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Full text of "The Dial"

From the collection of the 



o PreTinger 

i a 

JLJibrary 

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San Francisco, California 
2006 



ESTABLISH 

LAWRENCE 




THE DIAL 



A Fortnightly Journal of 



Literary Criticism, Discussion, and Information 




Public Library 



VOLUME LIX 

JUNE 24 TO DECEMBER 23, 1915 



CHICAGO 

THE HENRY O. SHEPARD CO. 
1915 



7^7^ 



INDEX TO VOLUME LIX 

PAGE 

ACTING, CLASSICS ON THE ART OF H. C. Chat field-Taylor 564 

A. L. A. CONFERENCE, THE Arthur E. Bostwick 8 

AMERICA, THE MAKING OF William V. Pooley 367 

AMERICAN DRAMA, AN, OF THE 18TH CENTURY William B. Cairns 60 

AMERICAN NATURALIST, A GREAT T. D. A. Cockerell 16 

AMERICAN NOVELISTS, SOME, AND THE LAME ART . . . . H. W. Boynton 548 

AMERICAN ONE- ACT PLAYS, RECENT Homer E. Woodbridge Ill 

AMERICAN POLITICS, THE NEW SPIRIT IN Frederic Austin Ogg 62 

AMERICAN THOUGHT, THE FINE FLOWER OF William Morton Payne 83 

ASTRONOMER, A GREAT, MEMORIALS OF Mabel Loomis Todd 488 

BELGIUM'S POET-LAUREATE Benj. M. Woodbridge 152 

BLUE-STOCKINGS, THE, AND THEIR INFLUENCE Martha Hale ShacTcford .... 105 

BOOKS OF THE AUTUMN SEASON, 1915 199 

BUDDHIST PSYCHOLOGY L. W. Cole 322 

CARLYLE REDIVIVUS Alex. Mackendrick 483 

CHILDREN OF THE CITY T. D. A. Cockerell 103 

CHRISTIANITY'S FIERCEST ANTAGONIST James Taft Hatfield 144 

" CRITIC, THE GENTEEL," A WORD ON H. W. Boynton 303 

CRITICS, A BREVIARY FOR Herbert Ellsworth Cory .... 98 

DANTE IN A NEW TRANSLATION W. H. Carruth 372 

DE PROFUNDIS Alex. Mackendrick 376 

DIPLOMAT OF THE GOLDEN RULE, THE W. H. Johnson 411 

DRAMA IN ENGLISH, THE NEW Helen McAfee 415 

EDUCATION, A PRAGMATIC ILLUMINATION OF Thomas Percival Beyer 109 

ELBA, WATERLOO, ST. HELENA Henry E. Bourne 318 

EMERSON STUDIED FROM His JOURNALS Charles Milton Street 214 

ESSAYS, CRITICAL, EIGHTEENTH CENTURY J. Paul Kaufman 218 

ESSAYS AND ESSAYISTS Charles Leonard Moore ..... 45 

ESSAYS IN MINIATURE William Morton Payne 148 

EXEGI MONUMENTUM: RUPERT BROOKE Charles H. A. Wager . . . . . 605 

FAMILIES, Two FAMOUS, A CENTURY'S RECORDS OF . . . . T. D. A. Cockerell 263 

FERNSEED, ON THE EATING OF Charles Leonard Moore .... 591 

FICTION, RECENT Edward E. Hale . 421, 495, 573, 615 

FICTION, RECENT William Morton Payne 63, 219, 328, 379 

FLAUBERT, THE ROMANTICISM OF Lewis Piaget Shanks 316 

GALSWORTHY, JOHN Edward E. Hale 201 

GARDENER, THE AMATEUR . . T. D. A. Cockerell 419 

GERMAN STATE SOCIALISM, TRIUMPHS OF Frederic Austin Ogg 566 

GREECE, RELICS OF THE BRONZE AGE IN Frederick Starr 58 

HISTORY, A NEW PHILOSOPHY OF Carl Becker 146 

HISTORY As IT Is POPULARIZED Isaac Joslin Cox 612 

HOLIDAY PUBLICATIONS, 1915 497, 575, 618 

INCOME AND ITS DISTRIBUTION IN THE UNITED STATES . . . David T. Thomas 212 

INDIANS, SLAVE-HOLDING, IN THE CIVIL WAR Walter L. Fleming 216 

IRVING-BREVOORT LETTERS, THE William B. Cairns 491 

JAPANESE PEOPLE, AN AUTHORITATIVE HISTORY OF THE . . Payson J. Treat 270 

JAPANESE PRINTS, THE FASCINATION OF Frederick W. Gookin 373 

JEWELS, MAGIC CHARMS AND Helen A. Clarke 610 

LIFE, FINDING ONESELF IN Alex. Mackendrick 20 

LITERARY HISTORY, A CURIOSITY IN Benj. M. Woodbridge 571 

LITERATURE AND HISTORY Fred Morrow Fling 493 

LONDON, LITERARY AFFAIRS IN J. C. Squire 306, 404, 549 

LYRIC LORD, THE Charles Leonard Moore . \ . . 401 

" MOVIES," OLD AND NEW, THE H. C. Chatfield-Taylor 17 

MORRIS, WILLIAM, AND THE WORLD TO-DAY T. D. A. Cockerell 545 

Music, THE INNER LIFE OF Louis James Block 155 

" NATION, THE," JUBILEE OF 86 

PAINTING, THE NEW Grant Showerman 486 

PARIS, LITERARY AFFAIRS IN Theodore Stanton . . . 356, 474, 593 

PARSIFAL LEGEND, A NEW VERSION OF THE M. Goebel 377 



INDEX 



PETRARCH AGAIN W. P. Reeves . . . . 

PLAYS OF WAR AND LOVE, RECENT Homer E. Woodbridge . 

POETRY, RECENT Raymond M. Alden . . 

" PREPAREDNESS," CASSANDRA-VOICES OF Edward Krehbiel . . . 

PUBLISHER AND MAN OF ACTION, RECOLLECTIONS OF A . . . Charles Leonard Moore . 

RUSSIA, THE NEW Frederic Austin Ogg . 

SHAKESPEARE, BACONIZING Samuel A. Tannenbaum 

SHAKESPEAREANA, FRAGMENTA Samuel A. Tannenbaum 

SHAW, BERNARD, SENSE AND NONSENSE ABOUT Archibald Henderson 

SHORT STORIES, THE BEST Charles Leonard Moore . 

SOUTH AMERICAN NEIGHBORS, OUR Walter L. Fleming . . . 

STEVENSON, NEW VIEWS OF Clark S. Northup . . . 

" STORY, JUST A NICE " H. W. Boynton . . . 

STYLE, THE PUGNACIOUS Percy F. Bicknell . . . 

THE PITY OF IT! William Morton Payne . 

THOREAU, THE MODERN Henry Seidel Canby . . 

VIENNESE PLAYWRIGHT IN ENGLISH, A Winifred Smith . . . 

VIRGINIA, THE STORIED BUILDINGS OF Fiske Kimball .... 

VISIONARY, A DIVINE Arthur Damson Ficke . 

VOCATION, THE GREAT Grant Showerman . . 

WAR, THE GREAT, DIPLOMACY AND James W. Garner . . . 

WAR, THE GREAT, SOCIALISM AND Thomas Percival Beyer . 

WAR, SCORCHED WITH THE FLAMES OF Wallace Rice .... 

WASHINGTON, THE BUILDING OF Fiske Kimball .... 

WORLD, THE FEDERATION OF THE T. D. A. Cockerell . . 



26, 



PAGE 
418 

325 
271 
416 
366 
264 
567 
320 
210 
133 
150 
561 
471 
353 
5 

54 

267 

614 

323 

253 

107 

56 

22 

269 

609 



ANNOUNCEMENTS OF FALL BOOKS, 1915 228, 284 

SEASON'S BOOKS FOR THE YOUNG, 1915 507 

CASUAL COMMENT 9, 47, 87, 136, 203, 256, 308, 358, 405, 475, 551, 596 

NOTES ON NEW NOVELS 30, 66, 156, 221, 276 

BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS 31, 67, 113, 158, 222, 277, 329, 379, 423 

BRIEFER MENTION 72, 118, 226, 281, 334, 428 

NOTES 34, 72, 118, 162, 226, 282, 334, 383, 428, 510, 580, 624 

TOPICS IN LEADING PERIODICALS 74, 120, 164, 283, 430, 581 

LISTS OF NEW BOOKS 35, 74, 121, 164, 243, 288, 336, 385, 430, 512, 582, 625 



CASUAL COMMENT 



PAGE 

Academy-Making:, A Word about 552 

American Novel, The Unwritten 309 

" Androcles and the Lion " in Germany 479 

Aphoristic Wisdom ". 408 

Art, The Asceticism of 11 

Austrian Index Librorum Prohibitorum, The 600 

Author's Thirst for Applause, The 308 

Autographs, Valuable, An Arrested Auction Sale of 10 

Bibles and Bombs 601 

Book-Borrowers, A Concession to Delinquent 361 

Book-Borrowers' Responsibilities 311 

Book-Buyers, A Pathetic Appeal to 408 

Book-Buying in Times of Stress 206 

Book-Collecting While You Wait 91 

Book-Collector, How to Become an Expert 50 

Book-Reading Habit, Statistics Concerning the 360 

Books, Misplaced . . , 49 

Books, Our Ancestors' Respect for 49 

Books, The Deceitfulness of Appearances in 479 

Bookland, The Induction of Children into 91 

Byronic Discovery, A 139 

Card Catalogue, A New Use for the 258 

Carnegie Institution Publications 600 

Cataloguer, Perplexing Problems for the 598 

Cataloguing, Cooperative, A New Development in 10 

Censorship, Simple Simons of the 553 

Clergymen, The Favorite Reading of 260 

Culture, Superimposed 47 



PAGE 

Dana Centennial, The 89 

Dictionary-Maker, The Death of a 88 

Dramatic Renascence, The 475 

Economy, A Questionable 360 

Editorial Initiative 136 

" Education, Universal, The Greatest Menace to " 553 

Educational Efforts, Abortive. 310 

Encyclopaedic Research, A Monument of 60 

Essayists, A Prize Competition for 408 

Fiction, Forbidden, The Fascination of 477 

Fiction, Implacable Foes to 406 

Fonetics, Frenzied 555 

Franklin's Epitaph 139 

French Literary Genius as Food for Cannon 257 

Fruitlands, The Restoration of 138 

Gems of Purest Ray Serene 554 

Hall of Fame, Seventeen Selected Candidates for the 12 

" Hamlet," A Hamletless 310 

History, Embroidered 311 

How to be Happy though Rejected 359 

Humor, Learned, A Curious Specimen of 312 

Imagism and Plagiarism 476 

India's First Library Exhibition 407 

" Insects' Homer, The " 358 

Italian Patriotism, An Incentive to 140 

Japan's Annual Book-Trade 90 

Jubilee, A Quarter-Millennial 477 

Juvenile Literature, Safety First in 478 



INDEX 



PAGE 

Knights, Plumed 60 

Language, Purging a, by Fire 138 

Language, Universal, The Birth-Pangs of a 206 

Lexicographer's Lament, A 360 

Lexicography in War and Peace 90 

Library, a Large, Agonies of " Moving Day " in 269 

Library, A Windmill Converted into a 310 

Library Administration, Novelties in 88 

Library, Art in the 139 

Library- Building, A New Suggestion in 601 

Library Buildings, A Defence of Fine 655 

Library Economy in Holland, Instruction in 261 

Library History, American, A Notable Chapter in 809 

Library, Public, Commission Government and the 136 

Library Service, Half a Century of 407 

Library, The, as an Aid to Efficiency 61 

Life, The Real Things of 260 

Lincoln Manuscript, The History of a 598 

Lincoln's Many Biographies, Not the Least of 311 

Lissauer's Literary Lapse 259 

Literary Artists in the Trenches 260 

Literary Effort in the South, A Spur to 87 

Literary Hints to the Vacant-Minded 206 

Literary Honor, A Graceful Acknowledgment of a 551 

Literary Recreations, A Statesman's 204 

Literature, A Contribution to the Curiosities of 554 

Literature, A Nation's Unfaith in its Own 48 

Literature, An Embargo on 552 

Literature, Good, Endowments that Aid the Cause of 204 

Literature, The Consolations of 9 

Literature, The Sifting of 206 

Longfellow House, The 91 

Mind and Body, The Simultaneous Nutrition of 256 

Mirth, The Mission of 137 

Murray, Sir James, Some Anecdotes of the Late 553 

" National Book Fortnight," A 600 

Nippon, In Somnolent 140 

" Notes and Queries," The Fate of 597 

" Novels, Best, in the English Language," A Surprising 

Abundance of 203 

" Old Nassau " . . 600 

Perfection, The Path to 11 

Periodicals, Unpopular 267 



PAGE 

Philological Frenzy 359 

Poetic Vision and Grim Reality 312 

Poetry, Periodical, The Year's 477 

Pratt, Bill, Saw-Buck Philosopher 552 

Publishing and Bookselling Arts and Crafts, A National 

Home for the 90 

Publishing Business, Enterprise in the 406 

Publishing Firm, an Old, The Last Member of 188 

Reading and Studying, The Difference between 51 

Reading by the Clock 308 

Reading in Bed 268 

Reading with the Eyes 554 

Reference Work, The Most Voluminous, in the World 478 

Romance Outdone by Reality 599 

Russian Literature, Revived Interest in 204 

Russia's Dearth of Books and Libraries 137 

Scribe, the Patient, Our Debt to 478 

Sedgwick, Arthur, The Tragic End of 87 

Serbians, The Poetic 361 

Shakespeare Tercentenary, The 598 

Shakespeare, The Russian Peasants' Appreciation of 49 

Skimpole, Harold, Once More 89 

South Africa's Favorite Author 268 

Speech, Rustic, The Vigor of 90 

Spellers, Simplified, The Geographical Distribution of... 140 

Staircase Wit 599 

Stevenson at Saranac 88 

Style, The Potency of 359 

Tauchnitz Series, A Continuation of the 206 

Textbooks, Better, at Lower Price 476 

Thoreau, Reminiscent of 87 

Tsingtau, The University of 91 

University Library Buildings, Dedication of the Finest of 48 

University, The Autonomous 406 

Verse, Martial, The Secret of Success in 407 

War, Higher Learning as Affected by. the 358 

War's Devastation in the Field of Letters and Learning. . 205 

War's Ugliest By-Products, One of 596 

Warsaw's Literary Treasure. 260 

Widener Library, Another Word about the 11 

Woman Librarian, The Psychological Wherefore of the. . . 259 
Writing, Easy, and Hard Reading, Exceptions to the 

Rule of 551 



AUTHORS AND TITLES OF BOOKS REVIEWED 



Abbott, Eleanor Hallowell. The Indiscreet Letter 157 

Abbott, Ly man. Reminiscences 618 

Abel, Annie H. The American Indian as Slave Holder.. 216 

Adams, Frank R. Five Fridays 157 

Altgeld, John Peter. Oratory, new edition 33 

Anderson, Ada Woodruff. The Rim of the Desert 66 

Andrews, Mary Raymond S. The Three Things 623 

Andreyev, Leonid. The Sorrows of Belgium 326 

Armstrong, Edward C. Elliott Monographs 316 

Artzibashef, Michael. Breaking-Point 378 

Averill, Mary. The Flower Art of Japan 620 

Baden-Powell, Sir Robert. Memories of India 618 

Bailey, L. H. Cyclopedia of Horticulture, revised edition. 225 
Baker, C. H. Collins. Art Treasures of Great 'Britain ... 498 
Balfour, Graham. Life of Stevenson, revised edition .... 563 
Ball, W. Valentine. Reminiscences of Sir Robert Ball... 488 

Balmer, Edwin. The Wild Goose Chase 276 

Barbour, Ralph Henry. Heart's Content 606 

Barnes, James, and Kearton, Cherry. Through Central 

Africa 158 

Barney, J. Stewart. L. P. M 66 

Barr, Amelia E. The Measure of a Man 222 

Barr, Amelia E. Three Score and Ten 618 

Barrie, J. M. Der Tag ; or, The Tragic Man 325 

Bassett, Sarah W. The Taming of Zenas Henry 221 

Bax, E. Belfort. German Culture, Past and Present. ... 72 
Baxter, James P. The Greatest of Literary Problems . . . 567 

Baynes, Ernest H. Wild Bird Guests 677 

Beard, Mary R. Woman's Work in Municipalities 32 

Becke, A. F. Napoleon and Waterloo 318 

Becker, Carl L. Beginnings of the American People .... 367 

Beggs, Gertrude H. The Four in Crete 619 

Bell, Lilian. The Story of the Christmas Ship 579 

Belloc, Hilaire. High Lights of the French Revolution . . 493 
Benjamin, S. G. W. Life and Adventures of a Free Lance 223 

Bennett, Arnold. The City of Pleasure 156 

Bennett, Arnold. These Twain 573 

Bennett, Helen C. American Women in Civic Work. . . . 118 



Benson, Arthur Christopher. Escape, and Other Essays. 329 

Beresford, J. D. The Invisible Event 66 

Bernhardi, General von. Germany and England 31 

Bianchi, Martha G. D. The Kiss of Apollo 157 

Bigelow, Poultney. Prussian Memories 618 

Bindloss, Harold. Harding of Allenwood 328 

Binns, Henry B. The Free Spirit 29 

Binyon, Laurence. The Winnowing Fan 272 

Black, Hugh. The New World 579 

"Bliss, Reginald." Boon: The Mind of the Race 278 

Blossom, F. A. La Composition de Salammbo 316 

Boardman, Mabel T. Under the Red Cross Flag 578 

Bodkin, M. McD. Recollections of an Irish Judge 380 

Bostwick, Arthur E. Making of an American's Library. 280 
Bowen, Louise de Koven. Safeguards for City Youth . . . 103 

Bowen, Marjorie. Prince and Heretic 221 

Bowen, Marjorie. The Carnival of Florence 221 

Brangwyn, Frank. A Book of Bridges 497 

Brinkley, F. A History of the Japanese People 270 

Brooke, Rupert, Collected Poems of 605 

Browne, Francis Fisher. Every-Day Life of Lincoln, 

new and cheaper edition 428 

Bruce, H. Addington. Sleep and Sleeplessness 114 

Bryan, Wilhelmus B. History of the National Capital . . 269 
Bugbee, L. H. Man Who Was Too Busy to Find the Child 623 

Burnett, Frances Hodgson. The Lost Prince 495 

Butler, Mrs. John Wesley. Historic Churches in Mexico. 499 

Bynner, Witter. The New World 275 

Calhoun, Dorothy D. Blue Gingham Folks 623 

Canfield, Dorothy. The Bent Twig 616 

Capper, Alfred. A Rambler's Recollections and Reflec- 
tions 618 

Carmichael, Orton H. The Shadow on the Dial 506 

Carrington, FitzRoy. The Quiet Hour 506 

Carter, W. H. The American Army 417 

Gather, Willa Sibert. The Song of the Lark 496 

Chamberlain, Joshua L. The Passing of the Armies 575 

Champney, Elizabeth W. Romance of Old Belgium 619 



INDEX 



Chase, Mrs. Lewis. A Vagabond Voyage through Brittany 501 

Churchill, Winston. A Far Country 63 

Clark, Barrett H. British and American Drama of To-day 416 

Clarke, Mrs. M. E. Paris Waits : 1914 24 

Cobb, Irvin S. Speaking of Operations 623 

Cohen, Helen Louise. The Ballade 117 

Coleman, A. Flaubert's Literary Development 316 

Columbia University Dramatic Museum Publications, 

second series 564 

Conklin, Edward G. Heredity and Environment in the 

Development of Men 332 

Converse, Florence. The Story of Wellesley 502 

Coriat, Isador H. The Meaning of Dreams 114 

Cornford, Frances. Spring Morning 272 

Cotterill, H. B. Medieval Italy 575 

Cowan, Sada. The State Forbids 326 

Cram, Ralph Adams. Heart of Europe 498 

Crockett, S. R. Hal o' the Ironsides 276 

Crothers, Rachel. A Man's World 326 

Cruse, Amy. Robert Louis Stevenson 563 

Dall, William H. Spencer Fullerton Baird 16 

Dalrymple, Leona. Jimsy the Christmas Kid 623 

Dana, John Cotton. Modern American Library Economy, 

Part XVII 334 

Davis, Fannie Stearns. Crack o' Dawn 273 

Davis, Philip. Street-Land 104 

Dawbarn, Charles. Makers of New France 70 

Day, Holman. The Landloper 329 

Dejeans, Elizabeth. The Life-Builders 66 

Deming, Seymour. The Pillar of Fire 579 

Desmond, Humphrey J. The Glad Hand 622 

Dewey, John and Evelyn. Schools of To-morrow 109 

De Witt, Benjamin P. The Progressive Movement 62 

Dickens's Christmas Carol, illus. by Arthur Rackham... 506 
Dickinson, Edward. Music and the Higher Education... 156 
Dickinson, Thomas H. The Case of American Drama. . . . 415 

Dickinson, Thomas H. Wisconsin Plays Ill 

Dimick, Howard T. Photoplay Making 17 

Dimock, Anthony W. Wall Street and the Wilds 619 

Dix, Beulah Marie. Across the Border Ill 

Dodd, William E. Expansion and Conflict 370 

Donnay, Maurice. Lovers; The Free Woman; They... 327 

Douglas, Norman. Old Calabria 500 

" Downie, Vale." Robin the Bobbin 623 

Dreiser, Theodore. The " Genius " 422 

Du Bois, W. E. B. The Negro 334 

Duncan, Norman. Australian Byways 501 

Durham, W. H. Critical Essays of the 18th Century 218 

Dwight, H. G. Constantinople, Old and New 500 

Dyer, Walter A. Early American Craftsmen 620 

Eberlein, Harold D. Architecture of Colonial America. . 497 

Edgeworth, Edward. The Human German 71 

Edmonds, Franklin S. Ulysses S. Grant 114 

Eliot, Charles W. The Training for an Effective Life 425 

Eliot, Thomas D. Juvenile Court and the Community... 104 

Ellis, Mrs. Havelock. Love in Danger 327 

Elson, Arthur. The Book of Musical Knowledge 620 

Epler, Percy H. The Life of Clara Barton 575 

Ervine, St. John G. Alice and a Family 222 

Eydoux-D&nians, Mme. M. In a French Hospital 278 

" Eye-Witness's Narrative of the War " 25 

Eyre, John R. The Mona Lisa 223 

Fay, Lucy E., and Eaton, Anne T. Instruction in the 

Use of Books and Libraries 70 

Fay, P. B., and Coleman, A. Sources and Structure of 

Flaubert's Salammbo 316 

Ficke, Arthur Davison. Chats on Japanese Prints 373 

Ficke, Arthur Davison. Sonnets of a Portrait-Painter. . 30 

Firkins, O. W. Ralph Waldo Emerson 214 

Fletcher, John G. Irradiations : Sand and Spray 27 

Foote, Mary Hallock. The Valley Road 276 

Foulke, William D. Some Love Songs of Petrarch 418 

Fox, Edward L. Behind the Scenes in Warring Germany 23 
France, Anatole. The Man who Married a Dumb Wife.. 328 
Francke, K. A German-American's Confession of Faith. 113 
Frank, Maude M. Short Plays about Famous Authors.. 118 

Fraser, Mrs. Hugh. Storied Italy BOO 

French, Allen. Old Concord 501 

" Freydon, Nicholas, The Record of " 159 

Frost, Robert. North of Boston 274 

Galsworthy, John. A Bit o' Love 328 

Galsworthy, John. The Freelands 219 

Gardner, Lillian. Cupid's Capers 623 

Garnett, Porter. Stately Homes of California 498 

Garrison, Fielding H. John Shaw Billings 113 

Garstin, Denis. Friendly Russia 266 



PAGE 

Giesy, J. U. All for His Country 67 

Girling, Katherine P. When Hannah Var Eight Yar Old 623 

Glaspell, Susan. Fidelity 66 

Goodman, Kenneth Sawyer. Stage Guild Plays 112 

Gordon, I. L., and Frueh, A. J. The Log of the Ark... 580 

Gorgas, W. C. Sanitation in Panama 225 

Gorky, Maxim. My Childhood 503 

Gorky, Maxim. Submerged 326 

Graham, Stephen. Russia and the World 266 

Graham, Stephen. Way of Martha and Way of Mary... 621 

Grant, Robert. The High Priestess 423 

Green, F. E. The Surrey Hills 576 

Grey, Zane. The Rainbow Trail 157 

Gwynn, Stephen. Famous Cities of Ireland 500 

Hadley, Arthur T. Undercurrents in American Politics. 37& 

Hagedorn, Hermann. Makers of Madness Ill 

Hall, H. R. JEge&n Archaeology 58 

Hallet, Richard Matthews. The Lady Aft 222 

Hamilton, Clayton. On the Trail of Stevenson 619 

Hammond, B. S. Bodies Politic and their Governments. 333 
Hammond, John M. Quaint and Historic Forts of North 

America 577 

Hardy, Thomas. Satires of Circumstances 29 

Harris, Frank. Contemporary Portraits 158 

Hart, Albert B. Problems of Readjustment after the War 424 
Hauptmann, Gerhard. Parsival, trans, by Oakley Wil- 
liams 377 

Hawkes, Clarence. Hitting the Dark Trail 278 

Hawkins, Chauncey J. The Little Red Doe 623 

Hay, Ian. Scally 623 

Hay, Ian. The Lighter Side of School Life 622 

Hay, James, Jr. The Man Who Forgot 31 

Healy, Dr. and Mrs. William. Pathological Lying, Ac- 
cusation, and Swindling 426 

Hedin, Sven. With the German Armies in the West 22 

Hellman, George S. Letters of Irving to Brevoort 491 

Henderson, Charles R. Citizens in Industry 277 

Henshaw, Julia W. Wild Flowers of the North American 

Mountains 621 

Herts, B. Russell. The Decoration and Furnishing of 

Apartments 279 

Hewlett, William. A Child at the Window 220 

Hobson, J. A. Towards International Government 609 

Hodges, George. Henry Codman Potter 504 

Hoeber, Arthur. The Barbizon Painters 499 

"Holgar, Paxton." From the Shelf 161 

Holland, Leicester Bodine. The Garden Bluebook 577 

Holley, Horace. Creation 28 

Holme, Charles, and Taylor, E. A. Paris, Past and 

Present 576 

Hooker, Brian. Poems 273 

Hough, Emerson. Out of Doors 577 

Howard, George Bronson. God's Man 379 

Howard, Keble. Merry Andrew 157 

Howe, Daniel W. Political History of Secession 117 

Howe, Frederic C. Socialized Germany 566 

Hrebelianovich, Princess Lazarovich. Pleasures and 

Palaces 503 

Hubback, John. Russian Realities 266 

Hudson, William H. Adventures among Birds 577 

Hudson, William H. A Quiet Corner in a Library 381 

Hughes, Rupert. Empty Pockets 64 

Hunter, Frederick W. Stiegel Glass 71 

Hunting, Harold B. The Story of Our Bible 505 

Hurgronje, C. Snouck. The Holy War 34 

Husband, Joseph. America at Work 622 

Hutton, Edward. Attila and the Huns 427 

Infanta Eulalia of Spain. Court Life from Within 503 

Innes, Arthur D. History of England, Vol. IV 425 

James, George Wharton. Our American Wonderlands... 619 

Jane, L. Cecil. The Interpretation of History 146 

Job, Herbert K. Propagation of Wild Birds 116 

Joffre, General. My March to Timbuctoo 69 

Johnson, Allen. Union and Democracy 369 

Johnson, Clifton. Battleground Adventures in Civil War 621 

Johnson, Clifton. Highways and Byways of New England 576 

Johnson, Henry. Dante's The Divine Comedy 372 

Johnston, Henry Phelps. Nathan Hale, 1776, new edition 225 

Johnston, R. M. Arms and the Race 416 

Jones, Doris Egerton. Time o' Day 67 

Kallen, H. M. William James and Henri Bergson 382 

Kelland, Clarence B. Into His Own 623 

Kellner, Leon. American Literature 33 

Kellor, Frances A. Out of Work 114 

King, Mrs. Francis. The Well-Considered Garden 419 



INDEX 



PAGE 

King, Willford I. The Wealth and Income of the People 

of the United States 381 

Kinnicutt, Lincoln N. To Your Dog and to My Dog 622 

Klein, L'Abbe Felix. La Guerre Vue d'une Ambulance. . 25 

Knibbs, H. H. Sundown Slim 67 

Kreisler, Fritz. Four Weeks in the Trenches 24 

Kunz, George F. The Magic of Jewels and Charms 610 

Lane, Mrs. John. Maria Again 276 

Lancaster, Robert A., Jr. Historic Virginia Homes and 

Churches 614 

Larson, Laurence M. Short History of England 428 

Le Gallienne, Richard. Vanishing Roads 116 

Le Rossignol, J. E. Jean Baptiste 276 

"Lee, Vernon." The Ballet of the Nations 621 

Lees, Bertha. Alfred the Truthteller 618 

Leupp, Francis E. Walks about Washington 500 

Lewis, A. G. Sport, Travel, and Adventure 576 

Lewisohn, Ludwig. The Modern Drama 68 

Lincoln, Abraham. Discoveries and Inventions 622 

Lincoln, Joseph C. Thankful's Inheritance 157 

Litchfield, Henrietta. Emma Darwin 263 

Locke, William J. Jaffery 63 

London, Charmian K. The Log of the Snark 501 

London, Jack. The Scarlet Plague 31 

Loughead, Flora H. Life of Oscar Lovell Shafter 619 

Mach, Edmund von. Germany's Point of View 222 

Machen, Arthur. The Bowmen 382 

Mackail, J. W. Russia's Gift to the World 266 

Mackay, Helen. Accidentals 277 

Mackaye, Percy. The Present Hour 274 

Mackellar, Dorothea. The Witch-Maid, and Other Verses 272 

MacGill, Patrick. The Rat-Pit 276 

MacMunn, G. F. A Freelance in Kashmir 116 

MacVeagh, Mrs. Charles. Fountains of Papal Rome 499 

McCabe, Joseph. George Bernard Shaw 210 

McCarter, Margaret H. The Corner Stone 623 

McFarland, J. Horace. My Growing Garden 505 

McSpadden, J. Walker. Opera Synopses, enlarged edition 506 

Marden, Orison Swett. Woman and Home 506 

Marquand, Allan. Luca della Robbia 161 

Marshall, Archibald. The House of Merrilees 221 

Marvin, Frederic Rowland. Fireside Papers 578 

Mason, Eugene. A Book of Preferences in Literature. . . 326 

Mason, Walt. Horse Sense 506 

Masters, Edgar Lee. Spoon River Anthology 28 

Maugham, W. Somerset. Of Human Bondage 220 

Maxim, Hiram S. My Life 115 

Maxim, Hudson. Defenseless America 416 

Maybeck, Bernard R. Palace of Fine Arts and Lagoon . . 500 

"Me" 157 

Middleton, George. Possession 112 

Miyamori, Asataro. Tales from Old Japanese Dramas . . 504 

Methley, Violet, Camille Desmoulins 504 

Montague, Margaret Prescott. Closed Doors 427 

Montaigne's Essay on Friendship and XXIX Sonnets by 

Estienne de la Boetie, translated by Louis How 579 

Moore, Charles Leonard. Incense and Iconoclasm 148 

Moth, Axel. Technical Terms Used in Bibliographies . . . 281 

Muir, William. The Caliphate, revised edition 428 

Mulder, Arnold. Bram of the Five Corners 157 

Mullgardt, Louis C. The Architecture and Landscape 

Gardening of the Exposition 500 

Munson, Arley. Kipling's India 620 

" Nation's Library, The " 72 

Nearing, Scott. Income 212 

Neeser, R. W. Our Navy and the Next War 417 

Neuhaus, Eugen. The Art of the Exposition 499 

Neuhaus, Eugen. The Galleries of the Exposition 499 

Newman, Cardinal. The Dream of Gerontius, with In- 
troduction by Gordon Tidy 621 

Newton, R. Heber. The Mysticism of Music 155 

Nietzsche, Frau Forster. The Life of Nietzsche, Vol. II. 144 

Noguchi, Yone. The Spirit of Japanese Art 68 

" Noguchi, Yone, The Story of," illus. by Yoshio Markino 330 

Norris, Kathleen. The Story of Julia Page 615 

Northend, Mary H. Remodeled Farmhouses 498 

Noyes, Alfred. A Belgian Christmas Eve 325 

O'Brien, Howard Vincent. " Thirty" 221 

O'Connor, Mrs. T. P. Dog Stars 505 

" Old English Mansions " 226 

Olmstead, Florence. A Cloistered Romance 65 

Oppenheim, E. Phillips. The Way of These Women 222 

Orczy, Baroness. A Bride of the Plains 222 

Ordway, Edith B. The Opera Book 620 

Oswald, Felix. Alone in the Sleeping-Sickness Country. 333 
Palmer, Bell Elliott. The Single Code Girl 276 



PAGE 

Palmer, John. Bernard Shaw: Harlequin or Patriot?.. 212 

Palmer, John. Peter Paragon 616 

Parker, Gilbert. The Money Master 496 

Parrott, J. Edward. The Pageant of British History 502 

Parrott, J. Edward. The Pageant of English Literature. 579 

Paxson, Frederic L. The New Nation 370 

Peel, Mrs. C. S. Mrs. Bamet Robes 30 

Pennell, Joseph. Pictures in the Land of Temples 499 

Pennell, Joseph and Elizabeth. Lithography and Lithog- 
raphers 497 

Perin, Florence Hobart. Sunlit Days 506 

Perry, Bliss. Thomas Carlyle 483 

Petrovich, W. M. Hero Tales and Legends of the Serbians 505 

Phillips, Stephen. Panama, and Other Poems 271 

Pierce, F. E. Selections from Symbolical Poems of Blake 323 

Plunket, lerne. Isabel of Castile 618 

Potter, Elizabeth G., and Gray, Mabel T. The Lure of 

San Francisco 499 

Powell, E. Alexander. The Road to Glory 612 

Preston, W. T. R. Strathcona and the Making of Canada 71 
Prince, L. B. Spanish Mission Churches of New Mexico. 576 

Putnam, George Haven. Memories of a Publisher 366 

Putnam, George H. Tabular Views of Universal History 118 

Putnam, James J. Human Motives 114 

Raymond, George L. An Art Philosopher's Cabinet .... 426 

Reade, Arthur. Finland and the Finns 501 

Reese, A. M. The Alligator and its Allies 281 

Rhodes, Harrison. In Vacation America 501 

Rhys-Davids, Mrs. C. A. F. Buddhist Psychology 322 

Rinehart, Mary Roberts. " K " 222 

Ritchie, Mrs. David G. Two Sinners 221 

Rittenhouse, Jessie B. Little Book of American Poets . . . 679 

" Riverside History of the United States " 367 

" Robert's Rules of Order Revised " 118 

Robinson, Albert G. Cuba, Old and New 576 

Roessler, Erwin. The Soliloquy in German Drama 226 

Rogers, Robert. Ponteach, edited by Allan Nevins 60 

Rohmer, Sax. The Yellow Claw 222 

Rohrbach, Paul. Germany's Isolation 31 

Ross, Edward Alsworth. South of Panama 150 

Ryan, Kate. Old Boston Museum Days 502 

Ryan, Oswald. Municipal Freedom 115 

Sabatier, Paul. The Ideals of France 277 

Sabatini, Rafael. The Sea-Hawk 329 

Safroni-Middleton, A. Sailor and Beachcomber 564 

Sardou, Victorien. Patrie ! 326 

Sargent, Porter E. Handbook of Best Private Schools.. 334 

Sarolea, Charles. The Anglo-German Problem 67 

Schnitzler, Arthur. Playing with Love 267 

Schnitzler, Arthur. Professor Bernard! 267 

Schnitzler, Arthur. The Green Cockatoo 267 

Schnitzler, Arthur. The Lonely Way 268 

Schnitzler, Arthur. Viennese Idylls 268 

Schoff, Hannah Kent. The Wayward Child 103 

Sears, Annie L. The Drama of the Spiritual Life 423 

Sears, Clara E. Bronson Alcott's Fruitlands 32 

Service, Robert W. The Pretender 276 

Shackleton, Robert. Conwell's Acres of Diamonds 580 

" Shattuck's Parliamentary Answers " 118 

Shaw, Anna Howard. The Story of a Pioneer 332 

Shelton, Louise. Beautiful Gardens in America 621 

Sherrill, Charles H. French Memories of Eighteenth- 
Century America 602 

Sinclair, Upton. The Cry for Justice 376 

Smith, E. M. Investigation of Mind in Animals 381 

Smith, F. Hopkinson. Felix O'Day 495 

Smith, Langdon. Evolution: A Fantasy 623 

Smith, Thomas F. A. The Soul of Germany 281 

Sologub, Fedor. The Sweet-Scented Name 605 

" Some Imagist Poets " 26 

Souttar, H. S. A Surgeon in Belgium 24 

Speakman, Harold. The First Christmas 622 

Spence, Lewis. Hero Tales and Legends of the Rhine. . 578 

" Statesman's Year-Book," 1915 226 

Steiner, Edward A. Introducing the American Spirit 579 

Step, Edward. Marvels of Insect Life 330 

Stephens, James. Songs from the Clay. . .] 272 

Stewart, Elinore Pruitt. Letters on an Elk Hunt 382 

Stone, Gilbert. Wales 502 

Stoner, Winifred Sackville, Jr. Natural Education 33 

Stopes, Mrs. C. C. Shakespeare's Environment 320 

Stowell, Ellery C. The Diplomacy of the War of 1914.. 107 

Stratton-Porter, Gene. Michael O'Halloran 222 

Stratz, Rudolph. His English Wife 31 

Strettell, Alma. Poems of Verhaeren, enlarged edition. 155 
Strindberg, August. Master Olof 333 



via 



INDEX 



PAGE 

" Stultitia " 418 

Sullivan, Mark. National Floodmarks 427 

Swift, Judson. A Song Old and New 623 

Swinnerton, Frank. R. L. Stevenson 561 

Thayer, William R. The Life and Letters of John Hay.. 411 
Thomas, Mrs. Theodore. Our Mountain Garden, second 

edition 420 

Thoreau, Writings of, "Riverside Pocket Edition" 54 

Thorpe, Merle. The Coming Newspaper 160 

Thurstan, Violetta. Field Hospital and Flying Column . . 25 

Tinker, Chauncey B. The Salon and English Letters 105 

Tompkins, Juliet Wilbor. Diantha 67 

Toulmin, Harry A. City Manager : A New Profession ... 69 

Trail, Florence. A History of Italian Literature 571 

Train, Arthur. The Man Who Rocked the Earth 31 

Tregarthen, John C. The Story of a Hare 505 

Tregarthen, John C. The Life Story of an Otter 505 

True, Ruth S. Boyhood and Lawlessness, and The Neg- 
lected Girl 104 

Turley, Charles. The Voyages of Captain Scott 504 

Upward, Allen. Paradise Found 212 

Van Loon, Hendrik W. Rise of the Dutch Kingdom 117 

Veblen, Thornstein. Imperial Germany and the Indus- 
trial Revolution 331 

Verrill, A. Hyatt. Isles of Spice and Palm 620 

Vinogradoff, Paul. The Russian Problem 265 

Vizetelly, Frank H. Essentials of English Speech and 

Literature 224 

Voute, Emile. The Passport 379 

Wald, Lilian D. The House on Henry Street 578 

Wales, Hubert. The Brocklebank Riddle 31 

Waley, Adolf F. The Remaking of China 280 

Walker, J. Bernard. America Fallen ! 417 

Walling, William English. The Socialists and the War. . 56 



PAGE 

" War Book of the German General Staff " 160 

Ward, Mrs. Humphry. Eltham House 422 

" Wayfarer's Library, The " 159 

Webster, Marie D. Quilts 498 

Wells, H. G. The Research Magnificent 421 

Wentworth, Marion Craig. War Brides Ill 

Westcott, Frank N. Hepsey Burke 67 

Westervelt, William D. Legends of Old Honolulu 580 

Wharton, Anne H. English Ancestral Homes of Noted 

Americans 578 

Whipple, Wayne. The Heart of Lincoln 623 

Wiener, Leo. An Interpretation of the Russian People. . 264 

Wiggin, Kate Douglas. Penelope's Postscripts 157 

Wilde, Percival. Dawn 112 

Williams, H. Noel. Rival Sultanas 540 

Williams, Sherman. New York's Part in History 502 

Wilson, Woodrow. When a Man Comes to Himself 20 

Winter, William. Vagrant Memories 503 

Wister, Owen. The Pentecost of Calamity 380 

Woodberry, George E. Two Phases of Criticism 98 

Woodbridge, Elisabeth. More Jonathan Papers 505 

Woodruff, Helen S. Mr. Doctor Man 623 

Worcester, Elwood. The Issues of Life 622 

Work, Edgar Whitaker. Every Day 622 

Work, Edgar W. The Folly of the Three Wise Men 623 

Wright, Willard Huntington. Modern Painting 486 

Wynne, Arnold. The Growth of English Drama 72 

" Year-Book of Decorative Art," for 1915 226 

Young, C. C. Abused Russia , 266 

Young, J. T. New American Government and its Work. 279 

Young, Norwood. Napoleon in Exile at Elba 319 

Young, Norwood. Napoleon in Exile at St. Helena 319 

Zangwill, Israel. Plaster Saints 327 

Zweig, Stefan. Emile Verhaeren 152 



MISCELLANEOUS 



Allegory, A Plea for. Morris Schaff 141 

Allen, Dr., A Word for. Margaret A. Friend 53 

Authors' Agencies, Mr. Benson and. Robert H. Edes.... 482 

Authors and Knighthood. Noel A. Dunderdale 97 

Book Publishing in England in War Time 73 

" Book of France, The," Publication of 120 

Bross Prize, The Second Decennial 335 

Bryant, A Few Facts about. John L. Hervey 861 

Bryant and " The New Poetry." John L. Hervey 92 

" Bryant and the New Poetry." Harriet Monroe 814 

Bryant, Some Further Remarks about. John L. Hervey 555 

Bryant, William Cullen, Again. Harriet Monroe 479 

College Commercialized, The. Clark S. Northup 209 

Concordance Society Issues, Some Prospective 73 

" Contemporary Verse," The First Number of 581 

Crowell, Thomas Young, Death of 119 

Diphthongs, Dr. Vizetelly and. Wallace Rice 365 

Diphthongs, More about. Frank H. Vizetelly and Wallace 

Rice 559 

D'Ooge, Martin Luther, Death of 283 

Edmands, John, Death of 384 

German War Book, The. Saml. A. Tannenbaum 262 

German War Book Again, The.- The Reviewer 364 

Hawthorne's Short Stories in Japan. Ernest W. Clement 410 

Hervieu, Paul, Death of 429 

Holder ^ Charles Frederick, Death of 384 

Holder Chair of Biology, The Recently Endowed 581 

Illinois State Historical Society, Publications of the. 

J. Seymour Currey 143 

Imagism and Plagiarism. Arthur Davison Ficke 560 

Imagist to the Defence, An. John Gould Fletcher 96 

Indians in the Civil War. John C. Wright 315 

Japan, Books in. Ernest W. Clement 604 

Knopf, Alfred A., New Publishing House of 163 

" La Revue de Hollande," The First Number of 163 

Librarian as Literary Critic, The. Bernard C. Steiner... 480 

" Maarten Maartens," Death of 120 

Meyer, Kuno, and the Harvard Prize Poem. F. P 53 

Michigan Dutch in Fiction, The. H. Houston Peckham. . . 209 
Moody, William Vaughn, and William Blake. Wm. Chis- 

lett, Jr 142 

Murray, Sir James, Death of,, and the Oxford Dictionary 511 
Necessity, The Law of. S. A. Tannenbaum and C. M. 

Street 481 



Negro, A Southern Tribute to a. Garland Greever 409 

" News Notes of California Libraries " 227 

Once in a Blue Moon. Alma Luise Olson 557 

" Oxford Dictionary," Editorial Changes in the Staff of. . 581 

Petrarch's, A Friend of. Theodore Stanton 209 

Philippine Library, Bulletins of the 34 

Phillips, Stephen, A Proposed Testimonial to. Erskine 

MacDonald 365 

Phillips, Stephen, Death of 624 

Poetry, The Imperishable Elements of. Louis C. Marolf . . 207 
Policies, Present-Day, Ancient Precedents for. David Y. 

Thomas 142 

" Ponteach," The Author of. W. H. S . . 97 

" Popular Science Monthly," The New 227 

Pronunciation and Poetry. Robert J. Shores 482 

Prophecy, An Interesting. Alfred M. Brooks 604 

Putnam, John Bishop, Death of 384 

" Religion of Science Library," The 35 

" Sanine," The Author of. A Reader 365 

Shakespeare and the New Psychology. S. A. Tannenbaum 601 

Short Story, Elements of the. I. M. Rubinow 262 

Starr, Frederick, Expedition of, to Japan and Korea 511 

" Technical Book Review Index," First Number of the. . . 383 

Tennyson Museum, A Proposed 625 

" The City of Dreadful Night," A Strange Visitor in. 

Benj. M. Woodbridge 603 

" The Egoist," A French Translation of. Benj. M. Wood- 
bridge 261 

" The Freelands " and " Uncle Tom's Cabin." Allen 

McSimpson 315 

Tinayre, Madame, War Novel of. Benj. M. Woodbridge . . 408 

Translator's Error, A. A. H. Fisher 53 

Vocational Training and Citizenship. Orvis C. Irwin. . . . 363 

Washington, Booker T., Death of 512 

Whitman " Legend," The Growth of the. John L. Hervey 12 
Wisconsin Faculty, Mr. Allen and the. W. E. Leonard... 95 
Wisconsin Survey Once More, The. George C. Comstock 51 
Wisconsin Survey, Results of the. William H. Allen and 

George C. Comstock 93 

Wisconsin University Survey, The. William H. Allen. ... 14 

Wisconsin Theses, The. David E. Berg 95 

World-Language, The Coming, and Some Other Matters. 

Frank H. Vizetelly 312 



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Vol. LIX. 



JUNE 24, 1915 



No. 697 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 



THE PITY OF IT! William Morton Payne . . 5 
THE A. L. A. CONFERENCE. Arthur E. Bost- 

wicTc 8 

CASUAL COMMENT 9 

The consolations of literature. An arrested 
auction sale of valuable autographs. A new 
development in cooperative cataloguing. The 
path to perfection. Another word about the 
Widener Library. The asceticism of art. 
Seventeen selected candidates for the Hall of 
Fame. 

COMMUNICATIONS 12 

The Growth of the Whitman " Legend." 

John L. Hervey. 
The Wisconsin University Survey. William 

H. Allen. 
A GREAT AMERICAN NATURALIST. T. D. 

A. Cockerell 16 

THE " MOVIES " OLD AND NEW. H. C. Chat- 
field-Taylor 17 

FINDING ONESELF IN LIFE. Alex. Maclcen- 

drick 20 

SCORCHED WITH THE FLAMES OF WAR. 

Wallace Rice 22 

Hedin's With the German Armies in the West. 

Fox's Behind the Scenes in Warring Ger- 
many. Kreisler's Four Weeks in the Trenches. 

Souttar's A Surgeon in Belgium. Mrs. 
Clarke's Paris Waits: 1914. Klein's La 
Guerre Vue d'une Ambulance. 'Eye-Witness's 
Narrative of the War. Misa Thurstan's Field 
Hospital and Flying Column. 

RECENT POETRY. Raymond M. Alden . . 26 
Some Imagist Poets. Fletcher's Irradiations. 

Holley's Creation. Masters's Spoon River 
Anthology. Hardy's Satires of Circum- 
stance. Binns's The Free Spirit. Ficke's 
Sonnets of a Portrait-Painter. 

NOTES ON NEW NOVELS 30 

BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS 31 

Two German apologists. The story of a 
short-lived community. Civic work of women 
in America. Our literature estimated by a 
foreigner. The development of an infant 
phenomenon. An orator on his art. Ger- 
many and the " Holy War." 

NOTES 34 

LIST OF NEW BOOKS . 35 



THE PITY OF IT! 



The passion aroused in the German breast 
last August, when it became evident that En- 
gland, the old-time champion of the menaced 
liberties of Europe, had no intention of evad- 
ing its honorable obligations toward Belgium 
and France, and viewed treaties as being dis- 
tinctly something more than scraps of paper, 
was characterized by a peculiar form of petu- 
lance. We read with sorrowful amusement of 
the Kaiser's actions in casting off the various 
honorary distinctions bestowed upon him in 
happier times by the English government, and 
in thus reducing to a considerable extent the 
number of costumes in his wardrobe. A more 
serious matter was offered by the many Ger- 
man scholars who forthwith disclaimed any 
further membership in the scientific and lit- 
erary associations of the enemy nations, and 
flung back upon the donors their medals and 
degrees and official titles. While this act, also, 
was so childish as to be amusing, it had besides 
a very serious and ominous aspect, for it be- 
tokened a rupture in the intellectual common- 
wealth that was bound to work much mischief 
long after the warring peoples should have 
come to terms upon the battlefield. To many 
of us, this was the most harrowing thought of 
the war the thought that the world's comity 
of intercourse in things spiritual, the strongest 
bond of brotherhood that civilization has estab- 
lished among men, was likely to be shattered as 
regarded the nation to which the rest of the 
world is in so many fields of achievement so 
heavily indebted. The thought weighed intol- 
erably upon those whom culture had broad- 
ened to world-mindedness, and who were 
brought by it to a more poignant sense of the 
meaning of warfare than is possible to the 
homme sensuel moyen who eggs on the com- 
batants from narrow motives of pelf or mis- 
guided patriotism. 

The thing was not without precedent. We 
recall the similar amenities which were a by- 
product of the Franco-Prussian War. We 
recall, for example, the case of Pasteur, who 
returned his diploma to the University of 
Bonn, saying : " Now the sight of that parch- 
ment is odious to me, and I feel offended at 



6 



THE DIAL 



[ June 24 



seeing my name, with the qualification of 
Virum clarissimum that you have given it, 
placed under a name which is henceforth an 
object of execration to my country, that of 
Rex Gulielmus." The counter was neat and 
emphatic : " The undersigned, now Principal 
of the Faculty of Medicine at Bonn, is re- 
quested to answer the insult which you have 
dared to offer to the German nation in the 
sacred person of its august Emperor, King 
Wilhelm of Prussia, by sending you the expres- 
sion of its entire contempt. P. S. Desiring 
to keep its papers free from taint, the Faculty 
herewith returns your screed." 

It was Renan, however, rather than Pas- 
teur, who carried off the honors in these 
exchanges of diplomatic notes between the 
great powers of European scholarship. His 
correspondence with D. F. Strauss offers a 
masterpiece of the delicate and deadly satire, 
or caustic irony, which no stylist but a French- 
man could possibly have at his command. 
Commenting, nearly a year later, upon the fact 
that Strauss had published the correspondence 
in a pamphlet, Renan said : 

" It is true that you have done me an honor which 
I am bound to appreciate. You yourself have 
translated my reply and included it with your two 
letters in a pamphlet. You have had this pamphlet 
sold for the benefit of an establishment for wounded 
German soldiers. God forbid that I should quibble 
upon a point of literary property ! The charity to 
which you have made me contribute is a work of 
humanity, and if my feeble prose has been instru- 
mental in bestowing a few cigars upon the men who 
looted my little house at Sevres, I thank you for 
having given me the opportunity to conform my 
conduct with certain of the principles of Jesus that 
I believe to be the most authentic. But I must call 
your attention to a delicate distinction. Assuredly, 
if you had permitted me to publish one of your 
writings, it would never have occurred to me, never 
in the world, to do it for the benefit of our Hotel 
des Invalides." 

How profoundly Kenan's nature was stirred 
by the Franco-Prussian War, and how poig- 
nantly he felt the disruption of intellectual 
comity that it inevitably entailed, may be seen 
on many a page of his " Reforme Intellectuelle 
et Morale," from which the above passage has 
been translated. This is indeed a volume for 
the present times, replete with wisdom, and 
infused w r ith the noblest of feeling. We read 
in the preface : 

" It had been the dream of my life to labor, to 
the extent of my feeble powers, for the intellectual, 
moral, and political alliance of France with Ger- 
many, an alliance that should bring England in its 



train, and constitute a force capable of ruling the 
world, directing it in the ways of liberal civilization, 
equally apart from the naively blind impulses of 
democracy and from the puerile velleities that 
would have it retrace its steps toward a past that is 
definitely dead. My dream, I admit, is destroyed 
forever. An abyss is dug between France and Ger- 
many; centuries will not avail to fill it. The vio- 
lence done to Alsace and Lorraine will long remain 
a gaping wound ; the guaranties of peace dreamed 
by German journalists and statesmen will be guar- 
anties of wars without end. . . What we loved in 
Germany, its breadth of view, its lofty conception 
of humanity, exists no longer. Germany is now 
nothing more than a nation; she is at present the 
most powerful of nations ; but we know how endur- 
ing are these hegemonies and what they leave 
behind them." 

At the close of Kenan's correspondence with 
Strauss comes this melancholy refrain : 

" France is about to say with your Herwegh : 
' Enough of that sort of love ; let us try hatred for 
a change.' I shall not follow her in this new course, 
the success of which may be doubted. France holds 
to a resolve of hatred less than to any other. In 
any case, life is too short for it to be wise to waste 
time and dissipate energy in so wretched a sport. 
I have toiled in my humble sphere to bring about 
friendship between France and Germany; if now 
the ' time to refrain from embracing ' has come, as 
the Preacher says, I will withdraw. I will not 
counsel hatred after having counselled love; I will 
keep silent." 

How closely all these old matters are par- 
alleled in the present tragic hour is apparent 
to every reader of the history that is now being 
made from day to day. The correspondence 
between Strauss and Renan finds its counter- 
part in the letters exchanged last autumn 
between Herr Gerhart Hauptmann and M. 
Romain Rolland. The petulant attitude of 
German scholarship is once more illustrated by 
Professor Kuno Meyer, who has recently taken 
such offence at some poor verses of anti- 
German tenor contributed by an undergradu- 
ate to the " Harvard Advocate " that he has 
held the University responsible for the " vile 
poem," and indignantly repudiated the plan 
to make him an " exchange professor " in that 
institution for the coming year. His screed 
addressed to President Lowell speaks of " this 
gratuitous and shameful insult to the honor 
and fair fame of a friendly nation," declares 
Harvard and its President to be " branded 
before the world and posterity as abettors of 
international animosity, as traitors to the 
sacred cause of humanity," expresses the hope 
that " no German will again be found to accept 
the post of exchange professor at Harvard," 
and voices his regret that he himself was ever 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



induced " to set foot in the defiled precincts of 
a once noble university." And the occasion for 
this outpouring of emotion is nothing more 
than the fact that an irresponsible student, in 
a publication entirely controlled by students, 
has written in a sense antagonistic to the Ger- 
man cause ! Hinc illce lachrymcc. Was there 
ever so amazing an exhibition of childishness 
on the part of a man supposed to stand for 
light and leading ! 

Such matters are symptomatic of a breach 
which is not so much a rift within the lute as 
an unbridgeable abyss and the gulf has been, 
if possible, widened by the attitude of the Ger- 
man nation toward the "Lusitania" crime, 
frankly adopting and defending the Black 
Hand method of warfare, and openly exulting 
in its ghastly outcome. The intensity of the 
feeling engendered between Germany and the 
powers she has made her foes finds so many 
illustrations that it is disheartening to think 
of the legacy which her aggression will be- 
queath to the coming generation. What hope 
can there be of a resumption of friendly rela- 
tions either in the political or the intellectual 
sphere when such a man as Professor von Ley- 
den of Berlin can utter such sentiments as 
these : 

" No self-respecting German will ever consent to 
remain in any room of which an Englishman is the 
occupant. If the German can not eject the English- 
man he will himself leave the room. We can not be 
expected to breathe the same polluted air as our 
deadliest foes, who fell upon us from the rear and 
in the dark. There can be no compromise on this 
point. We have to swear a national vendetta 
against the English never to rest, never to cease our 
preparations for another war, never to spare an 
effort until the last semblance of English power is 
destroyed, and there will be no rest or repose for 
any honest German till the British Empire has been 
swept into the oblivion of past history." 

The virulence of hatred found in 'this utter- 
ance and in the famous Hassgesang is typical 
of the German attitude in its present aberra- 
tion. While opinion in the opposing camps 
does not go to such extremes, it is nevertheless 
determined on the question of future relations 
with the enemy. The French attitude is re- 
ported by Mr. Stoddard Dewey, who knows the 
contemporary French mind in all its workings, 
in the following words: "Whatever may be 
the terms which France will have to accept or 
which will be imposed on Germany, all human 
relations of Frenchmen with Germans have 
ceased indefinitely. . . Every French con- 
sciousness, erroneously or not, is filled with 



too keen a sense of intolerable wrong for 
human intercourse until Time the Healer has 
passed." 

Viewed sub specie ceternitatis } this is clearly 
an impossible situation, but it is one that will 
prolong the tragedy of the present clash of 
arms long beyond the date of the formal treaty 
of peace. It will take many years to bind up 
these wounds, and bring either of the com- 
batants to the standpoint of "malice toward 
none and charity for all." But the intellec- 
tual severance, we feel assured, cannot last 
forever ; to believe that it will so last is to take 
counsel of despair and to reject utterly the 
unifying ministry of idealism to the over- 
wrought mind. Perplexed in the extreme 
though the issue now be, the future, if far dis- 
tant, must bring a return to acceptance of the 
faith that in matters of the spirit all the races 
of mankind have a commonwealth of which the 
franchise is offered to every sincere seeker 
after goodness and truth and beauty. Every 
indication of a return to the sanity of outlook 
in this vitally important matter should be re- 
ceived with generous hospitality as a welcome 
harbinger of the reconciliation that the future 
must bring as an atonement for the distraught 
present. Some such indications are already at 
hand, significantly from German sources, and 
we trust that they may be multiplied before 
too grievous a period of estrangement shall 
have intervened. It is the socialist deputy 
Herr Haenisch from whom these hopeful 
words come: " There has been some talk that 
in future German science and art must lead 
their own life and that foreign scientific work 
should not be reviewed in German periodicals. 
This is sheer rubbish. After the war the 
nations will be still more dependent upon one 
another than before, and without the fructify- 
ing influence of foreign countries our national 
culture will wither." And it is the "Frank- 
furter Zeitung" which asks editorially: 
" What sense is there in German professors de- 
claring that they will no longer collaborate 
with this or that scientific institution in En- 
gland ? Science and art have always appeared 
as the common possession of civilized peoples, 
and does not one injure one's own people and its 
science by sitting on the stool of isolation and 
by breaking off scientific intercourse? " Such 
utterances as these show that the seed is al- 
ready being sown of a future comity which it 
should be the sacred mission of every lover of 
mankind to further in its growth. 



8 



THE DIAL 



[ June 24 



In April of last year, the German Shake- 
speare Society celebrated at Weimar the birth- 
day of the poet. It was an international 
gathering, with guests from many countries, 
England, France, and Belgium being among 
those represented. The delegates came to- 
gether in the best of good fellowship, joined by 
the common bond of reverence for Shake- 
speare's genius. They parted in joyous antici- 
pation of their next reunion, appointed for 
1916 in the town of Stratford, for the tercen- 
tenary of Shakespeare's death. How that 
dream was shattered a few weeks later we all 
know. But that dream stood for an ideal too 
precious to be abandoned the ideal of an 
intellectual community of interest that rises 
above prejudice, and knows no passion save 
that of devotion to the high concerns of the 
spirit. One of the privileges of mankind lies 
in " beholding the bright countenance of truth 
in the quiet and still air of delightful studies," 
and it is intolerable to think that this privilege 
is to be renounced because the fumes of anger 
have dulled men's higher faculties. For a 
time, it may well be, such intercourse will be 
held in abeyance, but it must in the end be 
resumed, and those who speak the tongues of 
Shakespeare and of Goethe must come to real- 
ize that they cannot do without one another, 
and that no people on earth can do without 
them. Let us pray that the day of that realiza- 
tion may be hastened, and "the golden years 
return." Meanwhile, pending such consum- 
mation, we can only say with Othello, " Oh, the 
pity of it!" WILLIAM MORTON PAYNE. 



THE A. L. A. CONFERENCE. 

The thirty-seventh annual conference of 
the American Library Association, just com- 
pleted at Berkeley, Cal., has been marked by 
all the advantages and disadvantages of a 
convention in an exposition year, near an 
exposition town. The fair induces a large 
gathering, but it also distracts. Not all the 
librarians who registered as delegates spent 
their time, or most of it, in attendance upon 
the sessions of the convention. In the election 
of officers only 87 votes were cast, although 
the registered attendance was about 700. The 
absence of a contest partly explains this dis- 
crepancy, but not entirely so. The atmosphere 
of the meeting was perfect. The Univer- 
sity of California had opened its hospitable 
doors to the conference, and not only were 



general and sectional meetings held in its 
well-appointed halls, but a large proportion 
of the delegates found accommodation in the 
fraternity and sorority houses, besides those 
who stayed at the hotels and the few who pre- 
ferred living in San Francisco. 

There were the usual courtesies, of course. 
The University gave a reception in the unique 
Hearst gymnasium; the City of Oakland en- 
tertained the delegates at a luncheon, and the 
authorities of Mills College, among the resi- 
dential hills of that city, opened their fine 
grounds for a lawn party. The exposition 
management welcomed the Association with a 
brass band, behind which its somewhat 
amused, but very appreciative, members 
marched to the Court of the Four Seasons, 
where they received official welcome on a 
bronze plaque, and the freedom of the fair. 

The meeting was noteworthy as being some- 
thing of a family affair among the members. 
No outsider, eminent or otherwise, addressed 
it. Even California's lieutenant-governor, 
announced on the programme to speak at one 
of the sessions, was called away to Sacramento 
by urgent state business. None of the literary 
stars, of whom California has more than one 
in her firmament, intruded his presence or 
extruded his opinions. There were addresses 
on books and on printing by two New York- 
ers not members of the Association Henry 
W. Kent, secretary of the Metropolitan Mu- 
seum, and T. M. Cleland ; but these gentlemen 
spoke as friends of libraries and lovers of 
books, rather than as outsiders. To make up 
for the absent statesmen and litterateurs, the 
Association listened to some of the best that 
its own members were able to furnish. Note- 
worthy among the papers was a charmingly 
appreciative critique of modern poetry by 
Miss May Massee, editor of the Association's 
" Booklist," in which she showed that poetry- 
is to-day coming into its own, if we are to 
judge by the increased use and appreciation 
of it by readers in our public libraries. Mr. 
Richard R. Bowker, the veteran editor of 
" The Library Journal," spoke on " The Func- 
tion of the Public Library," sketching the his- 
tory of the New York Public Library as a 
typical example of library development a 
choice perhaps not altogether justified, as few 
institutions can boast of so remarkable, varied, 
and interesting a history. The tendencies of 
modern library architecture were sketched, 
with pictorial illustrations, by Mr. Chalmers 
Hadley, librarian of the Denver Public Li- 
brary. The trend of branch library develop- 
ment, according to Mr. Hadley, is now away 
from the " butterfly type," with its book body 
and adult and juvenile wings, about which we 



1915 



used to hear so much, and toward a rectangu- 
lar one- room arrangement, less formal and 
more homelike. This is doubtless true, but it 
should be noted that this arrangement is 
hardly suited for large city branches, unless 
the librarian is willing to exclude adults 
altogether from his ministrations. In such 
branches we cannot yet do without a separate 
children's room. For large central buildings 
the speaker commended a kind of " loft " plan, 
with few fixed partitions, and division of 
book-stacks into sections capable of easy ex- 
pansion and contraction. This type of library 
is related to those with which we are familiar, 
somewhat as the Japanese house with its 
screens is to the familiar American home. It 
is well exemplified in the new library of 
Springfield, Mass., and we are likely to see a 
further extension of it in the Cleveland build- 
ing, now planning, where the librarian is con- 
sidering the abandonment of the orthodox 
stack room, building his floors strong enough 
to hold book-shelves wherever he may want to 
place them. Flexibility, however, is not the 
only desideratum in a library, and we shall 
probably still continue to see buildings with 
fixed partitions. 

Among the things done by the Association 
for the improvement of library service 
throughout the country were the appointment 
of a committee to cooperate in the expansion 
of the Decimal System of classification a 
step taken with the expressed approval of 
Dr. Melvil Dewey, the author of the system; 
the extension of the schedule for uniform 
statistical reports to cover the activities of col- 
lege and reference libraries ; and the authori- 
zation of a printed manual setting forth the 
general rules, and especially the limitations, 
under which loans of books between one 
library and another are carried out. 

The election of officers resulted in the choice 
of Miss Mary W. Plummer for president 
the second woman who has held the office. As 
head of the Pratt Institute Library School, 
and later of the school established by the New 
York Public Library, Miss Plummer has long 
been a conspicuous figure among librarians, 
and has exercised an undoubted and valuable 
influence on the progress of libraries in the 
United States, her pupils occupying librarian- 
ships or other responsible positions in every 
state of the union. 

The final session witnessed a plea for a more 
active participation by libraries in pacificist 
propaganda. The speaker, Mr. George F. 
Bowerman, librarian of the public library at 
"Washington, D. C., argued that the library, 
as an essentially peaceful institution, would be 
only adopting a measure of self-preservation 



by stressing the value of peace whenever it 

could do so in its activities. In the discussion 

that followed, other members deprecated an 

attempt to commit libraries in favor of any 

i movement, no matter how righteous, arguing 

that their non-partisanship is their most valu- 

I able asset and that departure from it in one 

; instance might make it difficult for them to 

I resist taking sides in other questions. 

An immediate result of this discussion was 
the dispatch of a message from the Associa- 
tion to President Wilson, conveying its sym- 
pathy and expressing confidence that what- 
ever course he might pursue in the present 
crisis would tend ultimately to the establish- 
ment of international peace. While this seems 
unobjectionable, some members expressed an 
opinion that the message was capable of inter- 
pretation as urging " peace-at-any-price," and 
regretted its form as an excursion beyond 
those professional limits which such a body as 
ours usually, with great propriety, establishes 
for its actions and pronouncements. 

The local and travel arrangements for the 
convention were carried out with unusual 
smoothness, the former by a local committee 
of librarians the latter by the Association's 
own travel committee. Most of the eastern 
delegates proceeded to the conference by spe- 
cial train from Chicago, in an itinerary em- 
bracing stops at Denver and Glenwood 
Springs, Colo., Salt Lake City, Riverside and 
San Diego, Cal., for the inspection of local 
libraries and incidental rest and refreshment. 
Altogether, the members have concluded 
that neither the beauties of California's scen- 
ery nor the hospitality of her citizens have 
diminished since their last visit, four years 

a - ARTHUR E. BOSTWICK. 



CASUAL COMMENT. 

THE CONSOLATIONS OF LITERATURE, like those 
of philosophy, avail but little against the 
really serious ills of our mortal lot. Neither 
literature nor philosophy can bake bread to 
feed a war-devastated Belgium or Poland, but 
what little a good book can do to render less 
intolerable the consciousness of the world's 
present wretched plight, seems to be appre- 
ciated by not a few who are much nearer to 
the seat of the hideous gangrene than we of 
the western world. In a letter from Paris to 
" The Book Monthly," of London, Mr. James 
Milne says, among other interesting things: 
"Nearly every Frenchman who writes is at 
the war, or doing something for it other than 
writing. Bookshops which were closed when, 
the Germans threatened Paris, have gradually 



10 



THE DIAL 



[ June 24 



re-opened and are doing some trade, but not 
very much. . . The Frenchmen and French- 
women who must read, because reading is 
part of his or her nature, are turning to the 
old masters, to the classics, the old familiar 
faces in print. They are reading Moliere, and 
Mirabeau, and Victor Hugo, and all the great 
ornaments of their literature, including that 
living master, Anatole France. They are 
reading for inspiration, of which they are 
themselves full, and they are reading for the 
consolation which a trusty book is in an hour 
when somebody has lost somebody near and 
dear. They are essentially a literary people, 
the French, full of all the charm which we 
associate with the pretty page of a good book, 
so scholarly in their knowledge, so adept at 
using it, so logical and clear in their style of 
writing and their manner of reading. They 
combine poesy with pure reason, and the sun 
shines through both with a quality which is 
alike clarifying and warming." From an- 
other source of information, the reports of 
the municipal lending libraries, it is learned 
that Paris is reading many more books than 
it read a year ago, even though its popula- 
tion has been diminished by several hundred 
thousand persons. In the first four months of 
this year the libraries circulated more than 
thirteen thousand volumes in excess of the 
circulation for the same period last year ; and 
the quality of the reading is reported to be as 
creditable as the quantity. If the war is thus 
really turning the people, or even a small 
fraction of the people, back to the best things 
and the serious things in literature, it is ac- 
complishing at least a grain of good to help 
offset the mountain of evil. 


AN ARRESTED AUCTION SALE OF VALUABLE 

AUTOGRAPHS and other kindred matter is one 
of the recent events of interest to collectors 
of literary rarities. The lately discovered 
" Weare Papers," lost for a century and com- 
prising a wealth of historical material of 
great value, were to have passed under the 
hammer a part of them-, at least in Phila- 
delphia early this month; but an injunction 
stopped the sale, the proper ownership of the 
papers being in dispute. As is already known 
to many, the Weare collection takes its name 
from Meshech Weare, first governor of New 
Hampshire after the Revolution, and it is 
upon the early history of that State that these 
documents will be found to throw such light 
as probably to make necessary the re-writing 
of that history. As Americana of inestima- 
ble worth, their sale at auction would have 
realized a very pretty fortune for the person 
or persons now claiming their ownership. So 



far as has yet been determined, the papers 
seem to have come not quite regularly or 
legally into the possession of Jacob C. Moore, 
an early historian of New Hampshire, asso- 
ciated with John Farmer in the compilation 
of Farmer and Moore's "Historical Collec- 
tions," and this Moore left the material to his 
son of the same name, who in turn bequeathed 
it to a kinsman, Mr. Frank C. Moore, of 
Brooklyn, in whose possession a part of it was 
not long ago discovered by persons interested 
in such researches. Another portion seems to 
be held by another of the original Moore's- 
descendants in Montclair, N. J., though how 
the division came about, and who is the right- 
ful owner of the whole treasure, does not yet 
appear. To stimulate further curiosity as to 
this collection of rarities, not by any means to 
satisfy it, let it be noted that it contains, for 
instance, a deposition before Governor Brad- 
ford and John Alden of New Plymouth, with 
the rare signatures of the Mayflower passen- 
gers; twenty-nine autograph letters of Wash- 
ington; Governor Wentworth's proclamation 
of a day of thanksgiving for the capture of 
Quebec, dated November 4, 1759 ; and a copy 
of the first publication of the Declaration of 
Independence in New Hampshire. The New 
Hampshire Attorney-General's attempt to re- 
cover possession of these precious papers is 
most natural, and the disinterested outsider 
must hope that he will succeed. 



A NEW DEVELOPMENT IN COOPERATIVE CATA- 
LOGUING, a branch of library work for which 
the Library of Congress has of late years 
done so much by its issue of standard cards- 
ready for insertion in the card-catalogue, 
comes to public notice in an announcement 
that appears in "The Wilson Bulletin" of 
recent date. This is, in brief, to the effect 
that the H. W. Wilson Company, of White- 
Plains, N. Y., has added to its various pub- 
lications now familiar to most librarians a 
form of catalogue that can be used by almost 
any American public library, and is "practi- 
cally the fulfilment of Professor Jewett's idea 
of a general catalogue of all the books of the 
country." In this undertaking " the work of 
cataloguing each title is done once for all and 
the entry preserved by means of the modern 
linotype slug. Each of these slugs contains 
a line of type in permanent form, and these 
slugs can be assembled and reassembled an 
infinite number of times and in any form 
desired. Stock catalogues are issued from 
time to time, in standard editions of varying 
sizes, and the library may purchase as many 
copies as desired of the edition corresponding 
most closely to its needs, checking in them if 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



11 



desirable the titles which the library has. It 
is also possible for a library to have its own 
catalogue, by merely checking in one of the 
stock editions the titles desired and sending 
it in. The proper slugs can be withdrawn 
from their places in the central body of the 
type, assembled, and if other titles are to be 
added, slugs for these can be prepared from 
copy furnished by the library, the whole 
assembled in proper order and the desired 
number of copies struck off, after which the 
slugs are returned to their proper places." 
A manifest saving of time and money is thus 
effected, and one is spared the necessity of 
doing laboriously what already has been 
done, or is being done, or will be done, hun- 
dreds of times, by others. 


THE PATH TO PERFECTION, as someone has 
said, leads through a series of disgusts. With 
Bronson Alcott one of these disgusts took the 
form of distaste for animal food; or so he 
tried to persuade himself and the world when 
he sought refuge at Fruitlands from the car- 
nal allurements of beef, pork, mutton, poul- 
try, and fish. The story of that short-lived 
colony of vegetarians striving to attain to 
high thinking by plain living and hard man- 
ual labor is agreeably told by its founder and 
some of his associates in " Bronson Alcott's 
Fruitlands" (noticed more fully on another 
page) , a book that offers many amusing or 
more seriously interesting passages for quota- 
tion. Here, for example, is a sketch of the 
method by which mortal frailty and error are 
to be combated : " On a revision of our pro- 
ceedings it would seem, that if we were in the 
right course in our particular instance, the 
greater part of man's duty consists in leaving 
alone much that he is in the habit of doing. 
It is a fasting from the present activity, 
rather than an increased indulgence in it, 
which, with patient watchfulness, tends to 
newness of life. 'Shall I sip tea or coffee?' 
the inquiry may be. No; abstain from all 
ardent, as from alcoholic drinks. 'Shall I 
consume pork, beef, or mutton ? ' Not if you 
value health or life. ' Shall I stimulate with 
milk ? ' No. ' Shall I warm my bathing 
water ? ' Not if cheerfulness is valuable. 
' Shall I clothe in many garments ? ' Not if 
purity is aimed at. ' Shall I prolong my 
hours, consuming animal oil and losing bright 
daylight in the morning?' Not if a clear 
mind is an object. ' Shall I teach my chil- 
dren the dogmas inflicted on myself, under 
the pretence that I am transmitting truth ? ' 
Nay, if you love them intrude not these be- 
tween them and the Spirit of all Truth." 
And more questions of like sort, with the 



same negative answer. "Be not so active to 
do, as sincere to be." The charms of the sim- 
ple life have been glowingly depicted by 
many writers since Alcott's time, but those 
unsuccessful attempts, at Brook Farm and 
Fruitlands, to perpetuate that life, still re- 
tain their interest and their pathos for us of 
to-day. . . . 

ANOTHER WORD ABOUT THE WIDENER LI- 
BRARY, a subject of unfailing interest to book- 
lovers and book-collectors, comes to our 
attention in " The Harvard Crimson," from 
the pen of an unnamed librarian of promi- 
nence. Apropos of the approaching dedica- 
tion of the new Harvard library building he 
writes: "In the centre of the new building 
will be two rooms in which his [Widener's] 
own collection of rare books will be kept. 
Widener began to buy books while in college, 
and very soon became interested in the first 
editions of the English writers whom he read. 
He was especially fond of Stevenson, and 
the collection of Stevenson's works became 
Widener's especial hobby. He had secured 
nearly every one of the Stevenson rarities, 
and a few others which his mother has since 
purchased for the collection make this by far 
the most complete in existence. His first edi- 
tions of Dickens, Thackeray, Tennyson, and 
other nineteenth-century authors were nearly 
as complete, and a large number of his vol- 
umes had autograph inscriptions of the writ- 
ers. . . He had a good many of the famous 
books of English literature written in the ear- 
lier centuries. Caxton's 'Royal Book,' the- 
four Shakespeare folios, Ben Jonson's worksy 
Beaumont and Fletcher, Florio's Montaigne, 
and Defoe's 'Robinson Crusoe' are a few of 
the more famous of these volumes which will 
be placed on exhibition next fall." The loss 
sustained by young Mr. Widener's growing 
collection in the sinking of the " Titanic," 
which at the same time cut short the life of 
the collector himself, is a disaster still fresh 
in memory. . . , 

THE ASCETICISM OF ART, the necessity of 
forgoing material satisfactions if one would 
depict with insight and power, whether with 
brush or pen, some aspect of life as the ideal- 
ist sees it, is an ancient but an ever-fruitful 
theme. Dr. Earl Barnes contributes to " The 
Popular Science Monthly" for June an arti- 
cle on "The Celibate Women of To-day," in 
which he essays some adequate < answer to the 
question, "Why do so many women elect to 
walk through life alone ? " In recounting the- 
compensations of celibacy he takes occasion to- 
say, aptly and well : " Our real living is never 
in the mere possession and use of things, but 



12 



THE DIAL 



[ June 24 



in what we think and feel about them. Lower 
animals live in facts; man lives in his ideas 
and ideals. All life's values must be found 
on the way ; when we arrive we are always in 
danger of becoming unconscious and so losing 
what we came to get. This is why art and lit- 
erature have always had to find their charac- 
ters in the struggling classes, the poor and the 
rich. The smug middle classes and the com- 
fortably rich have the facts of existence; but 
they do not know it. The universal contempt 
of those who know for such unconscious living 
finds expression in the terms bourgeoisie, phil- 
istines, and bromides. On the other hand, 
struggling and self-conscious groups always 
attract and interest us. Bohemia is poor; it 
lacks the facts of property; but it has the 
most alluring of all festivals and immortal 
banquets. Who, that has a soul as well as a 
stomach, would not turn from a banquet of 
facts at twenty dollars a plate, with dull un- 
consciousness of life in the people, to a group 
of dreamers and wits with very modest fare, 
and twenty-dollar talk at table? . . . The 
poet Dante illustrates in his own life the rela- 
tive value of facts and dreams, of living life 
directly and living it vicariously, to a singu- 
lar degree." All this, with more in the same 
vein, is everlastingly true, and no wise person 
would have it otherwise; although at times, 
in the unreasoning hunger that will occasion- 
ally assail even the best of us, it is a little 
dismaying to reflect that by no possibility can 
we continue to have our cake if we insist upon 

eating it. 



SEVENTEEN SELECTED CANDIDATES FOR THE 
HALL OF FAME of New York University are 
announced by Chancellor Emeritus Mac- 
Cracken, chairman of the Hall of Fame Com- 
mittee. More than two hundred names were 
sent in by that portion of the public inter- 
ested in this quinquennial ceremony, and 
from this number the hundred electors ap- 
pointed for the purpose chose seventeen, 
which it will be their further duty to reduce 
to five next September, there being but five 
tablets available every five years for perpetu- 
ating the fame of illustrious Americans. In 
the preliminary list place has been found for 
but one author, and even he might, through 
some unwisdom in the ultimate selection, be 
cast out. Here is the list, which will not be 
new to all readers : Francis Parkman, author ; 
Mark Hopkins, educator; Alice Freeman 
Palmer, teacher; Horace Bushnell, preacher 
and theologian; Joseph Henry, Benjamin 
'Thompson, and Louis Agassiz, scientists; 
*George Rogers Clark, Nathaniel Greene, and 



Thomas J. Jackson, soldiers; Bufus Choate 
and Thomas Mclntyre Cooley, jurists; Sam- 
uel Adams, Patrick Henry, John Jay, and 
Alexander Hamilton, statesmen; Charlotte 
Saunders Cushman, actress. 



COMMUNICATIONS. 

THE GROWTH OF THE WHITMAN "LEGEND." 
(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

A few evenings ago I attended the annual ban- 
quet of the Walt Whitman Fellowship of Chicago, 
held upon the anniversary of the poet's birth, 
May 31. The Fellowship is not an " organiza- 
tion," and its banquets are projected and carried 
out with as few formalities as possible. If you 
are a " kindred spirit " you are welcome. Upon 
the occasion referred to something like 350 men 
and women falling, supposititiously, in this classifi- 
cation, sat down to the banquet. It is manifestly 
improper to allude to anything Whitmanic as a 
" function " ; so it may be said that these affairs, 
originally very limited in scope, have within the 
past few years assumed quite imposing propor- 
tions. 

There was an extremely interesting programme. 
The list of speakers included numerous well- 
known names, and Walt was " considered " in 
various aspects by various devotees. Also, poems 
were read or recited which were offered as typical 
products of the "new poetry," whose pedigree 
it need not be inquired too closely how was 
asserted to trace back, in the direct line of descent, 
to the Camden bard. 

Listening attentively to everything that was 
presented, I could not but marvel at the rapid 
growth of the Whitman " legend." While Walt 
died as lately as 1892 but twenty-three years 
ago, it is apparent that the day is not far dis- 
tant when he will assume an aspect almost mythi- 
cal. That the number of Whitman " fans " is 
steadily increasing is evident; but that their con- 
ception of the poet is as nebulous as was the 
classical conception of Homer, the banquet made 
plain. In no other way can their enthusiastic 
acceptance of and applause for the most gro- 
tesque assertions about him be explained. 

If Walt's own word is good for anything, he 
sought to inculcate nothing so much as tolerance. 
" There is room for everything in the Leaves," he 
said. And when somebody asked him, " Even for 
Matthew Arnold?" (who was almost his greatest 
aversion among his own contemporaries) he re- 
turned: "Yes even for him!" But, listening 
to the " interpreters " who held forth from the 
speakers' table, I gathered an overwhelming im- 
pression of the most fanatical intolerance. Broad- 
sides were poured upon all sorts of hated objects, 
literary, social, human and divine. The vocab- 
ulary of objurgation and contempt was ransacked 
for the strongest epithets, and the stream of de- 
nunciation foamed and lashed about every obstacle 
in its path. And draping it all was what I have 
previously referred to a series of depictions of 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



13 



the poet himself, as distinguished from his ideas 
and his influence, that was so compendiously un- 
veracious as to make anyone who really knew the 
facts stare in undisguised amazement. 

While not occupying the chief position upon the 
list of speakers, undoubtedly the most eagerly 
anticipated orator of the evening was a gentleman 
with a wide reputation as an advocate of " the 
new freedom " in what might be termed its most 
ultra phases. Gifted with a voice of plangent 
resonance and with marked forensic ability, and 
throwing himself ardently into his subject, he 
delivered a discourse that enraptured the vast 
majority of his auditors. That it did not particu- 
larly enrapture me was, I suppose, because it 
presented to me a Whitman that I failed to recog- 
nize; for the speaker seemed to possess almost 
encyclopedic ignorance of Whitman the man and 
of the forces and the environment that produced 
him. 

Among his statements, for instance, were these: 
That Whitman was born in poverty, never went 
to school in his life, was almost wholly without 
means of literary culture; that his career was one 
unbroken struggle against want and discourage- 
ment ; and that he " died in a hovel, in poverty 
and despair." The facts are that the family into 
which Walt was born was not poverty-stricken; 
that Walt himself enjoyed more " schooling " than 
did many another young American of his time 
belonging to the social stratum of which he was a 
part; that he began work in a newspaper office 
while in his early teens and for years remained a 
member of the " fourth estate " ; that he was also 
a school-teacher for a number of years as a young 
man; that his early literary efforts were accepted 
and published in what were then the leading 
journals of the metropolis, and some of them 
appeared in book form ; that he was at this period 
a frequenter of the theatre, the opera, and the 
libraries, and came into contact with a majority 
of the "literati" and the " intellectuals " best 
worth knowing ; sported a silk hat, a boutonniere, 
a cane, and affected the appearance and the habits 
of the carpet knight rather than the shirt-sleeved 
protagonist of the " open road." 

Furthermore, we know that later on he for a 
considerable time enjoyed a government clerkship 
at Washington which left him much ef his time to 
dispose of as he pleased; that, from the date of 
the appearance of " Leaves of Grass," while he 
had a hard fight for recognition as a poet, he was 
nevertheless never without prominent advocates, 
eulogists, and " promoters " ; that a constantly 
growing band of enthusiasts gathered around him, 
with unfailing support, both pecuniary and moral ; 
that edition after edition of his poems was printed 
and bought, and that individual pieces appeared 
in many of the leading magazines and newspapers, 
while he was also called upon to compose and de- 
liver special effusions at notable public gatherings 
and celebrations; that he had a strong following 
overseas, and that within his own lifetime the 
translation of the " Leaves " into foreign lan- 
guages was being taken up. Finally, we know 
that during all his last years a group of the most 



devoted friends gravitated around him; that all 
his wants were sedulously fulfilled; that he had 
the best medical attendance procurable; that he 
had a nurse and a housekeeper to care for him; 
that he lived in a house that was his own property 
and for years had been; that he was buried in a 
mausoleum which he had himself caused to be 
constructed for the Whitman family, at a cost, I 
find it stated, of some $4000; and that his execu- 
tors, "much to their surprise," found, upon his 
death, that he had a balance of several thousands 
of dollars to his credit in a local bank. 

The orator to whom I refer was either ignorant 
of these facts, or else, for purposes best known to 
himself, he not merely ignored but perverted them 
in order to draw a picture of a persecuted man, 
upon whom no ray of sunshine ever fell and who 
died a pauper in the blackest woe. At the same 
time, this orator declared in accents that made the 
chandeliers vibrate, that the purpose of his re- 
marks was to elucidate the sacred cause to which 
Whitman devoted himself and all his works the 
exposition of the Truth, with a capital T ! 

" What is truth ?" said an historic inquisitor 
ages ago, when in doubt regarding an Immortal 
Personage. None of us can be too certain. But 
Walt, we may take it as assured, is destined to be 
one of our immortals, and the facts about him are 
on record. That is, some of them are there are 
others which, for reasons of his own, he chose 
carefully to suppress. Perhaps what we do not 
know and never can notably, of the " veiled 
period " would be of great help to us in our 
efforts to unriddle the enigma that, in many ways, 
he presents to us. But what we do know is easily 
ascertainable, for there is a whole library of the 
" documents in the case." 

Walt himself, with his unique insight into so 
many of the peculiarities of what he was fond of 
referring to as the human " critter," had a pre- 
monition that it would be wise for him to avoid 
identifying himself with clubs, fellowships, et 
cetera, whose avowed purpose was the dissemina- 
tion of his doctrines. Some clairvoyance seemed 
to warn him, and he steadily refused to give them 
his personal sanction. He had, to be sure, his own 
little private cenacle, whose incense he found very 
grateful; but the spectacle of the Browning and 
Shakespeare societies caused him resolutely to 
keep within its confines. He preferred to " leave 
it to the Leaves," in which he was not mis- 
taken. At the banquet, however, the " Leaves " 
were not conspicuous. Only one of the speakers 
incorporated any of them into his or her dis- 
course; and the table in the anteroom where they 
were on sale seemed unattractive to most of the 
banqueters. 

We may say confidently of Walt, however, that, 
while he chose to maintain an almost sphinx-like 
reticence regarding certain phases of his career, 
those which he did desire recorded he wished set 
down with complete veracity. Only recently I 
have completed my reading of the third and latest 
volume of Horace Traubel's bulky series, " With 
Walt Whitman in Camden," and all are replete 
with injunctions to alter, expurgate, suppress, or 



14 



THE DIAL 



[ June 24 



veneer absolutely nothing. Nevertheless, the evi- 
dence is that Walt's "legend" is growing like 
some tropical parasite, that within no very long 
time it will so obscure his true proportions as to 
render them imperceptible save to the student and 
the historian. Creeping all over the surface of 
this colossal rough-hewn monolith will be an in- 
sidious growth of " interpretative " fable and 
falsification effectually hiding the reality from 
view not only hiding, but defacing and defiling 
it. That, during his lifetime, he was the victim of 
much misapprehension and misinterpretation is a 
commonplace of Whitman history in which, 
however, he differed not at all from a host of other 
great poets and innovators. That his posthumous 
fate will be similar, in degree if not in kind, there 
is every reason to believe. 

JOHN L. HERVEY. 
Chicago, June 14, 1915. 



THE WISCONSIN UNIVERSITY SUEVEY. 
(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

The article in your current issue entitled "A 
Bull in the Educational China Shop " is enter- 
taining. Will your readers care to have three or 
four facts which will help furnish a frame into 
which to fit permanently your picture of the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin survey? 

The questions of which you speak as harassing 
were submitted to the faculty after conference 
with university officers. Including space for 
answers, they took 39, not 50 pages. Of them the 
president wrote : " These questions will give an 
opportunity to the members of the faculty to pre- 
sent their cases fairly." 

You quote the following statement : " The sur- 
vey of the graduate school has been mainly di- 
rected to its clothes rather than to the living 
being beneath the clothes." The survey of the 
graduate school and graduate work showed the 
following: Flaunting plagiarism; slovenly work- 
manship and unscholarly writing; lack of orig- 
inality; lack of purpose and application; lack 
of opportunities for specialization; presence of 
graduate students in freshman and sophomore 
classes, including nine students who were doing 
exclusively freshman and sophomore work; in- 
ability of candidates for a Ph.D. degree to read 
foreign languages on November 1 coupled with 
certification of their ability to read foreign lan- 
guages a fortnight later; lack of plan for re- 
search; failure of many departments to develop 
in absentia graduate work; the fact that of 389 
students enrolled as graduate students 163 had 
faculty connection; that of these 389 only 50 
were doing exclusively graduate work and that 
of these 50, 34 had faculty connection; lack of 
supervision; specific instances of graduate work 
that was of grammar school grade, high school 
grade, freshman and junior grade; the fact that 
a master's degree is given by several departments 
merely for a fifth year of study without speciali- 
zation; the university's endorsement of Ph.D. 
theses after glaring defects had been pointed out 
by the survey. If these are the " clothes," what 



is the " living being beneath the clothes " in the 
graduate school? 

The plagiarism of one thesis is admitted by 
the university on page 356 of the report. 

Of a second thesis, the fact that it was " ap- 
proved by the editor of the series in which it was 
published " is cited as contributing evidence of its 
quality. The university comment did not state to 
the educational world that the editor in question 
is also the member of the faculty who approved 
the thesis and who also was joint author. 

Of a third thesis, Professor Hanus of Harvard 
wrote : " It is not a strong presentation. On a scale 
of 10 I should mark the thesis 6^/2, it being under- 
stood that a thesis graded 5 or below would not 
be accepted." Of this same thesis a Columbia 
professor wrote : " I should not accept it with its 
present organization." Both letters were written 
to the university, page 357. 

In support of the quality of work done by a 
fourth thesis writer, who specialized in experi- 
mental psychology and education, it is stated on 
page 357 that he " now occupies an honorable 
post in an eastern university." The " eastern " 
is Ohio, and the " university " is an institution 
that is not considered a university by readers of 
THE DIAL, or by the Carnegie Foundation, or by 
the Ohio legislature. The work of this specialist 
in education is minor extension work. 

Of a fifth thesis, page 358, Professor Reeves of 
Michigan wrote to the university : " 6 being fail- 
ure and 10 excellent I should rank the thesis not 
over 7." Professor Jenks of New York Uni- 
versity would have accepted this thesis, " with, 
however, the condition that it be rewritten." 

Of a sixth thesis, it is admitted that one chapter 
was taken bodily from an English work. This 
chapter is said by the university to be an " annex," 
although it is the next to the last chapter, with 
nothing whatever to indicate that it is not an 
important and integral part of the thesis. The 
university world was not told that the conclusions 
in this thesis and the greater part of the work 
appeared in a thesis accepted by the University of 
Paris in 1876. 

In defence of a seventh thesis, the university 
comment, page 355, says that if the material col- 
lected and used by the author " existed for any 
similar period of mediaeval history, it would be 
deemed worthy of publication in critical editions." 
The university world again was not told that the 
period for which this material was collected was 
the Reconstruction period after the Civil War, 
and that it consists of 35 letters from southern 
farmers. There is evidence of the use of only a 
small part of even this very small amount of 
material. What the farmers were asked, whether 
they wrote that they had no time to answer, or 
could not remember, or whether they wrote facts 
worth while, was not recorded. The other ma- 
terials upon which this thesis is based have been 
culled over for the most part by several other 
writers. If American scholarship were to be 
gauged by this quality and quantity of work, no 
one would be attributing the revival of learning 
to the introduction of research methods. 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



15 



Will your readers also wish to know some of 
the 37 things which " the dean of the graduate 
school of the much lauded University of Wisconsin 
is not expected to do" 1 ? First, will you permit 
me to quote the statement from my report to the 
effect that these facts were not cited as evidence 
of incompetence or negligence of that officer, as 
you said? On the contrary, my report reads, 
page 163 : " The above list is given not to raise 
question as to whether the dean is doing all that 
may reasonably be expected of his office, but 
whether the university at present is expecting 
enough of the deanship of the graduate school." 
Who of THE DIAL'S readers needs to have evi- 
dence presented that it is not " desirable or prac- 
tical to do any one " of the following among 
the 37? 

1 To have or act upon, further than through 

private conference, knowledge as to effi- 
ciency or inefficiency of instruction in 
classes attended by graduate students. (No. 
11, page 161.) 

2 To supervise research by graduate students 

or to have current evidence that research 
is being supervised or how far it has pro- 
gressed. (No. 12.) 

3 To read theses offered toward advanced de- 

grees for any other purpose than to see 
that they fulfill the mechanical requirements 
as to form. (No. 15.) 

4 To require an examiner appointed by the 

dean to participate in an examination for a 
doctor's degree to read the thesis offered. 
(No. 16.) 

5 To have information at the dean's office as 

well as in the departmental offices as to 
qualifications of graduate fellows. ( No. 25. ) 

6 To have any record of examinations for mas- 

ter's and doctor's degrees except the ex- 
aminer's certificate that the candidate has 
or has not been recommended. 
Will your readers wish to know the statement 
which drove the university to vernacular and to 
furnish the epitaph for the surveyor's mausoleum? 
The statement which is called " rot " is this : " So 
long as 183 different standards, unchecked and 
unsupervised administratively are employed . . 
in judging students' work . . the testing of work 
cannot be well enough done." Will you invite 
readers of THE DIAL to write you in case they 
do not find this statement rot? If it is rot, then 
a very large number of the faculty are guilty of 
writing rot because they wrote to the survey pro- 
testing against present conditions where work 
that is graded " failed " in one class would be 
called " fair " in another. 

One other illustration may help your readers. 
You state that " so ignorant is Dr. Allen of the 
meaning of numbers that he converts a cold sta- 
tistical statement that class-markings follow the 
law of distribution of averages into a deliberate 
intention on the part of the instructor to repress 
talent." As stated on pages 484-485, the purpose 
of the bulletin on class markings is " to convince 
high school teachers that year in and year out 
with students as they come proper marking will 



result in 2% excellent, 2% failed, 23% good, 23% 
poor and 50% fair." After showing that this 
statement did not apply to the university, that 
the principle was not at work at the university, 
the survey listed certain defects, page 485 inter 
alia. " Where attention of supervisors should be 
directed to quality of instruction this bulletin 
directs it to distribution of marks." " The appli- 
cation of this principle is not only unfair to indi- 
vidual children but inhibits where the university 
should stimulate the determination of teachers to 
produce excellent results out of seemingly difficult 
or even seemingly hopeless material." " It leaves 
no hope that a whole class may be brought nearer 
a standard of excellence than was ever done be- 
fore." " Interest is diverted from the work the 
child does to the marks other children have re- 
ceived." Instead of convincing a teacher that the 
percentage of failures or poors in her subject 
should disappear as the quality of her teaching 
improves and the size of her classes decreases, the 
bulletin declares, page 10 : " If the teacher has 
to do only with small classes the results of several 
years' marking, or of several classes in the same 
subject in the same year, should, when put to- 
gether, be similar to the marks of a larger group 
given at one time." 

