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Full text of "The Dial"

From the collection of the 

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Uibrary 






San Francisco, California 
2006 



1847 1853 

vf Otf* ENCE PU BL/C 
LI3RA2Y 

E^TnBLioHi-iJ 1872 

LAWRENCE, MASS. 






THE DIAL 



A Semi-Monthly Journal of 



Literary Criticism, Discussion, and Information 




VOLUME LVI. 

JANUARY 1 TO JUNE 16, 1914 



CHICAGO 
THE HENRY O. SHEPARD CO. 

1914 



7 o 



INDEX TO VOLUME LVI. 

PAGE 

A. L. A., THE, AT THE NATIONAL CAPITAL Aksel G. S. Josephson 485 

ACTIVE LIFE, THE STORY OF AN Norman Foerster 414 

AMERICAN AND FRENCH IDEALS 89 

AMERICAN ARCHITECT, A GREAT . ; Sidney Fiske Kimball 384 

AMERICAN HISTORIES, THE CONCLUSION OF Two IMPORTANT David Y. Thomas ...'... 179 

AMERICAN HISTORY, IDEALISTIC FORCES IN Carl Becker 140 

AMERICAN POET, A NEGLECTED Charles Leonard Moore 7 

" AMERICANS, THE CHARM OF " 165 

ART, THE MEANING OF Louis I. Bredvold 343 

BEASTS OF BURDEN 327 

CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH LITERATURE, NEW VOLUMES OF THE . Lane Cooper 456 

CANADA OF TO-DAY AND TO-MORROW Laivrence J. Burpee 20 

CHILDREN WHAT THEY SHOULD KNOW 483 

CHINA'S " GRAND OLD MAN " O. D. Wannamaker 142 

CINEMATOGRAPH CRAZE, THE 129 

CIVIL WAR, NEW LIGHT ON THE Ephraim Douglass Adams .... 291 

CONSECRATED LIFE, THE 403 

" CYMBELINE," THE VARIORUM Samuel A. Tannenbaum .... 184 

DANE, A GREAT 447 

DEARBORN, FORT, AND THE OLD NORTHWEST William V. Pooley 341 

DOGBERRY'S LATEST 369 

DRAMA, CONTEMPORARY, GUIDES TO THE James W. Tupper 56 

EDUCATION, TRAGEDY AND TREASON IN Thomas Percival Beyer .... 338 

EGYPTIAN BOOK OF THE DEAD, THE T. G. Allen 382 

ENGLAND, A NEW HISTORY OF L. E. Robinson 106 

ENGLISH LIBERALISM, AN ACCOUNT OF Carl Becker 18 

FICTION, RECENT Lucian Gary 504 

FICTION, RECENT William Morton Payne . . 21,247, 421 

FOLK-BALLADS OF SOUTHERN EUROPE Martha Hale Shackford .... 419 

FRIENDSHIP, RECORDS OF A HAPPY W. E. Simonds 13 

GIFTED FAMILY, GLIMPSES OF A Percy 'F. Bicknell 289 

GRAIL, THE, IN A NEW LIGHT Winifred Smith 385 

GREECE, ANCIENT, RECORDS OF Josiah Benick Smith 176 

HISTORY, AN INTERVIEW WITH THE MUSE OF Carl Becker 336 

HOUSEHOLD DECORATION, EVOLUTION OF Anna Benneson McMahan .... 298 

IDEALIST, AN, IN PRACTICAL AFFAIRS Percy F. Bicknell 174 

INDIA, THE FUTURE OF F. B. R. Hellems 379 

INSURANCE, SOCIAL Alvin S. Johnson 57 

ITALY, A DIPLOMATIST'S WIFE IN Percy F. Bicknell 108 

ITALY'S FOREMOST COMIC DRAMATIST W. W. Comfort 138 

KAISER, THE, POLICIES AND ASSOCIATES OF Frederic Austin Ogg 181 

KEY, ELLEN IDEALIST Amalie K. Boguslawsky .... 47 

LABOUCHERE OF " TRUTH " Laurence M. Larson 244 

LANGUAGE OF THE UNLETTERED, THE Percy F. Bicknell 405 

LONDON, THE LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS OF Clark S. Northup 293 

MEXICAN SITUATION, THE Wallace Rice 501 

MEXICAN WAR, NEW INVESTIGATIONS OF THE Frederic Austin Ogg 240 

MIDDLE AGES, THE LIFE AND ART OF THE Sidney Fiske Kimball 246 

MIDDLETON, RICHARD, ESSAYS OF Norman Foerster 339 

MIRABEAU, BARTHOU'S LIFE OF Fred Morrow Fling 499 

MISTRAL, FREDERIC 283 

MITCHELL, SILAS WEIR 45 

MONROE DOCTRINE, NEW STUDIES OF THE James W. Garner 110 

NATURAL HISTORY EAST AND WEST T. D. A. Cockerell 137 



INDEX 



PAGE 

NATURALIST, THE HUMAN NATURE OF A Percy F. Bicknell 335 

NEW LAMPS FOR OLD 231 

NIGHTINGALE, FLORENCE Percy F. Bicknell 54 

NOVEL, A GREAT CONTEMPORARY W. E. B 167 

NOVELIST ON His ART, A 5 

NOVELISTS, THE JUPITER OF Charles Leonard Moore 329 

OLD SALEM IN ITS HABIT As IT LIVED Mary Augusta Scott 104 

PHILIPPINES, THE PROBLEM OF THE Wallace Rice 463 

POET, AN AGED, IN His DAILY TALK Percy F. Bicknell 493 

POETIC EXPRESSION Charles Leonard Moore 131 

PUBLISHER'S EARLY MEMORIES, A Percy F. Bicknell 378 

POETRY, RECENT William Morton Payne 63 

POLITICS AND HISTORY, AN ENGLISH STATESMAN'S REFLEC- 
TIONS ON L. E. Robinson 459 

PRECIOUS STONES, THE LORE OF Martha Hale Shack ford .... 242 

PUBLIC PROSECUTOR OF THE TERROR, THE Henry E. Bourne 461 

RACIAL RELATIONS OF EAST AND WEST Payson J. Treat 418 

RESTORATION COMEDY, THE REAL George Roy Elliott 415 

SEX, THE BIOLOGY OF Raymond Pearl 145 

SHAKESPEARE, COMMENTING ON - . . Samuel A. Tannenbaum .... 16 

SHAKESPEARE'S MYSTERY, THE HEART OF Samuel A. Tannenbaum .... 494 

SHAKESPEARE'S STAGECRAFT, THE STUDY OF: A CLIMAX . George Roy Elliott 62 

SOUTH AMERICAN WILDS, IN P. A. Martin 102 

STRINDBERG IN ENGLISH Aksel G. S. Josephson 300 

SWORDS WHEN THEY BECOME PLOUGHSHARES 281 

SYNGE AND THE IRISH THEATRE James W. Tupper 177 

THOMPSON, FRANCIS His LIFE AND His WORK .... Herbert Ellsworth Cory .... 98 

TO-MORROW, TOWARD A BROADER F. B. R. Hellems 454 

UNKNOWABLE, MORE KNOWLEDGE OF THE Thomas Percival Beyer 61 

WOMAN AND THE INTELLECTUAL LIFE T. D. A. Cockerell . . . . . . 290 

WORDS, THE SYMBOLISM OF Thomas Percival Beyer 143 

YACHTSMAN, THE CRUISE OF A PIONEER Percy F. Bicknell 239 

ANNOUNCEMENTS OF SPRING BOOKS 1914 257 

CASUAL COMMENT 9,49,91,133,169,233,283,331,371,407,449, 487 

BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS 27,69,111,146,188,252,303,345,387,425,467, 506 

BRIEFER MENTION 30,73,115,150,192,255,307,349,391,431,472, 511 

NOTES 31,74,116,150,193,256,308,350,391,432,472, 511 

TOPICS IN LEADING PERIODICALS 31, 117, 194, 309, 392, 473 

LIST OF NEW BOOKS . 32,75,117,151,195,310,351,393,433,474, 512 

CASUAL GOMMMENT 

PAGE PAGE 

Acrostic, A Japanese 333 Boston Publisher, A, of Honored Antecedents 133 

Allusions, Literary and Other 408 Bronte Sisters, Recovered Portraits of the 332 

" American History, The Father of " 50 Carlyle of Myth, The, and the Carlyle of Reality 171 

" American Spirit," Literary Expression of the 489 Carnegie, Mr., Library Gifts of, for 1913 52 

Arkansas, Literature in 374 Cartoonist, A Great, of the Victorian Age 233 

Author-names, Troublesome 374 Cinematographed Novel, The. 410 

Author's Helpmate, An 234 Claretie, Jules, The Versatile and Charming 49 

Author's Strength, The Secret of an 333 Commencement Season, A Thought for the 451 

Ballads, Disappearing, The Rescue of 93 Confusion Worse Confounded 451 

Bibliographical Institute, A 411 Cooper versus Scott 374 

Bibliothecal News, Bits of 135 Culture, Cosmopolitan, The Encouragement of 94 

Blacksmith, A Book-loving 371 " Daily of Dailies," A 49 

Book, The Most Widely Translated, in the World 452 Dickens's Death, The True Cause of 234 

Book Tariff, The Shame of the 449 Drama for the Rural Districts 490 

Book-rescue Work, A Story of 452 Editorial, The Reason of an 49 

Book-scorner, The Sad Fate of a 411 Editorial Fallibility, Instances of 3 r < 

Bookbinding, Durability in 93 Emerson, A Passing Glimpse of ' 

Bookless, A Missionary to the 134 English, Slipshod s 

Bookless, How to Get Books to the 285 English Language, The Anglicity of the 9i 

Books, Cheaper Carriage of 11 Fairy Tale, The Function of the 332 

Booksellers' Catalogues, Tantalizing Delights of 10 Feminism, The Literature of 52 



INDEX 



PAGE 

First Aid to the Inquiring Reader 450 

Foreign Literature, Accessible, of Our Time 171 

Foreign Literature, Painless Preliminaries to the Enjoy- 
ment of a 450 

French Academician, The Latest 170 

Gaskell, Mrs., Manchester Home of 135 

" Gath," The Prolific Pen of 408 

Genius, The Inscrutability of 93 

Genius in Embryo, The Detection of 133 

Greek Scholar, The Death of an Accomplished 286 

Harvard Library, A Proposed Gift to the 287 

Hellenists, A Word of Cheer to 374 

Home Reading for the High-school Pupil 10 

Houghton, Stanley 11 

" Human Interest," Universal Appeal of the Story of. . . . 410 

Immigrant, Literary Aid to the 92 

Innkeepers, A Reader's Hint to 285 

Inquiring Mind, Cultivation of the 452 

" Intellectual Exercises, The Least of All " 10 

Inter-library Loans, A Fresh Impetus to 372 

James, Henry, Senior, The Humor of 284 

Japanese Literary Likings 172 

Johns Hopkins President, The Writings of the New 233 

Juvenile Fiction, A Noticeable Fact about 236 

Language-teaching, A Topsy-turvy Method of 51 

Latin, A Fairy Tale in 371 

Latin Pronunciation, Latitude in 170 

Laureate's First Official Poem, The 51 

Leaving Off, The Art of 373 

Librarian's Wit, The Soul of a 332 

Libraries, Public, Public Appreciation of 235 

Library, Local Talent in the 286 

Library, The Most-used, in the World 372 

Library Activities, Antipodean 286 

Library Conference, This Year's 334 

Library School, A New State 50 

Library School's Quarter-century Record, A 373 

Library Schools, The Beginnings of 284 

Library Service, A Novelty in 410 

Library's Usefulness, Mathematical Determination of a.. 333 

Lincoln Literary Relics. 52 

Literary Artist, The Joys of the 449 

Literary Criticism, New Ideals of 92 

Literary Magic 52 

Literary Style, The Secret of 170 

Literature, Medicated 91 

Literature and Farming, The Comparative Delights of. . . 234 

Logician, a Great, Literary Activities of 407 

Lorna Doone's Narrow Escape 490 

McMaster, Professor John Bach, A New Honor for 135 



_, r/mc. 

Magazine Covers 51 

Man of the Pen and of the Sword, A 134 

Manuscripts, A Mine of 331 

Mayor, A, with no Fondness for Literature 171 

Men and Women of the Pen 9 

Mexican Literature, Tendencies and Achievements in 

Contemporary 284 

Misquotation, Temptations to 488 

Moving-picture Screen, Literary Classics on the 334 

National Language and Literature, Reviving a 134 

Nearness, Disenchantment of 408 

Nepenthe, An Unappreciated 93 

Newspaper, a Great, The Bid for Popularity of 333 

Novel-writing Habit, The 374 

Opinions That One Would Like to Have Expressed Dif- 
ferently 489 

Orderliness in the Library, The Price of 51 

Pioneer, A Hardy 1 1 

Platitude, Function of the 409 

Poet, One Way to Praise a 286 

Poet's Personality, A 373 

Poets, Potential, Encouragement to 169 

Pseudonyms, A Strange Taste in 235 

Public Library System, The Geographical Centre of Our. 94 

Publishers, Governmental Unfairness to 235 

Puzzles, Polyglot 490 

Quarterly Review, A, with the Courage of Its Title 9 

Questionnaire, A Plea for the 133 

Reader, Baiting the Hook to Catch the 135 

Reading, Intelligent 411 

Reading, Surreptitious 488 

Reading-time, Stolen 91 

Reviewing a Book, Eight Ways of 136 

Rhetoric, The Luxury of 285 

Riis, Jacob How He Became an Author 487 

Sacred Literature, Unsanctified Uses of 171 

Scholars, Oddities and Obstinacies of 92 

Schoolboys : What They Should Know 50 

Sesqui-centennial Celebration, A 371 

Shakespeare Presented by Amateurs 51 

Singing Birds, A Nest of 409 

Spelling and Sound 373 

Stage Realism, Triumphs of 451 

Standard Writers, The Authority of the 373 

Sutro Library, The 11 

Typography, An Artist in 169 

University Library, Strengthening of One 452 

Unpublished Books, A Library of 10 

Vanishing Art, The Revival of a 233 

Virginia, A Voice from . 49 



AUTHORS AND TITLES OF BOOKS REVIEWED 



Acheson, Arthur. Mistress Davenant 494 

Adams, Charles Francis. Trans-Atlantic Historical Soli- 
darity 291 

Adams, Ephraim D. Power of Ideals in American His- 
tory 140 

Adams, Henry. Mont-Saint-Michel and Chartres 246 

Adcock, A. St. John. The Booklover's London 293 

Albee, Helen R. A Kingdom of Two 73 

Allinson, Anne C. E. Roads from Rome 115 

Andrews, Charlton. The Drama of To-day 56 

Antin, Mary. They Who Knock at Our Gates 470 

Apthorp, William F. Forty Songs by Adolph Jensen 115 

Ashmun, Margaret. Modern Short-stories 346 

A.vebury, Lord. Prehistoric Times, seventh edition 192 

Backhouse, J. O. P., and Bland, Edmund. Annals and 

Memoirs of the Court of Peking 425 

Baker, Ernest A. A Guide to Historical Fiction 511 

Baldwin, James M. History of Psychology 113 

Baring, Maurice. Lost Diaries 430 

Barrus, Clara. Our Friend John Burroughs 335 

Bartholomew, J. G. Literary and Historical Atlas of 

Africa and Australia 307 

Barthou, Louis. Mirabeau 499 

Bartram, George. England's Garland 65 

Bassett, John. Short History of the United States 27 

Bayley, Harold. Lost Language of Symbolism 143 

Behr, Herman. Perlen Englischer Dichtung in Deutscher 

Fassung 106 

Benet, William Rose. Merchants from Cathay 67 



Bennett, Arnold. The Price of Love 505 

Bergson, Henri. Dreams 510 

Bickersteth, G. L. Carducci 30 

Bingham, Hiram. The Monroe Doctrine 110 

Birmingham, G. A. General John Regan 22 

Bjornson, Bjornstjerne. Plays, trans, by Edwin Bjork- 

man, second series 507 

Blake, William. Poetical Works, Oxford edition 74 

Blease, W. Lyon. Short History of English Liberalism.. 18 

Bond, Francis. English Church Architecture 304 

Bostwick, Arthur E. Earmarks of Literature 191 

Bourgeois, Maurice. John Millington Synge and the 

Irish Theatre 178 

Boynton, Percy H. London in English Literature 293 

Bridger, A. E. Minds in Distress 390 

Brooke, Stopford A. Ten More Plays of Shakespeare. . . 16 

Brooks, Alfred M. Architecture and the Allied Arts 427 

Brown, Mary Elizabeth. Dedications 193 

Browne, Belmore. Conquest of Mount McKinley 29 

Bruce, H. Addington. Adventurings in the Psychical 471 

Bruce, H. Addington. Education of Karl Witte 508 

Bryce, James. The Ancient Roman Empire and the Brit- 
ish Empire in India 610 

Budge, E. A. Wallis. The Book of the Dead 382 

Burroughs, John. The Summit of the Years 27 

Burton, Richard. Little Essays in Literature and Life.. 390 

Burton, Richard. The New American Drama 66 

Cabot, Richard C. What Men Live By 304 

"Cambridge Medieval History," Vol. II 467 



INDEX 



Campbell, Oscar J. Comedies of Holberg 468 

Campbell, Wilfred. Oxford Book of Canadian Verse 189 

Cannan, Gilbert. Old Mole 248 

Carlyle, Thomas. The Diamond Necklace, Riverside 

Press edition 73 

Carson, W. E. Mexico, revised edition 307 

Cartwright, Julia. Christina of Denmark 253 

Carus, Paul. Nietzsche and Other Exponents of Indi- 
vidualism 188 

Catlin, George. Indians, new edition 391 

Cawein, Madison. Minions of the Moon 68 

Cescinsky, Herbert, and Webster, Malcolm R. English 

Domestic Clocks 511 

Chamberlin, Frederick. The Philippine Problem 464 

Chambrun, Countess de. Sonnets of William Shake- 
speare 497 

Chase, Lewis N. Poe and His Poetry 609 

Chatfield-Taylor, H. C. Goldoni 138 

Clodd, Edward. The Childhood of the World, revised 

edition 507 

Coit, Stanton. Social Worship 305 

Collyer, Robert. Clear Grit 254 

Comfort, Will Levington. Down among Men 24 

Commons, J. R. Labor and Administration 192 

Connelley, William E. Life of Preston B. Plumb 148 

Conway, Adaline M. A Silent Peal from the Liberty 

Bell 431 

Cook, Edward. Life of Florence Nightingale 54 

Cooper, Homer H. Right Living 431 

Cooper, Lane. Aristotle's " Poetics " 252 

Cornish, Francis W. Jane Austen 73 

Cotterill, H. B. Ancient Greece 176 

"Country Life Press, Garden City, New York" 192 

Cowles, Julia D. Art of Story-telling 391 

Crow, Carl. America and the Philippines 465 

Crowninshield, Francis B. Story of George Crownin- 

shield's Yacht 239 

Dalrymple, Leona. Diane of the Green Van 424 

Dana, John C., and McKnight, Elizabeth B. The High 

School Branch of the Public Library 192 

Davies, Randall. Greatest House at Chelsey 347 

Dawson, Coningsby. The Garden without Walls 21 

De Lara, L. Gutierrez, and Pinchon, Edgcumb. The 

Mexican People 502 

Dell, Ethel M. Rocks of Valpre 424 

De Morgan, William. When Ghost Meets Ghost 247 

Dodd, William G. Courtly Love in Chaucer and Gower. 345 

Douglas, James. New England and New France 348 

Dreiser, Theodore. The Titan 504 

Dugmore, A. Radclyffe. Romance of the Newfoundland 

Caribou 113 

Dunn, Samuel O. Government Ownership of Railways.. 70 
Dunoyer, Alphonse. Public Prosecutor of the Terror. . 461 

Edwards, Agnes. Our Common Road 113 

England, George A. Darkness and Dawn 425 

" Essays for College Men " 30 

Faguet, Emile. Initiation into Literature, trans, by Gor- 
don Home 467 

Fielding-Hall, H. The Passing of Empire 379 

Fillebrown, C. B. Taxation 308 

Fonseka, Lionel de. On the Truth of Decorative Art, 

new edition 193 

Fox, Charles D. The Psycho-pathology of Hysteria 29 

Fraser, Mrs. Hugh. Italian Yesterdays 108 

Fuller, Loie. Fifteen Years of a Dancer's Life 115 

Furness, Horace H. Shakespeare's Tragedies of Cym- 

beline 184 

Fyfe, Hamilton. The Real Mexico 503 

Galsworthy, John. The Dark Flower 23 

Gardner, Percy. Principles of Greek Art, revised edition 348 
Garneau, Frangois-Xavier. Histoire du Canada, Vol. I., 

fifth edition 115 

Gaultier, Paul. The Meaning of Art 344 

Gayley, Charles M. Beaumont, the Dramatist 428 

Gephart, W. F. Insurance and the State 114 

Gilbreth, L. M. Psychology of Management 507 

Gillette, John M. The Family and Society 308 

Gissing, George. Books and the Quiet Life 349 

Goodrich, Joseph King. Our Neighbors the Chinese 30 

Goodrich, Joseph King. The Coming Canada 20 

Gowen, Herbert H. Outline History of China, Part II.. 150 

Granger, Alfred Hoyt. Charles Follen McKim 384 

Grant, Arthur. In the Old Paths 255 

Grant, Francis J. Manual of Heraldry, revised edition. 510 

Grant, Lady Sybil. Samphire 149 

Green, Samuel S. The Public Library Movement in the 

United States 150 



PAGE 

Gregory, Lady. Our Irish Theatre 177 

Grey, Zane. The Light of Western Stars 424 

Griffis, William E. Hepburn of Japan 149 

Griggs, Edward H. The Philosophy of Art 343 

Gulick, Sidney L. American Japanese Problem 418 

Haines, Charles G. American Doctrine of Judicial Su- 
premacy 348 

Hall, Bolton. Mastery of Grief 390 

Hamilton, Clayton. Studies in Stagecraft 388 

Hanson, Willis T., Jr. Early Life of John Howard 

Payne 193 

Hardy, Thomas. A Changed Man 74 

Harper, Henry H. The Story of a Manuscript 511 

Haultain, Arnold. Goldwin Smith 146 

Heape, Walter. Sex Antagonism 191 

Heath, Roger. Beginnings 66 

Heaton, John L. The Story of a Page 30 

Helston, John. Aphrodite 65 

Henderson, Archibald. European Dramatists 253 

Hernici, Lois O. Representative Women 307 

" Heroes of the Nations " 431 

Hewlett, Maurice, fiendish 23 

Hewlett, Maurice. Helen Redeemed 64 

Hichens, Robert. The Way of Ambition 249 

Higginson, Mary T. Thomas Wentworth Higginson 414 

Hinckley, G. W. Roughing it with Boys 308 

Hissey, James J. A Leisurely Tour in England 254 

"History of Lexington, Massachusetts" 471 

Holder, Charles F. Quakers in Great Britain and Amer- 
ica 189 

Holl, Karl. Gerhart Hauptmann 307 

Holland, W. J. To the River Plate and Back 138 

Holmes, Edmond. Tragedy of Education 338 

" Home " 251 

Hopkins, Tighe. Wards of the State 21 

Howells, William D. The Seen and the Unseen at Strat- 

ford-on-Avon 470 

Hughes, C. E. Early English Water Colour 30 

Humphrey, Zephine. The Edge of the Woods 255 

Hunter, George Leland. Home Furnishing 298 

Hurd, Archibald, and Castle, Henry. German Sea-power. 182 
Hutchinson, J. R. The Press Gang Afloat and Ashore... 190 
Hutton, Edward. Cities of Romagna and the Marches.. 114 

Hyslop, James H. Psychical Research and Survival 190 

Innes, A. D. A History of England 106 

Irvine, Margaret. A Pepys of Mogul India 389 

Jackson, Holbrook. The Eighteen Nineties 303 

James, Henry. Notes of a Son and Brother 289 

James, James A. Readings in American History 307 

Jerrold, Clare. Married Life of Queen Victoria 346 

Jerrold, Walter, and Leonard, R. M. A Century of 

Parody and Imitation, Oxford edition 74 

Jessen, Franz de. Katya 421 

Jewett, Sophie. Folk-ballads of Southern Europe 419 

Johnson, Owen. The Salamander 505 

Johnston, Reginald F. Buddhist China 305 

Jordan, Humfrey. Carmen and Mr. Dryasdust 423 

Kaufman, Reginald Wright. The Spider's Web 26 

Kawakami, Kiyoshi K. Asia at the Door 418 

King, Georgiana G. Street's Gothic Architecture in 

Spain, revised edition 431 

Kirkup, Thomas. History of Socialism, fifth edition.... 255 
Knapp, Oswald G. Intimate Letters of Hester Piozzi and 

Penelope Pennington 387 

Knowles, Joseph. Alone in the Wilderness 346 

Kraus, Herbert. Die Monroedoktrin Ill 

Kunz, George F. Curious Lore of Precious Stones 242 

Lancaster, G. B. The Law-bringers 25 

Landor, A. Henry Savage. Across Unknown South 

America 1 2 

Lea, Hermann. Thomas Hardy's Wcssex 191 

" Lee, Vernon." The Beautiful 306 

" Lee, Vernon." Tower of the Mirrors 430 

Le Gallienne, Richard. The Lonely Dancer 66 

Legge, Arthur E. J. A Symphony 64 

Legge, Edward. More about King Edward 429 

Leopold, Lewis. Prestige 112 

Le Roy, James A. Americans in the Philippines 463 

Lind-af-Hageby, L. August Strindberg 302 

Littlewood, S. R. The Fairies Here and Now 510 

Locke, William J. The Fortunate Youth 423 

Loeb, Jacques. Artificial Parthenogenesis and Fertiliza- 
tion, revised edition 391 

London, Jack. The Valley of the Moon 25 

Long, William J. American Literature 70 

Low, Benjamin R. C. A Wand and Strings 67 



INDEX 



PARE 

Low, Sidney. The Governance of England, revised 

edition BOG 

Lowell, Abbott L. Public Opinion and Popular Govern- 
ment 188 

Lucas, E. V. Loiterer's Harvest 28 

Lukach, Harry C. Fringe of the East 388 

Lynde, Francis. The Honorable Senator Sage-brush 26 

MacCracken, Henry N. The College Chaucer 255 

MacGill, Patrick. Children of the Dead End 504 

MacHugh, R. J. Modern Mexico 501 

Mackenzie, Compton. Youth's Encounter 24 

McMaster, John B. History of the People of the United 

States, Vol. VIII 179 

McVey, Frank L. National Social Science Series 307 

Maeterlinck, Maurice. Our Eternity 61 

Mannix, William F. Memoirs of Li Hung Chang 142 

Mariett, Paul. Poems 69 

Masefield, John. Salt-water Ballads 65 

Mason, A. E. W. The Witness for the Defence 248 

Maspero, Gaston. Egyptian Art 114 

Matthews, Brander. Shakespeare as a Playwright 62 

Medwin, Thomas. Life of Shelley, edited by H. Buxton 

Forman 147 

Melville, Lewis. Life and Writings of Philip, Duke of 

Wharton 71 

Meynell, Everard. Life of Francis Thompson 98 

Middleton, Richard. Works 339 

Milner, Lord. The Nation and the Empire 72 

Mims, Stewart L. Moreau's Voyage aux Etats-Unis de 

1' Amerique 255 

Minot, Charles S. Modern Problems of Biology 469 

Moore, George. Hail and Farewell : Vale 471 

Morgan, Thomas H. Heredity and Sex 145 

Morley, Viscount. Notes on Politics and History 459 

Morris, William. Poems and Prose Tales, Oxford edition. 74 

Morris, William. Works, pocket edition 431 

Moskowski, Moritz. Anthology of German Piano Music, 

Vol. 1 472 

Mozans, H. J. Woman in Science , 296 

Munsterberg, Hugo. Psychology and Social Sanity 426 

Muirhead, John Spencer. The Quiet Spirit 66 

Mundy, Talbot. Rung Ho ! 423 

Nelson, Andrew W. Yankee Swanson 73 

Nichols, Martha. George Nichols 104 

Nicoll, W. Robertson. A Bookman's Letters Ill 

Notestein, Lucy L., and Dunn, Waldo H. The Modern 

Short-story 346 

O'Connor, Mrs. T. P. My Beloved South 347 

Oppenheim, James. Idle Wives 505 

Ordway, Edith B. Dictionary of Synonyms and Anto- 
nyms 192 

Ordway, Edith B. Handbook of Quotations 192 

Orsi, Pietro. Cavour and the Making of Modern Italy.. 431 

Palgrave's " Golden Treasury " 472 

Palmer, John. Comedy of Manners 415 

Pearson, Edmund Lester. The Secret Book 429 

Pearson, Peter H. Study of Literature 149 

" People of the Eastern Orthodox Churches, the Sepa- 
rated Churches of the East, and Other Slavs " 247 

Phillips, Stephen. Lyrics and Dramas 63 

Phillpotts, Eden. The Joy of Youth 248 

Pillsbury, H. G. Figures Famed in Fiction 349 

Poley, Arthur T. Federal Systems of the United States 

and the British Empire 112 

Pope, A. Winthrop. Theatrical Bookplates 192 

Porter, Maud Thornhill. Billy 349 

Putnam, George H. Memories of My Youth 378 

Pycraft, W. P. Courtship of Animals 509 

Quaife, Milo Milton. Chicago and tke Old Northwest.. 341 

Rae, Walter C. Public Library Administration 193 

Rawnsley, Canon. Chapters at the English Lakes 115 

Reed, C. B. Masters of the Wilderness 509 

Reed, Chester, Allwyn. The Theban Eagle 69 

Reed, Verner Z. The Soul of Paris 115 

Reid, Whitelaw. American and English Studies 146 

Richardson, Ernest C. The Beginnings of Libraries .... 307 

Ritchie, Anne I. From the Porch 72 

Rives, George L. The United States and Mexico 240 

Robertson, C. Du Fay. Down the Year 430 

Roe, F. W., and Elliott, G. R. English Prose 74 

Roget's Thesaurus, revised, large type edition 308 

Holland, Remain, Jean-Christophe 167 

Rooses, Max. Art in Flanders 431 

Rossetti, Dante Gabriel. Poems and Translations, Ox- 
ford edition 74 

Rowland, Eleanor. Significance of Art 344 

Rubinow, I. M. Social Insurance 57 



PAGE 

Ruhl, Arthur. Second Nights 506 

Russell, Charles E. These Shifting Scenes 428 

St. John Hope, W. H. Grammar of Heraldry 510 

Salzmann, L. F. English Industries of the Middle Ages. 28 

Salzmann, L. F. Mediaeval Byways 254 

Schouler, James. History of the United States of Amer- 
ica, Vol. VII 180 

Scott, Robert F. The Voyage of the " Discovery," popu- 
lar edition 150 

Scott, Temple. The Use of Leisure 74 

Scott, W. B. History of Land Mammals in the Western 

Hemisphere 69 

Scott, William A. Money 308 

Seashore, C. E. Psychology in Daily Life 348 

Shackford, Martha H. Legends and Satires from Me- 
diaeval Literature 147 

Shackleton, Robert. Unvisited Places of Old Europe 306 

Shaw, Stanley. William of Germany 181 

Shore, W. Teignmouth. John Woolman 303 

Shores, Robert J. New Brooms 29 

Siegfried, Andre. Democracy in New Zealand 508 

Slater, J. Herbert. A Stevenson Bibliography 431 

Stacpoole, H. De Vere. Children of the Sea 422 

Stallard, Mrs. Arthur. The House as Home 299 

Stead, Estelle W. My Father 71 

Stillman, W. J. Billy and Hans 349 

Stokes, Hugh. Francisco Goya 469 

Stopes, M. C. Plays of Old Japan 72 

Strindberg, August. By the Open Sea 302 

Strindberg, August. In Midsummer Days -302 

Strindberg, August. Married 300 

Strindberg, August. On the Seaboard 302 

Strindberg, August. Plays, translated by Edith and War- 
ner Oland 303 

Strindberg, August. Plays, trans, by Edwin Bjorkman, 

Vol. Ill 27 

Strindberg, August. The Confession of a Fool 301 

Strindberg, August. The Inferno 302 

Strindberg, August. The Red Room 300 

Strindberg, August. The Son of a Servant 301 

Strindberg, August. Zones of the Spirit 302 

Strunsky, Simeon. Post Impressions 389 

Strong, Theron G. Landmarks of a Lawyer's Lifetime.. 304 

Stuck, Hudson. Ascent of Denali 427 

Sumner, William G. Earth Hunger, and Other Essays . . 349 

Sumner, William G. War, and Other Essays 349 

Swedenborg, Emanuel. The Path of Life 431 

Symons, Arthur. Knave of Hearts 66 

Taft, William H. Popular Government 253 

Taylor, Graham. Religion in Social Action 192 

Taylor, J. H. Joe Taylor, Barnstormer 349 

Tearle, Christian. The Pilgrim from Chicago 148 

" The Empress Frederick " 428 

Thomas, Allen C. History of England 73 

Thompson, Francis, Works of 98 

Thorold, Algar L. Life of Henry Labouchere 244 

Ticknor, Caroline. Hawthorne and His Publisher 13 

Traubel, Horace. With Walt Whitman in Camden, 

Vol. Ill 493 

Tressall, Robert. The Ragged-trousered Philanthropists. 504 

Trevelyan, George M. Clio, a Muse 336 

Treves, Frederick. The Country of " The Ring and the 

Book " 189 

Tweedie, Mrs. Alec. America as I Saw It 112 

Vance, Louis Joseph. Joan Thursday 24 

Van Gogh, Elizabeth Du Quesne. Personal Recollections 

of Vincent Van Gogh 149 

Vedder, Henry C. The Reformation in Germany 252 

Verworn, Max. Irritability 389 

Wallace, Alfred Russel. Revolt of Democracy 190 

Waller, Mary E. From an Island Outpost 390 

Walsh, William S. A Handy-book of Curious Informa- 
tion 30 

Ward, A. W., and Waller A. R. Cambridge History of 

English Literature, Vols. VIII., IX., and X 456 

Ward, Mrs. Humphry. The Coryston Family 249 

Washington, George. Farewell Address, Riverside Press 

edition 73 

Watt, Francis. R. L. S 148 

Watts, Mary S. Van Cleve 250 

Webster, Henry K. The Butterfly 251 

Weekley, Ernest. Romance of Names 349 

Weller, Charles H. Athens and Its Monuments 177 

Wells, H. G. Social Forces in England and America.... 454 

Wells, H. G. The Passionate Friends 23 

West, Julius. Atlantis 67 

Weston, Jessie L. Quest of the Holy Grail 385 



INDEX 



PAGE 

Weston, Jessie L. The Chief Middle English Poets 255 

Wharton, Edith. The Custom of the Country 250 

Whitlock, Brand. Forty Years of It 174 

Wile, Frederic W. Men around the Kaiser 183 

Williams, D. R. Odyssey of Philippine Commission 465 

Willson, Beckles. Quebec: The Lauretian Province.... Ill 

Wilson, Ernest H. A Naturalist in Western China 137 



PA(!E 

Winthrop, Theodore. The Canoe and the Saddle, new 

edition 114 

Wolfe, Elsie de. The House in Good Taste 299 

Worcester, Dean C. The Philippines 464 

Worsfold, W. Basil. Reconstruction of the New Col- 
onies 387 

Zeitlin, Jacob. Hazlitt on English Literature 73 



MISCELLANEOUS 



"American Oxonian, The " 512 

American Poets and English Traditions. Robert J. 

Shores 492 

Anti-Babel. Edgar Mayhew Bacon 237 

"Anti-Babel" Again. Lewin Hill 377 

Arizona, Catalogue of Books on, in the University of Ari- 
zona Library 31 

Association Volume, A Rare. John Thomas Lee 376 

Authorship, A Case of Wrongly-ascribed. William B. 

Cairns 238 

Auxiliary Language, An, for Intercommunication. 

Eugene F. McPike 95 

Auxiliary Language, Another. A. L. Guerard 173 

" Bird-witted " or " High-brow " ? I. R. P 377 

Book-classification in the Library of the University of 

Illinois 473 

Book Reviews, "Tainted." Book-buyer 97 

Browning Letters, Plans for Preservation of the 392 

" Candid Review, The " 151 

Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, 

Eighth Annual Report of the 512 

Chamberlain, Joshua L., Death of 256 

Claretie, Jules Arsene Arnaud, Death of 31 

Classic Languages, Revivifying the. Nathan Haskell 

Dole 94 

Classics, Devouring the. Robert Shafer 12 

Cotterill, Mr., and his "Ancient Greece." //. B Cotterill. 288 

Crockett, S. R., Death of 392 

DeVinne, Theodore Low. George French 236 

Driver, Samuel Rolles, Death of 256 

Duncan, Robert Kennedy, Death of 194 

Fairy Tale, Function of the. Anne Mack 411 

Fairy Tales and the Trained Imagination. Charles 

Welsh 412 

Foss, Sam Walter, Proposed Memorial to 391 

" G. B. Lancaster." William Nelson 238 

Ginn, Edwin, Death of 117 

Hamlet's "Soliloquy" and Claudius. C. M. Street 172 

Heroine, Present-day, Precursors of the. Floyd Adams 

Noble 238 

" High-brow." R. S 287 

Hutchinson, Anne, Proposed Statue to .. 392 



Iowa Library Commission, Publication of 350 

Lamar, Mirabeau Buonaparte, Purchase of Papers of. . . . 392 

Language of the Unlettered. Mrs. I. S. Heidt 490 

Library Legislation, Pioneer, in Illinois. Sarah W. 

Hiestand 288 

Literary Resemblance, An Interesting. G. H. Maynadier. 491 
Luther's Use of the Pre-Lutheran Versions of the Bible. 

Edward H. Lauer 413 

Merriam, George Spring, Death of 116 

Milton's " Starre-Ypointed Pyramid." Edwin Durning- 

Lawrence 53 

" Mississippi Valley Historical Review " 256 

Morton, Edward Payson, Death of 350 

Neilson, Professor, and Grimm's Fairy Tales. W. A. 

Neilson 453 

" New Numbers " 309 

Norway and an International Language. James F. 

Morton, Jr 453 

Pater, Walter, and Bishop Berkeley. Wm. Chislett, Jr.. 453 

Peck, Harry Thurston, Death of 309 

" Pilgrim's Progress, The," in Moving Pictures. E. W. 

Clement 491 

Poetry, Mr. Yeats and. Henry Barrett Hinckley 376 

Poetry, The Old and the New. Edith Wyatt 375 

"Political Poetry," Appeal of. Helen M. Seymour 11 

Protest, A. Charles Francis Saunders 97 

Riis, Jacob A., Death of 472 

Sales of Books, Increasing the. George French 377 

" Scottish Review, The " 343 

Smith, Josiah Renick 172 

Stevenson, Mrs. Robert Louis, Death of 193 

Syndicate Service and " Tainted Book Reviews." W. E. 

Woodward 173 

Translation, A Difficulty in. Hyder E. Rollins 136 

Translations, A Word about. Julian Park 12 

Wallace, Alfred Russel, Memorial Fund to 257 

Whitman, Walt, and Lincoln's Assassination. Harold 

Hersey 136 

" Worth While." Wm. Chislett, Jr 136 

Wright, William Aldis, Death of 472 

"Ye" and "Ampersand." Arthur Howard Noll 53 

"Ye" and "Ampersand." Nelson Antrim Crawford.... 52 



THE DIAL 

</? SEMI-MONTHLY fOURN/iL OF 

yihmxv Criticism, Discussion, atvtr Jftif0rnrafi0tt 

FOUNDED BY \VolumeLVI. r"ITTr< A PA TAAT 1 1 Q1 A 10 eta. a eopi/. / Fiira ARTS BUILDING 



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THE New York Times has recently published a list of The One 
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Letters and Recollections of Alexander Agassiz. With a sketch of his work and 
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The Letters of Charles Eliot Norton. With Biographical Comment by his daughter 
Miss Sara Norton and Mr. M. A. DeWolfe Howe. 

Illustrated. Boxed. 2 vols. $5.00 net. Carriage 44 cents. 

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The English Lyric. By Felix Schelling. $1.50 net. By mail $1.60 

Irish Plays and Playwrights. By Cornelius Weygandt. Illustrated. $2.00 net. By mail $2.13 

Stowe Notes. By Edward Martin Taber. Illustrated. $3.50 net. By mail $3.70 

O Pioneers! By Willa Sibert Gather. Frontispiece in color. $1.25 net. By mail $1.37 

V. V.'s Eyes. By Henry Sydnor Harrison. Illustrated. $1.35 net. By mail $1.49 

Otherwise Phyllis. By Meredith Nicholson. Frontispiece by Gibson. $1.35 net. By mail $1.48 

Greek Imperialism. By William Scott Ferguson. $2.00 net. By mail $2.15 

The Making of Modern England. By Gilbert Slater. 

With maps and plans. $2.50 net. By mail $2.65 

The Religious Revolution. By James T. Shotwell. $1.10 net. By mail $1.18 

The Wolf of Gubbio. By Josephine Preston Peabody. $1.10 net. By mail $1.18 



THE DIAL, [Jan. 1 



NEALE'S FOR JANUARY 

Apostles of the Commonplace By LILY YOUNG COHEN 

NEALE'S MONTHLY has established an American literature of criticism worthy of the name. 
It fearlessly attacks both books and their authors. Plagiarists high in the temple that has been 
erected by persons other than themselves are fearlessly and mercilessly exposed; praise is given 
where praise is due ; fairness and fearlessness walk side by side through its pages. Beginning with 
the chief prophet of the commonplace, William Dean Howells, Miss Cohen shows in this article 
how he has spread his uninspired doctrine among his disciples, including such noted novelists 
as Henry James, Edith Wharton, Henry Van Dyke, Mary E. Wilkins-Freeman, until the term 
"realism" in American letters has become a word of evil import. 

The Usefulness of the Devil's Advocate By j. F. j. CALDWELL 

All scholars know the Devil's Advocate as a man whose business and status was so ungrateful 
as to bring upon him his sulphurous title. It has remained, however, for Mr. Caldwell to plead 
the cause of the fault-finder, who is the Devil's Advocate of our time. Everybody who read Mr. 
Caldwell's zestful testimonial to literary pirates in "Concerning Plagiarism," the satirical essay 
that was published in NEALE'S MONTHLY for June, 1913, knows exactly in what spirit of fine 
humor and of delicate philosophy the present paper must be written. 

Crawling Under Racial Barriers By PROF. BERRIEN BEVERLEY 

This article of "Our Jungle Man" series shows that the solution of the American Negro 
problem rests with the white man of the South. Prof. Beverley discusses the causes, dangers, and 
horrors of miscegenation, and declares that racial barriers must remain standing for all time. 

Five Great Serials By FIVE EMINENT AUTHORS 

"The Walls of Concarneau," by George K. Baker, author of " Haliefa," is a novel broidered 
on the historic fabric of the struggle of the devoted Bretons to hold Brittany against the French for 
the young Duchess Anne; "Broken Lights," by Mowry Saben, who is among America's foremost 
essayists, is the general title given to this author's most noteworthy essays, which are now being 
published for the first time; "Brilla," by Anna M. Doling, is an irresistible serial, the story of a 
lie, in which the Ozark Mountains form a picturesque background for the figures that move 
through this striking American novel; "Our Jungle Man " is a series of highly important articles 
in which the relations of the white man and the black as they exist throughout the United States 
are discussed with the utmost freedom by prominent members of both the Caucasian and the Negro 
races, among these writers being Professors Thomas Pearce Bailey, Berrien Beverley, and Kelly 
Miller, and Major John R. Lynch; "Into the Sunset," by Edward S. Van Zile, author of "With 
Sword and Crucifix," and other highly successful novels, is a story in which Columbus is the great 
central figure, a story of romance largely concerning two young men and two young girls, who 
are supposed to have accompanied Columbus on his first trip to America. 

" The New Freedom " From Criminal Prosecution By WALTER NEALE 

Until recently every normal American citizen believed himself to be both a democrat and a 
republican, contending for equal rights for all, special privileges for none, and for republican gov- 
ernment. Yet within the present year an administration labeled "Democratic," comprising a 
"Democratic" House of Representatives, a "Democratic" Senate, and a "Democratic" Presi- 
dent, has placed on the statute books of the United States a law that separates the American people 
into three classes, two of which are permitted to conduct themselves in a manner that would be 
criminal if a similar course of conduct were pursued by the unexempt class, which consists of the 
vast majority of the American people. The editor of NEALE'S MONTHLY shows how the "Demo- 
cratic" administration tricked the American people. 

Regular Departments By Six Distinguished Authors and Editors 

The regular departments of NEALE'S MONTHLY alone are sufficient to make this magazine noteworthy. 

Short Fiction By Various Authors 

Short fiction and various timely and interesting articles, besides the features enumerated above, make NEALE'S 
MONTHLY for January noteworthy among American magazines. 

At $3.00 a year, 25 cents a number, NEALE'S MONTHLY supplies a wealth of literature. Every number contains 
more than 100,000 words of text, superbly illustrated, and no number will contain less than 128 pages. In its 
mechanical appointments no magazine in existence is its superior. 

Union Square The Neale Publishing Company New York 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



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The Wreck 

By HENRY CLAY HANSBROUGH 

In this volume former Senator Hansbrough critically 
studies and reviews the administrations of Presidents 
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This is a good, rousing story of Virginian life, types, 
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Bierce's Collected Works 

Arranged by the AUTHOR 

Less than four hundred sets of the first large edition of 
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Haliefa 

By GEORGE K. BAKER 

In "Haliefa," we have the passionate, spontaneous 
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so vividly has Mr. Baker presented his pictures, one 
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The Facts of Reconstruction 

By JOHN R. LYNCH 

In his "Autobiography of Seventy Years" the late 
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Modern Battles of Trenton 

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In this volume our Consul-General to Switzerland, who 
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The Cavalier Poets 

By CARL HOLLIDAY 

In this important work the group of poets that soon fol- 
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Little Round Top 

By OLIVER WILLCOX NORTON 

During the past eighteen years The Neale Publishing 
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In January another important and large volume devoted 
exclusively to the Gettysburg battle will be issued by 
this house. 



Write for our NEW CATALOGUE, which contains more than 1OO rare portraits and other illustrations. 



Union Square 



The Neale Publishing Company 



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THE DIAL 



[Jan. 1, 1914 









NEW MACMILLAN BOOKS 








Important Announcement 




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Entered as Second-Class Matter October 8, 1892, at the Post Office 
at Chicago, Illinois, under Act of March 3, 1879. 



No. 661. 



JANUARY 1, 1914. Vol. LVI. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 
5 



A NOVELIST ON HIS ART 

A NEGLECTED AMERICAN POET. Charles 

Leonard Moore 7 

CASUAL COMMENT 9 

A quarterly review with the courage of its title. 
To men and women of the pen. A library of un- 
published books. "The least of all intellectual 
exercises." Home reading for the high-school 
pupil. The tantalizing delights of booksellers' cata- 
logues. Stanley Houghton. The Sutro library. 
A hardy pioneer. Cheaper carriage of books. 

COMMUNICATIONS 11 

The Appeal of " Political Poetry." Helen Minturn 

Seymour. 

A Word about Translations. Julian Park. 
Devouring the Classics. Robert Shafer. 

RECORDS OF A HAPPY FRIENDSHIP. W. E. 

Simonds . . . 13 

COMMENTING ON SHAKESPEARE. Samuel A. 

Tannenbaum 16 

AN ACCOUNT OF ENGLISH LIBERALISM. Carl 

Becker .18 

CANADA OF TO-DAY AND TO-MORROW. 

Lawrence J. Burpee 20 

RECENT FICTION. William Morton Payne ... 21 
Dawson's The Garden without Walls. "G. A. 
Birmingham's" General John Regan. Hewlett's 
fiendish. Galsworthy's The Dark Flower. Wells's 
The Passionate Friends. Mackenzie's Youth's En- 
counter. Vance's Joan Thursday. Comfort's Down 
among Men. London's The Valley of the Moon. 
Lancaster's The Law-B ringers. Lynde's The 
Honorable Senator Sage-Brush. Kaufman's The 
Spider's Web. 

BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS 27 

Reflections of a veteran naturalist. A new series 
of Strindberg's translated plays. Outlines of 
United States history. Gleanings in lighter vein. 
The industries of mediaeval England. Conquering 
the greatest of American peaks. The nature of 
hysteria. Little studies in humorous satire. 
English water-color artists of a century ago. 
Joseph Pulitzer and his "World." 

BRIEFER MENTION 30 

NOTES 31 

TOPICS IN JANUARY PERIODICALS .... 31 

LIST OF NEW BOOKS . . 32 



A NOVELIST ON HIS ART. 

"An author always talks badly about his 
work, and positively the best thing he can do, 
once his creation has been accomplished and 
given to the public, is to keep quiet." Quoting 
these words from the younger Dumas, Mr. 
Robert Herrick, in " The Yale Review," disre- 
garding the quoted counsel just as Dumas him- 
self disregarded it, proceeds to discuss the 
problem of the novelist, as it presents itself to 
the American practitioner of the art of fiction. 
The essay is entitled " The Background of the 
American Novel," and discusses, as the title 
suggests, "not technique nor literary faiths, but 
the larger phenomena of our common social life, 
which must irresistibly determine the product 
of any serious American novelist." It is with 
the " outer sphere of the novelist's experience, 
rather than his inner spiritual reactions" that 
Mr. Herrick is concerned, for he conceives of 
his function as being "not to entertain, not to 
preach a moral, but to realize our world for us, 
to make us see and feel what we are too dull or 
too preoccupied to realize for ourselves, in order 
that we may live vicariously in that larger life 
that we know exists, albeit beyond our feeble 
sight." 

In thus restricting himself to the secondary 
aspects of his work, and in refraining from an 
exhibition of " the very pulse of the machine," 
Mr. Herrick takes the ground that the novelist's 
" inner spiritual reactions " are better set forth 
in the works themselves than by any labored 
experiment in self-analysis. " The deepest 
quality of a work of art," says Mr. Henry 
James, "will always be the quality of the mind 
of the producer," and the novelist who speaks 
only of his "background " leaves the most vital 
characteristics of his art undisclosed. "After 
all/' says Mr. Bliss Perry, "the use of the 
materials of any art depends upon the man who 
employs them." And Brunetire, to similar 
effect, says : " Quelle que soit la formule, il n'y 
a jamais au fond des oeuvres que ce que les 
homines y mettent." But the novelist, writing 
about his art, may hardly be held to the demand 
that he exhibit his soul in the discussion ; he is 
quite justified in leaving the body of his artistic 
production to make that showing for him, and 
to discourse chiefly upon the external influences 



6 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 1 



that condition his work, as Mr. Herrick does in 
this highly thoughtful and suggestive essay. 

The principal difficulty of the American 
novelist, seeking to present the body of the 
time in his country, its form and pressure, is 
that of not being able to see the woods for the 
trees. The foreign observer, superficial after 
the manner of the vacation tourist, or sourly 
flippant after the superior manner of the Satur- 
day Reviewer, knows nothing of the trees, but 
thinks that he has descried the contour of the 
woods clearly enough for characterization. But 
this is sheer delusion, for no one can know the 
real nature of the woods unless, like Mr. John 
Muir, he has lived in them long enough to make 
the individual trees his familiars. And, abandon- 
ing the metaphor, no novelist can deal typically 
with American life unless he has observed it at 
close range at so many points that no essential 
element is missing from his synthesis. Now to 
qualify in this way means a task of appalling 
magnitude, well calculated to fill with despair 
the most enterprising explorer. To coordinate 
the physical, social, and spiritual facts of our 
complex civilization is a task so gigantic that it 
would baffle the powers of a Tourguenieff or a 
Balzac. No wonder that many of our best 
novelists have given up the attempt, and con- 
fine themselves to studies in genre and local 
peculiarity. 

Mr. Herrick makes us see this difficulty very 
clearly, and yet he feels also, as most of us do, 
that there is a " permanent Americanism in the 
more or less marked provincialism of our peo- 
ple, not merely in character but in ideas, occu- 
pation, blood relationships, even in speech." 
He has a great deal to say about the physical 
background of our life, and emphasizes its wide 
diversities. "A New Englander, emerging 
from his Pullman in Louisiana or Arizona or 
Montana, to take a few scattered instances, 
cannot recognize anything in these strange land- 
scapes in common with his own rocky pastures 
and thin meadows. An Englishman or a French- 
man even an Italian under similar circum- 
stances could never be totally at a loss in any 
corner of his own land." If our landscape is 
thus lacking in a distinctive individuality, still 
more is it lacking in the sort of human quality 
which the novelist needs for his inspiration. It 
is because of this poverty that the appeal to 
" See America First " will always sound hollow 
to the ears of anyone who has seen anything of 
Europe. "As one passes over the surface of 
Europe, no matter how hastily, one is aware of 
a human quality in the fields, the roads, the 



water courses, above all in the kind of hous- 
ing men have made for themselves on their soil. 
Here is a mother earth that has been lived 
upon by her children for generations ; and 
through the forces of human contact after cen- 
turies of war and peace, birth and death and 
change, she has come to have an individual 
expression of her own, subtly reflecting the 
character of her human children. There is 
little of this sort of thing in the United States. 
The face of nature, no longer, alas, virginal, 
even in our far western states, has not yet 
achieved a distinguished maturity, although the 
soil may have been ploughed for a number of 
generations." It is all the difference between 
the English hedge and the barbed wire fencing 
of Texas, between the mellow thatched cottage 
of the German village and the crude structure 
of clapboards and shingles that strikes so dis- 
cordant a note in our rural landscape. These 
things are of immense consequence to the nove- 
list, for "landscape is an important element in 
every deeply imaginative picture of life. It is 
much more than mere setting for certain char- 
acters ; it is that outer physical world in which 
they move, penetrating and interpreting them, 
part of their subconscious being. So Hardy 
rendered his background, also Tolstoi, to 
take but two notable modern instances." 

Failing inspiration from landscape, the 
American novelist perforce directs his attention 
to those disfigurements of nature which most of 
our cities are, and what he sees there is anything 
but encouraging. For "our intensely modern 
cities are, at least externally and in mass, un- 
deniably ugly sprawling, uncomposed, dirty, 
and noisy. With their slovenly approaches, 
their needless crowding, they express the indus- 
trial greed and uncoordinated social necessities 
of a rapidly multiplying and heterogeneous peo- 
ple." It is the city which provides the dreadful 
annual spectacle of "moving day," "with its 
horrors of crumbling possessions and decaying 
self-respect." This national institution tends to 
obliterate the more intimate individualities that 
are the result of slow growth in a settled environ- 
ment, and that have always offered the imagi- 
native creator his finest human material." The 
suburb does not alleviate matters very much, for, 
although it " may well be the social salvation of 
America, it is surely its aesthetic purgatory." 
As the scene of super-luxurious life, the city has 
supplied the commercial novelist with a theme 
" which is quite foreign to the experience of the 
majority of readers and, we may suspect, to that 
of the writers themselves." From these, and 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



other facts, Mr. Herrick draws the sweeping 
conclusion that "never has an American city 
got itself expressed imaginatively as have Lon- 
don and Paris and Rome." 

Having thus exhibited the poverty of the 
American background of fiction in its threefold 
aspect of "the physical scene, the city of tradi- 
tion, the developed external civilization of a 
unified people " Mr. Herrick comes to " the core 
of the matter," which is that our real back- 
ground is " human society in a larger freer 
sense than the world has ever known." Here 
at last is a gleam of light, and our writer's 
message is to urge that the novelist seize this 
" unique rich field of our opportunity." Our 
fiction should become primarily psychological, 
and give up the futile effort to follow in the foot- 
steps of Dickens and Thomas Hardy. " Ours 
is the most complex human ferment the world 
has ever seen. Strong peoples are still fighting 
within as for the mastery of a great, enormously 
rich country, which thus far remains no man's 
land and every man's, where ideas are being re- 
formed with a bewildering rapidity that seems 
to the more archaic American a sure indication 
of decay. But it is just this ferment, this 
capacity for absorbing and re-making ideas and 
ideals that constitutes our hope and incidentally 
furnishes the imagination with fruitful matter 
to work upon. Ours should be a literature of 
ideas and ideals a literature of the mind as 
well as of the primary emotions." Here is an 
inspiring motive, and we must add that Mr. 
Herrick, albeit with too little patience and too 
much bitterness, has placed himself in the front 
rank of those who practice what he here preaches 
with so much force and insight. 



A NEGLECTED AMERICAN POET. 

All American poets are neglected, but "the 
iniquity of oblivion" that "blindly scattereth her 
poppy " has been perhaps busier over the grave of 
Thomas Buchanan Read than over those of most of 
his mates and rivals. Yet during the Civil War his 
patriotic lyrics thrilled the country; and Murdoch, 
the elocutionist, toured the land reciting them and 
reading "The Wagoner of the Alleghanies." As 
Read wistfully put it in the preface to this poem: 
"The gratifying fact remains with the writer, that it 
has been instrumental, in the hands of Mr. Murdoch, 
of putting no inconsiderable sums of money into the 
treasuries of sanitary committees, thereby benefiting 
the sick and wounded who have suffered in our 
country's cause." He himself, apparently, received 
neither profit or advancement for his literary work. 



In one of his strongest and most beautiful lyrics, 
"The Singer," he seems to speak of himself with 
proud bitterness, recounting what he had done for 
his country and his return for the service: 

" His war songs fired the battle host, 
His mottoes on their banners burned ; , 
And when the foe had fled the coast, 
Wild with his songs the troops returned. 
Then at the feast's triumphal board, 
His thrilling music cheered the wine ; 
But when the singer asked reward, 
They pointed to the herds and swine.'" 

Read served on the staff of General Lew Wallace, 
under Rosecrans; so that the blare of cannon and 
flash of sabre, which sound and glitter through so 
much of his verse, were more than a poet's dream. 
He made his living by painting, ranging from signs 
in the beginning up to battle scenes and ideal pieces. 
He painted the portraits of many distinguished men, 
including President Harrison, Thackeray, and 
Browning. 

Read was born in Chester County, near Phila- 
delphia. It is remarkable how many champions 
of poetry and art this corner of our country, domi- 
nated by Quaker influence, has sent forth. Charles 
Brockden Brown, our first great romance writer; 
James Fenimore Cooper, our greatest creator of 
character ; Bayard Taylor, our first all-round man, 
explorer, poet, novelist, scholar, and diplomatist; 
Charles Godfrey Leland, the creator of " Hans Breit- 
man," the best translator of Heine, the father of 
manual training in this country; Benjamin West, 
who at least achieved a great place in art ; Joseph 
Pennell, the master-etcher of our age, all these 
were born in or near Philadelphia. With the excep- 
tion of Read and Leland, they were all of Quaker 
blood ; but it is needless to state that this efflorescence 
of genius, inside or outside their fold, has always 
been without the will or consent of the Quakers 
themselves. They have set their faces like flints 
against any intrusion of literary or artistic fame 
within their precincts. We have not a word to say 
against the Quaker doctrine, which is a high and 
beautiful mysticism ; but, working on ordinary 
human nature, it seems capable of creating more 
whited sepulchres than any other creed ever known. 
Buchanan Read sang the praises of wine perhaps 
more liberally than any modern poet. We do not 
in the least know whether this was a mere poetic 
instinct, or a reflex from his own life; but it has 
been made a reproach against him. In this connec- 
tion we are reminded of a story told us by an old 
gentleman, himself of Quaker blood. He was visit- 
ing a relation in Kennett Square, where at that time 
Bayard Taylor also lived. The first morning, after 
breakfast, his Quaker host drew him mysteriously 
aside and unlocking a cupboard brought out a bottle 
of whiskey, with the remark: "Of course I don't let 
ihe boys know I keep this stuff, but men like you 
and I need it occasionally." His guest drank and 
went outdoors, where one of the sons beckoned him 
into the barn, and from some recess produced another 



8 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 1 



bottle of whiskey, saying: "Father doesn't approve 
of this sort of a thing, but a young fellow must have 
it once in a while." Strolling about the place, my 
informant met the other son, who took him into the 
wood, and, out of a hollow tree, produced a third 
similar bottle, with a third similar speech. So my 
polite friend had to accept three drinks of whiskey 
in one morning, from a family which was probably 
among those who hounded Bayard Taylor out of 
Kennett Square because he had wine and beer 
served at his table. 

Read's poetry secured many verdicts of the high- 
est note during his lifetime. President Lincoln 
kept "The Patriot's Oath" in his pocket-book. 
The Brownings appreciated and encouraged him. 
Coventry Patmore called him " the only real poet 
America has had." Longfellow said of "The New 
Pastoral ": " It is full of beauty and people will 
turn to it as to pure spring water." Leigh Hunt 
wrote in the " North British Review ": " We know 
of no other American poet, with the doubtful excep- 
tion of Edgar Poe, having so much real feeling as 
is shown in some of Mr. Read's verses." And of the 
poem, " The Closing Scene," Hunt wrote : 

" This is unquestionably the best American poem we have 
met with ; indeed, it is with one or two exceptions, the only 
American poem we have read, or could read, over again. 
It is an addition to the permanent stock of poetry in the 
English language, and is worth the whole album of ' Excel- 
siors ' and 'Psalms of Life,' and other such attempted 
moralities, which are abundantly supplied to an applauding 
public on this and the other side of the Atlantic. Tennyson 
himself, the great modern master of that kind of description 
which employs the objects of outward nature as a language 
of human feeling, has scarcely surpassed, in its way, this 
poem, which, in our opinion, merits the fame that Gray's 
celebrated elegy has obtained without deserving it near so 
well." 

Read wrote of his poem, "The New Pastoral": 
"I know that I have attempted a great theme in 
fact the greatest theme left for an American to do. 
My plot sweeps the face of the country from Penn- 
sylvania to the prairies." It is a fact that our early 
American writers came into a great inheritance. 
They lived on the edge of civilization ; the forest 
was at their doors, the prairies and the mountains 
beyond. The Indian and the backwoodsman, two 
of the most picturesque figures of modern life, wan- 
dered still into the cities. Every cigar-store had 
before it the wooden effigy of a child of the forest. 
Our beautiful clipper ships bore musical Indian 
names, and Indian warriors or maidens furnished 
the models for their figure-heads. And our first 
men of letters thoroughly appreciated this material. 
Prescott and Parkman in history, Irving and. Cooper 
in the tale and novel, Bryant and Longfellow in 
poetry, all realized the past and passing life in 
America. A multitude of lesser writers all dealt 
with American origins and primitives. We name 
as the first that come to our mind the records of 
Clark's expedition, Abbot's " Hoaryhead and 
McDonough," and Frank Forester's hunting 
sketches and tales. Some day all this literature 
will be revived, and the world will be surprised to 



find out how good it is. Among the rest, Read's 
" New Pastoral " will certainly have a high place. 
To-day, when even poetic readers decline to look 
into Wordsworth's " Prelude " or " Excursion," a 
blank verse poem of five thousand lines of somewhat 
similar type is hardly likely to attract. Read in his 
fidelity to somewhat prosaic circumstance is often as 
dull as Wordsworth dared to be, and his poem lacks 
the passages of solid grandeur and sublime revela- 
tion which the recorder of the English Lakes was 
capable of giving. But Read's material is more novel 
and interesting, and there is much freshness, beauty, 
and charm in his verse. The poem was published 
in 1854 ; and, at a time when Chicago hardly existed 
and Lincoln was unheard of, Read made a daring 
prophecy of both. The passage is too long for com- 
plete quotation, but we condense it : 

" Here shall the city spread its noisy streets, 
And groaning steamers chafe along its wharves : 
While hourly o'er the plain, with streaming plumes, 
Like a swift herald bringing news of peace, 
The rattling train shall fly ; and from the East 
Even from the Atlantic to the new found shores 
Where far Pacific rolls, in storm or rest, 
Washing his sands of gold the arrowy track 
Shall stretch its iron band through all the land. 
Here in the middle of the nation's arms 
Perchance the mightiest inland mart shall spring. 
Here the great statesman from the ranks of toil 
May rise, with judgment clear, as strong as wise; 
And with a well-directed patriot blow 
Reclench the rivets in our union bands 
Which tinkering knaves have striven to set ajar. ; ' 

Surely that is hard to beat in vision and prescience. 
The story of the " New Pastoral " begins in a small 
agricultural community of Eastern Pennsylvania, 
and follows the fortunes of a group of families which 
migrate westward. We do not believe that the life 
of the backwoodsman and pioneer settler has ever 
been more convincingly and admirably described. 

" The Wagoner of the Alleghanies " is all fire and 
spirit and action. The scene is laid in and about 
Philadelphia just before and at the time of the Rev- 
olution. It sweeps into its swift march the battles of 
the Brandywine and Germantown, the Meschianza, 
the life in the stately manor houses and in the taverns 
and streets of the time. One reads it at a dash for 
the interest of the stories and characters, and then 
lingers again over it to enjoy its rich paintings of 
interiors and landscapes and to muse over its cadences 
and imagery. As a matter of fact, Read is always 
too profuse in fancy. He needed to have pondered 
over Corinna's advice to Pindar, to sow with the 
hand and not the sack. The poem, too, written in 
Scott's metre and with something of his manner, 
has undoubtedly a touch of the rococo in some of 
the scenes and incidents, a hint of Ann Radcliffe. 
But it is thoroughly enjoyable, and we scarcely 
hesitate to say that it is the best narrative poem in 
our literature. 

To a world which does not love long poems, 
Read's lyrical pieces will probably make the most 
instant and enduring appeal. We do not at all agree 
with Leigh Hunt that "The Closing Scene" ought 



THE DIAL 



9 



to displace Gray's " Elegy " in literature ; but it is 
a poein of grave and tranquil beauty and deep emo- 
tion. The enchanting lyric, " Drifting," has been 
the most famous of Read's works, except perhaps 
" Sheridan's Ride " and one or two other of the war 
poems. " The Brave at Home," one of the inter- 
spersed lyrics of "The Wagoner," was at one time 
famous, and ought to be so again. "The Appian 
Way " is a stately and noble piece. " My Her- 
mitage " is one of the most perfectly and poignantly 
worded of his poems, and " The Deserted Road " 
has a touch of reality which brings the past before 
us in vision. "The Celestial Army " does not fall 
far short of greatness. 

In view of the high praise Read has received, and 
the almost utter neglect which has befallen him, we 
feel some hesitation in essaying a verdict as to his 
final place in American literature. While every 
critic's opinion must be more or less subjective, the 
comparative method is the only one which yields 
any hope of certainty. On the whole, then, we 
cannot place him with our great triumvirate, Poe, 
Emerson, and Bryant. They have a concentration 
which he lacks. Theirs is the imaginative word, 
the flashing phrase, which "discovers continents yet 
unknown." But we think he is certainly the peer 
of any of the others, so much more widely known 
and accepted as some of them are. Pressed more 
closely to define his position, we should say that he 
is the spiritual and perhaps superior twin of Long- 
fellow. He has an equal affluence of fancy and grace 
of expression. He has more sensuousness in music 
and picture, a closer touch of reality. In originality 
of theme and treatment he is perhaps superior, 
the wings of Europe did not brood so closely over 
him. Rossetti, who disliked Longfellow's poetry, 
clipped Read's pieces from the newspapers, and said, 
"They are as fine as any I know." He has a note 
of his own in lyrical poetry, a pervading purity, 
beauty, and emotional ring; and in long narrative 
poems, in which, in fact, we in America have not 
too much to be proud of, he is unsurpassed. 

CHARLES LEONARD MOORE. 



CASUAL COMMENT. 



A QUARTERLY REVIEW WITH THE COURAGE OF 

ITS TITLE, as well as that of its convictions, starts 
with the opening year under the name of "The 
Unpopular Review " (absit omen) and bearing the 
imprint of Messrs. Henry Holt & Co. The peculiar 
title recalls the projected enterprise of a company 
of unsuccessful writers for unsympathetic periodicals 
who determined to endure no longer the repeated 
indignity of rejection slips, but to snap their fingers 
in the faces of unappreciative editors and start a 
magazine of their own ; and the plan would doubt- 
less have worked to admiration had it not been for 
the omission of one not quite negligible item, a suffi- 
cient working capital to launch and maintain the 



enterprise. But there is no reason to infer the same 
oversight in respect to the present undertaking. Its 
purpose is announced in a brief prospectus as " the 
dissemination of some disagreeable truths," which 
will, it is expected, make the Review " unpopular 
among that large majority of the public which is 
fond of the agreeable fallacies." Appealing thus to 
the wisely discerning minority (and who of us would 
not claim membership in this company of the elect ?), 
the new quarterly will pay especial attention to 
"economic and political matters, . . . but all good 
interests are more or less directly allied, and when- 
ever its way touches general philosophy, rational 
religion, science, literature, and the arts, the Review 
will not be slow to gain from them variety as well 
as illumination, especially on the too frequent occa- 
sions when disagreeable truths should be told regard- 
ing them." Constructive, however, rather than de- 
structive, the new publication will strive to be; "and 
as, despite much that is false and ugly and evil, the 
world on the whole is true and beautiful and good, 
the general attitude will be optimistic spontane- 
ously, though cautiously, optimististic." Among 
other novel features, " the names of the contributors 
will not be printed before the number next after 
that in which their contributions appear." Here is a 
chance for writers who have hitherto failed to achieve 
popularity to make a bold bid for a place among the 
Unpopular. ... 

To MEN AND WOMEN OF THE PEN certain words 
spoken recently at Amherst College by Dr. Talcott 
Williams, head of the Pulitzer school of journalism 
at Columbia University, will be of interest. Natu- 
rally the speaker's remarks had especial reference 
to journalism, but they were often capable of broader 
application. "Writing," he affirmed, "all men 
delight to do. Men do not practice law or visit 
patients for nothing. Many men are glad to write 
for nothing. This competition the constant desire 
of men to affect their fellow-men in the interest of 
the work itself leads many men toward journal- 
ism and affects its material reward. This is, on 
the whole, lower than that of any other calling 
requiring the same ability, industry and effort." 
Although the writer's real reward comes to him or 
her in some other form than that of money, as Dr. 
Williams recognizes, it may be interesting to note 
the place he assigns to journalism in the scale of 
material compensation for the principal learned pro- 
fessions. "In our American civilization," he says, 
"the law is the best trade; the doctor is the next 
best trade, taking in all cases the highest ranks of 
the calling; the engineering manager comes next; 
the rewards of the clergy are about those of the 
journalist. No man can enter the calling with the 
expectation that his pay will be large, that his work 
will be as well rewarded as that of other men, or 
that he will find himself increasing in his returns as 
he grows older." The possibility that journalism 
may prove to be the gateway to a larger field of 
literary activity, or to one on a higher plane, forms 



10 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 1 



with many eager aspirants no small part of its 
lure; and it has indeed served as training school 
for a host of notable writers. 

A LIBRARY OF UNPUBLISHED BOOKS that is, 

books printed privately and never offered in open 
market to the vulgar passes, for a consideration, 
from the possession of Mr. Bertram Dobell, who 
has been forty years in collecting it, to the appre- 
ciative custody of the Library of Congress. That 
there should be in the world of print so large a 
collection as fifteen hundred works, still-born and 
yet deemed worthy of a distinguished and discrimi- 
nating bibliophile's cherishing care, is cause for 
some surprise; but Mr. Dobell is certainly not one 
to accumulate rubbish, even in unique editions, and 
this curious library of his gathering will repay 
examination when it is once on view in its new 
quarters. Too well known to need rehearsing here 
are his services to the world of letters, in researches 
concerning his favorite, Charles Lamb; in his be- 
friending of the ill-fated author of "The City of 
Dreadful Night," whose poems he published in 
worthy form after their writer's death; and in his 
discovery of the seventeenth-century parson-poet, 
Thomas Traherne, whose manuscript writings his 
discerning eye saw to be literary treasures and his 
timely action saved from impending destruction. 
Traherne's publisher, as well as Thomson's, he thus 
became, to the great indebtedness of at least a few 
connoisseurs. In the collection of books just trans- 
ferred to this country's ownership, Mr. Dobell had 
a library unmatched in the whole world, an 
assemblage of literary aristocrats that had held 
themselves so proudly aloof from the masses as to 
be for the most part unknown to librarians and 
dealers, and to rejoice in immunity from the vulgar 
advertisement of the catalogue and the trade-list. 
Whether this peculiar distinction was one worth 
striving for, may be debatable ; but that is another 
matter. 

"THE LEAST OF ALL INTELLECTUAL EXERCISES," 

says Professor Hardin Craig, of the University of 
Minnesota, in a paper recently delivered before the 
Minnesota Library Association, and now printed in 
" Library Notes and News," the quarterly publica- 
tion of the Public Library Commission of that 
State, is "to sit and listen whether we take notes 
upon it or not to another's speech. If it is well 
done, it gives the flattering illusion of thought to 
the hearers. They think they are thinking. Some- 
body else's phrases delight them; they make none 
of their own. What deeply permanent value beyond 
recreation can there be in hearing lectures on liter- 
ature, in a mere listening while somebody else says 
pleasant things about the English writers?" Dr. 
Johnson long ago avowed that a lecture gave the 
listener nothing that he could not find in better 
form, and at less expense of time, in a book. Still, 
it is likely that most will agree in considering both 
Dr. Johnson and Dr. Craig too severe in their con- 



demnation. Lecturers do often present matter unob- 
tainable from other sources ; and if they entertain 
as well as edify, where is the harm ? Did not New 
England, the most intellectual section of our coun- 
try, originate the lyceum and its improving and 
stimulating course of lectures? Was not Emerson 
a lecturer, and did he not win hundreds, perhaps 
thousands, of disciples through his lectures? And 
wherein is it worse to listen to the apt and cogent 
expression of thought, and to think one is thinking 
meanwhile, than to read the same thing in print, 
with the same accompanying illusion of intellectual 
activity? No, the least of all intellectual exercises 
is not listening to lectures; else how could we have 
lent so ready an ear to our Minnesota friend quoted 
above? 



HOME READING FOR THE HIGH-SCHOOL PUPIL 18 

the subject of a pamphlet issued by the National 
Council of Teachers of English. It is, as the title- 
page announces, a "Report of the Committee upon 
Home Reading," and it is inclusive enough to meet 
the needs of almost any boy or girl who has the 
usual number of high-school studies to master. The 
compilers announce that "the list excludes books 
valuable only for the information conveyed. Books 
that merely give information, however needful, are 
not, in the opinion of the committee, books for home 
reading." Hence it is not surprising that "fiction 
constitutes approximately half the list. This has 
seemed advisable, since it is through good fiction 
that most pupils are led to appreciate other forms. 
The number of suitable books outside fiction is, 
moreover, relatively small. In other departments 
the question is, 'What can we put in?' In the de- 
partment of fiction, we find ourselves asking, ' What 
shall we leave out?" 1 After the long list of good 
fiction come shorter lists of drama, poetry, biog- 
raphy, history and mythology, speeches, travel and 
adventure, and, finally, essays and works not other- 
wise classified. Explanatory symbols follow the 
titles, indicating the general character of each book 
and sometimes the relative maturity requisite in the 
reader for its best enjoyment. "The list should not 
be put without comment into the hands of the pupils," 
is the warning accompanying it. "From this list, 
as from a pharmacop[oe]ia where the cure for one 
would be poison to another, the teacher must pre- 
scribe the right medicine." Quadrennial revision of 
the list is recommended by its makers. It is obtain- 
able, as announced on the cover, at Sixty-eighth 
Street and Stewart Ave., Chicago. 


THE TANTALIZING DELIGHTS OF BOOKSELLERS* 

CATALOGUES, to one whose fondest hopes extend not 
beyond the anxiously-considered purchase of one or 
two coveted and not too expensive books a year, 
resemble those vain stimulations of the salivary 
glands which the starving gutter-snipe experiences 
in gazing through the plate-glass window of a bake- 
shop at the custard pies and frosted cakes and jelly 
tarts there so temptingly displayed. From the 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



11 



London house of Ellis (a name that is now but a 
survival, the present proprietors being Messrs. 
Holdsworth and Smith) there comes a richly illus- 
trated and beautifully printed " Catalogue of Choice 
and Valuable Books and Manuscripts, with a Short 
History of the Bookselling Business Carried on since 
1728 at 29 New Bond Street, London, W." The 
most costly item enumerated is an illuminated manu- 
uscript missal ( " Missale Bononiense") of about 1600, 
and now, three centuries later, offered at 1,750. 
But probably more than one discerning reader of 
the catalogue will be more attracted by the last title 
in the list, that of the book so dear to Charles 
Lamb, "Wither (George). A Collection of Em- 
blemes, Ancient and Moderne : Quickened with 
Metricall Illustrations, both Morall and Divine : 
and disposed into Lotteries, that instruction, and 
Good Counsell, may bee furthered by an Honest 
and Pleasant Recreation." This is a first edition, 
folio, London, 1635, a " tine tall copy," far superior 
to the one Lamb was delighted to pick up " in a 
most detestable state of preservation," and is to be 
had for one guinea. 

STANLEY HouGHTON,the English playwright who 
died recently at Manchester, where he was born 
thirty-three years ago, probably needed only a few 
more years of life to attain a celebrity comparable 
with that of his fellow-countryman, Mr. Galsworthy, 
if indeed he might not have won a renown of Sha- 
vian proportions. A certain originality and daring 
characterized his plays and sometimes, as in the 
case of " Hindle Wakes," aroused considerable criti- 
cism that did not confine itself to dramatic or 
technical questions. Other notable plays of his 
are "The Younger Generation," "Fancy Free," 
"Phipps," "Independent Means," and "The Dear 
Departed," all of which have been seen in this coun- 
try, on the professional or the amateur stage, or both. 
Houghton's conquest of success at the first assault 
is the subject of certain humorous autobiographic 
reminiscences. Well aware in advance that a pre- 
liminary series of heartbreaking failures is the 
usual price of fame in the dramatic world, he dili- 
gently set about accomplishing his required number 
of unsuccesses as the first step to ultimate triumph. 
But Miss Horniman and her repertory company of 
Manchester thwarted his well-meant endeavors in 
this direction, producing play after play from his 
pen until his success was assured. His skill seems 
to -have lain in the realm of very modern realism, 
rather than in that of idealism or romance. 


THE SUTRO LIBRARY, presented to the California 
State Library by the heirs of the late Adolph Sutro, 
is a little-known but a very valuable collection of 
books even in its present sadly depleted condition. 
The quarter-million of volumes brought together by 
the California millionaire came through the great 
San Francisco fire with a loss of more than one-half. 
But the remaining fraction, like the three unburnt 
Sibylline Books, is of inestimable value, containing, 



among other treasures, the four Shakespeare folios, 
early editions of Chaucer and Ben Jonson, illumi- 
nated manuscripts of great worth, a large collection 
of works on the history and life of Mexico and the 
Pacific coast, many volumes of Spanish literature 
in all its departments, and a considerable selection 
of Chinese and Japanese books and manuscripts. 
The library, now numbering about one hundred 
thousand volumes in all, was not long ago removed 
from its place of storage to the second floor of the 
Lane Medical Library Building, San Francisco, and 
with the new year will be unpacked and subjected 
to the processes of cataloguing, classifying, shelving, 
etc. Thus it will be several months before any part 
of it is available for public use. By the conditions 
of the gift, the collection must have its home in San 
Francisco, and there it will be operated by the State 
Library as a branch, accessible to a much greater 
number of persons than if it were at Sacramento. 




A HARDY PIONEER makes monthly appeal to 
our notice. "The Pioneer of Simplified Speling" 
certainly has the courage of its convictions: it 
carries the principle of phonetic orthography (we 
acknowledge the contradiction in terms) to its 
remorseless limit. Without going beyond the table 
of contents printed on the cover of the latest issue, 
we note such headings as "Mr. Sexton'z Sceem," 
" Voisez from acros the Chanel," "A Hed Mistres'z 
Apoloejia," "Noetz andNyuz," "PresCutings of the 
Munth." Who can fail to admire the unabashed 
insistence on forms like "woz" for unreformed 
"was," "poot" for "put," "mistaicen" for "mis- 
taken," and "chainj" for "change"? Bravo! Beter 
a lie wel stuc tu than the tryuth waivering. 



CHEAPER CARRIAGE OF BOOKS is inevitably com- 
ing. The Postmaster-General's proposal to admit 
them to parcel-post privileges, with other notable 
modifications of the existing parcel-post rules, has 
been approved by the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission. When this reform has been fully effected, 
it will be possible not only to deliver to local patrons, 
at small expense, books from the public library and 
the bookshop, but also to send this class of freight 
in considerable packages, under Uncle Sam's kindly 
care, to any part of the country. It ought to be 
astonishing, but is not, that under a government of 
the people, by the people, for the people, measures 
of so manifest popular benefit should be so late in 
getting themselves adopted. 



COMMUNICA TIONS. 

THE APPEAL OF " POLITICAL POETRY." 

(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

In your issue of December 1, apropos of "An Ode in 
Time of Hesitation," Mr. Charles Leonard Moore con- 
signs all " political poems " to limbo. Now by political 
poems he evidently means any verse which is concerned 
with politics, in war or in peace, no matter how great the 



12 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 1 



question involved or how far the ideal has removed that 
question from a mere party catchword. 

To rule out all poems which are political in this wide 
sense would be to ban the Jacobite ballads, " The Lost 
Leader," the " Ode on the Death of the Duke of Well- 
ington," " My Dark Rosaleen," " The Concord Hymn," 
" Peschiera," Rossetti's sonnet " On the Refusal of Aid 
between Nations," Wordsworth's sonnet " On the Ex- 
tinction of the Venetian Republic," many fine passages 
in Byron and Mrs. Browning, much of Lowell's best 
satire, several of Milton's sonnets, Kipling's " The 
Recessional," Whitman's "O Captain! My Captain !" 
Longfellow's "Cumberland " and "A Nameless Grave," 
and " Punch's " apology on the death of Lincoln, 
poems that are all very much alive for members of a 
" blighted " race. 

As a matter of fact, a fine political poem has an 
especial hold on immortality. The event which it com- 
memorates recedes; but like events occur, demanding 
like expression. Webster and Whittier pass, but Ichabods 
still fall and writers still leave the better part for the 
handful of silver and the riband to stick in their coats. 
Nothing could be further from the truth than to siy 
that because a particular struggle is over its voice must 
die. Rather it takes a wider meaning with time, and 
from being an incident born of an idea becomes an idea 
embodied in an incident. So certain place-names stand 
less for localities than for conditions of the soul. 
Zutphen, Smithfield, and Balaclava become chivalry, 
conscience, and obedience. 

If a great political poem is to lose its force, then why 
not any poem dealing with a moral question ? What 
are the Vaudois to us that a sonnet written nearly two 
hundred and fifty years ago should stir our blood? 
Surely it is because we know that, though martyrs 
perish, martyrdom is never ending. 

When politics rises above the morass which we asso- 
ciate with the name, it may produce prose and poetry 
equal to that of religion or love or war. After all, what 
is the Gettysburg Address but political prose ? The 
courage which enabled a single ship to fight off the 
Spanish fleet is no more enduring stuff than the enthu- 
siasm which led Robert Shaw to place his life at the 
service of an unfortunate race. The reproach of " ig- 
noble battle " overseas applies not alone to the Philip- 
pines. Italy wins her freedom, but the agony is only 
transferred to some other people. The Inquisition is 
over, but the charge of Ritual Murder is a present fact 
in Russia. We read our own struggle into the politics 
of the past, just as we read our own love affair into 
another man's love lyrics. These live because our ideals 
and our sorrows endure. 

HELEN MINTURN SEYMOUR. 

Troy, N. Y., Dec. 20, 1913. 



A WORD ABOUT TRANSLATIONS. 

(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

Your interesting comment on translations in the 
current number suggests the thought that most trans- 
lators have never had their due. FitzGerald (as you 
point out), Pope, Bryant, Longfellow, Parsons, Lang, 
Symonds, and a few others are, of course, notable ex- 
ceptions, but they were great authors in their own right; 
and their fame has foundation not so much on their 
adaptations from other languages (great as FitzGerald 's 
was) as on their own genius, which made of their trans- 
lations works peculiarly and as much their own as the 
original was the author's. But what shall we say of 



present-day translators like Lafcadio Hearn, Mrs. Gar- 
nett, Miss K. P. Wormeley, E. A. Vizetelly, Alexander 
Teixeira de Mattos, G. B. Ives, Miss H. W. Preston 
(the first, if I mistake not, to introduce Mistral's 
"Mireio" to America), and many others, preeminent 
in their transfusion of the spirit of the author from one 
language to another, but combining it with a gratifying 
fidelity to the language of the original ? Theirs is a 
double fame : they are not only scholars, but are them- 
selves authors of the first rank. No literary hacks they, 
grinding out their sentences with lexicon and phrase- 
book ! It has always seemed to me not quite fair that 
they should be for the most part unwittingly denied 
any of the credit which is rightly theirs for creating 
a work of art in another language and for broadening 
the mental range of thousands of those readers who, 
without them, would know nothing of a foreign litera- 
ture. 

Accompanying this feeling, however, is one of regret 
that, for some reason or other, so many foreign authors 
should be represented in English by works which are 
assuredly not their masterpieces. Within the year, 
three of the books of Henry Bordeaux, the flower of 
the younger school of French fiction, have been pub- 
lished in this country ; and, according to the publishers, 
the response to this introduction has been gratifying. 
It is generally agreed that the masterpieces of this de- 
fender of traditionalism are " La Peur de vivre," " Les 
Roquevillard," and " Les Yeux qui s'ouvrent." But 
only the first of this trio is as yet numbered among his 
English translations. A New York publisher recently 
issued Georges Ohnet's " La Serre de 1'aigle," a novel 
which is the second in a historical trilogy, either one 
of the other two being superior to the second. This may 
be damning with faint praise, but it is a case in point. 
Space prevents citing many other instances. Is it fair 
to the author that, whatever be the cause copyright, 
expense, or what, his reputation among English readers 
should rest on, or be introduced by, what are generally 
considered his second-rate books ? 

If I am right, what may be the cause ? 

JULIAN PARK. 
The University ofBvffalo, Dec. 19, 1913. 



DEVOURING THE CLASSICS. 
(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

It is refreshing to have one of your correspondents 
tell us that " a man of even mediocre ability could read 
all of Greek literature in a few months' time, and his 
acquisition would be a treasure of enormous pleasure 
and profit." He adds: "Even more is this true of 
Latin"; one is not told whether " time " is meant, or 
"pleasure and profit," or all three but one hopes, 
with misgivings, that it is only " time." 

This is really very wonderful. I am acquainted with 
several persons who have spent a number of years 
reading Greek and Latin. I would have supposed that, 
if anything, their ability was above mediocre; and yet 
I am sure that no one of them would claim knowledge, 
or even acquaintance, with the whole body of extant 
classical literature. They all acknowledge, however, 
the " pleasure and profit " derived from what they 
have accomplished. One friend, it is true, has confided 
to me his opinion that the longer time he gave to mat- 
ters of this kind the more " pleasure and profit " he got 
out of them. I suppose he must be very old-fashioned. 

ROBERT SHAFER. 

Indianapolis, Ind., Dec. 22, 1913. 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



13 



gooks. 



RECORDS OF A HAPPY FRIENDSHIP.* 



The friendship of Hawthorne and his pub- 
lisher, William Davis Ticknor, is memorable in 
its bearing on American literary history; and 
the story of that friendship, as set forth in the 
volume by Miss Caroline Ticknor, is thoroughly 
worth the reading, for more reasons than one. 

In the first place, the life-long service to the 
advancement of literature in America rendered 
by this famous Boston publisher, while less con- 
spicuous than that of his literary partner, Fields, 
is in itself worthy of recognition. The early am- 
bition of Ticknor, says his granddaughter, 

" Differed materially from that of many other enterpris- 
ing youths who came to Boston far back in the twenties 
to seek their fortunes; some longed for wealth, others 
sought fame, but this young man, whose heritage was a 
great love of books, desired that his 'imprint on a title- 
page should be the guarantee of a good book.' This 
was the corner-stone of a notable literary edifice which 
he was destined to rear; a structure unique in the his- 
tory of book-publishing." 

It was in 1832 that Mr. Ticknor, then in his 
twenty-second year, entered the book business, 
forming a partnership with Mr. John Allen 
under the firm name of Allen & Ticknor, at 
the corner of School and Washington streets in 
Boston. In 1845 James T. Fields, a clerk in 
the employ of Mr. Ticknor, was taken into the 
firm, and the imprint became Ticknor, Reed & 
Fields, John Reed, Jr., contributing capital. 
Upon Mr. Reed's subsequent withdrawal, the 
firm name was compressed to the familiar style 
of Ticknor & Fields. It was not many years 
before the " Old Corner Bookstore " had become 
a sort of literary shrine, it was the " Hub " of 
literary New England. What memories cluster 
about that historic spot in the recollection of the 
passing generation! Hawthorne, Longfellow, 
Lowell, Holmes, Whittier, Emerson, Thoreau, 
and many others were its habitues. Dickens and 
Thackeray enjoyed its hospitality, as did many 
another celebrity from the old world, drawn 
thither to pay visits of courtesy to the proprietors 
of this truly literary book-shop whose motto was 
" fair play, ' for Mr. Ticknor had been the first 
American publisher to make unsolicited payment 
to foreign authors for "copyright" and to pur- 
chase "advance sheets" of books coming from 
the English press. The enterprise of this pub- 
lishing house was shown in notable ways. To 
the firm of Ticknor & Fields belongs the distinc- 

* HAWTHORNE AND His PUBLISHER. By Caroline Tick- 
nor. Illustrated. Boston : Houghton Mifflin Co. 



tion of issuing the first edition of De Quincey's 
collected works, antedating by two or three years 
the appearance of the first British edition, which 
was supervised by the author himself. The task 
of collecting and arranging the scattered mate- 
rial was performed by Mr. Fields, and we are 
told that De Quincey relied largely on this col- 
lection in preparing his own edition. If we are 
not mistaken, it was this same firm that first 
published in book form the earlier works of 
Carlyle. 

The first two chapters of Miss Ticknor 's 
work contain many interesting facts of this char- 
acter, and include some vivid glimpses of the 
inner sanctum of the old book-store : the green- 
curtained corner of the office where Fields had 
his desk and entertained the sociable spirits 
invariably gathered there; the counting-room, 
elevated two or three steps above the level 
of the store, where the alert senior partner, 
sitting at his desk, could command the field. 
Here, in the little counting-room, was Haw- 
thorne's chair, in a secluded niche, close beside 
his faithful friend, where he could see and yet 
be out of sight. 

"In this one chair it was for many years Nathaniel 
Hawthorne's custom to ensconce himself whenever he 
visited the ' corner ' ; he often spent whole hours here, 
resting his head upon his hand apparently in happy and 
satisfying sympathy with his environment . . . watch- 
ing in the shadow, motionless physically, yet mentally 
alert, and following with an inward intentness the fan- 
tastic trains of thought evoked sometimes by what was 
passing in the outward world, and again by that which 
was merely passing within his active brain. ... If any 
acquaintance, knowing him to be there, came to claim 
his attention, his face seemed to cast off an intangible 
but perceptible veil, and he roused himself to a genial 
and conversational mood, though still with a suggestion 
of having come rather unwillingly from a haunt of his 
predilection, to which he would fain return as soon as 
he might do so without impoliteness." 

For the general reader, however, the chief 
interest of the volume lies in the letters of 
Hawthorne to Ticknor, covering the years 
1852-64, in which the personality of the writer 
is revealed with the frankness of intimacy. 
"The Scarlet Letter" had been published in 
1850, "The House of the Seven Gables" in 
1851 ; " The Wonder Book " and " The Blithe- 
dale Romance" had followed; Hawthorne had 
removed from Lenox to Concord, and was at this 
time completing the campaign biography of his 
class-mate, Franklin Pierce. The probable ap- 
pointment to a position in the consular service 
was in the wind, and the assistance of Ticknor 
as counsellor, guardian, and friend was invoked. 
Until one reads this correspondence one can 
scarcely be aware to how great an extent Haw- 



14 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 1 



thorne leaned upon the ready assistance of his 
publisher in all these practical matters. He 
refused to travel without Ticknor's companion- 
ship. It was like the first adventure of a shy 
and unsophisticated boy into the outside world ; 
he demanded a comrade whom he trusted. In 
April, 1853, the two friends made the trip to 
Washington to see the president and to promote 
the interests of his biographer. Ticknor, in this 
instance, is the correspondent, and his letters to 
his wife give us the story of the trip. It is 
rather interesting to find him referring to the 
" Progressive "element in the Democratic party : 
" I am perfectly surprised," he says, " to see to 
what extent this spirit is carried here [in Wash- 
ington] ." He adds : "I am convinced that old 
party lines in every section of the country are 
breaking up and that there is a spirit abroad 
which is to revolutionize the politics of the 
country. Whether it will be for the best good 
of the Nation, I think is a question of very great 
importance but the tide is rolling on, and good 
men of all parties must control and guide, or we 
shall ' suffer loss.' ' 

The two comrades were royally entertained, 
and the novelist was rather lionized. "Haw- 
thorne is quite a lion here," says Ticknor ; 
" much attention is shown, and yet it annoys 
him very much." The mission was successful, 
and Hawthorne's prospective income was largely 
increased by combining the duties of the con- 
sulate at Manchester with those of the office at 
Liverpool. 

The matter of the appointment having been 
settled, preparations for the departure were 
rapidly made ; and in July, 1853, the party 
sailed for England on the Cunarder "Niagara," 
a first-class steamship, 250 feet in length, pro- 
pelled by paddlewheels and carrying about 
150 passengers. Mr. Ticknor accompanied his 
friend ; for without the former's protecting com- 
panionship, Hawthorne had resolutely refused 
to embark. Of course it was not solely for this 
reason that the publisher made the journey; 
there were errands connected with the trade, 
authors to be solicited, and books to be pur- 
chased in London ; yet Ticknor remained with 
the Hawthornes in Liverpool for three days 
after the arrival, " arranging his business as well 
as I could until he enters upon his duties August 
1st." During his stay in England, Ticknor paid 
an interesting visit to De Quincey, then living 
with his daughter in the little cottage at Lass- 
wade. Hawthorne was included in the invita- 
tion, but found it impossible to leave his official 
duties. By the end of September, Ticknor had 



said farewell to the Hawthornes and departed 
on his journey home. 

Hawthorne's experiences while abroad are 
pretty well known through his "Note- books" 
and the sketches in " Our Old Home "; Miss 
Ticknor draws from these sources to fill the gaps 
in the correspondence and to round out the 
record of which the letters in this volume form 
a part. The letters are characterized by utter 
spontaneity ; rarely do they show traces of a 
formal or " literary " style. Says Miss Ticknor : 

" He spoke his mind freely, and with a kind of boyish 
irresponsibility. He indulged in cutting and satirical 
remarks about men and things, as well as institutions 
that he truly respected. . . . He ' ran on ' with a care- 
less disregard of anything beyond his present mood. 
He talked with the freedom of a man who knows that 
he is so well understood that it does not matter what he 
says. He made daring comments for the fun of making 
them, in one paragraph, and took them back or softened 
them, for truth's sake, in the next." 

This is an admirable statement of the facts, 
and only in the spirit of such an understanding 
can a proper interpretation be placed upon these 
letters, in which occur frequent outbursts of 
feeling due to momentary irritation and the 
whimsical expression of a passing mood. 

The duties of his office were conscientiously 
and efficiently discharged, but not unnaturally 
they irked Hawthorne, as similar tasks had 
worn upon his sensitive disposition at Salem 
and in Boston. Thus, just two months after 
Ticknor's departure from Liverpool, Hawthorne 
writes : 

" I suppose Baring Brothers have already advised 
you of my depositing 300 to your credit. If it had 
been 3000, I would kick the office to the devil, and 
come home again. I am sick of it, and long for my 
hillside ; and what I thought I never should long for 
my pen ! When once a man is thoroughly imbued with 
ink, he can never wash out the stain." 

There was a possibility that Congress might 
reduce the emoluments of his office, and we 
find Hawthorne writing in the same strain : 

" Money cannot pay me for the irksomeness of this 
office, at least only a very large amount can do it; and 
I really think I should be glad to have Congress put 
the question of my remaining here at rest by breaking 
down the office altogether. This very morning I have 
been bored to death by a woman; and every day 1 am 
beset with complainants who I wish were all at the 
Devil together. But I can get along well enough with 
men, if the women would only let me alone." 

In an earlier letter (1854) he had specified some 
of these complainants : 

" What with brutal shipmasters, drunken sailors, 
vagrant yankees, mad people, sick people, and dead 
people (for just now I have to attend to the removal of 
the bones of a man who has been dead these twenty 
years) it is full of damnable annoyances." 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



15 



And still the climax of these irritations was 
a woman! His famous adventure with Miss 
Delia Bacon, whose story is given in these 
pages, cost Hawthorne a pretty penny, he 
having benevolently assumed the financial re- 
sponsibility of seeing that lady's ponderous 
solution of the " Shakespeare problem " through 
the press. 

Hawthorne's experiences in unwise charity 
are familiar to most of us ; not a few of these 
communications to "Dear Tick" contain re- 
quests to investigate the probability of his 
being reimbursed for some injudicious loan, 
as, for example, the following : 

" Dear Ticknor, I have given B an order on 

you for $50. Pay it, and I promise you not to trouble 
you again on his account. It is impossible not to assist 
an old acquaintance in distress for once, at least. 

" P. S. Do not write me about this ; for I do not wish 
my wife to know how I throw away money." 

It is pleasant to note in the letters the senti- 
ments expressed regarding America and Amer- 
icans. " The more I see of the rest of the world, 
the better I think of my own country," he 
exclaims in one of his characteristic outbursts, 
qualifying the statement directly with the paren- 
thesis " not that I like it very enthusiastically 
either." The latter half of this decade in the 
United States was surcharged with premoni- 
tions of the approaching crisis ; and Hawthorne 
viewed the situation with natural uneasiness. 
In 1856 he writes: 

" We shall know how to prize a home, if we ever go 
back to one ; but I must confess, I am in no great hurry 
to return to America. To say the truth, it looks like 
an infernally disagreeable country from this side of the 
water." 

And yet he also wrote at about this same 
time: 

" Pray do not be so hopeless about our political con- 
cerns. We shall grow and flourish, in spite of the devil. 
Affairs do not look so very bad, at this distance, what- 
ever they may seem to you who are in the midst of the 
confusion. For my part, I keep a steadfast faith in 
the destinies of my own country, and will not be stag- 
gered, whatever happens." 

In June, 1860, the Hawthornes arrived once 
more in Boston, and resumed their residence at 
"The Wayside." But the excitement and con- 
fusion of war were not conducive to literary effort 
and seriously interfered with plans for projected 
romances. Conditions were depressing; and in 
March, 1862, Hawthorne and Ticknor made a 
second trip to Washington, arriving just after 
McClellan had removed his force of 60,000 
men across the Potomac. The trip was full of 
incident, and decidedly beneficial in its effect on 
Hawthorne's health and spirits. A year later, 



however, the novelist was again in failing health. 
His sensitive nature was depressed, he became 
less and less capable of creative effort ; his visits 
to the old " Corner " grew more and more infre- 
quent ; yet his letters to Ticknor are not signi- 
ficant of depression or of failing powers. He 
contributed now and then to the "Atlantic 
Monthly," but his pen flagged when he worked 
at the unfinished romance. " His splendid vigor 
paled, his hair grew snowy white, and he began 
to express certain wishes in regard to provisions 
to be made after his death and to burn old let- 
ters, while his efforts to carry on his work proved 
almost futile." His wife became thoroughly 
alarmed, and the aid of Ticknor was again in- 
voked. It appeared that a change of scene was 
desirable, and with the beneficial effects of the 
Washington trip in mind another was planned 
in the same direction. On the 28th of March 
the two friends left Boston. Hawthorne was 
in a very delicate condition ; Ticknor, who was 
not in the best of health, as usual looked after 
all the details of the journey. The weather 
was stormy, and they remained in New York for 
almost a week, Hawthorne scarcely leaving his 
room. They reached Philadelphia on the 5th 
of April. Writing to his wife two days later, 
Ticknor speaks encouragingly of Hawthorne's 
condition and closes thus: "Excuse this short 
note, as I must look after my friend. I have a 
bad cold and feel disinclined to move at all. 
Love to all." It was his last letter. The next 
day the relations of these two men were strangely 
reversed. Ticknor was stricken with pneumonia 
and died the day following, almost in Haw- 
thorne's arms. The effect upon Hawthorne of 
this sudden disaster was overwhelming; he re- 
turned to his home a wreck. Five weeks later 
he, too, had passed away. 

It is obviously a labor of love the compila- 
tion of this work ; its tribute to Ticknor as a 
publisher and as an affectionate and loyal friend 
to one of the most striking personalities in 
American literature is deserved and just. More- 
over, the proportions are consistently maintained ; 
Hawthorne, as we naturally expect, holds the 
hero's place in the narrative, and the light 
thrown upon him from this unusual angle is 
singularly effective. The extracts quoted in 
this review scarcely give an idea of the variety 
and interest of the letters as a whole. The 
author has done her work admirably ; one notes, 
however, a strange preference for the use of 
" penned " rather than the simpler " wrote " or 
" written " an odd mannerism to be associated 
with an unusually pleasing and attractive style. 



16 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 1 



With happy appropriateness the volume itself 
a beautiful example of the book-making art 
is dedicated to the company from whose house it 
issues, " successors to the literary heritage of 
Ticknor and Fields and to the just and honor- 
able traditions of the earlier house which they 
to-day so steadfastly uphold." 

W. E. SIMONDS. 



COMMENTING ON SHAKESPEARE.* 



There is almost nothing easier for a man of 
any literary ability than to write a book of 
commentary on Shakespeare's plays. All that 
one that way inclined has to do is to read one 
of these plays scene by scene and jot down his 
reflections on the incidents or characters or 
single speeches as he reads, praising here, fault- 
finding there, explaining, illustrating, comment- 
ing, narrating, etc., as the mood strikes him. 
This becomes the more easy when one has a 
theory or a philosophy to defend ; for then the 
critic reads everything in the light of what ob- 
sesses him, and emphasizes those passages that 
apparently confirm his theories and suppresses 
or minimizes whatever militates against them. 
The prospective book may also be padded by 
interweaving old and well-known comments, 
especially such as seem to lend support to the 
writer's views or appear so good to him that 
he wishes he had written them. 

