian, Dr. Walter Lichtenstein, who had very 
special qualifications for the task. Dr. Lichtenstein 
brought together for Harvard its Hohenzollern 
Collection, and in so doing obtained an exceptional 

familiarity with the European book trade." It is 
understood that the results of this venture were 
satisfactory to all concerned. In the case of the 
library of which we are now speaking, "the pur- 
chases cover all the departments of the Library 
and, indeed, most of the individual subjects. The 
principal object of the experiment was to obtain 
books which could not be obtained through the 
regular channels of trade, but it is pleasant to be 
able to add that, after allowing for all expenses, the 
purchases were made at less cost than they could 
have been made through these channels." 

SEUM, as keeper of prints and drawings since 1884, 
draws to itself some merited attention just now by 
reason of his recent retirement from the post. Though 
best known to the reading public as editor of the Edin- 
burgh edition of Stevenson's works and of Stevenson's 
letters, there are other and greater achievements to 
his credit than the editing of R. L. S. Scholar and 
fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, he was elected 
in 1873 Slade professor of fine art at that university, 
and was also director of the Fitzwilliam Museum at 
Cambridge from 1876 until he went to the British 
Museum in 1884. The pre-Raphaelite movement 
found in him an eloquent advocate in the days of its 
unpopularity. His acquaintance with Whistler and 
his high opinion of that eccentric artist's work are 
matters of record as is also Whistler's characteristic 
treatment of his admirer. In every way equipped 
for his duties at the British Museum, Sir Sidney 
acquired a reputation for expert knowledge of the 
old masters second to that of few or none in En- 
gland ; and his diplomacy and tact in the discharge 
of those duties secured for his department valuable 
accessions that another man might not have secured 
at all, or only at a considerably greater cost in 
money. The story is current of a dealer who, after 
making a sale to the keeper of prints and drawings, 
repented the transaction and grumbled: "Colvin is 
so [profane adverb] pleasant he gets things for 

A LIBRARY IN A WATER-TANK, Occupying some 

of the space once devoted to water, enjoys a security 
from fire (the tank being of iron) which not every 
library can boast. The Chicago Public Library, as 
we now know it, has grown from a nucleus of about 
three thousand volumes given to the city forty years 
ago, just after the great fire, by the late Thomas 
Hughes and others, authors and publishers and lit- 
erary and scientific societies that he had interested 
t in the cause, in order that Chicago might no longer 
suffer the reproach of having no library in the least 
degree worthy of so large and enterprising a city; 
and in the old water-tank on the site of the present 
Rookery Building the books thus secured through 
English generosity were first shelved and made 
accessible to the public. Since then the growing 
collection, which now numbers nearly half a mil- 



[July 16, 

lion volumes, has been four times removed to new 
and larger quarters, and to-day there are, in addi- 
tion to the fine central library building at Michigan 
Avenue and Washington Street, twenty-five branch 
libraries, one hundred and sixteen delivery stations, 
nine employees' libraries in industrial and commer- 
cial establishments, sixty-six classroom libraries in 
schools, and two travelling libraries. These facts 
and figures, with others of interest and a classified 
list of recent accessions, are to be found in the June 
number of the library's interesting "Book Bulletin." 


PRICE appears rather to grow than to be satiated 
with the increasing output of such excellent series as 
"Everyman's Library," the "Temple Classics," and 
the "Home University Library." "Everyman's" 
has passed well beyond the half-thousand mark in 
the number of its titles, and the "Home University 
Library" of authoritative little manuals devoted to 
various branches of learning is now circulating to the 
extent of half a million copies of its various issues. 
One watcher of the book-market and critic of litera- 
ture attributes the present social unrest a discon- 
tent that is the beginning of progress largely to the 
wide circulation of these excellent, thought-provoking 
textbooks and reprints. No longer, it appears, does 
the popular novel or the illustrated magazine, or even 
the many- paged and profusely-pictured Sunday news- 
paper, quench the public thirst for reading matter. 
If this is really so, and if the inexpensive reprint 
and the low-priced scientific or economic or historical 
treatise are at the same time creating and respond- 
ing to a more wholesome craving, there is cause for 
felicitation. ... 

OUR AMERICAN " DEBRETT," instead of being a 
blue-book of the peerage, is a red-book of men and 
women of achievement. It lays emphasis rather on 
the qualities commonly associated with red blood 
than on those traditionally characteristic of blue. 
The current issue of "Who's Who in America" 
(Vol. VII., 1 912-1913), fresh from the hands of its 
enterprising publishers, contains nearly three thou- 
sand new names ; which means that about eight times 
a day, during the period of the book's compilation, 
fame has struck some hitherto obscure person and 
made of him or her a Who. Presumably, too, the 
rate of mortality among the Whos must in the long 
run about equal the birth-rate. Contemplating this 
endless procession of the illustrious from the cradle 
to the grave, with their achievement of renown 
marked by admission to " Who 's Who," one might be 
tempted by a sense of the transitoriness of all thingsr 
mundane, great as well as small, to essay a labored 
and clumsy parody of certain familiar lines of Ten- 
nyson, somewhat as follows: 

Fill the cup and fill the can, 

Have a rouse before the morn ; 
Each three hours a Who expires, 

Each three hours a Who is born. 




(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

Of bibliographical undertakings, large and small, 
past, present, and future, there are many, and they are 
of great utility; but it is not the chief purpose of this 
note to deal therewith. We have in mind rather those 
publications and organizations which afford assistance 
in current research, or through the medium of which 
investigators can be placed in direct communication 
with each other. It is generally recognized now that 
the serious student is no longer content with printed 
literature. He must seek, and, if possible, secure the 
last word on the subject in point. He may join some 
one or more of the societies, national or international, 
devoted to the matters or problems of interest to him, 
but he will still find that there is a chasm which cannot 
be bridged over except by some one general clearing- 
house to which, in certain emergencies, to apply. 

With this state of affairs, it was not surprising to hear 
of the creation of such an institution as " Die Briicke " 
(The Bridge), under the presidency of Prof. Dr. Wil- 
helm Ostwald, of Leipsic, and having its headquarters 
at 30, Schwindstrasse, Munich. The minimum yearly 
subscription for membership is only six marks (about 
$1.50). Dr. Ostwald has already, according to report, 
donated to "Die Briicke " the sum of one hundred thou- 
sand marks ($24,000) from his private fortune. An 
active international propaganda will, no doubt, soon be 
commenced by " Die Briicke," which has so far been 
giving special attention to the organization of its work 
in Germany. It will probably establish, in due course, 
branch organizations in the various countries, and will 
begin the publication of an official organ of intercom- 
munication. The scope of " Die Briicke," unlike that 
of any other previously existing body, is unlimited as 
to subject. Its members will be privileged to submit 
queries on any imaginable topic. It will seek affiliation 
with all other institutions, societies, etc., throughout the 
world. Among its first serious tasks, therefore, will be 
the compilation of a complete list of the almost innumer- 
able organizations in existence, with some indication of 
their scope and purpose. True, this was largely accom- 
plished a few years ago by the Carnegie Institution, in 
its " Handbook of Learned Societies in America," and in 
its as yet unedited lists for foreign countries; but there 
remains nevertheless ample room for the good work 
undertaken by " Die Briicke." Its ultimately large corps 
of correspondents throughout the civilized world will 
form a very strong working organization. 

We have chosen to present first this international pro- 
ject in its latest form, before dealing with some of the 
national undertakings, in order to have the broadest 
possible ground-work for that ultimate coordination of 
endeavor which is rapidly becoming so essential. 

In England, the old London "Notes and Queries," 
which has appeared weekly since 1849 and is rendered 
accessible by many excellent indexes, is an exceedingly 
useful means of research and intercommunication, par- 
ticularly on subjects of literature, grammar, linguistics, 
philology, history, biography, heraldry, genealogy, folk- 
lore, bibliography, and allied matters. There also exist 
in Great Britain and Ireland numerous local " Notes 
and Queries " magazines, and many societies of varied 




purposes. Among those whose objects should be of gen- 
eral interest is the British Institute of Social Service, 
4 Tavistock Square, London, W. C., which has an offi- 
cial organ, " Progress." In seeking a likely candidate 
for appointment as the British representative of " Die 
Briicke," however, we would most naturally turn to such 
an organization as The Information and Agency Bureau, 
J. W. Shaw, Director, 24 Hart Street, Holborn, Lon- 
don, W. C. Among Mr. Shaw's current investigations 
is one relating to the production of crockery, china, 
earthenware, etc., in the various countries, in behalf of 
a company making a patented tunnel oven for firing 
pottery. This is at least suggestive of the commercial 
possibilities of such a clearing-house. 

In France, we have " L'Interme'diaire des Chercheurs 
et Curieux," appearing in Paris three times a month, 
since 1864. A general index to its contents to the year 
1896 has been printed. A complete set of this periodical 
may be found in the library of the University of Chicago. 
Many are the quaint and interesting contributions in 
its columns, relating to French history and art. We 
must not overlook, in passing, the existence of the 
Institut International pour la diffusion des Experiences 
Sociales, under the general direction of Prof. Dr. 
Rodolphe Broda, 59 Rue Claude Bernard, Paris. Its 
official organ, "Les Documents du Progres," is inter- 
esting and useful. The French representation of " Die 
Briicke " might, perhaps, be assigned to the Institut 
du Mois Scientifique et Industriel, in Paris, or to the 
Association de Bibliographic et de Documentation Sci- 
entifique, Industrielle et Commerciale, of which the 
Directeur is M. Jules Garc.on, 40 bis Rue Fabert, Paris 

As to Germany, " Die Briicke " itself, with headquar- 
ters in Munich, will doubtless provide its own national 
bureau. It might receive valuable assistance from such 
an organization as the Institut fiir Internationale!! 
Austausch fortschrittlicher Erfahrungen (International 
Institute for the interchange of progressive experi- 
ences), of which the official organ, " Dokumente des 
Fortschritts," is becoming more and more widely known. 
The Secretary is Prof. J. H. Epstein, 22 Hermannstrasse, 

In the United States, we think first of the Smith- 
sonian Institution, with its efficient International Ex- 
change through which, indeed, interrelations with " Die 
Briicke " were established April 30, 1912, and the 
interchange of documents begun. The Carnegie Insti- 
tution, also richly endowed, is, like the Smithsonian, 
carrying out a liberal policy for the extension of use- 
ful knowledge. The scope of both those beneficent 
bodies, however, is restricted, for the most part, to 
matters of science, pure and applied. " The Scientific 
American " inaugurated many years ago a column 
for notes and queries which is much patronized by its 
readers. " The Publisher and Retailer " (New York) 
for October, 1911 (pages 17-19), printed a useful list 
of American societies devoted to child-welfare and 
other subjects, which are willing to answer questions 
within their scope. Something of this kind was also 
attempted by "Special Libraries" for June, 1911 
(pages 54-58), but a more nearly complete list appears 
in the front pages of the current issues of " The Sur- 
vey." It remained, however, for Boston to establish the 
first Co-operative Information Bureau of unrestricted 
scope, and to form a card-index of all its members, with 
notes of their special knowledge. This brings these 
scattering remarks, at last, to the concrete proposition 

that there is great need of an American Co-operative 
Information Bureau, with branches in all the principal 
libraries, universities, colleges, and commercial clubs of 
the country, and with its own official organ of inter- 
communication to be issued monthly. Such an organi- 
zation, with headquarters in Chicago as the commercial 
and railroad centre, and where the library facilities are 
of the best, could soon become of great practical use- 
fulness. It might also act as the American representa- 
tive of " Die Briicke." The present time seems oppor- 
tune for serious consideration of such a project. In 
this connection it is well to call attention to the Special 
Libraries Association, which is the central organ for a 
number of scattering and, to some extent, unrelated 
institutions covering a large field of important work 
which is in great need of organization and co-operative 
effort, a fertile field which gives every promise of an 
abundant harvest. 

To the support of such a banner might rally the 
leading commercial and industrial bodies of the country, 
provided that, at the same time, adequate means are 
established for the necessary intercommunication as to 
current investigations. 

To facilitate discussion and definite action, the follow- 
ing rough draft of a prospectus is appended : 



(a) To furnish a central body or clearing-house for the 
interchange of authentic information on all subjects of science, 
technology, history, commerce, transportation, travel, and all 
other matters without restriction. 

(b) To encourage co-operation in the interchange of useful 
information and for that purpose establish branches in all the 
principal libraries, universities, and other institutions of learn- 
ing throughout the United States, as well as to seek affiliation 
with similar institutions and societies in all parts of the world. 

(c) To place investigators into direct communication with 
each other when mutually desired. 

(d) To make special inquiries for the benefit of members. 

(e) To publish an official organ " Intercommunication," 
to be issued monthly at a yearly subscription price of about 
$3.00, of which a small portion, to be determined, may be re- 
tained by the local branch sending subscriptions. (The con- 
tents of each issue of the journal will be arranged in order of 
subject according to the decimal system of classification, 
thus bringing conveniently together all items of allied inter- 
est. Each yearly volume will be accompanied by a complete 
analytical index.) 

All members shall have the privilege of submitting briefly 
worded queries on any subject without restriction, but each 
separate query shall be accompanied by an addressed envel- 
ope duly stamped for return postage. 

There shall be no membership fees beyond the subscription 
price of the official organ, but the bureau shall not be expected 
to undertake without charge special researches of an expen- 
sive character for the benefit of any single member ; neither 
will the bureau assume the responsibility of getting answers 
to all queries nor guarantee the accuracy of information ob- 
tained through its medium. 

Comment and criticism will show needed modifica- 
tions and improvements, but something of this char- 
acter is required in our highly specialized and rapidly 
moving life. Will America lag behind her sister 
nations in this great work ? Will Chicago overlook this 
excellent opportunity to add to her prestige and to her 
sphere of usefulness? EUGENE F. McPiKE. 

Chicago, July 10, 1912. 



[July 16, 

|tefo gooks. 


Mr. Daingerfield's book on George Inness 
is a great service to all who desire to know the 
development of American landscape painting. 
It is not an attempt at a biography, or even at 
a critical estimate, but a personal record per- 
sonal not in the gossippy but in the artistic sense. 
Mr. Daingerfield had particular opportunities 
for knowing Inness thoroughly as an artist, and 
his essay gives us a sketch based on intimate 
details. The painter's development in power, 
his effort first for a command of form and com- 
position, then for color, atmosphere, value ; his 
technical theories of painting or of composition, 
his eccentric doings-over, his search for obscure 
laws of color ; his personal character, his inten- 
sity, vigor, impulsiveness, courage, these things 
are given us by an authority, and we must always 
be glad to have them. 

We are unfortunately lacking in studies like 
this on the work of our great painters. Whoever 
would understand their works must either be 
content with the paintings themselves as he may 
be able to see them in the public galleries or in 
occasional exhibitions, or he must rely upon the 
general histories of American painting which, 
however excellent, must lack whatever value 
would come from the authors' being provided with 
independent studies of the painters with whom 
they had to deal. Both these methods leave a 
good deal to be desired. Our galleries, as a rule, 
do not attach much importance to American 
landscape, or, if they do, they are unable to carry 
out in any systematic way such a selection and 
arrangement as would serve as a guide to the 
student. The Metropolitan Museum in New 
York, for instance, and the New York Public 
Library have a good many pictures by American 
landscape painters, but their examples are only 
by accident representative pictures, and their 
catalogues give very little about them of use to 
the student. Our histories of American paint- 
ing are generally based upon the particular 
knowledge of the authors ; and although such is 
the very best foundation for such works, yet it 
is a great advantage to be able to correct or 
modify one's own impression by the studies and 
opinions of others. Of such discussions there 
are on this subject very few. 

* GEORGE INNESS: The Man and His Art. By Elliott 
Daingerfield. Illustrated. New York : Frederic Fairchild 

Of course it may easily be alleged that the his- 
tory of American landscape has not been, until 
recently, a matter of great artistic interest or 
importance. The Hudson River, Lake George, 
or White Mountain School, it may be pointed 
out, is hopelessly antiquated, and its pictures 
may be relegated to the lumber-room without 
loss. The pictures of George Inness, in like 
manner, are pushed into obscurity by others who 
feel that American landscape painting began, 
for the purposes of the artist, with the followers 
of Monet. All this may be quite true from the 
standpoint of the painter or the art-student 
commonly so-called. And yet I feel sure that 
an element of national interest that occupied so 
large a place in the mind of the people as did 
American landscape ought not to be allowed to 
fall into obscurity, if only from the standpoint 
of American history. It is true that schools and 
manners have succeeded each other, and that to 
those who love the present manner that of the 
past may be absurd. But such things have their 
ebb and flow. In the matter of subject only, 
which an amateur may understand more about 
than of the matter of technique, there have been 
very great changes. Forty years ago the pupils 
of Hunt sought out a pair of fence-bars to paint, 
just as twenty years later the disciples of Monet 
were satisfied with a haystack done in a dozen 
different lights. Both spoke scornfully of the 
"panoramic " views that had delighted the older 
men. But in the last few years the landscapes 
which one sees are as likely as not to exhibit 
wide stretches of country, while the pair of bars 
and the haystack seem rather dull. Inness 
himself reacted against the followers of Thomas 
Cole, who, Mr. Daingerfield thinks, borrowed the 
worst in the empty classicism of Europe. They 
painted mountains and lakes: Inness painted a 
pasture or an apple-orchard. Yet the George 
Inness medal was awarded this year for a picture 
of Lake Louise in the Canadian Rockies, a sub- 
ject quite as romantic as the " Mount Corcoran " 
of Bierstadt. There is certainly much in the 
painting of the earlier men, and of Inness too, 
that has merely gone out of fashion. Their real 
character and spirit will generally be found well 
worth looking into and studying. 

All of this may seem far too long an introduc- 
tion to a comment on a book on the painting of 
George Inness. Indeed, it may be said that 
Inness is the one great exception to the general 
view just remarked. 1 do not think he is. It is 
true that Inness is at the present day much more 
highly esteemed by the general picture-lover than 
any who preceded or many who have followed 




him. Compared with Cole, Durand, Church, 
Winslow Homer, I presume Inness is to most 
people a sun among stars. There is a good rep- 
resentation of his pictures in most large galleries 
and in the great private collections. Chicago is 
especially fortunate in this respect, for the Butler 
collection is the best to be found anywhere. 
But there is yet no very thorough or satisfac- 
tory study of his work, nor is there agreement 
as to its value. 

Mr. Daingerfield's book does not precisely try 
to fill this lack. As has been said, it does not 
pretend even to be an estimate ; it is one of those 
preliminary studies of so much value to the critic. 
Mr. Daingerfield tells us things about Inness 
that no one else knew things that one would 
want to be sure to take account of in getting to 
a true appreciation of his noble and beautiful 
art. It is a most attractive and interesting pic- 
ture of his master that he gives us, partly per- 
sonal though not too much so, partly artistic, 
with detail of method and ideas that must be of 
value to the technical student. 

It will not be a very important matter that I 
should not agree with Mr. Daingerfield in his 
view of Inness. I could not, of course, pretend 
to an opinion of much value in comparison with 
his in the matter of painting. Just the value of 
Inness's technique in comparison with all that 
has come in since his day is something about 
which I should have but the personal taste of 
any amateur. But so far as the pictures are 
concerned, there are certain points remarked by 
Mr. Daingerfield on which one who is not a 
painter may fairly, I believe, desire to have an 
independent opinion. 

Chief of these matters is the view that Inness 
really had more love and knowledge of Nature 
than many a man before him, or indeed beside 
him or after him, who could not paint so well. 
Mr. Daingerfield says "the frail, weak and 
altogether insipid effort of those about him was 
distasteful; they borrowing the worst in the 
empty classicism of Europe produced nothing 
upon which such such a nature could lean, nor 
from which learn even the rudiments of land- 
scape art" (p. 10). And he further gives us to 
understand that the contemporaries of Inness's 
younger days were apostles of the brown tree 
in the foreground (p. 9), and that their method 
was opposed to copying the landscape "he saw 
with his own eyes " (p. 11). This must have been 
between 1845 and 1855. The passage presents 
what is to me quite a new view of the American 
landscape-painting of that time. Those years 
saw the last of the paintings of Cole, some of 

the best of Durand's and the first of those of 
Church. We cannot say who were the artists 
around Inness, but surely it is not a common idea 
to believe that Cole, Durand, and Church, men 
fairly representative of the landscape-painting 
of that time, borrowed the worst in the empty 
classicism of Europe or did not believe in paint- 
ing the landscape that they saw. Of Cole some- 
thing of such an idea might prevail, but even 
he thought that he was following Nature closely 
and said so over and over again. Durand was 
a Pre-Raphaelite before the P.R.B.: Mr. Still- 
man says that he "first showed American artists 
what could be done by faithful and unaffected 
study of Nature in large studies carefully finished 
on the spot." And as to Church, his chief power 
was his wonderful eye for seeing the detail of 
Nature, and his still more remarkable hand for 
rendering what he saw. Inness, of course, often 
painted direct from Nature ; but he was not the 
only one to do so, and I should think myself, on 
the ground of Mr. Daingerfield's accounts of his 
later methods, that his greatest success was ob- 
tained when he painted out of his own head. His 
head, like Gainsborough's, was wonderfully 
stored with forms, but after his early copyings of 
Nature he very often depended entirely upon it. 

I have generally thought of Inness, not as a 
leader in any return to Nature, but as one who 
developed a new and very beautiful way of 
presenting certain aspects of Nature. His con- 
temporaries were inferior to him there. Cole 
as early as 1825 tried to paint what he saw. 
So he says himself, and I see no reason to doubt 
it, least of all that he often did not do so. He 
saw, for instance, that Nature in the summer 
was green rather than brown. His " Mount 
Washington " (1827) is as green as anything of 
Constable's, whose pictures he had never seen at 
that time. Then Durand, who did not have 
Cole's passion for the " ideal," developed a kind 
of landscape painting that was nearly akin to 
that propounded by Ruskin. Of Church it is said 
that when Cole, his master, told him to select 
a subject one morning he chose the valley of the 
Hudson River. Cole, looking at his work in the 
afternoon, set him another subject, namely, a 
mullein stalk. The story, if not true, is signifi- 
cant ; for Church is as remarkable for his accu- 
racy of detail as for his grasp of range. Now the 
great thing about Inness was that he did not do 
anything at all like any of those things, but 
something quite different inspired, Mr. Dain- 
gerfield says, by Barbizon. 

He did not aim at the particular facts, usu- 
ally of form and color, that interested most of 



[July 16, 

his contemporaries, he more commonly saw in 
Nature other facts facts of light, atmosphere, 
value. What he saw in Nature is more like 
what later men have seen than what Cole, 
Durand, and Church saw. But to represent 
Inness as one of the first of those to whom truth 
to Nature, in any ordinary sense, was the main 
aim seems to me to convey a wrong idea, at least 
to the non-technical reader. 

Nor is this a minor point. It is the founda- 
tion of Inness's greatness, the essence of his 
peculiar quality, and the reason why he was 
not greater than he was. It makes clear that 
Inuess, like his predecessors and his successors, 
was limited to his own field of thought. He 
saw in Nature something very particular ; and 
to people chiefly interested in that particular 
kind of thing he is the greatest of American 
landscape painters. But he failed to see various 
other things of interest. During the first part 
of the nineteenth century the typical landscape 
painter in American opinion was Salvator Rosa ; 
afterward Theodore Rousseau took that position ; 
then Claude Monet. At the present day the 
first is commonly regarded with contempt, the 
second with indifference, the third with devotion. 
But it is a foregone conclusion that the love of 
Monet will pass, because his view of Nature is 
as limited as that of Salvator Rosa or Rousseau. 
We like his pictures better because his view of 
Nature is limited to things that we have learned 
to like. But his vogue will certainly pass. In 
like manner Inness's view of Nature appears to 
me to be limited. There was a time when his 
art seemed to me to include the most beautiful 
aspects of Nature, and from it I learned to 
admire and love much which might otherwise 
be still hidden from me. But with a wider 
acquaintance with the work of others, and of 
Nature herself, I have thought that there were 
other aspects quite as beautiful and interesting 
as those which Inness perceived. 

So one may not probably will not agree 
with Mr. Daingerfield in his view of George 
Inness. But this makes little difference in the 
value of his book. He has put into these few 
pages something of great value, namely, George 
Inness's own commentary on his own art, and 
he has been able to illustrate it by beautiful 
reproductions of typical pictures. No one will 
read the book without an increase of admiration 
for the artist. We need not put aside the work 
of others to make Inness seem great. His work 
presents some of the most beautiful aspects of 
Nature in a very beautiful way. 



"Delight itself is a weak term to express the feelings 
of a naturalist who, for the first time, has wandered 
by himself in a Brazilian forest. The elegance of the 
grasses, the novelty of the parasitical plants, the beauty 
of the flowers, the glossy green of the foliage, but above 
all the general luxuriance of the vegetation, filled me 
with admiration. A most paradoxical mixture of sound 
and silence pervades the shady parts of the wood. The 
noise from the insects is so loud, that it may be heard 
even in a vessel anchored several hundred yards from 
the shore ; yet within the recesses of the forest a universal 
silence appears to reign. To a person fond of natural 
history, such a day as this brings with it a deeper pleasure 
than he can ever hope to experience again." Charles 

We are gradually waking up to the fact that 
there is a fairyland to the south of us, readily 
accessible within a week. The volume of travel 
to the American tropics accordingly increases, 
taxing the capacity of vessels running to Central 
America and the West Indies. With the open- 
ing of the Panama Canal, "everybody " will visit 
the Isthmus ; and after the excitement has died 
down, it will probably remain "the thing" to 
take the tropical route to California. At the 
same time, now that modern sanitation is able 
practically to abolish malaria, yellow fever, and 
other diseases, tropical regions will gradually 
become sufficiently healthy to be colonized by 
our countrymen in much greater numbers than 
heretofore. All this will not be without its dis- 
advantages, and if it happens (as it has happened 
in places) that we are chiefly known to the na- 
tives for our vulgarity and commercial crooked- 
ness, the discovery of the tropics by the people 
of the United States will seem to the rest of the 
world a calamity. Primarily owing to the intel- 
ligence and untiring energy of a small group of 
men, we have made an excellent impression by 
our work at Panama, and this should stand as a 
model for the future, no matter if it is suggest- 
ive of State Socialism. Panama, however, illus- 
trates organization, cooperation, government; it 
does not closely touch the relation of the indi- 
vidual, as such, to his environment. The Amer- 
ican in the tropics, if he is to make the most of 
his opportunities, must cultivate at least in some 
degree the faculty of intelligent appreciation; 
something at least of the feeling so well expressed 
by Darwin in the quotation above. To do this, 
he must not be wholly ignorant, either of what 
is known, or of the vast opportunity still remain- 

*!N THE GUIANA FOREST. Studies of Nature in Relation 
to the Struggle for Life. By James Rodway. New Edition. 
Illustrated. Chicago : A. C. McClurg & Co. 

Illustrated. New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 




ing for increasing knowledge. Without being 
a professional naturalist, he may nevertheless 
read books of travel, and get an idea of the coun- 
tries he is to visit. If, in an amateur way, he 
aspires to add something to the storehouses of 
science, so much the better. Beginning thus, 
he is more than likely presently to find himself 
in possession of a delightful hobby. A lady of 
my acquaintance, during the present year, spent 
a month in Guatemala, and while there discov- 
ered a large tree with splendid red flowers, more 
than forty kinds of insects, and half a dozen 
other small animals, all wholly new to science. 
With the journey back and forth, she was absent 
from home just six weeks. 

It is not our purpose at the present time to 
enumerate the " best hundred books " on the 
American tropics. As a matter of fact, good 
books on tropical Nature are not numerous ; 
Wallace, Darwin, Spruce, and Beebe, on South 
America, the charming volume of P. H. Gosse 
on Jamaica, Belt on Nicaragua, are the ones that 
first come to mind. Belt's famous little work 
is unfortunately out of print, and may only be 
obtained with difficulty, at a fancy price. Two 
new books now before us are the immediate 
cause of this discussion. James Rod way, long 
resident in British Guiana, well known as a 
competent and enthusiastic naturalist, has en- 
larged and revised his work on the natural 
history of that country, which now comes to 
us as a volume of 326 pages, well illustrated. 
He graphically describes the life of the forest, 
where the Indian seems part of the general 
order of things, one of the animals. He explains 
how the beauty and order of nature comes out 
of the struggle for existence ; and this term, 
instead of being a vague abstraction, is made 
to stand for living realities, described in detail. 
From the account of the Indian we quote a few 

" The man of the forest is in almost perfect harmony 
with his surroundings, and if to be so is to be happy, as 
some have said, then the South American Indian must 
be one of the happiest of men. . . . Having lived iii 
the forest for ages, the Indian can hardly be looked 
upon as one of the rulers of creation, but rather as in 
perfect unison with nature. He is as much a part of the 
whole as the jaguar, the howling monkey, or the tapir. 
He does not interfere with the constitution of things 
does not clear great tracts of land builds no cities 
erects no monuments nor does he leave many more 
traces of his presence than the other inhabitants of the 
forest. . . . From one point of view he may be consid- 
ered as having attained perfection. The balance of life 
has been kept up, and, apart from outside influences, he 
does not exterminate a single animal. Nowhere per- 
haps is the fauna of such an ancient type so well pro- 

tected and so perfectly fitted to its environment, and 
nowhere can we study man as an animal so well as in 
the Guiana forest." 

Here and there, we may find reason to debate 
or dispute some of Mr. Rodway's opinions,* but 
we always admire his ability to see and to de- 
scribe. He tells us that he has studied tropical 
nature for forty years ; his book is not based on 
the hasty impressions of a visitor, it is the fruit 
of long and persistent investigation. Perhaps 
"investigation" is not quite the word to use 
here, it is too suggestive of technicalities; we 
may rather say that Mr. Rodway has made 
himself at home in the forest, has lived the life 
there, and describes what he has felt and seen. 
Thus his narrative flows and has no suggestion 
of a catalogue; there is nothing technical enough 
to frighten any educated reader, and yet it is 
clear that the author knows his subject from the 
technical side as well. 

Mr. P. R. Lowe's " A Naturalist on Desert 
Islands" is a quite different book, the author 
having neither the maturity nor the experience 
of Mr. Rodway. Nevertheless, it gives a read- 
able and interesting account of the voyages of Sir 
Frederic Johnstone and his companions among 
the islands of the Caribbean Sea. The first part 
describes Swan Islands, two small and isolated 
bits of land nearly a hundred miles north of the 
coast of Honduras. The rest of the book is de- 
voted to Blanquilla and the Hermauos Islands, 
north of Venezuela. Although the author and 
his companions made no long stay at these places, 
they were able to obtain much interesting infor- 
mation and a good series of specimens, especially 
of birds. Either the collections had not all been 
worked out at the time of writing, or Mr. Lowe 
did not wish to burden his text with too many 
dry details, so we are left uncertain as to the 
total results of the expeditions. We hear, how- 
ever, of a new bird from Blanquilla Island, and 
various additions to our knowledge of the distri- 
bution of birds and other animals. There is also 
much interesting discussion of the problems con- 
nected with island life, while the human history 
of the places visited is well described. The effect 
upon the reader will be to make him wish to ex- 
plore some of these fascinating Caribbean islands ; 
and while few have a yacht or other means at 
their command, one may hope that some, at one 
time or another, will be found to take up the 
evidently uncompleted work. 


* Just one statement of fact seems to be wrong. The bee vis- 
iting the Catasetnm is surely Eulaema, and not a humble bee. 



[July 16, 


The recent re-issue of Mr. Courthope's " His- 
tory of English Poetry," which involves, besides 
the reprinting of the last two volumes, some 
revision of the text of the earlier ones, makes it 
fitting to consider the character and value of 
this monumental work. It is the fulfilment of 
an idea which in the eighteenth century was 
dreamed of by Pope and Gray, and brought to 
measurable achievement by Thomas Warton, 
but which Mr. Courthope was the first of mod- 
ern scholars to realize the survey of the whole 
course of English poetry at the hands of a single 

Such an undertaking gives rise, first of all, 
to the query whether any one man can hope to 
accomplish such a task in accordance with the 
standards of the scholarship of our time. The 
characteristic historical work of this generation 
is of the type represented by the " Cambridge 
Modern History" and the " Cambridge History 
of English Literature," works formed by the 
combined labors of a company of scholars, no 
one of whom would have been able or willing to 
do the whole with thoroughness. One might, 
therefore, feel some misgivings concerning the 
efforts of a single scholar, whose previous studies 
have been largely confined to the modern period, 
to survey a field which has been so thoroughly 
subdivided by his contemporaries. And the 
result to some extent justifies the misgivings. 
The diverse researches of modern philology 
and literary history, in the English field, are 
only partially represented by Mr. Courthope's 

From one point of view this deficiency may 
be expressed by saying that the History has too 
few footnotes. To some readers this statement 
will appear a dreadful example of misguided 
academic pedantry. But if it is recalled that the 
History does not set out to be merely popular, 
but to attain genuine scholarliness of method 
and result, it will perhaps be admitted that, 
without abundant reference to authorities, to 
sources, to the discussion of doubtful matters, 
to incidental issues that constantly arise, queries 
will often be raised which cannot be answered 
in the complacent ipse-dixit of a smooth-flowing 
text. Two books of recent years, which added 
respectively to the glory of American and 
British scholarship, and which are far from 
being pedantic or even merely learned, may be 

Courthope. Revised edition. In six volumes. New York : 
The Macmillan Co. 

instanced as examples of what footnotes mean: 
Professor F. B. Gummere's " The Beginnings 
of Poetry " and Professor A. C. Bradley 's 
" Shakespearean Tragedy."* They mean that at 
every point the writer has not merely set forth 
the results of individual study, but has envisaged 
the problems suggested in all directions by the 
work of previous scholars. In this regard, then, 
Mr. Courthope's work, while not wholly negli- 
gent, leaves very much to be desired. In many 
a difficult tract of his territory, the character 
of epic represented in " Beowulf," for example, 
the authorship of " Piers Plowman," the mean- 
ing of Euphuism, the authenticity of certain 
quasi-Shakespearean plays, one may trace the 
dangerous results of what from another stand- 
point might seem a really noble individualism or 

But on the other hand, if the detailed results 
of modern philology are inadequately repre- 
sented, the processes of that form of study which 
has come to be called comparative literature are 
conspicuous for their presence and effectiveness. 
In his own reading and thought Mr. Courthope 
has embraced the classical literatures as well as 
those in other modern languages, thus avoiding 
the insular standpoint from which the story of 
English literature has generally been told. Typi- 
cal results are such, chapters as those on allegory 
in Dante and in medisevaJ England (vol. i., 
chap. 6), on the origin of Poetical Wit (vol. iii., 
chap. 16), and on the blended materials of the 
poetry of Milton (vol. iii., chap. 14), chapters 
which for breadth of background it would be 
difficult to parallel in any similar work. 

A second query which naturally arises from 
the character of the undertaking is that which 
concerns the possibility of defining the bound- 
aries of "English Poetry" for such a purpose. 
Mr. Courthope started out with a conspicuously 
simple and sensible definition: "By English 
Poetry I mean metrical compositions written in 
our language." But as he proceeded he did not 
remain faithful to this. In the drama he found, 
as was to be anticipated, a troublesome problem, 
and courageously met it by including the whole 
subject of English Drama, at least for the earlier 
periods. Reaching the Elizabethan age, he 
allowed himself to include a chapter on Lyly 
and euphuistic prose, because of the undeniable 
relationship between these and poetical matters. 
For less obvious reasons, he later included a chap- 

*In the second instance, the book being composed of lec- 
tures published as delivered orally, the notes are relegated 
to the back of the volume, a method followed in the case 
of one or two matters by Mr. Courthope. 




ter (in volume vi.) on the rise of the periodicals, 
and, still further on, a chapter 011 the Waverley 
Novels, on the ground that " a history of En- 
glish poetry can hardly exclude a consideration 
of the growth of romantic fiction." It is indeed 
pretty clear that, if poetry is viewed not as a form 
of art so much as the expression of national life 
always Mr. Courthope's leading idea its 
separation from prose literature becomes often 
difficult if not positively misleading. The 
thoughtful reader of these volumes will therefore 
almost inevitably come to the conclusion that the 
work should either have been expanded to form 
a History of English Literature, or curtailed to 
form a History of Modern English Poetry, the 
drama and other doubtful forms excluded. 

But, setting aside these perhaps ungenerous 
queries, what sort of a history is actually in 
our hand? One, in the first place, of undeniable 
and impressive unity, such as the work of a com- 
pany of scholars could never attain. This unity 
is the outcome of the central purpose of the writer, 
which is stated repeatedly and consistently main- 
tained. At the outset he tells us that his aim 
is "to treat poetry as an expression of the im- 
agination, not simply of the individual poet, 
but of the English people." And at the close his 
hope is that the completed work has enabled the 
reader to "conceive more distinctly the gradual 
and majestic growth of the British Empire out 
of the institutions of the Middle Ages." This 
method produces a genuine history, as distin- 
guished from the succession of facts, biograph- 
ical and bibliographical, which usually go under 
that name where literature is concerned. The 
normal writer of " literary history" chiefly asks 
himself: When did Smith live? What books 
did he write ? What style did he write them in ? 
Are they better or worse than the books of Jones? 
Mr. Courthope always asks: What did Smith 
say? Why did he say it? Above all, why was 
Smith ? And the answer to the second and third 
questions is always found in other people than 
Smith commonly in the Whig party or the 
English nation. 

This method, at its best profound and illumi- 
nating, sometimes gives odd results. For when 
we seek to learn not merely what but why, we 
are always in some danger of weaving illusory 
webs of explanation ; and certain of Mr. Court- 
hope's theories tempt the reader to recall the 
tour deforce of DeQuincey's in which he proved 
that the character of Greek literature was de- 
termined by the fact that the Greeks wore cot- 
ton clothing (no linen rags, no paper ; no paper, 
no books ; no books, no written style). It may 

be true that the movement of poetry from sym- 
bolism to realism was produced by the combined 
influence of encyclopaedic education, feudal insti- 
tutions, and the growth of civil order (vol. i., chap. 
xii.); but it is very difficult to prove it, and would 
be still more difficult to disprove any conflicting 
hypothesis. It may be true that Walter Scott is 
to be explained by the "happy mixture of Law 
and Liberty that enabled Scotland to play so 
leading a part in the history of the romantic 
movement," and that the character of the poetry 
of the age of Pope is due to the Whig Revolution 
of 1688; even if these things are not true, the 
assertion of them is suggestive and enlightening. 
But one rubs one's eyes a bit at the assertion 
that the formal epithets the dewy meads and 
conscious bosoms and all the rest of the neo- 
classical poetry "reflect the change from the 
feudal absolutism of the Stuarts to the Parlia- 
mentary system of the eighteenth century" (v., 
42), and is perhaps tempted to think, subse- 
quently, that Mr. Courthope believes the peace- 
ful Cumberland country and quiet waters of 
Wordsworth's childhood home were the result of 
" the general peace and order which, since the 
Revolution of 1688, had settled upon the con- 
stitution of society" (vi., 160), though all that 
he really says is that they reflected that peace 
and order. 

Another difficulty with this historical method 
is that its followers are in danger of forgetting 
that, after all, there arises every now and then 
a man who does and says things not in the least 
as a representative of national forces and move- 
ments, but because he happens to want to do 
and say them. Perhaps in the end we shall be 
forced to admit that this is an illusion that 
in the last resort no poet, however free he may 
seem, can escape the Zeitgeist. But some of the 
most interesting phenomena of literature are 
significant chiefly from their apparent indepen- 
dence. If ever there was a poet who, entering 
the firmament of lyrical expression, left on it a 
track of passionately personal utterance, that 
poet was John Donne. You may explain the 
peculiarities of his style by the church fathers 
in his Catholic home, or the decayed symbolism 
of Marino, or what you will ; the flaming, con- 
torted individuality of his work remains. Now 
if we seek for an account of this in Mr. Court- 
hope, what has he for us ? Why, we learn that 
Donne as an individual poet does not seem to 
him very important, but that " to those who see 
in poetry a mirror of the national life, . . . the 
work of Donne will always be profoundly inter- 
esting"! (iii., 168). One might as well say that 



[July 16, 

Halley's Comet was truly interesting only to 
those who had figured its orbit or analyzed its 

A final difficulty with this disregard of indi- 
vidualism is the slight opportunity it gives for 
emphasizing the most characteristic phases of 
romantic art. Here Mr. Courthope, as has long 
been known, is finely consistent ; and when the 
last volume of his History drew near there was 
no little curiosity felt as to the treatment he 
would accord the romantic poets whose doctrines 
he had often so vigorously opposed. When it 
was published, he was seen to be able to discuss 
them with conspicuous fairness of tone. With 
Keats, to be sure, and his contempt for the 
eighteenth century, Mr. Courthope finds it diffi- 
cult to be patient (how inartistic, he tells us, is 
the " languid trickle " of his couplets when com- 
pared with those of Goldsmith, whom Keats 
despised !); but of Wordsworth and Shelley there 
are more than respectful accounts, and one is 
tempted to cry Bravo ! when the critic permits 
himself so to warm to the lines "To a Skylark " 
as to call them " divine." Two notes, notwith- 
standing, are always audible in Mr. Courthope's 
story of the romanticists. In the first place, it 
is inevitably what they say that interests him, 
never the mere charm of form, the ravishing 
gratuitous beauty of detail, the " mirific mo- 
ment," as Mr. Saintsbury somewhere has it, 
which for true lovers of romantic art is always 
so large a part of the sum of pleasure. In the 
second place, the doctrines of the new school of 
poetry are nowhere approved, but, on the con- 
trary, the poets are represented as succeeding 
in spite of them. As in his earlier writings, 
Mr. Courthope is inexorably set to combat the 
poetic movement inaugurated by Wordsworth 
and Coleridge, because of its aim "to exchange 
the ancient method, consisting in the ideal imi- 
tation of external objects, for an introspective 
analysis of the impressions of the individual 
mind" (vi., 192). And this teaching is further 
enforced by a new definition of poetry as " the 
art of expressing imaginative ideas universally 
existing in any free society " (vi., 444). By 
reason of this faith, the author of the History 
a classicist in an age when classicism seems 
hopelessly defeated, and a spiritual Tory in a 
time when self-confessed Tories are no more 
views despondently the present state of poetry, 
and concludes his story by expressly declining 
to continue it beyond the time of Scott, because 
the romantic movement has separated poetry 
" from the organized course of national life." 
A strange mishap this, to have so defined poetry 

that in the Victorian age it disappears from 
sight ! 

On the other hand, for the classical age, the 
"excellent and indispensable eighteenth cen- 
tury," Mr. Courthope remains our best au- 
thority one may almost say our only authority. 
For many a day accounts of our eighteenth- 
century poetry have consisted chiefly of two 
parts: the explanation of why most of it is 
unreadable, and the recognition of exceptions 
in the case of the so-called heralds of romanti- 
cism. Wherever a writer exhibited any human 
sympathy, love of beauty, or sense of the eter- 
nities, or wrote in anything except the heroic 
couplet, he was a sign of the "romantic revival." 
The rest was silence. Thanks to Mr. Courthope, 
we now have the first real account of the most 
characteristic poetry of that age, what its 
numerous half -forgotten representatives really 
said, and why. He can read and interpret, 
without contempt, without even the gently deri- 
sive humor with which Mr. Gosse, for example, 
has gracefully described them, the poems on 
cider, on sheep-raising, on the imagination, on 
morals and politics, of which in general it may 
be said that none have named them but to jeer. 
(Nay, did not Mr. Courthope himself, a year or 
two since, write an extremely interesting poem, 
reminiscent of the neo-classical manner, on the 
raising of hops and the mistakes of the Liberal 
party?) His account of the poetical purposes 
of Crabbe (vi., 365), of the development of 
"classic purity" of poetical expression (v., 359), 
of the style of Cowper (v., 357), one can hardly 
conceive as being bettered. In other words, 
where the course of English poetry does run par- 
allel with that of English thought and society, 
and can be explained by national rather than 
individual facts, our historian is not only a 
safe but an illuminating guide. 

If some emphasis has been laid, then, on de- 
fects or idiosyncrasies of method, it is because 
they seemed to be instructive, not to detract 
from the value of the whole. They result from 
the intense unity and singleness of purpose which 
at the same time give this book its power. They 
can be corrected by the intelligent reader ; and 
the History is not meant for any other. For 
some of us the continuous development of its his- 
torical method seems so suggestive and enlight- 
ening that we may well prefer it to works (like 
the Cambridge History, for example) made on 
the patchwork plan, despite the greater accur- 
acy of detail which in our time only composite 
scholarship can hope to give for so large a field. 





In respect of material things the progress of 
the world during the last half century has admit- 
tedly been almost incomprehensibly rapid. It 
is sometimes urged, however, that the advance 
has been only material that neither ideas nor 
ideals have even measurably kept pace. The 
validity of such an assertion is doubtful on 
many grounds. But certainly one of its neatest 
refutations is to be found in the eugenics move- 
ment. Fifty years ago the intellectual world 
was profoundly concerned in the discussion of 
whether there was such a process as organic 
evolution, and whether man was a product of 
it, through the operation of natural (as opposed 
to supernatural) causes. To-day the eugenics 
movement takes as its fundamental aim and pur- 
pose the conscious and deliberate control and 
direction of human evolution, physical, mental, 
and moral. What a change of outlook this im- 
plies! The aeroplane and the stage-coach are 
not more widely separated than are the ideas of 
eugenics from those held by the majority of edu- 
cated men regarding evolution at the time when 
the " Origin of Species " appeared. And withal, 
eugenics is being taken quite as a matter of 
course; it is "catching on" to an extraordinary 
degree with radical and conservative alike, as 
something for which the time is quite ripe. 

The leader in the study of eugenics in this 
country is Dr. C. B. Davenport, the versatile 
Director of the Carnegie Institution's Station for 
Experimental Evolution at Cold Spring Harbor, 
and his new book on "Heredity in Relation to 
Eugenics" is altogether the best introduction to 
the new science that has yet appeared. As the 
title implies, the chief stress in his treatment 
of the subject is on the side of inheritance. 
Following a brief introductory account of the 
elementary principles of heredity in general, a 
mass of material is presented to show how 
human traits are inherited. As some of this 
material is new, the book makes a real contri- 
bution to knowledge, an unusual thing, by 
the way, for a popular treatise to do even in a 
small degree. For these hitherto unpublished 
data the author draws on the Archives of the 
Eugenics Record Office. This institution, which 
has been made possible, so the reader is in- 

port. New York : Henry Holt & Co. 

Herter. New York : The Macmillan Co. 

Outline of the Science of Eugenics. By W. E. Kellicott. 
New York : D. Appleton & Co. 

formed, through the generosity of Mrs. E. H. 
Harriman, is collecting and preserving in a man- 
ner to insure permanency, pedigree data regard- 
ing a wide range of human characteristics and 
their inheritance. Besides this original material, 
the biological, medical, and anthropological lit- 
erature is drawn upon for cases illustrating the 
inheritance of particular traits. 

In presenting the subject, free use is made of 
pedigree charts, which add greatly to the value 
of the book for the more or less casual reader 
who is not interested in minor details. These 
charts enable one almost at a glance to grasp the 
main features of a particular case of inheritance 
of a disease, a criminal tendency, or some other 
characteristic. Data are given respecting the 
inheritance of forty-one different human char- 
acters, including such things as eye-color, hair- 
color, ability, handwriting, pauperism, crimi- 
nality, feeble-mindedness, insanity, and a series 
of different diseases which includes one or more 
representatives of nearly all the different classes 
of afflictions to which flesh is heir. Whether this 
is to be regarded as entertaining reading depends 
a good deal on one's point of view. Bob Sawyer 
would no doubt have found it entrancing. But 
whether interesting or not, the array of evidence 
cannot fail to be impressive to any thoughtful 
person. It brings home to one with really shock- 
ing force the tremendous importance of carefully 
choosing one's grandparents. Since this is not 
an altogether easy thing for the individual to do, 
society for its own good must attend to it. Here 
lies the keynote to the eugenics propaganda. 

The last quarter of the book deals with some 
general topics, of which the most important is 
the eugenic significance of migrations, in their 
bearing upon the geographical distribution of 
inheritable human traits. A fairly extensive 
bibliography and an index complete the volume, 
which taken as a whole deserves high commen- 
dation as a vigorous, forceful, and sane presen- 
tation of a subject which must be given serious 
attention by everyone interested in the future of 
his race and his nation. The book is not with- 
out small faults : it bears plenty of evidence of 
having been produced under high pressure ; and 
the biologist will find instances where doubtful 
points are optimistically dodged, and statements 
made which would scarcely stand searching tech- 
nical criticism. But these are matters of detail, 
and will be freely excused by everyone in view 
of the excellence of the work as a whole. 

" Biological Aspects of Human Problems" is 
a posthumous work of the late Dr. C. A. Herter, 
in whose untimely death scientific medicine 



[July 16, 

suffered severe loss. While not strictly a contri- 
bution to the eugenics movement, it nevertheless 
contains much material bearing directly on the 
problem with which this science is concerned. 
The standpoint from which the book is written 
is indicated in the following statement: 

" Having reached a time of life when I began to feel 
confidence that the laws of biology might often prove 
reliable guides to the understanding of puzzling situ- 
ations in life, I experienced a desire to state my views 
to my children in a manner more definite than is possi- 
ble in conversation. I am now led to publish my inter- 
pretation of biological laws in their bearing on human 
life in the hope that they may prove of some service to 
persons who have faith that an understanding of such 
laws is frequently a help to more intelligent and humane 

This hope cannot fail to be realized. Many per- 
sons have wished that there might be written 
just such a sane and temperate discussion of the 
bearing of biological laws on the problems of 
everyday life as this is. The first section deals 
with the animal body as a mechanism, showing 
that everything we now know of biology indi- 
cates that the functioning of the body, including 
every sort of mental activity, is determined and 
regulated by the operation of physical and 
chemical laws. If one chooses to believe in 
"vitalism," "free-will," or any form of super- 
naturalism in respect to matters spiritual, he is 
of course at liberty to do so, but he must base 
his belief on something other than scientific 
which is to say, rational grounds. The evi- 
dence in favor of fatalism, to which the author's 
view leads, is presented with quiet temperateness 
and unfailing optimism. The discussion of this 
doctrine closes with these words: 

" It teaches that each human being should have the 
best obtainable chance for self-development, and be- 
comes the enemy of social conditions which stand in the 
way of such opportunity. It teaches that an individual 
should be judged in relation to the chance he has had for 
self-improvement, and not by an arbitrary standard. 
But it does not teach that any two human beings are 
equal in potential for achievement. It expects many 
failures, but it judges them leniently. It counts on the 
emergence from time to time of human beings able to 
point out new relationships between old materials; yet 
it does not overpraise these successes. It looks hope- 
fully to the future because it sees in the human germ 
plasm a tendency to improve in the presence of reason- 
ably friendly surroundings. It is the enemy of the 
doctrine of laissez faire, believing in intelligent interfer- 
ence and regulation in all directions. And finally, the 
doctrine of scientific fatalism looks only for results ex- 
actly proportioned to the factors which determine per- 
sonality the forces inherent in the germ plasm and 
the external forces which have been brought into action 
upon these primitive materials." 

The second part of the book deals with the 
self-preservative instinct. An examination of 

the facts indicates that there can be no single 
specific method whereby longevity may be cer- 
tainly attained. The factors which tend to cur- 
tail life are multifarious, and not less so must 
be any intelligent attempt to prolong the span 
of human life. Belief in personal immortality 
is regarded as a natural form of egotism grow- 
ing out of the instinct of self-preservation. The 
author's discussion of the sex-instinct, which 
occupies the third part of the book, may be 
unreservedly commended. The final section 
discusses the relation of the fundamental in- 
stincts of self-preservation and of sex to the 
higher development of man in respect of religion 
and the fine arts. It is not difficult to show that 
a combination or fusion of these instincts has had 
much to do with such spiritual and idealistic 
activities of the human mind. An extremely 
fair and candid discussion of the vexed question 
of the education of the young in regard to 
matters of sex leads to the conclusion that such 
education is imperatively demanded, not merely 
on individualistic grounds, but for the good of 
the race. A final summarizing of the author's 
whole philosophy of life brings to a close a not- 
able book. 

Professor Kellicott's "The Social Direction 
of Human Evolution" is an expansion of a 
series of lectures on eugenics presented to a col- 
lege audience. The book stands in commend- 
able contrast to the bulk of popular writing on 
the subject. Equipped with a thorough tech- 
nical knowledge of biology, the author discusses 
the problems of race-betterment with good judg- 
ment and a keen appreciation of fundamental 
biological difficulties and opportunities. What 
has been accomplished in the study of human 
inheritance is briefly reviewed, with examples 
of pedigrees. A temperate outline is given of 
the possibilities of eugenics. Altogether, the 
book furnishes a useful and trustworthy survey 
of the eugenics movement, and what it has so 
far accomplished. The only technical point on 
which it is possibly open to criticism is in ac- 
cepting perhaps a little too unreservedly some of 
the results of the statistical school of eugenists. 
The book inevitably challenges comparison with 
that of Dr. Davenport discussed above, and, it 
must be said, suffers somewhat in the compar- 
ison. It lacks the spontaneity, and with it the 
compelling grasp of the reader's attention, 
which go with immediate personal research 
activity in the field discussed. Professor 
Kellicott's book is a compilation of the study, 
carefully and thoroughly done, but discussing 
eugenics, after all, as a somewhat academic 




problem ; Dr. Davenport's book is the vivid and 
vigorous marshalling of the data he himself is 
collecting and studying, in such way as to bring 
home to you and to me the fact that eugenics is 
something which deeply concerns us at this very 


It seems as if the neglect which Sterne suf- 
fered for nearly a century after his death were 
being avenged upon the present generation, for 
within the last fifty years no less than seven 
considerable treatises more or less biographical 
and critical have appeared with him as their 
subject. Professor Cross's "Life and Times of 
Laurence Sterne " is a scholarly and interesting 
piece of work, written without pedantry and with 
a lively sympathy for its very lively subject. As 
a biography it has assuredly not been surpassed 
by Mr. Melville's work, now published. More- 
over, it is confined to one volume of moderate 
size, and is sold at a reasonable price. Why 
Mr. Melville or his publishers should spread 
his work over two volumes, each bulkier than 
Professor Cross's and both containing only 673 
pages in all, and then charge three times as much, 
passes comprehension. Have book-buyers sud- 
denly fallen into great wealth, that they choose 
to pay for thick paper and big type regardless of 
the matter ? Or do they want to fill their shelves 
with an imposing array of fat octavos? 

It is this very cost of the book that militates 
against its chief claim to attention. Sterne's 
letters are not cheaply and easily accessible, and 
the "Journal to Eliza " can be had only in Pro- 
fessor Cross's edition of the works. It would 
therefore be well worth while to have a "Life 
and Letters " for a moderate sum, even though 
the letters were not complete. Mr. Melville has 
given us the greater part of the letters and all 
the "Journal," and to these he subordinates 
very wisely the actual biography. He makes 
Sterne speak for himself. 

And Sterne's letters are more interesting as 
biographical material than as epistolary litera- 
ture. In his letters we have him as the philan- 
derer, who is finally smitten himself, as the 
worldly ecclesiastic, and the boon companion of 
the notorious Demoniac, John Hall-Stevenson, 
but very little of him as an author of keen insight 
or even of deep humor. The numerous objects 
of his fickle affections pass over the stage of 

Lewis Melville. In two volumes. Illustrated. New York: 
D. Appleton & Co. 

his life with the words of his undying devotion 
sounding in their ears, till Eliza came and stayed 
till death took him. Married, though unhappily, 
he thus writes to Mile, de Fourmantelle : 
" My dear Kitty, 

I beg you will accept of the enclosed 
Sermon, which I do not make you a present of merely 
because it was wrote by myself, but because there is a 
beautiful character in it, of a tender and compassionate 
mind in the picture given of Elijah. Road it, my dear 
Kitty, and believe me when I assure you that I see some- 
thing of the same kind and gentle disposition in your 
heart which I have painted in the Prophet's, which has 
attach'd me so much to you and your Interests that I 
shall Live and dye your affectionate and faithful 
Laurence Sterne." 

It was the same Kitty who obligingly wrote to 
Garrick at Sterne's dictation in the following 
modest fashion : 

" There are two Volumes just published here, which 
have made a great noise, and have had a tremendous 
run. ... It is the ' Life and Opinions of Tristram 
Shandy.' ... If you have not seen it, pray get it and 
read it, because it has a great character as a witty smart 
Book, and if you think so, your good word in Town will 
do the Author, I am sure, great service. His name 
is Sterne, a gentleman of great Preferment, and a Pre- 
bendary of the Church of York, and has a great char- 
acter, in these parts, as a man of Learning and Wit ; the 
graver people, however, say 't is not fit for young Ladies 
to read his Book, so perhaps you '1 think it not fit for a 
young Lady to recommend it; however the Nobility 
and Great Folks stand up mightily for it, and some say 
't is a great Book, tho' a little tawdry in some places." 

This was before Sterne really had become a great 
man, and even Kitty's services were acceptable 
towards his realizing his ambitions. And he was 
wise enough to know that a tang of naughtiness 
will help mightily to sell a book. Yet when he 
was actually charged with immorality in his book, 
see how he defends his spotless reputation: 

" But for the chaste married, and chaste unmarried 
part of the sex they must not read my book ! Heaven 
forbid the stock of chastity should be lessened by the 
' Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy ' yes, his opin- 
ions it would certainly debauch 'em. God take them 
under his protection in the fiery trial, and send us plenty 
of Duennas to watch the workings of their humours, 
till they have got safely through the whole work." 

After all, Sterne more truly expressed his intent 
in writing when he told Bishop Warburton in 
a somewhat peppery letter, " I will, however, do 
my best though laugh, my Lord, I will, and 
as loud as I can too." 

The last and greatest " affair " of Sterne's life 
was with Mrs. Draper, the Eliza of the Letters 
and the Journal. Of his relation to her he 
makes a future editor of the " Sentimental Jour- 
ney " write the following note : 

" Her name he will tell the world was Draper a 
native of India married there to a gentleman in the 



[July 16, 

India Service of that Xame -who brought her over to 
England for the recovery of her health in the year 65 
where she continued to April the year 1767. It was 
about three Months before her return to India, That our 
Author's acquaintance and hers began. Mrs. Draper 
had a thirst for knowledge was handsome genteel 
engaging and of such gentle dispositions and so 
enlightened an understanding, That Yorick (whether 
he made much Opposition is not known) from an ac- 
quaintance soon became her Admirer they caught 
fire at each other at the same time and they would 
often say, without reserve to the world, and without 
any Idea of saying wrong in it, That their affections for 
each other were unbounded. Mr. Draper dying in the 
year ***** This Lady returned to England, and 
Yorick the year after becoming a widower They were 
married and returning to one of his Livings in York- 
shire, where was a most romantic situation they lived 
and died happily and are spoke of with honour in the 
parish to this day." 

And the facts are that Sterne died the follow- 
ing year, that Mrs. Draper ran away from her 
husband six years later, and that she died in 
1778, ten years after Sterne ! Sterne knew well 
enough that his disease was incurable and that 
he could never marry Mrs. Draper, even if her 
husband were suddenly and obligingly to die, 
but it does not follow from his speaking of her 
as his second wife that all his affection was mere 
sentimental moonshine. There is a ring of sin- 
cerity, one must believe, in these words spoken 
so near the end of his fatal disease: "Thou 
shalt lye down and rise up with me about my 
bed and about my paths, and shalt see out all 
my Ways adieu adieu and remember one 
eternal truth, My dear Bramine, wch is not the 
worse, because I have told it thee a thousand 
times before That I am thine . . and thine 
only and forever." And again three months 
later he says : " And now, Eliza ! Let me talk 
to thee But what can I say, what can I 
write but the yearnings of heart wasted with 
looking and wishing for the Return Return 
Return ! my dear Eliza ! May heaven smooth the 
Way for thee safely to us, and Joy for Ever." 

It is not a pleasant picture that we get of 
Sterne in this Journal. His particulars about 
his ailments and their treatment by his physi- 
cians do not exalt him in our eyes, and make us 
wonder what exactly were his relations to his 
Eliza. Compared with Swift's Journal to Stella 
it sinks into pitiable insignificance. Swift pre- 
served the decencies in writing to Stella ; Sterne, 
improving upon his own advice to Smollett in 
the well known incident in the "Sentimental 
Journey," tells his ailments to his physician and 
then repeats to Eliza what he had said. 

If he is coarse in the Journal and elsewhere, 
he is profane in his letters to John Hall- 

Stevenson. Thus: "Remember me sometimes 
in your potations bid Panty pray for me, when 
he prays for the Holy Catholic Church pre- 
sent my compliments to Mrs. Ferguson and 
be in peace ^ and charity with all mankind 
And the blessing of God the Father, Son, and 
Holy Ghost be with you. Amen" And this 
to the author of the " Crazy Tales," as vile a 
collection of stories as were ever printed in 
English ! 

The best side of the man is seen in his affec- 
tion for his daughter Lydia. For her sake he 
would do anything, even be kind to his im- 
possible wife : " But I think, my Lydia, that thy 
mother will survive me - do not deject her 
spirits with thy apprehensiveness on my account. 
I have sent you a necklace, buckles, and the 
same to your mother. My girl cannot form a 
wish that is in the power of her father, that he 
will not gratify her in and I cannot in justice 
be less kind to thy mother." 

One is almost sorry to have read these letters. 
They seem like " Tristram " and the " Sentimen- 
tal Journey " without the humor that makes 
these works unsurpassed in their kind. Sterne 
could transmute into art thoughts and feelings 
that are perilously near the common and the 
unclean. It is not by the eccentricity of his 
style, for that would soon pass away into the 
limbo of freaks and follies, but by his surpassing 
humor and his knowledge of the human heart 
that he holds his readers at any rate his mas- 
culine readers; but in these letters we have no 
distinguished style, no real humor, no convin- 
cingly genuine feeling throughout. 



Mr. J. N. Larned's long residence 

A minister -!- IT IM 

of public in Buffalo, with whose public library 

benevolence. jjj 8 name is inseparably associated, 
brought him into friendly relations with the man 
whose biography he now presents in "The Life and 
Work of William Pryor Letchworth, Student and 
Minister of Public Benevolence " (Houghton). Mr. 
Letchworth's successful and profitable connection 
with the Buffalo firm of Pratt and Letchworth, hard- 
ware dealers, was but preliminary to his far more im- 
portant labors in the cause of public charity, which 
he entered upon when, in 1873, at fifty years of age, 
he found himself pecuniarily able to retire from busi- 
ness and devote himself to benevolence. It was in 
that year that he was appointed by Governor Dix 
to membership on the New York State Board of 
Charities, a position most honorably and usefully 
filled by him for twenty-three years, after which he 




continued to the end of his life, in 1910, to concern 
himself with the causes that had become of such en- 
grossing interest to him in the preceding decades. 
His work and his writings for the amelioration of the 
lot of the unfortunate are widely known and of course 
form the chief theme of Mr. Larned's carefully- 
written chapters. But the glimpses afforded of the 
more intimate and personal side of Mr. Letchworth's 
character will give the book its chief charm to many 
readers. Of Letchworth the man we read: "His 
enjoyments were of the sweeter and gentler sort. 
The lovelier sides of nature, the finer things of art, 
the generous exhibitions of humanity, appealed to 
him most. He was exceptionally fond of poetry, and, 
with a catholic taste, delighted in reading it and 
having it read to him, and carried in memory a large 
store of it, which he had begun to accumulate in his 
youth. To know him in this character, and to have 
acquaintance, at the same time, with the strenuous 
business man that he was for thirty years and the 
strong state official that he was for twenty-three 
more, vigilant, decisive, resolute, practically saga- 
cious, successful beyond the common, in both exhibi- 
tions, was to have a revelation of character that is 
exceedingly rare in its combination of qualities, and 
exceedingly fine." Commendation of Mr. Larned's 
style and workmanship would, of course, be superflu- 
ous. Illustrations, a list of Mr. Letchworth's writings, 
and an index, are duly provided. 

Chapter, on the Zt uld Seem to the Student of the 
broiderer's art broiderer's art that little could be 
in England. gained by the division of the history 
of that art in England into two parts ecclesiastical 
and secular. It is not always readily determined to 
which class an ancient embroidery may be assigned, 
as in the case of the richly wrought palls or hearse 
cloths belonging to the old City Companies. There 
were times, furthermore, when the custom prevailed 
of converting wearing apparel into ecclesiastical 
vestments. Even in recent times religious symbols 
have been freely used in embroideries intended for 
secular use, and in the history of the development 
of needlecraft no such distinction as that above 
referred to appears. The superiority of the English 
ecclesiastical embroidery, about which much has 
been written, is universally acknowledged: that a 
like excellence was attained in the production of 
embroideries for other purposes than for the enrich- 
ment of the church and church services, might have 
been generally taken for granted. M. Jourdain, 
however, in the eleven chapters of his book on 
"English Secular Embroidery" (Button), finds 
much to contribute to our knowledge of the history 
and technique of embroidery in England from a 
study of the embroideries which were not at all 
intended for ecclesiastical enrichment, and which 
were produced in greater quantity than we have been 
wont to suppose. Aside from this interest to the 
embroiderer, these chapters throw valuable sidelights 
upon the domestic and economic life of the peoples 
of the Saxon, Tudor, and Stuart periods and of later 

times. The book is full of information regarding 
the different materials used and the technique em- 
ployed at different times, and regarding the various 
styles or fashions having their peculiar vogue at 
various periods ; and the wealth of illustration en- 
hances the value of this information to those who at 
the present day are interested in needlecraft. Of 
especial interest is the final chapter on Samplers. 
Originally these were patterns of embroidery on 
strips of linen, hence the name sampler exemplar 
or ensampler. Later they came to be used in the 
instruction of the young women of England, not 
only in needlecraft but in morals and religion, and 
even in history and geography as a number of 
map samplers still extant attest. 