Finally, your readers may wish to know that 
although the survey set out to be cooperative, 
although every statement was sent to the uni- 
versity for confirmation or conference so as to 
secure agreement as to fact, and although agree- 
ment was easily reached with respect to early 
sections until the university discontinued confer- 
ence with the survey, the following changes were 
made after I left the state without submitting 
them to the board of public affairs, or the uni- 
versity regents, or the advisory committee or to 
me: Sections publicly agreed to by the university 
last October are now excoriated. Ninety-eight 
times my name is used in the first five pages, and 
259 times in the first 25 pages of the university 
comment. Sections clearly marked as written by 
others are first called mine and then personally 
attacked. One important section written by a 
former faculty member who had been for several 
years in the division which he reported upon, was 
never shown to me, was written by arrangement 
with the dean, and yet now for publicity purposes 
is first called mine and then bitterly criticized with 
such expressions as " unsympathetic," " desire to 
injure," "grossly unfair," etc. 

Will American scholars who do not accept 
plagiarized theses, who do not assign work for 
graduate students that can be done by a clerk 
who has never gone to high school, who do not 
approve warmed-over, long-winded, disorganized 
lectures, who are incapable of telling untruth or of 
intimidating truth, accept ex parte criticism of a 
work in which 600 faculty members joined, or 
will the 600 be given a chance to tell their story as 
they have told it in the survey report? 

WILLIAM H. ALLEN, 
Joint Director, University 
of Wisconsin Survey. 

Madison, Wis., June 17, 1915. 



16 



THE DIAL 



[ June 24 



A GREAT AMERICAN NATURALIST.* 

A number of years ago, one of the Wright 
brothers was making an aeroplane at Dayton, 
Ohio, when an old man, a neighbor, stopped 
to remonstrate with him. " What a pity it is," 
he said, " that a clever young fellow like you 
should so waste his time and money." Mr. 
Wright pled, in self-defence, that he really 
expected to get practical results, when his old 
friend interrupted, and in solemn tones ad- 
monished him : " Young man, let me tell you 
this: if anyone ever makes a flying machine 
that will fly, it will not be anybody in 
Dayton!" 

The Americans are often accused of being 
a boastful people, who like to hear their eagle 
scream; but a close student of our history 
may find evidences of an excess of humility 
which has been positively harmful. Quite in 
the spirit of the old man of Dayton, we have 
been slow to recognize scientific ability, not 
merely in its incipient stages, but even after 
the work has proved its worth. Thus it hap- 
pens that the name of Baird, a truly great 
man judged by the quality and quantity of 
his accomplishments, is practically unknown 
outside of a comparatively small scientific 
circle. Student and teacher at Dickinson Col- 
lege, Carlisle, Pa., he was gratefully remem- 
bered by his old pupils and associates; but a 
recent graduate of that institution assured 
the reviewer that he had never heard the name 
of the naturalist. He was the creator of the 
U. S. National Museum; yet the visitor to 
Washington finds neither statue nor inscrip- 
tion on the grounds to commemorate his work. 
At Woods Hole, Mass., where he founded a 
great laboratory for the study of marine life, 
and where he died in 1887, there is indeed an 
appropriate tablet on a large granite boulder ; 
while more recently a bust of Baird was 
placed in the American Museum in New York 
City. 

Agassiz and Baird belong to the same gen- 
eral period, and were variously associated in 
much of their work. Yet why is it that 
Agassiz is everywhere remembered, while 
Baird is forgotten or was never generally 
known? In many respects their labors ran 
parallel : each founded and developed a great 
natural history museum, each published great 
contributions to American zoology, each in- 
spired and taught numerous young men who 
have since continued the work they began. 



* SPENCER FULLER-TON BAIRD. 
Healey Ball, D.Sc. Illustrated, 
cott Co. 



A Biography. By William 
Philadelphia : J. B. Lippin- 



When we compare the results item by item, it 
is impossible to give Baird a second place. 
Agassiz came with a great European reputa- 
tion, was a fascinating and picturesque char- 
acter; Baird was a plain American, hard- 
working and modest. It is impossible to re- 
sist the appeal which Agassiz makes to the 
imagination, and we would grudge him none 
of his fame; but after all, Baird deserves a 
much better place in the minds of his coun- 
trymen than he has ever held. Individually 
and as a nation we need to cultivate a better 
appreciation of good work done in unsensa- 
tional ways, and a readier recognition of 
native American talent. 

After the death of Professor Baird plans 
were made for the preparation of a biog- 
raphy, but for various reasons the work was 
delayed until it seemed in danger of being 
abandoned. Baird's daughter, Miss Lucy 
Baird, was keenly interested in the project, 
and had accumulated much valuable material, 
but her death in 1913 left everything unfin- 
ished. Miss Baird did, however, leave instruc- 
tions to her executor to see the memoir 
completed if possible ; and fortunately at this 
juncture Dr. W. H. Dall, on being appealed 
to, consented to undertake the work. Dr. 
Dall of the U. S. National Museum, eminent as 
a naturalist and keenly appreciative of 
Baird's character and labors, having worked 
under Baird for many years, was in every 
respect the most suitable person to write the 
book. More than occupied with his own im- 
portant researches, for the completion of 
which even the long life we all wish him must 
be wholly inadequate, it was no small thing 
to turn aside and undertake the preparation 
of a voluminous biography. Yet it was abun- 
dantly worth while, and we cannot be suffi- 
ciently grateful that the record has been made 
in an adequate manner, before it was alto- 
gether too late. 

Dr. Dall has not attempted any elaborate 
or complete analysis of Baird's scientific work, 
which stands as published, and can be re- 
viewed in detail at any subsequent time. He 
has rather chosen to present to us the man 
himself, the manner of his life, his friend- 
ships and ideals, the growth of his personality, 
and all those intimate things which if not told 
by those who knew him, could scarcely be 
known to posterity. Perhaps the strongest 
impression we get is that of wonder at Baird's 
early maturity, his surprising ability as a 
zoologist when little more than a boy. This 
was well understood by his associates, and by 
the various eminent naturalists of the day 
with whom he became acquainted. Thus, at 
the age of seventeen, he discovered a new 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



17 



bird, and wrote to the celebrated ornithologist 
Audubon : 

" You see, sir, that I have taken (after much 
hesitation) the liberty of writing to you. I am 
but a boy and very inexperienced, as you no doubt 
will observe from my description of the Flycatcher. 
My brother last year commenced the study of our 
Birds, and after some months I joined him. He 
has gone elsewhere to settle and I am left alone." 

To which Audubon replied: 

" On my return home from Charleston, S. C., 
yesterday, I found your kind favor of the 4th 
instant in which you have the goodness to inform 
me that you have discovered a new species of fly- 
catcher, and which, if the bird corresponds to your 
description, is, indeed, likely to prove itself hitherto 
undescribed, for, although you speak of yourself 
as being a youth, your style and the descriptions 
you. have sent me prove to me that an old head 
may from time to time be found on young 
shoulders ! " 

The bird proved new, and was subsequently 
published by the brothers Baird. 

In 1846 Baird married Miss Mary Church- 
ill, who, though herself no naturalist, sympa- 
thetically supported all his endeavors. An old 
servant who was with Baird for nearly forty 
years was able to say that he never saw either 
one angry. In illustration of her mother's 
kindly tolerance and her father's sense of the 
value of time, Miss Lucy Baird set down the 
following story, as she got it from Mrs. Baird 
herself : 

" At the time of his courting, he was exceedingly 
busy with his college work and also studying very 
hard. After he became engaged, he was anxious 
of course to spend his evenings with his fiancee 
and yet did not feel that he could take all that 
time from his studies; so he fell into the habit of 
taking a book with him in order that he might 
carry on his studies and still have the pleasure of 
sitting in the room with her. Being an early riser 
and often taking long walks with^ his class, making 
collections, my father would be apt to get drowsy 
towards the end of the evening and was apt 
towards its close to fall asleep over his book; so 
when the hour arrived at which my mother knew 
he expected to leave, she would wake him up and 
send him home." 

Baird himself, in a letter to Professor Dana, 
thus describes his wife in 1850 : 

" My wife is a daughter of Gen. Churchill, 
Inspector-General of the Army, and a first-rate 
one she is, too. Not the least fear of snakes, sala- 
manders, and such other zoological interestings ; 
cats only are to her an aversion. Well educated 
and acquainted with several tongues, she usually 
reads over all my letters, crossing i's and dotting 
t's, sticking in here a period, and there a comma 
... In my absence, she answers letters of corre- 
spondents, and in my presence reads them. She 
transcribes my illegible MSS., correcting it withal, 
and does not grudge the money I spend in books. 
In addition to these literary accomplishments, she 



regulates her family well (myself included) and 
her daughter is the cleanest and most neatly dressed 
child in town." 

The daughter, Lucy, then about twenty-three 
months old, was "passionately fond of Natural 
History, admiring snakes above all things." 

How Baird, beginning as curator to the 
Smithsonian Institution, built up the U. S. 
National Museum, and did many other things 
in the service of science and of his country, 
must be gathered from the book itself ; which, 
while it chronicles Baird's life, is necessarily 
also to a large extent a history of the progress 
of American zoology during a large part of 
the nineteenth century. 

T. D. A. COCKERELL. 



THE " MOVIES " OLD AND NEW.* 

During the World's Columbian Exposition 
of 1893, Edison's Kinetoscope, a contrivance 
for showing photographs in motion to one 
person only for about thirty seconds at a time, 
was displayed to the public. Three years 
later, Sir Augustus Harris installed Robert 
Paul's " Theatrograph " at Olympia, a ma- 
chine fundamentally the same as the Bioscope 
of to-day. Contemporaneously with Mr. Paul's 
efforts, French inventors were developing the 
Cinematograph, a machine which was installed 
at the Eden Musee, New York, during the 
autumn of 1896. 

Only nineteen years have passed, therefore, 
since the theatrical debut of the motion pic- 
ture; yet to-day the business of purveying 
motion pictures theatrically to the American 
people is computed to be the fifth largest in- 
dustry in the United States. Nearly a million 
people of all ages and of both sexes attend 
daily the moving-picture theatres of Greater 
New York alone, the attendance throughout 
the other cities of the country being propor- 
tionally universal and no hamlet too small to 
be the home of a "movie" theatre. Indeed, 
the motion-picture play, or the photoplay, 
as it is technically called, far more than the 
stage play, has become the amusement of the 
nation. Beside the circulation of a photoplay 
that of a " best seller," or even that of a popu- 
lar ten cent magazine, becomes insignificant. 

Surely, such a power for good or evil should 
not be scorned by those having the welfare of 
the people at heart. Better would it be to 
exclaim : " I care not who makes the laws of 
the nation, if I may write its ' movie ' plays ! " 
Indeed, the photoplay offers to'the writer his 
widest means of artistic expression. 

* PHOTOPLAY MAKING. A Handbook Devoted to the Appli- 
cation of Dramatic Principles to the Writing of Plays for 
Picture Production. By Howard T. Dimick. Ridgewood, 
N. J. : The Editor Co. 



18 



THE DIAL 



[ June 24 



To the word "artistic," exception will 
doubtless be taken by those who are in the 
habit of deriding the "movies" as vulgar 
clap-trap, too crude and garish to be consid- 
ered artistic; yet these scoffers seldom, if 
ever, attend "movie" performances and there- 
fore know little of the possibilities of this new 
form of theatrical art. Scarcely eighteen years 
old, it is only within the last five years, it 
might almost be said within the past year, 
that the photoplay has been developed into the 
multiple reel play, or the feature film, so- 
called. Previously the slapstick farce, or the 
crude melodrama in a single reel, was the 
offering. Now the filmed novel or stage play, 
presented by actors of established reputation, 
has relegated the one-reel film to the second 
class theatre, and raised the price of admis- 
sion in the better class of "movie" play- 
houses from five and ten cents to twenty-five 
and fifty cents, even in some instances to 
regular theatrical prices. This raising of the 
price has raised the standard of production, 
the public naturally being unwilling to pay 
fifty cents for the former five cents' worth. 
As in the case of the regular stage, the mana- 
gers seek plays that will appeal to the public, 
for without popular plays the " movie " indus- 
try would cease. Prior to the advent of the 
photoplay, thousands wrote for the regular 
stage, while only tens succeeded in getting 
their plays produced. Tens of thousands 
write for the movies now, and again it is a 
case of the survival of the fittest, the man 
without the dramatic sense having no more 
chance to succeed as a " movie " playwright 
save in that the volume of production is infi- 
nitely greater than he had as a writer for 
the regular stage. 

With such a bait to dangle before the eyes 
of literary aspirants as the sure attainment of 
successful "movie" authorship, the corre- 
spondence schools, manuscript readers, and 
literary advisers have been reaping a rich 
harvest. Small wonder that a considerable 
literature upon the art of writing photoplays 
has sprung into being, with the object of ap- 
pealing to the legion of men, women, and 
children who aspire to get rich quickly in the 
" movies." 

One of our comic weeklies recently pub- 
lished a quip to this effect: "Jones. *[ un- 
derstand Robinson is making a good living out 
of the short story. Brown. Why, I heard he 
had never had one accepted. Jones. He 
hasn't; he's writing articles on how to write 
them for a correspondence school." If the 
word " photoplay " be substituted here for 
" short story," Robinson becomes the type of 
man who gives instruction in the art of photo- 



play making, those who are deft in that art 
being too busily engaged in reaping the rich 
harvest their skill has brought forth, to find 
the time in which to initiate the public into 
the secret of their success. Yet to the rule that 
books on the " movies " are valueless, there is 
the proverbial exception ; since in " Photoplay 
Making," by Mr. Howard T. Dimick, many 
sane ideas are set forth, albeit in a somewhat 
cumbersome way. 

" From the drama of the stage," says Mr. 
Dimick, "I turned to that of the screen, after 
an experience as writer and critic of plays." 
As no record of his experience appears in that 
vade-mecum of successful endeavor, " Who's 
Who in America," and as his book is pub- 
lished in Ridgewood, New Jersey, it is easy to 
suspect Mr. Dimick of kinship with the Rob- 
inson of the comic weekly quip. Howsoever 
that may be, he has profited well by his 
experience as " writer and critic of plays," the 
real value of his book lying in the emphasis 
he lays upon the similarity between the photo- 
play and the stage play. Indeed, funda- 
mentally they are the same, their construction 
being governed by precisely the same laws; 
for though the technical methods of the two 
arts may differ considerably, "yet," as Mr. 
Dimick acutely observes, "the underlying 
dramatic principles of both forms of theatri- 
cal exposition are identical." 

The stage play appeals to the ear as well as 
to the eye ; therefore conditions that are sup- 
posed to exist before the commencement of a 
play may be set forth by dialogue. In the 
photoplay these conditions must be shown in 
action; but in the construction of his play 
the photoplaywright (if one may be pardoned 
the use of the word) is bound by the same 
dramatic laws as govern his colleague of the 
regular stage. The dramatic action in both 
instances must be logical, and must proceed 
from understandable causes to effects that 
seem so inevitable that they appeal sponta- 
neously either to our sympathy or our risibil- 
ity. Indeed, unity, sequence, cause and effect 
are as necessary in the one as in the other, 
and also atmosphere and characterization. 
The stage dramatist has the benefit of dia- 
logue, but is hampered by the restrictions 
which stage appliances impose. The photo- 
dramatist, on the other hand, is unlimited 
scenically; but is limited in utterance to the 
sub-titles and spoken titles he may flash on 
the screen. These, however, must be used 
sparingly, the ideal photoplay being under- 
standable, like the ideal pantomime, without 
a single explanatory word. 

Sir Arthur Wing Pinero calls drama "the 
art of compressing life without falsification," 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



19 



an apt definition which Mr. Dimick perti- 
nently qualifies in so far as it relates to photo- 
drama. "The complete play," he says, "is 
not in its ultimate analysis a ' mere screenful ' 
of life. It is or should be 'a screenful ' 
of art with the likeness of life." 

The task of the photo-dramatist, however, 
is far less arduous than that of the stage 
dramatist. In both instances dramatic sense 
is required, but the stage dramatist must pos- 
sess literary sense as well. Although both 
must think dramatically, the dramatist who 
writes stage plays must clothe his thoughts in 
language that will characterize not only the 
persons in his play, so that they appear real, 
but must unfold the story in a way that the 
audience may both understand and enjoy. It 
is this literary aspect of the stage drama 
which makes it the superior art, for in other 
respects photoplay making and stage play 
making are governed by the same fundamen- 
tal laws, the play in both instances being 
constructed in practically the same way 
through the preparation of a scene plat or 
scenario. 

This word, which calls to mind the Italian 
Commedia dell'Arte, recalls also the striking 
resemblance this popular entertainment of the 
renaissance bears in several particulars to the 
photo-drama of the present day, not only in 
its construction, but in the manner of its pro- 
duction. Indeed, it might almost be said that 
were the camera work eliminated, the photo- 
play of to-day would become peripatetic 
Commedia dell'Arte, the one appreciable dif- 
ference between the two being the fact that 
the scenes of a Commedia dell'Arte were acted 
upon a stationary stage, whereas those of the 
photoplay take place wherever the imagina- 
tion of the dramatist elects that they be 
performed. 

As in the Commedia dell'Arte, the dialogue 
of the photoplay scenario is unwritten, except 
in the case of passages which emphasize vital 
points of the story. In a Commedia dell'Arte 
these were called the doti or dowries; in the 
photoplay they are the " spoken titles " or 
" leaders," and are flashed on the screen. The 
construction, however, is so similar in both 
instances, that a photoplay producer could 
take the average Commedia dell'Arte scenario 
and " film " it almost without alteration, his 
method of rehearsing his company being so 
like that of the corago or stage manager of 
Italian Improvised Comedy, that it is difficult 
to believe the technique of photoplay acting 
is not a direct inheritance from that of the 
Commedia dell'Arte. 

The similarity between these two stage 
forms, which distinguishes them most from 



the regular drama, is the improvisate char- 
acter of their dialogue. Should the play- 
wright of the regular stage turn his scenario, 
or outline of his play, over to the stage man- 
ager, with no dialogue written except impor- 
tant lines, which the very blocking out of the 
play called, forth ; and should the stage man- 
ager read it to the company, scene by scene, 
and impress upon its members the various 
characters they are to play and the situations 
they are to unfold, but leave to their readiness 
of wit the extemporization of all dialogue, 
except a few vital lines absolutely necessary 
to the unfolding of the story, we would then 
have in nearly every essential a Commedia 
dell'Arte as it was written and produced in 
Italy during the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries. 

Now in the production of a photoplay this 
is precisely the modus operandi. That dia- 
logue obtains in the photoplay may astonish 
the uninitiated; yet not only do the actors 
speak, so that the effebt of moving lips may 
be registered, but they speak lines which re- 
flect both the character and the situation they 
are portraying. These lines, though impro- 
vised while a scene is in rehearsal, are impor- 
tant to the effective registration by the 
camera of the action, for they enable the 
actors to be "in their roles," as the French 
say, much more effectively than if pantomime 
alone were resorted to. Moreover, moving- 
picture actors seldom play without an audi- 
ence, particularly in the exterior scenes of a 
play, while during the taking of the interior 
scenes there are usually a few interlopers or 
fellow actors in the studio, to witness their 
histrionic efforts. Hence the repetition of a 
scene which the camera registers becomes not 
a rehearsal, but a performance. Again, the 
rapidity with which a scene is made by a 
competent producer, often with but one re- 
hearsal, seldom with more than two or three, 
brings the "movie" actor into close pro- 
fessional kinship with the Commedia dell'Arte 
performer, of whom Luigi Riccoboni says in 
his Histoire de I'ancien theatre italien (1730) : 

" To a comedian who depends upon improvisa- 
tion, face, memory, voice, and sentiment are not 
enough. If he would distinguish himself, he must 
possess a lively and fertile imagination, a great 
facility in expression; he must master the subtle- 
ties of the language too, and have at his disposal 
a full knowledge of all that is required for the 
different situations in which his role places him." 
In all except the phrase "he must master 
the subtleties of the language," this state- 
ment applies with equal force to the actor in 
the Improvised Comedy of the Italian renais- 
sance and the "movie" actor of to-day, only 
those actors who possess " a lively and fertile 



20 



THE DIAL 



[June 24 



imagination, a great facility of expression, 
and a full knowledge of all that is required 
for the different situations in which their 
roles place them," being effective histrions in 
the movies. The slow, studying actor, whom 
the stage manager can by patience whip into 
a part, or the actor who depends upon read- 
ing rather than acting for his effects, will fail 
ignominiously before the camera. Indeed, 
this new histrionism calls for precisely the 
qualities of which Riccoboni speaks, with the 
added requirement that the actor must pos- 
sess a face which in the technical language of 
the "movie" studio "registers" effectively; 
more than one actor who succeeded because of 
his good looks on the regular stage has failed 
in the "movies," because his features do not 
photograph well. 

A distinctive element of the Commedia dell'- 
Arte was characterization, as exemplified by 
Pantalone, Arlecchino, Brighella, Pulcinella, 
Scaramuccia, and their merry mates, each pic- 
turing the local characteristics of some Italian 
city. These were set characters, one or more 
of whom appeared in every comedy, the plots 
being constructed around these known and 
popular roles. Although the "movies" have 
not accepted this plan of construction in its 
entirety, it nevertheless obtains, a series of 
plays having been constructed around popular 
characters, such as Bronco Billy; while John 
Bunny and Charley Chaplin might with con- 
siderable verisimilitude be dubbed the Panta- 
lone and Arlecchino of the " movies," the parts 
they have invariably filled being certainly sim- 
ilar in conception to those that bore these 
names in the Italian Improvised Comedy. 

Indeed, although the drama of to-day un- 
consciously owes much in the way of construc- 
tion to the adept dramaturgy of those nimble 
Italian actors who, schooled by experience in 
stagecraft, developed the Commedia dell' Art e, 
or professional comedy, along lines that were 
followed by Moliere and Goldoni, the "mov- 
ies " have revivified the most distinctive char- 
acteristics of that popular drama of the 
renaissance. 

The very word scenario used by the actors 
of that period survives to indicate the photo- 
play, which in form differs from those Italian 
scenari that have been preserved to us only by 
the addition of camera directions, such as 
"close up," "back to scene," "cut," "fade," 
etc., all of which are called forth by the tech- 
nical demands of photography. Although 
sprightly Arlecchino and roguish Brighella do 
not prank in the "movies" in Bergamask 
attire, their ectypes are there in modern garb ; 
while the actors who extemporize their lines, 
nimbly play before the camera in the rollick- 



ing and spontaneous way of the Commedia 
dell'Arte actors, as described by Riccoboni, 
Garzoni, Barbieri, and other contemporary 
admirers of this forgotten art. Thus it would 
appear that there is nothing entirely new 
under the dramatic sun, not even the "movies." 
H. C. CHATFIELD-TAYLOR. 



FINDING ONESELF IN 



Every lover of reading knows something of 
the anticipatory pleasure in opening a book 
the title of which suggests a purpose, points a 
moral, or adorns a promised tale. In the title 
of President "Wilson's little volume, "When 
a Man Comes to Himself," we have just such 
a pledge of a book with a serious meaning. 
Some books make their appeal with an entirely 
impersonal authority, as though claiming to 
be regarded as emanations from the collective 
intellect of the race, and bringing with them 
no suggestion of self -revelation. Others, again, 
seem to require for their interpretation and 
complete comprehension the conception of a 
known or unknown personality behind them. 
In this latter category we must class the book 
now under review; and we trust it may not 
seem an intrusion into the privacies of a life 
if we assume it to be something in the nature 
of an apologia pro vita, a glimpse of the inner 
workings of an heroic soul, a laying bare for 
our instruction and edification of the manner 
in which its writer has escaped from the 
stifling atmosphere of littleness and self-seek- 
ing into the upper air of universal aims where 
"our souls have sight of that immortal sea 
which brought us hither." 

The parable of the Prodigal Son has ob- 
viously suggested the title of the book; b*ut 
the author in the first few pages has made 
clear what much requires to be kept in mind, 
that it is not necessary for a man to have wan- 
dered into "a far country" or to have been 
reduced to coveting "the husks which the 
swine did eat" before reaching the point 
where he must come to himself, if his life is 
not to end in failure. The emotional upheaval 
known as " conversion " has become so soiled 
by the ignoble uses of a cheap evangelicalism 
as to have lost credit in the world of sober 
judgment ; but that some analogous change of 
attitude towards the mystery of existence and 
the meaning and uses of life must precede the 
entering upon his highest inheritance, is what 
every man in his heart probably believes. For 
even among those spiritually " impotent folk " 
who, as the author remarks, "never come to 

* WHEN A MAN COMES TO HIMSELF. By Woodrow Wilson. 
New York: Harper & Brothers. 



.1915] 



THE DIAL 



themselves at all," who can say how many 
there are who are quite aware of the necessity 
for this change, and who may have waited 
long by the pool of Bethesda for the coming 
>of the disturbing angel that they might be the 
first to plunge into its healing waters? The 
spiritually "blind and halt and withered" 
belong to all classes of society, and are to be 
found among the wise and prudent, and in the 
very household of Mr. Worldly Wiseman of 
the town of Morality. Indeed, that this " com- 
ing to oneself" is as necessary to the man of 
genius or to him who instinctively prefers to 
walk in the paths of rectitude and veracity, as 
to the wayward child of humanity, is the les- 
son which this book seems to leave with us. 

Where one is in complete agreement with 
the main conclusions of an author, and in the 
deepest sympathy with the spirit of his writ- | 
ing, it may appear ungracious to select points 
in detail with which to disagree. As honest 
criticism, however, is the proper function of 
the critic, we must join issue with Mr. Wilson 
in one of his dicta where he affirms that the 
coming to oneself is " a change reserved for 
the thoroughly sane and healthy and for those j 
who can detach themselves," etc. Judging j 
from observation and experience, one might be j 
tempted to think that complete sanity and i 
perfect health sometimes act as a bar to the 
oncoming of the great change, and positively 
prevent a man's coming to himself. Might it 
not even be said that a little defect in health or ; 
a slight touch of insanity sometimes provides ! 
~the conditions under which the change is most ! 
likely to take place? The psychological mys- 
tery which surrounds the motions of the spirit 
is as inexplicable now as it was to the apostle 
who said : " By grace are ye saved and that 
not of yourselves, it is the gift of God." For 
upon whom does the gift seem most readily to 
descend? Does it not come most frequently 
to those who are conscious of having lost some- 
thing of that healthiness and sanity which re- 
sult from complete adjustment to outward 
conditions ? May it not be that here again the 
intellectual and emotional invalids or sinners 
may have at least an equal chance to come to 
themselves, with those who have observed all 
the laws of mental and emotional hygiene ? It 
is, at all events, a more cheerful and sustaining 
TDelief that the change is not reserved for the 
thoroughly sane and healthy; as there are 
so few who can truthfully be so described. 

We believe we interpret the author's conclu- 
sions aright in assuming that he regards the 
coming of a man to himself not as a single and 
final transaction, but as a process, which hav- 
ing begun will be repeated as life unfolds its 
hidden potentialities; and that we must be 



re-born not once but many times if we are to 
expand to the full circumference of our being. 
While there are undoubtedly many to whom 
the initial awakening arrives gradually, like 
the return to consciousness of a healthy 
sleeper, to most of us it comes with more or 
less of a shock; to some with the force of a 
mighty rushing wind; to others with only a 
gentle "click" indicating that a corner has 
been rounded, an important point passed, a 
new outlook gained. But every man who has 
experienced the change and realized the 
altered perspective in which the world is seen, 
and who has received the gift in the spirit of 
true humility, will expect further revelations 
and adjustments and will not be disappointed. 
Each recurring " coming to himself " will take 
place with less shock and more and more fre- 
quency, until in a real sense he comes to him- 
self at the opening of each new day. 

On many other points most readers will find 
themselves in absolute agreement with Mr. 
Wilson. That "men come to themselves by 
discovering their limitations no less than by 
discovering their deeper endowments," that 
"Moral enthusiasm is not, uninstructed and 
of itself, a suitable guide to practicable and 
lasting reformation," and that " if the reform 
sought be the reformation of others as well as 
of himself, the reformer should look to it that 
he knows the true relation of his will to the 
wills of those he would change and guide," 
these are aphorisms of inestimable value for 
the clarification of thought and the guidance 
of the social reformer. The idea, too, that man 
reaches his highest degree of individuality 
in proportion as he identifies himself with his 
community, was surely never more happily 
expressed than in the following epigrammatic 
sentences : "A man is the part he plays among 
his fellows. He is not isolated. His life is 
made up of the relations he bears to others 
is made or marred by those relations, guided 
by them, judged by them, expressed in them." 
"Adjustment [to those relations] is exactly 
what a man gains when he comes to himself." 
Would it be possible to find a more felicitous 
elucidation of the antinomy which accepts 
Society as an organism yet insists on main- 
taining the individuality of the man ? 

"And so men grow by having responsibility 
laid upon them, the burden of other people's 
business." In these words we seem to feel the 
inner spirit of the distinguished writer of this 
edifying little book. That the burden our 
great civic chief t is at present bearing may 
react in the manner he obviously desires, will 
be the sincerest wish of every reader of "When 
a Man Comes to Himself." 

ALEX. MACKENDRICK. 



22 



THE DIAL 



[June 24 



SCORCHED WITH THE FLAMES OF WAR.* 

Of all who have gone forth to write of the 
present war for the purpose of influencing 
the opinion of the world, Mr. Sven Hedin is 
the most eminent. Educated in Germany in 
his youth, preserving through life an honest 
love for and admiration of its people in peace, 
the recipient of many honors and much ap- 
plause throughout its empire, he was allowed 
the widest latitude by no less a person than 
the Kaiser himself for the acquirement of 
such knowledge as would most convincingly 
present the cause of the German Empire to 
the neutral nations. As in so many other 
cases, he has made over his own into a Ger- 
man heart, and his large octavo volume con- 
tains no criticism of the Germans that is not 
wholly favorable. As in so many other cases, 
too, he is not satisfied to record merely what 
he sees, though he more than once professes 
that to be his object; he argues from his own 
experiences and observations to sweeping gen- 
eralities, denies all atrocities, and leaves the 
German soldier with a clean bill of moral 
health. It may be remarked here, for the. 
purpose of clearing up a great deal of muddy 
thinking in such matters, that so-called nega- 
tive testimony of this kind is not testimony 
at all. Mr. Hedin offers no contradiction, as 
an eye-witness, of the cases set forth in the 
Bedier and Bryce reports, buttressed as they 
are by extracts from the diaries of German 
soldiers ; he is content to present himself as a 
witness in the spirit in which the twenty 
friends who had not seen the Irishman steal the 
pig contradicted the ten who did. This is not 
to be held as vitiating the force of his actual 
observations; a traveller of the first distinc- 
tion and trained both to see and to write, his 
book is authoritative within its limits, and its 
faults are those of prejudgment and of mass 
psychology. But even these prejudices are 
interesting in the record, as when he notes: 
" I was told that the wounds of the Germans 
heal better and quicker than those of the 

* WITH THE GERMAN ARMIES IN THE WEST. By Sven Hedin. 
Authorized translation from the Swedish by H. G. de Walter- 
storff. Illustrated. New York : John Lane Co. 

BEHIND THE SCENES IN WARRING GERMANY. By Edward 
Lyell Fox. Illustrated. New York : McBride, Nast & Co. 

FOUR WEEKS IN THE TRENCHES. The War Story of a Vio-. 
linist. By Fritz Kreisler. Illustrated. Boston: Houghton 
Mifflin Co. 

A SURGEON IN BELGIUM. By H. S. Souttar, F.R.C.S. Illus- 
trated. New York: Longmans, Green & Co. 

PARIS WAITS: 1914. By M. E. Clarke. Illustrated. New 
York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

LA GUERRE VUE D'UNE AMBULANCE. Par 1'Abbe Felix Klein. 
Illustrated. Paris : Librairie Armand Colin. 

EYE-WITNESS'S NARRATIVE OF THE WAR. From the Marne 
to Neuve Chapelle: September, 1914-March, 1915. New York: 
Longmans, Green & Co. 

FIELD HOSPITAL AND FLYING COLUMN. Being the Journal 
of an English Nursing Sister in Belgium and Russia. By 
Violetta Thurstan. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 



Frenchmen, whatever the reason may be." 
Again what we should call British self- 
respect and independence he characterizes as 
bad breeding: 

" Of the prisoners, it was said that there was a 
great difference between the British and the 
French. The former would stand with their hands 
in their pockets and a pipe in their mouth when 
spoken to by an officer, and a salute was only 
elicited by a reprimand. The Frenchmen, on the 
other hand, always salute the German officers 
without being told, and this is probably due to 
their inherited military spirit and to the trait of 
inborn courtesy which pervades the whole nation." 

Mr. Hedin met and talked with the Kaiser 
three times during his stay in Germany (from. 
September 14 to November 12, 1914), and 
presents this portrait of him : 

" The talk of the Emperor having aged during 
the war, and of the war with all its labors and 
anxieties having sapped his strength and health, 
is all nonsense. His hair is no more pronouncedly 
iron grey than before the war, his face has color, 
and far from being worn and thin, he is plump 
and strong, bursting with energy and rude health. 
A man of Emperor William's stamp is in his ele- 
ment when, through the force of circumstances, 
he is compelled to stake all he possesses and above- 
all himself for the good and glory of his country. 
But his greatest quality is that he is a human 
being and that with all his fulminant force he is 
humble before God." 

Mr. Hedin has convinced himself that this is 
a holy war, in which the Kaiser, like Gustavus 
Adolphus before him, is holding up the arms 
of Protestantism against what, one does 
not quite make out. After a detailed account 
of the celebration of mass near the front, he- 
writes : 

" Perhaps one ought to . . realize what Swedes 
and Germans have in common. At one time we 
gave each other the best and noblest that we pos- 
sessed. The Lutheran faith preserved by the 
sword of Gustavus Adolphus was the seed and 
life germ which has given birth to that Germanic 
culture which to-day is fighting for its existence. 
None of us can escape the responsibility for the 
inviolable preservation of the common heritage. 
Our German brethren are now shedding their 
heart's blood in a cause which in equal measure 
concerns themselves, and for which Sweden's 
greatest Kings gave their all and their lives." 

France is held to be the victim of a specious. 
and inhuman diplomacy "surely one can- 
not with self-respect refrain from loudly con- 
demning the policy which alone is the cause 
of it all." The use of Turcos and Gurkas and 
Sikhs brings forth objurgations the actual 
Turks are not mentioned. One of the inter- 
esting ways in which Germany is having the- 
cost of the war defrayed for her by her ene- 
mies is worth setting down in full : 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



"Nothing is taken away off-hand. All will be 
made good to the owners after the war. The 
terms of peace will contain a provision to the 
effect that the defeated side shall pay the amount 
of every receipt or voucher (bon) representing the 
value of the things requisitioned during the mili- 
tary occupation. The individual is not to suffer 
direct, but only as a participant in the misfortune 
which falls on the country as a whole. It is the 
duty of the State to make good the people's per- 
sonal losses when the State is incapable of pro- 
tecting the property of the individual against the 
enemy. And if the invading power is defeated 
in the war, its just punishment is that it must 
make good the losses of the sufferers." 

This reads fairly enough, but it must be 
remembered that there is nowhere in the large 
volume any hint of anything but German vic- 
tory, complete and absolute. The French who 
accept the German vouchers, having no choice 
in the matter, are to look to their own govern- 
ment for repayment for the supplies they are 
forced to give its foes. The Hague conven- 
tions are not silent on this subject, but as Mr. 
Hedin observes, "In more than one respect 
this war has demonstrated the impotence and 
futility of all conferences and conventions of 
Geneva, The Hague, and other places, bearing 
names which now have an empty and illusory 
sound." It is well to have a categorical state- 
ment of this sort from such a completely 
pro-German source. After noting the trench 
warfare in northern France, and getting to 
Antwerp just after its fall, Mr. Hedin re- 
turned home. He had been under French fire 
and the British naval bombardment of Ostend, 
had been entertained by numerous royalties 
and high dignitaries, and his tone is that of a 
man who thoroughly enjoyed himself. 

Mr. Edward Lyell Fox did not have so 
elaborate a social experience with German 
notabilities as Mr. Hedin, but his opportuni- 
ties for gaining knowledge were almost equal 
and of much the same nature. His book, 
" Behind the Scenes in Warring Germany," is 
\vritten with less reserve and more energy, 
describing conditions on both the western 
front in autumn and the eastern in winter, in 
the form of special correspondence for Amer- 
ican periodicals. Mr. Fox is much more 
guarded in his statements about German pro- 
ceedings which have not fallen under his own 
eyesight, as when he remarks in this con- 
nection : "Were every American who believes 
these Belgian stories, to live with the German 
soldiers as I have, and to know them off duty, 
and to watch them in the trenches, he would 
be utterly at sea. The stories of Belgium do 
not agree with the men of the German army." 
This is brought out by nothing more than the 
accusation that the home-loving Teuton has 



wantonly burned houses; and in the para- 
graph immediately following he describes a 
Prussian officer's bomb-proof in the trenches 
as filled with loot from a neighboring chateau 
the sort of thing that Mr. Hedin gave us 
his assurance was not done. Mr. Fox was on 
the firing line during an English charge, and 
was mightily moved to take an active part in 
the fighting, being completely carried away 
by the excitement of the moment. His ac- 
count of the defeat of the enemy must be 
given: 

" I began to notice then, by craning my head 
from left to right, that the red wavering lines of 
fire, which had a way of rushing at you and van- 
ishing to appear again further back, was [sic] 
slower now in appearing after it lost itself some- 
where in the mud, and then it became even slower 
in showing itself and finally when it came, you 
saw that it had disintegrated into segments, that 
it was no longer a steady oncoming line, rather a 
slowly squirming thing like the curling parts of 
some monstrous fiery worm that had been chopped 
to bits and was squirming its life away out there 
on the mud. And it dawned upon you in horror 
that the fiery red lines had been lines of men, 
shooting as they had come; and that, when one 
line had been mowed down, another had rushed 
up from behind, so on almost endlessly it had 
seemed until they became broken and squirmed 
like the others had done, into the mud, and came 
no more. And the spell that you had been held 
in was broken; and you remembered that there 
Avas a God, and you thanked Him that your hands 
had found nothing with which to kill." 

(It could have been wished, when Mr. Fox 
came to write, that he had remembered that 
there is also syntax in English. ) He, too, like 
Mr. Hedin, visited the prison camps in Bel- 
gium, and noted that the British did not 
salute German officers; also that when he 
asked an English marine how he liked it there, 
though an officer stood beside him, the En- 
glishman answered, "Rotten." The fighting 
in Poland was even fiercer; and the battle of 
Augustowo Wald, at which Mr. Fox was pres- 
ent, affords him material for what he calls 
" the first complete account of a great battle 
that has been told in this war." As recorded, 
it was one of those overwhelming Russian 
defeats that have characterized the eastern 
fighting, an army of 240,000 men being com- 
pletely obliterated by General von Hinden- 
berg. The last chapter in the book shows, 
with photographic reproductions, that En- 
gland possessed accurate military maps of 
Belgium, proof to the Germans that Great 
Britain intended the invasion of that un- 
happy country; and equal proof, from the 
other side, that the British were aware of 
Germany's dishonorable intentions in that 
regard. 



THE DIAL 



[ June 24 



From September to December, 1914, Mr. 
H. S. Souttar was attached to a British hos- 
pital corps and not under the personal escort 
of exceedingly polite German officers with the 
limitation of experiences thus implied. In 
consequence we are given in his book entitled 
"A Surgeon in Belgium " a record of personal 
experiences. After discussing the rules of the 
Geneva Convention the author says: 

" It is, after all, possible to fight as gentlemen. 
Or at least it was until a few months ago. Since 
then we have had a demonstration of ' scientific ' 
war such as has never before been given to man- 
kind. Now, to wear a Red Cross is simply to 
offer a better mark for the enemy's fire, and we 
only wore them in order that our own troops 
might know our business and make use of our aid. 
A hospital is a favorite mark for the German 
artillery, whilst the practice of painting Red 
Crosses on the tops of ambulance cars is by many 
people considered unwise, as it invites any passing 
aeroplane to drop a bomb. But the Germans have 
carried their systematic contempt of the rules of 
war so far that it is now almost impossible for 
our own men to recognize their Red Crosses. Time 
after time their Red Cross cars have been used to 
conceal machine-guns, their flags have floated over 
batteries, and they have actually used stretchers 
to bring up ammunition to the trenches. Whilst 
I was at Furnes two German spies were working 
with an ambulance, in khaki uniforms, bringing 
in the wounded. They were at it for nearly a 
week before they were discovered, and then, by a 
Tuse, they succeeded in driving straight through 
the Belgian lines and back to their own, Red Cross 
ambulance, khaki and all." 

Later he cites another instance that fell 
within his personal knowledge : 

" But Ypres gave us yet another example of 
German methods of war. On the western side of 
the town, some distance from the furthest houses, 
stood the Asylum. It was a fine building arranged 
in several wings, and at present it was being used 
for the accommodation of a few wounded, mostly 
women and children, and several old people of 
the workhouse infirmary type. It made a mag- 
nificent hospital, and as it was far away from 
the town and was not used for any but the pur- 
poses of a hospital, we considered it safe enough, 
and that it would be a pity to disturb the poor 
old people collected there. We might have known 
better. The very next night the Germans shelled 
it to pieces, and all those unfortunate old creatures 
had to be removed in a hurry. There was a sense- 
less barbarity about such an act which could only 
appeal to a Prussian." 

The book is both witty and wise, and the 
work of a man who can write excellent En- 
glish. It contains a number of suggestions 
of a professional sort, such as the establish- 
ment of hospitals in the country for the better 
treatment of city dwellers, and records the 
results of the use of the most modern surgical 



appliances. Madame Curie was in Mr. Sout- 
tar's hospital with her wonderful apparatus, 
and the King and Queen of Belgium were 
frequent visitors. 

Mr. Fritz Kreisler, the eminent violinist 
now touring the United States, was for a 
month on the Austrian firing line, took part 
in several engagements and a long retreat, 
was wounded in the leg, and honorably dis- 
charged from the service as no longer phy- 
sically fit for its hardships. His brief account 
of "Four Weeks in the Trenches" corrobo- 
rates those given by many others, regarding 
the ease with which a man of refinement slips 
back into the barbarism of war, with its at- 
tendant dirt and filth and lack of everything 
regarded as humanly decent. A week or two 
of marching under heavy equipment brought 
him into unexpected health and strength, as 
in so many other cases. His musical ear 
enabled him to be of service to his army, for 
it detected the differences in the sounds made 
by shells before attaining their maximum 
height and after they had begun their de- 
scent. "Apparently," he writes, " in the first 
half of its curve, that is, its course while 
ascending, the shell produced a dull whine 
accompanied by a falling cadence, which 
changes to a rising shrill as soon as the acme 
has been reached and the curve points down- 
ward again." Confiding his observations to 
his commanding officer, "it was later on re- 
ported to me that I had succeeded in giving 
to our batteries the almost exact range of the 
Russian guns." Interesting as this is, it seems 
a poor use to put a great artistic talent to. 
Several instances are cited of the men exhibit- 
ing a simple humanity toward their enemies, 
notably in a case where a Russian officer and 
his orderly came under a flag of truce to 
plead hunger, " offering a little barrel of 
water which his companion carried on his 
head and a little tobacco, in exchange for 
some provisions." The response was gener- 
ous, though the Austrians were themselves on 
scant rations, Mr. Kreisler's " proud contribu- 
tion consisting of two tablets of chocolate, 
part of a precious reserve for extreme cases." 

Mrs. M. E. Clarke has done nothing more 
than record the state of feeling suggested by 
the title of her well written book, "Paris 
"Waits : 1914," during the fearful days of the 
German advance, and by the respite that came 
in September when the French pushed their 
adversaries back to the Aisne. Of the re- 
treat immediately before, she writes: 

" I never realized how ill men could be from 
sheer fatigue until I saw a Seaforth Highlander 
and a Rifle Brigade man utterly prostrate in a 
French hospital after that awful retreat on Paris. 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



25 



They had marched twenty-five miles a day during 
four days, with practically nothing to eat, and 
fighting all the way. . . They had been in hospital 
ten days when we found them, and they were still 
unable to stand on their feet, although, beyond 
fatigue, there was nothing the matter with them. 
They craved food, rest, and forgetfulness of all 
they had seen. Their pity for the Belgian refugees 
was very real, and whatever English soldier you 
meet it is always the same : they will never forget 
those heart-rending scenes of mutilated women 
and children, burning villages, and roads stream- 
ing with frightened groups of human beings 
seeking safety by walking away from their own 
dwellings into the unknown. Above all, they will 
never forget or forgive the Germans for driving j 
the women and children before their guns as pro- 
tection for themselves against the fire of the Allies. 
Even the laconic Highlander talked about that, 
and the Rifle Brigade man became eloquent." 

Though the book makes no pretence to con- 
secutiveness or literary form, it will stand as 
a psychological cinematograph of the feelings 
of a great capital in a great historical crisis. 

M. 1'Abbe Felix Klein will be remembered 
as the author of several books which have 
been translated and sold widely in America. 
He has also travelled and lectured exten- 
sively in this country. Thus it was not inap- 
propriate that he should attach himself to the 
American 'Ambulance Corps in France as its 
chaplain. His new book, "La Guerre Vue 
d'une Ambulance," is in the form of a diary, 
running from the third of August to the last 
day of December, 1914, in which he sets down 
the actual events of each day with related 
impressions and observations. Here is con- 
firmation of Mrs. Clarke's record from an 
independent source : 

" II ne leur est permis de parler des faits de 
guerre qu'apres quinze jours ecoules. Ce n'est 
pas, jugent-ils a bon droit, desobeir a cet ordre 
que de nous confirmer, pour les avoir vues de 
leurs yeux, les atrocites des Allemands en Belgique, 
et notamment, le fait tres souvent renouvale, 
chaque fois, semble-t-il, que c'etait possible, de 
placer devant eux les enfants et les femmes, au 
moment du combat." 

There is also the protest, not uncommon in 
either France or Britain, against the use of 
similar devices: 

" Rien, pas meme le sac de Senlis, qui a donne 
lieu, rien ne justifie de pareilles explosions de 
fureur. Je sais bien que les atrocites allemandes 
depassent, cette fois, toutes limites, et qu'elles 
revetent souvent un caratere general, officiel, qui 
en augmente singulierement la portee. Mais quoi! 
n'est-ce pas eela meme qui prouve I'inferiorite de 
1'adversaire ? Loin de nous, a jamais, 1'idee de 
nous abandonner a la plus monstrueuse des emu- 
lations !" 

The impression given is vivid and sincere, 
and the United States has occasion to feel 



proud of the excellent work accomplished 
through its Ambulance Corps in France. 

Out of the obscurity thrown over the work 
of the British expeditionary force in Belgium 
and France has come from time to time the 
writings of an official eye-witness, brief and 
well worded accounts, sometimes picturesque, 
which are for the most part from the accom- 
plished pen of Colonel Ernest D. Swinton. 
These have been collected into a volume, "Eye- 
Witness's Narrative of the War," which 
needed this presentation of them since the 
exigencies of daily journalism have often led 
to omissions large and small. The accounts 
here given run from the victory of the Allies 
on the Marne to the British advance at Neuve 
Chapelle last March, the selection of the two 
events giving form to the narrative. As an 
example of the information given, the follow- 
ing statement concerning the event last named 
may be quoted : 

" One wounded Prussian officer, of a particu- 
larly offensive and truculent type which is not 
uncommon, expressed the greatest contempt for 
our methods. 'You do not fight. You murder,' 
he said. ' If it had been straightforward, honest 
fighting, we should have beaten you, but my regi- 
ment never had a chance from the first; there 
was a shell every ten yards. Nothing could live 
in such a fire.' 

" This feeling of resentment against our ar- 
tillery was shown by several of the prisoners. 
Gratifying as it is to our gunners, it is an exhibi- 
tion of a curious lack of any judicial sense or 
even of a rudimentary sense of humor on the part 
of the apostles of ' Frightfulness.' It was the 
Germans who prepared an overwhelming force of 
artillery before the war, and they were the first 
to employ the concentrated action of heavy guns 
in field warfare. When the tables are turned and 
they have their first taste of what we have so often 
eaten they actually have the effrontery to com- 
plain. It also especially galled our prisoners that 
they should have been captured by the British, 
who, they had been informed, were very inferior 
enemies." 

It was this battle that at last disclosed to the 
British the only secure method of advancing, 
and they immediately set about securing the 
necessary enormous quantity of heavy ammu- 
nition. The book pays full credit to the Ger- 
man efficiency and personal bravery, and 
some informing letters secured from prison- 
ers about the pinch of poverty are of especial 
interest. 

Miss Violetta Thurstan, an English trained 
nurse attached to the St. John of Jerusalem 
Red Cross, went to Belgium almost immedi- 
ately after the invasion of that country, re- 
mained there until the Germans deported her 
and her assistants after subjecting them to 
needless and gross personal insults, and from 



26 



THE DIAL 



[ June 24 



Denmark passed to the Russian Red Cross at 
the flying column detailed to the front. Her 
experiences were thrilling in the extreme, and 
were borne with that high spirit of valor 
which characterizes the English gentlewoman 
at her best. Wounded at last and soon after 
stricken by pleurisy, she has occupied her 
convalescence in writing the account of her 
experiences. Her book, " Field Hospital and 
Flying Column," fully bears out the dictum 
that no autobiography is dull. Interesting as 
the narrative is, still more interesting is the 
personality of the author, which may be 
judged in part by the following extract: 

" War would be the most glorious game in the 
world if it were not for the killing and wounding. 
In it one tastes the joy of comradeship to the 
full, the taking and giving, and helping and being 
helped, in a way that would be impossible to con- 
ceive in the ordinary world. At Radzivilow, too, 
one could see the poetry of war, the zest of the 
frosty mornings, and the delight of the camp-fire 
at night, the warm, clean smell of the horses 
tethered everywhere, the keen hunger, the rough 
food sweetened by the sauce of danger, the riding 
out in high hope in the morning; even the return- 
ing wounded in the evening did not seem altogether 
such a bad thing out there." 

No idea that the pacifists have advanced is 
more convincing than that of making peace as 
interesting as warfare; once this is accom- 
plished, the vastest of all human evils will 
probably disappear. WALLACE RICE. 



RECEXT POETRY.* 

In a roughly convenient fashion, one may 
classify all contemporary verse in two grand 
divisions, according as it represents the fol- 
lowing of poetic tradition or the distinctive 
resolution to be new. In connection with the 
second group, no one interested in the subject 
can fail to be aware of a considerable amount 
of very interesting experimentation by cer- 
tain of the younger poets, analogous in a more 
than superficial way to the various modernist 
schools of painting. Even if we have serious 
suspicions as to the probable value of these 
experiments, we should try to understand 

* SOME IMAGIST POETS. An Anthology. " New Poetry 
Series." Boston : Houghton Mifflin Co. 

IRRADIATIONS: SAND AND SPRAY. By John Gould Fletcher. 
" New Poetry Series." Boston : Houghton Mifflin Co. 

CREATION. Post-Impressionist Poems. By Horace Holley. 
New York : Mitchell Kennerley. 

SPOON RIVER ANTHOLOGY. By Edgar Lee Masters. New 
York : The Macmillan Co. 

SATIRES OF CIRCUMSTANCE. Lyrics and Reveries, with Mis- 
cellaneous Pieces. By Thomas Hardy. New York: The Mac- 
millan Co. 

THE FREE SPIRIT. Realizations of Middle Age, with a Note 
on Personal Expression. By Henry Bryan Binns. New York : 
B. W. Huebsch. 

SONNETS OF A PORTRAIT-PAINTER. By Arthur Davison Ficke. 
New York : Mitchell Kennerley. 



them; and for this reason it is a cause for 
satisfaction that there should be initiated a 
"New Poetry Series," designed to represent 
the work of the latest generation in small, 
well-printed volumes, modestly priced. The 
first title of this series is an anthology repre- 
senting the " imagist " poets, through the col- 
laboration of six of them, with a preface 
setting forth their principles. 

Unfortunately, when one seeks to ascertain 
the principles of any sect from its leaders, 
one is likely to be puzzled by the way in which 
they revert to obvious matters on which it is 
difficult to believe they have any peculiar 
claim. A Mormon, on being pressed for such 
a statement, will not mention polygamy or 
tithes, but will tell you that his Church is 
characterized by its belief in the coming of 
the kingdom of God on earth something 
which you supposed you had always believed 
yourself. A Seventh-day Adventist will not 
speak of the Sabbath, but will say that his 
one passion is liberty of conscience, as if this 
were a new doctrine made for the times. It 
is much the same with the modernist poets. 
The preface before us tells us that the princi- 
ples of the Imagists are five : to use the lan- 
guage of common speech, employing the exact 
and not the decorative word; to create new 
rhythms, not to copy old ones ; to allow abso- 
lute freedom in the choice of subject; to 
present an image as distinguished from vague 
generalities ; to produce poetry that is " hard 
and clear"; and to practice concentration. 
Now apart from the matter of the new 
rhythms, it is obvious that these principles 
are the commonplaces of English poetry since 
the days of Burns and of Wordsworth, when 
they are not the commonplaces of good poetry 
of every age. If we look for interpretations 
of them in the anthology itself, the matter can 
hardly be said to be cleared up. For instance, 
Mr. D. H. Lawrence gives us the following 
images in a poem alluringly called " Illicit " : 

" You are near to me, and your naked feet in their 

sandals, 

And through the scent of the balcony's naked timber 
I distinguish the scent of your hair; so now the 

limber 

Lightning falls from heaven. 
Adown the pale-green glacier-river floats 
A dark boat through the gloom and whither? 
The thunder roars. But still we have each other. 
The naked lightnings in the heaven dither 
And disappear. What have we but each other? 
The boat has gone." 

If these verses were not the product of one 
who not only is bound to employ the exact 
word, but who is under no obligation to make 
use of any rhyme whatsoever, we should be 
tempted to assume that the interesting words 
" limber " and " dither," applied to the light- 



THE DIAL 



27 



ning, were suggested by the rhyme. Being 
forbidden this hypothesis, we hesitate. As to 
the lightning's being reported as naked, when 
we should hardly have thought to ask that it 
be clothed, this may be attributed to a subtle 
sympathy with the illicit nudity of the feet 
and the timbers. But all this is so far from 
being new that it was keenly and legitimately 
parodied by Mr. Owen Seaman, years ago, in 
his ballad of the nun who 

" passed along the naked road, 
The road had really nothing on." 

Turn now, for further illustration of our 
principles, to some of the poems contributed 
"by Miss Amy Lowell, who before this has 
done praiseworthy work in poetry, and note 
images like these : 

" Little cramped words scrawling all over the paper 
Like draggled fly's legs." 

" Why do lilies goggle their tongues at me 
When I pluck them; 
And writhe, and twist, 
And strangle themselves against my fingers? " 

" My thoughts 
Chink against my ribs 
And roll about like silver hail-stones." 

Is this exactness? Is this to be concentrated, 
hard, and clear? "Well, one may not be sure 
how the words are used. But to those familiar 
with the history of English poetry it looks 
very much like a reversion, suggestive at 
times, and not without charm, to rather crude 
and youthful forms of the old method of the 
"conceit." Not to seek further light on the 
theory of the poems, we may note that their 
chief values are of the same character as 
those of a painter's jottings and sketches in 
his note-book, oftentimes suggestive of the 
materials for an interesting bit of color or of 
composition, still unformed into any signifi- 
cant whole. Here, from the work of Mr. John 
Gould Fletcher, is a view of London from a 
'bus- top : 

" Black shapes bending, 
Taxicabs crush in the crowd. 
The tops are each a shining square, 
Shuttles that steadily press through woolly fabric. . , 

" Monotonous domes of bowler-hats 
Vibrate in the heat. 

" Silently, easily we sway through braying traffic, 
Down the crowded street. 
The tumult crouches over us, 
Or suddenly drifts to one side." 

And here, from Mr. F. S. Flint, is a sketch of 
liouses at night : 

"" Into the sky 

The red earthenware and the galvanised iron chim- 
neys 

Thrust their cowls. 
'The hoot of the steamers on the Thames is plain. 



No wind; 

The trees merge, green with green; 

A car whirs by; 

Footsteps and voices take their pitch 

In the key of dust, 

Far-off and near, subdued. 

Solid and square to the world 

The houses stand, 

Their windows blocked with Venetian blinds. 

Nothing will move them." 

By far the most effective composition in the 
anthology is Miss Lowell's picture of the bom- 
bardment of a continentalcity presumably 
Rheims; but this does not even profess to be 
more than cadenced prose, and is printed 
accordingly. 

A second issue of the " New Poetry Series " 
is made up entirely of the imagistic work of 
Mr. Fletcher ; and exhibits, for the most part, 
the qualities that have been noticed. The 
following sketch is of some special interest as 
attempting the same sort of impression as that 
familiar in a certain type of painting, strewn 
broadcast with spots of prismatic color : 

" Over the roof-tops race the shadows of clouds; 
Like horses the shadows of clouds charge down the 

street. 

" Whirlpools of purple and gold, 
Winds from the mountains of cinnabar, 
Lacquered mandarin moments, palanquins swaying 

and balancing 
Amid the vermilion pavilions, against the jade 

balustrades. 
Glint of the glittering wings of dragon-flies in the 

light : 

Silver filaments, golden flakes settling downwards, 
Rippling, quivering flutters, repulse and surrender, 
The sun broidered upon the rain, 
The rain rustling with the sun. 

" Over the roof-tops race the shadows of clouds ; 
Like horses the shadows of clouds charge down the 
street." 

For this little volume Mr. Fletcher, like the 
editor of the anthology, has written an in- 
structive preface, explaining something of the 
doctrines of his group. It is more frank than 
the other, but singularly full of misstate- 
ments. In the brief space here available one 
must be dogmatic; hence it can only be 
shortly observed that the art of poetry in 
English-speaking countries is not in a greatly 
backward state; that the poets have not at- 
tempted to make of their craft a Masonic 
secret, declaring that rhythm is not to be 
analyzed ; that it is not true that each line of 
a poem represents a single breath ; that every 
poet of eminence has not felt the fatiguing 
monotony of regular rhyme and constructed 
new stanzas in order to avoid it; that Shake- 
speare did not abandon rhyme in his mature 
period (that is, in lyrical verse, which is ap- 
parently the only kind under consideration). 
Of course, if the reader is disposed to question 
these denials, we cannot claim to have offered 



28 



THE DIAL 



[June 24 



proof, he can only be referred to any schol- 
arly authority on the matters concerned. But 
if a preface like this is a specimen of the 
actual information at the disposal of the 
imagists, one can only say that their practice 
may excel their theory, but that the latter is 
beyond hope. 

Mr. Horace Holley has collected a number 
of poems which he calls not imagist but " post- 
impressionist." In form and manner they 
resemble those we have been considering, but 
are less sensuously colored and decidedly 
richer in intellectual substance. One called 
"In a Factory" rather strikingly represents 
the social aspect of the poet's thought : 

" Smoky, monotonous rows 
Of half -unconscious men 

Serving, with lustreless glance and dreamless mind, 
The masterful machines; 
These are the sons of herdsmen, hunters, 
Lords of the sunlit meadow, 
The lonely peak, 

The stirring, shadow-haunted wood, 
Of mariners who swung from sea to sea 
In carven ships 

And named the unknown world: 
Hunters, herdsmen, sailors, all 
By trade or chase or harvest 
Winning their substance 
Rudely, passionately like a worthy game 
With a boy's great zest of playing. 

O labour, 

Whoso makes thee an adventure 
Thrilling to the nervous core of life, 
He is the true Messiah, 
The world's Saviour, long-waited, long-wept-for." 

Finally, for our group of modernists, we 
may note the " Spoon River Anthology " of 
Mr. Edgar Lee Masters, which might be called 
the reductio ad absurdum of certain of the 
new methods, such as the abandonment of 
conventional form and the fearless scrutiny 
of disagreeable realities. There is nothing 
here, to be sure, of the vaporings of some of 
our imagists, but a stern virility to which one 
might warm were it not so deliberately un- 
lovely. The contents of this " anthology " is 
a series of monologues d'outre tonibe, sup- 
posed to be spoken by the inhabitants of the 
Spoon Eiver cemetery, who one by one tell us 
something of what they did and felt while 
living, and in many cases how they met their 
end. Whether Spoon River is meant to be 
viewed as typical of Illinois villages for it 
appears to be in the vicinity of Knox College 
and Peoria or to be a place peculiarly 
accursed, doth not clearly appear. In either 
case it furnishes an extraordinary study, in 
mortuary statistics. From the first half of 
the volume, or thereabouts, there may be 
culled such characters as these : a person who 
was hanged for highway robbery and murder ; 
a woman who was slain by the secret cruelty 
of her husband, the details not revealed; an 



inventor who was bitten by a rat while dem- 
onstrating a patent trap ; a woman who took 
morphine after a quarrel with her husband;, 
another who died in childbirth, the event hav- 
ing been foreseen by her husband; a boy 
who was run over while stealing a ride on a 
train; another boy who contracted lockjaw 
from a toy pistol; a woman whose lock jaw was 
due to a needle which had pierced her while 
she was washing her baby's clothes; a citi- 
zen who fell dead, presumably from apoplexy, 
while confessing a hidden sin to his church; 
a trainer who was killed by a lion in a circus; 
a greedy farmer who died from eating pie and: 
gulping coffee in hot harvest time; a rural 
philosopher who was gored by a cow while- 
discussing predestination; an innocent man 
who was hanged on a trumped-up charge; a 
courtesan who was poisoned by an Italian 
count; and a prohibitionist who developed' 
cirrhosis of the liver from over-drinking. 
Enough though the half has not been told. 
Under most of these tragedies lurk a grim 
pathos, and an irony due to such causes as the- 
total misunderstanding by his fellows of the 
life (and often the death) of the ghostly 
speaker. A really remarkable series of char- 
acter-studies, though the half would be much 
better than the whole; but for poetry GUI 
bono ? Mr. Masters has shown before this that 
he knows what verse is ; how then can he per- 
petrate, and endure to see in type, trash like- 
this: 

" If even one of my boys could have run a news-stand, 
Or one of my girls could have married a decent man,. 
I should not have walked in the rain 
And jumped into bed with clothes all wet, 
Refusing medical aid." 

(In passing, note this method of suicide, per- 
haps the most original, because the most indi- 
rect, of those described in the collection.) It 
can only be because he was resolved to por- 
tray in the words of one of his own char- 
acters a " wingless void 

Where neither red, nor gold, nor wine, 
Nor the rhythm of life are [sic] known." 

In two or three of the monologues only is the 
rhythm of life heard sounding underneath the 
tragedy as it always is in actual poetry and 
real tragedy ; in the words of Petit the Poet :; 

" Tragedy, comedy, valor and truth, 
Courage, constancy, heroism, failure 
All in the loom, and oh what patterns! 
Woodlands, meadows, streams and rivers 
Blind to all of it all my life long. 
Triolets, villanelles, rondels, rondeaus, 
Seeds in a dry pod, tick, tick, tick, 
Tick, tick, tick, what little iambics, 
While Homer and Whitman roared in the pines!" 

All this formless, blundering, but seriously- 
purposed waiting, under whatever name it 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



29 



goes, is of value to the thoughtful reader for 
inferential and negative rather than positive 
reasons. Practically all the compositions at 
"which we have been looking fail to meet the 
eternal test of poetry: they would perform 
their function, express their image or their 
thought, as well in prose form as in verse, 
sometimes better. What does this signify? 
Their prefaces do not tell us. The real char- 
acteristic common to the group is the delib- 
erate abandonment of faith in a type, a law, 
an ideal call it what you will to which 
the fleeting momentary experiences caught up 
by the poet are to be referred, and of which 
his dependence on a persistent form, a stead- 
ily flowing, ineluctable rhythm, is but a sym- 
bol. Some will cling to form, but throw away 
the idea for which it stands; some will cling 
to beauty of detail, but abandon beauty of 
the whole; some will keep their sense of the 
type, the law, the idea, but throw away out- 
ward form, just for the zest of difference and 
novelty. When they abandon all faith and 
form together then we have a complete and 
instructive pathologic specimen of the process. 
What remains may be called poetry, but it 
is a poetry like that religion which has aban- 
doned both religion's ritual and its faith. 

Mr. Thomas Hardy is of those who keep the 
ritual without the faith. In other words, 
whether in prose or in verse, he holds to the 
traditional forms of his art despite the hope- 
less and unbeautiful creed which is familiar 
to all his readers. In his early volume of 
verse, the "Wessex Poems," he somewhere 
expressed himself to this effect: that life 
would be more tolerable if we could believe 
ourselves to be in the toils of a malicious 
power, bent on causing suffering, it would 
at any rate be a more rational state than to 
feel that our suffering is without either pur- 
pose or meaning. In later years, as every- 
one knows, he has achieved the satisfaction 
merely dreamed of in the poem referred to, 
and come to something like a solemn faith in 
a Power not ourselves that makes for un- 
righteousness. This gives a kind of ideality 
to his pessimism which is quite wanting in the 
insignificant disillusioned ghosts of Spoon 
River. His recent volume of collected poems 
represents this in many a passage, but in none 
so nobly as in the lines on the loss of the 
"Titanic" (called "The Convergence of the 
Twain") : 

"... Well, while was fashioning 

This creature of cleaving wing, 

The Immanent Will that stirs and urges everything 

" Prepared a sinister mate 

For her so gaily great 
A Shape of Ice, for the time far and dissociate. 



" And as the smart ship grew 

In stature, grace, and hue, 
In shadowy silent distance grew the Iceberg too. 

" Alien they seemed to be : 
No mortal eye could see 
The intimate welding of their later history, 

" Or sign that they were bent 

By paths coincident 
On being anon twin halves of one august event, 

" Till the Spinner of the Years 

Said ' Now ! ' And each one hears, 
And consummation comes, and jars two hemispheres." 

The title poems of the volume, called " Satires 
of Circumstance," are brilliant ironic sketches 
in precisely the mordant manner of Mr. 
Hardy's most disconcerting prose narrative. 
Quite as keen, and perhaps even more finely 
balanced in respect to comedy and tragedy, is 
the neighboring dialogue between a buried 
woman and some one digging on her grave. 
At first she imagines it to be her lover plant- 
ing rue, but the answer comes, "No, he 
wedded another yesterday." "My nearest 
kin, then ? " " No, they are saying, ' What 
use to plant flowers?" "My enemy, then, 
prodding maliciously ? " " No, she thinks you 
no more worth her hate." " Who is it, then ? " 
"Your little dog, my mistress dear." "Ah, 
one true heart left behind I might have 
known." But the dog answers: 

" Mistress, I dug upon your grave 

To bury a bone, in case 
I should be hungry near this spot 
When passing on my daily trot. 
I am sorry, but I quite forgot 

It was your resting-place." 

It seemed well to paraphrase the greater por- 
tion of this little narrative, not merely for the 
sake of brevity, but to exemplify the fact that 
this is a type of composition, again, which 
does not lose its essence when transferred to 
prose. The verse points it, to be sure, gives 
finish and consequent satisfaction; but the 
spirit is not that of poetry, because the spirit 
of poetry is never that of mere negation. 
And this is true of a great part of Mr. Hardy's 
verse. But there are plenty of exceptions, as 
in the poem on the " Titanic," where, as we 
have seen, a big and looming imaginative con- 
cept rises from the very ruins of faith. 

In marked contrast to all these modernists 
is a new volume of poems representing the 
spiritual philosophy of Mr. Henry Bryan 
Binns. Some of the verse seems modern 
enough, to be sure; some of it is in vers 
libre; but Mr. Binns is not under the illu- 
sion that he is contributing, in these irregular 
forms, to the normal evolution of the poetry 
of the race. He values them, sagaciously, 
only as means of expressing certain personal 
"realisations," such as, in some cases, recall 



30 



THE DIAL 



[ June 24 



the ecstatic utterances of seventeenth century 
mystics like Traherne. From " High Noon," 
for instance, is this : 

" See the sun atop, crowning Noon's height, 
Level beneath him the round world! 
Level lies earth beneath and takes to the brim 
Her full of him, ere, tilting to East 
The light begins spilling. 

" While Noon's now at full 
Brim-high with this effulgence of light, 
Who has heart, come, drain it ! 
Who has faith, let him drink! " 

Of conventional forms, there are many son- 
nets in the volume, but in this form Mr. Binns 
tends to be didactic and unimaginative. His 
happiest vein is perhaps exemplified in cer- 
tain verses in the four-foot measure, which 
has often been proved to have possibilities for 
the combination of thoughtful epigram with 
lyrical feeling. Of this character is the fine 
conclusion to the title poem : 

" Whatever of myself I win 
Out of my peril or despair, 
With all the inseparable kin 
And pilgrimage of life, I share. 

" Alone in the light the skylark sings 
And sets us singing in the gloom : 
I, also, on victorious wings 
An instant overleap my doom: 

" And though I know not how, I know 
As Earth, whereof we spring, is one, 
So every spirit's overflow 
Eeplenishes the common sun." 

The Emersonian flavor evident in these lines 
is still more noticeable in the lighter vein of 
"The Scolding Squirrel." There remains 
space for only two or three stanzas of this: 

" Squirrel, squirrel up in the tree, 
While you jerk that tail at me 
I mock at you and blithely dine 
On the other fruit of the pine. . . . 

" All about me for my food 
Drops the wisdom of the wood : 
What a thousand pine-trees think 
Is distilled to be my drink. . . . 

" An ever-living tide of mirth 
That flows for aye about the Earth 
Begins to sing its song in me, 
Squirrel, underneath your tree." 

We return to America for a volume which 
should have found earlier notice in these col- 
umns, Mr. Arthur Ficke's sequence of "Son- 
nets of a Portrait-Painter." Mr. Ficke's work 
in the sonnet has won many a friendly word 
before now, and the new collection marks 
progress in his art. The sequence is a genu- 
ine one, with dramatic values over and above 
the lyrical ones, such as every such work must 
have to give it unity. Unfortunately this 
element is not developed as effectively as the 
opening portion of the series gives warrant 
for hoping. There the character of the painter 



and that of his environment come out with 
some vividness, and the poet is not afraid to 
heighten these with homely and humorous 
realism, as in this admirable quatrain, from 
Sonnet 5 : 

" Heaven knows what moonlit turrets, hazed in bliss, 
Saw Launcelot and night and Guinevere! 
I only know our first impassioned kiss 
Was in your cellar, rummaging for beer." 

But of this distinctness there seems not to be 
enough. At least one is not without fears, 
though the painter does live and grow 
throughout the sequence, that he sometimes 
draws from his portfolio a sonnet on things, 
in general, which might have been written by 
poets in general, as distinguished from him- 
self. Nevertheless, there have been few more 
successful experiments in this difficult type 
in recent times. Mr. Ficke uses the English 
or Shakespearean form of sonnet, with a vivid 
sense of its characteristic movement, which 
is less generally understood in our day than 
that of the "Italian" form. Even Shake- 
speare seems frequently not to have troubled 
to make his final couplet more than a tag or 
appendix to a lyric already complete in twelve 
lines. This tendency Mr. Ficke avoids with 
skill. The movement and unity of his lyric 
may be represented by the rapturous love- 
sonnet, Number 20 : 

" Ah, life is good ! And good thus to behold 
From far horizons where their tents are furled 
The mighty storms of Being rise, unfold, 
Mix, strike, and crash across a shaken world: 
Good to behold their trailing rearguards pass, 
And feel the sun renewed its sweetness send 
Down to the sparkling leaf-blades of the grass, 
And watch the drops fall where the branches bend. 
I think to-day I almost were content 
To hear some bard life's epic story tell, 
To view the stage through some small curtain-rent, 
Mere watcher at this gorgeous spectacle. 
But now the curtain lifts: my soul's swift powers 
Else robed and crowned for lo! the play is ours! J> 

RAYMOND M. ALDEN. 



NOTES ON NEW NOVELS. 

The author of "The Hat Shop," Mrs. C. S. 
Peel, seems to promise a work of the same kind 
in her later novel, "Mrs. Barnet Robes" (Lane), 
but there is considerable difference. The titular 
character is deserted, with a small daughter, by 
the gentleman she loves, and after hard work 
establishes herself as a dressmaker of fashion. 
He marries in his own class after a time, and his 
first child is a daughter. The narrative divides 
itself fairly between the two girls, who meet with- 
out knowledge of any relationship, but with 
recognition of an unusual personal resemblance. 
The marriage is unfortunate, and the legitimate 
daughter grows up in an atmosphere of tragical 
misunderstanding, while the other develops in a 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



31 



humbler walk of life into a happiness entirely 
normal. It is a study of environments, thoughtful 
and carefully considered. 

Such a book as "His English Wife" (Long- 
mans), translated by Mr. A. C. Curtis from the 
German of Herr Rudolph Stratz, is bound to have 
more than fictional value at the present time, 
written as it was before the outbreak of the war. 
It was widely popular in Germany, and has 
reached a second edition in England. It describes 
the difficulties attending the married life of a 
young German officer and a young English girl 
whose father was born in Frankfort. It is just 
to Herr Stratz to say that he has contended 
against the usual impulse to set one's countrymen 
a pace or two forward while the foreigner takes 
two steps to the rear. The capture of English 
trade by Germany, one of the industriously ex- 
ploited fictions of the time, bears no small share 
in the story. 

James Hay, Jr., has brought the " temperance " 
tract fairly up to the compass of a novel in " The 
Man Who Forgot " (Doubleday). The protagonist 
has steeped himself in drink until he emerges 
from his last debauch absolutely forgetful of his 
past and with no clue to his identity. Determined 
to overthrow the Demon Rum in revenge, as well 
as for the benefit supposed to enure, he enlists 
the resources of two millionaires whose sons have 
turned out drunkards, organizes a nation-wide 
demonstration at the Capital, and secures thereby 
the adoption by Congress of a constitutional 
amendment forbidding the importation, manufac- 
ture, and sale of alcoholic beverages. Incidentally 
he gains a desirable wife and comes to a knowledge 
of his earlier life; but the propaganda, as usual 
in such books, outweighs the romance of the tale. 

Mr. Jack London seems determined to prove 
that fiction can be stranger than fact, in spite of 
warring Europe's example to the contrary, and 
" The Scarlet Plague " (Macmillan) is a doughty 
effort to that end. By a world-wide epidemic, 
humanity is almost obliterated from the world, 
and the few who outlast the scourge are selected 
without reference to the survival of the fittest. 
The story is placed in the mouth of a former pro- 
fessor of a Californian university, transformed 
into " a dirty old man clad in goatskins." Mankind 
is placed at the foot of the ladder once more, to 
begin a toilsome ascent, and the grandchildren of 
the survivors are depicted on the plane of the 
Digger Indians. It is difficult to be sympathetic 
with such a story; the realities are sufficiently 
ghastly nowadays. 

Civilization is at present so shaken by calamity 
that cataclysmic stories seem necessary if fiction 
is to make itself as absorbing as the daily news- 
paper tale of slaughter and destruction. Accord- 
ingly, Mr. Arthur Train has written " The Man 
Who Rocked the Earth" (Doubleday) to show 
that science may still have a few things up its 
sleeve to add to the horrors of daily living; but 
he reconciles his readers by invoking this awful 
power on the side of peace. He makes the old 
dream of Archimedes come true by giving the 



mysterious " Pax " of his narrative an electric 
lever which shifts the earth's axis, and promises 
to twist it further around if the nations do not 
stop fighting. It is an absorbing tale, made plaus- 
ible in the face of evident difficulties. 

Mystery, complicated by theosophy, makes " The 
Brocklebank Riddle" (Century Co.), by Mr. 
Hubert Wales, a puzzling story indeed. After a 
man's wife and his partner have seen him die, 
and one of them has seen his body cremated, he 
appears at his office. The situation becomes more 
and more strained when a woman whose husband 
has disappeared without warning comes to inquire 
after him. Brocklebank himself is puzzled, but 
dismisses all thought of anything supernatural. 
The last pages of the book solve the riddle as 
ingeniously as the earlier pages proposed it. 



Two German 
apologists. 



BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS. 

In General von Bernhardi's 
"Germany and England" (Dil- 
lingham), the erstwhile lion of 
militarism roars you as gently as any sucking 
dove. Americans are sufficiently familiar 
with the doughty general's stout defence of 
war as a biological necessity and a moral and 
political tonic. They will now be amazed to 
learn from this little book, which is intended 
for American consumption, that the author 
never meant to say the things one finds in his 
earlier volumes, or that somehow, as the Ger- 
man Chancellor implied of his own unlucky 
"scrap of paper" phrase, he "had his fingers 
crossed " when he did say them. War is here 
justified only when peaceful means have 
failed, and of course Germany had exhausted 
all such means last summer before the plunge 
was taken. The earlier Bernhardi had the 
merit of candor; the present Bernhardi is an 
unpalatable mixture of disingenuousness and 
naivete. He is disingenuous in attempting to 
explain away his own sincere utterances, and 
he is naive in supposing that people will be 
fooled by that attempt. Like most of the 
German apologists, including even the dear 
departed Dr. Dernburg, he grievously under- 
estimates the intelligence of the Am;erican 
public. The book also comes at a most inop- 
portune moment, just when pro-Germans in 
this country have been doing their best to dis- 
avow and forget Bernhardi and all his ways. 
A somewhat better statement of the German 
case is to be found in Dr. Paul Rohrbach's 
" Germany's Isolation" (McClurg), which has 
been well translated by Dr. Paul H. Phillip- 
son. Nevertheless, readers of the same au- 
thor's "German World Policies" (reviewed 
in THE DIAL for April 15 last) will be dis- 
appointed. The book, though written for the 
most part before the present struggle began, 



32 



THE DIAL 



[ June 24 



was evidently composed in the shadow of com- 
ing events. The tone is aggressive, and even 
menacing; it fairly vibrates with the note of 
approaching conflict, thus unconsciously fur- 
nishing interesting testimony to the state of 
mind of some observant Germans in the 
months before the war broke out. An intro- 
duction and a final chapter have been added 
by Dr. Rohrbach since the opening of hostili- 
ties. In the latter he appears as an apologist 
for all of his country's acts: Germany was 
not the assailant, the Kaiser strove almost un- 
duly to keep the peace, the invasion of Bel- 
gium was justified because England violated 
Danish neutrality in 1807, etc. Yet the sig- 
nificant admission is made that it is difficult 
to think of " a phase more favorable to the 
German cause than the present alignment of 
Germany's forces and those of her opponents." 
The book closes with the inevitable denuncia- 
tion of England as the one unpardonable foe. 
'The stereotyped nature of German thinking on 
the war has scarcely ever been more patheti- 
cally revealed than in this volume by an 
intelligent publicist whose mind in normal 
times has not lacked proper elasticity. 



The story of From the early summer of 1843 
a short-lived to the following mid-winter, a 
little company of "consecrated 
cranks," as they have since been called by the 
irreverent, strove to realize the higher life and 
to set an example to the rest of the world by 
practising, on a farm at Harvard, Massachu- 
setts, the principles of strict vegetarianism, 
"brotherly love, simplicity and sincerity, and 
other virtues with next to nothing in the 
way of material resources whereby to prevent 
this life of the spirit from becoming as inde- 
pendent of the body in actual fact as it was 
in ideal and aspiration. But the rigors of a 
New England winter proved too severe a trial 
of their faith to these apostles of "the New- 
ness," in their linen tunics and canvas shoes, 
and unsustained by more invigorating diet 
than a fast-diminishing ration of barley; and 
so the high-hearted enterprise of ushering in 
the millennium on a regimen of cereals and 
water came to a premature end. "Bronson 
Alcott's Fruitlands" (Houghton) rehearses 
the pathetic tale of this adventure in spir- 
ituality. Miss Clara Endicott Sears, a 
dweller upon the hill overlooking the scene of 
the undertaking, has compiled, in a spirit 
of mingled "pity, awe, and affection," this 
account of the " Consociate Community " 
founded by Alcott, with his long-suffering 
wife and his four daughters, and a half-score 
of more or less earnest and ascetic souls from 
different quarters of the globe. Letters and 



diaries, including the bits of journals kept by 
two of the Alcott girls, Anna and Louisa, 
with other contemporary records, have been 
diligently searched and judiciously utilized 
by Miss Sears, who has also added, by permis- 
sion. Miss Alcott's ever-entertaining " Trans- 
cendental Wild Oats," and has given in an 
appendix the very interesting " catalogue of 
the original Fruitlands library," about a 
thousand volumes brought from England by 
Alcott and his friend Charles Lane, and de- 
scribed in "The Dial" of that time as "con- 
taining undoubtedly a richer collection of 
mystical writers than any other library in 
this country." Views of the Fruitlands house, 
exterior and interior, with portraits of the 
Alcotts and other inmates, are abundantly 
supplied. To readers of discernment the book 
will commend itself as a veritable treasure. 



avic work most rec ently published 

of women volume in the "National Mu- 

nicipal League Series" (Apple- 
ton) is Mrs. Mary Ritter Beard's "Woman's 
Work in Municipalities." The original plan 
of the author was to present simply a col- 
lection of readings illustrating the various 
phases of her subject. It was found, how- 
ever, that there are not in existence docu- 
mentary materials adapted to the purpose, 
and consequently the chapters of the book 
were written out by the author herself, with 
free use of passages from reports, correspon- 
dence, newspaper comment, and other scat- 
tered "sources." The result is a volume 
covering every important aspect of the civic 
work of women in this country in the past 
quarter-century, notably in relation to educa- 
tion, public health, recreation, housing, cor- 
rections, the social evil, the assimilation of 
races, and public safety. The fourfold pur- 
pose of the book is explained by the author 
to be : (1) to give something like an adequate 
notion of the extent and variety of women's 
interests and activities in cities and towns, 
without attempting a statistical summary or 
evaluation; (2) to indicate, in their own- 
words, the spirit in which women have ap- . 
proached some of their most important prob- 
lems; (3) to show to women already at work 
and those just becoming interested in civic 
matters, the interrelation of each particular 
effort with larger social problems; and (4) 
to reflect the general tendencies of modern 
social work as they appear under the guidance 
of men and women alike. It may be said that, 
in the main, these praiseworthy objects are 
accomplished. Information concerning thei 
civic activities of women, in smaller towns no 
less than in the great cities, is brought to- 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



33 



gether from widely scattered quarters, sifted, 
digested, correlated, and presented in form 
both unassuming- and convincing. And the 
temptation (which must have been strong) so 
to stress the part played by women in civic 
betterment as to produce an incorrect impres- 
sion has been resisted. 



Our literature 
estimated by 
a foreigner. 



Of considerable interest for the 
opportunity it gives of seeing 
ourselves as others see us is the 
little book on "American Literature " (Double- 
day), by Professor Leon Kellner of the Uni- 
versity of Czernowitz, translated by Miss 
Julia Franklin. Professor Kellner's estimates 
of the greater American writers and their 
works are, on the whole, those with which we 
are familiar; though it seems strange, for 
example, to find no mention of the Harvard 
" Commemoration Ode " when three of Low- 
ell's lesser odes are praised. The peculiarities 
of the work are found chiefly in the attention 
bestowed on a.uthors who, at home, are consid- 
ered " minor," but who to the foreign observer 
are especially significant. Eugene Field and 
C. G. Leland are each given as much space as 
Bryant ; and the former, who is highly praised, 
almost as much space as Whittier. Emily 
Judson, H. C. Dodge, and A. W. Bellow are 
among the names which appear in Professor 
Kellner's book, and are not commonly found 
in native histories of our literature. For these 
judgments of a distant observer, even those 
which seem most erratic, there are conceivable 
reasons which the American student would do 
well to ponder. Statements of fact are mostly 
accurate, but unfortunately the book abounds 
in crude misprints of proper names which 
might have been avoided if translator or 
proofreader had been even moderately famil- 
iar with American literary history. Typical 
of such blunders are "Hannah W. Forster" 
(p. 9), "Quabi" (p. 21), "Natty Bumppo" 
(p. 33), "Duyckink" (p. 147), "Edgar Allen 
Poe" (p. 159), " The Facts in the Case of M. 
Waldemar" (p. 165) the last evidently the 
result of a double transliteration. On page 
47, " Expostulation " and " Massachusetts to 
Virginia" seem, either through a.n error or 
through awkwardness of the English sentence, 
to be credited to Bryant. 



The development 
ofaninfant 

phenomenon. 



what is "Natural Education " ? 
If we are to accept the view of 

.-, ,-, /, -,, TIT- / -i 

the mother of Miss Winifred 
Sackville Stoner, Jr., whose account of her 
daughter's training is published under that 
title by the Bobbs-Merrill Company, in the 
" Childhood and Youth Series," it is a " natu- 
ral education " for a girl to be lulled to sleep 



by the hexameters of Virgil when six weeks 
old, to know one forgets how many languages 
at five, to have written a play in Esperanto at 
four, to have kept a carefully written diary 
from the age of two, and to have convinced 
" an old-fashioned Professor " at five that she 
" knew all the famous myths handed down by 
the Grecians, Romans and Vikings," etc., etc. 
After reading the pages which tell of her 
knowledge of Latin, another " old-fashioned 
Professor" is tempted to suggest that if this 
little girl really knows Latin it is a pity that 
she was not called upon to read the proof of 
this volume and correct the sad blunders in 
Latin words and sentences which have passed 
unchallenged the eyes of her mother, who 
taught her the language and wrote the book, 
and of Professor O'Shea, the general editor of 
the series. The average parent who reads the 
book will scarcely conclude that the kind of 
education which it describes is either natural 
or desirable. And yet Professor O'Shea boldly 
challenges comparison of the book with Rous- 
seau's " Emile," claiming for it a style fully as 
attractive as that of the French classic, and 
the advantage of being an account of what has 
actually been accomplished, rather than an 
exposition of what an educational theorist 
thinks desirable. " It is not beyond reason," 
he adds, " to expect that the present volume 
will do for the practise of teaching at home 
and in the school what ' Bmile ' has done for 
the theory of education." Prophecy, of course, 
can be met only with counter prophecy; but 
the style of written books is open to inspection, 
and .Professor O'Shea will search long for a 
disinterested and competent critic to agree 
with him in the dictum that the style of this 
volume is on a level with that of Rousseau, or 
of any other fairly competent master of 
French prose, an instrument of expression 
which no other modern tongue equals save in 
very rare instances. 



The noblest of the arts, in the 
opinion of the late Governor 
Altgeld, is oratory. A new 
printing of his little book on " Oratory," 
which originally appeared in 1901, now comes 
from the press with this year's date on its 
title-page. In discussing the principles of 
public speaking the author falls little short 
of poetic fervor in praise of the oratorical gift. 
" Oratory," he declares, " is an individual 
accomplishment, and no vicissitudes of for- 
tune can wrest it from the owner. It points 
the martyr's path to the future ; it guides the 
reaper's hand in the present, and it turns the 
face of ambition toward the delectable hills 
of achievement. One great speech made to 



34 



THE DIAL 



[ June 24 



an intelligent audience in favor of the rights 
of man will compensate for a life of labor, 
will crown a career with glory and give a joy 
that is born of the divinities." Like Demos- 
thenes, Mr. Altgeld makes " action," or deliv- 
ery, the first, second, and third requisite of 
oratory. Admirable, and not exactly to be 
expected from an effective public speaker, is 
his insistence on literary excellence as a prime 
essential of good oratory. "Literary excel- 
lence is the robe of immortality without which 
no speech can live." True, but many an un- 
literary and even illiterate harangue has 
wrought powerfully upon its hearers. Not 
without autobiographic interest and meaning 
is the following concerning the orator of, 
unselfish purpose: "If he would reach the 
highest estate possible on this earth he must 
stand resolutely with his face toward the sun ; 
and when the cry of oppressed humanity calls 
for sacrifice he must promptly say, 'Here, 
Lord, am I.' " The greatest orators have not 
seldom been the champions of lost causes, as 
the writer notes, and " defeat is often the 
baptism of immortality." A lofty idealism 
reveals itself on almost every page of this 
remarkable little treatise, and nowhere more 
clearly than in the assertion that " isolation is 
the price of greatness, and the stars are all 
the friends an orator needs." The book is 
issued by " The Public," Ellsworth Building, 
Chicago. 

The short monograph by Dr. C. 
Germany and Snouck Hurgronje, of Leiden 

the " Holy War." ..,. ., ...-, -, r TT i 

University, entitled " The Holy 
War: Made in Germany" (Putnam), is in- 
tended to clear up misconceptions as to the 
nature of a jihad or " holy war." Following 
the coup d'etat by which Germany dragged 
hesitant Turkey into the war last October 
came the proclamation of the jihad, by which 
Germany hoped to incite all Moslems to a 
general attack on Great Britain and France. 
That the attack failed to ensue is now a matter 
of common knowledge. Dr. Hurgronje ex- 
plains the reasons, and shows how German 
expectations were based on ignorance. Ac- 
cording to Islamic doctrine, no wars are per- 
missible except those against the infidels, and 
every such war is a jihad. But modern Turkey 
is mainly made up of Christians, and, con- 
versely, the majority of Mohammedans are 
citizens of other countries. Moreover, not 
only is there no political unity in the modern 
Moslem world, but even the Caliphate or 
central religious authority of the Ottoman Em- 
pire is no longer recognized. Hence the mis- 
calculations of Germany in trying to revive a 
mediaeval institution so hopelessly out of place 
in the world of to-day. 



NOTES. 



The Hope of the Family" is the title of a 
novel of the present war by Mr. and Mrs. Egerton 
Castle, announced by Messrs. Appleton. 

Early in September " Jane Clegg," the first 
play by Mr. St. John Ervine to be published in 
this country, will be issued by Messrs. Holt. 

A volume of " Sonnets of the Empire before and 
during the Great War," by Mr. Archibald T. 
Strong, will soon come from the press of Messrs. 
Macmillan. 

A new edition of an early volume by Mr. Have- 
lock Ellis, "Affirmations," is promised for early 
publication. It will contain an important new 
preface written by the author. 

" Germany's Violation of the Laws of War," a 
report prepared under the direction of the French 
Ministry for Foreign Affairs, is in train for early 
publication by Messrs. Putnam. 

A play of old Japan, entitled " The Faithful : 
A Tragedy in Three Acts," by Mr. John Masefield, 
is announced. The period chosen is that of the 
beginning of the eighteenth century. 

Before the end of the month the fourth volume 
of " Glimpses of the Cosmos," the series including 
the collected essays of the late Lester F. Ward, 
will be published by Messrs. Putnam. This vol- 
ume will contain the contributions the author 
made during his prime from his forty-fourth 
to his fifty-second year. 

Mr. Frederic Harrison has collected his scat- 
tered writings on the relations of Germany and 
Britain, covering a period of fifty years, in a 
volume to be published under the title of " The 
German Peril." The book is divided into three 
sections, the first entitled " Forecasts, 1864-1914," 
the second "Realities, 1915," and the third 
" Hopes, 191." 

An anthology entitled " Literary California," 
made up of selections in prose and verse from 
writers identified with the Pacific West, is an- 
nounced for early publication by Mr. John J. New- 
begin of San Francisco. The compiler is Mrs. Ella 
Sterling Mighels, author of " The Story of the 
Files." Biographical sketches and portraits of 
the writers represented, bibliographical data, and 
a full index will add much to the value of the 
work. 

A new series of biographies is in prospect, the 
project being the joint venture of Messrs. Henry 
Holt & Co. and Messrs. Constable & Co. of 
London. It will be entitled " Makers of the Nine- 
teenth Century," and will be edited by Mr. Basil 
Williams. Each volume is to contain the life of a 
man or woman who has had an influence on the 
century. The three titles scheduled for publica- 
tion this fall are, "John Delane," by Sir E. T. 
Cook; "Abraham Lincoln," by Lord Charnwood; 
and "Herbert Spencer," by Mr. Hugh S. Elliot. 
Biographies of Cecil Rhodes, Victor Hugo, Lord 
Shaftesbury, and General Lee are in preparation. 

Bulletins of the far-away Philippine Library 
make their rather belated appearance in our office 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



35 



from time to time, giving information chiefly as 
to recent accessions, with occasional items of wider 
interest, as, for example, in the October issue, a 
brief history of the library from the formation of 
the American Circulating Library Association of 
Manila, in memory of American soldiers and sail- 
ors killed or wounded in the Philippines an or- 
ganization from which the present one had its 
origin down through the transfer of the insti- 
tution to the government in 1901, its incorporation 
with the Bureau of Education in 1905, its trans- 
formation by legislative act into its present con- 
dition (except as to fees) in 1909, and the entire 
removal of fees last July. In that and the fol- 
lowing month about two thousand cards were 
issued, two-thirds of them to Filipinos. In the 
reading-room the proportion of native readers is 
between seventy and eighty per cent. 

Publication of a second series of classics in 
science and philosophy has been begun by the 
Open Court Publishing Co. The first series, en- 
titled " The Religion of Science Library," was 
begun just after the World's Columbian Exposi- 
tion held in Chicago in 1893. Its purpose was 
to put the study of religion on a scientific basis, 
and was the direct outcome of the founding of the 
Open Court Publishing Company by the late 
Edward C. Hegeler of La Salle, 111. He was very 
much interested in the Religious Parliament idea, 
the first meeting of which was called the World's 
Congress of Religions, held in Chicago in 1893. 
This series deals largely with the philosophy of 
religion. It now numbers seventy volumes. The 
second series will consist of reprints of classics 
marking the historical development of science and 
philosophy. The first volume of the series is still 
in preparation; but the second volume, made up 
of " Selections from the Scottish Philosophy of 
Commonsense," has just appeared. In thus mak- 
ing available in convenient and inexpensive form 
the classics of philosophic thought, the publishers 
are rendering a service that should be widely 
appreciated. 

OP NEW BOOKS. 



[ The following list, containing 59 titles, includes books 
received by THE DIAL since its last issue.] 

HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY. 
Writing* of John Quincy Adams. Edited by Worth- 

ington Chauncey Ford. Volume V., 1801-1810. 

8vo, 555 pa^es. Macmillan Co. $3.50 net. 
A History of England and the British Empire. By 

Arthur D. Innes. Volume IV., 1802-1914. With 

maps, 12mo, 604 pages. Macmillan Co. $1.60 net. 
The History of England from the Accession of 

James the Second. By Lord Macaulay; edited 

by Charles Harding Firth, M.A. Volume VI., ! 

illustrated in color, large 8vo. Macmillan Co. ! 

$3.25 net. 
The Evolution of a Teacher: An Autobiography. ! 

By Ella Gilbert lyes. With portrait, 12mo, 188 ! 

pages. The Pilgrim Press. $1. net. 
My March to Timbiictoo. By General Joffre; with 

Biographical Introduction by Ernest Dimnet. 

12mo, 169 pages. Duffield & Co. 75 cts. net. 

DRAMA AND VERSE. 
Paradise Found; or, The Superman Found Out. By 

Allen Upward. 12mo, 99 pages. Houghton 

Mifflin Co. $1.25 net. 
A Bit o> Love: A Play in Three Acts. By John 

Galsworthy. 12mo, 84 pages. Charles Scribner's 

Sons. 60 cts. net. 



The Lonely "Way, Intermezzo, Countess Mizzle: 
Three Plays. By Arthur Schnitzler; translated 
from the German, with Introduction, by Edwin 
Bjorkman. "Modern Drama Series." 12mo, 323 
pages. Mitchell Kennerley. $1.50 net. 

Processionals. By John Curtis Underwood. 12mo, 
273 pages. Mitchell Kennerley. 

The Judge: A Play in Four Acts. By Louis James 
Block. "American Dramatists Series." 12mo, 
119 pages. The Gorham Press. $1. net. 

FICTION. 