Another way of handling the subject is first 
to state the theory and then bring together 
everything in the particular play under consid- 
eration that seems to corroborate the theory. 
Mr. Stopford Brooke is a master of these 
methods. He accumulates a mass of material 
which is very likely to give the unknowing 
reader a distorted view of Shakespeare as a 
man and as an artist, besides vitiating his appre- 
ciation and understanding of the plays. If Mr. 
Brooke's latest book were written for professed 
Shakespeareans the danger would be reduced 
to a minimum ; they are accustomed to contend 
with fantastic theories, and are not easily im- 
posed upon. But Mr. Brooke seems to have 
written with his eye mainly on beginners in 
Shakespeare study, and he should have been 
cautious in putting forth surmises, guesses, and 
conjectures, as facts. The beginner ought to 
be left with an open mind, and ought to be en- 
couraged to enjoy Shakespeare as a poet, a play- 
wright, and a revealer of the human soul ; there 
is time enough for him to go into the intricate 

*TEN MOKE PLAYS OF SHAKESPEARE. By Stopford A. 
Brooke. New York : Henry Holt & Co. 



problems of the relationship between the poet 
and his work. A matter into which Mr. Brooke 
might very profitably have gone is the rela- 
tionship between the finished product and the 
so-called "original." Almost nothing else in 
Shakespeare study is so suggestive, interesting, 
and instructive as this, or more calculated to 
guard the student from indulging in vain and 
fantastic hypotheses. Shakespeare rejects noth- 
ing, retains nothing, and introduces nothing, 
without a reason. Another fruitful but much 
neglected field for commentary is the adaptation 
of sound to sense in Shakespeare's poetry, 
something that Shakespeare, like every great 
poet, is very rich in. 

But we should not be understood as condemn- 
ing Mr. Brooke's book. In Shakespeare com- 
mentary, as in the acting of "Hamlet," no one 
can fail utterly. Mr. Brooke has such good 
literary taste and such genuine appreciation 
of Shakespeare, and seems to be such a close 
observer of men, that he is almost always well 
worth listening to. He is interesting even when 
one does not agree with him, as when, for ex- 
ample, speaking of Cassius, he says : "[Toward 
the end of the play] he becomes that which he 
probably was as a young man. This recurrence 
when the end of life draws near to that 
which a man was before he was spoiled awry by 
the world, is not infrequent in experience, but 
few writers have used it as Shakespeare." Such 
passages and the book is full of them at 
least have the merit of stimulating thought, even 
if they do not convince and do not help to the 
understanding of the characters. Mr. Brooke 
also possesses a really pleasing and interesting 
style, which makes the reading of most of his 
book distinctly pleasurable, although at times 
one is disagreeably conscious of an artificiality 
and straining for fine stylistic effects. The 
latter tendency is frequently responsible for such 
peculiar and uncouth phraseology as the fol- 
lowing: "He dispersed Rosencrantz and Guil- 
denstern "; "he was spoiled awry"; " I only see 
in it the cunning almost of a madman "; " when 
also we read it"; "baited by a fool who wants 
he knows to find him out ''; " Ophelia is drowned 
of her pain "; " that is of feeling quite intense "; 
" she forgets to tell him what to do in her excite- 
ment"; "it draws me into the imagination"; 
and much more that is even worse. 

In his paper on " Twelfth Night," Mr. Brooke 
permits himself to be lost in fantasies concern- 
ing the sub-title, " What You Will," instead of 
accepting Mr. Conrad's plain and sensible ex- 
planation. It is not true that the dramatis 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



17 



personce in this play " range from the highest 
to the lowest in rank, from the wisest to the most 
foolish." He is also guilty of gross exaggera- 
tion when he says that Shakespeare "took won- 
derful pains to give plenty of attractive work to 
all the members of his company, to give to the 
smallest acting part points to be made which 
should draw the attention and the praise of the 
audience." There are plenty of thankless parts 
in Shakespeare, as any actor will testify. Nor 
does " Twelfth Night " deserve the reproach 
implied in the statement that "the scenery of 
the play is less defined than it is in other plays." 
On the contrary, considering that the poet wrote 
for a practically bare stage and for an audience 
for whom the play was the thing, "Twelfth 
Night" is set in singularly picturesque and 
romantic surroundings. In the midst of much 
that is commonplace, Mr. Brooke makes some 
statements that are so palpably at variance with 
the facts, and so calculated to suggest to the 
reader the author's subsequently developed views 
concerning Shakespeare's tragic mood, that they 
must be singled out for correction and as an 
illustration of the worst kind of commenting on 
Shakespeare. He says (page 51): " Their jji.e., 
Sir Toby's companions'] conversation is as clean 
as the moon," and in a footnote he says : "It 
is remarkable that when the darkness fell on 
Shakespeare his lower characters sometimes use 
a grossness in thought and speech, which was 
not so before." Reading this, one is almost 
tempted to believe that Mr. Brooke's reading 
of Shakespeare was limited to expurgated school 
editions ; or has he forgotten the equivokes in- 
dulged in by Sir Toby and Aguecheek in Act I., 
scene 4 ? And as to the plays preceding this 
one, let us refer him to the conversation of the 
nurse in " Romeo and Juliet " and to the dia- 
logue between Samson and Gregory in that play. 
Coarse allusions occur in almost all of Shake- 
speare's plays, both before and after his /Sturm 
und Drang period. 

In the chapter on "Julius Caesar" there is 
much interesting matter, such as the comments 
on the political interest of the play, the reasons 
why revolutions usually fail, the "pathetic fal- 
lacy," and the character of Brutus, and much 
with which a Shakespearean and a psychologist 
will not agree. It is not true that the poet 
combined his borrowed material in such a way 
as " to make a greater matter than that which 
actually happened." If Shakespeare departs 
from the historical order of events, he does so 
because of motives of dramatic and psychologic 
effectiveness as well as the necessities imposed 



on him by his stage. On p. 60 Mr. Brooke 
says that "Julius Caesar" was written in 1600, 
and on p. 64 he says that it was written in 1601. 
The error is material only in so far as it involves 
the question why he mentions the subject at all. 
To the beginner in Shakespeare study, the date 
of composition is of no importance unless he is 
shown its significance in watching the evolution 
of the poet's mind ; and to the professed student 
Mr. Brooke's unsubstantiated opinion on a dis- 
puted question is of no value. In discussing the 
failure of most revolutions, Mr. Brooke strangely 
overlooks the fact that with the death of the 
"tyrant" the representative of law and order, 
the source of authority the repressed lawless- 
ness, the pent-up passions of humanity, are loosed 
and break forth ; note the destruction of Cinna. 
In common with many other critics, Mr. Brooke 
makes too much of the political interest in this 
play. I do not believe that the struggle between 
Elizabeth and the Parliament in any way in- 
fluenced the dramatist in the composition of 
" Julius Caesar." Shakespeare employed the 
political events only as a means of portraying 
the psyche of his dramatis personce, not the 
characters as vehicles for the expression of his 
political convictions ; his interests were psycho- 
logic, not sociologic. The events, their causes 
and their issues, were supplied by his original. 
This is no more a political play than is " Cori- 
olanus "or " Antony and Cleopatra." Mr. 
Brooke's failure to understand this is the cause 
of his condemnation of the last two acts as being 
too long drawn out, and as containing needless 
interludes. Brutus, as usual, is described almost 
as the apotheosis of virtue. The blindness of 
the critics to his failings, all too human, is the 
more amazing because Shakespeare spares no 
pains to limn him at full length as a real living 
human being, not as an abstraction. Mr. 
Brooke's description of the mighty Julius " as 
subject to superstitions, as wavering to and fro, 
as led by the nose, as vain, as having lost his 
intellectual powers in self-sufficiency, as one who 
thinks himself separated altogether from his 
fellow men " is more applicable to " the lofty, 
dignified, and beautiful" Brutus. The latter is 
consumed by vanity and a mighty self-love, fail- 
ings which blind him to the fatuity of Cassius's 
arguments, make him susceptible to the flattery 
of the anonymous letters thrown in at his win- 
dow, undermine his logical faculty, and which 
are directly responsible for the obstinacy with 
which he adheres to his ill-considered and fatal 
plans in the last Act as well as throughout the 
play. He is the geek and gull of Cassius. If 



18 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 1 



Caesar's speeches are " almost the speeches of 
a fool," Brutus's actions are much more so. This 
honorable man conspires against the life of his 
friend and benefactor for what he may become ; 
this honest and upright idealist will not wring 
from the hard hands of peasants their vile trash 
by any indirection, but he resents not being per- 
mitted to share the moneys so collected. The 
true critic will not denigrate Cassius and Antony 
for the purpose of exalting Brutus. That was 
not Shakespeare's way. 

Mr. Brooke attempts to explain the melodra- 
matic action of the conspirators bathing their 
arms in Caesar's blood by comparing it with 
Hamlet's " bursting into fantastic phrases after 
he has seen the Ghost." There is absolutely 
no parallelism between the two incidents. The 
conspirators are in a mood of exaltation after 
their butchery ; for the moment they really 
believe that their act was prompted by noble, 
patriotic, heroic motives, and that history will 
regard them as the liberators of their country. 
It is particularly significant that it is the peace- 
ful, gentle, philosophic, amiable and book-loving 
theorist Brutus who makes the proposal that 
they bathe their hands in the sacrificial blood. 
This mood preserves Brutus from being horri- 
fied at the hideous spectacle he had made, from 
realizing that he had committed the stupidest 
and most reprehensible crime in history. From 
the modern psychologic point of view, we may 
say that the melodramatic action of the con- 
spirators is the expression of the regression to 
the infantile play instinct and sado-masochistic 
complex which so frequently come to the fore 
in moments of great exaltation or depression. 
Hamlet, on the other hand, is left dazed and 
stupefied by the Ghost's revelations ; he is 
shocked into cynicism and flippancy by the tale 
of horror unfolded to his ears. Suddenly all 
the world of evil is bared to his gaze ; all his 
youthful ideals are shattered ; there is nothing 
serious in mortality. That is why he indulges 
in wild and whirling words, puts on an antic 
disposition, and speaks so vulgarly to his father's 
spirit. 

To see Mr. Brooke at his worst one has to 
turn to his remarks on " Hamlet." In discuss- 
ing the Prince's sanity, he vents his sarcasms 
on the " mad doctors," and talks in such a dic- 
tatorial and cock-sure way that he makes himself 
laughable. Reading Mr. Brooke, one would 
think that the alienists and psychiatrists know 
nothing of insanity, that they never read the 
play, that they purposely disregard the perti- 
nent facts, and that they are in a conspiracy 



to commit Hamlet to a lunatic asylum. Mr. 
Brooke is quite certain that he knows Shake- 
speare's intention in the matter, and that Hamlet 
is perfectly sane, that his only trouble is that 
he " glides away from the present into a rea- 
soning in his soul on a question which suddenly 
presents itself to him," and that he is as sud- 
denly "shocked out of argumentative thought 
into the actual world." Notwithstanding this 
shocking formula, Mr. Brooke is compelled to 
admit (p. 123) that at times Hamlet shows "the 
cunning almost of a madman," that his treach- 
ery to Rosencrantz and Guildenstern is " a blot 
on the play" of which Shakespeare should not 
have been guilty and which "is not in Hamlet's 
character." So, too, according to this critic, 
the episode of Hamlet's leaping into Ophelia's 
grave (with the declaration that he is King of 
Denmark) is unworthy of the poet. Of course 
if we omit those occurrences that point to insan- 
ity and leave out of consideration Hamlet's 
twice- repeated confession of " melancholy "and 
" madness," it is an easy matter to prove Hamlet 
sane. That is Mr. Brooke's way of studying 
Shakespeare, a characteristic which makes all 
the difference in the world between him and 
Professor Bradley. 

SAMUEL A. TANNENBAUM. 



AN ACCOUNT or ENGLISH LIBERALISM.* 



It is extremely convenient for the reviewer 
when the author of a book begins by a state- 
ment, in so many words, of what he is about; 
for then all the reviewer has to do is to copy it 
out. Mr. W. Lyon Blease, in his " Short His- 
tory of English Liberalism," begins with such 
a statement. 

" This book attempts to trace the varying but per- 
sistent course of Liberalism in British politics during 
the last hundred and fifty years. It is not so much a 
history of events as a reading of them in the light of a 
particular political philosophy. . . . The general vic- 
tory . . . has been to Liberalism; and the movement 
of the race, during the period with which the writer is 
concerned, is precisely measured by the degree in which 
the Liberal spirit has succeeded in modifying the estab- 
lishments of a preceding age. The object of this book 
is to investigate the course of that process of modifica- 
tion in politics." 

A victory usually implies a defeat ; and Mr. 
Blease employs the word Toryism to signify 
what it is that Liberalism had defeated. How- 
ever, neither Liberalism nor Toryism is to be 
identified with a political party, or with any 



* A SHORT HISTORY OF ENGLISH LIBERALISM. 
W. Lyon Blease. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



19 



concrete policy; each is rather a "habit of 
mind." Liberalism is that settled habit of mind 
which induces a man to desire that every other 
man may " have equal opportunity with himself 
for self-expression and fpr self-development." 
This desired end was once thought to be attained 
by reducing legal restrictions and the activity 
of government to a minimum ; but it is now 
known that Liberalism has its positive as well 
as its negative side. Not only does Liberalism 
concede that "each is to be left to work out his 
own salvation," but it concedes that "active 
steps" must be taken "to remove the artificial 
barriers which impede that development." It 
is possible, therefore, and quite proper indeed, 
to speak of the old and the new Liberalism, 
the Liberalism of the Manchester school and 
the "collective Liberalism" of Mr. Lloyd 
George ; and to speak of them, in spite of their 
marked differences, as pursuing the same end, 
as being alike " in the desire to set free the 
individual from existing social bonds, and to 
procure him liberty of growth." 

Toryism, like Liberalism, is also a "habit of 
mind," not to be identified with Conservatism 
or Unionism. It is the " habit of mind which 
refuses to concede to others that right of free 
expression which it requires for itself, . . . the 
egoistic mind which regards all others as at its 
disposal." The Tory habit of mind, it may be 
said at once, is a very bad habit, the Liberal 
habit a very good one. Mr. Blease says, and 
one can well believe it, that the pure Tory or the 
pure Liberal is very rarely found ; his enumer- 
ation of the distinguishing characteristics of 
either leaves one inclined to remark, very nearly 
in the words of Desdemona, " I do not believe 
there ever was such a man." And Mr. Blease 
is free to admit that many members of the Tory 
or Conservative parties have worked for Liberal 
measures, and that there have been very few 
members of the Liberal Party who were Liberals 
without alloy. Fox and Sheridan lacked much 
of being complete Liberals; John Bright was 
not a complete Liberal because he opposed Fac- 
tory Acts ; Mr. Asquith is not a complete Liberal 
because he is opposed to woman's suffrage ; Mr. 
Lloyd George is under suspicion because, but 
I cannot now recall just for what. The author 
does not say so, but I suspect that there is only 
one simon-pure Liberal, and that is Mr. Blease 
himself. Still, one need not despair, for it is 
well known that ten righteous men can save a 
city. 

Mr. Blease is very far from despair ; for the 
Liberal Party, although some of its members 



may lag behind, is as a whole very nearly up to 
the mark ; and its policy of social reform as 
distinguished from Socialism, which the author 
rejects bids fair to put a kind of happy 
period to "that movement of the race" of 
which Mr. Blease speaks. I infer this at least, 
because Mr. Blease, although he does distin- 
guish Liberalism from Socialism as things 
fundamentally different, admits frankly that 
the present Liberal programme "has borrowed 
largely from Socialism"; so that it is difficult 
to see how Liberalism can carry us much 
farther without handing us over as it were to 
the Socialists, which, however, he is clear will 
never do. Humanly speaking, therefore, the 
present Liberal programme is for him a kind 
of final thing, a test or standard by which to 
evaluate the ideas and events of the past ; and, 
in fact, Mr. Blease has made a survey of 
English politics during the last century, in an 
interesting manner and with much knowledge 
indeed, much less from the point of view of a 
" particular political philosophy " than from the 
point of view of a particular political platform. 
From Burke to Mr. Lloyd George, he summons 
men and measures to submit to this test, ap- 
proving them in so far as they are found to 
be in accord with the ideas of the extreme left 
wing of the Liberal Party, condemning them in 
so far as they fall short of these ideas. 

The author's bias being thus in favor of a 
particular party almost as much as in favor of 
a particular philosophy, members of another 
party scarcely get due credit even when they 
momentarily fall into a Liberal way of acting. 
The Factory Acts of the fourth decade of the 
century (true Liberal measures according to Mr. 
Blease) were better supported by Conservatives 
than by Whigs. But even the best Conserva- 
tives, in supporting legislation of this kind, 
were Unfortunately still actuated by the in- 
grained Tory habit of mind, "their general 
readiness to dispose of the affairs of others"; 
so that it may be said even of the excellent 
Shaftesbury that as "he refused to allow a 
Catholic or a Tractarian religious freedom, or 
the common people political freedom, so he 
refused to allow a cotton-spinner economic free- 
dom." You can't say much for the benighted 
Conservative, even when, by some chance, he 
does a Liberal deed, he does it in such a Tory 
manner ! Suppose a fig should be found grow- 
ing on a thistle! One fig doesn't make an 
orchard ! 

Some Conservatives would doubtless be just 
perverse enough not to see why it is that when a 



20 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 1 



Liberal votes for a Factory Act he does so in order 
to make the workman more free, whereas when a 
Conservative votes for a Factory Act he does so 
in order to make the workman less free. And 
many an old Tory would probably say that a 
Factory Act is a Factory Act, that its effects 
are what they are, equally good or bad, whatever 
the motive which inspired men to get it passed 
into law. A discussion of such points might 
entangle us in the old controversy of grace and 
works, a controversy which I am by no means 
competent to determine. This much may be 
said, however : it will be found difficult at this 
late day to write a satisfactory history of English 
Liberalism on the fundamental assumption that 
certain men, inspired by an innate beneficent 
habit of mind, and belonging for the most part 
to one of the great political parties, have been 
the instruments of God's purpose in the world ; 
whereas certain other men, inspired by an innate 
malevolent habit of mind, and belonging for the 
most part to the other great political party, have 
done the devil's business. It is, however, on 
this assumption, quite possible to write a most 
skilful tract for the times. And that is indeed 
what Mr. Blease has done. BECKER. 



CANADA OF TO-DAY AND TO-MORROW.* 

It is perhaps part of the world-wide craze 
for standardizing all things, and bringing them 
within the rigid lines of a system, that modern 
publishers bring out so many of their books in 
series. Doubtless, also, there is an economic 
side to the question. One volume in a series 
helps to sell the others; and both individuals 
and public libraries are sometimes subject to 
the weakness of subscribing for a set of books, 
where one or two volumes are all they need, 
merely because of a vague but compelling im- 
pulse toward completeness. From the point of 
view of the reading public, the tendency cannot 
generally be commended. It has resulted in a 
multitude of made-to-order books, based on the 
utterly false premise that radically different 
communities may be measured with the same 
foot-rule; and in many cases, too, it has led to 
the duplication of books covering the same field 
from substantially the same point of view. 

A case in point is Mr. J. K. Goodrich's vol- 
ume on "The Coming Canada," in the "World 
To-day Series." If the promise of the title 
were really fulfilled, there would be room enough 

*THE COMING CANADA. By Joseph King Goodrich. 
Illustrated. Chicago : A. C. McClurg & Co. 



for it; but as a matter of fact one finds in it 
very little that is not already contained in such 
a recent volume as Griffith's "Dominion of 
Canada." It is entertaining and readable, but 
otherwise scarcely worth while. Moreover, one 
finds in the book errors of fact or judgment 
which are rather inexcusable in a man of Mr. 
Goodrich's standing. To cite but a few : The 
statement that Sebastian Cabot discovered 
Hudson Bay (p. 47) will scarcely be endorsed 
by historical students familiar with all the docu- 
ments. The name Kaministiquia (or Kaminis- 
tikwia, as it is now spelled) has not "disap- 
peared from our modern maps" (p. 61). To 
describe the Upper Canadian Rebellion as " in 
the nature of turbulent protest by the French 
Canadians," etc. (p. 95), is little short of ludi- 
crous. So far from the head of the Department 
of External Affairs of Canada not being a 
Cabinet officer (p. 100), that portfolio is held 
by the Prime Minister. A statement on the 
same page reveals a very common misconcep- 
tion of the relative responsibilities of members 
of the cabinet in Canada and the United States. 
The Secretary of the Interior of the United 
States (to take an example) has no serious re- 
sponsibilities outside his own department. The 
Minister of the Interior of Canada, in addition 
to the work of his department, is a member of 
the House of Commons, and for six or eight 
months of every year he must be in his seat in 
Parliament, taking part in debates, introducing 
legislation, defending the administration of which 
he is a member and especially his own partic- 
ular department. The former is responsible to 
the President alone ; the latter is responsible to 
Parliament, and to his constituents. The sug- 
gestion (p. 131) of a canoe trip, as a summer's 
holiday, from Winnipeg to Hudson Bay, and 
back by way of Hudson Straits, the Labrador 
coast, and Newfoundland, leaves one gasping. 
Mr. Goodrich says (p. 212), speaking of the 
glaciers in the Canadian Rockies, " most of these 
Canadian ice-rivers are small." He can scarcely 
have heard of the Lyell Glacier, eight miles in 
length, exceeding anything in the Alps; or the 
vast Columbia Ice-field two hundred square 
miles in extent and thirty miles long, with its 
circle of giant glaciers. Mount Assiniboine 
(p. 214) was successfully climbed by James 
Outram in 1901. Mr. W. D. Wilcox, whose 
" Rockies of Canada " is cited on this same page, 
mentions the fact, and it is of course fully de- 
scribed in Outram's " In the Heart of the Cana- 
dian Rockies." Mr. Goodrich has apparently 
not yet heard that the old fable as to the immense 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



21 



height of Mounts Brown and Hooker (p. 214) 
was exploded by Professor Coleman of Toronto 
University twenty years ago. The North West 
Company never had offices in Toronto (p. 272) ; 
Toronto did not exist in 1779. The head- 
quarters of the Company were in Montreal. 

A useful Bibliography is appended to the 
book, but even here one finds the need of some 
criticism. The "Remarkable History of the 
Hudson's Bay Company" is by George Bryce, 
not by Bryce and Campbell ; and it was pub- 
lished in 1900, not 1911. On the other hand, 
" The Scotsman in Canada " is by Bryce and 
Campbell, not by George Bryce. "Stretfield 
and Collie " should read " Stutfield and Collie "; 
and there seems no sufficient reason for includ- 
ing the two entries, "Champlain Society, 
Toronto, Publications" and "Publications of 
the Champlain Society, Toronto." It would 
have added to the value of the Bibliography if 
such superficial sketches as Copping's " Canada 
To-day and To-morrow" and "The Golden 
Land," Vernede's "The Fair Dominion," and 
Talbot's "New Garden of Canada" had been 
omitted, and a number of books of more lasting 
value listed in their place. One notes, for 
instance, the omission of Bourinot's " Parliamen- 
tary Procedure and Government in Canada," 
and his smaller work " How Canada is Gov- 
erned"; of Tracy's "Tercentenary History of 
Canada," and the works of the principal French- 
Canadian historians, Garneau, Ferland, and 
Suite. One or two of the older books of travel 
are listed, but not Harmon or Paul Kane, 
Franchere or Alexander Ross, or Milton and 
Cheadle's delightful "North West Passage by 
Land." Masson's " Bourgeois de la Compagnie 
du Nordouest " should have been included even 
in a brief bibliography ; also Hornaday's " Camp- 
fires in the Canadian Rockies " and Wheeler's 
" The Selkirk Range." Gagnon's " Chansons 
Populaires " is the standard work on the sub- 
ject, and very much more comprehensive than 
Robertson's "French Songs by Old Canadians." 
LAWRENCE J. BURPEE. 



MR. TIGHE HOPKINS, in his book entitled " Wards 
of the State " (Little, Brown, & Co.), brings into inter- 
esting form of expression the convictions of many 
practical criminologists. He writes from the English 
standpoint, but the principles of reformatory treatment 
and individualization of method are familiar in America. 
The accounts of prison life are vividly presented, and 
the recent development of methods of detecting crime 
and identifying offenders is clearly described. The 
story of the suffragists in durance vile one is tempted to 
quote; it is interesting but not agreeable. 



RECENT FICTION.* 

The present season is a notable one for novel* 
of exceptional quality and interest, and its long 
list of important works of fiction includes no work 
more appealingly human than "The Garden without 
Walls," by a new writer, Mr. Coningsby Dawson. 
In form, it is an autobiography, beginning with 
those memories of early childhood that a few fortu- 
nate mortals are privileged to preserve undimmed 
through all the years. It was in a London suburb 
that the narrator first began "to dream of a garden 
without walls." He had lost his mother in infancy, 
and lived with his father, a scholarly recluse, in 
a house with a closed garden. "As I grew older 
I became curious, and fretted with the narrowness 
of my restraint. What happened over there in the 
great beyond? Rumors came to me; sometimes it 
was the roar of London to the southward; some- 
times it was the sing-song of a mower traversing a 
neighbor's lawn. I dreamt of an unwalled garden, 
through which a child might wander on forever 
an Eden, where each step revealed a new beauty 
and a fresh surprise, where flowers grew always and 
there were no doors to lock." The life of Dante 
Cardover, as he grew up, was a quest for this gar- 
den of heart's desire. The quest began by a literal 
scaling of the home garden wall, and discovering 
Ruthita, the little girl who lived next door. Ruthita 
became annexed to the family when the elder 
Cardover married her widowed mother, and the 
two children grew up joyously together. An esca- 
pade with the gypsies was the great adventure of 
their childhood. Then the boy was sent to school, 
to be withdrawn when an unfortunate speculation 
cut down the family resources. But his education 
is continued somehow, and he wins a fellowship at 
an Oxford college. Taking his degree, he starts 
out on the search for his garden, and meets Vi in a 
seaside village. His heart goes out to her, and he 

* THE GARDEN WITHOUT WALLS. By Coningsby Dawson. 
New York : Henry Holt & Co. 

GENERAL JOHN REGAN. By G. A. Birmingham. New 
York : George H. Doran Co. 

BENDISH. A Study in Prodigality. By Maurice Hewlett. 
New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 

THE DARK FLOWER. By John Galsworthy. New York : 
Charles Scribner's Sons. 

THE PASSIONATE FRIENDS. By H. G. Wells. New York : 
Harper & Brothers. 

YOUTH'S ENCOUNTER. By Compton Mackenzie. New 
York : D. Appleton & Co. 

JOAN THURSDAY. By Louis Joseph Vance. Boston : 
Little, Brown, & Co. 

DOWN AMONG MEN. By Will Levington Comfort. New 
York : George H. Doran Co. 

THE VALLEY OF THE MOON. By Jack London, New 
York : The Macmillan Co. 

THE LAW-BKINGERS. By G. B. Lancaster. New York : 
George H. Doran Co. 

THE HONORABLE SENATOR SAGE-BRUSH. By Francis 
Lynde. New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 

THE SPIDER'S WEB. By Reginald Wright Kaufman. 
New York : Moffat, Yard & Co. 



22 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 1 



falls irrevocably in love before he learns that she 
is married the child-wife of an American old 
enough to be her father. The mischief is done, for 
his love is returned, and he remains faithful to her 
for years, and all but persuades her to set society 
at defiance by deserting her husband for his sake. 
But her better nature prevails over her passion, 
and she returns to her Massachusetts home. Then 
Dante becomes a wanderer, and in Florence meets 
Fiesole, a bewitching creature who had tried to 
flirt with him in his school-days, and who has 
grown into a creature all air and fire, prodigal of 
a love which his devotion to the impossible ideal 
which Vi represents forces him to put aside. Then 
he goes to America, sees Vi once more, and parts 
from her when they both realize that renunciation 
is the only course open to them. Returning to En- 
gland, Dante becomes a landed proprietor through 
the death of his grandfather, but his heart-hunger 
is still unappeased. Journeying to Paris, he redis- 
covers Fiesole, now become a famous actress, and 
realizes too late the treasure of the love that might 
have been his for the taking in the old Florentine 
days. A season of delirious companionship follows, 
and he thinks he has won her, when she turns her 
back upon him, and disappears from the scene. 
This is the inconclusive end of the story, for 
Ruthita, whom he has always regarded as a sister, 
and who might have brought him the happiness 
that has ever eluded his pursuit, has made a mar- 
iage de convenance, and is also lost to him. The 
life-story of Dante Cardover is a pathetic record of 
failure, and the fruit of the only garden that he 
finds turns to ashes in his mouth. This sorry 
scheme of things entire has proved too much for 
him to cope with, and yet he is not without his 
compensating memories. He has twice known the 
full intoxication of love in its best sense the sense 
in which Rossetti conceived it when he wrote of one 
" Whose speech Truth knows not from her thought, 
Nor Love her body from her soul " 

the love in which the spiritual and the sensuous are 
blended in perfect harmony. We feel throughout 
that this delicately-wrought and exquisite piece of 
fiction is the work of an artist with a conscience 
of a man who does not palter with the ethical verities 
or seek to make the worse appear the better reason, 
and yet of one who has the truest sympathy with 
the frailties of human nature and the deepest insight 
into human motive. In a word, he never permits 
us to forget that life is a thing of stern reality, no 
matter how beautifully-colored its imagined exterior. 
Canon Hannay, having written the play of " Gen- 
eral John Regan," which has recently been produced 
for the delight of New Yorkers and others, proceeded 
to convert it into a novel with the same title, a pro- 
ceeding rarely to be commended, but in this case 
proved by the result to have been entirely justifiable. 
The idea underlying both works is that of which Lady 
Gregory made effective use in "The Image" the 
idea of erecting a statue to the memory of an im- 
aginary Irishman. A travelling American named 



Horace P. Billing arrives one day in Ballymoy in 
his motor-car, and gets an impression of the place 
which he afterwards records in these vigorous terms : 
''When I first set eyes on this town a month ago I 
thought I had bumped up against the most dead-alive, 
God-forsaken, one-horse settlement that Europe could 
boast." Thinking to start something, he asks to be 
directed to the statue of General John Regan. No 
one can gratify his wish, for the excellent reasons 
that there is no such memorial and that no such 
person ever existed. So he goes on to explain that 
Regan was a famous Irish patriot who had devoted 
his sword to the liberation of Bolivia, in which coun- 
try his name was enshrined in every heart, and 
that Ballymoy, his native place, surely should have 
paid him some sort of monumental honor. At this 
juncture, it was Dr. Lucius O'Grady who gave the 
townspeople their cue. It was clearly a case of "Si 
Dieu n'existait pas, il faudraif Vinventer" and 
Dr. O'Grady at once improvised the necessary hero. 
He said, under the stimulus of an offered subscription 
of one hundred pounds from the American visitor, 
that plans for the statue were well under way, and 
that it would soon be ready for unveiling. So much 
good money should not be allowed to get away 
from Ballymoy, and so all the leading citizens lent 
themselves to the imposture, lying about the affair 
with the easy or expert grace of which only Irishmen 
are capable. The house in which Regan was born 
is pointed out to the visitor, the site prepared for 
the statue is indicated, and Mary Ellen, a drudge at 
the town tavern, is trotted out as the famous patriot's 
nearest living relative. Dr. O'Grady has some diffi- 
culties in getting all his allies into line, for Major 
Kent has scruples, the parish priest has fears lest 
Regan may have been an atheist or a Jacobin, Thady 
Gallagher, the nationalist editor and agitator, has 
dark suspicions, and Doyle, the publican, has to be 
persuaded that there is something in it for him. 
These difficulties are all overcome by Dr. O'Grady's 
glib persuasiveness, and the preparations for the 
civic function go merrily on. Doyle's nephew, a 
mortuary sculptor in Dublin, has an effigy on hand 
which, with slight alterations, will serve the purpose, 
and this is secured, to the profit of Doyle and his 
nephew. The Lord-Lieutenant accepts an invitation 
to act as master of ceremonies, and all the delicate 
diplomatic problems of precedence are solved by the 
inventive O'Grady. When the great day arrives, 
having discovered at the last moment that Regan 
is a myth, he sends his aide-de-camp to represent him, 
and make an indignant demand for explanation of 
the imposture. This official is mere putty in O'Grady's 
hands, who cajoles him into fulfilling his allotted 
function, and the ceremony goes off with great eclat. 
The question of music for the band to play is a seri- 
ous matter, but O'Grady makes the lucky discovery 
that the government official does not know one tune 
from another, and so "The Wearing of the Green" 
is performed in place of " Rule Britannia " and " God 
Save the King," thereby soothing the nationalist 
susceptibilities of the excitable Thady Gallagher, 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



23 



who would otherwise have been quite capable of 
upsetting the whole affair. Billing turns up at the 
critical moment, and is much surprised to see what 
has grown out of the seed of his planting. But he 
proves a good sport, and more than fulfils his 
promises. This is one of the most joyous stories 
that Canon Hannay has given us, and offers the 
most delightful entertainment imaginable. 

Mr. Maurice Hewlett overworks his vein. The 
rich ore becomes exhausted, and it is too evident 
that what he gives us afterward are tailings. It 
was so with the trilogy of Sanchia novels, each of 
which was thinner than the one before, and it is so 
again with " Bendish," which continues the story of 
the group presented in "Mrs. Lancelot." It is true 
that Bendish is a new figure, but Georgiana and 
Gervase Poore and the Iron Duke are those upon 
which the author wellnigh exhausted his powers of 
analysis in the earlier novel. What he has to say 
of them now is either repetition or finical elaboration 
of what he said before. Of Bendish, it may be said 
at once that Byron sat for his portrait a fact suffi- 
ciently obvious to all but the literal-minded who may 
urge that Byron was dead at the time of the Reform 
Bill, and that, anyway, he never fought a duel with 
Shelley. As the one original feature of the new 
novel, this character-study is all that saves it from 
futility. It is not wholly fair to the poet, because 
it places overmuch emphasis upon his weaknesses. 
After all, he was more than a, poseur, and his vapor- 
ings were more than the rhetorical exhibitions of an 
inordinate self-conceit. Considered as pure fiction, 
the characterization might fairly be described as 
masterly, but we are not permitted so to consider it 
as clearly a distortion of the features of a real man. 
In this novel, as in its predecessor, the Duke of 
Devizes is the figure most sympathetically conceived, 
and we are always glad when he appears upon the 
scene. He represents the true type of aristocrat, 
as distinguished from the sham type personified by 
Bendish. 

"The Dark Flower," according to Mr. John 
Galsworthy, is the flower of passionate love, which 
may blossom in the waste spaces of life at almost 
any age. In the life of Mark Lennan, it bursts 
into bloom upon three occasions, the episodes being 
respectively labelled " spring," " summer," and 
"autumn." This suggests the scheme of Mr. 
Thomas Hardy's "The Well-Beloved," although the 
three women in the present case are not in one line 
of descent. Mark's first affair is with the wife of 
his Oxford tutor, a woman old enough to be his 
mother. The second, several years later, is with a 
young married woman, the wife of a member of 
Parliament, and she comes to a tragic end one night 
on the river, when the jealous husband breaks in 
upon their embraces. The third is an Irish girl, 
the daughter of an old-time comrade, who comes 
into the middle age of his life, and disturbs its 
tranquil flow with the appeal of her fresh youth 
and beauty very much as Hilde stirred the emotions 



of Solness. This affair ends in the bitterness of an 
unavoidable renunciation. Besides the three women 
already mentioned, there is Sylvia, whom Mark has 
married after his recovery from the tragic episode 
of " summer." We mention Sylvia incidentally, 
because she does not count for much in the story 
of Mark's emotional life, although she seems to be 
a lovely creature, and quite as good a wife as Mark 
deserves. The whole history is delicately told, with 
much subtle analysis, vivid exposition, and the 
charm of style in which few living writers equal 
Mr. Galsworthy. This writer never hesitates to 
play fast and loose with any of the conventions or 
institutions of ordered society, always finding in 
the claims of sentiment his ready justification, but, 
with all his artistry, he does not often succeed in 
being morally convincing. 

It seems to be almost impossible for our "ad- 
vanced " modern novelists to write a love story that 
is not based upon adultery. The honest love of a 
man for a woman appears to be too tame an affair 
to be deserving of their attention. For example, 
the narrator in "The Passionate Friends," a novel 
in the first person by Mr. H. G. Wells, speaks thus 
of his illicit relation with another man's wife: "I 
wanted to be open and defiant, and she hesitated. 
She wanted to be secret. She wanted to keep me; 
I sometimes think that she was moved to become 
my mistress because she wanted to keep me. But 
she wanted to keep everything else in her life, her 
position, her ample freedom and wealth and dignity. 
Our love was to be a secret cavern, Endymion's cave. 
I was ready enough to do what I could to please 
her, and for a time I served that secrecy, lied, pre- 
tended, agreed to false addresses, assumed names, 
and tangled myself in a net-work of furtive pro- 
ceedings. These are things that poison and con- 
sume honest love." The italics are ours. We use 
them for the purpose of emphasizing the nauseous 
cant by which such situations are defended. A little 
further on, we read that " there is an invincible sense 
of wild Tightness about passionate love that no rea- 
soning and no training will ever altogether repudi- 
ate," and this is all the justification for immorality 
that the flabby ethics of the fashionable novelist 
seems to require. But we are constrained to believe 
that there is a reasoning and a training that will 
fortify the character against such sophistries; if 
there were not, we should despair of education and, 
of society. The passionate "friends" of this story 
cannot unite their lives legally because the man is 
too poor, and the woman too worldly to make the 
sacrifice of becoming his wife. That is the cold 
fact that underlies all this fine talk about the rights 
of the soul, and all these labored apologies for the 
sin in which the "friends" afterwards live. When 
they are discovered, the man goes to South Africa, 
distinguishes himself in the war, returns, and marries 
a girl who is much too good for him. But even 
then he cannot escape from the obsession of his old 
passion, and the intrigue is ended only by the woman's 



24 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 1 



suicide. There is a great deal of vaporing about 
some reorganized society of the future in which un- 
restrained individualism shall have the final word, 
but the author does not tell us how the integrity of 
the family and the stability of the social order are 
to be protected in that Utopia for the excellent 
reason that he does not know himself. The story is 
told in the form of a confession made for the guid- 
ance of the narrator's son when he shall have grown 
to manhood, and is intolerably weighted with analy- 
sis and introspective philosophizing. It is a story 
that tingles with life and teems with ideas of a 
kind expressed in the striking and sometimes 
exalted style which the author has at his command. 
But we balk at the "background of high idealism 
and prophecy of the future" claimed for it in the 
publishers' advertisements. 

Mr. Compton Mackenzie's " Youth's Encounter " 
is a book that takes five hundred pages to tell the 
story of a boy's life up to the age of twenty or there- 
abouts. It discusses in appalling detail his childhood 
and adolescence, taking him through his public school 
days and finally plumping him upon the world. We 
suppose that later volumes will carry on his story 
upon the same scale. He is an illegitimate child of 
the Earl of Saxby, a fact that he first learns when 
his mother apprises him of it after his father's death 
at the close of the work. During this boyhood life, 
he is thrown mainly upon his own resources (although 
he is materially well cared for), owing to the fact 
that his mother spends most of her time abroad in 
her lover's company. These unfortunate conditions 
seem to be carefully concealed from the world, and 
thus do not inure to his social disadvantage, as it 
might have been supposed that they would. This 
prefatory quotation from Keats supplies a real guide 
to Mr. Mackenzie's aim in portraying the boy's char- 
acter and development: " The imagination of a boy 
is healthy, and the mature imagination of a man 
is healthy ; but there is a space of life between, in 
which the soul is in ferment; the character unde- 
cided, the ambition thick-sighted." This condition 
of "soul-ferment" means, among other things, a 
certain measure of nasty suggestiveness in matters 
of sex, and the writer is unsparingly frank in deal- 
ing with these matters when they come up for men- 
tion, but they are not given an undue proportion of 
consideration, and for this we are thankful, thinking 
what might have been made of them. The book 
impresses us as an honest piece of artistic workman- 
ship, aiming at the exact truth of the adolescent 
period, and achieving that aim with much success. 
It has sustained interest at almost all points, despite 
its leisurely course and extreme particularity. 

Mr. Louis Joseph Vance, hitherto known as a 
concocter of fantastic melodrama and a purveyor of 
breathless excitement, has turned over a new leaf. 
His previous novels have been almost beneath con- 
tempt; his "Joan Thursday," now published, is a 
serious study of life and character which makes 
us marvel that the faculty here revealed should 



so long have remained latent. It is a real novel, 
of the kind that Mr. Herrick, for example, writes, 
and demands to be judged by exacting critical 
standards. It is a story of the theatre, and Mr. 
Vance brings to its writing a wide and intimate 
knowledge of the affairs of the stage in New York : 
he shows us the typical figures that move in that 
world apart from the rest of life, the theatrical 
boarding-house keeper, the manager and the pro- 
ducer, the ever-hopeful but oft disappointed play- 
wright, and the various derelicts of the profession 
itself. He gives us their tricks of speech and gesture, 
and imparts to us their outlook upon life. He does 
all this much as Mr. Leonard Merrick does it for 
the English setting, and he gives it all the same 
surprising freshness of interest. His central figure 
is a full-length portrait of the girl who is determined 
to escape from sordid conditions, and fixes upon the 
stage as the means of emancipation. Joan is a 
shop-girl, vulgar and material, not immoral but 
unmoral, wishing to keep on the side of respecta- 
bility as far as outward appearances are concerned, 
but not unwilling to make secret terms with the 
devil. She has youthful freshness and beauty, but 
not genius, and it is through unwavering determi- 
nation and shrewdness in grasping opportunity that 
she so makes her way that we leave her in the end 
a recognized success. She has got what she wanted, 
but we feel that she has paid heavily for it, and 
that her character has steadily deteriorated as her 
professional prospects have brightened. Her love 
for the playwright who chivalrously came to her aid 
in her hour of distress might have been the means 
of her salvation if she had only cherished it ; instead, 
she chose to cast it aside for the sake of marriage 
to the cheap vaudeville actor with whom she becomes 
infatuated. When she takes this step, we feel that 
it is all over with her as far as our sympathies are 
concerned, and she becomes henceforth merely a 
curious object of study in the successive phases of 
her evolution. She remains interesting to us, be- 
cause she is always a little baffling, and because 
she is working out her career on the shifty and 
compromising lines which the average man or woman 
follows for lack of the anchor of a strong person- 
ality. Mr. Vance's treatment of her does not seem 
to be ironic as we follow it, yet when we come to 
the last words, "She was a success," we suddenly 
realize that his observation must have had the tinge 
of irony from the start. Joan's men the play- 
wright, the vaudeville actor, the gilded youth about 
town, and the professional sensualist are all pho- 
tographically pictured and true to type. Such a gift 
for characterization as is here revealed is beyond 
anything that we had ever expected of Mr. Vance. 

" It was all too dreamy to put into words yet 
woman's power, her bounty, her mystic valor, the 
tenderness and unconscious high behavior of un- 
known women everywhere, in whose hearts the 
sufferings of others find arable ground." In spite 
of this feeling (or conviction), Mr. Will Levington 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



25 



Comfort does his best to put it into words, and with 
an ever-increasing power of expression. He has con- 
stituted himself the prophet of a very different sort 
of feminism from that which shrieks in the market- 
place and engages in a frantic scramble for a share 
of the goods and the functions that the instinct of the 
race has allotted to the stronger sex. It is the 
feminism which found its loveliest flowering in the 
age of chivalry, when it was woman's chief glory to 
win and deserve the worship of man in the days 
before she had "cheapen'd Paradise," and had not 
forced poets to say of her regretfully : 

" How given for nought her priceless gift, 
How spoil'd the bread and spill'd the wine, 
Which, spent with due respective thrift, 
Had made brutes men, and men divine ! " 

Mr. Comfort's " Down among Men " is the story of 
a man who, through the spiritual ministry of a high- 
souled woman, became almost divine, because he 
became filled with that deep compassion for his fel- 
lows which Christianity has always exalted as chief 
among the attributes of divinity. It is only through 
suffering and renunciation that this power may come 
to complete fruition, and John Morning achieved it 
only at the cost of a woman's love the love of the 
woman who is all the world to him. The sacrifice 
is forced upon him, in a way, for it is the woman 
who conceives the idea that it is her sacred obliga- 
tion, and who leaves him to work out his spiritual 
salvation in solitary anguish of soul. This is almost 
too poignant to be bearable, and that Mr. Comfort 
should have deemed it necessary seems to us to de- 
note a strain of morbidity in his conception of life. 
It is the perversion of the Christian spirit which has 
been responsible for the excesses of puritanism and 
asceticism, and which developed the noble but un- 
natural ideal of celibacy in the practice of the church. 
Mr. Comfort's thought needs a corrective, in the 
form of an infusion of hellenistic humanism, and if 
he does not care to go to the source for this remedy, 
we recommend to him a stiff course of Goethe. The 
opening of this novel is stirring and vivid, being based 
upon the author's experience as a correspondent in 
the war between Russia and Japan. His picture of 
the struggle in the field of Kao liang the Chinese 
millet out of which was born Morning's great 
resolution, has the Tolstoyan handling, and the spirit 
of Tolstoy informs the subsequent developments of 
Morning's character. How he gets his story through 
to San Francisco, how he meets the woman in the 
hospital, how he plunges into a debauch when he 
is left without her, how a renewal of her companion- 
ship restores his soul, and how, bereft of her by her 
supreme act of self-sacrifice, he finds himself com- 
pletely and learns the utmost meaning of consecra- 
tion, setting down in words that burn the true 
significance of war these are the things that follow 
the dramatic prologue, and are set forth with a sense 
of beauty and a power of conviction that are expres- 
sive of the author's terrible earnestness and deep 
sincerity. " It is a story of the path at our feet, of 
the Compassionates who draw near to speak, when 



we are brave enough to listen, of the women who 
walk beside us. A tale of the road as we go 
many are ahead, many behind but we do not travel 
this stretch again." " Down among Men " seems 
to us the most exalted and appealing story that Mr. 
Comfort has thus far written. 

It is a new Jack London who appeals to us as a 
preacher of the simple life in "The Valley of the 
Moon." He does not appear in the disguise all at 
once, however, and for the first half of the story 
he is still familiar as the impassioned advocate of 
socialism and the exalter of men with red blood in 
their veins. His hero, Billy Roberts, is an Oak- 
land teamster, who does occasional stunts of prize- 
fighting "on the side," and who is a singular 
compound of brutality and gentleness. His gentle 
side is displayed toward Saxon Brown, a girl who 
works in a laundry, and it wins her love. When 
hard times come, and he is out of work in conse- 
quence of a strike, his brutal side is evidenced by 
his slugging "scab" teamsters and breaking their 
arms. When his own arms are broken by another 
plug-ugly on account of a mistaken identification, it 
strikes us as an example of righteous retribution. 
We are now midway in the narrative, and at this 
point the pair form a great resolution. They will 
forsake the city and turn to the soil for a living. 
They start out, all their worldly goods on their 
backs, in search of a new home. They tramp up 
and down California and Oregon, and are aston- 
ished at the opportunities the country offers to a 
man who is not afraid to work and this at the 
very time when men are maiming and killing each 
other in the frantic struggle for jobs in the city. 
They become so enamored of life in the open air 
that even the thought of moving pictures does not 
tempt them to seek the old ways of city life. They 
learn that there is such a thing as intensive cultiva- 
tion, and that a man may gain wealth from a very 
few acres if only he will deal with them intelligently. 
Finally, they find a small irrigated fruit farm in 
"The Valley of the Moon," which exactly fits their 
needs, and they settle down upon it with every pros- 
pect of success and happiness. This seems to us to 
be the most wholesome book, as well as the most 
interesting, that Mr. London has written, and his 
new gospel of " back to nature" is a far more accept- 
able one than the sordid and violent socialistic gos- 
pel that he has hitherto mainly dinned into our ears. 

The Canadian Mounted Police force has often 
figured in works of fiction in the books of Mr. 
Bindloss and "Ralph Connor," for example but 
never before quite so effectively as in Mr. G. B. 
Lancaster's "The Law-Bringers." This story of 
life in the northern wilderness is marked by great 
powers of characterization and beauty of style as 
well as by swift dramatic movement and successful 
construction. It is the story of two officers of the 
force, close friends at heart, yet at odds with one 
another in vital matters. A half-breed woman, 
extraordinarily fascinating and the very incarnation 



26 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 1 



of primitive sensuous animality, becomes the object 
of a mad infatuation on the part of one of the men, 
whereupon the other lures her away, not in pursuance 
of his own desires which are irrevocably fixed 
upon another object of affection but to open his 
friend's eyes and save him from himself. This re- 
sults in a series of tense situations, which are master- 
fully handled, and have for their setting the awful 
solitudes of the frozen north. The author brings to 
his task the most intimate knowledge of the scenes 
described and the most deeply human sympathies. 
All the way through the book we were conscious of 
something elusively familiar, and this consciousness 
eventually crystallized in the thought that it was 
just such a book as Mr. Conrad might have written 
of these people and places. To say this is to bestow 
high praise indeed, but not higher, we think, than is 
deserved. The matter-of-fact stories of Mr. Bindloss 
become mere stage-carpentry in comparison with this 
powerful transcription of life, and even Sir Gilbert 
Parker's work in this field, steeped in poetic feeling 
though it is, seems artificial melodrama. 

Evan Blount, the only son of Senator Blount of 
a western state which we may as well call Nevada 
as anything else, has been educated at Harvard, 
and is about to settle down in the East for the 
practice of the law when his father sends him a 
telegram suggesting that he might do worse than 
come West and grow up with his native state. 
When he acts upon this suggestion, he knows little 
of his father, having been away from home nearly 
all his life, and upon his return is surprised to find 
that the " Sage-Brush Senator " is not only a man of 
enormous wealth, but is also the undisputed "boss" 
of a huge political machine in his state, a man who 
exacts tribute from the corporations at his feet, and 
who dictates the outcome of elections with absolute 
authority. The young man has an equipment of 
fairly-seasoned moral ideals, and is startled by what 
he learns about his father's methods and activities. 
It takes some time to open his eyes to the situation, 
and for a while he is fooled to the top of his bent, 
both by his father's own henchmen, and by the 
officers of the railway corporation with which the 
senator is grappling. The struggle between the 
corporation and the political machine provides the 
book with its substance, and when Evan discovers 
that he is being made a tool of the corrupt agencies 
at work, he revolts, and starts out to purify the 
state, although in taking this stand, he expects that 
the exposure he plans will disgrace his father and 
send him to the penitentiary. In the end, it does 
not turn out to be as bad as all that, and the sena- 
tor even receives a thin coating of whitewash, but 
the situation is tense with excitement for a while. 
"The Honorable Senator Sage-Brush" is the title 
of this romance of business, politics, and reform, 
and the story is told by Mr. Francis Lynde with all 
the crispness and forcef ulness that he has taught us 
to expect. Its greatest success is in the portraiture 
of Senator Blount shrewd, self-possessed, grimly 



humorous, and human enough to make us almost 
ready to condone his evil practices. 

Mr. Reginald Wright Kaufman prefaces his 
new novel, "The Spider's Web," with an "Ex- 
planation." In this document he tells us that he 
planned four years ago a cycle of four novels, "all 
carrying forward a definite view of life." That view 
appears to be the Tolstoyan opinion that all com- 
pulsion is evil, but there is a good deal of question- 
begging in the author's use of the word "compul- 
sion." For example, it is the "compulsion" of 
inadequate wages that forces girls into the career so 
realistically described in "The House of Bondage." 
In "The Sentence of Silence," it is "compulsion" 
that keeps young people in ignorance of the facts 
of sex to their undoing. In "Running Sands," the 
argument ran against "compulsion by matrimony" 
"the forcing of wives to become mothers" be- 
cause they have accepted the responsibilities of wed- 
lock. One might say something in behalf of duty 
in these cases, but this aspect of the subject Mr. 
Kaufman conveniently ignores. In "The Spider's 
Web," the author inveighs against "the sin of com- 
pulsion exerting itself against humanity in all the 
powers that conduct modern society ; in the owner- 
ship of men and things; in our entire system of 
production and distribution, and in the creatures 
and ministers of that system : Government, Politics, 
Law, and what passes by the name of Religion." 
In this novel, the arch- villain, who is the "spider," 
is unnamed, but designated simply as " a man." 
This abstinence from indulgence in personality will 
not deceive any one, for in the character thus styled 
there are so many traits taken from the life of the 
late J. Pierpont Morgan that there is no difficulty 
in discovering the portrait to be a caricature of that 
eminent financier. No more wool is pulled over 
our eyes than was done in the case of Mr. Hewlett's 
Bendish, who is clearly Byron projected into the 
years following his death. The protagonist in this 
fiction the undaunted David who arms himself 
with a sling against this Goliath is our old friend 
the district attorney, who has done valiant battle 
against the powers of corruption in so many recent 
novels of the muck-raking type. The fact that he 
wages a losing fight, and is broken in the end, is 
the main differentiation in the present case, for Mr. 
Kaufman will have none of the optimism implied 
by the happy ending, and preserves a consistently 
dismal outlook. The last words of the dying hero 
are these : " God damn your system and your poli- 
tics! God damn your law and your government! 
God damn your god ! " Mr. Kaufman probably 
thinks that -this is strong writing, but it must be 
urged that there is nothing very constructive in 
such an attitude toward a social organization, which, 
however bad, is doubtless working its way darkly 
in the direction of the good. This crude and melo- 
dramatic anarchism is too emotional to be impres- 
sive, and too biassed to make any serious appeal to 
the rational mind. WILLIAM MORTON PAYNE. 



THE DIAL, 



27 



BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS. 



Reflections 
of a veteran 
naturalist. 



With the passing of the years Mr. 
John Burroughs's contributions to 
the literature of natural history gain 
in richness and ripeness, showing in each successive 
volume an increased keenness of observation, an 
added literary charm, a wiser philosophy of life in 
its immeasurable wholeness and wonderfulness. 
That even now, in his eighth decade, his eye is not 
dim or his natural force abated, is made strikingly 
evident on every page of his latest hook, "The 
Summit of the Years" (Houghton). The personal, 
autobiographic note that sounds so pleasantly in 
many a paragraph is heard in the preface, in which 
he says: "It seems as if one never could get to the 
end of all the delightful things there are to know, 
and to observe, and to speculate about in the world. 
Nature is always young, and there is no greater 
felicity than to share in her youth. I still find each 
day too short for all the thoughts I want to think, 
all the walks I want to take, all the books I want 
to read, and all the friends I want to see." Again 
it is heard, and more clearly, in the opening chapter, 
which gives its title to the whole collection, and 
which reveals with charming frankness something 
of the innermost nature of the man. Another 
chapter, "A Barn- Door Outlook," combines delight- 
fully both the intimately personal and the natural- 
historical quality. In certain richly suggestive 
reflections on "The Hit-and-Miss Methods of Na- 
ture," the writer makes it clear even to an unsci- 
entific reader that no scheme of evolution, ideally 
perfect though it may be in theory, can claim 
exemption from an infinity of disconcerting limita- 
tions and modifications. In other words, the vast, 
inexplicable mystery, as well as the beauty and 
order, of the universe is made more undeniable as 
we turn the pages of this clear-eyed and thoughtful 
student of nature's methods. With the vexed 
question of animal intelligence he promises his 
readers that he will never again trouble either them 
or himself. One cannot but query whether the 
whole controversy has not arisen from an imperfect 
initial agreement on what intelligence really is as 
distinguished from instinct. A few more chapter- 
headings may serve here to whet still further the 
reader's desire. "A Hay-Barn Idyl," "In the 
Noon of Science," "Untaught Wisdom," "The 
Round World," "In Field and Wood," and "The 
Bow in the Clouds " might be named as among the 
book's best chapters, were it not nearer the truth to 
say that its contents are uniformly excellent. A 
good portrait of the author in an environment at 
once appropriate and picturesque appears as fron- 
tispiece. 

A new series The third volume of Mr. Edwin 
of strindbera's Bjorkman's translation of Strind- 
translatedplavs. berg > 8 playg (Scribner) is not the 
least interesting of the series. In the words of Mr. 
BjOrkman, this collection "is unusually representa- 



tive, giving what might be called a cross-section of 
Strindberg's development as a dramatist from his 
naturalistic revolt in the middle eighties, to his final 
arrival at resigned mysticism and Swedenborgian 
symbolism." The reader travels from 1888 to 1907, 
and from Nietzsche to Maeterlinck and Sweden- 
borg, a sufficient journey for anyone to make 
between the two covers of a book. "Swanwhite," 
the long fairy tale given the place of honor in this 
volume, is to us the least interesting of all. Strind- 
berg was avowedly inspired by Maeterlinck to dig 
for this tale in his own mines; and while the influ- 
ence of Maeterlinck is everywhere apparent, there 
is not as much allegorical consistency even as in 
the Belgian's tales. And there is immeasurably 
less appeal to children about it. As a fairy-tale, 
"Advent" (here described as "a miracle play") is 
much better. Despite elements and details of un- 
questioned power, the dream-current of sheer fancy 
and the rather ostentatious strain of religious senti- 
mentalism break up repeatedly both imaginative and 
reflective thought. "Simoon" is a single-act piece 
of great power. Its exhibition of the relentless 
force of suggestion on a human mind, and the work- 
ing of an implacable hatred, is probably unsurpassed 
in literature. As a drama, "Debit and Credit" 
bears the palm. This is an attempt to embody the 
Nietzschean idea of a super-man. We doubt if a 
single act ever before involved and evolved such a 
tangled skein of life. On the whole, the sympathies 
of the spectator incline to the super-man, but with 
many a puzzled glance at the other actors in the 
little play. Strindberg's intellectual fairness and 
his almost uncanny power of showing both sides of 
the truth are nowhere shown to better advantage. 
"The Thunder Storm" and "After the Fire" are 
largely autobiographic. The former records the 
pathos of the effort to find peace in old age. The 
hero is of course not strictly a hero, and the curtain 
falls amidst a depth of unrelieved gloom. If one 
were to take "After the Fire" at its face value, one 
would conclude that Strindberg believed every family 
history to be rotten to the core, a heap of putres- 
cent lies. Perhaps in reading the whole of Strind- 
berg's work at a stretch one would get the proper 
balance for such a play as this. But an artist can- 
not make this demand; he must content himself 
with an hour of our time. Thus it is that "After 
the Fire " cannot fail to depress beyond words. 

Outlines of America is a fruitful field for the- 

United States historian, and continues to be worked! 
history. and often re-worked. Professor John 

Spencer Bassett's "Short History of the United' 
States " (Macmillan) is the latest volume to court 
the favor of educators and general readers. The 
author's sense of proportion is fairly good, though 
there is a slight tendency toward too mnch military 
history, especially in dealing with the Civil and 
Spanish wars. The newer idea in the writing of 
history has become too strong to be ignored, and its 
influence is seen here in the amount of space devoted^ 



28 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 1 



to economic and social conditions. Yet the real bear- 
ing of these conditions is not always made plain. 
For example, the financial and commercial disorders 
following the Revolution are briefly described, some- 
what after the manner of Fiske ; but the real connec- 
tion of the moneyed and commercial classes with the 
movement for a stronger national government is not 
made unmistakably clear. When the reader learns 
that many of the most active leaders in the Conven- 
tion of 1787 held securities, he will better appreciate 
their desire for a government with power to collect 
taxes and pay its debts in none but good money. The 
remark of Gerry, that New England would never 
join the Union unless Congress was clothed with 
power to pass a Navigation Act, makes clear the 
commercial ends of that section. The members of 
the Society of the Cincinnati, and other holders of 
western lands, wanted to see the value of their lands 
enhanced, and so they supported the Constitution. 
Professor Bassett says that the men of the Rev- 
olution hated nothing more than monarchy and aris- 
tocracy. But their hatred of these forms was only 
equalled by their fear of democracy, and so they pro- 
ceeded to curb democracy by creating a new form 
of aristocracy entrenched with privileges. To break 
the force of this, which has retreated from one strong- 
hold to another, has been the main task of democ- 
racy ever since. In its treatment of the latest phase 
of this struggle, the book is somewhat disappointing. 
It tells briefly of the growth of the trusts, railroad 
building and railroad stealing, the attempts at con- 
servation of natural resources (though little about 
their rape), pension graft, etc.; but there is little 
about the movements of democracy, beyond a record 
of legislative enactments (the connection of which 
with economic conditions is not always made clear) 
having for their end the recovery of its own. Pos- 
sibly the limitations of space had something to do 
with this, as intimated in the Preface ; but one is 
not sure that Professor Bassett really understands 
the deeper significance of economic and social move- 
ments and their relation to that political and con- 
stitutional history of which he is still a devotee. 
However, as historical writing now goes, he has given 
us a reasonably good book, indeed, one that is 
better than most of its predecessors of like compass. 

"Loiterer's Harvest" (Macmillan), 

b y Mr - E - v - Lucas > p resents in 

book-form a considerable variety of 
entertaining trifles, chiefly reprinted, with varia- 
tions, from "Punch," "The Pall Mall Gazette," 
and "The Guardian." Like Charles Lamb, with 
whom Mr. Lucas's name is so inseparably associated 
in most readers' minds, the author of " A Little of 
Everything " and " One Day and Another " is at 
his best in the short essay of semi-humorous, semi- 
serious, and often whimsical character; and to this 
class of writing his latest book distinctly belongs. 
Especially characteristic is the little paper on "In- 
sulence " not Insolence which might almost 
have come from the pen that wrote "Imperfect 



Sympathies." The word "insulence," Mr. Lucas 
explains, perhaps superfluously, is an invention of 
his own, "a blend of 'insular' and 'insolence,' and 
it was coined to describe that habit and carriage 
of Englishmen abroad which are found so objec- 
tionable by Continentals who have not our island 
heritage of security and liberty." Another notable 
chapter treats of " Thackeray at the Punch Table," 
being based on the unpublished " Dinner Diary " of 
Henry Silver. Still another eminently Elian essay 
describes the form in which the monthly bills of an 
exceptionally honest provision-dealer, evidently 
gifted with a sense of humor, are made out. Here 
are two items, worded with a strict regard to the 
customer's orders: "1 really tender duckling (the 
last wasn't), 4s." "1 pork-pie, 2 lb., not the kind 
with crust like plaster of Paris, but a soft short 
crust, into which the flavour of the meat has found 
its way, 2s. 4d." Truly, a pork pie fit for the 
palate of the author of " A Dissertation upon Roast 
Pig"! Drawings by Mr. George Morrow, one of 
Mr. Punch's artists, accompany a short sketch 
penned in his praise (G. M.'s, that is), and a view 
of " The White House at Chelsea " appears in pho- 
togravure as frontispiece. 

The industries A book of undeniable "human in- 
ofmediceval terest," and far less technical than 
England. the title would suggest, is Mr. L. F. 

Salzmann's " English Industries of the Middle Ages " 
(Houghton). Whether the reader be an antiquarian, 
or a member of the I. W. W., or a mere unclassified 
layman, he will find distinctly absorbing and instruc- 
tive matter in this volume. The chapters discuss 
Mining, Quarrying, Metal- Working, Pottery, Cloth- 
Making, Leather- Working, and Brewing, with a final 
word on "The Control of Industry." The author's 
method is " to treat the leading mediaeval industries 
one by one, showing as far as possible their chief 
centres, their chronological development, the condi- 
tions and the methods of working." He appeals 
frankly to " the general reader, equipped with in- 
terest in the history of his country." The book is 
authoritative, precise, based upon careful study of 
documentary evidence, and is surprisingly compre- 
hensive. There is no lack of specific facts and figures, 
yet these are all presented in an engagingly lucid 
style, entirely free from any tendency to apotheosize 
statistics. Important questions regarding labor are 
discussed ; and little matters of custom, honest and 
dishonest, are revealed. The reader feels that the 
author has selected and arranged his material with 
great economy, never missing a significant item, or 
failing to perceive the varied appeals that small facts 
may make. The account of glass-making, for in- 
stance, will interest artists, tourists, and students of 
literature, as well as craftsmen. Whether by design 
or by accident, almost no references to the contem- 
porary literature of the Middle Ages are included, 
although readers familiar with that period will find 
this volume an illuminating commentary on many 
passages. There are pages in the book where refer- 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



29 



ences to "Piers Plowman" would have been valu- 
able, for instance: on page 155, where the ne- 
farious practice of stretching cloth overmuch is 
described, an apt comparison may be made with 
" Piers Plowman," B text, Passus V, lines 212-14. 
It is to be hoped that Mr. Salzmann will continue to 
publish his researches in economic fields, for he has 
the gift of knowing what is significant. 

,, Several years ago that modern 
Conquering the J & 

greatest of Munchausen, Dr. .b. A. book, pub- 

American peaks. ]i 8ne d a circumstantial account of 
his adventures in climbing to the summit of Mount 
McKinley. His book, "The Top of Our Conti- 
nent," even contains some quite impressive pictures 
of the peak, with Cook's companion Barrill gallantly 
waving a flag from the topmost crag. Mr. Belmore 
Browne has been unkind enough to turn Cook's nar- 
rative into a fairy tale. In his "Conquest of Mount 
McKinley" (Putnam), he proves conclusively, not 
merely by the dry testimony of facts, but by dupli- 
cating Cook's photographs on the spot, that that en- 
terprising explorer was twenty miles from the peak 
he pretended to have climbed, and that the scene 
he describes as "The Top of Our Continent the 
Summit of Mount McKinley, the highest mountain 
of North America Altitude 20,390 feet," is in 
reality an excellent photograph of an outcrop of 
rock in a snow-field, about 5300 feet above sea- level, 
So are the mighty fallen! This, however, is only 
an incident in an exceedingly interesting narrative 
of Mr. Browne's attempts to reach the summit of 
McKinley, attempts which were finally crowned 
with success, in July, 1912, after a series of adven- 
tures that must have daunted the heart of any less 
plucky and determined an explorer. The actual 
summit was not reached, the explorers being driven 
back by a wild blizzard when within a few hundred 
feet of the top; but to all intents and purposes Mr. 
Browne is perfectly justified in claiming the con- 
quest of Mount McKinley. The remaining distance 
consisted of a perfectly easy slope ; and nothing but 
the extraordinary weather conditions, which made 
it suicidal to continue, prevented him and his com- 
panion, Professor Parker, from pushing on to the 
summit. The book is splendidly illustrated with a 
series of photographs taken by the explorers on their 
several trips to and from Mount McKinley. 



The nature 
of hvsteria. 



Dr. Charles D. Fox of Philadelphia 
has brought together under the title, 
"The Psycho-pathology of Hys- 
teria" (Badger), a presentation which, in addition 
to its direct usefulness to the medical profession, 
may well influence the views of a larger public. 
Hysteria has claims to be considered as one of the 
most significant terms in the language. It is readily 
abused, both within the medical profession and out- 
side it. The physician is prone to consider too closely 
the unusual and the morbid ; and the layman fights 
shy of the word for fear of implying more than he is 



ready to admit. Dr. Fox's book has the advantage 
of incorporating the newer phases of mental disease 
in which the psychic factor is more comprehensively 
recognized than ever before. The importance of 
suggestion is paramount; and it becomes clear that 
many of the symptoms which earlier medical men 
discovered as characteristic of hysteria were really 
suggested by them. With the present understand- 
ing of the scope of suggestion, it becomes indeed 
difficult to define the symptoms of the disease. The 
focus is clear, but the form and range of the orbit 
are rather vague. None the less, despite the diffi- 
culty of description and the common danger of lay- 
ing too much stress upon extreme, if interesting cases, 
there emerges a generic conception of the hysteric 
vagaries definite enough to guide the practitioner 
in his treatment, and illuminating for the general 
student of mind. This double purpose inevitably 
produces the usual difficulty of serving two masters, 
with a consequent occasional neglect of the interests 
of the one or the other. Admitting this drawback, 
the book yet advances the facilities for adequate 
acquaintance with one of the most interesting fields 
of modern research in mental pathology. 

Humorous, whimsical, witty, but, per- 

ha P s more tha . n all < mildlv 8atiri . cal 

and gently cynical are the twenty-nine 
short papers written by Mr. Robert J. Shores and 
published under the collective title, "New Brooms" 
(Bobbs-Merrill Co.). It is not so much the efficacy 
of the new broom that the little essays in some 
instances, at least, not all inculcate as the tran- 
sitoriness of that efficacy. New brooms sweep 
clean, but their newness is gone when sweeping day 
next comes around. As a sad-eyed friend of the 
present reviewer recently expressed it, " everything 
peters out." At the end of the book, a supposed 
author of middle age, who signs his name, " Hackett 
A. Long," says in reviewing his professional experi- 
ence : " My first novel has left me with a reputation, 
a two-years lease of an expensive apartment, a load 
of debts, an angry wife, a scrap-book filled with 
favorable reviews, an unsalable manuscript, and a 
prospect of bankruptcy." And he advises all hack 
writers who may cherish an ambition similar to the 
one that has caused his own undoing to remain con- 
tent with their comfortable obscurity. Unlike the 
contents of Dr. Johnson's short-lived periodical, 
these modern essays addressed "to the Editor of 
'The Idler'" are delightfully spirited, written each 
in a single brisk dash of the pen, the frolicsome 
offspring of a nimble fancy, and so not in the least 
labored or ponderous or wearisome. They are 
heartily enjoyable in both substance and style. 
Ingenious and amusing are the names assigned to 
the supposed correspondents of "The Idler." A 
letter on poetic license is signed, "P. Rose "; one on 
certain modern tendencies in poetry is from " Anna 
Pest "; one on the abuses of adversity is subscribed, 
"Edward Easyman"; a protest against the use of 



30 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 1 



tobacco is offered by " B. Z. Body "; and a rather 
sour epistle from a spinster is the composition of 
"Sarah Shelf worn." There is no little "bite" in 
the book, and it will bring delight to all but the 
irreclaimable optimist. 

Enoiish water- Mr - C - E - Hughes'* little book on 
color artists of "Early English Water Colour 
o centurv ago. (McClurg) contains thirty-seven ex- 
cellent reproductions of eighteenth and early nine- 
teenth century water- colors, the work mainly of the 
landscape school which prepared the way for and 
surrounded Turner. The author, himself a collector, 
seems especially interested in the passing over of one 
kind of technique into another. He attempts, for 
instance, to trace the influence of steel and copper 
engraving on the first water-colorists, an influence 
which he finds evidenced by a certain hardness of 
line and limitation of tone values or dryness of color 
in the painting of such men as Francis Towne. 
Technique, however, is not the only phase of the 
subject that interests him. In the old color-prints 
and their originals he discovers social documents of 
importance, and shows among other things the place 
taken by "gentlemen's houses" and the compli- 
mentary representation of them in the evolution of 
landscape art, a curious side-light, by the way, on 
the custom of noble patronage in the eighteenth cen- 
tury. Supporting these suggestions of the significant 
tendencies in his theme, Mr. Hughes brings together 
a great many biographical details concerning the 
men he discusses, thus illuminating the genesis of 
their masterpieces. The effect of the whole is to 
give Turner a place merely as one of a group of 
interesting painters rather than, as Ruskin aimed to 
prove, the sole peak in the British art of his time. 

Joteph Pulitzer That our Country is now enjoying a 
and his fair degree of prosperity, at peace 

"World." within her borders and at war with 

no external power, and witnessing the pleasing spec- 
tacle of a national government representing the 
popular vote in both executive and legislative depart- 
ments, might seem to a reader of " The Story of a 
Page" (Harper), by Mr. John L. Heaton, to be 
chiefly due to the powerful agency of the New York 
" World." After a brief review of Joseph Pulitzer's 
previous record in newspaper affairs, the book re- 
hearses, in some detail and with frequent quotations 
from the "World's" editorial page, the policy of 
that influential journal from the day when it ceased 
to wear, as a contemporary expressed it, " the sar- 
donic leer and avaricious grin of Mr. Jay Gould," 
to the day when, as Mr. Heaton tells us, " the fruit 
of thirty years of fighting since Joseph Pulitzer re- 
established 'The World' seemed fair upon the tree. 
For the first time since the civil war the people had 
taken control of their own government." In other 
words, the book is a review, a most vivid and read- 
able review, of American political history from May, 
1883, to November, 1912 ; and if its viewpoint is 
not that of one absolutely free from bias and 
separated by centuries of time and oceans of space 



from the events and scenes depicted, its style is 
undoubtedly by so much the gainer in respect to 
warmth and color and other qualities that help to 
arrest the reader's attention and hold it to the end. 
Sargent's portrait of Mr. Pulitzer is reproduced for 
the frontispiece. 



BRIEFER MENTION. 



Having resided in China during his youth, and having 
held for a time a professorship in the Imperial Uni- 
versity in Kyoto, Japan, Mr. Joseph K. Goodrich pos- 
sesses the sort of first-hand knowledge of the Orient 
which is essential to a satisfactory discussion of any 
of the peoples and problems of Asia. This personal 
acquaintance with the Chinese people renders his little 
volume, " Our Neighbors the Chinese " (Browne & 
Howell Co.), very readable and informing. For the 
hasty reader it is one of the best treatises available. 
The book is, unfortunately, devoid of any charm of 
style, but it is packed with the kind of information one 
wishes to secure in regard to human beings somewhat 
unlike ourselves. 

Mr. William S. Walsh's " A Handy-Book of Curious 
Information " (Lippincott) is a successor to two similar 
works, and includes much matter that it would be diffi- 
cult to find elsewhere. Sometimes the information is 
misinformation, as when we are told that marble dust 
and sulphuric acid are the chief ingredients of soda- 
water, and that high pressure makes them " wholesome 
and palatable in combination." The trouble with 
reference-books of this character is that they index 
matters which no one would think of looking for, such 
as " Twenty-three and Skidoo," and that they do not 
often contain the things one wishes to learn about. But 
for reading pure and simple, without the intention of 
research, they are both instructive and entertaining. 

That Giosue Carducci was, with the single exception 
of Swinburne, the " greatest [poet] alive in Europe at 
the opening of the twentieth century " is a fact beyond 
question. It is surprising how little knowledge of 
him is available to English readers, and Mr. G. L. 
Bickersteth has done us a valuable service by preparing 
the volume which has " Carducci " (Longmans) for its 
simple title. The contents include three essays on his 
life, his poetry, and his metrics; a bibliography and 
some notes, and over two hundred pages of the poems 
themselves the original Italian and the English trans- 
lation facing each other on opposite pages. We are 
extremely grateful for this work, which should do 
much to make Carducci a reality, rather than a great 
name merely, to English readers. 

We wish that every college student in the country 
might read and take to heart the collection of " Essays 
for College Men " (Holt) which has recently been put 
together by a committee of instructors in the University 
of Wisconsin. The essays are fourteen in number, 
among the most notable being classical examples from 
Huxley, Tyndall, Newman, Arnold, and Harrison, be- 
sides more recent papers of American origin. The 
latter include President Wilson on " The College 
Spirit," William James on " The Social Value of the 
College-Bred," Professor G. E. Woodberry on "First 
Principles," and President Meiklejohn's recent inaug- 
ural address. All these essays are specimens both of 
good writing and of good counsel, and no young man 
reading them could fail to be the better for the task. 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



31 



NOTES. 



It is reported that Mr. G. K. Chesterton is at work 
on a biography of Thomas Hood for the " English 
Men of Letters " series. 

" Studies in Stagecraft," by Mr. Clayton Hamilton, 
author of " The Theory of the Theatre," will be published 
this month by Messrs. Holt. 

Dr. W. Dawson Johnston, for the past four years libra- 
rian of Columbia University, has resigned that position 
to become librarian of the St. Paul Public Library. 

" From the Angle of Seventeen," a new novel by Mr. 
Eden Phillpotts, to appear immediately, is said to give 
a delightfully humorous portrait of a pompous but 
engaging English youth. 

The prize of $10,000 for the best novel received in 
Messrs Reilly & Britton Co.'s much-discussed contest 
has been awarded to Miss Leona Dalrymple for her 
story entitled " Diane of the Green Van." 

" In Freedom's Birthplace," which was announced for 
autumn publication by Houghton Mifflin Co., will appear 
this month. In this book, Mr. John Daniels presents a 
sketch of the social, economic, moral, and religious de- 
velopment of the negro in Boston. 

"The Continental Drama of To-day: Outlines for 
Its Study," by Professor Barrett H. Clark, is announced 
by Messrs. Holt. It will be made up of suggestions, 
questions, biographies, and bibliographies for use in 
connection with the study of the more important con- 
temporary plays. 

Jules Arsene Arnaud Claretie, director since 1885 
of the Come'die Franchise and member of the French 
Academy, died December 23 in Paris, at the age of 
seventy-three. He was the author of a long list of 
published books in the fields of fiction, drama, history, 
biography, dramatic criticism, etc. 

The first fiction announcements of the new year in- 
clude the following: "The Devil's Garden," by Mr. 
W. B. Maxwell; "The After House," by Mrs. Mary 
Roberts Rinehart ; "A People's Man," by Mr. E. Phillips 
Oppenheim; and "It Happened in Egypt," by Mr. and 
Mrs. Williamson. All of these are scheduled for 
January issue. 

A volume of recollections of Tolstoy has been written 
by his son, Count Ilya Tolstoy, and a translation by Dr. 
Hagberg Wright will be published early next spring. 
Dr. Wright paid several visits to Yasnaya Polyana, and 
had some conversations of an unusually intimate char- 
acter with Tolstoy. He has translated some of Tolstoy's 
works into English, and is the author of the biogra- 
phical notice in the " Encyclopaedia Britannica." 

Dr. Frederick Samuel Dellenbaugh, the well-known 
explorer and artist, author of " The North Americans of 
Yesterday," "A Romance of the Colorado River," "A 
Canyon Voyage," etc., and librarian of the American 
Geographical Society, is engaged on a book which 
Messrs. Holt will publish this year under the title of 
"Leaders to Our Western Sea: A Story of the Growth 
of these United States from the Alleghenies to the 
Pacific." 

The Academic Committee of the Royal Society of 
Literature, whose function it is to award the Polignac 
Prize (100), has given it this year to Mr. James 
Stephens for his book, " The Crock of Gold," published 
a few months ago. The two previous winners of this 
prize were Mr. Walter de la Mare and Mr. John 



Masefield. In France the Grand Prix of the Academy 
has been awarded to M. Romain Holland for "La 
Nouvelle Journe'e," which constitutes the tenth and 
final volume of his " Jean-Christophe." 

" The Cambridge Psychological Library," under the 
general editorship of Dr. C. S. Myers, University Lec- 
turer in Experimental Psychology, is announced by 
Messrs. Putnam, in conjunction with the Cambridge 
University Press. The same publishers have also in 
active preparation " The Cambridge Technical Series," 
a series of monographs for use by students in technical 
institutions. The titles so far announced in both series 
show a promising list of subjects and authors. 

A fifty-page catalogue of books and other printed 
matter on Arizona in the University of Arizona Library 
has been prepared by the librarian, Miss Estelle Lutrell. 
The titles are topically arranged, and an alphabetical 
index follows. Indian tribes and antiquities are con- 
spicuous among the subjects treated. That so much 
has been written and published about Arizona will sur- 
prise many persons; and that its university library is so 
well equipped in this branch of literature, is cause for 
congratulation. 



TOPICS IK [LEADING PERIODICALS. 

January, 19 1%. 

Actor, The Vanishing. Annie Nathan Meyer . . Atlantic 
Air, Yachting in the. Augustus Post . Review of Reviews 
Alaska : A Future Empire. E.H.Thomas Rev. of Revs. 
Alaska, Transportation in. J. G. Steese . .Rev. of Revs. 

Australian Bypaths. Norman Duncan Harper 

Beef from South America and Australia. A. W. 

Dunn Review of Reviews. 

Benlliure, Mariano : Sculptor. Shane Leslie . . Scribner 
Bergson : A Prophet of the Soul. John Burroughs Atlantic 
Biologist's Problem, The. T. D. A. Cockerell Pop. Science 
Boxer Year, Memoirs of the. E. Backhouse and 

J. O. P. Bland Atlantic 

Business Success Secrets HI. E.M. Woolley. World's Work 
Cancer Research, Present Status of. Leo Loeb Pop. Science 
Caribbean Tropics, The. Julius Muller .... Century 
Chapaneau : An Early Worker on Platinum. J. L. 

Howe Popular Science 

Children, Parents and. Wells Hastings .... Century 
Children, White and Colored, Comparative Intelligence 

of. Josiah Morse Popular Science 

Currency Bill in the Senate. Horace White No. American 
D'Arblay, Madame. Gamaliel Bradford . North American 
Diplomatic Service, Why We Have a. D. J. Hill Harper 

Education, Popular. Agnes Repplier Atlantic 

Emotions, Physics of the. Fred W. Eastman . . Harper 
Equality, Struggle for, in U. S. C. F. Emerick Pop. Science 
Ethics, Revised. Louise Collier Willcox North American 
Fertility, Permanent, Illinois System of. C. G. 

Hopkins . . . , Popular Science 

Filipino Capacity for Self -Government. G. H. 

Shelton North American 

Filipino Independence. W. Morgan Shuster . . Century 
French Memories, My I. Mary K. Waddington Scribner 
German Emperor and Balkan Peace. J. D. Whelpley Century 
Hardy's Wessex Novels. Harold Williams No. American 
Heredity, Mechanism of. T. H. Morgan Popular Science 
Immigrants in Politics. Edward A. Ross . . . Century 
Income Tax, The. Edward S. Mead .... Lippincott 
Income Tax Complexities. Benjamin S.Orcutt Rev. of Revs. 
Justice, Swift and Cheap IV. G. W. Alger World's Work 
Les Baux, The Provencal Village of. Richard 

LeGallienne Harper 

Life's Little Ruses. Lucy E. Keeler Atlantic 

Love, Friends and Foes of. Richard C. Cabot . Atlantic 
McClure, S. S., Autobiography of II McClure 



32 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 1 



Madero, Tragic Ten Days of. Alice D. McLaren . Scribner 
Medical Ethics, The New. B. J. Hendrick . . McClure 
Mexico and the Mexicans. Albert B. Hart . World's Work 
Mexico Land of Concessions. J.Middleton World's Work 
Mexico, North and South War in. W. Carol World's Work 
Mexico, Our Diplomacy in. J. H. Smith . World's Work 
Mexico, The President and. E. G. Lowry . World's Work 
Music and Poetry, Relation of. Alfred Hayes . Atlantic 
Naval Life, 18th Century English. W. J. Aylward Scribner 
New York's Stolen Vote. W. G. Rice and F. L. 

Stetson North American 

Paris Fashions, Making of. William Archer . . McClure 
Pittsburg Moving West. F. N. Stacy . . World's Work 
Politicians and the Sense of Humor. H. S. Pritchett Scribner 

Poincare', Raymond. Ernest Dimnet Atlantic 

President's Vision, The. George Harvey . North American 
Private Property, The Disappearing Right of. D. F. 

Kellogg North American 

Property, Hereditary Transmission of A.Carnegie Century 
Psychology : Science or Technology. Edward B. 

Titehener Popular Science 

Railroads, Plight of the. W. Jett Lauck . North American 
Responsibility, Public. G. M. Stratton .... Atlantic 
Rihbany, Abraham Mitrie, Autobiography of II. Atlantic 
" Romeo and Juliet " on the Stage. Wm. Winter Century 
Rural Life Engineer, The. David F. St. Clair Rev. of Revs. 
Secession Days, Memories of. Mrs. Eugene McLean Harper 
Single Tax, Case against the. Alvin S. Johnson . Atlantic 
Skobeloff, Russia's War-Hero. Richard Barry . . Century 
Stage-craft, The New, in America. K. MacGowan Century 
State University, Democratic Organization of a. 

Joseph K. Hart Popular Science 

Sub- Antarctic Island, An. Robert C. Murphy . . Harper 

Tunisian Days. G. E. Woodberry Scribner 

Washington, The New Order in. Burton J. Hen- 
drick World's Work 

Woman Homesteader, Letters of a IV. . . . Atlantic 
Women, Much Ado about. Edward S. Martin . Atlantic 
World Set Free, The I. H.G.Weils .... Century 



OF NEW BOOKS. 



[The following list, containing 137 titles, includes books 
received by THE DIAL since its last issue.] 

BIOGRAPHY AND REMINISCENCES 

Jan Vermeer of Delft. By Philip L. Hale. Illus- 
trated in color, etc., large 8vo, 389 pages. Small, 
Maynard & Co. $10. net. 

The Life of Preston B. Plumb, 1837-1891. By 
William E. Connelley. With photogravure por- 
trait, 8vo, 475 pages. Browne & Howell Co., 
$3.50 net. 

John Millington Synge and the Irish Theatre. By 
Maurice Bourgeois. Illustrated, 8vo, 338 pages. 
Macmillan Co., $2.50 net. 

Christina of Denmark, Duchess of Milan and Lor- 
raine, 1522-1590. By Julia Cartwright. Illus- 
trated in photogravure, etc., large 8vo, 562 pages. 
E. P. Dutton & Co. $6. net. 

Raphael Semmes. By Colyer Meriwether. With 
portrait, 12mo, 367 pages. "American Crisis 
Biographies." George W. Jacobs & Co. $1.25 net. 

Queen Elizabeth: Various Scenes and Events in 
the Life of Her Majesty. By Gladys E. Locke, 
M.A. With portrait, 12mo, 295 pages. Sher- 
man, French & Co. $1.35 net. 

Representative Women: Being a Little Gallery of 
Pen Portraits. By Lois Oldham Henrici; with 
Introduction by Ada M. Kassimer. With por- 
traits, 12mo, 150 pages. Kansas City: The 
Grafters. 

HISTORY. 

Bull Runs Its Strategy and Tactics. By R. M. 
Johnston. 8vo, 293 pages. Houghton Mifflin 
Co. $2.50 net. 

A History of England and the British Empire. By 
Arthur D. Innes. Volume I., to 1485. 12mo, 539 
pages. Macmillan Co. $l.lo net. 



A History of Muhlenberg County. By Otto A. 
Rothert. Illustrated, large 8vo, 496 pages. 
Louisville: John P. Morton & Co. $5. net. 

GENERAL, LITERATURE. 

European Dramatists. By Archibald Henderson. 
With photogravure portrait, 8vo, 395 pages. 
Stewart & Kidd Co. $1.50 net. 

Political and Literary Essays, 1908-1913. By the 
idJari of Cromer. 8vo, 464 pages. Macmillan Co. 
$3.25 net. 

From the Porch. By Lady Ritchie. Illustrated in 
photogravure, etc., 12mo, 267 pages. Charles 
Scribner's Sons. 

Old- World Love Stories: From the Lays of Marie 
de France and Other Mediaeval Romances and 
Legends. Translated from the French by 
Eugene Mason, and illustrated in color by Reg- 
inald L. Knowles. Large 8vo, 282 pages. E. P. 
Dutton & Co. $3. net. 

All Men Are Ghosts. By L. P. Jacks. 12mo, 360 
pages. Henry Holt & Co. $1.35 net. 

The Facts About Shakespeare. By W. A. Neilson, 
Ph.D., and A. H. Thorndike, Ph.D. With frontis- 
piece, 18mo, 273 pages. "The Tudor Shake- 
speare." Macmillan Co. 60 cts. net. 

DRAMA AND VERSE. 
The Lonely Dancer, and Other Poems. By Richard 

Le Gallienne. With portrait, 12mo, 186 pages. 

John Lane Co. $1.50 net. 
General William Booth Enters into Heaven and 

Other Poems. By Nicholas Vachel Lindsay. 

12mo, 119 pages. Mitchell Kennerley. $1.25 net. 
The Wolf of Gubbio: A Comedy in Three Acts. By 

Josephine Preston Peabody (Mrs. Lionel Marks). 

12mo, 195 pages. Houghton Mifflin Co. $1.10 net. 
Knave of Hearts. By Arthur Symons. 8vo, 163 

pages. John Lane Co. $1.50 net. 
Short Plays. By Mary Macmillan. 12mo, 245 pages. 

Stewart & Kidd Co. $1.25 net. 
The Sunset Road. By Jane G. A. Carter. 12mo, 

146 pages. Sherman, French & Co. $1. net. 
A Handful of Flowers with Sprays of Evergreen. 

By Amasa S. Condon, M.D. 12mo, 143 pages. 

Sherman, French & Co. $1. net. 
The Moon-Maiden, and Other Poems. By Frances 

Reed Gibson. 12mo, 39 pages. Sherman, French 

& Co. 80 cts. net. 
The Gifts A Poetic Drama. By Margaret Douglas 

Rogers. 12mo, 47 pages. Stewart & Kidd Co. 
Arthur Sontens A Comedy. By Robert Ernest Dun- 
bar. 16mo, 103 pages. South Bend: Published 

by the author. Paper, 50 cts. net. 
In the Beloved City He Gave Me Rest. By Eliza- 
beth Gibson Cheyne. 12mo, 45 pages. Oxford: 

Published by the author. Paper. 
"Bubble": Being Rhymes by a Proud Parent. 12mo, 

32 pages. Chicago: Privately Printed. Paper. 

NEW EDITIONS OF STANDARD LITERATURE. 

The History of England, from the Accession of 
James the Second. By Lord Macaulay; edited by 
Charles Harding Firth, M.A. Volume L; illus- 
trated in photogravure, etc., large 8vo, 516 pages. 
Macmillan Co. $3.25 net. 

Washington's Farewell Address to the People of the 
United States, 1796. 4to, 26 pages. "Riverside 
Press Edition." Houghton Mifflin Co. $5. net. 

The Diamond Necklace. By Thomas Carlyle. 12mo, 
168 pages. "Riverside Press Edition." Hough- 
ton Mifflin Co. $5. net. 

The French Revolution. By Thomas Carlyle; edited 
by J. Holland Rose, Litt.D. In 3 volumes. 12mo. 
"Bohn's Popular Library." Macmillan Co. Per 
volume, 35 cts. net. 

FICTION. 

Idonia: A Romance of Old London. By Arthur F. 
Wallis. Illustrated. 12mo, 319 pages. Little, 
Brown & Co. $1.30 net. 

The Great Plan. By Edith Huntington Mason. Il- 
lustrated, 12mo, 308 pages. A. C. McClurg & Co. 
$1.25 net. 

The Story of Helga. By Rudolph Herzog; trans- 
lated from the German by Adele Lewisohn. 
12mo, 310 pages. E. P. Dutton & Co. $1.35 net. 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



33 



From the Angle of Seventeen. By Eden Phillpotts. 

12mo, 290 pages. Little, Brown & Co. $1.20 net. 
The Island of the Stairs. By Cyrus Townsend 

Brady. Illustrated, 12mo, 370 pages. A. C. Me- 

Clurg & Co. $1.35 net. 
A Woman in Revolt. By Anne Lee. 12mo, 321 

pages. Desmond FitzGerald, Inc. $1.25 net. 
A Forest Idyl. By Temple Oliver. 12mo, 222 pages. 

Sherman, French & Co. $1.20 net. 
Above the Shame of Clrcumstauce. By Gertrude 

Capen Whitney. Illustrated, 8vo, 304 pages. 

Sherman, French & Co. $1.50 net. 
Chronicles of Old Rlverby. By Jane Felton Samp- 
son. 12mo, 178 pages. Sherman, French & Co. 

$1.25 net. 
Roselln; or, A Ruby Necklace. By Freda Virginia 

Metz. 12mo, 336 pages. Hammond: W. B. 

Conkey Co. 

The Captain. By Virginia Lucas. Illustrated, 12mo, 
13 pages. New York: Helen Norwood Halsey. 

TRAVEL AND DESCRIPTION. 

The Personality of American Cities. By Edward 
Hungerford. Illustrated in photogravure, etc., 
8vo, 344 pages, McBride, Nast & Co. $2. net. 

Syria: The Land, of Lebanon. By Lewis Gaston 
Leary, Ph.D. Illustrated, large 8vo, 225 pages. 
McBride, Nast & Co. $3. net. 

Lea Etats-Unis et la France: Leurs Rapports His- 
toriques, Artistiques, et Sociaux. Illustrated, 8vo, 
223 pages. Paris: Felix Alcan. Paper. 

The Voyage of the "Discovery." By Robert F. 
Scott. New and cheaper edition; In 2 volumes, 
illustrated, 12mo. Charles Scribner's Sons. 

SOCIOLOGY. ECONOMICS AND PUBLIC AFFAIRS. 

Earth Hunger and Other Essays. By William 
Graham Sumner, LLD.; edited by Albert Gallo- 
way Keller, Ph.D. With photogravure portrait, 
8vo, 377 pages. Yale University Press. $2.25 net. 

Popular Government: Its Essence, Its Permanence, 
and Its Perils. By William Howard Taft. 12mo, 
283 pages. Yale University Press. $1.15 net. 

Social Insurance with Special Reference to Amer- 
ican Conditions. By I. M. Rubinow. 8vo, 525 
pages. Henry Holt & Co. $3. net. 

The Power of Ideals In American History* By 
Ephraim D. Adams. 12mo, 159 pages. Yale Uni- 
versity Press. $1.15 net. 

Questions of Public Policy: Lectures Delivered in 
the Page Lecture Series, 1913. 8vo, 134 pages. 
Yale University Press. $1.25 net. 

Statistical Averages: A Methodological Study. By 
Franz Zizek; translated from the German by 
Warren Milton Persons. 12mo, 392 pages. Henry 
Holt & Co. $2.50 net. 

Government Ownership of Railways. By Samuel 
O. Dunn. 12mo, 400 pages. D. Appleton & Co. 
$1.50 net. 

A History of Socialism. By Thomas Kirkup. Fifth 
edition, revised and largely rewritten by Ed- 
ward R. Pease. 12mo, 490 pages. Macmillan Co. 
$1.50 net. 

Julia Ward Howe and the Woman Suffrage Move- 
ment. By Florence Howe Hall. With portrait. 
12mo, 241 pages. Dana Estes & Co. $1. net. 

"Women and Morality: Essays. With Introduction 
by Wallace Rice. 12mo, 102 pages. Chicago: 
Laurentian Publishers. $1. net. 

Round About a Pound a "Week. By Mrs. Pember 
Reeves. 12mo, 231 pages. Macmillan Co. $1. net. 

Progressive Principles. By Theodore Roosevelt. 
12mo, 330 pages. New York: Progressive Na- 
tional Service. $1. 

Kings of Wealth vs. American People. By Edward 
N. Oily. 12mo, 185 pages. New York: J. S. Ogli- 
vie Publishing Co. $1. 

The Panama Canal Controversy: A Lecture. By Sir 
H. Erie Richards. 8vo, 48 pages. Oxford Uni- 
versity Press. Paper, 70 cts. net. 

The Launching of the Industrial Workers of the 
World. By Paul F. Brissenden. Large 8vo, 82 
pages. Berkeley: University of California 
Press. Paper, 75 cts. net. 

America's Conquest of Europe. By David Starr 
Jordan. 12mo, 70 pages. Boston: American Uni- 
tarian Association. 60 cts. net. 



Industrial Unrest and Trade Union Policy By 

' 32 pases - Macmii?an 



SCIENCE. 

1 Sclence ' Science and Hypoth- 
Pni ValU f / Sclence - Science and Method 
P lncar6 ; translated from the French by 

he^nt PrtsT ^ 553 

Da " y LIfe> By Carl Eml1 Seashore. 
, 226 pages. D. Appleton & Co. $1.50 net 

bS^n^ 1 ^ * Evol * 1 n - By John C. Klm- 
tfrl; I ' , 4 l, pages ' Bos ton: American Uni- 
tarian Association. $1.25 net. 

A P *. Hi * hep S P C * (The Fourth Dimension). 



NATURE AND OUT-DOOR LIFE. 

TnH^ manC f f 4be Newfoundland Caribou: An 

Intimate Account of the Life of the Reindeer of 

nh^L A T? a - , By A ' A - Kadolyffe Dugmore. 
Illustrated in color, etc., large 8vo, 191 pages 
J. B. Lippincott Co. $3.75 net. 

Urba i n c Garden Gul - By Parker Thayer 
n" 8 ' 16 " 1 , : 147 pages - "Countryside Man- 
uals." Macmillan Co. 50 cts. net. 

RELIGION AND THEOLOGY. 
A Source Book for Ancient Church History: From 

S.H A H POS ^ 1IC T Asr \ t0 , the Close of the Conciliar 
Period. By Joseph Cullen Ayer, Jr., Ph.D. 8vo 
707 pages. Charles Scribner's Sons. $3 net. 
History of Religions. By George Foot Moore, LL.D 



The VuUrate Psalter. With Introduction, Notes 
and Vocabulary, by A. B. Macaulay, M. A and 
James Brebner, M.A. 12mo, 242 pages E P 
Dutton & Co. $1.25 net. 

The Quest Series. Edited by G. R. S. Mead First 
volumes: The Quest of the Holy Grail, by Jessie 
L. Weston; Psychical Research and Survival by 
James H. Hyslop. Each 12mo. Macmillan Co 
Per volume, $1. net. 

Freedom and the Churches: The Contributions of 
American Churches to Religious and Civil 
Liberty. Edited by Charles W. Wendte, DD 
12mo, 114 pages. Boston: American Unitarian 
Association. $1. net. 

Our Modern Debt to Israel. By Edward Chauncey 
Baldwin, Ph.D. 12mo, 219 pages. Sherman, 
French & Co. $1.25 net. 

The Twelve Gemmed Crown: Christ in Hebrews. 
By Samuel Judson Porter. 12mo, 155 pages 
Sherman, French & Co. $1.20 net. 

Social Ideals of a Free Church. Edited by Elmer 
Severance Forbes. 12mo, 139 pages. Boston: 
American Unitarian Association. $1. net. 

"The Greatest of These": A Book of Five and 
Twenty Minute Essays. By Robert O. Lawton. 
12mo, 90 pages. Sherman, French & Co. $1. net. 

The Religious Ideas of the Old Testament. By H. 
Wheeler Robinson, M.A. 12mo, 245 pages. 
Charles Scribner's Sons. 75 cts. net. 

Church Publicity: The Modern Way to Compel Them 
to Come In. By Christian F. Reisner. 8vo, 421 
pages. Methodist Book Concern. $1.50 net. 

The Short Course Series. Edited by John Adams, 
B.D. New volumes: The Divine Drama of Job, 
by Charles F. Aked, D.D. ; A Mirror of the Soul, 
short studies in the Psalter, by John Vaughan, 
M.A. ; The Story of Joseph, by Adam C. Welch, 
D.D. ; In the Upper Room, a practical exposi- 
tion of John XIII.-XVIL, by David James Bur- 
rell, LLD. Each 12mo. Charles Scribner's Sons. 
Per volume, 60 cts. net. 

The Cabala: Its Influence on Judaism and Christi- 
anity. By Bernhard Pick, D.D. 12mo, 109 pages. 
Open Court Publishing Co. 75 cts. net. 

Jesus in the Talmud: His Personality, His Disciples, 
and His Sayings. By Bernard Pick, D.D. 12mo, 
100 pages. Open Court Publishing Co. 75 cts. net. 

The New Order of Sainthood. By Henry Fairfleld 
Osborn. 12mo, 17 pages. Charles Scribner's 
Sons. 



34 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 1 



Evangelism and Social Service. By John Marvin 

Dean; with Introduction by Clarence A. Barbour. 

12mo, 71 pages. Griffith & Rowland Press. 

25 cts. net. 
The Religion of the Samurais A Study of Zen 

Philosophy and Discipline in China and Japan. 

By Kaiten Nukariya. Large 8vo, 253 pages. 

London: Luzac & Co. 
The Runner's Bible. Compiled and annotated by 

N. S. Holm. 16mo, 131 pages. San Francisco: 

John Howell. Paper. 
The Lord's Prayers An Esoteric Study. By Rudolf 

Steiner. 16mo, 48 pages. Rand, McNally & Co. 

25 cts. net. 

BOOKS FOR THE YOUNG. 
The Polly Page Motor Club. By Izola L. Forrester. 

Illustrated, 12mo, 345 pages. L. C. Page & Co. 

$1. net. 
The Nomad of the Nine Lives. By A. Francis 

Friebe. Illustrated, 12mo, 61 pages. Sherman, 

French & Co. $1. net. 

EDUCATION. 
Essays for College Men: Education, Science, and 

Art Selected by Norman Foerster, Frederick 

A. Manchester, and Karl Young. 12mo, 390 

pages. Henry Holt & Co. 
Current Activities and Influences in Educations A 

Report upon Educational Movements throughout 

the World. By John Palmer Garber, Ph.D. 

12mo, 370 pages. "Lippincott's Educational 

Series." J. B. Lippincott Co. 
Principles of Character Making. By Arthur 

Holmes, Ph.D. 12mo, 336 pages. "Lippincott's 

Educational Series." J. B. Lippincott Co. 

$1.25 net. 
Principles of Secondary Educations A Text-Book. 

By Charles De Garmo. Volume I. New enlarged 

edition; 12mo, 338 pages. Macmillan Co. 

$1.25 net. 
The College Chaucer. Edited by Henry Noble Mac- 

Cracken, Ph.D. 12mo, 713 pages. Yale University 

Press. $1.50 net. 
Industrial Chemistry for Engineering Students. By 

Henry K. Benson, Ph.D. Illustrated, 12mo, 431 

pages. Macmillan Co. $1.90 net. 
The Art of "Writing English. A Book for College 

Classes. By Rollo Walter Brown and Nathaniel 

Waring Barnes. 12mo, 382 pages. American 

Book Co. $1.20 net. 
Analytic Geometry and Principles of Algebra. By 

Alexander Zirvet and Louis Allen Hopkins. 

12mo, 369 pages. Macmillan Co. $1.60 net. 
Plant Life and Plant Uses: A Foundation for the 

Study of Agriculture, Domestic Science, or Col- 
lege Botany. By John Gaylord Coulter, Ph.D. 

