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Full text of "The Dial"

From the collection of the 



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LIBRARY 

ESTABLISHED 1872 

L EN 



THE DIAL 



A Fortnightly Journal of 



Literary Criticism, Discussion, and Information 



( Pub'ic Library 
x^ 



VOLUME LVIII. 

JANUARY 1 TO JUNE 10, 1915 



CHICAGO 
THE HENRY O. SHEPARD CO. 

1915 



INDEX TO VOLUME LVIII. 

PAGE 

AMERICAN DISSENTERS, SOME Frederic Austin Ogg 114 

AMERICAN LITERATURE, AN 37 

AMERICAN PRESIDENT, A HALF-FORGOTTEN W. II. Johnson 262 

ARCHITECTURAL CRITICISM, AN ICONOCLAST IN .... Sidney Fiske Kimball 18 

ARCTIC LANDS FORLORN, IN Lawrence J. Burpee 117 

ART, STUDIES IN THE HISTORY OF Sidney Fiske Kimball 80 

ART AND HISTORY H. M. Kallen Ill 

AVEBURY, LORD, THE VARIOUSLY ACCOMPLISHED .... Percy F. Bicknell 74 

BELGIUM, THE POETS OF Arthur L. Salmon 69 

BROWNING'S WOMEN Clark S. Northup 258 

CANADIAN STATESMEN, Two Lawrence J. Burpee 380 

CHARACTER-READING THROUGH THE FEATURES M. V. O'Shea 149 

HINA, RECENT VIEWS ON Olin Dantzler Wannamaker ... 19 

OSMIC SOUL, THE Henry M. Sheffer 421 

CRITIC'S CREDO, A Herbert Ellsworth Cory .... 375 

DARKENED FOREGROUND, THE Charles Leonard Moore 191 

DOSTOIEFFSKY George Bernard Donlin 5 

DRAMA MOVEMENT, THE Grant Showerman 76 

DRAMATIC PRESENTATION, THE NEW MOVEMENT IN ... Edward E. Hale 199 

EDUCATIONAL CHINA-SHOP, A BULL IN THE 445 

ELIZABETHAN TRAGIC TECHNIQUE Garland Greever 335 

ENGLAND AND THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION Laurence M. Larson 14 

ENGLISH DRAMA, A SKETCH OF THE Raymond M. Alden 151 

ENGLISH LITERATURE, A COMPENDIOUS HISTORY OF ... Lane Cooper 15 

ENGLISH LITERATURE IN THE ROMANTIC PERIOD .... Lane Cooper 205 

EYE-WITNESSES AT THE SHAMBLES Wallace Rice 208 

PICTION, RECENT Lucian Gary 52, 118 

FICTION, RECENT William Morton Payne 

211, 263, 304, 344, 383, 424, 462 

FRANCE, THE NEW James W. Garner 78 

FRENCH EXPLORATION IN AMERICA, THE EPIC OF .... Archibald Henderson 417 

GENIUS, THE QUALITY OF T. D. A. Cockerell 203 

GERMAN IMPERIALISM, THE ARCH-PRIEST OF James W. Garner 256 

GERMANY, THE CASE AGAINST W. K. Stewart 302 

HURRICANE LAND, Two YEARS IN Percy F. Bicknell 201 

INDIAN, JUSTICE FOR THE Frederick Starr 458 

LITERARY LIFE, CROWDING MEMORIES OF A Percy F. Bicknell 456 

MAGIC, OLD, IN A NEW CENTURY Thomas Percival Beyer 301 

METRICAL FREEDOM AND THE CONTEMPORARY POET . . . Arthur Davison Ficke 11 

MITFORD, Miss, AS A LETTER-WRITER Percy F. Bicknell 415 

Music, INTERPRETERS OF Louis James Block 82 

NAMES, GOOD, A COMMODITY OF Charles Leonard Moore .... 325 

NAPOLEON: How HE ORGANIZED VICTORY H. E. Bourne 259 

NATURALIST, FRIENDLY LETTERS OF A WANDERING .... Percy F. Bicknell 294 

OCCULT, THE NEW LITERATURE OF THE Charles Leonard Moore 405 

ONE WHOM THE GODS LOVED Percy F. Bicknell 143 

PAINTER, OUR, OF THE SEA AND THE SHORE Edward E. Hale 333 

PLAY OR PAMPHLET? Charles Leonard Moore 287 

PLAY-MAKING, CLASSICS ON THE ART OF H. C. Chatfield-Taylor 145 

PLAYS OF TO-DAY AND YESTERDAY Homer E. Woodbridge 47 

PRESENT GENERATION, THE Edward E. Hale 365 

PSYCHOLOGY, SOME VARIED CONTRIBUTIONS TO Joseph Jastrow . . . . . . . 340 

REED, " CZAR," SOME LESS AUTOCRATIC ASPECTS OF ... Percy F. Bicknell 42 



INDEX 



PAGE 

SHAKESPEAREAN ACTORS, A VETERAN DRAMATIC CRITIC ON 

FAMOUS Percy F. Bicknell 373 

SHAKESPEAREAN CRUXES, FANTASTIC SOLUTIONS OF SOME Samuel A. Tannenbaum 297 

SOCIALISM, A DEFENCE OF Alex. Mackendrick 377 

SOLDIER-SURGEON'S REMINISCENCES, A Percy F. Bicknell 109 

SOUTH AMERICA, THREE BOOKS ON P. A. Martin 381 

SOUTHERN HISTORICAL WRITING, THE NEW SPIRIT IN . . Benj. B. Kendrick 422 

TAGORE : POET AND MYSTIC Louis I. Bredvold 459 

THEATRE, DEMOCRACY AND THE 3 

THREE-PLY THREAD OF LIFE, THE Charles Leonard Moore 101 

TRAVEL, AMERICAN, FROM CANOE TO AEROPLANE IN ... Percy F. Bicknell 254 

TRAVEL, EUROPEAN, IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY . . . Clark S. Northup 147 

VERBOTEN Z. M. Kalonymos 448 

WAR, AMERICA AND THE GREAT Frederic Austin Ogg 337 

WAR, IN PRAISE OF T. D. A. Cockerell 295 

WAR, NEW BOOKS ABOUT THE Frederic Austin Ogg 44 

WAR AND POETRY William Morton Payne 133' 

WELLS, MR. H. G., AND RECONSTRUCTION Edward E. Hale 247 

WEST, A SCIENTIFIC BAEDEKER OF THE Charles Atwood Kofoid .... 461 

WEST, FAR, AMERICAN EXPANSION IN THE William E. Dodd 336 

WILLIAM II. OF GERMANY W. K. Stewart 418 

WORRY AND MODERN LIFE M. V. O'Shea 5 

"YELLOW BOOK, THE" 67 

YOUNG OF THE " NIGHT THOUGHTS " Homer E. Woodbridge 81 

ANNOUNCEMENTS OF SPRING BOOKS 1915 219 

CASUAL COMMENT . . . . 7,39,71,103,135,193,250,289,327,368,408, 450 

NOTES ON NEW NOVELS 85,264,305,346,385,425, 466 

BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS 20,53,86,120,152,213,266,306,347,386,426, 467 

BRIEFER MENTION 25,59,89,216,269,390,430, 471 

NOTES 25,59,90,122,156,217,270,311,350,391,431, 472 

TOPICS IN LEADING PERIODICALS 26,90,158,272,351, 473 

LISTS OF NEW BOOKS . 26,60,91,123,159,233,272,312,352,393,432, 474 



CASUAL COMMENT 



PAGE 

Advertising Page, Humors of the 105 

Anecdotes, The Periodicity of 195 

Artist, An, for Art's Sake 8 

Arts and Letters, A Generous Benefaction to 104 

Authorship, The Boundlessness of the Field of 253 

Authorship, The Pride of 453 

Authorship, The Road to 135 

Battles and Books 104 

Belgian Relief, Mark Twain's Contribution to 411 

Bibliography, Common Sense in 138 

Bibliopathology 40 

Biography, A Pleasing Prospect in 253 

Book-borrower, A Delinquent 9 

Book-dealers, Encouraging to 196 

Book-lovers, A Promising Profession for 290 

Book-reviewer's Chief Function, The 453 

Books, New, for Old 252 

Books, Second-hand Knowledge of 370 

Books as Food for the Flames 138 

Books for Specialists 194 

Books "Never In" 139 

By Way of Parenthesis 250 

Canada's Contribution to Polite Literature 292 

Carlyle Manuscript, A Forgotten 196 

Centenaries, Neglected 412 

Classic Author, A, in His Own Lifetime 454 

Classics, The Lost, of Ancient Greece 368 



PAGE. 

Colonel Carter of Cartersville, The Creator of 291 

Copyright Differences, An Adjustment of 369 

Criticism, Textual, The Passion for 136 

Criticism, The Place of 137 

Culture, A Get-Rich-Quick 261 

Culture, Aids to 105 

Culture, The Increasing Cost of 106 

Culture, The Popularization of 73 

Drama, The, as an Instrument of Reform 73 

Edition de Luxe, The Lure of the 140 

Editor, A Self-congratulatory 72 

Editor with an Ideal, An 252 

Editorial Retrospect, An 106 

Educational Problem, An 71 

English, Underdone 194 

Engrossing Theme, The 71 

Essay Competition, A Notable 409 

Fiction, The Catholicity of Popular Taste in 72' 

Fiction, The Improbabilities and Impossibilities of 329 

Fictive Tears, The Fount of 328 

" Fortnightly," Fifty Years of the 450 

French Appreciation of English Literature 289 

French Literature, A New Light in 71 

French Poetry and German Poetry 137 

French Press, A Renovated and Ennobled 410 

Gown to Khaki, From 331 

Hispanic Society, The Late Librarian of the 193- 



INDEX 



PAGE 

Illinois Public Libraries 292 

Indexers' Jdiosyncracies 290 

Information, Seekers after Curious and Rare Bits of.... 135 

Ireland, Reading in 290 

John Carter Brown Library, The New Head of the 369 

Journalist's Art, A New Variety of the 253 

Juvenile Disrespect for Literary Property 136 

Lawsuits of Fiction, One of the Famous 138 

Library as Pacificator, The 139 

Library Building for Children, The First 409 

Library Laws, Obstructive 453 

Library Support, A Plea for 103 

Literary Diplomats 139 

Literature, Great, A Definition of 370 

Literature, Laxative 451 

Lumber-camp Libraries for Wisconsin 106 

Man of Infinite Variety, A 195 

Mark Twain of the Ghetto, A 40 

Mind's Gambol, The 39 

Moribund Art, A Plea for the Revival of a 452 

Nature-study Transmuted into Literature 39 

Nonagenarian, A Versatile 8 

Novel-writing, After Forty Years of 292 

Obligation, An Embarrassing 136 

Periodical, A Broad-gauge 104 

Playfulness, The Perils of 452 

Poem, A Potent 370 

Poet, One Who Lived the Life of a ^27 

Poetry and Efficiency 103 

Poetry in Wartime 73 

Political Pamphlet, A Famous 252 

Printer, A, with the Spirit of an Artist 329 

Public Library, One Year's Work of Our Largest 329 



PAGE 

Reader's Appetite, Whetting the 330 

Readers, Greedy 330 

Readers behind the Bars 137 

Reading, Heavy 291 

Reading in the Trenches 196 

Reference Room, One Day's Activities in a Busy 369 

Rejection, Sugar-coating the Pill of 195 

Reprints, Cheap, The Publisher's Risk in 410' 

Retrospects of a Quarterly Reviewer 411 

Review, An Exiled 291 

Russell, Clark, A Follower in the Footsteps of 251 

Russian Genius, A New 411 

Russian Language and Literature, Revived Interest in . . 9 

School Children, The Reading of 32& 

Scottish Logician, A 8 

Shakespeare, Germany's Appreciation of 328 

Shakespeare, The Children's Need of 412 

" Shakespeare Every Day " 250 1 

Short-story Harvest of 1914, The 368 

Simplified Spelling, A Set-back to 139 

Speech-acquiring Years, The 408 

State Archives, A New Department of 453- 

Style, The Quality of Naturalness in 7 

Travesty in the Form of Fiction 451 

University Printing House, A 140- 

Vermonters, Literary Likings of the Serious 105- 

War, A Voltairean View of 7 

War, An Addition to the Ephemeral Literature of the.. 412 

War-historians, Data for Future 9 

Washington Irving Anecdote, A 330 

Williams, Ephraim, In Memory of 410 

Williams College Library, A Notable Gift to 412 

Yiddish Literature, A Renaissance in 292 1 



AUTHORS AND TITLES OF BOOKS REVIEWED 



Abercrombie, Lascelles. The Epic 306 

Adams, H. P. The French Revolution 214 

Allen, J. W. Germany and Europe 303 

Aljen, James Lane. The Sword of Youth 211 

"American Colleges and Universities Series" 214 

Andrews, Mary R. S., and Murray, Roy I. August First 306 

Andreyev, Leonid. Savva and The Life of Man 49 

"Art and Craft of Letters, The " 306 

Artzibashef, Michael. Sanine 118 

Atkinson, Eleanor. Johnny Appleseed 306 

Bailey, H. C. The Gentleman Adventurer 304 

Bailey, Temple. Contrary Mary 386 

Bainbridge, W. S. The Cancer Problem 155 

Baker, Arthur E. Concordance to the Poetical and 

Dramatic Works of Alfred, Lord Tennyson 59 

Baldwin, Elbert F. The World War 340 

Bancroft, Hubert H. History of Mexico, revised edition. 154 

Bancroft, Hubert H. Retrospection, revised edition 430 

Bancroft, Hubert H. The New Pacific, revised edition . . 430 

Barnard, Charles I. Paris War Days 209 

Barr, Amelia E. The Winning of Lucia 425 

Barrie, J. M. Half Hours 49 

Bartlett's Familiar Quotations, tenth edition, revised and 

enlarged by Nathan Haskell Dole 25 

Beck, James M. The Evidence in the Case 339 

Bedier, Joseph. Romance of Tristan and Iseult 216 

Begbie, Harold. Kitchener, Organizer of Victory 388 

Benson, Arthur C. Hugh: Memoirs of a Brother 426 

Benson, E. F. Arundel 265 

Benson, Hugh. Loneliness 346 

Beresford, Admiral Lord Charles, The Memoirs of 87 

Bindloss, Harold. The Secret of the Reef 264 

Birkhead, Alice. Destiny's Daughter 264 

Bordeaux, Henry. The Awakening 346 

Bordeaux, Henry. The Will to Live 425 

Boulenger, E. G. Reptiles and Batrachians 429 

Bourdon, Georges. The German Enigma 45 

Bradley, Mary H. The Splendid Chance 465 

Brady, Cyrus T. The Eagle of the Empire 386 

Bridges, Horace J. Criticisms of Life 308 

Brown, Alice. Children of Earth 269 

Brown, Helen D. Talks to Freshman Girls 59 

Brownell, Atherton. The Unseen Empire 47 



Brownell, W. C. Criticism 375 

Browning, Robert and Elizabeth B., New Poems of 268 

Bruce, H. Addington. Psychology and Parenthood 39Q 

Brunetiere, Ferdinand. The Law of the Drama 145 

Bryant, Edward A. The Best English and Scottish 

Ballads 390 

Buckrose, J. E. Spray on the Windows 466 

Burr, Amelia Josephine. A Dealer in Empire 347 

Burr, Anna R. Religious Confessions and Confessants. 343 

Burroughs, John. The Breath of* Life 468 

Burton, Richard. How to See a Play 76 

Calhoun, Mary E., and MacAlarney, Emma L. Readings 

from American Literature 471 

Calthrop, Dion Clayton. Clay and Rainbows 86 

Campbell, Oscar J., and Schenck, Frederic. Comedies 

of Holberg 20 

"Can Germany Win?" 340 

Canfield, Dorothy. Hillsboro People 385 

Cannan, Gilbert. Satire 306 

Cannan, Gilbert. Young Earnest 119 

Cannon, W. B. Bodily Changes in Pain, Hunger, Fear, 

and Rage 468 

Carey, Arthur E. New Nerves for Old 50 

Carter, Huntly. The Theatre of Max Reinhardt 199 

Castle, Agnes and Egerton. The Haunted Heart 264 

Chamberlain, George A. Through Stained Glass 263 

Chambers, 'Robert W. Who Goes There 1 345 

" Channels of English Literature " 151 

Chapman, John J. Deutschland iiber Alles 303 

Chapman, John J. Memories and Milestones 266 

Chase, J. Smeaton, and Saunders, Charles F. The Cali- 
fornia Padres and Their Missions 471 

Chatterton, E. Keble. The Old East Indiamen 429 

Cheney, Sheldon. New Movement in the Theatre 76 

Chesterton, G. K. The Appetite of Tyranny 267 

Chittenden, Hiram M. The Yellowstone National Park, 

revised edition 430 

Christie, Dugald. Thirty Years in the Manchu Capital. 20 

Chubb, Edwin W. Masters of English Literature 154 

Chubb, Edwin W. Sketches of Great Painters 470 

Cobb, Irvin S. Paths of Glory 208 

" Columbia University, Publications of the Dramatic 

Museum of " 145 



INDEX 



PAGE 

Comfort, Will Levington. Red Fleece 304 

Comstock, Harriet T. The Place beyond the Winds 85 

Conrad, Joseph. Victory 383 

Cooper, Clayton S. The Modernizing of the Orient 268 

Corbin, John. The Edge 466 

Corson, Geoffrey. Blue Blood and Red 384 

Coulevain, Pierre de. The Wonderful Romance 470 

Cox, J. Charles. The English Parish Church 216 

Cox, Kenyon. Winslow Homer 333 

Coxon, Stanley. And That Reminds Me 349 

Cramb, J. A. Origins and Destiny of Imperial Britain. 295 
Cressy, Edward. Discoveries and Inventions of the 

Twentieth Century 391 

Croly, Herbert. Progressive Democracy 114 

Crocker, Joseph H. Shall I Drink? 310 

Cross, E. A. The Short Story 89 

Curtiss, Philip. The Ladder 384 

Davis, H. W. C. Political Thought of Heinrich von 

Treitschke 256 

Davis, Richard Harding. With the Allies 209 

Dawson, William H. What Is Wrong with Germany?.. 303 

Deeping, Warwick. Marriage by Conquest 424 

" Dehan, Richard." The Man of Iron 212 

Dell, Ethel M. The Keeper of the Door 424 

Devine, Edward T. The Normal Life 469 

Dickinson, Asa Don. The Kaiser 419 

Dickinson, G. Lowes. An Essay on the Civilizations of 

India, China, and Japan 429 

Dickinson, Thomas H. Chief Contemporary Dramatists. 430 

Dimnet, Ernest. France Herself Again 78 

Doncaster, L. Determination of Sex . . . . 428 

Douglas, George M. Lands Forlorn 117 

Doyle, Arthur C. The Valley of Fear 425 

Dugmore, A. Radclyffe. Romance of the Beaver 311 

Dunbar, Seymour. A History of Travel in America.... 254 
Durand, Ralph. Handbook to the Poetry of Rudyard 

Kipling 216 

Dyer, Walter A. Pierrot, Dog of Belgium 467 

Eaton, A. W. H. The Famous Mather Byles 56 

Eaton, Walter P. The Idyl of Twin Fires 306 

Elliott, Francis P. Pals First 466 

Elwood, Walter. Guimo 265 

Embury II., Aymar. Early American Churches 53 

Erskine, Payne. A Girl of the Blue Ridge 385 

Ervine, St. John G. Eight O'clock, and Other Studies.. 428 

Ervine, St. John G. Mrs. Martin's Man 265 

Fabre, J. H. The Mason-bees 22 

Fansler, Harriet E. Evolution of Technic in Elizabethan 

Tragedy 335 

Farquhar, J. N. Modern Religious Movements in India. 388 

Finley, John. The French in the Heart of America 417 

Fitch, Albert P. The College Course and the Prepara- 
tion for Life 122 

Fleischmann, Hector. An Unknown Son of Napoleon.. 261 

Foerster, Norman. Outlines and Summaries 471 

Foord, Edward. Napoleon's Russian Campaign of 1812. 260 

Forbush, William Byron. Manual of Play 390 

Fosbrooke, Gerald E. Character Reading through Anal- 
ysis of the Features 149 

Foster, George. Canadian Addresses 381 

Fowler, Edith Henrietta. Patricia 346 

Francis, J . O. Change 47 

Freeman, R. Austin. A Silent Witness 467 

Freud, Sigmund. Psychopathology of Everyday Life. . . 341 
Frobenius, H. The German Empire's Hour of Destiny. . 45 

Frost, Robert. A Boy's Will, American edition 430 

Frost, Robert. North of Boston, American edition 430 

Galsworthy, John. The Little Man, and Other Satires . . 427 

Gardiner, John Hays. Harvard 214 

Gaunt, Mary. A Woman in China 20 

Gauss, Christian. The German Emperor as Shown in 

His Public Utterances 418 

Gehrts, M. A Camera Actress in the Wilds of Togoland 122 

George, W. L. The Second Blooming 52 

" Germany's War Mania " 303 

Gerould, Katherine F. The Great Tradition, and Other 

Stories 466 

Gerstenberg, Alice. The Conscience of Sarah Platt 386 

" Getting a Wrong Start " 390 

Gibbons. Herbert Adams. The New Map of Europe. ... 46 
Gibson, Rowland G. Forces Mining and Undermining 

China 19 

Gilman, Lawrence. Nature in Music . 84 



PAGE 

Goddard, Henry H. Feeble-mindedness 342 

Goddard, Henry H. School Training of Defective Chil- 
dren 342 

Gowans, Adam L. Selections from Treitschke's Lec- 
tures on Politics 44 

Gowans, Adam L. The Twelve Best Tales by English 

Writers 390 

Gray, W. Forbes. Some Old Scots Judges 153 

Greene, Francis V. Present Military Situation in the 

United States 338 

Gretton, R. H. History 306 

Grey, Zane. The Lone Star Ranger 264 

Griffiths, Arthur. Life of Napoleon 261 

Haggard, H. Rider. Allan and the Holy Flower 386 

Hale, E. E., and Dawson, F. T. Elements of the Short 

Story 269 

Hall, Holworthy. Pepper 426 

" Handy Volume Classics " 390 

Harrison, Henry Sydnor. Angela's Business 344 

Hart, Albert Bushnell. The War in Europe 46 

Hausrath, Adolf. Treitschke 44 

Henderson, Archibald. The Changing Drama 76 

Herzog, Rudolf. Sons of the Rhine 85 

Heyking, Baroness von. Lovers in Exile 425 

Hollander, Jacob H. Abolition of Poverty 23 

Holt, Henry. On the Cosmic Relations 421 

Hooker, Brian. Fairyland 348 

Hopkins, Florence M. Allusions, Words, and Phrases.. 391 

Hornaday, William T. Wild Life Conservation 309 

Hosking, W. H. The South African Year Book, 1914... 89 
Hovgaard, William. The Voyages of the Norsemen to 

America 21 

Howard, Bronson. The Autobiography of a Play 145 

Howe, Frederic C. The Modern City 266 

Howe, Winifred E. History of the Metropolitan Museum 

of Art 215 

Hull, W. I. The Monroe Doctrine 469 

Hunt, Gaillard. Life in America One Hundred Years 

Ago 349 

Hunt, Gaillard. The Department of State 86 

Hutchinson, Horace G. Life of Sir John Lubbock, Lord 

Avebury 74 

Hutchinson, W. E. By-ways around San Francisco Bay. 350 

Hutchinson, Woods. Civilization and Health 121 

Jane, L. Cecil. The Nations at War 121 

Jepson, Edgar. Happy Pollyooly 347 

Jones, Henry Arthur. The Theatre of Ideas 389 

Jones, John P. India, new edition 471 

" Kaiser, The Real " 44 

Kauffman, Reginald W. In a Moment of Time 349 

Kilpatrick, James A. Tommy Atkins at War 210 

King, Charles. The True Ulysses S. Grant 391 

Kittredge, George L. Chaucer and His Times 467 

Koldewey, Robert. The Excavations at Babylon 347 

Lange, Algot. The Lower Amazon 382 

Lawrence, D. H. The Widowing of Mrs. Holroyd 48 

Leacock, Stephen. Arcadian Adventures with the Idle 

Rich 86 

Learned, W. S. The Oberlehrer 58 

Lee, Elizabeth. Mary Russell Mitford 415 

Lehmann, Lilli. My Path through Life 87 

Le Queux, William. At the Sign of the Sword 464 

Lieder, Paul Robert. Tegner's Poems 21 

Lippmann, Walter. Drift and Mastery 116 

" Loeb Classical Library " 89 

Loti, Pierre. On Life's By-ways 155 

Lowell, Amy. Sword Blades and Poppy Seeds 12 

Lund, Kathleen A. Oliver in Willowmere 467 

Macaulay, Fannie C. The House of the Misty Star 385 

McCabe, Joseph. Treitschke and the Great War 256 

McCall, Samuel W. Life of Thomas B rackett Reed 42 

McElroy, Robert McNutt. The Winning of the Far West 336 

Mach, Edmund von. What Germany Wants 46 

McKeever, William A. Industrial Training of the Girl. 58 

Mackenzie, Compton. Sinister Street 53 

MacManus, Seumas. Yourself and the Neighbours 85 

MacMechan, Archibald. The Life of a Little College... 24 

Maeterlinck, Maurice. The Unknown Guest 120 

Mair, G. H. Modern English Literature 15 

Markham, Edwin. California the Wonderful 386 

Markham, Edwin. The Shoes of Happiness 310 

Marsh, Richard. The Woman in the Car 466 

Martin, Helen R. Martha of the Mennonite Country... 385 



INDEX 



PAGE 

Matthews, Nathan. Municipal Charters 387 

IHawson, Douglas. The Home of the Blizzard 201 

Mayne, Ethel C. Letters of Dostoevsky 88 

Mayne, Ethel Colburn. Browning's Heroines 258 

Mead, William E. The Grand Tour in the Eighteenth 

Century 147 

.Melvin, Floyd J. Socialism as the Sociological Ideal.... 377 

Merwin, Samuel. The Honey Bee 463 

Miller, Elizabeth. Daybreak 425 

Millicent Duchess of Sutherland. Six Weeks at the War 210 

JUills, Enos A. The Rocky Mountain Wonderland 469 

Moderwell, Hiram K. The Theatre of To-day 199 

-Monroe, Harriet. You and 1 12 

Montagu, Violette M. Napoleon and His Adopted Son.. 261 

Mony penny, W. F. Life of Disraeli, Vol. Ill 308 

Moorehead, Warren K. The American Indian in the 

United States 458 

Morgan, Morris H. Vitruvius 156 

Moses, Irene E. P. Rhythmic Action 471 

Moth, Axel. Glossary of Library Terms 216 

Munsterberg, Hugo. Psychology 344 

Miinsterberg, Hugo. The Peace and America 340 

Muir, John. Letters to a Friend 294 

Muirhead, W. A. Practical Tropical Sanitation 470 

JMunn, Charles C. The Heart of Uncle Terry 386 

Mursell, Walter A. Byways in Bookland 23 

" My Ideas and Ideals " 418 

JSTansen, Fridtjof. Through Siberia 387 

"Nature and Science on the Pacific Coast" 461 

Newman, Ernest. Wagner as Man and Artist 21 

Newmarch, Rosa. Russian Opera 56 

-Nexo, Martin A. Pelle the Conqueror: Apprenticeship. 53 

Nivedita, Sister. Footfalls of Indian History 348 

" Northern Patagonia " 381 

Norton, Richard. Bernini 80 

Ogden, R. M. Introduction to General Psychology 344 

Onions, Oliver. Mushroom Town 306 

Oppenheim, E. Phillips. The Double Traitor 463 

Oppenheim, James. The Beloved 466 

""Oxford Editions of Standard Literature" 89 

Palmer, John. Comedy 306 

Pankhurst, Emmeline. My Own Story 57 

Park, Roswell. Selected Papers, Surgical and Scientific 214 

Parker, G. H. Biology and Social Problems 88 

Parker, William B. Edward Rowland Sill 143 

Parrott, Thomas M. George Chapman's Plays, Vol. II., 

new edition 25 

Pemberton, Henry, Jr. Shakespere and Sir Walter 

Raleigh 89 

Pepperman, W. Leon. Who Built the Panama Canal?.. 310 

Peterson, William. Canadian Essays and Addresses 390 

Phelps, William Lyon. Essays on Books 24 

Phillipps, Lisle March. Art and Environment, revised 

edition Ill 

Phillpotts, Eden. Brunei's Tower 385 

Pinero, Arthur Wing. Robert Louis Stevenson as a 

Dramatist 145 

Poe, Works of, Stedman-Woodberry edition, revised 216 

Pollak, Gustav. International Perspective in Criticism. 426 

Poole, Ernest. The Harbor 211 

Powell, E. Alexander. Fighting in Flanders 209 

Powell, E. Alexander. The End of the Trail 88 

Powys, John C. The War and Culture 25 

Prentice, E. Parmalee. Pericla Navarchi Magonis 348 

Priest, George M. Germany since 1740 429 

Reilly, Joseph J. James Russell Lowell as a Critic.... 388 

Rhys, Ernest. Rabindranath Tagore 459 

Richardson, Ernest C. Biblical Libraries 57 

Ridge, W. Pett. The Happy Recruit 264 

Rinehart, Mary R. The Street of Seven Stars 85 

Robertson, J. M. Elizabethan Literature 24 

Robinson, Edwin A. Van Zorn 48 

Rohmer, Sax. The Romance of Sorcery 301 

Rohrbach, Paul. German World Policies, trans, by 

Edmund von Mach 303 

Rolland, Romain. Musicians of To-day 82 

Roosevelt, Theodore. America and the World War 337 

Roy, Basanta K. Rabindranath Tagore 459 

Royce, Josiah. War and Insurance 215 

Russell, Bertrand. Scientific Method in Philosophy 65 

Sadler, William S. Worry and Nervousness 60 

Sarolea, Charles. How Belgium Saved Europe 389 

Saunders, George. Builder and Blunderer 45 



PAGE 

" Scandinavian Monographs " 20 

Schelling, Felix E. English Drama 151 

Schreiner, Olive. Woman and War, pocket edition 269 

Scott, Geoffrey. The Architecture of Humanism 18 

Seawell, Molly E. The Diary of a Beauty 306 

Selborne, John. The Thousand Secrets 426 

Seltzer, Charles A. The Boss of the Lazy Y 467 

Shand, Alexander F. The Foundations of Character.... 340 

Shaw, Stanley. The Kaiser, new edition 419 

Sheehan, P. A. The Graves at Kilmorna 347 

Shelley, Henry C. Life and Letters of Edward Young.. 81 

Shortt, Vere. Lost Sheep 385 

Sibree, James. A Naturalist in Madagascar 155 

Sihler, E. G. Cicero of Arpinum 22 

Singmaster, Elsie. Katy Gaumer 265 

Sladen, Douglas. The Confessions of Frederick the 

Great and Treitschke's Life of Frederick the Great. 309 

Sladen, Douglas. Twenty Years of My Life 456 

Snaith, J. C. Anne Feversham 86 

Spencer, M. L. Practical English Punctuation 23 

Sterling, George. Beyond the Breakers 13 

Stevenson, Burton E. Little Comrade 346 

Stewart, Charles D. Some Textual Difficulties in 

Shakespeare 297 

Stockton, Richard, Jr. Peace Insurance 307 

Stoothoff 's, Ellenor. The Nightingale 346 

Stringer, Arthur. Open Water 11 

Stringer, Arthur. The Hand of Peril 424 

Strunsky, Rose. Abraham Lincoln 152 

Strunsky, Simeon. Belshazzar Court 22 

" Studies in Southern History and Politics " 422 

Sukloff, Marie. The Life Story of a Russian Exile 54 

Tagore, Rabindranath. Songs of Kabir 459 

Tagore, Rabindranath. The King of the Dark Chamber 48 

Tarkington, Booth. The Turmoil 265 

Thomson, J. Arthur. The Wonder of Life 213 

Thorndyke, Russell. Dr. Syn : A Smuggler Tale of 

Romney Marsh 425 

Thorne, Guy. The Secret Service Submarine 464 

" Three Modern Plays from the French " 48 

Thurstan, Frederick. Romances of Amosis Ra 347 

Tipper, Harry, and Others. Advertising 430 

Todd, Millicent. Peru: A Land of Contrasts 383 

Topham, Anne. Memories of the Kaiser's Court 419 

Treitschke, Heinrich von. Germany, France, Russia, 

and Islam 256 

Trevelyan, George O. George the Third and Charles 

James Fox, Vol. II 14 

Trevena, John. Sleeping Waters 265 

Tiirck, Hermann. The Man of Genius 203 

Tupper, Charles. Recollections of Sixty Years 380 

Tupper, Frederick and James W. Representative En- 
glish Dramas from Dryden to Sheridan , . 269 

Tuttle, Florence G. The Awakening of Woman .... 471 

Tyler. Therese. The Dusty Road 264 

Upton, George P. The Song 427 

Usher, Roland G. Pan-Americanism 338 

Vachee, Colonel. Napoleon at Work 259 

Van Vorst, Marie. Mary Moreland 462 

Veer, Willem de. An Emperor in the Dock 305 

Vega, Lope de. The New Art of Writing Plays 145 

Vickers, Kenneth H. England in the Later Middle Ages 215 

Villard, Oswald G. Germany Embattled 302 

Vizetelly, Ernest A. My Adventures in the Commune. . 58 

Wallace, William. The Musical Faculty 153 

Wallas, Graham. The Great Society ' 343 

Wallin, J. E. W. The Mental Health of the School Child .. 342 
Walling, William English. Progressivism and After. . 117 
Ward, A. W., and Waller, A. R. Cambridge History of 

English Literature, Vol. XI 205 

Warren, Maude Radford. Barbara's Marriages 305 

Watson, John B. Behavior 341 

Wead, Katharine H. List of Series and Sequels for 

Juvenile Readers 216 

Weatherley, Cecil. Routledge's New English Dictionary, 

second edition 430 

Wells, Carolyn. The White Alley 467 

Wells, H. G. Bealby 304 

Wheeler, Howard D. Are We Ready ? 338 

Whelpley, James D. American Public Opinion 121 

Whipple, Wayne. Story-life of Napoleon 261 

Whitridge, Frederick W. One American's Opinion of the 

European War 340 



INDEX 



PAGE 

"Who's Who" (in England), 1915 269 

Wiley, Harvey W. The Lure of the Land 120 

Williams, Charles R. Life of Rutherford Birchard Hayes 262 
Williams, Jesse L. " And So They Were Married " . . . . 48 

Williams, Sidney. A Reluctant Adam 305 

Willsie, Honore. Still Jim 466 

Wilson, Harry Leon. Ruggles of Red Gap 345 



PAGE 
Winter, William. Shakespeare on the Stage, second 

series 373 

Wolseley, Viscount. Decline and Fall of Napoleon, third 

edition 261 

Wright, Willard H. What Nietzsche Taught 267 

Wyeth, John Allan. With Sabre and Scalpel 109 

Young, F. E. M. Valley of a Thousand Hills... .. 305 



MISCELLANEOUS 



Adams, Charles Francis, Death of 271 

Anti-German Misconceptions Corrected, Some. Edmund 

von Mack 198 

Appleton, Inc., Robert, New Publishing House of 157 

Author's Protest, An. Kate Stephens 9 

Cawein, Madison, Death of 25 

Christian Women's Peace Movement, Prize Contest of the. 392 

Coman, Katharine, Death of 90 

Cook, Edward, Death of 431 

Correction, A, and Some Other Matters. Louis C. Marolf. 331 

Crane, Walter, Death of 271 

Drama, " Literary " versus " Commercial." Helen McAfee 108 

Dunlap Society, New Publications of the 123 

Explanation, A Word of. Arthur E. Bostwick 253 

Flecker, James EIroy, Death of 90 

French Feminist of To-day, A. Benj. M. Woodbridge. . . . 140 

Genius Unawares, Entertaining. Robert J. Shores 41 

" German " and " American." Wallace Rice 106 

Henderson, Charles R., Death of 270 

Index Office, One Year of the '. . 432 

Japanese Poetry, Imperial. Ernest W. Clement 142 

Jefferson's Architectural Work. Fiske Kimball 332 

John Crerar Library, Twentieth Annual Report of the. . . 473 

Journalistic Jest, An Ancient. Walter Taylor Field 372 

La Salle, A Spurious Derivation Attributed to. J. Sey- 
mour Currey 370 

Latin Americas, Literary Reciprocity with the. C. L. M. 332 

" Le Museon " 432 

London, A Blast from. Ezra Pound 40 

Lounsbury, Thomas R., Death of 312 



Meyer, B. M., Death of 25 

Milton, A Textual Difficulty in. Louis C. Marolf 197 

Milton Did He Nod ? W. F. Warren 142 

Mommsen and the War. F. H. Hodder 10 

" Mommsen and the War." O. E. Leasing 73 

Muir, John, Death of 26 

New Rochelle, Library of 270 

New York Public Library Lists of Noteworthy Books.... 218 

Novel When It Is Not a Novel. W. M. P 142 

" Peace Insurance," The Fallacies of. Richard Stock- 
ton, Jr 371 

Pickard, Samuel T., Death of 157 

Present Generation, Some Thoughts on the. A. 414 

Ritson, Joseph. Henry A. Burd 1ft 

Ruskin and War. Ralph Branson 141 

Shakespearean Commentator, An Aggrieved. Charles D. 

Stewart 454 

Slavonic Publishing Co., Publications of the 351 

Sophocles, A Quotation from, in Meredith's Letters. Wm. 

Chislett, Jr 332 

" Special Libraries " 472 

" State Documents for Libraries " 472 

" Stickeen," John Muir's 158 

" Studies in Philology " 271 

Thomases, In Praise of. Thomas Percival Beyer 413 

" Tristram Shandy," " The Doctor " and. Russell Osborne 

Stidston 293 

War and Poetry. Ralph Bronson 197 

War Poetry in Germany. Arthur Howard Noll. . . . . 414 






THE DIAL 

i/7 SEMI-MONTHLY JOURNAL OF 

ntuism, ffimnasian, anfr Jftrfcrrmaftcrn 






FOUNDED BY 
FRANCIS P. BROWNE 



Volume LVI1I. 
No. 685. 



CHICAGO, JANUARY 1, 1915. 



> ctt. a copy . I PUBLISHED AT 
$2. a year. ' 632 SHERMAN ST. 





THE LIFE OF 

THOMAS B. REED 

By 
Samuel W. McCall 

From a three-column review in the Boston Transcript 

" The best thing to say about McCalFs ' Life of Thomas B. Reed ' is that everyone 
should read it. It is quite impossible to dissect and analyze the work. As a whole, it 
gives a complete picture of the man and compels the reader to feel a sense of personal 
acquaintance and friendship with him. Very likely a biography of Thomas B. Reed 
more detailed and exhaustive will at some time be written and very likely his speeches 
will be put before the public with some measure of completeness, but it is not too much 
to say that ' Tom ' Reed will be known by McCall's book rather than by any other work, 
however complete. Mr. McCall had many advantages for the undertaking of this work 
and his selection to prepare it for the Statesmen's Series was not only a happy but 
almost an inevitable one. He knew Mr. Reed well and intimately very likely called 
him ' Tom ' certainly he himself was called ' Samuel,' for Mr. Reed eschewed the 
abbreviated form by which his biographer is best known. He served in Congress with 
him for eight years, delivered the oration at the unveiling of his statue at Portland, and, 
being selected by the family for the writing of the book, has had free access to the 
family papers. The great temptation for a man of Mr. McCall's scholarship and knowl- 
edge of the history for the last four decades must have been to overweight the book 
with the story of public affairs and to lose sight of the work as a biography. This 
temptation has been resisted. The running story of parties and politics and measures 
during Mr. Reed's public life is admirably but succinctly told, but the main purpose of 
the book is everywhere in evidence and current affairs are used only as a setting of the 
picture. Moreover, the author has allowed the subject to tell his own story and to create 
his own impression. It would have been an easy matter to cull from letters and 
speeches of Mr. Reed and from the numberless anecdotes told about him or attributed 
to him a book of quadruple the size of the present volume, and it would have been of 
distinct interest. The value of this work, however, is in the admirable selections which 
have been made and the way in which they illustrate the life story which is being told. 
Nothing is dragged in merely because it is eloquent or witty, but everything is placed 
in its true position and perspective in the narrative. . . . The intimacy between Mr. 
Reed and Mr. Long during the long years of their acquaintance is deliciously brought 
out, and the picture of the table at The Hamilton, at which they both sat, is one to stir 
the imagination of every lover of fun. ... It would be possible to extend this 
review almost indefinitely, but it cannot be done without injustice to the work itself. 
It should close as it began, with advice to read the work itself. To those whose knowl- 
edge of public affairs embraces the eighties and nineties, the book will be of delightfully 
reminiscent value. In reading it they will live over two decades in the crucial life of the 
nation. To those who come later, there is history which should not be forgotten and the 
life-size portrait of a great and many-sided actor in it." 



BOSTON 



Fully illustrated. $3.00 net. Postage extra. 

HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY 



NEW YORK 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 1, 1915 



THE WORKS OF RABINDRANATH TAGORE 



"Rabindranath Tagore, the mystic poet of India, who in 1913 was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature, more than 
any of the preachers, teachers or writers of Europe or America, has given expression to deep philosophical and religious 
insight, which is quickened with intellectual honesty and scientific clearness. Son of Abanindranath Tagore, a teacher 
and artist, and brother of Dwijendranath Tagore, a philosopher, he belongs to a family which for generations has pro- 
duced great men. In his youth he was surrounded by the influences of literature^ and music, and in his maturity he has 
written prose and verse of amazing strength and lyrical beauty. He does not in his poetry set the themes of life to great 
music; he speaks them in a soft voice to the heart with all the simplicity and directness of power. He takes the little in- 
timate things which comprise life, and fashions them into pearls which reflect the color of the sky, the mightiness of love 
and life. He has vision; he has intelligence in love, the last test of a man '* nature. ' ' The Observer. 

Rabindranath Tagore 's Two New Books 



"One of the most important of Tagore' s Works." 

THE SONGS OF KABIR 

Translated from the Original Bengaliby RabindranathTagore. 

In this volume, Rabindranath Tagore renders in his 
peerless English, and with deeply sympathic interpretation, 
a selection of the songs of Kabir, the Hindu religious reformer 
and conciliator whose teachings exercised an important 
influence in upper India in the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries. This book is one of the most important of 
Tagore's works. Ready shortly. $1.25 



"The most perfect expression of Tagore's geniits." 

THE KING OF THE DARK 
CHAMBER 

Translated by the author from the Original Bengali. 

"The most careless reader can hardly proceed far into 
these inspired pages without realizing that he is in the 
presence of holy things of an allegory of the soul such as 
has not before been told in the English tongue. . . . Happy 
will be those readers whom the King of these pages does 
not elude." Chicago Evening Post. $1.25 



Rabindranath Tagore's Other Works 

" My eyes strayed far and wide before I shut them and said . . . Here art Thou! . . . Life of my life, I shall ever try to 
keep all untruths out from my thoughts, knowing that thou art that truth which has kindled the light of reason in my mind. 
I shall ever try to drive all evils away from my heart and keep my love in flower, knowing that thou hast thy seat in the 
inmost shrine of my heart. " Gitanjali. 



"A book of supreme beauty; rare and wondrous." The Express. 



GITANJALI 



(Song Offerings) 

Translated by the author from the Original Bengali with 
an Introduction by W. B. Yeats and a portrait by W. Rothen- 
stein. 

"Of trance-like beauty. . . . The expanding senti- 
ment of some of the poems wins, even through the alien 
medium of our English prose, a rhythm which in its strength 
and melody might recall familiar passages in the Psalms or 
Solomon's Song." The Athenaeum. $1.25 



'One of the great messages of modern times." Pall Mall Gazette. 



SADHANA 



The Realization of Life. 



Essays. 



" Contains with a commendable freedom from decoration 
the essence of Mr. Tagore's message to the Western world. 
. . . Nothing could be clearer, more sensible, or more 
generally illuminative." The Daily Telegraph. "The 
beauty of the language in which Tagore's philosophy is 
enshrined defies analysis. " Pall Mall Gazette. $1.25 



"An unparalleled vision of childhood." The Nation. 

THE CRESCENT MOON 

Child Poems. 

Translated by the author from the Original Bengali. 
With 8 illustrations in color. 

_"A_ revelation more profound and more subtle than 
'Gitanjali.' He opens to us the child-mind. . . . His 
revelation of the child-mind is richer, more complete, more 
convincing, than any of which we have had previous knowl- 
edge. "The Globe. $1.25 



"Flowers of poetry as fresh as sunrise." The Daily Mail. 

THE GARDENER 

Lyrics of Love and Life written in his youth. 
Translated by the author from the Original Bengali, 
with portrait. 

"One cannot tell what these lyrics may have lost in the 

translation, but as they stand they are of extreme beauty. 

. . They are simple, exalted, fragrant episodes and 

incidents of everyday transposed to faery. "The Daily Mail. 

$1.25 



"An allegory of love's meaning clear as a sunlit pool." 

The Observer. 

CHITRA 

Translated by the author from the Original Bengali. 

"In 'Chitra' there is the exquisite grace of the best of 
Mr. Tagore's other work, linked to the fragrance of an old 
tale." Country Life. $1.00 



"A play from the heart." Boston Advertiser. 

THE POST OFFICE 

Translated by the author from the Original Bengali. 

"A story of pathetic beauty ... a touching vision 
of childhood, its simple appeal is like that of a minor song." 
Boston Advertiser. $1.00 



No one who cares for the best in modern literature should fail to become acquainted with the works of 
Rabindranath Tagore, the new Eastern poet. Get your Bookseller or the Librarian to show you all of Mr. 
Tagore's books and select for reading the one you think most likely to interest you. No one should be 
ignorant of his work. 



PUBLISHED AT 
64-66 5th Ave., N.Y. 



The Macmillan Company 



ON SALE AT 
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THE DIAL 

Semt'iiHonthljj Journal of Hiteratg Criticism, Discussion, anb Information. 



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Entered as Second-Class Matter October 8, 1892, at the Post 
Office at Chicago, Illinois, under Act of March 3, 1879. 



Vol. LVIII. JANUARY 1, 1915. No. 685. 



CONTENTS. 



DEMOCRACY AND THE THEATRE .... 3 
DOSTOIEFFSKY. George Bernard Donlin . . 5 

CASUAL COMMENT 7 

A Voltairean view of war. The quality of 
naturalness in style. A versatile nonogena- 
rian. -An artist for art's sake. A Scottish 
logician. Data for future war-historians. 
Revived interest in Russian language and lit- 
erature. A delinquent book-borrower. 

COMMUNICATIONS 9 

An Author's Protest. Kate Stephens. 
Mommsen and the War. F. H. Hodder. 
Joseph Ritson. Henry A. Surd. 

METRICAL FREEDOM AND THE CONTEM- 
PORARY POET. Arthur Davison Ficke . 11 
Stringer's Open Water. Miss Lowell's Sword 
Blades and Poppy Seed. Miss Monroe's You 
and I. Sterling's Beyond the Breakers. 

ENGLAND AND THE AMERICAN REVOLU- 
TION. Laurence M. Larson . . . . .14 

A COMPENDIOUS HISTORY OF ENGLISH 

LITERATURE. Lane Cooper ..... 15 

AN ICONOCLAST IN ARCHITECTURAL CRIT- 
ICISM. Sidney FisTce Kimball 18 

RECENT VIEWS OF CHINA. Olin Dantsler 

Wannamaker . .19 

BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS ........ 20 

Scandinavian literature in English. A new 
portrait of Wagner. Insect biographies, new 
and old. An ambitious book on Cicero. 
Observations of a flat-dweller. A useful book 
on punctuation. The adventures of a book- 
lover. A thoughtful discussion of poverty. 
A brief survey of the Elizabethans. Essays 
academic and literary. Literary talks by 
Professor Phelps. 

BRIEFER MENTION 25 

NOTES 25 

TOPICS IN JANUARY PERIODICALS ... 26 
LIST OF NEW BOOKS . 26 



DEMOCRACY AND THE THEATRE. 



We all wish art to be appreciated by every- 
body. The chief difference of opinion is over 
the question whether art should be brought 
down to the many or the many brought up to 
art. Most artists are earnest propagandists 
of beauty, especially of the beauty they are 
best able to see and record, but they rarely 
believe that it is given to more than a few to 
see beauty in any form. They are only less 
cynical than those popular purveyors of 
"amusement" who despise the public in order 
that they may not despise themselves. But 
occasionally there comes an artist, or, if not 
an artist, a playwright, or a critic of the 
drama, who believes not merely that art and 
democracy can meet and understand each 
other but that they have already done so. 
Mr. "William C. de Mille, the author of a num- 
ber of popular melodramas, is such a one. In 
the current issue of "The Yale Review" he 
maintains the thesis that the drama is a demo- 
cratic art, "whose first essential is the power 
of reaching the mass," and, hence, that the 
receipts of the box-office are a measure of the 
playwright 's skill and power : 

" Other arts are for the select few, each appeal- 
ing to its own comparatively small circle of fol- 
lowers. But the drama is for the many ; it is born 
not in the academy but in the heart of the great 
social centre; it is shaped not by the critic but by 
the demands of the audience; it is supported not 
by endowment and private subscription but by 
the people acting collectively; it is housed not in 
the museum but in buildings maintained by the 
public for this one purpose. It is the only art 
which the people themselves control, and, through 
that control, direct; it is essentially of the people,, 
by the people, and for the people; and we should! 
take this function into consideration in any dis- 
cussion of the art; for if the drama is to fulfill 
this basic condition it must be expressed in a form 
that the mass will accept and support. 

"... Because the drama is the art of the 
whole people, it is the art of all arts which can 1 
act most strongly upon the people for their devel- 
opment; the one art which can really be a great 
force in the social and intellectual progress of the- 
race. Indeed, the efficiency of drama to accom^ 
plish results is absolutely conditional upon its 
being directed and governed by the mass; and it 
follows necessarily that any influence which tends 
to take the government of drama away from the- 



THE DIAL, 



(Jan. I 



whole people is an unhealthy influence in that it is 
undemocratic." 

It seems perfectly clear that Mr. de Mille 
believes that the drama is not only relatively 
democratic, as compared with such other arts 
as prose fiction or music, but absolutely 
democratic. The only danger to the theatre 
that concerns him is the presence in the com- 
munity of a class which, "were it powerful 
enough, would menace the democracy of dra- 
matic art as any hierarchy of brains tends to 
limit progressive thought : 

" The ' highbrow ' would take from the people 
its right of democratic suffrage to compel the pub- 
lic to vote for plays nominated by the ' machine ' ; 
and this method of selection would undoubtedly 
corrupt drama as it does politics." 

We are surprised that Mr. de Mille 's politi- 
cal metaphor does not in the least remind him 
of the actual conditions which prevail in what 
he ironically calls the "commercial" theatre. 
A play is seldom presented on the commercial 
stage in this country unless one of the two- 
score producing managers in New York is 
persuaded that it will pay him to spend 
$10,000 on it. Mr. de Mille may believe that 
these gentlemen, whose decision is so gener- 
ally absolute that exceptions to it may be ig- 
nored as irrelevant, are peculiarly repre- 
sentative of the American democracy. But 
they suffer no such illusion ; they are frank to 
admit in their reflective moments that they 
cannot foretell the fate of a play one time out 
of three ; in a word, that when their sole con- 
cern is to choose the plays that the public 
wants they fail far more often than they 
succeed. 

We might go on to ask Mr. de Mille how he 
knows that the box-office receipts of a play 
are an index of the public's favor; how he 
can be certain that the money in the house is 
a tribute to the skill of the playwright and 
not to a matinee idol, or the leading lady's 
gowns, or a whim of public opinion. But 
there is a less doubtful point to consider. 
When a play has been accepted by a manager 
for production it is almost invariably pre- 
pared in New York and presented to a New 
York audience those familiar visits to New 
Haven or Atlantic City being in the nature 
of a dress rehearsal rather than of a pre- 
miere. The first-night audience is notoriously 
a special one; and the audiences immediately 
succeeding, which determine whether a play 
is to continue in the theatre or leave it for- 
ever, are only less special ; those who are not 



the guests of the management are chiefly citi- 
zens of New York who are willing and able to 
pay $2 to see a play about which very little is 
known. No one imagines that these persons 
are representative of America, of a democ- 
racy in which the average head of a family 
enjoys an income of perhaps $600 or $700 a 
year. 

Can anyone contemplate the process by 
which a play finally reaches a considerable 
number of the more prosperous of those 
Americans who live in or near the cities, and 
seriously argue that it is a democratic process 
by which is determined what sort of drama 
the American people most want? 

The case for the democracy of prose fiction, 
or of music, is a good deal stronger. A novel 
is so much more readily accepted for publica- 
tion than a play for production that many 
young men who would rather be writing plays 
turn to fiction on that account alone. For 
one thing, a novel requires only one-tenth the 
investment on the part of the entrepreneur. 
A novel has a year, or even more, in which to 
find its audience as against the play's two 
weeks, or three. A novel, when the fact that 
a copy can be read by several persons is 
taken into account, costs the consumer far 
less than seats in the theatre. For that mat- 
ter, the magazines have made entertainment 
in the form of prose fiction quite as cheap as 
entertainment in the form of moving pic- 
tures. The case of music is equally striking. 
Music in the form of grand opera visits only 
the half-dozen largest cities, and even there is 
offered only to those who have comfortable 
incomes ; but music travels wherever a piano, 
or a gramophone, or a flute may go. It might 
well be argued that music is the most demo- 
cratic of all the arts, and the one in which 
the masters are most generally appreciated. 
But no true art is in our day truly democratic. 

Some day a great art and the great multi- 
tude may come together in the theatre, which 
has now so little of either. In the meantime 
it ought to be understood that no art which 
requires the expenditure of any but the small- 
est sums on the part of those who enjoy it, can 
be truly democratic in its appeal. The art of 
the theatre among us is not of this descrip- 
tion and for that reason alone it does not 
exist for the majority of Americans. It is 
now, as it has always been except under the 
most extraordinary conditions in the past, the 
privilege of the few to go to the theatre. 



1915] 



THE DIAL. 



DOST01EFFSKY. 

Those of us who feel that the best modern 
fiction has been written in Russia are pro- 
foundly grateful to Mrs. Garnett. She has 
given us Tourguenieff and Tolstoi ; she is now 
at work on Dostoieffsky, offering us the first 
version in easy, idiomatic English that we 
have seen. Four volumes have appeared; 
others are promised, and we hope that she will 
not weary of her task until she has enabled us 
to enjoy a complete view of this disturbing 
and impressive figure, the most deeply Rus- 
sian of the Russians. Tourguenieff and Tol- 
stoi we accepted at once, finding little to quar- 
rel about in our critical estimates; but with 
Dostoieffsky the case has been different. The 
interval between those who praise and those 
who depreciate is greater than with other 
writers ; nor is this the most puzzling aspect 
of the affair. We cannot foresee the reaction 
of a given temperament. Thus, we hear 
Nietzsche (obviously a little bewildered) con- 
fessing that the chief exemplar, -in our time, 
of his "slave morality" is the only man who 
can teach him psychology. Yet Mr. Henry 
James, who is a psychologist or nothing, finds 
"Crime and Punishment" so little to his mind 
that he cannot finish it. If we turn to Amer- 
ica, we hear Professor Phelps asserting that 
"of all masters of fiction, both in Russia and 
elsewhere, he is the most truly spiritual. ' ' On 
the other hand, Mr. Paul Elmer More plunges 
us at once into the abyss by simply recording 
the impression he carried away from "Crime 
and Punishment. ' ' 

" Filth, disease, morbid dreams, bestiality, in- 
sanity, sodden crime, these are the natural pathway 
to the emancipation of the spirit; these in some 
mysterious way are spirituality. And the same les- 
son runs through Tolstoi and Strindberg and a 
dozen other moralists who are, as it were, the 
Prophets of our young." 

Mr. More not only brackets Tolstoi with 
Strindberg but throws in Mr. Shaw and Mr. 
Galsworthy also, by way of good measure. 
His looseness gives us a clue. This, we see, is 
no mere aesthetic protest; it is a moral judg- 
ment, delivered with all the heat our Amer- 
ican critics so often reserve for purely moral 
judgments. It may occur to us that this is 
only the story of Ibsen over again. Not in the 
least, since Dostoieffsky is orthodoxy itself, so 
thoroughly in the tradition that Nietzsche 
places him beside Pascal, "the only logical 
Christian. ' ' And if we turn to a Continental 
critic like Herr Otto Julius Bierbaum, we find 
him in an entirely different quandary. How 
is it possible, he asks, for us modern men to 
read this "primitive Christian" with sympa- 
thy? What ideal does he offer us? Passion- 



ate humility; utter renunciation of the self; 
the Christian virtues, in short! But we west- 
ern peoples have travelled by a very different 
road. We have achieved our destiny by an 
active, not to say ruthless, assertion of the 
will ; and this seems to us necessary and even 
right. We must admit that Dostoieffsky 's 
philosophy is deeply antipathetic. Only an 
art comparable to that of the Greeks and of 
Shakespeare can induce us to read him. 

The paradox involved in this vehement con- 
flict of opinion is not, after all, very difficult 
to resolve. We do not need to chatter of art 
for art's sake. As it happens, the group to 
which Dostoieffsky belonged never claimed 
the least license on the ground that they were 
artists. They only approached the moral prob- 
lem in the peculiar Russian way, which is 
vastly different from ours. It often occurs to 
us as we read the Russians that they would 
make uncommonly awkward dinner guests. 
They have not learned our caution, our conven- 
tional reserves. Their conversational taboo 
covers an amazingly small area. They are 
infinitely curious, and there is no question 
they will not put to themselves and to others. 
Nor do they see the least reason why the truth, 
once discovered, should be smuggled out of 
sight like a shameful thing. 

This stubborn integrity of the Russian soul 
strikes us at once in Tolstoi and in Dostoi- 
effsky. Tolstoi, in his old age, turns preacher. 
Very well, but Tolstoi the novelist remains to 
the end a vigorous truth-teller. He envisages 
every form of meanness, lust, cupidity, in- 
trigue, hypocrisy. His vision for these things 
is not less sure than De Maupassant's. His 
testimony, in other words, is not in the least 
invalidated by his peculiar notions of what 
constitutes a "good man." In Dostoieffsky, 
too, we find this supreme disinterestedness of 
the artist, co-existing with a genuinely fanati- 
cal view of things. His sense of evil is pro- 
found ; it obsesses and tortures him ; he cannot 
rest until he has sketched every detail of it 
into his macabre design. Yet it requires no 
power of divination to see how he loathes it. 
He is appalled and sickened, but he persists. 
Even a careless reader can see that he is not 
content to remain, like Balzac, the literary 
secretary of society Balzac into whose com- 
plex nature there was kneaded, along with 
transcendent genius, so much of the common 
Paris mud. We feel, as we read, how power- 
fully Balzac was seduced by wealth, luxury, 
worldly success, the glittering and empty show 
of things. Dostoieffsky is not under the 
dominion of such thoughts; but his intuitive 
understanding of how they work upon and 
alter the minds of others is profound and even 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 1 



unique. Perhaps this is not wholly intuition, 
either. Knowledge may have come to him by 
more personal and direct ways, but with that 
we are not concerned. It is not easy to convey 
the peculiar quality of Dostoieff sky 's work, 
though it is easy enough to feel it. After read- 
ing a single novel, you say at once : Here is a 
writer who gives us something thrill ingly 
strange and new, a new kind of excitement of 
the nerves even for the effect of his work is 
not wholly psychic. He communicates to us 
the fever that so often tortures his characters, 
and something, too, of their uncanny sense of 
being on the verge of fresh and alarming spir- 
itual discoveries. An ambiguous look, a sig- 
nificant silence, a chance word these carry 
us at once out of our sunlit world into the 
crepuscular depths of his strange creations. 
Below the smooth surface, so familiar to our 
eyes, there lurk unguessed and awe-inspiring 
possibilities, as monsters lurk in the depths of 
the sea. 

For Dostoieffsky there are no commonplace 
souls ; nor for us either, while we read. His 
people are rarely sophisticated in our western 
sense; they are often incoherent, wild, the 
victims of a fixed idea, unable in spite of their 
incredible volubility to explain themselves 
rationally. They live in their emotions with 
an intensity that seems strange to our intellec- 
tualized habit. If we learn from them, it is 
rather new ways of feeling than of thinking ; 
and that, at least, we do learn. The vulgar 
and brutal murderers Dostoieffsky meets in 
Siberia teach him. secrets, so that penologists 
listen to him with respect. Each convict is an 
individual in more than the statistical sense. 
Neither cunning nor swagger deceives him. 
The real man, he knows, lurks uneasily below 
and is something quite different from the 
morose mask he wears. Well, it is for this real 
man that he lies in wait. The composite pic- 
ture of the criminal appears, in some sort, in 
' ' Crime and Punishment. ' ' 

In its machinery, this is but a sensational 
police novel. Many persons, we are told, can 
see in it nothing more. Raskolnikov, the 
youthful murderer of two old women, carries 
on his endless duel of wits with the police. 
For some, possibly, the interest lies solely in 
the external problem. Will Raskolnikov suc- 
ceed in extricating himself? Will he ulti- 
mately be caught in the cunning web that the 
police magistrate (surely a great figure of his 
kind) has spun ? One ventures to say that, for 
those who know how to read, the drama of 
"Crime and Punishment" is an inner drama 
wholly, a drama of almost unendurable in- 
tensity. Easkolnikov exhibits to the full the 
singular insensibility which Dostoieffsky ob- 



served in the murderers of Siberia. He is as 
unlike Bill Sikes as possible; he knows no 
remorse. But always there is the consuming 
fear of detection, the terror of the law. And 
above and beyond that, there is the fear of his 
own inadequacy to meet the test of character 
he has imposed ; for his crime is, in a way, an 
experiment he is conducting on himself. He 
can continue to believe in himself only so long 
as he finds the courage and the skill to defy 
society. His pride fails; his life crumbles 
about him, and he is obliged to reconstruct it 
on another plane. Siberia is thus but an epi- 
sode in the tale of his regeneration. 

If we turn from "Crime and Punishment" 
to ' ' The Brothers Karamazov, ' ' we find a book 
at once more formidable and more truly typi- 
cal. Dostoieffsky here makes no concessions 
to our laziness. It exhibits all his character- 
istic faults, of which we hear so much, on a 
gigantic scale. It is appallingly prolix, and 
contains material (some of it superb) that is 
wholly extraneous. It exposes to our view 
such an inferno of vice, squalor, bestiality, and 
disease as Dante never imagined. The Kara- 
mazovs are a group of a father and three sons. 
The father and the eldest son are deeply 
marked with the characteristic Karamazov 
taint : sensuality has reached in them almost 
the pitch of insanity. The book opens on the 
struggle of these two to possess a prostitute; 
murder is clearly in the air and is presently 
realized. The second son is at once subtler and 
more sophisticated than most of Dostoieffsky 's 
people, but he, too, is evil. Only the youngest 
has escaped the Karamazov taint, and he, with 
the "Idiot" of another novel, serves to give 
us his creator's idea of a "good man. " 

The method is that of drama; there is no 
description of motive, no explanation. Dostoi- 
effsky simply unrolls before us in a succession 
of superb scenes the epic conflict in this tragic 
family. After a few chapters, we fancy we 
know his people; but this is an illusion fos- 
tered by the shallow judgments we allow our- 
selves. Dostoieffsky has a profounder sense 
of spiritual values. Little by little, these 
wretches reveal themselves, turning out under 
our eyes the last secret folds in their depraved 
souls. They are appalling, and yet they are 
not that alone. They must know the truth 
about themselves, for they are tortured both 
by what they already know and by what they 
only suspect. The candor with which they 
confess the worst, has about it, after all, some- 
thing not ignoble. The eldest brother calls 
himself an "insect," one of the noxious crea- 
tures cursed by God with the very delirium of 
desire. He rails at himself endlessly ; his self- 
contempt is boundless ; he exists in a perpetual 



1915] 



THE DIAL, 



hell. Is it possible that he is at bottom a 
hypocrite, shielding himself from the bitter- 
ness of ultimate self-knowledge? And the 
fierceness with which the second son lays hold 
of his conscience is a revelation in subtlety, for 
Dostoieffsky brings to bear on the problem of 
moral casuistry an intellectual energy that 
tries the brain like dialectics. 

It has been urged that in all this we hear 
not the talk of average men, but the inexorable 
whisperings of the accusing conscience. And 
there are those w r ho complain that this is not 
realism. But if realism is to concern itself 
with surfaces only, how can it minister in any 
satisfying way to our curiosity? Surely the 
easiest way for it to become false and mislead- 
ing, is to restrict its play too narrowly. At all 
events, Dostoieffsky has justified, for some of 
us, both his method and his material. The 
world he reveals to us may be peopled with 
creatures mean, diseased, abnormal, drunken, 
the prey of every evil passion and perversity 
it does not matter. We feel, as we read, 
that they are proper subjects for tragedy, and 
even for the greatest tragedy. 

One comes from this great Russian writer 
with an uneasy realization of the superficiality 
of our average judgments, the thinness of our 
spiritual experiences. He increases our sense 
of wonder and our capacity for awe. And he 
adds immeasurably to our understanding of 
the pathetic dignity of the downtrodden and 
oppressed. He has found for their dumbness 
a voice, poignant in its brooding sorrow and 
lovely in its rich compassion. He touches both 
the heights and the depths, remaining indif- 
ferent only to that middle ground on which 
most of us choose, for our comfort, to live out 



lives. 



GEORGE BERNARD DONLIN. 



CASUAL COMMENT. 



A VOLTAIREAN VIEW OF WAR may be of in- 
terest at this time. Some one has called atten- 
tion to the illuminating discourse between 
Micromegas, gigantic dweller on one of the 
planets revolving about Sirius, and a company 
of our philosophers, as reported in the seventh 
chapter of the amusing fantasy bearing the 
name of the above-mentioned Sirian visitor. 
A free translation of a part of this conversa- 
tion is here offered. After congratulating his 
terrestrial hearers on being so small and add- 
ing that, with so manifest a subordination of 
matter to mind, they must pass their lives in 
the pleasures of intellectual pursuits and 
mutual love a veritable spiritual existence 
the stranger is thus answered by one of the 
philosophers: "We have more matter than 
we need for the accomplishment of much evil, 



if evil comes from matter, and more mind than 
we need if evil comes from mind. Do you 
know that at the present moment there are a 
hundred thousand fools of our species, wear- 
ing caps, who are killing a hundred thousand 
other animals wearing turbans, or who are 
themselves being massacred by the latter, and 
that almost everywhere on earth this is the 
immemorial usage?" The Sirian, properly 
shocked, demands the reason of these horrible 
encounters between creatures so puny. "It 
is all about a pile of dirt no bigger than your 
heel," is the reply. "Not that any one of 
these millions of men marching to slaughter 
has the slightest claim to this pile of dirt ; the 
only question is whether it shall belong to a 
certain man known as Sultan or to another 
having the title of Czar. Neither of the two 
has ever seen or ever will see the patch of 
ground in dispute, and hardly a single one of 
these animals engaged in killing one another 
has ever seen the animal for whom they are 
thus employed." Again the stranger ex- 
presses his horror, and declares he has half a 
mind to annihilate with a kick or two the 
whole batch of ridiculous assassins. "Don't 
give yourself the trouble," is the rejoinder; 
"they will accomplish their own destruction 
fast enough. Know that ten years hence not a 
hundredth part of these miserable wretches 
will be left alive ; and know, too, that even if 
they were not to draw the sword, hunger, 
exhaustion, or intemperance would make an 
end of most of them. Besides, they are not the 
ones to punish, but rather those sedentary 
barbarians who, from the ease and security of 
their private apartments, and while their din- 
ner is digesting, order the massacre of a mil- 
lion men, and then solemnly return thanks to 
God for the achievement." The visitor from 
Sirius is moved with pity for a race of beings 
presenting such astonishing contrasts. 


THE QUALITY OF NATURALNESS IN STYLE is 

something that defies analysis. Let one writer 
express himself with a certain degree of what 
may be called elegance, and the artificiality 
of it is at once apparent, whereas the same 
measure of rhetorical finish and ornament in 
another writer will seem entirely natural. 
The first writer calls up the image of a per- 
son dressed in his seldom-used and carefully 
brushed best clothes; the second represents 
the man who is habitually well-dressed and 
always at ease in his perfectly fitting raiment. 
Just what it is that constitutes the ' ' Sunday- 
go-to-meeting " character of the one suit of 
clothes, and the every-day-in-the-week look of 
the other, even though both be equally correct 
and stylish, it is impossible to say. Probably 



THE DIAL 



[ Jan. 1 



there is something in the manner of wearing 
the clothes that makes the difference. Dr. 
Garnett makes use of this sartorial simile in 
closing his interesting "Remarks on American 
and English Fiction" in the December "At- 
lantic Monthly. ' ' He says : ' ' Another simile 
that obtrudes itself in reading many Ameri- 
can novels is that of a visit from kindly folk 
who have come to a gathering in Sunday 
clothes and with Sunday manners. The peo- 
ple's week-day spontaneity is replaced by a 
cautious preoccupation with their deport- 
ment, as to how they are expected to behave, 
and everything that they say is a little forced. 
Even in the admirable novels of Mrs. Wharton 
and Anne Douglas Sedgwick the conflict so 
often depicted between the idealism of the 
characters and their ordinary earthly motives 
gives one an odd feeling that both their morals 
and their manners are like tightly cut clothes 
in which people cannot be quite at ease." 
Whether or not this is harsh criticism, it is 
enforced by an almost ludicrously apt quota- 
tion from one of our leading novelists. 


A VERSATILE NONOGENARiAN, remarkable for 
the range and variety of his scholarly tastes 
and literary accomplishments, died recently at 
Pittsfield, Massachusetts. The Rev. Dr. Addi- 
son Ballard, who was born at Framingham 
ninety-two years ago last October, held from 
first to last so many professorships in so many 
colleges and universities, east and west, that 
a list of them would only be a bewilderment 
to the reader. Suffice it to say that at Wil- 
liams College, where he took his bachelor's 
degree at the age of twenty, he taught rhetoric 
in his early life, and at the New York Uni- 
versity he held the chair of logic in the last 
years of his teaching, from 1893 to 1904, with 
professorships of mathematics, astronomy, 
Latin and Greek, moral philosophy, and other 
branches scattered in between. His long 
course of teaching furnished him with mate- 
rial for a book entitled "Arrows, or Teaching 
a Fine Art." and his experience as pastor of 
churches in his native state and Michigan 
qualified him to write "From Talk to Text" 
and "From Text to Talk," also "Through the 
Sieve," and other contributions to serious lit- 
erature of a reflective or moral tone. A val- 
iant pedestrian, he accomplished the feat of 
climbing Monument Mountain (which in- 
spired Bryant's poem of that name) in his 
eighty-ninth year, and up to the very end he 
set a pace in the streets of Pittsfield that many 
a younger man might have found it difficult to 
equal. One likes to hear of his daily walks 
and his daily practice of memorizing some 
classical phrase or some bit of verse. Daily, 



too, he made it a point to write something, not 
necessarily for publication, we infer, but 
rather to keep his pen from rusting. For the 
last eight years he had lived with his son, Mr. 
Harlan H. Ballard, librarian of the Berkshire 
Athenaeum, which is Pittsfield 's public library. 


AN ARTIST FOR ART'S SAKE is revealed, unex- 
pectedly to some, in the banker, philanthro- 
pist, and veteran of our Civil War, Major 
Henry Lee Higginson, as briefly portrayed in 
Mr. M. A. DeWolfe Howe's history of "The 
Boston Symphony Orchestra." In his early 
twenties this octogenarian lover of music and 
generous provider of the best in that art for 
his city wrote to his father from Vienna, after 
referring to the possibility of adopting music- 
teaching as a calling: "But the pleasure, 
pure and free from all disagreeable conse- 
quences or afterthoughts, of playing and still 
more of singing myself, is indescribable. In 
Rome I took about eight lessons of a capital 
master, and I used to enjoy intensely the 
singing to his accompaniment my exercises 
and some little Neapolitan songs. My rea- 
sons for studying harmony are manifest. I 
cannot properly understand music without 
doing so; moreover, it is an excellent exercise 
for the mind. As to writing music, I have 
nothing to say ; but it is not my expectation. 
It is like writing poetry; if one is prompted 
to do so, and has anything to say, he does it. 
But I entirely disavow any such intention or 
aim in my present endeavor, and this I wish 
to be most clearly expressed and understood, 
should any one ask about me. / am studying 
for my own good and pleasure. ... It is only 
carrying out your own darling idea of making 
an imperishable capital in education. My 
money may fly away; my knowledge cannot. 
One belongs to the world, the other to me." 
The accident, a bodily injury grievous for the- 
young man to bear, which later led to Mr. 
Higginson 's devoting himself to business 
rather than to music, adds a pathetic interest 
to the too-brief biography forming the open- 
ing chapter of Mr. Howe's book. 



A SCOTTISH LOGICIAN of more than Scottish 
fame, successor to Sir William Hamilton as 
professor of logic and metaphysics in Edin- 
burgh University, and author of many books 
relating to his department of study, died a 
few weeks ago, rich in honors and full of 
years. Alexander Campbell Fraser was born 
September 3, 1819, and finished his education 
at the university where he was to help educate 
others for almost half a century. He was pro- 
fessor of logic at New College, Edinburgh,, 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



from 1846 to 1856 ; editor of the ' ' North British 
Review" from 1850 to 1857 ; professor of logic 
and metaphysics, in succession to Hamilton, 
who had just died, from 1856 to 1891 ; profes- 
sor emeritus after closing his active labors in 
the university; and throughout his years of 
maturity he wrote philosophical essays, biogra- 
phies of noted philosophers, and other books 
of some note. His ' ' Life and Letters of Berke- 
ley," published in 1871, was his first consid- 
erable work, and he also wrote the life of 
Thomas Reid, contributed the volumes on 
Locke and Berkeley to the series of "Philo- 
sophical Classics," put forth a two-volume 
"Philosophy of Theism," and at eighty-five 
gave to the w r orld his "Biographia Philo- 
sophica, a Personal Retrospect." His recrea- 
tions, says "Who's Who," were "country life 
and visits to scenes of biographical or histori- 
cal interest. ' ' A fine example he certainly was 
of the scholarship of the northern Athens. 



DATA FOR FUTURE WAR-HISTORIANS are being 
systematically collected and preserved by the 
Harvard University Library, which appeals to 
alumni and others to aid in the work. Books, 
of which already there are more than a few, 
war maps, files of newspapers from the war 
zone and from neutral countries, official de- 
spatches, and other like material are included 
in the collection, which already is at the 
service of students. Among newspapers, the 
library is receiving the London "Times," 
Westminster "Gazette," the Paris "Temps" 
and "Figaro," the Milan "Corriere della 
Sera," the Vienna "Neue Freie Presse," the 
Berlin "Allgemeine Zeitung, " and the Mu- 
nich "Neueste Nachrichten. " The American 
colony at Munich, or some of its members, 
made notes of the earlier events of the war, 
and these notes have been given to the library, 
together with daily papers from Lucerne, 
Zurich, and Geneva. These and other for- 
eign journals are regarded as especially im- 
portant sources of information. But what a 
mass of mutually contradictory and often 
unblushingly false information the future 
historian will have to sift as he wades through 
all this accumulation of reading matter ! 

* 

REVIVED INTEREST IN RUSSIAN LANGUAGE AND 
LITERATURE seems to be indicated by recent 
action at the University of Chicago, where, 
under the terms of a gift from Mr. Charles 
R. Crane, instruction in these branches is 
about to begin. In other words, Mr. Samuel 
Northrup Harper, eldest son of the late Presi- 
dent Harper, and graduate of the University 
in the class of 1902, has been called from his 
post as lecturer in the School of Russian Stud- 



ies at Liverpool University, and has been made 
an assistant professor at his home university, 
with the Russian language and institutions as 
his special department. The new courses will, 
it is expected, begin with the winter quarter, 
and in the spring there will probably be 
offered courses in Russian literature and his- 
tory. Books and periodicals relating to all 
these courses will be added to the library, and 
additional lecturers from Russia will be en- 
gaged. Mr. Harper has devoted himself since 
graduation to Russian studies, much of the 
time in Russia itself, and has edited a Russian 
reader, a substantial volume of about four 
hundred pages issued by the University of 

Chicago Press. 



A DELINQUENT BOOK-BORROWER is the heavi- 
ness of the too-trusting lender. From West- 
boro, Massachusetts, comes the report of a 
library book taken out more than a century 
ago in 1811, to be exact and only the 
other day returned, whether by the great- 
grandchild or great-great-grandchild (or still 
more remote descendant) of the borrower, we 
cannot say. But there is cheer to despairing 
librarians in this remarkable recovery of what 
must have been long ago entered on the rec- 
ords as a hopelessly lost volume. Paraphras- 
ing the good old hymn, the worried head of 
the circulation department can henceforth 
comfort himself (or, more often, herself) 
with the assurance that while the lamp holds 
out to burn, the long-lost volume may return. 



COMMUNICATIONS. 



AN AUTHOR'S PROTEST. 
(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

In a recent issue of THE DIAL, in a paragraph 
speaking of my book, " The Greek Spirit," are 
many misrepresentations in point of fact. Four 
of the misrepresentations prompt me to send you 
the following: 

First : Your reviewer writes, " We find an 
American thumb-print in the use of humans in the 
sense of men and women." Humans, " in the sense 
of men and women," is an old English word. I 
have met it, I think, in a black-letter Holinshed 
printed in London in 1584-5; certainly in other 
old English books. The reason of the use of the 
word in old times and now is clear it has the 
advantage of connoting what no other word in our 
noble English speech explicitly connotes. If your 
reviewer will turn to the word in "A New English 
Dictionary," edited by Sir James Murray, he will 
find a quotation from Lowell to the effect that 
George Chapman, contemporary of Shakespeare 
and Ben Jonson, habitually used " humanes," in 
its common meaning, in his translation of Homer. 
Your reviewer will also find humans, " in the sense 
of men and women," in writings of the Scottish 



10 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 1 



Robert Louis Stevenson and of Englishmen of our 
day. 

Second : Your reviewer also finds " an unhy- 
phened, half-German locution in the ugly words 
their art gift." Most excellent publications in 
England as well as in this country have used such 
words as art, race, without hyphen, adjectively, 
these past fifty years; centuries longer, if the 
phrase art magique is included. Art, has even 
come into such popular uses as " art union," " art 
squares." 

Third : " Subjects and predicates do not gener- 
ally play hide-and-seek with the reader as in this: 
' Cereals grew in sunlit tillage, the grape sacred 
through its use in the religions of many peoples, 
the gray-green olive, other esculent fruits, and 
horned cattle grazed in meadows dotted by bene- 
factive forest trees.' " Subject and predicate play 
no hide-and-seek in this quoted sentence. It is 
plain, legitimate, parsable by a schoolboy. 

Fourth: Your reviewer speaks of competition 
with others. My book strives with none. Its plan 
and its philosophy, its content determining dis- 
tinctive features of a race spirit and tracing the 
evolution of that race spirit from earliest begin- 
nings to the end, show that the book is different 
from what he terms my, or its, " dangerous rivals." 
As to Professor Basil Gildersleeve's beautiful 
" Hellas and Hesperia," your reviewer should re- 
call that, upon its publication, a paragraphing 
fellow of his pronounced upon it with all the 
fatuous impertinence of incompetents of his craft. 

KATE STEPHENS. 

New York City, Dec. 15, 1914. 

MOMMSEN AND THE WAR. 
(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

Much has been written of the influence of 
Nietzsche, as adapted and popularized by Treit- 
schke, in creating the conditions out of which 
sprang the present war. While that influence 
undoubtedly has been great, it by no means marks 
the beginning of German aspirations to world 
hegemony. When the development of this motive 
shall have been traced, I venture to predict that 
Mommsen's glorification of Roman imperialism 
will be found to have been an important factor. 
From many passages in his "History of Rome," 
which might be quoted in illustration of this point, 
I select three, which may be found on pp. 3, 6, 
and 440, respectively, in Vol. V. of the American 
edition of 1900 : 

" By virtue of the law, that a people which has 
grown into a state absorbs its neighbors who are in 
political nonage, and a civilized people absorbs its 
neighbors who are in intellectual nonage by virtue 
of this law, which is as universally valid and as much 
a law of nature as the law of gravity the Italian 
nation (the only one in antiquity which was able to 
combine a superior political development and a supe- 
rior civilization . . .) was entitled to reduce to sub- 
jection the Greek states of the East which were ripe 
for destruction, and to dispossess the peoples of 
lower grades of culture in the West. . . ." 

"There was a direct political necessity for Rome 
to meet the perpetually threatened invasion of the 
Germans . . . beyond the Alps, and to construct a 
rampart there which should secure the peace of the 



Roman world. But even this important object was 
not the highest and ultimate reason for which Gaul 
was conquered by Caesar. When the old home had 
become too narrow for the Roman burgesses and they 
were in danger of decay, the senate's policy of Italian 
conquest saved them from ruin. Now the Italian 
home had become in its turn too narrow; once more 
the state languished under the same social evils re- 
peating themselves in similar fashion upon a grander 
scale. It was a brilliant idea, a grand hope, which 
led Caesar over the Alps the idea and the confident 
expectation that he should gain there for his fellow- 
burgesses a new boundless home, and regenerate the 
state a second time by placing it upon a broader 
basis." 

" For Rome alone history not merely performed 
miracles, but also repeated its miracles, and twice 
cured the internal crisis, which in the state itself was 
incurable, by regenerating the state. There was 
doubtless much corruption in this regeneration; as 
the union of Italy was accomplished over the ruins of 
the Samnite and Etruscan nations, so the Mediterra- 
nean monarchy built itself upon the ruins of count- 
less states and tribes once living and vigorous; but 
it was a corruption out of which sprang a new 
growth. . . . What was pulled down for the sake of 
the new building, was merely the secondary nationali- 
ties which had long since been marked out for de- 
struction by the levelling hand of civilization." 

Much could be said in comment upon these ex- 
tracts but their application is sufficiently obvious. 
Repeatedly does Mommsen assert the right of con- 
quest that belongs to the union of superior organi- 
zation in the state and superior " kultur " in the 
people. The relation of the war to the subjective 
desire to check the growth of social democracy I 
leave to the reader. Mommsen's " History " was 
completed in 1857. In his later life he deprecated 
the growth of militarism, but the harvest was the 
legitimate fruit of the seed that he had himself 
sown. At -the annual meeting of the American 
Society of International Law last April, Mr. 
Charles Francis Adams quoted the first of the 
passages given above and christened its content 
" Mommsen's law." He remarked that it mas- 
queraded under various aliases, such as " manifest 
destiny" and "benevolent assimilation," and he 
might have added " peaceful penetration " and 
" international right of eminent domain." As 
Viscount Bryce has recently said : " The war is a 
struggle between ideals the ideal of a military 
state resolved to dominate all the neighboring 
countries and the ideal of peaceful communities 
dwelling in tranquillity under the protection of 
treaties." The fact that British interests are bound 
up in the triumph of the latter ideal does not alter 
the case. So are the interests of civilization. 

. F. H. HODDER. 

Lawrence, Kan., Dec. 19, 1914. 

JOSEPH RITSON. 
(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 
I am preparing what I hope to make an exhaus- 
tive treatment of Joseph Ritson's life and work. 
If any of your readers have knowledge of unpub- 
lished letters to or from Ritson, or of any Ritson 
manuscript whatever, I should esteem it a great 
favor if they would communicate with me. 

HENRY A. BURD. 
University of Illinois, TJrbana, Dec. 18, 1914. 



1915] 



THE DIAL, 



11 



METRICAL, FREEDOM AND THE 
CONTEMPORARY POET.* 



Poets have grown either less bold or more 
courteous than they were in the days when 
the authors of ''The Dunciad" or of "English 
Bards and Scotch Reviewers" blackened 
many a fellow- writer's face with adroit mud. 
One need hardly bemoan the fact, since the 
admirable wit of those productions barely 
compensated for their execrable taste. But 
enthusiasm for even impersonal literary con- 
troversy seems lacking to-day; and differ- 
ences of opinion so sharp that they might once 
have divided the poets into two hostile camps 
now scarcely serve to embroil them with their 
next-door neighbors. 

Only thus can one explain the fact that open 
warfare has not broken out between the pro- 
ponents of the lately resurrected theory of 
vers libre and the adherents of the orthodox 
type of regularly rhythmical metres. A genu- 
ine difference of opinion and of temperament 
is involved. On the one side stand the writers 
who demand complete freedom of rhythm as a 
requisite for expressing the free and irregular 
contours of emotion; and on the other side 
stand those who regard metrical regularity as 
the sole instrument by which high emotion can 
be given successful expression. 

Mr. Arthur Stringer, in the Foreword of his 
new volume, "Open Water," states the first 
of these positions with some elaboration. The 
traditional technique of rhythm and rhyme is, 
he believes, as hampering and anachronistic as 
the chain-armour of the Middle Ages would 
be to a modern soldier ; the poet of to-day is 
unable to achieve natural expression under 
such a handicap. Mr. Stringer points out 
very truly that the almost boundless liberty 
afforded by blank verse is not available to the 
poet except for large, almost epical, themes; 
therefore, in actual practice, rhymed verse 
alone remains to him for "the utterance of 
those more intimate moods and those subjec- 
tive experiences which may be described as 
characteristically modern." But rhymed 
verse forces him to "sacrifice content for 
form," and has "left him incapable of what 
may be called abandonment. ' ' Even regular- 
ity of rhythm, where no rhyme is present, 
"crowds his soul into a geometrically designed 
mould." 

* OPEN WATER. By Arthur Stringer. New York : John 
Lane Co. 

SWORD BLADES AND POPPY SEED. By Amy Lowell. New 
York : The Macmillan Co. 

You AND I. By Harriet Monroe. New York : The Macmillan 
Co. 

BEYOND THE BREAKERS. By George Sterling. San Fran- 
cisco: A. M. Robertson. 



The objection to Mr. Stringer's plausible 
theory lies in his own admission that formal 
rhythm and rhyme supply "definiteness of 
outline" and "give design to the lyric." 
Without the agency of a fixed rhythm, it is 
almost impossible to achieve those recurrences, 
pulses, waves, and echoes whose function in 
poetry is no adventitious or superfluous one. 
A fixed cadence alone can serve as a base for 
all the musical variations that the poet may 
wish to employ ; and his success here is vital. 
Deprive "Lycidas" of its antiphonal organ- 
roll of sound, its great succession of mounded 
harmonies, and it would be nothing. The 
design is the poem. The metrical form is the 
very condition, the true means, of the poet's 
success. That spontaneous expression of emo- 
tion for which Mr. Stringer pleads is not 
likely to result in poetry at all; what turns 
raw feeling into poetry is precisely the com- 
pression of the material into an artful pat- 
tern, an expressive structure, an intelligible 
design. Not sobs, but music whose tone has 
sobs buried in it, not laughter, but the song 
that dances with winged feet, come within 
the categories of art. In the process of turn- 
ing emotion into art, some loss has to be suf- 
fered ; but the loss is not so large as Mr. 
Stringer would have us believe. To sacrifice 
content for form, as he tells us we now do, 
would indeed be lamentable ; but on the other 
hand, to sacrifice form for content means sim- 
ply to break the bottle that might have held 
at least a part of the wine. The competent 
craftsman does not, however, have to choose 
between these evils. Form is his opportunity, 
not his prison, as some of Mr. Stringer's 
own earlier lyrics prove. Most writers would 
agree that the exigencies of rhyme suggest 
felicitous excursions of thought far more fre- 
quently than they inhibit the exact statement 
of an idea in all its original integrity. The 
practiced poet learns not to formulate his idea 
too rigidly in advance, but to let it develop 
and grow like an unfolding vine over and 
through the lattice of his metrical trellis. 

After all, the sole criterion by which any 
artistic theory can be judged is its success in 
practice. Mr. Stringer's practice of vers libre 
is not a convincing exemplification of the vir- 
tue of his theory. One of the best, and also 
one of the most regular, of his poems is the 
following, entitled "The Wild Swans Pass": 
" In the dead of night 
You turned in your troubled sleep 
As you heard the wild swans pass ; 
And then you slept again. 

" You slept 

While a new world swam beneath 
That army of eager wings, 



12 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 1 



While plainland and slough and lake 
Lay wide to those outstretched throats, 
While the lone far Lights allured 
That phalanx of passionate breasts. 

" And I who had loved you more 
Than a homing bird loves flight, 
1 watched with an ache for freedom, 
I rose with a need for life, 
Knowing that love had passed 
Into its unknown North ! " 

It is hard not to feel that even this finely con- 
ceived picture needs the melody of a more defi- 
nitely patterned form, that we shall forget 
this nebulous strain to-morrow, but that if it 
had been woven through the rhythm of a true 
music, however hesitant its beat, we could 
never forget it. 

Miss Amy Lowell, also, has provided her 
volume, "Sword Blades and Poppy Seed," 
with a Preface in which she raises the question 
of metrics. "Unrhymed cadence," as she 
prefers to call vers libre, differs from the 
rhythms of ordinary prose "by being more 
curved, and containing more stress." This 
statement justly suggests that it is to prose 
and not to regularly rhythmical verse that we 
must look for the prototype of vers libre. Miss 
Lowell has used "unrhymed cadence" for 
many, but not all, of her poems ; and she ex- 
pressly disclaims being an exclusive partisan 
of either form. Technique of versification is 
only one of many techniques that interest her. 
Her most notable quality appears in the open- 
ing passage of the volume. 
" A drifting, April, twilight sky, 

A wind that blew the puddles dry, 

And slapped the river into waves 

That ran and hid among the staves 

Of an old wharf. A watery light 

Touched bleak the granite bridge, and white 

Without the slightest tinge of gold, 

The city shivered in the cold. 

All day my thoughts had lain as dead, 

Unborn and bursting in my head. 

From time to time I wrote a word 

With lines and circles overscored. 

My table seemed a graveyard, full 

Of coffins waiting burial . . ." 

The sharply etched tones and contours of this 
picture are characteristic of the author's work. 
Sometimes, however, an extreme carelessness, 
very different from that painstaking care 
which she praises in the "clear-eyed French- 
men," mars her verse. "Were" does not re- 
spectably rhyme with "where," nor "vault" 
with "tumult," nor "Max" with "climax," 
nor "time" with "thyme"; yet this entire 
group of deformities occurs within the space 
of nineteen consecutive lines. This is no mere 
breaking of technical rules ; it is the destruc- 
tion of beauty. If the requirements of rhyme 



so irk a writer, it would be better to follow 
Mr. Stringer's example and use vers libre 
only. In ' ' unrhymed cadence, ' ' Miss Lowell 's 
cadences are sometimes extremely delicate, as 
in "The Captured Goddess": 
" Over the housetops, 

Above the rotating chimney-pots, 

I have seen a shiver of amethyst, 

And blue and cinnamon have flickered 

A moment 

At the far end of a dusty street. 

" Through sheeted rain 
Has come a lustre of crimson, 
And I have watched moonbeams 
Hushed by a film of palest green. 

" It was her wings, 

Goddess ! 

Who stepped over the clouds, 

And laid her rainbow feathers 

Aslant on the currents of the air. . . ." 
But to some readers, this passage will be 
merely an added proof of the fact that good 
vers libre is absolutely not so expressive as 
good rhythmical verse. Several passages on a 
similar theme in Shelley's "Prometheus Un- 
bound" confirm such an opinion; nor is the 
comparison an unfair one, since every writer 
must endure the rivalry of the whole body of 
his predecessors. "Unrhymed cadence" at its 
best can hardly convey that intensity of effect 
which is poetry's peculiar function; certain 
clear emotional heights are as impossible of 
attainment by it as by prose. 

Not so pliant, not so accurate, not even so 
free a medium for expression as the old 
rhythms ! To say a thing directly, to cry it 
out, is not necessarily to express it. The 
complexities of rhythm and rhyme are not 
always a hindrance to the expression of com- 
plex thoughts. The poet's need is sometimes 
best served by that great world of musical 
signals and emotional calls which is at the 
disposal of him who accepts the convention 
that governs rhythmical verse, and employs 
this very convention as the instrument for 
evoking emotions that could never be evoked 
by naturalistic means. The supreme element 
of poetry comes into being only with that 
peculiar lift and flight which the disembodied 
imagination can take on the wings of formal 
geometrical beauty. 

Miss Harriet Monroe, in her newly collected 
volume, "You and I," experiments with vers 
libre; but the pieces written in this style are 
few in number. Modernity in other than 
metrical matters chiefly marks her ambitions. 
In many of her poems she attempts with 
seriousness and devotion to consecrate poetry 
to the task of expressing modern industrial 
life. "The Hotel," "Night in State Street," 



1915] 



13 



' ' The Turbine ' ' are the titles of the first three 
poems in the book; and their names indicate 
something of the author's aim. It is not 
wholly demonstrable that so specifically pur- 
posed an interest in the concrete and not 
always significant aspects of modernity is the 
best way of attaining this end. There is in 
such an effort too much of the conscious intel- 
ligence and too little of those blind tides of 
passionate understanding which alone pour 
greatness into poetry. Yet these are rather 
well-known poems, which have given pleasure 
to many "people of high degree"; and it is 
perhaps a work of supererogation, or worse, 
of arrogance, to criticize unfavorably cer- 
tain conceptions that find place in them. The 
critic must, however, unsociably go his own 
chosen way, lighted by his own lantern. In 
some instances he may find himself unable to 
follow Miss Monroe. To view the turbine, 
its purring revolutions, its hidden lightnings, 
its moods and rebellions, as a proud tempes- 
tuous woman, seems an example of that kind of 
poetic imagination which does not interpret 
but rather encumbers the true essence of its 
theme. In the poem "Our Canal," also, the 
lines 

" Panama, ribbon twist 

That ties the continents together." 
are surely a bad, a false, a really unimagina- 
tive way of seeing the world of things as they 
are. 

Miss Monroe's best work is not in this vein. 
Here she seems like a Christina Rossetti led by 
an infelicitous chance into an alien and un- 
mastered world of modern mechanics, where 
her very genuine powers are largely useless. 
Her best accomplishment is in the vein of less 
ambassadorial utterance, in personal poems 
where she subdues a smaller world more per- 
fectly to the service of poetry. Take the fol- 
lowing sonnet: 

" Look on the dead. Stately and pure he lies 

Under the white sheet's marble folds. For him 

The solemn bier, the scented chamber dim, 

The sacred hush, the bowed heads of the wise, 

The slow pomp, the majestical disguise 

Of haughty death, the conjurer even for him, 

Poor trivial one, pale shadow on the rim, 

Whom life marked not, but death may not despise. 

Now is he level with the great; no king 

Enthroned and crowned more royal is, more sure 

Of the world's reverence. Yesterday this thing 

Was but a man, mortal and insecure ; 

Now chance and change their homage to him bring 

And he is one with all things that endure." 

This dignified passage, written probably some 

time ago, may serve to remind the reader once 

more of the value of the very old and, as Miss 

Monroe herself now believes, "exhausted" 

sonnet form. In "The Wonder of It" also, 



Miss Monroe has no difficulty in aptly turning 
conventional rhyme and rhythm to her own 
fantastic and original uses : 

" How wild, how witch-like weird that life should 

be! 

That the insensate rock dared dream of me, 
And take to bursting out and burgeoning 

Oh, long ago yo ho ! 
And wearing green ! How stark and strange a thing 

That life should be ! 

" Oh, mystic mad, a rigadoon of glee, 

That dust should rise, and leap alive, and flee 

Afoot, awing, and shake the deep with cries 

Oh, far away yo hay ! 
What moony masque, what arrogant disguise 

That life should be!" 

Mr. George Sterling, an experienced metrist, 
trained in the great lyric tradition of the past, 
is wholly faithful to rhythmical verse in his 
new volume "Beyond the Breakers." All the 
freedom that he needs he takes for hims_elf 
within the compass of regular rhythms. How 
little cramped he is, a passage from his 
"Browning Centenary Ode" may attest: 

" vision wide and keen ! 
Which knew, untaught, that pains to joyance are 

As night unto the star 
That on the effacing dawn must burn unseen. 

And thou didst know what meat 

Was torn to give us milk, 
What countless worms made possible the silk 

That robes the mind, what plan 
Drew as a bubble from old infamies 

And fen-pools of the past 
The shy and many-colored soul of man. 

Yea ! thou hast seen the lees 
In that rich cup we lift against the day, 
Seen the man-child at his disastrous play 

His shafts without a mark, 
His fountains flowing downward to the dark, 

His maiming and his bars, 

Then turned to see 

His vatic shadow cast athwart the stars, 
And his strange challenge to infinity. . . ." 