The Miracle of Love. By Cosmo Hamilton. 12mo, 

325 pages. George H. Doran Co. $1.25 net. 
Pieces of the Game: A Modern Instance. By the 

Countess de Chambrun. With frontispiece, 12mo, 

259 pages. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.35 net. 
Five Fridays. By Frank R. Adams. Illustrated, 

12mo, 339 pages. Small, Maynard & Co. $1.25 net. 
Accidentals. By Helen Mackay. 12mo, 320 pages. 

Duffield & Co. $1.25 net. 
The Auction Mart. By Sydney Tremayne. 12mo, 

341 pages. John Lane Co. $1.25 net. 
The Enemy. By George Randolph Chester and 

Lillian Chester. Illustrated, 12mo, 362 pages. 

Hearst's International Library Co. $1.35 net. 
Come Out to Play. By M. E. F. Irwin. 12mo, 304 

pages. George H. Doran Co. $1.25 net. 

PUBLIC AFFAIRS SOCIOLOGY AND 

ECONOMICS. 
America and Her Problems. By Paul H. B. 

D'Estournelles de Constant. With portrait, 

12mo, 545 pages. Macmillan Co. $2. net. 
The Japanese Problem in the United States. By 

H. A. Millis. Illustrated, 12mo, 334 pages. Mac- 
millan Co. $1.50 net. 
Street-Land: Its Little People and Big Problems. 

By Philip Davis. Illustrated, 12mo, 291 pages. 

Small, Maynard & Co. $1.35 net. 
Population: A Study in Malthusianism. By Warren 

S. Thompson, Ph.D. 8vo, 216 pages. Longmans, 

Green & Co. Paper, $1.75 net. 
The Orthocratic State: The Unchanging Principles 

of Civics and Government. By John Sherwin 

Crosby. With portrait, 12mo, 166 pages. Sturgis 

& Walton Co. $1. net. 
Nationalization of Railways in Japan. By Toshiharu 

Watarai, Ph.D. 8vo, 156 pages. Longmans, 

Green & Co. Paper, $1.25 net. 

THE GREAT WAR ITS HISTORY, PROBLEMS, 
AND CONSEQUENCES. 

The World in the Crucible: An Account of the 
Origins and Conduct of the Great War. By Sir 
Gilbert Parker. With portrait, 12mo, 422 pages. 
Dodd, Mead & Co. $1.50 net. 

The Great War: The Second Phase. By Frank H. 
Simonds. With maps, 12mo, 284 pages. Mitchell 
Kennerley. $1.25 net. 

The Note-book of an Attache: Seven Months in the 
War Zone. By Eric Fisher Wood. Illustrated, 
12mo, 345 pages. Century Co. $1.60 net. 

Cartoons on the War. By Boardman Robinson. 
Illustrated, large 8vo, 75 pages. E. P. Dutton & 
Co. $1.50 net. 

Field Hospital and Flying Column: Being the Jour- 
nal of an English Nursing Sister in Belgium and 
Russia. By Violetta Thurstan. 12mo, 184 pages. 
G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1. net. 

Eye-Witness's Narrative of the "War: From the 
Marne to Neuve Chapelle, September, 1914- 
March, 1915. 12mo, 303 pages. Longmans, Green 
& Co. 75 cts. net. 

DECORATIVE ART. 

The "Studio" Year Book of Decorative Art, 1915. 
Illustrated in color, etc., 4to, 239 pages. John 
Lane Co. Paper, $2.50 net. 

Inside the House of Good Taste. Edited by Rich- 
ardson Wright. Illustrated, large 8vo, 155 pages. 
McBride, Nast & Co. $1.50 net. 

Making Walls and Ceilings. By H. D. Eberlein. 
Illustrated, 16mo, 59 pages. McBride, Nast & Co. 
50 cts. net. 

PHILOSOPHY. 

Goethe: With Special Consideration of His Philos- 
ophy. By Paul Carus. Illustrated, large 8vo, 357 
pages. Open Court Publishing Co. $3. net. 

Ventures in Thought. By Francis Coutts. 12mo, 
248 pages. John Lane Co. $1.25 net. 

German Philosophy and Politics. By John Dewey. 
12mo, 134 pages. Henry Holt & Co. $1.25 net. 

Selections from the Scottish Philosophy of Common 
Sense. Edited, with Introduction, by G. A. 
Johnston, M.A. "Open Court Series of Classics 
of Science and Philosophy." 12mo, 267 pages. 
Open Court Publishing Co. $1.25 net. 



36 



THE DIAL 



[ June 24 



BOOKS OP REFERENCE. 
The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture. By L. II. 

Bailey. Volumes II. and III.; each Illustrated 

in color, etc., 4to. Macmillan Co. Per volume, 

$6. net. 
Instruction In the Use of Hooks and Libraries: A 

Textbook for Normal Schools and Colleges. By 

Lucy E. Fay, M.A., and Anne T. Eaton, B.A. 8vo, 

449 pages. Boston Book Co. $2.25 net. 
An Italian Dictionary. By Alfred Hoare, M.A. 4to, 

798 pages. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $12. net. 
List of Publications of the Bureau of American 

Ethnology, with Index to Authors and Titles. 

Large 8vo, 39 pages. Washington: Government 

Printing Office. Paper. 
A Dictionary of the Choctaw Language. By Cyrus 

Byington; edited by John R. Swanton and Henry 

S. Halbert. With portrait, large 8vo, 611 pages. 

Washington: Government Printing Office. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

To-morrow's Topics. By Robert T. Morris, M.D. 
In 3 volumes, with frontispieces, 8vo. Double- 
day, Page & Co. Per volume, $2. net. 

My Shrubs. By Eden Phillpotts. Illustrated, 4to, 
132 pages. John Lane Co. $3. net. 

The Red Laugh: Fragments of a Discovered Manu- 
script. By Leonidas Andreief; translated from 
the Russian by Alexandra Linden. 12mo, 192 
pages. Duffleld & Co. $1. net. 

Naval Occasions, and Some Traits of the Sailor- 
man. By " Bartimeus." 12mo, 295 pages. Hough- 
ton Mifflin Co. $1.25 net. 

Beliefs and Superstitions of the Pennsylvania Ger- 
mans. By Edwin Miller Fogel, Ph.D. Large 8yo, 
387 pages. Philadelphia: American Germanica 
Press. 

Loss of Hair. By Franz Nagelschmidt; translated 
from the German by Richard W. Miiller, M.D. 
Illustrated, 12mo, 171 pages. WilHam R. Jenkins 
Co. $1.50 net. 

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 
Pamphlets 4-20. Washington: Published by the 
Endowment. Paper. 

Thoughts on Business. By Waldo Pondray Warren. 
New edition; 12mo, 260 pages. Forbes & Co. 
$1. net. 

The Care of the Teeth. By Charles A. Brackett, 
D.M.D. 16mo, 63 pages. Harvard University 
Press. 

The Business of Trading in Stocks. By " B." 16mo, 
188 pages. New York: Magazine of Wall Street. 
$2. net. 

The University of Hard Knocks. By Ralph Parlette. 
12mo, 135 pages. Chicago: Parlette-Padget Co. 
$1. net. 

The Untroubled Mind. By Herbert J. Hall, M.D. 
16mo, 96 pages. Houghton Mifflin Co. 75cts.net. 

English Diction. By Clara Kathleen Rogers. Part 
I., The Voice in Speech. 8vo, 123 pages. Boston: 
Published by the author. $1.25 net. 

Home University Library. New volumes: A His- 
tory of Philosophy, by Clement C. J. Webb; 
Milton, by John Bailey; Political Thought in 
England, by Ernest Barker; Belgium, by R. C. K. 
'Ensor. Each 16mo. Henry Holt & Co. Per vol- 
ume, 50 cts. net. 

A New Book of Patience Games. By Ernest Berg- 
holt. Illustrated, 12mo, 120 pages. E. P. Dutton 
& Co. 50 cts. net. 



THE POET IN THE DESERT 

By CHARLES ERSKINE SCOTT WOOD 

A series of poems with the atmosphere of "The Great Amer- 
ican Desert." The thought is pantheistic and revolutionary. 
For sale: In New York The Masses Bookstore, 87 Greenwich 
Street; Mother Earth, 20 East I25th Street; and Brentanos. 
Chicago Walter Hill, Marshall Field Building. San Fran- 
cisco The White House, and Newbegins. Price, $1.00. 



ROBERT LOUIS STEVENSON 

Books from His Library, FIRST EDITIONS of 
His Works, MANUSCRIPTS, Autographs, 

Relics, and other STEVENSONIANA. 
CATALOGUE in Preparation Sent on Request. 

C. GERHARD! & CO., 120 East 59th St., New York 



Narrative of the War 



From the Marne 
to Neuve Chapelle 



September, 1914, 
to March, 1915 



Crown 8vo. 312 pp. $0.75 net 

This volume contains all the descriptive accounts by "An 
Eye- Witness Present with General Headquarters," Issued by the 
British Press Bureau up to the end ol March, 1915. The narra- 
tive as a whole is not only an illuminating commentary on the 
operations and achievements of the British Expeditionary Force, 
but may be said to constitute "a very valuable contribution to 
the history of the war, and as such is worthy of a permanent 
place on the library shelves. 



Longmans, Green, & Co. 

Fourth Ave. and 30th St., New York 



I 



CATALOGUE of New Exhibition of Por- 
traitures of James McNeill Whistler. 

ARRANGED in chronological order. 

SIX of the illustrations not before repro- 
duced. Sixteen items listed for the first time. 
Notes of a bibliographical nature appended. 

NINETY copies only for sale printed on 
Japanese paper, numbered and signed, at 
Four Dollars each. 

GEORGE P. HUMPHREY 

Rochester, N. Y. 



For Twenty-Five Cents 

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books of the year, a novel that retails for 
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in which will appear the first account of 
the Southern California Exposition, with 
a selection of rarely beautiful photo- 
graphs, picturing San Diego at its best. 

ADDRESS 
THE BOOK NEWS MONTHLY 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



37 



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38 



THE DIAL 



[ June 24 



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The July number of 

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[June 24, 1915 



BRITISH EMBASSY, 

Washington, Oct. 23, 1912. 
MY DEAR SIR: 

Having just returned to Washington, I 
find a copy of your book entitled Retrospec- 
tion, and hasten to thank you for it. I am 
reading it with very great interest. 
The light y9u throw upon much of 
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the time of the first American 
occupation of the country, as well 

as upon the early history of the Mormons, is new to me 
and of the highest value and interest. It tempts me 
indeed to wish that you had found it possible to enter 
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the characters of those stirring times. 

Believe me, with renewed thanks, Very faithfully yours, 
H. H. BANCROFT, Esqre. JAMES BRYCE. 




ALBERT BUS! - HART 



Professor of 



Government 
University. 



in Harvard 





5 Quincy Chambers, Cambridge, Mass. 

February 28, 1913. 
GENTLEMEN: 

I have been very much inter- 
ested in H. H. Bancroft's Retro- 
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life about which we know far too little and have far too 
little material, namely the actual upbuilding of the 
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culties. It is a permanent source in the history of 
California. Very truly yours, 

ALBERT BUSHNELL HART. 
THE BANCROFT COMPANY. 




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BEN B. LINDSEY, Judge. 

"I have read with a great deal of pleasure Mr. Bancroft's splendid volume 
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RETROSPECTION 

THE NEW PACIFIC 

POPULAR HISTORY OF MEXICO 

By HUBERT HOWE BANCROFT. 

Standing out as they do from the many ephemeral publication? 
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42 



THE DIAL 



[ July 15 











'The Weak Man and the 
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THE DIAL 



43 



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A New 
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THE DIAL 



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Vol. LIX. 



JULY 15, 1915 



No. 698 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 



ESSAYS AND ESSAYISTS. Charles Leonard 

Moore 45 

CASUAL COMMENT 47 

Superimposed culture. The dedication of the 
finest of university library buildings. A 
nation's unfaith in its own literature. Our 
ancestors' respect for books. The Kussian 
peasant's appreciation of Shakespeare. Mis- 
placed books. A monument of encyclopaedic 
research. How to become an expert book- 
collector. Plumed knights. The library as 
an aid to efficiency. The difference between 
reading and studying. 

COMMUNICATIONS 51 

The Wisconsin Survey Once More. George C. 

Comstoclc. 

A Word for Dr. Allen. Margaret A. Friend. 
Kuno Meyer and the Harvard Prize Poem. 

F. P. 
A Translator's Error. A. H. Fisher. 

THE MODERN THOREAU. Henry Seidel 

Canby 54 

SOCIALISM AND THE GREAT WAR. Thomas 

Percival Seyer 5b 

RELICS OF THE BRONZE AGE IN GREECE. 

Frederick Starr 58 

AN AMERICAN DRAMA OF THE 18TH CEN- 
TURY. William B. Cairns ..... 60 
THE NEW SPIRIT IN AMERICAN POLI- 
TICS. Frederic Austin Ogg 62 

RECENT FICTION. William Morton Payne . 63 

NOTES ON NEW NOVELS 66 

BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS 67 

A Belgian's prophecy of the great war. 
Japanese art interpreted by a Japanese. 
A survey and study of the modern drama. A 
soldier's narrative, by General Joffre. A 
study of city managership. Men and women 
of new France. A comprehensive library 
manual. Strathcona as the evil genius of 
Canada. The German as a human being. 
A colonial glass-maker. 

BRIEFER MENTION 72 

NOTES 72 

TOPICS IN JULY PERIODICALS 74 

LIST OF NEW BOOKS . 74 



ESSAYS AND ESSAYISTS. 



We doubt whether any kind of reading 
yields more easy pleasure than the good 
essay. Of course it lacks the excitements of 
the higher forms of literature, the vivid 
lightning and appalling thunder of tragedy; 
the epic splendor, where verse marches on like 
captive kings and warriors in a Roman tri- 
umph ; the ordered disorder of the comic med- 
ley, which makes our sides ache and our tense 
minds relax; the interest of the novel, which 
seizes upon us with the first page and keeps us 
in pleasing torment until we turn the last; 
the keen, instantaneous joys and pains of the 
lyric. All these it lacks; or rather, it has 
them only by hints and recollected visions. 
The essay is something like an autumn stream 
which flows before us gleaming white or 
sombre through its matted debris of red and 
yellow and green and brown, a carpet which 
has been blossoms, which has been foliage 
waving in the wind and sun. Half our inter- 
est in the essay is in the current of mind and 
personality it reveals, and half in the rich 
burden which it bears. 

All other literary kinds are fenced about 
with restrictions : they have laws and methods 
which they cannot overstep ; a circle is drawn 
about them to keep out the evil influence 
which would tear them to pieces; they must 
retain their form, like a Prince Rupert drop, 
which if it be pinched in the tail shatters into 
fragments. But the only rule of the essay is 
to have no rule. It is most like a little piece 
of original chaos. Of course it generally has 
a subtle evolution; and like everything that 
tangibly exists, it must have a beginning, a 
middle, and an end. Subject, however, to the 
slightest restrictions it can be anything and 
do everything. It can jump from one business 
to another, some of De Quincey's essays are 
one monstrous digression. It can mingle 
heroic outlines with the homeliest details, as 
Cellini threw his household utensils into the 
molten bronze to eke out the cast of his 
Perseus. It can be a traveller's sketch or a 
Dutch painting of an interior. It can be gay 
and lively with adventure, or can rise to 
solemn fugues of thought as in Sir Thomas 



46 



THE DIAL 



[July 15 



Browne's "Urn Burial," Milton's "Areopa- 
gitica," Addison's "Vision of Mirzah," or 
De Quincey's " Our Ladies of Sorrow." It 
is the miscellaneous form of literature: an 
olla podrida; in its poorest manifestations a 
hash, what the Bowery waiter calls " a 
graveyard stew." 

Essays divide into two main species: those 
which deal with life, and those which voice 
opinions about books, pictures, art of all sorts. 
We hope we are not pushing analysis too far, 
but the first of these species again divides into 
two kinds : the essay where the personality of 
the author is dominant, and that in which, 
as in a Claude Lorraine glass, we get minia- 
ture glimpses of the outside world. In the 
first we are talking with the man himself, as 
with the most intimate acquaintance. "We are 
seated in Sieur de Montaigne's library, and he 
" rolls us out his mind." The flood of erudi- 
tion is much ; but more are his frank revela- 
tions about himself, his friends, his tastes, 
even about the gravel which afflicts him. Or 
we are in Charles Lamb's chambers, among 
that wonderful circle of wits and oddities 
whom he attracted as a loadstone does metallic 
dust, and we listen to his crackling fire of 
puns, his rhapsodies about old books and 
brawn and suckling pigs. Or we are with 
Hazlitt in the hut at Winterslow, watching 
the red sunset die upon the hills ; or we walk 
with him a summer's day while he discourses 
of the poets he has known or the lodging- 
house keeper's daughter whom he worshipped. 
Or we are with Stevenson in the wynds of 
Edinburgh, or on the neighboring hills, listen- 
ing through him to the mighty talkers of his 
acquaintance. All these men are nothing if 
not autobiographical. They are intensely in- 
terested in themselves and everything that 
happens to them. Why is it that such egotism 
does not revolt us? They fling themselves 
upon our interest with the most naive confi- 
dence, and we receive them with open arms. 
The more they tell us the more we want to 
know. Nay, if an essayist comes along who 
rather holds us at a distance, we get in a huff 
and want little to do with him. Bagehot is 
almost as clever as Hazlitt, and a good deal 
wittier than Stevenson ; but the world hardly 
knows that Bagehot lived. He has the reserve 
of the man of the world, an air of good 
society; and, to paraphrase one of his own 
sayings, it' is very much as if a steam engine 
was making phrases. 



To unbosom oneself seems to be a short cut 
to the affection of the world, which likes to 
play the part of a priest in the confessional 
and hearken to sins and peccadilloes, vaunt- 
ings and vaporings. That is the secret of the 
perennial charm of memoirs, whether Cel- 
lini's grim and boasting tale or Pepys's can- 
did one. It is what gave Marie Bashkirtseff's 
book its vogue not long ago ; the world recog- 
nized that she simply told what most young 
girls think, though no one before had had the 
courage to set it down. If Walt Whitman, 
instead of writing queer verse, had put into 
good prose all that laudation of himself, he 
would probably have ten readers where he now 
has one. But the great essayists, those we 
have named and others of the same blood, min- 
gle their egotism with modesty and geniality 
and humor. It is their enormous enjoyment 
of life which they communicate to us. 

The older English essays, those of Addison 
and Steele and Johnson and Goldsmith, were 
not nearly so individual, so pregnant with 
personality, as the later ones. These writers, 
hid themselves under an assumed character^ 
or created a club to carry on their miscella- 
nies. They were novelists in miniature, satir- 
ists and moralists at large. They set out to- 
picture the life about them, to scourge the 
follies and lighter vices of the world. They 
give vignettes of characters, kit-cat portraits^ 
thumb-nail sketches, Sir Roger de Coverley,. 
Will Honeywood, Beau Tibbs, the Man in 
Black, and many others. The short story 
exists in their works, in germ at least, East- 
ern apologues, fables, and the like. But in 
the main they were curiously journalistic. 
They gave the world about them a report of 
itself. And their world was the Town: a 
world of paint and powder and patches and 
pomatum. When this world was driven from 
the stage it found refuge in the miscellany 
prints. Bright and charming and various as 
this form of the essay is, it cannot compete 
with the novel, the comedy, the large satire. 
The essay proper still remains the essay of 
personality, the intimate talk, that is, of one 
who is revealing himself at every word. 

The critical essay, however, is perhaps more 
important, and is certainly the most widely 
cultivated. Authors, artists, creators of every 
kind,, have .always, been contemptuous of the 
critic. . But what, do they publish or show 
their works- for if they do not want people to 
have opinions about them 1 At its worst, a 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



47 



criticism is an advertisement. It is true that 
probably fifty per cent of contemporary criti- 
cism is always ludicrously wrong. But the 
other fifty per cent is penetrating, just, help- 
ful. After three hundred years of Shake- 
spearean laudation, there is nothing that sur- 
passes Ben Jonson's famous lines on the poet. 
Side by side with Dr. Johnson's sneering 
remarks about Gray, are his keen and true 
sentences about Collins. Side by side with 
" Blackwood's " denunciation of Keats is 
Hunt's enthusiastic appreciation of him. Side 
by side with Lady Eastlake's description of 
Charlotte Bronte as one who had forfeited the 
companionship of her own sex is Sydney 
Dobell's noble eulogium of Emily Bronte. 
The fact is that really great critics are rarer 
than great artists. In all English literature, 
there are only four of the former class 
Johnson, Coleridge, Hazlitt, and Matthew 
Arnold; while there are a good many more 
than forty great writers. Even about the 
accepted authors of the past the spirit of 
ignorance and envy is always surging up 
in revolt. We are always being told that 
Homer and Virgil, Shakespeare and Milton, 
are passe, and of small account besides some 
new luminary. 

The critical essay, also, is of two sorts : that 
which deals with the underlying principles of 
art, and that which is devoted to appreciations 
of single authors or works. In its greatest 
manifestations the former kind rises to the 
treatise; and a few of these, Aristotle's 
" Poetics," Longinus's " On the Sublime," and 
Lessing's "Laocob'n," are monuments of 
genius which dispute place with the great 
creative works of the world. But the brief, 
discursive, appreciative, critical essay is the 
more delightful. Like an actor's interpreta- 
tion of a part on the stage, it adds something 
to the original. It gives the work studied un- 
der new lights, helps it with caressing tones 
and endearments of admiration, brings it into 
focus with other pieces of the same kind. It 
is the critic's soul and mind thrown in as a 
makeweight to the author's. It is the greatest 
reward the artist can receive. And for the 
reader, as Sir Richard Steele said, there is no 
greater favor that one man can do another 
than to tell him the manner of his being 
pleased. 

The best criticisms are excursions and 
forays into the past. They are onsets to re- 
cover the body of Patroclus in order to bear 



him to his tent, cleanse his wounds, and give 
him splendid funeral. Or to change the figure, 
the undergrowth which is continually spring- 
ing up tends to choke and kill the giants of the 
forest; it is the main business of the critic to 
make these giants visible and accessible so that 
their shade and shelter may be of use ; to 
mankind. 

It is not worth while to exaggerate the im- 
portance of the essay, either the personal, the 
creative, or the critical kind. Its slippered ease 
and sauntering pedestrianism are not con- 
ducive to the great actions of art. When the 
artist is really inspired, soul fuses itself with 
body. Form is a necessity, and that form is 
succinct, supple, rapid in motion. Here and 
there, essays stand out which fulfil the condi- 
tions of creative art. The " Urn Burial," the 
" Reverie in Boar's Head Tavern, Eastcheap," 
the "Vision of Sudden Death," these are 
some of its triumphs. But if the essay is sel- 
dom great, it is often pleasurable and lovable 
in the extreme. It is literature in undress, 
the soul uttering itself in artless and unpre- 
tending ways. CHARLES LEONARP MoORE , 



CASUAL COMMENT. 



SUPERIMPOSED CULTURE is but a thin var- 
nish, at best. In fact, it is no culture at all, 
in the true sense of the word. Every person 
capable of culture claims the right to work out 
his own intellectual salvation from within, 
aided only by such hints and helps as shall 
not compromise his spiritual independence. 
In the current issue of " The Hibbert Jour- 
nal," a protest against "America's Bondage 
to the German Spirit " is made by Dr. Joseph 
H. Crooker, whose many years' observation of 
the workings of Teutonic academicism in our 
own colleges and universities has qualified 
him to speak on the subject with understand- 
ing and conviction. That such a protest 
should be called for in this one hundred and 
thirty-ninth year of our national existence is 
a rather surprising and still more humiliat- 
ing development, but it is useless to blink the 
facts as set forth by Dr. Crooker. Too long 
has it been true, with certain modifications 
and exceptions, that "the one thing that 
makes an impression in our university circles 
is the scholarship that is marked: Made in 
Germany! And just here lies some of the 
mischief . . 'made' in Germany. It has 
been, too often, a scholarship, not ripened in 
the warm, brooding atmosphere of a humane 
and humanising culture, but a standardised 



48 



THE DIAL 



[July 15 



erudition, intent on ' accumulation of mere 
facts, tested by cubic measure, sought for 
ends of efficiency, fitted to help man as a 
mechanism, and imbued with a vast conceit 
of knowledge." Due tribute is paid to all 
that is best in the spirit that America has 
breathed in from the Germany of the past; 
nevertheless the question for us to-day is 
this : " Is it wise and wholesome to have tens 
of thousands of our susceptible American 
youths, in our colleges and universities the 
intellectual aristocracy of the land, the future 
leaders of American opinion and action 
constantly under the training of men who 
have been thoroughly Germanised and to a 
decided degree de- Americanised ?" Of course 
such a question would be pertinent whether 
our educational ideals and methods were im- 
ported from Germany or China or Mozam- 
bique or the planet Mars; it is the fact of 
wholesale importation that, first and fore- 
most, is fraught with possibilities of evil. 
Hope of better things as soon as peace is re- 
stored brightens the close of Dr. Crocker's 
article, which, let it be added, covers a larger 
field, in its consideration of German influ- 
ence on America, than has been indicated in 

this brief notice. 



THE DEDICATION OF THE FINEST OF UNI- 
VERSITY LIBRARY BUILDINGS, the splendid 
Widener Memorial at Harvard, took place 
June 24, with Senator Lodge as the orator of 
the occasion. As he truthfully said, "no 
other university and scarcely any state or 
nation possesses a library building so elabo- 
rately arranged, so fitted with every device 
which science and ingenuity can invent for 
the use of books by scholars and students." 
The address was notable from beginning to 
end for its fine enthusiasm for all that is true 
and noble in literature and learning. It 
revealed, by quotation and allusion, the wide 
reading and sound scholarship of the speaker, 
and showed also his sympathies with all who 
love good books and find their solace and sus- 
tenance in the masterpieces of literature. 
Excellent was this passage, toward the end of 
the speech : " Here, as to all great collections 
of books, as to all books anywhere which have 
meaning and quality, come those who never 
write, who have no songs to sing, no theories 
with which they hope to move or enlighten 
the world, men and women who love knowl- 
edge and literature for their own sakes and 
are content. Here those who toil, those who 
are weary and heavy-laden, come for rest. 
Here among the books we can pass out of this 
workaday world, never more tormented, more 
in anguish, than now, and find, for a brief 



hour at least, happiness, perchance consola- 
tion, certainly another world and a blessed 
forgetfulness of the din and the sorrows 
which surround us." Finely fitting, too, were 
the lines quoted from a living English poet 
who writes thus of Shakespeare in these trou- 
bled times: 

" 0, let me leave the plains behind, 

And let me leave the vales below; 
Into the highlands of the mind, 
Into the mountains let me go. 

" Here are the heights, crest beyond crest, 

With Himalayan dews impearled; 
And I will watch from Everest 

The long heave of the surging world." 



A NATION'S UNFAITH IN ITS OWN LITERATURE 
is not an inspiring spectacle, any more than is 
a nation's excessive pride in its own literature. 
Something of that timid questioning of its 
right to hold up its head in the literary world 
which this country is thought even yet not to 
have wholly outgrown is noticeable in modern 
Japan's attitude toward foreign authors. 
Translations and importations hold a noto- 
riously prominent place in the Japanese book- 
trade; and more than one native writer is 
commenting regretfully on this fact. A late 
issue of " The Japan Advertiser " cites an in- 
stance of this disapproval. "Nation's ambi- 
tions,'' it quotes from an unnamed author, 
"spring from firm convictions. Without the 
latter there can be no former. When we look 
at the conditions of our world of thoughts, 
which is easily conquered by foreign ideas and 
litterateurs, we cannot but question the self- 
confidence of our nation." The writer then 
notes the influx of Russian literature that fol- 
lowed the Russo-Japanese war, and names 
other European authors that are eagerly read 
in Japan. A leading article in " The Japan 
Times " makes similar reference to the native 
fondness for occidental literature of all kinds, 
and adds : " The comparative scarcity of new 
original works undoubtedly promises badly 
for the intellectual independence of the coun- 
try. The truth is, we have been accustomed to 
importing ready-made thought and have felt 
no inconvenience as long as this facility has 
remained open. The present closing up of the 
intellectual centre of Europe by war has, how- 
ever, awakened us keenly to the disadvantage 
we are under, and we feel confident that the 
genius of the race will meet the deficiency, 
even as necessity will father more original 
thinking." A recent remarkable increase in 
the reading habit is among the best of signs for 
Japan's future, but her considerable literary 
use of a language not her own, with the occa- 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



49 



sional inevitable departures from that lan- 
guage's proper idiom, is not wholly to be 
approved, however much the western world is 
indebted thereto for its knowledge of things 
Japanese. By all means let Japan adopt a 
manageable alphabet in which to write her 
beautifully expressive tongue, and then let her 
develop her literature according to her native 
bent. . . . 

OUR ANCESTORS' RESPECT FOR BOOKS was 
greater than ours of the present time, partly, 
of course, because books were far less plenti- 
ful in the early days than now, and most of 
them came from the other side of the broad 
Atlantic an ocean much wider then than in 
this age of steam and electricity. At Wil- 
mington, Vermont, there has been found an 
old book of records revealing the interesting 
fact that there existed a "social library" in 
that town as early as 1795. On the last day 
of that year the Wilmington Social Library 
was organized, and the record book gives its 
constitution and by-laws, with a list of sub- 
scribers. Among the miscellaneous entries in 
the book is one to the effect that Israel Law- 
ton was fined seventeen cents for dropping 
tallow on book No. 93 a sufficiently heavy 
fine, one would think, considering the relative 
value of money then and now, and the re- 
movability of grease spots from paper by 
expert methods (which, however, may not 
have been known in the Wilmington of 1795). 
Timothy Castle was fined six cents for spill- 
ing one drop of tallow on book No. 16. (Poor 
fellow! He was doubtless so absorbed in his 
reading and so eager to make the most of the 
scant hour or so before bedtime that he did 
not notice how he was tilting the candle.) 
Levi Packard was mulcted in sixty cents for 
tearing the binding of book No. 106 a griev- 
ous offense, surely. Other fines were imposed 
for dogs'-ears and finger-marks. And to 
think that to-day one can go to the public 
library, especially in the rush hours, and 
hand in without fear or trembling a book 
pretty well stuck up with chewing gum and 
candy, and quite freely annotated and under- 
lined in 'pencil if not in ink! though of 
course the library of any librarian reading 
this is too carefully conducted to admit of 
any such outrage. 



THE RUSSIAN PEASANT'S APPRECIATION OP 
SHAKESPEARE is strikingly illustrated by an 
incident recorded in Professor Leo Wiener's 
recent book, "An Interpretation of the Rus- 
sian People." In a chapter devoted to " The 
Peasant" and containing other instances of 
unexpected good literary taste among the 



lowly, the author tells of certain readings be- 
fore a peasant Sunday school where the hear- 
ers ranged in age from early youth to forty 
years or more, and where " Oliver Twist" and 
"Uncle Tom's Cabin" met with high favor, 
especially when offered in unabridged form; 
but still more marked appears to have been 
the preference for Shakespeare, uncut and 
unadapted, to Shakespeare in short narra- 
tive prose (like the Lamb "Tales") or other- 
wise shorn of his full glory. "King Lear" 
was read to these unsophisticated hearers in. 
three forms, the short tale by Lamb, a native 
adaptation with happy ending, and the com- 
plete tragedy in literal translation. The listen- 
ers' quick appreciation of the latter, despite 
its confusing foreign names and unfamiliar 
setting, was astonishing. The success of the 
reading was complete. When one of the 
younger girls referred to the general simi- 
larity between " King Lear " and the Russian 
adaptation, " Old Man Nikita and his Three 
Daughters," she was met with the contemptu- 
ous retort: " What a comparison ! That was 
written for peasants, while this is for gentle- 
folk." " This is much better," she was prompt 
to admit, adding that whereas the peasant 
version had a happy ending, "such a story 
never could end well." Significant was the 
refusal of this company of working people to 
be moved to mirth by Dickens's humor; it 
left them blank, it touched no responsive 
chord, though in other respects Dickens's 
genius met with gratifying appreciation. It 
would be interesting to learn whether the 
same hearers showed themselves at all appre- 
ciative of Shakespeare's humor as displayed 
in his comedies; they were quick to indicate 
their enjoyment of the fool in " Lear." But 
probably life is too serious and even tragic a 
thing to the mujik to admit of much place 
for careless merriment. 



MISPLACED BOOKS are for the time being as 
good as lost, or as bad as lost. This is notably 
true in the case of library books carelessly 
returned to the open shelves by readers whose 
regard for order and system is so slight as to 
render them indifferent to the consequences 
of carelessly tossing Miss Alcott's "Little 
Women " on to the shelf containing Zola's 
novels, or of tucking away " The Light of 
Asia " by the side of " Vestiges of Creation." 
No little act more clearly betrays a person's 
lack of that courtesy which consists in a 
scrupulous regard for the rights and the 
convenience of others than this thoughtless 
misplacing of books on the public library 
shelves. At the Minneapolis Public Library, 
as appears from the librarian's " Twenty- 



50 



THE DIAL 



[ July 15 



fifth Annual Report/' these reckless raids 
of the irresponsible are by no means wholly 
outside the experience of those in authority. 
Hence it is announced : " The Shelving De- 
partment has been reorganized. Curtis 
Krake h,as been appointed head shelver, and 
with the help of two boys has kept the shelves 
"'ready for company' seven days in the week. 
In addition there was daily revision of the 
shelves by members of the staff, not only to 
correct mistakes in shelving, but to remove 
books ready for mending or binding, or which 
had lost their labels." If every library could 
have its careful Curtis Krake and corps of 
assistants, there would be fewer application 
slips returned to disappointed applicants 
with the disheartening and often uncon- 
vincing word, " Out " unconvincing because 
the' applicant may feel morally certain that 
no one else in town could possibly desire just 
that book at just that time. Misplacement is 
more than likely to be at the bottom of the 
mischief. 

A MONUMENT OF ENCYCLOPAEDIC RESEARCH, 

bearing witness to the rare devotion, the en- 
lightened public spirit, the untiring energy, 
and the comprehensive scholarship of Dr. 
Takami Modzume, of Tokyo, is now awaiting 
publication. Whether it will be published, 
or left in manuscript (of two thousand two 
hundred volumes) to the Imperial Household 
Department, depends on the author's success 
in obtaining three thousand subscribers of 
one hundred and thirty yen each to defray 
the cost of printing. He has spent the best 
part of his sixtV-eight years, and 140,000 yen 
of his money, besides incurring a debt of half 
that amount, in preparing this work for the 
instruction of his own people in what they 
ought to know about themselves and their 
country. For thirty years he has been delv- 
ing in the lore of Japan, China, and India, 
going through more than one hundred thou- 
sand volumes, in the compilation of a refer- 
ence work having sixty thousand entries, 
alphabetically arranged, relating to Japanese 
life and usages, and also in making a vo- 
luminous compendium (if that be not a con- 
tradiction in terms) of extracts from the 
hundred thousand volumes examined, these 
extracts treating of the topics enumerated in 
his reference work. In a country where dis- 
astrous fires are as frequent as they re in 
Japan, books of the sort required by Dr. 
Modzume in prosecuting his self-imposed task 
.are often extremely rare and difficult of 
access. Hence the time and labor and expense 
involved in his undertaking, which will have a 
corresponding value when completed. " The 



Japan Times," in an appreciative editorial 
containing the foregoing facts, recalls the ex- 
ample of another and much earlier Japanese 
scholar and public benefactor, the Buddhist 
priest Ankaku, who in the infancy of Bud- 
dhism in Japan visited China and committed 
to memory all the scriptures of India that had 
been translated into Chinese; then he re- 
turned home, hung a small desk to his neck, 
went from house to house begging a sheet of 
paper at each, and so in twenty-five years of 
pilgrimage succeeded in putting into writing 
the precious results of his arduous studies. 



HOW TO BECOME AN EXPERT BOOK -COLLECTOR 

is not to be explained in three words, or even 
in a whole lecture; but a course of lectures, 
supplemented by the inspection and handling 
of some examples of fine book-making, some 
products of the famous presses of early and 
later times, will accomplish something toward 
opening the eyes to what is genuine and what 
is shoddy in book-manufacture. Announce- 
ment is made of such a course of lectures at 
Harvard, Division of the Fine Arts, for the 
coming academic year. Mr. George Parker 
Winship, Lecturer on the History of Printing, 
will give this course, which "is intended for 
men who are interested in books as objects of 
art, and who desire to possess or to produce 
beautiful books." From the period of the 
illuminated manuscript to the present time the 
history of book-production will be traced, with 
such attention to mechanical details as ;to 
enable the pupil to distinguish honest merit 
from pretentious sham. The "Widener Memo- 
rial room in the new library building will be 
the appropriate meeting-place of the class, 
and not only the Widener collection, but also 
other special collections from the Treasure 
Room of the Harvard Library will be avail- 
able as object lessons. The Boston Public 
Library and other libraries in the vicinity, 
private as well as public, will be visited for 
the purposes of demonstration and instruc- 
tion ; and in addition to the required reading 
a written report will be expected from each 
student on some bibliographical topic of 
especial interest to him. 


PLUMED KNIGHTS, as we meet them in the 
pages of romance, are a picturesque and 
pleasing spectacle. When, however, the 
plume takes the form of a goose-quill (de- 
servedly honored symbol of the literary art) 
the spectacle seems somehow to lose a great 
part of its picturesque and pleasing quality. 
Were we not, years ago, a little resentful at 
being called upon to cease speaking and 
writing of Mr. Walter Besant, and to call him 



1015] 



THE DIAL 



51 



Sir Walter ? Already there was one Sir Wal- 
ter enshrined in our hearts, and this other, 
despite his acknowledged modesty and worth, 
almost seemed like an interloper. " Sir 
Leslie Stephen" also came with some diffi- 
culty from the tongue long accustomed to the 
more democratic title; and, considerably 
later, " Sir James M. Barrie " caused a little 
vocal fumbling. Harder still would it be to 
shape our mouths to " Sir Rudyard Kipling " 
or "Sir Herbert G. Wells" or "Sir Arnold 
Bennett." But who would dare predict, in 
this be-knighted age, that some such demand 
may not be made upon us before long? Only 
the other day that admired Bengalese poet 
and sage, the author of " Gitanjali," became 
transmogrified from what his honorable East- 
Indian ancestry and traditions and his own 
achievements had caused him to be in our 
minds and imaginations, and appeared before 
us in tasteless hybrid form as Sir Rabin- 
dranath Tagore. It is almost as if , for example, 
one so distinctive and inimitable as our own 
Mark Twain had suddenly been metamor- 
phosed into " Sir Samuel Clemens," or " Lord 
Stormfield," or some similar inconceivable 
absurdity. In the republic of letters what 
place or need is there for titles and orders 
and other bedizenments bestowed by royalty 1 ? 
And yet, after all, this is very much a ques- 
tion of taste and personal point of view ; and 
therefore the old adage, de gustibus, will be 
the short and sufficient rejoinder of anyone 
not like-minded. ... 

THE LIBRARY AS AN AID TO EFFICIENCY is not 

exactly the kind of library some of us delight 
in. The library of our dreams is likely to 
resemble, in one respect at least, the ideal 
university as defined by Lowell. He used to 
say a true university is a place where nothing 
useful is taught ; and it is pleasant to imagine 
a library as a collection of books containing 
nothing useful. Nevertheless, if books must 
be turned to other purposes than those of 
pure delight, one can bear the thought of 
their promoting the prosperity and happi- 
ness of some of the hundreds of thousands 
who daily have access to the thickly sprinkled 
public libraries of our broad land. And there 
are now many other collections of books, not 
quite so public, maintained by the great 
business houses of our large cities as instru- 
ments for the perfecting of the efficiency of 
those whom they employ. The growing im- 
portance of these collections has only recently 
been revealed by the new and enterprising- 
periodical, "Special Libraries," and there are 
other kindred publications that call occa- 
sional attention to the utilitarian aspect of 



the library. For instance, the June issue of 
the "Wisconsin Library Bulletin" has an 
" eye-opener " in the shape of a sketch of 
"Libraries in Business," by Miss Pearl I. 
Field, of the Chicago Public Library, who is 
officially connected with the business libraries 
of the city, so far as they maintain relations 
with the public library, whose head, be it 
added, has shown himself energetic in the 
establishment of such special book-collections 
in commercial houses. 



THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN READING AND 

STUDYING is not clearly marked. In England 
the university man " reads " for honors, or for 
a coming examination, or to fit himself for a 
chosen profession. He "reads," even though 
it be algebra or geometry or trigonometry that 
claims his attention, whereas in America these 
and far more literary subjects would be made 
the object of " study." But it certainly sounds 
pleasanter and easier and perhaps more dig- 
nified and gentleman-like to "read" for a 
double-first than to "study" for the same 
prize. Therefore it may be well that the Yale 
authorities, in adopting a well-established 
custom of Cambridge University, have an- 
nounced that a " reading term " rather than a 
"studying term" is to be introduced at New 
Haven in September. Thus, it is explained, 
the students will have " an opportunity to do 
special reading a few weeks before the regular 
opening of the university." They will be free 
from the ordinary college routine, and no ex- 
tra tuition fee will be demanded. Shall we, 
in course of time, have the vacation " reading 
parties," in rural retreats, so agreeably de- 
picted in English fiction and elsewhere as a 
pleasant and profitable part of the English 
university system ? 



COMMUNICATIONS. 

THE WISCONSIN SURVEY ONCE MORE. 

(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 
It is the recognized privilege of a defeated 
attorney to appeal his case from the trial court to 
the press, and there to urge, ex parte, evidence 
that has not found credence and views that have 
not prevailed in the original tribunal. This privi- 
lege is exercised in THE DIAL of June 24, 1915, by 
Mr. William H. Allen, who there sets forth, at 
some length, matter submitted by him as " Joint 
Director" of the University of Wiscqnsin Survey 
to his employers, the State Board of Public 
Affairs, and not adopted by that body. With its 
eyes open to all the evidence, that Board has 
chosen to write its own report, which is wholly 
different in tenor from the findings of its agent 
and which constitutes a substantial repudiation of 
those findings. The interested reader will do well 



52 



THE DIAL 



[ July 15 



to compare the report of the Board with the 
report of its employe, and with University com- 
ment thereon, all officially published by the State 
of Wisconsin.* 

It is not the purpose of this communication to 
object in any way to Mr. Allen's right of appeal 
to the public, but it seems necessary to warn the 
public in considering that appeal not to give 
credence to alleged facts or conclusions without 
specific verification from original sources or com- 
parison with University comment. Mr. Allen's 
letter teems with misstatements which have been 
publicly challenged and refuted by the University. 
This refutation need not be here repeated, since it 
is readily accessible in the official report; but one 
case of gross misrepresentation seems to call for 
some comment, viz., the eight doctors' theses dis- 
cussed by Mr. Allen with much condemnation of 
their alleged slovenly, unscholarly, and dishonest 
character. The facts are as follows: 

Eight doctors' theses were read, under Mr. 
Allen's direction, by persons professing no compe- 
tence in the subject matter of the theses, but under 
instructions to look for misspelled words, errors of 
punctuation, citation, and other mechanical de- 
fects. Some of these theses, although accepted by 
the University for substantial merit, were, at the 
time chosen for their inspection, incomplete work 
in that they were fresh from the hands of the 
amanuensis and had not been revised for the 
printer. Numerous errors of the kind sought were 
here available, as is common in such unrevised 
" copy " ; and the following specimens, incor- 
porated in the printed Allen report, illustrate his 
standards for measuring the value of research 
work. He found " coust " for "coast," "ofra" 
for "of a," "chashed" for "clashed," " cof rec- 
tion " for " correction," etc. They are all pre- 
served for posterity, as the transient ripple on 
some beach of past ages is preserved in fossilized 
mud. Some of the theses read were in their defini- 
tive, published, form, and the critic graciously 
acknowledged that here " there were relatively few 
errors in spelling," " relatively few typographical 
mistakes." The University protested and protests 
this whole procedure as directed only to " its 
clothes," and in no way furnishing a criterion of 
substantial merit in its work. 

Criticism directed toward such merit, made by 
Mr. Allen, in the revision of his report for the 
printer, apparently under the stimulus of the 
phrase last quoted, the University regards as a 
wholly different matter, directed in fact " to the 
living body," and legitimate in aim if not in 
execution. Although often flippant in tone and 
showing little competence in respect of the matter 
criticized, these Survey queries and innuendoes 
(positive statements are conspicuously lacking) 
have received detailed reply that is published in 
the official volume. The University justifies its 
acceptance and approval of the theses in question", 
with one exception, and defends their substantial 

* Report upon the Survey of the University of Wisconsin. 
Findings of the State Board of Public Affairs and its Report 
to the Legislature. Appendices : W. H. Allen's Report to 
the Board. E. C. Branson's Report to the Board. Comment 
by Committee of University Faculty upon Report of Investi- 
gators. Madison : State Printer. 



worth. One thesis contains many quotations from 
a book often cited. In three cases the quoted mat- 
ter, of considerable extent, is not accompanied by 
the proper marks and references, and the Uni- 
versity here concedes a technical plagiarism (pos- 
sibly flagrant) that should not have escaped 
detection. 

Among the other seven theses there is doubtless 
a considerable range of excellence, although in 
Mr. Allen's hands they fall under a common con- 
demnation having little relation to differences in 
their real merit. An accurate estimate of such 
merit is indeed difficult, since different critics of 
like competence may, and do, differ considerably 
in their judgment of the same thesis. With respect 
to these differences, always unavoidably present, 
the University conceives its duty to be : To main- 
tain a standard of excellence below which no 
thesis shall be accepted, and to secure in the 
average thesis a degree of merit considerably 
exceeding this minimum standard. 

In University opinion the theses in question 
satisfy the requirement thus formulated, but 
recognizing that neither its own officers nor Mr. 
Allen's agents can pass definitive and final judg- 
ment in this respect, the University, conforming 
to a recognized practice, seeks through publication 
to submit every doctor's thesis to the judgment of 
all scholars interested in its field. For each thesis 
here criticized by Mr. Allen, where such publica- 
tion has not yet been made, the University has 
submitted the work to the judgment of two or 
more scholars of recognized eminence in its field, 
and with their approval has published over their 
names their judgments concerning it. None of 
these scholars was in any way connected with the 
preparation of the theses or with the University 
of Wisconsin. A few of the less favorable of 
these judgments are reproduced by Mr. Allen, 
who neglects, however, to point out that in every 
case the weight of opinion is that the University 
would have erred in refusing approval to the 
thesis. He ignores hearty commendation of theses 
scorned by himself, and is quite oblivious to com- 
ment by two eminent scholars upon the thesis most 
sharply (but wrongly) condemned by himself as 
plagiarized. In their phrase, " it is a good 
thesis," " good enough to print with credit to the 
University," " I have been unable to find any 
errors " ; and there follows sharp comment by 
one of these scholars upon the presumption dis- 
played by the Survey critic in dealing with a 
thesis outside the range of his competence. 

It is not here purposed to inflict upon the 
reader a review of Mr. Allen's aberrations. They 
and the commentary upon them must be sought in 
the official printed record; but the foregoing ex- 
hibit is fairly typical of the points at issue. To 
the reader having some familiarity with University 
life and work, the fatuous character of much of 
the material furnished by Mr. Allen to THE DIAL 
will appear sufficiently evident without comment, 
e. g., that any one person should " supervise 
research " and " read theses offered toward ad- 
vanced degrees by graduate students " working in 
the most diverse fields of knowledge, astronomy, 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



53 



bacteriology, chemistry, dairying, electrical engi- 
neering, forestry, geology, history, language, 
mathematics, etc. The day of the Admirable 
Crichton is past, at least in university circles; 
and such universal genius as would be here re- 
quired seems reserved for non-academic folk. 

Possibly a revelation of such abnormal genius 
should be recognized in Mr. Allen's assurance to 
the reader that " the Survey set out to be coopera- 
tive " and agreement as to fact " was easily 
reached with regard to early sections." The 
writer of these lines recalls with mixed feelings 
the long list of corrections to such early sections, 
furnished by himself, in writing, formally ad- 
dressed by name to the " Joint Director," but 
never acknowledged, never discussed, and appar- 
ently without effect upon his published report. 
If an " agreement " may be thus reached " with- 
out difficulty," whose are the minds that meet 
in it? 

We deeply regret that an opportunity to render 
large service to academic interests through a com- 
petent and judicial survey of the University of 
Wisconsin has been worse than wasted by em- 
ployes of the State Board. Nevertheless, the 
University will consider in detail the study made 
by them, and will doubtless find among much chaff 
some good grain for which it will be pleased to 
make due acknowledgment. In the meantime, it 
asks the public to maintain an attitude of at least 
reserve toward alleged facts and proffered conclu- 
sions that have not been found able to bear exam- 
ination, and that have not found credence with the 
Board charged with ultimate responsibility in the 
matter. GEORGE C. COMSTOCK, 

Dean of the Graduate School. 

University of Wisconsin, July 4, 1915. 



A WORD FOE DR. ALLEN. 
(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

If THE DIAL was mistaken in its editorial enti- 
tled "A Bull in the Educational China Shop," 
it was gratifying to see that it had the fair- 
ness to acknowledge its fallibility by allowing 
Dr. Allen to present his version of the story to 
your readers. 

It is true that " no one expected this- kind of 
a survey." Not even the University of Wiscon- 
sin, though it was opposed to the idea of a 
survey from its inception, expected that the 
truth, so carefully hidden through its bureau- 
cratic organization, its clever advertising, and its 
ingenious appeal to the people of the state 
through its agricultural and extension work, would 
be so frankly and completely laid before the pub- 
lic. The University wanted generalities. It got 
detailed facts. It wanted a report picturing the 
University as a few in authority wished it to be 
seen. It got a report as the six hundred faculty 
members saw it. Had Dr. Allen submitted to the 
intimidation brought to bear upon him in an 
effort to suppress certain findings, had he been 
willing to overlook the faults of those high up in 
educational circles, his report would have been 
lauded and extolled, and he himself doubtless 
taken into the inner circle of the elect. 



Surely it is time that we have found some one 
who is not afraid to tell the truth as he sees it, 
who will not be bound by the educational autocrats 
of the country, but who will come forth as a leader 
of the many who know, as he knows, that freedom 
of speech and freedom of action in the field of 
higher education are but rights in name alone. 

MARGARET A. FRIEND. 

Madison, Wis., July 6, 1915. 



KUNO MEYER AND THE HARVARD 

PRIZE -POEM. 

(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 
While agreeing fully with the general tenor and 
point of view of the excellent leading article, 
" The Pity of It ! " in your issue of June 24, I 
should like to point out that your statement of 
fact regarding the recent Kuno Meyer incident at 
Harvard is not accurate. After quoting from 
Professor Meyer's denunciation of the university, 
you say : " The occasion for this outpouring of emo- 
tion is nothing more than the fact that an irrespon- 
sible student, in a publication entirely controlled 
by students, has written in a sense antagonis- 
tic to the German cause ! " But in reality Pro- 
fessor Meyer's resentment, however immoderate, 
rested on sounder grounds. The offending poem, 
though written by an undergraduate, and pub- 
lished in " The Harvard Advocate," an under- 
graduate magazine, had been awarded the prize 
in a competition for poems about the war con- 
ducted by the "Advocate," and the two judges who 
made this award were Dean Briggs and Professor 
Bliss Perry. Was it wholly unnatural that Pro- 
fessor Meyer should interpret this action of two 
such prominent representatives of Harvard as 
indicative of the university's attitude toward his 
country? At any rate, it seems to me that your 
writer's statement of the circumstances connected 
with the incident, as quoted above, is quite unfair 
in view of the facts which I have cited. 

F P 

Dubuque, Iowa, July 5, 1915. 



A TRANSLATOR'S ERROR. 
(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

In one of your recent issues a contributor cites 
some amusing mistakes of authors, and among 
these instances one from Henry Bordeaux. A 
passage from that writer's novel " Les Yeux qui 
S'ouvrent," issued in English as " The Awaken- 
ing," is quoted, in which the heroine speaks of a 
" telegraphed letter," and a few pages further 
on, a reader of this " telegraphed letter " is made 
to recognize the handwriting. The mistake is not 
Bordeaux's, but the translator's. The original 
French reads : " C'est une lettre sous enveloppe 
pneumatique." In other words, it was a letter 
sent by special pneumatic tubes or cjiutes, one 
of the " petits bleus," with which dwellers in 
Paris are familiar as being the French equivalent 
of our " special delivery." In a letter so sent 
there would of course be nothing absurd about 
one's recognizing the handwriting. 

A. H. FISHER. 

New York City, July 2, 1915. 



54 



[July 15 



THE MODERN THOREATI.* 

Longfellow, so it is reported, is being less 
and less read in America. What the statistics 
may indicate as to Thoreau, I have no means 
of ascertaining; but I am confident that in 
the future he will be read more and more. 
His publishers are evidently of the same 
faith, for they have just issued a new and 
most convenient pocket edition of his com- 
plete works, in eleven volumes, bound in 
attractive leather covers, with good illus- 
trations (many of them new), and other 
embellishments suggesting an author whose 
circulation is to be wide and permanent. But 
I do not base my thesis as to Thoreau's 
increasing popularity on the appearance of 
this fine new edition, although that is a good 
commercial argument. I believe in his widen- 
ing audience because I believe in his increas- 
ing value for American life and American 
thinking. 

This is not merely because Thoreau is the 
most satisfying student of nature, certainly 
since Gilbert White, perhaps in English lit- 
erature. Nor is it solely because of his vigor- 
ous philosophy. You cannot separate his 
natural science from his speculation without 
injustice. You can as little appreciate Tho- 
reau's philosophy without his science, or his 
nature without his thought, as the song of a 
woodthrush away from the cool darkness of 
the June woods. It is the combination that 
makes this shy and courageous New En- 
glander an enduring figure. 

Thoreau entered upon his research into the 
secrets of nature in the spirit of wonder, not 
romance, or sentiment, but intelligent and 
stimulating wonder. And he came back from 
wondering with his mouth full of shrewd say- 
ings and intensely practical thought. No one 
can read "Walden" or "Spring" without 
feeling that this man stood with his feet firmly 
on the ground of fact ; no one can read them 
without realizing that here is one American at 
least who has made a permanent contribution 
to the theory of what is worth while in living. 

The modern schools of "nature students" 
have diverged widely from the path which 
Thoreau followed. The scientists have 
eschewed philosophy, and confined themselves 
to ascertainable fact. Well enough for them ; 
but unfortunate, perhaps, for us, who wish 
some profit from nature in our time, and may 

* THE WRITINGS OF HENRY D. THOREAU. Riverside Pocket 
Edition. In eleven volumes. With photogravure frontispieces. 
Boston : Houghton Mifflin Co. 



distrust the leadership of men who criticize 
the ancients because they speculated upon 
truth, honor, happiness, instead of discover- 
ing what causes rain. Would Plato have been 
a specialist in egg-fertilization in 1915? one 
wonders. If so, the worse for the world and 
for Plato ! As for the mere " nature lovers," 
they have gone to the other extreme; they 
have foregone the ideals of science completely, 
and lapsed into sentimentality. Thoreau was 
thrilled by a wild duck, a rhodora, even a 
muskrat. For the romantic nature lover, 
beast, bird, and flower must be given false per- 
sonality and all the attributes of man before 
his imagination kindles. This is the decadence 
of nature study, as the ultra-scientific atti- 
tude threatens to become its Alexandrianism. 

Thoreau's practice was first to study nature 
honestly, and then to think from it into terms 
of human life. His observations are pain- 
fully exact, without perhaps always being 
accurate. See how he measures his dead moose, 
makes notes upon the webs of his flying squir- 
rel, records the flowers of each Maine back- 
. water, and studies the habits of the musquash 
whenever and wherever he finds him. But his 
notes are seldom complete. They are not, 
indeed, an end in themselves. Many of his 
records would be scorned by a professional 
classifier. But for their own purposes they 
are complete enough. Thoreau studies the 
Maine forests that he may think out the value 
of the pine tree for man. He tramps the 
frozen marshes of Massachusetts that he may 
speak honestly of what thrills him in wild 
nature after knowing it as one knows a friend. 
Always he is pushing down to fact, always 
rising again to correct and renew his specula- 
tions. He did not live to classify, he classi- 
fied to live. 

A casual reader might well suppose that 
Thoreau's passionate attempt to know his 
environment was merely a phase of self- 
development. He is constantly speaking of 
the " flow " of his life, always moving toward 
some unattained goal. He is ever allowing 
the personal joy which observation gave him 
to escape into his pages. But Thoreau's 
ardent independence is deceptive. Walden 
was a social, not an individual, experiment, 
paradoxical as it may seem. It was an at- 
tempt to discover how man will live when 
self-dependent and free of the conventions, 
rather than a call to the hermit's life. And 
this is true of all Thoreau's works. They are 
social, in a very excellent sense. They consti- 
tute, one and all, an attempt to link the 
American to his environment, to his soil. See 
with what intense curiosity he studies the 
Indian. See with what entire absence of illu- 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



55 



sion or sentimental romance he delights in his 
instinctive responses to natural phenomena. 
How he rejoices when Polis finds a hidden 
trail, or hears the moose across miles of water. 
The Indian is in accord with his background 
he has sunk roots in his soil. 

Compare Thoreau's Maine studies with his 
ramblings in Massachusetts, and you will find 
that he does his Massachusetts better. He 
finds more soil for the white man there. 
Maine, for Thoreau, is impressive ; but a little 
alien, a little monotonous. It fits the Indian ; 
it does not fit him. He prefers it to Boston ; 
but not to the country that lies about Con- 
cord. The rapprochement with nature that 
he seeks is more difficult in the endless for- 
ests of spruce and fir, than upon Lee's cliff, 
and round Walden pond. 

If I am right in my speculation, Thoreau 
is best understood in the simile of civilized 
man in a new country, trying to strike spir- 
itual roots into the environment it offers, as. 
his pioneer ancestors had in a very real sense 
made physical roots to grow there. This ex- 
plains the alternation of fact and 'philosophy 
that characterizes every one of his books, and 
most of all his best. " It is not important that 
the poet should say some particular thing, but 
that he should speak in harmony with nature," 
he says; meaning, I think, that the creative 
artist's first duty is to know his environment. 
And for Thoreau, environment was primarily 
nature. " Properly speaking there can be no 
history but natural history, for there is no 
past in the soul, but in nature." This may 
not be absolutely true; but it is true enough 
for the white man in America. 

One fault, at least, in Thoreau's work may 
be assignable to this pioneer quality. His 
writing often lacks form. It is best when it 
is closest to the diary, the most formless of 
literary modes. This has hurt his reputation 
with contemporary readers. The present is 
an age of form at least in America. We 
have achieved technique. Our short stories, 
our novels, our plays, and our photo-plays, 
are well built, even when there has been little 
with which to build them. A child recognizes 
form in a short story, and is troubled by its 
absence. A grown man often cannot tell good 
substance from bad. We read our Thoreau 
by excerpt selected where form has been at- 
tained, the wrong way to read him. 

The fault in part is Thoreau's. His life, as 
he says himself again and again, was always 
flowing. Like all faithful students, he never 
reached his goal. Unlike many philosophers, 
he was ever willing to test his creed. Hence 
his books are all experimental, all, even 
"Walden," mere notes upon life. He did not 



live long enough to find the ultimate form his 
imagination required. A deficiency this, if 
we are to judge him as an artist, although the 
age was quite as responsible as his genius. 
But even in this artistic incompleteness one 
finds a tonic. He is good medicine for the 
careless modern reader, who has come to 
believe that a well-worded description, a well- 
balanced narrative, an essay properly con- 
ducted to its final "punch." is, by reason of 
its successful form, necessarily true and good. 
" Nothing can be more useful to a man than a 
determination not to be hurried." Thoreau 
was not hurried into a deceptive, a prema- 
ture, a hollow perfection. His notes on life 
are unfinished, but they are true. 

And yet, though every one of his books, in 
a sense, is unfinished, I believe, as I have 
already said, that Thoreau will remain the 
most appreciated of all our earlier writers. 
His attitude toward the American background 
is more familiar now that most of us " take to 
the woods " at least once a year, than before 
the Civil War. His value becomes greater in 
measure as it becomes more difficult to breed 
such independent livers and thinkers. Civili- 
zation weighs upon us with a greater weight of 
complexity. The luxuries he despised are not 
only more abundant, they are more desirable 
than in his sparse New England.- Convention 
is more difficult to escape, because it has crys-^ 
tallized in a vast and bourgeois society. Fur- 
thermore, even when we produce Thoreaus, 
they do not speak out. They are self -regard- 
ing, not social. The mass of mediocre Amer- 
icans for whom our magazines are edited "and 
our books written daunts them. They may 
follow his advice of not hurrying. They may 
keep themselves free from the incumbrance 
of convention, as Thoreau kept his freedom by 
distrusting the ownership of land. But the 
weight of the vast majority keeps them silent. 
In idiosyncratic, free-thinking New England 
of the 'forties a "crank" like Thoreau could 
be sure of a hearing. He felt as writers 
must feel an audience waiting. But to-day 
one must be really a " crank " absurd, over- 
emphatic, unbalanced if one is to depart 
from what the bourgeois expect, and succeed. 
Let us value, then, Thoreau. 

HENRY SEIDEL CANBY. 



A volume by Lord Curzon, entitled " Subjects 
of the Day," is announced for immediate publica- 
tion by Messrs. Macmillan. It consists of speeches 
and addresses on topics outside of party politics, 
and ranging from woman suffrage and India to 
national service, national character, and the war. 
The Introduction has been written by Lord 
Cromer. i 



56 



THE DIAL 



[July 15 



SOCIALISM AND THE GREAT WAR.* 

Almost as soon as German feet touched 
Belgian soil, books of crimination and re- 
crimination, of explanation, history, poetry, 
and prophecy, began to pour from the press. 
The first nine months of the war have given 
birth in America alone to two hundred and 
thirty-eight independent publications, as 
listed in the " Cumulative Book Index " under 
the title, " the European war." What the 
European presses have added to this number 
is only a matter of conjecture. Needless to 
say, much of this current history, born of the 
moment, dies in the next moment. Some of it 
will furnish valuable grist for future histo- 
rians, however, especially those works which 
aim at compilation of documentary evidence. 
Of such books, Mr. William English Waiting's 
" Socialists and the War " deserves and no 
doubt will receive high place. 

Whatever one may think of Socialism, the 
student of the times finds it of growing inter- 
est and importance to know what the socialists 
think. What they think of war and of the 
war is just now supreme. Mr. Walling, a 
trained student of politics and economics, a 
socialist himself of robust, independent, and 
non-sectarian opinions, undertakes to satisfy 
this interest in a volume containing the con- 
centrated essence of socialist pronouncements. 
He conceives his task as purely editorial ; and 
with remarkable judgment he sifts and culls, 
and with remarkable restraint he limits him- 
self to a minimum of comment. To present 
a brief adequate review of a book already so 
condensed and digested is of course an impos- 
sible task; yet one may hope to give some 
general topographical features. 

The book is planned in five parts. Part I. 
gives the general position of the socialists on 
war, including their attitude toward nation- 
alism, militarism, and imperialism. Impor- 
tant chapters are devoted to the General 
Strike as a remedy against war, and to the 
refusal of money aids for military purposes. 
Part II. deals with the period immediately 
before the war, the Balkan affairs with their 
sequels, and the revolutionary general strikes 
in Russia and Italy. Part III., "The Out- 
break of the War," is a splendid digest of the 
statements of official bodies and prominent 
socialists of the world, defining their attitude 
toward the inpending conflict. Part IV., the 
largest and by far the most important section, 
gives an account of socialist action and opin- 
ion during the war. Germany naturally is con- 
sidered with greatest particularity. Part V. 

* THE SOCIALISTS AND THE WAR. By William English Wall- 
ing. New York: Henry Holt & Co. 



takes up the socialist peace policy, and the 
consideration of various alleged socialist 
measures to which the belligerent governments 
have been driven. 

From these five hundred pages bristling 
with fact, opinion, and argument, certain 
salient observations are to be made. 

First, it is plain that Marxism is not synon- 
ymous with Socialism. A group of Marxian 
or " classical " socialists is everywhere con- 
fronted by a group of "revisionists," social- 
ists who believe in a progressive revelation. 
It seems worth while to note this, because 
a common assumption of the opponents of 
Socialism is that every socialist must hold 
to Marx or, socialistically speaking, be 
damned. Nothing could be more absurd. 
However, it might be remarked that Marx was 
no mean prophet regarding the present war. 
In 1870, three days after Sedan, he wrote: 
" Whoever is not totally stupefied by the noise 
of the moment, or has no interest in stupefy- 
ing others, must realize that the war of 1870 
bears within its womb the necessity of a war 
with Russia. . . If they [Germany] take 
Alsace-Lorraine, then Russia and France will 
make war on Germany. It is superfluous to 
point out the disastrous results." 

Second, clear and abundant evidence is pre- 
sented here to prove what is now pretty gener- 
ally admitted: that despite the lapses of 
occasional groups into jingoism or junkerism 
or Chauvinism, socialists have been both in 
season and out of season the season of war 
fever the pioneers and champions of peace. 
On July 30, 1914, at the demonstration of the 
Internationalist Socialist Bureau in Brussels, 
the German delegate Haase said : 

" The Austrian ultimatum was then, in reality, 
an actual provocation for a war both longed for 
and awaited. Servians answer was, it is known, 
drawn up in a spirit so moderate that if good 
faith were admissible on the part of the Aus- 
trians, peace would be assured. Austria wanted 
war. But what is so dreadful is the fact that this 
criminal madness can cover all Europe with blood. 
. . The German proletariat contends that Germany 
ought not to intervene even if Russia should in- 
tervene." 

What French socialists thought before the 
violation of Belgium is seen in the words of 
the martyred Jaures on the same occasion: 
"As for ourselves, it is our duty to insist that 
the government speak forcibly enough to Rus- 
sia to make her keep hands off. But if Russia 
unfortunately should not take notice, our duty 
is to say, ' We know but one treaty, the treaty 
that binds us to the human race.' " It is not 
difficult to conceive why a Chauvinistic 
France demanded the life of the author of 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



57 



this unpatriotic sentiment. Everywhere one 
can read the same stubborn story. On August 
1, 1914, after the outbreak of the war against 
Austria, the Servian socialists in Parliament 
refused their support to the government. In 
1911 the sole socialist deputy in the Bulgarian 
Assembly, Sakasoff, cast the only ballot 
against war. Marx and Engels were not 
pacificists, and practically all socialists believe 
with Bebel in purely defensive war ; yet it is 
marvellous how long, in the present world- 
madness, their internationalism kept them 
sane. For instance, Mr. J. Ramsay Macdon- 
ald, Chairman of the Labor Party in England, 
in an article in " The Labor Leader " of 
August 13 last, " excused Germany's declara- 
tion of war against Russia and France, and 
put upon England the chief responsibility for 
the war between England and Germany." 
The best statement of the tragic socialist fail- 
ure, despite everything, to keep out of the 
war, is found in the "Arbeiter Zeitung" rep- 
resenting the Austrian socialists : 

" In all countries we Socialists, German, French, 
English, Belgian, Austrian, Servian, have done 
our duty as internationalists, as long as it was 
possible; we warned against the war, and with 
every drop of our blood have sought to hinder it; 
and we tried to make use of every possible chance 
of maintaining peace up to the very last minute. 

" But since Fate has overtaken us and over- 
come us, the proletariat in all countries, which 
formerly did its international duty, now does its 
duty as sons of its people, who risk everything 
in order that the people shall not be conquered, in 
order that its soil will not be delivered to the 
horrors of a defeat. We all suffer wrong; we 
all do right to protect ourselves against it. . . 
But even in this tragic moment we do not forget 
that we are International Social Democrats. Our 
hearts bleed because of the frightful necessity of 
this conflict, but we give to our people and to 
the State what belongs to the people and the 
State." 

This is clearly meant to apply in justification, 
not of Austrian socialists alone, but of all 
combatants. No franker, braver, or more chari- 
table utterance has been evoked by the war. 
Third, it becomes clear that socialists have 
no stereotyped diagnosis and panacea for war. 
While they believe with Mr. Morris Hillquit 
" that modern wars are mainly caused by the 
industrial competition between nations," wide 
variations in emphasis appear. Kautsky, 
"the intellectual leader" of German radical 
socialists, thinks "that there may develop in 
the present war a combination of the stronger 
nations which will put an end to the competi- 
tive building of armaments." Thus war 
would be ended not by Socialism, but by a 
developed capitalism. Otto Bauer attributes 



war squarely to Nationalism, the economic in- 
terests of all classes. On the other hand the 
majority of the French socialists, including 
Jaures, announced at Stuttgart in 1907 : 
" Militarism is to be viewed exclusively as the 
arming of the State in order to keep the work- 
ing classes in political and economic subjec- 
tion to the capitalist class." Needless to say, 
this is also a common view in Russia. 

Fourth, it is demonstrated absolutely that 
the German socialists were not a unit in the 
support of the government at the outbreak of 
the war, and that there is a strong and grow- 
ing opposition in the party to the war's con- 
tinuance. Geyer of Saxony led a strong 
minority, 37 to 52, against the war budget of 
1913; and the majority voted for it solely 
because it called for a direct tax upon the 
capitalist class, thus coinciding with their 
principles. On December 2, when Karl Lieb- 
knecht was the only member of the Reichstag 
to vote " no " to the second war loan, he was 
not the only socialist to think " no." Twenty- 
five stood by him in the Party Congress, and 
fourteen of these absented themselves when 
the vote was taken, indicating in the only' 
legitimate socialist manner their dissent to the 
majority. At the voting of the third loan on 
March 20, Ruehle stood with Liebknecht, and 
thirty other party members stayed away. 
" Vorwaerts," the most powerful organ of 
German Socialism, has never defended the 
Reichstag vote, and has opposed the war up to 
the extreme limit of the censor's blue pencil. 

Fifth, it is perfectly clear why the majority 
of German socialists support the righteousness 
of the cause of enlightened Germany against 
the encroachments of Russia. 

Sixth, socialists in every belligerent coun- 
try are divided roughly into two groups : de- 
fenders of the war as defensive, and a minority 
sternly pointing to the same issues they have 
always pointed out, commercial rivalry and 
militarism. In each country, with the ex? 
ception of France, where the completest una- 
nimity against the German invasion exists, 
certain prominent socialists arraign their own 
government with the same impersonal justice 
that is to be found in neutral countries. 
" Vorwaerts " in Germany, Messrs. Ramsay 
Macdonald and Keir Hardie and Bernard 
Shaw in England, and Martoff in Russia illus- 
trate this remarkable socialist sanity. 

Seventh, socialists in neutral countries de- 
sire Germany to be successful against 'despotic 
Russia, but not against democratic England 
and republican France. The Poles, to be sure, 
feel that there is little choice between Russ 
and Pruss. An article in " The American 
Socialist" of January 9, 1915, sums up the 



58 



THE DIAL 



[ July 15 



American view on this point : " Whatever the 
cause of human progress may gain through a 
punishment of Prussian militarism, it will 
lose a hundredfold through a victory of Rus- 
sian despotism." Mr. Hillquit is for a draw 
and a return to the status quo, while Mr. Debs, 
and also evidently Mr. Walling, are strongly 
opposed to such a no-termination. An inter- 
esting passage from Betel's Memoirs reads 
like an extract from Norman Angell's thesis 
in " The Great Illusion " : " My view is that 
defeat in war is rather advantageous than dis- 
advantageous to a people in our unfree condi- 
tion. Victories make a government that 
stands opposed to a people arrogant and exact- 
ing. Defeats compel them to approach the 
people and win their sympathy." The back- 
ground is very different from Norman An- 
gell's, but the conclusion is identical ; and by 
the same token, diametrically opposed to that 
of Plechanoff, who thinks that a German vic- 
tory over Russia would mean "an almost 
indefinite triumph of Russian despotism." 

Eighth, socialist peace plans have thus far, 
through mutual distrust and international 
war divorcements, proved as frustrate as any 
others. Little can or need be said on this 
topic. The end is not yet. 

One further question is of prime interest. 
It has been said by socialist and non-socialist 
press alike that the exigencies of war have 
forced several of the governments engaged to 
adopt socialist measures. Is this true? Yes 
and no. Take two prominent illustrations. 
State Socialism in Germany was undoubtedly 
making rapid progress before the war, through 
graduated inheritance and income taxes and 
taxes on the unearned increment in land. The 
war chest was filled by a direct tax on capital, 
even amounting to confiscation. To raise the 
immense amounts necessary to pay interest on 
the war loan, it will be necessary to increase 
taxes of this sort. This would tend to redis- 
tribute large fortunes, and would really 
amount to Socialism. "Vorwaerts," on the 
other hand, stamps as a dangerous illusion the 
tendency to regard government organization 
of industry for war purposes as socialistic. 
Government ownership, as Kautsky points out 
in "Die neue Zeit," gained by purchase at 
the market price and not by confiscation, has 
no vital resemblance to Socialism. 

Again, it is asserted that the British Gov- 
ernment, in nationally organizing the rail- 
roads of 'the United Kingdom at the beginning 
of the war, took a long step toward Socialism. 
In a sense that is true. It was shown how 
easy and natural such a change could be 
effected. But at the core this measure no more 
resembles Socialism than does martial law. 



The government agreed to pay the railroads 
" the sum by which the aggregate net receipts 
of the railways for the period during which 
the government is in possession of them, fall 
short of the aggregate net receipts for the 
corresponding period for 1913 " ; also to guar- 
antee them against any injury they might sus- 
tain, thus providing the railways assurance of 
kindly government aid in making long de- 
ferred improvements. Only the worst enemy 
of Socialism would see a real resemblance here. 
However, as Mr. Lloyd-George has pointed 
out, " the British people are essentially a peo- 
ple who act on example and experiment rather 
than on argument," and other peoples are 
pretty much of the same stripe; so if these 
various experiments in nationalization and 
municipalization prove successful, there is 
reason to expect that in the future they will 
become what they are not now, socialistic. 
THOMAS PERCIVAL BEYER. 



RELICS OF THE BROXZE AGE LV GREECE.* 

Mr. H. R. Hall's "introduction to the 
archaeology of prehistoric Greece" is written 
by an assistant in the British Museum, and 
forms one of the volumes in a series of man- 
uals of archaeology of different lands. The 
culture which it considers was first brought 
into prominent notice by Schliemann's finds at 
Mycenae. It has been made more fully known 
by later investigations, to some degree in the 
Greek mainland but principally in Crete and 
the Cyclades. No archaeological studies have 
produced greater surprises, or forced more 
far-reaching criticism of earlier-held views. 
The culture known as Mycenaean in Greece 
proper is Minoan in Crete and Cycladic in 
the smaller islands. The term JEgean of our 
author includes the three phases and is a con- 
venient general designation. The time period 
covered by it, determined largely by compari- 
son with Egyptian evidence of fixed date, 
seems to have ended about 1200 B. c. and to 
run back to the time of the pyramid builders, 
perhaps about 3000 B. c. As a whole, the cul- 
ture represents the "bronze age," and is of 
remarkable beauty and interest and has had a 
great influence. As regards nomenclature, the 
Minoan culture, the full Cretan development, 
is divided into three main divisions Early, 
Middle, and Late, each of which is subdi- 
vided into three lesser divisions L, II., III. 
Thus we may speak of E.M. II. or L.M.IIL, 
meaning Early Minoan middle, or Late Mi- 
noan end. The Cycladic culture parallels the 



* ^GEAN ARCH/EOLOGY. An Introduction to the Archae- 
ology of Prehistoric Greece. By H. R. Hall, F.S.A. Illus- 
trated in color, etc. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



59 



Minoan, and its subdivision gives rise to ex- 
pressions like M.C.I, and L. C. II. Myce- 
naean culture is relatively late, and corresponds 
only to Late Minoan, so its terminology de- 
mands but three expressions, Myc. I., Myc. II., 
Myc. III. 

Mr. Hall devotes a long early chapter to the 
history of exploration and discovery from 
Schliemann down to the present. Workers 
of many nationalities have been engaged in 
the fascinating pursuit, the most famous being 
Arthur Evans, of England. Americans are 
justly proud of the work done by Harriet Boyd 
(-Hawes), whose excavations at Gournia were 
of high character. A number of Greeks have 
been industrious, and have made valuable con- 
tribution. In following chapters, there is 
presented a detailed study of the archaeo- 
logical material unearthed, stone, metal, 
pottery, towns, houses, palaces, fortresses, tem- 
ples, tombs, decoration, painting, sculpture, 
hieroglyphic system, weights and measures, 
costume, armor, weapons, tools, ships, and 
domestic animals, being among the more im- 
portant topics considered. We can here make 
but a few comments upon this material. In- 
teresting and characteristic are stone vessels 
of the E.M. and E.G. cultures. Vases and 
lidded boxes are among the forms; graves of 
E. M. III. age at Mochlos " yielded innumera- 
ble small vases of multicolored stone, steatite, 
marble, and breccia, wrought with the utmost 
skill, and using the actual veins of the stone 
to form a coherent pattern." Beautiful metal 
work was done in gold, silver, and bronze. 
While the famous gold cups from Vaphio per- 
haps still remain the masterpieces of the 
^Egean goldsmith's art, lovely specimens 
found at other localities come as close seconds. 
They are wonderfully attractive in their grace 
and beauty of form, and in the boldness and 
delicacy of tjeir repousse ornamentation. In 
all the art work of this culture, the student 
constantly comes upon charming examples of 
the law of copy and this often in strangely 
unexpected ways. Thus, the potter of the 
M. M. imitated metal vases in form, and stone 
vessels both in form and color "the varie- 
gated hues of the stone vases were imitated 
and polychromy first appeared in the JEgean 
ceramic." Another interesting, and unex- 
pected, exemplification of the law of copy is 
to be seen in steatite vessels upon the surface 
of which the repousse decoration of gold vases 
is imitated. In the decoration of metal work, 
splendid raised designs represent groups of 
men and animals in action, and throw a flood 
of light upon the life of the time. In pottery, 
the culture finds remarkable expression: the 
art can be traced in its whole development, 



step by step ; form, decoration, color handling, 
polychromy, show the working out of an exu- 
berant fancy. The representation of sea ani- 
mals in color design is remarkable : " the accu- 
rate observation of the artist shews itself in 
the splendid impressions of octopods, squids 
and nautili, tritons, anemones, seapens and 
shells, amid jagged rocks from which seaweed 
waves, which cover the best vases of this age." 
Where such mastery was gained in the appli- 
cation of color designs to the surfaces of 
vessels, there is no reason for surprise that 
mural decoration flourished. 

No subject, however, in JEgean archaeology 
surpasses the written system in interest. This 
was discovered and investigated by Mr. Evans. 
It presents itself as cut on seal-stones and 
scratched or pressed on clay tablets. Two 
periods in the development of the script are 
recognized. The earlier, pictographic char- 
acters, on seal-stones, may date back to 3000 
B. c. ; the latest script is from about 1200 B. c. 
Sir Arthur Evans connects the Cretan-^Egeau 
script with the Cypriote syllabary, and sug- 
gests that the Phoenician alphabet (with its 
Greek and Latin descendants) owes its origin 
to the Cretan script. While the characters 
have been identified and their evolution has 
been traced, their decipherment has not been 
accomplished. The numeral signs have been 
worked out, but we do not even know whether 
the syllabic characters represent the sounds of 
an Aryan or a non- Aryan language. 

It must be evident from what we have said 
that the matter of Mr. Hall's book is of ex- 
traordinary interest; unfortunately his pre- 
sentation of it is dry and heavy. The book is 
amply and beautifully illustrated. In closing 
his work, the author presents a brief summary 
of conclusions. Crete was the centre of ^Egean 
culture, and its whole history is to be traced 
there. To a remarkable degree it underwent 
an independent and individual development. 
From Crete, it passed into Greece, gaining a 
foothold in the Peloponnese and spreading out 
from there as a new centre. Crete itself prob- 
ably received population and the beginnings 
of its art from Africa the Nile valley, 
and always remained to some degree in touch 
with Egypt. "The ^gean culture was a 
maritime one, the civilization of a sailor- 
people of the islands, and its progress was 
rendered possible only by the sea. By the 
sea it lived, and when a stronger people com- 
ing from the North, and bringing with it the 
use of iron, dispossessed the J3geans of the 
exclusive control of the seaways their power 
collapsed, and with it the great civilization of 
which we have described the remains." 

FREDERICK STARR. 



60 



THE DIAL 



[July 15 



AN AMERICAN DKAMA OF THE ISTH 
CENTURY.* 



"Ponteaeh, or The Savages of America," 
often described as the first tragedy written by 
an American on an American subject, has 
hitherto been available only in the original 
London edition of 1766, of which but five 
copies are known to be in existence. By re- 
printing the play with an introduction, a bib- 
liography, and an elaborate biography of the 
author, the Caxton Club of Chicago has ren- 
dered a service to students of American litera- 
ture, even though the chief interest of the 
editor, Mr. Allan Nevins, is evidently in his- 
torical rather than in literary questions. The 
attractive appearance of the volume is highly 
creditable to its sponsors. 

Colonel Robert Rogers, the author of the 
play, was born in Methuen on the Massachu- 
setts frontier in 1731. As a mere boy he saw 
service in Indian conflicts, and while still a 
young man became a noted leader of rangers 
in the French and Indian wars. In 1760 he 
was appointed to receive the submission of the 
French posts on the Great Lakes, and it was 
on his journey westward for this purpose that 
he first met Chief Pontiac. His fame by this 
time was such that the next year he was 
hastily summoned, only six days after his mar- 
riage, to take part in the campaign against 
the Cherokees in the Carolinas. Two years 
later, on the re-opening of hostilities in the 
North, he fought against Pontiac at Detroit. 
In 1765 he went to England, where his two 
prose .works, the Journals and the " Concise 
Account of North America," were published. 
" Ponteach " followed early in 1766. He re- 
turned to America as governor of Mackinac, 
and in the administration of this post became 
engaged in controversies with Sir William 
Johnson. Later he went to England to plead 
his cause, possibly served a few months in 
Algiers, and returned to America to take a 
slight part, on the British side, in the Revolu- 
tion. The later years of his life were spent 
obscurely as a half-pay colonel in London, 
where he died in 1795. 

The private character of this picturesque 
soldier is of little concern to the student of 
his tragedy; yet the casual reader of Mr. 
Nevins's portrayal may be tempted to protest 
against what seems a tendency to use the 
blackest possible colors. The biographer's 
habitual treatment of motives may be seen 
from the following quotations chosen almost 
at random : " In the Browne home, Rogers 
met and fell in love with the youngest daugh- 



* PONTEACH, OB THE SAVAGES OF AMERICA. A Tragedy by 
Robert Rogers. With an Introduction and a Biography of the 
Author, by Allan Nevins. Chicago : The Caxton Club. 



ter, Elizabeth, a beautiful girl of nineteen, 
and into this domestic circle he determined to 
push himself. Apart from all reasons of sen- 
timent, he could have taken no step more 
advantageous" (p. 74); "Certificates of his 
usefulness and bravery he secured from al- 
most every considerable American leader 
during the Seven Years War, Amherst, 
Abercrombie, Howe, Moncton, Webb, Lou- 
doun, Eglinton, and others; some of them, 
delivered with an alacrity strongly suggestive 
of jealousy of Gage and Johnson, added warm 
personal recommendations to the more per- 
functory testimonials " (pp. 147-8) . That the 
dashing young ranger who had fallen in love 
with a beautiful girl married her only to push 
himself into the family of a Portsmouth 
clergyman, or that the most distinguished 
generals in America were guilty of praising 
Rogers only to warm a grudge against some 
one else seem gratuitous assumptions. There 
is no doubt that Rogers had, probably in high 
degree, the improvidence and the personal 
vices often developed by the frontiersman and 
the soldier. But it is difficult to see how a 
man completely sunk in dissipation could 
have attained the self-culture which Rogers 
shows; or how so despicable a character as 
Mr. Nevins pictures could have held for years 
the respect and friendship of Indians, traders, 
army officers, and leaders of the British gov- 
ernment. 

The authorship of "Ponteach" has at 
times seemed open to some doubt, partly be- 
cause the Indians are portrayed in a way 
hardly to be expected of a frontier fighter; 
partly, perhaps, because the copy most readily 
accessible to scholars, that in the British 
Museum, contains an early manuscript entry 
ascribing it to " Richd. Rogers." All such 
doubts, so far as they concern the main re- 
sponsibility for the work, Mr. Nevins seems 
effectively to have set at rest. He points out 
that the estimate of Indian character in the 
appendix to the " Concise Account " is essen- 
tially that which pervades the play. He also 
quotes from a writer in " The Critical Review " 
who in discussing the " Concise Account " 
said : " The picture exhibited of the Emperor 
Pontiac is novel and interesting, and would 
appear to vast advantage in the hands of a 
great dramatic genius." It was some four 
months after this hint that "Ponteach" was 
issued by John Millan, who had published 
Rogers's other works; and although its au- 
thorship was never acknowledged, it was 
almost universally ascribed by the London 
critics to Rogers. 

As a work of literary art " Ponteach " is 
negligible. As Mr. Nevins remarks, it is un- 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



61 



likely that Rogers had attended a stage per- 
formance before he reached London, and he 
had probably read few plays. The plot as 
distinguished from the setting is weak and 
conventional. The form is a rude blank 
verse, with occasional rhymed passages. An 
amusing indication of the author's provincial 
pronunciation is perhaps found in what looks 
like an attempt to rhyme " home " and " gun " 
(Act. I. Sc. II.). The diction is often collo- 
quial to an extent that was more troublesome 
to the London critics of 1766 than it is to us. 
Yet different passages of the play, in par- 
ticular, different Indian speeches, vary so 
much in tone as to suggest the possibility of a 
double authorship. The first act is the rough- 
est and most direct. In Act I., Sc. III. occurs 
the following dialogue between Ponteach and 
the English Commander: 

" Ponteach. Well, Mr. Colonel Cockum, what d' 

they call you? 

You give no Answer yet to my Complaint; 
Your Men give my Men always too much Rum, 
Then trade and cheat 'em. What! d'ye think this 

right? 
" Cockum. Tush ! Silence ! hold your noisy 

cursed Nonsense; 
I've heard enough of it; what is it to me? 

"Ponteach. What! you a Colonel, and not 

command your Men? 

Let ev'ry one be a Rogue that has a Mind to 't. 
" Cockum. Why, curse your Men, I suppose 

they wanted Rum ; 

They'll rarely be content, I know, without it. 
" Ponteach. What then ? If Indians are such 

Fools, I think 

White Men like you should stop and teach them 
better. 

"Cockum. You may be d d, and all your 

Frenchmen too. 

"Ponteach. Bed d! what's that? I do not 

understand." 

In contrast to this is the absurd discourse of 
the Indian maiden to her lover in Act III., 
Sc. I. : 

" The Earth itself is sometimes known to shake, 
And the bright Sun by Clouds is oft conceal'd, 
And gloomy Night succeeds the Smiles of Day 
So Beauty oft by foulest Faults is veil'd, 
And after one short Blaze admir'd no more, 
Loses its Lustre, drops its sparkling Charms, 
The Lover sickens, and his Passion dies. 
Nay worse, he hates what he so doted on. 
Time only proves the Truth of Worth and Love, 
The one may be a cheat, the other change, 
And Fears, and Jealousies, and mortal Hate, 
Succeed the Sunshine of the warmest Passion." 

A speech like that just quoted may have been 
composed with the aid of some hack writer, or, 
as Mr. Nevins suggests, of Rogers's secretary, 



Nathaniel Potter; but the pictures of fron- 
tier life and the portrayal of Indian character 
are clearly Rogers's own. 

There is room for a study of the treatment 
of the Indian in literature which shall con- 
sider how far the interpretation of aboriginal 
character has been determined by the tem- 
perament and the social philosophy of indi- 
vidual writers. In the preparation of such a 
study " Ponteach " will be a valuable docu- 
ment. From the earliest times there have 
been two extreme opinions that the "noble 
red man " was in his native state possessed of 
every essential virtue, and that " the only 
good Indian is a dead Indian." Neither of 
these views has been confined either to the 
frontiersmen who knew the Indian intimately, 
or to the city-dwelling disciples of Rousseau. 
Colonel Rogers was a man whose life from 
early boyhood had been spent in fighting 
Indians, yet who felt that they were essen- 
tially noble, and that they had been the vic- 
tims of cruelty and fraud. In his play the 
French priest is licentious, the British traders 
are cheats, the hunters are murderers, the 
military officers Cockum and Frisk are super- 
cilious and insulting, and the governors, 
Sharp, Gripe, and Catchum, are all that their 
names imply. Of the Indians, Philip is a 
villain; but the others, though showing hu- 
man weaknesses, command our sympathy, and 
Ponteach is really noble. Rogers undoubtedly 
believed that the French plan of mingling on 
terms of equality with the Indians was better 
than the English show of authority and supe- 
riority, but he wrote in no sense as a propa- 
gandist. He seems to have interpreted the 
Indians in the light of his own temperament ; 
and if he did, his work is a commentary both 
on the Indian character and on his own. 

As Colonel Rogers was far more important 
as ranger and frontiersman than as author, it 
would be unfair to blame Mr. Nevins for mak- 
ing his biographical sketch an historical 
rather than a literary monograph. Yet it may 
be pointed out that he has not traced so far 
as he might parallelisms between the play and 
Rogers's prose works ; and that he has left for 
later students the tasks of searching for the 
models that the author used in preparing his 
plot, and of comparing his treatment of the 
Indians with that of other English writers of 
the hour. Anyone who is but slightly famil- 
iar with English magazines in the decade in 
which " Ponteach " appeared has noticed how 
much space is given to American matters, 
including those which concerned the Indians. 
The fact that " Ponteach " itself seemed worth 
the attention if not the approbation of Lon- 
doners is shown in the fact that " The Gentle- 



62 



THE DIAL 



[ July 15 



man's Magazine" for February, 1766, places 
it first in the list of " Books Published," and 
gives it as much space as is given to the other 
twenty-one titles of the month combined. 

WILLIAM B. CAIRNS. 



THE NEW SPIRIT IN AMERICAN POLITICS.* 



To the many extant interpretations of pro- 
gressivism in contemporary American politics 
President Wilson's " The New Freedom," 
Mr. Weyl's " The New Democracy," and Mr. 
Croly's " Progressive Democracy," to men- 
tion but three has lately been added Mr. 
Benjamin P. De Witt's " The Progressive 
Movement." Mr. De Witt writes sympa- 
thetically, but \\dth a due measure of re- 
straint; and he fixes the scope of his subject 
broadly and sanely. He very truly says that 
so much attention has been given to the rise 
and development of the Progressive party in 
the United States that there has been a ten- 
dency to overlook the larger and more funda- 
mental movement of which it is a part a 
movement which had struck its roots far back 
in the past and had assumed formidable pro- 
portions before the campaign of 1912 began. 

" The progressive movement is broader than the 
Progressive party and, in fact, than any single 
party. It is the embodiment and expression of 
fundamental measures and principles of reform 
that have been advocated for many years by all 
political parties. Although differences in name, 
in the specific reforms advocated, and in the 
emphasis placed upon them, have obscured the 
identity of the movement, the underlying purposes 
and ideals of the progressive elements of all 
parties for the past quarter of a century have 
been essentially the same. To make clear this uni- 
versal character of the progressive movement is 
one of the objects for which this book has been 
written." 

The common substratum of progressivism 
in all political parties is declared by Mr. 
De Witt to consist in three main tendencies: 
(1) insistence by the better element that 
special, minority, and corrupt influence in 
government national, state, and city be 
removed; (2) the demand that the structure 
or machinery of government, which hitherto 
has been admirably adapted to control of the 
few, be so modified that it will be more diffi- 
cult for the few, and easier for the many, to 
control; and (3) the rapidly growing convic- 
tion that the functions of government at pres- 
ent are too restricted and that they must be 
increased and extended to relieve social and 

. * THE PROGRESSIVE MOVEMENT. A Non-partisan, Compre- 
hensive Discussion of Current Tendencies in American 
Politics. By Benjamin P. De Witt. New York : The Mac- 
Tnillan Co. 



economic distress. These three tendencies, 
with varying emphasis, are seen to-day in the 
platform and programme of every political 
party; they are manifested in the political 
changes and reforms that are advocated and 
made in the nation, the states, and the cities; 
and, because of their universality and defi- 
niteness, they may be said .to constitute the 
real progressive movement. 

Mr. De Witt's method is both historical 
and analytical. Following a chapter devoted 
to the meaning and general aspects of the 
history of the progressive movement, he 
writes at some length of the movement in 
each of the five principal parties of the pres- 
ent day, that is, the Democratic, the Kepub- 
lican, the Progressive, the Socialist, and the 
Prohibitionist. Thereupon he turns to the 
development and the achievements of pro- 
gressivism in the nation, in the states, and in 
the municipalities. It is these later portions 
of the book that are most valuable. The 
earlier chapters comprise only rapid sketches 
of recent and familiar party history. The 
later ones, however, summarize in a helpful 
manner recent triumphs of progressive prin- 
ciples and characterize pending problems in- 
volving the application of progressive ideas. 

We are told that the progressive movement 
is not so far advanced in the nation as it is in 
the states, and that therefore so far as the 
nation is concerned emphasis must be placed 
primarily upon the preliminary steps of gov- 
ernment and corporation control, while in the 
states these matters are becoming more and 
more incidental to the extension of the func- 
tions of government to afford social, economic, 
and industrial relief. In the city, while the 
broader phases of the movement are the same 
as in the states, there are some differences of 
emphasis. In the first place, the city must 
be made free from the domination of the 
state legislature must, in other words, have 
municipal home rule. In the second place, 
the city must adopt that form of charter that 
will afford to its voters the largest oppor- 
tunity for direct and effective participation 
in municipal affairs. Furthermore, the gov- 
ernment of the city must be put upon a 
business basis, with much stress upon efficient 
and economical organization and methods. 
Finally, the functions of city government 
must be extended to promote the welfare and 
comfort of the inhabitants so far as is com- 
patible with free government and democratic 
institutions. The municipal programme out- 
lined in the closing chapters is attractive, and 
considerable portions of it are being carried 
into execution to-day in many cities. 

FREDERIC AUSTIN OGG. 



1915 



THE DIAL 



63 



RECENT FICTION.* 

Mr. Churchill has the lecture habit in an 
aggravated form, and it is seriously impair- 
ing his function as a novelist in any artistic 
ense. Probably he will not be much stirred 
by this criticism, for when a man thinks that 
lie sees a gigantic evil, and feels that he has 
.a mission to expose and overthrow it, he is 
apt to be somewhat reckless of the means 
employed. If he happens to be a popular 
novelist, he will unhesitatingly jettison the 
equipment which makes for lasting literary 
.achievement, and ram the object of his attack 
at the risk of sinking his own craft. Mr. 
Churchill clearly believes that he has such a 
mission, and employs all his persuasiveness 
to impress his readers with its importance. 
In " The Inside of the Cup," his attack was 
upon the hypocrisy which makes of religion 
a crust without substance; in "A Far Coun- 
try," his artillery is aimed at the methods of 
""big business" in the modern American 
world. We do not say that he has lost all 
sense of the artistic demands made upon him 
as a novelist, but he has distinctly subordi- 
nated them to the purpose of preaching an 
effective sermon. Of his earnestness there 
can be no doubt, and he does not scold his 
fellow-men for their lack of vision in the 
monotonous manner of Mr. H. G. "Wells, but 
he makes himself wearisome by excess of 
argument, and he distorts the facts of life by 
excess of emphasis. There are, heaven knows, 
evils enough in the business world of to-day, 
and the moralist, even if he be a writer of 
fiction, is justified in making them his target, 
but the rapier of indirection and suggestion 
is far more likely to reach their vitals than 
the bludgeon, the sling and the " five smooth 
stones" than the "weaver's beam." Briefly, 
""A Far Country" is the autobiography of 
Hugh Paret, son of a lawyer of the old school 
of high ethical standards, and himself a law- 
yer of the new school which promotes cor- 
porations, grabs franchises, and corrupts 
courts and legislatures. He believes in the 
new business gospel of efficiency, and is per- 
suaded that the small group of financiers to 
which he belongs is the group best fitted for 
leadership and for mastery of the political 
and industrial life of the nation. Actual con- 



* A FAR COUNTRY. By Winston Churchill. New York : The 
Macmillan Co. 