Illustrated, 12mo, 464 pages. American Book 

Co. $1.20 net. 

Textiles: A Handbook for the Student and the Con- 
sumer. By Mary Schenck Woolman and Ellen 

Beers McGowan. Illustrated, 8vo, 428 pages. 

Macmillan Co. $2. net. 
Story Telling Poems. By Frances Jenkins Olcott. 

12mo, 383 pages. Houghton Mifflin Co. $1.25 net. 
School Efficiency: A Constructive Study Applied to 

New York City. By Paul H. Hanus. 12mo, 128 

pages. Yonkers-on-Hudson: World Book Co. 
English Proses A Series of Related Essays for the 

Discussion and Practice of the Art of Writing. 

Selected and edited by Frederick William Roe, 

Ph.D., and George Roy Elliott, Ph.D. 8vo, 487 

pages. Longmans, Green & Co. $1.50 net. 
A Textbook of Chemistry. By William A. Noyes. 

8vo, 602 pages. Henry Holt & Co. 
A History* of the United States. By Henry Eldridge 

Bourne and Elbert Jay Benton. Illustrated, 8vo 

534 pages. D. C. Heath & Co. 
Freshman Rhetoric. By John Rothwell Slater 

Ph.D. 12mo, 354 pages. D. C. Heath & Co. 
Essentials of Physics. By George A. Hoadley, Sc.D 

Illustrated in color, 12mo, 536 pages. American 

Book Co. $1.25 net. 
Gruss aus Deutschland: A Reader. By C H Holz- 

warth, Ph.D. Illustrated, 12mo, 190 pages. D C 

Heath & Co. 90 cts. net. 



Reading, Writing, and Speaking Spanish for Be- 
ginners. By Margaret Caroline Dowling. Illus- 
trated, 12mo, 256 pages. American Book Co. 
75 cts. net. 

A Short Course in Commercial Law. By Frederick 
G. Nichols and Ralph E. Rogers. 12mo, 300 
pages. American Book Co. 80 cts. net. 

College English: A Manual for the Study of English 
Literature and Composition. By Frank Ayde- 
lotte. 12mo, 150 pages. Oxford University Press. 
60 cts. net. 

American Literature. By Alphonso Gerald New- 
comer. New edition; illustrated, 12mo, 364 
pages. Scott, Foresman & Co. $1. 

Aus der Jugendzeit. Selected and edited by Fred- 
erick Betz, A.M. With frontispiece, 12mo, 159 
pages. D. C. Heath & Co. 40 cts. net. 

Treasure) Island. By Robert Louis Stevenson ; edited, 
with Introduction and Notes, by Ferdinand Q. 
Blanchard. With frontispiece, 16mo, 275 pages. 
A. S. Barnes Co. 

Les Femmeg Fortes. By Victorien Sardou; edited 
by Albert Cohn McMaster, A.M., and Francis B. 
Barton. 12mo, 216 pages. Oxford University 
Press. 60 cts. net. 

Ludwlg und Annemarle. Von Melchior Meyr: 
edited by F. G. G. Schmidt, Ph.D. With frontis- 
piece, 12mo, 295 pages. Oxford University 
Press. 60 cts. net. 

Psyche Novelle. Von Theodor Storm; edited by 
Ewald Eiserhardt, Ph. D., and Ray W. Petten- 
gill, Ph.D. With portrait, 12mo, 111 pages. Ox- 
ford University Press. 50 cts. net. 

Die schwarze Galeere: Geschichtliche Erzahlung. 
Von Wilhelm Raabe; edited by Charles Allyn 
Williams, Ph.D. Illustrated, 12mo, 154 pages. 
Oxford University Press. 60 cts. net. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

The Vatieans The Center of Government of the 
Catholic World. By Rt. Rev. Edmond Canon 
Hugues de Ragneau. With portrait, large 8vo, 
451 pages. D. Appleton & Co. $4. net. 

Auction Developments. By Milton C. Work. 12mo, 
612 pages. Houghton Mifflin Co. $1.50 net. 

The Satakas; or, Wise Sayings of Bhartrihari. 
Translated from the Sanskrit, with Notes and 
Introductory Preface on Indian Philosophy, by 
J. M. Kennedy. 12mo, 166 pages. John W. Luce 
& Co. $1.25 net. 

On the Truth of Decorative Arts A Dialogue be- 
tween an Oriental and an Occidental. By Lionel 
de Fonseka. New popular issue; 12mo, 134 
pages. Henry Holt & Co. $1. net. 

Fletcherisms What It Is; or, How I Became Young 
at Sixty. By Horace Fletcher, A.M. Illustrated, 
12mo, 224 pages. F. A. Stokes Co. $1. net. 

The International Directory of Booksellers and 
Bibliophile's Manual. Edited by James Clegg. 
12mo, 644 pages. Rochdale: Aldine Press. 

Descriptions of Land: A Text-Book for Survey 
Students. By R. W. Cautley. 12mo, 89 pages. 
Macmillan Co. $1. net. 

American Red Cross Textbook on Elementary 
Hygiene and Home Care of the Sick. By Jane 
A. Delano and Isabel Mclsaac. 12mo, 256 pages. 
P. Blackiston's Son & Co. $1. net. 

History of the Cleveland Sinking Fund of 1862. By 
John William Perrin, Ph.D. Large 8vo, 68 pages. 
Cleveland: Published by the Author. Paper. 

The Authors' Clubs An Historical Sketch. By Duf- 
field Osborne. 12mo, 50 pages. New York: 
Knickerbocker Press. 

A Journey to the Earth's Interior; or, Have the 
Poles Really Been Discovered? By Marshall B 
Gardner. Illustrated, 12mo, 69 pages. Pub- 
lished by the author. Paper. 

Chippevva Music II. By Frances Densmore. Illus- 
trated. 8vo, 341 pages. Washington: Govern- 
ment Printing Office. 

The Handbook of Quotations. By Edith B. Ordway 
12mo. 252 pages. Sully & Kleinteich. 50 cts. net 

Prehistoric Objects Classified and Described. By 
Gerard Fowke. Illustrated, 8vo. St. Louis: Mis- 
souri Historical Society. Paper. 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



35 




A Journal of 
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Short -Story Writing 

A Coarse of forty lessons in the history, 
form, structure, and writing: of the 
Short-Story taught by Dr. J. Berg 
Esemvein, Editor of Lippincott's Magazine. 
One stad'nt writes: "I know that you will 
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WANG-AN-SHIH : A Chinese Socialist States- 
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SHAKESPEAREAN REVELATIONS 



THE SECOND EDITION OF 

MISTRESS DAVENANT 

The Dark Lady of 
Shakespeare's Sonnets 

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"A book which traverses many conclusions of former 
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Price $2.50 net. Published by 



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44 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 16, 1914 









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No. 662. 



JANUARY 16, 1914. Vol. LVL 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 
. 45 



SILAS WEIR MITCHELL .' . 

ELLEN KEY : IDEALIST. Amalie K. Boguslawsky 47 

CASUAL COMMENT 49 

A voice from Virginia. The versatile and charming 
Jules Clare tie. The reason of an editorial. A 
" Daily of Dailies." What every schoolboy should 
know. " The father of American history." A new 
State Library School. Shakespeare presented by 
amateurs. The price of orderliness in the library. 
The laureate's first official poem. A topsy-turvy 
method of language teaching. Magazine covers. Lit- 
erary magic. The literature of feminism. Lincoln 
literary relics. Mr. Carnegie's library gifts for 1913. 

COMMUNICATIONS . - 52 

Concerning "Ye" and "Ampersand." Nelson 

Antrim Crawford and Arthur Howard Noll. 
Milton's " Starre-Ypointed Pyramid." Edwin 
Durning-Lawrence. 

FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE. Percy F. Bicknell . 54 

GUIDES TO THE CONTEMPORARY DRAMA. 

James FT. Tupper 56 

SOCIAL INSURANCE. Alvin S. Johnson .... 57 

MORE KNOWLEDGE OF THE UNKNOWABLE. 

Thomas Percival Beyer 61 

THE STUDY OF SHAKESPEARE'S STAGE- 
CRAFT : A CLIMAX. George Boy Elliott . . 62 

RECENT POETRY. William Morton Payne ... 63 
Phillips's Lyrics and Dramas. Hewlett's Helen 
Redeemed. Legge's A Symphony. Bartram's En- 
gland's Garland. Helston's Aphrodite. Masefield's 
Salt- Water Ballads. Heath's Beginnings. Muir- 
head's The Quiet Spirit. Symons's Knave of 
Hearts. Le Gallienne's The Lonely Dancer. Low's 
AWandandStrings. West's Atlantis. BeneVsMer- 
chantsfromCathay. Cawein'sMinions ofthe Moon. 
Reed's The Theban Eagle. Poems of Paul Mariett. 

BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS 69 

Beasts of the past. A new text-book of American 
literature. The case against state ownership of our 
railroads. The founder of "The Review of Re- 
views." The amazing Duke of Wharton. Miscel- 
lanies by Thackeray's daughter. Plays of old 
Japan. Speeches of a British imperialist. A sum- 
mary of Jane Austen's life and work. A picture of 
rural content. Yarns of a Swedish sailor. 

BRIEFER MENTION 73 

NOTES 74 

LIST OF NEW BOOKS . . 75 



SILAS WEIR MITCHELL. 



The last thing that could be said of Dr. 
Mitchell was that he lagged superfluous on the 
stage. When he came to Chicago year before 
last, as the guest of the Twentieth Century 
Club, he made the impression of a man who, 
despite some of the physical signs of advanced 
age, had all the mental alertness of a man in 
his prime. His zest in living was certainly 
not impaired, and the evident fact that he was 
a sage did not mean for him aloofness from 
human interests, or any dulling of the genial 
personality which made him one of the most 
companionable of men. He enjoyed the society 
of his fellows quite as keenly as they enjoyed 
their intercourse with him. His vast interest 
in humanity kept him mentally alive, and made 
him the central figure of any group which in- 
cluded him in its numbers ; although he might 
well have rested on his octogenarian laurels, 
and been content with the tribute of admiration 
which the younger generations were so ready to 
pay him. His novel of last year was perhaps 
the best he ever gave us, firm in its marshalling 
of material, incisive in its characterization, and 
having about it no suggestion of senility. It 
might have been the work of a man of forty, 
except for the comprehensiveness of its survey 
and the ripeness of its wisdom. 

Lowell once spoke of an acquaintance as 
"quite literary for a Philadelphian.'' This 
humorous aspersion upon the culture of the 
Quaker City loses its point when we take stock 
of the total contribution of Philadelphians to 
our literature, and the name of Dr. Mitchell 
alone would suffice to put it out of court. In 
years alone, he was the dean of our letters, and 
he might have filled that office in a more sub- 
stantial sense if he had not given half a century 
of life to science before he took up the calling 
of the literary artist. It is said that when a 
young man, his mind was balanced between 
choosing medicine (his father's profession) and 
literature for his life work, and that he chose 
the former upon the advice of Dr. Holmes, who 
was equally distinguished in both callings. The 
Autocrat s advice was for medicine first, with 
letters as an avocation or reserve resource, and 
the young student accepted it. He made for 
himself a world- wide fame as a physician, and 



46 



THE DIAL, 



[Jan. 16 



then, past fifty, at an age when most men are 
content to rest on their oars, he began the career 
which is now the reason of our mourning in his 
death the loss of one of our foremost poets 
and novelists. It is one of the most extraordi- 
nary life-histories in our annals. The creative 
impulse is usually spent at the age when Dr. 
Mitchell first yielded himself to its mastery, but 
in his case the new task was taken up with all 
the vigorous delight of youth, and with the 
added power that comes from wide experience of 
life, and the ripe wisdom that the years alone can 
give. Upwards of a score of novels, and several 
collections of poems, all written since 1880, 
attest the fertility of his genius, and add an- 
other example to the list given in Longfellow's 
" Morituri Salutamus " of those who have shown 

" How far the gulf-stream of our youth may flow 
Into the arctic regions of our lives, 
Where little else than life itself survives." 

Mitchell was born in Philadelphia February 
15, 1829, and when he died, on the fourth of 
this month, he was within six weeks of complet- 
ing his eighty-fifth year. His college education 
was cut short by illness, but the degree which he 
thus failed to obtain was made up for him many 
times over by the professional and honorary 
degrees bestowed upon him in after life. For 
over a quarter of a century he stifled his literary 
aspirations, and devoted himself assiduously to 
the practice of his profession, gaining a world- 
wide reputation as a specialist in nervous dis- 
eases. This period included a term of service 
as an army surgeon in the Civil War. His con- 
tributions to the technical literature of his pro- 
fession number a hundred or more, and include 
research studies of the most important descrip- 
tion. A few of the more important titles are : 
" Gunshot Wounds and Other Injuries of the 
Nerves," "Rest in the Treatment of Disease," 
"Researches on the Venom of Poisonous Ser- 
pents," " Relations of Nervous Disorders in 
Women to Pelvic Disease," and "Rest Treat- 
ment and Psychic Medicine." These profes- 
sional writings were continued far down into the 
period of his literary authorship, and he never 
wholly abandoned his practice. He once gave 
this explanation of his dual life as a writer : 

" When success in my profession gave me the free- 
dom of long summer holidays the despotism of my 
habits of work would have made entire idleness mere 
ennui. I turned to what except for stern need would 
have been my life-long work from youth literature 
and bored by idleness wrote my first novel. There is 
a lesson for you never to be idle. 

" In any land but this such an experiment as a suc- 
cessful novel would have injuriously affected the pro- 



fessional career of a medical consultant, or so I was 
told by an eminent English physician. I need not say 
that this is not the American way of looking at life. 
If you give your best to medicine and the law, you may 
write novels or verse, or play golf or ride the wildest 
colt of hobbies." 

The first of Mitchell's long list of novels was 
"Hepzibah Guiness" (1880), which was fol- 
lowed by "Roland Blake" (1884), "Far in 
the Forest" (1888), and several others not 
mentioned. Then came, in 1898, his great suc- 
cess of "Hugh Wynne," probably the best 
novel of the American Revolution ever written, 
which placed him in the foremost rank of our 
novelists. In 1907 came "The Red City," a 
companion piece to "Hugh Wynne," and only 
a few weeks ago " Westways," a great novel of 
the Civil War. A few other notable works of 
fiction of the later period are : " Dr. North and 
His Friends," "The Adventures of Francis," 
"Constance Trescot," and "John Sherwood." 
The two Revolutionary fictions and the one 
based upon the Civil War represent his highest 
achievement, and best illustrate what may be 
called his ecological treatment of character and 
incident. He knew his backgrounds as few 
novelists have ever known them, and he always 
kept environment in view as a penetrating and 
shaping influence upon life. To quote from 
the New York "Evening Post": 

" He had almost literally lived in the Philadelphia of 
the days of Andrews Meschianza and Washington's 
Valley Forge. He knew from delving here and there 
just what buildings had antedated the prim brick and 
marble fronts of his day ; how the passers in the streets 
were dressed, of what they talked, and whither they 
were bound. So he came to his writing. He was per- 
sonally acquainted with Revolutionary days and doings, 
one might say." 

It goes without saying that the specialist in the 
pathology of the mind, the physician who was 
the repository of thousands of the most intimate 
personal confessions, was also extraordinarily 
well-equipped on the psychological or analytical 
side to become a master of fiction, and the power 
and truth of Mitchell's creative work rest upon 
the twin pillars of knowledge above outlined. 

Mitchell's connection with the stage is illus- 
trated by " The Miser," a brief morality which 
was in Wilson Barrett's repertoire, and by a 
dramatization, made by his son, of " The Adven- 
tures of Francois." As a poet, Mitchell earned 
high distinction ; the collected edition of 1896 
included "Francis Drake," "Philip Vernon," 
"The Cup of Youth," and " Fran ? ois Villon," 
all of which had previously had separate pub- 
lication, and enough other pieces, exhibiting 
such variety of form and treatment as to rank 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



47 



their author with such men as Taylor, Gilder, 
and Stoddard. A new edition is soon to be pub- 
lished, to include his later work also. His " Ode 
on a Lycian Tomb,'' a recent lyric, has been 
greatly admired, and may perhaps be taken as 
an example of his fine achievement. 

" What gracious nunnery of grief is here ! 

One woman garbed in sorrow's every mood; 
Each sad presentment celled apart, in fear 

Lest that herself upon herself intrude, 
And break some tender dream of sorrow's day. 
Here cloistered lonely, set in marble gray. 

" O pale procession of immortal love, 

Forever married to immortal grief ! 
All of life's childlike sorrow far above. 

Past help of time's compassionate relief; 
These changeless stones are treasuries of regret 
And mock the term by time for sorrow set. 

" Cold mourners set in stone so long ago, 

Too much my thoughts have dwelt with thee apart. 
Again my grief is young; full well I know 

The pang reborn, that mocked my feeble art 
With that too human wail in pain expressed, 
The parent cry above the empty nest." 



ELLEN KEY: IDEALIST. 

Always since the Galilean lived his revolutionary 
message to reform man and not methods, every 
step in the world's ethical and moral progress has 
been inspired by the standard-bearer of a new ideal- 
ism. With the wane of each century, the idealism 
which demanded the ascetic renunciation of earthly 
joys has been more sternly challenged, until a higher 
conception of true life-values is leading us back to 
the Greek ideal of beauty and happiness as the basis 
of a life-giving harmony. 

Ellen Key's credo, u the enhancement of life 
through love, joy, and beauty in things small and 
great," implies much more than the joy of living. 
To her, happiness means "to love, work, think, suffer, 
and enjoy on an ever higher plane." She expounds 
her gospel in a glowingly picturesque and even start- 
ling way, and those who read coming events in to-day 's 
idealistic tendencies believe that she has established 
the three truths on which our moral future will be 
based : 1, The futility of legislation and economic 
readjustments for bringing about the regeneration 
of the race ; 2, The wisdom of courageous truth- 
telling as regards vital issues ; 3, A truer recognition 
of the sacredness of human relations. 

As a forerunner in urging the vital reforms for 
which we are fighting to-day, Ellen Key has always 
insisted on freedom for the new type of beings who 
are developing as a result of the transvaluation of 
moral standards that must eventually bring about a 
betterment of the species. The closing sentence in 
her most indignantly contested book, " Love and 
Marriage," proves her intent to let her theories be 
a stepping-stone to changed and bettered marriage 
conditions, and not a plan for immediate action : 



" Those who believe in a humanity perfected by love 
must learn to count in thousands of years, not in 
centuries, much less in decades." 

Why, then, do we hear all this hue and cry about 
Ellen Key's "immoral" precepts? To see danger 
in her reversal of accepted standards in sexual ethics 
is as misleading as was the popular interpretation of 
the high-handed exit of Ibsen's Nora. It would 
be just as absurd to accuse her of suggesting free 
love as a solution for marital tangles as it was to 
blame Ibsen for the panacea which "misunderstood 
women " found in his open-door theory. Both these 
idealists are counting in "thousands of years" for 
the consummation of their hope of social advance 
through the ennoblement of natural impulses. 

In demanding new forms, Ellen Key asks free- 
dom "for the only love worthy the name," the 
sanctified, self-sacrificing love that is life's highest 
spiritual expression: self-sacrificing only in the 
sense of giving and demanding the highest happi- 
ness in love. All other love she considers dese- 
cration, whether in marriage or out of it. " Her 
greatest victory is that pure-minded young men have 
made their own her demands of true morality," said 
one admirer on the occasion of her sixtieth birthday. 
The new type of woman which is being evolved 
from this supreme test of her theories will be the 
corner-stone upon which the new creed of a higher 
freedom for both man and woman will rest. Fewer 
Priscillas, ever ready to bear the marriage yoke, 
will worship man as the lord of creation, and more 
Brunhildes will defend the fiery wall of newly-won 
privileges which protects the cherished freedom of 
their personality. 

On the other hand, Ellen Key proves the possi- 
bility of making practical ideals fit to-day's needs 
in her plea for the rights of the child. What a 
neglected factor the child has been in our demand 
for the right to develop our own individuality ! We 
are only beginning to concede his right to be well 
born and well equipped, physically and morally, for 
the task of finding his true place in the great scheme 
of existence. 

What the dreamer Rousseau began, the centuries 
are slowly bringing to a splendid fruition. With 
two inspired women like Maria Montessori, who is 
freeing children's souls, and Ellen Key, fighting 
against our effete conception of the moral law, in 
the vanguard, we are slowly realizing our possibilities 
in making the most perfect development of the indi- 
vidual the basis of social advancement. 

In "The Century of the Child," a powerful leaven 
in the great social upheaval now going on, Ellen Key 
bases her plea for less training and more opportunity 
for free action on the premise that mankind can 
rise to its highest fulfillment only through the most 
perfect development of human impulses and the 
best training of the faculties. To this end she 
would change Froebel's dictum, "Let us live for the 
children," to the admonition, " Give the children a 
chance to live." "Aim to leave your child in peace, 
interfere as little as possible, try to remove all im- 



48 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 16 



pure impressions, but above all else perfect yourself 
and let your personality, aided by reality in all its 
rude simplicity, become a factor in the child's de- 
velopment." Nietzsche expresses this essence of 
the educational wisdom of the ages more tersely: 
"See that through thee the race progresses, not 
continues only. Let a true marriage help thee to 
this end." 

Ellen Key's arraignment of our present method 
of predigested instruction, of artificial spurs to en- 
deavor, and of over-vigilance and protective pam- 
pering is a strong negative plea for more natural 
methods of training children. She thinks an adult 
person would lose his reason if some Titan should 
try to train him by the methods ordinarily employed 
with children. Like all right-minded people, she 
considers corporal punishment detrimental to the 
development of courage, energy, and self-reliance. 
She quotes the opinion of an educator who claims 
that many nervous little liars simply need good 
nourishment and outdoor life; and she holds the 
" good " school, with its over-insistence on versatility, 
responsible for the nervousness of our day. 

The child should be trained to exercise his own 
powers: trained, not allowed to exercise them as 
he wills. Herein lies the misconception that leads 
many ultra-modern parents to give the reins into 
the child's own hands. We are in danger now of 
passing the Scylla of restrictive methods only to 
founder on the Charybdis of unrestricted liberty. 
Even the radical Ellen Key advises strict discipline 
for young children "as a pre-condition to a higher 
training." During the first and most important 
formative period she insists upon absolute obedience. 

Our present system of training often limits the 
natural capacities of the child and shields him from 
life's real experiences. In answer to the assertion 
that splendid men and women have grown up under 
a system of repression and punishment, she argues 
that parents were consistent and unbending in earlier 
days : not over-indulgent and severe by turns, guided 
by nerves and moods, as are many parents of to-day. 

"We need new homes, new schools, new mar- 
riages, new social relations for those new souls who 
are to feel, love, and suffer in ways infinitely numer- 
ous, that we now cannot even name," is her insistent 
plea. 

Home influence, its settled, quiet order, and its 
call for tasks conducive to the happiness and the 
comfort of the family, is underestimated as an edu- 
cational factor of great value. As soon as humanity 
awakens to the consciousness of "the holiness of 
generation," Ellen Key's ideal of a better parent- 
hood will be realized. The mothers of the future 
must live according to her eugenic creed : to enhance 
life and to create higher forms. To this end she 
would consecrate woman as the priestess of life, 
who regards motherhood as a vocation of high 
worth, not as an incident or as an irksome task to 
be avoided. 

In " Motherliness and Education for Mother- 
hood," she asks woman to concentrate her divergent 



interests in order to make herself more efficient for 
her most important duties, and she urges reform 
measures to so aid the working mother that she 
may devote more attention to her children. Another 
suggestion, to make a course in caring for children, 
in health culture and nursing, obligatory for girls, 
is a more rational demand than the European law 
for compulsory military duty, and would surely be 
productive of better results. The ethical as well as 
the practical value of efficiency is being recognized 
in the business world, in professional and educa- 
tional life. Why not in the highest of all vocations 
parenthood? 

" The Woman Movement " challenges those of 
Ellen Key's adversaries who claim that she opposes 
woman's emancipation : for her the most important 
woman question is the highest development of the 
individual woman. "Motherhood," she assures us, 
"will exact all the legal rights without which woman 
cannot, in the full sense of the word, be either child 
mother or community worker." Her glowing faith 
in the perfectibility of human nature, her courage 
in braving false interpretations of her creed, and 
her prophetic understanding of our most urgent 
spiritual needs give her the right to shed a blinding 
light on matters tabooed by those who fear the 
truth. She is not a disillusionist for courageous 
souls. Anyone who reads "Life Lines" under- 
standingly is impressed by the author's tremendous 
sense of righteousness, and by the optimism of her 
prophecies. 

In her biographies of noted women the forward- 
seeking vision in their lives and in their work is 
a typically modern note. Rahel Varnhagen has 
never before been drawn with the ultra-modern 
touch that reveals her aspiring soul as a strong 
influence in spurring on great men to unusual deeds 
of intellectual valor. 

A humanitarian in the widest sense, Ellen Key 
disapproves of many forms of charity, while she 
insists upon the right of every human being to 
develop his best possibilities through an inspiring 
environment and a chance to express himself in his 
work. She once heard a young working-girl say: 
"It is not your better food and finer clothes we 
mostly envy, but it is the many intellectual enjoy- 
ments which are so much more within your reach 
than ours." The organization of the Tolstjerna 
circles was the result of this plaint. Women of 
wealth and culture, with a sympathetic understand- 
ing, met working girls on terms of equality. Ellen 
Key's beautiful home will belong to these girls in 
the future. Only four of them are to occupy it at 
one time; she wants them to be honored members 
of a family, not dwellers in an institution. The 
home is her sanctuary. All her "revolutionary" 
doctrines are directed towards its perfection by 
making men and women better able to guard its 
sacred flame and render it worthy to be the cradle 
of a new race of beings and a nobler civilization. 

AMALIE K. BOGUSLAWSKY. 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



49 



CASUAL COMMENT. 

A VOICE FROM VIRGINIA makes itself heard in 
no uncertain accents in favor of sound culture. The 
Classical Association of that State has put on record 
its emphatic approval of Greek studies in the high 
school, urging that in addition to proper provision 
for Latin a prominent place be made for Greek in 
the last two years of the high-school course. Mr. 
Thomas Fitzhugh, President of the Association, 
reports its recent action, and adds, in the course of 
an eloquent plea: "Greek is the one ideal element 
needed to round out and perfect our system of 
democratic education. Its call is a spiritual one. 
The maintenance of Greek in the high school is our 
tribute of loyalty to the spiritual ancestry of our 
culture. The time is come when we too of Virginia 
and the South can afford to pay such reverence to 
the ideal interests of life." Not long ago an English 
author of the widest popularity and influence was 
heard to say, in conversation with a young woman, 
" We are living in the present; why go on constantly 
dwelling on the past? " And this was from him who 
wrote the poem whose refrain, "Lest we forget," 
lays emphasis on the wholesome steadying influence 
of the past and reminds us that what is best in the 
present strikes its roots into that past. The chief 
reason why we "go on constantly dwelling on the 
past" is that we are not savages, who, as has been 
well said, have no past and (largely for that reason) 
no future, but only the inappreciable instant of time 
called the present; and we cherish especially that 
portion of the past rendered illustrious by Greece 
because, to name no other reasons, we value the 
Platonic virtues enumerated in the "Phaedo," where 
the soul is depicted as "arrayed in her own proper 
jewels, which are temperance and justice and cour- 
age and nobility and truth." 



THE VERSATILE AND CHARMING JlILES CLARETIE, 

whose death in late December deprived France of a 
gifted and widely-read author, and took from the 
Academy one of its most distinguished mem- 
bers, gave the best years of his maturity to the 
management of the Theatre fran^ais, of which he 
was appointed director in 1885, and which he tried 
to keep true to its traditional high standards even 
while it was suffering such losses as the withdrawal 
of actors like the elder Coquelin, Le Bargy, and 
Madame Sarah Bernhardt. But his endeavors 
were not eminently successful, and two months 
before his death he resigned his post. He was born 
at Limoges, December 3, 1840, educated at the 
Lyce*e Bonaparte, Paris, and served his apprentice- 
ship in letters as dramatic critic to the "Figaro" 
and the " Opinion Nationale," and as war correspond- 
ent in Italy in 1866 and at Metz in 1870. He was 
also a staff officer of the National Guard during 
the Commune. His election to the French Academy 
took place in 1888, and he was seated in February 
of the following year, being received by Renan. 
In his long list of published works, including plays, 



novels, histories, biographies, critical essays, and 
miscellanies, note should be made of such consider- 
able productions as his five-volume " Histoire de la 
Revolution de 1870-1871," and his study of Alsace 
and Lorraine five years after their annexation to 
Germany; his history of French literature from 
900 to 1900 A. D., and his life of Moliere. Of his 
work in fiction, "La Cigarrette" attained especial 
popularity and served as the basis of the opera, 
"La Navarraise," which Claretie helped to set to 
the music of Massenet. Outside his own country 
he is probably best known for those annual volumes 
in which he was wont to collect the shorter writings 
(essays and criticisms) that he had contributed to 
newspapers and magazines, and in which his facility 
and charm showed themselves to the best advantage. 



THE REASON OF AN EDITORIAL, long or short, 
literary, political, industrial, hortatory, objurgatory, 
or of whatever character, is that most of us like not 
only to know what is going on, whether in the world 
of letters or in that of affairs, but also to know what 
others are thinking about it, and even, sometimes, 
to be told what we ought to think about it. We fail to 
grasp the full significance of an event until we see it 
through one or more pairs of eyes beside our own ; 
and even then all the possible aspects of the subject 
are seldom exhausted. One of our ablest and best- 
known journalists, Mr. Jacob A. Riis, has told us, 
in his vivid account of his life, how on at least one 
occasion when editorial honors and responsibilities 
were offered him he preferred to remain a plain 
reporter and chronicle what was going on about him, 
leaving it to others to tell lies about it. That was a 
rather harsh estimate of the value of editorial writing ; 
but it was an estimate held, not many years ago, by 
more than one person, and was doubtless partly re- 
sponsible for the decline, at that time, in the editorial 
department of many journals. Not a few country 
newspapers greatly curtailed or wholly discontinued 
their editorial section. But now there is a fortunate 
rebound in the opposite direction. A recent issue 
of " The American Press " declares that in the last 
five years the amount of space devoted to editorial 
discussion of current events has increased threefold. 
A well-considered, well-written, more or less learn- 
edly illuminative, and even somewhat ornately 
rhetorical presentation of a topic of the times is 
found by most readers to be far more intellectually 
nutritious and mentally stimulating than a bare rec- 
ord of the topic as an item of news. Therefore let 
us hope that the prestige of the "leader," as it was 
known in our fathers' and grandfathers' time, may 
be revived. ... 

A " DAILY OF DAILIES " is but the logical continu- 
ation of the series of what might be called (without 
disrespect) "scissors and paste" publications which 
began in 1890 with the monthly "Review of Re- 
views," and was soon continued and amplified in a 
number of weekly periodicals of excellence and use- 
fulness. With the opening of this year there begins 



50 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 16 



in Berlin, under the direction of Dr. Arthur Kirch- 
hoff, the daily issue of a "Zeitung der Zeitungen," 
which purposes to give a "tagliche Weltiibersicht 
der internationalen Politik, Kultur und Wirtschaft." 
By an alphabetical arrangement under continents 
and countries the principal diurnal events of inter- 
national interest are so grouped, in the form of brief 
telegraphic despatches, that the eye of even a hasty 
reader can easily catch what is of interest to him, 
and a full perusal of the sheet (a folio printed only 
on one side, " to facilitate clippings ") would occupy 
but a fraction of an hour. "About two hundred 
dailies," it is announced, " and other periodical publi- 
cations from all parts of the globe will regularly be 
followed up day by day in about twenty languages for 
the 'Zeitung der Zeitungen.'" An impressive list 
of more or less eminent men giving the undertaking 
their moral support appears in the prospectus sent 
out by the publishers. A fortnightly issue of 
"European Letters," from competent pens, contain- 
ing " a review of the most important economic, polit- 
ical, industrial, scientific, and technical occurrences 
in Europe," also begins with the launching of the 
larger enterprise, and these letters will eventually, it 
is expected, be issued weekly. Further particulars 
may be obtained from the Pressbureau zur FOrderung 
gegenseitiger Kenntnis der Kultur- Vslker, Liitzen- 
strasse 9, Berlin-Halensee. 



WHAT EVERY SCHOOLBOY SHOULD KNOW, if he be 
in the high school, and at the same time what every 
schoolgirl of equal advancement should know, will 
be found neatly and conveniently indicated in a 
pamphlet compiled by Miss Florence M. Hopkins, 
librarian at the Detroit Central High School, and 
entitled, "Allusions Which Every High School 
Student Should Know." The allusions are from 
the domains of philosophy, religion, mythology, 
sociology, philology, science, useful arts, fine arts, 
literature, history, and general information, and are 
arranged alphabetically, to the number of eight 
hundred and thirty-seven, with alternate blank pages 
for additions, and with indications as to the grade, 
or class, to which each topic onght to wear a famil- 
iar aspect. The numbers, 9, 10, 11, 12, and the 
letter G (graduate student) are used for this purpose. 
Let us quote a few of these allusions, to show 
how intelligent the Detroit high- school pupils and 
graduates are supposed to be, or ought to be. We 
find, for example, Balder, Baliol College, Baucis, 
Bay Psalm Book, Bodleian Library, Bouguereau, 
Calydonian Hunt, Comus, Cuvier, Dirce, Erech- 
theum, Eurydice, Excalibur, Freya, Gautama, 
Haggai, Hegira, Hippolyta, Index Expurgatorius, 
Lachesis, Loki, Obadiah, Odin, Pyrrha, Ur of the 
Chaldees, Zeitgeist, Zeno, and Zephaniah. Not 
every college graduate could pass a perfect examina- 
tion on even the few random allusions here quoted. 
Miss Hopkins sets no mean standard for her high- 
school pupils, but it is far better to aim too high 
than too low. 



" THE FATHER OF AMERICAN HISTORY," Dl 1 . 

David Ramsay, was recalled in one of the letters 
received at the recent testimonial dinner tendered 
to Professor McMaster, the writer drawing an in- 
teresting comparison between the two historians. 
Ramsay, like McMaster, was of Scotch descent. 
McMaster taught in early life at Princeton, where 
Ramsay graduated in 1765. McMaster for many 
years has filled the chair of American history at the 
University of Pennsylvania, of whose medical school 
the famous Dr. Benjamin Rush said Ramsay was 
the most distinguished graduate. Ramsay was a 
member of the Continental Congress from South 
Carolina, whither he removed from his native state, 
Pennsylvania ; he was a surgeon in the armies of 
the Colonies, prisoner of war at St. Augustine, and 
member of the "Old Congress." His "History of 
the American Revolution" was published in Phila- 
delphia, London, Dublin, and Trenton, and in French, 
Dutch, and German. His "Life of Washington" 
was published at New York, London, Boston, Balti- 
more, and Ithaca ; it appeared in Paris in French 
and Spanish, and at Barcelona. Twenty-one editions 
of these two books were issued from American and 
European presses between the years 1789 and 1842. 
The late Frederick D. Stone, librarian of the Penn- 
sylvania Historical Society, thought Ramsay's the 
best narrative of the Revolution that had ever been 
written. His book was one of the few read by the 
young Abraham Lincoln. While tribute was being 
paid to the living McMaster, Ramsay's monument, 
tumbled over by the earthquake, still lay prostrate 
in the yard of the Presbyterian Church in Charleston. 



A NEW STATE LIBRARY SCHOOL began its useful 
existence with the beginning of this year. Its sit- 
uation, on the Pacific coast, clears it at the outset 
from any charge of desiring to enter into competi- 
tion with already established schools of the same 
kind. From the latest issue of "News Notes of 
California Libraries" we quote: "To meet an in- 
creasing demand for librarians and library assistants 
who have had the benefit of technical training as 
well as experience, the California State Library has 
planned to establish in January, 1914, a library 
school. The purpose of this school is to offer to 
carefully selected candidates a one-year course in 
library economy, which is designed to qualify the 
students for library service. For this training the 
California State Library offers a well- equipped 
laboratory, having a library of about 165,000 vol- 
umes, including its law library; the collection of 
federal, state, and municipal documents ; the collec- 
tion of books for the blind ; and the special collection 
in the California Department." Examinations under 
the supervision of the California State Civil Service 
Commission are held for the purpose of selecting 
the limited few who shall enjoy the privileges of 
the school, and no tuition fees will be charged a 
noticeable item. That the new school may live to 
rival in usefulness and reputation that other State 



1914] 



51 



institution of like character at the eastern verge of 
the continent, will be the hope and wish of all inter- 
ested in the growth of our public library system. 

SHAKESPEARE PRESENTED BY AMATEURS seldom 
or never equals Shakespeare as presented by the 
best professionals ; but the value of the performance 
to those behind the footlights may be none the less 
considerable. An eminent Shakespeare actor 
no less a one, in fact, than Sir Johnston Forbes- 
Robertson is thus, in part, reported on the subject 
in the Yale "News" (one would not dare affirm the 
exact verbal accuracy of the report) : " Presenting 
Shakespeare's plays in college has several advan- 
tages. The main one is that Shakespeare demands 
of his actors good elocution and articulation the 
greatest assets in acting. Modern dramas do not 
demand this to the same extent. For instance, the 
average modern play usually has its characters rep- 
resenting types who do not necessarily speak well, 
and thus there is not so much demand on the actor 
for good speaking. On the contrary, however, 
Shakespeare compels his actors to speak with far 
greater care, Of course Shakespeare's dramas need 
much more skilful acting than the modern, but they 
are of high educational value. There is no neces- 
sity for giving the great tragedies, for most of his 
comedies are well adapted to college use. In fact, 
I have seen some of the more rarely staged ones, 
like 'The Two Gentlemen of Verona' and 'All's 
Well That Ends Well,' given in college with great 
success." The seeming implication that none of 
Shakespeare's clowns and grave-diggers and con- 
stables and tavern roisterers ever express themselves 
in carelessly-articulated colloquialisms, is of course 
easily disputable; but the colloquialisms of three 
centuries ago are sufficiently unlike our own to re- 
quire some study and elocutionary practice for their 
mastery and effective oral rendering which we 
take to be the English actor's meaning. 



THE PRICE OF ORDERLINESS IN THE LIBRARY, 

asserts Miss Bertha Marx, head of the Sheboygan 
(Wis. ) Public Library, "is eternal vigilance on the 
part of the librarian, coupled with a sense of order- 
liness on the part of the staff, and untiring, consci- 
entious work on the part of a good janitor"; and 
the model neatness of the institution under her care 
offers conclusive proof that litter and literature, so 
often found dwelling together in a sort of sluttish 
content, are not. necessarily one and inseparable. 
To the question whether the public is not repelled 
by the aspect of such preternatural tidiness as she 
describes in a paper printed in the "Wisconsin 
Library Bulletin," she makes reply: "I shall answer 
by saying that we circulated three thousand more 
books this year than last, and that we number among 
our regular patrons the grimy men of the coal yards, 
the odoriferous tannery workers, and hundreds of 
factory men." John Wesley's famous pulpit utter- 
ance here comes to mind, but shall not be quoted; 



also a part (but not all) of the poet Vaughan's 
counsel to the growing seed might be fitly cited : 

" Then bless thy secret growth, nor catch 
At noise, hut thrive unseen and dumb ; 
Keep clean, be as fruit, earn life, and watch 
Till the white-winged reapers come.'' 

*>" 

THE LAUREATE'S FIRST OFFICIAL POEM, " Christ- 
mas Eve," was sent to the King two days before 
Christmas, and was at his request published in "The 
Times." In the stately dignity of its antique mode 
some irreverent modern critics may find matter for 
sport and mockery, and certain of its unrhymed 
lines where the rhythm is somewhat less obstrusely 
apparent than in "Yankee Doodle" may seem, to 
the frivolous, to invite the application of that ex- 
pressive term some time ago applied to the produc- 
tions of a poet less eminent than Dr. Bridges, 
"jerked English." But to the few who retain even 
a faint memory of the archaic charm of "Piers the 
Plowman" this bit of twentieth-century revival of 
fourteenth-century poetic art will give pleasure. To 
convey an idea of its gentle manner we quote a few 
of its lines as they have reached us: 
" Now blessed be the towers that crown England so fair, 
That stand up strong in prayer unto God for our souls ; 
Blessed be their founders, said I, and our countryfolk 
Who are ringing for Christ in the belfries to-night 
With arms lifted to clutch the rattling ropes that race 
Into the dark above and the mad romping din." 

A TOPSY-TURVY METHOD OF LANGUAGE-TEACHING 

seems to have been adopted in the night schools of 
Richmond, where the wholly unliterary tongue known 
as Esperanto is taught as Latin and Greek have so 
long been taught, by practice in translation from 
the alien into the native tongue though the adjec- 
tive "alien" is perhaps hardly applicable to so 
anomalous a linguistic phenomenon as Esperanto. 
Not long ago an eminent language-teacher from 
England was in this country, demonstrating to us 
the feasibility of imparting a knowledge of a dead 
language by the conversational method so fruitful 
in giving a command of a living and spoken tongue ; 
and now, by a curious reversal of the plan, a lan- 
guage invented for conversational and epistolary 
use, chiefly in commerce and travel, and consequently 
with no literature or history back of it, is treated as 
if its origin went back to the Tower of Babel. Who 
would have thought the dictionary -and- grammar 
habit to be so ingrained anywhere in twentieth- 
century America? Or have the Richmond night 
schools been grossly slandered? 

MAGAZINE COVERS, tastefully and modestly de- 
signed (the one, of course, implies the other) win for 
themselves, as the slow seasons roll, a certain fond- 
ness on the reader's part that makes him averse to 
any change even for what may be artistically better. 
Amid the ravages wrought by cover- designers among 
our long-established monthlies ravages that have 
robbed us of the good old "Atlantic" cover with 
its familiar stars and stripes, and have ruthlessly 



52 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 16 



removed from the venerable "Harper" its opulent 
cornucopias and chubby cherubs there remains, 
sturdily resistant to frivolous innovation, the original 
dress of "Blackwood's Magazine" as Blackwood 
founded it almost a century ago. "Maga" puts to 
shame the frivolity of Mr. Punch in running after 
new modes and bedizening his borders with divers 
innovations in color, and she thus, in a recent num- 
ber, expresses her disapproval (we quote only a few 
of the lines) : 

' It is a shame to spoil 
The page of Dicky Doyle, 
Or, at best, waste of toil, 

Painting the lily. 
Do n't let the lust for change, 
For something new and strange, 
All your old charms derange 
We think it silly." 

LITERARY MAGIC, as employed by a master 
magician, can often transform a repulsive theme to 
something comely often deceptively and seduc- 
tively comely in its outer aspect. This is a prop- 
osition that needs no demonstration here, but the 
truth of it is quite harmlessly and very entertain- 
ingly illustrated just at this time by the appearance 
in English of Professor Henri Fabre's delightful 
treatise on that common carrier of disease, that pest 
of the home, that shameless disturber of bodily and 
mental peace, the house-fly. It is to be hoped that 
this charming book, "The Life of the Fly," will be 
responsible for no truce in the modern war on the 
Argus-eyed insect so difficult to be caught napping 
by even the most wary and alert fly-exterminator. 
Charmed with the marvels of the abstract fly, we 
must nevertheless harden ourselves to the pitiless 
extinction of the insect in its concrete manifestations 
loving the sinner, but hating more the sin. 


THE LITERATURE OF FEMINISM, a topic only 
recently come into prominent notice (under its 
present name, at least) is already far from incon- 
siderable in quantity or negligible as to quality. At 
the John Crerar Library of Chicago, for example, 
as we learn from an excellent historical account of 
that library issued in pamphlet form by order of 
its board of directors, there is a " distinct collection 
of nearly 6,000 volumes and pamphlets on the 
social, political, and legal status of women. A cata- 
logue of this part of the collection, under the title 
La femme et le feminisme, complete to 1900, was 
exhibited at the Paris Exposition of that year and 
received a diploma of honor." It is safe to predict 
that, with the increasing public activities of the 
twentieth-century woman, the literature of feminism 
and the John Crerar collection of that literature 
will undergo considerable and rapid augmentation. 

LINCOLN LITERARY RELICS of much interest are 
at this time (Jan. 14, 15, 16) passing under the auc- 
tioneer's hammer into the hands of fortunate pos- 
sessors. The late William H. Lambert's collection 
of Lincolniana, after being for two weeks on exhi- 
bition at the Anderson Galleries in New York, now 



suffers the fate of most collections and is dispersed. 
Among items of especial value there are mentioned 
thirteen volumes from Lincoln's library; one of the 
fifty copies of the Emancipation Proclamation signed 
by Lincoln and Seward; one of the three copies 
of the Thirteenth Amendment signed by Lincoln, 
Hamlin, and Colfax ; a copy of the play-bill issued at 
Ford's Theatre the day of the assassination ; many 
letters, legal papers, and other documents written or 
signed by Lincoln ; a leaf from his sum-book, dated 
1824; a discharge signed by Lincoln as captain in 
1832 ; and the original manuscript of Lincoln's plan 
of campaign, 1861. Other papers, with relics of a 
different sort, are enumerated altogether a re- 
markable collection. 

MR. CARNEGIE'S LIBRARY GIFTS FOR 1913 amount 
to three hundred and thirty-seven thousand dollars, 
his total benefactions for the same period being some- 
what over fourteen million dollars. Apparently he 
is not specializing quite so much in libraries as for- 
merly, although a third of a million for one year's 
outlay in this branch of charity would be for most men 
royal munificence. Of this amount, the Allegheny 
City Library, the first of the Carnegie library build- 
ings, received one hundred and fifty thousand dollars 
for an extension; Somerville, Mass., one hundred 
thousand for its new building, just completed and 
opened; Montclair, N. J., forty thousand dollars 
for a library building in Upper Montclair; Central 
University, Danville, Ky., thirty thousand dollars for 
a library building; Perry, N. Y., twelve thousand 
dollars for a like purpose; and the New York Uni- 
versity Library (already housed in a Carnegie build- 
ing) five thousand dollars toward its maintenance. 



COMMUNICA TIONS. 



CONCERNING "YE" AND "AMPERSAND." 

(To the Editor of THE DIAJL.) 

While I believe Mr. Pickard has performed a distinct 
service by calling attention to the common but absurd 
pronunciation of the early Modern English represen- 
tation of "the," I am constrained to differ with him in 
the matter of the origin of this symbol. " The only 
apparent reason for mistaking the character is," he 
says, "that two centuries ago the letter <h ' was usually 
written with a tail below the line, and with a razeed top, 
which made it look like our ' y.' " On the contrary, I 
regard the character not merely as looking like " y," 
but as actually being " y," though introduced through 
confusion with the Old and Middle English letter p, 
and intended, of course, to be pronounced like p. John 
Earle says on this point (" The Philology of the English 
Tongue," fourth edition, pp. 103-104) : " The words the 
and that continued after the close of the fifteenth cen- 
tury to be written pe and pat or p l . This habit lasted 
on long after its original meaning was forgotten. The 
p got confused with the character y at a time when the 
y was closed a-top, and then people wrote ' ye ' for the 
and <yat ' or ' y* ' for that. This has lasted down close 
to our own times; and the practice has not entirely 
ceased even now." The same position is taken in 



1914] 



THE DIAL, 



53 



"Webster's New International Dictionary," pp. 2147 
and 2358, and in "The New Standard Dictionary," 
p. 2507. NELSON ANTRIM CRAWFORD. 

Manhattan, Kansas, Jan. 7, 1914. 



(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

Agreeing with, and wishing to emphasize, what your 
correspondent writes in your issue of December 16 upon 
the modern use of " ye " for " the," may I add that the 
use of the letter "y" in the spelling of "the" and "that" 
originated in the adoption by the early English printers 
of the runic letter " thorn " which very closely resem- 
bles the black-letter " y " ; hence when the black-letter 
began to be replaced by the Roman type forms, the 
" y " was retained, though at first the " e " was placed 
above the line and thus a distinction between " ye " 
and " the " was maintained. Later the " e " dropped 
down to the line, and " ye " was for a long time used 
by printers for "the"; there are some writers who 
still use it as an abbreviated form of " the " without 
realizing whence they got it. 

The "short and" is a monogram of "et " used by 
the mediaeval scribes, of which the earliest type found- 
ers made use. It is further corrupted into the plus 
sign +. It was in the early printing offices that it 
gained the name of " ampersand," which is a corrup- 
tion of " and-per-se-and " or " and-by-itself-and." 

ARTHUR HOWARD NOLL. 

Sewanee, Tenn., Jan. 5, 1914. 



MILTON'S " STARRE-YPOINTED PYRAMID." 
(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

I will put a few facts before your readers which will 
dispose once and for all of the imaginations of your cor- 
respondent Mr. Samuel A. Tannenbaum, as expressed 
in your issue of November 16 last. 

In my unique library are quite a number of books in 
which engravings of a Beacon will be found to inform 
those capable of understanding that Bacon is the real 
author of works to which his name has not yet been 
attached. But as I am now dealing with Milton's 
Epitaph, I will refer only to the engraving which shows 
a Pyramid, a Beacon, a Bacon, upon which is in- 
scribed " Holy-Relique," with the meaning of literary 
works which are described as " these Divine pure Beau- 
ties of the Minde." All writers are agreed that " Para- 
dise Lost " shows that Milton was much indebted to 
"Joshua Sylvester's Translation of Du Bartas, His 
Divine Weekes and Wordes," which was first published 
in 1605. In this book we find on B2 (a page which 
appears to have no possible connection with Sylvester's 
work) a Pyramid, a Beacon, a Bacon, surmounted by a 
pheon (the heraldic name for an engrailed broad arrow), 
which is the arms of Sir Philip Sidney. Below this on 
the pyramid itself is Bacon's crest, the Wild Boar, in 
the proper heraldic attitude. But round its neck is a 
cord with a slip-knot to show us that it is a " Hanged- 
Hog," which Mrs. Quickly, on the first page 53 in the 
First Folio of the Shakespeare plays (1623), tells us 
means " Bacon," the reason why being supplied in the 
36th of Bacon's Apophthegms first printed in 1671. This 
Hanged-Hog is, however, clothed in a porcupine's skin 
(Sidney's crest is a porcupine). Below this is a set of 
verses which are printed so as to follow the outline of 
the pyramid. They are as follows: 

" ENGLAND'S Apelles (rather OUK APOLLO) 
WORLD' s-wonder SIDNEY, that rare more-than-man, 
This LOVELY VENUS first to LIMNE beganne, 



With such a PENCILL as no PENNE dares follow : 
How then shold I in Wit and Art so shallow, 
Attempt the Task which yet none other can ? 
Far be the thought that mine unlearned hand 
His heavenly Labour shold so much unhallow, 
Yet least (that Holy RELIQUE being shrin'd 
In some High-Place, close lockt from common light) 
My Country-men should bee debar'd the sight 
Of these DIVINE pure Beauties of the Minde : 
Not daring meddle with APELLES TABLE 
This have I muddled as my MUSE was able." 

To the uninformed these words seem to be addressed 
to Sidney, whose name appears in large capital letters 
in the centre. The poem is, however, a grand panegyric 
on Bacon. It commences with " England's Apelles " 
and "apelles" means "without a skin." We must there- 
fore skin off the pheon and lo! a Beacon, a Bacon, stands 
revealed; and we must skin off the porcupine's quills 
from the " Hanged-Hog " and again we see that " Bacon" 
stands revealed. We therefore perceive that we are 
told that Bacon wrote under the skin, the garment, the 
weed, the disguise, the pseudonym of Sidney. This 
fact is likewise revealed in various books in my library. 
Then we read " This lovely Venus first to limne began." 
This refers to Bacon's " Venus & Adonis," which he says 
is " the first heire of my invention." Scholars never 
guessed that the real meaning of this is that it is the 
first heir of his invention of the pseudonym William 
Shakespeare. But to explain half of the meaning of this 
wonderful pyramid would take far too much of your 
space. Suffice it to point out that in these verses we 
find "Holy-Relique" with the meaning of "literary 
works," "these Divine pure Beauties of the Minde," ex- 
actly as Milton in his Epitaph uses "hallow'd Reliques " 
with the meaning of the plays, etc. 

If your readers will carefully study Milton's Epitaph, 
which commences, 

" What neede my Shakespeare for his honour'd bones, 
The labour of an Age, in piled stones 
Or that his hallow'd Reliques should be hid 
Under a starre-ypointed Pyramid ? 
Dear Sonne of Memory, great Heire of Fame, 
What needst thou such dull witnesse of thy Name ? " 

they cannot fail to perceive that it is cunningly com- 
posed from the Pyramid in Sylvester, and from the 
opening lines of " Love's Labour's Lost," which are as 
under : 

" Let Fame, that all hunt after in their lives, 
Live registered upon our brazen Tombes, 
And then grace us in the disgrace of death : 
When spight of cormorant devouring Time, 
Th' endevour of this present breath may buy : 
That honour which shall bate his sythes keene edge, 
And make us h eyres of all eternitie." 

It is all exceedingly simple when you know. Indeed, 
as Milton clearly tells us, we ought te have sense 
enough to see the Mighty Author in his works, without 
it being necessary to place upon his Hallowed Reliques, 
" the Divine pure Beauties of the Minde," " the Immor- 
tal Plays," the dull witness of a Beacon (a Bacon) to 
tell us what was his Name. 

We must remember that although the Householder 
of Stratford died in 1616, the real author "Bacon" 
was alive in 1623, and therefore no Epitaph appeared 
in the First Folio of the Plays. Bacon, however, died 
in 1626, and accordingly his Epitaph appeared in the 
Second Folio (1632), with Milton's marvellously clear 
revelation that he was " Shakespeare." 

EDWIN DURNING-LAWRENCE. 

London, England, Dec. 24, 1913. 



54 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 16 



(Eft* ifrfo 



FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE.* 

For half a century or more the name of 
Florence Nightingale, the angel of mercy to 
wounded soldiers in the Crimean War, was as 
the name of a mythological character or a 
mediaeval saint about whom all sorts of fables 
and traditions had clustered, and of whose real 
personality it was difficult to form any clear 
conception unless one belonged to the favored 
few admitted to the invalid chamber whence for 
forty-five years she scarcely stirred. References 
to her in contemporary memoirs, with an occa- 
sional inadequate sketch of her life, would ap- 
pear from time to time; but for years before 
her death in the summer of 1910 there was only 
the vaguest popular impression whether she was 
still living, and, if so, where, and what were the 
things that interested her in her retirement, if 
indeed she was still capable of cherishing any 
interests whatever. Now, however, with Sir 
Edward Cook's two- volume "Life of Florence 
Nightingale" before one, it becomes plainly 
evident that the founder of modern nursing, 
one of the most heroic characters of her time^ 
or of all time, was a very human mortal and a 
very womanly woman; that she had a wealth 
of mental and moral endowment that fitted her 
to excel in any one of many callings she might 
have chosen ; and that the choice she did finally 
make was not arrived at without spiritual and 
intellectual conflict of the sharpest sort, and 
opposition from family and friends and public 
opinion such as it required the most resolute will 
to overcome. 

In this day and generation, when a young 
woman's decision to become a trained nurse 
excites as little comment as does a young man's 
choice of medicine as a profession, it is well- 
nigh impossible to imagine the formidable front 
of popular disapproval encountered by a gently- 
nurtured girl who, three-quarters of a century 
ago, dared to entertain a longing to give her 
life to the service of the sick in hospitals. The 
impropriety of such a course seemed more shock- 
ing, in some respects, than to go on the stage. 
That a woman of Miss Nightingale's position 
and antecedents should have, with all her other 
notable qualities, both the desire to devote her- 
self to so unheard-of a cause and the tenacity 
of purpose to realize her desire, marks her as a 

*THB LIFE OF FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE. By Sir 
Edward Cook. In two volumes. Illustrated. New York : 
The Macmillan Co. 



character well worthy of more than a cursory 
study; and in the two ample volumes of the 
present biography will be found sufficient de- 
scriptive and autobiographic material to place 
the reader on a footing of rather intimate ac- 
quaintance with her richly gifted personality. 

Born on the twentieth day of May, 1820, in 
the city that gave her her baptismal name, 
Florence Nightingale enjoyed from the begin- 
ning all the advantages that wealth, culture, the 
best society, and frequent travel could confer. 
Her father, a serious- minded gentleman of leis- 
ure, took an active interest in his two daughters' 
education, and records remain of the school- 
room tasks he set them. Miss Nightingale's 
early notebooks show that before she was out 
of her teens she had acquired some mastery of 
Latin and Greek, that she had analyzed the 
"Tusculan Disputations," translated parts of 
the " Phsedo," the " Crito," and the " Apology," 
studied Roman, German, Italian, and Turkish 
history, and critically dissected Dugald Stewart's 
"Philosophy of the Human Mind." Mathe- 
matics also engaged her interest and claimed 
many hours of earnest application. She took 
music-lessons in Florence, and in London pur- 
sued these studies under German and Italian 
masters, acquiring some proficiency in both 
singing and playing, attending the opera with 
passionate enjoyment, and becoming, as she 
expressed it, "music-mad." In fact, so varied 
and also so pronounced were her successive or 
simultaneous enthusiasms that, so far as one can 
see, there was no reason why, with a little tip- 
ping of the balance at any time, she might not 
have distinguished herself as a writer, a musi- 
cian, a classical scholar, an egyptologist, a society 
leader, a follower of the religious life, or a model 
wife and mother. Temptations and aptitudes 
were not wanting in all these and probably still 
other directions, but nothing seemed perma- 
nently worth while that did not tend to the alle- 
viation of the hard lot of suffering humanity. 
" I feel my sympathies are with Ignorance and 
Poverty," she wrote to a friend in 1846. "My 
imagination is so filled with the misery of this 
world that the only thing in which to labour 
brings any return, seems to me helping and 
sympathizing there; and all that poets sing of 
the glories of this world appears to me untrue : 
all the people I see are eaten up with care or 
poverty or disease." Three years later, when 
she was doing charity work in London, she wrote 
in her diary these significant words : 

" Ought not one's externals to be as nearly as possi- 
ble an incarnation of what life really is ? Life is not a 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



55 



green pasture and a still water, as our homes make it. 
Life is to some a forty days' fasting, moral or physical, 
in the wilderness; to some it is a fainting under the 
carrying of the cross ; to some it is a crucifixion ; to all, 
a struggle for truth, for safety. Life is seen in a much 
truer form in London than in the country. In an En- 
glish country place everything that is painful is so care- 
fully removed out of sight, behind those fine trees, to a 
village three miles off. In London, at all events if you 
open your eyes, you cannot help seeing in the next 
street that life is not as it has been made for you. You 
cannot get out of a carriage at a party without seeing 
what is in the faces making the lane on either side, and 
without feeling tempted to rush back and say, ' Those 
are my brothers and sisters.' " 

Again and again her family and friends 
exerted themselves in vain to win back Florence 
Nightingale to the safe and comfortable con- 
ventions of her social station, and every fresh 
trial left her increasingly dissatisfied with the 
hollowness and heartlessness and sham that 
seemed all-sufficient to those about her. At 
last, when she had attained the comparative 
maturity and confidence of thirty-one years, she 
succeeded in making her will prevail. She 
gained admission as a nurse at the Kaiserswerth 
hospital founded by Pastor Fliedner, and fol- 
lowed up this useful apprenticeship with a term 
of similar service in the Maison de la Provi- 
dence belonging to the Sisters of Charity in 
Paris, after which, and as her last work before 
entering upon her great undertaking in the 
East, she acted as superintendent of an " Estab- 
lishment for Gentlewomen during Illness," in 
Upper Harley Street, London. The autumn 
of 1854 brought a call to larger and more self- 
sacrificing usefulness, and it was promptly 
answered. As head of a small volunteer band 
of nurses, Miss Nightingale left home for the 
distant seat of war, and there displayed pro- 
fessional and administrative abilities that won 
the applause of the world. In addition to pros- 
trating illness and other interruptions to the 
prosecution of her great work, there were the 
vexations of official hostility to her beneficent 
activities, and all the petty annoyance of red 
tape and a multitude of miscellaneous worri- 
ments. Her biographer gives a glimpse of 
these discouraging conditions in the following 
passage : 

" Miss Nightingale's work in the Crimea was attended 
by ceaseless worry. She had to fight her way into full 
authority. She knew that she would win, but her 
enemies were active, and were for the moment in pos- 
session of the field. ' There is not an official,' she 
said, ' who would not burn me like Joan of Arc if he 
could, but they know that the War Office cannot turn 
me out because the country is with me.' She was beset 
with jealousies in the Crimea, both in military and in 
medical quarters ; and to make matters worse, religious, 



and even racial animosities mixed themselves up in the 
disputes. Lord Raglan, who believed in her and always 
supported her, was now dead; and by some strange 
omission, the instructions which had been sent to him 
from London at the time of her original appointment 
were unknown to his successors in the command." 

She returned to England hopelessly shattered in 
health, and from an invalid's chair entered upon 
that long and noble labor for the reform of 
nursing and sanitation methods to which her 
field experiences in the Crimea had been only 
a starting point. 

Of these later philanthropic labors, and her 
many writings in furtherance of the causes that 
claimed her aid, there is here no space to give 
even a brief account. Let us rather present 
a picture of her in her London home, in South 
Street, when the more memorable achievements 
of her heroic life were over and she was enter- 
ing upon the philosophic calm of her honored 
old age. After referring to her brilliance in 
conversation and to Madame Mohl's description 
of her talk as "most nourishing," the author 
continues : 

" But for the most part Miss Nightingale's talk was 
rather earnest, inquiring, sometimes searching, than 
sparkling or eloquent. ' She is worse than a Royal 
Commission to answer,' said Colonel Yule ; ' and, in the 
most gracious, charming manner possible, immediately 
finds out all I do n't know.' Younger visitors some- 
times felt in awe of her; she could flash out a searching 
question upon a rash generalization as formidably as Mr. 
Gladstone himself. She was interested in everything 
except what was trivial. Her intellectual vitality was 
remarkable ; visitors who knew nothing of her special 
interests or pursuits were yet delighted by the stimu- 
lating freshness of her talk. . . . The humour which 
was characteristic of Miss Nightingale came more 
readily perhaps to her pen than to her tongue; but she 
always enjoyed a joke in conversation even, as we 
have heard already from one of her nursing friends, at 
her own expense. Sometimes she was teasing. A High 
Church young lady once went to South Street. She was 
delighted with her interview, but Miss Nightingale, she 
said, ' laughed at High Church curates a good deal : she 
said they had no foreheads.' She sometimes quizzed 
even her greatest friends. She used to talk with humor- 
ous indignation of Mr. Jowett's God as a ' man-jelly,' 
in contrast with the future life of work which she looked 
forward to." 

For the preparation of this full and authori- 
tative account of a most notable and noble life 
the author has had placed at his disposal by 
Miss Nightingale's executors the great mass of 
correspondence preserved by her, and also many 
other papers of hers, while her numerous pub- 
lished writings have of course contributed much 
of value. Portraits, bibliography, and index 
are not lacking to the book's equipment. It is 
in every respect an excellent and unusually 
important work. PERCY F. BICKNELL. 



56 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 16 



GUIDES TO THE CONTEMPORARY DRAMA.* 

What with the publication of plays in book 
form, the "readings" innumerable from stage 
successes of present and earlier seasons, the 
tabloid reproductions of the "movies," the dra- 
matic gossip and digests and criticisms of the 
newspapers and magazines, and the critical and 
appreciative works on the drama, the dweller of 
to-day in village or hamlet may know as much 
of the theatre as his metropolitan cousin. The 
books by Mr. Andrews and Professor Burton 
belong to an ever-increasing list of works on 
things dramatic, and provide guides, one to the 
modern British and American drama, the other 
to the American only. Both are admirably ad- 
apted for those who read more often than 
they see plays. Quite pertinently, therefore, 
Mr. Andrews warns his readers that "modern 
plays should be read as plays, with the eye of 
the imagination fixed upon their actual perform- 
ance, and not measured by old-fashioned literary 
standards." The student of the drama will not 
find in either volume any very fresh material. 
Indeed, Mr. Andrews frankly admits that " little 
effort has been made to shed any new light upon 
the topics discussed ; the attempt has been rather 
to present in small compass accurate general in- 
formation as to the leaders of the modern stage 
and their work, and to offer, in passing, some 
opinions as to the prospects and tendencies of 
dramatic art in our day." Mr. Burton's some- 
what more pretentious aim is " to put before the 
reader in synthetic fashion the native movement 
of our time in drama, placing emphasis upon 
what seem significant tendencies and illustrative 
personalities." Not only has each author lived 
up to his professions, but each has produced a 
well ordered and highly readable book. 

Both writers preface their main treatment by 
chapters on the general matter of the drama, 
with discussion more or less familiar even to the 
bucolic lover of the theatre, as, for instance, 
the eternal subject of giving the people what they 
want, the matter of morals, the spread of inter- 
est in the theatre, the " tired business man," and 
the Syndicate, in Mr. Burton's book; and a set 
of definitions covering dramatic types, plot, 
characterization, and stage conventions, in Mr. 
Andrews's work. Mr. Burton gives a hasty 
sketch of the earlier American drama, merely 
to lead up to the present. Mr. Andrews has a 

*THB DRAMA OF TO-DAY. By Charlton Andrews. 
Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. 

THE NEW AMERICAN DRAMA. By Richard Burton. 
New York : Thomas Y. Crowell Co. 



chapter on realism and the literary drama, cor- 
responding to Mr. Burton's on the poetic drama, 
which latter is one of the sub-topics of his main 
treatment. 

The discussion as to whether there is or 
should be such a thing to-day as the literary 
drama, seems to be largely due to a confusion 
of terms. There is a tendency to regard "lit- 
erary" and "poetic" as synonymous expres- 
sions, and to conceive of literary drama only as 
that which is decked out in the flowing robes of 
blank verse. There is surely no need of falling 
back upon Mr. Andrews's comfortable doctrine : 
"The best way out of the difficulty is to ac- 
knowledge what grows more obvious day by day, 
that drama, perhaps beginning in, or at least 
early combining with, literature, has evolved 
into a separate art, still relying on literary ele- 
ments, doubtless, but by no means exclusively, 
or even principally." Mr. Henry Arthur Jones's 
statement seems much more reasonable : 

" If you have faithfully and searchingly studied your 
fellow-citizens ; if you have selected from amongst them 
those characters that are interesting in themselves, and 
that also possess an enduring human interest ; if, in study- 
ing these interesting personalities, you have severely 
selected, from the mass of their sayings and doings and 
impulses, those words and deeds and tendencies which 
mark them at once as individuals and as types; if you 
have then recast and reimagined all the materials; if 
you have cunningly shaped them into a story of pro- 
gressive and accumulative action; if you have done all 
this, though you may not have used a single word but 
what is spoken in ordinary American intercourse to-day, 
I will venture to say that you have written a piece of 
live American literature, that is, you have written 
something that will not only be interesting on the boards 
of the theatre, but that can be read with pleasure in 
your library; can be discussed, argued about, tested, 
and digested as literature." 

As Mr. Andrews epitomizes all this, "truly 
literary drama is essentially neither poetical 
nor rhetorical, but simply good drama drama 
raised to the nth power." It is not a matter of 
verse form; dialogue wanting the accomplish- 
ment of verse may be as fully charged with poetic 
spirit as some dialogue not in that form, as 
anyone can illustrate at his pleasure from Shake- 
speare or any other really literary dramatist. 
Indeed, Lear's faltering cry, 

" Do not laugh at me, 

For as I am a man, I think this lady 

To be my child Cordelia," 

is as simple as anything in prose dialogue, and 
as far removed from the exalted blank verse 
which in the popular mind is associated with the 
poetic drama as is the veriest prose of a modern 
play, and yet it is the quintessence of poetry. 
The real difference between such dialogue and 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



57 



that of the poetic play of to-day is in the degree 
to which common speech has been raised, in 
the one case to the nth power, in the other to 
the square. Goldsmith and Sheridan wrote lit- 
erary dramas, as did Congreve and Farquhar; 
but they did not use blank verse or any other 
poetic form. That poetic drama, strictly so 
called, is not always dramatic or, for that 
matter, always poetic does not argue against 
the essential verity of the type. Mr. MacKaye, 
Miss Peabody (whom Mr. Burton triply de- 
signates as "Peabody," "Miss Peabody," and 
"Mrs. Marks," to the confusion of the unso- 
phisticated reader), and Mr. Stephen Phillips 
have made brave beginnings, which it is reason- 
able enough to suppose will lead to even greater 
accomplishment. There is nothing inherently 
impossible in Wall Street's finding voice in a 
poetic drama; already we are hearing of the 
"romance of Wall Street." After Mr. Mac- 
Kaye's " To-morrow," a fairly successful drama, 
throughout suggestive of the poetic, on the sub- 
ject of eugenics, nothing is impossible to a dra- 
matist with the gift of poetic expression. Of 
course, the poetic drama cannot be written by 
a playwright whose genius runs only to scissors 
and paste. Mr. Burton has faith in the future 
of the poetic drama, he says he " must disagree 
with those who hold that verse is no longer ac- 
ceptable in our modern theatre and particularly 
de trop in ' practical America.' " The whole 
discussion parallels the dispute as to whether 
Pope is a poet or not. 

Mr. Andrews's criticisms of plays and play- 
wrights are, on the whole, discerning and just. 
Occasionally in his desire to say as much as 
possible in the fewest words he appears super- 
ficial and even unfair. Thus he remarks of 
Mr. Mackaye's " To-morrow " that " the central 
situation wherein the hero, to save the heroine 
from her infatuation for the unwholesome lover 
she has selected, hurls him over a cliff into the 
sea . . . does not grow at all logically out of 
the characters." Why not? This act is but 
the explosion of the volcano in the hero's breast, 
which was mentioned earlier, and surely the 
motive for this explosion was furnished in the 
events. Likewise when Mr. Andrews says of 
Mr. Galsworthy's " The Pigeon " that it shows 
" the futility of charity for the submerged tenth," 
he ignores what is really back of the resultant 
fact, that social conditions have reduced the 
submerged tenth to a state where such lenitive 
measures as charity fail to remedy the disease ; 
the depth to which the evil has sunk into the 
social state is the subject of the play. So again, 



Mr. Andrews does not do justice to Synge's " In 
the Shadow of the Glen " when he says, in 
briefly outlining the plot of the play : " Luckily 
there is a tramp at hand, who carries her [the 
wife] away with him." The tramp is the actual 
embodiment of the liberty that the woman has 
all her life longed for and that her husband has 
denied her ; now it comes to her, and in a sweep 
of feeling she sees in the tramp a messenger from 
a better and a brighter world. Nor does " Riders 
to the Sea" merely depict "the quiet sorrow of 
a mother whose six sons have one by one become 
the victims of the remorseless sea." It portrays 
the utter desolation which overtakes a woman 
when all hope and all fear are gone together. 
Curiously in this treatment of Synge there is 
no mention of " Deirdre of the Sorrows," that 
most poignant of all his plays, the one which 
gives him his greatest claim to immortality. 

Both Mr. Burton and Mr. Andrews have fine 
hopes for the future of the American drama 
now in its infancy, and a constant faith born 
of knowledge. The significant fact emphasized 
by both men is the constant endeavor of Amer- 
ican dramatists to be true to American condi- 
tions, no longer to forage afield for plots but 
to get them at home, where they exist so abun- 
dantly. And Mr. Burton admirably shows 
how well the young dramatist is exploring these 
fertile regions, the fields of American busi- 
ness life, of social conditions, of humor, of 
romance, of sheer idealism. There is a search 
for an idea, not a mere patching together of a 
set of scenes that will make out an evening's 
entertainment for a jaded intellect. Mr. Bur- 
ton, with splendid confidence in the future, 
declares that "the higher instinct is astir, as 
never before ; that more intelligent activity has 
begun ; that the well-wishers of the theatre are 
everywhere fast consolidating for effective work 
of many kinds." JAMES W. TUPPER. 



SOCIAL, INSURANCE.* 

It is a whimsical complaint of old-fashioned 
persons that in these latter days the reciprocal 
relations of parent and child have been turned 
topsy-turvy. When we were children, much 
was made of filial duties; the duties of parent 
to child were for the most part beyond the scope 
of the moralists' scheme. Nowadays we hear 
much of parental duties ; but the duties of chil- 
dren to their parents are vanishing from the 

* SOCIAL INSURANCE. With Special Reference to Amer- 
ican Conditions. By I. M. Rubinow. New York : Henry 
Holt & Co. 



58 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 16 



moral codes. A similar revolution is taking 
place in the reciprocal relations of State and 
citizen, society and the individual. In books not 
fifty years old the expression "social duties" 
means the obligations of the individual to soci- 
ety. To-day it means just the reverse: the 
obligations of society to the individual. The 
old-fashioned citizen was supposed to exist, ethi- 
cally, for the State; the new-fashioned State is 
supposed to exist for the citizen. In former 
days, he was a coward and a traitor who was 
unwilling to die for the State, if such sacrifice 
were demanded. The contemporary State may 
perish under the weight of the burdens social 
reformers would place upon it ; but in the bright 
light of to-day it is clear that there is no worthier 
end for the State. 

As a people we have not yet become fully 
adjusted to this new order of ideas. American 
life has been prevailingly rural ; and agricul- 
ture, so we are told by the economic interpreters 
of the human soul, creates a patriarchal habit 
of mind. American thought has, further, been 
powerfully influenced by the accessibility of a 
frontier of no-man's land, where the young and 
strong and resolute might build homes and for- 
tunes, where the weak and vacillating might beat 
crooked paths leading nowhere, after the pat- 
terns of their souls. Hence an individualism 
developed, which was not confined to a prosper- 
ous middle class, as in England and other coun- 
tries of Europe, but permeated all levels of 
old American society. The pioneer American 
viewed his good fortune complacently as the pro- 
duct of his own unaided exertions, even though 
he did, with feigned modesty, impute it to his 
good luck, or gave perfunctory thanks to God 
for it. In misfortune he cursed his luck ; but 
the first shock over, he "took his medicine," 
and set resolutely about reconstructing his 
hopes. And if the misfortune involved his 
death, he closed his eyes in the pride of dying 
" with his boots on." 

We have travelled far from those brave days 
of individualism; but their spirit still haunts 
us. In an abstract way we know that the con- 
ditions of American life are rapidly becoming 
assimilated to those of the Old World, and that 
consequently the institutions that recommend 
themselves to the Old World should recommend 
themselves to us also. The Old World has found 
it necessary for the State to assume a constantly 
increasing portion of the burden of accident, 
disease, old age, and unemployment. Super- 
ficial historians have informed us that this 
movement received its impetus from Bismarck's 



attempts to "back-fire" Socialism; but this, as 
Dr. Rubinow proves conclusively, is an error. 
Social insurance in Europe grew out of the con- 
ditions of modern industralism ; consequently 
we know that it must develop iu America also. 
With most American students, however, sup- 
port of social insurance is still a matter of intel- 
lectual conviction, not a matter of feeling, a 
fact that manifests itself in the colorless char- 
acter of their writings. Such writings have not 
been lacking in number or in scientific merit, 
but we had nothing approaching a spirited and 
authoritative treatment of social insurance until 
Dr. Rubinow published his important work. 

Dr. Rubinow's qualifications for the compo- 
sition of a work of this kind are numerous. 
He was born in Russia, and emigrated to 
America in his eighteenth year. Since his 
arrival in this country he has lived, for the 
most part, in the centres of industry and com- 
merce of the Atlantic seaboard, and thus has 
been kept immune from the old American 
spirit of individualism. He is a highly trained 
statistician one of the best of the country, 
and possesses an indefatigable zeal for research. 
For three years he was employed as a statistical 
expert in the United States Bureau of Labor, 
and devoted his entire time to the preparation 
of the Report of the Commissioner of Labor 
on "Workmen's Insurance and Compensation 
Systems in Europe." Further, Dr. Rubinow 
is a propagandist by instinct ; it is his ideal to 
produce a convincing argument, not a scientific 
treatise of an exhaustive and stupefying char- 
acter. Accordingly, while the scientific quality 
of his book is unimpeachable, this is not its 
chief merit. What especially distinguishes the 
work is the keen interest it excites. The mass 
of facts presented is enormous, but the material 
is so well organized that even the reader who 
prides himself upon his contempt for facts will 
cry "More!" The book will be welcomed by 
the trained economist as the most competent 
treatment of the subject in English and the 
most convenient treatment in any language. 
The general reader should welcome it still more 
warmly as the one work that provides him with 
all the elements necessary for a rational opinion 
on this important subject. 

What do we know of the need for social in- 
surance in the United States ? Very little. For 
many years the subject of industrial accidents 
has been prominent in public discussion, but we 
do not know even the number of such accidents. 
Dr. Rubinow estimates the annual number of 
fatal accidents at 30,000, about a third more 



1914] 



THE DIAJL 



59 



than occur in the whole of Europe. The num- 
ber of accidents resulting in permanent disabil- 
ities he estimates at 200,000, of which 60,000 
are mutilations. To these may be added tem- 
porary disabilities lasting three months or more, 
estimated at 170,000. Such figures convey 
little meaning to the mind, but we shall under- 
stand them better if we translate them into 
terms of a war of the machine upon our own 
workingmen, a war vastly more destructive of 
life, vastly more fruitful in suffering, than the 
war of factions across the Rio Grande. 

Still less do we know of the extent in which 
our working class is afflicted with diseases 
originating in the conditions of their employ- 
ment. The money loss from industrial disease 
must be enormous. Dr. Rubinow estimates it 
at $650,000,000. Whatever the worth of the 
estimate, all will agree that such figures tend 
to minimize rather than exaggerate the extent 
of the evil. What is lost is not a few hundred 
millions that might have been spent for com- 
forts and luxuries, but medicine and nursing 
for a million invalids, bread and clothing for a 
million little children. 

Everyone is familiar with the pathetic spec- 
tacle of the superannuated workman, forced to 
eat the bitter bread of charity, or by right of 
kin to place the burden of his support upon the 
frail budget of some workingman's household. 
How many of them are there in the United 
States ? We do not know. In thrifty France 
fifty-seven per cent of all persons seventy years 
of age and over qualified in 1910 for pensions to 
aged dependents. In England seventy-five per 
cent of the same age group are now receiving 
pensions, by title of need. Even in agricul- 
tural New Zealand and Australia between 
thirty-five and forty per cent of all persons 
over sixty-five have proved their need for pen- 
sions. Dr. Rubinow accepts as conservative 
Squier's estimate that we have a million and a 
quarter of persons over sixty-five supported by 
charity, public and private. And these are not 
men who have led idle and dissolute lives ; since 
such men do not commonly grow old. They 
are men whose services have merited a serene 
old age. 

Accident, disease, and superannuation are 
among the inevitable incidents of human life. 
What is not inevitable is the destitution that 
so often accompanies them. We have relied 
upon the natural adjustment of wages to pro- 
vide a fund out of which the costs of occupa- 
tional risk and disease might be met. In vain ; 
wages are not higher in dangerous and unsan- 



itary trades than in others. We have relied 
upon private thrift to make provision for old 
age. Again, in vain. A great proportion of 
our industrial workers receive wages that barely 
suffice for current living. Mutual associations 
to meet the costs of accident and disease have 
been organized in every industrial country; 
great efforts have been made to extend the 
scope of their activities, but their achievements 
have been of slight consequence. The only 
solution of these problems must be attained 
through state action. To this conclusion Dr. 
Rubinow's argument must force even the reader 
of a decidedly individualistic habit of mind. 

For all the untoward accidents of the worker's 
life Dr. Rubinow's formula is insurance, with 
the costs borne either wholly or in part by the 
industry. For accidents the industry should 
bear the whole burden. If every 200,000 tons 
of coal costs a human life, surely the incidental 
economic loss should be borne, not by the 
dependents of the victim, but by the employer 
who profits from the mine or by the house- 
holder who buys the coal. No one will dissent 
from this conclusion, if such accidents are due 
to the fault of the employer, or are inevitably 
bound up with the industry. But suppose the 
accident results from the victim's own negli- 
gence. Suppose it results from his intoxication. 
Dr. Rubinow regards all inquiry into the dis- 
tribution of blame as vicious. The employer 
has a right to dismiss careless and dissipated 
workmen. This, Dr. Rubinow argues, is the 
proper penalty, not forfeiture of accident 
benefits. 

For the protection of the worker against the 
costs of sickness, Dr. Rubinow supports the 
plan whereby the employer and employee both 
contribute to the expense of insurance. It is 
obvious that in so far as sickness arises out of 
occupational conditions, there is every reason 
why indemnification should be at the expense 
of the employer, or, in the last analysis, of the 
industry. It is worthy of note, however, that 
Dr. Rubinow makes no attempt to distribute the 
cost between employer and employee on such a 
basis. His criterion of excellence is solely one of 
the proportionate sharing of the cost : the more 
the employer pays the better the system. 

For the relief of old age, two methods are 
employed, insurance as typified in the German 
system, and pensions as typified in the British 
system. Most individualists prefer the plan of 
insurance, since it places at least a part of the 
burden on the beneficiary, and hence savors 
less of charity. Dr. Rubinow prefers this plan 



60 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 16 



also, but for different reasons. By the insurance 
plan the employer can be made to contribute, 
and thus each industry is saddled with super- 
annuation costs, as well as with the costs of 
sickness and accident. Furthermore, this plan 
admits of differentiation. The highly paid 
worker receives a larger superannuation benefit 
than the ill paid worker ; and thus differences in 
standards may be maintained even in old age. 
To the reviewer neither argument seems cogent. 
If we should penalize an industry for exposing 
its workers to accident and disease, there seems 
to be no good reason why we should penalize it 
for permitting them to survive to old age. It 
cannot be said that it is the exploitation of the 
laborer by the industry employing him that is 
chiefly responsible for his arriving at old age 
in penury. Low wages may have the effect of 
increasing the profits of an industry, or they 
may have the effect of cheapening its products ; 
in the latter case the responsibility for exploit- 
ation is diffused throughout society. Further- 
more, exploitation may take the form, not of 
low wages, but of a low purchasing power of 
money, resulting from the acts of the retailer 
who gives short weight and charges full price ; 
the landlord who extorts the highest profits from 
the poorest tenements, the State which levies 
the heaviest burdens upon its weakest citizens. 
Where the responsibility begins and ends no 
one knows; it is therefore unreasonable to 
apportion the burden in any other way than 
through ordinary taxation. 

As for the differentiation of benefits, we may 
accept the plan as desirable in case of temporary 
disability, through accident or sickness. If the 
skilled laborer is temporarily disabled, he should 
not he forced down to the standard of the un- 
skilled laborer, lest he accept such a standard and 
lose motive for regaining his former earning 
power. This ground for differentiation of insur- 
ance benefits is wanting in the case of old age. 
Here it would appear wisest to assure a reason- 
able minimum of subsistence to all the aged ; if 
any persons desire higher standards in old age 
than others, let them be free to establish such 
standards through their personal^ thrift. Because 
a man has once belonged to an aristocracy of 
labor is no good reason why the State should 
constitute for his benefit an aristocracy of the 
superannuated. 

But what of the stigma of charity, if all are 
pensioned alike? Dr. Kubinow, like the indi- 
vidualists, supposes that the pension system 
necessarily implies an inquiry into the means 
of the pensioners, and the limitation of benefits 



to the very poor. It is doubtful whether such 
limitation is advisable. If three-fourths of the 
aged in Great Britain are able to qualify for 
pensions under the present act, four-fifths, at 
least, are so poor that a truly just State would 
pension them. Of the remaining fifth, who do 
not need the pension, some would doubtless 
apply for it and receive it. This, however, is a 
matter of no great importance ; if the aged rich 
demand their stipend, the State can later recover 
the funds through an inheritance tax. Such 
costs as would result from an all-embracing 
pension scheme would be amply compensated by 
the removal from the pensioner of the stigma 
of charity. 

A combination of insurance and pensions 
appears to be the only adequate means of meet- 
ing the just claims of labor under modern indus- 
trialism. This is the view of Dr. Rubinow ; 
and we may accept it, reserving the right to 
retrace for ourselves the boundary line between 
the two systems. With the assumption by the 
State of such a relation to labor, the economic 
distress now attendant upon personal misfortune 
would be much abated. Would the incentive 
to personal industry and thrift disappear ? No ; 
the State can never guarantee more than a 
minimum ; all the motives that spur men on to 
attain a position of superiority would remain. 
Would the springs of charity be dried up, with 
the disappearance of hopeless poverty ? No ; 
private charity would have abundant field for 
exercise in assistance to those who are seeking 
to rise from a lower to a higher plane. There 
is reason to believe that the sight of the irre- 
mediable poverty of those who are permanently 
incapacitated tends to produce callousness, 
rather than to call forth charity. Private 
charity thrives when it may help men to help 
themselves ; and opportunity for such charity 
will always remain. Will the burden crush 
the State? No. There is no modern State 
which could not assume it, and still raise rev- 
enues ample for all its legitimate needs in time 
of peace. But the burden will none the less be 
heavy so heavy that no State that has once 
assumed it will seek to enter upon competition 
with its neighbors in the arming of men or the 
building of forts or Dreadnoughts. 

ALVIN S. JOHNSON. 



MR. GEORGE MOORE'S "Hail and Farewell Vale ! ' 
the concluding volume of the three which he has de- 
voted to his reminiscences of Ireland, is to be published 
shortly by Messrs. Appleton. It is understood that the 
author deals even more faithfully with some of his con- 
temporaries than in the former volumes. 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



61 



MORE KNOWLEDGE OF THE UNKNOWABLE.* 



Although M. Maeterlinck's new book, " Our 
Eternity," is of much interest, it would be an 
impervious worshipper who could assert on read- 
ing it that the " poet of mysticism " speaks with 
the same authority when he turns out-and-out 
philosopher as when he remains at home en- 
veloped in mystic vapors. 

The chapters on "The Theosophical Hypo- 
thesis " and "The Neospiritualistic Hypothesis " 
are admirable, on the whole, for their adequacy 
of treatment and for their fairness. A spiritist 
could not object to the author's leniency ; and at 
the same time a skeptic would find his analysis 
rigorous enough. This part of the book is valu- 
able to the honest inquirer who lacks time to 
go through the wealth, or wilderness, of spirit- 
istic evidence, indeed, it is the only part that 
possesses absolute value to a fact-seeker and 
positive thinker. 

The key to the whole is in this final sentence : 
" In any case, I would not wish my worst enemy, 
were his understanding a thousandfold loftier 
and a thousandfold mightier than mine, to be 
condemned eternally to inhabit a world of which 
he had surprised an essential secret and of which, 
as a man, he had begun to grasp the least atom." 

Maeterlinck as a mystic naturally wishes the 
world to be the greatest conceivable mystery 
the greater the better for mysticism, which loves 
to lose itself in an " O Altitude." It would seem 
that he had a slight suspicion that in this age of 
super-active inquiry someone was likely to sur- 
prise a small secret from the universe, and he 
writes his book in the attempt to head off such 
a catastrophe. He rejects all possible solutions, 
including the religious ones, with a dogmatism 
not supported by completeness of logic or evi- 
dence ; and the conclusion is the most unsettled 
and agnostic imaginable, except in one vital 
point, the absolute certainty with which he 
endows his negative conclusions. Knowing so 
little of the universe as Maeterlinck pretends to 
know, it ought to be clear to him that he cannot 
know that it is impossible to know anything. 
Perhaps anything and everything is true, than 
which I can conceive of no greater mystery. 
The secret of the universe may be too simple 
and near for the philosopher; it may be that 
the random and hazy notion of the man in the 
street is right ; it may be that every good and 
every bad instinct, every good and every bad 

*OuB ETERNITY. By Maurice Maeterlinck. Translated 
from the French by Alexander Teixeira de Mattos. New 
York : Dodd, Mead & Co. 



world- view, is a true interpretation. This would 
appear to come nearer the meaning of an earlier 
and wiser book of Maeterlinck's, " The Treasure 
of the Humble." At any cost to his pet theory, 
Maeterlinck should not commit logical suicide 
by condemning any, even the absurdest, hypo- 
thesis. But this is the common squirrel-cage in 
which all agnostics revolve. 

I cite two instances of assumptions that no 
one should make, certainly not an agnostic. 
This is the first: 

" Total annihilation is impossible. We are the pris- 
oners of an infinity without outlet, wherein nothing 
perishes, wherein everything is dispersed, but nothing 
lost. . . . To be able to do away with a thing, that is 
to say, to fling it into nothingness, nothingness would 
have to exist; and if it exists, under whatever form, it 
is no longer nothingness." 

With the indefensible remark that " total anni- 
hilation is impossible " the author assumes that 
he has disposed of one of the "four and no 
more" solutions. For argument he creates a 
concrete "nothingness" into which he says 
matter would have to be flung. But is it not 
possible to conceive of a species of annihilation 
whereby consciousness ceases? Consciousness 
is a stream, as seen by modern psychologists, 
existing not in space but in time. So it may 
stop. The consciousness of wicked people, who 
have not worked out a soul worthy of everlast- 
ing life, why should it not "cease upon the 
midnight, with no pain" rather than go on to 
vitiate the cosmic consciousness? Without 
doubt, that is an imaginable view, and one that 
may hereafter gain some standing. 

The second assumption is seen in the fol- 
lowing extracts : 

" I repeat, if we do not admit that thousands of 
worlds, similar in all points to our own, in spite of the 
billions of adverse chances, have always existed and 
still exist to-day, we are sapping the foundations of 
the only possible conception of the universe or of 
infinity." 

" Whatever the ultimate truth may be, whether we 
admit the abstract, absolute and perfect infinity the 
changeless, immovable infinity which has attained per- 
fection and which knows everything, to which our rea- 
son tends or whether we prefer that offered to us 
by the evidence, undeniable here below, of our senses 
the infinity which seeks itself, which is still evolving 
and not yet established it behoves us above all to 
foresee in it our fate, which, for that matter, must in 
either case end by absorption in that very infinity." 

In all this it will be noticed that the author 
is very certain of infinity. To be sure, in the 
second quotation, there are two kinds of infin- 
ity, but we are forced to accept one or the 
other. The suspicion that the universe may not 
be infinite never crosses his mind. Yet finity 



62 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 16 



is not unthinkable; in fact there are certain 
mathematical considerations that make it more 
and more worthy of examination. The ortho- 
dox argument for infinity, that it is impossible 
to conceive of finity, Poe shattered in his " Eu- 
reka" long ago. As between impossibles, he 
said, there can be no greater or lesser. Finity 
and infinity are two incomprehensibles ; it would 
be silly to risk our all on the one before we have 
fully investigated the other. Yet in this book 
of Maeterlinck's, "finity" is assumed out of 
court: the word is only a counter wherewith 
to define infinity. 

One curious and striking hint of the drift of 
current thought is the indifference with which 
the author regards religion, and the utter neg- 
ligibility which he assigns to its solution. 

" Let us lose no time in putting from our minds all 
that the positive religions have left there. Let us 
remember only that it is not for us to prove that they 
are not proved, but for them to establish that they are 
true." 

" If this God punishes us for not having blindly fol- 
lowed a faith that does not force itself irresistibly upon 
the intelligence which He gave us; if He chastises us 
for not having made, in the presence of the great 
enigma with which He confronts us, a choice which is 
rejected by that best and most divine part which He 
has implanted in us, we have nothing left to reply; we 
are the dupes of a cruel and incomprehensible sport, 
we are the victims of a terrible snare and an immense 
injustice; and whatever the torments wherewith that 
injustice may load us, they will be less intolerable than 
the eternal presence of its author." 

Of all the javelins hurled against the various 
" solutions," this against religion is the deadliest. 
It will come as a shock to the devout churchman 
who knows that Maeterlinck has much of the 
prophet in him and is hailed by many as the 
most important of living writers. It will of 
course occasion little surprise to the student of 
the signs of the times. Many straws have been 
blowing in that direction, and recently have come 
some mighty puffs from such widely different 
men as Alfred Russel Wallace, George San- 
tayana, and Rudolph Eucken. Socialism has 
long been blowing a hot breath against the cold 
and senseless pillars of an institutional religion. 
However, it is worthy of more than passing 
interest for anyone to find mysticism and relig- 
ion at such odds. 

" It is well to acquire by degrees the habit of 
understanding nothing." If we interpret this 
statement generously enough, there is much pith 
and poetry hidden herein. Mysticism and won- 
der are fine cures for the weariness of a blase 

intellect. 

THOMAS PERCIVAL BEYER. 



THE STUDY or SHAKESPEARE'S STAGE- 
CRAFT : A CLIMAX.* 

Professor Brander Matthews is well qualified, 
in certain respects, to be the judicial summer- 
up of that busy study of the Elizabethan stage 
and Shakespeare's stagecraft which has been 
in progress for some years. His new book 
wears a climactic air. But while fully appreci- 
ating its several excellences, one must also 
feel that the work as a whole fails to present 
adequately the Shakespeare one finds either in 
reading the plays or in watching them pre- 
sented on the stage. One explanation is that 
the author endeavors, consciously or not, to 
fulfil two purposes which, when looked into, 
reveal themselves as cross-purposes. Primarily, 
as he himself suggests, the book "is a study of 
his [Shakespeare's] stagecraft." But it pursues 
also, and from a critical standpoint, Shake- 
speare's general dramatic development, taking 
up the plays in roughly chronological order f 
and presenting a characterization of each. This 
method of procedure the author was led to 
adopt partly, as he intimates, by the analogy of 
his earlier critical biography of Moliere; and per- 
haps partly also by the predilection, widespread 
at the present time, for tracing the "evolution" 
of Shakespeare, as of other organisms. 

The case of Moliere, however, presents a 
problem quite different from that presented by 
his great predecessor ; and on the whole easier. 
Furthermore, Professor Matthews's original 
contribution, in the case of Shakespeare or 
more exactly, the extent to which he has fused 
old and new ideas about Shakespeare in the 
heat of an original treatment is not sufficient 
to justify so ambitious a review of the general 
subject; especially as this subject had already 
been handled, after much the same fashion, in 
Professor Baker's book on Shakespeare as a 
dramatist. And finally, Shakespeare's stage- 
craft, in so far as it may be distinguished from 
his art in toto, is after all a thing of particulars. 
It may therefore be best presented after a 
method analogous to that in which Professor 
Moulton treated Shakespeare's story-weaving 
artistry: namely, through a scientific analysis 
of underlying principles, illustrated by a de- 

*SHAKSPEBB AS A PLAYWRIGHT. By Brander Matthews' 
New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 

t On pages 85 and 89 it is stated, as though an ascertained 
fact, that Shakespeare finished " Titus Andronicus " before 
writing his four early comedies, and these before turning to 
" Richard III.," "Richard II.," and "King John." It might 
here be added that on page 79 the parts of the lovers in 
" Midsummer Night's Dream " are mixed. 



1914] 



63 



tailed examination of a limited number of 
plays. The succession of fleeting glimpses 
which Professor Matthews gives us of Shake- 
speare's work fails to open up for us its dra- 
maturgic meaning. 

This deficiency, to be sure, does not prevent 
the book's being frequently interesting and sug- 
gestive in the matter of Shakespeare's technique. 
The author's knowledge of the drama in general, 
and of Molidre in particular, enables him to 
give us many a stimulating comparison. From 
his knowledge of stage history and tradition he 
reconstructs for us, though very hypothetically, 
the intimate relationship which must have existed 
between Shakespeare's work and the actors who 
originally " created " the roles. A commonplace 
chapter on the Elizabethan audience is compen- 
sated for by an excellent chapter on Shake- 
speare's theatre and another on Shakespeare's 
work as reviser and imitator. The main features 
of these two subjects which the reader of Shake- 
speare can really profit by, are nicely disen- 
tangled from the mass of pointless details which 
investigation has piled up. 

It is when the author gets farthest from those 
aspects of his subject which are closely related 
to the stage, that what he has to say is most 
lacking in fresh interest. For example, his 
discussion of the characters of Falstaff and 
Hamlet, which strikes the reader as distinctly 
digressive, is also thoroughly trite, and fre- 
quently clogged with encomiastic statements of 
a surprisingly conventional nature. It should 
here be remarked, too, that in a book which 
professes to deal with Shakespeare's obvious, 
dramaturgic motives, rather than with those 
attributed to him by critics, it is not pardonable 
to assert that Hamlet delays his vengeance be- 
cause " some means must be found to expose the 
guilt of Claudius and to make his death not a 
mere assassination but a righteous execution." 
This motive is of course what Werder and other 
determinedly palpable critics have discovered 
between the lines ; an audience does not feel it. 
Indeed, Professor Matthews not infrequently 
makes a quick transit from the theatre to his 
library, or study. For instance, we feel that 
his imagination is entirely with the audience 
when he shows us that the sublimity of " King 
Lear," " which stood out stark upon the Eliza- 
bethan stage, is sadly diminished, not to say 
obscured, by the elaborate scenery, the compli- 
cated trappings, and the multitudinous effects, 
with which it is perforce represented to-day." 
But almost every other point which he has to 
make concerning the sublimity of this drama has 



already been better made by Professor Bradley 
in his volume on " Shakespearean Tragedy." 

On the whole, we are indebted to Professor 
Matthews's work for fully demonstrating two 
useful truths. First, the study of Shakespeare's 
stagecraft will have had a corrective effect upon 
the currents of Shakespearean criticism re- 
ducing some romantic bubblings and opening 
up certain shallow channels which had been 
neglected. Second, critical comprehension of 
Shakespeare's stagecraft cannot, by any means, 
be distended into Shakespearean criticism ; since 
Shakespeare's most characteristic work is, after 
all, essentially poetic in conception, like that of 
Sophocles, and not merely excellent drama poeti- 
cally adorned, as the nai've reader might gather 
from the present work. And since these two 
truths are just what the " Shakespearean stage 
movement," if it may so be called, has all along 
tended to demonstrate, surely Professor Mat- 
thews's book may fittingly be designated the 
climax of that movement. It is impossible, 
indeed, to conceive that the public will require 
still another book of the same general nature. 
GEORGE ROY ELLIOTT. 



RECENT POETRY.* 

The high hopes which we entertained twenty 
years ago for the career of Mr. Stephen Phillips 
have not been fulfilled. The poet of " Marpessa " 
has declined, by gradual stages, to the poet of the 

* LYRICS AND DRAMAS. By Stephen Phillips. New 
York : John Lane Co. 

HELEN REDEEMED, and Other Poems. By Maurice 
Hewlett. New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 

A SYMPHONY, and Other Pieces. By Arthur E. J. 
Legge. New York : John Lane Co. 

ENGLAND'S GARLAND. By George Bartram. New York : 
The Macmillan Co. 

APHRODITE, and Other Poems. By John Helston. New 
York : The Macmillan Co. 

SALT-WATER BALLADS. By John Masefield. New York : 
The Macmillan Co. 

BEGINNINGS. By Roger Heath. Oxford: B. H. Blackwell. 

THE QtriET SPIRIT. By John Spencer Muirhead. Oxford : 
B. H. Blackwell. 

KNAVE OF HEARTS. By Arthur Symons. New York : 
John Lane Co. 

THE LONELY DANCER, and Other Poems. By Richard 
Le Gallienne. New York : John Lane Co. 

A WAND AND STRINGS, and Other Poems. By Benjamin 
R. C. Low. New York : John Lane Co. 

ATLANTIS, and Other Poems. By Julius West. London : 
David Nutt. 

MERCHANTS FROM CATHAY. By William Rose Bene't. 
New York : The Century Co. 

MINIONS OF THE MOON. A Little Book of Song and 
Story. By Madison Cawein. Cincinnati : Stewart & Kidd Co. 

THE THEBAN EAGLE, and Other Poems. By Chester 
Allyn Reed. Boston : Sherman, French & Co. 

THE POEMS OF PAUL MARIETT. New York : Mitchell 
Kennerley. 



64 



DIAL 



[Jan. 16 



" Lyrics and Dramas " now published, in which vol- 
ume the spontaneous lyrical quality is sadly to seek. 
Now and then it may still be detected, as in "An 
October Day ": 

" Through dry and hurrying leaves 

Golden our way ; 
Sound of the wind, south-west 
From the wild day ! 

" Wild all thy loosened hair, 

Blown in my eyes ; 
Till thou dost seem a part 
Of autumn skies. 

" Wild from the setting sun 

Rushes the rain ; 
Ah, be it true or false, 
Thy kiss again." 

Mr. Phillips endeavors to be timely, but it is at the 
cost of being poetical, as when he says of "The 
Aeroplane ": 

" Whate'er the silly crowd enjoys, 
Our Progress is but stench and noise, 
We scream and shout and grasp but toys. 
Leave us the air ! 

" The earth is blackened from our eyes, 
And filled with dismal hoots and cries, 
Spare to profane the holier skies ; 
Leave us the air ! " 

" The Submarine " likewise proves deficient as a 
lyrical text : 

" What clamour of old ocean-war, 
What thunder belched at Trafalgar, 
Matches in terror the unseen 
Stab of the silent Submarine ? 

" So, late in time has come to be 
This man-built menace of die sea ; 
God gave no monster to the main 
To make the works of man so vain." 

Mr. Phillips had better leave these themes to Signer 
Marinetti and his anarchistic gang. Most of these 
pieces seem tasks that the author has set himself, 
and the utterance is without the inner compulsion 
of true poetry. The " dramas " of this collection are 
three short pieces, not particularly significant, that 
occupy the latter half of the volume. 

A generous half of Mr. Hewlett's new volume is 
taken up by " Helen Redeemed," a narrative poem 
in couplets, with many dramatic episodes, dealing 
with the siege and sack of Troy. We may illustrate 
its quality by a passage from the last "stave," after 
the stratagem of the wooden horse has made the 
invaders free of the city : 

" But now is crying fear abroad and wins 
The very household of the shameful lover ; 
Now are the streets alive, for worse in cover 
Like a trapt rat to die than fight the odds 
Under the sky. Now women shriek to the Gods, 
And men run witlessly, and in and out 
The Greeks press, burning, slaying, and the rout 
Screameth to Heaven. As at sea the mews 
Pack, their wings battling, when some fresh wrack strews 
The tideway, and in greater haste to stop 
Others from prey, will let their morsel drop, 
And all the while make harsh lament so here 
The avid spoilers bickered in their fear 



To be manoeuvred out of robbery, 
And tore the spoil, and mangled shamefully 
Bodies of men to strip them, and in haste 
To forestall ravishers left the victims chaste. 
Ares, the yelling God, and Ate" white 
Swept like a snow-storm over Troy that night ; 
And towers rockt, and in the naked glare 
Of fire the smoke climbed to the upper air ; 
And clamour was as of the dead broke loose." 