It is interesting to speculate as to how the 
devotee of vers libre would have gone about' 
attaining this lift and soar of flight. It may 
be doubted if he could possibly do so except by 
falling back upon that fairly regular variety 
of free metre which Matthew Arnold and 
Milton sometimes employed. To achieve that 
peculiar thing which we call poetry, a sus- 
taining, emotion-heightening recurrence of 
rhythm is as indispensable as music is to opera. 
The sole debatable question is, how regular 
must the recurrence be to produce the desired 
trance-like effect? Vers libre often comes 
perilously near to the less insistent rhythms of 
prose, and loses the characteristic power of 
poetry thereby. 

ARTHUR DAVISON FICKE. 



14 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 1 



ENGL.AXD AXD THE AMERICAX 
REVOLUTION.* 



In 1834 George Bancroft published the first 
volume of his ' ' History of the Colonization of 
the United States," which was followed eigh- 
teen years later by a " History of the Revolu- 
tion in North America. ' ' For a long time the 
spirit of George Bancroft animated the writing 
of American history, and even after two gener- 
ations the influence of his early pioneer work 
is still to be reckoned with. Bancroft came 
well prepared to his work and while in the 
diplomatic service had unusual opportunities 
to collect materials for the continuation of his 
great undertaking ; but in the first half of the 
nineteenth century, when the memories of two 
wars with England were still fresh in the 
popular mind, it was scarcely possible to view 
the events of the later colonial period in their 
true light. In recent years the researches of 
Professor Osgood, Mr. G. L. Beer, and others 
have in a large measure discredited the con- 
clusions that Bancroft stated with such patri- 
otic fervor : it has come to be seen that there 
were deeper causes than the quarrel over taxa- 
tion for the separation from England, and 
that it was probably the complexities of the 
imperial problem rather than mean-spirited 
politics that led the English government to 
take the unfortunate course of action that it 
followed in 1765 and the succeeding years. 

It is therefore strange to find Bancroft's 
discredited viewpoint taken by a most re- 
spectable historian from across the seas. 
About a dozen years ago Sir George Otto 
Trevelyan began to write a history of the 
American Revolution, of which the sixth and 
last volume has just been published. For no 
very good reason, it seems, the last two vol- 
umes have been called ''George III. and 
Charles James Fox." George III. is no more 
prominent in these than in the earlier ones 
and the same may be said of Charles Fox. It 
' is true, however, that Sir George regards the 
English phase of the conflict as a struggle be- 
tween the opposing political systems that 
these two stood for; and in tracing this con- 
flict the author does not attempt to conceal the 
fact that his sympathies are wholly on the side 
of Fox and the Whigs. Whatever the merits 
'of the American Revolutionary movement, and 
Sir George believes in the essential justice of 
the American cause, the Revolution, and espe- 
cially its outcome, had great importance for 
the history of constitutional government by 
rendering impossible the plans of George III. 



* GEORGE THE THIRD AND CHARLES JAMES Fox. Being the 
Concluding Part of " The American Revolution." By the 
Right Hon. Sir George Otto Trevelyan, Bart. In two vol- 
umes. Volume II. New York : Longmans, Green & Co. 



The cause of English liberty was victorious 
on American battle-fields. 

A work of this type would naturally meet 
with much criticism from both English and 
American reviewers. American reviewers 
have insisted that the work is really a history 
of England during the period of the American 
war ; and that on the American side it shows 
little originality, being chiefly a compilation 
from older American sources. These critics 
feel that the author has not attempted to 
fathom the deeper problems of our history 
during and immediately before the Revolu- 
tion. English reviewers, on the other hand, 
have insisted that, while the American patriots 
may have had the right on their side, they 
were not so virtuous (nor the English states- 
men so villainous) as Sir George would have 
us believe. It has also been charged that his 
statements are not always accurate and that 
his emphasis is often misplaced. There is 
some truth in the charge that the author does 
not always distinguish nicely between impor- 
tant and unimportant matters: in his last 
volume, for instance, he describes in great 
detail two duels, one between Fox and Adam 
and the other between Shelburne and Fullar- 
ton, "affairs "which may have furnished in- 
teresting gossip at the time but seem to have 
had no appreciable influence on the course of 
English history. 

It seems quite evident that the author feels 
that in these fearful days of 1914 there will 
be those who will feel that his work and par- 
ticularly the last volume, containing, as it 
does, much bitter criticism of the administra- 
tion of the Lord North regime, is wanting in 
patriotic spirit. In an inserted "address to 
the reader" (clearly an after- thought) Sir 
George informs us that the volume "was 
already in print some weeks before the out- 
break of the German war" and that there is 
' ' no allusion whatever to passing events. ' ' He 
also assures us that "there is nothing in the 
book which the author desires to correct or 
alter; and the subject-matter is not inappro- 
priate to the soul-stirring period in which we 
are living." Continuing he says, 
" The story of the manly and chivalrous spirit in 
which, four generations ago, the two great English- 
speaking nations fought out, and ended, their 
famous quarrel is a story that an Englishman need 
have no scruple about telling even at a moment 
when his country, with a steadfast and grounded 
belief in the justice of her cause, is in the throes of 
war." 

In this connection one is tempted to quote 
from his characterization of Frederick II. of 
Prussia, some of the sentences of which might 
also be used in giving expression to the aver- 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



15 



age Englishman 's view of the present German 
Kaiser. The author believes that Americans 
generally have an unwarranted opinion of the 
services that the great Frederick rendered to 
the Revolutionary cause. 

" The gratitude of Americans toward Frederick the 
Great was cheaply earned, and has lasted to this 
very hour. He ran no risks, and made no sacrifices, 
for their cause, and he was apt to forget their very 
existence as soon as they had ceased to serve his 
purpose; and yet room has been found for his 
statue at Washington, while tlie unfortunate King 
of France, who went to war for America with con- 
sequences which ultimately were fatal to his own 
life, and his own dynasty, has no monument erected 
to his memory in any American town or city." 

In his estimates of American generals and 
statesmen Sir George is as a rule very favor- 
able, sometimes using stronger terms than an 
American writer would care to use. In a 
casual reference to General Philip Sheridan 
he speaks of him as "the greatest captain of 
mounted infantry that the world has seen." 
He is much impressed with the strength and 
abilities of the Adams family : 
" For there is perhaps no other instance on record 
of a family which, over the space of a century and 
a half, has produced, in direct descent from father 
to son, four generations of men of such strong and 
sterling character, such remarkable and recognized 
talents, and such vigorous longevity." 

We are reminded of recent events when the 
author tells us that John Adams 
"scrupulously returned the visits made to Passy 
by American gentlemen resident in Paris, who had 
already begun to complain, as American gentlemen 
have complained ever since, that they did not re- 
ceive due attention from the diplomatic representa- 
tives of their country in a foreign capital." 
His estimate of the military abilities of Gen- 
eral Greene is probably somewhat lower than 
that of some American historians: "Nathan- 
iel Greene was not a general of the first order 
but he had mastered the practice and had 
sedulously and clearly thought out the princi- 
ples of war. ' ' 

The volume covers in a general way the last 
two years of the war, beginning with a dis- 
cussion of the state of English opinion after 
it was understood that the European powers 
were preparing to fight England and closing 
with the downfall of the Lord North ministry 
a few months after the surrender of Corn- 
wallis at Yorktown. On the American side 
the work gives fairly satisfactory accounts of 
the activities of the American diplomats 
abroad, of the war in the Carolinas, and of the 
siege of Yorktown. The bulk of the volume, 
however, is devoted to English affairs: the 
Irish volunteer movement, the menace of the 
League of Neutrals, the parliamentary situa- 



tion, the county associations, the Gordon riots, 
and the movement for economical reform are 
some of the larger topics that the author has 
discussed. While Sir George can scarcely find 
terms strong enough to express his condemna- 
tion of the ministry, especially Lord North, 
Lord Sandwich, and Lord George Germaine, 
the last two having charge of the admiralty 
and the war office respectively, he is very chari- 
table in his treatment of the British generals. 
Howe, Clinton, Cornwallis, Carleton, Rawdon, 
were all excellent soldiers; their failure to 
conquer the Continentals the author attributes 
chiefly to the blunders of the English war 
office, from which they received iron-clad and 
impossible instructions. Howe and Clinton 
also lost ground through their failure to ap- 
preciate the value of civil government in the 
conquered or loyal sections ; the military gov- 
ernment that they did provide Sir George 
finds to have been unspeakably corrupt. Of 
General Burgoyne he has this to say : 
" Seldom, except indeed in the legend of Belisarius, 
was a general worse used by his official superiors 
than John Burgoyne. Acting under iron-bound in- 
structions, with a far less than sufficient force of 
troops, he had displayed on several occasions the 
professional skill of a veteran commander, and on 
every occasion the heroic courage of a perfect 
soldier." 

Aside from his estimate of men and meas- 
ures Sir George has contributed little that is 
new or original. Whether his opinions will 
find a very wide acceptance is a matter of 
great doubt. All historians are willing to 
grant that the government of England during 
the first two decades of the reign of George III. 
was most of the time as corrupt and inefficient 
as Sir George asserts it to have been ; but the 
causes of the American Revolution probably 
lay in America rather than in Westminster: 
the forces that work for nationality were at 
work in the western world, and America could 
not be expected to continue much longer as 
the willing subject of a distant government. 
But whether the author's conclusions be ac- 
cepted or rejected, all will admit that he has 
produced a work of singular charm; our 
only regret is that his style and his art have 
enshrined a mistaken view of American his- 

LAURENCE M. LARSON. 



A COMPENDIOUS HISTORY OF ENGLISH 

LITERATURE. * 



Teachers and publishers are ready to wel- 
come the effort of that scholar who shall pro- 
duce an ideal history, in one volume, or at 
most two, of English literature from Beowulf 



* MODERN ENGLISH LITERATURE, from Chaucer to the Present 
Day. By G. H. Mair. New York : Henry Holt & Co. 



16 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 1 



down to the present time. Nor are signs alto- 
gether wanting that the appearance of the 
desired book is near at hand. Good models are 
to be had in works of the right proportion on 
other literatures both ancient and modern. 
One thinks of the "Abridged History of Greek 
Literature" by Alfred and Maurice Croiset, 
with its relation to their larger French work 
in five volumes, this latter being perhaps the 
best history of any literature in any language. 
Or one thinks of Mr. J. Wright Duff's most 
admirable "Literary History of Rome," mar- 
vellous for its fulness, accuracy, and conden- 
sation, and for a grace and interest that never 
fail ; or of Lanson 's ' ' History of French Lit- 
erature," which merits a similar description. 
Indeed, we may recall the noble work of Ten 
Brink on English literature itself, regretting 
that no one has seen fit to revise the transla- 
tion, and to complete the whole, in English, in 
the light of our present knowledge in which 
case the demand for an ideal book would be 
satisfied. Wiilker's volume ("Geschichte der 
Englischen Litteratur von den Aeltesten 
Zeiten bis zur Gegenwart"), so far as I am 
aware, is the only work on the subject, by a 
recognized scholar with a technical training, 
that is intended to be popular, and at the same 
time follows the entire course of English 
literature from the beginnings down to Tenny- 
son and Browning. Wiilker was not an in- 
spired literary critic, as Ten Brink was; his 
illustrations, and his estimable motives, 
hardly make up for the lack of attractiveness 
in his pages; nevertheless in scope his book 
supplies a model. 

In addition to models, the trained linguist 
and literary student, who alone could produce 
the desired work, would have a few literary- 
histories of particular epochs to rest upon, 
among them the exceptionally good account of 
Middle English literature by Professor Brandl 
in Paul's ' ' Grundriss " ; and he would have 
at his command the "Cambridge History of 
English Literature" (with its bibliographies), 
though the several parts of this must not be 
employed without discrimination. Nor should 
one forget Professor Northup's forthcoming 
bibliography of bibliographies for the study 
of English, which will be indispensable to 
every scholar in this and related subjects. 
But the ideal historian of English literature 
will not possess every advantage enjoyed by 
Lanson, Duff, and the brothers Croiset: he 
will not find the wheat for his cake so thor- 
oughly ground and bolted as are the materials 
for a literary history of France or Rome or 
Greece. Much scholarly attention, it is true, 
has of late been devoted to the period, or 
periods, subsequent to the accession of Eliza- 



beth, which Ten Brink some twenty years ago 
felt unprepared to treat with precision, and so 
omitted from his plan. Yet from the Eliza- 
bethans on, the historian will find many serious 
gaps in our knowledge, and more than one 
well-nigh incredible defect in the necessary 
apparatus. The prose of Milton, for example, 
has never been properly edited ; and there is 
no satisfactory edition of Burke. Under these 
conditions, the historian must divine the hid- 
den course of events through the force of a 
trained sympathetic insight; an insight into 
the nature and genius of the English language 
and literature as a whole; an insight nour- 
ished in the best traditions of English scholar- 
ship, and rigorously disciplined in those parts 
of the subject for example, in Old English 
where the need of precision is most obvious, if 
not also most attainable. To those who know, 
it is obvious that the first requisite in the way 
of external acquirement for the historian of 
English literature is a thorough knowledge of 
Old and Middle English. 

Mr. Mair's book, in spite of more than one 
excellence, is not of the sort we have in mind. 
It is the outgrowth of his handy little volume, 
' ' English Literature : Modern, ' ' in the ' ' Home 
University Library," which followed a supe- 
rior work in the same series, "English Lit- 
erature: Mediaeval," by Professor Ker. Mr. 
Mair 's present work begins with Chaucer, and 
the author undertakes to defend what is not 
defensible, the old notion that English litera- 
ture begins with "The Canterbury Tales." 
He is at some pains not to be caught saying 
just that, but it is the idea he would like to 
convey. "For the scholars," he remarks, 
"our literature may begin earlier; for the 
poets it began with him [Chaucer]." Is Mr. 
Mair also among the poets? And does he 
think that students of Old English have no 
feeling for literary and historical values? 
Does he forget, too, that, among the poets, Ben 
Jonson, Milton, Wordsworth, and Tennyson 
showed some interest in the earliest stages 
of the language and literature, and were 
variously indebted to the study of it? His 
general mistake, perhaps, lies in uncritically 
following Professor Legouis, and in coming by 
'himself to project Chaucer on a French and 
Italian background ; on this rather than on 
the entire background of mediaeval ideas, En- 
glish as well as Continental, and in Latin as 
well as in the vernacular literatures. But 
in particular one cannot agree with him when 
he says that, if we go no farther back in 
England than Chaucer, "we shall certainly 
lose nothing which affects what is to come 
afterwards." We should miss the Old En- 
glish "Battle of Brunanburh, " which seems to 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



17 



have affected Tennyson, since he modernized 
it. And when Mr. Mair says that Old English 
is as distinct from Modern as Modern English 
is from German, he must mean superficially 
as it were, to a schoolboy's vision. Neither 
a scholar nor a poet who really knew and loved 
Old English would say so. We suspect Mr. 
Mair's attainments in this part of the field 
from the time he alludes in his Preface to ' ' the 
philologist" (meaning student of linguistics) 
and "the professor of dead dialects"; and we 
therefore suspect his ability to judge after the 
fashion of Ten Brink whether the study of 
Chaucer is much or little dependent upon the 
study of Old and Middle English. 

Before proceeding to the praise which on 
some accounts we wish to accord to Mr. Mair's 
volume, let us attend to a few other strictures. 
His plan, he says, 

" aims at maintaining an individual point of view, 
at laying stress on ideas and tendencies rather than 
at recording facts and events, and it does not hesi- 
tate to draw generously on standard works of criti- 
cism and biography with which students are 
familiar." 

If in several cases the author derives his 
opinions from excellent studies, such as the 
work on Chaucer by Professor Legouis, never- 
theless he cannot be termed discriminating in 
the matter of authorities. Thue he is capable 
of naming as the "two best critics" of Milton 
one who is good, but not best, Mark Pattison, 
and "Professor" Walter Raleigh, who is 
negligible. Where in his hierarchy would Mr. 
Mair put Addison and Dr. Robert Bridges? 
And where would Osgood, Masson, and Verity 
come in? This lack of discrimination as to 
books is on a par with several other uncritical 
utterances. For example, Milton "never vio- 
lates the harmony of sound or sense." Is that 
an echo of Matthew Arnold's description, "In 
the sure and flawless perfection of his rhythm 
and diction ...... ."1 It was Huxley, was it 

not, who imagined that Herbert Spencer's 
definition of tragedy would be, "a generaliza- 
tion killed by a fact"? Enter Mr. Mair's un- 
guarded "never" followed by this irrecon- 
cilable fact from the Ninth Book of "Paradise 
Lost" (11.41. ff.): 

" Mee of these 

Nor skilld nor studious, higher Argument 
Remaines, sufficient of it self to raise 
That name, unless an age too late, or cold 
Climat, or Years damp my intended wing 
Deprest, and much they may, if all be mine." 
Yes, the good Milton sometimes nods, as his 
best critic, Wordsworth, frankly admits, 
stating the matter thus : 

" I could point out to you five hundred passages in 
Milton upon which labor has been bestowed, and 
twice five hundred more to which additional labor 



would have been serviceable; not that I regret the 
absence of such labor, because no poem contains 
more proof of skill acquired by practice." 
Nor would better critics, I believe, go so far as 
to say with Mr. Mair that Milton ' ' devised his 
own subjects, and wrote his own style," or 
that "he stands alone, and must be judged 
alone"; Mark Pattison, indeed, says some- 
thing different. Granting that Milton's soul 
was like a star, and dwelt apart, we cannot 
judge the poet by himself, since there is no 
astronomy, or other science, of the individual. 
His subjects were the common property of 
England, Holland, and Italy, and his treat- 
ment of them was profoundly influenced by 
the Italian interpretation of ancient poetical 
theory. 

To tell the truth, Mr. Mair, as his over- 
praise evinces, is not in sympathy with Milton, 
but with traditional notions about the poet, 
unrectified by scholarly observation and com- 
parison of the facts. As a result, coming to 
the point in Milton 's biography where sympa- 
thy is most needed, he rashly declares that 
"Milton always argued from himself to man- 
kind at large," and falls into the vulgar error 
of associating the Miltonic writings on divorce 
too closely with Milton's private life. Are 
they not, rather, singularly objective, and is 
there anything better on the subject in En- 
glish? The spirit of them is altogether in 
keeping w r ith the ideal of good manners rep- 
resented in the speeches of Adam and Eve, 
almost constantly, in "Paradise Lost," and 
constantly in the words and actions of the 
Hero in "Paradise Regained." "Manners," 
we recall, are one of the gifts which Words- 
worth, good poet and scholar, thinks to be in 
Milton 's keeping for England. 

Turning to Shakespeare, we again find Mr. 
Mair using that dangerous word "never": 
"A study of the plots of either the comedies or the 
tragedies will convince the reader that the orderly 
faculty of marshalling events has never been so 
completely shown in the work of any other writer." 

What about Sophocles? But perhaps we are 
to understand: any other English writer. 
Well, what about Thackeray in "The Rose and 
the Ring," or Fielding in "Tom Jones"? 
"What a master of composition Fielding 
was!" says Coleridge. "Upon my word, I 
think the 'Oedipus Tyrannus,' 'The Alchem- 
ist,' and 'Tom Jones' the three most perfect 
plots ever planned." No Shakespearean 
scholar would have expressed himself as does 
Mr. Mair; in the first place, none would put 
most of the comedies, in the matter of con- 
struction, on as high a level as most of the 
tragedies. And to sum up in the words of 
Mr. A. C. Bradley on Shakespeare : 



18 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 1 



" Nine-tenths of his defects are not . . . the errors 
of an inspired genius, ignorant of art, but the sins 
of a great but negligent artist." 

Turning to the pages on Wordsworth, we 
discover the same bent for overstatement, 
and for essentially the same sort of thread- 
bare comment as is passed along in certain 
handbooks of criticism and biography with 
which students are familiar. Thus: Words- 
worth is "a complete innovator"; "he found 
his subjects in new places"; in his earlier 
years he had a vision of "nature," which 
eventually faded, so that only "a few fine 
things fitfully illumine the enormous and 
dreary bulk of his later work " ; " if we lost all 
but the 'Lyrical Ballads,' the poems of 1804 
[misprint for 1807], and the 'Prelude,' and 
the 'Excursion,' Wordsworth's position as a 
poet would be no lower than it is now. ' ' Does 
Mr. Mair realize that he has included three- 
quarters of the poet 's work ? The bulk of what 
is left is not enormous. The other assertions 
also need reconsideration. Wordsworth is not 
a complete innovator : in part he harks back to 
his favorite "elder poets" more especially 
to Spenser and Milton. Substituting England 
for Sicily and the Mediterranean, one may say 
that Wordsworth finds his subjects where The- 
ocritus found them; and that is just what he 
tells us in the Eighth Book of the "Prelude." 
In his earlier period his imagination was 
tinged with a neo-Platonism which, while not 
very good of its kind, still counts as "poetry" 
with the average reader of the present. That 
is, when Wordsworth talks about a motion and 
a spirit "rolling" through various things, peo- 
ple think him inspired, though they may not 
care for his translation of Michael Angelo's 
address "To the Supreme Being," which 
contains a very different form of teaching. 
Wordsworth gradually outgrew his crude 
naive philosophy, and, drawing his inspira- 
tion less and less from neo-Platonism, and 
more and more from Christianity, produced a 
body of verse that in workmanship is superior 
to his earlier attempts. Much of it is likely to 
attract well-educated readers of subsequent 
generations, when the doctrine of divine imma- 
nence gives way, as it gave way in Words- 
worth, to a more artistic conception of the 
universe. There are not "a few," but many 
"fine things" in the "Ecclesiastical Sonnets," 
that most important of his later writings ; it 
is a body of work that naturally falls into its 
place with the writings of Herbert and Keble ; 
and a critic who aims at maintaining an indi- 
vidual point of view (which means observing 
and comparing for himself) cannot afford to 
treat it as it is treated in ordinary books of 
criticism and biography. 



Though he now and then lapses into an 
overfamiliar style, and though, as we have 
seen, his judgments lack finality, Mr. Mair on 
the whole is naturally alert, and expresses 
things for himself, often with vigor, and 
sometimes with felicity. He duly insists upon 
looking at the history of literature in the light 
of fundamental principles, and on occasion 
enunciates such doctrine as the following 
(pp. 47-48) : 

" The unit of all ordinary kinds of writing is the 
word, and one is not commonly quarrelled with for 
using words that have belonged to other people. 
But the unit of the lyric, like the unit of spoken 
conversation, is not the word but the phrase. Now 
in daily human intercourse the use, which is uni- 
versal and habitual, of set forms and phrases of 
talk is not commonly supposed to detract from or 
destroy sincerity. In the crises, indeed, of emotion 
it must be most people's experience that the natural 
speech that rises unbidden and easiest to the lips is 
something quite familiar and commonplace, some 
form which the accumulated experience of many 
generations of separate people has found best for 
such circumstances or such an occasion. The lyric 
is in the position of conversation at such a height- 
ened and emotional moment . . . This is not to say 
that there is no such thing as originality ; a poet is 
a poet first and most of all because he discovers 
truths that have been known for ages, as things that 
are fresh and new and vital for himself." 



A word of praise must be given to the six- 
teen portraits scattered through the volume. 
The one of Wordsworth (p. 220), reproducing 
the sketch by Pickersgill in the Library of St. 
John's College, Cambridge, though not well 
known, is a fortunate choice. 

LANE COOPER. 



AN ICONOCLAST IN ARCHITECTURAL, 
CRITICISM.* 



Mr. Geoffrey Scott's "The Architecture of 
Humanism: A Study in the History of 
Taste" breaks sharply with the traditions 
of English criticism by attacking the formulas 
on which the apotheoses of Greek and of 
Gothic art have been based and boldly cham- 
pioning the architecture of the Renaissance. 
In the mind of the author the book is an at- 
tempt to formulate the chief aesthetic princi- 
ples of classical design in architecture, and to 
trace the history of our critical canons; in 
reality it is a violent polemic against earlier 
opinions and a dogmatic apologia for a style 
deified in advance. 

In so far as the author makes clear the 
development and points out the inadequacies 
of nineteenth century critical theory he does 

* THE ARCHITECTURE OF HUMANISM. A Study in the History 
of Taste. By Geoffrey Scott. Boston : Houghton Mifflin Co. 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



a needful service. The working belief of the 
contemporary artist and critic of art is too 
often a jumble of incongruous fragments from 
earlier systems, patched together without ap- 
preciation of their inconsistency or true his- 
torical relations. The text in hand brings 
order into this confusion, distinguishing, very 
justly, successive phases in the development 
of critical dogmas. On the academic method 
of imitation of the antique and search for per- 
fect mathematical proportions, followed the 
romantic idealization first of Greece and then 
of the Middle Ages, passing over into the cult 
of the natural and the picturesque. Then fol- 
lowed the ethical evaluation of styles by 
Ruskin and his followers, the mechanical or 
structural evaluation of Violet-le-Duc, and 
finally the biological, evolutionary explana- 
tion of compulsion from environment which 
still dominates criticism. Obviously any of 
these interpretations singly, or all of them 
together, cannot exhaust the aesthetic values 
of architecture. There will still remain purely 
spacial relationships, eluding even the aca- 
demic formula?. To call all previous views 
"fallacies" out of hand, however, as does Mr. 
Scott, betrays a failure to realize their par- 
tial validity, as well as a lack of historic 
modesty. 

The substitute which he has to offer, the 
"humanist" evaluation, is not, we find, the 
theory of the humanists themselves, but a 
modern psychological doctrine, humanist only 
in a curious sense Professor Lipps's theory 
of Einfuhlung. This familiar hypothesis, 
which Mr. Bernhard Berenson has already ap- 
plied to Renaissance painting, explains our 
aesthetic sensations as unconscious projections 
into the external world of our own bodily 
movements and tensions. To illustrate, arches 
seem to "spring," domes to "swell," and 
spires to ' ' soar, ' ' because we identify ourselves 
with their apparent states. If one were dis- 
posed to jest, one might say that Mr. Scott's 
own fallacy had been added in advance, by his 
own arch-villain, Ruskin, to the romantic, the 
ethical, the mechanical, and the biologic falla- 
cies which he himself has condemned. It is 
the pathetic fallacy, a poetic animism, digni- 
fied by a modern and philosophic garb. "With- 
out entering seriously upon its merits, we may 
suggest that its truth or falsity is really irrele- 
vant to Mr. Scott's more concrete propositions 
that mass, space, line, and coherence are the 
true language of architecture, and that Renais- 
sance architecture, which speaks this language 
with least restraint, is the style in which archi- 
tectural principles can most fruitfully be 
studied. 

The importance of abstract qualities like 



mass, line, and space is recognized by aesthetic 
philosophers whose systems are most diverse 
or antagonistic. Even one who has given such 
a wide extension to the aesthetic field as Signor 
Benedetto Croce sees in them the channels for 
those expressions peculiar to architecture, in- 
capable of translation into other media. The 
idea that they exhaust its values, however, is 
an intolerable limitation, and one which, un- 
just to other styles, does Renaissance archi- 
tecture itself less than justice. We must turn 
against the author's dogmatic assertions, his 
own protest against earlier apologies : ' ' Con- 
ducted without impartiality, arguments such 
as these are but the romance of criticism; 
they can intensify and decorate our preju- 
dices, but cannot render them convincing." 
It is true that a sympathetic estimate of 
Renaissance architecture must depend on an 
appreciation of abstract, spacial qualities, but 
it is equally true that an extension of the 
abstract criterion to other styles as the one 
principle of judgment would be as illegiti- 
mate as similar extensions of mechanical or 
biological criteria. 

Perhaps Mr. Scott's brilliant and forceful 
rhetoric, in spite of the over- emphasis which 
arouses protest at almost every page, is the 
only weapon by which popular prejudices, 
themselves partly rhetorical in origin, can be 
beaten down. It is a pity, though, if the 
rhetorical bias of English criticism is so strong 
as to deprive us permanently of discussion 
which is measured and temperate. 

SIDNEY FISKE KIMBALL. 



RECENT VIEWS or CHINA.* 



The conflagration now consuming the visi- 
ble fabric of civilization in Europe, from 
which brands have already been carried by 
Japan to the northeast corner of China, gives 
increased importance to all questions concern- 
ing the future of the Chinese people. Consti- 
tuting so large a fraction of the population of 
the globe, and inhabiting territory immensely 
wealthy in undeveloped resources, this people 
seems to be destined to play either a great or 
a very pitiable role in the history of the pres- 
ent century. The decision of Fate between 
these two possibilities rests upon external and 
internal forces still difficult to gauge. If the 
present stupendous conflict in Europe deter- 
mines whether the leading nationalities of the 
world are to be military and conquering in 

* FORCES MINING AND UNDERMINING CHINA. By Rowland G. 
Gibson. New York : The Century Co. 

THIRTY YEARS IN THE MANCHU CAPITAL. By Dugald Chris- 
tie. New York : McBride, Nast & Co. 

A WOMAN IN CHINA. By Mary Gaunt. Philadelphia : J. B. 
Lippincott Co. 



20 



THE DIAL, 



[Jan. 1 



temper, or commercial and increasingly fra- 
ternal, it will turn the scales one way or the 
other for China. But the internal forces to 
be estimated are complex, subtle, and in 
transition, so that they are now scarcely capa- 
ble of certain analysis and are treacherous 
material for prophecy. With all that has been 
written about China and the Chinese, the 
Occident is by no means of one mind concern- 
ing the traits of the race and its capabilities. 
There is need just now for much thorough- 
going study of the Chinese. 

Three recent books add each something of 
worth to the material upon which we must 
base our forecast of China 's future world rela- 
tionships. The three authors, fortunately, see 
their subject from three distinct points of 
view. Mr. Gibson is a "military interpreter 
in the Chinese language"; Dr. Christie is a 
medical missionary who has spent thirty years 
in Mukden, Manchuria ; Mrs. Gaunt is a pro- 
fessional writer of fiction and stories of travel. 

"Forces Mining and Undermining China" 
is, we regret to say, lacking in that orderly 
analysis and mastery of material which wins 
the confidence of the reader in the judgment 
of the writer. The book contains valuable 
information concerning mining, railways, 
labor, finances, and concessions in China, and 
is well worth a rapid survey; but it lacks 
maturity of judgment and dignity of expres- 
sion. 

"Thirty Years in the Manchu Capital" is, 
on the other hand, a work of unusual merit. 
A simple, unpretentious account of events that 
have come under the author's personal ob- 
servation and experiences through which he 
has passed, the book throws much light upon 
two wars fought on Chinese territory the 
Chino-Japanese and Russo-Japanese conflicts 
and gives the reader definite impressions of 
Chinese character through sketches of various 
individual Chinese known to the author. The 
method and style of the book are natural and 
entertaining. The author wins without effort 
the confidence and respect of the reader, and 
his kindly and favorable estimate of the Chi- 
nese carries a high degree of conviction. There 
is, however, very little effort at generalizing, 
so that the book furnishes evidence rather 
than argument in connection with the problem 
of China. 

Among recent publications dealing with 
this problem no book we have seen possesses 
the literary merit of Mrs. Gaunt 's "A Woman 
in China. ' ' Entering the country by the Sibe- 
rian Railway in mid-winter shortly after the 
Revolution, the author spent some weeks in 
Peking observing and studying, and then trav- 
elled without companion by cart to Jehol, 



Inner Mongolia, the ancient hunting palace 
and grounds of the Manchu emperors. Her 
opportunity for forming an independent im- 
pression of the Chinese was, thus, very differ- 
ent from that of the ordinary tourist, and her 
training as a writer has enabled her to pro- 
duce one of the most entertaining and pleas- 
ing of books on the subject. Artistic by tem- 
perament, Mrs. Gaunt has filled her pages 
with sketches from life, vivid and delightful. 
Her appreciation of Chinese architecture and 
landscape gardening is more earnest and out- 
spoken than that of any writer we recall. In- 
deed, "A Woman in China" is a rather 
unusual blend of keen observation, humor, 
sympathy, and artistic sense. 

An artist, however, is a delineator and in- 
terpreter of the static present, not a guide or 
a prophet. Possessed completely by the sem- 
blance before the eyes and concerned in its 
reproduction through the medium of art, the 
artist lacks a sense for the future, as yet invisi- 
ble and wholly unpicturesque. In spite of her 
evident good judgment, Mrs. Gaunt is, first of 
all, an artist. The China which seemed to her 
antique and static, ancient Babylon still sur- 
viving in the midst of a novel and alien world, 
does not thus appear to Dr. Christie, who has 
witnessed the changes of only three decades. 
Even the most gifted observer may be so 
engrossed by the quaint and outre in features, 
costume, manners, and age-long habits that he 
requires years, rather than weeks, to penetrate 
behind these veils which conceal the essential 
human spirit. Diversity in outward mani- 
festations does not disprove the unity of the 
human soul in all the races of men. The civ- 
ilization of any race may be slowly trans- 
formed by the working of new forces brought 
to bear upon it, and such forces are now at 
work in China. 

OLIN DANTZLER WANNAMAKER. 



BRIEFS ox NEW BOOKS. 



c ,. . 

Scandinavian 

literature in 



One of the main purposes of the 

. .^ 

American-Scandinavian b oun- 
dation, established in 1911 by 
the generous bequest of Niels Poulsen, is to 
publish English translations of important 
Scandinavian literary works. That purpose 
has now become achievement to the extent of 
three interesting volumes that offer us the 
first fruits of this aspect of the Foundation's 
enterprise. Two of the volumes, devoted to 
Holberg and Tegner, are entitled "Scandina- 
vian Classics"; the third, "The Voyages of 
the Norsemen to America," is the first issue 
of a series of " Scandivanian Monographs." 
The Holberg volume is singularly welcome 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



21 



and opportune. It offers three of the come- 
dies, in a translation made by Dr. Oscar 
James Campbell and Mr. Frederic Schenck. 
Dr. Campbell, it will be remembered, gave us 
last spring a study of Holberg which was the 
first work in the English language upon the 
greatest of all Scandinavian authors. We 
now have three comedies representing the 
playwright who completes the great trinity of 
modern writers of comedy Moliere, Goldoni, 
and Holberg. The selection is the best pos- 
sible "Jeppe paa Bjerget," "Den Poli- 
kiske Kandstober," and ''Erasmus Mon- 
tanus, ' ' a selection in striking contrast to that 
made a year or two ago by a retired English 
army officer, who gave us three of the least 
significant and characteristic of the comedies 
in a singularly w r ooden translation. Dr. 
Campbell's three represent Holberg at his 
best, and his version is nervous, colloquial, 
and faithful. The Tegner volume, edited by 
Mr. Paul Robert Lieder, offers a reprint of 
old matter Longfellow's "The Children of 
the Lord's Supper" and W. L. Blackley's 
^'Frithiof's Saga" the latter first printed 
in 1857. This is a fair translation no bet- 
ter than several others of the score or more 
that exist, but it has the distinction of having 
been the first to be printed in this country. 
Commander William Hovgaard's treatise on 
"The Voyages of the Norsemen to America" 
is planned on a large scale, and makes a vol- 
ume of three hundred pages, abundantly illus- 
trated. So much work has been done in this 
field of recent years that a comprehensive 
statement of the theories and conclusions of 
modern scholars is a very desirable thing to 
have, and the author is well equipped for the 
performance. He treats of his subject as an 
historical critic, a naturalist, an archaeologist 
and ethnologist, and especially as an expert 
in nautical matters and geography. The 
treatment of all these matters is minute and 
exhaustive. With regard to controverted 
points, it may be said that he regards the 
saga narratives as essentially historical, in 
opposition to Nansen's belief in their legen- 
dary character; that he believes the Skrael- 
ings in some instances to have been Indians 
and not Eskimos; that he holds the vinber 
to have been grapes rather than currants or 
cranberries, and Vinland (with the long 
vowel) to have really meant Wineland; and 
he offers evidence that the site of Leif 's set- 
tlement may well have been as far south as 
the coast of Massachusetts. Perhaps the most 
valuable part of the work is its detailed de- 
scription of the Atlantic coast from Baffin 
Land to the Hudson, and its attempts to 
identify the shores described in the sagas 



with actual parts of the American continent. 
The whole question is bewildering and baf- 
fling, and Commander Hovgaard has probably 
done all that is scientifically possible to shed 
light upon it. He has no hobbies, and this is 
perhaps the most important prerequisite for 
the handling of the whole complex problem. 

Mr. Ernest Newman in his book 
it tl Wagner as Man and Artist" 
(Dutton) gives us a full length 
painting of the remarkable musician and 
dramatist. He says in his Preface: "In 
spite of the size of this volume, many readers 
will no doubt feel that it either discusses 
inadequately several aspects of Wagner's 
work and personality or it passes them over 
altogether. I plead guilty; but to have fol- 
lowed Wagner up in every one of his many- 
sided activities in all his political, ethical, 
economic, ethnical, sociological speculations 
would have necessitated not one book but 
four." And yet he says farther on : "While 
there is at present no adequate life of Wag- 
ner, there is probably more biographical mate- 
rial available in connection with him than 
with any other artist who has lived; and on 
the basis of this material it seems justifiable 
now to attempt what was impossible until 
the publication of Mein Leben in 1911 a 
complete and psychological estimate of him." 
We do not feel that the two statements can 
be made to agree, and we find, indeed, that in 
the long discussion of "Wagner as a Man/' 
there are principally presented the relations 
of Wagner with his wife, Minna, and the 
other women who contrived to make his life 
disappointing and miserable until Cosima 
Wagner made her appearance. A treatment 
of Wagner's relations to politics, government, 
economics, might have been undertaken with- 
out detriment to a subject like friendships 
with the other sex, which ought in every case 
to be kept within the limits which belong to 
it. Mr. Newman could have compressed the 
love episodes, and enlarged the consideration 
of other sides of Wagner's character without 
becoming prolix or lessening the value of his 
picture. He could have led up to his superb 
summary by a completer exposition of the 
varied interests of this restless and cosmopoli- 
tan artist. We also question the advisability 
of considering the form, to the exclusion of 
the content, of Wagner's works. We see this 
course taken and advocated in the second 
part of the book, "The Artist in Theory." 
It would seem that a discussion of Wag- 
ner's power of character representation, his 
mastery of material, his immense advances 
in technique, would be enhanced by adequate 



22 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 1 



statements of his intent and purpose. Such 
was undoubtedly the opinion of the com- 
poser, and the reproduction of his idea in 
completely congruous music was his great 
effort and purpose. It is unquestionably in 
the third part of his volume, "The Artist in 
Practice," that Mr. Newman finds himself 
most at home, and it is here that the reader 
will find him most convincing and authorita- 
tive. Whatever our views may be of Wagner 
and his work, we must take into account this 
book of Mr. Newman's. All the great ques- 
tions in regard to Wagner's achievement are 
here considered with insight. We may not 
agree with Mr. Newman's conclusions, but we 
must concede his knowledge, his depth of 
appreciation, his eloquence of expression. No 
book on the subject will appeal to a larger 
circle of readers, nor give a more vivid con- 
ception of the whole movement. 



Insect biog- 

raphies, new 



The charm of M. J. H. Fabre's 

. , . , 

Souvenicr Entomologiques, 
published in 1882 and now 
translated by Mr. Alexander Teixeira De 
Mattos, has its origin in the author's enthusi- 
asm for his researches, in his skill in building 
up the reader's interest in his observations 
and experiments, and in a certain naive un- 
sophisticated simplicity. The translator has 
preserved the latter admirably in "The 
Mason-bees" (Dodd, Mead & Co.) the latest 
volume in the series of translations of M. 
Fabre 's work. This deals with the habits and 
instincts of certain solitary mud-working 
bees of southern Europe and touches upon the 
operation and origin of such fundamental bio- 
logical phenomena as the homing instinct in 
bees, ants, and cats, and the origin of the semi- 
parasitic habits of those bees which, like the 
cuckoos among birds, lay their eggs in nests 
not their own. The author is a keen observer, 
with an experimental turn of mind, and puts 
to test his theories of sight and memory as 
guiding factors in the homeward movements 
of insects. The translation is excellently done 
save for a few lapses into archaic terms. 
While M. Fabre depends wholly upon word 
pictures to charm his reader, Ward's "Insect 
Biographies with Pen and Camera" (Stokes) 
supplements these by plates in color and 
heliotype and excellent half-tones. The book 
aims to present the life histories of certain of 
the representative insects, such as the lace- 
wing fly, various moths and butterflies, the 
"death watch" beetles, the hover-fly, and the 
flea, and adds to these some account of mites 
and spiders. The photographs are nearly all 
from life, and the attitudes of the subjects por- 
trayed are therefore normal. Both the pho- 



tographer and the engraver have succeeded 
exceptionally well in their work. Intensive 
study directed to a few carefully selected 
types and carried to a high degree of com- 
pleteness characterizes this work and lifts it 
above the level of the ordinary "nature 
study" treatment of entomological topics. 



It is always an unwelcome task 
An ambitious ^o question the value of an ex- 

OOOK on Ctcero. 5 _ . 

tended work written by a con- 
scientious scholar of mature years; but a 
dutiful reviewer is bound to ask what useful 
end can be served by Professor E. G. Sihler's 
large volume on "Cicero of Arpinum" (Yale 
University Press). The gifted Tully, so 
unanimously lauded as an orator, so bitterly 
debated as a statesman, has been the subject 
of many pens, and a new treatise on a large 
scale can be justified only by unique historical 
acumen or some singular felicity of presenta- 
tion. To the latter qualification our volume 
can make no claim whatever ; in fact, a rigor- 
ous effort is necessary to hold oneself to the 
task of reading it, so dispiriting is the style 
even to the most loyal student, so painful to 
any reader with the least literary feeling. If 
the editors of a great university press, like 
that of Yale, cannot ensure a passably good 
general presentation, they might at least pre- 
clude annoying violations of elementary gram- 
mar and punctuation. Naturally, however, 
almost any failure in English would be gladly 
forgiven if the work were distinguished by an 
unusually keen sense for human character 
and motives, by some fine gift of perspective, 
some compelling profundity of judgment, 
some comprehensive faculty of grouping the 
particular and universal together, in short, 
by some exceptional power of dealing with 
history in biography. But, unfortunately, 
one misses these high essentials, and finds in- 
stead average ability, unsparing toil, and 
meticulous scholarship. However, we are glad 
to accord most unstinted praise to one noble 
quality, an absolute honesty of purpose 
that shines from every page. There is a care- 
fully arranged bibliography, followed by an 
index. 

That quality of lyric poetry 
observations of which lies in the unquestioning 

a flat-dweller. . ,*.., j 

assumption that the reader is as 
much interested in the poet's private affairs 
as the poet himself, reveals itself quite en- 
gagingly on every page of Mr. Simeon 
Strunsky's "Belshazzar Court" (Holt), the 
supposed account of the family affairs and 
certain other intimate concerns of a young 
married couple and their two children in their 



1915] 



23 



life on the third floor of a mammoth apart- 
ment house in the far up-town regions of 
New York. As in Mr. Edward S. Martin's 
"Reflections of a Beginning Husband," which 
the book strongly resembles in some of its 
features, it is the young head of the family 
who acts as scribe, and who realistically pic- 
tures the pleasures and a few of the vexations 
of domestic life in a household just a little less 
prosperous, pecuniarily, than its tastes, its 
refinement, its ideals, might have rendered 
desirable. The entrance hall of Belshazzar 
Court has handsome electroliers in imitation 
cut glass, a magnificent marble fireplace in 
which the effect of a wood fire is simulated by 
electric bulbs under a sheet of red isinglass, 
while the heat is furnished by a steam radiator 
close by, and the floor has two large Oriental 
rugs of American manufacture. What the 
humorously communicative young father has 
to say about his irrepressible son Harold and 
the latter 's baby sister, about his wife Emme- 
line, and, not least of all, about himself, his 
interests and diversions, his views of things 
metropolitan and cosmopolitan and miscella- 
neous, will be found entertainingly set forth 
in the eight discursive chapters of the book, 
which, it will be discovered by magazine read- 
ers, is not an entirely new production, though 
none the worse for that fact. Mr. Strunsky has 
in the last few years made a name for him- 
self as a humorist of decidedly original qual- 
ity, and "Belshazzar Court" sustains this 
reputation. 

Mr. M. L. Spencer's "Practical 
En g lish Punctuation" contains 
much more matter than its title 
implies; it is really a compendium of direc- 
tions for the preparation of almost any kind 
of manuscript. It has no discussion of the 
principles of punctuation, and presents noth- 
ing new in organization or arrangement; for 
the sake of brevity the directions are usually 
given as dogmatic rules. The basis of these 
rules is the practice of the more conservative 
magazines and the more careful writers of the 
present day, and wherever usage varies, what 
appears to be the preferred practice is indi- 
cated. Of course the first edition of such a 
compendium provokes some adverse criticism. 
The specimen sheet of corrected proof with 
the accompanying explanation is not so ser- 
viceable as it should have been made, some of 
the statements are very awkwardly phrased 
or are capable of misinterpretation, and occa- 
sionally the rules are too broadly stated. But 
such defects are not numerous. The rules are 
generally sound and clearly illustrated, the 
material is made readily accessible through a 



fine index, the presswork is very satisfactory, 
and typographical errors are notably absent. 
The volume should largely realize the hope 
expressed in the Preface that it "may be 
found to be a compact, convenient, and rea- 
sonably full compendium of rules for the 
guidance of all persons who have need to 
write. ' ' ( Menasha, Wisconsin : The Collegiate 
Press. ) 

Mr. Walter A. Mursell knew 
TZSSBSE himself at the age of ten to be 

a book-lover, and at twelve be- 
gan to be a book-buyer, taking delight in 
browsing about old bookshops. To him "they 
are what form and outline and color are to the 
artist, what beauty is to the poet, what 
springtime is to the lover, what summer 
meadows are to the child. ' ' That such a person 
should write well about books is no cause for 
surprise. "Byways in Bookland" (Hough- 
ton) consists of a series of "confessions and 
digressions," informal and intimate and alto- 
gether delightful. In a chatty, autobiograph- 
ical fashion Mr. Mursell tells us of the birth 
of a book-lover, his first footsteps in bookland, 
the comradeship of books, the green pastures 
and still waters of bookland, its valley of twi- 
light, the spurs of Parnassus, a brown study, 
a recent byway, and, finally, emerging from 
byways, he pays tribute to two great writers 
who hold first place in his heart, Dickens 
and Stevenson. After a page of almost ex- 
travagant eulogy of Mr. Ambrose Bierce, and 
more especially of his book, "In the Midst of 
Life," he shows his imperfect acquaintance 
with that author by saying, ' ' I believe this is 
his solitary book : at any rate, on this side the 
Atlantic." One might object to his spelling 
in the chapter where he glows with enthusi- 
asm for "The Arabian Nights" and writes of 
"Sinbad" and " Scheherezade. " Mr. Mur- 
sell's "confessions and digressions" are all 
excellent, largely because they are sincere and 
unpretentious, and are written, not to make 
a book, but because the mere writing is a 
pleasure. 



A thoughtful 
discussion of 
poverty. 



"Now, in our own day, the 
conquest of poverty looms up as 
an economic possibility, defi- 
nitely within reach if only society desire it 
sufficiently and will pay enough to achieve 
it." Such are the heartening words that 
close the tiny volume, ' ' The Abolition of Pov- 
erty" (Hough ton), wherein Professor Hollan- 
der of Johns Hopkins University treats the 
problem that he regards as the heart and 
centre of social disturbance. He believes that 
poverty is needless, and this hopeful tenet 



24 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 1 



brightens a sane and succinct discussion of 
such topics as ' ' The Distribution of Income, ' ' 
"The Rate of Wages," "The Underpaid," 
and "The Unemployable." On the whole 
our economist is "unwilling save as a last 
resort to venture upon the uncharted sea of 
socialism," and seeks a solution of the prob- 
lem in constructive social regulation. Here- 
with he proposes to "retain the competitive 
system of industry, both as to production and 
distribution, but to impose thereon, by re- 
straint of law and by pressure of public opin- 
ion, such limitation and control as experience 
demonstrates to be necessary for the largest 
social interest." However, the academic 
socialist, at least, need worry but little over 
this formal repudiation; for our author 
really believes in drastic measures, and with 
reasoned warmth expresses approval of not a 
few specific remedies that would have been 
decried as the rankest of socialism only a 
decade or two ago. If you get old-age pen- 
sions, a minimum wage, insurance against 
unemployment, and half a score other amen- 
datory measures, and if these operate success- 
fully along with state postal systems, state 
telegraphs and telephones, state canals, state 
education, and what not, it will rapidly become 
less difficult to look upon the ever chang- 
ing proposals of socialistic thinkers with fear- 
less eyes. In any event, such books as the 
modest study before us deserve the warmest 
welcome. In fact, we are even prepared to 
hope that some day "The Abolition of Pov- 
erty" will be available at about a third of the 
present price, although this is by no means 
unreasonable. 



A brief survey "Elizabethan Literature" by 
of the Mr. J. M. Robertson has just 

been added to the "Home Uni- 
versity Library, ' ' published by Messrs. Henry 
Holt & Co. It presents logically and as com- 
prehensively as the two hundred and fifty 
pages will permit the multiform activities of 
the age. Mr. Robertson has a first-hand ac- 
quaintance with Elizabethan writers. Apart 
from Middleton, whom he barely mentions 
among the later dramatists, he slights none of 
them; and he gives much space, too much 
perhaps, to the smaller fry. In a work of 
this kind, do Phaer, Twine, Fleming, and 
Stanyhurst, those wretched translators of 
Virgil, deserve attention? Will not Surrey 
suffice for the man whose university is at 
home? In matters of opinion Mr. Robertson 
is nearly always safe and usually forceful. 
He argues vigorously, for example, that "the 
vital divergence" between English and 
French drama is not "an expression of the 



divergent minds or temperaments of the two 
nations"; but that "the very freedom of 
action in the French popular drama, trans- 
gressing all bounds of decency, . . . made 
possible the reaction to strict classicism." 
Sometimes Mr. Robertson is incautious in 
statement, however, as when he says that 
Marlowe ' ' was more than audacious in his 
free thinking," and that Lyly "showed the 
way" in delicate lyrics. And when in his 
bibliographical note he refers to the "careful 
texts" of the Globe and Craig editions, but 
ignores the Neilson edition, we wonder 
whether he is really unaware of so notable an 
achievement of American scholarship. 



Under the title "The Life of a 
?nd a iitar demic L i ttle College" (Houghton), 

Professor Archibald MacMechan 
has collected a number of papers dealing 
with such themes as, "Little College Girls," 
"The Vanity of Travel," "Tennyson as 
Artist," "Child of the Ballads," "Every- 
body's Alice," and "Virgil." All of the 
essays are pleasing for their reflection of a 
well stocked mind and amiable personality, 
as well as for their well ordered English, 
which a college instructor would characterize 
as having an agreeable literary flavor with no 
disturbing smack of pedantry. Probably the 
most valuable chapter bears the caption 
"Evangeline and the Real Acadians"; al- 
though old Toronto men will enjoy the pic- 
ture of the unique bedel, McKim, and the 
full-hearted eulogy of Professor Young in 
"This is Our Master." To one who remem- 
bers the less mature views of Professor 
MacMechan on the worthlessness of classical 
studies, it is joyous to read his graceful 
palinode in the closing pages. Most of the 
papers have appeared before, and we have 
enjoyed many of them as they are now pre- 
sented ; but it would be too much to say that 
there is enough matter of exceptional value or 
profundity in the individual essays to com- 
pensate for their lack of unity and make them 
widely acceptable to the reading public in 
their collected form. 



A new collection of essays by 
Literary talk* by p ro fessor William Lyon Phelps 

rrojessor 1 neips. . , rn ^ . 

is always welcome. The latest 
one, "Essays on Books" (Macmillan), though 
perhaps less solid than some of its predeces- 
sors, makes quite as pleasant reading. The 
opening chapter, "Realism and Reality in 
Fiction," enforces with apt concrete illustra- 
tion a distinction that ought to be, but is not, 
a literary platitude ; realism represents a frac- 
tion of life, reality represents life as a whole. 



1915] 



THE DIAL, 



25 



All of the dozen essays that follow have to do 
with single writers, six English writers, two 
American, four German. The most preten- 
tious are those on Richardson and Jane Aus- 
ten; the slightest are those on Whittier and 
Paul Heyse. Almost all of the essays may be 
termed insubstantial but highly agreeable. 
One of the most agreeable is that entitled 
"Conversations with Paul Heyse," in which 
Heyse is recorded as saying that he "read 
with the most conscientious attention every 
word of ' Huckleberry Finn. ' I never laughed 
once. I found absolutely not a funny thing 
in the book." 



BRIEFER MENTION. 



The second volume of the new edition of George 
Chapman's plays and poems, published by Messrs. 
Button in the "Library of Scholarship and Let- 
ters" series, contains eleven comedies, of which 
three are not included in the edition of 1873 and 
one, " Sir Gyles Goosecap," originally published 
anonymously, has never before appeared under 
Chapman's name. The editor, Dr. Thomas Marc 
Parrott, has edited the text with great care, and 
furnishes elaborate notes and cross-references, the 
latter being particularly valuable in determining 
disputed or anonymous authorship of the comedies 
in question. 

Mr. John Cowper Powys has written " The War 
and Culture : A Reply to Professor Miinsterberg," 
(Valhalla, N. Y. : G. Arnold Shaw) for the purpose 
of pointing out the essential differences in the ideas 
behind the great war, rightly considering these 
fundamental in any consideration of the struggle. 
Germany embodies itself in the conception of a 
state machine, the Allies in that of human liberty 
and the freedom of little states. Behind the 
English-speaking nations stands also the idea of 
law, not to be lightly cast aside lest all civilization 
be imperilled. One extended chapter, which deals 
with " German vs. Russian Culture," is especially 
enlightening. 

Unrevised for twenty-three years and passing 
through nine editions, Bartlett's " Familiar Quo- 
tations: A Collection of Passages, Phrases, and 
Proverbs Traced to Their Sources in Ancient and 
Modern Literature " has become accepted as the 
standard reference book of its kind. Now, nine 
years after the compiler's death, a tenth edition, 
revised and enlarged by Mr. Nathan Haskell Dole, 
has been issued from the press of Messrs. Little, 
Brown & Co. About three hundred additional 
pages are included; selections from Matthew 
Arnold, Keats, and many others are judiciously 
amplified by twice the original space; names like 
Ibsen, Tolstoi, Nietzsche, Maeterlinck, Rostand, or 
George Meredith (names that, naturally enough, 
are unfamiliar in the original edition) here appear. 
A revision, bringing the work to date, was essen- 
tial, and Mr. Dole's faithful effort to preserve the 
spirit of the original will ensure for his compila- 
tion a warm welcome from those who are familiar 
with the work of Bartlett. 



XOTES. 



Mr. Enos A. Mills is the author of " The Rocky 
Mountain Wonderland," which Messrs. Houghton 
Mifflin Co. announce. 

Sir James Barrie's new play " Der Tag," which 
was produced in London December 21, 1914, is 
announced as immediately forthcoming by Messrs. 
Charles Scribner's Sons. 

" The Second Blooming," by Mr. W. L. George, 
"The Turbulent Duchess," by Mr. Percy J. Breb- 
ner, and "Mr. Grex of Monte Carlo," by Mr. E. 
Phillips Oppenheim, are three novels which Messrs. 
Little, Brown & Co. announce for publication next 
week. 

Dr. Harvey M. Wiley's new book, " The Lure of 
the Land," will be published early in the year by 
the Century Co. This company also announces a 
book on " Child Training," by Mr. V. M. Hillyer, 
head master of the Calvert School, Baltimore, and 
Mr. Harvey J. O'Higgins's " Detective Barney." 

A series entitled " The American Books," 
which will deal with contemporary American prob- 
lems, is announced by Messrs. Doubleday, Page & 
Co. Among the titles soon to be issued are " The 
University Movement," by Dr. Ira Remsen ; " The 
American Indian," by Mr. Charles A. Eastman; 
"A History of American Literature," by Profes- 
sor Leon Kellner; " The Cost of Living," by Mr. 
Fabian Franklin ; " Socialism in America," by 
Mr. John Macy ; " The Drama in America," by 
Mr. Clayton Hamilton ; " The American College," 
by Mr. Isaac Sharpless; "The American School," 
by Mr. Walter S. Hinchman, and " The American 
Navy," by Rear Admiral French E. Chadwick. 



Madison Cawein, who died December 14, 1914 r 
at the age of forty-nine, was a poet richly endowed 
with the gift of interpreting nature in verse. The 
aspects of nature presented in his verse were 
those of his native State of Kentucky, where he 
lived all his life. Exuberantly productive from 
his early manhood to the time of his premature 
death, Cawein published more than a score of 
books of verses. Eight years ago a complete edi- 
tion of his poems, which was published with an 
Introduction by Mr. Edmund Gosse, required five 
substantial volumes. Since then the additions to 
his poetic produce have been considerable. A se- 
lection of his poems with a sympathetic Preface 
by Mr. William Dean Howells was recently pub- 
lished. 

In the recent death of Professor B. M. Meyer 
of the University of Berlin, literary scholarship 
lost one of its most brilliant exponents. He began 
his career in 1886 by a study in comparative lit- 
erature : " Swift und Lichtenberg." In the same 
year appeared his " Grundlagen des Mittelhoch- 
deutschen Strophenbaus," and three years later 
"Altgermanische Poesie." From the study of the 
older period he now turned to modern times, pub- 
lishing in 1896 his famous Goethe biography which 
established him in the front rank of historians of 
modern German letters. A collection of essays, 
" Deutsche Charaktere," proved merely a prelude 



26 



THE DIAL, 



[Jan. 1 



to what was perhaps the most important of 
Meyer's works : " Die deutsche Literatur des 
neunzehnten Jahrhunderts." 

John Muir, who died December 24 at Los Ange- 
les, was a geologist, naturalist, and explorer whose 
personality endeared him to a large circle of 
friends, as well as to the many who knew him only 
through his books. He was born at Dunbar, Scot- 
land, April 21, 1838, and came to America with 
his parents in 1850, to settle in the Wisconsin 
wilderness near the Fox River. Muir's first 
botanical and geological excursions were made in 
the Great Lakes region, in Wisconsin, Indiana, 
Michigan, and Canada. His first trip to Califor- 
nia, where he arrived in April, 1868, was made by 
way of Cuba and the Isthmus of Panama. There- 
after he devoted himself chiefly to a study of the 
Sierras, though he made more than one journey 
into arctic regions, and discovered in Alaska the 
great glacier which bears his name. Muir worked 
hard for forest preservation and it was largely as 
a result of his writings that the present national 
parks and reserves were established. Among his 
books are " The Mountains of California," " Our 
National Parks," " The Yosemite," and, of especial 
interest, his autobiographical chapters published 
under the title of " The Story of My Boyhood and 
Youth." ^ ==== _ ==== __ 

TOPICS ra LEADING PERIODICALS. 

January, 1915. 

Action, Training for. H. W. Farwell Pop. Sc. 

Albert, King, of Belgium. Granville Fortescue Metropolitan 
America On Guard ! Theodore Roosevelt . . Everybody's 
America's Achievement Europe's Failure. J. A. 

Macdonald Rev. of Rev. 

America's Future Position. Joseph H. Choate Rev. of Rev. 
Antwerp, The Fall of. E. E. Hunt .... Metropolitan 
Antwerp, The Taking of. E. A. Powell .... Scribner 
Balkans, The, and Peace. A. W. Spencer Am. Pol. Sc. Rev. 
Belgian vs. German Efficiency. Emil Vander- 

velde Metropolitan 

Belgians, Helping the. J. M. Oskison . . . World's Work 

Belgians, Literature of the. C. C. Clarke Yale 

Belgium, Impressions of. N. M. Hopkins . World's Work 
Belgium, Last Ditch in. Arno Dosch . . . World's Work 
Botanical Station, The Cinchona. D. S. Johnson . Pop. Sc. 
Brumbaugh, Governor, of Pennsylvania. E. P. 

Oberholtzer Rev. of Rev. 

Capitalization versus Productivity. F. A. 

Fetter Am. Econ. Rev. 

Censorship, Our Prudish. Theodore Schroeder . . Forum 
China, The Parliament of. F. J. Goodnow Am. Pol. Sc. Rev. 
City Manager Plan, The. H. G. James . Am. Pol. Sc. Rev. 

College and Society Unpopular 

Dancing Mania, The Unpopular 

Darwinism, Ethnic Unpopular 

Defence, National. Harrington Emerson . . Rev. of Rev. 
Delcasse, Theophile. W. M. Fullerton . . . World's Work 

Delusions. S. I. Franz Pop. Sc. 

Democracy, Academic Superstition and. Florence V. 

Keys Yale 

Democratic Party, Decline of the. E. E. 

Robinson Am. Jour. Soc. 

Diplomatic Service, Our. David J. Hill .... Harper 
Disarmament, International. Arturo Labriola . . Forum 

Divorce Laws, Our Chaotic Unpopular 

Dollar, A Compensated. Irving Fisher . . Am. Econ. Rev. 
Drama, Our " Commercial." William C. de Mille . . Yale 

Dramatic Art. Thomas H. Dickinson Forum 

Dramatic Mob, Parables of the Unpopular 

Ductless Glands. Fielding H. Garrison .... Pop. Sc. 

Educated Man, The Passing of the Unpopular 

Education, The Nation's Adventures in ... Unpopular 
England, France, Russia, Germany What You 

and I Owe to Them. William Hard . . . Everybody's 

Escapes. Arthur C. Benson Century 

Europe's Dynastic Slaughter House. W. J. Roe . Pop. Sc. 

Expansionist Fallacy, The Unpopular 

Experimentation, Animal What It Has Done for 

Children. H. D. Chapin Pop. Sc. 



Feminism and Socialism ......... Unpopular 

French, Soul of the. Samuel P. Orth ..... Century 

Front, My Day at the. Henry Beach Needham Everybody's 
Geological Methods in Earlier Days. J. J. Stevenson Pop. Sc. 
German Economics and the War. H. C. Emery . . Yale 
German Point of View, The. J. H. Robinson . . Century 
Germany, In. Frederick Palmer ...... Everybody's 

Germany and Islam. Ameen Rihani .... World's Work 

Good Feeling, A New Era of. L. Ames Brown . Atlantic 
Harbor Voyages around New York. W. M. Thompson Harper 
Hawthorne, Fifty Years of. Henry A. Beers . . . Yale 
Hoof and Mouth Plague, The. R. W. Child . . Metropolitan 
Hunt, W. M., Works of. Philip L. Hale .... Scribner 

Irish Literary Movement, The. Padraic Colum . . Forum 
Japan, Our Relations with. J. H. Latane Am. Pol. Sc. Rev. 
Lithuanians in Chicago. Elizabeth Hughes Am. Jour. Soc. 
" Movies," Class-Consciousness and the. W. P. 

Eaton ............... Atlantic 

Municipal Affairs, Current. Alice M. 

Holden ............ Am. Pol. Sc. Rev. 

Nature, From the Book of. W. K. Stone and 

C. L. Bull .............. Century 

Naval Conflicts, The. J. M. Oskison . . . World's Work 
Nietzsche in Action ........... Unpopular 

Nikolas, Grand Duke. Basil Miles .... World's Work 

Panama, South of III. Edward A. Ross . 

Papua: Cannibal Country. Norman Duncan 

Paris in Wartime. Estelle Loomis 

Paris in War Times. Mary K. Waddington . 

Pasha, Enver, of Turkey. A. R. Bey . . . 

Peace, Democracy and. Elihu Root ... 

Profession, The Choice of a. Robert L. Stevenson Scribner 

Progress What It Is .......... Unpopular 

Psychical Research II .......... Unpopular 

Public Service Commissions. C. S. Duncan . . . Forum 
Reform, America and. Walter Lippmann . . Metropolitan 

Syo. New York: Graphic Text Book Co. Paper. 
Religion and the Schools. Washington Gladden 
Rheims during the Bombardment. R. H. Davis 
Russia and the Open Sea. E. D. Schoonmaker . 
Russia's Armies, Leaders of. Charles Johnston Rev. of Rev. 
Russian History, Geography in. William E. 

Lingelbach .............. Pop. Sc. 

Russian Problem, The. P. Vinogradoff ..... Yale 

Sanitation, World, and the Panama Canal. R. P. 

Strong ................. Yale 

Shakespeare, Worst Edition of. C. S. Brooks . . . Yale 
Shaw, Anna Howard, Autobiography of III. Metropolitan 
Slavonic Ideals. C. G. Shaw ......... Forum 

Socialism and War II. Morris Hillquit . . Metropolitan 
Sociology, Scientific Method in. F. S. Chapin Am. Jour. Soc. 
Southey as Poet and Historian. T. R. Lounsbury . . Yale 
State, An Endowment for the. Alvin S. Johnson . Atlantic 
Trade Commission Act, The. W. H. S. 

Stevens ............ Am. Econ. Rev. 

Transportation Companies. H. G. Brown . Am. Econ. Rev. 
Treitschke, Political Teachings of. A. T. Hadley . . Yale 
Tsingtau, The Sequel to Port Arthur. Gustavus 

Ohlinger ............... Atlantic 

Turkey and the War. Roland G. Usher . . World's Work 
Turkish Army, The. George Marvin . . . World's Work 
Unemployed, Problem of the ....... Unpopular 

Variability of Sexes at Birth, Comparative. Helen 

Montague and Leta S. Hollingworth . . Am. Jour. Soc. 
Wages, Trend of Real. I. M. Rubinow . . Am. Econ. Rev. 
War, After the. G. Lowes Dickinson ..... Atlantic 
War, America and the. " Norman Angell "...-. Yale 
War and the Artist. R. F. Zogbaum ..... Scribner 
War, British Policy and the. H. W. Massingham Atlantic 
War, Christianity and. Agnes Repplier .... Atlantic 
War, Course of, in December. Frank H. Simonds Rev. of Rev. 
War of 1914, The Peace of Ghent and. D'Estournelles 

de Constant ............ Rev. of Rev. 

War, Philosophy of the ......... Unpopular 

War, Physical Geography of the. C. F. Talman Rev. of Rev. 
War, Scientific. H. G. Wells ....... Metropolitan 

War, The Press as Affected by. O. G. Villard Rev. of Rev. 
War " Thou Shalt not Kill." W. M. Collier . . Forum 
Weather, Work and. Ellsworth Huntington . . . Harper 
Working-man, The. Hayes Robbins . . . Am. Jour. Soc. 



Century 
. . Harper 
Century 
. . Scribner 
World's Work 
Rev. of Rev. 



Atlantic 
Scribner 
Century 



LIST OF 



BOOKS. 



[The following list, containing 114 titles, includes books 
received by THE DIAL since its last issue.] 

BIOGRAPHY AND REMINISCENCES. 

fimile Verhaeren. By Stefan Zweig. With photo- 
gravure portrait, Svo, 274 pages. Houghton 
Mifflin Co. $2. net. 

Life of Sir John Lubbock, Lord Avebury. By Hor- 
ace G. Hutchinson. In 2 volumes; illustrated 
in photogravure, Svo. Macmillan Co. $9. net. 

The Life of Thomas B. Reed. By Samuel W. Mc- 
Call. Illustrated in photogravure, etc., Svo, 303 
pages. Houghton Mifflin Co. $3. net. 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



27 



GENERAL LITERATURE. 
Letters of Fyodor Mlchailovitch Dostoevsky to His 

Family and Friends. Translated by Ethel Col- 
burn Mayne. With portrait, 8vo, 344 pages. 
Macmillan Co. $2. net. 

The New Movement in the Theatre. By Sheldon 
Cheney. Illustrated, large Svo, 303 pages. Mit- 
chell Kennerley. $2. net. 

The Relations of Shirley's Plays to the Elizabethan 
Drama. By Robert Stanley Forsythe, Ph.D. 8vo, 
483 pages. Columbia University Press. $2. net. 

The Oxford Book of American Essays. Chosen by 
Brander Matthews. 12mo, 508 pages. Oxford 
University Press. $1.25 net. 

The Phases of Criticism: Historical and Aesthetic. 
By George Edward Woodberry. Svo, 70 pages. 
Published for the Woodberry Society. 

The Triple Ply of Life, and Other Essays. By 
Minnie B. Theobald. 12mo, 207 pages. Mac- 
millan Co. $1.25 net. 

DRAMA AND VERSE. 
Four Plays of the Free Theater. Translated, with 

Introduction, by Barrett H. Clark. 12mo, 257 

pages. Stewart & Kidd Co. $1.50 net. 
Children of Love. By Harold Monro. 12mo, 31 

pages. London: The Poetry Bookshop. Paper. 
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IMPORTANT BOOKS OF 1914 



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34 



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[Jan. 16 



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THE DIAL, 35 



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Entered as Second-Class Matter October 8, 1892, at the Post 
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Vol. LVIII. JANUARY 16, 1915 No. 686 



CONTEXTS. 



PAGE 

. 37 



AN AMERICAN LITERATUEE . . . 

CASUAL COMMENT 39 

Nature-study transmuted into literature. 
The mind's gambol. A Mark Twain of the 
Ghetto. Bibliopathology. 

COMMUNICATIONS . . 40 

A Blast from London. Ezra Pound. 
Entertaining Genius Unawares. Robert J. 
Shores. 

SOME LESS AUTOCRATIC ASPECTS OF 

"CZAR" REED. Percy F. Biclcnell . . 42 

NEW BOOKS ABOUT THE WAR. Frederic 

Austin Ogg 44 

Gowans's Selections from Treitschke's Lec- 
tures on Politics. Hausrath's Treitschke. 
The Real Kaiser. Saunders's Builder and 
Blunderer. Frobenius's The German Empire's 
Hour of Destiny. Bourdon's The German 
Enigma. Von Mach's What Germany Wants. 
Hart's The War in Europe. Gibbons's The 
New Map of Europe. 

PLAYS OF TO-DAY AND YESTERDAY. Homer 

E. Woodbridge 47 

Brownell's The Unseen Empire. Francis's 
Change. Lawrence's The Widowing of Mrs. 
Holroyd. Williams's "And So They Were 
Married." Robinson's Van Zorn. Tagore's 
The King of the Dark Chamber. Clark's 
Three Modern Plays from the French. 
Andreyev's Plays. Barrie's Half Hours. 

WORRY AND MODERN LIFE. M. V. O'Shea . 50 

RECENT FICTION. Lucian Gary 52 

George's The Second Blooming. Mackenzie's 
Sinister Street. Nexo's Pelle the Conqueror. 

BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS 53 

A richly illustrated history of Colonial 
churches. Autobiography of a woman terror- 
ist. The promise of Mr. Bertrand Russell's 
philosophy. An American Tory and wit. The 
music of Russia. Mrs. Panknurst's apologia 
pro vita sua. Book-collections in earliest 
times. Paris in time of anarchy. The 
teacher of the German secondary school. 
The education of girls. 

BRIEFER MENTION 59 

NOTES 59 

LIST OF NEW BOOKS , . 60 



AN AMERICAN LITERATURE. 



Professor Brander Matthews is of the opin- 
ion that American literature has no existence 
apart from English literature. His opinion, 
since he is nothing if not orthodox in his view 
of literature, is probably that of the majority 
of those who have considered the point. We 
are inclined to agree with him as to the fact. 
But Professor Matthews offers an explanation 
which is something more than an interpreta- 
tion of history. It is a bold prophecy of the 
future. And who agrees with a prophet? 

Professor Matthews says, in his Introduc- 
tion to "The Oxford Book of American 
Essays," that: 

" Of course, when we consider it carefully we 
cannot fail to see that the literature of a language 
is one and indivisible and that the nativity or the 
domicile of those who make it matters nothing. 
Just as Alexandrian literature is Greek, so Amer- 
ican literature is English; and as Theocritus de- 
mands inclusion in any account of Greek literature, 
so Thoreau cannot be omitted from any history of 
English literature as a whole. The works of 
Anthony Hamilton and Rousseau, Mme. de Stael 
and M. Maeterlinck are not more indisputably a 
part of the literature of the French language than 
the works of Franklin and Emerson, of Hawthorne 
and Poe are part of the literature of the English 
language." 

In other words, American literature is a part 
of English literature and must always and 
inevitably continue to be so unless we on 
this side of the Atlantic should develop a new 
language. 

It is only fair to add that after having thus 
denied the possibility of nationality in litera- 
ture (within the same language), Professor 
Matthews goes on to admit that owing to a 
slight difference in the social atmosphere and 
the social organization of the United States 
there is "an indefinable and intangible flavor 
which distinguishes" Franklin, Emerson, 
Walt Whitman, and Mark Twain from Steele, 
Carlyle, Browning, and Lamb ; that the writ- 
ers of this country "cannot help having the 
note of their own nationality." But it is evi- 
dent that he considers the difference subtle 
rather than important. 

Whether the difference is important or not 
depends on whether it is now as great as it 
will ever be. It has not in the least occurred 



38 



THE DIAI, 



[Jan. 16 



to Professor Matthews that the time may come 
when life in the United States will be as differ- 
ent from life in the British Isles as life in 
Russia now is. But that is among the possi- 
bilities of the future. 

An identity of language may be the strong- 
est connection between two nations. Language 
is the mother of ideas; indeed, words are 
ideas. To own the same language has always 
meant to own the same feeling about funda- 
mental things. However greatly the next cen- 
tury may change either the Americans or the 
English, they will tend strongly to remain 
together in their conception of life, not 
merely because many of the same forces will 
act upon both but because each will so easily 
communicate and exchange with the other. 

Nevertheless, there are political, geograph- 
ical, and racial factors which may profoundly 
modify our present likeness to England. The 
case of politics, particularly of international 
relations, has been discussed so much that we 
need only mention it. The great war in Eu- 
rope may not affect us in any direct or impor- 
tant way ; it may not greatly affect the future 
of the British Isles. But the possibilities are 
obvious enough. The effects of geographical 
conditions on national character have only 
begun to be studied, and are little understood ; 
but the idea that the climate of the United 
States is producing an American type, distinct 
from the British, may be something more than 
an academic theory; and climate is only one 
of several aspects of geography. The part 
which race plays in making national character 
is, of course, the most important ; and nothing 
is clearer than that the blood of the American 
people is no longer the blood of the British 
Isles. 

It is true that the English, Scotch, and Irish 
founded the republic ; and their ideas politi- 
cal, social, and moral still dominate it. The 
twenty or thirty American essayists whom 
Professor Matthews has included in his an- 
thology are those of men whose ancestors came 
from the British Isles. And if tw T o of the most 
inexcusable defects of his choice w r ere cor- 
rected, the omission of Mark Twain and the 
inclusion of Mr. Nicholas Murray Butler, this 
fact would not be altered. Indeed, it is a typi- 
cal fact. American writers have so far been 
quite as English in blood as they have been in 
language. The same could be said of nineteen 
out of twenty Americans distinguished by 
other than literary achievement from 1776 to 



now. It could almost be said of the educated 
classes. The proportion of English names in 
a list of the undergraduates at Dartmouth or 
Princeton or Harvard is still large, though not 
as large as it was. It is only when one exam- 
ines the roll of Columbia, where Jewish names 
are very numerous; or of Wisconsin, where it 
is German names ; or of Minnesota, where it is 
Norse names, that the coming change is appar- 
ent. The immigrants from the south of 
Europe, even the Russians, will be slower to 
send their sons and daughters to the universi- 
ties than the immigrants of Teutonic stock 
have been. But whether they send them or 
not, they will need only to remain here to 
modify us. 

The battle of ideas is never still. We think 
of the German citizens of this country as 
differing with the older American stock only 
in respect to the institution of beer, of the 
Norse peoples as distinguished by no differ- 
ence of custom or ideas, of the Jews as a race 
peculiarly adaptable ; and as for the Italians, 
the Greeks, the Slavs we think they do 
not count at all. We should know better. 
We should realize that when "Who's Who" 
no longer presents a preponderance of Brit- 
ish names, American institutions will have 
changed. 

But in addition to the battle of ideas there 
is the struggle of blood, which is only occasion- 
ally fought out with rifles as it is now being 
fought out in Europe. All the w r hite races 
represented in America are beginning to in- 
termarry. But biology does not promise that 
the result will be a composite type in which 
the characters we call Anglo-Saxon will 
predominate. We in America may remain 
descendants of British ancestors in those char- 
acters which we care most about, we may 
continue our present institutions though it 
is to be hoped that we shall be able to ex- 
change some of them for better ones but we 
have no guarantee that this is in the nature of 
things. Indeed, we know that there is no 
assimilation of races without modification. 
We cannot be certain that so much as the 
language will remain to us. Our vernacular 
may be so modified that there will be more 
difference between the speech of an American 
and an Englishman than there is now between 
the speech of an Italian and a Spaniard. 

But long before that happens we shall have 
begun to produce an American literature dis- 
tinct from English literature. 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



39 



CASUAL COMMENT. 

NATURE-STUDY TRANSMUTED INTO LITERA- 
TURE is what the reader finds, to his delight, 
in the books of such gifted naturalists as 
White of Selborne, Richard Jefferies, Tho- 
reau, Professor Fabre, Mr. John Burroughs, 
and that other John so commonly associated 
with "John of the birds," namely, John 
Muir, or "John of the mountains." Wide- 
spread is the regret caused by the death, on 
the day before Christmas, of the famous dis- 
coverer of glaciers, explorer of the wilds of 
many lands, geologist, naturalist, and writer 
(of too few books). Mr. Muir was born at 
Dunbar, Scotland, April 21, 1838; received 
a Spartan upbringing at the hands of a 
father who belonged decidedly to the old 
school; migrated with that parent and a 
brother and sister to this country in 1849, 
rural Wisconsin being the goal of their pil- 
grimage ; won for himself a university educa- 
tion, or such branches thereof as appealed to 
him, at Madison; and thereafter became a 
wandering student of the wonders of the uni- 
verse as displayed in more or less accessible 
quarters of this planet. Honorary degrees 
and society memberships and other distinc- 
tions came to him unsought, in sufficient 
abundance, and his name as author is at- 
tached to "The Mountains of California," 
"Our National Parks," "Stickeen, the Story 
of a Dog," "My First Summer in the 
Sierra," "The Yosemite," and the extremely 
interesting account of his boyhood and youth 
which was the last book to come from his 
hand, though his fertility in magazine and 
other periodical articles continued to a later 
date. But he w r as too restless, too eager to be 
doing and seeing, to submit willingly to the 
drudgery, as he regarded it, of authorship. 
Perhaps he acquired an early distaste for the 
printed page, as contrasted with the mar- 
vellous book of nature, under the harsh 
discipline of his Dunbar schoolmaster, who 
compelled him to learn Latin and French and 
English grammars by heart, and of his father, 
who piled on top of that an immense amount 
of Bible-reading, making the boy commit to 
memory so many verses every day that, as 
the victim himself says, in terms that are 
hardly credible, by the time he was eleven 
years old he "had about three-fourths of the 
Old Testament and all of the New by heart 
and by sore flesh. I could," he continues, 
" recite the New Testament from the begin- 
ning of Matthew to the end of Revelation 
without a single stop" which, if true, would 
put even Macaulay's feats of memory in the 
shade. But all this was a weariness and a vexa- 
tion to the outdoor enthusiast who, when his 



father told him and his brother Davy that 
they need not learn their lessons for the next 
day, for they were "gan to America thel 
morn," looked forward with ecstasy to the 
land where there was ' ' no more grammar, but 
boundless woods full of mysterious good 
things, trees full of sugar, growing in ground 
full of gold; hawks, eagles, pigeons, filling 
the sky; millions of birds' nests, and no 
gamekeepers to stop us in all the wild, happy 
land." . .. . 

THE MIND 's GAMBOL is not the least of intel- 
lectual recreations. It is a pastime in which 
many a nimble-witted writer has found keen 
delight, to the no small enjoyment of his 
readers. Walter Bagehot confessed his love 
for playing with his mind, as he phrased it. 
Emily Dickinson's wit was what her sister, in 
writing of her soon after her death, called 
"a Damascus blade gleaming and glancing in 
the sun." Colonel Higginson, her correspon- 
dent and trusted friend for a quarter of a 
century, wrote of her fondness for "phrases 
so emphasized as to seem very wantonness 
of over-statement, as if she pleased herself 
with putting into words what the most ex- 
travagant might possibly think without say- 
ing. " Her niece, in selecting and editing 
some passages of intimate correspondence for 
the current "Atlantic," says that "the joy of 
mere words was to Aunt Emily like red and 
yellow balls to the juggler," and speaks felici- 
tously of ' ' the gambol of her mind on paper, ' ' 
and of her pen "scarcely hitting the paper 
long enough to make her communication intel- 
ligible." One might liken her style to the 
humming-bird, come and gone with a flash 
and a whir "a resonance of emerald, a rush 
of cochineal," as she herself expresses it in 
some exquisite lines on that coruscating epi- 
tome of life and fire. Characteristic was her 
shy way of communicating by little scraps of 
letters with her brother's family next door, 
"a hedge away," as she put it, and separated 
by a lawn ' ' crossed by a ribbon path just wide 
enough for two who love." From the above- 
mentioned epistolary fragments a few spark- 
ling bits may here be not out of place. Their 
epigram sometimes verges on obscurity; but 
to be obscure, argues Coleridge, is sometimes 
complimentary to the reader. Here is a cryp- 
tic passage: "To do a magnanimous thing 
and take one's self by surprise, if one is not 
in the habit of him, is precisely the finest 
of joys. Not to do a magnanimous thing, 
notwithstanding it never be known, notwith- 
standing it cost us existence, is rapture her- 
self spurn." And again: "To the faithful, 
absence is condensed presence. To the others 
but there are no others." To an absent 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 16 



friend she writes: "So busy missing you I 
have not tasted Spring. Should there be 
other Aprils we will perhaps dine." Her 
oddly apposite choice of adjectives is almost 
startling. A little nephew is told by her that 
"Vinnie and Grandma and Maggie all give 
their love, Pussy her striped respects." Often 
her little message takes the form of verse. 
Here is a picture of ineluctable fate : 
" It stole along so stealthy, 
Suspicion it was done 
Was dim as to the wealthy 
Beginning not to own." 


A MARK TWAIN OF THE GHETTO Solo- 
mon Rabinowitz is his name, Sholom Alei- 
chem his pseudonym is writing for the 
Yiddish press of New York stories that are 
said to be the delight of their readers; but 
Yiddish is so little familiar to the majority of 
New Yorkers, and of Americans in general, 
that it grieves one to think of the number of 
laughs and chuckles that will die unborn for 
the lack of a wiser choice, on Mr. Rabinowitz 's 
part, in selecting his literary vehicle. From 
his home city comes the report that he found 
himself interned (to all practical purposes) 
in Germany last summer by the outbreak of 
the war, and it was only when his admirers 
on Manhattan Island, learning of his plight 
and bewailing the enforced suspension of his 
contribution to their merriment, clubbed to- 
gether and effected his deliverance, that he 
was able to return to these shores and resume 
his literary activities. In a passage, ostensi- 
bly autobiographic, translated for the Boston 
"Transcript," he says: "I am a Droschnar, 
which means I came from Droschna, a small 
town of the Poliver district a very small 
town. To-day Droschna is already a city, 
with trains and a railroad station. When it 
became a railroad station the whole world 
envied us. Just think ! a railroad ! Every- 
body thought it was a godsend, a chance of 
making a living. We would all grow rich, all 
begin shovelling gold. Jews from the sur- 
rounding villages began pouring into the city. 
The inhabitants began rebuilding their houses 
and enlarging their stores; the tax on meat 
was raised. We began to think of getting a 
new butcher, of building a new synagogue, 
and of putting aside another field for a ceme- 
tery. All in all, it was a great time." A 
touch of Mark Twain makes itself felt in the 
cemetery enterprise, but probably this author 
would like better to be commended for his 
own merits than for any borrowed (even un- 
consciously borrowed) excellence. His fun 
seems to be all his own, at times not over- 
refined, but what great humorist has escaped 
that criticism? 



BIBLIOPATHOLOGY, if the word is allowable, 
was the subject of some characteristic re- 
marks from Dr. Samuel McChord Crothers in 
a recent talk before the Springfield (Mass.) 
Women's Club. Playfully posing as the 
mouthpiece of his friend Bagster, founder of 
the Bibliopathic Institute for the Book Treat- 
ment, the speaker discoursed entertainingly 
and wittily on "The Therapeutic Value of 
Literature." A new definition of literature 
was, in passing, struck out somewhat as fol- 
lows : ' ' Literature is a vast stock of thoughts 
in a variety of forms that have been thought 
over by interesting people and have become 
so organized that they are not only food but 
medicine for others." Considering a book as 
a literary prescription put up by a competent 
person, the lecturer goes on to say that "a 
proper prescription contains four constitu- 
ents, a basis, or chief ingredient, an adju- 
tant to assist the action, a corrective to lessen 
any evil effects, and a vehicle to make it suit- 
able for administration and pleasant to the 
patient. These constituents may be used to 
test the literary style of books. For instance, 
Henry James, one of whose sentences may be 
read at one sitting, has a sound basis, with 
parenthetical clauses to provide the vehicle, a 
corrective to lessen any evil effects, but lacks 
the adjutant to quicken the action." In 
similar pleasant vein the speaker observes that 
"the young people of each generation are the 
poison squad for the new books. If they sur- 
vive, then the older people, whose maxim is 
'safety first,' begin to take up the same books. 
Then there are the counter-irritants, often 
confused with true stimulants. A counter- 
irritant makes the patient forget irritation in 
one part of the body by creating disturbance 
in another part. In medicine, mustard and 
turpentine are counter-irritants; in literary 
values George Bernard Shaw is the best 
counter-irritant. This is the type of book that 
makes you feel bad in a new spot. They 
make you see yourself as those see you who 
don't like you." 



COMMUNICATIONS. 

A BLAST FROM LONDON. 
(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 
It is interesting, as it is perhaps flattering, to see 
myself bracketed with the late Lord Tennyson (in 
your leader of November 1 on " The Younger Gen- 
eration " as a sort of alternate cock-shy for warring 
poets, but I cannot admit that you have accurately 
denned the issue. This issue as I see it is not 
whether young poets " believe " in me or in Tenny- 
son, but whether or no they believe that poetry had 
traditions, even traditional freedoms before, say, 
1876 ; whether poetry is good or bad according to 



1915] 



THE DIAJL 



41 



some standard derivable from the full mass of 
poetry of Greece and China and France and the 
world generally, or whether poetry is good or bad 
according to the taste of American magazine editors 
of 1876. 

I still preserve the illusion that there once were 
American magazine editors who cared for litera- 
ture, as they conceived it. It may be that I am 
wrong, and that they have uniformly held the com- 
mercial viewpoint, Avhich some of them now openly 
hold. It may be sheer idiotic idealism to contend 
that the editors of papers like "Harper's Magazine" 
and " The Century Magazine " are in positions of 
some power, and that their position entails some 
responsibility both to the public and to creative 
genius. In actual working I find that there can be, 
apparently, no truce between any of the honest 
men of my generation and these magazines. One 
finds editorial ignorance, and callousness to any 
standards save the fashion of 1876. One finds a 
rooted prejudice, a sheer cliff of refusal, against 
"matter too unfamiliar to our readers." That 
phrase is used over and over again. A public that 
took as much interest in good literature as it takes 
in the tariff on wool, would drive out any editor 
who thus should set himself against all invention, 
all innovation, and all discovery. 

There is no culture that is not at least bilingual. 
We find an American editor (whom it would, of 
course, be a breach of confidence to name) who 
in 1912 or 1913 writes of Henri de Regnier and 
M. Remy de Gourmont as "these young men." 
The rest of his sentence is to say that their work is 
unknown to him. Note that this lacuna in his 
mental decorations does not in the least chagrin 
him. He has no desire to add to his presumably 
superabundant knowledge. To say that the letters 
of a certain editor now admitted incompetent 
(even in America) and after long years dismissed, 
used to be handed about London as examples of the 
incredibly ridiculous, is putting it mildly. 

No, cher m.onsieur, you put it wrongly when you 
say the young poets seem to care whether one 
believe in me or in Tennyson. You should write, 
they care whether or no one has considered the 
standards of excellence to be found in Villon and 
the Greek anthology ; they care whether the editors 
who criticize them have ever heard of Stendhal; 
whether one believe that verse should be as well 
written as prose ; whether an author should be him- 
self or a mimicry. 

Anent which, take two sentences from the edito- 
rials of " The Century Magazine." Note that the 
<! new editor" of this magazine has been recom- 
mended to me as a "progressive." Here are his 
words : 

" We wish to make the fiction in this magazine come 
as near to truth as circumstances permit . . ." 

Shades of Flaubert, and Stendhal, and of every 
honest creator in letters ] I 
Second example: 

" The contributors make the magazine and the 
magazine makes the contributors." 

There's another nice chance for literature to come 
through the magazines. Has any first-class work 
of any sort ever been done to the specifications of a 



machine? And a machine for pleasing the popu- 
lace at that I 

No, cher monsieur, leave my name and my per- 
sonal reputation out of it. Ask whether the 
younger generation wants America to produce real 
literature or whether they want America to con- 
tinue, as she is at the present moment, n joke, a 
byword for the ridiculous in literature, and the 
younger generation will answer you. 

Investigate the standards and the vitality of the 
standards of the "best editorial offices," and see 
what spirit you find there. See whether they 
believe that art is, in any measure, discovery. See 
whether there is any care for good letters, even if 
they care enough for good letters to be in any way 
concerned in trying to find out what makes, and 
what makes for, good letters. 

Bej'ond this it seems to me that you make a mis- 
take in dubbing Mr. Henry James, for instance, an 
European. A deal of his work is about American 
subjects. Is a man less a citizen because he cares 
enough for letters to leave a country where the 
practice of them is, or at least seems, well-nigh 
impossible, in order that he may bequeath a heri- 
tage of good letters, even to the nation which has 
borne him? 

It is not that the younger generation has not 
tried to exist " at home." It is that after years of 
struggle, one by one, they come abroad, or send 
their manuscripts abroad for recognition; that 
they find themselves in the pages even of the 
" stolid and pre- Victorian ' Quarterly ' " before 
"hustling and modern America" has arrived at 
tolerance for their modernity. EzRA PouND 

London, December 26, 1914. 



ENTERTAINING GENIUS UNAWARES. 

(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 
An employer, in search of clerks, looked through 
the " situations wanted " column of a New York 
newspaper the other day and remarked, " When I 
see the number of men who advertise for a position 
' at anything ' and urge as a reason for their 
employment, the fact that they speak three or more 
languages, I feel less ashamed of the fact that I am 
a man of one tongue." This is American reasoning 
right enough. If an accomplishment can not be 
converted into dollars and cents, it seems to us a 
useless possession. We prefer to read our foreign 
books in translation, and there is no doubt but that 
the professional translator usually gets more out of 
a foreign author than we ourselves could extract 
with the aid of a phrase-book and a bi-lingual dic- 
tionary. There are times, however, when our igno- 
rance of foreign literature becomes so obvious as to 
be embarrassing. When Senor Ruben Dario ar- 
rived in New York not long ago, we went about 
asking one another, " Who is this Dario, and what 
has he done?" And this same Dario is the fore- 
most poet in the Spanish tongue to-day, author of 
some twenty-odd books of poetry and prose, and 
acknowledged a classic writer by all Spanish- 
speaking peoples. ROBERT j g H()REg> 

New York City, January 2, 1915. 



42 



THE DIAL, 



[Jan. 16 



SOME LESS AUTOCRATIC ASPECTS OF 
"CzAR" REED.* 



It is twelve years since Thomas B. Reed's 
sudden and too-early death, and a few years 
more since he ceased, by his own choice, to be 
a conspicuous figure in our national govern- 
ment; but popular interest in his decidedly 
original yet typically American personality 
is still strong enough to ensure a welcome to 
Mr. Samuel W. McCall's biography of the 
man, which has just appeared under the 
sanction and with the cooperation of sur- 
viving members of the Reed family. Mr. 
McCall's twenty years in Congress and the 
Maine statesman 's term of service in the same 
legislative body overlapped by six years; 
the two represented the same political party 
and had much in common in their political 
views and their high ideals of national policy ; 
and therefore the younger is by no means 
unqualified to give a genuinely appreciative 
account of the other's achievements in public 
life. It is this public rather than the more 
personal and private side of Mr. Reed that 
receives especial attention in the book, and 
such a survey naturally involves some discus- 
sion of the more important political questions 
with which he was concerned, though the 
biographer has shown commendable restraint 
in subordinating his own opinions to the 
presentation of those held by the subject of 
his biography. 

Reed's large and richly endowed nature 
had qualities that remind us now of one and 
now of another illustrious character of his 
own or of an earlier time. In Yankee shrewd- 
ness, the apt use of homely illustration, readi- 
ness with a timely Biblical phrase or allusion, 
and, with it all, a sturdy advocacy of fair 
play, he was not unlike Lincoln, whom he was 
fond of quoting, on occasion, as when, in argu- 
ing against our Philippine policy, he cited 
Lincoln's "government of the people, by the 
people, for the people." Like Lincoln, he 
first made his mark as a country lawyer, and 
he sat in his state legislature before passing 
to a more honored seat in Congress. Like 
Lincoln, too, he served his country in time of 
war though it was in the navy, as acting 
assistant paymaster on board a gunboat, not 
in a land campaign against the Indians 
and he likewise indulged in subsequent 
humorous reference to his martial exploits. 
In certain other aspects, not those of the 
statesman, he irresistibly suggests Mark 

* THE LIFE OF THOMAS BRACKETT REED. By Samuel W. 
McCall. Illustrated. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. 



Twain, with whom he enjoyed a close friend- 
ship in his last years. He had Mr. Clemens 's 
habit of making his wife his confidant and 
adviser in the larger affairs of his calling. 
"She became his best critic, whose judgment 
he sought and followed, ' ' says his biographer. 
"It was his habit to rehearse to her what- 
ever he wrote or proposed to speak upon 
important occasions. Among his unpublished 
manuscripts is one, brilliant but rather de- 
nunciatory in tone, which bears upon it the 
note in his handwriting, 'Not published, by 
order of madam.' ' How many a Mark 
Twain manuscript met with a similar fate at 
the hands of the judicious Mrs. Clemens! 
Curiously alike, also, the two men seem to 
have been in some of those minor preferences 
that betray character. Mark Twain's fond- 
ness for his pet cats and kittens is notorious. 
Reed's relish for certain characteristic quali- 
ties in Tabby and Tom was evident. A paper 
prepared by him on "Our Cat" (Anthony, 
originally called Cleopatra, until it was dis- 
covered that this name was inappropriate) 
has passages that might have been written by 
his illustrious contemporary. Like the au- 
thor of "The Innocents Abroad," Reed was 
"an indefatigable sightseer," with a lively 
interest in foreign lands and a zest for for- 
eign travel. On one occasion at least the two 
men enjoyed an extended cruise in each 
other's company in domestic waters, at the 
invitation of their common friend, H. H. 
Rogers, owner of the yacht ' ' Kanawha. ' ' For 
details see Mr. Paine 's biography of Mark 
Twain, and chapter twenty-two of the book 
under review. 

The record of Reed's college course at Bow- 
doin shows him to have been a good scholar 
without strenuous effort, and a participant in 
all wholesome student activities, a member of 
his class crew, one of the editors of the college 
paper, active in a local chess club, and mighty 
in debate, being one of the leading spirits in 
the Bowdoin Debating Club as well as a 
prominent member of the Peucinian Society, 
where this form of intellectual athletics was 
cultivated. Thrown partly upon his own 
resources for the payment of his college bills, 
he used to teach district school in the winter 
vacation, as was then the approved custom of 
impecunious and ambitious collegians. But 
even with the best of will to make his way 
through and win his diploma, he found him- 
self so nearly stranded toward the end of his 
senior year that he had accepted the necessity 
of leaving college without a degree when 
assistance was offered by "William Pitt Fes- 
senden, father of Reed's room-mate, and 
gratefully accepted. This timely provision of 



1915] 



THE DIAL, 



43 



funds was, of course, not forgotten by the 
beneficiary, who early repaid the loan with 
interest. School-teaching, law-study, and 
naval service filled the first few years after 
his graduation, but in 1865 he established 
himself in his native city of Portland as a 
practising lawyer, and less than three years 
later entered upon that course of political 
activity which was destined to extend nearly 
to the end of his life. Successively repre- 
sentative in the Maine legislature, senator in 
the same body, and attorney-general, he re- 
ceived the nomination and election to Con- 
gress from his district in 1876, and continued 
to represent that district until 1899. when the 
action of the administration in taking on the 
"last colonial curse of Spain" found him so 
little in sympathy with so un-American a 
course that he resigned his seat and retired to 
private life. Referring to the proposed plan 
of subjugating the Filipinos, he said to his 
trusted friend and secretary, Mr. Asher C. 
Hinds: "I have tried, perhaps not always 
unsuccessfully, to make the acts of my public 
life accord with my conscience, and I can not 
now do this thing." This, too, when he had 
just been re-elected by the customary over- 
whelming majority to the succeeding Con- 
gress, and was sure of a renewal of the speak- 
ership, an office of which he had once declared 
that it had but one superior and no peer. 
That one superior, of course, was the presi- 
dency, to which he came near being nominated 
by the convention that finally gave its vote to 
McKinley in 1896. 