JAFFERY. By William J. Locke. New York: The John 
L<ane Co. 

EMPTY POCKETS. By Rupert Hughes. New York : Harper 
& Brothers. 

A CLOISTERED ROMANCE. Bj- Florence Olmstead. New 
York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 

FIDELITY. By Susan Glaspell. Boston : Small, Maynard 
& Co. 

L. P. M. The End of the Great War. By J. Stewart Bar- 
ney. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 



temporary history will no doubt supply chap- 
ter and verse for every one of the nefarious 
activities whereby Paret acquires wealth and 
commanding influence, but the men of his 
type illustrate only one aspect albeit a sin- 
ister one of the American business life of 
to-day. It is well that this aspect of life 
should be exposed in all its vicious ugliness, 
but it is not well that these methods should 
be presented as universally prevailing. The 
pointing of Mr. Churchill's moral is a con- 
tinuous process. Even in Paret's most suc- 
cessful hours, he has stirrings of a better 
nature that make him uncomfortable, and in 
the end, through the influence of the radical 
agitator Krebs, who has antagonized him 
throughout his career, he experiences a revul- 
sion of feeling in which the bitter truth is 
brought home to him that his success has been 
but as dust and ashes in the mouth. He real- 
izes the meaning of the old text about the 
futility of gaining the whole world if a man 
thereby loses his own soul, and tardily sets 
about the recovery of his soul before it is lost 
forever. Two women are intimately asso- 
ciated with his fortunes the one whom he 
marries only to become estranged from her, 
and the one for whom he entertains a guilty 
passion without being dragged beyond the 
verge of the precipice. The necessity for 
renunciation, caused by this woman's native 
strength of character, becomes the instru- 
ment of his conversion, and turns his groping 
steps backward from the "far country" in 
which his manhood life has been spent, bring- 
ing him once more within sight of a region 
of simpler and saner ideals. This study of 
an erring soul, perplexed in the extreme by 
the amazing discovery that worldly success 
does not bring spiritual satisfaction, makes a 
strong appeal to our sympathies, despite its 
many desert tracts of self-analysis, despite 
the encumbrance of a mass of insignificant 
detail, and despite the handicap of a literary 
style that rarely has the note of distinction, 
and has stodginess for its chief characteristic. 
The type of whimsical humor w r hich makes 
an intellectual appeal is the salient character- 
istic of Mr. Locke's later work, and is once 
more exemplified in "Jaffery." It enables 
him to invest an exotic character with human 
interest, and to lend probability to a situation 
which the logical mind would be forced to 
reject as beyond the pale of possibility. Both 
these audacious feats are here accomplished, 
the one in the case of the Albanian heroine 
Liosha, and the other in the success (for a 
time) of Jaffery 's device for sparing the feel- 
ings of the woman he adores by covering up 



64 



THE DIAL 



[ July 15 



the fraudulent literary career of her deceased 
husband. Adrian Boldero finds among the 
possessions of a dead comrade the manuscript 
of a complete novel. This he publishes under 
his own name, thereby gaining both fame and 
wealth. He also gains Doria, who marries 
him, worships him as a genius, and envelopes 
him in an atmosphere of incense. He prom- 
ises his publishers a second novel, but is 
utterly incapable of writing it, and wears his 
life out (aided by many potations) in the 
effort to perform his impossible task. His 
widow believes that he has finished this sec- 
ond work, and it lies with Jaffery to safe- 
guard her delusion. Thereupon he writes the 
novel himself, gives it to the publishers as 
Boldero 's work, and it repeats the success of 
the first production. It is true that the pub- 
lic is puzzled by the new theme and the new 
style, but no doubt is cast upon the authen- 
ticity of the authorship. Such a thing is, of 
course, frankly impossible, for Jaffery is a 
burly, explosive, Rabelaisian person, having 
not a single intellectual trait in common with 
Boldero, but Mr. Locke almost makes the 
reader accept it. Of course Doria has to dis- 
cover the double imposition, and her clay idol 
has to come down from his pedestal. Mean- 
while, Jaffery discovers that his true mate is 
Liosha, and that his love for Doria has been 
a delusion. Doria deserves nothing better 
than this, for she is a very silly, selfish, and 
parasitical young woman, and one feels like 
shaking Jaffery for his dog-like attendance 
upon her footsteps. As for Liosha, she is 
indescribable at any less length than the 
novel itself. Born of Albanian parents in the 
Chicago stock yards, her later years of life 
among her ancestral mountains have not 
obliterated the Chicago idiom from her 
speech. When Jaffery, who is a war corre- 
spondent in the Balkans, comes into her life, 
she is the wife (and soon thereafter the 
widow) of one of his fellow- journalists. She 
is left in Jaffery's charge, and he brings her 
to England. The people who attempt to civi- 
lize her she characterizes as " damn fools," 
she is disposed to stick a knife into any one 
who crosses her will, and her manners are, to 
say the least, primitive. These traits, added 
to her Amazonian frame, make her a terror 
in more senses than one, and we are led to 
regard her as a comic diversion rather than 
as a serious heroine of romance. But Mr. 
Locke has made up his mind that we shall 
take her seriously, and in the end almost 
makes us accept her as the life companion 
predestined for Jaffery. The unblushing 
sophistication with which Jaffery's relations 
with Doria and Liosha are set forth may be 



seen in the following quotation : " He imag- 
ined himself to be in love with a moonbeam. 
And the moonbeam shot like a glamorous, 
enchanted sword between him and Liosha, 
and kept them apart until the moment of 
dazed revelation, when he saw that the moon- 
beam was merely a pale, earnest, anxious, 
suffering little human thing, alien to his 
every instinct, a firmament away, in every 
vital essential, from the goddess of his idola- 
try." It will be seen from the preceding 
remarks that "Jaffery" is to be read with 
an undercurrent of subconscious protest 
against the tricks of the author's invention ; 
but for all that, J;he story is no less capti- 
vating than its predecessors, and we would 
not for anything have missed our acquain- 
tance with either Jaffery or his Albanian 
charge. 

The six hundred pages of " Empty Pock- 
ets," by Mr. Rupert Hughes, may be recom- 
mended as providing ideal entertainment for 
the vacation leisure of any reader who wishes 
to avoid the strenuous, yet who demands 
tense and sustained interest of his fiction. 
Something is happening all the time in these 
pages, and their manifold incidents are 
woven into a fabric of close texture which 
never allows the pattern of the plot to escape 
the eye. There is also much lively humor of 
the journalistic sort which works its effects 
by unanticipated similitudes and quaint tricks 
of expression. The story is concerned with a 
murder mystery, and the first fifty pages 
supply the stage-setting and the climax. 
Then the author steps a year backward, and 
proceeds to pick up the threads of the com- 
plication, and to show us exactly how it came 
about that the body of Perry Merrithew, New 
York clubman and rake, was found one 
morning in the summer of 1914, upon the 
roof of a tenement building in the slums of 
the East Side, his skull fractured, and his 
fists tightly clenching the strands of copper- 
colored hair which some woman had cut away 
for the purpose of freeing herself. After 
some five hundred pages of narration, we are 
brought to the point at which the story began, 
and thence proceed swiftly to the close, to 
learn that Merrithew had really died of 
apoplexy at the very moment of an attempted 
outrage upon the woman, and that she had 
been guilty of no other crime than self- 
defence against his attack. This is a com- 
forting revelation, for the heroine, the daugh- 
ter of one of New York's wealthiest families, 
is a very charming girl, and her indiscretions 
are really of the most innocent and warm- 
hearted description. During the narrative, 
four or five other red-haired girls are drawn 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



65 



across the trail, and we are kept until near 
the end from getting on the right scent. 
When we learn that it was really Muriel who 
was Merrithew's companion on that midnight 
excursion into the slums, we receive a severe 
shock, for it is not until after that revelation 
that we are led to abandon the pre-conceived 
theory of murder for the explanation that 
rehabilitates the heroine and shows Merri- 
thew to have got no more than his deserts. 
Two aspects of metropolitan life alternate in 
claiming our interest. There is the pleasure- 
seeking aspect of the dinner-dance and the 
amusement resort, and there is the grim and 
sordid aspect of the underworld of poverty 
and vice and crime. Perhaps the most excit- 
ing episode is the kidnapping of Muriel by a 
gang of bandits, and the breathless taxicab 
race from the Bowery to the Bronx in which 
she is finally rescued by the pursuers. It all 
seems to have been transferred bodily from a 
film-melodrama to the pages of a book. Mr. 
Hughes is minutely realistic in both descrip- 
tion and dialogue, and his East Side types, 
in particular, are done to the life. We must 
hasten to add, however, that his characteriza- 
tions are purely external; of character- 
portrayal in the deeper sense, he does not 
give us a single instance, and his figures are 
no more life-like than the marionettes in a 
puppet-booth. He manifests, moreover, a 
cynical temper that is anything but whole- 
some, and his efforts to swing the satirical 
lash over the back of society are amusingly 
ineffective. But he has told a good story, in 
spite of its over-sophistication, and its read- 
ers will regret that it is too long to be read 
at a single stretch. 

A Catholic home for aged paupers provides 
the setting for Miss Florence Olmstead's "A 
Cloistered Romance." It is situated, we 
fancy, somewhere in rural New England, al- 
though that is a detail which does not greatly 
matter. The mother superior and the sisters 
are mostly of French extraction. One day 
the community mule Goliath, driven by one 
Samuel, who earns his keep by the perform- 
ance of such services for the sisterhood, gets 
out of hand, greatly to the peril of the sisters 
who occupy the wagon. At this critical mo- 
ment, a young man, who happens to be a 
popular novelist strolling along the country- 
side, springs to the rescue, and checks Goliath 
in his mad career, but is himself run over by 
the wagon and seriously injured. He is 
thereupon taken into the home, and given the 
attention his case requires. Now it so hap- 
pens that Miss Alethea Lawrence, a young 
woman of wealth and social standing, is a 
frequent visitor to the home, and its benefac- 



tress in many small ways, reading to the in- 
valids, and bringing them delicate things to 
eat. She is a very charming young woman, 
and when David Paget becomes the subject 
of her ministrations, he decides to play the 
game, and allow her to believe him as the 
others, a penniless dependant upon the 
sisters' charity. Thus begins the " cloistered 
romance " of Miss Olmstead's devising. How 
it ends is another matter, and one not difficult 
to imagine. David lingers in the home rather 
longer than is strictly necessary for his phy- 
sical needs, and when he takes a reluctant 
departure, reveals himself in his true colors 
by bestowing upon the institution a generous 
cheque for the building of the much-needed 
addition. The narrative is one of " humors " 
rather than of plot, and includes several char- 
acters who are an unfailing source of delight 
the bibulous and philosophical Samuel, the 
grouchy Mr. Shultz, the suspicious and gos- 
sipping Mary Giffin with her passion for 
chocolate crackers, the austere but very hu- 
man mother superior who will do anything 
for the sake of her pet cat Hafiz, and the 
efficient and sympathetic Sister Gertrude. 
Even Goliath provides a character-study of 
deep mulish interest. Aside from the artifice 
of the main complication, the story has all 
the naturalness of a transcript from real 
daily life, and the by-play of dialogue is 
inimitable. A brief example, with Mary 
Giffin in the foreground, may be given: 

" ' I had my day, Mr. Paget/ she said proudly, 
' an' she ain't nothin' to the handsomeness of me.' 

' I guess you must have been good-looking, 
Mary,' he admitted. 

' I was a corker ! ' said Mary. 'And think o' me 
takin' up with John Giffin, an' him dyin' without 
so much as a nickel's worth of insurance! I could 
er had Meggs's father, an' that would er meant an 
interest in the store.' 

' Is that all you think about, Mary ? ' 

' It comes to that sooner or later,' said Mary, 
' an' the sooner the better. If I'd a-thought about 
featherin' my nest, like some, I wouldn't be settin' 
in a Catholic home to-day. My people was hard- 
shell Baptis' long before anybody ever heard about 
Catholics.' 

' You needn't to look for no partic'lar luck in 
makin' wealthy connections. It don't come to the 
poor,' she added by way of warning." 

This novel seems to be rather dull at the out- 
set, but its insinuating charm gains upon the 
reader, and holds his interest more deeply 
with every added chapter. The freshness of 
its thematic material, and the knowledge of 
human nature which it displays at every 
point, added to its genuine humor, show us 
once more how the most commonplace of sub- 
jects may supply the artist with all that he 



66 



THE DIAL 



[July 15- 



needs in the way of objective stimulus. The 
creative instinct will do the rest, as it notably 
does in the present instance. 

''Along came Ruth," and her appearance 
in the town of Freeport (Illinois?) had the 
effect qf a moral bombshell, Ruth had been a 
Freeport girl some ten years earlier, and had 
scandalized the community by running away 
with a married man, whose wife inconsid- 
erately refused to divorce him for Ruth's 
benefit. She returns because of her father's 
mortal illness, and her family and former 
associates make things very uncomfortable 
for her. This is the story of Miss Susan 
Glaspell's "Fidelity," a title which expresses 
Ruth's persistent belief that she has done 
nothing essentially wrong, and that all the 
people who refuse to take her back on the old 
terms are unfeeling pharisees. This is the 
plain unsophisticated statement of the moral 
situation presented by the novel. As Miss 
Glaspell puts it, Ruth is a noble creature, 
deeply misunderstood, and a victim of pro- 
vincial cant and hypocrisy. By every device 
of indirection and insinuation, this view is 
thrust upon us, and the woman's sin is 
glossed over. It seems to us a very unwhole- 
some story, and it is an amazingly dull one, 
made so by its interminable passages of 
analysis and introspection. We are spared 
nothing of what goes on in the minds of all 
these commonplace people, and chapter after 
chapter is spun out of their uninteresting 
reflections and mutual reactions. When Ruth 
returns to her paramour, she finds that his 
love has grown cold, and when the news comes 
of the divorce tardily consented to by the 
wronged wife, she rejects his offer to legalize 
her status, and deserts him to shape a new 
life for herself. So confused a study of moral 
values is not often met with, even in these 
days of "advanced" thought and chatter 
about " the rights of the soul." 

Our only war novel for this month is a 
crude and amateurish performance styled 
" L. P. M.," by Mr. J. Stewart Barney. This 
enigmatic title turns out to stand for " Little 
Peace Maker," which is the invention of a 
philanthropic American millionaire. This 
person, whose name is Edestone, has discov- 
ered how to free objects from the force of 
gravity, leaving mass and momentum un- 
affected. This is accomplished by means of a 
" deionizer," and an airship is constructed 
with six-foot steel plates and the dimensions 
of an ocean liner. Being impervious to at- 
tack, this monster can hover close to the 
earth, and rain destruction upon cities and 
fleets. Its effectiveness is such that it soon 
brings the warring powers to terms, and a 



world agreement for perpetual peace is made 
in consequence. The chief scenes are in Ber- 
lin, where the inventor " cheeks " the German 
Emperor to his heart's content, and thwarts, 
the efforts of the enraged General Staff to- 
compass his destruction and capture his air- 
ship. The science of the story is childishly 
unconvincing, and its language bears no rela- 
tion to that of real life. A most disgusting- 
injection of American slang into the closing 
chapters makes them even more intolerable 
than their predecessors. This book is dis- 
tinctly an example of how not to do the sort, 
of thing that Mr. Wells does so effectively. 
WILLIAM MORTON PAYNE. 



NOTES ON N%W NOVELS. 

Mr. J. D. Beresford completes his trilogy con- 
taining the life history of Jacob Stahl with the- 
most satisfactory volume of the three, " The Invisi- 
ble Event" (Doran). The work has to do with a 
highly unusual situation. Continuing the narra- 
tive where it left off in "A Candidate for Truth,"' 
it opens with the expressed willingness of a clergy- 
man's daughter to live with Jacob without the- 
blessing of either church or law. Yet the young 
woman feels the injury done her conscience, until! 
the months bring Jacob slowly earned success as a 
writer, when her view of freedom becomes more- 
assured than his own. Desire for children and the- 
need for doing them justice follow on the death of 
Jacob's Avife, and the marriage ceremony takes 
place, not for conscience' sake or as a concession 
to the conventions, but solely on the children's; 
account. It is a novel of the best sort. 

Mrs. Ada Woodruff Anderson's " The Rim of 
the Desert" (Little, Brown & Co.) gains its title- 
from a plot of ground in the mountains on which' 
a spring enables irrigation to produce astonishing 
results. The hero is in the service of the United' 
States Geological Survey, and has long been on 
duty in Alaska, where he forms a noble friend- 
ship. Unable to save his friend's life, he conceives; 
what seems to be a just resentment against his- 
friend's widow; though he carries out the former's- 
wishes regarding the desert land on the widow's 
behalf. Chance throws them together without his 
being aware of her identity. An admirable love- 
story follows, with the needs of Alaska, the found- 
ing of a thriving western city, and much more in 
the background. The transfer of one's sympathies 
from the friend to the friend's widow is excel- 
lently managed. 

An atmosphere of vulgar wealth surrounds 
every character in Mrs. Elizabeth Dejeans's " The 
Life-Builders" (Harper), and none but her hero- 
and heroine, with an unmarried painter, escape 
from its insidious influences. A multi-millionaire's 
ambitions force his daughter into a preposterous 
marriage, from which she flees to seek an inde- 
pendent livelihood in New York. One wishes her- 
success were gained without her unsympathetic-- 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



67 



father's aid, however much the practical impossi- 
bility of this is recognized. One wishes, too, that 
the end could have been reached without a tragedy, 
though no alternative suggests itself. The book 
has merit, and is a clear statement of contempo- 
rary problems of conscience. 

The recent unfortunate taking-off of the Rev. 
Frank N. Westcott lends an added interest to his 
first book, "Hepsey Burke" (H. K. Fly Co.). 
As the work of a brother of the author of " David 
Harum," the novel invites comparison with that 
famous story ; but their only similarity lies in the 
fact that both deal with homely folk in homely 
situations, one with a shrewd but kindly man, 
the other with a charitably disposed and energetic 
widow. The latter becomes a voluntary assistant 
to a young Episcopalian clergyman and his bride, 
who take a small parish and carry on their work 
under circumstances which but for Hepsey might 
have been disheartening. The book is pleasant 
reading, often productive of hearty laughter, and 
leaves a regret that its author has not been spared 
for further work. 

After the United States has been invaded and 
almost reduced to subjection, in Mr. J. U. Giesy's 
"All for His Country" (Macaulay), a marvellous 
airship is brought into being, by which the enemy 
is routed. This airship depends for its flight upon 
what may be termed " negative gravity," a screen 
of radium shutting off the attraction toward the 
earth's surface, whereupon it rises by centrifugal 
motion. This is not only unsatisfactory as physics, 
but the same idea, minus the radium, was used in 
a magazine story not many years ago. The book 
is highly sensational, and is not likely to help us 
solve our difficulties with Japan. 

Mrs. Juliet Wilbor Tompkins's " Diantha " 
(Century Co.) is a Cinderella story, in which the 
unbeautiful twin, disciplined to give up every- 
thing to her lovely and selfish sister, is brought to 
an even greater beauty through the curative power 
of a surgical operation, so that she comes to her 
heritage lovely both in soul and body. That seems 
an ideal combination so much so that the lover 
who comes a-wooing before the transformation 
seems not quite good enough for her afterward, 
so far as the reader is concerned. 

Mr, II. II. Knibbs's hero, who lends his name 
to the story called " Sundown Slim" (Houghton), 
begins as a rather worthless and cowardly tramp 
in the cattle country, and ends as a useful member 
of society. Though the stress of the narrative is 
on the exciting events which ensue upon open 
warfare between cattle and sheep men, the devel- 
opment of the man's character is really the impor- 
tant thing. There is genuine humor in the story. 

Australian life in the upper middle class is the 
background of Mrs. Doris Egerton Jones's " Time 
o' Day" (Jacobs). The title is taken from the 
heroine's name, Thyme O'Dea, and the story is 
told by her to her great-grandchildren in posse. 
One hopes the author is mistaken in regarding her 
heroine as typical of social life on the other side 
of the globe, yet she is evidently in love with the 
girl. 



BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS. 



The European war has brought 

A Belgian s 

prophecy of into general notice certain neg- 
mr - lected books which now appear 
in the light of subsequent events to have been 
singularly clairvoyant. The late Professor 
Cramb's eloquent lectures afford the best- 
known example. But for defmiteness of 
forecast no other work equals Dr. Charles 
Sarolea's "The Anglo-German Problem" (Put- 
nam). We have here to do not merely with 
intelligent anticipation, but with almost un- 
canny prophecy. Published in 1912 to warn 
England of the menace from Germany, the 
book fell flat and was even contemptuously 
dismissed by leading English newspapers as 
alarmist and sensational. The following sen- 
tences, scattered through the book, now seem 
more like portents than scare mongerings : 

" Europe is drifting slowly but steadily towards 
an awful catastrophe which, if it does happen, will 
throw back civilization for the coming generation." 

" It is true that in theory the neutrality of 
Belgium is guaranteed by international treaties; 
but when I observe the signs of the times, the 
ambitions of the German rulers, and when I con- 
sider such indications as the recent extension of 
strategic railways on the Belgian-German frontiers, 
I do not look forward with any feeling of se- 
curity to future contingencies in the event of a 
European war." 

"And not only is German Socialism not as 
strong, neither is it as pacifist as is generally sup- 
posed. . . Many things in Germany are national 
which elsewhere are universal. And in Germany 
Socialism is becoming national, as German po- 
litical economy is national, as German science is 
national, as German religion is national." 

" German contemporary history illustrates once 
more a general law of history, that the dread of a 
civil war is often a direct cause of a foreign war r 
and that the ruling classes are driven to seek out- 
side a diversion from internal difficulties." 

" Very few observers have pointed out one 
special reason why the personal methods of the 
Kaiser will prove in the end dangerous to peace 
namely, that they have tended to paralyze or 
destroy the methods of diplomacy." 

" In vain does the Kaiser assure us of his 
pacific intentions: a ruler cannot with impunity 
glorify for ever the wars of the past, spend most 
of the resources of his people on the prepara- 
tions for the wars of the future, encourage the 
warlike spirit, make the duel compulsory on officers 
and the Mensur honorable to students, place his 
chief trust in his Junkers, who live and move and 
have their being in the game of war, foster the 
aggressive spirit in the nation, and hold out am- 
bitions which can be fulfilled only by an appeal 
to arms." 

In view of the above passages, to which others 
of a like nature might be added, it is small 



68 



THE DIAL 



[July 15 



wonder that the book is now attracting- wide- 
spread attention. Apart from any adventi- 
tious interest, it deserves careful reading for 
its fairness, moderation, and political insight. 
Although Dr. Sarolea is a Belgian, and was 
therefore in 1912 a disinterested neutral, his 
attitude was even then one of frank sympathy 
for England, because British rule "is to-day 
the most just, the most moderate, the most 
tolerant, and the most adaptable, the most 
progressive, government of the modern world." 



Japanese an As an interpretation of "The 
interpreted by Spirit of Japanese Art," Yone 
Noguchi's little book in the ex- 
cellent "Wisdom of the East Series" (But- 
ton) would be more convincing were the 
author's command of English adequate for the 
expression of his ideas with clearness and pre- 
cision. Professor Noguchi is, however, a poet 
and a thinker ; and if, to the Occidental mind, 
his verbal imagery is sometimes obscure, no 
great effort on the part of the reader is re- 
quired to penetrate the meaning of even such 
sentences as the following: "As a certain 
critic remarked, the real beauty flies away like 
an angel whenever an intellect rushes in and 
begins to speak itself; the intellect, if it has 
anything to do, certainly likes to show itself 
up too much, with no consideration for the 
general harmony that would soon be wounded 
by it." This is the way he looks upon the 
criticism of Utamaro's works made in that 
artist's day by those who " saw the moral and 
the lesson but not the beauty and the picture." 
The ten short papers that make up the volume 
have for their themes the works of eight 
artists of the last three centuries, "Ukiyoye 
Art in Original," and "Western Art in 
Japan." Their chief claim to consideration 
lies in their presentation of the views of an 
educated Japanese of the present day who is 
impressed by the inherent worth of the classic 
art of the Far East, and yet is able to perceive 
much intrinsic merit in the work of such 
artists as Kyosai and Tsukioka Yoshitoshi. 
Such catholicity of taste savors somewhat of 
indiscriminate admiration. But Professor 
Noguchi does not write as a critic ; indeed he 
exclaims, " Criticism ? Why, that is the art 
for people imperfect in health, thin and tired." 
He aims instead to present the emotional sub- 
jectivity of which he asserts that to lose it 
" against the canvas, or, I will say here in 
Japan, the silk, is the first and last thing." 
With some of his dicta it is impossible to agree, 
as when he claims that the greatest praise we 
can give to any works of art is that "they 
never owed one thing to money or payment 
for their existence." A few misspellings of 



proper names, as " Hopper " instead of Hap- 
per, and " Fenellosa " for Fenollosa, mar the 
pages ; and in saying that Katsukawa Shun- 
sho " died in 1792 at the age of ninety-seven " 
the author overstates that artist's years by 
thirty-one. Against these slight blemishes he 
must be credited with having coined some de- 
lightfully felicitous phrases.. Of Kwaigetsudo 
Dohan he says " he might be the cleverest" of 
the Kwaigetsudo group, but " his colour- 
harmony is marred by ostentatious impru- 
dence." And in the opening sentences of the 
Introduction we have these significant words : 

"In the Ashikaga age (1335-1573) the best 
Japanese artists, like Sesshu and his disciples, for 
instance, true revolutionists in art, not mere rebels, 
whose Japanese simplicity was strengthened and 
clarified by Chinese suggestion, were in the truest 
meaning of the word Buddhist priests, who sat 
before the inextinguishable lamp of faith, and 
sought their salvation by the road of silence ; their 
studios were in the Buddhist temple, east of the 
forests and west of the hills, dark without and 
luminous within with the symbols of all beauty 
of nature and heaven. And their artistic work 
was a sort of prayer-making, to satisfy their own 
imagination, . . they drew pictures to create abso- 
lute beauty and grandeur, that made their own 
human world look almost trifling, and directly 
joined themselves with eternity." 

It is not easy to see how this could be put more 
finely or more cogently. 



. . Dr. Ludwig Lewisohn's "The 

A survey and -. f ~, -^ > / TT i i \ 

study of the Modern Drama (Huebsch) is 

modern drama. ^ logical succeS sor of, though 

it does not supersede, Dr. Archibald Hender- 
son's " The Changing Drama." Dr. Lewisohn 
has paid less attention to the social, scientific, 
moral, and aesthetic causes underlying con- 
temporary drama, arid has shown us the 
change accomplished, so far as that is possi- 
ble, rather than the process. It is the drama 
as literature with which he is chiefly con- 
cerned. His first chapter, on " The Founda- 
tions," begins with Ibsen, and is a rapid 
historical and critical treatment of the Scan- 
dinavian and French movements, including 
mention of the Theatre Libre, the Freie 
Biihne, and the Independent Theatre. The 
succeeding chapters are entitled " The Realis- 
tic Drama in France," " The Naturalistic 
Drama in Germany," "The Renaissance of 
the English Drama," and " The Neo-Roman- 
tic Movement in the European Drama." At 
the end, for the convenience both of those who 
wish to make a serious study of drama and 
of those who wish merely to read profitably 
in a fascinating field, are a number of study 
lists, which group representative plays ac- 
cording to character (realism, etc.), subject 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



69 



matter (social justice, sex, etc.), and struc- 
ture (unities). The book concludes with a 
valuable critical bibliography. Dr. Lewisohn 
writes from the fulness of exact knowledge 
that might be expected, has the rare faculty 
of knowing what to leave out, possesses a 
rapid and easy style, and has the poetic gift of 
communicating delicate critical apprecia- 
tions in the happy phrase. He covers the 
vast field (vast even without Italy, Spain, and 
Russia, which the reader will miss) without 
a heavy or uninteresting page. His criticism 
is exacting without being unsympathetic. If 
the reader sometimes feels that full justice 
has not been rendered the individual drama- 
tist, he will probably detect the cause in the 
fact that Dr. Lewisohn sees all drama against 
the background of Hauptmann and natural- 
ism. A certain liability to injustice must in- 
here in a book that includes such opposites as 
German naturalism and Irish neo-roman- 
ticism. Surely we may like both Hauptmann 
and Synge; but we can hardly like, as well 
as he deserves, either one in the presence of 
the other. Yet no one could ask for greater 
judicial temper in a critic than Dr. Lewisohn 
displays. Especial note should be taken of 
Dr. Lewisohn's opinion that under present 
conditions it is more important for American 
universities to train audiences than to attempt 
the production of dramatists. The student 
and general reader could do nothing more 
profitable than to use this book and Dr. Hen- 
derson's in connection with the twenty repre- 
sentative plays reprinted in Mr. Dickinson's 
"Chief Contemporary Dramatists." All of 
these books reflect the greatest credit upon 
American critical scholarship. 



A soldier's ^ natural eagerness to learn 

narrative, by some particulars of the life and 

General Joffre. j j .0.1.1 -i IT i 

deeds of the silent soldier who 
at present seems to hold the destinies of 
France in his hands will insure a welcome to 
the only book he has ever written, and proba- 
bly the only one he ever will write, "My 
March to Timbuctoo'.' (Duffield), which comes 
out at this time in an English rendering by 
his compatriot, the Abbe Ernest Dimnet, who 
also contributes a most acceptable biographi- 
cal introduction of nearly fifty pages, tracing 
the development of the tardily discovered 
military genius from his boyhood in southern 
France to his appointment as generalissimo 
of the French forces and his masterly han- 
dling of the difficult situation of last August 
and September. General Joffre is now mid- 
way in his sixty-fourth year, and was already 
forty-one when, as major, he was sent to the 
Soudan to superintend the construction of the 



railway from Kayes to Baf oulabe ; and it was 
in the course of this three years' sojourn in 
Africa that he undertook the expedition de- 
scribed by him with military conciseness and 
published with the sanction of the Minister 
for Colonial Affairs. The march from Segou 
to Timbuctoo and back, with subordinate ex- 
peditions about the latter place, all for the 
purpose of establishing French influence in 
that important though almost inaccessible 
region, occupied little more than six months; 
and if the march was as rapid as some of 
Caesar's in Gaul, the account of it is even 
more terse and direct than the famous 
" Commentaries." The same unpretentious 
plainness and simplicity that charm the 
reader in Grant's soldierly chronicle are 
found here, though the French commander 
has little of fighting and nothing of complex 
military strategy to record. He had been 
asked to tell his story, and he told it with no 
waste of words. That it was worth the telling 
may be inferred if merely from the fact that 
in the two centuries preceding his expedition 
only three Europeans had visited Timbuctoo. 
M. Dimnet, who has written books in French 
and books in English, shows a perfect com- 
mand of the latter tongue. A useful map 
accompanies the narrative. 



The latest word in municipal 
A study of government is the city manager- 

city managership. n . % . . , 

ship ; and it was as desirable as 
it was inevitable that there should be included 
at some time in the series of handbooks pub- 
lished under the auspices of the National 
Municipal League a volume devoted to the 
city manager plan. The question, however, 
may well be raised as to whether the time is 
yet ripe for the preparation of such a book. 
Certainly no one can feel that Mr. Harry A. 
Toulmin, in his volume entitled " City Man- 
ager: A New Profession" (Appleton), has 
presented more than the most tentative sort 
of discussion of the subject. The first city 
manager was employed by the city of Staun- 
ton, it is true, as many as seven years ago. 
Constitutional restrictions made it necessary 
in that instance, as in Staunton's sister city 
of Fredericksburg, to superimpose the city 
managership upon a municipal organization 
of the old mayor-council type, and it was not 
until Sumter, S. C., adopted the plan in 1912, 
and, more notably, Dayton and Springfield in 
1913, that the city managership was first em- 
ployed in conjunction with the commission 
form of city government. It is only as a fea- 
ture of the commission plan that the city 
managership has exhibited large usefulness 
or prospect of importance. This means that 



70 



THE DIAL 



[July 15 



Mr. Toulmin's data are very meagre, being 
drawn almost entirely from the experience of 
Dayton (the author's home city) and Spring- 
field during barely a twelvemonth. At that, 
one searches the book in vain for even a brief 
history of the establishment of the plan in 
these cities. Similarly, when there is under 
review the features of the important Lock- 
port Proposal of 1911, which failed in the 
New York legislature but was widely influen- 
tial throughout the country, the subject is 
dropped abruptly with no indication of the 
outcome, and is resumed only by the presenta- 
tion of a synopsis of the plan in a chapter far 
removed. To students of municipal affairs, 
few subjects are just now of larger interest 
than the city managership and its possibili- 
ties, and it will be regretted that the volume 
under review is not a better piece of work. 
But it must be reiterated that there has been 
insufficient development to warrant the pub- 
lication just now of a book upon the subject. 
A fifty-page pamphlet presenting the history 
and first results of the city managership in 
Dayton and Springfield, or in Dayton alone, 
would have met the present need. Into it 
could have been put all that is new or worth 
while in Mr. Toulmin's volume of six times 
the size. 



Men and 
women of 
new France. 



The war has revealed a new 
France, "silent, resolute, and im- 
perturbable "; decadent France 
lias disappeared. Who has wrought the 
change? Mr. Charles Dawbarn attempts to 
answer this extremely interesting question in 
liis volume entitled " Makers of New France " 
(Pott), containing sixteen biographies, 
sketchy newspaper descriptions of fourteen 
men and two women. He has evidently seen 
or met all the persons dealt with in his book ; 
but the information contained in the various 
chapters is very meagre, and in many cases 
does not justify the inclusion of the subject 
of the chapter among the "makers of new 
France." More objectivity, more "meat," 
more definiteness, less fine writing, would 
nave made the volume more valuable. Fur- 
thermore, there is no clear evidence that Mr. 
Dawbarn had a well defined idea of what the 
"new France" is like, or that he used this 
idea as a touchstone in selecting the "makers 
of new France." Take, for example, the two 
women, Madame Paquin and Mile. Miropol- 
sky, the one a world-famous dressmaker, 
the other a lawyer of twenty-six. By no 
stretch of the imagination can this interesting 
young avocate be made responsible for the 
"new" France of which she is clearly a 
product. And what that is " new " in France 



shall we attribute to Madame Paquin, bril- 
liant and successful woman though she is? 
All Mr. Dawbarn's subjects are important 
figures in the France of to-day, some more 
so, some less; but that is nowise equivalent 
to saying that they are the makers of France. 
And what shall we say of the names that 
have been omitted? Among the "makers of 
new France," we look in vain for the name 
of an artist ; not even Rodin has found favor. 
A France without an artist is indeed a " new " 
France ! Among the writers there is no Ros- 
tand and no Rolland, only Anatole France, 
Finot, and Brieux. To be sure, Rostand is 
of the older generation; but so also is Ana- 
tole France, and Rolland must be numbered 
among the big men of the new generation. 
Mr. Dawbarn had a suspicion that we might 
"wonder why one is admitted and another 
refused," and attempted to forestall unfavor- 
able criticism by explaining that " the gallery 
is obviously limited by the covers of a book." 
What he has given us is but "the head of 
the procession moving toward the sun." Per- 
haps ; but he had no clear vision of the " new 
France," no means of infallibly discerning its 
makers, and he has failed to make clear to us 
the importance of the role of those upon whom 
his choice fell. 

In the last few years a number 
A comprehensive o f serviceable handbooks on the 

library manual. , 

use or the library have come 
from authoritative sources and have met cer- 
tain needs with different readers and with 
different emphasis upon the various subdivi- 
sions of the general theme. We have had Mr. 
Gilbert 0. Ward's elementary manual on 
" The Practical Use of Books and Libraries," 
and Mr. Charles P. Chipman's "Books and 
Libraries," and Miss Gilson's " Course of 
Study for Normal School Pupils on the Use 
of a Library," not to mention the series of 
practical treatises on library matters by Mr. 
John Cotton Dana and his corps of assistants. 
Now we have, from the librarian and the 
assistant librarian in the University of Ten- 
nessee, Miss Lucy E. Fay and Miss Anne T. 
Eaton, respectively, a more generally compre- 
hensive and, one might say, popularly useful 
work than any of the above-named. It is enti- 
tled " Instruction in the Use of Books and 
Libraries" (Boston Book Co.); and though 
announcing itself " a textbook for normal 
schools and colleges," it is equally adapted to 
self-instruction, and might well have a place 
in the bookcase of every family as a compe- 
tent guide to the intelligent use of the local 
public library or to the formation of a private 
library. Divided into three parts in: one 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



71 



octavo volume of 449 pages, it considers, 
first, " the use of books," then " selection of 
books and children's literature," and, finally, 
'" the administration of school libraries/' a 
more technical or professional theme than the 
general reader will care to concern himself 
with. Its book-lists and other bibliographical 
matter show care and judgment, with a 
reliance on the best authorities. Pen-and-ink 
drawings, where needed to explain the text or 
.add to its interest, are supplied by Mrs. Nor- 
man B. Morrell, and a good general index 
closes the book. The authors have done their 
work so well as to make it improbable that 
the same task will have to be undertaken again 
for a long while. 



.Strathcona as 
the evil genius 
of Canada. 



Mr. W. T. R. Preston wisely 
waited until his subject was 
dead before publishing his book 
on " Strathcona and the Making of Canada " 
(McBride, Nast & Co.). Among the least 
offensive of the comments upon Lord Strath- 
cona's life and character of which the book 
mainly consists is this: "He was as punc- 
tilious about paying off personal scores as in 
paying his debts." The same statement would 
perhaps be as charitable a way of character- 
izing Mr. Preston's attitude toward his subject 
as one would be justified in adopting. The 
book is, in fact, a fairly clever sketch of the 
life of Strathcona, particularly of his connec- 
tion with the Canadian Pacific Railway, in 
which every public scandal of the past half 
century of Canadian history is dragged out to 
serve as a background for one who is pictured 
as the evil genius of his country. Chapter 
after chapter is made up for the most part of 
.statements and insinuations, damning to 
Strathcona's memory, for which we are offered 
no better proof than Mr. Preston's word, or a 
reported conversation between Mr. Preston 
and some contemporary of Strathcona's, who 
curiously enough always happens to be dead. 
The book is decidedly one that leaves an un- 
pleasant taste in the mouth. The only point 
about this vindictive biography which is left 
in the dark is the particular grievance which 
Mr. Preston had against Lord Strathcona, 
when he set himself the task of writing the 
latter's life. 

There must be many readers 
l h hu?n e anbTing. who are utterly weary of books 

on the war. To such be it said 
that "The Human German" (Button), by 
Mr. Edward Edgeworth, has not the remotest 
connection with the struggle now convulsing 
Europe. It is a whimsical, ironical, yet sym- 
pathetic estimate of the human qualities in 



the individual German and in his collective 
achievements. Though the author is evidently 
an Englishman, he has written without na- 
tional prejudice; indeed, he has as sharp 
things to say of his own countrymen as of 
foreigners. With Berlin as his centre, he sur- 
veys the 67,000,000 Germans, their habits and 
institutions, and finds them all menschlich, 
allzumenschlich, that is to say, creatures of 
human frailty, but for that reason of human 
interest and likableness. Even in the porten- 
tous and forbidding German State, a human 
nucleus is discovered. This genial tolerance 
is plentifully spiced with a sense of humor 
and a perception of the ridiculousness of most 
of the ways and works of men. The author is 
a capital raconteur, and some of his stories 
(for example, that of the disconcerting experi- 
ment of the eugenics professor) are memora- 
ble. Happily, however, his book is not for the 
most part anecdotal, but is pitched in a more 
impersonal key. Though ideas are not fon- 
dled for their own sake, the human material 
is everywhere discussed in a vein of philoso- 
phic banter. The result is highly amusing, if 
not always formally instructive. When the 
reader has finished, he has perhaps not learned 
many new facts about Germany, but he has 
certainly come to know the Germans better; 
and more surely still he has made the acquain- 
tance of Mr. Edgeworth, whose idiosyncrasies 
of mind and temperament make up a person- 
ality well worth cultivating. Altogether this 
is a very human book by a very human writer 
about a people who are by no means as inhu- 
man as their methods of warfare indicate. 



The development in pre-revolu- 
tias l s-ma~ier. tionary times in Eastern Penn- 
sylvania of a notable industry in 
the manufacture of glassware of considerable 
artistic merit both in form and color is related 
in Mr. Frederick W. Hunter's "Stiegel Glass" 
(Houghton) . The work is the result of the au- 
thor's enthusiastic efforts as connoisseur and 
collector in gathering the Hunter collection 
of colonial glassware now in the Metropolitan 
Museum of New York. It recounts his diffi- 
culties and successes in ferreting out the his- 
tory of Baron Stiegel, his family connections, 
his land, iron, and glass ventures, his colonial 
and foreign trade, his efforts (by means of 
the American Flint Glass Lottery) to recoup 
his losses due to over-zealous expansion and to 
the approach of the War of Independence. 
There is much information about the methods 
of manufacture employed, verified by excava- 
tions on the sites of Stiegel's three factories, 
and comparisons of these findings with extant 
specimens of the handicraft of these colonial 



72 



THE DIAL 



[July 15 



artisans. The work is illustrated by twelve 
plates in color, and 159 fine half-tones por- 
traying the range in shapes and decorations. 
Diaries and account books have been ran- 
sacked to determine the dates of the enter- 
prises, and to develop an interesting picture 
of the efforts of this enthusiastic but vision- 
ary manufacturer to extend the sale of his 
wares in competition with those from Euro- 
pean makers. Brief accounts of other colonial 
ventures in glass-making are also given. The 
work is well written, and is full of interest as 
a picture of industrial conditions in colonial 
times, as well as of colonial art and handicraft. 



BRIEFER MENTION. 

Mr. E. Belfort Bax, the author of several works 
on Socialism, has written a volume entitled " Ger- 
man Culture, Past and Present" (McBride, Nast 
& Co.), which describes the mediaeval civilization 
of Germany during the Reformation period. As a 
socialist, the author believes in the economic inter- 
pretation, rather than the " great man " theory. 
Consequently, there is less mention of Luther than 
of the peasants' revolts, the Anabaptist movement, 
the collapse of knighthood, and such like general 
tendencies. The two concluding chapters, dealing 
with that modern German culture which is based 
on militarism and national efficiency, seem an 
afterthought suggested by the war. 

Five titles constitute the beginning of a new 
series to be known as " The Nation's Library," each 
volume being written especially for the series by a 
well-known authority. They are as follows: 
" Eugenics," by Dr. Edgar Schuster ; " Modern 
Views on Education," by Dr. Thiselton Mark; 
" The Principles of Evolution," by Mr. Joseph 
McCabe; "The Star World," by Professor A. C. 
de la Crommelin ; and " Socialism and Syndical- 
ism," by Mr. Philip Snowden. In each instance, 
both in these volumes and in those in prospect, the 
aim is to view the specialized information on the 
subject in its relationship to modern life and 
thought. (Baltimore: Warwick & York, Inc.) 

Mr. Arnold Wynne's " The Growth of English 
Drama" (Oxford Press) is a simply and ad- 
mirably planned book. After four chapters on 
" Early Church Drama on the Continent," " En- 
glish Miracle Plays," " Moralities and Interludes," 
and " Rise of Comedy and Tragedy," the writer 
treats comedy and tragedy separately down to 
and including Nash and Marlowe, and concludes 
the work with an appendix on the Elizabethan 
Stage. The feature which gives Mr. Wynne's 
book individuality, insures it against the charge 
of repetition of familiar matter, and makes its 
writing a real service to literature, is his generous 
use of well-selected passages in illustration of 
characteristic plays. There is enough of this in 
the volume to make it a study of literature as well 
as a study about literature. The special student 
will find the book a convenience, while for the 
general reader it will supply a real need. 



NOTES. 



"The Landloper" is the title of Mr. Holman 
Day's new novel, which Messrs. Harper will issue 
this month. 

Mr. George Kennan, whose " Tent Life in 
Siberia " originally appeared forty-five years ago, 
has a volume of Russian stories and sketches in 
the press, to be published during the summer 
under the title of "A Russian Comedy of Errors." 

Of especial interest in " The English Review " 
for June is the first instalment of Maxim Gorki's 
vividly written autobiography. As with nearly all 
other English periodicals at this time, the contents 
of this issue are devoted almost wholly to contribu- 
tions having to do with the great war. 

A series of about one hundred letters, many of 
them never before published, written by Washing- 
ton Irving to Henry Brevoort between the years 
1807 and 1843, will appear in the autumn with the 
imprint of Messrs. Putnam. The volume is edited 
by Mr. George S. Hellman, who also contributes 
an Introduction. 

" Why Europe is at War " is the title of a vol- 
ume soon to come from Messrs. Putnam. It is 
made up of essays by writers from each of the 
belligerent Powers, giving reasons why their re- 
spective countries are at war, together with a con- 
cluding chapter expressing the point of view of 
the United States. 

Goncharov's " Oblomov," in which the author 
created a type which has taken its place in Rus- 
sian literature as firmly as that taken by Pecksniff 
in English literature and Tartuffe in the literature 
of France, has been translated from the Russian 
by C. J. Hogarth for an English edition which is 
now in preparation. 

Arrangements have been completed by Mr. Lau- 
rence J. Gomme for publishing " The Anthology 
of Magazine Verse for 1915," compiled, as usual, 
by Mr. William Stanley Braithwaite. Mr. Gomme 
has found it necessary to issue a new edition of the 
anthology for 1914, which he now has ready. He 
has also published Mr. Clinton Scollard's " The 
Vale of Shadows, and Other Poems of the Great 
War." 

A new volume in the " Countries and Peoples 
Series " is in preparation by Messrs. Scribner and 
will be published before long. It is entitled 
" Scandinavia of the Scandinavians " and is writ- 
ten by Mr. Henry Goddard Leach of New York, 
Secretary of the American Scandinavian Founda- 
tion, who has lived several years in Scandinavia. 
It will describe the daily life and the habits of 
thought of the three northern nations, Denmark, 
Norway, and Sweden. 

Sir Henry Newbolt has written a book for boys 
on the European War, entitled " The Book of 
the Thin Red Line," which is announced for early 
issue by Messrs. Longmans. From the same house 
will come Mr. Maurice S. Evans's " Black and 
White in the Southern States," a study of the 
race problem in the United States from a South 
African point of view ; and a revised and enlarged 
edition of Dr. Charles Gross's " The Sources and 
Literature of English History." 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



73 



Two books on the Renaissance may shortly be 
expected. One of these is Mr. Christopher Hare's 
illustrated " Life and Letters in the Italian 
Renaissance," in which the author contrasts the 
lives of writers and thinkers from Lorenzo the 
Magnificent to Machiavelli and Baldassare Castig- 
lione with the pomp and splendor of their time; 
the other is a " History of the Renaissance : The 
Protestant Revolution and the Catholic Reforma- 
tion in Continental Europe," by Professor Edward 
M. Hulme, of the University of Idaho. 

Due to the war, the " Statesman's Year Book " 
for 1915, which Messrs. Macmillan will soon issue, 
has been subjected to a large amount of revision. 
Egypt has been transferred to the British Empire, 
the Turkish pages have been largely rewritten, and 
all the countries included have been brought as 
far as possible up to date. A diary and bibliog- 
raphy of the war are included, together with a 
list of important publications on the struggle, 
arranged according to the countries of origin. 

Among the books to be issued in the autumn by 
the Yale University Press are: "The Port of 
Boston," by Professor Edwin J. Clapp ; " Jour- 
neys to Bagdad," by Mr. Charles S. Brooks; 
" Symbolic Poems of William Blake," by Pro- 
fessor Frederick Erastus Pierce ; " The Liberty 
of Citizenship," by the Hon. Samuel W. McCall; 
" The New Infinite and the Old Theology," by 
Professor Cassius J. Keyser; "A Voice from the 
Crowd," by Mr. George Wharton Pepper; aud 
" Henry Fielding's Covent-Garden Journal," 
edited, with an introduction and notes, by Pro- 
fessor Gerard E. Jensen. 

The autobiography of Richard Whiteing, whose 
'' Number 5 John Street " is still remembered and 
read nearly a score of years after its first publica- 
tion, is among the forthcoming publications of 
Messrs. Dodd, Mead & Co. Mr. Whiteing's inti- 
mate association for the last half century with all 
that was best in art and literature, and with much 
of what was most interesting in social progress 
both in England and on the Continent, and his 
skill with the pen ought to make his recollections 
an interesting volume. Before its appearance in 
book form a series of chapters from the work will 
be published in " The Bookman," beginning with 
the July number. 

Publishing in England, except for the war- 
books, is almost at a standstill, says " The New 
Statesman." " In the autumn and spring a con- 
siderable number of books were published; but 
these had been almost all arranged for, and most 
of the expenditure upon them contracted, before 
the war. But the publishers are now drawing in 
their horns. Few new books are coming out, and 
authors are finding it difficult to get commissions 
or place manuscripts. Some even of the largest 
firms are postponing publication of important 
books, commissioned long since, until after the 
war. New enterprise now is altogether too specu- 
lative for most people." 

The first volume of the English translation of 
Treitschke's " History of Germany in the Nine- 
teenth Century " will be published at once in this 
country by Messrs. McBride, Nast & Co., with an 



Introduction by Mr. W. Harbutt Dawson on " The 
Extinction of the Empire." It carries the narra- 
tive from " Germany after the Peace of West- 
phalia " to the end of " The War of Liberation." 
Volume II., dealing with " The Beginnings of the 
Germanic Federation, 1814-1819," will follow in 
September, and the remaining five volumes at 
quarterly intervals. Mr. Dawson will write the 
supplementary volume, dealing with the history of 
Germany from the point at which it was left by 
Treitschke down to date. 

Lovers of the writings of John Muir will be 
glad to know that he left at his death a large body 
of important manuscript material which Messrs. 
Houghton Mifflin Co., his authorized publishers, 
will issue in the near future. Arrangements are 
pending for the publication of several character- 
istic records of travel similar to Mr. Muir's well- 
known books on the Sierras and the Yosemite, as 
well as for a notable " Life, Letters, and Journals " 
which promises to take its place with the most 
important American publications of this type. 
This will be the only biography of Mr. Muir 
authorized by the family, and all persons who 
have letters or other material likely to be of value 
to the biographer will confer a favor by sending 
such material to the publishers for forwarding. 

The Concordance Society issues, in " Circular 
No. 9," a brief report of progress and prospects. 
Though no publishing has been done since the 
appearance of the Wordsworth concordance four 
years ago, there are in preparation two similar 
works, a concordance to Coleridge, and one to 
Browning, only one of which will the Society be 
able to assist in a pecuniary way. All members 
are invited to indicate their preference. A Keats 
concordance, finished by its compilers more than 
a year ago, has recently been accepted for publica- 
tion by the Carnegie Institution. Other like under- 
takings enjoying assistance from the same quarter 
and soon to be completed, in book-form, are Pro- 
fessor Lane Cooper's " Concordance to Horace " 
and a " Concordance to Spenser." A concordance 
to Goethe's poems is also projected. Stronger 
support and increased membership are asked for 
by the Society. 

Mr. Sidney Low has edited a series of essays on 
" The Spirit of the Allied Nations," contributed 
by various writers, each of whom is an authority 
on his subject. " The Spirit of France " is dealt 
with by Paul Studer, Taylorian Professor of the 
Romance Languages in the University of Oxford; 
" The Spirit of Russia," by Alexis Aladin, late a 
member of the Russian Duma ; " The Spirit of 
Belgium," by Paul Hamelius, Professor of English 
Literature in the University of Liege ; " The Spirit 
of the Serb," by Dr. R. W. Seton- Watson, author 
of "The Southern Slav Question"; "The Spirit 
of Japan," by J. H. Longford, Professor of Japa- 
nese at King's College, University of London ; and 
" The Spirit of the British Empire and its Allies," 
by the editor. Mr. Low also summarizes the con- 
clusions of the various writers in an introductory 
essay, and adds some personal notes of a recent 
visit to the French battle zone. The volume is 
announced for immediate publication. 



74 



THE DIAL 



[July 15. 



TOPICS IN LEADING PERIODICALS. 

July, 1915. 

Advertising, A New Essay in the Psychology of Unpopular 
Aerial Warfare and International Law. A. de 

Lapradelle Scribner 

Aeroplane in Warfare, The. C. L. Freeston . . Scribner 
Allies, Selling Arms to the. Horace White . . No. Amer. 
American Citizenship for Germans. Wayne 

MacVeagh No. Amer. 

Anglo-French Commercial Rivalry. C. M. 

Andrews Am. Hist. Rev. 

Anglo-German Rivalry, Future of. Bertrand Russell Atlantic 

Autistic Thinking. Pearce Bailey Scribner 

Balkans and the War, The. Ivan Yovitchevitch Rev. of Revs. 
Ballad Poetry, Tragic Art of. E. G. Cox .... So. Atl. 
Beauty and the Theatrical Ambition. Virginia Tracy Century 
Berkeley's Influence on Literature. C. A. Moore . So. Atl. 
Berkshires, Motoring in the. Louise C. Hale . . Century 
British Generalship. Alfred G. Gardiner .... Atlantic 
Bryan, The Revolt of. George Harvey .... No. Amer. 
Business and Democracy. J. L. Laughlin . . . Atlantic 
California, Floral Features of. LeRoy Abrams . . Pop. Sc. 
Cawein, Madison. H. Houston Peckham .... So. Atl. 

Cezanne. Willard H. Wright Forum 

Chemistry, Modern, The Dawn of. J. M. Stillman . Pop. Sc. 
China, The Peril of. Gardner L. Harding . . . Century 
Chinese, Moral Development of the. F. G. Henke . Pop. Sc. 
Civil War, French Opinions of Our. L. M. Sears Mid-West 
Classical Romanticist, A. George R. Throop . . Mid- West 

College, The Presidency of a Small Unpopular 

Commercial Attaches and Foreign Trade. A. L. 

Bishop Am. Econ. Rev. 

Compensation and Business Ethics. R. W. Bruere Harper 
Cooperation among Grocers in Philadelphia. E. M. 

Patterson Am. Econ. Rev. 

Criticism, Square Deal in. Florence K. Kelly . . Bookman 
Culture, Ancient, Decline of. W. L. Westermann Am. Hist. Rev. 

Dardanelles, Fate of the. Edwin Pears Yale 

Dixie, The Waterway to. W. J. Aylward .... Harper 
Drake, Joseph Rodman. A. E. Corning .... Bookman 

Dramatic Criticism, A Diagnosis of Unpopular 

Dutch Art, Modern. A. T. Van Laer Scribner 

Dynamite, The Manufacture of. Joseph Husband . Atlantic 
England. Houston Stewart Chamberlain . . . No. Amer. 
English Cabinet, The New. Sydney Brooks . . No. Amer. 
English Characteristics. James D. Whelpley . . Century 
English Constitution, The War and the. Lindsay 

Rogers Forum 

Euripides, The Plays of. Will Hutchins .... Forum 
Experience, Literary Uses of. Elisabeth Woodbridge Yale 

Fiction, Free. Henry Seidel Canby Atlantic 

Fields, Mr. and Mrs. James T. Henry James . . Atlantic 

Fiji, A History of. Alfred G. Mayer Pop. Sc. 

Flux, The Philosophy of Unpopular 

Foreign Trade, No Mystery about. W. F. 

Wyman World's Work 

French Ambulance, With a. Howard Copland . . . Yale 
German Way of Thinking, The. S. N. Patten . . Forum 

Germanic Statecraft and Democracy Unpopular 

Germany, Modern, The Background of. F. C. Howe Scribner 
Germany and Prussian Propaganda. Wilbur C. Abbott Yale 

Germany and the " Iron Ring " Unpopular 

" Gott Strafe England I " Edward Lyell Fox . American 
Government of To-morrow, The. H. A. Overstreet . Forum 
Grub Street Organized. Louis Baury .... Bookman 
Guerin, Eugenie de. Gamaliel Bradford .... So. Atl. 

Hay, John, and the Panama Republic Harper 

Henry Street, The House on V. Lillian D. Wald Atlantic 
Holland, Imperiled. T. Lothrop Stoddard .... Century 
Home Rule for American Cities. Henry H. Curran . Yale 
Homes, Good, for Workmen. Ida M. Tarbell . . American 
Industrial Peace, A Way to. George Creel . . . Century 
Italy and Her Rivals. T. Lothrop Stoddard . Rev. of Revs. 

Italy in the War Unpopular 

James, William, Some Scripts from Unpopular 

Joffre. Eugene Etienne World's Work 

Justice Unpopular 

Justice, The Question of. John C. Ransom .... Yale 
Kilauea : The Hawaiian Volcano. Cleveland Moffett Century 
Kitchener's Great Army. J. Herbert Duckworth American 

Laforgue, Jules. James Huneker No. Amer. 

Law, Police, and Social Problems. N. D. Baker . Atlantic 
Leatherstocking Trail, The. Ruth K. Wood . . Bookman 

Life, Thoughts on the Meaning of Unpopular 

Literature, Current, and the Colleges. Henry S. Canby Harper 

Luck. Wilbur Larremore Forum 

Magazine in America, The V. Algernon Tassin Bookman 
Magna Carta and the Responsible Ministry. G. B. 

Adams . . . J . Am. Hist. Rev. 

Mechanistic Science and Metaphysical Romance. Jacques 

Loeb Yale 

Meredithians, Maddening the. William Chislett, Jr. Forum 
Mexico, More Light on . , ,. ........ Unpopular 

Mexico, Our Relations with. John A. Wyeth . . No. Amer. 
Militarism and Sanity. Charles Vale . . . . . . Forum 



Mistral, Frederic. Elizabeth S. Sergeant .... Century 
Monopoly, Automatic Regulation of. F. K. 

Blue Am. Econ. Rev. 

Moslems and the War. George F. Herrick . Rev. of Revs. 
Mosquito Sanitation, Pioneers in. L. O. Howard . Pop. Sc. 
Mothers on the Pay-roll. Sherman M. Craiger Rev. of Revs. 

Nature Cult, The Conventional Unpopular 

Nicholas : Grand Duke of Russia. Perceval Gibbon Everybody's: 

Nietzsche. P. H. Frye Mid-West 

Pacifism, Dangers of. Philip M. Brown . . . No. Amer. 
Pacifism and the French Revolution. Charles Kuhl- 

mann Mid-West 

Panama Canal : What It Is Doing. C. M. Keys World's Work 
Panama-Pacific Exposition. French Strother World's Work 
Paris : Red and Black and Gold. Estelle Loomis Century 
Parties, The Old, and the New Power .... Unpopular 

Plato as a Novelist. Vida D. Scudder Yale 

Postal Service, Defects in the. Henry A. Castle . No. Amer. 
Professor Who Publishes, The. Alvin S. Johnson Mid-West 

Psycho-analysis. Max Eastman Everybody's- 

Russia and Her Emperor. Curtis Guild Yale 

Russian Fleet and the Civil War. F. A. Colder Am. Hist. Rev. 
Scene-painting, Evolution of. Brander Matthews . Scribner 

Scientific Faith. John Burroughs Atlantic 

Serbia and Southeastern Europe. G. M. Trevelyan Atlantic 
Servia between Battles. John Reed .... Metropolitan 
Socialist Participation in tne War. H. E. Wildes . So. Atl. 
South American Newspapers. Isaac Goldberg . Bookman 
Spain and the United States in 1822. W. S. 

Robertson Am. Hist. Rev. 

Spanish, National Need of. F. B. Luquiens . . . Yale 
Stage Wisdom, Picking up. Katherine Grey . . American 
Submarine, Inventor of the. B. J. Hendrick . World's Work 
Suffrage. William Hard and V. D. Jordan . . Everybody's 

Suffrage Prophets, The Unpopular 

Switzerland, Neutral. John M. Vincent . . Rev. of Revs. 
Telegraphy, Modern, Efficiency of. Robert W. Ritchie Harper 
Trade Unionism vs. Welfare Work for Women. Annie 

M. Maclean Pop. Sc* 

Turkey, Eurasian Waterways in. Leon Dominian Pop. Sc. 
Turkey and the Balkan States. Edwin Pears . . Atlantic 
Unionism Afloat. " Atlanticus " Atlantic- 
United States as a Neutral. Charles C. Hyde . . . Yale 
Verhaeren : Poet of Industrial Evolution . - . . Unpopular- 
War. The, and Literature. St. John G. Ervine . No. Amer. 
War, The, and Spiritual Experience. Francis Young- 
husband Atlantic 

War Boom, On the Eve of a. Theodore H. Price World's Work 
War Fronts in June, Four. Frank H. Simonds Rev. of Revs. 
War Opinion in England. Albert J. Beveridge Rev . of Revs. 
War Spirit in Canada, The. J. P. Gerrie . . Rev. of Revs. 
Water Conservation, Fisheries, and Food Supply. R. E. 

Coker Pop. Sc. 

West Indies, A Journey to the. Louise C. Hale . . Harper 
Wexford, County, Some Customs of. Maude R. Warren Harper 

Whiteing, Richard, Reminiscences of Bookman 

Whitman, With, in Camden. Horace Traubel . . Forum 
Wilson's Cabinet. James C. Hemphill .... No. Amer. 
Workmen's Compensation. W. C. Fisher . Am. Econ. Rev. 
Workmen's Compensation in New York. W. H. 

Hotchkiss Rev. of Revs. 



LIST or NEW BOOKS. 



[ The following list, containing 109 titles, includes books 
received by THE DIAL since its last issue.) 

BIOGRAPHY AXD HISTORY. 

The Life of Henry Laurens. By David Duncan Wal- 
lace, Ph.D. With frontispiece, 8vo, 539 pages. 
G. P. Putnam's Sons. $3.50 net. 

Women the World Over. By Mrs. Alec-Tweedie, 
F.R.G.S. Illustrated in photogravure, etc., large 
Svo, 364 pages. George H. Doran Co. $3. net. 

The Record of Nicholas Freydon: An Autobiogra- 
phy. 12mo, 376 pages. George H. Doran Co. 
$1.50 net. 

Joseph Chamberlain: An Honest Biography. By 
Alexander Mackintosh. Revised and enlarged 
edition; large Svo, 416 pages. George H. Doran 
Co. $3. net. 

The Sovereign Council of New Prance: A Study in 
Canadian Constitutional History. By Raymond 
Du Bois Cahall, Ph.D. Large Svo, 274 pages. 
Columbia University Press. Paper, $2.25 net. 

The Life and Adventures of a Free Lance. By 
S. G. W. Benjamin. 12mo. Burlington, Vt. : The 
Free Press Co. $1.50 net. 

The Review of American Colonial Legislation by the 
King in Council. By Elmer Bucher Russell, 
Ph.D. Large Svo, 227 pages. Columbia Univer- 
sity Press. Paper, $1.75 net. 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



75- 



GENERAL, LITERATURE. 

Poets and the National Ideal: Four Lec- 
tures. By B. de Slincourt. 8vo, 119 pages. 
Oxford University Press. 

The Evolution of Literature: A Manual of Compar- 
ative Literature. By A. S. Mackenzie. Illus- 
trated, 12mo, 440 pages. Thomas Y. Crowell Co. 
$1.50 net. 

An Anthology of Patriotic Prose. Selected by Fred- 
erick Page. 16mo, 211 pages. Oxford University 
Press. 

The Rise of Classical English Criticism. By James 
Routh, Ph.D. 8vo, 101 pages. New Orleans: 
Tulane University Press. Paper. 

DRAMA AND VERSE. 

The Sorrows of Belgium: A Play in Six Scenes. By 
Leonid Andreyev; translated from the Russian 
by Herman Bernstein. 12mo, 132 pages. Mac- 
millan Co. $1.25 net. 

Submerged: Scenes from Russian Life in Four Acts. 
By Maxim Gorki; translated from the Russian 
by Edwin Hopkins. 12mo, 143 pages. Richard 
G. Badger. 75 cts. net. 

Youth's Pilgrimage. By Roy Helton. 12mo, 39 
pages. Boston: The Poet Lore Co. 75 cts. net. 

The Light Feet of Goats: Poems. By Shaemas 
O Sheel. 12mo, 63 pages. New York: Published 
by th.3 author. 

Six Plays by Contemporaries of Shakespeare. Ed- 
ited by C. B. Wheeler. With portrait, 16mo, 595 
pages. " World's Classics." Oxford University 
Press. 

In the Pastures of the Green, and Other Poems. By 
Henry M. Hopew-ll. ISmo, 102 pages. Chicago: 
Howard D. Berrett. $1.25 net. 

The New World. By Witter Bynner. 12mo, 65 
pages. Mitchell Kennerley. 60 cts. net. 

A Man's AVorld: A Play in Four Acts. By Rachel 
Crothers. 12mo, 113 pages. Richard G. Badger. 
$1. net. 

The State Forbids: A Play in One Act. By Sada 
Cowan. 12mo, 46 pages. Mitchell Kennerley. 
60 cts. net. 

Our Gleaming Days. By Daniel Sargent. 12mo, 64 
pages. Richard G. Badger. $1. net. 

The Power of Purlin, and Other Plays. By Irma 
Kraft. 12mo, 189 ..pages. Philadelphia: Jewish 
Publication Society of America. 

Bibliography of Published Plays and Other Dra- 
matic Literature Available in English. 18mo. 
La Jolla, Cal. : World Drama Prompters. Paper. 

FICTION. 

Thankful's Inheritance. By Joseph C. Lincoln. Il- 
lustrated, 12mo, 383 pages. D. Appleton & Co. 
$1.35 net. 

L. P. M.: The End of the Great War. By J. Stewart 
Barney. With frontispiece in color, 12mo, 419 
pages. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.35 net. 

The Jealous Goddess. By Madge Mears. 12mo, 316 
pages. John Lane Co. $1.25 net. 

The Treasure of Hidden Valley. By Willis George 
Emerson. 12mo, 431 pages. Forbes & Co. 
$1.25 net. 

Edgar Chirrup. By Peggy Webling. 12mo, 362 
pages. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.35 net. 

The Crayon Clue. By Minnie J. Reynolds. 12mp, 
375 pages. Mitchell Kennerley. $1.35 net. 

Love-birds in the Coco-nuts. By Peter Blundell. 
-12mo, 311 pages. John Lane Co. $1.25 net. 

Heart of Gold. By Ruth Alberta Brown. With 
frontispiece in color, 12mo, 285 pages. The Saal- 
fleld Publishing Co. $1.25 net. 

The Indiscreet Letter. By Eleanor Hallowell Abbott. 
16mo, 81 pages. Century Co. 50 cts. net. 

It Happened in Atlantic City. By Thomas B. Senger. 
12mo, 202 pages. Richard G. Badger. $1. net. 

Aunt Sarah and the War: A Tale of Transforma- 
tions. 12mo, 112 pages. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 
75 cts. net. 

Alice and the Stork: A Fairy Tale for Working- 
men's Children. By Henry T. Schnittkind, Ph.D. 
12mo, 95 pages. Richard G. Badger. 50 cts. net. 

The Ingrate. By Magnus Bredenbek. 12mo, 250 
pages. Rahway, N. J.: The Cheston Publishing 
Co. 

PUBLIC AFFAIRS POLITICS, SOCIOLOGY, AND 

ECONOMICS. 

Undercurrents In American Politics. By Arthur 
Twining Hadley. 12mo, 185 pages. Yale Uni- 
versity Press. $1.35 net. 

Imperial Germany and the Industrial Revolution. 
By Thorstein Veblen. 12mo, 324 pages. Mac- 
millan Co. $1.50 net. 



Reconstruction In Georgia: Economic, Social, Polit- 
ical, 1865-1872. By C. Mildred Thompson, Ph.D. 
Large 8vo, 418 pages. Columbia University 
Press. Paper, $3. net. 

The A B C of Socialism. By I. G. Savoy and M. O. 
Teck. 12mo, 140 pages. Richard G. Badger. 
50 cts. net. 

The Sociological Implications of Rlcardo's Econom- 
ics. By Cecil Clarke North. 8vo, 65 pages. Uni- 
versity of Chicago Press. Paper, 50 cts. net. 

Letters from Prison: Socialism a Spiritual Sunrise. 
By Bouck White. 12mo, 163 pages. Richard G. 
Badger. 50 cts. net. 

The Helper and American Trade Unions. By Johni 
H. Ashworth, Ph.D. 8vo, 134 pages. The Johns 
Hopkins Press. Paper. 

Labor in Politics. By Robert Hunter. 12mo, 202: 
pages. Chicago: The Socialist Party. Paper. 
25 cts. net. 

THE GREAT AVAR ITS HISTORY, PROBLEMS, 

AND CONSEQ.UENCES. 
The Diplomacy of the "War of 1914: The Beginnings 

of the War. By Ellery C. Stowell. Large 8vo, 

728 pages. Houghton Mifflin Co. $5. net. 
The Secrets of the Hohenzollerns. By Armgaard 

Karl Graves. Illustrated, 8vo, 251 pages. Mc- 

Bride, Nast & Co. $1.50 net. 
Studies of the Great War: What Each Nation Has 

at Stake. By Newell Dwight Hillis. 12mo, 272: 

pages. Fleming H. Revell Co. $1.20 net. 
The "Way of the Red Cross. By E. Charles- Vivian 

and J. E. Hodder Williams. 12mo, 289 pages. 

George H. Doran Co. $1. net. 

Bohemia under Hapsburg Misrule. Edited by- 
Thomas Capek. 16mo, 187 pages. Fleming H. 

Revell Co. $1. net. 
Peace and War In Europe. By Gilbert Slater, D.Sc. 

12mo, 122 pages. E. P. Dutton & Co. $1. net. 
Reflections of a Non-combatant. By M. D. Petre.. 

12mo, 142 pages. Longmans, Green & Co. 

75 cts. net. 
The Russian Problem. By Paul Vinogradoff, F.B.A. 

8vo, 44 pages. George H. Doran Co. 75 cts. net. 
Russia's Gift to the World. By J. W. Mackail. 

8vo, 48 pages. George H. Doran Co. Paper. 
The Cup of War. By the author of " Especially " 

and "Wayside Lamps." 16mo, 62 pages. Long- 
mans, Green & Co. 35 cts. net. 
Germany's Literary Debt to France. By Jessie L. 

Weston. 16mo, 16 pages. London: David Nutt. 

Paper. 
The German Fleet. By Archibald Kurd. 12mo, 190- 

pages. George H. Doran Co. Paper, 25 cts. net. 

ART AND ARCHITECTURE. 

Outdoor Sketching. By F. Hopkinson Smith. Illus- 
trated in color, etc., 12mo, 145 pages. Charles: 
Scribner's Sons. $1. net. 

What Pictures to See In America. By Lorinda 
Munson Bryant. Illustrated, 8vo, 356 pages. 
John Lane Co. $2. net. 

The Art of the Exposition. By Eugen Neuhaus. 
Illustrated, 8vo, 89 pages. Paul Elder & Co. 
$1.50 net. 

Making Floors. By Albert McClure. Illustrated,. 
16mo, 64 pages. McBride, Nast & Co. 50 cts. net. 

RELIGION AND THEOLOGY. 

The Divine Mystery: A Reading of the History of 
Christianity down to the Time of Christ. By 
Allen Upward. 8vo, 309 pages. Houghton Mifflin 
Co. $1.75 net. 

The Meaning of Christian Unity. By William H. 
Cobb. 12mo, 244 pages. Thomas Y. Crowell Co. 
$1.25 net. 

The Catholic's Ready Answer. By M. P. Hill, S.J. 
With frontispiece, 8vo, 490 pages. Benziger 
Brothers. $2. net. 

Trends of Thought and Christian Truth. By John- 
A. W. Haas. 12mo, 329 pages. Richard G. 
Badger. $1.50 net. 

Biblical Discoveries in Egypt, Palestine, and Meso- 
potamia. By J. Politeyan, B.A. ; with Foreword 
by R. B. Girdlestone, M.A. Illustrated, 8vo, 194 
pages. London: Elliot Stock. 

The Testing of a Nation's Ideals: Israel's History 
from the Settlement to the Assyrian* Period. By 
Charles Foster Kent, Ph.D., and Jeremiah Whip- 
pie Jenks, Ph.D. 12mo, 149 pages. Charles^ 
Scribner's Sons. 75 cts. net. 

How to Study the Old Testament. By Frank Knight 
Sanders, D.D., and Henry A. Sherman. 12mo, 64 
pages. Charles Scribner's Sons. 50 cts. net. 

The Efficient Young People's Society: Sacred Liter- 
ature Course. By Carl D. Case and others. 
12mo, 155 pages. American Baptist Publication 
Society. 50 cts. net. 



76 



THE DIAL 



[July 15 



Historical Geography of Bible Lands: A Manual for 
Teachers. By Richard Morse Hodge. With 
maps, and accompanying " Historical Atlas of 
Bible Lands " in separate volume. Large 8vd, 
84 pages. Charles Scribner's Sons. 

BOOKS FOR THE YOUNG. 

On the Trail: An Outdoor Book for Girls. By Lina 
Beard and Adelia B. Beard. Illustrated, 12mo, 
271 pages. Charles Scribner's Sons. $1.25 net. 

The Polly Page Camping Club. By Izola L. For- 
rester. Illustrated, 12mo, 301 pages. George W. 
Jacobs & Co. $1. net. 

Billy Whiskers on the Mississippi. By Frances 
Trego Montgomery. Illustrated in color, etc., 
8vo, 170 pages. Saalfleld Publishing Co. $1. net. 

Nathan Hale. By Jean Christie Root. " True Stories 
of Great Americans." With frontispiece, 12mo, 
160 pages. Macmillan Co. 50 cts. net. 

EDUCATION. 

Psychology of High-school Subjects. By Charles 
Hubbard Judd. 12mo, 515 pages. Ginn & Co. 
$1.50 net. 

Schools of To-morrow. By John Dewey and Evelyn 
Dewey. Illustrated, 12mo, 316 pages. E. P. Dut- 
ton & Co. $1.50 net. 

A Handbook of the Best Private Schools of the 
United States and Canada: An Annual Publica- 
tion. 12mo, 514 pages. Boston: Porter E. Sar- 
gent. $2. net. 

Manual of Stories. By William Byron Forbush. 
With frontispiece, 12mo, 310 pages. George W. 
Jacobs & Co. $1.50 net. 

The Young and Field Literary Readers: Book Five. 
By Ella Flagg Young and Walter Taylor Field. 
Illustrated, 12mo, 384 pages. Ginn & Co. 
60 cts. net. 

Short Stories. Selected and edited by Leonard B. 
Moulton. With frontispiece, 16mo, 246 pages. 
Houghton Mifflin Co. 40 cts. net. 

The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of 
Teaching: Ninth Annual Report. Large 8vo, 
154 pages. New York: Carnegie Foundation. 
Paper. 

The Merrill Readers. By Franklin B. Dyer and 
Mary J. Brady. Comprising: Primer; First 
Reader; Second Reader. Each illustrated, 12mo. 
Charles E. Merrill Co. 

Selections from American Poetry. Edited by Fred- 
erick Houk Law, Ph.D. 16mo, 122 pages. Hough- 
ton Mifflin Co. 25 cts. net. 

Elementary French Grammar. By Everett Ward 
Olmsted, Ph.D. 12mo. 338 pages. Henry Holt 
& Co. 

French Life: A Cultural Reader for the First Year. 
By Philip Schuyler Allen and Franck Louis 
Schoell. 12mo, 226 pages. Henry Holt & Co. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Sanitation in Panama. By William Crawford Gor<- 
gas. Illustrated. 12mo, 298 pages. D. Appleton 
& Co. $2. net. 

Field Book of Western Wild Flowers. By Margaret 
Armstrong. Illustrated in color, etc., 16mo, 596 
pages. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $2. net. 

Tennis as I Play It. By Maurice E. McLoughlin; 
with Preface by Richard Norris Williams. Illus- 
trated, large 8vo, 347 pages. George H. Doran 
Co. $2. net. 

War: Its Conduct and Legal Results. By T. Baty, 
LL.D., and J. H. Morgan, M.A. 8vo, 578 pages. 
E. P. Dutton & Co. $3.50 net. 

Chinese Forest Trees and Timber Supply. By Nor- 
man Shaw, B.A. Illustrated, 8vo, 351 pages. 
London: T. Fisher Unwin. 

The Alligator and Its Allies. By Albert M. Reese, 
Ph.D. Illustrated, 8vo, 358 pages. G. P. Put- 
nam's Sons. $2.50 net. 

Complete Course in Isaac Pitman Phonography. By 
Abraham Rosenblum. 12mo, 120 pages. Thomas 
Y. Crowell Co. $1.50 net. 

Rural Housing. By William G. Savage, M.D. Illus- 
trated, large 8vo, 297 pages. London: T. Fisher 
Unwin. 

Proceedings and Addresses of the Fifteenth Annual 
Session of the State Literary and Historical 
Association of North Carolina. Compiled by 
R. D. W. Connor. With frontispiece, 12mo, 150 
pages. Raleigh: North Carolina Historical Com- 
mission. Paper. 

The Essentials of Agriculture. By Henry Jackson 
AVaters. Illustrated, 12mo, 455 pages. Ginn & 
Co. $1.25 net. 

The Housekeeper's Handbook of Cleaning. By 
Sarah J. MacLeod. Illustrated, 16mo, 259 pages. 
Harper & Brothers. $1. net. 

Abused Russia. By C. C. Young. Illustrated, 8vo, 
109 pages. Devin-Adair Co. 



The Next Generation. By Frederick A. Rhodes, 

M.D. 12mo, 290 pages. Richard G. Badger. 

$1.50 net. 
A B C of Electricity. By William H. Meadowcroft. 

Illustrated, 16mo, 127 pages. Harper & Brothers. 

50 cts. net. 
"A Sister to Assist 'Er." Told by Mrs. May, and 

written down by John Le Breton. 16mo, 160 

pages. George W. Jacobs & Co. 50 cts. net. 
Life and Its Manifestations. By Mattie Cory. With 

portrait, 18mo, 155 pages.- Published by the 

author. 
Theatres: Their Safety from Fire and Panic, Their 

Comfort and Healthfulness! By William Paul 

Gerhard. Second edition; 8vo, 110 pages. Baker 

& Taylor Co. $1. net. 
Funabout Fords. By J. J. White. 16mo, 57 pages. 

Chicago: The Howell Co. 25 cts. net. 
Pay Your Fare: An Allegory by George Edward 

Lewis. Illustrated, 12mo, 94 pages. New York: 

The Shakespeare Press. 75 cts. net. 
Cream Toasts. By Fred Emerson Brooks. ISmo, 

94 pages. Forbes & Co. 50 cts. net. 



LEADERS OF THE PEOPLE, by Joseph 
Clayton. Cloth, pp. 346, 6x8. (Kennerley: 
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82 



THE DIAL 



[ August 15, 1915 









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THE DIAL 

Jfortmgfjtlp journal of lliterarp (Criticism, ^Discussion, and information. 



Vol. LIX. AUGUST 15, 1915 



No. 699 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 



THE FINE FLOWER OF AMEEICAN 

THOUGHT. William Morton Payne . . 83 

" THE NATION'S " JUBILEE 86 

CASUAL COMMENT 87 

A spur to literary effort in the South. 
Reminiscent of Thoreau. The tragic end of 
Arthur Sedgwick. Novelties in . library ad- 
ministration. Stevenaon at Saranac. The 
death of a dictionary-maker. Harold Skim- 
pole once more. The Dana centennial. A 
national home for the publishing and book- 
selling arts and crafts. The vigor of rustic 
speech. Japan's annual book-trade. Lexi- 
cography in war and peace. The induction 
of children into bookland. The University 
of Tsingtau. Book-collecting while you 
wait. The Longfellow house. 

COMMUNICATIONS 92 

Bryant and " The New Poetry." John L. 

Hervey. 
Results of the Wisconsin Survey. Wm. H. 

Allen and George C. Comstock. 
The Wisconsin Theses. David E. Berg. 
Mr. Allen and the Wisconsin Faculty. 

W. E. Leonard. 
An Imagist to the Defence. John Gould 

Fletcher. 

The Author of " Ponteach." W. H. S. 
Authors and Knighthood. Noel A. Dunder- 

dale. 

A BREVIARY FOR CRITICS. Herbert Ells- 
worth Cory 98 

CHILDREN OF THE CITY. T. D. A. Cocker ell 103 

THE BLUE-STOCKINGS AND THEIR IN- 
FLUENCE. Martha Hale ShacTcford . . 105 

DIPLOMACY AND THE GREAT WAR. James 

W. Garner 107 

A PRAGMATIC ILLUMINATION OF EDU- 
CATION. Thomas Percival Beyer . . .109 

RECENT AMERICAN ONE-ACT PLAYS. 

Homer E. Woodbridge Ill 

BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS 113 

A life of prodigious achievement. The 
apologia of a German-American. Hand- 
books on mind and health. A brief account 
of the hero of Appomattox. Problems of 
unemployment. An inventor's autobiog- 
raphy. A handbook on commission govern- 
ment. A romance of love and war in 
India. Beckoning vistas. A manual of 
wild bird culture. Secession and slavery : 
an old view revised. Origins and develop- 
ment of the ballade. A little-known period 
in Dutch history. 

BRIEFER MENTION 118 

NOTES 118 

TOPICS IN AUGUST PERIODICALS . . .120 
LIST OF NEW BOOKS , . 121 



THE FINE FLOWER OF AMERICAN 
THOUGHT. 



The five young men of William and Mary 
College who foregathered on the fifth of De- 
cember, 1776, to organize the first Greek letter 
society in America, builded better than they 
knew. "A happy spirit and resolution of 
attaining the important ends of society enter- 
ing their minds," they chose as their emblem 
a square medal with S. P. engraved on the one 
side, and Phi Beta Kappa on the other, " for 
the better establishment and sanctitude of 
their unanimity." Within a year, the society 
had grown to a membership of fourteen, and 
had provided itself with officers, laws, and an 
oath of fidelity. Such were the modest begin- 
nings of the organization which has since 
flourished apace, which now includes chapters 
in eighty-six American institutions of collegi- 
ate and university rank, with a living mem- 
bership of more than thirty thousand men 
and women, and which for over a century has 
set admission to its ranks as a shining goal 
upon which every college student of serious 
purpose has centred his ambition. The par- 
ent idea of the society found so many imita- 
tors that the combinations and permutations 
of the Greek alphabet have been heavily 
drawn upon to supply the mystic designa- 
tions needed, and in too many cases the idea 
has been perverted to serve purposes that are 
anything but academic, to stand for snobbish 
exclusiveness or a brummagem college aris- 
tocracy; but the Phi Beta Kappa has re- 
mained the society of scholarship in the 
severest sense, and its badge has continued to 
denote intellectual distinction and nothing 
else. 

The progress of the war caused the society 
to languish in Virginia, and it was in danger 
of an early death, when steps were taken for 
its extension into New England, and the 
establishment of chapters at Harvard, Yale, 
and Dartmouth made its future secure. It 
was the North, and later the West, that gave 
it enduring vitality, and it is a noteworthy 
fact that only a dozen of the chapters existing 
to-day are south of Mason and Dixon's line. 
When the society gave up its attributes of 



84 



THE DIAL 



[August 15 



secrecy, owing to the anti-masonic agitation 
of 1826, and abandoned the tomfoolery of 
oaths and cipher codes, it still further empha- 
sized its unique position among academic 
organizations, and opened its path to a future 
growth that would hardly have been possible 
under the old conditions. The Harvard chap- 
ter seems to have been mainly responsible for 
what has been for more than a century the 
chief manifestation of Phi Beta Kappa activ- 
ity the annual celebration by an oration 
(and sometimes a poem) in which each branch 
of the society pays tribute to the ideals of the 
founders. The early records of Harvard men- 
tion an oration in 1788 by John Quincy 
Adams, then a graduate of twenty; and a 
poem in 1797, by Robert Treat Paine. Lafay- 
ette in 1824, after listening to an oration 
nearly two hours long by Edward Everett, 
offered the following toast: "This Antient 
University, this Literary Society. This Holy 
Alliance of Learning and Virtue and Patri- 
otism is more than a match for any coalition 
against the rights of mankind." The Har- 
vard roll alone of orators and poets is almost 
a catalogue of the chief mountain peaks in 
the range of American literature, including 
as it does the names of three Adamses, Tick- 
nor, Emerson, Beecher, Curtis, Phillips, 
Woodrow Wilson, Bryant, Holmes, Longfel- 
low, and Gilder. For the foregoing facts, 
together with much other interesting histori- 
cal material, we are indebted to an article in 
"The Sewanee Review," by Professor John 
M. McBryde, Jr., the editor of that quarterly. 
How the history of Phi Beta Kappa 
throughout the nation has justified Lafay- 
ette's toast is triumphantly shown in the 
volume of "Representative Phi Beta Kappa 
Orations" recently published under the edi- 
torship of Professor Clark S. Northup. It is 
the aim of every chapter, for the occasion of 
its annual meeting, to obtain for its orator the 
most eminent man within its reach, and the 
honor of the invitation is such that it is 
rarely declined. The speaker feels that some- 
thing better than his normal best is demanded 
by the occasion, and strives to emulate the 
great men who have preceded him in the 
function. The consequence is that Phi Beta 
Kappa oratory has now for a century em- 
bodied the best thought and the finest powers 
of expression of the intellectual leaders of the 
nation, and offers a wealth of material which 



American literature treasures as one of its 
most valuable assets. This is the reason for 
which we have ventured to characterize the 
volume now before us as the unfolding of 
" the fine flower of American thought." Here 
we have, in a commentary ranging over the 
greater part of a century, the voice of Amer- 
ican idealism in its purest strain, the voice 
which expresses what the nation is funda- 
mentally thinking upon religion, literature, 
science, politics, education, and the conduct 
of life, in short, upon all the great subjects 
of human concern. Only an anthology of the 
noblest American poetry could be equally 
indicative, in a typical way, of the essential 
genius of the nation. 

The papers here reprinted are twenty-six 
in number, 1837 and 1910 being, respectively, 
the earliest and the latest dates. The former 
year is that of Emerson's stirring Harvard 
address upon " The American Scholar," our 
intellectual declaration of independence, 
which fired the youth of that early generation 
with the exalted purpose to realize the mission 
of democracy in the wider spheres of thought 
and action. The latest date is that of Pro- 
fessor Paul Shorey's Oberlin address upon 
" The Unity of the Human Spirit/' with its 
calm assurance of refuge for the mind in the 
fortress which guards the permanent achieve- 
ments of the human intellect from all the 
winds of doctrine that buffet its impregnable 
defences. And between these two dates, how 
imposing an array of our greatest thinkers is 
marshalled, and how wide a range of subjects 
of the first importance is considered! Let a 
few only of the speakers and their themes be 
instanced to show what manner of writing is 
here to be found. Besides the two already 
mentioned, we have Andrew Preston Peabody 
on " The Connection between Science and 
Religion," George William Curtis on "The 
American Doctrine of Liberty," Francis 
Andrew March on " The Scholar of To-day," 
Charles Kendall Adams on " The Relations of 
Higher Education to National Prosperity," 
Wendell Phillips on " The Scholar in a Repub- 
lic," Andrew Dickson White on "Evolution 
vs. Revolution in Politics," Charles William 
Eliot on "Academic Freedom," and Woodrow 
Wilson on "The Spirit of Learning." Here 
are ten names that stand for our intellectual 
best, the names of men to whom we can point 
with confidence that no ill-considered teach- 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



85 



ing and no unworthy thought will proceed 
from their lips. And many of the other 
names are of hardly less weight. If those of 
Job Durfee and Charles Henry Bell are not 
exactly household words, those of John Jay 
Chapman, Bliss Perry, John Franklin Jame- 
son, Josiah Royce, and Barrett Wendell rep- 
resent men who are held in high esteem as 
broad-minded and penetrating analysts of our 
social and intellectual life. 

It is only natural that some of the earlier 
utterances among these orations should show 
unmistakable signs of " dating." It seems 
curious to find Horace Bushnell speaking of 
" the new science of political economy" ; and 
there is an echo from a remote past of igno- 
rance and prejudice in Andrew P. Peabody's 
remark that " if people choose to admire Vol- 
taire and worship Goethe, none can gainsay 
them." We are far indeed from the time 
when the Frenchman might be dismissed as a 
mere scoffer at things sacred, or the German 
as an immoral devotee of the cult of self- 
realization. Even Emerson's great plea for 
the scholar's individuality and independence 
seems now a little antiquated. Peabody's sug- 
gestion that the " Natural Orders have not in 
a scientific aspect superseded the Linnsean 
system " sounds quaint to a modern botanist. 
When Curtis tells us that " the foundation of 
liberty in natural right was no boast of pas- 
sionate rhetoric from the mouths of the fath- 
ers," he gives expression to a doctrine that is 
unfashionable among the young lions of our 
new political theorizing, although we suspect 
that he was nearer the truth than they are. 
And a later critic of literature than F. A. 
March would hardly make contemptuous ref- 
erence to "the long-drawn eunuch dallyings 
of Swinburne or Whitman," whatever in 
March's imagination these may have been. 
But the substance of even the oldest of these 
addresses is of the essence of wisdom, because 
the speakers, true to the ideals of the society, 
have concerned themselves with the eternal 
rather than the temporal, and have planted 
their feet upon the solid foundations of truth. 

It is not surprising that Emerson's classical 
essay on " The American Scholar " should 
have fixed a type for Phi Beta Kappa orations 
to which many of his successors have sought to 
conform. The society stands for scholarship, 
and the exaltation of the scholarly function. 
Thus, in the present collection, we find " The 



Scholar of To-day," "The Scholar in a Re- 
public," and " The Attitude of the Scholar." 
Closely related to this theme are, of course, 
such matters as " Intellectual Leadership in 
American History," " Humanities Gone and 
to Come," "Academic Freedom," " The Spirit 
of Learning," "The Mystery of Education," 
and "The Unity of the Human Spirit." These 
are all lights shed upon the function of the 
scholar in society. The second Leitmotiv of 
the collection is democracy, as instanced by 
such titles as " The American Doctrine of 
Liberty," " Evolution vs. Revolution in Poli- 
tics," " Jefferson's Doctrines under New 
Tests," " The Hope of Democracy," and 
"Democracy and a Prophetic Idealism." 
Science, religion, and social welfare also con- 
tribute their themes to the counterpoint of 
this symphony of idealism. If we are to 
seek for a text which shall stand for the 
collective meaning of the volume in its essen- 
tial attributes, and, indeed, for the underly- 
ing thought of all Phi Beta Kappa oratory 
which is true to type, it will be in Professor 
Shorey's address on "The Unity of the Human 
Spirit," which is perhaps the best piece of 
writing, compact of pregnant wisdom, among 
all these modern instances. The writer's 
thesis is "the identity of the highest Euro- 
pean thought of the past two or three thou- 
sand years," which is practically all the 
thought that counts for civilization, and his 
protest is against the notion that there is 
much that is either new or important in the 
speculative vagaries of our noisy contempora- 
ries. One of his most valuable suggestions is 
that our distracted minds would be well- 
advised to go back to Mill, from whom they 
may learn " lessons of comprehensive and con- 
secutive thinking, judicial weighing of all 
considerations pro and con, temperance and 
precision of expression, and scrupulous fair- 
ness to opponents, which they will hardly get 
from the undigested mixtures of biology, 
nervous anatomy, anthropology and folk- 
lore, answers to questionnaires, statistics, and 
reports from the pedagogical or psychological 
seminar, with a seasoning of uncritical his- 
torical and illiterate literary illustration, that 
compose the made-to-order text-books of 
pedagogy, sociology, ethics, and psychology 
on which their minds are fed." We know of 
no finer or more persuasive call to the spirit 
of humanism than is found in the following : 



86 



THE DIAL 



" There is one great society alone on earth, the 
noble living and the noble dead. That society is 
and will always be an aristocracy. But the door 
of opportunity that gives access to it opens easily 
to the keys of a sound culture, and is closed only 
to the ignorance and prejudice that fixes our hyp- 
notized vision on the passing phantasmagoria. A 
certain type of educator is given to denouncing the 
tyranny of the classics. There is no intellectual 
tyranny comparable to that exercised over the 
imagination by the present, the up-to-date, with its 
incessant panorama of self-representation, its 
myriad-voiced iteration of itself from the news- 
papers, the dime magazines, the platforms that 
mould or enforce the opinions of ninety million 
men. The new psychologists have coined a ques- 
tion-begging epithet into a pseudo-scientific term, 
' misoneism,' or hatred of novelty, to stigmatize the 
hesitation of culture to accept every popgun of 
hypothesis as the crack of doom. What Greek 
compound will do justice to that hatred of the old, 
that distaste for everything not mentioned in yes- 
terday's newspaper, which seals their minds, and 
the minds of the generation which they are edu- 
cating, to so much of the inherited beauty and 
wisdom of the world? . . But if, to wrest the old 
Platonic phrases once more to our purpose, the 
flux is not all, if the good, the true, and the beau- 
tiful are something real and ascertainable, if these 
eternal ideals reembody themselves from age to 
age essentially the same in the imaginative visions 
of supreme genius and in the persistent sanity and 
rationality of the world's best books, then our 
reading and study are redeemed, both from the 
obsessions of the hour, and the tyranny of quanti- 
tative measures and mechanical methods. The 
boundless ocean of books is before us, and the 
courageous reader will make many a bold voyage 
of discovery to rarely visited shores. But more 
and more as the years go by will he concentrate his 
attention on the books that preserve from age to 
age the precious distillation of the human spirit in 
its finest flower. They are not so many but that 
he may in time hope to seek them out and in some 
sort to know them. They are comparatively few, 
but 

* That few is all the world with which a few 
Doth ever live and move and work and strive.' " 

WILLIAM MORTON PAYNE. 



"THE NATION'S" JUBILEE. 

The passing of the half -century mark in the 
life of "The Nation" is an event well worth 
the attention which it has received. With a 
circulation small in comparison with that of 
the popular magazines, an expense to its 
owners much of the time rather than a source 
of profit, it has nevertheless been the most 
powerful and the most healthful single influ- 
ence, in American periodical literature during 
the period which its life has covered. To have 
read its pages means to have been brought 



into serious contact with every important field 
of human thought and action, and sooner or 
later with all the most important workers in 
those fields. A prominent New Yorker once 
remarked, whether justly or not does not mat- 
ter here, that he read a certain paper when- 
ever he wanted absolute intellectual rest. No 
such remark could ever plausibly be uttered 
concerning " The Nation." To provoke vital 
thought on vital questions was the aim of its 
sponsors from' the outset, and that aim has 
been abundantly realized. And for such a 
purpose the profession of journalism has pro- 
duced no more effective pen that that of 
E. L. Godkin, its first editor. His intellect 
and energy and character were so inextricably 
woven into its columns during the first dec- 
ades of its existence that one might easily 
make the mistake of thinking of it as his per- 
sonal organ, a mistake, because Godkin's 
work for " The Nation " was always wholly 
above personal motive. 