There are several good biographies 
"Le'TaSurne." of William the Silent in English, but 

Mr. Jack Collings Squire, late Scholar 
of St. John's College, Cambridge, now gives us a 
"Life" (Doubleday) which makes use of material 
that Mr. Frederic Harrison and Miss Putnam, not 
to speak of Motley, were unable to take advantage 
of. His volume is thus richer by the inclusion of cer- 
tain minor details that his predecessors were ignorant 
of, and is moreover interesting from beginning to 
end. Mr. Squire's point of view is not a new one, 
except perhaps in so far as he maintains that the 
devoted and judicious leader's life was a continuous 
development, and not a series of separate and incon- 
sistent phases. Though educated into the Catholic 
Church in youth, every drop of blood in his body 
was Protestant, and it was inevitable that he should 
sooner or later come into his own religiously. Though 
a loyal subject of Philip, if Philip had given him 
the slightest hint of a chance to remain so, he was a 
man who could see far into the future; and whereas 
Motley asserts that " his treasonable thoughts " began 
with his discovery, in 1 566, that Philip was secretly 
planning to overthrew his sister's "Accord " and root 
out every vestige of liberty, Mr. Squire has been able 
to show that "treasonable thoughts," the suspicion, 
that is, that since the Netherlands were unalterably 
Protestant and Philip a tyrant whose nature was 
absolutely incapable of yielding, violent resistance 
might one day be inevitable, had been in the back- 
ground of his mind from his very early manhood. 
Mr. Squire characterizes his hero happily in the term, 
"wonderful opportunist genius," and dwells de- 
lightedly on what may well be the most striking evi- 
dence of that quality in his history. The Protestant 
majority in Antwerp, maddened by the disgraceful 
butchering of their co-religionists in a one-sided 
struggle which had occurred without the walls, were 
in imminent danger of wreaking revenge on their 
Catholic fellow-citizens. Antwerp was prevailingly 
Calvinist. William "knew and regretted the enmity 
which subsisted between the Calvinists and the Luth- 
erans. Since, however, it was there, he determined 
to make use of it ... he had conversations with the 
leading Lutherans. . . . His own notions leaning 
toward the Augsburg Confession served him well 



[July 16, 

... he persuaded the good men that, for the mo- 
ment, the cause of the Catholics was theirs. . . . The 
Catholics and the Lutherans were now united on the 
side of the authorities," and the Catholics were saved. 
It is this sort of skilful choice of the essential and the 
strikingly illustrative that makes the book both read- 
able and useful. 

Mr. Herbert Croly's faithful and 

readafte account of " Marcus Alonzo 

Hanna: His Life and Work" (Mac- 
millan) is especially commendable for its frank 
acceptance of Mr. Hanna's limitations, its freedom 
from hero-worship, its truthful presentation of the 
real Mark Hanna, successful business man and 
shrewd politician. In the following passage, for 
instance, briefly characterizing the able worker for 
his party, there is no attempt at idealization: "In 
order, consequently, to understand Mark Hanna's 
point of departure in politics we must bear in mind 
(1) that he was an industrial pioneer, and instinct- 
ively took to politics as well as business; (2) that 
in politics as in business he wanted to accomplish 
results ; (3) that politics meant to him active party 
service; (4) that successful party service meant 
the acceptance of prevailing political methods and 
abuses; and (5) finally that he was bound by the 
instinctive consistency of his nature to represent in 
politics, not merely his other dominant interest, but 
the essential harmony between the interests of busi- 
ness and those of the whole community." He was 
not, however, Mr. Croly does his best to prove to 
us, "unscrupulous, inhumanly selfish, the sweater of 
his own employees, the relentless enemy of organized 
labor, the besotted plutocrat, the incarnate dollar- 
mark," as his enemies were fond of representing him. 
The best side of the man shows itself in his attach- 
ment to Mr. McKinley. "He had in the first place 
a veritable gift for friendship. His personal rela- 
tions with other men constituted the very core and 
substance of his life. He had served Mr. McKinley, 
as he had served so many others, because of disin- 
terested personal devotion; but in the case of Mr. 
McKinley the personal devotion was heightened by 
feelings derived from another source. This partic- 
ular friendship had awakened his aspirations. His 
general disposition was such that an ideal could 
make a peculiarly strong appeal to him only when 
it was embodied in a human being. Mr. McKinley's 
finer qualities aroused in him the utmost admira- 
tion." There was a vast deal of human nature in 
Mr. Hanna, and his biography, well written and suit- 
ably illustrated, impresses that fact on the reader. 

In writing his "Short History of 
the Scottish People" (Hodder & 
Stoughton), Dr. Donald MacMillan 
has rendered a distinct service to the history of his 
native land : he has given us a readable and reason- 
ably accurate account of Scottish development, in a 
single volume of moderate compass. Except for 
sketchy compilations of the text-book type, our 

historical literature has no other treatment of this 
subject in one volume. To tell the story of ten 
troubled centuries in fewer than five hundred pages 
is a difficult undertaking; but, everything consid- 
ered, the author has achieved a signal success. The 
annals of Scotland are replete with dramatic inter- 
est; they are full of thrilling episodes, and teem 
with striking personalities. Dr. MacMillan appre- 
ciates this fact: he knows the literary values of 
certain classes of episodes and writes accordingly. 
In grouping the events about certain dominant 
personalities, he has been able to unify his work 
and to invest it with an interest that an impersonal 
story cannot have; but at the same time he fails to 
do justice to the great popular movements, which 
are, after all, the essential facts in the history of a 
"people." It would also have been well if the 
author had broken with the British habit of telling 
the story by reigns. Almost every chapter is headed 
by the name of the sovereign; but there are times 
when the sovereign is of small importance com- 
pared with certain other chiefs in the kingdom. An 
attractive feature of the narrative is the liberal 
spirit in which the author treats the long conflict 
with the southern kingdom. While truly patriotic, 
he realizes that the union has been a blessing to 
Scotchmen as well as to Englishmen. His work is 
consequently free from such superfluous outbursts 
as are sometimes found in Mr. Andrew Lang's 
history. The author practically closes his account 
with 1745; a concluding chapter carries the story 
on to 1843, but in the form of a summary only. 

A handbook " The British We . st Indies," by Mr. 
to the British Algernon E. Aspinall, is the fourth 
West Indies. volume in what is known as the " All 
Red Series" (Little, Brown & Co.) covering the 
different parts of the British Empire. The volumes 
already published deal with Canada, Australia, and 
New Zealand. As with its predecessors, this book 
on the West Indies is the work of a competent man, 
thoroughly in touch with his subject. Mr. Aspinall 
is the Honorary Secretary to the West India Commit- 
tee, and has therefore had exceptional opportunities 
for informing himself as to the political and com- 
mercial history of the West Indies. Opening with 
a chapter on the discovery of the islands, he sketches 
rapidly their history, physical features, flora and 
fauna, the social and industrial life of the people, 
religion, education, local government, railways, bank- 
ing, agriculture, and concludes with several very 
interesting chapters on the future of this important 
group of British colonies, how they may be affected 
by the opening of the Panama Canal, their relations 
with Canada and the United States, and the move- 
ment toward confederation into one strong common- 
wealth. There are obvious difficulties in the way 
of bringing into one political union such scattered 
colonies as Jamaica, the Bahamas, Trinidad, British 
Guiana, the Leeward Islands, Barbados, and British 
Honduras, not to mention Bermuda; nevertheless 
the advantages would be enormous, both from an 




international and an inter-imperial point of view. 
As Mr. Aspinall points out, at the last Imperial Con- 
ference in London, New Zealand, with a population 
of 1,000,000, and Newfoundland, with a population 
of less than 250,000, took an active part in every 
discussion, while the West Indies, with a population 
of 2,000,000, were not represented at all, as they 
were not among the self-governing commonwealths. 

Index and digest What " Poole ' S Inde . x " is to the g en " 
of our periodical eral student searching the files of 
library literature, miscellaneous periodicals for matter 
on any given subject, "Library Work" successfully 
strives to be for the person interested in the maga- 
zine literature of library economy and library his- 
tory. In a large octavo of four hundred and nine 
double-column pages, the H. W. Wilson Company of 
Minneapolis has brought together " in one alphabet 
the entire contents of 'Library Work' since its 
beginning [as a quarterly] in 1905; also new ma- 
terial bringing it to the close of 1911." Miss Anna 
Lorraine Guthrie has edited the work, assisted by 
competent helpers. An important feature of this 
index is that it is much more than a simple index: 
digests of the more noteworthy articles cited are 
generously supplied, especially in the case of foreign 
and other less-known and less easily accessible 
periodicals. Thirty-two of these periodical pub- 
lications devoted to library interests have been con- 
sulted in preparing the work, and an alphabetical 
list of them is given, showing that they represent 
the library activity of this country, England, 
Spain, Italy, Germany, Holland, Denmark, Nor- 
way, and Sweden; but France, somewhat to one's 
surprise, is unrepresented, as also is Belgium, 
two countries that have contributed in later years 
toward the advancement of library science. The 
sub-title of this useful work describes it as "a biblio- 
graphy and digest of library literature," which in 
the full sense of the words it is not, since that con- 
siderable and most important store of such literature 
to be found in book form is disregarded. The 
addition of the two words "in periodicals" to the 
sub-title would have made it conform, in genuine- 
ness and accuracy, to the character of the book it 
now imperfectly describes. 

Fishers and Gra y weather, fog, winter storms, 
fighters of and the ceaseless struggle with the 

the North Sea. elements in their wildest moods, are 
the lot of the North Sea fisherman. The reader of 
Mr. Walter Wood's "North Sea Fishers and Fight- 
ers" (Button) finds himself at once in this atmos- 
phere of "hard gray weather that breeds hard 
Englishmen " and discovers throughout the book that 
ring of genuineness which comes only from intimate 
knowledge of these turbulent waters and the hardy 
breed of men who by strenuous toil reap a rich har- 
vest from this sea and feed England's millions. Over 
twenty-two million hundred-weight of fish (largely 
from the North Sea) are landed annually in Great 
Britain, valued at over ten million pounds sterling. 

Worthy descendants of those whom the Roman poet 
characterized as " sea- wolves that live on the pillage 
of the world," the modern British sea-rover gleans 
the fertile waters of the North Sea with powerful 
machinery, reaping a profit undreamed of a few 
decades past. The author's account of the deep-sea 
trawling, of life on ships and shore, of the fishermen 
and their work, is intimate, accurate, and illuminat- 
ing. The illustrations in color and pencil by Mr. 
Frank H. Mason are both artistic and instructive, 
and the photographs also enhance the value of the 
work. The account is largely historical, and abounds 
in note and anecdote of famous captains, fights and 
fighters, wrecks, and heroes whose names add lustre 
to Britain's greatness. 

Collectors of finely-printed books 

have loB S felt the need of a conven- 
ient check-list, in a single volume, to 
the output of the various private presses established 
during the past quarter-century. This need has now 
been well met in a volume published by Mr. Philip 
Lee Warner for the Medical Society, London, and 
entitled : " The Revival of Printing : A Bibliographi- 
cal Catalogue of Works Issued by the Chief Modern 
English Presses." Detailed lists of the productions 
of ten English presses (the Daniel, Kelmscott, Vale, 
Eragny, Ashendene, Essex House, Doves, Cuala, 
Florence, and Riccardi) and one American press 
(the Merrymount) are given ; besides an account of 
the publications printed in the Cambridge type and 
Mr. Proctor's Greek type. Eighteen reproductions 
(half of these being collotype facsimiles) of the most 
notable type faces used by the presses represented add 
greatly to the interest of the work. Mr. Robert Steele 
contributes an extended introduction, outlining the 
history of printing in England and the general 
characteristics of the best modern work, with brief 
sketches of the various Presses included in the Bibli- 
ography. Along with much that is unimpeachable, 
Mr. Steele expresses several rather dogmatic opinions 
that are open to question. For example, that "the 
secret of the beautiful book was lost until William 
Morris revived the art" will seem to many a state- 
ment of doubtful accuracy. This volume is itself a 
piece of exceptionally handsome book-making, being 
printed in the Riccardi type designed by Mr. Herbert 
P. Home. The edition is limited to 350 copies. 

To each of her admirers Paris speaks 

with a vari US charm > but to n ne is 
her voice more eloquent than to the 

student of history and the lover of the past. He alone 
really knows the city who knows it as a scholar and 
an antiquarian, since only such appreciate to the full 
that wealth of story and tradition which has overlaid 
it like the rich patina on a Roman bronze. Hence 
the fascination of a book like M. Georges Cain's 
" Byways of Paris " (Duffield). Curator of the Mus^e 
Carnavaletandthe historical collections of the French 
capital, M. Cain has already given us many delight- 
ful pages on the Old Paris that he knows and loves 



[July 16, 

so well, and his latest volume proves anew his power 
to unite erudition and literary qualities. It makes 
very interesting reading this sprightly combina- 
tion of history, antiquarianism, reminiscence, and 
actualites, and the hundred and thirty-odd illustra- 
tions, many of which are taken from old maps and 
prints, add to the vividness of its gossippy learning. 
Anecdotes of Prudhon and Talma, the Mask of 
Richelieu, the old Vaudeville Theatre, Paris seen 
from a halloon, Paris at night, Balzac's house, 
the true Butte Montmartre, the story of the fourth 
of September, the inundations, the dancing classes 
of the Opera these are among the most noteworthy 
chapters in a series of twenty cursory promenades 
through the Paris of to-day and yesterday. 


" Cadillac and Early Detroit " is the name of an at- 
tractive, appropriately-illustrated pamphlet devoted to 
the bibliography of the founder of the Queen City of 
the Straits and the years of its infant struggles with the 
surrounding wilderness. The Detroit Public Library 
issues the pamphlet, and the bibliography is based chiefly 
on the material to be found within its walls. 

Number two of the " Publications of the Newberry 
Library " consists of a descriptive list of " The Arabic 
and Turkish Manuscripts in the Newberry Library," the 
compiler being Professor Duncan Black Ma.cdona.ld, 
occupant of the chair of Semitic Languages in the 
Hartford Theological Seminary. The manuscripts 
number twenty-two, and their titles and descriptions 
fill, with generous spacing, an eighteen-page pamphlet. 

" The White Hills in Poetry " (Houghton), edited by 
Mr. Eugene R. Musgrove, is an anthology which will 
be welcome to all New Englanders, for whom the White 
Mountains enshrine so many associations endeared to 
memory. All the New England poets sang of these 
hills, and their choicest songs upon this theme are gath- 
ered together into the present volume, which has clearly 
been a labor of love to its compiler. 

" The Forester's Manual," by Mr. Ernest Thompson 
Seton, is a book prepared for the use of boy scouts. It 
gives a brief description, with illustrative cuts, of every 
forest tree at all common in the eastern part of the 
United States. The means of identification are thus sup- 
plied, as well as the facts of chief economic importance. 
The distribution of every species is shown by a shaded 
map, and this is one of the most helpful features of the 
book. Messrs. Doubleday, Page & Co. are the pub- 

The Virginia State Library has sent out the eighth 
and ninth volumes of the " Journals of the House of 
Burgesses of Virginia." These volumes cover a period 
from 1712 to 1740; the seven volumes proceeding 
extend to 1776. The printing of the Journals has been 
done in the reverse chronological order. The eighth 
volume, covering the period from 1727 to 1740, is 
based in part upon the first of the original printed 
Journals, which began only with 1732, and in part 
upon manuscript sources from the British public record 
office. Volume IX. is based entirely upon the manu- 
script journals which are found only in the British 
public office. The editor has made no change of style, 
but has followed the manuscripts exactly, mistakes and 

all, pursuing the editorial policy adopted in the begin- 
ning of the undertaking. In the introduction to each 
volume are published lists of the Burgesses for each 
assembly, an account of the sources upon which the 
present edition is based, a brief historical setting, and 
the history of each assembly by sessions. It is not 
necessary to say more than has already been said in 
commendation of the excellent work of both editor and 
printer of this series, which must prove of great value 
to the historian of American institutions. 

The series of Introductions supplied by E. P. Whipple 
to a well-known American edition of Dickens nearly 
forty years ago have now been brought together in two 
small and beautifully-printed volumes as the latest title 
in the Riverside Press Editions (Houghton Mifflin Co.). 
Mr. Arlo Bates contributes an excellent introduction 
dealing with Whipple personally as well as critically; 
and each volume contains a photogravure portrait and 
engraved vignette title-page. Devout Dickensians every- 
where will be glad to have these brilliant studies in such 
compact and handsome form. The edition to be sold 
is limited to five hundred copies. 

In the new batch of thirty-nine volumes just added 
to " Everyman's Library " (Dutton) we are especially 
glad to note the inclusion of Mr. William Canton's ex- 
quisite revelation of child-life, "W. V.: Her Book," 
with its companion pieces, " The Invisible Playmate " 
and " In Memory of W. V." Other welcome volumes 
are Mr. Bolton King's fine life of Mazzini; a new ver- 
sion, for modern readers, of " Piers Plowman," made 
by Mr. Arthur Burrell; and a collection of " Arthurian 
Tales and Chronicles" represented by Wace and Lay- 
amon, translated by Mr. Eugene Mason and edited by 
Miss Lucy A. Paton. With this new instalment, 
" Everyman's Library " rounds out a total of six hun- 
dred volumes. 

The twenty-first annual Report of the Seattle Public 
Library shows clearly that the library of our fastest- 
growing city is not itself standing still. Twenty-two 
thousand volumes have been added in the past year, 
bringing the total collection up to one hundred and fifty 
thousand; the charging system and the open-shelf ar- 
rangement have been simplified or otherwise improved ; 
the daily fine on overdue books has been reduced from 
two cents to one cent, and the deposit required from 
non-residents has been likewise diminished, being now 
two instead of five dollars. In other quiet but effective 
ways the library is striving to improve on its already 
excellent system in serving, with a minimum of red tape 
and friction, the great and growing public that enjoys 
its facilities. 

A county library in Ohio, founded eleven years ago, 
considerably in advance of the now famous California 
county library system, issues its annual report in a read- 
able pamphlet entitled "The Brumbach Library of Van 
Wert County." Especially notable in this eleventh 
annual record of progress is the largeness of result as 
compared with the smallness of outlay. At an expense 
of only seven thousand dollars (or $7,013.64, to be 
exact), the activities of the central library at Van Wert 
and of its fifteen branch stations and twelve school 
libraries have gone on for a year. It is true that the 
entire county numbers less than thirty thousand inhab- 
itants, but even so the maintenance of so good a library 
service (including purchase of new books and payment 
of all other expenses) at so small a cost to those served 
is worthy of note. The Van Wert library workers de- 
serve, of course, more generous financial support. 





A study of " Browning and His Century," by Miss 
Helen A. Clarke, is in preparation for autumn publica- 
tion by Messrs. Doubleday, Page & Co. 

The biography of George Frederick Watts, upon 
which his widow has been engaged for some time past, 
is now practically finished and will be published in the 
autumn by Messrs. Macmillan. 

Mr. Thomas Wright, author of biographies of William 
Cowper and Edward FitzGerald, is preparing for pub- 
lication an entirely new and exhaustive Life of William 
Blake, founded upon a quantity of hitherto unpublished 

Mrs. Alice Meynell is engaged upon a " Life of the 
Virgin," which will be illustrated from a large number 
of pictures in color by Mr. R. Anning Bell. It will 
be published in the autumn for the Medici Press by 
Messrs. Macmillan. 

Two new " Temple Primers " (Button) resume the 
issue of that most acceptable series of scholarly manuals 
for the general reader. They are " Our Weather," by 
Messrs. J. S. Fowler and W. Marriott, and "The 
Renaissance," by Mr. J. Basil Oldham. 

" Reminiscences of the South Seas," by the late John 
La Farge, is one of the most interesting announcements 
on Messrs. Doubleday, Page & Co.'s autumn list. It 
consists of the diary kept by the artist during his resi- 
dence in Samoa and Fiji, with numerous reproductions 
from his paintings. 

" C. Q. ; or, In the Wireless House " is the title of a 
romance of the high seas by Mr. Arthur Train, which 
the Century Co. will publish in August. The same 
publishers announce for issue in the early autumn a new 
story by Mrs. Alice Hegan Rice, entitled " A Romance 
of Billy-Goat Hill." 

In "The Oregon System: The Story of Direct Leg- 
islation in Oregon," to be published immediately by 
Messrs. A. C. McClurg & Co., Mr. Allen H. Eaton, the 
oldest member in point of service in the Oregon Legis- 
lature, tells the story of the growth and workings of 
the system from an unbiased standpoint. 

That standard work, " The Constitutional History of 
England," by Sir Thomas Erskine May, has been repub- 
lished by Messrs. Longmans, Green & Co., under the 
editorship of Francis Holland, who has reproduced the 
two original volumes practically unchanged, and himself 
written a third, continuing the subject from 1860 to 1911. 

From a literary point of view the most noteworthy 
magazine feature of the year will consist of the Meredith 
letters, several instalments of which are to appear in 
" Scribner's," beginning with the August issue. This 
issue of " Scribner's " will also contain a sketch of 
Southern life by Mr. John Galsworthy, the first pub- 
lished result of his recent visit to this country. 

In the series of "English Readings for Schools" 
(Holt), we have these new volumes: "English Lyrics 
from Dryden to Burns," edited by Professor Morris W. 
Croll; "Selections from Huxley," edited by Professor 
C. Alphonso Smith; "Macaulay's Life of Johnson," 
edited by Professor Chester N. Greenough; and Milton's 
minor poems, edited by Professor Martin W. Sampson. 

The latest recruit to the ranks of London publishers 
is Mr. Herbert Jenkins, who for more than ten years 
was manager for Mr. John Lane. Mr. Jenkins is the 
author of a Life of George Borrow recently published 
in England and America. He is also known as a Blake 

enthusiast on original lines of research; for it was he 
who discovered the State Papers relating to the poet's 
trial for high treason, and located his grave in Bunhill 
Fields Cemetery, which in all probability will result in 
a fitting memorial being erected to Blake. Mr. Jenkins 
has also been a contributor to leading English reviews 
and magazines. 

Mr. B. W. Huebsch announces that he is preparing 
an authorized edition of the dramas by Gerhart Haupt- 
mann, under a contract with Hauptmann and the pub- 
lisher of his works in the original. The rights are for 
Great Britain and the United States, and include all the 
dramas except those for which a translation has already 
been authorized. The first volume will appear in the fall. 

Eight new volumes of the " Home University Library" 
(Holt) include several works of exceptional value. The 
most notable of them is Professor W. P. Ker's treatise 
on " Mediaeval English Literature." Among the others 
are Dr. Paul L. Haworth's " Reconstruction and Union, 
1865-1912," Mr. Logan P. Smith's "The English 
Language," and Mr. Frederick Soddy's " Matter and 

A carefully selected list of books dealing with the 
industrial arts, being a revision of a similar list issued 
two years ago, is published by the Detroit Public Li- 
brary in a pamphlet of eighty-six pages, one column to 
the page. The general subject is divided into nineteen 
classes, and an appendix gives a list of books for boys; 
another notes leading periodicals and transactions; and 
an author index follows. 

Recent German texts published by Messrs. D. C. 
Heath & Co. are the following: Freytag's "Das Nest 
der Zaunkonige," edited by Professors E. C. Roedder 
and C. H. Handschin; Hebbel's "Agnes Bernauer," 
edited by Professor M. Blakemore Evans; Wilden- 
bruch's " Die Rabensteinerin," edited by Professor R. 
Clyde Ford; and an anthology of " Deutscher Humor 
aus Vier Jahrhunderten," edited by Mr. Frederik Betz. 
The selections in the last-named little book are mostly 
from old sources, such as Hans Sachs and the Volks- 
biicher, although there are a few modern examples from 
such authors as Hebel and Reuter. A particularly 
satisfactory edition of Lessing's " Nathan der Weise," 
edited by Professor J. G. Robertson, comes from the 
Cambridge University Press. 


[The following list, containing 85 titles, includes books 
received by THE DIAL since its last issue.] 


Harriet Hosme-r: Letters and Memories. Edited by 
Cornelia Carr. Illustrated in photogravure, etc., 
8vo, 386 pages. Mbffat, Yard & Co. $3. net. 

Recollections of Guy de Maupassant. By his valet, 
Frangois; translated from the French by Mina 
Round. Illustrated, large 8vo, 324 pages. John 
Lane Co. $3. net. 

My Life In Prison. By Donald Lowrie. 12mo, 422 
pages. Mitchell Kennerley. $1.25 net. 

Johnaonlau Gleanings. By Aleyn Lyell Reade. Part 
II., Francis Barber, the Doctor's Negro Servant. 
With frontispiece, 8vo, 132 pages. London: Ar- 
den Press. 


Social France at the Time of Philip Augustus. By 
Achille Luchaire. Authorized translation, from 
the second edition of the French, by Edward Ben- 
jamin Krehbfel, Ph.D. 8vo, 441 pages. Henry 
Holt & Co, $3. net. 



[July 16, 

British Radicalism, 1791-1797. By Walter Phelps 
Hall. 8vo, 262 pages. "Studies in History, Eco- 
nomics, and Public Law." New York: Columbia 
University Press. Paper, $2. net. 

Early Chapters in the Development of the Potomac 
Route to the West. By Mrs. Corra Bacon-Foster. 
Illustrated, 8vo, 277 pages. Washington: Colum- 
bia Historical Society. 


English Lyrical Poetry from Its Origins to the Pres- 
ent Time. By Edward Bliss Reed, Ph.D. 8vo, 616 
pages. New Haven: Yale University Press. 
$2.25 net. 

The Convictions of a Grandfather. By Robert Grant. 
12mo, 289 pages. Charles Scribner's Sons. $1.25 net. 

Spenser, the School of the Fletchers, and Milton. By 
Herbert E. Cory. 8vo, 373 pages. Berkeley: Uni- 
versity of California Press. Paper, 75 cts. net. 

Dante Gabriel Rossetti and German Literature. By 
L. A. Willoughby, Ph.D. 8vo, 32 pages. New 
York: Oxford University Press. Paper. 


There are Crimes and Crimes: A Comedy. By August 
Strindberg; translated from the Swedish, with an 
introduction, by Edwin Bjorkman. 12mo, 86 
pages. Charles Scribner's Sons. 75 cts. net. 

The Tudor Shakespeare. Edited by William Allan 
Neilson and Ashley Horace Thorndike. New vol- 
umes: Richard the Third, edited by George B. 
Churchill, Ph.D.; Henry IV., Part II.. edited 
by Elizabeth Deering Hanscom, Ph.D. Each with 
frontispiece, 16mo. Macmillan Co. Per volume, 
35 cts. net. 

The Ban of Baldurbane: An Epic. By Henry R. Gib- 
son. 8vo, 495 pages. Sherman, French & Co. 
$1.25 net. 

Meadow and Bush: A Book of Verses. By James 
Hebblethwaite. 12mo, 98 pages. Sydney: The 
Bookfellow. Paper. 

The Turnstile. By A. E. W. Mason. 12mo, 471 pages. 

Charles Scribner's Sons. $1.30 net. 
The "White Waterfall. By James Francis Dwyer. 

Illustrated, 12mo, 288 pages. Doubleday, Page & 

Co. $1.20 net. 
The Principal Girl. By J. C. Snaith. 12mo, 308 pages. 

Moffat, Yard & Co. $1.25 net. 
An American Wooing. By Florence Drummond. 

12mo, 301 pages. Houghton Mifflin Co. $1.25 net. 
George Wendern Gave a Party. By John Inglis. 

12mo, 301 pages. Charles Scribner's Sons. $1.25 net. 
A Bermuda Lily. By Virginia W. Johnson. 12mo, 

287 pages. A. S. Barnes Co. 

The Triangle Cupid. By Charles Allen Seltzer. Il- 
lustrated, 12mo, 268 pages. New York: Outing 

Publishing Co. $1. net. 


Government by All the People; or, The Initiative, 
the Referendum, and the Recall as Instruments 
of Democracy. By Delos F. Wilcox, Ph.D. 12mo, 
324 pages. Macmillan Co. $1.50 net. 

The Child In the City: A Series of Papers Presented 
at the Conferences Held during the Chicago Child 
Welfare Exhibit. Edited by Sophonisba P. Breck- 
inridge. Illustrated, 8vo, 502 pages. Chicago: 
Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy. 
$1.50 net. 

Direct Elections and Law-Making by Popular Vote: 
The Initiative, the Referendum, the Recall, Com- 
mission Government for Cities and Preferential 
Voting. By Edwin M. Bacon and Morrill Wy- 
man. 12mo, 167 pages. Houghton Mifflin Co. 
$1. net. 

The Supreme Court and the Constitution. By Charles 
A. Beard. 12mo, 127 pages. Macmillan Co. $1. net. 

Provincial and Local Taxation in Canada. By Solo- 
mon Vineberg, Ph.D. 8vo, 171 pages. "Studies 
in History, Economics, and Public Law." New 
York: Columbia University Press, Paper, $1,50 net. 

The Spirit of Chinese Philanthropy: A Study in Mu- 
tual Aid. By Yu-Yue Tsu, Ph.D. 8vo, 122 pages. 
"Studies in History, Economics, and Public Law." 
New York: Columbia University Press. Paper, 
$1. net. 

A Comparative Study of the Law of Corporations. 
By Arthur K. Kuhn, Ph.D. 8vo, 173 pages. "Stud- 
ies in History, Economics, and Public Law." New 
York: Columbia University Press. Paper, $1.50 net. 

Individualism: The Solution of our Economic Prob- 
lems. By Joseph Jordan Devney. 12mo, 66 pages. 
Cleveland: Individualist Publishing Co. 25 cts. net. 


Moths of the Limberlost. By Gene Stratton-Porter. 

Illustrated in color, etc., large 8vo, 370 pages. 

Doubleday, Page & Co. $2.50 net. 
Saturday in My Garden: A Practical Guide to the 

Cultivation of Small Gardens, with Hints on 

their Care and Management. By F. Hadfleld 

Farthing, F.R.H.S. Illustrated, 8vo, 484 pages. 

Doubleday, Page & Co. $2.50 net. 
Practical Dry-Fly Fishing. By Emlyn M. Gill. 12mo. 

216 pages. Charles Scribner's Sons. $1.25 net. 


The Realm of Ends; or, Pluralism and Theism. By 
James Ward. 8vo, 490 pages. G. P. Putnam's 
Sons. $3.25 net. 

Cuneiform Parallels to the Old Testament. Trans- 
lated and edited by Robert William Rogers, Ph.D. 
Illustrated, large 8vo, 567 pages. Eaton & Mains. 
$4.50 net. 

The Meaning of God in Human Experience: A Philo- 
sophic Study of Religion. By William Ernest 
Hocking, Ph.D. Large 8vo, 586 pages. New Ha- 
ven: Yale University Press. $3. net. 

The Rise of the Modern Spirit in Europe: A Study 
of the Pre-Reformation Age in its Social, Scien- 
tific, and Literary Aspects. By George S. Butz, 
Ph.D. 12mo, 293 pages. Sherman, French & Co. 
$1.25 net. 

Endeavors after the Spirit of Religion. By Arthur 
G. Beach. 12mo, 124 pages. Sherman, French & 
Co. $1. net. 

The Sign above the Door. By William W. Canfield. 
12mo, 325 pages. Philadelphia: Jewish Publica- 
tion Society. 


Festivals and Plays In Schools and Elsewhere. By 
Percival Chubb and his Associates. Illustrated, 
8vo, 403 pages. Harper & Brothers. $2. net. 

The Evolution of Educational Theory. By John Ad- 
ams, LL.D. 8vo, 410 pages. "Schools of Philoso- 
phy." Macmillan Co. $2.75 net. 

English Composition and Style: A Handbook for 
College Students. By William T. Brewster, A.M. 
12mo, 512 pages. Century Co. $1.35 net. 

Handbook of the Modern Greek Vernacular: Gram- 
mar, Texts, Glossary. By Albert Thumb; trans- 
lated, from the second improved and enlarged 
German edition, by S. Angus, Ph.D. 8vo, 370 
pages. Charles Scribner's Sons. 

Current Educational Activities: A Report upon Edu- 
cation throughout the World. By John Palmer 
Garber, Ph.D. 12mo, 387 pages. "Lippincott's 
Educational Series." J. B. Lippincott Co. $1.25 net. 

The Normal Child and Primary Education. By 
Arnold L. Gesell and Beatrice Chandler Gesell. 
Illustrated, 12mo, 342 pages. Ginn & Co. $1.25 net. 

Commercial and Industrial Geography. By Albert 
Galloway Keller and Avard Longley Bishop. Il- 
lustrated in color, etc., 12mo, 357 pages. Glnn & 
Co. $1. net. 

Inside Finishing. By Charles A. King. Illustrated, 
12mo, 227 pages. "King's Series in Woodwork 
and Carpentry." American Book Co. 80 cts. net. 

Elementary Physiology for Advanced Grades. By 
John Calvin Willis, M.D. Illustrated, 12mo, 394 
pages. American Book Co. 80 cts. net. 

Winter. By Dallas Lore Sharp. Illustrated, 12mo, 
148 pages. "Dallas Lore Sharp Nature Series." 
rioughton Mifflin Co. 60 cts. net. 





Dictionary of National Biography. Edited by Sir 
Sidney Lee. Second Supplement, Volume I.; large 
8vo, 649 pages. Macmillan Co. $4.50 net. 

Architectural Styles for Country Houses. Edited by 
Henry H. Saylor. Illustrated, large 8vo, 124 
pages. McBride, iNast & Co. $2. net. 

The Sexual Life of the Child. By Dr. Albert Moll; 
translated from the German by Dr. Eden Paul, 
with an introduction by Edward L. Thorndike. 
8vo, 339 pages. Macmillan Co. $1.75 net. 

Our Baby: A Concise and Practical Guide for the Use 
of Mothers in the Care and Feeding of Infants 
and Young Children. By Ralph Oakley Clock, 
M.D. Illustrated, 12mo, 193 pages. D. Appleton 
& Co. $1.25 net. 

Hopson on Auctlont The New Count Royals. By 
Francis Johnstone Hopson. 18mo, 86 pages. E. 
P. Dutton & Co. $1. net. 

Swimming Scientifically Taught. A Practical Man- 
ual for Young and Old. By Frank Eugen Dai- 
ton, P. S. A. Illustrated, 12mo, 195 pages. Funk 
&WagnallsCo. $1.25 net. 

Mind Cure, and Other Essays. By Philip Zenner, 
M.D. 12mo, 160 pages. Cincinnati: Stewart & 
Kidd Co. $1.25 net. 

The Loss of the SS. Titanic: Its Story and Its Les- 
sons. By Lawrence Beesley. Illustrated, 12mo, 
302 pages. Houghton Mifflin Co. $1.20 net. 

When Mother Lets Us Travel In Italy. By Charlotte 
M. Martin. Illustrated. 12mo, 212 pages. Moffat, 
Yard & Co. $1. net. 

A Shopping Guide to Paris and London. By Frances 
' Sheafer Waxman. Illustrated, 16mo, 108 pages. 
McBride, Nast & Co. 75 cts. net. 

Making a Garden of Perennials. By W. C. Egan. 
Illustrated, 16mo, 52 "ages. "House and Garden 
Making Books." McBride, Nast & Co. 50 cts. net. 

The Principles of Physiology. By John Gray Mc- 
Kendrick. 12mo, 256 pages. "Home University 
Library." Henry Holt & Co. 50 cts. net. 

Problem of Sex. By J. Arthur Thompson and Pat- 
rick Geddes. 12mo, 52 pages. "New Tracts for 
the Times." Moffat, Yard & Co. 50 cts. net. 

365 Channg-Dlsh Recipes: A Chaflng-Dish Recipe 
for Every Day in the Year. 12mo, 218 pages. 
George W. Jacobs & Co. 50 cts. net. 

Medical Education In Europe: A Report to the Car- 
negie Foundation for the Advancement of 
Teaching. By Abraham Flexner; with Intro- 
duction by Henry S. Pritchett. Large 8vo, 357 
pages. New York: The Carnegie Foundation. 

The Story of the Harvard-Yale Race, 1852 1912. 
By James Wellman and Dr. Walter B. Peet. Il- 
lustrated, 12mo, 38 pages. Harper & Brothers. 
Paper, 25 cts. net. 

Cutting It Out: How to Get on the Waterwagon and 
Stay There. By Samuel G. Blythe. 16mo, 60 
pages. Chicago: Forbes & Co. 35 cts. net. 

Social Service Series. Comprising: Why Boys and 
Girls Go Wrong, by Allan Hoben; The Function 
of the Family, by Howland Hanson, D.D. ; What 
Parents Should Teach Their Children, by Rev. 
Sylvanus Stall. Each, 12mo. Philadelphia: 
American Baptist Publication Society. Paper, 
each, 10 cts. net. 

How to Become a Citizen of the United States of America 

By C. KALLMEYER, Ph.D. Most comprehensive. Explains in detail 
requirements of new Naturalization Act, every question applicants may 
be asked, exposition of form of government, rights of citizens here and 
abroad, etc. Of value to all citizens. 127 pages, 93 in English and 34 in 
German. Cloth, $1.00 net. It may be ordered directly from us or through 
your wholesale house. A money maker for you. List in your catalog. 

Chas. Kallmeyer Publishing Co., 205 East 45th Street New York 


adaptable to motion photography 



Dept. H, 48th Street and Broadway, New York City 

Helen Norwood Halsey 

Publisher and Authors' Agent 
Maker and Builder of Books 

Books, Short Stories, and other Manuscripts 
wanted for publication. 

Herald Square Hotel NEW YORK CITY 

Send twenty -five cents in stamps for Miss Halsey 's Writer's Aid Leaflet 


83a High Street, Marylebone, London, W. 

Large stock of books on all subjects Catalogues issued at 
frequent intervals, any of which will be sent post free on 
application. Write for Special Illustrated Catalogue of 
When in London make a point of calling here. All sections on sight. 


Four Complete (juxtaposed) Texts Always Visible : 

1 . Fonetic (alf agamic) German 3. Word-for-word English 

2. Ordinary (romanized) German 4. Free English (verse ) 


Texts for Acquiring Languages 


Editorial Critic : GEORGE HEMPL, of Stanford University 

265 pages. Cloth 50c, postpaid 60c ; paper 25c, postpaid 31c 
LANGUAGES COMPANY, 143 W. 47th St.. New York 

The Mission of Victoria Wilhelmina 

By Jeanne Bartholow Magoun 

Dr. WILLIAM DnWITT HYDE, President Bowdoin Col- 
lege, says: 

"It is a graphic description of temptation, sin, punish- 
ment, repentance, and forgiveness." 

Dr. JOHN HOWARD MELISH, Church of the Holy Trinity, 
says : 

" ' The Mission of Victoria Wilhelmina ' is well told, in 
language and style adapted to the mind most needing its 
message, and is absorbingly interesting from first to last. I 
should like to see it in the hands of every girl between 
eighteen and twenty-five in this great city." 

At bookstores, $1.00 net. Postpaid, $1.06. 

B. W. HUEBSCH, Publisher, New York 

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[July 16, 1912. 


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[August 1, 1912. 


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Entered as Second-Class Matter October 8, 1892, at the Post Office 
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No. 627. 

AUGUST 1, 1912. 

Vol. LIII. 



. 63 



Mr. Shaw's conquest of Gaul. The sifting of manu- 
scripts. High hopes for the future of education. 
Emerging from the shelter of anonymity. Discover- 
ing the public library. Whitewashing Bacon. An 
Albemarle Street centenary. A plucky young au- 


Newcomer 88 


Atwood Kofoid 70 


Charles Richmond Henderson 71 


Dodd . . . 73 

RECENT FICTION. William Morton Payne ... 74 
Jordan's The Joyous Wayfarer. Straus's The 
Prison without a Wall. Mason's The Turnstile. 
Masefield's Multitude and Solitude. Haggard's 
Red Eve. Davis's The Friar of Wittenberg. Ber- 
tram's The Shadow of Power. Palmer's Over the 
Pass. The Street Called Straight. Kennedy- 
Noble's White Ashes. Parrish's Molly McDonald, 
a Tale of the Old Frontier. 


A survivor's account of the great shipwreck. Ex- 
pert advice about library architecture. Further 
memories of a noted journalist. The social genesis 
of the Bible. Humors of the law. Memories of 
Gen. Wheeler's Confederate cavalry. Notable men 
of East Tennessee. 





"Taking writers generally throughout the 
world, what does the literary mind contribute 
to the world's thought now ? Can you point to 
any one writer, anywhere in the world, whose 
thoughts about the world are really worth read- 
ing?" Thus questions one of the characters 
in Mr. John Masefield's "Multitude and Soli- 
tude," and, although it is not fair to ascribe to 
a novelist the random opinions expressed by his 
characters, there seems to be something of a 
direct personal element in this utterance, the 
voicing of at least a temporary mood. Another 
of the characters thus amplifies the argument: 
" I feel this about modern artists, that, with a 
few exceptions, they throw down no roots, 
either into national or private life. They care 
no more for the State, in its religious sense, 
than they care (as, say, an Elizabethan would 
have cared) for conduct. They seem to me a 
company of men without any common principle 
or joint enthusiasm, working, rather blindly and 
narrowly, at the bidding of personal idiosyncrasy, 
or some aberration of taste. A few of you, some 
of the most determined, are interested in social 
reform. The rest of you are merely photo- 
graphing what goes on for the amusement of 
those who cannot photograph." These remarks 
seem to us to point a fundamental misconception 
of a function of literature. The novelist, the 
dramatist, and the poet are the last persons in 
the world whom we should expect to " contribute 
to the world's thought." That is the business 
of the scientific investigator and the philosopher, 
not of the imaginative shaper of speech into 
enduring forms. The latter may be a propa- 
gator of thought, its clarifier and expositor, an 
extractor of the breath and finer spirit of all 
knowledge, but not an originator of new ideas. 
He is concerned with expression, and not with 
revelation, except in the sense that his form of 
statement may open the eyes to the hitherto 
unapprehended implications of some truth that 
has long been in the possession of mankind. 

To speak plainly, contributions to thought 
are among the rarest things in human expe- 
rience. It is a fertile century that can boast of 
two or three. Copernicus made one, and Adam 
Smith another, and Kant another, and Darwin 
still another ; but the Greeks did not leave very 
much for the modern world to do in this direc- 



[August 1, 

tion. Refinements and elaborations and special 
applications of old established principles are our 
task, and we are amazingly active in its pursuit. 
We sometimes almost convince ourselves that we 
are on the track of something that is really new, 
and call it pragmatism, or theosophy, or social- 
ism, or give it some other pretentious name, but 
analysis always shows it to be a thing of shreds 
and patches, its basic material fetched from 
remote periods in the history of culture. The 
roaring loom of time weaves countless new in- 
tellectual patterns, but the same old fibres are 
wrought into them; and the poet fashions the 
fabrics into new living garments of divinity, but 
they drape the limbs of the same old gods. 

We frequently hear a poet, a Wordsworth or 
a Browning, for example, spoken of as a pro- 
found thinker. But what does it all mean ? 
Who can point to an original thought, a "con- 
tribution to knowledge," in either of these great 
poets ? The former has for us a serene philo- 
sophical wisdom, the product of intuition com- 
bined with ripe reflection upon human conduct, 
and the prophetic vision which does not mean, 
as the foolish fancy, the power of peering into 
the future, but is the power of seeing beneath 
the surface of things and illuminating the secret 
recesses of the mind. The latter is probably one 
of the shallowest thinkers who ever won fame as 
a poet, and his helplessness, when he confronts 
any real intellectual problem, is nothing less 
than pitiable. He champions with fervor the 
validity of passion, and blurts out an instinctive 
but unreasoning optimism. The subtle dra- 
matic power with which he makes the most 
diverse types of character express themselves 
is beyond praise, but this, while it deepens our 
insight into human nature, does not do much of 
anything to enlarge the sphere of the rational 
life. As far as the assimilation of the conquests 
of human thought is concerned, the making of 
them a part of the individual intellect, Browning 
is far inferior to Tennyson, although the latter 
is frequently disparaged, on the count of intel- 
lectual grasp, when brought into comparison 
with Browning, for the sole reason that he obeys 
the promptings of the artist, and distils from the 
raw material of thought its purest essence. 

What "contributions to knowledge" do the 
famous poets of the older world bring us? They 
may reflect the form and vitalize the spirit of an 
age, as Homer and Spenser do ; they may write 
the epic of the heroic life, as do Tasso and 
Camoens, or of the spiritual life, as do Dante and 
Milton. But how is abstract thought the gainer 
from all the tale of Troy or of the Crusades, from 

the grandiose cosmogonies of the "Divine Com- 
edy " or of " Paradise Lost " ? These men inter- 
pret the pageant of life and the conflicts of the 
soul in terms of imperishable beauty, and it is 
doing them no dishonor to deny them kinship 
with Aristotle and Kant. Was Shakespeare a 
thinker ? Only in the sense that his plum met went 
deeper than any other into human character, and 
that no human motive was too intricate for his an- 
alysis. Perhaps the only world-poet who was a 
thinker in the higher sense was Goethe, in whom 
poetic faculty and intellectual power both reached 
their highest pitch, and were so fused in the same 
personality as to work in mutual harmony. 

If anywhere in literature, we might reason- 
ably look to the f ramers of Utopias or ideal com- 
monwealths for an exhibition of original and 
constructive thought. There is much helpful 
counsel for the conduct of the State and of the 
individual life in the imagined communities of 
Plato and More, of Comenius and Campanella, 
of Hobbes and Holberg. But they give us no 
new ethics or politics, but only the old ones 
inculcated by novel examples. And so with the 
petty Utopias of the modern writers down to the 
ingenious Mr. Wells: they may make fruitful ap- 
plications of accepted moralities, but we should 
search them in vain for any fundamentally new 
idea. Those who are looking for genuine novel- 
ties in thought are most likely to find them in 
the writings of such champions of the paradox- 
ical as Messrs. Shaw and Chesterton, or such 
iconoclastic philosophers as Messrs. James and 
Bergson ; but their ways are those of perplexity, 
and their methods those of deliberate mystifica- 
tion, not to be recommended to souls in search 
of truth. A& for the writers who provide us 
from day to day with the staple of our reading, 
they will do well to leave the work of making 
"contributions to knowledge" to the scientist 
in his laboratory and the university student at 
work upon his doctoral dissertation. They still 
have all the material of accumulated human 
thought to deal with, in its infinite permutations 
and combinations ; and the setting forth of its 
incidence upon human life, in the everyday 
world, is a big enough task for any poet or novel- 
ist or dramatist that we are likely to produce. 


Antisthenes, as we read in Plutarch's life of 
Pericles, when told that Ismenias was an excellent 
flute-player, replied that he could not be good for 
anything else; otherwise he would not play so 




well on the flute. Anyone reading Andrew Lang's 
fairy tales would be tempted to conclude, unless he 
had further knowledge of the writer, that Mr. Lang 
could not amount to much in other walks of litera- 
ture, so whole-heartedly did he throw himself into 
the amusement of children with his many-colored 
series of fairy-books. And on listening to his flow 
of brilliant conversation, an unguarded stranger 
would have said to himself that so lavish a spender 
of good things in talk could not have anything left 
to put into writing. But the books that have made 
Andrew Lang famous in two hemispheres number 
almost as many as the years of that amazingly in- 
dustrious life now closed at the age of sixty-eight. 

Born at Selkirk, a short distance from Edin- 
burgh, on the last day of March, 1844, Lang pre- 
pared for the university at the Edinburgh Academy, 
proceeded thence to St. Andrews, and afterward 
rounded out his education at Oxford, studying at 
Balliol College, winning an honorary fellowship at 
Merton, and especially distinguishing himself in 
the classics. An assured income seems in his case 
to have been no bar to early and energetic endeavor 
to make for himself a name in literature. From 
the appearance of his " Ballads and Lyrics of Old 
France," in 1872, his work, both prose and verse, 
was in constant demand. Succeeding William Black 
as leader-writer to the London "Daily News," he 
acquired the knack of expressing himself with fluency 
and charm on the most varied range of subjects, 
from cricket and golf to philosophy and religion. 
In illustration of the astonishing facility he devel- 
oped as a contributor of miscellaneous articles to the 
periodicals, it is said of him that he would, when 
pressed for time, scribble his "copy " for the waiting 
printer between the courses of a dinner to which he 
had been invited. He certainly had a larger store 
of encyclopaedic learning to draw from than almost 
any other writer of his time. 

Among his favorite subjects, on which he wrote 
in masterly fashion, prominent mention must be 
made of Homer, whom he never tired of defending 
against the attacks of those critics who would per- 
suade us of the conglomerate authorship of the 
" Iliad " and " Odyssey." His book on " Homer and 
his Age" appeared only six years ago, as the ripe 
fruit of its author's Homeric studies. His transla- 
tions of the two epics, in collaboration with Profes- 
sor Butcher (on the "Odyssey") and Mr. Ernest 
Myers and Mr. Walter Leaf (on the " Iliad ") long 
ago established his reputation as a Homeric scholar. 
Another subject that fascinated him was the tragic 
fate of Mary Queen of Scots, on which he wrote a 
book, "The Mystery of Mary Stuart," in 1901. His 
work on "John Knox and the Reformation" and his 
"History of Scotland from the Roman Occupation" 
also attest his lively interest in themes near home. 
Walter Scott, too, he delighted to make the theme of 
his discourse, whether oral or written. Such books 
as his " Custom and Myth " and " Myth, Ritual, and 
Religion " show him in still another light, as a delver 
in folk-lore and an inquirer into the origin of religion. 

No more impressive testimony to Mr. Lang's ver- 
satility and industry can be found than is furnished 
by the simple list of his published works ; and even 
that list does not include the miscellaneous and 
uncollected newspaper and magazine articles that 
dropped from his pen in a continuous shower for 
many years. In his early prime the number of books 
put forth by him in a single twelvemonth was re- 
markable. For instance, in 1884 we find credited 
to his pen the following : '' Ballads and Verses Vain," 
" Rhymes a la Mode," "Princess Nobody," and "Cus- 
tom and Myth." In 1886 he published "Books and 
Bookmen," "In the Wrong Paradise," "Letters to 
Dead Authors," "The Mark of Cain," and "The 
Politics of Aristotle." At the time of his death, as 
we learn from a London news item printed only a 
few days before the tidings of his end reached us, 
he was about to undertake a "History of English 
Literature from Beowulf to Swinburne." Possibly 
some part or the greater part of this may already 
have been written; for Mr. Lang was so rapid in 
his work that little time intervened between the con- 
ception and the execution of a literary project. 

English literature cannot number Andrew Lang 
among its immortal poets or historians or romancers 
or essayists; but its roll contains few if any names 
that stand for so wide-ranging, facile, and often bril- 
liant work as made this gifted Scotchman a marvel 
and a delight to those who read him. Of late years 
his vogue has perhaps suffered some decline, for he 
seemed to be a little out of sympathy (to his credit be 
it said) with certain passing tendencies in our litera- 
ture. All the more hope, therefore, may be cherished 
of his survival as a writer of varied learning and pecu- 
liar charm. 


been considerably less complete than Caesar's, though 
that, everyone now admits, was incomplete enough. 
Really, however, it was only Paris that the redoubt- 
able G. B. S. set out to subdue ; but Paris is France, 
as has been maintained from time out of mind. It 
was with a characteristic letter to his translator, 
reproduced on yellow posters and placarded all over 
the French capital, that Mr. Shaw began his recent 
campaign. "My dear Hamon," ran this noteworthy 
pronouncement, " Paris is always the last city in the 
world to discover and accept an author or a composer 
of international reputation. London is twenty-five 
years behind the times, and Paris is ten years behind 
London. Paris is a marvellous city. But Parisians 
have not yet discovered Paris. It is not surprising, 
then, that they have not yet discovered me. In ten 
years Paris will discover me." Following this pro- 
clamation, hostilities began simultaneously on both 
banks of the river "Arms and the Man" at the 
largest theatre on the rive gauche, and "Mrs. War- 
ren's Profession " on the most literary stage that the 
other side can boast, that of the Thedtre des Arts. 
The invaded city seems to have held out manfully 



[August 1, 

against anything like unconditional surrender, 
though the Shavian plays and the Shavian philosophy 
appear to have made a decided impression, and all 
Paris - all literary and artistic and critical Paris 
was set to talking and writing about the many won- 
derful ideas thrust upon their unprepared minds. 
Possibly in the ten years so generously allowed them 
by Mr. Shaw the Parisians will either have digested 
them, or, whi<5h is more likely, abandoned the at- 
tempt. "Such plays," says one of the friendliest of 
their French critics, " require the collaboration of the 
audience, and this takes time to cultivate. He has 
against him the very novelty and profundity of his 
ideas." . . . 

after day and year after year among editors and 
publishers' readers presents itself to the imagination 
as a task in comparison with which the twelve labors 
of Hercules dwindle to insignificant proportions. 
The great mass of manuscripts submitted must, in 
mining phrase, assay at only a very few dollars' 
worth of precious metal to the ton ; but there is 
always the chance of finding a splendid nugget, 
and hence the need of caution. Few who have the 
handling of this mountain of written matter would 
think it wise or businesslike to follow the example 
of the famous theatrical manager who has recently 
excited the indignation of would-be playwrights by 
announcing that he will henceforth consign to the 
oblivion of the waste-basket all unsolicited manu- 
scripts thrust upon him. One can imagine the dis- 
appointments and disgusts that have led up to this 
decision ; for disappointments are not all on the 
unsuccessful writer's side. If it be true that not a 
hundredth part of the manuscripts offered for publi- 
cation actually achieve that desired end, and if the 
complaint that our busy printing-presses are turning 
out a deplorable quantity of rubbish be not ill- 
founded, what incredible degrees of unreadability 
must be attained by the worst of the ninety-nine 
rejected hundred ths of " unavailable " literary off er- 
ings! Undoubtedly too many of these manuscript- 
producers are more fired with zeal than informed 
with wisdom, are lacking in years what they so 
abundantly possess in courage and confidence. They 
desire and expect to arrive before they have fairly 
started. It is characteristic of the young writer to 
imagine himself much nearer the goal of ideal excel- 
lence than he will after he has, as a matter of fact, 
travelled a considerable distance toward that elusive 
end of all his striving. 


were of course voiced by more than one speaker at 
the late fiftieth annual convention of the National 
Education Association, in session at Chicago. The 
spectacle of a man ardently enthusiastic for and 
splendidly confident in the cause to which he has 
devoted his life is surely a refreshing and inspiring 
one. Mr. Albert E. Winship of Boston attained 
to something like the sublime in an address on the 
final day of the conference. "Why should not this 

meeting," he asked, "in its closing moments here 
highly resolve that education shall become the lead- 
ing American profession ? New times demand new 
men and new measures. The new times are surely 
here. The profession that meets the demands of 
these times will be the leading American profession, 
and education can meet these demands better than 
law, medicine, and the ministry. . . . The coast is 
clear. Education can be the leading profession 
of the country. It is the only profession that can 
devote itself exclusively to childhood and youth, to 
the making of manly men and womanly women. 
Education was the first profession. May it not be 
the greatest? It is the only learned profession 
whose leaders in scholarship are 'professors,' and 
the one man who met all the needs of all time was 
the Great Teacher." And so on, in high-hearted 
strain and with the impassioned orator's proper 
disregard of prosaic exactness in statement of facts, 
but with a magnificent conception of the educator's 
mission and a fine appeal to his hearers to show 
themselves worthy of their high calling. The in- 
spiration of such annual addresses ought to go far 
toward carrying the hearers bravely through the 
daily round, the common task, of the ensuing year. 

the writers for the "Edinburgh Review" will hence- 
forth, under its new editor, Mr. Harold Cox, sign 
their names to their weighty pronouncements on the 
worth of current books and on such other questions 
of public interest as the "Edinburgh" has so long 
treated with distinguished ability, and, now and 
then, in a tone of such magisterial authority. The 
Macaulayesque style of review and the frequent use 
of the editorial "we" seemed almost to carry the 
assumption that no single pen of any single fallible 
mortal was responsible for the grave utterances 
marshalled so imposingly in the customary "Edin- 
burgh " article. The august authority of the mighty 
quarterly itself was back of every word and sentence. 
But the atmosphere now enveloping the world of 
books and writers is unfavorable to the further pros- 
perous growth of this assumption. Too many of our 
best and brightest critics and essayists write unblush- 
ingly in the first person singular, and the august 
personage behind the editorial " we " is losing those 
vague and majestic outlines that formerly inspired 
awe in the timid reader. The change of policy on 
the part of the ancient quarterly is in harmony with 
the modernity and versatility of its new editor, whose 
varied experience as member of Parliament, as 
writer on economic and political questions, and as a 
man of affairs rather than of the study and the li- 
brary, promises well for the revivifica tion of the ven- 
erable review under his management. 

with surprise that it is free and for the use of the 
people, is what some persons are doing even now 
in this advanced era of enlightenment and culture. 
Hence the need of advertising itself which every 
wide-awake library has for some time recognized. 




The Dallas Public Library issues an attractive 
little pamphlet on "How Libraries Advertise; as 
shown by the library material exhibited as a part of 
the Display of Advertising at the Eighth Annual 
Convention of the Associated Advertising Clubs of 
America, held at Carnegie Hall of the Dallas Pub- 
lic Library, Dallas, Texas, May 19-27, 1912." In 
this matter of advertising there is an increasing num- 
ber of libraries that not only advertise themselves 
but also spread abroad the fame of their respective 
cities and agitate for all sorts of municipal improve- 
ments and reforms. For instance, as the Dallas 
pamphlet says, " St. Joseph, Mo., a city with a bold 
front, has an energetic and stentorian branch of li- 
brary publicity that makes an impression, and they 
talk right out about the things they are going to have. 
Among these are public baths, more boulevards, a 
greater St. Jo club, public playgrounds, and other 
examples of municipal attractiveness." Advertis- 
ing the helpfulness of the library to the immigrant 
is made a specialty by certain libraries that minister 
to the needs of a large alien population. The Provi- 
dence Public Library does notably good work in 
its capacity of "melting-pot," and its officials can 
tell some interesting things about the conduct and 
the growing popularity of its foreign-literature de- 
partment. Not much longer, it is to be hoped, will 
it be possible to assert with truthfulness what the 
Dallas librarian now makes bold to declare, that 
" strange as it may seem, there are a lot of folk who 
do n't realize yet that libraries are free. They think 
there is a string to it somewhere." 

WHITEWASHING BACON, as Edward FitzGerald 
expressed it, was the task to which his (FitzGerald's) 
friend Spedding devoted his best years and energies, 
when he might better, it was thought, have given the 
world something of originality and value in some 
other department of literature. Mr. Balfour has 
been again applying the whitewash brush to the 
great English philosopher and statesman in a eulo- 
gistic speech at the unveiling of the Bacon statue 
at Gray's Inn, three hundred years after Bacon's 
admission to the Inn. As a statesman, he had, the 
orator declared, a breadth of view and a strength of 
spirit that might have altered the history of his 
own country and of all Europe, had his advice been 
heeded. In his personal relations and his private 
life he was not, if we are to believe his eulogist, 
nearly so reprehensible as it has been the fashion 
to represent him. But Mr. Balfour did not feel 
moved to enlarge on this aspect of the man. More 
congenial did he find it to dwell on him as a writer 
and scholar, a historian and a philosopher, the mas- 
ter of a noble prose style, and endowed with such 
gifts that his writings may be regarded as marking 
the beginning of a new epoch. That he has of late 
been vulgarized and his name made a mockery by 
some of his too ardenjtand ill-balanced admirers, few 
thoughtful persons will dispute. A prophet and a 
seer, according to Mr. Balfour, he pointed the way 
to true scientific research, and created the atmos- 

phere in which alone it could flourish. Surely that 
is glory enough, without the ascription to him of an 
impossible authorship of works quite outside of his 
vein. . . . 

to the English-reading book world has just been 
celebrated in the quiet and dignified manner befit- 
ting the celebrants. One hundred years ago the 
publishing house of Murray, already half a century 
old and enjoying an enviable repute, took possession 
of its present quarters or, more accurately, the 
building next to its present quarters, number 50 
being now used for domiciliary purposes by Mr. 
John Murray the Fourth and his son, while 50A, 
next door, is devoted to business. The aristocrat 
of English publishers, as he is not unaptly called, 
Mr. Murray by his dignified presence and his con- 
servative business methods attracts authors who 
know the value of the Murray imprint. So wedded 
to the good old ways of doing business is the house 
of Murray that even so time-saving an appliance as 
the typewriter was late in effecting an entrance at 
No. 50A. In the drawing-room of No. 50 are to 
be seen not a few reminders of the long connection 
with famous authors enjoyed by the Murrays. To 
mention but one, there is the silver loving-cup sent a 
century ago by Lord Byron from Greece to his pub- 
lisher, and containing some hemlock seeds gathered 
in Athens by the poet, who thus inscribed the gift: 
"Hemlock gathered by me for you under the walls 
of Athens ; possibly the same from which the leaves 
that poisoned Socrates were plucked." Grimly sug- 
gestive contents for a loving-cup, surely ; but there 
seems to be no reason at present why the descend- 
ants of the John Murray who received the gift 
should take the suggestion seriously. 

A PLUCKY YOUNG AUTHOR of Kansas, a Mitchell 
County girl of spirit and determination and perse- 
verance, has achieved at least local fame by pleading 
and winning, in a court of law, her case against her 
publishers, who, if report speaks truly, seem not to 
have borne themselves with the utmost chivalry 
toward the young lady. Miss Lizzie Wooster, for 
that is the fair plaintiff's name, fired with a desire 
to improve on the school primers in general use, 
prepared one which met with the publishers' ap- 
proval and appears also, on publication, to have 
enjoyed a wide acceptance. But when she applied 
for her just share in the pecuniary proceeds of the 
venture, a cold refusal, on technical grounds, was 
the response. Filled with indignation at this in- 
justice, and laying her plans for revenge on a 
broad and deep foundation, Miss Wooster entered a 
law school, pursued the course to the end, was ad- 
mitted to the bar, and then, with a legal mastery of 
her own case in its every detail, brought suit against 
her unkind publishers, appearing in court as her 
own counsel, and procured a decision in her favor. 
Little need, now and henceforth, has she of the pro- 
tection of any Society of Authors. They do some 
things very well in Kansas. 



[August 1, 


While the patient diggers for facts continue 
to add their grains to the molehill of Shake- 
speare's biography, it is gratifying to know that 
those who prefer to climb for vision have not 
been discouraged. The names of Professors 
Bradley, Raleigh, and McCallum are alone suffi- 
cient to remind us of the advance that aesthetic 
and philosophical criticism of the dramatist has 
made in the last few years. Men like Kreyssig 
and Hudson are being steadily distanced; and 
if the newer leaders were less gifted with the 
scholar's virtue of modesty, we could almost 
imagine them ready to adopt a slogan from our 
present political campaign and boast of " catch- 
ing up with Shakespeare." Mr. Darrell Figgis, 
the young English poet, makes no boast in the 
volume which he entitles " Shakespeare : A 
Study," but he has accepted the challenge which 
lies implicit in certain late criticisms of Shake- 
speare conspicuously Mr. Bernard Shaw's 
and has come to the defense of the dramatist with 
a treatise which may reasonably make some pre- 
tensions to catching up with Coleridge. 

Mr. Figgis is not disposed to attach great 
importance to logical processes. He leans dis- 
tinctly toward divination, a quality which he 
ascribes to Fleay among biographers and denies 
to Halliwell-Phillipps. He begins by saying 
that in Shakespeare, as in Nature, we feel a 
synthesis, though we cannot think it out. One 
may hesitate to infer that Mr. Figgis believes 
himself to have actually grasped this synthesis, 
but he has made a bold and impressive attempt. 
"Synthetic" is eminently the word to describe 
his treatise. Striking, as it does, midway be- 
tween the methods of those who are concerned 
primarily with details of biography or technique, 
and those who devote themselves to analyses of 
characters and plays, it gives a vivid picture 
of a real man a man disencumbered of non- 
essentials, boldly outlined against his surround- 
ings, acting and reacting upon circumstances that 
time and again synchronized, by some happy 
dispensation, with his own mental development, 
and so fulfilling a life that for completeness of 
inward experience and outward artistic expres- 
sion remains unparallelled. It is not a book to 
begin one's study of Shakespeare with, but for 
gathering into a single fairly consistent concep- 
tion the multifarious impressions inevitably 

* SHAKESPEARE: A Study. By Darrell Figgis. New 
York : Mitchell Kennerley. 

created by the myriad-minded one, it would not 
be easy to name its equal. Whether that con- 
ception be the true one is another question, not 
to be settled here. 