Without following more in detail the rise 
of Reed from a position of local to one of 
national if not worldwide fame, let us add a 
few characteristic utterances of his, as re- 
corded by his faithful biographer, and thus 
fix in mind more clearly what manner of man 
he was in his thought and word and action. 
From an address delivered at Portland in his 
earlier life, we select, partly for the benefit 
of young college graduates, the following: 

" Perhaps the most useless piece of furniture on 
the footstool for the first two or three years is the 
college graduate, whose scholarship was a comfort 
to the professors and an annoyance to his com- 
petitors. These years are a worry to the scholar 
himself. He has to take all that time to get right 
with the world, to find the other standards by 
which he must measure his efforts, and to realize 
the nothingness of the honors he has won." 

To about the same period, or to one a little 
earlier, belongs a vigorous assertion of his 
religious beliefs and disbeliefs, addressed to 
the pastor of his church in Portland. There 
is something rather refreshing in such pas- 
sages as this, for example : 



" I do not believe in an Atonement, because I 
cannot see its necessity. The whole idea strikes 
me as artificial. If all our sins and their effects 
are to be washed away by vicarious suffering and 
we are to find ourselves pure and perfect when we 
touch the other shore, the problem of 'Recognition 
in Heaven' is going to be terribly complicated. It 
is needless perhaps to say that I am not persuaded 
of the 'fall of man' j and as for that apotheosis of 
lounging, the life in the Garden of Eden, I believe 
in it as little as I do in the Saturnia Regna. If 
that Paradise had ever existed and man had grown 
up in it, it would have been merely a Paradise of 
fools. It is only by fighting the devil that we ever 
get to be anything." 

In an address on the tariff question, given 
at Philadelphia in 1884, occurs a passage in 
somewhat the same tone as the foregoing, 
which is separated from it by twenty-one 
years in time. 

" The forces of evil are as continuous and deter- 
mined as the forces of right, and I am sorry to say 
that right is only right by a very small majority 
that has got to be kept up every day. This world 
is one where we cannot always have our own way. 
There have been times when I have not been able 
to have mine. Therefore a good many men that I 
would have liked to punish are still flourishing 
upon the earth. Life is a perpetual source of dis- 
appointment. You can never do what you would 
like to do. You have always to do the best thing 
you can do." 

Among Reed's papers after his death was 
found one on the subject of Imperialism, ap- 
parently written, says Mr. McCall, during the 
negotiation of the Treaty of Paris and while 
McKinley was touring the West and deliver- 
ing orations on "Destiny." Here is a frag- 
ment of that paper : 

" Human selfishness pervades all human life. It 
is the mainspring of human action. Any man's 
selfishness would wreck all his surroundings were 
it not for the antidote, which is the selfishness of 
all the rest. Therefore if men are to be justly 
governed they must participate in government. 
Do I mean to say that all men are of equal power? 
No, they cannot be. But give every man equal 
rights, and intellect and wisdom will justify them- 
selves by persuading where they have no power to 
command." 

A good, what may even be called a breath- 
ing, likeness of one eminent statesman by 
another is offered to the fortunate reader of 
this book. A more "intimate" biography 
will perhaps some day be prepared by another 
hand ; but meanwhile we are grateful for this 
excellent presentation of the eminent Speaker. 
PERCY F. BICKNELL. 



The fifth volume of " The Dramatic Works of 
Gerhart Hauptmann " will be published this month 
by Mr. B. W. Huebsch. 



44 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 16 



BOOKS ABOUT THE WAR.* 



It is not too much to expect that the present 
war in Europe will afford inspiration and fur- 
nish subject-matter for a large number of very 
good books and for a few really great ones. 
None, however, of the second category, and 
very few of the first, have as yet made their 
appearance. In recent weeks there have come 
into the hands of the reviewer more than a 
dozen books whose publication is to be 
ascribed, with but an exception or two, en- 
tirely to the war. There is not in the lot one 
volume which does not bear evidence of haste 
in preparation, or in publication, or in both. 
Some are written in English of which a good 
journalist would be ashamed. Some are in- 
complete and utterly superficial treatises upon 
their respective subjects. Not one of them 
contains that useful and in these days not 
uncommon device known as an index. 

The country which to date has attracted the 
attention of writers and publishers chiefly is 
Germany. Whether or not the Germans are 
responsible for the war, their purposes, meth- 
ods, and exploits comprise the most dynamic 
and interesting factors in the situation. Fur- 
thermore, the war literature which is printed 
in America or despatched across the Atlantic 
for American consumption emanates mainly 
from English or other quarters where the de- 
sire is to describe the ambitions, real or 
assumed, of Germany in all their iniquity and 
to portray the German menace in all its sup- 
posed seriousness. Of authoritative and read- 
able English and American books on Germany 
there were already, when the war began, 
many. There were studies of German policy, 
surveys of German history, monographs on the 
Kaiser, printed collections of the Kaiser's 
speeches, and works on German sea-power, 
militarism, socialism, government, and a host 
of other concerns. The general reader who 
would know Germany accurately in so far 
at least as a country can be known accurately 
through the reading of books about it can- 

* SELECTIONS FROM TREITSCHKE'S LECTURES ON POLITICS. 
Translated from the German by Adam L. Gowans. New 
York : Frederick A. Stokes Co. 

TREITSCHKE: His Doctrine of German Destiny and of Inter- 
national Relations. By Adolf Hausrath. New York: G. P. 
Putnam's Sons. 

THE REAL KAISER. An Illuminating Study. Anonymous. 
New York : Dodd, Mead & Co. 

BUILDER AND BLUNDERER. A Study of Emperor William's 
Character and Foreign Policy. By George Saunders. New 
York : E. P. Dutton & Co. 

THE GERMAN EMPIRE'S HOUR OF DESTINY. By Colonel H. 
Frobenius. With Preface by Sir Valentine Chirol. New 
York : McBride, Nast & Co. 

THE GERMAN ENIGMA. By Georges Bourdon. New York: 
E. P. Dutton & Co. 

WHAT GERMANY WANTS. By Edmund von Mach. Bostdn : 
Little, Brown & Co. 

THE WAR IN EUROPE: Its Causes and Results. By Albert 
Bushnell Hart. New York : D. Appleton & Co. 

THE NEW MAP OF EUROPE (1911-1914). By Herbert Adams 
Gibbons. New York : The Century Co. 



not be admonished too strongly to use the 
books of the past ten years liberally and those 
of the past three months sparingly. 

There is an opportunity for some one to 
write a substantial book in which shall be 
traced the origins and development of the 
spirit of militarism in modern Germany. 
Until this task shall have been performed, per- 
sons interested in this subject will be obliged 
to search out the information they desire in 
masses of documents, and especially in the vol- 
uminous writings of great German militarists 
of the type of Nietzsche and Treitschke. Al- 
ready the stimulation of interest in the subject 
has been considerable; and to meet the de- 
mand for information which has arisen, enter- 
prising publishers have put on the market a 
number of books consisting of translated pas- 
sages from the writings of Treitschke. Of two 
at present on the reviewer's desk, the lesser in 
size and importance is "Selections from 
Treitschke 's Lectures on Politics," translated 
by Mr. Adam L. Gowans. The selections here 
given have the merit of following the original 
very closely, and they cover a range of topics 
sufficiently representative to enable the hur- 
ried reader to obtain from them a very fair 
idea of the trend of Treitschke 's thought. 
More important, however, because fuller and 
accompanied by an extended study of Treit- 
schke 's life and work, is Hausrath 's "Treit- 
schke : His Doctrine of Imperial Destiny and 
of International Relations." The extracts 
here given relate exclusively to military and 
international affairs, and, being fairly copious, 
they serve very well to exhibit the great 
apostle of Pan-Germanism at his best. Haus- 
rath was an intimate friend of Treitschke, and 
his biographical sketch has the advantages and 
disadvantages which may be expected to arise 
from such authorship. He depicts with 
marked success the colorful personality of his 
hero and incidentally gives a very good ac- 
count of the life of German university pro- 
fessors a generation ago. But his enthusiasm 
for his subject leads to an estimate of Treit- 
schke 's scholarship which is hardly borne out 
at every point by the facts. 

Of the making of books about the Kaiser 
there is no end. One of the many issued in 
recent weeks bears the title ' ' The Real Kaiser : 
An Illuminating Study" and has been pub- 
lished anonymously, first in England and sub- 
sequently in the United States. We are told 
that the author has had exceptional oppor- 
tunities to study his subject at close quarters. 
This may be true; and it cannot be denied 
that here and there he has a shrewd inter- 
pretation and employs telling phrases. He 
relates a number of episodes that have not 



THE DIAL 



45 



hitherto reached English readers. But inaccu- 
racies are numerous, notably in the chapter in 
which an attempt is made to describe the 
structure and operation of the imperial gov- 
ernmental system; and the book is further 
marred by an occasional unnecessary expres- 
sion of anti-German sentiment. 

A better piece of work is Mr. George Saun- 
ders 's ' ' Builder and Blunderer. ' ' The author 
of this book was for many years Berlin corre- 
spondent of the London "Morning Post" and 
of the London "Times," and his opportunity 
to go behind the scenes was without doubt 
exceptional. The book opens with a reason- 
ably accurate description of the German posi- 
tion at the Kaiser 's accession, and of the events 
attending the accession ; but the major portion 
of it is devoted to an analysis of the Kaiser's 
foreign policy and of his "German world- 
policy." It is maintained that, despite con- 
trary appearances which deceived many, the 
Kaiser has been at all times since his accession 
the principal menace to the peace of the world, 
and in substantiation of the view a long chain 
of incidents in the diplomatic and political 
history of the past quarter-century is re- 
counted. The world, it is affirmed, has been 
supremely disappointed in the development of 
a character which originally seemed uncom- 
monly promising. 

Only a few days before the outbreak of the 
present war there was published in Germany 
a book written by Colonel Frobenius and bear- 
ing a title which may be translated as "The 
German Empire's Hour of Destiny." The 
book won the unreserved praise of the German 
Crown Prince, and of the Prussian militarists 
generally. The author took as the basis of his 
work a book written a few years ago by an 
American student of politics, namely Mr. 
Homer Lea's "The Day of the Saxon." In 
this volume Mr. Lea pictured the dangers 
which threatened the British Empire, arising 
from its decline in fitness for war,- coupled 
with the growing ascendancy and lordliness 
of Germany and Japan. Germany was con- 
ceived to be the most dangerous opponent, and 
the somewhat fantastic idea was exploited that 
England's original mistake lay in her permit- 
ting the unification of Germany to take place. 
Mr. Lea's practical proposition was that Great 
Britain should create an adequate army and 
proceed to the annihilation of her chief con- 
tinental rival. Colonel Frobenius similarly 
maintained that a titanic conflict between 
Great Britain and Germany was inevitable, 
and he placed at the head of his first chapter 
the statement that "the British world empire 
can be saved only by Germany's overthrow," 
the inference being that Britain 's natural pol- 



icy would be the subversion of Germany. It 
was his opinion, however, that the British 
would see the expediency of sparing the Ger- 
man army, to the end that Russia might be 
held in bounds, and that the conflict between 
Britain and Germany would be exclusively, or 
at least primarily, naval. British troops 
might be expected to operate on land only for 
the purpose of driving the German warships 
from protected ports to the open sea where 
they could be engaged by British vessels. 
That war with both England and France was 
coming was expressly predicted. Indeed, one 
chapter was written to demonstrate that as a 
military measure France must declare war 
against Germany in 1915 or 1916, and another 
to show that the hour of the German Empire 
and its allies might come as early as the spring 
of 1915. That the conflict had not broken 
much earlier, that "so favorable an oppor- 
tunity as the war in the Balkans did not fire 
the powder," and that it was only England 
who held back her threatening allies, was 
attributed principally to the "cold-blooded 
British commercial spirit. ' ' There is nowhere 
in print not even in General von Bern- 
hardi's writings a more frank and forceful 
statement of the point of view taken by the 
German authorities in the present conflict. 

In the autumn of 1913 one of the editors of 
the Paris ' ' Figaro, ' ' M. Georges Bourdon, paid 
a visit to Germany with the express purpose 
of ascertaining the actual sentiment of repre- 
sentative Germans toward the French govern- 
ment and people. Interviews were held with 
high officials, party leaders, university profes- 
sors, literary men, and representatives of mili- 
tary and patriotic organizations, and the re- 
sults were published in a series of articles in 
"Figaro." In English translation, these arti- 
cles, with additions, have lately been brought 
out in London in book form under the title 
' ' The German Enigma. ' ' M. Bourdon tells us 
that on his departure for Germany he made a 
determined effort to shake off all his precon- 
ceived opinions, and he confesses freely that 
his experiences showed him the error of some 
of the opinions which, in common with other 
Frenchmen, he had cherished. "We know 
nothing of Germany," he exclaims, "neither 
does she know anything of us." Few books 
are written with loftier purpose, and it must 
be said that the spirit of fairness and of altru- 
ism with which the author begins is sustained 
to the end. The result is an objective, impar- 
tial, and impersonal study. In only the last 
chapter does the author obtrude his private 
views and seek to draw conclusions. His great 
objective is an eloquent, although restrained, 
plea for a Franco-German rapprochement on 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 16 



the basis of continued German possession of 
Alsace-Lorraine and the engagement of the 
Berlin authorities to govern the Alsatians as a 
free, rather than a subjugated, people. Such 
a solution, it was maintained, would involve 
no sacrifice of pride or of dignity by either 
nation, yet it would heal a festering wound 
and would deliver the whole of Europe from 
the crushing burden of military expenditure. 
The picture drawn was roseate, but events 
have proved it only a fleeting vision. The 
book is of interest because it was written from 
a viewpoint seldom assumed in recent years 
by European publicists. 

In ''What Germany Wants" Dr. Edmund 
von Mach has undertaken to supply a con- 
servative answer to a query which in these 
days is on every one's lips. Dr. von Mach is 
an American and a graduate of Harvard, al- 
though of Prussian birth and, in the main, of 
Prussian training. He knows his America 
rather better than do certain other German 
apologists in this country, and the temperate- 
ness of his arguments ought to ensure his book 
a wide and thoughtful reading. The essential 
desire of Germany he defines as follows : 

" Germany wants to keep the confines of her 
home-land inviolate, but is not desirous of joining 
to them new lands of unwilling people. She wants 
to develop her colonies and invest her money in the 
building of extra-territorial railways which will 
ultimately bring her into relation with new mar- 
kets. She wants to develop her home commerce 
and industry, and increase the usefulness of her 
agriculture that she may give employment to a 
population growing at the rate of about a million 
a year. . . . Over and above these desires she has 
the very natural and proper ambition to be worthy 
of her great past and to make her own contribu- 
tions to the civilization of the world. She wants 
social justice, and she wishes to remove from her 
laboring classes the ills of poverty. Germany wants 
peace, for in peace only can she do what she has set 
out to do. She wants an honorable and a stable 
peace, and in so far as the defects of her character 
have been contributory causes to misunderstand- 
ings she wishes to eradicate these defects. She 
desires the good will of the world." 

A convenient handbook for Americans who 
wish to follow the course of the war intelli- 
gently is Professor Albert Bushnell Hart's 
"The War in Europe." This book falls into 
two parts. The first is devoted to a crisp 
description of the general international situa- 
tion in Europe on the eve of the war. The 
second contains an account of the outbreak of 
the war, with chapters on the psychology of 
the war, the question of neutrality, modern 
methods of warfare, the effect of the war on 
the United States, and the possible terms of 
peace. Evidence which has come to light since 
the date of publication would probably cause 



the author to give some of his statements to- 
day a different turn, but of course this was 
inevitable, and on the whole the book remains 
a very fair and substantially accurate piece of 
work. Eminently sensible are the suggestions 
which are offered concerning the necessary 
basis of a true and final peace. Stated briefly, 
they are: (1) Europe must recognize the 
blood kinship of people of the same race, and 
must cease trying to destroy the language and 
traditions of race groups; (2) She must give 
up the idea of compelling large racial units to 
accept a government which is hateful to them ; 
(3) A larger portion of the people must be 
admitted to a share in decisions as to their own 
destiny; (4) No peace can be durable that 
does not provide in some way against the 
causes which have brought about the present 
war, chief among them being the feeling, fos- 
tered by great armaments, that war is a proper 
and manly way of settling national differ- 
ences; and (5) War can be prevented only by 
some sort of world federation in which every 
nation shall have an armed force upon a fixed 
proportion, to be used as part of a contingent 
of a world police. 

It is just conceivable that the war may go 
on undecisively until the nations, from sheer 
exhaustion, shall become willing to terminate 
hostilities and to restore, as nearly as possible, 
the conditions of July, 1914. But it is much 
more likely that one side or the other will be 
definitely victorious, and in this event the map 
of Europe will undoubtedly have to be re- 
made. Dr. Herbert A. Gibbons 's "The New 
Map of Europe" was written in part before 
the outbreak of the war. But chapters were 
appended after the war began, and nowhere 
in English will one find as yet a fuller or better 
discussion of the political and geographical 
changes which the war is capable of pro- 
ducing. Dr. Gibbons has been for some years 
a member of the faculty of Roberts College, 
Constantinople, and he has had varied oppor- 
tunity to acquaint himself with the political 
and military affairs of Europe, especially of 
Europe east of the Adriatic. His present 
chapters cover a wide range from the pass- 
ing of Persia and the problem of the Bagdad 
railway in the east to Alsace-Lorraine and 
Luxemburg in the west. The best are the 
half-dozen or more recounting the military 
and political happenings of southeastern 
Europe since the Turkish revolution of 1908. 
for the author has been an observer of, and 
even a participant in, many of the events of 
which he here writes. In his discussion of the 
present conflict Dr. Gibbons takes the ground 
that Germany forced war on Russia and 
France, that German ambition has long been 



1915] 



THE DIAL, 



47 



a menace to all Europe, that Great Britain 
was fully justified in entering the contest, and 
that the violation of the neutrality of Bel- 
gium was not the cause, but only the occasion, 
of British participation. The only way in 
which war could have been avoided last Au- 
gust, we are told, would have been "to allow 
Germany to make, according to her own de- 
sires and ambitions, the new map of Europe." 
FREDERIC AUSTIN OGG. 



PLAYS OF TO-DAY AXD YESTERDAY.* 



If we compare the publishers' lists of to- 
day with those of fifteen or even ten years 
ago, it is surprising to see how many more 
plays are now getting into print. And these 
are not only plays which have been or might 
be successfully acted; many of them are in- 
tended merely to be read, and could not be 
staged with any hope of interesting an audi- 
ence. Not only does the printed play serve 
as a platform, or at least a soapbox, for peo- 
ple who have a social or political message to 
deliver to the world; it has been seized upon 
even by the lyric poets as a medium for the 
expression of personal emotion. Thus we find 
in our list not only Mr. Brownell preaching 
pacificism, Mr. Francis preaching syndical- 
ism, and M. Andreyev preaching nihilism, but 
Mr. Eobinson and Mr. Tagore translating 
their favorite types of lyric, the puzzle lyric 
and the mystical lyric, into what purports to 
be dramatic form. 

It is perhaps our misfortune that we live 
in an age when nothing can be taken for 
granted. Of course our field of speculation is 
considerably widened ; but this is a poor com- 
pensation for the artistic formlessness and 
poverty which the dissolution of tradition 
involves. We may smile at the simple-mind- 
edness of Aristotle, who thought a play was 
an imitation of action, or of Shakespeare, 
who thought a playwright ought to hold a 

* THE UNSEEN EMPIRE. By Atherton Brownell. New York : 
Harper & Brothers. 

CHANGE. By J. O. Francis. " The Drama League Series of 
Plays." New York : Doubleday, Page & Co. 

THE WIDOWING OF MRS. HOLROYD. By D. H. Lawrence. 
" Modern Drama Series." New York : Mitchell Kennerley. 

" AND So THEY WERE MARRIED." A Comedy of the New 
Woman. By Jesse Lynch Williams. New York: Charles 
Scribner's Sons. 

VAN ZORN. A Comedy in Three Acts. By Edwin Arlington 
Robinson. New York : The Macmillan Co. 

THE KING OF THE DARK CHAMBER. By Rabindranath 
Tagore. Translated into English by the Author. New York : 
The Macmillan Co. 

THREE MODERN PLAYS FROM THE FRENCH : Lavedan's The 
Prince D'Aurec, Lemaitre's The Pardon, Donnay's The Other 
Danger. Translated into English by Barrett H. Clark and 
Charlotte Tenney David, with Preface by Clayton Hamilton. 
New York : Henry Holt & Co. 

SAVVA and THE LIFE OF MAN. Two Plays. By Leonid 
Andreyev. Translated from the Russian, with Introduction, 
by Thomas Seltzer. " Modern Drama Series." New York : 
Mitchell Kennerley. 

HALF HOURS : Pantaloon, The Twelve-pound Look, Rosalind, 
The Will. By J. M. Barrie. New York: Charles Scribner's 
Sons. 



mirror up to nature. But the out-of-date 
dramatists who were expected to give pleasure 
by imitating human life in a manner presenta- 
ble on the stage had an immense advantage in 
knowing what was expected of them, and in 
general how they were expected to do it. 
Whether the modern dramatists, unguided by 
a tradition in these respects, will succeed in 
working out a satisfactory artistic form, is a 
hard question. There is no doubt that the 
drama, which had been slumbering in a sort 
of coma of conventionality, has been vitalized 
through the widening of its scope; and 
though many of the playwrights seem to 
struggle vainly with their material, though 
their utterance is stammering and eccentric, 
most of them have something to say and are 
striving toward a comprehensible form. 

Events have made a cruelly sardonic com- 
ment on the rather saccharine optimism of 
' The Unseen Empire." The youthful hero- 
ine, Friderika Stahl, has been left sole owner 
of the Stahl Gun Works, the great manufac- 
turing centre of war material in Germany. 
Absorbed in philanthropic projects among 
her workmen, she has never realized the mean- 
ing of the vast establishment built up by her 
father. Her eyes are opened through the 
attempts of the Emperor to gain more direct 
control of the works, first by marrying her to 
a prince, then, when this fails and war is 
imminent, by forcibly seizing the plant. She 
defeats the second plan by the help of her 
chief electrician, who is also her lover. The 
result is that the Emperor, who, it appears, 
has always objected to war, heads a movement 
for a federation of Europe, and bestows the 
Order of the Red Eagle on the young man 
who thwarted the war plans. The lightning 
change of Emperor and Chancellor from lion 
to lamb would be merely comic if history had 
not made it into a bitter caricature of pacifi- 
cist dreams. 

Mr. Francis's "Change" has for its theme 
the tragic clash of the new and the old in a 
Welsh mining village. In 1911 it won a prize 
offered for the best play by a Welsh author 
dealing with life in Wales. As is often the 
case with prize plays and stories, it is sincere, 
respectable, and rather dull. The action 
moves very slowly; there are three or four 
moderately interesting characters, but none of 
compelling interest; the play lacks focus. 
The writer seems to have been more inter- 
ested in a social condition than in any of his 
characters; and this is to say that as a dra- 
matist he has failed. It is not hard to see 
why the play, to quote the Introduction, "met 
with a most deplorable and undeserved re- 
ception ' ' in New York and Chicago. 



48 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 16 



With a somewhat similar setting the 
mining region of Derbyshire Mr. D. H. 
Lawrence has written a vastly better play. 
In "The Widowing of Mrs. Holroyd" he has 
no social theories to expound, but he is pro- 
foundly interested in Mrs. Holroyd, her chil- 
dren, her drunken husband, and her sober 
and hard-working lover, Blackmore. A de- 
cent woman with ideals of her own, she at 
first gives Blackmore no encouragement; but 
things come to such a pass that she finally 
consents to run away with him, taking her 
two children. Then comes an accident in the 
mine, in which her husband is killed. A 
revulsion of feeling sweeps over her; her 
early love for him returns, and with his old 
mother she weeps passionately over his body. 
The final scene, grimly realistic and of extraor- 
dinary power, shows the two women wash- 
ing the body for burial. The best evidence of 
the author's tact and skill is that the effect 
neither of this scene nor of the play as a 
whole is sordid or depressing ; it is rather, in 
the true sense of the word, tragic. The fault 
of the play is its inconclusiveness, which would 
handicap it on the stage ; but, from the read- 
er's point of view, this is more than redeemed 
by keen insight into character and firm grasp 
of situation. Mr. Lawrence is still a very 
young man; he will be well worth watching. 

From a first-hand study of life we turn to 
a literary echo. Mr. Jesse Lynch Williams 's 
"And So They Were Married" may be best 
described as an American imitation of Mr. 
Shaw 's plays. Surely a man of genius should 
pray thrice daily to be delivered from his 
imitators. They are sure to "show him up," 
magnifying his faults and weaknesses till the 
public turns from him in disgust. No hostile 
criticism can be half so damaging as the 
imitation of the faithful disciple. The reac- 
tion against Mr. Shaw was bound to come; 
and the appearance of a follower like Mr. 
Williams suggests that it is upon us. His 
heroine well knows that by the law of her 
nature she must compel the man with whom 
she is in love to propose to her ; she struggles 
bravely against it, and when in spite of her- 
self she has most obviously forced him into a 
declaration, she says, "in an awed whisper, 
stepping back slowly, ' I 've done it ! I 've done 
it ! I knetv I'd do it ! ' ' But of course she 
will not let a poor scientific man ruin his 
prospects by marrying her. They will 
"belong to each other" without marriage, and 
this she announces to her assembled and 
astounded relatives. To do her lover justice, 
it must be said that at first he objects to this 
programme ; but the ' ' Life Force ' ' has got hold 
of him too; and besides, in defending Helen 



from her incensed family, he has to defend 
her plan. A clever old uncle who is a judge, 
taking unfair advantage of their excitement 
and of the easy-going law of the state, mar- 
ries them on the spot in spite of their teeth ; 
but at the same time he warns Society -that 
a general overhauling is inevitable. Various 
minor characters and incidents make it too 
plain that Mr. Williams is not intentionally 
writing burlesque. 

As the reader begins to turn the pages of 
Mr. Edwin Arlington Robinson's "Van 
Zorn," various questions rise in his mind. 
Who is Van Zorn? Who is Villa Vannevar, 
the heroine? What have been their past rela- 
tions with each other? with George Lucas? 
with Farnham? There is no exposition to 
gratify his curiosity; but he consoles himself 
with the thought that as he goes on these 
matters will become clear. On the contrary, 
he becomes more and more bewildered. 
There is a good deal of more or less clever 
dialogue ; there develops a kind of emotional 
tension, involving the transference of the 
heroine's affections; but Mr. Robinson keeps 
his secrets, or reveals them only in riddles. 
The reader's curiosity is teased very much as 
it is in some of Mr. Robinson's poems. He 
feels that if he could learn something about 
these people they might prove to be interest- 
ing. But perhaps after all they are not peo- 
ple; perhaps they are symbols. The play 
will be a good subject for some future doc- 
tor's thesis; until that appears it will be safe 
to reserve our judgment. 

Mr. Tagore's "King of the Dark Chamber" 
is frankly symbolical; the characters could 
by no possibility be mistaken for real per- 
sons. Lecturers who expound the beauties of 
Tagore before women's clubs will probably 
have no difficulty in explaining that the play 
is an allegory of the conquest of the soul (the 
Queen) by Love (the King), with the help of 
Humility (Surangama), and the discomfiture 
of the King's chief rival, Practical Sagacity 
or Efficiency (Kanchi). The symbolism is 
rather clearer than is usual in Maeterlinck; 
the style is noticeably reminiscent of his. 
There is a good deal of the material of poetry 
floating around in a rather nebulous state, 
and there are some pretty lyrics, one, for in- 
stance, beginning: 
" Open your door. I am waiting. 

The ferry of the light from the dawn to the 
dark is done for the day. 

The evening star is up." 

It is in a way refreshing to turn to the 
"Three Modern Plays from the French." 
Here is no recondite or symbolical meaning, 
no prophet or lyricist disguised as a play- 



1915] 



THE DIAL, 



49 



wright. "We go back with a certain sense of 
relief to the good old triangle. It encloses 
nothing of extraordinary interest, but at least 
we know what to expect. It is odd to see how 
these plays, produced in 1892, 1896, and 
1902, already sound like voices from a past 
generation. Heavens! they seem written 
merely to entertain! In M. Lavedan's 
"Prince D'Aurec" the chief interest is in the 
husband, a fine type of the useless and orna- 
mental French nobleman. Jules Lemaitre's 
"The Pardon" is remarkable as a tour de 
force. The triangle, if I may mix the mathe- 
matical metaphors, is reduced to its lowest 
terms; there are in this three-act comedy 
only three characters. As a piece of techni- 
cal sleight of hand it would be hard to equal. 
In M. Donnay's "The Other Danger" inter- 
est centres in the woman who has a lover with 
whom her innocent daughter falls desperately 
in love. If we take the situation seriously, as 
M. Donnay wishes us to, we can hardly be 
satisfied with his solution. Mme. Jadain 
heroically resigns her lover, commanding him 
to marry Madeleine, and he, though he pro- 
tests a good deal, seems not indisposed to 
consent. 

It must be a grim humorist indeed who 
could find anything amusing in the two plays 
of M. Leonid Andreyev published in the 
' ' Modern Drama Series. " In " Savva ' ' we find 
ourselves in the company of a group of luna- 
tics and idiots. Considerable ingenuity is 
shown in distinguishing various types of men- 
tal alienation; thus we have the drunken 
idiot, the playful idiot, the maniac who has 
committed the unpardonable sin, and the mild 
melancholiac. There is only one really sane 
person in the play. The hero is a young 
nihilist who wishes to destroy every mark and 
sign of civilization and the past, literature, 
art, cities, even clothes, so that the human 
race may begin over again au naturel. If 
they then show any signs of relapsing into 
anything resembling our present civilization, 
he plans to massacre them all. Very appro- 
priately he is torn to pieces by a mob ; but it 
is evident that M. Andreyev regards him as a 
martyr. "The Life of Man," published in 
the same year as ' ' Sawa, " is a far more note- 
worthy performance. It is a sort of morality 
play, in a prologue and five scenes. If the 
philosophy of Mr. Thomas Hardy's novels 
were to be summed up in a short dramatic 
allegory, the result would be something like 
"The Life of Man." The characters are 
Man, his Wife, Father, Relatives, Neighbors, 
Friends, Enemies, etc. Interspersed with the 
dialogue are long choral passages uttered by 
groups of people speaking individually but 



indistinguishably, and headed merely "The 
Drunkards' Conversation," or "The Old 
Women's Conversation." In the form of 
familiar talk, these passages often furnish the 
most poignant comment on the action where 
they seem most irrelevant or frivolous. 
Speaking the prologue, and dominating the 
whole piece, is the dread figure, "Someone in 
Gray called He." He is present in the back- 
ground of every scene, holding in his hand 
the candle which burns gradually lower. He 
listens with equal apathy to the rejoicing of 
Man and his Wife over their first success, to 
their agonizing prayers for the life of their 
child, and to Man's curses when the child 
dies. He is a God of stone. 

It is interesting to compare this twentieth- 
century morality with a morality of the fif- 
teenth century. The message of "Every- 
man" is that the soul of man is a thing of 
infinite value, and that man's life on earth 
has infinite significance. The message of 
' ' The Life of Man ' ' is that the soul of man is 
a trivial toy, and that man's life is infinitely 
meaningless. The fifteenth-century play is 
filled with a sense of the reality of the past, 
of the reality of the future, and of the cru- 
ciality of the present that divides them. In 
the twentieth-century play all are alike empty 
and unreal. 

To turn from these powerful and melan- 
choly productions is like coming out from an 
asylum or an operating-room. Under such 
circumstances, what can be more wholesome 
than to go to a Punch and Judy show ? Some- 
thing of the sort, touched with graceful fancy, 
Sir James M. Barrie (we have not yet become 
accustomed to that "Sir," and it sounds al- 
most as queer as "Sir Mark Twain" would) 
has provided for us in " Pantaloon. ' ' The sec- 
ond of the ' ' Half Hours, " " The Twelve-pound 
Look," is a portrait of an egoist considerably 
less refined than Meredith's hero. In intro- 
ducing him, the author politely but unkindly 
says, "If quite convenient (as they say about 
cheques) you are to conceive that the scene is 
laid in your own house, and that Harry 
Sims is you. ' ' No doubt Harry would be glad 
to be you or anyone else before his interview 
with Kate is over. Kate is his former wife, 
now a "new woman," but not of the type 
familiar in the new drama. Perhaps it would 
not be a bad guess that Sir James and Dr. 
Crothers, who are not afraid of the new 
woman and do not seem to think she will 
prove as destructive as some suppose, are 
nearer right than the alarmists. "Rosalind" 
is a delightful little sketch of the contrast 
between an actress incognita, on a vacation, 
and frankly middle-aged, and the same lady 



50 



THE DIAL 



Jan. 16 



in her professional character and appear- 
ance. The change is accurately and charm- 
ingly registered in the countenance and 
words of young Charles Roche, just out of 
college and much in love with the beautiful 
actress. The last of the "Half Hours," 
"The Will," is a bit of the tragedy of life as 
it appears in a lawyer's office. It simply 
presents three visits, years apart, made by 
the hero to his lawyer; but one can recon- 
struct the man's whole life from those three 
visits. Philip Ross's experience is not so 
very different from that of M. Andreyev's 
"Man"; yet in total effect the two plays are 
as wide asunder as the poles. In the back- 
ground of the "Life of Man" there are only 
spectres gibbering and flitting through 
vacancy, and the blank and stony stare of the 
insane God. In the background of "The 
Will" is the whole huge and various earth, 
with its forces of good and evil, and its rich- 
ness of real human sorrow and joy. It is 
interesting to speculate as to what would be 
the effect upon M. Andreyev if he could look 
out upon everyday life for an instant through 
Sir James Barrie's eyes. If he survived the 
shock, he would probably suppose, depending 
on his early training, that he had been trans- 
ported either to fairyland or to heaven. Later 
he would reason that he must have been sub- 
ject to a hallucination. Yet the result of such 
a glimpse, even on a logical and unhumorous 
mind, would surely be enlightening. Per- 
haps it would even teach M. Andreyev 
humility. HOMER E. WOODBRIDGE. 



WORRY AXD MODERN I/TFE.* 



The belief is widespread that there are 
more "nervous" people in America than in 
all the other countries of the world taken 
together. But the term, as popularly used, 
does not imply serious disease and usually no 
organic difficulty; it refers rather to mental 
strain and tension, and to that vast brood of 
troubles commonly described by the term 
worry. There is general agreement among 
laymen as well as physicians that American 
life is becoming continually more complex, 
Avith the result that as a people we are "hit- 
ting up the pace ' ' faster and faster as the 
years go by. Take a man of affairs in almost 
any community in this country; he is re- 
quired to adapt himself to a greater number 
of situations and respond to more varied 
stimulations this year than he did last. He 

* WOBBY AND NEBVOUSNESS ; or, The Science of Self- 
Mastery. By William S. Sadler, M.D. Chicago : A. C. McClurg 
& Co. 

NEW NEBVES FOR OLD. By Arthur A. Carey. Boston: Lit- 
tle, Brown & Co. 



has more problems to solve, and more pres- 
sures to equilibrate or perhaps to resist. If 
things go on as they have been going, he will 
have more adjustments to make next year than 
he has this year. Even in the school, which 
was originally a place of quiet for the purpose 
of encouraging reflective attitudes, there is 
constantly increasing tension because there 
are more subjects to study and tasks to per- 
form each succeeding year. The demands 
upon the schools have already become so 
numerous and burdensome that the chief 
problem discussed to-day in educational meet- 
ings is the pruning of the curriculum so that 
pupils will not be crowded so hard. 

Think of the number of things which a fam- 
ily even in modest circumstances must buy 
to-day in order to keep pace with their neigh- 
bors ! Think of the ' ' amusements ' ' they must 
patronize, the books and periodicals they must 
read, the ' ' functions ' ' they must attend ! And 
then consider especially the burdens imposed 
upon those who are on the firing-line, and 
must furnish the funds for all this unrest and 
striving and struggle ! 

The above reflections are incited by reading 
the books under review. In purpose and gen- 
eral point of view they resemble other books 
that have appeared in America during the past 
decade. It is probable, however, that Dr. 
Sadler's "Worry and Nervousness" is the 
most important and attractive contribution 
that has yet been made to the discussion of 
this subject. It is the work of a scientist, to 
begin with; and its thoroughgoing presenta- 
tion of all aspects of nervous disturbances 
that give rise to worry and that are the out- 
growth thereof is based upon an accurate 
knowledge of the physical and mental laws 
involved. A number of recent writers upon 
this subject have approached it from the 
standpoint of religion Mr. Carey's "New 
Nerves for Old" is written from this point of 
view or hypnotism or morbid psychology; 
but Dr. Sadler writes as a physician, and con- 
sequently one feels that his analysis and sug- 
gestions for the treatment of worry are a little 
more securely grounded than are most of the 
expressions on these topics which one hears or 
reads to-day. 

"Worry and Nervousness" discusses every 
phase of nervousness and its hygiene and! 
treatment; and the discussion throughout is 
presented in a clear, graceful style. The 
varied forms of nervousness are classified 
under seven heads: (1) chronic fear, or 
worry, (2) neurasthenoidia, or near-neuras- 
thenia, (3) neurasthenia, or nervous exhaus- 
tion, (4) psychasthenia, or true brain fag, 
(5) hysteria, the master imitator, (6) hypo- 



1915] 



THE DIAL. 



51 



chondria, or chronic blues, (7) simple melan- 
cholia. Each of these types of nervousness is 
analyzed, and their relations toward one 
another pointed out. The largest general con- 
clusion to be derived from these analyses is 
that under the stress and strain of modern 
life, alike in the case of the worker and the 
social "climber," the vitality of the nervous 
system is lowered, and there follows a host of 
troubles, all springing out of or giving rise to 
fear or w r orry. Dr. Sadler cites a large num- 
ber of concrete examples of the various fears 
he describes, and they are very numerous. 
Modern students of this subject have had to 
develop an extensive vocabulary to describe 
the fears which have been differentiated out 
of the common attitude of worry or dread. 
There is "aerophobia," the dread of fresh 
air, especially night air; "aichmophobia," 
the dread of pointed tools; "kenophobia," 
the fear of emptiness; " brontophobia, " the 
fear of thunder; "acrophobia," the fear of 
high places ; ' ' agoraphobia, ' ' the fear of open 
spaces; "misophobia," the fear of dirt; 
"pathophobia," the fear of disease; "zoopho- 
bia, ' ' the fear of animals, and so on ad libitum. 
Then there are nervous states which are not 
quite of the nature of dread or fear, but which 
nevertheless give rise to the worrying attitude, 
such as the magnification of trifles, worrying 
about the weather, the chronic "kicking" 
habit, and so on through a long list. 

And what is the cause of all these abnormali- 
ties? In some cases, lowered vitality; in 
other cases, strain and stress in maintaining 
existence ; but in most cases in American life 
it is the struggle for more and more things 
and experiences. The results are social mal- 
adjustments which produce sooner or later 
nervous irregularities and mental strains and 
crises. Through twenty interesting chapters, 
the author analyzes and describes typical 
everyday types of worry and fear and 
nervousness, and he gives concrete examples 
of every type. He also presents diagrams 
giving the results of modern research on the 
relations between bodily states and nervous 
and mental reactions. He drives home some 
of his principles by presenting photographic 
and pictorial illustrations of fear, worry, and 
especially of "going the pace" in American 
life. 

But what can be done about it all ? Part II. 
of "Worry and Nervousness" is devoted to a 
discussion of how these troubles may be alle- 
viated. The sum of the whole thing is: let 
the neurasthenic reduce his wants. Let him 
give up thinking about himself, and become 
interested in some other person, or some cause 
of an impersonal character. But fundamen- 



tally he must live a simple, hygienic life. He 
must cut out every form of stimulant and 
narcotic. Alcohol, tobacco, tea, coffee, and 
the whole list of narcotic drinks are deadly 
in their effect upon the nervous system. Dr. 
Sadler says that any physician who is thrown 
in contact with a large number of nervous 
cases has it borne in upon him every day that 
the chief enemies of the health and stability 
of the nervous system and the mind are the 
popularly used poisons, alcohol, tobacco, tea, 
and coffee. Tobacco stands foremost among 
the causes of increased blood pressure, which 
drags a whole train of evils in its course. 
Alcohol is next, and then come tea and coffee. 
The author quotes Richardson of England to 
the effect that excessive tea drinking among 
the women of that country has produced a sort 
of semi-hysterical condition. They try to 
relieve this condition by resorting to alcoholic 
stimulants, so that one evil intensifies thei 
other. He also quotes Dr. Bock of Leipzig, 
who has observed the same effects among 
women who are addicted to the use of coffee. 
Even the use of condiments, as pepper, mus- 
tard, vinegar, and the like, is a source of 
nervous irritation and instability. 

Next to hygiene in order of therapeutic 
value in the treatment of nervousness and 
worry is faith simple, trusting faith. Here 
is the physician, looking at the whole matter 
from the physician's point of view, who con- 
cludes that nervous health without faith, is 
impossible. Dr. Sadler and Mr. Carey are in 
agreement in respect to the value of faith in 
preserving healthy nerves. Most of "New 
Nerves for Old" is devoted to impressing this 
view. It would not do to pass over this point 
without quoting a paragraph from "Worry 
and Nervousness" (p. 50) : 

"All faith tendencies are toward mental happi- 
ness and psychical health. All people, good or 
bad, get the physical rewards of faith, regardless 
whether the objects of their faith and belief are 
true or false. Faith reacts favorably upon the 
body independent of the trueness of the object or 
the correctness of the thing believed. Faith is the 
natural, normal, and healthy state of mind for 
man. Faith is the state of mind that ever tends to 
make a man better, stronger, happier, and 
healthier." 

Dr. Sadler discusses the modern use of 
psychotherapy and therapeutic suggestion, 
and indorses these means in many cases. He 
also considers educational therapeutics, the 
strengthening of the will, the value of recrea- 
tion, study, play, work, and social service. In 
particular cases these are all of great value, 
because they relax the tense nerves of the 
neurasthenic and substitute wholesome and 
upbuilding ideas for narrow, self-centred, 



52 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 16 



and hypochondriacal ones. Mr. Carey ad- 
vances substantially the same views, though 
he does not base his principles upon physical 
and mental laws as Dr. Sadler does. As a 
summary of all his suggestions, Dr. Sadler 
makes self-mastery the supreme aim, which is 
in effect the conclusion reached by Mr. Carey 
and most of the others who have written upon 
this complicated subject in recent times. The 
real secret of nervous and mental health is 
after all to get hold and keep hold of one's 
self in the midst of all the strains and stresses 
of an increasingly complex life. 

The reviewer may perhaps add an opinion 
of his own which seems reasonable in view of 
the principles developed by Dr. Sadler and 
others. Nervousness in all its morbid phases 
seems to show nature's attempt to destroy the 
individual who is not living in accord with her 
laws physical, intellectual, social, and re- 
ligious. And in order to escape from this 
trouble, all remedies must come back in the 
end to simple, rational living first physical, 
then social to live in harmony and good 
will with one's fellows and religious to 
have faith that back of the universe and sup- 
porting it is an all-wise and all- just power and 
personality. Most people who study human 
nature come to this conclusion sooner or 

later - M. V. O'SHEA. 



RECENT FICTIOX.* 



The argument is sometimes made that the 
novelists of our day have, and can have, noth- 
ing really new to tell us. Men and women are 
pretty much the same everywhere, it is said, 
and their passions have been recorded in all 
their variety by the long procession of poets 
and dramatists and story-tellers. In particu- 
lar we are assured that we should be better off 
reading the great Victorians than the novel of 
the season, simply because they did all that 
any of our contemporaries can do and did it 
better. Many of us who are interested in 
novels give this advice lip-service by passing 
it on and do not follow it. One reason is to 
be found in fashion. To the mind which re- 
joices in the "Saturday Evening Post's" 
serials, Thackeray and Dickens are as hope- 
lessly old-fashioned as the clothes of their 
day ; the same is only less true of a more criti- 
cal mind. But there is another reason. It is 
that in certain living writers one may satisfy 
(or only whet?) a curiosity of which Thack- 

* THE SECOND BLOOMING. By W. L. George. Boston : 
Little, Brown & Co. 

SINISTER STREET. By Compton Mackenzie. New York: 
D. Appleton & Co. 

PELLE THE CONQUEROR: Apprenticeship. By Martin Ander- 
sen Nexo. Translated from the Danish by Bernard Miall. 
New York : Henry Holt & Co. 



eray and Dickens knew very little and of 
which they did not always tell what they 
knew. There is one obvious retort to Mr. 
Frank Harris's sneer at Thackeray because he 
did not dare to give Becky Sharp a soul ; it is 
that Becky Sharp exists. There is an equally 
obvious retort to the charge that Dickens saw 
nothing in the lower classes except what was 
funny. It is that the lower classes are funny. 
The fact remains that women quite as wicked 
as Becky Sharp have souls and that the poor 
are a great deal more than amusing. 

It is the fashion just now to belittle science, 
especially the less exact sciences. But science 
does count, even toward the novel. Darwin 
and Karl Marx did not live in vain. Science 
can tell us more about the two great motives 
of human conduct, the erotic and the economic, 
than it once could ; and one of the results of 
the scientific method is a tremendously in- 
creased curiosity about the things it has only 
partially revealed to us. The merest hint of 
new knowledge is enough to create an active 
dissatisfaction with the old. It may be a long 
time before any novelist compels us to under- 
stand what the socialists like to call "the 
working-class mind, ' ' but we can no more rest 
with Dickens 's sense of it than we can rest 
with Thackeray's ideas about women. 

"The Second Blooming" is an example of a 
novel that could hardly have been written a 
generation ago. David Graham Phillips a 
writer whose merits seem to have been hidden 
by his crudity from all but a few critics, like 
Mr. Arnold Bennett dealt often with the 
same general theme: the futility of the lives 
of leisure-class women. But he never worked 
it out as subtly as Mr. George has. The story 
is of three sisters, all of whom are frustrated 
by the lives they lead as the wives of well-to- 
do men. Grace found her only real happiness 
during the three years she conducted a liaison; 
Mary found a certain contentment in many 
children Clara expended most of her surplus 
energy in helping her husband's political 
career. It looks as if Mr. George had set out 
to demonstrate in fiction the feminist theory 
which he has previously expounded in argu- 
ment. But there is more to it than that. Most 
of his interest is in Grace, and her love for 
Enoch Fenor. He tells what went on in her 
mind frankly, honestly, and without preaching 
about it ; so that while one may disapprove of 
Grace, or pity her, or respect her, one can 
neither hail Mr. George as one who perceives 
that love justifies irregularity of conduct nor 
damn him as one who confuses moral values. 
There are some weak places in the story. 
Mr. George has avoided telling just why it was 
that Grace found herself out of love with her 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



53 



husband; it wasn't, as he would have us be- 
lieve, just because she had nothing interesting 
to do and he bored her with his interest in 
what he had to do, which was to follow the law. 
Some of the unhappiness of these three sis- 
ters, more than Mr. George admits, was due to 
that eternal disparity between the dream and 
the accomplishment which afflicts every hu- 
man being. But we must not quarrel with 
Mr. George. He has written an excellent 
novel, and one much more readable than the 
clever one he published last year, "The 
Making of an Englishman." He has done 
more. He has exhibited a kind of imagination 
which is too rare in English fiction, an imagi- 
nation that has enabled him to see (and to tell 
us) how it was with Grace. Because his inter- 
est is always in understanding her rather in 
moralizing about her he succeeds in arousing 
our sympathy for a woman who was unable to 
find any better use for her courage or any more 
complete expression for her adventurous spirit 
than a brief and secret love-affair. To do that 
is as much finer as it is more difficult than 
merely to play upon our sense of our own vir- 
tue by presenting us with a properly chastised 
sinner. 

Mr. Compton Mackenzie has rounded off 
what we had expected was to be a trilogy 
with his second volume. "Sinister Street" 
apparently tells all that we are to know of 
Michael Fane, whose acquaintance we made in 
"Youth's Encounter." Mr. Mackenzie asks, 
in an epilogue, that we regard his volumes as 
the story of "the youth of a man who pre- 
sumably will be a priest" rather than "as an 
idealized or debased presentation of his own 
existence up to the age of twenty- three. ' ' But 
we cannot freely grant his request, even 
though we do not know how much of an 
aesthete Mr. Mackenzie was when he was at 
Oxford. At any rate these two novels give a 
more complete account of the mind of a young 
man of our day than has been written pre- 
viously in English, an account which presents 
some of the things that Thackeray meant when 
he complained that his public would not per- 
mit him to tell all he wished about Pendennis, 
and a good many more besides. For Michael 
is of a kind of sensitiveness that would not 
have interested as full-blooded a man as the 
creator of Colonel Newcome, and Michael's 
experience with the Miss Fotheringay sort of 
person is very different from anything that 
was omitted by tacit request from Pendennis 's 
history. We mean to suggest that if ' ' Sinister 
Street" is worth reading, and we think it is, 
the fact is not wholly owing to its free use of 
material which, as Mr. Henry James has put 
it, the Victorian novelist "dodged." 



Perhaps there is no living writer who is 
more at home in the description of peasant and 
working-class life than Mr. Martin Andersen 
Nexo, or one of a finer spirit. There can 
hardly be one who is dead, because his point 
of view is too new. But we hesitate to men- 
tion socialism in connection with "Pelle the 
Conqueror," although it is mentioned once or 
twice in "Apprenticeship," because the word 
is so likely to call up memories of propagan- 
dist novels which had no merit except their 
intention to improve the world. Perhaps Mr. 
Nexo is not an orthodox socialist. One of the 
most illuminating and fascinating chapters in 
this second of the four volumes of Pelle 's his- 
tory tells of a vagabond workman, the most 
skilful of cobblers, who came back to the little 
shop where he was a legend and gave the others 
a glimpse of his romantic journey through 
the world, and of that vision which makes 
labor artistry. Would an orthodox socialist 
have put that passage in his novel? Doubt- 
less anybody would have put it there who 
could, and the point is that Mr. Nexo could. 
It may be that the half of the story which 
we have still to read, and which we know deals 
with Pelle 's experience as a labor-leader, will 
reveal the characteristic weakness of the propa- 
gandist, but we shall be surprised if it does. 
For so far Mr. Nexo seems always the artist, 
the man of feeling who is bound to give us 
what he has lived, and only what he has lived. 

LUCIAN GARY. 



BRIEFS ox NEW BOOKS. 



A richly aius. In ' ' Earlv American Churches ' ' 
trated history of (Doubleday) Mr. Aymar Em- 

Colonicd churches, -i TT j' A.' -L i 

bury II., a distinguished prac- 
tising architect, attempts the history and 
description of the most important group of our 
early monuments. Undertaken primarily for 
brother-architects, it places at their disposal 
the richest collection of photographs of Colo- 
nial churches yet assembled. In the one hun- 
dred full page half-tones are illustrated the 
exteriors and interiors of all the existing 
buildings of first importance, and a repre- 
sentative selection of others, from the coloni- 
zation down to the abandonment of Georgian 
traditions, about 1830. The text, with archi- 
tect, antiquarian, and general reader all in 
view, lacks fixity of purpose and uniformity 
of method. In general the effort is to recover 
the history and the successive forms of the 
buildings discussed, but the limits of rele- 
vancy in ecclesiastical episode and historical 
anecdote are frequently passed. The lack of 
an alphabetical index is a serious hindrance; 
frequent misprints and slips in the spelling of 



54 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 16 



proper names force the reader to be on his 
guard. The author shows a commendable in- 
terest in contemporary documents, and adds 
to the published stock a number which he has 
encountered in several years of correspon- 
dence and travel, notably for the churches at 
New Haven. Other documents are repub- 
lished from parish histories and previous par- 
tial treatments, and much oral tradition is 
gathered up, relating both to the original struc- 
tures and to their transformations. The case 
of the church at Sag Harbor, built in 1843, of 
which the original builder was still alive in 
1912, shows the occasional possibilities in this 
direction. Too often, however, documentary 
evidence is not sought insistently enough or 
not even demanded; vague comparisons of 
unsupported assertions with estimates of 
probabilities take the place of methodical 
criticism. The section covering Trinity 
Church at Newport, "reported to have been 
built in 1726," is particularly flagrant in this 
regard. "Peter Harrison is reported to have 
been the architect of this building, but as 
Peter Harrison has also been given as the 
architect of King's Chapel, Boston, and other 
churches built toward the latter end of the 
eighteenth century, it seems improbable that 
he was designing at this early date, nor does 
the building itself bear any internal evidence 
of being his design." The importance of in- 
ternal evidence, of course, is very great, but 
such evidence should be verified, wherever 
possible, and relied on exclusively only when 
other testimony is found to be lacking. In 
the case in hand we know very well that Peter 
Harrison, whom Mr. Embury elsewhere de- 
scribes as an amateur, was our first trained 
architect, who came over with Dean Berkeley 
in 1729 and designed the Eedwood Library in 
Newport in 1748, a building which, like his 
other authenticated works, exhibits a schol- 
arly correctness of detail quite removed from 
the naivete of the church in question. In 
his concluding summary of development, as in 
some of the interpretations of single build- 
ings, the author is led astray by current 
misconceptions of architectural history and 
apparent lack of knowledge of earlier discus- 
sion. The renaissance of classic architecture 
in England had scarcely begun when the first 
Virginia colonists left the mother country, and 
it was the seventeenth century rather than the 
sixteenth in which English Gothic dragged out 
its moribund rural exile. The first London 
church with a colonnaded portico was St. 
Paul's, Covent Garden, built by Inigo Jones 
in 1631, so that it is small wonder that St. 
Luke's, Smithfield, Virginia, 1632, does not 
show more academic feeling. The statement 



that in New England the earliest church 
buildings resembled no English buildings at 
all, ignores their exact prototypes in the chap- 
els of English dissenters which Mr. Ronald P. 
Jones has recently described in his little book 
"Non-conformist Church Architecture." Mr. 
Embury's treatment of the Classical Revival,, 
especially, reflects the habitual lack of sympa- 
thy with this pervasive movement. The ques- 
tion is larger than personal predilection; it 
involves recognition of the historical bases of 
the neo-classic tendency and willingness to 
criticize its representatives by the canons of 
their own age. Only by such historical de- 
tachment can the superstition of a death of 
traditional art be replaced by a belief in its. 
unending vitality. 



Within the brief space of two- 

Autobiography n , TI/T- 

of a woman hundred and fiity pages, Miss 
Marie Sukloff, a Russian Jew- 
ess of twenty-nine years, has conveyed to En- 
glish and American readers in "The Life 
Story of a Russian Exile" (Century) an 
astonishing wealth of vivid information con- 
cerning Russian despotism and the efforts 
that are being made toward its overthrow. 
Miss Sukloif was born in a two-roomed hut 
one room devoted to the domestic animals 
in a village of thirty such huts. Inured from 
infancy to hardship, grinding poverty, and 
tyrannical oppression, she was apprenticed at 
the age of eleven, first to a woman grocer and 
then to a tailor. Even at that age the sor- 
rows of the peasants had entered into her 
soul. She had seen the fate of her aunt, out- 
raged and then beaten brutally and buried 
while still alive by the son of the neighboring 
country gentleman, and she had witnessed the 
continual desperate struggle of her own 
parents. Imbued with the new aspirations of 
the period, she joined in a strike and lost both 
her position as a tailor's apprentice and 
nearly a year's earnings, whereupon she im- 
mediately began devoting herself with youth- 
ful ardor to the propaganda of the Social 
Democrats. She was sent by her parents to 
Odessa to a poor uncle to secure employment, 
but became increasingly active as a revolu- 
tionist, and was selected to set up a secret 
printing press in Kiev, where she was arrested 
and thrown in prison. After more than two 
years in close confinement, she was exiled for 
life to eastern Siberia. From this remote re- 
gion, she escaped and brought back to Russia 
the baby of an exiled couple, thus avoiding 
recognition herself, and rendering the escape 
of the parents a future possibility. Embit- 
tered by her own sufferings and filled with 
pity for the oppressed people of her country, 



1915] 



THE DIAL, 



55 



she joined the headquarters of the Social 
Revolutionists at Geneva, and was appointed 
to assassinate several prominent and cruel 
officials, finally succeeding in killing with a 
bomb the terrible Governor Khvostoff. She 
was condemned to death, but was exiled in- 
stead to a distant region of Siberia. After 
suffering for some years physical and mental 
hardships which threatened to unsettle her 
reason, she finally escaped through a daring 
and brilliant strategem and with the faithful 
assistance of devoted fellow revolutionists 
outside the prison. This escape took place 
from the prison at Irkutsh, where Miss Suk- 
loff had been taken for an operation, the long 
deferment of which by the heartless neglect 
of the officials had almost caused her death. 
It was almost by miracle that she escaped the 
permanent ruin of her health by the terrible 
experiences through which she had to pass 
after getting outside the prison walls. She 
was never safe from reimprisonment until she 
sailed from Shanghai. The vivid descriptions 
of prison interiors and prison life in the many 
prisons occupied by the writer, the thrilling 
narrative of experiences and emotions, the 
portrayal of numerous officials and revolu- 
tionists from intimate knowledge render the 
book a human document of the highest value. 
It illuminates dark and dreary Siberia with 
a lurid brilliance. Scarcely conceivable are 
the cruelties and abominations so realistically 
reported that the reader cannot doubt their 
actuality. The book may well make one hold 
one's breath in suspense, as the primitive and 
cruel government it exposes hurls its myriads 
across the frontiers of Germany. But there 
is also another and very moving revelation in 
the little book. So spontaneous seem the 
many instances related of kindness, gener- 
osity, self-abnegation, and lofty heroism that 
one's admiration of the Russian people rises 
in proportion to the indignation aroused 
against the tyranny of the Russian govern- 
ment. The world has surely much to antici- 
pate from the long deferred liberation of the 
Russians, and among these people none will 
give a finer account of themselves than the 
Jews, if we may judge from the gifts and the 
spirit of such Jewish women writers as Marie 
Sukloff and Mary Antin. 



The promise of Mr. Bertrand Russell has pub- 
RusKpht lished Iris Lowell Lectures of 
losophy. 1914 in book form under the 

title of "Scientific Method in Philosophy" 
( Open Court Publishing Co. ) . He begins with 
the statement that little progress has been 
hitherto discernible in philosophic specula- 
tion. Philosophy has made larger claims and 



achieved fewer results than any other branch 
of learning. The great systems of the past are 
of no vital concern to us. They are interesting 
only as hypotheses, as aids to the imagination. 
Mr. Russell then surveys the field of present- 
day thought and discusses three chief tenden- 
cies. There is first of all the classical tradition 
which descends in the main from Kant and 
Hegel. Though still well entrenched academ- 
ically, this represents on the whole a decaying 
force. It is based on the omnipotence of rea- 
soning. Its world is constructed by logic with 
little appeal to concrete experience. Then 
there is, in the second place, evolutionism, still 
associated with the name of Herbert Spencer, 
who in turn derives from the earlier English 
empiricists. Its modern representatives are 
Nietzsche, William James, and M. Bergson. 
This philosophy, which is based on biology, 
has a predominant interest in the question of 
the destiny of life. But philosophy, if it is to 
be a genuine study, must have a province of 
its own and aim at results which the other 
sciences can neither prove nor disprove. In- 
tuition, insight, mysticism may carry convic- 
tion to the favored recipient, but, untested and 
unsupported, they cannot constitute a suffi- 
cient guarantee of truth. The third tendency 
is the one which the author himself favors and 
to which he has given the somewhat unpre- 
possessing name of "logical atomism." This 
has gradually crept into philosophy through 
the critical scrutiny of mathematics. It is 
akin to the "new realism" which has recently 
been developed at Harvard and other Amer- 
ican universities. It represents the substitu- 
tion of piecemeal, detailed, and verifiable re- 
sults for large untested generalities. The true 
function of the mathematical logic which it 
employs is analytic rather than constructive. 
It shows the possibility of hitherto unsus- 
pected alternatives. It liberates the imagina- 
tion as to what the world may be while refus- 
ing to dogmatize on what it is. Mr. Russell's 
chapter on the positive theory of infinity 
shows the indebtedness of his method to the 
mathematical investigations of two of the Ger- 
mans, Frege and Cantor, and of the English 
scholar, Dr. Whitehead. Such apparent para- 
doxes as that an infinite number cannot be 
increased by adding to it are made plausible 
to the layman by a non-technical demonstra- 
tion. The last chapter is on the notion of 
cause, with application to the question of free- 
will. The author finds that freedom, in any 
valuable sense, demands only that our voli- 
tions shall be the result of our own desires and 
not of an outside force. Thus philosophy, in 
the author's opinion, is becoming scientific 
through the simultaneous acquisition of new 



56 



THE DIAL 



I Jan. 16 



mercan 

Joryandwit. 



facts and logical methods. It has suffered 
much in the past from lack of modesty in 
wanting to attack the larger problems at once. 
But now it is ready to abandon all claims to 
gratify mundane desires. It does not even 
presume to prophesy about the future of the 
universe. This unpretentiousness is achieving 
its reward. The new method has already been 
successful in such time-honored problems as 
number, infinity, continuity, space, and time. 
It may be counted upon to proceed slowly from 
success to success. Mr. Russell is one of the 
many English academic writers who possess 
an- enviable gift of expression. The lucidity, 
precision, and elegance of his style are so 
compelling that even the unphilosophically 
minded will find no stumbling blocks in his 
exposition. __ 

Dr. Arthur "Wentworth Hamil- 
ton Eaton's interest in the na- 

n .-, 

tive Tories of the American 
Revolution has rendered him well fitted for 
the preparation of "The Famous Mather 
Byles" (Boston: W. A. Butterfield). Dr. 
Byles's relationships with the Mathers, his 
alliance by marriage with several of the patri- 
cian families of New England, his long pas- 
torate of a fashionable Boston church, his 
far-famed wit, and his persistent Toryism, with 
the resulting loneliness and privation of his 
old age, all help to make him a picturesque 
character. His tradition is of the sort that is 
likely to grow by accretion, and particularly 
is this true of the stories of his wit. It is 
hard to believe that the man who was capable 
of some of the best things that have been 
ascribed to him could be guilty of some of the 
worst. Dr. Eaton repeats .all the usual anec- 
dotes, generally without citing authorities, 
and, one is tempted to feel, without careful 
winnowing. In other biographical matters he 
has been thorough and apparently exact. He 
outlines the early history of the Byles family 
in America; he cites the will in which In- 
crease Mather bequeathed to his grandson, 
Mather Byles, his wearing apparel, excepting 
his chamber cloak, and, on condition that the 
legatee entered the ministry, one-fourth of 
his library; and he has unearthed the record 
of an interesting squabble between young 
Byles and James Franklin of the New En- 
gland "Courant." He traces in some detail 
Dr. Byles's long career as pastor of the Hollis 
Street Church one of the many careers that 
remind us how much social position and fam- 
ily connections signified in the early life of 
supposedly democratic Boston. After the 
Doctor openly espoused the loyalist cause the 
voices that speak of him are mostly hostile, 



and although the biographer has given to 
these only their due weight the record of the 
later years is necessarily a trifle unsatisfac- 
tory. It is notable that Dr. Eaton remarks, 
without mentioning his authorities, that 
Joseph Green, the Boston humorist and dis- 
tiller who parodied some of Dr. Byles's 
poems, "had none too amiable a feeling" 
toward the Doctor. It has usually been sup- 
posed that the two men, who were fellow- 
students at Harvard, fellow-contributors to a 
collection of poems, and later fellow-loyalists, 
were perfectly friendly in their combats of 
wit. The author has a fondness for odd col- 
locations of words, such as "It is not to any 
one difficult in these days to see why," but 
aside from frequent sentences of this sort the 
book reads pleasantly. It contains a number 
of interesting portraits, a bibliography of Dr. 
Byles's principal works, and copious notes, 
though these last are sometimes silent just 
where a citation of authority is most to be 
desired. 



The music 
of Russia. 



No one who wishes to under- 
stand Russian music will fail to 
familiarize himself with the 
writings of Mrs. Rosa Newmarch. Her book 
on Borodin and Liszt, her monograph on 
Tschaikowsky, and the volume here reviewed 
on the Russian opera all demand attention be- 
cause ,of her intimate acquaintance with the 
land, the people, and the literature of Russia, 
as well as because of her critical knowledge of 
the music of Russian composers. Her book 
on "Poetry and Progress in Russia" should 
be mentioned in this connection because in 
Russia the musician has worked side by side 
with the poet, and the advancement of the 
fatherland has been an interest dear to both. 
In "Russian Opera" (Dutton) Mrs. New- 
march covers the whole field of operatic his- 
tory in that singular and somewhat myste- 
rious country. A great part of this account, 
especially that of the earlier periods, has 
merely an historical interest. The Russian 
opera became important only in the nine- 
teenth century. It was then that the great 
composers appeared, that the great operas 
were written, that the peculiarly national 
character of Russian music was made mani- 
fest, and that the strength and weakness of 
Russian music became known to the musical 
world in the work of such cosmopolitan 
musicians as Rubenstein and Tschaikowsky, 
and of such nationalistic composers as the 
"Invincible Band," or "The Mighty Five" 
(Balakirev, Moussorgsky, Rimsky-Rorsakov, 
Borodin, and Cesar Cui). We find the two 
great critics, Serov and Stassov, obscuring as 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



57 



well as illuminating musical controversies. We 
are introduced to the somewhat antagonistic 
musical circles of Balakirev and Balaiev. We 
learn of the production of the operas that 
make Russian music perhaps the most con- 
spicuous body of purely national music in 
existence. Mrs. Newmarch has lived in Rus- 
sia, has met the principal protagonists in this 
drama, has sympathized with their efforts and 
intentions, has throughout been on the patri- 
otic side of controversies, and yet has main- 
tained a judicial attitude toward everything. 
Her book is therefore authoritative and con- 
vincing in its utterances. Perhaps she makes 
too much of the national aspects of this music 
and does not emphasize sufficiently the lim- 
itations of all merely national music, but the 
value of her criticisms and interpretations is 
not thereby seriously impaired and her view 
of the movement as a whole does not disregard 
the region where the national shows its rela- 
tions to the substantially human and univer- 
sal. The book is provided with portraits, as 
well as a number of other illustrations, and 
the index is satisfactory. Treating, as it does, 
of a subject which has by no means had the 
consideration that belongs to it, the book be- 
longs in every musical library. 



Mrs.pnkhurst', This breathing spell in the 
apologia pro woman suffrage agitation in 
England is a good time to re- 
view what that agitation has effected and to 
consider briefly its hopes for the future. 
Mrs. Emmeline Pankhurst's book, "My Own 
Story" (Hearst's), gives an excellent even 
though warmly partisan account of the move- 
ment, especially of that part in which she has 
been concerned, and closes with hopeful 
prophecies of the future. Addressing herself 
to American readers and appealing for their 
sympathies, she writes with a very telling 
directness of speech about the attitude and 
methods of the English government in seek- 
ing to withhold from women the rights to 
which it will be difficult for any candid 
reader of her book to maintain that they have 
no just claim. Even of the violent means for 
obtaining them which she so notably advo- 
cates, she makes not a bad defence if 
violence is ever defensible. Certainly as mate- 
rial for a book, her stormy experiences of the 
last few years are rich in incidents of an 
unusual and not seldom a startling nature. 
And all this vehemence and hardihood, so lit- 
tle in harmony with accepted traditions of 
what is most excellent in woman and most 
truly characteristic of her, we find to be mani- 
fested not by one disappointed in early hopes 
of domestic happiness, soured by the repulse 



of her affection, denied the privilege of moth- 
erhood, but by a woman gently nurtured in a 
happy home, wedded in young womanhood to 
the man of her choice, with whom she enjoyed 
nineteen years of sympathetic and loving com- 
panionship, and to whom, as she relates, she 
bore five children. A most interesting and 
gifted personality is this that is presented so 
frankly in "My Own Story," and at the same 
time the book is a clear and readable account 
of an important movement in English public 
life by the person most ardently devoted to 
the success of that movement. In closing her 
last chapter she feels encouraged to hope that 
further militancy on the part of women will 
be unnecessary, that past governmental mis- 
takes in the treatment of woman suffragists 
will not be repeated, and that it will be recog- 
nized how impossible is the task of "crushing 
or even delaying the march of women towards 
their rightful heritage of political liberty and 
social and industrial freedom." The book is 
well illustrated, even to the point of including 
certain views of its writer in situations not 
exactly enhancing her dignity. 



' ' Biblical Libraries, ' ' as used by 
Book-collections j) r Ernest Gushing Richardson 

in earliest times. . i ,1 L*ii.t j .a 

in his book thus entitled, does 
not mean collections of bibles, or libraries 
mentioned in the Bible, but book-collections 
worthy of the name of library "in Biblical 
places in Biblical times"; and, quite unlike 
the snakes of Ireland, they were, he believes, 
very numerous "thousands or even tens of 
thousands, containing millions of written 
books or documents." As in his immediately 
preceding book, "The Beginnings of Libra- 
ries," the author gives to the name "library," 
perhaps wisely, a more inclusive meaning 
than, for example, the Assyriologists might 
be inclined to allow. "Archives" might well 
enough be the term used by them instead of 
"libraries," he admits, if they were writing 
only for one another; "but their case is a 
little different in this matter from the case of 
metaphysicians or crytographers [cryptog- 
raphers?], for the books of these men, unlike 
those of metaphysicians and mathematicians, 
are keenly desired to be read by ordinary mor- 
tals, the field is one of general interest and the 
works of these men the very best work done in 
the field." This keen desire on the part of 
ordinary mortals to read the writings of 
Assyriologists has not before been generally 
noted; its existence is a hopeful sign in the 
world of letters. Mr. Richardson's diligence 
has gathered material from the works of 
archaeologists, epigraphists, Egyptologists, and 
others, to fill a book of more than two hundred 



58 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 16 



pages, and a score and a half of helpful illus- 
trations are interspersed. The work is well 
done, and one is the more willing to commend 
it because of the author's modest preliminary 
remark concerning his necessarily somewhat 
desultory chapters, that "such value as they 
have lies chiefly in the fact that those who 
could do the work better do not do it at all. ' ' 
As is already known to many, Dr. Richard- 
son is librarian of Princeton University ; and 
so it naturally follows that the Princeton 
University Press issues his book. 



Paris in time 
of anarchy. 



Such scenes of tumult as may 
possibly be repeated before long 
in one or more of the capitals of 
Europe are stirringly presented by Mr. 
Ernest Alfred Vizetelly in "My Adventures 
in the Commune" (Duffield). At the close of 
the siege of Paris, he returned with his father 
and brother to the harassed and disorganized 
city, and the three were present during the 
weeks of turbulence that followed. Both 
things actually seen and things learned on 
good authority are recounted by this expe- 
rienced chronicler of rather exciting personal 
adventure. Among other excesses of the 
Communists he witnessed,, for example, the 
burning of the guillotine in what is now the 
Place Voltaire, and the conflagrations, as he 
calls them, of the Prefecture of Police and 
the Palais de Justice. Indeed, he gave some 
hours to pumping and to the passing of buck- 
ets at the latter fire. He also remembers 
listening to a public speech from Louise 
Michel, the so-called Red Virgin of the Com- 
mune. These and numerous other personal 
touches give life to his detailed account of 
Parisian events in these memorable months. 
Narrow escapes, too, from personal injury or 
even death are not wanting, as where he de- 
scribes his casual conversation with a plumber 
near the Gare Saint-Lazare, and its abrupt 
termination by the entrance of a bullet into 
the workman's temple and the whistling of 
others in the immediate vicinity. The duties 
of a journalist seem to have made necessary 
the author's exposure of himself to the perils 
of the time and place, and to this necessity 
the book is indebted for much of its stirring 
quality. In one sense a sequel to the same 
writer's earlier volume, "My Days of Adven- 
ture," which tells the story of the famous 
siege, the work is nevertheless well able to 
stand on its own merits and can be read with 
entire satisfaction independently of that pre- 
vious narrative. Many illustrations from'* 
contemporary prints and photographs enliven 
its pages. 



The teacher of ^ n Oberlehrer is a teacher in a 
the German German secondary school, that 

secondary school. ^ ^ & claflsical "gy mna sium," 

or its modern scientific equivalent. The evo- 
lution of this class of German school-master 
is traced in concise, clear outlines by Dr. W. 
S. Learned of the Carnegie Foundation for 
the Advancement of Teaching (Harvard 
University Press). The book is based to a 
great extent on the late Professor Paulsen's 
"Geschichte des gelehrten Unterrichts. " 
The author shows how the Oberlehrer was but 
a functionary of the church until the latter 
part of the eighteenth century, and how since 
his emancipation from ecclesiastical control he 
has gradually developed collective conscious- 
ness until his profession now ranks in dig- 
nity and importance, if not in emoluments, 
with the higher branches of law and medi- 
cine. The changes in educational outlook are 
also fully discussed, more especially the 
broadening curriculum of the last several 
decades since the monopoly of the classics 
was broken. Dr. Learned has a vision of the 
time when American teachers shall be even 
more rigorously selected, more amply and 
purposefully trained than are our lawyers 
and doctors. He finds in German educational 
conditions many features which we may 
profitably imitate. America, he believes, is 
greatly inferior in basal education and speci- 
fic training. Our teachers are more loosely 
organized and are too prone to regard their 
occupation as a stepping-stone to other 
things. But with German solidarity goes 
much deadening routine. The freedom, 
initiative, and responsibility which the Amer- 
ican teachers possess constitute a . priceless 
asset. The author believes further that the 
segregation of the sexes in the German schools 
has been carried too far, though he admits 
that the elementary schools in America have 
been excessively feminized. 



The education 
of girls. 



A more accurate title for Pro- 
fessor William A. McKeever's 
"The Industrial Training of 
the Girl" (Macmillan) would be "Training 
the Girl for the Home." The author ignores 
all other types of industry in which the girl 
might engage, and devotes his attention al- 
most wholly to the training of the girl for 
domestic occupations. The most remarkable 
characteristic of the book is the author's 
unqualified faith in the happy results which 
he believes will follow the adoption of his 
rather general programme for the instruction 
of the girl. Take, for instance, the optimistic 
statement: "Plain cooking, plain sewing, 
plain serving, and plain every-day living 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



59 



once the ordinary girl has had her life well- 
defined and grounded in the principles of 
these common things, she has certainly made 
all the necessary beginnings of a beautiful 
and happy career." Again, in another chap- 
ter, he suggests a plan whereby the teacher 
would grade the girl in her monthly report on 
all the ordinary subjects taught in the school, 
and the parent in the same report would 
grade her on washing dishes, sweeping and 
dusting, preparing meals, darning and mend- 
ing, plain sewing, tending the baby, etc. 
Leaving aside the question of the practica- 
bility of such a plan, it is doubtful whether 
the results would justify the author's enthu- 
siastic statement that "Thus the personality 
of the ordinary young woman of the future 
will have been made rich and deep in sym- 
pathy and service, full and strong in force 
and magnanimity, serene and poised through 
the inclusion of the higher things of the 
spirit." 

BRIEFER MENTION. 

Uniform in size with Mr. Sonnenschein's " The 
Best Books " and Dr. Ernest A. Baker's " Guide 
to the Best Fiction in English " is the stout volume, 
"A Concordance to the Poetical and Dramatic 
Works of Alfred, Lord Tennyson" (Macmillan), 
compiled by Mr. Arthur E. Baker, F.R.Hist.8. 
About 150,000 quotations and references are given, 
alphabetized on the keyword and classified accord- 
ing to its context or grammatical function. That 
the list of omitted words (words for which no 
quotation is furnished) includes less than two hun- 
dred fifty entries, in itself bespeaks the compre- 
hensiveness of the compiler's plan. Over eight 
years ago Mr. Baker, then in touch with public 
library activities in the north of England, felt the 
need of a reference work like this, and started the 
task of compilation which, completed after years 
of fruitful industry, will be of great value to the 
librarian, the student of English literature, and the 
public speaker. 

Most of Miss Helen Dawes Brown's little book, 
"Talks to Freshman Girls" (Houghton), is com- 
posed of advice and suggestions about the very 
things that are emphasized especially in the talks 
of deans and instructors to girls in their first year 
in college the art of reading, the use of the pen, 
and studies " for delight, for ornament, and for 
ability." Such advice, when as well expressed as it 
is in these .. brief essays, serves for momentary 
inspiration to the college girl, but it does not really 
get at the heart of the most pressing problems of 
her freshman year. At the end of the book, how- 
ever, in her last and shortest chapter, which she 
entitles " Everyday Living," the author touches 
briefly upon some topics that really come home to 
the girl in a vital way. An entire volume in which 
each one of these questions could be elaborated 
and thoroughly discussed would probably prove of 
much more practical and lasting value to the col- 
lege girl than the present book. 



A translation of M. Arzibashef's notorious novel, 
" Sanine," is announced by Mr. B. W. Huebsch. 

The good news comes from London that Profes- 
sor Gilbert Murray will soon be ready to publish 
his translation of Euripides's "Alcestis." 

" Memories of Forty Years " by the Princess 
Catherine Radziwill is announced for immediate 
publication by the Funk & Wagnalls Co. 

A translation of the historical works of Treit- 
schke, edited by Mr. William Archer, will be pub- 
lished by Messrs. McBride, Nast & Co. The work 
is expected to be complete in six volumes. 

A new edition of Mrs. Gertrude Atherton's 
" Resanov " and " The Doomswoman " is to be 
published this month by Messrs. Frederick A. 
Stokes Co. under the title of " Before the Gringo 
Came." 

Twenty-nine poems by Robert Browning and six 
poems by Mrs. Browning not hitherto published 
will be included in a volume to be published next 
week by the Macmillan Co. under the title of 
" New Poems." 

Mr. H. G. Wells's novel, "Bealby," which ran 
serially in " Collier's Weekly." is announced for 
early publication by the Macmillan Co. Among 
other novels which this house will bring out shortly 
are Mr. Winston Churchill's "A Far Country " and 
Mr. St. John G. Ervine's " Mrs. Martin's Man." 

"Possession," a fourth volume of Mr. George 
Middleton's plays, is announced for publication in 
February by Messrs. Henry Holt & Co. This house 
will also bring out Miss Constance D'Arcy Mack- 
ay's book " How to Produce Plays for Children " 
and Miss Maud Frank's " Short Plays about 
Famous Authors." 

The first volume of the " Graphic Art Series " 
edited by Mr. Joseph Pennell, which Mr. Fisher 
Unwin has announced in London, is to be " Lithog- 
raphy and Lithographers: Some Chapters on the 
History of the Art," by Mrs. Elizabeth Robins Pen- 
nell. The second volume, " Etching," will be writ- 
ten by Mr. Pennell. 

Mr. Gilbert K. Chesterton's novel, " The Wisdom 
of Father Brown," will be published this month by 
Messrs. John Lane Co. simultaneously with Mr. 
Horace W. C. Newte's "A Pillar of Salt" and 
Miss Alice Birkhead's "Gabrielle." Later this com- 
pany will publish Miss Anne Warwick's story 
" The Chalk Line " and a new novel by Mr. Ford 
Madox Hueffer. 

A volume entitled " Essays on Chaucer," by 
Professor George Lyman Kittredge, is one of sev- 
eral books announced for early publication by the 
Harvard University Press. These include " The 
History of Allegory in Spain," by Mr. Chandler 
Post ; " The Poems of Giacomo da Lentino," 
edited by Mr. E. F. Langley ; " The Super- 
natural in Tragedy," by Mr. Charles Edward 
Whitmore ; " Some Aspects of the Tariff Prob- 
lem," by Professor Frank Taussig; "The Trust 
Problem," by Mr. E. Dana Durand; and "An 
Approach to Business Problems," by Mr. Arch 
Wilkinson Shaw. 



60 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 16 



LIST OF NEW BOOKS. 



[The following list, containing 89 titles, includes books 
received by THE DIAL since its last issue.] 

BIOGRAPHY AND REMINISCENCES. 

Life of Benjamin Disraeli (Earl of Beaconsfield). 
By William Flavelle Monypenny and Georgo 
Earle Buckle. Volume III., 1540-1855^ Illustrated 
in photogravure, large 8vo, 591 pages. Macmillan 
Co. $3. net. 

A Walloon Family in America: Lockwood de Forest 
and His Forbears, 1500-1848. By Mrs. Robert W. 
de Forest. In 2 volumes; illustrated in photo- 
gravure, etc., large 8vo. Houghton Miffiin Co. 
$5. net. 

Sir George Etienne Cartier, Bart: His Life and 
Times. By John Boyd. Illustrated in photo- 
gravure, etc., large 8vo, 439 pages. Macmillan Co. 

Personal Memoirs of John H. Brinton. With photo- 
gravure portrait, 8vo, 361 pages. Neale Pub- 
lishing Co. $2. net. 

Life of Turner Ashby. By Thomas A. Ashby, M.D. 
With portrait, 8vo, 275 pages. Neale Publishing 
Co. $1.50 net. 

Diary of Nelson Kingsley: A California Argonaut 
of 1849. Edited by Frederick J. Teggart. 8vo. 
179 pages. Berkeley: University of California. 
Paper. 

The Story of Wendell Phillips: Soldier of the Com- 
mon Good. By Charles Edward Russell. 16mo, 
185 pages. Charles H. Kerr & Co. 50 cts. net. 

HISTORY. 

The Revolutionary Period in Europe (1763-1815). 
By Henry Eldridge Bourne. 8vo, 494 pages. 
Century Co. $2.50 net. 

A History of the Peninsular War. By Charles 
Oman. Volume V.; illustrated, large 8vo, 634 
pages. Oxford University Press. $4.75 net. 

A History of Old Kinderhook. By Edward A. Col- 
lier, D.D. Illustrated, large 8vo, 572 pages. 
G. P. Putnam's Sons. $5. net. 

A History of the Civil War in the United States. 
By Vernon Blythe, M.D. With map, 8vo, 411 
pages. Neale Publishing Co. $2. net. 

The Balkan "Wars, 1912-1913. By Jacob Gould 
Schurman. Second edition; 12mo, 140 pages. 
Princeton University Press. $1. net. 

From Bull Run to Appomattox: A Boy's View. By 
Luther W. Hopkins. Illustrated, 12mo, 311 
pages. Baltimore: Fleet-McGinley Co. 

Croscup's Historical Chart of the European Na- 
tions: Their Origin and Development. Large 
8vo. New York: Graphic Text Book Co. Paper. 

GENERAL LITERATURE. 

Publications of the Dramatic Museum of Columbia 
University. First volumes: The New Art of 
Writing Plays, by Lope de Vega, translated by 
William T. Brewster, with Introduction by 
Brander Matthews; The Autobiography of a 
Play, by Bronson Howard, with Introduction by 
Augustus Thomas; The Law of the Drama, by 
Ferdinand Brunetiere, with Introduction by 
Henry Arthur Jones; Robert Louis Stevenson a? 
a Dramatist, by Arthur Wing Pinero, with In- 
troduction by Clayton Hamilton. Each largo 
8vo. New York: Dramatic Museum of Columbia 
University. 

Letters from and to Joseph Joachim. Selected and 
translated by Nora Bickley; with Preface by 
J. A. Fuller-Maitland. Illustrated in photo- 
gravure, etc., large 8vo, 470 pages. Macmillan 
Co. $3.75 net. 

Masters of English Literature. By Edwin Watts 
Chubb, Litt.D. 12mo, 446 pages. A. C. McClurg 
& Co. $1.50 net. 

Mr. Chamberlain's Speeches. Edited by Charles W. 
Boyd; with Introduction by the Right Hon. 
Austen Chamberlain. M.P. In 2 volumes, large 
8vo. Houghton Mifflin Co. $5. net. 

The Press and Poetry of Modern Persia. By Edward 
G. Browne, M.A. Illustrated, 8vo, 357 pages. 
G. P. Putnam's Sons. $3. net. 

Depreciations. By B. Russell Herts. 12mo, 170 
pages. Albert & Charles Boni. $1.25 net. 

Dreamthorp: With Selections from "Last Leaves." 
By Alexander Smith; with Introduction by Hugh 
Walker, LL.D. 16mo, 319 pages. "World's 
Classics." Oxford University Press. 

DRAMA AND VERSE. 

Satires of Circumstance: Lyrics and Reveries, with 
Miscellaneous Pieces. By Thomas Hardy. 12mo, 
230 pages. Macmillan Co. $1.50 net. 

Beside the Blackwater. By Norreys Jephson 
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Sonnets of a Portrait-painter. By Arthur Davison 
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$1. net. 

Erdgeist (Earth-spirit): A Tragedy in Four Acts. 
By Frank Wedekind; translated from the Ger- 
man by Samuel A. Eliot, Jr. 12mo, 93 pages. 
Albert & Charles Boni. $1. net. 

" Der Tag "; or, The Tragic Man. By J. M. Barrie. 
Svo, 20 pages. Charles Scribner's Sons. 25 cts. net. 

Thoughts in Verse for My Friends. By John Bonus, 
Ph.D. With portrait, 12mo, 84 pages. Long- 
mans, Green & Co. $1.25 net. 

Oxford Garlands. Selected by R. M. Leonard. New 
volumes: Poems on Travel; Poems on Children; 
Poems on the Arts. Each 16mo. Oxford Uni- 
versity Press. 

War Songs. Selected by Christopher Stone; with 
Introduction by General Sir Ian Hamilton. 16mo, 
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Sea Songs and Ballads. Selected by Christopher 
Stone; with Introduction by Admiral Sir Cyprian 
Bridge, G.C.B. 12mo, 213 pages. Oxford Uni- 
versity Press. 35 cts. net. 

Lyra Nlgeriee. By Adamu (E. C. Adams). 12mo, 
110 pages. T. Fisher Unwin. 

A Bar of Song. By Henry E. Harman. Illustrated, 
large Svo, 124 pages. Columbia, S. C.: The Stats 
Co. $1.50 net. 

Loaves for Hyacinths. By George M. P. Baird. 
Svo, 56 pages. Pittsburgh: The Aldine Press. 

From the Outposts. By Cullen Gouldsbury. 12mo, 
122 pages. London: T. Fisher Unwin. 

Poems. By George W. Cronyn. 12mo, 72 pages. 
Albert & Charles Boni. 

The Lutanist. By Alice Wilson. 12mo, 96 pages. 
Richard G. Badger. 

The Sweet Miracle. By Ega de Queiroz; done into 
English by Edgar Prestage. 16mo, 35 pages. 
Oxford: B. H. Blackwell. 

Something Beyond, and Other Poems: Recreations 
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With portrait, 12mo,' 120 pages. Richard G. 
Badger. 

Jael: A Poetic Drama in One Act. By Florence 
Kiper Frank. 16mo, 30 pages. The Chicago 
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Little Old Belgium. By Reginald Wright Kauff- 
man. 18mo, 79 pages. Philadelphia: Henry 
Altemus Co. 50 cts. net. 

FICTION. 

Sleeping Waters. By John Trevena. 12mo, 456 
pages. Mitchell Kennerley. $1.35 net. 

The Awakening. By Henry Bordeaux; translated 
from the French by Ruth Helen Davis. 12mo, 
438 pages. E. P. Dutton & Co. $1.35 net. 

The Lone Star Ranger: A Romance of the Barder. 
By Zane Grey. With frontispiece, 12mo, 373 
pages. Harper & Brothers. $1.35 net. 

Shepherdless Sheep. By Essex Smith. 12mo, 320 
pages. London: T. Fisher Unwin. 

Paying the Price! By Hope Daring. With frontis- 
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Moon-stories. By Mary Ellis Robins. 16mo, 119 
pages. Woodstock, N. Y.: The Maverick Press. 
Paper. 

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The Individual Delinquent: A Text-book of Diag- 
nosis and Prognosis for All Concerned in Under- 
standing Offenders. By William Healy, M.D. 
Large Svo, 830 pages. Little, Brown & Co. 
$5. net. 

Intervention and Colonization in Africa. By Norman 
Dwight Harris; with Introduction by James T. 
Shotwell. Illustrated, Svo, 384 pages. Houghton 
Mifflin Co. $2. net. 

Money and Banking. By John Thorn Holdsworth, 
Ph.D. 12mo, 439 pages. D. Appleton & Co. 
$2. net. 

A History of French Public Law. By Jean Brissaud; 
translated by James W. Garner, with Introduc- 
tions by Harold D. Hazeltine and Westel W. 
Willoughby. Large Svo, 581 pages. " Conti- 
nental Legal History Series." Little, Brown & 
Co. $4.50 net. 

What "Women "Want: An Interpretation of the Fem- 
inist Movement. By Beatrice Forbes-Robertson 
Hale. 12mo, 307 pages. F. A. Stokes Co. $1.25 net. 

Economic Cycles: Their Law and Cause. By Henry 
Ludwell Moore. Svo, 149 pages. Macmillan Co. 
$2. net. 

Problems of Power. By W. Morton Fullerton. Re- 
vised edition; Svo, 390 pages. Charles Scribner's 
Sons. $2.25 net. 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



61 



BOOKS ABOUT THE WAR. 

The Diplomatic HLstory of the War. Edited by 
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Scribner's Sons. $2.25 net. 

Treitochke and the Great War. By Joseph McCabe. 
12mo, 287 pages. Frederick A. Stokes Co. $1. net. 

The Political Thought of Helnrtch von Treltschke. 
By H. W. C. Davis, M.A. Large 8vo, 295 pages*. 
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Britain as Germany's Vassal. By Priedrich von 
Bernhardi; translated from the German by J. 
Ellis Barker. 12mo, 255 pages. George H. Doran 
Co. $1. net. 

Prance and the Next War: A French View of Mod- 
ern War. By Commandant J. Colin; translated 
by Major L. H. R. Pope-Hennesey. 12mo, 308 
pages. George H. Doran Co. $1. net. 

The World War: How It Looks to the Nations In- 
volved and What It Means to Us. By Elbert 
Francis Baldwin. 12mo, 267 pages. Macmillan 
Co. $1.25 net. 

Britain's Case against Germany: An Examination 
of the Historical Background of the German 
Action in 1914. By Ramsay Muir. 12mo, 196 
pages. Longmans, Green & Co. $1. net. 

Fatherland. By Will Levington Comfort. 12mo, 58 
pages. George H. Doran Co. 25 cts. net. 

ART AND ARCHITECTURE. 

Winslow Homer. By Kenyon Cox. Illustrated in 
color and photogravure, large 8vo, 66 pages. 
" Limited Edition." Frederick Fairchild Sher- 
man. $12.50. 

Vaudeville. By Caroline Coffin; with pictures in 
color, etc., by Marius de Zayas. 8vo, 231 pages. 
Mitchell Kennerley. $3. net. 

The English Parish Church: An Account of the 
Chief Building Types and of Their Materials 
during Nine Centuries. By J. Charles Fox, 
LL.D. Illustrated, 8vo, 338 pages. Charles 
Scribner's Sons. 

EDUCATION. 

Confessions of a Schoolmaster, and Other Essays. 
By Lewis R. Harley, Ph.D. 12mo, 156 pages. 
J. B. Lippincott Co. $1. net. 

The Industrial Training of the Girl. By William 
A. McKeever. Illustrated, 12mo, 82 pages. Mac- 
millan Co. 50 cts. net. 

Beowulf: A Metrical Translation into Modern 
English. By John R. Clark Hall. 12mo, 114 
pages. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 



New Practice-book in English Composition. By 
Alfred M. Hitchcock. 12mo. 447 pages. Henry 
Holt & Co. 

The Journal of the Joint Committee of Fifteen on 
Reconstruction. By Benjamin B. Kendrlck, 
Ph.D. Large 8vo, 415 pages. Columbia Uni- 
versity Press. Paper. 

Materials for the Study of I'.unlisli Literature and 
Composition. Edited by Frank Aydelotte. 12mo, 
446 pages. Oxford University Press. 75cts.net. 

The Organization and Administration of a State's 
Institutions of Higher Education. By Arthur 
Lefevre. Large 8vo, 524 pages. Austin, Texas: 
Von Boeck-Mann-Jones Co. Paper. 

Shorter German Poems. Selected and edited by 
James Taft Hatfleld. 16mo, 110 pages. D. C. 
Heath & Co. 35 cts. net. 

Essentials of German. By B. J. Vos. Fourth edi- 
tion, revised. 12mo, 349 pages. Henry Holt & Co. 

Gulliver's Travels: A Voyage to Lilliput and a 
Voyage to Brobdingnag. By Jonathan Swift, 
D.D.; edited by Edward K. Robinson. Illus- 
trated, 16mo, 256 pages. Ginn & Co. 40 cts. net. 

Le Ble qul Leve. Par Ren6 Bazin; edited by Theo- 
dore Lee Neff. Illustrated, 16mo, 300 pages. 
Henry Holt & Co. 

Gmndziige der deutschen Grammatlk. Von B. J. 
Vos. 12mo, 46 pages. Henry Holt & Co. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

On the Cosmic Relations. By Henry Holt. In 2 
volumes, large 8vo. Houghton Mifflin Co. $5. net. 

The Oil Conquest of the World. By Frederick A. 
Talbot. Illustrated, 8vo, 310 pages. "Conquests 
of Science Series." J. B. Lippincott Co. $1.50 net. 

Brittany with Bergere. By William M. E. White- 
lock; with pictures by Decima. 12mo, 152 pages. 
Richard G. Badger. $1.50 net. 

Self-training for Mothers. By Mrs. Burton Chance. 
12mo, 278 pages. J. B. Lippincott Co. $1.25 net. 

Operations upon the Sea: A Study. By Freiherr 
von Edelsheim. 12mo, 107 pages. New York: 
Outdoor Press. 75 cts. net. 

Report of the Librarian of Congress and Report of 
the Superintendent of the Library Building and 
Grounds, 1914. With frontispiece, large 8vo, 216 
pages. Washington: Government Printing Office. 

Negro Year Book: An Annual Encyclopedia of the 
Negro, 1914-1915. Edited by Monroe N. Work. 
8vo, 448 pages. Tuskegee Institute: Negro Year 
Book Publishing Co. Paper, 25 cts. net. 

The Water-power Problem In the United States. 
By Rome G. Brown. 8vo, 33 pages. Yale Law 
Journal. Paper. 



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64 



THE DIAL 



[Jan. 16, 1915 



COMPLETE REVIEWS OF 
THREE NEW BOOKS 




WORTHY OF SPECIAL 
ATTENTION 



THE ROSIE WORLD 

By Parker Fillmore 

Illustrated, $1.30 net 

(from The New York Evening Post) 

Many of the chapters 9f this book have appeared as 
short stories in various periodicals, but one who has read them 
piecemeal and enjoyed their rich humor and keen insight into 
human nature will be glad to read them all again, linked up as 
they are in the book. The amazing thing is how a mere_ man 
can so understand the vagaries of several kinds of femininity, 
from forty-or-so-year-old Maggie O'Brien down to little 
Geraldine, in the throes of teething during the mid-summer 
heat of New York. At least, if he does not really understand, 
in his own mind, he gives such a good imitation of it that 
most women who read will have a little prick of self-con- 
sciousness behind their smiles. Rosie herself is one of the 
sweetest creations in present-day fiction. She has no more sense 
of humor then John Shand himself, but when one has not a 
tear in the eye over her bigheartedness, her earnestness in 
doing what she believes to be her duty, he has tears in both 
eyes over the Irish humor of the situations that her earnest- 
ness and lack of humor so often call out. To one who enjoys 
genuine humor, without a hint of coarseness, who prefers little 
pictures from life that leave a good taste in the mouth, and who 
appreciates the setting forth of such pictures in good English, 
this collection will be distinctly welcome. 