But Godkin unaided could not have made 
" The Nation " what it was. The excellent 
editorial management of Wendell Phillips 
Garrison, associated .with Godkin from the 
beginning, gave just the setting which the 
latter's writing needed. It was Garrison who 
chose the numerous staff of reviewers who 
lent weight and dignity and continuity to 
" The Nation's " literary columns, and hun- 
dreds of letters are in the hands of these 
reviewers to-day bearing testimony to the con- 
scientiousness with which his duties as literary 
editor were performed and to his kindly per- 
sonal interest in his widely scattered staff. 
With Godkin and Garrison in control, it is no 
wonder that " The Nation " drew to its stand- 
ard a large percentage of the most capable 
leaders of thought and action in the land. 
And through its influence on the leaders, it 
has reached and benefitted multitudes who do 
not even know of its existence. 

The strength of " The Nation " has been 
that of sincere devotion to high ends, and 
intelligent management in the pursuit of 
those ends. This is abundantly brought out 
in the contributions which fill its Jubilee 
issue. It is pleasant to know that the pas- 
sage of its fifty-year mark finds " The Nation " 
in a position of renewed energy and pros- 
perity, its owners and editors thoroughly 
devoted to the standards which Godkin and 
Garrison created for it, and its circulation on 
the ascending pathway. The efficiency of 
democracy lies in the willingness of indi- 
viduals to do just such work as Garrison and 
Godkin inaugurated, and to inspire others in 
succession to take hold of that work and 
maintain it as a permanent institution. 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



87 



CASUAL COMMENT. 

A SPUR TO LITERARY EFFORT IN THE SOUTH, 

where the people seem tolerably content to 
live their lives without romancing about them 
in print, has for fifteen years been sedulously 
applied by the State Literary and Historical 
Association of North Carolina, which now, un- 
der the zealous leadership of Professor Archi- 
bald Henderson, shows the world what it is 
doing in the " Proceedings " of its fifteenth an- 
nual session, a notable document that tends to 
disprove the truth of those famous lines of the 
bard of South Carolina : "Alas for the South ! 
Her books have grown fewer ; She never was 
much given to literature." That the Old North 
State has become or is becoming addicted to 
literature in a creditable measure, is the im- 
pression gained from reading the papers 
(included in these "Proceedings") on North 
Carolina historians, novelists, ballad litera- 
ture, poetry, and oratory, North Carolina 
bibliography for the year, North Carolina's 
famous "0. Henry," and her late poet lau- 
reate, Henry Jerome Stockard. A tablet, with 
medallion portrait, in memory of William 
Sidney Porter (" 0. Henry") was unveiled in 
the Hall of History, at Raleigh, where the 
meetings of the Association were held; the 
Patterson Memorial Cup for literary achieve- 
ment was presented to Dr. J. G. de R. Hamil- 
ton, whose recent book, "Reconstruction in 
North Carolina," brought him this honor; an 
address on " Some Argentine Ideas " was 
delivered by Ambassador Naon ; and from 
first to last President Henderson was active in 
promoting the success of the entire series of 
exercises, his opening paper on "The New 
North State " sounding an unmistakable note 
of high-hearted hopefulness and determina- 
tion. Prominence was given, in the addresses 
and discussions, to the need of historical study 
and writing throughout the state, with a view 
to the production of worthy histories of the 
counties of North Carolina, only a few of 
which have yet been made the subject of such 
study. Outside of Virginia, it would be diffi- 
cult to point to more creditable endeavor of 
this literary-historical sort, in any of our 
southern states, than that which has for more 
than a decade been led and inspired by 
Professor Henderson. 



REMINISCENT OF THOREAU and his sturdy 
though ineffectual protest against what he 
considered an unjustifiable tax levy, was the 
prompt refusal, the other day, of Thoreau's 
most distinguished living fellow- townsman to 
pay a fine of ten dollars for failing to make 



the drainage system of his Concord house 
tributary to that of the town. For more than 
a year considerable publicity has attended 
Mr. Sanborn's resolute defence of his case 
before the authorities and in the courts of 
law ; and the end is not yet. " I shall die 
before this case is settled," was the defen- 
dant's prophecy as he appealed the question 
to a higher court on the ground of unconsti- 
tutionally in the existing law. There must 
be many still living who can recall that char- 
acteristic manifestation of recalcitrancy which 
brought the hermit of Walden into close 
acquaintance with the town lock-up. It was 
his refusal on one occasion to pay his yearly 
tax that procured him this inside knowledge, 
and of course it was on high moral grounds 
that he took his stand in the matter, with 
what one suspects to have been a real enjoy- 
ment of his brief martyrdom in the supposed 
cause of justice. As the story goes, when 
Emerson, upon hearing of his friend's incar- 
ceration, hastened to the house of detention 
and, appearing at the door of Thoreau's cell, 
sorrowfully demanded of him, "Henry, why 
do I find you here ? " the other promptly re- 
joined, in a like tone of voice, "Waldo, why 
do I not find you here?" The spectacle of 
Thoreau in the common jail may well have 
appeared too incongruous to admit of long 
continuance ; at any rate, some one, probably 
Emerson himself, effected an early adjust- 
ment of the difficulty with the tax-collector, 
and the prisoner, considerably against his 
will, found himself at liberty. It is impossible 
to believe that this later instance of opposition 
to the constituted authorities of Concord in- 
volves any disregard, on the opponent's part, 
of the best interests of the community; and 
his picturesque appearance in court as able 
and fluent counsel in his own defence must 
breed a rather general desire for the success 

of his cause. 



THE TRAGIC END OF ARTHUR SEDGWICK, wllO 

took his own life on the fourteenth of July in 
a moment of despondency caused by ill health 
and other anxieties, has evoked some interest- 
ing reminiscences of the man's noteworthy 
achievements in more than one branch of 
activity, and his repeated exhibition of the 
best qualities of mind and heart. Arthur 
George Sedgwick was born October 6, 1844, in 
New York, was graduated from Harvard in 
1864, entered the volunteer army of the 
North in the same year, as lieutenant of the 
Twentieth Massachusetts Regiment, fell into 
the hands of the Confederate forces at Deep 
Bottom, Virginia, soon afterward, and became 
acquainted with the interior of Libby Prison, 



THE DIAL 



[August 15 



where he contracted an illness that disabled 
him for further service in the field. At the 
close of the war he studied law and practised 
in Boston until 1872 ; edited, with Mr. Oliver 
Wendell Holmes, Jr., "The American Law 
Review," and about 1875 was admitted to the 
New York bar. He practised his profession 
in New York until 1881, but the inclination 
to literary pursuits seems to have drawn him 
more and more from the dry technicalities of 
the law. He joined the editorial staff of 
" The Nation " and " The Evening Post," and 
contributed to other journals as well. A 
course of Lowell Institute lectures on law was 
delivered by him in 1885-6, and he was Godkin 
Lecturer at Harvard in 1909. With Mr. F. S. 
Wait he produced a work on land titles, also 
wrote "Elements of Damages," edited the 
fifth edition of his father's " Measure of Dam- 
ages," assisted in editing the eighth edition of 
the same treatise, and was one of the authors 
of " Essays on the Nineteenth Century." But 
what he gave to the world as a writer cannot 
be taken as an adequate measure of his abil- 
ity in letters. His personality stood for far 
more than his writings. Original and uncon- 
ventional in his habit of mind, he appears, 
especially in view of his sad end, as one some- 
what too keenly conscious of the ironies of 
life, too acutely appreciative of the cruel joke 
played upon man at the moment of his birth. 



NOVELTIES IN LIBRARY ADMINISTRATION, some 
of them merely experimental and short-lived, 
and others having the qualities of perma- 
nence, come from time to time to the attention 
of him who is interested in the never-ceasing 
evolution of "the people's university" if 
one may be allowed still to use the hackneyed 
and often ridiculed but nevertheless servicea- 
ble and appropriate Carlylism. One of the 
latest of these innovations is described by 
Dr. Bostwick in his current annual report of 
the St. Louis Public Library. It is the instal- 
lation of a public writing room, for corre- 
spondence and similar purposes, first in a 
small upper room designed for study, and 
then, as the new department gained in popu- 
larity, in larger quarters originally designed 
for the storage of pamphlets, but affording 
unused space enough for four writing tables 
accommodating twenty-four persons. Pens, 
ink, and inexpensive stationery are supplied 
without charge, while a better quality of paper 
and envelopes, as well as postage stamps and 
illustrated library postcards, may be pur- 
chased at cost. Furthermore, the attendant 
in charge "takes dictation, does typewriting 
and notarial work, and receives orders for 



translations from foreign languages, at cur- 
rent rates." Thus the department is made 
self-supporting, and the public convenience 
is served. It is true that many libraries have 
long made a practice of furnishing, in a more 
or less irregular and haphazard fashion, 
similar accommodation on request; but an 
organized and equipped secretarial depart- 
ment is something of recent origin. A word 
of praise must not be omitted for the rather 
unusual art features of Dr. Bostwick's report, 
all contributed by the St. Louis School of 
Fine Arts (connected with Washington Uni- 
versity) and comprising a colored frontis- 
piece and numerous sketches and designs in 
black-and-white. Nor are there lacking still 
other features of notable interest in this 
record of a year's library work. 

* 

STEVENSON AT SARANAC sought, not very 
successfully, physical reinvigoration, and won, 
with less of premeditated design, a considera- 
ble fraction of his present renown as a writer. 
It was here that in the winter of 1887-8 he 
produced most of those admirable essays that 
made their first appearance in print in 
" Scribner's Magazine " during the ensuing 
year, and that include such favorites as " The 
Lantern-Bearers," "A Christmas Sermon," 
" Pulvis et Umbra," " Beggars," " Gentlemen," 
and "A Chapter on Dreams." Here too he 
conceived the plot and structure of his novel, 
" The Master of Ballantrae " ; and what else 
of ferment and germination took place in his 
mind as he walked about the secluded ham- 
let on the lake, who shall attempt to say? 
Memorable enough, at any rate, is the fact of 
his sojourn in that retired nook of the Adiron- 
dacks to warrant the erection there of some 
statue, urn, tablet, bust, or other worthy 
memento in his name; and therefore the 
Saranac Lake Stevenson Memorial Committee 
has been formed to accomplish this end. The 
noted sculptor, Mr. Gutzon Borglum, has 
enthusiastically entered into the plan, and 
will design the proposed memorial as a labor 
of love, it is announced. Popular subscription 
is invited for meeting the necessary expenses 
of the undertaking, and contributions may be 
sent to Dr. Lawrason Brown, chairman of the 
committee, at Saranac Lake, New York. 


THE DEATH OF A DICTIONARY-MAKER WOuld 

ordinarily attract little attention even in the 
world of letters ; for dictionary-makers are, as 
a class, as obscure as their work is useful. In 
the death of Sir James A. H. Murray, however, 
at Oxford, July 27, the learned labors of a 
distinguished philologist at the head of the 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



89 



most important lexicographical work ever un- 
dertaken in our language are brought to a 
premature close. It had been his hope to 
finish before he reached the age of eighty the 
great "New English Dictionary/' commonly 
known as the Oxford Dictionary, on which he 
had been engaged since 1888; but with the 
final volume still in preparation he died at 
his post two years before the time set for the 
writing of " Finis " after the last entry under 
the letter Z. Dr. Murray, as he was known to 
the world until he became a knight in 1908, 
was born in 1837 at the little town of Den- 
holm, Roxburghshire; received his academic 
training at London University and afterward 
at Balliol College, Oxford; and subsequently 
was the recipient of honorary degrees in gen- 
erous number and variety from various seats 
of learning. His published writings have been 
almost wholly of a philological character, and 
are chiefly scattered through the publications 
of learned societies devoted to his chosen 
branches of research. But his great work is, 
of course, the dictionary so ably planned and 
edited by him with the help of thirty assistant 
editors for the sorting of the mountains of 
material submitted by more than fifteen hun- 
dred co-workers engaged in the vast amount of 
reading required in such an enterprise. Dr. 
Johnson, with his six amanuenses, would in a 
whole lifetime have made but little headway 
on so vast a work. Happily, the successful 
termination of Murray's magnum opus is as- 
sured by the zeal and ability of his editorial 
staff and the stability and resources of the 
Oxford University Press. 


HAROLD SKIMPOLE ONCE MORE comes to our 
attention in a hitherto unpublished letter 
which Mr. Clement K. Shorter tells us, in 
" The Sphere," he recently had the good for- 
tune to acquire, and which he prints for the 
benefit of his readers. Charles Dickens is the 
writer, and Leigh Hunt his correspondent, the 
date of the missive being June 23, 1859, seven 
years after the perpetration of the notorious 
caricature to which the first paragraph of the 
brief letter so lightly refers. That paragraph 
is as follows: "Believe me, I have not for- 
gotten that matter; nor will I forget it. To 
alter the book itself, or to make any reference 
in the preface of the book itself, would be to 
revive a forgotten absurdity, and to establish 
the very association that is to be denied and 
discarded." And yet the world will never 
deny or discard the association; and how 
Dickens himself felt about it at an earlier 
date, when the ink was scarcely dry on the pen 
that drew the distorted portrait, appears un- 



mistakably in a private letter reproduced by 
Mr. Shorter. Unremorsefully, self-compla- 
cently even, Dickens writes to Mrs. Richard 
Watson of Rockingham Castle : " Skimpole 
I must not forget Skimpole of whom I will 
proceed to speak as if I had only read him 
and not written him. I suppose he is the 
most exact portrait that was ever painted in 
words ! I have very seldom, if ever, done such 
a thing. But the likeness is astonishing. I 
don't think it could possibly be more like 
himself. It is so awfully true that I make a 
bargain with myself ' never to do so any more.' 
There is not an atom of exaggeration or sup- 
pression. It is an absolute reproduction of a 
real man. Of course, I have been careful to 
keep the outward figure away from the fact; 
but in all else it is the life itself." Here evi- 
dently was an instance where the writer should 
have prayed to be protected from his own 
excess of cleverness. Significant, in this con- 
nection, is the invariably cordial and admir- 
ing mention of " my friend Charles Dickens " 
which occurs in Leigh Hunt's autobiography. 


THE DANA CENTENNIAL, the hundredth re- 
currence of the day (August 1) on which was 
born the author of "Two Years before the 
Mast," has passed with some appreciative 
mention, here and there, of the early devel- 
oped talent of the young man who at nineteen, 
for his health's sake, shipped as a common 
sailor for the voyage round the Horn, and at 
twenty-five published, in what has proved one 
of the best and most popular books of its kind, 
a detailed account of this seafaring experience. 
It is his one and sufficient claim to literary 
immortality; for neither his later volume, 
"The Seamen's Friend," nor his edition of 
Wheaton's " International Law," nor anything 
else from his pen, is ever mentioned in the 
same breath with his early masterpiece, which 
was in very truth "a voice from the fore- 
castle," presenting "the life of a common 
sailor at sea as it really is -the light and the 
dark together." This booky which has been 
reprinted no one knows how many times, and 
which only two or three years ago reappeared 
in two simultaneous and rather elaborate edi- 
tions, was sold to its first publishers for $250, 
but brought considerably more to its author 
from its conscientious English re-publisher. 
Indeed, its success in England among persons 
of note in literature was most 'gratifying. 
Formal celebration of Dana's centennial will 
be held, somewhat belatedly, under the aus- 
pices of the Historical Society of his native 
town, Cambridge, on the 27th of October, 
with Mr. Joseph H. Choate, Professor Bliss 



90 



THE DIAL 



[August 15 



Perry, and others as speakers, and Bishop 
Lawrence as presiding officer. About the same 
time there will be an exhibition of Dana relies 
in Harvard's new library. 



A NATIONAL HOME FOR THE PUBLISHING AND 
BOOKSELLING ARTS AND CRAFTS WOUld meet a 

need that must have been at least vaguely felt 
for a long time by those engaged in the manu- 
facture and sale of our large and increasing 
annual product of reading matter of the more 
respectable sorts. Such a permanent home, 
like that so successfully maintained in Leipzig 
by the German book-trade, seems bound to 
come in the not distant future; and its com- 
ing has been hastened, it is to be hoped, by the 
recent able plea for its establishment in 
"The Publishers' Weekly," from the pen of 
Mr. B. W. Huebsch, who would have in the 
proposed building headquarters for the 
Authors' League, the Booksellers' League, the 
Publishers' Co-operative Bureau, the Amer- 
ican Booksellers' Association, and other simi- 
lar organizations. Here, too, the recently 
started Booksellers' School would have its 
abode, and here would be maintained a 
bureau of information for all interested in 
books and their production, with a competent 
superintendent at its head. As Mr. Huebsch 
explains his plan, " the building would be an 
exchange; all of the agencies engaged in the 
production and distribution of books, pic- 
tures, and music would co-operate, preserving 
their present identity and autonomy, but act- 
ing as a whole when a temporary union 
seemed desirable." Further practical details 
are added, so that the whole scheme is made 
to appear entirely feasible as well as highly 
desirable; and the home itself, delightful in 
anticipatory contemplation, is to be architec- 
turally worthy of its high purpose. 



THE VIGOR OF RUSTIC SPEECH, such speech as 
those may hear who spend their summer vaca- 
tion in the far backwoods and among the 
mountains, lies largely in the clinging to old 
forms and idioms that date back perhaps to 
rugged sixteenth-century days, or even earlier, 
and have survived the wear and tear of the 
intervening centuries only by virtue of an 
exceptional geographical remoteness from the 
centres of progress and the abodes of unrest. 
It is in such rural retreats that one still hears 
the good, mouth-filling possessive pronouns, 
liisn and Kern, yourn and ourn and theirn, as 
logically formed as thine and mine, though no 
longer countenanced in polite society or in 
literature. There, too, a healthy preference 
for strong preterites lingers, and is responsi- 
ble for the diction of the small boy who tells 



how he " clum " up a tree, or " whup " his 
schoolmate, or " fotch " the doctor to minister 
to grandpa's " rheumatiz." In the current 
" Harper's Monthly " is published an interest- 
ing account of linguistic and other usages 
in " Shakespeare's America," by Mr. William 
Aspenwall Bradley. By " Shakespeare's Amer- 
ica" is meant the secluded region of the 
Cumberland Mountains where speech and cus- 
tom have suffered little modification from the 
changing fashions of the world at large. 
There, for example, present participles enjoy 
all the rights and privileges of adjectives, 
including the ability to express degrees of 
comparison by adding the regular endings. 
Mrs. Jones may be the "talkingest" woman 
in town, or Lucy Lindsay the " smilingest " 
girl ever seen. One Cumberland Mountain 
matron was being complimented on her skill 
in knitting as she followed the rough country 
roads or climbed the steep trails. " Oh. that's 
nothin' !" she exclaimed, deprecatingly. '' Now 
ther's Aunt Mandy. She's the knittingest 
woman ever I saw. She takes her yarn to bed 
with her ever' night, and ever' now and then 
she throws out a sock." 



JAPAN'S ANNUAL BOOK-TRADE is increasing, 
as a writer in " The Japan Times " notes with 
satisfaction, though he is pained to observe 
the subordinate place it still holds in com- 
merce when compared w r ith the traffic in alco- 
holic beverages of various sorts; and he casts 
an eye of envy upon the much larger sale of 
reading matter that this country can boast 
larger per capita as well as in the total. Books 
of all sorts, except school textbooks, have a 
yearly sale in Japan amounting to about three 
million yen, or half as many dollars; maga- 
zines show an equal circulation; elementary 
schoolbooks are in demand to the extent of two 
million three hundred thousand yen ; and 
textbooks for the intermediate schools call for 
an annual outlay of about half as much. 
What the high schools and colleges have to say 
in regard to textbook-purchase is not recorded 
by the " Times." This yearly disbursement of 
almost ten million yen for literature is credita- 
ble, though we must remember that Japan's 
population is fifty-six millions, so that an 
average of only fifteen sen is spent annually 
on reading matter by the Japanese man, 
woman, or child. Seven cents a year will not 
buy much of a library. 



LEXICOGRAPHY IN WAR AND PEACE continues 
sedately to pursue its appointed course. In- 
deed, it is in times of war more than in years 
of peace that lexicographical industry should 
be in requisition. Language is never more 



1915] 



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91 



briskly in the making than during such times 
as these, as every newspaper reader has abun- 
dant cause to know. And so we cease to 
wonder that the makers of the great Oxford 
Dictionary allow themselves no vacation on 
account of current conditions in Europe, and 
we read without surprise in the Paris 
"Figaro" that "the French Academy de- 
voted yesterday's session to its work on the 
French Dictionary" a work that has gone 
on, with little interruption, for nearly three 
centuries, while empires rose and fell and 
dynasties succeeded one another, and will con- 
tinue to go on as long as there shall be a 
French nation and a French language. Ger- 
man armies may come and go, may surge to 
the gates of Paris and roll back again; but 
the French Dictionary goes on forever. 

THE INDUCTION OF CHILDREN INTO BOOKLAND 

calls for tact and skill, and often for inex- 
haustible patience and an abundant store of 
kindliness. It was fourteen years ago that 
the art and science of this branch of modern 
librarianship received full recognition in the 
establishment of a training school for chil- 
dren's librarians at the Carnegie Library of 
Pittsburgh, this school being the outgrowth 
of a training class formed the year before for 
the preparation of young women to serve in 
the juvenile department of that library. It 
is supported by an endowment fund given by 
Mr. Andrew Carnegie, and in its plan and 
purpose it has had many imitators on a smaller 
scale, chiefly in the form of training classes 
connected with public libraries or library 
schools. The Pittsburgh school enjoys the 
advantage of an immediate environment em- 
bracing juvenile representatives of almost 
every European nationality, and there are 
eight branch libraries as well as the central 
library for the active prosecution of this kind 
of work among the children of the city. Thus 
is furnished a vast laboratory for purposes of 
practice, and it is not surprising to learn that 
the school attracts pupils from far beyond the 
borders of its own community. A full account 
of its w r ork is given in the " Circular of Infor- 
mation " which it issues in this its fifteenth 
year. . . 

THE UNIVERSITY OF TSINGTAU has only a 
prospective existence at present, but if the 
plans of prominent Japanese educators, aided 
by certain men of wealth in both Japan and 
China, and with the support of leading schol- 
ars in the two countries, are carried out, we 
shall ere long see the tenets of Confucianism 
taught where not long before the principles of 
Teutonic militarism were undergoing demon- 



stration. It is urged by the promoters of this 
laudable enterprise that as Shantung is the 
native province of the great Chinese philoso- 
pher, it is eminently fitting that it should have 
a university devoted to the study of Confu- 
cianism and of the Chinese classics in general. 
Count Okuma is said to favor the plan, and 
such a noted scholar as Dr. Unokichi Hattori, 
who is to lecture at Harvard next term, is also 
interested. Among other signs of a sort of re- 
vival of learning in this part of the far East, 
there is remarked a quickening of interest 
in current philosophic thought. Sir Rabin- 
dranath Tagore, the Hindu poet and philoso- 
pher who has already won many disciples and 
admirers in Europe and America, is expected 
to visit Japan in October and expound the 
principles of his philosophy. In fact, an im- 
pulse that might be called a Tagore movement 
is now said to be manifest in Japan. Such 
signs of intellectual activity are more than 
welcome in days like these. 



BOOK-COLLECTING WHILE YOU WAIT is prom- 
ised on the most reasonable terms and with the 
utmost promptness by a certain western firm 
which wishes it to be known that " every book 
in any language, new or old, published either 
in this country or abroad, may be obtained 
through us at a moderate price" a joyful 
bit of news, surely, for all collectors not in 
the multimillionaire class. Furthermore: 
"We know no such word as fail! Nearly 
every man of intelligence wants some book 
which he cannot find. We make it our busi- 
ness to hunt up such books and get you any 
book printed anywhere at any time. The 
longer you have looked for the same without 
success, the better it will suit us, as you will 
be all the more pleased with our services. We 
have filled thousands of orders for books 
which could not have been supplied by ordi- 
nary booksellers. Sometimes it may take 
months to trace a book which is ' out of print/ 
but we emphatically wish to state to the book- 
buying public that it would be a waste of time 
to ask if we can furnish a certain book. Send 
your money (or if price is unknown, $1.00 to 
$2.00 on account) and the book will be for- 
warded to your address, or if not in stock, 
ordered for you, otherwise the amount paid 
will be returned." What a chance to secure, 
" at a moderate price," John Eliot's Indian 
Bible, for example, or a first folio Shakespeare ! 



THE LONGFELLOW HOUSE, otherwise known 
as the Craigie mansion, famous as Washing- 
ton's headquarters in early Revolutionary days 
and as the home of the author of "Evangeline" 
during most of his forty-six years' residence in 



92 



THE DIAL 



[ August 15 



Cambridge, is ere long to become a memorial 
" for the benefit of the public," as was lately 
learned through the filing of the will of the 
recently deceased Mrs. Richard Henry Dana 
(Edith Longfellow Dana), daughter of the 
poet. Another daughter, Miss Alice Longfel- 
low, at present occupies the house ; but as soon 
as there shall cease to be any Longfellow heir 
desirous of making such domiciliary use of the 
historic mansion, it is to be dedicated to the 
free use of the public as a Longfellow museum, 
or Longfellow memorial, with suitable pro- 
vision for its maintenance. Thus this praise- 
worthy intention will be realized before many 
years, and what is one of the most interest- 
ing eighteenth-century houses in America will 
open its doors without restraint to visitors. 



COMMUNICATIONS. 



BEYANT AND " THE NEW POETKY." 
(To the Editor o THE DIAL.) 

What constitutes the perishable and what the 
imperishable element or elements in poetry ? 
The question is perennial. It has been asked and 
answered innumerable times, but still it confronts 
the poetry lover; who, howsoever much light he 
may seek or find upon the subject, is always, in the 
end, obliged to answer it anew for himself. That 
is, if he be truly a poetry lover. If his love for it 
is mere lip-service, it is quite otherwise, for then 
the anthologists and the appreciators are at his 
elbow to settle the matter for him without further 
ado. 

. Nowadays, it must be allowed, there is a multi- 
tude of counsellors, and those disinclined to think 
or to feel, to weigh or to ponder, are blessed with 
an infinitude of opportunities for having such 
things done for them, the results of these opera- 
tions being dealt out on demand, by the yard or by 
the pound, and served over the counter as is any 
other merchandisable commodity. Some of them, 
too, are very attractively done up ; and while the 
contents of the carton may not invariably be all 
that the label incites the purchaser to suppose, it 
is an old story that predigested pabulum is not 
intended for hearty appetites. Moreover, expecta- 
tion and fulfilment never have been and never will 
be any more necessarily synonymous in a literary 
than in any other sense. 

Some such thoughts as these came unsummoned 
to my mind one evening not long ago when it was 
my privilege to hear the " what's what " of poetry 
expounded by no less an authority than Miss Har- 
riet Monroe. She was addressing a large assem- 
blage of presumed poetry-lovers, and was speaking 
upon a variety of verse in which, presumably, their 
interest, like her own, was intense namely, 
" The New Poetry." Her expression of opinion 
was, therefore, devoid of dissembling or weak con- 
cession. Perhaps, though, the term " expression 
of opinion " is inadequate as applied to her re- 
marks, for they were rather a statement of doe- 



trine, a promulgation of law, than a mere outline 
of idea or theory. Miss Monroe stated, without 
hesitation, that the " new poetry movement " in 
America was the most important thing in the 
literary world to*-day; and that this so-momentous 
" movement " had originated in the sanctum of her 
magazinelet, " Poetry." I gathered that, something 
as Dr. Franklin, upon a celebrated occasion, sent 
up a kite and brought down the lightning among 
an astounded populace, Miss Monroe sent up 
" Poetry " and brought down " the new poetry." 
Apparently, also; her experiment was fully as elec- 
trical as that of the Doctor. For later in the eve- 
ning, when one of the stars in the " new poetry's " 
firmament, Mr. Carl Sandberg, delivered two origi- 
nal poems, entitled, respectively, " Bobby Burns " 
and " Billy Sunday," the thrills which his recita- 
tion or, to speak more correctly, reading pro- 
duced far exceeded many that I have seen evoked 
by the application of the galvanic battery. 

Miss Monroe was also kind enough to throw 
some explicit and, so-to-speak, ex-officio illumina- 
tion upon the newness which is the distinguishing 
trait of " the new poetry." Incidentally, of course, 
she found it expedient to animadvert upon the old- 
ness of other poetry. In doing so again of 
course it was necessary to exhibit a Horrible 
Example, and the one that she selected was William 
Cullen Bryant. 

I cannot pretend to recall more than the drift, 
the purport, of Miss Monroe's references to 
Bryant, but among other things that she said 
were these: That she had spent a considerable 
portion of that very day in re-reading Bryant, 
and, with his best work thus fresh in mind, she 
felt compelled to state that, of his entire copious 
poetical output, there were only two pieces which 
" would live." These pieces, she said, were 
" Thanatopsis " and " To a Water-fowl." But she 
qualified this fiat by adding that the " Water- 
fowl " was " doubtful," as in certain respects it 
was " very faulty." But, at any rate, these were 
the only two poems of Bryant's, she declared, that, 
under any circumstances, she would think of ac- 
cepting for publication in " Poetry," were they 
contemporaneously composed and offered to her 
for that purpose. 

It was quite like the " Off-with-his-head-so- 
much-for-Buckingham " line that Colley Gibber, 
they say, wrote into " Richard III.," and more 
than a few of Miss Monroe's hearers turned to 
each other with subdued oh's and ah's. But they 
felt conscious that, while perhaps participating 
in something almost sacrilegious, from the poetical 
point of view, they had been "in at the death," 
just the same; also that, in the language of the 
street, they were being " put wise to the real 
thing." And many fair hands were clapped in 
applause by ladies present of whom, I have an 
idea, more than a few, in times it would be impo- 
lite to say how long past, had recited from the 
rostrum " The Death of the Flowers " as typical 
of what they then considered most beautiful and 
most moving in American verse. 

Bryant, then, is poetically " a dead one." Miss 
Monroe bas said so, and Miss Monroe knows. She 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



93 



spoke in behalf of Time, and with an accent that 
betrayed her intimate familiarity with that hoary 
functionary. But the only trouble was that she 
did not go far enough. For instance, I at least 
would have felt grateful if she had singled out 
those poems, let us say, of Mr. Sandberg's, which 
" would live." Or, for that matter, any others 
which have appeared in " Poetry " to date. I have 
read it pretty regularly, and my uncertainty re- 
garding such items is so utter that a little enlight- 
enment from Miss Monroe would have been to me 
as the shadow of a great rock in a weary land. 
While, just as Baudelaire invented decadence, 
Mallarme symbolism, Poe the grotesque and ara- 
besque, and Hugo romanticism, " the new poetry " 
was invented in the sanctum of " Poetry," as Miss 
Monroe unequivocally declared, she did at least by 
inference assert that the patron saint of the 
" movement " was Walt Whitman, that if any 
one " great influence " was the springboard from 
which its practitioners took their flying leap into 
the poetical empyrean, it was that of Walt. This 
being so, it occurred to me to turn to what Walt 
had said of Bryant for I remembered, although 
I could not recall its precise phrasing, that it was 
not at all like what Miss Monroe had said. I find 
it to be as follows (see " Specimen Days ": " My 
Tribute to Four Poets ") : 

" In a late magazine one of my reviewers, who ought 
to know better, speaks of my ' attitude of contempt 
and scorn and intolerance ' toward leading poets of 
my ' deriding ' them, and preaching their ' uselessness.' 
If anybody cares to know what I think and have 
long thought and avow'd about them, I am entirely 
willing to propound. . . . Bryant pulsing the first 
interior verse-throbs of a mighty world bard of the 
river and wood, ever conveying a taste of open air, 
with scents as from hayfields, grapes, birch-borders 
always lurkingly fond of threnodies beginning and 
ending his long career with chants of death, with here 
and there through all, poems or passages of poems, 
touching the highest universal truths, enthusiasms, 
duties morals as grim and eternal; if not as stormy 
and fateful, as anything in ^Eschylus." 

Such was Whitman's tribute to Bryant. It does 
not strikingly resemble that of the editress of 
" Poetry " ; but, somehow, it seems to come nearer 
" touching the highest universal truths, enthusi- 
asms, duties " of poetry. 

To me, I must also confess, the selection of 
Bryant as a Horrible Example by propagandists of 
the " new poetry " is singularly ill-judged. For is 
it not both illogical and unjust that an exponent of 
rers libre and allied affairs should " knock " a poet 
who, generations before most " new poets " were 
born, himself wrote : 

" No smooth array of phrase, 

Artfully sought and ordered though it be, 
Which the cold rhymer lays 

Upon his page with languid industry. 
Can wake the listless pulse to livelier speed, 
Or fill with sudden tears the eyes that read. 

" The secret wouldst thou know 

To touch the heart or fire the blood at will? 
Let thine own eyes o'erflow ; 

Let thy lips quiver with the passionate thrill; 
Seize the great thought, ere yet its pewer be past, 
And bind, in words, the fleet emotion fast. 



" Then, should thy verse appear 

Halting and harsh, and all unaptly wrought, 
Touch the crude line with fear, 

Save in the moment of impassioned thought; 
Then summon back the original glow, and mend 
The strain with rapture that with fire was penned." 

Still, I think Miss Monroe was entirely correct 
when she declared the unfitness of Bryant's poetry 
for her publication. As Walt says, it " ever con- 
veys a taste of the open air " and if there is 
anything that the verse printed in " Poetry " does 
not convey, it is precisely that quality. " The new 
poetry " is, manifestly, manufactured in sanctums, 
as was the " movement " that it features. Hence, 
the thought of anything of Bryant's in the pages 
of " Poetry " is indeed impossible. And, by the 
way, what, oh, what, do you suppose Walt would 
have thought of Miss Monroe's magazine if he had 
lived to see it? J OHN L. HERVEY. 

Chicago, July 27, 1915. 



EESULTS OF THE WISCONSIN SURVEY. 
(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

The words "once more" in the title given by you 
to Dean Comstock's letter in your issue of July 15, 
" The Wisconsin Survey Once More," recall how 
quickly even students tire of controversy over 
things that can be settled. 

It is on this fact that the University counted 
from the first. For a time it wavered between the 
policy adopted by the normal schools, that is, ad- 
mitting the truth and proceeding to correct defects, 
and the other policy of standing pat, denying 
everything, and diverting attention from defects of 
the University to personalities of surveyors. 

When a dean of a graduate school of a university 
with international reputation makes a statement, 
readers of THE DIAL naturally expect that this 
statement is truthful as well as scholarly. Dean 
Comstock writes that the State Board of Public 
Affairs failed to adopt the report of survey investi- 
gators, wrote a report of different tenor, and sub- 
stantially repudiated the Survey findings. Casual 
examination will show that the conclusion is con- 
trary to fact. The State Board agreed with the 
Survey in all but three of the matters touched upon 
by both the Survey and the State Board. It dis- 
agreed on trifling matters only: (1) substitution 
of state pensions for Carnegie pensions; (2) sub- 
stitution of Madison-owned for University-owned 
high school; (3) substitution of optional for com- 
pulsory military drill. In other matters the State 
Board supported the Survey, inter alia: 

1. Research is unsupervised and needs to be 
supervised, p. 12. 

2. Social sciences have not grown with the Uni- 
versity, p. 14. 

3. More practical field work is needed, p. 14. 

4. Supervision of instructors is inadequate and 
needs to include class-room visiting, p. 16. 

5. Student adviser system not as effective as it 
might be and needs strengthening, p. 17. 

6. Junior colleges are needed and are practical. 
p. 28. 

7. University should discontinue high school in- 
spection for purposes of accrediting and should 



94 



THE DIAL 



[August 15 



continue it for the sole purpose (the board said) of 
improving the quality of instruction in the subjects 
each community decides to place in its high school. 
p. 31. 

8. Regular courses leading to graduation and 
degrees without foreign language requirements 
should be established, p. 32. 

9. Students have too little contact with the older 
and stronger men on the faculty, p. 32. 

10. Further attention to organization and admin- 
istration of Wisconsin high school is needed, p. 33. 

11. Only such small classes should be continued 
as are fully justified upon investigation, p. 34. 

12. Better organization and more systematic 
management of the Extension Division are needed 
and the instructional force should be strengthened. 
p. 36. 

13. The University has failed to follow rigidly 
the legislative requirements in giving preference 
when allotting dormitory accommodations to stu- 
dents in this state, p. 62. 

14. A high percentage of non-use of certain class- 
rooms is shown, p. 62. 

15. Accounting system is not in accordance with 
modern business methods, pp. 124, 126. 

16. Some few members of the faculty have taken 
unwarranted advantage of the opportunity offered 
them for outside work, and their service to the 
University has been impaired through a division 
of their interest, p. 15. 

Do these statements from the State Board's 
report look like wholesale endorsement of the Uni- 
versity's efficiency and like repudiation of fact 
reports showing in what particular places ineffi- 
ciency exists? 

A similar discrepancy between fact and Dean 
Comstock's report will be found at whatever point 
the reader cares to follow up Dean Comstock's 
statement. The thesis which he says I wrongly 
referred to as plagiarized covers a ground that was 
incomparably better covered in a thesis submitted 
to the University of Paris in 1876. One chapter of 
it is taken almost verbatim from an English work, 
with the scant acknowledgment that the chapter is 
based upon that work. The fact that eastern schol- 
ars found the work satisfactory means absolutely 
nothing until the readers of THE DIAL know 
whether those scholars had seen the works upon 
which it was based and had critically read the 
thesis itself. If the Columbia professors who 
liked the thesis read it with no greater care than 
the Wisconsin professor who approved it their 
liking is meaningless. If they approved it after 
reading Piggeoneau's thesis of 1876 and Colvin's 
Godfrey, so much the worse for Columbia scholar- 
ship. If they approved it without reading these 
works, again so much the worse for Columbia 
scholarship. 

The fact is that there is not one of these eight 
theses which a Harvard professor would be willing 
to send to Paris, Berlin, or Oxford as a fair sample 
of American scholarship. 

The history of the thesis now admitted to be 
technically plagiarized is more sordid than any 
experience I had in ten years' dealings with Tam- 
many Hall. Dean Comstock first wrote a blanket 



denial: the thesis was admirable, absolutely origi- 
nal in a field entirely lacking in secondary sources. 
When these statements were proved to be untrue, 
he secondly wrote in the Survey report that only a 
small part of the thesis was plagiarized. Now he 
writes to THE DIAL that considerable portions were 
given without proper reference. The fact is, and 
he knows it and the president knows it and the two 
regents who compared this work with original 
sources know it, that the thesis was from cover to 
cover paste and scissors work taken from other 
sources with a brazenness that would cause the 
University to drop a freshman. 

Is there not some reader of THE DIAL who is 
interested enough in the nation-wide aspects of this 
situation to make a personal inspection of this 
thesis and of the Galland thesis above referred to 
and of the other six theses? If so, I will pay his 
board in Madison and all travelling expenses if he 
does not report that the Survey understated rather 
than overstated the scholarship deficiencies of these 
theses, provided that Dean Comstock will pay for 
board and travelling expenses if such student 
reports that we overstated these deficiencies. 

Madison, Wis., July 30, 1915. W ' H ' ALLEN - 

(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 
The communication printed above, of which I 
have seen an advance proof, furnishes an excellent 
illustration of certain methods characteristic of the 
Allen Survey. The incautious reader who is 
tempted to infer an official approval of the Allen 
report from the sixteen to three comparison above 
made should turn to pp. 909-926 of the report cited. 
He will there find set forth, in all the pomp of 
serial numbers, 339 separate recommendations 
made by Mr. Allen to the State Board of Public 
Affairs. If we assume nineteen of these to be 
accounted for by Mr. Allen's foregoing exposition 
of the case, shall we infer that the remaining 320 
constitute the material to which reference is made 
in the Findings of the Board of Public Affairs, 
under the heading, " Conclusion " p. 36 of the 
official volume? This reference is as follows: 
"Absence from this report of specific recommenda- 
tions relative to any matter commented upon by 
any investigator employed by this board is not to 
be construed as an endorsement of his views. In 
several particulars the Board of Public Affairs 
does not accept either the conclusions or findings of 
one or the other of the investigators employed by 
it; but either because of want of full information 
or for other satisfactory reasons this board with- 
holds specific recommendations." 

One must admire the optimism with which the 
surveyor contemplates the waste-basket to which 
ninety-five per cent of his recommendations are 
consigned, and which regards the following finding 
of the State Board as confirmation of his charges : 
" That the administration of the institution has 
been of a superior order is evidenced by the posi- 
tion the University of Wisconsin holds." 

Ab uno disce omnes. ~ , ~ 

GEORGE C. COMSTOCK, 

Dean of the Graduate School. 
University of Wisconsin, Aug. 7, 1915. 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



95 



THE WISCONSIN THESES. 
(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

Let me express my appreciation of the spirit of 
fairness you exhibit in printing simultaneously in 
your columns two such diverse views of the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin Survey as Dean G. C. Corn- 
stock, of the Graduate School of the University of 
Wisconsin, and Margaret A. Friend, of Milwaukee, 
present in your issue of July 15. 

I personally was one of the number who reported 
on doctors' theses accepted and approved of by 
the University of Wisconsin. I was amazed at the 
triteness, the mediocrity, the superficiality, and the 
dishonesty of the work. The author of one of these 
theses dealt with' the history of a great family dur- 
ing the time of the Crusades, as treated in a cycle 
of poems produced in the Middle Ages. The fol- 
lowing are some of the things that appeared in the 
course of my work : 

I. The author's thesis served no purpose in the 
world of scholarship; it was merely the duplica- 
tion of the work of a Trench scholar, who in 1876 
presented a thesis on the same subject before the 
University of Paris. The French scholar's han- 
dling of the subject was infinitely more compre- 
hensive and incomparably more brilliant than that 
of the Wisconsin man. 

II. The Wisconsin man incorporated bodily 
into his thesis a section of an introduction to a 
prose work in English. This extract forms an in- 
tegral part of his thesis, constituting a whole 
chapter. It consisted of an historical sketch of the 
main character treated in his thesis. Dozens of 
accounts of the hero's life were available, but this 
account happened to be of just the right length to 
serve as a chapter in his thesis. 

III. The whole of the thesis of 120 pages if 
we leave out the 20 blank pages that are numbered 
is merely a technical exercise to prove the author 
a linguistic virtuoso in three old Romance lan- 
guages : Old French, Old Spanish, and Old Italian. 
Seven of the nine texts used by the author were 
in Old French, only one text in Old Spanish and 
that in prose the thesis purported to be a 
" Poetic History," and the other one in Old Ital- 
ian, of which a half dozen good translations exist. 
The two latter texts are treated only cursorily by 
the author. 

IV. Not a statement occurs in the last chapter 
of the thesis, termed " Conclusion," that cannot be 
found in the thesis of the French author written in 
1876. Many statements are translated verbatim 
without giving the French scholar credit. The 
style of the thesis does not yield a trace of bril- 
liancy; and the observations, the conclusions, and 
in fact the whole, of the thesis fails to show a single 
gleam of originality. And this is the type of work 
that the great University of Wisconsin accepts as 
an original contribution, and rewards the perpe- 
trator with the highest possible reward of scholar- 
ship, the degree of Doctor of Philosophy ! 

Every statement made here can be readily sub- 
stantiated by detailed and concrete proof. When 
the borrowed and unaccredited sections were read 
aloud to two of the regents, Dean Comstock and 



the head of the department concerned, the regents 
were convinced of the validity of the criticisms. 
Later, in the final Survey report, I was surprised 
to discover that the " lifted " chapter above re- 
ferred to is called an " annex " to the thesis by the 
University! As late as July 1, 1915, not a sign 
existed to show that the author regarded it as such. 

DAVID E. BERG. 
Madison, Wls., Aug. 5, 1915. 



MR. ALLEN AND THE WISCONSIN FACULTY. 
(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

In your issue of July 15 is a letter signed Mar- 
garet A. Friend, defending Mr. W. H. Allen's Sur- 
vey of the University of Wisconsin. Its essential 
point is the following : " The University . . 
wanted a report . . as a few in authority wished it 
to be seen. It got a report as the six hundred 
faculty members saw it." 

Though Mr. Allen's methods, purposes, stand- 
ards, and findings, as investigator, educator, and 
efficiency expert, have been extensively canvassed 
in the intellectual press of America notably in 
the New York " Evening Post," " The Nation," and 
THE DIAL, "the six hundred faculty members" 
have heretofore expressed their opinion only in 
private. Thus your correspondent's statement may 
well suggest to some readers a new and important 
aspect of the subject; administrative tyranny, 
whether of president, deans, or board of trustees, 
over an oppressed and voiceless faculty has often 
been alleged and sometimes proved in the uni- 
versity world of America. Is Mr. Allen, then, fight- 
ing for such " six hundred faculty members " at 
Madison? No, and absolutely no. 

But it has become Mr. Allen's policy to attempt 
to enlist, or to pretend to have enlisted, the faculty 
against the administration. A cardboard folder, 
dated May 28, 1915, and signed by Mr. Allen, enti- 
tled " Open Letter to Faculty Members of the 
University of Wisconsin," begins thus : " In your 
name a new glossary of vituperation is being cre- 
ated; 'academic freedom' at the University of 
Wisconsin is being so defined as to prohibit free 
and impersonal consideration of opportunities for 
increasing efficiency," etc. The whole lengthy docu- 
ment is a masterpiece of folly, and was so ad- 
judged, I fancy, by every one of " the six hundred " 
who took time from better things to peruse it. 

All " the six hundred " filled out the elaborate 
questionnaires on which a part of Mr. Allen's 
report was subsequently based, only to find their 
evidence in many cases misunderstood or curiously 
manipulated. Later, a large number of those " six 
hundred " directly cooperated, by written memo- 
randa or by oral conference, in furnishing the 
materials from which was made up that scholarly, 
keen-witted, and high-minded rejoinder, the appen- 
dix entitled " Comment by Committee of, University 
Faculty upon Report of Investigators." Note, in- 
deed, the significant words, " Committee of Uni- 
versity Faculty " not Miss Friend's " few in 
authority." 

Moreover, the present writer, through many 
months of pretty wide contact and conversation, 
has not heard from a single colleague one word of 



96 



THE DIAL 



[August 15 



defence or even of apology for Mr. Allen's work. 
Whatever useful details of criticism may be found 
here and there in its voluminous pages, as a whole 
Mr. Allen's report, while certainly an attack upon 
" the few in authority," is still more certainly an 
attack upon the entire faculty. But it is chiefly an 
attack upon university ideals and the yet broader 
principles of candor, justice, and intelligence. 

The above statement has been read to a repre- 
sentative group of university colleagues ; they unite 
in the hope that THE DIAL may give it the fullest 
publicity. w. E. LEONARD. 

University of Wisconsin, July 22, 1915. 



[It is not practicable, nor do we feel that it 
would be profitable, to allow this discussion to 
continue further in our columns, and the corre- 
spondence must therefore close with the publi- 
cation of the letters printed above. EDITOR.] 



AN IMAGIST TO THE DEFENCE. 

(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 
My attention has been drawn to an article in 
your issue of June 24, entitled " Recent Poetry." 
The author of this review takes exception to the 
preface of my book of verse, " Irradiations." As 
he has taken the trouble, in a series of dogmatic 
statements, to deny about everything I wrote in 
that preface, surely it is only fair to me to permit 
me to undogmatically defend myself. Let the pub- 
lic be the judge between us. 

First of all, Mr. Alden assumes that in my 
preface to " Irradiations " I was speaking of the 
theories of the Imagists as a group. Surely he 
should have known that I was doing nothing of the 
sort. The preface to " Some Imagist Poets " 
contains all that the Imagists desire to hazard 
concerning themselves collectively. The preface to 
" Irradiations " is purely a personal utterance. 

Mr. Alden next says that the art of poetry in 
English-speaking countries is not in a greatly back- 
ward state. That is a question of Mr. Alden's 
taste or rather, of the scope of his reading, 
about which he tells us nothing. 

" Poets have not attempted to make of their craft 
a Masonic secret, declaring that rhythm is not to be 
analyzed." Apparently, then, many English poets 
have written technical treatises on rhythm! Yet I 
know of only three who have tackled this subject: 
Poe, Lanier, and Robert Bridges. If Mr. Alden 
knows of more, he should enlighten my ignorance. 
" It is not true that each line of a poem repre- 
sents a single breath." Then what does it repre- 
sent? Why should there be any rhythmical unit 
at all, if the breath of the bard or reciter is not to 
be taken into account? 

" Every poet of eminence has not felt the fatigu- 
ing monotony of regular rhyme." It depends on 
how you class eminence. Milton says Satan was 
raised " to that bad eminence." 

" Shakespeare did not abandon rhyme in his 
maturer period (that is, in lyrical verse)." Does 
Mr. Alden seriously suppose that Shakespeare, 
when he was writing " The Tempest," said to him- 
self : " Go to ! this is sung by Ariel ; I must write 



lyrical verse, and lyrical verse must rhyme " ; and 
later : " Hold ! this is spoken by Prospero ; hence 
it is not lyrical and must be in blank verse " ? Does 
Mr. Alden suppose this? I have a problem, then, 
for his solution. Which is more lyrical, Ariel's 
"Ding dong bell" or Prospero's "Leave not a 
rack behind " ? JOHN GOULD FLETCHER. 

Bay View, Mich., July 27, 1915. 

[I am glad to see some further discussion by 
Mr. Fletcher of the matters touched on in his 
Preface, and should also enjoy pursuing the 
subject of two or three of them ; but it is clear 
that this cannot be done, except with more of 
assertion than proof, in the incidental space 
appropriate to the discussion of my review. 
A note or two of explanation may be added. 
It is quite true that the question whether the 
art of English poetry is in a greatly backward 
state is largely one of taste and judgment. 
I can only say, therefore, that my own impres- 
sion is shared by all the competent judges 
with whom I am acquainted, to the effect that 
the past few years have shown a marked and 
growing revival of poetry as a vital expression 
of contemporary thought in England and 
America, and that an encouraging amount of 
decidedly creditable verse is finding both pub- 
lication and sale. Perhaps I may claim some 
liberality in adding that I find evidence of the 
same thing even in the "new poetry," which 
I do not greatly admire, since it implies that 
an increasing number of persons, including 
some with no great rhythmical endowment, 
are turning to poetry as a means of sincere 
and serious expression. 

If in saying that " poets have attempted to 
make of their craft a Masonic secret." Mr. 
Fletcher meant only that they have not writ- 
ten many treatises on versification, I shall not 
press my denial. But I know of none who 
have not welcomed opportunities to discuss the 
subject and to give hints to younger men 
regarding their understanding of the rhyth- 
mical art. This is particularly true of two 
such great progressive metrists as Coleridge 
and Tennyson. 

I cannot answer the question, What does 
each line of a poem represent if not a single 
breath ? except by saying that it represents an 
arbitrary art pattern, like a unit of decoration 
on a Greek pediment, or the pitch intervals 
in the tempered scale. Various eccentric theo- 
ries have been suggested, from time to time, 
connecting our rhythmic types with the 
breath, as in the effort to conjecture why 
one race prefers longer lines than another, or 
rhythm of fours rather than threes, and the 
like ; but no authority on prosody accepts any 
of these. But here let me ask, if we assume 
that each line of verse does represent a breath, 



1915 



THE DIAL 



97 



is not the art of vers libre alarmingly unhy- 
gienic, in tending to develop such irregular 
breathing as it implies ? 

Mr. Fletcher appears to have understood 
me to say that Shakespeare never used un- 
rhymed verse for lyrical passages. I should 
be very far from making such a statement, or 
even from undertaking to answer the difficult 
question just what a lyrical passage is. The 
matter concerned was Mr. Fletcher's state- 
ment that in his maturer period Shakespeare 
abandoned rhyme. Now the only change 
which is known to Shakespearean criticism, in 
the poet's use of rhyme, is his dropping of the 
early fashion of using it in dramatic speech. 
His later plays are peculiarly rich in rhymed 
lyrics, and there is not the slightest evidence 
that he ever wearied of rhyme for ordinary 
lyrical purposes. Neither, so far as I know, 
has any eminent English poet save one 
Milton given evidence of a distaste for 
regular rhyme in his maturer years. It is 
harmless for any private person to dislike regu- 
lar rhyme and to abandon it, and quite un- 
necessary that he should twist metrical theory 
and history in his defence. THE REVIEWER.] 



THE AUTHOR OF " PONTEACH." 
(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

I have read with much interest the review by 
Mr. William B. Cairns, in your issue of July 15, 
of the reprint of " Ponteach," edited by Mr. Allan 
Nevins and published by the Caxton Club of Chi- 
cago. Of the author of " Ponteach," Robert Rog- 
ers, a celebrated Ranger during the French and 
Indian War, Mr. Cairns says : " It is difficult to 
see how a man completely sunk in dissipation 
could have attained the self -culture which Rogers 
shows." 

I am sure it would be a favor if Mr. Cairns or 
somebody else would point out to the students of 
this period of our history any evidence to prove 
that Rogers was a man of culture. 

It is at least my own opinion that Rogers's 
" Journals " and his " Concise Account " were 
written by some hack writer in London, who 
secured his information from Rogers or from Rog- 
ers's note-books. Anyone who will take the trouble 
to consult the " Documentary History of the State 
of New York," Vol. II., p. 205, etc., will see from 
Rogers's reports of his scouting expeditions as there 
printed, presumably from the originals, that he was 
so illiterate that he could not even spell his own 
name correctly at least not all the time, and 
some of the simplest words in the language were 
misspelled. W. H. S. 

New York City, July 23, 1915. 

[As I wished to make plain in my review, 
my interest in " Ponteach " is in the literary 
values and relationships of the play, and on 
matters of historical and biographical research 
I speak purely as a layman. The journals of 



Rogers's scouting expeditions in 1755, to 
which your correspondent refers, seem to me 
to show neither more nor less of crudity than 
might be expected in the work of a man with 
Rogers's lack of early training. This same 
ranger, whose orthography in 1755 so shocks 
your correspondent, was apparently able ten 
years later to impress favorably the social, 
official, and military circles of London, and to 
win, without money and in the face of strong 
American opposition, an important appoint- 
ment. He was also the author, or at the very 
least was believed by those who knew him to 
be the author, of two prose works and a verse 
drama which show some slight acquaintance 
with books as well as with life ; and his manu- 
script letters and journals of later date which 
I am able to examine in the library of the 
State Historical Society of Wisconsin are not 
in penmanship, wording, or even in spelling 
the work of a man who could be called illit- 
erate. This development indicates what I 
called "self-culture," though I should not 
quarrel in defence of the term. My argu- 
ment was that it made against the contention 
that Rogers was wholly given over to low vice. 
When I wrote I was not aware that the 
authorship of the " Journals " and the " Con- 
cise Account" was seriously questioned. I 
note that your correspondent, though he 
speaks without apparent hesitation of "the 
author of 'Ponteach,' Robert Rogers," ex- 
presses the opinion that Rogers did not write 
the prose works named. Doubtless Mr. Nev- 
ins would be glad, as I should, of any substan- 
tial evidence in support of this somewhat 
peculiar view. It would require more than 
the inconsistent spelling in the journals of 
Rogers's scouting days to have much weight. 
THE REVIEWER.] 

AUTHORS AND KNIGHTHOOD. 
(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

It is not my place or desire to criticize, but as a 
regular reader of THE DIAL I feel constrained to 
utter a feeble protest against the tone of the edito- 
rial paragraph, " Plumed Knights," in your issue 
of July 15. 

It seems trivial and foreign to your practice to 
decry any time-honored custom of any land, much 
less the one that holds first place in the production 
of the best in literature. While we in America may 
have but little regard for knighthood, should we 
not at least respect it as being an outward sign of 
the appreciation of a people, bestowed by royalty 
though it may be, for one who has done something 
worthy? Since the authors of to-day accept this 
honor, we are not justified in belittling it, but 
should rather esteem it because of their acceptance. 
NOEL A. DUNDERDALE. 

Chicago, July 28, 1915. 



98 



THE DIAL 



[August 15 



jj* |Uto 0ohs. 



A BREVIARY FOR CRITICS.* 

Close upon the heels of Mr. Brownell's criti- 
cal credo, recently reviewed in these pages, 
follows the manifesto of Mr. George Edward 
Woodberry, who takes rank with Mr. Brownell 
himself, Professor Irving Babbitt, and Mr. 
Paul Elmer More among the most conspicuous 
critics in America to-day. Like Mr. Brownell, 
Mr. Woodberry combines a kindly attitude 
toward the later modes of impressionism and 
appreciation with an eager desire to hold fast 
to the best in the old magisterial conception. 
He weighs and sifts the historical method for 
its dross of death and its life-gold, and he 
passes on to a sober but hymnlike adoration of 
art in its immortality which is perhaps the 
most exalting prose of its special kind since 
Shelley's "Defence of Poetry." 

In his first essay, Mr. Woodberry reminds 
us of an alluring conception of criticism as 
re-creation, but sets such a definition aside for 
a space while he considers how far the his- 
torical critic may understand a work of art 
as it was in another nation and in a dim past 
without re-creating it and thereby inevitably 
adding to it the color of his own personality. 
Mr. Woodberry calls upon us to remember 
Taine with admiration, but to make the large 
generalizations of the French critic more valid 
by putting against them the psychological crit- 
ic's absorption in the individual (with a pass- 
ing frown at the modern habit for hounding 
out the abnormal as essential in genius). A 
third group, " a hybrid of the sociologists and 
the psychologists," has arisen to dwell on great 
personalities amidst a maze of influences from 
nations and epochs, making criticism "an 
anatomy of texts." Criticism seems to draw 
" ever further away from the work of art 
itself ; it leaves the matter of life, which art is, 
for the matter of knowledge." Should we not 
then take warning and accept after all the 
definition formulated by recent critics? Can 
we re-create, however, and re-create " the work 
of art as it was in the mind of the original 
artist " ? To re-create not " a vision of our 
own" but the identical vision in the mind of 
the artist of the past is to enter the realms of 
history. Despite the universal qualities which 
we may readily perceive, there are " local and 
temporal associations" which require a most 
complete absorption to re-create in their integ- 
rity. In fact, you cannot re-create from any 
point of view (for all the hopes of recent 



*Two PHASES OF CRITICISM, HISTORICAL AND .^ESTHETIC. 
By George Edward Woodberry. Limited edition. Published 
for the Woodberry Society. 



impressionists) unless you pay some attention 
to the historical method. 

" What, you will say, ' is not line the same 
beauty in a Greek or Japanese or Trench work ? has 
not color the same value? is not the human eye the 
same the world over?' Well, to begin with, the 
line is not the same, and it has different connota- 
tions; and so, also, of the color; and the human 
eye is as various as the soul that sees through it. 
Art is not like mathematics, something to be cast 
into identical formulas in every time and place. . . 
It is not so simple as observing a sunset; it is not 
merely to open your eyes and see; you must first 
create the eye to see with." 

And when we remember further that not only 
is art " a Protean play of personality in many 
places and ages" but also that no one of us 
sees the same thing in the same way, historical 
criticism may seem at best "only a doubtful 
resurrection of the soul that has passed away, 
a portrait, perhaps, but one in whose eyes 
and expression there is an unshared secret." 
Mr. Woodberry, however, warns us against 
growing lax in the great quest of the historical 
method, for it is the critic's only hope of 
qualifying himself " to undertake that purely 
aesthetic criticism " by which he 
" may at last become one with the soul of the artist 
and see his vision with the meaning and atmosphere 
it had to himself. So much of art is antique and 
foreign, so much of what is racially our own has 
become alien to my feelings and ideas by the grad- 
ual detachment of time, that I need an interpreter 
between me and this dead and dying world of the 
past, I need precisely the interpretation of knowl- 
edge that historical criticism gives. True, it is not 
aesthetic criticism; but aesthetic criticism, in the 
sense of a re-creation of art as it was in the past, 
for me is impossible without it." 
Nor should we excuse criticism from the func- 
tion of judgment as well as interpretation. It 
must do more than content itself with asking : 
What was in the mind of the artist ? Has he 
expressed it? Was his method well or ill 
adapted ? Is his result worth the pains ? The 
artist may hold himself free from rules : but 
not so, with impunity, the critic. Mr. Wood- 
berry comes close to Mr. Brownell when he 
declares that " we who find in the merely hu- 
man world no guide so safe as reason, look to 
criticism to declare the judgment of reason on 
the intellectual and moral values of art." Nor 
is art itself, as is so often averred, mere " sense- 
perceiving; but it gathers into its energy the 
whole play of personality, and is a power of 
the total soul." Reason aids in its fashioning. 
" It is a rationalized and spiritualized world, the 
world that ought to be, an ideal world, though 
found only fragmentarily in any individual or 
period or country. Art is not a spontaneous gen- 
eration and geyser, as it were, of the senses at play 
in their world of mere phenomena; but it is a 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



99 



world-creator, the maker of a new and complete 
world, one not superficial and momentary merely, 
but a world with meaning, loaded with all the sig- 
nificance that man has found in his spiritual life." 
Hence the permanence of great art, even 
though it may happen that the artist himself 
be no thinker but rather one who expresses 
half unrealizingly the vision of a community. 
He may not speak as some others do, in 
abstractions ; but he utters what is neverthe- 
less "intellectual and moral truth, spiritual 
truth." 

" The prime contrast between art and nature [is] 
... an opposition of freedom to necessity, of the 
soul to the body, of spirituality to materialism. 
Art is the soul's confession. I should be ill-content 
if works of art, taken individually, yielded to the 
critic only a momentary experience of the senses 
and feelings, as if they were merely disparate 
objects of nature. I desire to know their meanings 
to the soul; and that intellectual and moral ele- 
ments enter into their meaning, and that without 
the cooperation of the reason they are incompletely 
known, seems to me plain. . . Each school, each 
age, each race has its own art, often highly indi- 
vidualized and peculiar to itself. . . The diversity 
of art not only makes interpretation necessary to 
its understanding, but also renders judgment of its 
value, intellectual, moral, technical, very useful, 
both in guiding the mind in its choice and in estab- 
lishing the relative place that any particular artist 
or art period has in the whole field. . . Contempla- 
tion without judgment is a barren attitude, though 
judgment need not confine itself to comparing 
greater and lesser." 

The revolt against such criticism springs prob- 
ably from " a discontent with that immersion 
in the dead past of knowledge which is often 
the scholar's lot, and from a desire to confine 
our interest in art within those limits where 
art is alive." With this we may sympathize. 
But many of these hardships are inevitable. 
Let us not, like the futurists, consider the past 
as merely in the way. Even " in realizing the 
dead selves of mankind, the soul accumulates 
power, breadth of outlook, tolerance and espe- 
cially, I think, faith and hope." But for all 
this solace, " one is often fain to ask, ' Is 
there no rescue from this reign of death, which 
is history, and how shall it be accomplished ?' " 

The answer, thinks Mr. Woodberry, should 
lie in aesthetic criticism. 

" Is it an error to relegate art to the dead past 
and translate it into history? Works of art are 
not like political events and persons; they do not 
pass at once away. The Hermes of Praxiteles is 
still with us. Is it really the same Hermes that it 
was when it was made? Is its personal identity a 
fixed state, or does its personality, like our own, 
change in the passage of time? May it not be the 
nature of art to cast off what is mortal, and emanci- 
pate itself from the mind of its creator? " 

Is there something beyond " that mortal and 



temporary part which historical criticism pre- 
serves " ? Yes. ^Esthetic criticism may try to 
re-create " the image before us apart from any 
attempt to realize what was in the artist's 
mind, or with only a passing reference to 
that." Expression, " the nucleus of the artist's 
power," is " the process of externalizing what 
was in the artist's mind, in some object of 
sense which shall convey it to others." " The 
natural object . . is enveloped in his feeling," 
his personality, which is immaterial. Sugges- 
tion, half-lights, the inexpressible, play about 
a work of art. " In so far as a work of art is a 
thing of nature, it can be expressed materially 
with the more adequacy; in so far as it is a 
thing of spirit, of personality, it is less subject 
to complete and certain expression ; and in all 
art there are these two elements." No two 
people can realize this play of spirit in exactly 
the same way. "Rifts of temperament and 
varieties of expression between artist and spec- 
tator make chasms of misunderstanding and 
misappreciation." " Every reader thinks that 
he is Hamlet." To make every reader think 
so is to be a genius, a universal writer. 
"Whence arises this paradox, so common in 
art, of infinite diversity in identity? It 
comes from the fact that, so far from realiz- 
ing the image as it was in the artist's mmd 
and receiving it charged with his personality 
merely, it is we ourselves who create the image 
by charging it with our own personality." 

" It is one of the charms of art that it is not 
to be completely understood. In an age in 
which so high a value is put upon facts, in- 
formation, positive knowledge, it is a relief to 
have still reserved to us a place apart where 
it is not necessary to know all." The truth of 
art grows ever with time " more rich in signifi- 
cance, more profound in substance, disclosing 
heaven over heaven and depth under depth." 
The greatest books grow old with us. So it is 
that great artists become lifelong studies. Our 
powers of appreciation vary, and our way is. 
"commonly blocked by certain inhibitions 
which are so lodged in the mind by education 
and opinion that they effectively paralyze any 
effort at re-creation." The Puritans feared 
the drama. The respectable American turns 
hastily and pruriently away from the nude 
figure and the shame is his, not the artist's. 
With such limitations we fall short of the 
artist's vision. Yet, on the other hand, we may 
give his work of art beautiful meanings of 
which he did not dream. 

" The essence of the work, its living power for 
us, is not what the artist put in it, but what we 
draw from it ; its world-value is not what it was to 
the artist, but what it is to the world. . . Thus 
arises the paradox . . that it is not the poet, but 



100 



THE DIAL 



[August 15 



the reader, who writes the poem. . . New ages 
appropriate the works of the past by accomplish- 
ing a partial transformation in them, and unless 
art is capable of such a remaking it cannot last." 
So it was that Pater in his " creative criticism " 
re-created art, "a marvellous blend of the 
modern spirit with ancient material." All his 
figures, "Dionysus, or French gallants, or 
Roman gentlemen, . . are developed in the 
dark chamber of his own singularly sensitive 
and refined artistic temperament." Thus the 
Puritans re-created the Old Testament. We 
need not abolish war and the wine-cup as 
beautiful poetic imagery even in chaster days ; 
they may adorn and vivify the poetry of an 
age of new ideals, and do these rich service. 

Works of art are not, then, to Mr. Wood- 
berry " historical monuments valuable for the 
information they give of the past," but 
" new material, for us to work our own statues and 
pictures and poems out of ; or, in a word, to create 
the forms of our own souls out of; for the soul 
must be given forms in order to be aware of its 
being, to know itself, truly to be. The soul moves 
toward self-expression in many ways, but in finding 
forms for itself the soul discovers its most plastic 
material in the world of art. It is in forms of 
ideality that the soul hastens to clothe itself; and 
while it is possible for us to elaborate such forms 
from the crude mass of nature, as the first artists 
did, yet later generations are the more fortunate in 
that they possess in art and literature a vast treas- 
ure of ideality already elaborated and present. 
Works of art thus constitute a select material 
wherein the artist-soul that is in each of us can 
work, not only with our own native force of pene- 
tration and aspiration, but, as it were, with higher 
aid, the aid of genius, the aid of the select souls 
of the race." 

Thus art casts off "what is mortal," and 
emancipates "itself from the mind of its 
creator " " to enter upon a life of its own, con- 
tinually renewed in the minds of those who 
appropriate it." The reader who appropriates 
may be a Pater; he may be far humbler, he 
may be far greater. Such fame outlasts biog- 
raphy. The poet's memory becomes ideal. 

"And then this miracle arises that into the soul 
of Virgil, for example, enters a Christian soul, 
new-born, and deepening its pathos. . . That is 
earthly immortality, the survival and increment 
of the spirit through time. Thus arises another 
paradox, that as art begins by being charged with 
personality, it ends by becoming impersonal, solv- 
ing the apparent contradiction in the soul universal, 
the common soul of mankind. Each of us creates 
art in his own image, it seems an infinite varia- 
ble ; and yet it is the variable of something identical 
in all the soul. . . It is thus in the artistic life 
that one shares in the soul universal, the common 
soul of mankind, which yet is manifest only in indi- 
viduals and their concrete work. Art like life has 
its own material being in the concrete, but the spir- 
itual being of both is in the universal." 



Now observe that when, " from time to 
time in history our ancestors encountered suc- 
cessively alien literatures, and as each was in 
turn appropriated, a Renaissance resulted," 
and thus " civilization has grown in body and 
quality, ever enriching itself by what it ab- 
sorbs from this and that particular race and 
age." It is tragic folly to isolate nations and 
races, to learn race self-sufficiency and, after 
that, race suspicion and race hate. Beware of 
the reactionary tendency growing in America. 
Remember, too, that the individual, like the 
nation, like civilization, must have his periodi- 
cal renaissance. Goethe needed his Italian 
journey. Shelley was reborn when he read 
Plato. 

The artist-life is " a life of discovery," not 
of truth but of faculty ; not so much " an ac- 
quisition of knowledge " as " an acquisition of 
inward power." 

" The most wonderful thing in the soul is the 
extraordinary latency of power in it; and it is in 
the artist-life, in the world of art, that this latent 
power is most variously and brilliantly released. 
What happens to you when you begin to see, really 
to see, pictures, for example ? It is not that a new 
object has come within the range of your vision; 
but that a new power of seeing has arisen in your 
eye, and through this power a new world has opened 
before you, a world of such marvels of space, 
color, and beauty, luminosity, shadow, and line, 
atmosphere and disposition, that you begin to live 
in it as a child begins to learn to live in the natural 
world. It is not the old world seen piecemeal; it 
is a new world on another level of being than 
natural existence. So, when you begin to take in a 
poem, it is not a mere fanciful arrangement of 
idea and event added to your ordinary memory of 
things ; new powers of feeling have opened in your 
heart that constitute a fresh passion of life there, 
and as you feed it with lyric and drama, a signifi- 
cance, a mystery, a light enter into the universe as 
you know it, with transforming and exalting power. 
To the lover of pictures the visible world has be- 
come something other than it was, even nature 
herself flowers with Corots and Manets, coruscates 
with Turners and Claudes, darkens with Rem- 
brandts; to the lover of poetry also the visible 
world has suffered change and lies in the light of 
Wordsworth or of Shelley, but much more the 
invisible world of inward life is transformed into 
visions of human fate in ^Eschylus and Shakspere, 
into throbs of passion in Dante and Petrarch, into 
cries of ecstasy and pain in how many generations 
of the poets world-wide. It is not that you have 
acquired knowledge ; you have acquired heart. To 
lead the artist-life is not to look at pictures and 
read books; it is to discover the faculties of the 
soul, that slept unknown and unused, and to apply 
them in realizing the depth and tenderness, the elo- 
quence, the hope and joy of the life that is within. 
It is by this that the life of art differs from the 
life of science: its end is not to know but to be." 



1915] 



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101 



Therefore we revolt against the historical 
treatment of art because we feel that it endan- 
gers art's own true nature, degrades it into 
mere knowledge, loses sight of life. " The first 
place is held by life. It is against the substitu- 
tion of knowledge for life in scholarship, espe- 
cially in the literary and artistic fields, that 
the protest is made." 

"A second main trait of the artist-life of the 
soul . . is that it is a life of growth by an inward 
secret and mysterious process. There is nothing 
mechanical in it; it is vital. It was this aspect of 
the soul's life which Wordsworth brought so promi- 
nently forward, and made elemental in his verse, 
advocating a ( wise passiveness ' in the conduct of 
the mind. . . ' Consider the lilies, how they grow : 
they toil not, neither do they spin.' That is the 
type of the artist-soul; in the artist-life there is 
neither toiling nor spinning. In an economical 
civilization like ours, leisure is apt to be confounded 
with indolence, and it is hard to see how the poet 
watching 

' the sun illume 
The yellow bees in the ivy bloom ' 

is not an idler in the land. Especially is it hard to 
see how things will come without planning. In our 
own day planning has become an all-engrossing 
occupation. A belief in organization has spread 
through the country, and is applied in all quarters 
of life, as if success were always a matter of 
machinery. Even in the churches, which have been 
the home of spiritual force, organization plays an 
ever-increasing part, as if failure in driving-force 
could be made up for by appliances in the machine ; 
to a certain extent this is possible, but the driving 
force is not the machine. The practical reason so 
occupies all the field of our life that the result is to 
belittle and destroy whatever has not its ground of 
being in the useful. Art, by its own nature, 
excludes the useful." 

"A third main trait of the world of art is 
that it is a place of freedom," not merely 
"from the manacle of utility" but, on the 
positive side, a power to transcend nature and 
to reconstitute "the world in the image" of 
the souPs 

" own finer vision and deeper wisdom, realizing 
ideality in its own consciousness and conveying at 
least the shadow of its dream to mankind. . . Each 
of us, in reading the play, may well believe he is 
Hamlet, but each is well aware that he is identify- 
ing himself with a more perfect type of himself, 
such as is known only to the mind's eye. . . The 
fruit of this large freedom is the ideal world, in 
which each realizes his dream of the best. It is 
here that experiments are made, that revolutions 
sometimes begin ; for the ideal, . . once expressed, 
passes back into the ordinary world, and there it 
may be made a pattern, a thing to be actualized, 
and it falls under the dominance of the practical 
reason and has this or that fortune according to 
the wisdom or folly of mankind at the time. . . 
There are times . . when the ideal world does enter 
into the actual world, and partly permeate it, if it 



does not wholly master it. The classic, the chivalric, 
the Christian world attest the fact broadly; and in 
individual life how must we ourselves bear witness 
to the mingling in ourselves of the poets' blood, 
which is the blood of the world. In the intimacy of 
this communion is our best of life, and it is accom- 
plished solely by the re-creation in us, in our minds 
and hearts, our hopes, admirations and loves, of 
what was first in the artists of every sort, according 
to our capacity to receive and reembody in our own 
spiritual substance their finer, wiser, deeper, power. 
Their capacity to enter thus into the life of human- 
ity is the measure of their genius, and our capacity 
to receive the gift is the measure of our souls." 

" The poets are often spoken of as prophets, and 
in history the greatest are those most lonely peaks 
that seem to have taken the light of an unrisen 
dawn, like Virgil, whose humanity in the Aeneid 
shines with a foregleam of the Christian tempera- 
ment, or like Plato, whose philosophy in many a 
passage was a morning star that went before the 
greater light of Christian faith in the divine. But 
it is not such poets and such prophecy that I have 
in mind. I mean that in our own experiences in 
this artist-life with the poets, sculptors, and musi- 
cians there abides the feeling that we shall have, 
as Tennyson says, * the wages of going on,' there 
is our clearest intimation of immortality. Words- 
worth found such intimations in fragments of his 
boyhood and youth. I find them rather in frag- 
ments of manhood and maturer life. Life im- 
presses me less as a birth initially out of the divine 
into mortal being than as birth into the divine at 
each step of the onward way." 

Such a life is not reserved for the select alone ; 
it is open to all. " The child with his picture- 
book and the dying Laureate reading the 
Shaksperian 'Dirge' in the moonlight lead 
the same life and follow the same method. The 
boy with Homer, the sage with Plato, it is all 
one : each is finding his soul, and living in it." 
We must strive for a more just economic 
order "to lessen the burden of common life" 
and give each individual time to rejoice in 
this artist-life, his birthright, no matter how 
humble he may be. 

" We are all proud of America, and look on our 
farms and workshops, the abundance of work, the 
harvest of universal gain dispersed through multi- 
tudes reclaimed from centuries of poverty, we 
see and proclaim the greatness of the good ; but I 
am ill-content with the spiritual harvest, with the 
absence of that which has been the glory of great 
nations in art and letters, with the indifference to 
that principle of human brotherhood in devotion to 
which our fathers found greatness and which is 
most luminous in art and letters; our enormous 
success in the economical and mechanical sphere 
leaves me unreconciled to our failure to enter the 
artistic sphere as a nation." 

Mr. Woodberry is certainly timely in his 
warnings against history and historical criti- 
cism, which tend to-day so often to substitute 
knowledge for life. But I should be inclined 



102 



THE DIAL 



[August 15 



to say that he turns away from historical criti- 
cism, after he has said many fine things in its 
praise, with a too audible sigh of relief. The 
greatest critics in the generations to follow, 
now that the new genre of criticism has devel- 
oped so rapidly and so richly, must be so 
robust that their " aesthetic criticism " may be 
superimposed on a very massive foundation of 
historical research. I can conceive of a criti- 
cism which could wed the dryasdust but in- 
valuable method of the most plodding and 
terrify ingly erudite contributions to "schol- 
arly journals" (contributions bristling with 
citations) with the most alert receptivity and 
nimble play of moods and soaring imagination 
of the most sensitive impressionist. This may 
seem to Mr. Woodberry, and to the readers of 
his book or even of my synopsis, but an exag- 
gerated underlining of certain of his own 
statements. Yet if I am but underlining his 
fundamental precepts, I would do it even at 
the risk of masquerading with the plumage 
and the voice of a parrot. I underline because 
I feel a certain danger in many of Mr. Wood- 
berry's passages. Time and again he seems to 
conceive of idealism and fact as enemies as 
implacable as the Persian deities Ormuzd and 
Ahriman, with their endless armies of radiant 
angels and swart demons. Surely idealism 
which is not fragile in the face of the first 
stroke of healthy disillusionment must rise 
phoenix-like out of fact, which it does not 
oppose but from which it is splendidly born. 
Mr. Woodberry has communed with Plato and 
within himself, in many an awed and happy 
vigil, over the problem of the One and the 
Many, and has clearly seen with Spenser how 
change does but again and again dilate with- 
out destroying an eternal being. But some of 
those other opposites which bewilder us in all 
but our most adventurous moments, for all his 
care (though he often manages them bravely, 
like two fiery coursers held for a time in yoke) , 
fly apart and almost shatter his chariot at 
times in the highest moments of his Phaethon- 
ride. 

Not only is Mr. Woodberry's reconciliation 
of historical and aesthetic criticism a little 
faltering, but at .times he seems to think of 
society as led by a few highly endowed critics 
as well as poets, at times a benignant Utopian 
anarchy in which everybody may be a critic 
with a poet's soul, a richly trained creative 
reader. I know that he would make sorrowing 
concessions that many are debarred within the 
fell clutch of circumstance. He protests elo- 
quently against our unjust economic order. 
But he passes by a fundamental protest with- 
out which we can never have a just economic 
order when he concedes with so many agstheti- 



cians that the useful and the artistic cannot be 
reconciled. " Our bodies and our mortal inter- 
ests," he says, " are subject to the world of 
use; but our spirituality, our immortal part, 
is above use." Here I for one am prepared 
undauntedly to open the pages of a book often 
reviled by artist and economist, Buskin's 
" Crown of Wild Olive," at the opening pages 
of the chapter called " Traffic," and protest 
with the writer against the false opposition of 
art and utility. I also (though I am one of 
those who believe that after death we go on as 
individuals, in being dilated but fundamen- 
tally the same) am here on earth to say that 
I will brook no deep distinction between my 
"physical" and my "spiritual" self. The 
highest love is uncompromisingly physical and 
uncompromisingly spiritual, though few are 
strenuous enough to learn its deep and lasting 
rewards because few are strenuous to learn 
with their comrade how to love before they 
love. The highest art should be useful ; there 
is no distinction there, any more than there is 
here on earth between body and soul. Mr. 
Woodberry has fallen into an asceticism, 
not the athletic asceticism of temporary re- 
straint for purposes of purer enjoyment, but 
the asceticism of fear: an asceticism, with 
Mr. Woodberry, delicate, more tender, warmer 
than its old parent of the grey twilight but 
born out of it, bred of its bone, marked with 
its lineaments. Mr. Woodberry remains, after 
all, a champion of the old feudalistic art, an 
art which now would be communal but fails, 
an art which now loves but also still fears the 
populace, an art which fears the useful. The 
Greeks created something like a communal 
art at the expense of slaves who did the 
drudgery. To-day, though we have declared 
ourselves against slavery and have freed all 
nominal slaves (and to have declared our- 
selves, merely, means great progress) , we live 
in an age of actual slavery more widespread 
than that of any previous age. And this is 
partly because we refuse to face squarely the 
problem of drudgery. Mr. Woodberry makes 
a wise distinction between soft indolence (that 
herald of all the other deadly sins) and beau- 
tiful leisure. But he should realize that so 
long as drudgery remains a reality, the toiler 
in the realms of drudgery (if he survives) or 
his son or daughter (if he is successful) will 
never distinguish between leisure and more 
obvious, most alluring indolence. We must 
face the problem that the Greeks shirked. 
We must declare that nothing is impossible 
but that one word "impossible." We must 
declare drudgery to be a phantasm which has 
been tricked out in borrowed flesh and blood 
too long. And we may make at least one fair 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



103 



beginning at this gigantic and quixotic but 
ultimately most practical task by dreaming 
ceaselessly and doing ceaselessly that these two 
apparent opposites, art and utility, may be 



wedded. 



HERBERT ELLSWORTH CORY. 



CHILDREN OF THE CITY.* 



" Public opinion has a curious trick of suddenly 
regarding as a living moral issue, vital and un- 
appeasable, some old situation concerning which 
society has been indifferent for many years. The 
newly moralized issue, almost as if by accident, 
suddenly takes fire and sets whole communities in 
a blaze, lighting up human relationships and 
public duty with a new meaning, in the end trans- 
forming an abstract social ideal into a political 
demand for new legal enactments. When that 
blaze actually starts, when the theme is heated, 
molten as it were with human passion and desire, 
it is found that there are many mature men and 
women of moral purpose and specialized knowl- 
edge who have become efficient unto life. Among 
them are those who have long felt a compunction 
in regard to the ill-adjustment of which society 
has become conscious and are eager to contribute 
to the pattern of juster human relations." 

Thus writes Miss Addams in her preface 
to " Safeguards for City Youth," a book de- 
scribing the work and experiences of the 
Juvenile Protective Association of Chicago. 
These same winged words might well have 
stood 011 the title-page of each of the five books 
now before us, for all are symptoms of the 
same awakening, the same desire of "mature 
men and women of moral purpose" to be 
doing something to mend the evil of their day, 
and prevent that of the days to come. This 
new impulse, developing " almost as if by acci- 
dent," is nevertheless the fruit of the toil of 
years, as Miss Addams well knows, being her- 
self chief among the toilers. It is fortunate 
that it is so, for herein is a certain guarantee 
of stability, an assurance that this new birth 
of the social conscience is but the emerging 
into the light of a growth which has been 
patiently maturing for many a day. 

The Juvenile Protective Association is not 
a mere society for the prevention of cruelty 
to children, but an organized attempt to study 

* SAFEGUARDS FOB CITY YOUTH, at Work and at Play. By 
Louise de Koven Bowen. With a preface by Jane Addams. 
New York: The Macro illan Co. 

THE WAYWARD CHILD. A Study of the Causes of Crime. 
By Hannah Kent Schoff. Indianapolis : The Bobbs-Merrill Co. 

STREET-LAND. Its Little People and Big Problems. By 
Philip Davis, assisted by Grace Kroll. Boston : Small, May- 
nard & Co. 

THE JUVENILE COURT AND THE COMMUNITY. By Thomas D. 
Eliot. New York : The Macmillan Co. 

BOYHOOD AND LAWLESSNESS ; and The Neglected Girl. By 
Ruth S. True ; with a chapter on The Italian Girl, by Josephine 
Roche. West Side Studies (Russell Sage Foundation) ; car- 
ried on under the direction of Pauline Goldmark. New York : 
Survey Associates. 



the conditions surrounding childhood in Chi- 
cago, and remedy some of the evils for which 
Society is responsible. Indeed, the word 
"juvenile" is interpreted broadly, as includ- 
ing young people of mature growth, who need 
protection as they enter the ranks of labor. 
This protection must come largely through 
enlightened public opinion ; so we are begged 
to note that "all of the stores make large 
profits at the holiday season, but they are 
made at the expense of thousands of employ- 
ees, whose weary feet and aching backs are 
the result of the mad rush on the part of thou- 
sands of Christian people who are thus seek- 
ing to express the kindliness and good will 
which our Christmas commemorates ! " or 
again that " the same kind-hearted people who, 
in great concern, would quickly gather around 
the victim of a street accident, carelessly eat 
food placed before them by a frail girl almost 
fainting with fatigue or heedlessly walk 
through a hotel corridor lately scrubbed by a 
Polish woman who has spent ten hours upon 
her hands and knees." The object of Mrs. 
Bowen's book is to enable us to see the 
machinery back of the passing show, and real- 
ize the cruelty and stupidity of so much of 
it; thereby arousing not merely the wish for 
reform, but the hope of being able to better 
things. 

A minute study of the social environment 
would be largely futile with the other element 
of the problem, the nature of the individual, 
left out of account. Consequently " the Asso- 
ciation is at present making a careful study 
of sub-normal children, of whom it is esti- 
mated that there are about 6000 in Chicago. 
Approximately only one-tenth of this number 
can be received at the one State Institution 
for the Feeble-Minded in Illinois." This ap- 
palling problem is matched by another, not 
wholly unrelated, and we read : " One of the 
most pathetic sights in Chicago is the venereal 
disease ward for children in the County Hos- 
pital. In twenty-seven months, 600 children 
under twelve years of age passed through this 
ward 60 per cent of them had contracted 
the disease accidentally; 20 per cent of them 
had inherited it, and another 20 per cent had 
been criminally assaulted by diseased per- 
sons." 

Mrs. Schoff, in her study of " The Wayward 
Child," approaches the subject with the same 
zeal, and writes with the knowledge gained 
from many years of work. Her point of view 
is not scientific, and she is inclined to regard 
the problem in an old-fashioned way. Thus 
we are assured that "when carried back to 
William the Conqueror each child has, accord- 
ing to President G. Stanley Hall, eight billion 



104 



THE DIAL 



[August 15 



ancestors. From so many as eight billion 
ancestors, each child must certainly have a 
very mixed heredity, and we may be encour- 
aged about the matter even more by remem- 
bering that man was created in the image and 
likeness of God and that consequently there 
must be some good in every one." The propo- 
sition that every human life is " worth while," 
and should be given the best possible chance, 
is one to which we may cordially assent; but 
even the testimony of President G. Stanley 
Hall will not make us believe in those eight 
billion ancestors. By the same arithmetical 
process it will be apparent that at the time of 
Julius Caesar our ancestors covered the earth 
many layers deep. These, however, are minor 
matters; and when it comes to the practical 
things of life, Mrs. Schoff has much good 
advice to give. Thus : " More than half of the 
children in the juvenile court during eight 
years were there for stealing. No one could 
listen to the stories of theft of every sort told 
by these children without reaching the conclu- 
sion that honesty does not come without con- 
structive parental teaching." Judging from 
the testimony of thousands of prison inmates, 
it is concluded that reform schools have ex- 
actly the opposite effect from that suggested 
by their name. Recognizing the unconscious 
prejudice of the narrators, who in telling their 
experiences tend to place all the blame on 
their surroundings, we must nevertheless ad- 
mit that the testimony is weighty, and after 
all not different from what we might reason- 
ably expect. Even high class boarding schools 
for "young gentlemen" are sometimes nests 
of more corruption than we care to admit. 

" Street-Land," by Mr. Philip Davis of Bos- 
ton, is a volume of " The "Welfare Series," 
edited by Mr. E. T. Hale. It gives a clear 
account of the life of city children in the 
streets, their efforts to find work and amuse- 
ment, their troubles and temptations. It also 
describes the Newsboys' Republic, and sets 
forth a programme for the future. Ulti- 
mately, the solution must be found in a radical 
reorganization of city life. " Since it is the 
almost savage environment which makes many 
city children little savages, we must learn that 
our chief task is to civilize the environment. 
Nor can this be accomplished by philanthropy 
or law. These are curative, not preventive, 
agencies. Sound economics, made popular by 
safe investments in homes for the people built 
by the municipality or State, as in Letch- 
worth, England, and in Belgium, alone will 
ultimately abolish slums and slum products 
and prevent their reproduction in the rising 
cities of America." It is to be noted, however, 
that if mere legal enactments cannot do away 



with the evil, they can and do perpetuate it, 
preventing municipalities from taking the 
steps necessary to create decent conditions. 

Dr. Eliot's book on "The Juvenile Court 
and the Community " is an attempt to define 
the status of the Juvenile Court, and deter- 
mine its proper functions. It is recognized 
that the Court has undergone an evolution, 
whereby the court business proper has dimin- 
ished in proportion to the ever extending pro- 
bation system. Volunteer probation is giving 
way to organized municipal work, and "in 
most places needs simply a death blow to ' put 
it out of its misery.' " The probation officer is 
called upon to cooperate with all existing 
agencies, and thus finds himself no longer 
exclusively connected with the Court. The 
point is made that probation is a part of the 
educational system, and should have its prin- 
cipal point of contact with the schools rather 
than with any judicial system. The Domestic 
Relations Court could take care of the other 
functions of the Juvenile Court, which would 
thus disappear, its activities having been 
absorbed by other agencies. *' The writer be- 
lieves that the evidence shows that the juve- 
nile court has been for its time a splendid 
institution," but that it represents a stage in 
evolution, leading to better things. If the 
Juvenile Court represents a transitory stage, 
it is still evident that in most places this stage 
has not yet passed. All students of the Court 
recognize that it is changing, growing in 
various directions to meet the public need, 
and, as it were, producing new departments 
by a process of budding. The time is ripe for 
such discussions as that of Dr. Eliot's, but 
they are perhaps to be taken with a grain of 
salt, on Bergsonian grounds. It is probable 
that different cities, attempting to solve their 
problems in different ways, will find that there 
is no single road to municipal efficiency. 
Escaping from one difficulty we meet some 
other. The Juvenile Court has had a hard 
struggle with the politicians ; but let the diffi- 
cult work of probation fall under the direc- 
tion of the School Board, and we may find 
that timidity, indecision, and fear of "injur- 
ing business" are harder to combat than 
downright crookedness. In any case, the onus 
is thrown back upon the community, and no 
mere system will make amends for a stupid 
public. 

The " West Side Studies " carried on by the 
Russell Sage Foundation constitute a most 
valuable contribution to descriptive sociology. 
They have the merit of being exceedingly well 
written, so that the narrative flows and has 
coherence, instead of appearing to be a patch- 
work made up from accumulated memoranda. 



1915 



THE DIAL 



105 



While the purpose is descriptive, and there is 
little direct propaganda for reform, the vivid 
accounts of conditions found point so clearly 
to the weak spots in civic life that the reader 
cannot help drawing his own conclusions con- 
cerning remedies. The writers enter into their 
subject with such a warmth of human sym- 
pathy that we no longer see merely things to 
criticize, but come to feel that after all the 
very troubles of the city carry with them the 
germs of hope for better times. 

T. D. A. COCKEKELL. 



THE BLUE-STOCKINGS AND THEIR 



When Samuel Johnson, Fanny Burney, 
Hannah More, and other celebrities of their 
time meet together in a critical volume, that 
book is assured of readers ; for who can resist 
the appeal of the Age of Tea and Talk? If 
the book succeeds, it may be due to no special 
merit of its author, his audience is predis- 
posed to enjoy his work. However, in the case 
of Professor Tinker's study of "The Salon 
and English Letters," the author's part is of 
an unusually important and distinctive char- 
acter. Unostentatious, sympathetic, thor- 
oughly keen in his analyses, this professor of 
English Literature at Yale has presented a 
new view of the years 1760-1790 by means of 
centring his observations on the salon and 
its influences. Until the publication of this 
book we have had no authority, in English, 
upon the salon, and have been forced to gain 
information from dozens of scattered volumes. 
Now we possess, in Professor Tinker's work, 
a scholarly and succinct account of one of the 
most interesting, and often amusing, phases 
of human history. 

Beginning with the French salon, Profes- 
sor Tinker outlines rapidly the origin and 
development of those "literary courts," and 
traces their relationship to the courtly groups 
of the Renaissance which were presided over 
by such women as Beatrice d'Este, Caterina 
Cornaro of Browning's Asolo, and the ladies 
mentioned in Castiglione's " Book of the Cour- 
tier." The Hotel de Rambouillet, most dis- 
tinguished of all the French salons, was 
established, in direct imitation of these Ital- 
ian assemblies, by a lady half Italian herself ; 
and in the chavnbre blue d'Arthenice the 
select few, not more than eighteen, carried on 
their exalted conversations. Very briefly, 
Professor Tinker characterizes the salons, 

* THE SALON AND ENGLISH LETTERS. Chapters on the Inter- 
relations of Literature and Society in the Age of Johnson. 
By Chauncey Brewster Tinker. New York : The Macmillan Co. 



showing how important was the place of gath- 
ering, the aesthetic background, in establish- 
ing the right tone; and he makes clear the 
earnest effort of the leaders to promote a real 
democracy of intellect, by giving encourage- 
ment to any person of genuine wit and origi- 
nality. Dominated by woman, the salon 
expressed her "instinct for society and for 
literature," arousing discussion, provoking 
conversation on topics literary or philosophi- 
cal. Sermons and profane literature were 
themes for all to discourse upon ; and in those 
days "club" folk read the works they dis- 
cussed. Out of the talk grew some species of 
literature, chiefly those forms which express 
more intimately the ideas and sentiments of 
every-day life, letters, memoirs, and similar 
friendly productions in both prose and verse. 
Perhaps more significant than the attitude 
toward letters and art are the relationships, 
the friendships, fostered by the salons. On 
this topic Professor Tinker is almost too 
brief ; he does not bring out the fullest mean- 
ing of the development of personality, the 
shaping and enriching of individual talents, 
stimulated by the familiar intercourse of 
these coteries. 

From France to England the sentiment for 
similar literary groups was speedily trans- 
ferred ; and England did justice to the ideal, 
not by any means wholly new. Elizabethan 
England had had literary courts, and the 
Countess of Pembroke will be remembered as 
one of the noblest patronesses of all time. 
With the Restoration came the insidious 
amorousness which vitiated the salons, turn- 
ing the library coterie into a school for scan- 
dal. By the end of the seventeenth century 
the feminist movement was well under way; 
and of the manifestations of literary mili- 
tancy Professor Tinker has little to say, since 
that aspect of life has little to do with the 
salons, which are devoted to conversation. It 
is with the rise of the Bluestocking Club that 
the salon definitely reappears in England. 
This Club, which was probably in existence 
by 1760, was composed of "Vesey," "Bos- 
cawen," " Montagu," " Carter," Hannah More, 
Lord Lyttelton, Horace Walpole, and others. 
"Bluestocking," that genteel by- word of con- 
tempt, is discussed by Professor Tinker very 
fully, although he says plainly that no defi- 
nitely satisfactory conclusions can be reached 
concerning its origin. It would seem that it 
arose from the practice of ridiculing the 
severely plain dress of the Puritans, who, in 
their homely woolen hose, made up that 
" Blew-stocking Parliament " so odious to the 
silk-clad Cavaliers. A term thus used to cast 
reproach upon really sincere and high- 



106 



THE DIAL 



[August 15 



minded folk was no bad title for a group who, 
feeling the popular associations with that 
word, rather enjoyed assuming its connota- 
tions. " Blues " and " blue " came to mean 
cultured ladies, or " shocking females" ac- 
cording to the intelligence of the critic. It is 
in these chapters dealing with the Bluestock- 
ings that the volume is most interesting, for 
the author has put together various fragmen- 
tary bits, making a comparatively unified 
whole. Of course any work which considers 
so miscellaneous a subject as the lives and atti- 
tudes and accomplishments of numerous 
minor personages cannot possess perfect 
smoothness of transition. The difficulties of 
the case, however, have been well met; and 
Professor Tinker has furnished us with a 
storehouse of information, anecdote, criticism, 
interpretation of character, and small talk 
delightfully arrayed. Special praise is due 
for the sane, generous, respectful tone in 
which he writes. To all except anti-suffra- 
gists his studiously judicial manner will ap- 
peal strongly. It is easy to be flippant and 
witty at the expense of the shallow and artifi- 
cial intellectual life of the Bluestockings. For 
instance, revered Hannah More has been made 
the subject of many gibes; but just as Pro- 
fessor Tinker publishes a charmingly youth- 
ful portrait of her, so he endeavors to present, 
not the apparent pedant and literary trifler, 
but the woman who sincerely strove for high 
accomplishment. With the best of opportuni- 
ties for making merry over "lovely woman/' 
the critic has not indulged in caricature, or 
satire, or condescension. This is not saying 
that he lacks humor. Some of the charm in 
these chapters lies in the shrewd brevity of 
the recitals that reveal all the truth, the ludi- 
crous self-esteem, as well as the inner motives, 
the highest aspirations, the fine ideals of the 
members of the English salons. Engaging 
minor details are given generously, and in 
such a quotation as the following one per- 
ceives the Spartan nature of the day: 

" I never knew a party turn out so pleasantly as 
the other night at the Pepys's. There was all the 
pride of London every wit and every wit-ess . . 
but the spirit of the evening was kept up on the 
strength of a little lemonade till past eleven, with- 
out cards, scandal, or politics." 