Following an Introduction that descants 
pleasingly upon the functional importance of 
the lavish waste in Shakespeare's work, that 
makes a tilt at the dusty delvers in " archival 
darkness " who have " obscured the fair land- 
scape of his country by chimney-stacks and fac- 
tories," and thrust him "like a wronged Deity 
into buildings and technicalities," and that 
gives Mr. Shaw, with all his perversity, credit 
for driving us back upon the vital question and 
reopening the discussion of what drama is, Mr. 
Figgis sets forth his argument in six chapters, 
dealing respectively with the dramatist's Life, 
Stage, Craft, Art, Thought, and Personality. 
The biographical chapter attempts no general 
picture of the age, but keeps close to the man 
Shakespeare, following him from theatre to 
theatre and through his more important prac- 
tical affairs with the realizing touch of a quick 
imagination. Naturally much of this matter is 
controversial or conjectural. Mr. Figgis thinks 
that in 1587 Shakespeare joined Leicester's 
company at Stratford, and by linking up the facts 
into a "clear and logical sequence" he claims 
to have virtually reconstructed the account of 
the succeeding five years of obscurity. He con- 
troverts in particular Sir Sidney Lee's account ; 
but it should be noted that Mr. Fleay long ago 
wrote : " At Stratford, in my opinion, Shake- 
speare joined them [Leicester's players] ." The 
most interesting feature of this chapter is the 
synchrony traced between outward events and 
the dramatist's maturing powers his removal, 
for instance, at just the critical moment, from 
the Theatre, " the resort of the hurly-burly ap- 
prentices," to the Globe on the Bankside, where 
a gentler audience could be counted on to appre- 
ciate subtler plays ; and the accession, also at a 
critical moment, of King James, with his gen- 
uine concern for higher dramatic art. 

The student of technique will find interesting 
matter in the chapters on " Stage" and " Craft." 
But it is not until we reach the chapters on 
"Art" and "Thought" that Mr. Figgis is 
found at his best. They are replete with sug- 
gestive and illuminating judgments, both upon 
Shakespeare himself and the nature of drama. 
For example, Shakespeare's bombast, and his 
rapid and violent metaphor, often out of char- 
acter, are defended as the dramatist's "sub- 
conscious method of striking us to emotional 
sympathy with the Action "; they are to be 




judged, not by themselves, but by their service 
in procuring the total effect. The question of 
verse and prose is admirably handled. As op- 
posed to Ben Jonson's characters, whose speeches 
were written in prose and turned into verse, 

" Shakespeare's characters did not speak verse by acci- 
dent or from discipline : they were conceived as speaking 
verse. . . King Lear, Hamlet, and Macbeth, Romeo 
and Juliet, . . in prose would simply not be the people 
we now know them to be. It is a thing impossible to 
define; but it is a thing quite unmistakably real to the 
imagination. The essence of the matter lies in the con- 
ception of the thinking mind. Shakespeare conceived 
poetically or in prose, as the case may be; with the result 
that his characterization rings inevitably, in the main, 
in the language chosen. . . Fat Sir John, Dogberry and 
Verges, Sir Toby Belch, the egregious Malvolio, . . 
are born in prose, and live all their lives in that medium. 
In the case of those who have no lives to live, but only 
parts to play, the servitors, soldiers, and other such 
accessories, it is easy to understand why they should 
stand so completely in prose. As said, they have no 
lives to live, and therefore have never the opportunity 
of springing to the intensity of poetry, whatever their 
potentialities be." 

It is in consonance with this view that Lady 
Macbeth on the one hand, when deprived of her 
real self her Will by sleep and delirium, 
should lapse into disjointed, unrhythmic utter- 
ance, and that Beatrice and Benedick on the 
other hand, when Love finally comes to them, 
should be drawn up into the general plot of the 
play and " pass to poetry." Interwoven with 
this discussion is a plea for the poetic drama, 
which, it is virtually maintained, is and can be 
the only great drama. 

This, however, is still but to hover on the 
outskirts of Mr. Figgis's far-reaching inquiry. 
He closes at length with the fundamental prob- 
lem of Shakespeare's dominant thought. This 
he finds in his preoccupation, not primarily 
with men, but with the workings of Destiny ; 
the dramatist became in a high yet entirely 
earthly and human sense one of God's spies, who 
took upon him the mystery of things. And this 
preoccupation grew with his growing powers ; 
so that his characters, even as they grew to 
greater strength and richness, are seen to en- 
tangle themselves more and more inextricably in 
the meshes of fate, because the dramatist who 
sits behind them is more and more "thinking 
past men to God." Now Destiny is defined as 
" Divinity in action," and Shakespeare's mental 
progress may be traced by the position that is 
assigned to the Divinity in his succeeding plays. 
It is a position that advances steadily from that 
of a God in the machine a Divinity constantly 
intruding and controlling so as to shape things, 
after the manner of comedy or melodrama, to 

a mechanically neat conclusion to that of a 
Divinity waiting at the end of the play to botch 
things up with what patchwork he can, until 
finally the imperious strength of the characters 
drives him " off his post at the end of the five 
acts to some position in the further Beyond." 
But, be it remembered, though in the great 
tragedies the Divinity is driven by the charac- 
ters quite out of the play, it is still the Divinity 
that is dominant in Shakespeare's thought, and 
also in ours : a Divinity, too, that is no longer 
a mere deus, but the inscrutably and ineffably 
Divine. And this is the solution of the strange 
paradox that Shakespearean tragedy, although 
in it Righteousness is constantly baffled, is per- 
sistently regarded as the highest of morality. 

In the working out of this thesis, one may 
demur to some of the details. In modification, 
for instance, of the statement that in "Romeo 
and Juliet" there are no responsible beings, and 
that accidents capriciously directed from above 
determine the issues, it should be remembered 
that Romeo, after all, presumptuously takes his 
fate into his own hands. And the author needs 
to correct his surprising impression that in 
"Lear" Goneril and Regan are left alive (p. 229). 
But the thesis as a whole is well sustained, and 
is presented with a combined lucidity, strength, 
and even splendor of expression, worthy of its 
great subject. 

It is less easy to appraise the concluding chap- 
ter, which deals with Shakespeare's personality, 
and enters again upon more debatable ground. 
So admirable is the author's synthesis in its 
main outlines that it is to be wished he had not 
imperilled it by coveting perfection. In the 
endeavor to make his wheel come full circle, he 
resorts in the end to paradox, with a distinctly 
disquieting effect. Some distrust, too, is occa- 
sioned by the way in which the Sonnets are kept 
out of sight until the end of the volume, though 
the course of the argument is easily seen to be 
shaping itself toward a final proof in their nature 
and contents. Perhaps Mr. Figgis was prompted 
to this by his dramatic sense, though he could 
easily put up a logical defense. But to anyone 
sufficiently familiar with the Sonnets to detect 
what is coming, the apparent artifice tends to 
defeat its purpose, that of producing a con- 
vincing argument. Apart from all questions of 
method, one may or may not be convinced. 
However reluctant we may be to think that a 
certain dark experience in Shakespeare's rela- 
tions with a friend and a mistress not only pro- 
foundly affected his personal life, but practically 
determined his entire mental and dramatic pro- 



[August 1, 

gress, through Romeo and Falstaff to Hamlet, 
Othello, and Lear, it is undeniable that various 
threads of argument and speculation have of 
late been converging steadily toward this as to a 
focal point. It is impossible to foretell the out- 
come. Mr. Figgis has added his thread, ap- 
proaching the matter in his own way, and with 
a force and dignity that are bound to command 
respect for his argument, though it is not impos- 
sible to pick some flaws. For instance, dating 
(along with Mr. Frank Harris) the dire event 
at 1597-8, Mr. Figgis observes that "soon after 
the unfaithfulness occurred, we find Jaques." 
Perhaps it is nothing to the point to object that 
we also find Benedick and the Duke of Illyria, 
seeing that we have been carefully provided 
beforehand with the clue that it is Jaques who 
reflects Shakespeare and not these others. But 
what shall be said of this further statement, that 
" when Shakespeare's naturally reflective nature 
has carried the mischief through his whole blood 
in sheer disgust, we find Hamlet"? Five years 
for a moral cataclysm like that to breed disgust 
in outraged blood! Great indeed, then, is the 
virtue of a "naturally reflective nature." Of 
course this does not overthrow the argument, 
and Mr. Figgis leads it to a fairly effective close. 
But the chapter strikes a lower level than those 
just preceding it; and both writer and reader 
breathe more freely on the Coleridgean heights. 



Six hundred years ago the Norse author of 
" The King's Mirror " answered the query, which 
ever recurs at each new sacrifice of human en- 
deavor and life claimed by the North from those 
who brave its rigors, as to the reasons impelling 
men thus to imperil their lives. It is, he says, 
the three-fold ambition of man which draws him 
thither: emulation and the desire of fame, the 
desire of knowledge, and the desire of gain. The 
history of polar exploration is indeed a striking 
manifestation of the power of the unknown over 
the mind of man, ever enticing new recruits in 
the endeavor to stretch once more the limits of 
the world and to taste the joys of discovery. 
But the largest returns to humanity are in 

" Ever since the Norsemen's earliest voyages arctic 

*!N NORTHERN MISTS. Arctic Exploration in Early 
Times. By Fridtjof Nansen, Professor of Oceanography in 
the University of Christiania. Translated by Arthur G. 
Chater. In two volumes. Illustrated. New York : Fred- 
erick A. Stokes Co. 

expeditions have certainly brought material advantages 
to the human race, such as rich fisheries, whaling and 
sealing, and so on; they have produced scientific results 
in the knowledge of hitherto unknown regions and con- 
ditions ; but they have given us far more than this : they 
have tempered the human will for the conquest of diffi- 
culties; they have furnished a school of manliness and 
self-conquest in the midst of the slackness of varying 
ages, and have held up noble ideals before the rising 
generation; they have fed the imagination, have given 
fairy-tales to the child, and raised the thoughts of its 
elders above their daily toil. Take arctic travel out of 
our history, and will it not be poorer? Perhaps we have 
here the greatest service it has done humanity." 

. Fantastic illusions of open polar seas, and of 
short cuts to the riches of Cathay, drew explor- 
ers again and again to essay in vain the secrets 
of the Arctic. But the idealistic motives have 
always played a large part in arctic exploration. 
A Pytheas steers north from the Pillars of Her- 
cules, the Vikings with a Lief Erickson at their 
head cross the Atlantic in undecked boats and 
find a new world- only to lose it again, and a 
Hudson gains a lonely grave on an uncharted 
and deserted shore. But bit by bit the map of 
the North has been sketched, and in the end 
the Norse flag floats at the Antipodes. 

Some years age Professor Nansen promised 
his friend Dr. J. Scott Keltie of London that he 
would contribute a volume about arctic explora- 
tion to Dr. Keltic's series of books on geographi- 
cal exploration. How well this promise has been 
fulfilled may be judged by the two large volumes 
now published, in which the foundation has been 
laid for such a history. A foundation only, 
since Dr. Nansen 's treatise brings the subject 
down only to the time of John Cabot's voyages 
and the ill-fated ships of the Cortereals in 
1502, to the point in fact where the average 
reader would expect the history of arctic explo- 
ration really to begin ! And even then the au- 
thor laments the fact that " the majority of the 
voyages, and those the most important, on which 
the first knowledge was based, have left us no 
certain record." 

Ancient records, manuscripts, sagas, and the 
earliest attempts at charts of the north and the 
new world, have been assembled and passed 
under critical inspection, to winnow the wheat 
from the chaff and to trace wherever possible 
the motive forces instrumental in discovery. 
Professor Nansen was trained as a biologist, 
and won his first scientific spurs in animal mor- 
phology. The scientific method acquired in this 
and in his later work in oceanography is clearly 
seen in the thoroughness with which he has taken 
up the accumulation of materials (over 250 titles 
appear in his bibliography), and in the critical 




sifting to which he has subjected his data in his 
efforts to arrive at stable fact. 

The first recorded northern voyage, about 
330 B. c., is that of Pytheas, an ancient astrono- 
mer and geographer of the Phocaean colony at 
Massalia, the first person in history to intro- 
duce astronomical measurements and to deter- 
mine latitude by the gnomon. His interest in 
astronomy led him to push his expedition north 
past Britain, the Scottish islands, and Shetland 
to the Arctic Circle, where he found the land 
of Thule. This land, the author goes to great 
length to prove, was Norway. The jealousy and 
ignorance of later writers tend to belittle the 
achievements of this, the most intrepid and capa- 
ble as well as the earliest of Arctic explorers. 
From this early voyager down through the period 
of Tacitus and Ptolemy, through the darkness, 
confusion, and uncertainty of the Middle Ages, 
to the period of the Vikings, the growth of knowl- 
edge of the North, the evolution of the Viking 
ship, and the voyages of the Norsemen, are 
traced with much archaeological detail and thor- 

The decay of the Greenland settlements, and 
the extinction of the connections between the 
Norse colonies and the fatherland, are traced 
to the decline of the Vikings and difficulties at 
home with the Hanseatic league. There ap- 
pears, however, to be historical evidence of voy- 
ages to Greenland as late as the early part of 
the fifteenth century. The expeditions of the 
Norwegians into the Polar Sea, and the growth 
of the whaling and sealing industry, led to great 
advances in knowledge of the North ; but royal 
monopolies of trade by southern nations laid 
their paralyzing hands upon private enterprise, 
and all that the Norsemen had learned of the 
secrets of the ice-bound seas and coasts was to a 
great extent forgotten and had to be re-learned 
at great cost. 

The author devotes an extensive chapter to 
cartography to the early maps of the North, 
the wheel maps of the Middle Ages, the works 
of the Arabs, and the compass charts of later 
centuries, giving his results not in exact repro- 
ductions of these early works but in interpreta- 
tive maps relieved of the confusing networks of 
compass lines which obscure the originals. In 
the same free manner, he presents translations 
of his sources or interpretations of their con- 
tents. His book is not, then, to be regarded as 
a collection of sources, but rather as a free and 
critical discussion of a subject wrapped in fogs 
of obscurity, approach to which by the historian 

is made doubly difficult by the conflicting cross- 
currents of evidence. 

" Through all that is uncertain, and often apparently 
fortuitous and checkered, we can discern a line, leaning 
toward the new age, that of the great discoveries, when 
we emerge from the dusk of the Middle Ages into fuller 
daylight. Of the new voyages we have, as a rule, ac- 
counts at first hand, less and less shrouded in medie- 
valism and mist. From this time the real history of 
polar exploration begins." 

Throughout antiquity the North was con- 
cealed in a twilight of legend and myth, and the 
twilight thickens into darkness at the beginning 
of the Middle Ages. Then the intermingling 
of the nations, the new trade routes, and finally 
the excursions of the Norsemen, revealed the 
White and Polar Seas. Colonies were planted 
in Iceland, Greenland, and North America; 
then the mists closed again, and the sons of the 
Vikings forgot their achievements. But En- 
gland's sailors had their earliest training in the 
Norseman's school, and even the distant Portu- 
guese received impulses from them. It is at 
this point that the real history of polar explo- 
ration begins. Impelled by two great illusions 
the Northwest and Northeast passages 
explorers for a century sought trade routes to 
the riches of the Orient, and the sea power of 
England drew vigor from these dreams. "To 
riches men have seldom attained, to the Fortu- 
nate Isles never: but through all we have won 

The volumes are freely illustrated by a num- 
ber of boldly-drawn sketches from ancient maps 
and monuments, as well as by other sketches, 
including several rather sombre colored plates 
by the author. A full bibliography and an 
ample index are included. 



No more radical change of policy has been 
witnessed in any country in modern times than 
that manifested in the social legislation of the 
British Parliament since 1897. Several of the 
fundamental economic, ethical, and political doc- 
trines of the nation were suddenly abandoned, 
and laws based on entirely different principles 
were enacted. But this transformation was sud- 
den only in appearance ; long preparation had 

* MODERN ENGLAND. By Louis Cazamian, Lecturer at 
the Sorbonne. New York : E. P. Button & Co. 

DEMOCRATIC ENGLAND. By Percy Alden, M.P. With 
Introduction by Charles G. F. Master-man. New York : The 
Macmillan Co. 



[August 1, 

been made for it. The story of the incuba- 
tion of ideas is now told for us by a French- 
man looking on from a safe distance across the 
Channel, and by a member of Parliament who 
helped to shape public opinion and to enact the 

M. Cazamian traces the struggle between 
traditional instinct and modern rationalism. He 
thinks that Englishmen do not act upon theory, 
but meet issues which are forced upon them by 
the needs of the hour and solve their problems 
by practical common sense. The real British 
genius is best represented by conservatives, land- 
lords, and snobs. The discussion closes with a 
note of skepticism: "Will England consent, 
will she be able, to undergo without injury the 
social and psychological transformations which 
seem to be demanded by international competi- 
tion? Will her empiricism know how to rise 
above itself, and fearlessly to enter the higher 
sphere of meditated readjustments, without los- 
ing the benefit of its blind and groping infalli- 

This French observer has examined the main 
facts in the development of industry, political 
philosophy and legislation during the nineteenth 
century, the industrial revolution and its 
effects, the creed of liberty and individualism, 
the teachings of Darwin, the ecclesiastical move- 
ments, the rise of trade unions, the protests of 
Carlyle and Ruskin, the development of Social- 
ism, and the recent philosophical tendencies. 

Certainly England was not without a philoso- 
phy, such as it was; and she was attached to a 
theory as with an obsession. Her statesmen 
were firmly and sincerely convinced that indi- 
vidual liberty and free competition would give 
to the world all possible health, vigor, happiness, 
and virtue. No doubt this theory fitted well 
into the assurance of the land-owners and great 
capitalists that Providence had chosen them to 
rule the vulgar crowd in mills and in Parliament. 
It was heresy to dispute this theory. Some of 
the economists assumed this creed as the founda- 
tion of their speculations, and they arranged 
tables of statistics to give it support. Herbert 
Spencer evolved a philosophy of evolution in 
the known universe which was glorified laissez 
faire. As the shadows gathered about him, and 
he dimly saw the modern world moving away 
from him, he prophesied at least temporary ruin ; 
and he believed himself. 

It would be false to assert that Great Britain 
was inferior in its humane impulses. It was 
the classic land of the poor-law and endowed 
charities. The philanthropist, John Bright, was 

one of the most powerful antagonists of the Earl 
of Shaftesbury; yet he honestly thought that 
governmental legislation would be a curse to 
the wage-earners. John Bright is a typical form 
in British life. Excellent bishops stood on the 
side of the Quaker orator, and supported his 
eloquent pleas for the slaves of other countries, 
though blind to the thralls in their own iron 
mills and agricultural laborers' cottages. 

There was abundance of literary protest. 
Mrs. Browning's "Cry of the Children," Dick- 
ens's exposure of the misery in East London, 
Thackeray's keen thrusts at snobbery, Ruskin's 
passionate protests against current notions of 
political economy, all had a part to play in 
awakening the nation. 

All these together, however, would have 
failed to destroy the ancient philosophy had 
they not been supported and their demands 
reinforced by medical and social science. It is 
true that Parliament was not stirred to definite 
action alone by morals and by blue books, 
but also by the scare which Germany gave it. 
British merchants and manufacturers found 
new competitors in their monopolized markets, 
and these competitors were guarded on the high 
seas by men-of-war built in German ports. 
Parliament sent men to Germany to discover 
what had happened, and the messengers came 
back with accounts of German chemistry, scien- 
tific politics, and technical education. Aroused 
by the primitive passion of fear, the British 
rulers of both parties were made docile enough 
to inquire of medical men and social investi- 
gators as to the facts in the situation. The 
accepted systematizers of doctrine had told 
them that the world of free competition is the 
best and most just of all possible worlds ; that 
the British constitution was infallible; that 
gentlemen were the wisest and truest friends to 
vote laws for the ignorant poor; that if govern- 
ment were confined to simple police duties the 
children would grow up to be healthy and useful 
citizens and sorrow would be no more. But 
when the rulers were humbled by foreign com- 
petition they began to listen to the recruiting 
officers, who informed them that laissez faire 
had unfitted the lads of English cities for soldier 
service ; that millions of men and women were 
in revolt against the government, and deter- 
mined to take matters into their own hands. 
Scientific investigations gave the lie to the d 
priori theories produced by ingenious specula- 
tors to justify hoary outrages against common 
rights. National neglect had not done what 
these philosophers had solemnly promised for it. 




These investigations, however, were made effec- 
tive because in the mean time men had gained 
a voice and vote in Parliament who really knew 
the situation of the masses of people belonging 
to the industrial groups. 

Let us turn to the book of the member of 
Parliament, and read his description and ex- 
planation of the new movement. The author 
of " Democratic England " started with a uni- 
versity education, and a life purpose to improve 
the conditions of existence for wage-earners. 
He went to share their fortunes in East 
London, and Mansfield House Settlement be- 
came his training school. Quietly and ear- 
nestly he studied the needs of his neighbors, 
and helped to build up their institutions, 
their schools, trades unions, church, and recrea- 
tions. He won the confidence of his constitu- 
ency, and at last found himself in Parliament, 
where he has utilized his long experience and 
study for the benefit of the people. His book is 
an interpretation of the creed and aims of his 
political associates, and an argument for their 
wisdom and justice. It is a statement also of 
what will soon be practical politics in the United 
States, where the rapid development of industrial 
centres causes the same difficulties and compels 
the nation to revise its economic and legal ideas 
to conform to new demands. 

The agitators who represent the wage-earners 
do not create these urgent problems ; they merely 
make the comfortable ruling classes aware of 
them. The happy possessors of land, privilege, 
places of honor and gain and title, naturally op- 
pose resistance and prophesy all sorts of evil to 
the nation. Feudalism has still enough energy 
in Great Britain to hold the titles to 3,000,000 
acres of deer forests in Scotland as sacrosanct, 
while many millions of men have no claim to 
daily bread which might be grown on the waste 
land. In 1872 half the enclosed land of En- 
gland and Wales was monopolized by 2250 
persons. It is a little better now, and yet the 
overwhelming majority of the people of England 
possess no right to their native soil. Mr. Alden 
estimates that from 5000 to 6000 clergymen 
are appointed to their livings by the great land- 
owners; and without accusing these clergymen 
of being hypocrites, we can easily see that their 
sermons would not touch upon the iniquities of 
the land monopoly, however severe they might 
be on the subject of foot-binding in China. 

It required nearly a century to make the rul- 
ing classes believe that the State had any duty 
toward children ; under the impulse of the new 

ideas England has developed a children's code 
which does it honor. 

Mr. Alden supplies the detailed information 
which the French work omits. He analyzes 
more fully the chief measures representing re- 
cent advance toward scientific legislation for the 
welfare of the nation : the Children's Act of 
1908, the Trade Boards Act of 1909, the Un- 
employment and Sickness Insurance Acts, old 
age pensions, housing the poor, municipal owner- 
ship, and recovery of common land for the land- 
less. But in the main the books corroborate 
each other. 



It is refreshing to the student now and then 
to read a book whose author has never been 
disillusioned, one whose faith in the absolute 
righteousness of his side and his party has never 
been shaken, and who is certain that all those 
who were on the other side from his heroes were 
wicked and treacherous, fit for conspicuous 
places in Dante's inferno. Such an author can 
write with certainty, with a conviction as to the 
moral values of past acts not readily to be found 
in the writings of the more skeptical historians 
of recent decades. 

Mr. Kennedy, author of the work on "The 
Contest for Calif ornia in 1861," is of the former 
class, and his book is a frank spirited eulogy of 
his hero, Colonel E. D. Baker, killed at the 
battle of Ball's Bluff in October, 1861. There 
are interesting chapters on early California his- 
tory, on social and economic conditions on "the 
Coast " during the years just preceding the Civil 
War ; and there are other valuable chapters on 
Senator Broderick, who lost his life in so tragic 
a manner, on the early life of Colonel Baker 
when he was a friend of Abraham Lincoln and 
a Member of Congress from Illinois, and on the 
efforts of shrewd Southerners like "Jim" Lane 
and William Gwin to turn over the Coast States 
to the Confederacy in 1860-61. In all of this, 
Mr. Kennedy is but clearing the ground for his 
real work the portrayal of the truly noble 
leader whose fame he intends to establish and 
vindicate; but to the historical student these 
preliminary chapters are quite as important as 
the main story. 

The contention of the book that a large party 
in California and Oregon sought to deliver that 

E. D. Baker Saved the Pacific States to the Union. By 
Elijah R. Kennedy. Boston : Houghton Mifflin Co. 



[August 1, 

region to the Southerners, and that the election 
of Colonel Baker to the Senate by the Oregon 
legislature in 1860 to oppose the machinations 
of Lane and Gwin was the beginning of a 
series of services which saved the region to the 
Union, is well maintained, although one is com- 
pelled to the belief that the author makes out 
as bad a situation as possible in 1861, in order 
to show how great was the work of Baker. No 
Confederate flag was ever actually unfurled in 
California, and no body of Confederate troops 
ever actually assembled in arms before any 
Pacific Coast city. How could the danger have 
been so great as it is here made to appear? 
When General Albert Sidney Johnston re- 
signed the command of the United States Army 
in California, in April, 1861, it was with very 
considerable risk that he made his way back to 
the South to take command under Jefferson 
Davis ; and Mr. Kennedy thinks that no great 
party of sympathizers followed him east only 
a few officers, some of whom were in danger of 

The figure of Baker genial, able, and elo- 
quent ; a lawyer of the very highest standing 
before 1860, a personal friend of Lincoln and a 
Republican of sturdy mould is well portrayed, 
and the whole story is presented in a manner 
which holds the reader's attention. Despite 
some obvious limitations, this book is a decided 
contribution to the historical literature of "the 
Coast" about which so many Easterners know 
too little. WILLIAM E. DODD. 


Mr. Humfrey Jordan is a new writer to us, but 
the qualities displayed in his novel, "The Joyous 
Wayfarer," are of a nature to make us say, with 
Bottom, " I shall desire you of more acquaintance." 

* THE JOYOUS WAYFARER. By Humfrey Jordan. New 
York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

York : Henry Holt & Co. 

THE TURNSTILE. By A. E. W. Mason. New York: 
Charles Scribner's Sons. 

York : Mitchell Kennerley. 

RED EVE. By H. Rider Haggard. New York : Donbleday, 
Page & Co. 

THE FRIAR OF WITTENBERG. By William Stearns Davis. 
New York : The Macmillan Co. 

THE SHADOW OF POWER. By Paul Bertram. New York : 
The John Lane Co. 

OVER THE PASS. By Frederick Palmer. New York: 
Charles Scribner's Sons. 

Harper & Brothers. 

WHITE ASHES. By Kennedy-Noble. New York: The 
Macmillan Co. 

MOLLY MCDONALD. A Tale of the Old Frontier. By 
Randall Parrish. Chicago: A. C. McClurg & Co. 

It is a novel of style, character interest, and stimu- 
lating ideas. The ideas are found chiefly in the 
speech of Massingdale, the central figure, a man of 
amazingly vital volubility of discourse. He wants 
to be an artist, but fate prompted by paternal pres- 
sure has made him a barrister. He finds an outlet 
for his social predilections by collecting weekly 
in his chambers an interesting crowd of unconven- 
tional people, who talk about everything under the 
sun from fresh points of view. Making the acquaint- 
ance of a nice girl, he is on the point of becoming 
domestic and rang6, when she throws him over be- 
cause he indiscreetly kisses an actress on a public 
thoroughfare. The act is innocent enough, in all 
conscience, and prompted by altruism rather than 
affection, but he is too proud to explain, and becomes 
the victim of his betrothed's sensitive and offended 
maidenhood. This is the turning-point, for he there- 
upon chucks the respectable life, escorts the actress 
to Paris (still in all innocence), and becomes a strug- 
gling artist in a Montmartre garret. The scene pres- 
ently shifts to an artist colony in the wine district, 
and culminates in a riot, with the siege and burning 
of a chateau, and a narrow escape for its defenders. 
The girl who has discarded him is a guest at the 
chateau, and her former lover saves her from outrage 
at the peril of his life. Matters are thus smoothed 
for a reconciliation, and the now successful painter 
gets the reward which is even more to him than his 
art. The word "joyous" in the title is particularly 
apt, for joyousness, in the serious sense, is the dom- 
inant note of the book. It is a remarkably interest- 
ing and unusually readable piece of fiction. 

Sylvanus de Bohun, who has great possessions, 
and is the head of one of the oldest families in 
England, prefers the cloistered life of a scholar 
at Cambridge to the conspicuous place in society 
which he might claim. He has been an impractical 
dreamer from his childhood, and the interests and 
ambitions of most men seem to him quite meaning- 
less. So his estates are left in the charge of agents, 
while he devotes himself to writing the " Social 
History of the Roman People," and thereby wins a 
great reputation for scholarship. Once he ventures 
forth into the larger world, and has some interesting 
if disastrous experiences. He kisses a woman, and 
" suddenly innumerable things became clear. He 
understood now why some people could listen to 
music and look at pictures. In a flash he realized 
why the third volume had failed. It was not alive. 
A machine must have written it. Half a dozen 
Latin poems came to mind: they meant something 
entirely different from what he had supposed. 
Those poets had been men like himself; they, too, 
must have experienced this extraordinary transfer- 
ence to the high mountains." The experience 
changes his outlook upon life, and leads to marriage, 
the assumption of his rights and duties as a country 
gentleman, and the old, old discovery about the 
frailty of woman when his wife deserts him one 
fine morning, accompanied by his rascally brother- 
in-law, who has been bleeding him for years. After 




this, the scholar's life at Cambridge is again taken 
up, and we leave him on the eve of election as 
Master of his college. This is the outline of the 
story told us by Mr. Ralph Straus in " The Prison 
Without a Wall." It is a richly human and whim- 
sically humorous story of the most delightful inter- 
est, reminding us in many ways of the best work 
of Mr. W. J. Locke, and inviting quite as close an 
attention to its details. It is a work in which the 
characters are all real and the happenings are all 

Mr. A. E. W. Mason is an expert craftsman, and 
we open '' The Turnstile " with reasonable assurance 
of entertainment. Our expectations are fully justi- 
fied until about half way through the book, when 
the romantic material upon which the earlier chap- 
ters are based gives way to a dull and complicated 
account of a political struggle in England, having 
for its substance a hotly contested election and a 
parliamentary struggle. The hero is a successful 
Antarctic explorer who seeks and wins political 
advancement. The heroine is a girl of English 
extraction, who has spent her early life upon an 
Argentine estancia, adopted by its English owners 
from a foundling's home in Buenos Ayres. Deserted 
by her worthless father, she had when an infant 
been deposited in the turnstile of this institution 
whence the title of the novel. The reappearance 
of the disreputable father, threatening to make 
trouble, decides her adoptive parents to return with 
her to England, and thus are we brought to the 
second stage of the narrative. Her marriage to 
Captain Ranes is a disappointment, for she has 
idealized him in his character as an explorer, and 
he turns out to be a politician of the time-serving and 
opportunist type. Her ideal is in a measure restored, 
when, at the end, the call of the pole decides him to 
give up politics, and reengage upon the quest which 
has all the time been his sub-conscious ambition. 

Mr. John Masefield, who is one of the most vital 
and serious of the younger English writers, has 
taught us to expect something unusual whenever he 
gives birth to a book, be it play, poem, or novel. 
He has a curiously inquiring and reflective mind, 
engaged usually in contemplation of the most serious 
problems of life and character, and its output has 
compelling significance, whatever the theme of its 
preoccupation. His " Multitude and Solitude " deals 
with the sleeping-sickness, that scourge of the African 
wilderness, and it affords him material for a grim 
and intensely vivid picture of life (and death) in an 
African village. The hero is a London man of let- 
ters, too conscientious in his art to win popular 
success, whose life is darkened by a shipwreck in the 
Irish Channel, which is fatal to the woman whom 
he loves and upon whom all his hopes are built. 
He becomes possessed of a commanding impulse to 
cut away from literature and do something which 
may contribute more directly to human service. 
His attention is accidentally called to the subject of 
sleeping-sickness, and he prevails upon a young 
scientist of his acquaintance to accept him as a 

fellow-worker, and to take him to Africa upon his 
next expedition. The book is half-finished when 
this point is reached ; the remaining half takes us to 
the scene of his new labors, and has much to do with 
cultures, and media, and seras, and trypanosomes. 
Technically, the matter is thoroughly worked up. 
The two men are robbed and deserted in the jungle 
by their native keepers, and are left in a stricken 
village deprived of their most essential specific 
against disease. They both nearly succumb to the 
terrible ailment which they are engaged in fighting, 
but are saved by discovering the secret of the serum 
which will cure it. The story is told with a force 
and insight which remind us strongly of the work 
done by Mr. Conrad in this tropical field. 

Mr. Rider Haggard's " Red Eve " represents a re- 
version to the hopelessly unreal ultra-romantic type 
of historical fiction cultivated by the imitators of 
Scott. It is one of the misfortunes of genius that it 
sets a shining example for the emulation of third-rate 
followers in its footsteps, and the atrocities that have 
been committed in the name of Sir Walter are almost 
enough to make one wish that the great romancer 
had never lived. Mr. Haggard's romance is of En- 
gland in the days of the French wars and the Black 
Death. It takes us from the Southern counties to 
the field of Crecy, and thence to Venice and Avignon. 
The hero, whose affianced bride is tricked into a 
sham marriage by a French knight who is a black- 
hearted villain, pursues his enemy through Europe 
to the papal court, and finally wreaks vengeance upon 
him. Mr. Haggard's predilection for the uncanny 
is illustrated by the superhuman figure personifying 
Death, who comes from far Cathay bearing with him 
the seeds of the pestilence which he scatters over 
the Western world, and intervening at critical junc- 
tures in the fortunes of the lovers. It all attempts 
to be very impressive, and signally misses its aim. 

The story of Martin Luther and the launching of 
the Reformation has been made into a very accept- 
able historical novel, entitled " The Friar of Witten- 
berg," by Mr. William Stearns Davis. The narrative 
is fully documented, and keeps close to historical fact. 
For a reader whose knowledge of the subject has been 
based upon boyhood reading of d'Aubigne*, which 
knowledge has grown somewhat hazy with the lapse 
of years, it serves to freshen the familiar facts, and 
give them renewed vitality. They are all here 
Tetzel and his indulgences, the nailing up of the 
theses, the controversy with Eck, the Diet of Worms, 
and the Wartburg. We are also given a vivid picture 
of Roman life, its sophisticated society, its pseudo- 
classical culture, and its Renaissance morals. This 
is needed to give point to the German revolt, and 
to enlist the fullest sympathy in behalf of the reform 
movement. The private interest of the story centres 
about a nobleman half-German, half-Italian 
whose early nurture has been all Italian, but who 
is driven forth to make a home upon his ancestral 
estates in the Harz country. Here he comes under 
the spell of Luther, is attracted to his cause by the 
Tetzel affair, and becomes his ardent champion in 



[August 1, 

the events which follow. A fair German maiden 
becomes the object of his adoration, and his passion 
for her persists after she has been persuaded to take 
the vows of the religious life. The breaking up of 
the old order sets her free, and she is in the end 
united to her lover. But the private interest, al- 
though well sustained, is throughout subordinated to 
the interest of the great religious and political issues 
that are at stake, and Luther fills a larger part in 
the reader's consciousness than the Graf von Regen- 
stein. Some of the scenes notably the one at 
Worms supported as they are by the historical 
record of things said and done, are very impressive, 
as is also the picture of the decay of Christianity in 
its ancient seat. We have often thought, during our 
reading, of the historical novels of Mr. Winston 
Churchill, and the author of "The Crisis," had he 
taken up the tale of the Reformation, would have 
produced much the same sort of a book. There is 
the same skilful weaving of a private plot with affairs 
of public import, the same effective use of salient 
historical episodes, the same wide knowledge of the 
period concerned. There is also the same lack of 
finish in the detail and the same rather commonplace 
style. The matter of the work is so big that the man- 
ner can do without overmuch of artistic elaboration. 
The author's attitude toward the controversial mat- 
ter involved is, of course, strongly Protestant, and 
therefore biassed as compared with that of the strictly 
dispassionate student of history, who must needs take 
into account, in judging the Reformation, of its two 
centuries' legacy of religious warfare, no less than 
of its immediate provocations and defences. 

Another historical novel of marked excellence is 
"The Shadow of Power," by Mr. Paul Bertram. 
It has for its theme the attempt to force the Nether- 
lands into subjection to the Spanish yoke under 
Philip II. Neither the Duke of Alva, leader of the 
persecution, nor the spider-king, weaving his webs 
in the seclusion of the Escorial, appears upon the 
scene, but we are all the time conscious of their 
sinister presence somewhere in the background. 
The Prince of Orange is the only important histor- 
ical character figuring in the narrative, appearing 
at the time when the hero transfers his allegiance 
to the Dutch cause. This hero is a noble Spaniard, 
sent to govern the town of Geertruydenberg; and 
he makes his entry just in time to rescue a damsel, 
bound to the stake, and about to be burned on a 
charge of witchcraft. It is a perilous act, for it 
brings him into disfavor with court and clergy, and 
in its ultimate consequence, leads to his deposition. 
He has in the meanwhile, married the daughter of 
a wealthy Dutch burgher, but it has been a con- 
strained union on her part, and it does not bring 
him her love. When the crisis comes in his fortunes, 
he is unable to rescue her, because she suspects him 
of seeking to betray her and her father as Protestants. 
Thus she passes out of his life and of the story when 
he joins forces with William the Silent. The woman 
whom he has saved from the flames remains for the 
author's use in making the needed romantic settle- 

ment of the plot. In a very general way, this book 
resembles "The Friar of Wittenberg," both in the 
fact that it deals with the period of religious perse- 
cutions in Europe, and in the further fact that the 
hero turns his back upon the cause with which he 
has been allied by race and circumstance. He be- 
comes a valiant fighter for Dutch freedom, and in 
the end wins the woman whom he loves. He is a 
strong figure, and a fine opportunity for psycholog- 
ical study is offered by the gradual alienation of his 
sympathies from the Spanish side to that of the em- 
battled Dutchmen. He becomes technically a traitor, 
but he carries with him our respect and admiration. 
This is not as partisan a story as is usually written 
upon the theme which the author has chosen. He 
is as unsparing of Protestant as of Catholic bigotry, 
and is not blind to the faults of the people whose 
champion he becomes. His style is very good 
almost distinguished and the mastery of his his- 
torical material is thorough. Although there are 
considerable elements of introspection and analysis 
in the book, the action is on the whole swift and 
dramatic, and the plot is of pronounced and exciting 
interest. It is so much more than the ordinary tale 
of intrigue and adventure that it makes a strong ap- 
peal to the intellectual interests of the reader, while 
at the same time gratifying his artistic sense. 

The theme of the disdainful maiden, who scorns 
the hero who has rescued her from her plight, and 
withholds for long years the reward that is roman- 
tically his due, meets us once more in Mr. Frederick 
Palmer's " Over the Pass." The agony is rather over- 
done, for there is no reason why the heroine should 
have been so stand-offish when she must have known 
in her heart that she was destined to make a full 
surrender. It all happens in Arizona, where Jasper 
Ewold, disgusted with the ways of civilization, has 
taken refuge, and becomes the founder of a town of 
which he is the recognized leader and patriarch. His 
daughter Mary is the heroine, and her rescuer is 
Jack Wingfield, once a "lunger," but now in vigorous 
health, who saves her from the unwelcome attentions 
of the "bad man " of the town. Jack, nothing dis- 
couraged by the maiden's coldness, determines to 
become a rancher, and sets himself to the cultivation 
of alfalfa and such truck. But he is called to the 
East, where his father, the owner of a large depart- 
ment store and many times a millionaire, wants him 
in his business, now that he is restored to health. 
He makes a valiant effort to adapt himself to the 
new life, but Arizona calls to him, and for her sake 
which is a euphemistic way of saying for Mary's 
sake he renounces position and fortune for the 
ranch. In an exciting episode he rounds up the 
" bad man " and his pals, and eliminates them from 
the situation. After that, it is easy work to placate 
the father who has borne a grudge against his 
family and bring the girl to her senses. It is a 
blithe story, told with much animation and whim- 
sical humor. 

The subject of fire insurance does not exactly ap- 
peal to the romantic imagination, and it is surpris- 




ing to find how interesting a novel has heen written 
about it by Messrs. Kennedy and Noble. The hero, 
a young man with the prosaic name of Smith, is 
engaged in the business, and is enthusiastically 
devoted to his occupation. To him the work of 
underwriting is rich in dramatic human interest, 
besides leading into the most delightful by-ways of 
scholarship. The Conservative Company of which 
he is an officer is attacked by unscrupulous rivals 
and undermined by treachery upon the part of its 
own vice-president. Its affairs are in a desperate 
condition, when Smith is given charge, and energeti- 
cally sets things to rights. The final blow is dealt 
the enemy by fate, when a disastrous conflagration 
sweeps through the business heart of Boston, creat- 
ing liabilities which force the rival organization to 
retire from the field. Smith finds an ally and sym- 
pathizer in an attractive young woman who wants 
to learn about the business, and applies to him for 
information. Under his tutelage she acquires (and 
incidentally the reader) a surprising amount of 
technical knowledge about agencies, and separation 
rules, and other matters, which are plainly set forth 
from a knowledge of the subject which is both 
intimate and intelligent. "White Ashes" is the 
appropriate title of this exceptionally clever and 
well-written piece of fiction. 

The author of "The Inner Shrine" and "The 
Wild Olive" has given us, in "The Street Called 
Straight," a third novel of ingeniously contrived 
plot, incisive characterization, and sustained interest. 
The interest is essentially psychological, and the 
situation may be thus outlined: A Boston girl of 
high social standing and patrician instincts has be- 
come engaged to an English army officer who has a 
record for heroic achievement and the most brilliant 
prospects of advancement. The wedding is immi- 
nent, awaiting only his arrival in Boston, when it 
transpires that the girl's father has been an em- 
bezzler of trust funds to the amount of half a million, 
and that his exposure and disgrace can no longer 
be averted. Then comes the intervention of a 
Bostonian whose suit the girl once rejected, and who 
has since "cleaned up" half a million by specu- 
lating in copper mines. He learns of her predica- 
ment, and, asking no reward, quixotically comes to 
the rescue with his half million. At first, the offer 
is declined by both father and daughter, but reflec- 
tion causes them to accept it after some days of 
irresolution. Then the Englishman arrives, is ap- 
prised of the exact situation, refuses the girl's offer 
to release him and offers to assume the burden by the 
sacrifice of his own property. This the girl refuses, 
preferring to become beholden to the American, in 
the disinterestedness of whose motive she has come 
to have faith. A protracted deadlock follows, he 
refusing to accept happiness at the cost of a stranger, 
she refusing to accept him at the cost of his own 
financial ruin and clouded prospects. Then the 
American has a brilliant idea. The girl has a 
wealthy aunt, an expatriate and the widow of a 
French Marquis, and to her the American appeals, 

stating all the facts, and urging her to assume the 
obligation. She hastens to America, makes the offer, 
and the path to the girl's marriage seems to be 
cleared. Neither she nor the Englishman can urge 
any valid objection to aid that comes from her own 
family. Here is where the psychological situation 
becomes intense, for when this point is reached, the 
extraordinary generosity and self-effacement of the 
American have made such an impression on both of 
them, that she has come to regard him in a more than 
friendly way, and he finds himself incapable of 
thwarting the happiness of the man who has shown 
himself capable of such devotion. He would feel 
himself under a heavier burden of obligation than 
before, when it is a merely a question of accepting 
money, and his conscience finds it intolerable. His 
renunciation follows, after a struggle, and the way is 
cleared for the girl's union with the man who had not 
dared to dream of such an outcome. The workings 
of these three people's minds, in the successive 
stages of this complication, is analyzed with masterly 
insight, and therein lies the strength of the work. 
That the Englishman may not go entirely unre- 
warded, he is given a sort of consolation prize in 
the rather colorless woman who is one of the minor 
figures in the narrative. This is anything but con- 
vincing, and noticeably weakens the story at its close. 
Mr. Randall Parrish always tells a good story, 
although he has no gifts of style or characterization 
to speak of. His "Molly McDonald" is a tale of 
1868 in the West, when the Indian uprisings en- 
gaged the attention of the United States forces under 
Sheridan and Custer. The hero is of the type dear 
to the romantic heart of youth, who accomplishes 
great deeds of daring, and rescues the heroine from 
all sorts of perils. He is an enlisted soldier, and 
had previously been an officer in the Confederate 
army. He is under a cloud, owing to the treachery 
of a former friend, and he gets revenge upon his 
enemy at the same time that the evidence turns up 
that is needed to clear his name. He gets the girl, 
as a matter of course. 



, As Mr. Benson recently remarked, 
A survivor's . . * . ' 

account of the in his essay on realism in fiction, the 
great shipwreck, things said and done by the actors 
in a soul-stirring drama of real life are commonly 
very different from the things one might have im- 
agined them as saying and doing. The sensational 
newspaper reports of the wreck of the Titanic bear 
but the faintest resemblance to the sober and careful 
narrative of the event from the pen of Mr. Lawrence 
Beesley, one of the survivors and a person well quali- 
fied to treat the theme with accuracy and in minute 
detail. "The Loss of the SS. Titanic" not only de- 
scribes the ill-fated vessel and traces its short history 
to the untimely end, with first-hand and other au- 
thentic information on every point of importance, 



[August 1, 

but it dwells understandingly and at length on the 
lessons taught by the catastrophe, and makes an intel- 
ligent attempt to point out the preventive measures 
that should be adopted in the future by the steam- 
ship companies. Mr. Beesley is a young English- 
man, a Cambridge scholar, and has been a teacher 
of physics, as his narrative shows ; so that his powers 
of observation and habit of scientific inference are 
precisely those required in one attempting a faithful 
account of this memorable shipwreck. The great 
size and many decks of the Titanic, the exceeding 
slightness of the shock of collision with the iceberg, 
the prevalent belief in the unsinkability of the mon- 
ster vessel, and the comparative slowness of its actual 
sinking, these were important factors in preventing 
panic or confusion among the passengers. Tales of 
pistol-firing, of suicide on the part of officers, of 
melodramatic exhortations from captain to crew to 
"be British," and other newspaper fabrications, are 
pronounced false by the calmly observant author. His 
own rescue resulted from a very matter-of-course and 
all but inevitable chain of events, and with a rather 
remarkable unawareness on his part that any loss of 
life whatever was threatened. In this one particular 
in failing to appreciate the inadequacy of the ship's 
life-saving equipment he falls below one's concep- 
tion of his observing powers. But of course no ex- 
pectation of disaster had been entertained by him. 
Of his narrative in general it is safe to say that no 
single survivor could have furnished a better or more 
trustworthy history of the stupendous event; but it 
would be strange if some few occurrences that went 
to make up the whole catastrophe had not been inad- 
vertently slighted or distorted, minimized or exag- 
gerated by him. What one observant and careful 
narrator could do, however, he has admirably done. 
The book is published, with illustrations, by Hough- 
ton Mifflin Co. 

Expert advice " How to Plan a Library Building 
about library for Library Work " comes from the 

architecture. p en o f one w h o to fa e infectious 
enthusiast of an amateur joins the knowledge and 
experience of the professional library worker. Mr. 
Charles C. Soule has been an active member of the 
American Library Association almost from its foun- 
dation, was its vice-president in 1890, a member of 
its Publishing Board for eight years, of its Council 
for two terms of three and five years, a trustee of 
its Endowment Fund for twelve years, and has been 
a member of the Institute since its formation. 
Eleven years of service as trustee of the Brookline 
Public Library are also to be placed to his credit. 
He has made a careful study of library architecture, 
especially from the inside, from the viewpoint of 
the working librarian, and he naturally and rightly 
insists on the primary importance of utility. His 
book, which shrinks not from handling the prosaic 
details of plumbing, drains, sewers, fire-buckets, 
vacuum cleaners, and so on, is divided into five main 
divisions, with many sub-sections. The Introduction 
touches on the history and literature and main out- 

lines of the general theme ; then comes a fuller treat- 
ment of "Principles"; after that a section devoted 
to "Personel"; next a consideration of "Features"; 
and finally a four-part discussion of " Departments 
and Rooms." An appendix containing "Concrete 
Examples" and other useful matter follows, and 
an index completes the volume. The author takes 
extraordinary pains to fortify every position with 
corroborative opinions from other writers. After 
stating in conclusive terms the obvious desirability 
of consulting an expert librarian before planning 
one's library building, he hardly needed to quote, 
with chapter and verse, an imposing array of au- 
thorities ; but perhaps the point cannot be too 
strongly emphasized. His disapproval of the com- 
petition method of securing architectural plans 
seems a bit excessive. Open competition in compli- 
ance with expert specifications, prepared beforehand 
in detail, sometimes produces results of value in the 
way of originality and novelty that cannot be bar- 
gamed for from a hired architect of even the highest 
standing. The author and his publishers, the Boston 
Book Company, invite a free expression of opinion 
as to the desirability of issuing a supplementary 
volume of plates. If enough requests for such a 
volume are received, it will be published. Also any 
other criticisms or suggestions, of a constructive 
nature, are solicited from the public. So well- 
considered and well-executed a treatise as Mr. 
Soule's can hardly be much improved upon except 
by the addition of illustrative plates. 

Further Those who are interested (and who 

f noted IS not ?) m tne personal peculiarities 

journalist. and the informal conversation of the 

famous, will greatly enjoy Mr. George W. Smalley's 
second series of "Anglo-American Memories" 
(Putnam). Reprinted chiefly from the New York 
" Tribune," these genially reminiscent chapters treat 
of persons who either now are or lately have been 
much in public notice ; as, for example, Mr. Winston 
Churchill, Mr. Balfour, Mr. Chamberlain, Lord 
Rosebery, Sir Edward Grey, Count Witte, Goldwin 
Smith, Whistler, Henry Irving, Mme. Bernhardt, 
and Mile. Descle'e, on the other side of the Atlantic ; 
and on this, Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan, Mr. Carnegie, 
Colonel Roosevelt, Thomas B. Reed, and Mr. White- 
law Reid. A significant utterance from our strenu- 
ous Colonel will attract attention. "You think I 
am impulsive," said he, "and perhaps I am. But I 
will tell you one thing. Never yet have I entered 
upon any great policy till I was satisfied I had be- 
hind me a great body of public opinion." There 
speaks the astute opportunist. Recalling the earlier 
years of his acquaintance with Mr. Roosevelt, the 
author says: "The two or three days I spent with 
Governor Roosevelt at Albany left me with the im- 
pression that his masterful good intentions would 
lead him far. We all now know that they did, though 
whether we have even yet measured the whole dis- 
tance may be a question. For the considered judg- 




merit of the community embodied in statutes he 
seemed to have less respect than for his own indi- 
vidual opinion. He had, I thought, less reverence 
for law than most Americans have; or once had." 
And in the eyes of Europe we have always been an 
awful example of disrespect for law. Concerning the 
Russo-Japanese treaty for which such high credit has 
been accorded to the then President of the United 
States, Mr. Smalley, who was at Portsmouth all the 
time the diplomatic negotiations were in progress, 
has much to say that is well worth reading. " I sum 
it all up in this way," says he in conclusion. "It 
was Count Witte who, with that 'fortunate astute- 
ness' which is Machiavelli's ideal in The Prince, 
brought the American people back to their ancient 
friendship for Russia, and with them the President. 
It was Count Witte who formed that body of Ameri- 
can opinion without which Mr. Roosevelt, as I have 
elsewhere related, never, he said, entered upon a 
great policy. ... It was therefore first of all Count 
Witte, and perhaps secondly the Russian Emperor, 
who were the real authors of the Peace of Ports- 
mouth. President Roosevelt's intervention was use- 
ful and was made with great courage and judgment 
at the right moment. But of itself it would not have 
availed." The wide range of Mr. Smalley 's acquaint- 
ance among the great, his good taste and excellent 
discretion in reporting their talk and their actions, 
and the pleasing quality of his style, make these 
"Anglo-American Memories" most agreeable read- 

In a significant and closely-reasoned 
work entitled " The Sociological 
Study of the Bible " (University of 
Chicago Press), Mr. Louis Wallis has traced the 
rise of the Christian religion from its embryonic 
beginnings among the Hebrews, and traced it, for 
the first time, under its sociological aspects. The 
rise of the unique religion of Israel and its flowering 
in Christianity has been interpreted as a develop- 
ment from the worship of a purely tribal god, 
Yahweh, to that of a universal god who set the 
interests of universal justice over all merely tribal 
or national interests. When asked, however, why 
the worship of Yahweh should thus develop, rather 
than the worship of his neighboring and once just 
as powerful god Chemosh, the higher critics have 
had to fall back on some such explanation as "the 
genius of the Hebrew prophets." But even personal 
genius cannot spring up out of relation to the social 
and other environmental forces around it. It is, 
then, in terms of those forces that Mr. Wallis seeks 
to show how the religion of the Bible grew. He 
finds the explanation in the collision and gradual 
amalgamation of the wandering Canaanitish clans, 
with their mountain god Yahweh and their nomadic 
code of ethics which recognized the brotherhood of 
all men in the clan, and the settled Amorites who 
occupied Canaan, lived in independent cities, and 
had a code of ethics which recognized class distinc- 
tions and regarded the serf classes as having few or 

The social 
genesis of 
the Bible. 

no rights. As soon as the Hebrews settled down 
in this land they took over these sophisticated and 
aristocratic ideas. The new status of affairs natur- 
ally bore down heavily upon the poorer Israelites, 
and so their hill prophets came to associate their 
tribal god Yahweh with their old nomadic ideas of 
brotherly justice, and to oppose that conception to 
the " Baal worship " of the cities with its attendant 
love of luxury and ceremony. Hence arose the 
fusion of the idea of justice with that of the Israel- 
itish god. Then came conquest and the Exile, a 
national experience which showed the greatest of 
the prophets that their god's idea of justice was not 
confined to the well-being of Israel but meant a 
universal justice which Israel as well as the other 
nations of the earth had to acknowledge. Re- 
demption then became the watchword of the Jewish 
religion, and the redemptive idea gradually took on 
the characteristics which Jesus and Paul found 
ready to their hands and of which they made so 
revolutionary a use. Mr. Wallis does not confine 
himself to the rise of Bible religion only, but 
traces the social factor in the later growth of 
Christianity, through the Reformation, and on to 
the contemporary situation. Although his book is 
for the layman, he writes in a thoroughly scientific 
manner, and the lesson he draws from this great 
development is that the church of to-day should 
recognize the bearings of the social problem on 
religion, and while avoiding all fixed programmes 
of reform, see to it that the church, made in part 
as it is by social pressure, should react on the 
social situation and impress it with the idealism 
whose sanctuary the church is meant to be. 

"A Chance Medley of Legal Points 
fheTaw. f and Le 8 al Stories" (Little, Brown, 

& Co.), composed of extracts from 
" Silk and Stuff " in the Pall Mall Gazette " (1893- 
1909), appears with no indication as to whose 
diligence in searching the annals of English juris- 
prudence has placed us under obligations for so en- 
tertaining a collection of not too familiar anecdotes. 
To be sure, we find Disraeli's well-known saying 
if Disraeli ever said it, which the compiler gravely 
doubts, and he gives the reason for his doubts: 
"Everybody knows the stages of a lawyer's career: 
he tries in turn to get on, to get honors, to get hon- 
est." But we also find many other equally good and 
more authentic witticisms as, for example : " An at- 
torney died so poor perhaps it was he of whom it 
was said that he had so few effects because he had 
so few causes that his friends had to make a shil- 
ling subscription to bury him. One of them asked 
Curran for that contribution. 'Here's a sovereign,' 
was the answer ; ' bury twenty ! ' " That was an apt 
reply, too, which Lord Chief Justice Russell made, 
in his pre-judicial days when he was only a stuff- 
gownsman and a brother barrister asked him in court 
what was the extreme penalty for bigamy. "Two 
mothers-in-law," came the ready answer. The same 



[August 1, 

kind of wit, but unintentionally displayed, marked 
the reply of a pi'isoner who was pleading in his own 
defense but failed to make himself distinctly heard 
by the judge. " What was your last sentence ? " asked 
his honor. " Six months," respectfully returned the 
prisoner at the bar. Let it not be inferred, however, 
that the book is wholly devoted to such tit-bits of 
humor; many incidents and cases are cited for the 
sake of their bearing on present-day events, and ap- 
parently to encourage the reader to do a little serious 
thinking for himself. Incidentally the book cites 
some cases that might serve as good illustrations to 
Mr. Samuel B. Chester's recent "Anomalies of the 
English Law." Possibly the anonymous compiler 
is Mr. Chester himself. At all events, "A Chance 
Medley" is a curiously learned and well-edited 
piece of work. 

Memories of Southern writers on Civil War sub- 
Gen. Wheeler's . , j , j ,, . .. 
Confederate jects have devoted their attention 

cavalrv. largely to the Army of Northern 

Virginia, somewhat to the neglect of the other 
armies of the Confederacy, although the task be- 
fore the armies of the West was in some respects 
even greater than that set for the army of Lee. 
General Basil Duke's Reminiscences, published last 
year, was devoted to an account of soldier life in the 
Western army. Mr. DuBose's book on "General 
Joseph Wheeler and the Army of Tennessee " 
(Neale) deals largely with matters of tactics and 
strategy. The author, with his four brothers, served 
in Wheeler's cavalry. Consequently the volume is, 
to a certain extent reminiscencial ; but the author 
has also made considerable use of historical sources, 
and the result is a work of considerable value. Of 
particular interest is the author's estimate of the 
value of the cavalry arm to the Confederate cause. 
It is his theory that although the Confederate cavalry 
was on the whole superior to the Federal cavalry, 
its extraordinary value was not understood by 
the Confederate authorities during the early years 
of the conflict, and therefore the peculiar military 
capacity of the Southern people was not fully de- 
veloped. Numerous private letters throw interest- 
ing side-lights on many phases of the conflict. The 
primary purpose of the book, however, is to give 
an account of the military career of General Joseph 
Wheeler as commander of the cavalry in the Army 
of Tennesse. Particularly clear is the author's ac- 
count of the misfortunes which resulted from the 
change of Confederate commanders at Atlanta. Mr. 
DuBose evidently approves the policy of General 
Johnston, not that of General Hood and the Con- 
federate president. 

Judge Oliver Perry Temple, of Knox- 
ville > Tennessee, who died in 1907, 
had long been devoted to the study 
of the history of East Tennessee. During his life- 
time he published two historical works, " The Cove- 
nanter, the Cavalier, and the Puritan," and "East 
Tennessee and the Civil War," of which the latter 
especially was a work of considerable merit. Now 

there appears from the Cosmopolitan Press of New 
York a posthumous work, compiled and arranged by 
Judge Temple's daughter, Miss Mary B. Temple, 
which bears the title "Notable Men of Tennessee 
from 1833 to 1875, Their Times and Their Contem- 
poraries." Had the words "East Tennessee " been 
used instead of "Tennessee" the title would have 
been a more accurate one; for, with one exception, 
all the leaders in politics (about thirty in number) 
whose lives are sketched by Judge Temple lived and 
were active in the Eastern section of the State. It 
should have been indicated, also, that only Unionist 
"notables" are included: there is no biography, for 
example, of Landon C. Haynes. Some of the 
sketches cover not more than a page or two, but 
those of William G. Brownlow and Andrew Johnson 
are of considerable length. As might be expected 
from the circumstances of its preparation, the book 
suffers from some discursiveness of style and some 
repetition of facts. The author was a partisan in 
times when feeling ran high, and his likes and dis- 
likes remained strong. But the recollections are 
those of an honest and able observer and a consci- 
entious narrator, and the book, despite the limitations 
suggested, and the absence of an index, constitutes 
a valuable contribution to the history of East Ten- 


The very effective set of drawings of the Panama 
Canal made by Mr. Joseph Pennell for " The Century," 
some of which appear in the August issue of that mag- 
azine, has been purchased by the government for the 
print collection of the Library of Congress. The his- 
torical value of Mr. Pennell's pictures is increased by the 
fact that with the letting in of the water the picturesque- 
ness of this part of the Canal work will be largely 

After eleven years of deliberation the San Francisco 
Board of Supervisors has voted to accept the three- 
quarters of a million dollars offered by Mr. Carnegie as 
a contribution toward a new library building. No city 
could stand in much greater need of such a building, 
and, consequently, of the funds wherewith to erect it, 
than San Francisco. Thus one can surmise the weighti- 
ness of the scruples so long delaying a glad acceptance 
of the money. 

A new series of selections from the letters and 
diaries of Queen Victoria, with an introduction by Lord 
Esher, has been sanctioned by King George. The pub- 
lication will take the form of two illustrated volumes, 
entitled "The Girlhood of Queen Victoria," and will 
give interesting glimpses of the royal author from her 
thirteenth year to the time of her marriage in 1840. 
Mr. John Murray, the publisher of the first series, will 
publish also the second. 

The recent unveiling of the allegorical figures, 
"Science" and "Art," now at last in place on their 
long-expectant pedestals in front of the Boston Public 
Library, marks the completion of that fine building as 
projected a quarter of a century ago by the architects. 
The late Augustus Saint-Gaudens had originally been 
commissioned to furnish the statues, but his untimely 




death made necessary the engagement of another sculp- 
tor. To Mr. Bela Pratt the task was finally assigned, 
and the fine bronze figures that have now come from 
his hand give the noble building's front that finishing 
touch it has so long wanted. 

Endowment of the Mark Twain Memorial Library, at 
Redding, Connecticut, with a sufficient fund to provide 
for its support is now, thanks to Mr. Carnegie, an ac- 
complished fact. The history of this interesting library 
is briefly as follows. When Mr. Clemens took up his 
abode at Redding he gave the town a collection of sev- 
eral thousand volumes from his own library, and placed 
them in a small vacant chapel for public use. These 
temporary quarters soon gave place to a more suitable 
building, erected by him as a memorial to his daughter 
Jean; and after his death the greater part of his own 
remaining library was added to the collection. Hitherto 
it has been from voluntary contributors that this me- 
morial library has received its support. 

The untimely death of an eminent French scientist 
and author is reported from Paris in the passing away 
of Jules Henri Poincoire', a cousin of the French 
premier, on the seventeenth of July, from the bursting 
of an artery. A serious surgical operation had been 
undergone by him two weeks earlier, with every pros- 
pect of recovery. Poincoire' was born at Nancy in 
1854, and had devoted his life largely to mathematical 
studies, holding chairs in the University of Paris and 
the Polytechnic School. One of his earliest and most 
popular books was " La Science et PHypothese," which 
soon reached a circulation of twenty thousand copies in 
his own country and was republished abroad. Among 
the stories illustrating the bent of his genius, there is 
an especially pleasing one which describes his infant 
ecstasies 011 first viewing the starry heavens. Astronomy 
became later one of his favorite studies. 

A long-desired biography, that of the late Walter 
Bagehot, who has been dead thirty-five years but is still 
remembered as one of the best talkers of his day and 
one of the best writers of any day, is to be undertaken 
at last. R. H. Button, friend of Bagehot and editor of 
" The Spectator," would have been the one best equip- 
ped for the task; but as he left the work undone, Mrs. 
Russell Barrington, known for her studies of Watts and 
Leighton, comes forward to supply the omission. The 
author of " Lombard Street " and a treatise on the En- 
glish Constitution is now best remembered for his shorter 
pieces, such as his biographical studies of leading Vic- 
torian statesmen. His brilliance and stimulus as a talker 
may be surmised from the aptness and originality of 
phrase that mark his written style. " The cake of cus- 
tom " is perhaps his most familiar contribution to our 
phraseology; "animated restraint," as the characteristic 
of good writing, will also be cherished in remembrance, 
and likewise his expression of regret that those who 
write have seldom done anything worth writing about, 
while those who do things worth recording are com- 
monly disinclined to spread them on paper. 



August, 1912. 

Alfieri and America. Virginia Watson. North American. 
American Authors and British Publishers. . . Bookman. 
American Bureaucracy. Jona. Bourne, Jr. Rev. of Reviews. 
Asphalts, Trinidad, and Bermudez. Clifford 

Richardson ......... Popular Science. 

Babies' Lives. Constance D. Leupp .... McClure. 
Beauty and the Jacobin I. George E. Woodberry. Harper. 
Bees which only visit one Species of Flowers. Pop. Science. 

Big Ditch, The Everybody's. 

Bird Center, Some Aspects of. Louis Baury . Bookman. 
Borrower and Money Trust. Albert W. Atwood. Rev. of Revs. 
Brains versus Bayonets. Percy S. Grant. North American. 

Business, Blundering Into World's Work. 

Canal, Builder of the. Farnam Bishop . . World's Work. 
Central America, Our Danger in. William 

Bayard Hale World's Work. 

Churches, Filling the Atlantic Monthly. 

Cities, March of the World's Work. 

Cleveland and Civil Service Reformers .... Century. 
Cold Storage Problems. P. G. Heinemann. Pop. Sci. Monthly. 
Confederacy, Sunset of the VI. Morris Schaff. Atlantic. 
Conservation Problem. Stewart Paton. Pop. Sci. Monthly. 
Cornwall, Chronicles of. Philip G. Hubert, Jr. Bookman. 
Corruption, a Case of. Harvey J. O'Higgins . . McClure. 
Country School of To-morrow. F. T. Gates. World's Work. 

Drug Habit, Peril of. C. B. Towns Century. 

Enough to Live On. Elizabeth Gannon . . Everybody's. 

Fans. Hugh S. Fullerton American. 