BELSHAZZAR COURT 

Or Village Life in New York City 

By Simeon Strunsky 

$1.25 net 

(From The Nation) 

With a typically incongruous turn, Simeon Strunsky 
entitles his latest volume "Belshazzar Court, or Village Life 
in New York City" (Holt; $1.25 net). Readers of the Atlantic 
Monthly will recognize most of these "field notes" on the 
New Yorker in his apartment house or on the street, in the 
theatre or at the baseball park.' To the cosmopolitan these 
covertly serious essays will present a humorous picture of 
life as it is endured in Manhattan. To the Gothamite they 
will seem a brilliant review of familiar but unregarded phases 
of his own existence. For they are indeed packed with shrewd, 
often penetrating, observation of public manners and homely 
customs. Most readers may be more taken with the writer's 
fresh, quaint, witty, or hyperbolical way of putting things, 
since he has made his chief bid for popularity as a humorist. 
He has, to be sure, a sharp eye for the inconsistencies and 
insincerities of both our conduct and our ideals, and it must 
be conceded that there is seldom a dull page in all his wander- 
ing remarks. But his pleasantry is not the jolly English 
humor_of eccentricity, with laughter holding both his sides, 
nor is it the hearty American humor of exaggeration, artfully 
leading up to some surprising or grotesque conclusion. It 
is an intellectual humor that plays around ideas, finding an 
unexpected truth in apparent absurdity. In all likelihood, 
therefore, the discriminating conner of Mr. Strunsky's para- 
graphs will set greatest store by the restless light of reason 
that flashes upon or lingers about every topic considered. 
By Matthew Arnold his lucubrations would surely be pro- 
nounced literature, for the criticism of life is always just 
beneath the rippling, eddying surface of the style. His is 
far from being the easy paradoxical scintillation of the social 
revolutionist. On the contrary, the author plays the doubting 
Thomas with regard to most of the educational, theatrical, 
and other fads with which our progressive age is rife. He even 
complacently pokes fun at Bernard Shaw with roguish incon- 
sistency, seeing that in his own volume the pages have to be 
cut at the bottom. In fine, the rare quality of the book is 
not so much the humor as the suggestive quality of the thought. 



PELLE THE CONQUEROR 

Boyhood, Apprenticeship 

By Martin Andersen Nexo 

$1.40 net, each volume 
(From The New Republic) 

A Danish Epic 

From the moment when the Swedish boat lands little 
Pelle and his old father Lasse on the shores of _ the island 
of Bornholm, our imaginations are caught in this northern 
world which, strange as it is in its primitive simplicity, is 
yet made glowingly real by the sympathy of genius. Few 
foreign stories place you more seductively in the very heart 
of the life they depict than this epic of a workingman's life 
in modern Denmark. Only a rare spiritual fidelity to per- 
sonal experience could produce the color and movement and 
wisdom and good will of this story. We are told that the 
author was himself a shoemaker's apprentice in the Baltic 
island, and then, like Pelle, was sucked away into the many- 
towered capital. Here he worked as a bricklayer until 
he was rescued by one of the "people's high schools," those 
wonderful Danish popular universities scattered about the 
land, where farmers and bricklayers, kitchen-maids and 
clerks, come to spend a few arduous and fascinated months 
of their lives in the study oh, these sober northern people! 
of history and literature. This education permitted him to 
become a teacher, then the author of short stories and a book 
of reminiscences of a bright Spanish trip, and now there 
comes from him this four-volume story of his own life or 
the lives of such as he, the first volume of which, appearing 
in 1906, has already become almost a Danish classic. 

The two volumes which have been translated into En- 
glish take Pelle to the time when he leaves his island to seek 
nis fortune in Copenhagen. The life of the boy and his simple, 
patient old father as farm laborers at Stone Farm, with its 
background of wind-swept heath and the distant sea; the rough, 
jovial society of milkmaids and stablemen, with the fierce 
irascibilty of these little-tamed Norsemen; the holidays and 
the drunkenness and the lovemaking; the mystery of the old 
farmhouse with its kind, sensual master and the woe of the 
jealous mistress; the grim old Protestant superstitions of _the 
community; the life of the small farmers lived so hardily against 
a cold and niggardly nature; the reiterated themes of peasant 
life, the wresting of a homestead from the moor, the seductions, 
the fatalistic waiting of the old people for death; all this, 
seen through the aimless play and riotous imagination of 
childhood, makes "Boyhood" a book of such charm that one 
scarcely knows whether to admire it most for its poetry or its 
realism, its imaginative power or its loyalty to life. 



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Vol. LVIII. FEBRUARY 1, 1915 No. 687 



CONTENTS. 



PAGR 

. 67 



"THE YELLOW BOOK" 

THE POETS OF BELGIUM. Arthur L. Salmon 69 

CASUAL COMMENT 71 

The engrossing theme. An educational prob- 
lem. A new light in French literature. A 
self-congratulatory editor. The catholicity 
of popular taste in fiction. Poetry in war- 
time. The drama as an instrument of re- 
form. The popularization of culture. 

COMMUNICATION '. . . . . 73 

" Mommsen and the War." O. E. Lessing. 

THE VARIOUSLY ACCOMPLISHED LORD 

AVEBURY. Percy F. Bicknell .... 74 

THE DRAMA MOVEMENT. Grant Showerman 76 
THE NEW FRANCE. James W. Garner ... 78 

STUDIES IN THE HISTORY OF ART. Sidney 

Fiske Kimoall 80 

YOUNG OF THE "NIGHT THOUGHTS." 

Homer E. Woodoridge 81 

INTERPRETERS OF MUSIC. Louis James 

Block 82 

NOTES ON NEW NOVELS 85 

BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS ........ 86 

The Department of State. A British ad- 
miral's retrospect. The life of a great singer. 
The mind of Dostoieffsky. Wonders and 
riches of the Pacific coast. The biological 
basis of human action. Sir Walter Raleigh 
and Shakespeare. 

BRIEFER MENTION 89 

NOTES 90 

TOPICS IN FEBRUARY PERIODICALS ... 90 
LIST OF NEW BOOKS , . 91 



THE YELLOW BOOK." 



The notion that the years from 1891 to 1898 
were a period of decadence in English letters 
is already a legend. The London c ' Times ' ' hit 
it off very well when it called them "the yel- 
low nineties. " It is a new word, in its present 
sense, is it not ? Perhaps it goes back farther 
than 1891, but we doubt it. Whistler made 
the color fashionable about that time, and pos- 
sibly it came to have a vague connection in the 
mind of the day with his personality, so vivid, 
so contemptuous, and so little understood. It 
is the fate of all such spirits, careless of the 
morality of security and ruthless in the prac- 
tice of that virtue of which mediocrity is inno- 
cent, to be regarded by their contemporaries as 
strange, then morbid, and, finally, wicked. 
But Whistler's fondness for yellow probably 
did little more than to suggest by indirection 
the title of "The Yellow Book." Nothing 
more was required to give a name to the lit- 
erary and artistic character of the decade. 
The adjective has come to describe irresponsi- 
ble sensationalism in the newspapers. But it 
calls up very readily sensationalism in art; 
and "The Yellow Book" seems likely to be 
remembered as an epitome of the exotic, the 
bizarre, the wicked, of "art for art's sake," 
and the fin de siecle. 

A certain humor, bitter enough to those who 
care passionately about the art of literature 
but not unpleasant to the ironic spirit, attaches 
to the legend of ' ' The Yellow Book. ' ' For the 
thirteen volumes of that quarterly still exist 
and may be compared with the fable that has 
grown up about them. 

The first number, that of April, 1894, led off 
with a design by Sir Frederick Leighton, than 
whom there was no more respectable artist liv- 
ing. This page was immediately followed by 
a story, "The Death of the Lion," by Mr. 
Henry James, who had not then written 
' ' What Maisie Knew. ' ' One of the poems was 
by Mr. A. C. Benson and one of the essays by 
Mr. Edmund Gosse. An article by Arthur 
Waugh on "Reticence in Literature" de- 
fended, though rather on behalf of art than 
on behalf of morality, the Victorian tradition 



68 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 1 



as to the representation of passion in fiction 
and poetry. Was it then so very devilish ? 

Philip Gilbert Hamerton, who will be re- 
membered by some readers as the author of 
"The Intellectual Life" and by others along 
with Harry Quilter as the victim of Whistler 
but by no one as anything but representative 
of Victorian appreciation in art and litera- 
ture, did not think so. He was invited by 
Henry Harland, who must have been almost 
as astute as some contemporary magazine edi- 
tors, to write for the second volume of "The 
Yellow Book" a review of the first. He found 
two contributors whom we have not so far 
mentioned, Aubrey Beardsley and Mr. Arthur 
Symons, to complain of. He recognized 
Beardsley 's quality, while objecting to his 
morbidity. He resented Mr. Symons 's poem, 
"Stella Maris," observing that it was of the 
fashion set by Eossetti's "Jenny." And he 
thought badly of an editor who permitted a 
defence of reticence to contain, even as an 
example of what should be avoided, three 
stanzas of Swinburne's "Dolores." But Mr. 
Hamerton concluded his criticism with this 
sentence : 

" On the whole, the literature in the first number 
of ' The Yellow Book ' is adequately representa- 
tive of the modern English literary mind, both in 
the observation of reality and in style." 

Of the illustrations he wrote : 

" On the whole, these illustrations decidedly pre- 
suppose real artistic culture in the public. They 
do not condescend in any way to what might be 
guessed at as the popular taste." 

In the three years that followed, "The 
Yellow Book" was never more shocking than 
in that first number. A contemporary reader 
is struck, in looking through "The Yellow 
Book," with the number of serious and re- 
spectable names in the tables of contents. 
Mr. Enoch Arnold Bennett and Mr. H. G. 
Wells are there, as well as Mr. James. Mr. 
Harland was himself a frequent contributor. 
So was Ella D'Arcy. There is even an essay 
on Stendhal of all subjects by our own 
Mr. Norman Hapgood. 

Is not the legend of the yellow "Yellow 
Book" a little absurd? 

Perhaps there is more reason in it than 
appears. The Victorian spirit may have been 
as commonplace as the artistic spirit imagines 
it to have been; but it was not blind to its 
enemies. It saw Beardsley in "The Yellow 
Book" and sensed, if it did not know, that Sir 



Frederick Leighton was no match for him. It 
saw very little of Mr. Symons 's verse. But it 
may very well have felt the man behind that 
little, the man who was so fundamentally 
opposed in his view of art and letters to all 
that, in the cliche of our own day, was "sane." 
What it sensed or felt we have recorded for us 
in the meaning which attaches to "yellow." 
It did not matter that Symons and Beardsley 
left "The Yellow Book" in order to create, in 
"The Savoy," a more genuine magazine. 
Their names and their view were first asso- 
ciated with the earlier publication ; or, rather, 
the earlier publication was first associated with 
their names and their view. It did not matter 
that Oscar Wilde never contributed to either 
magazine. The smash-up of his career as a 
personality was widely regarded as proof that 
the influence of "The Yellow Book" on litera- 
ture was evil. 

The irony, of course, is not so much that 
everybody who cared for beauty and truth in 
art should have suffered for the scandal which 
swallowed Oscar Wilde. Anything else would 
be too much to expect. The irony is to be 
found rather in the predicament of criticism. 
Whistler thought criticism was merely stupid. 
It has sometimes been worse ; it has sometimes 
been cowardly. Criticism was intelligent 
enough to know that the men of the nineties 
had done work that was fine and strong. It 
knew that, after all, the immortal music of 
"Non sum qualis eram bonae sub regno 
Cynarae ' ' was infinitely more important in the 
consideration of Ernest Dowson than the 
morality of his way of life. It knew that 
Beardsley 's mastery of design was the signifi- 
cant thing and the pre-occupation which was 
revealed in his romance ' ' Under the Hill ' ' the 
insignificant thing. It knew how much more 
important it is to literature that Oscar Wilde 
wrote "The Ballad of Reading Gaol" than 
that he should have been put in prison. But 
criticism had not the courage of its knowledge. 
Compelled, on the whole, to sympathize with 
the art of these men and those whose names 
are associated with theirs, it has paid its re- 
spects to public opinion by emphasizing always 
their physical and moral weakness and never 
their artistic strength. 

If we were all so moral that we were always 
ready to recognize that which is moral and to 
flee from that which is of ill-repute, we should 
have created a very different legend about 
"The Yellow Book." It is all very well to 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



69 



draw away from men who seem to have little 
responsibility in their personal relations. But 
it is not good to be blind to a supreme virtue. 
And there is no denying that men like Beards- 
ley and Dowson had a supreme virtue. 

If they were not true to everything to which 
we demand allegiance they were true to the 
best thing in them. It is no piece of rhetoric 
that furnishes the refrain to Dowson 's poem: 

" I have been faithful to thee, Cynara, in my 
fashion." 

It is the precise truth. He was faithful to an 
ideal of art. And so was Beardsley. They 
literally died for it. 



TEE POETS OF BELGIUM. 

Belgium, though lately she has lain crushed 
and bleeding under the heel of a ruthless 
invader, has nevertheless won for herself a 
proud position among the peoples of Europe. 
She has justified her intense nationalism ; she 
has vindicated her claim to live her own life ; 
she has carried into the battle-field the ardor 
and intelligent energy that had already 
brought her to the forefront of literary na- 
tions. It is no new thing to find a great 
literary renaissance coincident with other 
more material manifestations of national 
spirit; and the Belgium that delayed the 
progress of the most powerful army in the 
world is the Belgium that had already given 
us Maeterlinck, Verhaeren, Rodenbach, Fon- 
tainas, Elskamp, and Mockel. 

Since the death of Ibsen and Tolstoi there 
can be little question that the foremost lit- 
erary reputation of to-day is that of M. Mau- 
rice Maeterlinck; his work has made a 
profound impression on the reading public of 
Europe and America. But though M. Maeter- 
linck has achieved the wider popularity, his 
fame must not blind us to others of the small 
nation that gave him birth. This little coun- 
try has been like a nest of singing-birds. The 
song of many may not have been strong 
enough to pierce to the outside world; but 
we have to remember that it takes much to 
break through the barriers of a foreign 
tongue, and that poetry in special suffers 
from difficulties of translation. Belgian poets 
also have often been taken to be Frenchmen 
by casual readers, because for the most part 
French in their literary language: so that 
against the advantage of gaining an im- 
mensely widened audience has to be set the 
disadvantage of some veiling of their nation- 
ality. It is true that some of them could have 
written equally well in Flemish M. Maeter- 
linck for instance, who is a pure Fleming; 



and a limited number have done so. But 
Flemish is simply a variant of Low-German 
or Dutch, and it offers no compensating bene- 
fits to counterbalance its narrowing of the 
audience. In spite of their writing in French, 
which is at least as much their native tongue 
as English is the native tongue of an Irish- 
man, M. Maeterlinck and M. Verhaeren may 
be claimed as entirely for Belgium as Shakes- 
peare for England, Goethe for Germany, or 
Dostoieffsky for Russia. 

M. Verhaeren has used the phrase les 
forces tumultueuses, and these are the best 
words to describe the vitality of modern Bel- 
gium. The country has been seething with 
tumultuous forces, intellectual unrest, vigor- 
ous animal spirits, pulsing life. Borrowing 
something of impulse and inspiration from its 
two great neighbors, France and Germany, 
something also from its own Flemish tradi- 
tions and from Holland, Belgian life has had 
the abundant virility so often found in things 
largely hybrid. "In no other part of Eu- 
rope," says Herr Zweig, "is life lived with 
such intensity, such gaiety. In no other coun- 
try as in Flanders is excess in sensuality and 
pleasure a function of strength." But the 
sensuality, if we must use that word, has not 
been neurotic or morbid; clearly it has not 
sapped the vigor of the people late events 
have shown them robust, heroic, strong. It is 
about thirty years since the literary new- 
birth of the people began, its centre of origin 
being the now devastated University of Lou- 
vain. It began in a spirit of licence and re- 
volt, of rebellion against authority in most 
things, not easily to be crushed by the forces 
of inertia and convention. Journals were 
started, such as "La Semaine" and "Le 
Type," only to be suppressed; and little vol- 
umes of verse began to appear, suggesting the 
influences of Verlaine and Baudelaire, and 
suggesting also that there were new voices 
quite able to speak for themselves. . 

The finest of these voices, undoubtedly, was 
that of M. Emile Verhaeren, who has lately, 
in French and British periodicals, been pour- 
ing forth the fierce anguish of his outraged 
patriotism. He was born almost sixty years 
since at St. Amand, a village in the centre of 
the recent war-district. Like M. Maeterlinck 
and Rodenbach, he was educated at the Jesuit 
college of Sainte-Barbe in Ghent. "We have 
the local scenery of his boyhood, its broad 
levels and fine atmospheric effects, its peasan- 
try, everywhere pervading his poetry. Later 
he studied law at Louvain, and had a share 
in publishing the aggressive little weekly ' ' La 
Semaine." A brief attempt at legal practice 
convinced him that literature, not law, was 



70 



THE DIAL 



[ Feb. 1 



his true mistress; and he threw himself into 
his vocation with passionate and brave ardor. 
Both plastic art and music had a powerful 
share in forming him. It is a narrow soul 
that can only be reached through one avenue, 
and M. Verhaeren's is so sensitive that at 
times there has almost seemed a lack of bal- 
ance. His first book, "Les Flamandes," was 
an outburst of crude realism ; it was a positive 
orgy of realistic detail, full of the grosser 
qualities of the old Flemish painters but pos- 
sessing also their exuberant vitality. This 
was followed in 1886 by "Les Moines, " deal- 
ing with the romantic and picturesque fea- 
tures of monasticism rather than with its 
spiritual depths. He did not go further, like 
Huysmans (who also was of Lowland de- 
scent) , to a full reconciliation with the Church. 
Humanity was his subject-matter; the monk 
was but one among the many living men and 
women that attracted him. From this time he 
passed into a spiritual "storm and stress" 
period, fighting his way through a conflict 
with material realities to a more assured 
clearness and repose of soul. It is impossible 
even to name all his volumes. In 1891 we 
find him exclaiming, "I have been a coward, 
and I have fled from the world into a great 
futile egotism"; but, 

" L'aube ouvre un beau conseil de confiance, 
Et qui Fecoute est le sauve 
De son marais, ou nul peche ne fut jamais lave." 

This is the true Verhaeren ; he has come to 
himself ' ' out of the marsh in which no sin was 
ever yet cleansed"; he has made his way 
toward mysticism, and toward a nobler han- 
dling of his material. He is still realistic, and 
never shirks ugly detail; but he has truly 
emerged from haunts of the noisome. He has 
breathed a purer and more serene atmos- 
phere ; the far horizons of his native land have 
shown him something better than mere curl- 
ing fog or driving rain. He has found that 
there is a possible loveliness, a spiritual sig- 
nificance, in the stress and toil and soil of 
human life; he has seen the magic of the 
sunset and the undying hope in the heart of 
man. 

Georges Rodenbach, M. Verhaeren's school- 
fellow, born in the same year, though he 
early left Belgium for Paris, in spirit never 
really left his beloved Bruges. He had nothing 
of his companion's bounding vitality, and his 
poetry, though graceful, is always subdued. 
We chiefly remember him for his prose 
"Bruges la Morte," whose title reminds us 
how the living and the dead have jostled 
together in modern Flanders a land not 
only of vast activities but of dreamy, deserted 
old towns, sweeping rain and solitary sunsets, 



lingering faiths and haunted ruins. Such 
was Belgium a year since; of its future we 
know nothing except that much of its charm 
has been robbed for ever, and that at present 
its glory is the thorny crown of martyrdom. 
There is great diversity in the spirit and tone 
of the poets who have sung for her; some 
have had the daring that questions every- 
thing, others are conservative and Catholic. 
Such is M. Braun, born in 1876, who has drawn 
a beautiful symbolism from the rites of his 
Church, and has written of the benediction of 
the wine, the benediction of the cheeses a 
quite typical blending of the mystical and the 
realistic. Greater than M. Braun is the lyrist 
van Lerberghe, whose verses are pure music. 
With daring imagery he tells us how 

" the sun Avitli golden hair 
Dries the bare 
Feet of the rain." 

M. Andre Fontainas, though a romantic 
symbolist, has dreamed that the joys of mad 
battle and carnage are better than dream- 
ing ; he has thought it would be fine to tread 
the grass of roads down-trodden and red- 
dened by the feet of fugitives. Perhaps now 
he could tell us what he really thinks; for 
elsewhere he says that life is cloudless, calm, 
and passionless. His poems have a beauty 
of the inner life. Peace also is the key-note of 
M. Max Elskamp, with his idealizations of 
religious phrase and symbol. It is a very real 
aspect of Flemish life that he depicts. In 
contrast, writers such as M. Gilkin and M. 
Giraud are frank Satanists. in the manner of 
Baudelaire, dealing with wild excesses of the 
flesh, the visible, the real. It would be pleas- 
ant to linger over the thoughtful poems of 
M. Fernand Severin, or those of M. Paul 
Gerardy (who writes in German as well as in 
French) with their touch of Heine; there 
might also be much to say of M. Georges Mar- 
low, of M. Isi-Collin, of Mme. Jean Domin- 
ique. It is not to be denied that in some of 
these poets, such as M. Mockel and M. Ver- 
haeren, there are aspects to be regretted, too 
free a prodigality of sensuous coloring, too 
free indulgence in profitless realism : but we 
have to take these things as features of the 
national life from which they have sprung, 
and we should not truly understand Belgium 
without them. We have also to remember 
that the writings we have been considering are 
chiefly the work of young men. Youth often 
says too much; discretion, restraint, come 
later. The notable fact is that Belgium's 
amazing virility on the field of battle had 
already manifested its intensity in the domain 
of literature. ARTHUR L. SALMON. 



1915) 



THE DIAL 



71 



CASUAL COMMENT. 



THE ENGROSSING THEME which at present 
renders it difficult for either writers or read- 
ers to give undivided attention to what we are 
wont to call pure literature, is of course the 
war. In some quarters a commendable effort 
is made to ignore so harsh a fact. One notes 
with approval the calm disregard of present 
disturbances shown by the staid and venerable 
"Harper's Magazine," while to an old-time 
reader of "The Atlantic Monthly" the readi- 
ness of that esteemed publication to subordi- 
nate literature to discussion of the topic of the 
day might seem more than a little surprising 
and regrettable. One distinguished member 
of the "Harper's" staff, however, no other 
in fact than the genial occupant of the 
"Easy Chair," has favored the public not 
ex cathedra., it is true, not from the chair he 
has so long adorned, but in a newspaper inter- 
view with some well-considered observa- 
tions on the relations of war to literature. 
' ' War stops literature, ' ' he affirms. " It is an 
upheaval of civilization, a return to barbar- 
ism ; it means death to all the arts. Even the 
preparation for war stops literature. It 
stopped it in Germany years ago. A little 
anecdote is significant. I was in Florence 
about 1883, long after the Franco-Prussian 
War, and there I met the editor of a great 
German literary weekly I will not tell you 
its name or his. He was a man- of refinement 
and education, and I have not forgotten his 
great kindness to my own fiction. One day I 
asked him about the German novelists of the 
day. He said: 'There are no longer any 
German novelists worthy of the name. Our 
new ideal has stopped all that. Militarism is 
our new ideal the ideal of Duty and it 
has killed our imagination. So the German 
novel is dead.' ' Russia Mr. Howells does 
not regard as militaristic in the sense that 
Germany and the German people are milita- 
ristic. "Whatever the designs of the ruling 
classes may be, the people of Russia keep their 
simplicity, their large intellectuality and spir- 
ituality. And therefore their imagination 
and other great intellectual and spiritual 
gifts find expression in great novels and 
plays. ' ' This from the one who introduced to 
us the author of "Spring Floods" is signifi- 
cant. One more observation of his must here 
be noted: "Of all the writings which the 
Civil War directly inspired I can think of 
only one that has endured to be called litera- 
ture. That is Lowell's 'Commemoration 
Ode.' ' This would exclude the immortal 
"Battle Hymn," as well as the romances of 
Weir Mitchell and Mr Thomas Nelson Page. 



AN EDUCATIONAL PROBLEM of a novel char- 
acter is puzzling some of our foremost educa- 
tors. Is it for the best interests of culture 
that the war be taught in our schools, or 
should it be ignored? "In all the history of 
education," declares President G. Stanley 
Hall in a current article on "Teaching the 
War, " " I cannot find that pedagogy was ever 
subjected to such a test." Never since the 
general extension of popular education has 
there been anything resembling the present 
world war, and to shut one's eyes and the eyes 
of one's pupils to its significance would seem 
to be extremely foolish, if indeed it were 
humanly possible. The pupil who is taught to 
bury his nose in his Latin grammar and see 
nothing of what is going on about him is being 
instructed in the ways of the ostrich. But, 
it is urged, war is wicked and hateful, and 
even mental contact with the things of mili- 
tarism is corrupting. Seen too oft, familiar 
with Avar's face, we first endure, then pity, 
then embrace. Such teaching bears obvious 
resemblance to the anxious mother's coun- 
sel to her daughter to carry on her exer- 
cises in natation without approaching the 
water. Adopting Tolstoi's wise advice, the 
instructor might well enliven his pupils' study 
of history by teaching it backward, tracing 
present world-shaking events to their more or 
less remote beginnings and causes. Professor 
Cramb of London, some time before his death, 
and many months before the explosion of last 
August, called attention to the manner in 
which the old German Empire rose on the 
ruins of the ancient Roman Empire, and 
pointed out certain present conditions that 
portended, to him at least, the rise of a great 
modern German Empire on the decaying 
structure of the British Empire. Thus the 
linking of current events with past history 
gives unity and a very living significance to 
the study of the world's progress. Inciden- 
tally, too, object lessons in geography and 
ethnology, in manners and customs, in pecul- 
iarities of speech and costume, and in sundry 
other interesting things, are being impressed 
on alert young minds in a manner that has 
never before been possible. Small wonder 
that Dr. Hall is in favor of getting as much 
out of the war as is educationally possible. 


A NEW LIGHT IN FRENCH LITERATURE rises 

to cheer the world in these sad days. An 
inevitable excess of enthusiasm, such as 
greeted, for example, those rather earlier 
luminaries on the horizon, Mr. Rabindranath 
Tagore, M. Romain Rolland, Mr. John Mase- 
field, and Mr. Stephen Phillips, is here to be 
noted, by no means disapprovingly, for we 



72 



THE DIAL, 



[Feb. 1 



have it on Wordsworth's authority that we 
live by our enthusiasms. M. Paul Claudel, 
hailed by some of his admirers as ranking with 
JEschylus, Goethe, Dante, yes, even with 
Shakespeare, comes to English-speaking read- 
ers in a small collection of sketches entitled 
"The East I Know," translated with evident 
taste and skill, and introduced by a sympa- 
thetic fellow-countryman, M. Pierre Chavan- 
nes. "A strange phenomenon, the Christian 
poet," he says of the devout author of the 
volume, "passionately, uncompromisingly, 
almost fanatically Catholic, in the country 
where Anatole France, the bantering and dis- 
illusioned master, holds sway, where Renan 
and Voltaire reigned, and with them hard rea- 
son distrustful of the supernatural." As 
illustrative of M. Claudel's style, here is a 
passage from a sketch called "Tombs and 
Rumors. ' ' The author, who has strolled out to 
a suburban cemetery, is listening to the dis- 
tant sounds of a great city. "Chinese cities 
have neither factories nor vehicles. The only 
noise that can be heard, when evening comes 
and the fracas of trade ceases, is the human 
voice. I come to listen for that; for, when 
one loses interest in the sense of the words that 
are offered him, he can still lend them a more 
subtle ear. Nearly a million inhabitants live 
here. I listen to the speech of this multitude 
far under a lake of air. It is a clamor at once 
torrential and crackling, shot through with 
abrupt rips like the tearing of paper. . . . 
Has the city a different murmur at different 
times in the day ? I propose to test it. At this 
moment it is evening. They are volubly pub- 
lishing the day's news. Each one believes 
that he alone is speaking. He recounts quar- 
rels, meals, household happenings, family 
affairs, his work, his commerce, his politics. 
But his words do not perish. . . . Guest of 
the dead, I listen long to the murmur, the 
noise that the living make afar." Probably 
the laurels of Goethe, Dante, Shakespeare, are 
safe enough; nevertheless, this modern 
Frenchman, who has seen something of the 
world in the consular service of his country, 
knows how to describe what he has seen. 


A SELF-CONGRATULATORY EDITOR, indulging 

in a pleasing retrospect upon something 
attempted, something done, invites his read- 
ers to celebrate with him the first anniversary 
of the birth of "The Unpopular Review." 
Infant mortality among magazines and other 
periodicals is far greater, proportionally, than 
among human beings; hence the pardonable 
exultation with which this fond parent of a 
vigorous and promising one-year-old an- 
nounces to the world: "We have survived 



the most dangerous period of infancy, and 
though of course we can't see into our own 
mouth" the parent here identifies himself 
with his offspring "and are too young 
effectively to handle a looking-glass, we infer 
from some remarks we've heard, that we've 
cut some teeth ; we have had some pains that 
felt like it. ' ' Contrary to the usual rule, one 
is glad to learn, this lusty young quarterly 
has elicited from subscribers and others far 
more testimonials of hearty appreciation than 
letters of complaint and fault-finding. In the 
most distant and unlikely quarters it has 
raised up to itself friends and admirers. May 
it not be that the fate-defying title of the 
magazine, piquing curiosity as it does, has 
had more than a little to do with this initial 
success? But however that may be, it is a 
success not to be grudged to the able and 
alert men and women of letters who are 
making "The Unpopular" so readable if not 
exactly "popular" in the "best-selling" 
sense of that term. To the pardonably com- 
placent editor we say, in the words of the 
poet already quoted in this paragraph, happy, 
thrice happy, every one who sees his labor 
well begun, and not perplexed and multiplied 
by idly waiting for time and tide. 


THE CATHOLICITY OF POPULAR TASTE IN FIC- 
TION shows itself in the range and variety of 
imaginative literature that has been success- 
fully adapted to the uses of the cinemato- 
graph. In the "Branch Library News" 
published monthly by the New York Public 
Library is printed a list of the works of fiction 
that have been thus translated from the liter- 
ary into the pictorial form. Thirty-nine such 
works are enumerated, from Mrs. Barclay's 
novel, "The Rosary," at the head of the list, 
to Mr. Owen Wister's presentation of a quite 
different set of characters and incidents in 
"The Virginian." Strong indeed is the con- 
trast in literary excellence between the first 
book named and two half-way down the list. 
"The House of Seven Gables" and "The 
Scarlet Letter. " " The Vicar of Wakefield, ' ' 
too, must not be overlooked in naming the 
masterpieces now offered to the millions fre- 
quenting the "movies," nor Dickens 's works 
(to the number of eight novels or stories), 
Stevenson's "Treasure Island," Mrs. Jack- 
son's "Ramona," Hugo's "Les Miserables," 
Mr. Sienkiewicz's "Quo Vadis," Mrs. Shel- 
ley's "Frankenstein," and, of course, Mrs. 
Stowe's "Uncle Tom's Cabin." Though the 
list does not profess to be complete, it ought 
to have included "The Pilgrim's Progress," 
which has found favor as exhibited on the 
screen, appealing as it does to somewhat the 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



73 



same taste as the Biblical story of Joseph, 
which has a place on the list. New titles are 
of course being added to these thirty-nine, 
with accelerating rapidity. 


POETRY IN WARTIME is holding its own cred- 
itably in this country at least, as Mr. William 
Stanley Braithwaite makes evident by the 
second annual issue of his "Anthology of 
Magazine Verse and Yearbook of American 
Poetry," a work compiled and published by 
him with admirable industry, taste, and, not 
least of all, courage. Ten years ago, when 
interest in American poetry was nearly at its 
lowest, and consequently much of that poetry 
was but little worthy of serious attention, Mr. 
Braithwaite took it upon himself to examine 
critically, but not in a destructive spirit, the 
magazine verse of the calendar year, and to 
report upon it in an enlightening and on the 
whole encouraging summary which appeared 
in the Boston "Transcript." This labor of 
love he continued year after year until his 
annual report became an influential contribu- 
tion to the cause of better poetry in this coun- 
try and even beyond its borders ; and now for 
two years he has expanded this report and 
compilation to the dimensions of a modest vol- 
ume. This year, more than ever before, we 
have reason to feel gratified with the results of 
his studies, for they show that war's alarms 
and excitements have not diverted our poets 
from their high calling, nor even concentrated 
their attention upon martial themes. Mr. 
Braithwaite maintains that the general excel- 
lence of the last twelve months' products of 
American magazine verse is higher than ever 
a most encouraging pronouncement. 


THE DRAMA AS AN INSTRUMENT OF REFORM, 

not as a form of art or a means of recrea- 
tion, was discussed in characteristic fashion 
by M. Eugene Brieux in his recent lecture and 
reading at Smith College. His visit to Amer- 
ica has been called an "informal, amicable 
ambassadorship," and his public addresses 
have shown him to be quite as much a humani- 
tarian and reformer as he is a playwright. 
The lover of art for art's sake, pure and 
simple, must find little use for such ideas as 
this distinguished Frenchman is ventilating 
among us. He talked at Northampton on the 
subject of the problem play, called by many 
the boring play, and insisted that most of the 
notable comedies, including even the lighter 
ones of Moliere, are really problem plays. 
He read from his own play, "Le Berceau," 
the lesson of which seems to be that married 
persons having children should not be allowed 
to be divorced; and from "Les Rempla- 



cantes," which is directed against the custom 
of importing wet-nurses from the country to 
minister to the needs of Paris infants, often 
at the expense of these peasant women's own 
children. That the stage should be devoted to 
higher uses than mere amusement was the doc- 
trine preached from first to last by M. Brieux, 
who perhaps is too much inclined to lose sight 
of the fact that the highest of all possible 
uses may at times be served by an inspired 
work of pure art. 



THE POPULARIZATION OF CULTURE progresses 
apace. In Massachusetts, already not the 
least cultured of our States, the establish- 
ment of a state university, in addition to the 
excellent agricultural college at Amherst, is 
under consideration. A bill for the creation 
of such an institution was presented in the 
last legislature, and was referred to the board 
of education for careful consideration. In 
connection with it an alternative plan is un- 
der advisement for paying the tuition fees of 
all Massachusetts students attending existing 
colleges, universities, and scientific schools of 
a certain standard. This would be a rather 
startling as well as questionable application 
of the patriarchal idea in government. But 
the tax-payers, through their delegated 
spokesmen, will have a word to say about 
free Latin and Greek to the youth of the 
commonwealth. 



COMMUNICATION. 



" MOMMSEN AND THE WAK." 
(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 
In your issue of January 1 you publish a com- 
munication from Mr. Hodder, " Mommsen and the 
War." It seems indeed strange that the discovery 
of Mommsen as one of the fathers of German 
Imperialism has come so late. I sincerely hope 
that this is only the beginning of a long series of 
similarly startling discoveries. In the meantime I 
beg to ask a few questions of you and Mr. Hodder 
for my enlightenment (I am only a plain American 
citizen of German descent and therefore naturally 
slow in understanding Anglo-Saxon logic) : 

(1) What does the "Declaration of Indepen- 
dence" mean? Independence of English rule or 
German rule? 

(2) Who has wronged Ireland in the past, En- 
gland or Germany? 

(3) Who has conquered India, Egypt, and the 
Boer Republics in South Africa? England or 
Germany ? 

(4) Who controls the sea? 

(5) Who is older, Nietzsche or Treitschke? My 
teachers in school said Treitschke was ten years 
older than Nietzsche; have you more accurate 



information? 

Urbana, III., January 17, 1915. 



0. E. LBSSING. 



74 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 1 



gooks. 



THE VARIOUSLY ACCOMPLISHED 

liOUD AVEBURY.* 



To his thousands of readers and admirers 
the late Lord Avebury will always remain Sir 
John Lubbock, of "St. Lubbock 's Day" fame, 
author of many delightful Lubbock books, and 
especially associated with certain entrancing 
chapters on ants, bees, and wasps, with sun- 
dry inspiring volumes on the pleasures and 
the uses of life, and, more recently, with a 
widely accepted list of the hundred best books 
in all literature. A playful rhymester in 
"Punch" years ago put into four lines the 
popular conception of the man's chief claims 
to renown, and even now, after a third of a 
century, they have not lost their epigram- 
matic appropriateness. They were appended 
to a " Fancy Portrait ' ' of Sir John under the 
semblance of a huge bumble-bee, and ran as 
follows : 

" How doth the Banking Busy Bee 

Improve the shining hours, 
By studying on Bank Holidays 
Strange insects and wild flowers." 

Like many another versatile genius before 
and since, Lubbock suffered in his reputation 
with specialists from the great variety of 
channels through which he allowed his super- 
abundant energies to flow. Among bankers, 
as it was rather cruelly and not quite accu- 
rately said of him, he was known as a famous 
scientist, and among scientists as an eminent 
banker. His introduction of the highly suc- 
cessful Bank Holiday into English business 
life does indeed link his name lastingly with 
London banking, as his popular treatises on 
insects associate him with the entomologists; 
but his device of a system of cooperative clear- 
ing for checks and notes received by London 
banks from the country, instead of the labo- 
rious and time-consuming individual treat- 
ment of such commercial items that gave place 
to it, showed him to be both expert and origi- 
nal in the sphere of banking, just as, for 
example, his early researches in the vitelli- 
genous glands of insects proved him to be not 
lacking in capacity for independent observa- 
tion and discovery in natural science. 

Born in 1834, his adolescent years fell at a 
rather fortunate time and amid rather favor- 
able surroundings for the development of his 
peculiar tastes and aptitudes. Darwin lived 
at Down, about a mile from the Lubbock 
home at High Elms, and to the influence and 

* LIFE OF SIR JOHN LUBBOCK, LORD AVEBURY. By Horace G. 
Hutchinson. Tn two volumes. Illustrated. New York : The 
Macmillan Co. 



encouragement of the great naturalist he owed 
much. Acquaintance too was made with such 
contemporary men of science as Lyell, Huxley, 
Tyndall, and Spencer. Though his formal 
education did not extend beyond Eton, be- 
cause both he and his father, a banker with a 
bent for mathematics, had a poor opinion of 
the almost exclusively classical curriculum of 
that day, and though he was called from his 
books at fifteen to take a place of responsibility 
in the paternal banking house, yet his extraor- 
dinary industry and mental activity made it 
possible for him to achieve the sort of intel- 
lectual training that really counted in his case 
and that was probably the best possible one 
for the work that lay before him. 

The story of that work, branching out in 
many directions and rich in the astonishing 
variety of things attempted and carried 
through, is what the reader finds presented 
in attractive detail in Mr. Horace G. Hutchin- 
son 's "Life of Sir John Lubbock," a biog- 
raphy filling two considerable volumes and 
undertaken with the sanction and assistance 
of Lady Avebury and other members of the 
family. Letters, diaries, and other private 
papers have been placed at the author's dis- 
posal, and they have been of great service in 
making possible a full and accurate chronologi- 
cal account of Lubbock's achievements in 
science and in public life, in authorship and in 
banking, as a legislator and reformer and 
zealous promoter of multitudinous good 
causes; but, unfortunately for the best inter- 
ests of biography as a fascinating form of 
literature, these papers have not, as the biog- 
rapher admits, proved to be of much help in 
conveying any intimate sense of what man- 
ner of human being Lord Avebury really was. 
Huxley's letters are far more characteristic 
of the writer, far more enjoyable and sug- 
gestive in the reading, than any but a few of 
the earlier ones from the pen of his more ver- 
satile younger contemporary. However, it is 
perhaps impossible for a man to put the best 
of himself into a series of books too numerous 
even to count without weariness, besides leav- 
ing his impress on the laws of his nation and 
on the public life of his day and generation, 
and at the same time draw his own likeness 
with speaking fidelity in his daily correspon- 
dence. Certainly Lubbock has not done so, 
and therefore to the number of those biogra- 
phies whose chief excellence lies in their being 
little short of autobiographies Mr. Hutchin- 
son 's work, however admirable in other re- 
spects, cannot belong. 

On the title-page of the book one notes the 
rather conspicuous insertion, to the length of 
fifteen lines in small print, of Lord Avebury 's 



1915 



THE DIAL 



75 



many society memberships and honorary de- 
grees, just as in the later published works 
from his own pen these innumerable adjuncts 
to his name have not failed to make their 
appearance, somewhat to the surprise of those 
who like to imagine the author of ' ' The Pleas- 
ures of Life" a person of simple tastes and 
unaffected deportment. The reason of this 
parade of personal distinctions we are now 
glad to find set forth with some care by the 
biographer. It is worth quoting. 

" He was honorary member and fellow of an 
extraordinarily large number of learned societies, 
both home and foreign, and bearer of distinctions 
as various as his talents. Some surprise has been 
expressed at the conscientiousness with which he 
gave at full length, after his name on the title- 
pages of his books, the initial letters indicating 
these degrees, etc. Certainly Lord Avebury's very 
simple character, without a touch of cynicism in its 
composition, made him highly appreciative of the 
recognition of his fellows, but one of his publishers 
has explained to me what he believes to have been 
his real motive in inscribing at full the initials sig- 
nifying his dignities. Lord Avebury, in his opin- 
ion, was influenced by the feeling that if any let- 
ters of the kind were affixed to a name, a certain 
slight was cast on the institution which had hon- 
oured him if the distinguishing initials of that 
institution were omitted. His idea was that all or 
none should be given, more especially as many of 
the distinctions were of foreign origin, and it was 
particularly imperative, by all laws of courtesy, 
not to hurt foreign feelings. It is a motive per- 
fectly in accord with Lord Avebury's peculiar 
kindliness and sensitive consideration of other 
people." 

In this connection there is an amusing bit of 
correspondence given by Mr. Hutchinson 
which perhaps may help to explain this punc- 
tiliousness in the use of titles. An East Indian 
scholar once exchanged some letters with the 
author of "The Pleasures of Life" on the sub- 
ject of a proposed translation of that book 
into one of the dialects of India; and in the 
latter part of the correspondence occurs this 
reproachful passage from the pen of the Orien- 
tal: "Formerly your Lordship used to ad- 
dress ' Mr. ' or ' Esquire, ' but I don 't know why 
your Lordship have omitted in the last two 
letters. Although I did not gain or lose any- 
thing by it, but still I wonder. ' ' 

Lubbock's power of getting things done, 
both in his own person and through others, 
argues unusual energy and the strictest 
economy of time. Indeed, among his early 
papers there are various schemes or schedules 
assigning its particular task to each hour or 
half-hour of the day with a painful particu- 
larity hardly surpassed by "Queed" himself 
in the prime of his priggishness. An anecdote 
very much to the point is as follows : 



" One of his sons told me that on the day that 
his father first took him into the City, to introduce 
him to the partners of their business house, Lord 
Avebury drew a book out of his pocket as soon as 
they were seated in the ' tube,' and said, ' I think 
you will find it a good plan always to have a book 
with you, in your pocket, to read at odd times,' and 
therewith he became at once so absorbed in his 
reading as to be quite unconscious of his fellow- 
travellers and their conversation." 

A pleasant personal touch and also an inci- 
dental testimony to the popularity of Lub- 
bock's books are to be found in another 
passage that offers itself for citation. The 
eldest boy by his second marriage had just 
been sent away to school at Rottingdean. 

" Sir John affectionately notes the sorrow of 
himself and of Lady Lubbock in parting with him, 
but from the very first the school seems to have 
been a success. The boy was happy there, his 
reports were good and, for his age, he took a high 
place. His father and mother went down to see 
him. Sir John writes that Harold conducted him 
to the school library and pointed out with pride to 
the father that all the latter's books were ' out ' 
boys were reading them. He said they were always 
out and were among the most popular. In this 
year both the Pleasures and the Use of Life were 
translated into Greek, Arabic, and Japanese." 

It is the first of the above-named books that, 
of all his works, has won for its author the 
largest number of readers, being now in its two 
hundred and seventy-second thousand (in 
Part I.) and in its two hundred and thirty- 
second thousand (in Part II.). Of the some- 
what less popular kindred work, ' ' The Use of 
Life," the author noted seventeen years ago 
that, beside editions in English, the book had 
appeared in French (seven editions), German, 
Dutch, Polish, Bohemian, Spanish, Italian, 
Greek, Arabic (five editions), Marathi, Gujer- 
athi, Japanese (six editions), Danish, Rus- 
sian, Armenian, and Esthonian. 

As a zealously active member of Parliament 
and, after 1900, an energetic participant in 
the less momentous proceedings of the House 
of Lords, Lubbock advocated successfully 
many needed reforms and improvements. In 
a single parliamentary session we find him 
introducing three important bills, one for 
the earlier closing of shops, one for amending 
the public-library law, and one to facilitate 
the forming of open spaces in large cities. 
The first was blocked, says his biographer ; the 
other two were passed. He held, first and 
last, a great number of chairmanships, includ- 
ing that of the London County Council, and 
he served the causes of science and humanity 
and education in various capacities, official 
and unofficial. In fact, the list of his activities 
is much too long to be given here. Mr. Hutch- 
inson makes an impressive showing of these 



76 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 1 



varied interests and occupations, and has pro- 
duced a useful and not uninspiring biography. 
It is a record such as the late Dr. Samuel 
Smiles would have taken delight in pointing 
to as a most helpful one for eager and ambi- 
tious youth. Its lessons in the value of econ- 
omy of time, making the most of one's 
resources, controlling one's temper under 
provocation, and so on, are many and obvious. 
Lord Avebury's qualities seem to have been 
admirable without exception, and these quali- 
ties are well depicted by his biographer. Two 
portraits of the man and views of two country 
houses belonging to him adorn the volumes. 
PERCY F. BICKNELL. 



THE DRAMA MOVEMENT.* 



The new drama is still young, still youth- 
fully and vigorously uncertain, still the sub- 
ject of prophecy; but it seems nevertheless to 
have reached age and reliability enough to 
warrant the attempt to define it and to esti- 
mate the significance of its achievement and 
its tendencies. Among the most recent books, 
Mr. Sheldon Cheney's " The New Movement 
in the Theatre " is a broad survey of strictly 
contemporaneous dramatic activity, especially 
in England and the United States, and " The 
Changing Drama, ' ' by Mr. Archibald Hender- 
son, an already well-known writer on the 
European dramatists, is a critical account of 
the contributions and tendencies of the past 
sixty years. If the lover of the stage will add 
to these two Mr. Richard Burton's "How to 
See a Play," he will possess the means of 
greatly increasing his capacity for enjoyment 
of the contemporary drama, whether as reader 
or witness. 

While Mr. Burton's volume shares the char- 
acter of the other two in containing a measure 
of historical and critical matter, it is first of all 
a practical work, whose concern is the need of 
the play-reader or theatre-goer. It discourses 
vigorously and sensibly on the structure of 
the play and the method of its composition, 
upon the qualities which make it real drama, 
upon its value as a cultural opportunity, and 
upon its possibilities as a factor in social im- 
provement. It recites the principal facts in 
the history of the drama, leads up to and char- 
acterizes the modern school, and helps the 
reader to the means of making its literary as 
well as its stage acquaintance. Mr. Burton's 
immediate purpose is the enlightenment of the 



* How TO SEE A PLAY. 
The Macmillan Co. 

THE NEW MOVEMENT IN THE THEATRE. 
New York : Mitchell Kennerley. 

THE CHANGING DRAMA: Contributions and Tendencies. 
Archibald Henderson. New York: Henry Holt & Co. 



By Richard Burton. New York : 
By Sheldon Cheney. 
By 



play-lover for his own sake; but he has the 
ulterior purpose, as befits the President of the 
Drama League of America, of encouraging 
good drama by helping to provide the ideal 
audience. 

Mr. Cheney divides his time about evenly 
between characterization of the play- writer's 
work and characterization of the new stage- 
craft. He has a great deal to say in praise of 
the new drama, especially in England, as "the 
drama of sincerity." In America he sees the 
movement as "hardly more than a promise," 
in England and on the Continent as "both a 
promise and a vital, lasting achievement." 
He is especially enthusiastic for Mr. Gordon 
Craig and the "a?sthetic theatre movement," 
and hostile to naturalistic stagecraft, which 
he assails under the name of "Belascoism" as 
the "theatre producer's perfect realization of 
a false ideal." Recognizing the tyranny of 
play-house commercialism in the United 
States, for real progress he looks to such 
smaller centres of drama interest as the uni- 
versities and colleges, and the "art" theatres 
in the larger cities. The authority of Mr. 
Cheney's otherwise excellent book is impaired 
by repetition and careless expression. The 
last chapter, especially, on "Gordon Craig's 
Service," contains a great deal that is already 
said in earlier chapters. There is too much 
of "gripping" and "sincere" and "vital," to 
say nothing of lapses like ' ' chief protagonist, ' ' 
"such protagonists as Gordon Craig, etc.," 
' ' touches were infused, ' ' and ' ' refreshing reti- 
cence of touch." This, however, is perhaps to 
be charged to the New Education rather than 
to the author. There are not a few who suspect 
that the "new and broader universities that 
are so splendidly maintaining their place at 
the forefront of American progress," to use 
Mr. Cheney's words, are doing rather less to 
preserve the ideal of the English language 
than the " old hidebound institutions, with 
their set academic standards," that come un- 
der his condemnation. 

Mr. Henderson's book is primarily critical, 
and is exceedingly stimulating. Such chapter 
headings as ' ' The New Criticism and the New 
Ethics," "Realism and the Pulpit Stage," 
"The Battle with Illusions," "The New 
Technic," "The New Content," and "The 
Newer Tendencies," indicate at once its com- 
prehensiveness, its philosophic character, and 
its pugnacious tone. Ibsen and Shaw are its 
main figures, and the social significance of the 
drama is the theme that runs through the 
whole discussion. Many indeed will think the 
theme too prominent. "The great discovery 
of modern life ... is ... that society has 
become the tyrant of the universe"; "the 



1915] 



77 



deterministic pressure of social institutions, 
the tyranny of capital"; "the curved backs 
of oppressed humanity"; "the tocsin of re- 
volt"; "an age that fought with dragons and 
an age that fights with microbes"; "the dra- 
matic artists of to-day, of all races and all 
climes, have a sense of common purpose, a cer- 
tain unity of aim," that "may best be de- 
scribed as the intention of advancing the cause 
of civilization" there is an abundance of 
these familiar expressions, and theatre-goer 
and play-writer begin to wonder as they read 
whether one more tyrant has not been set over 
dramatic art in the shape of sociology. There 
are drama-lovers who, while recognizing the 
fact of human suffering and sympathizing 
with it, cannot agree that social tyranny has 
spread to the stars, or that the fault is never in 
ourselves that we are underlings, but always 
in society, or that a social drama will prove 
the means of regeneration. These people 
would like the privilege of sometimes wit- 
nessing, reading, or writing plays for pure 
pleasure plays which they dare to think 
may be made by the real artist as efficacious 
as the drama of "social conscientiousness" 
and ' ' moral propagandism. ' ' In spite of over- 
emphasis of the social theme, however, and in 
spite of needless protests against the poor old 
unities and ' ' art for art 's sake, ' ' which no one 
has insisted on for a long time now, and 
against a really no longer tyrannous "person 
called Aristotle," in Mr. Granville Barker's 
phrase, Mr. Henderson's volume is full of 
thoughtful and illuminating criticism on the 
drama as art, and deserves high praise. 

The reading of Mr. Cheney and Mr. Hen- 
derson for Dr. Burton's book is different in 
purpose and character begets a number of 
impressions in regard to the new drama. In 
the first place, it is clear that there is really 
something being achieved, and that the some- 
thing has to do with art as well as propa- 
gandism. In the second place, there exist a 
striking number and variety of stage repre- 
sentations claiming recognition as dramatic 
art, and there is a great deal of fruitful ex- 
perimentation in process. Mr. Cheney, after 
removing farce, melodrama, musical comedy, 
and vaudeville, carefully divides what is left 
into aesthetic drama, represented by Mr. 
Gordon Craig's marionette-drama, Herr Rein- 
hardt's mimo-drama, and the Russian dance- 
drama; the drama of emotion, where "the 
appeal to the eye and the ear is merely a very 
small aid to the effectiveness of the whole"; 
and the drama of thought, where more empha- 
sis is placed on the theme. Mr. Henderson 
defines a play as ' ' any presentation of human 
life by human interpreters on a stage in a 



theatre before a representative audience, ' ' and 
a drama as " a particular kind of a play. ' ' 

Mr. Henderson's definition seems at first 
sight handsomely liberal, though it doesn't 
provide for the dance and marionettes; but 
the next sentence, which begins three pages of 
interpretation by saying that "the play in- 
trinsically, and its representation by the 
interpreters, must be so effective, interesting, 
and moving as to induce the normal individual 
in appreciable numbers to make a sacrifice of 
money and time, either one or both, for the 
privilege of witnessing its performance," 
would go a long way toward keeping the 
classics outside the definition. Who is the 
normal individual ? At least the normal indi- 
vidual of American theatrical commerce does 
not go to classic plays in appreciable numbers. 

But one receives the impression, too, that 
the classics, both ancient and less remote^ 
count comparatively little with either Mr. 
Henderson or Mr. Cheney. Like other valiant 
champions of the New, their first impulse is to 
dispose of the past, and the past in these pro- 
gressive days is more or less defenceless. 
They don't have to prove the ignorance and 
tyranny of the past ; they simply admit these 
and all its other vices and incapabilities, and 
go on. Mr. Cheney "has very little respect 
for what is commonly taken (like medicine) as 
authoritative criticism." Mr. Henderson 
laments that "our critics of the drama 
are unfortunately classic in predilection." 
Shakespeare didn't love the common man r 
Moliere sympathized with society rather 
than the individual, and the Greeks missed 
the social point utterly. "The false assump- 
tion, which has persisted from the time of the 
Greeks to the present day, " is a phrase which 
can be applied with ease and comparative 
safety to anything the modernist wishes to 
remove from the path of his argument. Along 
with other things New there seems to be a 
New Logic, which is almost capable of saying 
what it really means : ' ' The world up to our 
day has thought thus-and-so; we think other- 
wise ; therefore, the world up to our day has 
thought wrong. ' ' The statements of Aristotle, 
we are told, are incomplete and ridiculous, 
and he is guilty of gross and exaggerated dis- 
tortions of the truth. To prove Aristotle's 
comparative mediocrity as a critic of the 
drama by assuming that he knew nothing 
beyond what he says, is of course no worse 
than to prove his infallibility by assuming that 
what he says implies everything he doesn't 
say. It is the principle that is objectionable 
the use of an ancient and helpless person 
to prove anything or everything, as if he were 
mere statistics, or, let us say, the "facts" 



78 



THE DIAL 



[ Feb. 1 



connected with the immediate beginning of a, 
great war. 

Yet in spite of this independence and self- 
sufficiency in the partisans of the New Drama, 
it can hardly fail to strike the attention of the 
reader familiar with the classics that many of 
the virtues claimed for the drama of to-day 
are precisely the classical virtues, and the 
ancient classical virtues at that. Compact- 
ness, simplicity of plot and omission of sub- 
plot, breadth of character-drawing, the re- 
turn to the purely human, the use of scant 
and simple scenery, the open-air performance, 
the relief-theatre, the reconciliation of litera- 
ture and the stage, the tendency toward relig- 
ious drama enumerate these things to one 
acquainted with the whole course of the 
drama, and it will be Sophocles that he thinks 
of, not Ibsen or Shaw. Even the much- 
abused unities are being made welcome, in the 
one-act drama now so frequent. Gather all 
these virtues together, add nobility of lan- 
guage, without which drama can only by 
exception be other than local and ephemeral, 
and ' ' the sense of the nobility of life, ' ' which 
Mr. Cheney says the dramatists of the new 
movement lack, insist less on ' ' the mystery and 
immensity of little things" and "the apotheo- 
sis of the insignificant," and more on univer- 
sals, and we shall possess again the ideal of 
twenty-five hundred years ago, the departure 
from which, as Martin Schanz has said, never 
fails to bring its own revenge. Then get a 
national theatre and cultivated audiences, and 
the acting and writing of great drama will 
depend upon the presence of genius among us. 

But we do not possess all these virtues, 
either in America or abroad. The new drama, 
like all youth, is too confident, and claims too 
much. A little more modesty and a little less 
combativeness would be as well for the cause 
we all have at heart. The classics are not so 
dead, nor the new drama so "vital and last- 
ing," as the new critics think. Ibsen, who 
receives so much attention from Mr. Hender- 
son, is already recognized by the new English 
artists, according to Mr. Cheney, as "not of 
their country, or their time (for the world has 
taken mighty strides forward since he ceased 
to write)." The social themes of to-day may 
easily prove to have been neither for all time 
nor for all places, and the ' ' symbolic romance, 
extensive, vast," which in Mr. Henderson's 
thinking ' ' bids fair to express best the artistic 
sense of the coming century," may have its 
own ' ' new content. ' ' As to national theatres, 
in America we have none, and are not likely 
to have them under popular government until 
the popular idea of the usefulness of literature 
and the fine arts has undergone a change. 



The opportunity to hear good drama comes 
rarely to all but a very few places, and when it 
does come costs the price of a half barrel of 
flour for the Belgians. Art drama at cost, 
produced by our dramatic societies, is con- 
demned beforehand as "highbrow," and is 
poorly patronized. In all but a few journals, 
criticism of the drama is either identical with 
advertising or the best is like the worst. Even 
the Drama League of America puts the pro- 
hibitive price of seventy-five cents on its pub- 
lished single plays by contemporary authors. 
It was possible at one time in the long ago to 
get a play of Shakespeare for six cents, and 
the difference is not explainable wholly on the 
ground of Shakespeare's inferiority. 

GRANT SHOWERMAN. 



THE 



FKAXCE.* 



For many years it has been the fashion 
among superficial observers to regard France 
as a decadent nation. It is true that for some 
time her population has been stationary and, 
indeed, the last census (1911) disclosed an 
excess of deaths over births; but the phe- 
nomenon of a declining birth rate is by no 
means peculiar to France it exists in most 
countries and is symptomatic of our so-called 
higher civilization. The situation in France 
differs from that in England, Germany, and 
the United States only in degree, and it seems 
only a question of time when the populations 
of these countries will cease to increase. 
There has also been a popular belief that the 
mental and physical vigor of the French, their 
national spirit, their patriotism, and their 
capacity to govern themselves have all been 
on the decline. To whatever degree this belief 
may have been well founded in the past, no 
well-informed person regards it as true to-day. 

In a book entitled ' ' France Herself Again ' ' 
M. Ernest Dimnet, a professor in the College 
of St. Stanislaus, Paris, and a distinguished 
scholar who writes in perfect English, dwells 
upon the far-reaching transformation which 
the national spirit of France has undergone in 
recent years. That a remarkable change has 
come over France since the beginning of the 
twentieth century, he says, cannot be denied 
or doubted, for everybody has felt it or heard 
of it. To present a picture of this change in 
its true perspective M. Dimnet starts out with 
a review of the intellectual and moral deterio- 
ration of France which set in during the 
Second Empire and continued steadily until 
the Tangier incident of 1905, an event which 
seemed to awaken the French to a realization 

* FRANCE HERSELF AGAIN. By Ernest Dimnet. New York : 
G. P. Putnam's Sons. 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



79 



of their national consciousness and kindle in 
the nation an esprit nouveau. After fifty 
years of fruitless and often foolish experi- 
mentation, distracted and gradually corrupted 
by false ideals and low morals, during which 
her precious hours and resources were wasted, 
France now desires to be a nation once more : 

" She is like a man whom philosophy or science 
mere intellectual pursuits have absorbed until 
some great sorrow makes him feel that he has a 
heart as well as a brain and has to live as well as to 
think in a way that will fit him for life." 

At the beginning of the Second Empire, 
France had only one rival in Europe that 
was England. The feeling of national su- 
premacy was expressed in a speech of the 
Emperor shortly after his accession in 1852 
when he said, ' ' France is happy, Europe may 
now live in peace." This was no mere boast 
but an absolutely true statement of French 
supremacy on the Continent. To-day all is 
changed. France no longer has it within her 
power to impose her will upon Europe. The 
German Empire, Italy, and Austria have risen 
oy her side to dispute her old time suprem- 
acy. The deterioration began, as has been 
said, in the midst of the outward splendors 
of the Second Empire, when the seeds of 
materialism, the decadence of morals, the un- 
wholesomeness of literature, the hatred of 
Christianity (under the guise of anti-clerical- 
ism) were planted; and these seeds produced 
their full fruition during the Third Republic. 
During this period the French lived on illu- 
sions as on pleasure. Everyone seemed bent 
on deceiving himself. Everywhere the spirit 
of ideology and self-satisfaction was dominant. 
France was weakened by ideas which obscured 
Tier reason and enervated her moral powers. 
She could have quickly recovered from the 
losses of 1870 had it not been for the intellec- 
tual deterioration which a harmful philosophy 
and a lawless literature produced. "Within 
twenty years, we are told, after Napoleon's 
boast that France was the arbiter of Europe, 
she had "fallen in power, influence, popula- 
tion and moral energy behind a rival whose 
greatness her own monarch had helped and 
practically made." The chief cause of the 
moral and political decadence of France under 
the Third Republic and the "state of dis- 
order" in which the country found itself after 
the retirement of Thiers, according to M. 
Dimnet, is to be found in the character of the 
constitution. It is, he says, a mere makeshift 
and is ' ' not only democratic but demagogic in 
its principles." The President of the Repub- 
lic is a mere dummy without real authority. 
He presides without governing, he attends 
inaugurations, opens expositions, distributes 



the grand prix, and hunts rabbits. He cannot 
exercise a single one of the numerous and 
important powers which the letter of the writ- 
ten constitution gives him. The Radicals have 
for a long time advocated the abolition of the 
Presidency, but the great majority of the peo- 
ple desire a President who shall be a leader 
and a real executive like the President of the 
United States. When M. Poincare was elected 
the people believed and hoped that he would 
be something more than a figurehead, but he 
too, like his predecessors, has adopted a policy 
of self-effacement. Under the operation of the 
constitution, as it has developed, he could not 
do otherwise. The whole trouble lies in the 
attitude of the parliament, which insists on 
subordinating every other power in the state 
to itself. It is not content with legislating 
and controlling the ministers in respect to 
their general policies, but it insists on govern- 
ing and administering as well. The result is 
short-lived ministries (there have been about 
fifty-five since the establishment of the Third 
Republic) and a President who plays only a 
ceremonial role. In its colonial and foreign 
policy, the Republic, we are told, has failed; 
in education the results have been unsatisfac- 
tory and the education of the schools is mak- 
ing the country a nation of atheists. The 
bourgeois democracy is a fraud and the coun- 
try has been cursed with petty, low-born, God- 
hating politicians who, not content with secu- 
larizing the schools, have broken up the 
religious orders, confiscated their property, 
dispersed poor monks and nuns 'who had 
grown gray in the service of philanthropy, 
education, and charity, persecuted the church, 
and abrogated a solemn compact with the 
papacy that had endured more than a hundred 
years. Not stopping with this, the Radicals 
have tried to drive Catholics from the army 
and the civil service. M. Dimnet 's indictment 
of the Radicals for their anti-clerical policy is 
severe, but there is another side to the ques- 
tion which naturally, because of his clerical 
affiliations, he entirely ignores. He makes no 
reference to the opposition of the church to 
the Republic, and its well-known activities in 
favor of the monarchy ; nothing is said of the 
persecution of the greatest of French scholars 
and statesmen who were too liberal for the 
church, of its fight against Dreyfus, of its 
championship of MacMahon in the great crisis 
of 1877, of its sympathy for Boulanger, and 
of its opposition to science and liberal educa- 
tion. The Republicans of France believed, 
and the evidence is not lacking, that the 
schools, which until recently were under the 
control of the church, were teaching the chil- 
dren to hate the Republic. For these and 



80 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 1 



other reasons which cannot be discussed here, 
the Republicans of France were compelled to 
do what they did, and although there may 
have been unnecessary harshness and severity 
in their methods, the general principle of their 
legislation is what Americans have always 
stood for. 

France, according to M. Dimnet, had 
reached a state bordering on degradation when 
the Tangier affair of 1905 came like a flash of 
lightning after which the clouds lifted. It 
was one of those events, we are told, which 
rapidly destroys a whole system of thought. 
Since that time France has entered upon an 
era of regeneration, she has awakened from 
her apathy, and is beginning to return to her 
own. A great change has occurred in the 
national spirit, in the mode of thinking, in the 
character of the national literature, and even 
in the attitude of the Radical party, which 
seems disposed to adopt a policy of greater 
conciliation toward the church. 

In a concluding chapter written after the 
outbreak of the present war, the author re- 
marks that while France has been the victim 
of politicians and while the history of the 
Third Republic has been a history of radical 
blunders, recent events have shown that the 
nation has remained sound at the core. Ani- 
mated by a new spirit, conscious of her power, 
France is ready to meet her duty. What she 
now needs most is not a conversion of mind or 
soul but a transformation of her institutions. 
With better institutions and the kind of lead- 
ers she desires, the beginning of the century 
will soon appear as one of the greatest turning 
points in her history. 

With much of what M. Dimnet has to say in 
criticism of the French constitution and of the 
class of politicians that have governed the 
country since the advent of the Third Re- 
public, well-informed Americans will agree, 
although there will be a difference of opinion 
concerning his reproach of the Republicans 
for their anti-clerical policy. Most of us will 
feel that his rather gloomy picture of French 
democracy and his indictment of the Republic 
have been overdrawn, but we all will share 
with him the pride which he feels in the birth 
of a new France, and his optimism for the 
future. JAMES W. GARNER. 



STUDIES IN THE HISTORY or ART.* 



Of the essays in Mr. Richard Norton's luxu- 
rious volume, "Bernini, and Other Studies in 
the History of Art," some continue the lit- 
erary tradition of English criticism, others 

* BERNINI, AND OTHER STUDIES IN THE HISTORY OF ART. By 
Richard Norton. With sixty-nine plates. New York: The 
Macmillan Co. 



the scientific tradition of exact scholarship. 
To the first group belong the estimate of 
Bernini, the "Art of Portraiture," the 
"Phidias and Michael Angelo," and, essen- 
tially, the "Head of Athena from Gyrene." 
Not claiming to add to our stock of knowledge, 
they seek to clarify it or to modify our critical 
judgments. 

The most powerful of these, and the most 
necessary, is the essay on Bernini. Since 
Ruskin, and in the English-speaking world, 
Bernini, like all the artists of the Baroque, has 
lain under the condemnation of a prejudice 
at once irrelevant and unjustified. An ethical 
criterion, itself not germane, has been invoked 
against them, without appreciation of their 
own moral sincerity. More serious, because 
more philosophically supported, is the notion 
that they represent a time of purely artistic 
decay, inevitably following periods of growth 
and maturity. The analogy with organic life 
which this view presupposes, however, like- 
wise has failed of demonstration, and the his- 
tory of art, if subjected to any metaphor, 
seems rather a succession of beats of a pendu- 
lum, or an alternating crescendo and diminu- 
endo, at any point of which greatness may 
appear. Mr. Norton finds Bernini's greatness 
in merits characteristic of his own time and 
individuality spiritual intensity, artistic 
crescendo, dramatic power as well as in per- 
sonal and moral qualities common to the 
titanic spirits of all ages. It is primarily with 
Bernini's work in sculpture that the author 
has concerned himself, passing lightly over 
equally distinguished work in architecture, 
yet in the field of sculpture alone he makes 
good his claim that Bernini is to be ranked as 
one of the world 's greatest masters. 

The other essays of this group, dealing with 
less controversial material, lead to less striking 
conclusions. Portraiture, Mr. Norton sug- 
gests, has two possible modes, and but two : the 
embodiment of thought, as exemplified by the 
Greeks and Venetians, and the embodiment of 
action. Michael Angelo, though like Phidias 
in so many respects, and like him a supreme 
master, was less fortunate in his background, 
and his works are in the main monuments of 
thwarted purpose. The head of Athena from 
Gyrene, the work of a local sculptor, illus- 
trates how pervading were the fundamental 
characteristics of the Greek genius human- 
ism and directness. 

More promising are those portions of the 
book which are descriptive or scientific in their 
aim, the richly illustrated catalogues of Ber- 
nini's clay models and his designs for the 
Piazza of St. Peter's, and the two essays deal- 
ing with Giorgione. The sketch book for the 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



81 



Piazza, to be sure, has been already twice pub- 
lished by foreign scholars, yet it might have 
been made to give up further secrets relative 
to the gradual development of the project in 
Bernini's mind. The author's idea, however, 
seems rather to have been merely to adduce 
the drawings as illustrations of Bernini's mys- 
ticism in conception, grandiose power, and 
care in study. For a similar purpose, appar- 
ently, the superb collection of sculptor 's mod- 
els owned by Mrs. Brandegee is illustrated and 
described without any study of their relations 
to the completed figures to which they corre- 
spond. 

It is the essays on Giorgione which most 
repay the scholar. They summarize the at- 
tributions made by previous writers, and 
attempt a new and corrected list of his works, 
based not only on a "combination of the best 
points of the work of these very differently 
endowed critics," but on personal acquaint- 
ance with the originals as intimate as theirs. 
Agreement or disagreement with his conclu- 
sions will depend mainly on one's principles 
of historical criticism. Mr. Norton reacts 
against what he considers an excessive atten- 
tion to externality and detail in Morelli's 
methods, at the same time protesting against 
Mr. Berenson's occasional affirmations of mys- 
tical faith. From a similar impressionism, in- 
deed, Mr. Norton is by no means free. In- 
stances could be multiplied from the book in 
hand of ascriptions made or denied without 
any assignment of logical grounds. Without 
pressing the argumentum ad hominem, how- 
ever, we may raise the question whether 
another method which Mr. Norton 'employs by 
preference is superior to those of his prede- 
cessors. It is based on the assumption that an 
artist postulated as great can never repeat 
himself, or fall below the standard established 
for him. Such a doctrine of infallibility, read- 
ily maintained in a case like that of Giorgione 
by casting doubt on the authenticity of every- 
thing inferior, falls to the ground in any case 
where a great number of works are authenti- 
cated, as in the case of Bernini. Mr. Norton 
has to deprecate among the known works of 
Bernini failures exactly similar to those which 
he cites as impossible in Botticelli and Gior- 
gione, yet to him Bernini is a master of coor- 
dinate rank and equal inspiration. Although 
his purgations of this sort are of doubtful 
value, Mr. Norton's suggestions on the posi- 
tive side must be very seriously considered. 
He adds to the list of Giorgione 's works the 
"Gypsy Madonna" in Vienna, ascribed to 
Titian, the "Pieta" of the Correr Museum 
(perhaps a copy), ascribed to Bellini, the 
"David and Solomon" in the National Gal- 



lery, ascribed to the school of Giorgione, and, 
under reserves, a portrait of a youth in 
Vienna (copy). For the "Madonna," espe- 
cially, he gives solid grounds for his belief, in 
an analysis which is a model for such discus- 
sions. 

The book is written with a positiveness of 
expression which may alienate those to whom 
its conclusions are unpalatable, but it is a posi- 
tiveness to be respected as the result of in- 
dependent study and personal conviction. 
Dwarfing the loose compilations on artistic 
subjects with which we have usually to con- 
tent ourselves in America, the book comes as a 
reassuring testimony of faith that painstaking 
scholarship and concentrated thought may 
still receive a hearing. 

SIDNEY FISKE KIMBALL. 



YOUNG OF THE " NIGHT THOUGHTS." * 



It is strange that a poet so popular and 
influential in his day as the author of ' ' Night 
Thoughts" should have had to wait a hundred 
and fifty years for an adequate biography in 
his own language. This has been the fate of 
Young; and therefore Mr. Shelley's substan- 
tial "Life and Letters of Edward Young" 
fills a real need. For the first time we have in 
English a full-length portrait of that "polite 
hermit and witty saint," as Mrs. Montagu 
called him. But there already existed in 
French an accurate and exhaustive study of 
Young's life and works, by W. Thomas, pub- 
lished at Paris in 1901. Incredible as it may 
seem, Mr. Shelley appears never to have heard 
of this admirable biography. If he had been 
able to consult it, he would have avoided a 
number of minor errors and some really 
serious ones, and could have filled certain gaps 
in his narrative. Thus he tells us (p. 2) that 
"one other child was born of the marriage" 
of Young's parents; Thomas shows from the 
parish records of Upham that Young had 
three sisters, two of whom, to be sure, died in 
childhood. Mr. Shelley, repeating earlier 
writers, says that Lady Young died in Janu- 
ary, 1741; Thomas cites an entry from the 
Welwyn parish register showing that she died 
January 29, 1739 or 1740. The mistake is 
serious, because upon the date of Lady 
Young's death depends the interpretation of 
a famous passage in the "Night Thoughts," 
involving the identification of the central 
characters, and, to some extent, the whole 
question of the sincerity of the poem. The 
matter is too complex to be discussed here; 
but it may be said that Mr. Shelley's wrong 

* LIFE AND LETTERS OF EDWARD YOUNG. By Henry C. Shel- 
ley. Boston: Little, Brown & Co. 



82 



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[Feb. 1 



date leads him to suppose that Young left his 
wife in her last illness to pay a visit to the 
Duchess of Portland, and that he listened to 
the Duchess's suggestion of a second mar- 
riage at a date indecently near that of his 
wife's death. Mr. Shelley's friendliness to 
the poet causes him to gloss over these sup- 
posed delinquencies; but an examination of 
the Welwyn records would have shown him 
that Young needed no excuses. 

The great value of Mr. Shelley's biography 
of Young is in the abundance of new mate- 
rial which it presents, consisting chiefly of 
a series of letters from the poet to Margaret, 
Duchess of Portland. This correspondence 
covers the last twenty-five years of Young's 
life; it began in 1740, when the poet was 
fifty-seven and the Duchess twenty-five, and 
ended only a few weeks before his death in 
1765. The letters show Young at his best, as 
a man of the world, courtly, witty, and sensi- 
ble; deeply religious, and grave on occasion, 
but more often gay. Incidentally they give 
us a high opinion of the charm and goodness 
of the lady who inspired them. Her letters 
to Young are unfortunately lost; by the 
direction of his will, all his papers were 
destroyed. It is thus partly his own fault 
that he has waited so long for a biographer, 
and has been generally thought of as the mel- 
ancholy type of a "grave-yard poet." Mr. 
Shelley has very properly emphasized the 
other side of Young's temperament. We see 
the poet entertaining friends at his home, 
amusing the Duchess with lively stories, or 
rallying her on her failure to appreciate his 
friend Richardson's "Clarissa"; "your great- 
grandchildren," he tells her, "will read, and 
not without tears, the sheets that are now in 
the press." We see him at the age of sixty- 
two making friends with that aged butterfly, 
Colley Gibber, and delighting in his company. 
Reproached for this intimacy, he defends 
himself: "As for poor Colley, his impu- 
dence diverts me, and his morals shall not 
hurt me, though, by the way, he is more fool 
than knave, and like other fools is a wit." 
In another letter he complains humorously of 
the insincerity of one of his fair admirers: 
"Lady Andover does me honor in remember- 
ing that I exist. Yet 'tis all compliment; 
there is no sincerity, or she had not disap- 
pointed my assignation with her. Why go to 
town! Dishonorable creature! She is gone 
only with her husband!" Another letter of 
half- jocose moralizing ends as follows : ' ' Your 
Grace will wonder what all this means, and 
what gives occasion to such random stuff. 
Why, Madam, I am now in a coffee-house 
waiting for a rascally attorney, who, having 



robbed me already of all my money, would 
now rob me of my time; and rather than do 
nothing, which is very tedious, I was deter- 
mined to write nothing to your Grace." This 
is the Young of the satires, who could hit off 
so aptly the hypocritical church-goers : 
" And when their sins they set sincerely down, 
They'll find that their religion has been one," 

or the ignorant librarians : 

" Unlearned men of books assume the care, 
As eunuchs are the guardians of the fair." 

But Mr. Shelley does justice also to the 
serious Young, the Young of the '''Night 
Thoughts," who placed in his garden a 
"painted bench, a mere optical deceit." and 
inscribed on it the motto, "Invisibilia non 
decipiunt, ' ' 

As a portrait of the man Mr. Shelley's book 
is in many respects excellent. Apart from his 
inaccuracies as to fact his chief weakness is on 
the critical side. His estimate of Young's 
work is not always discriminating; for in- 
stance, he rates the turgid tragedies much too 
high. Little or nothing is said of literary 
influences on Young, and almost nothing of 
Young's own great influence. His popularity 
on the Continent, for example, signalized by 
translations into a dozen languages, is an ex- 
tremely interesting matter to which Mr. 
Shelley scarcely alludes. These are grave 
omissions; and here again the French study 
would have furnished invaluable aid. When 
all deductions are made, however, we must 
remain grateful to Mr. Shelley for his sym- 
pathetic and attractive portrait of a poet 
nowadays neglected, and above all for the 
delightful series of letters which he has made 
available. HOMER E. WOODBRIDGE. 



INTERPRETERS OF Mrsi< -.* 



That inspiring novel, "Jean Christophe," 
has given M. Romain Rolland an international, 
and, from present appearances, an enduring 
fame. He holds the chair of musical criticism 
in the Sorbonne and shares with his colleague, 
M. Combarieu, the foremost position in the 
ranks of writers on music in France. The 
present volume, which is admirably trans- 
lated by Miss Mary Blaiklock, is the initial 
publication of a series to be called "The Musi- 
cian's Bookshelf." M. Claude Landi, who 
furnishes an Introduction, gives some inter- 
esting biographical details of M. Rolland, who 
won, at the age of twenty-nine, the grand 
prix of the French Academy for a work on 
"The History of Opera in Europe before Lulli 

* MUSICIANS OF TO-DAY. By Romain Rolland. Translated 
by Mary Blaiklock. New York : Henry Holt & Co. 

NATURE IN Music. By Lawrence Oilman. New York : 
John Lane Co. 



1915 



83 



and Scarlatti," and who has since gone on 
accumulating laurels until his place among the 
leading men in musical interpretation and 
literature is almost equivalent to a final and 
positive verdict of posterity. 

We have here a number of essays, some of 
which have seen the light before, dealing with 
the deeper aspects of music in Germany and 
France. One paper, however, is devoted to the 
Italian composer of oratorios, Don Lorenzo 
Perosi. The author attempts to some extent a 
comparison of recent German and French 
composers, and makes no very profound secret 
of his predilection for the men of his own land 
and time. This statement is not meant to be 
disparaging, but to indicate the point of view 
from which the work is written. Our author 
also seems to be an eloquent advocate of music 
with a programme as the highest form of 
music, a position which makes him something 
of a reactionary. This view may be a recoil 
from the extreme views of Wagner and 
Strauss, and is perhaps shared by many musi- 
cians of to-day; but it is always difficult to 
take the step backward, and history, after all, 
never repeats itself. 

The French composers of whom M. Holland 
speaks are Berlioz, Saint-Saens, d'Indy, and 
Debussy ; the German composers are Wagner, 
Strauss, and Hugo Wolf. He has a separate 
essay in which he compares German and 
French music; and there is an elaborate 
account of the musical movement in Paris 
since 1870, which he calls ' ' The Awakening, ' ' 
a title which leads to some consideration on 
the reader's part. The date 1870 has its con- 
notations, and one may ask oneself what may 
become of French and German music after the 
sinister years of 1914 and 1915. 

The essay on Berlioz is especially note- 
worthy. M. Holland is frank in revealing 
Berlioz's weakness of character, and in our 
opinion gives altogether too much attention to 
that side of the case. The close connection 
between character and achievement is indis- 
putable, but art has mostly to do with the lat- 
ter, and in the lapse of the years the misdoings 
of exceptional intelligences are lost in the 
record of service to the advancing destinies of 
the race. His view of Berlioz, and indeed his 
view of music as a whole, may be gathered 
from the following paragraphs : 

" Before Berlioz's time there was really only one 
master of the first rank who made a great effort to 
liberate French music; it was Rameau; and de- 
spite his genius, he was conquered by Italian art. 
By force of circumstances, therefore, French music 
found itself moulded in foreign musical forms 
as most men speak more than they think, even 
thought itself became Germanized, and it was diffi- 



cult to discover, through this traditional insin- 
cerity, the true and spontaneous form of French 
musical thought. But Berlioz found it by instinct. 
From the first he strove to free French music from 
the oppression of the foreign tradition that was 
smothering it." 

" Berlioz is thus the true inheritor of Beetho- 
ven's thought. The difference between a work 
like the 'Romeo and Juliette ' symphony of Berlioz 
and one of Beethoven's symphonies is that the 
former, it would seem, endeavors to express objec- 
tive emotions and themes in music. I do not see 
why music should not follow poetry in getting 
away from introspection and try to paint the 
drama of the universe. Shakespeare is as good as 
Dante. Besides, one may add, it is always Berlioz 
that may be discovered in his music ; it is his soul, 
starving for love and mocked at by shadows, which 
is revealed through all the scenes of Romeo." 

The above quotations indicate the trend of 
M. Holland's thought, and the method of his 
procedure. When he comes to treat of Ger- 
man music, it must be said at once that he is 
eminently just, and generous in his admira- 
tion. We may point to the essay on Hugo 
Wolf, in which genuine appreciation of the 
musician vies with sympathy for the un- 
toward fate which overwhelmed the great tal- 
ent at so many places and times in its career. 
In the comparison between French and Ger- 
man music, it must be conceded that his bias 
in favor of the music of his own country shows 
itself fully and clearly. Art, however, de- 
mands allegiance for its own sake, and it is 
certainly time that we should outgrow na- 
tional prejudices in matters of universal 
concern. Nobody talks about French mathe- 
matics ; why make so much of French hiusic, 
or German music, or Italian music? The 
realm of art is above national limitations, it is 
its own creator, its own arbiter, its own 
appreciator. In it we become conscious of 
universal humanity, and nations are like shad- 
ows of the night disappearing in the splendor 
of the daytime. In the essays on Strauss and 
Wagner we see reflected M. Holland's pre- 
disposition for the symphony with the pro- 
gramme; he finds it somewhat objectionable in 
Strauss when in the "Sinfonia Domestica" he 
omits the programme altogether, and he evi- 
dently prefers Wagner in the concert room to 
Wagner in the theatre. He says : 

" There are dilettanti who pretend that at a con- 
cert the best way to enjoy Beethoven's last works 
where the sonority is defective is to stop the 
ears and read the score. One might say with less 
of a paradox that the best way to follow a per- 
formance of Wagner's operas is to listen with the 
eyes shut, so perfect is the music, so powerful is its 
hold on the imagination that it leaves nothing to be 
desired ; what it suggests to the mind is infinitely 
finer than what the eyes may see. I have never 



84 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 1 



shared the opinion that Wagner's works may be 
best appreciated in the Theatre. His works are 
epic symphonies. As a frame for them I should 
like temples; as scenery, the illimitable land of 
thought; as actors, our dreams." 

We have no space to tell of the appreciation 
of d 'Indy, which is intense, or of the idealiza- 
tion of Debussy, who represents to M. Holland 
in their highest form some of the salient char- 
acteristics of the French, or of the sincere 
rhapsody on the theme of Saint-Saens. There 
is not a page of the book without arresting 
thought or insight; there is the enthusiasm of 
the genuine lover of his art; there is no un- 
reasoning admiration, but the analytical ten- 
dency of the modern critic. Coming from 
such a source, the book is, of course, authorita- 
tive, and to those who love music it will prove 
an opportunity to gain not only pleasure but 
an outlook fine and high. 

Mr. Lawrence Oilman's book, "Nature in 
Music," follows in the main the same direc- 
tion as M. Holland's. The first essay gives the 
title to the volume. It is a history of the 
growth of nature expression in music. Mr. 
Gilman says : 

" The strongest appeal of natural beauty has 
always, then, been chiefly to people of emotional 
habit, and especially to those of untrammeled 
imagination and non-conformist tendencies; in 
other words, to poetically minded radicals, in all 
times and regions. It is probable that the curious 
and enlightened enquirer, bearing in mind these 
facts, would not be surprised to find, in studying 
the various expressions of this attraction, as they 
are recorded in the arts, that the uniquely sensi- 
tive and eloquent art of music has long been the 
handmaid of the Nature lover; and he would be 
prepared to find the Nature lover himself appear- 
ing often in the guise of that inherently emotional 
and often heterodox being, the music maker." 

The transcriptions of nature in music date 
back to very early periods. The earlier at- 
tempts at nature description, however, were 
merely imitative or sentimental ; that is, they 
were subjective ; the painting of nature objec- 
tively belongs to recent times; the further 
advance to the use of nature expression as a 
symbol of spirit or intelligence, belongs to the 
latest composers, Debussy, MacDowell, Loeffler. 
An example of the earlier nature music is 
Mendelssohn's "Hebrides" overture, which 
gives us the emotions of the composer in view- 
ing natural scenery. An example of the later 
nature music is Debussy's "La Mer." 

The essay, while here and there amenable 
to the charge of being overburdened with lan- 
guage, gives, nevertheless, a really satisfac- 
tory view of the contention of music in the 
matter of nature transcription, and contains 
a strong defence of programme music, which is 



repeated in more than one other place in the 
book, showing how near the subject is to the 
author's heart, and how important he con- 
siders it. 

Mr. Gilman is evidently a mystic of the 
highest type. He has been a student of the 
oriental literatures, and he bathes his subject 
everywhere in the light which never was on 
land or sea. This gives a unique quality to 
his writing, and leads him everywhere to posi- 
tive conclusions. In an age of prevalent 
negation and materialistic nihilism, this is a 
fine faith and assurance. So in his essay on 
"Death and the Musicians" he makes; his 
climax with Schubert's "Death and the 
Maiden," Wagner's "Isoldens Liebestod" 
and Strauss 's "Tod und Verklarung," in all 
of which there is imaged a region wonderful, 
over which destroying time has no control. 

With the defence of Herr Hugo von Hoff- 
mannsthal as given in the essay on "Strauss 
and the Greeks," apropos of the modernized 
' ' Electra, ' ' we are less inclined to be satisfied. 
There is certainly no objection to poet or 
musician making such use of the myth as he 
sees fit, filling it with a modern significance 
and giving it splendors which it never had 
before. The utterance, musical or otherwise, 
belongs to him who does it best. But for the 
introduction of unnecessary disagreeable de- 
tails, and the lowering of tone in a drama 
there seems no adequate excuse. The music 
of Strauss, however, to the "Electra," is in 
the heaven of all its desires, "it is full of his 
typical qualities he never halts or fumbles ; 
he has a superb assurance. His mastery of 
his imaginative material and of his technic is 
absolute. ' ' 

Mr. Gilman has a reasonable word to say in 
regard to opera in English. He comes in gen- 
eral to the conclusion that an opera should be 
sung in the language which its composer gave 
to it. He considers this country lucky over 
European nations in that it can always hear 
an operatic work in the language in which it 
was produced. He instances the unhappy 
translations with which we are all familiar, 
in which the music does not fit the words ; he 
thinks that it is hopeless to expect that a talent 
spanning both music and words so completely 
as to be able to make a suitable translation 
could be induced to devote itself to so thank- 
less a task as the pouring of the liquor of 
thought from one vessel to another. It would 
be irresistibly led to creation, either in the 
drama or the opera. Therefore it behooves 
the English-speaking public to encourage the 
bringing forth of English operas which will 
have the importance of Wagner and Strauss 
and Debussy in their respective mediums. 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



85 



We cannot close this notice without refer- 
ence to the essay called a "Musical Cosmopo- 
lite," which deals with the German- American 
composer, Mr. Charles Martin Loeffler, who, 
although born in Alsace, has done all his work 
in our own country, and takes place as an 
American composer, for which let us be duly 
thankful, as we have need of many recruits in 
the department of music. Mr. Loeffler has now 
found his place on programmes everywhere, 
and in the opinion of our author, is one of the 
greatest masters living to-day, with a message, 
sombre, perhaps, but high and noble, and with 
great control of musical resources. 

The book has some of the qualities of the 
music of which it treats; it has its enthusi- 
asms and its repugnances ; it is full of knowl- 
edge, both of music and literature ; it gives to 
music its place among the great and serious 
arts ; it recognizes that music, like every art, 
is expressive of the World Ideal ; and it must 
add to the genuine understanding of music 
wherever it is thoughtfully read. 

Louis JAMES BLOCK. 



NOTES ON NEW NOVELS. 



Until the outbreak of war the nearer capitals of 
continental Europe held important colonies of 
American students, many of them youthfully eager 
and impecunious. Remoteness and growing differ- 
ences in standards between these temporary exiles 
and their fiction-reading compatriots at home sug- 
gest possible reasons why American writers have 
not utilized material so seemingly fitted for their 
purposes to any notable extent. It is, perhaps, as 
well, since it has remained for Mrs. Mary Roberts 
Rinehart to open the way with a book of unusual 
interest, " The Street of Seven Stars " (Hough- 
ton). The leading characters are an American 
girl, studying the art of the violin in Vienna, and a 
physician, her fellow-countryman, seeking wider 
knowledge. They are given the attributes we like 
to think of as American, satisfying admirably our 
idealists, though all suspicion of exaggeration is 
removed by the use of an eminently undesirable 
person or two and the sympathetic treatment of the 
Viennese introduced. A wide range of emotions is 
successfully depicted and the love story is tender 
-and true, and hopelessly impractical, as ideal love 
stories may well be. 

A refreshing novel, " Sons of the Rhine " (Des- 
mond FitzGerald), has been translated by Miss 
Louise T. Lazell from the German of Herr Rudolf 
Herzog's " Die Wiskottens." The scene is laid in 
the province of the Rhine where the valley of the 
river Wupper is given over to manufacturing, and 
the title of the work in the original is the family 
name of the manufacturers, a father, mother, and 
six sons, with whose fortunes the pages are con- 
cerned. The elder sons inherit the business abilities 
-of their parents, the founders of a growing ribbon 
factory, while the two younger are of poetic and 



artistic bent, and one intermediate is a scientist. 
The most aggressive of the number is wedded to a 
wife of tendencies which Americans will recognize 
as Puritan in the less worthy sense of the word, 
and her coldness leads to an estrangement which 
ends with her complete surrender to the facts of 
life as her husband lives it. The youngest boy 
makes an earlier failure as a painter after running 
away from home to study, but his designs for new 
ribbons go far toward saving the business from 
the effect of a relentless competition. It is one of 
those artificially artless stories in which everything 
that has been wrong turns right at the best possible 
moment, and is likely to appeal to a large follow- 
ing. The character studies are well done and the 
translation excellent, except for the numerous 
scriptural quotations, where Miss Lazell might 
have used the English authorized version to advan- 
tage. The book is free from militarism; indeed, 
from Germanism, with the exception of an extraor- 
dinary line from Von Moltke, " In its own strength, 
in that alone, lies the strength of a nation." The 
italics are the author's, and the sentiment fairly 
astounding. 

" Yourself and the Neighbours " (Devin-Adair) 
is made up of a series of brief descriptions of life 
in Ireland among the peasantry, chiefly among 
their small sons and daughters, written by Mr. 
Seumas MacManus and illustrated by Mr. Thomas 
Fogarty. As in others of Mr. MaeManus's books, 
the knowledge displayed has been gained at first 
hand, and is treated with complete comprehension 
and sympathy. The same may be said of the pic- 
tures, which lack nothing of the wit of the text. 
It is such stories as these that interpret racial spirit 
and bring to foreigners the assurance of a common 
humanity which is the truest internationalism. 

Excellent melodrama makes up Mr. J. C. 
Snaith's "Anne Feversham" (Appleton), a story 
of Elizabeth's time in which the author has had the 
daring to introduce Shakespeare and his theatrical 
associates as subordinate though important char- 
acters. A beautiful youth is condemned to death 
most unjustly. A lovely girl has just been soundly 
whipped by her irate father for disobedience and 
cast into a dungeon where she is neighbor to the 
beautiful youth. They effect their escape and have 
the most astonishing adventures, eventually falling 
in with the Lord Chamberlain's Players at Oxford, 
she disguised as a boy and both as gypsies. The 
part of Rosalind, which she had originally inspired, 
is created by her before the Queen, and a happy 
ending, virtue rewarded and vice rebuked, crowns 
the story. 

"The Place beyond the Winds" (Doubleday) 
is Mrs. Harriet T. Comstock's newest adventure in 
fiction. Its scene is laid near the Canadian border 
and its characters are tough pioneers and woods- 
men and their gentler teachers and offspring. The 
girl leaves a most unhappy home with her name 
under a cloud, and becomes a trained nurse in New 
York. Once there, the interest becomes largely 
medical and the most difficult of all problems con- 
fronting the practising physician she solves by cut- 
ting the knot. This divided interest does not add 
to the artistic value of the work, but it will surely 
serve the cause in which M. Brieux conceived and 



86 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 1 



wrote more than one of his plays. The characters 
of the book are strongly differentiated, and the 
narrative diversified enough to appeal to many 
tastes. Practically impossible as it is for the author 
to be more explicit in stating the terms of her 
problem, it strikingly lacks definition. 

Irony and hyperbole combine with a very pretty 
wit to make Mr. Stephen Leacock's "Arcadian 
Adventures of the Idle Rich" (Lane) that rare 
bird in contemporary English literature, a success- 
ful satire. The treatment of our plutocrats is 
episodic, though many of the characters appear in 
several of the tales. Nearly all of these are of pre- 
posterous wealth, which the men are striving to 
increase, only such persons of average possessions 
being admitted to the pages as tend to enhance the 
evidences of conspicuous waste. The reader will 
probably find the note rather shrill for continuous 
reading, much as the work deserves to be read. 
The merger of two fashionable churches, one Angli- 
can and the other Presbyterian, along the lines of 
the most approved methods of high finance is one 
of the best bits of witty sarcasm in recent print. 

The heroine of Mr. Dion Clayton Calthrop's 
"Clay and Rainbows" (Stokes) is about as disa- 
greeable a piece of feminine flesh as has appeared 
in recent fiction, quite degenerate, even to the point 
of suggesting that she would certainly be held a 
moron in any morals court. Incapable of con- 
stancy, she contrives to keep one fairly good man 
and several others who are not so good in a state of 
more or less complete unhappiness from one cover 
of the book to the other. Before the tale is com- 
pleted, not one of the characters has retained the 
reader's sympathy, being thoroughly committed as 
lacking in elementary morality, good taste, or com- 



mon sense. 



BRIEFS oisr NEW BOOKS. 



It is a curious and regrettable 

o! l s^te. artment fact that the g reat executive de- 
partments of our Federal Gov- 
ernment have not received from students and 
writers a measure of attention commensurate 
with their interest and importance, or in fair 
proportion to the amount of study which has 
been devoted to the presidency, the houses of 
Congress, or even the courts. Until very 
recently there was not one book in which the 
organization and working of any one of the 
departments was described adequately, for 
either the expert or the general reader. There 
is, of course, Ingersoll's "History of the War 
Department," Gushing 's "Story of Our Post 
Office," Swank's "Department of Agricul- 
ture," and Easby-Smith's "Department of 
Justice." not to enumerate a considerable list 
of histories of the navy. But all of these 
works (except that of Mr. Easby-Smith, pub- 
lished in 1904) are antiquated, or are mere 
popular sketches, or are histories rather than 
descriptive treatises. And the several excel- 



lent monographs which have been written 
upon various individual bureaus or adminis- 
trative services make no pretense of covering 
the field. To the student of political science, 
therefore (and doubtless to many people who 
lay no claim to such designation) , Mr. Gaillard 
Hunt's "The Department of State" (Yale 
University Press) is highly gratifying, first be- 
cause in its plan and execution it so closely ap- 
proximates the ideal piece of work of its kind, 
and secondly because the preparation of it has 
fallen to a writer of such exceptional qualifi- 
cations. For many years- Mr. Hunt occupied 
the post of chief of the Bureau of Citizenship 
in the State Department, and his knowledge 
of the Department is the product not only of 
prolonged and painstaking historical investi- 
gation but of personal observation and of act- 
ive participation in the Department's activi- 
ties. His book is technical rather than popular 
in character, and it is at the same time histori- 
cal and descriptive. It is not a history of 
diplomacy, or a series of biographical sketches 
of the secretaries of state. It abounds, fur- 
thermore, in lengthy citations from laws, cir- 
culars, and regulations. But, as the author 
rightly says, these documentary passages tell 
the story more accurately than a paraphrase 
could do, and unquestionably their use will 
contribute to a realization of the expressed 
desire to make the book, so far as it goes, defini- 
tive. The first three chapters recount suc- 
cinctly the history of the varying arrange- 
ments made for the conduct of foreign affairs 
by the Continental Congress and by the Con- 
gress of the Confederation, supplementing ad- 
mirably the chapters of Mr. Learned in his 
"President's Cabinet" dealing with the gen- 
eral administrative aspects of the period, and 
leaving apparently little or nothing further 
to be said. Two chapters are devoted to the 
creation and organization of the State Depart- 
ment in 1789, two others to the functions once 
exercised by the Department but now with- 
drawn, together with those which are still 
exercised only on occasion, and two more to 
the Department's past and present internal 
organization. Seven chapters serve for an 
analytical discussion of the Department's 
present functions. And the volume closes 
with an interesting account of the buildings 
and rooms utilized for the work of the Depart- 
ment throughout the past century and a quar- 
ter. With respect to the allotment of space 
one criticism only may be suggested. The 
diplomatic and consular services are covered 
together in a single chapter of but twenty 
pages. More space might well have been given 
them, even at the sacrifice of some details pre- 
sented upon other and less important subjects. 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



87 



A British 
admiral's 
retrospect. 