For portraiture there is the sketch of Mrs. 
Vesey, or "the sylph," who was most supreme 
when youth and beauty had long left her 
alone with her unflagging imagination and 
her friends. 

The third section of the book concerns itself 
with the expression of the social instinct in 
Conversation, Familiar Correspondence, the 
Diary, and the Intimate Biography, illus- 



trated of course by the famous names of the 
day, Johnson, Fanny Burney, Walpole, and 
Boswell. These chapters, dealing with mat- 
ter more familiar to the general reader, are 
written in a lively yet non-partisan fashion. 
They show the results of long study of these 
special themes, hence they will prove to have 
critical freshness. Johnson is revealed in all 
his irrevocable humanness, not as Ursa Major, 
but as the intensely social being who lived on 
talk, and whose talk roused and galvanized 
others into effective expression, the supreme 
art in conversation. Boswell's efforts are ap- 
preciated in the spirit of understanding 
vouchsafed him by later criticism. Instead of 
listing him, as Fanny Burney did, as "that 
biographical, anecdotical, memorandummer," 
Professor Tinker interprets Boswell very 
justly. The immortal diarist herself is al- 
most too summarily dealt with; and at the 
conclusion of the chapter, the critic mourns 
the presence in the Diary of so much self- 
praise, so much quotation of the agreeable 
things said to the blushing but quite appre- 
ciative Miss Burney. Why mourn over this 
trait in her more than over a similar trait in 
the great lexicographer? Is vanity a man's 
right ? 

Within the book is a mass of information 
gleaned from very extensive reading, but so 
effectively and so crisply condensed, so 
briskly phrased, that each re-reading will 
yield a reward. The author's individual ap- 
preciation of his subject gives vivid insight 
into that age which has a singular charm for 
our mad epoch, in which such things as polite 
conversation and long, fastidiously composed 
letters are genuine antiques. So also, are 
those staunch convictions of ponderous size. 
It is a pleasure, in these days when " open- 
mindedness'" is synonymous with vacuity, to 
read of people who were not only positive, but 
actually bigoted. What an enviable age it 
was! No automobiles, no electricity, no 
strikes, no Sunday papers, time for dignity, 
deliberation, reading, and thinking! They 
had a happiness, a content, we shall never 
know, except in retrospect through the 
charmed medium of the printed page. 

MARTHA HALE SHACKFORD. 



One of the most interesting announcements that 
has come to us for several months is that of the 
forthcoming publication of a selection from the 
letters of William Morris. It is expected that the 
work will comprise two or three volumes, which 
will probably be published in uniform style witli 
the collected edition of Morris's works recently com- 
pleted under the editorship of his daughter, Miss 
Mav Morris. 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



107 



DIPLOMACY AXD THE GREAT WAR.* 

Whoever desires to study the proximate 
causes of the mighty conflict in which Europe 
is now plunged will find a wealth of material 
in the official publications issued by the various 
belligerent governments since the outbreak of 
the war, the British and German AVhite 
Books, the Russian Orange Paper, the Bel- 
gian Gray Paper, the French Yellow Book, 
the Austrian Red Book, and the Servian Blue 
Book. The entry of other powers into the 
conflict will doubtless be followed by other 
similar publications. The promptness with 
which these documents were issued, and the 
somewhat lavish manner in which they have 
been circulated, are quite without precedent 
in the wars of the past, and can only be 
explained by the desire of the governments 
concerned to put their qases before the world 
in the hope of obtaining a favorable verdict 
upon their conduct. The whole procedure 
affords a striking illustration of the fact that 
civilized nations are not only not indifferent 
to the opinions of mankind, but that, on the 
contrary, they eagerly court the approbation 
of international public opinion for their acts, 
the good faith and rectitude of which are 
suspected. 

It is one of the happy results of the new 
diplomacy and of government by public opin- 
ion that important diplomatic correspondence 
which in former times would have been care- 
fully concealed in the archives of foreign 
offices for generations, is to-day made public 
almost as soon as it is dispatched; so that it 
is possible to write the history of the events 
with which it deals before that history be- 
comes ancient. With the aid of the published 
diplomatic documents which the present war 
has produced, it is possible for contemporary 
historians to determine and fix the responsi- 
bility for the war which is now ruining 
Europe, while those upon whom the responsi- 
bility rests are still living. 

The task of examining this large mass of 
diplomatic material, and of unravelling the 
tangled skein of a multiplicity of notes, has 
been greatly simplified by the work of Pro- 
fessor Stowell of Columbia University, who 
has made a systematic digest and critical 
analysis of these documents, and has so ar- 
ranged and coordinated the results that it is 
now possible for one to get the gist of it all 
without the necessity of reading the various 
documents in their entirety. If, for example, 
one desires to study the question of the viola- 

* THE DIPLOMACY OF THE WAR OF 1914. By Ellery C. Stowell, 
Assistant Professor of International Law, Columbia Uni- 
versity. Volume I., The Beginnings of the War. Boston: 
Houghton Mifflin Co. 



tion of the neutrality of Belgium, he will find 
in a single chapter a critical analysis of all the 
important diplomatic documents bearing on 
the subject, along with a historical introduc- 
tion by the author, followed by his own con- 
clusions regarding the responsibility for the 
act. In a similar manner, all the other impor- 
tant controversies are examined and judged. 

Recognizing, very properly, that an under- 
standing of the deep and underlying causes of 
the war is impossible without a knowledge 
of the history of the international relations of 
Europe during the years antedating the out- 
break of the conflict, the author starts out 
with a review of such important events as the 
founding of the Triple Alliance, the Triple 
Entente, the Dual Alliance, the Conference of 
Algeciras, the Agadir and Casablanca inci- 
cents, and the Turco-Italian and Balkan 
wars. With this survey as a necessary back- 
ground, he proceeds to examine in succession 
the diplomatic correspondence relating to the 
controversy between Austria and Servia, be- 
tween Austria and Russia, between Germany 
and Russia, between England and the powers 
concerned, that relating to the neutrality of 
Belgium, and so on. 

A large part of the work consists of impor- 
tant extracts from the diplomatic documents, 
so arranged and analyzed as to give it the 
character of a narrative. It is not, therefore, 
a mere compilation or collection of documents. 
There is much comment by the author, and, 
very properly, he has exercised freely his 
right to judge the facts in the light of the 
evidence, and to condemn where, in his opin- 
ion, condemnation is justifiable. On the 
whole, however, his judgments are fair and 
dispassionate; and being based upon a very 
thorough and detailed examination of the 
official documents, they must carry great 
weight. It is not difficult for an impartial 
observer who studies these documents with the 
aid of Professor Stowell's analysis and com- 
ment to make up his mind as to where the 
responsibility for this war properly belongs. 

We may now summarize some of the au- 
thor's more important conclusions. Regard- 
ing the merits of the controversy between 
Austria and Servia a controversy which 
was the occasion if not the cause of the gen- 
eral conflict Professor Stowell concludes 
from his study of the diplomatic documents 
that Servia " evinced a most conciliatory 
spirit," and that she went as far toward meet- 
ing the Austrian demands as was possible for 
the government of any independent state to 
go. "If Austria," he says, "because of her 
peculiarly perilous situation, considered it 
impossible to discuss the question [of media- 



108 



THE DIAL 



[August 15 



tion] and to examine whether the proposed 
guarantees would not be adequate, we must 
conclude her action to be a confession that she 
was herself unable to live up to her interna- 
tional obligations." Russia's conduct as the 
protector of Servia was not reprehensible. 
She employed "all her efforts to obtain a 
pacific issue which would be acceptable to 
Austria and satisfy her amour-propre." Con- 
cerning the question as to whether the Ger- 
man government knew the contents of the 
Austrian ultimatum before it was dispatched 
to the Servian government, Professor Stowell 
expresses the opinion that while the text of 
the note may not have been communicated to 
the German government, it seems likely that 
it was shown to the German ambassador at 
Vienna, who doubtless informed the German 
government of its contents. In any case, the 
German government took particular pains to 
be in a position where it could proclaim its 
ignorance of the note, in order to be able to 
say to the other powers that it had kept out 
of the affair and had exercised no influence 
upon Austria in formulating her demands 
upon Servia. 

Professor Stowell reviews at length the 
efforts of Sir Edward Grey to prevent a gen- 
eral war, and how they were destined to fail. 
No one can read the mass of correspondence in 
all these official publications without feeling 
that Sir Edward stands out as the most ad- 
mirable figure among all the diplomats and 
foreign ministers concerned. He worked tire- 
lessly and almost without ceasing to preserve 
peace, and he seems never to have despaired 
until all hope was gone. 

Coming to the much discussed question of 
the violation of the neutrality of Belgium, 
Professor Stowell examines, first, the German 
contention that the neutralization treaty of 
1839 was not binding in 1914, and on every 
point he refutes the German argument com- 
pletely. This treaty, he says, was not only 
binding on all the signatory parties, but they 
were under an obligation to cooperate in 
guaranteeing the neutrality proclaimed by 
the treaty. More than this, "it was a duty 
which all the states of the world owe to inter- 
national law to take every reasonable and 
practical means to prevent Germany from 
effecting such a gross violation of the rights 
of a weak state as has resulted from her inva- 
sion." This obligation, he asserts, rested upon 
the United States equally with the other 
powers. There is, of course, a difference of 
opinion as to the merits of this view ; but un- 
questionably if international law means what 
it has heretofore been understood to mean, 



strong argument can be advanced in favor of 
the position of the author. 

Considering in turn the various German 
excuses for violating the neutrality of Bel- 
gium, that England intended to land troops 
there for the purpose of attacking Germany, 
that there existed a convention between Bel- 
gium and England by .which they were to 
make common cause against Germany, that 
there was a similar agreement between Bel- 
gium and France, that documents discovered 
in Brussels showed that Belgium had violated 
her neutral obligations, etc., Professor Stow- 
ell finds no evidence to support the German 
contention on any of these points. His thor- 
ough and critical analysis of the documents, 
and the evidence which he marshals in sup- 
port of his conclusions, will go far toward 
convincing impartial observers of the correct- 
ness of his findings. Germany's conduct is 
criticized severely. The invasion of Belgium, 
he remarks, has been compared to the case of 
a man who is guilty of a trespass in crossing 
his neighbor's premises to escape from a fire ; 
but it would be fairer to compare it to the 
case of a man who does not wait to meet his 
adversary in a fair fight, but tries to reach 
him by shooting through the walls of an inter- 
vening house without regard to the lives of the 
helpless inmates. 

In a final chapter the author sums up his 
conclusions, and attempts to fix the chief 
responsibility for the war. This responsibil- 
ity falls mainly on the shoulders of Germany. 

" Germany has clearly violated international 
law, and, if she does not succeed, even for the 
moment, in escaping punishment, the lesson will be 
as salutary as the example of Bismarck was delete- 
rious. Meanwhile, the manner in which she has 
held the rest of Europe in check compels the 
admiration of all beholders. . . Should Germany 
be successful in carrying out the theories of her 
Government, and her people, after the war-enthusi- 
asm is past, continue to support the Government, 
which has put through its projects in disregard of 
its treaty obligations and of the peaceful existence 
of the individuals composing another nation, the 
student of events, seeking with impartial view, will 
have to admit that we are not yet ready for any 
great step forward ; that it is too early to recognize 
the practical existence of the society of humanity 
as such, including all peoples." 

JAMES W. GARNER. 



Mr. Hilaire Belloc's " Essays on War," which 
his English publishers hope to have ready shortly, 
will include " The Military Argument for and 
against Military Service in the Particular Case of 
Great Britain"; "Censorship in War"; "The 
Defence of Land Fronts of Naval Bases"; "The 
Military Problems of an Alliance " ; and " Valmy." 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



109 



A PRAGMATIC ILLUMINATION OF 
EDUCATION.* 



Divine philosophy has not always been hap- 
pily united with pedagogical theory. Not 
infrequently " educators " have but a superfi- 
cial philosophy; while it must be admitted 
that there are philosophers who know little of 
the art of teaching. A great shout of wel- 
come should therefore go up when a profound 
thinker sets himself the task of a practical 
exposition of the most practical, as it is the 
most important, art in life, the art of 
education. Properly enough, a pragmatic 
philosopher, Professor John Dewey, now of 
Columbia University, has accomplished this 
work ; and so for once etymology is justified 
of her children. 

Professor Dewey and his daughter, Miss 
Evelyn Dewey (who collected much of the 
material), disclaim intent at a system or a 
text-book. Quoting the preface : 

" We have tried to show what actually happens 
when schools start out to put into practice, each in 
its own way, some of the theories that have been 
pointed to as the soundest and best ever since 
Plato, to be then laid politely away as precious 
portions of our ' intellectual heritage ' . . . We 
have hoped to suggest to the reader the practical 
meaning of some of the more widely recognized 
and accepted views of educational reformers by 
showing what happens when a teacher applies 
these views." 

Notwithstanding the fact that this rather 
humble statement is an accurate description 
of the plan of the book, the ripe scholarship, 
the scrupulous soundness of the logic, and the 
art shown in presenting and massing the con- 
crete in a bath of luminous and consistent 
theory make of " Schools of To-morrow " a 
contribution of great importance. 

Professor Dewey 's thesis is based frankly 
upon Rousseau's " Emile." The first chapter, 
"Education as Development," is but a tren- 
chant exposition of Rousseau's epoch-making 
views. " We know nothing of childhood, and 
with our mistaken notions of it the further we 
go in education the more we go astray." Edu- 
cation must be " based upon the native capaci- 
ties of those to be taught and upon the need 
of studying children in order to discover what 
these native powers are." " Try to teach a 
child what is of use to him as a child, and you 
will find that it takes all his time." "The 
greatest, the most important, the most useful 
rule of education is: Do not save time, but 
lose it." "A child ill-taught is further from 
excellence than a child who has learned noth- 
ing at all." Teach a child what he has an 

* SCHOOLS OF TO-MORROW. By John and Evelyn Dewey. New 
York : E. P. Dutton & Co. 



interest in, when he is interested in it. Do not 
anticipate the needs of adult life. Education 
is the development of power, not the acquisi- 
tion of information. 

All this has become the commonplace, even 
the semi-dangerous commonplace, of higher 
education in colleges and universities, screen- 
ing oftentimes hazy and slovenly ideas. But 
rightly interpreted, it is of immense impor- 
tance; and the welcome news derived from 
" Schools of To-morrow " is that whereas 
there is in the schools of to-day an absolute 
line of cleavage between the elementary and 
higher institutions in this respect, the ele- 
mentary schools insisting on a fund of adult 
information while the higher schools bemoan 
the lack of intellectual power displayed by 
their product, the "schools of to-morrow" 
are insisting on the same rational basis for 
elementary instruction. Education, instead 
of following a silly calf trail for sixteen or 
eighteen years and then attempting to insti- 
tute radical reform when mental habits are 
fixed, is on the threshold of a simple and abso- 
lute reform, the process of starting right, 
and by natural methods developing the whole 
life of the child. 

Place of honor among the laboratory cases 
cited is given to Mrs. Johnson's school at Fair- 
hope, Alabama, which seems to follow closely 
Rousseau's ideal. Professor Dewey thinks 
that Fairhope "has demonstrated that it is 
possible for children to lead the same natural 
lives in school that they lead in good homes 
outside of school hours; to progress bodily, 
mentally, and morally in school without facti- 
tious pressure, rewards, examinations, grades 
or promotions, while they acquire sufficient 
control of the conventional tools of learning 
and of study of books reading, writing, and 
figuring to be able to use them indepen- 
dently." Professor J. L. Meriam, Director of 
the Elementary School in the University of 
Missouri, bases his plan upon the four factors 
in the child's life: play, stories, observation, 
and handiwork. As the children grow older 
their interest is naturally drawn, as they dis- 
cover their ignorance, to history, geography, 
and science. Grammar and English are not 
taught as such, but incidentally in connection 
with all their work. Investigation of local 
topography, industries, and general condi- 
tions is emphasized here, as in other 
" reform " schools. The value of Acting out 
the stories of mythology and history is another 
generally recognized principle. That the 
school can fit smoothly into local needs and 
exercise great influence as a social settlement 
is shown by the success of Mr. Valentine's 
work in School 26 of Indianapolis. The prac- 



110 



THE DIAL 



[August 15 



tical work of this school has put new heart 
and vigor into a destitute and backward com- 
munity, and has gone far to solve the race 
problem. Here, and in many other schools 
cited, the object is immediate ends, not giv- 
ing the pupils the notion that they are getting 
ready to live, but actually living. This will 
seem to many, no doubt, a backward step, a 
tacit acceptance of Browning's low man who, 
aiming at a unit, soon hits his hundred, but 
always fails of the thousand. One of the 
facts cited, that the boys show more interest 
in the cooking lessons than girls, is a rather 
bizarre proof of the appeal of immediate ends. 
Yet there can be little doubt that the general 
movement is wise. Education should begin at 
the feet, we must learn to hit the units. 
That is of the most importance to the most 
people. Indeed, it is of prime importance to 
all, and will later enable the few to hit the 
thousand with all the greater accuracy. 

Here and there throughout the book, as in 
the final chapter on " Democracy and Educa- 
tion," the author exhibits something of the 
special pleader, or possibly it is only a too 
common academic blindness to the reality of 
grinding poverty in the world. " It is a com- 
monplace among teachers and workers who 
come in contact with any number of pupils 
who leave school at fourteen to go to work, 
that the reason is not so much financial pres- 
sure as it is lack of conviction that school is 
doing them any good." This is no doubt true 
in many communities, where the well-to-do 
class predominates. It must be of these that 
Professor Dewey is thinking ; for in all proba- 
bility he knows of the investigations of a 
former student of his in the Stock Yards dis- 
trict of Chicago, which revealed an altogether 
different state of affairs.* 

Professor Dewey's analysis of the much 
discussed Montessori method should be of 
value to those whose knowledge depends 
mainly upon periodical-skimming. While ap- 
proving of the freedom of action which 
Madame Montessori in common with most re- 
formers allows her pupils, he points out that 
her insistence on the use of her " didactic 
material " leaves their freedom restricted and 
of questionable importance. 

" There is no freedom allowed the child to create. 
He is free to choose which apparatus he will use, 
but never to choose his own ends, never to bend a 
material to his own plans. There is no doubt that 
backward children derive profit from the ' didactic 
material,' but after all it appears that various 
American reformers have learned how systemati- 
cally to educe power, creativeness, in the normal 

* Dr. E. L. Talbcrt put the question to 331 boys and girls 
who had left school at 14, when the pressure of the law was 
lifted, and 171 answered that they had to earn money. 



child by permitting him to range freely over his 
material and adapt it to his own ends." 

This word "freedom" is the shibboleth of 
the schools of to-morrow. A year or so ago, 
Mr. Edmond Holmes, in his little book enti- 
tled "The Tragedy of Education," wrote much 
on this subject to very good purpose. It is 
wholly right for a child " to find the necessity 
in things, not in the caprices of man." to 
feel the curb of conditions, not of authority. 
And Professor Dewey does well to point out 
that " no discipline could be more severe, more 
apt to develop character and reasonableness, 
nor less apt to develop disorder and laziness " 
than the discipline which is self-taught and 
self-imposed. The only weakness in practi- 
cal results, a weakness that neither he nor 
Mr. Holmes nor Mrs. Johnson nor Mr. Wirt 
nor Mr. Valentine nor Professor Meriam nor 
Rousseau is aware of, is the difficulty of get- 
ting teachers wise enough to administer free- 
dom of this sort. Here and there is a genius 
who knows how; but these geniuses, sadly 
enough, do not impart their genius. An ordi- 
nary person can learn how to get results by 
following rules, but it must be an extraor- 
dinary person who gets results without rules. 
In its philosophy, its literature, its religion, 
humanity has so far always proceeded by rule 
and line ; only the geniuses have from time to 
time made new rules and struck off new lines. 
And after each epochal genius, when the plod- 
ding student-teacher follows the master, the 
method becomes again stereotyped. 

Professor Dewey sees clearly the Scylla of 
the old and the Charybdis of the new : 

" The problem of educational readjustment thus 
has to steer between the extremes of an inherited 
bookish education and a narrow, so-called prac- 
tical, education. It is comparatively easy to clamor 
for a retention of traditional materials and meth- 
ods on the ground that they alone are liberal and 
cultural. It is comparatively easy to urge the addi- 
tion of narrow, vocational training for those who, 
it is assumed, are to be the drawers of water and 
the hewers of wood in the existing economic 
regime, leaving intact the present bookish type of 
education for those fortunate enough not to have 
to engage in manual labor in the home, shop, or 
farm. But since the real question is one of or- 
ganization of all education to meet the changed 
conditions of life scientific, social, political ac- 
companying the revolution in industry, the experi- 
ments which have been made with this wider end in 
view are especially deserving of sympathetic recog- 
nition and intelligent examination." 

Some minor faults of style are to be found 
in the volume, such as frequently occur when 
a writer is thinking mainly of his matter. 
"Apt" is regularly used in the sense of 
"likely"; and the rather naive redundancy. 



1915 J 



THE DIAL 



in 



" to try an experiment," occurs so often as to 
merit rebuke. There is also considerable 
repetition, owing in part to the plan of the 
book. And there is the inevitable resume of 
former conditions of industry as compared 
with the present. But nevertheless, the vol- 
ume is admirable in material and arrange- 
ment; and the very repetition only serves to 
add to its unity and drive home its central 
theme. THOMAS PERCIVAL BEYER. 



RECENT AMERICAN ONE-ACT PLAYS.* 



One of the interesting tendencies in recent 
drama is the rise in popularity of the one-act 
play. The Irish school, perhaps, deserves 
chief credit for showing the possibilities of 
the one-act form, especially in tragedy and in 
whimsical comedy. In America, Mr. Percy 
Mackaye was a pioneer in this field, and he 
has had many followers. The extent to which 
the one-act piece is now being cultivated sug- 
gests that it may come to rival even the short 
story in popular favor. 

Of the twenty-two one-act plays by Amer- 
ican writers considered in the present review, 
three have to do with the European war. The 
nineteen others are singularly free from the 
propagandist taint which infects so large a 
proportion of recent English and continental 
plays. Probably it may be said that there are 
three aims among which, or among combina- 
tions of which, a dramatist must choose. He 
may aim to represent characters in an action 
with impartial truthfulness, caring to give 
pleasure only or chiefly through the fidelity 
of his representation. Or he may aim to rep- 
resent characters so as to give pleasure 
through, appeals to humor, sentiment, or 
imagination, caring less for truth and reality. 
Or he may aim to represent characters so as to 
enforce a doctrine or lesson, subordinating 
both truth and pleasure to this end. A pure 
type of the first class may be found in Ben 
Jonson's "Bartholomew Fair"; of the sec- 
ond, in Shakespeare's romantic comedy; of 

* WAR BRIDES. By Marion Craig Wentworth. Illustrated. 
New York : The Century Co. 

ACROSS THE BORDER. A Play of the Present. By Beulah 
Marie Dix. Illustrated. New York : Henry Holt & Co. 

MAKERS OF MADNESS. By Hermann Hagedorn. New York : 
The Macmillan Co. 

POSSESSION. One-act Plays of Contemporary Life. By 
George Middleton. New York : Henry Holt & Co. 

DAWN, and Other One-act Plays of Life To-day. By Per- 
cival Wilde. New York : Henry Holt & Co. 

STAGE GUILD PLAYS. By Kenneth Sawyer Goodman. Com- 
prising: The Game of Chess, Barbara, Back of the Yards, 
and Ephraim and the Winged Bear. New York : Donald C. 
Vaughan. 

WISCONSIN PLAYS. Edited by Thomas H. Dickinson. Com- 
prising: The Neighbors, by Zona Gale; In Hospital, by 
Thomas H. Dickinson ; Glory of the Morning, by William 
Ellery Leonard. New York : B. W. Huebsch. 



the third, in the mediaeval moralities and in 
some of the plays of Shaw and Brieux. The 
first two objects are the legitimate ideals of 
drama; when the third becomes dominant, 
the writer must expect to be regarded pri- 
marily as a preacher, not as a dramatist. It is 
encouraging to find so little of this preaching 
tendency in the recent representative Amer- 
ican plays. 

Two of the three war plays, " War Brides " 
and "Across the Border," on the whole justify 
their dramatic form. " War Brides " is an 
attack on war from the woman's point of view. 
It is a vigorous and timely protest against the 
insult to womanhood implied in the custom to 
which the title alludes. The heroine has been 
married some months before the war, and her 
husband is at the front. The story deals with 
her attempt to influence the girls in her vil- 
lage against war marriages, an attempt 
which brings her into conflict with the. au- 
thorities. Her indignation and horror at the 
cynical treatment of what she holds most 
sacred are raised to a tragic pitch by the news 
of her husband's death in battle. She is preg- 
nant; but rather than bear a child who may 
be sacrificed to " the good of the Empire," she 
commits suicide. She is not a character who 
interests us greatly ; she is primarily a mouth- 
piece for individualist and pacifist ideas ; but 
these ideas are vigorously expressed, and are 
vitally related to the dramatic situation. The 
play is a good example of the effective use of 
drama for propagandist purposes. 

"Across the Border" bases its protest 
against war on more broadly human grounds ; 
partly, perhaps, for this reason it is a much 
better play. It is better, too, because the 
author is really interested in her hero as a 
person. The play makes skilful use of the 
now familiar device of a dream. Desperately 
wounded in an attempt to bring rescue to 
beleaguered comrades, the Junior Lieutenant 
in his delirious dream crosses-" the border " of 
death. What he sees there convinces him of 
the shameful cruelty and wrong of the whole 
system and ideal of war, and he begs for leave 
to return and try to make some of his com- 
rades understand. In the final scene in the 
improvised hospital he struggles to his gallant 
and pitiful failure. Written plainly, without 
declamation or sentimentality, the play makes 
a powerful and genuinely dramatic appeal. 

In Mr. Hagedorn's " Makers of v Madness," 
on the other hand, the doctrine completely 
crowds out the dramatic element. The com- 
position is not a play at all; it is an attempt 
to show through dialogue how war might be 
forced on the United States and an empire 
(clearly Germany) by the selfish interests of 



112 



THE DIAL 



[August 15 



militarists, politicians, and manufacturers of 
arms. There is a scene in the capital of each 
country, and then an impressionistic glimpse 
of a battle-field. A pamphlet may be more 
readable if cast in the form of dialogue, but 
the title-page should not call it a play. 

In his latest volume, Mr. George Middleton 
gives us some nearly perfect examples of our 
first-mentioned class of plays, those which 
aim above all at impartial truthfulness. The 
action in these little dramas is mostly psycho- 
logical, or shall we say? spiritual. The 
very impartiality of Mr. Middleton's attitude 
toward conventional morality has brought 
upon him the accusation of writing his plays 
to prove something; but the charge is an 
unfair one. He presents no theses; he tries 
merely to depict his people and their problems 
with delicate and intimate accuracy. Placed 
in a given situation, how will each character 
in a small group conduct himself? A young 
woman who has married to escape the frigid- 
ity of a loveless home finds that she cannot 
live in peace with her worthless and unfaith- 
ful husband. So, taking her child, she returns 
one evening to her father and mother, peo- 
ple who, without love, have kept up a respecta- 
ble appearance. How will the characters 
speak and act in this first interview ? This is 
the problem of " Circles." " The Groove " is 
simply a bedtime talk between two sisters, of 
whom the elder has stayed at home to take 
care of an invalid mother, and the younger 
has just returned from college. Each has a 
plan to confide to the other, but the plans are 
hopelessly in conflict. How will the situation 
develop ? It is obvious that plays of this sort 
would require the most finished and intelli- 
gent acting if they were to have any success 
on the stage; and even with this, the success 
of some of them would be doubtful. Mr. 
Middleton's characters are drawn admirably, 
but with an impartiality critical rather than 
sympathetic. His attitude toward them is too 
much that of an entomologist toward his 
specimens; his curiosity is too largely intel- 
lectual. He not only lacks sympathy, but, as 
might be expected, he lacks humor; this is 
especially noticeable in " The Black Tie," and 
also in " The Unborn," where the perspective 
is at times curiously distorted. By all odds 
the best of the plays is "A Good Woman"; 
with this possible exception, Mr. Middleton, 
conscientious and skilful artist as he is, leaves 
us a little cold. 

Much less mature and finished are the plays 
in Mr. Percival Wilde's collection. Mr. Wilde 
seems to be experimenting in various direc- 
tions. As yet he cares too little for truth to 
life, and he lacks a sure sense for stage effect. 



In "A House of Cards" he uses somewhat 
clumsily the dangerous device of misleading 
the audience. " Playing with Fire " is a 
rather sophomoric study of " calf love." "The 
Traitor " is based on an oddly false notion of 
human nature, the notion that a traitor may 
infallibly be detected by his zeal in urging 
mercy for another supposed traitor. The 
other pieces, however, show decided promise; 
and the best of them, "Dawn," is a really 
strong and brilliant little study in heroism. 
Here and there in Mr. Wilde's work one feels 
the influence of Mr. Mackaye. 

The four paper-bound plays by Mr. Ken- 
neth Sawyer Goodman show a keen sense of 
stage values and a considerable range. They 
would probably act better than the plays of 
either Mr. Middleton or Mr. Wilde. Some of 
them, indeed, have been acted, though with 
what success I do not know. They seem 
especially well adapted to amateur produc- 
tion ; the settings are simple, the action is 
rapid, and the parts make no heavy demand 
upon the actors. "Back of the Yards" is a 
strong and realistic little drama of tenement- 
house life in Chicago, dealing with the turn- 
ing point in a street boy's career. " The Game 
of Chess" is a cleverly constructed and stir- 
ring melodrama in miniature, presenting a 
nihilist's attempt on the life of a Czar. 
"Ephraim and the Winged Bear" is a sort 
of fantastic morality, amusing but a trifle too 
grotesque for complete success. " Barbara " 
is apparently an attempt to burlesque Mr. 
Bernard Shaw, an ambitious and tolerably 
rash undertaking. The fact is that Mr. Shaw, 
having reached the limit of extravagance pos- 
sible to sanity, can twiddle his fingers at the 
parodists. Mr. Goodman's terrible young per- 
son seems scarcely more than a faint copy of 
a Shaw heroine, and his valet deus ex machina 
a rather wooden imitation of the omniscient 
Shavian waiter. 

In contrast with Mr. Goodman's high spir- 
its and exuberant cleverness is the tone of 
simple and quiet sincerity of the "Wisconsin 
Plays." Miss Gale's "The Neighbors" is a 
charming little study of life in a small village. 
It is reported that Mis' Ellsworth, who, with 
her husband's scanty pension, has a hard time 
making ends meet, has had a telegram an- 
nouncing that her orphaned nephew of seven 
is coming to live with her. All the neighbors 
join forces to get up a "shower" surprise 
party for her. When preparations are nearly 
completed. Mis' Ellsworth appears at Mis' 
Abel's with another telegram saying that 
after all the little boy is to be adopted by an 
uncle. In this simple plot are introduced a 
number of delightful people, admirably char- 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



113 



acterized. Who can forget " Grandma," for 
instance, with her experienced wisdom and 
her rebellion against carpet rags? Mr. Dick- 
inson's "In Hospital" is a severely realistic 
sketch of the human aspects of a serious 
operation. Though scarcely dramatic at all 
in the narrower sense of the word, in the 
hands of a great actor it would be immensely 
effective. Mr. Leonard's " Glory of the 
Morning" is pitched on a distinctly lower 
level. The heroine, for whom the play is 
named, is the Winnebago squaw of a French 
fur-trader ; the latter turns out to be a noble- 
man in exile, who wishes to take their chil- 
dren back with him to France. For some 
reason the American Indian makes intracta- 
ble material for drama. I cannot recall a 
single good dramatic presentation of him in 
his native state. In the present case, part of 
the difficulty is that the story calls for a more 
poetic and imaginative treatment than the 
author has given it. 

Altogether, in achievement as well as in 
promise, this is a notable group of plays. Ten 
years ago it could not have been matched by 
any selection of one-act pieces written in 
America. It looks as if we were going to see 
in this generation a really American drama. 
HOMER E. WOODBRIDGE. 



BRIEFS ox NEW BOOKS. 



A life of 

prodigious 

achievement. 



As bluff John Hunter, the 
famous surgeon, anatomist, and 
physiologist, once said, " no man 
that wanted to be a great man ever was a 
great man." A fine example of true greatness 
and entire freedom from any desire for great- 
ness in the world's eyes may be found in the 
late Director of the New York Public Library, 
who came to that office, with its arduous work 
of construction and organization, after hav- 
ing virtually created the Johns Hopkins Hos- 
pital in Baltimore, the Surgeon-General's 
Library and its justly celebrated catalogue in 
Washington, and the laboratory of hygiene 
for the University of Pennsylvania in Phila- 
delphia, not to mention earlier and perhaps 
more heroic though less widely known 
achievements elsewhere. These various ser- 
vices to science and to humanity are now care- 
fully recorded, with much else of a more 
intimately biographical character, by his 
friend and co-worker in medicine, Dr. Fielding 
H. Garrison, in a substantial octavo volume 
entitled "John Shaw Billings: A Memoir" 
(Putnam). Of good New England stock, but 
of Hoosier birth and early training, Billings 
was forced to work his way through the suc- 



cessive stages of his academic and medical 
education, and the fact that he had to fight 
out one winter of this Spartan experience on 
seventy-five cents a week may help to explain, 
now that we have the details of his life before 
us, the hitherto unsuspected battles that he 
was compelled to wage with bodily infirmities 
during the greater part of his maturity. 
Eight times he underwent surgical operations, 
chiefly of a critical nature, and always except 
the last time he kept secret from his family 
the cause of these "short vacations," as he 
lightly styled them. Therefore the record 
of his eminent and varied services to his 
fellow-men, impressive though it had seemed 
before, gains immeasurably in significance 
when one learns, from Dr. Garrison's faithful 
presentation of Billings's life-struggle, the 
various handicaps and disabilities under 
which those brilliantly distinguished services 
were rendered. The customary equipment of 
illustrations, bibliography, genealogy, and 
index is not wanting to this carefully prepared 
biography, which, let it be added, has been 
made, as far as possible, autobiographical in 
character by the frequent insertion of pas- 
sages from Dr. Billings's writings, including 
a fragment of veritable autobiography. 

, , . In "A German- American's Con- 

The apologia . 

of a, German- feSSlOU of Faith (Huebsch), 

Professor Kuno Francke of 
Harvard has brought together five articles 
and three poems already published in various 
newspapers and periodicals. Among the arti- 
cles is the now famous open letter to Con- 
gressman Bartholdt on "Neutrality," which 
brings out clearly the difference between the 
author's undiluted Americanism and the 
rabid Teutonism of Messrs. Ridder, Viereck, 
and their congeners. In this connection, it 
is interesting to note the writer's statement 
that the letter was refused publication by the 
New York " Staats-Zeitung." For his mod- 
eration and tolerance, and his observance of 
the amenities during controversy, Professor 
Francke deserves commendation above other 
German -American apologists, and one is glad 
to think that he is the spokesman for many 
silent and thoughtful Americans of Teutonic 
descent who do not approve of the vocifer- 
ous propaganda undertaken by their self- 
appointed leaders. Yet Professor Francke is 
very far from being a Carl Schurz: The lat- 
ter was the product of Germany's noblest 
political idealism, the revolutionary move- 
ment of 1848; Professor Francke has been 
bred under the star of Hohenzollern imperial- 
ism, and like most Germans of the profes- 
sorial class is destitute of what we somewhat 



114 



THE DIAL 



[August 15 



ambiguously call " political sense." His ideal 
of government is a benevolent despotism in 
which the ills of the people are healed with 
paternal care. Germany's cause, as he sees it, 
is just, not because her manner of starting the 
war or her conduct in Belgium is justifiable 
(these are matters about which the author is 
significantly silent), but because "Germany 
to-day is the best governed country in the 
world." Here "best" plainly means "most 
efficiently." That the gap between this sort 
of political thinking and the ideals of Amer- 
ican democracy is too wide to be bridged over 
by a few occasional pamphlets must surely be 
evident to Professor Francke's lucid and re- 
flective mind. 

Mr. H. Addington Bruce is the 

%*&*. ^ iGr of the " Mind and Health 
Series" (Little, Brown, & Co.) 
of which three numbers have appeared. The 
first is by Dr. James J. Putnam, and deals 
with " Human Motives." It is a well chosen 
theme, and is presented with a quiet dignity 
and earnest purpose that is consoling when not 
convincing. Dr. Putnam finds two sources of 
motives, one in the mental and genetic 
series of impulses to which we are all subject, 
and the other in the philosophical or religious 
inculcation, whence comes the support of 
ideals. The two, in his opinion, have an equal 
authenticity and an equal value. The theme, 
though attractively set forth, tends to merge 
into vagueness and lose the substantial 
groundwork that one looks for in a physi- 
cian's outlook. The residue of good counsel 
justifies the essay. In the second volume of 
the series, Dr. Isador H. Coriat writes of 
" The Meaning of Dreams," finding that mean- 
ing in the Freudian notion of repressed wishes 
reconstructed by the dream motives of dis- 
guise and indirect expression. He sets forth 
the principle of interpretation, and adds a 
number of instances of dreams thus inter- 
preted (largely in relation to sex desires and 
symbolisms) from his own records. Thus 
summarized and stated in loose order, they 
seem utterly unconvincing, and verge upon 
the strained logical contortions which Baco- 
nian " provers " of their Shakespearean posi- 
tions have made familiar. It scarcely seems 
probable that the popularization of this move- 
ment by evidence thus inviting misconception 
on the part of the lay reader, serves any useful 
purpose. The third volume is by the editor of 
the series, and bears the title, " Sleep and 
Sleeplessness," --though the longest chapter 
in the book deals with the somewhat irrelevant 
theme of "Dreams and the Supernatural." 
The volume is distinctly uncritical, and re- 



peats the exploded " Caspar Hauser " myth as 
real evidence, while the view of premonitory 
dreams is hardly standard. The practical 
counsel offered by Mr. Bruce in regard to 
sleep and sleeplessness is sound and well put. 

A brief account The twentieth volume in the 
of the hero of series of "American Crisis Biog- 

Appomattox. , JJ/T i. \ T L -i .L 

raphies (Jacobs) is devoted to 
the soldier who saved the nation in the crisis 
of our Civil- War. Mr. Franklin Spencer 
Edmonds is the author, and his book appro- 
priately gives considerably more than half of 
its substance to Grant's services in the field 
from 1861 to 1865. Almost innumerable, as 
the writer admits, are the accounts we already 
have of the memorable deeds of this great 
military commander; but the lesson of his 
life will bear repeated interpretation with the 
passage of the years. Also, the publication in 
recent times of memoirs and letters by various 
friends and contemporaries of General Grant 
m&kes possible to-day a fuller and truer 
account of the man than ever before. Com- 
paratively recent are, for example, the au- 
tobiographic and reminiscent writings of 
Generals Howard and James Harrison Wilson 
and Morris Schaff and Carl Schurz, the pub- 
lication of Gideon Welles's diary, and the 
issue of General Meade's "Life and Letters." 
In his bibliography of important aids to the 
study of Grant's life, Mr. Edmonds makes no 
mention of the Howard autobiography, one 
of the most valuable and interesting of the 
military memoirs relating to our great con- 
flict and its principal commanders; but he 
does quote some words of Howard's illustra- 
tive of Grant's methods as a soldier. Within 
the modest compass allowed him, the author 
has produced a handy and readable history of 
his hero, and one that bears evidences of more 
than perfunctory preliminary study. The 
frontispiece shows Grant as he looked at 
Appomattox, in the month of April, 1865. 
A useful chronological table precedes the 
reading matter, and certain official docu- 
ments of relevant import follow it. 



Problems of 
unemployment. 



Although Miss Frances A. Kel- 
lor makes no claim that her 
book " Out of Work " (Putnam) 
is other than a revision of her earlier work 
bearing the same title, the scope and content 
of the present book show little 'resemblance 
to those of the former edition. Unemploy- 
ment continues to be our most difficult and 
perplexing social problem. No one can claim 
to have found a solution for this standing 
reproach to our modern industrial system. 
Yet it is some satisfaction to know that in 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



115 



America as elsewhere the eleven years which 
have elapsed since the first edition of Miss 
Kellor's book appeared have borne some fruit 
in thoughtful attention to and hopeful plans 
for combatting the evil of enforced idleness. 
Such subjects as regular ization of employ- 
ment, dovetailing of industries, unemploy- 
ment insurance, and vocational guidance, 
methods which are now the most urged by 
reformers for lessening unemployment or re- 
lieving it from its most serious consequences, 
were not discussed a decade ago. Miss Kel- 
lor's earlier work was devoted entirely to a 
study of employment agencies and intelli- 
gence offices. Considerable improvement in 
the work of the public agencies and better 
regulation of the private offices have taken 
place since then ; but much remains to be 
done before these agencies for the distribu- 
tion of labor are in a condition to render 
adequate service. Miss Kellor believes that 
the most hopeful development of this side of 
the work lies in the establishment of munici- 
pal employment bureaus cooperating with 
Federal agencies for the distribution of labor. 
She also urges an intensive study of the 
extent and causes of unemployment in every 
locality, and of the possibilities of increasing 
employment. The better organization of pri- 
vate industries with the purpose in view of 
reducing the long periods of idleness now 
found in the seasonal trades, and the planning 
of government work with a view to its per- 
formance in dull times, more intelligent direc- 
tion of children in industry, and cautious 
experiments in the way of insurance against 
unemployment are the other more important 
features in the programme for America 
suggested in the closing chapter of the book. 

If proof is wanted that the first 

autobiography. 6ssential to success in the world 
is self-confidence, one need but 
turn to Sir Hiram S. Maxim's breezy relation 
of his own rise from obscurity and poverty to 
fame and fortune. From his first invention, 
a remarkably efficient mouse-trap, to his 
latest triumphs in smokeless powder and auto- 
matic guns, he has shown himself a man of 
endless resource, in shrewdness and capabil- 
ity and ingenuity entirely worthy of his 
Yankee birth and breeding. There is some- 
thing splendid in his well-grounded faith in 
his own powers. Whether it was a wild bull 
to be subdued with bare hands, or a village 
bully to be laid low, or some inventive " stunt " 
to perform in mechanics, chemistry, elec- 
tricity, or the fashioning of lethal weapons, 
he was always equal to the occasion ; and his 
manner of recounting these triumphs is as 



characteristic as his mode of achieving them. 
A certain primitive openness, directness, 
forcefulness, speaks in his pages. He writes 
exactly as a large and strong man who has 
done notable things in the world of matter 
and force ought to write; and he shows a 
memory for details, an ability to marshal his 
facts impressively and sometimes pictur- 
esquely, that one finds highly enjoyable. As 
an illustration of the versatility of his genius, 
let it be noted that Sir Hiram has invented an 
inhaler for the cure of bronchitis, of which, 
he says, " large numbers are now being sold 
all over the world." What wonder that, after 
fashioning so many instruments for the 
slaughter of his fellow-men, he takes pride in 
this device for saving their lives? The book, 
certainly one of the best of its kind, and bear- 
ing the short but sufficient title, "My Life" 
(McBride), is well illustrated and in other 
technical details worthy of its theme, the 
history of a man who has always hated care- 
less craftsmanship, 



A handbook 
on commission 
government. 



As an argument for commission 
government, Mr. Osw r ald Ryan's 
"Municipal Freedom," in the 
series called " The American Books " (Double- 
day), leaves little to be desired. As an 
attempt to weigh commission government 
carefully and discriminate between its advan- 
tages and its deficiencies, it is very far from 
satisfactory. All the benefits to be secured 
by this wiping out of the entire structure of 
the old city government the centralization 
of power and responsibility, the weakening of 
meaningless party lines, the emphasizing of 
honesty and efficiency are enumerated, with 
detailed reference to the experience of various 
cities. But the author does not tell us why, 
as yet, commission government has seldom 
proved a notable success except in cities of 
the third or fourth class in population. He 
does not show the justice of the theory that 
city government is almost purely a business 
institution, with few legislative functions, or 
demonstrate how the decisions of a small body 
of expert executives in questions of policy will 
satisfy the public as would those of a repre- 
sentative assembly. One extraordinary fea- 
ture is the chapter upon " The Coming of the 
Burgomaster," in which the author gives his 
hearty approval to the scheme for a city 
manager, apparently without fully realizing 
that in its essence it is very distinct from the 
commission form, while even the commis- 
sion-manager plan is a long step toward the 
view that municipal administration is an 
exact science rather than an opportunity for 
business knack. Much may indeed be hoped 



116 



THE DIAL 



[August 15 



from the innovations in city government ; but 
books such as this will scarcely convince us 
that it is not the infusing spirit, as opposed 
to the machinery, that counts for most. 



A romance of 
love and war 
in old India. 



" Tis good to be two-and-twenty, 
with a fine troop of light dra- 
goons at your back, a-setting out 
to seek your fortune, on a cool, brisk morning 
in an Indian spring. Eh, sirs ! To hack your 
way to power with your own sword arm and 
your own resources behind you, what finer 
champagne for the imagination? Half the 
troopers were lads, too, agog to have their day, 
full of confidence in the lad who sat at their 
head, with old Ganesha Singh at the helm for 
wisdom in the evil ways of an Eastern world." 
Add that it all befell in " the days of the Free- 
lance proper, the last decade of the eighteenth 
century," and that the central scene is laid in 
the beauteous vale of Kashmir. Then picture 
a glorious- visaged, sweet-hearted Afghan prin- 
cess, in whose company our hero learned that 
"the desire for female beauty is at best the 
desire for a compelling deity in whose service 
men may strike their best notes." After that 
prepare your ear for strange legends of Chris- 
tianity in this distant valley, and an echo of 
the "hundredth name of God" and the 
" omnific word." And if you will do all this, 
you may read a romance that will quicken 
your blood, and incidentally convey a very 
living conception of men's life and farings in 
a most picturesque land at a most stirring 
time. The story referred to, "A Freelance in 
Kashmir" (Longmans), is from the pen of 
Lieut.-Col. G. F. MacMunn, and is written in 
a style that is vigorous and forward-moving 
rather than scrupulously careful or highly 
polished. A few slips in the proofreading 
ought not to have been made; but they will 
probably be more irritating to conscientious 
reviewers than to anybody else. 



The unexplored immensity of 
Beckoning ^jg universe in which we live, 

its perennial freshness and won- 
derfulness, its endless multiplicity in unity, 
the fascination of its abiding mystery these 
qualities speak in Mr. Richard Le Gallienne's 
"Vanishing Roads, and Other Essays" (Put- 
nam), a collection of short prose studies and 
sketches reprinted from various magazines, 
whose editors the author thanks for their 
"discernment" in giving the pieces "their 
first opportunity with the reader." Discern- 
ing these editors unquestionably were, and one 
hopes that many additional readers will profit 
by the discernment of the publishing house 
which now issues the essays in book-form. Too 



well known to require notice at this late day 
are Mr. Le Gallienne's engaging qualities as a 
writer of prose, his sympathetic interpreta- 
tion of nature, his enthusiasm for the best in 
literature and art, the breadth of his view of 
things human and divine, the occasional stimu- 
lating audacities of his thought and style. 
Generous in his praise and unequivocal in his 
condemnation, he expresses his opinions with 
no cautious restraint. Of a certain gifted 
actor's rendering of the final scene in " Ham- 
let " he says : " I would not exchange any- 
thing I have ever read or seen for Forbes- 
Robertson as he sits there so still and starlit 
upon the throne of Denmark." And of mod- 
ern magazine editorship he writes with a 
plentitude of disapprobation that suggests no 
little experience (as a contributor) of that 
whereof he speaks. His picture of the nimble 
and sprightly old lady of eighty dancing the 
tango with him is most enjoyable. From the 
first of the book's twenty-nine chapters, the 
one that gives its name to the collection, let us 
quote, in closing, the concluding passage: 
"For a while the murmur of the running 
stream of Time shall be our fellow-wayfarer 
till, at last, up there against the sky-line, we 
too turn and wave our hands, and know for 
ourselves where the road wends as it goes to 
meet the stars. And others will stand as we 
to-day and watch us reach the top of the ridge 
and disappear, and wonder how it seemed to 
us to turn the radiant corner and vanish with 
the rest along the vanishing road." 



A manual of 
wild bird 
culture. 



The ever-increasing need of 
constructive efforts to conserve 
the remnant of the wild fowl 
and other native birds grows rapidly apace as 
agriculture progresses and the forests disap- 
pear, and especially as drainage, reclamation, 
and flood-control destroy the feeding and 
breeding grounds of the water birds. The 
difficulties of taming the wild fowl, though 
great, are not insuperable; and losses from 
disease among domesticated wild fowl, espe- 
cially quail and grouse, though depleting at 
times, may be avoided by proper preventive 
measures. These and many other practical 
matters of interest to the would-be cultivator 
of quail, grouse, pheasants, wild turkeys, 
partridges, pigeons, doves, and waterfowl 
generally are discussed in Mr. Herbert K. 
Job's "Propagation of Wild Birds" (Double- 
day), a manual of applied ornithology de- 
signed to assist the experimenter and the 
culturist. It is a constructive work, based on 
wide observation of and experience with the 
birds whose culture is advocated. Illustrations 
show details of equipment and procedure, and 



1915 



THE DIAL 



117 



delineate the success of well-directed effort. 
Attention is also given to the method and 
equipment useful in encouraging native song 
birds to make their homes in garden, field, 
and forest. "Winter feeding, nesting sites, 
nesting boxes, and water and food supply, 
are discussed, and methods of protection 
against and warfare on predatory enemies, 
not omitting the roaming house cat, are advo- 
cated. The book should do much to encourage 
the preservation of our native birds. 



secession an* Mr. Daniel Wait Howe's " Politi- 

slavery: an old Cal History of ScCCSSlOn (Put- 

nam) is chiefly valuable, perhaps, 
as a document revealing the mellowing effect 
of the passage of time upon partisan feeling. 
That a citizen of Indiana, born of a line of 
Massachusetts Puritans, and himself a soldier 
in the Union army, has been able to write, in 
his later years, a book so evidently disposed to 
fairness constitutes a basis for optimism as to 
the progress of historical scholarship in Amer- 
ica. One topic African Slavery is funda- 
mental to the work. Mr. Howe shows that he 
has control of the original materials, and of 
the monographic literature of late years. His 
estimate of John Brown is far different from 
the traditional Northern view ; and in connec- 
tion with his narrative of the Dred Scott deci- 
sion he has made use of the recently-published 
"Writings of James Buchanan." But while 
the topic of slavery is thus well documented 
and well developed, the emphasis upon this one 
subject is not in accord with the historical 
vision of to-day, which in the effort to account 
for the Civil War now insists upon an exam- 
ination of other elements, the influence of 
immigration and the diffusion of European 
race stocks, the development of the transcon- 
tinental railroads, and the like. Even as to 
negro slavery, the author has apparently left 
unexamined the writings of Mr. A. H. Stone 
and Mr. U. B. Phillips. Minor errors occur, 
such as the statement that Virginia ceded to 
the general government the territory now in- 
cluded in Kentucky (p. 10) , and the statement 
that Arkansas was admitted to the Union in 
1820 (p. 59). But notwithstanding such defi- 
ciencies as these, the work is a contribution to 
American history that was worth the doing. 



origins and Th< ? ballade & known almost 
development of entirely from two or three ex- 
amples, the most perfect being 
the exquisite "Mais ou sont les neiges d'an- 
tan " of Villon, and the next, not far removed, 
the beautiful "Truth, Balade de Bon Con- 
ceyl " of Chaucer. In its revival in the nine- 
teenth century, both in English and in 



French, it is "a poetic trifle, rarely concerned 
with the solemnities of life." It is of this 
form, largely an artificial product in France 
and an exotic in England, that Miss Helen 
Louise Cohen has written an exhaustive 
monograph for the "Studies in English and 
Comparative Literature of Columbia Uni- 
versity." The type took some four centuries 
to attain the rigidity of three stanzas and an 
envoy, and it lasted in France as form rather 
than as spirit for two centuries and a half 
more. Miss Cohen's treatise is from the na- 
ture of its subject not especially inspiring. 
It deals in some detail with the origins of the 
type from the Provengal balada and the bal- 
lette, and considers it during the years after 
the fourteenth century when it was a conven- 
tional form for expression of more or less 
barren thoughts on religion, death, the transi- 
toriness of existence (the "Ubi sunt" poems), 
courtly love, satire, and history. Consider- 
ably more attention is given to the ballade in 
Middle English in proportion to the fre- 
quency of its occurrence; in fact, Miss 
Cohen's work was begun as a study of the 
ballade in English. And yet with the excep- 
tion of Chaucer there is hardly anything in 
this period worthy of preservation. A final 
chapter takes up the ballade in the nineteenth 
century in France and England. The book 
contains a goodly number of ballades not 
hitherto printed, and full bibliographies. 



A little-known Dr - Hendrik Willem Van Loon's 
period in " Rise of the Dutch Kingdom" 

' ory - (Doubleday) covers the unfor- 
tunate and little-known period between the 
flight of the Stadholder William V. before the 
soldiers of the French Republic in 1795 and 
the establishment of the constitutional mon- 
archy under his son as William I. in 1814. 
Numerous Americans who have heard Dr. Van 
Loon lecture will recognize in his written work 
the same qualities that make his spoken dis- 
course so entertaining, a crisp and per- 
spicuous style, light and easy movement, the 
presentation of essentials in clear relief, and a 
spicy humor. A month after he had finished a 
series of summer session lectures at the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin, Dr. Van Loon was on 
Belgian soil, where, on Christmas night, 1914, 
he dedicates his work " to the five soldiers of 
the Belgian army who saved my life near 
Waerloos," hoping "that their grandchildren 
may read a story of national revival which will 
be as complete and happy as that of our own 
land." Let us trust the story they read will 
be as lively an interpretation of the Belgian 
eclipse by Germany as Dr. Van Loon's is of the 
temporary obscuration of Holland by France. 



118 



THE DIAL 



[August 15 



BRIEFER MENTION. 

A new edition, revised and enlarged, of George 
Palmer Putnam's " The World's Progress " has 
been continued to date under the editorial super- 
vision of the compiler's son, Mr. George Haven 
Putnam, and is published under the title, " Tabular 
Views of Universal History" (Putnam). The 
original scheme has been preserved of presenting, 
in parallel columns, a record of the most note- 
worthy events in the world's history, a scheme 
which adapts itself admirably to the needs of the 
student who wishes to memorize dates and events 
through the assistance of visual association. To 
this new edition is added an index an indis- 
pensable aid for quick reference to a volume of 
this kind. 

Two useful handbooks for those who conduct 
meetings under the rules of parliamentary law 
have recently been issued. The latest revision of 
"Robert's Rules of Order Revised" (Scott, Fores- 
man & Co.) contains nearly twice as much mate- 
rial as the last previous edition of this little vol- 
ume, which has practically been accepted as the 
standard manual on parliamentary points since its 
first publication in 1876. " Shattuck's Parliamen- 
tary Answers" (Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Co.) is 
" alphabetically arranged for all questions likely 
to arise in women's organizations." It is more 
informal than " Robert's Rules," and perhaps on 
that account may seem better adapted to the needs 
of the novice. 

In "American Women in Civic Work" (Dodd), 
Miss Helen Christine Bennett has described the 
careers of eleven living American women who 
have attained distinction in some branch of social 
work or civic service. Portions of the sketches 
were printed originally in some of the popular 
magazines, and the readable quality which ap- 
peared in them has been preserved. Of the 
women whose public service is described, the best 
known, perhaps, are Jane Addams, Anna Howard 
Shaw, Ella Flagg Young, Lucretia L. Blankenburg, 
Frances A. Kellor, and Annie Fellows Bacon. 
The sketches are highly appreciative, even lauda- 
tory; yet in no instances do they become extrava- 
gant. There should be inspiration in them for 
women everywhere. 

Teaching literature through emphasis on its 
human and personal aspects, through a study of 
the picturesque features of its background, and 
through an appeal to the dramatic instinct of the 
boy or girl of high-school age, has been the aim of 
Miss Maude Morrison Frank in the preparation of 
her little volume of five " Short Plays about 
Famous Authors" (Holt). The idea is novel and 
practical, and much helpful fun is in store for the 
pupils who decide under Miss Frank's guidance 
to impersonate Goldsmith entertaining Squire 
Featherston with school-boy swagger, Heine at 
twenty-one, Fanny Burney at Court, the family of 
the eleven-year-old Charles Dickens released from 
debt on Christmas Eve, or Shakespeare, in the 
fairies' realm defying Time himself with the aid of 
Titania and Puck. 



The views of Sir Oliver Lodge on " The War 
and After" will be published in book form at an 
early date. 

" Towards International Government " is the 
title of a new work by Mr. John A. Hobson, which 
will be published shortly. 

A new novel by Mr. Compton Mackenzie, author 
of " Carnival," etc., will be published in September 
under the title of " Guy and Pauline." 

Maxim Gorky's vivid autobiographic memoirs of 
his childhood and youth, now appearing in " The 
English Review," will be brought out in book form 
by the Century Co. 

" The Mask of Death," an autobiographical frag- 
ment by Gabriele D'Annunzio, has been translated 
with an introduction by Arundel del Re, and will 
be published before long in London. 

" The Admirable Painter : A Study of Leon- 
ardo da Vinci," by Mr. A. J. Anderson, based on 
the painter's notebooks, and illustrated with repro- 
ductions of his works, is soon to appear. 

Mrs. John Lane has in the press a companion 
volume to her sprightly book, "According to 
Maria," entitled " Maria Again." It will shortly 
be published in this country by the John Lane Co. 

"An American Garland," being a collection of 
ballads relating to America, 1563-1759, has been 
compiled and edited by Professor C. H. Firth, and 
will be published early in September by Mr. B. H. 
Blackwell of Oxford. 

" Sunset Balconies " is the title of a new volume 
of poems by Mr. Thomas Walsh his first since 
the appearance five years ago of " Prison Ships 
and Other Poems" which the Macmillan Co. 
plan to issue next month. 

The new novel of Irish life by George A. Bir- 
mingham, which will appear next month under the 
title of " Gossamer," is brought down to the world 
crisis in August last, and culminates in the effect 
on the lives and fortunes of its characters of the 
declaration of war. 

A coming addition to the books about the Kaiser 
will be Mr. Edward Legge's " The Public and 
Private Life of Wilhelm II.," to be published 
shortly. Mr. Legge is the author of biographies of 
King Edward VII. and the Empress Eugenie, both 
of which have won considerable attention. 

A book of personal reminiscences and impres- 
sions of Bronson Alcott and his family, by a friend 
of the famous transcendentalist, is announced in 
the volume of "Alcott Memoirs," compiled from 
the papers, journals, and memoranda of the late 
Dr. Frederick L. H. Willis. In a literary way, the 
book is likely to prove one of the most interesting 
of the autumn season. 

A new romance by Mr. Anthony Hope, entitled, 
"A Young Man's Year" the first novel to come 
from the author since the publication four years 
ago of " Mrs. Maxon Protests " is announced 
for autumn publication. The hero of "A Young 
Man's Year " is "Arthur Lisle, of the Middle 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



119 



Temple, Esquire," and the story recounts his for- 
tunes and his doings, professional, speculative, and 
venturesome. 

Under the title of " The Superman in Modern 
Literature " there will shortly be published the 
translation of a work by Leo Berg, tracing the 
genesis of the superman idea far beyond the days 
of Nietzsche, through a great number of writers, 
many of them outside Germany, including Carlyle, 
Emerson, Kierkegaard, Flaubert, and Renan, 
showing how the superman idea has permeated the 
work of modern poets and novelists, especially in 
Germany. 

Undeterred by the storm of contumely brought 
down upon him by the publication of his " Common 
Sense about the War," Mr. Bernard Shaw is 
planning the early publication of a detailed discus- 
sion of the settlement that must follow the war. 
" I am the gravest public danger that confronts 
England," announced Mr. Shaw recently, " because 
I have the strange power of turning the nation pas- 
sionately away from the truth by the simple act of 
uttering it." 

Thomas Young Crowell, founder and for many 
years head of the publishing business now known as 
the Thomas Y. Crowell Co., died in Montclair, New 
Jersey, on July 29. Mr. Crowell was a prominent 
figure among the older school of American publish- 
ers. In the work of making the classics of literature 
available at a low price in well-produced form he 
was almost a pioneer in this country ; and on other 
accounts, also, his name deserves to be held in 
honored remembrance in the annals of American 
publishing. 

Some sidelights on the Franco-Prussian war and 
the establishment of the Third Republic are prom- 
ised in the " Memoirs of M. Thiers," to be pub- 
lished shortly. The book is compiled from personal 
papers, notes, memoranda, and other documents 
left by Thiers. A selection of these, dealing with 
the years 1870-1872, was edited by Thiers's sister- 
in-law and his former secretary, and printed in 
France for private circulation. The book has 
now been translated into English by Mr. F. M. 
Atkinson. 

Mr. Richard Whiteing's volume of reminiscences, 
to be called " My Harvest," will be published in the 
early autumn. It gives an account of Mr. White- 
ing's early life in London and of his first journal- 
istic efforts on the " Evening Star," with Justin 
McCarthy as editor, and William Black and Sir 
Edward Russell as his colleagues. Mr. Whiteing 
was a special correspondent in Paris during the 
closing years of the Second Empire, and his book 
has something to say about Taine, Flaubert, the 
younger Dumas, Octave Feuillet, and other French 
men of letters. 

Our readers will welcome the announcement that 
Mr. Edmund Gosse has at last finished his "Life 
of Swinburne," though the book will not be pub- 
lished until after the war. Another book now 
ready for the press is a collection of Swinburne's 
posthumous poems, edited by Mr. Gosse and 
Mr. Thomas J. Wise; while Mr. Gosse has also in 
preparation a selection from Swinburne's corre- 



spondence. Mr. Gosse has had at his disposal all 
the Houghton manuscripts, and he has received 
help from Lord Morley, Lord Bryce, and other sur- 
viving friends of Swinburne. 

An original edition is to be published of a thir- 
teenth-century French religious poem in praise of 
the Virgin Mary, " Li Romans dou Lis," contained 
in a unique manuscript in the library of Mr. J. 
Pierpont Morgan. The manuscript formerly be- 
longed to Lord Ashburnham. A critical introduc- 
tion was written by the late Dr. Frederick C. 
Ostrander, Adjunct Professor of Romance Lan- 
guages in the University of Texas, as a memorial 
to whom the present edition is being issued by 
Mr. Morgan through the Columbia University 
Press. The poem itself, which is in strophie form, 
and composed in various metres, numbers over 
4200 verses. 

Under the title of " Makers of the Nineteenth 
Century," Messrs. Holt, in conjunction with an 
English publishing house, have in preparation a 
new series of biographies, of which Mr. Basil 
Williams, the biographer of Chatham, is to be the 
general editor. Most of the books will deal with 
Englishmen and Americans, but it is also intended 
to include biographies of men of all countries who 
have had a definite influence on thought or action 
in the nineteenth century. The first four volumes 
to appear will be "John Delane " by Sir E. T. 
Cook, "Abraham Lincoln" by Lord Charnwood, 
" Herbert Spencer " by Mr. Hugh S. Elliot, and 
"Abdul Hamid " by Sir Edwin Pears. Biographies 
of Cecil Rhodes, Victor Hugo, General Lee, and 
Lord Shaftesbury are also in preparation. 

The announcement of a newly collected edition of 
Mrs. Aphra Behn's works is followed by news of a 
study of " The Life and Romances of Mrs. Eliza 
Haywood," who was described by Horace Walpole 
as the counterpart of Mrs. Behn, and by Swift as 
a " stupid, infamous, scribbling woman." It was 
Pope, however, who gave Mrs. Haywood her most 
unenviable immortality in some of his coarsest 
lines in the " Dunciad " for following the exam- 
ple of Mrs. Manley, and " such shameless scrib- 
blers," in repeating in her tales the scandalous 
gossip of her day. The forthcoming book on the 
life and romances of her contemporary, Mrs. Hay- 
wood, has been written by Dr. George F. Whicher, 
of the University of Illinois, for the " Columbia 
University Studies in English and Comparative 
Literature." 

We learn by way of London of a forthcoming 
study of " William Wordsworth : His Life, Works, 
and Influence," by Professor George McLean Har- 
per, of Princeton University, to whom we already 
owe a critical biography of Sainte-Beuve. It is 
based to a large extent on fresh material, and, in 
particular, will add to our knowledge of Words- 
worth's connection with the French Revolution, and 
of his visit to France in 1791, when he became inti- 
mately acquainted with the republican General 
Beaupuis. Professor Harper has also been able to 
throw fresh light upon other periods of Words- 
worth's career, about which scarcely any informa- 
tion has been available hitherto. The book, which 



120 



THE DIAL 



promises to be one of considerable importance as a 
contribution to the study of Wordsworth's life and 
thought, will be published in the autumn. 

Taking advantage of the opportunity presented 
by the elimination of the Tauchnitz Series in 
Prance, Russia, and Italy, Monsieur Louis Conard, 
the Paris publisher, announces for publication in 
the English language throughout the Continent of 
Europe a series of the latest (and forthcoming) 
copyrighted novels of the leading British and 
American authors. It was at first intended to 
await the conclusion of the present war before 
launching this enterprise, but it has been decided 
to begin publication at once with " Bealby," the 
new story by Mr. H. G. Wells, and " Delia Blanch- 
flower," the latest novel by Mrs. Humphry Ward. 
During the war new books will be issued at the 
rate of at least one a month. Later in the year, it 
is hoped to put forth books at the rate of one a 
week. The series is to be published at two francs 
a volume. 

A publication that has enjoyed wide popularity 
in England recently is " The Book of France," 
edited by Miss Winifred Stephens, and published 
in aid of the fund organized by the French Parlia- 
mentary Committee for the relief of the invaded 
Departments. Except that it begins with an ad- 
dress by Mr. Henry James, and closes with a poem 
by Mr. Rudyard Kipling, all the articles are the 
work of French men of letters. But the feature of 
the book is that, following each article, there 
appears a translation by some of our most distin- 
guished English writers. Mr. Thomas Hardy is 
responsible for two extracts a tribute to Great 
Britain by M. J. H. Rosny, nine, and some reflec- 
tions on the invasion of France by M. Remy de 
Gourmont ; as a rule, he keeps close to his original, 
though he sometimes employs a more expressive 
word, in one place rendering " notre sentiment " by 
" our heart's wound." Mr. Henry James's version 
of " The Saints of France " by M. Maurice Barres 
is quite in the style of Mr. Henry James; while 
Mr. H. G. Wells's translation of his own name 
deserves to be noticed. M. Anatole France wrote, 
in his opening sentence : " Ils se realisent les 
reves prophetiques de H. G. Wells." Mr. Wells 
translates this as follows : " The prophetic night- 
mares of our scientific f antastics are being lamenta- 
bly realized." 

The author of " God's Fool," who in the quarter- 
century of his literary activity wrote almost a score 
of successful novels all under the pseudonym, 
" Maarten Maartens " died on the fourth of this 
month at the age of fifty-seven years lacking eleven 
days. Joost Marius Willem Van der Poorten- 
Schwartz, as the novelist was known to his relatives 
and friends, was born at Amsterdam, spent much 
of his boyhood in England, was educated at the 
Royal Gymnasium in Bonn and the University of 
Utrecht, studied law and afterward lectured on law 
at the same university, but ultimately chose litera- 
ture for a profession, achieving his first decided 
success therein with his novel, " The Son of Joost 
Avelingh." Then in rapid sequence came "An Old 
Maid's Love," "A Question of Taste," "God's 



Fool," " The Greater Glory," and the rest of the 
now familiar stories that have made the writer's 
name famous in many lands ; for he has been trans- 
lated extensively, even, against his will (as it is 
said), into Dutch. Perhaps the unflattering quality 
of his pen-pictures of the middle-class society of 
Holland may help to explain his choice of a foreign 
language as his vehicle of expression, and his reluc- 
tance to have his books translated into his native 
tongue. Though not to be ranked with the immor- 
tals, Maarten Maartens won well-deserved fame as 
an unsparingly truthful delineator of Dutch char- 
acter, and his achievement is the more remarkable 
from his self-imposed handicap of an alien idiom 
in which to command the attention of the public. 



TOPICS IN LEADING PERIODICALS. 

August, 1915. 

" A. E." : Irish Mystic and Economist. E. A. Boyd No. Amer. 

Actress, Autobiography of an Everybody's 

America and World Peace. Arthur Bullard . . . Century 

America First ! George Harvey No. Amer. 

Architectural Modeling. Percy Collins .... Am. Homes 
Armies, Phantom. Mrs. St. John Mildmay . . No. Amer. 

Art, Modern. Marius De Zayas Forum 

Art in the Trenches. Armand Dayot Century 

Artist, Education of the. C. G. La Farge . . . Scribner 
Bacon, Friar Roger. Frederic Harrison . . . No. Amer. 

Book-plates. Gardner Teall Am. Homes 

Bryan, W. J., Position of. G. F. Milton . . . Rev. of Revs. 
Cape Cod Farmhouse, A Remodeled. Jeannette L. 

Hulbert , Am. Homes 

Choiseul, Madame de. Gamaliel Bradford . . . Sewanee 

Christ and War. J. M. Wilson Hibbert 

Churchill, Winston, Country of. Brooks Henderson Bookman 

Clematis. Gardner Teall Am. Homes 

Colonial Seats in Philadelphia. H. D. Eberlein . Am. Homes 
Congestion, Cost of. Agnes Laut .... World's Work 
Consciousness, Distant. Waldo E. Forbes .... Atlantic 
Cooperation and Foreign Trade. W. F. Wyman World's Work 
Cotton and Other Crops. Edward Ingle . . . Rev. of Revs. 

Dabney, Richard. Earl L. Bradsher Sewanee 

Democracy, Duplicity of. Alfred H. Lloyd . Am. Jour. Soc. 

Dostoievsky, Art of. W. B. Trites No. Amer. 

Dostoievsky and Tolstoy. James Huneker .... Forum 
Dover House, A Remodeled. Mary H. Northend Am. Homes 
Drink in France, Fighting. Arno Dosch . . World's Work 
East, Wild, of Europe. Burton J. Hendrick . World's Work 
Educational Fantasy, An. Winifred Kirkland . . Atlantic 
Embroidery, Leaf Borders for. Monica Bastin . Am. Homes 
Force, Moral Sanction of. Norman Smith . . . Hibbert 

Forestry Situation, The. A. E. Hawes Pop. Sc. 

Frost, Robert. Edward Garnett Atlantic 

German Spirit, America and the. J. H. Crooker . Hibbert 
Germany, Behind the Scenes in. Eva Madden . . Hibbert 

Golden Rule, The. E. A. Sonnenschein Hibbert 

Green Mountains, In the. Louise C. Hale .... Century 
Harvard Library, The New. W. J. Price .... Sewanee 
Henry Street, The House on VI. Lillian D. Wald Atlantic 
Industrial Art, Exhibition of. Howard James . Am. Homes 
Inscriptions, Old English. Bernard Holland . . . Hibbert 
Lazarovich, Princes_s, Reminiscences of I. . . . Century 
Legislation, Initiation of. Edgar Dawson . . . Sewanee 
Life, The Waste of. Elaine G. Eastman .... Pop. Sc. 

Life and Chance. John Burroughs No. Amer. 

Lisbon and Cintra. Ernest Peixotto Scribner 

Lloyd-George's Fight against Liquor. Harry 

Jones World's Work 

Magazine in America, The VI. Algernon Tassin Bookman 
Matter, Constitution of. Ernest Rutherford . . . Pop. Sc. 
Mexico, Religious Question in. Luis Cabrera . . . Forum 
Mississippi, Sovereignty of the. George Marvin World's Work 
Monson, Sir William. Wilbur C. Abbott .... Sewanee 
Mosquito Sanitation II. L. O. Howard .... Pop. Sc. 
Negro Exposition at Richmond. P. F. Jones . Rev. of Revs. 
Negro Vote, The. James C. Hemphill .... No. Amer. 
New York's Constitution. W. B. Shaw . . . Rev. of Revs. 
Norman Angellism under Fire. Roland Hugins . . Forum 

Northcliffe, Lord. Sydney Brooks No. Amer. 

Pacifists, Questions for. H. M. Chittenden . . . Atlantic 
Pan-American Financial Conference. W. G. 

McAdoo World's Work 

Pasha, Enver. Lewis R. Freeman Rev. of Revs. 

Powder-horns. Elizabeth Lounsbery .... Am. Homes 
Professionalism. Hubert Langerock . . . Am. Jour. Soc. 
Progress, Human. Victor S. Yarros . . . Am. Jour. Soc. 
Prohibition in Russia. Stephen Graham . . World's Work 
Race Segregation in the United States. P. A. Bruce Hibbert 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



121 



Religion, Evolution of. Edward C. Hayes . Am. Jour. Soc. 
Richland Centre. Walter A. Dyer .... World's Work 
Ritualistic Ceremonies, Primitive. Clark Wissler . Pop. Sc. 

.Sargent, John S. John Cournos Forum 

Short-ballot Principle, The. F. A. Cleveland . Rev. of Revs. 
Simplicity and " Social " Literature. E. A. Thurber Seivanee 
South American Novels and Novelists. Isaac Gold- 
berg Bookman 

Stanton, Edwin M. Gamaliel Bradford .... Atlantic 
State against Commonwealth. A. D. Lindsay . . Atlantic 
State vs. the Man in America. Truxtun Beale . . Forum 
Stratton-Porter, Gene, Popularity of. F. T. Cooper Bookman 
.Submarine, The, as Peacemaker. Herbert Quick . American 

Tennis, Rise of. Louis Graves Century 

Thackeray Portfolio, A II. Brander Matthews Bookman 
Trade, American, in War. James Middleton . World's Work 

Unity in Discord. Eugene Troubetzkoy Hibbert 

Value and Social Interpretation. J. E. Boodin Am. Jour. Soc. 
Venizelos and Greater Greece. T. L. Stoddard Rev. of Revs. 
Virtuous, The Dull, and the Brilliant Wicked. H. M. 

Allen Sewanee 

Von Hindenburg : General and Man. W. C. Dreher Atlantic 
War, Advantages of. John L. McMaster .... Sewanee 
War : An Inventory. Winifred Kirkland . . . No. Amer. 
War, Chemists' Side of the. Hugo Schweitzer Rev. of Revs. 
War, Cost of a Year of. C. F. Speare . . . Rev. of Revs. 
War, English Attitude toward the. F. W. Whitridge Scribner 

War: How to Meet It. A. Keene Hibbert 

War, One Year of. Frank H. Simonds . . . Rev. of Revs. 

War, Psychology of. G. T. W. Patrick Pop. Sc. 

War, The Money Side of the American 

War, United States and. Charles Vale Forum 

War and Non-resistance. Bertrand Russell . . . Atlantic 
War and Progress of Society. I. W. Howerth . . Pop. Sc. 
War and the Theory of the State. J. A. R. Marriott Hibbert 
War Philosophy : Hindu and Christian. S. M. Mitra Hibbert 
War Selection in Europe. David S. Jordan . . . Pop. Sc. 
Whiteing, Richard, Reminiscences of II. . . . Bookman 

Whitman in Camden. Horace Traubel Forum 

Wilde, Oscar, New Hellenism of. William Chislett, Jr. Sewanee 
Women, New Profession for. Earl Barnes . . . Atlantic 



LIST OF NEW BOOKS. 

[ The following list, containing 190 titles, includes books 
received by THE DIAL since its last issue.] 

HISTORY. 

Napoleon in Exile: St. Helena (1815-1821). By 
Norwood Young. In 2 volumes, illustrated in 
color, etc., large Svo. John C. Winston Co. 
$7. net. 

JVapoleon in Exile: Elba. By Norwood Young. Il- 
lustrated in photogravure, etc., large Svo, 349 
pages. John C. Winston Co. $5. net. 

Holland: An Historical Essay. By H. A. van 
Coenen Torchiana. With frontispiece, Svo, 89 
pages. Paul Elder & Co. $1.25 net. 

The Recognition Policy of the United States. By 
Julius Goebel, Jr., Ph.D. Svo, 228 pages. Colum- 
bia University Press. Paper, $2. net. 

The Creed of the Old South, 1865-1915. By Basil L. 
Gildersleeve. 12mo, 126 pages. Johns Hopkins 
Press. $1. net. 

A Short History of Belgium and Holland. By Alex- 
ander Young. Illustrated, Svo, 586 pages. T. 
Fisher Unwin, Ltd. 

Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society. 
Volume XV. Illustrated, large Svo, 872 pages. 
St. Paul, Minn.: Published by the Society. 

The Jefferson-Lemen Compact. By Willard C. Mac- 
Naul. 12mo, 58 pages. University of Chicago 
Press. Paper. 

GENERAL LITERATURE. 

"Contemporary Portraits. By Frank Harris. With 
portraits, large Svo, 346 pages. Mitchell Ken- 
nerley. $2.50 net. 

Boon, The Mind of the Race, The Wild Asses of the 
Devil, and The Last Trump: Being a Selection 
from the Literary Remains of George Boon, 
Appropriate to the Times. Prepared for publica- 
tion by Reginald Bliss, with an Ambiguous In- 
troduction by H. G. Wells. 12mo, 345 pages. 
George H. Doran Co. $1.35 net. 

The British and American Drama of To-day: Out- 
lines for Their Study. By Barrett H. Clark. 
12mo, 315 pages. Henry Holt & Co. $1.60 net. 

Madame de Stael and the Spread of German Liter- 
ature. By Emma Gertrude Jaeck, Ph.D. With 
portrait, 12mo, 358 pages. Oxford University 
Press. 

From the Shelf. By Paxton Holgar. 12mo, 257 
pages. E. P. Dutton & Co. $1.50 net. 



The Wayf arer's Library. First volumes: The Open 
Air, by Richard Jefferies; Under the Greenwood 
Tree, by Thomas Hardy; An Unsocial Socialist, 
by Bernard Shaw; Love among the Artists, by 
Bernard Shaw; Cashel Byron's Profession, by 
Bernard Shaw; The Historic Thames, by Hilaire 
Belloc; Eighteenth Century Studies, by Austin 
Dobson; Round the Galley Fire, by W. Clark 
Russell; The House of Cobwebs, by George Gis- 
sing; The Private Papers of Henry Ryecroft, 
by George Gissing; Selected Essays on Literary 
Subjects, by George W. E. Russell; Queen Anne, 
by Herbert Paul; Essays of Elia, by Charles 
Lamb; A Christmas Carol, by Charles Dickens; 
The Cricket on the Hearth, by Charles Dickens; 
The Epistles of Atkins, by James Milne; Kings 
in Exile, by Alphonse Daudet; Prophets, Priests, 
and Kings, by A. G. Gardiner; The Chaplain of 
the Fleet, by Walter Besant and James Rice; 
Under the German Ban in Alsace and Lorraine, 
by M. Betham-Edwards; The Lore of the Wan- 
derer, an open-air anthology, by George Good- 
child; The Lost Mameluke, by David M. Beddoe; 
Southward Ho! and other essays, by Holbrook 
Jackson; De Omnibus, by the Conductor, by 
Barry Pain; Quo Vadis? by Henryk Sienkie- 
wicz, translated by C. J. Hogarth; Love-letters 
of a Worldly Woman, by Mrs. W. K. Clifford; 
A Lost Endeavour, by Guy Boothby; Rosalind 
in Arden, by H. B. Marriott Watson; The Heart 
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Bachelor Betty, by Winifred James; Letters 
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The Wickhamses, by W. Pett Ridge; The Widow 
Woman, by Charles Lee; Pilgrimage, by C. E. 
Lawrence; The Ghosts of Piccadilly, by G. S. 
Street; The Wooden Horse, by Hugh Walpole. 
Each illustrated, 16mo. E. P. Dutton & Co. Per 
volume, 40 cts. net. 

A History of Italian Literature. By Florence Trail. 
Svo, 386 pages. Richard G. Badger. $2. net. 

Herder and Klopstock: A Comparative Study. By 
Frederick Henry Adler, Ph.D. 12mo, 232 pages. 
New York: G. E. Stechert & Co. Paper. 

VERSE AND DRAMA. 

Selections from the Symbolical Poems of William 
Blake. By Frederick E. Pierce, Ph.D. Large 
Svo, 79 pages. Yale University Press. $2. net. 

Sonnets to Sidney Lanier, and Other Lyrics. By 
Clifford Anderson Lanier; edited, with Introduc- 
tion, by Edward Howard Griggs. 12mo, 50 
pages. B. W. Huebsch. 75 cts. net. 

Some Love Songs of Petrarch. Translated and an- 
notated, with a biographical introduction, by 
William Dudley Foulke, LL.D. 12mo, 244 pages. 
Oxford University Press. $1.15 net. 

The Faith of Princes, with a Sheaf of Sonnets. By 
Harvey M. Watts. 12mo, 53 pages. John C. 
Winston Co. $1. net. 

Prayer for Peace, and Other Poems. By William 
Samuel Johnson. 12mo, 113 pages. Mitchell 
Kennerley. $1.25 net. 

Casus Belli: A Satire, with Other Poems. By 
Charles Richard Cammell. Svo, 31 pages. E. P. 
Dutton & Co. $1.25 net. 

The Close of Life and the Approach of Death. By 
Bertram Dobell. 12mo, 30 pages. Privately 
printed. Paper. 

Barbarians: A Play in One Act, Being an Episode 
of the War of 1914. By Robert De Camp Leland. 
16mo, 23 pages. Boston: Poetry-Drama Co. 
Paper. 

Songs of Hope. By Rebecca N. Taylor. 12mo, 28 
pages. Sherman, French & Co. 75 cts. net. 

The Little Mother of the Slums, and Other Plays. 
By Emily Herey Denison. 12mo, 133 pages. The 
Gorham Press. $1. net. 

The Little Books of Georgian Verse. First volumes: 
Poems, by C. A. Macartney: Manx Spng and 
Maiden Song, by Mona Douglas, with Introduc- 
tion by Gertrude Ford. Each 12mo. London: 
Erskine Macdonald. Paper. 

Dreams and Realities: Verses and Sonnets. By 
William K. Fleming. 12mo, 133 pages. London: 
Erskine Macdonald. 

Sandman Time. By Ilsien Nathalie Gaylord. 12mo, 
31 pages. Richard G. Badger. $1. net. 

The Answer, and Other Poems. By Hiram Powers 
Dilworth. 18mo. Chicago: Published by the 
author. Paper. 



122 



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Peace Sonnet*. By Jessie Wiseman Gibbs. 12mo, 
63 pages. Villisca, Iowa: Published by the 
author. 75 cts. net. 

Rhymes and Vowlymes. By Fuller Miller. 12mo, 
70 pages. Published by the author. 60 cts. net. 

The Voice, Courage, and Sanctuary: Three Plays. 
By Joseph Lawren. Each 12mo. Boston: Pub- 
lished by the author. Paper. 

Pan's Reeds, and Other Verse. By William Mac- 
kay Caldwell. 18mo, 56 pages. Published by 
the author. 

Oxford Pamphlets, 1914-15. New titles: Poetry 
and War, by Herbert Warren, D.C.L.; Bom- 
bastes in the Shades, a play in one act, by Lau- 
rence Binyon. Each 16mo. Oxford University 
Press. Paper. 

FICTION. 

Michael O'Halloran. By Gene Stratton-Porter. Il- 
lustrated, 12mo. Doubleday, Page & Co. 
$1.35 net. 

" K." By Mary Roberts Rinehart. Illustrated, 
12mo. Houghton Mifflin Co. $1.35 net. 

The Landloper: The Romance of a Man on Foot. 
By Holman Day. With frontispiece, 12mo, 334 
pages. Harper & Brothers. $1.35 net. 

Of Human Bondage. By W. Somerset Maugham. 
12mo, 648 pages. George H. Doran Co. $1.50 net. 

The Sea-hawk. By Rafael Sabatini. 12mo, 362 
pages. J. B. Lippincott Co. $1.25 net. 

The Pirates of the Sky: A Tale of Modern Adven- 
ture. By Stephen Gaillard. Illustrated, 12mo, 
351 pages. Rand, McNally & Co. $1.25 net. 

Two Sinners. By Mrs. David G. Ritchie. 12mo, 338 
pages. E. P. Dutton & Co. $1.35 net. 

Jimmy's Gentility. By Henry Francis Dryden. 
12mo, 379 pages. Sherman, French & Co. 
$1.35 net. 

Penelope's Postscripts. By Kate Douglas Wiggin. 
With frontispiece, 12mo, 217 pages. Houghton 
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The Tollhouse. By Evelyn St. Leger. 12mo, 147 
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The Last Ditch: A Story of Panama and the Canal 
Zone. By J. Raymond Elderdice. Illustrated, 
12mo, 295 pages. Rand, McNally & Co. $1. net. 

The Charlatan's Prophecy. By George Klingle. 
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Tom Kenyon, Schoolboy. By M. Harding Kelly. 
With frontispiece in color, 12mo, 320 pages. 
American Tract Society. 

SOCIOLOGY AND ECONOMICS. 

The Cry for Justice: An Anthology of the Literature 
of Social Protest. Edited by Upton Sinclair; 
with Introduction by Jack London. Illustrated, 
8vo, 891 pages. John C. Winston Co. $2. net. 

The Wealth and Income of the People of the United 
States. By Willford Isbell King, Ph.D. 12mo, 
278 pages. Macmillan Co. $1.50 net. 

Citizens in Industry. By Charles Richmond Hen- 
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Railway Problems in China. By Mongton Chih 
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Press. Paper, $1.50 net. 

Play and Recreation in a Town of 60OO: A Recrea- 
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Howard R. Knight. 12mo, 98 pages. New York 
City: Russell Sage Foundation. Paper. 

Early Economic Conditions and the Development 
of Agriculture in Minnesota. By Edward Van 
Dyke Robinson, Ph.D. With maps, 4to, 306 pages. 
"Studies in the Social Sciences." Minneapolis: 
University of Minnesota. Paper. 

Industrial Accidents in Ohio, January 1 to June 30, 
1914. 8vo, 324 pages. Industrial Commission of 
Ohio. Paper. 

Social and Economic Survey of a Community in 
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M.A. Illustrated, 8vo, 115 pages. Minneapolis: 
University of Minnesota. Paper. 

THE GREAT WAR ITS PROBLEMS, HISTORY, 
AND CONSEQUENCES. 

The History of Twelve Days, July 24th to August 

4th, 1914. By J. W. Headlam, M.A. Large 8vo, 

412 pages. Charles Scribner's Sons. 
The Campaign of 1914 in France and Belgium. By 

G. H. Ferris. Illustrated, Svo, 395 pages. Henry 

Holt & Co. $1.50 net. 
Germany's Point of View. By Edmund von Mach. 

12mo, 443 pages. A. C. McClurg & Co. $1.50 net. 
The Elements of the Great War: The First Phase. 

By Hilaire Belloc. Illustrated, Svo, 377 pages. 

Hearst's International Library Co. $1.50 net. 



Punch Cartoons of the Great War. 4to, 215 pages. 
George H. Doran Co. $1.50 net. 

Sixty American Opinions on the War. 12mo, 1C3 
pages. T. Fisher Unwin. 

The War and Its Issues: An Attempt at a Christian: 
. Judgment. By John Oman, M.A. 12mo, 130 
pages. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 90 cts. net. 

The Soul of Germany. By Thomas F. A. Smith. 
12mo, 354 pages. George H. Doran Co. $1.25 net. 

The Effect of the War on the External Trade of 
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Documents Relating to the Great War. Selected 
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War and Woman: An Exposition of Man's Failure 
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Evolution and the War. By P. Chalmers Mitchell,. 
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Collected Diplomatic Documents: Relating to the 
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The British Soldier: His Courage and Humour. By 
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In a French Hospital: Notes of a Nurse. By M. 
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India and the War. With Introduction by Lord 
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The Psychology of the Kaiser: A Study of His 
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Business Methods and the War. By Lawrence R. 
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Nation of Nations: The Way to Permanent Peace. 
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A German-American's Confessiou of Faith. By 
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The Meaning of the "War: Life and Matter in Con- 
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Our Chinese Chances through Europe's War. By 
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God and War: An Exposition of the Principles. 
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The Ideals of France: A Letter on the Great War. 
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Some Aspects of the "War. By S. Perez Triana. 
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Evidence and Documents Laid before the Committee 
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The British Empire and the War. By E. A. Benians. 
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ART AND DECORATIVE ART. 

The Decoration and Furnishing of Apartments. By 

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Old English Mansions. Depicted by C. J. Richard- 
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Others. Illustrated, 4to. John Lane Co. Paper, 
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Greek, Etruscan, and Roman Bronzes. By Gisela 
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The Small House for a Moderate Income. By Ekin 
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Monograph on Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa." 
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Lost Mosaics and Frescoes of Rome of the Mediaeval 
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Inexpensive Furnishings in Good Taste. By Ekin 
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1915] 



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RELIGION AND THEOLOGY. 

History of Christian Missions. By Charles Henry 
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The New Infinite and the Old Theology. By Cassius 
J. Keyser, LL.D. 12mo, 117 pages. Yale Univer- 
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Healing- Currents from the Battery of Life. By 
Walter DeVoe. 12mo, 243 pages. Cleveland, 
Ohio: Vita Publishing Co. $1.50 net. 

Cardinal Truths of the Gospel. By Samuel F. Half- 
yard, Ph.D. 12mo, 252 pages. Methodist Book 
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Sin: Original and Actual. By T. K. B. 12mo, 121 
pages. Richard G. Badger. $1. net. 

The Old Faith in the New Day. By Joseph M. M. 
Gray. 12mo, 258 pages. Abingdon Press. 
$1. net. 

The Old Gospel in the New Century. By James D. 
McCaughtry. 12mo, 98 pages. Richard G. Bad- 
ger. $1. net. 

Studies in Recent Adventism. By Henry C. Sheldon. 
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Clowns Courage. By Patrick Scarlet. 12mo, 131 
pages. Richard G. Badger. $1. net. 

Obscure People. By Edgar Whitaker Work, D.D. 
12mo, 72 pages. American Tract Society. 
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PHILOSOPHY AND ETHICS. 

The Natural Order of Spirit: A Psychic Study and 

Experience. By Lucien C. Graves. 12mo, 365 

pages. Sherman, French & Co. $1.50 net. 
Politics and Metaphysics. By Frank Preston 

Stearns. 12mo, 186 pages. Richard G. Badger. 

$1.50 net. 
The Will in Ethics. By Theophilus B. Stork. 

12mo, 190 pages. Sherman, French & Co. 

$1.25 net. 
The Creative Process in the Individual. By T. Tro- 

ward. Enlarged edition; 12mo, 185 pages. 

McBride, Nast & Co. $1.25 net. 

EDUCATION. 

The Dean of Women. By Lois Kimball Mathews, 

Ph.D. 12mo, 275 pages. Houghton Mifflin Co. 

$1.50 net. 
Outlines of Sociology. By Frank W. Blackmar, 

Ph.D., and John Lewis Gillin, Ph.D. 8vo, 586 

pages. Macmillan Co. $2. net. 
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Brady. Illustrated in color, 12mo, 272 pages. 

Charles E. Merrill Co. 48 cts. net. 

BOOKS FOR THE YOUNG. 
The \Vhite Captive: A Tale of the Pontiac War. 

By R. Clyde Ford. Illustrated in color, etc., 

12mo, 296 pages. Rand, McNally & Co. $1. net. 
Christmas Plays for Children. By May Pemberton; 

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12mo, 109 pages. Thomas Y. Crowell Co. $1. net. 
Jacob: A Lad of Nazareth. By Mabel Gifford 

Shine. Illustrated, 12mo, 342 pages. Rand, Mc- 
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When Mother Lets Us Make Candy. By Elizabeth 

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Letters from Brother Bill, 'Varsity Sub. By Walter 

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Thomas Y. Crowell Co. 50 cts. net. 

BOOKS OF REFERENCE. 

Complete Guide to Public Speaking. Compiled and 
edited by Grenville Kleiser. Large 8vo, 639 
pages. Funk & Wagnalls Co. $5. net. 

The American Library Annual, 1914-1915. Large 
8vo, 437 pages. New York: R. R. Bowker Co. 
$5. net. 

The Statesman's Year-book, 1915. Edited by J. 
Scott Keltie, LL.D., and M. Epstein, Ph.D. 12mo, 
1536 pages. Macmillan Co. $3.50 net. 

Technical Terms Used in Bibliographies and by 
the Book and Printing Trades. By Axel Moth. 
Svo, 263 pages. Boston Book Co. $2.25 net. 

Denmark in English and American Literature: A 
Bibliography. Edited by J. Christian Bay; with 
Introduction by C. H. W. Hasselriis. 12mo, 96 
pages. Chicago: Danish American Association. 

Bibliographical Society of America. Edited by the 
Publication Committee. Volume IX. Svo, 44 
pages. University of Chicago Press. Paper. 

Dictionary of Naval and Military Terms. By C. F. 
Tweney, F.L.A. 22mo, 232 pages. T. Fisher 
Unwin. 



Eighteenth Biennial Report of the Minnesota His- 
torical Society. Svo, 77 pages. St. Paul: Pub- 
lished by the Society. Paper. 

Good English: A Practical Manual of Correct 
Speaking and Writing. By John Louis Haney, 
Ph.D. 16mo, 244 pages. Philadelphia: The 
Egerton Press. 

South America: Topical Outlines for Twenty Club 
Meetings, with Bibliography. Prepared by 
Corinne Bacon. 12mo, 28 pages. H. W. Wilson 
Co. Paper. 

The Anti-prohibition Manual: A Summary of Facts 
Dealing with Prohibition, 1915. 18mo, 75 pages. 
Cincinnati: National Wholesale Liquor Dealers* 
Association of America. Paper. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Wild Bird Guests: How to Entertain Them. Ey 
Ernest Harold Baynes. Illustrated, Svo, 326 
pages. E. P. Dutton & Co. $2. net. 