Farmer of To-morrow, The. F. I. Anderson. Everybody's 
French Culture, The Rescue of. Allan Ball. No. American. 

Friends Again. George L. Parker Atlantic. 

Gutter-Garten, In the. Dorothea Slade . ' . Atlantic. 
" Hit,"The Long-forgotten. George Jay Smith. No. American. 
Immortality, Intimations of. H.B. Marriott Watson. No. Am. 
Individualist, Autobiography of an. James 0. Fagin. Atlantic. 
Investments. Edward Sherwood Meade . . . Lippincott. 
Italian Pictures in the Yale Art School .... Scribner. 

Land, Forward to the World's Work. 

Lion in Africa, Doom of the. Cyrus C. Adams. Rev. of Revs. 
Marshall, Thomas R. Thomas R. Shipp . Rev. of Revs. 
"Master Builder," Message of. A. La Victoire. No. American. 
Medicine, Research in. Richard M. Pearce. Pop. Science. 

Meredith, George, Letters of Scribner. 

Miracle Play, A Modern. John M. McBryde, Jr. Atlantic. 
Morality, Constitutional. Win. D. Guthrie. No. American. 
Mortgage Bank. Edward Sherwood Meade . Lippincott. 
New Party : Do the People Want It ? Albert 

Bushnell Hart Review of Reviews. 

New York, Picturesque. F. H. Smith . . World's Work. 
Nominating Conventions of 1912 . . . Review of Reviews. 
Panama Canal Traffic and Tolls . . . North American. 
Politics, Present, Economic Interpretation of. Pop . Science. 

Prodigal, The. Arthur Howard McClure. 

Reactionary. What is it? J. H. Sedgwick. No. American. 
Repartee, Art of. Brander Matthews . . . . . Century. 
Riley, "Jim" An Appreciation. C. V. Tevis. Bookman. 
Ruby-Throat, The. Katherine E. Dolbear . . Atlantic. 
Russian Soul, Grand Inquisitor of. C. Palmer. Bookman. 
St. Francis and the People. M. F. Egan .... Century. 
Socialism Upon Us? Samuel P. Orth . . World's Work. 
Stars, Fixed, Motion of the. Benjamin Boss . . Harper. 
Studying, Helps to. Joseph W. Richards . Pop. Science. 
Sunday: A Day for Man. George P. Atwater . Atlantic. 
Surf-Bathing, First Lesson in. Sigmund Spaeth. Lippincott. 
Theatre, The. Walter Prichard Eaton . .' . American, 
Theocritus on Cape Cod. Hamilton W. Mabie. Atlantic. 
Thought, Modern. Edward T. Williams . . Pop. Science. 
"Titanic," The, and the Literary Commentator. Bookman. 
Trade, Panama Canal and. E. N. Vose . World's Work. 
Trans-Continental Trade Routes, Changing. World's Work. 
Travel, Twentieth-Century. Churchill Williams. Lippincott. 
Twain, Mark X. Albert Bigelow Paine . . . Harper, 

United States V. Arnold Bennett Harper. 

Wall Street, Greatest Killing in. A. W. Atwood. McClure. 
Wilson, Woodrow A Character Sketch. Rev. of Reviews. 
Wilson, Woodrow, Political Predestination of . No. Amer. 

Vote, Wisconsin's Diminishing Atlantic. 

Woman and Her Raiment, A. Ida M. Tarbell. American. 

Woman. Harriett Anderson Atlantic. 

Woman, " Mission " of . A. Maurice Low. North American. 
Women, Economic Independence of. Earl Barnes. Atlantic. 



[August 1, 


[The following list, containing 52 titles, includes books 
ieived by THE DIAL since its last issue.] 

Aagrust Strindberg Plays: The Father: Countess Julie ; The 

Outlaw ; The Stronger. Translated by Edith and Warner 

Oland. With frontispiece, 12mo, 183 pages. Boston: John 

W. Luce & Co. 
Mary Broome: A Comedy. By Allan Monkhonse. 12mo,84 

pages. London: Sidgwick & Jackson, Ltd. Paper. 
Poetic Justice in the Drama: The History of an Ethical 

Principle in Literary Criticism. By M. A. Quinlan, Ph.D. 

12mo, 236 pages. Notre Dame: University Press. 
A Syllabus of English Literature. By Edwin A. Greenlaw, 

Ph.D. Large 8vo, 319 pages. Benjamin H. Sanborn & Co. 

$1.25 net. 
The Shifting- of Literary Values. By Albert Mordell. 8vo, 

84 pages. Philadelphia: The International. Paper. 

The House of a Thousand Welcomes. By E. R. Lipsatt. 

Illustrated. 12mo. 323 pages. John Lane Co. $1.30 net. 
Blue Bonnet's Ranch Party. By Caroline Elliott Jacobs and 

Edyth Ellerbeck Read. Illustrated, 12mo, 305 pages. L. C. 

Page & Co. $1.50. 
The Tomboy and Others. By H. B. Marriott Watson. 12mo, 

283 pages. John Lane Co. $1. net. 

Miss Billy's Decision. By Eleanor H. Porter. With frontis- 
piece in color, I2mo, 364 pages. L. C. Page & Co. $1.25 net. 
Greyhound Fanny. By Martha Morley Stewart. Illustrated 

in color, 12mo, 190 pages. R. R. Donnelley & Sons Co. $1.50. 
The Cobweb Cloak. By Helen Mackay. With frontispiece 

in color, 12mo, 308 pages. Duffield & Co. 
The Roses of Crein. By Beryl Symons. Illustrated, I2mo, 

396 pages. D. Appleton & Co. $1.30 net. 
Halcyone. By Elinor Glyn. With frontispiece in color, 12mo, 

348 pages. D. Appleton & Co. $1.30 net. 
The Revenues of the Wicked. By Walter Raymond. I2mo, 

246 pages. E. P. Button & Co. $1.25 net. 
Davidee Birot. By Rene Bazin ; translated from the French 

by Mary D. Frost. 12mo, 324 pages. Charles Scribner's 

Sons. $1.25 net. 


The Spring: of the Tear. By Dallas Lore Sharp. Illustrated, 
12mo, 148 pages. "Dallas Lore Sharp Nature Series." 
Houghton Mifflin Co. 60 cts. net. 

Making Paths and Driveways. By Claude H. Miller. Illus- 
trated, 16mo, 52 pages. " House and Garden Making Books." 
McBride. Nast & Co. 50 cts. net. 

Apple Growing:. By M. C. Burritt. 12mo, 177 pages. "Outing 
Handbooks." Outing Publishing Co. 70 cts. net. 


Correspondence of William Shirley, Governor of Massa- 
chusetts and Military Commander in America, 1731-1760. 
Edited under the auspices of The National Society of the 
Colonial Dames of America by Charles Henry Lincoln. In 
2 volumes, illustrated in photogravure, 8vo. The Macmillan 
Co. $5. net. 

The History of Pennsylvania. By Charles Morris. Illus- 
trated, 12mo, 335 pages. J. B. Lippincott Co. 

Introductory American History. By Henry Eldridge 
Bourne and Elbert Jay Ben ton. Illustrated, I2mo, 264 pages. 
D. C. Heath & Co. 60 cts. net. 


Science of the Sea: An Elementary Handbook of Practical 
Oceanography for Travellers, Sailors, and Yachtsmen. 
Prepared by the Challenger Society. Edited by G. Herbert 
Fowler. Illustrated with charts, 12mo, 452 pages. B. P, 
Dutton & Co. $2. net. 

The Mechanistic Conception of Life. Biological Essays. 
By Jacques Loeb. 8vo. 232 pages, University of Chicago 
Press. $1.50 net. 

Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates. By J. S. Kingsley, 
Illustrated, 8 vo. 401 pages. P. Blakiston'sSon&Co. $2.25 net. 

Founders of Modern Fyscholog-y. By G. Stanley Hall. 
Illustrated, 12mo, 471 pages. D. Appleton & Co. $2.50 net. 


English Composition Teaching: Preliminary Report of the 
Committee of the Modern Language Association, with Addi- 
tional Matter on the Comparative Cost of English and other 
Teaching. Ninth edition, revised; 8vo, 14 pages. Lawrence, 
Kansas : Department of Journalism Press. Paper, 5 cts. 

A Study of the Paragraph. By Helen Thomas, A.M. 12mo, 
125 pages. American Book Co. 50 cts. net. 

The Expression Primer. By Lilian E. Talbert. Illustrated 
in color, 12mo, 122 pages. Ginn & Co. 30 cts. net. 

Old Testament Stories. Edited for use in secondary schools, 
by James R. Rutland. 12mo. 374 pages. Silver, Burdett & 
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NOTES 108 



Certain recent anonymous or pseudonymous 
books "One Way Out," for instance, and 
"The Corner of Harley Street " and "A Living 
Without a Boss," and a little earlier "The In- 
ner Shrine," and a number of others illustrate 
the ease and freedom and un-selfconsciousness 
which a writer is at liberty to enjoy, if he will, 
when he gives expression to his thought or 
invention, his whim or his fancy, without being 
saddled by that Old Man of the Sea, his own 
personality in the form of an irrevocably unal- 
terable name, with all that that name has come 
to stand for in his own mind, in the mind of 
others, and in the mind of the supreme intelli- 
gence that knows him for what he really is. 
Like little children who play with the keenest 
zest and the completest abandon when they 
are "making believe" and impersonating other 
characters, most imaginative authors like to 
indulge, now and then if not habitually, in 
just this sort of innocent make-believe. To 
objectify or dramatize oneself before putting pen 
to paper seems to promote a freer flow of words, 
to bring a richer supply of images, to fertilize 
the invention and stimulate the fancy. 

Charles Lamb's most sympathetic biographer, 
Mr. E. V. Lucas, suggests that possibly in the 
pseudonym "Elia" may be found a reason for 
the difference between the comparative thinness 
of Lamb's earlier or pre-Elian productions and 
the richness and color of his famous Essays. 
There are some writers, he remarks, who, para- 
doxical though it may seem, can never express 
themselves so freely as when, adopting a dra- 
matic standpoint, they affect to be some one 
else. Goldsmith is pointed to as one who "was 
always happier in his work when he imagined 
his pen to be held by another." The harmless 
imposture lends courage, emboldens diffidence, 
and begets a fine carelessness of criticism. 
Under a euphonious and dignified name, who 
could not give better expression to exalted 
sentiments than under one of trivial and com- 
monplace character ? If a lover of his country 
burns with a desire to deliver himself of an 
eloquent philippic against the arrogant pre- 
tensions of the Prince of Patagonia, into how 
much finer a frenzy will he work himself as 
"Demosthenes Philopatris " than as (let us say) 



[August 16, 

Abner E. Small ! Or if the ardent swain wishes 
to pen a lyric in praise of his sweetheart's blue 
eyes and descriptive of the passion they inspire 
in his breast, small headway will he make until 
he ceases to think of himself as George Griggs 
and assumes the character of some imaginary 
Launcelot or Alphonso or Francesco. 

A marked example of that reluctance often felt 
by a writer of imagination and wit to be known 
as the father of his own literary offspring is 
furnished by the lamented Edward Rowland 
Sill, the premature silencing of whose graceful 
and sprightly pen will ever be a cause for keen 
regret. Near the end of his too-short life, and 
after he had proved himself a master in both 
prose and verse, he wrote to a friend: 

"When anything of mine is to be printed I have 
often a horrid sense now the fingers of the whole uni- 
verse will be pointing at this fellow as an example of a 
wretch that has mistaken his vocation. When it is once 
printed, I feel instantly relieved, in the knowledge that 
nobody reads things after all or cares whether they 
are good or not. The fingers I perceive to be all point- 
ing at more conspicuous objects, or being harmlessly 
sucked in the mouth: so I don't care a bit till the 
next thing is about to be printed. . . . You would not 
believe how I have actually shuddered internally each 
month with fear that now I am going to be stuck up on 
a post without a rag on me at last, and my nightmare 
was to come true." 

Again he writes, with something of the same 
amusing exaggeration which self-contemplation 
tends to produce in many another besides him- 

" The trouble about signing one's name to poems is, 
that stupid people (and we are all pretty stupid some- 
times) persist in thinking every word literally autobio- 
graphical. I have had enough annoyance from that to 
sicken any one of ever writing verse again, or anything 
else but arithmetics and geographies. Even then some 
one would hate you for your view of the Indian Ocean, 
or fear the worst about your character because of your 
treatment of the Least Common Multiple. People are 
getting to write anonymously now and then. (You 
did n't write ' The Breadwinners,' did you ? Perhaps 
the Janitor at the University did or Bacon the printer, 
or Hy. Ward Beecher.)" 

Sill's parenthesized query brings to mind in- 
stances of that false or hypocritical anonymity 
which really seeks greater glory for the author, 
through a preliminary mystery and its adroit 
exploitation, than would have come to him had 
he simply and honestly avowed his authorship 
at the outset. Of course the anonymous issue 
of "The Breadwinners" is now known to have 
been dictated by no such paltry motive; but 
there is reason to suspect that Samuel Warren 
allowed the general curiosity aroused by the 
anonymity of "Ten Thousand a Year" to min- 

ister to its author's vanity. Beginning its serial 
appearance in "Black wood's Magazine" for Oc- 
tober, 1839, it continued its anonymous course 
up to August, 1841, evoking many conjectures 
as to its authorship. Warren himself is said 
to have kept the conjecturers busy by asking 
everybody he met, " Who do you suppose wrote 
' Ten Thousand a Year ? ' "' At last one discern- 
ing person, upon being thus importuned, replied 
in a confidential whisper, " Well, my dear fellow, 
if you won't let it go any further, I '11 confess to 
you in private that I wrote it." Undoubtedly 
the "Letters of Junius" owe a large part of 
their fame to the mystery enveloping their au- 
thorship. Whether Sir Philip Francis wrote 
them, and whether he or whoever did write 
them foresaw the vogue which their anonymity 
would help to give them, who shall say ? It is 
certainly one of the best-kept secrets in literary 

In choosing a pseudonym, as in naming a 
child, there is need of wisdom. To have been 
projected without one's consent into this world 
of sorrow and sin and strife is bad enough. To 
be handicapped after one's arrival by being 
tagged with an unprepossessing or ridiculous or 
otherwise objectionable label is an addition of 
insult to injury. Therefore, since we cannot 
choose our ancestors or our baptismal names, 
there is all the more reason why one should pro- 
ceed cautiously in selecting the pen-name that 
is to help make or mar the fortunes of one's 
literary efforts. It is well known that our fore- 
most humorist deeply regretted in later years 
that he had not chosen for himself, in addition 
to the whimsical pseudonym now forever asso- 
ciated with "Innocents Abroad" and "Rough- 
ing It," a second and less oddly suggestive name 
for works of serious thought and purpose. Read- 
ers persisted in laughing over anything signed 
"Mark Twain," whether there was anything 
funny in it or not. There is something truly 
pathetic in the wail he uttered over the re- 
ception accorded to his first essay in a serious 

"Well, in due course of time the book ['The Prince 
and the Pauper '] came out. To me it was a crucial 
point in my life. My anxiety over its reception at the 
hands of the literary critics was so great that I could n't 
sleep or eat. It will not be hard to imagine my chagrin, 
then, when they came out with yards of slush in which 
they called this, my first serious work, my masterpiece 
of humor said it was just about the funniest thing 
that had ever come off a press. Mind you, this was not 
the verdict of one or two or three of these literary 
know-it-alls it was unanimous. . . . By the time I 
had been assaulted and battered in seven or eight Ian- 



guages by this literary riffraff I gave it up and decided 
that there was no remedy for their kind of mania. The 
only satisfaction I ever had out of it is in holding that 
I was right and they were all wrong. I have never 
altered that opinion." 

The history of pseudonymity is enlivened with 
many anecdotes illustrating the danger that a 
pseudonym, or any fictitious name used in story- 
writing, however odd and however carefully 
chosen, may prove to be the name of a real 
living person who will turn up some day and 
make trouble for his literary namesake. A 
curious and indeed an almost incredible in- 
stance of this nature, having to do with the 
assumed name of a person and the assumed 
name of a town, is related by Mr. J. Henry 
Harper in that recent treasury of literary his- 
tory and anecdote, "The House of Harper," 
which also gives in full the Mark Twain incident 
referred to above. One day there came by mail 
to Dr. Irenaeus Prime, in his capacity as editor 
of "The Drawer" in "Harper's Magazine," a 
story containing a personal name and a geo- 
graphical name, but of so richly humorous a 
character that, despite its indulgence in a per- 
sonality that might give offense, supposing it 
to be a true story, he decided to publish, first 
however changing both personal and geograph- 
ical names for the sake of greater safety. To 
his astonishment and chagrin, after publication 
there came a letter to the publishers couched 
in the most abusive and threatening language, 
and vowing that the house of Harper should be 
made to pay dearly for its unauthorized printing 
of the incident in question. It was afterward 
ascertained that the contributor of the anecdote 
had himself substituted fictitious for real names, 
and Dr. Prime, with too great precaution, had 
inadvertently, and by something little short of 
a miracle, changed the fictitious names back to 
the real ones. 

But this is a digression. The charm of the 
unknown will continue, as long as anonymous 
and pseudonymous literature is written, to ap- 
peal more or less potently to the reader; while 
the sense of having created a mystery, of hav- 
ing erected a more or less impenetrable screen 
between himself and his public, will tickle the 
author's fancy. Of course in many depart- 
ments of authorship the writer's real name 
ought to appear and in most instances will ap- 
pear. But to the airy creation of a poet's or a 
romancer's or a humorist's fancy it will often 
seem more appropriate to assign a fictitious 
authorship, or to leave the authorship entirely 
a matter of conjecture. 


THE PUERILITIES OF GENIUS reach their limit in 
the silly devices by which, as the Baconians would 
have us believe, the real authorship of the Shake- 
speare plays is half concealed and half revealed in 
the wording of certain passages, in the arrangement 
of the lines as printed in the First Folio, and even 
in the minutest details of typography sometimes 
so minute as to require a microscope for detection. 
That untiring advocate of the Baconian cause, 
Sir Edwin Durning- Lawrence, ingenious author of 
" Bacon is Shakespeare," has followed up his larger 
work (which did not quite convert the world to his 
faith) with an entertaining pamphlet, "The Shake- 
speare Myth," wherein if any remaining doubters 
fail to find that which shall forever remove their 
lingering hesitations, they are certainly beyond 
praying for and deserve no further attention at the 
hands of Sir Edwin. In speaking of the First 
Folio, the writer says, among other memorable 
things: "I must also inform my readers that every 
page is divided into two columns, and it is abso- 
lutely certain that the author himself so arranged 
these that he knew in what column and in what 
line in such column every word would appear in 
the printed page." Thus it was by Bacon's express 
design that in the opening scene of "The Tempest" 
there was a certain arrangement of lines that gave, 
by putting together three initial letters and reading 
them upward and also using the first word of one 
of these lines, "hang'd hog," which, as mistress 
Quickly has reminded us in "The Merry Wives of 
Windsor," is Latin for bacon. Elsewhere in the 
Folio, Sir Edwin discovers " hang sow," which he 
gravely assures us "is just as much Bacon as Hang 
hog." And again, in "Antony and Cleopatra" three 
words (Pompey, in, and got) are found in such a 
position as obviously to stand for pig, "which is what 
we were looking for," triumphantly declares Sir 
Edwin Burning-Lawrence. Coming to graver issues, 
he informs us that " all writers are agreed that our 
language of to-day is founded upon the English 
translation of the Bible and upon the Plays of 
Shakespeare. Every word of each of these was 
undoubtedly written by, or under the direction of, 
Francis Bacon." So industrious, inventive, and en- 
tertaining a writer as Sir Edwin Durning-Lawrence 
deserves our gratitude for the amusement he fur- 
nishes, and our admiration for his zeal and perse- 
verance in the face of a doubting and even derisive 
public; but if the author of "Hamlet" and "Othello" 
was really capable of all the puerilities he so labor- 
iously brings to our attention, we prefer, for our 
own enjoyment of the plays and poems, to remain 
erroneously persuaded of their Shakespearean origin. 

INSPIRATIONAL TOXINS, such as alcohol, opium, 
hashish, and tobacco, have long been known to and 
more or less used by literary and other creative 
artists; but probably few if any of these men of 



[August 16, 

genius have been inclined to regard as aids to in- 
spiration those natural toxins of the body that are 
generated by tuberculosis, asthma, gout, and other 
diseases. Nevertheless, when one recalls the bril- 
liance and the creative energy that have charac- 
terized many a consumptive writer Stevenson 
and John Addington Symonds, for instance the 
asthma that accompanied Macaulay's prodigious 
accomplishment as reader and writer, and that was 
powerless to impair the masterly statesmanship of 
William the Third, and the gout that seemed but 
to steady and strengthen the purpose of Gibbon in 
his formidable undertaking, and when one looks 
back upon innumerable other instances of signal 
achievement, in letters and in other walks of life, in 
the face of pronounced physical disability, one may 
well feel tempted to believe with Dr. Charles B. 
Reed, whose thoughtful and interesting article on 
"Toxemia as a Stimulus in Literature" has been 
much discussed, that toxins, both natural and arti- 
ficial, do play an important part in the work of 
the world, especially in the work done by men and 
women of genius. One might even go so far as to 
query whether anything of brilliance and genuine 
originality and power is to be found in the absence 
of some inspirational toxin. On the other hand, 
however, there are instances in plenty of genius 
unaccompanied by any apparent poisoning or intox- 
icating affection Scott and Goethe, for example. 
But no one knows exactly what help they received 
from artificial toxins, or what natural toxins may 
have been generated in their systems. Perhaps we 
shall know more about these things some day, and 
it may be that inspirational toxins, of specific kinds, 
will be injected in infancy to produce poets, novel- 
ists, musicians, sculptors, and so on, much as among 
the honey bees the queen is produced by certain 
methods of treatment applied in the earliest stages 
of the insect's formation. 


whether in literature or in other departments of 
worthy achievement, is a difficult and more or less 
invidious task. Nevertheless the Modern Historic 
Records Association, in undertaking to collect auto- 
graphic utterances on parchment ''from men and 
women of genius throughout the world," has asked 
its secretary, Mr. W. T. Lamed, to prepare " a list of 
names that shall include all living men and women 
whose reputations are likely to endure," as Mr. 
Lamed expresses it in a letter to the New York 
"Sun" in which he asks for help in his difficult 
task. A tentative list of about two hundred names 
is submitted by him, naturally "with considerable 
diffidence," and of course it is impossible to glance 
over the list without noting many surprising omis- 
sions and almost as many astonishing inclusions. It 
could not be otherwise. For example, though the 
head of the Salvation Army is on the list, the name 
of Abdul Baha, the Persian religious reformer whose 
followers already are counted by the millions, in re- 
sponse to whose teachings a third of the population 

of Persia has renounced Mohammedanism for Baha- 
ism, and whose disciples are found all over the world, 
including this country, which he has recently visited, 
does not appear ; and while Colonel Henry Watter- 
son is included, Mr. Whitelaw Reid is excluded ; 
and it seems strange to find the name of Mr. George 
Bernard Shaw unaccompanied by that other with 
which we are wont to see it linked. In general the 
perspective is emphatically that of the Occidental 
rather than of the Oriental. Japan, China, India, 
and all the rest of the Far East, are ignored; while 
contrariwise America looms large and Europe (or at 
least western Europe) suffers no very serious eclipse. 
It is a pleasant enough diversion that the M. H. R. 
Association is engaged in, and one wishes it every 
success; but it ought not, perhaps, to be viewed 
with quite the seriousness that Mr. Larned's letter 
assumes. However, we are glad to quote in conclu- 
sion this passage from his letter: "The attempts to 
obtain these inscriptions, which are meant to embody 
a brief but permanent expression of each man and 
woman's preeminent gift or attainment, is meeting 
with some interesting responses. The opinion ex- 
pressed by Ambassador Bryce that the collection we 
are making 'will be of the greatest interest in years 
to come ' seems to be shared more especially by emi- 
nent men in Europe. For example, Sir William 
Ramsay has sent us a striking epitome of his career 
as a scientist; Dr. Alfred Russel Wallace a resound- 
ing paragraph from one of his most eloquent essays ; 
Mr. Maeterlinck a passage from his 'La Vie des 
Abeilles '; Sir Arthur Wing Pinero and Mr. George 
Bernard Shaw some characteristic thoughts on dra- 
matic workmanship." Any helpful suggestion, or 
other communication, on parchment or more perish- 
able paper, that the reader of this may feel moved 
to send to Mr. Lamed, will reach him, we doubt not, 
if addressed to the Modern Historic Records Asso- 
ciation, 14 Gramercy Park, New York City. 


certainly as much to be said in its favor as the 
pensioning of retired college professors and other 
teachers. It is indeed cause for surprise that our 
millionaire benefactor of public libraries should have 
established a professors' pension fund but taken no 
step to make comfortable the declining years of those 
who serve the needs of the great book-reading and 
book-borrowing public, and preside over, or otherwise 
give their best years to, the institutions of that class 
to which he himself has so generously contributed. 
As a matter of fact, the library worker is even less 
liberally paid for his toil than the teacher, his term 
of daily service is longer, and his vacations are very 
much shorter. The trustees of the Boston Public 
Library urge the necessity of some adequate pension 
system for its employees. They well say, in their 
latest Report: "A large part of library service is 
specialized work. It is very desirable that persons 
who enter the library profession should remain in 
it, and after they have been in this profession long 
enough to be of the best service to it they are prac- 




tically unfitted for any other work. The margin 
between the salaries which can be paid them within 
the library appropriation and their necessary ex- 
penses for reasonable and decent living is very small. 
. . . The necessary result of this condition is that 
persons are retained in the library service after they 
cease to be able to do the best work, because they 
cannot be retired from it without becoming objects 
of charity or requiring the assistance of others for 
their support. The public service suffers from this 
because the worn-out employee cannot do as good 
work as ought to be done. The expense of the pub- 
lic service is also increased because it is necessary 
to have more employees if a portion of them are 
unable to do the best work. Merited promotion is 
also often delayed, and the tendency is to weaken 
the library service where it should be strengthened. 
A worn-out tool is the most expensive tool for use, 
whether it be a combination of merely material things 
like wood and metal, or a living human being." And 
so on. Legislation to meet the exigencies of the 
case is asked for; but legislative machinery is slow, 
and legislative grants for worthy causes are notably 
small and tardy. Here is a chance for some philan- 
thropic multi-millionaire to immortalize his name by 
establishing a great national Librarians' Retirement 
Pension Fund. ... 


distinguished from the scientific or coldly critical at- 
titude, is very much what the artistic or sympathetic 
attitude toward life and mankind is as distinguished 
from the rigidly dogmatic or moralistic attitude. 
This is rather clumsily and inadequately expressed, 
but perhaps a few illustrations and analogies may 
make the meaning clearer. We have all had experi- 
ence of the irritating self-righteousness of those who 
pride themselves on making their conduct square 
with a hard-and-fast rule, without regard to the 
claims or the feelings of those about them. Their 
morality is static, not dynamic. They are moral 
pedants and mental sluggards. They have classified 
and labelled all the objects of their little world once 
and forever, with scientific precision. In one's bear- 
ing toward literature, and toward art in general, it is 
not uncommon to fall into the scientific rather than 
the artistic way of looking at things. One too easily 
forgets that reality is always dying and being re- 
created. Even the very words with which truth is 
expressed, or faintly adumbrated, are continually 
suffering decay and undergoing revivification. The 
literary artist, the merest framer of verbal para- 
doxes, helps to keep the pulse of life in our language 
and to save us from the indolent use of phrases 
chunks of sound, as Stevenson has called them to 
avoid the trouble of original and sympathetic thought. 
The poet is the consummate literary artist; his mind 
is cleared of cant, and he faces every new situation 
with fresh receptivity. Pater and others have 
warned us that what is done from habit is likely to be 
done mechanically and meaninglessly ; and habits of 
speech, still more habits of thinking, are spiritual 
death. This and other points that might well be 

touched upon here are more fully treated by Mr. 
E. F. Carritt in the current "Hibbert Journal," in 
an article entitled "The Artistic Attitude in Con- 
duct," which closes with Dr. Johnson's acute re- 
marks, preserved by Fanny Burney, on the subject 
of literary criticism : "There are three distinct kinds 
of judges: the first are those who know no rules but 
pronounce entirely from their natural taste and feel- 
ings; the second are those who know and judge by 
rules; and the third are those who know but are 
above the rules. These last are those you should wish 
to satisfy. Next to them rate the natural judges; 
but ever despise those opinions that are formed by 
the rules." ... 

the experienced librarian's standpoint, rather than 
from the outside that is, from the ambitious and 
splendor-loving architect's point of view is one of 
the many topics intelligently and fully treated by 
Mr. Soule in his manual on library-building, already 
noticed (too briefly) by us. "The exterior should 
not even be considered," he maintains, ''until the 
interior has been entirely mapped out." This advice 
will be found easier to follow than the old rule for 
the manufacture of cannon first make your hole, 
then cast the metal around it ; and the uniting of 
utility with ornament need not necessarily be at the 
expense of the latter. Indeed, some of the least 
pleasing library buildings, to those who fail to find 
any satisfying aesthetic- effect where there is unfit- 
ness of structure, are the very ones that have been 
designed from the outside with a view to external 
effect. Therefore let the architect take counsel at 
every step with the trained librarian. But it is 
quite true, nevertheless, as Mrs. Elmendorff took 
occasion to point out at one of the annual library 
conferences, that "a very good librarian may yet 
have no great fitness for the task of planning a 
building," and hence some other than the local 
librarian may best be called upon to advise with 
the architect. Mr. Soule utters a warning " not to 
take your local librarian at his own valuation. He 
is most likely to assume the function of an expert 
in building when he is least fitted. The really ex- 
perienced librarian is apt to be modest and to ask 
assistance, in the belief that 'two heads are better 
than one.'" But let not the "local librarian" 
whose eye may chance to rest on this paragraph 
take umbrage. There are local librarians and local 
librarians. In fact, when you come to think of it, 
how many librarians are there of any other sort ? 

ported, under conspicuous scare-lines ("45,000 Vol- 
umes Missing from Library"), in a Los Angeles 
newspaper recently. In substance, the whole aston- 
ishing affair, as printed whether as a deliberate 
hoax, or a misprint, or a piece of careless reporting, 
or a fact having some basis of truth reduces itself 
to this, in the language of the journal itself: "There 
were 190,000 books in the library three years ago, 
according to an inventory taken then. There were 



[August 16, 

but 145,000 when the count was completed yester- 
day." And yet this disappearance of forty-five thou- 
sand volumes is not attributed to deliberate theft, 
but rather to mere " carelessness of public property, 
... in the opinion of Mr. Perry," the librarian; 
and the good citizens are requested to look through 
their bookshelves and see whether any forgotten 
library books are lurking there. No mention is made 
of the three years' accessions of new books, as if 
one were to understand that the collection had been 
undergoing steady and rapid depletion with no re- 
plenishing whatever which is much too marvel- 
lous, especially for the swiftly growing city of Los 
Angeles, to gain credence. To the modern vigilant 
librarian, an annual loss of even a score of volumes 
is a scandal and a disgrace; but fifteen thousand a 
year for three successive years ! 

" Obstupui, steteruntque comae, et vox faucibus hcesit." 

where for more than three hundred years registry 
has been made of books claiming copyright protec- 
tion, will long survive the cessation of that custom 
which marks the going into effect, this summer, 
of the new English copyright law. "Entered at 
Stationers' Hall " is a familiar legend that we shall 
fail to find in the printed works of the future, 
publication under the terms of the statute sufficing 
henceforth for the publisher's protection against 
piracy. The invaluable register of English books, 
from Elizabethan times to our own, will, it is rea- 
sonable to hope, be transferred now to the manu- 
script room of the British Museum, where it would 
be an object of interest to all students of English 
literature and could be more conveniently consulted 
than at present. The Stationers' Company itself, 
which has a curiously interesting history, and for a 
long time enjoyed a monopoly in the publication of 
almanacs in addition to its other rights and digni- 
ties, may now find itself left with nothing to justify 
its existence unless it enters the regular publishing 
field, which might not be unfitting in view of its 
position in the neighborhood of Paternoster Row, 
Amen Corner, and Ave Maria Lane, names that 
carry with them ancient associations of a more or 
less bookish and book-publishing nature. 



pared with English is asserted by a high Canadian 
authority, Dr. George H. Locke, librarian of the 
Toronto Public Library. In an address at the late 
annnal meeting of the Ontario Library Association, 
Dr. Locke said: "There is one thing I have to say, 
and I am sorry to say it, and that is that you can 
trust American fiction to be clean rather than En- 
glish fiction. There is no necessity to demonstrate 
except to step into my office and see the list of En- 
glish fiction that is nasty, unnecessarily nasty. It 
is hard to have to say that. Certain publishers you 
can rely on implicitly. In regard to your fiction, 
when you find a book is a good book buy another 
copy of it. Restrict your range, but be careful that 

the books you have are good books, books that are 
worth while." Some practical advice to librarians 
on the purchase of new books is worth quoting also : 
"Don't order fiction until the work has been out 
long enough to have adequate reviews of it. It is 
not wise to trust the ordinary reviews, or excerpts 
[of those reviews] published by the ordinary pub- 
lishers. You can take part of a recommendation 
and make a man out of anything from an angel 
down." Dr. Locke's remarks in full are to be found 
in "The Proceedings of the Ontario Library Asso- 
ciation, Twelfth Annual Meeting," issued by the 
Association in an illustrated pamphlet of 128 pages. 

LIBRARY RIVALRY is a good thing, so long as 
jealousies and recriminations are not indulged in by 
the rivals. Facts and figures to prove, ostensibly at 
least, the superior efficiency of the North Jonesville 
Public Library cannot be blamed for finding their 
way into the annual report of that beneficent insti- 
tution. From a descriptive pamphlet just issued by 
the Jersey City Public Library it is our pleasure and 
privilege to quote certain statistical .facts of a nature 
highly gratifying to the inhabitants of that city. 
"Cost per volume circulated is less in Jersey City 
than in any larger city. Efficiency in proportion to 
population: For each $1.00 expended in Jersey 
City the average expenditure in 18 cities is $1.49. 
For each 100 volumes circulated in Jersey City the 
average circulation in 18 cities is 81 volumes. In 
proportion to circulation : For each $1.00 expended 
in Jersey City the average expenditure in 18 cities 
is $1.82." Then follows a list of the eighteen less 
thrifty cities. They are the eighteen largest in the 
country, Jersey City being the nineteenth, according 
to the latest census. In these days, when all the 
world, or some considerable portion of it, is having 
its willing attention directed to the Governor of 
New Jersey, this passing mention of the prosperity 
and usefulness of one of that State's leading libraries 
may be not out of place. 


well-known Chicago society of bibliophiles disrespect- 
fully characterized in words of which D. O. F. O. B. 
are the initial letters) is in an edition so strictly 
limited (fifty-two copies) that the present notice is 
not written with the book in hand, but on the au- 
thority of a fortunate possessor of the choice little 
volume. It is a book for Byron-lovers, containing 
facsimile reproductions of seven poems, among them 
the four so-called Thyrza poems and two addressed 
to the poet's half-sister Augusta. Fourteen letters 
of Byron's are also given all new to readers, it ap- 
pears, except a short passage in one of them. The 
book also contains a list of the books Byron is thought 
to have taken with him when he made his last jour- 
ney to Greece, and reproductions of five portraits of 
the poet, two being from drawings by George Henry 
Harlow. Preface and notes are supplied by Mr. W. 
N. C. Carlton, librarian of the Newberry Library. 






In the list of Massachusetts colonial govern- 
ors, many of whom were able and forceful men 
and interesting characters, there is none that 
appeals more strongly to the imagination or ex- 
cites a greater admiration than the lawyer-soldier 
who came over from England in 1731 to throw 
in his lot with the young colony, who three years 
later became the "King's only Advocate- General 
in America," was appointed Governor in 1741, 
wrested the fortress of Louisburg from the 
French in 1745, reestablished the finances of 
his colony by redeeming its paper money in En- 
glish coin in 1749, thus giving Massachusetts 
an enviable reputation as "the hard-money col- 
ony," exerted himself strenuously in the face of 
insurmountable obstacles for the entire expulsion 
of the French from Canada, only relinquished 
the post he had so creditably held when the 
home government recalled him in 1756, and 
finally returned to die in the land of his adop- 
tion fifteen years later. 

This eminently successful man of action 
who, by the way, was helped in his rise to dis- 
tinction by a clever and appreciative wife has 
not unnaturally made romantic appeal to the 
Colonial Dames of America, and under their 
auspices his correspondence, to the extent at 
least of two substantial volumes, has been pre- 
pared for publication by Dr. Charles Henry 
Lincoln, whose previous studies in our Revolu- 
tionary and pre-Revolutionary history give as- 
surance of fitness for the task. The hitherto 
unpublished Shirley correspondence, in the keep- 
ing of the Public Record Office and the British 
Museum in London, of the Massachusetts His- 
torical Society and the State Archives in Boston, 
of the Library of Congress in Washington, of 
the Historical Societies of Connecticut, Penn- 
sylvania, and Maryland, and of other less im- 
portant depositories, is of generous bulk, and 
generous has been the editor's selection there- 
from, his two volumes containing more than 
eleven hundred pages of reading matter. Con- 
temporary maps, a portrait of Shirley, and other 
illustrative plates, together with a useful intro- 


Massachusetts and Military Commander in America. 1731- 
1760. Edited under the auspices of the National Society of 
the Colonial Dames of America. By Charles Henry Lin- 
coln, Ph.D. In two volumes. Illustrated. New York : The 
Macmillan Co. 

duction, frequent footnotes, and a fourteen-page 
index, are added. 

What is most striking in a general survey of 
Shirley's life is the generous breadth, the all- 
roundness, so to speak, the open-mindedness 
and many-sidedness, of the man. Above all, he 
seems to have preserved his name untarnished 
amid all the inevitable jealousies and contentions 
inseparable from high public office. His sense 
of honor appears in his refusal, in 1733, of the 
post of Judge of Admiralty, an office that he felt 
he could not accept because its incumbency de- 
pended on the good will of the local legislative 
assembly, and he therefore feared he could not 
impartially maintain the rights of the Crown. 
" So that," he says in his letter of declination to 
the Duke of Newcastle, "to have accepted this 
post in it's present situation, would have reduc'd 
me to the hard Choice of sacrificing the Court 
to a mean popularity, or making a sacrifice of 
myself in the defence of it ; the first neither hon- 
ourable nor honest, and the last not prudent." 

The letters selected for publication cover the 
period from 1731 to 1760, and are written to 
and from the Duke of Newcastle, the Lords of 
Trade, the General Court of Massachusetts, Sir 
William Pepperrell, Governor William Greene 
of Rhode Island, Sir William Johnson, and 
many others. There are also letters between Mrs. 
Shirley and the Duke of Newcastle in reference 
to the advancement of Shirley's fortunes in the 
administration of the colony. Under date of 
August 23, 1741, we find a letter of acknowl- 
edgment from the newly appointed Governor to 
the English minister whose influence with the 
Crown had secured him the post. After express- 
ing his sense of obligation to Newcastle, the 
writer continues in a strain that gives some idea 
of the difficulties and vexations he had to en- 
counter in accepting the proffered position. In 
one sentence of portentous length, and in the 
epistolary style of his time, Shirley thus depicts 
the situation: 

" I am sensible, My Lord Duke, that I am now ent- 
ring upon the Governmt of a province, where Col. 
Shute quitted the Chair, & Mr. Burnett broke his heart 
thro the Temper and Opposition of the people ; & Mr. 
Belcher in the midst of his Countrymen fail'd of carry- 
ing any one of those points for the Crown, wch might 
have been expected from him; and that I enter upon it 
at a time, when an empty Treasury, an Aversion in the 
House of Representatives to supply it conformably to 
his Majy's last Instructions; a weak and Ruinous Con- 
dition of their Fortifications, a bad Spirit rais'd through- 
out the Country by the Land Bank Scheme, by means 
of it's being conniv'd at here in it's first rise, remaining 
uncheck'd so long, that the imprudt manner of endeav- 
ouring to check it here afterwards by those who were 



[August 16, 

at the same time endeavouring to support & countenance 
it at home thro Mr. Partridge, only inflamed it; & Mr. 
Belcher's constant acceptance from year to year of a 
Diminished Salary, after he had obtained leave to take 
it without insisting upon his Majesty's Instruction on 
that head, the value of wch is by that means sunk from 
abt 1000 1. Sterl. wch had been allow'd by the Genl 
Court to Governr Burnett and himself with a promise to 
the former of 'em to continue as ample an Allowance, 
down to the Value of 650 1. Sterl. wch seems to have 
been done by him with some particular View of his own, 
to secure his station by the smallness of his Salary; are 
what make up the present Scene of Affairs in the pro- 
vince, whereupon the House of Representatives tell me 
in their Address, that they are concern'd my Accession 
to the Chair should be attended with such Difficulties." 

The next event of supreme importance 
touched upon in the letters is the capture of 
Louisburg, a difficult military operation in 
which little aid was received or indeed ex- 
pected from the mother country, and which 
owed its success chiefly to Shirley's ability in 
arousing the martial enthusiasm of New En- 
gland, in adjusting the differences between 
Admiral Sir Peter Warren and Sir William 
Pepperrell, and in conceiving and causing to 
be executed a bold and brilliant plan of attack. 
"Probably every prudent strategist would have 
deemed the scheme foolhardy," says Mr. J. A. 
Doyle in his sketch of Shirley's life ; and Shirley 
himself allows his sense of the splendid success 
achieved in the face of formidable obstacles to 
appear underneath the modesty and restraint 
of his language in communicating the event to 
the Lords of Trade. He says, in concluding 
his brief account of the action: 

" Upon the whole, I hope when it is considered that 
3,600 raw New England Troops, supported by His 
Majesty's Ships to the seaward, have reduc'd one of 
the French King's strongest and most important Fort- 
resses, having in it a Garrison of near 600 regular 
Troops, and about 1400 Effective Men under Arms 
besides, with the Loss of not quite 100 men on our 
side, and killing near the same number of the Enemy 
within the Walls during the Siege (many of them with 
their Small Arms) I may be permitted to say in Justice 
to His Majesty's New England Subjects that their be- 
haviour has done no dishonour to his Arms." 

In far more self -applausive vein, knowing the 
temper of those he is addressing, does Gov- 
ernor Shirley proclaim to the Penobscot and 
Norridgewock Indians the signal victory of the 
English and colonial forces over the perfidious 
French, and the expectations entertained as to 
the future policy of the red men. He thus con- 
cludes : 

"This Intelligence we Send you that you may not 
be deluded by the French or St. Johns & Nova Scotia 
Indians that may Sollicit you to break your Friendship 
with us to your own ruin. We have been your faithful 
Friends, and your Traffick with us has been much more 

for your Advantage than your Trade with the French 
and you may still live easy with us, & free from the 
distress & danger of War if you please but if not, & 
you will let the French & the Indians in their Interest 
deceive & Seduce you & you will perfidiously break 
your Solemn League with us, we doubt not but the 
Great God who is the Avenger of all such Wickedness 
and has so remarkably punished our Treacherous 
Enemys the French will stand by us & give us Success 
for the punishing your perfidiousness, but if you are 
willing to Enjoy the Benefits of peace with us, we Shall 
Expect that you will Send two or three of your chief 
Captains to Confirm the Friendship between Us, and if 
any of your people stand in fear of the French and 
therefore want protection for themselves and their 
Familys and will come to Boston, we will take care of 
them, I Expect that you Send me your answer without 

After General Braddock's untimely end, the 
command of all the British forces in America 
devolved upon Shirley, who just then was per- 
sonally engaged in leading the unsuccessful 
expedition against Fort Niagara. He seems 
to have had friction in his relations with the 
masterful Sir William Johnson, and as even a 
jaundiced view of our hero may help to a better 
knowledge of his character, let us quote a few 
lines, here and there, from Johnson's indignant 
appeal to the Lords of Trade. 

" Govr. Shirleys conduct not only shook the system 
of Indian affairs, gave me fresh vexation and perplexity, 
but occasioned considerable and additional Expenses 
which would otherwise have been saved; . . . From 
Govr. Shirley's late Behaviour and his Letters to me 
I am under no doubt that he is become my inveterate 
enemy and that the whole weight of his Powers and 
abilities will be exerted to blast if he can my Character 
here and here only am I anxious. Gross Falsehoods 
(such as he has already asserted in his letters to me,) 
artful misrepresentations, Deliberate malice, Resent- 
ment worked up by People in his confidence, whose 
Interest, nay whose very livelihood depends upon their 
inflaming him these my Lords are circumstances 
which I own disturb me. . . . From Govr. Shirley's 
ill grounded resentment, from the imperious stile he 
writes to me since Genl. Braddock's death, from his 
threatning intimations and his temper, I am confirmed 
in this lesson, that a subordinate power here with regard 
to Indian Affairs . . . will be incompatible with my 
abilities and inclinations to conduct them." 

Evidently there was not room on the same con- 
tinent for both Shirley and Johnson, although 
Shirley's relations with other prominent men 
and high officials in the colonies were remark- 
ably harmonious. His requests for advice from 
Franklin and the latter's high opinion of him 
help to establish his reputation as a wise and 
just administrator. The circumstances of his 
recall and his attitude toward both his successor 
and the home government also go far to confirm 
our favorable opinion of him as one who con- 
trolled his passions and nursed no ignoble resent- 




merits. His subsequent governorship of the 
Bahamas, and his return to Massachusetts to 
pass the last year of his life in the then rural 
seclusion of Roxbury, are matters not touched 
upon in Mr. Lincoln's volumes, except that one 
short letter from the Bahamas is printed at the 
very end, and brief mention of Shirley's last 
years is made in the Introduction. 

That portion of the public whom the Colonial 
Dames and Mr. Lincoln seek to interest in this 
conspicuously able and energetic colonial gov- 
ernor will not be disappointed in the manner 
his letters have been presented for their enter- 
tainment and instruction ; and the volumes will 
be the more welcome since, apart from his 
own correspondence, no extended account of 
Shirley's life and public services is to be found 
in print. The preparation of a formal biography 
has been greatly facilitated by Mr. Lincoln's 




In four recent volumes of travels we are 
taken from the extreme northwest to the extreme 
northeast of Canada; from the valley of the 
Yukon to Cape Chidley at the entrance to 
Hudson Straits. Though they vary greatly in 
everything else that goes to make up the real 
value of a book, they all possess at least the 
merit of being first-hand narratives. Mr. 
Tollemache's book describes his hunting and 
trapping experiences on the upper waters of the 
Yukon ; Sir John Rogers tells us of his sporting 
adventures on Vancouver Island and Newfound- 
land; Mr. Cabot gives an account of several at- 
tempts to penetrate the interior of the Labrador 
peninsula ; and Dr. Hutton reveals the life of a 
doctor among the Eskimo. Taken as contribu- 
tions to literature, the first may be described as 
poor ; the second as mediocre ; the third as good ; 
and the last as a book in a thousand. All four 
writers have chosen fields that had been already 
visited and described by others, but the results 
are vastly different. It may be taken as an 
axiom that no man is justified in imposing upon 
a long-suffering public his experiences in a 
familiar region unless those experiences add 

ache. Illustrated. New York : Longmans, Green & Co. 

John Rogers. Illustrated. New York : E. P. Button fe Co. 

IN NORTHERN LABRADOR. By William Brooks Cabot. 
Illustrated. Boston : Richard G. Badger. 

Hutton. Illustrated. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. 

something new, and worth while, to the sum of 
human knowledge. 

Mr. Tollemache admits that many books on 
the Yukon had appeared previous to his own, 
and that the subject had become somewhat 
hackneyed ; but he urges, modestly enough, that 
he had become acquainted with incidents and 
methods of life in that remote region which he 
had not seen printed in other volumes. His 
narrative hardly bears out the promise. It is 
for the most part an account of trapping adven- 
tures, fur-trading and travelling on the Pelly, 
McMillan, and other upper waters of the Yukon, 
which have been at least as well described by 
other travellers. His account of the Klondyke 
boom, the mining camps, the dance-halls in 
Dawson, and other features of Yukon life a few 
years ago, has of course been covered by a score 
of earlier writers. Finally, when he deals with 
facts outside his own particular line of vision, 
Mr. Tollemache is all at sea. He expresses 
amazement at the sale of Alaska by Russia for 
"such an absurdly small figure," evidently alto- 
gether ignorant of the history of that interest- 
ing transaction. He tells us that "the term 
' capitalist ' is a common denomination in Canada 
and the United States, and may include anyone 
possessing $100 or more in ready cash." Fi- 
nally, he affords the interesting bit of informa- 
tion that "Quebec, in Eastern Canada, forms the 
principal resort of the French Canadians." 

"Sport in Vancouver and Newfoundland" is 
essentially the narrative of an enthusiastic fisher- 
man. To anyone interested in sporting adven- 
tures in out-of-the-way corners of the earth, Sir 
John Rogers's book cannot prove otherwise than 
entertaining. He is not only a keen sportsman, 
with all the true sportsman's relish for the de- 
tails of fishing-tackle, weather conditions, camp 
equipment, and weight of fish, but he has also a 
thorough appreciation of scenery. This passage, 
written after an unsuccessful day with the sal- 
mon, is a good example of his descriptive style. 

" The row home that evening compensated for every- 
thing. The sun was setting behind the snow-covered 
peaks of the Vancouver Mountains, bare and cold below 
the snow-line, but gradually clothed with foliage down 
the slopes until the dense pine forest of the plain be- 
tween the mountains and the sea was reached, from 
which the evening mists were beginning to rise. In 
the foreground, the sea, like molten glass, reflected the 
exquisite colouring of the northern sunset, its surface 
broken by the eddies of the making tide, or the occa- 
sional splash of a leaping salmon. Across the straits on 
the Mainland, the tops of the great mountains clothed 
with eternal snow were lit up a rose-pink by the rays of 
the setting sun. I have seldom seen a more beautiful 
scene, or one which gave such a deep sense of peace." 



[August 16, 

"It has been said by someone," says Mr. 
William Brooks Cabot, "that all the places 
now unexplored were so miserably bad that no 
one would care to have anything to do with 
them." Mr. Cabot found the caribou country 
of northeastern Labrador not a bad region to 
wander in, and the natives well worth visiting. 
These two motives the call of the wilderness, 
and especially the unexplored wilderness, and 
the fascinating study of a race still in almost its 
primitive state drew Mr. Cabot to Labrador 
year after year between 1904 and 1910, and 
furnished the very interesting material which 
he has embodied in his book. He has not only 
given us a great deal of really valuable infor- 
mation as to the geography of a little-known 
region, but he has brought together much that 
was new as to the character and customs of the 
Indians of Labrador, " a little group of a race 
high in personality, yet living substantially in 
the pre-Columbian age of the continent," and 
he has added materially to what was known of 
the fauna of that region. Incidentally, he 
speaks feelingly and eloquently of the numbers, 
enterprise, and penetrating qualities of the 
Labrador mosquito. But perhaps more than 
all else he is filled with the lure, the charm of 
wild places, and he is able to bring much of it 
home to his readers. In taking leave of the 
bleak, inhospitable land, which nevertheless he 
had found so full of interest and fascination, he 

" It was a time of reckoning for me, the turning over 
of what had been in my Labrador years the stringing 
of beads that should always a little shine. Some of 
these had seemed clouded in the gathering, but in 
the reverie of those final days they were lighted all. 
Though never the world again were young, there had 
been days. Coast and inland inland and coast. The 
early hard days on the mainland, the hills and valleys 
alone, the calm of the noble bays; their silence, broken 
only by the rise of wings; Tuh-pungiuk and Un'sekat 
and Opetik; and the strong opposing sea. The rolling 
barrens, the hills of the height of land. The tall, grave 
people there, the smiling strong ones here; the aurora 
and the bergs and the innumerable insect foe. Long 
days and twilight nights, dark nights and stormy days ; 
the sunshine on the sea and the white-backed eiders' 
charge. So my string was strung. Always for me now 
would return the gray barrens, stretching far and on, 
always the lakes and the lodge-smokes on their shores. 
Always would the people watch the deer, always stand 
silent at the shore, as friends would wave as they go; 
the land be ever theirs. The light that has been never 
quite fails the wilderness traveller; his feet may remain 
afar, but his mind returns 

' Where the caribou are standing: 
On the gilded hills of morning, 
Where the white moss meets the footstep 
And the way is long before.'" 

Dr. Hutton's book, " Among the Eskimos of 
Labrador," is a rare interpretation of a most 
interesting type of mankind the Eskimo of 
the Moravian Missions. One feels instinct- 
ively, without knowing anything more of him 
than is revealed in his book, that Dr. Hutton 
is very much such a man as Dr. Grenfell 
strong, manly, sympathetic, gifted with plenty 
of common-sense, with the elusive quality that 
wins confidence everywhere, and with that salt 
that adds a savor to every character, redeeming 
the mean or poor, enriching the good, human- 
izing the great the saving gift of humor. 
That he can also write a book that is worth 
while, we now have evidence. He has indeed 
given us something that will live when thou- 
sands of contemporary books have been for- 
gotten. And this is not because his book has 
any marked literary charm, or elaborates any 
particular theory of human conduct ; but rather 
because it is a true, simple, and direct narrative 
of the life of a good and strong man, and of the 
child-like people to whom he ministered. Dr. 
Hutton has shown us the inner life of the 
Eskimo, and his real personality the life and 
personality which are hidden from the casual vis- 
itor to the Labrador ; he has shown us his home, 
his family, the things that are vital to him, his 
outlook upon his own small world and the mys- 
terious beyond ; and he has succeeded in making 
the Eskimo of Hebron and Nain and Raman 
and Okak an altogether likable personality. 

Dr. Hutton's book is one that lends itself 
peculiarly to quotation. In fact, it is in this 
respect embarrassing to the reviewer. One finds 
so much that would bear repeating, that it is 
difficult to pick and choose. The building of 
the hospital was a great event at Okak, and 
brought a curious medley of patients. Says 
Dr. Hutton: 

" I remember how old Rebekah came one day, nurs- 
ing a wounded hand. She is one of the stateliest of the 
village grandmothers, an active old woman of sixty-five, 
with her teeth nearly worn to the gums; but, old as she 
is, she is well able to take an oar in a boat or a pair, 
for the matter of that and thinks nothing of trudging 
to and from the woods, five miles away, to fetch broken 
branches to replenish her stove. With proper Eskimo 
dignity she came in and sat down, and composed herself 
to tell her tale; and all the while she was hugging her 
left hand, swathed in a red bandanna handkerchief. 

"'I was making boots just now,' she said, 'and the 
leather-knife slipped and cut my thumb. Ai-ai, it 
bled very much, and it was nearly cut off; but I had 
my boot-needle threaded with isalo (reindeer-sinew), 
and I sewed my thumb with that, so that it no longer 
bleeds; and now I have come to let you bind it up.' And 
there and then the old woman unwrapped her handker- 




chief and displayed her hand, with a long wound neatly 
sewed up, stitch upon stitch, in proper bootmaker's style. 
" This serves to illustrate the native indifference to 
pain; and even in the worst of sufferings their attitude 
is the same. I have seen them, men and women, in 
dingy little huts and in leaky calico tents, lying on rough 
beds of moss and reindeer skins, silent and uncomplain- 
ing, though their faces were blanched and the beads of 
perspiration stood out under the strain of physical suf- 
fering. The very thought calls forth one's sympathy; 
and the pictures that crowd before me as I write pic- 
tures of people toiling up the steps of the new hospital, 
with the marks of pain on their faces and a dumb and 
eager hopefulness shining in their eyes has left an 
impression on my mind that time will never efface. A 
strangely attractive folk: with children's fears and child- 
hood's quaint ideas, and childhood's whims and fancies 
and unreasoning demands, but with a manly bravery in 
the face of pain or danger, and a manly mastery of the 
terrible rigours of their daily work, that call for admir- 

On another occasion, Dr. Hutton was in 
Nain, and an urgent message came from Okak 
that a boy had been brought in to the hospital 
with a compound fracture. It was important to 
go at once, but the dogs were out of condition, 
and a bad storm was coming up. The old 
Eskimo schoolmaster urged him not to attempt 
the journey. "You will all be lost," he said. 

" His concern was real, so I called my drivers. 'What 
do you say?' I asked them. 'Are you willing to go?' 

" ' Illale ' (of course), they said. ' Ready,' said I, ' go 
ahead.' The dogs slowly raised themselves on their 
legs, and whined as they trotted along the bumpy path 
toward the sea-ice; and the heavy wrack of the north- 
ern storm came bowling along to meet us. < Aksuse! ' 
shouted the people, ' be strong ' ; and we waved our hands 
and shouted back. Then they began to sing. 

" There is a lump in my throat and a mist in my eyes 
even now, when I think of that scene : just a crowd of 
rough Eskimos, people whose grandfathers had been 
heathen and wild, singing a hymn of 'God-speed as we 
set out on our dangerous errand. 

" ' Takkotigelfirminiptingnut 
Gude illagilisetSk,' 

they sang, and the charmingly balanced harmony came 
fainter and ever fainter as the wind began to sigh about 
us and the snow to beat on our faces. ' God be with 
you till we meet again,'- -and we settled confidently 
to our task." 

It is one of many interesting points brought 
out in Dr. Hutton's narrative, that the Eskimos, 
although they have no native music, no tradi- 
tional tunes, no folk-songs of their own, have a 
natural taste for music, with good voices and 
an instinctive feeling for harmony. Jerry the 
native Okak organist, is described as a really 
clever musician, with a remarkable command of 
several instruments besides his organ; while 
Nathaniel, the Nain schoolmaster, one of the 
most cultured of the Eskimos, has composed 
an anthem in four parts, which was sung by the 
Eskimo choir. Dr. Hutton concludes : 

" I lay my pen aside with my mind still full of the 
memories that are so vivid to me. Brown, smiling 
faces pass before me; familiar names sound in my ears; 
bright eyes look into mine; musical voices sing outside 
my window; gruff shouts echo as the boys come sliding 
down the hill; Jerry and his bandsmen march along, 
waking the village with their trumpet notes; the poor 
girl on the bed of reindeer skins whispers her ' Nako- 
mek ' (how thankful) ; the crowd on the slope of the 
frozen beach sings me off into the storm; the voice of 
little Johannes calls aboye the whining of the dog ; and 
as I bid adieu to my neighbours the Eskimos, I pass on 
to my reader the noble old greeting that I heard so 
often ' Aksunai.'" 

One or two quotations such as these can give 
but a very inadequate idea of what is really a 
remarkable narrative; but they may at least 
serve to suggest the character of the author, and 
of the curious little community clinging so ten- 
aciously to its rocky and desolate-looking home 
on the extreme north-eastern coast of America. 



May a kindly fate deliver our descendants 
from stale and flat uniformity of language, 
dress, and manners, in all regions of the earth. 
Though few nooks and corners of the world are 
still unvisited by the prying eyes of the explorer 
and the glob-trotter, we are yet free from that 
uniformity which seems to threaten the twenty- 
first century. The polar regions are to-day 
sternly alluring to bold hearts. There are re- 
gions of Asia and Africa still unexplored. And 
the perennial fascination of the peculiar and the 
picturesque still inheres in the less forward na- 
tions of the world. That special sort of romance 
belonging to the story of the adventurous trader 
in far seas and remote lands bids fair soon to 
vanish in the presence of steamship, railway, 
and other universal levellers, but it has thus far 
not quite disappeared. Just because it is about 
to die out of the world, we take added delight 
in present-day instances of merchant-mariner's 

A most interesting example is the life-story 
of John Dill Ross and his son and namesake, 
traders in the Indian Ocean from the early 
decades of the nineteenth century almost until 
the present. "Sixty Years' Life and Adven- 
ture in the Orient" professes to be an account 
of the life of Captain John Dillon Northwood 
and of that of his son up to his retirement from 

By John Dill Ross. In two volumes. Illustrated. New York: 
E. P. Button & Co. 



[August 16, 

the oriental trade ; but the modest disguise does 
not conceal the true persons, Captain Ross and 
the author, Mr. John Dill Ross, now of London. 
Beginning with a history of the British influence 
in Borneo in the person of that remarkable 
Rajah Brooke, the book relates in vivid and 
always entertaining manner the life-story of 
Captain Northwood from his birth on an island 
in the China Sea, his schooling in the home of 
a clergyman in Australia, his marriage and first 
romantic sea-venture a voyage in a diminutive 
sailing vessel from the China Sea to Australia 
through his merchant career as trader and ship- 
owner doing business between Borneo, the Moluc- 
cas, and Singapore. After the death of Captain 
Northwood the son continued his father's career 
through a number of years filled with pictur- 
esque experiences, until he was stricken down by 
deadly tropical fever and invalided home. The 
story of the elder North wood's career never flags 
in entertainment. He was a man fit to have 
sailed with Drake in pursuit of Spanish gal- 
leons, bold, quick-witted, ready in emergency, 
persistent always till he gained his prize. But 
his personality is delightful not because of these 
traits alone, but by reason of their constant asso- 
ciation with generosity, fair-mindedness, and the 
manners of a gentleman. The story is replete 
with episodes of keen interest or amusement, and 
the shrewd and magnanimous Captain always 
proves equal to the occasion, whether it be fight- 
ing pirates without killing any if he could 
avoid it or gracefully getting rid of the viva- 
cious wife of a Dutch planter and capitalist 
after Captain Northwood had sailed away from 
Borneo, unaware that the lady had been rendered 
drowsy by wine, and, instead of accompanying 
her lord and his party off the ship, had remained 
asleep on a lounge in the saloon. The Captain 
develops, as the story proceeds, into an admir- 
able personification of the best British virtues, 
and the biographer wins the sympathy of the 
reader for the tough and yet tender old sea- 
man when his large fortune is suddenly lost, 
and holds an ever deepening interest to the end 
of his heroic and honorable struggle to restore 
the loss. 

The story of the author's own career in the 
Orient is also entertaining, but it lacks the two 
elements of interest inhering in that of the 
father remoteness in time and picturesque 
character. Indeed, it might have been wiser to 
make two books instead of two volumes. The 
unity of each would have been more satisfac- 
tory, and the antique nature of the first would 
not have detracted from the modern quality of 

the second. As the two volumes, however, are 
easy reading, one can heartily commend the 
story to summer readers in the mountains, and 
especially by the sea, with which it is so intim- 
ately concerned. O< D> WANNAMAKER. 


Historians of Greece usually close their nar- 
rative with the death of Alexander the Great 
(323 B.C.), the date from which foreign influ- 
ence began to work more and more powerfully 
in Hellas until the over-lordship of Rome was 
clinched by the capture of Corinth by the con- 
sul Mummius (146 B. c.) and the sack of Athens 
by Sulla (86 B.C.). This intervening period of 
nearly two centuries was, for Athens particu- 
larly, marked by a steady decline in military and 
political prestige. We see the once imperial city 
coquetting with the various successors of Alex- 
ander, surrendering item after item of her ma- 
terial strength, and retaining only the intellectual 
and artistic primacy of which neither Antioch nor 
Alexandria nor Pergamon could deprive her. 

In Professor Ferguson's substantial volume on 
" The Hellenistic Commonwealth," this transfor- 
mation of the city-state Athens into a municipal- 
ity under tyrannical and imperial rule is traced 
with much industry and learning, and with 
great minuteness of detail. He objects to the 
dictum of Freeman that "we owe it to the great- 
ness of Athens to study the story of her miser- 
able fall," and insists that " no one would now 
think of approaching a book on Hellenistic 
Athens to discover the secret of Athenian de- 
cline. . . that the fate of Athens was settled 
by the Peloponnesian war. . . and that who- 
ever believes with Freeman that history is first 
of all past politics must no longer look for the 
supreme crisis in Athenian affairs after Alexan- 
der's time." Hence the compelling interest of 
the Hellenistic period will attach to the above- 
mentioned transformation and to the social 
and economic conditions which grew out of it. 
Athens was still, and increasingly, the centre 
of culture ; but with politics reduced to a futil- 
ity, our attention is fastened on the changes in 
thought and life which now became manifest. 
The revelations of the New Comedy the 
comedy of manners show with painful mon- 
otony how latent or subterranean features of 
Athenian life were brought to the surface with 
tropical rapidity under the tyrannies of the two 

*The Hellenistic Commonwealth. By William Scott 
Ferguson. New York : The Macmillan Company. 




Demetrii (of Phalerum and Poliorcetes). In- 
stead of a Xenophon or a Thucydides we have 
the plays of Menander or the ' Characters ' of 
Theophrastus as our guides through the "far- 
rago of Attic life." 

But the nobler side of the Attic genius is not 
neglected ; and to Professor Ferguson we owe 
a luminous description of the four great schools 
of philosophic thought Plato's Academy, 
Aristotle's Peripatos, Epicurus's Garden, and 
Zeno's Porch; as well as of their successive 
periods of influence, when philosophers like 
Xenocrates andCarneades (the "pragmatist/>ar 
excellence ") were placed at the head of dip- 
lomatic embassies, and ideal systems of thought 
were appealed to for practical guidance.. 

A vivid though somewhat sketchy picture of 
the Athens of 200 B. c. is afforded in an extract 
from the "Notes on Greek Cities" of Hera- 
cleides the Critic, cited at some length by Profes- 
sor Ferguson, but too long for the reproduction 
of more than a sentence or two. 