Caustic comment from Admiral 
Lord Charles Beresford on naval 
and other matters of current 
interest has obtained some publicity of late, 
and shows him to be as incisive in speech as 
he has proved himself unhesitating and vigor- 
ous in action during his long and distinguished 
service afloat and ashore, in the navy and in 
parliament, and in whatever rank or capacity 
it has been his lot to serve his country. In ' ' The 
Memoirs of Admiral Lord Charles Beresford" 
(Little, Brown & Co.) he does not fail to 
reveal a mastery of his native tongue such as 
few sailors can claim. Very early in his sea- 
faring life, which began when he was but thir- 
teen years old, he demonstrated the sufficiency 
of his vocabulary in an amusing manner. He 
was asked to be coxswain of a racing crew 
belonging to the "Marlborough," the first ship 
of war to which he was assigned as naval 
cadet, and the invitation was extended in 
these words by the spokesman of the deputa- 
tion entrusted with the business : ' ' Well, sir, 
it's like this here, sir, if you'll pardon me. 
Yew be young-like, and what we was thinking 
was whether you have the power of language 
that du be required. " "I said I would do my 
best," relates the one thus honored. "I did. 
I astonished myself." In his enthusiasm for 
his calling, he rises almost to the realm of 
poetry in an early chapter, which opens thus : 
"I wish I could convey to my readers some- 
thing of the pride and delight which a sailor 
feels in his ship. But who that has never had 
the luck to be a deep-water sailor, can under- 
stand his joy in the noble vessel, or the uplift- 
ing sense of his control over her matchless and 
splendid power, born of a knowledge of her 
every rope and sail and timber, and of an 
understanding of her behavior and ability. 
For every ship has her own spirit, her own 
personality." Admiral Beresford comes of 
illustrious and gallant Irish stock, one mem- 
ber of which, Admiral Sir John Poo Beres- 
ford, achieved both unusual glory and uncom- 
mon length of years, dying in 1884 at the ex- 
treme age of one hundred and sixteen. Lord 
Charles himself, as we learn, but not from his 
own narrative, has in the course of his strenu- 
ous life broken his breast-bone and parted 
with a piece of it, broken his right leg, right 
hand, right foot, five ribs, one collar-bone 
three times, the other once, his nose three 
times, and one of the bones of the pelvis ; but 
though he was in youth marked for an early 
grave by the wiseacres, his energy of will has 
carried him through to a well-preserved ma- 
turity, for not yet can he be called old, being 
still on the sunny side of seventy. His two- 
volume autobiography is packed with events 



of interest, sometimes of thrilling interest, and 
often of great historic importance. His life 
is, in very truth, a part of his country's his- 
tory. Mr. L. Cope Cornford provides the book 
with useful Introduction and notes, and many 
illustrations are interspersed. 



The life of 

a great singer. 



There is an undeniable fascina- 
tion about the men and women 
who have won a prominent place 
in the theatre, where we go to see life moving 
before us in a sort of dream. The applause 
which they receive, the splendor in which they 
appear, the idealization which we give to their 
character and attainments, set them apart 
from the ordinary human being, and give 
interest to them in every aspect in which they 
manifest themselves. We like especially to 
know about them as simple human beings, and 
an opportunity to gaze into their daily life 
away from the glamour of the stage is gladly 
seized upon. Madame Lilli Lehmann Kalisch 
in her book, "My Path through Life" (Put- 
nam), presents us with an autobiography 
singularly minute and agreeable. She begins 
with her girlhood days and passes on to the 
period of her extraordinary triumphs, when 
she was almost without question the greatest 
singer of her time. Her book shows her to be 
a woman of remarkable insight and intelli- 
gence; her aims are, and have been, as high 
as those of the art which she made grander 
and nobler by her efforts ; w r e doubt whether 
any singer ever lived who brought to her art 
sincerer devotion. Lilli Lehmann came of a 
musical family. Her mother, Marie Loew, 
was a distinguished singer in opera, and her 
father, Carl August Lehmann, was one of the 
famous tenors of his day. The father proved 
a wayward person and his death released the 
family from considerable embarrassment. 
The mother, who had left the stage, became 
harpist in the orchestra of the theatre in 
Prague, and maintained herself and two 
daughters thus, and by giving lessons in sing- 
ing. Both girls followed their mother in their 
careers, and Lilli Lehmann seems to think that 
her sister Marie was a greater artist than her- 
self. The account of these youthful days is 
very entertaining, and the young girls soon 
had many chances of appearing in public, 
securing thus an education which subse- 
quently proved invaluable to them. Richard 
Wagner comes into their life very early. He 
was a friend of the mother, and at one time 
made a serio-comic proposition for the adop- 
tion of Lilli. After some effort a professional 
engagement for the elder daughter Lilli was 
obtained at the Prague National Theatre, and 
the life-work began in earnest. The book will 



88 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 1 



be found enjoyable by musicians and laymen 
alike ; for it is the story of a grand woman and 
a great artist at her best. The translation by 
Mrs. Alice Benedict Seligman is in the main 
well done and the portraits and other illustra- 
tions add to the value of the book. 



The mind 

of Dostoievsky. 



Miss Ethel Colburn Mayne's 
translation of the "Letters of 
Dostoevsky" (Macmillan) is a 
book that will interest all admirers of the Rus- 
sian novelist. The letters contain much that 
our reading of the novels had prepared us for 
and a little that was less to be expected. The 
extraordinary preoccupation of the young 
Dostoieffsky with European literature, for 
example, will be somewhat surprising to many 
of his American readers. On the other hand, 
his characteristic enthusiasms are set down 
here at the greatest length, with a fullness, 
indeed, that is a little trying to the patience. 
He was the most fanatical of Slavophils, find- 
ing little to admire and much to condemn in 
the civilizations of the West. He was a mystic 
in politics as in religion, and the efficiency of 
modern Germany desolated his soul, while 
France seemed to him decadent and immoral. 
The hope of European civilization appeared to 
him to lie in ' ' holy Russia, ' ' though he found 
it difficult to convey this hope in intelligible 
terms. His unfortunate quarrel with Tour- 
guenieff was intensified by the latter 's con- 
tempt for Russian pretensions. Throughout 
the letters, as in the novels, one is struck by 
the singular confusion that characterized; 
Dostoieffsky as thinker. His grasp of abstract 
ideas was always uncertain, and he was never 
able to discipline himself by a rational con- 
sideration of any subject that had deeply 
engaged his sympathy. The letters, although 
illuminating to those already familiar with the 
novels, should not be read as an introduction 
to Dostoieffsky 's works; they should be read 
only by those who have already gained some 
knowledge of the strength and the weakness of 
the man who wrote them. 



w . . 

Wonders and 

riches of the 



Enamoured of our youthful and 

. ^ . ,-, i i 

vigorous Far West, though him- 
self a resident of the effete East, 
Mr. E. Alexander Powell, F.R.G.S., writes 
with both enthusiasm and knowledge concern- 
ing the manifold attractions and possibilities 
of the vast domain stretching from the Mexi- 
can border to Puget Sound, and even beyond, 
to the Alaskan boundary line. This region he 
has traversed in a motor-car, being, he be- 
lieves, the first to make the journey in that 
manner. ' ' The End of the Trail ' ' ( Scribner ) , 
describes in vivid style and with a wealth of 



pictorial accompaniment the incidents of the 
undertaking, with such items of geographical 
and agricultural and miscellaneous informa- 
tion as naturally include themselves in a nar- 
rative of this kind. Especially impressive is 
the change recently wrought in the desert 
regions of the Southwest by the introduction 
of artificial irrigation, whereby the sandy 
wastes of New Mexico and Arizona are made 
to develop unsuspected fertility and the face 
of nature is marvellously transformed. Mr. 
Powell's chapter-headings indicate the tone of 
his book; he chooses such picturesquely de- 
scriptive captions as "Conquerors of Sun 
and Sand," "Chopping a Path to To-mor- 
row," "The Land of Dreams-Come-True," 
"Where Gold Grows on Trees," "The Coast 
of Fairyland," and "The Valley of Heart's 
Delight." Allowing himself a sufficiency of 
rhetorical exuberance to preserve his style 
from dullness, he perhaps carries to excess the 
familiar devices of exaggeration and allitera- 
tion, as where he describes 1 the road from 
Phoenix to the Roosevelt Dam, which he calls 
' ' the trail of a thousand thrills, ' ' and says 
' ' its right-angle corners and hairpin turns are 
calculated to make the hair of the motorist 
permanently pompadour." This last expres- 
sion is a favorite of his in emphasizing the 
startling character of far-western scenery. As 
in his preceding volume, "The Last Fron- 
tier," the author gives evidence of much expe- 
rience as a "gentleman rover" (to use a term 
of his own) and an alert observer. There is a 
wealth of entertainment and information in 
his pages. 

,.... . , The William Brewster Clark 

The biological . * i . n n 

basis of human Foundation at Amherst College 
aims to throw light in a genu- 
inely scientific spirit upon the relations which 
research and scientific discovery of to-day 
bear to individual attitude and social policy. 
The second series of lectures, "Biology and 
Social Problems," was given by Professor 
G. H. Parker of Harvard and they admirably 
carry out both in letter and spirit the purpose 
of the enterprise. The first lecture deals with 
the fundamental conceptions and discoveries 
of modern biology regarding the structure and 
action of the nervous system, in its relation to 
reflexes, freedom, and memory. The second 
concerns itself with the secretions of the duct- 
less glands and those mysterious chemical sub- 
stances known as hormones, which profoundly 
affect and control the activities of organs, de- 
velopmental processes, and secondary sexual 
characters. The third lecture discusses the 
wonderful revelations of the secrets of repro- 
duction and heredity and their practical ap- 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



89 



plication in genetics. The closing lecture is a 
conservative estimate of the present status of 
our knowledge of the factors of organic evolu- 
tion, consisting of a frank recognition of the 
profound inadequacy of our present proved 
ground, a relegation of Darwin 's natural selec- 
tion to a place of secondary importance, and a 
confident belief that experiment and analysis 
will ultimately place in man's hands a fuller 
knowledge of the factors which have brought 
about his existence. Lucidity, definite prog- 
ress to conclusions, frankness, and breadth of 
view characterize this book and make it one of 
the best brief statements of current biological 
thought so far published for the general 
reader. (Houghton Mifflin Co.) 



Sir Walter 
Raleigh and 
Shakespeare. 



A person who believes that Sir 
Walter Raleigh wrote Shake- 
speare's plays is not quite so 
crazy as a Baconian. Raleigh had far more 
than Bacon of the Elizabethan versatility ; he 
had also more imagination, and a very pretty 
talent for poetry. Still no one with any sensi- 
tiveness to style could suppose that the author 
of "Give me my scallop-shell of quiet" could 
have written the tragedy of Lear or "The 
Tempest." Nothing so imponderable as lit- 
erary quality, however, is noticed by Mr. 
Henry Pemberton, Jr., in his "Shakespere 
and Sir Walter Raleigh" (Lippincott). He 
applies, as he tells us in his Preface, methods 
to which he has ' ' been accustomed in the study 
of physical sciences. ' ' Perhaps it is this scien- 
tific training which leads him to find profound 
significance in the fact that on the title-pages 
of some early editions the name of the author 
is spelled with a hyphen, "Shake-speare." 
Surely it is not the scientific method which 
leads Mr. Pemberton to repeat from Charles 
Kingsley an outrageous calumny on Richard 
Burbage, based on a passage from one of 
Jonson 's masques ; for if Mr. Pemberton had 
looked up the reference, even he must have 
seen that Kingsley entirely misunderstood the 
passage. In justice to Mr. Pemberton, how- 
ever, it should be said that he discovers no 
acrostics or cryptograms, but relies for his 
evidence upon a number of "topical allu- 
sions" in the plays and sonnets, which can be 
explained as referring to various circum- 
stances in Raleigh's life. Some of these ex- 
planations are neat and by themselves plausi- 
ble. But the book exhibits beautifully the 
three fundamental weaknesses characteristic 
of its class. Practically all such books are 
based in great part upon (1) a literary stu- 
pidity which cannot distinguish between 
sharply contrasted styles, (2) a form of snob- 
bishness which, in defiance of literary history, 



assumes that no work of the highest merit can 
be done by an author of obscure social stand- 
ing and irregular education, and (3) an 
encyclopaedic ignoring of all the facts which 
do not fit into the writer 's theory. 



BRIEFER MENTION. 



"The Short Story" (McClurg), by Professor 
E. A. Cross of the State Teachers' College of 
Colorado, is a well selected collection of eighteen or 
twenty prose narratives with an Introduction and 
brief notes. Unlike many recent books on the 
same subject it gives no directions to the pros- 
pective writer of short stories, but aims to help the 
thoughtful reader to a better understanding of 
this literary form. 

Five new volumes in the Greek section of the 
" Loeb Classical Library " have come to hand, as 
follows : the second and final volume of Mr. Walter 
Miller's translation of Xenophon's " Cyropaedia," 
two volumes of a ten-volume translation of 
" Plutarch's Lives " by Mr. Bernadotte Perrin, the 
first volume of Mr. H. B. Dewing's translation of 
Procopius, and the third volume of Mr. E. Gary's 
translation of Dio's Roman history. 

" The South African Year Book, 1914," edited 
by Mr. W. H. Hosking and published by Messrs. 
E. P. Button & Co., is the first issue of an annual 
publication of collated information regarding the 
Union of South Africa. The data have been 
secured from official sources, chiefly from the 
Union, Provincial, German, and Portuguese gov- 
ernments, and a wide variety of matters regarding 
the country is considered, such as, its orography, 
hydrography, climate and meteorology, races and 
language, minerals, public health, agriculture, tar- 
iffs, harbours, or finance. 

As excellent as their predecessors in every re- 
spect of printing and editing and serviceable bind- 
ing are the additions to the " Oxford Editions," 
which include the following titles : Newman's 
" The Dream of Gerontius, and Other Poems " ; 
"The Poetical Works of George Crabbe," edited 
by Messrs. A. J. Carlyle and R. M. Carlyle with 
the poet's notes and the text of his own edition; 
Keble's "The Christian Year," including "Lyra 
Innocentium," and other poems, together with his 
sermon on "National Apostasy"; the poems of 
William Cullen Bryant; and the poems of Charles 
Kingsley, including " The Saint's Tragedy," 
"Andromeda," and other verse. In the pocket 
series of " World's Classics " recent additions com- 
prise : " Dreamthorp, with Selections from Last 
Leaves," by Alexander Smith, with an Introduction 
by Mr. Hugh Walker, LL.D. ; " Lorna Doone," by 
R. D. Blackmore, with an Introduction by Mr. T. 
Herbert Warren ; " Goblin Market, The Prince's 
Progress, and Other Poems," by Christina Rossetti ; 
" The Mutiny and Piratical Seizure of H. M. S. 
Bounty," by Sir John Barrow, with an Introduc- 
tion by Admiral Sir Cyprian Bridge ; " The De- 
fence of Guenevere, Life and Death of Jason, and 
Other Poems," by William Morris ; and " Selected 
English Short Stories (Nineteenth Century)," 
with an Introduction by Mr. Hugh Walker, LL.D. 



90 



THE DIAL 



[ Feb. 1 



A book by M. Emile Verlmeren, " The Belgian 
Spirit," is announced by Messrs. Houghton 
Mifflin Co. 

Mr. W. B. Maxwell's new novel, " The Ragged 
Messenger," will be published immediately by 
Messrs. Bobbs-Merrill Co. 

A play by Mr. Edward Sheldon, " The Garden of 
Paradise," and one by Mr. Israel Zangwill, 
" Plaster Saints," will be published immediately by 
the Macmillan Co. 

" James," a novel by " W. Dane Bank " which 
was announced in the autumn but which was de- 
layed, will be published immediately by Messrs. 
George H. Doran Co. 

Mr. Cecil Chesterton, brother of Mr. G. K. Ches- 
terton, has written " The Prussian Has Said in His 
Heart,'.' which Mr. Laurence J. Gomme announces 
for publication on this side. 

A novel by Mr. Booth Tarkington, " The 
Turmoil," which has been running serially in 
" Harper's Magazine," is announced for publica- 
tion on February 11 by Messrs. Harper & Brothers. 

Mr. Henry Sydnor Harrison's new story, 
"Angela's Business," which is being published 
serially in the " Metropolitan Magazine " will be 
issued in book form shortly by Messrs. Houghton 
Mifflin Co. 

Four new volumes of the " Home University 
Library " will be published by Messrs. Henry Holt 
& Co. next week. They are : " The Navy and the 
Sea Power," by Mr. David Hannay ; " The Ancient 
East," by Mr. D. G. Hogarth; "The Negro," by 
Mr. W. E. DuBois; and "Russian Literature," by 
Mr. Maurice Baring. 

Mr. Samuel Parsons is the author of " The Prin- 
ciples and Practice of Landscape Gardening," 
which Messrs. Putnam announce for immediate 
publication. The book is understood to be an 
attempt to state a theory of landscape gardening 
and contains a considerable body of matter from 
foreign writers on the subject whose work has not 
hitherto been translated into English. 

Professor Leo Wiener of Harvard is the author of 
"An Interpretation of the Russian People " which 
will be published shortly by Messrs. McBride, Nast 
& Co. Professor Wiener was born in Russia and 
spent his youth there. Since he came to America he 
has taught in a number of schools and colleges. He 
is the translator and editor of an edition of Tol- 
stoi's complete works. Altogether his experience 
should have qualified him in a peculiar degree to 
explain Russia to America. 

Katharine Coman, professor emeritus of eco- 
nomics and sociology at Wellesley College, died on 
January 11. Miss Coman was called to the chair 
of history at Wellesley in 1883, shortly after her 
graduation from the University of Michigan. In 
1900 she became professor of economics. Ill health 
compelled her to retire from active teaching in 
1913. Miss Coman was the author of " The Growth 
of the English Nation," an " Industrial History of 
the United States," and " The Economic Begin- 
nings of the Far West." 



A circular to members of the Fifth International 
Congress of Philosophy which was to have been 
held in London next September announces that the 
war has made it impossible to carry through the 
arrangements for the meeting. The members of the 
organizing committee express " the earnest hope 
that the confederacy of the entire philosophical 
world, which has subsisted since the inauguration of 
the series of congresses in 1900, will not be set 
aside for a longer time than untoward circum- 
stances render absolutely imperative." 

A " College of Arts " especially for American 
students is announced in London. Among those 
who have promised to conduct classes are Mr. and 
Mrs. Arnold Dolmetsch, Mr. Gaudier-Brzeska, Mr. 
Wyndham Lewis, Mr. Reginald Wilenski, Mr. 
Alvin Langdon Coburn, Mr. Edmond Dulac, Mr. 
Charles T. Jacobi, and Mr. Ezra Pound. Besides 
sculpture, painting, music, dancing, and literature, 
it is proposed to teach crafts, including printing, 
bookbinding, furniture-making, and work in silver, 
enamel, and pottery. The secretary is Mr. Vaughn 
Baron, 5 Holland Place Chambers, Kensington, 
London, W. 

James Elroy Flecker, who died recently at Davos 
Platz after a long illness, was one of the most dis- 
tinguished of the younger English poets. The 
author of several volumes of verse, he was best 
known by the collections entitled " Forty-two 
Poems " and " The Golden Journey to Samarkand." 
A novel, " The King of Alsander," was published 
in this country only last autumn. A wanderer, a 
student of Oriental languages, a resident for a 
considerable period of Stamboul, Flecker was not 
intimately associated with any of the three or four 
groups of poets in London. Poems of his were, 
however, included in " Georgian Poetry," the brief 
anthology which introduced his name and that of 
Mr. Rupert Brooke in connection with those of 
Mr. T. Sturge Moore and other men of more estab- 
lished reputation. 



TOPICS ix LEADING PERIODICALS. 

February, 1915. 



American History and American Democracy. A. C. 

McLaughlin Am. Hist. Rev. 

American Literature. H. St. G. Tucker So. Atl. 

American Poetry. Dorothea L. Mann Forum 

Borneo, Botanizing in. D. H. Campbell Pop. Sc. 

Brann, William Cowper. H. E. Rollins So. Atl. 

Browning, Qualities of. Harry T. Baker .... Mid-West 

California. James D. Phelan Rev. of Revs. 

Canal, Meaning of the. B. I. Wheeler . . . Rev. of Revs. 

Chile and Argentina. E. A. Ross Century 

Church, Apparent Collapse of the. E. D. Schoon- 

maker Century 

Church, Social Mission of the. J. H. Melsh . . . Atlantic 
Churches, Social Service and the. B. I. Bell . . . Atlantic 
Civil War, Plantation Memories of the. P. A. Bruce So. Atl. 
Civil War Reminiscences VI. A. R. H. Ransom Sewanee 

Civilization and Courage. H. M. Aubrey Forum 

Climate and Civilization. Ellsworth Huntington . Harper 
Coast Defence, Our. M. H. Thompson .... No. Atner. 
Colorado, Conditions in. George Creel . . . Everybody's 
Contraband, Question of. Arthur Willert .... Atlantic 
Cosmic Evolution, Theories of. G. D. Swezey . . Mid-West 
Country, In the Deep. Arthur C. Benson . 
Criticism, The Acid of Higher. Hugh Black 



No. Amer. 
Everybody's 



Culture. R. D. O'Leary Sewanee 

Diplomatic Service, Needs of Our. David J. Hill . Harper 



Dramatist, The Uncommercial. E. A. Boyd 
Economic Opportunity, New. Witt Bowden 



Forum 
Forum 



Economics of the Sixteenth Century. L. M. Sears Sewanee 



England, Chant of Love for. Helen G. Cone 



Atlantic 



1915] 



THE DIAL, 



91 



England : Imperial Opportunist. S. P. Orth . . . Century 
England and Contraband Cargoes. R. G. Usher . Century 
England's Naval Supremacy. W. Morgan Shuster . Century 
Eugenics, Misconceptions of. S. J. Holmes . . . Atlantic 
Facts, Evanescence of. Jonathan Wright .... Pop. Sc. 
Family, The, and the Individual. Henry Bordeaux Atlantic 
Feminism. The New, in Literature. H. H. Peckham So. Atl. 
Fit, The Arrival of the. John Burroughs . . . No. Amer. 
France, A Love Letter to. John Galsworthy . . . Atlantic 
France: La Grande Nation. J. O. P. Bland . . . Atlantic 
French Revolution, The IV. Hilaire Belloc . . Century 
German Spy System, The. Sydney Brooks . . . Atlantic 

Germany's Answer. Hans Delbruck Atlantic 

Glands, Ductless. Fielding H. Garrison .... Pop. Sc. 
Goethals, George W. Joseph B. Bishop .... Scribner 
Government Ownership. Samuel O. Dunn . . . Atlantic 
Granville, Lord, and Carolina. A. J. Morrison . . So. Atl. 
Hay, John, From the Diaries of. W. R. Thayer . . Harper 
Hindu Student, American Impressions of a. Sudhindra 

Bose Forum 

Holland, Two Revolutions in. H. M. Allen . . . Sewanee 
Initiative and Referendum, Reforming the. E. S. 

Potter Rev. of Revs. 

Johnson, Lionel. T. K. Whipple Mid-West 

Julian the Apostate. Sidney J. Cohen .... Sewanee 
" Karluk " Survivors, Rescue of the. B. M. McConnell Harper 
Kiao-chau Situation. The. Adachi Kinnosuke . . Century 
Laborer, The, and His Hire. Ida M. Tarbell . . American 
Liberal Education, Defence of. R. B. Perry . . . Forum 
Lions, Hunting. Stewart Edward White . . . American 
Literature and Cosmopolitanism. H. D. Sedgwick Atlantic 
Literature and the New Anti-Intellectualism. P. M. 

Buck, Jr Mid-West 

Meade, George Gordon. Gamaliel Bradford Am. Hist. Rev. 
Merchant-Marine Problem, The. W. C. Redfield . Atlantic 
Militarism and Democracy in Germany. O. G. 

Villard Scribner 

Military Training in Colleges. J. G. Schurman Everybody's 
Millet, Jean Francois. George M. Gould . . . Mid-West 

Morals, Control of. Durant Drake Forum 

Motor in Warfare, The. Charles L. Freeston . . Scribner 

Motoring, Women and. H. L. Towle Scribner 

Motorirg in the High Sierras. C. J. Belden . . Scribner 

Musical Primitive, A. James Huneker Forum 

National Defence. Arthur Bullard Century 

National Societies, Foreign Associates of. E. C. 

Pickering Pop. Sc. 

Naval Expenditures and Waste. G. V. L. Meyer No. Amer. 
Neutral Rights and Duties. C. T. Revere . . . No. Amer. 
Neutrality: Legal vs. Moral. Paul Fuller . . . Atlantic 
Normandy under Henry II. C. H. Haskins . Am. Hist. Rev. 
North Carolina's Taxation Problem. C. L. Raper . So. Atl. 
Novel, Social Relations in the. Louise M. Field . . Forum 

Novels and Vitality. J. B. Cabell Sewanee 

Panama Canal, Opening the. Agnes C. Laut . Rev. of Revs. 
Panama-Pacific Fair, Architecture at the. Ernest 

Knaufft Rev. of Revs. 

Paris in Etching. F. Weitenkampf Scribner 

Pater the Humanist. Augustus Ralli .... No. Amer. 
Peace What It Will Be Like. Yves Guyot . . No. Amer. 
Peace and Disarmament. W. Morgan Shuster . . Century 
Peirce at Johns Hopkins. E. W. Davis .... Mid-West 
Physical Valuation, Ethical Principle in. E. W. 

James Pop. Sc. 

Plato's Political Ideas. P. H. Frye Mid-West 

Poland, Russian Fighting in. Stanley Washburn Rev. of Revs. 
Progressivism True and False. R. T. Ely . Rev. of Revs. 
Public Opinion, Organization of. A. T. Hadley . No. Amer. 
Referendum and Recall among Romans. Frank F. 

Abbott Sewanee 

Republican Confidence, Bases of. George Harvey No. Amer. 

Retrospect, In. Thomas Hardy No. Amer. 

Rural School, Problem for the. J. B. Sears . . . Pop. Sc. 
Saloon, War against the. F. C. Iglehart . . Rev. of Revs. 
Scandinavian Situation, The. Edwin Bjorkman Rev. of Revs. 

Science, Thought in. B. C. Gruenberg Pop. Sc. 

Servia's Struggle. Michael I. Pupin. . . . Rev. of Revs. 
Sevigne, Madame de. Gamaliel Bradford . . . Sewanee 
Snow, Treasures of the. Richard Le Gallienne . . Harper 
Spy, Adventures as a. Robert Baden-Powell . Everybody's 
Stafford, Sir Edward. Conyers Read . . . Am. Hist. Rev. 

Tahiti, A History of. Alfred G. Mayer Pop. Sc. 

Tapestries, Story and Texture Interest of. G. L. 

Hunter Century 

" Thanatopsis " in the Review. W. L. Phelps . No. Amer. 
Tsing-Tao, Japanese Capture of. G. L. Harding Everybody's 

Turks, Egypt and the. S. Nahas Rev. of Revs. 

Undergraduate Background, The. H. S. Canby . . Harper 
War, United States and the. Sydney Brooks . No. Amer. 
War Revenue Act of 1914. H. E. Smith .... So. Atl. 
Weather, Misconceptions about the. A. H. Palmer Pop. Sc. 
Whitman in Whitman's Land. Herman Scheffauer No. Amer. 
Woman Suffrage. Matilda H. Gardner .... Atlantic 

Womankind. May Tomlinson Forum 

Wordsworth's Poetry, Growth of the Classical in. 

James W. Tupper Sewanee 

World War, A Half Year of. F. H. Simonds . Rev. of Revs. 



LIST OF NEW BOOKS. 



[The following list, containing 70 titles, includes books 
received by THE DIAL since its last issue.] 

DRAMA AND VERSE. 

Songs of Kabir. Translated by Rabindranath Ta- 
gore, with the assistance of Evelyn Underbill. 
12mo, 145 pag-es. Macmillan Co. $1.25 net. 

Anthology of Magazine Verse for 1014, and Year 
Book of American Poetry. By William Stanley 
Braithwaite. 8vo, 205 pages. Cambridge, Mass.: 
Privately Printed. 

The Great Galeoto. By Jos6 Echegaray; translated 
from the Spanish by Jacob S. Fassett, Jr. 12mo, 
202 pages. "Contemporary Dramatists Series." 
Richard G. Badger. 75 cts. net. 

Stage Guild Plays. New volumes: Ephraim and 
the Winged Bear; Back of the Yards; each by 
Kenneth Sawyer Goodman. 16mo. New York: 
Donald C. Vaughan. Paper, each 35 cts. net. 

GENERAL, LITERATURE. 

Shakespeare's Environment. By Mrs. C. C. Stopes. 
Svo, 369 pages. Macmillan Co. 

Locb Classical Library. New volumes: Plutarch's 
Lives, translated by Bernadotte Perrin, Vols. I. 
and II.; Dio's Roman History, translated by- 
Earnest Gary, Ph.D., Vol. III.; Caesar's The Civil 
Wars, translated by A. G. Peskett; Xenophon's 
Cyropsedia, translated by Walter Miller; Proco- 
pius, translated by H. B. Dewing, Vol. I. Each 
16mo. Macmillan Co. Per volume, $1.50 net. 

Handy Volume Classics. New volumes: The Best 
English and Scottish Ballads, selected by Edwara 
A. Bryant; The Twelve Best Tales, by English 
Writers, selected by Adam L. Gowans, M.A. Each 
with frontispiece, 16mo. Thomas Y. Crowell Co. 

Shakespeare Study Programs: The Tragedies and 
The Comedies. By Charlotte Porter and Helen 
A. Clarke. Each 12mo. Richard G. Badger. 
Per volume, $1. net. 

FICTION. 

The Wisdom of Father Brown. By Gilbert K. Ches- 
terton. 12mo, 324 pages. John Lane Co. $1.30 net. 

A Set of Six. By Joseph Conrad. 12mo, 356 pages. 
Doubleday, Page & Co. $1.35 net. 

Sanlne. By Michael Artzibashef; translated from 
the Russian by Percy Pinkerton, with Preface by 
Gilbert Cannan. 12mo, 315 pages. B. W. Huebsch. 
$1.35 net. 

God's Country and the Woman. By James Oliver 
Curwood. Illustrated, 12mo, 347 pages. Double- 
day, Page & Co. $1.25 net. 

The Adventures of Detective Barney. By Harvey 
J. O'Higgins. Illustrated, 12mo, 305 pages. Cen- 
tury Co. $1.30 net. 

A Pillar of Salt: A Story of Married Life. By 
Horace W. C. Newte. 12mo, 320 pages. John 
Lane Co. $1.35 net. 

Broke of Covenden. By J. C. Snaith. Revised edi- 
tion; 12mo, 467 pages. Small, Maynard & Co. 
$1.35 net. 

PUBLIC AFFAIRS POLITICS, SOCIOLOGY, 

AND ECONOMICS. 

The Modern City and Its Problems. By Frederic C. 
Howe, Ph.D. Svo, 390 pages. Charles Scribner's 
Sons. $1.50 net. 

Police Practice and Procedure. By Cornelius F. 
Cahalane; with Introduction by Arthur Woods. 
Illustrated, 12mo, 241 pages. E. P. Dutton & Co. 
$1.50 net. 

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THE DIAL (founded in 1880) is published on the 1st and 
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Entered as Second-Class Matter October 8, 1892, at the Post 
Office at Chicago, Illinois, under Act of March 3, 1879. 

Vol. LVIII. FEBRUARY 16, 1915 No. 688 



PAGE 

THE THREE-PLY THREAD OF LIFE. Charles 

Leonard Moore 101 

CASUAL COMMENT 103 

Poetry and efficiency. A plea for library 
support. Battles and books. A generous 
benefaction to arts and letters. A broad- 
gauge periodical. Aids to culture. Lit- 
erary likings of the serious Vermonters. 
Humors of the advertising page. An edito- 
rial retrospect. Lumber-camp libraries for 
Wisconsin. The increasing cost of culture. 

COMMUNICATIONS 106 

" German " and ."American." Wallace Bice. 
" Literary " versus " Commercial " Drama. 
Helen McAfee. 

A SOLDIER-SURGEON'S REMINISCENCES. 

Percy F. Bicknell 109 

ART AND HISTORY. H. M. Kallen V ^'' ; ; ; . Ill 

SOME AMERICAN DISSENTERS. Frederic 

Austin Ogg 114 

IN ARCTIC LANDS FORLORN. Lawrence J. 

Burpee 117 

RECENT FICTION. Lucian Gary ..... 118 

BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS ... .> 120 

M. Maeterlinck on subliminal phenomena. 
Farming as the finest of professions. The 
war as a prelude to a nobler era. Health in 
its social aspects and significance. Varied 
aspects of American public life. A camera 
actress in West Africa. Talks on life and 
character by a college president. 

NOTES 122 

LIST OF NEW BOOKS . . 123 



THE THREE-PLY THEE AD OF LIFE. 

Mankind is always within six months of 
starvation, and therefore it must work that 
is, act. And when it gets a day off and turns 
to play it generally chooses a play of action. 
Action is as universal as the casing air. . And 
this action, the action of stokers and steve- 
dores, of locomotive firemen and ironworkers, 
of doctors facing contagious disease or lawyers 
fighting graft and injustice, of women in 
childbirth or the charge of families,- is full 
of heroism and dignity. Nine-tenths of us, 
probably, deserve the Iron, Cross. But the 
decoration would have no value if so profusely 
bestowed. We have to have representatives in 
glory. Real distinction in the active life is 
only for the chosen of a few favored classes. 

Thucydides, describing the return of Bra- 
sidas, the Spartan general, , after a victorious 
expedition, says: "He was received almost as 
if he had been an athlete. ' ' "We suppose that 
the player who kicks a goal or makes a home 
run does receive applause more tumultuous 
and dizzying than falls to the lot of any other 
mortal. But the fame of a Brasidas is rather 
more permanent. Of all men of action, in- 
deed, the final and most satisfying -award goes 
to the soldier. Statues are erected for them, 
histories are written around them, they live in 
legend and the memory of the people. The 
world recognizes that they risk more than other 
men, and as a rule from more unselfish mo- 
tives. Generals of course do not to-day lead 
picturesque charges ; but before they get to be 
generals they have to chance their lives again 
and again. They are the most concentrated 
examples of that heroism which is the ideal -of 
the race. Explorers, discoverers, pioneers of 
various kinds, deserve to and do attract the 
admiration of mankind. 

Statesmen are far less deep in our affec- 
tions. For one thing their actions are not so 
open and straightforward. They mine like 
moles in the dark. For another thing, they are 
a protected class, and do not much risk life or 
limb. But they have great issues in their 
hands, and genius and devotion will make 
their memories sacred. Opportunity, how- 
ever, plays a great part in their success. We 



102 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 16 



are all potentially politicians. Probably every 
third man one meets on Broadway or Chestnut 
street would make a tolerably decent Presi- 
dent of the United States. As they say of 
Hamlet, the part plays itself. The nation 
speaks and acts through its representative. 

It is a mere truism to say that the men of 
action are the servants of the men of thought. 
The contemplators, the meditative minds, are 
the real dynamos that move the world. They 
are the earthquakes, the volcanoes, which 
every now and then break up the crust of 
formulas that is always tending to thicken 
over human life. Gautama, profoundly dis- 
satisfied with his palace and his princeship, 
puts on the yellow robe, takes up the begging 
bowl, and becomes a guide to a quarter of the 
human race. Christ, born in a manger, con- 
fronts the Roman Empire, and in time it van- 
ishes before him. Socrates, amid the most 
brilliant civilization the world has ever known, 
starts questionings about the soul and the good 
of life which after a while tumble that civ- 
ilization down. Luther looks at the Roman 
Catholic creation of Europe and sees that it is 
not good, and it is shaken by his breath. Rous- 
seau sees the horror of the ancien regime and 
finds watchwords and formulas for the new 
age. The latest example of a thinker's power 
has been so much discussed that it is hardly 
worth while to advert to it, except to say that 
it is a revolt against Rousseau's revolt. The 
doctrines of liberty and equality had been car- 
ried so far that it seemed to him time for the 
ideas of rule and superiority to assert them- 
selves. 

All these thinkers drew after them vast 
agitations, changes, revolutions. Probably 
more than half the wars which the historic 
world has known can be directly traced to 
them or their like. The struggles between the 
Eastern and Western Roman Empire, the 
Mohammedan invasions, the Crusades, the 
Thirty Years' War, the French Revolution and 
Napoleonic Wars, all these conflicts and many 
more received their impetus from thinkers 
who desired only the good of man. 

And undoubtedly they have wrought his 
good. The clash of ideas and ideals has kept 
humanity fluid. Even if it could be cast in a 
mould of perfection, that would only be a liv- 
ing death. But full of imperfection as it is, 
too much rest means decay and degeneration. 
If the ocean were still it would stagnate ; but 
the winds and waves that send ships to the 



bottom, and eat away the confining coasts, 
keep the waters salt and sweet. 

The thinkers, then, are at once destroyers 
and saviors. The destruction they work is so 
frightful that men instinctively sense them, 
before their theories get into operation, and 
offer them the cross, the hemlock, the prison 
cell. If they escape these things it is because 
they seem so harmless that their fellows think 
them of no account. Mrs. Darwin once called 
her cook into consultation to provide some 
dainty to tempt her husband's appetite, which 
was failing. "Begging your pardon, Mum, 
but if Mr. Darwin would do a little work he 
would have an appetite. " ' ' But Mr. Darwin 
does work," objected her mistress. "Him 
work ! ' ' said the cook. ' ' Why, I see him with 
my own eyes this morning sitting for two 
hours in the garden, looking at an anthill." 
The only work Darwin did was to tear down 
the dam-wall of tradition and let out on the 
world a ravaging, but possibly a fertilizing, 
flood. 

But we cannot be soldiers in the war of ideas 
all the time. We must have rest, recreation, 
happiness. There must come halcyon days, 
hours of charm and effortless exaltation. And 
that is what the creative minds give us. 
Theirs is an almost flawless bestowal. Shake- 
speare does not declare war, Rembrandt does 
not bombard cathedrals, Beethoven does not 
starve out populations. They give us the keys 
to another world, a world enough like ours 
to be intelligible to us, but fairer, more glo- 
rious, more perfect, and infinitely more amus- 
ing. And our residence in that world is not 
merely a refined kind of lotus-eating, which 
lifts us up as gods for the moment only to drop 
us back on the hard stones of reality ; it is not 
only "the world's sweet inn of rest from 
troublesome annoy"; no, it is a school of 
virtue. The precepts of the prophets do not 
really do us as much good as the examples of 
the poets. The great, the magnificent, the 
lovely, are there for us to admire and imitate ; 
and the evil, the horrible, the grotesque, are 
there for us to avoid or laugh at. All art must 
have its shadow to make its light stand out. 
The deeper the shadow the more vivid the 
light ; but it is the light which attracts. 

Being so rich and almost blameless in their 
gifts to man, one should think that the poets 
in words and sounds and colors and forms 
would be welcomed, or at least would escape 
being stoned as the prophets are. But the 



1915] 



103 



generality of them are starved in life and pur- 
sued with malignant rancor after death. 
What fables are existent about Shakespeare 
and Moliere! What pitiful picayune gossip 
about Coleridge and Shelley and Poe and Car- 
lyle! The eternal whipper-snapper is like 
Gulliver perched upon the shoulder of Glum- 
dalclitch, and only sees rugosities and sores in 
what to equal eyes is the complexion of health 
and goodness. The hand of mediocrity gravi- 
tates inevitably towards the mud. Anything 
shining only attracts it as a target. The 
scandal-mongers ought to have their mouths 
washed out with soap and an odorless excava- 
tor put to work on their minds. 

It is a three-ply existence which we possess, 
and we ought not to follow exclusively any one 
of the strands. Absolute devotion to the active 
life brings us out at a pretty low level of intel- 
ligence. The contemplative mood is divorced 
from practicality, and is likely to make us 
persecute and kill one another because of dif- 
ferences of opinion on points of theology or 
about the summum bonum. We can lose our- 
selves in art; but there, too, we get out of 
touch with reality, and lacking knowledge of 
the world will not even know what is good art. 
The wise thing is to exercise all our facul- 
ties; but unfortunately in order to do any- 
thing important we must concentrate. We 
must save all our oil for one lamp. Hence the 
men of action will continue to persecute the 
prophets whom sooner or later they must obey ; 
and both will brush aside the creative artists 
who do the least harm, and who add some- 
thing of permanent value to the common stock 



of the world. 



CHARLES LEONARD MOORE. 



CASUAL COMMENT. 



POETRY AND EFFICIENCY dare we name the 
two in the same breath, or even on the same 
day? And will the poet and his dream ever 
be subjected to the indignity of the efficiency 
test, ever be brought so low as to have their 
efficiency curve plotted by some efficiency ex- 
pert? Heaven forbid! Yet in these days 
when economics, linguistics, ethics, and even 
politics, are being brought into line with 
mathematics and the other exact sciences, can 
one hope that poetics will escape the general 
doom ? Already, if we mistake not, some ambi- 
tious candidate for a Ph.D. degree has devoted 
a laborious thesis to the discovery of an alge- 
braic formula that shall express the degree of 
emotional effectiveness in any given piece of 



poetry. A keen observer of the spread of effi- 
ciency standards in all departments of human 
activity gave an address, not devoid of humor, 
before a recent gathering of educators. From 
this address, now printed in "The School 
Review," a brief passage is pertinent here. 
Professor Fred Newton Scott is the speaker. 
"In every field of knowledge in economics, 
in psychology, in linguistics, in sociology, in 
ethics, in short in all the looser- woven 'ics' 
and 'ologies' somebody is setting the screws 
a little harder. In every one of these depart- 
ments of instruction some stern, wall-eyed 
thinker, rising stiffly and frowning upon his 
shamefaced colleagues, has announced that in 
his book or brochure or syllabus the subject 
has at last been elevated to the status of mathe- 
matics, physics, chemistry, and astronomy. 
Nay, even in such irresponsible, Ariel-like 
subjects as literature, music, and the arts gen- 
erally, the same motive is seen at work. 
Within the past few years a book by the 
brother of an eminent scientist, himself a 
scientist of some note, professes to have raised 
to the dignity of an exact science the whole 
subject of poetry." This evidently refers to 
Mr. Hudson Maxim's work, "The Science of 
Poetry and the Philosophy of Language." 
But it is not too much to hope that the Ariel- 
like spirit of poetry will not be found to have 
been caught and imprisoned for all time 
within the definitions and rules of that scien- 
tific treatise. 



A PLEA FOR LIBRARY SUPPORT is put f Orth in 

what should prove an eloquently persuasive 
form by the administrative officers of the Chi- 
cago Public Library. It brings to prominent 
notice some significant facts not very credita- 
ble to those who have the apportionment of the 
city's annual income. Spending last year only 
1.26 per cent of its total tax receipts on its 
public library, while in the same period it 
spent, wisely enough, nearly fifty per cent on 
its schools, Chicago is found to rank, in respect 
to library support, with cities having approxi- 
mately only one quarter of its population and 
area. In other words, Boston and Cleveland, 
in proportion to their size, are four times as 
liberal in their treatment of their public 
libraries. But even with its present inade- 
quate resources the Chicago institution man- 
ages to take no lower than second place, among 
our ten largest cities, in its circulation of 
books and in the number of library-users. 
The number of volumes that it owns, however, 
places it third in a similar scale of rank, while 
in the number of volumes per inhabitant it 
stands at the foot, and in the per capita cost 
of its library service, under the present parsi- 



104 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 16 



monious policy, it holds the same unenviable 
position. In its number of branch library 
buildings the city likewise leads the class at 
the lower end. The shame of Chicago may be 
stated in still other and more definite terms, if 
the foregoing be not humiliating enough. In 
a table of annual per capita expenditures for 
library purposes embracing the same ten larg- 
est cities, we find Pittsburg heading the list 
with fifty- three cents for each inhabitant, Bos- 
ton following as a close second with fifty-one 
cents. New York coming fifth with thirty- 
three cents, and the metropolis of the middle 
West contenting itself with the last place and 
an expenditure of but fifteen cents for each 
member of its population. The whole situa- 
tion is put graphically before one. by means of 
diagrams with accompanying figures, in the 
printed appeal referred to above. It ought to 
succeed in starting something, to the benefit of 
the third largest public library in America 
and its long-suffering users. 


BATTLES AND BOOKS represent two very dif- 
ferent kinds of human activity so different, 
in fact, as to be mutually antagonistic. Nev- 
ertheless, as is shown by the "Publishers' 
Circular" in a review of England's book-pro- 
duction for the year recently closed, it is not 
impossible for a powerful nation to carry on 
warfare and publication at the same time. 
For the twelve months there was a decrease of 
less than seven per cent, as compared with the 
preceding twelve months, in book-publishing, 
or a fall from 12,379 to 11,537; and in the 
rather panicky months just after the outbreak 
of hostilities the difference was not so great as 
might have been expected. August produced 
427 books, against 703 in August, 1913 ; Sep- 
tember 853 instead of the 1203 in the same 
month of 1913; and October rallied to the 
extent of 1244, not a serious decrease from 
the 1696 of the year before. November's 
record exactly equalled that of November, 
1913, and December exceeded by 135 the num- 
ber credited to the last month of the preceding 
year. Significant of the seriousness of men's 
minds in these trying days is the increase of 
religious books, from 889 to 969, in the British 
book-trade of 1914 as compared with 1913. 
Perhaps there is an equally obvious signifi- 
cance in the lessened production of philosophi- 
cal works 179 as compared with 280 a 
partial exclusion of German-made philosophy 
being probably responsible for some of this 
decrease. Sociological discussion seems also 
to have been somewhat restricted, the fine arts 
are not quite so flourishing, travel falls off a 
little, and even biography wanes all, pre- 
sumably, on account of the war. On the other 



hand, however, a new department of literature 
is admitted to the statistical tables, a depart- 
ment of naval and military works, which cer- 
tainly owes its present prominence to the 
existing belligerent state of Europe. Four 
hundred and two books are classed under this 
new head, and many of them have had large 
sales. It would be interesting now to learn 
what effect the war has had on the book-trade 
of Germany, hitherto the foremost of book- 
producing nations. 



A GENEROUS BENEFACTION TO ARTS AND LET- 
TERS comes to public notice in Mr. Archer M. 
Huntington 's gift of a site, in upper Manhat- 
tan, for a building to serve as a home for the 
American Academy of Arts and Letters and 
the National Institute of Arts and Letters. 
The situation is suitable though not, to an 
architect, ideal. It is at Broadway and 155th 
and 156th streets, where other learned socie- 
ties have their habitations, and where there- 
fore the openness of space requisite to give 
dignity to a fine building is lacking. The 
Hispanic Society, the Numismatic Society, 
and the Geographical Society are already here 
installed, and their presence will help to coun- 
teract the less dignified aspect of the monster 
apartment houses that hem in the proposed 
site on two sides. How to erect something 
less than a sky-scraper that shall not be 
dwarfed by these pretentious rookeries will 
be a problem for the resourceful architect to 
wrestle with. A brief backward glance shows 
interestingly at this time that the Institute 
will ere long be rounding out its second 
decade, having come into existence in 1898, 
while the Academy, its offspring, has six fewer 
years of useful activity to its credit. Of the 
original seven chosen by the Institute as a 
nucleus to the proposed Academy, Mr. How- 
ells, the Academy's President, is the only one 
now living, Clemens, Stedman, Hay, Saint- 
Gaudens, and La Farge having all paid their 
debt to nature. Our Immortals, it will be 
noted, number fifty, and not forty; but our 
Academy embraces all the arts, whereas the 
French Academy is, ostensibly at least, one of 
letters. Our Academy will, in its proposed 
home, front no River Seine, have as an ap- 
proach no Pont des Arts, but it is always pos- 
sible that it will build more stately mansions 
as the swift seasons roll. 



A BROAD-GAUGE PERIODICAL, representing 
what at first might be regarded as a rather 
narrow range of interests, but which is easily 
demonstrated to be the very reverse of narrow, 
is "The Newarker," now widely and favor- 
ably known as ' ' the house organ of the Newark 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



105 



Free Public Library." A recent issue, con- 
taining articles on civic beauty, clay and its 
uses, old New Jersey pottery, and other sub- 
jects less distantly related to library work, has 
also an editorial utterance in able and ener- 
getic defence of the periodical's liberal policy 
in relation to printable matter. So admirable 
in its make-up (its typography, paper, illus- 
trations, and general attractiveness) is "The 
Newarker," that one is glad to aid in giving 
further currency to its editor's enlightened 
views in respect to library publications. Of 
his own monthly periodical he truly says that 
it "does not to most libraries look like the 
publication of a library, its organ and pro- 
moter. This is because most libraries do not 
realize that a new day of print is upon us; 
that their books and journals may continue to 
be used to ' broaden, ' to ' uplift, ' to ' spiritual- 
ize,' to entertain, to refresh and to wait upon 
scholarship, and yet may at the same time be 
useful to the tinker, the tailor, the candle- 
stick-maker, the brick-layer, the salesman and 
the farmer, in their homely tasks of earning a 
living, finding a market and cheapening their 
products. . . . THE NEWARKER goes against 
library traditions in the things which it 
prints," as the briefest glance at its varied 
pages will show ; and this is well, for perhaps 
there is no set of traditions that can so well 
endure a little courageous smashing as the 
traditions of the public library. 


AIDS TO CULTURE, of a less doubtful efficacy 
than modern warfare, received timely con- 
sideration the other day from Professor Henri 
Liehtenberger, Harvard exchange professor, 
at the third meeting of the Alliance Franchise 
in Boston. European culture was his theme, 
which he admitted might be thought a rather 
inopportune subject to discuss at this time 
when national sentiment and national ideals 
are so predominant over any larger and more 
inclusive conceptions. But even now the 
European nations are betraying their uneasy 
consciousness of not being, any one of them, 
wholly sufficient unto itself. The belligerent 
states thirst for the approval of their neutral 
neighbors. Among the factors contributing 
to a more enlightened European culture the 
speaker named the development of rational 
science, whether historical or natural, to which 
all large universities lend a helping hand, and 
the promotion of a higher civilization through 
commerce. Stress was laid upon the need of 
developing a European spirit, as distinct from 
a national spirit. Why not aim rather at a 
cosmopolitan spirit and a world culture? 
Asiatic and European ideals are sure to clash 
if each continent remains content to develop a 



culture exclusively adapted to its own tastes 
and needs. In violent contrast with the 
French savant's liberal programme for all 
Europe stands the recent utterance of a Prus- 
sian publicist, Herr Maximilian Harden, who 
makes bold to declare: "We do not stand 
before the judgment seat of Europe. We 
acknowledge no such jurisdiction. Our might 
shall create a new law in Europe. It is Ger- 
many that strikes. When she has conquered 
new domains for her genius, then the priest- 
hoods of all the gods will praise the god of 
war." What a departure, in this representa- 
tive of modern Germany, or of a certain part 
of it, from the aims and ideals of Goethe and 
Schiller and Lessing ! 

* 

LITERARY LIKINGS OF THE SERIOUS VERMONT- 
ERS come interestingly to view in the "Tenth 
Biennial Report of the Free Public Library 
Commission of the State of Vermont. ' ' With 
only two decades of organized library effort 
to look back upon, the Green Mountain people 
already have 198 free libraries, twenty-seven 
not free, and 267 stations to which travelling 
libraries are sent, so that only twenty-nine 
towns remain unprovided with library facili- 
ties of some sort, and only fifty have no per- 
manent libraries. In the record of travelling 
collections of books it is noteworthy that 
thirty-six per cent of the adult reading is of 
the class known as non-fiction, while the 
juvenile reading of a similar serious character 
attains the handsome total of fifty-six per cent. 
The average of non-fiction circulation in pub- 
lie libraries is supposed to be about twenty- 
five per cent. Thus the Vermonters show 
themselves to be considerably less frivolous 
than the majority of their fellow-countrymen, 
and the Vermont children far less light- 
minded than their elders. But the tremen- 
dous seriousness of childhood is proverbial 
everywhere. In fact, the theory was long ago 
advanced by certain wise men of the East that, 
whereas the body is born young and grows 
every year older, the soul is born old and gains 
in youthfulness with the passage of time. 
Hence, doubtless, our devotion to ephemeral 
fiction in our toothless and tottering old age. 



HUMORS OF THE ADVERTISING PAGE come 
nowhere more frequently or more amusingly 
to notice than in the columns of the sober and 
sedate London "Times." Some weeks ago 
that journal published an advertisement in- 
serted by a gentleman who signified his will- 
ingness to accept the free use of a touring car 
and accompanying chauffeur for week-end 
excursions as a restorative from exhausting 
labors in connection with the present interna- 



106 



THE DIAL 



[ Feb. 16 



tional conflict. And now a more recent issue 
contains this specimen of advertising humor: 
"Gentleman, 30, perfect health, magnificent 
physique, absolutely fit, offers himself for 
vivisection experiments to any one who would 
care to infect him with complaint known as 
the embarrassment of riches. ' ' One is tempted 
to search for the motive that prompts these 
anonymous and obviously futile exhibitions of 
facetiousness at a considerable cost to the 
humorist himself. It must be a purely artis- 
tic impulse, a love of art for art's sake, an irre- 
sistible desire to cut an intellectual caper, just 
as the armadillo and the wombat are known to 
execute in the night solitudes certain ridicu- 
lous gambols that serve no purpose whatever 
except to give a moment's free play to the 
animal's creative instincts as an artist in 
antics. It is the innate necessity of self- 
expression in each case. 



AN EDITORIAL RETROSPECT of a not ungrati- 
fying character is indulged in by "Public 
Libraries" on the occasion of its entrance 
upon its twentieth year of increasing use- 
fulness. When that excellent monthly was 
started there was, says its editor, "but one 
other periodical devoted exclusively to library 
matters," and the new venture was regarded 
as extremely hazardous. But the magazine 
has handsomely vindicated its right to exist- 
ence, and has doubtless served to encourage 
the founding of the now sufficiently numerous 
kindred publications that were not dreamt of 
twenty years ago. In library development it 
has witnessed the increase of states giving aid 
to library extension from a meagre two or 
three to a widely beneficent thirty-seven. Not 
more than half a dozen library associations 
had struggled into being when ' ' Public Libra- 
ries" drew its first breath; now there are 
seventy such local organizations with an esti- 
mated membership of more than six thousand. 
In fact, the great things and the new things 
that have come to pass in the library world 
within the lifetime of this monthly survey of 
that world are far too numerous to mention 
' ' all of which, ' ' it might, in classic phrase, not 
immodestly add, "I saw, and a part of which 

I was." 



LUMBER-CAMP LIBRARIES FOR WISCONSIN fol- 
low quite promptly the establishment of such 
antidotes to ennui in the forests of Minnesota. 
Of course these libraries have no costly and 
permanent Carnegie buildings; indeed they 
have no buildings at all, but are housed in 
boxes that travel thither and yon as need re- 
quires. It is said by those who have had expe- 
rience in supplying literature to the "lumber 



jacks" that many of these artisans in timber 
are men of education, and they all prefer good 
books to trash. There is a tradition of a cer- 
tain lumber camp where the hunger for read- 
ing-matter was so gnawing that a stray copy 
of "The Atlantic Monthly" was thumbed un- 
til its contents were committed to memory. 
On the other hand, the cheap illustrated 
magazines are commonly rejected with dis- 
gust by the sturdy axemen. The "Wisconsin 
Library Bulletin" invites the assistance of 
public libraries in that State in supplying 
books and periodicals for the lumber camp 
travelling libraries. Communications should 
be sent to the Library Commission at Madi- 
son, and it is safe to infer that even assistance 
from beyond the borders of Wisconsin would 
not be unwelcome. 



THE INCREASING COST OF CULTURE, or at least 
of the culture bearing the college or university 
label, is unmistakably indicated by the an- 
nouncement, in President Lowell's latest 
annual report, of a considerable deficit in the 
year's finances at Harvard, and in his recom- 
mendation of an increase in the rate of tuition. 
Several professors have generously returned 
their year's salaries to the treasurer, while 
others have relinquished a part of their pay. 
The president is said to have handed back his 
salary in full. Significant at this time is the 
report of the Massachusetts Board of Educa- 
tion, just sent in, advising against the found- 
ing of a State university a project for some 
time under consideration but suggesting as 
a less expensive partial substitute for such 
action the annual appropriation of a certain 
sum for scholarships for deserving pupils in 
the existing colleges and universities and tech- 
nical schools of the commonwealth. The cost 
of higher education throughout the country 
has greatly increased since many, not yet old, 
received their college diplomas; but this is 
only another phase of the increased cost of 
living. 

COMMUNICATIONS. 



" GEEMAN " AND "AMERICAN." 

(To the- Editor of THE DIAL.) 
Mr. 0. E. Leasing asks a series of questions in 
your issue of February 1, to which I beg to be 
allowed a partial response. In his introduction to 
these questions, Mr. Lessing announces himself to 
be " a plain American citizen of German descent " ; 
I, using the words in precisely the sense in which 
Mr. Lessing uses them, am a still plainer American 
citizen of American descent, as are rather more 
than fifty millions of my countrymen. By that I 
mean to say that, just as Mr. Lessing points with 
pride to a father or grandfather born in Germany, 
so do I and the fifty million others like me point 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



with pride to a grandfather's grandfather who 
fought for American independence against a Ger- 
man king who was endeavoring to foist ideas upon 
England, and so upon America, which bear a 
marked family resemblance in method and content 
to the ideas which Germany is seeking to intrude 
at this moment upon Belgium. 

The difference in point of view between us is a 
remarkable one, and one which most Americans of 
ancestry and habits of thought similar to mine 
could not have been convinced existed eight months 
ago. The chief difference, it seems to me, lies in 
the fact that there is no phase of the present war 
which we Americans are viewing with a European 
squint; there are few phases of it which the Ger- 
mans in America are viewing with an American 
squint. Note that I do not say " German- 
Americans." William the Greatest settled that bit 
of bastardy once and for all. " Germans I know," 
he said, "and Americans I know; but I do not 
know German-Americans." I see no use in pre- 
tending to be more German than William the 
Greatest; I merely assert that I and those like me 
are Americans. 

This brings me to the first question : " What 
does the ' Declaration of Independence ' mean ? 
Independence of English rule or German rule ? " 
The answer is rather pitifully obvious: Indepen- 
dence of both English and German rule, even 
though an English king was attempting to enforce 
upon the freeborn Englishmen of the old colonies 
ideas which were no more characteristically Ger- 
man then than they are at this moment. Read the 
Declaration. It is directed against whom? Until 
the next paragraph before the last it speaks of one 
individual only, " the present King of Great Brit- 
ain." And who was he? George III., of German 
descent so pure that one has to go back seven 
generations to find a suspicion of contaminating 
''Anglo-Saxon" blood. His government of the 
colonies was typically German, as exemplified in 
the government of Alsace-Lorraine to-day gov- 
ernment without representation. The friends of 
the rebelling Americans were, quite characteris- 
tically, the English Whigs, political ancestors of 
the Liberal party which found itself compelled to 
declare war against Germany last August. The 
friends of George III., quite characteristically, 
were those obliging fellow German sovereigns who 
lent him their soldiers to put down the American 
rebellion, when free Englishmen refused to recruit 
his armies for service against us. Read from as 
obvious a source as the Encyclopaedia Britannica, 
a paragraph about George III. : 

" He would have given England that dangerous 
position of supremacy which was gained for France 
by Lewis XIV. in the seventeenth century, and by 
Napoleon in the nineteenth century. He would 
have made his country still more haughty and 
arrogant than it was, till other nations rose against 
it, fis they have three times risen against France, 
rather than submit to the intolerable yoke." 

Has not this a certain familiar sound? What 
Americans fought for and what the Declaration of 
Independence sets forth is the ideal of the English- 
speaking peoples, and not the ideals of any of the 
German-speaking peoples made effective in history. 



It is the world-old conflict between that fine old 
Bourbon maxim, even more effective in Germany 
in the twentieth century than it was in the 
eighteenth, " Everything for the people, nothing 
by the people"; and the English maxim finally 
crystallized in Lincoln's "A government of the 
people, for the people, by the people." It is the 
difference exemplified between the governments of 
the English-speaking peoples and of the German- 
speaking people to-day, whether, as Jefferson, 
author of the Declaration, said, governors are to 
be in moral fear of the governed, or the governed 
in physical fear of their governors. We Amer- 
icans owe much to England and English laws and 
ideals. We owe much to Americans like Francis 
Lieber and Carl Schurz, who chanced to be of 
German birth, and to the immigrants of '48 and 
'49, who rebelled against the Prussian and other 
German constitutions of that day, which stand 
practically unchanged at the present moment. But 
we have no criticism quite as effective as the pres- 
ence in this free country of what we are told are 
twenty-five millions of Germans the greater the 
number the more effective the criticism who are 
here because life was unendurable to them in the 
Fatherland. Moreover, we expect many more mil- 
lions to add to the weight of this criticism and 
bring it down to date when this frantic war is over. 

We Americans find ourselves criticized for our 
Americanism by certain of these transplanted but 
unrooted Germans, chiefly in periodicals mori- 
bund or non-existent at the opening of the war. 
These find it logical to offset their devotion to 
German governmental ideals as exemplified by 
William the Greatest by savage criticism of Amer- 
ican government as exemplified by the President 
of the United States, a Jefferson-minded man; 
apparently unaware that the very freedom of the 
press they are exercising makes possible their live- 
lihood here as against life in jail and suppression 
of their organs in Germany. We can at least wel- 
come their appreciation of their new opportuni- 
ties and their quickness in taking advantage of it. 
But we are inclined to resent any implication that 
we as Americans would leap to the command of a 
British official, as so many Germans in this coun- 
try have come to heel at hearing their master's 
voice echo through Dr. Richard Dernburg; and 
many of us have read Dr. Dernburg's arguments 
in favor of mental reservations in oaths, or of ends 
justifying means, with a curiously baffled sense 
that those questions were disposed of in the 
English-speaking world during the reigns of the 
Stuarts. 

Coming to Mr. Lessing's second question, it 
seems easy enough to admit that England, rather 
than Germany, has wronged Ireland in the past, 
but it still appears to us that this is largely due 
to the fact that Germany had no chance; surely 
England may plead Home Rule in extenuation. 
But what can Germany and Austria plead in 
extenuation of their treatment of the Poles; and 
what has Germany to say for Alsace-Lorraine, 
whose representatives in the Reichstag are not 
even elected by its people? 

Certainly, too, answering the third question, 
England and not Germany conquered India, 



108 



THE DIAL 



Feb. 16 



Egypt, and the Boer Republics. But again En- 
gland can plead the results to-day in justification 
more or less complete. She has no frightful 
slaughters on her mind like that of the Hereros in 
German Southwest Africa, nor exhibitions of 
Scbrecklichkeit such as were given by the German 
expeditionary force in China. Parenthetically it 
may be observed that Americans, fighting Indian 
savages across a continent, have been familiar with 
this particular quality in warfare since the first 
settlements, just as Ross's destruction of the Con- 
gressional Library in Washington in the reign of 
George III. lent us comprehension of Belgian feel- 
ing, when the Louvain library was fed to the flames. 

American's are able to see a vital difference 
between British " navalism " and German mili- 
tarism, responding to the fourth question, " Who 
controls the sea ? " We see Germany, for exam- 
ple, quite as infected with " navalism " as Great 
Britain, while Great Britain was hardly touched 
by militarism at all before the outbreak of the 
war, as unexpected by Britons as almost complete 
unpreparedness proves it to have been. We see, 
too, that the navy of England performs its func- 
tions on the seas, and that its officers in no pos- 
sible sense dominate the daily thought of the 
British people. If it is an evil, it is at worst a 
cutaneous one, not a cancer eating out the nation's 
vitals. Furthermore, the position of the British 
;Isles makes starvation only too easy without con- 
trol of the seas, while Germany has never had that 
excuse to pleacL Even now, had it not been for 
that almost inevitable blundering that seems to 
go .with, arrant militarism, whether under George 
III. or William the Greatest, America would be 
supplying Germany with food for her civilian 
population. But, just as the question was about 
to be settled to that effect, the German govern- 
ment/proclaimed all food supplies as the property 
, of the .State, leaving discrimination between food 
, for civilians and food for the military impossible. 
Finally, it may be urged that Great Britain's con- 
trol of the sea has been beneficent, with that per- 
fect restraint which comes with accustomed power, 
ever since America gaye up its control of the seas 
after, the Civil War; while there is nothing in 
German history ; since 1870 to lead us to believe 
that the same control could pass to other hands 
with equal security tp civilization. 
. I have no doubt that Mr. Lessing is right about 
Treitschke's being older than Nietzsche. When 
German scholarship is not speaking about mili- 
tarism and its consequences, it is generally right. 

Every American must regret that any German 
can, sneer at Anglo-Saxonry with a good con- 
science. We find it occasion for pride that we 
belong to a great family of self-governing nations 
framed upon Anglo-Saxon ideas of individual 
rights and constitutional liberty, hardly touched at 
all until this war began with militarism and lax 
conceptions of treaty obligations. We take no less 
pride in a mighty literature which embodies these 
ideas and ideals, and has seldom been false to them 
at any point; and we should like to have the Ger- 
mans proud of them, too, as we are proud of 
Goethe. WALLACE RICE. 

Chicago, February 4, 1915. 



"LITERARY" VERSUS "COMMERCIAL" 
DRAMA. 

(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 
. Your recent criticism of an article by Mr. W. C. 
de Mille in the January " Yale Review " puts sev- 
eral questions to Mr. de Mille as to his conclusions 
about our " commercial " drama. I should like to 
go a step farther and ask a question about his 
premises. What does he mean by " commercial " 
drama anyway; and how, according to his defini- 
tion, does it differ from that which he patroniz- 
ingly refers to as " literary " ? All through his 
article, we find assumed, a distinction between the 
two forms, and always to the discredit of the lat- 
ter. What, then, are the requirements that Mr, de 
Mille makes for the " commercial " play ? On 
looking through the article, we find that the " com- 
mercial " play must provide " entertainment," 
must " tell a story which finds its best expression 
through acting ' ; ; it must be " a splendid piece of 
craftsmanship " ; it must " reflect to a large degree 
the point of view of its audience " and " get its 
hands on their hearts." Now by a strange coinci- 
dence, these and no others have always been 
considered the requirements of the " literary " 
play, which Mr. de Mille nowhere clearly defines. 

Thus we may conclude that, under favorable cir- 
cumstances, " commercial " drama and " literary " 
drama are one, or rather become one through the 
simple medium of the box-office. That these 
favorable circumstances once existed as they do 
not exist to-day, no student of stage history would 
deny. In Elizabethan London, prices of theatre 
seats were such that the drama was indeed a 
"democratic" art; and, further, no despotic cen- 
sor or trust magnate intervened between public and 
playwright. This was the great period of the ; lit- 
erary play, which, because it met the requirements 
of " commercial " drama, drew crowded houses. 

On the other hand, when we get down to the 
early part of the nineteenth century in England, we 
find that the " literary " play and the " commer- 
cial " play have become two different things, not 
necessarily through any fault of either public or 
dramatist, but through the outside interference of 
official censor and theatrical manager. On the 
commercial side, we have tawdry stage successes 
which would not at all answer Mr. de Mille's re- 
quirements for " commercial " drama, in that, for 
one thing, they fail signally to reflect the viewpoint 
of the great era succeeding the French Revolution. 
On the literary side, we have the closet-dramas of 
Byron and Shelley, which, although they breathe 
the fiery spirit of the social awakening, do not 
wholly obey generally accepted laws of technique. 

Let us hope that the time is approaching when 
" literary " drama and " commercial " drama will 
again be one. Perhaps Mr. de Mille means to 
prophesy this when in the cause of the " commer- 
cial " play, he appropriates all the " literary " 
play's qualities. If this is so, one can only say 
that he appears to be confusing the issue when he 
exalts " commercial " drama thus endowed to so 
high a seat and leaves " literary " drama, thus 
robbed and stripped, to lie by the roadside. 

HELEN MCAFEE. . 

New Haven, Conn., Feb. 6, 1915. 



1915 



THE DIAL 



109 



Bcto 



A SOLDIER-SURGEON'S IlEMIXISCENCES.* 

An autobiography richer in varied interest, 
more diversified with pictures of life amid all 
sorts of surroundings and in many dissimilar 
fields of activity, and in the rehearsing of it 
re-lived with keener zest and, if one may add 
it without offence, greater complacency, of a 
justifiable sort, than the life-story of Dr. John 
Allan Wyeth, is. not offered to the reader 
every month in the year or every year in the 
century. "With Sabre and Scalpel" he calls 
this "autobiography of a soldier and sur- 
geon, ' ' but in addition to his dashing exploits 
as a Confederate trooper in the Fourth Ala- 
bama Cavalry, and his subsequent notable 
achievements in medicine and surgery, he has 
been a farmer, woodsman, cotton-planter, 
cattle-buyer, river-pilot, telegraph-operator, 
land-speculator, building contractor, lecturer 
in his profession, twice president of the New 
York Academy of Medicine, founder of the 
New York Polyclinic School and Hospital, 
which is the first institution of its kind in 
this country to offer post-graduate courses, 
and author of numerous works both of tech- 
nical and more general interest, including a 
life of General Nathan B. Forrest and an his- 
torical sketch of the settlement of Oregon. 
No mean talent is his also for the turning of 
graceful verse, as he is pleased to remind the 
reader by appending to his latest book a half- 
score of what may be styled occasional pieces, 
some if not all of which have already seen the 
light in magazines or elsewhere. If it be per- 
missible, for variety 's sake, to give the present 
review a certain topsy-turviness, let us begin 
by bespeaking the reader's favorable opinion 
of Dr. Wyeth the poet, and to this end quoting 
from his appendix the first stanza of some 
animated and pleasing verses that may be 
read in full in Bryant's "New Library of 
Poetry and Song." They are entitled "My 
Sweetheart's Face," and begin, with rather 
original as well as felicitous imagery, as 
follows : 

" My kingdom is my sweetheart's face. 

And these the boundaries I trace: 

Northward her forehead fair; 

Beyond a wilderness of auburn hair; 

A rosy cheek to east and west; 
Her little mouth 
The sunny south, 

It is the south that I love best." 
That a man capable of such flights of song 
is, other things being equal, a man likely to 

* WITH SABRE AND SCALPEL. The Autobiography of a Sol- 
dier and Surgeon. By John Allan Wyeth, M.D., LL.D. Illus- 
trated. New York : Harper & Brothers. 



interest one in his other than poetic capaci- 
ties, may not unreasonably be assumed. And 
other things are not unequal, for the same 
impress of a distinctive personality stamps 
itself on all his heterogeneous activities and 
saves his recital from any touch of triteness 
or monotony. A rather sure index to a man's 
character is commonly thought to be found by 
a study of the mother's mental and moral 
endowment. Therefore it may be possible to 
throw a sidelight if not a full-face flash of 
illumination on the subject of our inquiry by 
relating in the author's own words the story 
of how he "discovered" his maternal parent 
when he was well advanced in his seventh 
year. 

"The discovery came about in- this fashion: 
a boy playmate lost his temper at something that 
happened between us, and in anger gave me a slap 
which I did not resent. At this juncture I heard 
a voice from a near-by window, and, turning, I 
saw my mother leaning out, her eyes flashing s6 
that I could almost see the sparks flying and her 
cheeks as red as fire. . In a tone about which there 
could be no misinterpretation, even by one who 
instinctively preferred peace to war, she asked me 
if the boy struck me in anger; and when I told 
her he had, she blazed up and said, 'And you 
didn't hit him back ? ' My response was that 
father had told me it was wrong to fight, and that 
when another boy gave way to anger just to tell 
him it was wrong and not fight back. At this the 
blue bonnet of Clan- Allan [the mother's maiden 
name] went ' over the border,' and she fairly 
screamed : ' I don't care what your father told 
you; if you don't whip that boy this minute I'll 
whip you ! ' And she looked on, and was satisfied 
when it was over. I date my career from that 
eventful day; for I had come to the parting of 
the ways." 

Thus sprung of Old Testament and New 
Testament parentage, so to speak, the Ala- 
bama boy, who was sixteen years old when the 
Civil War broke out, yielded to the prompt- 
ings of the less pacific strain in his blood and 
soon, with his noble mare, Fanny^ whose sad 
end forms a touching episode in the narrative, 
joined a troop of cavalry and played a spir- 
ited if inconspicuous part in the national 
drama before he was taken prisoner in the 
autumn of 1863 and confined for a year and 
a half at Camp Morton, Indiana, after which 
there was no more fighting for him to do. 
Not to convey a false impression of the pacific 
father, it should be added that even his dis- 
inclination to violence did not keep him at 
home when the call to arms reached him. As 
a matter of fact, he was earlier in the field 
than his son. 

Interesting and enlightening are the views 
which this loyal Southerner takes of sundry 
questions that once were burning issues be- 



110 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 16 



tween the North and the South. His pictures 
of the negro slave's not unhappy lot, of the 
evils of abolitionism, of the splendid patriot- 
ism of those to whom state rights meant more 
than national unity, and of southern condi- 
tions in general as he intimately knew them, 
are not to be passed over with cursory and 
unsympathetic glance, whatever the reader's 
preconceptions and predilections. From the 
opening pages of the book the following 
vehement utterance may be taken as char- 
acteristic and significant: 

" I am firmly convinced that if instead of the 
nagging, irritating, insulting, and finally insurrec- 
tionary and murderous meddlesomeness of the 
Northern abolitionists, the conservative and better 
portion had united in earnest and friendly co- 
operation with their brothers of the South, who 
proved their zeal and devotion to principle by the 
wholesale sacrifice of wealth and ease, the humane 
scheme of emancipation and colonization as set 
forth in the ' Virginia Resolutions ' would have 
been carried out and chattel slavery would have 
disappeared by peaceful means." 

In a subsequent chapter we find the portrait 
of that hero of anti-slavery days, John Brown, 
drawn with no flattering touches. The fea- 
tures are delineated with strokes like this : 

" Out of this turmoil emerged a weird, red- 
handed specter in human form whose name but for 
his lawless deeds in Kansas would never have 
crossed the boundaries of that fair State had he 
not become the agent in one of the most nefarious 
plots recorded in history. A group of men of 
intelligence, position, and wealth aided him in the 
armed invasion of a peaceful and law-abiding com- 
munity. Brown's purpose was the treasonable 
capture of the United States arsenal and the 
appropriation of government property to an un- 
lawful purpose, the robbery of the houses of law- 
abiding citizens, and murder. He sought to incite a 
wide-spread slave insurrection and the consequent 
massacre of thousands of helpless women and chil- 
dren. This wicked deed, known as the ' Harper's 
Ferry Raid,' made secession possible and brought 
on tbe Civil War." 

No gleam of admiration for a martyr's hero- 
ism is to be discerned in the glowing terms 
with which the author paints the deeds of 
this remarkable man. On another page he 
further writes in his dispraise that "having 
failed at every one of a half-dozen different 
vocations to make a living for his family and 
himself, a rolling stone so mossless that at the 
age of fifty-five he was absolutely bankrupt 
in fortune, and no less so in honorable reputa- 
tion, John Brown turned up in Kansas in 
October, 1855, in the role of a professional 
Free-soil agitator." If one wishes a view of 
the Kansas occurrences of that day quite dif- 
ferent from the accepted northern presenta- 
tion of those historic events, let one read 
Dr. Wyeth. 



The chapters devoted to memories of the 
war have the lively interest belonging to all 
well-written accounts of personal experience 
in battle and in camp and on the march. The 
narrative of prison life at Camp Morton has 
the one fault of brevity, which cannot be 
said of the author's term of imprisonment 
itself. A larger view of things military is 
found in the portion of the book devoted to 
the battle of Chickamauga, where the author 
indulges in speculation as to what might have 
been. ' ' In my opinion, ' ' he says, ' ' the South- 
ern Confederacy was won here by desperate 
valor and lost by the failure of the command- 
ing general to appreciate the magnitude of 
his victory and to take advantage of the great 
opportunity which was his for the capture or 
destruction of the entire Union army in 
Georgia and Tennessee. Chickamauga, as I 
interpret it from personal observation and 
from careful study, marked the high tide of 
the Confederacy." 

Making an abrupt transition now, let us get 
a glimpse of Dr. Wyeth in one of his many 
non-military aspects. Toward the end of his 
book, where the practice of medicine supplants 
the sterner occupations of war, he shows him- 
self interestingly in a character not unlike 
that of Sherlock Holmes. After relating a 
Holmes-like incident in Dr. Weir Mitchell's 
professional experience, he details a similar 
occurrence in his own. 

" Spending the summer near New York, I made 
it the rule to be in my office in the city at a certain 
hour on two days of each week. As I was nearing 
my door I noticed a man a few feet ahead of me 
who turned to ring my bell. He had on a long 
frock-coat which fitted well and wore a soft felt 
hat. At first glance I took him to be from the 
South; but as he was pulling at the bell-knob, he 
having not yet seen me, I noticed on the rim of one 
ear a well-marked epithelioma, a form of cancer 
which occurs only after frost-bite. I then placed 
him from the Northwest, for his coat and hat were 
not of the East. As I came up the stoop just 
behind him I said, ' You want to see Dr. Wyeth? ' 
He turned quickly and said, ' Yes.' I continued in 
an off-hand manner as I was getting my key into 
the lock and not looking toward him, 'About that 
cancer? ' He said, ' Yes.' ' From the Northwest? ' 
'Yes.' 'Nebraska or Iowa?' 'Why? Iowa!' 
' What regiment did you serve in during the war? ' 
(He had a small Grand Army button on the lapel 
of his coat collar.) ' I was major of the Thir- 
teenth Iowa.' . . . By this time we were standing 
within the hallway, and he said: 'All right; but 
before we go any further I'd like to know how 
much you will charge me for the operation.' I 
told him ; and then he exclaimed : ' Well, my 
goodness ! What kind of a man are you, anyway ? 
You never saw me before in your life; you knew 
I was looking for you; knew what was the matter 
with me; knew what state I was from; knew I 



1915] 



THE DIAL, 



in 



was in the Union army; and d 



me if you 

haven't named exactly the amount I made up my 
mind to pay for the operation.' " 

Thus having, it is hoped, indicated in some 
measure what kind of a man Dr. Wyeth is, 
and stirred some interest in the book that pre- 
sents him more in detail and with far greater 
fidelity, the reviewer will close with a word of 
commendation for the attractive appearance 
of the autobiography. Its matter is enter- 
tainingly and conveniently grouped in two- 
score chapters or more, with an abundance of 
pictorial accompaniment, including two por- 
traits of the author at widely separated 
periods in his life and a process-print repro- 
duction of his bust, recently unveiled at the 
Polyclinic Hospital which he founded. 

PERCY F. BICKNELL. 



ART 



HISTORY.* 



"My desire," writes Mr. Lisle March Phil- 
lipps, in his book on "Art and Environment," 
"has been to confine myself to the considera- 
tion of art as an expression of human life and 
character. Selecting some of the great periods, 
or creative epochs, in the art of the world, I 
have endeavoured to deduce from them the dis- 
tinguishing qualities, limitations, and points 
of view of the races which produced them." 
These, Mr. Phillipps thinks, are revealed 
chiefly by architecture, and only secondarily 
by sculpture and painting and such minor arts 
as furniture-making; consequently he devotes 
the bulk of his book to an interpretation of 
various architectures. 

Mr. Phillipps 's treatment is both lively and 
persuasive. Like all intelligent persons, he 
has strong preferences and reasons for them 
that he believes in, so that his epithets for what 
he dislikes are striking, even though his com- 
mendations of what he prefers do not appear 
excessive. So far as we are aware, no one 
since Taine has expounded with so much vigor 
and good sense any phase of the principle that 
works of art are to be understood in terms of 
race, time, and place. On the whole, Mr. Phil- 
lipps succeeds in ignoring time and place, par- 
ticularly when considering those types of art 
that have his approval ; environment seems to 
matter chiefly in determining the works of the 
Egyptians, the Arabs, and the eighteenth cen- 
tury aristocratic French, which he dislikes. 
An innocent reader is led to wonder why the 
word "environment" and not "race," ap- 
pears in the title ; all the more, in view of the 
author's avowed intention to deduce the quali- 
ties of races from their gesthetic creations. 



* ART AND ENVIRONMENT. By Lisle March Phillipps. 
vised edition. Illustrated. New York : Henry Holt & Co. 



Re- 



Soon, however, the reader begins to wonder 
whether "race" would have been the better 
term. He observes the whole book permeated 
by another and more general distinction, a 
distinction based on the presence of certain 
qualities of the human spirit, and transverse 
to the distinctions of race. The qualities are 
notably intellectuality and passionate energy. 
With them, he finds, Mr. Phillipps coordinates 
aesthetic traits. Thus, predominant horizon- 
tality in architectural line is said to reveal 
intellectuality in the people that use it, while 
predominant verticality or obliquity is said to 
reveal energy. The one is the expression or 
effect of the other, so that Greek and Renais- 
sance builders built as they did because they 
were intellectual; and they were intellectual 
because they built as they did. And Arabs 
and Goths built as they did because they were 
energetic; and they were energetic because 
they built as they did. This is the skeleton of 
Mr. Phillipps 's "deduction"! With it the 
division of mankind into races is superseded 
by the division of mankind into psychological 
groups, sub-intellectual, intellectual, and 
post-intellectual: the qualities of the arts be- 
come coordinated with these qualities of mind ; 
the monotony of the Egyptian, the energy and 
elan of Arabian, the activity of the Gothic with 
the sub- or un-intellectual ; the unity and 
definiteness of the Greek and the Renaissance 
with the intellectual ; the realism and expres- 
siveness of Hellenistic sculpture and Renais- 
sance sculpture and painting, intent on 
catching the fleeting details of expression with 
"spiritual emotion" which is post-intellectual. 
And there you are ! 

As a "deduction," Mr. Phillipps 's argu- 
ment begs the question. But whatever may be 
said of his argument as a deduction, nothing 
but good can be said of it as an interpretative 
vision of life and art. Indeed, he might retort 
that in this field all arguments beg the ques- 
tion, since they are really nothing more than 
an exhibition of analogies and similarities 
which are identical only to belief, and depend 
for their force on persuasiveness rather than 
on logical cogency. And we must grant that 
we have read nothing in recent years that ex- 
hibits so persuasively the opinion that race, 
human quality, rather than time and place is, 
in art, the dominant agency of control and 
creation. If, very frequently, other factors, 
particularly environment, seem to displace 
race in his account, the displacement should 
be credited, not to Mr. Phillipps 's inadvertence 
or fallibility, but to his unusual intellectual 
honesty, the rarest thing in "art-criticism," 
and his eagerness to tell the truth as he 
sees it. 



112 



THE DIAL 



[Feb. 16 



What is the truth which he sees? The 
great tradition of the Occident has its historic 
roots in Egypt. Mr. Phillipps begins, therefore, 
with the analysis of Egyptian art. The Egyp- 
tians, in his opinion, were sub-intellectual. 
Theirs was a case of arrested development, 
arrested by the Nile. The river's monotonous 
routine held them until their life and its 
changes flowed as one; it fixed their habits, 
dominated their thoughts, and ordained their 
behavior. Victims no less than beneficiaries 
of their environment, they manifested its 
overwhelming influence on them nowhere so 
clearly as in their art. This is seen to be as 
unvaried as the Nilotic floods, whose vegeta- 
tion supplies them with their model for orna- 
ment and design, a perennial repetition of 
the primitive same, a childish reproduction of 
forms not seen but recollected as a child recol- 
lects, an accumulative repetition and reproduc- 
tion, technically perfected through practice, 
spiritually inane. "Perfect yet primitive, 
young yet old, its hoary infancy defies time. 
It is the image of routine, of deadly monotony 
and unthinking iteration. ' ' 

To this ' ' hoary infancy ' ' Greek art presents 
an absolute contrast. Natural, observant, 
realistic, its essence is intellectuality, and in- 
tellectuality of a unique sort. Mr. Phillipps 
describes realism as an expression of intellec- 
tuality; for intellectuality is definitive, and 
realism defines. Sculpture is, he thinks, 
uniquely the art of the Greeks because ' ' sculp- 
ture is definition. The sculptor undertakes to 
express his ideas in a hard material, in curt, 
distinct lines, in concrete and exactly articu- 
lated forms." Hence his themes are neces- 
sarily ' ' finite ' ' ; his art refuses, if he is a. Greek, 
to deal with the unknown ; it cannot express 
"spiritual emotion" (whatever that may be) ; 
it is, for example, incapable of treating death 
as the Christian treats it. It is marked by 
limitations, as is all intellectuality; and this 
mark pervades the whole spiritual content of 
Greek life, no less than its representative art. 
The limitation of Greek spirit differs from 
that of the other intellectualist races of 
Europe in a particular way, however. It is 
unique, and its uniqueness springs from the 
fact that the Greeks were an eye-minded peo- 
ple. In them the faculty and preferences of 
seeing infected and suffused the residuum of 
consciousness. Consequently, the needs of the 
eye determine for them the principles of life 
and art; nay, life is art, and the consumma- 
tion of art the inspiration of life. In the Doric 
temple the Greek genius expresses itself with 
organic completeness. The laws of vision de- 
termine the details of its construction, and the 
construction is such that it is abstract, inde- 



pendent of time and place, self-containing 
and self-contained, unvaried and unvarying 
through the ages, like a syllogism, or a god of 
the Epicureans. This self-sufficiency, this 
"unity and repose," are ordained by the eye's 
inertia and attained by the harmonious devel- 
opment of a central structural theme. It is 
most conspicuous where the theme is un- 
Hellenic; consequently, to see the essence of 
the Greek mind in architecture, see it as it 
handles the Roman arch in the church of 
S. Sophia. That is the tour de force of the 
logical Greek genius. 

This summary falls, we are afraid, far short 
of justice to Mr. Phillipps 's brilliant chapters 
on the Greeks. Perhaps this is because we 
cannot help being quite as much impressed by 
what they fail to say as by what they say. 
They make no mention of the possible influ- 
ence of an immemorial environment, of an in- 
tense and even feverish social activity during 
the most brilliant period of Greek history, of 
possible imitative response and compensatory 
reaction to nature and society. Yet can it be 
that the Greek eye learned nothing from the 
sharp, clean outlines of the low Greek hills 
against the intensely blue Greek skies, from 
the barren landscapes definite as silhouettes in 
outlining the low and almost geometric for- 
estation? Why should the Greek have been 
less susceptible to definiteness and articula- 
tion in Nature's shapes than the Egyptian to 
the rank jungles and tepid hazes of the Nilotic 
lotos-land which were Nature's face to him? 
And is it quite logical to say that the Greek 
was eye-minded because he built Doric temples 
as he built them, and then to say that he built 
Doric temples in the lovely Doric manner be- 
cause he was eye-minded? On the contrary, 
the strenuosity of Greek life, its athleticism 
and militarism, its emphasis on the impor- 
tance of music in education, in the significant 
dynamism attributed by its most representa- 
tive philosopher, Plato, to its most charac- 
teristic philosophic conception, the "Platonic 
idea" (so distinctly visual a conception to 
the layman ! ) might easily lead to the opinion 
that the Greek was motor- or muscle-minded, 
and that his works of art, far from being an 
expression of his nature, were a compensation 
for it. Just as desires unfulfilled in fact are 
satisfied in imagination and in dream, so, it 
may be, a disorganized and embattled state 
may imagine unity and repose, and a torn 
mind may dream of peace. Such dreams and 
imaginings, realized in art, are not an ex- 
pression of a people's actual character, but 
rather a compensation for it. So, the esthetic 
mood of a people may be the direct opposite 
of its natural and political mood, even as the 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



113 



vaudevillian tastes of the American man of 
affairs are the direct opposite of his puri- 
tanical acquisitiveness and devout republican- 
ism. Mr. Phillipps has not shown that this was 
not the case with Greece. 

Nor, for that matter, is it the case with any 
of the people he deals with, certainly not 
with the Arabs, with whose works he next 
invites our souls. Mr. Phillipps offers good 
reasons for not liking the Arabian creation, 
but he invokes environment, which with him 
acts like charity, to cover and explain the mul- 
titude of its sins. The Arab lives in the desert, 
and his soul reproduces the desert's traits. He 
is possessed of "the desert's fiery elan and 
restless inconstancy." His art is "a strange 
mingling of frailty, fickleness, and poetic 
energy," which throws together any kind of 
material in any way that will hold for the 
moment, which disintegrates the trabeated and 
arcuated solidities of the Greek and Roman 
buildings into unstable and fanciful forms, 
which multiply as the shifting sands of the 
desert multiply, all to no end. The whole of 
Arab life has the fancifulness and irrelevancy 
of Arab architecture, its science gets lost in 
magic, its philosophy in mysticism, its social 
order in confusion, its military prowess in 
chaos. It is without reason and without con- 
tinuity, and before these it fades away like a 
mirage. All that Mr. Phillipps says about 
the Arabs is, we think, true; but here again 
the truth is only half-truth. What would 
have been the fate of Arabian civilization if 
Christian had not conquered Moslem in Spain, 
and Ottoman barbarism had not thrown 
Arabian culture back to its own level? What 
is to be said of the persistence of the Arab 
conversion to Mohammedanism, and the sta- 
bility and articulation of the new order that 
revelation prescribed? If Arabian philosophy 
is predominantly mystical, German is so no 
less; and as for fancifulness, the German 
content may be different, but the irrelevance 
to reality is the same. Mir. Phillipps 's account- 
ing for the Arab in art is beautifully simple, 
but Arabs are human, and with respect to the 
characterization of human beings the simple 
is too near the untrue. 

It becomes dangerously near being identical 
with the untrue in the discussion of Gothic 
architecture. To explain this, Mr. Phillipps 
disposes at a swoop of the various alternative 
accounts of its origin. That the conditions 
of labor determined the material, and the 
material determined the structural form, he 
denies; as he denies its appearance as the solu- 
tion of the structural problems of Romanesque 
builders who had difficulty in roofing their 
naves and aisles. Of environment he makes 



no mention whatsoever. The origin of Gothic 
forms is to be found, he insists, in the genius 
of the Goth, at work in France and in En- 
gland. The Goths "were what they were 
making." Their unconscious ideal, when 
they entered European history, was a life of 
action. "They valued exclusively, or at least 
primarily, such qualities as took effect in 
action." When in the twelfth century they 
have become civilized enough to express them- 
selves consciously in art, the form that comes 
spontaneously to their hand is the pointed 
arch. This is because the essence of the arch 
is its energy, it "never sleeps"; the strong 
"lateral thrust" tends to disintegrate it, and 
it must be repressed by a buttressing and 
whatnot. Gothic, says Mr. Phillipps bril- 
liantly, is not a style but a fight. 

All of which may be so, and much of which 
no doubt is so. But are the factors which 
Mr. Phillipps either completely sets aside or 
ignores deprived of potency because it is so? 
Is the relation not much more likely to have 
been reciprocal? After all, Gothic is the solu- 
tion of a structural problem ; after all, Gothic 
does make use of small stones because the con- 
ditions of labor were such as to make this use 
inevitable. These conditions might, of them- 
selves, have generated the Gothic style: they 
are sufficient for its origin. If, indeed, race 
alone were potent, North European archi- 
tecture should still be Gothic. In point of 
fact, the relation is reciprocal : purpose, need, 
modifies material ; but material, and most par- 
ticularly in the art of building, limits purpose. 
It is still impossible to make a silk purse out of 
a sow's ear, while a very excellent one may be 
made in forms appropriate to pigskin. A 
thousand years hence a Mr. Phillipps of the 
thirtieth century studying our art of the twen- 
tieth may point to an exclusive causal connec- 
tion between American sky-scrapers and the 
' ' natural ' ' strenuosity of the American ' ' race. ' ' 
On the principle that verticality expresses 
energy, he might demonstrate that the United 
States of the twentieth century was franti- 
cally energetic and proportionally irrational. 
He might gather innumerable accessory data 
from our political and economic life, our re- 
ligion and our art. But he would neglect in 
all this the real causes of the development of 
the sky-scraper. These are, first of all, the 
unnaturally high rate of ground-rent in our 
American cities, and secondly the use of the 
steel-girder and concrete as the architectural 
materials. Prevented for economic reasons 
from spreading horizontally, American archi- 
tecture rises vertically. It could not have 
become vertical without the use of structural 
steel. The limitations of material are ultimate. 



THE DIAI, 



[ Feb. 16 



That Mr. Phillipps knows all this, but is 
unconscious of it, may be seen in the uncon- 
scious paradox in which his analysis of the 
Gothic style culminates. The essence of that 
style is the pointed arch. The arch alone, 
of all architectural forms, is energetic. The 
lateral thrust, pushing outward and down- 
ward, would unless checked disintegrate, by 
force of the energy it lets loose. Gothic con- 
struction consists of check and counter-check 
of this energy. Withal, "it may be we sel- 
dom enough realize how strenuous and alive 
are the forces which are here engaged." It is 
"difficult to connect the idea of activity with 
such rigid immobility." 

But the rareness of this realization, the 
difficulty of this connection, are a rareness 
and difficulty which depend on a contrast be- 
tween the structural and cesthetic tendencies 
of Gothic architecture. It is an engineer's, 
not an artist's, analysis of the Gothic arch 
Mr. Phillipps here gives us; it has reference 
to the material. An aesthetic analysis would 
have reference to the form. And here the 
paradox begins to appear. For the Gothic 
form is, as Mr. Phillipps says, an aesthetic 
expression of energy; but it is energy in the 
reverse direction from the structural energy. 
Mechanically, the energy of the arch moves 
downward and outward : it is the energy of a 
push or thrust ; festhetically the energy moves 
upward and outward : it is the energy of a 
linear pull. Mr. Phillipps 's own language 
unconsciously expresses this fact. "Gothic 
has been called the linear type of architecture. 
. . . The web of interior lines . . . seem to 
uphold the structure ... it is in these that 
the strength and vigour appear to reside. 
. . . fit] is the most recognizable and salient 
trait of the style. These light and sinewy 
lines pervade the whole structure. They dart 
in sheaves from the floor . . . diverge and 
spread fanlike over the vault-surface . . . ' 
In sum, the total effects is that of a lateral lift. 

Inside, the lines that "uphold" "dart in 
sheaves from the floor" ; outside, the shadowed 
peaks and curves of buttress against arch, and 
arch against buttress, rising in intricate linear 
tracings against the sky, what is there in 
nature for analogue, that might so impress 
the mind of a people that their own significant 
building would tend unconsciously to assume 
its forms'? What is there but the primeval 
forest of great trees, whose long, rising shafts 
are literally an upward lift against a down- 
ward pull ; literally alive with energy ; whose 
meeting branches form natural Gothic arches, 
with intricate traceries in long avenues we 
have learned from novels to know as Gothic? 
For generations the northern peoples lived 



among them and with them, seeing them daily 
and hourly, summer and winter, until their 
generic contours, their dominant shapes, must 
have become part and parcel of the uncon- 
scious funded mentality of the race. If 
Egyptian temperament and architectural 
forms are determined by the Nile, if Arabian 
temperament and architectural forms are the 
effects of the desert, why may not Gothic be 
the outcome of immemorial association with 
the primeval forest? But Mr. Phillipps does 
not even consider this possibility. Goth, like 
Greek, is represented by him as altogether 
uninfluenced by environment. 

There are many things still to say, if space 
permitted, about Mr. Phillipps 's account of 
the art of the renaissance and its relation to 
the recrudescence of intellectuality in Eu- 
rope; about the influence upon this art of 
what he calls "spiritual emotion," and its 
connection with the philosophical ideas of 
infinity. We should like even more to dis- 
cuss his brilliant and perspicacious chapter 
on the art of the French aristocracy of the 
court of Louis XV. We should like to show 
in detail how unified and articulate his view 
is, a vision, in fact, of the march of history 
in terms of art. We should like to show how, 
like all things unified, it attains its unity 
always by minimizing or ignoring factors 
which an adequate account of art must con- 
sider; and how, therefore, one always must 
agree with Mr. Phillipps, but agree with 
reservations. One thing, however, readers 
may agree in without reservation, namely, 
that in recent years there has appeared no 
general book on the arts which so well repays 
the reading. H. M. KALLEN. 



SOME AMERICAN DISSENTERS.* 

The capital fact in the political history of 
the United States in the past ten years has 
been the growth of dissent. Not, of course, 
that dissent was unknown until the fateful 
days in which we live. For there have been 
many periods in which, in this country as 
elsewhere, it has flourished. It was, indeed, 
dissent which first gave the nation being. And 
one calls instantly to mind the epoch of 
Jeffersonian criticism of Federalist adminis- 
tration, the decades of Abolitionist denuncia- 
tion of a national government palsied by the 
grip of the slaveholder, and the Mugwump- 
Granger-Populist-Socialist era of the eighties 
and early nineties. 