The Practical Conduct of Play. By Henry S. Curtis. 
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A B C of Heraldry. By Guy Cadogan Rothery. 
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The Near East from \Vithin. Illustrated in photo- 
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The Coming Newspaper. Edited by Merle Thorpe. 
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Aeroplanes and Dirigibles of War. By Frederick 
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Scotland Forever: A Gift-book of the Scottish 
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Scientific Management: A History and Criticism. 
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pages. Columbia University Press. Paper, 
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Domestic Science. By Charles W. Hale, A.K.C. 
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How to " Make Good ": A Business Man's Message. 
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The Book of Thrift. By T. D. MacGregor. 12mo f 
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Legends of Old Honolulu. Collected and translated 
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Beyond Disillusion: A Dramatic Study of Modern 
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Quick Rifle Training for National Defence. By 
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How to Play Tennis. By James Burns. Illustrated, 
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The Investigation of Mind in Animals. By E. M. 
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The Evolution of a Gravitating, Rotating, Con- 
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" Common Sense " Applied to Woman Suffrage. By 
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The Marine Motor. By Frank W. Sterling. Illus- 
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Robbery under Law; or, The Battle of the Million- 
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What Every Mother Should Know. By Charles Gil- 
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Concerning Book Plates. By Theodore W. Koch. 
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126 



THE DIAL 



[August 15 



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THE DIAL 



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130 



THE DIAL 



[Sept. 2 



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1915 



THE DIAL 



131 



'Should Be Found 



on Every Library Shelf" 

PHI LA. EVE. LEDGER 

CHEMISTRY OF 
FAMILIAR THINGS 

By Samuel Schmucker Sadtler, S. B. 

Member of the American Institute 

of Chemical Engineers, the American Chemical 

Society, etc. 

320 pages. 24 full page illustrations, 

and 6 figures in the text. 

Cloth, $1.75 net 

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Summer Offer of 

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and a series of admirable book reviews. Sir 
Edwin Pears discusses, 'The Fate of the Darda- 
nelles,' forecasting the success of the Allies . . . 
What will be done with the Turk and what with 
Constantinople? . . . The Question of Justice is 
the title of an able and dispassionate paper by John 
Crowe Ransom, in which he argues that the con- 
flict is between two types of justice, which are 
denominated static and creative a conflict which 
has been the heroic theme of history . . Charles 
Cheney Hyde, professor of international law in 
Northwestern University, contributes an able 
article on 'Rights of the United States as a Neu- 
tral.' " The Hartford Courant. 

Other contributors are Jacques Loeb, Amy Lowell, Henry H. 
Curran, Wilbur C. Abbott, Curtis Guild, Frederick Bliss Luquiens, 
Howard Copland, Louis Untermeyer, Vida D. Scudder, Henry A. 
Beers, Elisabeth Woodbridge. A copy of this number will be mailed 
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132 



THE DIAL 



[Sept. 2, 1915 









Forthcoming Macmillan Novels 


Important New Books by Leading Authors 


The Research Magnificent 

By the Author of "The Wife of Sir Isaac Barman," etc. 

Pronounced by those critics who have read it 
to be the best work that Mr. Wells has done. 
A novel of real distinction handled with skill, 
feeling and vision, realizing fully the promise 
of greatness which some have seen in his pre- 
vious works. Ready Sept. 14. 




The Star Rover 

By the Author of "The Sea Wolf," etc. 

Daring in its theme and vivid in execution, 
this is one of the most original and gripping 
stories Mr. London has ever written. It is a 
work that will make as lasting an impression 
as did "The Sea Wolf" and "The Call of the 
Wild. " Frontispiece. Ready Oct. 6. 


7- J T>7 -77 t n I J ,7 T* , XT Tl 


Old Delabole 

By the Author of "Brunei's Tower," etc. 

Because of its cheerful and wise philosophy 
and its splendid feeling for nature and man's - 
relation to it, "Old Delabole" will take its 
place as the author's most important book. 
Ready Oct. 20. 




Short Stories 

By the Author of "Gitanjali," etc. 

Some of the more notable of Mr. Tagore's 
short stories are here presented in translations 
by the author and with illustrations by native 
Indian artists. They reveal a new side of Mr. 
Tagore's genius. Ready in the Fall. 




Hearts Kindred 

By the Author of "The Loves of Pelleas and Etarre," etc. 

In the rough, unpolished, but thoroughly 
sincere Westerner and the attractive young 
woman who brings out the good in the man's 
nature, Miss Gale has two as absorbing people 
as she has ever created. 
Illustrated. Ready Oct. 27. 




God's Puppets 

By the Author of "A Certain Rich Man," etc. 

Mr. White has already distinguished himself 
in "The Court of Boyville" and "In Our Town" 
by his intimate studies of life at first hand. 
In this new volume a different group of his 
best stories more fully reveal his mastery of the 
art. Frontispiece. Ready Sept. 29. 


New Books for Boys and Girls 

These are fine, wholesome stories that mark a distinct advance in juvenile publications 


Deal Woods 

By LATTA GRISWOLD 

This is the fourth of Mr. Griswold's famous 
"Deal" stories and one which will certainly 
meet the approbation of many boy readers, for 
it is full of vigor and the wholesome excitement 
of school life. Illustrated. Ready Sept. 7. 




The Kingdom of the Winding Road 

By CORNELIA MEIGS 

A fanciful story relating the experiences of 
a beggar as he travels the country over in his 
tattered red cloak and playing his penny flute 
in reality a wonderful magical pipe. 
Colored Illustrations. Ready Sept. 29. 




Chained Lightning 

By RALPH GRAHAM TABER 

An absorbing tale of what happened to two 
young American telegraphers who sought their 
fortunes in Mexico. 
Ready in September. 




A Maid of 76 

By ALDEN A. KNIPE and EMILE B. KNIPE 

A most entertaining story of a girl of Revolu- 
tionary times, a patriot through and through, 
but whose family is loyal to the King. 
Illustrated. Ready in September. 




Publishers THE MACMILLAN COMPANY New York 





THE DIAL 

Jfortntgfjtlp journal of Hiterarp Criticism, Btecussiton, anb ainformatton. 



THE DIAL (founded in 1880) is published fortnightly 
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Published by THE HENRY O. SHEPARD COMPANY, 
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Entered as Second-Class Matter October 8, 1892, at the Post 
Office at Chicago, Illinois, under Act of March 3, 1879. 

Vol. LIX. SEPTEMBER 2, 1915 No. 700 
CONTENTS. PAGB 

THE BEST SHORT STORIES. Charles Leonard 

Moore , 133 

CASUAL COMMENT 136 

Editorial initiative. Commission govern- 
ment and the public library. The mission 
of mirth. Russia's dearth of books and 
libraries. The restoration of Fruitlands. 
The last member of an old publishing firm. 
Purging a language by fire. Franklin's 
epitaph. A Byronic discovery. Art in the 
library. The geographical distribution of 
simplified spellers. An incentive to Italian 
patriotism. In somnolent Nippon. 

COMMUNICATIONS 141 

A Plea for Allegory. Morris ScTiaff. 
William Vaughn Moody and William Blake. 

Wm. CMslett, Jr. 
Ancient Precedents for' Present-Day Policies. 

David T. Thomas. 
Publications of the Illinois State Historical 

Society. J. Seymour Currey. 

CHRISTIANITY'S FIERCEST ANTAGONIST. 

James Taft Hatfield 144 

A NEW PHILOSOPHY OF HISTORY. Carl 

Becker 146 

ESSAYS IN MINIATURE. William Morton 

Payne 148 

OUR SOUTH AMERICAN NEIGHBORS. Wal- 
ter L. Fleming 150 

BELGIUM'S POET-LAUREATE. Benj. M. 

Woodbridge 152 

THE INNER LIFE OF MUSIC. Louis James 

Block 155 

NOTES ON NEW NOVELS 156 

BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS 158 

Some portraits and assertions. Two travel- 
lers in Central Africa. Books for the way- 
farer's pocket. Fact and fiction in the form - 
of autobiography. The German soldier's 
vade-mecum. Aspects of contemporary jour- 
nalism. A Florentine sculptor of the 15th 
century. Mediterranean memories. 

NOTES 162 

TOPICS IN SEPTEMBER PERIODICALS . 164 
LIST OF NEW BOOKS , . 164 



THE BEST SHORT STORIES. 

It would probably be too much to say that 
the short story is the peculiar literary form 
of the present day. It has displaced the poem 
and to .some extent the play, but still the Jug- 
gernaut of the novel rolls on even over it. 
And in many a past epoch it has been as exten- 
sively cultivated, and as highly wrought, as 
now. The Rhapsodists were Greek story- 
tellers who published their works orally. The 
Arabian story-teller has been a feature of 
Eastern life in all ages. The Mabinogion 
were Welsh stories told to the children of the 
chiefs by the winter fireside. The Icelandic 
Sagas answered the same purpose. In Italy 
when the Novelli were in bloom they threat- 
ened for a time to displace all other literature. 
And the golden age of even the modern short 
story must perhaps be placed some time 
back, when the German Romantic writers and 
Irving, Hawthorne, and Poe made new rec- 
ords in the art. 

The rank of the larger works of literature 
of the past is pretty well fixed. Until re- 
cently, however, short stories have hardly been 
given any rank at all; and though the world 
knows very well which of them it likes best, 
there is considerable difference of critical 
opinion in the matter. It may be worth while, 
therefore, to offer a judgment and argument 
as to what are the best dozen or so in existence. 

Before we bring our candidates on for judg- 
ment, we must have some rules for guidance 
in crowning them. In the first place, then, 
we think the short story should be unitary. 
Character, its development and its opposi- 
tions, the form hardly has room for. It is not 
so much who acts, as what happened, that is 
important. Theme, incident, and setting are 
therefore the prime requisites. In the second 
place, the great short story should have a cer- 
tain universality. It should be capable of 
general acceptation, it should not be stopped 
at the frontier of any country as alien or 
hostile. In the third place, it ought to have 
as much originality as anything human can 
possess. It ought to do something for the first 
time, or it ought to do something better than 
it ever has been done before. It ought to be 



134 



THE DIAL 



[Sept. 2 



a sort of key, opening a door to new vistas of 
the mind. 

Antiquity has transmitted to us few, if any, 
good short stories. The materials for them 
existed in abundance, and doubtless many 
were written; but if so, they have perished. 
The Lost Tales of Miletus are a tradition, and 
only the gist of the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus 
has come down to us. Lucian comes nearest 
of any of the ancients to being a short story 
writer ; but most of his works are in dialogue, 
so they do not count for our purpose. And 
when we reach ^Esop we get into another 
form, as we do in the Indian fables of Pil- 
pay. The Scandinavian, Irish, and Welsh 
legends are magnificent literature; but from 
none of them does the short story, as we con- 
ceive it to-day, emerge. 

It is not until we reach " The Arabian 
Nights" that we find the type fixed for all 
time, and stories produced which have never 
been surpassed. The book indeed contains 
the germs, at least, of all possible kinds of 
short stories, and its influence has been pro- 
digious. Without stretching conscience much, 
we could almost fill our list of the world's 
twelve most famous short stories from this 
book alone. But we must save some honors 
for the moderns, and besides there are rea- 
sons which rule many of the Arabian tales 
out. We think, then, that "Aladdin," "The 
Sleeper Awakened," and "Ali Baba" fulfil 
the three requisites we have named. They 
are closely wrought in incident and scene; 
they have been accepted all over the world, 
and have furnished proverbial words or 
phrases; and they have been imitated and 
reproduced in many forms. " Sindbad the 
Sailor " and " The Barber and his Six Broth- 
ers" are equally great, but they are groups 
of tales rather than single pieces. "Prince 
Camaralzaman and Princess Badoura " opens 
magnificently, but it dies away into Eastern 
extravagance. The same is true of " Cam- 
buscan and his Horse of Brass." There are 
many other pieces in the collection that are 
immortal. One in particular probably gave 
Poe the basis on which he founded the throne 
of that detective dynasty which seems to rule 
modern literature. It is difficult to over- 
estimate the importance of " The Arabian 
Nights " in the history of the short story. 

The next great collection is that of Boccac- 
cio. As a monument and the mould of Italian 



prose it is of course most important. And as 
the work of a single man, it displays great 
variety and originality. Yet many of the 
pieces are not stories at all, but merely briefly 
told incidents. A good many more are after- 
dinner yarns, only in this case, told before 
the ladies have withdrawn. " Theodore and 
Honoria," "Cymon and Iphigenia," and "Isa- 
bella" are magnificent narratives, but they 
have rather been wrested from Boccaccio by 
Dryden and Keats. All in all, we can select 
only one story "Federigo and his Falcon";, 
but in revenge it strikes the highest and 
purest note of any piece on our list. 

Germany is a perfect jungle of Marchen r 
or short stories. But we are hunting for what 
may be called world tales, and we confess we 
can think of but few in German literature. 
Chamisso's "Peter Schlemihl" is one. And 
we must have "Undine," also, though it is 
rather too long to come under the genre we 
are considering ; but it fulfils all our require- 
ments, and its vogue makes it indispensable. 
The popular legend of " The Flying Dutch- 
man " ought to be on our list too ; but we are 
acquainted with no prose recension of it 
except that of Heine's, which hardly comes, 
up to the mark. Baron Munchausen is a type, 
but the stories he tells are either too brief or 
are imitations of older work. Altogether, the 
German contingent brings our accepted mas- 
terpieces to six. 

The French short story writers have every- 
thing the Germans lack perfect form, wit, 
point, charm. Yet ranging among them, from 
Cyrano de Bergerac down through Chateau- 
briand, Lamartine, Musset, Balzac, Gautier, 
Merimee, Maupassant, it is rather difficult to- 
find a story which is at once perfect, pro- 
foundly original, and winged for world-wide 
circulation. Musset's "White Blackbird" is 
charming and significant; and Merimee's- 
" Carmen," in one shape or another, has made 
the voyage of the world. But we hardly think 
that either of them is universal enough. 
Though " Paul and Virginia," like " Undine," 
transcends the short story form, it is the only 
tale we can conscientiously include in our list. 
A few years ago Maupassant was considered 
the last cry in short story genre. He ha& 
great merits, it is true, but his pieces are more 
like epigrams than stories. And we doubt very 
much whether they have yet sunk, or will 
ever sink, deeply into the world's mind. 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



135 



The prose short story was a long time get- 
ting itself domiciled and growing to greatness 
in England. The essayists, Addison, Steele, 
Goldsmith, have hints and adumbrations of 
it; but what they produced were sketches of 
character., vignettes of adventure. Dr. John- 
son, in " Rasselas," was perhaps the first who 
did what comes near to being the real thing. 
That piece, however, is too long, too heavy, 
and too full of moralizing to answer our pur- 
pose. Sir Walter Scott's "Wandering Wil- 
lie's Tale" fulfils all our requisites; though 
perhaps because it is embedded in a novel, it 
has not had all the fame it deserves. Mrs. 
Shelley's " Frankenstein " would satisfy us, 
too, only she did not know how to construct 
or when to stop. She furnished a proverbial 
figure for the world, but the story itself is 
hardly readable. De Quincey had all the art 
and accomplishment of a first rate short 
story writer, and he taught the business to 
others. Nearly all his great successors have 
felt his influence. But for one reason or 
another, nothing of his own is in the running. 
"The Spanish Nun" and "The Flight of a 
Tartar Tribe " have immense verve and inter- 
est, but they are historical pieces. The two 
papers on " Murder Considered as One of the 
Fine Arts " almost form a short story ; but, 
after all, they are essays. Bulwer's " The 
Haunted and the Haunters" is perhaps the 
best ghost story ever written, but it is too lack- 
ing in humanity ever to be seriously consid- 
ered for our laurelled company. Dickens, 
Thackeray, George Eliot, Meredith, has any 
one of these been more successful in this 
regard ? We doubt it. It is not until we come 
to Stevenson that we get any real competi- 
tor for place. There are half a score of 
Stevenson's stories so equally good that it is 
difficult to choose between them. None of 
them, however, has quite the universality we 
should desire; but we will take "A Lodging 
for the Night " as the nearest to our standard. 

For some reason or other, America has been 
the modern home of the short story. That 
form has seemed to suit both the talents of our 
writers and the tether of our public's patience. 
Irving's " Rip Van Winkle " is as famous as a 
story can be ; it is known everywhere. There 
are many other of Irving's pieces which are 
only a little less excellent; and we wonder 
that some publisher does not issue a single- 
volume collection of a score or so of them. 



Such a collection would be a revelation to 
modern readers. Poe took the crown of the 
short story from his own head and placed it 
on Hawthorne's; and the latter has an im- 
mense, though we believe a rather fading and 
ineffectual, fame in this art. With the best 
will in the world, we cannot yet accept any 
one of Hawthorne's short stories for our final 
few. Perfection of execution they have, and 
a kind of originality. But they have been 
stopped at the frontiers of other countries, 
and they have not much influenced succeed- 
ing writers. Poe is in himself a rival for all 
the host of authors of " The Arabian Nights." 
His influence on the short story has been para- 
mount and overwhelming. We should select 
from him " The Gold Bug," " The Murders in 
the Rue Morgue," and " The Fall of the House 
of Usher," not because these are the best 
things in his prose, but because they are his 
best short stories, and because they have led 
the whole world to follow and imitate them. 
Instead of the twelve stories we set out to find, 
we now have a baker's dozen. Yet we must 
add one more, for Bret Harte was really the 
precursor of the best English short story writ- 
ers of recent times. If Stevenson is to have a 
place, then the American cannot be neglected. 
Any one of a half dozen of Bret Harte's sto- 
ries will do, but perhaps in " The Luck of 
Roaring Camp " the new view he opened and 
his universality are most apparent. 

As we have intimated above, we think that 
there have been more great American short 
story writers, and more of a calibre only less 
than the greatest, than in any other country. 
Away back in the dawn of our literature there 
is "The Story of Peter Rugg," a good 
variant on the "Flying Dutchman" theme. 
Fitz- James O'Brien wrote two or three sto- 
ries of great merit. Colonel Higginson's 
"Monarch of Dreams" is a superb piece of 
writing, and Edward Everett Hale's "Man 
without a Country " makes plain sober fact of 
impossible fiction. Thomas Bailey Aldrich 
invented a plot of surprise, and his stories are 
full of grace and charm. No one has ever 
been more oddly original than Frank Stock- 
ton. Recently " 0. Henry " wrought out the 
unexpected with a terseness which the French 
might envy. There are others who have done 
lasting work ; and we believe, as we have said 
before, that our achievement in this field sur- 
passes anything that other nations can show. 



136 



THE DIAL 



[Sept. 2 



Of course it must be understood that all the 
hypercriticism in the foregoing paragraphs is 
merely an attempt to get at the essential types 
of the short story. Innumerable pieces that 
we have passed by are good and more than 
good. And of course we do not attempt to sit 
in judgment on living masters of the art. 

Going over our selections, we find that four 
among them, "Aladdin," "Peter Schlemihl," 
"Undine," and "Wandering Willie's Tale," 
deal with the supernatural. Two others, "Ali 
Baba" and "Rip Van Winkle," have to do 
with the marvellous which hardly amounts to 
the supernatural. " The Sleeper Awakened " 
is a tale of pure humor and human nature. 
"Federigo and his Falcon," and "Paul and 
Virginia " are stories of young love and devo- 
tion. " The Gold Bug " is the exemplar of all 
possible treasure stories; as "A Lodging for 
the Night" is of the nomad and vagabond 
species. " The Fall of the House of Usher " 
gives us intellect dominant and in ruin, with 
nature sympathizing with it. " The Luck of 
Roaring Camp " is a good specimen of primi- 
tive and adventurous life. And lastly, " The 
Murders in the Rue Morgue" launched the 
detective into literature, with all the interest- 
ing or horrible consequence of that debut. We 
think this fairly covers, and in good propor- 
tion, the main strands suitable for short story 
weaving. That there will be in the future any 
wide departure from these themes seems to us 
unlikely, though of course minor threads of 
the web of life may be taken up and devel- 
oped. One thing is noticeable about our 
elect, none of them is extremely short. The 
great masters have refused to turn their sto- 
ries into Dodonian oracles. 

What is the place of the short story in lit- 
erature ? The very qualities we claimed for it 
in starting preclude it from the first rank. 
In a form where there is not room enough to 
swing a cat, there cannot be equality with the 
great dramas, epics, or novels. In a form 
where character is secondary, great action, 
passion, thought can hardly be developed. 
Design and plot, too, must be curtailed, though 
perhaps these gain as much as they lose by 
condensation. What is left to the short story 
is uniqueness. It is really a prose poem, and 
must take its place with the short verse nar- 
ratives and ballads. It can hardly have the 
literary value of these ; but it can be, and is 
more popular. CHARLES LEONARD MOORE. 



CASUAL COMMENT. 

EDITORIAL INITIATIVE, as opposed to edito- 
rial subserviency to a real or supposed popu- 
lar demand for unwholesome reading matter, 
is conspicuous in comparatively few of our 
daily and other periodical publications. All 
the more cheering, therefore, is it to find cer- 
tain strong and wise utterances on the subject 
by journalists and writers of principle and 
purpose, in a " Symposium " constituting one 
of the chapters of " The Coming Newspaper," 
a book noticed more in detail on another 
page. Dr. Charles M. Sheldon feels con- 
vinced that "the daily paper, the magazine, 
and every other periodical, have just as much 
of a duty to give the people the thing they 
need instead of what they want, as the minis- 
ter has to give his people what they need 
instead of what they want." Of course, as it 
may be worth while to say in passing, what 
the people " want " is really, in the etymologi- 
cal sense of the word, nothing else than what 
fhey "need," though they do not know it. 
What they sometimes foolishly wish and 
clamor for, is another thing. But even this 
unwise longing may be less spontaneous, less 
unfostered from without, than is commonly 
assumed. Mr. Oswald Garrison Villard, recog- 
nizing that " the newspaper certain news- 
papers at least is largely responsible for 
the public's low taste," continues, signifi- 
cantly : " It would be well worth your while, 
if you are not familiar with the journals of 
1850 to 1865, to hunt up some bound volumes 
of the New York ' Tribune ' and ' Herald ' and 
the Springfield 'Republican,' and other news- 
papers of the time, and study them ; and you 
will be surprised what fine newspapers they 
were, what fine standards they had, how intel- 
ligent was the comment. Editorially, they 
were, of course, superior to the bulk of the 
newspapers today. They were clean; there 
were no large headlines. They were as effi- 
cient as we are in the way of giving the news 
and giving it accurately. I don't think that 
we can plume ourselves over that generation 
of editors, for all our modern facilities." 
Assuredly there were editorial giants in those 
days, but there is no reason to believe that 
the secret of good editorship was buried with 
them. m m m 

COMMISSION GOVERNMENT AND THE PUBLIC 
LIBRARY have not yet become minutely famil- 
iar with each other's ways. Fears are still 
felt in some quarters lest existing library 
laws and usage and precedent may fail to 
chime harmoniously with the new order of 
procedure introduced into municipal affairs 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



137 



by the recent form of city government known 
as government by commission. Thus far no 
disastrous conflict of interests has come to 
general notice, but all the possibilities of the 
situation have doubtless not yet been ex- 
hausted. Meanwhile it is cheering to note in 
at least one commission-governed city Bir- 
mingham, Alabama a cordial cooperation 
between commissioners and library officials. 
A late number of " The Birmingham Maga- 
zine," a creditable publication such as one 
may look for in vain in hundreds of larger 
cities, contains an article of some length on 
" Social Service Work of the City Com- 
mission," written by President George B. 
Ward, of the Birmingham Board of Commis- 
sioners, and replete with evidence that the 
schools, the library, the parks, playgrounds, 
welfare and health departments of various 
sorts under the city's control are objects of 
more than perfunctory attention from the 
administrative authorities. Especially notice- 
able is the interest taken in the development 
of the public library, which has a history of 
only five years to look back upon, but already 
makes a showing that compares favorably 
with the well-known useful activity of Atlan- 
ta's similar institution, though the latter is 
more than three times as old ; and this record 
of Birmingham's progress in the populariza- 
tion of good literature synchronizes with the 
history of commission government in that 
city, as is pointed out with justifiable pride 
in the following words: "When the Com- 
mission came into office the Birmingham Pub- 
lic Library was an organization kept up by 
paid subscriptions and reaching but a limited 
number. To-day, as a free public library, it 
is the epitome of service and efficiency under 
the splendid management of Mr. Carl H. 
Milan." Difficult would it be to find any 
municipal chief magistrate under the old 
order of things expressing himself with such 
intelligence, zeal, and public spirit of the best 
sort, on the social welfare work of his city, as 
one notes in Mr. Ward's utterance. 


THE MISSION OF MIRTH in literature is no 
unimportant, no undignified one; and the 
role of the proverbial jester who purveys fun 
and cheerfulness to all the world while his 
own heart may be breaking is of a heroism 
and a pathos not always recognized. The 
late Charles Battell Loomis, writing books of 
amusement and touring the country as a pro- 
fessional humorist, was all the time slowly 
dying of an incurable malady and fully con- 
scious of the hopelessness of his condition. 
A younger contemporary of his, George Fitch, 



widely known for his syndicated "Vest- 
Pocket Essays" that have long enlivened a 
host of newspaper readers, went to California 
in quest of health, and his death was an- 
nounced on the very day his readers were 
enjoying his jest at the identical disease that 
prematurely cut him off. George Heleghon 
Fitch, not to be confused with Mr. George 
Hamlin Fitch of the San Francisco " Chron- 
icle," was born at Galva, Illinois, June 5, 
1877; was graduated from Knox College in 
1897 ; entered upon journalism, and began to 
win more than local fame about ten years ago 
with his witty " Transcripts " in the Peoria 
" Transcript," of which he had become man- 
aging editor. Four years ago he severed this 
connection and devoted himself to less ephem- 
eral literary work. In addition to his " Vest- 
Pocket Essays," of which a collection was 
published last year under the title, " Sizing 
up Uncle Sam," he wrote " The Big Strike at 
Siwash," "At Good Old Siwash," " My Demon 
Motor Boat," and " Homeburg Memories." 
He died on the ninth of August. On the very 
same day, or the next (there are conflicting 
reports), there died another contributor to 
the sum of human cheerfulness, Charles 
Heber Clark, or " Max Adeler," as he chose to 
call himself when writing in lighter vein. 
Known in Philadelphia and beyond as a 
manufacturer and a writer of repute on 
economics, the tariff, and kindred themes, he 
also produced books whose purpose was to 
entertain and amuse. " Out of the Hurly- 
Burly " is a collection of stories widely popu- 
lar and so heartily enjoyed, it is said, by the 
Emperor of Austria that he sent the author a 
gold medal. " Elbow Room " is another vol- 
ume of the same nature. " Captain Bluitt," 
" In Happy Hollow," " The Quakeress," and 
"By the Bend of the River" represent his 
more sustained efforts in fictitious narrative, 
but are touched with the same geniality that 
had early marked him as a very enjoyable 
humorist. He was born at Berlin, Maryland, 
July 11, 1841, and died at Eaglesmere, Penn- 
sylvania, at the age of seventy-four. 


RUSSIA'S DEARTH OF BOOKS AND LIBRARIES 

appears so great, to one viewing the vast 
empire as a whole, that it might not be far 
from the truth to call Russia a bookless na- 
tion. Until the late prohibition of the sale of 
vodka (except in the Caucasus and central 
Asia, where the government does not control 
this sale) the sole distraction from the tedium 
of a hard existence had been found in drink, 
with the great mass of the common people. 
But with the discontinuance of that sale, 



138 



THE DIAL 



[Sept. 2 



which dates from the outbreak of the present 
war, though the causal connection between the 
two is much less close than is commonly as- 
sumed, there has been a natural longing for 
spare-hour amusement or occupation, a long- 
ing that will eventually, it is hoped, find a 
worthier gratification than was formerly fur- 
nished by the ubiquitous dramshop. Money, 
too, as well as time, is now increasingly at the 
peasant's disposal, thanks to the new order of 
things. Mr. Stephen Graham, who knows the 
country as few but the Russians themselves 
know it, writes on " Prohibition in Russia " in 
" The World's Work," and predicts a remark- 
able growth of culture among the people as 
soon as peace is restored. He says: "After 
the war there must flow from the great cities 
of the West of Russia books, papers, dress 
materials, musical instruments, pictures, guns 
[the last-named might be dispensed with]. 
And more schools must be established, more 
concert halls, lecture halls. There will be 
more schooling, reading, music, hunting. If 
the policy of the Russian Government with 
regard to drink remains unchanged for the 
next ten years, it is safe to predict a most 
extraordinary contrast between the condition 
of the country now and the condition as it 
must be then." The probability of this con- 
tinuance is asserted, and to the Czar is 
ascribed the credit thereof. Surely here is 
virgin soil for the labors of library extension- 
ists and other promoters of popular culture. 



THE EESTORATION OP FRuiTLANos by Miss 
Clara Endicott Sears, of Boston, whose ac- 
count of the eccentric Fruitlanders and 
their " Consociate Family " is one of the nota- 
ble books of the season, is cause for congratu- 
lation. Miss Sears bought the property two 
years ago. It adjoins her summer place at 
Harvard (the town, not the university), and 
her intelligent zeal and generous expenditure 
of money have put the old house back into its 
condition of sixty-two years ago, when Alcott 
and his little band of visionary reformers 
took up their residence there. As far as pos- 
sible, the original furniture has been rein- 
stated, and to-day Miss Sears feels justified 
in saying : " The house is now exactly as it 
was in 1843. The foundations of the chim- 
neys were intact so that I was able to rebuild 
them as they were. The paint had entirely 
disappeared with time, but under the eaves 
there remained patches of red, and I was 
able to give it again the old ochre-red color 
which it had worn in the early days. The 
old granary has been turned into a home for 
the care-taker, but the structure was not 



changed." She adds that the building was a 
pathetic object indeed when she took it in 
hand, dilapidated and empty except for a 
few old odds and ends in the garret; but its 
present refurnishing she asserts to be " au- 
thentic in every way," with the community 
bean-pot recovered, and Joseph Palmer's 
oxskin money-bag, Charles Lane's cowhide 
trunk, Mrs. Alcott's Paisley shawl, letters of 
Louisa Alcott, and Mr. Alcott's spectacles, in 
addition to the furniture of the several rooms. 
Fruitlands is now open to visitors three days 
in the week Tuesday, Thursday, and Sat- 
urday during the summer. Miss Sears de- 
serves the gratitude of her own generation 
and of posterity for her rescue of this object 
of historic and literary interest. 


THE LAST MEMBER OF AN OLD PUBLISHING 

FIRM, John Wesley Harper, died at Bidde- 
ford Pool on the fourteenth of August, at the 
age of eighty-four. Had he lived a year and 
seven months longer he could have joined in 
celebrating the centennial of the House of 
Harper, to the second generation of which he 
belonged, being the son of John Harper of the 
original J. & J. Harper, established in March, 
1817. Graduated from Columbia College in 
1852, at the head of his class, he chose medi- 
cine as his profession, and went abroad to 
study and to discover that he had no vocation 
for the healing art; so he returned, entered 
the paternal business house, and became a 
member of the firm in 1869, with Philip J. A. 
Harper, Joseph W. Harper, Jr., Fletcher 
Harper, Jr., and Joseph Abner Harper. The 
style, " Harper & Brothers," had been adopted 
in 1833, and the business increased so rapidly 
that when the subject of this sketch assumed 
the presidency of the firm in 1897 there was 
said to be no publishing house equal to it in 
the extent of its dealings. With the reorgani- 
zation that was made necessary by financial 
embarrassments fifteen years ago, Mr. Harper 
retired from business; and though there still 
continue to be Harpers in sufficient number 
at the famous Franklin Square establish- 
ment, the older stock has lost its last repre- 
sentative. For a full and entertaining his- 
tory of those earlier publishers the reader is 
referred to " The House of Harper," by Mr. 
J. Henry Harper, published a few years ago. 


PURGING A LANGUAGE BY FIRE is the process 
that may be said to have been begun with the 
German tongue when the fatherland drew its 
sword against the non-Teutonic world. En- 
glish, French, Russian, and Italian words or 
derivatives are now an abomination in Ber- 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



139 



lin, and the resources of the native speech are 
being strained to supply home-made equiva- 
lents for these foreign terms. A former En- 
glish Lecturer at the Karlsruhe Hochschule 
writes of " The Wor and the Werld Langwij " 
in " The Pioneer ov Simplified Speling," pre- 
dicting an increase in the cosmopolitan use of 
English when peace is restored, and a stricter 
confinement of German to the land of its 
origin. Transposing the spelling of the arti- 
cle in question, let us quote a few sentences. 
The writer believes that "one result of the 
victory of the Allies is that Germany will con- 
tinue the process of elimination of foreign 
words which they began on the outbreak of 
the War. During the six weeks I was in 
Karlsruhe after the War began, this move- 
ment to replace French and English words by 
native German equivalents had begun. The 
4 Cafe Piccadilly ' had become ' Gasthaus zum 
Vaterland.' A 'beefsteak' had been chris- 
tened a 'Rindstiick'. . . The French 'sauce' 
has become a ' Tunke.' " And so on. With 
English already spoken by 130,000,000 per- 
sons (the writer's figures, and they are not 
excessive), and German hopelessly out of the 
running, while not even French ("the patois 
of Europe," as Walter Bagehot called it) can 
vie with English in extent of its use, there is 
surely some reason to expect an increasing 
employment of our tongue as a world-speech 
unless the Esperantists carry the day, 
which is not at present likely, or unless, after 
all, we non-Teutons should have the speech of 
General von Bernhardi rammed down our 
throats with German sabres, which is also 
not among the probabilities. 



FRANKLIN'S EPITAPH, written by himself at 
the age of twenty-two, an age when this sort 
of literary exercise has a purely academic 
interest which it loses in later life, has for a 
dozen years been accessible to the curious in 
such things, in the valuable autograph collec- 
tion of the Library of Congress, for which it 
was acquired from the government archives, 
which at an earlier date had secured it from 
the papers of William Temple Franklin. But 
it now appears that this cherished autograph 
is a revision (by the author and in his hand- 
writing, it is true) of the original inspiration, 
which has lately been brought to light in the As- 
pinwall papers and secured, through a Boston 
dealer, by Dr. A. S. W. Rosenbach of the city 
in which it was written. These papers, once 
the property of Colonel Thomas L. Aspinwall, 
in his time a noted collector of Americana, 
must contain a multitude of almost priceless 
items; but probably few would so excite the 



desires of the covetous as this bit of scribbling 
from Franklin's pen. In its unrevised form it 
runs as follows : " The body of B. Franklin, 
printer, like the cover of an old book, its con- 
tents torn out and stript of its lettering and 
gilding, lies here, food for worms. But the 
work shall not be wholly lost, for it will, as he 
believed, appear once more, in a new and more 
perfect edition, corrected and amended by the 
Author." Then is added the date of birth, 

with so much of the date of death (" 17 ") 

as could at that time be conjectured with rea- 
sonable certainty. Division into lines, with 
capitalization, has here been disregarded. In 
the revised copy the logical Franklin, reason- 
ing that "perfect" admits of no degrees of 
comparison, substituted "elegant," and he 
also enclosed in parentheses his likening of the 
lifeless body to the outside of an old book. 
Other minor changes also appear. 



A BYRONIC DISCOVERY, or what the discov- 
erer believed to be such, forms the subject of 
the opening article in " The English Review " 
for August. The late Bertram Dobell, some 
years ago, came into possession of a small 
pamphlet entitled "A Farrago Libelli: A\ 
Poem, Chiefly Imitated from the First Satire 
of Juvenal." It was " printed for Mr. Hatch- 
ard, 1806," and, according to a note at the 
foot of the first page, "written at Twicken- 
ham, 1805." Mr. Dobell held his copy to be 
unique, and believed the piece to have been 
suppressed by its author immediately upon 
its appearance. The poem itself, running to 
three hundred and forty lines, and Mr. 
Dobell's critical commentary, fill twenty-four 
pages of the above-named magazine. A gen- 
eral resemblance in style to "English Bards 
and Scotch Reviewers" is manifest in the 
satire, and many special points of resem- 
blance the commentator thought he had 
detected and took pains to place before his 
readers. Not entirely convincing is the able 
argument, either in general or in detail, 
though there appears no good reason why 
Byron, even though but nineteen years old 
at the time, might not have written the fluent 
verses (in the familiar decasyllabic metre of 
" English Bards ") composing the " Farrago." 
Yet it is not a production of sufficient merit 
and distinction to bring any access to Byron's 
fame, should he finally be accounted the 

author. 



ART IN THE LIBRARY, in the form of paint- 
ings, engravings, statuary, rare bindings, fur- 
niture of tasteful design, and in the entire 
architecture, external and internal, of the 



140 



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[ Sept. 2 



library building, takes a place that need be 
second only to that of literature. The ways 
of popularizing art through the public library 
are many, and those who would learn some- 
thing about their number and variety should 
read Miss Mary McEaehin Powell's " Making 
Art Popular through the Library," an ac- 
count of this kind of work in the St. Louis 
Public Library, by the head of the depart- 
ment. In ten chapters or sections, filling a 
pamphlet of fifty pages, Miss McEaehin de- 
scribes the development and success of her 
branch of the library. Among other interest- 
ing details, we read that every month two 
paintings from the City Art Museum, selected 
by the Director of the St. Louis School of 
Fine Arts, are displayed in the Children's 
Room ; and once a week the Director himself 
comes and gives a talk on these paintings to 
children of the fifth and sixth grades, and to 
those of the higher grades, alternately. Forty 
or fifty young listeners, with several teachers, 
comprise each of these groups, and an effort 
is made to secure constant attendance and thus 
render the course progressive. Informality 
on the lecturer's part encourages participa- 
tion on that of the children in the discussions, 
and it is reported that the audience shows 
intense interest and carries away vivid and 
lasting impressions. Pupils of the above- 
named art school have contributed many 
pleasing and some striking illustrations to 
Miss McEachin's pamphlet, which contains a 
greater variety of readable and instructive 
matter than can here be indicated. 



THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF SIM- 
PLIFIED SPELLERS offers food for reflection, 
whether or not the reflector is able to arrive 
at any general law governing the outbreak 
and spread of the peculiar mania to which 
these persons are victims. In the current 
number of the " Simplified Speling Bulletin " 
is a list of universities and colleges and nor- 
mal schools, grouped by states, that have 
given their sanction to simplified spelling; 
and the briefest glance at the table shows the 
middle West to be the stronghold of the cult, 
with surprisingly few adherents in the East 
and in the far West. The South, too, seems 
either prudently conservative in the matter or 
apathetic. In New England only three insti- 
tutions, including a normal school in Ver- 
mont, appear on the list ; and outside of New 
England there are but two other Atlantic 
states (New York and Pennsylvania) in 
which opposition to the accepted orthography 
has developed any strength. West of the 
Mississippi basin only Colorado and Oregon 



are named, each represented by a single col- 
lege. " Simplified Speling in the Pres," an 
article in the same journal, presents a similar 
tabulation in respect to newspaper and peri- 
odical adoption of the new forms; and here, 
too, the zeal of the interior contrasts with the 
paucity of interest on both coasts, except that 
California (unrepresented in the former list) 
reports one perverted newspaper, and Wyo- 
ming nine, including two student publica- 
tions. Here, then, we have a sort of meeting 
of extremes East and West agreeing to re- 
tain the old spelling, and the central region 
showing more desire for a change. Does this 
geographical arrangement, after an analogy 
that will occur to the reader, imply that the 
subverters of the present order have the 
strategic advantage? 



AN INCENTIVE TO ITALIAN PATRIOTISM takes 

the form of a popular paper-covered edition, 
in the language of Dante and Petrarch, of 
that famous American masterpiece of more 
than half a century ago, " The Man without 
a Country." The compatriots of Garibaldi 
are of just the sort to be fired by such a tale 
from the pen of one whom the translator in 
his preface calls the greatest American of his 
time. A writer in " The Christian Register " 
relates that he once asked Dr. Hale whether 
he himself really felt his wonderful story as 
deeply as he made the reader feel it. So 
prompt and emphatic was the affirmative an- 
swer as to leave no further doubt in the 
questioner's mind. This kind of feeling, with 
all that it too often implies of international 
antagonism, is perhaps not in great need of 
strengthening just at present in any Euro- 
pean country, however glad we may be to see 
the fame of Dr. Hale and his best-known 
work of literature widen its bounds. 



IN SOMNOLENT NIPPON, according to Mrs. 
Yosano, one of the " new women " of Japan, 
there is still a sad need of the awakening call 
of literature to dispel the slumberous vacuity 
into which the natives, unless actively em- 
ployed, are ever prone to fall. She writes in 
a late issue of " Taiyo," as quoted (in English 
not always quite orthodox) : " The Japanese, 
men and women, are often seen dozing off 
their ride on public vehicles, to wit the train, 
the tram, the stage coach, etc. There may be 
some excuse for this in the afternoons of the 
long-day season. But they do it when days 
are short, and in the morning at that. The 
Europeans in transit are always reading 
something and never look tired. The dif- 
ference is striking." And further : " The 



1915] 



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141 



Japanese in general are given to sleeping in 
daytime. The students fall asleep in the 
class room, the Ministers of State and Repre- 
sentatives of people go off dozing in the Diet, 
preachings and public speeches send the audi- 
ence to dreamland. A majority of Japanese 
people are always tired they seem to be suf- 
fering from nervous debility." Few writers, 
whether native or foreign, have more severely 
censured the Japanese for superficiality, imi- 
tation, easy content with the present and what 
it offers, than does this representative of that 
far-eastern nation. Her advice, which may 
not be the easiest possible to follow, is that 
the Japanese should adopt a more invigorat- 
ing diet, eat more meat, and thus brace them- 
selves for a more energetic assault upon life's 
problems, both material and spiritual. 



COMMUNICATIONS. 

A PLEA FOR ALLEGORY. 
(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

It may be said without exaggeration that what 
is known as cultivated taste, that is, the taste of 
readers who in the main enjoy the educational 
advantages of wealth or good breeding, turns 
from Allegory with a feeling akin to nausea. So 
keenly do the editors of our magazines realize the 
intensity of this aversion that a manuscript carry- 
ing about it the slightest scent of allegory is 
rejected immediately. With the spirit of a ram- 
bler who finds a pensive pleasure in the deserted 
fields of literature, let us look into this matter a 
little. There may be some profit in the task, too; 
for no one can visit a prehistoric mound, or even 
a grassy depression in a pasture once the cellar of 
a long since vanished cabin (and is not mind and 
vacant cellar allegory's metaphorical kindred by a 
common fate?) without some creative stir in the 
mind. 

That pure allegory was a natural growth in the 
field of literature is as well established as that the 
wild plum and the wild rose blossomed everywhere 
in the primeval forests of our country. What 
then? Well, we know why the wild plum has dis- 
appeared; and it is for a like reason that the alle- 
gory has gone. The plum's life was possible only 
in the shadows of those mighty woods, with their 
deep and rarely broken silence. But now the pio- 
neer's axe rings, the big trees fall, sunlight floods 
in, and the wild plum dies. So with allegory: 
when the primaeval forests of the mind, so to speak, 
were cleared off, pure allegory could not stand the 
sunlight of obviousness and gave up the ghost. 
White, sweet, and modest was the wild plum's 
bloom, and it has its analogue in style, for style 
is the flowering of literature; sweet and modest 
was allegory's bloom, too, and rich and impor- 
tant was its fruit. For who can measure the value 
of newly awakened and spontaneous ideas in virgin 



mental soil, or the refining and strengthening and 
exalting influence of imagination taking flight? 

But above all and more than all, how many who 
are now dust, heirs to adversity and sorrow, had 
their toiling and obscure lives cheered by the sight 
of the Delectable Mountains, and by hearing the 
harps and trumpets which greeted poor Pilgrim 
the nearest brother to the average man that pen has 
ever produced at the end of his long journey ! 
May we not, then, visit this ancient mound in the 
deserted field of literature with profit, loiter around 
it for a while, and from time to time hear voices out 
of the past proclaiming what a part allegory played 
in the lives of thousands whose clay is now blended 
with the common earth? Surely it does the soul 
good to be a listener when the past speaks. 

And finally, to pursue the figure another step, let 
us mount to the top. Lo ! off to the east where 
literature's dawn first flushed, what star is that we 
see amid a glowing constellation of Prophets and 
Seers? It is David with his harp, singing pure 
allegory in the eightieth psalm. Nearer in Poetry's 
garden and in our own tongue, Spenser's Faerie 
Queene is singing pure allegory to the rapt enjoy- 
ment of the lords and ladies of England; and 
along green hedgerows and among the poor and 
lowly, John Bunyan is singing the Pilgrim's Prog- 
ress toward the Celestial City. Was there nausea 
then? No; for then the primaeval forests of the 
mind were still shadowing the elementary and 
natural feelings of man's nature; and warmed by 
the poet's high-beating heart, they gathered and 
bloomed into allegory, just as the wild plum and 
the wild rose's elements, feeling the warmth of 
nature's heart, burst into bloom. 

And are those elements out of which they spring 
still in the soil of the mind? Yes, I think there is 
abundant evidence that they are still there. Take 
Shelley's ode " To a Skylark," which is certainly 
not nauseous, at least up to this date in our march 
toward utter fastidiousness, does it not open with 
allegory? Or take that first stanza of " In State " 
by Forcythe Wilson, oversoaring in my judgment 
all other poems of the Civil War period, not except- 
ing Lowell's banner-waving and patriotic rhetoric, 
with its well-burnished and glistening common- 
place. Here we certainly have allegory, 

" O Keeper of the sacred Key, 
And the Great Seal of Destiny, 
Whose eye is the blue canopy, 
Look down upon the warring world, and tell 
us what the end will be." 

To sum it all up, go where you will in the fields 
of living prose and poetry, and you will find it; 
not blooming exactly in the old obvious way, but in 
profound unself consciousness. Allegory, then, like 
every creation of the mind, must bring writer and 
reader into a state of perfect unselfconsciousness, 
that state of mind which Spenser's and Bunyan's 
readers were in. 

Dreary, machine-made, and wooden in its gait is 
the most of our current prose. If the editors of 
our magazines would encourage natural expression 
and natural gait, sooner or later cultivated taste 
would find itself unself conscious ; and lost in the 



142 



[ Sept. 2 



presence of sincerity and beautified truth, the 
pages of their magazines might be what Spenser's 
and Bunyan's pages were to their readers, glow- 
ing inspiration. MORRIS SCHAFF. 
Boston, Mass., August 24, 1915. 



WILLIAM VAUGHN MOODY AND WILLIAM 

BLAKE. 
(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

Of William Vaughn Moody's Idea of God, 
Professor Manly says (Introduction to " Poems 
and Poetic Dramas of William Vaughn Moody," 
p. XLII. ) : "It was not a formal philosophical con- 
ception, but a poetical vision incorporating the 
most diverse elements of culture." We believe that 
no one has yet pointed out that the writings of 
William Blake were one element of that culture. 
" God figures ambiguously in Moody's poetry," 
continues Mr. Manly ; " sometimes as the Puritan 
God, whom he does not love and in whom he does 
not believe ; sometimes as the no less anthropomor- 
phic God from whom he cannot keep his fellowship 
and love." 

Now Blake had two Gods also, the " God of 
this World," corresponding to Moody's Puritan 
God, and the Supreme God, whose anthropomor- 
phic nature he set forth in his painting, his lyrics, 
and his Prophetical Books. 

Moody was no such heretic as Blake, yet in his 
" Masque of Judgment " he " spoke out in meet- 
ing," to quote his own words in a letter to 
Professor Schevill, June 8, 1897. To Mrs. Toy 
again (Dec. 12, 1900) he writes that the poem is 
" a plea for passion as a means of salvation every- 
where latent." The mythological machinery, he 
says, " symbolizes the opposed doctrine that of 
the denial of life. As Christianity (contrary to the 
wish and meaning of its founder) has historically 
linked itself with this doctrine, I included certain 
aspects of it in this mythological apparatus 
always with a semi-satirical intention." Moody's 
satire and passion here correspond to Blake's war 
on historical Christianity, and his exaltation of 
Imagination. Of course they do not include Blake's 
Everlasting Gospel of Jesus, with its theory of 
constant and willing forgiveness of all Sin and its 
identification of Christ and Man with God. 

Moody, on the contrary, accepted good and evil 
in the world, as Blake did; but he did not recom- 
mend evil-doing as the first law of Salvation. He 
wished good and evil to contend with one another, 
that good might be exercised, and triumph. In 
Act V. of the " Masque of Judgment " Uriel tells 
Raphael that God " loved not life entirely, good 
and ill " ; adding, " when evil dies, as soon good 
languishes"; whereupon Raphael, the friend of 
Man, exclaims: 

" Would he had spared 
That dark Antagonist whose enmity 
Gave Him rejoicing sinews, for of Him, 
His foe was flesh of flesh and bone of bone, 
With suicidal hand He smote him down, 
And now, indeed, His lethal pangs begin." 

In " The Brute," again, the evil that lurks in 
modern machinery and Efficiency is overpowered in 
the end by good and serves it. There is no senti- 



mental denial of evil here; nor is there in Blake. 
But Moody calls on the good to contend with evil;. 
Blake bids the good embrace evil, that Christ may 
forgive. 

Reminiscent of Blake's childhood, when " God 
put his face to the window" (Moody and Lovett's 
" History of English Literature," p. 265) are 
Moody's lines in " Jetsam " : 

" Once at a simple turning of the way 
I met God walking." 

A passage in Act II. of the mystical drama, " The 
Faith Healer," moreover, recalls Blake's pre- 
creation visions. Michaelis says to Rhoda : " Be- 
fore creation, beyond time, God not yet risen from 
his sleep, you stand and call to me, and I listen in 
a dream that I dreamed before Eden." Finally, 
Moody's " Death of Eve : A Fragment " probably 
owes a suggestion to Blake's " Ghost of Abel." 

Moody writes with enthusiasm of Blake in his 
" History of English Literature " (pp. 265-6) ; 
mentions him in his " Letters " (autumn, 1895) ; 
and refers to him in his edition of Milton (pp. 100- 
101). "Outwardly Blake led a regular, quiet, 
laborious life," he says in the first, " all the while 
pouring out poems, drawings, and vast ' propheti- 
cal ' books, full of shadowy mythologies and mysti- 
cal thought-systems, which show that his inward 
life was one of perhaps unparalleled excitement 
and adventure. . . In him the whole transcendental 
side of the Romantic movement was expressed by 
hint and implication, though not by accomplish- 
ment." " Four-fifths of William Blake would not 
be accepted for publication by the Harvard Advo- 
cate," he observes in a humorous letter to Josephine 
Preston Peabody; with a note of fellow feeling, 
perhaps, for a romanticist more " floridly extrava- 
gant " than his early self. Finally, by way of con- 
trast and correction, he writes as follows in his 
edition of Milton : " William Blake, in one of 
his prophetical books, says that Milton's house in 
the spiritual kingdom is Palladian, not Gothic. 
Palladian it is, and in this century we have dwelt 
by preference in the Gothic house of mind, loving 
the wayward humor of its adornment, the mys- 
ticism and confusion of its design. But from time 
to time we must purify our vision with the more 
ample and august lines of the house which Milton 
has builded." Wn. CHISLETT, JR. 

Stanford University, Cal., August 21, 1915. 



ANCIENT PEECEDENTS FOE PEESENT-DAY 

POLICIES. 

(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 
In the course of the disputes which led up to the 
Peloponnesian war, a conference was called at 
Sparta. After the injured parties had aired their 
grievances against Athens, certain Athenian envoys 
who chanced to be in Sparta on other business 
addressed the assembly. According to Thucydides, 
they made no attempt to answer the charges 
brought against them by the Megarians and the 
Corinthians. Instead, they recited the leading part 
played by Athens in driving back the barbarian 
(Persian) invaders, and told how an empire had 
come to her as a natural result. " So we have not 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



143 



done anything marvellous or contrary to the dis- 
position of man, in having 1 accepted an empire that 
was offered to us, and not giving it up, influenced 
as we are by the strongest motives, honor, fear, 
and interest ; and when, again, we had not been the 
first to set such a precedent, but it has always 
been a settled rule that the weaker should be con- 
strained by the stronger; and when, at the same 
time, we thought ourselves worthy of it, and were 
thought so by you, until, from calculations of 
expediency, you now avail yourselves of the appeal 
to justice, which no one ever yet brought forward 
when he had a chance of gaining anything by 
might, and abstained from taking advantage." 
(Book I., Sec. 76.) 

War resulted. After it had been in progress for 
several years, the Athenians decided to annex the 
little island of Melos, the only one in the .ZEgean 
Sea, except Thera, not already theirs. Possibly 
this action was due in part to fear that this Dorian 
colony might become the base of Spartan opera- 
tions, and also to the desire for a " scientific 
frontier " ; possibly they desired more lands for 
distribution among Athenian citizens. But more 
weighty than the last-named reason, if we may 
believe Thucydides, was the fear that the indepen- 
dence of Melos might incite the Athenian subjects 
to revolt. Having landed on the island with a 
strong force, they sent ambassadors to demand sub- 
mission. When the Melians demurred, the ambas- 
sadors warned them to " think of getting what you 
can; since you know, and are speaking to those 
who know, that, in the language of men, what is 
right is estimated by equality of power to compel; 
but what is possible is that which the stronger 
practice, and to which the weak submit." The 
Melians trusted that the gods would favor them, 
since they were " standing up in a righteous cause 
against unjust opponents." "As to the gods," re- 
plied the Athenians, " we hold as a matter of opin- 
ion, and as to men we know as a certainty, that in 
obedience to an irresistible instinct they always 
maintain dominion, wherever they are the stronger. 
And we neither enacted this law, nor were the first 
to carry it out when enacted; but having received 
it when already in force, and being about to leave 
it after us to be in force forever, we only avail 
ourselves of it, knowing that both you and others, 
if raised to the same power, would do the same." 
(Book V., Sees. 89, 105.) 

The modern man can only ask, Is this law that 
might makes right realty to be perpetual? 

DAVID Y. THOMAS. 

University of Arkansas, August 25, 1915. 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE ILLINOIS STATE 

HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 
(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

A thin volume of a hundred and thirty-eight 
pages, entitled " Transactions of the Illinois State 
Historical Society, for the year 1913," has recently 
reached me, in which is printed the secretary's 
report, list of officers, and the papers read at the 
annual meeting of the Society. The meeting thus 
reported was held in Springfield, May 15 and 16, 



1913, that is, more than two years ago. It would 
seem reasonable to expect that instead of a delay 
of over two years, the transactions should have 
been published within a few months of the meeting, 
or at least some time within the year in which it 
occurred. 

If this example is followed, the annual meeting 
of May, 1914, will not be reported for another 
year ; and meantime the meeting of May, 1915, has 
taken place, and must wait in its turn until two 
years from the present time before its transactions 
will appear in print. It is difficult to understand 
why these long delays are necessary. What oc- 
curred of importance at the meeting of May, 1914, 
we shall not know for another year, so far as the 
" Transactions " can inform us, and we must 
depend upon other sources of information if we 
should become impatient. Fortunately, the Society 
began in 1908 the publication of a quarterly which 
brings to its friends more recent information, and 
obviates to a certain degree the necessity of rely- 
ing upon the " Transactions." The quarterly, too, 
publishes many contributions not read as papers 
at the annual meetings, and carries out the pur- 
poses of the Society in placing before its readers 
a large amount of historical information. In addi- 
tion, the Society issues from time to time special 
volumes covering subjects the treatment of which 
is too lengthy to be presented as papers in the 
" Transactions " or as contributions to the quar- 
terly. There have been nine such special volumes 
printed since 1903. Before the quarterly began 
publication, the " Transactions " became bulky, 
and the volume for 1904 attained a thickness of 
seven hundred pages, so that the series presents a 
great variety of thick and thin volumes, very dif- 
ferent in appearance from the publications issued 
by the other great historical societies, which gen- 
erally are published in volumes of nearly uniform 
size. 

The value of these publications, in whatever 
form they are printed, is very great; and care in 
their preparation is evident both in the fulness of 
the references and the necessary editing. Indexing 
is carried out thoroughly, and research work by 
students is greatly aided in the consultation of the 
various works. The work of the Illinois Historical 
Society is a monument of painstaking endeavor, 
which should meet the approval of its friends and 
justify the interest shown by the legislators in 
providing for its needs as they have done. 

Returning to the volume of " Transactions " for 
1913, of which mention was made at the beginning 
of this communication, there is something to be 
criticized aside from the long delay in its publica- 
tion. Like all the previous volumes of the series, 
the printing and binding are lacking in the artistic 
finish we might well look for in publications of 
this character. Comparing the publications of the 
Illinois society with those issued, for example, by 
the Mississippi Valley Historical Association, 
where every attention is given to printing, quality 
of paper, etc., it is seen that there is much room 
for improvement in the Illinois publications. 

J. SEYMOUR CURREY. 

Evanston, III., August 19, 1915. 



144 



[ Sept. 2 



CHRISTIANITY'S FIERCEST ANTAGONIST.* 

The second and concluding volume of the 
life of Nietzsche by his sister, Frau Forster 
Nietzsche, fully sustains the agreeable impres- 
sion made by the earlier book. It is clearly 
and objectively written (we notice only some 
muddle on pp. 147 and 153 as to the date of 
Nietzsche's return to Genoa from Leipzig, 
which actually took place in November, 1882 ) ; 
if a sisterly estimate should sometimes tend 
toward favorable exaggeration, this is indeed 
a venial failing. In fact, the " Life " refrains 
from any critical estimate of the final place of 
Nietzsche's work which, perhaps, is just as 
well: given these plainly-shown facts, they 
can be utilized at some later time. 

The English version is more free and lively 
than that of the first volume. To the eternal 
recurrence of the translation " false pathos " 
for falsches Pathos, which is quite a different 
thing, one has long since become resigned. 

Making all discount for Nietzsche's merely 
pathologic vein, the charm of this artist, phi- 
losopher, and scientist, whose life was devoted 
to brooding on the deepest problems of life, is 
irresistible and perennial: some very sweet 
bells are here jangled. It is comforting to be 
able to moderate the popular impression that 
Nietzsche was a tortured invalid: even in 
1886 he was "completely satisfied with his 
health " ; and although constrained to live in 
rather shabby lodgings or boarding-houses, 
and at times subject to distressing headaches 
and eye-strain, he was at least unusually for- 
tunate in being always free to choose the most 
favorable place for living and working. 

Even Nietzsche's utter loneliness exercises 
the fascination which one feels in the man 
who tenders himself dearly, who painfully 
rends oldtime friendships rather than return 
to the beaten path. The tragic side lay in his 
super-keen sense of the immense cost of it 
all nowhere more than in his feeling for the 
desolation which Would be wrought in human 
relations by blotting out Christianity. "It 
seems so foolish to want to be right at the 
expense of human love " ; "I have no friend, 
no not one, who has the faintest inkling of my 
task " : " in the deeper sense, I have no com- 
rades." This aggressive thinker dropped out 
of the sight of Europe until discovered by 
Brandes, who gave a long series of lectures on 
Nietzsche's philosophy at the University of 
Copenhagen in 1887 and 1888. 

* THE LIFE OF NIETZSCHE. By Frau Forster Nietzsche. 
Translated by Paul V. Cohn. Volume II., The Lonely 
Nietzsche. New York: Sturgis & Walton Co. 



His wonderful creative power is measured 
by the fact that although he was compelled to 
give over almost all reading, his equipment of 
knowledge is lavishly shown on every page, 
often visioning a whole career or epoch in 
one pregnant allusion as in his compact 
characterizations of the seventeenth, eight- 
eenth, and nineteenth centuries in " The "Will 
to Power." " Zarathustra " (" Gelobt sei, was 
hart macht!") was written in a freezing-cold 
room. He was, above all, to be envied for his 
mastering sense of a mission to humanity. As 
early as 1876 he feels called "to restore to 
mankind that repose without which no culture 
can arise or endure " ; "I have more weighty 
matters to think of than my health . . I have 
no more time to lose." This vision of his 
whole future developed rapidly into a relig- 
ious fervor for the improvement of the type 
"Man." 

The life-story is taken up from the time of 
Nietzsche's spiritual breach with Richard 
Wagner in 1876. Bayreuth, which he had 
hoped to find " a universal bath for souls," 
proved merely "one more form of sport for 
the leisured rabble." He considered " the per- 
vading atmosphere of hothouse sensuality" 
the root of evil in Wagner's productions. He 
even attributed the ruin of his own health to 
"that nerve-shattering music." Parsifal, a 
transcription of Wagner's actual Christian 
experience, showed him as " a reviler of life, 
an asserter of Nay." Continued illness led 
Nietzsche, in 1879, to resign the professorship 
at Basel, and with this he turns his back on 
the Greeks as philosophical guides. Thereupon 
began his alien existence in Italy or among the 
high Alps. In 1882 he began the free use of 
chloral as an antidote to depressing sleepless- 
ness, a staff which proved anything but a help 
during the remainder of this unsettled life. 

On the heights of Rapallo, near Genoa, in 
1883 came "my beneficent Yea-assertion," 
"Zarathustra," in such phenomenal bursts of 
creative power that its author spoke of it as a 
direct revelation which transcended free-will. 
In finishing the third part a year later, 
Nietzsche exclaimed : " Who knows how many 
generations must pass before the coming of 
men who can fully realize what I have done ! ' 
Its dark sayings are indeed uttered in parable, 
sometimes in rather revolting imagery, and 
in a style partly borrowed from the minor 
Hebrew prophets) intense as galloping heart- 
beats, with a tonal art described by its creator 
as "the power which enabled him to fly a 
thousand miles beyond all that has hitherto 
been called poetry." This " Bible " of young- 
est Germany makes the sharp division of all 
men into two classes, Commanders and Obey- 



1915] 



145 



ers. Men, inexorable as fate, become Fates 
themselves, and hardness is the supreme nobil- 
ity. Zarathustra, the superman, utters "the 
triumphant paean of the fighter and con- 
queror": to carry out one's own will is the 
only "virtue"; that which " penitential- 
shirted body-haters" decry as "lust" shall 
prove for free hearts the Paradise of earth, 
for lion-willed ones the greatest heart- 
strengthener, the wine of wines ; " domineer- 
ing " shall prove the earthquake shattering all 
that is rotten and hollow ; " selfishness " shall 
prove holy* and wholesome when directed 
against slaves who will not protest for them- 
selves. As a corollary, so-called " virtuous " 
folk are those who have never learned to use 
their, fists, "soft rabbits, ink-fish, pen-driv- 
ers " ; temperance is the mark of mediocrity, 
abstinence is preached by impotence. War 
must be declared on all " small modesties and 
Podunk virtues." " my soul, I have taken 
from thee all servility, all knee-bending, all 
crying ' Lord, Lord ! ' ' The " meek " are the 
priests, the exhausted ones, the woman-souled 
and slave-souled : for these shall come the 
Day, the transformation, the sword of judg- 
ment. 

Much more might be .quoted from this mor- 
bid worship of brute-force on the part of an 
essentially gentle and suffering nature. "Ver- 
ily my maw is the maw of an eagle, for it 
loveth, above all else, the flesh of lambs ! " 
this from a sweet-spirited, finely-grained, pas- 
torate-begotten scholar, whose consideration 
for others was often so exaggerated as to 
amount to an impediment, and who literally 
scorned delights and lived laborious days. 
The doctrine of the " Eternal Recurrence," 
which Nietzsche considered the chief concep- 
tion of " Zarathustra," is so little developed as 
to be negligible. 

" Beyond Good and Evil " (1886) " a school 
for gentlemen and aristocrats," a variation of 
the main theme of " Zarathustra," was contem- 
porary with a small group of corrosive and 
cynical poems. The chief statement of his 
philosophy was held by Nietzsche to be con- 
tained in his "Will to Power" (1888), a long 
collection of fragments in snapped-off Prus- 
sian-Major sentences, differing from the ear- 
lier works mainly in making a direct frontal 
attack upon Christianity (perhaps the fiercest 
assault ever directed against Christian ideals) , 
as the most fatally misleading of all systems 
of falsehood, the chief token of human deca- 
dence, in that it opens the door of happiness 
to the poor in spirit, and has branded natural 
impulses as vices. " I will create a new order 
of higher men, from whom laboring spirits 
and consciences may gain counsel; who live 



beyond political and religious tenets, and 
have even overcome morality." The message 
consists of variations on the theme, "Be an 
egotist." It would bring again to honor the 
words of Plato : " Everyone of us would wish, 
if possible, to be lord over all men." The 
masses suffocate exceptional men, natural 
lords and masters. Let the weaker perish. 
There are no realities back of the old catch- 
words, Christianity, Revolution, Emancipa- 
tion, Equal Rights, Philanthropy, Peace Ad- 
vocacy, Justice, Truth. The work glories in 
militarism, in Bismarck and Bonaparte, as 
loftiest ideals. A great new personality af- 
fects the masses with suspense, fear, and sus- 
picion. In the organic world deceit is highly 
developed in the highest types, and lying is 
one of the chief weapons of superior men. 
The highest joy in life consists in subjugating 
whatever stands in one's way: "all realms 
bordering on our own must be thought of as 
enemies " an ancient sentiment which the 
United States and their Canadian neighbors 
have overlooked for a century. 

The weak now prevail because of " sym- 
pathy"; in two or three generations a race 
easily runs into such riffraff that it develops 
an instinctive opposition to all Privilege the 
very note of true nobility. No ordinary man 
should ever presume to pass judgment on 
what a great man may allow himself and 
vastly more in this vein, leading up to the 
ominous prophecy that "from now on, there 
will be favorable conditions for the develop- 
ment of the great predatory virtues." 

The spring of 1888 found Nietzsche in 
Turin in fairly good health, and delighting 
in the joy of living in that very attractive 
city. Toward the end of the same year ap- 
peared "Ecce Homo" (Nietzsche being the 
" Man " held up to view) , a jumble of saucy 
deliverances upon all sorts of things. He 
knows neither sin nor remorse; too petty for 
his notice are the concepts God, Immortality, 
Salvation. In his reading he returns con- 
tinually to a small number of older French 
writers; he believes only in French civiliza- 
tion, and considers everything else Avhich 
passes under the name of culture in Europe 
as a counterfeit. He decides the Shakespeare- 
Bacon controversy by sheer intellectual grasp 
of the matter ("What care I for the sorry 
chatter of American muddle-heads and low- 
brows?"), in favor of Bacon. He has never 
cared for honors, women, or money. Love in 
its methods is essentially war; in its funda- 
mental nature a deadly hatred between the 
sexes. The last utterance of the book is a 
bitter gust of hostility against the Crucified 
One. 



146 



THE DIAL 



[Sept. 2 



At the end of 1888 came a paralytic stroke, 
and from this time Nietzsche's writings were 
but the disconnected utterances of a feverish 
patient, though perhaps not so noticeably dif- 
ferent, in form or content, from those which 
preceded this attack. There followed long 
years of helplessness, at first with intermit- 
tent periods of sanity. In 1897 the Weimar 
home (now converted into the beautiful 
Nietzsche-Archiv) was purchased, where 
every kindly ministration was loyally given 
by the devoted sister. After 1899 the invalid 
became gradually weaker, and in the follow- 
ing year the wearied body was laid to rest 
under the shadow of the little church of his 
fathers in Rocken. 

The sheer fascination which Nietzsche exer- 
cises upon his readers derives in no small part 
from his captivating style of writing or, 
rather, his styles. Often a mere trick of 
rhyme (Hohlkopfe: Kohlkropfe), an inciden- 
tal simile, a mint-new epithet ("moraline- 
free virtue"), a smart paradox showing the 
full perversity of epigram : " Is mankind 
made better by civilization ? A comic ques- 
tion, since the opposite is self-evident, and is 
precisely that which is in civilization's favor" ; 
"Virtue remains the most expensive vice." 
He has no dread of repetition, but plays end- 
lessly upon a very few ideas. In his method 
of approach to vital problems, he shows a 
more than Rousseauian ignoring of mere 
facts. He never investigates or collects statis- 
tics, but draws all his sayings from the glow- 
ing depths of his inner soul alone. 

The pathological conditions of an insuffi- 
cient organism account for the rambling 
structure of his works, doubtless as well for 
his sovereign contempt for the world's ac- 
cepted thinkers and scientists, and explain his 
estimate of himself. " Everyone who has had 
intimate relations with me has regarded it as 
an honor and a distinction; I hold the same 
view myself " ; " with this Zarathustra I have 
brought the German language to perfection. 
After Luther and Goethe a third step had to 
be taken " ; " up to now there has been no 
deutsche Kultur"; "before me there never 
was any psychology " ; "I am no man : I am 
dynamite " ; "I have the most varied range 
of styles that a man has ever employed " ; "I 
am now the leading moral thinker and worker 
in Europe." 

It is in direct line with such utterances that 
we constantly meet with a proud sensitiveness 
about "being treated as a person of no ac- 
count." a voracious demand for appreciation. 
There is a constant apprehension of intrigues 
and "influences," of treachery, deceit, mean- 
ness, and spite in short, a whole range of 



concepts such as one never encounters except 
by overhearing in public conveyances on 
Thursday afternoons. A is secretly setting B 
against N; Frau Baumgartner has always to 
warn against the treacherous counsels of Frau 
Overbeck. Old confidences and friendships 
are continually undermined, and give way to 
suspicion and deadliest hatred. The real 
blemish in the biography is that it serves as 
the grosse Wdsche for a mountainous German 
accumulation of household linen, accompanied 
by a lack of reticence which is siinply incredi- 
ble to the Anglo-Saxon. 

Let us, finally, be thankful to Nietzsche for 
his brave formulations : he has given a gallant 
banner to be displayed, and the battle now 
joined between his ideals and those of love 
and tenderness is the real Armageddon, beside 
which all noisy racial, dynastic, and economic 
warfares are merely episodes. We must 
reckon squarely with the conception of "a 
race that will conquer and dominate or die in 
the attempt " ; of the impossibility of culture 
except on a foundation of slavery. We must 
weigh fairly the doctrine, "any society that 
instinctively rejects war and conquest is on 
the decline, and ready for democracy and a 
government by shopkeepers." No confidence 
is betrayed by the present reviewer when he 
remarks that the American consciousness 
stands hopelessly dazed before this philosophy. 
We regard these pinchbeck heroics as of a 
piece with the cubbish exuberance of half- 
grown boys; we wish for this New Gospel a 
swift and decisive collapse : " For the bed is 
shorter than that a man can stretch himself 
on it: and the covering narrower than that 
he can wrap himself in it." 

JAMES TAFT HATFIELD. 



A NEW PHILOSOPHY OF HISTORY.* 

"If history has any value," says Mr. L. 
Cecil Jane, in his book on " The Interpreta- 
tion of History," " it lies in this, that it sup- 
plies some clue as to what the future will 
bring forth." The business of the historian is 
therefore to "make known the lessons of the 
past, and in doing so to reveal as much as he 
can of the future." But in order to do this in 
a really satisfactory manner one must find, 
first of all, "some underlying factor, in 
accordance with which history may be inter- 
preted and the occurrence of all events ex- 
plained." This underlying factor Mr. Jane 
has discovered in the interplay of the " desire 
to rule and the desire to be ruled." In some 



* THE INTERPRETATION OF HISTORY. By L. Cecil Jane. New 
York : E. P. Button & Co. 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



147 



men the desire to rule, in others the desire to 
be ruled, is predominant ; in others still these 
desires alternately obtain the mastery. Na- 
tions, since they are but groups of individuals, 
are likewise actuated by these two desires. 
In respect to internal affairs the desire to rule 
tends to produce self-government, whereas the 
desire to be ruled makes for despotism. In 
respect to external affairs, the desire to rule 
results in a policy of " splendid isolation," of 
national independence, of aggression ; the de- 
sire to be ruled, on the contrary, makes for 
cosmopolitanism, universalism, a common- 
wealth of nations. Curiously enough, or per- 
haps naturally, since nations are as inconsis- 
tent as individuals, " it is frequently, almost 
always, the case that a state which is univer- 
salist in one aspect is individualist in the 
other. An extension of governmental author- 
ity at home is normally coupled with the adop- 
tion of an independent foreign policy; the 
admission of obligations towards foreign 
states is normally accompanied by an asser- 
tion of the rights of the individual citizen as 
against the community." It is to be noted 
that the term universalism is here employed 
in place of the phrase " desire to be ruled," 
while the term individualism replaces the 
phrase " desire to rule." And this practice 
has been followed throughout the book, which 
thus turns out to be a sketch of European 
history, mainly in its political aspects, in 
terms of concepts that are familiar enough but 
which have never before been denned pre- 
cisely as Mr. Jane defines them. 

Those who know something of European 
history, particularly, perhaps, those who do 
not know too much of it, will readily under- 
stand how it is possible, by dint of great 
ingenuity and the resolute ignoring of multi- 
plied difficulties, to sketch the history of the 
western world in accord with these very gen- 
eral ideas. Yet even the friendly critic, one 
who contemplates a new philosophy of history 
with entire equanimity and some little inter- 
est, is disposed to ask how, after all, "the 
occurrence of all events " is " explained " in 
any satisfactory way by such a philosophy as 
Mr. Jane offers. The marriage of Henry 
VIII. with Anne Boleyn was an event, and 
one of some importance. Let us assume I 
confess it seems to me a tremendous assump- 
tion, and one which Mr. Jane does little to 
establish that the dominant motive in hu- 
man action is the desire to rule or to be ruled. 
With this assumption in hand, you can of 
course " explain " Henry's marriage by say- 
ing that in Ensrland, in the year 1533, the 
adjustment of the desire to rule and the desire 
to be ruled was such that this particular event 



was the inevitable result; just as you may 
" explain " it by saying that it was the result 
of a "definite combination of heterogeneous 
changes, both simultaneous and successive, in 
correspondence with external co-existences 
and sequences," or, more simply, "the con- 
tinuous adjustment of internal relations to 
external relations." It must be admitted, 
however, that these " explanations " are some- 
what remote, and I do not see that Spencer's 
formula is more remote than Mr. Jane's. On 
the whole, it seems simpler to say that Henry 
was in love with Anne Boleyn. 

Mr. Jane would doubtless reply that a gen- 
eral formula is not intended to explain par- 
ticular events, such as the marriage of Henry 
VIII., in terms of conscious purpose; the 
value of such a formula, he would insist, is in 
explaining the broader historical movements, 
in relating them to each other, and in furnish- 
ing, through such explanation and relation, a 
" clue to what the future w r ill bring forth." 
Well, one of these broader movements is the 
growth and consolidation of monarchial abso- 
lutism in the seventeenth and eighteenth cen- 
turies. In what sense is it an explanation of 
this movement to say that it was the result of 
the desire to be ruled ? Why, one asks at once, 
did the desire to be ruled become so strong at 
this particular time? The answer to this 
question reduces even Mr. Jane to the level 
of the ordinary historian. " The gradual 
progress of the universalist movement may be 
attributed in a measure to the belief that 
despotism had already been established by the 
end of the first half of the seventeenth cen- 
tury; . . the absence of resistance created the 
idea that resistance, or at least successful 
resistance, was impossible." In other words, 
despotism, universally caused by the desire to 
be ruled, was in this particular case caused 
"in a measure" by the belief that resistance 
was useless. Surely, the desire to be ruled is 
not the same as the fear of being punished! 
The truth is that Mr. Jane's formula does not 
explain past events ; what it does is to classify 
events, arbitrarily enough for the most part, 
in certain very general categories. It is 
highly necessary for the historian to classify 
his facts ; but a classification does not explain 
the origin of events, and is only the pre- 
liminary step in their interpretation. 

If Mr. Jane's formula does not enable him 
to explain the past, neither does it enable him 
to predict the future; it enables him to say 
only that the future will be like the past, a 
succession of periods of which universalism 
and individualism will alternately be the pre- 
dominant characteristic. At present, that is to 
say in the spring of 1914, when the book was 



148 



THE DIAL 



[ Sept. 2 



written, it is " clear that . . the desire to be 
ruled prevails rather the desire to rule." It 
follows, therefore, that " if human nature re- 
mains constant in its fundamental character- 
istic, an individualist reaction, both internally 
and externally, may be anticipated with confi- 
dence." At the risk of being set down as a 
carping critic, one must say that this, as a 
prediction of the future, is extremely vague; 
it reminds one of the phrase about the pendu- 
lum, which is alleged to swing first in one 
direction and then in another and opposite 
direction. M. Jules Cambon, writing from 
Berlin in 1913, unaided, I suppose, by any 
philosophy of history, was a much better 
prophet than Mr. Jane himself, writing a year 
later from Oxford. No, Mr. Jane does not 
predict the future any more than he explains 
the past; he merely projects into the future 
the categories which have been used to classify 
the facts of the past, in the confident expecta- 
tion that future events, when they occur, may 
be pressed, without too much difficulty, into 
these categories. 

One may ask in conclusion whether the 
value of history is what Mr. Jane supposes 
it to be, whether it consists in furnishing 
" some clue as to what the future will bring 
forth." This is, I think, a fundamental error, 
and one which springs from a vicious confu- 
sion of the physical and the moral world. 
Why, it is asked, since the scientist, by 
means of classification and experiment, can 
predict the action of the physical world, shall 
not the historian do as much for the moral 
world ? The analogy is false at many points ; 
but the confusion arises chiefly from the as- 
sumption that the scientist can predict the 
action of the physical world. Certain con- 
ditions precisely given, the scientist can pre- 
dict the result ; he cannot say when or where 
in the future those conditions will obtain. 
Desiring to gain control over nature, the scien- 
tist is little concerned with any actual con- 
crete situation, whereas the historian, aiming 
to appropriate the experience of the past for 
himself and his fellows, is concerned precisely 
with the concrete human world, not as it 
might be under certain conditions but as it 
has actually been. The difference is radical. 
It is for this reason that although scientific 
knowledge, through its formulae, can be prac- 
tically applied, to the great benefit of all 
men, knowledge of history cannot be thus 
practically applied, and is therefore worth- 
less except to those who have made it, in 
greater or less degree, a personal possession. 
The value of history is, indeed, not scientific 
but moral : by liberalizing the mind, by deep- 
ening the sympathies, by fortifying the will, 



it enables us to control, not society, but our- 
selves, a much more important thing; it 
prepares us to live more humanely in the pres- 
ent and to meet rather than to foretell the 
future. CARL BECKER. 



ESSAYS ix MINIATURE.* 



Mr. Charles Leonard Moore is a writer who 
needs no introduction to the readers of this 
journal. For a score of years, his nicely 
weighed and admirably judicious essays in 
miniature upon literary topics have been one 
of our outstanding features ; and even before 
Mr. Moore had become one of our regular con- 
tributors, we directed attention to him as a 
poet. The two sonnets from his " Book of Day 
Dreams" which we then reprinted (March 1, 
1893) still seem to us, as they did at that 
time, to reach the hi gh- water mark of Amer- 
ican poetical achievement. Of Mr. Moore's 
DIAL essays, thirty-nine have now been col- 
.lected into a volume entitled "Incense and 
Iconoclasm," and offer as many examples of 
the art of saying a great deal within the limits 
of a narrow space. The " thirty-nine articles " 
of this literary confession of faith touch upon 
most of the major themes of literary criti- 
cism, and are notable for their broad views, 
their penetrative sympathy, and their method 
of direct approach to the very hearts of their 
respective subjects. 

The qualifications of a good critic of litera- 
ture are so many that we would not venture to 
say that Mr. Moore has them all ; but he un- 
doubtedly has the one that is fundamental, the 
one without which good taste and sound judg- 
ment and an agile intellect will not be found 
to constitute salvation. The trouble with the 
greater part of what passes for literary criti- 
cism in this age of superficial ad captandum 
writing is that its authors do not know enough 
about literature. This defect in their equip- 
ment may become fatal at any moment; and 
even when the pitfalls in the path are skil- 
fully avoided, maundering is likely to take the 
place of precision of aim, the clear stream of 
thought is likely to grow muddied with sub- 
jective intrusions, and the rational objective 
pronouncement gives way to the exhibition of 
the writer's own mental processes. Like the 
Oxus, which, for lack of sufficient initial vol- 
ume and impetus, loses itself in " beds of sand 
and matted rushy isles," this kind of writing 
misses the final point of criticism, and pro- 
vides bewilderment instead of guidance. Ac- 
quaintance with, say, the " Kalevala " and 

* INCENSE AND ICONOCLASM. Studies in Literature. By 
Charles Leonard Moore. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



149 



" The Canterbury Tales " does not seem to 
have anything to do with the function of the 
reviewer of a modern novel; but it really 
exercises a pervasive influence upon the per- 
formance of his task. Those who will not 
recognize this fact have precisely the type of 
mind which denies the "practicality" of the 
time-honored intellectual disciplines which 
have to struggle for their lives in our educa- 
tional systems. 

Mr. Moore's volume borrows its title from 
the first of the essays included ; but the author 
takes the side of the angels throughout, the 
only iconoclasm in which he indulges being the 
smashing of those idols of the literary market- 
place which draw to their worship the short- 
sighted and the uninformed. He stands for 
the eternal values in literature rather than 
for the temporal trivialities, and has a proper 
scorn for the catchwords of the hour. " In 
the end the classics emerge," he reminds us; 
and, " taking the whole roll of time, it is not 
difficult to see what are the prime and what 
are the secondary qualities of art." In fact, 
he might have taken for the text of his entire 
volume Professor Shorey's address on " The 
Unity of the Human Spirit." in the volume of 
" Representative Phi Beta Kappa Orations," 
from which we quoted in our last issue. 

Profusely scattered through Mr. Moore's 
pages are passages of excellent pith, of which 
a few examples may be given. Emerson " is a 
veritable quicksand of an author," and his 
felicitous phrasings " are the tiniest and most 
fragmentary crystals ever produced by a con- 
siderable poet, but they flash with the white 
light of the diamond." Whitman "has tried 
to get the whole universe into his brain, and 
in a manner has succeeded, only it has turned 
back into chaos." "Moliere was the com- 
posite smile of mankind." " In a nation of 
graceful writers, [Balzac] is the dancing bear 
of prose." "Man's Eden without Eve would 
be a dirty place, full of tobacco smoke." Mil- 
ton " is going to justify the works of God to 
man but in the end he comes near justify- 
ing the devil." " Music is a language that has 
only two words joy and grief." These 
aphorisms, and many others of like quality, 
show us that it is possible to be epigrammatic 
without being inane. 

But Mr. Moore is not without his examples 
of sustained thought. Probably the best illus- 
tration of his application of analytical powers 
to the development of a considerable argu- 
ment is to be found in the group of four essays 
which examine " The Root Ideas of Fiction," 
which are Identity, Hunger, Love, and Death. 
From the last of these essays we must make an 
extract. 



" I have no desire to add a page to Drelincourt 
on Death. But impatience consumes one at our 
modern attitude to the great, serious, and tragic 
themes of thought and art. Especially does our 
American hedonism, our love of pleasure, our fear 
of pain or shock, rebel at the best and highest in 
literature. We grasp at the shallow criticism which 
speaks of the pessimistic, the melancholy, the 
gloomy, as the minor note. Even in music, from 
which this term is borrowed, it is not true that 
melancholy themes or notes which excite sad im- 
pressions are secondary. Most of the great sym- 
phonies, oratorios, requiems, are sad and stormy 
and terrible. And the same conditions are so plain 
in literature that a critic must apologize for point- 
ing it out. But, our childish readers say, there is 
enough that is painful and shocking and terrible in 
life, why reiterate it in literature? Wordsworth 
prayed for frequent sights of what is to be borne. 
We do not acquire fortitude by running away from 
danger, and a literature of lollipops is not likely to 
make a strong race. The tragic part of literature 
is the most tonic and most inspiring." 

Mr. Moore has no patience with the cult of 
modernity which calls upon literature to break 
away from the moorings of the past, and con- 
demns writers who turn for inspiration to the 
old forms and models. He knows the funda- 
mental truth that modernity is to be tested by 
the spirit or the temper, and not by the frame- 
work, and that the oldest of old-world themes 
may serve as its vehicle, as, for example, in 
the cases of Shelley's " Prometheus Unbound " 
and Moody's " The Fire-Bringer," which are 
intensely modern poems, despite their mytho- 
logical investiture. 

" Practically, the great artists of literature who 
have brooded deepest over life have affected the 
distant or the past for their creations. They were 
not foolish enough to doubt that human life is 
always essentially the same; they did not really 
believe in any Age of Gold, or Day of the Gods. 
But they knew that to evolve tragedy, romance, 
poetry, they must get away from the garish light of 
their own hour.' 1 

And this lesson is thus homiletically enforced : 
" Let us deal kindly with tradition, and tradition 
will be good to us. Let us not try to push our 
grandsires from their thrones. Rather, if it is 
necessary to save them, let us bear them tenderly 
out as the pious ./Eneas carried old Anchises from 
the wreck of burning Troy." 

The modernist is merely the victim of a 
huge delusion, and it may be shrewdly sus- 
pected that his bankruptcy goes back to the 
old difficulty of not knowing enough about 
literature. Youths of both sexes just out of 
college write glibly and blithely about prod- 
ucts of the contemporary imagination, and 
every paragraph of what they say betrays a 
naive ignorance of the natural history of the 
ideas and the literary forms which they are 



150 



THE DIAL 



[Sept. 2 



with such innocent confidence discussing. 
The thing they never see is the thing which 
Mr. Moore states with apposite force in the 
following words : 

" Yet the fact remains that nothing in our recent 
output is new. In spite of the contortions and 
struggles of our novelists and playwrights and 
poets to be strong, to be daring, to be extreme, there 
is nothing that they utter which will compare in 
these qualities with much of the literature of the 
past. Take the exploitation of sexual passion and 
vice by which our contemporaries try to shock us. 
* Mrs. Warren's Profession ' is milk and water 
beside the strong meat of ' Measure for Measure ' 
or ' Pericles.' ' Three Weeks ' has no standing at 
all as an aphrodisiac compared with Aphra Behn 
or Casanova. The soiled heroes and heroines of 
Mr. Wells's later novels are mere doves compared 
with the people in Fielding and Smollett and the 
Restoration comedy." 

And so it goes, as Mr. Moore continues to 
illustrate in much detail, with the other 
themes and inventions hailed as novelties in 
most of the uninformed chatter that passes 
for literary criticism in this impatient age. 

We have marked many other passages for 
quotation, but the limitations of space forbid 
their reproduction. Let us close with the 
author's generalized comment on the "turn 
downward " of our recent literature, and with 
his plea for the utmost freedom for the artist. 
The plaint is thus stated: Literature "has 
largely exchanged verse for prose ; it has min- 
gled with the crowd on the levels, instead of 
staying with the shining ones on the hill; it 
has dealt very exclusively with the passive 
peculiarities of women, rather than with the 
active energies of men." And the plea is thus 
voiced : 

" Readers of sense know very well how to 
discriminate. They are furnished with feelers, 
antennae, by which they can separate what is prac- 
tical from the divine make-believe of literature. 
They are not going to commit murder because they 
can thrill with the spectacle of Macbeth's guilt. 
They are not going to filch purses because they can 
enjoy the humour of FalstafP s exploit at Gadshill. 
They are not going to bolt with the first pleasing 
person of the other sex, because Cleopatra or 
Camille is dear to them. They accept imaginative 
literature as a vicarious experience, which enlarges 
their minds, deepens their emotions, makes them 
contemporaries of all times, citizens of all places. 
They are willing to allow to the artist the utmost 
li 1 erty of his materials if he can only make some- 
thing of them " 

If the " turn downward " of which Mr. Moore 
speaks, is to be checked, we must assume a less 
tolerant attitude toward the vagaries of our 
younsr radicals, and insist more sternly upon 
the standards which they affect to despise. 
WILLIAM MORTON PAYNE. 



OUR SOUTH AMERICAN NEIGHBORS.* 



In recent years, Latin America has been re- 
discovered by interested Anglo-Americans. 
But not all the travellers find the same things. 
As a rule, American accounts of our Latin 
neighbors to the south are complimentary; 
and we have about decided that Spain as a 
colonizer was not so bad, and that her off- 
spring states in the western w r orld are rapidly 
and hopefully moving along the highway of 
modern civilization. But Dr. Edward A. 
Ross's new book, " South of Panama," is, with 
regard to much of South America, quite pessi- 
mistic. The author's object is, in part, to 
show how unlike ourselves the Latin Ameri- 
cans are, and how difficult it is, in several 
states, for them to make any real progress. 
He describes much that is good and sound in 
Argentina and Chile; but in these and other 
states he finds that modern civilization is hin- 
dered because of complexities of race, social 
and economic conditions, climatic influences, 
and lack of sound political capacity. 

The author began his travels at Panama, 
and went down through the West Coast coun- 
tries, coming back through Argentina. There 
are good descriptive chapters on the regions 
through which he passed, and more valuable 
studies of the Native Races, Labor Conditions, 
Caste and Class, Morals, Character, Religion 
and the Church, Education, Politics and Gov- 
ernment. 

The descriptions are always vivid and inter- 
esting. For example, in his account of Cali, 
in Colombia, Dr. Ross says : 

" The life of the town revolves about the river 
that comes tumbling down from among the hills. 
Every bright day nearly the whole adult popula- 
tion bathe in it. From a single point one may see 
hundreds in the various operations. Gentlemen 
with white linen and black coats strip beside the 
negro muleteer and the swarthy peon. The pretty 
girl disrobes beside the coal-black negress with a 
cigar between her lips. Every tree and bush yields 
fancied protection. Behind their large sheet-towels 
men and women undress not fifteen yards from 
one another, while lads and lasses splash about in 
the same pool. The men wear a napkin about the 
loins, the women a red calico Mother Hubbard, 
which when wet, discloses the form with startling 
fidelity. More leveling even than the bathing 
beach, the river reveals to his fellow citizens, al- 
most in puribus, the portly judge, the grizzled 
municipal councilor or the skinny banker. But no 
one stares or is self-conscious, and the proprieties 
are strictly observed. Still, some deplore this Arca- 
dian daily dip and point out that only two children 
out of five in Cali have been born in wedlock." 

And of Valparaiso at night, he writes: 

* SOUTH OF PANAMA. By Edward Alsworth Ross, Ph.D., 
LL.D. New York : The Century Co. 



1915] 



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151 



" The night view of Valparaiso from the bal- 
conies of the cliff dwellers is one of the great 
sights of the world. The vast sickle of the shore 
lit for nearly two hundred thousand people, the 
scores of ocean vessels lying at anchor, the harbor 
lights, the glowing avenues below from which rises 
mellow the roar of nocturnal traffic, the rippling 
water under the moonlight and the far horizon of 
the illimitable Pacific produce an effect of enchant- 
ment." 

It is the author's belief that much of the 
backwardness of South America is due to the 
inheritance of evil conditions from the Span- 
ish colonial regime, "it is the victim of a 
l3ad start." But other conditions weigh down 
upon these societies. There are too few whites 
except in Argentina ; there is too little educa- 
tion; in politics and government the people 
are " poor losers " ; there is a general lack of 
persistence and an inability to cooperate; 
work is too frequently despised ; truthfulness 
is too rare a virtue ; morals are loose ; distrust 
is general in business and politics; the lower 
classes seem hopelessly without ambition; 
sanitation is unheard of; little value is at- 
tached to time ; there is in most states no flow 
of immigration which might stimulate and 
elevate the present populations; women have 
little influence, and society is " androcentric." 
These hindrances to progress are less in evi- 
dence in the south than in the north ; in par- 
ticular, Argentina appears to be much freer 
of them than any other state. 

Life is monotonous nearly everywhere, and 
is filled with trivialities. Gossip, visiting, 
drinking, revolutions help to pass the time. 
The author suggests that " the passion of these 
people for politics is due in part to the un- 
ventfulness of their lives." For young 
Americans and other foreigners the environ- 
ment is deadening, nothing to do, no whole- 
some amusements, no one suitable to marry. 
And the same is true of the South American 
who goes abroad for education. 

" It is pathetic to see how girls educated in a 
Quebec or New York convent return to Cali with a 
resolve not to sink into this listless, indolent way, 
but to ' start something,' give a garden party or 
lawn fete, make a real social life. But the system 
is too strong for the poor things. They are steam- 
rolled by the church and by the established social 
customs. After a while, broken in spirit, they cease 
to struggle, sink into acquiescence, and become just 
as narrow in interests and pursuits as the women 
who have never been out of the valley." 

Argentina excepted, the state organization 
is of, by, and for the small upper class. For 
them are the governmental positions, and for 
them only is the education necessary to fit one 
for a position. Manual labor is despised, and 
a long nail on the little finger is evidence of 



higher respectability than calloused palms. 
With inherited Spanish fondness for town 
life, those who can do so stay in the larger 
centres, leaving the country to the lower class 
laborers and the overseers. As a result, " from 
the Rio Grande down the West Coast to Cape 
Horn, free agricultural labor as we know it 
does not exist." Government expenditures 
are made mainly upon the towns and cities. 
Of public life in general, Dr. Ross says : 

" One who looks for good popular government 
in tropical South America would expect to gather 
grapes from thorns and figs from thistles. Take, 
for example, Bolivia. . . There are a few men of 
character, ability and education, who are working 
together for definite public ends. . . But this bit 
of leaven is too small in relation to the lump to be 
leavened. Men of broad outlook and high firm 
character are too few. They lack following and 
support. With us the moral and intellectual peaks 
rise from a plateau; in the Bolivian people they 
rise from the plain. The Indians are exploited, 
helpless and inert, and practically nothing is being 
done to elevate them. The cholos are bigoted and 
egotistic, of very little worth either intellectual or 
moral, and they show few signs of improvement." 

The best society suffers from being too 
" androcentric." Here the male dominates 
all; girls and women stay at home in seclu- 
sion, although as a rule they are brighter and 
more intellectual than the males of their own 
class, who are exposed to various dissipations. 
The upper class family is clanlike in its close- 
ness and in its size, but family discipline is 
lax. Generally speaking, manners are very 
good, but "altruism scarcely exists." The 
mistress of the house takes little interest in 
the housekeeping, which is left to incompe- 
tent servants. The Church is supported and 
to an extent controlled by the State, a fact 
that probably prevents wholesome outside 
forces from working for the elevation of 
standards among clergy and people. The 
women and lower classes are generally relig- 
ious after a fashion, but " few men who wear 
coats go to confession." 

But Dr. Ross does not paint always with a 
sooty brush. He has much to say of healthy 
forces here and there, and signs of progress. 
The churches and the schools are improving 
slowly. A middle class is developing in 
Chile. White immigration to the highlands 
of the northern states may result in develop- 
ment and stability. While there is not an 
intellectual democracy, the enlightened elite 
is increasing in numbers. The best country, 
the author thinks, is Argentina, "a white 
man's country," with a more favorable geog- 
raphy, many immigrants, a better population, 
and open-minded leaders. 

WALTER L. FLEMING. 



152 



THE DIAL 



[Sept. 2 



BELGIUM'S POET-LAUREATE.* 

Those who hope for the ultimate triumph 
of the Allies will find encouragement in 
Stefan Zweig's study of Emile Verhaeren. 
The book is in no sense a biography, but an 
exposition of the intellectual and moral evolu- 
tion of the poet. He appears as one who, in 
Maeterlinck's words, " represents worthily 
that which is great and heroic in a people." 
The epigraph of the essay might be the lines 
quoted at the head of the third chapter : 

" Je suis le fils de cette race 

Tenace, 

Qui veut, apres avoir voulu 
Encore, encore et encore plus." 

Verhaeren 's attitude toward life is constantly 
compared to that of "Walt Whitman; but he 
worked out his philosophy independently, and 
has apparently succeeded better than the 
American poet in voicing the ideals of his 
own people. The peasants among whom he 
spent his early years regard him as one of 
themselves, and he is as much at home among, 
them as in the great world where his fame has 
led him. 