Shorter poems upon classical themes " Hypsipyle," 
"Oreithyia," "Clyde"," "The Argive Women" 
follow this epic, and round out the volume, with the 
addition of some sonnets and epigrams. We quote 
the lovely sonnet, " Quel Giorno Piu ": 

" That day it was the last of many days, 

Nor could we know when such days might be given 

Again we read how Dante trod the ways 
Of utmost Hell, and how his heart was riven 
By sad Francesca, where sin was forgiven 

So far that, on her Paolo fixing gaze 

She supt on his again, and thought it Heaven, 

She knew her gentler fate and felt it praise. 

" We read that lovers' tale ; each lookt at each ; 
But one was fearless, innocent of guile ; 
So did the other learn what she could teach : 
We read no more, we kins'd not, but a smile 
Of proud possession flasht, hover'd a while 
'Twixt soul and soul. There was no need for speech." 

" A Symphony," by Mr. Arthur E. J. Legge, is 
a long philosophical poem of the soul's quest for a 
solution of the unfathomable mystery of existence. 

" The dust of his endeavour 

Is blown about the world. 
Time works to rend and sever 

The symbols that are hurled 
Down from each ruined altar 

And shattered temple roof, 
To bid devotion falter, 

And worship own reproof. 
Inscrutable and solemn 

The ironies that cling 
To splintered shaft and column 

And stone-work, harbouring 
Remembrance of the glory 

That crowned a passing creed, 
Dead chapters in the story 

Of Man's immortal need." 

This extract is from the opening "andante," and 
is only one of the great variety of metres employed in 
the four movements, through the languid "adagio" 
and the tripping "scherzo" to the long roll of the 
final "allegro." As an example of Mr. Legge's 
shorter pieces, we give these stanzas on ''Spring" 
a theme not unfamiliar to poets: 

" The first faint note of Spring 
Hums through the air, and surges 
Fiercely in troubled veins, 
With a mutinous ache that urges 
Our souls to go over the mountain-ring 
And view the uncharted plains. 

" We know not whose the call 
That stirs in the blood, and maddens 
With hope and a strange desire ; 
Even though the vague thought saddens, 
How early the blossoming dreams will fall 
And Autumn veil Life's fire. 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



65 



" But the voice, to shame our doubt, 
Murmurs a song of nesting, 
Ancient before our birth, 
An anthem of Power unresting, 
That forges the re-born harmony out 
From the old, orchestral Earth." 

We cannot say that Mr. Legge's verse is stirring, 
but it is thoughtfully wrought, and pleasing to the 
refined sense. 

"What weakling urges that the starry nights 
In woodland wanton with the joyous sprites, 
In meadow peopled with the tripping fays, 

" Have fled forever, and our souls are borne 
In endless circuit of the streets forlorn ? 
Who sings a requiem for the golden days ? 

" Though now no longer amid alleys green 
Brave hearts go riding, and the kisses keen 
Of sun and tempest uncomplaining share, 

" Though doubts delude us, and by deadly rote 
We learn Life's lesson, in stray hearts remote 
The sylvan secret lingers unaware." 

Thus opens the "Valediction" of "England's Gar- 
land," by Mr. George Bartram, a sheaf of verses 
dedicated to the memory of Borrow and " composed 
afield, in that abiding-place of beauty and romance, 
the remoter South of England." These are outdoor 
songs in praise of the vagabond life, and inspired 
by memories of England's historical and poetical 
past. They are dated (in spirit) all the way from 
the fourteenth century to the nineteenth, and evoke 
the ghosts of Chaucer, Spenser, and the Eliza- 
bethans, of Herrick, and Cromwell, and Cobbett. 
The following verses express the spirit in which 
the author has written: 

" Oh, yield not this that stirs thy sanguine heart, 
To the dull rabble's shallow scrutiny : 
That jaded tribe can have no part with thee, 
Thy thorn-fenced nosegays, or thy rugged art. 

" Seek thon no welcome from that alien crew, 
Leave thy poor posy to the cautious test 
Of English only, yet of England's best : 
The tardy verdict of the royal few. 

. " See that thy bantling wear a sober dress 
Good English homespun of the ancient time, 
For much that masketh it as modern rime 
Is tangled fustian, utter weariness. 

" Snatch thou from yore the stout simplicities 
And humours strange (then England but drew breath 
By love of life and valiant scorn of death), 
Be thy quaint garland woven all of these." 

" Lonicera " is a long dramatic lyric in which a 
man and a woman disinter their dead love, and 
indulge in mutual recrimination, which leads to a 
better understanding and a sort of forced reconcilia- 
tion. It is written in such blank verse as this : 

" There is no heaven lovers may not climb 
With the strong pulse of two-fold passion blent 
In psychic pinions Godward, nor no hell 
So deep that Love may hide his dead away 
Among its nadir-night of mocking stars, 
That haunt like ghosts what love might else have been. . . . 
Such reverence as man may give was yours 
Freely, I knew no higher God than Love, 



Nor needed any. Now is Reverence 
Done to such death as no dog ever died. 
And when you lied against my love there died 
Something, in flower, that will not bloom again." 

This is the first of a group of long pieces which fill 
about one-half of Mr. John Helston's volume, 
" Aphrodite and Other Poems." The love which is 
license seems to be their central theme. They are 
followed by an elegy upon Swinburne, from which 
one section is here quoted: 

" I hear thine echoes round, as though the world 

Fills her own flight with paeans through the spheres 
Whilst dying creeds as rotting leaves are swirled 

Along the dust of the decaying years, 
Till all the tree of Priestcraft's faith be bare 

Of fruit or any blossom as of leaves : 

Yea, as a god in whom no man believes 
Shall surely perish, faith shall perish there. 
Before man was were only Truth and Song. 

Yea, singer, seer, and prophet, Master thou ! 
Who sawest the future clearly come to pass, 

As from some far serene beyond the brow 
Of Morning, and God mirrored in a glass 

Wherein are Love and Truth where Fears are now. 
When man at last shall fare forth true and strong 
Of his own spirit, Truth shall right the wrong, 

The light of very God, that Falsehood mars : 
Still shall be heartened April into song, 

And there be heard old music in the stars." 

This tribute may fairly be grouped with those of 
Mr. Alfred Noyes and Mr. Arthur Ficke upon the 
same theme. There is a fine touch of indignation 
in the lines to Shelley, suggested by Arnold's mon- 
strously inept criticism : 

" They say it : ' Beautiful and Ineffectual ' thou. 
Then is the sun all potent save of fire, 
Growth, and the might to swing the spheres and swing 
Through their eternal courses night and day." 

From the shorter poems that follow, we select these 
gravely beautiful lines "In Autumn": 

" I see the sun grow old, 
Grow grey and old, and full of quiet, creep 
From the still slopes and chasmed ways of clouds 
That fill the frontiers of his place of sleep : 
Wan suns, that bleach the shadows cast 
On stubble-fields all day with mist of gold, 
Where evenings each one earlier than the last 
From golden mist prepare their paler shrouds. 
As nightfall gathers stars with viewless hand, 
So death goes wide and gathers in the dusks : 
The sharp white breath of morning on the land 
Gleams whiter for the empty chestnut husks." 

At present Mr. Helston seems to be classifiable as 
a neo-Swinburnian. But he is a young man, and 
he may in time acquire his own accent. This is to 
be hoped for, since his poetical gift is clearly out of 
the common. 

Mr. John Masefield's "Salt- Water Ballads" 
sing of 

" The sailor, the stoker of steamers, the man with the clout, 
The chantyman bent at the halliards putting a tune to the 

shout, 
The drowsy man at the wheel and the tired lookout." 

These poems are avowedly youthful compositions, 
now reissued without much change from their orig- 
inal form. "Hell's Pavement" is a characteristic 
specimen : 



66 



THE DIAL 



Jan. 16 



" ' When I ' m discharged in Liverpool 'n' draws my bit o' pay, 

I won't come to sea no more. 
I '11 court a pretty little lass 'n have a weddin' day, 

'N' settle somewhere down ashore. 
I '11 never fare to sea again a-temptin' Davy Jones, 
A-hearkenin' to the cruel sharks a-hungerin' for my bones; 
I '11 run a blushin' dairy-farm or go a-crackin' stones, 
Or buy 'n' keep a little liquor-store, 
So he said. 

" They towed her into Liverpool, we made the hooker fast, 

And the copper-bound officials paid the crew, 
An' Billy drew his money, but the money didn't last, 

For he painted the alongshore blue, 
It was rum for Poll, and rum for Nan, and gin for 
Jolly Jack. 

" He shipped a week later in the clothes upon his back, 
He had to pinch a little straw, he had to beg a sack 
To sleep on, when his watch was through, 
So he did." 

Mr. Roger Heath is a poet whose imagination 
has a cosmic quality. He sings pleasantly of "The 
Great Bear" as through the aeons the constellation 
views the pageant of the ascent of man from the 
brute. He even sings of the Fourth Dimension as 
a possible future revealer of "new loveliness for 
man to make his own." A fine poem called " The 
Resurrection of the Gods " has the following opening : 

" The world went out in blood and fire 
When the power of the gods was broken. 
Then came an age of starless night, 
A night of dreams and slow desire, 
And a little glimmer of ancient light 
Was left it for a token. 

And the eyes of a watcher might have traced 
A little stirring in the waste." 

So much for the past. The closing poem in the 
volume is called "Futurity," and sings of the return 
of the golden years in such strains as these: 

" God shall close 

This book of life and turn the final page 
Of the old record that is written there, 
And the new Universe shall be unfurled. 
He shall inaugurate the golden age, 
The tearless aeon, and in all the world 
The wilderness shall blossom as the rose, 
And we shall enter, and the stars above 
Shall sing a paean for our victory. 
And then at last God's spirit shall descend 
Into our hearts, and earthly love shall be 
A perfect copy of that perfect Love 
That made us fellow-workers for the End." 

"Beginnings" is the title of this modest little book 
of song that comes to us from the city of the 
dreaming spires. 

A second modest little volume that hails from 
Oxford is "The Quiet Spirit," by Mr. John Spencer 
Muirhead. He opens with a deprecatory note: 

" For I have known only of light April weather, 
Quick tears and quick laughter all mingled together, 
And nothing have known of a sorrow abiding 
Nor feared very greatly what darkness is hiding." 

He sings of "The Poet" in such dialogue as this: 

" Who is he that is girdled with summer, 
Whose veil is the grey night's woof ? 
That hath made the winds his pavilion and the ageless 
stars his roof ? 



It is I whose robe is the summer, 

The night is in mine eyes, 
I know the couch of the North Wind 

And the lair where the West Wind lies, 
And the stars are ever about me, and the flame of them 

never dies." 

Here is a charming picture of " Night ": 

" Upon the web of night the dewed stars lie, 

And the cowled trees stand watching on the height 
To guard thy sleep, my soul ; in jewelled flight 
A myriad planets swim the seas on high 

little lake that breafchest every star, 
Mirror of sleep, from the broad-petalled sky 
On thee the star-lit fragrance softly ran, 

That tipped thy waves with opal and afar 
Silvered thy lilies ; O that hence might I 
Drink Lethe of thee and with waiting eyes 
Dream through the long, long nights of Paradise." 

Paraphrases from Catullus and from the French 
poets of love make up the bulk of Mr. Arthur 
Symons's "Knave of Hearts." The original pieces 
are wistful, passionate strains of the kind that he 
has made familiar in earlier collections of his work. 
"The Spirit and the Bride" represents him at his 
best: 

" If, when the Spirit and the Bride say Come ! 

1 yet be found lingering by the way, 
Even as I linger while it is to-day, 

Wait thou, my God ! although I journey from 
My home on earth and from thy other home, 
I will remember at the last, and say : 
Thou who wast near when I was far away, 
Take me : the Spirit and the Bride say Come ! 

" Thou hast held me in the hollow of thy hand, 
And I have fought against thy power ; thou hast kept 
Thy watch over my spirit while it slept, 
Dreaming against thy wisdom ; I have planned 
Ways of escape, but thou hast overswept, 
Like loving water, all my dykes of sand." 

There is a close kinship between the muse of Mr. 
Symons and the muse of Mr. Richard Le Gallienne, 
as the following poem, placed side by side with the 
one just quoted, will show : 

" The bloom upon the grape I ask no more, 
Nor pampered fragrance of the soft-lipped rose, 
I only ask of Him who keeps the Door 
To open it for one who fearless goes 
Into the dark, from which, reluctant, came 
His innocent heart, a little laughing flame ; 
I only ask that He who gave me sight, 
Who gave me hearing and who gave me breath, 
Give me the last gift in His flaming hand 
The holy gift of Death." 

We are always a little doubtful concerning the sin- 
cerity of these songs of satiety ; the pose is so easy 
for the young poet, and so unnatural. It takes a 
Meredith, in the ripeness of his wisdom, to sing 
convincingly of a yearning for the grave. Mr. 
Le Gallienne's volume is entitled "The Lonely 
Dancer, and Other Poems." Its contents are grace- 
ful lyrics of love and nature, with here and there 
an emergence of the note of human brotherhood. 
The following tribute to the poet's present wife is 
very ingenious ; it reminds us of the lines written 
by Aldrich to similar effect, explaining to his wife 
that all his earlier love lyrics were really veiled 
tributes to " You dear, you, just you ": 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



67 



" I thought, before my sunlit twentieth year, 
That I knew Love, and Death that goes with it ; 
And my young broken heart in little songs, 
Dew-like, I poured, and waited for my end 
Wildly and waited being then nineteen. 
I walked a little longer on my way, 
Alive, 'gainst expectation and desire, 
And, being then past twenty, I beheld 
The face of all the faces in the world 
Dewily opening on its stem for me. 
Ah, so it seemed, and, each succeeding year, 
Thus hath some woman blossom of the divine 
Flowered in my path, and made a frail delay 
In my true journey to my home in thee." 

The confession is so human that it almost disarms 
cynicism. It is the way of man to discover his 
" Flos JEvorum " at the close of a long series of 
amourettes and tendr esses. 

Tuneful twitterings, neatly scored in a variety of 
lyrical measures, are given us in "A Wand and 
Strings," by Mr. Benjamin R. C. Low. There is 
nothing very arresting or magical about these songs, 
but their technique is good, and their thought clean- 
cut. A little more weighty in thought than the others 
is the "Rough-Hew Them How We Will," of which 
these are the opening stanzas: 

" Far-flying warders turn and tell 
Of thunders in the dreadful hills ; 
Pale prophets of destruction swell 
Beneath our darkened window-sills ; 
Virtue is dead, they say, and song ; 
And civic pride is sore beset ; 
Riches are right, and honor, wrong ; 
The world remembers to forget. 

" How are the walls of Babylon 
Tumbled and moulderous and gray ! 
And how her ruined Parthenon 
The soul of Athens bears away ! 
Slow-moving as a mist of sleep, 
The tides of destiny befall; 
Sand cities reared heap on heap; 
The ocean overruns them all. 

" Yet are the pinnacles of gold 
Beleaguered by our heart's desire, 
And still the hands of mortals hold 
The anguish of immortal fire : 
Death over death, the ramparts rise, 
And life on life, the builders go ; 
The spirit in the coral dies, 
The splendors of the coral grow." 

This is from "The Apology of an Opium-Eater," 
found in Mr. Julius West's "Atlantis, and Other 
Poems ": 

" You ask if I feel conscience-pangs ! 
You never hung where the moon hangs, 
You never rode in the Sun-God's car 
Or ever became a flaming star, 
Tossed headlong into the heights of space 
To hold with comets a fiery race. . . . 

" The courts of Heaven you never trod, 
Or heard the symphonies of God, 
Great sounds that massed and broke and tore 
You with them down a breathless shore, 
And breaking, colours bright became, 
And each a fierce vibrating flame, 
Rainbows that interwove and made 
A living net of every shade." 



There is imagination in these poems, and originality, 
especially in the long one which reshapes the legend 
of Atlantis. This picture of "The Haunted Ship" 
is striking: 

" They are not men that walk her deck, 
She is no ship, but a shell . . . 
For long years she has been a wreck, 
And those faint forms that move, as in a spell 
They once were men, and sailors of the sea, 
But now are flickers of the flames of hell 
Doomed to drift unceasingly 
Until an end shall come 

When the seas shall be still and winds be dumb, 
And to and fro she sways, 
And her torn rigging idly swings . . . 
And a chill silence follows all her ways, . . . 
Curst symbol of lost things.'' 

We like particularly this song of "The Nun Re- 
leased ": 

" The convent bells do toll, do toll, 
For Sister Anne died yesterday, 
And on the winds they say her soul 
Rides to its holiday. 

" They toll because her body lies 
Within the chapel, on its bier, 
Stained-glass colours round her eyes, 
She seems to smile, yet somehow drear. 

" For forty years, the Lord alone 
She served, and never looked on men, 
And trusted she had this wise sown 
Rare flowers of grace in God's garden. 

" But wrongly, for the truth, man knows, 
Though all are lost the soul who kill, 
God's deepest anger falls on those 
Who leave the body living still. 

" Reserving all his highest hate 
For those who make the flesh a tomb, 
For they His temple desecrate. 
For them He deals no easy doom. 

" The convent bells are tolling 
For Sister Anne in Heaven ; 
Though death is Life consoling 
To them who are forgiven, 

" No soul has been set free by death, 
Though the bells are tolling slow ; 
Only her body lacks its breath, 
Her soul died long ago." 

Another volume gives us this: 

" I would not be a dogmatist, 
Banging a heavy, hairy fist 
To crack the pint-pots on the table. 
But I would dream as I am able 
And noose God's wonders in a twist 
Of quaintest thoughts and rippled rhyme ; 
By happy turns of fortunate phrase 
Would capture Faith, and teach stern Time 
To mend his ways." 

Thus discourses Mr. William Rose Bene*t, in "Mer- 
chants from Cathay." He is certainly a master of 
"quaintest thought and rippled rhyme," although 
the "happy turns of fortunate phrase" seem to 
elude him. Gifted with an opulent imagination, 
and bearing a staggering load of the stuff of poetry 
on his shoulders, he makes us a little too conscious 
of the burden, and does not quite succeed in so 
ordering his expression as to escape turgidity. Now 



68 



THE DIAL 



[Jau. 16 



and then he achieves restraint and clean-cut form, 
as in the sonnet on "The Guests of Phineus": 

" Man hungers long. Into his cup is poured 
Wine of pearled brilliance or of flaming dyes 
From gold and silvern ewers of the skies 
The sun and moon. And on his banquet-board 
Rich lands of romance, glamorous seas, afford 
His vision viands. Yet with upturned eyes 
Like to poor Phineus, he still descries 
The shadows overhead, the birds abhorred. 

" Ye dark enigmas of this universe, 
Cloud not my feast ! God, give me thoughts to face 
And rend despair, as did the winged twain 
Who soared above the baffled guests of Thrace 
And hurled the harpies of Jove's ancient curse 
To whirlwind ruin o'er the Ionian main ! " 

Mr. Bendt is fond of classical themes, but he usually 
handles them in the wildest romantic manner. The 
realms of phantasy are his province, and he delights 
in the imaginings of Baron Munchausen and Sir 
.John Mandeville. It is not every poet who would 
be daring enough to write a chanty in Kiplingese 
for the Argonauts to sing as they plied the oar : 

" Lemnos lies behind us 

And ladies of good grace, 
Home, bring home the oars again and lift the coasts of 

Thrace ! 

Nor yet the Clashing Islands find, 
Nor stark Promethean highlands find, 
But here, of far or nigh lands, find 
Adventure's very place 

Adventure's splendid, terrible, and dear and dafting 
face! 

" Then, Orpheus, strike harp for us ! 
Oh, Talking Head, speak true for us ! 
Lynceus, look you sharp for us ! 
And, Tiphys, steer her through for us ! 
May Colchis curse the dawn o' day when first she thundered 

free 
And our golden captain, Jason, in glory put to sea." 

Ragged and swinging measures are Mr. BeneYs 
favorites, and they force his volume into a special 
format for their accommodation. But even the 
widened page is not wide enough, and a small type 
has to he used which is a serious obstacle to pleas- 
urable reading. This is the opening of the titular 
poem: 

" Their heels slapped their bumping mules ; their fat chaps 

glowed. 

Glory unto Mary, each seemed to wear a crown ! 
Like sunset their robes were on the wide, white road : 
So we saw these mad merchants come dusting into town! 

" Two paunchy beasts they rode on and two they drove 

before. 

May the Saints all help us, the tiger-stripes they had ! 
And the panniers upon them swelled full of stuffs and ore ! 
The square buzzed and jostled at a sight so mad. 

" They bawled in their beards, and their turbans they wried. 
They stopped by the stalls with curvetting and clatter. 
As bronze as the bracken their necks and faces dyed 
And a stave they set singing to tell us of the matter. 

u For your silks to Sugarmago ! For your dyes, to Isfahan ! 
Weird fruits from the Isle o' Lamaree ! 
But for magic merchandise 
For treasure-trove and spice, 

Here's a catch and a carol to the great, grand Chan, 
The King of all the Kings across the sea. 



Here's a catch and a carol to the great, grand Chan ; 
For we won through the deserts to his sunset barbican ; 
And the mountains of the palace no Titan's reach may span 
Where he wields his seignorie ! 

This is quite in the spirit of the rollicking ballads 
of Mr. Alfred Noyes, but just misses the magic of 
"Forty Singing Seamen," for example. Many of 
Mr. BeneYs poems are marred by infelicitous words 
and halting rhythms, but sometimes he achieves 
something approaching perfection of form. There 
is probably no finer poem in the volume than "The 
Rival Celestial ": 

" God, wilt Thou never leave my love alone ? 

Thou comest when she first draws breath in sleep, 

Thy cloak blue night, glittering with stars of gold. 
Thou standest in her doorway to intone 

The promise of Thy troth that she must keep, 
The wonders of Thy heaven she shall behold. 

" Her little room is filled with blinding light, 
And past the darkness of her window-pane 

The faces of glad angels closely press, 
Gesturing for her to join their host this night, 
Mount with their cavalcade for Thy domain ! 

Then darkness. ... But Thy work is done no less. 

" For she hath looked on Thee, and when on me 
Her blue eyes turn by day, they pass me by. 

All offerings ev'n my heart slip from her hands. 
She moves in dreams of utter bliss to be, 
Longs for what not of earth may satisfy. 

My heart breaks as I clutch love's breaking strands. 

" I clutch they part to the wide winds are blown, 
And she stands gazing on a cloud, a star, 

Blind to earth's heart of love where heaven lies furled. 
God, wilt Thou never leave my love alone ? 

Thou hast all powers, dominions, worlds that are ; 
And she is all my world is all my world ! " 

From " Wood Dreams," the opening poem in Mr. 
Cawein's "Minions of the Moon," we quote the first 
two stanzas and the last: 

" About the time when bluebells swing 

Their elfin belfries for the bee, 
And in the fragrant House of Spring 
Wild Music moves ; and Fantasy 
Sits weaving webs of witchery : 
And Beauty's self in silence leans 

Above the brook and through her hair 
Beholds her face reflected there, 
And wonders what the vision means 
About the time when bluebells swing. 

" I found a path of glooms and gleams, 

A way that Childhood oft has gone, 
That leads into the Wood of Dreams, 

Where, as of old, dwell Fay and Faun, 

And Faerie dances until dawn ; 
And Elfland calls from her blue cave, 

Or, starbright, on her snow-white steed, 

Rides blowing on a silver reed 
That Magic follows like a slave 
I found a path of glooms and gleams. 

" For what we dream is never lost, 

Dreams mold the soul within the clay, 

The rapture and the pentecost 

Of beauty shape our lives some way : 
They are the beam, the guiding ray, 

That Nature dowers us with at birth, 
And, like the light upon the crown 
Of some dark hill, that towers down, 

Point us to Heaven, not to Earth, 

Above the world where dreams are lost." 



1914] 



69 



The " way that childhood oft has gone " is the way 
into the magical realm of fairyland, and here we 
dwell with Mr. Cawein in a world of delicate fancies 
and fantastic imaginings which is made almost a real 
world by the poet's power of minute observation. 
He knows flowers and birds and trees with a loving 
intimacy that the professional naturalist may well 
envy him, and he enshrines and spiritualizes them 
in song so exquisite as to class him with Wordsworth 
and Tennyson. The volume is filled with joyous 
beauty from cover to cover, and it is with regret for 
the completion of the offering that we come to the 
Epilogue : 

"There is a world Life dreams of, long since lost: 

Invisible save only to the heart ; 

That spreads its cloudy islands, without chart, 
Above the Earth, 'mid oceans none has crossed : 

Far Fairylands, that have become a part 

Of mortal longings ; that, through difficult art, 
Man strives to realize to the uttermost. 

" Could we attain that Land of Faerie 

Here in the flesh, what starry certitudes 

Of loveliness were ours ! what mastery 
Of beauty and the dream that still eludes ! 

What clearer vision ! Ours were than the key 

To Mystery, that Nature jealously 

Locks in her heart of hearts among the woods." 

Other poets may voice the spiritual issues of our 
national life with richer expression and greater au- 
thority, but none of them can surpass Mr. Cawein 
as an interpreter of the beauty that lies at the heart 
of natural things. 

"The Theban Eagle, and Other Poems" is by 
Mr. Chester Allyn Reed. The titular piece calls 
Pindar a Philistine, and reproaches him because he 
did not write as a sentimentalist. A poem on 
u Magellan " describes the sea-conquests of the 
Portuguese : 

" Until the day when Diaz in the cold 
Passed the great Cape, and, lo, the way was free. 
Then at a touch the eastern kingdoms old 
Sprang from their long unbroken mystery 
And the far Indian Ocean was aflame 
With splendor of the new invading name," 

and then goes on to describe the wonderful voyage 
which proved to the most skeptical the sphericity of 
the earth. Of his verses "Off Viareggio" a 
tribute to Shelley the author says : 

" These are for those who love him, who have felt 
His presence deep within their fondest thought 
As when across a desert's burning belt 
The song of birds is brought." 

Mr. Reed's verses are thoughtful, neat in form, but 
not exactly inspired, revealing the poetic sense 
rather than the poetic faculty. 

Paul Mariett, a Harvard graduate who died a 
year or more ago of a malignant tumor, at the age 
of twenty-four, was a true poet in the making, as 
the small posthumous volume of his work attests. 
Reading what the two friends who have edited this 
volume say of him, we are reminded again and 
again of Moody, who was cut off, his renown unful- 
filled, by a similar stroke of fate. " For all the con- 



ventional attitudinizing of the poet over sweetness 
and light he had a bitter scorn ; he could hate with 
zest ; he believed that hate was a good robust virtue. 
To all kinds of softness Paul was a hard bed indeed, 
and to muffled personalities and finicky souls he 
was a cleansing gale." Thus one of the two friends ; 
the other has this to say : " He endeavored to 
extract the intrinsic from the accidental in love and 
beauty, in life and death. With all his joyous 
virility there runs through his work, almost from the 
beginning, an impending melancholy, that is neither 
the immature cheerlessness of skeptical youth nor 
the unrealizable unreality of a dreamer, but some- 
thing unaccountably sinister, and premonitory, a 
quality that pervades his most powerful and poignant 
lyrics, flashing out finally, nakedly mystical, in the 
poem, ' The Grateful Dead.' " We may as well 
transcribe this poem as another : 

" The grateful dead, they say lie snug and close 
Under the smooth, soft sloping of the grass. 
Grateful indeed because above them pass 
No other steps than those of wind or bird 
No other sound is heard. 

" For without eyes we see, and earless hear ; 
Sweeter is this than nights of restless mood, 
Sweeter than nights of blank infinitude, 
Sweeter than ghostly pageants of a dream, 
Half-caught, of things that seem. 

" Another life have we than those who live, 
Another death have we than those who die. 
Mortal and ghost and angel pass us by - 
Mortal and ghost and angel have one breath 
Die, would ye learn of death." 

WILLIAM MORTON PAYNE. 



BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS. 



Beasts of 
the past. 



The portrayal of the main pattern 
in the web of life as it has been 
woven in the Western world by the 
forces of evolution in past geologic ages is the main 
purpose of Professor W. B. Scott's "History of 
Land Mammals in the Western Hemisphere (Mac- 
millan). It is, however, with the evolution only of 
the highest types of animal life, the mammals, that 
the author deals, tracing their increasing diversifi- 
cation and modification from the small and primi- 
tive types of the Paleocene Period of Tertiary 
Epoch through the remarkable faunas of the Upper 
Tertiary to the much reduced mammalian fauna of 
to-day. The organization of scientific exploration 
by the State and its advancement by private endow- 
ments, the unifying influence of common language, 
and of educational and scientific organization, and 
of the single political control of the greater part of a 
continent, have made possible in this country, as in 
no where else in the world, the disclosing of the 
secrets of the past life of a continent and thanks 
to the able work of an enthusiastic group of Latin- 
American palaeontologists of Argentina of a 
hemisphere. No small element in the success of 
this project has been the discovery in America of 



70 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 16 



remarkable beds of fossils in the Great Plains of 
Nebraska and Wyoming, in the John Day region 
of Oregon, and in that unique death trap of the 
ages, the tar-pits of Rancho La Brea, from which 
the University of California has recently exhumed 
a most complete and superbly preserved representa- 
tion of the fauna of Pleistocene times. The author 
thus has at his disposal an exceptionally complete 
record of the past. His book is written for the 
general reader, and for the biologist who is not 
versed in palaeontological lore. The relations of the 
successive phases of life to geological time and to 
environmental conditions are in evidence through- 
out, and the details of teeth and skeletal structure 
upon which the palaeontologist constructs his con- 
ception of the ancient beast, of which he may pos- 
sess but a fragment, are correlated with those of 
the better known mammals of to-day. Indeed, both 
for biologist and for lay reader, one of the most 
instructive features of the work is the remarkable 
series of reconstructions, against typical environ- 
mental backgrounds, of these ancient mammals. 
A choice series of original photographs of living 
mammals, for purposes of comparison, heightens 
the value of these reconstructions. Professor Scott 
and the artist, Mr. Horsfall, have succeeded admir- 
ably in making these dry bones live again. How- 
ever large the element of conjecture in these recon- 
structed portraits, they are both interesting and 
instructive. The closing chapter, upon the modes of 
mammalian evolution, is brief, cautious, and tenta- 
tive, the author stating the various conceptions of 
the factors and their modes of operating. He lends 
some support to the view that the change from one 
species to the next in a line of descent was by small 
though abrupt mutations rather than by a series of 
gradual transitions. The chapter upon the primates 
perforce excludes the evolution of the human type, 
since there is as yet no critical evidence that primitive 
man originated in this hemisphere. Abundant and 
excellent illustrations, logical development of the 
subject, clear-cut and critical presentation of the data, 
and breadth of view characterize this standard work 
of reference on American mammalian palaeontology. 



A new textbook 
of American 
literature. 



Mr - iam J. Long's volume on 
"American Literature" (Ginn & 
Co ) is to be comme nded for its full 
treatment of the colonial and Revolutionary times, 
its bibliographical material and suggestions for 
study, and in most cases for its biographical sketches 
of authors. Its usefulness as a text for secondary 
schools may be impaired by the fact that it seems 
to be the work of an iconoclast with occasional 
enthusiasms and a theory. The theory may be 
inferred from this statement : " There are no Mason- 
and-Dixon lines, no political or geographical divis- 
ions in the national consciousness. Bradford and 
Byrd, Cooper and Simms, Longfellow and Lanier, 
Hawthorne and Bret Harte are here studied side 
by side in their respective periods, not as repre- 
sentative of North or South or East or West, but 



as so many different reflections of the same life and 
the same spirit." What "national consciousness" 
Bradford and Byrd expressed the author does not 
say ; and the critic who refuses to see the peculiarly 
New England characteristics in Hawthorne, or the 
peculiarly Southern elements in Simms not only 
ignores much that is necessary to the understanding 
of individual authors, but fails to trace the impres- 
sive unification of American literature during the 
years since the War. On the whole, however, the 
theory does less harm than it threatens in the 
preface. More striking are numerous interpreta- 
tions and critical judgments that challenge discus- 
sion. Only a few may be cited. That Lowell is 
the " only successor " of Cotton Mather (p. 349), and 
that Hawthorne seems " more akin to Wigglesworth 
than to any other writer" (p. 405), may be defen- 
sible propositions, but are likely to be perplexing 
or misleading to students who have not yet acquired 
a sense of relative values. So the remarks that the 
conception of nature in " Thanatopsis " "seems to 
us hardly more poetic than that of the Alaskan 
Indians, who say that the earth is a huge animal, 
vegetation is its fur, and men and animals are para- 
sites on its back (p. 202) ; that Poe's verse is 
"beautiful but apparently meaningless," and Poe's 
theory is "to the mature mind ... an abnormal, 
a diseased conception of poetry " (p. 239) ; that in 
" Tom Sawyer " " the hero is essentially a liar, one 
who makes a virtue of falsehood ; and his adven- 
tures are of a kind to make the thoughtless laugh 
and the judicious grieve" (p. 466); that Uncle 
Remus is " in some respects the most natural and 
lovable character that has ever appeared in Amer- 
ican fiction " (p. 468), these and many similar 
opinions will arouse interesting discussions among 
those competent to discuss. In view, however, of 
the tendency of pupils to accept textbook state- 
ments without question, the presence of so many de- 
batable utterances in a book for secondary schools 
may be a disadvantage. Even more harmful than 
these opinions are apparent mis-statements of inter- 
pretation and content, e. g., the remark (p. 237) 
that in " The Fall of the House of Usher " Poe 
" makes use of a favorite theory, or hallucination, 
that the will survives for a time in the body of a 
person after death." 

The case against In " Government Ownership of Rail- 
state ownership ways" (Appleton), a large and im- 
of our railroads. portan t question of public policy is 
discussed by Mr. Samuel 0. Dunn, editor of "The 
Railway Age Gazette" and already well known 
as the author of a book entitled "The American 
Transportation Question." Mr. Dunn ventures the 
opinion that " no more important question confronts 
the people of the United States than the question 
of what policy they shall pursue in the future in 
dealing with the railroads of the country." He 
examines in a seemingly fair and judicial spirit 
the various arguments for and against government 
ownership of railroads, and reviews the experience 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



71 



of other countries in which the railroads are owned 
and operated by the State. His conclusions are dis- 
tinctly adverse to the policy of government owner- 
ship in the United States. He reviews the more 
flagrant abuses that have attended the system of 
private ownership in the United States, and dwells 
upon the attempt to remove these abuses through 
the policy of public regulation. The argument for 
government ownership drawn from the experience 
of other countries is, he thinks, by no means conclu- 
sive, because the conditions in countries like Prussia 
and Japan where government ownership has been 
most successful are entirely different from conditions 
in the United States. He asserts that the railways 
of the United States are, considering all things, as 
economically managed as any in the world; under 
private ownership their development has gone for- 
ward at a rate which, until recent years, has not been 
equalled in any other country; the quality of the 
freight and passenger service is in most respects 
equal or superior to that of any other country, 
although it is admitted that the accident record is 
rather appalling; passenger rates in America are 
probably no higher than in most countries for simi- 
lar services ; the average freight rate per ton mile is 
the lowest in the world ; the condition of the labor 
employed on American railways is relatively as good 
as that of any other country ; and the experience of 
other countries, where the railways are owned by 
the State, would seem to indicate that government 
management in this country would tend to corrupt 
rather than to purify politics. Therefore the better 
alternative, according to Mr. Dunn, is to leave the 
ownership and management of railways in private 
hands, and at the same time to develop and perfect 
the present system of public regulation. 

The founder of Miss Estelle w - Stead's filial tribute 
"The Review to the memory of the late W. T. 
of Reviws." g tea( j j s appropriately entitled, " My 
Father," and is further described by the fitting sub- 
title, " Personal and Spiritual Reminiscences." The 
striking qualities of the man, and his activities in 
building what he believed to be a " bridge " between 
this world and that of discarnate spirits, are vividly 
and lovingly presented. Also the notable work he 
did as a great journalistic force for social righteous- 
ness is reviewed in such a manner as to command 
our willing admiration and to intensify our regret 
that so enlightened and energetic a reformer should 
have been removed by so untimely and tragic a fate 
from the scene of his beneficent labors. His birth 
in 1849 in the little manse at Embleton, his early 
life in that north country, his editorship of "The 
Northern Echo " at twenty- two, followed by that of 
" The Pall Mall Gazette " in 1884, and the found- 
ing of " The Review of Reviews " in 1890, with a 
necessarily incomplete account of the many good 
causes championed by him, all enlivened by frequent 
extracts from Mr. Stead's personal reminiscences 
and other writings, are well and interestingly set 
forth in the book's thirty brief chapters. Of course 



the once rather famous " Julia " and her " bureau " 
and her alleged " communications " receive due men- 
tion, as also sundry other matters that appeal to a 
love of the marvellous. But perhaps not the least 
extraordinary incident recorded in the book is the 
following in reference to the founding of the maga- 
zine with which Mr. Stead's name is inseparably 
associated. A memorandum from his own pen reads 
as follows : " The Pope, if up to date, ought to publish 
the Review of Reviews, which is an attempt to render 
accessible to all the best thoughts to be found in the 
periodical literature of the world. Before founding 
the Review I went to Rome to see what chance there 
was of the Pope undertaking the task. Finding 
there was none, I did it myself." Many portraits and 
other illustrations add to the book's attractiveness. 

(George H. Doran Co.) 

~~^~~~~~~^^^~ 
The career of Philip, Duke of Whar- 



Tlieamazini, 
DukeofWharton. 



t 



_, _,.,,., TT- r A u u j 

English history. His father had been 
an unrelenting opponent of the Stuarts and was one 
of the chief members of the Whig " organization " 
in the days of William III., and young Lord Philip 
should have inherited a large measure of political 
influence along with titles and wealth ; but he threw 
away his future while still a youth, and took up the 
cause of the Stuart Pretender. This act in time led 
to outlawry, deep poverty, and finally to death in a 
Franciscan monastery. At the time of his death he 
was only in his thirty-third year ; but he had made 
a profound, though not entirely favorable, impression 
on the men of his time both in England and on the 
Continent. Alexander Pope characterized him as 
"the scorn and wonder of our days "; he appears as 
Lorenzo in Young's " Night Thoughts," and as Love- 
lace in Richardson's " Clarissa Harlowe "; Hogarth 
introduced him into one of his paintings. It is this 
career that Mr. Lewis Melville has traced in his 
latest work, "The Life and. Writings of Philip, Duke 
of Wharton " (Lane). We may agree with the author 
that "a character more interesting . . . does not often 
fall to the lot of a biographer"; but the reviewer 
would like to express a doubt as to whether it is 
really worth while to produce a detailed study of a 
life that was a failure in every way and that left no 
impress on the history of the time. The author, 
however, has done his work well ; he devotes most 
of his space to Wharton's public career, but does not 
neglect the private life of his subject. No attempt 
is made to gloss over the moral and financial ex- 
travagance of the man, though Mr. Melville does 
think that the worst thing about the " Hell- fire Club," 
of which Wharton was president, was its name. The 
permanent value of the work will be found chiefly 
in the documents that the author has collected, the 
Duke's efforts at poetry, some of his letters and 
speeches, and various other documents that belong 
to his personal history or to that of the Wharton 
family. The volume also contains seventeen excel- 
lent illustrations, chiefly portraits of the men who 
made history during the early eighteenth century. 



72 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 16 



Miscellanies Ladv Ritchie has a store of notable 
bv Thackeray's memories to draw upon whenever she 
daughter. chooses to put pen to paper for the 

delectation of her readers, and it is largely with such 
memories that her new volume of collected papers, 
" From the Porch" (Scribner), entertainingly deals. 
First comes " A Discourse on Modern Sibyls " 
namely, George Eliot, Mrs. Gaskell, Charlotte 
Bronte, and Mrs. Oliphant all of whom the writer 
knew and admired in their time ; then a reminiscent 
fragment on Charles Dickens, after which follows 
another retrospective piece, "A Dream of Kensing- 
ton Gardens"; next we have a half-dozen "mono- 
graphs," on Sainte Jeanne of Chantal, Anna 
Seward, known as "the Swan of Lichfield," Mrs. 
John Taylor of Norwich, the art of being a grand- 
parent, the painter Morland at Freshwater Bay, and 
another painter, of a later generation, Alfred Stevens. 
Finally, a smaller sheaf of papers is offered, having 
to do with the beginnings of "The Cornhill Maga- 
zine," and sundry other matters more personal to the 
writer. Where Lady Ritchie does not write from 
her own memories she usually has unpublished letters 
or other special sources of information to give fresh- 
ness and vitality to her narrative. Even the now 
somewhat mythical " Swan of Lichfield " is made to 
live again in the packet of letters quoted from by 
Lady Ritchie. We see her writing to a corre- 
spondent (from whom the letter, with others, passed 
to Thackeray's daughter) " with the vilest pen that 
ever scored," and still persisting, "though night 
creeps on apace, and the drowsie hour steals upon 
me. I should have written before to express my 
gratitude, but that I had promised to work Mr. 
Charles Buckeridge a waistcoat by the next As- 
sembly." A reference to " a well-known critic, an 
American lady, Miss Fanny Repplier," still goes un- 
corrected in the re-edited form of the essay. A por- 
trait of the writer appears as frontispiece, and a 
view of " the porch " later in the volume. 



called the No. 



The feeling for the transitoriness of 
life runs like a leitmotiv through 
the old Japanese lyrical dramas 



"The dew remains until the wind doth blow! 
The dew remains until the wind doth blow ! 
My own life fleeting 1 as a drop of dew, 
What will become of me as time doth pass^? " 

Plots and characters are alike developed just far 
enough to bring out through them the Buddhistic 
belief that "life is a dome of many-colored glass" 
from the agonizing delusions of which it is only 
possible to escape by regarding all actual facts and 
experiences as inessential and indeed unreal: 

'* If only thou wouldst once but cast away 
The clouds of thy delusions, thou wouldst be 
Freed from thy many sins and from all ills." 

Such at least is the impression left by Miss M. C. 
Stopes's exquisite translations of the No, and her 
comments on this fast-fading relic of mediaeval Jap- 



anese feudalism (Dutton). All the sensitiveness to 
design, the delicacy of rhythm and color, that we 
associate with Japanese paintings and prints are to 
be found in these texts; with, in the actual repre- 
sentations themselves, as the editor tells us, the addi- 
tional beauties of an elaborate conventional acting 
and posture and a peculiar chanting by protagonists 
and chorus, all emphasizing aesthetically the religi- 
ous character of the drama. The effect is not unlike 
what one imagines the ancient religious drama of 
the Greeks to have been; there is the same brevity 
of plot, the same limited number of actors, all men, 
the same use of masks and symbolic scenery and 
costume. The No suggests a further classical com- 
parison through the myth of its origin in a sacred 
dance. The best of the Greek priests and philoso- 
phers, moreover, would have taken pleasure in 
recognizing the mystic idea shadowed forth in this 
portrayal of life, Plato would surely have under- 
stood its emphasis on Eternal Being and its subordi- 
nation of the passing accidentals of life to its essence. 
No one to-day who is at all interested either in phil- 
osophy or drama or Japanese civilization can afford 
to miss this illuminating and sympathetic treatment 
of a subject so difficult for westerners to learn about 
and to understand. The beautiful illustrations from 
color-prints add great value to the text. 



Speeches of c H ect i n of addresses by Lord 

a British Milner published under the title 

imperialist. The N at i on an( j t h e Empire" 

(Houghton) comprises seventy-eight speeches, deliv- 
ered since the eve of his departure for South Africa 
in 1897, and of these twenty-two were made in the 
latter country during his historic service as High 
Commissioner. Since his return in 1905 his interest 
in the concerns of South Africa has been keen, and 
many of the other addresses deal in whole or in 
part with problems of the new Union. Second in 
number are the speeches devoted to Imperial Unity, 
and on this subject his ideas are well presented in 
six addresses given in Canada in 1908. Other sub- 
jects dealt with are tariff reform, national service, 
and social progress. Lord Milner to-day stands as 
a leader of the British Imperialists. And yet he 
realizes the unfortunate connotation of the term. 
" When we, who call ourselves Imperialists, talk of 
the British Empire, we think of a group of states, 
independent of one another in their local affairs, 
but bound together for the defence of their common 
interests, and the development of a common civili- 
zation, and so bound, not in an alliance, for alli- 
ances can be made and unmade, and are never more 
than nominally lasting, but in a permanent organic 
union. Of such a union, we fully admit, the domin- 
ions of our sovereign, as they exist to-day, are only 
the raw material. Our ideal is still distant, but we 
are firmly convinced that it is not visionary nor 
unattainable." And in another place this ideal is 
described as "that of a great and continuous national 
life, shared by us with our kinsmen, who have built 
up new communities in distant parts of the earth, 



1914J 



THE DIAL 



73 



enabling them and us together to uphold our tradi- 
tional principles of freedom, order and justice, and 
to discharge with ever-increasing efficiency our duty 
as guardians of the more backward races who have 
come under our sway." Toward the attainment of 
this ideal, Lord Milner's public addresses have 
doubtless done much, and the present collection will 
be welcomed by his fellow-workers throughout the 
Empire. . . 

, It is gratifying to note that Jane 
A summary of i 11 

jane Austen's Austen has at last been accorded a 
life and work. p i ace j n tne excellent "English Men 
of Letters " series (Macmillan). George Eliot, 
Maria Edgeworth, and Fanny Burney were already 
represented in the series; the volume on Jane 
Austen is just published; and, happily, one on Mrs. 
Gaskell is announced as "in press." The author 
of the work now in hand, Mr. Francis Warre Cor- 
nish, Vice Provost of Eton College, has, in his 
fifty-four pages of condensed biography, closely fol- 
lowed Messrs. Austen-Leigh's recent book, "Jane 
Austen : Her Life and Letters."* He finds but 
meagre data for a biography of the novelist; and is 
able to add, in fact, nothing to the material already 
provided. The novels of Jane Austen are summa- 
rized rather fully in the succeeding chapters of the 
book ; the critical comment is comparatively slight. 
The author is sympathetic with his subject, and 
conventional in his estimate. His closing chapter 
gives a summary of the novelist's attributes. He 
considers her style not remarkably distinguished, 
and her plots neither original nor striking. "She 
has little idealism, little romance, tenderness, 
poetry, or religion . . . and yet she stands by the 
side of Moliere, unsurpassed among writers of prose 
and poetry, within the limits which she imposed on 
herself, for clear and sympathetic vision of human 
character." 

What might be called a sequel to or 
rural contL amplification of her " Mountain Play- 
mates" is offered to her readers by 
Mrs. John Albee ( Helen R. Albee) in her latest vol- 
ume, " A Kingdom of Two " (Macmillan). Described 
on the title-page as "a true romance of country life," 
it shows us the wholesome, simple pleasures of New 
England country life in a succession of essays in 
which the embroidery of imagination and fancy is 
deftly added to the central pattern of homely real- 
ism and somewhat stern actuality. For life is no 
continuous holiday on the rock-ribbed hillsides of 
New Hampshire where (in the little town of Pe- 
quaket) the Albees have their secluded home. Such 
chapter-headings as "The Cow," "A May Morning," 
" An Old House Site," " A Garden Tragedy," and 
"The Magic of Daily Life " will indicate the nature 
of the book's contents. The critical feader will note, 
on an early page, Mrs. Albee's rather unfortunate 
attempt to form from the familiar ipse dixit a Latin 
motto which shall mean, " She Now Speaks." " Ipsa 
Nunc Diftet" is the result of her efforts, with "dicet " 

* See THE DIAL, Oct. 16, 1913. 



twice repeated to make plain that it is no mere 
misprint. Beautiful rural scenes, reproduced from 
photographs, illustrate the book. Its tone and style 
will not disappoint those who have already found 
pleasure in Mrs. Albee's writings. 



Captain Andrew W. Nelson, who has 

Yarns of a followed the sea from boyhood, and 

Swedish sailor. . . .. j 

has kept a diary of his adventures- 

from the beginning, turns author in his later years 
and proposes to chronicle his life on the ocean wave y 
" one cruise at a time," for the benefit of those who 
find relish in the salty savor of this kind of liter- 
ature and they are surely not few in number. 
"Yankee Swanson" (Sturgis & Walton Co.) is th 
initial number of the series, and takes its name from 
the first mate of the "Forsette," a Swedish vessel 
on which the author made his first acquaintance with 
seafaring at the age of thirteen, and with which he 
remained for ten months of momentous import to 
him and full of incidents not uninteresting to others. 
Perhaps one might prefer a little less minuteness of 
unimportant detail. Continuing his autobiographic 
narrative on the present plan, Captain Nelson will 
give to the world a chronicle more voluminous than 
the history of " Jean-Christophe." In his story one 
cannot see the ocean for the ripples. A portrait of 
the author appears as frontispiece, and other illus- 
trations are provided. We wonder why the Captain 
did not retain his good Swedish name of Nilsson. 



BRIEFER MENTION. 



Professor Allen C. Thomas adds a new " History of 
England " (Heath) to the long list of admirable manuals 
that compete for the favor of instructors in secondary 
schools. These books, with all the modern improve- 
ments, make us wonder that we ever put up with the 
miserable texts thatalone were available a generation ago. 
A valuable feature of this work is the appendix giving 
a condensed history of the Continent down to 1648. 

Hazlitt is a critic who is too little read in these days, 
and yet no student of English literature can afford to 
neglect him. It is for the use of such students that 
Dr. Jacob Zeitlin has compiled the volume which he 
calls " Hazlitt on English Literature," now published 
at the Oxford University Press. The selections form- 
a running commentary on our literature all the way 
from the Elizabethans to Byron and Scott. The intro- 
ductory essay on Hazlitt is an admirable piece of criti- 
cism, and the notes are ample and informing. 

In the series of " Riverside Press Editions " Messrs. 
Houghton Mifflin Company have now included a re 
print of " The Diamond Necklace," one of the most 
brilliant and vivid of Carlyle's historical essays, and one 
that has not heretofore appeared in separate form. 
The volume is a small octavo, printed on French hand- 
made paper, and decorated with several exquisite 
vignettes in the 18th century French manner. Another 
late addition to the same series is a quarto reprint of 
Washington's Farewell Address, printed on French 
hand-made paper, the external setting being admirably 
attuned to the impressive dignity of the text. The 
appearance of these new volumes tempts us to repeat 



74 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 16 



what we have more than once said in the past, that 
taken as a whole this series of " Riverside Press Edi- 
tions " constitutes the most interesting and praiseworthy 
achievement in the field of fine book-making that this 
country has to show. 

Several recent additions to the admirable "Oxford 
Editions " include William Morris's poems and prose 
tales published previously to 1870; Dante Gabriel 
Rossetti's poems and translations, 1850-1870, including 
"Hand and Soul" and "The New Life"; Blake's 
poetical works, with some matter hitherto unpublished, 
the whole laboriously edited from original sources by 
Mr. John Sampson ; and " A Century of Parody and 
Imitation," an excellent anthology compiled by Messrs. 
Walter Jerrold and R. M. Leonard. Painstakingly 
edited, faultlessly printed, and substantially bound, the 
books in this series excel any others that we know of, 
at anything like the same price. 

"English Prose" (Longmans), edited by Drs. F. W. 
Roe and G. R. Elliott, is a volume " designed primarily 
for the discussion and practice in college classes of the 
art of composition." Its contents are representative 
examples of the best English prose writing, arranged 
in nine related groups. Some of the groups are " The 
Personal Life," "Public Affairs," "Education," and 
"Literature and Art." Each group comprises several 
longish examples, the first-named giving us Emerson on 
" Self-Reliance," Lamb's " Old China," an extract from 
Ruskin's " Prseterita," and one from Mill's " Autobi- 
ography." The book provides the best of reading, quite 
aside from its purpose for the technical instruction of 
students. 

During the last two decades of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, Mr. Thorn as Hardy published in various periodicals 
a dozen " minor novels " which have grown unfamiliar 
to the public because not included in the standard sets 
of his writings. These are now collected by the Messrs. 
Harper in a volume entitled "A Changed Man, The 
Waiting Supper, and Other Tales." The last of the 
twelve, " The Romantic Adventures of a Milkmaid," is 
perhaps better known than the others to present-day 
readers. It is also much the longest. Now that Mr. 
Hardy remains in unquestioned solitary preeminence 
among living English writers, it is particularly desirable 
that his more fugitive work should be made easily 
accessible, and for that reason, and others, we give this 
volume a cordial welcome. 

The twelfth volume in the " Art of Life " series 
(Huebsch) is entitled " The Use of Leisure," and con- 
siders its theme under a threefold division, " Wanted 
Leisure," "The Right Use of Leisure," and " Work, 
the Creator." After a spirited invective against 
drudgery and the industrial conditions that have made 
drudgery an apparent necessity for most of the world, 
the writer, Mr. Temple Scott, points the way to the 
right use of our free time, telling us that there are two 
essentials to such right use, the getting of health and 
keeping it, and the getting of a mind and using it. 
The final section deals with that fruitful and enjoyable 
activity which is work in its best sense, as distinguished 
from soulless drudgery. Incidentally, the office of the 
poet is extolled, and the increasing present need of his 
services is pointed out. Mr. Scott's pages are aglow 
with fervor, and one cannot but wish his book might 
usher in a millennium of rightly used leisure. It will 
at least plant a fertile seed here and there in soil pre- 
pared for its reception. 



NOTES. 



Mr. Alfred Noyes's series of Lowell lectures on "The 
Sea in English Poetry " are to be issued in book form 
at an early date. 

Mr. Arnold Bennett is reported as being engaged 
upon a play the scene of which is laid in Spain of the 
sixteenth century. 

Mr. Robert Hunter, author of " Poverty," has in 
press with the Macmillan Co. a study of " Violence and 
the Labor Movement." 

" The Congresswoman " is the title of a new novel 
by Mrs. Isabel C. Curtis which the Browne & Howell 
Co. plan for early issue. 

An anonymous psychological novel entitled " My 
Wife's Hidden Life " will be published next month by 
Messrs. Rand, McNally & Co. 

Two novels planned for January issue by J. B. 
Lippincott Co. are Mr. John Reed Scott's " The Red 
Emerald " and Grace Livingston Hill Lutz's "The Best 
Man." 

" Boycotts and the Labor Struggle " by Mr. Harry 
W. Laidler, with an Introduction by Professor Henry 
R Seager, of Columbia University, will be published 
at once by the John Lane Co. 

Dr. Clara Barrus, who for some time past has acted 
as Mr. John Burroughs's secretary, has written a book 
entitled " Our Friend John Burroughs " which will be 
published during the Spring by Houghton Mifflin Co. 

M. Anatole France's satirical novel, " Les Anges," 
will be an important publication of the Spring season. 
Since its appearance serially, M. France has subjected 
the work to thorough revision, and has made some 
lengthy additions. 

" Earmarks of Literature," a collection of essays by 
Mr. Arthur E. Bostwick of the St. Louis Public Library, 
and "Gerhart Hauptmann: His Life and His Work," 
by Mr. Karl Holl, are among the January announce- 
ments of Messrs. A. C. McClurg & Co. 

Mr. Clement K. Shorter's study of " George Borrow 
and his Circle " will be published this month by 
Houghton Mifflin Co. This house has also in press 
for January issue Dr. Richard C. Cabot's " What Men 
Live By " and Mr. T. Philip Terry's guide-book to the 
Japanese Empire. 

" Great Poems Interpreted," by Professor Waitman 
Barbe, of West Virginia University, will be issued 
immediately by Messrs. Hinds, Noble & Eldredge. 
The book is more advanced than the same author's 
" Famous Poems Explained," and is the result of 
studies in the Bodleian Library at Oxford. 

A " Drama League Series of Plays " is being pro- 
jected by Messrs. Doubleday, Page & Co. The plays 
will be selected by a committee on which both the 
Drama League of America and the publishers are rep- 
resented. Mr. Percy MacKaye's " A Thousand Years 
Ago " and Mr. Charles Kenyon's " Kindling " are 
announced as the first titles to appear. 

A translation from the German of " The Education 
of Karl Witte " has been completed by Professor Leo 
Wiener of Harvard University, and the book is set for 
publication at an early date by the Thomas Y. Crowell 
Co. Mr. H. Addington Bruce, of the editorial staff of 
"The Outlook," has supplied an Introduction and has 
cooperated with Professor Wiener in the editing of the 
translation. 



1914] 



THE DJAJL 



75 



Among the books in preparation at the Oxford Uni- 
versity Press are a " Bibliography of the Works of Dr. 
Johnson " by the late W. P. Courtney, a volume on 
" Pestilence in Literature and Art " by Dr. Raymond 
Crawfurd, a history of " English University Drama from 
1540 to 1603 " by Professor Boas, a " Concise Dante 
Dictionary" by Dr. Paget Toynbee, and a work on "The 
Gods of Northern Buddhism " by Miss Alys Getty. 

" Annals and Memoirs of the Court of Peking " by 
Mr. Edmund Backhouse and Mr. J. O. P. Bland, two of 
the most authoritative writers on matters relating to 
China, is announced for Spring publication. The volume 
is based on State papers, diaries of Court officials, and 
Chinese books printed for private circulation, and it 
gives an account of the secret history of the Chinese 
Court and its rulers during a period of nearly three 
hundred years. 

" Home," the anonymous novel that has attracted 
much attention during its serial publication in " The 
Century Magazine," will be issued in book form this 
month by The Century Co. Other January books of 
this house will be a study of boy life entitled " William 
and Bill," by Grace MacGowan Cooke and Caroline 
Wood Morrison ; " Prostitution in Europe," by Dr. 
Abraham Flexner; and a new edition of " As the Hague 
Ordains," with Miss Eliza R. Scidmore's name upon the 
title-page. 

Several books of general interest are planned for 
February issue by Messrs. McBride, Nast & Co These 
include: "Panama: Its Creation, Destruction, and Res- 
urrection," by M. Philippe Bunau-Varilla, the distin- 
guished French engineer; "How France is Governed," 
by M. Raymond Poincare', President of the French 
Republic; "The Art of Nijinsky," the genius of the 
Russian ballet, by Mr. Geoffrey Whitworth, with illus- 
trations in color by Dorothy Mulloch; "Baroque Archi- 
tecture," by Mr. Martin S. Briggs; and "Cecil Rhodes: 
The Man and His Work," by Mr. Gordon Le Sueur, 
one of Rhodes's confidential secretaries. 



OF NEW BOOKS. 



[The following list, containing 52 titles, includes books 
received by THE DIAL since its last issue.] 

BIOGRAPHY. 

The Early Life of John Howard Payne. With Con- 
temporary Letters hitherto Unpublished. By 
Willis T. Hanson, Jr. With portrait and fac- 
simile, large 8vo, 200 pages. Boston: Privately 
printed. 

Norris Wright Cuney: A Tribune of the Black 
People. By his daughter, Maud Cuney Hare; 
with Introduction by James S. Clarkson. Illus- 
trated, 12mo, 230 pages. New York: Crisis 
Publishing Co. $1.50 net. 

Judson the Pioneer. By J. Mervin Hull. Illus- 
trated, 12mo, 187 pages. American Baptist Pub- 
lication Society. 50 cts. net. 

The Immortal Seven: Judson and His Associates. 
By James L. Hill, D.D. Illustrated, 12mo, 151 
pages. American Baptist Publication Society. 
50 cts. net. 

GENERAL, LITERATURE. 

From the I, otter-Files of S. W. Johnson, Professor 
of Agricultural Chemistry in Yale University, 
1856-1896. Edited by his daughter, Elizabeth 
A. Osborne. Illustrated, 8vo, 292 pages. Yale 
University Press. $2.50 net. 

Legends and Satires from Mediaeval Literature. 
Edited by Martha Hale Shackford, Ph.D. With 
frontispiece, 12mo, 176 pages. Ginn & Co. 
$1.25 net. 



English Literary Miscellany. By Theodore W. 

Hunt. 12mo, 320 pages. Oberlin, Ohio: Biblio- 

theca Sacra Co. $1.50 net. 
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fancy to draw pictures of the past. Illustrated. $1.50 net. Postage extra. 

Thomas Wentworth Higginson: The Story of His Life 

By MARY THACHER HIGGINSON. An intimate account of the life of one of the most interesting of American soldiers and writers. 
It reveals a most attractive personality and makes a strong contribution to American historical biography. 

Illustrated. $3.00 net. Postage extra. 

The Poems of Walter C. Arensberg 

Mr. Arensberg's poetic work has a distinct and individual quality of its own. Like the late Father Tabb, he has a remarkable gift for 
condensation of making a brief poem haunting, suggestive, and memorable. His volume should give pleasure to many readers of 
poetry. $1.00 net. Postage extra. 

Emerson's Journals, Complete 

Edited by his Son and Grandson. With the publication of Volume X (ready February 28) Emerson's Journals will be available for the 
first time in complete form. They are indispensable to all lovers of Emerson and should be in every library which aims to represent the 
best in American letters. In 10 vol's. Illustrated. Each $1.75 net. Postage extra. 

Aegean Days and Other Sojourns 

By J. IRVING MANATT. An intimate study of the more interesting islands in the Ionian as well as in the JEgean Sea, written from 
observations made by the author during extended visits to that region. Illustrated. $3.00 net. Postage extra. 



-FICTION 



The After House 

By MARY ROBERTS RINEHART. The most thrilling murder- 
mystery story since " The Man in Lower Ten " with the added 
savor of the sea, and a love story you will not forget, said to be 
Mrs. Rinehart's best. Illustrated. $1.23 net. Postage extra. 



The Precipice 



By ELIA W. PEATTIE. This powerful story offers an epitome 
of the aspirations, doubts, dreads, furtive discontent, and frank 
hope of women. With frontispiece. $1.35 net. Postage extra. 



Burbury Stoke 



By WILLIAM JOHN HOPKINS. Written in the delightful vein of 
humor and sentiment which has made " The Clammer '' a favorite 
book for so many readers. $1.25 net. Postage extra. 

Old Valentines 

By MUNSON HAVENS. A wholesome, sentimental little story 
that can be recommended to all who prefer a light, enjoyable 
novel. Illustrated. $1.00 net. Postage extra. 



82 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 1 




Published by Little, Brown & Co. 



GENERAL LITERATURE 



BANGS, JOHN KENDRICK. A Line o' Cheer for 
Each Day o' the Year. 365 pages. $1.25 net. 
This book of verses is steeped in good cheer, made of 

rollicking rhymes, full of sunshine, blue skies, a happy faith 

and tender good will for all humanity. The Boston 

Transcript. 

CHAMBERLIN, FREDERICK. The Philippine 
Problem. With 16 illustrations. 240 pages. 
$1.50 net. 

A brief, informing resume of what has been accom- 
plished under American rule, ending with a discussion of 
Philippine Independence. A . L. A. Booklist (December, 
1913). 

CRAWFORD, MARY CAROLINE. The Romance 
of the American Theatre. With 64 half-tone 
illustrations. 408 pages. $2.50 net. 
Miss Crawford has succeeded in adding some flesh to 

the dry bones of the history of a really notable phase of our 

national life. Review of Reviews. 

FILON, AUGUSTIN. The Prince Imperial. With 
numerous portraits and illustrations. 248 pages. 
$4.00 net. 

His tutor, in this richly illustrated biography, gives us 
a vivid account of his (Napoleon III.'s son) charming per- 
sonality and brilliant mind. Literary Diyest (New York). 

FULLER, J. BAMPFYLDE. The Empire of India. 

(In "All Red" British Empire Series.) With 24 
illustrations and map. 393 pages. $3.00 net. 
A complete survey of modern India, this volume is per- 
haps the best in this series, as well as one of the best which 
have recently been written on Indian problems. A. L. A. 
Booklist (June, 1913). 

GRIBBLE, FRANCIS. Romance of the Men of 
Devon. Fully illustrated. 282 pages. $1.75 net. 
A chatty and entertaining book abounding in curious 

information and anecdote not likely to be already familiar 

to the reader. Dial (Chicago). 

HOPKINS, TIGHE. Wards of the State. 340 pages. 

$3.00 net. 

"An unofficial view of prison and prisoner." Sub-title. 
Gives examples from all over the world, has short simple 
descriptions of finger print identification, care of criminal 
insane, the book in the cell and such topics. An excellent 
general, non-technical work with less personal bias than 
most books on the subject, though not as authoritative as 
Wine's Punishment and Reformation. A. L. A. Booklist 
(November, 1913). 

JAMES, GEORGE WHARTON. The Old Fran- 
ciscan Missions of California. Illustrated. 287 
pages. $1.50 net. 
A guide book in the best sense of the term. . . . Mr. 

James possesses an abundance of knowledge about the 

early history of California and the founders of the missions. 

Boston Transcript. 

MACOMBER, WILLIAM. Engineers' Handbook 
On Patents. Illustrated. 288 pages. $2.50 net. 
The best book of its type. It shows what an invention 
is, how to patent, what may be patented, and when there is 
need of a lawyer. Cannot be taken as infallible as its scope 
is limited by its size, but it gives a great deal of useful infor- 
mation with brevity aud clearness. A . L. A. Booklist 
(November, 1913). 



MAHAN, ADMIRAL A. T. The Major Opera- 
tions of the Navies in the War of American 
Independence. With maps and diagrams. 280 
pages. $3.00 net. 

It offers the opportunity of obtaining a valuable contri- 
bution on the first war with England in one attractive 
volume. Providence Journal. 

PAUL, HERBERT. Famous Speeches. (2nd Series.) 

382 pages. $3.00 net. 

Contains the speeches of such famous men as Lord 
Macaulay. Abraham Lincoln, Lord Derby, Lord Beacons- 
field, Charles Stuart Parnell, Mr. Gladstone, the Duke of 
Argyll, James Russell Lowell, and others, with introduc- 
tion and notes. 

PIER, ARTHUR STANWOpD. The Story of 
Harvard. With 16 illustrations from drawings by 
Vernon Howe Bailey. 256 pages. $2.00 net. 
Story of the founding of Harvard College, its later 
development and history, its ancient customs and tradi- 
tions, and its present undergraduate life, with interesting 
anecdotes and sketches about the men who have presided 
over it and about graduates who have become famous men. 
Good illustrations from pencil drawings. A. L. A. Book- 
list (December, 1913). 

POLEY, ARTHUR P. Federal Systems of the 
United States and the British Empire. 453 

pages. $3.50 net. 

A comprehensive account of the history, nature and 
development of the four constitutions of the United States, 
Canada, Australia and South Africa. 

SAVAGE-LANDOR, A. HENRY. Across Unknown 
South America. With nearly 300 illustrations, 8 in 
color, and map. 2 vols. 816 pages. $10.00 net. 
Account of the daring and adventurous journey under- 
taken for a purpose of acquiring a first-hand knowledge of 
the unexplored interior of Brazil, of studying the native 
tribes and resources, and of reporting upon its possibilities 
for commercial development. The expedition covered also 
some little-known parts of Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argen- 
tina. The book is therefore a scientific record of value as 
well as a thrilling book of travel. A. L. A. Booklist (Jan- 
uary, 1914). 

SHELLEY, HENRY C. Shakespeare and Strat- 
ford. With 16 illustrations from photographs. 
207 pages. $1.25 net. 

An excellent historical and topographical handbook. 
The photographs are excellent. The author sticks to facts 
so far as possible, so that this little volume will be a valuable 
companion to those whointend to visit Stratford. N. Y. Sun' 

The Tragedy of Mary Stuart. Fully illustrated. 

294 pages. $3.00 net. 

Concentrates attention on the swiftly-moving fifteen 
months on the murder of Darnley, the Bothwell marriage, 
the imprisonment in Lochleven Castle and the battle of 
Langside passing over in the prologue and epilogue the 
less eventful twenty-four years. A readable, fairly unbiased 
chronicle based on original and contemporary documents, 
many utilized for the first time but not cited. Well illus- 
trated. A . L. A. Booklist (November, 1913). 

WHITING, LILIAN. Athens, the Violet-Crowned. 

With 32 pages of illustrations. 361 pages. $2.50 net. 

But let no reader mistake the worth of the book. It will 
tell him a great deal about Greek art and life as shown in 
the architectural and sculptural remains at Athens, and it 
will tell him also a great deal about the present aspects and 
resources of that city, Outlook (New York). 



1914] 



THE DIAL, 



BOOKS FOR LIBRARIES 

34 Beacon Street, Boston, Mass. 




CHILDREN'S BOOKS 

BLAISDELL, MARY FRANCES. Twilight Town. 

Illustrated. 174 pages. 60 cents. 

Remarkable " doings " take place in the playroom when 
a certain fairy comes there and sets all the toys free to have 
their own festivities. Providence Journal. 

BLAISDELL, A. T., and BALL, F. K. The Child'. 

Book of American History. Illustrated. 218 

pages. 75 cents. 

Some of the chief events in American history made 
interesting by being narrated in the form of short stories 
with the personalities of those who figure in them made 
lifelike. It will certainly arouse in its youthful readers a 
desire to know more about our history. Independent (New 
York). 

BOYLAN, GRACE DUFFIE. The Pipes of Clovis. 

Illustrated. 258 pages. $1.00 net. 

A story of the twelfth century, with a delicate charm 
and the glamor of fairyland, in which Clovis, a forester's 
son, by his magic pipes saves the kingdom of Swabia for Karl 
and his Queen Hildegarde. For the unusual child A .L.A. 
Booklist (December, 1913). 

BURGESS, THORNTON W. Mother West Wind's 
Neighbors. (Old Mother West Wind Series.) Illus- 
trated. 223 pages. $1.00. 

More stories in which the adventures of Johnny Chuck, 
Peter Rabbit, Jimmy Skunk, and others entertain eight- 
year-olds. Similar in form to Mother West Wind's Animal 
Friends. A. L. A. Booklist (November, 1913.) 

The Adventures of Reddy Fox. ( The Bedtime 

Story-Books.) Illustrated. 120 pages. 50 cents net. 
The Adventures of Johnny Chuck. (The Bed- 
time Story-Books.) Illustrated. 120 pages. 50 
cents net. 
His stories have an engaging simplicity, a droll realism 

even in their phantasy that brings back grateful memories 

of Uncle Remus. New York Times. 

CHANNON, FRANK E. Henley on the Battle 
Line. (Henley Schoolboy Series.) Illustrated. 314 
pages. $1.50. 

Gives a fine portrait of the East Indian life. The well 
worked out contrast of the English lads and the young 
American hero is excellent. Chicago Tribune. 

DAVIDSON, EDITH B. The Tippity-Flippitts. 

(Bunnikins-Bunnies Series.) Illustrated. 64 pages. 

60 cents net. 

Tells of the adventures of a trio of foxes whose antics 
and jokes furnish the theme for a remarkable young people's 
tale. Boston Globe. 

HAWKINS, CHAUNCEY J. Ned Brewster's Bear 
Hunt. (Ned Brewster Series.) Illustrated from 
photographs. 285 pages. $1.20 net. 
Every boy who likes stories of adventures and of wild 

animals will enjoy this story. Ned's experiences, and they 

are many and startling, form the substance of this volume, 

Springfield Republican. 

McDONALD, ETTA B. Colette in France. (Little 
People Everywhere Series.) Illus. 120 pages. 60 cts. 
Short of actual travel there has been made manifest no 

more satisfactory way of teaching children what goes on in 

foreign countries. Chicago Post. 

MURRAY, CLARA. Story Book Treasures. (Play- 
time Series.) Illustrated. 328 pages. 75 cents. 
A very sensible collection of wholesome stories for chil- 
dren in their early " teens "by various American writers 
patriotic, fanciful, fairy, household and adventure. Inde- 
pendent (New York). 



CHILDREN'S BOOKS - Continued 

QUIRK, LESLIE W. The Freshman Eight. ( Well- 
worth College Series.) Illustrated. 295 pages. 
$1.20 net. 

Continues The Fourth Down (Booklist 9: 176, D 12) 
and is unusually jolly, though too full of adventures and 
episodes. It has the right sort of college spirit and the kind 
of pluck that keeps the crew in training after the "gym" 
has burned down, which brings them the victory at Pough- 
keepsie. A. L. A. Booklist (December. 1913). 

RAY, ANNA CHAPIN. The Responsibilities of 
Buddie. (Buddie Books.) Illus. 266 pages. $1.50. 
Breezy, natural, wholesome, and full of action is this 

fictional boy. Chicago Tribune. 

WESSELHOEFT, LILY F. Laddie. The Master 
of the House. Illustrated. 323 pages. $1.20 net. 
The story of a beautiful collie dog . . . Laddie's experi- 
ences are related from a dog's point of view, and are very 
cleverly presented by the author, who knows what will 
interest her small readers. Boston Herald. 

WOOLLEY, EDWARD MOTT. Donald Kirk, the 
Morning Record Correspondent. (Donald Kirk 
Series.) Illustrated. 269 pages. $1.20 net. 

A true picture of the " city room " and of the nerve- 
racking strain under which reporters work in emergencies. 
This is a lively, natural, well-written story. Chicago 
Record-Herald. 

NEW EDITIONS 

CRAWFORD, MARY CAROLINE. Goethe and 
His Woman Friends. (Popular Illustrated Edition.) 
452 pages. $1.50 net. 
. . . Her evident care in making the book complete and 

authentic makes the contents alluring as well as instructive. 

Literary Digest (New York). 

COOLIDGE, SUSAN. Clover. (Katy Did Series.) 
Illustrated. 304 pages. $1.50. 
A serviceable new edition which with In the High 

Valley completes the Katy Did Series. A. L. A. Booklist 

(October, 1913). 

In the High Valley. (Katy Did Series.) Illus- 
trated. 288 pages. $1.50. 
We envy the younger generation that has not yet read 

these stories that are so delightful without being didactic. 

Literary Digest (New York). 

DODD, ANNA BOWMAN. Three Normandy Inns. 

(Popular Illustrated Edition.) 394 pages. $1.50 net. 

A cheaper reprint, with a new plain binding and eight 
more illustrations than the 1910 edition. A. L. A. Booklist 
(October, 1913). 

JACKSON, HELEN HUNT. Ramona. (Tourists' 
Edition.) With 24 illustrations of actual scenes. 
308 pages. $2.00. 

An attractive edition, well printed on good paper, and 
illustrated by twenty-four full-page halftones taken from 
photographs, to aid the traveler searching for the historical 
sites of the story. A. L. A. Booklist (December, 1913). 

MELVILLE, LEWIS. Some Aspects of Thackeray. 

(Popular Illustrated Edition.) 281 pages. $1.50 net. 

A mass of sheer data all authenticated, none without 
value. The industry of Mr. Melville is as admirable as are 
his enthusiasm and good judgment. Literary DigesKtt.Y.) 

SHELLEY, HENRY C. John Harvard and His Times. 

(Popular Illustrated Edition.) 330 pages. $1.50 net. 

An interesting and excellent volume. . . . We cordially 

admit Mr. Shelley's scholarship, judgment, and good taste. 

Nation (New York). 



84 THE DIAL [Feb.l 

RECENT NEALE FICTION 

The Scuttlers By Clyde C. Westover 

In the group of young Californian authors that have so greatly enriched American literature during the 
past ten years Mr. Westover is conspicuous as the writer of brilliant, virile fiction. Last autumn " The Dragon's 
Daughter " was issued by our house. It immediately attracted wide-spread attention in Europe as well as in 
America. This fine story of the sea, a detective story, is undoubtedly the most notable fiction that Mr. Westover 
has written. We know of no other sea story that is comparable to it. It is romantic literature at its best. 
.$1.35 by mail. 

Brilla By Anna M. Doling 

This unique and irresistible story, the story of a lie, was first published serially in NE ALE'S MONTHLY. A 
region yet unexplored in literature, the Ozark Mountains, forms a picturesque background for the figures that 
move through this striking American novel. Seldom is it the good fortune of a reader to find so interesting a 
story written so simply and so well, yet so compellingly. $1.30 by mail. 

The Devil's Discharge By Willard French 

While the ghosts of the past are evaporating in their own mist, science is giving birth to others by far more 
weird. In this story Colonel French discharges the Devil and his spirits; but he is a trained scientist as well as a 
a trained soldier, a great writer of fiction as well as a great war correspondent. In the place of Satan and his 
imps he gives us new but real spirits. One day Colonel French took the skeleton of this story to his old master, 
Oliver Wendell Holmes, who said: "My boy, wait twenty years, when we shall know more of the brain, and 
when science generally shall have advanced further, and then publish your story." This advice was followed. 
Here is the story. $1.10 by mail. 

Halief a By George K. Baker 

We confidently affirm that among the younger authors America possesses no greater writer of fiction than 
George K. Baker. Between the covers of this book the East and the West meet in Egypt. So vividly has Mr. 
Baker presented his pictures that one feels the hot breath of the harem itself, where lived Haliefa, the favorite 
of the " jackal of the city," Sahim. Her love for Stephen Blair, a young English officer, the part she played in 
the Bedouins' plot against the Government, and her sacrifice, unite to make a story that cannot fail to hold even 
the most jaded reader under the spell of its charm. In " Haliefa " we have the passionate, spontaneous work of 
a new and teeming genius. Illustrated. $1.10 by mail. 

With Hooks of Steel By William T. Townes 

If you want a good, rousing story of Virginian life, types, and sports of the rich days of fifty years or so ago, 
when racing was a gentleman's recreation and when the friendship that bound master and slave was as strong as 
iron bands, get this book. Here we have not only a virile story of a virile people, but something besides; there 
are scenes in this book of beauty so rare as to be second to none in fiction. The Virginian gentleman raced his 
horses and fought his cocks of a Saturday afternoon ; but he also passed around the plate on a Sunday. His 
varied life was never better shown than in this novel. The plot moves swiftly, too, and is uncommon and striking. 
$1.30 by mail. 

The Persian Tassel By Olivia Smith Cornelius 

Mystery, murder, love, friendship, adventure, these are the elements that make up this stirring story of 
amateur detective work. The Persian tassel was a little ornament belonging to a negligee of Janet Negley that 
was found in her stepfather's hand when he was discovered murdered. The finding out of how the Persian tassel 
came to be in his hand and the tracing of the murderer make as thrilling a detective tale as ever has been 
unfolded. The denouement is a distinct surprise. " The Persian Tassel " is one of the few detective stories of 
recent years that is really worth while. $1.30 by mail. 

Write for our NEW CATALOGUE, which contains more than 1OO rare portraits and other illustrations. 

Union Square The Neale Publishing Company New York 



1914] THE DIAL 85 

NEALE'S FOR FEBRUARY 

Pot and Potter By Richard Coxe Weightman 

For more than a quarter of a century Richard Coxe Weightman has been among the foremost journalists of 
his time. His political editorial articles as originally published in The New York Sun and in The Washington Post 
were widely copied in Europe as well as in America. He now lives in Washington. There he is known by 
everybody of political prominence in this country. Under the general title of " Pot and Potter " he conducts a 
permanent department of this magazine. 

Lords of the Realm of Fiction By Lily Young Cohen 

This paper is the second of a noteworthy series of twelve critical literary studies by Miss Cohen that will 
be published in NEALE'S MONTHLY during the present year. The first paper of the series, "Apostles of the 
Commonplace," was published in NEALE'S MONTHLY for January. In that study she shows how William Dean 
Ho wells and his apostles have so spread the uninspired doctrine of the commonplace that the term "realism " in 
American letters has become a word of evil import. In " Lords of the Realm of Fiction " she shows how great 
is the gulf that separates realistic and imaginative literature. 

Crawling Under Racial Barriers By Berrien Beverley 

This is the second part of Professor Beverley's contribution to " Our Jungle Man " series. The author now 
offers a solution of the Negro problem in the South. The first paper of " Our Jungle Man " series was published 
in NEALE'S MONTHLY for October. To this series prominent Negroes as well as prominent Caucasians have 
contributed. 

The Walls of ConcameaU By George K. Baker 

The first instalment of this novel, which will run serially the greater part of this year, was published in 
NEALE'S for September. Broidered on the historical fabric of the struggle of the devoted Bretons, who in the 
year 1489 held Brittany against the French for the young Duchess Anne, the story keeps the reader alert, with 
its wild warfare of the fifteenth century, with its clash of arms and clank of mail. Mr. Baker's first romance, 
"Haliefa," is justly considered great; but "The Walls of Concarneau " is among the few great stories of 
imaginative literature of our language. 

The Stage By Kilgarif 

Under the pseudonym Kilgarif one of the foremost living dramatic critics conducts " The Stage " depart- 
ment of NEALE'S MONTHLY. This department comprises the most illuminating dramatic criticism that can be 
found in contemporaneous American literature. 

The Death of Halpin Frayser By Ambrose Bierce 

By more than one literary critic of distinction Ambrose Bierce is considered the most powerful figure in all 
American literature, excepting neither Poe nor Hawthorne, and by many his short stories are considered his 
greatest work. NEALE'S MONTHLY for the present year will contain what the editors of this magazine believe 
to be his twelve greatest pieces of short fiction. " The Collected Works of Ambrose Bierce," comprising twelve 
octavo volumes, was recently issued by The Neale Publishing Company. 

General Beauregard By Y. R. LeMonnier, M.D. 

Of all the leaders of the Civil War, Beauregard is, perhaps, the least understood. To NEALE'S MONTHLY for 
March, 1913, Gamaliel Bradford, Jr., contributed one of his admirable "Confederate Portraits," but Dr. LeMonnier 
does not consider this " portrait " a faithful portrayal of Beauregard's elusive character. 

At $3.00 a year, 25 cents a number, NEALE'S MONTHLY supplies a wealth of literature. Every number contains more 
than 100,000 words of text, superbly illustrated, and no number will contain less than 128 pages. In its mechanical 
appointments no magazine in existence is its superior. 

Union Square The Neale Publishing Company New York 



86 



THE DIAL 



Feb. 1 




fho wrote it? 

Is it true? Are 

men always so 

blind? 

The questions every. 

one will be asking 

shortly. 



An Extraordinary Anonymous Chronicle 



T 



real 



MY 

WIFE'S 

HIDDEN 

LIFE 




HIS BOOK searches to the depths of man's nature and 
reveals the hidden currents which lead to the destruction 
of a home. It is a marvelous representation of life 
life and of the terrible heart conflicts which virtually 
rend asunder the life of the spirit and the life of the 
body. It is a compelling drama of the play of influ- 
ence of a good and a bad woman on a man of the 
world, whose chief ambition is for financial success. 
Weak where he thought himself strong, he is a cat's- 
paw in the hands of a designing disturber of the tran- 
quillity of a home presided over by a woman of the 
highest ideals and loftiest character. She waged an 
unequal battle, and apparently lost, only in the end to 
win that which would have made her so happy on 
earth the heart and soul of her husband. 



It is a book to be reckoned with, for it is logical, 
true to human nature, and gains an undeniable hold on the 
heartstrings. NT $J25 POS TAGE EXTRA 

At All Booksellers, or 

RAND McNALLY & COMPANY CHICAGO 



A DELIGHTFUL OUT-OF-DOOR ANTHOLOGY 



ROLLING 




OUTDOOR SCENES 
AND THOUGHTS 

FROM THE 

WRITINGS OF 

WALT WHITMAN 

COMPILED BY 
WALDO R. BROWNE 

WITH INTRODUCTION BY 
JOHN BURROUGHS 

Photogravure Portrait, $1.00 net 



WHITMAN'S writing of nature, whether in 
poetry or prose, is always marked by vividness and 
actuality : in verse by a lyrical passion and in prose by a 
luxuriance of observation that are unique. This collection 
of out-of-door passages from his writings will appeal strongly, 
not only to all admirers of his poetry, but to all lovers of the 
open. It is an ideal book for the pocket on a country walk, 
and an equally ideal gift for the nature-lover. 



"The unconventional character of Whitman's writing is seen at its 
best in these rapturous and sometimes almost riotous outpourings of 
satisfaction in the joy of living out of doors." The Living Age. 

" An altogether discriminating anthology Whitman poet and 

Whitman diarist are both most happily represented." The Independent. 

" A welcome little outdoor book, fit for the pocket. . . . The selec- 
tions are from the journals and poems, and show Whitman keenly 
observant of and exultant in his surroundings." The Nation. 

"For him who loves Whitman and frequent reference to him at his 
best, yet wishes a pocketable volume, ' The Rolling Earth ' is ideal." 

Chicago Tribune. 



BOSTON 



HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY 



NEW YORK 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



87 



A FEW NEW PUTNAM BOOKS 



One Generation of a Norfolk House 

By AUGUSTUS JESSOPP, D.D.. Author of "The Coming 

of the Friars," etc. 

Third Edition. Entirely revised and reset. $2.15 net. 
A contribution to Elizabethan history of the first impor- 
tance, particularly as a picture of the relations of the Jesuits 
to the political events of the time, and of the attitude of the 
government toward them. The present edition has been 
revised with the aid of the author's memoranda made dur- 
ing the last thirty years. 



Francisco Goya 

By HUGH STOKES. 

8vo. With 1,8 full-pane illustrations. $3.75 net, 
A study of the work and personality of the Eighteenth 
Century Spanish painter and satirist. Goya's life was as 
full of incident as that of Benvenuto Cellini. His satire as 
sharp and telling: as Hogarth's. A superb etcher. A famous 
court painter and a rabid republican. This eventful life 
is supplemented with excellent reproductions of the artist's 
work. 



The Science of Happiness 

By JEAN FINOT, author of " Problems of the Sexes," etc. 

Translated from the French by MARY J. SAFFORD. 

8vo. $1.75 net. 

The author considers the nature of happiness and the 
means of its attainment, as well as many allied questions. 

" Amid the noisy tumult of life, amid the dissonance that 
divides man from man," remarks M. Finot, " the Science of 
Happiness tries to discover the divine link which binds 
humanity to happiness through the soul and through the 
union of souls." 



The Sonnets of William Shakespeare 

New Light and Old Evidence 

By COUNTESS DE CHAMBRUN. 

12 full-page illustrations. $1.75 net. BV mail $1.90. 

This new edition of the Sonnets contains a readable as 
well as scholarly contribution to a most unsettled literary 
problem. There is new evidence solidifying some old theo- 
ries, and there are ingenious suggestions opening up new 
vistas to the exploring mind. 



Continuity 

By SIR OLIVER LODGE. $1.50 net. By mail$1.65. 

The author contends against the tendency of the era 
apparent in the taking of refuge in vague forms of state- 
ment, the shrinking from close examination of the puzzling 
and obscure, and the denial of the existence of anything 
which makes no appeal to organs of sense no ready 
response to laboratory experiment. 



Magic: A Fantastic Comedy 



By G, K. CHESTERTON. 



. $1.00 net. 



This is " G. K. C.'s " first play. It is a blend of the real 
and the unreal, of the tangible and the impalpable. The 
perversities of individuals and the failings of the age take 
shape in the atmosphere of conjury in which the play is 
steeped, 



Knowledge and Life 

By RUDOLF EUCKEN. author of " The Truth of Religion," 
" The Life of the Spirit," etc. $1.50 net. By mail $1.65. 

Professor Eucken's plea in this new volume of the Crown 
Theological Library is that the only knowledge which may 
be termed genuine springs from the demands and aspira- 
tions of man's own deepest life. 

The book forms an excellent epitome of the author's 
views concerning the need of a Metaphysic of Life. 



A History of Geography 

By J. SCOTT KELTIE. LL.D.. Secretary of the Royal 

Geographical Society. 

17 illustrations. 75 cents net. By mail 85 cents. 
The twelfth volume to be published in the " History of 
the Sciences" series. It is not a history of geographical 
exploration, but a history tracing the evolution of geog- 
raphy as a department of science. Readable and attract- 
ively illustrated. 



SOME NEW FICTION 



The Rocks of Valpre 

By ETHEL M. DELL. 

Frontispiece in color. $1.35 net. By mail $1.50. 
The author of "The Way of an Eagle " and " The Knave 
of Diamonds " has a still greater triumph in this new novel. 
The London Morning Post says: " Hundreds and thousands 
of readers will probably within the next few weeks regard 
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THE DIAL 

Semi'iifiontfjlg Journal of 3Literarg Criticism, Discussion, anti Information. 



THE DIAL (founded in 1880) is published on the 1st and 16th of 
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Entered as Second-Class Matter October 8, 1892, at the Post Office 
at Chicago, Illinois under Act of March 3, 1879. 



No. 663. 



FEBRUARY 1, 1914. Vol. LVL 



CONTENTS. 



AMERICAN AND FRENCH IDEALS 



PAGE 
. 89 



CASUAL COMMENT 5)1 

The Anglicity of the English language. Stolen 
reading-time. Medicated literature. Oddities and 
obstinacies of scholars. New ideals of literary 
criticism. Literary aid to the immigrant. The 
rescue of disappearing ballads. Durability in book- 
binding. An unappreciated nepenthe. The in- 
scrutability of genius. The geographical centre of 
our public library system. The encouragement of 
cosmopolitan culture. 

COMMUNICATIONS 94 

Revivifying the Classic Languages. Nathan Haskell 

Dole. 
An Auxiliary Language for Intercommunication. 

Eugene F. McPike. 

" Tainted " Book Reviews. Book-Buyer. 
A Protest. Charles Francis Sounders. 

FRANCIS THOMPSON: HIS LIFE AND HIS 

WORK. Herbert Ellsworth Cory 98 

IN SOUTH AMERICAN WILDS. P. A. Martin . . 102 

OLD SALEM IN ITS HABIT AS IT LIVED. Mary 

Augusta Scott 104 

A NEW HISTORY OF ENGLAND. L. E. Robinson 106 

A DIPLOMATIST'S WIFE IN ITALY. Percy F. 

Bicknell 108 

NEW STUDIES OF THE MONROE DOCTRINE. 

James W. Garner 110 

BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS Ill 

Open letters of an English bookman. Quebec and 
its people. The psychology of prestige. American 
notes of a friendly Englishwoman. American and 
British federal systems. Friendly counsel on the 
art of life. A sketch of psychological history. 
Studies of the caribou of Newfoundland. A classic 
of the early Northwest. A new development in 
ethics. Chapters on Egyptian art. From Ferrara 
to Ascoli. Trials and triumphs of a dancer's life. 

BRIEFER MENTION 115 

NOTES 116 

TOPICS IN FEBRUARY PERIODICALS .... 117 
LIST OF NEW BOOKS . . 117 



AMERICAN AND FRENCH IDEALS. 



There is no finer work being done for civiliza- 
tion than that undertaken by the distinguished 
individuals and the organized agencies for the 
promotion of a better understanding between 
the more advanced peoples of the world. The 
cultivation of international good feeling between 
the great powers may in time provide a solvent 
medium through whose influence armaments 
shall crumble and jealous prejudices disappear. 
The present wasting of the resources of the 
world upon navies and huge standing armies is 
the greatest economic and ethical scandal of the 
age ; it makes a mockery of Christianity, sets 
unnecessary obstacles in the path of progress, 
and forces philosophers to throw up their hands, 
exclaiming in despair, "A mad world, my mas- 
ters ! " The madness seems to be growing rather 
than decreasing, to the superficial view, and 
there is no feature of the entire situation more 
disheartening than the deliberate repudiation 
by our own country of the old-time ideals which 
gave Americans of the nineteenth century good 
reason to be prouder of their birthright than 
the citizens of any other country on earth. It 
is not surprising that the nations of Europe 
should be reluctant to beat their swords into 
plowshares, for their swords have largely made 
them what they are ; but it is amazing beyond 
words that we, having known and practised the 
better way for so long, should have taken up 
with their bad example, and the " rags and 
shards regilded" which are the wretched sym- 
bols of a past based upon force rather than 
upon the amity which has its sure foundations 
in mutual respect and sympathetic understand- 
ing. The true missionaries of civilization are 
the men who go forth into other lands than 
their own to invite and express good will and 
to soften the asperities which selfish diplomacy 
and irresponsible journalism and the spirit of 
blatant chauvinism so wantonly engender in 
international relations. Such men as Lord 
Haldane, Viscount Bryce, Baron d'Estournelles 
de Constant, the recipients (with one exception) 
of the Nobel peace prize, and the exchange 
professors on the various foundations established 
between this country and England, France, 
Germany, and Denmark, should do much to 
inaugurate the dawn of a new era in which the 



90 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 1 



armed hostility of civilized peoples should be- 
come monstrous and unthinkable. 

Such relations of friendliness and mutual 
comprehension have already become firmly 
grounded between this country and the mother 
that gave it birth, and have existed for over a 
century between us and the power that allied 
itself with our precarious fortunes in the dark 
winter of Valley Forge. It was France that 
quickened our budding national life with the 
ideals of democracy long before she learned how 
to apply to her own case the teachings of her po- 
litical philosophers, and it is with France that we 
have had friendly, and even affectionate, relations 
longer than with any other foreign nation. A 
recent sign of this friendship is the establishment 
of the Comite France-Amerique. under whose 
auspices a series of addresses have been made 
in Paris during the past year, concerned with 
the historic, artistic, and social relations of the 
two countries, these addresses being now pub- 
lished (Paris: Alcan) in a volume entitled "Les 
Etats-Unis et la France." Ten writers contrib- 
ute to this collection, four Frenchmen and six 
Americans, the latter being Messrs. J. H. Hyde, 
Paul W. Bartlett, Walter V. R. Berry, J. Mark 
Baldwin, W. Morton Fullerton, and David J. 
Hill. These American contributions discuss the 
relations between the sculpture of the two coun- 
tries, their social life, their historical bonds, their 
politics, their national ideals in the broader sense, 
and the effects that the Panama Canal may be 
expected to have upon their future intercourse. 
These are all valuable studies, which both 
Frenchmen and Americans may read with profit, 
making, as they do, for a better understanding 
between the two nations. 

It is to the introductory paper upon "La 
Pensee Americaine et la Pensee Francaise," 
contributed by M. Ernile Boutroux, that we 
wish especially to direct attention. The author 
seeks to discover the formula of American 
thought as it presents itself to the philosophical 
observer, much as Mr. Herrick, in the essay 
which we discussed a recent issue, has sought 
to determine that formula from the standpoint 
of the American novelist. It remains somewhat 
vague in both cases, because of the immense 
variety of the material which has to be synthe- 
sized, and M. Boutroux's treatment must be 
described as informed and amiable rather than 
as searching and profound. The author's con- 
clusions are thus summarized : 

" The human ideal which she endeavors to realize is 
conceived by America as a synthesis, made up of all the 
forms of humankind that nature creates, in such manner 
that each of them, thus brought into universal unity, 



preserves its own character and its own autonomy. 
French thought, for its part, springing from the original 
medium which is constituted by French society, makes 
out of the ideal man a sort of Platonic idea, which is 
the outcome of neither analysis nor synthesis, but ap- 
pears as a kind of creation. The American idea of 
humanity is the richest possible; the French idea has 
for its content human nature in its purest and loftiest 
guise." 

Restated, this dictum seems to mean that the 
American ideal is empirical, and the French 
ideal rational, which may be allowed as a state- 
ment of the present-day attitude, although the 
American ideal of the fathers had a strictly 
rationalistic French origin. 

In any case, the idealism of a people must 
be judged by the best forms that its expression 
assumes. " Let us not be afraid to consider, in 
both French and American thought, the noblest 
manifestations, those most worthy of esteem and 
admiration. True sincerity for the individual, 
is to bring his life into conformity with the best 
that is in him, with his deepest and purest ego. 
Likewise, the true thought of a people is found 
in the expression of its loftiest conception of its 
genius and of its mission in the world. For what 
it wills, ultimately, amidst its confused efforts in 
all directions, is to realize all the perfection of 
which it is capable." This is the guiding prin- 
ciple of M. Boutroux in his discussion, and its 
employment clears the air wonderfully. Look- 
ing at us more in detail, he finds in our national 
life great mobility, an intensely practical turn 
of mind, the conception of man as a creative 
force rather than as a puppet of his environment. 
The American is easily seduced by eccentric and 
fantastic theories, but it is not merely as novel- 
ties that he takes them up, for he aims always at 
making out of their elements an ever broader 
and more coherent philosophy of life. If he 
seems too much devoted to the pursuit of the 
dollar, it is because its possession means higher 
efficiency in the accomplishment of the real pur- 
poses of civilization. It is a favorite plaint of 
our humanitarian sentimentalists that our laws 
and institutions exalt the dollar above the man, 
but this is one of the emptiest of distinctions. 
To protect property is one of the most essential 
methods of protecting all those things of which 
wealth is but the means, and a nation which 
becomes lax in safeguarding the legitimate 
possessions of the individual is in danger of 
weakening the very foundations of character. 

Although his object is to draw a comparison, 
and discover what valid distinctions may be 
made between French and American thought, 
M. Boutroux is forced to admit a fundamental 
identity in all the essentials, although he finds 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



91 



a marked difference in the orientation of thought 
in the two countries. " On both sides," he says, 
" the same democratic spirit, the same sense of 
human dignity, the same devotion to political 
liberty and the principle of national sovereignty, 
the same natural tastes, cordiality, and simplicity 
in distinction, the same preoccupation with fine 
human ideals." This is the sum total of his 
conclusions, a more important judgment, we 
should say, than that expressed in the long 
passage above quoted, in which the difference in 
the orientation of thought is stated in abstract 
philosophical terms. 



CAS UA L COMMENT. 

THE ANGLICITY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 
(the strange word has the sanction of the Oxford 
Dictionary's editor) is menaced by various corrupt- 
ing influences. Pronunciation, idiom, vocabulary, 
spelling, all are in danger, and the time seems to be 
approaching when the language of Shakespeare and 
the Bible will be as strange to their infrequent 
readers as is that of Chaucer and Wyclif to the 
present generation. An effort to postpone that evil 
day is put forth by the new Society for Pure En- 
glish, which has recently issued its first pamphlet 
in furtherance of its laudable purpose, formulating 
certain basic principles and urging a return to dia- 
lectic naturalness and raciness of expression. Words 
and idioms that smack of the soil whence they 
sprang are to be revived and cherished, while the 
artificialities of urban speech need to be repressed. 
Not only does the thoughtless multitude require 
guidance and correction in this matter, but it is 
probable that the educated and the careful are 
doing their part, often unconsciously, toward break- 
ing up the uniformity and purity of our English 
tongue. The arts and sciences are flooding the 
dictionary with new and in many instances ill- 
constructed terms, journalists are familiarizing us 
with modes of expression not always worthy of 
adoption, innovators in spelling are perniciously 
active, and the foreign languages spoken within our 
borders add an alien tinge to our speech. Mean- 
time, too, there is the ever-present tendency toward 
a divorce between the literary and the colloquial 
medium of communication. As formerly with Latin 
and other literary languages now dead, book-English 
is hardly the language of daily conversation, though 
the divergence is happily not yet far advanced. 
When Canning wrote on Pitt's monument in the 
Guildhall the inscription, "He died poor," a pom- 
pous alderman objected to the simplicity of the 
language and wished to substitute, "He expired in 
indigent circumstances " a fitting companion- 
piece to Dr. Johnson's Latinized emendation of the 
pure Anglo-Saxon that once escaped him. It is 
only popular education and constant vigilance, the 
diffusion of good literature and the intelligent 



activities of such societies as the aforementioned, 
that can rescue our language from the various 
perils menacing it and hand down to posterity 
something that shall resemble the pure and simple 
speech of Lincoln's Gettysburg oration and at the 
same time be both the language of literature and 
the language of daily life. 



STOLEN READING-TIME has often been put to such 
good use as to justify the theft. Mr. John Muir has 
told us how, commanded by his father to go to bed 
soon after supper, and obtaining his consent to use 
the early morning hours as he chose, he arose morn- 
ing after morning at one o'clock to apply himself to 
such studies and other pursuits as took his fancy; 
and in his case it seems to have been time well stolen 
from sleep. Where there is an imperious thirst for 
the knowledge that books give, time will be found 
for reading. Sir W. Robertson Nicoll has a semi- 
autobiographical chapter on " Learning to Read " in 
his " Bookman's Letters," recently published. Near 
the beginning he says: "I have heard very many 
say that they regret extremely that they have never 
been able to read as much as they would like. They 
never have had sufficient time. As a matter of fact, 
no one who really cared for reading was ever de- 
terred from it by want of time ; in fact, I make bold 
to say that only a small proportion of people have 
learned in the proper sense how to read, ... I am 
afraid that those persons who have learned to read 
in the sense that they can discriminate between 
what is good and bad, and that they read the best 
with delight and relish, are few, and this is surely 
a great misfortune." The plea that one has no time 
to read really means, nine times out of ten, and per- 
haps also the tenth time, that one has no real desire 
to read, no ravenous hunger for books. The writer 
quoted above gives some interesting reminiscences 
of his own reading, and it is amusing to learn that 
he used formerly to name as his favorite novelist, 
" the Rev. C. B. Greatrex," author of a tale entitled 
"Memoranda of a Marine Officer," which ran 
through several successive volumes of "Hogg's In- 
structor," and seems to have made a lasting impres- 
sion on the boy Nicoll. It was " my favorite story," 
writes the man, "and, to be perfectly candid, I think 
it is my favorite story still." 