* PROGRESSIVE DEMOCRACY. By Herbert Croly. New York : 
The Macmillan Co. 

DRIFT AND MASTERY. An Attempt to Diagnose the Cur- 
rent Unrest. By Walter Lippmann. New York: Mitchell 
Kennerley. 

PROGRESSIVISM AND AFTER. By William English Wall- 
ing. New York: The Macmillan Co. 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



115 



The dissent of the most recent years, how- 
ever, has been peculiarly comprehensive in its 
scope, penetrating in its criticism, and relent- 
less in its methods. It began to gather 
strength even before the turning of the cen- 
tury. It won its earlier triumphs in the estab- 
lishment here and there of the initiative and 
the referendum, in the enfranchisement of 
women in a number of the western states, and 
in the widespread substitution of the direct 
primary for the nominating convention. It 
found expression in the rapid growth of trade 
unionism, socialism, and the demand for in- 
dustrial democratization. It obtained, in 
time, its most illustrious and influential pro- 
tagonist in Mr. Roosevelt. And, finally, it 
acquired a name to conjure with, namely, 
progressivism. 

The future historian of our period will have 
as one of his principal tasks the interpretation 
of the progressive movement. He will have 
the advantage of a perspective which is, of 
course, unattainable at the present day. In 
the meantime, we are being supplied with 
some highly ingenious and interesting, even 
though tentative and incomplete, interpreta- 
tions from a group of young and keen students 
of American society who have been themselves 
numbered among the sympathizers with, or 
the active participants in, the movement. 
Conspicuous among these men are Mr. Croly, 
Mr. Lippmann, and Mr. Walling, all of whom, 
in recent months, have published books de- 
scriptive of progressivism as they see it. Mr. 
Croly is concerned chiefly with an explanation 
of the rise and growth of progressivism, and 
with a sympathetic exposition of the multifold 
character which it bears to-day. Mr. Lipp- 
mann portrays the semi-chaotic state in which 
the break with the past has involved us, and 
considers the means by which the sure mas- 
tery of the people is to be established. Mr. 
Walling, approaching the subject as a social- 
ist, seeks to demonstrate that the progressiv- 
ism of to-day is but a step in the direction of 
the ultimate social democracy and the social- 
istic state. 

Mr. Croly 's book must be pronounced a 
work of first-rate importance. It is admirably 
written, and we are not likely soon to have a 
discussion of the subject with which it deals 
that will be better informed, of fairer spirit, 
or more deeply philosophical. It is in no sense 
a brief for the Progressive Party as such. The 
progressivism with which it deals transcends 
the bounds of party. It may be described 
more nearly as a state of mind than as a party 
programme, and its antecedents are to be 
traced to successive stages of the nation's his- 



tory from a period as early as that of the 
formation of the Constitution. 

The fundamental proposition of progressiv- 
ism, as Mr. Croly describes it, is that the 
injustice and wastage of our American indus- 
trial and social order are too deep-seated to be 
overcome by ordinary expedients of reform; 
and the process by which, as this conviction 
has grown, reform has given way to insur- 
gency and insurgency to progressivism is 
sketched with keen insight into both the 
psychology and the economic environment of 
the American people. Reforms, whether in 
the civil service, in municipal politics, or in 
other branches of public affairs, were always 
(so we are told) half-hearted and ephemeral ; 
insurgency was largely obstructionist and 
negative; only progressivism takes the long 
view and seeks to build from the foundations. 

There are, Mr. Croly admits, various brands 
of progressivism, and the comparison which is 
drawn between the progressivism of Mr. 
Roosevelt and that of President Wilson is illu- 
minating, if not at every point convincing. 
Roosevelt progressivism, it is admitted, "can 
fairly be charged with many ambiguities." 
But in one essential respect, it is contended, 
its meaning is unmistakable. "Its advocates 
are committed to a drastic reorganization of 
the American political and economic system, 
to the substitution of a frank social policy for 
the individualism of the past, and to the 
realization of this policy, if necessary, by the 
use of efficient governmental instruments." 
The progressivism of President Wilson is 
characterized as "vague in precisely this essen- 
tial respect," and its vagueness is said to be of 
a kind that is elusive and secretive rather than 
merely flexible. While Roosevelt progressiv- 
ism considers the existing order fundamen- 
tally unsound, so that no mere loppings off 
here and tonings up there will meet the social 
need, the tendency of the Wilson school is to 
emphasize those aspects of progressivism 
which "can be interpreted as the emancipa- 
tion of an essentially excellent system from 
corrupting and perverting parasites." The 
progressivism which results is scrupulously 
careful not to be too progressive, and, like the 
reform movements which have been super- 
seded, it poses as a "higher conservatism." 
In its emphasis upon the restriction of gov- 
ernmental regulation, the "new freedom" 
harks back to Jeffersonian individualism. It 
voices no desire "to substitute for an auto- 
matic competitive economic regime one in 
which a conscious social purpose, equipped 
with an adequate technical method, was to 
play a decisive part." Mr. Croly recognizes 
that Mr. Wilson's version of progressivism, 



116 



THE DIAL 



Feb. 16 



"whatever its underlying tendency and mean- 
ing, is a high and serious doctrine, which is 
the outcome of real elevation of purpose and 
feeling, and which up to date has had on the 
whole a beneficial effect on public opinion." 
He recognizes, too, that as a matter of prac- 
tical politics Mr. Wilson, in his capacity of 
party leader, has been obliged to lay emphasis 
upon any possible analogies between pro- 
gressivism and the historic tradition of his 
party. He feels, none the less, that the Presi- 
dent's progressivism has in too large a degree 
the backward look. It is not a new birth of 
public spirit; it is a rebirth. It is not an 
awakening of public opinion to something 
novel ; it is a reawakening. It is not aiming 
at an unprecedented vitalizing of democracy, 
but at its revival along traditional lines. 
Were it not for the trammels of his party and 
official connections, Mr. Croly suggests, Mr. 
Wilson would probably place the emphasis 
differently. But as it is, his progressivism 
must be adjudged partial, halting, and inade- 
quate to meet the needs of the times. 

Mr. Croly recognizes the value of the con- 
servative spirit in a society, and he freely 
admits the general sincerity of that portion of 
the American people which is, whether or not 
it calls itself such, conservative. He agrees 
that men cannot reasonably be expected to 
break with an old system until they can see 
what is to be put in its place. The providing 
of a substitute for the existing order in the 
United States is the peculiar and indispensa- 
ble task of progressivism; and not merely a 
new order, but a new faith, "upon the rock of 
which may be built a better structure of indi- 
vidual and social life." The object of the 
present volume is to consider "whether any 
substitute is needed for the traditional system, 
and whether progressivism offers any prospect 
of living up to the manifest requirements of 
the part." The answer to both questions is, 
of course, affirmative; and whatever one's 
opinion of the conclusions reached, it must be 
conceded that the spirit in which the inquiry 
is made is altogether commendable. 

The vital defect of the existing system is 
conceived to be the indirectness of popular 
control over the national government. The 
Constitution is too difficult to amend; the 
workings of the government are controlled too 
much by legalism rather than by the public 
will ; the courts have become the irresponsible 
interpreters of the Constitution, and therefore 
the irresponsible makers of law under the 
Constitution. The best, and only real, remedy 
is declared to be direct government by the 
people, "entered into with wisdom and cau- 
tion." That direct government taking ex- 



pression chiefly in the initiative, the referen- 
dum, and the recall is retrogressive, merely 
because its methods exhibit certain analogies 
to those used in city and tribal states, is 
denied; and in a chapter under the title 
"Direct versus Representative Government" 
will be found an argument as masterful as 
has been put in print in favor of the direct 
system. The nationalizing of our democracy, 
while preserving in state and city vigorous 
agencies of local self-government; the break- 
ing of the paralyzing grip of legalism, while 
preserving the respect of the people for law ; 
the extension to the body politic of unre- 
stricted and immediate control over its gov- 
ernmental institutions, while perpetuating the 
practical conveniences of the representative 
system, these are the supreme ends toward 
which, we are assured, all true progressivism 
moves. 

The cardinal proposition of Mr. Lippmann 's 
book is that in the present era of unrest there 
is too much aimless drifting, too much futile 
beating of the waves, and not enough mastery 
of the situation such as the people are capable 
of if only they be well-informed, courageous, 
and ably led. That the epoch in which we 
live is one of unrest is a condition not of our 
choosing. The case against absolutism, com- 
mercial oligarchy, and unquestioned creeds 
has been made out. "The rebel program is 
stated. Scientific invention and blind social 
currents have made the old authority impos- 
sible in fact, the artillery fire of the iconoclasts 
has shattered its prestige. We inherit a rebel 
tradition." In this situation, , the battle for 
us, we are admonished, lies not against crusted 
prejudice but against the chaos of a new free- 
dom. The danger is no longer from unreason- 
ing conservatism, but rather from the anarchy 
of untried, unorganized, combative radical- 
ism. There must somewhere be mastery, and 
under twentieth century conditions and ideas 
the only possible master is the people. This 
means democracy. But democracy must be 
conceived as something more than the absence 
of czars, more than freedom, more than equal 
opportunity. "It is a way of life, a use of 
freedom, an embrace of opportunity." It is 
positive, virile, fundamental. 

But the proper mastery of their own affairs 
by the people is conditioned upon several 
things. It involves intelligence, alertness, and 
strong civic sense. ' ' A servile community will 
have a master, if not a monarch then a land- 
lord or a boss, and no legal device will save it. 
A nation of uncritical drifters can change 
only the form of tyranny, for, like Christian's 
sword, democracy is a weapon in the hands of 
those who have the courage and the skill to 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



117 



wield it; in all others it is a rusty piece of 
junk. ' ' The mastery of the people involves 
also a new .industrial emancipation. No one 
unafflicted with invincible ignorance, we are 
told, desires to preserve our economic system 
in its existing form. The thought is that 
there can be no true political democracy unless 
there is a much closer approach than at pres- 
ent to an economic democracy. Men must be 
reasonably well-to-do and accustomed to self- 
mastery before they can achieve a stable and 
masterful social or political democracy. 

Recognizing that the day is past when any- 
body can pretend to have laid down an inclu- 
sive or final analysis of the democratic prob- 
lem, Mr. Lippmann seeks in his book to diag- 
nose the current unrest and to ' ' arrive at some 
sense of what democracy implies." As he 
frankly explains, his chapters touch upon the 
American problem at only a few significant 
points. Of special interest is his discussion of 
the problem of ' ' big business, ' ' the labor move- 
ment, the trusts, the woman's movement, and 
the contemporary processes of intellectual and 
social emancipation. But the book is notable 
for its points of view and for its penetrating, 
often caustic, observations upon the phenom- 
ena of our time, rather than for systematic 
discussion of any subject or group of subjects. 
It is not a book of information, but one of 
suggestion. If it preaches the doctrine of 
progressi vism, it does so by the general tenor 
of its philosophy, not by the grosser method 
of direct argument. It could not more deftly 
supplement Mr. Croly 's book if it had been 
written expressly for the purpose. 

In his " Progressivism and After" Mr. 
Walling has given us, from the point of view 
of a socialist, an economic interpretation of 
contemporary American politics. That poli- 
tics in our day has well-nigh become a mere 
exercise in applied economics, is a fact known 
to every competent observer. Three-fourths of 
the time Mr. Croly and Mr. Lippmann are 
writing in their books about matters which are 
distinctly economic, or which involve impor- 
tant economic relationships. Progressivism is 
itself builded upon the unrest which arises 
principally from economic conditions. It is 
not unnatural, therefore, that Mr. Walling 
seeks to follow out in his thought the prepon- 
derating economic trend and attempts to iden- 
tify certain phases of present political and 
industrial development as stages in the his- 
toric process whose ultimate product, as he 
views it, is to be the socialistic state. That a 
complete and absolute social democracy is to 
be the eventual outcome of past and present 
developments, he never for a moment doubts. 
The rule of privileged minorities is to give 



way to that of privileged majorities, and by 
assisting in the establishment of true majority 
rule, albeit at first in the domain of govern- 
ment only, progressivism is playing directly 
into the hands of socialism. Of course Mr. 
Walling does not expect the triumph of social- 
ism immediately. On the contrary that event 
is, he admits, a long way off. The capitalistic 
regime will hold out yet awhile, and it will 
even be constrained to extend to the wage- 
earning masses certain further improvements 
in conditions of life and labor, although only 
as an expedient to increase productivity and 
profits, not at all from considerations of altru- 
ism or of patriotism. Eventually, however, 
this will fail to satisfy and, the way having 
been prepared by the reforms carried through 
by progressivism, private capitalism will be 
succeeded by state capitalism; that in time 
will give way to state socialism, or laborism; 
and from this it will be but a step to the social- 
istic society in its final and idealized form. 
FREDERIC AUSTIN OGG. 



ARCTIC LANDS FORLORN.* 



Under the happy though cheerless title of 
"Lands Forlorn," Mr. George M. Douglas 
tells the story of his expedition in 1911-12 
through a portion of the Barren Grounds of 
Northern Canada to the mouth of the Copper- 
mine River. The ostensible object of the jour- 
ney was to report on the copper-bearing rocks 
of the Coppermine; but, although scientific 
data of value were obtained, one gets the im- 
pression throughout the narrative that the 
underlying motive was exploration pure and 
simple. Mr. Douglas had been engaged for 
years as an engineer in the hot and arid re- 
gions of the Southwest; and when oppor- 
tunity came for a holiday he naturally chose, 
being of an adventurous and resourceful 
disposition, the practically unexplored wilder- 
ness of the extreme north. The journey in- 
volved a certain amount of hardship, and 
enough danger to give spice to the adventure ; 
but what one finds peculiarly refreshing is the 
entire absence of that heroic pose that marks 
so many narratives of more or less original 
exploration. Mr. Douglas makes it clear that 
a small party of white men, accustomed to 
roughing it, with a suitable equipment, and 
without the embarrassment of native guides, 
can not only travel practically anywhere in 
Northern Canada, but may winter there with 
no very serious danger or even discomfort. 

The route was by rail to Edmonton, thence 



* LANDS FORLORN. The Story of an Expedition to Hearne's 
Coppermine River. By George M. Douglas. With an Intro- 
duction by James Douglas, LL.D. Illustrated. New York : 
G. P. Putnam's Sons. 



118 



THE DIAL 



[ Feb. 16 



by stage to Athabaska Landing on the Atha- 
baska, thence by canoe and scow to Fort Mc- 
Murray, and by the steamers of the Hudson's 
Bay Company to Lake Athabaska and Great 
Slave Lake and down the Mackenzie to Fort 
Norman at the mouth of Bear River. Here 
the expedition really began, Mr. Douglas and 
his companions being henceforth thrown upon 
their own resources. They made their way up 
Bear River, and through Great Bear Lake, not 
without a good deal of difficulty by reason of 
the ice; and finally reached Dease River, 
where they built a comfortable log cabin to 
serve as headquarters. From this point to the 
Coppermine was no very great distance as the 
crow flies, but the intervening country pre- 
sented serious difficulties, not the least of 
which was the fact that very few white men 
had passed this way since Hearne discovered 
the Coppermine in 1771, and even these had 
left most imperfect descriptions of the route. 
Nevertheless Mr. Douglas managed before the 
close of the season of 1911 to make his way 
over the height of land and down to the Cop- 
permine. Feeling that the way was now clear 
to their more ambitious expedition planned 
for the succeeding spring, he and his compan- 
ions settled down for the long winter at Hodg- 
son 's Point, their main camp. 

The chapter devoted to this winter in the 
Arctic makes exceedingly interesting reading. 
An ample supply of the right kind of provis- 
ions had been brought up from Edmonton, 
and systematic hunting added more than suffi- 
cient caribou and ptarmigan to keep the party 
in fresh meat, and for variety big lake trout 
could be got through the ice at any time ; dead 
spruce trees kept them in firewood. The work 
was so distributed that each man had it in 
turn to hunt, cook, and collect firewood; the 
first and last gave them outdoor exercise, 
while cooking offered endless opportunities 
for culinary experiments not always favorably 
received. Bird life was remarkably abundant 
for this rigorous country; ptarmigan were 
plentiful all the time, usually in large flocks, 
ravens were occasionally seen, as well as sev- 
eral kinds of hawks, whisky-jacks, chickadees, 
and once a big snow-white owl. The only 
really serious drawback seems to have been 
the absence of a convenient circulating library. 
Their stock of literature was naturally small. 
Mr. Douglas had borrowed Michelet's ''His- 
tory of France" from the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany's factor at Fort Simpson, and this 
proved a godsend to the party. It was read 
and re-read, though in a manner that was 
surely somewhat original. "It was in two 
volumes, ' ' says Mr. Douglas, ' ' and the Doctor 
would read one while I pored over the other; 



then we would exchange, and re-exchange 
them. Whether he knows less about the early 
history of France now than I do I. would hesi- 
tate to conjecture. I don't think Lion ever 
tackled this book; had it been in three vol- 
umes he might have done so. ' ' These winter 
quarters were some twenty-five miles within 
the Arctic Circle; the sun was seen for the 
last time on December 9, and for the first time 
on New Year 's day ; the temperature in Janu- 
ary ran down to 56, 57, and 59 below zero. 
That men inexperienced in travel in the far 
north could spend a winter on Great Bear 
Lake, not merely in comfort but with appar- 
ent enjoyment, upsets many popular impres- 
sions as to the hardships of this region. 

The spring journey was in every respect 
successful. Thanks to their careful planning, 
and the knowledge of the route acquired the 
previous autumn, the explorers reached the 
Coppermine without serious difficulty, and 
made their way down to its mouth, spending 
some time in an examination of the copper 
deposits. Whether or not profitable ore exists 
in this country cannot be determined without 
a more thorough survey. Throughout this 
part of the narrative one obtains exceedingly 
interesting glimpses of the Eskimos. 

The book is illustrated with reproductions 
of nearly two hundred photographs taken in 
the course of the journey, all interesting and 
some remarkably so. One that has rather a 
tragic interest represents Radford and Street 
of the Mounted Police in their canoe, at Fort 
Simpson, as they started out on the expedition 
from which they never returned. 

LAWRENCE J. BURPEE. 



RECENT FICTION.* 



The publication of an English version of 
M. Artzibashef's "Sanine" is bound to at- 
tract attention. The book has been widely 
regarded as an expression of the despair into 
which the Russian intelligentsia degenerated 
after the failure of the last attempt to obtain 
a truly constitutional government, a despair 
which substituted doubt for faith and self- 
indulgence for self-sacrifice. It created a 
furore in Europe. Saninism became a cult 
which spread rapidly through young Russia. 
The idea behind it was that the only happi- 
ness in life is to be found in the satisfaction 
of one's immediate desires an idea which 
the book upholds by precept rather than by 
example since, with the exception of the hero, 

* SANINE. By Michael Artzibashef. Translated into En- 
glish by Percy Pinkerton, with a Preface by Gilbert Cannan. 
New York : B. W. Huebsch. 

YOUNG EARNEST. By Gilbert Cannan. New York : D. Apple- 
ton & Co. 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



119 



unhappiness is visited alike on those who 
yield to their instincts and those who do not. 
Until now "Sanine" has been regarded as 
unsuitable for translation into English, not 
merely because of its scenes of passion (which 
could, and to a degree have been, eliminated) 
but because of its point of view, so alien to 
the Anglo-Saxon in its acceptance of sex- 
hunger. Professor William Lyon Phelps 
takes M. Artzibashef seriously, assuring us 
that while the tendency of this novel is to be 
deplored its art proves the author a man "to 
be reckoned with." Mr. Gilbert Cannan, who 
has made out as good a case for the book as is 
possible, takes rather the opposite view. He 
remarks in his Preface to the present version : 

" It has been objected to M. Artzibashef 's work 
that it deals so little with love and so much with 
physical necessity. That arises, I fancy, because 
his journalistic intention has overridden his artis- 
tic purpose. He has been exasperated into frank- 
ness rather than moved to truth. He has desired 
to lay certain facts of modern existence before the 
world and has done so in a form which could gain 
a hearing, as a pure work of art probably could 
not. He has attempted a re-valuation where it 
was most needed, where the unhappy Weininger 
failed. Weininger demanded, insanely, that hu- 
manity should renounce sex and the brutality it 
fosters; Artzibashef suggests that the brutishness 
should be accepted frankly, cleared of confusion 
with love, and slowly mastered so that out of pas- 
sion love can grow." 

We suspect that M. Artzibashef will find some 
little difficulty in understanding what Mr. 
Cannan is talking about, if he ever reads the 
English Preface to his novel ; but no matter. 
It is hard to believe that "Sanine" would 
have gained less of a hearing if it had been 
true instead of merely frank, like one of M. 
Brieux's plays, but there is no question about 
the justice of Mr. Cannan 's adjectives. 
"Sanine" is journalistic and frank rather 
than artistic and true. M. Artzibashef is 
hardly more to be "reckoned with" than any 
one of a dozen contemporary American nov- 
elists. He has set out to smash certain roman- 
tic notions about the sex motive, but in so far 
as he is successful he has only substituted one 
sentimentality for another. His admiration 
for Sanine, the strong, healthy, natural man 
who always takes what he wants and never 
regrets, who always says exactly what he 
means and who is as free from illusions as he 
is from doubts, is almost as naive as the 
adolescent boy's admiration for Jesse James. 
Sanine is the kind of dream of strength and 
beauty one might expect a highly introspec- 
tive, unhappy, and physically weak man to 
construct for himself. Those who are much 
given to the torture of doubt, and especially 



those who, lacking vitality, exaggerate the 
satisfactions of physical strength, are as sus- 
ceptible to this sort of romanticism exactly as 
vulgar, brutish people are susceptible to a 
kind of fine sentiment that amuses or disgusts 
persons of a critical sensibility. Those who 
thunder against such a book and those who 
hail it with a glad cry are perhaps equally 
mistaken. Its capacity to do good and its 
capacity to do harm are alike limited. But 
whatever its defects it is a sincere work. 

Mr. Cannan 's "Young Earnest" is very 
much in the vein of its predecessor, "Old 
Mole." It is better organized, but there are 
not so many good bits in it. No one can possi- 
bly take exception to it on the same grounds as 
exception has been taken to M. Artzibashef 's 
book. Rene Fourmy, the "young Earnest" 
of the title, is an instructor in economics at a 
provincial university who runs away from 
his classes and his wife to adopt driving a 
taxi-cab as a profession and to take a Lon- 
don factory girl as a mistress. Mr. Cannan 
is still vigorously engaged in attacking bour- 
geois society. It is characteristic that the 
struggle in his hero 's mind, which is the strug- 
gle to "escape from sleep and death," should 
take him from a university instructorship to 
taxi-driving. It is characteristic, also, that 
Mr. Cannan should be much more convincing 
about the sleep and death than about the 
escape from it. The story of how Linda 
Brock, clever, pretty, conscienceless, set out 
to capture Rene Fourmy is well done; the 
story of Ann Puddick is well done ; and even 
the story of Catherine, whom he finally mar- 
ried, is well done. But somehow or other, 
though the women are well sketched in, the 
man, who should be something more than a 
sketch, is never put before us. The book 
remains amusing, and sometimes moving, but 
it is not very real. Mr. Cannan has so much 
to say about his people that he has to save on 
the space he uses in presenting them. In the 
endeavor to put the material of a very long 
novel into a minimum of pages he skips too 
much. There are conversations between Rene 
and his mother, Rene and his father, and 
Rene and the three women with whom he 
successively lives, of which one feels that peo- 
ple don't say such things. Mr. Cannan is 
aware of it. He has tried to give us the essen- 
tials of their talk, having lent his people his 
own expressiveness in order to save our being 
bored with their inexpressiveness, but he sac- 
rifices too much of the illusion. We feel, as 
we have felt before of Mr. Cannan 's novels, 
that this book is the artistic experiment, im- 
mensely interesting, of a talent both "young" 
and "Earnest." LUCIAN GARY. 



120 



THE DIAL. 



Feb. 16 



BRIEFS ox KEW BOOKS. 



If not his best book. M. Maeter- 

M. Maeterlinck ,.,,// m1 TT i /^i A. 

on subliminal linck s The Unknown Guest 

(Dodd) is certainly one of the 
most readable and stimulating works which he 
has yet produced. The clearness of his style, 
even in an English translation, is nothing 
short of amazing and a revelation to English 
readers accustomed to the cumbersome and in- 
tricate subtleties of other writers in similar 
fields. William James and M. Bergson have 
brought modern philosophies out of the clos- 
ets ; but an infinitely more difficult task is his 
who brings mysticism into the light of com- 
mon day and makes of it the most triumphant 
sort of common sense. Of the five chapters in 
the present book, three have already appeared 
in as many different magazines : ' ' The Knowl- 
edge of the Future, ' ' ' ' The Elberf eld Horses, ' ' 
and "The Unknown Guest." The other two 
chapters, "Phantasms of the Living and the 
Dead ' ' and ' ' Psychometry, ' ' are new. The 
book is the second of a trilogy: the first was 
an essay on death, entitled "Our Eternity"; 
the present volume, dealing with veridical 
apparitions and hallucinations, psychometric 
manifestations, and all manner of subliminal 
phenomena, is to be followed by a third which 
will "treat of the miracles of Lourdes and 
other places, the phenomena of so-called 
materialization, of the divining-rod and of 
fluidic asepsis." In his chapter on "The 
Knowledge of the Future," M, Maeterlinck 
presents a brief but trenchant scientific 
critique of the mightiest of all mysteries, 
psychological or theological. His investiga- 
tion at Elberfeld of Herr Krall and his won- 
derful "denkende Tiere," Muhammed, Zarif, 
and the rest, leaves little to be desired from 
the standpoint of scientific criticism, and cer- 
tainly nothing at all from that of artistic 
presentation. M. Maeterlinck sees in these 
animals indubitable indications of clairvoy- 
ancy, and so thinks it proper to discuss their 
miracles of rapid calculation and spontaneous 
thought-origination along with the other mul- 
tiform and restless travailings of "the un- 
known guest. ' ' There is within us, he writes, 
"a strange, inconsistent, whimsical and dis- 
concerting" entity that "seems to live on 
nothing but nondescript fare borrowed from 
worlds to which our intelligence as yet has no 
access. It lives under our reason, in a sort of 
invisible and perhaps eternal palace, like a 
casual guest, dropped from another planet, 
whose interests, ideas, habits, passions have 
naught in common with ours ... It knows 
everything, perhaps, but is ignorant of the 
uses of its knowledge. It has its arms laden 



with treasures . . . Lastly, even at its best 
moments, it behaves as though the fate of the 
being in whose depth it dwells interested it 
hardly at all, as though it had but an insignifi- 
cant share in his misfortunes, feeling assured, 
one might almost think, of an independent and 
endless existence." This "unknown guest" 
pervades the book, and gives to its several 
chapters a gripping unity. 



If you don 't believe that agricul- 

F arming as * . .. ... , . 

the finest of ture is a noble calling, ranking 
high among the learned profes- 
sions, read Dr. Harvey W. "Wiley's book, "The 
Lure of the Land" (Century), in which the 
former Chief Chemist of our national Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, now a scientific farmer 
in Virginia, ably and at the same time with 
much charm of manner defends the thesis that 
"farming requires the greatest industry, the 
keenest intellect, and the best training of all 
of the professions." Though waiting until 
comparatively late in life before furnishing 
the most convincing possible proof of his faith 
in farming as the worthiest of mortal pursuits, 
Dr. Wiley was born and bred on a farm and 
was from childhood familiar with the praises 
of farming life from his father's lips. A 
favorite story often told by that wise father 
was as follows: "A farmer with three sons 
was asked what he purposed to make of them. 
He replied: 'John is the brightest of my 
boys, the most industrious, anxious to work, 
and quick to learn. I am going to make a 
farmer of him. Sam would rather talk than 
work, and is fond of telling all he knows and 
much that he imagines. I am going to make a 
lawyer of him. Thomas is the laziest one of all 
my boys. In fact, he is so lazy that he never 
gets into any trouble of any kind. I am going 
to make a preacher of him.' ' One could 
hardly be better qualified than Dr. Wiley both 
to engage intelligently in scientific farming 
and to write instructively and entertainingly 
about it. Going "at a plump age," as he 
expresses it, to till the soil, he has both a stock 
of useful technical knowledge in agricultural 
chemistry and a good supply of apt idioms 
wherewith to communicate his knowledge and 
the results of his experience to intending 
farmers and to those other readers who must 
content themselves with enjoying his book 
without yielding to "the lure of the land." 
Comparatively few are those who can wisely 
and successfully follow his example in taking 
up "farming after fifty," but there are thou- 
sands of younger men, already tilling the soil 
or about to engage in that industry, who 
should be able to profit by the admonition and 
advice of this expert agriculturist. 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



121 



The war as war w iH n Ot last 

prelude to f orever, and it is not too soon to 
forecast its effect upon society. 
Among those who have sought to pierce the 
veil of the future is Mr. L. Cecil Jane, whose 
volume entitled "The Nations at War: The 
Birth of a New Era" (Button) is a strangely 
optimistic prophecy. If one half of the bless- 
ings that Mr. Jane categorically states will 
follow in the train of this war should actually 
ensue, the nations would have secured them at 
a bargain. The author believes that this war 
will usher in an age of toleration to supersede 
intolerance in the recognition of nationalism, 
and of voluntary assent in place of coercion in 
government. These two substitutions will ful- 
fil all the law and the prophets ; arbitration 
will settle international and domestic disputes ; 
militarism will perish, because the fallacy of 
entrusting the maintenance of peace to an 
armed camp has been exposed; the work of 
the French Revolution will be consummated 
in the triumph of democracy; strikes will be 
no more, because employer and employee will 
approach each other as friends with common 
interests ; the sexes will be on a legal equality ; 
the agencies of culture, religion, and govern- 
ment will all press forward with new ideals of 
tolerant cooperation ; statesmen will be sought, 
rather than party-men, by an electorate which 
has a new sense of values. Few readers will 
go all the way to his Utopia with Mr. Jane, but 
one may catch something of his enthusiasm, 
and be the better for it. If the world is going 
to be better after this war, as it must be, not 
one man but millions of men must have the 
faith and the optimism of Mr. Jane. The only 
way that one may sit in the present darkness 
with any comfort is to believe that the light of 
a better day is about to break in men 's hearts. 
It is encouraging that such a book as this 
should find a publisher at the present time. 

Health in its The socialization of medicine in- 
social aspects volves not only the application 
lce - of the discoveries of biological 
and medical sciences in the fields of public 
and social hygiene, sanitation, and preventive 
medicine, but also the creation of a sound pub- 
lic opinion based on a knowledge and appre- 
ciation of the discoveries of the past few years 
which are revolutionizing medical science and 
practice. One of the main factors in the crea- 
tion of such a public opinion is the ability to 
command a hearing in this day of health fad- 
dists and of negations. Dr. Woods Hutchin- 
son wields so trenchant a pen that his readers 
are always interested and entertained, if not 
convinced. Unstilted, untechnical, versatile, 
and rich in allusion to affairs past and pres- 
ent, he challenges the mind of his reader by 



the brilliancy and piquancy of his attack, the 
wealth of his material, and the forcefulness 
with which he repeatedly drives home the sig- 
nificant conclusions regarding diseases and 
their social consequences. His latest volume 
of essays, "Civilization and Health" (Hough- 
ton) , is a rapid-fire defence of the new science 
of preventive medicine, of the utilization of 
guinea pigs in medical research, and of the 
feminist movement in so far as it offers a 
wider field of action for women and is based 
on a candid recognition of the physical differ- 
ences between men and women in their nervous 
organization and limitations. He also takes up 
the cudgels for the employer's interest in the 
employee's health, the regulation of industry 
from the standpoint of hygiene and health, 
personal and national, lends a hand to the 
"swat the fly" and pure milk campaigns, and 
has a good word to say for the vacation habit 
and the out-of-door life. Such books make for 
intelligent citizenship, and for efficiency in the 
hygienic functioning of the body politic. 

Varied aspects In Mr - JaKleS Davenpqrt Whelp- 

of American ley s volume entitled Amer- 
ican Public Opinion" (Button) 
there are presented fourteen essays upon 
varied aspects of the public affairs of this 
country. All save two have appeared pre- 
viously in English or American magazines. 
Five deal with subjects of a domestic nature, 
including two in which there are some observa- 
tions upon the character of public opinion in 
this country. The other nine deal with phases 
of foreign policy the handicaps of the diplo- 
matic service, the Monroe Doctrine, food as an 
international asset, and the relations of the 
United States with Mexico, with the Balkan 
States, with Russia, with Japan, and with the 
Far East in general. There is not in the essays 
much that is new or anything that is profound. 
There is a good deal that is inaccurate. For 
example, in the opening paragraph of "The 
Overtaxed Melting-Pot" we are told that the 
immigration measure vetoed in 1913 by Presi- 
dent Taft imposed a literacy test upon every 
alien coming to the United States, when as a 
matter of fact large numbers of newcomers 
(relatives of admissible aliens) were specifi- 
cally exempted. And one wonders by what 
sort of prescience the author came to the 
knowledge that this measure, re-introduced in 
the present Congress, would "in time become 
a law with the sanction of President Wilson. ' ' 
The work of the Immigration Commission of 
1907 is unjustly criticized, and the essay is in 
other respects at fault. All in all, one cannot 
repress the observation that if these papers 
were to be reprinted, they should first have 
been revised and corrected. 



122 



THE DIAX, 



[Feb. 16 



A camera 
actress in 
West Africa. 



The cinematograph is playing 
no small part in undermining 
the reading habit and lessening 
the demand for printed books, particularly 
among the rising generation. It is therefore 
somewhat refreshing to discover from the pen 
of a "movie" actress a serious book devoted to 
the writer's experiences in West African 
wilds while collecting films depicting native 
life, and when posing as the white heroine in 
Anglo- African cinematograph dramas in con- 
junction with Major Schomburgk. Miss M. 
Gehrts's "A Camera Actress in the Wilds of 
Togoland" (Lippincott) is written with little 
stress on the professional aspects of the au- 
thor's remarkable trip into the remotest cor- 
ners of this German colony. It is, rather, an 
extensively illustrated narrative of the jour- 
ney of a very observant woman, observant 
especially of German efficiency in matters of 
health and sanitation, of the development of 
commerce and industry, and discipline of the 
native peoples under their control. She is 
chiefly interested in human nature, and as a 
result her narrative is concerned more with 
the incidents of the expedition than with the 
natural features of the country she explored. 
Her excellent photographs and interesting 
chapters tell us little of the wild life of the 
jungle, but are replete with accounts of the 
native tribes. 

Talks on life "The College Course and the 
lli C cMw er Preparation for Life" (Hough- 
president, ton) is a series of eight talks 
delivered at Williams College by Dr. Albert 
Parker Fitch, president of the Faculty of 
Andover Theological Seminary. The volume 
is heartily to be recommended for its sane, 
stimulating, and vivid discussion of the life 
and the ideals of college students. President 
Fitch writes with a candor and an undeviating 
directness which must appeal to even the most 
blase of young men. Fearlessly, nobly, and 
with good will for all youth, in his chapter 
entitled "The Fight for Character" the au- 
thor searches with explicit analysis the very 
heart of the temptations of college life, and 
offers wise counsel to those who are dwarfed 
and cramped by unworthy standards. Whether 
read by collegians or by others, the book will 
prove an ardent and undidactic call to higher 
ideals. The chapters on religious experience, 
as well as those on "The Distaste for the 
Beautiful" and "Is Learning Essential?" re- 
veal much that is profoundly significant in 
the trend of modern life. Here, and through- 
out the book, the keen idealism of a tolerant 
yet critical observer gives special zest to all 
that President Fitch has to say. 



Sir J. G. Frazer's selection of Addison's Essays, 
which Messrs. Macmillan have in press, will be 
published in two volumes in the " Eversley Series." 

Professor Roland G. Usher's " Pan- American- 
ism: A Forecast of the Inevitable Clash between 
the United States and Europe's Victor " appears 
among the March announcements of the Century 
Co. 

" Chaucer and His Poetry," by Professor George 
Lyman Kittredge, and " Mediaeval Spanish Alle- 
gory," by Dr. Chandler B. Post, are two volumes 
announced for immediate issue by the Harvard 
University Press. 

" The Healing of Nations " is the title of Mr. 
Edward Carpenter's new volume of essays which 
is announced for early issue. In the volume are 
essays on " Psychology of War and Recruiting," 
" War and Lust," and " Conscription." 

Mr. Stephen Graham's articles on the Russian 
Empire of to-day, and its share in the Great War, 
will be republished in a new volume entitled 
" Russia and the World." The work will be illus- 
trated with a series of photogravure plates. 

Mr. Henry Arthur Jones's volume of three short 
plays, which Messrs. George H. Doran Co. have in 
press, is entitled " The Theatre of Ideas." In the 
Introduction the author satirizes the peace move- 
ment and prevalent freak theatre movements of 
the day. 

A collection of "African Adventure Stories " 
will be published almost immediately in this coun- 
try and England. The author is Mr. J. Alden 
Loring, who was field naturalist to the Roosevelt 
African Expedition, and Mr. Roosevelt contributes 
a foreword. 

Miss Evelyn Underbill, who has recently collabo- 
rated with the Indian mystic, Mr. Rabindranath 
Tagore, in the translation of his latest volume, 
" Songs of Kabir," is now at work on a book to be 
entitled " Practical Mysticism," which Messrs. But- 
ton will publish. 

A critical biography of Mr. Edward Carpenter 
has been written by Mr. Edward Lewis, and will be 
one of the books of the early spring. It will con- 
tain a systematic exposition of Mr. Carpenter's 
teaching, together with some personal touches 
which are only possible from the pen of an inti- 
mate friend. 

" The Message of Japan to America," recently 
published by Messrs. Putnam, is to be followed by 
a companion volume entitled, " The Message of the 
United States to Japan," written by several repre- 
sentative citizens of the United States. The same 
publishers announce a study of James Russell 
Lowell as a critic, by Mr. Joseph J. Reilly. 

Among the unusually large number of names of 
prominent English and American novelists repre- 
sented on the spring announcement lists are those 
of Messrs. H. G. Wells, William Locke, E. F. 
Benson, Maurice Hewlett, W. L. Comfort, Arthur 
Bullard ("Albert Edwards"), Frank Harris, 
Joseph Conrad, Eden Phillpotts, and Theodore 
Dreiser. 



1915] . 



THE DIAL 



123 



Mr. Francis Gribble, who was in Luxemburg at 
the outbreak of the war, and is now held by the 
Germans as a prisoner, has a new book coming 
out very soon dealing with " The Royal House of 
Portugal." The author traces the history of the 
House of Braganza back from its earliest days to 
the revolution which resulted in its exile in this 
country. 

Under the title of " The Lonely Nietzsche," the 
Sturgis & Walton Co. will soon publish the second 
and concluding volume of the authorized life of 
Friedrich Nietzsche, written by his sister, Mrs. 
Forster-Nietzsehe. The first volume, " The Young 
Nietzsche," dealt with the years of childhood and 
adolescence of the philosopher; the present book 
recounts the later half of his career. 

The Drama League of America announces a 
prize of one hundred dollars, offered by Miss Kate 
Oglebay, National Chairman of the Junior Work, 
for the best play for children from six to sixteen 
years of age, submitted to the National Committee 
by June 1, 1915, and meeting the requirements out- 
lined in their recent Bulletin. The prize- winning 
play will be published by Messrs. Macmillan, the 
author of it receiving the usual royalties from 
publication. 

The Rev. Fr. C. C. Martindale, S.J., has ac- 
cepted the invitation of Cardinal Bourne and 
Mr. A. C. Benson to write the authorized Life of 
Monsignor R. Hugh Benson. He will be glad to 
receive letters written by Monsignor Benson from 
any who are kind enough to lend them. They may 
be sent to him at Stonyhurst College, Blackburn, 
England, and will in all cases be returned. No 
other biography will be authorized by Monsignor 
Benson's representatives. 

A complete translation of Treitschke's history 
of modern Germany, in five volumes, running to a 
million and a half words, is being arranged by a 
London publisher. It is expected that the first 
volume will be ready in April, and that the work 
will be completed at the rate of one volume every 
three months. For this edition a supplementary 
volume will be written for publication after the 
present war, carrying the narrative from the point 
at which it was left by Treitschke down to the 
declaration of peace. 

Mr. Frederick W. Jenkins, librarian of the 
Russell Sage Foundation Library, wishes other 
librarians to know of his collection of duplicate 
publications on applied sociology. These are 
available for distribution, and full information on 
the subject, together with the first instalment of a 
list of these offered duplicates, will be found in the 
January "Library Journal," which continues the 
list in subsequent numbers. Care has been taken to 
exclude worthless matter from the list, so that Mr. 
Jenkins's offer is something better than an appeal 
for congestion-relief. 

The undertaking of a concordance to the Poeti- 
cal Works of Robert Browning was announced at 
the annual meeting of the Concordance Society of 
America, held at Columbia University, December 
30, 1914. This new work is under the editorship of 
Professor L. N. Broughton of Cornell University 
and Professor B. F. Stelter of the University of 



Southern California, who wish to make this fur- 
ther announcement of their undertaking in order 
to avoid any possible duplication of their labors. 
Communications regarding the work may be ad- 
dressed to Professor L. N. Broughton, Ithaca, N. Y. 

" Fairyland," the opera by Messrs. Brian 
Hooker and Horatio Parker which was awarded 
first prize by the National Committee of the San 
Francisco Exposition, will be published this month 
by the Yale University Press. Other February 
books of this house include a new translation of 
Dante's " Divine Comedy," prepared by Professor 
Henry Johnson ; " Yale Yesterdays," by the late 
Clarence Deming ; " Centenary of the Yale Medi- 
cal School," edited by Dr. William H. Carmalt; 
" Critical Essays of the Eighteenth Century," 
edited by Dr. Willard H. Durham, and the first 
volume of Bracton's " De Legibus et Consuetudini- 
bus Anglise," edited by Professor George E. 
Woodbine. 

The Dunlap Society of New York has planned 
the publication of books and prints relating to the 
American stage. The first publication of the so- 
ciety will be "An Authentic and Impartial Record 
of the Career of Dion Boucicault" by Mr. Town- 
send Walsh. Other volumes soon to be issued 
include "A Memoir of Steele MacKaye," by Mr. 
Percy MacKaye, "A Short Account of the Earlier 
Activities of the Dunlap Society, with a Descrip- 
tive List of Its Publications," by Messrs. Brander 
Matthews and Evert Jansen Wendell, "A History 
of Mitchel's Olympic Theatre " by Mr. Thomas J. 
McKee, and a history of the New York stage from 
1900 to date, of which the first volume will appear 
in the autumn. 



OF NEW BOOKS. 



[The following list, containing 57 titles, includes books 
received by THE DIAL since its last issue.] 

BIOGRAPHY AND REMINISCENCES. 

Glass: A Biography of Henry William 
Stiegel and an Account of the Method Employed 
by Him in the Manufacture of Glass. By Fred- 
erick William Hunter, A.M. Illustrated in color, 
etc., large 8vo, 272 pages. Houghton Mifflin Co. 
$10. net. 

Some Old Scots Judges: Anecdotes and Impressions. 
By W. Forbes Gray. With portraits, 8vo, 317 
pages. E. P. Dutton & Co. $3. net. 

Nathan Hale, 1776: Biography and Memorials. By 
Henry Phelps Johnston. Revised and enlarged 
edition; illustrated, large 8vo, 296 pages. Yale 
University Press. $2.35 net. 

The Life of Cervantes. By Robinson Smith. With 
frontispiece, 12mo, 121 pages. E. P. Dutton & 
Co. |1. net. 

GENERAL LITERATURE. 

Fantastic*, and Other Fancies. By Lafcadio Hearn; 
edited by Charles Woodward Hutson. 12mo, 242 
pages. "Limited Edition." Houghton Mifflin 
Co. $5. net. 

The Villa for Coelebs. By J. H. Yoxall. 8vo, 344 
pages. E. P. Dutton & Co. $2. net. 

The Plays of Eugene Brleiix. By P. V. Thomas. 
12mo, 111 pages. John W. Luce & Co. 

The Orchard Pavilion. By Arthur Christopher Ben- 
son. 16mo, 136 pages. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 
$1. net. 

NEW EDITIONS OF STANDARD LITERATURE. 

The Song: of Roland. Translated into English verse 
by Leonard Bacon. 8vo, 160 pages. Yale Uni- 
versity Press. $1.50 net. 

The Small Hymn-book: The World-book of the 
Yattendon Hymnal. Edited by Robert Bridges. 
16mo. Oxford: B. H. Blackwell. 



124 



THE DIAL 



[ Feb. 16 



The Works of Edgar Allan Poe. Collected and 
edited by E. C. Stedman and G. E. Woodberry. 
New edition; in 10 volumes, illustrated in photo- 
gravure, etc., 8vo. Charles Scribner's Sons. 
$20. net. 

The English Poems of Henry King, D.D., 1592-1669. 
Collected and edited by Lawrence Mason, Ph.D. 
Illustrated, 12mo, 226 pages. Yale University 
Press. $1.35 net. 

The History of England: From the Accession of 
James the Second. By Lord Macaulay; edited 
by Charles Harding Firth, M.A. Volume V. 
Illustrated in color, etc., large 8vo. Macmillan 
Co. $3.25 net. 

DRAMA AND VERSE. 
New Poems. By Robert Browning and Elizabeth 

Barrett Browning; edited by Sir Frederic G. 

Kenyon. With photogravure portraits, 12mo, 

186 pages. Macmillan Co. $1.25 net. 
The Free Spirit: Realizations of Middle Age, with 

a Note on Personal Expression. By Henry Bryan 

Binns. 12mo, 175 pages. B. W. Huebsch. 

$1.50 net. 
Possession: One-act Plays of Contemporary Life. 

By George Middleton. 12mo, 217 pages. Henry 

Holt & Co. $1.35 net. 
The \VItchmaId, and Other Verses. By Dorothea 

Mackellar. 12mo, 99 pages. E. P. Dutton & Co. 

$1. net. 
The Conquest, and Other Poems. By Richard Os- 

borne. 12mo, 271 pages. Richard G. Badger. 
A Page of Dreams. By George Klingle. 12mo, 126 

pages. Richard G. Badger. $1. net. 

FICTION. 

Mrs. Martin's Man. By St. John G. Ervine. 12mo, 
312 pages. Macmillan Co. $1.35 net. 

James. By W. Dane Bank. 12mo, 320 pages. 
George H. Doran Co. $1.25 net. 

Three Gentlemen from New Caledonia. By R. D. 
Hemingway and Henry de Halsalle. 12mo, 437 
pages. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.35 net. 

The Hqunted Heart. By Agnes and Egerton Castle. 
Illustrated, 12mo, 396 pages. D. Appleton & 
Co. $1.35 net. 

The Dusty Road. By Therese Tyler. With frontis- 
piece, 12mo, 326 pages. J. B. Lippincott Co. 
$1.25 net. 

Sheep's Clothing. By Louis Joseph Vance. Illus- 
trated, 12mo, 279 pages. Little, Brown & Co. 
$1.25 net. 

The Romances of Vmosis Ra. By Frederic Thurs- 
tan. 12mo, 388 pages. J. B. Lippincott Co. 

Homebnrg Memories. By George Fitch. Illus- 
trated, 12mo, 302 pages. Little, Brown & Co. 
$1.25 net. 

The Magic Tale of Harvanger and Yolande. By 
G. P. Baker. 12mo, 358 pages. George H. Doran 
Co. $1.35 net. 

TRAVEL, AND DESCRIPTION. 

The Home of the Blizzard: Being the Story of the 
Australian Antarctic Expedition, 1911-1914. By 
Sir Douglas Mawson, D.Sc. In 2 volumes; illus- 
trated in photogravure, etc., large 8vo. J. B. 
Lippincott Co. $9. net. 

Antarctic Adventure: Scott's Northern Party. By 
Raymond E. Priestley. Illustrated, large 8vo, 
382 pages. E. P. Dutton & Co. $5. net. 

The Old East Indiamen. By E. Keble Chatterton. 
Illustrated in color, etc., large 8vo, 343 pages. 
J. B. Lippincott Co. $3. net. 

PUBLIC AFFAIRS. POLITICS, SOCIOLOGY, 
AND ECONOMICS. 

"Welfare as an Economic Quantity. By G. P. Wat- 
kins. 12mo, 191 pages. Houghton Mifflin Co. 
$1.50 net. 

The Law and the Poor. By Edward Abbott Parry. 
8vo, 314 pages. E. P. Dutton & Co. $2.50 net. 

The Middle West Side and Mothers Who Must Earn. 
By Otho G. Cartwright and Katharine Anthony. 
Illustrated, 8vo, 223 pages. Survey Associates, 
Inc. $2. net. 

Conciliation and Arbitration in the Coal Industry 
of America. By Arthur E. Suffern, M.A. 8vo, 
371 pages. Houghton Mifflin Co. $2. net. 

Italy's Foreign and Colonial Policy. By Senator 
Tommaso Tittoni; translated by Baron Bernardo 
Quarunta di San Severino. With portrait, 8vo, 
334 pages. E. P. Dutton & Co. $2.50 net. 

Boyhood and Lawlessness, and The Neglected Girl. 
By Ruth S. True. Illustrated, 8vo, 143 pages. 
Survey Associates, Inc. $2. net. 

The Essence and the Ethics of Politics: Individual 
Messages to the Public Conscience. By S. Arthur 
Cook. 12mo, 348 pages. The Abingdon Press. 
$1.25 net. 



The Creation of Wealth: Modern Efficiency Methods 
Analyzed and Applied. By J. H. Lockwood. 
12mo, 225 pages. Cincinnati: The Standard 
Publishing Co. $1. net. 

BOOKS ABOUT THE WAR. 
Germany and Europe. By J. W. Allen. 12mo, 133 

pages. Macmillan Co. $1. net. 
The Nations at "War: The Birth of a New Era. 

By L. Cecil Jane. 12mo, 228 pages. E. P. 

Dutton & Co. $1. net. 
Austria-Hungary and the War. By Ernest Lud- 

wig; with Preface by Konstantin Theodor 

Dumba. With frontispiece, 12mo, 220 pages. 

J. S. Ogilvie Publishing Co. 
Aug-ust, 1914: The Coming of the War. By Spenser 

Wilkinson. 12mo, 89 pages. Oxford University 

Press. 
The Economic Strength of Great Britain. By Harold 

Cox. 12mo, 8 pages. Macmillan Co. Paper, 

10 cts. net. 

BOOKS OF REFERENCE. 

"Who's Who (in England), 1915. Svo, 2375 pages. 
Macmillan Co. $3.75 net. 

Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics. Edited by 
James Hastings and others. Volume VII., 4to, 
911 pages. Charles Scribner's Sons. 

The Desk Standard Dictionary of the English Lan- 
guage. Abridged by James C. Fernald, L.H.D. 
Illustrated, large Svo, 894 pages. Funk & Wag- 
nails Co. $1.50 net. 

The Englishman's Pocket Latin-English and En- 
glish-Latin Dictionary. By S. C. Woodhouse, 
M.A. 16mo, 491 pages. E. P. Dutton & Co. 
75 cts. net. 

Classified Catalogue of the Carnegie Library of 
Pittsburgh, 1907-1911. Part X., Svo. Pitts- 
burgh: Carnegie Library. Paper. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Efficiency in the Household. By Thetta Quay 
Franks. Svo. Doubleday, Page & Co. $1.50 net. 

A Handbook of American Pageantry. By Ralph 
Davol. Illustrated, Svo, 236 pages. Taunton, 
Mass.: Davol Publishing Co. 

Law and Usage of "War: A Practical Handbook of 
the Law and Usage of Land and Naval Warfare 
and Prize. By Sir Thomas Barclay. 12mo, 245 
pages. Houghton Mifflin Co. $1.50 net. 

Some Staccato Notes for Singers. By Marie Withrow. 
16mo, 111 pages. Oliver Ditson Co. $1. net. 

A Decade of American Government in the Phil- 
ippines, 1903-1913. By David P. Barrows, LL.D. 
With portrait, 12mo, 66 pages. World Book Co. 

Report of the Smithsonian Institution, for the Year 
Ending June 30, 1913. Illustrated, large Svo, 
804 pages. Washington: Government Printing 
Office. 

The New Chivalry. By Henry E. Jackson. 12mo, 
122 pages. George H. Doran Co. 50 cts. net. 

Makers of America: Franklin, Washington, Jeffer- 
son, and Lincoln. By Emma Lilian Dana. With 
portraits, 12mo, 205 pages. New York: Immi- 
grant Publication Society. Paper. 



MRS. RACHEL WEST CLEMENT 

Experienced Authors' Agent, Reader and Critic, Specializing in Short 

Stories. Reading lee, $1.00 for 5,000 words or under, includes short 

criticism. Circulars on request. 

6646 Germantown Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 



WILLIAM DOXEY 

AUTHORS* AND PUBLISHERS* LITERARY AGENT 
535 S. WABASH AVENUE, CHICAGO 

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130 



THE DIAL 



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1915] 



THE DIAL 



131 



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132 



THE DIAL 



[ March 4, 1915 



Mr. Ernest Poole's New Novel Published February 3 



Third Edition Now Ready 



THE HARBOR 

By Ernest Poole 



Mr. Poole has written a novel of remarkable power and 'vision in 
which are depicted the great changes taking place in American life, 
business and ideals in the present generation. Under the tremendous 
influence of the great New York harbor, with its docks, warehouses, 
its huge liners and its workers, a young writer passes, in the devel- 
opment of his life and work, from a blind worship of enterprise and 
efficiency to a deeper knowledge and understanding of humanity. 



N. Y. Times 

"This first book of his is by 
all odds the best American novel 
that has appeared in many a 
long day. It is earnest, sincere, 
broad in scope and purpose, 
well balanced, combining intel- 
lect and emotion. . . The 
characters are ably drawn, 
strikingly contrasted, essentially 
American. . . Here in this 
vision of the harbor is focused 
much of our modern world, its 
perplexities, its struggles and 
its ideals. . . Mr. Poole may 
be congratulated upon having 
written an absorbingly interest- 
ing and very significant novel. " 

N. Y. Post 

11 Many and varied as are the 
themes that have been woven 
together to make the whole, 
each one is clean cut and fits 
into its right place. 'The Har- 
bor' is well worth reading, both 
for what it gives and the manner 
in which that is given. " 



N. Y. Tribune 



"This is a remarkable book, 
... an achievement in itself. 
It is one of the ablest novels 
added to American fiction in 
many a year. . . The first 
really notable novel produced 
by the new democracy, . . . 
a book of the past and the 
present and the future, not only 
of New York and of this 
country, but of all the world. 
. . Mr. Poole is an author of 
exceptional gifts, of ideas and 
convictions. Let us hope that 
the American reading public, 
which has neglected so many 
new talents among us, will give 
him in fullest measure the recog- 
nition which he so fully de- 
serves. " 

Brooklyn Eagle 

"Mr. Poole is thoroughly in 
earnest, very much in love with 
his subject and he has written a 
sincere and ... an extremely 
vivid story ... a great deal 
of the living New York is in it. " 



N. Y. World 



"A fine new American story, 
in the spirit of the hour. . . 
A work which must be placed at 
once among the rare books that 
count which may prove quite 
possibly to be the distinctive 
American novel of the year. . . 
He finds in the harbor the glory 
and the wretchedness of the 
world, together with a new, vast 
breadth of outlook and a new 
depth of thought. . . The New 
York it presents is no limited 
city, but a vast world centre of 
ideas, ideals, hope, passions and 
struggles." 

- N. Y. Globe 

"Mr. Poole' s story is interest- 
ing on many counts. . . The 
whole is admirably written. . . 
One can say of it what he quotes 
another as giving as his ideal, 
'one more fellow has done his 
best by telling of life as he 
has seen it his changing life 
through his changing eyes.' " 



"THE HARBOR' IS THE FIRST REALLY NOTABLE NOVEL 

PRODUCED BY THE NEW DEMOCRACY." New York Tribune. 

Price $1.40. On sale at all bookstores. 



PUBLISHED 
BY 



THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 



64-66 5th AVENUE 
NEW YORK 



THE DIAL 

Jfortmgfjtlp journal of Hiterarp Cnttctem, Btecussion. ana information. 



THE DIAL (founded in 1880) is published fortnightly 
every other Thursday except in July and August, in which 
one issue for each month will appear. TERMS OF SUBSCRIP- 
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Published by THE HENRY O. SHEPARD COMPANY, 
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Entered as Second-Class Matter October 8, 1892, at the Post 
Office at Chicago, Illinois, under Act of March 3, 1879. 



Vol. LV1IL MARCH 4, 1915 No. 689 



CONTEXTS. 



WAE AND POETRY 133 

CASUAL COMMENT 135 

The road to authorship. Seekers after 
curious and rare bits of information. An 
embarrassing obligation. The passion for 
textual criticism. Juvenile disrespect for 
literary property. French poetry and Ger- 
man poetry. Eeaders behind the bars. 
The place of criticism. Books as food for 
the flames. Common sense in bibliography. 
One of the famous lawsuits of fiction. 
Books " never in." Literary diplomats. 
The library as pacificator. A set-back to 
simplified spelling. The lure of the edition 
de luxe. A university printing house. 

COMMUNICATIONS 140 

A French Feminist of To-day. Benj. M. 

Woodbridge. 

Ruskin and War. Ralph Branson. 
When Is a Novel not a Novel? W. M. P. 
Did Milton Nod? W. F. Warren. 
Imperial Japanese Poetry. Ernest W. Clem- 
ent. 

ONE WHOM THE GODS LOVED. Percy F. 

Bicknell 143 

CLASSICS ON THE ART OF PLAY-MAKING. 

H. C. Chatfield-Taylor 145 

EUROPEAN TRAVEL IN THE EIGHTEENTH 

CENTURY. Clark 8. Northup .... 147 

CHARACTER-READING THROUGH THE 

FEATURES. M. V. O'Shea 149 

A SKETCH OF THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

Eaymond M. Alden 151 

BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS 152 

Lincoln the apostle of democracy. Humors 
of the Scottish law-courts. A study of musi- 
cal psychology. Twenty great British writ- 
ers. The land of the Aztecs. Impressions 
of things out of the ordinary. Fifty years 
in Madagascar. An unsolved problem in 
modern medicine. The bible of Renaissance 
architects. 

NOTES , . 156 



TOPICS IN MARCH PERIODICALS 
LIST OF NEW BOOKS , 



. 158 
. 159 



WAR AND POETRY. 



A German visitor came to the United 
States not long ago for the purpose of sound- 
ing American sentiment upon the subject of 
the great war. After some weeks of investiga- 
tion, during which he interviewed many peo- 
ple in the various walks of life, and read his 
fill of newspaper and magazine comment, he 
became a very despondent and chastened per- 
son. In conversation one day, the discussion 
turned upon the bankruptcy of German diplo- 
macy in the weeks preceding the outbreak of 
hostilities, and it was suggested to him that 
the capital error of his country was to be found 
in its failure to understand the psychology of 
the English people. He admitted the justice 
of the criticism, and added with a sigh : "We 
did not know how they hated us," thereby 
affording an illustration more striking than 
any argument in its illumination of the charge. 

Now we knew very well how the Germans 
hate the English. The passion is expressed in 
thousands of sayings, both private and official, 
that have of late found issue from the German 
mind, and is a national attitude merely crys- 
tallized in Herr Ernst Lissauer's "Hassge- 
sang, ' ' which has been so adroitly turned into 
English and so widely read. When this truly 
hateful poem came to the attention of the 
English public, it was accompanied (in a letter 
to "The Spectator") by an expression of 
naive surprise that it should have been first 
published in "Jugend," which from its title 
would seem to be "a magazine for boys and 
girls." So even the most ghastly subjects are 
sometimes lighted up by flashes of unconscious 
humor. Probably no German in these heated 
days could grasp the simple and obvious truth 
that an outburst against Germany in Herr 
Lissauer's violent strain could not possibly be 
a product of the English mind. We can read- 
ily imagine an Englishman of the type, say, 
of Mr. Galsworthy or Mr. Watson or Mr. Hew- 
lett, countering with an entirely sincere and 
heartfelt "Liebesgesang" for the country of 
the enemy although such an expression 
would of course be addressed to the Germany 
of Goethe and Schiller, of Beethoven and 
Wagner, of Kant and Schopenhauer, the coun- 



134 



THE DIAL 



[ March 4 



try of the soul cherished in countless English 
hearts, rather than to the Germany of 
Treitschke and Bernhardi and the Prussian 
Kaiser, or of the excited German professors 
whose manifesto last autumn was such a 
shock to the moral consciousness of the world's 
commonwealth of ideas. In very truth, no one 
who has the least understanding of the En- 
glish psychology believes that its attitude 
toward the Germans is one of hatred. It hates 
the evil of the German policies and pedantic 
methods of warfare, but it retains a deep and 
genuine sympathy for the German people, and 
does not withhold from them its meed of praise 
for their valor in arms, for their self-sacrifice 
and devotion to the Fatherland, and for the 
beau geste that occasionally shines out through 
the murk of the strife. Those who imagine 
that Englishmen hate the Germans are of the 
purblind tribe who find in the "Divine 
Comedy" merely a record of Dante's personal 
hatreds, and the expression of his vindictive- 
ness toward his enemies. Meanwhile, a differ- 
ent sort of counter to the attack is provided 
from America in Miss Helen Gray Cone's 
beautiful "Song of Love for England," pub- 
lished in "The Atlantic Monthly" a month 
ago. 

The relations between poetry and war have 
long been a subject of literary discussion and 
even of controversy. There are some who hold 
that such a flowering of a nation's passion as 
is manifested by its participation in war is 
bound to arouse and stimulate the poetical 
faculty to unwonted exaltations of expression. 
By a careful process of selection, the facts may 
often be made to fit in with this thesis, and 
give it plausible support. On the other hand, 
a broader view will tend to dislodge such a 
conclusion, and lead us back to the proposition 
that the wind of the spirit of genius ' ' bloweth 
where it listeth, " and that no historical syn- 
thesis can establish a sure relation (except for 
Tyrtaean strains) between the agony of war 
and the agony whereby the poet's mind is 
impelled to teach in song what it has learned 
in suffering. 

" Vex thou not the poet's mind 

With thy shallow wit," 

is an injunction that may profitably be laid 
upon the theorists who are disposed to formu- 
late rules upon which the poetic faculty per- 
force must act. 

Our own Civil War, one of the greatest in 
history until all comparisons were dwarfed by 



the horror of last autumn, now still upon the 
world, affords a case in point. It must be ad- 
mitted that Browne's "Bugle Echoes," which 
represents the best possible gleaning from that 
field of endeavor, is a work that contains very 
little poetry of enduring value. We who knew 
the poems of the Civil War period when they 
came white-hot from the heart and imagina- 
tion of their singers, are still reluctant to 
acquiesce in any appraisal that allows them 
no more than their eternal and objective value, 
but there remain, after all, very few pieces 
that belong to the world's golden treasury. 
Lowell's "Commemoration Ode" and Whit- 
man's "When lilacs last in the dooryard 
bloomed," are about all that we are sure of. 
to which, for our inglorious little war of a 
later date, must be added Moody 's "Ode in 
Time of Hesitation." Mr. Stedman seems to 
have said the last word of wisdom upon this 
subject: 

" The late Civil War was not of itself an incen- 
tive to good poetry and art, nor directly productive 
of them. Such disorders seldom are; action is a 
substitute for the ideal, and the thinker's or dream- 
er's life seems ignoble and repugnant. But we shall 
see that the moral and emotional conflicts preceding 
the war, and leading to it, were largely stimulating 
to poetic ardor; they broke into expression, and 
buoyed with earnest and fervid sentiment our 

heroic verse The Civil War was a general 

absorbent at the crisis when a second group of 
poets began to form. The conflict not only checked 
the rise of a new school, but was followed by a time 
of languor in which the songs of Apollo seemed 
trivial to those who had listened to the shout of 
Mars." 

We cannot, then, predict with any assurance 
that the world war of this year will bear 
the fruit of a poetical renascence. If it should, 
the ripening will be slow, and the harvest long 
delayed. There is no indication that the poet 
for the occasion now exists anywhere unless 
he be M. Verhaeren as the poet was found 
in 1870-71 in the person of Victor Hugo, who 
forged "L'Annee Terrible" in the white heat 
of his passionate indignation. No one seems 
capable just now of getting the right perspec- 
tive, or striking a deeper note than that of 
vehemence and outraged sensibility. Probably 
the finest poem occasioned by the Franco- 
Prussian war was George Meredith's "France 
in December, 1870," written at the time, it is 
true, but with so deep and comprehensive an 
understanding of its theme that it now reads 
like the verdict of the ages. But we scan the 
horizon in vain for a Meredith in this super- 
terrible year. 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



135 



All this does not mean that the poets, such 
as they are, have been silent during the past 
half-year. They have risen promptly, even too 
promptly, to the appeal, and dashed off com- 
positions innumerable showing their hearts to 
be in the right place (Tipperary or else- 
where), but not often reaching the heights of 
which their previous performances have shown 
them capable. The flow of their rhymes has 
too often been turgid, and its waters anything 
but crystal-clear. Now and then, indeed, as in 
Mr. Barry Pain's lines on "The Kaiser and 
God," we get a really impressive bit of verse: 

" Impious braggart, you forget ; 
God is not your conscript yet; 
You shall learn in dumb amaze 
That His ways are not your ways, 
That the mire through which you trod 
Is not the high white road of God, 

To Whom, whichever way the combat rolls, 
We, fighting to the end, commend our souls." 

But it must be admitted that the poetry of the 
war has thus far proved a disappointment. 
The output of English verse upon this theme 
seems to deserve, as a whole, the treatment 
given it in these lines by a London journalist : 
" Has Robert Bridges's success with fighting 

Been such as to encourage emulation? 
Or Dr. Watson's ' bit them in the Bight '-ing? 
Or the same author's other lucubration 
(Yet one more blow for a disthressful nation) 
In which, dead gravelled for a rhyme for ' Ireland,' 
He struggled out with ' motherland and sireland ' ? 

" Did even the voice from Rudyard Kipling's shelf 
Say anything it had not said before? 

And was not Stephen Phillips just himself? 
And was not Newbolt's effort on the war 
Distinctly less effective than of yore? 

And would not German shrapnel in the leg be 

Less lacerating than the verse of Begbie ? " 

After all, poets exist by the grace of God, 
and neither war nor any other fortuitous cir- 
cumstance can create them. If they are on 
hand in a great spiritual crisis like the pres- 
ent, well and good; but we must not expect 
them to be struck off from the mint of human 
potentiality even by such a struggle as the 
present, in which all the interests and ideals 
that civilization holds dear are at stake. The 
real singers of the present cataclysm may be 
yet unborn, and that Weltgericht which it is 
the peculiar mission of the poet to pronounce 
upon it may not find expression until the hor- 
rors of this war have become as 

" Old, unhappy, far-off things, 
And battles long ago." 

WILLIAM MORTON PAYNE. 



CASUAL COMMENT. 

THE ROAD TO AUTHORSHIP is of varying 
length. Some writers produce books in their 
early 'teens, while others, not less endowed 
with the vision and the faculty divine, yet 
want the accomplishment of book-writing, 
and die with only a meagre magazine article 
or two to their credit. An instance not at all 
belonging in this latter class comes to our 
attention. In 1890 a young colored man of 
Alabama w.as so fortunate as to find himself 
in the neighborhood of Tuskegee and yielded 
to the impulse to seek an interview with Mr. 
Booker Washington, in the hope of gaining 
admittance to the Institute under the latter 's 
superintendence. In answer to certain ques- 
tions put to him as an entrance examination, 
the young man was unable even to tell the 
county or the state or the nation in which he 
lived, and when interrogated as to the parts 
of speech he answered that they were the lips, 
teeth, tongue, and throat. Nevertheless he 
was admitted to the Tuskegee Institute and 
was put to work at stripping fodder from 
sorghum cane. It is this member of our large 
negro population who now comes before the 
book-reading public as author of "The Black 
Man's Burden," evidently a not insignificant 
piece of work, to which the Principal of Tus- 
kegee contributes an introduction, and which 
one critic pronounces to be "among the six 
greatest works by members of the negro race" 
that he has read. Mr. William H. Holtzclaw 
for he is the author was graduated from 
Tuskegee in 1898, and has since then founded 
and built up the Utica Normal and Industrial 
Institute, at Utica, Mississippi, which to-day 
has more than five hundred pupils, taught by 
thirty-five instructors, and owns 1700 acres of 
land, with fourteen buildings. And less than 
twenty-five years ago the head of this great 
school and the author of the notable book that 
has served as text to these rather desultory re- 
marks did not know the parts of speech. 


SEEKERS AFTER CURIOUS AND RARE BITS OF 
INFORMATION furnish more occupation to ref- 
erence-room attendants than all other persons 
combined. Experience in library work has 
proved that there is almost no imaginable 
query that may not at any time be sprung 
upon the supposedly omniscient librarian or 
some member of his staff. For instance, 
earnest inquiry was once made, in our hearing, 
at a certain public library, concerning the 
color of the Due de Reichstadt's hair and eyes, 
and as to whether his hair was curly or 
straight; and another inquirer wished to- 
know how much port wine was consumed m 



136 



THE DIAL 



March 4 



England in the year 1716. No veteran library 
worker would be surprised or very much dis- 
concerted at being abruptly asked whether 
Queen Elizabeth was in the habit of putting 
her right shoe on before her left, or the re- 
verse ; or whether dentistry was known to the 
ancient Egyptians; or what proportion of 
those wounded in the battle of Hastings died 
of their injuries. In order to meet with smil- 
ing confidence such manifestations of extraor- 
dinary thirst for knowledge, libraries are now 
more and more following the practice of index- 
ing and classifying their available stores of 
out-of-the-way information. The Chicago 
Public Library has begun a "Facts and Fig- 
ures Index" of this nature. From a week's 
list of inquiries it publishes a few sample ques- 
tions on the preparation of peanuts for mar- 
ket, the number of buildings erected in large 
cities in 1913, the regulations for packing 
motion-picture films for shipping, the rise in 
real-estate values, the amount of food con- 
sumed by the nations at war, the number 
of deaths attributable to alcohol, and other 
equally interesting matters. If one would 
learn the vast range and variety of his own 
ignorance, let him serve for a week as refer- 
ence librarian in a large library. 

AN EMBARRASSING OBLIGATION that has often 
made itself felt outside the library world is 
the subject of some editorial remarks in the 
"Library Occurrent" the quarterly publica- 
tion of the Indiana Public Library Commis- 
sion. After giving suggestions for district 
meetings of library workers, the writer refers 
to two reasons that "clearly seem to have 
deterred some districts from meeting oftener : 
difficulty in finding an easily accessible meet- 
ing place, and fear of social obligations con- 
nected with the meeting." As to the latter 
reason, "District meetings are professional 
meetings, and, though there is properly a so- 
cial atmosphere when friends meet, there 
should be no attempt on the part of the host 
to furnish refreshments or entertainment. 
Unquestionably, such hospitality adds much to 
the pleasure of the meeting, but the expressed 
opinions of many librarians make as unques- 
tionable the fact that many librarians whose 
boards are unwilling to pay for such entertain- 
ment and who themselves cannot afford to do 
so, feel it impossible to invite the district to 
meet with them. Either such entertaining 
should be entirely omitted or the district itself, 
if it so votes, should contribute towards the 
expense." Possibly a useful hint might here 
be conveyed by citing the example of the 
charming Mrs. Ware (wife of the author of 
"Zenobia," "Julian," and other books now 



too little read) who by her graces and accom- 
plishments as hostess could so delight those 
who gathered about her rather meagre board 
that they became unaware whether they were 
partaking of simple bread and butter and tea 
or were feasting on ambrosia and nectar, but 
with a subsequent impression that it had been 
ambrosia and nectar. 



THE PASSION FOR TEXTUAL CRITICISM has un- 
doubtedly been indulged in with less restraint 
by German scholars than by the scholars of 
any other country, and the stock illustration 
of this passion raised to its highest power is 
the traditional but unauthenticated instance 
of the learned Teuton who devoted a lifetime 
to the study and explanation, of a certain 
punctuation mark in an ancient manuscript, 
only to discover at the very end that it was 
nothing but a fly-speck after all. A conspicu- 
ous example of industry and zeal in textual 
criticism was the late Ingram Bywater, for- 
merly Regius Professor of Greek at Oxford, 
who died in one of the last days of the past 
year, and whose titles and honors and list of 
scholarly publications make a most impressive 
showing. He edited with microscopic care the 
fragments of Heraclitus, the works of Pris- 
cianus Lydus, Aristotle's "Nicomachean 
Ethics" and "Poetics," and wrote a treatise 
on the textual criticism of the "Ethics." But 
it was his work on the ' ' Poetics ' ' that consti- 
tuted his magnum opus, though that frag- 
mentary disquisition itself is but an opuscule, 
an inconsiderable item in the list of Aristotle 's 
works. Years of painstaking research were 
devoted to this task, and it was not until 1897, 
when Bywater was fifty-seven years old, that 
he ventured to give to the world his recension 
of the text, with critical commentary. Then 
followed a dozen years of further study of the 
Aristotelian text, after which, in 1909, he 
issued his final enlarged and emended work 
on the "Poetics," accompanied by a transla- 
tion and elaborate commentary. From that 
time until his death he had lived, more em- 
phatically than before, the life of a scholarly 
recluse among his books, in his home at Onslow 

Square, London. 



JUVENILE DISRESPECT FOR LITERARY PROP- 
ERTY, or, in plainer language, young people's 
tendency to steal books, has compelled the 
trustees of the Cambridge (Mass.) Public 
Library to discontinue, so far as the children 
of that city of culture are concerned, the free- 
dom of access to bookshelves which is the glory 
and the pride of those library workers who like 
to believe that the great public is becoming 
more and more intelligently and conscien- 



1915] 



137 



tiously responsive to the increasing opportuni- 
ties and privileges extended to it by those who 
purvey to its literary needs. An inventory, 
the first one in five years, has lately been com- 
pleted in the juvenile department of the Cam- 
bridge library, and it reveals a loss, by theft 
or otherwise, of more than a thousand vol- 
umes. Hence the trustees' action in enclosing 
the formerly open children's shelves. "The 
new arrangement," reports the librarian, "is 
working admirably from the point of view of 
both the children and the attendants. Its 
economic, administrative and educational ad- 
vantages seem already assured. It makes 
practicable the keeping of the books in better 
condition, and the room in better order. It 
enables the attendants to know that a book not 
in its proper place on the shelves is really out 
and not merely misplaced. It tends, by empha- 
sizing our own care for the books, to make the 
children more reverent and careful of them. 
Above all, it obviates the moral risk involved 
in an arrangement which, because of the struc- 
tural plan of the room, permitted among chil- 
dren frequent and undetected thefts." It 
may be that these children will value their 
later and less restricted library privileges the 
more highly for this early curb to their law- 
lessness. ... 

FRENCH POETRY AND GERMAN POETRY were 
once compared, or contrasted, by Edward 
Rowland Sill, in humorously realistic phrase, 
in one of his familiar letters. He said : "I am 
coming to believe the Germans an unpoetic 
people even their greatest poets are pretty 
wordy and dull and clumsy. But there is a 
school of modern French poets worth trans- 
lating. I have been doing some of Sully Prud- 
homme, for instance. It is to the Germans 
as cloud-fluff to cheese. ' ' In the same vein 
one of his published bits of prose has this: 
"Perhaps the best topics on which to feel the 
difference are those two immemorial inspirers 
of song, war and love. "When the German poet 
sings of war, it is with the solemnity of 
Korner's 'Gebet wahrend der Schlacht. ' 
When the French poet sings of it, it is with 
the ' Gai ! Gai ! ' of Beranger. In the one, you 
hear the heavy tread of men, a dull, regular 
beat, which, after all, is not very distinguish- 
able to the ear, as to whether it be an advanc- 
ing column or a funeral march. In the other 
you hear only the bugles ringing and shouts of 
enthusiasm and excitement." In what fol- 
lows the Germans seem to have the better of 
it; or are the French here, too, more truly 
poetic? "In their treatment of love there is 
even sharper contrast. The German word 
Liebe has quite a different atmosphere of sug- 
gestion from the French amour. The German 



poet sings of love and home; you feel that 
there is at least a possibility that the passion 
of to-day will outlast the year, or the years. 
Constancy is one of its very elements. When 
the French poet sings of love, it is very deli- 
cate, rosy, beautiful, but we do not hear of 
home." These quotations are from the just- 
published biography of Sill, reviewed on an- 
other page. 

READERS BEHIND THE BARS of prison cells 
make a peculiar appeal to the library worker, 
and library-extension activities in our penal 
institutions are increasing at an encouraging 
rate. Stone walls do not a prison make, nor 
iron bars a cage, to a convict absorbed in a 
good book. To the old school of penologists 
this would seem to be an argument for with- 
holding the good book, but luckily the ten- 
dency now is to lessen the rigors of incarcera- 
tion in various reformatory ways, including 
the influence of wholesome literature. In the 
"Seventh Biennial Report of the Nebraska 
Public Library Commission" a very readable 
section treats of the Commission 's supervision 
of libraries in State institutions. Here is a 
passage : "In writing of his library work with 
the men at the penitentiary, one of our former 
librarians says, 'A prison library can be the 
drive wheel on the engine of discipline. ' This 
same man, whose first introduction to a library 
was in our state prison, after his release sent 
in from one of our far western counties for a 
traveling library for the girls and boys of the 
community. The books had to be hauled thirty 
miles from the railroad. This fall he sent for 
another library and sent an additional request 
for books for the nearest school. Still later, 
another request was received from this same 
district. "We are' proud indeed of the work 
this man is voluntarily doing and to know 
that his interest in libraries is a permanent 
one." It needs but a glance at a library map 
of Nebraska, where whole counties are still 
library-less, to demonstrate the opportunity 
there offered for an unlimited amount of such 
library-extension work as this ex-convict is 
now so zealously doing. 



.THE PLACE OF CRITICISM in the scheme of 
things is one to which the critics themselves 
are, naturally enough, prone to ascribe too 
much importance. In a current magazine 
article on "The Acid of Criticism" the Rev. 
Hugh Black says some things that apply not 
only to Bible criticism, which is his main 
theme, but also to literary criticism in general 
and, in fact, to criticism in a still more inclu- 
sive sense. It is well to be reminded, now and 
then, that criticism commonly, though not 



138 



THE DIAL, 



[ March 4 



always, "deals with the fringe, the methods 
and the outward manifestations of life. There 
is room for criticism, for thought, for reason 
in the unfathomable depths of divine truth, 
but these do not generate the truth. It is 
intuitive. The child, the ignorant, the un- 
learned may see it. It is to be seen, not argued 
about. Men spoke before the laws of gram- 
mar were propounded. Men reasoned before 
Aristotle built up logic. Men sang before the 
theory of music was dreamed of. Men ate 
before the chemistry of edibles was studied. 
Men believed before the theology was built up 
into a system to formulate their faith. The 
explanation may be difficult, but the thing 
itself is simple. The science of it may be im- 
perfect and hard, but the thing itself is intui- 
tive a flash, a gleam, an inspiration, an act. ' ' 
Those who believe that the first duty of criti- 
cism is to be constructive and not destructive, 
positive and not negative, sympathetic and 
generously appreciative rather than antipa- 
thetic and grudgingly laudatory, will enjoy 
reading in full the utterance here fragmen- 
tarily cited. It is to be found in the February 
number of "Everybody's Magazine." 



BOOKS AS FOOD FOR THE FLAMES are expen- 
sive fuel. The number of valuable libraries 
that, partly or wholly, have in recent years 
gone up in smoke is larger than most people 
would suspect. The fire in the Wisconsin 
State House destroyed several department 
libraries and the travelling library collections 
there in store. The Maryland Institute lost by 
fire a rich collection of works on art and archi- 
tecture, more than twenty thousand volumes 
in all. McGill University suffered a like de- 
struction of its medical library; the Spring- 
field (Mass.) City Library has experienced a 
serious loss by damage to its books by fire; 
Turin's ancient university had one hundred 
thousand volumes of its library reduced to 
ashes; a branch of the St. Louis Public 
Library was wiped out by fire ; San Francisco 
lost its public library by earthquake and fire ; 
the Equitable Life Insurance Society of New 
York, after forming what was esteemed a 
unique library in its special department, saw 
it fall a prey to the flames; the Paterson 
(N. J.) Public Library was totally destroyed 
by fire ; the library of the University of Vir- 
ginia suffered a like fate ; and, to cap the cli- 
max, the State Library at Albany, N. Y., the 
most important collection of its kind in the 
country, fed to the flames nearly half a million 
volumes, more than quarter of a million manu- 
scripts, and three hundred thousand pam- 
phlets. These rather startling proofs of 



"hindsight" in the fireproofing of libraries are 
cited by the Michigan Library Association in 
an appeal to the State Legislature to provide 
safe quarters for the Michigan State Library 
at Lansing. 

COMMON SENSE IN BIBLIOGRAPHY needs to be 
preached to the enthusiastic bibliographer. 
Here is a wise word from the current number 
of ' ' The Papers of the Bibliographical Society 
of America," the writer being Mr. Frederick 
W. Jenkins : "To my mind the greatest need 
is not more of the mechanical records of every 
good, bad, and indifferent publication, but an 
indication of really important articles and 
pamphlets, as well as books. In using such 
records I find nine-tenths of the entries only 
an annoyance. The scholarly tendency to put 
down every conceivable thing is like the crazy 
librarian who saves everything in type. The 
real service to the public is to make a list of 
the things one really needs to read. It is a 
mighty unimportant thing practically to peo- 
ple to see a catalogue of everything that has 
been printed on a certain point; 99 per cent, 
of the value rests in finding what there is that 
is worth consulting. ' ' This is from an article 
on "Bibliography and its Relation to Social 
Work" a not very obvious relation at first 
thought, but still existent, else Mr. Jenkins 
could not have filled four octavo pages on the 
subject. Other papers in the same issue are 
a "Bibliographical Outline of French-Cana- 
dian Literature," by Mr. James Geddes, Jr., 
a short article on the proposed check-list of 
Canadian public documents, by Mr. Lawrence 
J. Burpee, and an account of the Durrett Col- 
lection in the Library of the University of 
Chicago, more especially its newspapers, by 
Mr. Edward A. Henry. 



ONE OF THE FAMOUS LAWSUITS OF FICTION IS 

recalled to the novel-reader's mind by the 
recent death of David Jennings in the work- 
house at Wolverhampton, England. He was 
of rather more than local celebrity as the 
claimant to the ' ' Jennings millions, ' ' a Bir- 
mingham estate long held in rather precarious 
possession, and at an immense cost for legal de- 
fence, by the descendants of Lady Andover and 
Earl Howe ; or at least that is the current ac- 
count of the matter. Dickens 's famous case of 
" Jarndyce vs. Jarndyce" in "Bleak House," 
the wearisome Chancery suit "never ending, 
still beginning," is said to be taken from the 
Jennings controversy over the Birmingham 
property. William Jennings, or Jennens, 
known as "William the Rich," accumulated 
wealth to the extent of about eight million 
dollars, and also owned extensive tracts of 



1915] 



139 



land in what is now the centre of Birming- 
ham. He died in 1798, and the greater part 
of this handsome property passed to the two 
persons named above, who claimed to be the 
next of kin. From that time until about forty 
years ago there was almost constant litigation 
over the disputed millions, and a goodly share 
thereof was spent in keeping them out of the 
avid Jenningses' hands which, for aught 
one knows, may have been the hands rightly 
entitled to them. But with the death of poor 
David in the workhouse the likelihood of fur- 
ther legal dispute over the famous property 
seems to have disappeared. 



BOOKS "NEVER IN" are naturally regarded 
by many disappointed library-frequenters as 
nothing but a snare and a delusion. The latest 
quarterly bulletin of the Carnegie Library of 
Atlanta prints some observations and direc- 
tions in regard to these elusive works of litera- 
ture, remarking with truth that "nothing is 
more discouraging than to go to the library 
several times in a vain attempt to find a book, ' ' 
and informing the reader how, at the expense 
of one cent for a postal card, to secure the 
reservation of such book, unless it be a novel 
not in the rent collection, at the earliest pos- 
sible moment. Some libraries undertake to 
reserve for applicants all novels except recent 
accessions ; others go so far as to reserve even 
these upon request ; and we recall one library 
where instruction was issued from high quar- 
ters to the desk attendants to make a note of all 
books, of whatever kind, applied for unsuccess- 
fully, with names and addresses of the appli- 
cants, and to reserve these books as fast as they 
came in, at the same time notifying the appli- 
cants that the books asked for were now avail- 
able. Any library worker can easily imagine 
the rapidly increasing congestion and confu- 
sion that speedily resulted in the department 
undertaking this record. Only a quiet and dis- 
creet disobedience of the rule, in all its rigor, 
saved the desk attendants from insanity and 
the circulation department from paralysis. 

* 

LITERARY DIPLOMATS from the United States 
of America are at present filling positions call- 
ing for the greatest practical sagacity and 
untiring energy as well as the utmost tact and 
diplomacy. A more difficult task than that 
imposed for the past six months on our Bel- 
gian minister could hardly be imagined. 
Probably Mr. Whitlock's previous "forty 
years of it" will seem as child's play to him 
when contrasted with this subsequent shorter 
period, which ought to furnish a supplement 
to that earlier narrative far more thrilling 
than anything recorded in those noteworthy 



chapters. Dr. van Dyke, too, at The Hague, 
must have been acquiring a store of raw mate- 
rial for future literary use such as falls to the 
lot of few writers. Mr. Walter Page, also, 
trained to the labors of the pen before he 
essayed those of the ambassador, is in the very 
heart of things at London, and may be reck- 
oned upon to give some interesting account of 
himself one of these days. Our other Ambas- 
sador Page, at Rome, is somewhat removed 
from the crash and the din ; but even his sit- 
uation is not without its possibilities, and 
something in the form of fiction, or perhaps of 
most interesting diary or reminiscence, will be 
expected from him to show how far he has 
been awake to his enviable opportunities. 


THE LIBRARY AS PACIFICATOR has a duty to 
perform, as we are reminded by an editorial 
note in the current "Quarterly Booklist" of 
the Pratt Institute Free Library, second only 
in importance to its duty as educator. Or 
perhaps the order of importance should be 
reversed. At any rate, the Pratt Institute 
librarian holds that ' ' the Library is an instru- 
mentality for peace," and continues: "Our 
recently published list of books dealing with 
the historical, social and economic issues that 
led to the European eruption is intended to be 
an argument for peace. Without infraction 
of 'neutrality,' the exercise of private judg- 
ment as to the righteousness of the opposing 
contentions is encouraged by the extensive 
literature the Library affords on both sides of 
the case. We invite open-minded reading that 
may lead to the ultimate conviction of the 
unrighteousness of war upon any pretext, and 
the futility of it as a means of deliverance 
from the ills of the world." The writer opti- 
mistically expects the forthcoming peace 
(when it does come) to be "not a truce under 
arms, a calm of suspended hostilities, the 
quiet of exhaustion, the silence of repression, 
but the permanent abolition of warfare with 
all its paraphernalia. ' ' If abundance of read- 
ing matter on subjects of war and peace could 
insure that desirable end, even a cursory 
glance at the array of such literature exposed 
to view in most of our public libraries would 
encourage hopes of a speedy dawn of a new 
era in the world's history. 



A SET-BACK TO SIMPLIFIED SPELLING, in En- 
gland at least, is what the war seems in some 
measure to be, if one may judge from an 
"editorial noet" in the latest issue of "The 
Pioneer ov Simplified Speling." Until the 
return of "pees" (good Chaucerian orthog- 
raphy, by the way) the paper will be published 
bi-monthly instead of every month. As a pos- 



140 



THE DIAL 



[ March 4 



sibly interesting curiosity, and as a lesson in 
the trans-oceanic form of unorthodox spelling, 
and also as an announcement which its author 
may like to see enjoying such publicity as we 
can give it, the "editorial noet" is here re- 
printed in full : 

"It haz been desieded tu publish THE PIONEER 
everi uther munth until pees iz restord. The Edi- 
tor'z adres iz 45 Ladbroke Grove, London, W. 
THE PIONEER iz sent graitis tu aul Memberz ov the 
Simplified Speling Sosieti. The anyual subskrip- 
shon for Asoeshiait Memberz iz a minimum ov wun 
shiling, that for Aktiv Memberz a minimum ov 
fiev shilingz. Mor muni meenz mor pouer tu kari 
on the kampain. Memberz ar urjd tu aplie for 
leeflets seting forth the aimz ov the Sosieti. Theez 
and aul uther informaishon wil be gladli sent bi 
the Sekretari ov the Simplified Speling Sosieti, 44 
Great Russell Street, London, W.C." 


THE LUEE OF THE EDITION DE LUXE, despite 
repeated warnings from those who know the 
perils and pitfalls awaiting the innocent vic- 
tims, still shows itself to be irresistible in a 
surprising number of instances. The federal 
district court at New York has recently found 
guilty two men engaged in the sale of books 
alleged to be of great rarity and value, the 
charge brought against the defendants being, 
of course, that of illegally using the mails for 
the advertising and sale of their spurious 
goods. More than ten million dollars, it is 
believed, has been thus fraudulently obtained 
by these culprits and others from too credu- 
lous buyers, who were assured that, if they 
desired, their purchases would be resold for 
them at a handsome profit to European book- 
lovers eager to secure such precious examples 
of the art of book-manufacture. In vain the 
net is spread in the sight of any bird, but the 
very obvious snare of the edition de luxe needs 
no concealment when so many foolish persons 
show such a predilection for being caught in 
its toils. 

A UNIVERSITY PRINTING HOUSE is to be added 
to the equipment of Columbia University, says 
report. The Columbia "Spectator," first of 
college journals to own and operate its print- 
ing plant, has transferred this to the uni- 
versity, and it will form the nucleus of the 
new Bureau of Printing which is at last assum- 
ing definite shape after several years' tenta- 
tive discussion. Here, then, instead of outside 
the academic bounds as hitherto, the product 
of the literary activity, or a considerable part 
of it, of the professors and other university 
members addicted to writing, will be put into 
printed form ; and for the present, at least, the 
bursar will superintend the work, having al- 
ready gained experience in the conduct of a 



small printing office in East Hall, where much 
of the incidental printing of the university 
has been done. The basement of the school of 
journalism will be used as quarters for the new 
establishment. 



COMMUNICATIONS. 



A FRENCH FEMINIST OF TO-DAY.* 
(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

The novels of Madame Marcelle Tinayre have 
received little notice from American critics, but 
have aroused considerable discussion in France. 
She is hailed by the feminists as a champion of 
their cause, a fact which may give her some title 
to interest on this side of the water. At least it is 
interesting to note the trend of her theories of 
woman's rights. " The only feminism possible," 
says a reviewer of her first work, " Before Love " 
(1897), "would be that which strives to keep 
woman in the unique religion of Love." Mme. 
Tinayre seems to have accepted the views of her 
critic, for her novels are a justification and glorifi- 
cation of feminine passion. The most interesting 
of her characters are her heroines. She says she 
has " dreamed them in accordance with the ideal of 
an ancient poet, feminine body, heart of man, 
and head of angel." The reader may be inclined to 
regard them as romantic titans with a super- 
abundance of feminine body. 

Marianne, in " Before Love," demands " her 
place in the sun, and her right to love," by which 
she understands little more than the elemental 
privilege given by nature. Jacqueline Vallier in 
" The Ransom " is a frivolous young woman 
aroused by illicit love to a sense of her responsi- 
bilities as wife and mother. The reader is a bit 
startled to see adultery seriously proposed as a 
school of ethics, and, contrasting the work with 
" The Princesse de Cleves," in which the character 
of the heroine develops ^through her victory over 
passion; one is inclined to agree with Miss Repplier 
that our age is marked by a " loss of moral nerve." 
" The Storm Bird " is the author's weakest attempt. 
One critic has observed that it is the counterpart 
of " Madame Bovary," apparently because Mme. 
Tinayre treats her erring provincial heroine with 
all tenderness, while Flaubert applies the sternest 
logic to Emma Bovary. " Helle " is the story of 
the niece of a distinguished Hellenist who has edu- 
cated her according to principles of his own. His 
aim was to give to her, a woman, what the Renais- 
sance had brought to the men of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, liberation of the spirit from the chains of 
convention, social and religious. She is deeply 
read in the masterpieces of antiquity, and is thus 
led to an ideal of complete and harmonious devel- 
opment of character. She has been trained to be 
the peer and comrade of her husband, who is to be, 
as her uncle puts it, one who has known how to 
create in himself a demi-god. Introduced to Pari- 
sian society, she scandalizes the dear old ladies of 
another generation by revolting against the idea of 

* A detailed study of Mme. Tinayre is to appear shortly in 
the " Bulletin " of the University of Texas. 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



141 



effacing her personality in love. She is at last 
united to a high-minded though rather pedantic 
social reformer, whose work she shares. Very 
much a woman and perhaps the most attractive of 
the author's heroines, she is yet more a rebel than 
any of them, as her battle is for intellectual 
equality. 

Mme. Tinayre's masterpiece, " The House of the 
Sin," is not a thesis novel, though some critics 
would make it a diatribe against Christianity. It 
relates the struggle betAveen human passion and a 
fanatical Jansenism ; but the action rises naturally 
from the characters, and both sides receive fair 
treatment. Nowhere has the author succeeded in 
giving such a variety of uniformly convincing and 
well-drawn portraits. " The Amours of Francois 
Barbazanges " is a charming idyll which presents 
amid pathetic and comic incidents two clashing 
images of love, that of the so-called idealists 
(the scene is laid in the seventeenth century), and 
that of the realists " The Rebel " is the maturest 
work of the author in the literature of revolt. 
Josanne Valentin is an older sister of Marianne, 
and a relative at least of Helle; she pleads her 
cause more passionately than either. She demands 
equality with man, and freedom in both emotional 
and intellectual spheres ; but in the working out of 
the story the emphasis is on liberty in passion. A 
question similar to that of " Tess of the D'Urber- 
villes " is posed, but the conclusion is very different 
from Mr. Hardy's : " Victory remained with love 
which had not despaired, with love strong as life." 
The best of the novel is the description of humble 
quarters of Paris, with their picturesque denizens, 
and of Josanne's work as reporter for " Le Monde 
Feminin," where the author seems to be drawing 
on her own experience as a journalist. The fault 
of the book is its over-stress on the thesis; one 
feels that the characters, however living, are forced 
into subordination to it. The social order combat- 
ted by Mme. Tinayre as the universal one, is 
reversed in her novels: woman holds the strings 
and man dances to her music. Slave of his slave 
becomes his doom, and the reader cannot escape 
the impression of a decidedly abnormal state of 
society. 

The author's latest books seem to be drawing 
away from " problem " studies. "Mourning Love " 
is a collection of short stories relating the suffering 
imposed by passion in different situations. Love is 
represented as an' all-conquering force for whose 
loss there is no consolation but death. " The 
Shadow of Love " takes us to the author's native 
province, Limousin, and charming descriptions of 
this out-of-the-way region serve to lighten a dis- 
agreeable story. Mme. Tinayre is at her best in 
portraying picturesque characters and landscape; 
here Limousin gives her ample opportunity. The 
background of " The Sweetness of Living " is 
Naples; the subject is the effect of the voluptuous 
Italian sky on visitors from the north. The last 
book, " Madeleine at the Mirror," is not a novel, 
but the reveries of a young widow. It is written in 
a rich poetic style, and, best of all, portrays a 
woman's character so simply that we almost forget 
its complexity. Madeleine, not being a heroine of 



fiction, is permitted her share of sound judgment 
and some sense of humor. 

It is interesting to note that many of the author's 
ideas will seem less revolutionary in America than 
in France of to-day. We are rapidly consenting to 
the re-division of social privilege, and are giving 
woman an equal part with man ; she receives prac- 
tically the same education, and can thus enter life's 
struggle on equal terms with him. Marriage is 
more or less a partnership, in which both parties 
retain to a large extent their right of individual 
development, and in which sacrifices are divided. 
Other claims on which Mme. Tinayre insists more 
may be less acceptable. She regards passion as an 
universal and irresistible force, perhaps stronger 
in woman than in man. She comes perilously near 
demanding the application in favor of her sex of 
the " wild oats theory." Herein lies a curious con- 
tradiction in her thought. Her heroines are con- 
stantly enslaved by the very passion they demand 
freedom to gratify. It is written of the rebel her- 
self : " She is no longer Josanne Valentin, she is 
woman before man," and she returns to elemental 
instincts in the embrace of her lover. If it is all to 
end thus, why so much ado? 