" The Athenians are great-souled, simple in their man- 
ners, reliable custodians of friendship. Some informers 
run about in the city, harassing wealthy visitors; but 
should the people catch them, theirs would be a hard 
fate. The genuine Athenians are keen art critics, and 
unwearying patrons of plays, concerts, and lectures. In 
a word, Athens surpasses other cities in all that makes 
for the enjoyment and betterment of life, by as much 
as other cities surpass the country." 

Professor Ferguson's summary of the whole pas- 
sage is suggestive. 

"Athens is neither lawless, provincial, nor romantic. 
She has high-minded gentlemen and a waspish populace ; 
a constant round of gaiety and ever- threatening hunger; 
mean, dusty streets and noble public buildings; good 
taste and critical acumen; crowds of foreigners, busy 
schools of philosophers, and, implicit in all else, the 
blessings of peace." 

Most informing, perhaps, is the chapter on 
the relations of Athens and Delos. The famous 
little island, home of the worship of Apollo and 
Artemis, was secured to Athens by the estab- 
lishment, in 166 B. c., of an Athenian cleruchy, 
or colony. To the islet's religious importance 
was now added commercial prosperity; but the 
masterful Romans soon interfered, dissolved the 
Athenian cleruchy, and took over the adminis- 
tration of Delian affairs. The result was to 
make Delos entirely cosmopolitan. Then was 
seen, in greater measure than ever, that curious 
intrusion of strange Oriental cults on the "pure" 
Hellenic faiths. On the little area of about 
three square miles, Apollo and Artemis found 
themselves crowded by Sabazius, Osiris, Astarte, 
Serapis, and Isis. In the elucidation of these 

matters Professor Ferguson has been greatly 
aided by the work of the French scholars who 
have been working at Delos for the past forty 

The author has made excellent use of the orig- 
inal and secondary sources the great corpora 
of inscriptions, the writings of Menander, Poly- 
bius, Plutarch, and Pausanias, as well as of all 
modern scholars who have dealt with Hellenistic 
themes. Citations occupy a portion of almost 
every page, and make the book an admirable 
directory for students of the period. There is a 
general bibliography, an excursus on the instru- 
ments of Athenian government, and a satisfac- 
tory index. The latter affords an opportunity 
for correcting a twice-repeated misprint ; others 
might be mentioned on pages 63, 328, 414, 

and 438. 



The rapid increase of automobiles in civilized 
countries in the last decade has tremendously en- 
larged the consumption of rubber, advanced its 
price, and stimulated the search for new sources 
of the crude gum and the fuller exploitation of 
known fields of production. The effort to find 
by synthetic chemistry an adequate substitute 
which is commercially available has thus far 

As a pebble thrown into a pond creates rip- 
ples which in ever- widening circles press toward 
the remoter parts and reach finally every nook 
and corner, so the demand for rubber has carried 
the civilization of today into the most distant 
parts of the tropics, diluted, weakened, distorted, 
but still effective in shaping the activities and 
directing the daily life of the remotest savage 
tribe, and taking here, as in furnace and factory, 
its toll of human lives. 

To what an extent the demand for rubber has 
developed commerce, opened the jungle, carried 
men of force and education as well as the trader 
and the half-civilized native into the tropical 
wilderness of the head-waters of the Amazon, 
may be gathered from a perusal of Mr. Algot 
Lange's "In the Amazon Jungle." Through 
steamers run from Iquitos in Peru down the 
Amazon to New York and during the rainy 

*!N THE AMAZON JUNGLE. Adventures in the Remote 
Parts of the Upper Amazon River, including a Sojourn among 
Cannibal Indians. By Algot Lange. Edited in part by J. 
Odell Hauser, with an Introduction by Frederick S. Dellen- 
baugh. Illustrated. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 



[August 16, 

season Mr. Lange assures us that the " Maure- 
tania" could sail up this great river to Remate 
de Males at the Peruvian frontier. During this 
season immense tracts of the tropical jungle are 
under water, and fevers, the omnipresent mala- 
ria, the fatal yellow fever, and the mysterious 
beri-beri, rule the land. 

In common with frontier towns in our own 
land, Remate de Males ("Culmination of Evils") 
and its Peruvian neighbor, Nazareth, are deco- 
rated, when not submerged, with a motley array 
of tin cans of American origin and empty bot- 
tles from all nations. The rubber gatherer is 
handsomely paid, even by our standards, and 
the jungle traders see to it that his wages are 
quickly spent. With American foods go some 
of our modern inventions, the inevitable gramo- 
phone, and even, on remote jungle paths in the 
native huts perched high in the trees, the Amer- 
ican sewing machine! 

The author penetrated the remote jungle, with 
an exploring party sent out by one of the larger 
rubber "estates " in search of new forests to tap, 
or to ruthlessly fell, as is sometimes done. The 
expedition was a fatal one, fever, beri-beri, and 
deadly snakes claiming their victims, till alone 
in his delirium the author fell in with a commu- 
nity of the savage Mangeroma cannibals who 
nursed him back to health, taught him their lan- 
guage and customs, and even took him with them 
on an ambush for a party of raiding Peruvian 
rubber gatherers who furnished the piece de 
resistance at the feast which folio wed the victory. 
Armed only with poison darts and blow guns, 
war clubs and spears, they overcame and com- 
pletely destroyed the party armed with firearms. 
This novel experience convinced our author that 
"our earth has not been reduced to a dead level 
of drab and commonplace existence, and that 
somewhere in the remote parts of the world are 
still to be found people who have never seen or 
heard of white men." 

It is an extremely interesting picture which is 
here portrayed of the life in the frontier rubber 
trading-post and in the tambos of the darkened 
trails through the dense tropical jungle, of the 
life of stream and forests, of pungent rubber 
smudges, and of gold to be picked up till all 
the negative boxes are rilled, only to be thrown 
away again in the delirious race with hunger and 
fever back toward the outposts of civilization. 

The book is well written and handsomely illus- 
trated with unique photographs of the Amazon 



A noteworthy literary phenomenon is that pro- 
vided by the novelists who have turned poets or, to 
speak more exactly, by the writers who, after achiev- 
ing success as novelists, have surprised their readers 
by the revelation of a marked poetic faculty. That 
one must have something of this faculty to be a 
writer of enduring fiction is a thesis that has often 
been maintained ; and it is not surprising, when we 
come to think of it, that so many novelists have won 
no mean measure of success in the production of 
verse. Scott and Meredith are the striking exam- 
ples in English literature, although in their cases the 
poetic gift was the first to be revealed. Both Thack- 
eray and Dickens were poets, of a sort; and even 
more distinctly so were George Eliot, Bulwer, the 
Bronte* Sisters, Kingsley, and Blackmore. In more 
recent years, Mr. Thomas Hardy has provided con- 
firmation of the thesis in question, both by assert- 
ing the principle and by illustrating it in practice. 
"The Dynasts" will, we firmly believe, come to be 
regarded as one of his most significant works, and 
many of his shorter poems have a grip and a vitality 
that will prevent them from being forgotten. Amer- 
ican examples are Poe, Harte, Mr. Howells, and Mr. 

A. S. Hardy. The Germans and Scandinavians rec- 
ognize the principle instinctively by failing to pro- 
vide in their vocabularies words which are restricted 
in their meaning to compositions metrical in form. 
Dichtung and Digtning mean imaginative writing 
of any sort, prose or verse; the name Dlchter be- 
longs as fully to Hauptman and Sudermann as it 
does to Goethe and Schiller; and both BjOrnson 
and Ibsen would be known as Digter if they had 
never written a page in measure and rhyme. 

Quite a number of present-day English novelists 
are now essaying the poetical form. Mr. Maurice 
Hewlett and Sir Arthur Doyle have recently en- 
gaged our attention, and now come Mr. John Mase- 
field and Mr. John Galsworthy with volumes of 
poetry in the restricted sense which the English lan- 
guage attaches to the word. Mr. Masefield's offering 

BYE STREET. By John Masefield. New York : The Mac- 
millan Co. 

New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 

CHARMIDES, AND OTHER POEMS. Chiefly Relating to 
Oxford. By Gascoigne Mackie. Oxford: B. H. Blackwell. 

POEMS OP THE NORTH. By II. F. Brett-Smith. Oxford : 

B. H. Blackwell. 

IN THE WAKE OF THE PH<ENIX. By James Mackereth. 
New York : Longmans, Green, & Co. 

THE HILL OF VISION. By James Stephens. New York : 
The Macmillan Co. 

New York : Mitchell Kennerley. 

Sylvester Viereck. New York : Moffat, Yard & Co. 

Haven Sehauffler. Boston : The Houghton Mifflin Co. 

ECHOES OF CHEER. By John Kendrick Bangs. Boston : 
Sherman, French & Co. 




consists of two narrative rhymed poems of arresting 
quality, "The Everlasting Mercy" and "The Widow 
in the Bye Street." We must admit that they are 
tracts as well as poems, and that their obtrusively 
didactic quality is against them as literary produc- 
tions. One is the tale of a drunken ruffian who gets 
evangelistic religion by the process of "conversion" 
made familiar by "revivalist" meetings and other 
illustrations of " corybantic Christianity." The other 
is a brutal tale of lust and crime, telling how an 
English peasant lad is ensnared by a light woman, 
and is impelled by jealousy to commit a murder for 
which he is quite properly hanged. Mr. Masefield 
enlists our sympathy for both of these degenerates, 
and would seemingly have us believe that they are 
not beyond the pale of either human or divine for- 
giveness. He enforces this teaching by making both 
poems reek with sentimentality, and by a rather 
nauseous blend of religious symbolism with plain 
speech. Saul Kane, the ruffian of "The Everlasting 
Mercy," has been marking his carousings with such 
discourse as this: 

" Come on, drinks round, salue, drink hearty, 
Now, Jane, the punch-bowl for the party. 
If any here won't drink with me 
I '11 knock his bloody eyes out. See ? 
Come on, cigars round, rum for mine, 
Sing us a smutty song, some swine," 

which is a comparatively restrained specimen of his 
reported speech, when the reproaches of a Quaker 
missionary sink into his soul, and he rushes out into 
the night filled with such thoughts as these : 

" glory of the lighted mind, 
How dead I 'd been, how dumb, how blind. 
The station brook, to my new eyes, 
Was babbling out of Paradise, 
The waters rushing from the rain 
Were singing Christ has risen again. 
I thought all earthly creatures knelt 
From rapture of the joy I felt. 
The narrow station-wall's brick ledge, 
The wild hop withering in the hedge, 
The light in huntsman's upper storey 
Were parts of an eternal glory, 
Were God's eternal garden flowers. 
I stood in bliss at this for hours.'' 

It is sentimentally and even dramatically effective, 
but we are afraid that it is not good psychology. 
Before his "conversion," Saul has a colloquy with 
the parson, which might have come straight from 
Ibsen's " Brand," so exactly does it reproduce the 
terse rhythm, the argumentative manner, and the 
fiery indignation of that great poem. Says Saul: 

" The English church both is and was 
A subsidy of Caiaphas. 
I do n't believe in Prayer nor Bible, 
They 're all lies through, and you 've a libel, 
A libel on the Devil's plan 
When first he miscreated man. 
You mumble through a formal code 
To get which martyrs burned and glowed. 
I look on martyrs as mistakes, 
But still they burned for it at stakes ; 
Your only fire 's the jolly fire 
Where you can guzzle port with Squire, 
And back and praise his damned opinions, 
About his temporal dominions." 

The parson's rejoinder is in the following strain: 

" States are not made, nor patched ; they grow, 
Grow slow through centuries of pain 
And grow correctly in the main, 
But only grow by certain laws 
Of certain bits in certain jaws. 
You want to doctor that. Let be 
You cannot patch a growing tree. 
Put these two words beneath your hat, 
These two: securus judicat. 

To get the whole world out of bed, 

And washed, and dressed, and warmed, and fed, 

To work, and back to bed again, 

Believe me, Saul, costs worlds of pain. 

Then as to whether true or sham 

That book of Christ, whose priest I am ; 

The Bible is a lie, say you, 

Where do you stand, suppose it true ? 

Good-bye. But if you 've more to say, 

My doors are open night and day. 

Meanwhile, my friend, 't would be no sin 

To mix more water in your gin. 

We 're neither saints nor Philip Sidneys, 

But mortal men with mortal kidneys." 

It sounds like a parody of the dialogues between 
Brand and the mayor. These narratives by Mr. 
Masefield are virile, slapdash stuff, but it is only in 
spots that they deserve to be glorified with the name 
of poetry, and the streaks of deep feeling and im- 
aginative power do not fuse with the sordid matrix 
of realism. 

Mr. Galsworthy speaks to us with the accent of 
the authentic poet, albeit he chooses the modest 
style of " Moods, Songs, and Doggerels " for his 
title. Now a large part of Mr. Masefield's volume 
must be described as doggerel, but this seems too 
harsh a term even for Mr. Galsworthy's trifles. 
Such lines as these, surely, deserve a gentler name : 

"Life? What is Life? 
The leaping up of level wave ; 
The flaring of an ashy fire ; 
The living wind in airless grave ! 

" Death ? What is Death ? 
The dying of immortal sun ; 
The sleeping of the sleepless moon ; 
The end of story not begun !" 

"Love" is the title of the following poignant distillate 
from the alembic of experience: 

" Love ! that love which comes so stealthily, 
And takes us up, and twists us as it will 
What fever'd hours of agony you bring I 
How oft we wake and cry : ' God set me free 
Of love to never love again ! ' And still 
We fall, and clutch you by the knees, and cling 
And press our lips and so, once more are glad ! 

" And if you go, or if you never come, 
Through what a grieving wilderness of pain 
We travel on ! In prisons stripped of light 
We blindly grope, and wander without home. 
The friendless winds that sweep across the plain 
The beggars meeting us at silent night 
Than we, are not more desolate and sad!" 

The lines called "Errantry" give voice to an ideal- 
ism which never fails the poet who has the true 



[August 16, 

conception of his mission as an inspiring interpreter 
of life. 

" Come ! Let us lay a crazy lance in rest, 
And tilt at windmills under a wild sky ! 
For who would live so petty and unblest 
That dare not tilt at something ere he die 
Rather than, screened by safe majority, 
Preserve his little life to little ends, 
And never raise a rebel battle-cry ! 

" Ah ! for the weapon wistful and sublime, 
Whose lifted point recks naught of woe or weal, 
Since Fate demands it shivered every time ! 
When in the wildness of our charge we reel 
Men laugh indeed the sweeter heavens smile, 
For all the world of fat prosperity 
Has not the value of that broken steel!" 

One thinks of innumerable parallels to th,is expres- 
sion of lofty thought from Lowell, Sill, Arnold, 
Dobson, and many others but of none more per- 
suasive and sincere. Mr. Galsworthy is not alone 
a poet of abstract ideas, as the indignant lines en- 
titled "Persia Moritura " may testify. 

" Home of the free ! Protector of the weak ! 
Shall We and this Great Grey Ally make sand 
Of all a nation's budding green, and wreak 
Our winter will on that unhappy land ? 
Is all our steel of soul disolved and flown ? 
Have fumes of fear encased our heart of flame ? 
Are we with panic so deep-rotted down 
In self, that we can feel no longer shame 
To league, and steal a nation's hope of youth ? 
Oh ! Sirs ! Is our Star merely cynical ? 
Is God reduced ? That we must darken truth, 
And break our honour with this creeping fall ? 

" Is Freedom but a word a flaring boast ? 
Is Self-Concern horizon's utter sun ? 
If so To-day let England die, and ghost 
Through all her godless history to come ! 
If, Sirs, the faith of men be Force alone, 
Let us ring down The farce is nothing worth. 
If Life be only prayer to things of stone, 
Come Death ! And let us, friends, go mocking forth ! 
But if there's aught, in all Time's bloody hours, 
Of Justice, if the herbs of Pity grow 
O Native Land, let not those only flowers 
Of God be desert-strewn and withered now!" 

If the crime against Persia be finally consummated 
by England's connivance with the monstrous des- 
potism of the Muscovite, these lines at least will 
remain to show that the hideous wrong was not ac- 
complished without a protest. 

"Charmides and Other Poems Chiefly Relating 
to Oxford" is an exquisite volume of verse by Mr. 
Gascoigne Mackie. The titular piece, pictorial and 
elegiac, consists of sixteen verse sections, in three 
groups of sixteen each, invoking the spirit of "Char- 
, mides " with an appeal to old-time memories. We 
quote one of the most beautiful of these sections. 

"Long gaps of lingering splendour but no sun 
Now from the heights the hieratic tints 
Fade slowly, like the fervour from life's dream : 
And every valley veiled in violet bloom 
Lies hushed ; till lo, from out her vestal shrine 
Heaven's inmost penetralia of peace 
Upon the bosom of maternal night 
Passionless Hesper, like a kneeling child, 
Glimmers : and soft as dew, the far off hills 

Drop down divine nostalgia on my soul 
That homeward turns at last. 

Dear Charmides, 

Still be thou near me, wheresoe'er I walk, 
The motive and the charm of solitude : 
Close as a shadow let thy memory cling 
And deepen round me ; till the shadows break 
And on the golden bough the thrush begins." 

An earlier version of this poem was published in 
1898, but it has now been re-written. The same 
subdued strain of reflection characterizes the other 
poems of this collection. These stanzas come from 
" Oxford at Night." 

" Austere she stood in ancient times, 

A refuge for the pure in heart, 
And still the music of her chimes 
Peals from a world apart. 

" And when we hear those cloister'd bells 

After long years, or absence long, 
With what high hopes and proud farewells 
Their haunting echoes throng ! 

" Until it seems as if she brings 

(To mock the pride of lonely men), 
Only the tears of mortal things 

That cloud our mortal ken." 

Mr. Mackie has both technical skill and the gift of 
subtle harmonies of word and thought. His work 
is the expression of a temperament finely attuned 
to spiritual beauty. 

These little books of verse that so frequently come 
to us from Oxford are apt to be pleasant surprises, 
revealing talents deserving of a wider fame than 
they are likely ever to win. We always open them 
with pleasant anticipations, and are rarely disap- 
pointed. Mr. Brett-Smith's " Poems of the North " 
are not, for the most part, upon Oxonian themes, 
but reveal instead a spirit that ventures far afield, 
notably into the realm of Scandinavian legend and 
mythology. This is "The Steering Song of Olaf 

" Kinar. see : 
Rush of waves in the sloping sea 

Flying, flying swift and free ! 
Oegir's daughters, lest they charm 

To their harm. 

Hearts of all the men who roam 
On the swan's path of the deep 
Down from rugged lands and steep, 
Veil their heads in white sea foam. 

" Einar, hear : 
Storm winds gathering far and near 

Sweep the spume from the fretting mere ! 
Through the shrouds the breezes ring, 

Whirr and sing, 
Like the hiss of an arrow's flight 

When the quivering bows are bent afar 
And through the hush of the breaking war 
Warriors' eyes are dimmed in night." 

These lines on "The Death of Colonel Brett," an 
Elizabethan seaman slain in Portugal, and presum- 
ably one of the author's ancestors, are singularly 

" Nay, lad, 'tis mortal : do not weep, but mark, 
I will not lie among these Portingales 
The sea being ours ; take me a fishing barque 




The fleet rides anchored under Cascais walls 

Bid Drake remember when we both were hale : 

He shall not grudge for old felicity, 

A pair of shot and some poor yards of sail. 

Ah, vesperascit ! like a spreading tree 

The dusk surrounds me with a thousand leaves 

And some red berries, which are bright with pain : 

My God ! I shall not see the yellow sheaves 

In England, nor hear ousel sing again 

Only the seamen crying, as she cleaves 

Far overhead the shadowy restless main." 

The opening lines of "Peace" may be taken to 
illustrate the somewhat abstract and cloudy versi- 
fying of Mr. James Mackereth, as exhibited in the 
volume entitled "In the Wake of the Phoenix." 

" Mute spouse of God, upon whose bosom lies 
Time like a child, time of the fevered heart, 
Out of this moment of mortality 
Toward thee, O mild Unchangeable, we lift 
Our hands, our faces rmitable uplift, 
Like waves that turn their pallor to the moon, 
And plead in passing for thy kiss, Peace. 

Sage dweller on the sacred frontiers 

Of realms the armoured years shall enter not, 

Aloof from all the clangorous march of time, 

From riot, and the ravishments of men, 

0, patient listener to the Innermost, 

Flow from the noiseless places of the world I 

From the deep valleys 'mid a thousand hills 

Where silence sits forever 'mong her rocks 

Poring upon impermanence, flow thence, 

Flow from all haunted places where abides 

The hush primeval." 

And so on, for some two hundred lines. 

This Emersonian jingle introduces " The Hill of 
Vision," by Mr. James Stephens : 

" Everything that I can spy 
Through the circle of my eye, 
Everything that I can see 
Has been woven out of me ; 
I have sown the stars, and threw 
Clouds of morning and of eve 
Up into the vacant blue ; 
Everything that I perceive, 
Sun and sea and mountain high, 
All are moulded by my eye : 
Closing it, what shall I find ? 
Darkness, and a little wind." 

It is spiritual and imaginative vision, rather than 
physical, that Mr. Stephens prefers to impart. 
This is his view of what shall be in "The Fulness 
of Time." 

" On a rusty iron throne 
Past the furthest star of space 
I saw Satan sit alone, 
Old and haggard was his face 
For his work was done and he 
Rested in eternity. 

" And to him from out the sun 
Came his father and his friend 
Saying, now the work is done 
Enmity is at an end : 
And he guided Satan to 
Paradises that he knew. 

" Gabriel without a frown, 
Uriel without a spear, 
Raphael came singing down 

Welcoming their ancient peer. 
And they seated him beside 
One who had been crucified.'' 

Mr. John G. Neihardt is master of a rugged dic- 
tion, marked by forceful metaphors and a somewhat 
recondite allusiveness. His meaning is not always 
clear, and seems to be expressive of an emotional 
state rather than of an imaginative vision. Many 
of the pieces in "The Stranger at the Gate" are 
nature lyrics, not so much descriptive as interpreta- 
tive in a spiritual sense. This, for example: 

" Over the steep cloud-crags 
The marching day went down 
Bickering spears and flags, 
Slant in a wind of Doom ! 
Blear in the huddled shadows 
Glimmer the lights of the town ; 
Black pools mottle the meadows, 
Swamped in a purple gloom. 

" Is it the night wind sobbing 
Over the wheat in head ? 
Is it the world-heart throbbing 
Sad with the coming years ? 
Is it the lifeward creeping 
Ghosts of the myriad dead, 
Livid with wounds and weeping 
Wild, uncleansing tears ? " 

Of course it is not any of these things, but the poet 
is licensed to suggest them, for his revelation is not 
of nature, but of his own soul. We are much im- 
pressed with "The Poet's Town," describing the 
boy who is at heart a poet, living his own life amid 
commonplace surroundings. 

" Rich with the dreamer's pillage, 
An idle and worthless lad, 
Least in a prosy village, 
And prince in Allahabad ; 

" Lover of golden apples, 
Munching a daily crust ; 
Haunter of dream-built chapels, 
Worshipping in the dust ; 

" Dull to the worldly duty, 
Less to the town he grew, 
And more to the God of Beauty 
Than even the grocer knew !" 

Indignation at the present scheme of things in 
America, and the cry for social justice, are voiced 
in the poems at the close of the volume. 

" No longer blindfold Justice reigns ; but leers 
A barefaced, venal strumpet in her stead ! 
The stolen harvests of a hundred years 
Are lighter than a stolen loaf of bread ! 

" pious Nation, holding God in awe, 
Where sacred human rights are duly priced ! 
Where men are beggared in the name of Law, 
Where alms are given in the name of Christ ! 

" The Country of the Free ! wretched lie I 
The Country of the Brave Yea, let it be 1 
One more good fight, O Brothers, ere we die 
And this shall be the Country of the Free!" 

The freedom here invoked seems to be freedom to 
pillage the possessors under the mob-banner of 
socialism. "The Red Wind Comes," from which we 
have quoted, and the " Cry of the People," which 
follows it, are quite in the vein of William Morris. 



[August 16, 

" I am in poetry what Strauss is in music, Rodin 
in sculpture, and Stuck in painting a cerebral 
impressionist." "I have found myself as a poet." 
" My own emotions are too elusive and too complex 
to be capable of expression or understanding beyond 
where I have gone. If I lived in Europe, if mine 
were the freedom of Wedekind and the audience 
that hails him and goads him, I might still go on. 
But I realize that I am too far ahead of the pageant 
of American life to go one step further." "The 
torch of our lyric fire still burns and will continue 
to burn when it has passed from my hands into 
those of a younger poet." " I have given a new lyric 
impetus to my country. I have loosened the tongue 
of the young American poets." "I may safely say 
that I am one of the leaders of the lyric insurgents 
who, inheriting the technique of Poe and the social 
conscience of Whitman, have added the new note of 
passion." " I am perhaps the only American poet 
whose book of lyric verse made money for himself 
and his publishers." These are excerpts from the 
lengthy introduction to "The Candle and the Flame," 
Mr. George Sylvester Viereck's new book of poems. 
Their incredible egotism is very amusing when we 
realize upon how slight a foundation of achievement 
it is based. For the author is a very minor poet, 
distinguished chiefly by an erotic mania and a pre- 
dilection for toying with unclean themes, and his 
poetical output thus far includes, besides the present 
volume, " Nineveh and Other Poems " and a slender 
sheaf of "Gedichte." He is the avowed enemy of 
the "Puritans" among our poets, among whom he 
includes most of our shining names, from Emerson, 
Longfellow, and Lowell to Gilder, Stedman, and 
Moody. This attitude he puts into a neat epigram : 
"Phryne is preferable to a New England spinster, 
but Aspasia is more desirable than Phryne." Mr. 
Viereck's quality as a singer may be illustrated by 
the closing stanzas of the poem which gives this col- 
lection a title. 

" Perhaps the passions of mankind 

Are but the torches mystical 
Lit by some spirit-hand to find 
The dwelling of the Master-Mind 

That knows the secret of it all, 
In the great darkness and the wind. 

" We are the Candle, Love the Flame, 

Each little life-light flickers out, 
Love bides, immortally the same : 
When of life's fever we shall tire 
He will desert us, and the fire 
Rekindle new in prince or lout. 

" Twin-born of knowledge and of lust, 
He was before us, he shall be 
Indifferent still of thee and me, 
When shattered is life's golden cup, 
When thy young limbs are shrivelled up, 
And when my heart is turned to dust. 

" Nay, sweet, smile not to know at last 
That thou and I, or knave, or fool, 
Are but the involitient tool 
Of some world-purpose vague and vast. 

No bar to passion's fury set, 

With monstrous poppies spice the wine : 
For only drunk are we divine, 

And only mad shall we forget." 

These verses represent Mr. Viereck at his best, and 
be has many more of stimulating quality and pas- 
sionate appeal. His thought is often far from clear 
and indeed some of his ideas have to be discreetly 
veiled but he is thoughtful enough to provide for 
us a marginal commentary which is quite as good 
reading as the poems themselves. As he says, " We 
may give a clue now and then which can direct the 
mind of the reader and perhaps prevent critics yet 
unborn from wasting marvellously ingenious devices 
upon the erection of spurious pyramids on the base of 
a fatal misprint or a mistaken assumption. Neither 
Goethe, nor Shakespeare, it may be urged, was his 
own commentator. The resultant loss, however, was 
both theirs and the world's." Mr. Viereck sees to it 
that the world shall suffer no such loss in the case 
of his own immortal works. A single quotation 
from the " Marginalia " will exemplify their galvanic 
character: "I once made the reckless remark that 
the three men I most admired were Christ, Napoleon, 
and Oscar Wilde, each a martyr to his creed, the 
ethical, the dynamic, and the aesthetic. After calm 
reflection I cannot find three men who typify more 
perfectly the great intellectual and temperamental 
world-currents. Recently in Paris I visited the 
graves of Napoleon and Oscar Wilde. As Jerusalem 
was too far away, I paid my devotion to the founder 
of Christianity, not at Notre Dame, but at the 
tomb of another intellectual of the race of Christ 
Heinrich Heine." 

Mr. Robert Haven Schauffler is the author of a 
striking poem called "Scum o' the Earth," suggested 
by the hordes of immigrants landing at Castle 
Garden. As they pass in procession before him, the 
various nationalities suggest to the poet's vision their 
racial potentialities for the enrichment of our nat- 
ional life. An Italian boy, for example, suggests 
these lines: 

" Genoese boy of the level brow, 
Lad of the lustrous, dreamy eyes 
Astare at Manhattan's pinnacles now 
In the first, sweet shock of a hushed surprise : 
Within yoiir far-rapt seer's eyes 
I catch the glow of the wild surmise 
That played on the Santa Maria's prow 
In that still gray dawn, 
Four centuries gone, 

When a world from the wave began to rise. 
Oh, it 's hard to foretell what high emprise 
Is the goal that gleams 
When Italy's dreams 
Spread wing and sweep into the skies. 
Caesar dreamed him a world ruled well ; 
Dante dreamed Heaven out of Hell ; 
Angelo brought us there to dwell ; 
And you, are you of a different birth ? 
You 're only a ' dago,' and ' scum o' the earth ' ! " 

So he takes them, Greeks and Poles and Czechs and 
Jews, and urges that the dreams they bring with 
them constitute their real value to us, far more than 




offsetting their ragged habiliments and pitiful store 
of worldly goods. The broad humanity of this view 
is very appealing, no doubt, yet the poet who wrote 
"Unguarded Gates" represented a point of view 
that needs to be considered also. As becomes a 
musician, Mr. Schauffler finds in his own special 
art the inspiration for some of his finest verses. 

" Is music ' love in search of words ' ? Not so. 
For love well knows he never may express 
In words a tithe of all his tenderness, 
Nor paint in human speech a passion's glow 
Lit by his flame. Too deep and still, too low 
Even for angels' ears, the saeredness 
Of meaning when two hearts together press 
And feel from eye to eye love's secret flow. 

" But music is a house not made with hands, 
Built by love's Father, where a little space 

The soul may dwell ; a royal palace fit 
To meet the majesty of its demands. 

The place where man's two lives unite ; the place 
To hold communion with the infinite." 

Most of Mr. John Kendrick Bangs's verses prove 
their right to be called "Echoes of Cheer," and none 
more so than this pair of stanzas on "The Optimist." 

" Care came first and laid his siege, 

Laid his siege at my front-door ; 
Then the Wolf, the Lord and Liege 

Of all Trouble, brought his score. 
Well, I ' sicked ' the Wolf on Care 

Wolf was hungry past all doubt ; 
Chewed old Care up hide and hair, 

Left no sign of him about. 

" Then I took my faithful gun, 

Cheerfulness, from off the rack ; 
Loaded it with Wholesome Fun, 

Let Wolf have it front and back. . . . 
Made a fur coat of his hide 

He was quite a shaggy beast 
And the rest of him we fried 

For our glad Thanksgiving Feast." 

We best know Mr. Bangs as a professional jester ; 
but this book of his verses reveals the serious vein 
that lies beneath his merriment, expressing the 
simple faith and trust of a man at peace with him- 
self and the scheme of things entire. 


The spell of 
the White 


Although no book has yet caught the 
White Mountains wholly in its toils 
(and it is to be hoped none ever will), 
there comes occasionally a book with power to raise 
the image of them before the mind's eye, and to 
satisfy somewhat the mountain-lover's perpetual 
longing. Such a book is Mr. Winthrop Packard's 
" White Mountain Trails" (Small, Maynard & Co.), 
with its rather desultory but always delightful text, 
and its many wonderful illustrations. The writer 
takes his leisurely way over the best-known trails, 
apparently with no time-card but the sun, no map 
but the peaks and gullies of the mountains them- 
selves, and no set purpose but enjoyment. When 
a white admiral butterfly "politely shows the wrong 

road as a start for the trail up Bartlett," and then 
" leaves him in a wild tangle of slash to get up the 
mountain the way the bear does, on all fours," he 
does not even feel himself under obligation to learn 
wisdom from experience. Instead, he trusts a 
mountain brook to show him the way down, only 
to find that though "mountain brooks do not run 
away from you as mountain paths do, it is as well 
not to trust them too much, after dark." But Mr. 
Packard's wandering is not aimless, for in the 
course of it he accomplishes Carter Notch and 
Crawford Notch, sees the world from the peaks of 
Chocorua, Iron Mountain, Kearsarge, Carragain, 
Madison, Mount Jackson, and several others, and 
has four clear days on the top of Mount Wash- 
ington, "such as the fates in kindly mood sometimes 
deal out to fortunate mortals." He knows each of 
the mountains by itself, for "they have personality 
and grow to be individual friends, as well loved 
and ardently longed for when absent as any human 
neighbor or associate." Indeed, the aim of his ap- 
parent aimlessness is to catch each " individual " off 
guard, to surprise it from every angle, to come 
upon it if possible unexpectedly to himself and so 
to get at the very secret of its character. Be- 
cause he often succeeds, his book is worthy of its 
subject. Besides, it is to be doubted if any other 
writer about the White Mountains has seen so 
much by the way. The reader must be a very wise 
person indeed who does not envy Mr. Packard 
his ability to enjoy with full knowledge all the 
flowers and ferns, birds and trees, butterflies and 
mosses, and even the frogs and hedgehogs, he finds 
in each day's climbing. As a final excellence, the 
volume has some forty reproductions of skilfully- 
taken photographs, showing not only the looming 
grandeur of the mountains both in clear air and 
shrouded in mist or cloud, but much of the cher- 
ished detail of nearer views. 

Some well-told Not since th . e English-reading world 
tales of simple was filled with delight by the scenes 
Cornish folk. of humble Scottish life depicted by 
the Rev. John Watson has it been treated to any- 
thing of so marked excellence and striking original- 
ity in the same domain of realistic reproduction of 
the humors of the lowly as in Mr. Charles Lee's 
Cornish tales now introduced to the American public 
by Messrs. E. P. Dutton & Co., in three volumes with 
the title, "Our Little Town," "Paul Carah, Cornish- 
man," and "The Widow Woman." The first vol- 
ume takes the form of separate sketches and stories, 
the other two of continuous narrative; but so little 
does Mr. Lee's art depend upon plot, upon the mere 
machinery or frame-work of story-building, that he 
is equally enjoyable in either manner. Cornishnaan 
to the very heart of him he must be, to write so 
sympathetically of the Cornish fisherfolk, and with 
so keen a relish for all their oddities of tempera- 
ment and peculiarities of speech. Dialect he cannot 
avoid using in letting his characters play their 
several parts, but it is nowhere overdone, nowhere 



[August 16, 

beyond the ready comprehension of the reader. 
Let us quote from a dialogue between "Bessie's 
Tom" and "stuttering Orlando" in '"Our Little 
Town." Orlando, in an unguarded hour, has been 
beguiled into matrimony, and his wife proves to be 
such a talker that he himself hardly gets a chance 
to open his mouth. " Haven't spit out a c-clean word 
for weeks," he moans. "Don't get t-time." Tom 
tries to comfort him, and asks: "Have 'e tried 
swearing ? If I mind right, your dees were always 
better gressed, like, than your Christian speech." 
"T-true," replies the other, mournfully. "So they 
were. But now they'm like the rest snails crawl- 
ing through t-tar." Here is a bit of shrewd wisdom 
from "Uncle Hannibal" in " The Widow Woman." 
He stands, pipe in hand, in his doorway, filling the 
space with his generous bulk and watching the dis- 
comfiture of John Trelill at the hands of a coquet- 
tish young woman. " When a chap an' a maid do 
come together," comments Uncle Hannibal, "chap 
shuts his eyes tight : maid aupens hers a bit wider. 
How should chap look to have a chanst? Man's 
human, but woman's woman 'at's what I d' say in 
my smart way." But John wins the maid in the 
end, and the story of the courtship, with its very 
unusual complications, is admirably told. Another 
original and amusing love story, contained in " Our 
Little Town," has to do with two maiden ladies in 
their fifties and a sixty-year-old suitor to the twain. 
Impartial in his affections, he begs them to decide 
between themselves which of the two shall be the 
one to accept him. The outcome is a little unex 
pected. " Paul Carah " is the story of a good-natured 
and amusing braggart who has lived some years in 
"the States" and returns to astonish the natives. 
As in the other books, both scenes and characters 
are drawn by the hand of a master. There are 
hours of solid enjoyment in these three volumes. 
Excellent line-drawings and a colored frontispiece 
are provided by Mr. Charles E. Brock for "The 
Widow Woman." Mr. Gordon' Browne illustrates 
"Paul Carah." 

Four years have passed since Harriet 
Letters and J r 

Memories of Hosmer s death, at the age or seventy- 
Harriet Hosmer. 8ev en ; and the interval has sufficed 
for collecting her more important correspondence 
and preparing therefrom and from other sources a 
good account of her life and work. " Harriet Hos- 
mer : Letters and Memories" (Moffat, Yard & Co.), 
edited by her friend Mrs. Lucien Carr (Cornelia 
Carr), forms a substantial volume of nearly four 
hundred pages, well-printed, well-illustrated, and 
teeming with matter of interest to all who take pleas- 
ure and pride in the achievements of this brilliant 
American woman and famous sculptor. It is true 
that she seemed to make herself, by expatriation for 
her art's sake, almost more of a European than an 
American. How she impressed the world abroad 
is partly shown in Frances Power Cobbe's descrip- 
tion of her : " She was in those days the most be- 
witching sprite that the world ever saw. Never 

have I laughed so helplessly as at the infinite fun 
of that bright Yankee girl. Even in later years, 
when we perforce grew a little graver, she needed 
only to begin one of her descriptive stories to make 
us all young again. I have not seen her since her 
return to America, nor yet anyone in the least like 
her. It is vain to hope to convey to any reader the 
contagion of her merriment. Oh! what a gift be- 
yond rubies are such spirits ! " Mrs. Carr gives us 
some admirable specimens of Miss Hosmer's fun, 
and among them a few stanzas of delicious French 
doggerel composed at Mrs. Sedgwick's school at 
Lenox, where Fanny Kemble made friends with her 
and used to say to her of an evening, "Come, Hatty, 
do give us some fun to-night." Most numerous and 
most characteristic are the letters to her old friend 
and patron, Mr. Wayman Crow, of St. Louis, father 
of her favorite classmate, and greatly helpful to her 
in procuring her admission to the course in anatomy 
at the medical school of the State University of 
Missouri. Miss Hosmer's Italian years fell in the 
time of the Brownings, and of course they and a 
host of other notables figure in her letters. The editor 
has done well to let her sculptor friend tell her own 
story, in large part ; and it is one well worth reading. 

Born in 1853, the Right Hon. George 
W. E. Russell lays early claim to the 
privilege of age in writing his remi- 
niscences. "One Look Back" (Doubleday) traces 
in highly agreeable fashion the first half-century or 
so of the life of one who, near the close of his book, 
declares himself ignorant of the sensation of dul- 
ness. Already, in his two series of " Collections 
and Recollections" published in 1898, and in his 
"Pocketful of Sixpences" and "Sketches and 
Snapshots," Mr. Russell has shown his talent as a 
raconteur; and the present volume will certainly 
do nothing to lessen his reputation. Proudly trac- 
ing his descent from that of William Lord Russell 
who laid down his life in the cause of constitu- 
tional liberty in 1683, the author gives us pleasing 
glimpses of his boyhood home, his school and uni- 
versity days, his life in London society, his jour- 
nalistic and public activities, and his labors of love 
as a zealous Churchman. Eulogizing the past with 
a pessimistic contemplation of the present that 
strangely contrasts with the general cheery tone of 
his book, he occasionally indulges in such strains 
as the following concerning his degenerate fellow- 
countrymen: "They do not care for the country in 
itself; they have no eye for its beauty, no sense of 
its atmosphere, no memory for its traditions. It is 
only made endurable to them by sport and gambling 
and boisterous house-parties; and, when from one 
cause or another these resources fail, they are 
frankly bored and long for London. They are no 
longer content, as our fathers were, to entertain 
their friends with hospitable simplicity. So pro- 
foundly has all society been vulgarized by the wor- 
ship of the Golden Calf that, unless people can vie 




with alien millionaires in the sumptuousness with 
which they 'do you' delightful phrase, they 
prefer not to entertain at all. An emulous osten- 
tation has killed hospitality. All this is treason to 
a high ideal." Among the author's many friend- 
ships he notes with especial gratitude his obligations 
to the brilliantly gifted James Payn, whose love of 
anecdote called forth, first orally and then in literary 
form in the columns of the Manchester "Guardian," 
the "Collections and Recollections "mentioned above. 
There is also related the course of events leading up 
to Mr. Russell's connection with this " best news- 
paper in Great Britain," as he calls it. To that for- 
tunate connection we owe, humanly speaking, these 
subsequent anecdotal and autobiographic chapters. 
A few appropriate illustrations accompany the read- 
ing matter. . . 

The Cabinet Professor Henry Barrett Learned's 
as a branch of book on "The President's Cabinet" 
Government. and Dr Mary L Hinsdale's "His- 
tory of the President's Cabinet" treat of the same 
subject, but in different ways. Professor Learned's 
book begins with a chapter on the Cabinet in En- 
gland, and proceeds to elaborate at some length 
the evolution of the Cabinet in the United States, 
from the days of the Continental Congress through 
the period of the Confederation to the establishment 
of presidential government under the Constitution. 
After a careful account of the creation, in Washing- 
ton's time, of the first and more important secretary- 
ships, and after an essay on the term "Cabinet" as 
used in the United States, Professor Learned passes 
to a discussion of the offices of Attorney General, 
Secretary of the Navy, Postmaster General, Secre- 
tary of the Interior, Secretary of Agriculture, and 
Secretary of Commerce and Labor. A concluding 
chapter gives an historical summary and a brief 
analysis of the relations between the different cab- 
inet officers and the President. This volume, we 
are told, is intended to cover only the formation and 
structure of the Cabinet; but Professor Learned 
promises a second part of the work which is to treat 
of the "Practices and Personnel" of that body. It 
is this element, the personal, which characterizes 
the book of Dr. Hinsdale. This is deliberately ar- 
ranged upon an annalistic plan. The origin of the 
Cabinet is here very briefly treated, and the author 
proceeds to an account of the Cabinet of each ad- 
ministration, from Washington's first term in 1789 
to the presidency of Mr. Taft in 1909. Each of these 
chapter is accompanied by a valuable table showing 
the original make-up of the Cabinet, and the changes 
which took place in its membership. Around this 
personal framework, Dr. Hinsdale builds her account 
of the activities of the Cabinet, treating from this 
view-point many of the events and problems which 
are discussed topically in Professor Learned's book. 
At the close of the volume Dr. Hinsdale adds three 
analytical chapters, on the general principles of 
cabinet making, the relation of the Cabinet to Con- 
gress, and the relation of the Cabinet to the Presi- 

dent. The two works admirably supplement each 
other. Each is scholarly in execution, each is ade- 
quately equipped with bibliographical material and 
an index. Both appeal especially to the student of 
American history and government ; but, particularly 
in this "presidential year," both should also win the 
attention of the "general reader." 

Advances A. significant indication of the ever- 

tn medical > j < .1 

research in widening consequences of the Amer- 

the tropics. ican occupation of the Philippines 

and other tropical possessions of Spain, and of the 
sanitary developments in the Canal Zone, is to be 
seen in the recent work of Captain Charles F. Craig, 
of the Medical Corps of the United States Army, 
entitled "The Parasitic Amrebae of Man" (Lip- 
pincott). Time was when an army billet was a sine- 
cure not sought for purposes of medical research, 
though not a few illustrious names of army and navy 
physicians are to be found in the annals of natural 
history. To-day, in England, France, and Germany, 
and also in our own land, the advances in tropical 
medicine are largely made by physicians who find 
both opportunity and stimulus for research in the 
contact with disease, epidemics, plagues and para- 
sites of tropical peoples. Dr. Craig's contributions 
in this field have long been known to specialists, 
and are now made readily accessible to all in his 
illustrated monograph on the parasitic amosbse which 
worked such dread havoc on our soldiers in the 
Philippines and threaten all who travel in tropical 
lands. The ease of transportation to and from the 
south and the Orient brings their plagues to our 
doors, and too often within them ; so that the infec- 
tions here treated have become of widest general 
interest both to our own practitioners and to all 
who are concerned with the protection of public and 
private water-supplies against pollution. The book 
is replete with the latest discoveries of investigators 
in this field, in all lands; and discusses fully the 
distinctions between the abundant but innocuous 
amoebae of streams and reservoirs and the so-called 
"benign" parasites and the pathogenic ones. Abun- 
dant illustrations and a full bibliography of the 
widely scattered literature of the subject add to the 
value of this representative work of American 
scholarship and the only monographic work in En- 
glish upon the subject. 

In a stately quarto of 278 pages en- 
agefnnessaiv. titled " Prehistoric Thessaly " Messrs. 

A. J. B. Wace and M. S. Thompson 
have published through the Cambridge University 
Press (New York: Putnam) an account of recent ex- 
cavations and explorations in Northeastern Greece, 
from Lake Kopais to the borders of Macedonia. The 
volume is an expansion of previous reports by the 
same authors; and presents in a convenient form all 
the ai\ Ideological evidence as yet available for the 
prehistoric age in Thessaly. It is thus a contribution 
to the constantly-growing structure of our knowledge 
of ^Egean civilization. By obvious cleavage the book 



[August 16, 

falls into two divisions : the first ten chapters describ- 
ing exhaustively the excavations by the authors, 
together with summaries of other men's work. The 
concluding seven chapters contain the theories and 
conclusions based on their finds, to be modified or 
verified by future discoveries. As was to be ex- 
pected, the pottery, found in great abundance, was 
their chief and safest guide: "the history of any site 
which has a deep undisturbed deposit can be read 
in its pottery." Comparative archaeologists will fol- 
low these elaborate lists of sherds, vases, jugs, and 
other ware with keen interest, and will note the paral- 
lelism between the Thessalian decorated work and 
that from Crete, the JEgean islands, and Mycenaean 
sites generally. The chapter on the "prehistoric 
history" of Northeastern Greece is an interesting 
example of the archaeological method. Using only 
the evidence dug out of the earth, and rigorously ex- 
cluding all racial and legendary names, the authors 
have reconstructed a Thessalian culture which they 
divide into four periods. None of these is marked by 
any splendor ; the decorated ware adheres to simple 
geometric patterns, while the statuettes and figurini 
are highly grotesque. " Only at the end of the pre- 
historic age did Mycenaean culture really reach 
Northern Greece; but before it could supplant the 
older cultures and gain a firm hold on Thessaly, it 
was itself swept away by the northern invasions that 
mark the dawn of historic Greece." The book is 
profusely illustrated from photographs and drawings 
in the body of the text, and by half-a-dozen fine col- 
ored plates. The matter of transliteration has been 
carefully attended to, and every needful help pro- 
vided in index, appendix, and references to the works 
of other authors. 

Married mm. In the ^ same genial vein as "The 
philosophers. Reflections of a Married Man " and 

and grandfathers, u The Opinions of a Philosopher," 

Mr. Robert Grant's "Convictions of a Grandfather" 
is written with the added advantage of some years 
more of accumulated wisdom and mellowness and 
kindly tolerance of the world's faults and foibles. 
It is inevitable that such books as these three 
should call to mind and invite comparison with Dr. 
Holmes's " Breakfast Table " series ; for there is not 
a little of the same whimsical humor in the obser- 
vations and meditations of each of these Bostonians 
professional men, both of them, and writers by 
avocation. The opening of Judge Grant's second 
chapter ('"But what do you regard as inordinate 
possessions?' asked Josephine, with whom I was 
discussing the subject") has in it the same abrupt 
challenge to one's interest that is familiar to the 
Autocrat's readers. "Convictions" is rather too 
strong a word to apply to the views of this grand- 
father ; he is by no means dogmatic or opinionated, 
and one of the charms of his book is that it leaves 
so many questions open for further debate. The 
questions themselves are not abstruse, but deal 
chiefly with such topics as automobiles and the 
increasing cost of living, old-age pensions, the mod- 

as national 

ern woman, present-day culture and conversation, 
European travel, the contesting of wills, and certain 
other matters of not too severely legal a nature. 
The grace and fluency and charm of the author's 
style hardly need our commendation, at this late day. 

To those who have begun to make a 
serious study of pastimes, and are 
trying to put play into its proper rela- 
tion to the affairs of life, Mrs. Mary Master Need- 
ham's "Folk Festivals" (Huebsch) will come as an 
inspiration, a guide, and a help. The book is based 
upon the author's personal experiences in utilizing the 
almost universal love of the people for self-expression 
and correlating it with the work of the school in the 
teaching of history ; and it not only tells what folk- 
festivals are, and by way of illustration describes 
the more important Old World festivals and some 
successful experiments in America, but it shows how 
folk festivals may be given in this country, and how 
we may thereby revive an interest in festal days 
which are ours by inheritance, infuse some life and 
enthusiasm into our so-called national holidays, and 
learn how to celebrate them in a sane and appropri- 
ate manner so that their meaning may not be lost. 
Emphasis throughout the book is laid on the folk 
character the self-expression of the people in their 
celebrations of festival days. The book is written in 
an entertaining manner, but is thorough and com- 
plete; and for those who desire to pursue the sub- 
ject further, an exceedingly helpful bibliography is 


Admiral Mahan's book on " Sea Power " is said, on 
the authority of a British naval officer, to he the most 
generally read book in the libraries of war vessels in 
the British navy. 

"The Sign at Six," Mr. Stewart Edward White's 
new story, is published this month by the Bobbs- 
Merrill Co. It is a story of New York life, and is 
illustrated by M. Leone Bracker. 

A collected edition said to be the first made in En- 
glish of the political writings of Rousseau is soon to 
appear from the Cambridge University Press, repre- 
sented in this country by Messrs. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

Mrs. Martha Morley Stewart's story entitled " Grey- 
hound Fanny " (R. R. Donnelly & Sons Co.) is a strong 
appeal for a more humane and sympathetic treatment 
of animals. The book is a worthy contribution to the 
cause of humane education, especially of the young. 

Incidental to the Browning centenary is a new " thin 
paper " edition of his works in twelve volumes, pocket 
size, issued by the T. Y. Crowell Co. The volumes are 
printed from new plates, with large type, and are pro- 
vided with new portraits in photogravure and other 

An essay sometimes called a " prose-poem " by 
the French sculptor Rodin, addressed to the Venus of 
Milo and embodying an expression of the sculptor's 
artistic principles, has been translated into English by 
Miss Dorothy Dudley, and will be published at an early 
date by B. W. Huebsch. 




Campaign lives of the would-be Presidents are prom- 
ised abundantly. First in the field is that of Governor 
Wilson, which Messrs. Putnam's Sons have already 
issued. It is, in effect, a new edition of Miss Hosford's 
life of Wilson, which has been highly commended in 
its earlier form, and now appears revised and enlarged. 

An early contribution to the literature of the Presi- 
dential campaign is " The Democratic Mistake," by Mr. 
A. G. Sedgwick, which Messrs. Scribner publish this 
month. Another timely book from the same house is 
" Majority Rule and the Judiciary," by Mr. W. L. Ran- 
som, a New York lawyer, with an introduction by Mr. 

The reproduction of English and continental litera- 
ture in Japan is steadily increasing. Among works 
recently translated into Japanese are Shaw's " Man 
and Superman," Hauptmann's " Weavers," Flaubert's 
"Salambo," Daudet's "Sapho," Tolstoy's "Kreutzer 
Sonata," Maeterlinck's "Life of the Bee," and Cervantes' 
" Don Quixote." 

Some remarkably successful cloud pictures, by the 
well-known artist-photographer A. L. Coburn, will be re- 
produced in platinum prints as illustrations for Shelley's 
poem of " The Cloud," in a quarto prepared under the 
direction of the artist and published by Mr. C. C. Parker 
of Los Angeles, Cal. The edition is limited to sixty 
copies, at twenty-five dollars each. 

A new novel by a new writer Mrs. Dell H. Munger, 
of Palo Alto, Cal. is to be published this month by 
Messrs. Doubleday, Page & Co. Its scenes are laid in 
Kansas, and it has the striking title " The Wind Before 
the Dawn." The same firm have nearly ready a new 
story by Mrs. Mary Austin, " A Woman of Genius," 
dealing chiefly with the stage and stage people. 

The hundredth anniversary of the " Fort Dearborn 
Massacre," August 15, fitly commemorated by the 
Chicago Historical Society with appropriate ceremonies, 
is the occasion also of a new popular account of that 
historic tragedy " The Story of Old Fort Dearborn," 
written by Mr. Seymour Currey and published by Messrs. 
A. C. McClurg & Co. The volume is illustrated. 

Nashville, Tennessee, is the home of a number of 
authors of recent successful fiction. Mrs. Cora Harris, 
who wrote "The Circuit Rider's Wife" and "The 
Recording Angel," Mr. F. P. Elliott, who wrote " The 
Haunted Pajamas," and Mr. John Trotwood Moore, au- 
thor of " The Summer Hymnal," etc., are among those 
who are making of that old Southern city a new centre 
of literary activity. 

A new book by Mr. Harold Bell Wright, the famous 
producer of " best selling " novels, is announced for the 
coming fall. Its title is " Their Yesterdays," and the 
preliminary announcements claim for it a wide range 
of literary qualities, from those of " The Lady of the 
Decoration" to "The Reveries of a Bachelor" and 
" Letters from a Self-made Merchant to his Son." It 
will be supplied with illustrations in color, by Mr. F. 
Graham Coote. 

The average annual expenditure, on the part of our 
public libraries, for books, periodicals, and binding, has 
been made the subject of some careful study by the 
librarian of the James V. Brown Library of Williams- 
port, Pa. From his researches it appears that for every 
hundred thousand volumes circulated in the one hun- 
dred and seven libraries of the United States that issue 
that number in the course of a year, there is annually 
spent $3,199.00 for the above-named purposes. Put in 

another form, this means that one dollar a year, wisely 
spent, will provide good reading matter for more than 
thirty persons. 

How to spend one's vacation, and where to go to 
school or college after it is spent, are among the practi- 
cal concerns about which the Grand Rapids Public Li- 
brary offers to advise all comers. In its July "Bulletin " 
it calls attention to its guide-book collection whereby 
"you can readily plan your vacation so as to get the most 
out of it for the least money," and to its stock of school 
and college catalogues from which " one may learn some- 
thing of the character of the several institutions as well 
as the expenses." 

A new story entitled " My Lady's Garter," soon to 
be published by Messrs. Rand McNally & Co., derives 
a pathetic interest from the fact that its author, Mr. 
Jacques Futrelle, lost his life in the Titanic disaster. 
The same firm will bring out Mr. Eden Philpott's 
" The Lovers," a tale of English prison life during the 
Revolutionary War; "Stories of the Pilgrims," a book 
for children, by Miss Margaret B. Humphreys, with 
drawings by Lucy Fitch Perkins; " Rowena's Happy 
Summer," by Celia M. Robertson; "The Little King 
and Princess True," nature stories for young folks, by 
Mrs. A. S. Hardy; and a de luxe edition of "Gulliver's 
Travels," with twelve full-page colored illustrations by 
Mr. Milo Winter. 


[The following list, containing 57 titles, includes books 
received by THE DIAL since its last issue.] 

Studies and Appreciations. By William Sharp; selected 

and arranged by Mrs. William Sharp. 12mo, 424 pages. 

Duffield & Co. $1.50 net. 
Side-Lights of Nature in Quill and Crayon. By Edward 

Tickner Edwardes; illustrated by George C. Hait6, F. L. S. 

Second edition ; 12mo, 213 pages. E. P. Button & Co. $1. net. 
The Greek Genius and Its Meaning: to TTs. By E. W. 

Livingstone. 8vo, 250 pages. New York: Oxford Univer- 

sity Press. 
English Literature. By John Calvin Metcalf. Illustrated in 

color, etc., 12mo, 448 pages. Atlanta: B. F. Johnson Pub- 

lishing Co. $1.25 net. 
Rama and Homer: An Argument that in the Indian Epics 

Homer Found the Theme of his two great Poems. By Arthur 

Lillie. Illustrated, 12mo, 284 pages. London : Kegan Paul. 

$1.75 net. 
A Book of English Essays (1600-1900). Selected by Stanley 

V. Makower and Basil H. Blackwell. 16mo, 440 pages. New 

York : Oxford University Press. 
The American Short Story. By C. Alphonso Smith. 12mo, 

50 pages. Ginn & Co. 50 cts. net. 
The Plot of the Short Story. By Henry Albert Phillips; 

with Introduction by Matthew White, Jr. 16mo, 146 pages. 

Larchmont: Stanhope-Dodge Publishing Co. $1. net. 
The American Short Story: A Study of the Influence of 

Locality in its Development. By Elias Lieberman, Ph.D. 

12mo, 183 pages. Ridgewood : The Editor. 

The Shakespeare Classics. Edited by I. Gollancz, Litt. D. 

New volumes: The Menaechmi, edited by W. H. D. Rouse; 

Apolonius and Silla, edited by Morton Luce. Each with 

photogravure frontispiece, 12mo. Duffield & Co. Per vol- 

ume, $1. net. 
The Lower Depths: A Play in Four Acts. By Maxim Gorki; 

translated from the Russian by Laurence Irving. With por- 

trait, 12mo, 191 pages. " Plays of To-Day and To-Morrow." 

Duffield & Co. $1. net. 
The Garden of Unrest: A Second Book of Verse. By George 

W. Harrington. 12mo, 78 pages. Sherman, French & Co. 

$1. net. 



[August 16, 

Land of Our Dreams, and Other Verse. By J. A. Peehl. 12mo, 

95 pages. Sherman, French & Co. $1. net. 
Althea: or. The Morning Glory. By Rebecca S. Pollard. 12mo, 

37 pages. Sherman, French & Co. 75 cts. net. 

The Red Lane: A Romance of the Border. By Holman Day. 

Illustrated, 12mo, 399 pages. Harper & Brothers. $1 35 net. 
Marie: An Episode in the Life of the late Allan Quartermain. 

By H. Rider Haggard. Illustrated in color.^tc., 12mo, 346 

pages. Longmans, Green & Co. $1.35 net. 
The Sigrn at Six. By Stewart Edward White. Illustrated, 

12mo, 265 pages. Bobbs-Merrill Co. $1.25 net. 
The Gate of Horn. By Beulah Marie Dix. 12mo, 329 pages. 

Duffield & Co. $1.25 net. 
The Sin of Angels. By Martha Gilbert Dickinson Bianchi. 

12mo, 504 pages. Duffleld & Co. $1.30 net. 
Low Society. By Robert Halifax. 12mo, 327 pages. E. P. 

Dutton & Co. $1.35 net. 
The Borderland. By Robert Halifax. 12mo, 336 pages. E. P. 

Dutton & Co. $1.35 net. 
The Barmecide's Feast. By John Gore. Illustrated, 12mo, 

196 pages. John Lane Co. 80 cts. net. 


Rambles in the Pyrenees and the Adjacent Districts, Gas- 
cony, Pays de Foix and Roussillon. By F. Hamilton Jack- 
son. R. B. A. Illustrated, large 8vo, 419 pages. E. P. Dutton 
& Co. $6. net. 

New Zealand: The Country and the People. By Max. Herz, 
M.D. Illustrated. 8 vo, 382 pages. Duffield & Co. $3.50 net. 

Famous Houses and Literary Shrines of London. By A. 
St. John Adcock. Illustrated, 8vo, 356 pages. E. P. Dutton 
& Co. $2.50 net. 

A Year of Strangers. By Yoi Pawlowska. 8vo, 158 pages. 
Duffield & Co. $1 .50 net. 

Homer Martin, Poet in Landscape. By Frank Jewett Mather, 

Jr. Illustrated in color, large 8vo, 76 pages. New York: 

Privately Printed. $12 50 net. 
The Villagre Homes of England. Edited by Charles Holme. 

Illustrated in color, etc., 4to, 162 pages. "International 

Studio." John Lane Co. Paper. $2 50 net. 


Was Christ Divine P By William W. Kinsley. 8vo, 144 pages 

Sherman, French & Co. $1. net. 
A Race's Redemption. By John Leard Dawson. 12mo, 428 

pages. Sherman, French & Co. $150 net. 
Mountains of the Bible. By J. J. Summerbell. 12mo, 85 

pages. Sherman, French & Co. $1. net. 
Christianity and the Labor Movement. By William Monroe 

Balch. 12mo, 108 pages. Sherman, French & Co. $1. net. 


Report of the Commissioner of Education for the year 
ended June 30. 1911. Volume II., 8vo. Washington: Govern- 
ment Printing Office. 

The Golden Treasury. By Francis T. Palgrave; edited by 
W. P. Trent and John Erskine. 12mo, 466 pages. Ginn & 
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1912.] THE DIAL, 115 



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No. 629. SEPTEMBER 1, 1912. Vol. LIII. 


. 119 



The genial manner of a great Shakespeare scholar. 
Artistic detachment. Meredith and his muse. The 
Tenth International Congress of the History of Art. 

The amazingly prolific "Ibid." An enviable 
reader. A "classical foundation" as a "practical 
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Librarians' Pensions: A Librarian's View. J.C.B. 
A Library in a Powder Magazine. Walter L. 

SCHE. James Taft Hatfield 127 


Quaife 129 


Shackford 131 


David Y. Thomas 134 

PROBLEMS OF EVOLUTION. Raymond Pearl . . 136 
Patten's The Evolution of the Vertebrates and their 
Kin. Campbell's Plant Life and Evolution. Judd's 
The Coming of Evolution. Delage and Goldsmith's 
The Theories of Evolution. McCabe's The Story 
of Evolution. 

TURE. Arthur Howard Noll 137 


A plea for the Persian patriot. Two books on a 
little-read author. Some chance acquaintances 
deftly portrayed. Sources of religious insight and 
inspiration. The meaning and mystery of poetry. 

Chronicles of Anarchism. A sheaf of William 
Sharp's literary papers. A socialist of the French 
Revolution. Old Testament resemblances in other 
literatures. Spicy breezes from scented isles. 
Revels of a moth-lover. 


NOTES 144 



The tie that binds into one people the various 
sections of the English-speaking world, creating 
a fundamental spiritual unity out of many 
diverse manifestations of thought and conduct, 
is their common speech, and the common litera- 
ture in which their racial ideals have found ex- 
pression. This it is which has set them in the 
vanguard of modern civilization, and made them 
the fount of vivifying and compelling ideas upon 
the highest of human concerns, the leaders of the 
world's thought in matters of religion, ethics, 
and political contrivance. It is one aspect of 
this general truth which Wordsworth so finely 
expressed in the lines : 

" We must be free or die, who speak the tongue 
That Shakespeare spake; the faith and morals hold 
Which Milton held," 

and other aspects of the same truth will readily 
suggest themselves to the reflective mind. In 
the plays of Shakespeare and the Authorized 
Version of the Bible we who are of English 
origin can boast possessions of richer value than 
are to be found in the literature of any other 
modern people, and should any branch of the 
English race forget to prize them at their true 
worth, or cease to hold them as inestimable trea- 
sures, such a lapse would be an ominous mark 
of spiritual decline, and of the breaking up of 
a solidarity as significant for the modern world 
as that of the .Roman genius was for the world 
of antiquity. 

There are signs that in this country we are 
losing our hold upon the English Bible, but 
Shakespeare seems still to keep a secure place 
in our thought. Speaking of educational pro- 
grammes, Sir Sidney Lee the other day urged 
the paramount importance of teaching Shake- 
speare in every school and college, no matter 
what else might or might not be taught. We 
are still reasonably faithful in following this pre- 
scription, although our schools show an alarming 
drift away from humanism into the bog of prac- 
ticality in their chase of the " vocational " will 
o' the wisp. Our national record of devotion to 
Shakespeare is fairly creditable, all things con- 
sidered. The puritan blight prevented his 
benign influence from making itself felt in our 
consciousness until something like a century ago, 
but when we found our way to him we took him 



[Sept. 1, 

to our heart. The accomplished scholarship of 
Verplanck, Hudson, and Richard Grant White 
was applied to his exposition and elucidation, 
and such men as Emerson and Lowell paid him 
their tribute of belletristic appreciation. The 
greenest laurels of the American stage are those 
which have graced the brows of his interpreters. 
On the other side of the shield (but equally 
showing the extent to which he has occupied our 
minds), we may instance Whitman's rejection 
of him as the poet of " feudalism," and the per- 
verse ingenuity of the adherents of the Bacon- 
ian delusion (cradled in this country), of all 
mare's-nests surely the most extraordinary to be 
found in the annals of human aberration. At 
the present day, the world of Shakespeare is 
busily explored by many thousands of school 
children and college students, and edition after 
edition of the plays come from the American 
press. Finally, it is to the researches of the 
American Professor Wallace that we owe the 
most important of recent contributions to our 
knowledge of the poet's life. 