MEDICATED LITERATURE, a term used by Sir W. 
Robertson Nicoll in discussing the writings of Dr. 
John Brown and Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes, is not 
so forbidding as it sounds. Not sterilized or disin- 
fected or sick-room reading is meant by the essayist, 
but that kind of writing that shows an intimate 
acquaintance with the tragedies of disease and suf- 
fering, and a recognition of the mysterious connec- 
tion between spirit and flesh. It may also betray 
unusual insight into human nature, an insight gained 
by years of daily encounter with the weakness and 
the fortitude, the pettiness and the greatness, the 
selfishness and the magnanimity of men and women. 
If he were writing on this subject to-day, the editor 
of "The British Weekly" would probably include 



92 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 1 



one other distinguished author-physician in his list, 
the lately deceased Dr. Weir Mitchell. What he says 
of Brown's and Holmes's late rise to literary celeb- 
rity is equally true of the gifted Philadelphian, 
whose special study of nerve diseases gave him 
opportunities for studying abnormalities and eccen- 
tricities of human nature not offered to the general 
practitioner. A few 'sentences from the essay 
referred to will be of interest here. "To say that 
Dr. John Brown writes from the standpoint of a 
physician, that his works are medicated, is to pay 
him a very high compliment. There are few medi- 
cal men who can lay aside the professional man- 
ner in addressing the public. John Brown and 
Oliver Wendell Holmes succeeded in doing this, 
and yet the wisdom, the experience, and the pity of 
the physician appear in all they say. . . . For the 
most part they avoid technicalities, but they never 
forget the connection of the mind with the body, and 
the lessons which long nearness to suffering hu- 
manity teach the merciful and the humble." We 
recall with some amusement the ominous shake of 
the head with which, years ago, a certain Philadel- 
phia doctor assured us that his friend Mitchell was 
hurting his reputation by trifling with literature. 



ODDITIES AND OBSTINACIES OF SCHOLARS are 
notorious. Living so much in a world of their own, 
men of stupendous learning and profound thought 
seem often to lose the faculty of responding to out- 
side appeals ; and thus what has at last become a 
psychological impossibility to them is regarded by 
onlookers as deliberate wilf ulness. It is told of the 
late Henry Bradshaw, librarian at Cambridge Uni- 
versity, that he could rarely be induced to write a 
letter. Certain business correspondence he must 
have attended to, but beyond that he was inexorably 
mum, in the epistolary sense. Once a friend, know- 
ing his peculiarity, wrote him an invitation to a week- 
end outing in the country, and enclosed two addressed 
postcards, one containing a form of acceptance, the 
other a declination. Bradshaw was asked to mail 
the card suitable to the occasion. He mailed them 
both. The late Steingrimur Stefa"nsson, of the Library 
of Congress, a native of Iceland and a scholar of vast 
learning, which he delighted to place at the disposal 
of others, is interestingly portrayed in Dr. Putnam's 
current official report. One who knew him well there 
says of him : " Whether due to a certain heritage 
from his Viking ancestors or merely to personal 
obstinacy, not an uncommon characteristic of the 
Norse, he could never be prevailed upon to contribute 
from his immense fund of knowledge to library, bib- 
liographical, or other journals, to take part in library 
meetings or public activities. He must live his life 
as he saw it, and, like Peer Gynt, be always himself. 
This seemed essential to his happiness." There are 
enough of us who are afflicted with the cacoethes 
scribendi and the cacoethes loquendi, so that we are 
glad to pay a tribute of admiration and respect to 
this silent scholar, whose services as head reviser of 
the catalogue division at the Library of Congress 



were invaluable, and the fruits of whose labors have, 
in part, become known to those using the catalogue 
cards sent out from Washington. 

NEW IDEALS OF LITERARY CRITICISM displace the 

old; jejune pedantry gives way to stimulating and 
vitalizing methods of interpreting and illuminating 
the masterpieces of poetry and drama and essay 
and fiction. Those whose fortune it was to pursue 
literary studies at one or more German universities 
a quarter-century ago will probably be able to recall 
at least one professor whose exposition of a great 
author was a masterpiece of microscopic scholar- 
ship and learned dulness, and who might have 
evoked from his hearers some such couplet as the 
one scratched on a desk in the lecture-room of the 
renowned theologian Dillmann, in Berlin, " Wenn 
schlafen will man, so hOre man Dillmann." Pro- 
fessor Oscar Kuhns chanced upon this inscription, 
as he tells us in his recent book of reminiscences, 
and unhesitatingly declares : " I cannot say that I 
found the lectures in Berlin twenty-five years ago 
very stimulating or interesting. Before the end of 
the semester the number of attendants would drop 
down almost to nothing. The bare rooms, the cold, 
dark mornings of winter, the monotonous delivery 
of many of the lectures, the listless attitude of the 
students, all was far from inspiring enthusiasm." 
At the late meeting of modern language teachers in 
Cincinnati Professor Goebel, of the University of 
Illinois, pointed to the failure to find successors to 
Erich Schmidt and Jacob Minor in the chairs of 
German literature at the universities of Berlin and 
Vienna, and gave as a reason the passing of the old 
school of literary criticism in Germany, the school 
built up by Scherer in the last generation and nota- 
ble for its attention to the formal and the scholastic. 
At present the tendency is to seek the mainsprings 
of an author's work and to recover something of the 
life imperfectly expressed by that author. We are 
no longer content to regard literature as a defunct 
"specimen" preserved in alcohol. 

LITERARY AID TO THE IMMIGRANT who desires, 
or ought to desire, to become a good American, is 
often more beneficial to him than a gift of money. 
Mr. John Foster Carr's "Immigrant's Guide," 
published in several languages, has already been 
approvingly mentioned by us as a most useful book. 
Also attention has been called to recent Massachu- 
setts library legislation in the interest of the immi- 
grant. An " educational director," working in 
cooperation with the Public Library Commission, 
is now exerting every effort to make the foreigner 
feel more at home in the public library, and to show 
him how to profit by its resources, while the libra- 
ry's equipment in foreign literature suited to the 
needs of our polyglot population is receiving addi- 
tions. The Bay State, with its many factory towns, 
stands in especial need of just such service as the 
present incumbent of the new office, Miss J. M. 
Campbell, is at present so zealously rendering. In 
the town of Beverly, for instance, it is said that 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



93 



twenty different languages are spoken; and books 
in many of these foreign tongues are now to be had 
at the local library. Particular attention is given 
to familiarizing the alien with the manners and 
customs and laws and institutions of his adoptive 
land through the medium of printed matter in his 
own language. It is noteworthy that many of these 
immigrants are said to have been drawn to this 
country by Miss Antin's glowing descriptions of 
"the promised land." To them it is a land of 
opportunity, and Miss Campbell is doing her best 
to enable them to profit by the opportunity. 

THE RESCUE OF DISAPPEARING BALL ADS among our 
people has been undertaken by the national Bureau 
of Education, aided by Dr. C. Alphonso Smith, 
Edgar Allan Poe Professor of English in the Uni- 
versity of Virginia. When Professor Child compiled 
his great work, " The English and Scottish Popular 
Ballads," he found that seventeen of the three hun- 
dred and live ballads there given were current in 
various parts of this country. Later researches have 
added about forty more to this number, and it is 
proposed to continue the investigation, with the help 
of school-teachers, librarians, and all others who are 
willing to lend a hand, until the total number of old 
ballads and fragments of ballads brought into this 
country from the mother- land shall have been as 
nearly as possible ascertained. This is a work that 
must be prosecuted now, and vigorously, if it is to 
succeed ; for the many agencies operating to oblit- 
erate the last traces of survival in this domain of 
popular poetry will not halt for the convenience of 
research parties. "State organizations," says Pro- 
fessor Smith, in a circular sent out by the Burean 
of Education, "will be found most efficient in this 
rescue work. Not until each State feels itself re- 
sponsible for the collection of the ballads surviving 
in its own borders will the search be even approxi- 
mately complete or the results at all satisfactory. 
But when each State joins in a sort of cooperative 
ballad union, a work may be written that shall prove 
not less significant and certainly not less interesting 
to Americans than Professor Child's great work 
itself." Printed instructions for the guidance of those 
disposed to aid in this enterprise may be had from 
the Commissioner of Education, at Washington. 



DURABILITY IN BOOKBINDING is an item of the 
first importance, especially in public libraries. It 
is worthy of note that the material now used for 
this purpose in the reading-room of our national 
library is buckram. Last year nearly six thousand 
volumes were bound in buckram for that collection, 
and thus far the results have been satisfactory. A 
few words from the annual report of the assistant 
in charge of this work are here in place. "The 
buckram now in stock is the very best." he says. 
"It is equal if not superior to the common leathers 
and may be safely used for all ordinary work, 
excepting for the larger and heavier books, which 
it is probably best to bind in half leather. We lace 
in the boards all books bound in buckram, except 



the very thin ones, in the same way as for a leather 
binding, and theoretically this binding should prove 
almost as strong as the ordinary leather one." The 
"almost" we should venture to strike out, remem- 
bering the inevitable crumbling tendencies of leather 
where it serves as hinge to the book-cover. Some 
strong woven fabric, such as canvas, for elephant 
folios, would certainly outlast the best of leathers. 
Continuing his report, Mr. Kimball says : " We 
have tried to exert an influence toward the more 
general adoption of buckram binding, but with only 
partial success, owing to a general feeling, still 
surviving, that the use of any kind of a cloth bind- 
ing is derogatory to the book. Ornamental features, 
such as marbled edges, the use of marbled board 
papers, and headbands, are omitted, and the cost of 
material is generally somewhat less." Many of us 
can remember the time when a silk cover with all 
sorts of foolish filigree work was considered neces- 
sary for a book of poems or a volume of elegant 
extracts; but this notion has passed, as will, no 
doubt, in a few years, the prejudice in favor of 
leather as the only dignified binding for large and 
dignified books. ... 

AN UNAPPRECIATED NEPENTHE, offered to those 
whose weight of sorrowful memories it would re- 
move or materially lighten, is a wasted gift indeed. 
What securer refuge from the pursuing cares of the 
irrevocable past could there be than a good book ? 
And yet we are told by an ex-convict from Sing 
Sing, who contributes to the New York "Evening 
Post" some reminiscences of his "carceral endur- 
ance" (as old John Foxe would put it), that only a 
minority of the inmates of that famous penal insti- 
tution make any use of the library placed at the dis- 
posal of them all. To be sure, he describes this 
library as "a poor affair," but it cannot be so poor 
as to be without a considerable number of readable 
books, and with the encouragement of appreciative 
use the authorities might feel moved to increase 
that number. Sing Sing has been much in public 
notice of late, in connection with the alternative 
plans of addition to the present building or a trans- 
fer of its occupants to a rural environment better 
adapted to the proper work of reformation. The 
last effort of the late Samuel J. Barrows's life was 
an unavailing attempt to secure less rigorous condi- 
tions for the unfortunates at Sing Sing. Not the 
least of the needed improvements there one surmises 
to be a better and a more intelligently-administered 
library, which might help to make the institution 
what our ex-convict well says it ought to be, "a 
training-school for the development of strength of 
character, instead of being what it is at present, a 
finishing school for beginners in crime." 

THE INSCRUTABILITY OF GENIUS not infrequently 
extends even to so subordinate a detail as hand- 
writing. Horace Greeley's scrawl became notorious 
for illegibility, and the story is well known of his 
angry upbraiding of a compositor for misinterpret- 
ing his manuscript in the columns of the "Tribune," 



[Feb. 1 



but when he was confronted with his own hiero- 
glyphics he became as thoroughly bewildered as had 
been the manipulator of the types. A like anecdote 
of Tolstoy is recounted by his son, Count Elie 
Tolstoy, in the " Revue de Paris." In describing 
his mother's trials and tribulations as amanuensis 
to her author-husband the son says (the translation 
only has reached us): "Being very short-sighted, 
my mother had to bring her eyes close to the paper 
to decipher my father's frightful scrawl. The work 
often took her the whole evening, and kept her 
busy until long after the rest of the household had 
gone to bed. When she found a passage which was 
quite illegible she used to go to papa and ask him 
to explain it. But that seldom happened, for she 
was very reluctant to disturb him. When she did 
so he took the manuscript from her and asked, with 
evident irritation : 'Well? What is it that you can't 
understand?' Then he would begin to read it him- 
self, but when he arrived at the puzzling passage 
he was invariably pulled up and had the greatest 
difficulty in even guessing what he had written." 
Nevertheless, no cultivation of illegibility in hand- 
writing will make one a genius, literary or other; 
and some men of genius, notably Thackeray, have 
written the most beautifully legible hand. 



THE GEOGRAPHICAL CENTRE OF OUR PUBLIC 

LIBRARY SYSTEM has never been ascertained with 
mathematical precision, and it would no sooner be 
found than it would shift its position a mile or two 
westward, with our population-centre ; for it is prob- 
able that the two imaginary points are not many 
hundred miles apart, and are tending more and more 
to coincide. The librarian at Newark, N. J., wrote 
a letter the other day, to be read before the Council 
of the American Library Association, urging the 
removal of the Association's headquarters from 
Chicago to New York, and venturing the assertion 
that "ten times as many library workers, printers, 
authors, students, publishers, booksellers, and jour- 
nalists are found within say three hours' ride of New 
York as are found within the same distance from 
Chicago." This may be so, or it may be an exces- 
sive estimate ; but in any case it is an Atlantic-coast 
view of the matter, and the rapid spread of our library 
system over the great central and western regions of 
the country will in the near future reduce the rela- 
tive importance of Newark or even New York in 
the scheme of things bibliothecal. Moreover, as 
Mr. Dana freely admits, Chicago "gives and is 
to be praised therefore good rooms, rent free, and 
New York offers nothing." He volunteers to be 
one to try to raise a fund with which to lure the 
headquarters back again to the edge of the continent. 

THE ENCOURAGEMENT OF COSMOPOLITAN CUL- 
TURE goes on apace. International exchange of 
university professors is accompanied by a like swap- 
ping of students, Germany, France, and England 
being the countries with which our own especially 
engages in this friendly barter. And now there is 



proposed by the University of Chili, through the 
Chilian Minister at Washington, an interchange of 
similar courtesies between that institution and Har- 
vard, with a limited number of students included in 
the scheme of give and take. Also one hears of a 
like plan proposed by Dr. Carlos de Pena, Uruguayan 
envoy to this country, on behalf of the National Uni- 
versity of Uruguay, and the prospect now is that 
these South American exchanges will be effected 
next year. Why would not a series of exchanges 
between Mexican and our own universities tend to 
the benefit of all concerned, and especially to a more 
cordial and mutually helpful relation between the 
nations whose common boundary is the Rio Grande? 



COMMUNICATIONS. 

REVIVIFYING THE CLASSIC LANGUAGES. 
(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

Evidently two quite different but not necessarily 
opposing purposes obtain in the acquirement of the so- 
called classic languages: one signifies discipline, the 
other intellectual pleasure. Our pleasure-loving age 
shuns discipline; and one proof of this statement is to 
be found in the universal complaint made by the teachers 
of Latin and Greek that not only fewer pupils take up 
the study of those languages but also that those doing 
so seem to find it harder to master them. I believe 
thoroughly in intellectual discipline, but not in wasted 
energy. A mental discipline which keeps immature 
boys for years in studying the elements of Latin and 
Greek and ends by making them detest the classics, 
largely because the purpose of their discipline has been 
to give them the skeleton of the language and even the 
flesh of it but not the vital spirit the very term " dead 
languages " proves that they are treated as corpses to 
be dissected and not as splendidly living literatures, 
seems to me a wicked waste of time. 

There are exceptional instances where a boy, like 
young Sidis, takes to Greek because, being interested 
in history, he wanted to read Thucydides and Herodotus 
in the original ; but it would be far wiser for most chil- 
dren under the age of twenty to begin with French or 
German or even Italian, in which languages there is a 
copious literature suitable for every epoch of a child's 
life. I am not original in this claim. Ben Franklin in 
his Autobiography says: " I have thought there is some 
inconsistency in our common mode of teaching languages. 
We are told that it is proper to begin first with the Latin, 
and having acquired that, it will be more easy to attain 
those modern languages which are derived from it; and 
yet we do not begin with the Greek, in order more 
easily to acquire the Latin"; and he proceeds to query 
whether it would not be better " to begin with the French 
and then take up the classic languages." 

John Milton also (in his glorious essay on Education), 
in speaking of the many mistakes which have made 
learning so unpleasing and so unsuccessful, says: " We 
do amiss to spend seven or eight years merely in scrap- 
ing together so much miserable Latin and Greek as might 
be learned otherwise easily and delightfully in one year." 
And further on he adds : " These are not matters to be 
wrung out of poor striplings like blood out of the nose 
or the plucking of untimely fruit." 

And John Locke, in his wise and noble " Thoughts 
concerning Education," says of the boy: "As soon as 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



95 



he can speak English, it is time for him to learn some 
other language: this nobody doubts of, when French is 
proposed. And the reason is because people are accus- 
t tomed to the right way of teaching that language, which 
is by talking it into children in constant conversation 
and not by grammatical rules. . . . When he can read 
and speak French well, which in this method is usually 
in a year or two, he should proceed to Latin, which it 
is a wonder parents, when they have had the experi- 
ment in French, should not think ought to be learned 
the same way by talking and reading. . . . Latin I 
look upon as absolutely necessary to a gentleman ; and 
indeed custom, which prevails over everything, has made 
it so much a part of education, that even those children 
are whipped to it and made spend many hours of their 
precious time uneasily in Latin, who after they are once 
gone from school, are never to have any more to do with 
it, as long as they live." 

And the wise old Du Bellay, in the sixteenth century, 
anticipated President Eliot in placing less emphasis on 
the "humanities." He said: " Car si le terns que nous 
consumons h apprendre ces dictes langues [Latin and 
Greek] estoit employe" a 1'estude des sciences la Nature 
certes n'est point devenue si brehaigne [sterile] qu'elle 
n'enfastast de notre terns des Platons et des Aristotes." 

I have no objection to a man spending a life-time on 
a Greek particle or in finding the esoteric significance 
of the careless writing to be found in Plato or Csesar, if 
he can get pleasure or profit from such puerilities; but 
it makes my blood boil with indignation to see our pre- 
paratory schools go on, generation after generation, in 
the same old stupid course, keeping boys and girls for 
years on what are called the elements of the classic 
languages, and, as Milton says, growing " into hatred 
and contempt of learning," or, as Locke says, abhorring 
them " for the ill usage it procured " them. 

For thousands of years makers of needles put the eye 
into the shank; suddenly a man came along and put the 
eye into the neck just above the point, and the sewing- 
machine was invented. Still the grammars teach stu- 
dents the declensions perpendicularly from nominative 
singular to ablative plural; whereas if the cases were 
learned horizontally, it would in two minutes' time save 
six months of blundering. Every English objective plural 
ends either in s or, in the case of neuters (like phenom- 
ena), in a. By putting the five vowels, a, e, i, o, and u, 
before this final s, one learns in about a minute to recog- 
nize practically all the accusatives plural, both nouns 
and adjectives, in all Latin literature ; by changing the 
s to m one likewise, though of course not quite so as- 
suredly, gets most of the accusatives singular. The 
meaningless distinction of First and Second Declensions 
and the like, resolves into a reasonable vowel sequence. 
In a similar way the conjugations are learned by the 
natural divisions of time. Every imperfect has the ba, 
(a sister of the English was but more regular) with the 
almost invariable raus, we, nt, they, t, he or she or it, 
according to the context. The addition of ur makes 
almost any verb passive. This is only a hint of what 
steps one may take in learning Latin. I once taught a 
young woman Latin so that in ten or twelve lessons she 
was reading Spinoza in the original. 

I agree that it might take years to acquire a thorough 
scientifically-grammatical knowledge of either Greek or 
Latin, but I would guarantee that any mature person in 
a week's time might without great strain lay a sufficient 
basis of Latin and Greek to take the keenest delight in 
Vergil or Ovid, in Euripides or Plato. Of course I would 



not ignore what we in college used to call " trots," for a 
literal translation is only a simplified dictionary. This 
is merely the application of common sense to the use of 
brains. The spirit of any language may be to a large de- 
gree understood and entered into by reading the Gospels 
or the Psalms, with which one is presupposed to have 
some degree of familiarity. The pronunciation is per- 
fectly simple. The Greek alphabet may be learned in 
half an hour, by selecting out the letters like and unlike 
our own and writing the unfamiliar ones down with their 
equivalents a few times. 

Let me say again, this is wholly and solely for the 
sake of the literary value of Greek and Latin litera- 
ture, and for the intense delight which it gives. I try 
to read a little Greek every day, and the mere sound 
of the words, the rhymes and alliterations, the musical 
rhythms, come to the ear of my eye, if I may use 
such a term, with a sensuous intoxicating exhilaration 
which I believe even the Greeks themselves, perhaps 
overfamiliar with the words, could scarcely feel. That 
is the glory of acquiring a new language the new 
words are like newly-minted coins, with the design and 
the inscription not as yet worn away by familiar use. 

Of course pedantic and academic scholars and pro- 
fessors, still bound in the shackles of convention, fight 
against these theories; and they have been strong 
enough to resist the suggestions of Milton and Locke 
and our own wise and sensible Franklin so that the 
schools and colleges are still following the well -worn, 
dusty, vegetationless paths to the grave-yards where 
the dead languages are buried. Armed with mediaeval 
pick and spade they burrow in the valley of dry bones, 
and the result is that live people detest their methods 
and are bored to death with articulated skeletons jug- 
gled into a sort of punchiuello semblance of activity by 
a stupid apparatus of clumsy strings. 

The cone of education stands on its apex instead of 
resting on its good broad base. I should like to see a 
revolution turn out the whole system and begin again. 
Then we should have a Renaissance in literature, and a 
vast multitude kindled with enthusiasm for the classics, 
both ancient and modern. 

NATHAN HASKELL DOLE. 

Jamaica Plain, Boston, Jan. 19, 1914. 

AN AUXILIARY LANGUAGE FOR 
INTERCOMMUNICATION. 
(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

The solution of the problem of intercommunication 
in its broadest sense, the international and unrestricted 
exchange of useful information, has always been con- 
fronted by the barrier of language. There is no apriori 
reason why the quintessence of the modern European 
tongues might not be extracted, as it were, and made 
to do good service to civilization in a world daily grow- 
ing smaller. The writer will not attempt to discuss in 
detail any of the projects for a purely artificial language. 
There have indeed been many failures in that field of 
human ingenuity; but those failures, or the aggregate 
thereof, have served to point out the way to ultimate 
success. The auxiliary language which will sooner or 
later come into fairly universal use as an economic 
factor will undoubtedly be based upon maximum inter- 
nationality as governed by regularity and facility. 

It has been impossible until very recently to approach 
this question in any way except as a partisan or an 
opponent of some particular project. Happily, the 
problem is now being given consideration from a much 



96 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 1 



more nearly neutral standpoint, and in a way which 
promises its removal to the plane of recognized author- 
ity. It is high time that this be done, not only to end 
the controversy and keen rivalry between various pro- 
jects, but also, what is far more important, to give the 
world some definite assurance of a way to prevent the 
fearful economic waste of time, energy, and money 
involved in the current and so far unavoidable practice 
of using three or more official languages in every inter- 
national congress. This practice entails much tedious 
repetition of remarks and resolutions, and much expense 
for separate editions of publications, etc. It should 
suffice that the proceedings of such international con- 
ventions be conducted and published in the language 
of the country in which the meeting occurs, with an 
interleaved or separate translation in the official auxil- 
iary language for all the rest of the world. Such a 
plan, which is not at all impossible of fulfilment, would 
often have the further great advantage that the speak- 
ers or authors themselves would write or personally 
approve the translation. This would go far toward 
the prevention of serious inaccuracies and preserve the 
exact meaning of the author, which is so difficult to do 
when translations are made by another who may have 
very little knowledge of the technical subject involved. 
Not only in the international congresses would all con- 
cerned receive substantial and lasting benefits from the 
world-wide adoption and use of a common auxiliary 
language, but the advantages would be scarcely less 
important when accruing also to commerce and to 
tourist travel. 

" But," says the patient reader, " this very pleasing 
prospect seems to be based on only an assumption that 
some international language will really become officially 
adopted by the governments. Languages are the result 
of growth and must have a long history. It is impos- 
sible to conceive of spontaneous expression in any but 
a living language, such as English or French, for 
example. To use a conventional language, created by 
fiat, governmental or otherwise, would mean a loss of 
comprehensiveness, of flexibility, and of precision. It 
would mean a limited and stilted manner of expression 
of thought, which would be quite inadequate and unsat- 
isfactory. It can never be." 

If the good reader has allowed himself thus to be 
blinded by his prejudice, his pre-judgment, he is griev- 
ously mistaken. Let him awake and look around. If 
he cannot see the signs of the times, let him put his 
ear to the ground and listen to the mighty rumble of 
the gathering legions of internationalism, those vast 
armies of peace which are marching forward valiantly 
to a glorious victory for humanity, and to the destruc- 
tion of barriers between peoples and peoples, man and 
man. The barrier of language will not and cannot be 
broken down by the adoption of English or any other 
living tongue, whether brought about by commercial 
supremacy or any other means. That would give far 
too great an advantage to the nation whose mother 
tongue was thus favored. Equity, mutual fairness, and 
the necessities of the case demand the adoption, not of 
a purely artificial idiom, but of the quintessence of the 
modern languages of western and southern Europe, 
not a mere mixture, but a composite, logically devel- 
oped by the collaboration of scholars. 

In this state of affairs, therefore, it is but natural and 
appropriate that at the Eighth International Congress of 
Students held in Ithaca, N. Y., August 29 to Septem- 
ber 3, 1913, which was attended by two hundred repre- 



sentatives of thirty countries, the following resolution 
was adopted: 

" The Congress declares itself heartily in favor of an 
auxiliary language and expresses the earnest hope that the 
adherents of Esperanto and Ido (reformed Esperanto) may 
unite in a common effort to secure the appointment of an 
official commission for the purpose of thoroughly studying 
the problem, and adopting an official international auxiliary 
language." 

This resolution may, and quite possibly will, bear 
fruit even sooner than its framers anticipated. The 
Association for the creation of a Universal Language 
Bureau, founded in Berne on February 27, 1911, and 
entered in the Commercial Register, has for its imme- 
diate object the presentation of an address to the Swiss 
Federal Council, in which the latter is to be requested 
to send a confidential inquiry to other governments as 
to whether or not they are willing to give their support 
to the summoning of an official provisional conference. 
This conference will undertake preliminaries with re- 
gard to combining together as many governments as 
possible into a Universal Language Union, similar to 
the Universal Postal Union. The foundation of this Uni- 
versal Language Union and the creation of a Universal 
Language Bureau are then reserved for an official 
congress of the governments concerned. This congress 
will have to form the definite conclusions which will 
be based upon the preliminary labors of the provisional 
conference. 

As a foundation for the step to be taken by the Swiss 
Federal Council and for the labors of the provisional 
conference, the Association will undertake, with the 
help of experts, a draft of an international treaty for the 
introduction of a universal language, and incorporate 
such draft in their memorial. 

On the other hand, the choice of the international 
auxiliary language which is to be proposed for official 
recognition will be left to the international conference. 
The Association is perfectly neutral in regard to the vari- 
ous systems of universal language. 

The officers of the Association are as follows: 

Honorary President: Colonel EMIL FREY, Ex- Federal 
Councillor, Director of the International Bureau of the 
Telegraph-Union in Berne. 

President: Dr. A. GOBAT, National Councillor, Direc- 
tor of the International Peace Bureau in Berne. 

Vice- Presidents: Professor WILHELM OSTWALD, 
Privy Councillor, member of the Royal Saxon Academy 
of Sciences (Gross-Bothen, Leipzig). ANTON WALTIS- 
BUHL, Manufacturer (Zurich). ARISTIDE ROLLIER, 
Judge (Berne). 

Secretary: H. BEHRMANN, Director of the Official 
Information Bureau (Berne). 

Treasurers: EUGEN v. BUREN-V. SALIS, Banker 
(Berne). ERNST WITSCHI, of the firm of Eugen v. 
Biiren & Co. (Berne). 

While the Association is absolutely neutral in its 
attitude toward the various projects for an auxiliary 
language, it is nevertheless interesting to receive from 
another quarter some indication as to the general char- 
acter of what may become the strongest candidate for 
selection. On this point some light is thrown by the 
following extracts from " The Scientific American " 
Supplements, as cited: 

"The result is a language (Ido) which maybe mastered 
readily by anybody and which has this advantage over other 
artificial languages, that it is based on rational, scientific, 
technical principles, and therefore is not exposed to the 
danger of being supplanted by the creation of a still better 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



97 



and materially different language." (Supplement 1795, May 
28, 1910, page 346.) 

" Esperanto has suffered because it has fallen into the 
hands of scientifically untrained persons, and sometimes into 
the hands of fanatics." (Supplement 1798, June 18, 1910, 
page 398.) 

"The language of the Delegation (Ido) is very capable 
of expressing difficult passages with all possible fidelity " 
(Ibid, page 399 ) 

This whole question, therefore, certainly seems at last 
to have entered the realm of practical life and serious- 
ness to the extent that it is entitled to very careful 
consideration. 

Indeed, the Swedish Parliament in Stockholm, about 
three years ago, gave some consideration to a proposition 
which contemplated the making of an official investi- 
gation, by the Parliament, of the whole question of an 
international language. Very lively interest was aroused 
in the Parliament, and the proposition as presented was 
finally defeated by a very narrow margin with a minority 
vote of ninety or more members, or nearly fifty per cent, 
which certainly constituted a very respectable support 
for the plan. Numerous other nations have found them- 
selves and their literature more or less isolated from 
the world at large owing to the fact that their mother 
tongues were not widely understood. This is a serious 
handicap against scientific study and research, and 
particularly against the publication of new discoveries 
of a technical nature, because the publisher has at best 
only a limited clientele to which to present a work of 
scientific or technical character when printed in any 
other than one of the languages of wide circulation, such 
as English, French, or German. If, on the contrary, a 
publisher of scientific works could appeal to the entire 
world for support of such a book printed in an auxiliary 
language generally understood, it would incalculably 
advance the cause of education. 

Some little progress has already been made in the 
compilation of an international lexicon of commercial 
terms; which, if made available for general use by the 
world of commerce, would be of inestimable value. 

It is true that to Switzerland, as the home of inter- 
nationalism, belongs the privilege of taking the initiative 
in the formation of a Universal Language Union and 
Bureau; but at the same time, without detracting in 
the least from the honor which belongs to Switzerland, 
it remains for some great nation to secure the almost 
equal honor of being the first to support the initial steps, 
which no doubt will be taken in Berne. 

One can easily foresee the renaissance of that glorious 
time when scientists were able to intercommunicate by 
means of a language common to all. That language 
will not be Latin, but the international language, which 
ought to be the quintessence of the modern European 
tongues. It will not be truly artificial, but essentially 
natural, founded upon the principle of maximum inter- 
nationality, governed by regularity and facility. 

EUGENE F. McPiKE. 
Chicago, Jan. 20, 1914. 



"TAINTED" BOOK REVIEWS. 

(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

A newspaper publisher in a town in the Middle West 
whom I recently visited told me an astonishing thing. 
He said he was one of eight men similarly employed 
in towns from Baltimore to Des Moines who have 
entered into an agreement with a New York advertis- 
ing concern to print syndicated book-reviews sent out 
by this concern from New York in consideration of 



receiving advertising from a number of book-publishers, 
including some of the leading houses of the country. 
My friend did not seem to see anything wrong in this 
arrangement. On the contrary, he thought it an excel- 
lent idea. He was guaranteed a greater amount of 
advertising, and he was going to dispense with his book 
critic, or at least transfer him to another department. 

As a book-buyer this seems to me a sinister move. 
I have always read book reviews where they seemed to 
be unbiassed; and I have frequently bought books, par- 
ticularly fiction, on the recommendation of reviewers 
upon whose judgment I had come to rely. I have 
always thought book reviews a natural service for a 
newspaper of repute, just as is theatrical criticism or 
editorial comment. But if literary criticism in the 
daily press is to depend on book advertising, and is to 
be furnished, not by a local critic whose taste and 
judgment you perhaps know personally to be honest, 
but by a hired corps of men in New York who are 
paid, practically, by the publishers, I should like to ask, 
in the idiom of the day, " Where do we get off ? " 

Some years ago a hue-and-cry was raised by the ex- 
posure of the fact that certain trusts, then under investi- 
gation by the government, maintained expensive pub- 
licity bureaus which put forth matter favorable to the 
companies and got it published in newspapers on the 
corporations' payroll. This was called " tainted news." 
It was bad enough ; but now we have tainted book 
reviews ! 

This may be too small a matter to excite the indigna- 
tion of the public, but I consider it only the first step 
towards the debauching of the press. I am informed 
that there is a movement already on foot to organize 
theatrical criticism on the same basis. Editorial comment 
will probably come next. 

It is true that this affair, so far, only touches eight 
cities of the second class; but if it succeeds, and both 
parties to the agreement appear to be satisfied of its 
success already, how long will it be before it reaches 
out and envelops the chief cities of the union ? 

BOOK-BUYER. 

Chicago, Jan. 24, 1914. 



A PROTEST. 
(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

As a friend of THE DIAL, may I venture to express 
my surprise that you should have allowed to be printed 
the wholly uncalled for animadversion upon the Society 
of Friends contained in a review of the work of T. B. 
Read in your issue of January 1? 

Your reviewer believes that the Quaker doctrine 
seems in practice "capable of creating more whited 
sepulchres than any other creed ever known," and in 
evidence devotes nearly half a column to the story of a 
case somebody told him about. The dictum of your 
reviewer may or may not be true, he would be hard put 
to prove it; but what has it to do with the discussion of a 
poet who was neither a Quaker nor a whited sepulchre? 
The reputation of the small Christian body impugned, 
whose influence in the humanitarian progress of the race 
is well known, is not likely to be noticeably affected by 
the aspersions referred to; but it seems to me that the 
injection of such irrelevant, personal matter into reviews 
is neither just nor politic, and unworthy of THE DIAL'S 
unique standing as an American journal of criticism. 
CHARLES FRANCIS SAUNDERS. 

Pasadena, Calif., Jan. 15, 1914. 



98 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 1 



00hs. 



FRANCIS THOMPSON : His LIFE AND 
His WORK.* 

With Mr, Everard MeynelFs Life of Francis 
Thompson we are given probably the last tribute 
from a family whose devotion to a great singer 
would, of itself, ensure that family a memor- 
able place in the history of English poetry. 
Many a young poet will envy Thompson this 
devotion, sublimated as it is with a fine harmony 
of reticence and frankness, strong as it is with 
a loyalty so sincere, so enduring, so clear-eyed. 
And the biography comes as no anti-climax. In 
the most approved manner of modern biography, 
and with the characteristic self-effacement of 
his family, Mr. Everard Meynell allows the 
singer to reveal himself, as far as may be, in 
innumerable passages of prose and poetry, pub- 
lished and unpublished, which are chosen and 
inserted with a creative sureness which everyone 
will enjoy but which will be fully appreciated 
only by those who know from experience the 
extreme difficulty of achieving a literary portrait 
that is also a work of art. In addition, the book 
is opulent with verbal snap-shots and reminis- 
cent sketches from scores of people who knew 
the poet. When it becomes necessary, as it often 
does, for the biographer to come forward and 
speak in his own person, he is obviously con- 
fronted by a great responsibility. No one who 
cannot himself write prose with distinction should 
dare to dally with the Promethean fire of quo- 
tation. But Mr. Meynell has set the jewels of 
the poet and his circle into a rich and vigorous 
metal that glows in warm and perfect harmony. 
This book, furthermore, takes its place among 
certain critical studies still rare because they 
require epical toil and vision, but increasing 
steadily in number because they mark the be- 
ginnings of a new Fine Art that irresistibly 
brings more and more strenuous and lofty writ- 
ers to emulate its first representations. This 
kind of estimate, which has been called "col- 
lective criticism " by Professor W. T. Brewster 
and others, was perhaps first effectively worked 
out by Mr. John Mackinnon Eobertson in his 
essay on Poe. It withdraws much of the over- 
emphasis now placed on sources and analogues 
to approach the author through a large body of 
his critics, and, by catching each evasive light 

*THE LIFE OF FRANCIS THOMPSON. By Everard 
Meynell. Illustrated. New York. Charles Scribner's Sons. 

THE WORKS OF FRANCIS THOMPSON. In three volumes. 
With portraits. New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 



from the myriad facets of personalities, environ- 
ments, and epochs of an army of writers, impres- 
sionistic, historical, and judicial, it gradually 
finds the full vision wherewith to build a great 
temple, at once impersonal and finely personal, 
which will stand solid and stately and indestruc- 
tible in the storm centre of whims and moods, 
of fierce vituperation and frantic eulogy. Even 
in the case of Francis Thompson, a singer of 
our own generation, such a method brings aston- 
ishing perspective under the impartial and art- 
ful hands of Mr. Meynell. Shrewd thrusts and 
irresistible lauds, dyspeptic attacks and blind 
praises, conventional whims and keen prophecies 
swarm through these pages cheek by jowl. We 
hear the voices of a motley but most represen- 
tative company: Coventry Patmore, with his 
prophecies and his arrogance, leaves his new 
celestial comrades, Elijah, Isaiah, and Jeremiah, 
to return to us as though in the flesh ; Ernest 
Dowson, in the midst of his slums and his agony 
of indulgence, reveals in his verses faint and 
lovely echoes of Thompson's diction ; Mr. Yeats 
greets warmly a distant but a fellow dreamer ; 
the leading reviews snarl and patronize; Miss 
Agnes Tobin turns from her Petrarch to the 
lover of the Virgin Mary ; that stirring old des- 
pot Henley flings the biting gibe and capricious 
but precious praise ; George Meredith banters 
like a Titan and quotes with hearty joy to the 
shy singer himself some of the awed and fragile 
and imperishable lines out of "Love in Dian's 
Lap." As we read of Cardinal Manning and 
Richard Le Gallienne, of Arthur Symons and 
Aubrey De Vere, of Norman Gale and William 
Archer, of Robert Browning and John David- 
son, our new perspective will at least dispel 
the superstition of cult-worship that hounded 
Thompson from the beginning to the end of his 
literary career.* 

If Mr. Meynell is generous and sensible in 
his inclusion of animadversions on Thompson's 
poetry, he is no less frank in his revelation of 
the facts of the man's life. And he is certainly 



* Since this review is to be frankly eulogistic, and since 
the essays of the moment still make the threadbare remark 
first made in the nineties that Thompson has been cursed by 
the overpraise of a narrow cult, it may be well for me to fol- 
low briefly Mr. Robertson's suggestion in " Essays Towards 
a Critical Method " and give the reader a brief account of 
myself. For the present purpose a few negative remarks 
will do. I am not a Roman Catholic. I do not know 'the 
Meynells. I am not a Thompsonian faddist, but discovered 
;he poet for myself when I was a sophomore in college in the 
year 1903, long before the hue and cry over Thompson and 
Defore any of my friends had heard of him. I take the liberty 
of adding that though I have my own little quarrels with 
Thompson, I find, after having read a good many recent 
reviews on him, that I shall perforce be too busy with eulogy 
o find space or inclination to touch upon my grievances. 



1914] 



THE DIAJL 



99 



no less sensible. For the facts reveal, not that 
Max Nordau and his followers are right about 
genius, but simply that Francis Thompson was 
a saint. His whole life was a superb and pious 
and immortal protest against our present formula 
that life is (and should be) a struggle for exist- 
ence. A friend of mine puts it very happily in 
a letter written after reading the biography : 

" Instead of being a divine vagrant, Thompson might 
have been a chubby and tidy person of irreproachable 
habits; but he couldn't be both at once. When the 
records are cast up, I think it is the chubby and tidy 
people who will stand most in need of apologies, rather 
than such men as Thompson." 

In the hardest and most unspiritual decades of 
the nineteenth century, the decades against 
which Matthew Arnold had raised his voice 
almost in vain, Thompson's life was the life of 
an untheatrical martyr, a perfect refutation of 
ueo-aristocracy, the aristocracy of family trees 
(generally dying at the top), the aristocracy 
of wealth, the aristocracy of efficiency, all the 
shallow and ugly sophistries that have grown up 
about the profound truth of the survival of the 
fittest. Francis Thompson, who never dreamed 
an injury and never looked at a cudgel, the con- 
sumptive who almost literally vanished slowly 
from the earth, will go down to fame as the 
deadly and irresistible foe of the noisy heroes 
of our age. He was the anti-superman. 

We must allow space for two glimpses of 
Thompson's life as revealed in the biography. 
When, like De Quincey, the poet wandered in 
agony and poverty and helplessness, a runaway 
outcast, through the long, gaunt streets of Lon- 
don, he found, like De Quincey, his Ann. 

"This girl gave out of her scant and pitiable opu- 
lence, consisting of a room, warmth, and food, and a cab 
thereto. When the streets were no longer crowded 
with shameful possibilities she would think of the only 
tryst that her heart regarded and, a sister of charity, 
would take her beggar into her vehicle at the appointed 
place and cherish him with an affection maidenly and 
motherly, and passionate in both these capacities. Two 
outcasts, they sat marvelling that there were joys for 
them to unbury and to share. Then, in a Chelsea room 
such as that of Rossetti's poem would they sit: 
" Your lamp, my Jenny, kept alight, 
Like a wise virgin's, all one night! 
And in the alcove coolly spread 
Glimmers with dawn your empty bed. 

" Weakness and confidence, humility and reverence, 
were gifts unknown to her except at his hands, and she 
repaid them with graces as lovely as a child's, and as 
unhesitating as a saint's. In his address to a child, in a 
later year, he remembers this poor girl's childishness: 

" Forlorn, and faint, and stark 
I had endured through watches of the dark 

The abashless inquisition of each star, 
Yea, was the outcast mark 



Of all those heavenly passers' scrutiny; 

Stood bound and helplessly 
For Time to shoot his barbe'd minutes at me; 
Suffered the trampling hoof of every hour 

In night's slow-wheele'd car; 
Until the tardy dawn dragged me at length 
From under those dread wheels; and, bled of strength, 

I waited the inevitable last. 

Then there came past 

A child; like thee, a spring-flower ; but a flower 
Fallen from the budded coronal of Spring, 
And through the city-streets blown withering. 
She passed, O brave, sad, lovingest, tender thing ! 
And of her own scant pittance did she give, 

That I might eat and live: 
Then fled, a swift and trackless fugitive. 

Therefore I kissed in thee 
The heart of Childhood, so divine for me; 

And her, through what sore ways 

And what uuchildish days. 
Borne from me now, as then, a trackless fugitive. 

Therefore I kissed in thee 

Her, Child ! and innocency. 

" Her sacrifice was to fly from him : learning he had 
found friends, she said that he must go to them and 
leave her. After his first interview with my father he 
had taken her his news. ' They will not understand 
our friendship,' she said, and then, ' I always knew you 
were a genius.' And so she strangled the opportunity; 
she killed again the child, the sister ; the mother had 
come to life within her she went away. Without 
warning she went to unknown lodgings and was lost to 
him. In 'the mighty labyrinths of London' he lay in 
wait for her, nor would he leave the streets, thinking 
that in doing so he would make a final severance. Like 
De Quincey's Ann, she was sought, but never found, 
along the pavements at the place where she had been 
used to find him." 

When Mr. Wilfrid Meynell pulled some dirty 
manuscripts from a pigeon-hole of his desk and 
found that they were the work of genius he des- 
patched letters in vain, and finally went to seek 
the unknown author at a chemist's shop to which 
the poet had directed him to send his mail. 

" [Mr. Meynell's] obvious eagerness prompted a query 
from the man behind the counter: ' Are you a relative? 
he owes me three-and-ninepence.' With that paid and 
a promise of ten-and-sixpence if he produced the poet, 
he agreed to do his best, and, many days after, my 
father, being in his workroom, was told that Mr. 
Thompson wished to see him. ' Show him up,' he said, 
and was left alone. 

" Then the door opened, and a strange hand was 
thrust in. The door closed, but Thompson had not 
entered. Again it opened, again it shut. At the third 
attempt a waif of a man came in. No such figure had 
ever been looked for; more ragged and unkempt than 
the average beggar, with no shirt beneath his coat and 
bare feet in broken shoes, he found my father at a loss 
for words. ' You must have had access to many books 
when you wrote that essay,' was what he said. ' That,' 
said Thompson, his shyness at once replaced by an acer- 
bity that afterwards became one of the most familiar 
of his never-to-be-resented mannerisms, 'that is pre- 
cisely where the essay fails. I had no books by me at 
the time save JSschylus and Blake.' There was little 



100 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 1 



to be done for him at that interview save the extraction 
of a promise to call again. He made none of the con- 
fidences characteristic of a man seeking sympathy and 
alms. He was secretive and with no eagerness for plans 
for his benefit, and refused the offer of a small weekly 
sum that would enable him to sleep in a bed and sit at 
a table. I know of no man, and can imagine none, to 
whom another can so easily unburden himself of uneasi- 
ness and formalities as to my father. To him the poor 
and the rich are, as the fishes and the flames to St. 
Francis, his brothers and his friends at sight, even if these 
are shy as fishes and sightless as flame. But the im- 
pression of the visit on my father was of a meeting that 
did not end in great usefulness so much was indicated 
by a manner schooled in concealments. But Francis 
came again, and again, and then to my father's house 
in Kensington. Of the falsity of the impression given 
by his manner, his poetry in the address to his host's 
little girl is the proof: 

" Yet is there more, whereat none guesseth, love ! 

Upon the ending of my deadly night 
(Whereof thou hast not the surmise, and slight 
Is all that any mortal knows thereof), 

Thou wert to me that earnest of day's light, 
When, like the back of a gold-maile'd saurian 

Heaving its slow length from Nilotic slime, 
The first long gleaming fissure runs Aurorian 

Athwart the yet dun firmament of prime. 
Stretched on the margin of the cruel sea 

Whence they had rescued me, 
With faint and painful pulses was I lying; 

Not yet discerning well 
If 1 had 'scaped, or were an icicle, 

Whose thawing is its dying. 
Like one who sweats before a despot's gate, 
Summoned by some presaging scroll of fate, 
And knows not whether kiss or dagger wait; 
And all so sickened is his countenance 
The courtiers buzz, ' Lo, doomed ! ' and look at him 
askance : 

At fate's dread portal then 
Even so stood I, I ken, 
Even so stood I, between a joy and fear, 
And said to mine own heart, Now, if the end be 
here ! ' " 

So it came about that the anti-superman was 
armed even at the close of the nineteenth century 
with the armor of pure charity, like Bunyan's 
Christian, for a mighty battle with the most 
sinister forces of modern life. 

Thompson's prose, now first authoritatively 
selected in the three-volume edition of the 
" Works," gives me more courage than any- 
thing I have seen since the happy day when I 
first read the lovely sentences of Professor 
Mackail's latest volumes. This prose of Thomp- 
son's, since it is the prose of a poet, will be of 
inestimable value to us in this generation, de- 
bauched as we are by the quickstep of journal- 
ism. There is another influence against which 
it will react, I think, with good effect, an influ- 
ence which one is supposed to mention nowadays 
in an awed whisper the influence of French 



prose. Arnold certainly did a great service in 
calling our attention to what we could learn 
from the marvellously supple prose across the 
channel. And to those who can relish Arnold's 
irony, there will be at least one quality evident 
in proof of the value of Arnold's taste for him- 
self. Yet, strangely enough, the most perfect 
passages in Arnold, such as the famous sen- 
tences about Oxford "spreading her gardens to 
the moonlight" and the haunting prelude to 
the essay on Emerson, those passages in what 
Professor Gates called Arnold's fourth manner, 
"intimate, rich in color, intense in feeling, 
almost lyrical in tone," those passages so pa- 
thetically infrequent in the work of this too 
stern self -inquisitor, are the very passages 
which owe nothing whatever to French prose. 
To whom, then, do they owe the most? Cer- 
tainly not to OUP eighteenth century prosemen, 
whom some uphold as our greatest, as rivals, 
even if humble rivals, of the French. Undoubt- 
edly Arnold's fourth manner was inspired by 
the man who was celebrated in one of those 
very passages John Henry Newman. And 
who taught Newman to write prose? To a 
great extent, De Quincey. And De Quincey 
learned the secrets of his mighty rhythms and 
his imperial opulence from the ornate English 
writers of the seventeenth century. Is it not 
true that when we survey the greatest prose of 
England we find at least a fourth written by 
our poets; about half of it written by prose- 
writers who were really very fervid poets in 
spirit, Malory, Hooker, Taylor, the King 
James translators, Browne, Burke, De Quincey, 
Lamb, Hazlitt, Carlyle, Newman, Ruskin, 
Pater (for all his half-true protestations of 
French lineage) ; and, finally, do we not find 
that barely a fourth has been written by men 
like Swift? The ornate style is the English 
style, our heritage from the spacious days of 
the English renaissance. And, though the 
purer currents of the simpler eighteenth cen- 
tury prose and the wonderful cadences from 
France are a most wholesome interblending, 
we should not forget our imperatorial birth- 
right. Francis Thompson, in an age when 
our prose-writers, though still phrasing bril- 
liantly, were beginning to lose their grasp of 
rhythm, wrote the true English prose. A fair 
characterization of his own style and an excel- 
lent example of it may be found in a sentence 
that he wrote on Sidney's prose : " It is a prose 
full of young joy, and young power, and young 
inexperience, and young melancholy, which is 
the wilfulness of joy; full of young fertility, 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



101 



wantoning in its own excess." And, lest some 
readers draw unjust inferences, lest they doubt 
the sound sense of Thompson, let me add 
another example of his prose and an admirable 
example of his fine critical acumen, a sen- 
tence on his beloved De Quincey : 

" A little, wrinkly, high-foreheaded, dress-as-you- 
please man; a meandering, inhumanly intellectual man, 
shy as a hermit-crab, and as given to shifting his lodg- 
ings; much-enduring, inconceivable of way, sweet- 
hearted, fine-natured, small-spited, uncanny as a sprite 
begotten of libraries ; something of a bore to many, by 
reason of talking like a book in coat and breeches 
undeniably clever and wonderful talk none the less; 
master of a great, unequal, seductive, and irritating 
style; author of sixteen delightful and intolerable vol- 
umes, part of which can never die, and much of which 
can never live: that is De Quincey." 

Thompson's prose in the collected Works and 
the hitherto unpublished fragments in the Life 
will also be of great value in giving pause to 
many who have been content to mouth certain 
commonplaces of criticism against him which 
have been continuously current since 1894. We 
learn now that his reviewers have been right in 
pointing out that there were echoes from Pat- 
more, Coleridge, Crashaw, and an army of others. 
Indeed, Mr. Everard Meynell is very glad to 
supplement the notions of the critics not only 
with confessions from Thompson but with some 
most suggestive parallel passages and observa- 
tions of his own. Nevertheless, with all this in 
mind, the wary critic as he rereads the poems 
will, it is hoped, learn a lesson of supreme im- 
portance to his generation. Let him reread also 
the poetry of Oscar Wilde and note that, while 
both poets can change like the chameleon, as the 
iridescent memories of a hundred singers surge 
through them, Oscar Wilde was insincere and 
therefore (except in a few master poems) only 
a very interesting workman, but Francis Thomp- 
son was sincere and therefore a great poet. The 
wary critic will then reflect that, in spite of the 
futurists, a man may, without going to the old 
extremes prescribed by some eighteenth-century 
critics, follow certain immortal models. The wary 
critic will remember that Milton, Shakespeare, 
Spenser, and Chaucer unblushingly did just this. 
And he will perhaps come to the conclusion that 
some of our modern artists have confused new- 
ness with originality. He will, in fine, observe 
that few supreme artists have cared much whether 
what they sought to do had been done before, 
but rather they have trembled with convictions 
that flamed out from the midst of their groping 
comrades like the fierce jet of a huge forge in a 
grim city at night. 



One other comment that was once thought 
an easy truism will be uttered less sweepingly 
when we have pondered this new prose and 
reread the poems, namely, the old jeer at 
Thompson's diction. In this matter, too, since 
1894, Thompson has been attacked for archa- 
isms, coinages, and sacerdotalisms. Without 
the assistance of an Academy of wiseacres, 
Anglo-Saxondom has always contrived to be 
ponderously suspicious of archaisms, even when 
these have been drawn almost straight from 
a Cynewulfian Northumbria or an Alfredian 
Wessex. As for Latinisms anathema! lam 
inclined to think that if the dream of an En- 
glish Academy, a dream indulged in from at 
least the days of old Spratt, the biographer of 
Cowley, to the days of Matthew Arnold's great 
essay, were to come true, this Academy would 
know enough to take the opposite view from the 
French Academy, which, for the sake of its tran- 
quil and silvery and softly musical language, 
is judiciously cautious : this English Academy 
would, I believe, be very tolerant of archaisms 
in our restless oceanic language. After many 
years spent in the study of Edmund Spenser, 
who has been a storm-centre on this matter from 
1579 to 1914, I find much solace in murmur- 
ing to myself the words of shrewd old Thomas 
Fuller on the poet's poet: "And though some 
blame his Writings for the many Chaucerisms 
used by him, yet to the Learned they are known 
not to be blemishes but rather beauties to his 
Book." Archaisms and coinages generally go 
together, see Spenser and Milton. We should 
be a little less tolerant of coinages than of 
archaisms. And of course we must remember 
always the rules of Horace, which are perfectly 
sound and quite invaluable and absolutely im- 
possible. Our multifarious, questing English 
language will pause over these rules occasion- 
ally, just long enough to keep from going mad ; 
but our language is, unlike all other Anglo- 
Saxon institutions, absolutely without stolidity. 
As for the sacerdotalisms, they are often very 
beautiful when one finds out what they mean. 
Ecclesiastico-mania is doubtless bad enough, 
but it is a venial sin compared with the vice 
popular among many of Thompson's critics, 
ecclesiastico-phobia. I am not averse to read- 
ing a poet, for a while, with a dictionary at my 
elbow. And as far as Thompson is concerned, 
I never read him without resolving to plunder 
him some day of those same beautiful sacerdo- 
talisms. Finally, now that his prose works 
and biography are in my hands, I shall be very 



102 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 1 



careful about using the rapier on a man who 
can weigh his words as nicely as the following 
passage indicates : 

" Of ' nervure ' ; I should not, in a like passage, use 
cuticle of a flower or leaf : because it is a streaky word 
its two k sounds and mouse-shrewd u make it like a 
wire tweaked by a plectrum. The u of nervure is not 
only unaccented, therefore unprominent in sound, but 
the soft v and u quite alter its effect from that it has 
when combined with &'s and parchment-tight t's." 

And a friendly critic of Thompson writes as 
follows : 

" The labour, the art, the studious vocabulary are 
locked together within the strenuous grasp of the man's 
sincerity. There is no dissociating, no disintegrating, 
such poems as these ; and Francis Thompson's heart beats 
in the words ' roseal,' ' cymars,' 'frore,' ' amiced,' ' lamped,' 
and so forth." 

With these passages in mind I recall an 
extraordinary sentence in an English essay on 
Thompson not yet a year old : 

" His thought is conventional, it is the diarrhcetical 
flux of language which mystifies, which shrieks and 
hisses by its persistent shock and turgidity, by its 
linguistic nodes and rugosities." 

Imagine the unholy joy with which a provincial 
English weekly would hail such a sentence from 
an American ! Doubtless its writer would ac- 
cuse me of lacking a sense of humor; but I 
must confess that my impresssion is of a little 
man with a cracked voice trying to roar down his 
intended victim, in the manner of Dr. Johnson, 
or essaying, with petty irritation, the tremen- 
dous guffaw of Rabelais. 

Finally, Thompson's poems, reread with the 
prose in our minds and the chapter in the biog- 
raphy on " Mysticism and Imagination " open 
before us, teach us that it is wrong to accuse 
Thompson's thought of conventionality. The 
world is full of mystics to-day. There are, first 
of all, the new-fangled mystical cults founded 
mainly by honest but rather shallow people, who, 
having conned the A B C of an attitude older 
than the oldest forests of India, put forward 
their results as a new religion and draw many 
equally honest and rather more shallow people 
in their muddy wake. Yet, on the whole, good 
will come from them. Then there is the school 
celebrated in Mr. Arthur Symons's masterly 
volume on "The Symbolist Movement." Most 
of the people of this school are really materialists, 
but they cover, generally with perfect sincerity, 
their materialism with a thin and leprous and 
alluring veil that they call mysticism. I believe 
that some of these people will leave, for all their 
decadence, works of art that are enduring, but 
never supreme. Francis Thompson was a true 
mystic, and to him a few thinkers will go for 



many centuries. Nor will they who go to him 
all be Catholics. For some of them will be 
steeped in the philosophy of ancient India, and 
more of them will be Platonists who will know 
him " by a secret sign." But most brotherly of 
all will be those who can gather out of all of these 
the perfect flowers of wisdom. They will know 
Thompson's faults better than any other critics 
have known them ; but, quite naturally, they will 
choose to be silent. 

HERBERT ELLSWORTH CORY. 



SOUTH AMERICAN WILDS.* 



As a veteran explorer, Mr. A. Henry Savage 
Landor needs no introduction to the reader of 
works on travel. Since his thrilling experiences 
in Thibet sixteen years ago, he has penetrated 
supposedly inaccessible parts of Persia, Afghan- 
istan, and Africa; yet it is doubtful if the 
account of any of his past achievements can 
approach in variety of incident or perils encoun- 
tered the narrative of his journey just completed 
through the wildest portion of South America. 

A detailed account of Mr. Savage Lander's 
latest explorations would obviously fall outside 
the scope of this review; yet some indication 
may be given of the magnitude of his task and 
of the results attained. In all, the author 
travelled over thirteen thousand miles in South 
America, and of this enormous distance some 
five thousand miles were through regions in 
Brazil hitherto either unknown or but little 
explored. His itinerary led him from Rio de 
Janeiro, & a general northwesterly direction, 
through the interior states of Goyaz, Matto 
Grosso, and Amazonas, regions watered by 
the great rivers Xingu, Tapajoz, and Madeira. 
The object of the expedition was to study the 
geography and geology of this vast area, much 
of it uncharted; to learn something definite 
about the Indians of central Brazil; and to 
investigate the economic resources of a territory 
still largely unexploited. 

From the first, the journey was fraught with 
hardships and peril. It was found all but im- 
possible to persuade anyone in Brazil to embark 
on the expedition ; and as a last resort the 
author was forced to employ, at ridiculously 
high wages, six ex-convicts as his companions. 
The journey begun with such unfavorable aus- 
pices repeatedly threatened to end in disaster. 

* ACROSS UNKNOWN SOUTH AMEKICA. By A. Henry 
Savage Landor. In two volumes. Illustrated. Boston : 
Little, Brown, & Co. 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



103 



Again and again Mr. Savage Landor had to 
quell a mutiny, and on several occasions his life 
was in imminent danger. But even more re- 
markable than the successive escapes from his 
followers was his triumph over natural obstacles. 
His original intention was to pass through the 
very heart of Brazil, riding from the terminus 
of the railway in Minas Geraes to Manaos, the 
capital of Amazonas, a distance of between 
three and four thousand miles. But after eight 
hundred miles had been traversed he discovered 
that his worthless companions, in order to force 
him to retrace his steps, had thrown away most 
of his large stock of provisions. To escape 
starvation, the party made a detour to the 
south, and reached the ancient settlement of 
Diamantino, the last frontier post of civiliza- 
tion in central Brazil. With what supplies he 
could purchase, Mr. Savage Landor now deter- 
mined to descend from its source the great 
Tapajos River, one of the most powerful tribu- 
taries of the Amazon. The account of the 
journey down the hitherto unexplored portions 
of this stream is thrilling in the highest degree. 
Perilous waterfalls, treacherous whirlpools, 
deadly rapids, "in comparison with which 
those of Niagara are child's play," taxed the 
skill and endurance of the party to the utmost. 
At times they were even obliged to drag the 
two-thousand-pound canoe over low mountain 
ranges, after blazing a trail through the native 
forest. 

The last stage of Mr. Savage Lander's explo- 
rations in Brazil not only surpassed in hardship 
and suffering everything that had preceded, but 
seemed fated to end in tragedy. Since the 
canoe, by this time unserviceable, had to be 
abandoned at a government station, the author 
heroically insisted on pushing forward on foot, 
through the unexplored region between Tapajos 
and Madeira Rivers. But again his plans were 
balked by the perfidy of his followers. Sup- 
plies intended to last many months were sur- 
reptitiously destroyed, until at length the little 
party, entirely cut off from civilization, passed 
sixteen days practically without food. Further 
attempts to cut a path through the forest were 
impossible owing to the weakness of the men; 
escape by water seemed out of the question, as 
the native timbers were all too heavy to float. 
The ingenious expedient by which Mr. Savage 
Landor succeeded in rescuing himself and his 
companions from this frightful impasse may 
best be described in his own words : 

" We felt in such a plight that we lay helpless upon 
the floor of the hut, quite unable to move, so exhausted 



were we. In turning my head around I discovered tea 
large demijohns, some two and one-half feet high and 
about two feet in diameter, of thick green glass. They 
were the usual demijohns garajfons, as they were 
called used all over Brazil for ' fire-water.' I at 
once conceived the idea of using them as floats in the 
construction of a raft. 

" My men grinned contemptuously at the idea when 
I mentioned it to them. They said that all was over. 
It was no use trying to get away. The Almighty wanted 
us to die, and we must only lie there and await our end, 
which was not far off. Benedicto struggled to his knees 
and prayed to the Almighty and the Virgin, sobbing 
bitterly all the time. 

" I struggled up on my feet and proceeded to carry 
the big vessels to the river bank, where I intended to 
construct the raft. The effort to take each heavy bottle 
those few metres seemed almost beyond me in my ex- 
hausted state. At last I proceeded to strip the floor of 
the hut, which had been made with split assahy palms, 
in order that I might make a frame to which I could 
fasten the bottles. With a great deal of persuasion I 
got Filippe and Benedicto to help me. The long pieces 
of assahy were too heavy for our purpose, and we had 
the additional trouble of splitting each piece into four. 
It was most trying work in our worn-out condition. 
Then we had to go into the forest and collect some 
small liane so that we could tie the pieces together, as 
we had no nails and no rope. 

" The lassitude with which we did our work, and tore 
down part of the hut in order to build that raft, our only 
way of salvation, was too pitiful to watch. We abso- 
lutely had no strength at all. When we pulled the 
liane to fasten together the different pieces of palm 
wood, we were more exhausted than if we had lifted a 
weight of 200 pounds. As it was, we could not fasten 
the pieces of wood properly, and when the raft was fin- 
ished it was indeed a shaky affair." 

On this unstable craft the starving men con- 
trived to drift down stream, until they found 
food and safety in the camp of a rubber collect- 
ing expedition. 

The remaining experiences of the author, 
though highly interesting, were in no wise 
unique. He ascended the Amazon to its source, 
crossed the Andes by a little-travelled route, 
traversed the highlands of Peru and Bolivia, 
and finally returned to Europe via Santiago 
and Buenos Aires. 

It would be a grave injustice to Mr. Savage 
Landor to assume that he has written merely a 
chronicle of adventure. From the standpoint 
of science alone, his work is a storehouse of 
results and discoveries of real importance, par- 
ticularly in the field of ethnology. Hitherto 
little-known Indian tribes, especially the Boro- 
ros, inhabiting the interior of Matto Grosso, 
were carefully studied, and elaborate vocabula- 
ries were prepared of their language. At the 
same time our knowledge of the geology and 
geography of Central Brazil has been materially 
increased through the author's methodical and 



104 



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[Feb. 1 



tireless observations. Even the account of the 
vast economic possibilities of this virgin terri- 
tory makes fascinating reading. In fact, so 
highly did the Brazilian government value the 
results of this expedition, that it honored Mr. 
Savage Landor with a grant of four thousand 
dollars. 

In all details of the bookmaker's art, these 
two handsome volumes leave little to be desired. 
Several of the author's own wonderful color 
studies are reproduced, while the two hundred 
excellent illustrations from photographs enable 
the reader to follow the party throughout every 
stage of its remarkable journey. 

P. A. MARTIN. 



SALEM IN ITS HABIT AS IT LIVED.* | 

More than fifty years ago, George Nichols, 
of Salem, then eighty years old, dictated his 
autobiography to his daughter, Lydia Ropes 
Nichols. Now Miss Martha Nichols publishes 
her grandfather's recollections under the title, 
" George Nichols, Salein Shipmaster and Mer- 
chant." The autobiography is an account at 
first hand of Salem shipping at the turn of the 
eighteenth century, when the ships of Salem 
were known in all the great ports of the world. 

George Nichols was born July 4, 1778, in 
what is now the oldest brick house in Salem, in 
Derby street near the Custom House. When 
about a year old his father moved to Ports- 
mouth, New Hampshire, and the recollections 
tell an entertaining story of schoolboy life in 
that old town. It began at "not more than 
two years of age, when I was sent to an old 
woman named Molly Shaw, and my cradle was 
sent with me." Another dame school was fol- 
lowed by two boys' schools, which he remem- 
bered chiefly as places where he was cruelly 
flogged and learned nothing. Naturally he 
preferred to drive the cow to pasture, to feed 
the pigs, or to work in the garden. Various 
pranks recall Tom Bailey, the classic bad boy 
of Portsmouth. On one occasion when the 
schoolmaster caught his younger brother, Icha- 
bod, by the ear, "pulling it very violently," 
George says he could hardly refrain from throw- 
ing a large Bible he had in his hand at the 
master's head. He did not throw the Bible, 
but he cried out in school, "You are a set of 
fools altogether." 

A year at Phillips Exeter Academy brought 

*GEOKGK NICHOLS, SALEM SHIPMASTER AND MEK- 
CHANT. By Martha Nichols. Salem: The Salem Press 
Company. 



the lad under the influence of Benjamin Abbott, 
to whom he says he owed much of his success 
in life. Benjamin Abbott was a great teacher, 
who conducted Phillips Exeter for fifty years. 
Some of his boys were Daniel Webster, Edward 
Everett, Jared Sparks, and George Bancroft. 

At thirteen George Nichols became a clerk 
in his father's grocery store, and his school 
days were over. In 1793, the father, Ichabod 
Nichols, returned to Salem and went into the 
shipping business. An experience of a year or 
so as a shipping clerk whetted the boy's wish 
"to see the world," and in his seventeenth year 
he made his first voyage, to Copenhagen and 
St. Petersburg. 

The most interesting part of the autobi- 
ography is the account of nine voyages made 
between 1795 and 1803, eight years full of 
work and adventure for the young sailor, who 
rose rapidly from joint super-cargo to be master 
of his own ship, the "Active." Captain Nichols's 
business notes throw light on economic condi- 
tions in the first quarter-century of the Republic. 
The Salem shipping masters were international 
carriers ; they built ships and manned them, and 
fetched and carried goods wherever they found 
profitable markets. An American cargo was 
usually tobacco, sugar, and coffee. Captain 
Nichols made one coast-wise voyage to Virginia, 
for tobacco to carry to the north of Europe. 
But Virginia did not furnish all the tobacco of 
American cargoes, for the year before, 1797, he 
went to Alexandria, Egypt, for flour and tobacco, 
which he sold in the Isle of France, and bought 
sugar and coffee to carry back to Salem. On 
another voyage he took tobacco, sugar, and coffee 
to St. Petersburg, and brought back from Russia 
hemp, iron, and manufactures. In 1802, he 
sailed to Sumatra for a cargo of pepper, which 
he sold in Manila, and bought sugar and indigo. 
Sailing for Falmouth, England, he went to Lon- 
don, where he learned that France and England 
were on the verge of war. He sailed at once 
for Rotterdam, and there cannily waited three 
weeks until war was declared, when he sold his 
cargo at an advance of fifty per cent on peace 
prices. 

In December, 1799, Captain Nichols set sail 
in the ship "Active" on what he describes as 
" one of the greatest voyages, considering all the 
circumstances, ever made by a Salem vessel." 
He carried about 115,000 in specie to Bombay 
to buy cotton, which he took to London and sold 
to the East India Company at more than three 
hundred per cent profit. Reloading in London, 
he went back to Madras with a cargo of English 



1914] 



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105 



goods and some $40,000 in specie. He re- 
turned to Salem in 1801, after an absence of 
about twenty months, with bills of exchange on 
Boston for $65,000, together with bills of lading 
for a cargo worth $10,000. He was twenty- three 
years old in that year. 

The old sea captain's interests were mainly 
of a business character, but we get a glimpse of 
London in 1800. It is the London of Charles 
Lamb, who was then a clerk in the service of 
the East India Company. One evening Captain 
Nichols went to see George Frederick Cooke 
play Shylock at "the Covent Garden Theatre, 
where I saw the Royal family George the 
Third, his wife and two or three daughters ; one 
of whom, Princess Elizabeth, was very handsome, 
reminding me very much of Dolly Tread well." 

Another London experience is of interest 
to those who happen to own a Tobias watch. 
Telling his "watch story," Captain Nichols 
relates: "My next watch adventure was in 
London, where I had a gold watch made by 
one Tobias, a Jew, very much thought of by 
Americans, but an unprincipled man. It cost 
me $120." There is a certain Tobias watch 
that has been keeping time in one family for 
nearly sixty years. It came into the family in 
part payment of a debt, so that it has an earlier 
and unknown history. It was carried in a 
soldier's pocket through the Civil War. It 
went around the world and told time for the 
U. S. Transit of Venus expedition in 1874-5. 
It now keeps up with the intricacies of a college 
schedule. A high principled watch, surely ! 

When the War of 1812 broke out, Captain 
Nichols says he was worth $40,000 and was 
"quite a rich man for those times." One of 
the results of that war was the decline of the 
port of Salem, brought about by the loss of its 
ships to British privateers. The experience 
of Captain Nichols illustrates how effectually 
England drove American commerce off the 
high seas. Every ship in which he was inter- 
ested was captured. Salem never recovered its 
commercial leadership. In 1826, both George 
Nichols and his father-in-law became bankrupt. 

He had married, in 1801, his cousin, Sally 
Peirce, daughter of Jerathmiel Peirce, also a 
shipping master, and grandfather of Benja- 
min Peirce, the mathematician. The marriage 
took place " in my Father Peirce's great eastern 
room. Sally's dress was a beautiful striped 
muslin, very delicate, made in Bombay for some 
distinguished person. I purchased it of Nasser 
Vanji, at five dollars per yard. This muslin 
Sally wore over white silk. Her head-dress 



was a white lace veil put on turban fashion. 
Her cake, of which she had a great quantity, was 
made in a great bread tray by Nellie Masury, a 
sister of the late Deacon Punchard." Nasser 
Vanji was a Parsee, of Bombay. The Parsees 
are described as " some of the most intelligent 
people I have ever known, rich and very honor- 
able in their dealings. The merchant, Nasser 
Vanji Monackjee, was a very fine man." 

A charming story illustrates the character of 
Sally Peirce Nichols. " I shall never forgot the 
beautiful smile upon my wife's countenance when 
I told her I was bankrupt. She said : ' Is that 
all ? I feared from your manner that you had 
something dreadful to communicate.' " 

Sally Peirce Nichols inherited the house built 
in 1782 by her father, Jerathmiel Peirce, and 
designed by Samuel Mclntyre. This house, 
with its hospitable gateway and door, its beau- 
ful hall, handsome drawing-room, and terraced 
garden behind, is one of the finest and best- 
preserved colonial houses in New England. 

At the close of his well-told story, Captain 
Nichols says, with some pride, that he could 
recall the names of all the men who had ever 
sailed with him, both before and after he was 
master, and the names of all the persons with 
whom he did business abroad. To this good 
memory, we owe the preservation of the follow- 
ing old ballad, which was sung by one of the 
sailors from " down east " to cheer the men when 
the ship was becalmed : 

SWEET WILLIAM. 

" Sweet William, he married a wife, 
Gentle Jenny, cried Rose Marie, 
To be the sweet comfort of his life, 

As the dew flies over the mulberry tree. 

' Jenny could n't card, nor Jenny could n't spin, 

Gentle Jenny, cried Rose Marie, 
For fear of hurting her gay gold ring, 
As the dew flies over the mulberry tree. 

" Jenny could n't brew, nor Jenny could n't bake, 

Gentle Jennie, cried Rose Marie, 
For fear of soiling her white apron tape, 
As the dew flies over the mulberry tree. 

" Jenny could n't into the kitchen to go, 

Gentle Jenny, cried Rose Marie, 
For fear of hurting her high-heeled shoe, 
As the dew flies over the mulberry tree. 

" Sweet William came whistling in from plaow, 

Gentle Jenny, cried Rose Marie, 
And, ' Oh, my dear wife, is my dinner ready, naow?' 
As the dew flies over the mulberry tree. 

" She called him a dirty, paltry whelp, 

Gentle Jenny, cried Rose Marie, 
If you want any dinner, go get it yourself,' 

As the dew flies over the mulberry tree. 



106 



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[Feb. 1 



" Then to the sheepfold quickly he did go, 

Gentle Jenny, cried Rose Marie, 
And out a fat wether from there did pull, 
As the dew flies over the mulberry tree. 

" Then down on his knees he began for to stick, 

Gentle Jenny, cried Rose Marie, 
And from the sheep's back the skin did strip, 
As the dew flies over the mulberry tree. 

" He laid the skin upon his wife's back, 

Gentle Jenny, cried Rose Marie, 
And with a good stick he went whicketty whack, 
As the dew flies over the mulberry tree. 

" ' I '11 tell me fayther and all me kin,' 

Gentle Jenny, cried Rose Marie, 
How still the quarrel you 've begun,' 
As the dew flies over the mulberry tree. 

' You may tell your fayther and all your kin,' 

Gentle Jenny, cried Rose Marie, 
' How I have thrashed my fat wether's skin,' 

As the dew flies over the mulberry tree. 

" Sweet William came whistling in from plaow, 

Gentle Jenny, cried Rose Marie, 
And ' Oh, my dear wife, is my dinner ready naow ? ' 
As the dew flies over the mulberry tree. 

" She drew her table and spread her board, 

Gentle Jenny, cried Rose Marie, 
And ' Oh, my dear husband,' was every word, 
As the dew flies over the mulberry tree. 

" And now they live free from all care and all strife, 

Gentle Jenny, cried Rose Marie, 
And now she makes William a very good wife, 
As the dew flies over the mulberry tree." 

This sailor's song is an American variant of 
"The Wife Wrapt in Wether's Skin," No. 277 
of Francis J. Child's "English and Scottish 
Ballads," there described as a ballad based on 
the old Tudor prose tale of the " Wife Lapped 
in Morrel's Skin." The American song is 
clearly derived from extant Scottish versions, 
one of which is called " Sweet Robin." 

I may add that Captain Nichols not only 
remembered the words of his sailor's song, but 
he could sing it. 

One of the choicest gems of my collection 
of American ballads and songs is the quaint 
eighteenth century melody of " Sweet William." 

MARY AUGUSTA SCOTT. 



HERR HERMAN BEHR, a German-American, has de- 
voted his leisure hours to the translation into German of 
choice specimens of English poetry, and now publishes 
the result (together with some pieces of his own ) in a vol- 
ume called " Perlen Englischer Dichtung in Deutscher 
Fassung." Some of the pieces from Shelley and Keats, 
in particular, are very beautifully done, and the volume 
shows once more how finely receptive the German lan- 
guage is of the poems of other tongues. 



A NEW HISTORY OF ENGLAND.* 



It is necessary to rewrite the history of a 
people at intervals, not only in order to bring 
the record of its achievements nearer to the 
present, but also in order to present any modi- 
fication in point of view which a more critical 
examination of the sources of information may 
afford. Moreover, a restatement of the facts 
and conclusions of historical compositions be- 
longing to a decade or more in the past is called 
for by changes that have taken place in the 
vocabulary and forms of expression of the lan- 
guage. New terms and new connotations of old 
terms make a rephrasing of the events of the 
past desirable from time to time, in order that 
their significance may fit with greater freedom 
the changes in the consciousness of the popular 
mind. 

In some measure all of these considerations 
justify the appearance of Mr. Arthur D. Innes's 
new History of England. Like its classic 
predecessor by J. R. Green, this volume of a 
thousand pages is not a text-book in the ordi- 
nary sense. It is designed for those who, out- 
side the restrictions of the school, love to read 
the history of a great people for what it shows 
of human achievement and for what it inspires 
by its portraiture of a great national spirit. Mr. 
Innes very appropriately recognizes Green's 
" Short History " as " incomparable in its kind." 
With this judgment most readers will agree. 
Green possessed, beyond the endowment of most 
professional historians, the literary talent. His 
personal correspondence, like that of a Lowell or 
a William Vaughn Moody, is charged with the 
elan of a true man of letters. His story of the 
English, expanding under the impulse of their 
native Teutonic energy, is so sympathetically 
human that it touches the springs of apprecia- 
tion even in those who are accustomed to regard 
history as dry. Green, too, stands alone in his 
expression of the feeling that the development 
of their literature has been a part of the life 
history of the English people as inevitable and 
characteristic as their religion and politics. 

Mr. Innes's aim has been different from 
Green's both in method and treatment. His 
purpose has been to write the history of the 
British nation, not the life of the English peo- 
ple. Green wrote his history in ten chapters, 
concluding his story proper with the defeat of 
Napoleon at Waterloo. In an Epilogue of nine 

*A HISTORY OF ENGLAND from the Earliest Times to 
the Present Day. By A. D. Innes. Illustrated in color, etc. 
New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 



1914] 



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107 



paragraphs he carries the narrative hurriedly 
forward to 1873. Mr. Innes, apparently for 
very logical reasons, handles the history of the 
nation under a division of seven books. The 
subject of Book I. is "Nation Making," and ex- 
tends the narrative as far as 1272, a period which 
Green covers in his first three chapters. Roman 
Britain, which Green incidentally notices in 
three paragraphs, occupies the first five pages 
of Mr. Innes's work. His treatment of events 
culminating in Magna Charta and the subse- 
quent contest between Henry III. and Simon 
de Montfort prepares the reader for Book II., 
on "National Consolidation." The period of 
the Tudors, which Green interprets in two fine 
chapters on "The New Monarchy" and "The 
Reformation," is the theme of Mr. Innes's 
third book, a period which he regards as "The 
Age of Transition." The weakness and retro- 
gression of the two reigns between Henry VIII. 
and Elizabeth are presented under the title of 
"In Deep Waters." Book IV. embraces the 
seventeenth century controversy between the 
Puritans and the Stuart faction, the story of the 
Commonwealth, and the reign of William III. 
Chapter XIX., entitled " Nemesis," is one of the 
most spirited in the book. Under three divisions, 
playfully christened " Quern Deus vult perdere," 
"Prius dementat," and "Fulfilment," we are 
told of the incapacity, the fatuity, and the over- 
throw of James II. In Book V. the author moves 
forward to the consideration of " The British Em- 
pire." Great events are blended with great per- 
sonalities. Marlborough inherits the foreign 
policy of William III. ; Walpole, the " inevitable 
minister,'' develops his "system" of managing 
for twenty years the parliamentary constituen- 
cies ; Clive and Dupleix fight out the English 
and French conflict for the control of India ; Pitt 
supports an alliance with Frederick the Great 
and wins New France; George III. and his 
Tory supporters triumph over the Whig sym- 
pathizers of Burke and Chatham and split off 
the American Colonies from the Empire. The 
author's account of this last event, though lack- 
ing the philosophic vision with which Green views 
the American revolt, probably states the case of 
the contest with fairness of judgment. Speaking 
of the situation precipitated by the British defeat 
at Saratoga, he says: 

" There was nothing in itself irretrievable about the 
disaster. A Chatham, bent on a vigorous prosecution 
of the war, would have found troops and officers numer- 
ous and capable enough to vanquish the Americans in the 
field in the simple duel. But after Saratoga the war 
ceased to be a duel. It became a struggle between Great 
Britain and a group of combatants who joined together 



for her destruction. She had sown the wind in the 
long years of incompetent and wrong-headed admin- 
istration; now she was to reap the whirlwind. The 
Peace of Paris had left her with no friend in Europe 
and with one implacable foe. That foe, France, . . . 
desired nothing better than an opportunity of striking 
a blow at the rival who had defeated her." 

The author approaches the " Era of Revolu- 
tions," in Book VI., by a clear exposition of the 
economic and social reforms which William Pitt 
sought to introduce. England was the first 
State of Europe to become receptive to liberal 
ideas of taxation and reciprocal trade benefits. 
Adam Smith had shown that taxation operates 
to restrain trade; that, therefore, taxation 
should be imposed exclusively for revenue. In 
the face of an enormous war debt, Pitt, as prime 
minister, had the courage to propose the sur- 
render of the age-old policy of heavy trade re- 
strictions, and trust to the theory of lowered 
duties as a means of replenishing the impover- 
ished finances of the country. English inventive 
genius was displacing the old domestic methods 
of manufacture with the factory system, and Pitt 
saw that England might greatly profit by the 
cultivation, through milder duties, of a foreign 
market for her machine-made goods. 

" The passing of the old ideas of commercial policy 
was illustrated when Pitt negotiated a commercial treaty 
with France in 1786. Each country had hitherto fol- 
lowed a policy of excluding the other's goods. No one 
since 1713 had attempted in practice to traverse that 
principle. . . . Fox denounced the treaty on the ground 
that France, our hereditary foe, would profit by it. A 
few years later Fox was less ready to denounce our 
hereditary foe. The French denounced the treaty 
because they profited by it a good deal less than the 
British." 

Pitt, the pioneer of free trade, was thwarted 
in his plans for fiscal and political reform by the 
exigency of war. It was reserved to William 
Huskinson, another disciple of Adam Smith, 
to press upon the nation the application of free 
trade principles. His "Reciprocity of Duties 
Act," in 1823, led within six years to the con- 
clusion of as many as fifteen reciprocity treaties 
with foreign countries, and the old Navigation 
laws were doomed. Huskinson stimulated En- 
glish manufactures and the national wealth by 
beginning the admission of raw material at 
greatly reduced duties. The policy of free 
trade, completed by the budgets of Mr. Glad- 
stone in 1860, has maintained itself as English 
tariff orthodoxy ever since. The only serious 
challenge it has received was the proposal of 
Joseph Chamberlain, in 1903, to stimulate im- 
perial consolidation by means of a preferential 
market for colonial goods, a proposal that was 
not approved at the polls, and has not succeeded 



108 



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[Feb. 1 



in making a serious place for itself in party 
politics. 

Mr. Innes's exposition of British political 
parties is straightforward and lucid : 

" Modern party terminology makes it difficult to 
employ necessary words and phrases without conveying 
misapprehension. Two great parties have appropriated 
to themselves respectively the complimentary epithets 
of Liberal and Conservative, although there is no sort 
of opposition between Conservatism and Liberalism. 
Leaders of the Liberal party have been men of essen- 
tially conservative mind; leaders of the Conservative 
party have been men of the broadest sympathies." 

This is a good characterization. The genius of 
British party politics lies in the historic balance 
of agreement that remains after all party dif- 
ferences have been given their proper weight. 
Canning, as the author points out, a disciple of 
Pitt and Burke, opposed parliamentary reform 
to the end of his life. Peel's early conservatism 
gradually developed into the most liberal sym- 
pathies, culminating in his complete conversion 
to free trade and the ultimate fusion of the 
Peelites with the Liberal party. This evolu- 
tionary spirit of British political life is likewise 
illustrated by the career of Peel's great disciple, 
Gladstone, who is thus characterized : 

" Like his master, Peel, he spent his life in assimi- 
lating one after another ideas to which he had at first 
been strongly antagonistic. His weakness lay in that 
excessive subtlety which made it very easy for him to 
persuade himself that what he had come to regard as 
morally right was demonstrably expedient, and that 
what he realized as expedient was warranted by the 
highest moral sanctions. ... It will always be recog- 
nized that he imported into politics an insistence upon 
the doctrine that the highest morality is always the 
highest expediency, which has given him a unique 
position among the practical politicians of history." 

Mr. Innes incorporates within his narrative 
fairly adequate accounts of the progress of the 
several British colonies, of Canada and South 
Africa in particular. The recent development 
of Australia and New Zealand is scarcely noticed. 
His readers will be pleased with the short but 
well-written chapters on the industrial advance 
of the English people. For the success of this 
phase of the work the appearance of the author's 
excellent little book on "England's Industrial 
Development" a year ago was a sufficient guar- 
antee. Unlike Green, he is not uniformly sat- 
isfactory in his sections which deal with the 
progress of England's literature. His remarks 
on English writers are not so interesting as 
Gardiner's. His best characterization is that of 
Chaucer ; Shakespeare and Milton should have 
had a more adequate treatment. Tennyson is 
given a short but fairly representative critical 
estimate. Browning is merely mentioned as 



Tennyson's rival, who had to wait many years 
for "popular recognition." An Epilogue gives 
an outline of parliamentary enactments up to 
1911. The reader is given a very satisfactory 
notion of the present tendencies of British social 
politics under the lead of Mr. Lloyd George 
and Premier Asquith. 

In its wealth of illustrations this new history 
of the British surpasses any of its predecessors. 
These illustrations are well chosen for their 
purpose of deepening the impression of contem- 
porary life and events. The author maintains 
a uniformity of style, which is that of a discrim- 
inating historical student whose object is to pre- 
sent the story of those events that make up the 
best part of British history, without any attempt 
to adorn the story. The nearness of events which 
it includes, as well as its modern tone, will make 
the book a welcome addition to the library of 
the general reader. L. E. ROBINSON. 



A DIPLOMATIST'S WIFE IN ITALY.* 

Mrs. Hugh Fraser is as passionately in love 
with Rome and Italy, where her early life was 
passed, as was her brother, the late Francis 
Marion Crawford ; and, like him, she knows 
how to write with understanding and an infec- 
tious enthusiasm about the Eternal City, its 
history and legends, its storied haunts and its 
perennial charm. In her latest work, " Italian 
Yesterdays," issued in two generous volumes, 
she continues and amplifies the early memories 
partly rehearsed in her "Reminiscences of a 
Diplomatist's Wife," and interweaves there- 
with a good deal of ancient and mediaeval and 
modern history and tradition. In fact, these 
interwoven threads of historic research make 
up considerably more of the total fabric than 
does the warp of personal reminiscence for 
which the reader is inclined to search with espe- 
cial eagerness. One follows with keener interest 
her stories of childhood, her accounts of things 
seen, her impressions of Rome and its environs, 
than her sketch of the founding of the city (" on 
that memorable 21st of April, 754 B. c." 
our schoolbooks used to give the date as 753), 
her dissertation on the deities of ancient Rome, 
her chapter on the last days of the apostles, her 
epitome of the life of St. Gregory, or even her 
entertaining pages on Queen Joan of Naples. 
Somewhat in the nature of padding these ex- 
cursions into history and biography might be 
called, if "padding" were not so unkind a 

* ITALIAN YESTERDAYS. By Mrs. Hugh Fraser. In two 
volumes. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co. 



1914] 



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109 



word, and if this space- filling matter, rather 
good of its sort, to be sure, did not compose the 
bulk of the book. Even a subject so seemingly 
remote from Mrs. Eraser's own "yesterdays" 
as the Man in the Iron Mask is dragged in and 
made to furnish substance for two chapters, 
while the Bravi of Venice, picturesque person- 
ages, it is true, supply material for another. 
But as long as these miscellaneous topics interest 
our author, we are willing to renew our own 
interest in them under the impulse of their 
attractiveness to her and the freshness of her 
manner of handling them. 

As in her immediately preceding book, so in 
this there is occasional interesting mention of 
her gifted brother, and in all such mention her 
admiration and sisterly adoration of him are 
manifest. The story of his acquisition of the 
castle of San Nicola, on the rocky coast of 
Calabria, where many of his novels were writ- 
ten, is told at some length and with details not 
lacking in local color. The purchase seems to 
have been made on the spur of the moment and 
with little computation of the property's real 
value in money; for, as the narrator says of 
her brother, he "could never resist the call of 
fortressed solitudes." The conclusion of the 
whole affair is thus put into a single paragraph : 

"To tell the truth it was not the money side of the 
matter which distressed my sister-in-law so much as the 
prospect of being required to come and pass weeks at a 
time in this grim dungeon, without a single convenience 
of life, twelve miles from a market town, and of course 
lashed to the battlements by every Mediterranean storm. 
It took her some days to reconcile herself to the new 
acquisition poor girl but Marion had not made a 
mistake, after all. The family was not invited to San 
Nicola till he had made several journeys thither himself, 
with carpenters and materials, and when they did come 
they found that the lonely keep had been transformed 
internally to a quite possible dwelling though certainly 
an inconveniently isolated one. Generally, however, 
he went there alone, to rest from everything connected 
with modern life, and he found it a fine, quiet place for 
writing, at any rate." 

Mrs. Eraser knows her Italy from Piedmont to 
Apulia, and her pictures of its people and their 
varying characteristics in different regions show 
her to be an observing traveller. The following 
is worth quoting in this connection. 

" As one travels southward the character of the people 
changes, and in the later years of my life I have felt 
more at home with my fellow-beings of the South than 
with the inhabitants of Romagna. Their outlook is 
simpler, more indulgent, and their religious faith far 
more fervent. I think the Southern custom of going on 
pilgrimages was a very valuable one to the contadini of 
the ' Regno.' It used to be rare to find middle-aged 
people of the labouring class in the province, who had 
not travelled a little in that way and thus learnt that 



the world was not confined to their own small town or 
hamlet. I -suppose the good custom will die out in 
time, like so many others, but it will not suffer much 
diminution while such wonderful new centres of attrac- 
tion spring up as, for instance, the ' Santuario ' of New 
Pompeii, which I described in a former book [' Remi- 
niscences of a Diplomatist's Wife '] . But many an un- 
forgotten shrine in the remote hills has, like La Men- 
torana in the Sabines, its one day or night of glory in 
the year, when the peasants come in great bands, even 
from far away, and the chants and litanies go up all 
night long in and around some dim old Church. Such 
a festival takes place at San Salvatore in the Abruzzi, 
in the late summer, and is the scene of a great gather- 
ing of the people of the Penisola Sarrcutina." 

As will have been surmised from the fore- 
going, the religious faith of the Italian people, 
their Church and all it means to them, fail not 
to impress Mrs. Eraser. In a passing reference 
to her own spiritual experience, she says : " I 
remember writing to the great French Prelate 
who received me into the Church, that I felt 
like a beggar suddenly admitted into the palace 
of his King, dazzled with the warmth and splen- 
dour, yet utterly ignorant of which way to turn 
or how to comport himself in those august sur- 
roundings." She regrets that " so many, indeed, 
are utterly unconscious that there is anything 
to know beyond the few distorted facts doled out 
in non-Catholic schools, that even the most un- 
assuming effort to share these riches with them 
may be useful and welcome." It is evident, then, 
in spite of a little lack of clearness in her mode 
of expression, that the writer is in the proper 
mental attitude to receive and to transmit to her 
sympathetic readers the impression of the mys- 
tery, the charm, " the holy glory," as she words 
it, of Catholic Rome. In her backward glance 
at the life of " our blessed Pius IX.," she dwells 
with fondness on his kindness and generosity to 
the poor, and is pleased to believe that "justice 
had nothing to blush for in the Rome of those 
days, and the poor could obtain it as promptly 
and easily as the rich." Here is a little anecdote 
of that blissful period : 

" One day the Holy Father, walking in the Quirinal 
Gardens, passed a sentry on duty. The man silently 
held out a loaf of bread for his inspection. Pius took 
it, examined it, and asked one question, Do you always 
get bread as bad as this ? ' ' Always, Santo Padre,' was 
the reply. A sudden descent on the Commissariat de- 
partment showed that he had spoken the truth. When 
the sun rose again the cheating commissary was repent- 
ing of his sins in prison. There is a beautifully practical 
side to autocratic government ! " 

As a further example of the writer's style in 
summoning up the past for our instruction or 
entertainment, or both, we quote a passage from 
her chapter on "Naples under Murat": 

" For Naples was gay in those days. People saw light 



110 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 1 



ahead after the years of gloom. Hunger had vanished; 
real hunger, at any rate. The King's public works gave 
employment. Uniforms glittered everywhere. To their 
minds, Naples was a Paris in miniature, so the lights 
shone and the world danced and played on, music lay 
over the place in a rainbow web of sound, and the blue 
sea smiled at the stars." 

Rather for her pages of personal experience 
than for her divagations into various eras of the 
Italian past do we, as already indicated, value 
Mrs. Fraser's book. As the wife of a diplomat 
subject to transfer at any time from one quarter 
of the globe to another, she has seen much of the 
world and the world's celebrities, and when she 
writes of her past she seldom fails to command 
the reader's attention. 

PERCY F. BICKNELL. 



XEW STUDIES OF THE MONROE DOCTRINE.* 

The recent revival of interest in the Monroe 
doctrine has called into existence two noteworthy 
contributions to the literature of this, the oldest 
and most cherished of our foreign policies. The 
first of these, Professor Hiram Bingham's " The 
Monroe Doctrine : An Obsolete Shibboleth," 
is a vigorous attack upon a traditional policy 
which President Cleveland once declared in his 
Venezuela message to be "important to our 
peace and safety as a nation and essential to 
the integrity of our free institutions and the 
tranquil maintenance of our distinctive form of 
government." 

As the result of a long and careful study of 
Latin- American conditions, both from reading 
and extensive travel, Mr. Bingham has reached 
the conclusion that the United States has out- 
grown the Monroe doctrine, and should therefore 
abandon its principles. After a brief description 
of the origin and early applications of this doc- 
trine as a legitimate means of protection against 
European aggression and land hunger, the author 
turns his attention to what he calls the 
" new Monroe doctrine." The application of the 
Monroe doctrine to the Venezuelan boundary 
dispute, the frequent acts of interference in the 
domestic quarrels of South American republics, 
the receivership in San Domingo, the coup d'etat 
in Panama, and the Lodge Resolution of 1912, 
are cited as examples of the extent to which the 
doctrine has been enlarged beyond its original 
intent and purpose to mean a policy of interven- 

* THE MONROE DOCTRINE : An Obsolete Shibboleth. By 
Hiram Bingham. New Haven : Yale University Press. 

DIE MONROEDOKTRIN in ihren Beziehungen zur ameri- 
kanischen Diplomatie und zum Volkerrecht. Von Dr. jur. 
Herbert Kraus. Berlin : J. Guttentag. 



tion and interference, and also as showing the 
degree to which Latin- Americans are justified 
in regarding this policy as an attempt of the 
United States to establish a suzerainty over 
the Western hemisphere. Professor Bingham 
emphasizes with striking clearness the fact that 
Argentina, Brazil, and Chile have within the 
past decade experienced a remarkable economic 
and political growth, the importance of which 
is realized by few citizens of the United States. 
Consequently, these powers are no longer in need 
of our "patronizing we-will-protect-you-from- 
Europe attitude"; a feeling of deep resentment 
and ill-concealed antagonism has been aroused 
among the Latin Americans ; while the leading 
countries of South America " are already on the 
road toward a kind of triple alliance with the 
definite object of opposing the encroachments of 
the United States." Perhaps the most effective 
argument for the abandonment of this "anti- 
quated policy " is that it places a great respon- 
sibility upon the United States, and of necessity 
involves a disregard for the most generally ac- 
cepted rules of international law. By letting it 
be known to Europe that we will not permit any 
interference in American affairs, our government 
virtually assumes all the responsibility, and be- 
comes the international policeman for the Latin 
part of the Western hemisphere. Adherence to 
this " obsolete shibboleth " is likewise a draw- 
back to American commerce, for international 
trade is largely a matter of sentiment, and it is 
difficult to sell goods to those who distrust and 
dislike you. Finally, from the standpoint of 
the world's peace and happiness, and for the 
advancement of civilization in the New World, 
the policy of the United States should be one of 
cooperation, rather than of tutelage and inter- 
vention. 

With the abandonment of the Monroe doc- 
trine, Professor Bingham suggests that the 
United States should take every possible step 
to assure the South Americans of our friendship 
and goodwill ; and that for the preservation of 
order and for protection against European ag- 
gressiveness, the policy of the Monroe doctrine 
should give way to a settlement of these common 
matters by a congress of leading American 
powers. Professor Bingham has spent much 
time on the Southern Continent, and he has 
made a careful study of Latin-American gov- 
ernments and peoples. For this reason he is 
peculiarly well fitted to set forth the ideas of 
those American citizens who are coming to feel 
that there is little justification for the Monroe 
doctrine, at least in its present form. 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



ill 



The second contribution is a treatise entitled 
"Die Monroe Doktrin," by Dr. Herbert Kraus, 
a German scholar who prosecuted his studies at 
Harvard University and whose work is dedi- 
cated to Professor J. B. Moore, now Counsellor 
of the Department of State. This treatise is 
the most comprehensive, scientific, and schol- 
arly study that has ever been made of the 
Monroe doctrine, and is an excellent example 
of what German patience and scholarship can 
accomplish. It is somewhat singular, if not dis- 
creditable to American scholarship, that the most 
careful study dealing with the greatest of Amer- 
ican foreign policies should have been done by a 
foreigner. Most American studies of the Monroe 
doctrine have either been of a popular character 
or they have dealt with particular phases of the 
subject. This is the first treatise which deals 
with the historical development of the policy from 
its beginnings during Washington's administra- 
tion to its latest application by the Lodge 
Resolution of 1912 in regard to Magdalena 
Bay, and which considers the subject in all its 
bearings and ramifications. The chapter on 
" The Monroe Doctrine of the Present " contains 
a keen analysis of the meaning of the policy; 
and the discussion of the relation of the Monroe 
doctrine to international law presents it in a 
light in which Americans do not often see it. 
The whole work shows abundant evidence that 
the author has consulted an enormous mass 
of documentary materials, and the bibliograph- 
ical apparatus which he furnishes will be a 
valuable guide for the use of students. 

JAMES W. GABNER. 



BKIEFS ON NEW BOOKS. 



Open letters of US nave tne pl easure of read- 

an English ing regularly " The British Weekly," 
bookman. w j tn j ts editorial utterances under the 

heading, "The Correspondence of Claudius Clear," 
and therefore we hail with satisfaction the goodly 
volume bringing together some noteworthy selections 
from this correspondence under the title, " A Book- 
man's Letters " (Doran). The name of the author, 
Sir W. Robertson Nicoll, is enough to ensure the 
quality of the book at the outset, and repeated borings 
into the literary mine never fail to bring up rich ore. 
Among themes wisely and wittily treated are the sub- 
ject of biography, the centenary of Emerson and the 
secret of Emerson, memories of Meredith, the ques- 
tion whether Thackeray was a cynic, the conversa- 
tion of Edmund Burke, the troubles of the essayist, 
gravy (literary rather than literal), learning to read, 
the art of the reviewer, memories of Mark Ruther- 
ford, and the acacias of Lausanne (under which 



Gibbon walked on that memorable night when he 
finished his great work). Here is the writer's list 
of the six best biographies : Boswell's " Johnson," 
Lockhart's "Scott," Mrs. Gaskell's "Charlotte 
Bronte," Trevelyan's "Macaulay," Froude's "Car- 
lyle," and Lord Morley's " Gladstone." He throws 
out Carlyle's "Life of Sterling" because "it deals 
with a hopelessly second-rate man "; but the imper- 
ishable charm of the biography remains unaffected 
by Sterling's failure to achieve greatness, while on 
the other hand not even Carlyle's commanding 
genius can make us overlook Froude's misleading 
and often deliberately false presentation of the mate- 
rials of his biography. Gravy, such as Dickens knew 
so well how to provide, thick and savoury, Sir Rob- 
ertson Nicoll regrets to find furnished too scantily 
by modern authors, though he praises some of them 
for being at the same time never unctuous and never 
dry and wooden. There is a rich store of good read- 
ing, especially for bookmen, in these " Bookman's 
Letters," a few of which, it should be added, are 
from other sources than the above-named. 



Quebec and 
its people. 



Mr. Beckles Willson, already the 
author of several readable books on 
various phases of Canadian life or 
history, now gives us an account of "Quebec: The 
Laurentian Province" (Stokes). The book is dis- 
tinctly devoted to Quebec and its people of to-day, 
and in the main may be accepted as a reasonably 
accurate statement of the life and problems of the 
French province. As with most other writers on the 
subject, Mr. Willson pauses on the threshold to mar- 
vel at the fecundity of the French- Canadians, who 
began their career as an isolated community within 
the British Empire in 1763 with a population of 
69,000 souls, and solely by natural increase have 
expanded to a total of 1,600,000 within the province, 
and at least half a million more outside Quebec. 
Surely the French-Canadians are a people after 
Colonel Roosevelt's own heart ! One notices an occa- 
sional mistake in the book, such as the confusion 
between the Governor-General of Canada per se and 
what is known as the Governor-General-in-Council. 
The Lieutenant-Governor of Quebec, and the judges 
of the superior, district, and county courts, are not 
appointed by the Governor-General, as stated on 
page 5, but by the Governor-General-in-Council. The 
Governor-General, as the King's representative, has 
no more power of appointment, beyond his own house- 
hold, than the King possesses in England. When he 
signs the commission of a provincial governor or a 
judge he does it, theoretically on the advice of his 
cabinet, but practically merely as their figurehead, 
and in that sense he is spoken of as the Governor- 
General-in-Council. The point is an important one, 
as it involves the vital question of self-government 
in Canada, very generally misunderstood outside the 
Dominion. The actual head of the government in 
Canada is not the Governor-General, but the Prime 
Minister. For all practical purposes Canada is an 
independent nation, with a Prime Minister as her 



112 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 1 



ruler. Mr. Willson also, in his anxiety to deal im- 
partially with the extremely delicate point of the 
relations between French and English in the Prov- 
ince of Quebec, contradicts himself, and scarcely 
does justice to the attitude of the English minority. 
Apart from these points, however, the book is a fair 
and satisfactory treatment of the subject. 

Mr. Lewis Leopold, a new writer, has 
aV made a specially fortunate choice of 
subject. The conception of his book 
on "Prestige" (Dutton) is itself a deserving act of 
the creative imagination in realizing that the theme 
is worthy of a volume, presumably the only volume 
bearing this title. The sub-title is " A Psychological 
Study of Social Estimates." The work is most un- 
evenly written, its fundamental difficulty being the 
absence of a sufficiently definite plan of procedure 
and an equal absence of the fundamental descriptive 
data upon which the interpretation depends. Ac- 
cordingly the work is maintained on too abstract a 
level, and without the knitting of chapter to chapter 
necessary to the unity of texture of a complex pro- 
duct. In considering the economic values of prestige, 
the author more nearly meets these requirements 
than elsewhere. No chapter is devoid of suggestive 
principles and clever applications, though frequently 
marred by irrelevant matter and by the statement 
of conclusions without relations to their supporting 
premises. Despite this discursive and in a measure 
disconnected method of presentation, the general 
impression of the volume carries a distinct appre- 
ciation of the theme in its manifold relations. The 
fact that prestige represents a psychic asset ; that it 
seems to be one of the first creations of primitive 
society, where, indeed, it was often maintained with 
a drastic severity ; that in course of time it takes on 
an elaboration of pomp and ceremony ; that it fur- 
nishes the central motive to social ambition ; that it 
keeps apart class and class ; that it plays an enormous 
role in the development of the diplomacy of nations 
and in the narrower diplomacy of family affiliations ; 
that it finds other expressions in hero-worship and 
in fields so different as those of love and of religion, 
of economics and of reputation, of credit and even 
of crime, all these aspects serve to round out the 
conception of the comprehensive influences for which 
the word stands. It is interesting to recall that the 
etymology of the word points back to the conjuring 
type of imposition in which appearance replaces 
reality. That prestige may be utilized to govern by 
pretence in the absence of the usual qualities whose 
reward it represents, is not the least suggestive 
principle in its psychology. 