Mme. Tinayre's work shows some striking points 
of resemblance to that of George Sand. In both 
are found the passionate rebel, the socialist and the 
lover of picturesque landscape with its humble toil- 
ers. It may be hoped that this new titan, like her 
predecessor, will abandon theses, choosing defi- 
nitely to present new corners of Limousin and 
above all to portray character without bias. In her 
thesis novels, to put it brutally, there is too much 
that recalls Rabelais's " Et tout pour les tripes ! " 
BENJ. M. WOODBRIDGE. 

University of Texas, Feb. 18, 1915. 



BUSKIN AND WAE. 
(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

Those who hold to the belief, urged in your pages 
recently by Mr. Charles Leonard Moore, that war 
and cultural progress are somehow inseparable are 
often fond of citing Ruskin as a conspicuous cham- 
pion of their theory. And it is true that Ruskin 
did believe that in the past war had been " the 
foundation of all the high virtues and faculties of 
men." But of modern war, of war as it is being 
waged to-day, let us hear what he has to say. (The 
passage is to be found in the lecture on War re- 
printed in " The Crown of Wild Olive.") 

" If you have to take away masses of men from 
all industrial employment, to feed them by the 
labour of others, to move them and provide them 
with destructive machines, varied daily in national 
rivalship of inventive cost; if you have to ravage 
the country which you attack, to destroy for a 
score of future years, its roads, its woods, its cities, 
and its harbours; and if, finally, having brought 
masses of men, counted by hundreds of thousands, 
face to face, you tear those masses to pieces with 
jagged shot, and leave the fragments of living crea- 
tures, countlessly beyond all help of surgery, to 
starve and parch, through days of torture, down 
into clots of clay what book of accounts shall 
record the cost of your work; what book of judg- 



142 



THE DIAL 



[ March 4 



ment sentence the guilt of it? That, I say, is mod- 
ern war, scientific war, chemical and mechanic 
war, worse even than the savage's poisoned arrow." 
When one considers the hellish perfection to 
which " chemical and mechanic " war has been 
brought since Ruskin's time, one cannot but feel 
that even that supreme master of language would 
have been at a loss for words forcible and fiery 
enough to express his abhorrence of the " insensate 
devilry " of modern war. I, for one, cannot but 
believe that he would have preferred to see all the 
great cultural treasures of the past perish like the 
manuscripts of Louvain or the painted glass of 
Rheims rather than that Europe should be devas- 
tated and tortured and impoverished and brutalized 
as is being done to-day. RALPH BBONSON . 

Wyoming, N. Y., Feb. 23, 1915. 



WHEN IS A NOVEL NOT A NOVEL? 

(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 
Having been occupied with the reviewing of 
novels for some thirty years past, I may claim a 
certain acquaintance with the subject-matter of the 
above query. A circulating library called the 
" New Fiction Library," having branches in many 
cities, publicly advertises its readiness to supply its 
customers in the following language: "Any book 
of new fiction not in stock will be secured on the 
following day." For several weeks now I have 
been asking to be supplied with Nexo's " Pelle the 
Conqueror," and have been refused. At last comes 
a letter from the New York headquarters of the 
concern, stating as the reason for refusal that 
" Pelle " is not a work of fiction. This assertion is 
not only a ridiculous falsehood, but it comes with 
comical effect from a concern which supplies its 
customers with " Jean-Christophe " and " The Re- 
volt of the Angels." A second reason adduced (as 
in the old story of the stolen kettle), is that 
" Pelle " is in two volumes, " which in itself would 
bar it from being placed in our library." But how 
about " Jean-Christophe," in three volumes ? Last 
of all, the real reason for the refusal is given: 
" Pelle is not a popular book of fiction, and would 
only be read once or twice." But this does not seem 
to be in accordance with the advertised promise, as 
above quoted. -^ ^ p 

Chicago, Feb. 20, 191?. 



DID MILTON NOD? 
(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 
In the tenth book of " Paradise Lost " there occurs 
a textual difficulty to which I have never seen atten- 
tion called. It is in the account of Satan's second 
interview with Sin and Death, and has to do with 
the cosmic locality in which the poet would have his 
reader picture the parties. At the moment of the 
meeting Satan is represented as " now returned to 
hell," 1. 346; and as being "near the foot" of 
the upright structure just completed by Sin and 
Death, 1. 348. His location, therefore, as at or 
near Hell-gate, seems doubly indicated : (1) he has 
returned from Earth to his own abode; and (2) 
he is at the foot of a structure which rises from 



Hell to a point hard by the gate of Heaven. But 
in spite of this, some lines further on, as Satan is 
closing his speech, he is evidently not at the bottom, 
but at the top of the new viaduct. On it he pro- 
poses to descend to Hell, 1. 394; on it he does 
descend to Hell-gate, 1. 414; furthermore to reach 
the terrestrial paradise Sin and Death must de- 
scend, 1. 398 ; all three of them are " near Heav- 
en's door " 1. 389. Has the poet in closing the 
scene forgotten where he began it? That seems 
incredible. Have we then just here evidence of 
inadvertence on the part of some amanuensis'? 
This also seems incredible, for there is no one word 
or phrase failure to catch which would account for 
the inconsistency. 

This passage (330ff.) is of the greater impor- 
tance because of its bearing upon the problem of 
the correct location of the head of " the new won- 
drous pontifice." Dr. Stopford A. Brooke, in his 
" Milton Primer," p. 87, makes the structure ter- 
minate at " the base " of the newly created cosmos, 
while Professor Masson and Dr. Orchard carry it 
higher, even to the summit, hard by the foot of the 
Golden Heaven-stair. The parallelism in function 
between the celestial stair and the infernal bridge 
favors Dr. Brooke's interpretation, but the passage 
before us is clearly against it. If any reader of 
THE DIAL will harmonize the data of this problem, 
he will surely place many students under obliga- 
tion. Even a conjecture should be of value. 

"W. F. WARREN. 
Brookline, Mass., Feb. 19 } 1915. 



IMPEEIAL JAPANESE POETRY. 

(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 
The late Emperor, Meiji Tenno, as he is posthu- 
mously known, and the late Empress, were both 
proficient and prolific in the production of the 
famous Japanese short poem. The present Em- 
peror and Empress seem to be following in the 
footsteps of their predecessors. The following 
translations of some of their recent poems will 
indicate how their minds are occupied at the pres- 
ent time. The first three are by the Emperor; the 
remaining two by the Empress. 

" If life, for country's sake men give, 
How shall dependent loved ones live?" 

" The fortress hard to take ! 
Alas! the children, wives, 
Set mourning for the sake 
Of those who gave their lives! " 

" As monuments sublime war trophies stand. 
Their cost? The lives of men throughout the land." 

" See! Skilled of hand and brave of heart, 
Kind women into service press, 
From homes and little ones apart, 
The soldiers' ills to heal and bless." 

" The widowed ones, how shall they spend their years? 

Their keepsakes, soldiers' letters, stained with tears! " 

I might add that the work of translation and 
versification has been done by Mr. D. Miyake, of 
the Japanese Navy, and Professor Philip Henry 
Dodge. ERNEST W. CLEMENT. 

Tokyo, Japan, Feb. 2, 1915. 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



143 



Deto Socks. 



ONE WHOM THE GODS TJOVEI>.* 



Not having a heart " dry as summer dust," 
Edward Rowland Sill was not one of those 
who are suffered to ' ' burn to the socket, ' ' but 
rather did he belong among those favorites of 
heaven to whom an early death is benign an tly 
granted. Five and forty years was his allotted 
span, and it sufficed him for such rare and 
exquisite self-expression in word and deed, in 
prose and verse and daily conduct, as will long 
be an inspiration to those qualified to appre- 
ciate what his too-short life and his too-modest 
contribution to literature stood for. Of these 
discerning few is his present biographer, Mr. 
William Belmont Parker, who is also the editor 
of his collected poems, and who, as he tells us, 
more than ten years ago, in a burst of enthu- 
siasm and admiration, entered upon this more 
important task now so happily completed. 
When half-way through his work as originally 
planned, the author came under the influence 
of that master-biographer, Leslie Stephen, and 
turned back to make his book as far as possible 
an autobiography of Sill, drawing largely 
upon the latter 's correspondence and other 
writings for the purpose. For it was a dictum 
of Stephen's that "nobody ever wrote a dull 
autobiography," and that though "the biog- 
rapher can never quite equal the autobiog- 
rapher," yet "with a sufficient supply of 
letters he may approach very closely to the 
same results." Thus, while no one can tell 
how good Mr. Parker's work as first con- 
ceived would have been, it is certain that the 
actual production, with its copious extracts 
from Sill's unpublished manuscripts, epis- 
tolary and other, gives a clear and vivid im- 
pression of what manner of human being here 
confronts us. 

"Like most American men of letters," 
the opening chapter begins, "the author of 
'Opportunity' and 'The Fool's Prayer' was a 
native of New England. ' ' Windsor, Connect- 
icut, was his birthplace; April 29, 1841, the 
date of his birth. He was a descendant of 
Presbyterian and Congregational ministers on 
his mother's side, of physicians and surgeons 
on his father's, and his ancestral tree is rich 
in Walcotts, Grants, Edwardses, Ellsworths, 
Rowlands, Allyns, and representatives of 
other good old New England families. Early 
left an orphan, Sill had no very permanent 
place of abode in all his life. An uncle 's house 
at Cuyahoga Falls in Ohio was always open to 
him. and it was there and at another uncle's 

* EDWARD ROWLAND SILL. His Life and Work. By William 
Belmont Parker. Illustrated. Boston : Houj?hton Mifflin Co. 



in Pennsylvania, and finally at Exeter, that he 
spent the years devoted to preparation for 
Yale, whence he was graduated at twenty. 
A voyage to California then followed, and half 
a dozen years of changing occupations in that 
new land, after which came marriage, a brief 
taste of theological study at the Harvard 
Divinity School, six weeks of journalism in 
New York, two years of high-school principal- 
ship and superintendency of schools at Cuya- 
hoga Falls, twelve of teaching in California, 
including nine years in the chair of English 
at the State University, and, finally, from 
1883 until his death in 1887, literary pursuits 
at Cuyahoga Falls with no daily grind of reci- 
tations and lectures. But from his college 
days to the end Sill was addicted to writing, 
with brilliant success in competition for aca- 
demic honors, biat apparently never with any 
consuming desire to see himself in print. On 
this point he said of himself in later life, in 
writing to an editor and friend : 

" I don't think other people feel the way I do 
about that. When a thing is written, they have a 
trembling hope, at least, that it is good, and any- 
how wish to have it used. But you should see the 
equanimity with which I write thing after thing 
both prose and verse and stow them away, never 
sending them anywhere, or thinking of printing any 
book of them, at present, if ever. Sometimes I do 
think I will leave a lot of stuff for some one to pick 
out a post-humorous volume from but more and 
more my sober judgment tells me that other people 
have seen or will see all that I have, and will state 
it better." 

This lack of eagerness for public fame both 
contributes to the charm he exerts over us and 
helps to account for the veil of anonymity he 
chose to throw over much of his best literary 
work. It was in the unpretentious ' ' Contribu- 
tors ' Club" of the magazine edited by his 
friend Aldrich that he most frequently ap- 
peared in his choice bits of unsigned prose, 
and it was in the same monthly periodical that 
he first came somewhat conspicuously into 
public view as a poet. Even as a poet of whose 
merit Aldrich delighted to regard himself as 
the discoverer, Sill would fain have remained 
unknown by name. He writes to the editor: 
" I like the anonymousness of the Contribu- 
tors' Club. Would you not as soon print 
poems for me unsigned ? ' ' Occasionally he was 
permitted to use a pen-name, partly to avoid 
any seeming excess of his verse in the maga- 
zine. On the subject of pseudonymity occurs 
this characteristic utterance in one of his let- 
ters to Aldrich : 

" It may be said but a man would be in danger 
of printing (or offering for print) things that he 
would have made better if his own name were to go 
with them. No, I think not. If he had a perma- 



144 



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[ March 4 



nent mask he would be more sensitive about this 
even than his own proper face, and would do his 
best for it." 

Significant of his modesty and of his un- 
willingness to bear the responsibility of any- 
thing short of the best possible in his art, is 
the fact that only one slight volume, "The 
Hermitage, and Other Poems," was given by 
him to the public ; what else we have from his 
pen in book form is of the posthumous sort 
which he wittily but not quite accurately chose 
to regard as "post-humorous." This anxious 
concern about the products of his pen appears 
again and again in his correspondence so 
often as possibly to arouse a suspicion of mock 
modesty, unjust though such a suspicion must 
be held by his admirers and it is found in 
an amusing form in a letter to Aldrich that is 
worth quoting, in part, at this point, largely 
because it shows how far the writer had 
strayed from the rigid orthodoxy of his Pres- 
byterian ancestors. He writes, under date of 
June 9, 1885 : 

" Do you want to do me a great favor? I don't 
know in the least what your proclivities (or declivi- 
ties) are in the way of religious matters, but I am 
going to assume that yours are not far away from 
mine enough to ask you, if you are naturally in 
the way of seeing manuscripts, submitted to the 
firm for publication, to look into an essay I sent 
them (with some others) entitled ' The XlXth Cen- 
tury ' along toward the end of it and purloin 
certain pages treating of the Christian Church as a 
nuisance and a fraud if it is likely, otherwise, to 
be read by some members of the firm (I don't in 
the least know who or what they are) some very 
conservative, elderly, religious, sensitive, choleric, 
old-fashioned gentleman with gold-spectacles and 
high collar, and a pew in church and gold-headed 
cane who hates George Sand and Herbert Spen- 
cer (by reputation) and loves Joseph Cook. Is 
there such a fearful catastrophe imminent as that 
such a man should read my essay and be made 
really ill by it?" 

Almost twenty years earlier the conviction 
had begun to force itself upon Sill that he 
could never be other than a non-conformist, 
that he must live his own life and think his 
own thoughts in entire independence. Hence, 
in part at least, the severing of his connection 
with the University of California, where in his 
day a free-thinker was not exactly a persona 
grata. Hence also, still earlier, his departure 
from Cambridge and his farewell to the study 
of theology. "There could be no pulpit for 
me after going through there," he says, "ex- 
cept as an independent, self -supported minis- 
ter, which of course is open to any one with a 
purse. I came reluctantly to that conclusion. 
Another person, even with my opinions in 
theology, might have judged differently. It 
is no sentimentalism with me it is simply a 



solemn conviction that a man must speak the 
truth as fast and as far as he knows it truth 
to him. I may be in error but what I 
believe is my sacred truth, and must not be 
diluted. When I get money enough to live on 
I mean to preach religion as I believe in it. 
Emerson could not preach, and now I under- 
stand why." Hence, once more, his inability, 
as a mere youth, to conduct himself as a model 
student at the hide-bound Yale College of his 
day ; and in the light of his subsequent devel- 
opment one is not surprised to find him chafing 
under meaningless restraint, breaking arbi- 
trary rules, and rusticated at the end of 
Freshman year for neglect of college exercises, 
which included perfunctory and undevotional 
chapel attendance sixteen times a week. 

Of Sill's variety and brilliancy of endow- 
ment we get a hint from the testimonies of 
classmates printed in the biography. Gov- 
ernor Baldwin, of Connecticut, finds written 
in his diary of those student days: "We 
haven't got much of a class, but Sill is some- 
what of a genius, to be sure." Before his first 
year of college was half completed this was 
the general verdict concerning him. Another 
classmate recalls that "despite his slight fig- 
ure, he had a beautiful rich bass voice; and 
he had, of course, as lyric poets must have, a 
genius for music. He could play on any in- 
strument he took a notion to, with very little 
practice. Yet I don't remember that he sang 
in the choir. Perhaps he would have been apt 
to refrain in those rebellious years, because of 
distaste for the service." It appears that at 
one time he thought seriously of training him- 
self to become an organist. That was in the 
first California period, when also he came 
within a little of adopting the stage as his 
profession, and when too he made trial of the 
law (or gave some thought thereto), of ranch- 
ing, of bank-clerking, of post-office work, for a 
season coquetted with the notion of studying 
medicine, and doubtless turned his eager and 
active mind in many other more or less prom- 
ising directions besides. As an actor or as a 
musician there is reason to believe he might 
have won distinction ; as an expounder of the 
' ' nice sharp quillets of the law ' ' he would have 
been a ludicrous misfit; and as a healer of 
the sick he would, despite his gentleness, his 
sympathy, and his tenderness, have rebelled 
against the monotony and the drudgery of the 
calling. 

As already intimated, the author has done 
well to let Sill tell most of his own story, and 
to withhold, so far as the present work is con- 
cerned, such excursions in "essay and criti- 
cism" as had been included in his first plan. 
The real Edward Rowland Sill was what his 



1915] 



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145 



lovers were waiting for, and this is what Mr. 
Parker's book, written with the sanction and 
help of Sill's relatives and friends, and well 
provided with portraits and other illustra- 
tions, now faithfully presents. 

PERCY F. BICKNELL. 



CLASSICS ox THE ART OF PLAY-MAKING.* 



When the new Hall of Philosophy at 
Columbia University was opened in 1911, two 
rooms were allotted to Professor Brander 
Matthews in which to house the dramatic 
museum it had long been his ambition to 
establish. The larger of these rooms now con- 
tains a dramatic library of several thousand 
volumes; a considerable proportion of which 
are the gift of Professor Matthews himself, 
while the smaller has been set apart for the 
exhibition of an historical series of models, 
illustrating the successive stages in the devel- 
opment of the drama from the days of the 
Greeks to the present time. Many of these 
models have already been installed; a few, 
such as the Palladian Theatre at Vicenza and 
the theatre built by Richelieu in the Palais- 
Cardinal, await a patron's bounty, all the 
models displayed being the gifts of individ- 
uals. Although still incomplete, this excep- 
tional museum contains in miniature the 
Athenian Theatre of Dionysus, a platform of 
a French mystery play, a pageant-wagon of 
an English mystery, a platform in a Tudor 
inn yard, a stage-set of the Italian comedy of 
Masks, a multiple-set at the Hotel de Bour- 
gogne and the Fortune Theatre, a fairly com- 
plete historical series with which to make 
plain to the student the development of the 
drama from the days of the Greeks to the time 
when Moliere, inspired by Italian mask com- 
edy, created the modern drama. 

No true student of the stage will gainsay 
the practicality of this museum. Indeed, as 
Professor Matthews says in his prefatory note 
to its catalogue': 

" In so far as the drama is within the limits of 
literature it can be studied in a library; but in so 
far as it is outside the limits of literature, it needs 
for its proper understanding a gallery and a 
museum, containing the graphic material which will 
help the student to reconstruct for himself the 
conditions under which the masterpieces of the 
great dramatists were originally performed the 

* PUBLICATIONS OF THE DRAMATIC MUSEUM OF COLUMBIA 
UNIVERSITY. Comprising : The New Art of Writing Plays, 
by Lope de Vega, translated by William T. Brewster, with 
Introduction by Brander Matthews : The Autobiography of a 
Play, by Bronson Howard, with Introduction by Augustus 
Thomas ; The Law of the Drama, by Ferdinand Brunetiere, 
with Introduction by Henry Arthur Jones ; Robert Louis 
Stevenson as a Dramatist, by Arthur Wing Pinero, with 
Introduction by Clayton Hamilton. New York : Dramatic 
Museum of Columbia University. 



conditions in conformity with which they were 
composed." 

With this pronouncement all those who really 
know the stage and its functions will agree; 
for although we may read dramatic master- 
pieces while sitting in a comfortable library 
chair, we should not forget that they were 
written to be seen, on the stage. In other 
words, unless we can visualize the size and 
arrangement of the theatres in which they 
were played, as well as the character of the 
audiences to which they made appeal, we can- 
not rightly estimate the work of such masters 
as Sophocles, Shakespeare, Moliere, and Gol- 
doni. As an aid to this necessary visualiza- 
tion, Professor Matthews 's museum stands 
unique. The Comedie Franchise possesses 
certain models illustrating plays it has pro- 
duced; while at the Clara-Ziegler Haus in 
Munich, there is a museum showing the his- 
tory of the German stage; yet neither of 
these chauvinistic collections, nor the Museo 
Teatrale in the Scala Theatre at Milan, shows 
the successive stages in the development of 
the drama throughout the world. 

To perform this latter function is the aim 
of the Dramatic Museum of Columbia Uni- 
versity, an institution which should right- 
fully have been called the Brander Matthews 
Museum, so entirely is it the creation of its 
founder. The Professor of Dramatic Litera- 
ture at Columbia has not been content, how- 
ever, to confine his efforts to those of the 
librarian or curator; the same reverence for 
professional stage-craft which led to the estab- 
lishment of his museum as a laboratory for 
his students having inspired the publication 
of several series of papers to be known as the 
Publications of the Dramatic Museum of 
Columbia University. The first of these, re- 
cently published by subscription in an edition 
of three hundred and thirty-three copies, con- 
sists of four neat little volumes on the art of 
play-making, comprising respectively: "The 
New Art of Making Plays," by Lope de Vega, 
translated by Professor William Tenney 
Brewster, with an introduction and notes by 
Professor Brander Matthews; "The Auto- 
biography of a Play," by Bronson Howard, 
with an introduction by Mr. Augustus 
Thomas; "The Law of the Theatre," by M. 
Ferdinand Brunetiere, translated by Mr. 
Philip M. Hayden, with an introduction by 
Mr. Henry Arthur Jones ; and ' ' Robert Louis 
Stevenson as a Dramatist," by Sir Arthur 
Wing Pinero, with an introduction and a 
bibliographical appendix by Mr. Clayton 
Hamilton. Although his name appears here 
solely as author of the introduction to one of 
these booklets. Professor Matthews is as en- 



146 



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[ March 4 



tirely the originator and editor of these pub- 
lications as he is the founder and curator of 
a dramatic museum in the catalogue of which 
he is not recorded as functioning in any 
capacity whatsoever, a self-effacement nota- 
ble in an age when the rays of the lime-light 
are sought even by college professors. 

Turning from this exceptional modesty to 
the four enlightening volumes Professor Mat- 
thews has edited, it may be said forthwith 
that here is both solid shot and canister with 
which to rout the ardent enthusiasts whose 
self-imposed task is to "uplift" the drama. 
Indeed, with the exception of M. Brunetiere, 
the authors of these papers on play-making 
may be classed as commercial dramatists, who 
believe that the function of the theatre is to 
please and not to preach. As Mr. Henry 
Arthur Jones writes the introduction to this 
single exception to Professor Matthews 's rule 
that papers on play-making should be written 
by makers of plays, the voice of the practical 
man may be said to be raised even here. 
Moreover, Mr. Jones's scintillant introduction 
quite eclipses in interest M. Brunetiere 's 
didactic holding of his pet thesis that a play 
"is the spectacle of a will striving toward a 
goal, and conscious of the means which it 
employs." In contravention of this theory, 
Mr. William Archer has insisted that a play is 
a crisis not a conflict. But Mr. Jones frames 
a law of his own. "Drama arises," he says, 
"when any person or persons in a play are 
consciously or unconsciously 'up against' 
some antagonistic person, or circumstance, or 
fortune." 

Whether a drama be a conflict, a crisis, or 
a case of "up against it," is of minor impor- 
tance, the elusive art of play-making being to 
hold the interest of an audience. To place a 
person or persons in a play "up against" 
something that will get over the footlights is 
the problem that confronts the dramatist, and 
it matters little whether that something be 
defined as a conflict or a crisis, provided it be 
novel enough to excite interest or human 
enough to inspire sympathy. Moreover, the 
test of the box-office is also the test of time, 
since a play that does not appeal to its own age 
sufficiently to gain at least a respectable hear- 
ing will not live long enough for posterity to 
become aware of its existence. 

Knowing his contempt for the closet-drama, 
one suspects Professor Matthews of having 
published these instructive papers on play- 
making in order to confound the "high- 
brows," for the voice of the successful dra- 
matist inevitably conjures up the spectre of 
'Commercialism. Listen to Lope de Vega, as 
.commercial a dramatist as ever wrote : 



" True it is that I have sometimes written in 
accordance with the art which few know; but, no 
sooner do I see coming from some other source the 
monstrosities full of painted scenes where the 
crowd congregates and the women who canonize 
this sad business, than I return to that same bar- 
barous habit, and when I have to write a comedy 
I lock in the precepts with six keys, I banish Ter- 
ence and Plautus from my study that they may 
not cry out at me; for truth, even in dumb books, 
is wont to call aloud; and I write in accordance 
with that art which they devised who aspired to the 
applause of the crowd; for since the crowd pays 
for the comedies, it is fitting to talk foolishly to it 
to satisfy its taste." 

The authorship of some two thousand or more 
plays is attributed to this same Lope de Vega. 
yet his name spells Spanish drama. As Pro- 
fessor Matthews says, in his introduction to 
Lope 's ' ' New Art of Writing Plays, " "it was 
he who made the pattern that Calderon and 
all the rest were to employ. ' ' Here is the pat- 
tern drawn by this master craftsman : 

" Do not spend sententious thoughts and witty 
sayings on family trifles, . . . But when the char- 
acter who is introduced persuades, counsels, or dis- 
suades, then there should be gravity or wit . . . 
If the king should speak, imitate as much as possi- 
ble the gravity of a king; if the sage speak, 
observe a sententious modesty ; describe lovers with 
those passions which greatly move whoever listens 
to them . . . Let him [the playwright] be on his 
guard against impossible things, for it is of the 
chiefest importance that only the likeness of truth 
should be represented . . . 

" In the first act set forth the case. In the sec- 
ond weave together the events, in such wise that 
until the middle of the third act one may hardly 
guess the outcome. Always trick expectancy; and 
hence it may come to pass that something quite far 
from what is promised may be left to the under- 
standing." 

To study further the laws of dramatic con- 
struction, except in practice, is largely futile ; 
since, in the words of the late Bronson How- 
ard, "when all the mysteries of humanity 
have been solved, the laws of dramatic con- 
struction can be codified and clearly ex- 
plained; not until then." Yet this lamented 
American has himself framed a vital law of 
construction in his edifying "Autobiography 
of a Play." "A dramatist," he holds, 
"should deal so far as possible with subjects 
of universal interest, instead of with such as 
appeal strongly to a part of the public." 
Realizing, as have all successful dramatists, 
that a stage appeal must not be made to 
"hearts here and there," but to "a thousand 
hearts at once, ' ' he reaches the logical conclu- 
sion that ' ' love of the sexes is most interesting 
to that aggregation of human hearts we call 
the audience." 



1915] 



THE DIAL, 



147 



To Lope de Vega's epitome of the art of 
play-making and Bronson Howard's sane rule 
of selection should be added Sir Arthur Wing 
Pinero's definition of strategy as "the general 
laying out of a play," and tactics as "the art 
of getting the characters on and off the stage, 
of conveying information to the audience and 
so forth." To complete this vade-mecum for 
the playwright, it is necessary to turn to La 
Critique de I'ficole des Femmes, a dramatic 
polemic written by Moliere to confound the 
"high-brows" of his day. In scorn of their 
"rules made only to embarrass the ignorant 
and deafen the rest of us," Moliere thus 
frames the one universal law, not only of the 
drama, but of every art : 

" I should like to know whether the great rule 
of all rules is not to please, and if a play which has 
attained that end has not travelled a good road? 
Can the entire public be mistaken, and is not 
each one capable of judging of the pleasure he 
receives ? " 

The drama is the most democratic as well as 
the most contemporary of the arts ; its appeal 
being made not to people of the future but to 
those of the present, not to one class but to all. 
If a play pleases the public of its own time, 
has it not, as Moliere says, travelled a good 
road ? Moreover, can the entire public be mis- 
taken? This question is answered by Sir 
Arthur Wing Pinero in his paper on ' ' Robert 
Louis Stevenson as a Dramatist." "The in- 
stinct," he says, "by which the public feels 
that one form of drama, and not another, is 
what best satisfies its intellectual and spiritual 
needs, at this period or that, is a natural and 
justified instinct. ' ' 

A dramatist may rise to a moral plane as 
high as the ideals of his public, or debase his 
talents to the limit of police toleration; but 
he cannot disregard the instinct of which Sir 
Arthur speaks, without failure as the penalty. 
It should be apparent, therefore, that if in a 
particular age this instinct is either vicious or 
crass, the public, rather than the stage, needs 
"uplifting," a 'task for the accomplishment 
of which a cohesion of all the moral elements 
in the community, rather than the ardor of 
a few zealots, is required. 

Another pertinent lesson in stage-craft is 
taught by Sir Arthur Wing Pinero in his 
analysis of the failure as a dramatist of so 
dramatic a novelist as Robert Louis Stevenson. 
The prizes of the dramatist were to Steven- 
son's thinking "out of all proportion to the 
payment of the man of letters" ; therefore the 
theatre was "a gold mine," upon which to 
keep his commercial eye. However, he failed 
to secure its ingots, because, as Sir Arthur 
says, "he played at being a playwright." 



The art of play-making, which the eminent 
dramatist just quoted so aptly defines as 
"compressing life without falsification," is 
too serious an art to play with. Stevenson 
approached the dramatic gold mine believing 
he had only to scratch the earth in order to 
disclose the ingots. These, alas! lie far be- 
neath the surface. Only by infinite patience 
and skill may they be unearthed. 

To the novelists who share Stevenson's con- 
tempt for the drama, as well as to the enthu- 
siasts engaged in elevating it, the admirable 
booklets Professor Brander Matthews has 
modestly issued in the name of his pet achieve- 
ment are recommended as pertinent reading. 
Papers on the art of acting by Talma, Coque- 
lin, William Gillette, etc., are to be added in 
the autumn to these publications of the Dra- 
matic Museum of Columbia University. That 
they may prove as illuminating as the present 
group on play-making should be the wish of 
all who have the welfare of the drama at heart. 

H. C. CHATPIELD-TAYLOR. 



EUROPEAN TRAVEL, IN THE EIGHTEENTH 
CENTURY.* 



If not quite a pioneer in the rich field of 
early European travel, Professor Mead is one 
of the first to work systematically therein. 
Miss Howard's "English Travellers of the 
Renaissance," Mr. Bates 's "Touring in 
1600," and most other detailed studies have 
dealt mainly with the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries. Babeau's "Les Voyageurs 
en France," though covering about three cen- 
turies, is limited to one country. Professor 
Mead has therefore limited himself to the 
eighteenth century, with an occasional glance 
backward and forward, and. in the nature of 
things, to those countries (France, Italy, Ger- 
many, and the Low Countries) which were 
generally included in the conventional grand 
tour. 

Foreign travel for the avowed purpose of 
education of becoming "the complete gen- 
tleman" may be said to have begun in 
Elizabethan times, and owing to the heavy 
expense involved was limited to the upper 
classes. With occasional interruptions due to 
war, the stream of Continental travel contin- 
ued, and in the eighteenth century travelling 
became, relatively, so easy that large numbers 
of young Englishmen were constantly to be 
found in the great centres of the countries 
chiefly visited. So numerous, indeed, did they 
become that it was not easy for a Briton to 

* THE GRAND TOUR IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. By 
William Edward Mead. Illustrated. Boston: Houghton Mif- 
flin Co. 



148 



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March 4 



get away from his countrymen for the pur- 
pose of acquiring the language. This, however, 
did not seriously trouble many Englishmen, 
who cared little about learning foreign lan- 
guages. The indifference of Englishmen to 
the Continental vernaculars has always been 
marked. 

It was of course a far different Europe that 
the eighteenth century tourist saw from that 
of to-day. It was the Europe of pre-Revolu- 
tionary days, before the social order had been 
transformed. France had not yet got away 
from the fatal centralizing policy of Louis 
XIV. Spain was "in full decadence." Italy 
was at the lowest ebb of her decline ; ' ' no man 
could take pride in the name of Italian." 
Germany was slowly recovering from the 
Thirty Years' "War, and was "inert and un- 
progressive, feudal in spirit and practice, and 
everywhere divided against itself. ' ' The Low 
Countries alone were on the whole free and 
prosperous; except Belgium, whose commer- 
cial expansion was blocked by Holland and 
England. 

The impression left by Professor Mead's 
chapters on Water Travel, Roads, Carriages, 
and Inns is that tourists were courageous to 
travel at all. The railways have completely 
revolutionized travel; by making it easy to 
get over the country they have vastly in- 
creased the number of travellers, and thus 
have forced an improvement in accommoda- 
tions and at least a partial change of 
heart on the part of innkeepers, who now real- 
ize how essential it is to make travellers 
comfortable. Before the advent of steam, how- 
ever, travel both by land and by water was 
"no unmixed delight." In 1787 Arthur 
Young spent fourteen hours between Dover 
and Calais. On the Continent travel by 
water was much more common than now. One 
could go from Paris to Lyons by water (ten 
days, thirty-five livres, or about $6.75) ; the 
water journey from Lyons to Avignon alone 
required three days. To avoid the Alps, many 
preferred the Mediterranean trip from Mar- 
seilles or Nice to Genoa, even with its possi- 
bility of sea-sickness and its danger of capture 
by the dreaded Barbary pirates. In Ger- 
many the Rhine, the Elbe, and the Danube 
were utilized as far as possible, and in the 
Low Countries water travel was well organ- 
ized. James Edward Smith says that the con- 
venience and pleasure of travel in Holland 
and Flanders "can hardly be conceived from 
description." 

Land travel was scarcely less difficult than 
in former times, and was vastly more tedious 
than now. French roads were better than 
Italian. Naples had practically no roads at 



all except that which led to Rome, and this 
was in winter so bad that "one ran great risk 
of being swallowed up in the mud-holes." 
German roads were notoriously bad ; improve- 
ments did not begin till 1753. In Nugent 's 
time (about 1756) post wagons made about 
eighteen miles a day. 'In Hanover, as late as 
1826, John Russell reports, scarcely outside 
the gates the wheels of the coach sank up to 
the axle-tree. 

Unless one could afford one's own vehicle, 
one travelled in the diligence a vehicle 
which grew in massiveness until those used by 
Fenimore Cooper were " as large as an ordi- 
nary load of hay, carried twenty or thirty 
passengers, and weighed five tons." Many 
preferred the post-chaise, which was more 
expensive. From Calais to Paris (thirty- two 
posts) a single post fare in 1756 cost about 
$21.75 ; two could do it for $31.50. Private 
coaches were very expensive. In Italy one 
could travel "with post-horses; with a vet- 
tura or hired coach or calash in which they 
do not change horses; and, finally, with a 
procaccio or stage-coach that undertakes to 
furnish passengers and necessary accommoda- 
tions on the road." The German post wagon 
was much more clumsy and unwieldy than the 
French, and went only about three miles an 
hour. 

The inns left much to be desired, and their 
wretched condition compelled travellers to 
take much more luggage (both linen and pro- 
visions) than is necessary to-day. Beds were 
likely to be damp and dirty ; there were only 
the most primitive sanitary arrangements. In 
Italy and Germany especially the food, except 
in the large towns, was often poor or ill 
cooked; and as Smollett remarks, a common 
prisoner in the Marshalsea or King's-Bench 
was more cleanly and commodiously lodged 
than travellers were in many places between 
Rome and Florence. 

Yet in spite of these drawbacks, the attrac- 
tions of travel proved too strong to be re- 
sisted. In the ' ' Letters Concerning the Present 
State of England" (1772) it is said that 
"where one Englishman travelled in the 
reigns of the first two Georges, ten now go on 
a grand tour." The number who travelled 
chiefly for the purpose of improving their 
minds and gaining} intelligence, however, 
does not seem to have been relatively very 
great. Few were well prepared to reap the 
maximum advantage from foreign travel. 
At the university a man "could not avoid 
picking up the rudiments of Latin and Greek 
and some bits of information about ancient 
Rome and a few other cities, but of the topog- 
raphy, the history, the government, the art, 



1915J 



THE DIAL, 



149 



the architecture, the social conditions of the 
countries he intended to visit, he was . . 
often disgracefully ignorant." Many still 
favored the plan of sending boys abroad in 
care of a tutor ; but the number of competent 
tutors was small indeed. 

Attempting some generalizations, Profes- 
sor Mead thinks that the average English 
tourist was incompetent to form a judgment 
of the people of the Continent. ' ' Perhaps the 
most striking characteristic of the ordinary 
run of English travellers was their insularity 
and their unreadiness to admit the excel- 
lence of anything that was unfamiliar." Yet 
Englishmen who chose to be popular on the 
Continent were often remarkably so. They 
"had a reputation for fair dealing, and for 
keeping their promises." 

Likewise Englishmen were unable to esti- 
mate fairly the art and architecture of the 
Middle Ages. "To many an Englishman 
Italy was interesting chiefly as a vast museum 
of antiquity which enabled him to vivify his 
recollections of the classics." Addison at 
once occurs to those familiar with his travels, 
as of this class. On such men the glories of 
mediaeval Gothic made no impression. 

The change of attitude which took place 
toward mountain scenery in the eighteenth 
century has been often commented upon. St. 
John's view, as late as 1787, is typical of 
many: 

" Far off lay the mountains of Switzerland, 
forming a most awful and tremendous amphithea- 
tre. When first I turned my glass upon them, if I 
may so express myself, and brought their terrors 
closer to my eye, I started with affright ! . . . Per- 
haps on approaching, and having them continually 
in view, they would not appear so dreadful as at 
first; but even yet at so great a distance, I could 
not behold them through a glass without terror." 
Gray was one of the first to admire mountain 
scenery, and there seem not to have been 
many who followed him, at least for a long 
time. The failure to appreciate the Alps, the 
Pyrenees, and -the Apennines was probably 
due to two things: first, men's preoccupa- 
tion with "the proper study of mankind"; 
and secondly, the difficulties experienced in 
traversing these barren and forbidding re- 
gions. As these difficulties gradually dimin- 
ished, Gray's delight in the sublimity of 
mountain scenery found an echo in many 
hearts. William Coxe wrote to his friend 
William Melmoth in August, 1776 : 

" I have now visited the sources of three great 
rivers in Switzerland, and traced their impetuous 
progress through a tract of country, in which 
nature has exhibited the grandest and most august 
of her works. But it is impossible adequately to 
describe these majestic and astonishing scenes ! In 



description they must all appear nearly the same; 
yet, in fact, every river, cataract, rock, mountain, 
precipice, are respectively distinguished by an infi- 
nite diversity of modifications, and by all the possi- 
ble forms of beauty, magnificence, sublimity, or 
horror. But these discriminating variations, though 
too visibly marked to escape even the least observ- 
ing eye, elude representation, and defy the strong- 
est powers of the pen and pencil." 

Yet with all his obtuseness and his inability 
to make the most out of his opportunities, the 
Englishman must have got more out of his 
travels than we generally give him credit for. 
We are accustomed, following Matthew Ar- 
nold and some others, to think of John Bull 
as a singularly obstinate and conservative 
person. Yet we shall have to admit that in 
Britain new ideas have made steady if slow 
progress. The most flexible of British minds 
Shakespeare, Burke, Arnold himself 
have been leaders of many. The success of 
British colonial policy in these latter days 
shows that Burke 's view has at length pre- 
vailed; and we cannot help thinking that 
something of this change of attitude is due to 
the observing British travellers who have 
penetrated to the ends of the earth. And if 
for a few years following the present war the 
English and the Germans could frankly ex- 
plore each other's country (forgetting all 
about spies), it is safe to say that there would 
never be a repetition of the crime that is now 
being perpetrated on the innocent bystanders 
of Europe. 

Professor Mead has succeeded in producing 
a volume which is both entertaining and of 
high scholarly value. Typographically the 
book leaves nothing to be desired; and the 
eleven illustrations have been well chosen. 
We dislike to have all the notes relegated to 
the back; nothing of importance is gained, 
and hunting for the notes where they are 
wastes too much time. There is an adequate 
bibliographical note (supplementing Pinker- 
ton) , and a good index. 

CLARK S. NORTHUP. 



CHARACTER-READING THROUGH THE 
FEATURES.* 



Since Aristotle's day, at least, men have 
diligently searched for a key with which to let 
themselves into the inner life of their fellows ; 
and no subject of study seems to have been so 
fascinating and at the same time so elusive as 
this one. The ancients sought to solve the 
great mystery by comparing the features of 
man with those of animals,' on the principle 
that likeness in features denoted similarity in 

* CHARACTER READING THROUGH ANALYSIS OF THE FEATURES. 
By Gerald Elton Fosbrooke. Illustrated by Carl Bohnen. 
New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 



150 



THE DIAL 



[ March 4 



intellectual and temperamental traits. They 
assumed, for instance, that a man with a 
leonine brow must have a lion's characteris- 
tics, while a man with a canine brow must 
have the traits of a dog. This mode of ap- 
proach to the secrets of character has been the 
favorite one, though not the only one, all the 
way down to our own day. Mr. Fosbrooke's 
"Character Reading through Analysis of the 
Features" is based in part on this conception, 
and in part on the doctrine that a particular 
formation of features denotes a special sort of 
intellect and type of character. But the au- 
thor does not depend entirely on analysis of 
the features in a strictly anatomical sense. At 
times he bases his "reading" on the expres- 
sion of the features, rather than on their form, 
size, and relation. The frontispiece is a pic- 
ture of a woman, and bears the title, ' ' Con- 
centration." It is evident that the author 
intended the reader to get the idea of concen- 
tration from the expression of the woman's 
face, the lines of strain in the brow and 
about the eye, and from the attitude of her 
body ; and not from the size and shape of her 
nose, ears, or chin, the color of her eyes and 
hair, the construction of her lips, or any other 
anatomical characteristic. 

The sketches for the various types of each 
feature are unusually good. The impression 
which a hasty turning of the leaves makes 
upon one is that there will be some interesting 
secrets revealed in this book, and that stu- 
dents of human nature will get suggestions 
from it which they can utilize in classifying 
people. But the critical reader will be disap- 
pointed when he comes upon Plate I., for this 
is a reproduction of the conventional phreno- 
logical chart in which all the varied faculties 
of the soul are localized in the left hemisphere 
of the brain. What the right hemisphere is 
used for is a mystery about as profound as 
the other mysteries discussed in the book. 
A dozen or so of the faculties, such as "lan- 
guage," "form," "size," "weight," "color," 
"order," and "calculation," are located over 
the left frontal sinus and below the left eye. 
The author says that the "bump" theory in 
character-reading was exploded years ago; 
and yet he endorses this phrenological chart, 
and relies upon it in his analysis of concrete 
cases in the latter part of the book. It seems 
extraordinary that in the light of modern 
research on the brain anyone should locate 
"ideality," "sublimity," "hope," " spiritu- 
ality," "veneration," and "conscientious- 
ness" in the upper middle region of the left 
hemisphere. It has been shown literally hun- 
dreds of times that this is the general motor 
region which regulates the movements of the 



dextral half of the body. If one should be 
injured in the left hemisphere where the 
chart localizes ' ' spirituality, ' ' he would be 
paralyzed in the right leg. He probably 
would not have any more or any less spiritu- 
ality than he had before. If one should ex- 
pose this area and stimulate it, the right leg 
of the subject would respond; but there 
would be no spiritual demonstration whatever. 
But the most amazing feature of this phreno- 
logical chart is the location of the language 
faculty underneath the left eye. Modern 
research has shown that the vocal language 
centre is in the middle motor region of the 
left hemisphere. The visual language centre 
is in the occipital lobe. The graphic language 
centre is differentiated out of the general 
right-hand centre in the left hemisphere, and 
the auditory language centre is in the audi- 
tory region of the brain. How anyone in 
these times can continue to befuddle the lay- 
man by pretending to read linguistic ability 
from an examination of the topography of the 
region below the left eye is inconceivable. 

There are many conflicting statements in 
the book, although no more than in any 
book which attempts to delineate character on 
a physiognomical basis. One may read that a 
certain face shows in the forehead "reflective 
and perceptive formation, ability to reason 
from cause to effect, good comparative powers, 
natural knowledge of human nature, construc- 
tive and executive ability, reverence, firmness, 
and a love of approbation, a desire to learn, 
power of judgment as to size and weight, 
mental order well developed resulting in a 
good memory. Eyebrows show indications of 
irritability, the eye shows observation, pene- 
tration, and intellect. Upper eyelids show 
selfishness, self will, and self satisfaction. ' ' 

What little progress psychology has made 
in trying to differentiate the characteristics 
and powers of individuals has led to the view 
that the strongly reflective type of person, one 
who has marked ability in reasoning from 
cause to effect, is likely to be lacking in execu- 
tive ability. Again, the psychologist has been 
able to show that there are as many kinds of 
memory as there are kinds of perceptions and 
ideas, and to say that the forehead shows that 
one has a good memory is indeed humorous. 
Often in this book one reads that the forehead 
shows lack of concentration, while the nose 
shows just the opposite, the lips something 
else, and the chin still something different. 
What kind of a theory of mind can a person 
have who believes that mental characteristics 
are revealed in anatomical traits, when differ- 
ent traits suggest diametrically opposite 
abilities * 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



151 



If those who are engaged in an attempt to 
develop a science of character-reading would 
take their cue from Darwin, they might in 
time give us something which would be of 
service ; but when they base their ' ' readings ' ' 
upon phrenology and physiognomy, they are 
certain to lead their followers into blind 
alleys. Darwin showed that the fundamental 
emotions are revealed in characteristic muscu- 
lar movements and adaptations of the body as 
a whole, and of the more mobile parts of the 
face, hands, etc. These muscular activities 
were once of service in the struggle for exist- 
ence, and they have persisted even down 
through human life in more or less modified 
and complicated forms. Darwin also showed 
that certain of the very general intellectual 
traits, such as attentiveness and concentra- 
tion, are revealed in specific muscular adapta- 
tions; and the frontispiece in Mr. Fosbrooke's 
volume illustrates this very well. But no man 
has ever shown any connection whatever be- 
tween the expression of the eyes, the lips, etc., 
and particular types of thinking, as in phys- 
ics, chemistry, psychology, philosophy, his- 
tory, etc. And still there are many persons 
who imagine that every intellectual activity is 
revealed in some kind of characteristic tension 
or adaptation of some or all of the features. 

A large proportion of American people 
have apparently not yet grown out of their 
superstitious feeling about the reading of 
character. They still think that someone has 
discovered the connection between every 
"attribute of the soul" and the construction 
and expression of the features. Superstitious 
people of this sort read the analyses of fea- 
tures such as appear in books like the one 
under review, in which a great multitude of 
the most general activities, abilities, and 
attributes are enumerated ; and they will feel 
that they are in the presence of a great revela- 
tion of subtle truth, when they are really only 
being plunged deeper and deeper into confu- 
sion. The author is probably not under as 
great an illusion as his readers will be, for in 
his chapters on "How to Read Faces" and 
"The Knowledge of Physiognomy and Its 
Uses" he does not make a definite statement 
applying his own principles, though he does 
this for the concrete types presented in the 
last chapters of the book. But how can any- 
one test the accuracy of his analyses when 
they concern only imaginary persons designed 
by the artist? 

It may be added that the artist has done 
his work admirably, and that the book is at- 
tractively made on the physical side. 

M. V. O'SHEA. 



A SKETCH OF THE ENGLISH DRAMA.* 



Professor Schelling is so well known as an 
authority on Elizabethan drama that one ap- 
proaches his treatment of that field with 
assurance, knowing that even if it were noth- 
ing more than a condensation of his large 
work on the subject it would be well worth 
while. The chief question concerns his treat- 
ment of the later periods, in which the whole 
subject of English drama is so much less at- 
tractive, and has been so much less put in 
order by scholarship, than in its greatest age. 
Here, also, it may be said at once, there is 
little but praise called forth either by Profes- 
sor Schelling 's judgments in themselves or by 
his frank but urbane manner of pronouncing 
them. In respect to the matter of proportion, 
however, some greater doubt may be felt. Ad- 
mitting the immensely preponderant interest 
of the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods, the 
dreariness of English drama in the neo- 
classical age, and the still tender youth of the 
fresh growth of the form in our own time, yet 
to give substantially two hundred pages out 
of 330 to the matter from Lyly to Davenant, 
and but forty to the entire eighteenth cen- 
tury, with some sixteen for the nineteenth, is 
open to question. The really large product 
of the eighteenth century in serious literary 
drama, while of course of no corresponding 
intrinsic excellence, leads the student to de- 
sire some careful consideration of it, if for no 
other reason than to explain its limitations. 

The great value of the important portion of 
the book, that dealing with what may be called 
Professor Schelling 's own period, is the topi- 
cal analysis of the rich material it affords, 
according to which the several types, such as 
romantic comedy, the "drama of everyday 
life," and the like, are separately accounted 
for with brevity and sureness. This is the 
method of the author's large work, "Eliza- 
bethan Drama," and in that instance it has 
sometimes been found troublesome because of 
the effect in separating rather widely matters 
chronologically akin; but in a book of the 
present compass there can be little question 
of its usefulness. And the writer has not 
permitted himself, even where so great con- 
densation was demanded, to make his chapters 
mere lists and summaries, without distinction 
and individuality of style. On the contrary 
his agreeable personality is almost always 
present. Witness such an obiter dictum as 
this: 

" In our own time the example of Everyman has 
begotten a progeny of contemporary plays, and 
created, even on the popular stage of England and 

* ENGLISH DRAMA. By Felix E. Schelling. " Channels of 
English Literature." New York: E. P. Dutton & Co. 



152 



THE DIAL 



March 4 



America, a wholesome diversion from the dismal 
problems and trivial improbabilities that for the 
most part rule there." 

Or this : 

" The pathos of Shylock is totally of 19th cen- 
tury manufacture, and as absurd as it is gratuitous. 
It is referable, like our modern shudder at the 
robust punishment meted out to the Jew, to our 
emasculated contemporary sentimentality that hab- 
itually meddles with clumsy hand to interpose 
between human acts of folly and criminality and 
their logical consequences." 
Another fine passage is on the relation be- 
tween Ford and that modern romanticism 
whose faith is "in the divine guidance of 
passion ' ' ; but there is the less need to quote 
this because it is found in substantially the 
same form in the earlier and larger work. 

Readers familiar with Professor Schelling's 
criticism will be prepared to guard themselves 
unless they be of the same school against 
his disposition to teach that Shakespeare 
could do no wrong. This is evidently not due 
to mere traditionalism, but to a truly devout 
and one must admit an intelligent faith 
in the methods of the great master 's art. Yet 
it sometimes leads to results dubious at best. 
If Professor Schelling, for instance, finds the 
conclusion of "Measure for Measure" ethi- 
cally satisfying (see page 100), he differs not 
only from Coleridge, who called it "a hate- 
ful work," but surely from very many of us. 
In ' ' Othello ' ' he seems to find a certain poetic 
justice of the old-fashioned sort (page 133), 
which again is at least questionable. And 
once more he refuses assent (page 186) to that 
view of Shakespeare's latest plays which 
recognizes a certain falling off in dramatic 
power, though this may now fairly be called 
the orthodox view, and to the present writer 
seems indisputable. 

The bibliographical material in this volume 
is by no means so rich as in the author's sim- 
ilar volume on the Lyric, in the corresponding 
American series; but this is due to no fault 
of his, but to the plan of the general editors. 
Despite this, he has managed to include, in a 
number of valuable footnotes, apparatus sure 
to be very useful to the serious reader. The 
index is of the wholly mechanical and almost 
wholly useless sort ; but this again is obviously 
the fault of the publishers. Nor is the proof- 
reading impeccable, though better than in 
Mr. Rhys's volume in the same series. Par- 
ticularly distressing is the punctuation, 
whether due to unusual theories on the part 
of author or printer one cannot say. 

When all is said of such details as these, 
whereon we critics thrive, this book remains a 
really notable achievement in the packing into 
small compass, by methods at once scholarly 



and humane, of much riches. Few living men 
doubtless no one else in America could 
have done this special task so well. And it 
may be observed that while certain of these 
type-subjects the lyric for instance, are 
rather ill adapted to consecutive historical 
treatment, in the manner of the present series, 
the drama is of just the opposite character. 
It thrives in some sense as an organism, 
rather than in isolated individuals. The 
study of causes, effects, and quasi-biological 
relations, is nowhere more significant. It 
would be well if we could have, one day, a 
new edition of this volume, including a study 
of the recent development of English drama 
made with the same care which has been be- 
stowed on the golden age of its youth. 

RAYMOND M. ALDEN. 



BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS. 



Lincoln the Believing that ' ' we have had no 
apostle of life written of Abraham Lin- 

democracy. -, ,-, . , , , 

coin worthy of that great man, 
Miss Rose Strunsky courageously essays the 
task of worthily picturing to us the veritable 
Lincoln, the man of the people, "the apostle 
of true democracy," and of placing in a new 
and true historical perspective both the man 
and his time. "While it is beyond dispute that 
Lincoln is so great a man, so noble a figure in 
history, and from manifold points of view so 
attractive a personality, that we can hardly 
have too many faithful and well-written ac- 
counts of his life, it is also not to be denied 
that already more than one able pen has 
traced without serious distortion the features 
of this perennially interesting man and shown 
with some clearness his abiding significance in 
our national history. Although Miss Strun- 
sky declares that "the truth is we have not 
been taught how to tell of his life," many of 
us were of the impression that no ignoble 
attempt to achieve that end was to be found 
in the ten volumes of Nicolay and Hay 's great 
work, as well as in such less elaborate under- 
takings as Miss Tarbell's careful book, Mr. 
William E. Curtis 's account of "The True 
Abraham Lincoln," and, by no means least of 
all, the late Francis Fisher Browne's capti- 
vating volume, "The Every-Day Life of 
Abraham Lincoln." What Miss Strunsky 
would lay emphasis on, however and it is 
an aspect of the subject not to be overlooked 
is the moulding influence of his environ- 
ment and his time in the production of the 
leader demanded at that particular period 
and in those peculiar circumstances. "We 
cannot tell his life by speaking of his life 
alone," she truly says. "We were looking for 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



153 



our old-time hero of the sagas, and here came 
along one who made the people hero," she 
further tells us, and again: "We speak of 
one who was no more or less than the execu- 
tive and administrator of the will of the peo- 
ple. Whatever were the ideals and desires and 
faults of the common people of his day were 
the ideals and desires and faults of Abraham 
Lincoln." This is paring down his native 
genius and force, his distinct individuality, 
rather unduly, and is making of Lincoln an 
opportunist and a time-server instead of a 
leader and the champion of a cause. The 
writer makes not slavery but "property in 
land" the real cause of the Civil War. Yet 
the southern plantation system would have 
been impossible without slavery, and thus the 
latter must still bear the responsibility com- 
monly ascribed to it. Speaking of what the 
present-day American is striving for, the au- 
thor closes her book with this reading of the 
signs of the times: "Behind the aegis of 
Lincoln he is advancing towards the new order 
of social control small capitalistic and 
closely-knit together." Is it so certain that 
the day of large industrial and financial 
operations is near its sunset? The book, in- 
telligently planned, agreeably written, and 
provided with half a dozen appropriate illus- 
trations, is a welcome though hardly an 
epoch-making addition to the literature of its 
inexhaustibly fertile theme. (Macmillan.) 



Humors of peculiarities of the Scottish 

the Scottish character show themselves no- 
where more unmistakably than 
in the clash of wits that takes place in a Scot- 
tish court of law. Hence the fund of amusing 
anecdote and character-sketch that such a 
book as "Some Old Scots Judges" (Button), 
by Mr. W. Forbes Gray, is likely to contain. 
It is not a work of laborious biographical re- 
search, but rather an entertaining compilation 
from such sources as Cockburn's "Memorials 
of his Time," Ramsay's "Scotland and Scots- 
men," Kay's "Edinburgh Portraits," and 
Knight's "Monboddo and his Contempora- 
ries," with such editorial touches as serve to 
set the several characters in their proper per- 
spective and give a sufficient unity and pro- 
portion to the volume. Here we have, for 
instance, the bluff, unpolished Lord Braxfield 
airing his broad humor and his broader dia- 
lect on the judicial bench. ' ' Hae ye ony coon- 
sel, man?" he asks of Maurice Margorot, 
brought before him on a charge of sedition. 
' ' No, ' ' was the laconic answer. ' ' Dae ye want 
to hae ony appointit?" he continues. "No," 
is the sarcastic rejoinder, "I only want an 
interpreter to make me understand what your 



lordship says." It was the same incorrigible 
Caledonian who said of young Francis Jeffrey, 
fresh from Oxford and beginning his profes- 
sional practice at the Scottish bar, ' ' The laddie 
has clean tint his Scotch and fund nae En- 
glish." To Jeffrey himself, in due time 
raised to the bench, the author devotes one of 
his most readable chapters. It is significant 
to find the man who, as first editor of the 
"Edinburgh Review," misjudged the poetic 
genius of others, equally at fault in estimating 
his own endowment as a writer of imperish- 
able verse. "I feel," he wrote to his sister, 
"I shall never be a great man unless it be as 
a poet. ' ' In addition to the celebrities already 
named, the book has sketches of Lords Kames, 
Monboddo, Gardenstone, Hailes, Eskgrove, 
Balmuto, Newton, Hermand, Eldin, and Cock- 
burn all of the later eighteenth and earlier 
nineteenth centuries. Portraits of all are pro- 
vided, and an unusually full index closes the 
book, which may be confidently commended to 
the lover of biographical anecdote and well- 
considered terse characterization. 



A study 
of musical 
psychology. 



In his clearly written and en- 
tertaining book, "The Musical 
Faculty" (Macmillan Co.). Mr. 
William Wallace endeavors to consider, in its 
abstractness as a part of the musician's inner 
equipment, the conscious activity which pro- 
duces music. The noun in the title indicates 
the point of view from which the book is writ- 
ten. We had supposed that this was a phase 
of speculation somewhat overworn. The iso- 
lating of a section of the consciousness, and 
the elaborate treatment of this abstraction, 
leads generally to rather shadowy results. 
We are inclined to believe that there is no such 
thing as a musical faculty ; but that the whole 
man, his entire development and achievement, 
all that he is and knows, go to the produc- 
tion of his aim, in this case, an expres- 
sion in sound of some profound insight or 
some overmastering experience. Nevertheless, 
this is a book full of interesting if not new 
analyses of various aspects of musical phe- 
nomena. Mr. Wallace maintains that the ear- 
lier composers had no individual development ; 
they showed no growth in their compositions ; 
their later works, like their earlier ones, were 
built upon the same model, and showed the 
same tonal characteristics. With Beethoven 
the break with the old was made; he aban- 
doned his forerunners, and set sail upon the 
unfathomed sea on which the argosies of the 
bold musicians of to-day are navigating, 
bound for ports never dreamed of before. The 
question appears in every art form to-day, and 
yet the orthodox sonata in Beethoven 's hands 



154 



THE DIAL 



[ March 4 



was the medium of utterance for ideas not sur- 
passed by any of his successors. Mr. Wallace 
analyzes the intellectual equipment of the 
"wonder child" who seems to know every- 
thing in music when wholly immature in all 
other directions. He concludes that there is 
something occult here which as yet entirely 
exceeds our understanding. He describes the 
nervous apparatus at the basis of music; he 
deals with the mental hearing of music, as in 
the case of a deaf musician ; the extraordinary 
power of inhibition or concentration required 
of the musician; the character of musical 
memory ; and the vast command of multitudi- 
nous resources demanded of the modern leader 
of the orchestra. He discusses at length the 
problem of musical heredity, and has small 
respect for the theories usually advanced on 
the subject. He considers the great musician 
as a representative person at the highest point 
of human development, and combats the no- 
tion that the so-called "genius" invariably 
possesses a diseased consciousness and is al- 
ways an abnormality. The book is provided 
with a useful bibliography, a satisfactory in- 
dex, and contains a great deal of material that 
is valuable. 

A score of great names are 
. selected by Professor Edwin 

"Watts Chubb, in his "Masters 
of English Literature" (McClurg), to repre- 
sent seven of the eight periods into which he 
conveniently divides that literature. Those 
periods are: the Anglo-Saxon or Early En- 
glish, the Middle English, the Elizabethan, 
the Puritan, the Restoration, the Age of 
Classicism, the Age of Romanticism, and the 
Victorian Age. The Anglo-Saxon period he 
leaves unrepresented, for obvious reasons, in 
a popular treatise such as he has prepared; 
to illustrate the others we have Chaucer, 
Shakespeare (whose name Professor Chubb 
prefers to write in almost its briefest possible 
form), Milton, Dryden, Swift, Pope, Johnson, 
Burns, Byron, Shelley, Keats, Wordsworth, 
Scott, Dickens, Thackeray, George Eliot, Car- 
lyle, Ruskin, Tennyson, and Browning. A 
brief biographical sketch and a generously 
appreciative rather than severely critical 
account of his works are given under each 
writer's name, the whole being preceded by a 
brief Preface and an introductory outline of 
English literature as divided into the fore- 
going periods, and interspersed with frequent 
short quoted passages, while bibliographical 
references at the end of each chapter point 
the student to more extended sources of in- 
formation. George Eliot, the one woman 
writer on the list, has a compliment paid to 
her apophthegmatic quality which is not paid 



even to Johnson or Carlyle; that is, a selec- 
tion of pithy sayings beginning with, 
"Blessed is the man who, having nothing to 
say, refrains from calling attention to the 
fact" is made from her books and ap- 
pended to the section headed by her name. 
In his opening paragraph the scholarly author 
allows himself a little indulgence in what 
seems not exactly like scholarly restraint, the 
scholar's preference for understatement, when 
he says that "one could collect several hun- 
dred definitions of literature or religion." It 
would be a task for most of us to collect a 
dozen of each. What one likes most in this 
attractive book from an ardent lover of "the 
best that has been said and thought in the 
world" is the contagion of enthusiasm for 
that "best" which its pages spread. 



Mr. Hubert Howe Bancroft's 
fheAzt d ecl. "History of Mexico" (Bancroft 

Co.) is a revision, with exten- 
sion to the summer of 1914, of his work pub- 
lished twenty-eight years ago, "A Popular 
History of the Mexican People." The im- 
penetrable obscurity enveloping the origin and 
early history of the Mexican aborigines is 
acknowledged at the outset by this sixty-years 
student of the subject, and he claims little 
that is new for his opening section on the pre- 
Spanish period of Mexican history. The re- 
maining five sections of the work deal with the 
Spanish conquest, the viceregal or colonial 
period, the war for independence, the period 
of national existence to the downfall of Maxi- 
milian, and the later course of events to the 
abdication of Huerta, with a concluding chap- 
ter on the country's general conditions and 
natural resources. Not wanting in contemp- 
tuous sarcasm is the historian's treatment of 
recent American policy toward Mexico, but he 
formulates no alternative course as a remedy 
for existing ills, though he does say toward 
the close : ' ' Out of the predicament there ap- 
pears for the United States one of two courses : 
open, inglorious retreat, or conquest, protec- 
tion, and dismemberment." The latter mode 
of cure, however, he hardly seems to favor 
when he says, a little earlier : ' ' Three special 
years of infamous treatment they had had at 
the hands of their own countrymen, and now 
the foreign invader is at their door to bring 
them happiness in the form of thirty years 
more of war and bloodshed, for without this 
and more the promised pacification will never 
come to pass." It would have added to the 
book's value as a handy work of reference, and 
would have made its substance easier of mas- 
tery, if dates had been given in the table of 
contents, or in the chapter-headings or page- 



1915] 



THE DIAL, 



headings, or occasionally in the margin 
year dates, we mean, as some avoidable uncer- 
tainty arises from too frequent mention of 
months and days of the month in the text, 
with no year at the top of the page or else- 
where for ready reference. This fault, it 
should be added, is partly corrected by the 
appending of a "chronological table of the 
rulers of Mexico, and dates upon which they 
assumed office." Maps and illustrations 
abound, and in general the work is very ser- 
viceable and also agreeably readable. 



impressions ^ selection of M. Pierre Loti's 
of things out of slighter sketches, of various 
dates, appears in excellent trans- 
lation under the title "On Life's By-ways" 
(Macmillan). The book presents in pleasing 
form the French naval officer's impressions of 
things seen in different parts of the world to 
which ' ' the exigencies of a seafaring life, ' ' as 
he expresses it, have at various times called 
him, together with a brief chapter on Alphonse 
Daudet as man and friend, and another on 
Michelet's book, "The Sea." With exquisite 
art the gifted Frenchman makes one expe- 
rience with him the varied and novel sensa- 
tions evoked by varied and novel sights and 
sounds in divers quarters of the globe in 
Senegal, on Easter Island, in the Basque coun- 
try, in Madrid, and under the shadow of the 
great Sphinx. Of unusual interest to an 
American are the pages written at the Spanish 
capital soon after the outbreak of our war for 
the liberation of Cuba, or, as this sympathizer 
with Spain phrases it, in "the early days of 
the American aggression." The charges of 
perfidy and atrocity there brought against us 
bear an interesting likeness to the charges now 
so vehemently urged against one or another of 
the belligerent nations by the opposite side. 
Warmly espousing the cause of his hospitable 
entertainers, the writer paints a touching pic- 
ture of the sad-eyed Queen Regent in those 
distressing days. Now and then, through the 
impressionism of these vividly descriptive 
chapters, one gets a glimpse of the author's 
philosophy of life, a philosophy not always so 
admirable as the style in which it is clothed. 
After witnessing, with proper loathing, the 
abhorrent spectacle of a Spanish bull-fight, 
the writer thus lightly dispels the shameful 
vision : ' ' Then, remembering that only what 
constitutes physical beauty, the charm and 
delight of the eye, does not prove deceptive, 
I turned my gaze away from the arena and 
looked up at the beautiful senora, dressed in 
light blue, and wearing on her head a white 
mantilla and in her breast a bunch of tea 
roses." A description of the barren dreari- 



ness of Easter Island, taken from a notebook 
of early youth, but subjected to some needed 
revision, is the most remarkably arresting 
piece of writing in the book. It alone would 
justify the volume's existence. The compe- 
tent translator of these well-selected sketches 
is Mr. Fred Rothwell, who also contributes a 
finely appreciative preface. 



Africa's largest island is a thou- 
in Madagascar, sand miles long, three hundred 

and more broad, and contains 
230,000 square miles somewhat larger than 
all the Atlantic States north of the Carolina 
line. ' ' A Naturalist in Madagascar : A Rec- 
ord of Observation, Experiences, and Impres- 
sions Made during a Period of over Fifty 
Years' Intimate Association with the Natives 
and Study of the Animal and Vegetable Life 
of the Island" (Lippincott) contains this in- 
formation, and a great deal more. It is the 
work of the Rev. James Sibree, F.R.G.S., a 
missionary who has written extensively about 
his theatre of operations. The book is in- 
tended rather to be enjoyed than to be studied, 
and is made up of informal accounts of a num- 
ber of journeys made in the island. Precise 
scientific terms are little insisted upon, native 
names are given wherever possible, numerous 
reproduced photographs heighten the interest 
of the text, and result in a substantial octavo 
packed with knowledge imparted cheerfully. 
As the principal haunt of the interesting 
lemurs and of most of the chameleons, with 
a fauna and flora sufficiently distinct from 
that of the mainland to heighten investiga- 
tion, as well as being the home of several sorts 
of humankind, apparently compounded in 
various degrees of Melanesians and Negroes, 
the island is abundantly worth the time and 
space here devoted to it, and is rapidly assum- 
ing importance since its conquest by the 
French nearly twenty years ago. Told as it 
is in an intimate and gossiping manner, the 
volume makes excellent reading, and conveys 
the idea that the author has led a long, happy, 
and interesting life, crowded with strenuous 
duties cheerfully performed. 



. . In Dr. W. S. Bainbridge's "The 

An unsolved , ,, . .,, . 

problem in Cancer Problem (Macmillan) 

modern medicine. Qf 



greategt menaces o f 

human life is dealt with in a competent man- 
ner. Medical research in ever-increasing vol- 
ume is being directed to the solution of this 
problem ; but it remains a problem as yet un- 
solved, both as to the cause of cancer and to 
any effective cure. The less technical conclu- 
sions thus far arrived at indicate that inheri- 
tance of cancer holds no special element of 



THE DIAL 



[ March 4 



alarm, that the contagiousness or infectious- 
ness of cancer is far from proved, that danger 
of its accidental acquirement is slight, and 
that care and attention to diet and hygienic 
surroundings are of utmost importance; that 
cancer is local in its beginning, and when 
accessible it may in its beginning be removed 
so perfectly by radical surgical operation that 
the chances are overwhelmingly in favor of its 
non-recurrence. The book is abundantly illus- 
trated, has an extensive bibliography, and 
holds a mine of technical information on the 
theories as to the cause of cancer, the course of 
the various types of the disease, and the 
various methods of treatment and so-called 
"cures." There is also a plea for scientific) 
statistics and a campaign of public education 
to protect sufferers from the dread disease by 
prompt surgical treatment. We note the 
omission of Boveri 's very important contribu- 
tion (possibly too recent for inclusion) to the 
etiology of cancer derived from the study of 
abnormal cell divisions. Dr. Bainbridge's vol- 
ume is a standard reference work, for both the 
practitioner and the patient, concerning all 
the more general relations of this paramount 
medical problem. 



The bible of 
Renaissance 
architects. 



Professor Morris Hickey Mor- 
gan's posthumous translation of 
Vitruvius (Harvard University 
Press) hardly calls for comment on the origi- 
nalthe bible of the architects of the 
Renaissance, which still profoundly influ- 
ences our classical architecture. Besides sev- 
eral score of Latin editions and translations 
into foreign languages, there have been three 
previous translations into English, those of 
Newton, 1791, of Wilkins, 1813 (three books 
only), and of Gwilt, 1826. None of these, 
naturally, can show the ripeness of classical 
scholarship or the benefits of modern archseo- 
logical research which the present version 
enjoys through Professor Morgan, through 
the editor (Professor A. A. Howard), and 
through Professor Warren, who has prepared 
the illustrations. These advantages, together 
with the picturesque and characteristic En- 
glish in which Professor Morgan has managed 
to preserve the flavor of the original, make it 
doubtless the definitive translation. The illus- 
trations show a comparison of the prescrip- 
tions of Vitruvius with actual classic exam- 
ples, usually those which correspond most 
nearly to them. The notes which Professor 
Morgan had intended, both textual and ex- 
planatory, he did not live to supply, but the 
translation and illustrations by themselves are 
sufficient to be of very great interest both to 
architects and to scholars. 



NOTES. 



Mr. Kudyard Kipling's articles on " The New 
Army in Training " are to be republished as a 
booklet. 

Mr. Jethro Bithell has written a volume on " Con- 
temporary Belgian Literature " which will be pub- 
lished this spring. 

Miss Constance Smedley is bringing out a new 
novel with Messrs. Putnam this spring entitled 
" On the Fighting Line." 

A new volume by Mr. Joseph Conrad, containing 
three stories, will be published shortly. The tales 
include " The Planter of Malata," " The Partner," 
and " The Inn of the Two Witches." 

Mrs. Payne Erskine's new story of the mountain 
people of North Carolina will be called "A Girl of 
the Blue Ridge." It will come from the press of 
Messrs. Little, Brown & Co. before long. 

" The Origins and Destiny of Imperial Britain 
and Nineteenth Century Europe," by the late J. A. 
Cramb, author of " Germany and England," is 
promised for early publication by Messrs. E. P. 
Button & Co. 

A new volume of essays on art entitled " Form 
and Colour," by Mr. Lisle March Phillipps (whose 
important work on "Art and Environment " was 
reviewed in our previous issue), will be issued dur- 
ing the spring. 

Still another book on the Shakespeare-Bacon 
question is promised in Mr. James Phinney Bax- 
ter's historical and critical study, " The Greatest of 
Literary Problems," which the Houghton Mifflin 
Co. will publish. 

Rambling essays on the pleasures of spring walks 
and of whimsical hobbies, written by Mr. Charles 
S. Brooks and entitled " Journeys to Bagdad," will 
appear next month with the imprint of the Yale 
University Press. 

A second series of lectures on " Germany in the 
Nineteenth Century," edited by Professor C. H. 
Herford with a prefatory note by Professor T. F. 
Tout, will be published immediately by Messrs. 
Longmans, Green & Co. 

The first biography to appear in English of Mr. 
Rabindranath Tagore has been written by Basanta 
Koomar Roy, a friend of the Bengali poet and 
philosopher, and is promised for early publication 
by Messrs. Dodd, Mead & Co. 

A new edition of the poems of M. Emile Ver- 
haeren, translated by Miss Alma Strettel, is prom- 
ised by the John Lane Co. The biographical 
introduction has been brought up to date, and 
recent work of the poet has been added. 

Several letters written by the late John Muir are 
now in the hands of his publishers, Messrs. Hough- 
ton Mifflin Co., and will be brought out some time 
during the spring. Mr. Muir left manuscript mate- 
rial, practically completed, for an important book 
on Alaska. 

Mr. George Agnew Chamberlain, United States 
Consul at Lourenco Marquez, Portuguese East 
Africa, has ready a new story, " Through Stained 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



157 



Glass," which the Century Co. will issue this month. 
His first novel, " Home/' was published about a 
year and a half ago. 

Mr. Arthur Waugh has a little volume of essays 
in the press, under the title of " Reticence in Lit- 
erature." The essays include a series of papers 
upon the leading " movements " in Victorian 
poetry, and seven short " sketches for portraits," 
ranging from Crashaw to George Gissing. 

A collection of Cowley's " Essays and Other 
Prose Writings," edited by Dr. Alfred B. Gough, 
with a biographical and critical introduction, is 
being issued by the Oxford University Press. All 
the known prose writings of Cowley 'are included, 
except the preface to the juvenile volume, 
"Poeticall Blossoms," and some letters of little 
interest. 

"America and the New World-state " is the title 
of a forthcoming volume by " Norman Angell," 
which Messrs. Putnam have in train for pub- 
lication. In it is elaborated the thesis that the 
American people are above all others, by situation 
and " the happy circumstances of their history," 
fitted to become "leaders in the civilization of 
Christendom." 

A series of medical handbooks, the " Mind and 
Health Series," edited by Mr. H. Addington Bruce, 
is being projected by Messrs. Little, Brown & Co. 
The first three volumes, to appear this spring, are : 
" Human Motives," by Dr. James Jackson Putnam ; 
" The Meaning of Dreams," by Dr. Isador H. 
Coriat; and "Sleep and Sleeplessness," by the 
editor of the series. 

" North of Boston," a volume of poems by Mr. 
Robert Frost which received favorable comment 
upon its publication in England, will be issued im- 
mediately in this country by Messrs. Henry Holt 
& Co. From the same house will come Mr. Barrett 
H. Clark's " British and American Drama of To- 
day," a companion volume to the same writer's 
recently published "Continental Drama of To-day." 

An official guide book for scientific travellers in 
the West is being prepared under the auspices of 
the Pacific Coast Committee of the American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science, and will 
be published this month by Messrs. Paul Elder & 
Co., of San Francisco. The articles, popular in 
form but written with scientific precision, will 
appear under the title of " Nature and Science on 
the Pacific Coast." 

Among the announcements of the Oxford Uni- 
versity Press are: "The Letters of Sidonius," 
translated by Mr. 0. M. Dalton; "Some Love 
Poems of Petrarch," translated by Mr. W. D. 
Foulke; "A Bibliography of Samuel Johnson," 
prepared by the late W. P. Courtney and seen 
through the press by Mr. D. Nicol Smith ; and the 
second volume of " Select Early English Poems," 
edited by Professor I. Gollancz. 

Samuel T. Pickard, biographer and literary 
executor of John Greenleaf Whittier, died last 
month at the Whittier homestead in Amesbury, 
Mass., at the age of eighty-seven. He was editor 
and proprietor of the Portland (Maine) " Tran- 
script " from 1852 to 1894. In addition to numer- 



ous monographs, reviews, and literary articles, he 
wrote "Hawthorne's First Diary," "Whittier 
Land," and "Life and Letters of John Greenleaf 
Whittier." 

Mr. G. H. Perris is writing a narrative of " The 
Campaign of 1914 in France and Belgium," which 
Messrs. Hodder & Stoughton hope to have ready 
next month. The author was in Brussels at the 
outbreak of the war, and, leaving there with other 
refugees for Paris, afterwards acted as special 
correspondent of the " Daily Chronicle." The first 
book on the war by a Belgian officer is coming from 
the same publishers "Fighting with King 
Albert," by Capitaine Gabriel de Libert de 
Flemalle. 

A Danish correspondent to the London "Nation" 
writes that the war is leaving its mark on interna- 
tional publishing. After mentioning that, before 
the war, Germany had shown an almost insatiable 
appetite for translations of foreign books, he adds 
that a leading German publisher has just an- 
nounced that he has done with Gabriele d'Annun- 
zio. According to this publisher, d'Annunzio has 
attacked Germany merely out of hatred, and he has 
not even the excuse that his country has suffered 
through the war. 

A new publishing house has been incorporated in 
New York City, under the name of Robert Apple- 
ton, Inc., by Mr. Robert Appleton, grandson of the 
founder of the house of Messrs. D. Appleton & Co. 
The first work announced is " Intercollegiate Ath- 
letics in America," a chronicle of collegiate sport 
in the United States to be completed in five vol- 
umes. Among the contributors will be Messrs. 
Samuel Crowther, Parke H. Davis, Romeyn Barry, 
Harry A. Fisher, Raymond D. Little, James A. 
Babbitt, and Richard M. Gummere. 

Lord Cromer has written a supplementary vol- 
ume to his "Modern Egypt," which will be pub- 
lished this month by Messrs. Macmillan. It is 
called "Abbas II.," and it covers the fifteen years 
between the death of Tewfik Pasha, in 1892, and 
Lord Cromer's departure from Egypt in 1907. 
Lord Cromer's view of Abbas's character was 
obtained at close range, and was quite as unfavor- 
able as its subject deserved. Lord Cromer and 
Abbas never " got on," for, indeed, it was hard to 
respect the ex-Khedive either as a man or as a 
ruler. 

The work of Stijn Streuvels, the Low-Dutch 
author who is regarded both in Belgium and Hol- 
land as among the most distinguished writers of 
our time, is to be introduced to English readers by 
Mr. A. Teixeira de Mattos in a volume of sketches 
and stories which he has translated from the West- 
Flemish dialect under the title of "The Web of 
Life." Stijn Streuvels's real name is Frank 
Lateur. Until ten years ago his home was at Avel- 
ghem, close to Courtrai and the Lys, where he 
earned his living as a baker. " The Web of Life " 
belongs to that period. 

Mr. H. Noel Williams has already a considerable 
number of biographies of famous Frenchwomen to 
his credit. He is about to add to the number by 
" The Life of Margaret d'Angouleme." This time, 



158 



THE DIAL, 



[ March 4 



at least, Mr. Williams has chosen a subject that 
abounds in literary interest. Margaret was not 
only the author of the " Heptameron " but the 
patroness of a group of men of letters that included 
Rabelais, Clement Marot, and Bonaventure des 
Periers, and the influence of her Court makes one 
of the most fascinating chapters in the history of 
the Renaissance in France. 

If any of the friends of John Muir have missed 
his Alaskan dog story, " Stickeen," they should by 
all means look it up. Its general circulation would 
go a long way in reducing the residuum of cruelty to 
animals which man seems to have brought down 
with him from primitive savagery. Since its origi- 
nal publication, a few years ago, the Houghton 
Mifflin Co. have included it in their " Riverside 
Literature Series," printed in large type and neatly 
bound in cloth, for only twenty-five cents. It is a 
story which children and grown-ups alike will read 
with intense interest, and all friends of dumb ani- 
mals ought to assist in promoting its circulation. 

Professor Gilbert Murray, in addition to his new 
verse translation of the "Alcestis " of Euripides, 
has in preparation a revised edition of " Carlyon 
Sahib," the play which, originally written in 1893, 
was first produced by Mrs. Patrick Campbell in 
the summer of 1899, and published in book form 
in the following year. " ' Carlyon Sahib ' and 
'Andromache,' " writes the author, " were really 
companion studies of two views of life, the two that 
we now associate with the names of Nietzsche and 
Tolstoy respectively, although at that time I do not 
think I had heard of Nietzsche. 'Andromache' 
shows a Tolstoyan heroine living and eventually 
prevailing in a primitive society based upon re- 
venge and force ; ' Carlyon ' a kind of superman 
hero trying, and eventually failing, to find scope in 
modern civilization." 

" Like many other readers," says a writer in the 
London " Nation," " I have been trying to keep up 
with the deluge of books about the war, or at any 
rate, to miss nothing of importance which would 
help to a better knowledge of the greatest event in 
contemporary history. But a glance through 
Messrs. Lange & Berry's annotated bibliography, 
' Books on the Great War,' just published by 
Messrs. Grafton, has almost driven me to give 
up the attempt. I find that, excluding reprints, 
pamphlets, poetry, sermons, and so forth, more 
than a hundred and eighty books on the struggle, 
all of them with some claims to attention, have been 
published since the beginning of August. And if a 
reader had gone through all these, he would still be 
faced by the heading ' Poetry, Songs, and Plays,' 
with nearly fifty entries ; ' Religion, Sermons, 
Prayers, and Hymns,' with more than seventy; 
and ' Humor,' with a score, to say nothing of the 
mountain of pamphlets. If the output continues 
at this rate and it shows no signs of slackening 
future historians who take account of all the mate- 
rial will need to be long-lived men. Historians, by 
the way, have lost no time. More than a score of 
histories are chronicled by Messrs. Lange & Berry, 
the most important being M. Gabriel Hanotaux's 
' Histoire Illustree de la Guerre de 1914,' which is 
appearing in monthly parts." 



TOPICS IN LEADING PERIODICALS. 

March, 1915. 

Albert, King of the Belgians. D. C. Boulger . . Scribner 
American Literature. James Bryce ..... No. Amer. 

Americans Abroad. F. G. Peabody ..... No. Amer. 

Arabia, Young. Ameen Rihbani ........ Forum 

Art, The New American. Birge Harrison .... Scribner 

Australian Wages Boards. M. B. Hammond Quar. Jr. Econ. 
Belgium, The Soul of. Abbe Noel ....... Hibbert 

Book-collecting Abroad. A. Edward Newton . . Atlantic 
Brieux, Eugene, Plays of. W. D. Howells . . . No. Amer. 
Carillo, Julian. Maria C. Mena ....... Century 

Civilization, The Unity of. F. S. Marvin .... Hibbert 

Class Distinctions. Seymour Deming ..... Atlantic 

Cohan : An Appreciation. Harrison Rhodes . Metropolitan 
Commercial Recovery, America's. C. F. Speare Rev. of Revs. 
Congress, Sub-committees of. B. L. French Am. Pol. So. Rev. 
Coroners and Inquests. H. S. Gilbertson . . Rev. of Revs. 
Costumes, Early American. Mary H. 

Northend ......... Am. Homes & Gardens 

Cotton, Improved Outlook for. Richard Spillane Rev. of Revs. 
Crow, Characteristics of the. W. P. Eaton . . . Harper 
Dairy Cattle, Three Kinds of. W. J. Fraser . Rev. of Revs. 
Deep Sea Wonders. Cleveland Moffett .... American 

Defence, National. Lindley M. Garrison .... Century 

Delbriick's " Germany's Answer." Agnes Repplier Atlantic 
Democracy, Religion of. H. W. Wright ..... Forum 

Democracy, The Essence of. Wilhelm 

Hasbach ........... Am. Pol. Sc. Rev. 

Disarmament, Difficulties of. R. M. Johnston . . Century 
Dutch Farmhouse, A Typical. Harriet S. 

Gillespie ......... Am. Homes & Gardens 

Earthquake, The Italian. John L. Rich . . . Rev. of Revs. 
English, Pronunciation of. R. S. Menner .... Atlantic 

English, Pure What It Is. Brander Matthews . Harper 
Ethics Made in Germany. C. B. Brewster . . . No. Amer. 
Eugenics, Scientific Claims of. L. T. More . . . Hibbert 
Europe after the War. Ivan Yovitchevitch . Rev. of Revs. 
Farm Animals, Health of. C. F. Carter . . . Rev. of Revs. 
Federal Trade Commission, The. J. A. 

Fayne ............ Am. Pol. Sc. Rev. 

Flower Garden, Planning the. Gardner 

Teall ........... Am. Homes & Gardens 

Food Supply, The World's. B. E. Powell . . Rev. of Revs. 
Frank, Leo, and " Justice." Arthur Train . . Everybody's 
German France. John Reed ....... Metropolitan 

Germans and Tartars. D. A. Wilson ..... Hibbert 

Gottingen in the Sixties. James Sully ..... Hibbert 

Hardy, Thomas. Louise C. Willcox ..... No. Amer. 

Henry Street Settlement, The I. Lilian D. Wald Atlantic 



Humanity, War's Cost to. H. H. Horwill 
Ibibios, The, of Nigeria. Dorothy A. Talbot 



Atlantic 
Harper 



Japanese, The, in Korea. Theodore Roosevelt Metropolitan 
Jew, The, in America. Abram S. Isaacs . . . No. Amer. 
Jews and Romans. Herbert Strong ...... Hibbert 

.Toffre, General. Ernest Dimnet ....... Hibbert 

Justice, Experiments in. Ida M. Tarbell . . . American 
Kaiser, The, and His Court. Infanta Eulalia . . Century 
Labor and Business : Organized. P. G. Wright Quar. Jr. Econ. 
Law and Organization. J. B. Moore . . Am. Pol. Sc. Rev. 
Literacy Test, The. J. A. O'Gorman ...... Forum 

London in Time of War. Elizabeth R. Pennell . . Atlantic 
" London Times," A Letter to the. George Harvey Ne>. Amer. 
Meredith and His Fighting Men. James Moffatt . Hibbert 
Mexican Policy, Our. Theodore Roosevelt . . Metropolitan 
Motherhood, Unlawful. G. B. Mangold ..... Forum 

Napoleon How He Looked. Camille Gronkowski Harper 
Pacificism, Thoughts on. G. H. Powell .... Hibbert 

Panama Canal, Building the I. G. W. Goethals . Scribner 
Panama, South of V. Edward A. Ross .... Century 

Peace, Permanent Is It Possible? Bertrand Russell Atlantic 
Peace, Problems of. E. Lyttelton ....... Hibbert 

Peace Treaty, United States and the. O. G. Villard No. Amer. 
Pewter, Chinese. D. Eberlein . . . Am. Homes & Gardens 
Physiological Views of Life. D. Noel Patton . . . Hibbert 
Plants and Animals. J. C. Bose ....... Harper 

Poets, The New. Arthur C. Benson ...... Century 

Prize-Fight, A Woman at a. Inez H. Gillmore . . Century 
Pyrenees, The, as a Barrier. Hilaire Belloc . . . Harper 
Red Cross at Work, The. W. D. Lane . . . Rev. of Revs. 
Regnier, Henri de. Havelock Ellis ..... No. Amer. 

Religion? Bondage of Modern. P. G. Duffy . . . Century 
Religion and Labor. George Haw ....... Hibbert 

Russians, The Democratic. E. D. Sehoonmaker . . Century 
Russians and the War. Stephen Graham .... Atlantic 

Scandinavia and the War. Julius Moritzen . . No. Amer. 
Scandinavia and the War. T. L. Stoddard . . . Atlantic 
Scientific Management in Practice. C. B. 

Thompson ........... Quar. Jr. Econ. 

Self-defence. Rights and Duties of. J. H. Choate No. Amer. 
Shaw, Anna H., Autobiography of V. . . . Metropolitan 

Shaw. Bernard. The German. H. F. Rubinstein . . Forum 
Shaw, George Bernard. John Palmer ..... Century 

Slavophile Creed, The. Paul Vinogradoff .... Hibbert 

Socialism and War IV. Morris Hillquit . . Metropolitan 
Submarines and International Peace. Simon Lake Century 
Submarines in the War. Henrv Reuterdahl . . Everybody's 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



159 



Sunday, Billy, and Salvation. P. C. Macfarlane Everybody's 
Supreme Court Decisions. Emlin McClain Am. Pol. Sc. Rev. 
Trust Policy, Governmental, Basis of. Robert 

Lieimann Quar. Jr. Econ. 

Turkey and Germany. H. G. Dwight Scribner 

Twilight Sleep, The, in America. Mary Boyd and 

Marguerite Tracy Metropolitan 

Unemployment, Guilty of. William Hard . . Everybody's 
Vegetable Gardens. C. S. Delbert . Am. Homes & Gardens 
War, Causes of the. E. R. Turner . . . Am. Pol. Sc. Rev. 
War, Culture, Ethics, and the. J. A. Leigh ton . . Forum 
War, German Equipment for. J. F. J. Archibald . Scribner 
War, New Alignments of the. F. H. Simonds Rev. of Revs. 
War, The, and America's Future. G. B. McClellan Scribner 
War, The, and Protestantism. Edward Willmore . Hibbert 

War against War, The. W. D. Sheldon Forum 

Women's Work and Wages. C. E. Persons . . . Harper 
Youth, Understanding. George F. Kearney . . . Forum 
Zeppelin, Ferdinand von. T. R. MacMechen . Everybody's 



LIST OF NEW BOOKS. 



[The following list, containing 156 titles, includes books 
received by THE DIAL since its last issue.] 

BIOGRAPHY AND REMINISCENCES. 

The Life of Edward Rowland Sill. By William Bel- 
mont Parker. Illustrated, 8vo. Houghton Mifflin 
Co. $1.75 net. 

The German Emperor as Shown in His Public Utter- 
ances. By Christian Gauss. With portraits, 
12mo, 329 pages. Charles Scribner's Sons. 
?1.25 net. 

The Confessions of Frederick the Great, and The 
Life of Frederick the Great. By Heinrich von 
Treitschke; edited, with Introduction by Doug- 
las Sladeri, and Foreword by George Haven Put- 
nam. 12mo, 208 pages. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 
$1.25 net. 

Kitchener: Organizer of Victory. By Harold Beg- 
bie. With portraits, large 8vo, 112 pages. 
Houghton Mifflin Co. $1.25 net. 

Saint Clare of Assiwi: Her Life and Legislation. 
By Ernest Gilliat-Smith. With frontispiece in 
photogravure, 8vo, 305 pages. B. P. Dutton & Co. 
$3.50 net. 

A Playmate of Philip II.: Being the History of Don 
Martin of Aragon, Duke of Villahermosa, and of 
Dona Luisa de Borgia, His Wife. By Lady More- 
ton. Illustrated, large 8vo, 224 pages. John 
Lane Co. $3. net. 

The Life of a Citizen: At Home and in Foreign 
Service. By J. Augustus Johnson; with Intro- 
ductory Note by Brander Matthews. With por- 
trait, 12mo, 292 pages. New York: Vail-Ballou 
Press. $2. net. 

The Kaiser, 1859-1914. By Stanley Shaw, LL.D. 
New edition; 16mo, 251 pages. Macmillan Co. 
40 cts. net. 

HISTORY. 

The Inner History of the Balkan War. By Reginald 
Rankin, F.R.G.S. Illustrated in photogravure, 
etc., large 8vo, 569 pages. B. P. Dutton & Co. 
$5. net. 

Alsace and Lorraine: From Csesar to Kaiser, 58 
B. C.-1871 A. D. By Ruth Putnam. With maps, 
8vo, 208 pages. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.25 net. 

The Scotch-Irish in America. By Henry Jones Ford. 
8vo, 607 pages. Princeton University Press. 
$2. net. 

A History of the Western Boundary of the Louis- 
iana Purchase, 1819-1841. By Thomas Maitland 
Marshall. 8vo, 266 pages. Berkeley: University 
of California Press. Paper, $1.75 net. 

The American Indian in the United States: Period 
1850-1914. By Warren K. Moorehead, A.M. Illus- 
trated, large 8vo, 440 pages. Andover, Mass.: 
The Andover Press. 

GENERAL LITERATURE. 
Chaucer and His Poetry. By George Lyman Kitt- 

redge. 8vo, 230 pages. Harvard University 

Press. $1.25 net. 
Canadian Essays and Addresses. By W. Peterson. 

Large 8vo, 373 pages. Longmans, Green & Co. 

$3.50 net. 
The Study of Shakespeare. By Henry Thew 

Stephenson. With frontispiece, 12mo, 300 pages. 

Henry Holt & Co. $1.25 net. 
Shower and Shine: Being Some Little Tragedies, 

Little Comedies, and Little Farces. By Guy 

Fleming. 12mo, 342 pages. Longmans, Green 

& Co. $1.60 net. 



Homeric Scenes: Hector's Farewell and the Wrath 
of Achilles. By John Jay Chapman. 16mo, 76 
pages. New York: Laurence J. Gomme. 
60 cts. net. 

The Art and Craft of Letters. Comprising: Com- 
edy, by John Palmer; The Bpic, by Lascelles 
Abercrombie; Satire, by Gilbert Cannan; His- 
tory, by R. H. Gretton. Each 16mo. George H. 
Doran Co. Per volume, 40 cts. net. 

A New Theory concerning: the Origin of the Miracle 
Play. By George Raleigh Coffman. Large 8vo, 
84 pages. Menasha, Wis. : George Banta Pub- 
lishing Co. Paper. 

DRAMA AND VERSE. 

Children of Earth: A Play of New England. By 
Alice Brown. With portrait, 12mo, 212 pages. 
Macmillan Co. $1.25 net. 

The Wild Knight. By G. K. Chesterton. With 
photogravure portrait, 12mo, 156 pages. E. P. 
Dutton & Co. $1.25 net. 

Plaster Saints: A High Comedy in Three Move- 
ments. By Israel Zangwill. 12mo, 212 pages. 
Macmillan Co. $1.25 net. 

The Dramatic Works of Gerhart Hanptmann. 
Edited by Ludwig Lewissohn. Volume V., Sym- 
bolic and Legendary Dramas. 12mo, 370 pages. 
B. W. Huebso.h. $1.50 net. 

Crack o' Dawn. By Fannie Stearns Davis. 12mo, 
108 pages. Macmillan Co. $1. net. 

War Brides. By Marion Craig Wentworth. Illus- 
trated, 16mo, 71 pages. Century Co. 50 cts. net. 

The Silk-hat Soldier, and Other Poems in War 
Time. By Richard Le Gallienne. 12mo, 32 pages. 
John Lane Co. 50 cts. net. 

Jesus: A Passion Play. By Max Ehrmann. 12mo, 
282 pages. Baker & Taylor Co. $1. net. 

Death and the Fool. By Hugo von Hofmannsthal; 
translated from the German by Elizabeth Wal- 
ter. 12mo, 44 pages. Richard G. Badger. 
75 cts. net. 

Advent. By August Strindberg; translated by 
Claud Field. 12mo, UO pages. Richard G. Bad- 
ger. 75 cts. net. 

Songs of Labor, and Other Poems. By Morris 
Rosenfeld; translated from the Yiddish by Rose 
Pastor Stokes and Helena Frank. With frontis- 
piece, 12mo, 75 pages. Richard G. Badger. 
75 cts. net. 

FICTION. 

The Turmoil. By Booth Tarkington. Illustrated in 
color, etc., 12mo, 349 pages. Harper & Brothers. 
$1.35 net. 

The Sword of Youth. By James Lane Allen. Illus- 
trated, 12mo, 261 pages. Century Co. $1.25 net. 

The Harbor. By Ernest Poole. 12mo, 387 pages. 
Macmillan Co. $1.40 net. 

Mushroom Town. By Oliver Onions. 12mo, 350 
pages. George H. Doran Co. $1.25 net. 

The Secret of the Reef. By Harold Bindloss. With 
frontispiece, 12mo, 339 pages. F. A. Stokes Co. 
$1.30 net. 

A Russian Comedy of Errors: With Other Stories 
and Sketches of Russian Life. By George Ken- 
nan. 12mo, 331 pages. Century Co. $1.25 net. 

Guimo. By Walter Elwood. With frontispiece, 
12mo, 344 pages. Reilly & Britton Co. $1.35 net. 

The Good Soldier: A Tale of Passion. By Ford 
Madox Hueffer. 12mo, 294 pages. John Lane Co. 
$1.25 net. 

Millie's Mother. By Mary J. H. Skrine. With fron- 
tispiece, 12mo, 339 pages. Century Co. 
$1.35 net. 

Contrary Mary. By Temple Bailey. Illustrated In 
color, etc., 12mo, 388 pages. Penn Publishing 
Co. $1.25 net. 

Katy Gaumer. By Elsie Singmaster. With frontis- 
piece, 12mo, 336 pages. Houghton Mifflin Co. 
$1.35 net. 

Under the Tricolour. By Pierre Mille. Illustrated 
in color, 12mo, 245 pages. John Lane Co. 
$1.25 net. 

The Happy Recruit. By W. Pett Ridge. 12mo, 316 
pages. George H. Doran Co. $1.25 net. 

Destiny's Daughter. By Alice Birkhead. 12mo, 352 
pages. John Lane Co. $1.25 net. 

The Good Shepherd. By John Roland. 12mo, 341 
pages. F. A. Stokes Co. $1.25 net. 

Before the Gringo Came ("Rezanov" and "The 
Doomswoman." By Gertrude Atherton. 12mo, 
369 pages. F. A. Stokes Co. $1.35 net. 