These reflections are occasioned by the neces- 
sity for recording the death of our most distin- 
guished Shakespearean scholar, Dr. Horace 
Howard Furness, who passed away on the thir- 
teenth of August, at the age of seventy-eight. 
A son of William Henry Furness, the famous 
Unitarian divine, Emerson's contemporary and 
friend, he was born in Philadelphia November 
2, 1833. Graduated from Harvard in 1854, he 
numbered among his classmates Charles Russell 
Lowell, General John W. Ames, Bishop W. S. 
Perry, Professor Truman H. Safford, and many 
other distinguished men. A period of European 
travel followed, and then he returned to take 
up the study of law in his native city. He was 
admitted to the bar in 1859, and the next year 
opened an office for the practice of law. He 
was eager to enter the army, but was prevented 
by the deafness which was to cut him off in 
such large measure from human intercourse for 
the rest of his life, and to make possible that 
concentration upon scholarly pursuits to which 
he was to owe his fame. He was by no means 
wholly removed from the affairs of men, and 
took a leading part in the relief work of the 
army and in the organization of the sanitary 
commission, besides carrying on his law busi- 
ness for some years. He was married in 1860, 
and became the father of three children, all of 
whom have become distinguished. In his later 
years, he was the recipient of many honors, 
American and foreign, including the presidency 
of the German Shakespeare Society, and mem- 

bership in the American Academy of Arts and 
Letters. For the last half century, his life has 
been typically that of the scholar, tempered by 
sufficient outside interests to give it a pleasing 
variety ; and working quietly in his library, he 
has accomplished the monumental work to 
which he owes his fame. 

" I 've acted merely as a pair of scissors " was 
his own modest description of that work, of 
which he further spoke as " serving excellently 
to keep an old fellow out of mischief." The 
world has taken it more seriously than that, and 
America points to it with pride as one of her 
greatest contributions to culture. His love of 
Shakespeare dated from his childhood. " I was 
a boy in my teens," he said, " when I first heard 
Mrs. Kemble read Shakespeare, and from that 
moment I belonged to Shakespeare." As early 
as 1850, he made a special study of "Hamlet," 
collecting and collating for his own use the views 
of the earlier commentators, thus f oreshadowmg 
the plan which he was later to apply to the pro- 
duction of the great " Variorum " Shakespeare. 
The work gradually took shape in his mind, but 
he spent a score of years in study and the collec- 
tion of materials before he was ready to publish 
his first volume. That volume was the " Romeo- 
and Juliet " of 1871, foUowed by " Macbeth " 
in 1873, " Hamlet " in 1877, " King Lear " in 
1880, " Othello " in 1886, The Merchant of 
Venice " in 1888, "As You Like It " in 1890, 
"The Tempest" in 1892, "A Midsummer 
Night's Dream" in 1895, " The Winter's Tale '* 
' in 1898, " Much Ado about Nothing " in 1899, 
"Twelfth Night" in 1901, "Love's Labour's. 
Lost," in 1904, and " Anthony and Cleopatra ' r 
in 1907. The " Variorum " Shakespeare, as it 
now stands, consists of these fourteen plays, to- 
gether with the " Richard III." of 1908, edited 
by Mr. H. H. Furness, Jr. The son, for some 
years past trained to collaborate with the father, 
may be trusted to carry on the work upon the 
same plan and in the same spirit. Let us trust 
that a descendant in the third generation will be 
ready to complete it fifty years from now. The 
volumes which we already have are marvels of 
exhaustive scholarship and models of conserva- 
tive critical judgment. The task of reading all 
that has been written about even a single play 
of Shakespeare, of weighing it all and selecting 
what is worth preserving, and then presenting 
this sifted residuum in orderly arrangement, 
would seem to be a fair work for a lifetime. But 
Dr. Furness did this fourteen times over, and 
with an intelligence, an authority, and a nicety 
of judgment that are likely to be the despair of 




generations of scholars to come. It was a colos- 
sal achievement, and is not matched by many, 
either in this country or in any other. 

Dr. Felix Schelling, who knew him well, thus 
writes of him in "The Nation": 

" Horace Howard Furness was an old-fashioned 
scholar, and an old-fashioned man. He recalled at all 
times that leisure is an essential of sound scholarship, 
not leisure to dawdle, but leisure to do what is to be 
done wholly and completely no matter what the time 
involved, leisure to read, to know, to be infinitely more 
than the narrow specialist, digging one ditch in oblivion 
of the world about and the sky above. His was the 
old-fashioned courtesy that has time to remember trifles 
and to be kindly to unconsidered persons. ... I have 
never seen him angry save where some act of oppression 
or ungenerosity was in question and then his indignation 
knew no bounds. For the arrogance of petty scholar- 
ships he had an amused smile ; for even small, if genuine, 
accomplishment an ungrudging and instant recognition. 
His affections were always on the side of justice." 

This personal tribute fitly supplements the esti- 
mate of Dr. Furness's scholarship ; for those who 
were privileged to know him, or even to hear 
him upon the rare occasions when he was per- 
suaded to read in public from his beloved poet, 
got an impression of a personality which over- 
shadowed even his immense reputation for learn- 
ing the personality of a kindly, genial, and 
benignant spirit. 



SCHOLAR may do more to promote the study of 
"Hamlet" and "Othello" and all the rest of the 
imperishable thirty-seven plays (if that is the exact 
number) than will be accomplished by any amount 
of learning and critical acumen displayed in editorial 
prefaces and notes. But Dr. Horace Howard Fur- 
ness, whose recent death in his seventy-ninth year is 
cause for deep regret, had both erudition and charm. 
Those who were privileged to know him in life can 
never forget the cheer and inspiration of his pres- 
ence; those who have heard his public readings of 
his favorite poet will bear witness that they have 
carried thence a wonderfully quickened appreciation 
of Shakespeare's genius; and those who have read 
his commentaries (or any random passages of them) 
on the fourteen plays that came from his editorial 
hand in the great Variorum Edition now left in 
charge of the son, cannot have failed to find a new 
and perhaps unexpected delight in those bugbears 
of the impatient, introductions and footnotes. Un- 
fortunately, the price of the Variorum volumes is 
such as to have rendered their popular purchase 
impossible, and not even all public libraries possess 
them; and where the library does own them they 
are not seldom withheld from free circulation. Con- 
sequently many readers who would have enjoyed 

them have not yet had a taste of their fine quality. 
This may be a fitting occasion for giving a specimen 
of Dr. Furness's art as Shakespeare-interpreter 
chosen from the last volume that bore his name as 
editor, the "Antony and Cleopatra." Commenting 
upon the excessive ingenuity of some Shakespeare 
scholars, he exclaims, "Much learning has made us 
mad! " and then continues: "Even with more rea- 
son than in Caesar's character, is it necessary that 
we should accept Cleopatra, at Shakespeare's hands, 
with minds unbiased by history. We should know 
no more of her than we hear on the stage. Of her 
past, of her salad days, we should know nothing but 
what we are told. The first words that she and An- 
thony utter tell of boundless, illimitable love, and 
this love is maintained to the last throb of life in 
each of them. . . . Even in the scene with Caesar's 
ambassador, Thidias, who comes to Cleopatra with 
overtures of peace and favour on condition that she 
will give up Anthony, we knowing ones, crammed 
with history as pigeons are with peas, tip each other 
the wink and lay our fingers on our shrewd noses at 
Cleopatra's evident treachery when she sends word 
that she kisses Caesar's conquering hand, and kneels, 
with her crown, at his feet. But those who read the 
Queen only by the light thrown by Shakespeare, see 
clearly enough that at this lowest ebb of Anthony's 
fortunes this was the only course she could prudently 
take ; to gain time for him she must temporise with 
Caesar." Has it ever before been Shakespeare's lot 
to fall into the hands of so richly appreciative an edi- 
tor, an editor so gifted with insight and humor and 
interpretative skill? 

ARTISTIC DETACHMENT, or sufficient severance 
of self from the product of one's pen (or brush, or 
chisel, as the case may be) to enable one to attain 
the impersonal standpoint and to view with equal 
calm both praise and censure of one's work, can 
only come with entire and unselfish devotion to art. 
In literary squabbles, of which the history of litera- 
ture is full, are to be found many striking examples 
of the inartistic attitude, the grievous lack of artistic 
detachment. When Poggio Fiorentino and Georgios 
Trapezuntios fell out (as we read of their doing in 
Symonds's "Renaissance in Italy") over Poggio's 
translations from Diodorus and Xenophon, the two 
mighty scholars allowed their personal feelings to 
get terribly tangled up with what was at first a purely 
literary question. The Florentine seems first to 
have lost his temper. "You lie in your throat! " he 
shrieked in an apoplexy of passion, whereupon the 
Greek boxed his ears; then Poggio caught Georgios 
by the hair, and the two learned professors fell to 
pommelling each other until they were separated by 
their respective pupils. In what delightful contrast 
to this stands, for example, Mr. A. C. Benson's 
urbane attitude toward certain outrageously harsh 
critics of his " Beside Still Waters " ! It is in a later 
book ("At Large") that he ventures to offer a few 
remarks in reply. His unfailing good humor, even 
when he indulges in a little gentle sarcasm, is admir- 



[Sept. 1, 

able. The passage is no longer brand- new, but is still 
worth quoting, even at some length. "The book was 
carefully enough written," says Mr. Benson, " and I 
have been a good deal surprised to find that it has met 
with considerable disapproval, and even derision, on 
the part of many reviewers. It has been called mor- 
bid and indolent, and decadent, and half-a-hundred 
more ugly adjectives. Now I do not for an instant 
question the right of a single one of these conscien- 
tious persons to form whatever opinion they like 
about my book, and to express it in any terms they 
like. ... I do not dispute the possibility of their 
being perfectly right. An artist who exhibits his 
paintings, or a writer who publishes his books, chal- 
lenges the criticism of the public; and I am quite 
sure that the reviewers who frankly dislike my book, 
and said so plainly, thought they were doing their 
duty to the public, and warning them against teach- 
ing which they believed to be insidious and even 
immoral. I honour them for doing this, and I ap- 
plaud them, especially if they did violence to their 
own feelings of courtesy and urbanity in doing so." 
And after another half-page in similar vein, he con- 
cludes: "I have no intention of trying to refute or 
convince my critics, and I beg them with all my 
heart to say what they think about my books, be- 
cause only by the frank interchange of ideas can we 
arrive at the truth." On paper, this sort of thing 
may look easy enough; but when it is one's own 
skin that is pricked the situation assumes a different 
complexion and one is more inclined to play the part 
of a Poggio than of a dispassionate lover of truth. 


MEREDITH AND HIS MUSE, or, better, Meredith's 
attitude toward his muse, will engage the interest of 
those readers of his letters (now appearing, in selec- 
tions, in " Scribner's Magazine ") who care for some- 
thing besides mere personalities in literature of this 
sort. His first love, poetry, was for obvious reasons 
often forced to give place to prose. In a letter of 
1861 to the Rev. Augustus Jessopp he says : " As 
to my love for the Muse, I really think that is ear- 
nest enough. I have all my life done battle in her 
behalf, and should, at one time, have felt no blessing 
to be equal to the liberty to serve her. Praise sings 
strangely in my ears. I have been virtually propelled 
into a practical turn, by the lack of encouragement 
for any other save practical work." And a few years 
later to the same confidant: "As to the Poems: I 
don't think the age prosaic for not buying them. A 
man who hopes to be popular, must think from the 
mass, and as the heart of the mass. If he follows 
out vagaries of his own brain, he cannot hope for 
general esteem ; and he does smaller work." Fur- 
ther on in the same letter : " Between realism and 
idealism there is no natural conflict. This completes 
that. Realism is the basis of good composition : it 
implies study, observation, artistic power, and (in 
those who can do more) humility. Little writers 
should be realistic. They would then at least do solid 
work. They afflict the world because they will at- 
tempt what it is given to none but noble workmen 

to achieve. A great genius must necessarily employ 
ideal means, for a vast conception cannot be placed 
bodily before the eye, and remains to be suggested. 
Idealism is an atmosphere whose effects of grandeur 
are wrought out through a series of illusions, that are 
illusions to the sense within us only when divorced 
from the groundwork of the real. Need there be 
exclusion, the one of the other ? The artist is incom- 
plete who does this. Men to whom I bow my head 
(Shakespeare, Goethe; and in their way, Moliere, 
Cervantes) are Realists au fond. But they have the 
broad arms of Idealism at command. They give us 
earth, but it is earth with an atmosphere. One may 
find as much amusement in a Kaleidoscope as in a 
merely idealistic writer ; and, just as sound prose is 
of more worth than pretentious poetry, I hold the 
man who gives a plain wall of fact higher 'in esteem 
than one who is constantly shuffling the clouds and 
dealing with airy, delicate sentimentalities, headless 
and tailless imaginings, despising our good, plain 
strength." ... 

.HISTORY OF ART will be held this autumn some 
time in October, one infers from published announce- 
ments in the halls of the Royal Accademia de' 
Lincei in the Palazzo Corsini, Rome. It is expected 
that the papers to be read will interest not only art- 
ists and students of art history, but also those who 
concern themselves with the spread of art instruc- 
tion in universities and schools generally. Papers 
and discussions will be grouped under four heads: 
1. The history of early Christian and mediaeval 
art to the end of the fourteenth century. 2. The 
fifteenth century. 3. The history of art from the 
sixteenth century to the present time. 4. Historico- 
artistic methodology; care of works of art; historical 
researches in technical methods; general organiza- 
tion of the work of the congresses. In languages 
allowed, it will be a penteglot conference, Italian, 
French, German, English, and Spanish being the 
permitted tongues. Of especial interest to librarians, 
and to others who give their attention to the litera- 
ture of art, will be four expositions to be held in 
connection with the Congress, of photographic 
reproductions in one or more colors for the illustra- 
tion of works on art history; of Italian periodicals, 
whether in course of publication or not, on the his- 
tory of art; of publications not on the market, such 
as catalogues of private collections and sale cata- 
logues; and, finally, of kinds of paper adapted for 
use in histories of art, such as insure, that is, dura- 
bility and neatness of photographic reproductions. 
Reductions in railway fares and free entrance to all 
government and municipal museums and galleries 
for the whole month of October are promised to 
members of the Congress, subscription to which is 
twenty-five francs, or, to ladies accompanying a mem- 
ber, ten francs. Communications from those desiring 
to read papers, and from other would-be attendants, 
are invited by the executive committee, whose secre- 
tary is Signor Roberto Papini, Via Fabio Massimo 
60, Rome. 



see more works attributed (in the footnotes of every 
third book we take up) than are now ascribed to 
Bacon by even the most zealous Baconian, has caused 
one of our correspondents so much bewilderment and 
such fruitless searching of biographical dictionaries 
and histories of literature that she appeals through 
us for any information concerning him that any of 
our readers may be able to furnish. She says in her 
letter : " Some one told me one day, with a quizzical 
look which I could not understand, that Ibid was a 
half-brother to the Vide sisters Vide Supra and 
Vide Infra; but that didn't help me much, since 
these same Misses Vide have caused me hardly less 
perplexity than has Ibid himself. Another informant 
assured me that ' Ibid ' was not a real name, but the 
pseudonym of Op Cit, who was a Chinese (or was 
it Siamese?) sage of the fortieth century B.C., and 
great-grandfather of the almost equally famous Loc 
Cit. But why don't the reference books tell us some- 
thing about him? Can you tell me whether there 
is any uniform and not too expensive edition of his 
works, and if so by whom it is published ? " Pending 
more definite information, our correspondent will 
perhaps be glad to learn that she has companions in 
her perplexity. Not long ago a Columbia student 
approached Miss Mendenhall, of the New York 
Public Library, with just the same wrinkle in his 
forehead that ruffles our fair correspondent's brow. 
Miss Mendenhall relates the incident in " New York 
Libraries." She says : " The other day a student 
from Columbia came into the library for help on a 
list of references in history which he was to read 
before writing a thesis [for a doctor's degree ?]. He 
said, ' I have found most of the books in the Colum- 
bia library, but there is one author I can't find any- 
where, and I have spent a good deal of time looking. 
He has a strange name and I have never heard of 
him as a historian, but he has written a good many 
of the books on my list ; his name is " Ibid." ' 
Strange that there should be such a conspiracy of 
silence concerning this able and eminent author. 

AN ENVIABLE READER, a reader with vision so 
quick, with retina of the eye so receptive, as to be 
able to take in a whole page at a glance, and with 
a memory capable of holding and repeating all that 
is read, is made the subject of an article in the 
"Journal of the American Medical Association" by 
Dr. George M. Gould, whose writings on eye-strain, 
as well as on Lafcadio Hearn and other topics, have 
made him well known in the book-world. The reader 
he now describes is certainly of the sort to which 
most of us would like to belong in this age of more 
books, more really good books, than one can find 
time to do more than glance at. But that glance 
would suffice if one were like Dr. Gould's "Mr. C.," 
who is said to be able to read several books at a 
sitting and to repeat without error all that he has 
read. Fond of poetry and novels, what a banquet 
of books he must have as he sits before his cheerful 
fire or steam radiator of a winter's evening! 

As to Mr. C.'s peculiar eye-structure, it appears that 
some time in middle life he suffered a destruction 
of the central or " macular " portion of the retina of 
the right eye from inflammation due to eye-strain. 
The "fixing" part, that is, of the retina was obliter- 
ated, and a round blind space was left. The other 
eye remained unaffected, and the patient continued 
to enjoy something like normal vision, until "by 
long, unconscious and forced exercise, the healthy 
zone of the right retina surrounding the macular 
was educated to such a degree that it could, when 
unmoved, receive and transmit to the brain the im- 
age of the entire page, except that part falling upon 
the central portion, which had been destroyed," but 
which, of course, was helped out by the undiseased 
left eye. Here, then, is indicated a means whereby 
anyone might, perhaps, become a reader of more 
than Macaulayesque rapidity if he chooses to sub- 
mit to a little doctoring" of one eye and to educate 
that eye in the proper manner afterward. 

EQUIPMENT FOR LIFE'S JOURNEY" may to the "prac- 
tical " man sound too absurd even to laugh at. And 
yet so strenuously active and wide-awake and un- 
visionary a person as Mr. James O. Fagan, railroad 
man, telegraph operator, traveller in two hemi- 
spheres, and "self-made" (as the saying goes) from 
boyhood, deliberately acknowledges his supreme in- 
debtedness to classical study as the groundwork of 
his training for the work he was to find to do in the 
world. In the August instalment of his " Auto- 
biography of an Individualist" in "The Atlantic 
Monthly," dwelling on that part of his storm-and- 
stress period that was passed at East Deerfield, 
Massachusetts, he says : " In presenting an argument, 
stating a case, or pleading a cause, other things being 
equal, I always attributed my intellectual advantage 
to the fact that in my youth I had received a thorough 
drilling in Latin and Greek, while my companions 
as a rule, in my line of life, had not. As a simple 
practical equipment for life's journey, what may be 
called my classical foundation seems to me now to 
be worth all the other features of my school educa- 
tion put together." Readers of Mr. Fagan 's variously 
interesting and color-abounding chapters may thank 
fortune that his boyhood antedated the vocational 
school and the era of industrial training. 

A PROBLEM IN TRANSLATION that in all likelihood 
will never be satisfactorily solved has been attacked 
afresh by an English aspirant to honors in the field 
of Bible literature. Sir Edward Clarke, an eminent 
barrister whose serious hours have been spent "in 
endeavouring to put logical thought into clear, forci- 
ble, and harmonious language," regards this training 
as one qualifying him to render with precision and 
grace the Epistles of St. Paul. Retaining, as he has 
tried to, the virtues of both the Authorized Version 
of 1611 and the Revised Version of 1881, and avoid- 
ing their vices, he has produced a hybrid that can 
hardly fail to displease both those who cling fondly 



[Sept. 1, 

to the familiar King James phraseology and those 
few who ask for a thoroughly modern style in their 
English Bible. Meanwhile the whole question at 
issue is well discussed by Mr. Ernest E. Kellett, a 
schoolmaster and a student of literature, in a " Lon- 
don Quarterly Review" article entitled "The Trans- 
lation of the New Testament," which scores a good 
point in calling attention to the substantial inaccuracy 
that often accompanies a slavishly literal rendering 
of a work in an alien tongue, and that does in many 
instances mar both the Authorized Version of our 
Bible and all versions that, like the Revised, are 
based upon it. Another point of Mr. Kellett's is 
that the archaic style of both these versions, while 
generally appropriate to the Old Testament, is not 
the manner suited to the New, which is written in a 
dialect of Greek that was the vernacular of the time 
and place of writing as, it is claimed, certain re- 
cently discovered Egyptian papyri have proved. 
Yet, after all is said, it will be long before the ear 
will receive willingly any conspicuously modern idi- 
oms in the Gospels, or, indeed, elsewhere in the Bible. 
A modernized version of Shakespeare would not 
elicit more vehement protest. 


is what ours is declared to be by the diverting and 
fertile author of "Tremendous Trifles," "The Man 
Who was Thursday," "All Things Considered," and 
sundry other books. In this epoch, to which our 
brilliant paradoxologist must, chronologically at least, 
be said to belong, the late Andrew Lang, he goes on 
to remark (in his Lang obituary in "The Illustrated 
London News "), labored under three disadvantages : 
he was universal, he was amusing, and he was lucid. 
As to universality, a quality less valued and under- 
stood now than in Queen Elizabeth's time, he pro- 
ceeds to say, in true Chestertonian vein : "It would 
be useless, I suppose, to tell the modern critics that 
a man cannot really be interested in Homer without 
being a little interested in Chinese teapots. It would 
be called paradoxical to say that every man who 
really thinks about the Stuarts must sometimes think 
about Spiritualism. . . . Folklore and fishing are 
really very near each other, both in the deeper mys- 
teries of nature and the superficial developments of 
lying." What a quantity of hitherto unsuspected 
resemblances and differences we should have gone to 
our graves without knowing anything about, had not 
Mr. Chesterton been sent in the nick of time to point 
them out! After reading him, who is there but must 
feel, with Stevenson, that in a world so full of a 
number of things we all of us ought to be happy as 
kings? . . . 


last been provided through the generosity of Mrs. 
George D. Widener of Philadelphia, mother of the 
late Henry E. Widener who with his father went 
down in the sinking of the Titanic last April, and 
whose bequest of his valuable library to the univer- 
sity from which he was graduated five years ago is 

already well known. One of the conditions of that 
bequest, it will be recalled, was that proper housing 
and care of the bequeathed library should not be 
lacking ; and this condition is now fulfilled by the 
testator's mother, who will make the long-needed 
building a worthy memorial to her son by expending 
two million dollars, if necessary, in its erection. 
Already the architects and the university authorities 
have consulted together over the location and general 
plan of the new building, and a site has been fixed 
upon extending from the present library southward. 
Mr. Horace Trumbauer, architect to the Widener 
family, is said to have been commissioned to draw 
the plans. And thus Harvard's most urgent need 
in fact, the most urgent need one could point to in 
the whole library world after years of weary wait- 
ing is to be adequately, even magnificently, met. 


announced by recent despatches from Constance; 
and so from this Babel of multitudinous tongues is 
removed the enthusiastic linguist who, a third of a 
century ago, conceived in one sleepless night the 
general outlines of what he hoped would prove a uni- 
versal medium of communication, binding all nations 
in a linguistic brotherhood. And, indeed, Volapiik 
did make rather astonishing headway at first, its 
grammar being translated into thirty-five languages, 
and its literary use extending into the magazine field 
until twenty-five periodicals could be pointed to as 
printed in this wonderful Weltsprache. ButSchleyer 
was not allowed to enjoy a monopoly in this tempting 
domain of world-language-making, and to-day the 
most vigorous rival of Volaptik, Esperanto, seems to 
have far outdistanced its senior competitor, and 
indeed all its competitors. Schleyer was a German 
of the Germans, an ardent philologist, the master of 
an incredible number of languages, and the trans- 
lator of his own grammar into most if not all of the 
thirty-five in which it was printed. That all his work 
should have turned out to be as the digging of holes 
in the sand on the seashore, is little short of pathetic. 


(Special Correspondence of THE DIAL.) 

London, August 14, 1912. 

Since I first began to write for a living (it is 
more years ago now than I care to set down in 
print), a good many changes have overtaken the 
London journalist. Time was, in the early nineties, 
when the editor of a big daily made something of a 
figure in the land. He was the Editor: that was 
enoug'*. When the brilliant amateur (myself for 
example) had an idea for a series of bright and 
epoch-making articles, it was into the Editor's more 
or less receptive ear that he poured his tale. True, 
that gentleman was not always very accessible: 
even now, with his glory so sadly shorn, he occa- 
sionally thinks it good for the aspirant's health to 




keep him waiting half an hour or more in an outer 
room before admitting him into the majesty of the 
Presence ; but at all events, in those days, he was in 
command. He could do things on his own respon- 

I forget who it was who made the astounding 
discovery that the important man on a daily paper 
was not the editor but the business manager. Pos- 
sibly the business manager discovered it himself; 
no doubt he had long suspected it, and doubt be- 
came certainty when he beheld the remarkable 
influence wielded by the late Mr. Moberley Bell, 
then manager of "The Times." For many years 
that remarkable man controlled the destinies of 
what we used to consider the first newspaper in the 
world ; and seeing the success with which he con- 
ducted its affairs it was not surprising that several 
owners of other journals began to dream of the 
simple economy of discharging their editor and 
appointing in his place the gentleman who looked 
after the advertisements. The natural result was a 
certain decentralization, a delegation of power to 
subordinates. The Sports Editor, the Literary 
Editor, the Art Editor, the Society Editor, all 
assumed an importance that they had not possessed 
before. With their rise the glory of the Editor- 
in-Chief has somewhat faded. 

And then, too, there were the leader-writers, 
now a decaying race. Time was when the young 
man, fresh from the university, looked toward 
journalism as a possible profession, or at the worst 
as a support while he was making his way to fame 
and fortune with the novels and poems that he 
wrote to please himself and posterity. The position 
of leader-writer on a big morning paper was one of 
the prizes of the profession ; grave and reverend 
elders were pointed out to him as having attained 
to this Olympian height, drawing handsome salaries 
for the privilege of instructing some thousands of 
breakfast-tables three mornings in the week. The 
good journalist then was the man who could be 
trusted to write on any given subject with an air of 
omniscience, an occasional touch of scholarship, and 
a graceful turn of wit, all in three paragraphs of 
approximately equal length. 

The leading article was heavy, and heaviness is 
now the unforgivable sin. Compulsory education 
and the cheap press have produced between them a 
class of reader who is incapable of assimilating a 
paragraph containing more than a single sentence. 
The old style of leader still drags on a precarious 
existence in one or two papers like "The Times" 
or "The Morning Post"; the other papers have pro- 
duced a different and much shorter substitute, under 
a head-line that catches the eye of the most careless 
reader. For the morning journalist has had to find 
a form that would appeal not only to the leisurely 
citizen who can afford to give an hour to his paper 
after breakfast, but to the far more common case of 
the man of business who wants to learn as much as 
possible in the twenty minutes journey underground 
to his city office. And before this gentleman ap- 

pears upon the scene, there is the crowd of working- 
men who board the early trains, the throng of clerks 
and office-boys and shop-girls who have a halfpenny 
to spare for amusement and information. All of 
these want something that they can understand, and 
at a glance. The direct and simple appeal to them ; 
they are not yet capable of appreciating a closely 
reasoned argument. 

And one consequence of this is, that modern jour- 
nalism no longer affords a field for the accomplished 
writer. It is a commonplace that the man with uni- 
versity training is at a discount on the daily press of 
to-day. Literature is not wanted, but a well-known 
name at the head of a few disjointed notes is worth 
money. And this is how the Expert came into his 
own. Your well-equipped journal now must have 
its staff of Experts, qualified by actual experience to 
criticize the daily performances of golfers, cricketers, 
football-players, and other gentlemen who are in the 
public eye at the moment. Obviously it is far more 
interesting to the general public to know that the ac- 
count of the Test Match against Australia or South 
Africa is from the pen of some brilliant professional 
or amateur who has himself taken part in similar 
contests than to read some anonymous description, 
even by a master of the reporting art. But some of 
the players who have been dragged into the service 
of the cheap press for this purpose find considerable 
difficulty in stringing together the few simple sen- 
tences that are required. It is not unamusing to note 
the air of relief with which they employ, now and 
again, some outworn journalistic tag that has stuck 
in their memory. 

As to the golf expert, his name is legion. Mr. 
H. H. Hilton, winner of championships at home and 
abroad, must be one of the busiest journalists alive, 
if we are to judge by the number of articles bearing 
his name that appear day by day in various papers. 
Yet it may be said for some of these golfing writers, 
at least, that they do not disgrace their new profes- 
sion. Some of them can handle the pen as well as 
the putter, or nearly. Indeed, Mr. Horace Hutch- 
inson, the first of the tribe to adopt the journalistic 
habit, has written novels of some merit. He is a 
writer who happens also to be a prominent player 
of the game ; it is probable that in any case he would 
have produced books on something. But the editing 
of the Badminton book on golf was placed in his 
hands, and from that day his career was made. Golf 
had become an obsession ; golfers all over the coun- 
try demanded reams of gossip about their favorite 
pursuit; to many, the name of Horace Hutchinson 
stood for more in the world of letters than that of 
George Meredith or of Thomas Hardy. 

It must be confessed that the lot of the golf ex- 
pert is not an easy one. However well a man may 
know the game, however often he may visit new 
courses and play with local cracks, there must come 
a time when the task of turning out a column a week 
in two or three different papers begins to pall. He 
must long for a change of subject. Yet many of 
these gallant fellows carry on their business week 



[Sept. 1, 

by week without a break for years. It is a making 
of bricks without straw, or, let us say, of soup 
without stock. For their business is not the mere 
reporting of games, but the collecting of gossip; 
they have to start the golfing world talking on some 
new topic ; it is theirs to provide conversation for 
the club-houses of the kingdom. We need not be 
surprised that they occasionally take up curious 
theories. In a sort of despair, as the fateful day 
comes round, they will clutch eagerly at anything 
to fill out a paragraph. 

From the realms of sport, the Expert gradually 
made his way into other journalistic fields. About 
the beginning of this century, when the South 
African war was on, the craze for military experts 
on all the papers became ridiculous. Every little 
periodical must needs have its War Editor; never 
before in the history of the world had there been 
so great a demand for military writers. Naturally, 
most of the officers in the regular army being away 
on service or on duty at home, the demand consid- 
erably outran the supply, and the strangest specimens 
were employed as military experts, men who had 
been in the ranks, or had held a commission in the 
volunteers, or perhaps had joined the college cadet 
corps when they were at school. The few real sol- 
diers who were about could almost command their 
own price. Those were great days for the man who 
had once been through a course of drill. 

I suppose it is much the same in all professions 
and in all countries. The general practitioner must 
give way to the specialist, and the man who intends 
to succeed in modern journalism does well to select 
some subject as early as possible and make it his 
own. Let him travel to Asia Minor or to the islands 
of the Pacific, to Siberia or the Argentine (for it is 
useful to have that touch of authority that comes 
alone from personal experience), choose his district, 
and set to work to become the recognized oracle on 
his little portion of the earth's surface. Or again, let 
him specialize on some such subject of general inter- 
est as airships or volcanic eruptions. He has but to 
read some standard work, to subscribe to a press- 
cutting agency, and to file his information neatly : in 
due course he will find his opportunity of enlighten- 
ing the world. Some day he may even write a book 
on his pet subject, and put up his prices accordingly. 
Most of the golf experts have done so already. 

That the trained writer should specialize, is well 
enough; but I have some little grudge against the 
journalist who cannot string together a couple of 
sentences without some blunder in the elements of 
construction. Modern journalism, I think, employs 
too many men who have nothing to recommend 
them but a certain proficiency at other pursuits. And 
these find their way not only into the daily press, 
but into monthly periodicals; they even invade the 
domain of printed books. A cricketer takes out a 
team to Australia or the Cape, and on his return 
must needs publish a fat volume to celebrate the 
occurrence. There is enough bad writing in the 
world already, from various causes ; book-buyers are 

a steadily diminishing class; they should be pro- 
tected from the assault of the incompetent amateur. 
Or perhaps it would serve if the Expert were taught 
the main principles of syntax. He has, in general, 
something to say, if he could say it without harrow- 
ing the soul of the grammarian. I am inclined to 
think, sometimes, that a standard should be set 
for all who aspire to see themselves in print; there 
should be examinations held annually at local cen- 
tres, and no journalist or author should be permitted 
to practise without a diploma. The dentist, in this 
country, must have his license: the writer may set the 
teeth of the whole nation on edge without hindrance. 


(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

Permit me to offer a few remarks on the subject of 
pensions for superannuated librarians, as discussed in 
your " Casual Comment " of August 16. 

Neither legislative enactments nor the philanthropy 
of the millionaires offers even a flicker of expectation 
to librarians in need of pensions. In ihe case of legis- 
lation, the Public will see no reason why librarians, 
before other public servants, should be pensioned out 
of public funds. It would be very difficult to prove 
that librarians occupy a position that renders them 
sufficiently distinctive, whether qua invalids from stress 
and strain or in the role of martyrs to a system of 
insufficient remuneration, to deserve a benefit not gen- 
erally enjoyed by other educational workers. As for 
the philanthropy of the millionaires, let me say that 
while we librarians choose to be servants servants to 
our great cause, servants to the Public, servants even 
to the individuals amongst the Public we also hope to 
prove ourselves free men and women; and to such the 
acceptance of personal charity is quite as painful as is 
the deprivation of opportunities for a full enjoyment of 
legitimate earnings. 

Most of us are plain persons with scant claims for 
distinction of any kind. Few among us possess a 
degree of scholarship equal to that of the average 
member of the learned or literary republic. But what- 
ever we are, is it not evident that we choose our 
vocation, and like it, and submit to the conditions that 
surround it ? Every calling has its own joys and sor- 
rows. We do not expect to have the former sharpened, 
or to have the latter blunted, through the spasmodic 
leniency of a moneyed power. I sincerely believe that 
the greater number of us will not await the maturation 
of a pecuniary endowment before undertaking some 
useful but unremunerative work. I likewise hope we 
shall not be found lingering at the door of men who 
are responsible for the very social conditions through 
which our wages, otherwise a fair recompense, are ren- 
dered insufficient for our decent wants. 

The problem of pensions for librarians had best be 
solved in the natural manner of cooperation. So much 
is known on the subject of old-age pensions and in- 
surance against invalidism, that a single and efficient 
system could easily be found. Libraries as institutions, 
and librarians as individuals, could by their own efforts 




build up a pensioning agency which would accoinodate 
us all in a business way, on the evil day when we are 
graciously classed with " worn-out tools " a term that 
we may properly recognize by reminding its users of 
the fact that our toleration, through long exercise, has 
grown quite unlimited. The details of such a pension- 
ing system do not pertain here ; only let me say that 
they include a fund preferably formed by initiation fees, 
an institutional membership contributing in proportion 
to number of employees, a personal membership con- 
tributing in proportion to salary. Some compulsory 
features might attach to these memberships, and the 
business organization of the system might be vested 
with our very efficient national Library Association. 

In some such way we might obtain what is admitted 
to be a dire necessity as long as the rule of millionaires 
prevails and our insane social conditions prevent us from 
personally providing for a care-free old age. It remains 
to be seen whether the necessity is strong enough to 
impel action. I freely admit that some of us are tired 
of awaiting remote possibilities, and are ready to apply 
business principles where tears and hopes hitherto have 
been idly wasted. j Q g 

August 17, 1912. 


(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

The curious beginning of the Chicago Public Library, 
which, according to an interesting note in THE DIAL of 
July 16, was once housed in an abandoned water-tank, 
is matched by the Library of the Louisiana State Uni- 
versity, which had its first quarters in an old powder- 
magazine. The State University occupies the buildings 
and grounds of the old army post at Baton Rouge, 
which was abandoned as a result of the electoral contro- 
versy of 1876-1877. The following extract from Fay's 
" History of Education in Louisiana" gives a description 
of the library as it was from 1886 to 1903. 

" Far off to the northeastern corner of the garrison inclos- 
ure is a long, low building, entirely without windows, save 
for two small grated apertures at each of the narrow ends, 
while for entrance a heavy iron door is swung in the center 
of the southern front, a place more like a prison-house than 
a scholar's quiet domicile among books. Few have ever seen 
such a building ; and as you enter for the first time it fairly 
oppresses you to observe that you pass through a doorway 
whose walls are five or six feet thick. Within, the room 
represents an equally strange sight. Along the walls book- 
shelves extend around the whole parallelogram, save for the 
trifling space of the small windows. The ceiling is so low 
that you can almost touch it at the bookcases, but it rises in 
low heavy arches, only to sink again archwise on massive 
square pillars in the center of the room. Thus are formed two 
long corridors with low arches that fall into a succession of 
vaults down the passage. The central pillars are girt around 
with square bookshelves, all with their burden of volumes. 
" The building was the old powder-magazine of the bar- 
racks when soldiers, and not scholars, were stationed there. 
You would think it dark ; but the whiteness of the ceiling 
counteracts in some measure the deficiency of appertures for 
light, and on fair days, at least, one reads without difficulty 
until after sunset. So thick are the walls that it is cool there 
on hot summer days, and never very cold on the rawest days 
the Southern winter affords." 

Since the books have been removed to a more modern 
structure, the old powder magazine has been used as 
a storage place for agricultural implements, farm pro- 
duce, and Experiment Station publications. 


Baton Bouge, La., August 22, 1912. 

tfa $00ks. 


From the all-alive and handsomely presented 
record of Nietzsche's first thirty-two years, as 
given by his sister Frau Forster- Nietzsche, many 
will gain a new impression of a figure which 
popular imagination has vested with a somewhat 
sinister cloud. Everyone must be grateful for 
this proud and lofty nature, that " never fell 
into the clutches of a great passion or of a vul- 
gar love," that gave the impression, at the time 
of its fullest maturity, of " a being who had 
come direct from God's hands, and was not yet 
soiled by the dust of the world." 

Elizabeth Nietzsche, well known as the most 
consistent advocate and furtherer of her 
brother's mission, is at her very best in this 
intimate story of the life she knew so well ; she 
unites a sweetness and vivacity of temper to 
frank reasonableness, and if she idealizes at 
times in showing too ample a belief in the 
plenary sufficiency of Friedrich's message, it 
must also be noted that she nowhere intrudes 
her own personality into the well-proportioned 
portrait of the philosopher. 

In all that touches birth and breeding, 
Nietzsche was a Brahmin of the Brahmins : 
his family record showed a long line of gifted, 
high-minded, cultured ancestors, loyal and con- 
servative; his earliest years were spent in an 
"ideal parsonage'' at Eocken. The humbly- 
proud traditions of a family which " found its 
pleasure in its own resources," which held its 
stock "too good to lie," were fully sustained, 
in all their unpretentious aloofness from vul- 
garity, in the home of the widowed mother, 
who never spoiled her son by a blind maternal 
love. There were no peremptory commands laid 
upon the boy, whose innate purity, nobility, 
and profundity kept him from cheapening the 
family ideals. The household was completely 
dominated by a religious spirit, and at the close 
of his career Nietzsche could say, "The most 
earnest Christians have always been kindly 
disposed to me." It was the boy's intention to 
become, like his ancestors, a Protestant pastor. 

His childhood was indeed enviable, rich in 
affection, responsiveness, variety. A certain 
melancholy and love of solitude was funda- 
mental to his nature, and a serious-mindedness 
in his studies which did not lead to priggishness. 

THE LIFE OF NIETZSCHE. By Frau Fb'rster-Nietzsche. 
Translated by Anthony M. Ludovici. Illustrated. Volume I., 
The Young Nietzsche. New York : Sturgis & Walton Co. 



[Sept. 1, 

Nowhere is there the record of more beauti- 
ful human relations than the perfect companion- 
ship always existing between Friedrich and his 
sprightly and gifted sister, two years younger 
than himself, a partnership in plans, thoughts, 
and interests, passing the comradery between 
Goethe and Cornelia, or of Tom and Maggie 
in "The Mill on the Floss." 

At the age of ten, Nietzsche was already a 
boy of extraordinary gifts, a composer of plays 
and of serious music ; at a very early period we 
find the works of Goethe being used by his wise 
guardian to give him a feeling for what is high- 
est in language and rhythm an element in 
Nietzsche's subsequent power which can hardly 
be overestimated. At fourteen comes a distinct 
change in his course of life, in his departure 
for Pforta, the Rugby of North Germany. The 
educational ideals of this manly institution may 
well excite the envy of those who have at heart 
the education of American boys. About the time 
that young Nietzsche entered, the Rector wrote : 

"Every Pforta boy leaves the institution with the 
definite stamp of a certain sound efficiency which lasts 
him throughout life. . . . Its pupils become complete 
men; they are taught to obey the command and the will 
of their superiors, and are used to the severe and punc- 
tual fulfilment of duty, to self-control, to earnest work, 
to original personal initiative, as a result of individual 
choice in their work and their love of it. They are ac- 
customed to thoroughness and method in their studies, 
to rules in the division of the time at their disposal, and 
to a certain self-confident tact and fairness in intercourse 
with their equals." 

It need scarcely be added, in the words of Nietz- 
sche's sister, that "Pforta was not a school for 
softness, and under no circumstances flattered 
its gifted scholars." As in the English colleges, 
a wide independent reading of the classics was 
considered "the thing " by the pupils themselves. 
Many years after leaving the place, Nietzsche 
wrote of it: 

" The most desirable thing of all is to have severe 
discipline at the age when it makes us proud that peo- 
ple should expect great things of us. ... The same 
discipline makes the soldier and the scholar efficient; 
and, looked at more closely, there is no true scholar 
who has not the instincts of a true soldier in his veins." 

With what avidity the boy craved after uni- 
versality is plain from the interests of which he 
writes : nature, art, languages, classical antiq- 
uity, natural sciences, and religion appeal to 
him, for he was "a reverent animal." Before he 
was seventeen years old, he thus records his re- 
pugnance to attacking the foundations of current 
belief : 

"Oh! destruction is easy, but construction! and even 
destruction seems a lighter task than it really is. ... 
Force of habit, the need of striving after a lofty goal, 

the breach with every existing institution, the dissolution 
of every form of society, the suspicion of the possibility 
of having been misled for two thousand years by a mir- 
age, the sense of one's own arrogance and audacity 
all these considerations fight a determined battle within 
us, until at last painful experiences and sad occurrences 
lead our hearts back to the old beliefs of our childhood." 

A few years later he puts the tragic modern 
crisis before his sister : 

" Is it really so difficult simply to accept everything 
to which one has been brought up, everything which has 
gradually struck deep roots into one's being, which passes 
for truth not only amongst one's relatives but also iu the 
minds of many good men, and in addition to this, really 
comforts and elevates man? . . . It is here then that man 
comes to the cross-roads. Do you desire spiritual peace 
and happiness ? very well, then, believe ! Do you wish 
to be a disciple of truth? so be it ; investigate! " 

The most important elements which came into 
young Nietzsche's life at Pforta were his friend- 
ships for gifted and serious boys, and his pas- 
sion for Greek philology, for poetry and music ; 
he leaves the royal school in 1864, un jeune 
homme bien eleve. 

His first university year, eagerly pursued in 
Bonn, showed an interesting attempt to iden- 
tify himself with the typical student-life, and a 
resultant moral recoil from the coarseness and 
"beer-materialism" of the group. At the Uni- 
versity of Leipzig, which he entered in the fall 
of 1865, his rich temperament came into posses- 
sion of its own under the nourishing influence 
of congenial professors and students. Two of 
the notable forces which wrought here were the 
play-house and the writings of Schopenhauer, 
the prophet of sensibility and subjective emotion. 
During the intolerable months of service in the 
Horse Artillery, and while doing the hardest 
work of the stable, he writes : " Concealed be- 
neath the belly of my steed, I whisper, ' Schopen- 
hauer, help ! ' ' 

At twenty-four years of age the professorship 
of classical philology at Basel is thrust at him, 
so to speak, and the authorities at Leipzig award 
their brilliant pupil his Doctor's degree without 
thesis or oral examination, on lui donneralt 
le bon Dieu sans confession/ 

The productive and enthusiastic first years at 
Basel are adequately shown, with full indications 
as to Nietzsche's devoted activity. As a scholar 
he was intensely serious, but devoid of the slight- 
est vein of ponderousness ; he "detested every 
kind of pose." We have a vivid picture of his 
service as attendant upon a military ambulance 
during the French war, with a significant experi- 
ence which throws a flash-light upon his later 
development : 

"At last came the infantry, advancing at the double! 
The men's eyes were aflame, and their feet struck the 



hard road like mighty harnmer-strokes. ' Then,' said 
he, 'I felt for the first time, dear sister, that the strong- 
est and highest Will to Life does not find expression in 
a miserable struggle for existence, but in a Will to War, 
a Will to Power, a Will to Overpower!'" 

Until his health began to fail (about 1875), 
these were full and most happy years; it is 
pleasant to know that during the latter part of 
this professorship his devoted sister was able to 
provide him a thoroughly comfortable home, 
which was a hearth-side for the sprightly inner 
circle of friends, a group, by the way, which 
significantly enough got endless entertainment 
from Mark Twain: something which the body 
of professional "scholars" could not understand 
at all (Emerson, it might be added, had stood 
first on Nietzsche's reading-list at Pforta, and we 
find occasional mention of Longfellow). With- 
out fuller discussion of the details of his work, 
it should be noted that his science, classical 
philology, was to him "the serious aim of a life, 
pursued with ardor and devotion "; more partic- 
ularly was it his life-work to evolve the total 
ultimate significance of Hellenism for the race, 
when brought into vital relation to "the true and 
pressing problems of life"; he had an insuper- 
able hatred for all "philological" pedantry. His 
first book ("The Birth of Tragedy") bitterly 
opposed by many of the leaders of classical stu- 
dies, was an attempt to re-appreciate the entire 
Greek soul. Another of his most trenchant 
" Thoughts out of Season" "called down" Ger- 
man inflation at the close of the war. 

Through these happiest years of his life his 
crown of rejoicing was his friendship for Richard 
Wagner. The gradual breach is well accounted 
for, and makes some sad chapters : not to speak 
of the contemptible professional jealousies of 
Wagner (Nietzsche dared not accept a congenial 
invitation to travel with a son of Felix Mendels- 
sohn !), his demand was for a complete absorption 
of Nietzsche's personality. The great disillusion 
came during the rehearsals at Bayreuth in 1876 : 
he found the Ring des Nibelungen "simply 
exalted intoxication with no suggestion of ex- 
uberant Dionysian vitality"; he was thoroughly 
repelled by "the preponderance of ugliness, 
grotesqueness, and strong pepper." With this 
great disappointment the first volume closes. 

The whole document impresses us with its 
truth, freshness, and immediateness of effect. 
The "ruthless" Nietzsche appears always full 
of delicate consideration for those about him, 
always insistent in his demand for whole-hearted 
friendship ; most characteristic and ingratiating 
is his almost miraculous gift of piano-playing 
a deeper index of his soul, perhaps, than many 

printed books. It is true that we see him be- 
coming the prophet of the glorification of self- 
sufficiency, protesting against "smug routine 
and things allowed," impatient of any confu- 
sion of Immortals and groundlings. If we com- 
pare the bitter class-consciousness of socialistic 
labor-organs with the proud Will-to-Power of 
Nietzsche, we may be terrorized at the prospect 
of an Armageddon which is to try out these 
colliding principles. But it is not necessary to 
take Nietzsche's gospel too seriously; it is sus- 
piciously akin to his "intuition" of an untamed 
strain of noble Polish blood in his veins ; it may 
better be thought of as the fling indulged in by 
the highly-wrought scion of a long strain of 
blameless pastors and model citizens. As a mat- 
ter of fact, our ruddy drop of common humanity 
far outweighs all the surging sea of social dif- 
ferences and contentions. 

Nietzsche was, in a word, a sensitive impres- 
sionist from the womb: impressionist in his 
idealizing of friendships, even in his reaction 
under the stimulus of a German corps-fest! 
He took over from here and there much more 
than he created out of his own vitals; he is a 
sensitive recorder of fleeting moods, but none 
of these facts obscures the moving sadness of 
this man's place in modern thought : 

" between two worlds, one dead, 
The other powerless to be born." 

The translation is to be commended for its 
freshness and the movement of its style, though 
it now and then condescends to trivialities in 
diction, is somewhat uncertain in its English 
idiom, and often exhibits the British dislocation 
of the adverb "only." Those trite stumbling- 
blocks pathetisch and genial appear serenely as 
"pathetic" and "genial" wie gebrduchlich ; 
on page 209 Burckhardt's name is spelled 
wrongly; at the close of page 252 the unrecog- 
nized quotation from Goethe's Hqffnung is 
grotesquely mistranslated. 



A hundred years have passed since the Fort 
Dearborn garrison set forth upon the march 
which ended so disastrously among the sand- 
dunes below the river's mouth, and nearly eighty 
years since the rush of immigration to Chicago 
began which marks the birth of the modern 
city. From civilization's remotest outpost, far 
engulfed in the wilderness, Chicago has become, 

Seymour. Illustrated. Chicago : A. C. McClurg & Co. 



[Sept. 1, 

in that time, the industrial heart of the nation 
and the fifth metropolis of the world. Some 
there are still with us who recall vividly how 
in 1832 the inhabitants of the little settlement 
fled in terror to the sheltering walls of Fort 
Dearborn before the threatened attack of the 
Indian, and then fled forth again in even wilder 
alarm before the deadlier peril of the Asiatic 

Red man and cholera alike have vanished in 
a transformation as astonishing as any in all 
world's history. Probably no other event in 
the city's past so appeals to the imagination of 
the Chicagoan of the present as does the Fort 
Dearborn massacre. The force of this appeal is 
due to the fact that no other event so visualizes 
the gulf which lies between the conditions of the 
present and those of the past, so near in point 
of time, so remote in all other respects. 

To the many narratives of the massacre 
already in print has now been added another ; 
for approximately two-thirds of Mr. Seymour's 
"Story of Old Fort Dearborn" is devoted to 
the story of the massacre and of the conditions 
attendant upon it. It may be pertinent to con- 
sider, therefore, whether the progress which has 
been made in other ways since the occurrence 
of the tragedy is reflected in the accounts which 
have been written of it. Aside from brief con- 
temporary notices, the first of these to see the 
light was the narrative of Mrs. John H. Kinzie, 
which appeared anonymously in pamphlet form 
in 1844, and was incorporated a dozen years 
later in the author's more ambitious literary ven- 
ture, the book " Wau-Bun." For a variety of 
reasons this narrative soon acquired an unusual 
prestige. By the massacre, the Chicago of 1812 
had been blotted out ; the gulf between it and 
the bustling young city of the mid-century was 
bridged only by the representatives of the family 
into which the author had married. Socially 
prominent, her husband a charter member of 
the Chicago Historical Society, not backward 
about pressing the family claims to recognition, 
wielder of a captivating pen, claiming as no other 
could to speak upon the authority of participants 
in the massacre, there was none to rival her 
narrative. It was frequently paraphrased and 
quoted by other writers, and seems to have been 
regarded as containing all that could be known 
on the subject. 

For a generation after its first appearance its 
validity was not publicly challenged, although 
it is worthy of note that the indefatigable Lyman 
C. Draper procured for preservation in his col- 
lection the judgment of the wife of Captain 

Heald, who died in 1857, that Mrs. Kinzie's 
account was " exaggerated and incorrect in its 
relation of the Chicago massacre." At length, 
however, some dissent from the general chorus 
of approval of its validity was manifested. In 
his quaint " Chicago Antiquities," Hurlbut 
some thirty years ago wrote himself down as a 
heretic in the matter in question, and a dozen 
years later Kirkland's "Chicago Massacre " ex- 
pressed the conviction that Mrs. Kinzie's narra- 
tive " reads like a romance and was meant so to 
be read." Since then no other historian has 
entered the lists in support of these two, and the 
vogue of the "Wau-Bun " narrative still per- 
sists. No one who would understand the lit- 
erature of the Chicago massacre, including the 
present work, can ignore it, for it is the fountain- 
head from which practically all other accounts 
have proceeded ; while locally the public mind 
has become obsessed with it, as formerly on a 
national scale with the stories of the youthful 
Washington told by Mason Locke Weems. Yet 
from the serious historical viewpoint, the defects 
of the work are numerous and glaring. The 
perspective is distorted, the language extrava- 
gant, the antipathies displayed are violent. 
Motives are explained, orders reported, and con- 
versations retailed, which if they ever had a basis 
in fact could not possibly have been known to 
the author, in a way which might well excite the 
envy of the sober historian whose activities are 
limited by the necessity of finding an authority 
for his statements. 

To estimate "Wau-Bun" is to estimate the 
present work, for, the introductory portion aside, 
it is for the most part but a paraphrase of the 
earlier account. Rarely does the author's con- 
fidence in his leader falter. In many instances 
even errors of detail, which might readily have 
been corrected by reference to well-known 
sources, are repeated. He finds a qualified 
justification for the course of Captain Heald 
(pp. 55-56, 105-106), but there is no more 
basis for the judgment expressed of him than 
for the sweeping condemnation by Mrs. Kinzie. 
Even the most fanciful portions of the earlier 
narrative cause the author no hesitation. He 
repeats the grotesque story of the experiences of 
Sergeant Griffith (pp. 161-162), and defends 
the cruel and incredible tale of the death of Doc- 
tor Van Voorhis (pp. 143-145). His mental atti- 
tude is perhaps best illustrated by his treatment 
of the evacuation order. If it be conceded that 
his excuse of ignorance of the character of the 
order offered in behalf of the mistatements of 
Mrs. Kinzie which are based upon it is a valid 




one, no such defense can be advanced for the 
author himself, who, in the face of full knowl- 
edge of the wording of the order, persists in re- 
peating a number of these misstatements. Since 
the order enjoined the destruction of the arms 
and ammunition, it is obvious that the story 
that Heald promised to distribute the latter to 
the Indians, from which piece of folly he was 
diverted only by the remonstrances of Kinzie 
(pp. 110-111), together with the statements 
concerning the resentment of the Indians over 
Heald 's "deception" when they discovered that 
they were not to receive the ammunition (pp. 
118-119), are inventions. 

The book abounds in errors of detail. La 
Salle reached the mouth of the Mississippi on 
April 9 instead of April 7, 1682 (p. 9) ; Fort 
St. Joseph was within the limits of the modern 
town of Niles instead of at the mouth of the St. 
Joseph River (p. 21); the construction of thefirst 
Fort Dearborn did not begin on July 4 (p. 22), 
for the troops arrived at Chicago only on Aug- 
ust 17; nor was the fort ready for occupancy 
"later" in the summer (p. 25). On the con- 
trary, in December the soldiers were still living 
in temporary huts, and the fort was reported as 
"not much advanced." John Whistler did not 
remain in America at the close of the Revolution 
and marry in Maryland (p. 34) ; rather, he re- 
turned to England on his release from captivity, 
where he eloped with a neighbor's daughter and 
came again to America. After leaving Fort 
Dearborn in 1810 he was transferred not to 
Fort Wayne (p. 34) but to Fort Detroit. The 
services of General Dearborn on the Niagara 
frontier were doubtless "distinguished" (p. 50), 
but hardly so in the sense intended by the au- 
thor. The battle of the Thames occurred Octo- 
ber 5 instead of October 6 (p. 67); the murders 
at the Lee farm were on April 6 instead of 
April 7 (p. 75) ; and the name of the Frenchman 
who was killed there was not Debou but John B. 
Cardin. The news of the declaration of war 
reached Fort Dearborn some time before August 
7 (p. 102), and Winnemeg did not arrive with 
the evacuation order until August 9. Instead 
of being nearly as old as Captain Wells (p. 141), 
Mrs. Heald was but twenty-two in 1812. Mrs. 
Helm does not mention any fighting done by Van 
Voorhis (pp. 143-144), whether "gallantly" or 
otherwise. Lieutenant Helm was not a prisoner 
prior to the general surrender (p. 147). Surgeon 
John Cooper was not accompanied " by his wife 
and two young daughters," nor was he among 
the slain (p. 153) ; on the contrary he was un- 
married, he had resigned the service and left 

Fort Dearborn over a year before, and he died 
peacefully in Poughkeepsie, New York, fifty-two 
years later. 

Let it be understood, however, that our gen- 
eral estimate of the book is not determined by 
these and other errors of detail which space 
fails us to mention ; rather it is conditioned by 
the author's attitude toward his subject, which 
reveals no evidence of the exercise of a critical 
faculty. It can hardly be supposed that the 
last word on the Fort Dearborn massacre was 
spoken by the first person who undertook to 
narrate its story. Handicapped as she was by 
the absence of libraries and the collections of 
historical societies, without access to government 
archives, relying for her information upon the 
recollections and traditions current in a single 
family, herself in no sense a trained investigator, 
it would be remarkable indeed if such were the 
case. The historian who to-day assumes the 
attitude that it was, may perhaps entertain, but 
he can hardly instruct, his readers. 



, Professor Edward Bliss Reed is the first critic 
to attempt to give an account of the history of 
the English lyric. We have volumes dealing 
with one aspect or another of the subject 
Sharp's study of the sonnet, Professor Schelling's 
Introduction to " Elizabethan Lyrics," Mr. 
Chambers's " Essay on the Mediaeval Lyric "; 
but almost all such essays are prefaces to collec- 
tions of poetry, not historical studies. A certain 
trial has already been made of Professor Reed's 
volume, for it is a working-over of lectures given, 
for a series of years, to college seniors. The 
arrangement of topics in the ten chapters is 
according to the periods of literary history Old 
English, Middle English, Tudor, Elizabethan, 
and on to " The Lyric of To-day," where Steven- 
son, Henley, Francis Thompson, John David- 
son, Mr. Watson, Mr. Kipling, and other poets, 
receive discriminating tribute. 

One is impressed immediately by the orderly 
arrangement of the volume. No personal enthu- 
siasms have led Prof essor Reed to over-emphasize 
any of the poets ; he has shown an admirable 
sense of proportion. Only in a few cases is a 
reader likely to take issue with the critic's judg- 
ments, for time-honored favorites are given ap- 

* ENGLISH LYRICAL POETRY. From Its Origins to the 
Present Time. By Edward Bliss Reed. New Haven : Yale 
University Press. 



[Sept. 1, 

preciative comment in a way which assures us 
that he has a keen and sensitive enjoyment of 
lyric poetry. Many passages there are which 
reveal his intuitive penetration, whether he is 
discussing "The Seafarer" or Herrick's master- 
pieces, Blake's mysticism or Landor's lonely 
classicism. Both for breadth of sympathy and 
for depth of knowledge of literature, Professor 
Reed has the right to our most respectful atten- 
tion. He writes in an easy conversational man- 
ner, sometimes rising to passages of intensely 
interesting appreciation. One feels constantly 
that he knows his subject, that his observations 
are based upon long study of the poets as well as 
upon the judgment of other critics. At the pres- 
ent time, when there is such a decline in the pro- 
duction of the genuine lyric, it is pleasant to 
think that a book like this must of necessity 
quicken-appreciation of poetry and serve as guide 
to finer standards of taste. There is undoubted 
place for this history, not only in colleges but in 
the larger world. 

Anyone who publishes a work on the lyric 
must face the difficult task of so defining the 
type as to silence envious tongues. It is agreed 
that the lyric is our most perfect poetry. Pro- 
fessor Reed's definition, as he summarizes it, is 
this : 

"All songs; all poems following classic lyric forms; 
all short poems expressing the writer's moods and feel- 
ings in a rhythm that suggests music, are to be considered 
lyrics. This threefold statement is not free from ambi- 
guity, and does not remove all the difficulties that arise 
in determining whether or not a given poem is to be con- 
sidered a lyric." 

And further : 

" To sing with the infinite harmonies of rhythm and 
the melodies of rhyme ; to move by dim suggestion or to 
appeal with overpowering passion directly to the. feel- 
ings; to present thoughts suffused with emotion or ideas 
that concern the reason chiefly; to summon before the 
reader's mind, by ' the magic incantation of a verse,' ex- 
quisite colors and forms ; to touch the memory and stir 
the imagination this is but a faint description of the 
art of the lyric poet." 

In this charmingly phrased definition it is 
evident that the critic narrows his subject, em- 
phasizing the song quality overmuch; and one 
is not surprised to find that he rules out of con- 
sideration such poems as "Adonais" and "In 
Memoriam." Of course this has long been a 
debated question ; but if the lyric is an expres- 
sion, primarily, of emotion, can we classify these 
two poems as epic ? Length is no final criterion 
of the lyric. Regarding " In Memoriam " as a 
series of lyrics, do we not more fully grasp its 
true significance as a musical outpouring of 
Tennyson's enduring feeling? Grief as well as 

joy is the true matter of a lyric, and when we 
have love, grief, self-hate, a slowly dawning 
sense of brotherhood, and hope, all expressed in 
musical stanzas, with the aid of imagery subdued 
but always immediately effective, have we not 
lyric poetry? And can those magnificent lines in 
"Adonais" that soar into the empyrean of im- 
aginative passion, be anything but lyric, as they 
set the reader quivering in an emotional response 
which transcends any effect known to the epic? 
Depth and intensity belong to the lyric, and a 
strong note of ardent complex life often destroys 
the extreme clarity which to many people is an 
essential to true lyric poetry. 

Inasmuch as the lyric is personal, individual, 
temperamental, we cannot hope for a philosophy 
of its evolution. Only here and there can we 
trace obligations such as that of Herrick to Ben 
Jonson, or Keats to Shakespeare, or Arnold to 
Wordsworth; or such influences as appear at 
times when certain conventions are dominant in 
an age. The interdependences of the religious 
lyric in the Middle Ages, the vogue of the son- 
net in Shakespeare's day, or the triumph of the 
ode in the eighteenth century, may receive atten- 
tion ; but there is absolutely no way of finding 
one central underlying principle of literary evo- 
lution in the lyric. A book dealing with that 
theme must be more or less mechanical, moving 
by decades rather than by analysis of the develop- 
ment and growth of a stated form. The sonnet, 
the ode, may be treated with close investigation 
of shaping artistic process ; but in the general 
subject of lyric it must be a study of men, iso- 
lated, more or less unrelated. 

It is in this biographical, historical side of 
criticism that Professor Reed excels, rather than 
in the more aesthetic examination of art-impulse 
and of art-product. Although he continually 
refers to the external art-form, he does not, in 
many places, give us exact analysis of the sources 
of our enjoyment of this special beauty. Idea, 
feeling, rather more than expression, is his con- 
cern, and one cannot fail to be somewhat dis- 
appointed that so little is done to reveal this 
mystery of creation where the imagination is 
supreme. The typical creative process, through 
the medium of the concrete, be it by simile, 
metaphor, personification, or by simple allusion, 
should be expounded if we are to understand 
the real significance of the lyric. Close study, 
at the outset, of a few representative poems 
would have illustrated the fundamental truths 
of the lyric impulse and its expression, and the 
reader would have been quickened to appreciate 
the illumination of spiritual experience through 




sensuous appeals. As it is, these things are 
taken too much for granted, so that the reader 
really zealous for understanding must work out 
his own salvation, if he is to gain a right con- 
ception of the quick, passionate, imaginative 
beauty of lyric poetry. Some critical training 
must be the prelude to the deeper enjoyment of 
any art ; and as knowledge of technique of line, 
color, grouping, increases the pleasure in a paint- 
ing, so a knowledge of how to read, with the 
imagination trained and alert, is a preparation 
for keener perception of poetic form. 

It occasionally appears that the critic himself 
fails, in this book, to respond to the appeals to 
eye and ear, and for this reason expresses opin- 
ions which may arouse dissent. In discussing 
Donne, Herbert, and Wither, there is too little 
said about the kind of imagery employed, too 
little effort to vitalize the wayward and pictur- 
esque beauty of the "Metaphysical School." 
Undoubtedly it does err on the side of the gro- 
tesque, but there is a richness of sensuous per- 
ception and a lofty spirit of symbolic meaning 
which we should cherish. George Herbert's 
poems are more full of keen and suggestive 
metaphor than the critic would lead one to sup- 
pose, and the conventional quotations from his 
work are not enough to illustrate his delight in 
symbolism, as in 

" Man is no star, but a quick coal 

Of mortal fire; 
Who blows it not, nor doth control 

A faint desire, 
Lets his own ashes choke his soul." 

Wither, too, is treated rather unkindly, for 
his work has constant surprises of challenging 
figure; even when he pictures love he gives a 
"metaphysical" addition, 

" Great men have helps to gain 
Those favors they implore; 
Which, though I win with pain, 
I find my joys the more. 

Each clown may rise, 

And climb the skies, 
When he hath found a stair; 

But joy to him 

That dares to climb, 
And hath no help but air." 

When we read that Shelley's 
" Driving sweet buds like flocks to feed in air " 

is " an immortal line " and " one of the treasures 
of English literature," there is justification for 
irritated denial. The line is one of Shelley's 
weakest, offending the imagination by its ludi- 
crous personification of feeding buds, a figure 
which degrades nature. Mr. Reed regards the 

musical element as predominant, and does not 
give due importance to the fact that there must 
be the appeal of visible and tangible as well as 
of audible in poetry. This lack of visualization 
is apparent when he quotes, 

" When yellow leaves, or none, or few, do hang," 

and then refers to " the grays and blacks " of 
the poem. 

In placing Keats's " Ode to Sorrow " above 
the " Grecian Urn," he exalts an abstract 
eighteenth-century manner and a jingling 
rhythm above a singularly poignant and imag- 
inative lyric, where a remarkable power of in- 
terpretative vision is allied with a serene and 
haunting music. So too, in the discussion of the 
sonnets of Sidney and of Rossetti, the extracts 
quoted are all too often the less tremendous 
instances of a power of lyric expression which 
seized hold upon concrete images and gave them 
matchless music. Sidney's sonnet on the Moon, 
will by some critics not be considered " his fin- 
est," but because of its artificial sentiment will 
be placed below that nobler one, 

" Leave me, O Love, which reachest but to dust." 