American notes Impressions, mostly flattering, of 
of a friendly America and Americans are breezily 
Englishwoman. and rea( l a bly recorded by Mrs. Alec- 
Tweedie (the hyphen seems to be a late growth) in 
her book, "America as I Saw It" (Macmillan), 
which embodies in amplified form her articles 
written for the New York "Times" on the occasion 



of her third visit to this country, in the autumn of 
1912. It makes a good companion volume to Mr. 
Arnold Bennett's '"Your United States," neither 
book being likely to generate head-aches by reason 
of excessive seriousne&s or depth of thought. Mrs. 
Tweedie's amiable manner is somewhat of the slap- 
dash, exaggerative, popularly effective variety, with 
occasional resort to that rather cheap appeal to 
the eye which consists in excessive subdivision 
of the page into paragraphs. Americans in gen- 
eral and Americans in particular, as seen in New 
York, Chicago, Boston, and Washington, furnish 
matter for the bulk of her volume, and her disposi- 
tion to be pleased with whatever and whomsoever 
she encounters endears her to the cis-Atlantic 
reader. It is gratifying to be assured by her that 
"American voices are improving," that "in another 
generation that old twang will have entirely disap- 
peared," and that "many of the modern American 
voices are charming." And it is wholesome to read 
her ridicule of the American Sunday newspaper, 
even though she does go to excess in asserting 
that "if one bought three of them at a railway sta- 
tion today, it would require a wheelbarrow to 
trundle them along the platform." Four things 
struck her particularly in Chicago, "its size, its 
women's clubs, its stockyards, and its grime." But 
she calls the city "cultured Chicago," and praises 
especially the Art Institute. For Boston, too, she 
has a good word, but she goes astray in representing 
it as "built on piles like Chicago"; Back Bay is 
not all of Boston. Many illustrations accompany 
her lively narrative. 

American and The S P read f the Federal 8V8tem 
British federal of government throughout the world 
systems. was one o f ^ ne remarkable political 

movements of the nineteenth century; and the late 
Professor Sidgwick once predicted that we would 
see a further extension of the system in Europe, 
where it has already gained a foothold in Germany 
and Switzerland. It was the opinion of John Fiske 
that it was the only kind of government which, 
according to modern ideas, is applicable to a whole 
continent. Already it embraces a portion of the 
globe equal to three times the area of Europe, and 
is now to be found in one form or another in Ger- 
many, Switzerland, various Latin-American coun- 
tries, the United States, the Dominion of Canada, 
South Africa, and Australia. In a work entitled 
"The Federal Systems of the United States and 
the British Empire" (Little, Brown & Co.), Mr. 
Arthur P. Poley, an English barrister, has attempted 
to give an account of the federal systems of the four 
countries last mentioned, and to point out the ele- 
ments of difference and resemblance which distin- 
guish each from the others. His sketch of the 
American government embraces more than one- 
third of his treatise; and while it is not without 
value, it cannot be regarded as authoritative. The 
author falls into many errors, as foreign students of 
our institutions frequently do. He detects striking 



THE DIAL 



113 



resemblances between our federal system and some 
of the Greek federations of ancient times, and 
thinks that the " Federalist " affords evidence that 
the framers of our constitution were consciously 
affected by the Greek experiments. Of more value 
to American students are his chapters on the Cana- 
dian, Australian, and South African federal sys- 
tems, although tliese chapters too are more or less 
sketchy and elementary. He bestows high praise 
upon the Australian Constitution, which he char- 
acterizes as a work of the greatest skill, and which 
more than any of the other English federations is 
modelled upon that of the United States. 

That greatest of arts, the art of life, 
counsel on can never be too much written about 

the art of life. ty those who understand its difficul- 
ties and problems. Hence the never-failing time- 
liness of such books of ripe reflection and wise 
counsel as the volume by Miss Agnes Edwards 
entitled "Our Common Road" (Houghton). This 
universal highway is viewed in a fourfold aspect, 
as leading " to the fountain of joy," " to the house 
of friendship," "to gray hills and green," and "to 
the land of reflection." Under these headings the 
matter is grouped in subordinate sections, each 
with its appropriate caption. Anyone ought to get 
benefit from pondering the following: "Critics tell 
us that the purest art is that which moves within 
the strictest limitations. Too many advantages 
may be the greatest of disadvantages, and difficul- 
ties may prove blessings. If you spend your life 
looking for favorable circumstances, you will have 
no life to live when you find them. But if you give 
your life generously and nobly through whatever 
channel is opened, you will be a success. For 
success lies in endeavor as much as in achiev- 
ing." Good advice on tact and presence of mind 
is to be found in the writer's well-considered pages. 
One way not to show tact is thus illustrated : " The 
well-intentioned woman who remarked at a dinner 
that she had always heard that twins were not so 
bright as other people, experienced a most painful 
moment when her right-hand neighbor gravely 
turned his eyes upon her and said with unmistak- 
able clearness: 'I am a twin.'" As the writer 
remarks, "the only person who can save the situa- 
tion is the person whom it hits." Despite the 
questionable aptness of this metaphor, the style of 
the book is generally excellent, and it is a pleasure 
to commend it. _ 



A sketch of sense ^ a P ast ^ 8 rapidly finding 

psychological expression in the literature of psy- 
history. chology. Within a single year two 

handbooks surveying its history have been trans- 
lated from the German; and a third work is now 
added in Dr. James Mark Baldwin's "History of 
Psychology" (Putnam), comprising two small vol- 
umes of a series devoted to the history of the sciences. 
Locke forms the point of division between the vol- 
umes devoted to ancient and to modern psychology 
respectively. The treatment has many points of 



merit, and better represents the perspective of inter- 
est in the line of thought central to English-speaking 
students than either of the translated works of Klemm 
or Dessoir. Had the work been designated as a his- 
tory of psychological theory it would have deserved 
a fuller commendation than can be extended to it as 
an account of the story of the science of the mind. 
Frankly reviewed in the former aspect, it succeeds 
in setting forth an illuminating conception of the 
growth from a primitive accounting in terms of 
animistic conceptions, to the rationalized scientific 
statement of problems and the development of 
methods for their solution. The course enters sev- 
eral stages and emerges from them with the diffi- 
culties attending schools and theories, entangled 
with vital views of ethics, philosophy, and religion. 
" Subjective and Objective," " Spiritual and Mate- 
rial," "Faculties and Processes," these are some 
of the titles suggesting the emphasis of view and of 
explanation. The science of the soul loses the soul 
and regains it in altered form, the most compre- 
hensive transformation being that affected by the 
introduction of the evolutionary conception. As a 
brief and readable guide to this domain, Dr. Bald- 
win's work will meet the needs of the student. It 
is weakened by the selection of points of emphasis 
according to the special interests of the writer, and 
by an irrelevant insistence upon the novelty of the 
positions taken. Its field is the philosophical aspect 
of psychological theory. While including the more 
strictly psychological problems, the exposition does 
not make these problems central or at times even 
vital. 



Studies of the ReaderS f Mr A ; 

caribou of more s accounts of his sporting expe- 

Newfoundiand. ditions with the camera will find even 
the high standard of these previous books surpassed 
in "The Romance of the Newfoundland Caribou" 
(Lippincott). For several summers Mr. Dugmore 
has stalked these majestic beasts in the forests and 
uplands of Newfoundland, creeping into their most 
secret haunts and recording their form and action on 
the sensitive plate of the camera. The photographs, 
over seventy in number, are a revelation of the suc- 
cess attainable by skill and indomitable patience in 
the rare sport of hunting with the camera. They 
are also valuable contributions to natural history, for 
they portray without exaggeration, omission, or prej- 
udice the details of appearance and form, the nat- 
ural habitat, and the normal attitudes and poses of 
these handsome animals. There is plenty of life 
and action in many of the pictures, for not infre- 
quently the photograph could only be taken as 
the startled beasts were dashing away. The prize 
photograph records a battle royal between two well- 
matched fighting stags. The author deals rather fully 
with the scientific aspects of his subject, recording 
with fine discrimination many observations on the 
life and habits of the caribou, in especial the peculiar 
but very limited migrations which, in common with 
their more widely ranging relatives of the great 



114 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 1 



Barren Grounds of the north, they regularly carry 
out each recurring spring and autumn, on the island 
of Newfoundland. The camper and sportsman will 
find practical suggestions for his use, and a digest 
of the game laws for his warning and guidance. A 
good map, numerous sketches, and a well-constructed 
index add to the usefulness of the book. 



A classic 
of the early 
Northwest. 



The heroic death in battle of Theo- 
dore Winthrop, in the bright promise 
of his early manhood, imparts a 
romantic interest to his writings, among which his 
narrative of northwestern adventure, entitled by 
him "Klalam and Klickatat," but re-named by his 
publishers "The Canoe and the Saddle," is not the 
least important, being indeed comparable with 
Parkman's "Oregon Trail" as a picture of native 
life and primitive conditions in what was then an 
almost untrodden wilderness. This work, with its 
Indian name restored as sub-title, is now re-issued 
in elaborate illustrated and annotated form by Mr. 
John H. Williams, of Tacoma. As both editor and 
publisher, Mr. Williams deserves high credit for 
the diligence and study he has put into the work, 
securing for its enrichment the author's western 
journal and letters (the former never before made 
public, the latter now first published in full), and 
getting camera views and old prints and some fine 
colored illustrations to add to the book's attractive- 
ness. Winthrop's narrative, which appeared half 
a century ago, and, after running through a number 
of editions in the next thirty years, has now for 
some time been out of print, is republished in its 
original form, save for a few corrections of typo- 
graphical and other minor errors, and fills about 
three-quarters of Mr. Williams's octavo volume; 
the journal and letters, under the heading " Cali- 
fornia and the Northwest," occupying, with some 
notable appended matter, the remaining quarter. 
In its handsome binding, with vellum back and 
the Winthrop coat of arms on the cover, this greatly 
enriched re-issue of a noteworthy book makes an 
impressive appearance, and must be accounted a 
work of no small importance. 



A new man y years ago the American 

development public joined in a universal smile 
over the assertion of a life insurance 
magnate that the business which he represented was 
essentially a form of philanthropy. We refused to 
pay serious attention to the assertion, not because of 
any intrinsic absurdity discernible in it, but because 
the magnate had waxed inordinately fat in the prac- 
tice of his chosen philanthropy. After all, it is only 
a survival of asceticism that leads us to assume that 
there is a necessary connection between the love of 
man and emaciation. If the life insurance business 
is philanthropy in a new form, the life insurance 
agent is a new kind of ethical teacher. Few of us 
have recognized him in this character; yet have we 
not felt, upon his approach, much as a wicked king 
of Israel must have felt upon the approach of an 



inspired prophet ? Our troubled souls should have 
given us the clue to his true nature. The matter 
is now made clear in a passage in Professor W. F. 
Gephart's "Insurance and the State" (Macmillan): 
"The individual [any one of us] must be solicited, 
either to inform him what his duty is or to persuade 
him to do his known duty." This looks like a "Thou 
Shalt," put in the impersonal form of a German 
police regulation. The object of Professor Gephart's 
book is not, of course, the exposition of the ethical 
character of the insurance business. What the author 
seeks to do is to point out the advantages and dis- 
advantages of State interference in the various fields 
of insurance, either through regulation or through 
direct conduct of the business. The reading of this 
judicious little book will leave one with no foolish 
enthusiasm for any particular form of insurance, 
whether public or private, but with a resolute zeal 
for insurance in general. As for the position of 
the author himself, he might safely have offered a 
reward to anyone who should be able to determine 
it with precision. _ 

Everything that contributes to a bet- 
ter understanding of the art of an- 
cient Egypt is to be heartily welcomed 
by all students of antiquity. Sir Gaston Maspero's 
" Egyptian Art " ( Appleton) gathers up that savant's 
essays "written during a period of more than thirty 
years, and published at intervals of varying lengths." 
They were never intended for the eye of experts, 
but for the general public. Twenty-five such papers, 
most of them brief, compose the volume; and each 
is descriptive of one or more pieces of Egyptian 
sculpture or other art-work here reproduced in 
superb half-tone plates. Such a compilation of 
course lacks the element of unity, and some of the 
material is repeated in two or more chapters. The 
real contribution which the author wishes to make 
is to prove that the art of Egypt was not one unique 
type, identical from one end of the valley to the 
other, but that there were a half-dozen local schools, 
each with its own traditions and its own principles 
and methods, though divided into several studios. 
For some years Sir Gaston has advanced this hy- 
pothesis ; and, with the multiplicity of new finds, is 
slowly proving the truth of his theory. The most 
prolific sources of his illustrations are the Museum 
of Cairo, of which he is the head, and the Louvre 
in Paris. Though in no sense a new work, the 
author has so marshalled his material as to make 
it both cumulative in force and attractive in form. 



Northern Italy has won the homage 
ara of manv Devoted hearts ; but few of 

her lovers are so eloquent and so 
zealous as Mr. Edward Hutton. In his latest volume 
he carries the reader to some two score sites within 
the picturesque and storied field suggested by the 
title, "The Cities of Romagna and the Marches" 
(Macmillan). Naturally the interest is not uniform 
throughout, and only the most faithful can be ex- 
pected to follow Mr. Hutton's footsteps into every 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



115 



church and share his pleasure before every painting ; 
but, on the whole, the book is delightful. The 
Introduction assumes the form of a human-hearted 
tale about the untutored people of a remote moun- 
tain hamlet who took a wandering painter for the 
"Signore"; and particularly about a child who hated 
him because his second coming meant the burning 
and spoiling of all that was dear to the childish heart. 
And in the rest of the book, despite dutiful cata- 
loguing of shrines and pictures, the author himself 
obviously finds his deepest joy in the hearts of the 
people, in the human aspects of their history and 
faring, in the charm of hill and sea and sky. Mr. 
Hutton is not afraid to see with his own eyes, and 
one is very thankful for the trait; but the present 
reviewer would give something to know why such an 
ardent lover of art fails even to mention the superb 
Athena at Bologna, which is worth a score of the 
things he eulogizes, indeed, it is one of the world's 
joys. But why should one seem to desire a quarrel 
with a book one is glad to recommend ? There are 
twelve pleasing illustrations in color, and a goodly 
number in monotone, as well as a sensible map. 

Trials and A not unjustifiable pride in the sue- 

triumphs of a cess she has achieved sounds its note 
dancers life. o f jubilation through the pages of 
Miss Loie Fuller's "Fifteen Years of a Dancer's 
Life" (Small, Maynard & Co.), which enjoys the 
distinction of a most commendatory Introduction 
from the pen of M. Anatole France, and is enriched 
with the names of many other celebrities met with 
and more or less intimately known by the writer in 
the course of her professional travels on two conti- 
nents. The story of her accidental discovery of her 
peculiar talent is interesting, and the account she 
gives of her de*but in New York as a dancer is char- 
acteristic. "When the audience discovered," she 
tells us, "that the new dancer was its old favourite 
comedian, the little soubrette of a former day, it gave 
me an ovation such as, I suppose, never another 
human being has received." Miss Fuller's artless ex- 
ultation in her terpsichorean triumphs adds vivacity 
and charm to her narrative, which is one of the most 
eventful and entertaining of its kind. Pictures of 
the dancer in various professional poses, with other 
appropriate illustrations, are supplied in abundance. 



BRIEFER MENTION. 



Mrs. Anne C. E. Allinson's " Roads from Rome " 
(Macmillan) is a very successful application of the 
informed imagination to certain personalities of Roman 
literature and phases of Roman civilization. If the title 
has any special justification it is that these sketches 
reveal the connecting pathways by which constant traits 
of human character have passed from the ancient Roman 
environment to that of the present day. Lucretius and 
Virgil, Catullus, Ovid, Propertius, and the younger Pliny 
are the more prominent characters brought upon the 
stage, and the words put into their mouths prove Mrs. 
Allinson's thorough acquaintance with their writings and 
her delicate appreciation of their respective mental and 



moral traits. We may add that no special knowledge 
of Roman history or literature is required to make the 
book intelligible. 

One of the last pieces of work done by William 
Foster Apthorp, who died a few months ago, was to 
edit for the Oliver Ditson Co. a selection of "Forty 
Songs by Adolph Jensen " (1837-1880), the volume 
now appearing in the " Musicians' Library." Jensen's 
work is well deserving of this mark of appreciation, 
since he stands very close to Schumann, Schubert, and 
Franz among the masters of German song. Mr. 
Apthorp's introductory essay is mainly biographical, 
and leans somewhat heavily upon Niggli's book on 
Jensen. The editor has taken the liberty of altering 
two of the compositions to make them fit the English 
words of the Scott lyrics which the composer used in a 
German translation. 

Long ago it seemed as though Canon Rawnsley, in 
his succession of volumes on the English Lakes, had 
exhausted nearly every possible aspect of the subject. 
But apparently some odds and ends still remained over, 
and these are utilized in his latest book, " Chapters 
at the English Lakes" (Macmillan). For the most part, 
these twelve chapters seem of little more than merely 
local interest. An exception, however, must be made in 
the case of the opening paper, on "The Life and Death 
of John Wordsworth," originally delivered as an address 
on the occasion of the unveiling of a tombstone to the 
memory of this noble man in Grasmere churchyard. 
Several well-reproduced photographs from scenery in 
the Lake Country adorn Canon Rawnsley's volume. 

Different places have different moods or tempera- 
ments, distinguishable to the visitor of fine sensibilities. 
Mr. Verner Z. Reed even affirms that they have souls, 
and his book, " The Soul of Paris " (Lane), seeks to 
portray this spiritual quality characteristic of the French 
capital and of other places with which he is familiar. 
Following the chapter that gives its name to the book are 
eight others, on various haunts of men and solitudes of 
nature, all treated with a reverent love and a deep sym- 
pathy that show the author to be no mere holiday tourist 
turning the jottings of his notebook to literary account. 
Mr. Ernest Peixotto, whose art needs no appreciative 
comment from us, illustrates the book with nine beau- 
tiful drawings. Two of Mr. Reed's chapters have 
already found favor in "The Atlantic Monthly"; the 
others are new. 

Franqois-Xavier Garneau's " Histoire du Canada," 
published for the first time in 1845, remains to-day on 
the whole the best history of the country from the French 
point of view. Garneau's attitude on some points has 
not always commended itself to English-Canadian 
readers, but on the whole he wrote with reasonable 
impartiality even upon topics which in his day were 
almost too recent and too instinct with racial feeling to 
be handled with safety. His work covers the history 
of the country from the earliest times down to the Union 
of 1840. It ran through three editions in his own life- 
time; a fourth edition appeared in Montreal in 1882, 
after his death, the text occupying three volumes, while 
a fourth was of a memorial character containing tributes 
to the historian by his friends. A translation by Andrew 
Bell appeared at Montreal in 1860. A fifth edition is 
now in course of publication (Paris: Fe"lix Alcan), with 
an Introduction and elaborate notes by the historian's 
grandson, Hector Garneau, and a Preface by Gabriel 
Hanotaux. The first volume brings the history down 
to the colonization of Cape Breton, in 1744. 



116 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 1 



NOTES. 



Another of Rudolf Herzog's widely-read German 
novels is soon to be issued by Mr. Desmond FitzGerald 
in a translation entitled " The Song of Labor." 

A new volume of poems by Mr. George Edward 
Woodberry, to be entitled "The Flight, and Other 
Poems," is promised for immediate issue by the Mac- 
millan Co. 

Mr. Brand Whitlock's reminiscences of the men and 
events with which he has been associated are to be pub- 
lished at once by Messrs. Appleton in a volume entitled 
Forty Years of It." 

Miss Leona Dalrymple's novel, " Diane of the Green 
Van," which won the prize of $10,000 in Messrs. 
Reilly & Britton Co.'s recent competition, will be 
published early next month. 

Among the writers of fiction represented on Houghton 
Mifflin Co.'s Spring list are Arthur S. Pier, Demetra 
Kenneth-Brown, W. J. Hopkins, Judge Shute, Mary 
Heaton Vorse, and Elia W. Peattie. 

Two novels soon to appear with Messrs. Little, 
Brown, & Co.'s imprint are " The Substance of his 
House," by Mrs. Ruth Holt Boucicault, and " Sunshine 
Jane," by Mrs. Anne Warner French. 

Three novels to be issued shortly by Messrs. Small, 
Maynard & Co. are: "A Lady of Leisure," by Miss 
Ethel Sedgwick; " Mrs. Brand," by Mr. H. A. Mitchell 
Keays ; and " Sunrise Valley," by Miss Marion Hill. 

What is sure to prove one of the most interesting 
biographies of the Spring season is announced in the life 
of Thomas Wentworth Higginson, which Mary Thacher 
Higginson is now preparing for Houghton Mifflin Co. 

A collection of unpublished letters written by Dost- 
oevsky will be published shortly by a German firm in 
Munich. They are said to throw much fresh light on 
the relations that existed between Dostoevsky and 
Turgenev. 

Mr. H. G. Wells's exhilarating story, " The World 
Set Free," now appearing as a serial in " The English 
Review " and " The Century Magazine," will be pub- 
lished in book form early in March by Messrs. E. P. 
Dutton & Co. 

Of chief interest among an immediately forthcoming 
group of new titles in the " Cambridge Manuals of 
Science and Literature " is " The Beautiful : An Intro- 
duction to Psychological Esthetics," by Vernon Lee 
(Miss Violet Paget). 

Lord Morley has made a book out of the address 
which he delivered some time ago beforexhe University 
of Manchester. " Notes on Politics and History " is the 
title of the volume, and while the original talk has been 
kept as the basis, the work has been much amplified and 
revised. 

We learn, by way of the London " Nation," that Mr. 
W. H. Furness is editing a collection of the addresses 
and miscellaneous writings of his father, the late 
Horace Howard Furness. He proposes also to issue a 
volume of Dr. Furness's letters, together with some 
form of biographical record. 

Mr. Ernest Newman is already the author of two 
books about Wagner. He has now finished a third on 
the same composer. It tells the story of Wagner's 
life in the light of recent additions to our knowledge, 
a good deal being said about his various love affairs. 
Messrs. Dutton will publish the volume. 



Three popular "Atlantic Monthly " serial features of 
the past few months soon to appear in book form are 
Mr. Gamaliel Bradford's " Confederate Portraits," Mrs. 
Elinore Rupert Stewart's " Letters of a Woman Home- 
steader," and the "Annals and Memoirs of the Court of 
Peking " by Messrs. Bland and Backhouse. 

In addition to his coming novel, " Les Anges," M. 
Anatole France has finished writing an account of his 
childhood which will supplement the stories to be 
found in " Le Livre de mon Ami " and " Pierre 
Noziere." The new book, which is to be called " Le 
Petit Pierre," will first appear as a serial in the " Revue 
de Paris." 

Among the immediately forthcoming publications of 
Messrs. E. P. Dutton & Co. we note the following: 
"Buddhist Stories," by Mr. Paul Dahlke; "Young 
Delinquents," a study of English reformatory and in- 
dustrial schools, by Miss Mary G. Barnett; and a book 
of Canadian stories, " The Passing of Oul-i-but," by 
Mr. Alan Sullivan. 

" The Titan," a new novel by Mr. Theodore Dreiser, 
is announced for publication this month by Messrs. 
Harper & Brothers. Other February books of this house 
include " The Forester's Daughter," by Mr. Hamlin 
Garland; "The Idol-Breaker," a play, by Mr. Charles 
Rann Kennedy; and "Religion and Life," by Dr. 
Elwood Worcester. 

Jules Claretie had begun to publish his memoirs as 
a serial in the " Journal " shortly before his death. 
For some time past he had been in the habit of devoting 
a portion of each day to the work, and it is understood 
that he had made considerable progress. We may 
therefore expect a most interesting addition to the 
French literary memoirs of the nineteenth century. 

The attention of historical students is directed to the 
fact that the Justin Winsor biennial prize of $200. for 
the best unpublished monograph in American history 
will be awarded this year. Manuscripts must be sub- 
mitted on or before July 1 . Full information regarding 
the conditions of award may be obtained from Professor 
Claude H. Van Tyne of the University of Michigan. 

A book on the Keats relics at Hampstead, with an 
account of the portraits of Keats, and photographic fac- 
similes, is now in course of preparation. Every docu- 
ment will be transcribed in full, and annotated by Mr. 
Buxton Forman. Some of the later letters have never 
been transcribed. The edition, to be published by John 
Lane Company, will be a limited one on hand-made 
paper. 

Among the titles on Messrs. Crowell's Spring list are 
the following: "The Commuter's Garden," a practical 
handbook for the suburban gardener ; " Consumption : 
Its Cause, Cure, and Prevention," by Dr. Edward O. 
Otis; " The Message of New Thought," by Mr. Abel L. 
Allen; "How to Rest," by Miss Grace Dawson; "The 
Deaf: Their Position in Society," by Mr. Harry Best; 
" Heroes of the Farthest North and Farthest South," 
by Mr. J. Kennedy Maclean; a large type, thin-paper 
edition of Roget's " Thesaurus," edited by Mr. C. O. S. 
Mawson; and "Richard Wagner: The Man and His 
Work," by Mr. Oliver Huckel. 

George Spring Merriam, a son of one of the brothers 
who founded the company which has long published 
Webster's Dictionary, died in Springfield, Mass., on 
January 23, aged seventy-one. He was graduated 
from Yale in 1864, and after studying theology, turned 
to literary work. For five years, from 1870 to 1875, 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



117 



he was on the editorial staff of " The Christian Union " 
(now " The Outlook ") under Henry Ward Beecher. 
Perhaps his best-known book is " The Life and Times 
of Samuel Bowles," in two volumes, published in 1885. 
He was also the author of " The Negro and the Na- 
tion," " The Man of To-day," and several other books. 
Edwin Ginn, founder and head of the house of Ginn 
& Company, died on January 21. He was born at 
Orland, Maine, on February 14, 1838. Soon after 
receiving his degree from Tufts College, he established 
the school-book publishing business of which he has 
remained the head for nearly half a century. Besides 
performing a notable service in raising and maintain- 
ing the standards for school and college text-books in 
this country, Mr. Ginn was actively interested in vari- 
ous public-spirited movements in particular the cause 
of international peace. Of late years a large share of 
his time and his fortune has been devoted to the World 
Peace Foundation, of which he was the founder. Great 
as is the loss which the American publishing trade sus- 
tains in his death, the loss to American citizenship is 
far greater. 



TOPICS ix LEADING PERIODICALS. 

February, 1914. 

Aeroplane and the Dirigible, Development of the. 

J. Bernard Walker Review of Reviews 

Africa, North, and the Desert. G. E. Woodberry Scribner 
Alpine Road of France, The. Henry Norman . . Scribner 
American, The Too Adaptable. Sydney Brooks . Harper 
American Woman and Her Home on a Business Basis. 

Christine Frederick Review of Reviews 

Animals and Hibernation. W. L. Halm . Popular Science 
Apple Variation, Abnormalities in. W. J. Young Pop. Science 

Athletics and Morals Atlantic 

Athletics and the College. C. A. Stewart . . . Atlantic 
Athletics and the School. Alfred E. Stearns . . Atlantic 
Bank Depositor, The. Vernice E. Danner . Rev. of Revs. 
Boy Who Goes Wrong, The. H. Addington Bruce Century 
Bulgaria after the Wars. B. C. Marsh Review of Reviews 
Burns, From Bend to. Dallas Lore Sharp . . . Atlantic 
Business, Better III. William Hard . . . Everybody's 
Butterflies, Black. Sadakichi Hartmann .... Forum 
Central Park, A Philosopher in. Edward S. Martin Harper 
Civil Service Reform and Commonsense. F. E. Leupp Allan. 

College Woman, The. Margaret Ball Forum 

Confederacy, A Northern Woman in the. Mrs. Eugene 

McLean Harper 

Convict, New Hope for the. Richard Barry . . Century 
Corporate Reform, Democracy and. Robert E. Reed Atlantic 
Corruption, A Cure for. Lincoln Steffens . Metropolitan 
Country School, Opportunities of the. J. W. Strout Pop. Sci. 

Creole Beauties. Julius Muller Century 

Dancing, The Philosophy of. Havelock Ellis . . Atlantic 
Egypt, Reactions of a Traveller in. Jane Addams Atlantic 
Equality in the United States. C. F. Emerick Pop. Science 
Forbes-Robertson : An Appreciation. Richard 

Le Gallienne Century 

French Court Memories, 1877-8. Mme. Waddington Scribner 
Genius at School. Edmund K. Broadus .... Atlantic 
Healing the Sick, Team Work in. B.J. 

Hendrick World's Work 

Immigration, Racial Consequences of. E. A. Ross Century 
Income Tax, The. James R. Alerriam . Review of Reviews 

India, The Heart of. E. F. Benson Century 

Italy, The Protestant in. Zephine Humphrey . Atlantic 
Justice, A Picture of. George W. Alger . World's Work 
Lincoln's Social Ideals. Rose Strunsky .... Century 
Mexican Menace, The. W. Morgan Shuster . . Century 
Mexico, With Villa in. John S. Reed . . . Metropolitan 
Mitchel, John Pnrroy. Dudley F. Malone . World's Work 



" Mona Lisas," The Two. Walter Littlefield . . Century 
Motorized Highway Commerce. R.W.Hutchinson, Jr. Scrib. 
National Museum of Safety, A. Gordon Thayer Everybody's 
Natural Selection, Progress in the Study of. 

J. A. Harris Popular Science 

Nervous System, Origin and Evolution of the. 

G. H. Parker Popular Science 

New England Pole, The. Harry S. Brown . . . Forum 
New York, In, with Nine Cents. A. M. Rihbany . Atlantic 
New York City's Government by Experts. 

Albert Shaw Review of Reviews 

Nutall, Thomas, Geological Work of . Chas. Keyes Pop. Sci. 
Philippine Question, The. William A. Reed . . Forum 
Physical Laboratory, Contributions to Civilization 

of the. A. G. Webster Popular Science 

Poet, A, in a Fool's Cap. W. T. Larned . . . Century 
Polar Exploration, Outlook in. C. F. Talman Rev. of Revs. 
Presidency, Wilson's Theory of the. Lindsay Rogers Forum 
Pulitzer, Joseph : Reminiscences of a Secretary. 

Alleyne Ireland Metropolitan 

Queensland, A Trooper of. Norman Duncan . . Harper 
Robinson, Edwin Arlington. 0. F. Theis .... Forum 
Rubber, " Tame." H. C. Pearson .... World's Work 
St. Paul, City Salvation and. George Creel . Everybody's 
Science and Poetry. C. W. Super . . . Popular Science 
Socialism V. Morris Hillquit and J. A. Ryan Everybody's 
Socialism and Economics. Richard D. Skinner . Forum 

Street, The. Simon Strunsky Atlantic 

Street Traffic, Science of. Arno Dosch . World's Work 
Surinam Jungle, Through the. Charles W. Furlong Harper 
Tammany Hall, Twilight of. B. J. Hendrick World's Work 
Temperament and the Stage. J. S. Hamilton . Everybody's 
Theatre, The. Johnston Forbes-Robertson . . . Century 
Theatre, The Eugenic. Victor Branford .... Forum 
Trade-Unionism, Economic Necessity of. John Mitchell Atl. 
Transcontinental Trails. Henry B. Joy . . . Scribner 
War, The World's Last. H. G. Wells .... Century 

White Slave, The. Brand Whitlock Forum 

White Slave Agitation, The. Havelock Ellis Metropolitan 
Wilson as Wall Street Sees Him. C. M. Keys World's Work 
Wood Engraving, Contemporary. William Walton Scribner 
World-Man, The. Will Levington Comfort . . . Forum 



I.IST OF NEW BOOKS. 



[The following list, containing 88 titles, includes books 
received by THE DIAZ, since its last issue.] 

BIOGRAPHY. 

Lady Hester Lucy Stanhope: A New Light on her 
Life and Love Affairs. By Frank Hamel. Illus- 
trated in photogravure, large 8vo, 348 pages. 
Funk & Wagnalls Co. $5. net. 

A Pepys of Mogul India, 1653-1708: Being an 
Abridged Edition of the "Storia do Mogor" of 
Niccolao Manucci. Translated by William Irvine; 
abridged by Margaret L. Irvine. With frontis- 
piece, large 8vo, 310 pages. E. P. Button & Co. 
$3.50 net. 

John Woolman, His Life and Our Times: Being a 
Study in Applied Christianity. By W. Teign- 
mouth Shore. 12mo, 273 pages. Macmillan Co. 
$1.50 net. 

Heroines of Modern Religion. Edited by Warren 
Dunham Foster. With portraits, 12mo, 275 pages. 
Sturgis & Walton Co. $1.50 net. 

HISTORY. 
Hungary's Fight for National Existence; or, The 

History of the Great Uprising Led by Francis 
Rakoczi II., 1703-1711. By Ladislas Baron Hen- 
gelmuller. 8vo, 342 pages. Macmillan Co. 
$3.25 net. 

The Reconstruction of the New Colonies under Lord 
Mllner. By W. Basil Worsfold. In 2 volumes, 
large 8vo. E. P. Dutton & Co. $7.50 net 

A History of England and the British Empire. By 
Arthur D. Innes. Vol. II., 1485-1688. 12mo, 553 
pages. Macmillan Co. $1.60 net. 



118 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 1 



GENERAL LITERATURE. 
The Eighteen Nineties: A Review of Art and Ideas 

at the Close of the 19th Century. By Holbrook 

Jackson. Illustrated, large 8vo, 368 pages. 

Mitchell Kennerley. 
A Bookman's Letters. By Sir W. Robertson Nlcoll, 

M.A. 8vo, 438 pages. George H. Doran Co. 

$1.75 net. 
Studies in Portuguese Literature. By Aubrey F. G. 

Bell. 12mo, 247 pages. Oxford: B. H. Blackwell. 
Modern Parliamentary Eloquence: The Rede Lec- 
ture, 1913. By Earl Curzon of Keddleston. 8vo, 

80 pages. Macmillan Co. $1. net. 
English Travellers of the Renaissance. By Clare 

Howard. Illustrated, 8vo, 233 pages. John Lane 

Co. $2.50 net. 
The Sonnets of William Shakespeare: New Light 

and Old Evidence. By the Countess de Cham- 

brun. Illustrated in photogravure, etc., 8vo, 

276 pages. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.75 net. 
The Modern Short-Story. By Lucy Lilian Notestein 

and Waldo Hilary Dunn. 12mo, 211 pages. A. S. 

Barnes Co. 
The Vision of Anton. By Walter A. Dyer. 16mo, 20 

pages Chicago: Brothers of the Book. Paper. 
Some Other Things. By Charles Halsted Mapes. 

12mo, 134 pages. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1. net. 
Considerations stir 1'Art Dramatique a propos de 

la Come'die de Bernard Shaw. Par Augustin et 

Henriette Hamon. 16mo, 48 pages. Paris: 

Eug&ne Figui&re & Cie. Paper. 
Picture Tales from the Russian. By Valery Carrick; 

translated by Nevill Forbes. Illustrated, oblong 

12mo, 119 pages. Oxford: B. H. Blackwell. 

VERSE AND DRAMA. 
The Oxford Book of Canadian Verse. Chosen by 

Wilfred Campbell. 16mo, 344 pages. Oxford 

University Press. $2. net. 
The Oxford Book of Spanish Verse, 13th to 20th 

Centuries. Chosen by James Fitzmaurice-Kelly, 

F.B.A. 16mo, 460 pages. Oxford University 

Press. 
At the World's Heart. By Gale Young Rice. 12mo, 

156 pages. Doubleday, Page & Co. $1.25 net. 
Beyond the Stars, and Other Poems. By Charles 

Hanson Towne. 12mo, 73 pages. Mitchell Ken- 
nerley. 
Bmnelleschi: A Poem. By John Galen Howard. 

Large 8vo, 93 pages. San Francisco: John 

Howell. $6. net. 
Madge Linsey, and Other Poems. By Dora Sigerson 

Shorter. 16mo, 42 pages. Dublin: Maunsel & 

Co., Ltd. 
Poems from the Portuguese (with the Portuguese 

Text). Translated by Aubrey F. G. Bell. 16mo, 

131 pages. Oxford: B. H. Blackwell. 
Sa Muse S'amuse. By Wilfrid Blair. 12mo, 132 

pages. Oxford: B. H. Blackwell. 
Drama League Series of Plays. First volumes: 

Kindling, by Charles Kenyon; A Thousand Years 

Ago, a romance of the Orient, by Percy MacKaye. 

Each with Introduction by Clayton Hamilton, 

12mo. Doubleday, Page & Co. Per volume, 

75 cts. net. 

FICTION. 
The Flying Inn. By Gilbert K. Chesterton. 12mo, 

320 pages. John Lane Co. $1.30 net. 
Home. With frontispiece, 12mo, 339 pages. Century 

Co. $1.30 net. 
The Possessed: A Novel in Three Parts. By Fyodor 

Dostoevsky; translated from the Russian by 

Constance Garnett. 12mo, 637 pages. Macmillan 

Co. $1.50 net. 
Old Mole. By Gilbert Cannan. 12mo, 364 pages. 

D. Appleton & Co. $1.35 net. 
The After House: A Story of Love, Mystery, and a 

Private Yacht. By Mary Roberts Rinehart. 

Illustrated, 12mo, 281 pages. Houghton Mifflin 

Co. $1.25 net. 
The New Dawn. By Agnes C. Laut. Illustrated, 

12mo, 542 pages. Moffat, Yard & Co. $1.35 net. 
The Light of Western Stars. By Zane Grey. With 

frontispiece in color, 12mo, 389 pages. Harper 

& Brothers. $1.35 net. 



It Happened in Egypt. By C. N. and A. M. William- 
son. Illustrated, 12mo, 512 pages. Doubleday, 
Page & Co. $1.35 net. 

LHIecrona's Home. By Selma Lagerlof; translated 
from the Swedish by Anna Barwell. 12mo, 269 
pages. E. P. Dutton & Co. $1.25 net. 

Another Man's Shoes. By Victor Bridges. 12mo, 
327 pages. George H. Doran Co. $1.25 net. 

Horace Blake. By Mrs. Wilfrid Ward. 12mo, 422 
pages. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.35 net. 

The "White Sapphire: A Mystery Romance. By Lee 
Foster Hartman. Illustrated, 12mo, 297 pages. 
Harper & Brothers. $1.25 net. 

William and Bill. By Grace MacGowan Cooke and 
Caroline Wood Morrison. 12mo, 295 pages. Cen- 
tury Co. $1.25 net. 

The Story of Louie. By Oliver Onions. 12mo, 336 
pages. George H. Doran Co. $1.25 net. 

The Third Act. By Fred Jackson. With frontis- 
piece in color, 12mo, 349 pages. Desmond Fitz- 
Gerald, Inc. $1. net. 

King Desire and his Knights. By Edith F. A. U. 
Painton. 12mo, 218 pages. R. F. Fenno & Co. 
$1. net. 

PUBLIC AFFAIRS 

The Revolt of Democracy. By Alfred Russel Wal- 
lace, O.M. ; with a sketch of the author by James 
Marchant. With portrait, 12mo, 120 pages. 
Funk & Wagnalls Co. $1. net. 

Boycotts and the Labor Struggle: Economic and 
Legal Aspects. By Harry W. Laidler; with In- 
troduction by Henry R. Seager, Ph.D. 8vo. 488 
pages. John Lane Co. $2. net. 

King's College Lectures on Colonial Problems. 
Edited by F. J. C. Hearnshaw, M.A. 12mo, 252 
pages. Macmillan Co. $1.40 net. 

Prostitution in Europe. By Abraham Flexner; with 
Introduction by John D. Rockefeller, Jr. 12mo, 
455 pages. '.'Publications of the Bureau of Social 
Hygiene." Century Co. $1.30 net. 

Village Improvement. By Parris Thaxter Farwell. 
Illustrated, 12mo, 362 pages. Sturgis & Walton 
Co. $1. net. 

The Immigration Problem: A Study of American 
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miah W. Jenks and W. Jett Lauck. Third edi- 
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Brothering the Boy. By W. Edward Raffety, Ph.D. 
12mo, 220 pages. Griffith & Rowland Press. 
75 cts. net. 

The Family and Society. By John M. Gillette, Ph.D. 
16mo, 164 pages "National Social Science 
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SCIENCE. 

The Scientific Work of Morris Loeb. Edited by 
Theodore W. Richards. Illustrated in photo- 
gravure, etc., large 8vo, 349 pages. Harvard 
University Press. $2. net. 

The Diseases of Tropical Plants. By Melville Thurs- 
ton Cook, Ph.D. Illustrated, 8vo, 317 pages. 
Macmillan Co. $2.75 net. 

History of Geography. By J. Scott Keltic, LL.D., 
and O. J. R. Howarth, M.A. Illustrated, 16mo, 
208 pages "History of the Sciences." G. P. 
Putnam's Sons 75 cts. net. 

The Planisphere: A Movable Star-Map. Chicago: 
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An Essay on the Scientific Method. By Louis T. 
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ARCHITECTURE AND ART. 
An Introduction to English Church Architecture, 

from the Eleventh to the Sixteenth Century. By 
Francis Bond, M.A. In 2 volumes, illustrated, 4to. 
Oxford University Press. $14. net. 
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A Study in Mediaeval Iconography and its 
Sources of Inspiration. By Emile Male; trans- 
lated from the third French edition by Dora 
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1914] 



THE DIAL 



119 



The Great Painter-Etchers, from Rembrandt to 
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Charles Holme. Illustrated, 4to, 265 pages. Win- 
ter Number of "The International Studio." John 
Lane Co. Paper. $2.50 net. 

PHILOSOPHY. 

The Philosophy of Giambattlsta Vlco. By Bene- 
detto Croce; translated by R. G. Collingwood. 

Large 8vo, 317 pages. Macmillan Co. $2.60 net. 
Knowledge and Life. By Rudolf Eucken; translated 

by W. Tudor James, D.Phil. 12mo, 307 pages. 

"Crown Theological Library." G. P. Putnam's 

Sons. $1.50 net. 
Pragmatism and Idealism. By William Cald- 

well, M.A. 8vo, 268 pages. Macmillan Co. 

$2. net. 
Nietzsche, and Other Exponents of Individualism. 

By Paul Carus. Illustrated, 12mo, 150 pages. 

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REFERENCE. 

"Who's Who, 1014: An Annual Biographical Diction- 
ary. 12mo, 2314 pages. Macmillan Co. $3.75 net. 

Dictionary of Abbreviations: Being Citations of 
Those Terms Used in the Professions, Sport, and 
Trades. By the late Walter T. Rogers, P.R.S.L. 
8vo, 149 pages. Macmillan Co. $2. net. 

The Old Testament Phrase Book. By Louise Emery 
Tucker, M.A. 12mo, 148 pages. Sturgis & Wal- 
ton Co. $1. net. 

Report of the Librarian of Congress for the Fiscal 
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The Tragedy of Education. By Edmond Holmes. 
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The Afontessorl Method and the American School. 
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A History of Education in Modern Times. By Frank 
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millan Co. $1.10 net. 

A Reader of Scientific and Technical Spanish for 
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Foods and Household Management: A Textbook of 
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Chez Nous: A French First Reader. With prac- 
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Edouard David. 12mo, 393 pages. Henry Holt 
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Le Cousin Pons. Par Honors de Balzac; edited by 
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Nature and Industry Readers. By Elizabeth V. 
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Das Skelett im Hause. Von Friedrich Spielhagen; 
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Petit Bleu. Par Gyp; edited for school use by F. 
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Balder the Beautiful: The Fire-Festivals of Europe 
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The Country of "The Ring and the Book." By Sir 
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Buddhist China. By Reginald Fleming Johnston. 
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The Garden City (Letchworth, England): A Study 
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A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidlan or South- 
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Robert Caldwell, D.D. Third edition, revised 
and edited by Rev. J. L. Wyatt, M.A., and T. 
Ramakrishna Pillai, B.A. 8vo, 640 pages. E. P. 
Dutton & Co. $4. net. 

The History of the Grain Trade in France, 1400- 
1710. By Abbott Payson Usher, Ph.D. Large 
8vo, 405 pages. "Harvard Economic Studies." 
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The Modern Trust Company: Its Functions and 
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Alone in the Wilderness. By Joseph 'Knowles. Il- 
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120 



[Feb. 1 




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Stieler's Atlas of 
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THE DIAL 



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1914] 



THE DIAL 



123 



The February issue 
of 



TN celebration of the Eightieth Birthday 
1 of ERNST HAECKEL, which occurs 
February 16, 1914. the February issue of 
THE OPEN COURT will be devoted 
chiefly to his work and life. 

HPHIS number will contain a special por- 
trait frontispiece of Haeckel, taken in 
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A SPECIAL five-page article by Dr. 
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Feb. 1, 1914 



TO BE ISSUED FEBRUARY FIFTH 

Operation of the New Bank Act 

By 
THOMAS CONWAY, Jr., Ph.D., and ERNEST MINOR PATTERSON, M.A., 

Of the Wharlon School of Finance and Commerce, University of Pennsylvania. 
450 pages. 12mo. Cloth bound. $2.00 net. Postage 14 cents 

r |^HE passage by Congress of the Federal Reserve Act has presented to bankers and business men 
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The Careful Investor 

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The Lost Vocal Art 

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Practical Cinematography 

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By F. A. TALBOT. With nearly 100 illustrations. 12mo. 

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A New Volume in Lippincott's Farm Manuals Series 

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TWO NEW SPRING NOVELS 



DO YOU KNOW that the greater part of the Crown 
Jewels of France disappeared from the Garde-Meuble 
during the Reign of Terror and never were recovered? 

DO YOU KNOW Tarrington, the fox-hunting town in 
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THE DIAL 



[Feb. 16 



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THE TRUTH ABOUT THE PHILIPPINES 

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No. 664. FEBRUARY 16, 1914. Vol. LVI. 



CONTENTS. 

THE CINEMATOGRAPH CRAZE 



PAGE 
. 129 



POETIC EXPRESSION. Charles Leonard Moore . .131 

CASUAL COMMENT 133 

The detection of genius in embryo. A Boston 
publisher of honored antecedents. A plea for the 
questionnaire. Reviving a national language and 
literature. A man of the pen and of the sword. A 
missionary to the bookless. A new honor for Pro- 
fessor John Bach McMaster. Bits of bibliothecal 
news. Mrs. Gaskell's Manchester home. Baiting 
the hook to catch the reader. Eight ways of 
reviewing a book. 



COMMUNICATIONS 136 

A Difficulty in Translation. Hyder E. Rollins. 
Walt Whitman and Lincoln's Assassination. 

Harold Hersey. 
" Worth While." Wm. Cheslett, Jr. 

NATURAL HISTORY EAST AND WEST. T. D. A. 

Cockerell 137 

ITALY'S FOREMOST COMIC DRAMATIST. W. W. 

Comfort 138 

IDEALISTIC FORCES IN AMERICAN HISTORY. 

Carl Becker 140 

CHINA'S "GRAND OLD MAN." O.D. Wannamaker 142 

THE SYMBOLISM OF WORDS. Thomas Percival 

Beyer 143 

THE BIOLOGY OF SEX. Eaymond Pearl .... 145 

BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS 146 

Goldwin Smith as reported by his Boswell. Studies 
of a diplomatist and scholar. Tom Medwin's 
"Shelley" in a new edition. A garner from medi- 
aeval literature. One of the makers of Kansas. 
More footnotes to Stevenson. Literary walks about 
London. A prophet of Futurism. Clever essays 
on common things. A pioneer mission-worker in 
the far East. A guide to the study of literature. 

BRIEFER MENTION 150 

NOTES 150 

LIST OF NEW BOOKS . . . 151 



THE CINEMATOGRAPH CRAZE. 

An amateur statistician announced the other 
day that the patronage of the moving picture 
theatres in Chicago numbered three-quarters of 
a million persons every twenty- four hours. This 
figure was computed by the rather nai've pro- 
cess of multiplying the number of seats in all 
the places which provide this species of enter- 
tainment by the number of performances given 
each day, calmly assuming that all the seats 
were occupied all the time. The conclusion 
may well give us pause, since it means that 
one-third of the entire population of the city 
seek this form of recreation every day, or, on 
the other hand, that every man, woman, and 
child, on the average, goes to one of these 
theatres more than twice a week. But even 
when we make a liberal discount, the numbers 
to which this entertainment appeals must be 
very large, and the phenomenon which they 
offer is worthy of serious consideration. It is 
a mushroom growth that has developed almost 
over night, and we have not yet had time to 
view it in all its bearings. 

That this new interest is of world- wide extent 
is obvious to every travelled observer, and is 
attested by reports from all the countries of the 
globe. The "cinema" unalloyed, or shown in 
connection with vaudeville attachments, affords 
everywhere one of the most popular means of 
whiling away a leisure hour at almost any time 
of day, and attracts, by its cheapness and variety, 
larger numbers of visitors than can be held by 
any other form of paid entertainment. It is 
making terrific inroads upon the support of the 
regular theatre, which is not surprising when we 
consider that a single seat in the latter costs as 
much as from twenty to fifty admissions to the 
former. This condition should operate in time 
to modify the inflated pretensions of the play- 
houses, and to reduce the grossly unreasonable 
scale upon which they are now conducted. The 
current charges for dramatic performances, 
viewed in relation to the quality of the enter- 
tainment offered, constitute a bare-faced impo- 
sition upon the public, and any influence 
tending to abate these demands is to be wel- 
comed. 

In its social and educational aspects, the 
moving-picture theatre offers several interesting 



130 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 16 



view-angles, and is a tempting subject for the 
philosophical observer. Without bringing any 
of the heavy artillery of philosophy to bear upon 
the subject, certain interesting reflections result 
from its contemplation. It is, in a sense, the 
culmination of the process of substituting pic- 
tures for words, of actual images for the 
images which the stimulated mind creates, 
which was inaugurated when the photographic 
illustration began to invade our magazines and 
to disfigure our newspapers. It shows in a very 
striking way the demoralizing modern tendency 
to seek lines of least resistance in every form of 
activity, to convert education into amusement, 
and work into play, without giving the least 
thought to the way in which the process softens 
the mental fibre and saps the character. Gen- 
erally speaking, the picture performs its proper 
function when it supplements the word, printed 
or spoken, and perverts its function when it 
would become a substitute. For the picture never 
can really be a substitute for the word, which is 
equivalent to calling it a substitute for thought, 
and the intuitional elements which it supplies 
to the mental process are a poor exchange for 
the analytical elements of logical interpretation 
which reading and listening demand. 

A great deal of nonsense has been written 
about the moving picture as an educational 
agency. If kept strictly in its place as an ad- 
junct to the methods that demand application 
and concentration, it may serve a useful sub- 
ordinate purpose. The historical scene as 
realized from a close study of the sources may 
be vivified by this form of dramatic presenta- 
tion, although the setting and the action are 
necessarily "faked." What the imaginative 
picture in the school text does for the child may 
be done for him more realistically by the pro- 
jection of the film on the screen. But all that 
he will get from it at best is a series of fleeting 
impressions, and no opportunity is offered him 
to study the details of scenery and costume and 
architecture. The fleeting impression, however, 
can never make a serious contribution to the 
work of education. We have seen some highly 
instructive scientific films, exhibiting the mar- 
vels of life as revealed by the microscope, or 
the unfolding of the flower from the bud, or 
the transformations of the insect from larva to 
imago, but to view such projections intelligently 
requires antecedent experience gained in the 
old plodding way in accordance with the time- 
schedule of nature. When one has this experi- 
ence already, it becomes interesting to see it 
epitomized on the magic screen, and one gets a 



more synthetic conception of the whole process. 
But without such antecedent knowledge, the 
pictured display is bewildering and inadequate. 
The unnatural character given to these exhibi- 
tions by the "speeding-up" which seems to be 
necessary robs them of a great part of their 
usefulness as educational helps. 

For the reproduction of impressions de 
voyage, the cinematograph has much value. 
By its means, one may become a travelled ob- 
server with a minimum of effort, and its success 
is attested by the large use which the travel- 
lecturers make of it. The real traveller, of 
course, finds his delight in leisurely contempla- 
tion of the foreign scene, dwelling at length 
upon its details, and giving the impression time 
to fix itself upon the memory. The arm-chair 
traveller in the picture play-house can do nothing 
like this, and can retain but a jumbled recollec- 
tion of what has been shown him. But even 
such travel is better than none at all, and, be- 
sides, none of us can go everywhere in the flesh ; 
so we may well be grateful to those who do the 
physical part of travelling for us, and entertain 
us with the records taken by their cameras. 
Those who have seen the films which visualize 
the story of the Scott Antarctic expedition will 
realize the extraordinarily valuable service that 
may be done for us, on occasion, by this marvel 
of modern mechanical invention. 

Another service that seems to us very valu- 
able is that of illustrating the masterpieces of 
literature. When this is done in the artistic 
spirit and with unlimited resources in the way 
of stage material, it becomes an efficient aid to 
the imagination. If we lose something, we gain 
a great deal more, when we witness an adequate 
stage-performance of " Hamlet " or " King 
Lear," and even a cinematograph production of 
one of these tragedies may help us to read new 
meanings into the printed text. The " Les 
Miserables "films recently exhibited were excep- 
tionally well made, and gave to the lovers of that 
masterpiece a better understanding of many of 
its episodes than they had ever got from even 
the most sumptuously illustrated edition. And 
the films prepared at such great expense for the 
illustration of Dante's " Inferno " were, on the 
whole, of high artistic merit, and proved gratify- 
ing to the most austere worshippers of the sub- 
lime Florentine. Literature offers a boundless 
field for this new kind of illustration, and its 
exploitation, guided by the artistic conscience, 
may add much to our enjoyment of the great 
works of fiction and poetry. We do not know 
that "Don Quixote" has been done as yet, 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



131 



but what an opportunity it offers for effective 
staging and characterization ! 

The opportunities offered by the moving- 
picture theatre for ministering to vulgar and 
depraved tastes are so obvious, and so attested 
by reports from countries in which license is 
unchecked, that some sort of censorship is de- 
manded by the interests of public morality. 
Some form of legal restraint is operative in 
most of our large cities, whether in the hands 
of the police, or in those of commissions spe- 
cially designated for the purpose. Censorship 
as an official institution is never an unmixed 
good, and is capable of developing into a 
greater evil than any it seeks to avert, as we 
have seen in the cases of the English licensing 
of plays and the Russian treatment of the press. 
The present danger in this country seems to lie 
in the sort of official stupidity which lays down 
general rules, and then applies them undevia- 
tingly in all cases a procedure which would 
have the ludicrous result of placing Shake- 
speare's " Julius Cjesar " under the ban because 
scenes of violence and murder are in general 
prohibited. We are inclined to think that the 
lines are drawn somewhat too closely by our 
committees in charge of this inspection ; in their 
desire to "play safe," they catch not only the 
vicious and vulgar in their net but also the 
merely tragic which, distressing as it may be to 
view, remains an essential part of life, and must 
not be left out of the scheme if we are to pre- 
tend to picture either the history of civilization 
or the conceptions of the great creative writers. 
Is it not legitimate to throw upon the screen any- 
thing which may be described in a printed book 
that is published without legal interference? 



POETIC EXPRESSION. 



There have recently been published in England 
two single-volume studies of the work of Algernon 
Charles Swinburne. They are by friendly critics, 
but both of these realize that Swinburne is on his 
defence. They make the most of their poet's un- 
rivaled legerdemain of syllables and sounds. They 
point out, quite justly, his truth of keeping, by which 
each poem is, as it were, contained within its own 
frame. This gift would be more valuable if there 
were not such an unutterable monotony in his pages, 
if the parts of his poems were not mutually inter- 
changeable. They also claim for him insight into 
human nature, and creative power. To us it seems 
that his figures, classic or romantic, are mainly 
affairs of masks and megaphones. But when it 
comes to what for a poet is really the crux of the 
matter, the business of poetic expression, they both 



practically throw up the case. We do not apologize 
for quoting somewhat largely what they say so well. 
First let us hear Mr. Edward Thomas : 

" But Swinburne has almost no magic felicity of words. 
He can astonish and melt, but seldom thrill, and when he 
does it is not by any felicity, as it were, of God-given words. 
He has to depend on sound and an atmosphere of words 
which is now and then concentrated and crystallized into an 
intensity of effect which is almost magical, perhaps never 
quite magical. . . . Perhaps the greatest of his triumphs is 
in keeping up a solemn play of words, not unrelated to the 
subject suggested by the title and commencement, but more 
closely related to rhyme, and yet giving in the end a com- 
pact and powerful expression. . . . Hardly one verse means 
anything in particular, hardly one line means anything at 
all, but nothing is done inconsistent with the opening, noth- 
ing which the rashest critic would venture to call unavailing 
in the complete effect." 

Mr. John Drinkwater's judgment is remarkably 
similar. He says of Swinburne: 

" His control of language was, indeed, not distinguished 
by the magic that, although it was within the compass of 
his peers, was so only at the rarest intervals. This wizardry 
that visited every great poet from say Chaucer down to him 
of yesterday, was known to each but a few times in his life. 
Those lines of almost inconceivable beauty, lines commoner 
in Coleridge and Keats than in poets whose collective achieve- 
ment is greater than theirs, is, when all is said, but an ex- 
quisite fragment of our poetry. They amount to a hundred, 
a thousand perhaps ; a mere handful in any case. It has 
been the privilege of every great poet to shape a few : Swin- 
burne made scarcely one, and he loses one of the poet's rarest 
if not most commanding distinctions in consequence. . . . The 
rarest graces are beyond his reach ; but to the high expression 
which is poetry, he attains with superb ease." 

We have only to question one point in this last 
criticism, the statement as to the rarity of magical 
phrase in English poetry. Mr. Kipling in his story 
entitled " Wireless" reduces the really inspired pas- 
sages of this kind to just two, one by Coleridge 
and one by Keats. It would be interesting to know 
what those poets, who intoxicated themselves with 
the fine phrases of their predecessors, would have 
thought of such a judgment. Hazlitt declared that 
Wordsworth's lines, 

" Elysian beauty, melancholy grace, 
Brought from a pensive though a happy place," 

were the most perfect in the language ; and the same 

" Lady of the Lake, 
Sole sitting by the shores of old Romance," 

was probably the parent stock on which Keats grafted 
his double rose of beauty which Mr. Kipling ad- 
mires so much. 

The fact is that these flowers or jewels of poetic 
speech are scattered thickly over all English verse 
of the better kind. They glitter on Chaucer's robe 
until it seems drenched with dew. They gleam 
from the folds of half of Spenser's dreamy stanzas. 
Allowing for the drama's necessary recurrence to 
the conversational tone, Shakespeare is all compact 
of them. Milton and the lyric poets contain sumless 
treasures of them. If Swinburne failed to add any- 
thing of the sort to our literature it will go hard with 
his pretensions, notwithstanding his noble literary 
enthusiasm and his undoubted mastery of metre. 

To use words as if they had never been used 
before, to impart to them a fresh fragrance, an inex- 



132 



[Feb. 16 



plicable charm, a profundity which makes whole his- 
tories or extended phenomena implicit in a phrase, 
that is what is meant by verbal magic. It does not 
need that it should deal only with sensuous things, 
though doubtless on that side the most miracles of 
language are wrought. The Elizabethan dramatists 
have the gift, though their sphere is that of action. 
Dryden, Pope, and Goldsmith have it, though their 
matter lies mainly in the regions of moral abstrac- 
tions. The Cavalier lyrists and Burns have it, 
though they deal with the emotions. It is hardly 
worth while to give examples. Everyone knows 
what the best is; but everyone is always forgetting 
the face of the true Una of poetry and taking up with 
some false Duessa. So we shall quote a few lines, not 
from English writers, but from that American poetry 
of which Swinburne hardly disguised his contempt. 
Emerson, almost incapable of a complete poem, 
could write by fits and starts like a divinity. Take 

" O tenderly the haughty day 
Fills his blue urn with fire "; 

Or, 

" Thou canst not wave thy staff in air, 
Or dip thy paddle in the lake, 
But it carves the bow of beauty there 
And ripples in rhyme the oar forsake." 

Poe is all for total effect, yet his words have an 
almost impossible finish. For example, 
" Banners yellow, glorious, golden, 
O'er its roof did float and flow 
(This all this was in the olden 
Time long ago)." 

Or this : 

" No more no more no more 

Shall bloom the thunder-blasted tree, 
Or the stricken eagle soar." 

Or this, 

" In what ethereal dances, 
By what eternal streams." 

Bryant usually gives the weight rather than the 
lustre of words ; but take this : 

" A friendless warfare ! lingering long 

Through weary day and weary year ; 
A wild and many-weaponed throng 

Hang on thy front, and flank, and rear." 

FitzGreene Halleck's writing at its best is with the 
best. Witness, 

" Green be the turf above thee, 
Friend of my better days ! 
None knew thee but to love thee, 

None named thee but to praise." 
Or this, 

" Wild roses by the Abbey towers 

Are gay in their young bud and bloom ; 
They were born of a race of funeral-flowers 
That garlanded, in long-gone hours, 
A templar's knightly tomb." 

Simple words these and simple metres, but they 
have the indubitable magic that Swinburne's two 
critics deny him. 

Yet in the greatest poets this enchanted apparition 
of words is only the warp of their work ; rhetoric, 
language raised more or less above the ordinary, 
is the woof. With most verse writers this last 
is all in all. And it can be very good. In fact, 
compared with the other it is what light is to light- 



ning, or perhaps what daylight is to moonlight. 
Moonlight is more suggestive, lightning more revela- 
tional than daylight, but we could not stand either 
of them all the time. The trouble is that rhetoric 
is within the reach of almost anyone who can write 
at all; and if the person using it possesses also 
the gift of musical speech, the ordered movement of 
verse, he can easily set up for a great poet. Swin- 
burne is the perfect type of the rhetorical poet who 
lashes commonplace into extravagance and sets it 
to a music which has something of the obviousness 
and overwhelming blare of a brass band. A tour 
de force is always impressive, and no one who 
knows the difficulties overcome will cease to wonder 
at Swinburne's management of metre. But the true 
lovers of poetry will prefer those metrists whose 
sounds steal upon the ear and win their way to the 
heart. And this rich and lovely music, like that of 
some velvet-voiced vocalist, some virtuoso on the 
violin, " the horns of elf-land faintly blowing," is 
almost always associated with magic of phrase. 
Shelley is perhaps the only great metrist in the 
language whose high and lovely singing is as a rule 
not embodied in words equal to its own exquisiteness. 
Milton often crashes out discords ; and Shakespeare 
at the height of his expressiveness, in "Lear" for 
example, disdains music and pictured phrase alike, 
and gives us instant, imminent revelation. 

There is much more to literature, even to poetry, 
than the extreme wizardry of words, there are 
the expression of thought, emotion, personality; 
the creation of character, the telling of tales, the 
building-up of artistic wholes. All these things can 
be done with plain business speech or heightened 
rhetoric. And it is often difficult to say where these 
end and the more mysterious use of language be- 
gins. Most recent critics would decide that Byron, 
for example, is solely a rhetorician; but for our 
part we think that he, too, is a weaver of spells, 
though his may be black magic rather than white. 
If verbal magic were only a matter of purple patches, 
it might be disregarded. But purple patches and 
fine writing belong to rhetoric rather than to verbal 
magic. The supreme mastery over words suffuses 
a glow over whole works, penetrates character, and 
influences the presentation of thought. It is the 
thimbleful of coloring matter which makes the blue 
of the whole sky. 

There is, in truth, an analogy between magical 
language and the use of color, light, and shade, 
mere pigment in painting. Drawing, form, group- 
ing, dramatic expression, are the basis, the most 
necessary things in art ; the glory of color, whereby, 
as Hazlitt said of Velasquez, things seem to be 
wished upon the canvas, is comparatively a luxury. 
Sometimes the two powers go together, but less 
often than the intellectual and sensuous gifts in 
poetry. But in both arts, the force of instant and 
vivid expression is the rarest and most inspira- 
tional thing. It is the effortless power of divinity, 
all the rest is mere human labor. 

CHARLES LEONARD MOORE. 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



133 



CASUAL COMMENT. 



THE DETECTION OF GENIUS IN EMBRYO has always 
been admitted to be a difficult thing. Our young 
swans turn out to be geese, and our ugly ducklings 
prove themselves to have been cygnets in uncouth 
disguise. But perhaps as common a mark of incip- 
ient genius as any though even here one is liable 
to deception is an irresistible impulse to do com- 
mon things in an uncommon way, a deadly hostility 
to the usual and the conventional. Memory recalls 
the instance of a mathematical genius, a veritable 
prodigy in the swift solution of rather complicated 
problems, who, in his boyhood, if asked to cube a 
number in six figures, would have no recourse to 
pencil and paper, but after a momentary trance-like 
stillness would undergo a sort of spasm, and, with 
certain comical and meaningless movements of head 
and limbs, would bring to birth the result of his 
lightning-like calculation, the process of parturition 
having every appearance of being little short of 
excruciating. Professor Edmund Kemper Broadus 
writes with humor and insight on the subject of 
" Genius at School " in the current " Atlantic." 
After acknowledging the disappointing quality of 
academic success, and the perverse tendency of the 
self-willed and the lazy to achieve distinction, once 
in a while, at least, in after life, he goes on to say, 
among other things : " And if, in addition to the 
self-directed spirits who are independent of formal 
' schooling,' and the amiably idle who are indifferent 
to it, there remains a residuum of the incurably 
ignorant, not even of these need the seeker despair. 
There is a kind of perfection, an orbicular wholeness 
about ignorance, sometimes, that is akin to genius 
itself. They are the leaven of the whole lump, in- 
deed, these indomitable ignoramuses. They are the 
geniuses in the art of getting things wrong. The 
student who said that churches promote the mor- 
tality of the community, and his fellow who averred 
that churches are supported by the tribulations of 
their members, had that vatic quality which savage 
nations are accustomed to recognize and reverence 
in the weak-winded." Nevertheless, neither blunder- 
ing, however pregnant with unintentional wisdom, 
nor eccentricity, however astonishing, is a sure sign 
of genius ; else how easy it were, comparatively 
speaking, to achieve fame ! 



A BOSTON PUBLISHER OF HONORED ANTECE- 
DENTS, reputed for his own just and courteous deal- 
ings with authors, both American and foreign, and 
perhaps even more famous as the son of an unusu- 
ally able and distinguished publisher, died recently 
in the city of his birth and of his business activity 
for the greater part of his active life. Benjamin 
Holt Ticknor, born August 3, 1842, was the son of 
William Davis Ticknor, who founded the house of 
Ticknor & Fields and was largely instrumental in 
bringing to public notice and to enduring fame so 
many of our New England authors of the middle 



of last century. In fact, as is maintained by Miss 
Caroline Ticknor, daughter of him whose death we 
here regretfully note, in her late admirable work, 
"Hawthorne and his Publisher," the elder Ticknor 
acted as publisher to more American and foreign au- 
thors of celebrity than any one else of his time ; and 
his honorable and generous dealings with English 
authors in those piratical days were as unprece- 
dented as they were appreciated by the beneficiaries. 
Reared in such an atmosphere, and coming, as he 
must have come, into something like intimate contact 
with the many noted frequenters of his father's Old 
Corner Bookstore, the young Ticknor naturally and 
properly continued the traditional policy of the house 
when he rose to prominence in its management, even 
though the firm name was subject to rather fre- 
quent and, to an outsider, unaccountable changes. 
From Ticknor & Fields it became successively Fields, 
Osgood & Co., J. R. Osgood & Co., Ticknor & Co., 
Houghton, Mifflin & Co., and, finally, Houghton 
Mifllin Co., but retained the valued services of Mr. 
Ticknor until about eight years ago, when he retired 
on account of ill health. The famous authors whom 
he knew as publisher and friend would make too 
long a list to enumerate here. 

A PLEA FOR THE QUESTIONNAIRE, that more or 

less unwelcome inquisitor which is likely to come 
at any time, and from any quarter, prying into our 
private or professional or business affairs, is made 
by "The Inland Printer" in its current issue. 
Statistics, repellent though they are in undigested 
form, may, like the ugly and venomous toad, wear 
yet a precious jewel in their head. Statistics of the 
book-trade, for instance, or of public libraries, or of 
newspaper circulation, may serve to indicate a rise 
in the tide of popular intelligence and general cul- 
ture, and so rejoice the humanitarian interested in 
the welfare of the race. Straws show the wind's 
direction and velocity, and the statisticians of the 
Census Bureau are on the watch for all such aids 
to a trustworthy determination of the trend of the 
times. But if we shirk the filling-out of the blanks 
issued by the Bureau for the gathering-in of useful 
information on a multitude of subjects, how can we 
ever hope to learn with any certainty where we are 
or in which direction we are moving in the mighty 
stream of civilization? The Director of the Census 
has good reason to complain of insufficient zeal on 
the part of the public in furnishing the information 
desired by him. He says, as quoted by the afore- 
mentioned monthly: "One of the principal causes 
for the delay in the publication of the statistics of 
manufactures of the United States is the difficulty 
we experience in securing reports from the different 
establishments. At the last census of manufactures, 
which covered the year 1909, all of the establish- 
ments throughout the country were furnished with 
blank schedules upon which to make their reports 
by mail, but there was less than one per cent of the 
entire number that made complete reports. All of 
the others were collected by a personal visit of spe- 



134 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 16 



cial agents. This field work was not only expensive, 
but greatly retarded the compilation of the sta- 
tistics." A greater readiness of response to the 
questionnaire would undoubtedly be for the benefit 
of all concerned. t 

REVIVING A NATIONAL LANGUAGE AND LITERA- 
TURE that have fallen under the blighting influence 
of foreign domination cannot but be a long and 
difficult task. It is now a century since Norway 
freed herself from Denmark and recovered her in- 
dependence as a separate nation, although dynastic 
ties held her in political alliance with Sweden until 
1905. Four centuries of Danish rule naturally left 
their mark on the speech of Norway, as attested by 
the present similarity between the spoken and writ- 
ten language of cultured Norwegians and that of 
educated Danes. But the patriotic Norwegian is 
not inclined to acquiesce in the Danification of his 
ancient tongue, and in connection with this year's 
centennial celebration of the recovery of independ- 
ence it is proposed to adopt by due process of law 
a revived Norwegian language as the national and 
official speech of the kingdom ; and for this purpose 
the labors of Ivar Aasen, patriot, philologist, and 
man of letters, are to be turned to account. Sixty 
years ago Aasen busied himself with the construc- 
tion, or reconstruction, of a national language which 
he called "Landsmaal," going back to the old Norse 
Sagas for genuine native words, and also having re- 
course to the dialects of those remoter districts that 
had successfully resisted the inroads of the Danish 
tongue. According to report, which may be more or 
less erroneous, the Norwegian speech thus learnedly 
and painstakingly put together seems, contrary to all 
precedent, to be meeting with popular favor and to 
be gaining acceptance, especially in the rural dis- 
tricts, in songs and sermons, in the mimic life of the 
stage and in the real life of every day. Landsmaal 
is said to be melodious to the ear, of poetic quality, 
phonetic in its written form, and not so unlike the 
printed Danish as to be beyond the comprehension 
of a scholar familiar with the latter tongue. May 
it not be that Ireland and Scotland and Cornwall 
and Brittany, with who knows how many other dis- 
languaged regions of the earth, will some day succeed 
in reviving their obsolete or obsolescent tongues and 
thus add to the linguistic variety and picturesqueness 
of the civilized world and the domain of literature? 

A MAN OF THE PEN AND OF THE SWORD, General 

James Grant Wilson, who died on the first of this 
month, was the son of a poet and publisher, William 
W. Wilson, who brought his family from Edinburgh 
to this country in 1833, when James was one year 
old, and settled at Poughkeepsie. A partnership in 
the paternal publishing house failed to satisfy the 
young man's ambitions, and he entered journalism, 
becoming in 1857 the founder and first editor of 
the Chicago "Record." Soon after the outbreak of 
the Civil War, he was commissioned major of the 
Fifteenth Illinois Cavalry, and ere long became its 



acting colonel ; served in the Vicksburg campaign 
under Grant, and then, on that general's advice, 
accepted the command of the Fourth U. S. Negro 
Cavalry ; was for two years aide-de-camp to General 
Banks; brevet brigadier-general in March, 1865; 
resigned from the service three months later, and 
made his residence in New York City, where he 
occupied himself chiefly in literary work, and in 
gathering his fine library, until the end of his life. 
Of the score of books written or edited by him, the 
more important are his biographies of Grant and 
Fitz-Greene Halleck, his "Lives of the Presidents 
of the United States," "Sketches of Illinois Offi- 
cers," "Thackeray in the United States," "Love in 
Letters," "The World's Largest Libraries," "Mr. 
Secretary Pepys and his Diary," "Bryant and his 
Friends," "Sketches of Illustrious Soldiers," "Com- 
modore Isaac Hull and the Frigate Constitution," 
"Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography," 
the " Great Commanders " series, Halleck's " Poems," 
" Poets and Poetry of Scotland," " Memorial History 
of the City of New York," and the "Centennial His- 
tory of the Diocese of New York." Academic honors 
and society memberships and officerships were con- 
ferred upon him in abundance. He had a wide 
acquaintance with noted men of letters and other 
celebrities, and had known with some degree of in- 
timacy every president from Lincoln to the present 
occupant of the White House. His books have had 
a considerable circulation. 

* 

A MISSIONARY TO THE BOOKLESS in one of the 
sparsely-settled counties of southeastern Maryland is 
doing a work that merits attention. In the current 
Report of the Maryland Public Library Commission 
we note, under " East Berlin," which is in Worcester 
County : "Here we have a county library on a small 
scale, with nine stations throughout the country-side. 
The Friendly Library was established in October, 
1908, by Miss Rozelle P. Handy, who lives about 
five miles from Berlin. Through the generosity of 
her friends, she gathered together 500 volumes. The 
library now numbers 1600 volumes. She placed type- 
written lists at the stores in the neighborhood, with 
the request that the people make out a list of books 
wanted. The books are kept at Miss Handy 's home 
in a book- case built in a sheltered corner of the porch. 
Applications for books are made through the stores. 
Miss Handy carries the books to and from the stores, 
and only in the case of invalids or people too old to 
go to the store does she deliver the books to the 
homes. There are no fines and fees, and she does 
not insist that books come back on time ( three weeks 
being the limit), but the books away come in on 
demand. Miss Handy keeps a record, showing just 
what books each person has read and what persons 
have read each book. As the books are usually read 
by each member of the family, a book is not sent to 
a family a second time unless the younger children 
have grown up and demand it. ... All her finan- 
cial help and gifts come from the outside. She is 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



fortunate in having many friends interested in the 
library, and is constantly receiving gifts." A record 
for the past year of 2800 circulation (400 non-fiction) 
among 368 borrowers, is not bad, especially as the 
total number of readings of all the books sent out far 
exceeds the circulation figure. Here is a chance for 
those burdened with a superfluity of books or money, 
or both, to aid in a good work. 



A NEW HONOR FOK PROFESSOR JOHN BACH 

McMASTER was conferred in his election, on Feb- 
ruary 7, to the presidency of the Franklin Inn 
Club, of Philadelphia, in succession to the late Dr. 
S. Weir Mitchell. Of this club of authors, artists, 
and publishers, Dr. Mitchell had been president for 
fourteen years. Its membership roll has included 
such famous Philadelphians as Horace Howard 
Furness, the Shakespearean scholar; Dr. Henry 
Charles Lea, the historian; Mr. Owen Wister, the 
novelist; Professor Schelling, the authority on 
Elizabethan poetry; Professor Cheney, whose his- 
tory of the Elizabethan period has just been pub- 
lished; Professor Lamed, who has elucidated the 
German influence in America; Dr. Keen, the cele- 
brated surgeon, who as a young man was associated 
with Dr. Mitchell in the Civil War hospitals of 
Philadelphia ; Dr. Gummere, of Haverf ord College ; 
Ex- Provost Harrison and Provost Smith of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania; Mr. John Luther Long, 
the novelist; Mr. Francis Rawle, chairman of the 
committee of the American Bar Association ; Major- 
General James Harrison Wilson, the most distin- 
guished surviving corps commander of the Union 
armies; and Mr. F. Hopkinson Smith, artist and 
writer. The Franklin Inn Club is to be congratu- 
lated upon the maintenance of its long-established 
traditions ensured by Dr. McMaster's election to 
the presidency. To its quaint Philadelphia home, 
where is preserved an early colonial atmosphere, 
there are brought almost daily scholars, authors, men 
of distinction in various fields, from all parts of this 
country, from England, Germany, South Africa, the 
ends of the earth; and these fortunate guests are 
likely to find no diminishment in the charm of sur- 
roundings under the new administration. 



BITS OF BIBLIOTHECAL NEWS, in this preemi- 
nently bibliothecal age and country, are every day 
or two claiming our interested attention. For 
example, the Kansas City Public Library has re- 
cently received from an unnamed benefactor the 
gift of five hundred music-rolls for circulation among 
card- holders who may wish to borrow them, under 
the rules governing the lending of books, and to 
enjoy the tuneful effect of their operation on the 
mechanical player-piano with which every third or 
fourth home is now equipped. No rag-time pieces 
are included in these rolls, and none will be ad- 
mitted to the library or so the librarian is said to 
have announced. In addition to its other activities 
in educational uplift, who knows but that the library 



is ere long to become a powerful agency for the 
elevating and refining of our musical taste? To the 
already established heads of departments in public 
libraries shall we not presently see added a custo- 
dian of music-rolls, equipped with the special 
knowledge required for the discharge of his impor- 
tant duties, and energetic in promoting the cause 
of good music in his community ? Another pleas- 
ing item of news under this general head bring* 
with it the promise of greatly improved facilities 
for the circulation of library books among patrons 
at a distance from the library. Congressman Gillett 
of Massachusetts has introduced a bill for the grant- 
ing of a special mail rate of one cent a pound on 
library books to apply to public libraries, school 
libraries supported by taxation, and, under certain 

conditions, social, industrial, and trade libraries. 



MRS. GASKELL'S MANCHESTER HOME, the house 
at 84 Plymouth Grove where she did her best literary 
work and received so many of her literary friends,, 
including Thackeray, Dickens, and her whose life 
she was to chronicle in one of the world's most 
memorable biographies, has very recently become 
vacant through the death of Miss Margaret Gaskell r 
who with her sister, also deceased, had occupied the 
house from the time of their mother's death in 1865. 
Naturally enough, the admirers of Mrs. Gaskell are 
earnest in advocating the preservation of the house 
as a Gaskell Museum, a repository for such articles 
of furniture, works of art, books, manuscripts, and 
other memorials, as are associated with the author 
of " Cranford " and her friends. It has been pro- 
posed that the city of Manchester buy the property 
and turn to profitable use a part of the vacant land 
adjoining the house. A shilling admission fee, too, 
would go far toward making the museum self- 
supporting. But it appears from reports that the 
city fathers estimate the probable cost of maintenance 
as prohibitive of the undertaking. Surely, now that 
the Johnson house in Fleet Street has been rescued 
and restored by the public spirit and large generosity 
of one man, Mr. Cecil B. Harmsworth, the prosper- 
ous city of Manchester ought not to pull its purse- 
strings quite so tight when so worthy a cause is in 
question. 

BAITING THE HOOK TO CATCH THE READER is a. 
trick that not only publishers and authors and head- 
line-writers find it necessary to learn, but librarians- 
also are giving more and more attention to this 
detail of their profession. In a recent issue of 
"The Outlook" Miss Sarah Comstock writes about 
"Byways of Library Work," describing some of the 
devices used to whet the rural appetite for such 
literary wares as are offered by the county book- 
wagon and through other agencies of library exten- 
ion. "I'm going to the library," breathlessly 
xplained a storm-buffeted lad on his way over the 
western prairie to the nearest source of supply for 
iis book- hunger; "she [the librarian] came an' tol* 
me all about ' Tom Sawyer ' herself, an' I 'm going 



136 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 16 



to have it. I ain't froze but one ear yet, an' I ain't 
got but one more to freeze, an', anyhow, I 'm goin' 
to have that book." Among other kindred items, 
the missionary activity of the Brumback Library 
of Van Wert County, Ohio, is described by Miss 
Comstock with especial reference to the " traps " it 
lays for its readers. This notable library and the 
great work it is doing are soon to be brought to 
public notice, more fully than heretofore, in a book 
now in preparation at the hands of the daughter 
and the son-in-law of the far-sighted and public- 
spirited founder of the library. 

EIGHT WAYS OF REVIEWING A BOOK, as enumer- 
ated by Sir W. Robertson Nicoll, are these: first, the 
ostentatious essay, in which, after two and seven- 
eighths of the three columns allowed the reviewer 
have been filled, with more or less irrelevant erudi- 
tion, he seems suddenly to become aware of the book 
assigned him for notice, and ends his task with a 
complimentary sentence in which the convenient 
phrase "on the whole" is pretty certain to occur; 
second, the hypercritical review, the review of the 
expert intent on detecting errors, often of the 
minutest sort; third, the man-of-all-work's review, 
or the short notice written by the hack of real or 
supposed encyclopaedic learning who can turn out a 
presentable article on any book or any subject under 
the sun; fourth, the puff, which is familiar to us 
all; fifth, the malignant review, which happily is 
less familiar ; sixth, the honestly enthusiastic review, 
which is a joy to the publisher and a fountain of 
life to the author ; seventh, the right kind of review, 
which is the candid and careful criticism of a com- 
petent judge; eighth and last, the personal review, 
by which is meant "the review that blends gossip 
with criticism," and that is more likely to please the 
general reader than any other mode of review yet 
discovered. 



COMMUNICA TIONS. 



A DIFFICULTY IN TRANSLATION. 
(To the -Editor of THB DIAL.) 

It is interesting to notice instances in which the 
arly English distinction between the singular and plural 
forms of the second person pronoun is still observed in 
modern English. Naturally enough, we address God 
as thou and thee because you would seem familiar and 
disrespectful. The distinction, however, between the 
formal or respectful you and the affectionate, friendly, 
superior, or contemptuous thou and thee has been prac- 
tically done away with in modern English. Scholars, 
of course, are thoroughly acquainted with the frequency 
and expressiveness of this distinction in Shakespeare, 
and even high-school students are able to differentiate 
clearly the French tu and vous and the German du and 
Sie. 

But everyone is puzzled when an English equivalent 
of du or tu is to be given in translation. How can one 
retain the expressiveness of the original if one can 



translate only by you f How is one to show in English 
the affectionate familiarity of two friends who, after 
they have drunk Briiderschaft, address each other as du 
instead of Sie ? Often the use of the familiar thou con- 
trasted with the formal you is inevitable in translation. 
In Hugo's "Laughing Man" we must translate: "For 
Barkilphedro to be ' thee'd ' and ' thou'd ' was a suc- 
cess; he had aspired to this contemptuous familiarity." 
It would be well to show that while Lady Josiana 
addresses Barkilphedro as thou, he always addresses 
her, as is due her rank, as you. In " Ninety-Three," 
too, Cimourdain discovers that his dearest friend, 
Gawain, has played the traitor. " Accused," said he, 
" you will stand up." As Hugo remarks, it is signifi- 
cant that " he no longer said ' thee ' and ' thou ' to 
Gawain." Such a distinction in the use of the pronoun, 
filling as it does a real need, should not be altogether 
lost: it should at least be preserved in elevated English 
poetry and prose. HYDER E. ROLLINS. 

The University of Texas, Feb. 4, 1914. 



WALT WHITMAN AND LINCOLN'S 

ASSASSINATION. 
(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

On page 589 of Francis Fisher Browne's " Every-day 
Life of Lincoln," occurs this statement : 

"Scarcely had the horror-stricken audience witnessed 
the leap and flight of the assassin when a woman's shriek 
pierced through the theatre, recalling all eyes to the Presi- 
dent's box. The scene that ensued is described with singular 
vividness by the poet Walt Whitman, who was present." 
Now I would ask you to turn to the following state- 
ment in " Specimen Days," in the collected edition of 
Whitman's works published by Putnam (1902) under 
the supervision of the literary executors of the poet, 
Vol. I., page 37: 

" Of all the days of the war, there are two especially I 
can never forget. Those were the day following the news, 
in New York and Brooklyn, of the first Bull Run defeat, and 
the day of Abraham Lincoln's death. I was home in Brooklyn 
on both occasions." 

Perhaps some reader of THE DIAL can explain this 
discrepancy. I have enjoyed the " Every-day Life of 
Lincoln " so much that I want to have everything veri- 
fied. In fact, I once claimed that Walt Whitman had 
been present at Lincoln's assassination on the strength 
of this reference, and it was therefore a surprise to run 
across the note in " Specimen Days." 

HAROLD HERSEY. 
Washington, D. C., Feb. 7, 1914. 



"WORTH WHILE." 
(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

Will you kindly enlighten us of the far West as to 
the popularity of the phrase " worth while " ? In the 
midst of impassioned sermons we learn that life and 
religion are worth while; librarians ask patrons to name 
books that are worth while; magazines want contrib- 
utions that are worth while ; professors of literature lec- 
ture on authors that are worth while. Education is 
worth while; marriage, feminism, and socialism are 
worth while. So are big business deals, and great 
engineering projects, and efficiency. Truly all these are 
worthy, good, advantageous, or otherwise ; but why are 
they all " worth while "? WM. CHESLETT, JR. 

Stanford University, Cal, Feb. 5, 1914. 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



137 



tooks. 



NATURAL, HISTORY EAST AND WEST.* 



About thirty-five years ago a collector of 
plants ascended the Yangtze River to the bor- 
ders of western China. Finding the natives 
hostile, he was obliged to return ; but before 
doing so, he spent a few days examining, as 
well as he could, the native flora. In the course 
of this work he came across a new and beautiful 
species of Primula, which he knew would be 
very desirable for cultivation. As it was im- 
possible to get the living plants home, and no 
ripe seed-capsules were found, he hit upon the 
expedient of carrying away a sack of earth 
from the place where the plants were found, 
hoping that the seeds it probably contained 
would germinate. This plan was perfectly suc- 
cessful; and in this manner the Primula 
obconica, one of our commonest and most ad- 
mired greenhouse plants of to-day, was secured 
for horticulture. 

Previous to this time many Chinese plants 
had been brought to Europe for cultivation, 
some from China direct, others from Japanese 
gardens. These, however, were nearly all cul- 
tivated plants, merely transferred from the 
gardens of the Orient to those of the Occident. 
It was not known, thirty years ago, that west- 
ern China was full of the most remarkable and 
beautiful wild trees, shrubs, and herbs, hun- 
dreds of them well adapted to the gardens of 
Europe and America. During the last quarter 
of a century these wonders have gradually been 
revealed by a few indefatigable and phenom- 
enally successful collectors, among whom, when 
all the material has been examined, E. H. 
Wilson will probably be found to take the first 
rank. Statistics convey a poor idea of the work 
done ; but it is worth noting that in the course 
of nearly eleven years Wilson collected about 
65,000 specimens, representing about 5,000 
different species, and sent home seeds of over 
1,500 different plants. We do not know how 
many of the species were new to science, but 
they were exceedingly numerous: thus it is 
stated that there were forty new species of 
cherries alone. Very many of the plants have 
proved valuable additions to our gardens in 
their original form ; others will be used in 

* A NATURALIST IN WESTERN CHINA. By Ernest Henry 
Wilson. With an Introduction by Charles Sprague Sargent. 
In two volumes. Illustrated. New York : Doubleday, Page 
&Co. 

To THE RIVER PLATE AND BACK. By W. J. Holland. 
Illustrated. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 



crosses, to produce improved strains of fruita 
and flowers. The results of this work will rap- 
idly become available all over the country, and 
eventually nearly everyone will, usually with- 
out knowing it, be indebted in some way or 
other to E. H. Wilson. The work of explo- 
ration and collecting was arduous and time- 
consuming, but it was thoroughly enjoyed at 
the time and its results ought to yield as much 
satisfaction as need fall to the lot of mortal man. 

In his well written and beautifully illustrated 
book Mr. Wilson tells the story of his work 
and gives a general discussion of the people and 
products of western China. We are astonished 
first at the author's knowledge of the flora; 
then at his keen observations on the sociology > 
politics, agriculture, zoology, and many other 
matters which came before him. The narrative 
is a perfectly straightforward one, apparently 
without undue bias of any kind, but written in 
a sympathetic spirit. Those who care for explo- 
ration and natural history will enjoy it most; 
but it is to be recommended also to those who 
are interested in the character of the Chinese^ 
and the future of China. Many people have 
visited the fringe of that great country, and 
freely communicated their impressions to the 
world ; but here is a man who has gone to and 
fro in the uttermost parts for many years, with 
only native companions ; one, also, who is scien- 
tifically minded, and has no particular reason 
for distorting the facts. 

On one of his journeys, Mr. Wilson entrusted 
a box of money to a recently engaged coolie,, 
who presently complained of feeling sick and 
was discharged. It was discovered next day 
that the man had decamped with about half the 
money. At about the same time an official, on 
being asked to furnish the customary escort, 
sent back a discourteous reply, refusing to- 
grant the request. The reader will think at 
once : " Of course, what else is to be expected 
in China?" He will then be astonished to read 
that both experiences were unique; that in 
eleven years no other serious theft of the au- 
thor's property occurred, and no other official 
was anything but polite! Could a Chinese r 
travelling in the United States, tell a similar 
story? On the borders of Thibet there are 
gangs of robbers, but Mr. Wilson was not 
molested by them. A friend of the author's, 
who has spent many years among the Thibetans,, 
has contributed a long and very interesting note 
on polyandry, showing how the custom haa 
grown out of the mode of life of those people. 
Under the circumstances, it has its advantages, 



138 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 16 



for " it must often happen that one or two hus- 
bands are away tending flocks, worshipping at 
holy mountains, or robbing travellers." It also 
has the effect of keeping down the population 
in a country which would not support increased 
numbers. 

A few paragraphs from Mr. Wilson's conclud- 
ing chapter will give some idea of his views : 

" A keynote to the Chinese character is pride. They 
are an intensely proud people, and it must be confessed 
that their pride is justified. . . . They have also grave 
national faults, and this pride and its concomitant con- 
servatism is largely the cause of their present position. 
... I have met in China hundreds of students intent 
on acquiring Western knowledge, but scarcely one who 
in any sense realized the immensity of the task before 
him. . . . For generations China went in for competitive 
examinations to supply all official posts, and had, as a 
result, a body of truly incapable officials. ... I do not 
believe in a 'Yellow Peril' in the nature of a possible 
military conquest of the West. It would be necessary 
to fundamentally alter the Chinese character in order 
to make it militantly aggressive. But in their virility and 
industry they are unconquerable people, quite the equals 
of the West in these qualities. If they thoroughly 
4 awaken,' what is to prevent them becoming in com- 
merce and industry the great competitors of the white 
race ? . . . My experiences in China, though varied, 
have on the whole been very pleasant. To speak as we 
And and courageously is the only just stand to take. 
With all their peculiarities, conservatism, and faults, the 
Chinese are a great people. Phoenix-like, China has 
arisen time and again from the ashes of decadent dynas- 
ties, and there is every reason to believe she will accom- 
plish this again. Her peace-loving, industrious millions 
can never be utterly smothered or nationally effaced. 
Sooner or later they must come into their own, and side 
by side with the people of the Occident help forward the 
destiny of the world." 

In 1899, wonderfully perfect materials of a 
gigantic fossil reptile were found in Wyoming, 
and secured for the Carnegie Museum at Pitts- 
burgh. The mounted skeleton is over eighty-four 
feet long, with extremely long neck and tail, 
and a comparatively minute head which must 
have contained the smallest brain, in compar- 
ison with the bulk of the animal, of any known 
vertebrate. The species was supposed, perhaps 
erroneously, to be new, and was accordingly 
named Diplodocus carnegiei. A sketch of it 
was sent to Mr. Carnegie in Scotland, and was 
by him shown to King Edward VII., who at once 
asked for a specimen to be placed in the British 
Museum. But there are some things that even 
kings must do without, skeletons of Diplodocus 
being among them. It was, however, possible 
to make a replica, which was given to the British 
Museum, and for most purposes serves as well 
as the original. I have seen both the original 
and the copy, and do not think I could tell them 



apart without very close examination. The great 
success of this undertaking led to models of 
Diplodocus being given, at Mr. Carnegie's ex- 
pense, to other European museums. When one 
was set up in Paris, one of the papers of that 
city came out with the "explanation" that 
Americans, having so often purchased fake 
antiquities in Europe, had resolved to get even 
by one bold stroke! Everywhere the Diplo- 
docus created a great deal of public interest, 
and helped to make palaeontology, in spite of 
its subject-matter, a live science. 

Recently, a Diplodocus replica was given to 
the Argentine Republic, and Dr. Holland, the 
distinguished Director of the Carnegie Museum, 
went to La Plata to superintend its erection. 
This journey to South America is the basis of 
the book now before us. While Dr. Holland 
kept essentially to the beaten path, and has no 
remarkable adventures or discoveries to record, 
he has written a thoroughly interesting and 
entertaining account of what he saw. The nar- 
rative is detailed enough to be vivid, yet not so 
detailed as to be tiresome ; it is based not only 
on the actual experiences of the voyage, but 
also on much reading and thought. Thus the 
author's "first impressions" are not mere naive 
reactions in the presence of the unfamiliar, but 
are added to the results of previous close study. 
Dr. Holland describes his book as "simply the 
record of a pleasant journey," and does not offer 
it as an important contribution to knowledge; 
but it will open the eyes of many travellers to 
interesting features of the South American coun- 
tries, and will especially serve to interest them 
in numerous scientific problems of which they 
would otherwise know nothing. The book is 
beautifully illustrated, not only by reproduc- 
tions from photographs, but also by some very 
delicate and beautiful colored plates, made from 
water-color drawings by the author. 

T. D. A. COCKERELL. 



ITALY'S FOREMOST COMIC DRAMATIST.* 



With his volume on Goldoni, Mr. H. C. 
Chatfield-Taylor has added a companion work 
to his "Moliere: A Biography," which ap- 
peared in 1906. It is unhappily so rare in our 
country to find combined in an amateur both 
the leisure and the scholarship requisite for the 
successful cultivation of belles-lettres, that the 
appearance of this volume is an event of consid- 



* GOLDONI. A Biography. By H. C. Chatfield-Taylor, 
Litt.D. Illustrated. New York : Duffield & Co. 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



139 



erable interest. We should burn a fine candle 
to the Italian gentleman who, we are told, sug- 
gested that Mr. Chatfield-Taylor undertake the 
work. The subject is a fascinating one, and it 
fell into hands which were well fitted to treat 
it after completing the excellent monograph on 
Moli^re. It may be hoped that the author of 
these two works has definitely forsworn the 
society novel, and that he will henceforth follow 
the line of studies in which he has been of late 
engaged. 

Strange to say, there has been no adequate 
treatment of Goldoni in English : there was a 
clear field. It is regrettable that foreign stu- 
dents of Italian literature have confined them- 
selves so straitly to the trecento and the Renais- 
sance. The eighteenth century in Italy was, to 
be sure, an age of immorality and of low social 
standards. But so it was in the rest of Europe. 
Yet, whereas English, German, and French 
writers of that century have been scraped to 
the bone for a morsel of flesh, the eighteenth 
century literature of Italy and of Spain has 
been scarcely touched. Periods of moral laxity 
and of political corruption are, however, often 
of great social interest, and of no century is this 
more true than of the wicked and corrupt but 
gay and witty century which, despite the utter- 
ances of philosophers and scientists, fiddled and 
danced on its way to the French Revolution. 

The adventures of Goldoni (born 1707) before 
he "found himself" and became the purveyor 
of plays for the two Venetian theatres of Sant' 
Angelo and San Luca are a perfect reflection 
of the state of Italy during the first half of the 
eighteenth century. To match his romantic 
adventures one must turn to the fictions of 
Agustin de Rojas in his Spanish novel of El 
Viaje entretenido (1603), to Scarron's French 
Roman comique (1651), or to Theophile 
Gautier's better known Capitaine Fracasse 
(1861). The source for our knowledge of these 
" Wanderjahre" of the future master of Italian 
comedy is the Memoires written in French at 
Paris toward the close of his long life. Upon 
these Memoires, covering one of the most 
checkered dramatic careers of which we have 
record, Mr. Chatfield-Taylor has necessarily 
drawn heavily. His excerpts will have the 
effect of sending many of his readers to make a 
first-hand acquaintance with the personal recol- 
lections of the amiable and benevolent "Papa 
Goldoni." 

We venture to emphasize as most informing 
the chapters in which the author has set forth 
the general social and literary conditions in 



Venice, the campaign of Goldoni in favor of the 
written comedy, the relations of Goldoni with 
French and English men of letters, the essential 
inferiority of the Italian to Moliere, and the 
last years of Goldoni's long life at Versailles 
and at Paris until his death in 1793 at the age 
of eighty-six. There is perhaps no clearer ex- 
position of the subject to be found in English 
than the chapter on " The Improvised Comedy " 
of Italy, not even Dr. Winifred Smith's more 
detailed Columbia University thesis on "The 
Commedia dell' arte," to which our author 
acknowledges his indebtedness. 

A mere handful of Goldoni's three hundred 
plays are known to some of our university stu- 
dents and to a few curious theatre-goers. No 
one who has seen Signore Novelli in his Italian 
version of Le Bourru bienfaisant, first played 
at the Comedie Fransaise on November 4, 1771, 
will soon forget the comedy or its interpreter. 
But we question whether in a book of this kind, 
intended for the general reader, it was expedient 
to analyze so many of Goldoni's plays as Mr. 
Chatfield-Taylor has done. The middle of the 
volume is a trifle heavy, and one has the unwel- 
come conviction that each plot is driving its 
predecessor from the mind, as one comedy of 
intrigue after another is passed in review. The 
plots of the comedies are abundantly illustrated 
by the translation of scenes which must have 
cost the translator no little pains. Of these, 
the poetical renderings are more pleasing than 
the prose, because it is even less possible in the 
latter case to reproduce the elusive dialogue of 
the Italian ; whereas the poetry even in English 
has a dignity and formality of its own which 
does not court comparison with the original. 

Goldoni has been so generally referred to as 
the "Molie-re of Italy" that Mr. Chatfield- 
Taylor has done well to limit the implied parallel 
between these two great modern creators of 
wholesome mirth. The Frenchman and the 
Italian each developed his consummate mastery 
of character-drawing and of dramatic technique 
from the improvised comedy of Italy. Each was 
a bourgeois with an extensive knowledge of the 
foibles of humanity. Each had grown up in the 
air of the green-room, and each wrote comedies 
to keep the wolf from the door. In outward 
circumstances the careers of the two men were 
strangely similar . Neither was n otably a religious 
man ; but Moliere was a philosopher. There 
are many serious passages in Goldoni's comedies 
in which he preaches to his generation ; but they 
hardly hit the eternal truth as does Moliere in 
his portentous portraits of the hypocrite, the 



140 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 16 



misanthrope, the miser, the rake, and the social 
climber. One might prefer to have the sunny 
and optimistic Goldoni for a friend with whom 
to chat and drink coffee in the Piazza in Venice, 
while he laughed over his adventures with act- 
resses, with naughty grand dames and their 
" cicisbeos "; but one would prefer to read 
Molire, to study humanity through his observ- 
ing eyes, and to recognize in this great, sad, 
lovable man the same jarring note of tragedy 
and comedy which makes the whole world his 
kin. Goldoni is comparatively shallow, while 
Molire is incomparably profound ; Goldoni is 
an Italian, and more specifically a Venetian, of 
the eighteenth century, while Molidre is universal 
because he deals with eternal types of human 
folly. 

The general reader, for whom the body of 
the book is intended, will be especially inter- 
ested, moreover, in the literary friendship of 
Goldoni and Voltaire, in the influence of Rich- 
ardson upon the Italian playwright, and in the 
experiences of the exiled dramatist as Italian 
tutor in the family of Louis XV. But there 
are a number of hors d'oeuvres contained in 
the massive volume: the appetite is whetted 
by the admirable reproductions of paintings by 
Pietro Longhi, illustrative of Italian life in the 
eighteenth century, which lend precious assist- 
ance to an understanding of Goldoni 's comedies; 
the author's footnotes lead the way to French 
and Italian authorities for the history of the 
Italian drama ; and, most valuable to the scholar, 
there are three Appendices and an Index, rep- 
resenting the painstaking work of Professor 
F. C. L. van Steenderen of Lake Forest Col- 
lege. Appendix A, containing a chronological 
catalogue raisojine of Goldoui's works with 
reference to the source and the first performance 
of each play or opera, is an invaluable com- 
pendium of information for the student of com- 
parative literature. A biographical chronology 
and a bibliography of editions of Goldoni fur- 
ther enhance the value of the volume, and thus 
place a mass of scattered details at the conven- 
ient disposal of the student. 

Mr. Chatfield-Taylor's style is easy and 
agreeable to read. Like Mme. de Sevigne in 
one respect, he lets his pen trot " la bride sur 
le eou," thereby offering a striking contrast to 
most academic writers who feel that space limi- 
tations require succinctness of statement. There 
is one sentence, on page 510, that savors of Gol- 
doni's countryman, the cavaliere Marino. As 
an example of preciosite it jars on the natural 
style of the book, and may be quoted a titre 



de curiosite: "Goldoni, too, is open to the 
charge of having presented in The House 
Party a triangle of domestic infelicity similar 
in outline to the conventional framework of the 
plays of modern Europe ; yet he has so tem- 
pered his situations that the apical angle de- 
scribing his story of marital incompatability, 
being neither viciously obtuse nor insinuatingly 
acute, may justly be termed right." How this 
curious concetto escaped the pen of an experi- 
enced writer is cause for wonder. 