The Trail of the Waving Palm. By Page Philips. 
Illustrated, 12mo, 313 pages. The Macaulay Co. 
$1.25 net. 

The Bride of the Sun. By Gaston Leroux. 12mo, 
303 pages. McBride, Nast & Co. $1.25 net. 



THE DIAL 



[ March 4 



An Emperor In the Dock. By Willem de Veer. 

12mo, 320 pages. John Lane Co. $1.25 net. 
Sanpriel: The Promised Land. By Alvilde Prydz; 

translated from the Norwegian by Hester Cod- 

dington. 12mo, 316 pages. Richard G. Badger. 

$1.25 net. 
The Elder Mi** Ainsborough. By Marion Ames 

Taggart. With frontispiece, 12mo, 237 pages. 

Benziger Brothers. $1.25 net. 
The Son of the Prefect. By Edmund Hamilton 

Sears. 12mo, 449 pages. Richard G. Badger. 

$1.25 net. - 

"Works of Hugh Walpole. Uniform edition, com- 
prising: The Prelude to Adventure; The Wooden 

Horse; The Gods and Mr. Perrin; Maradick at 

Forty. Each 12mo. George H. Doran Co. Per 

volume, $1.25 net. 
The Rose Garden Husband. By Margaret Wid- 

demer. Illustrated, 12mo, 208 pages. J. B. Lip- 

pincott Co. $1. net. 
Amur-lily of Clothes-line Alley. By Belle K. Mani- 

ates. Illustrated, 12mo, 279 pages. Little, Brown 

& Co. $1. net. 
The Final Verdict: Six Stories of Men and Women. 

By Sidney L. Nyburg. 12mo, 221 pages. J. B. 

Lippincott Co. $1. net. 

PUBLIC AFFAIRS POLITICS, SOCIOLOGY, AND 

ECONOMICS. 

Reflections on Violence. By George Sorel; trans- 
lated from the French by T. E. Hulme. Large 
8vo, 295 pages. B. W. Huebsch. $2.25 net. 

European Police Systems. By Raymond B. Fosdick. 
8vo, 442 pages. Century Co. $1.30 net. 

The Panama Canal and International Trade Com- 
petition. By Lincoln Hutchinson. Svo, 284 
pages, Macmillan Co. $1.75 net. 

The Political Science of John Adams: A Study in 
the Theory of Mixed Government and the Bi- 
cameral System. By Correa Moylan Walsh. 
Svo, 374 pages. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $2.25 net. 

Town Planning: With Special Reference to the 
Birmingham Schemes. By George Cadbury, Jr. 
Illustrated, large Svo, 201 pages. Longmans, 
Green & Co. $2.25 net. 

America in Ferment. By Paul Leland Haworth. 
12mo, 477 pages. " Problems of the Nations." 
Bobbs-Merrill Co. 

Problems of Community Life: An Outline of Ap- 
plied Sociology. By Seba Eldridge. 12mo, 180 
pages. Thomas Y. Crowell Co. $1. net. 

ftmile Durkheim's Contributions to Sociological 
Theory. By Charles Elmer Gehlke, Ph.D. Large 
Svo, 188 pages. Columbia University Press. 
Paper, $1.50 net. 

The Present Military Situation in the United States. 
By Francis Vinton Greene. 12mo, 102 pages. 
Charles Scribner's Sons. 75 cts. net. 

BOOKS ABOUT THE AVAR. 

Paths of Glory: Impressions of War Written at 
and Near the Front. By Irvin S. Cobb. 12mo, 
414 pages. George H. Doran Co. $1.50 net. 

The Audacious "War. By C. W. Barren. 12mo, 192 
pages. Houghton Mifflin Co. $1. net. 

The Prussian Hath Said in His Heart. By Cecil 
Chesterton; with Preface by George Bernard 
Shaw. 12mo, 219 pages. New York: Laurence 
J. Gomme. $1. net. 

What Is Wrong with Germany? By William Har- 
butt Dawson. 12mo, 227 pages. Longmans, 
Green & Co. $1. net. 

The British Navy from Within. By "Ex-Royal 
Navy." 12mo, 200 pages. George H. Doran Co. 
$1. net. 

The German System from Within. By " Ex-Intelli- 
gence Officer." 12mo, 195 pages. George H. 
Doran Co. $1. net. 

Six Weeks at the "War. By Millicent, Duchess of 
Sutherland. Illustrated, 12mo, 116 pages. A. C. 
McClurg & Co. 50 cts. net. 

The New (German) Testament: Some Texts and a 
Commentary. By Anthony Hope Hawkins. 
12mo, 65 pages. D. Appleton & Co. 

While the War Rages: An Appraisal of Some Eth- 
ical Factors. By Henry A. Stimson. 12mo, 104 
pages. The Abingdon Press. 50 cts. net. 

The Pocket Books. New volumes: Submarines, 
Mines, and Torpedoes in the War, by Charles 
W. Domville-Fife; The Slav Nations, by Srgjan 
PI. Tucic, translated by Fanny S. Copeland; 
Motor Transports in War, by Horace Wyatt; 
each illustrated, 16mo. George H. Doran Co. 
Per volume, 50 cts. net. 



TRAVEL AND DESCRIPTION. 

California the "Wonderful. By Edwin Markham. 
Illustrated, Svo, 395 pages. Hearst's Interna- 
tional Library Co. $2.50 net. 

With the Tin Gods: A Woman's Adventures in 
Northern Nigeria. By Mrs. Horace Tremlett. 
Illustrated, large Svo, 308 pages. John Lane Co. 
$3.50 net. 

Four on a Tour in England. By Robert and Eliza- 
beth Shackleton. Illustrated, Svo, 347 pages. 
Hearst's International Library Co. $2.50 net. 

SCIENCE AND ARCHAEOLOGY. 

The Problem of Volcanlsm. By Joseph P. Iddings, 
Sc.D. Illustrated, large Svo, 273 pages. Yale 
University Press. $5. net. 

/Kgean Archaeology: An Introduction to the Archae- 
ology of Prehistoric Greece. By H. R. Hall, 
F.S.A. Illustrated in color, etc., Svo, 270 pages. 
G. P. Putnam's Sons. $3.75 net. 

Problems of American Geology: Lectures Dealing 
with Some of the Problems of the Canadian 
Shield and of the Cordilleras. By William 
North Rice. Illustrated in photogravure, etc., 
large Svo, 505 pages. Yale University Press. 
$4. net. 

Heredity and Environment in the Development of 
Men. By Edwin Grant Conklin. Svo, 533 pages. 
Princeton University Press. $2. net. 

The Determination of Sex. By L. Don caster, Sc.D. 
Illustrated in color, etc., Svo, 172 pages. G. P. 
Putnam's Sons. 

Reptiles and Batrachians. By E. G. Boulenger, 
F.Z.S. Illustrated in color, etc., large Svo, 27S 
pages. E. P. Dutton & Co. $6. net. 

The House-fly: Its Structure, Habits, Development, 
Relation to Disease and Control. By C. Gordon 
Hewitt. Illustrated in color, etc., Svo, 382 pages. 
G. P. Putnam's Sons. $4.40 net. 

The Earth: Its Life and Death. By Alphonse 
Berget; translated from the French by E. W. 
Barlow, B.Sc. Illustrated, Svo, 371 pages. G. P. 
Putnam's Sons. $1.75 net. 

The Law of Biogenesis: Being Two Lessons on 
the Origin of Human Nature. By J. Howard 
Moore. 16mo, 123 pages. Charles H. Kerr & Co. 

ART, ARCHITECTURE, AND MUSIC. 

The Art of Landscape Architecture: Its Develop- 
ment and Its Application to Modern Landscape 
Gardening. By Samuel Parsons. Illustrated, 
large Svo, 347 pages. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 
$3.50 net. 

Vitruvius's Ten Books on Architecture. Translated 
by Morris Hickey Morgan; with illustrations 
and original designs by Herbert Langford War- 
ren. 4to, 319 pages. Harvard University Press. 
$3.50 net. 

Sixty Folksongs of France. Edited by Julien Tier- 
sot. "The Musician's Library." 4to, 157 pages. 
Oliver Ditson Co. Paper. 

Seven Songs from Out-of-doors: For Children Big 
and Little. By Alberta N. Burton. 4to, 31 
pages. Oliver Ditson Co. Paper, $1. net. 

PHILOSOPHY AND ETHICS. 

What Nietzsche Taught. By Willard Huntington 
Wright. With portrait, large Svo, 333 pages. 
B. W. Huebsch. $2. net. 

What Ought I to Do? An Inquiry into the Nature 
and Kinds of Virtue and Into the Sanctions, 
Aims, and Values of the Moral Life. By George 
Trumbull Ladd, LL.D. 12mo, 311 pages. Long- 
mans, Green & Co. $1.50 net. 

Amerian Thought: From Puritanism to Pragma- 
tism. By Woodbridge Riley, Ph.D. Svo, 373 
pages. Henry Holt & Co. $1.50 net. 

Practical Mysticism: A Little Book for Normal 
People. By Evelyn Underbill. 12mo, 169 pages. 
E. P. Dutton & Co. $1. net. 

Genetic Theory of Reality: Being the Outcome of 
Genetic Logic as Issuing in the Esthetic Theory 
of Reality Called Pancalism. By James Mark 
Baldwin. Svo, 335 pages. G. P. Putnam's Sons 
$2. net. 

The Greek Philosophers. By Alfred William Benn. 
Second edition; large Svo, 619 pages. E. P. 
Dutton & Co. $6. net. 

What Is Adaptation? By R. E. Lloyd, D.Sc. Svo, 
110 pages. Longmans, Green & Co. $1. net. 

Shall I Drink? By Joseph H. Crocker. 12mo, 213 
pages. Pilgrim Press. $1. net. 

Know Thyself. By Bernardino Varisco; trans- 
lated from the Italian by Guglielmo Salvadori, 
Ph.D. Large Svo, 327 pages. Macmillan Co. 

The Practice of Self-culture. By Hugh Black. 
12mo, 262 pages. Macmillan Co. 50 cts. net. 



1915 



THE DIAL 



161 



RELIGION AND THEOLOGY. 

The Iliulior Individualism. By Edward Scribner 
Ames. 12mo, 162 pages. Houghton Mlfflin Co. 
$1.10 net. 

Modern Religious Movements in India. By J. N. 
Farquhar. Illustrated, large Svo, 471 pages. 
Macmillan Co. $2.50 net. 

The Rise of Modern Religious Ideas. By Arthur 
Cushman McGiffert. 12mo, 315 pages. Mac- 
millan Co. $1.50 net. 

The Church of England and Episcopacy. By A. J. 
Mason, D.D. Large Svo, 560 pages. G. P. Put- 
nam's Sons. 

Deliverance: The Freeing of the Spirit in the 
Ancient World. By Henry Osborn Taylor, Litt.D. 
12mo, 294 pages. Macmillan Co. $1.25 net. 

Is Death the End? By John Haynes Holmes. 12mo, 
382 pages. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.50 net. 

The Reconstruction of the Church: With Regard 
to Its Message and Program. By Paul Moore 
Strayer. 12mo, 309 pages. Macmillan Co. 
$1.50 net. 

The Psalms in Human Life. . By Rowland E. 
Prothero, M.V.O. New and enlarged edition, 
Svo, 417 pages. E. P. Dutton & Co. $1.50 net. 

The Stewardship of Faith: Our Heritage from 
Early Christianity. By Kirsopp Lake. Svo, 237 
pages. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.50 net. 

The Episcopal Church: Its Faith and Order. By 
George Hodges. 12mo, 204 pages. Macmillan 
Co. $1.25 net. 

In the Service of the King: A Parson's Story. By 
Joseph B. Dunn. Svo, 158 pages. G. P. Putnam's 
Sons. $1.25 net. 

Geographic Influences in Old Testament Master- 
pieces. By Laura H. Wild. 12mo, 182 pages. 
Ginn & Co. $1. net. 

Jesus and Politics: An Essay towards an Ideal. 
By Harold B. Shepheard, M.A.; with Introduc- 
tion by Vida D. Scudder. 12mo, 145 pages. E. P. 
Dutton & Co. $1. r.et. 

What Is Christian Science? By Thomas W. Wilby. 
12mo, 183 pages. John Lane Co. 75 cts. net. 

The Place of Prayer in the Christian Religion. By 
James M. Campbell. 12mo, 303 pages. Methodist 
Book Concern. $1. net. 

The Incomparable Christ. By Calvin Weiss Laufer. 
12mo, 228 pages. The Abingdon Press. $1. net. 

A Boy's Religion. By Edwin Holt Hughes. 16mo, 
119 pages. Methodist Book Concern. 50cts.net. 

EDUCATION. 

The General Education Board: An Account of Its 
Activities, 1902-1914. Illustrated in photo- 
gravure, etc., Svo, 240 pages. New York: Gen- 
eral Education Board. 

School Hygiene. By Leo Burgerstein, LL.D. ; trans- 
lated from the German by Beatrice L. Stevenson 
and Anna L. Von der Osten. Illustrated, 12mo, 
188 pages. F. A. Stokes Co. $1. net. 

An Introduction to the Study of Government. By 
Lucius Hudson Holt, Ph.D. Svo, 388 pages. 
Macmillan Co. $2. net. 

Occasional Addresses. By Brainerd Kellogg, LL.D. 
12mo, 214 pages. Charles E. Merrill Co. Paper, 
$1. net. 

Historical Essays on Apprenticeship and Vocational 
Education. By Jonathan French Sf>ott, Ph D 
Svo, 96 pages. Ann Arbor: University of Michi- 
gan. Paper. 

Outlines and Summaries: A Handbook for the 
Analysis of Expository Essays. By Norman 
Foerster. 12mo, 105 pages. Henry Holt & Co. 

Food: What It Is and Does. By Edith Greer. Il- 
lustrated, 12rno, 251 pages. Ginn & Co. $1. net. 

The British Isles. By Frederick Mort, D.Sc. Illus- 
trated, Svo, 231 pages. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

Menne im Seebad. Von Hans Arnold. Edited by 
May Thomas, Ph.D. With frontispiece, 16mo, 
102 pages. D. C. Heath & Co. 30 cts. net. 

BOOKS FOR THE YOUNG. 

Heroes of Peace. By F. J. Gould; with Introduc- 
tion by G. P. Gooch, M.A. Illustrated, 12mo, 119 
pages. " Brave Citizens." Harper & Brothers. 
75 cts. net. 

World Stories Retold for Modern Boys and Girls. 
By William James Sly, Ph.D. Illustrated In 
color, etc., 12mo, 294 pages. Griffith & Rowland 
Press. $1. net. 

How Charlie Became King: A Story of a Real Boy. 
By Mrs. O. W. Scott. With frontispiece, 12mo, 
95 pages. American Tract Society. 

The Young Rival Inventors. By Gardner Hunting. 
Illustrated, 12mo, 295 pages. Little, Brown & 
Co. $1. net. 



War Babies. By Annie Wood Franchot. Illus- 
trated in color, etc., large Svo, 61 pages. Olean, 
N. Y.: Published by the author. $1.25 net. 

A Garden Party. By Annie W. Franchot. Illus- 
trated, 12mo, 40 pages. Olean, N. Y.: Published 
by the author. 50 cts. net. 

George Washington: A Story and a Play. By 
Mary Hazelton Wade. 12mo, 91 pages. Richard 
G. Badger. 60 cts. net. 

The Bedtime Story-books. By Thornton W. Bur- 
gess. New volumes: The Adventures of Danny 
Meadow Mouse; The Adventures of Grandfather 
Frog. Each illustrated, 16mo. Little, Brown & 
Co. Per volume, 50 cts. net. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

The American Year Book: A Record of Events and 
Progress, 1914. Edited by Francis G. Wickware, 
B.Sc. Svo, 862 pages. D. Appleton & Co. 

Accounts: Their Construction and Interpretation. 
By William Morse Cole, A.M. Revised and en- 
larged edition; large Svo, 445 pages. Houghton 
Mifflin Co. $2.25 net. 

The Story of Bethlehem Hospital from Its Founda- 
tion in 1247. By Edward Geoffrey O'Donoghue. 
Illustrated, large Svo, 427 pages. E. P. Dutton 
& Co. $5. net. 

Classified Catalogue of the Carnegie Library of 
Pittsburgh, 1907-1911. Third Series; in 3 vol- 
umes, large Svo. Pittsburgh: Carnegie Library. 
$8. net. 

Advertising: The Social and Economic Problem. 
By George French. Svo, 258 pages. New York: 
The Ronald Press Co. 

The Home University Library. New volumes: The 
Navy and Sea Power, by David Hannay; An Out- 
line of Russian Literature, by Maurice Baring; 
The Ancient East, by D. G. Hogarth, F.S.A. 
Each 16mo. Henry Holt & Co. Per volume. 
50 cts. net. 

Our Martyr President: Lincoln Memorial Addresses. 
New edition; with frontispiece, 12mo, 319 pages. 
The Abingdon Press. $1. net. 

Perlcla Navarchi Magonls. By Leo Carun. Svo, 
336 pages. Published by the author. 

Seventh Report of the Iowa Library Commission 
Made to the Governor of Iowa, 1912-1914. Illus- 
trated, Svo, 26 pages. Des Moines: Robert Hen- 
derson. 



AFTER DEATH IN ARABIA. By Sir Edwin Arnold. 
Ribbon-tied booklet, 3% X4% inches. Single copies, 25 cents. One 
dozen, $2.00, postpaid, on receipt of price. POMEROY GREEN, 120 
West Elm Street, Chicago. 



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MRS. RACHEL WEST CLEMENT 

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The Hague Convention, the International Naval 
Conference, President Wilson's Proclamation of 
Neutrality, etc., in addition to clear and detailed 
explanation of the various difficult questions 
which are now the subject of international 
dispute. $2.50 net; postage extra 



THE PANAMA GATEWAY 

New and Revised Edition. 

By Joseph Bucklin Bishop. 

Secretary of the Isthmian Canal Commission. 

" 'The Panama Gateway,' by Joseph Bucklin 
Bishop, is not only a book of unusual value at 
the present moment but one which may well be 
treasured because of the accurate information 
which it conveys." New York Herald. 
Illustrated. $1.50 net 



FOOTINGS FOR FAITH 

By WILLIAM PIERSON MERRILL, Pastor of the 
Brick Presbyterian Church. 

The writing of this volume was prompted 
by the various influences, mostly produced by 
modern science, which have brought such con- 
fusion and such doubt into the minds, especially 
of the younger people of to-day. This doubt it 
aims to dispel by recognizing religion and con- 
temporary scientific thought. 

$1.00 net; postage extra 



CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS 



CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



171 



SCRIBNER FICTION 



OUTDOOR BOOKS 



THE SEVEN DARLINGS 

By GOUVERNEUR MORRIS. 
Illustrated by Howard Chandler Christy. 
Six girls and their brother left pen- 
niless with no asset except a luxurious 
Adirondack camp. They advertise for 
boarders, and, behold! six eligible young 
men. $!-35 net; postage extra. 



A LOVERS' TALE 

By MAURICE HEWLETT. 

A romance of Iceland in Viking days, 
full of the strife of might and cunning; 
glowing with human nature at its utmost. 
Here is Hewlett at his very greatest. 

$1.25 net; postage extra. 



AUGUST FIRST 

By MARY R. S. ANDREWS and ROY 

IRVING MURRAY. 

A love story of striking emotional 
power. The chief characters are a young 
assistant clergyman in a large city and a 
beautiful stranger who appears for a few 
minutes to consult him about a great crisis 
of life and death. $i .00 net; postage extra. 



DAYBREAK 

By ELIZABETH MILLER. 

A vast and splendid panorama of 
historical events of the age of discovery. 
The scene is laid in Spain in the fifteenth 
century and among the episodes is 
Columbus's discovery of the Western 
Hemisphere. $i-35 net; postage extra. 



THE GREAT TRADITION 

By KATHERINE FULLERTON GEROULD. 

Includes many of her greatest stories 
such as "Leda and the Swan," "The 
Miracle," etc. The stories all possess 
those same qualities which brought such 
instant recognition to her last book, 
"Vain Oblations." 

$1.35 net; postage extra. 



A CLOISTERED ROMANCE 

By FLORENCE OLMSTEAD. 
A novel of really remarkable and pecu- 
liarly individual charm; and so truly 
humorous that not a page is turned but 
it evokes a smile or a chuckle. 

$7.25 net; postage extra. 



THE WELL-CONSIDERED 
GARDEN 

By MRS. FRANCIS KING. 

A book based on experience in the 
author's own garden, supplemented by a 
wide acquaintance with the best gar- 
dening throughout the world. 

$2.00 net; postage extra. 



THE AMATEUR GARDEN 

By GEORGE W. CABLE. 

"It is doubtful if the theory, practice, 
and rewards of landscape gardening were 
ever set forth more convincingly and 
delightfully than in ' The Amateur Gar- 
den.' ' Springfield-Republican. 

$1.50 net; postage extra. 



ON THE TRAIL 

By LINA and ADELIA B. BEARD. 

The first practical camp book for 
girls. It should be of the greatest help 
to members of "Camp Fire Girls," or- 
ganizations, girls' camps, etc., etc. 

$1.25 net; postage extra. 



CAMP CRAFT 

Modern Practice and Equipment 

By WARREN H. MILLER, Editor of "Field 

and Stream." 

With an introduction by Ernest 
Thompson Seton. With many illustra- 
tions. 

#1.50 net; postage extra. 



BASEBALL 

Individual Play and Team Play in 
detail. 

By W. J. CLARKE, Head Coach of the 

Princeton Varsity Baseball Team, 

and FREDERICK T. DAWSON, Captain 

of the Princeton Baseball Team, 1911. 

A complete presentation of the game. 

Of particular value to school and college 

players. $1.00 net; postage extra. 



PETS FOR PLEASURE 
AND PROFIT 

ly A. HYATT VERRILL. 

A thorough, complete and practical 
account of all kinds of pets and of their 
habits and care. 

$7.50 net; postage extra. 



CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS 



CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS 



172 



THE DIAL 



[ March 18 



IMPORTANT BUTTON PUBLICATIONS 


The Little Mother Who Sits at Home 


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A little volume of tender, intimate let- 
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from the churches. Net $1.00 


Edited by the Countess BARCYNSKA . 






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With an Introduction by Vida D. Scudder. A book for the citizen, the 


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politician, and the preacher. Net $1.00 


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A brilliant romance based on the ex- 


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To understand the new France one 
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Edward VI. First and Second Prayer 


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work in print on Germany's political and economic problems, her policy, 
her ambitions, and the causes of her successes and failures. Net $3.00 


Hooker's Ecclesiastical Poetry. 2 vols. 




Keble's Christian Year. 


William Blake: His Mysticism and Poetry By PIERRE BERQER 


Law's Serious Call to a Devout Life. 


A translation of the brilliant study which, when it first appeared in French 


Maurice's Kingdom of Christ. 2 vols. 


was pronounced by Swinburne "the last word on the subject of Blake." 


Mlllman's History of the Jews. 2 vole. 


Net $5.00 


Neale's The Fall of Constantinople. 




Newman's Apologia pro Vita Sua. 




Robertson's Sermons. 3 vols. 


MeatleSS Cookery By MARIA MCILVAINE GILLMORE 


Wade Robinson's Sermons. 
St. Augustine's Confessions. 
The Little Flowers of St. Francis. 


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Seeley's Ecce Homo. 


pressure, auto-intoxication and diseases of the heart. Introduction by 


Smith's Life of William Gary. 
Stanley's Eastern Church. 


Louis Faugeres Bishop, M.D. Net $2.00 


Memorials of Canterbury. 
Swedenborg's Heaven and Hell. 


The Human German By EDWARD EDGEWORTH 


Divine Love and Wisdom. 
VUlehardouin's History of the Crusades. 
John Wesley's Journal. 4 vols. 


A very entertaining precise statement of the daily life of the much governed 
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E. P. DUTTON & CO., Publishers 681 Fifth Ave., NEW YORK 



1915] THE DIAL 173 

Dor an Company New Books 

THE VALLEY OF FEAR * 7r//Kr* By A. Conan Doyle 

The first Sherlock Holmes story in ten years; half the scene of action laid in America. All the features which 
have made Holmes the most popular fiction-hero in the world with a new and surprising sort of mystery, which 
will keep the reader intensely absorbed. Sherlock Holmes at his best. Illustrations in color by Arthur I. Keller. 

Net, $1.25 

RED FLEECE By Will Levington Comfort 

The noble romance of a great-souled woman told with the vision and originality which distinguish all work by 
Mr. Comfort, and by a new and happy "popularity." The story of the Russian advance into Germany, the 
Russian revolutionists who risk execution by preaching peace, and a white-browed woman. Net, $1.25 

PATHS OF GLORY w 17t n r/e^K^'" <n By Irvin S. Cobb 

"The first book of the war; the first account of the fighting that gives us a real picture of the conflict. There 
is a great deal more than the roar of battle in his story; there is that crying out of the heart when it cannot be 
comforted." Portland Telegram. Net, $1.50 

MUSHROOM TOWN By Oliver Onions 

Towns have personalities not less fascinating than those of persons. Here Oliver Onions, with all the sharp 
drama and realism of his The Story of Louie, chronicles in a highly original novel the growth of a boom town. 

Net, $1.25 

THE WOODEN HORSE By Hugh Walpole 

"The author of The Duchess of Wrexe and Fortitude has nowhere shown a greater grip upon life's realities, a stronger 
appreciation of the elusiveness of man-made conventionalities and a better artistic sense of the dramatic value 
of contrasts. " Public Ledger. Net, $1.25 

THE THEATRE OF IDEAS By Henry Arthur Jones 

The premier English dramatist, in a burlesque allegory preceding three new interesting short plays, tells wittily 
how idiotic are most fads to the seeing mind. Net, $1.00 

ARUNDEL ByE. F.Benson 

Love may be destructive as well as creative, 
stuffy family there was a dramatic destructic 

HERE'S TO THE DAY! 

By Charles Agnew MacLean and Frank Blighton 

A thrilling story of an American man and girl caught in the mill of the Great War. "Aviation plays an important 
part and it is particularly realistic because of Mr. Blighton 's own experiences as an aviator. " Boston Transcript. 

Net, $1.25 

THE VEILS OF ISIS By Frank Harris 

"A volume with s"uch stuff as the work of genius is made of. We have many fine short- story writers, but none 
so great as Mr. Frank Harris. And he is full of that divine charity we call love; the crowning glory of his rare 
and beautiful art." London Bookman. Net, $1.25 

JAMES By W. Dane Bank 

"A novel of delicious entertainment; a book of surprises, with an irrepressible hero; and a novelty in that it deals 
with 'get-rich-quick' schemes. " St. Louis Republic. Net, $1.25 

NEIGHBOURS By Herbert Kaufman 

Little pictures from real life that make living beings out of that unknown race of people the men and women 
in the crowd through which you pass daily. Net, $0.75 

AT ALL BOOKSELLERS 

GEORGE H. DORAN COMPANY, 38 W. 32nd St., NEW YORK 

PUBLISHERS IN AMERICA FOR HODDER & STOUGHTON 



Love may be destructive as well as creative. When love with its utmost passion came to a man smothered by a 
stuffy family there was a dramatic destruction of his comfortable dullness and glory was born. Net, $1.25 



174 



THE DIAL 



[ March 18 



Important Spring Books 

J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY 




PUBLISHERS 



PHILADELPHIA 



SIR 

DOUGLAS 

MAWSON'S 




Own Account of the 
Now Famous 
Australian- Antarctic 
Expedition, 1911-14 

THE HOME 
OF THE 
BLIZZARD 

Two volumes with 300 re- 
markable photographs, 16 
color plates, drawings, plans, 
maps, etc. $9.00 net per set. 

Philadelphia Record: 

"There are thrills in the 
story that surpass any that 
fictionists can create and it 
is a tribute to strong men 
who went forth to meet 
perils and even death itself 
that the world might know 
something of the long un- 
known and almost forbidden 
land. 

Boston Evening Transcript: 

"A treasure house of 
facts." 



HOW BELGIUM SAVED EUROPE 

By DR. CHARLES SAROLEA. Cloth. $1.00 net. 

A thrilling, moving chronicle as intensely interesting as the greatest fic- 
tion. An epic tale of Belgium's heroic defense against great odds by one who 
was there. It explains many things that you can not learn from newspaper 
or magazine accounts. It is unbiased, and presents the facts in a new light. 

PRODUCTIVE ADVERTISING 

By H. W. HESS, Professor of Advertising, Univ. of Penn. Profusely illus- 
trated. Octavo. $2.00 net. 

A practical manual for the advertising man, the business man, and the 
student, covering the entire field, both in practice and in theory. 

CHEMISTRY OF FAMILIAR THINGS 

By SAMUEL SCHMUCKER SADTLER, S.B. 23 Illustrations and 6 

figures in the text. Octavo. $1.75 net. 

Science has entered daily life, and here is a work by an authority for the 
average man and woman. It contains much valuable information bearing 
upon everyday life. 

SPENCER FULLERTON BAIRD A Biography 

By WILLIAM HEALEY BALL, D.Sc. With 19 Illustrations. Octavo. 

Buckram, gilt top, uncut. $3.50 net. 

A notable biography of a remarkable man associated in his life-work 
with Professor Louis Agassiz, together with selections from his correspon- 
dence with famous men of his time. 

THE OLD EAST INDIAMEN 

By E. KEBLE CHATTERTON, Lieut. R.N.V.R. 33 Illustrations. Octavo. 

$3.50 net. 

Another of this author's entertaining and authoritative volumes on 
sailing ships, splendidly illustrated. 

FAMOUS DAYS AND DEEDS IN 
HOLLAND AND BELGIUM 

By PROP. CHARLES MORRIS. 16 Illustrations from famous paintings. 

Cloth. $1.25 net. 
Striking stories drawn from Dutch and Belgian history. 

A DOG OF FLANDERS 

BY "OUIDA. " Illustrated in color by Maria L. Kirk. Cloth. 50 cents net. 

The famous tale of peasant life in Flanders, printed in uniform style 

with Mrs. Lewis' simplified editions of George Macdonald's stories for children. 

A New Volume in LIPPINCOTT'S FARM 
MANUALS PRODUCTIVE FEEDING OF 
FARM ANIMALS 

By PROF. F. W. WOLL, Univ. of Cal. 96 Illustrations. 375 pages. Octavo. 
$1.50 net. 

POULTRY KEEPING 

By HARRY R. LEWIS, B.S., N. J. State Agric. Exp. Station. 181 Illus- 
trations. 365 pages. $1.00 net. 

An Elementary Treatise Dealing with the Successful Management of 
Poultry. 

AGRICULTURE AND LIFE 

By ARTHUR D. CROMWELL, M.Ph. 143 Illustrations. Cloth. $1.50 net. 
A Text Book for Normal Schools and Teachers' Reading Circles. 

METHODS FOR ELEMENTARY AND 
SECONDARY SCHOOLS 

By E. L. KEMP, Sc.D., Litt.D. 312 pages. $1.25 net. 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



175 



Successful Spring Fiction 

J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY 



PUBLISHERS 



PHILADELPHIA 




FOR MARCH PUBLICATION 

By the Author of "Betty's Virginia Christmas" 

THE DIARY OF A BEAUTY 

By MOLLY ELLIOTT SEAWELL. 12 Illustrations by Frederick Dorr 

Steel. Cloth. $1.25 net. 

Miss Sea well has never written a more charming _ romance, and at the 
same time one which shows such skill in character delineation and develop- 
ment of plot through a series of unusual and striking incidents. This is 
certain to be one of the Spring's best sellers. Beautifully bound and deco- 
rated. 

THE WOMAN IN THE GAR 

By RICHARD MARSH. $1.35 net. 

The author of "The Beetle" has here written a murder mystery intensely 
exciting, with something happening on every page. The scenes are laid in 
London, and it would be impossible to enumerate on this page the many 
incidents, climaxes and anti-climaxes which go to make up this wonderfully 
thrilling story. 

FOR APRIL PUBLICATION- 
MIRANDA 

By GRACE L. H. LUTZ. Illustrated, in color and Hack and white by E. L. 

Henry, N.A. $1.25 net. 

The author of "Phcebe Deane," "Marcia Schuyler, " "Lo Michael," 
"The Best Man," etc., has written a delightful story about the character of 
Miranda, who figured in the author's earlier novels. She was so brimful of 
jollity, and so overflowing with pleasant optimism and happiness that her 
further annals easily makes a new volume that will unquestionably prove one 
of Mrs. Lutz's most popular sellers. 

THE WHITE ALLEY 

By CAROLYN WELLS. Frontispiece in color by Gayle Hoskins. $1.25 net. 
The reader who solves the mystery of "The White Alley" must indeed 
be as clever as Fleming Stone, the great American detective who plays such 
an important part in discovering the criminal and in furthering the tender 
romance which runs through this best of Miss Wells's detective stories. 

NOW SELLING 

THE DUSTY ROAD 

By THERESE TYLER. Frontispiece by H. Weston Taylor. $1.25 net. 
Philadelphia Press: 

"Preeminently calculated to whet the interest and provoke a storm of 
discussion. That it has already achieved this is abundantly demonstrated 
by the fact that it has promptly become a best seller." 

THE FINAL VERDICT 

Six Stories of Men and Women 

By SIDNEY L. NYBURG. $1.00 net. 
Baltimore American: 

"Each gripping tale refers to the verdict of the law court and justice 
how often do they coincide? The stories are clean cut and decisive they 
make the reader think." 

THE ROMANCES OF AMOSIS RA 

By FREDERICK THURSTAN. $1.35 net. 

A remarkably virile and striking story of Egyptian life at the time of 
Moses, around whom the story is centered. 



The Novel 
They Are All 
Talking About 




SECOND PRINTING 

THE ROSE 

GARDEN 

HUSBAND 

By 

MARGARET WIDDEMER 

Three illustrations by 

WALTER BIGGS 

$1.00 net. 

Boston Transcript: 

"The beauty and strange- 
ness that go to make romance 
are combined in the little 
tale of 'The Rose Garden 
Husband.' The reader . 
. becomes immediately 
interested in the personality 
of the gay little 'Liberry 
Teacher' who realizes that 
no one wants to hear the 
'cryside' . . . It is the 
manner in which the author 
tells her story and the charm 
she infuses into her heroine 
that make it such delightful 
reading." 



176 



THE DIAL 



March 18 



] A SELECTION 

Fiction Spring 1915 



GPPS 



War 



The Keeper of the Door 

Ethel M. Dell 

Author "The Way of an Eagle," "The Rocks of Valpre," etc. 

12. 600 pages. $1.40 

Revolves around the act of the Heroine, who puts into 
practice her belief that in case of hopeless suffering, to put the 
sufferer out of the way is the only kind course, the effect on the 
physician whom she loves, and one who seeks revenge. Prob- 
ably the best of this author's remarkably popular novels. 

Three Gentlemen 
from New Caledonia 

R. D. Hemingway and 
Henry de Halsalle 

12. $1.35. 

"Cunning criminals, plots and counterplots, the Paris 
police, a shifting scene from cannibalistic New Caledonia to 
Paris dives, from the placid English country estate to the 
sinister little alley in Amsterdam this is the most exciting 
novel published in many and many a day. " 

"My Heart's Right There" 

Florence L. Barclay 

Author of " The Rosary," " The Wall of Partition," etc. 

12. $0.75. 

Mrs. Florence L. Barclay, the most popular of living authors, 
has here written a tender, patriotic story of the war, and the 
cottage homes of England, and the wives who are left behind. 
A glimpse is given of what a woman undergoes while the husband 
is in the field and of her subordination, though not without 
many a tug at the heartstrings, of self to country. 

On the Fighting Line 

Constance Smedley 

12. $1.35. 

Not a story of the European War a vivid portrayal of the 
every-day struggle for existence, and of the girl who has to fight 
her battles alone. A dramatic picture of the present and of 
woman's economic value, but also an uplifting love story that 
rings true. 

Patrioia 

Edith H. Fowler 

Author "For Richer or Poorer," etc. 
12. $1.35. 

Avid for success, needy of money, the heroine is tempted to 
publish the letters of a diplomat with whose son she subsequently 
falls in love. Strong in plot, just avoiding tragedy, dramatic 
and virile. A rare and absorbing book, with a fine moral tone. 



The Evidence 
in the Case 

James M. Beck, LL.D. 

2d Edition, with much added 
material and an Introduction by 
Hon. Joseph H. Choate. 
12. 280 pp. $1.00. 

Alsace and Lorraine 

From Caesar to Kaiser. 58 
B. C.-1871 A. D. 
Ruth Putnam 

Author of " Charles the Bold, " etc. 
8. 8 Maps. $1.25. 

Confessions of 
Frederick the Great 

and Treitschke's Life of Frederick 

Edited by Douglas Sladen. 
12. $1.25. 

Germany, France, 
Russia and Islam 

Heinrich Von Treitachke 
12. $1.50. 

Origins of the War 

J. Holland Rose 

Author " Personality of Napo- 
leon," etc. 
12. $1.00. 

Can Germany Win? 

"An American" 

12. $1.00. 

The Monroe 
Doctrine 

National or International? 
William I. Hull 

72. $0.75. 

America and 
the World-State 

Norman Angell 

Author "The Great Illusion," 
"Arms and Industry," etc. 
12. $1.25. 

The World Crisis 

and the Way to Peace 

E. E. Shumaker 
Author "God and Man." 
$0.75- 

Why Europe 
is at War 

Intro. Gen'l F. V. Greene 
Contrib's: Frederic R. Coudert, 
Prof, von Mach, F. W. Whitridge, 
Dr. lyenaga. 

12. $1.00. 



NEW YORK 
2-6 W. 45th St. 



G. P. Putnam's Sons 



LONDON 
24 Bedford St. 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



177 



] A SELECTION 

Out -Doors Spring 1915 General 



In the Oregon Country 

George Palmer Putnam 

Author "The Southland of North America.' 1 Introduction by 
James Withycombe, Gov. of Oregon. 

12. 53 Illus. $1.75 

Out-doors in Oregon, Washington and California. Some 
legendary lore, glimpses of the Modern West in the making, 
descriptions of trips along the forest and mountain trails, on 
foot and horseback; and with gun, rod, and camera; of the ascent 
of peaks, and of long canoe excursions, all replete with incidents 
of interest and rich in word-pictures of the glorious country 
traversed. The volume is beautifully illustrated from the 
author's photos. 

Field Book of American 
Trees and Shrubs 

F. Schuyler Mathews 

1 6. 1 20 Illus., 16 in color, and 43 Maps. Cloth, $2.00. 

Flexible Leather, $2.50. 

Mr. Mathews's former Field Books, " American Wild Flowers " 
and "Wild Birds and Their Music," have won him a secure 
place in the hearts of all nature lovers, who have found his 
guides an invaluable aid. This volume embraces the entire 
United States, and will be found to be the most thorough, 
authentic and simple guide to the trees and shrubs yet published. 

The Art of Landscape 
Architecture 

Its Development and Its Application to Modern Landscape 
Gardening. 

Samuel Parsons 

Fellow of the American Society of Landscape Architects. Author 
of "Landscape Gardening, 1 ' etc. 

8. 48 Illus. $3.50. 

Mr. Parsons, to whom was intrusted the greater part of 
designing and building Central Park, New York City, and who 
designed the great 1,400 acre park at San Diego, Cal., has 
written a most important book setting forth the underlying 
principles of the practice of landscape gardening, and to sustain 
the exposition of these principles he cites passages from at least 
one hundred well-recognized authorities in various ages and 
countries. 

An American Fruit Farm 

Its selection and Management for Profit and Pleasure. 

Francis N. Thorpe 

8. Illus. Probable price, $2.50. 

The biography of any well-conducted fruit farm is a chapter 
in the history of success. The author's fruit farm has yielded 
that success; a careful perusal and application of the author's 
recommendations may enable other cultivators to achieve a 
similar success. 



Out of Work 

Frances A. Keltor 

Author" Experimental Sociology. ' ' 

12. 584 pp. $1.50. 

A study of unemployment in 
America, with a program for 
dealing with it. 

The Tuberculosis 
Nurse 

Ellen La Mott*, R.N. 

12. $1.50. 

A practical handbook for 
nurses, settlement workers and 
all having to do with the fight 
against the "white plague." 

Tabular Views of 
Universal History! 

George Palmer Putnam 

Revised to 1915. 8. $2.50. 

Chronological tables in par- 
allel lines, showing events in the 
history of the world from earliest 
times. Invaluable. 

Color Vision 

J. Herbert Parsons, D.Sc.,F.R.C.S. 

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178 



THE DIAL 



[ March 18 



Important Fiction and General Books 


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1915] 



THE DIAL 



179 



New and Important Books of Timely Interest 



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180 



THE DIAL 



[ March 18 



TWO IMPORTANT BOOKS 

JUST PUBLISHED 



Heredity and Environment 
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By EDWIN GRANT CONKLIN 

PROFESSOR OF BIOLOGY IN PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 

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THE DIAL 



March 18 




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1915] 



THE DIAL 



183 



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"Unlike so many novels, 'Bellamy' 


Author of" Victory Law," etc. Cloth. Author of " The Fifth Queen, " etc. 
$125 net Cloth. $1.25 net. 


is worth a careful and attentive read- 
ing. " New York Times. 


By a clever adjustment of circum- An unusual psychological story of a 
stances at Shanghai, four people (three little four-square coterie, composed of 


THE PRESENTATION 


men and a woman) find themselves shut an Englishman and his wife and an 
up together without escape, and their American couple sojourning in Europe. 


By H. DE VERB STACPOOLE 


relations to one another make the situ- Humor, pathos and tragedy mingle 


Author of " The Blue Lagoon, " "Chil- 


ation extremely piquant. The tangle m the account of their nine years' 


dren of the Sea," etc. I2mo. Colored 


of their affairs is unraveled with great friendship, and the ending of it is unex- 


Frontispiece. Cloth. $1.30 net. 


dexterity and with a keen insight into pected and most artistically told. 


"Combining^ political history and 


the varieties of love as the outcome of 


a radiant love' story, 'The Presenta- 


characters noble or mean. REAL DETECTIVE TALES 


tion' will appeal to that large class of 




readers who delight in historical 
romances." Baltimore Evening Sun. 


Discontented, Take Warning! THE WISDOM OF 

A DM i AD or CAI T FATHER BROWN 


BUT SHE 


* KILLAIf %Jf 9MLI By GILBERT K. CHESTERTON 


MEANT WELL 


By HORACE W. C. NEWTE Author of "The Innocence of Father 
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By WILLIAM CAINE 


of the Seven Devils," etc. Cloth. $1.35 $1.30 net. 


Author of " The Irresistible Intruder," 


net. "Tales of crime and discovery, clues 


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"That 'idle wife' to whom novelists and false leads and all the rest of the 


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and sociologists are just now paying thrilling material which will make any 


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such devoted and exclusive attention normal human being sit up and keep 


again and again and laughed with reck- 


is the centre of this study. The story on sitting up long past the proper hour 


less abandon a number of times in the 


is developed with the insight for real for bed. Mr. Chesterton deserves a 


reading." New York Evening Sun. 


conditions, for real states of mind, and rousing cheer in fact, three rousing 


MAID OF THE MIST 


with the regard for detail that so dis- cheers for giving us another series 
tinguishes all of Mr. Newte's work. " of real and fine detective tales." 


By JOHN OXENHAM 


Washington Star. New York Times. 


Author of " Red Wrath," etc. I2mo. 




Cloth. $1.30 net. 




"It contains all the thrills of adven- 
ture that one can desire." Springfield 
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JOHN LANE COMPANY, New York 



184 



THE DIAL 



[ March 18 



Spring Announcement. Open Court New Books 

LIBRARIANS: Hand this List of Books to your cataloguer. If not already in your 
Reference Room, let us [send, postpaid for examination, any book in the list. 



SCIENTIFIC METHOD IN PHILOSO- 
PHY. "The Lowell Lectures for 
1914." A critique of Bergson's Theories. 
By BERTRAND RUSSELL, of Cambridge, En- 
gland. Pp. 246. 8vo. $2.00. 
"The book of the year." London Press unani- 
mous comment, 

"Every student of philosophy must reckon 
with this book." R. M. Wenley, University of 
Michigan. 

PROBLEMS OF SCIENCE By FEDERIGO 
ENRIQUES. Authorized translation by Kather- 
ine Royce. Pp. 300. 8vo; cloth. $2.50. 
Dr. Royce says: "This book is by far the 
most thorough and synthetic treatment of the 
problems of scientific methodology which belongs 
to recent years." 

"The work before us is perhaps the most con- 
siderable contribution to the discussion since 
Mill. "The Nation. 

Professor W. B. Smith, Tulane University, 
says: "I propose to use Enriques' 'Problems of 
Science' as the basis of a course in scientific phi- 
losophy. " 

HISTORY OF JAPANESE MATHE- 
MATICS. By YOSHIO MIKAMI and DAVID 

EUGENE SMITH. Pp. 302. 8vo; cloth. Richly 

illustrated. $3.00. 

"The authors have conferred a real service to 

all mathematicians by the loving care with which 

they set out the story of mathematics in Japan." 

C. S. Jackson. 

WAVES OF SAND AND SNOW. By 

VAUGHAN CORNISH, Doctor of Science, Man- 
chester University. Pp. 378. 8vo; cloth. Il- 
lustrated; 88 photographs and 30 diagrams, 
and two maps. $2.50. 
A book of experiment and observation of the 

behavior of gravel, sand, and dust before the wind. 

Dr. Cornish is an acknowledged authority on the 

subject of wave action. 

NIETZSCHE AND OTHER EXPO- 
NENTS OF INDIVIDUALISM. By 

PAUL CARUS. Illustrated with portraits of 

Nietzsche. Cloth. $1.25. 

A well-balanced presentation of Nietzsche's 
philosophy. The appearance of a philosopher like 
Nietzsche is a symptom of the times. He is one 
representative among several others of an anti- 
scientific tendency. 
A NEW LOGIC. By Dr. CHARLES MERCIER. 

Physician for mental diseases at Charing Cross 

Hospital, London. Pp. 422. $3.00. 

The author regards the theories of Aristotle 
the main obstacle to a scientific attitude in logic. 



CULTURE OF ANCIENT ISRAEL. 

By CARL H. CORNILL. Pp. 200. 8vo; cloth. $1.00. 

"No writer on Old Testament times has set 
forth his theme more picturesquely than Cornill. 
There is something intensely lifelike and often- 
times dramatic in the presentatio_n of his subject. 
Thoroughly scholarly in his spirit, he is popular 
in his manner, and this new book is a strong ad- 
dition to his two noted works on 'The History of 
Israel' and 'The Prophets.'" Boston Transcript. 

THE ALGEBRA OF LOGIC. By Louis 

COUTURAT. Authorized translation by Lydia 
G. Robinson, with preface by Philip E. B. 
Jourdain. Pp. 41. 8vo; cloth. An introduc- 
tion to the study of mathematical logic. $1.50. 
One of the simplest and most concise treatments 
of the subject of symbolic logic. 

THE HISTORICAL CHRIST; or, An 
Investigation of the Views of Mr. J. 
A. Robertson, Dr. A. Drews and Prof. 
W. B. Smith. By FRED CONYBEARE, M. A., 
F.B.A. Pp. 235. 8vo; cloth. Price, $1.50 net. 
This author deals the " 'Christ Myth' theories 

a smashing blow. A good antidote to reckless 

writers." The Continent. 

ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS, Phy- 
sical and Psychical. By ERNST MACH. 
Third edition new. Cloth. $1.50. 
"A writer with a reputation like that of Mach 
needs no introduction. This is perhaps his best- 
known publication. " Cambridge Magazine. 

ESSAYS ON THE LIFE OF NEWTON. 

By AUGUSTUS DE MORGAN. Cloth. $1.25. 

"An essay concerning the great controversy 
about the invention of the infinitesimal calculus, 
in which Newton and Leibnitz were the princi- 
pals." Boston Transcript. 

"Excellent essays dealing with that peren- 
nially interesting intellectual giant Isaac New- 
ton." Chicago Journal. 

"Here will be found some facts not ordinarily 
known concerning the great philosopher." Daily 
News, Chicago. 

(In Prett. ) 

THE BUDGET OF PARADOXES. By 

AUGUSTUS DE MORGAN. Cloth. 2 vols. $10.00. 

"It is only quite recently that mathematicians 
and logicians have come to the conclusion that 
De Morgan was one of the acutest minds of the 
nineteenth century; and it has been left for the 
Open Court to arrive at the entirely justifiable 
decision that everything he wrote is worthy of 
republication. This collection is a particularly 
welcome addition to the list." Cambridge Maga- 
zine, England. 



Send for Complete Catalogue 

THE OPEN COURT PUBLISHING COMPANY, 



CHICAGO 




1915] THE DIAL 185 



The University of Chicago Press 

Forthcoming Books 

The Modern Study of Literature. By RICHARD GREEN MOULTON, 

Head of the Department of General Literature in the University of Chicago. 

An introduction to literary theory and interpretation by the Head of the Depart- 
ment of General Literature in the University of Chicago. The purpose of this work is 
to discuss the Study of Literature : what it must become if it is to maintain its place in 
the foremost ranks of modern studies. The author's previous well-known books on 
literary criticism and his long and successful experience in the public presentation of 
literature have especially fitted him for the authoritative discussion of this great problem 
of modern education. i2mo, cloth; $2. 50, postage extra. 

Senescence and Rejuvenescence. By CHARLES MANNING CHILD, 

Associate Professor of Zoology in the University of Chicago. 

This book presents as the results of certain experimental methods of investigation 
some definite knowledge concerning the processes of senescence and rejuvenescence in 
the lower animals. The most important result of the investigation is the demonstration 
of the occurrence of rejuvenescence quite independently of sexual reproduction. The 
book differs from most previous studies of senescence in that it attempts to show that 
in the organic world in general rejuvenescence is just as fundamental and important a 
process as senescence. 8vo, cloth; $3.00, postage extra. 

University Of Chicago Sermons. By Members of the University Faculties. 
This book contains eighteen sermons delivered by as many leading men from the 
faculties of the University of Chicago. In each sermon appears the best thought of 
a well-known scholar on a particular phase of religious life. The contributors include 
representatives not only of the biblical and theological departments of the University, 
but also of education, sociology, and philosophy. A combination of modern scholarship 
and pulpit power that makes a volume of religious inspiration for both minister and 
layman. I2mo, cloth; $1.^0, postage extra. 

Religious Education in the Family. (Constructive Studies, Ethical 

Group.) By HENRY F. COPE, General Secretary of the Religious Education Association. 

The author deals with the real meaning of religious education in and through the 
home and its significance to society. He interprets past customs and recommends 
many new and definite practices for the direction of the child's religious ideals and 
activities. To the sane discussion of family worship, church-going, the Bible in the 
home, and Sunday occupations, the author adds illuminating chapters on the family 
table, stories and reading, week-day activities, the school, moral crises, and other vital 
topics. A book especially valuable for parents' associations and classes, and all indi- 
viduals and organizations interested in child welfare and the promotion of a Christian 
type of home. I2mo, cloth; $1.25, postage extra. 

The City Institute for Religious Teachers. (Principles and Methods 

of Religious Education.) By WALTER S. ATHEARN, Professor of Religious Education 

in Drake University. 

A city institute is the result of the application of the common-sense business principle 
of combination of effort and resources to the problem of training Sunday-school teachers. 
It unites Christian people in the support of the work of religious education as they are 
united in the work of upholding the common schools. The author of this book, Pro- 
fessor Athearn, of Drake University, has ably demonstrated the practicability of the 
institute plan in the city of Des Moines, Iowa, where more than thirty churches have 
for several years combined their forces in a teacher-training institute. A book that 
shows Sunday-school workers a unique yet thoroughly 'tested plan for gaining efficiency 
in teaching. i6mo, cloth; 75 cents, postage extra. 

THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS :: CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



186 



THE DIAL 



[ March 18 



Important New Publications of 

HARPER & BROTHERS 



THE TURMOIL. By Booth Tarkington 

" I want to be the first to register my opinion that Booth Tarkington's new novel, ' The Turmoil ' 
is the biggest thing that has been done in fiction during the last ten years. ' The Turmoil ' will stand 
the test of a great book. The ' Tired Business Man ' will revel in it. The school girl will find it the 
most charming love story she has read in months. The reader of literary taste has waiting for him a 
book of rare truth and strength." Albert Frederick Wilson, New York University. Illustrated. $1.35 
net. 



THE LONE STAR RANGER 

By ZANE GREY 

A rushing story of the wild border days of 
Texas in the early seventies, with their desperate 
contests between outlaws and Rangers. Incident 
after incident crowds upon another hairbreadth 
escapes, deeds of thrilling adventures, manly chiv- 
alry, and devoted love. Frontispiece, $1.35 net. 

MOONGLADE 



Brittany and Russia the two countries the 
authors know so well form the picturesque set- 
tings of this cosmopolitan novel of aristocratic 
life. All those readers who are familiar with the 
other books of this author will find in this new 
story the same colorful descriptions of ancient 
castles and modern palaces, of loyal servitors and 
graceful customs. Frontispiece. $1.35 net. 



THE GREAT MIRAGE 

By JAMES L. FORD 

The eyes of youth, looking toward the City, see 
a glittering horizon, and Mr. Ford who knows 
the city as few men know it tells with skill and 
a good-humored brilliance what is behind the 
reflections of the great mirage. Frontispiece. 
$1.35 net. 

THE LADDER 

By PHILIP CURTISS 

The history of a casual man who found it 
easier to climb than to fall. A hopeful, optimistic 
story of the possibilities of American life. The 
hero passes through various sections of its social 
strata as farm-boy, factory-worker, soldier, State 
Senator, and playwright. Frontispiece. $1.30 net. 



THE SPANISH DEPENDENCIES IN SOUTH AMERICA 

By Professor BERNARD MOSES, University of California 

This important work deals with the period between 1550 and 1730 the beginnings of European 
civilization in widely separated regions of South America. Conquests, settlements, the slave trade, 
piracy, the ordinances in regard to trade, the Jesuit missions, the relation of the clergy to the civil 
government, are some of the subjects interspersed among the records of viceroys, revolts and asser- 
tions of the Crown authorities. Two volumes. Octavo. Cloth, $5.00 net. 



THE AMERICAN GIRL 

By ANNE MORGAN 

This little book, by the daughter of the great 
financier, is filled with helpful suggestions to her 
young countrywoman in the four points of her 
life's highroad her education, her responsibili- 
ties, her recreation, and her future. Miss Morgan 
is a woman of wide mental vision and warm sym- 
pathies, and her advice is founded on mature 
thought and experience. Frontispiece, 50 cents net. 



HEROES OF PEACE 

By F. J. GOULD 

Wonderful tales of men who have wrought in 
peace deeds through which shine out the courage 
and endurance so often attributed only to warlike 
actions. Here are told the histories of the found- 
ing of the Red Cross, the laying of the Atlantic 
cable, stories of the achievements, after dangers, 
of deep-sea fishermen and international arbitra- 
tion, of Wisconsin lumbermen and the fighting of 
wild beasts and diseases in India, etc. Illustrated. 
161110, 75 cents; School Edition, 50 cents net. 



NEW LIMP LEATHER EDITION OF MARK TWAIN 

An important event in book-publishing is this new edition of the works of the great humorist. 
The volumes are light and easy to hold, printed on carefully selected paper and bound in limp red 
leather. Two volumes or more are being published each month. 

idmo. Frontispiece in each volume. Titles in one volume sold at rate of $1.75 net each. Titles 
in tivo volumes sold at rate of $1.50 net each. Sets at $37.00 net. 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



187 



MPliSl^^ 

I Books That Never Grow Old 

You may purchase the following books with the assurance that you 
have made an investment. For, without exception, they are not of the 
| ^s ! ephemeral type. Each of them will afford you as much pleasure every 

time you open it, as it does at the first reading. If your bookseller can 
not supply you add 10% to the prices for carriage and order direct. 

Time O' Day 

By Doris Egerton Jones 



Thyme O'Dea is a girl, the sweetest, 
sprightliest, most open-hearted girl 
you ever knew. She tells you her 
secrets all of them not as a con- 
fession, but out of pure exuberance of 
spirit. She has her romances plenty 
of them. And she tells you about 
them from her most intimate view- 
point, without altering them to suit 
convention and without coloring them 
to meet the approval of sensitive rela- 
tives. Time O'Day tells you more 
about a girl's fears and ambitions than 
all your feminine acquaintances com- 
bined would ever divulge. It's a clean, 
interesting, inspiring story one that 
|ES1 makes the cloudiest day seem sunny. 

I2mo. Cloth. $1.25 net. 



The Polly Page 
Camping Club 

By Izola L. Forrester 

Author of "The Polly Page 
Motor Club," etc, 

The delightful times which Polly Page 
and her chums enjoyed on their last 
vacation are continued this summer. 
How girls could get more real enjoy- 
ment and wholesome fun out of life it 
is impossible for us to imagine. I2mo. 
Cloth. With picture on cover. Five 
full-page illustrations by Anna Garrett, 
printed on tinted background. $1.00 
net. 






A Sister to 
Assist 'er 

By John LeBreton 

A " Wallingf prd " of the slums one 
of the funniest bits since "Pigs Is 
Pigs." It is written in Cockney 
English with a humor that is irresis- 
tible; a scream from cover to cover. 
idmo. Cloth. 50 cents net. 




This book traces the evolution of 
heraldry from its origin in ancient 
tribal totemism, through the feudal 
system, subordinating, to some extent, 
the purely technical details to the 
romantic, sociological and artistic 
aspects. 8vo. Cloth. With over 274 
illustrations in line and half-tone. 
$2.00 net. 



George W. Jacobs & Co., Publishers 

1628 Chestnut Street Philadelphia, Pa. 



Ulysses S. Grant 

American Crisis Biographies 

By Prof '. Franklin S.Edmonds 

The fact that Mr. Edmonds has had 
access to a number of unpublished 
letters makes this a very complete 
biography containing much matter 
that does not appear in other Lives of 
Grant. This is the concluding volume j -53 
in the American Crisis Biographies. 
i2mo. Cloth. With frontispiece por- 
trait. $1.25 net. 



By Guy Cadogan Rothery 






HE j3iiTii iimioitmitiHinim 1 1 



188 



THE DIAL 



March 18 



Some of Little, Brown & Co.'s Spring Books 



FICTION 



THE SECOND BLOOMING 

(6th printing) 

By W. L. GEORGE. A searching analysis of mar- 
riage in England upper middle class. $1.35 net 

A SIREN OF THE SNOWS 

An exciting story of the U. 
Illustrated. $1.30 net. 



By STANLEY SHAW. 
S. Secret Service. 



MR. GREX OF MONTE CARLO 

By E. PHILLIPS OPPENHEIM. Sixth edition of 
this amazing story of international intrigue. 

Illustrated. $1.33 net. 

THE TAMING OF AMORETTE 



By ANNE WARNER 
wife of flirting. 

Illustrated by O. F. Underwood. 



How a man cured his pretty 
$1.00 net. 



HOMEBURG MEMORIES 

By GEORGE FITCH. The small-town life done in 
true Fitchian humor. Illustrated. $1.25 net. 

A GIRL OF THE BLUE RIDGE 

(April 15} 

By PAYNE ERSKINE. The love romance of a hill 
girl, by the author of "The Mountain Girl." 

Illustrated. $1.35 net. 



AMARILLY OF 
CLOTHES-LINE ALLEY 

By BELLE K. MANIATES. Sixth edition of this 
cheery story of a girl who radiates happiness 
where'er she goes. $1.00 net. 

THE FLYING U'S LAST STAND 

By B. M. BOWER. Another of this author's 
stirring stories of ranch life. $i-3o net. 

THE TURBULENT DUCHESS 

(5th printing) 

By PERCY BREBNER. Full of adventure, love 
and chivalry. Illustrated. $1.30 net. 

SHEEP'S CLOTHING 

By Louis JOSEPH VANCE. A story of smuggling, 
love and plenty of adventure 

Pictures by Flagg. $1.30 net. 

MARY MORELAND 

(Ready April 15) 

By MARIE VAN VORST. A story of present-day 
New York life, by the author of " Big Tremaine.' ' 

$1.35 net. 

THE RIM OF THE DESERT 

(April 15} 

By ADA WOODRUFF ANDERSON. A dramatic 
tale of politics and love with scenes laid in the 
Northwest. $i-35 net. 



MISCELLANEOUS 
THE INDIVIDUAL DELINQUENT NAPOLEON'S RUSSIAN 

By WILLIAM HEALY, M.D. A text -book of CAMPAIGN OF 1812 

diagnosis and prognosis for all concerned in un- By EDWARD FOORD. The true records of Napo- 

derstanding offenders. 5.00 net. i eon 's amazing career. Illustrated. $4.00 net. 



TABLE SERVICE 

By LUCY G. ALLEN. A concise exposition of the 
waiter's duties, including tray service, carving, 
the care of the dining room, laying the table, 
etc. Illustrations and diagrams. $1-25 net. 

LIMITATIONS ON THE 
TREATY-MAKING POWER 

By HENRY ST. GEORGE TUCKER, formerly presi- 
dent of the American Bar Ass'n. $5.00 net. 



MIND AND HEALTH SERIES 

A series of Medical handbooks written by emi- 
nent specialists and designed to present the results 
of recent research in a form for the lay public's 
reading: 

Volumes ready: I. HUMAN MOTIVES, by 
JAMES J. PUTNAM, M.D.; II. THE MEAN- 
ING OF DREAMS, by ISADOR H. CORIAT; 
III. SLEEP AND SLEEPLESSNESS, by H. 
ADDINGTON BRUCE. Each, $1.00 net. 



THE YOUNG RIVAL 
INVENTORS 

By GARDNER HUNTING. How some boys 
achieved success with their inventions. 



JUVENILES 

BOY SCOUTS OF 
BLACK EAGLE PATROL 

By LESLIE W. QUIRK. Deals not with camp life 
but with the real adventures in every-day lives 
of a boy's club. $1.00 net. 



$1.00 net. 

THE BEDTIME STORY BOOKS 

By THORNTON W. BURGESS. 

VII. ADVENTURES OF DANNY MEADOW MOUSE 

VIII. ADVENTURES OF GRANDFATHER FROG 

Two new titles in this popular series of animal stories for bedtime reading 

Illustrated by H. Cady. 50 cents net, each. 



LITTLE, BROWN Sf CO., Publishers, BOSTON, MASS. 



1915] THE DIAL 189 



The Century Company's Spring List 

Published in March 

Through Stained Glass Pan -Americanism 

Another novel by GEORGE A. CHAMBERLAIN, By ROLAND G. USHER, author of "Pan-German- 
author of the very successful " Home. " ism." The new book concerns America now. 
$1.30 net, postage 10 cents. $2.00 net, postage 10 cents. 

Pepper George Bernard Shaw: 

A second joyful Harvard undergraduate story Harlequin or Patriot? JOHN PALMER'S bril- 

by HOLWORTHY HALL (HAROLD E. PORTER), liant revelation of the real G. B. S. 50 cents net, 

author of "Henry of Navarre, Ohio." $1.30 postage 5 cents, 
net, postage 10 cents. 

To Be Published in April 
The House of the Misty Star South of Panama 

By FANNIE CALDWELL MACAULAY (FRANCES PROFESSOR EDWARD ALSWORTH Ross's timely ac- 
LITTLE), author of "The Lady of the Decoration." count of South America including trade pos- 
Illustrated. $1.25 net, postage 10 cents. sibilities. $2.40 net, postage 10 cents. 

Plays for School Children Arms and the Race 

Edited by ANNA M. LUTKENHAUS, with an intro- R. M. JOHNSTON'S sane, vigorous discussion of the 
duction telling how to present amateur plays. relation of fighting and men. $1.00 net, postage 
$1.25 net, postage 10 cents. 5 cents. 

To Be Published in May 

Diantha 

JULIET WILBOR TOMPKIN'S story of a modern Cinderella, who becomes as beautiful as she is good. 
$7.25 net, postage 10 cents. 

The Brocklebank Riddle 

HUBERT WALES'S weird, wild mystery story of a man cremated who appears in his office the next 
week. $1.30 net, postage 10 cents. 

The World Crisis and Beyond 

EDWIN DAVIES SCHOONMAKER'S forecast of the European war's influence upon the world's social 
movements. 2.00 net, postage 10 cents. 

Published in January and February 

THE SWORt) OF YOUTH, by JAMES LANE ALLEN. $1.25 net, postage 10 cents. 

BILLIE'S MOTHER, by MARY J. H. SKRINE. $1.33 net, postage 10 cents. 

THE ADVENTURES OF DETECTIVE BARNEY, by HARVEY J. O'HiGGiNS. $1.30 net, postage 

10 cents. 

WAR BRIDES, by MARION CRAIG WENTWORTH. 50 cents net, postage 5 cents. 
A RUSSIAN COMEDY OF ERRORS, by GEORGE KENNAN. $1.25 net, postage 10 cents. 
THE LURE OF THE LAND, by HARVEY W. WILEY. $1.25 net, postage 10 cents. 
CHILD TRAINING, by V. M. HILLYER. $1.60 net, postage 10 cents. 
EUROPEAN POLICE SYSTEMS, by RAYMOND B. FOSDICK. $1.30 net, postage 10 cents. 



THE CENTURY CO., Publishers 

353 Fourth Avenue (at 26th street) New York City 



190 



THE DIAL 



[March 18,1915 



New and Forthcoming Macmillan Books 


New Fiction, Poetry and Drama 


Winston Churchill's New Novel 


Edgar L. Masters' s New Book 


A FAR COUNTRY 


SPOON RIVER ANTHOLOGY 


By WINSTON CHURCHILL. Another true picture of 


By EDGAR L. MASTERS. Verse essentially American 


contemporary American life as fearless and revealing as 
"The Inside of the Cup." Ready in May. $1.50 


in character written in a new free form of poetical expression. 
Ready in April. $1.23 


Ernest Poole's New Novel 




THE HARBOR 


Robert and Elizabeth B. Browning's New Book 


By ERNEST POOLE. "One of the ablest novels added 


NEW POEMS 


to American fiction in many a year. " 2V. Y. Tribune. 


By ROBERT and ELIZABETH B. BROWNING. 


$1.40 


Edited by Sir F. G. Kenyon. Twenty-nine poems by 


H. C. Wells' s New Novel 


Robert Browning and six poems by Mrs. Browning not 


BEALBY 


hitherto published. Two portraits. $1.25 


By H. G. WELLS. Mr. Wells's new story of an ambitious 




boy, as delightful and humorous as his previous novel, 


Rabindranath Tagore's New Book 


" The Wife of Sir Isaac Harman. " $i. 33 


SONGS OF KABIR 


Eden Phillpotts's New Novel 


By RABINDRANATH TAGORE. Sympathetic versions 


BRUNEL'S TOWER 


of the spiritual songs of the great Hindu reformer. One of 
Mr. Tagore's most important books. $1.25 


By EDEN PHILLPOTTS. The interesting story of a 




regenerated character. Probably the most notable novel 
of the author of "Faith Tresilion," etc. 1.50 


Edward Sheldon's New Drama 




THE GARDEN OF PARADISE 


The New American Novel 


By EDWARD SHELDON. A charming poetic play 


GETTING A WRONG START 


based on Hans Christian Andersen's fairy tale, "The Little 


Anonymous 


Mermaid." $1.25 


The intimate story of a well-known author told with power 




and frankness. Ready in March. 


Alice Brown's $10,000 Play 


James Stephens 's New Book 


CHILDREN OF EARTH 


SONGS FROM THE CLAY 


By ALICE BROWN. "The $10,000 American Play 


By JAMES STEPHENS. A new book of verse by the 


selected from thousands submitted in the 'Ames' Com- 


author of "Insurrections," "The Crock of Gold," etc. 


petition. . . A charming, unusual, New England story." 


"Original, varied, with a keen sense of humor." $1.25 


$1.25 


New Books on Philosophy, Education and Religion 


OUTLINES OF CHILD STUDY 


THE RISE OF MODERN RELIGIOUS IDEAS 


By WILLIAM A. McKEEVER. An invaluable collection 


By ARTHUR C. McGIFFERT. A valuable, interesting, 


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THE DIAL 

Jfortntgijtlp journal of mterarp Criticism, Btecustfton, anb 3nf ormatton. 



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Vol. LVIII. MARCH 18, 1915 
CONTENTS. 



No. 690 



PAGE 

THE DARKENED FOREGROUND. Charles 

Leonard Moore 191 

CASUAL COMMENT 193 

The late librarian of the Hispanic Society. 
Underdone English. Books for specialists. 
The periodicity of anecdotes. A man of in- 
finite variety. Sugar-coating the pill of 
rejection. Encouraging to book-dealers. A 
forgotten Carlyle manuscript. Reading in 
the trenches. 

COMMUNICATIONS 197 

War and Poetry. Ealph Bronson. 

A Textual Difficulty in Milton. Louis C. 

Marolf. 

Some Anti-German Misconceptions Corrected. 
Edmund von Macli. 

THE NEW MOVEMENT IN DRAMATIC 

PRESENTATION. Edward E. Hale . . 199 

TWO YEARS IN HURRICANE LAND. Percy 

F. BicTcnell 201 

THE QUALITY OF GENIUS. T. D. A. Cock- 

erell 203 

ENGLISH LITERATURE IN THE ROMANTIC 

PERIOD. Lane Cooper . . . '"-. . . .205 

EYE-WITNESSES AT THE SHAMBLES. Wal- 
lace Bice 208 

Cobb's Paths of Glory. Davis's With the 
Allies. Powell's Fighting in Flanders. 
Barnard's Paris War Days. Kilpatrick's 
Tommy Atkins at War as Told in His Own 
Letters. Millicent Duchess of Sutherland's 
Six Weeks at the War. 

RECENT FICTION. William Morton Payne . . 211 

BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS 213 

Mysteries of the living world. The story of 
the French Revolution. An appraisement of 
Harvard. Essays and addresses of a famous 
surgeon. England in the later Middle Ages. 
America's foremost art museum. War 
and the insurance relation. A mediaeval story 
in modern dress. The flower of mediaeval 
church architecture. 

BRIEFER MENTION 216 

NOTES . -. -.- 217 

ANNOUNCEMENTS OF SPRING BOOKS . . 219 
(A classified list of books to be issued by 
American publishers during the Spring and 
Summer of 1915.) 

LIST OF NEW BOOKS . . 233 



THE DARKENED FOREGROUND. 



In the Altman collection of the Metropolitan 
Museum in New York there is a magnificent 
specimen of the work of the great landscape 
painter Ruysdael. In the foreground of the 
painting, where in Nature (for it is mid-day 
or thereabouts) everything would be the clear- 
est and most distinct, Euysdael has thrust a 
broad wedge of night. There is a road, there 
are some fallen trees, a few figures; but 
scarcely anything can be distinguished. Why 
did the artist do this ? Well, on either side of 
this darkened space slope rye fields which we 
feel we could wade through if we could reach 
them; in the rear is a farmstead with trees 
peaceful and alluring and absolutely true in 
tone and scale ; and back of all is the real dome 
of the sky, with rising clouds as magnificent as 
have ever been drawn by man. By falsifying 
his foreground, Ruysdael secured all the other 
truths of his picture. 

In an art so various as painting it is foolish 
to generalize. It is possible in depicting inte- 
riors, those builded by either nature or man, to 
plunge the foreground objects into light and 
get some sort of distance by means of lurking 
shadows behind. It is possible to throw a veil 
over everything, and thus shirk the presenta- 
tion of strong light and shade. It is possible to 
paint decoratively with harmonies of colors 
which have little relation to reality. There 
are new schools in painting which reject the 
imitation of nature altogether. But in the 
main the method which Ruysdael so boldly dis- 
plays in this picture is the method of painting. 
Compared with the infinite variety of nature's 
illumination, an artist's pigments are so dull 
that if he puts the real hues in the front of his 
picture he will have exhausted all his grada- 
tions of tint before he reaches his middle dis- 
tance, and will have nothing at all left for his 
background or sky. So he "fakes" his fore- 
ground, and lies about the nearest and dis- 
tinctest visibilities. 

Painting is confined, or ought to be confined, 
to one moment and one division of space. Lit- 
erature introduces duration and a multiplica- 
tion of spaces, and is therefore immensely more 
complex. But we think that there is in the 



192 



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[ March 18 



best literary art something analogous to the 
painter's principle of darkening the fore- 
ground. Literature's poverty of resource as 
compared with life is even more apparent than 
that of painting. There are something like 
thirty million seconds in a year, and each one 
of them may be productive of an emotion or a 
situation. Every personage in a piece of lit- 
erature must pass through innumerable 
scenes; but only a few of these scenes can be 
given. To get proportion, vividness, reality, 
the writer must select his moments and his 
locations properly. To get distance, large- 
ness, vision, he must more or less obscure his 
foregrounds. 

That a vast deal of modern literature has 
followed an exactly opposite principle, has 
dealt only with the near and the new, is 
nothing to the purpose. A vast deal of mod- 
ern literature, judged by the work which has 
lasted, is wrong. Take, for example, Tolstoi's 
enormous novel, "War and Peace." It has 
been called an epic; but it precisely contra- 
venes every epic law. It is all foreground. 
Each figure in it is painted as distinctly as 
every other. When we try to call it up in 
memory we can only think of a confused med- 
ley, with no one figure or scene emerging dis- 
tinctly. It is a wonderful work of genius in 
detail; but a bound volume of a newspaper 
would have almost as much claim to be called 
a work of art. 

The sooner we recognize that life and litera- 
ture are separate businesses the sooner we 
shall begin to produce something worth while 
in the latter field. Life is huge, confused, hap- 
hazard. Accident, sickness, death, the peril of 
the elements, thrust into it. The contradic- 
tory and the unexpected make up a large part 
of its happenings. Unless there is some ob- 
scure law of evolution guiding it, there seems 
to be no direction and no purpose except the 
very definite determinations to live, to work, to 
strive, to enjoy, to exhaust itself. A piece of 
literature is small, ordered, disciplined. It 
bears the law of its maker's nature. It bor- 
rows its material from life, and of course it 
may react enormously on life. It is its mak- 
er's report of some part of the vast phantas- 
magoria of life, his judgment upon it, and 
perhaps his vision of something different from 
it. The main point is that it subjects the med- 
ley of life to a certain discipline. 

At first blush it might seem that comedy is 
an exception to the rule of art's separation 



from life and from the principle of the dark- 
ened foreground. Comedy is, though not 
essentially yet in usual practice, a contempo- 
rary creation. It steps right off from the 
street. Yet take the greatest comedy the last 
century produced, that of Dickens. The 
grime, the gloom, the squalor of London, are 
used to set off his gigantic figures of fun. The 
principle of contrast is invoked, and out of 
their almost unbearable conditions Micawber. 
Sairey Gamp, Dick Swiveller, the Wellers, and 
a hundred more rise in a riot of animal spirits 
ten times more living than life. The light, 
bright comedy of Meredith is weak and unsub- 
stantial in comparison. It may be objected 
that the gloom and squalor of London existed, 
and that Dickens merely painted what he saw. 
But he undoubtedly put more of them in his 
prescription than life's recipe would call for. 
And he might have ignored them altogether, 
as did Meredith and most of the rather watery 
humorists and novelists who have followed 
him. But he exaggerated, as all great artists 
have done. The hostess of the inn which was 
the supposed scene of Burns 's "Jolly Beg- 
gars" protested that hers was a perfectly 
respectable house and that no such crew of 
tatterdemalions had ever gathered there. The 
lady suffragists of Athens probably hated 
Aristophanes for his three woman comedies, 
and the priesthood of France certainly hated 
Rabelais. Comedy at its greatest is an upset- 
ting and irreverent thing, and uses a great deal 
of lampblack. Even in the ideal comedy of 
Shakespeare there is plenty of shadow, and the 
principle of contrast is maintained. The 
tempest and the wreck precede Ariel and 
Miranda and the voices of the island. The 
Jew sharpening his knife comes before the 
moonlight scene at Belmont. The unjust 
brother, the jealous Duke, and the wrestling- 
match are a prelude to the forest loves and 
friendships of Arden. 

Tragedy in literature, if it is to be effective, 
must of course be removed and separated from 
ordinary life. In its thrilling moments on the 
stage they darken the house to bring out the 
full effect. We should probably laugh at a 
great deal of tragedy if it was not carefully 
prepared for, and solemnized by its surround- 
ings. How little the tragedies of life, of 
course barring our own, impress us! Every 
morning newspaper has a score, a hundred of 
them to report. We glance at the head-lines, 
yawn and toss the sheet aside. It takes an 



1915 



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193 



earthquake, a holocaust, to move us a little. 
Yet an artist can take one of the least incidents 
in the news and by properly subordinating 
other things to it can win us to sympathy and 
tears. A certain remoteness and loftiness are 
necessary to the greatest tragic effects. Make 
your hero a king, said Aristotle, and then peo- 
ple will sympathize. Either we do not feel 
that ordinary life is good enough for tragic 
trappings, or we secretly believe that we are 
princes and princesses who have been changed 
in the cradle and so only sympathize with our 
kin. Here, too, of course, the modern spirit 
has tried to nullify the teaching of ages. 
Democracy has wanted to be tragic, as it has 
wanted all other good things. Mr. James and 
Mr. Howells have shown us the plots and per- 
plexities that attend the lives of the great 
suburban class. Dostoieffsky has revealed to 
us the fortunes and fates of criminals. Mr. 
Hardy has tried to lift up those trodden 
flowers of the world, Tess and Jude. But we 
are entirely unconvinced that these creations, 
charming or powerful as they may be, will per- 
manently or even for a time usurp the places 
of the kings and captains and great ladies 
of Shakespeare or Scott. The human instinct 
for believing the best of itself is against them. 
Even in contemporary popularity, their mak- 
ers are beaten out of the field by novelists like 
Mrs. Ward and Miss Corelli, who do, in a way, 
put their trust in princes. 

Poetry, absolute poetry, must be more or 
less removed from life, it must keep its dis- 
tance. It does keep its distance by means of a 
special language, a special movement and 
ordering of words, an atmosphere of its own. 
With its purple robes, its round of gold about 
its brow, its inspired air, it becomes ridiculous 
when it steps down into the forum or the 
drawing-room, -among men clad in tweeds or 
women in Paris fashions. The vulgar cannot 
understand it ; they would indeed have to be 
born again to enter its heaven. It is for the 
young and unspoiled, for the solitary enthusi- 
asts, for the dreamers brooding over the secrets 
of the universe. That is the reason why politi- 
cal poetry is such a doubtful good, and why 
humorous poetry is almost a contradiction in 
terms. The best poetry, too, has its foreground 
shadow. There is a good deal to be said for 
Poe's theory that melancholy is the highest 
poetic motive. Joy may be, and indeed almost 
always is, vulgarized, but sadness can never 
be vulgarized. 



We have now gone the round, and may get 
back to Ruysdael's picture, which we hope we 
have shown has a lesson in it not only for 
painters but for literary artists. Nay, it is not 
without a bearing on morality. The Delecta- 
ble Mountains and the fair skies are generally 
separated from us by a bar of shadow, strug- 
gle, suffering. "Can you have all this and 
heaven too?" said Lyman Beecher's rustic 
parishioner, as to his shocked eyes were re- 
vealed the horsehair sofa, the marble-topped 
table, and the plush-covered album of the min- 
ister's parlor. Modern life and art and litera- 
ture, womanized, have tried to put light and 
joy into the foreground. But it won't do! 
We must work through shadow into glory ; we 
must earn our kisses by kicks; we must run 
the gauntlet before being acclaimed a warrior. 
CHARLES LEONARD MOORE. 



CASUAL COMMENT. 



THE LATE LIBRARIAN OF THE HISPANIC SO- 

CIETY, Winfred Robert Martin, whose recent 
death has called forth glowing tributes to his 
virtues and talents, was evidently the strong- 
est possible contrast to the typical book- 
custodian of olden times. But how could he 
have failed to be, sprung from a father of such 
varied and unusual gifts as those possessed 
by the Rev. William Alexander Martin, who 
survives his son? The elder Martin's mis- 
sionary and diplomatic services in China, and 
his published works in English and Chinese 
for he both speaks and writes the latter diffi- 
cult language have won for him a more than 
local distinction. A similar or even wider 
range of interests and aptitudes is to be noted 
in the son, whose skeleton biography in 
"Who's Who" shows him to have been a 
Princeton graduate, of the class of 1872; a 
bachelor of law, New York University ; a doc- 
tor of philosophy, Tubingen ; a doctor of laws, 
Trinity College; professor of oriental lan- 
guages at Trinity from 1888 to 1907 ; instruc- 
tor in Sanskrit at the Hartford Theological 
Seminary from 1902 to 1907 ; librarian of the 
Hispanic Society of America from 1907 until 
his death; and member of various American 
and foreign learned societies. But first and 
last he seems to have been preeminently a 
teacher, a kindler of zeal for knowledge in the 
breasts of others, as is plain from the testi- 
mony of his former pupils and of those who 
came into inspiring contact with him else- 
where than in the classroom. In the sixth 
chapter of Professor William Lyon Phelps's 
"Teaching in School and College" occurs this 



194 



[ March 18 



attesting passage : ' ' The teacher must not be 
a mere hearer of recitations. He should not 
exclusively confine himself to discovering 
whether or not the pupils have made sufficient 
preparation. In many of our recitations at 
school and college we never expected to learn 
anything ; never did, anyhow : we simply an- 
swered formal questions. So fixed was this 
idea in our minds, that our first interview with 
a new instructor in the Hartford High School, 
Mr. "Winfred R. Martin, one of the greatest 
teachers I ever knew, was not only disastrous 
to us, but we nearly broke out into open rebel- 
lion. He asked us things that were not in the 
notes! Later we found him a constant and 
powerful inspiration. Even at that early age 
we obtained from him a notion of the meaning 
of true scholarship. He was and is a profound 
and original scholar, a man of varied and 
amazing learning, and we respected him for 

it." 



UNDERDONE ENGLISH might be a good term 
to apply to those alien words that elbow their 
way into our speech without showing any like- 
lihood of ever becoming naturalized in spell- 
ing or pronunciation. Ennui, for instance, 
will never be thoroughly English, and as long 
as we have tedium and boredom it will not be 
needed. Wanderlust, which we still write 
with an initial capital, in the German manner, 
and usually pronounce as the Germans do, if 
we are able, might well enough be unreservedly 
adopted, and written and spoken as good 
English, which indeed it is. As Professor 
Brander Matthews sensibly remarks, in a cur- 
rent magazine article on pure English, "if a 
word is now English, whatever its earlier 
origin, then it ought to be treated as English, 
deprived of its foreign accents, and forced to 
take an English plural. ' ' He continues : "No 
one doubts for a moment that cherub and 
criterion, medium and index can claim good 
standing in our English vocabulary, yet we 
find a pedant now and then who still bestows 
upon these helpless words the plurals they had 
to use in their native tongues, and who there- 
fore writes cherubim and criteria, media and 
indices, violating the grammatical purity of 
English." Many will have noted the pitfalls 
laid for the unwary and the uneducated in 
these foreign plurals: the use of data as a 
singular noun is now so common that presently 
we shall have the lexicographers bending to 
popular custom, and stamina already receives 
from them a sort of half -recognition as a singu- 
lar noun. The height of absurdity is attained 
in cherubims, which is not unknown in the 
speech of the uneducated. Another absurdity 
is met with in the lavish use of the French 



feminine adjective to designate brands of 
cigarettes, confectionery, and other merchan- 
dise. Thus we have "Egyptienne cigarettes" 
(not cigarettes egyptiennes) and "Premiere 
chocolates." At some restaurants the guests 
are treated to "spaghetti Italienne," as well 
as to "bullion soup," "consomme" (unac- 
cented), and other philologically wonderful 
dishes. Of course the French expression in 
full, of which the feminine adjective is often 
the surviving remnant, is familiar enough; 
but that does not make good English or fault- 
less French of "string beans Parisienne" or 
' ' lamb chops with Hollandaise sauce. ' ' Those 
who are interested in the preservation of our 
tongue in its purity will enjoy reading the 
aforementioned article in the March issue of 
"Harper's Magazine." 



BOOKS FOR SPECIALISTS are among the most 
costly works known to the book trade. They 
may be out of print, rare, and all but unob- 
tainable ; or, if current publications, they may 
represent such an excess of labor and expense 
in their preparation, compared with the lim- 
ited demand they are likely to meet, as to ren- 
der their purchase an impossibility for most 
individual students and for all but the largest 
libraries. Hence the importance, to special- 
ists, of knowing just what great public collec- 
tions of books are strong in their particular 
fields. Among American libraries noted for 
their resources in these special departments, 
the Newberry Library of Chicago enjoys a 
deserved repute. Its librarian 's latest Report 
has some pages of interesting reading that 
illustrate the zeal and intelligence constantly 
devoted to the strengthening of the various 
special collections in the library. That this 
effort is not wasted becomes evident from the 
testimony of the call slips. "It is a note- 
worthy fact, ' ' records the librarian, ' ' that the 
most highly specialized divisions of the library 
are the ones whose books show a steadily 
increasing use. The casual visitor or person 
unfamiliar with the materials of research 
usually picks out just these divisions in which 
to ask the invariable question, 'But does any- 
one ever call for or need such books as these ? ' 
And the necessarily affirmative reply evokes 
with equal invariability a politely skeptical 
smile." But the facts speak for themselves. 
' ' For example, the Prince Louis Lucien Bona- 
parte Library consists of some 18,000 volumes, 
chiefly relating to the various languages, dia- 
lects, and patois known to have been spoken or 
employed as a medium of literary communica- 
tion in Europe during the past two thousand 
years. Few persons are able to make intelli- 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



195 



gent use of these works except trained philolo- 
gists and advanced students of literary and 
linguistic origins. And yet, well over 3,000 
volumes were drawn from this collection for 
reading or consultation during 1914, while 
during the five-year period, 1910-14, nearly 
15,000 volumes have been put at the service of 
readers. The case is the same with the Edward 
E. Ayer Collection of Americana, an ex- 
tremely specialized library of original sources 
printed, manuscript, and graphic." It is 
a theory of librarians, which library expe- 
rience tends to confirm, that there is no book 
in any library that will not, sooner or later, 
find its reader. 



THE PERIODICITY OF ANECDOTES can hardly 
equal in regularity the recurrence of the 
spring and neap tides, or the successive re- 
turns of Encke's Comet, but there is no ques- 
tion that the same popular story has a way of 
taking repeatedly new forms and enjoying 
fresh favor. It is not improbable that some 
neat situation, having tickled some one's fancy 
either in real life or as an invention of the 
imagination, may again independently present 
itself in fact or fancy a half-century or so 
later; just as the man in Ohio re-invented the 
screw-propeller a generation or more after it 
had been successfully applied to ship-propul- 
sion. Or the same good story may have simul- 
taneous birth in two distant places, after the 
manner of the Adams and Leverrier coinci- 
dence in astronomy. Mark Twain's "Jump- 
ing Frog" is one of those unfailingly popular 
stories that might, without violence to proba- 
bility, have moved to laughter a knot of idlers 
on the banks of the Nile five thousand years 
ago, or a group of loungers on the strand at 
Aulis, at a somewhat later date. In fact, its 
occurrence, in Greek form, in the pages of 
Professor Henry Sidgwick's "Greek Prose 
Composition" gave rise to the belief that the 
tale was of Athenian origin, and even its 
author was deceived until the translator ac- 
knowledged his deed. Familiar to observant 
readers is the frequent recurrence, with or 
without change of form, of the greater part of 
our best jokes and anecdotes. The humorous 
department of a justly-esteemed American 
magazine prints this month the supposed 
answer of a schoolboy to the question, What 
is the backbone ? The definition is hoary with 
age : ' ' The backbone is a long, straight bone. 
Your head sits on one end, and you sit on the 
other." Three months ago we retold (with 
due credit given) Miss Effie L. Power's story, 
from "How the Children of a Great Library 
Get Their Books, ' ' of the small boy who begged 
the librarian to extend the time on his book 



because he did not dare go home and get it for 
fear of being made to take a bath. Soon 
afterward one of our English exchanges repro- 
duced as new this St. Louis story with a Lon- 
don setting ; and so it promoted the gaiety of 
at least two nations within two months. 


A MAN OF INFINITE VARIETY, which age can- 
not wither nor custom stale, is he whose recent 
pamphlet, "Commonsense about the War," 
shocked and alienated so many of his former 
admirers and set the world at large to dis- 
cussing with renewed curiosity this Protean 
and perplexing personality. Whether one 
considers him a genius or a mountebank, a 
seer or a charlatan, a philosopher or a mad- 
man, a constructive reformer or a ruthless 
iconoclast, Mr. George Bernard Shaw remains 
a perennially interesting, even fascinating, 
member of the human race. To him who in 
the love of Mr. Shaw holds communion with 
his visible forms he speaks a various language ; 
for his gayer hours he certainly has a voice of 
gladness and a smile, though he may not ex- 
actly glide into his darker musings with a mild 
and healing sympathy. Proof of something 
like universality in his genius is found in the 
rather amusing assurance with which one after 
another of those that have studied him venture 
to affirm that they alone really understand 
him and can interpret him to the world. Mr. 
Chesterton has expounded the real Bernard 
Shaw an exposition in which the subject 
utterly failed to recognize himself, and Mr. 
Archibald Henderson has laboriously pre- 
sented another real Mr. Shaw ; and Mr. Shaw 
himself has all the while, naturally enough, 
maintained that he himself was his only trust- 
worthy interpreter, and that the innumerable 
current opinions and impressions of him were 
all, or mostly, wrong; and, finally, we have 
another self-confident expositor, Mr. John 
Palmer, demolishing (in the pages of the cur- 
rent "Century") all the hitherto accepted 
notions of Mr. Shaw's character and explain- 
ing him anew to a mistaken world. Reduced 
to the conciseness of an algebraic formula, 
here is the latest solution of the "G. B. S." 
puzzle : ' ' The ideas of Bernard Shaw == the 
commonplaces of his time. The ideas of Ber- 
nard Shaw -f- his way of presenting them = 

G. B. S." 



SUGAR-COATING THE PILL OF REJECTION will 
never greatly lessen its bitterness, and many 
there are who prefer to take their pill, if take 
it they must, undisguised by this thin layer 
of saccharine deception. A certain editor of 
our acquaintance used to publish a soothingly 
plausible statement that there were no rejec- 



196 



THE DIAL 



[March 18 



tions in his office, but that after such literary 
offerings as best met existing needs had been 
selected the rest were restored with appro- 
priate thanks to their obliging senders. In 
somewhat the same spirit the head of the Bos- 
ton Public Library smilingly explains, if the 
reporter has not misinterpreted him, that "in 
the purchase of fiction no books are ' censored, ' 
as that term is generally understood. We 
choose books, and that implies that some will 
be bought and others not bought. No doubt 
many books are not taken which are as good as, 
even better than, some that are taken. But, in 
choosing, various elements must be considered 
besides literary merit; for example, adap- 
tability to uncultivated readers, human inter- 
est, unquestioned moral tone, and the fitness 
of the book for circulation, practically without 
formality, upon open shelves, free to readers 
of all ages." As to the somewhat celebrated 
volunteer board of fiction-tasters that so faith- 
fully serves the library, Mr. "Wadlin adds: 
"The volunteer committee which reads new 
fiction simply gives its opinion of the books, 
the way in which each strikes a reader of aver- 
age attainments; it is not intended to give a 
literary judgment only, though that point is 
not overlooked, and what a reader says about 
a book is never conclusive as to its purchase. ' ' 
Some books, though approved by this com- 
mittee, are not bought, and others, though not 
approved, are bought. "That a book is not 
bought simply means that in the exercise of 
choice some other book was thought preferable, 
all things considered." After this the free 
advertisement given to a novel by its rejection 
on the part of the Boston Public Library ought 
to lose some of its commercial value. 



ENCOURAGING TO BOOK-DEALERS of the pres- 
ent are certain episodes in the book-trade of 
the past. Mr. James Milne writes, in the 
course of a recent "London Letter" to "The 
Book Monthly": "We have to recognise, in 
the first place, that it is going to be a long 
war, possibly a very long war. It cannot, in 
the nature of things, be as long as the Napo- 
leonic wars of a century ago; but as a cata- 
clysm it may be compared to these, and 
perhaps we may derive some encouraging les- 
sons from them. If you remember, ' Waverley, ' 
the first herald of Sir Walter Scott's genius, 
was published in the year before Waterloo. 
His other stories began almost immediately to 
pour out ; and generally, while Pitt was fight- 
ing Napoleon, English literature was not 
merely not quiescent, but remarkably produc- 
tive. If this was possible then, why should it 
be different now when the field of authorship, 
if it be not so great in masters, is very much 



larger in area? If 'eighteen hundred and 
war-time' was more than a passably good 
period for English authorship, is there any 
reason why 'nineteen hundred and war- time' 
should not also see good work and plenty of it 
in English literature?" Yet it should be 
borne in mind that warfare a century ago was 
not the tremendous and exhausting perform- 
ance that it is now. Also, as the writer admits, 
we have not, or are not conscious of having, 
any Walter Scott at present producing Waver- 
leys for the entertainment and delight of the 

reading public. 



A FORGOTTEN CARLYLE MANUSCRIPT, never 

published, and, except to a few bibliophiles, 
not known to be in existence, has come to light 
among the literary treasures of a collector at 
Norfolk, Virginia, and at the present writing 
is about to pass to the highest bidder at the 
Henkels auction rooms in Philadelphia. It is 
entitled ' ' The Guises, ' ' and is said to be forty- 
six folio pages in length, closely written in the 
familiar crabbed penmanship of its author, 
and to contain about twenty thousand words. 
Its date is given as 1855. As its title indi- 
cates, it gives the history of the house of Guise 
from the first duke of that name. As it has 
to do with a part of Europe where history is 
just now violently in the making, let us quote 
a characteristic fragment from the opening 
page. "Lorraine, Lotharingen, fell, not to the 
first Lothar, who was Charlemagne's grand- 
son, but to a 2d Lothar (who married that 
one's daughter), but whose pedigree, relation- 
ships to men and things, and general bio- 
graphic physiognomy in this world remains, 
as is usual with these poor people, irretriev- 
ably dark to me, weltering in endless im- 
broglios of Carlovingian ramifications and 
disjecta membra; unknown now I do believe 
to all the living; for how can you know it? 
Riddle it out for yourself, with much dis- 
gusting conscientious labour, you straightway 
proceed to forget it again: thrice over that 
has been our experience." 



READING IN THE TRENCHES varies the deadly 
monotony of killing and being killed. In Ger- 
many the call for books to be distributed in 
the field and in military hospitals is said to 
be such as to have caused a remarkable de- 
velopment of the travelling-library system, if 
that is the right term to apply to the mech- 
anism whereby literature is supplied to the 
soldiers of the fatherland. The Royal Library 
at Berlin, acting as a receiving and distribut- 
ing centre in this good work, sends out four 
thousand volumes daily to the front and to 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



197 



hospitals. A Berlin publishing house, that of 
Ulstein & Co., has subscribed a large sum for 
the crating and packing of these books, and 
two express companies carry the boxes without 
charge. A Hamburg agency reports the re- 
ceipt of two hundred and three hundred books 
a day for distribution, and many other coop- 
erating agencies are similarly active. Both 
individual donors and publishing houses are 
contributing the reading matter that through 
these various channels flows to quench the 
book-thirst of the soldiers. 



COMMUNICATIONS. 



WAB AND POETEY. 
(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

The interesting article under the above caption 
in your issue of March 4 has suggested this ques- 
tion in my mind: Is it not the violently partisan 
spirit pervading most of the verse of the present 
war which is chiefly responsible for its failure to 
measure up to high poetical standards? The good 
poet is not necessarily a good patriot, love of 
humanity is with him a far more vital and com- 
pelling impulse than love of country; and he sees 
too deeply and widely into the great complex of 
life ever to believe that in war, as in any other 
form of conflicting human relations, it is always a 
clear case of the devils against the angels. There is 
infinite poetical material in this European drama; 
but it lies leagues beneath the surface aspects dealt 
with by the "patriotic" bards, with their hack- 
neyed variations on the chords of vituperation and 
self-righteousness. It lies in the tragedy of the 
individual soul, whether English, French, Ger- 
man, Russian, or what not; it is to be found in 
the experiences of almost countless men and women 
who have made every sacrifice and suffered every 
agony of which humanity is capable and for a 
cause of which not one in ten thousand could give 
a coherent or plausible explanation. 

To me the most striking poem yet evoked by 
the war is Mr. W. N. Ewer's " Five Souls," pub- 
lished in the London " Nation " last autumn. As 
it has never been reprinted in this country, so far 
as I know, perhaps you may be willing to let me 
share it with your readers. 

" FIRST SOUL. 
" I was a peasant of the Polish plain ; 

I left my plough because the message ran : 
Russia, in danger, needed