In the case of Rossetti, a somewhat unfair esti- 
mate is made of his art when the critic writes : 
" Browning's lovers meet under the open sky, 
but Rossetti takes us to a dim room, where we 
are overpowered by the incense burning at a 
shrine to Venus Victrix." It is true that the 
fervid Italian temperament of Rossetti enjoyed 
a certain richness of effect, but in the " House 
of Life " the majority of the figures used refer 
to nature, and keep the reader surrounded by 
the appeal of sun and wind and wave. What 
could be more powerful and more dominated by 
the finest spiritual truth of love than the lines 
in "The Dark Glass," 
" Shall birth and death, and all dark names that be 

As doors and windows bared to some loud sea, 

Lash deaf mine ears and blind my face with spray ; 
And shall my sense pierce love, the last relay 

And ultimate outpost of eternity ? " 

It is inexplicable that no mention is made of 
" The Monochord " or of "The Portrait," where 
the mystic yearning of Rossetti's love is revealed 
in utmost sensitiveness. It is odd, too, that in 
the account of Christina Rossetti, giving warm 
tribute to her superiority over Mrs. Browning, 
the most musical of her lyrics is not quoted, 
those stanzas full of concrete appeal and of deep 
elemental feeling, 

" When I am dead, my dearest, 

Sing no sad songs for me ; 
Plant thou no roses at my head, 

Nor shady cypress tree: 



[Sept. 1, 

Be the green grass above me, 

With showers and dew-drops wet; 

And, if thou wilt, remember, 
And, if thou wilt, forget. 

" I shall not see the shadows, 

I shall not feel the rain; 
I shall not hear the nightingale 

Sing on, as if in pain; 
And dreaming through the twilight 

That doth not rise nor set, 
Haply I may remember, 

And haply may forget." 

There are destined to be omissions in a work 
as brief as this, and if Emily Bronte is neglected 
while Stevenson's " Child's Garden of Verses " 
receives a surprisingly ample notice, one must 
be content. The vogue of Ernest Dowson's facile 
verses hardly warrants including his name in a 
work which omits Eugene Lee-Hamilton and 
Mr. Stephen Phillips, who have a genuine hold 
on life. The rigid exclusion of Irish authors robs 
the history of what would have been particularly 
important, the interpretation of the grave preci- 
sion of Lionel Johnson's work and an account 
of the symbolic, impetuous beauty in the poems 
of Mr. William Butler Yeats. These poets are 
partly English, by traditions of lyric art. 

Even if the epic manner has been too frequent 
in this book on the lyric, readers will find it 
both stimulating and steadying. Every lover of 
lyric poetry ought to read it, and meditate over 
it, for it is a loyal voicing of faith that the beauty 
of the English lyric is imperishable, despite 
" The wreckful siege of battering days." 



Something more than a hundred years ago, 
the government of the United States was set 
up by the privileged classes. Its constitutions 
were consciously and purposely shaped for the 
restraint of excessive democracy. Although 
they did this while talking of the right to life, 
liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, it is not 
fair to assume that the Fathers were outright 
thieves or canting hypocrites. Probably the 
majority of them honestly believed that such an 
arrangement was for the best interest of all the 
people. Did they not say that every man should 
have a chance? And did they not give every 
man at least most white men a chance, by 

*THE WISCONSIN IDEA. By Charles McCarthy. New 
York : The Macmillan Co. 

erick C. Howe, Ph.D. New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 

the absence of a caste system ? Land-ownership 
and all industries were open, and political power 
was neither hereditary nor subject to any reli- 
gious test. What more could the laissezfaire 
philosophy do? It had taken away the legal 
right of the government to hold a man down by 
Force and by the hereditary claim of some to 
ride on the shoulders of others. That one man 
might, through the possession of Force (economic 
power), mount on the shoulders of others was 
no concern of the government. It had given 
them the legal right to dismount him and rise 
by the same Force if only they could get it. 

The great expanse of open land and the ap- 
parently unlimited resources of our country en- 
abled men to escape in part from this Force for 
a time. But with the ever-narrowing frontier, 
and the rapid strides of inventions which were 
protected by government patent and increased 
the Force of the few, escape became more and 
more difficult. After the Civil War, the gov- 
ernment became still more closely allied with 
privilege. Indeed, Big Business stepped in and 
took charge, arrogating to itself special favors 
through the tariff, land grants, and banking 
privileges. Our government became, more dis- 
tinctly than ever, one of the people by and for 
the privileged few who wield the economic Force 
of the land. 

At last the people began to realize that they 
were not getting a square deal, and to demand 
that their governments, both state and national, 
be wrested from the hands of the privileged few. 
Many problems were thought to be beyond the 
competence of the states, and more and more 
was demanded of the national government. But 
some still had confidence in the states, and boldly 
struck out to obtain at least partial relief through 
them. Noteworthy achievements have been ac- 
complished in several states ; but nowhere have 
the results been more remarkable than in Wis- 
consin. That state has become an experimental 
laboratory, and the nation is looking on to see 
the process and obtain the results of the work- 
ing out of the Wisconsin Idea. So great is the 
interest in this that two books have appeared 
almost simultaneously with the design of par- 
tially satisfying the desire of the nation to know 
about this new Idea in government. 

What the Wisconsin Idea is, Mr. Charles 
McCarthy, the author of one of these books, 
tells us in a few sentences. It is, in effect, that 
there should be no drones living off the toil of 
the many ; that "prosperity exists for the benefit 
of the human being, and for no other purpose." 
"If prosperity does not uplift the mass of hu- 



man beings, it is not true prosperity, however 
it may be counterfeited by a grand show of fair 
cities or the glory of its riches." Our civiliza- 
tion, he thinks, must be made to serve the wel- 
fare of each individual. The way to do this is 
to drive out the cheating rascals who have acted 
as judges ; protect the weak against the wielders 
of Force ; provide honest markets and exchanges 
and means of transportation; and, finally, to 
teach the Man his rights as well as his duties 
as a citizen. 

Only a few of the things undertaken by 
Wisconsin for the realization of this end can be 
as much as named here. It has regulated the 
railroads and other public utility corporations 
so as to make them the servants and not the 
masters of the people. It has done this, not by 
prescribing in rigid law minute rules and regu- 
lations that all must follow whether applicable 
to them or not, but by creating a commission 
and empowering and requiring it to see that the 
corporations furnish adequate service at reason- 
able rates and without discrimination. Seventy- 
five years ago, in the Priestly case, the courts 
of England established the doctrine of assumed 
risks in industrial accidents, and this doctrine 
was quickly introduced by our courts into this 
country and by them was widely extended . At 
last Wisconsin created a commission to investi- 
gate the whole subject of personal injury, indus- 
trial insurance, and workmen's compensation. 
After a painstaking study, it presented a report 
which resulted in laws shifting the cost of in- 
jury and pioneering the way for State Insurance 
in America. New York enacted a Workmen's 
Compensation act, only to have it declared 
unconstitutional on antiquated grounds. Wis- 
consin avoided the shoals of constitutionality by 
making it voluntary for employers to operate 
under the law, though virtually putting a pen- 
alty on them for not doing so. Her law stands, 
and has been copied by nine other states. Mr. 
McCarthy thinks the Employer's Liability Law 
the "greatest piece of legislation yet put forth 
in Wisconsin, and one which may be a long 
stride toward the solution of the whole indus- 
trial accident problem in America." Through 
the tax commission, and responsive legislation, 
tax burdens have been equalized with astonish- 
ing boldness and surprising justice. The latest 
experiment in taxation is the Income Tax law 
of 1911, the outcome of which will be awaited 
with interest, since our state income tax laws 
have been failures almost without exception. 
To be awarded a gold medal by the International 
Anti- Tuberculosis Association for the best law 

for the prevention or control of tuberculosis is 
an achievement worth while. 

Much of this has been accomplished by 
"calling in the expert," as Mr. Howe says. 
The experts have come mainly from the Uni- 
versity, which has become the " nerve centre " 
of the state, impelling it to intelligent action 
in many fields. It does this in two ways: by 
sending out graduates indoctrinated with the 
principles of good government, and filled with 
enthusiasm for it and by furnishing men for ex- 
pert administrative work. In 1910-11, seven 
members of the instructional force were giving 
a part of their time to public service, and were 
being paid for both; twenty-three others had 
definite official positions without any definite 
combination arrangement ; thirteen others, be- 
sides various members of the medical faculty, 
were serving the state bureaus in various ways 
when called upon; and four state officers were 
serving on the University staff without further 
compensation. Except from the members of 
the " old guard," who do not like to see them- 
selves displaced, the chief complaint seems to be, 
not that these men are grafting, but that the 
stranger never knows where to find them 
whether at the statehouse or the University. 

But the greatest service of the University has 
been in the democratization of learning and its 
application to the needs of everyday life. Its 
theory is that if the boy is to become a brick- 
layer he should be taught something more than 
how to lay bricks ; he should be taught buying, 
architecture, and the essentials which will pre- 
pare him for service in the civic body. After 
enumerating a dozen or more things such as 
improving seed-corn, grasses, orchards, the breed 
of horses and cattle, and giving a great impulse 
to the dairy industry Mr. McCarthy says: 
"The question arises at once, ' But isn't all this 
materialistic? Doesn't the University of Wis- 
consin spell 'cow'?" With refreshing frank- 
ness, he answers: "And what of it?" He is 
fully convinced that all this is worth while in 
itself, but that mere learning will be the gainer 
from it also. 

One of the remarkable things about the 
matter is that all of this has been accomplished 
without any such devices as the initiative, refer- 
endum, and recall, on which so much emphasis 
is laid in other progressive states, particularly 
Oregon, California, and Oklahoma. Not until 
last year was an initiative and referendum 
amendment passed for submission to the people, 
and its form shows that it was designed merely 
to supplement, not to supplant, the legislature. 



[Sept. 1, 

Through the efforts of Mr. La Follette and his 
co-workers, and by means of a primary-election 
law, the people recovered their state government 
several years ago. Now they have confidence 
in their legislature, because it goes about legis- 
lation in a scientific way and has accomplished 
good results. Both Mr. McCarthy and Mr. 
Howe attribute this to the large German ele- 
ment in the state. These people fled from op- 
pression, and brought with them the scientific 
spirit. They saw that the great private interests 
won, not so much because of bribery as through 
the employment of experts who used skill in 
drafting bills and then backed them up with 
arguments which the ordinary legislator could 
not refute. The legislator was not hopelessly 
bad ; no one was there to answer specious argu- 
ments, or to point out the vicious features of 
bad bills. So the expert was called in against 
the expert, and a legislative reference library 
was created, where bills can be drafted with 
care, and information supplied on all sides. 
Probably more credit is due to this bureau than 
Mr. McCarthy, who has had charge of it since 
its creation, modestly claims. 

Both Mr. McCarthy and Mr. Howe are filled 
with enthusiasm for their subject, and they have 
given us a very roseate picture of the results 
achieved. It does not appear that they have 
overdrawn the results in any case, but they have 
said very little about what yet remains to be 
accomplished. Both books furnish stimulative 
reading, and will be helpful to the serious stu- 
dent. Because he goes more into detail, and 
quotes more freely from statutes and reports, 
Mr. McCarthy's work will be more helpful to 
the legislator seeking precedents ; but the latter 
will do well to have both books close at hand. 


Among recent notable books on Evolution 
Professor William Patten's "Evolution of the 
Vertebrates and their Kin" stands forth in a 

KIN. By William Patten. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston's 
Son & Co. 

Campbell. New York : Henry Holt & Co. 

THE COMING OF EVOLUTION. The Story of a Great 
Revolution in Science. By John W. Judd. Cambridge 
University Press. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

Marie Goldsmith. Translated by Andr4 Tridon. New York : 
B. W. Huebsch. 

THE STORY OF EVOLUTION. By Joseph McCabe. Boston : 
Small, Maynard & Co. 

class by itself. Since Haeckel's early essays in 
this direction, no one has had the temerity to 
undertake the working out of so elaborate and 
comprehensive a family tree for the animal 
kingdom as is here set forth. While the main 
problem of this magnum, opus is the phylogeny 
of the vertebrates, the author finds it necessary 
or at least advisable before he finishes, to 
bring into the purview of his theory the whole 
animal world from the lowest to the highest 
forms. Briefly stated, Dr. Patten's thesis, to 
the elaboration and support of which he has 
given the best part of his working life, is that 
those animals characterized by a backbone, or 
vertebral column, are the direct descendants, 
in the process of evolution, of the class of 
animals known as arachnids, which include such 
creatures as spiders, scorpions, and the horse- 
shoe crab. Now if one accepts the doctrine of 
evolution at all, as most people do, it is pefectly 
certain that the vertebrates must at some time 
have evolved from a preexisting invertebrate 
form. Various theories have been advanced 
from time to time in regard to which particular 
invertebrate class was thus distinguished in the 
evolutionary process. No one of these theories 
has ever found universal acceptance among 
zoologists, and Dr. Patten's is not likely to be 
more fortunate than its predecessors, though 
it must be said that never has so cogent, com- 
prehensive, and well-sustained an argument 
been brought forward in favor of any particular 
invertebrate ancestor as that presented in this 
book. The difficulty confronting acceptance 
lies not in the argument so much as in the 
premises on which it is built. While Dr. Patten 
argues vigorously, even at times warmly, in sup- 
port of the method of comparative morphology 
as a means of arriving at the truth respecting 
the course of phylogeny, it nevertheless remains 
a fact that biology gave this method a thorough 
and fair trial over a long period of years and 
found it essentially weak so far as concerns 
this particular point of phylogenetic synthesis. 
In the language of the bench, the data of com- 
parative morphology lack "probative value." 
No biologist can fail to admire the patient, 
careful, and painstaking toil which has gone into 
the researches on which this book is based, nor 
the brilliant genius for morphological investi- 
gation which is displayed on nearly every page ; 
yet the final verdict on the main thesis, in spite 
of all this, must be " not proven." 

"Plant Life and Evolution," by Professor 
Douglas Houghton Campbell, forms one of the 
volumes on "The Philosophy of Nature" in the 



"American Nature Series." The book is essen- 
tially an attempt to illustrate the general prin- 
ciples of organic evolution by reference to plants 
rather than animals. No American botanist is 
better qualified to undertake such a task than 
the author. The result is a valuable addition to 
the elementary popular literature on evolution. 
Following the introductory chapters on elemen- 
tary biological matters and the factors of evolu- 
tion, a rather detailed account is given of the 
course of evolution in the plant kingdom. In 
these chapters the author is at his best. A chap- 
ter on Adaptation gives an excellent review of 
the rich material offered by plants for the illus- 
tration of this fundamental characteristic of liv- 
ing things. This leads up to an account of the 
distribution of plants on the earth, and the fac- 
tors which have influenced it. The part which 
man has played, through his practise of the art 
of agriculture, in controlling the evolution of do- 
mesticated plants, is discussed. The final chap- 
ter deals in general terms, and very briefly, with 
the various general theories of evolution. 

To the series of "Cambridge Manuals of 
Science and Literature " a volume entitled "The 
Coming of Evolution" is contributed by the dis- 
tinguished geologist, Professor John W. Judd. 
The story of the part played by the geologists, 
particularly Lyell, in laying the solid founda- 
tion for the idea of organic evolution, by demon- 
strating the fact of evolution in the inorganic 
world, is told in a very genial and entertaining 
manner. The last chapters review Darwin's life 
and give a critical estimate of the significance 
of his work. 

"The Theories of Evolution," by Professor 
Yves Delage and Mile. Marie Goldsmith, is an 
English translation of a work which has been 
very popular in France in the original Flam- 
marian edition, and rather widely read elsewhere. 
The chief claim of the work to distinction rests 
on its detailed presentation of the Lamarckian 
viewpoint. This doctrine, which Darwin once 
called "nonsense" (though he afterward appar- 
ently came to look more graciously upon it), 
contends essentially that the direct effects of 
the environment on organisms not only may be 
inherited, but are inherited, and that in such 
inheritance is to be found a vera causa, if not 
indeed the chief cause, of organic evolution. It 
is to the French that we have long been accus- 
tomed to look for the most ardent advocacy of 
this viewpoint. All biologically inclined French- 
men appear to regard it a fundamental patri- 
otic duty to inherit their acquired characters. 
No more forceful presentation of the Lamarck- 

ian arguments has ever been made than that 
contained in this book, of which one of the most 
distinguished of French zoologists is the senior 
author. But still the case is just as weak as 
ever at the essential point namely, in concrete 
experimental demonstrations that acquired char- 
acters (in the technical sense) are really inherited. 
The evidence that they are has never yet been 
able to withstand completely and satisfactorily 
the searching criticism which has been brought 
to bear upon it. 

Mr. Joseph McCabe, the well-known writer 
of popular treatises on evolution, and the trans- 
lator of Haeckel, has produced another volume, 
"The Story of Evolution," which has a strong 
family resemblance to his previous output. This 
book aims to tell the story of evolution "from 
the ground up." It begins, like Genesis, with 
primitive chaos, and ends with the future of man- 
kind. Like the traditional German definition 
of English philosophy, it has length and breadth. 
Written with a good deal of literary skill, it is 
"easy" reading. The field covered, however, 
is so wide including physical and geological 
evolution as well as organic that the treatment 
cannot be, of necessity, anything but extremely 
superficial. The objectionable feature of this 
type of "popular" science is the altogether false 
perspective in regard to the method of science 
which it tends to emphasize. 



Furniture, as the term is employed by mod- 
ern writers, is applied to those movable articles 
used in the home for personal rest, work, and 
pleasure, or for the storing of household requi- 
sites and ornament. These articles are almost 
invariably of wood, because of all the materials 
applicable to the interior construction and 
adornment of the home wood has been and 
still is man's" first favourite and proven friend." 
The history of furniture is therefore largely the 
history of man's adaptation of wood to his home 
needs and adornments. This history begins with 
his initial step in the direction of civilization, 
and has developed with his home-making in- 
stinct. It has been influenced by climate, and 

* FURNITURE. By Esther Singleton. Illustrated. New 
York : Duffield & Co. 

COLOUR, AND HISTORY. By Edwin Foley, Fellow of the 
Institute of Decorative Designers. In two volumes. Illus- 
rated. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 



[Sept. 1, 

thus Europe rather than the Orient presents 
the chief field for its study. The Oriental still 
seeks rest upon rugs spread upon the floor ; and 
while floor coverings have been brought to the 
highest state of perfection in the East, little is 
to be found there in the way of furniture. 

Because of its close human association, fur- 
niture has become invested with a romance as 
well as a history. And because in its evolution 
it has engaged the attention of those skilled in 
the art of design, an added interest has been 
given to it, and thus it has become the object 
of the art student's and connoisseur's and col- 
lector's zeal. So it has come to pass that of 
late years a literature of the subject has been 
developed, closely related to books on arts and 
crafts, though the sumptuousness of the volumes 
places them more in the category of art books. 

The two works now before us contain the 
latest word, full and complete, on the subject 
of historic furniture. Miss Singleton is an 
acknowledged expert in this field. Of the 
numerous art guides she has written, five are 
upon furniture. Her present volume seems to 
be largely a compilation from her former books, 
intended to summarize and present a comprehen- 
sive view of the subject ; and she does this in a 
systematic and scientific manner. She is chiefly 
concerned with the classification of furniture 
by styles and schools ; and her first chapter, on 
that division of the subject, is as long as any two 
of the subsequent chapters. She finds furniture 
divisible, as architecture might be, into national 
styles, Egyptian, Greek, Roman, Byzantine, 
Romanesque, and Gothic ; and the French and 
English styles are further capable of subdivis- 
ion by the political epochs in those countries. 
She also brings to notice a style called genre 
auriculaire, from the ear-shaped ornament em- 
ployed. The most interesting " schools " are 
named after the great eighteenth-century de- 
signers, Adam, Heppelwhite, Sheraton, and the 
three Chippendales. Her subsequent chapters 
are more specifically devoted to the development 
of the different articles of furniture, showing the 
evolution of one style out of its predecessor ; and 
the foreign influences, Chinese at one time, 
affecting the design of English furniture. Her 
final chapter, upon mirrors, screens, and clocks, 
exhibits the wide range of her subject. One 
hundred and nineteen full-page half-tones from 
photographs of furniture in the Metropolitan 
Museum and in the chief museums in Europe, 
and sixty-one text illustrations, help to make 
her volume a very satisfactory guide to a knowl- 
edge of the history of furniture. 

Mr. Edwin Foley covers the same broad field, 
but in a different way, and apparently with a 
different object in view. He is an artist to 
whom the picturesque features of furniture make 
the strongest appeal, and emphasis is laid on the 
word "Decorative" in the title he has chosen for 
his two large volumes. Pie regards furniture 
chiefly as a manifestation of the art of the wood- 
worker, and aims to give a survey of the world's 
beautiful woodwork. He gives an account of 
British domestic woodwork from the time of the 
introduction of printing into England and the 
building up of the home life, to the beginning 
of the nineteenth century; with subordinate 
accounts of French, Italian, German, Flemish, 
Spanish, and Oriental furniture. His enthusi- 
asm for the English woodwork is manifest from 
his frequent reference to the eras of oak and 
walnut and mahogany in England, and the ex- 
tent to which he illustrates the different kinds 
of wood used in the construction and decoration 
of furniture. He scarcely refers to upholstery, 
or recognizes it as essential to furniture. The 
hundred full-page illustrations are from the au- 
thor's own paintings, reproduced in color and 
mounted on gray cartridge paper ; and included 
among them are illustrations of different varieties 
of wood employed by the cabinet-makers, show- 
ing most accurately the peculiarities of their 
grain and color. The thousand text drawings 
are admirably illustrative of the different kinds 
of ornament and carving used. Further aids to 
a right understanding of the history of furniture 
are furnished in charts, tables, and diagrams, 
which show the evolution of the different articles 
of furniture, the different styles, the era in which 
each flourished, the different kinds of ornament 
employed, together with a glossary of terms 
and a bibliography. Altogether the volumes 
are made upon a very generous plan, with large 
pages, large type, and profuse illustrations. The 
lover of pictures, the connoisseur, the art stu- 
dent will find here much to interest and instruct. 
As reference volumes upon all matters connected 
with furniture, there can be no question of their 

DR. EDWIN A. GREENLAW is the compiler of "A 
Syllabus of English Literature " (Sanborn) designed 
for college students. It is a work planned to be used 
in connection with one or more of the comprehensive 
anthologies with which recent years have provided us. It 
seeks " to aid the instructor by presenting in convenient 
form the facts that must accompany the reading and to 
suggest to the pupil some of the things he should look 
for in the work assigned him for study." The alternate 
pages are left blank for notes. 





"The Strangling of Persia" (Cen- 

. tu T Co ') is a title th ^t well describes 
the remorseless doing -to -death of 
constitutional government which Mr. W. Morgan 
Shuster witnessed in the short term of his service 
as Treasurer- General at Teheran. Invited by the 
Persian Cabinet, through its Minister of Foreign 
Affairs, to undertake the straightening-out of that 
country's tangled revenue system, Mr. Shuster, who 
had already had some years' experience in the cus- 
toms departments of Cuba and the Philippines, pro- 
ceeded to Persia in the spring of last year, and with 
his assistants struggled against all sorts of vexatious 
and largely unforeseen obstacles until the combined 
opposition of the two European powers chiefly inter- 
ested in keeping Persia bankrupt and feeble com- 
pelled him to relinquish his hopeless task and return 
home. Eight months of intelligent and courageous 
striving against overpowering odds are to be placed 
to his credit, and his highly readable and apparently 
full and frank account of his peculiar experiences 
amid the jealousies and intrigues and multitudinous 
knaveries of an oriental capital shows him to be 
skilled in writing as well as in finance. In the story 
he has to tell, Russia is of course the double-dyed 
villain; England is the guilty accomplice, weak- 
kneed and thoroughly unheroic in every situation 
depicted; and the liberty -loving constitutional party 
in Persia is the foully-wronged heroine calling in 
helpless agony for some hero to rush to her rescue. 
Five years of creditable effort at self-government 
preceded the tragic end; but, as the author says, 
"five years is nothing in the life of a nation; it is 
not even long as a period for individual reform; yet, 
after a bare five years of effort, during which the 
Persian people, with all their difficulties and har- 
assed by the so-called friendly powers, succeeded in 
thwarting a despot's well-planned effort to wrest 
from them their hard-earned liberties, the world is 
told by two European nations that these men were 
unfit, degenerate, and incapable of producing a stable 
and orderly form of government. With a knowl- 
edge of the facts of Persia's downfall, the scales 
drop from the eyes of the most incredulous, and it 
becomes clear that she was the helpless victim of 
the wretched game of cards which a few European 
powers, with the skill of centuries of practice, still 
play with weaker nations as the stake, and the lives, 
honor, and progress of whole races as the forfeit." 
Mr. Shuster prefaces his narrative with such brief 
outline of recent Persian history as its better under- 
standing requires, and appends various documents 
and other matter of a pertinent and interesting 
nature. Illustrations from photographs are lavishly 
supplied. To most readers the book will be an eye- 
opener, and it is hardly possible that its disclosures 
will not contribute in some measure to the right- 
ing of the grievous wrongs it so admirably, because 
tersely and without sensationalism, and with here 
and there a touch of grim humor, describes. 

Two books on 
a little-read 

Thomas Love Peacock has a certain 
claim to immortality since his poems 
have been published among the cheap 
classics of the "Muses Library," and two of his 
novels in "Everyman's Library"; but perhaps his 
especial glory is that reflected from his contribution 
to Shelley's biography and to his being pilloried 
in the latter's amusing letter to Harriet, after the 
poet had run off with Mary Godwin, as " expensive, 
inconsiderate, and cold." Very few to-day read 
Peacock's novels, and whoever went through his 
long poem "Rhododaphne "? It is accordingly 
rather remarkable that two considerable books on 
his life and work should appear independently of 
each other at the same time, one entitled " The Life 
of Thomas Love Peacock " by Mr. Carl van Doren 
(Button), the other "Thomas Love Peacock : A Crit- 
ical Study " by Mr. A. Martin Freeman (Kennerley). 
As their titles indicate, the former is more especially 
a biography, the latter a literary appreciation. The 
former is much fuller in biographical detail, is more 
specific and more complete in its references to au- 
thorities, and it has a good bibliography; the latter is 
more concerned with Peacock's literary development 
through the phases of pseudo-classicism, satire, and 
romanticism, and shows less familiarity with the crit- 
ical work of his predecessors. The divergencies in 
matters of fact are comparatively slight. Both 
authors agree in regarding the two leading female 
characters of " Nightmare Abbey " as Shelley's two 
wives, and not, as a writer in the " Modern Lan- 
guage Notes" (vol. xxv.) argues, as Harriet and 
Miss Kitchener. Characteristically, Mr. Freeman 
apparently does not know of this argument; but his 
case in support of his interpretation is made more 
convincing than is Mr. van Doren's for the same 
conclusion. The man Peacock stands out more 
prominently in Mr. van Doren's " Life," and an 
exceedingly interesting character he is. "Two 
neighbours were rowing by the house one evening, 
and . . . one of them, not quite sure of their local- 
ity, asked the other in a tone of voice which should 
have been modified, 'Is this old Peacock's?' Before 
his companion could reply, a strong voice called 
from the garden, ' Yes, this is old Peacock's, and this 
is old Peacock,' and 'old Peacock' stepped irately 
out of the shadow." Mr. Freeman, on the other 
hand, gives an excellent analysis of the significance 
in English literature of Peacock's novels. "'Head- 
long Hall,' as it marked the author's final stage 
from bondage to liberty, proclaimed at the same 
time the appearance of something absolutely new in 
English literature. ... In style and manner, in the 
more restricted sense of the words, he still belongs 
to the eighteenth century, Fielding being his most 
obvious influence, especially noticeable in his careful 
and lucid accounts of unheroic events, in the epic 
style. . . . He belongs, in style and language, to a 
school; but he borrows from no master. He lived 
intellectually, and, it is not too much to say, emotion- 
ally in ancient Greece and Rome and in England 
of the 'classical' period." 



[Sept. 1, 

Some chance Traveller in divers lands, artist, 
acquaintances dreamer, lover of nature and of the 
de/t/por*mi/ed. natura i an( j unS p O ilt, passionately 

fond of Italy, yet not disloyal to her Slavic antece- 
dents, Miss Yoi Pawlowska records, in " A Year of 
Strangers" (Duffield), some of the experiences and 
especially some of the friendships, that made memor- 
able a twelve months' wandering and sojourning in 
Italy, Flanders, Russia, and Persia. She seems to 
be one of those "tramp-souls," as she calls them, that 
" have no home but the land which they never reach," 
although elsewhere she takes pleasure in regarding 
Rome as her abiding-place. Even the fatigues of 
travel in Persia, with its primitive modes of convey- 
ance and its still ruder hostelries, do but add zest to 
her adventures. Heat, cold, thirst, starvation, she 
says, fight with the body, but they are not enemies 
to the soul the spirit is free. One admires her 
stout heart and feels the warm human quality of the 
woman behind her gracefully-written chapters. Sor- 
row and suffering have been her schoolmasters, it 
appears, and have taught the lessons no others can 
teach. "Fate has taken from me everything," she 
writes, but with some manifest exaggeration, "every- 
thing that a human being can lose, and I can still say, 
' Joy is mine,' because I see the mountains around 
us are blue, . . ." The " strangers " with whom she 
makes acquaintance in her year of wandering, and 
with whom her pages make us acquainted, are of 
humble station and unbereft of charm and piquancy 
by any smoothing-out process of civilization. In fact, 
one of her chosen characters is a dog, and for the 
patient camels of the desert she cherishes a warm 
affection. Admirably executed are her brief impres- 
sionist sketches of all these personalities, and animal- 
ities, that appeal to her love of the distinctive, the 
picturesque, the unconventional. Entertaining, too, 
in a different way, are some of her passing reflec- 
tions. The unsettled and precarious condition of the 
Persian government strikes her as natural and salu- 
tary ; for " governments, if allowed to keep in power 
too long, begin to take themselves seriously, to the 
detriment of the people. How wise the nations are 
who change them continually. How wise the Per- 
sians are ! " By this token, then, the Latin Americans 
must be among the very wisest of the world's nations. 
The author's perfect command of English may be 
attributed to residence in England, which is referred 
to in her book. Her tasteful volume is a little mas- 
terpiece, in its way. 

Sources of 
insight and 

The Bross Lectures delivered every 
ten years at Lake Forest University, 
and which have to deal with aspects 
of the philosophy and evidences of the Christian 
religion, were given last year by Professor Josiah 
Royce of Harvard, and they are now published 
under the title "The Sources of Religious Insight" 
(Scribner). By insight, Professor Royce means 
"knowledge that makes us aware of the unity of 
many facts in one whole, and that at the same time 
brings us into intimate personal contact with these 

facts and with the whole wherein they are united." 
By religion he means recognition of and reaction 
toward the fact that man needs to be saved. By 
salvation, however, the author does not mean escape 
from total depravity, but simply the gaining by man 
of "some end or aim of human life which is more 
important than all other aims, so that, by comparison 
with this aim all else is secondary and subsidiary, or 
even vain and empty." As exploited in the pages 
of this book, this aim of life is loyalty to the uni- 
verse as the universe is conceived by the philosophy 
of idealism. Professor Royce criticizes pragmatism 
at some length. While he acknowledges that all 
truth must "work," or make some difference to our 
conduct, as the pragmatists assert, and that there are 
no pure operations of the intellect divorced from 
reference to action by the thinker, he claims that all 
these truths which do work do so in virtue of their 
agreement with a realm which is superhuman, above 
the level of individual caprice, the life, in short, 
of the world. And "unless this life is more than 
merely human in its rational wealth of concrete 
meaning, we mortals have no meaning whatever." 
The problem of religion, then, is to come into the 
richest relations with this life of the whole. The 
path to such connection the author finds in the con- 
ception of loyalty. For loyalty is the one virtue which 
implies making the very best of one's own powers, 
seeking all the self-perfection one can accomplish, 
and then using all one's perfected self in the service 
of a power which is vast enough to claim the free 
allegiance of the whole soul. But temporal loyalties 
may conflict ; and so the further principle is deduced 
of loyalty to the cause of loyalty. Here, says Mr. 
Royce, is a principle fit to be made the basis of a 
universal moral code. For through every special 
cause which claims the loyalty of the individual, his 
true cause comes to light as "the spiritual unity of 
all the world of reasonable beings." While, of 
course, much of the work is conditioned by the au- 
thor's philosophy which is by no means universally 
accepted the concrete character of much of it, and 
the spiritual fervor of nearly all of it, will commend 
it as a source of spiritual inspiration even to those 
who do not agree with its intellectual premises. 
Especially is this true of his chapter on Sorrow as 
a means of religious insight. 

The meaning Since Aristotle's " Poetics." defining 
and mystery poetry has been one of the pastimes 
of poetry. of the ages. Those who have written 

on the essence of poetry fall into three groups: 
valorous critics who think they have at last captured 
the volatile spirit of poetry ; critics who utter what 
in them lies, without insisting that they have solved 
the mystery; and, finally, critics who begin by 
maintaining that poetry can never be satisfactorily 
defined. Professor Arthur Fairchild, in his "The 
Making of Poetry" (Putnam), clearly belongs to 
the last of these three groups. Setting aside the 
attempt to define poetry, on the ground that poetry 
"begins and ends in feeling" and that the nature 




of feeling forbids definition, Mr. Fairchild proceeds 
to analyze the material and the processes of poetry. 
The material, he finds, is "the mental image." Of 
the processes, the first is "personalising," a self- 
projection which puts the poet, as it were, into the 
things and persons that environ him, this self- 
projection being manifested by the images he uses. 
The second process is the combining of these im- 
ages. The third process is versifying, which, in the 
last analysis, has an "enforcing effect upon the 
groupings of images." The three chapters devoted to 
these processes are the longest and most important 
in the book. They are followed by " The Nature of 
Poetry," which does not improve upon what has 
been said on the theme; "The Need and Value of 
Poetry," poetry being "a biological necessity," or, 
as Professor Mackail would put it, "a function of 
life," and having its value mainly in the fact that it 
contributes "to the continuity and unity of con- 
sciousness"; and lastly, "Some Forms of Poetry 
Examined," an indirect repetition of all that has 
preceded. From the foregoing bald summary one 
may at least discern Mr. Fairchild's method that 
of the abstract system. The strength of the method 
lies in its strict logic and clear outlines. The 
author has evolved a system that is undeniably self- 
consistent and everywhere luminous ; in particular, 
the chapter on "personalising" and the chapter on 
versifying are admirably done. The weakness of the 
abstract system, when applied to poetry, lies in its 
antipathy to the spiritual qualities of high poesy. 
In his preface the author trusts that he may make 
us see more clearly the "morning radiance" that a 
good poem casts over life ; but too often, in the 
pages that follow, the morning radiance resembles 
the hard blue flame of the bunsen-burner. Poetry 
in a test-tube proves to be "a biological necessity" 
rather than "the breath and finer spirit of all 
knowledge." We watch the "raw material," the 
mental image, subjected to various processes until 
it is poured out upon a sheet of paper in the form 
of a genuine poem, Hence the formula, x +y + z 
= poem. That .the formula is correct is a fact that 
does not, somehow, enable us to read poetry with 
the "joyous yet discriminating " attitude which our 
author holds to be proper. The value of the book, 
indeed, resides, not in the lucid exposition of the 
mysteries of poetry, but in the thoughtful frame of 
mind that it induces in the reader. Too rarely do 
we think about poetry. 

In the preface to his book entitled 
" The Anarchists" (Lane), Mr. 
Ernest Alfred Vizetelly claims the 
unique merit of supplying "a history of their doings 
from the days of Baktinin." The history of a move- 
ment cannot well be written until the movement is 
past, and well past. This, Mr. Vizetelly argues, is 
clearly the case with Anarchism, or at any rate with 
that militant anarchism which pushed what was 
called "the Propaganda by Deed," and which was 
responsible for the deaths of Carnot and McKinley, 

King Humbert and the Empress Elizabeth, the last 
of which outrages occurred more than a decade ago. 
The assassination of the King of Portugal and his son 
was not due to Anarchists, the author is sure, but to 
Republicans. The long struggle between Socialism 
and Anarchism for the favor of the dissatisfied lower 
strata of society has already resulted decisively in 
favor of the former, and the world is to be saved 
not by abolishing government but by repressing the 
individual. The sub-title announces the author's in- 
tention of dealing both with the Anarchists' faith and 
with their record. The former is treated in a lumi- 
nous Introduction of twenty pages. The remainder 
of the book is a painstaking chronological account, 
carefully indexed, of all important and many unim- 
portant Anarchist manifestations, from the begin- 
nings of Bakiinin, who by a lifetime campaign in 
favor of violence earned the title of "the Father of 
Modern Anarchism." Everything is done with edi- 
fying detail : if the student wishes to know how much 
Meunier paid for rum at M. Vdry's restaurant in 
the Boulevard Magenta, or what Czolgosz had for 
breakfast on the day he paid the penalty for assas- 
sinating McKinley, this book has the information 
ready. There is, in fact, so much of detail and so 
little of generalization that it might be better to 
ignore the author's own classification and place it 
among the reference books, although there are 
pages which are breathlessly, if unpleasantly, inter- 
esting. Mr. Vizetelly, a great traveller with con- 
nections all over Europe, actually witnessed the 
killing of Carnot, as well as a number of the other 
incidents mentioned; and being, moreover, a man 
of catholic interests and unusual powers of observa- 
tion and retention, he furnishes an amazing amount 
of evidently first-hand information on the most vari- 
ous subjects related to his main theme. Anarchism 
might have found a more sympathetic historian, but 
scarcely a better informed one. 

A sheaf of The second volume of Mrs. William 

William Sharp's Sharp's uniform edition of her hus- 
uterarv papers. band ' s "Selected Writings" (Duf- 
field) bears the title " Studies and Appreciations," 
and is made up of nine critical essays on the son- 
net, on Shakespeare's sonnets, on great odes, Sainte- 
Beuve, some plays of Signor d'Annunzio, certain 
contemporary Italian poets, the modern troubadours, 
Brittany's heroic and legendary literature, and " la 
jeune Belgique" that have appeared as introduc- 
tions to or parts of other works, or in magazines. 
There is also a fragmentary outline sketch of a pro- 
jected treatise on "The Sevenfold Need in Litera- 
ture." These various papers date from the author's 
thirtieth to his forty-seventh year (1885 to 1902), 
and therefore may be said to represent the best of 
his scholarly and critical work, work which suffered 
some interruption from the intrusion, in 1894, of 
that secondary personality now known as " Fiona 
Macleod," and which was cut short by the author's 
death in 1905, in his fiftieth year. The scholarship, 
appreciation, and taste shown in these attractively 



[Sept. 1, 

A socialist of 
the French 

presented literary studies have probably won him 
more readers than have his romances, exquisite 
"prose poems" though these products of his other 
self are acknowledged to be. The spirit of his criti- 
cism is well indicated in a few words of his own, 
prefixed to the present volume : " When I speak of 
Criticism I have in mind not merely the more or less 
deft use of commentary or indication, but one of the 
several ways of literature, and in itself a rare and 
fine art : the marriage of science that knows and of 
spirit that discerns. The basis of Criticism is imag- 
ination, its spiritual quality is simplicity, its intellec- 
tual distinction is balance." In turning his pages 
one cannot but note his partiality to the more melo- 
dious or sensuous element in poetry, and his conse- 
quent fondness for Rossetti and Swinburne, the 
latter of whom he praises for his " magnificence of 
music and splendour of imagery." One might per- 
haps pardonably comment in passing on certain occa- 
sional mannerisms of Sharp's ; for instance, his use 
of the cumbrous circumlocutions " anterior to " and 
"posterior to," when he simply means "before" 
and "after," lacks the quality of " simplicity "which 
he himself so highly commends. The book supplies 
a need in gathering together in suitable form these 
excellent critical essays. 

" The Last Episode of the French 
Revolution " (Small, Maynard & Co.) 
is the somewhat questionable title 
which Mr. Ernest Belford Bax gives to his history 
of " Gracchus " Babeuf and the " Conspiracy of the 
Equals "; an ungrateful subject even for a radical 
writer, because the socialistic schemes of Babeuf were 
crude and his personality uninteresting. Mr. Bax 
undertook the task to carry out a wish expressed by 
the late William Morris that there might be in En- 
glish a reliable biography of Babeuf and a statement 
of his theories. Babeuf 's sole claim to distinction is 
as a precursor of the nineteenth-century socialists of 
the Blanquist type. Like some of the militant syndi- 
calists of the present day, he proposed to seize power 
and transform society by one great act of revolu- 
tionary violence, accompanied by a holocaust of the 
minions of the existing order. The Directory and 
the two Councils were to be " immediately judged 
by the people," and any official, high or low, who 
attempted any action whatever, should be slain, as 
well as foreigners found in the streets. Mr. Bax 
transcribes this from the "Act of Insurrection," but 
finds the informer Grisel's description of Babeuf as 
a " blood-thirsty tiger " unjustifiable ; as perhaps it 
was, for Babeuf seems to have been suffering from 
lack of imagination rather that from natural ferocity. 
Mr. Bax, however, takes a critical attitude toward 
his hero's notions of social reorganization, "as if," 
he says, " society could be voluntarily built up over- 
night, based on abstract concepts, and finished off 
in its details by the artistic sense of a few capable 
leaders." The conclusions of this book are based 
especially upon the journals and pronunciamentos of 
Babeuf and the narrative of Buonarroti, a fellow- 

conspirator. In the study of contemporary public 
opinion, Mr. Bax might well have used Professor 
Aulard's excerpts from the reports of the secret 
police, which would have guarded him against ac- 
cepting Babeuf's estimate of the strength of his 
following. The conspiracy seems to have collapsed 
amid public indifference. 

Old Testament That the Old Testament possesses 
resemblances in many characteristics in common with 
other literatures. other anc i ent or i en tal literature is 
clearly evident to any reader of Mr. R. W. Rogers's 
" Cuneiform Parallels to the Old Testament " (Eaton 
& Mains). The wide range of its mythological, 
literary, and historical material is paralleled in a 
marvellous manner by some of the choicest bits of 
ancient Sumerian, Assyrian, and Babylonian liter- 
ature. The creation of man and animals, the clash 
of good and evil, the stories of the deluge, have 
their counterpart in the mythology of the early 
inhabitants of Babylonia. Some of the far-famed 
mythologies of Greece and Rome are tame and com- 
monplace by the side of the Babylonian myths of 
Adapa, of Gilgamesh, of Ishtar's descent into Hades, 
and of Nergal and Ereshkigal. The hymns and 
prayers of those old Mesopotamean worthies and 
monarchs rank high in comparison with the psalms 
and wisdom elements of the Old Testament. They 
addressed the numerous deities of their pantheon, 
and have embodied in their prayers the chief attri- 
butes and powers of each deity. The chronological 
material supplied in the Babylonian and Assyrian 
lists is among the most useful in fixing some of the 
hitherto aggravating chronology of the Old Testa- 
ment. But the real wealth of the cuneiform literature 
for the Old Testament is found in the numerous his- 
torical texts reaching from Hammurabi of the first 
dynasty of Babylon, about 2000 B. c., down to Cyrus, 
538s. c. a period of nearly 1500 years. Of nearly 
all the translations, done anew in this volume, we 
have the transliterations in footnotes, and full refer- 
ences, to other treatments of the same text. Forty- 
eight half-tone plates and a map decorate and vivify 
the text, and help make this an indispensable new 
tool for students of the Old Testament. 

Rambling letters from a wayfarer 
^^ "Scented Isles and Coral Gar- 
dens," of Torres Straits, German 
NewGuinea, and the Dutch East Indies, are combined 
by Mr. C. D. Mackellar with accounts of travel along 
the Great Barrier Reef of Australia, and sojourns in 
Singapore, Macao, Hong-Kong, Canton, Shanghai, 
and Yokahoma. It is the traveller's Orient, with its 
more or less familiar stories, gathered afloat and 
ashore, which is here revealed. The picture of life 
aboard a coasting steamer flying the German flag is 
a more intimate account, as is also the portrayal of 
Conditions in German New Guinea in 1900, when the 
colonies were making their first considerable inroads 
upon the jungle and its head-hunters. The author 
is evidently a keenly observant traveller, quick to 




detect the whims and foibles of his fellow tourists, to 
criticize the political and industrial policy of Great 
Britain or, rather, of the English, for the writer 
never forgets that he is a Scot, to commend German 
enterprise, and to pass his casual comment upon the 
industrial, commercial, social, and political condi- 
tions and prospects of the communities and races 
with whom he came in contact. A considerable 
amount of guide-book information finds its way into 
the book, but this is everywhere enlivened by the 
colloquial style, or by anecdote, verse, or jest, so 
that the reader is loth to leave the tale. The illus- 
trations are abundant, and, barring the crudely 
colored plates, well executed ; but the type face and 
often over-crowded lines detract from the reader's 
pleasure in the use of the book. (Dutton.) 

No insects exhibit more beautiful col- 
moSoii" ors and color patterns than the moths, 

especially the large night-flying ones ; 
and few animals offer so entrancing a field for the 
amateur naturalist to pry into the secrets of nature 
and not only to bring to light worlds of hidden and 
unsuspected beauty but also to add to the sum of 
human knowledge. Mrs. Gene Stratton-Porter, in 
her "Moths of the Limberlost" (Doubleday), has 
rendered both services for these too little-known but 
very interesting creatures. No one can read her full 
accounts of her experiences with them, in egg, cat- 
erpillar, pupa, and full-blown moth stages, without 
catching her enthusiasm and straightway wishing for 
a swamp equalling the Limberlost in its treasures. 
The illustrations are abundant, though some of the 
plates of scenery are scarcely germane to the work. 
The coloration in most of the reproductions of the 
moths and caterpillars is excellent, although in 
some instances a certain haziness, due to technique, 
obscures details. Some crudities should have been 
eliminated in editing, as, for example, the use of 
"organism" for organ, of "close "for close to, as 
well as certain grammatical inaccuracies. The au- 
thor exhibits a fine scorn for the scientist and his 
shortcomings, and holds a brief for the nature-lover. 
Her observations are scientifically valuable, however, 
her narrative is entertaining, her enthusiasm catch- 
ing, and her revelations so stimulating that one 
readily forgives some minor defects in bookmaking. 


Professor James W. Garner's " Government in the 
United States, National, State, and Local " (American 
Book Co.) is a high-school text book of the typical sort. 
It emphasizes the actual workings of government, and 
in its " research questions " puts a good many subjects 
for discussion and argument up to the student. 

Before one begins a serious and systematic study of 
social science he may be helped on his way by a concise 
sketch which will indicate the general direction he must 
take and the value of the study in relation to his own 
activities and interests. But such a sketch is by no 
means a substitute for scientific investigation of the 

fundamental principles of economics, sociology, and law. 
The experience of Mr. William M. Balch, author of 
"Christianity and the Labor Movement" (Sherman, 
French & Co.), has enabled him to interpret the subject 
to religious persons who have not studied it in a sys- 
tematic way, and he has done his work in a clear and 
forcible style. 

" Modern Drama and Opera " is a reference reading 
list piiblished by the Boston Book Co., and prepared by 
Mrs. Clara Norton, Mr. Frank K. Walter, and Miss 
Fanny Elsie Marquand. Texts and critical reviews are 
listed upon the following authors: D'Annunzio, Haupt- 
mann, Ibsen, Jones, Maeterlinck, Phillips, Pinero, Ros- 
tand, Shaw, Sudermann, Debussy, Puccini, and Richard 

In a volume styled "The Poet's Song of Poets" 
(Badger), Mrs. Anna Sheldon Camp Sneath does once 
more what has been done several times already 
collects into an anthology the best-known pieces "in 
which the poets express their appreciation and estimate 
of their fellow poets." The subjects of these estimates 
range through English literature from Chaucer to 

The sixteenth chapter of Dr. C. Alphonso Smith's 
Amerikanische Literatur (already fully reviewed in these 
columns) is perhaps the most interesting in the entire 
book. It is a luminous discussion of the structure, 
philosophy, and history of the American short story. 
A translation of this chapter into English has been pub- 
lished separately by Messrs. Ginn & Co., and should 
find a welcome both with general readers and in the 
college classroom. 

Andrew Lang's last book, the history of English lit- 
erature announced a few days before his death, was for- 
tunately finished before the pen fell from his hand, and 
proves to be a volume of 700 pages (Longmans), 
written with the author's characteristic lightness of 
touch and easy command of his theme, but also with 
those occasional slight misstatements and questionable 
judgments which could hardly fail to appear in the 
pages of so rapid and prolific a writer. His assertion 
that Emerson is now a dead factor in American litera- 
ture will evoke quick contradiction from not a few of 
his readers; and his passing misquotation from Long- 
fellow's " Psalm of Life " will be noted, with other slips 
of a similar sort, as justifying the " Athenaeum " in its 
recent reference to the demon of inaccuracy that so 
often sat at his side. But any Dryasdust can give us 
accuracy of detail ; only here and there a writer can 
charm us into indifference toward such small matters. 

Miss Jennette E. C. Lincoln's researches in the open- 
air revels and games of Old England, and the application 
of the results of her researches to her work as instructor 
in physical culture, have well prepared her for the pro- 
duction of "The Festival Book, May- Day Pastimes, 
and the May Pole " (A. S. Barnes Co.), which will be 
found exceedingly helpful by all who are trying to 
make the out-door life of the young healthful and beau- 
tiful. The brief introductory chapter gives enough of a 
historical setting to stimulate interest in this form of 
pastime; and to the materials derived from England in 
its pleasure-loving days have been added accounts of 
some folk dances from Sweden, Scotland, and elsewhere. 
By means of illustrations, diagrams, music, and minute 
instructions as to costumes, etc., the beauties and plea- 
sures of the open-air pageant and festival are brought 
within the possibilities of all. 



[Sept. 1, 


A study of "Modern Italian Literature," by Mr. 
Lacy Collison-Morley, appears on Messrs. Little, Brown, 
& Co.'s autumn list. 

New volumes of essays by Samuel McChord Crothers, 
Bliss Perry, Agnes Repplier, John Burroughs, and 
Meredith Nicholson are an attractive feature of Hough- 
ton Mifflin Co.'s autumn list. 

Mr. Charles H. Caffin, author of " How to Study Pic- 
tures," etc., has been abroad gathering material for his 
book on " The Story of British Painting," which will be 
one of the Century Co.'s fall issues. 

Yoshio Markino, the author of " A Japanese Artist 
in London," is writing another volume, " When I Was 
a Child," which describes his youth in his native coun- 
try and dwells on the training and education of Jap- 
anese children. 

Two literary biographies of exceptional interest, to 
be issued shortly by Houghton Mifflin Co., are " The 
Three Brontes," by Miss May Sinclair; and the Life 
and Letters of John Bickman, friend of Charles Lamb, 
by Mr. Orlo Williams. 

Mr. Clayton Sedgwick Cooper has put the fruit of 
much travel among educational institutions, both in this 
country and abroad, and of study of college conditions, 
into a book entitled " Why Go to College," which the 
Century Co. will issue during the fall. 

" London Lavender " is the title of a new novel by 
Mr. E. V. Lucas, which the Macmillan Co. will publish 
during the autumn. The same house also announces 
another of Mr. Lucas's well-known " Wanderer " books 
this time " A Wanderer in Florence." 

A pocket edition of the romances of The'ophile 
Gautier, as translated and edited by Professor F. C. de 
Sumichrast, will be published in ten volumes by Messrs. 
Little, Brown, & Co. Uniform with this set will appear 
Gautier's books of travel, in seven volumes. 

A volume of hitherto unpublished letters by Ulysses 
S. Grant will be issued during the autumn by Messrs. 
G. P. Putnam's Sons. They were written by Grant to 
his father and his youngest sister during the months 
preceding the Civil War and during the years of cam- 

A new novel by Gerhardt Hauptmann, entitled 
" Atlantis," is announced for early publication by Mr. 
B. W. Huebsch. At the same time there will be issued 
by the same publisher Volume I. of an authorized 
complete edition of Hauptmann's plays, edited by Mr. 
Ludwig Lewisohn. 

To his excellent series of critical studies of modern 
authors, Mr. Mitchell Kennerley will add five new vol- 
umes during the next few months, the subjects and au- 
thors being as follows: Thomas Hardy, by Lascelles 
Abercrombie; Walter Pater, by Edward Thomas; Wil- 
liam Morris, by John Drinkwater; A. C. Swinburne, 
by Edward Thomas; George Gissing, by Frank Swin- 

A record of American publishing that should rival in 
interest Mr. J. Henry Harper's account of " The House 
of Harper " is announced for autumn issue in " A 
Memoir of George Palmer Putnam; together with a 
Record of the Earlier Years of the Publishing House 
Founded by Him." The author of the work is Mr. 
George Haven Putnam, the present head of the house 
of Putnam. 

A gift-book possessing something more than transient 
value and interest is " The Modern Reader's Chaucer," 
which the Macmillan Co. has in active preparation. The 
volume will comprise Chaucer's complete poetical works, 
newly rendered into modern English by Messrs. John 
S. P. Tatlock and Percy MacKaye. A series of thirty- 
two full-page illustrations in color will be contributed 
by Mr. Warwick Goble. 

"My Friends at Brook Farm," an illustrated volume 
of memories by Mr. John Van Der Zee Sears, will be 
issued this month by Desmond FitzGerald, Inc. The 
author, one of the few survivors of the Brook Farm 
Association, gives his personal recollections of his asso- 
ciates in this movement, including such celebrities as 
Emerson, Hawthorne, Horace Greeley, Margaret Fuller, 
George Ripley, Charles A. Dana, and many others. 

What will undoubtedly prove " the book of the sea- 
son" is announced by Messrs. Seribner in "The Letters 
of George Meredith," edited by his son. These letters 
extend over some fifty years, beginning except for a 
few scattered notes from his boyhood about 1858, 
when Meredith was thirty years old, and after his first 
marriage. Among his correspondents are included his 
life-long friends, John Morley and Admiral Maxse, 
besides Frederick Greenwood, Chapman the publisher, 
Leslie Stephen, Robert Louis Stevenson, Trevelyan, and 
many others, besides a group of family friends and some 
of the members of his own household. 


September, 1912. 

American Forum, The. French Strother . World's Work 
American Impressions VI. Arnold Bennett . Harper. 
Anglo-American Memories, Some. C. M. Francis. Bookman. 
Art Schools, Some, and Art Students. Dorothy 

Furniss Bookman. 

Bryan, Mr. Ellery Sedgwick Atlantic. 

Chicago and Baltimore American. 

Citizen, The Automatic. T. R. Marshall . . . Atlantic. 
College Life To-Day. R. S. Bourne . . North American. 
Commission Government, Real Problem of. 

Oswald Ryan Popular Science. 

Community Control in Canada. E. E. Ferris. World's Work. 
Compiegne, Enchanting Forest of . Lillie H.French. Century. 
Confederacy. Sunset of the VII. Morris Schaff. Atlantic. 
Continental Visits, Some. Madame de Hegermann- 

Lindencrone Harper. 

Conventions, The Two, at Chicago. R. H. Davis. Seribner. 
Cooperator's Big Dollar. F. P. Stockbridge. World's Work. 
Cosmopolitanism and Catholicism. R.H.Benson. No. Amer. 
Democracy in Europe. S. P. Orth . . . North American. 
Dreams, New Interpretation of. Samuel McComb. Century. 
Economic Orthodoxy, Revival of. S. M. Patten. Pop. Sci. 

Fagan, James O., Autobiography of Atlantic. 

French, The, in the Heart of America. JohnFinley. Seribner. 
Hawaii, Holidays in. John Burroughs .... Century. 
High Cost of Living. B. F. Yoakum . . World's Work. 
Homes, American. Ida M. Tarbell .... American. 
Hookworm and Civilization. W. H. Page. World's Work. 
Hunger, The Nature of. W. B. Cannon. Popular Science. 
Ibsen and Company on the Japanese Stage. Yone 

Noguchi Bookman. 

Imagination in Business, Uses of. T. S. Knowlson. Century. 
Italian Gardens, Two. M. D. Armstrong . . . Atlantic. 

Japanese, The. Arthur M. Knapp Atlantic. 

Japan's Late Emperor and His Successor. Adachi 

Kinnosuke Review of Beviews. 

Johnson, Hiram, Political Revivalist . Review of Reviews. 
Labor, The Efficiency of. C. B. Going. Review of Reviews. 
Lang, Andrew. Stuart Henry Bookman, 




Lang, Andrew, and His Work. J. R. Foster. Rev. of Revs. 
Lincoln, Anecdotes of. Helen Nicolay .... Century. 
Lion-Hunting. Stewart Edward White . . . American. 
Marcgrave, George. E. W. Gudger . . Popular Science. 
Medicine, Research in. R. M. Pearce. . Popular Science. 
Memories, Some Early. Henry Cabot Lodge . . Scribner. 

Meredith, George, Letters of II Scribner. 

Meses, Wind-Graved, and Their Message. C. R. 

Keyes Popular Science. 

Munich, Literary. Amelia Von Ende .... Bookman. 
Mutsuhito the Great. W. E. Griffis . . North American. 
National Contribution, A. Edith Wyatt. North American. 
New York, Picturesque III. F. Hopkinson 

Smith World's Work. 

Orinoco, Upper, Adventuring along the. Caspar 

Whitney Harper. 

Painter-Etching, American. F. Weitenkampf . Scribner. 
Panama Canal, The Family and the. Mary G. 

Humphreys Scribner. 

Party Alignment, Logic of the Coming. Jesse 

Macy Review of Reviews. 

Peace-Education and Peace. Sir Francis Vane. American. 
Phantoms behind Us. John Burroughs. North American. 
Play, a Good What It Is. Walter P. Eaton . American. 
Poe, Poet of the Night. La Salle C. Pickett . Lippincott. 
Political Situation, The. George Harvey. North American. 
Progressives at Chicago. William Menkel . Rev. of Revs. 
Publicity and Trusts. Robert Luce . Review of Reviews. 
Railroads, Regulation of. J. S. Pardee .... American. 
Rhodesia : The Last Frontier. E. A. Powell . . Scribner. 
Rome, Contemporaneousness of. S. M. Crothers. Atlantic. 
Roosevelt's Character, Keynote of . B. Gilman. Rev. of Revs. 
Rural Problem, The, and the Country Minister. 

J. W. Strout . , Atlantic. 

Saranac Lake, Sanitary. Stephen Chalmers. World's Work. 
Science, In the Noon of. John Burroughs . . . Atlantic. 
Scientific Management, Moral Value of. W. C. Redfield. Ail. 
Securities of Public Service Corporations. E. S. 

Meade Lippincott. 

Shakespeare and Others, Translations of. Arthur 

Benington North American. 

Socialism and the American Farmer. Charles 

Johnston North American. 

Spirals, Story of the. Edward A. Fath .... Century. 
Sun-Storms and the Earth. E. W. Maunder . . Harper. 
Teacher of Politics, A Great .... Review of Reviews . 
Telepathy Is It a Fact or a Delusion ? J. B. 

Quackenbos North American. 

Tennessee Mountains, Literary Life in the. 

Montrose J. Moses Bookman. 

Trouville A Paris by the Sea. Harrison Rhodes. Harper. 
Turgenief : The Man. P. S. Moxom . . North American. 
Twain, Mark XI. Albert Bigelow Paine . . . Harper. 
Vocational Schools. John Mills .... Popular Science. 
Wage-Earners and the Tariff. W. Jett Lauck . Atlantic. 
West Point, A Plebe's Life at. W. S. Sample. Lippincott. 

Wilson Taft Roosevelt World's Work. 

Working One's Way through College. Joseph 

Ellner Review of Reviews. 


[The following list, containing 55 titles, includes books 
received by THE DIAL since its last issue.] 


Fifty Years of Prison Service: An Autobiography. By 
Zebulon Reed Brockway. Illustrated, 12mo, 437 pages. New 
York : Charities Publication Committee. $2. net. 

The Ruin of a Princess as Told by the Duchess d'Angouleme, 
Madame Elizabeth, Sister of Louis XVI., and Clery, the 
King's Valet de Chambre; literally translated by Katharine 
Prescott Wormeley. Illustrated in photogravure, 8vo, 329 
pages. New York : Lamb Publishing Co. $3. net. 

Illustrious Dames of the Court of the Valois Kings. By 
Pierre de Bourdeille and C. A. Sainte-Beuve ; literally trans- 
lated by Katharine Prescott Wormeley. Illustrated in pho- 
gravure, 8vo, 308 pages. New York: Lamb Publishing Co. 

The Life and Speeches of Charles Brant ley Ay cock. By 
R. D. W. Connor and Clarence Poe. Illustrated, 12mo, 369 
pages. Doubleday, Page & Co. 


In Old South Hadley. By Sophie E.Eastman. Illustrated, 8vo, 
221 pages. Springfield : H. R. Huntting Co., Inc. $2.50 net. 

The Leading- Facts of New Mexican History. By Ralph 
Emerson Twitchell, Esq. Volume II. ; illustrated in photo- 
gravure, etc., large 8vo, 631 pages. Cedar Rapids: Torch 
Press. $6. net. 

Ancient Assyria. By C. H. W. Johns, Litt. D. Illustrated, 
12mo, 175 pages. " Cambridge Manuals of Science and Lit- 
erature." G. P. Putnam's Sons. 40 cts. net. 


A Mount Holyoke Book of Prose and Verse. Edited by 
Elizabeth Crane Porter, 1909, and Frances Lester Warner, 
1911. 12mo, 176 pages. Cambridge: Riverside Press. $1.35. 

Outlines of the History of German Literature. By J. G. 
Robertson. 12mo, 320 pages. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.35 net. 

The Hamlet Problem and Its Solution. By Emerson Ven- 
able. 12mo. 106 pages. Stewart & Kidd Co. $1. net. 

Shakespeare's Richard the Second. Edited, with Introduc- 
tion and Appendixes, by Henry Newbolt. 12mo, 172 pages. 
Oxford University Press. 

Poems of Love and Death. By John Drinkwater. 12mo.. 

63 pages. London : David Nutt. 
Interpretations : A Book of First Poems. By Zoe Akins. 12mo,. 

120 pages. Mitchell Kennerley. $1.25 net. 

A Woman of Genius. By Mary Austin. 12mo, 510 pages. 

Doubleday, Page & Co. $1.35 net. 
May Iverson Tackles Life. By Elizabeth Jordan. Illustrated, 

12mo, 246 pages. Harper & Brothers. $1.25 net. 
Their Yesterdays. By Harold Bell Wright. Illustrated in 

color, 12mo, 311 pages. Chicago : Book Supply Co. $1.30 net. 
My Lady's Garter. By Jacques Futrelle. Illustrated, I2mo, 

332 pages. Rand, McNally & Co. $1.35 net. 
Where There 's a Will. By Mary Roberts Rinehart. Illus- 
trated, 12mo, 352 pages. Bobbs-Merrill Co. $1.30 net. 
" C. Q,." ; or, In the Wireless House. By Arthur Train. 

Illustrated. 12mo, 301 pages. Century Co. $1.20 net. 
The Marshal. By Mary Raymond Shipman Andrews. Illus- 
trated, 12mo, 422 pages. Bobbs-Merrill Co. $1.35 net. 
The Moth. By William Dana Orcutt. With frontispiece, 12mo, 

335 pages. Harper & Brothers. $1.30 net. 
The Woman. By Albert Payson Terhune ; founded on William 

C. de Mille's play of the same name. Illustrated, 12mo, 342 

pages. Bobbs-Merrill Co. $1.25 net. 
The Secret of Lonesome Cove. By Samuel Hopkins Adams. 

Illustrated. 12mo, 340 pages. Bobbs-Merrill Co. $1.25 net. 
The Court of St. Simon. By Anthony Partridge. Illustrated, 

12mo, 340 pages. Little, Brown & Co. $1.25 net. 
TheJing-o. By George Randolph Chester. Illustrated, 12mo, 

393 pages. Bobbs-Merrill Co. $t.35net. 
The Red Button. ByWilllrwin. Illustrated, 12mo, 370 pages. 

Bobbs-Merrill Co. $1.30 net. 
The Master of Mysteries : Being an account of the problems 

solved by Astro, seer of secrets, and his love affair with 

Valeska Wynne, his assistant. Illustrated, 12mo, 480 pages. 

Bobbs-Merrill Co. $1.35 net. 
The Prelude to Adventure. By Hugh Walpole. 12mo, 308 

pages. Century Co. $1.20 net. 

The Gift of Abou Hassan. By Francis Perry Elliott. Illus- 
trated. 12mo, 314 pages. Little, Brown & Co. $1.25 net. 
The Midlanders. By Charles Tenney Jackson. Illustrated, 

12mo, 386 pages. Bobbs-Merrill Co. $1.35 net. 
His TJncle's Wife. By Ruth Neuberger. 12mo, 175 pages. 

New York: Alice Harriman Co. $1. net. 
Miss 318 and Mr. 37. By Rupert Hughes. Illustrated, 12mo, 

128 pages. Fleming H. Re veil Co. 
Scuffles. By Sally Nelson Robins. Illustrated, 12mo, 207 pages. 

New York: Alice Harriman Co. $1. net. 



[Sept. 1, 

The Courts, The Constitution and Parties : Studies in 

Constitutional History and Politics. By Andrew C, 

McLaughlin . 12mo , 299 pages. University of Chicago Press. 