The following slight inaccuracies have been 
noted, and should be corrected in a second 
edition : on page 474 it is incorrect to include 
Mme. Champmesle in the troupe of the Comedie 
Francaise at the time of Goldoni's arrival in 
Paris in 1762, as she had died in 1698 ; on page 
547 (note) the Spanish play El Burlador de 
Sevilla should be assigned to 1630, when the 
first edition was published at Barcelona (cf. 
Fitz-Maurice Kelly). 

The publishers have cooperated generously in 
giving this important text a carefully constructed 
and handsome frame. It is cause for gratification 
that in this case an American has forestalled 
English scholarship in producing a biography 
of the foremost Italian comic author which should 
find a place in every library. 

W. W. COMFORT. 



IDEALISTIC FORCES IN AMERICAN 
HISTORY.* 



" There is to-day," says Professor Adams, " a 
very decided tendency to seek purely material 
reasons for historical development, and espe- 
cially so, apparently, in American history." 
This tendency is unfortunate, he thinks ; for 
there are in history " other influences of an in- 
tellectual, it may be a spiritual, character." 
The invitation to deliver a series of lectures at 
Yale, on the " Dodge Foundation for Citizen- 
ship," he has therefore made the occasion for 
recalling " a few of the great ideals that have 
animated our national conduct and moulded our 
destiny." The ideals selected for this purpose 
are indicated by the titles of the lectures, 
Nationality, Anti-slavery, Manifest Destiny, 
Religion, Democracy. Professor Adams at- 
tempts " neither explanation nor analysis of 
these ideals, but rather ... to show by straight- 
forward historical review and by familiar quota- 

* THE POWER OF IDEALS IN AMERICAN HISTORY. By 
Ephraim Douglass Adams. New Haven : Yale University 
Press. 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



141 



tions from leading Americans of the time, the 
force that was in them." 

This, clearly, should prove no hazardous 
undertaking to maintain that men do not act 
solely from material motives, to show that an 
emotion, or a sentiment, or a faith, has often 
had a powerful influence upon the course of 
events. On first thought, one is disposed to 
question the necessity of demonstrating so ob- 
vious a truth. We all know, do we not, that 
our friends are every day acting from other than 
material motives, from a sense of honor, from 
friendship, or at the call of duty. Certainly we 
know this. And it is a commonplace that men 
in the mass, even more than individuals, are 
likely to be moved by passion or sentiment to 
noble or despicable action. If anything is 
known, it is known that the motives which in- 
spire human conduct are many, and capable of 
a great variety of combination, so that the pres- 
sure of any particular motive, or of any combina- 
tion of motives, is never quite the same in any 
two situations. 

Undoubtedly it is this variety in the circum- 
stance and motive of action that gives the study 
of history its high value. A famous professor 
of economics, in examining a candidate for the 
doctor's degree on one occasion, began with the 
following question : " Suppose a man and a dog 
with two biscuits, cast away at sea in a small 
boat; what would the man do?'' I dare say 
the fascination of a certain kind of Political 
Economy arises from the fact that you can say 
straight off precisely what the man would do. 
But if such questions have any meaning, then 
life has none, and history has none. You have 
to know the man and the dog and the biscuits, 
the kind of boat, on what sea it was, and the 
season of the year. Put St. Augustine in the 
boat, and I should say that he would give both 
biscuits to the dog, at least if it were the dog 
which we know of in the story. But if it hap- 
pened to be Bill Sykes in the boat, I should 
say that he would certainly eat both biscuits 
himself and afterwards, perhaps, the dog 
also. History will readily furnish us both these 
extremes, and between them a great variety of 
possible courses. But if this variety makes his- 
tory interesting, it also makes it difficult 
extremely so; so difficult that it is impossible 
to enter into it in any intimate way, much less 
to describe it, without selecting, out of the 
countless number of actual situations, certain 
situations of a special kind, and emphasizing, 
in order to understand these situations, the pur- 
poses or motives which seem to be most import- 



ant. This selection and emphasis constitute 
an interpretation. Obviously, in this sense, 
there are many possible kinds of interpreta- 
tion. Each will be more or less useful accord- 
ing to the knowledge, the insight, and the 
sympathy of the mind that makes it ; but none 
can ever sum up the whole of history, or be the 
only useful way of regarding it. 

By all means, therefore, let us look at the 
past from as many angles as possible, each stu- 
dent regarding that.aspect of it which interests 
him, and representing it in the best way he can. 
Unfortunately, we are all disposed to exaggerate 
the importance of what interests us ; and some 
men are temperamentally unable to rest easy 
until they have cleaned up the cosmos and 
stored away everything in the snug compart- 
ments of some general principle, without any 
fragments left lying around to stumble over; 
hence the neat formula which professes to 
explain quite simply what seems at first sight 
so inexplicably complex. From the Ionian 
Mythographers to the days of Taine and Lam- 
precht, the student of historical literature 
encounters the debris of such formulae. But 
the attempt to pack the human spirit in some 
or other odd shaped syllogistic hand-bag never 
does any harm because it is never successful. 
The bag bursts, or the fashions change, and the 
human spirit goes on its way, as resilient as 
ever, whether rejoicing or not. Of these recep- 
tacles, the latest is the well-braced provender- 
crib known as the "Economic Interpreta- 
tion of History." The latest, do I say? No, 
not the very latest ; for it is already half passe, 
of which fact Professor Adams's book is, in its 
way, an interesting confirmation. 

Of course any thoroughgoing materialist who 
knows his business would say that Professor 
Adams has gone about to upset a man of 
straw, very neatly, no doubt. Only a most 
superficial materialist, he would say, ever sup- 
posed that the immediate springs of conduct are 
always material interests. Emotion, sentiment, 
ideals, these often move men, sure enough, 
to irrational action. But what makes ideals? 
Democracy is a force, I admit it ; but how do 
you explain the existence of the ideal of democ- 
racy, and why does it prevail one time rather 
than another? Are ideals ultimate and persist- 
ent forces, or are they but the natural instincts 
of the human animal psychologically trans- 
formed into more subtle instruments to be 
employed in the service of those instincts? 
Psychology tells us that emotion is but the in- 
stinct for action delayed or thwarted. Well, 



142 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 16 



the Puritan ideal, for example, was a powerful 
force, certainly ; but you will find the origin of 
it in an economic and social organization which 
for two or three centuries isolated the bourgeois 
and thwarted his pursuit of wealth and power. 
And what is the idea of democracy but an 
effective moral and intellectual weapon forged 
for the use of the average man in his contest 
for the spoils of the world? Historians, so I 
suppose our materialist to say, who are satisfied 
with conscious motive as an explanation of action 
in history are only one degree less superficial 
than those who are content to narrate action 
without explanation. We must be more pro- 
found than that. We must refer action to 
motive, and motive to the elemental and persist- 
ent forces which give rise to it. 

This is to place the discussion of historical 
interpretation on another level altogether. On 
this level, the materialist can indeed be encoun- 
tered with good prospect of victory, but he 
cannot be routed so easily. Professor Adams 
does not meet him on this level; nor does he 
profess to have done so. He has made his attack 
upon the cruder and more superficial forms of 
materialistic interpretation. This was well worth 
doing, and it has been done effectively. 

CARL BECKER. 



CHINA'S "GRAND Ot,D MAN."* 



Opportunity for a most interesting study of 
personality as developed under Oriental condi- 
tions of the past century is afforded in the re- 
cently published " Memoirs of Li Hung Chang." 
An alien and exotic quality in the book renders 
it peculiarly acceptable to an Occidental reader, 
and its seemingly frank and intimate revelation 
of the inner life of a great and typical Chinaman 
gives it more than ordinary value at this time, 
when mutual understanding between East and 
West is of importance for the interests of the 
immediate future. Needless to say, the memoirs 
furnish authentic information in regard to many 
matters of great import in Chinese history of the 
latter half of the past century. 

Li Hung Chang would have been a remark- 
able person in any part of the world. His career 
indicates intellectual gifts and force of will such 
as would have placed him in a leading position 
had he been born a European instead of an 
Asiatic. Indeed, so high an authority as former 
Secretary of State John R. Foster calls him 

* MEMOIRS OF Li HUNG CHANG. Edited by William 
Francis Mannix. With an Introduction by Hon. John W. 
Foster. Boston : Houghton Mifflin Co. 



" not only the greatest man whom the Chinese 
race has produced in modern times, but, in a 
combination of qualities, the most unique per- 
sonality of the past century among all the nations 
of the world." He was notable as man of letters, 
soldier, diplomat, and statesman ; and in all these 
scarcely related fields his greatness was due to 
a certain brilliance of mind and activity and per- 
sistence of will. His steady rise from his first 
subordinate position in a district office until as 
an old man he held the fate of China, at several 
momentous crises, in his hands alone, this 
uninterrupted career in the achievement of his 
youthful ambition seems to have been the inev- 
itable result of abilities rather than the effect of 
family or monetary influence. 

Moreover, the personality of the great China- 
man is not only impressive, but also attractive 
and at times fascinating. The astonishing 
shrewdness of the man, a businesslike and yet 
almost preternatural keenness in estimating men 
and turning them to his own purposes, this 
quintessence of worldly wisdom, blended with 
ready and full appreciation of the abilities and 
services of other men, and with apparently com- 
plete loyalty to his country and his rulers, makes 
him the sort of person to whom men of common 
abilities attach themselves. Suavity, intellectual 
keenness, power, and loyalty are the marked 
traits of his character. 

Such one feels Li Hung Chang to have been 
in and of himself. But a sketch of his person- 
ality cannot end there, for he was something in 
addition as an Oriental and a Chinaman of the 
last century. Gulick has shown convincingly 
that national traits supposedly ineradicable may 
be the product of age-long environment, and 
may be subject, under a changing environment, 
to alteration or complete effacement. As we 
contemplate the uglier side of the character of 
Li, we should be the more repelled if we did not 
bear this truth in mind. In him century-long 
environment had produced a person of cruel 
nature and low moral consciousness. Though 
seemingly devoted to the welfare of all his coun- 
trymen, he took pleasure in ordering the head 
taken from the shoulders of a wretch who at- 
tempted his life, and years afterwards referred 
to the incident with a sort of satisfaction. The 
multitudes whom he sent to execution during his 
long career as a magistrate sat very lightly upon 
his conscience. When he captured Nanking 
from the Taiping rebels, he commanded his 
lieutenant-general to pass through the city and 
slay all persons who were in any way associated 
with the use of opium. The officer reported that 



1914] 



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143 



he killed twelve hundred users and retailers of 
the drug. Li commented in his diary: "It is 
good work, and it further commends Ching in 
my sight." When a certain merchant came with 
a complaint that Gordon's army had pillaged 
his property, and begged for protection, Li was 
about to have the fellow put to death, but altered 
his mind and sent him back to Gordon with a 
request written in English, "asking the com- 
mander please to cut the fellow's head off upon 
its presentation. He went away very gleefully." 
When some of the butchers of Chingkiang com- 
plained that the rebels had used up all meat 
cattle of the region, and asked whether some of 
the rebel prisoners might not be killed for food, 
" I told them," writes Li, " to see my captain in 
command over the wretches and tell him it would 
do no harm to replenish the meat supply of the 
city." Yet this cruelty is in strange contrast 
with the appreciation and sympathy which drew 
tears from his eyes as he sat by the death-bed 
of his American lieutenant, Ward. He spent 
the unpaid balance of Ward's salary in erecting 
a shrine to his memory. His cruelty to the 
Nanking qpium- smokers was balanced by his 
sorrow for the curse this drug brought to his 
race. 

Li's conception of woman was low and 
coarse. It is without the least sense of shame 
that he refers to his father's concubines. His 
own mother was one of these secondary wives. 
Writing as an old man of his changed views in 
regard to suicide, he ridicules widows who com- 
mit suicide to show their affection for their 
husbands, saying their real reason is laziness 
or the fear that no other man will support 
them. "In this she does not deceive herself, 
nor does she fool the many thousands who are 
glad to come and witness her death. Let the 
widow marry again and rear up more spirits to 
honor the spirits of those gone before. Of 
course, if she is too lazy to do this, suicide is 
good enough for her." He alludes in one pas- 
sage to a certain secondary wife who had at 
first been very zealous to please him, but who 
soon became quarrelsome, and speaks of his 
dismissing her with a monetary compensation 
as if it were the discharge of a laborer. 

Yet in strong contrast with this attitude 
toward women in general is Li's feeling for his 
own mother. One cannot doubt that his devo- 
tion to her while alive was deep and genuine, 
and that he remembered her with heartfelt 
affection and reverence throughout the many 
years he lived after her. While he was travel- 
ling through Germany, the fourteenth anniver- 



sary of her death occurred, and he secluded 
himself from all callers and spent the day in 
thinking of her and renewing his gratitude to 
her memory. Somewhat similar was his loyalty 
to certain friends, among whom the chief seems 
to have been General Grant. At the tomb of 
Grant he performed religious rites and offered 
a prayer to the dead American, and the fervor 
of his notes in the diary preclude the thought 
of a mere theatrical display. 

We have commented only upon striking and 
contrasting elements in Li Hung Chang's per- 
sonality. There is much, besides, of interest 
in these memoirs. Li's style, even in the trans- 
lation, is never uninteresting, and his humor 
adds much to the relish of the book. He was a 
great man born in an environment inhospitable 
to some of the finer fruits of the spirit, yet 
growing to an old age that commands admira- 
tion not unmixed with reverence and even 
affection. Q. D. WANNAMAKER. 



THE SYMBOLISM OF WORDS.* 



" There are manifold problems in literature that are 
insoluble except by the supposition that the mind is at 
times an instrument played upon by the fingers of an 
Unseen Force." 

In these words Mr. Harold Bay ley states in the 
concluding chapter of his remarkable book the 
theme that has played all through the two large 
volumes. Another statement of this theme stands 
at the head of Chapter XV. : 

" Nothing is clearer than the marvelous persistence 
of traditional and immemorial modes of thought, even 
in the face of conquest and subjugation." 

There is no pronounced unity either in the 
individual chapters or in the work as a whole, 
for in reality the range is encyclopaedic. The 
chapter- titles in the first volume, " The Parable 
of the Pilgrim," " The Ways of Ascent," "The 
Millennium," " The Hosts of the Lord," " King 
Solomon," " The Fair Shulamite," " Cinderella," 
" The Star of the Sea," and others, are perhaps 
as good titles as could be chosen ; yet there are 
many curious things in each chapter with only 
a very slight thread of connection, or none at 
all. And from the larger point of view, though 
there is the unity of a continued gnostic and 
mediaeval mystic interest, many things intrude 
as welcome " brute " facts, and one will do wisely 
to use the index as the key to an encyclopaedia. 

*THE LOST LANGUAGE OF SYMBOLISM. An Inquiry 
into the Origin of Certain Letters, Words, Names, Fairy- 
Tales, Folklore, and Mythologies. By Harold Bayley. In 
two volumes. Illustrated. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. 



144 



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[Feb. 16 



Otherwise the reader will lay himself open to a 
bad fit of mental indigestion, and, taken at a 
meal, the work is too much like a Hungarian 
wedding feast, which lasts from Friday sun-down 
until Monday morning, and excludes nothing 
worth mentioning. 

First, there is a vast amount of evidence to 
show that the early Vaudois paper-makers and 
the later Huguenots introduced into the paper 
they manufactured their heresies in the guise of 
water-marks. This has been the theme of a 
former book by the same author, " A New Light 
on the Renaissance." Hundreds of old cuts scat- 
tered temptingly through the beautifully-printed 
pages give these chapters an added value. 

There is illumination on King Solomon and 
the sometimes too pompous claims of Free 
Masonry ; as well as on the Cinderella stories, 
345 versions of which have been collated. There 
are links showing the vital relations between 
Cinderella and the Virgin Mary, and the Bride 
of the Song of Solomon and the original Mother 
or Mere, the Sea. There are many hints of the" 
heritage of Christianity from Heathendom both 
Eastern and Northern, and many sparkling 
glances at all ancient universal mythologies. 
Under the caption, " The White Horse," there 
is a rich mine of animal symbolism. 

In the Introduction, after noting a few roots 
like ffl (God or Power), Ur (Fire), Joh, Yah 
or lah (the Ever-Existent), the author calls 
attention to a syllable that appears to spring 
from the original human tongue, ak. Karnak, 
Menok, Anok, Akbar, Balak, Hakon, Anahuac, 
Achilles, Heracles, Agag, the Gog and Magog 
in the London Guild Hall, Yak, Oak, to say 
nothing of the ic's and o&'s which are equivalent 
to a&'s since vowels are of such slight conse- 
quence in etymology, this list could be ex- 
tended into an impressive one ; all the words, 
it will be seen, including the common notion 
of greatness. He overlooks Jacob and climax 
(climacks) and probably many more. Meeting 
this Aryan ak is like shaking hands with the 
Stone Age Man in the British Museum. 

Again, the connection between Hu the 
mighty, first of the three chieftains who estab- 
lished the Welsh Colony, and white (Hu+eet), 
horse (Ek + Hu = Equus), Hog (Hu + og), 
and Uag (Hu + ag), all indicatig the inntel- 
lectual principle, will be fascinating if not con- 
vincing to anyone. 

The syllables Is-se, occurring in Ulysses, 
Odysseus, Jesse, Eliseus, Elizabeth, as well 
as in Elysian, Isis, Dionysos, etc., will bear 
witness to a " burning light "; and it is especially 



curious that Issi, Ulysses, and Bissat each 
achieved fame by burning out the light of a 
one-eyed monster. 

That Eros should not only have perpetrated 
in English such a word as erotic, but should 
also be accredited with rose, pear, caress, and 
Jerusalem (Eros-el-em) will make for Christian 
charity to old heathen gods. To find Baba 
originally meaning "parent of parents" recalls 
Samuel Butler's famous definition of a hen: 
"Merely an egg's way of producing another 
egg." Space is not available for more examples. 
Suffice it to say that of the books recently 
issued on the poetry and symbolism in words, 
no other is so charming or on the whole so 
plausible as this. 

Certainly it must be admitted that Mr. 
Bayley's book has the defects of its good quali- 
ties. His theory of unity in language is too 
simple in its present form, and proves entirely 
too much. For instance, far too many words 
"resolve themselves into the mighty ever- 
existent God." It would appear that half the 
vocabulary of the Aryans was composed of 
combinations of Ag (Ak), El, Om, and Pa. 
Words as dissimilar as goal and dragon are 
assigned exactly the same meaning; and, it 
must be added, that meaning is a highly abstract 
one which renders its primitive origin extremely 
doubtful. 

Then, too, the method of comparison is at 
times desultory and fanciful, depending almost 
entirely upon phonetic similarities and very 
little upon historic lines of descent. By jug- 
gling Zend, Sanscrit, Hindu, Peruvian, English, 
French, Welsh, Indian, and Greek, without 
inquiring whether or how it was possible for 
Zend to equate with modern English and with 
no other modern tongues, how or why Aryan 
should stick to Cornish but to no other lan- 
guage, one has a very easy task in establishing 
any special theory. To show what is meant: 
we may admit that the glove was a symbol of 
cordial friendship, and yet have difficulty in 
accepting Mr. Bayley's philological explanation, 
ag + love or great love. He should, for the 
complete satisfaction of the scholar or even the 
half-scholar, show how the English luf reached 
back through the millenniums and confiscated 
that ancient g. Perhaps it did ; we are inclined 
to believe so. Yet the present work demands 
too much faith. And faith, "the substance of 
things hoped for," is anathema to the scientist. 

However, the drift of this censure is simply 
that a mystic is not a scientist. Alpha is not 
Omega ; that is all. Doubtless there are those 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



145 



who will say the author might have been more 
accurate and plodding without impairing the 
value of such a book. But there will be many 
other readers who would not for a world of 
dust clip his wings of fancy and suggestion. It 
is the combination of scholar and poet that 
renders the effect unique. When the pains of 
erudition have failed to track a word to its 
primal lair, the author does not scruple to use 
the divining rod ; and the result often passes 
out of the realm of pedestrian chronicle into 
the demesne of winged literature. 

THOMAS PERCIVAL BEYER. 



THE BIOLOGY OF SEX.* 



The social aspects of sex are just now being 
exploited to an unprecedented degree. Every- 
where such matters as "white slavery," eugenic 
control of marriage, and the education of the 
young in sexual physiology are coming to be 
the reigning subjects not alone of strenuous 
debate, but even of polite conversation. With 
all the agencies of social vociferation the 
pulpit, the stage, the magazines, the daily news- 
paper, the halls of Congress, women's clubs 
throughout the land, and the schoolroom 
vigorously, not to say blatantly, discussing these 
topics, it is certain that unless the rising gen- 
eration of to-day is a deal more stupid than 
were previous generations, the young will be 
more than "educated" about these topics. 
They will be vastly entertained. 

By a curious coincidence there has been a 
notable advance in our knowledge of the bio- 
logical basis and laws of sex during just the 
period of the past half-dozen years, in which 
the wave of popular interest in the discussion 
of human sex affairs has been gaining force. 
There has been absolutely no connection or 
relation between these two things. Almost, if 
not quite, without exception, the biologists who 
have contributed by their investigations to our 
knowledge of sex have been entirely indifferent 
to the social or psychological aspects of the 
matter. On the other hand the reformer neither 
knows nor cares what a sex-chromosome is ! 

"Heredity and Sex" gives a much-needed 
summary and critical digest of the recent liter- 
ature dealing scientifically with the biology of 
sex. The author of the book, Professor T. H. 
Morgan, of Columbia University, has been 
very active in investigations within this field. 



* HEREDITY AND SEX. By Thomas Hunt Morgan, Ph.D. 
Illustrated. New York : Columbia University Press. 



In particular he has contributed, perhaps more 
than anyone else, to the experimental evidence 
showing how sex is determined. His colleague 
at Columbia, Professor E. B. Wilson, has dealt 
with the same problem from the standpoint of 
the structure of the germ cells, with equally 
notable success. Together these two men and 
their students have made clear, in a remarkable 
series of papers, the essential features of the 
mechanism by which it is determined whether 
a particular individual shall be a male or a 
female. 

The determination of sex, what a problem ! 
Innumerable attempts, from Aristotle on, have 
been made to solve it. Quacks have fattened off 
its elusiveness, and kings have been extremely 
vexed (it is said) at the most unaccommodating 
waywardness of the phenomenon. Now it ap- 
pears every day more clear that the determi- 
nation of sex is a perfectly orderly and lawful 
thing. It is, in fact, a matter of inheritance. 
" Femaleness " is inherited, even as are blue eyes, 
or red hair, or long legs. This is a fact which 
has some important consequences. It means, 
for instance, that the sex of the offspring is not 
a thing which can be easily controlled or influ- 
enced by diet on temperature or any other ex- 
ternal agent. Professor Morgan is, indeed, of 
opinion that nothing whatever can influence the 
determination of sex, holding that it is abso- 
lutely predetermined in the structure of the 
germ cells. It is just possible that time will 
show that this position is a little too extreme, 
but for the present it serves excellently to keep 
the issues sharply clarified. 

What is the evidence that sex is an inherited 
character? Briefly this evidence is of two 
sorts, experimental and observational. Experi- 
mentally it has been shown, by cross-breeding 
or hybridizing various animal forms, ranging 
all the way from butterflies to chickens, that in 
many cases an individual is unable to transmit 
certain of its characters to its offspring of the 
same sex as itself. Thus a Barred Plymouth 
Rock hen appears totally incapable of trans- 
mitting her barred color pattern to her daugh- 
ters, though she transmits it to her sons without 
any difficulty. Cases of this sort have been 
called "sex-linked" inheritance. They have as 
yet received no explanation which is so simple 
and adequate as that which follows the assump- 
tion that sex itself is an inherited character. 
Professor Morgan is, as has been said, one of 
the foremost students of these phenomena, and 
a considerable portion of the book is devoted to 
a clear and critical account of the development 



146 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 16 



of our knowledge of sex-linked inheritance. 
The foundation for this discussion is laid in an 
account of Mendelian principles of inheritance 
in general. 

The observational evidence that sex is in- 
herited is found in the cytological studies which 
have discovered and interpreted the so-called 
"sex-chromosome." Stripped of all technical- 
ities, the fact here is that, in a very wide range 
of animals, including man himself, there are 
certain peculiar bodies, called X-chromosomes 
or sex-chromosomes. These bodies appear to be 
composed of, or at least to contain, a particular 
substance, called X-chromatin, which differs 
qualitatively from other similar substances. The 
chief peculiarity of these bodies is their unequal 
distribution in the two sexes. So far as is now 
known, females always contain more of this 
X-chromatin substance than do males. These 
sex-chromosomes provide the necessary mechan- 
ism for the hereditary transmission of sex, which 
has been seen in the sex-linkage cases. 

Several chapters are devoted to the discussion 
of secondary sexual characters, and such related 
topics as castration, gynandromorphism, her- 
maphroditism, etc. Darwin's theory of sexual 
selection is sharply criticized and finally re- 
jected entirely. 

The book is abundantly and well illustrated. 
It was written in the first instance as a series of 
popular lectures (the Jesup Lectures of 1913). 
It measurably approaches the standards for the 
popularization of science set by such men as 
Tyndall, Clifford, and Huxley. A higher rec- 
ommendation of the book to the reader could 
not be given. RAYMOND PEARL. 



BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS. 



Ooldwin Smith For the last dozen v . ears of his lif e 
as reported by the late Goldwin Smith had the ser- 
Mt Bosweil. v j ces Q a secretar y loyally devoted 
to him, ardent in admiration of his genius, attentive 
to his every utterance, and faithful in recording such 
of his daily conversation as seemed most noteworthy. 
Excellently qualified, therefore, was this alert aman- 
uensis to prepare such a volume as the recently- 
issued " Goldwin Smith : His Life and Opinions " 
(Duffield), although it is not strictly a "life" of the 
man, but rather a near view of him in his later years, 
with abundant examples of his vigorous and pene- 
trating manner of thought as expressed in friendly 
chat with his secretary and literary executor, Mr. 
Arnold Haultain. It is as scholar and thinker and 
fearlessly independent (not to say severely caustic) 
critic of public men and public affairs that he is made 
to present himself to the reader. One characteristic 



entry in Mr. Haultain's diary is thus worded : " The 
old Professor was particularly polyantagonistic to- 
day ; he reviled everything and everybody, and 
girded at men and things and theories." More pleas- 
ing are glimpses of him starting on a journey with 
a volume of Homer or Ovid in his pocket for rail- 
way reading; these and other classic authors he read 
easily and repeatedly, in the original, declaring that 
he could read Greek and Latin as readily as English, 
but adding, as a saving clause, " unless I come to a 
snag." His poor opinion of Gladstone's Homeric 
studies was the judgment of one who knew whereof 
he spoke. " His Homeric lucubrations," he asserted, 
"were trash, pure trash. No doubt if Palmerston 
had attempted Homeric lucubrations they would have 
been trash too. But the point is that Palmerston 
didn't." And again, "girding " at Gladstone, whom 
nevertheless he admired for his " powers of acquisi- 
tion and exposition," he says: "What is there of 
Gladstone's that will live ? His speeches have no 
literary merit. I cannot think of a single sentence 
of his that will live. He was too prolix. He had 
spoilt his style by over-much practice in debating 
societies. The prolixity was not noticeable when 
you were listening to the man. His personality and 
the unmistakable generosity of his sentiments had 
a great effect. But literary grace they had not." 
These conversations, extending from 1898 to 1910, 
are excellent reading. Appended are two-score 
pages of " U. S. Notes," brief jottings made by 
Goldwin Smith in his first visit to America in 1864. 
The book, uniform with Mr. Haultain's collection of 
"Goldwin Smith's Correspondence," is suitably illus- 
trated. It leaves the impression of an extremely 
interesting and strongly-marked character, but one 
in whom a certain harshness of judgment, the fruit, 
probably, of early disappointment and embitterment, 
is to be regretted. 

Studies of ^ e late Whitelaw Reid's "American 

a diplomatist and English Studies " (Scribner) in- 
and scholar. elude some two dozen papers bearing 
dates from 1872 to 1912. The greater number are 
occasional addresses delivered in America and En- 
gland during the later years of Mr. Reid's life. 
Those on biographical, literary, and historical sub- 
jects, such as "Abraham Lincoln," "Byron,'' "The 
Rise of the United States," express the views and 
impressions of a widely read man of affairs, sup- 
plemented by facts readily acquired from ordinary 
books of reference. They are thoroughly good of 
their kind ; but they make no pretence to offering 
new theories or new discoveries, and they are more 
valuable to the student of their author than to the 
student of the man or the movements that they dis- 
cuss. The paper on Byron, for example, affords a 
most interesting indication of Mr. Reid's views re- 
garding the morality of literature. In his studies 
of modern social tendencies the author speaks with 
more weight, and such a paper as " Organization in 
American Life" breathes a healthy and conserva- 
tive optimism. In the minds of some Americans the 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



147 



admiration aroused by an essay like the one just 
named will be regretfully modified by the fact that 
Mr. Reid expended so much of his best energies in 
arguing, chiefly from grounds of " opportunity " 
and " interest," for the forcible subjection of the 
Filipinos, and the retention of the islands as a per- 
manent colony. In many ways the most interesting 
of the addresses are the four grouped under the 
heading, '' An Editor's Reflections." These remind 
us, among other things, that while newspapers change 
rapidly, the requirements for an ideal editor are 
always the same. The address at the University of 
the City of New York in 1872 might, with very 
slight changes, be delivered before an incipient 
school of journalism to-day. The predictions made 
before the New York Editorial Association in 1879 
that the great metropolitan journals must reduce 
the amount of advertising because it was bound to 
prove unprofitable, that the daily papers would never 
again be sold as low as two cents, that pictures must 
be abandoned now seem ludicrous, as Mr. Reid 
himself tacitly admitted in the Bromley lectures 
which he delivered at Yale in 1901. 

TomMedwin's As a biographer of Percy Bysshe 
" Shelley " in a Shelley, Thomas Medwin has never 
new edition. been considered quite safe. First in 
the field, with his "Life of Shelley" (1847), every 
subsequent biographer has drawn upon his book for 
material, but each has done so with some sign-post 
of warning to the reader, such as these: "Not to 
be trusted for facts or judgment" (Glutton-Brock) ; 
" carelessly written and untrustworthy " (Ingpen) ; 
"a bad book full of inaccuracies" (Waterlow). 
Hard indeed are the names that have been hurled 
at poor Medwin's head, "perplexing simpleton" 
( Jeaffreson) ; "perfect idiot" (Captain Hay); "gay 
deceiver" (Forman); and Mary Shelley's impatient 
"seccatura," when by Shelley's invitation Medwin 
had joined the charmed circle of poets at Pisa. A 
book so variously used and abused during sixty-six 
years would seem scarcely likely to be honored by 
a new edition. But nevertheless a new edition has 
appeared, with no less distinguished sponsors than 
Mr. H. Buxton Forman as editor and the Oxford 
University Press as publisher. The text embodies 
the hitherto unpublished emendations, alterations, 
and extensions made in Medwin's own hand on the 
pages of his personal copy of the original work; 
showing that for twenty-two years his zeal and inter- 
est never flagged, however his memory may have 
failed. No wonder Mr. Buxton Forman concludes 
that "as it last left the author's octogenarian hands, 
and with such commentary as its numerous faults 
and flaws necessitate, it can no more be ignored by 
serious students than the biographical contributions 
of Mary Shelley, Thomas Jefferson Hogg, Thomas 
Love Peacock, and Edward John Trelawney." 
Medwin was Shelley's cousin, school-fellow, and 
adoring friend, and possibly the collaborator in 
some of his earliest works. A page of the original 
text, reproduced in facsimile, shows how Medwin 



revised, rewrote, and revised yet again, and speaks 
volumes for his tireless endeavor to do the best that 
in him lay. However, even that best does not make 
him a satisfactory biographer of Shelley. But what 
we must grant is that he did have extraordinary op- 
portunities for gathering original material concern- 
ing both Shelley and Byron ; thus providing data for 
others to scrutinize, sift, and employ to the profit 
of future students of the two poets. "Somehow," 
confesses Mr. Buxton Forman, "I feel impelled to 
pardon and to take off my hat to Tom Medwin in 
parting." Students of Shelley will be especially 
grateful for the four appendices, which include some 
of the poet's early letters, his preface to the first 
edition of "Frankenstein," and the Chancery Papers 
relating to Shelley's children, besides an annotated 
list of Medwin's published works. 

A garner Ifc is comin g to be more an d more 

from mediaeval generally realized outside of uni- 
Merature. versity cloisters that Chaucer was not 

the only man who wrote anything of modern interest 
before the year of grace 1400. The literature of 
the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, especially 
that of England, has indeed an immense intrinsic 
charm. The age which produced Chaucer, Lang- 
land, Wyclif, Gower, Minot, Huchown of the Awle 
Ryale, and the immortal author of "Pearl" and 
"Gawayne and the Grene Knight" is superior in 
importance to every half-century, except the Eliza- 
bethan and Victorian eras, since the time of Alfred 
the Great. So any book aiming to interpret this age 
to the unawakened should be welcome. Generally 
speaking, translations of earlier English into later 
English for the purpose of catching those who are 
unwilling to give a little time to the archaic forms, 
are not very successful. Dryden's effort to mod- 
ernize Chaucer to late seventeenth century conven- 
tions is a case in point. Still it is possible to render 
worthy service of this sort to the lazy; and, in her 
volume of "Legends and Satires from Mediaeval 
Literature" (Ginn), Dr. Martha Hale Shackford 
has attained a very fair measure of success. Some 
of the translations are made from the French, and 
some from the Latin, although the most are from 
English. Since the editor's purpose was to show 
types, and also to avoid reproducing the better-known 
pieces which are available in other popular forms, 
the selection is somewhat restricted. And some of 
the pieces, such as "The Amorous Contention of 
Phillis and Flora," will be found deadly dull by those 
readers aimed at : that is, those who require urging. 
But "The Purgatory of Saint Patrick," aside from 
its theological interest, reveals a sociological one; 
"The Life of Saint Margaret" revives vividly a 
dead past; "The Song of the University of Paris," 
"The Complaint of the Husbandmen," and "Sir 
Penny " have some pith ; and the lay of " Sir Orfeo," 
a Middle- English version of the classic story of Or- 
pheus and Eurydice, has much beauty and charm. 
The editor has earned our gratitude by printing the 
original of the last-named. A small compact body 



148 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 16 



One of the 
makers of 
Kansas. 



of notes concludes the volume. The bibliography 
which accompanies the notes on each piece is an 
exceedingly valuable and scholarly addition. 

That the original of Senator Rivers 
in the play made famous by Mr. 
William H. Crane's impersonation 
of that energetic gentleman should be found to be 
a most interesting and engaging character, as pre- 
sented in Mr. William Elsey Connelley's biography 
of the man, need surprise no one. "The Life of 
Preston B. Plumb" (Browne & Howell Co.) is both 
a romance of Western enterprise and adventure and 
the faithful record of a long and useful term of 
service in the upper chamber of our national legis- 
lature. Readers old enough to have any remem- 
brance of the anti-slavery struggle, or cherishing 
even the memory of their elders' reminiscences of 
that conflict, will take the keenest interest in the 
story of Plumb's hastening from his home in Ohio 
to the help of bleeding Kansas, the active part he 
took in the shaping of the new commonwealth as a 
free state, and his highly creditable record as a 
soldier in the Civil War. A veritable whirlwind of 
energy he seems to have been, from the time when, 
as a boy of six, he nearly crippled his sister in his 
zeal to show her how like a man he could chop wood, 
to the last political campaign in which he took part 
with a vigor that hastened his untimely death in 
1891 at the age of fifty -four. His assumption of 
the editorship and co-proprietorship of the Xenia 
" News " at sixteen, his espousal of the cause of 
Kansas at nineteen, his study of law at odd times 
and his admission to the bar in 1861, the beginning 
of his legislative experience the following year, his 
three years of army life, his election to the speaker- 
ship of the Kansas House of Representatives in 
1867, his fourteen years at Washington as a leader 
in the Senate all this and much else will be found 
chronicled in detail and with an evident determi- 
nation on the historian's part to neglect no trust- 
worthy source of information. Footnotes abound, 
and contain a mass of related matter that no reader 
can afford to miss. A portrait of Senator Plumb, 
three maps, appended matter, and a full index round 
out the volume. It has been said that the life of 
Preston B. Plumb is the history of Kansas. It is 
decidedly a life worth reading as related by Mr. 
Connelley. 

There is certainly no dearth in the 
Production of books about Robert 
Louis Stevenson, and, apparently, 
not much danger of superfluity. A new volume 
in Stevensonian literature, Mr. Francis Watt's 
"R. L. S." (Macmillan), will make interesting read- 
ing for all lovers of the brilliant romancer, especially 
those whose admiration for his genius has made 
them serious students of his work. That Mr. Watt 
is himself a lover and a student of his subject goes 
without saying ; he has, moreover, an agreeable 
style, not without native Scots humor, in record and 
annotation. An introductory chapter, "R. L. S. 



and his People," gives a breezy and somewhat un- 
conventional sketch of the novelist's life, and is 
followed by others in which we are led pleasantly 
along the highways and byways over which Steven- 
son travelled in his romantic pilgrimage: through 
Old Edinburgh, hill-surrounded, wind-swept and 
fog-beset, yet " weather- tight, especially to those 
' panged ' with that inner spirituous lining which 
no citizen of Old Edinburgh was like to forget," 
with its ancient landmarks, historic, academic and 
convivial; over the Pentlands; through the High- 
lands; always with R. L. S. at our side, explaining 
associations and identifying allusions as he goes. 
Then, with our guide, we pass through London, the 
setting hardly to be called the scene for "Dr. 
Jekyll and Mr. Hyde," "Markheim," and "The 
New Arabian Nights." R. L. S. had no intimate 
knowledge of London, by the way ; he never resided 
there or worked there ; his visits to the capital were 
flying ones. Across the Channel we tarry at Bar- 
bizon, at Grez, where he met the lady who became 
his wife, traverse the route through the Cevennes 
which he describes in the " Travels with a Donkey," 
and trace his course in "An Inland Voyage." 
Thence we follow him to California, and so to 
Samoa and Vailima. With the local color and the 
atmosphere of "Auld Reekie" Mr. Watt is inti- 
mately familiar; with the Continental and foreign 
settings he is not so thoroughly at home, but his 
notes are nevertheless illuminating and useful as 
commentary on the text. Stevenson as letter-writer, 
as playwright, and as rhymer, is also discussed, and 
the closing chapters expound his religion, his char- 
acter, and his style. 

Mr. Christian Tearle's chatty and 

Literary walks anec( j o t a l "Rambles with an Ameri- 
about London. 

can won such favor as to encourage 

him to issue a sequel, "The Pilgrim from Chicago: 
Being More Rambles with an American" (Long- 
mans), in which we again meet with the observant 
and loquacious "James C. Fairfield, of Chicago, 
U. S. A." The rambles described chiefly in 
dialogue form are mostly in and about London, 
and of course give opportunity for endless literary 
and other anecdote and reminiscence, in which Mr. 
Fairfield shows himself far better versed in English 
literature and history and topography than are most 
of his travelling fellow-countrymen. The London 
"Times" has called him "a surprisingly winning 
outcome of Chicago's 'tons of culture.'" As a 
sample of his talk, called forth by a visit to one of 
Charles Lamb's haunts, here are some of his words 
of wisdom : " It's a thousand pities that Lamb ever 
left the India House. He was only fifty, and the 
work made no call on his brain he had plenty of 
time for writing and amusing himself. And he 
ought never to have left London. The record of 
these last years is painful to me. It's a pity we 
know so much about them. One doesn't love him 
the less, and one doesn't exactly wish that he'd 
died sooner, but there's no denying that the end 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



149 



comes as a relief." Yes, with a comfortable income, 
and with easy office hours, leaving ample time for 
essay-writing and social intercourse, our beloved 
Elia seems not to have known when he was well 
off. Mr. Tearle diversifies his pleasant pages with 
scraps of quoted verse and longer metrical compo- 
sitions of his own. Pictures, too, are agreeably 

numerous. 

An uncompromising intellectual pas- 
s ' on > an aD8or king intention to under- 
stand, look out from Vincent Van 
Gogh's portrait of himself, reproduced as frontis- 
piece to a slender volume of " Personal Recollections 
of Vincent Van Gogh," by Elizabeth DuQuesne 
Van Gogh, translated by Katherine S. Dreier. A 
self-centredness so intense that it devoured the mind 
it inhabited, and a contemplation of the world so 
sympathetic that it became at times a madness of 
pity and despair, these two elements in the man's 
nature are written in every line of his prematurely 
aged young face and in every word of his sister's 
brief record. Driven from an unsuccessful attempt 
at commerce to teaching, and again on to preaching 
by his determination to follow Christ in the allevi- 
ation of humble misery (Dickens had opened his 
eyes to some of the pains of poverty), Van Gogh 
lived more than half his life in absolute unconscious- 
ness of the expression his genius was finally to take. 
Only a terrible physical breakdown, the result of too 
complete self-abnegation in caring for his mining 
parish during an epidemic of typhoid, only this 
break and the consequent enforced leisure revealed 
to him his power of analyzing color, of drawing in 
color what he saw, and so making his experience 
comprehensible to his contemporaries. But recog- 
nition of his genius, like all recognition of genius, 
was slow; in his case it never became general even 
in the artists' world of Paris, where he worked hope- 
fully for some years, until his tragic death called 
attention to a production so untimely ended. " I try 
just as bard as certain other painters whom I have 
loved and honored," he wrote four days before he 
died ; and now, twenty years later, his devotion has 
its reward. He is one of the three prophets of the 
Futurists, the group of young enthusiasts who be- 
lieve that they are finding in balance of color and 
"dynamism" of line a new method for avoiding 
" conventional realism " and expressing inner real- 
ities of personal vision. This book, supplemented 
by the letters of Van Gogh which have recently 
been published, will undoubtedly rank as one of the 
gospels of the modernist's faith. (Houghton.) 

Although she chooses "Samphire" 
^ the title of her volume of collected 
essays, or essayettes, Lady Sybil 
Grant is hardly to be thought of as "one that gathers 
samphire, dreadful trade ! " With much less risk to 
life and limb than is braved by the seeker after that 
suffruticose herb, she finds in the walks of ordinary 
life the material for her clever little disquisitions, 
her list of topics embracing such themes as garden- 



ing, snobbishness, originality, vagueness, personal 
relations, criticism, authors, concentration, shop-talk, 
tact, circumstantial evidence, and millionaires in 
fiction. Three little parodies in fiction, of which 
the first is called "Matilda of the Cinque Ports," 
will be enjoyed. In closing her remarks on origi- 
nality, the writer says: "There is only one way in 
which to attain originality now; a very laborious 
and difficult line to take: it is to be perfectly nat- 
ural." This discovery deserves to rank with that of 
him who first found out that the most baffling and 
mystifying of diplomats is he who speaks the simple 
truth. In style the book is animated and pleasing 
though one might object to " awoken" as a need- 
lessly far-fetched form of the past participle. Lady 
Sybil Grant deplores her handicap as the daughter 
of such clever parents as Lord and Lady Rosebery, 
but she makes a good fight against this adversity 
of her lot. (E. P. Dutton & Co.) 

A pioneer Long and intimately acquainted with 

mission-worker the late Dr. James Curtis Hepburn, 
in the far East. an( j u e( j W j t i 1 admiration for his 

noble character and memorable achievements, Dr. 
William Elliot Griffis was the one above all others 
to write the life of the eminent missionary, physician, 
lexicographer, and scripture-translator. "Hepburn 
of Japan" (Westminster Press) is a glowing tribute 
to a man of heroic purpose and notable accomplish- 
ment, from one whose own years of residence in the 
distant land which Hepburn chose as the scene of 
his labors equip him in a peculiar manner for his 
task of biographer. The dangers and difficulties 
faced by the mission- worker in Japan half a century 
ago are brought by Dr. Griffis to the reader's vivid 
realization, and his book has something of the 
"thrill" of an entirely different order of literary 
composition. Rich in varied incident, and covering 
almost a century of time, Dr. Hepburn's life was 
well worth recording, and its story is well worth 
reading. A number of chronological inconsistencies, 
some in quoted passages, others from the author's 
own pen, perplex the reader, but need not seriously 
interfere with his enjoyment of the book. Portraits 
and other illustrations are not lacking, and the nar- 
rative is commendably free from prolixity, being 
confined to about two hundred and thirty duodecimo 



A guide to Professor Peter Henry Pearson's 

the study of manual on " The Study of Litera- 
uterature. ture (McClurg) professes to offer 

assistance to both "the general reader who wishes 
a deeper insight into the charm and meaning of 
English literature," and " the teacher of the subject 
in school or college." Probably it will be the latter 
rather than the former who will hasten to extend a 
warm welcome to the book, for to the teacher more 
than to the general reader does its method appeal 
a method thus, in part, described at the outset : 
"The work is concentrated in turn on each of the 
classics that are on the program for close study. 
The aim is to work through it analytically and 



150 



THE DIAJL 



[Feb. 16 



minutely, so that the significance of every detail is 
understood; to survey it finally as a synthesized 
whole, aiming at the result that the pupil shall 
grasp the author's message in its completeness." 
On a later page the appreciation of a literary work 
is explained as "a synthetic procedure in which the 
pupil is led to manipulate the units of a classic in 
relation to each other and to estimate them as a 
whole." Mr. Pearson's eleven chapters deal suc- 
cessively with early literary studies, interpretation, 
appreciation, structural elements, literary elements, 
methods of literary evaluation, the study of prose 
forms, "The Deserted Village," "L'Allegro," 
" King Lear," and literature in its reaction on life. 
The book is the work of a close student and a con- 
scientious teacher. 



BRIEFER MENTION. 



The interest aroused by the recent publication of 
" Scott's Last Expedition " makes timely the appearance 
of a new and cheaper edition of " The Voyage of the 
' Discovery,' " Scott's record of his first Polar voyage . 
The edition is in two handy volumes, with a dozen or 
more illustrations. There should be a wide demand for 
this engrossing story in so convenient and inexpensive a 
form. Messrs. Scribner publish the work. 

Part II. of Mr. Herbert H. Gowen's "Outline History 
of China" (Sherman, French & Co.) is an excellent 
handbook of Chinese history from the beginning of the 
Manchu dynasty, 1644, to the year 1912. Accessible 
and trustworthy material for this period of the history is 
naturally much more abundant, in proportion to extent 
of time covered, than for the thousands of years treated 
in the first volume of the work. The author would have 
received more favorable mention had he issued the two 
parts simultaneously. The present volume contains as 
much information as could be compressed within its 206 
pages; the information is well selected, well arranged 
and tabulated; and it is given in a very readable style. 

Forty years of a librarian's life are reviewed with 
reference to American library history and happenings, 
in Mr. Samuel Swett Green's enjoyable and instructive 
volume, " The Public Library Movement in the United 
States, 1853-1893," which is published in a substantial 
octavo by the Boston Book Company. Thirty-eight 
years of librarianship, at Worcester, Mass., preceded 
by four years' service on the board of library directors 
of the same city ; the position of librarian emeritus since 
1909; original membership in the public library com- 
mission of his State, with nineteen years of service as 
commissioner; one term as president of the A. L. A., 
of which he is a charter member and a life fellow, and 
on the governing board of which he has served almost 
continuously since 1876 this, in part, has been Mr. 
Green's unconscious preparation for the writing of such 
a book, largely reminiscent and anecdotal, as the one 
that now comes from his skilled pen. In referring to 
library legislation in Illinois he might well have sup- 
plemented his mention of Mr. F. H. Hild's name in that 
connection by noting the earlier and more important 
work of another Illinois librarian, who drafted the 
library bill of 1872 and was instrumental in procuring 
its passage. A good portrait of the author precedes, 
and a full index follows, the text. 



" Lost Diaries," another of Mr. Maurice Baring's 
amusing fabrications, will be issued shortly by Houghton 
Mifflin Co. 

" Little Essays in Literature and Life," by Professor 
Richard Burton, appears among the March announce- 
ments of the Century Co. 

Still another book on Robert Louis Stevenson is 
promised in the biographical study upon which Mr. 
Arthur Ransome is now at work. 

An important and timely art book is announced in 
Mr. Arthur Jerome Eddy's study of " Cubists and Post- 
Impressionism." Messrs. A. C. McClurg & Co. are the 
publishers. 

In his forthcoming novel, " Shea of the Irish Bri- 
gade," Mr. Randall Parrish has taken for a back- 
ground the days when the allies were seeking the defeat 
of Louis XV. 

An important addition to the literature of socialism 
is announced in Mr. John Spargo's " Socialism and 
Motherhood," which Mr. B. W. Huebsch will publish 
during the Spring. 

Two important works which Messrs. Holt have in 
press for early issue are Professor J. Arthur Thomson's 
" The Wonder of Life " and Professor H. A. L. Fisher's 
extended study of Napoleon. 

Two promising books of fiction on Messrs. Little, 
Brown, & Co.'s Spring list are " Ariadne of Allan 
Water," by Sidney McCall (Mrs. E. F. Fenollosa); and 
" Felicidad," by Mr. Rowland Thomas. 

A large volume of uncollected writings by Bret Harte, 
consisting of stories, poems, and essays, has been com- 
piled by Mr. Charles Meeker Kozlay, and is in prepa- 
ration for March issue by Houghton Mifflin Co. 

Mr. Arthur Bartlett Maurice's series of articles 
entitled "The Literary Baedeker" which have been 
appearing in "The Bookman " will be published in book 
form this Spring by Messrs. Dodd, Mead & Co. 

After numerous delays, the third and fourth volumes 
of Gerhart Hauptmann's collected dramatic works, in 
the authorized edition edited by Mr. Ludwig Lewisohn, 
are definitely promised for early Spring publication. 

"Beaumont the Dramatist" by Professor Charles 
Mills Gayley, of the University of California, will be 
published this month by the Century Co. The work aims 
to settle definitely the Beaumont- Fletcher controversy. 

A new volume of essays by " Vernon Lee " is an- 
nounced by John Lane Co. Its title is " The Tower of 
the Mirrors," and it will contain thirty five chapters 
giving the author's impressions of famous cities and 
other places which she has visited. 

A notable novel of the Spring season will be Mr. 
Joseph Conrad's "Chance." The publishers of this 
book, Messrs. Doubleday, Page & Co., will have ready 
at about the same time a critical and biographical 
study of Conrad, written by Mr. Richard Curie. 

" Still Happy Though Married " is the title of a book 
by the Rev. E. J. Hardy, which is in the press. Mr. 
Hardy's book, " How to be Happy Though Married," 
has had a huge circulation, and the coming volume gives 
the author's supplementary reflections on the subject. 

The publication of "The Print Collector's Quar- 
terly " has been transferred by the Boston Museum of 
Fine Arts to Houghton Mifflin Co., who have become 
the publishing representatives of this institution. Mr. 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



151 



FitzRoy Carrington, Curator of the Print Department 
of the Museum, and a lecturer upon engravings at 
Harvard University, will remain as its editor, and no 
change will be made either in form or in price. 

Sir Oliver Lodge's address on " Continuity," delivered 
before the British Association recently, will be published 
by Messrs. Putnam in book form this month. This house 
has also in train for immediate issue a new edition, re- 
vised and reset, of Mr. Sidney Low's " The Governance 
of England." 

Two little volumes by M. Emile Faguet are to be 
issued this month in English translations entitled 
" Initiation into Literature " and " Initiation into Phi- 
losophy." They are both books for the beginner in 
these fields. Sir Howe Gordon, Bart., is the translator 
in each case. 

Sir Walter Raleigh has arranged to give a series of 
lectures at the Sorbonne on " The Romantic Movement 
in English Literature in the Beginning of the Nineteenth 
Century." When published in book form later, as 
they will be, these lectures should constitute a useful 
addition to literary history. 

In addition to Mr. Worcester's two-volume work on 
the Philippines, we are to have this Spring an even 
more extensive book on " The Americans in the Phil- 
ippines " by Mr. James A. LeRoy, who was secretary 
of the Philippine Commission; and a study of "America 
and the Philippines " by Mr. Carl Crow. 

" The Candid Review," a quarterly devoted to poli- 
tics, science, literature, and art, is soon to be launched 
in London. Its promoter, Mr. T. Gibson Bowles, 
assures prospective subscribers that it will be "dull 
and honest," a decided recommendation in a day of 
so much clever mendacity in journalism. About the 
same time the Oxford University Press will begin pub- 
lication of a quarterly review which will limit itself to 
articles of a political nature. 

The Quarterly " Bulletin of Bibliography and Dra- 
matic Index," published by the Boston Book Company, 
begins a new series with its January number, changing 
the style and color of its cover, adding a department of 
" Applied Economy " (library economy it proves to be 
in this instance, dealing with the Somerville Public 
Library's new method in reference work), and giving a 
page and a half of " helpful hints " from various libra- 
rians. Also a series of short biographies of librarians 
and bibliographers is begun, the first sketch having 
Justin Winsor as its subject, accompanied by a good 
portrait. The "Bulletin" is a useful and interesting 
publication for bookmen. 



LIST OF NEW BOOKS. 



[The following list, containing 132 titles, includes book* 
received by THE DIAL since its last issue.] 

BIOGRAPHY. 

The Life and Correspondence of Philip Vorke, Earl 
of Hardwicke, Lord High Chancellor of Great 
Britain. By Philip C. Yorke, M.A. Illustrated in 
photogravure, etc., large Svo. University of Chi- 
cago Press. $13.50 net. 

George Borrow and His Circle: Wherein May Be 
Pound Many Hitherto Unpublished Letters of 
Borrow and His Friends. By Clement King 
Shorter. Illustrated in photogravure, etc.,' Svo, 
450 pages. Houghton Mifflin Co. $3. net. 

Goldwin Smith: His Life and Opinions. By Arnold 
Haultain. Illustrated, Svo, 304 pages. Duffleld & 
Co. $3.75 net. 



Cavour, and the Making of Modern Italy, 1810-1861. 

By Pietro Orsi. Illustrated, Svo, 386 pages. 

"Heroes of the Nations." G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

$1.50 net. 
Gerhart Hauptmann: His Life and His Work, 1862- 

1912. By Karl Holl, Ph.D. With portrait, 12mo, 

112 pages. A. C. McClurg & Co. $1. net. 

HISTORY. 

The Reformation In Germany. By Henry C. Vedder. 
Svo, 466 pages. Macmillan Co. $3. net. 

A History of England from the Earliest Times to 
the Twentieth Century. Edited by Charles 
Oman, M.A., Volume III., England in the Later 
Middle Ages, by Kenneth H. Vickers, M.A. With 
maps, large Svo, 542 pages. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

The GreateHt House at Chelsey. By Randall Davies. 
Illustrated, Svo, 236 pages. John Lane Co. 
$3. net. 

One Generation of a Norfolk House: A Contribution 
to Elizabethan History. By Augustus Jessopp, 
D.D. Third edition, revised, Svo, 352 pages. G. P. 
Putnam's Sons. $2.25 net. 

Trans-Atlantic Historical Solidarity. By Charles 
Francis Adams. Svo, 184 pages. Oxford Univer- 
sity Press. $2. net. 

GENERAL LITERATURE. 

Notes on Politics and History: A University Ad- 
dress. By Viscount Morley, O.M. 12mo, 201 
pages. Macmillan Co. $1. net. 

Earmarks of Literature. By Arthur E. Bostwick. 
12mo, 144 pages. A. C. McClurg & Co. 
90 cts. net. 

Samphire. By Lady Sybil Grant. 12mo, 307 pages. 
E. P. Button & Co. $1.50 net. 

Modern Short-Stories. Edited, with Introduction, 
Biographies, and Bibliographies, by Margaret 
Ashmun, M.A. Svo, 437 pages. Macmillan Co. 
$1.25 net. 

Korean Folk Tales: Imps, Ghosts, and Fairies. 
Translated from the Korean of Im Bang and Yi 
Ryuk by James S. Gale. 12mo, 233 pages. E. P. 
Button & Co. $1.25 net. 

A Wayfaring Soul. By Walter Raymond. 12mo, 
190 pages. E. P. Button & Co. $1. net. 

Outlines: Being Studies in Fiction. By John B. 
Barry. Svo, 179 pages. Paul Elder & Co. 
$1.50 net. 

Mostly True: A Few Little Tragedies and Some 
Comedies. By Guy Fleming. 12mo, 286 pages. 
Longmans, Green & Co. $1.30 net. 

The Works of the Emperor Julian. Translated by 
Wilmer Cave Wright, Ph.B. Volume II., 12mo, 
519 pages. "Loeb Classical Library." Macmillan 
Co. $1.50 net. 

The Dickens Reciter: Recitations, Character- 
Sketches, Impersonations, and Bialogues. 
Adapted and edited by Mrs. Laurence Clay. Svo, 
447 pages. E. P. Button & Co. $1.25 net. 

BOOKS OF VERSE. 

The Flight, and Other Poems. By George Edward 
Woodberry. 12mo, 162 pages. Macmillan Co. 
$1.25 net. 

The Collected Poems of Margaret L. Woods. With 
photogravure portrait, 12mo, 351 pages. John 
Lane Co. $1.50 net. 

The Wine-Press: A Tale of War. By Alfred Noyes. 
With portrait, 12mo, 49 pages. F. A. Stokes Co. 
60 cts. net. 

Celtie Memories, and other Poems. By Norreys 
Jephson O'Conor. 16mo, 62 pages. John Lane 
Co. $1. net. 

Lyrics from the Chinese. By Helen Waddell. Svo, 
41 pages. Houghton Mifflin Co. $1 net. 

Leaves on the Tide, and Other Poems. By Hiram 
Rich.' With frontispiece, 16mo, 157 pages. Bos- 
ton: John S. Lockwood. $1. net. 

Sonnets from the Patagonlan: The Street of Little 
Hotels. By Bonald Evans. 12mo, 63 pages. 
New York: Claire Marie. $1.25 net. 

Home-Made Verse. By Bwight Burdge; with Fore- 
word by Merle St. Croix Wright, B.B. With por- 
trait, 12mo, 91 pages. Battle Creek: Published 
by the author. $1. 



152 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 16 



DRAMA. 

The Fugitive: A Play in Four Acts. By John Gals- 
worthy. 12mo, 93 pages. Charles Scribner's 
Sons. 60 cts. net. 

Prunella; or, Love in a Dutch Garden. By Laurence 
Housman and Granville Barker. With frontis- 
piece, 8vo, 89 pages. Duffleld & Co. $2. net. 

Plays. By August Strindberg; translated from the 
Swedish by Edith and Warner Oland. With 
portrait, 12mo. John W. Luce & Co. $1.50 net. 

Peach Bloom: An Original Play in Four Acts. By 
Northrop Morse. 12mo, 184 pages. New York: 
Medical Review of Reviews. $1. net. 

FICTION. 

The Witness for the Defence. By A. B. W. Mason. 
12mo, 331 pages. Charles Scribner's Sons. 
$1.30 net. 

Sandy. By S. R. Crockett. With frontispiece in 
color, 12mo, 353 pages. Macmillan Co. $1.35 net. 
The Red Emerald. By John Reed Scott. Illustrated 
in color, 12mo, 352 pages. J. B. Lippincott Co. 
$1.25 net. 

The Butterfly. By Henry Kitchell Webster. Illus- 
trated, 12mo, 311 pages. D. Appleton & Co. 
$1.25 net. 

Bransford in Arcadia; or, The Little Eohippus. By 
Eugene Manlove Rhodes. With frontispiece, 
12mo, 236 pages. Henry Holt & Co. $1.20 net. 
Darkness and Dawn. By George Allan England. 
Illustrated in color, etc., 12mo, 672 pages. Small, 
Maynard & Co. $1.35 net. 

The Business of a Gentleman. By H. N. Dickinson. 
12mo, 304 pages. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.25 net. 
The Best Man. By Grace Livingston Hill Lutz. Il- 
lustrated in color, 12mo, 304 pages. J. B. Lippin- 
cott Co. $1.25 net. 

The Judgment of the Sword. By Maud Diver. Il- 
lustrated, 12mo, 683 pages. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 
$1.50 net. 
My Wife's Hidden Life. 12mo, 360 pages. Rand, 

McNally & Co. $1.25 net. 

The Clutch of Circumstance. By Leighton Graves 
Osmun. 12mo, 320 pages. Sully & Kleinteich, 
$1.25 net. 

Children of the Sea. By H. DeVere Stacpoole. With 
frontispiece, 12mo, 307 pages. Duffleld & Co. 
$1.25 net. 

The Jam Girl. By Frances R. Sterrett. Illustrated, 
12mo, 309 pages. D. Appleton & Co. $1.25 net. 
Betty Standish: A Romance. By A. J. Anderson. 
12mo, 335 pages. Dodd, Mead & Co. $1.25 net. 
The Soul of Life; or, What is Love? By David Lisle. 

12mo, 304 pages. F. A. Stokes Co. $1.25 net. 
Garden Oats. By Alice Herbert. 12mo, 314 pages. 

John Lane Co. $1.30 net. 
Mrs. Day's Daughters. By Mary E. Mann, 12mo, 

327 pages. George H. Doran Co. $1.25 net. 
The Substance of His House. By Ruth Holt Bouci- 
cault. With frontispiece. 12mo, 392 pages. 
Little, Brown & Co. $1.30 net. 

News from the Duchy. By Sir Arthur Quiller- 
Couch. 12mo, 380 pages. Richard G. Badger. 
$1.35 net. 

Whispering Dust. By Eldrid Reynolds; with Intro- 
duction by Frederic Taber Cooper. 12mo, 297 
pages. F. A. Stokes Co. $1.10 net. 
Old Valentines: A Love Story. By Munson Havens. 
Illustrated in color, 12mo, 225 pages. Houghton 
Mifflin Co. $1. net. 

Sunshine Jane. By Anne Warner. With frontis- 
piece, 12mo, 279 pages. Little, Brown & Co. 
$1. net. 

The Love Affair of a Homely Girl. By Jean Louise 
de Forest. With frontispiece in color, 12mo, 213 
pages. Sully & Kleinteich. $1. net. 
A Matrimonial Experiment. By Samuel Barber. 
12mo, 184 pages. J. S. Ogilvie Publishing Co. 
Paper, 25 cts. 

TRAVEL AND DESCRIPTION. 

The "Ways of the South Sea Savage. By Robert W. 
Williamson, M.Sc. Illustrated, large 8vo, 308 
pages. J. B. Lippincott Co. $3.50 net. 
The South American Tour. By Annie S. Peck, M.A. 
Illustrated, 8vo, 398 pages. George H. Doran Co. 
$2.50 net. , 



Across Siberia Alone: An American Woman's Ad- 
ventures. By Mrs. John Clarence Lee. Illus- 
trated, 12mo, 220 pages. John Lane Co. 
$1.35 net. 

The Colour of the East. By Elizabeth Washburn. 
With frontispiece, 12mo, 191 pages. F. A. Stokes 
Co. $1.25 net. 

PUBLIC AFFAIRS. POLITICS, ECONOMICS, AND 

SOCIOLOGY. 

The Philippines: Past and Present. By Dean C. 
Worcester. In 2 volumes, illustrated, 8vo. Mac- 
millan Co. $6. net. 

The American Doctrine of Judicial Supremacy. By 
Charles Grove Haines, Ph.D. 8vo, 365 pages. 
Macmillan Co. $2. net. 

Taxation and the Distribution of Wealth. By 
Frederic Mathews. 8vo, 680 pages. Doubleday, 
Page & Co. $2.50 net. 

Whigs and Whiggism: Political Writings. By Ben- 
jamin Disraeli; edited with Introduction, by 
William Hutcheon. Illustrated in photogravure, 
etc., large 8vo, 476 pages. Macmillan Co. 
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The Policy of the United States towards Industrial 
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Svo, 233 pages. Columbia University Press. 
Paper, $2. net. 

Asia at the Door: A Study of the Japanese Ques- 
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Hamilton W. Mabie. Svo, 269 pages. Fleming 
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Burgage Tenure in Mediaeval England. By Morley 
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The Socialized Conscience. By Joseph Herschel 
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Why I Am in Favor of Socialism: A Symposium. 
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Problems of Genetics. By William Bateson, M.A. 
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Prehistoric Times as Illustrated by Ancient Re- 
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The Meaning of Art: Its Nature, R61e, and Value. 
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The Principles of Greek Art. By Percy Gardner, 
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1914] 



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153 



Francisco Goya: A Study of the Work and Person- 
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How to Sing (Meine Gesangskunst). By Lilli Leh- 
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The Holy Spirit and the Prayer Book. By Rev. 
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The Science of Happiness. By Jean Finot; trans- 
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What Men Live By. By Richard C. Cabot, M.B. 
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The Quest of the Spirit. By a Pilgrim of the Way; 
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Religio Doctorls: Meditations upon Life and 
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183 pages. Richard G. Badger. $1.25 net. 

Nature and Cognition of Space and Time. By 
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Newton: Johnston & Penney. $1.35. 

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A Dictionary of Medieval Romance and Romance 
Writers. By Lewis Spence. Large 8vo, 395 
pages. E. P. Button & Co. $3. net. 

Eighteen Thousand Words Often Mispronounced. 
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Sons. $1.50 net. 

The Concise Standard Dictionary of the English 
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Fernald. Illustrated, 16mo, 583 pages. Funk & 
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Handbook of Style in Use at The Riverside Press, 
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Jack and Jill: A Fairy Story. By Greville Mac- 
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Will o' the "Wasps. By Margaret Warner Morley. 
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A Boy In Eirlnn. By Padraic Colum. Illustrated in 
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Musical Plays for Children. By E. Elliot Stock; 
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The Spy: A Tale of the Neutral Ground. By James 
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Little Dramas for Primary Grades. By Ada Maria 
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Criminology. By Baron Raffaele Garofalo; trans- 
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478 pages. Little, Brown & Co. $4.50 net. 
Great Jurists of the World. Edited by John Mac- 
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Van Vechten Veeder. With portraits, 8vo, 607 
pages. Little, Brown & Co. $5. net. 
The Science of Billiards, with Practical Applica- 
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The Workers' Daily Round. By Charles Watney and 
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Success at Golf. By Harry Vardon and Others, with 
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Exercises for Women. By Florence Bolton, A.B. Il- 
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The Dative of Agency: A Chapter of Indo-European 
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154 



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[Feb. 16 



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158 THE DIAL. [March 1 



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French court. It is romantic fiction at its best. Illustrated by Alonzo Eimball. 12mo. Net $1.30 

The Green Seal B y CHARLES EDMONDS WALK 

At the time the story opens, a Los Angeles lawyer became heir to the Green Seal ring, and soon after received a 
large and almost priceless diamond from an unknown source. How he became involved in most astonishing and 
dangerous experiences ; how the heroine was an innocent victim of conditions which began years before in Tibet ; and 
how finally the mysteries and troubles clear away, the seal and diamond reach their destined owners and how Lois 
changes her mind, make a thrilling story of love and mystery. Illustrated by Will Grefe. Crown Svo. Net $1.35 

HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY 
The Coming Hawaii By JOSEPH KING GOODRICH 

Beginning with Captain Cook and even earlier navigators, the history of this fascinating land is briefly told. 
Descriptions of the character and life of the natives and newcomers follow, and full space is given to the attractions 
of the islands for tourists and settlers. The products, business, and possibilities receive abundant mention. The 
volume is a timely addition to " The World Today Series." The statistics are up to date. Illustrated. ISmo. 

Net $1.50 

Kit Carson Days By EDWIN L. SABIN 

Mr. Sabin has written the first biography of this extraordinary character that is really authoritative ; and he has 
made it not only a personal record of Carson's achievements, but a history of the opening of the West. Illustrated. 
Crown Svo. Net $3.00 

Junipero Serra : His Life and His Work By A. H. FITCH 

The present biography is an attempt to supply the need for a popular account of the life and labors of the simple 
Franciscan monk, whose memory is reverenced and honored by California. Illustrated. Crown Svo. Net $1.50 

[POLITICAL ECONOMY AND SOCIOLOGY 
A Primer of Political Economy By ALFRED B. MASON 

Every intelligent individual should know at least the broad principles of the science, and possess a working 
knowledge of its fundamental laws. This little book teaches this and may be read with pleasure and profit by 
anyone, but is especially designed for popular reading. 16mo. Net 50 cents 

The National Social Science Series Edited by FRANK L. MCVEY, PH.D., LL.D. 

The purpose of this series is to furnish for busy men and women a brief but essentially sane and sound discussion 
of present-day questions. The authors have been chosen with care from men who are in first-hand contact with the 
materials, and who will bring to the reader the newest phases of the subject. 16mo. Net 50 cent 

Now Ready : MONEY. WILLIAM A. SCOTT. THE FAMILY AND SOCIETY. JOHN M. GILLETTE. 

TAXATION. C. B. FILLERBROWN. BANKING. WILLIAM A. SCOTT. 



1914] THE DIAL, 159 



McCLURG'S NEW BOOKS SPRING 1914 Continued 

ART AND NATURE 
The Two Great Art Epochs By EMMA LOUISE PARRY 

To make the masters and masterpieces of art as familiar as are those of music and literature, is the aim of this 
notable work. It is not a critical study, but presents the historical development of art, beginning with Egypt, 
through Greek sculpture, early Christian art, to the final height of Italian art, on to the beginning of the Eighteenth 
Century. Illustrated. Boxed. Crown Svo. Net $2.00 

Cubists and Post-Impressionism By ARTHUR JEROME EDDY 

This remarkable work is far more than an exposition of certain styles of painting, but while broadly historical and 
descriptive of many men and schools, presents a plea for the public to react to new impressions, and a defence of 
freedom for the artist to express himself untrammeled by the past. Illustrated by twenty-four color plates and over 
forty half-tones of the pictures under discussion. Svo. Boxed. Net $3.00 

Will o' the Wasps By MARGARET WARNER MORLEY 

No more attractive manner of teaching natural history to the young can be devised, in the way of books, than that 
which is adopted in this story of an Uncle Will, who, because he knew so much about them, was called by his 
nephew " Will o' the Wasps." Together they watch the wasps as the nests are made, as food is eaten, as paper is 
manufactured, as eggs are laid, and follow, fascinated, the revealing of the mysteries of wasp life. The book 
abounds in delicate illustrations in the text. Illustrated. 12mo. $1.25 

MISCELLANEOUS 
Indian Blankets and Their Makers By GEORGE WHARTON JAMES 

This volume, written by an expert on Indian life and art, and beautifully and faithfully illustrated, is a full and ade- 
quate guide to the whole of this little-known field. Mr. James' book should give the Indian blanket a status among 
art collectors similar to that of the Oriental rug. Color and half-tone illustrations. Large crown Svo. Boxed. Net $4.00 

Daly's Billiard Book By MAURICE DALY and w. w. HARRIS 

Conscious of the need for a good text-book on the subject, Maurice Daly, one of the world's greatest students and 
exponents of the game, has herein placed in easy and understandable form the leading principles of up-to-date 
billiards principles by the study of which any earnest student can improve his game to a point where the pleasure 
derived from the game will be that felt by the skilled performer. The work is illustrated by nearly five hundred 
diagrams and pictures, showing exactly how a shot should be played. 12mo. Net $1.25 

The Art of Story-Telling By JULIA DARROW COWLES 

Out of her broad experience and love for the work, Miss Cowles tells how the art of story-telling can be made to 
minister the highest service. She describes story-telling in the home and in the school, and treats at length of 
different kinds of stories. Parents, teachers, and others who would use this art most profitably and happily, will 
find here just what they want. 12mo. Net $1.00 

Gerhart Hauptmann : His Life and Work By KARL HOLL 

Dr. Holl describes the personal life and character of Hauptmann and his works from the first epic, afterward 
suppressed, to the present time. He shows that he is not the disillusioned pessimist that some critics have 
described, but a man who has worked out a sound optimistic philosophy of the heroic type that is seen in Ibsen. 
This is a most important piece of critical literature, both on account of its intrinsic merits and because it is alone 
in its field. 12mo. Net $1.00 

The Green Cockatoo, and Other Plays By ARTHUR SCHNITZLER 

The three plays in this volume represent three sides of this remarkable Viennese dramatist's best work. " The 
Green Cockatoo," " The Mate," and " Paracelsus," all exhibit Schnitzler's deep and essentially modern psychology. 
12mo. Net $1.00 

Earmarks of Literature By ARTHUR E. BOSTWICK 

The things which make good books good, are here made clear and interesting for popular reading by the librarian 
of the St. Louis Public Library, who has gathered and grouped together many things that are herein discussed in 
readable and compact form. ISmo. Net 90 cents 

Right Living : Messages to Youth from Men Who Have Achieved Edited by HOMER H. COOPER 

Men and women who have achieved high place in many departments of life, most of their names being known 
nation-wide, are the authors of the messages of this book. The articles are characterized by a peculiarly living 
touch because in most cases specially spoken to or written for a body of students, and in recent months. The 
messages are in every case helpful, interesting, and inspiring. ISmo. Net $1.00 

Worry and NerVOUSneSS ; Or the Science of Self-Mastery By WILLAM S. SADLER, M.D. 

A comprehensive and exhaustive discussion by a noted physician and author upon " worry " and " nerve exhaustion " 
diseases common and peculiar to the American people. The book is written in popular style for the benefit of 
the vast number of sufferers from " the tyranny of nerves " or the " slavery of worry," a^d these unfortunates 
cannot fail to derive help and relief from its pages. Illustrated. 12mo. Net $1.50 

A. C. McCLURG & CO., PUBLISHERS, CHICAGO 



160 



THE DIAL 



[March 1 



Valuable Books from the Spring List of 
YALE UNIVERSITY PRESS 



New Haven, Conn. 



225 Fifth Ave., New York City 



The Fundamental Basis of 
Nutrition 

By GRAHAM LUSK, M.D., Professor 
of Physiology, Cornell University 
Medical College, and Scientific 
Director of the Russell Sage Insti- 
tute of Pathology. 

This book contains a clear discus- 
sion of a topic of vital interest by an 
authority in that field. Written for 
the correct information of educated 
people, it is constructive in its criti- 
cism, describing the requisites of nor- 
mal nutrition and outlining a rational 
method of general education upon this 
subject. It summarises the principles 
of nutrition which our generation has 
done so much to discover. 

12mo. Cloth binding. 65 pages. 
Price 50 cents ; postage 4 cents extra. 



Memorials of Eminent 
Yale Men 

A Biographical Study of Student Life 
and University Influences during 
the 18th and 19th Century. By Rev. 
ANSON PHELPS STOKES. 

The author has sketched the under- 
graduate life of the seventy-eight Yale 
men no longer living who seem to have 
made the most important contribu- 
tions to American life. Autograph 
letters of all the graduates memori- 
alized have been printed from the 
originals in the author's collection, 
and the book is further enriched by 
twenty photogravures and reproduc- 
tions of the signatures in facsimile. 
The work is a storehouse of historical 
facts and of biographical information 
of value and interest. 

Ordinary edition. Cloth binding, 
Gilt top. Royal quarto. 2 vols., 
about 350 pages each. Boxed, per set, 
$10.00 net; carriage extra. Limited 
edition, particulars on application. 



The Mental Health of the 

School Child: 

The Psycho-Educational Clinic in 
Relation to Child Welfare 

By J. E. WALLACE WALLIN, Ph.D., 
Professor of Clinical Psychology 
and Director of Psycho-Educational 
Clinic School of Education, Uni- 
versity of Pittsburgh. 
In nineteen chapters of pointed dis- 
cussion and original statistical contri- 
butions the author presents a fund of 
information in regard to the scientific 
study and improvement of backward, 
precocious, or mentally unusual chil- 
dren, which will be found to be of the 
greatest interest and value in promot- 
ing the mental welfare of children 
and the intellectual and social ideals 
of the race. 

12mo. Cloth binding. 300 pages. 
Price $1.75 net ; carriage extra. 



Voyage Aux Etats-Unis de 
1'Amerique 1793-1798 

By MOREAU DE SAINT-MERY. Edited, 
with an Introduction, by Stewart L. 
Mims. Yale Historical Publica- 
tions, Manuscripts, and Edited 
Texts. Vol.11. 

Moreau de Saint-Mery, one-time 
" King of Prance during three days," 
was forced to flee to the United States 
during the French Revolution. This 
diary recounts in excellent style (for 
he was an author of note) the horrors 
of his journey and the many interests 
of his five-years' life in this country. 
His book-store in Philadelphia be- 
came the centre for French fugitives 
of note and his journal describes their 
interests and excitements. Such of 
our heroes as Washington. John 
Adams, and Alexander Hamilton are 
commented upon. 

Svo. Board binding. 380 pages. In- 
dex. Price $2.50 net; carriage extra. 



The Colonising Activities of the 
English Puritans 

By ARTHUR PERCIVAL NEWTON. Yale 

Historical Publications, Miscellany, 

Vol. I. 

Working in an unexplored region 
of history, the author has been able 
to present an exceedingly interesting 
account of a colonial settlement hith- 
erto almost unknown the Puritan 
colony on Providence Island in the 
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linked this fascinatingly with the his- 
tory of the events in England which 
made Puritans ready to leave their 
homes and with that of the colonies 
in New England, founded with the 
same ideals but under other condi- 
tions. 

Svo. Cloth binding. 343 pages. 
Price $2.50 net ; carriage extra. 



Writings on American History, 
1912 

Compiled by 
GRACE GARDNER GRIFFIN. 

An annual bibliography in which 
are registered all books and articles 
of any value and importance relating 
to American History, this book con- 
tains the writings of the year 1912. It 
has been prepared under the auspices 
of the American Historical Associa- 
tion by a most competent and expe- 
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magazine and book matter in its 
treatment. The book is uniform in 
style and treatment with the issues of 
the years 1909 and 1910. 

Imperial Svo. Cloth binding. 180 
pages. Index. Price $2.00; carriage 
extra. 



Christianity Old and New 

Proposed Reconstructions viewed in 

the Light of Historic Development. 

By BENJAMIN WISNER BACON, D.D., 

LL.D. 

The author, who is noted for his 
scholarship, may be said to be a 
champion of Christianity and many 
readers will see in this sane and 
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dealt with many of the phases of the 
" new " criticism in centuries past is, 
in part, the author's contention. 

12mo. Cloth binding. 150 pages. 
Price $1.00 net; carriage extra. 



Trade Morals: Their Origin, 
Growth, and Province 

By EDWARD D. PAGE (Page Lectures). 

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plexing difficulties. 

Svo. Cloth binding. Gilt top. 200 
pages. Price $1.50 net; carriage extra. 



University Sermons 

By HENRY SLOANE COFFIN. 

Rev. Henry Sloane Coffin has come 
to hold a preeminent position among 
the young ministers of America. Per- 
haps his largest sphere of influence 
is in University congregations, where 
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ciated. His style is* remarkable for 
its wealth of simile and suggestion. 
Each sermon abounds in comparisons 
which might easily be drawn out into 
whole sermons and each page adds 
new force to his challenge to the best 
in men. 

12mo. Cloth binding. 280 pages. 
Price $1.50 net; carriage extra. 



1914] 



THE DIAL, 



161 



POSITIVELY READY! 

MRS. BRAND 

By H. A. MITCHELL KEAYS 

Author of "The Road to Damascus," "He That Eateth Bread 
with Me," "The Marriage Portion," etc. 



FEBRUARY 28 




The clergyman without scruples, the old millionaire, the young and attractive wife, 

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THE DOG AND THE CHILD 

AND THE ANCIENT SAILOR MAN 

By ROBERT ALEXANDER WASON FEBRUARY 28 

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DARKNESS AND DAWN-"Th e BookofThriik" 

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By GEORGE VAN SCHAICK 

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[ Probable price.] 




SMALL, MAYNARD & COMPANY 

BOSTON 

SEND FOR SAMPLE COPY OF "THE BOOKWORM" 



162 



THE JD1AJL 



[March 1 



Among Neale's Civil War Books 

During the past eighteen years THE NEALE PUBLISHING COMPANY has published more than 
one hundred volumes that relate to the Civil War, written by Northerners, Southerners, and 
distinterested military students and critics. To this comprehensive library important books are 
frequently being added. 



The Strategy of Robert E. Lee 

By J. J. BOWEN, formerly a member of the First Company 
of Richmond Howitzers, and for fifty years a student of 
military strategy. This volume, first published in Feb- 
ruary, 1914, comprises the only full study of the strategy 
of any of the leaders of the Civil War, either Federal or 
Confederate, and is one of the most important military 
works that relate to modern wars. Profusely illustrated. 
$2.15 by mail. 

The Shenandoah Valley and Virginia, 1861 to 1865 

By COL. SANFORD C. KELLOGG, U. S. A., Member of the 
Staff of General Sheridan. A history of the military opera- 
tions in the Shenandoah Valley. $2.15 by mail. 

Chicago Examiner : " The books that The Neale Pub- 
lishing Company are presenting to the public on war times 
and incidents are useful contributions to the records of that 
great struggle, which cannot be too voluminous. The 
younger generation is beginning to demand more of the 
kind of war-time literature that has come from the presses 
in recent years, after the practically complete obliteration 
of sectional feeling." 

General Joseph Wheeler and the Army of Tennessee 

By JOHN WITHERSPOON DuBosE. Mr. DuBose enjoyed 
an acquaintance of forty years with General Wheeler, so his 
work has an intimate touch seldom found in a life of this 
kind. $3.20 by mail. 

Antietam and the Maryland and Virginia 

Campaigns of 1862 

By ISAAC W. HEYSINGEK, M. A., M. D., member of the 
Loyal Legion and a participant in both campaigns. This 
is a defence of McClellan by a man who was in the great 
struggle and who is an admirable writer of history. $1.65 
by mail. 

Morgan's Cavalry 

By GEN. BASIL W. DUKE, who succeeded to Morgan's 
command upon the death of Morgan. Illustrated. $2.18 
by mail. 

Literary Digest : " This book is distinctly a military his- 
tory, but a military history built on unconventional lines, 
punctuated with anecdote and aglow with human interest." 

Columbia State: "Greater attention is being paid to 
Southern authors, both those of to-day and those of a past 
generation. Neale is doing a noble work in this field." 

The Attack and the Defence of Little Round Top, 
Gettysburg, July 2, 1863 

By OLIVER WILCOX NORTON, Private 83d Regiment Penn. 
Volunteers, 1st Lieut. 8th Regiment, U. S. C. Infantry, 
formerly Commander 111. Commandery, Military Order of 
the Loyal Legion of the U. S., author of " Strong Vincent 
and His Brigade at Gettysburg," "Army Letters, 1861- 
1865/' etc. Illustrated. $2.20 by mail. 



The Siege of Charleston and the Operations on the 

South Atlantic Coast During the War 

Among the States 

By SAMUEL JONES, formerly Maj.-Gen. C. S. A., who com- 
manded the Department of South Carolina, Georgia, and 
Florida. $2.20 by mail. 

With Fire and Sword 

By MAJOR S. II. M. BYERS, of General Sherman's staff. 
Being the personal experiences of the Major in the Great 
Civil War. A soldier's tale of a bloody war, full of stirring 
incidents and exciting scenes, throbbing with the enormous 
vitality of a brave man and soldier. $1.10 by mail. 

Baltimore Sun: "The Neale Publishing Company has 
certainly placed those who love the South and her glorious 
history under a debt of no small proportions." 

Cleburne and His Command 

By CAPT. IRVING A. BUCK, formerly Capt. and acting 
Adjut.-Gen. Cleburne 's Division. Large octavo. Illustrated. 
$3.20 by mail. 

Col. T. B. Roy, Chief of Staff, Hardee's Corps : " It is a 
good piece of work, well done and well worthy of doing." 

Four Years Under Marse Robert 

By MAJOR ROBERT STILES, of the Richmond Howitzers. 
The twelfth thousand. $2.15 by mail. 

New York Evening Post: " Here we have the essential, the 
distinctive spirit of the Southern soldier. As he hastened to 
the front in '61, he felt : " With me is Right. Before me is 
Duty. Behind me is Home.'' 

The Life and Services of John Newland Maffitt 

By EMMA MARTIN MAFFITT, his widow. Captain Maffitt 
commanded the famous C. S. S. Florida and Albemarle. 
Illustrated. $3.20 by mail. 

The Independent (New York) : " It is from books like 
these [published by Neale] that the future leisurely his- 
torian will draw supplies for a just and well-balanced pic- 
ture of one of the world's greatest revolutions." 

Fighting by Southern Federals 

By CHARLES C. ANDERSON. For the first time the part 
taken by Southerners in the defence of the Union is here 
adequately related. The author shows that approximately 
634,255 Southern soldiers fought for the preservation of the 
Union. $2.20 by mail. 

Memoirs 

By JOHN H. REAGAN. With a preface by Prof. Walter F. 
McCaleb, Ph.D. As Postmaster-General in the cabinet of 
President Davis, as Senator from Texas, as one whose life 
was unselfishly devoted to the South, Judge Reagan acquired 
an immense amount of information of interest. Illustrated. 
$3.20 by mail. 



Union Square 



The Neale Publishing Company 



New York 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



163 



Among Neale's Civil War Books 

The London Spectator: "'Four Years Under Marse Robert' is a book of exceptional interest 
and no mean literary charm. It deserves, together with the other works [all Neale publications] 
that we have bracketed with it, to be read and pondered over." 



The War of the 'Sixties 

Compiled by CAPT. E. R. HUTCHINS. A book that contains 
personal reminiscences of more than 100 soldiers and sailors 
Union and Confederate, making history of the best. 
$3.20 by mail. 

One of Jackson's Foot Cavalry 

By JOHN H. WOKSHAM. An old " F " and adjutant of 2lst 
Virginia Infantry. It is the war experience of a private 
soldier told with spirit and a persuasive humor truly de- 
lightful as Dickens might have written it. $2.15 by mail. 

Three Rivers: The Hudson, The Potomac, The 
James. A Retrospect of Peace and of War 

By GEN. JOSEPH P. FARLEY, U. S. A. Illustrated by the 
author from sketches from nature, ten full-page water-color 
illustrations reproduced in colors. $2.15 by mail. 

Springfield (Mass.) Republican : " A notable list of books 
dealing with the Southern cause have been published of 
recent years by The Neale Publishing Company, who might 
seem to be the publishers of the Confederacy." 

Confederate Operations in Canada and New York 

By JOHN W. HEADLEY. $2.20 by mail. 
"A startling revelation of secret war history, says the 
Pittsburg Gazette-Times, and the Savannah News adds, " So 
sensational are the revealments that the volume will, per- 
haps, interest more classess of readers the whole country 
over than any book treating of the Civil War yet published." 

Pilot Knob: The Thermopylae of the West 

By DR. CYRUS A. PETERSON and JOSEPH MILLS HANSON, 
is an important addition to the history of the war, by two 
Northerners, both writers of distinction. They have utilized 
the accumulated data, notes, memoranda, and correspond- 
ence with respect to the great battle, together with the 
narratives of more than 100 survivors of the Pilot Knob 
conflict. It is the only important book on Pilot Knob that 
has been published. $2.15 by mail. 

Norfolk Virginian-Pilot : " We have commended here- 
tofore the service rendered to Southern literature by this 
firm in the encouragement it has extended to authorship in 
the fields of history and biography. Within a few years 
past the works of this character issued from the Neale 
presses would form a valuable library of themselves." 

Mosby's Men 

By JOHN H. ALEXANDER, of Mosby's command. $1.65 by 
mail. 

St. Louis Republic : " The romantic flavor of the free 
lance, the lilt of the adventurer, and the bold freedom of 
the raider swing with a rhythmic ardor through ' Mosby's 
Men.' It is a soldier book from the front to the back cover." 



Recollections of a Confederate Staff Officer 

By GEN. G. M. SORREL, Lieut.-Col. and Chief of Staff 
Longstreet's First Army Corps, Brigadier-General com- 
manding Sorrel's Brigade, A. P. Hill's Third Army Corps. 
With introduction by Senator John W. Daniel. $2.15 by mail. 
Baltimore Star : " This company has done more than any 
other contemporary publishing house to enrich the literature 
of the South, and its publications deservedly rank high in 
all the aspects of bookmaking." 

The Battle of Gettysburg : The Crest Wave of 
the Civil War 

By FRANCIS MARSHAL, a Union participant. This volume 
is the latest of the works on Gettysburg to be published, 
and is one of the more important books on the subject, the 
interest in which yearly becomes greater. The work is 
illustrated by approximately 50 illustrations, consisting of 
maps and portraits. No library of Civil War literature is 
complete without this volume. $2.15 by mail. 

Three Years in the Confederate Horse Artillery 

By GEORGE M. NEESE, a gunner in Chew's Battery. $2.15 
by mail. 

The Sovereignty of the States 

By WALTER NEALE. A study in State Rights and in the 
political history of the American States, from the genesis 
of the States, six hundred years ago, during the reign of 
Edward III., down to the present time. $1.00 by mail. 

New York Herald : " A book well worth the attention of 
all thoughtful students of American history." 

The War Between the Union and the Confederacy 

By GEN. WM. C. GATES, formerly Col. C. S. A., Gov. of Ala., 
Brig.-Gen. in the war with Spain. Illustrated. 808 pp. 
$3.26 by mail. 

Portland Oregonian: "High standards have been reached 
by this house in the fields of Southern history and biography, 
and the result is that discriminating readers can reach well- 
balanced conclusions instead of one-sided arguments on 
American History.'' 

A True Story of Andersonville Prison 

By JAMES M. PAGE, Lieutenant Company A, Sixth Mich. 
Cav., in collaboration with M. J. HALEY. A Union officer, 
who was imprisoned in Andersonville defends Major Wirz. 
$1.65 by mail. 

Chicago Record-Herald: "One marvels that such con- 
vincing testimony has been so long withheld." 

Hood's Texas Brigade 

By JUDGE J. B. POLLEY. Illustrated. $8.25 by mail. 

New York Sun: "A most valuable contribution to the 
war history." 



Union Square 



The Neale Publishing Company 



New York 



164 



THE DIAL 



[March 1, 1914 



Important New and Forthcoming Macmillan Publications 



TRAVEL. DESCRIPTION 

THE PHILIPPINES: Past and Present. By 
DEAN C. WORCESTER (Secretary of the Interior 
Philippines 1901-13). A timely, valuable work accu- 
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Two vols. Richly illustrated. $6.00 net 

SOUTH AMERICA. Observations and Impres- 
sions. By Viscount BRYCE. A new, revised edition 
of this standard work. $2. SO net 



FICTION 

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THE POSSESSED. By FYODOR DOSTOEVSKY. 

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THE RECONNAISSANCE. By GORDON GAR- 
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a vivacious story of adventure. 

Colored frontispiece. $1.35 net 

THE TREASURE. KATHLEEN NORRIS'S New 
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POETRY. DRAMA 

THE FOOTHILLS OF PARNASSUS. By JOHN 
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Entered as Second-Class Matter October 8, 1892, at the Post Office 
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No. 665. 



MARCH 1, 1914. 



Vol. LVL 



CONTENTS. 



'THE CHARM OF AMERICANS' 



PAGE 
. 165 



A GREAT CONTEMPORARY NOVEL. W. E. B. 167 

CASUAL COMMENT 169 

Encouragement to potential poets An artist in 
typography. The secret of literary style. latitude 
in Latin pronunciation. The latest French Acade- 
mician. The Carlyle of myth and the Carlyle of 
reality. Accessible foreign literature of our time. 
Unsanctifieduses of sacred literature. Amayorwith 
no fondness for literature. Japanese literary likings. 

COMMUNICATIONS 172 

Josiah Renick Smith. W. S. Johnson. 
Hamlet's "Soliloquy" and Claudius. C. M. Street. 
Another Auxiliary Language. A. L. Guerard. 
Syndicate Service and "Tainted Book Reviews." 
W. E. Woodward. 

AN IDEALIST IN PRACTICAL AFFAIRS. Percy 

F. Bicknell 174 

RECORDS OF ANCIENT GREECE. Josiah Eenick 

Smith 176 

SYNGE AND THE IRISH THEATRE. James W. 

Tupper . . . ;^. . ,. 177 

THE CONCLUSION OF TWO IMPORTANT AMER- 
ICAN HISTORIES. David Y. Thomas . . .179 

THE KAISER : HIS POLICIES AND HIS ASSO- 
CIATES. Frederic Austin Ogg 181 

THE VARIORUM "CYMBEL1NE." Samuel A. 

Tannenbaum 184 

BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS 188 

Faint praise for Nietzsche. Public opinion and 
popular government. A history of the followers of 
George Fox. In the footsteps of Pompilia and 
Caponsacchi. An Oxford anthology of Canadian 
verse. Old-time methods of recruiting. More 
gropings in the fog of psychical research. A com- 
pelling plea for social justice. Some of the quali- 
ties of good literature. The scenes of Mr. Hardy's 
novels. Biology and the Feminist Movement. 
Records of primitive man. 

BRIEFER MENTION 192 

NOTES 193 

TOPICS IN MARCH PERIODICALS 194 

LIST OF NEW BOOKS . . 195 



"THE CHARM OF AMERICANS." 

The last place in the world in which we would 
look for a tribute to "the charm of Americans " 
is "The Saturday Review," but such a tribute 
occurs in a recent issue, bestowed upon us by 
one of the regular staff contributors, apropos 
of an American play given in London. The 
passage reads as follows : 

" The charm of Americans is that they are still able 
to discover and to enjoy things that were long ago ex- 
hausted in Europe. Anybody who has heard an Amer- 
ican quote from Tennyson will know what I mean. The 
intellectual world is still quite new to them. When they 
succeed in annexing for themselves a new idea or in 
experiencing a new emotion which we, of course, have 
long since explored and exhausted we feel the same 
pleasure in their achievement, the same delight in their 
power to take it seriously and to enjoy it, as we feel in 
watching the progress of a healthy baby. American 
sentimentality is incident to American nonage. The 
American man of sentiment is not a gross and emotionally 
flabby man watering at the eye from habitual quiescence 
of the inhibitory nerves. He is a nice little boy woefully 
piping at a tale of babes in the wood and how the kind 
robin redbreasts covered them up with leaves." 

Now this is very nice, and we fully appreciate 
the kindly estimate of our fresh and innocent 
youthfulness. Of course, the writer does not 
really mean it; he is simply the victim of a 
trick that instinct, or habit, or subliminal con- 
sciousness, or something, plays upon most of the 
writer folk. A man sits down at his desk to 
compose, say, a leading article. He has his 
theme in mind, and a general notion of the 
course he wishes his development to take. But 
his opening sentences are somehow given an 
unintended twist, which commits his thought to 
an unanticipated sequence of reflection. There 
they stand, in black and white, and they unmis- 
takably indicate a "lead" that was never con- 
templated, but must obviously be followed, for 
the sake of logic, to some sort of outcome. He 
wishes he had begun differently, but he cannot 
escape from the snare of his own setting ; he is 
like Goethe's Zauberlehrling, who has worked 
the incantation, and cannot remember the word 
that is potent to dissolve the spell. So he 
watches, with a kind of dismay, the things that 
the promptings of his tutelary daemon force him 
to set down, hoping that some lucky inspiration 
will eventually enable him to muddle through, 
and get back into the path originally planned. 
After a while, he gets captivated by his own 



166 



THE DIAL 



[March 1 



cleverness, and the fascination of the ideas he 
finds himself expressing dulls his sense of re- 
sponsibility ; he grows reckless, and determines 
to see the thing through, no matter what the 
consequences. When his disquisition is com- 
plete, he gasps at the realization of the con- 
clusions reached by the pen that has run away 
with him, so different they are from any that he 
had expected to reach, but he is not left without 
a thrill of intellectual satisfaction with the fin- 
ished product, so neatly do its parts fit together, 
and so plausible seems the whole argument. 

This, we take it, is the explanation of our 
quoted paragraph. The tricksy spirit that 
twisted the opening sentence, not the writer, is 
responsible for all that follows. Otherwise, the 
traditional English view of the American as a 
shrewd and somewhat cynical person, preco- 
ciously sharp, and rotten before he is ripe, 
would have emerged from the portraiture. The 
" healthy baby " and " nice little boy " concep- 
tion would have had no chance at all had it not 
been for that fatal opening. One of the purest 
and at the same time most persistent delusions 
concerning us is that we are a young people, 
whereas we are in a general sense the heir of all 
the ages, and in a narrower sense the inheritor 
of fifteen hundred years of English tradition 
and development. Our children study the his- 
tory of England as if it were the history of a 
foreign people, although down to the seventeenth 
century it is as strictly our own history as it is of 
our kinsmen who have remained in the ancestral 
home. It is true that we are a transplanted 
stock, and that means a certain temporary re- 
tardation, but it does not mean a reversion to 
childhood. The transplanted tree does not be- 
come a seedling by the process ; rather does it 
strike down its old roots in the new soil for a 
new phase of vigorous growth. So far from 
acquiring new characteristics from the changed 
conditions, it tends to perpetuate the old ones 
beyond their natural term. Our seventeenth 
century American ancestors were belated Eliza- 
bethans, and even in the early nineteenth cen- 
tury we were reproducing phases of life and 
thought that were characteristic of the England 
of a century before. To change the metaphor, 
we emigrant Englishmen donned a new suit of 
clothes when we left the mother country, but 
the youth who does that is by no means restored 
to the conditions of the cradle. His forward 
growth may be checked, but he does not grow 
backward. 

Especially in our intellectual outlook, the 
"nice little boy " theory is a delicious absurdity. 



The theology of the Mathers and the meta- 
physics of Jonathan Edwards, the most typical 
of our early intellectual products, were, to say 
the least, not nursery imaginings. Far from 
being milk for babes, they were, if anything, 
meat too tough or gristly for the robust diges- 
tion of full-grown men. The people who bought 
copies of Blackstone's Commentary, when that 
work was the last word in literary novelty, in 
numbers beyond those that found purchasers in 
the country of its origin, were not in their non- 
age. Neither were the framers of the Consti- 
tution, the authors of "The Federalist," and 
the great jurists of our earlier years, children 
who needed instruction in any political school 
of the old world. No modern country ever saw 
a group of men of greater intellectual stature 
than these. The notion that the new ideas and 
the new emotions that Americans have from 
time to time " annexed " to themselves are only 
those which Englishmen "have long since ex- 
plored and exhausted" is about the most bril- 
liant example of fatuous insularity that we have 
ever encountered. When our intellectual life 
came to full blossom fifty or more years ago, one 
of its most marked traits was its eager receptivity 
for the new forces that were stirring the waters 
of the world's thought. The Concord philoso- 
phers were not toying with the discarded play- 
things of old-world thinkers ; rather were they 
the pioneers of an intellectual movement in 
which England lagged far behind. In literary 
criticism throughout most of the nineteenth 
century, America marched distinctly in the 
vanguard. "It is probably not rash to say," 
with Dr. Cairns, " that the judgment of to-day 
upon Byron, Wordsworth, Scott, and others was 
more accurately expressed by the best American 
criticism than in any reviews of their works that 
appeared in Great Britain during the same 
time." 

And thus it has been ever since. What Poe 
said in all sincerity about Tennyson no English- 
man at that time had dared to say. This fact 
slightly dulls the point of our Saturday Re- 
viewer's slur about "anybody who has heard 
an American quote from Tennyson." That 
great poet may be "exhausted ' in the opinion 
of super-sophisticated modern Englishmen, but 
the acceptance of Poe's verdict does not exactly 
appeal to the sound critical sense as a mark of 
juvenile ineptitude. There are other examples 
a-plenty. Carlyle first found a serious audience 
on this side of the Atlantic, and England 
learned from us the true greatness of that spirit. 
The gigantic intellectual synthesis of Herbert 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



167 



Spencer might never have been achieved without 
the support that came to him from this country. 
Omar Khayyam was discovered here more com- 
pletely than in his own country, and FitzGerald 
used to refer to himself as " the great American 
poet." Americans did rather more than English- 
men to force the acceptance of Ibsen upon the 
English-speaking world, and it was from Amer- 
ica that the philosophy of pragmatism, under 
the banners of Pierce and James, marched forth 
upon the invasion of the world of philosophical 
thought. 

Somewhat to our surprise, we have come out 
just about where we intended to. It all depends 
upon how one gets started. Our starting- 
point was found in a vehement reaction from 
the absurdities of our critic. But if his starting- 
point had been different, there would have been 
no need for all this pother. Suppose, for 
example, that his opening sentence had been thus 
framed : " The charm of Americans is that they 
have an alert mental attitude which enables 
them to grasp new ideas and recognize new 
forms of artistic beauty a little in advance of 
their mere cautious English brethren." With 
that preamble, the conclusions we have arrived 
at would have flowed from the Saturday Re- 
viewer's pen as readily and as inevitably as 
from our own. But then, we should have had 
nothing to write about. 



A GREAT CONTEMPORARY NOVEL. 

The first of the three volumes containing " Jean- 
Christophe" in its English version appeared during 
the winter of 1910; the last, something less than a 
year ago. If the book bore any relation to the gener- 
ality of current fiction, some apology for dealing with 
it so tardily might be in order. But when one has 
to do with a work of genius, apologies may as well 
be dispensed with. Compared with the great mass 
of current novels, " Jean-Christophe " is as an oak- 
tree rising above a field of summer grass. We should 
like to have been among the earliest to proclaim its 
qualities ; that privilege having been missed, we can 
at least avoid a place among the tardiest. 

Notwithstanding its recognition by Mr. Edmund 
Gosse and other high critical authorities as " the first 
great novel of the new century," the book seems as 
yet to have found only a small fraction of its destined 
English audience. Critical superlatives are too much 
soiled by ignoble use to carry much force nowadays ; 
and as much as ever in the past, genius is still left 
to make its own way as it can. No doubt the unusual 
bulk of " Jean-Christophe " has deterred many pos- 
sible readers. A generation that is accustomed to con- 
sidering its fiction, like its pills, the better for being 
readily bolted is not likely to look with favor upon 



a novel of seventeen hundred rather closely printed 
pages. But for our part, we should be glad if the three 
volumes had been multiplied into thirty. Indeed, 
the same material, the same wealth of character, 
the same reservoir of ideas, might well have served 
a less rigorous artist for thirty novels instead of one. 
Into the making of "Jean-Christophe" has gone the 
greater part of its author's life. The French original, 
in ten volumes, occupied nearly a decade in the pub- 
lishing; and M. Holland has said that the book was 
in conception many years before the first page was 
written, "Christophe only set out on his journey 
when I had been able to see the end of it for him." 
"The writers of to-day," says Christophe to his 
friend Olivier, in one of their discussions, 

" Waste their energy in describing human rarities, or cases 
that are common enough in the abnormal groups of men 
and women living on the fringe of the great society of active, 
healthy human beings. Since they themselves have shut 
themselves off from life, leave them and go where there are 
men. Show the life of every day to the men and women of 
every day : that life is deeper and more vast than the sea. 
The smallest among you bears the infinite in his soul. The 
infinite is in every man who is simple enough to be a man, 
in the lover, in the friend, in the woman who pays with her 
pangs for the radiant glory of the day of childbirth, in every 
man and every woman who lives in obscure self-sacrifice 
which will never be known to another soul : it is the very 
river of life, flowing from one to another, from one to another, 
and back again and round. . . . Write the simple life of one 
of these simple men, write the peaceful epic of the days and 
nights following, following one like to another, and yet all 
different, all sons of the same mother, from the dawning of 
the first day in the life of the world. Write it simply, as 
simple as its own unfolding. Waste no thought upon the 
word, and the letter, and the subtle vain researches in which 
the force of the artists of to-day is turned to naught. You 
are addressing all men : use the language of all men. There 
are no words noble or vulgar ; there is no style chaste or 
impure : there are only words and styles which say or do not 
say exactly what they have to say. Be sound and thorough 
in all you do: think just what you think, and feel just 
what you feel. Let the rhythm of your heart prevail in your 
writings ! The style is the soul." 

This is M. Holland's literary creed, and out of it 
has come <- Jean-Christophe." There is nothing of 
conventional plot in the book. Its connecting thread 
throughout is the history of a human soul, the 
soul of Jean-Christophe Kraft, native of Germany, 
the descendant of several generations of musicians 
and himself destined to be the greatest musician of 
them all. In physique and will he does not belie 
his surname; but his is the strength out of which 
comes sweetness, a strength that carries him 
unconquered, though not unscathed, through battle 
with all the forces that can be sent against a man's 
spirit, a strength that inspires and invigorates 
all who come within its influence. Concerning the 
origin of his book, M. Holland has written: "I was 
stifling ... in a hostile moral atmosphere, I wanted 
to breathe, I wanted to react against a sickly civ- 
ilization. ... I needed a hero of pure eyes and 
pure heart, with a soul sufficiently unblemished to 
have the right to speak, and with a voice strong 
enough to make itself heard." Such a hero is Jean- 
Christophe; but his purity of eye and heart contains 
no trace of pharisaism. He is a creature of stormy 



168 



THE DIAL 



[March 1 



impulses and emotions, who stumbles and blunders 
as frequently as any, yet who never makes terms 
with the enemy, whether within or without. 

But the book as a whole is far more than a biog- 
raphy of Jean-Christophe Kraft. It is an analysis, 
a synthesis, a criticism of present- day life in all of 
its most significant phases. It is an illuminating 
estimate of European culture, a sane and penetra- 
tive discussion of social tendencies, an inspiring 
handbook of ethics, a profound and eloquent treatise 
on music, and much else besides. We doubt if 
any other writer since Tolstoy has been so success- 
ful in clarifying the welter of our contemporary 
civilization, "beneath the chaos of facts perceiv- 
ing the little undistinguished gleam which reveals 
the progress of the history of the human mind." 
Weavers, all of us, of the great fabric of humanity, 
we are taken for a moment from the tiny segment 
of our individual labor, and the wide tangle of loose 
ends which shows for us as the collective labor of 
our generation, and are granted a glimpse of the 
ordered design that is slowly taking form on the 
other side of the fabric. And this, in our opinion, 
is the noblest service that literature can perform. 

" Jean-Christophe " is thus before all else an inter- 
pretation of life, a "novel of ideas" in the truest 
sense. But for all that, its chief concern is not 
with the "intellectuals" but with commonest and 
lowliest humanity. The kingdom it portrays is in- 
herited not by the successful and the arrogant the 
so-called strong men who are held up so generally in 
life and in literature as patterns of human conduct, 
but always by the meek and the poor in spirit. 
Nothing in the book is more typical of its author's 
spirit than such a passage as this: 

" Christophe felt utterly weary of the fevered, sterile 
world, the conflict between egoisms and ideas, the little 
groups of human beings deeming themselves above hu- 
manity, the ambitious, the thinkers, the artists who think 
themselves the brain of the world, and are no more than a 
haunting, evil dream. And all his love went out to those 
thousands of simple souls, of every nation, whose lives burn 
away in silence, pure flames of kindness, faith, and sacrifice. 
the heart of the world." 

It is the ambition of M. Holland's art to help the 
people ''to live, to correct their errors, to conquer 
their prejudices, and to enlarge from day to day their 
thoughts and their hearts." Understanding as clearly 
as any the futility and danger of many "popular" 
tendencies, he yet never reacts into that attitude of 
harsh intolerance or brutal indifference so common 
among the intellectual classes of to-day. It is his 
belief that the individualist who cuts himself off 
from sympathetic contact with the mass of mankind 
repudiates thereby the first law of Christianity. " If 
any man," says M. Holland, "would see the living 
God face to face, he must seek him, not in the empty 
firmament of his own brain, but in the love of men." 
As in every great work of art, this pervading 
quality of humaneness is here secondary only to the 
quality of absolute sincerity. A love of truth as pas- 
sionate as Ruskin's, as uncompromising as Carlyle's, 
glows through every page. With TeufelsdrOckh, 



Jean-Christophe never fails to cry : '< Truth ! though 
the heavens crush me for following her: no False- 
hood! though a whole celestial Lubberland were 
the price of Apostasy." This high sincerity could 
scarcely fail to be inherent in a book so largely the 
distillation of spiritual experience, so little the pro- 
duct of artifice. The work was conceived, as we have 
seen, in a spirit of intense reaction to falsehood and 
cant. Its author is one who has evidently known 
the acutest mental and physical suffering, but who 
yet has courage "to look anguish in the face and 
venerate it." In a day when there is so widespread 
a tendency not only to repudiate the moral value of 
suffering, but to fasten upon it a definite stigma of 
shame, such a courage is as rare as it is salutary. 

It should not be inferred that "Jean-Christophe" 
is any the less appealing and readable as a book of 
fiction because of the higher qualities emphasized 
in the foregoing, though of course the book could 
never interest those who are content with the staple 
product of our fiction factories. Even should the 
cultivated reader wish to skip rather freely, in the 
residue he will find a wealth of rare treasure. We 
know of few pages in literature more subtly and 
tenderly sympathetic than the record of Christophe's 
early childhood, more deeply stirring than the spir- 
itual battle depicted in "The Burning Bush," more 
poignantly beautiful than the account of Christophe's 
passing in the final chapter. And what a wonderful 
pageant of human character moves through the book, 
what a gallery of vivid and varied portraiture! 
Who that has come to know them will ever forget 
Jean Michel, Gottfried, old Schulz, Olivier, Chris- 
tophe himself, among the men; Louisa, Sabine, 
Antoinette, Grazia, among the women ? 

In conclusion, we shall venture the statement that 
with this work M. Holland takes his place in con- 
temporary literature as the spiritual and artistic 
successor of Tolstoy. He becomes the standard- 
bearer around whom will rally the idealistic forces 
of the new century. More profoundly than any other 
yet offered by this century, the gospel he has given 
us will inspire and direct those who are toiling in 
the cause of human brotherhood, " the free spirits 
of all nations who suffer, fight, and will prevail." 
That he assumes no authority, and claims no fol- 
lowers, only makes his leadership the more secure. 
He would have us understand almost before all else 
that human progress, like life itself, is not a smooth- 
flowing development, but a series of metamorphoses 
or transmutations ; that each generation must wage 
its own battle for its own truth, and then without 
bitterness give place to a younger generation which 
perchance will carry the combat to a far different 
quarter of the field. To fight is the great duty ; to 
have fought, the only honor. The issue is always 
in the future ; the hope is always with the new gen- 
eration. In no other way can we more fittingly take 
leave of this noble book than in the words of its 
author, appended as a preface to the final volume : 
" I have written the tragedy of a generation which is 
nearing its end. I have sought to conceal neither its vices 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



169 



nor its virtues, its profound sadness, its chaotic pride, its 
heroic efforts, Sts despondency beneath the overwhelming 
burden of a super-human task, the burden of the whole 
world, the reconstruction of the world's morality, its esthetic 
principles, its faith, the forging of a new humanity. Such 
we have been. 

" You young men, you men of to-day, march over us, 
trample us under your feet, and press onward. Be ye greater 
and happier than we. 

" For myself, I bid the soul that was mine farewell. I cast 
it from me like an empty shell. Life is a succession of 
deaths and resurrections. We must die, Christophe, to be 
born again." 

W. R. B. 



CASUAL COMMENT. 



ENCOURAGEMENT TO POTENTIAL POETS and other 
persons of bright promise, rather than the recognition 
of completed achievement, is now declared by one 
of the witnesses of Alfred Nobel's will to have been 
the Swedish philanthropist's primary object in estab- 
lishing the series of prizes bearing his name. Mr. 
Leonard Hwass has contributed to the German 
newspaper, Die Woche, a noteworthy article, repub- 
lished in translation by the New York "Evening 
Post," in which he deplores the failure of the ex- 
ecutors to " carry out the will and real intent of the 
great departed." After coining the term "social- 
economist" as indicative of "the entire aim and 
spirit of the man," the writer continues: "He was a 
quiet, high-minded, Teutonic aristocrat, an individ- 
ualist of the first water, who never fixed his hopes 
upon the elevation of the masses, but upon the 
encouragement of individuals of high social value. 
To them he wished, through his will, to be an endur- 
ing friend and patron; because he recognized that 
they are the real dispensers of blessings and hap- 
piness to mankind. And because he knew from his 
own bitter struggles how particularly difficult it is 
for the noble-minded, often so sensitively and deli- 
cately organized, to make their way, he wished, as 
he repeatedly emphatically remarked, 'to lighten 
the life of the dreamers.' . . . By these 'dreamers' 
he meant spirits bent upon high ideals, poets, and 
inventors, who, unpractical and devoid of means, 
often go to wrack and ruin in the fulness of their 
mental powers." Accordingly the Nobel prize, as the 
writer feels himself justified in asserting, "should 
never be bestowed as an honorary prize, but as a 
promotive prize for the encouragement of new and 
beneficent work." And further: "According to my 
impressions, Nobel, who himself wrote some beau- 
tiful poems, unfortunately unknown, in the Swedish 
and English tongues, meant by the term 'poet' 
rather a noble-minded lyric poet, who lifts us to ideal 
heights, and who rarely possesses much of this world's 
goods, than a dramatist or novelist enjoying a large 
income. The deciding factor was, at all events, not 
to be fame, but a creative spirit evidently striving 
for lofty ends. In any case, world-renowned person- 
alities, with an assured future, should be excluded." 
Especially unwise, he thinks, was the bestowal of the 



prize upon the aged Mommsen and the venerable 
Carducci, and upon "the Pole, Sienkiewicz, who 
resided in a knightly castle, and upon the Indian 
patrician, Tagore." But if fame is to be distrusted 
as an evidence of a man's desert in the sense in 
which the prize-bestowers should look for desert, 
how shall the suitable candidates be brought to the 
attention of these Stockholm gentlemen? In this 
wise: "The press of all countries should cooperate 
here by taking a yearly vote among their circle of 
readers, to select a forceful, strenuous spirit that is 
still struggling with fate, and raise him on his coun- 
try's shield." Even so it would be a miracle if modest 
merit always or often got its desert; but it is to be 
hoped that the words of Mr. Hwass, who professes 
to have had intimate acquaintance with Nobel and 
with his purpose in founding the prizes called by his 
name, may not fall on deaf ears. 



AN ARTIST IN TYPOGRAPHY, and a man of culture 
and fine sympathies, was taken from the world of 
books and publishing in the recent death of Theodore 
Low De Vinne, head of the De Vinne Press and 
author of noteworthy books on the history and prac- 
tice of printing. "Mr. De Vinne was a kind man 
as well as a great expert," says Mr. S. S. McClure 
of his one-time employer, in the autobiography now 
appearing serially; and "the De Vinne Press was 
one of the best, if not the best, printing houses in 
the world" as it still is. "One of the world's 
foremost experts, a wide scholar as well as a great 
printer," is the further description of him by the 
same competent authority. Eighty-five years ago 
last Christmas Mr. De Vinne was born at Stamford, 
Connecticut. Honorary degrees from Columbia and 
Yale attest the acquisition of a good education on 
his part, however limited his formal schooling. He 
early learned the printer's craft, and entered the 
employment of Francis Hart in New York. Rising 
ere long to the position of partner in the business, 
and, upon Hart's death, organizing the firm of 
Theodore L. De Vinne & Co., he became a recog- 
nized leader in the improvement of typography and 
formed that association with the Century Company 
which appears to have been advantageous to both 
parties. He was an active member of the Typothetae, 
of the Aldine Association, of the Grolier Club (at 
one time its president), the Authors' Club, and the 
Century Club, while various foreign societies were 
glad to extend to him the honor of membership. His 
first book was a "Printers' Price List," 1869; then 
followed, at intervals, "Invention of Printing," 
"Historic Types," "Christopher Plantin," "Plain 
Printing Types," "Correct Composition," "Title 
Pages." " Book Composition," and " Notable Printers 
of Italy during the Fifteenth Century." His "Cor- 
rect Composition" is an excellent manual for both 
printers and authors; it supplied a real need, and 
will not soon be superseded. A good portrait of 
this scholarly, broad-minded, progressive, and gentle- 
mannered master of typography may be seen in the 



170 



THE DIAL 



[March 1 



February issue of "McClure's Magazine," in the 
chapter there printed of Mr. McClure's autobiog- 
raphy- . . . 

THE SECRET OF LITERARY STYLE is perhaps much 
less of a secret than most of us suspect. A manner 
of written expression at once simple and forceful, 
lucid and picturesque, colored with imagination, 
spiced with wit, and touched with humor, does not 
come by accident or heredity or as a gift from the 
gods ; it is something achieved by diligent effort on 
the part of one who has first been kindled with 
enthusiasm for an unattainable ideal of literary art. 
The late Goldwin Smith was the master of a style 
so nearly perfect, in its kind, as to render the reader 
all but unconscious of its presence: the writer's 
thought conveyed itself to others almost without 
their being aware of the medium of conveyance. 
But this apparent ease of utterance was the result of 
years of painstaking attention to verbal detail. His 
secretary and literary executor, Mr. Arnold Haul- 
tain, gives repeated instances, in his Boswellian 
account of the eminent publicist's daily life and con- 
versation, of his scrupulous care in expressing him- 
self for publication. Near the middle of his volume 
Mr. Haultain says: "It is great fun and it is in- 
structive to watch these little things. I wonder 
if many octogenarian writers take this care in their 
style. The astonishing thing to me is the extraordi- 
nary simplicity of the product! The Chief will 
think out an article, a little short article, for a news- 
paper; will then write it out in his own hand at 
eight o'clock in the morning; will dictate it to me 
at 9:15; will carefully, most carefully, go over my 
MS., correcting, altering, adding, and excising ; will 
demand proofs and revises to be sent to him (by a 
special messenger often at ten cents per special 
messenger) ; will then go down to the newspaper 
office and see another revise ; will correct this ; and, 
if he does not demand yet another revise, it is simply 
because he relies upon my seeing to it that his ulti- 
mate revision is faithfully carried out by the printers 
in the composing room; and not until I come down- 
stairs and report that 'everything is all right' does 
he slowly rise and totter out of the office. This at 
eighty ! What would I not give to have seen him 
at work at thirty ! " Surely, we have here one im- 
bued with the belief that easy writing is hard reading. 


LATITUDE IN LATIN PRONUNCIATION has gone so 
far, with the Roman, the Continental, the English, 
and sundry other methods putting forth their claims, 
that no two Latinists, meeting by chance, can now 
feel any certainty of being understood by each other 
if the exigencies of the occasion should call for that 
famous Plutarchian quotation, Veni, vidi, vici, or if 
one should wish to compliment the other by calling 
him,justum et tenacem propositi virum, or if either 
should desire to give expression to the profound truth, 
qui facit per aliumfacitper se. Some of us, in our 
occasional airing of such Latin as we possess, first 
rapidly figure out the probable decade or lustrum in 



which our hearer's thumbing of Cae*ar and Virgil 
was cast, and then shape our pronunciation after the 
old or the new fashion as the case may seem to 
require. In doubtful instances, or before a mixed 
audience, we sometimes pronounce our Latin first 
in the style of our grandfathers, especially if any of 
our grandfathers or their contemporaries are present, 
and then, turning with an indulgent smile toward 
our juniors, we render our Ciceronian eloquence in 
the so-called Roman manner, for their benefit. But 
this system has its obvious disadvantages, besides 
its waste of time and breath. In England, the strong- 
hold of conservatism in Latin pronunciation as in 
certain other particulars, the battle of the rival 
schools is still in progress, although on this side of 
the Atlantic the old pronunciation long ago yielded 
to the new. At a recent meeting of the Classical 
Association at Bedford College, the president, Sir 
Frederic Kenyon, announced that the Roman method 
was well in the lead. But Oxford clings stubbornly 
to the English fashion, as was to have been expected. 
English Latin is, obviously, the furthest remove from 
Ciceronian in its effect on the ear, though no one 
really knows how Cicero pronounced his words. 
Readers of Sir Walter Scott will recall that in " The 
Fortunes of Nigel" King James vaunts the indisput- 
able fact that Scotch Latin could be understood all 
over Europe, but English Latin nowhere outside of 
England. A universally intelligible pronunciation 
is certainly a desideratum. 



THE LATEST FRENCH ACADEMICIAN, M. Alfred 
Capus, is as popular a playwright in his own smiling, 
gently ironical, always amusing vein, as is M. Eugene 
Brieux (the next preceding writer for the stage 
elected to membership in the same illustrious com- 
pany) in his intensely earnest and morally purposeful 
dramatic compositions. The one writes for those 
who have seen the world and its follies, and who 
refuse to take life too seriously ; the other addresses 
those who have the tremendous seriousness of youth, 
whatever their age may be, and are bent on reform- 
ing their fellow-men. Of course, since the plays of 
M. Capus are written for the sophisticated and 
that, too, the sophisticated Parisians they contain 
much that the average Anglo-Saxon theatre-goer 
rightly regards as in questionable taste and not pro- 
vocative of wholesome mirth. Moreover, their style 
is so emphatically French, their wit so merged with 
the medium in which it is expressed, that the peculiar 
excellence of the original is largely lost in translation. 
Hence the fewness of the attempts thus far made to 
transplant the products of this clever Frenchman's 
genius, and hence, too, the inconsiderable success 
attending these attempts. But it is interesting to 
note, as an evidence of the rare quality of the pieces 
that come so plentifully from the pen of M. Capus, 
that the exacting M. Bourget praises him warmly, 
and even testified to his high opinion of the man by 
urging his candidacy upon the Academicians. " He 
thinks in French and he writes in French,*' declared 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



171 



M. Bourget; and no one will dispute him. A few 
biographical details may be not out of place, in clos- 
ing. Vincent Marie Alfred Capus was born Nov. 25, 
1858; was educated at Aix-en- Provence, and at the 
Lyce'e Condorcet, Paris ; is an Officer of the Legion 
of Honor, and has published " Qui Perd Gagne," 
"Monsieur Veut Rire," "Anne'es d'Aventure," 
"Notre Epoque et le The'atre," and many plays. 



THE CABLYLE OF MYTH AND THE CAELYJLE OF 
REALITY have by this time become inextricably 
intertwisted, thanks largely to Froude's juggling 
with the records, and also to the world's well-known 
fondness for discovering or inventing faults and 
foibles in the great. The Carlyle of unendurable 
domestic asperities is the real Carlyle to many, 
rather than the Carlyle described by Emerson as 
living in a state of beautiful harmony and mutual 
affection with his brilliant and attractive wife. 
Mr. J. P. Collins, in a London letter to the Boston 
*' Transcript," brings forward the testimony (new, 
perhaps, to many readers) of the maid Jessie who 
waited on the Carlyles in the last years of their 
life together. " I could have lived with him all my 
days," she asserted, "and it always makes me 
angry when I read, as I sometimes do, that he was 
* bad-tempered' and 'gey ill to get on with.' He 
was the very reverse, in my opinion. I never 
would have left him, had I not been going to get 
married." Another glimpse of a not unamiable 
Carlyle is given us by this same Jessie (later, Mrs. 
Broadfoot, of Thornhill, Dumfriesshire). An Amer- 
ican lion-hunter insisted on seeing the great man, 
and would not be turned away. Finally, in des- 
peration, says the quondam maid-servant, " Carlyle 
told me to send him in, and when he went in Carlyle 
just stood up from his desk in the back dining- 
room, in his long dressing-gown, and met him with, 
'Well, here I am! Take a good look at me.' The 
gentleman was very much taken aback; but he must 
have pleased Carlyle, for I remember he stayed and 
talked quite a long time." 



ACCESSIBLE FOREIGN LITERATURE OF OUR TIME 
accessible in the sense of translated and procur- 
able from any good bookstore or public library 
is richer and better worth reading than is suspected 
by those whose habitual book-diet is the latest 
American or English novel. A pamphlet issued by 
the Omaha Public Library and entitled "Foreign 
Literature in Translation," by Miss Zora I. Shields 
of the English department in the Omaha High 
School, presents an inviting array of modern Euro- 
pean (continental) authors whom the translator's 
art has introduced to the English-speaking public. 
Comment and criticism accompany the list of works, 
these being exclusively novels and dramas, and it 
is evident that the writer has read and enjoyed the 
books she invites others to read and enjoy. In 
closing, she urges upon her readers as a duty, "to 
stop wasting time and money on our own empty 
popular novels and magazine stories "; she points to 



the opportunity, so freely offered, "to read and 
know books which open up a new heaven"; and she 
hopes for an eventual fusing of " Norse enthusiasm, 
German philosophy, French artistry, Russian mys- 
ticism, and Latin emotion, into a new American 
race, American literature." Translators are fallible 
mortals, and translations often leave much to be 
desired, but few of us would have any considerable 
acquaintance with the world's literature outside our 
own language if we depended solely on our own 
knowledge of foreign tongues to help us to that 
acquaintance. 

UNSANCTIFIED USES OF SACRED LITERATURE are 
to be regretfully noted in reading the interesting 
annual report of the librarian of the General Theo- 
logical Seminary. Even a collection of books de- 
signed primarily to meet the needs of prospective 
preachers of the gospel is not exempt from losses due 
to unregistered borrowing a permissible euphem- 
ism for a shorter and uglier term. A rare edition of 
St. Augustine's "Confessions," for instance, would 
have another beside its literary value that might 
tempt to its removal from the shelves, for purposes 
wholly unconnected with those of study. But, what- 
ever the cause, more than one hundred volumes that 
have disappeared in the last fifteen years from their 
proper places in the Seminary library are now at last, 
in despair of their reappearance, definitely stricken 
from the lists and mourned as irrecoverable. "They 
have not been removed before now," says the libra- 
rian, "because it has been hoped that successive in- 
ventories and the passing of time might reveal them 
or restore them, as sometimes occurs with missing 
books. This hope has not been justified with the 
volumes mentioned. The loss is very regrettable; 
the Librarian, however, has no theory to account for 
it other than the devious and inexplainable weak- 
nesses of human nature." Nevertheless, faith in 
the honesty of mankind as a whole has not been 
destroyed, and this library's praiseworthy system of 
unrestricted access to the shelves will be continued. 

A MAYOR WITH NO FONDNESS FOR LITERATURE 

came pretty near balking the efforts of the Women's 
Club of Owensboro, Kentucky, to secure a public 
library for their city. In the "Second Biennial 
Report" of the Kentucky Library Commission is to 
be found the astonishing story of this mulish muni- 
cipal officer. After the energetic women of Owens- 
boro had raised $3,500, bought a lot, secured a 
Carnegie building, and were on the point of opening 
the library to the expectant public, the city council 
(at the mayor's instigation, one suspects) refused to 
grant the necessary appropriation for maintenance 
of the new institution. In fact, three successive 
councils proved obdurate, and when at last a fourth 
had passed the ordinance " the mayor refused to sign 
the warrants and suit was brought and won in the 
lower court by the Library Trustees to compel him 
to sign. The mayor then took the case to the Court 
of Appeals. The trustees won again. The warrants 



172 



THE DIAL 



[March 1 



were signed in March, 1913. In the meanwhile, 
the Women's Club, growing impatient at the delay, 
decided to open the library. A book reception re- 
sulted in the gift of about 1,500 volumes; the women 
volunteered service and the doors were then opened 
to the public. During the year ending July 1, 1913, 
the circulation reached 11,593." All honor to the 

women of Owensboro! 



JAPANESE LITERABT LIKINGS tend more and 
more toward occidental, and especially toward En- 
glish and American, books. English is the foreign 
tongue most familiar to the people of Japan ; hence 
the considerable number of English and American 
authors read by them and republished in their own 
country in translation. In drama Mr. Bernard 
Shaw's plays seem to be decidedly popular, both for 
reading and for stage presentation. Professor 
Eucken and Professor Bergson are finding favor 
there as here. The useful part of the translator in 
introducing these and numerous other foreign 
authors to his fellow-countrymen receives insuffi- 
cient recognition, fifty yen (a little less than twenty- 
five dollars) being commonly paid for turning into 
the vernacular a work of two hundred pages. No 
wonder the critics complain that the rendering is 
not always quite what it ought to be. 



COMMUNICATIONS. 

JOSIAH KENICK SMITH. 
(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

Readers of THE DIAL will be pained to hear of the 
death of Professor Josiah Renick Smith, a regular con- 
tributor to its pages since, perhaps, about the year 1895. 
As Professor of Greek in the Ohio State University, 
he was the oldest member of the Faculty in continuous 
service, and always a man of great weight in its councils. 
That a man should be a skilful teacher, well equipped 
in his special department, is all that most people ask of 
one who holds such a position, and somewhat more than 
is often secured; but it is not all that the Ohio State 
University found in Professor Smith. He was born with 
a natural affinity for the higher things of life, and his 
power of appreciation was confined within no narrow 
limits. With unfailing instinct his affections went out 
to sincere and genuine excellence in literature, music, 
and art, nor were his acquisitions in these fields treated 
merely as food for his own pleasure. Distilled through 
bis own mind, seasoned with the spice of his winning 
personality, and fitly wrought into the web of his teach- 
ing, he passed them on to generation after generation of 
his pupils and so into the life of his time. But even a 
great educational institution could not absorb the whole 
of such a man. His taste in music, disseminated through 
musical organizations, through the local press, and by 
contact with individuals, has been by no means the least 
factor in educating Columbus to the point where ade- 
quate support can be safely assumed for a grade of 
music entirely out of reach of many cities of the same 
size. His talks on various phases of painting and sculp- 
ture, enriched by personal acquaintance with most of 
the great collections abroad and at home, were always 
a delightful stimulus to those who had the privilege of 



hearing them. He was a member of Dr. Washington 
Gladden's church, and there as everywhere else a wise 
counsellor and willing worker. But to those who have 
had the privilege of coming into close contact with him, 
the charm of his loyal personal friendship will be felt 
as the greatest loss of all. Considering the ease with 
which the finer and less obviously " paying " phases of 
education may be swamped beneath the more material 
and " practical " in a great state institution, the author- 
ities of the Ohio State University deserve especial credit 
for maintaining for so many years at the head of one of 
its departments, and as an active force in its adminis- 
tration, so distinctive an apostle of " culture " in its 
higher meaning as Professor Josiah Renick Smith. 

W. H. JOHN&ON. 
Denison University, Granmlle, Ohio, Feb. 18, 1914. 

[The review by Dr. Smith included in our present 
issue the last of so much wise and graceful and 
scholarly writing! was received only a few days 
before his death. EDITOR.] 

HAMLET'S "SOLILOQUY" AND CLAUDIUS. 
(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

Dr. Tannenbaum, in his recent severe but scholarly 
comments in your columns upon Mr. Stopford Brooke's 
second excursion into Shakespearean fields, makes some 
severe thrusts at this critic's interpretation of " Hamlet," 
but fails to mention that Mr. Brooke is the first who has 
taken note of the relation of Hamlet's " soliloquy " to 
one of the " lawful espials." Let me quote the passage 
of Mr. Brooke's to which I refer: 

" Hamlet comes in and thinks himself alone ; and talks to 
himself in that famous soliloquy 

' To be, or not to be : that is the question.' 
To listen to it is not to listen to a madman, and the "King 
knows this, and is not deceived when Hamlet, detecting that 
he is spied on, changes his whole manner to Ophelia, and does 
play the madman." (The italics are mine.) 

Dr. Tannenbaum, in a letter to me, says that the 
soliloquy is not heard by the espials. I claim that this 
speech was intended by our playwright to be heard by 
Claudius even more deliberately than was Juliet's solil- 
oquy intended to be overheard by Romeo (" Romeo and 
Juliet," Act II. sc. ii.) ; that it is quite as grim in its 
eaves-dropping humor, distinct as it is in types, as was 
the effect of the soliloquy of Prince Hal upon Falstaff, 
when the latter simulated a dead hero at Shrewsbury 
(" Henry IV.," Part I. Act V. sc. iv.) ; and certainly it is 
as impressive as an overheard soliloquy as was the effect 
of the soliloquy of Enobarbus upon the soldiers when the 
former thought he was alone (" Antony and Cleopatra," 
Act IV. sc ix.). 

But did Shakespeare intend Hamlet to believe him- 
self alone when, as Mr. Brooke suggests, the soul of 
Claudius is affected by the soliloquy with doubt and 
dread? Did not Shakespeare intend to advise his 
audience that Hamlet knew he was again entering a 
trap, as Mr. Brooke fails to suggest, when the line was 
written: " For we have closely sent for Hamlet hither "? 
What, if any, is the relation between this line and the 
words in the preceding scene, " I am most dreadfully 
attended " and " Were you not sent for?" ? 

I should like to see some communications from your 
readers discussing this point, i. e., the relation of Hamlet's 
soliloquy to Claudius. Mr. Brooke is the first critic I 
have read who has taken any notice of Claudius in this 
matter. C. M. STREET. 

St. Joseph, Mo., Feb. 20, 1914. 



1914] 



173 



ANOTHER AUXILIARY LANGUAGE. 
(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

Will you permit me to supplement Mr. E. F. McPike's 
interesting communication regarding an auxiliary lan- 
guage? Esperanto and Ido are by no means the only 
serious rivals in the field. I am sure most scientists 
and scholars would prefer the simplified Latin evolved 
by Professor Peano, the well-known mathematician and 
logician, and by the Academia pro Interlingua. 

As a document I beg to transcribe the " Delibera- 
tiones de Academia relativo ad Interlingua," which suffi- 
ciently define the proposed language: 

"1. VOCABULARIO: Academia adopta omne vocabulo 
latino existente in Anglo, et, quando es utile, omne alio 
vocabulo latino. 

"2. ORTHOGRAPHIA: Omni vocabulo internationale 
que existe in latino, habe forma de thema latino. 

" 3. GRAMMATICA : Interlingua habe suffixes -s 
(plurale), -re (infinitive), -to (participio passive). 

" Lice supprime omni elemento grammaticale non 
necessario." 

The Academy is open to everyone interested in the 
problem of an auxiliary language. Its " decisions " 
merely register the opinion of the majority. For the 
yearly subscription of ten francs, the "Discussiones' and 
a number of other periodicals and pamphlets are sent to 
all members. The Director and Treasurer is Professor 
G. Pagliero, Via San Francesco 44, Torino, Italy. 

The " Academia " is of course heartily in favor of 
the " Association for the Creation of an International 
Language Bureau." A> L< GUERARD. 

Eice Institute, Houston, Texas, Feb. 20, 1914. 



SYNDICATE SERVICE AND "TAINTED BOOK 

REVIEWS." 
(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

On page 97 of your issue of February 1 you published 
a, communication entitled " Tainted Book Reviews," 
from a correspondent who signs himself " Book-buyer," 
which contains about as much misinformation as it is 
possible to get in a half-page. 

The undersigned are responsible for this syndicate 
book review proposition and are able, therefore, to give 
you all the facts necessary to an understanding of its 
workings. 

We maintain an editorial department which reviews 
current books for a list of newspapers. These book 
reviews are sold to the newspapers as a news feature. 
Our editors are employed by the newspapers exactly as 
a newspaper employs any writer or reviewer. " The 
Jonesville Eagle," for instance, may pay the village 
school-teacher to review new books, and every Friday 
afternoon the pedagogue makes his way to the news- 
paper office with his articles. That 's exactly what we 
do, except we are of the opinion that we do it vastly 
better, for our editorial department costs several hun- 
dred dollars a week, and we engage such writers as 
Arthur Bartlett Maurice, editor of " The Bookman " ; 
Charles Hanson Towne (to review verse); Kendall 
Banning, of "System," who reviews business books; 
Albert Payson Terhune, of the New York " World "; 
Sinclair Lewis, formerly associate editor of "Adven- 
ture " (who writes the leading review each week) ; 
Simeon Strunsky (literary editor of tHe New York 
^'Evening Post"); Edwin Bjorkman; William Rose 
Benet, of "The Century Magazine"; Berton Braley; 



and Major J. E. Hausmann, of the United States 
Army, who reviews books dealing with the Philippines 
and the Orient. It is absurd to intimate, as your cor- 
respondent does, that these men write " tainted book 
reviews." 

While we do not know, we nevertheless venture to 
say that this editorial department costs more for upkeep 
than the literary review department of any daily news- 
paper in the United States, not excepting even the 
New York "Times," or the Chicago "Tribune." This 
is made possible as the result of cooperation on the 
part of seven or eight newspapers. 

Every newspaper on our list maintains a literary 
editor who edits the syndicate matter sent out by us, 
and adapts it to the policy and form of the newspaper. 
We solicit book advertising for a list of newspapers, 
some of which take our syndicate literary review ser- 
vice. Some of our newspapers do not take it, and as 
far as the advertising is concerned, it makes no differ- 
ence to us whether they print our reviews or run their 
own literary page, provided they produce a good book 
review section. Our advertising and editorial depart- 
ments are as distinct and separate as the editorial and 
advertising departments of any newspaper or magazine. 
Your correspondent says that our proposition seems 
to him to be a sinister move. We think your corre- 
spondent does not know what he is talking about. 
With the possible exceptions of three or four of the 
big dailies that make a specialty of literary news, the 
book reviewing of the daily press is done by immature 
reporters, and people out of a job, and narrow-headed 
school-teachers, or by somebody who does it " on the 
side." There are innumerable instances of absolutely 
worthless books being called " the book of the year," 
and so on, by reviewers of this stripe because such 
literary productions happened to strike the reviewer's 
peculiar fancy. Then, we know of cases where really 
great books were ignored or dismissed with a line or 
two because the local reviewer had no literary stand- 
ards or guides, and really had no idea of literature. 
Then, there are many cases of the morbidly perverse 
or immoral in literature being held up as wonderful 
and epoch-making productions because they happened 
to be handed out by the local editor to some long-haired 
extremist. 

Whatever may be the merits or demerits of our 
syndicate service, we are sure that its productions are 
characterized by sanity and true literary perspective. 

The entire book publishing world has endorsed this 
proposition. Our supporters and well-wishers include 
every book concern of importance and standing in the 
United States, without exception. Do you think this 
would be so if we allowed advertising to "taint our 
book reviews " ? 

Your correspondent states that our reviews are writ- 
ten by a " hired corps of men in New York who are 
paid practically by the [book] publishers." This state- 
ment is not true. The book publishers do not contribute, 
directly or indirectly, to the support of our book review 
service. It is supported entirely by the newspapers. 

We do not want to take up any more of your space, 
else we would occupy ourselves with making a few 
more corrections, but think we have said enough to give 
you a clear idea of our proposition. 

WOODWARD & VAN SLYKE. 

Per W. E. WOODWARD. 
New York City, Feb. 16, 1914. 



174 



THE DIAL 



[March 1 



IDEALIST IN PRACTICAL, AFFAIRS.* 

With a keen sense both of the little ironies 
and comicalities of life, and of its deeper tragedy 
and pathos, Mr. Brand Whitlock relates the story 
of his struggles and successes in words that speak 
compellingly to our common humanity and hold 
the attention to the end. In a style that has 
much of that ease and effectiveness that come 
not by chance, but with long and devoted ser- 
vice to the art of literary expression, he carries 
his narrative, " Forty Years of It," through 
nearly four hundred pages and leaves his readers 
regretful only of its too-early close. 

A politician with an ardent fondness for 
poetry is not to be found in a long day's search, 
nor is a poet with a decided bent for politics 
very often to be met with ; but in Mr. Whitlock 
we have primarily the poet, the dreamer, the 
idealist, and secondarily the practical man who 
knows how to turn politics to good account in 
the realization of some of his visions of civic 
betterment and social welfare. Yet in the face 
of all he has achieved as the head of a city 
government during four consecutive terms 
eight years in all, with the apparent certainty 
of reelection and the prospect of indefinite con- 
tinuance in office had he consented thus to serve 
his fellow-citizens longer it is asserted of him 
by the one who prefaces his book with a few 
introductory pages that he " is an artist, a born 
artist. His natural place is in a world unknown 
and undreamed of by us children of an age com- 
missioned to carry out the great idea of industrial 
and political development. He belongs by birth- 
right in the eternal realm of divine impossibili- 
ties, of sublime and delightful inconsistencies. 
Greatly might he have fulfilled his destiny in 
music, in poetry, in painting had he been born 
at one of those periods when spiritual activity 
was all but universal, when spiritual ideas were 
popular and dominant, volitantesper or a virum, 
part of the very air one breathed in the Greece 
of Pericles, the England of Elizabeth, or on 
the Tuscan hills at the time of the Florentine 
Renaissance ! But this was not to be." Thus 
Mr. Albert Jay Nock, whose glowing eulogy of 
the spiritual qualities and the artistic tempera- 
ment of Mr. Whitlock must not be allowed to 
veil from us the warm human nature of the man 
and the admirable catholicity of his sympathies. 
These characteristics will show themselves as we 

* FORTY YTCARS OF IT. By Brand Whitlock. New 
York : D. Appleton & Co. 



pass his life rapidly in review and illustrate 
some of its phases with passages from his book. 
Born at Urbana, Ohio, March 4, 1869, the 
son of Elias D. Whitlock, D.D., he was named 
after his maternal grandfather, Joseph Carter 
Brand, a character rich in entertainment to the 
reader of his grandson's description of him. 
Public schools and private instruction provided 
the boy with such formal book-learning as was to 
be his portion, and at eighteen he entered upon 
the work of a newspaper reporter at Toledo. 
Three years later he joined the staff of the 
Chicago " Herald," and after still another three 
years accepted the position of clerk in the office 
of the Secretary of State at Springfield, Illinois, 
chiefly, it appears, that he might find time 
to fit himself for the practice of law. His legal 
studies were pursued under the guidance of 
Senator John M. Palmer, and admission to the 
Illinois bar followed in 1894, and to the Ohio 
bar in 1897, the year of his relinquishing his 
post at Springfield. Since then he has been 
engaged in the practice of his profession at 
Toledo, in the writing of essays, stories, poems, 
and novels, and, from 1906 to 1913, in dis- 
charging the duties of mayor of his city, to the 
evident contentment of a majority of its citizens. 
His writings make a most creditable showing, 
especially when it is remembered that they were 
the product of his spare hours, labors of love in 
the midst of the exacting demands of less con- 
genial but more surely remunerative occupa- 
tions. The list includes "The 13th District," 
" Her Infinite Variety,'' " The Happy Average," 
"The Turn of the Balance," "Abraham Lin- 
coln" (in the series of "Beacon Biographies"), 
"The Gold Brick," "On the Enforcement of 
Law in Cities," and various essays, poems, and 
short stories contributed to leading magazines. 
Having now too long withheld attention from 
the book under consideration, let us demonstrate 
its worth and illustrate the distinctive character 
of its style and method by some generous cita- 
tions from its pages. Here is a picture of the 
author's grandfather, Joseph Carter Brand, 
near the end of a life nobly lived in a spirit of 
sturdy independence and of steadfast loyalty to 
truth and justice: 

" He was always like that, following the truth as he 
saw it, wherever it led him. But his active days were 
not many after that; ere long he was kicked by one of 
his horses, a vicious animal, half bronco, which he insisted 
on riding, and he was invalided for the rest of his days. 
He spent them in a wheel-chair, pushed about by a negro 
boy. It was ft cross he bore bravely enough, without 
complaint, spending his hours in reading of politics, now 
that he could no longer participate in them, and more 
and more in reading verse, and even in committing it to 



1914] 



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175 



memory, so that to the surprise of his family he soon 
replaced the grace he had always said at table with some 
recited stanza of poetry, and he took to cultivating, or 
sitting in his chair while there was cultivated, under his 
direction, a little rose garden. He knew all those roses 
as though they were living persons : when a lady called, 
if the roses were in bloom, he would say to his 
colored house-boy : ' Go cut off Madame Maintenon, and 
bring her here." 

It must have been from this grandfather, 
born in Kentucky of a slave-holding family, 
but hating slavery so bitterly that he forfeited 
his patrimony and betook himself into the ad- 
joining free State, that Mr. Whitlock inherited 
many of his finer qualities. Brand, like his 
grandson after him, achieved civic distinction, 
or had it thrust upon him, being introduced to 
the reader as mayor of Urbana in the opening 
pages of the book. What is said above about 
his "following the truth as he saw it," could 
with equal truth be said of the writer of those 
words. While still in his 'teens he showed a 
spirit of revolt against the sacred tenets of the 
protective tariff system, catching this alarming 
heresy from the congressman of his district, 
Frank Hurd, a man of such brilliant parts 
that, apparently, his free-trade principles did 
not do him much injury as a politician even 
with his high-tariff constituents. 

" I was by this time a youth of eighteen, and in the 
summer when he had come home from Washington I 
somehow found courage enough to go to the hotel where 
he lived, and to inquire for him. He was there in the 
lobby, standing by the cigar-stand, talking to some 
men, and I hung on the outskirts of the little group 
until it broke up, and then the fear I had felt vanished 
when he turned and smiled upon me. I told him that 
I wished to know about Free Trade, and since there 
was nothing he liked better to talk about, and, too, 
since there were few who could talk better about any- 
thing than he could talk about the tariff, we sat in the 
big leather chairs while he discoursed simply on the 
subject. It was the first of several of these conversa- 
tions, or lessons, which we had in the big leather chairs 
in the lobby of the old Boody House, and it was not 
long until I was able, with a solemn pride, to announce 
at home that I was a Free-Trader and a Democrat. It 
could hardly have been worse had I announced that I 
had been visiting Ingersoll, and was an atheist. Cleve- 
land was president, and in time he sent his famous 
tariff-reform message to Congress, and though I could 
not vote, I was preparing to give him my moral sup- 
port, to wear his badge, and even, if I could do no 
more, to refuse to march in the Republican processions 
with the club of young men and boys organized in our 
neighborhood." 

Passing over a dozen years, we chance upon 
the following glimpse of the young man in his 
newly- opened law office in Toledo : 

" The little law office had a portrait of William Dean 
Howells on its walls, and in time the portraits of other 
writers, differing from those other law offices which 



prefer to be adorned with pictures of Chief Justice 
Marshall a strong man, of course, who wrote some 
strong fiction, too, in his day and of Hamilton and of 
Jefferson, indicating a catholicity or a confusion of prin- 
ciple on the part of the occupying proprietor, of which 
usually he is not himself aware. ^ There were a few law 
books, too, and on the desk a little digest of the law of 
evidence as affected by the decisions of the Ohio courts. 
I had the noble intention of mastering it, but I did not 
read in it very much, since for a long while there was 
no one to pay me for doing so, and I spent most of my 
hours at my desk over a manuscript of " The 13th Dis- 
trict," a novel of politics I was then writing, looking up 
now and then and gazing out of the window at the blank 
rear walls of certain brick buildings which made a dreary 
prospect, even if one of them did bear, as I well remem- 
ber, the bright and reassuring legend, Money to Loan 
at 6 per cent.' " 

Noteworthy are the pen-sketches that the 
book contains of various more or less celebrated 
men with whom the writer had been somewhat 
intimate, or whom he had at least beheld now 
and then 1 in their less studied attitudes. Gov- 
ernor Altgeld, Senator Palmer, James G. Blaine, 
" Golden Rule " Jones, Mayor " Tom " Johnson 
these are some of the interesting characters 
that Mr. Whitlock helps us to know better than 
before ; and in sketching them he somehow, one 
feels, involuntarily but most graphically delin- 
eates himself. Here is an illuminating page 
from the latter part of the book, where the au- 
thor is looking back upon the din and turmoil 
of his political experience : 

" I used to be haunted continually by a horrid fear 
that I should lose the possibility of ever winning the 
power of utterance, since no such prudence [as the 
politician's] is at all compatible with the practice of 
any art. For art must, first of all, be utter sincerity, 
the artist's business is to think out his thoughts about 
life to the very end, and to speak them as plainly as 
the power and the ability to speak them have been 
given to him; he must not be afraid to offend; indeed, 
if he succeed at all, he must certainly offend in the 
beginning. I am quite aware that I may seem incon- 
sistent in this notion, since I have intimated my belief 
that Jones was an artist; and so he was, in a way, and, 
if I do not fly to the refuge of trite sayings and allege 
him as the exception that proves the rule, I am sure 
that I may say, and, if I have in the least been able to 
convey any distinct conception of his personality, the 
reader will agree with me when I say, that he was sui 
generis. And besides it was not as a politician that he 
won his success. Had he ventured outside the political 
jurisdiction of his own city the politicians instantly 
would have torn him asunder because he had not been 
1 regular.' And that, I find, when I set it down, is pre- 
cisely what I am trying to say about the artist; he must 
not be regular. Every great artist in the world has been 
irregular, as irregular as Corot, going forth in the early 
morning in search of the elusive and ineffable light of 
dawn as it spread over the earth and stole through the 
greenwoods at Barbizon, or as Manet, or Monet, or any 
other man who never knew appreciation in his lifetime. 
And Jones and all like him are brothers of those incom- 



176 



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[March 1 



parable artists ; they are not kin in any way to the world's 
politicians." 

And so, that he might be more truly and 
completely an artist, Mr. Whitlock announced 
his decision not tojbe again a candidate for the 
mayoralty an announcement received with 
incredulity by the politicians, because politi- 
cians so seldom mean what they say in making 
similar announcements. But there was no 
mental reservation this time, and literature is 
likely to be the gainer by reason of the sincerity 
of the declaration. Readers of the book here 
discussed, a book that cannot fail to be widely 
read as a sincere and also a rather extraordi- 
nary piece of autobiographic writing, will rejoice 
in the prospect of further productions from the 
same pen. 

PERCY F. BICKNELL. 



RECORDS OF ANCIENT GREECE.* 



To write a single-volume history of Greece 
lays heavy demands on various qualities 
courage, accurate scholarship, breadth of vision, 
and a sure sense of perspective. To these must 
be added close adherence to a definite plan. It 
would be too much to say that all these have 
been fully met by Mr. Cotterill in his "Ancient 
Greece." The range of the field from Aegean 
times to Alexander the Great, i. e., from 3000 
B.C. to 330 B.C. embraces all that is known 
or inferred or conjectured about Greek civiliza- 
tion through about twenty-seven centuries ; and 
to cover this in a book of 500 pages might well 
give the most intrepid writer pause. In his 
approach to a succes d'estime, however, Mr. 
Cotterill has done an interesting and useful 
work, which represents the results of extensive 
study and a liberal endowment of the qualities 
mentioned above. 

In his treatment of the Aegean period he 
makes full use of the readjustments necessitated 
by the recent discoveries in Crete and other 
islands and helps us to feel the enchantment of 
Minoan and Mycenaean art. Homer and the 
Homeric question are lightly touched, Mr. 
Cotterill giving his adhesion to the view that 
both the Iliad and the Odyssey "owe their 
main structure and most of their details to one 
great poet, that the age which he depicted was 
no mere fiction, and that he lived near enough 

* ANCIENT GHEECB. By H. B. Cotterill. Illustrated. 
New York : Frederick A. Stokes Co. 

ATHENS AND ITS MONUMENTS. By Charles Heald 
Weller. Illustrated. New York : The Macmillan Co. 



to that age to paint, by the help of traditions 
and ballads, its main features with very con- 
siderable exactitude." In the Dark Age, 1100- 
776 B. c., many things were done, but few 
records were left. It was a time of migrations 
and invasions, whose full significance was re- 
vealed in later days. The Age of Colonization 
was the magnificent feature of Greater Greece. 
As Mr. Cotterill says: "Not only, as in the 
case of our Elizabethan age, did the opening 
up of new worlds stir the imagination and 
enlarge the vision of Greek poets and deepen 
the insight of Greek thinkers, but the existence 
of Greater Hellas had much influence in devel- 
oping, for good or for evil, the imperial policy 
of Athens in the days of her power, and in 
determining her fate." 

Over the beaten ground of the Age of 
Peisistratos and the Persian invasions the au- 
thor advances with alert and assured steps, 
telling us no new facts, but revealing his own 
attitudes of mind toward nations and individ- 
uals. It is interesting to see him saying a good 
word for the Persian character as superior to 
that of the Greek in some important points. 
Stories are told of the Persian kings' acts of 
magnanimity, and of their "contempt for the 
huckstering and rhetorical arts of the Greek 
agora, as well as for the venality and treachery 
of not only the ordinary Greek but even of 
Greek leaders." Father Herodotus is praised 
and sustained ; Demosthenes treated with scant 
favor, and Philip with reluctant admiration. 

Mr. Cotterill s paragraphs on the architec- 
ture of Greece are perfunctory and defective. 
He speaks of the mutules of the Doric temple 
as if they were the guttae; calls the Poseidon 
temple at Paestum simply " Paestum," ignoring 
the temple of Demeter; and retains the tradi- 
tional view of Corinthian as an independent 
order from Ionic. On the other hand, his 
treatment of sculpture is satisfying and up to 
date ; and if picked out and published separately 
would make a good manual of the subject. 

Some slight inaccuracies may be noted. 
Syracuse and Megara (p. 118) are certainly not 
on the "south-western side" of Sicily; and 
Xenophon's birth is now generally accepted as 
having taken place in 431 B.C., not 444: he 
calls himself with emphasis a "young man" in 
the Anabasis. 

The book is sumptuously illustrated with re- 
productions of Greek art, the colored vase plates 
being unusually fine; and is on the whole a 
welcome contribution in the field of Kultur- 
geschichte. 



1914] 



177 



Somewhere about 160 A.D., old dry-as-dust 
Pausanias made that celebrated periegesis or 
tour through Greece, and left his exasperating 
but indispensable account of it, to be the vade 
mecum of all classical archaeologists ever since. 
It would hardly be going too far to call Pro- 
fessor Weller the modern Pausanias, so far as 
Athens is concerned. His recently published 
volume may well take the place of the ancient 
Periegete for those who have not access to 
Frazer's monumental six- volume edition. Even 
so, the book is physically too heavy (it weighs 
just two pounds fourteen ounces, avoirdupois) 
to be carried round like a Baedeker. Too bad 
that it could not have been printed on thin 
opaque paper and reduced to portable size. 
With these objections removed, Professor 
Weller's work would be an ideal guide-book to 
the City of the Violet Crown. 

He follows Pausanias's route with conscien- 
tious though not slavish exactness ; beginning at 
the Dipylon gate, working through the Hellenic, 
Hellenistic, and Roman agoras, the south and 
south-east quarters, the Acropolis, Puyx, Areo- 
pagus, Cerameicus, and so back to the Dipylon. 
There is a supplementary chapter on the Peiraeus 
and the harbors. With scholarly reserve and 
caution Professor Weller conducts his readers 
through the ruins of the ancient city ; presuming 
on their part a decent acquaintance with the re- 
sults and conclusions of modern archasologists. 
The descriptions of the Acropolis and the older 
structures which preceded the Parthenon and 
the Erechtheum are illuminating; though as 
always, the study of the details of the Erech- 
theum ends in a shake of the head. 

Professor Weller's style, like his plan, follows 
that of his Greek prototype it is a bit dry. 
He leaves to others, like Mahaffy, Barrows, and 
Mrs. Allinson, the raptures so hard to leave out 
of a book on Greece, and attends strictly to his 
task, which is to prepare a precise and learned 
topographical guide to the architectural and 
sculptural remains of ancient Athens ; and this 
he has done with complete success. 

The book is profusely illustrated with repro- 
duced photographs of every important monu- 
ment and many works of sculpture. The plans 
are most helpful ; the maps a little sketchy. In 
the matter of spelling there is some inconsist- 
ency : we have " choragus " and " choregus," 
the Calydonian hunt ranges far afield to 
"Caledonian" (p. 342); and Latin termina- 
tions are very generally used, e.g., " Dipylum," 
" propylum," " Heroum," etc. 

JOSIAH RENICK SMITH. 



SYNGE AND THE IRISH THEATRE.* 



Of the two books before us, Lady Gregory's 
is the romance of the Irish theatre, with Synge 
as the most strikingly romantic figure in it; 
M. Bourgeois's is in part the biography of 
Synge, with a matter-of-fact history of the 
theatre. From the former work one gets an 
impression of the struggle and strife, and yet 
withal the abounding joyousness, of those who 
labored in the cause ; from the latter one comes 
into close touch with the man Synge, one realizes 
his genius, and one comprehends in some meas- 
ure the effect of his plays upon the Irish dra- 
matic movement. Lady Gregory also, perhaps 
unconsciously, shows very plainly of what stuff 
the workers were made, and why it was that they 
ultimately attained success. No one can read 
her book without being impressed by her indom- 
itable courage, her conscientious devotion to 
what she believed to be just and right, her 
patience and faith in the face of seemingly insu- 
perable obstacles. What Mr. Yeats once said in 
a letter to her was characteristic of them both : 
" Any fool can fight a winning battle, but it 
needs character to fight a losing one, and that 
should inspire us; which reminds me that I 
dreamed the other night that I was being hanged, 
but was the life and soul of the party." 

Both Lady Gregory and M. Bourgeois give 
virtually the same account of the history of the 
Irish theatre, though, of course, the former is 
much more personal and intimate. There was 
first the founding of the Irish Literary Theatre, 
by Messrs. Yeats, Martyn, and Moore and Lady 
Gregory, with the purpose of making a national 
and a literary theatre to offset the unliterary 
commercialism of the British theatre. Only En- 
glish actors were then available, and after three 
years the experiment came to an end. Then the 
Fay brothers conceived the idea of having Irish 
actors for Irish plays; and the Irish National 
Theatre Society, with Mr. Yeats as the first pres- 
ident and with headquarters at Molesworth Hall, 
Dublin, was the result. A week-end visit to 
London in 1903 led to Miss Horniman's re- 
modelling and enlarging the old Mechanics' 
Institute in Abbey Street, which later became 
known as the Abbey Theatre. When, in 1904, 
"Dame Augusta Gregory" secured the patent 
rights necessary to give performances in this 

*OuK IRISH THEATRE. A Chapter of Autobiography. 
By Lady Gregory. Illustrated. New York : G. P. Putnam's 
Sons. 

JOHN MILLINGTON SYNGE AND THE IRISH THEATRE. 
By Maurice Bourgeois. Illustrated. New York : The 
Macmillan Co. 



178 



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[March 1 



theatre, the five-years' struggle with the Crown 
for theatrical independence in Dublin was at 
an end. 

The next kind of difficulty encountered was 
about the plays that should or should not be 
presented. Already in 1899, when Mr. Yeats's 
" Countess Kathleen " was given a first perform- 
ance by the Irish Literary Theatre, objections 
were raised on the ground of the play's unor- 
thodox character. There was " booing " and 
hooting in the gallery on the part of some who 
saw in the play an " insult to their faith." This 
opposition did not amount to much ; it was 
merely a warning of what was to come later. 
The next note came with the production of 
Synge's " Shadow of the Glen "; but here again 
there was comparatively little trouble. The real 
fight came when " The Playboy of the Western 
World" was put on the boards, in January of 
1907. "The audience broke up in disorder at 
the word shift," as Lady Gregory put it in a 
telegram to Mr. Yeats at the end of the play. 
The battle continued every night during the 
week in which the managers had announced that 
the play would be acted. " It was a definite fight 
for freedom from mob censorship," says Lady 
Gregory ; and at the end of the week the battle 
had been won. 

The next fight was over the presentation by 
the Abbey Theatre Company of Mr. Bernard 
Shaw's "The Shewing-up of Blanco Posnet." 
It is refreshing to see with what vigor Lady 
Gregory fought in the cause she had so sincerely 
at heart, whether it was with the mob or with 
the Lord Lieutenant himself. In this fight it 
was Dublin Castle, the representative of Majesty, 
whom she was to oppose; and again she was 
victorious. She and Mr. Yeats and, of course, 
Mr. Shaw refused to accept the Castle's opinion 
that a play should be banned in Ireland because 
it had been banned by the Censor in England. 
No Irishman or Irishwoman would stand that. 
As Lady Gregory said to the permanent official 
at the Castle, " We did not give in one quarter 
of an inch to Nationalist Ireland at the Playboy, 
and we certainly cannot give in one quarter of 
an inch to the Castle." And they did not, 
even though they risked losing their license and 
being fined X300. Nothing happened. At the 
end of the first performance there was a tre- 
mendous burst of cheering, and they knew they 
had won. Though still forbidden in England, 
the play remains on the Abbey Theatre reper- 
toire, and is always played with success and 
without let or hindrance. 

The last scene of Lady Gregory's battlesome 



adventures is laid in the United States, and the 
bone of contention is again " The Playboy." 
She gives a detailed account of her experiences ; 
but they are all so recent that it is unnecessary 
to review them here. She exonerates the native 
American from all blame, and excuses the so- 
called Irish-American, who, she believes, was 
acting under instructions from the Irish in 
Dublin. She is slightly caustic towards Phila- 
delphia, where they had a riot, as in New York, 
and where the whole cast was arrested, as not in 
New York. Altogether, the Irish in this country 
found Lady Gregory too much for them, and the 
later performances were as peaceful as those of 
"The Old Homestead." 

The biographical and historical parts of M. 
Bourgeois's work are very well done. We have 
a plain unvarnished tale of the Irish theatrical 
and dramatic movement up to and including 
Synge's part in it. We have, moreover, a very 
engaging picture of Synge himself, of his 
unconventional ways, his picturesque profanity, 
his indifference to dress, and withal his manly 
and sympathetic soul. The volume has no fewer 
than five portraits of Synge, so that one may 
judge as to the correctness of Mr. Shaw's re- 
mark that he had a face like a blacking brush. 

The critical part of the book is, however, not 
so satisfactory. The question of the foreign 
influence in Synge's work is played with rather 
than mastered. One is led to believe that there 
was some foreign influence, but exactly what it 
was or how it manifested itself we are not spe- 
cifically told. It is unsatisfactory and uncon- 
vincing to leave the question thus : " The foreign 
element was imbibed immediately and mingled 
with the substance of his inmost temperament ; 
and in many cases there seemed to exist a sort 
of pre-established harmony which facilitated 
the blending and made the two terms practically 
indistinguishable." In the criticisms of the 
several plays, moreover, M. Bourgeois does not 
show that grasp of his subject which should 
appear in so pretentious a volume as this. Great 
as is " Riders to the Sea," it seems hyperbolic 
criticism to call it " Synge's absolutely unques- 
tioned and well-nigh flawless masterpiece," 
"one of the most remarkable achievements in 
British play-making, and a dramatic episode of 
exceptional human interest." Professor Wey- 
gandt has well pointed out that the play is less 
representative of Synge than some others, for 
it is written on one note the note of the 
dirge, it has no humor, and it is less original, 
being reminiscent of Maeterlinck, of Ibsen, 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



179 



and of Edward Martyn. Both "The Playboy" 
and "Deirdre" have a vaster sweep. It seems 
also beside the mark to criticize "The Tinker s 
Wedding" unfavorably because of "its ludi- 
crous representation of a young tinker woman 
as an earnest Catholic, its malignant portraiture 
of a covetous priest, the grotesque blasphemy 
of its language." Religious hypocrisy is a 
legitimate subject for satire, and has been from 
Chaucer down. M. Bourgeois ignores the su- 
perb vitality of the characters, and the " pathos 
so poignant of the quick passing of all good 
things," as Professor Weygandt expresses it. 

The criticism of " The Playboy " is also un- 
satisfactory. The suggestion is put forward 
that this piece is meant by Synge not only as a 
humorous and allegorical impersonation of poetic 
and creative souls in general, but also as an 
ironical vision of the dramatist's own personal 
attitude throughout his "comedy." The Play- 
boy is Synge himself, who mystifies the public as 
the Playboy did the Mayo countryfolk, so that 
they " have not yet been able to decide whether 
his ' comedy ' is a work of serious portraiture or 
of fanciful tomfoolery." An allegorical inter- 
pretation is as dangerous as it is alluring, and 
such an interpretation of Synge is fatal. Synge 
was highly impersonal in his plays; he had no 
thesis to demonstrate, no point to prove. We 
have the Playboy's discovery of himself as "a 
likely gaffer in the end of all," and that is 
comedy ; and we have the discovery of herself 
by Pegeen Mike in her first disillusionment, 
and that has in it the elements of tragedy. There 
is much riotous extravagance in the play, but 
to think of it as mere "fanciful tomfoolery" is 
absurd. It is the most original and striking of 
Synge's plays ; and the sooner we free our minds 
of prejudices, national, religious, and moral, 
the sooner shall we come to a just estimate of its 
worth. 

"Deirdre of the Sorrows," "being unfin- 
ished," is given scant treatment by M. Bour- 
geois. Yet it differs so much from Synge's 
other work, while at the same time showing re- 
markable resemblances, that it deserves greater 
consideration. It comes more from Synge's own 
personal emotions than any other play, since 
while writing it he knew the pain of love in 
the presence of death. It is this fact, as M. 
Bourgeois says, "that gives the play its su- 
preme beauty." 

The appendices contain among other helpful 
things a very full and valuable bibliography of 
Synge's work, and of the critical material relat- 
ing to it. JAMES W. TUPPER. 



THE CONCLUSION OF Two IMPORTANT 
AMERICAN HISTORIES.* 



The present generation has witnessed a won- 
derful change in American historical writing, 
both in quantity and in character. A gener- 
ation ago the standard histories were those of 
Bancroft and Hildreth ; there were some others 
of worth, but none as comprehensive or as well 
known. Bancroft's work ended with the adop- 
tion of the Constitution, Hildreth's with the 
administration of John Q. Adams. Bancroft 
saw everything from the point of view of intense 
patriotism and noble devotion, and in all and 
over all the directing hand of Providence ; Hil- 
dreth was an intense Federalist, and tended to 
Constitution-worship. These men set the pace, 
and their successors have followed in their steps, 
often attempting to follow both leaders. 

For subject-matter these historians have con- 
fined themselves to details of war and politics. 
Men have fought bravely and died nobly in de- 
fense of our country and of the cause of freedom. 
Others have come into the limelight of executive 
power or legislative position, and there, debating 
over slavery, the tariff, nullification, secession, 
foreign affairs, etc., have ground out the raw 
material of history. Few, if any, historians of 
a generation ago looked very far beneath the 
surface of things to see if all this fighting and 
oratory and legislation were really prompted by 
devotion to native land and the cause of human 
freedom. Indeed, hardly anything other than 
the glory of war and the pomp of power, in 
which the well-born had taken a leading part, 
was considered worthy of notice. 

A generation ago American history was just 
beginning to secure recognition as providing a 
good basis for serious study in our scheme of 
education. A few chairs for the teaching of this 
subject had already been established ; but now 
they began to multiply, and the holders of these 
chairs began to study seriously the sources, and 
to write as well as to teach. One of these stu- 
dents was Professor John Bach Me Master, the 
first volume of whose " History of the People of 
the United States" appeared thirty years ago. 
Instead of confining himself to the generals 
and warriors in the foreground, he purposed to 
bring out the people in the background. For 
sources, instead of confining himself to speeches 

* A HISTORY OF THE PEOPLE OF THE UNITED STATES. 
By John Bach McMaster. Volume VIII., 1850-1861. New 
York : D. Appleton & Co. 

HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA under the 
Constitution. By James Schouler. Volume VII., The Recon- 
struction Period, 1865-1877. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co. 



180 



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[March 1 



and official documents, he depended largely 
upon the most ephemeral of literature the 
newspapers. The first chapter of his first vol- 
ume gives us a cross-sectional view, from top to 
bottom, of the nation at the close of the Revolu- 
tion. It treats of population, the occupations 
of the people, the kind of houses they lived in, 
their furniture, the books they read, their edu- 
cation, their diseases and doctors, their religion, 
amusements, method of travel, the condition of 
the laboring classes, including house servants, 
and of convicts. Then follow matters of politics 
and more of economic and social conditions, 
sometimes separate, sometimes interwoven. 

This was something new in historical writing. 
Historians of the old school looked at it askance, 
declared the result bizarre, and pointed to inac- 
curacies due to the nature of the sources. 
Errors in plenty have been found, but for the 
most part they are of minor importance and do 
not seriously affect the value of the work. Un- 
disturbed by such criticism, Professor McMaster 
has pursued the even tenor of his way, and now 
has given us the eighth and concluding volume of 
his history, covering the period of 1850-1861. 

All the succeeding volumes since the first 
have followed the same general plan, and the 
last volume is no exception, though a relatively 
greater amount of space is devoted to politics. 
On this theme of politics, it is difficult to see 
that the author has made any improvement 
upon what has already been written, especially 
on the work of Dr. Rhodes. The lacter has 
indeed set a standard that will be difficult to 
surpass; yet it has been several years since he 
covered this period, and a number of important 
papers have appeared dealing with particular 
incidents. One cannot but ask if the last word 
has been said, for example, on the repeal of the 
Missouri Compromise and on the Dred Scott 
Decision. Inevitably Professor McMaster has 
had much to say of slavery, both as a social 
institution and as a political force. Among the 
anti-slavery forces Helper s " Impending Crisis " 
certainly deserves attention ; but one is particu- 
larly surprised that any man could write a his- 
tory of this period with no mention of Harriet 
Beecher Stowe and " Uncle Tom's Cabin." 

But if slavery was the dominating issue in 
politics, it was not the only interest of the 
American people during the period dealt with ; 
and Professor McMaster makes this clear in his 
account of social conditions and economic activ- 
ities. Whether he is writing of the rush to 
California or the Angel Gabriel in New York, 
of the introduction of horse cars in cities or the 



building of railroads in the west, of "Nativism" 
or " Bloomerism," of labor strikes or the de- 
mand for women's rights, it is an interesting 
tale that he tells. One reads with astonishment 
of the riots which broke out in certain cities 
when the railroads were trying to come to a 
common gauge ; to-day we should come nearer 
a riot if they should attempt to adopt varying 
standards. 

One of the most noteworthy features of this, 
and indeed of all the preceding volumes, is the 
impersonal tone of the text. Professor Mc- 
Master has given us a good deal of economic 
history, but he can scarcely be called an econ- 
omic interpreter. On the contrary, he is simply 
a photographer. One cannot believe that this 
is due to any limitations ; rather, it is a matter 
of deliberate choice. Sometimes the interpre- 
tation is clearly evident. For example, when 
the cab-drivers and draymen and keepers of 
pie-counters in Erie were tearing up the rail- 
road tracks of common gauge, it was because 
their business was being threatened, just as was 
the case with Demetrius and the silversmiths at 
Ephesus. But the interpretation is not so 
obvious in every case. The interplay of politics 
and economics is not always on the surface. 
Professor McMaster has sought to push the 
slavery question a little back from the fore- 
ground, so that it will not obscure the rest of 
the picture. Not everyone will see in slavery 
simply a dominating phase of the world-old 
labor problem. Other phases of this problem 
were observable then, and since the abolition 
of slavery they have come into the foreground 
of politics. Even the term "slavery" is now 
often used in speaking of men, women, and 
children nominally free; and legislatures are 
being called upon to make their freedom real, 
just as men were then calling for the freedom 
of the negro. In a sense, the condition of the 
master has improved. The slave-owner was sure 
of his labor supply, but was burdened with the 
care and support of his laborers; to-day the 
master is freed from this latter responsibility, 
though he is not always absolutely sure of his 
labor supply. On the other hand, the laborer 
is not sure of food and shelter. 

Another historian who has covered pretty 
much the same ground as Professor McMaster 
is Mr. James Schouler, whose first volume 
appeared three years before the first volume of 
McMaster, and whose third "last" volume has 
recently come from the press. Originally his 
work closed with the fifth volume, which dealt 



1914] 



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181 



with the period immediately preceding the Civil 
War. Then a sixth was added to cover that 
great struggle; and now, after a lapse of four- 
teen years, the seventh and very last is added 
to cover the Reconstruction period. Above and 
beyond u good general health, abundant leisure, 
an active mind, and confirmed habits of indus- 
try" impelling to labor, the chief reason for 
this breaking silence, Mr. Schouler tells us, was 
a desire to vindicate the much misunderstood 
and much maligned Andrew Johnson. The 
material for this vindication he has found in 
the recently-published Johnson papers and the 
" Diary of Gideon Welles." 

The specific task which the author set for 
himself has been well performed. It was not 
difficult. Scarcely any first-rate historian would 
now be so hardy as to hold a brief for Congress 
during this period. Its folly and ignominy are 
well established. The legal-minded Professor 
Burgess accepts its theory, but utterly con- 
demns its acts ; the legal views of Johnson (or of 
Seward ?) he praises, but condemns his theories 
and mixes ridicule with praise in speaking of his 
character. Dr. Rhodes and Professor Dunning 
are considered by Mr. Schouler as somewhat 
fairer than some other historians, but he does 
not believe that they give the President his due. 
Dr. Rhodes, in common with Professor Burgess, 
makes much of Johnson's lowly birth and breed- 
ing as unfitting him for high station, and Pro- 
fessor Dunning's discovery that his first message 
was largely the work of George Bancroft has 
been used to represent the President as too 
ignorant to perform the duties of his office. 

That Johnson was born in humble station and 
had few advantages in early life, Mr. Schouler 
finds undeniable, but adds that he had what is 
far better than the association of "gentlemen 
born," and that was " an angel of a wife." His 
steady rise in a society somewhat aristocratic is 
all the more to his credit, and could have been 
based on nothing else than innate ability. His 
lapse from sobriety on the occasion of being 
inducted into office the author is sure was the 
last, and his proof of this is as convincing as 
that of the President's detractors. That he 
was undignified on occasion is true ; but in that 
supreme hour of trial, the impeachment, his 
bearing certainly was superior to that of his 
enemies, "gentlemen born" though some of 
them claimed to be. In an age of nascent cor- 
ruption, he was so absolutely above reproach 
that not even a most suspicious Congress could 
find the least stain of this sort upon his char- 
acter. Even a draft contributed by an admirer 



for his defense was not used. Not only that, 
but he was above nepotism, which ran riot 
under his successor; nor did he make any 
undue use of patronage. 

The "vindication" part of his work, Mr. 
Schouler has performed well, for he has had the 
good sense not to try to paint his hero as per- 
fect. But as a history of the Reconstruction 
period his book contains little that is new or an 
improvement over previous efforts. Indeed, it 
is hardly a history of some parts of the period, 
the statement of facts having been replaced by 
controversial matter. Though Congress is thor- 
oughly condemned, the work for which it is 
condemned is none too well described. The 
writer has attempted to deviate slightly from 
the well-worn ruts of political and constitutional 
history, dodging back and forth between the 
national capital and the Southern States ; but 
he has not gone very deeply into other currents 
which have become the main currents of to-day. 
In most cases his judgment on the topics treated 
appears sound; but it is difficult to see how 
Garfield was "vindicated" of his connection 
with the Credit Mobilier by his subsequent 
election to Congress and later to the Presidency. 
Would any impartial person say that Governor 
Sulzer was vindicated by his recent election to 
the legislature of New York? 

Taken as a whole, however, this volume is a 
fitting close to a work which has already found 
a permanent place in American historical lit- 
erature. DAVID Y. THOMAS. 



THE KAISER : His POLICIES AND His 
ASSOCIATES.* 



The most interesting public figure in Europe 
to-day is unquestionably the German Emperor, 
and it is agreeable to discover that at last the 
Emperor has been made the subject of a book 
in English which itself is genuinely interesting. 
The author is Dr. Stanley Shaw, of Trinity 
College, Dublin. Nominally a biography, the 
volume contains a great deal of history, and, it 
may be added, no inconsiderable admixture 
of sanely conceived political philosophy. It 
abounds in judiciously selected episode, and it 



* WILLIAM OF GERMANY. By Stanley Shaw. With 
portrait. New York : The Macmillan Co. 

GEKMAN SEA-POWER : Its Rise, Progress, and Economic 
Basis. By Archibald Hurd and Henry Castle. With maps. 
New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 

MEN AROUND THE KAISER. The Makers of Modern 
Germany. By Frederic William Wile. Illustrated. Phila- 
delphia : J. B. Lippincott Co. 



182 



THE DIAL 



[March 1 



exhibits a lightness of touch, combined with 
sureness, which renders it entertaining as well 
as trustworthy reading. 

The book is not proclaimed as one having a 
mission. Perhaps for that very reason it may 
wield more influence upon the public mind than 
have other writings of its kind which have been 
more obtrusively educational. It is the belief of 
the author, none the less, that the tension which 
exists between his country and Germany arises 
from misconceptions which prevail upon both 
sides, and that if the character and policy of the 
Emperor were but better known to Englishmen 
there "would be no estrangement between the 
two countries, but, much more probably, mutual 
respect and mutual good- will"; and it may be 
assumed that Dr. Shaw has hoped that his book 
will contribute to the early realization of this 
improved order of things. That the highest 
national interests of Great Britain and Germany 
are fundamentally irreconcilable, and that the 
policies of their governments are fundamentally 
opposed, are pronounced sheer delusions. Even 
the building of the powerful German fleet con- 
stitutes, in the opinion of the author, no just 
ground for British criticism or apprehension. 
The fleet may be, as Mr. Winston Churchill has 
pronounced it recently, a luxury.. But, says Dr. 
Shaw, if the German Empire deems the main- 
tenance of such a fleet advisable, and is willing 
to "spend money on it, why should she not supply 
herself with an arm of defense in proportion to 
her size, her prosperity, and her desert ? Unless, 
and until, it is made clearer than it is to-day 
that the German navy is intended for aggres- 
sion, its growth may be viewed by the rest of the 
world with equanimity, and by the Englishman, 
as a connoisseur in such matters, with admira- 
tion as well. 

" The truth is that if our ordinary Englishman and 
German were to sit down together, and with the help 
of books, maps, and newspapers, carefully and without 
prejudice, consider the annals of their respective coun- 
tries for the last sixteen years with a view to establish- 
ing the causes of their delusion, they could hardly fail 
to confess that it was due to neither believing a word 
the other said; to each crediting the other with motives 
which, as individuals and men of honesty and integrity 
in the private relations of life, each would indignantly 
repudiate ; to each assuming the other to be in the con- 
dition of barbarism mankind began to emerge from 
nineteen hundred years ago; ... to both supposing 
that nations learn nothing from experience; and to each 
supposing that he and his fellow-countrymen alone are 
the monopolists of wisdom, honor, truth, justice, charity, 
in short, of all the attributes and blessings of civili- 
zation. Is it not time to discard such errors, or must 
the nations always suspect each other ? " 

It must not be inferred that Dr. Shaw falls 



into a vapid impartiality between the two coun- 
tries, or that he seeks to heighten his effects by 
indulging in indiscriminate glorification of the 
Kaiser or of other men and things German. He 
points out the deep-seated differences between 
English and German government, and in a 
briefer manner between English and German 
culture, and he makes it plain that his own 
preferences are in large part for the forms and 
usages that are English. But he pleads that 
Englishmen shall recognize that what the Ger- 
man has may be best for the German, and that, 
above all, the German has quite as clear a right 
to his ideas, his methods, and his policies as 
has anybody else. The plea is not made in so 
many words. Rather, it comes as a matter of 
general impression gained from a reading of the 
entire book. But it is none the less incisive and 
stimulating. 

Dr. Shaw's characterization of the Emperor 
as he is to-day exhibits a full appreciation of the 
many-sidedness of the sovereign's activities and 
interests. It is peculiarly striking, he says, that 
a man so many-sided, so impulsive, so progres- 
sive, so modern " one might almost say so 
American" should have changed so slightly 
either in character or in policy during a quarter 
of a century. 

" He is to-day the same Hohenzollern he was the day 
he mounted the throne, observing exactly the same atti- 
tude toward the world abroad and toward his folk at 
home, tenacious of exactly the same principles, enunci- 
ating exactly the same views in politics, religion, morals, 
and art in everything which concerns the foundations 
of social life. He still believes himself, as his speeches 
and conduct show, the selected instrument of Heaven, 
and acts toward his people and addresses them accord- 
ingly. He still opposes all efforts at political change, 
as witness his attitude towards electoral reform, towards 
the Germanization of Prussian Poland, towards the 
Socialists, towards Liberalism in all its manifestations. 
He is still, as he was at the outset of his reign, the patron 
of classical art, classical drama, and classical music. 
He is still the war lord with the spirit of a bishop and 
a bishop with the spirit of the war lord. He is still the 
model husband and father he has always been." 

By general agreement, the rivalry of Great 
Britain and Germany is the preponderating fact 
in the international situation of to-day, and it 
need hardly be added that the principal factor 
in this rivalry is the development of naval arma- 
ments. There is, accordingly, good reason to 
welcome the comprehensive treatise by Messrs. 
Hurd and Castle on the rise, growth, and eco- 
nomic basis of German sea power. In this book, 
as in Dr. Shaw's, motives of a political nature 
are disclaimed ; but the altogether reasonable 
hope is expressed tha,t the work may aid in dis- 



1914] 



183 



pelling some of the ruinous misconceptions which 
are current on the two sides of the North Sea. 
It is maintained, as it is by Dr. Shaw, that the 
British and the Germans are separated by no in- 
herent antipathy, and it is pointed out that the 
relations of the two peoples have become strained 
only within the past fifteen years, in other 
words, only since, under the great Navy Act of 
1900, Germany entered systematically upon her 
present course of naval aggrandizement. 

The growth of German sea power, it is as- 
serted, is not to be explained by sheer lust of 
domination. It is the fruit of no exotic policy. 
On the contrary, there lies behind it substantial 
economic justification, mainly the necessity of 
the defense of the Empire's ramifying maritime, 
colonial, and commercial interests. If battle- 
ship building has been carried considerably fur- 
ther than the defensive needs of the Empire 
require, the fault is to be laid at the door of the 
somewhat over-zealous Navy League and of the 
Anglophobe press rather than at that of the 
government. The final and most aggressive ex- 
pression of German policy, embodied in the Navy 
Act of 1912, is pronounced unjustifiable ; but 
responsibility for it is placed chiefly upon the 
man who, more largely than even the Emperor 
himself, is the creator of the German fleet, 
Grand- Admiral von Tirpitz. In a recent con- 
versation with a correspondent of the London 
" Daily Chronicle," Admiral von Tirpitz pro- 
fessed to be " lost in wonder " at the German 
navy being regarded as a danger or a menace. 
It has, he declared, " a purely defensive function 
and no aggressive purpose." The feeling of the 
average Englishman, however, is that German 
explanations of German naval policy are differ- 
ently phrased according as they are intended for 
German or for English consumption. And very 
likely it will require something more than the 
assurances contained in such books as those 
under review to overcome that feeling. 

Three chapters of the volume by Messrs. 
Hurd and Castle are devoted to a history of 
German sea-power to the accession of the pres- 
ent Emperor, one covering the rise and decline 
of the Hanseatic League, another the develop- 
ment of the Hohenzollern fleet, and a third the 
growth of maritime interests during the nine- 
teenth century. There is a suggestive chapter 
on the influence exerted by Great Britain upon 
German naval policy, and an excellent analyti- 
cal discussion of the great navy acts of 1898, 
1900, and 1912. The rise to preponderating 
power of Admiral von Tirpitz a man who 
fifteen years ago was almost as unknown to 



Germans as to outside peoples is described 
at length. And there is a careful examination 
of the economic basis of the Empire's present 
naval policy, leading to the interesting conclusion 
that, if present economic tendencies continue 
unchecked, the Empire will, " before long, be 
in a position to build and arm warships with 
almost as great facility as the United Kingdom, 
and to pay for them and man them with even 
greater ease than this country." Not the least 
valuable portion of the volume is an appendix 
containing digests of naval legislation, besides 
numerous summaries and tables and two care- 
fully prepared maps. 

A volume constructed upon a plan which, 
although simple and attractive, has not been 
followed by any earlier writer on modern Ger- 
many is Mr. Wile's "Men around the Kaiser." 
Mr. Wile rightly says that the world at large, 
fascinated by the Kaiser's kaleidoscopic and 
picturesque personality, is prone to accord him 
almost exclusive credit for the Fatherland's 
"magic leap into Weltmacht" and that, while 
there have been many makers of the Germany 
of to-day, their identities and personalities, 
with rare exceptions, are unknown to peoples 
beyond the German borders. In the volume in 
hand there are sketched the careers and char- 
acters of thirty-one men of eminence and lead- 
ership in the Germany of the past decade, many 
of them men who to-day are associated intimately 
with the Kaiser in the direction of the Empire's 
political, military, naval, and cultural affairs. 
Statesmen are represented principally by Chan- 
cellor von Bethmann - Hollweg, Prince von 
Buelow, Herr Bernhard Dernburg, and the 
Foreign Secretary, Herr Gottlieb von Jagow; 
military and naval leaders by Field- Marshal 
Baron von der Goltz, Admiral von Koester, 
and Admiral von Tirpitz ; diplomats by Mar- 
schall von Bieberstein, Herr von Kiderlin- 
Waechter, and Count von Bernstorff ; princes 
of industry, trade, and finance by Alfred Ballin, 
Arthur von Gwinner, Emil Rathenau, August 
Thyssen, and Dr. Krupp von Bohlen ; social 
reformers by August Bebel, Paul Ehrlich, and 
Count von Posadowsky ; journalists and men of 
letters by Maximilian Hardin and Gerhart 
Hauptmann ; musicians and artists by Richard 
Strauss, Max Reinhardt, and Max Liebermann; 
educators by Professor Hans Delbriick ; inven- 
tors by Count Zeppelin ; and there are sketches 
of two important members of the Imperial 
family, Prince Henry of Prussia and the Crown 
Prince William. 



184 



THE DIAL 



[March 1 



During the past seven years Mr. Wile has 
served as the Berlin representative of the New 
York "Times" and other newspapers, and it 
would appear that he has made excellent use of 
his opportunity to acquire first-hand knowledge 
of the personal (often undoubtedly the most 
influential) factors in the current achievements 
of one of the most interesting of nations. His 
sketches are of necessity brief, but they contain 
an amazing amount of information, and his 
facts and comments are presented in a manner 
uniformly attractive. Each sketch is accompan- 
ied by a good portrait of its subject. Americans 
who endeavor to follow the course of foreign 
affairs would be grateful for volumes of the 
same scope and quality dealing with the lead- 
ing men of England, France, Italy, Eussia, 
Austria, and even some of the minor countries. 
FREDERIC AUSTIN OGG. 



THE VARIORUM " CYMBELJNE." * 



The reviewing of a posthumous volume is always 
a delicate task for the conscientious reviewer. The 
natural impulse to speak well of the dead is trans- 
ferred to his works, and the critic finds himself in- 
volved in a conflict between this impulse and his 
duty, a duty to the deceased as well as to the 
living, and not infrequently he ends by being silent. 
The temptation to yield to this easy escape from a 
dilemma is increased manifold when the writer of 
the posthumous volume is a man so generally beloved 
and so highly esteemed as was the late Horace 
Howard Furness. Alas, neither our praise nor our 
censure can touch him further ! But his book re- 
mains, and, considering its importance and its place 
in the domain of letters, calls for a careful critical 
estimate. That part of the cultured public which is 
devoted to the study of the best in imaginative liter- 
ature is entitled to a candid and impartial estimate 
of such a volume as the one before us. Were Dr. 
Furness with us, he would ask for no more and 
insist on nothing less. 

It is too late a day now to dwell on those features 
of " the Furness Variorum " that have established 
for this edition of Shakespeare a position from which 
it can never be dislodged, and that have placed the 
modest, scholarly, genial, and painstaking Horace 
Howard Furness in the forefront of Shakespeare's 
editors and commentators. In this new volume, as 
in those that have preceded it, we find a familiarity 
with the text, and the mass of native and foreign 
commentary that has grown up around it, that is 
simply amazing ; a cautious weighing of the value 
of each word of the poem, and of the numerous and 
varied and often contradictory interpretations of the 

* THE TRAGEDIE OF CYMBELINE. By William Shake- 
speare ; edited by Horace Howard Furness. " The Variorum 
Shakespeare." Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. 



many commentators during the past two hundred 
years ; an almost microscopically accurate reproduc- 
tion of all the peculiarities of the original text ; a truly 
remarkable and almost awe-inspiring compilation of 
the readings, guesses, conjectures, and misprints of 
every previous editor of any importance ; carefully 
selected abstracts from the comments of the best of 
Shakespeare's critics ; an exhaustive study of the 
questions of the date of composition and of the 
" sources " of the plots and incidents, etc. But more 
important and of greater value than all these are the 
editor's introduction and his contributions to the 
elucidation of many hitherto obscure passages. 

Shakespeare students will be very grateful to Dr. 
Furness for his discovery (pp. 226-227), through 
Father Clifford of New Jersey, that when Shake- 
speare, in this play as in " Hamlet," referred to a 
canon against self-slaughter he referred to an actual 
canon, and not, as has been generally assumed, to a 
law of natural religion. Other interesting and orig- 
inal contributions to the understanding of this very 
difficult play are too numerous for detailed mention ; 
but the chief of them may here be referred to. The 
note on Imogen's deathlike pallor (I. 7, 15) when 
Pisanio announces the arrival of news from Posthu- 
mus is good not only in itself but as a specimen of 
the editor's ability to illustrate the poet's meaning 
from other plays, and of his gentle, but none the 
less biting, sarcasm. To Ingleby's suggestion that 
lachimo should have greeted Imogen with a low rev- 
erence, saying, "Save you, madam," Furness adds: 
" of course, he should have brought his heels together 
with a click." Such flashes of wit and humor abound 
throughout the volume, and serve to relieve the 
monotony of wading through seas of stale, flat, and 
unprofitable notes. More than once do we strongly 
suspect that many of these barren notes were lugged 
in only because they gave the editor the opportunity 
to exhibit his humor and unchristianly to expose his 
victims ( Vaughan, Ingleby, Walker, etc.) to ridicule. 
Through their occasional absurdities his sound com- 
mon sense, his shrewdness, his good taste, his genuine 
appreciation of the dramatic situations, and his keen 
insight into human nature stick fiery off indeed. He 
uses them as the stalking horse for his wit and 
wisdom. There is no good reason otherwise why 
interpretations that had been withdrawn or comments 
that in no way add to our understanding or appre- 
ciation of this or any other play should be perpet- 
uated in this edition or be permitted to distract our 
attention. Exquisite flashes of humor are to be found 
scattered throughout the volume: as when the editor 
says that anyone who could meddle with the scansion 
of a certain line " would have held the pail while 
Malone whitewashed Shakespeare's bust "; or when 
Vaughan's suggestion that how, show, now, etc., 
should be pronounced dissyllabically " thus, nowu, 
howu, shown," elicits from him this delicious com- 
ment: "I prefer the Yankee haow, naow, myself 
with a sharp nasal twang." But unfortunately his 
pleasantries have not always this charm and affa- 
bility ; sometimes they are quite puerile, and even 



1914] 



THE DIAL 



185 



of a nature to cause pain to his victims if the latter 
were alive. Walker's statement that occasionally 
words like blowing are to be pronounced as mono- 
syllables calls forth this burlesquing comment : 
" Ha'ng laid down this jew'l of a rule he is able to 
regard some po'ms written by po'ts as undy'ng 
po'try." Richard Grant White's " washerwoman " 
is resurrected twice quite unnecessarily for our 
merriment. To Walker's suggestion that a certain 
verse requires either to be pronounced e'r, he says : 
" If either is to be thus pronounced, why not, in 
modern editions, give the reader warning and so 
print it ? And if it is to be printed e'r, why not save 
ink and type and print it simply r?" To be sure, 
this is humor of a certain sort ; but is it literary 
criticism ? 

But let us return to the enumeration of the more 
important of Dr. Furness's original interpretations. 
He is at his best and how delightful is his best! 
in his comments on the singing of the crickets while 
lachimo is under the spell of the sleeping Imogen's 
beauty (p. 114), on lachimo's removal of the slippery 
bracelet (p. 119), on the snatches in Cloten's voice 
(p. 143), on the location and time-analysis of Act 2, 
Scene 4 (p. 147), on the symbolism of the hymeneal 
torches which supported the Cupids of the andirons 
(p. 157), on Pisanio's phrase about "waking" 
his eye-balls (p. 231), on Imogen's interrogation 
"'Mongst Friends?" (p. 272), on the phrase "the 
way which they stopped eagles" (p. 363), on horse- 
racing in Elizabeth's reign (p. 192), on the use of the 
words "good " and "bad" in Shakespeare (p. 136), 
on the stuttering of German Hotspurs (p. 189), and 
on spiders in Shakespeare's plays (p. 296). He is 
less happy in the supposition that when lachimo 
says "hell is here" he strikes his breast and thus 
indicates to us his remorse and preparation for his 
final repentance ; lachimo meant no more than the 
torture of confinement in the trunk and fear of dis- 
covery. Imogen's words about "being so verbal" 
refer to herself, and may be paraphrased " being so 
brutally frank." The idea (p. 152) that Shake- 
speare puts a brutal speech into Posthumus's mouth 
with the object of creating in us "an aversion to 
Posthumus, so that at the close of this scene our 
hearts will be duly hardened to endure the sight of 
his misery," is, to say the least, far-fetched. The 
note (p. 159) on the letter that lachimo delivered 
to Posthumus is very bad. When lachimo says, 
"She writes so to you?" he is not alarmed; he is 
mocking his victim : he knows that Imogen had for- 
given him and trusted him and that she would not 
mention his insults to her. If he had had any doubts 
on that score he would have read that letter. Nor 
is it probable, as suggested by Dr. Furness, that 
Shakespeare intended the frantic Posthumus to rush 
back into the room he had just left to deliver his 
very dramatic and poignant soliloquy ; it would have 
created a laugh in the theatre to see Philario and 
lachimo go off to find Posthumus to prevent him 
doing himself bodily injury while he comes rushing 
into the room by another door. In discussing the 



versification of the line, " With that harsh, noble, 
simple, nothing," the Misses Porter and Clark re- 
mark that the time of the missing foot is supplied 
by Imogen's " exasperated pause "; and Dr. Furness 
of course accepts this defence of the Folio text, 
without noting that the verse is not a foot short and 
that there is no place within the verse for the missing 
syllable. Moreover, the principle so often invoked 
by Dr. Furness, that deep emotion will account for 
many lacunae in Shakespeare's verse, is open to grave 
objections: it can be carried to ridiculous excess; it 
would mean chaos in versification ; gaps occur in 
verses where excessive emotion will not serve as an 
explanation ; and the supposition is further negatived 
by the fact that almost all of Shakespeare's most 
impassioned speeches are faultlessly constructed. 
Shakespeare would not eke out his verses with pauses 
like a nervous speaker his sentences with hems and 
haws. To what extent Dr. Furness will go in this 
regard is apparent in his suggestion that "a very 
timid pause" after the third foot would take the 
place of a foot and convert an imperfect verse 
(III. 7, 30) into a perfect one. If dramatic poetry 
were written on this principle, dramatists would 
have to provide gaps in their verses for the actors' 
inspirations and expirations as well as for every 
gesture; or should they breathe only at the end of 
each verse? That Dr. Furness's ear is a very 
untrustworthy guide to the music of Shakespeare's 
verse is perfectly evident, so it seems to me, from 
his suggestion that III. 4, 155 should read: "Hath 
Britain all the sun that shines? Prythee think." 
And he makes matters worse in defending this read- 
ing by referring to the extra syllable in the word 
"volume" in the following line. But it must be 
admitted that many of his strictures against much 
meddlesome tampering with Shakespeare's verse is 
quite justified by the antics of some of the com- 
mentators. 

The fatal Cleopatra to Dr. Furness is the Folio 
text. He expends his best ingenuity and all his 
subtlety to read sense and rhythm into anything in 
the Folio. The principle that the harder reading 
should prevail leads him into all kinds of far-fetched 
explanations. Anyone who has a word to say in 
the defence of a Folio reading finds a champion in 
him. The best illustration of this is to be found in 
his interpretation of Imogen's words, "Think that 
you are upon a rock," as meaning that her unshaken 
devotion is a sort of granitic foundation for the 
wavering Posthumus. And in this interpretation he 
finds "a heightened poetic charm"! Another in- 
stance is the desperate attempt to read a meaning 
into the words, "Your pleasure was my neere 
offence," (V. 5, 400) when it is almost certain that 
"neere" is a misprint for "mere" (only). So too 
his defence of "defended God," a misprint for 
" descended God," etc. 

In a surprisingly large number of passages, Dr. 
Furness seems to have missed the poet's meaning. 
He tells us that in the sentence, "The toil o' th' 
war only seems to seek out danger I' th' name of 



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[March 1 



fame," only qualifies to seek, otherwise he cannot 
"comprehend the passage." But it seems obvious 
that only relates to "I' th' name of fame" (III. 3, 
56). Posthumus's words, " Is 't enough I am sorry?" 
he interprets "Can it be that I am sorry enough?" 
when the plain meaning is, " Will it satisfy the good 
Gods to know and to be told that I am sorry?" 
Where is Dr. Furness's sense of humor when he 
reads sense into Cloten's nonsensical remark about 
cutting Posthumus's garments to pieces before his 
decapitated face? He very strangely objects to the 
soliloquy spoken by Posthumus after he is convinced 
of Imogen's infidelity as being undramatic and as hav- 
ing been intended only for the study, and that it is 
inappropriate even there. To me it appears exceed- 
ingly well motived, and as a psychological master- 
piece with which only Hamlet's soliloquy, "What 
a rogue and peasant slave am I!" can compare. 
The gaoler's words, "Your death has eyes in's 
head, then," mean "Death, as you picture him, is 
provided with eyes," not (as Dr. Furness para- 
phrases them) " Your death has eyes in its head," 
your being emphatic. In the sentence, "Her women 
with wet cheeks were present when she finished" 
(i. e., died), Dr. Furness defines finished as finished 
her confession because "it is hardly likely that her 
women would wet their cheeks for her death." But 
the poet meant us to understand that the wicked 
Queen died immediately after her confession; her 
women were moved to pitying tears at the sight of 
the madly dying woman suffering agonies of remorse 
while confessing her villainies. 

For numerous very good reasons Dr. Furness 
has set himself the almost impossible task of repro- 
ducing the Folio text with almost microscopic exact- 
ness. How well he has succeeded in this purpose 
in other volumes I do not know, but in "Cymbeline" 
he has signally failed. 'Tis true 'tis pity, and pity 
'tis 'tis true. The following is a list of the more 
important textual errors that I have noted : thousand 
(for thousands, p. 58, 1. 129), Senfelesse (Senselesse 
37: 11), /pake (spake 37: 7),/o (so 36: 32), 'Nay, 
(Nay 30: 112). os (0/30: 114), Madame (Madam 
39: 23), him, (him 39 : 20), Highneffe (Highnesse 
42: 48), os (o/51 : 59), Estate (Estate 57: 12D), 
Yea (Yea, 64: 18), stupefie (stupifie 67: 47), 
Madam, (Madam 85 : 61), choose (choofe 87 : 84), 
Cossers (Coffers 97: 148), 'mong'st (mongst 103 : 
198), is (if 107: 241), left; (left: 113: 9), in- 
clofed (inclosed 115 : 27), Swist (Swift 121 : 54), 
losse (lofse 125: 3), so (fo 130: 36), Maiesty 
(Maiefty 131: 38), must (muft 133: 62), goodneffe 
(goodnesse 133: 64), Last (Laft 145: 166), o/(os 
150 : 26 ), one of (one 160 : 148), fure (sure 161 : 
156), Chaste (Chaste, 166: 210), Ancestors 
(Anceftors 172 : 24), strut (ftrut 175 : 40), claspe 
(clafpe 186: 42), first (firft 190: 63), often 
(osten 198: 23), unsledg'd (unfledg'd 202 : 31), 
Mnst (Must 205: 61), husbands (Husbands 213: 
16), testimonies (Testimonies 214: 26), Mistresse 
(Miftresse 258: 154), sor (for 264: 19), I'd (I'ld 
271: 57), Comsort (Comfort 271: 55), against 



(againft 276 : 7), say (say, 287 : 44),/oote (Foole 
302: 157), sicknesse (sickenesse 305: 194), years 
(yeares 311 : 260), Brui (Ami 314 : 27?), Female 
(female 316: 284), lasts; (lasts. 317: 287), so (fo 
320: 300). curses (Curses 330: 393), ensorce.. 
srom (enforce . .from 342 : 13), Must ( Muft 345 : 
9), Not (Nor 346 : 22), sull (full 371 : 17), sinde 
(finde 384: 135), sor (for 396: 79), fide (side 402: 
159), Kitchen (Kitchin 408: 211), of (os 415: 
300), kindred ( Kindred 434: 511), Philharmonus 
(Philarmonus 434: 516), day (day, 181: 87). It 
will be noticed that more than a third of these 
are errors and misprints that do not occur in the 
Folio. This volume also fails to reproduce numerous 
"spaces," letter misplacements, and type peculiari- 
ties that occur in the original, besides introducing 
numerous letter displacements, etc., of its own. The 
paging of the original is not reproduced or men- 
tioned, although two pages in the Folio are incor- 
rectly numbered (p. 379 is numbered 389, and 
399 is 993) and recent Baconians have turned this 
to account. 

The textual notes are extremely untrustworthy. 
They fail to point out certain errors in the text (e.g., 
Mergan, arbiterment, Mistirs, rhat, ere for e'er, 
etc.), are marred by misprints (e.g., you for yon, 
IV. 2, 416; thee for the, I. 1, 66; vnsledg'd for 
vnfledg d, III. 3, 31, etc.), and fail to record read- 
ings peculiar to certain editors. Dr. Rolfe's edition 
contains five unique readings (you for your, I. 4, 155; 
who for that, III. 3, 25; That for This, IV. 4, 14; 
he for we, V. 5, 173; and at I. 3, 40 the name 
Pisanio is omitted ) which are not noted in the New 
Variorum. 

The commentaries throughout the volume are 
marred by numerous errors in quotations from 
Shakespeare, even from this play, and from other 
writers, as well as by numerous misprints. A few 
of these are: wroth (worth, 29), one (me, 108), 
passagem (123), requisite (requite 129), lock 
(look 149), Malmutius (17 8), required (acquired 
187), Lettson (210), tone (line 212), illiteration 
(213), illusion (allusion 242), has (was, 327), 
penetration (punctuation 242), rapsodies (90), 
time (line 271), doggrell (286), Arvigarius (287), 
as (a296), they (thy 313), laying (lying 334). hail 
(hale, Pref., XV.), Lucree (406), fits (sits 338), 
flowers (leaves 339), thinking (peeping, 95), etc. 

Dr. Furness nowhere alludes to the almost cer- 
tain fact that this play was set up from the poet's 
manuscript. The evidence for this is threefold : the 
textual errors are such as a compositor will make 
when he is setting up type from a not easily decipher- 
able manuscript (e.g., Babe for Bribe, Honor for 
Humor, lowd of for lowdest, easilest for easieest, 
Sleep for Stoop, etc.); the indication of elisions and 
contractions where they are required by the versifi- 
cation, something that an early seventeenth cen- 
tury compositor could not have done of his own 
accord (e.g., ofs, o'th', in's, th'more, ith\ thourt, 
y'are, on't, When't, T'encounter, pray'rs, do't, 
lingering, Tenioy, eld'st, etc., etc.) ; and the com- 



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187 



paratively rare occasions on which the verses are 
incorrectly divided. The matter is of importance as 
showing how punctilious Shakespeare was in the pre- 
paration of his MS., as throwing light on Elizabethan 
habits of enunciation, and as aiding us in guessing 
at Shakespeare's meaning in obscure passages. 

This brings me to a subject of which Dr. Furness 
always speaks very feelingly, viz., the elision of 
letters to meet the requirements of an ideal verse 
structure. Where the Folio does not indicate an 
elision he resents any suggestion to shorten a word, 
and uses all his eloquence and sarcasm in the defence 
of the extra syllable, as in his comment on Vaughan's 
suggestion to substitute vi'nds for a word in V. 3, 80, 
and on Walker's ha'ng for having. To Walker's 
proposal that in I. 6, 13, we read lang'shing he says : 
" Can any lover of Shakespeare's musical language 
hear this without ang'sh?" He continually pleads for 
distinct enunciation, and forgets that our ideals in 
this regard are very different from the Elizabethan 
ideal. Dr. Furness knew no one better that for 
the sake of their verse Elizabethan poets would do 
almost anything with their words ; they would decap- 
itate them ('stroy, 'bove, 'lack, 'count, long, ''complice, 
etc.), add prefixes to them (e.g., apaid,) lop off the 
tail (e.g., refts', gi', ha', marriage", syllab , etc.), dis- 
embowel them (e.g., o'er, ta'en. whe'er, de'il, or for 
other, since for sithence, canstick for candlestick, 
marie for marvel, ling' ring, et