$1.50 net. 
Woman in Modern Society. By Earl Barnes. 12mo, 257 

pages. B. W. Huebsch. $1.25 net. 

Outlines of Evolutionary Biologry. By Arthur Bendy, 

P.R.S. Illustrated, 8vo. D. Appleton & Co. $3.50 net. 
A Popular Guide to Minerals. By L. P. Gratacap, A.M. 

Illustrated. 8vo, 330 pages. D. Van Nostrand Co. $3. net. 
Microbes and Toxins. By Dr. Btienne Burnet ; with Preface 

by Blie Metchinkoff ; translated from the French by Dr. 

Charles Brouquet and W. M. Scott, M.D. Illustrated, 8vo, 

316 pages. " Science Series." G. P. Putnum's Sons. $2. net. 
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152 THE DIAL [Sept. 16, 





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1912.] THE DIAL 153 


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[Sept. 16, 


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New illustrated holiday edition of Jeffery Farnol's master- 
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A handsome volume, describing old-time houses and their 
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Treats of the life and customs of the Swiss people. Fully 
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Revives vanished scenes and fascinating 1 people. Fully 
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Players' edition of Miss Alcott's masterpiece. With 12 illus- 
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Popular edition of a favorite work that " gives a striking 
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The private diary of a life-long friend of Louis Napoleon. 
Fully illustrated. 2 vols., Svo, gilt top, $6.00 net; by 
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Rich in material, illuminating the St. Helena period. 
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A masterly work on an important event in history. With 
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A companion volume to " The Boston Cooking-School Cook 
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A valuable addition to the folklore of America. 8vo,$300nel ; 
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The first American text-book on the subject. Fully illus- 
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SHAKESPEARE Pocket Edition. 

Richard- Grant White's authoritative text; edited by 
MAN. With is photogravure plates. 12 vols., Iftmo, full 
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A genuine biography of a striking personality. Photogra- 
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An invaluable book on Italian literature of the eighteenth 
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Covers the whole ground in due proportion and in a read- 
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Translated and edited by Professor F. C. DE SUMICHRAST, 
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A powerful story of present-day life in New York and French 
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[Sept. 16, 





The eventful career of an athletic American boy at an Wherein Bunny goes aviating to the moon. For children 

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color. 75 cents net; by mail, 83 cents. 



Romantic life stories of famous people. For children 10 
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Two new titles in this favorite series that depict child life in various parts of the world. Illustrated. GO cents each. 





Some Noteworthy Fall Books 

Travel and Description 


Its Social, Historical and Literary Associa- 
tions. A companion volume to INNS AND 

By Henry C. Shelley 

An^ account of the famous cabarets, hotels, 
cafes, salons, clubs, pleasure gardens, fairs and 
fetes, and the theatres of the French capital of 
bygone times. 

Boxed, net $3.00; postpaid $3.20. 


By Caroline Atwater Mason 

" The particular charm of this volume is in its treatment of 
the attractive features of Old France." Edwin L. Shuman. 



By Albert C. Addison 

A companion volume to THE ROMANTIC 

Many illustrations. 
Net $2.50; postpaid $2.70. 


By Julia De W. Addison 

"A book which makes one feel that peculiar spell of legend, 
history and modern progress inextricably blended, which is 
characteristic of England," Boston Herald. 

Each, illustrated, boxed. Net $2.50; postpaid, $2.70. 


By Henry C. Lahee 

A timely account of the grand opera singers at present before the public, with biographical and critical accounts of the 
leading singers of today. With many illustrations from photographs. Net $2.50; postpaid $2.70. 

Worth While Fiction 

By L. M. Montgomery, Author of "Anne of Green Gables," etc. 

"The chronicles possess real alluring charm and are filled with whimsical, searching humor and quaint delightful char- 
acters whose doings are bound to cause both smiles and tears to almost any reader." Boston Globe. 

Illustrated. Net $1.25; postpaid $1.1,0. 


By Eleanor H. Porter 

"A sequel to the delightful MISS BILLY, and a sequel 
happily to be sought," says the Neio York World. 
" Thoroughly readable and as clean and sweet as a day in 

Each, illustrated, net $1.25; postpaid $1.1,0. 


An Account of the Adventures of Eleanor Channing and 
John Starbuck. By Jacob Fisher 
A strong human story that relates, amid intensely dramatic 
scenes, the experiences of an ultra conservative Boston girl. 
It deals with strong characters and calls forth circum- 
stances where custom counts for nothing. 

By Will Allen Dromgoole 

"A charming portrayal of the attractive life of the South. 
Refreshing as a breeze that blows through a pine forest." 
Illustrated. Net $1.25; postpaid, $1. 1,0. 

THE HONEY POT; or, In the Garden of Inez 
By Norval Richardson, 

Author of "The Lead of Honour." 

Picturesque Mexico is the setting for this fascinating love 
comedy. Illustrated. Net $1.00; postpaid, $1.15. 

For Young Readers 


By Caroline E. Jacobs and Edyth E. Read 

The book's heroine has the very finest kind of wholesome, 
honest, lively girlishness. 


By Harriet Lummis Smith 

A book sure to please girl readers, for the author seems to 
understand perfectly the girl character. 

By Louise M. Breitenbach 

A delightful story of boarding school life, which is told with 
all the natural charm that comes from knowledge of what 
girls do while away at school. 

Each, illustrated, $1.50. 


By Harrison Adams 

The first volume of a new series for boys, entitled 
Young Pioneer Series. Illustrated. 


A new volume in the Boys' Story of the Railroad Series. 
By Burton E. Stevenson 

"A better series for boys has never left an American press." 
Springfield Union. Illustrated. $1.50. 

By Marion Ames Taggart 

A new volume in the popular Doctor's Little Girl Series. 
"A charming story of the ups and downs of the life of a dear 
little maid." The Churchman. Illustrated. $1.50. 











[Sept. 16, 




Adventuring on the Great Rivers of South America 

By CASPAR WHITNEY. 24 inserts and maps. 8vo. Cloth, 

$3.00 net ; postpaid $3 25. 


By the Rev. JAMES SIBREE. Fully illustrated by photo- 
graphs and block plans. 2 volumes. 8vo. Cloth, $2.50 net. 


By A. RADCLIFFE DUGMORE. F R.G.S. Illus. 8vo. Cloth. 


By E. KEBLE CHATTERTON. Illustrated. Large 12mo. 
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A Civil Servant's Recollections and Impressions of 
Thirty-Seven Years of Work and Sport in the Central 
Province of Bengal. 

By Sir ANDREW H. L. FRASER, K.C.S.I. Ex-Lieutenant- 
Governor of the Province of Bengal. Illustrated. 8vo, 
Cloth, $1 50 net. 


By ADOLPHE SMITH. Illustrated in color and black and 
white. 8vo. Cloth. 



By BARON DE MENEVAL. 6 illustrations in collotype. 
8vo. Buckram, gilt. $2.50 net. 


Autobiographical Sketch and Narrative of the War 
Between the States. With Introductory Notes by R. H. 
Early. Illustrated. 8vo. Cloth, $3.50 net ; postpaid $3 75. 


By K. WALISZEWSKI. 8vo. Cloth, $4.00 net. 


By JEROME A. HART. Illustrated. 8vo. Cloth, $2.50 net; 
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LIPPINCOTT. 8vo. Decorated cover, about fifty-five illus- 
trations, gilt top, uncut, in a slip case $5.00 net; post- 
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By EDITH TUNIS SALE. About fifty-five illustrations. 
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paid $5.25. 


By Mrs. LA SALLE CORBELL PICKETT. 16 inserts. 12mo. 
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By W. J. LAWRENCE. 8vo. Cloth, $3.50 net. 


By Mrs. JOHNSTONS CHRISTIE. 12mo. Cloth, $1.50 net; 
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Reminiscences of a Society Palmist, including Interviews 
with the Greatest Celebrities of the Day 

Illustrated with photographs. 8vo. Cloth, $2.00 net. 


Being an Attempt to Illustrate Certain Americanisms 
Upon Historical Principles. 

By RICHARD H. THORNTON of the Philadelphia Bar ; Law 
Professor in the University of Oregon, 1884-1905. Illus- 
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A Brief Outline of His Life and Work. 

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By J. C. STOBART. Profusely illustrated. 8vo. Cloth, 
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By JEAN LARAN and GEORGES LE BAS. With an Intro- 
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By CAROLINE LOCKHART. author of " Me Smith." Illus- 
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LQRNA DOONE A Romance of Exmoor 

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By ROBERT CHAMBERS. LL.D. 30 original drawings in 
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By DACRE ADAMS. Flat 8vo. Bound in picture boards. 

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EOTHEN; Or Traces of Travel Brought Home from the East 

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By HANDASYDE (Miss EMILY H. BUCHANAN). Illustrated. 

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By Dr. EEINHARD BBAUNS. Translated, with Additions, 

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color). 275 figures in the text. 450 pages. Demy quarto. 

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By HENRY E. KNIPE. 56 illustrations. Svo. Cloth, 

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Their History and Their Evolution. 

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Done out of the French. 

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48 Colored illustrations from famous paintings by the 
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Hoists Cranes Derricks. 

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By HENRY DROOP RICHMOND, F.I.C. This is a new edition 

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By MABEL LOUISE KEECH. 5 full-page illustrations and 
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A Manual of Psychology Presenting the Clinical Examin- 
ations and Treatment of Backward Children. 

By Dr. ARTHUR HOLMES, of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania. To be issued as Volume X. Lippincott's Educa- 
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By LOUISE STEVENS BRYANT of the Psychological Clinic, 
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A Report Upon Current Educational Movements 
Throughout the World. 

intendent of Public Schools of Philadelphia. IN 
Martin G. Brumbaugh. 12mo. Cloth, $1.25 net. 


By HOMER P. LEWIS, Superintendent of Public Schools, 
Worcester, Mass., and ELIZABETH LEWIS. Profusely 
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By CHARLES MORRIS. Illus. 12mo. Cloth, 75 cents net. 


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By H. C. JONES. F.I.C. Illus. 12mo. Cloth. $1.50 net. 

By ALEXANDER BRYCE, M.D. New Popular Edition. 
Illustrated. 12mo. Cloth, $1.00 net. 

160 THE DIAL,' [Sept. 16, 


The White Shield B y MYRTLE REED 

Frontispiece in color and 4 other illustrations by Dalton Stevens. Beautifully printed and bound. 
Cloth. Net $1.50. By mail, $1.65. 

This charming book reflects the characteristics of the writer; the same vivid imagination, the quick tran- 
sition from pathos to humor, the facility of utterance, the wholesome sentiment, the purity of thought, the 
delicacy of touch, the spontaneous wit which has endeared her to over a million readers, are here freely 

Through the Postern Gate B * FLORENCE L. BARCLAY 
i iirougii me r ub tern vidie Author of The Rosary ,.. < Under the Muibemr Tree - 

A Romance in Seven Days. Sixth Printing. Nine illustrations in color by F. H. Townsend. 
$1.35 net. By mail, $1.50. 

" A sweet and appealing live story told in a wholesome, simple way. . . . Will warm the heart with its 
sweet and straightforward story of life and love in a romantic setting." Literary Digest. 


Frontispiece in color by John Cassel. $1.25 net. By mail, $1.40. 

A more thrilling detective story has seldom appeared. Every page teems with incidents, forming a suc- 
cession of dramatic scenes that will keep the reader's interest at white heat throughout. 

Shenandoah By HENRY TYRRELL 

Love and War in the Valley of Virginia. 16 illustrations by Harry Ogden, John H. Cassel, and 

A thrilling and racy story of love, war, patriotism, and adventure, in a vivid historical and scenic setting- 
Based upon the famous play hy Bronson Howard which has held undiminished popularity on the stage for 
over a quarter of a century. 

With the Merry Austrians B 

$1.25 net. By mail, $1.40. 

For the setting of this charming love story Miss McLaren takes the reader to the Austrian Tyrol, but her 
touch is no less sure, her local color no less faithful, and her story no less fascinating than when she is 
weaving romance about her northern countrymen and the heaths of Scotland. A delightful vein of humor 
runs sparkling through the volume and many a long chuckle is vouchsafed the reader. 

Bubbles of Foam s y F. w. BAIN 

Translated from the Original Manuscript. Illustrated. $1.25 net. By mail, $1.40. 

Mr. Bain's books are of permanent importance not only as romance, but as shrewd and trustworthy analyses 
of the Oriental mind and the Oriental imagination. 

The Blackberry Pickers B y EVELYN ST. LEGER 

$1.25 net. By mail, $1.40. 

The story is rich in keen and intimate portrayal of human experience, high idealism, and unwavering 
religious faith. The scenes are vividly presented and are drawn by no hesitating hand. 

2, 4 and 6 W. 45th St. 
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24 Bedford St. 






The Story of the Bronx 

From the purchase made by the Dutch from the Indians in 1639 to the present day. 


Author of " The Greatest Street in the World Broadway." 8vo. With over 100 illustrations and maps> 

$3.50 net; by mail, $3.75. 

The romantic history of the northern section of Greater New York from the days of Jonas Bronk, after whom the 
Bronx was named, through the centuries crowded with events that have issued into the present. The geographical 
landmarks acquire a new significance as around them this accurate historian of local events and conditions weaves 
the substantial fabric of fact and more sparingly the lighter web of tradition. 

Little Cities of Italy 


Translated by Helen Gerard. 8vo. 40 illustrations. $2.50 net; 
by mail, 12.75. 


These little sketches will open new and charming fields of 
interest. M. Maurel has wandered from town to town, 
painting in vivid colors his impressions of their historical 
and artistic aspects, showing with keen insight how closely 
allied are these, what each owes to the other, and how in- 
debted is the present to both. 

The Japanese Nation 


With Special Consideration to Its Relation with the 

United States. 

Professor in the Imperial University of Tokyo, author of 

" Bushida." Crown 8vo. $1.50 net; by mail, fi.65. 
A thorough study of Japan by one of her foremost scholars. 
It is one of the very few existing accounts of this much, mis- 
understood nation. The book is thoroughly vital, infused 
with thought, brilliant in style, and should prove service- 
able to all who want to arrive at a true impression of the 
Japanese people. 

The Hoosac Valley Its Legends and Its History 


8vo. With 110 illustrations and maps. $3.50 net ; by mail, $3.75. 

The early history of the Hoosac Valley is inextricably interwoven with that of the very foundation of our Great 
Republic. Miss Niles's purpose is not to furnish new pages for history, but rather to present the story of beginnings 
in historic Hoosac in its true relation to the world's great history. A mass of legendary material hitherto uncollected, 
together with profuse illustrations of Revolutionary heroes and historic fields, combine to make the volume valuable 
and attractive, not only to the residents of the Hoosac and Wallomsac country, but to all students of American history 

Thy Rod and Thy Staff 


Author of " The College Window." f 1.50 net ; by mail, $1.65. 
" Once more Mr. Benson has put forth one of his appealing 
and eloquent studies in human motive ; and once more, he 
has succeeded, with unfailing certainty of touch, in getting 
out of his study a remarkable and impressive effect." 

In the last of his books, which dealt with personal experi- 
ences, " The Silent Isle," the author promised the reader 
that he would some day tell how it was that the pleasant 
design that he had set for himself failed. The present book 
is the fulfilment of that promise. 

The Letters of Ulysses S. Grant 

Edited by His Nephew 

With portrait. About $2.00 net. 

In this volume have been gathered together the letters that 
Grant wrote to his father and his youngest sister during 
the anxious months preceding the Civil War and during the 
strenuous years of campaigning. It is a human document 
of rare value a revelation ef character as well as a record 
of military achievement. 

The Romance of Leonardo da Vinci 


Author of " The Death of the Gods," " Peter and Alexis," " Tolstoi as Man and Artist," etc. 
Exclusively Authorized Translation from the Russian by Herbert French 

New Edition, entirely reset. 2 vols., with 64 illustrations. 8vo. $5.00 net; by mail, $5.50. 

l ' It amazes, while it wholly charms, by the power of imagery, the glowing fancy, the earnestness and enthusiasm 
with which the writer conjures Italy of the Renaissance from the past into the living light.'' London World. 

2, 4 and 6 W. 45th St. 
27 and 29 W. 23d St. 


24 Bedford St. 




[Sept. 16, 

The Century Co. *s Fall List 






An authoritative and helpful handbook for both the experienced and amateur collector; 
delightful reading for all who would have an intelligent appreciation of the value and 
sentiment of " old things." 

Charming head-bands and tail-pieces by Alfred Brennan. Eighty interesting insets from 
photographs. 8vo, 600 pages. $2.40 net; postage 16 cents. 



Essays on engravers and etchers, odd and modern, by notable authorities. A volume 
exquisite in every detail of planning and making. 
The illustrations ( 197) are from original and valuable engravings and etchings. Royal 8vo, 275 pages of text. 

$3. SO net ; postage 21 cent*. 


By CHARLES H. CAFFIN, author of " The Story of Dutch Painting," " The Story of Spanish Painting," " How to 
Study Picture*," etc. 

The ideal handbook on British art for the student and for the general reader, covering the entire field of British 
art, historically, biographically, critically, and appreciatively. 

Forty full-page reproductions of famous British paintings. 8vo, 220 pages. $1.40 net; postage 12 cents. 


By MAURICE FRANCIS EGAN, United States Minister to Denmark 

A biography of rare sympathy and charm, the story of the life and work of perhaps the most widely known and 
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of Literature and Life *WV^ ENCYCLOPAEDIA 

166 THE DIAL [Sept. 16, 




A discussion, in Dr. Hall's characteristic style, of the personality, achievements, and 
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1912.] THE DIAL 167 


GENERAL JAMES HARRISON WILSON'S important biographical work 


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168 THE DIAL [Sept. 16, 


CORPORAL CAMERON of the Northwest Mounted Police By Ralph Connor 

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A HEALTH UNTO HIS MAJESTY By Justin Huntly McCarthy 

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DAN RUSSEL THE FOX By E. OE. Somerville and Martin Ross 

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VALSERINE, and Other Stories By Marguerite Audoux 

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JACK : ONE OF US By Gilbert Frankau 

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MIS' BEAUTY By Helen S. Woodruff 

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AS HE WAS BORN By Tom Gallon 

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TAMSIE By Rosamond Napier 

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RODDLES By B. Paul Neuman 

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THE KEYNOTE By Alphonse de Chateaubriant 

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Send For Our Complete Announcement of Fall Publications 



1912.] THE DIAL 169 



Translated by Mary Prichard Agnetti from documents collected and edited by Thomas Palamenghi-Crispi. Volume I, 
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QUEEN ANNE By Herbert Paul 

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THE GAME FISHES OF THE WORLD By Charles Frederic Holder, LL.D. 

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ETHICS AND THE FAMILY By Professor W. F. Lofthouse 

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These collected impressions of reading are like the record of a secret friendship. They have the intensity of passion 
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CHANGE IN THE VILLAGE. Essays By George Bourne 

Mr. Bourne in a series of genial and brilliant essays deals with the change which is in progress in the economic 
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A New Philosophy of Human Efficiency. This is the firs_t volume of a series of books by Herbert Kaufman. He 
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COBB'S ANATOMY. A Guide to Humor By Irvin S. Cobb 

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By the author of " Scotland's Story," etc. Illustrated in color by A. C. Michael. Written with the accuracy of the 
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MILESTONES : A Play in Three Acts By Arnold Bennett and Edward Knoblauch 

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THE HONEYMOON; A Comedy in Three Acts By Arnold Bennett 

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KISMET By Edward Knoblauch 

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RUTHERFORD AND SON ; A Play in Three Acts By Githa Sowerby 

An impressive study of one man, and the people he grouped about him and subordinated to his iron will. The 
theme is the domestic revolution of our own day how it has arisen and why. With her first production Miss 
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"0 THE DIAL [Sept. 16, 


Charge It By IRVING BACHELLER, Author of " Keeping Up With Lizzie," " Eben Holden," etc. 

" Charge It " will figure as one of the largest items of credit in the ledger of Mr. Bacheller's reputation. It is a 
genial, merry satire full of the keen wit of the Honorable Socrates Potter. 

Like " Keeping Up With Lizzie " it is a much needed and inspiring book. It will make the world happier and wiser. 
Its seventeen chapters are so many waves of merriment and every wave breaks into laughter wholesome hearty 
laughter. It is the laughter of conviction and that is the best kind. 

"Charge It" hits most of the glaring follies of to-day and hits them hard, but in a kindly spirit. New 
thought, swamp fiction, battle-axe aristocracy, idleness, and the love of display receive the attention of Mr. Potter 
the genial lawyer of Pointview. Like Lizzie it will have an effect on the life of the time, and there is no better 
word that can be said of any book. Illustrated. l%mo. Cloth, $1.00 net. 

Paill Rundel By WILL N. HARBEN, Author of "Dixie Hart," "Abner Daniel," "Jane Dawson," 
" M'am Linda," etc. 

This new story of Southern life stirs all the deepest emotions of the human heart. Its scene is in one of those 
Georgia villages that Mr. Harben knows so well and depicts with so much charm of homely realism. In connection 
with a thrilling plot, involving the clash of violently opposing natures, he develops a sympathetic drama of the soul. 
The story revolves about Paul Rundel, the son of a semi-invalid father and a vain, pleasure-loving mother who 
shamelessly accepts the attentions of another man. The action is swift and spirited as Paul, driven to desperation 
by the slanderous remarks about his mother, attempts to murder her lover and then flees the country. Paul's sub- 
sequent return, his struggle upward toward higher ideals, his unflinching courage in the face of peril, and the 
awakening of his love for a pure-hearted young girl who teaches him the meaning of faith and loyalty, all combine 
to form a plot that sweeps the reader along in a whirling current of conflicting emotions. 

The story portrays people of rough, strong passions whose characters grip by their reality, while Paul Bundel's 
struggle captures the reader's sympathy in an unusual degree. With Frontispiece. Post 8vo, Cloth, $1.30 net. 

The Voice By MARGARET DELAND, Author of ' The Iron Woman," " The Awakening of Helena 
Ritchie," etc. 

A new Dr. Lavendar story and a new heroine two Margaret Deland treats which make the perfect holiday book 
for reading or giving. Illustrated. Crown 8vo, Cover in colors, $1.00 net. 

As Caesar's Wife By MARGARITA SPALDING GERRY, Author of The Toy shop," " Heart 

and Chart," " The Flowers," etc. 

No story published in recent years depicts more powerfully the disintegrating effect of suspicion upon a strong, 

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1912.] THE DIAL 171 


MARK TWAIN-A Biography 

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1912.] THE DIAL 173 


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[Sept. 16, 

Preliminary Announcement of New Fall Books 

ARTHUR METCALF The Green Devil: 

or. The Secret of Thornton Abbey 

A historical novel covering Wycliffe's time and dealing with 
monkish intrigues and the rising of the people. The period is 
interesting and so are the people. Wycliffe and Chaucer flit in 
the background, Wat Tyler and the King, Tressilian, the Judge, 
and others. There are 32 chapters. Illustrated. Price $1.20 net; 
postage 15 cents. 


A story of retributive justice. Harshness is met by anger. 
They who sow the wind reap the whirlwind. The story is set 
in a mill town. The characters are mainly mill officials of oppo- 
site type ; an agent, risen from the ranks, merciless and grasp- 
ing ; a superintendent of the old stock, son of a founder of the 
mill, siding with the men. The lesson is that fair dealing and 
consideration for others is answered with trust and good will, 
while^'even handed justice." to use the author's motto quota- 
tion, " commends th' ingredients of our poisoned chalice to our 
own lips." The characters, men and women, are of various 
types and drawn with a strong hand. This first book of a new 
author is remarkably successful and full of promise. Illus- 
trated. Price $1.20 net; postage 15 cents. 

PROF. EMIL CARL WILM. Ph.D. The Culture of Religion 

A comprehensive discussion of the task and method of religious 
education. Price 75 cents net; postage 8 cents. 

LOUISE MONTGOMERY Mrs. Mahoney iv the Tenemerrt 

The experiences of Mrs. Mahoney and her friends reveal the 
joys and sorrows, the hardships, the temptations, the kindliness 
and native wisdom of the tenement dwellers Provoking laugh- 
ter and thoughtfulness and the desire to better human condi- 
tions, these pages show scenes of courage and endurance hard 
to surpass. With 5 original drawings by Mrs. Florence Scovel 
Shinn. Price $1.00 net; postage 10 cents. 

REGINALD J. CAMPBELL Sermons Preached in America 

Reginald J. Campbell impresses those who come closest to him 
with his utmost honesty and the reality and intimacy of his per- 
sonal relationship with the Lord Jesus Christ. Whatever the 
defects of his theology, he is perhaps the greatest religious force 
in Great Britain today, and his standing- in the non-Conformist 
churches of England and Wales is unquestioned. His emphasis 
upon the spiritual life as the foundation of all social progress is 
far more pronounced than it was a few years ago. Price $1.25 net; 
postage 10 cents. 

GEORGE T. SMART The Temper of the American People 

Dr. Smart's Temper of the American People is an interesting 
study of American character and customs by an Englishman. 
Price $1 00 net ; postage 10 cents. 

WILLIAM ALLEN KNIGHT On the Way to Bethlehem 

A beautifully illustrated book of the sympathetic journey 
through Palestine of a man of unusual descriptive power. 
Illustrated with 16 beautiful half-tones. A most beautiful and 
appropriate Christmas gift. In box $1.00 net; postage 10 cents. 
WILLIAM ALLEN KNIGHT At the Crossing with Denis McShane 
This latest and best story from Mr. Knight is rich with Christ- 
mas spirit which breaks down social and religious barriers, and 
is "no respecter of persons." Its central figure is a witty, warm- 
hearted Irishman, a crossing sweeper, to whom, in babyhood 
days, a Gypsy fortune teller gave a magic ring, together with a 
mystic, prophetic rhyme. The story tells of the friendship be- 
tween this Catholic street sweeper and a broad-minded Protest- 
ant Domine, how they went together to hear a certain "Gypsy 
missioner," and how at last the secret of the ring was revealed. 
Wit and pathos are admirably mingled in the story, the style is 
attractive and interest is maintained from the first sentence to 
the end. Following are the chapters : I. Before a Certain June 
Day. II. Some Morningdale Matters Afterwards III. Denis 
and the Gypsy. IV. When Christmas Came. With 5 full-page 
illustrations by Mrs. Florence Scovel Shinn. Price 60 cents net; 
postage 5 cents. 

W. T. GRENFELL, M.D. (Oxon.) What Can Jesus Christ Do With Me? 
A Sequel to " What Will You Do With Jesus Christ ? " 
The virile and practical aspect of Christianity which Dr. Gren- 
fell presents is seen in full force in this little volume addressed to 
Harvard Students. Previously he asked "What will you do with 
Jesus Christ?" Now he asks "What would Jesus do with you?" 
The answer given in these pages is the secret of the useful Chris- 
tian life, and it is direct and personal. Price 50c net ; postage 5c. 

WILFRED T. GRENFELL. M.D. (Oxon.) Shall a Man Live Again ? 
A vital assurance of his faith in immortality, by Dr. Grenfell, 
whose articles on the essentials of the Christian life have been 
helpful to so many readers. Price 50 cents net postage 5 cents. 

WARREN H. WILSON The Evolution of the Country Community 

With an introduction by Prof. Franklin H. Giddings, Columbia 
University. This is the most thorough study of rural com- 
munity life that has been published. It is broad in its outlook. 
Not neglecting New England, it devotes more attention to the 
great Central and Southern states. Price $1.25 net; postage lOc. 

"ALPRIDDY. "author "Through the 3/iV/" Man or Machine Which ? 
or. An Interpretation of Ideals at Work in Industry 
The life of those who labor in the great industrial centers of 
America challenges the attention of every citizen. "Al Priddy" 
has given a vivid picture of his own early life in the remarkable 
autobiography "Through the Mill." But one wants to know 
more. Do boys still suffer in mills as he suffered ? What are 
the conditions today in other great industries? What are the 
conditions under which men and women work on without pro- 
test? How are employers meeting their responsibilities? How 
does the development of machinery and of efficiency and econ- 
omy in business affect humanity ? In this book the author has 
told, as no one else has told, the true story of American factory 
life and the struggle for character. Uniform in binding with Dr. 
Gladden's "The Labor Question.''; postageSc. 

"ALPRIDDY" Through the School 

By the author of " Through the Mill " 

Every reader who enjoys a living document will be enthusiastic 
over this record from real life. Even more interesting than 
"Through the Mill " are these experiences of Al Priddy in win- 
ning an education. It is to be remembered that this is genuine 
autobiography, a fine story of pluck and perseverance. Illus- 
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containing nearly twice the matter. Price $1 .50 net : postage 15c. 

PROF. EMIL CARL WILM. Ph.D. The Problem of Religion 

This is a thoroughly intelligible, readable discussion of an 
interesting but difficult theme. Professor Wilm possesses some 
of the best literary qualities of Professors James and Rpyce. 
He is less technical than either, almost completely avoiding 
unfamiliar terms. He states the idealist position in a way that 
is intelligible to the general reader, and shows clearly that its 
logical issue is faith in God. Cloth Price $i. 25 net; postage lOc. 


Eucken and Bergson : Their Significance for Christian Thought 
Eucken in Germany and Bergson in France are the two most 
fascinating and potent thinkers of the day. They have pro- 
foundly influenced the course of religious and philosophical 
thinking on the Continent and in this country. The writer of 
this book has an intimate and first-hand knowledge of the work 
of both thinkers, and presents here a brilliant study of their 
ruling ideas. Price $1.CO net ; postage 10 cents. 
W. E. ORCHARD, D.D. Problems and Perplexities 

Every sort of question philosophical, theological, ethical, 
practical comes up for discussion, and Dr. Orchard shows ex- 
traordinary breadth of sympathy, insight, and knowledge in 
dealing with them. His standpoint is that of the enlightened 
Christian thinker of today ; he faces all problems courageously. 
Printed on India paper. Price $1.00 net ; postage 10 cents. 


Translated from the Norwegian 

An ideal birthday or Christmas gift for a boy is this delightful 
story of ten year old Johnny Blossom, a fine, manly little fel- 
low, warm-hearted and true as steel. Of course, being a boy 
full of life and spirit, he often rushes headlong into trouble, 
and many of his experiences some ludicrous, some sad are 
related in these pages. Price $1.00 net; postage 10 cents. 

WASHINGTON GLADDEN " Ultima Veritas " 

Dr. Washington Gladden's friends, and they are a multitude, 
will gladly welcome the first collection ever issued of his poems, 
" Ultima Veritas." The title of the first poem gives the name 
of the collection. Of course the volume contains the famous 
Williams college song, " Oh, Proudly Rise the Monarchs of Our 
Mountain Land." and the well-known hymn, "Oh, Master, Let 
Me Walk with Thee." The collection also contains many other 
poems equally worthy of preservation, on themes grave and 
humorous, religious and patriotic. Price $1 00 net ; postage lOc. 
J. BRIERLEY The Life of the Soul 

Characterized by the width of view, the freshness of thought, 
the keen insight, the wealth of literary illustration that have 
become familiar in Mr. Brierley's writing. He deals with a 
wide range of topics social, religious, philosophic of pres- 
ent-day interest, but always from the inner side, bringing great 
principles to illuminate them. Price $1.25 net; postage 10 cents. 


Another delightful little collection of stories for the little folks. 
Partial Contents: The Twilight Hour, When Mother's Gone 
Away, A Bold Fisherman, A Legend of the Goldenrod. The 
King's Page. The Little Old Man and His Gold, The Bedtime 
Story, The Little Book People, Hats Off, The Slumber Fog, 
Little Gretchen's Lily. At Bedtime, etc. $1.00 net; postage lOc. 

Author of " For God and the People," 

and " Christianity and the Social Crisis " 

Chrystalized in this inspiring essay is the essence of Christ's 
message, his interpretation of life. The little book has all the 
vigor and charm of the author's larger works. Price 35 cts. net ; 
postage 5 cts. 

BOSTON: 14 Beacon Street 









The story of a woman's love. Humorous and pathetic, 
this is the story of a real woman, one whom you love 
and pity. 

$1.00 net; by mail, $1.10. 

The Right to Reign 


Author of " Mademoiselle Celeste." A powerfully 
romantic novel full of exciting incidents around which 
revolves a fascinating love story. 

Frontispiece by CLARENCE F. UNDERWOOD. 
$1.25 net ; by mail, $1.40. 


Shakespeare's Wit and Humor 


$1.25 net ; by mail, $1.35. 

The Charm of London 

Compiled by ALFRED H. HYATT 

Beautifully illustrated with 12 color plates. $1.50 net; 
by mail, $1.62. 

The Charm of Venice 

Compiled by ALFRED H. HYATT 

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cloth, 75 cents net ; by mail, 80 cents. 


Mother Goose in Holland 

Fully illustrated in color showing Dutch scenes and 
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Alice's Adventures in Wonderland 
and Through the Loo king-Glass 

The " Washington Square Alice " contains all the 92 
Tenniel originals besides 8 illustrations in color done 
in the same spirit by ELENORE PLAISTED ABBOTT. 

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Historic Poems and Ballads 


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[Sept. 16, 1912. 

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My Love and I By " MARTIN REDFIELD " 

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Setnt'iUl0ntf)lg Journal of ILitetarg Criticism, igcuasion, anb Information. 

THE DIAL (founded in 1880) is published on the 1st and 16th of 
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THE DIAL, Fine Arts Building, Chicago. 

Entered as Second-Class Matter October 8, 1892, at the Post Office 
at Chicago, Illinois, under Act of March 3, 1879. 

No. 630. SEPTEMBER 16, 1912. Vol. LIII. 




Moore 181 


Incentives to literary eff ort. The desire for informa- 
tion on a great variety of subjects. To lovers of 
the English Lake District. Machine-made fiction. 
The dormant library trustee. A monumental in- 
dex. The final fall of the auctioneer's hammer 011 
the Hoe Library. A warning from the "Arabian 
Nights." Mr. Sanborn at eighty-one. A public 
library with no dead books. The Goldwin Smith 
lectures at Cornell. 


The Appraisal of Contemporary Greatness. W. T. 

Some Disputed Points in the Story of Old Fort 

Dearborn. J. Seymour Currey. 

Percy F. Bicknell 188 


SOCIALISM. Ira B. Cross 190 

Miss Scudder's Socialism and Character. Vedder's 
Socialism and the Ethics of Jesus. Spargo and 
Arner's Elements of Socialism. Socialism and the 
Great State. Spargo's Applied Socialism. 
TION. St. George L. Sioussat 192 


Arthur C. L. Brown 194 


Richmond Henderson 195 

Devon's The Criminal and the Community. 
McConnell's Criminal Responsibility and Social 
Constraint. Whitin's Penal Servitude. Currier's 
The Present-Day Problem of Crime. Brockway's 
Fifty Years of Prison Service. 


Studies of frankness in literature. The story of a 
prophet and his reward. A prisoner of war in Vir- 
ginia. The ways of words. The undying charm 
of old England. Records of two Elizabethan prin- 
cesses. Social conditions in a New England factory 
town. Literary landmarks of London in pen and 
pencil. A noblewoman of the French Revolution. 
Ecstatic letters from the land of dolcefar niente. 


NOTES 201 


(A classified list of the new books planned for publi- 
cation during the coming Fall and Winter season.) 


Following a custom of many years, we pub- 
lish in this issue of THE DIAL a classified list 
of the fall announcements of the chief American 
publishing houses, to serve as a guide for libra- 
rians and booksellers, and to whet the appetites 
of individual book lovers in anticipation of the 
literary feast which the coming months have in 
store for them. Likewise in accordance with 
our custom, we take this occasion to select from 
the thousands of titles offered a few of those 
that seem worthy of special mention for their 
promise of entertainment or instruction, restrict- 
ing our selection, however, to the categories of 
biography, history, general belletristic litera- 
ture, and fiction. 

It is a venturesome thing to guess at what is 
likely to prove "the book of the year," but we 
shall probably not go far wrong in naming the 
"Letters of George Meredith" for that distinc- 
tion. The collection has been edited by the son 
of the poet-novelist, and extends over a full half- 
century. Among those to whom the letters are 
addressed are Lord Morley, Leslie Stephen, 
Frederick Green wood, and Robert Louis Steven- 
son, and we may well believe that such corres- 
pondents brought out the best that Meredith 
had to give. A few examples already published 
make it clear that he by no means kept all his 
good things for his books. An important work 
of American biography will be " The Personal 
and Literary Life of Samuel Langhorne Clem- 
ens," by Mr. Albert Bigelow Paine, the literary 
executor of the great humorist. "The New 
Life of Byron," by Miss Ethel Colburn Mayne, 
promises to discuss the ugly scandal first raised 
by Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe, and revived by 
Lord Lovelace's " Astarte" in 1905. We hope 
that the author does not treat this unsavory 
matter seriously. John Bigelow's " Retrospec- 
tions of an Active Life " will be completed with 
the publication of two new volumes, making 
five in all. Miss May Sinclair's study of " The 
Three Brontes" will, we fancy, be chiefly inter- 
esting as a revelation of the writer's own tempera- 
ment. A singularly interesting and readable 
volume of reminiscences will v be Mr. James 
Kendall Hosmer's " The Last Leaf," being " ob- 
servations during seventy-five years of men and 
events in America and England." Mr. Hos- 
mer's association with the political and in tell ec- 



[Sept. 16, 

tual movements of the past half -century has been 
intimate, and his memoirs cannot fail to be illumi- 
nating. The " Memoir of George Palmer Put- 
nam," by his son Mr. George Haven Putnam, will 
doubtless form a contribution to American pub- 
lishing annals of permanent value and interest. 
The department of history does not offer any 
work of forthstanding importance, but there are 
many special studies in restricted fields that 
promise to be of value. We note in particular 
the "New France and New England" of Mr. 
James Douglas, the "Italy in the Thirteenth 
Century" of Mr. Henry D. Sedgwick, and 
"The Grandeur That Was Rome" by Mr. J. 
C. Stobart. We note also that the eighth vol- 
ume of Mr. J. B. McMaster's " History of the 
People of the United States," completing the 
work as planned over thirty years ago, and 
bringing it down to the outbreak of the Civil 
War, is now ready for publication. 

The category of general literature is mainly 
remarkable for its profusion of volumes of col- 
lected essays. Dr. S. M. Crothers, Mr. Mere- 
dith Nicholson, Mr. Brander Matthews, Mr. 
John Burroughs, Miss Agnes Repplier, Mr. 
G. K. Chesterton, Mr. John Galsworthy, Mr. 
Hilaire Belloc, Mr. Frederic Harrison, Mr. 
Austin Dobson, " Vernon Lee," the late Lionel 
Johnson, and M. Maeterlinck are all to be 
represented this year. This is a list to justify 
one in saying with Mr. Squeers: "Here's 
richness ! " We shall await with much interest 
such books as Mr. Irving Babbitt's " Masters 
of Modern French Criticism," and " Some En- 
glish Story Tellers" by Mr. Frederic Tabor 
Cooper. A very attractive announcement is that 
of a series of critical studies in separate volumes 
of substantial size, of modern English writers. 
The forthcoming volumes have for their subjects 
Hardy, Pater, Swinburne, William Morris, and 
George Gissing. 

Books about the theatre and books of plays 
fill a large place among our announcements. The 
most important is " The Wallet of Time," by 
Mr. William Winter, in which our veteran dra- 
matic critic reviews the history of the American 
stage from the time of Junius Brutus Booth to 
the present day. This is likely to prove the 
crowning work of Mr. Winter's life-long devo- 
tion to whatsoever things are lovely and of good 
report in our theatrical life. " The Present 
State of the English Theatre," by Mr. George 
Calderon, is another interesting announcement. 
The new translations promised from Strindberg 
and Tchekoff will be welcome additions to the 
shelf of foreign dramatic literature. The plays 

of Hauptmann are also being prepared for pub- 
lication in English. 

In poetry, by far the most important an- 
nouncement is that of the collected works of 
William Vaughn Moody, with a biographical 
introduction by Mr. John M. Manly. Moody's 
great dramatic trilogy, of which " The Fire- 
Bringer " and " The Masque of Judgment " 
were published during his lifetime, was left un- 
finished at his untimely death, but a considerable 
fragment of the closing section had been written, 
and this, together with a number of unpublished 
poems, will be included in the new edition, which 
will also include Moody's two plays, " The Great 
Divide" and "The Faith Healer." The two 
volumes of this edition will thus contain the 
practically complete work of the most remark- 
able poet given to English literature during the 
last score or more of years. Next in importance 
to this announcement is probably that of a new 
volume of poetic dramas by Mrs. Olive Tilford 
Dargan, who is well known to the elect (although 
not to the general public) as one of the most 
remarkable poetical personalities of our day. 
The forthcoming volume will contain three plays 
in three distinct fields of imaginative interest. 
Two anthologies are promised which are likely 
to attract much attention. One is " The Golden 
Treasury of American Songs and Lyrics '' upon 
which Mr. Curtis Hidden Page has been engaged 
for several years, and which is announced under 
exactly the same title as was given to a similar 
collection by Mr. Frederic Lawrence Knowles 
some fifteen years ago. The other anthology is 
" The Lyric Year," which is to represent one 
hundred living American poets by pieces entered 
in a sort of prize competition. The outcome of 
this experiment will be well worth observing. 

The fiction list is, as usual, of appalling 
length. Miss Mary Johnston is to give us, in 
" Cease Firing," the concluding section of her 
masterly study of the military operations of 
Stonewall Jackson. A new novel by Mrs. Mary 
S. Watts is promised, to be entitled "Van 
Cleve." The late David Graham Phillips, whose 
works go on forever, is represented by "George 
Helm," one of a numerous posthumous progeny. 
" The Joyous Adventures of Aristide Pujol " 
is to be Mr. William J. Locke's vehicle of 
whimsical entertainment. Mr. Maarten Maar- 
tens's "Eve " will be a welcome offering from 
an author whom we would gladly read more fre- 
quently. In " Marriage," we presume that Mr. 
H. G. Wells is to make another of his audacious 
contributions to sociological literature. A few 
more titles that seem promising are the follow- 




ing: "The Antagonists," by Mr. E. Temple 
Thurston; "The Ghost Girl," by Mr. Henry 
Kitchell Webster; "The Ordeal," by Miss 
Murfree; "The Soul of a Tenor," by Mr. 
W. J. Henderson ; " The Strong Hand," by Mr. 
Warwick Deeping; "Mrs. Lancelot," by Mr. 
Maurice Hewlett ; "The Reef," by Mrs. Edith 
Wharton ; " The Lovers," by Mr. Eden Phill- 
potts ; and " Atlantis," by Herr Gerhart Haupt- 


The recent publication of a biography of George 
Borrow and of his Letters to the Bible Society 
reveals the permanence of his fame and the interest 
the world takes in the Nomad in Literature. Hardly 
anybody needs a biography less. He lives in his 
own works as the victor over the Flaming Tinman, 
the unsatisfactory lover of Isopel Berners, and the 
perfectly satisfactory Bible missionary to the gypsies 
and bandits and Jews of Spain. His first literary 
work was a compilation, in six volumes, of "Cele- 
brated Criminal Trials," for which he received fifty 
pounds. His richer reward, probably, was the turn 
this work gave him for low life, picturesque adven- 
tures, and racy language. It is almost a disappoint- 
ment to learn that he settled down at forty and lived 
for forty more years as a country gentleman and au- 
thor, with no more vivid happenings in his life than 
quarrels with his neighbors and the critics. But he 
had his fling, and he endures, one of the classic 
wanderers of the world. 

The primal instinct of every healthy boy is to be 
a highwayman, a pirate, a hunter, anything which 
will take him away along the road that stretches 
before his door, over the waves that beat before his 
home. As he grows up, this instinct is crushed or 
stifled in him, and he becomes a tethered thing, a 
city dweller or a serf of the soil. In a few, the 
longing for the distant, the unknown, persists, and 
these develop into sailors, adventurers, explorers, 
tramps. Perhaps it is the nobler part to stay in one 
spot, to build up a home, to sink roots into the land, 
to become a citizen in all senses of that word. But 
to seek change and adventure and danger is certainly 
not ignoble : they who do it are the imaginative and 
poetical souls. For the things we see all the time 
we do not see at all. Revelation comes with the first 
look. It is true that familiarity breeds contempt. 
Things show most greatly by glimpses. Out of the 
haze of the unfamiliar leap appearances of beauty 
and power and strangeness that thrill the soul. The 
wanderer alone can be experienced and educated. 
His mind becomes a storehouse of inestimable treas- 
ures, a picture-gallery of impressions, a library of 
epics and dramas and lyrics which are all his own. 

What a splendid historic and literary ancestry has 
the common tramp, who skulks along the highway 
and bivouacs in the coppice beside his fire of dry 
twigs and his tin-can cooking utensil! There is 

Ulysses, whose vicissitudes and adventures go to 
form the typal song of the great open way. He, it 
is true, was not born to the trade of wandering. He 
was prudent, cautious, a getter of wealth, an accum- 
ulator of honors the Benjamin Franklin of anti- 
quity. But the anger of the heavens drives him forth, 
and he drifts over the face of the known world. What 
change, what variety, what experience! To be the 
companion of Circe's herds, to recline beside Calypso 
in her island grot, to be cast up naked on the shores 
of King Alcinoils' kingdom, and to sit at banquet 
and tell of his wars and wanderings while the most 
glorious girl in Greek literature watches him from 
a shadowed doorway and wishes like Desdemona 
that heaven had made her such a man! And then 
the long delayed home-coming, the slaughter of the 
Suitors, and Penelope's welcome. Here Homer 
leaves him; but the wiser Dante (and Tennyson in 
splendid paraphrase) looks deeper into the heart of 
the much enduring, much experienced man, and 
doubting whether he who had known danger in a 
thousand forms, to whom nearly every new sun had 
brought a new difficulty or a new joy, who had felt 
the embraces of Calypso and the maidenly regard of 
Nausicaa's eyes, doubting whether such a one 
could rest in tranquil content with a wife grown old 
and an insipidly pious son, sets him to call his 
companions about him, hoist the sail on his galley, 
and steer out into the sunset sea. 

Then there is the Wandering Jew, who certainly 
ought to be elected patron saint of the tramping 
profession. He too, like Ulysses, was pitchforked 
into the business driven forth under curse or 
doom. It would seem that the divine powers held 
homekeeping to be the normal state of man, and 
travelling a punishment. It is the tragic note, too, 
of Ahasuerus's career which has been exploited by 
every writer who has handled the theme. But 
surely he must have got a great deal of enjoyment 
out of his never-ending experiences. For one thing, 
he has had time to exhaust the possibilities of life. 
For it is the deepest thing in the true nomad's 
nature that he is avid of novel adventure. He is 
no sooner plunged into one experience than a better 
one seems to rise before him. There is a fairer 
valley on the other side of the hill, a fresh enchant- 
ment a little farther down the road. In his nine- 
teen hundred years of touring (if he is still afoot 
and faring on), the Wandering Jew can easily have 
seen all that may be seen and done all that may be 
done on this earth. There is another feature of his 
career in which he is peculiarly typical, and that is 
his loneliness. Your true nomad always, at least 
where the thing is possible, goes alone. He needs 
detachment; he needs to be eternally the stranger, 
really to know the novelty of life that rises around 
him. If he travels with companions, in companies, 
he carries his home-life with him; he is protected 
against the new and the unknown. 

But it was in the Middle Ages, the time of 
Chivalry, that the nomadic cult was the most wide- 
spread. The books that composed Don Quixote's 



[Sept. 16, 

library Amadis of Gaul, Palmerin of England, 
Tirante, the White Knight, and all their companions, 
books which were the popular reading of Europe 
testify to this, as do the great romantic poems of 
Tasso and Ariosto and the epics of Charlemagne 
and Arthur. It was part of the education of a 
young knight to mount his steed and with his trusty 
sword and lance leave his home and wander far and 
wide, seeking adventures. And it was not only an 
unmapped but largely a roadless world he had to 
traverse. Through forest, over plain and mountain, 
he had to find his way a moving court of justice 
fighting wrongs, redressing grievances, encountering 
inimical giants or rival knights; glad indeed if the 
legitimate spells he bore with him were sufficient to 
overcome the might of evil enchanters and magi- 
cians. And all the while his only correspondence 
with home and the lady of his fealty was the trains 
of prisoners he sent to bow before her feet. If his 
quest were the Holy Grail, he became a still nobler 
and higher figure. The Holy Grail! That it is, 
in fact, which all the nomads of the world are in 
search of. It may mask under a score of names 
the Passage to India, the North Pole, Eldorado, 
but ever there is the idea of something worthy the 
devotion of a man's life, something whose winning 
shall be a crown to him forever. 

We may pass by those professional nomads, the 
gypsies, whose migrations thread through the ages, 
because they travel in companies and groups, and 
are therefore outside the pale of the true nomadic 
tribe. They have doubtless done the world good 
by letting a little mystery and a sense for the 
strange and remote into dull and settled communi- 
ties. And they have also done good by proving to 
the peoples of the roof-tree that fresh air is not 
exactly deadly. 

This last is the great merit of Rousseau. That 
he upset the thrones of Europe is a little matter in 
comparison with his revival of the lost art of pedes- 
trianism, his teaching mankind that nature furnishes 
better employment for nose and eyes than the per- 
fumed and decorated apartments of the grand 
siecle. He also taught his fellows the cheapness of 
the most delicious pleasures the march along the 
tree-shadowed highway or through the flower- 
adorned wood, the halt by the spring or rivulet 
to bathe his feet and eat his morsel of bread, the 
talk with peasants or the picnic with damsels simi- 
larly astray, the bivouac under the stars. It is 
asserted, falsely enough, that nature came into liter- 
ature through Rousseau. No age has been without 
its devotees of the open, and all that Rousseau 
gives, and more, is in Homer and Dante and Shake- 
speare. But he did for a time turn men's thoughts 
almost exclusively natureward. Chateaubriand and 
Goethe and Wordsworth and Byron are his pupils. 
Childe Harold would hardly have left his ances- 
tral home if it had not been for the Swiss peasant. 

The greatest of modern knights-errant are the 
explorers and discoverers. The North Pole, Africa, 
Asia, South America, the Pacific Islands, all have 

furnished their quota of redoubtable spirits lured 
forth to seek danger and difficulty, the novel and 
the unknown. It is true that these have usually had 
companions; but there is a loneliness of leadership, 
and Stanley and Burton in Africa, Nansen and 
Melville and Peary in the Arctic, are true to the 
most heroic nomad type. The mass of this litera- 
ture of exploration is great, and it would almost 
seem that to wander and adventure is the natural 
and primal instinct in man, that all settling down, 
building of homes and cities, the raising of families, 
the gathering together of material things, are repug- 
nant to the best of the spirit that is in him. 

This feeling is still more forced upon us when we 
consider the vast imaginative literature which may 
be classed as the wandering genre. Nearly all the 
great epics of the world are stories of travel and ad- 
venture. The "Ramayana," the "Mahabharata," 
the "Shah Nameh," the "Iliad," the "Odyssey," 
the "^Eneid," "Jerusalem Delivered," "Orlando," 
"Paradise Lost," and others too numerous to be 
named, are dominated by the nomad star. The 
dramas of the world are more static ; they demand a 
fixed framework and a unity of scene which are in- 
imical to the peregrinating spirit. Yet even in the 
drama there are plenty of outlets for the nomad type. 
It is rather curious that^Eschylus brings into contrast 
and contact the most permanently fixed of all tragic 
sufferers, Prometheus, and the madly-driven world- 
circling lo. CEdipus is a wanderer, both when he 
commits his crime and when he expiates it. Shake- 
speare is never happier than when he can free his 
people from the bonds of home and society, and 
set them to wandering in the fields and woods, as 
witness the "Midsummer Night's Dream," "The 
Tempest," "Cymbeline," "The Winter's Tale," and 
" As You Like It." As for novels and romances, they 
are of adventure and wandering all compact. From 
the earliest one the "Golden Ass" to the latest 
best-seller, it is scarcely too much to say that nine- 
tenths of them turn that way. Run over the names of 
the great novels of the world "Don Quixote," 
"Wilhelm Meister," "The Three Guardsmen," 
"Tom Jones," one-half of Scott, the best of Dickens, 
all are treatments of the wandering theme. If 
novels represent life, it would seem that we are a race 
of nomads. The wanderer at least is the hero of liter- 
ature, even if he is ineffectual and more or less of an 
outcast in real existence. 

Of course the centralizing and concentrating influ- 
ences of life are really the most powerful. They are 
necessities of our state ; the expansive and diverging 
forces are in comparison luxuries. In particular, 
woman is the type of home and society. Wherever 
she appears she is a centre around which a frame- 
work and a barrier are speedily erected. 

In conclusion it may be said that wide wander- 
ings are not absolutely necessary for the display of 
nomadic instinct. We may make discoveries at 
home. Each of us may be a Columbus to the con- 
tinent of Ourself . 






of whatever kind, must be candidly confessed to be 
largely of an unheroic and unromantic nature. It 
is the res angusta domi that is ultimately answer- 
able for the great bulk of the world's noteworthy 
achievement. Whether churches would thrive on 
an income derived wholly from endowment, whether 
poets would sing if subsidized by the State, whether 
publishing houses would raise the standard of litera- 
ture to dizzy heights if relieved from all concern 
as to book-sales, whether magazines and newspapers 
would attain to an unimagined excellence if perma- 
nently endowed, these are questions that will prob- 
ably for all time be open to debate, with strong 
presumptions in favor of the negative. Nevertheless, 
Mr. Hamilton Holt, in an address before the recent 
national convention of newspaper men, allowed 
himself to take a roseate view of the possibilities of 
endowed journalism. He maintains: "If a journal 
is to perform the two essential duties of careful 
news-gathering and competent comment, it must 
have an assured income of sufficient amount at the 
start to enable it to stand the stress of sensational 
and commercialized competitors and to demonstrate 
its usefulness to a large circle of readers all over 
the country. Once established and recognized as a 
truthful and important medium, it would have an 
enormous educational value. Though it might not 
be read by the millions, it would be indispensable 
to all libraries, journalists, preachers, teachers, the 
most intelligent professional and business men, and 
the leaders at least of the wage-earning class. It 
would also exert a great influence for good on other 
papers by forcing them to raise their standards of 
accuracy and fairness." After all, that is not a hope- 
lessly idealistic view of the possibilities of endowed 




VARIETY OF SUBJECTS, on the part of those whose 
indolence or inexperience makes them quite willing 
that others should do their research work for them, 
is probably manifest nowhere more than in the 
" Questions and Answers " department of a literary 
newspaper or the Reference department of a public 
library. In some of these journals, columns in each 
issue are given to such inquiries, suggesting the 
probable desire for material for essays, club papers, 
school themes, etc., whjch can be obtained in this free 
and easy way. The questions that come, modestly 
but profusely, to the Reference department of pub- 
lic libraries are of wider range and usually of more 
curious interest than those that aspire to the promi- 
nence of print. The Annual Report of the librarian 
of the public library at Santa Barbara, Cal., gives 
the following list of topics among those on which 
information was sought at that library in a single 
day: Date-palm culture; open-air schools; natural 
gas ; folding napkins at table ; spirit mediums ; the 

Yosemite ; heroism of Jack Binns ; legends and super- 
stitions of precious stones; steam boilers; Roman 
home-life ; parcels post ; High Jinks of the Bohemian 
Club; carriage painting; the Pentateuch; canoes; 
camels ; George Washington ; author of the poem 
"There is no death," etc. " Many of these questions," 
says the librarian, "are answered with the aid of 
the standard reference books and the indexes to peri- 
odical literature ; others involve search in out-of-the- 
way places." We should think they would ! But in 
any case, the Reference department of a properly 
equipped public library cheerfully and eagerly opens 
its doors to just such inquirers as these, and the 
librarian stands ready to greet them with smiling 
mien and to lend a helping hand in their researches. 


with all its precious associations, an appeal is made 
for help in preserving the region from disfigurement 
at the hands of builders. Canon H. D. Rawnsley 
writes from Crosthwaite Vicarage, Keswick, in part 
as follows : " The head of Windermere, comprising 
the meadow land between the mouth of the river 
Rotha and Waterhead, and including within its area 
the important Roman camp in the Borrans Field, 
was just about to be built upon ; indeed, the turf was 
off and foundations of two lodging-houses were laid, 
when the neighborhood woke up to the fact that un- 
less these twenty acres could be secured and handed 
to the custody of the National Trust, there was an 
end for all time of the peculiar charm and beauty 
of the head of Windermere. Your readers will 
remember how attractive that beauty is as they ap- 
proach Waterhead near Ambleside by steamer from 
the south. They will call to mind the exquisite set- 
ting of the verdurous level with its background of 
Loughrigg Fell, and the blue hollow of the circling 
wall of Fairfield with its gray scars and dark woods 
above Rydal Hall. They will understand how, quite 
apart from the historic interest of securing the as yet 
unexcavated Roman camp, it is essential that the 
pastoral loveliness of that approach to the Ambleside 
valley should be preserved, and will not, I trust, be 
surprised that I urge America to help the old country 
for Wordsworth's sake to preserve its ancient heri- 
tage of calm and beauty to succeeding generations." 
The writer of this letter, who signs himself as "Hon. 
Secretary to the National Trust," adds that twenty- 
four hundred pounds, of the four thousand needed to 
purchase the threatened piece of ground, has already 
been raised, the immediate vicinity contributing from 
its slender means three-quarters of the amount. Any 
Americans who " have known the restf ulness of the 
as yet unspoiled parts of the English lake district," 
and feel prompted to aid in preserving that restful- 
ness, will earn the gratitude of all future tourists and 
sojourners in that peculiarly beautiful region of rural 
England. . . . 

MACHINE-MADE FICTION has its ready market 
and its eager readers, as all the world knows, and as 
is made evident by the confessions of a plot-builder 



[Sept. 16, 

who tells some of the tricks of his trade to readers 
of the London " Answers." His brain produces plots 
with ease and abundance, but he himself cannot so 
clothe them as to render them acceptable to editors 
and publishers. Therefore he sells these skeletons 
of stories and novels to writers of more skill with 
their pens, and his earnings amount to four or five 
pounds a week, the day's work being often com- 
pleted before breakfast by this dextrous framer of 
plots at prices ranging from ten to twenty shillings, 
according to complexity. "My principal client," 
says this ingenious craftsman, " gets rid of about 
one hundred and fifty stories a year. He has a 
splendid style, and, singularly enough, although he 
possesses a vivid imagination, he is a bad hand at 
evolving plots. Give him the plot, and he will go 
along like a steam engine. . . . My clients number 
fewer than half a dozen, and if a plot does not suit 
one of them it will probaby appeal strongly to 
another, who makes a good story of it. So that a 
plot is seldom, if ever, wasted. What is more, it is 
possible to get at least four different plots out of one 
central idea. It can be twisted and turned about, 
given a different ending or development, and new 
names bestowed on the characters, and the trick is 
done." How beautiful! Perhaps some day there 
will be invented a mechanical contrivance for pro- 
ducing all the possible combinations of all the known 
elements of plot-construction ; then, with an adequate 
supply of phonographs, type-writers, and similar 
appliances, a fiction-factory ought to turn out hun- 
dreds of stories, all of standard grade and finish, 
every working day of the year. 

worrisome to the librarian than the rampant or 
officiously meddlesome, fussy, and bustling trustee. 
For we have all kinds, including an increasing num- 
ber of intelligently active and helpful trustees ; but 
that they have more of this latter sort across the 
Canadian border than south of it seems to some 
observers to have been indicated by the quality of 
the attendance at the late Ottawa conference of 
library workers. "The Library Journal" says, in its 
"Ottawa Conference Number" (August) : "One of 
the most interesting features of the Ottawa meeting 
was the large attendance of trustees, particularly from 
Canad#. Over the border, the trustee has been quite 
as important as the librarian in developing the pub- 
lic library, and there has indeed been some question 
whether the librarian, as such, had not been too much 
subordinated by this fact. The contrary is true in 
the States, for here trustees are apt to confine them- 
selves to the finances of the library and not even 
support the librarian as they should by informing 
themselves of the practical work and giving it the 
strength of their well-informed support." The sad 
truth is that, on this side the boundary at least, 
politics plays havoc with too many a board of library 
trustees, as also with too many a school committee, 
and with other public offices of trust and importance. 
These positions are often sought as stepping-stones 

to something higher that is, more lucrative, and 
usually they are in part filled by ex-officio members 
with no especial qualifications for the work to be 
done. In general, smaller library boards of picked 
men (and women) are desirable. 

A MONUMENTAL INDEX to a monumental edition 
is that comprised in the final volume (the thirty- 
ninth) of the complete "Library Edition" of Rus- 
kin, edited by Sir E. T. Cook and Mr. Alexander 
Wedderburn. The index comprises seven hundred 
double-columned octavo pages of fine type, the num- 
ber of references exceeding 150,000. Every topic 
treated or mentioned by Ruskin, and every proper 
name mentioned in his works, are included. And 
this is by no means all. The topical references are 
so grouped as to form a practical analysis of Rus- 
kin's teaching on whatever subject. " I have left the 
system of my teaching widely scattered and broken, 
hoping always to bind it together," Ruskin once said ; 
but there was no time in his heroically busy life 
that could be spared for such a project. Now at last 
it has been carried through by his devoted editors, 
and in a way that could not be bettered. The tangled 
tropical forest of Ruskin's writings has here been 
tracked and charted for all time. As an instance 
of the appalling amount of labor expended in the 
making of this volume, it may be noted that of the 
thousands of quotations and allusions scattered 
through Ruskin's books, all but sixteen are here 
traced and recorded ! A supplementary volume (the 
thirty-eighth) contains, besides a complete anno- 
tated catalogue of Ruskin's drawings, a Bibliography 
which for inclusiveness and exactness is not likely 
ever to be superseded. Thus is brought to a fitting 
conclusion one of the noblest memorials ever dedi- 
cated to a great writer, a labor of love on the part 
of editors and publishers not easily to be paralleled 
in modern literary annals. 


ON THE HOE LIBRARY is announced by the Ander- 
son Company for the fortnight beginning November 
11. Thus will end, after four memorable sales, the 
dispersal of the richest private collection of books 
and manuscripts ever sold in this country. From 
the day of the opening sale, when a copy of the 
Gutenberg Bible brought fifty thousand dollars, the 
highest recorded price for a single item at a book- 
auction, the amounts bid for these literary rarities 
have been unprecedentedly large, so that the total 
sum realized by the completed sale is likely to exceed 
two million dollars. Probably to most readers it 
would be but a tantalizing kindness to name here 
any of the choice items enumerated in the catalogue 
of this fourth and final section of Robert Hoe's re- 
markable library. Forty-six manuscripts, many of 
them illuminated, are on the list; also books from 
the libraries of Jean Grolier, Henry the Second and 
Henry the Third, Louis the Fourteenth, Louis the 
Fifteenth, and Louis the Eighteenth, Madame de 
Maintenon, Madame du Barry, Marie Antoinette, 




and Charles the Second of England, many of the 
volumes being magnificently bound. Noteworthy 
Americana and Shakespeariana, and some rare early 
English books are also named. With both the Hoe 
and the Huth sales in progress, millionaire collectors 
have ample opportunity to ease the congestion of 
their bank accounts. . . . 


be found in "The Story of the Grecian King and 
the Physician Douban," needs to be occasionally 
repeated for the benefit of those unthinking readers 
who indulge in the practice of turning the leaves of 
books with fingers moistened by the tongue. The 
first part of this story, down to the King's death 
(caused by his thus turning the leaves of the poi- 
soned folio), might profitably be posted in libraries, 
especially in reading-rooms, perhaps side by side 
with the now familiar verses about the untidy Goops 
whose bad habits with books are held up to the rep- 
robation of all well-bred children and as a horrible 
example to the ill-bred. A lecture dealing in part 
with the perils lurking in the slovenly practice here 
referred to was recently delivered at the University 
of Pennsylvania by Mr. William R. Reinick, and 
has been published in "The American Journal of 
Pharmacy." Although we moderns may be yielding 
to a tendency to make too much of a bogy of bacteria 
and microbes and germs (all undreamt-of by our 
hale and hearty ancestors), still there is good sense 
in Mr. Reinick's counsel to librarians to give due 
attention to the physical condition of each volume 
passing to and from the public. Frequent hand- 
washing on the part of library employees is advised ; 
and even a compulsory ceremony of this sort on the 
visitor's part, before using the reference books, is 
suggested. The spread of tuberculosis is what is 
especially to be feared as a result of untidy habits 
with books. ... 

MR. SANBORN AT EIGHTY-ONE, or close to it, and 
with his vigor renewed, as is to be hoped, by the re- 
cent celebration of his golden wedding, presents a 
pleasing appearance to the mind's eye in his Concord 
home, where he enjoys the distinction (not quite free 
from melancholy, it is true) of being the last sur- 
vivor of that illustrious company whose names are 
now mostly to be read on the grave-stones of Sleepy 
Hollow. He still continues his connection with the 
Springfield " Republican," which he first served as 
associate editor forty-four years ago, afterward be- 
coming its regular contributor from Boston and Con- 
cord. The " Boston Literary Letter," furnished by 
him once a week, has long been a prominent feature 
of the journal. In it he allows himself the privilege 
of his years and writes in a genially discursive vein, 
with splendid disregard of the ephemeral favorites