Stefan Zweig, an Austrian poet, the dis- 
ciple and translator of Verhaeren, has given 
a sympathetic and perhaps at times over- 
laudatory history of his master's thought, 
from "Les Flamandes" (1883) to "Les Bles 
Mouvants" (1913). His book, admirably 
translated by Mr. Bithell, would have made 
its mark at any time, and has now gained a 
poignant interest from the European cata- 
clysm. For Verhaeren is par excellence the 
singer of our time in all its complexity. He 
has wrung poetry from the most unpromising 
subjects, and created by sheer force of will a 
Utopia out of the most prosaic reality. His 
present disillusion can only be the more bitter. 
In the face of the disaster that confronts 
humanity to-day, Zweig's opening hymn to the 
new age assumes a ghastly irony. If "now 
in the very air man is building a new road 
from country to country " it is with the intent 
to destroy alike the priceless monuments of 
the past and the latest achievements of human 
industry. "Who will still dare to say "only 
eternal earth has changed not nor grown 
older"? For what of the bestial substratum 
of human nature which Kultur has only 
aggravated, and which is to-day befouling the 
centre of the world's civilization by outrages 
that only primeval savages were deemed capa- 
ble of imaging? And must not the muse 

* EMILE VERHAEREN. By Stefan Zweig. Translated by 
J. Bithell. With portrait. Boston : Houghton Mifflin Co. 

POEMS OF EMILE VERHAEREN. Selected and rendered into 
English by Alma Strettell. New and enlarged edition. With 
portrait. New York : John Lane Co. 



become a mere henchman of the Kaiser if we 
accept Zweig's dictum that " only that poet 
can be necessary to our time who feels that 
everything in this time is necessary, and there- 
fore beautiful"? We shall not have long to 
wait for Vertiaeren's poetic judgment of the 
beauty of the necessity of the rape of his 
country by Germany. Beauty there is, even 
in the terrible events of to-day, but it is the 
world-old beauty of the heroism and self- 
sacrifice of individuals and nations for an 
idea ; in the diabolic modern ingenuity in the 
creation of strange images of death, there is 
only hideousness. 

Yet the age on which the iron fist of mili- 
tarism has set its ghastly seal had its poetry 
in the overflow of energy, even though for the 
moment that energy is at the service of the 
iron fist. Verhaeren's greatness lies in having 
seized and crystallized that poetry. His joy- 
ous acceptance of life in all its manifestations, 
which was to lead him at last to a lyric panthe- 
ism, is shown to be an inheritance from his 
race ; for the Belgians are pictured as possess- 
ing to a higher degree than any other people 
a delight in every exercise of intoxicating 
activity. The most heroic exploit in their his- 
tory, previous to 1914, their revolt from 
Spain, is explained as a struggle against the 
ascetic Puritanism of Philip II., who would 
have curtailed their free dionysiac enjoyment. 

Thus the reader is prepared for the brief 
but charming sketch of Verhaeren's youth in 
Flanders. We see him first in the Jesuit col- 
lege of Sainte-Barbe at Ghent, where he met 
Maeterlinck. The fathers w r ould have saved 
their young pupils from the world by making 
them priests, and endeavored to inspire in 
them a profound respect for the past, with a 
hatred of all innovation. Verhaeren carried 
away a lasting sentiment of the heroism of 
the monastic life and its poetry ; but his wild 
nature could not be cramped within cloistral 
walls. Zweig suggests that the chief result 
of this early training was to turn the poet's 
lust of life away from material things toward 
science and art. " The priest they sought to 
make of him he has really become, only he has 
preached everything that they proscribed, and 
fought against everything that they praised." 
After the school at Sainte-Barbe, Verhaeren 
studied law at Lou vain, where, urged by his 
fiery blood, he threw himself into carousals of 
which he still tells with glee. Admitted to the 
bar at Brussels, he joined a coterie of young 
artists, and, like Gautier, he won a name for 
shocking the bourgeois by fantastic freaks 
of dress and conduct. His unpublished juve- 
nilia, written at this time in imitation of 
Lamartine and Victor Hugo, are nevertheless 



1915] 



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153 



in "immaculate Alexandrines." Finally he 
threw aside the barrister's gown forever, and 
turned to poetry as his vocation. 

His first published work, destined to. con- 
found his friends and the critics, was "Les 
Flamandes." Written under the influence of 
Le Monnier, the interpreter in Belgium of 
Zola's naturalism, the book aims at trans- 
planting naked reality into verse. With de- 
liberate purpose the author discards in these 
sketches of old Flanders all that is sentimental 
or romantic, all that is conventionally known 
as poetry, and gives pictures of primitive bru- 
tality. " Barbarian," shouted the critics ; and 
Zweig finds something " genuinely barbarous, 
ravage with Teuton strength," in Verhaeren's 
nature. His inspiration is Rabelaisian : he 
possesses the fiery blood of Rubens and Jor- 
daens. And yet he still keeps the traditional 
Alexandrine mould. 

Another side of Belgian life is portrayed in 
the poet's next work, "Les Moines," an echo 
of his early education. As in "Les Flam- 
andes" he had sung of the lusty youths and 
maidens of the kermesses of yesteryear, he 
now celebrates the peaceful life of the monks 
in the manner of the older Flemish painters. 
Before writing this book he had spent three 
weeks at Forges with the fathers, who in their 
simple piety initiated him into their holy of 
holies with the hope of winning him for the 
priesthood. But his attitude was rather that 
of aesthetic admiration than of devout wor- 
ship. He hails the monks as undaunted cham- 
pions of a lost cause, and the beauty of their 
sacrifice is intensified for him as being a relic 
of the past. In studied Parnassian sonnets 
he portrays the various aspects of this calm 
life, and the contrasting characters more or 
less subdued by a common discipline. Here 
is the first effort at psychological analysis. 
Verhaeren's development is always toward the 
discovery of the inner meaning of the alle- 
gorical sense of external phenomena. Hence 
his welcome of scientific and mechanical prog- 
ress as matter for poetry. 

Zweig notes the pictorial character of both 
the early collections. " Monks," says he, " are 
for Verhaeren heroic symbols of mighty 
periods in the past," and he adds that the 
poet " seemed obliged to exhaust both the his- 
torical styles before he could reach his own, 
the modern style." 

Yet though both volumes show a distinct 
harking back to the past in quest of beauty, 
for which reason Verhaeren has repudiated 
them, we must still note the essential realism. 
Before writing "Les Flamandes" the poet 
liad caroused at kermesses which imitated as 
best they could the ancient festivals; early 



education and the visit to Forges inspired 
" Les Moines." It is always a real world that 
he invokes, even in his effort to escape from 
actuality. 

After "Les Moines" comes a period of 
storm and stress a nervous breakdown 
brought on by the supersensitiveness of the 
poetic temperament. Of this experience Ver- 
haeren has left a record in the trilogy, "Les 
Soirs," " Les Debacles," and " Les Flambeaux 
Noirs." Here we have the poet playing the 
role of the naturalistic novelist, with himself 
as the subject. He dissects his diseased mind 
and emotions as a surgeon a specimen in the 
operating room. Zweig's phrase is here vigor- 
ous, if not altogether happy: Verhaeren has 
" immortalized in poems the process of the 
inflammation of his nerves." Zweig follows 
him through all the stages of this crisis, first 
physical, then psychic illness nearly ending 
in madness. A couple of citations may suffice 
to show the tenor of the whole. The poet is in 
London and sees the corpse of his reason float- 
ing down the Thames. A similar phenome- 
non is noted by George Brandes among the 
early German romanticists. He calls it " dis- 
integration of the ego." Verhaeren writes : 

" Elle [ma raison] est morte de trop savoir, 
De trop vouloir sculpter la cause." 

Or again : " Je veux marcher vers la folie et 
ses soleils." Here is the Ultima Thule of 
decadent romanticists. It is the instinct 
among them which inspired Joubert's defini- 
tion, "chercheurs de delire." Although the 
volumes contain spirited verse, many readers 
will not accept Zweig's enthusiastic judgment 
that the poet's analysis of his crisis possesses 
monumental value. 

But Verhaeren was too sturdy to remain 
long in these mazes of subjectivity. Like 
Goethe, he frees himself from excess of pas- 
sion by giving it artistic expression in symbols. 

" The poet has torn his fear, his burning, moan- 
ing, horrible fear, out of himself, and poured it 
into his bell-ringer, who is consumed in his blazing 
belfry. He has turned the monotony of his days to 
music in his poem of the rain; his mad fight 
against the elements, which in the end break his 
strength, he has shaped into the image of the 
ferryman struggling against the current that shat- 
ters his oars one after the other." 

The pendulum has swung again, and the man 
who would hold himself apart and see all in 
the terms of his own personality throws him- 
self with open arms into the cosmic life to 
refind himself. "Nothing human is alien to 
me," becomes his motto, and he hails with a 
renewed joy every manifestation of the energy 
and aspiration that characterize his genera- 
tion. For him this alone is poetry, this the 



154 



THE DIAL 



[ Sept. 2 



music of the spheres to-day. Immense cities, 
which had formerly been anathema to him, 
furnish the most striking example of this 
united energy, and he finds poetry in the 
very force by which they suck the blood of 
the country. So we have another trilogy, 
" Les Campagnes Hallucinees," " Les Villages 
Illusoires, and "Les Villes Tentaculaires." 
In the assembly of vast multitudes of men all 
moved by a common instinct, the race for 
power, whether by the acquisition of money or 
science, Verhaeren would see the breakdown 
of national barriers and the formation of a 
cosmic consciousness bent on the concentra- 
tion of human energy. This Utopian ideal he 
has expressed in his symbolistic drama, "Les 
Aubes." 

His verse form, too, has changed. During 
his storm and stress he had found the vers 
libre, stanzas of irregular lines ; and into the 
later poems the rhythm of all the gigantic 
industry of modern life has entered. Herein 
lies his appeal to all manner of men. His work 
is filled with what Zweig calls "the new" 
pathos," which at once mirrors and inspires 
the passion of his hearers. 

In Verhaeren's latest work another change 
is to be marked. This singer of force, of uni- 
versal energy working with common interest 
toward cosmic progress, finds a higher ideal 
still, the union of humanity by universal 
love and admiration which joins men in their 
common purpose and musters individuals and 
nations into a common cause, the striving 
for the onward march of life. " II faut aimer 
pour decouvrir avec genie " is the note of his 
mature work. We need not wonder if his bit- 
terness knows no bounds to-day. He has 
chanted the triumph of life, and now the can- 
* non, mouthpieces of the modern quest of 
power, are pealing back the triumph of death. 

Aside from his lyric work and yet a part of 
it a synthesis of it are his dramas, in 
which prose and verse stand side by side, 
prose for the groundwork, lyric for ecstasy. 
Of course they are closet dramas, perhaps too 
crowded with symbolically expressed ideas for 
complete success on the stage. "Le Cloitre" 
recalls the early collection of sonnets, "Les 
Moines." The monks are presented as all 
striving for the prior's chair a symbol of 
the greatest fitness to serve God. The one 
chosen believes himself unworthy because of 
an early crime which he confesses to his breth- 
ren, to the people, and to the judicial authori- 
ties. The Catholic doctrine of expiation by 
confession furnishes here strikingly dramatic 
crises at least. "Les Aubes" shows Oppido- 
magnum besieged by paupers and outcasts. 



The tribune Herenien secretly admits the 
enemy into the city, not as the act of a traitor 
but with the conviction that goodness over- 
comes strife. He falls the first martyr to his 
ideal, but the cause is won. In " Philip II.," 
Verhaeren pictures the. Spanish monarch as. 
Antichrist, for he has blasphemed against the 
spirit of life. " Helene de Sparte," which 
more nearly conforms to dramatic require- 
ments, is the tragedy of a woman afflicted by 
excessive beauty. She is tormented by the 
desires of men, which she kindles against her 
will. Snatched from one lover to another, the 
cause of innumerable crimes, a bane to ships 
and men and cities and most of all to herself^ 
she finds refuge only in death. " I have seen 
the flaring of so many flames that now I love 
only the hearth's glow and the lamp," is her 
plaintive cry. 

It is characteristic of Verhaeren that the 
spirit of a play even about Helen should be 
anti-erotic. Zweig suggests that one cause of 
the inadequate appreciation among the great 
public of his dramas is the absence of insis- 
tence on amorous passion. There is not a sin- 
gle woman in the caste of "Le Cloitre." Ver- 
haeren is one of the most masculine of lyrie 
poets: his appeal is rather to action and the 
exercise of the intelligence and will than to 
pity. Sex-instinct he has never taken as a 
serious problem. Its gratification is a matter 
of course in the life of vigorous manhood ab- 
sorbed in intellectual pursuits. All his love 
poems are addressed to a single woman, his 
wife. "Les Heures Claires," "Les Heures 
d'Apres-midi," " Les Heures du Soir " form a 
striking contrast both in diction and sentiment 
with the frequently rough and almost brutal 
tone of the rest of his work. Written in 
maturity, they speak with gentle simplicity of 
a great and lasting passion. " Je te regarde 
et tous les jours je te decouvre" is the key- 
note. " Oh la tendresse des forts ! " exclaims 
one critic in wondering admiration. 

We have already said that the translation 
of Zweig's book is admirably done. One never 
realizes that it is a translation at all. It 
might have been written as it stands by an 
English poet, with a mind more given to 
metaphysics than most of them are. That the 
author is himself a poet no one can doubt. 
Even in its English dress the style is that of 
poetry; figures abound on every page, and a 
poet's conception of the greatness of his role 
permeates the book from cover to cover. 
Zweig has cited generously : the passages are 
well chosen both as illustration and to inspire 
a desire in the reader for further acquain- 
tance with Verhaeren's work. The translator 
has wisely left these quotations in the original. 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



155 



The book ends with a bibliography citing edi- 
tions, criticisms, and English translations of 
Verhaeren. 

Those who wish for a brief but excellent 
selection of Verhaeren 's work in metrical 
translation will welcome the new edition of 
Miss Alma Strettell's " Poems of Emile Ver- 
haeren." The book contains a reproduction 
of Sargent's portrait of the author, a brief bio- 
graphical notice, and English renderings of 
a score of poems chosen from " Les Villages 
Illusoires," "Les Heures Claires," "Les Ap- 
parus dans mes Chemins," and "La Multiple 
Splendeur." Thus, striking examples of the 
poet's middle period (1891-1906), with three 
representative poems of his mature work, are 
included. 

The translations are executed with no little 
technical skill ; one can hear, for instance, the 
dull monotony of the rain almost as well in 
the English as in the French of " La Pluie " : 

" Long as unending threads, the long-drawn rain 
Interminably, with its nails of grey, 
Athwart the dull grey day, 
Rakes the green window-pane 
So infinitely, endlessly, the rain, 
The long, long rain, 

The rain." 

The variety of the selections is also note- 
worthy. One finds descriptions of nature such 
as " The Snow," landscapes such as " The 
Silence," symbolic pieces dramatic in move- 
ment such as "The Bell-Ringer" or "The 
Ferryman," love poems impassioned in their 
simplicity, and finally the inspiring vision of 
Saint George, of which the courageous note 
rings out again in one of the last poems in the 
collection, " Life " : 

" To march, thus intrepid in confidence, straight 
On the obstacle, holding the stubborn hope stiU 
Of conquering, thanks to firm blows of the will, 
Of intelligence prompt, or of patience to wait; 
And to feel growing stronger within us the sense, 
Day by day, of a power superb and intense." 

BENJ. M. WOODBRIDGE. 



THE I:srxER LIFE OF MTJSIC.* 



Although the author of " The Mysticism of 
Music " had given the manuscript his final 
revision, he did not live to see its issue from 
the press. The subject was one that appealed 
to him strongly, and he has put into the work 
some of his best thought and inspiration. 
Music has always been a handmaiden of the 

* THE MYSTICISM OF Music. By R. Heber Newton, D.D. 
New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

Music AND THE HIGHER EDUCATION. By Edward Dickinson. 
New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 



Church ancilla domini; and the leaders in 
ecclesiastical advance and development have 
known how to appreciate what this alluring 
coadjutor in the sacred service has done for 
them. Dr. Newton's volume is an enlarge- 
ment of two discourses delivered some years 
ago; but the thought of the author has 
deepened and clarified with the lapse of time, 
and we have here his mature and thoroughly 
considered utterance. 

" Music, as we know it, was born into the world 
in the age of science. It is the art of the age of 
knowledge. We need not, then, be surprised to 
find that music is not an art merely, that it is a 
science as well. This which is true of all arts, is 
pre-eminently true of music. It is intellectual as 
well as emotional. It deals with thoughts as much 
as with feelings. Its contents are ideas. Mu- 
sicians are measured in the scale of music by their 
intellectuality. Note the intellectual majesty which 
crowns the heads of the great masters of music. 
Handel and Mozart and Beethoven lift above us 
heads as of the immortals. Intellectuality is 
stamped in every line of their faces." 

" Music is not an imitation of nature. Nature 
provides no ready-made models of melody or har- 
mony, as she provides perfect types of form and 
color. Hints she gives of music but only hints. 
Man evolves music from within his own nature. 
It is distinctively the human art. It comes forth 
in the awakening self -consciousness of man. Music 
expresses the awakening self -consciousness of man, 
as he confronts the mystery of the universe, only 
to find a deeper mystery within himself. The 
marvellous creations of modern music are studies 
in self -consciousness ; attempts to run the gamut 
of man's moods, to fathom the problems of his 
being, to find a voice for 

'An infant crying in the night, 
An infant crying for the light.' " 

The thesis outlined in the above quotations 
receives extended treatment in the two papers 
included in this book. The first is on the sub- 
ject of "Mysticism in Music," the second 
deals with "Christian Mysticism in Music." 
The entire scope of the mystical consciousness 
is found in the great works of the great musi- 
cians : the symphonies of Beethoven present- 
ing a complete and positive exposition, the 
other musicians an exposition individualistic 
in every case but sometimes more burdened 
with a negative element of struggle and im- 
perfect realization. 

The book is written with eloquence and au- 
thority; the writer knows music thoroughly 
and deeply, and the subject is one upon which 
he had unquestionable right to speak, being 
at once a great teacher and an adequate musi- 
cian. The reader is led on from height to 
height of exposition, until the final outlook 
gives him a new realization and a new under- 
standing of the illuminating art of music. 



156 



THE DIAL 



[ Sept. 2 



In "Music and the Higher Education," Mr. 
Edward Dickinson of Oberlin College makes 
a strong plea for the admission of musical 
study to a regular place in the college cur- 
riculum. Indeed, his argument for his own 
special art involves the consideration of the 
larger project for the admission of the study 
and practice of every art into the courses now 
offered at our universities. At present, with 
such exception as is furnished by polytechnic 
courses, art occupies only a place of modified 
sufferance. Thus music in some institutions 
may be studied under such teachers as Profes- 
sor Converse at Harvard and Professor 
Parker at Yale; but even in these favored 
places music is not given the position and 
rank which belong to it. The question of the 
educational value of the fine arts remains 
practically to be settled, and one may well ask 
why a fully equipped school of music should 
not be granted a coordinate position with a 
similarly endow r ed school of botany or mathe- 
matics or chemistry. 

Sitting in his lecture room at the close of a 
scholastic year, the writer falls into a revery, 
and there floats before him the succession of 
thoughts which have crystallized in this 
volume : 

" Brooding over the problem in the stillness of 
his deserted lecture room, this devotee of music, 
grateful for what his art had done for him, and 
also cordially recognizing the deference due to 
other minds of different experience from his own, 
began to formulate his convictions of the true 
relationship between his own department and the 
whole mechanism of college life. For he felt that 
his duty required not only that he cultivate the 
love of music in his pupils, but that he also adjust 
the results of his teaching to other disciplines, so 
that out of his effort, in correspondence with the 
effort of other guides, a unity of intellectual life 
should proceed. He believed that this unity could 
be achieved, but under what conditions, and by 
what methods'? Like the French philosopher, he 
must be allowed to say, ' I cultivate my garden,' 
but at the same time he must look beyond the 
bounds of the little estate that is given him to 
till, and find inspiration and direction for his 
labors in the adaptation of his husbandry to the 
issues of the greater harvest." 

In the development of the purpose which 
Mr. Dickinson has placed before him, it be- 
comes indispensable that he should take a 
survey of the history of music, give an account 
of its significance and value to general culture, 
and show how far its high and unquestionable 
claims have reached their fruition. It must 
be said at once that all this has been very well 
done; and as the main body of the work is 
given over to this achievement, the volume 
takes its place side by side with Dr. Newton's 



book, and justifies the title given to the pres- 
ent review. The author's point of view is 
made plain in the following quotation : 

" When our spirits are so moved by a stream 
of noble harmonies that all that is beautiful and 
holy in life seems for the moment concentrated 
for our joyful contemplation, are these celestial 
visitants only a mockery, deceiving us, like the 
desert mirage, with a semblance of truth, which, 
when it fades, leaves nothing behind but the 
memory of a glittering delusion? This can hardly 
be. Music is definite enough when it takes pos- 
session of language and event, and adds some- 
thing to them which they required to attain full 
supremacy over us. We see clearly enough what 
this added element is and the eminent service that 
music performs. And do we not often feel that 
music gains an even firmer basis of expression 
when it renounces the aid of a confederate art, 
and takes its stand in a domain of feeling where 
it can afford to be exclusive because sufficient 
unto itself and supreme? The chief support of 
this conviction lies in the consciousness that, when 
we hear great music, it is not one part of our 
nature that is taken captive as when we come 
in contact with a picture, a tale, a play, which 
shuts off a part of life and holds us to that 
but the music is not circumscribed, it is the circuit 
of our spiritual nature that is traversed, we are 
no longer in the presence of the phenomenal but 
the essential; it is the whole in us that is em- 
braced, it is the whole in us that rejoices." 

The contention that the arts should have 
a prominent place in college courses is un- 
doubtedly an important one; and the claims 
of music for inclusion in the curriculum are 
persuasively and logically unfolded in Mr. 
Dickinson's presentation. The experiences of 
a lifetime have gone to the making of his 
argument. We know of no book which more 
thoroughly covers its ground; and the elo- 
quent exposition will carry conviction to the 
reader. It should render admirable service 
in the needed reformations and justifications 
which it propounds. 

Louis JAMES BLOCK. 



NOTES ON NEW NOVELS. 

The seemingly interminable procession of Mr. 
Arnold Bennett's earlier stories reprinted in Amer- 
ican editions is continued with " The City of 
Pleasure" (Doran). The first thirteen chapters 
pile up a mystery reminiscent in certain details of 
Stevenson's " The Wrong Box," with a great Lon- 
don amusement park as the scene. There is 
apparent murder, an attempt at murder both by 
shooting and poison, a surreptitious love affair, a 
hateful old woman, a popular musical director and 
composer, and a millionaire, besides various exotic 
specimens of humanity to begin with. What is 
more, the mystery baffles ordinary solution until 
a chapter or two before the close, by which time 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



157 



two other love affairs have been introduced. The 
book is absorbing in its fantastic mingling of 
gayety and mystery. 

Indians, Mormons, outlaws, and the spirit of the 
western desert and mountains combine to make 
Mr. Zane Grey's "The Rainbow Trail" (Harper) 
an unusual story. A preacher disgraced by his 
lapsing faith comes into this distant region to 
rescue, if possible, three persons who have been 
imprisoned in a canon by an earthquake. One of 
these he conceives of as a beautiful girl, and in 
imagination he falls in love with her. When at 
last he comes upon the party, the girl has been 
sealed to a fanatic Mormon as his plural wife. 
By that time his rescue of a noble Navajo's sister 
has brought him the able assistance he so needs 
for her salvation, not alone from the Indian but 
also from a brave Mormon who meets them in the 
Grand Canon of the Colorado. Of course the 
book is melodramatic, but not many readers are 
likely to object to it on that score. 

The impress being made on literature by jour- 
nalism as the practical university in which the art 
of writing in these days is most readily acquired 
shows in the number of journalists who are en- 
listed as heroes of novels. Young Andrew Dick 
in Mr. Keble Howard's " Merry Andrew " (Lane) 
is an instance in point. Very much in love, he 
fails to get his degree at Oxford at a moment when 
his father's death leaves him penniless. He comes 
to London to conquer, and is nearly overwhelmed 
in his first attempts to earn a living with his pen. 
Driven to teaching, he finally makes a successful 
connection by a combination of hard work, deter- 
mination, and luck. The book is well named, for 
the situations in which the hero is involved bring 
smiles, if not laughter. 

The real savor of New England, especially of 
that well preserved and salted portion of it lying 
about Cape Cod, pervades Mr. Joseph C. Lincoln's 
new story, " Thankful's Inheritance" (Appleton). 
The title refers to a plot of land and an old house 
which a woman of sound common sense inherits 
and utilizes as a boarding-house. In and around 
this home the whole action of the story takes place 
and the courtship of both the owner and her pretty 
niece comes to fruition. There is even something 
more than a suspicion of a ghost on the premises 
ghost enough, at least, to bring the villain of the 
tale into remorse of conscience and round out the 
material side of the happy ending. It is a story 
witty enough to make its reading a delight. 

With " Penelope's Postscripts " (Hough ton) we 
bid good-bye but not finally, let us hope to 
the trio of heroines who have smiled through two 
earlier volumes, shepherded by Mrs. Kate Douglas 
Wiggin. Like its predecessors, this smaller book 
maintains the idea that " the most charming 
knowledge is the sort that comes by unconscious 
absorption, like the free grace of God." But the 
three delightful women are now all married, and 
it is " ten years after," and Penelope herself 
writes that she and her husband are " growing 
old with the country that gave us birth (God bless 
it!) and our children growing up with it, as they 



always should." It is a book of peace in a sadly 
troubled world. 

"Me" (Century Co.) is hardly a novel, though 
it has many of the aspects of fiction. It is rather 
an autobiography, sincerely written, of a young 
girl who eventually becomes a successful author 
and playwright, and of her struggles from the 
moment of leaving her Canadian home to become 
the assistant editor of a journal in Jamaica until 
she rids herself of the man with whom she believed 
herself to be in love, a man greatly her senior 
and a rather dreadful person in spite of his kind- 
ness to her. Although published anonymously, the 
author of " Me " is believed to be Onoto Watanna 
(Mrs. Winnifred Eaton Babcock). The book has 
an introduction by Miss Jean Webster. 

Mr. Arnold Mulder opens a new field for Amer- 
ican fiction in " Bram of the Five Corners " 
(McClurg), a story of the Hollanders in Michigan. 
The portrayal of the struggle of conscience in a 
young candidate for the Christian Reformed min- 
istry is strongly and plausibly done. The disturbing 
question, moreover, is a highly practical prob- 
lem in eugenics which confronts him at the moment 
when his faith in Calvinism seemed most secure. 
Driven from his church, Bram takes up newspaper 
work as a sort of last chance, and is awakened to 
its powers of service by his city editor. The book 
is ably written, and excites lively hopes for fur- 
ther work from its author. 

Mr. Frank R. Adams is better known as a pur- 
veyor of libretti for opera bouffe than as a teller 
of tales, but his "Five Fridays" (Small, May- 
nard & Co.) is an entertaining combination of the 
two arts; it is an amusing story which might 
easily be made the basis for an amusing farce. 
Several widely varying characters are marooned 
on an island, with little or no food. Rumors of 
crime bring from the mainland other characters. 
A tenuous love story is introduced, and the situa- 
tions multiply until the farce almost becomes bur- 
lesque. 

In Mrs. Eleanor Hallowell Abbott's "The In- 
discreet Letter" (Century Co.), the action, until 
the climax is reached, takes place on a rushing 
train. The characters are casual, mere chance ac- 
quaintances thrown together in the journey. The 
two men are externally commonplace, but with the 
inner spring of human kindliness that seldom fails 
to flow in proof of the whole world's kinship. The 
third character is a true heroine of romance, speed- 
ing on her way to the journey's end that Shake- 
speare sang. And there is a delicious touch at the 
end, as gratifying as it is unexpected. 

The theme of Mrs. Martha Gilbert Dickinson 
Bianchi's latest novel, " The Kiss of Apollo " 
(Dufifield), is the old one of the woman who seeks 
to conquer nature, and is conquered by it. The 
heroine is shocked in her early youth by the laxity 
of metropolitan society. She closes her eyes to 
realities and lives in her own world, scarcely moved 
when her husband leaves her for another. At the 
end, the love she had earlier spurned she eagerly 
grasps, in the face of the conventions, her boyhood 
lover leaving the priesthood to join her. 



158 



THE DIAL 



[Sept. 2 



BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS. 

In " Contemporary Portraits " 
and actions 8 (Kenncrley), Mr. Frank Harris 

has written two books where he 
thinks he has written but one. The first of 
these is what the title implies, an effort to 
portray men Mr. Harris has known. With the 
exception of Fabre, some of whose observa- 
tions of insects and animals are charmingly 
retold, the seventeen men Mr. Harris depicts 
are of the literary and artistic classes. We 
are made to see them as Mr. Harris saw them ; 
and we are grateful for many new glimpses of 
the giants of a former generation, Carlyle, 
Renan, Whistler, and Guy de Maupassant, 
as well as for a closer acquaintance with liv- 
ing or very recent celebrities. The portrayal, 
though sympathetic, is honest. Mr. Harris is 
willing, for example, to record Browning's 
outburst of bitterness because Lowell was 
lionized socially more than himself, and to 
express the conviction that Browning "was 
certainly bigger in his writings than he was 
in intimacy." In short, this first book, though 
not of equal value throughout, is praiseworthy 
for its frankness and for its first-hand evi- 
dence as to personalities well worth the know- 
ing. Unfortunately it is mixed in inextrica- 
ble fashion with the other book, which sets 
forth theories and speculations of Mr. Har- 
ris's own. These are usually tiresome, and 
sometimes irritating in both matter and man- 
ner. Mr. Harris takes himself very seriously 
as an interpreter of literary values and of 
modern society and thought. He recurs fre- 
quently to his flighty assumptions about the 
life and personality of Shakespeare. He in- 
dulges in amusing literary comparisons: 
"Matthew Arnold could never have been a 
great critic, but he might surely have reached 
. somewhat the same level as Swinburne " had 
it not been for his "debasing Puritanism." 
He makes bold statements, settles offhand the 
most baffling questions: the late Sir Richard 
Burton was greater both in speech and action 
than Raleigh, Paul Verlaine "is the great- 
est Christian singer since Dante," Carlyle 
(though he "rusted unused," to be sure) was 
the greatest statesman of the past two centu- 
ries in England, French unreserve of speech 
on matters sexual is in every way superior to 
the prudish reticence of Anglo-Saxon peoples, 
the middle class government of England is a 
thing almost utterly bad, and religion and 
immortality are done for. And what shall we 
say of the nonsensical grandiloquence of such 
a passage as this : " Swinburne was the poet 
of youth, and his heritage is as wide as the 
world, and his lovers [are] as numerous as the 



sands of the sea, for all youths will love him 
and quote him with hot hearts and passionate 
tears as long as English is spoken"? Or, in 
reading how we are responsible for the un- 
happy ends of Whistler, Oscar Wilde, John 
Davidson, and Richard Middleton, what shall 
we make of the sentence : " I do not hope to 
persuade Englishmen or Americans of this 
truth [the limitless value of such men] for 
many a year to come, though I have the high- 
est warrant for it and am absolutely convinced 
of the fact"? To put the matter in a nut- 
shell, the second book constitutes an eighteenth 
portrait, that of Mr. Harris himself, and it is 
the least interesting and profitable of any in 
the volume. 

Mr. James Barnes, a newspaper 
TWO travellers , correspondent who handles a 

in Central Africa. _-.: .. , -. _., 

ready pen, and Mr. Cherry 
Kearton, famous as an animal photographer 
and familiar with parts of Africa, have col- 
laborated to produce a most readable and 
attractive volume in " Through Central 
Africa" (Appleton). The purpose of their 
expedition, which left London in April, 1913, 
was to secure a film library of moving pictures 
of animals in their natural surroundings, to 
be presented to natural history museums for 
free exhibition. The travellers planned to 
secure a series of pictures which should repre- 
sent the fauna of Africa from coast to coast, 
from Mombasa on the Indian Ocean to the 
mouth of the Congo River. Fortunately, they 
made a detour from this simple traverse of the 
continent, and spent weeks in the grass-lands 
back of Nairobi and up toward the Abyssinian 
border. This was familiar ground to Mr. 
Kearton, and many beautiful and interesting 
pictures were there secured. Later on they 
took up the traverse, and crossing the great 
lake, struck through the forest, travelling on 
foot and by canoe to Basoko, where they took 
steamer down the Congo. The travellers were 
surprised and grievously disappointed to find 
that the forest was not suited to moving- 
picture work ; and they lost their time, labor, 
and money so far as their main purpose was 
concerned, in this, the piece de resistance of 
their expedition. For the pleasure of the 
picture-loving reader, it is lucky that so much 
was done in the preliminary journey, because 
almost no animal pictures were secured in the 
forest. The real interest of the book, however, 
is found in its account of the continental 
traverse; though thousands have passed over 
these trails during the last thirty years, few 
good descriptions of the experience have been 
written. The forest itself, though gloomy and 
depressing, has its charm ; though animal pic- 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



159 



tures cannot be caught in its dim recesses, its 
human inhabitants can be posed in the sun- 
light of its little clearings and their pictures 
taken ; history has been made even here, and 
everywhere one is oppressed with memories 
of Stanley and "the rear guard" and Emin 
Pasha's relief. Here in the forest of the 
Ituri-Aruwimi River live the purest type of 
pygmies and little-known tribes of cannibals. 
Mr. Barnes came into contact with all of these 
peoples, and gives us some fine pictures of the 
little folk. From his book we do not get much 
description of life or customs, nor of geogra- 
phy or country, we get nothing, perhaps, in 
the way of new scientific facts. It is a narra- 
tive pure and simple, interestingly told, of a 
journey unusual, if not unique, in character 
and purpose. The writer tells us that they 
"are very glad they went, but there are cer- 
tain portions of the journey that they would 
not care to do again." These "certain por- 
tions," by the way, seem really to be the most 
important part of their enterprise. 



Books for f tne numerous series 

the wayfarer's launched in recent years have 
justified themselves so immedi- 
ately and decidedly as does " The Wayfarer's 
Library" (Button). Bearing the imprint of 
the English and American publishing houses 
which have produced " Everyman's Library " 
in collaboration, we take it that the new series 
is designed as a sort of adjunct to that benefi- 
cent enterprise, giving sanctuary, as it were, 
to those numerous books in recent English 
literature which, while standing well above 
the ephemeral mass of publications, have not 
yet attained the rank of classics. But that 
this idea has not been held to as closely as 
might be desired is evident from a survey of 
the two score volumes with which the series is 
inaugurated. On the one hand we have such 
commonplace stock in trade for the reprinter 
as Lamb's essays and Dickens's Christmas sto- 
ries ; on the other we find the sort of current 
iiction indicated by the names of such writers 
as Guy Boothby, L. Cope Cornford, and Mrs. 
Belloc Lowndes. But between these extremes 
are many titles which deserve and will evoke 
the heartiest welcome. First place, in our 
judgment, belongs to George Gissing's "Pri- 
vate Papers of Henry Ryecroft," a book as 
surely destined to become a classic in its kind 
as any other English prose work of the past 
quarter century. Scarcely less welcome is the 
posthumous collection of Gissing's stories 
entitled "The House of Cobwebs," a reprint 
which would be well worth while if only for 
the biographical sketch of the author which 
it contains. Three of Mr. Bernard Shaw's 



early adventures in fiction "An Unsocial 
Socialist," "Love among the Artists," and 
" Cashel Byron's Profession," are given a new 
lease of life. We are especially glad, also, to 
have in such convenient form those two gems 
of inimitable humor, Mr. Barry Pain's "De 
Omnibus" and Mr. F. Anstey's "Baboo 
Jabberjee, B. A." The essay form is worthily 
represented by such books as Mr. Dobson's 
" Eighteenth Century Studies," Mr. G. W. E. 
Russell's " Selected Essays on Literary Sub- 
jects," Mr. G. S. Street's "The Ghosts of 
Piccadilly," and Mr. Holbrook Jackson's 
" Southward Ho ! " Of miscellaneous works 
we find a charming open-air anthology enti- 
tled " The Lore of the Wanderer " ; Mr. A. G. 
Gardiner's vivid pen portraits of present-day 
English celebrities, "Prophets, Priests, and 
Kings " ; and Mr. James Milnes's " Epistles 
of Atkins." While we have been able to give 
in the foregoing at least an indication of the 
range and interest of the literary field covered 
by " The Wayfarer's Library," we must leave 
our readers to discover for themselves the 
physical attractiveness of the volumes. That 
such excellence of bookmaking is compatible 
with the modest price at which the volumes 
are sold is little less than remarkable. 



Fact and fiction Amusement for a summer after- 
in the form of noon will be found in disentan- 

biography. ^^ ^ ^ fr()m ^ ^.^ in 

" The Record of Nicholas Freydon : An Auto- 
biography" (Doran), by an anonymous au- 
thor of evident talent, if not even of genius. 
The problem of his identity, too, challenges 
the acuteness of the reader, and there is room 
for a good deal of shrewd guessing without 
hitting the mark unless the casually im- 
parted information that the writer was ten 
years and one day old on the second of May, 
1870, be strictly true and so a check to any- 
thing like random conjecture as to the author- 
ship. The story, or history, is of a literary 
life of painfully earned success, chiefly jour- 
nalistic, the scene being alternately in London, 
Australia, London again, and finally Aus- 
tralia. Orphanage and poverty and a proud 
and rather defiant disposition constitute the 
chief part of the hero's somewhat conven- 
tional equipment; but the vicissitudes of his 
arduous climb to a fair measure of success in 
his calling are not altogether of the usual sort 
quite the contrary in some instances. The 
spiritual struggles and agonies, moreover, are 
of absorbing interest, and serve to give dis- 
tinction to the book. In its general scheme 
the work is not unlike George Gissing's " The 
Private Papers of Henry Ryecroft." As in 
that remarkable bit of autobiographic remi- 



160 



THE DIAL 



[Sept. 2 



niscence and reflection, so here we have an 
ostensible " editor," who prepares for the 
press, with editorial comment, the posthumous 
papers of his friend of pathetic memory ; and 
in both instances the oneness of editor and 
author is manifest. In the later book, far 
more than in the earlier, verisimilitude is 
marred by the dramatic intensity of the lights 
and shades, the startling nature of the acci- 
dents and coincidences, the completeness and 
rhetorical finish of the recorded conversations, 
even those recalled from childhood, and the 
prevailing atmosphere of romance. Without 
doubt the narrative is a skilful mingling of 
fact and fiction, a groundwork of actual expe- 
rience with trimmings of a lesser degree of 
actuality, all presented with much literary art 
and calculated to charm the reader who once 
opens the volume. One at least of the writer's 
assertions about himself is evidently true : he 
mentions the scantiness of his schooling and 
his ignorance of grammar, and this confes- 
sion prepares one for such lapses as "this 
minutiae," "that strata," a glaring misuse of 
"complaisant" and "complaisance" for "com- 
placent" and "complacence," and the misquo- 
tation, "Je suis, je reste" a misquotation 
that the " editor " reproduces, curiously 
enough, in his concluding note. Taken all in 
all, " The Record of Nicholas Freydon " is a 
notable contribution to pseudo-autobiography. 



rt,,r r There are two reasons why an 

J. ne lierman -,. . -r-i i i an m-i -m- 

soldier's edition in English of The War 

Book of the German General 
Staff" (McBride, Nast & Co.) is welcome. In 
the first place, it gives us documentary evi- 
dence of the most authoritative sort concern- 
ing the methods that Germany intends to 
employ in any war with which she may be 
faced. In the second place, it yields indirect 
testimony to support those accusations of ter- 
rorism and atrocity which many judicious 
people, in spite of the Bryce report, are still 
loath to believe. The translation is by Dr. 
J. H. Morgan, Professor of Constitutional 
Law in the University of London, whose intro- 
duction is a sort of moralizing commentary on 
the text that follows. The translation is 
vouched for as literal and integral ; even the 
foot-notes are rendered ; where the editor has 
added a. note of his own it is bracketted and 
initialed. What strikes one most in reading 
the book is the contrast between the moderate 
and humane general principles of military 
conduct and the truculent exceptions when 
need compels. In this way the excellent theory 
of " civilized " warfare is rendered nugatory 
in use. International law and Hague conven- 
tions are academically desirable, but in prac- 



tice they must yield before military necessity. 
Here is an example in nuce of this logic of 
militarism : " No inhabitant of the occupied 
territory is to be disturbed in the use and free 
disposition of his property ; on the other hand 
the necessity of war justifies the most far- 
reaching disturbance, restriction, and even 
imperiling of his property." Perhaps the 
most offensive pronouncement of all is the 
assertion that " indeed international law is in 
no way opposed to the exploitation of the 
crimes of third parties (assassination, incen- 
diarism, robbery, and the like) to the preju- 
dice of the enemy." When one reflects further 
that necessity often means simply expe- 
diency, the German doctrine Not kennt kein 
Gebot becomes, in the language of the street, 
" anything to win." And that is the final les- 
son of the War Book of the German General 
Staff. 



Aspects of 

contemporary 

journalism. 



" The Coming Newspaper " 
(Holt), a collection of addresses 
and papers on journalism by 
experienced newspaper men, is edited by Pro- 
fessor Merle Thorpe, of the department of 
journalism in the University of Kansas. He 
names the volume, not in an accurately de- 
scriptive manner, from his own initial con- 
tribution to its contents. Other contributors 
are Dr. Washington Gladden, Mr. Oswald 
Garrison Villard, Mr. Melville E. Stone, Mr. 
Norman Hapgood, Dr. Lyman Abbott, Mr. 
Hamilton Holt, and a dozen more of like 
standing; and they discourse on such themes 
as " Tainted Journalism," " Some Weaknesses 
of Modern Journalism," " The Clubber in 
Journalism," "A Modern Type of Country 
Journalism," "A State License for Newspaper 
Men," "The English Substitute for the 
License Plan," "A Code of Ethics for News- 
paper Men," " Government Regulation for 
Press Associations," " Community Service," 
and " Giving the Public What It Wants." As 
may be recognized by some readers, a number 
of these chapters were first made public by 
their respective authors in the course of those 
memorable exercises that distinguished Kan- 
sas Newspaper Week (May 1014) from the 
rest of the weeks of the year 1914; and the 
topics treated were selected from a list ob- 
tained by the issue of a questionnaire to " one 
thousand men and women in public and pri- 
vate life." Thus a creditable measure of suc- 
cess has been attained in giving to the various 
disquisitions a more than academic interest. 
Actual experience and ripe reflection speak in 
almost every paragraph. On the first page of 
his opening chapter ("The Coming News- 
paper'') Professor Thorpe scores "the man 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



161 



who continually harks back to the grand old 
days of Greeley " and " fails utterly to appre- 
ciate how impossible it would be for the news- 
less, violently partisan journal of the fifties to 
find a footing in our present-day life, uncon- 
fronted, as it is, by any great moral crisis." 
It is true we have no slavery question to vex 
us now, but other issues involving moral con- 
siderations of the first importance are not 
lacking. Improvement in our journalism dur- 
ing the last ten years is detected by the same 
writer, and on the whole the tone of the entire 
book is hopeful, constructively critical rather 
than sourly censorious. But of course this 
was to be expected, as well as desired, from a 
company of men engaged in journalism of the 
better sort. 



A Florentine 
sculptor of 

the 15th century. 



Allan Marquand's 
imposing work on "Luca della 

^^ ( p rinceton U niv e rs i t y 

Press), is a most valuable contribution to art 
history. It furnishes a descriptive catalogue 
of all the works of one of the great artists of 
the fifteenth century, one who, it has been 
declared, gave impulse to the Renaissance; 
one who was the founder of a " school " of 
sculpture, chiefly among the members of his 
own family. Luca was born in 1399 or 1400, 
and died in 1481. His work in sculpture dates 
from 1430. Sixteen years later, being unable 
to execute by himself the numerous commis- 
sions he was receiving from every part of 
Italy, he formed a partnership with his 
nephew, Andrea, and his great-nephew, Gio- 
vanni ; and also employed as helpers the two 
Duccio brothers, Ottaviano and Agostino, who 
are often erroneously regarded as members 
of the Robbia family. The four were collabo- 
rators with Luca in most of his later work. 
To Luca is accorded the distinction, not of 
inventing the process of enamel-glazing terra 
cotta, the " secret " of which he is said to have 
confided to Andrea, his nephew, but of suc- 
cessfully applying to sculpture what Palissy 
a century later applied to pottery. It was 
Luca's purpose to democratize sculpture so 
that even village churches might possess works 
of art which before were reserved -for the pos- 
session of the great cathedrals and the wealthy 
metropolitan churches. Out of these circum- 
stances have arisen the problems which the 
present volume attempts to solve. How much 
of all the exquisite glazed terra cotta in the 
della Robbia style now extant or known for- 
merly to have existed was really the work of 
Luca? How much was the work of Andrea, 
which was often compared and contrasted 
with that of his uncle? How much was the 
work of other members of the family or of 



more or less successful imitators ? A solution 
of these problems has engaged the attention of 
Professor Marquand for the past twenty years 
or more; and his final collation of all the 
documentary evidence bearing on the ques- 
tion, his chronological classification of all the 
work of Luca della Robbia, and his examina- 
tion of the works which have sometimes been 
attributed to him, may be accepted as the final 
word on a fascinating subject. The pictorial 
presentation of the volume is sure to be a 
delight to art lovers. From the scanty details 
of his life that are preserved to us, Luca della 
Robbia appears to have been a man of irre- 
proachable character, whose work was done 
from the most unselfish of motives, and who 
left thereon the impress of a pure, humble, 
and affectionate nature. The promise that 
the present volume will be followed before 
long by others on Andrea della Robbia and 
Giovanni della Robbia, and on the Robbia 
School, will be a source of satisfaction in many 
quarters. 

Laid on the shelf for a year by 

m e ie a s nean his own . ch o ic e, from a prema- 
ture feeling of superannuation, 
the author of "From the Shelf" (Button), 
who calls himself "Paxton Holgar" on his 
title-page and "John" in the body of his 
book, narrates his recuperative experiences in 
a deserted monastery on what we assume to 
be one of the Balearic Islands. At any rate, 
it is a Spanish island, delightfully somnolent 
and unmodernized, in the Mediterranean; 
and the author's graphic touches of local color 
and local character, with morsels of romance 
and adventure, and an atmosphere of almost 
convincing reality not prosaic realism 
over all, make one envy him the twelve 
months' rest and communion with nature and 
his own soul that ended in the happy manner 
he so well describes in his closing chapters. 
But the reader's natural desire to believe it all 
a true story cannot blind him, even with the 
best of will to meet the author half-way, to 
occasional inconsistencies and artificialities. 
On one page, for instance, the narrator calls 
himself " naturally unobservant," although in 
a later passage he gives evidence of acute 
observation and refers to his "usually keen, 
eyes." Nevertheless, the book is a little mas- 
terpiece in its way, in its combination of topo- 
graphic detail that escapes weariness and 
character-sketching that makes its subjects 
live and breathe before one's eyes. "Whatever 
and wherever may be the geographic equiva- 
lents of the author's San Telmo and Torelya, 
he knows them well and pictures them charm- 
ingly. 



162 



THE DIAL 



[Sept. 2 



NOTES. 



A thorough critical study of Mr. Gilbert K. 
Chesterton has been made by Mr. Julius West, and 
will appear during the autumn. 

L. T. Hobhouse's " Morals in Evolution," first 
published in 1907, will shortly appear in a new 
and revised edition, with Messrs. Holt's imprint. 

Early in the autumn an illustrated book by 
Colonel Robert McCormick, dealing with his expe- 
riences in the war area, will be published by the 
Macmillan Co. 

A new and cheaper edition of the late Francis 
Fisher Browne's " Everyday Life of Abraham 
Lincoln " will be issued early in the autumn by 
Messrs. Putnam. 

Mr. James Huneker's forthcoming volume of 
essays on literary and art topics will be entitled 
" Ivory Apes and Peacocks " and will be issued 
by Messrs. Scribner. 

A new and complete edition of Browning's 
poetical works, embodying the new poems pub- 
lished in a separate volume some months ago, will 
be published at once by the Macmillan Co. 

The title of Mr. H. G. Wells's new novel, which 
the Macmillan Co. will publish this month, is " The 
Research Magnificent." It is described as " the 
story of one man's search for the kingly life." 

The third volume of M. Artzibashef's to be pub- 
lished in English translation within less than a 
year is " Breaking-point," which Mr. B. W. 
Huebsch announces for immediate publication. 

A new series of " Essays for College Men," 
compiled by Professors Foerster, Manchester, and 
Young of the University of Wisconsin, is an- 
nounced for immediate publication by Messrs. 
Holt. 

" The Story of a Pioneer," by Dr. Anna Howard 
Shaw, in which the famous suffrage advocate tells 
the tale of her own life of many and varied activi- 
ties, will appear this month with Messrs. Harper's 
imprint. 

A translation of M. Antoine Guilland's "Mod- 
ern Germany and Its Historians " (Niebuhr, 
Ranke, Mommsen, Sybel, and Treitschke) has been 
prepared and will soon be issued by Messrs. 
McBride, Nast & Co. 

Mr. Stanley Washburn, whose " Field Notes 
from the Russian Front " was recently published, 
has a further volume in the press, continuing his 
narrative under the title, " The Russian Cam- 
paign, January to July, 1915." 

A new historical romance of love and adventure 
by Miss Mary Johnston is among the autumn pub- 
lications of Houghton Mifflin Co. It is entitled 
" The Fortunes of Garin," and has for its scene 
Southern France in the time of the Crusades. 

" The People's Government," by Dr. David 
Jayne Hill, former Ambassador to Germany, will 
be published early this month by Messrs. Apple- 
ton. It constitutes a discussion of the relations 
between the citizen and the State, of the origin 
and possibilities of the State, and of the sources 
of its authority. 



A volume of essays by Professor William Henry 
Hudson, to be entitled " A Quiet Corner in a 
Library," is promised by Messrs. Rand, McNally 
& Co. The writers discussed are Tom Hood, 
George Lillo, Richardson, and the author of " Sally 
in Our Alley." 

The first of several posthumous works by the 
late John Muir is announced for October publi- 
cation by Messrs. Houghton Mifflin Co. under the 
title of " Travels in Alaska." It is planned to 
issue the book in both a regular and a limited 
large paper edition. 

A volume of "Letters of Washington Irving to 
Henry Brevoort," extending from 1807 to 1843, 
and mostly unpublished, edited by Mr. George S. 
Hellman, is one of the more interesting literary 
announcements of the autumn season. Messrs. 
Putnam will publish the book. 

" Feminism in Germany and Scandinavia," by 
Miss Katharine Anthony, will be published this 
month by Messrs. Holt. It will give a full ac- 
count of what the leaders of the woman movement 
in Germany and the three northern kingdoms are 
attempting and have achieved. 

Mr. Thomas H. Dickinson, the editor of the 
recently-published volume, " The Chief Contem- 
porary Dramatists," discusses present tendencies 
in the dramatic affairs of this country in his 
book, " The Case of American Drama," which the 
Houghton Mifflin Co. will publish this month. 

Arrangements have already been made by 
Messrs. Holt for the publication next March of a 
volume by Dr. Richard Burton, the tentative title 
of which is " Bernard Shaw : The Man and the 
Mask." A book of "Poems of Earth's Mean- 
ing " by Dr. Burton will also appear under the 
same imprint at a later date. 

We understand that there will soon appear a 
fuller account than has yet been published in En- 
glish of the life and personality of Frau Krupp 
von Bohlen, who inherited from her father, the 
late Friedrich Krupp, the huge arsenal at Essen. 
There is no little romantic interest in this young 
girl in whose control lies the greatest of modern 
factories for the output of engines of death. 

Professor Fred Lewis Pattee, of Pennsylvania 
State College, has prepared "A History of Ameri- 
can Literature since 1870," which the Century Co. 
will bring out before long. The author is said to 
have chosen 1870 as the starting point of his 
record because he thinks that only then, with the 
consolidation of national sentiment following the 
Civil War, did a national literature really begin. 

To their fine series of Riverside Press limited 
editions, Messrs. Houghton Mifflin Co. will shortly 
add the following : Montaigne's " Essay on 
Friendship," together with twenty-nine sonnets by 
Estienne de la Boetie, translated by Mr. Louis 
How ; "A Handbook of Gastronomy " by Jean 
Anthelme Brillat-Savarin ; and " Dr. Holmes's 
Boston," a compilation edited by Miss Caroline 
Ticknor. 

" The Covent-Garden Journal by Henry Field- 
ing," edited, with Introduction and Notes, by Dr. 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



163 



Gerard E. Jensen, will be issued during the autumn 
by the Yale University Press. From the same 
house will come " The Life and Times of Tenny- 
son," by the late Thomas R. Lounsbury, and a 
translation of M. Paul Claudel's play, " L'Otage," 
made by Miss Clara Bell, with an Introduction by 
M. Pierre Chavannes. 

A " History of the Norwegian People," by Mr. 
Knut Gjerset, is announced for immediate publi- 
cation by the Macmillan Co. The work is in two 
volumes, covering the history of Norway and its 
people from the earliest times, and dealing not 
only with the life of the people in Norway itself, 
but also with the influence exerted upon other 
nations by the Norwegians who have emigrated to 
other countries, including the United States. 

In " Memories of a Publisher," a forthcoming 
volume by Mr. George Haven Putnam, the author 
continues his personal reminiscences from 1865, 
the date to which the narrative in his earlier book, 
" Memories of My Youth," had been brought. The 
new volume will contain records of well-known 
people whom the author has met during the last 
fifty years, together with his views on questions of 
the day in which he has, as a citizen, taken his 
part. 

Mr. Harry A. Gushing, of the New York bar, 
has written a concise volume on " Voting Trusts : 
Chapters in Recent Corporate History," said to be 
the first book upon this subject, which the Mac- 
millans announce for issue this month. The same 
house has nearly ready " The Criminal Imbecile," 
by Mr. Henry H. Goddard, which gives an analy- 
sis of certain murder cases in which the Binet 
tests were used, and discusses the question of re- 
sponsibility. 

Some interesting publications in the field of 
poetry announced by Messrs. Houghton Mifflin 
Co. for October issue include " The Little Book of 
American Poets," edited by Miss Jessie Kitten- 
house; " The Quiet Hour," edited by Mr. FitzRoy 
Carrington ; "Af ternoons of April " by Miss Grace 
Hazard Conkling ; " Interflow " by Mr. Geoffrey 
C. Faber; and two verse dramas "The Clois- 
ter " by Emile Verhaeren, and " Red Wine of 
Roussillon " by Mr. William Lindsey. 

"The Chronicle of Twelve Days, July 23- 
August 4, 1914, with an Interpretation," by Mr. 
William Archer, is announced by the Oxford Uni- 
versity Press. The author's object has been to 
weave the official dispatches and other authentic 
documents into a connected narrative in his own 
words, " to reduce this confusion of voices to 
something like a logical sequence, and in so doing 
to determine who was responsible for the fact 
that a ' happy ending ' was obstinately staved off, 
in favour of the sanguinary catastrophe now 
working itself out." 

One of the chief art books of the coming season 
will be devoted to "Belgium," with illustrations 
by Mr. Frank Brangwyn. There will be twenty- 
five plates from Mr. Brangwyn's original draw- 
ings, reproduced by wood engraving. The text is 
by Mr. Hugh Stokes. The work has been dedi- 
cated by permission to the King of the Belgians, 



and will include an introduction by M. Paul Lam- 
botte, Belgian Minister of Fine Arts. Besides the 
ordinary editions there will be an edition de luxe. 
A liberal royalty on the work will go to the Bel- 
gian Relief Fund. 

The present condition of the Polish Jews, 
" driven hither and yon, from one gang of tor- 
turers to the other," has been represented by eye- 
witnesses as incomparably more pitiful than that 
of the unhappy Belgians. This lamentable state 
and many other woes of the Hebrew people are 
to be remedied, it is hoped by many of their 
number, when the Zionist movement shall have 
achieved its end. A timely utterance on the sub- 
ject is Professor Horace Meyer Kallen's " Na- 
tionality and the Jewish Stake in the Great War," 
reprinted from " The Menorah Journal," and 
obtainable from the Zionist Bureau of New En- 
gland, 161 Devonshire Street, Boston. 

The first number of a new monthly magazine in 
French whose interests and scope are defined by 
its title, " La Revue de Hollande," has reached 
us. Among the contributions to this (July) issue 
we note Emile Verhaeren's " Le passe des Flan- 
dres," Ph. Zilcken's " Quelques souvenirs sur Ed- 
mond de Goncourt," Dirk Coster's " Introduction 
a 1'etude de la litterature neerlandaise," and Henri 
Malo's " Les defenses de 1'Yser dans 1'Histoire," 
together with verses by Max Elskamp, Fernand 
Severin, and Fernand de Solpray. " In Memo- 
riam," by the editor, M. G. S. de Solpray, is an 
appreciation of the French writers who have died 
in the present war, numbering nearly thirty at 
the time of compiling this list. 

A new publisher with an interesting and dis- 
tinctive programme is Mr. Alfred A. Knopf, whose 
imprint will appear upon a title-page in the 
autumn for the first time. Mr. Knopf's special 
aim at first will be the publishing of English ver- 
sions of Russian classics and modern works, many 
of which have never been put before the English- 
reading jmblic. The following works by the older 
Russian authors will be among the first to be 
issued : " The Cathedral Staff of Priests," Les- 
kov's classic of the clergy; Lermontov's "A Hero 
of Our Times " ; Shchedrin's novel, " The Family 
Golovlev " ; Goncharov's masterpiece, " Oblomov," 
and Gogol's tale of the Cossacks, " Taras Bulba." 
Of the. younger men in Russian literature a dozen 
or more authors are represented in the list of 
books Mr. Knopf plans to publish in the near 
future. Among these are Kuprin's military novel, 
" The Duel," and a volume of his short stories ; 
Ropschin's "As If It Had Never Happened," a 
story of the last attempted revolution in Russia; 
Sologub's first important novel, " The Little De- 
mon," and a volume of his stories called " The 
Old House " ; Veressayev's " Memoirs of a Phy- 
sician"; and a volume of stories by Garshin. 
Works by Ivan Bunin, Kamensky, Briussov, and 
Erastov will appear later on. The field of drama 
will be represented with plays by Turgenev, 
Ostrovsky, and Gogol. Mr. Knopf expects to pub- 
lish also a new and cheaper edition of Prince Kro- 
potkin's " Russian Literature," a standard survey 
of the subject. 



164 



THE DIAL 



[Sept. 2 



TOPICS IX HiEADING PERIODICALS. 

September, 1915. 

Advertising, Profession of. Harry Tipper .... McBride 

Alexander, John W. : An Appreciation Scribner 

American Painting, Evolution of. J. N. Laurvik . Century 

Ant-hill Fossils. Kichard S. Lull Pop. Sc. 

Asia, The Art of. Laurence Binyon Atlantic 

Austria's Mountain Strongholds. C. L. Freeston . Scribner 
Bar, Education for the. Simeon E. Baldwin . Am. Pol. Sc. 

Bashfulness. H. Addington Bruce Century 

Bicameral System in State Legislation. J. D. 

Barnett Am. Pol. Sc. 

Brooke, Rupert. Milton Bonner Bookman 

Bush, Irving T. Donald Wilhelm Century 

Business Ethics. Herbert S. Houston . . . World's Work 

Chautauqua Stars Everybody's 

China, Japan's Hand in. Carl Crow .... World's Work 
Chino-Japanese Treaties. T. lyenega .... Rev. of Revs. 
City Manager Plan in Ohio. L. D. Upson . . Am. Pol. Sc. 
City Manager Plan of Government. H. G. James . Am. Pol. Sc. 

Civic Investment, A. P. R. Kolbe Pop. Sc. 

County Hospitals and Libraries. W. A. Dyer . World's Work 
Court Organization. Herbert Harley .... Am. Pol. Sc. 
Crisis, Promotion and. Minnie T. England Quar. Jour. Econ. 
Crisis of 1914 in the United States. O. M. W. 

Sprague Am. Econ. 

Democracy, Duplicity of. Alfred H. Lloyd . Am. Jour. Soc. 
Diplomatic Point of View. Maurice F. Egan . . . Century 
Disraeli and Conservatism. Paul E. More .... Atlantic 
Divorce Laws, Varying. H. G. Chapin . . . Everybody's 
Dixie, Steamboating through. W. J. Aylward . . . Harper 
Dramatic Criticism, Need for. Brander Matthews . Bookman 
Farming, Youth's Interest in. Stanley Johnson . American 

Fifty, At the Age of. E. S. Martin Harper 

Fiji, History of. Alfred Goldsborough Mayer . . . Pop. Sc. 
France in Wartime. Herbert A. Gibbons .... Century 
French Army, With the. E. Alexander Powell . . Scribner 
French Literature and the War. Jules Bois . . . Bookman 
Germany's Financial Mobilization. Ludwig 

Bendix Quar. Jour. Econ. 

Germany's Sweep Eastward. Frank H. Simonds Rev.of Revs. 
Grazing Lands, Public. Dwight B. Heard . . Rev. of Revs. 
Guianan Forests, Red Men of the. C. W. Furlong . Harper 

Haiti, Helping. George Marvin World's Work 

Hay's Years with Roosevelt. W. R. Thayer . . . Harper 
Immigrant, The Modest. Agnes Repplier .... Atlantic 
India, New Heart of Old. Basanta K. Roy .... Century 

India, Night in. Esther Harlan Forum 

Insect Migrations. Howard J. Shannon Harper 

Inventors' Board and the Navy. Waldemar 

Kaempffert Rev. of Revs. 

Investments and Trade Balances. T. H. 

Boggs Quar. Jour. Econ. 

Italian Imperialism. T. Lothrop Stoddard .... Forum 
Italy's Demands for Territory. E. F. Baldwin . Rev. of Revs. 
Judiciary Act of 1801, Repeal of. W. S. Carpenter Am.Pol. Sc. 
Lazarovich-Hrebelianovich, Reminiscences of II . Century 

McNamaras, The. Theodore Schroeder Forum 

Magazines in America Y!!- Algernon Tassin . Bookman 
Mexico, Inevitable Trend in. David Lawrence . . Century 
Mississippi, Navigating the. George Marvin . World's Work 
Monroe Doctrine and Germany. Herbert Kraus . . Atlantic 

Music after the War. Carl Van Vechten Forum 

Musical Play, The. Harry B. Smith American 

New York of the Novelists I. A. B. Maurice . Bookman 
Older Generation, This. Randolph S. Bourne . . . Atlantic 
Pageants, Poetic Theme in. Anne T. Craig .... Forum 
Panama, First Year at. W. L. Marvin . . . Rev. of Revs. 

Paris in Wartime. Philip Gibbs McBride 

Peace, League to Enforce. A. Lawrence Lowell . Atlantic 
Plattsburg Response, The. William Menkel . . Rev. of Revs. 
Preparedness, America and. E. J. Ridgway . . Everybody's 
Preparedness, America and. William Hard . . Everybody's 
Preparedness, National. Virgil Jordan . . . Everybody's 
Primary, Presidential Preference. F. W. 

Dickey Am. Pol. Sc. 

Professionalism. Hubert Langerock . . . Am. Jour. Soc. 
Progress, Human. Victor S. Yarros. . . . Am. Jour. Soc. 

Race Movements. David Starr Jordan Pop. Sc. 

Religion, Evolution of. Edward C. Hayes. . Am. Jour. Soc. 
Russia, A Mission to. Richard Whiteing .... Bookman 
" Salesmen, Combination." Walter F. Wyman . World's Work 
Science, Natural, in Middle Ages. Lyman Thorndike Pop. Sc. 
Science and Democracy. M. E. Haggarty .... Pop. Sc. 
Scientific Management and Business. M. L. Cooke Am. Pol. Sc. 

Seward, William H. Gamaliel Bradford Atlantic 

Smith, Francis Hopkinson. Thomas Nelson Page . Scribner 
Smoke Nuisance, The. John O'Connor, Jr. . . . Pop. Sc. 
Social Conscience, Progress of the. W. J. Tucker . Atlantic 
Stars, Evolution of the. William W. Campbell . . Pop. Sc. 
Streets, The World's Longest Straight. Simeon 

Strunsky Harper 

Tariff and the Ultimate Consumer. H. C. Emery . Am. Econ. 
Taxes, British Land. R. S. Tucker . . . Quar. Jour. Econ. 

Trouting, Psychology of. John Matter Forum 

Unions, Related Trades in. T. W. Glocker . . . Am. Econ. 
Unpreparedness, Crime of. E. L. Fox McBride 



Value, Concept of. B. M. Anderson, Jr. . Quar. Jour. Econ. 
Value, Concept of. J. M. Clark .... Quar. Jour. Econ. 
Value and Social Interpretation. J. E. Boodin Am. Jour. Soc. 
War, Financing the. James R. Merriam . . World's Work 

War, Honorable. J. William Lloyd Forum 

War, Side-issues of the. Sydney Brooks Atlantic 

War, United States and the. T. H. Price . . World's Work 
War and the Wealth of Nations. L. P. Jacks . . . Atlantic 
War Notes from a Newspaper Desk. Simeon 

Strunsky . Atlantic 

White Mountains, Motoring through the. Louise Closser 

Hale Century 

Whitman, Walt, in Camden. Horace Traubel . . . Forum 

Witte. Josef Melnik Century 

Working People, Sociability among. Ida M. 

Tarbell American 

Yucatan, Government of. Carlo de Fornaro .... Forum 
" Zonetherapy." Edwin F. Bowers Everybody's 



OF NEW BOOKS. 



[ The following list, containing 50 titles, includes books 
received by THE DIAL since its last issue.] 

HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY. 

Emma Darwin: A Century of Family Letters 
(1792-1896). Edited by her daughter, Henrietta 
Litchfield. In 2 volumes, illustrated in photo- 
gravure, etc., large 8vo. D. Appleton & Co. 
$5. net. 

The Founding: of a Nation. By Prank M. Gregg. 
In 2 volumes, illustrated, large 8vo. Arthur H. 
Clark Co. $7.50 net. 

-The Story of Canada Blackle. By Anne P. L. Field; 
with Introduction by Thomas Mott Osborne. 
12mo, 157 pages. E. P. Button & Co. $1. net. 

Richmond College Historical Papers, Volume I. Ed- 
ited by D. R. Anderson, Ph.D. Svo, 163 pages. 
Richmond, Va. : Richmond College. Paper, 
$1. net. 

The Jefferson-Lenten Compact. By Willard C. 
MacNaul. 12mo, 58 pages. University of Chi- 
cago Press. Paper, 25 cts. net. 

GENERAL LITERATURE. 

Incense and Iconoclasm. By Charles Leonard 
Moore. 12mo, 351 pages. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 
$1.50 net. 

Writers of the Day. First volumes: Arnold Ben- 
nett, by F. J. Harvey Barton; H. G. Wells, by 
J. B. Beresford; Anatole France, by W. L. 
George. Each with portrait, 16mo. Henry Holt 
& Co. Per volume, 50 cts. net. 

Last Pages from a Journal, with Other Papers. By 
Mark Rutherford; edited by his wife. With 
frontispiece, 12mo, 321 pages. Oxford Univer- 
sity Press. 

The Compleat Angler. By Izaak Walton and 
Charles Cotton; with Introduction and bibliog- 
raphy by R. B. Marston. Illustrated, 12mo, 340 
pages. Oxford University Press. 

FICTION. 

The Freelands. By John Galsworthy. 12mo, 412 
pages. Charles Scribner's Sons. $1.35 net. 

The "Way of These Women. By E. Phillips Oppen- 
heim. Illustrated, 12mo, 357 pages. Little, 
Brown & Co. $1.35 net. 

The Rainbow Trail. By Zane Grey. With frontis- 
piece in color, 12mo, 373 pages. Harper & Broth- 
ers. $1.35 net. 

Me: A Book of Remembrance. 12mo, 356 pages. 
Century Co. $1.30 net. 

Thirty. By Howard Vincent O'Brien. Illustrated 
in color, 12mo, 336 pages. Bodd, Mead & Co. 
$1.35 net. 

The Young Man Absalom. By E. Charles Vivian. 
12mo, S04 pages. E. P. Button & Co. $1.35 net. 

The Crevice. By William J. Burns and Isabel 
Ostrander. Illustrated, 12mo, 315 pages. W. J. 
Watt & Co. $1.35 net. 

The Girl from No. 13. By Reginald Heber Patter- 
son. Illustrated, 12mo, 319 pages. The Macaulay 
Co. $1.25 net. 

A Vision of Empire. By E. Anson More. 12mo, 
275 pages. Richard G. Badger. $1.35 net. 

The Third Party. By Frederic Arthur Stanley. 
Illustrated, 12mo, 286 pages. Macaulay Co. 
$1.25 net. 

Myrta. By Walter S. Cramp. Illustrated, 12mo, 
303 pages. Richard G. Badger. $1.35 net. 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



165 



BOOKS FOR THE YOUNG. 
rincess Goldenhair and the "Wonderful Flower. 

By Flora Spiegelberg; illustrated in color, etc., 
by Milo Winter. 8vo, 176 pages. Rand, McNally 
& Co. $1.25 net. 
antern Making:. By H. A. Rankin. Illustrated in 
color, etc., 8vo, 173 pages. E. P. Button & Co. 
$1. net. 
lower Fairies. By Clara Ingram Judson. Illus- 
trated in color, etc., 8vo, 93 pages. Rand, 
McNally & Co. $1. net. 
himnm'M Angel Child in Toyland. By Marie Chris- 
tine Sadler; illustrated in color by "Penny" 
Ross. 12mo, 115 pages. Rand, McNally & Co. 
$1. net. 
ad and His Father. By F. Lauriston Bullard. 
With portrait, 12mo, 102 pages. Little, Brown 
& Co. 50 cts. net. 
yiien I Was Little. By Ethel M. Kelley. Illus- 
trated in color, etc., 12mo, 96 pages. Rand, 
McNally & Co. 75 cts. net. 
he Little Child at the Breakfast Table. Arranged 
by William and Mary Gannett. 16mo, 81 pages. 
The Beacon Press. 50 cts. net. 
he Toys of Nuremberg:. By Lillian Barker Sturges. 
Illustrated in color, etc., 12mo. Rand, McNally 
& Co. 50 cts. net. 
'he "War of the Wooden Soldiers. By F. M. H. 
Illustrated in color, etc., 18mo. Rand, McNally 
& Co. 50 cts. net. 

EDUCATION, 
leadings In Vocational Guidance. Edited by Meyer 
Bloomfleld. 8vo, 723 pages. Ginn & Co. 
$2.25 net. 
Writing of To-day: Models of Journalistic Prose. 
Selected and discussed by J. W. Cunliffe, D.Lit., 
and Gerhard R. Lomer, Ph.D. 8vo, 390 pages. 
Century Co. $1.50 net. 
'he Kindergarten and the Montessorl Method. By 
Martha MacLear; with Introduction by G. Stan- 
ley Hall. 12mo, 114 pages. Richard G. Badger. 
$1. net. 
'he Rhythms of Childhood: Rhythms and Music. 
By Caroline Crawford and Elizabeth Rose Fogg. 
8vo, 84 pages. A. S. Barnes Co. $1.50 net. 
chool Algebra: First Course. By H. L. Rietz, 
Ph.D., A. R. Crathorne, Ph.D., and E. H. Taylor, 
Ph.D. 12mo, 271 pages. Henry Holt & Co. 
lane Geometry. By John W. Young and Albert J. 
Schwartz. 12mo, 223 pages. Henry Holt & Co. 

MISCELLANEOUS, 
'he Magic of Experience: A Contribution to the 
Theory of Knowledge. By H. Stanley Redgrove, 
B.Sc. ; with Introduction by W. F. Barrett, 
F.R.S. 12mo, 111 pages. E. P. Dutton & Co. 
$1. net. 
labits that Handicap: The Menace of Opium, Alco- 
hol, and Tobacco, and the Remedy. By Charles 
B. Towns. 12mo, 289 pages. Century Co. 
$1.20 net. 
)ebating for Boys. By William Horton Foster. 
12mo, 175 pages. Sturgis & Walton Co. $1. net. 
Phe City of Domes. By John D. Barry. Illustrated, 
12mo, 142 pages. San Francisco: John J. New- 
begin. 
Hi Viaje a Mexico: A Proposito de la Revolucion. 
By Fernandez Cabrera. 12mo, 281 pages. 
Havana: Imp. del "Avisador Comercial." Paper, 
$1. net. 
fhe Underlying Principles of Modern Legislation. 
By W. Jethro Brown. Third edition, revised and 
enlarged. 8vo, 319 pages. E. P. Dutton & Co. 
$2.25 net. 
low to Make a Eugenical Family Study. By 
Charles B. Davenport and Harry H. Laughlin. 
8vo, 35 pages. Long Island: Eugenics Record 
Office. Paper. 
Phe Deeper Meaning of the " Temperance " Ques- 
tion. By "Wallace M. Short. 12mo, 175 pages. 
Kansas City. Mo.: The Hyde Park Press. 68 cts. 
rhe Provision for Historical Studies at Oxford. . By 
John L. Myres, M.A. 12mo, 26 pages. Oxford 
University Press. Paper. 
Modern Fallacies: An Added Chapter to "Retro- 
spection." By Hubert Howe Bancroft. 12mo, 
30 pages. Bancroft Co. Paper, 25 cts. net. 








RARE books and first editions collected 
and arranged for people who are too 
busy to attend to the forming of libraries. 

Address E. V., Boston Transcript 
BOSTON, MASS. 








ROBERT LOUIS STEVENSON 

Books from His Library, FIRST EDITIONS of 
His Works, MANUSCRIPTS, Autographs, 
Relics, and other STEVENSONIANA. 
CATALOGUE in Preparation Sent on Request. 

C. GERHARD! & CO., 120 East 59th St., New York 








The Metropolitan Museum of Art 

announces the publication of a HANDBOOK 

OF THE CESNOLA COLLECTION OF AN- 
TIQUITIES FROM CYPRUS, by John L. 
Myres, Wykeham Professor of Oxford 
University, lv + 596 pp. ills. pis. map, 8vo. 
Price $2, postage 22 cents. 

The most important publication on this subject 

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SCANDINAVIAN CLASSICS 




Two New Volumes: Publication Day, September IS 



III. Poems and Songs by Bjorn- 
stjerne Bjornson 

Translated from the Norwegian in the Original 
Meters, with an Introduction and Notes, by Arthur 
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by August 



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JEPPE OF THE HILL, THE POLITICAL 
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THE CHILDREN OF THE LORD'S 
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CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS 



170 



THE DIAL 



[Sept. 16 









SOME SCRIBNER BOOKS 




SOCIALIZED GERMANY 

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1915 



171 









SOME SCRIBNER BOOKS 




CONSTANTINOPLE 

OLD AND NEW 

By H. G. DWIGHT 

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about the Turkish capital. Profusely illustrated. In box, $5.00 net; postage extra. 




The Reconciliation of 

Government with Liberty 

BY PROFESSOR JOHN W. BURGESS, LL.D. 

The purpose of Professor Burgess is to 
show within the compass of a single volume 
what all the states of the world have done 
for the solution of the great problem defined 
in his title and to present concisely the stage 
in that solution at which each has arrived. 
At this moment the book is a document of 
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French Memories of Eighteenth- 
Century America 

BY CHARLES H. SHERRILL 
This volume, based upon the memoirs, and 
other forms of recorded observation and com- 
mentary, of those French men and women who 
visited this country between 1775 and 1880 
many of them to assist in our war for liberty 
forms an extremely vivid, lively, and instructive 
presentation of this most interesting period of our 
history. With illustrations from paintings and 
engravings. Crown 8vo. $2.00 net; postage extra. 




The Holy Earth 

BY L. H. BAILEY 

Editor of the "Cyclopedia of American Horticulture." 
In this little volume the country's foremost 
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tions attempts, by presenting his personal point 
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man's relation to rural environment, to awaken 
a sense of the basic character of nature, not only 
as regards man's physical but his intellectual 
and spiritual life. $1.00 net; postage extra. 




The Life of Stevenson 

BY GRAHAM BALFOUR 

This shorter Life of Robert Louis Stevenson 
gives the first opportunity to possess in a single 
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raphies, and one indispensable to the reader 
and lover of Stevenson. Illustrated from draw- 
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postage extra. 




Beautiful Gardens in America 

and the Effect of Climate in Various Sections. 

BY LOUISE SHELTON 

This volume consists of beautiful pictures of a 
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may be taken as representative of the possibilities 
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door homes. " Illustrated with more than 170 
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The Fountains of Papal Rome 

BY MRS. CHARLES MACV~EAGH 

One of the most characteristic features of 
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Rome particularly these monuments may 
almost be said to summarize the story. Mrs. 
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well as describing them with artistic sympathy. 
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CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS 





172 



THE DIAL 



[Sept. 16 



NEW BOOKS FOR CHILDREN 



When I Was Little 



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Illustrations by Maud 
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Verses. " Along with Ste- 
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youth. The illustrations not 
only express the meaning of 
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that subtler spirit behind the words themselves. 
Net 750 




Sunny-Sulky Book 

By SARAH CORY RIPPEY. 

Illustrations by Blanche' 

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Reading this impressive, 
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can fail to see the advan- 
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Mamma's Angel Child in Toyland 

By MARIE CHRISTINE SADLER. 

Illustrations by "Penny " 

Ross. 8vo. 

Esther's marvelous adven- 
tures in Toyland, Storybook 
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punishment by her own 
broken toys when she endeav- 
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Esther was always consider- 
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Loraine and 





the Little People 

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that no one can do it for him. 

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Doings of Little Bear 

By FRANCES MARGARET 

Fox. 

Illustrated by Warner 

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they knew Goldilock's family well. Net ^oc 




Toys of Nuremberg 

By LILLIAN BAKER STUR- 

GES. 

Illustrations by the author. 

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little ones hear them in their sleep and follow. Net 500 




Princess Goldenhair and the Wonderful Flower 

By FLORA SPIEGELBERG. 

Illustrations by Milo Winter. 
*75 pa-geS' Cloth, 8vo. 



A fanciful tale of the days of 
Otto the Good, King of Saxony. 
Rupert, his youngest son, mar- 
ries Elizabeth, a beautiful 
peasant girl, and their daughter 
is the Princess Goldenhair. The 
marriage of Elizabeth excites 
the envy of her stepmother, 
who, with the aid of a dwarf, 
succeeds in stealing Goldenhair from the palace. 

Net $1.25 





child's satisfaction 
explained. 



Flower Fairies 

By CLARA INGRAM JUDSON. 

Illustrations by Maginel 
Wright Enright. Cloth, 8vo. 
Of absorbing interest to 
children will be this collec- 
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with fairies and flowers in 
days of long ago. The naming 
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obtained their colors and the 
violet its perfume; the first 
fire, and how Jack Frost runs 
away when the crocuses come 
up through the snow to a 
these things are delightfully 
Net $1.00 



New York RAND McNALLY AND COMPANY Chicago 



1915] 



173 



New Books of Pleasing Variety 



READY OCTOBER FIRST 

THEODORE DREISER'S BIG AMERICAN ROMANCE 

THE "GENIUS" 

By the Author of "Sister Carrie," "Jennie Gerhardt," 
"The Financier," "The Titan," etc. 

Large I2mo. Cloth. $1.50 net. 

A story of genius. Restless power and creative energy searching 
for life's solution. Seeking the solution in love and find'ing defeat. 
Falling to physical exhaustion, threatened with madness, rising into 
strength again through Christian Science and throwing his energies 
into mysticism as a last resort. The story of the soul 's struggle seen 
through the eyes of genius. 



WHAT PICTURES TO 
SEE IN AMERICA 

By MRS. L. BRYANT, author of 
"What Pictures to See in Europe," 
etc. Over 200 illustrations. 8vo. 
Cloth. $2.00 net. 

In order to see art museums 
rightly in the short time at the 
disposal of the general tourist a 
careful guide must be had to save 
time and strength. Mrs. Bryant in 
the present book visits the various 
galleries of America from Boston to 
San Francisco and points out the 
masterpieces of famous artists. 



GOOD TASTE IN 
HOME FURNISHING 

By HENRY B. and MAUD ANN 
SELL. With a colored frontispiece 
and numerous line drawings. Cloth, 
izmo. $1.25 net. (Oct. ist.) 
A book on interior decoration 
written for the lay reader. Every 
phase of the subject is carefully con- 
sidered. In an intimate, easy style, 
free from technical terms, the 
author brings out clearly the simple 
decorative principles that make the 
home comfortable, cheerful and 
beautiful. The publishers feel, there- 
fore, that this book will fill a real need. 



WILLIAM J. LOCKE'S FINEST NOVEL 




By the Author of "The Fortunate Youth," 
"The Beloved Vagabond," etc. 

Eight illustrations by F. Matania. Large I2mo. Cloth. Net $1.35 

"It is a real novel, by far the most enjoyable of years and the 
finest that Mr. Locke has ever written. All the qualities that have 
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not one page is dull or anything that approximates dullness; each 
character is distinct, a personality, and sustained admirably; and 
the novel is the most enjoyable we have read since 'The Beloved 
Vagabond.' " Los Angeles Times. 



THE PEARL FISHERS 

By H. DE VERB STACPOOLE, 
author of "The Blue Lagoon," "The 
Presentation," etc. Large 12010. 
Cloth. $1.30 net. 

Mr. Stacpoole has returned to the 
scene of his former successful 
stories the South Seas. The dis- 
covery of a lagoon abounding in 
pearl shells opens up the prospect 
of a vast fortune to two shipwrecked 
men, stranded on a coral island. 
It is a story of strategy, conspiracy 
and romance. 



THE DEATH OF 
IVAN ILYITCH 

And Other Storie* 

By COUNT LEO TOLSTOY, author 

of "War and Peace," "Anna Kar- 

enin," etc. izmo. Cloth. $1.35 net. 

Intense realism is the dominant 

note of these stories. Each story 

reflects accurately the intensity in 

the lives of the Russian people, and 

reveals more than anything the 

latent dynamic force of a powerful 

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JOHN LANE COMPANY 



NEW DRAMA AND 
VERSE 

THE 

WAGNERIAN DRAMA 

By HOUSTON STEWART 
CHAMBERLAIN, author of 
" The Foundations of the ipth 
Century." Cloth. $1.33 net. 
An attempt to inspire a better 

appreciation of Wagner as a 

dramatic poet. 

ARMAGEDDON 

A Modern Epic Drama 

By STEPHEN PHILLIPS. 

Cloth. $1.00 net. 

Mr. Phillips here deals with 
one of the biggest issues of the 
War have we the right to take 
revenge for admitted atrocities? 

BELGIAN 
POEMS 

By EMILE CAMMAERTS. 

Portrait frontispiece. Cloth. 

$1.50 net. 

"A poet of love who is simple, 
sensuous and passionate; the 
limpid singer of Belgium vic- 



torious 
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in defeat." London 



WAR 
POEMS 

And Other Translations 

By LORD CURZON OF KED- 
LESTON. Cloth. $1.50 net. 
This volume includes trans- 
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Latin and Greek into English, 
and into Latin and Greek from 
the English. 

TRAVEL 




By BARON DE KUSEL (Bey). 

32 illustrations and Map. 

Octavo. Cloth. $3.00 net. 

The author, sometime English 
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Customs, has been closely con- 
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twenty-five years. His book 
is a valuable contribution to 
the literature of Modern Egypt, 
and the Epilogue dealing with 
the present difficult situation 
there makes the work of partic- 
ular interest at the moment. 



174 



THE DIAL 



[Sept. 16 



EARLY FALL PUBLICATIONS 


Important Books 


For Younger 


The Story of a Pioneer By ANNA HOWARD SHAW 


Readers 


Dr. Shaw tells the story of her astonishingly interesting life, from her 




childhood on the frontier, as school teacher, preacher, lecturer, ordained 
minister, physician, and president of the National American Woman's Suffrage 


Mark Tidd in 


Association. Illustrated, $2.00 net. 


Business 


The Man Jesus By MARY AUSTIN 


By CLARENCE B. 


A wonderful interpretation of the towering figure of all history and a new 


If pi i AMO 


valuation of the Prophet of Nazareth's humanity. Crown 8vo., $1.20 net. 


IVE,L.L/\1> U 


In Vacation America By HARRISON RHODES 


A new book about 


Leisurely wanderings among the holiday resorts, both winter and summer, 


how the resourceful 


of the United States. Illustrated, $1.50 net. 


fat boy "makes 


Australian Byways By NORMAN DUNCAN 


good" in business. 


In this book of travel the author gives a chatty, leisurely account of 


Illustrated, $1.00 net. 


his trip along the outskirts of Australian civilization. Illustrated, $1.75 net. 




College Sons and College Fathers By HENRY s. CANBY 


Trench- Mates 


An impartial examination from the three angles qf American university 


t? 


education the student, the professor, and the results achieved. 


in rrance 


Post 8vo, $1.20 net. 


By J. S. ZERBE 


Poems By DANA BURNETT 




Poems on war and peace, of exquisite sensibility and singing quality. 


Filled with the 


Post 8vo, $1.20 net. 


exciting incidents 


The Laughing Muse By ARTHUR GUITERMAN 


that befell two 


Humorous verses on various subjects. Post 8vo, $1.00 net. 


French boys in the 


A, B, C of Architecture By FRANK E. WALLIS 


war. 


Here are embodied in a simplified form the rules and laws of architecture. 


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J. / 1 /tot / u M u , >*- '{-fL/ rl'L i- 


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The Money Master By SIR GILBERT PARKER 

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Heart of the Sunset By REX BEACH 


The stirring ex- 


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boys in the W^est 


Around Old Chester By MARGARET DELANO 


before white men 


A new collection of stories about Dr. Lavendar's people. 




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came. 


The Rainbow Trail By ZANE GREY 


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supposed naval war 


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Robin the Bobbin By VALE DOWNIE 


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power. 


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Illustrated, $1.25 net. 


HARPER & BROTHERS, New York **"*** 




1915] THE DIAL ITS 



The University of Chicago Press 

New and Forthcoming Publications 



A Short History of Japan. By ERNEST WILSON CLEMENT 

x + 190 pages, 12mo, cloth; $1.00, postage extra (weight 15 oz.) 

Senescence and Rejuvenescence. By CHARLES MANNING CHILD 

xii + 482 pages, royal 8vo, cloth; $4.00, postage extra (weight 3 Ibs.) 

The Modern Study of Literature. By RICHARD GREEN MOULTON 

xii + 532 pages, 12mo, cloth; $2.50, postage extra (weight 1 Ib. 13 oz.) 

Current Economic Problems. By WALTON HALE HAMILTON 

830 pages, 8vo, cloth; $2.75, postage extra. 

Lives Worth Living. By EMILY CLOUGH PEABODY 

xiv + 188 pages, 12mo, cloth; $1.00, postage extra (weight 1 Ib. 4 oz.) 



O cagO ermOnS. B y Members of the University Faculties 

xii + 348 pages, 12mo, cloth; $1.50, postage extra (weight 1 Ib. 4 oz.) 

Religious Education in the Family. 

By HENRY FREDERICK COPE 
xii + 296 pages, 12mo, cloth; $1.25, postage extra (weight 1 Ib. 5 oz.) 

First-Year Mathematics for Secondary Schools. 

Third revised edition. By ERNST R. BRESLICH 
xxiv + 342 pages, 12mo, cloth; $1.00, postage extra (weight 1 Ib. 10 oz.) 

A Review of High School Mathematics. 

By WILLIAM D. REEVE and RALEIGH SCHORLING 
x + 70 pages, 12mo, cloth; 40 cents, postage extra (weight 10 oz.) 

Methods in Plant Histology. 

Third revised edition. By CHARLES JOSEPH CHAMBERLAIN 
xii + 314 pages, 8vo, cloth; $2.25, postage extra (weight 3 Ibs.) 

School and SoCiety. Second revised edition. By JOHN DEWEY 

xvi + 164 pages, 12mo, cloth; $1.00, postage extra (weight 15 oz.) 



THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS 

CHICAGO Agents: ILLINOIS 

THE BAKER & TAYLOR COMPANY, New York THE CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, London and Edinburgh 
KARL W. HIERSEMANN, Leipzig THE MARUZEN-KABUSHIKI-KAISHA, Tokyo, Osaka, and Kyoto 





176 THE DIAL [Sept. 16 



MeCLJLJRG'S 

AUTUMN BOOKS 

SUZANNA STIRS THE FIRE By Emily Calvin Blake 

Suzanna is one of the most delightful and lovable children that have ever appeared in fiction, and 
her friends will be legion. The author tells us she "danced through life and sang her way to the 
hearts of others." Into the simplest happenings she read thrilling interpretations, and the little 
things of life were colored and vivified as she viewed them through the rose glass of imagination. 
"Suzanna Stirs the Fire" will be widely read and the reading of it will contribute to the world's 
happiness. We predict a large sale for it. Illustrated by P. V. Poole. I2mo. Net $1.25 

THE ISLAND OF SURPRISE By Cyru, Townsend Brady 

Two lovely women each claiming to be the wife of a man whose memory of past events extended only 

to the time when he awakened from a swoon caused by the stunning fall from a cliff. The scene 

a lonely tropical island in the South Seas, where the three were cast away with but little hope of 

rescue. 

Only a master story-teller can deal successfully with such a situation, and bring it to a logical and 

satisfactory conclusion. Brady is such a story-teller, and here he makes good in a way that stamps 

the yarn as one of his very best. Illustrated by Walter Tittle. Crown 8vo. Net $1.35 

THE CORNER STONE By Margaret Hill McCarter 

This is a little book, similar in many respects to that classic of the West, "The Peace of the Solomon 
Valley." It is a story of Kansas, a plain tale of the soil, of love and honor, of simple faith and high 
ideals, of the triumph of the good; just one of the world's simple stories that stir the emotions like a 
grand old song and make the heart glad. Decorations by J. Allen St. John. 

Oblong flexible binding. Boxed. Net, 50 cents 

Ooze leather. Boxed. Net, $1.25 

BEYOND THE FRONTIER A Romance of Early Days in the Middle West 

"^ " By Randall Parrish 

A tale of early days in the great Middle West when that intrepid explorer LaSalle, and his faithful 
friend Tonty, were blazing the way for civilization, and the golden lilies of France flew from the few 
lone blockhouses in the Indian country. 

Most of the action of the story takes place on the long trail from old Quebec to Fort St. Louis (Starved 
Rock) , on the Illinois River. Adele La Chesnayne, a maid of France, is a wonderful heroine. Bravely 
she bears the hardships of the wilderness journey, and when the end is reached and the life of her 
lover is in danger it is her wit and devotion that defeats his enemies and her own. Illustrated by 
The Kinneys. Crown 8vo. Net $1.35 

THE GREEN HALF-MOON By James Francis Dwyer 

It was a strangely shaped jewel, this mysterious green half-moon, and while oddly attractive, its 
intrinsic value was apparently not great. A big European power, however, was prepared to go to 
any length to obtain it, and if money could have bought it a billion dollars would have been readily 
forthcoming. Illustrated by Wm. Oberhardt. I2mo. Net $1.25 



CLEMENCIES CRISIS A Stor y of California 

By Edith Ogden Harrison 

A sweet love story of a charming Californian and one of Dewey's heroes. Clemencia's crisis came 
when she had to choose between her love for the man who had won her heart, and a vow which, 
though made in childhood, was as she saw it irrevocable. 

The background of the story is California the beautiful, with its wonderful flora, azure skies, and 
matchless scenery, and the spell of it all spreads like a perfume over the work. Illustrated. I2mo. 

Net $1.25 

THE GERMAN LIEUTENANT and Other Stories By August Strindberg 

Strindberg has been called "the Shakespeare of Sweden," and the title is not ill merited. As novelist 
and dramatist he stands preeminently at the head of modern Swedish literature, and his fame is 
world wide. This collection of some of his shorter prose tales contains seven of his best stories, of 
which "The German Lieutenant" is of unusual interest at the present time, bearing as it does upon 
the present European conflict. I2mo. Net $1.25 

A. C. McCLURG & CO., Publishers, CHICAGO 





1915] THE DIAL 177 



McCLURG'S 

AUTUMN BOOKS 

THE FUR TRAIL ADVENTURERS A Tale f Northern Canada 

By Dillon Wallace 

Fur trading in the Thunder Bay District, which lies in the frozen north, supplies the action and the 
background for Dillon Wallace's new story for boys. Into this work Mr. Wallace has put much 
of his wide knowledge of woodcraft and outdoor life, and the result is a book with an appeal to all 
(young and old alike) who have ever smelt the smoke of the campfire. Illustrated by E. W. Deming. 
I2mo. Net $1.25 

THE PIXIE IN THE HOUSE By Laura Rountree Smith 

(Author of the Bunny Cottontail Books) 

Children of all ages will be much interested in the queer things that happen when a Pixie took it 
into his old little head to live in a house where dwell Mary, Fred, and the twins, Jack and Jill. Illus- 
trated by Clara Powers Wilson. Square I2mo. Net $1.00 

IN MUSIC LAND (New Edition) A Handbook for Little People 

By George P. Upton 

In the form of fifteen "fireside" stories this veteran writer on musical subjects tells what children 
should know about music. The book is one to delight boys and girls. Frontispiece in color, and 
nearly fifty other drawings, by James Blomfield. Small quarto. Net $1.25 

THE APPLE TREE SPRITE By Margaret W. Morley 

In the simple and charming style, peculiarly her own, which has made Miss Morley's books for 
young people famous, this favorite writer tells the story of the Apple Tree. How the tree grows, 
lives, and breathes, how the apples are formed, and many other of Dame Nature's secrets are re- 
vealed. Illustrated. I2mo. Net $1.10 

"HORSE SENSE" By Walt Ma,on 

"The high priest of horse sense" is George Ade's apt characterization of Walt Mason, whose delight- 
ful prose poems are world famous for their wit and cheery philosophy. "Horse Sense" comprises 
the poems that have appeared during recent years from the poet's pen that best embody the idea 
conveyed by the title. Decorated. Net $1.25. Ooze leather. Boxed. Net $1.50 

THE GLAD HAND and Other Grips of Life By Humphrey J. Desmond 

The conventional preachment which typifies so many of our recent volumes of essays is entirely 

lacking in Mr. Desmond's plain, practical discussion of the things of life worth while. 

Novelty style. Net 50 cents. Limp natural calf. Net $1.00 

OUR AMERICAN WONDERLANDS A Seeins-America-Fir.t Book 

By George Wharton James 

A series of little journeys to the famous wonder places of the United States. The Yellowstone, 
the Grand Canyon, Niagara, Lake Tahoe, and many other lesser known places are described with all 
that enthusiasm for nature's mighty works for which Air. James is famous. Crown 8vo. Net $2.00 

HOW TO WRITE FOR THE MOVIES B y Louella O. Parsons 

Several years' experience as scenario editor for one of the great producing companies has shown 
the author the need of just such a helpful book for amateur writers as this. It is in the form of a 
series of lessons on the writing of a picture play, covering the field completely from the inception of 
the idea to the technical requirements of the play itself. It tells also just what is needed for the 
market, how the MSS. should be submitted, and gives much other information invaluable to the 
amateur playwright. I2mo. Net$i.oo 

"DAME CURTSEY'S" BOOK OF SALADS, SANDWICHES AND BEVERAGES 

Attractive in appearance, and fresh of recipe, it appeals to every hostess, and the vexing problem 
of what to serve for an informal luncheon or a bridge party is easily solved by "Dame Curtsey." 
Here are dozens of recipes, all good, all practical, and all dainty and delicious. Sq. I2mo. Net 50 cts. 

A. C. McCLURG & CO., Publishers, CHICAGO 



178 



[ Sept. 16 



1 

. -1 
! 
- 1 

'- 
" 


Appleton's Newest General Books 




The People's Government 

By David Jayne Hill 


By Felix Adler 

President of the Ethical Culture Society 

Marriage and Divorce 

Professor Adler, well known as a lecturer, 
scholar and profound thinker, has embodied his 
lectures on marriage and divorce in this volume, 
which will be sure to find a ready welcome among 
the ministers, students and ethical culturists every- 
where. 
$0.75 net. 

The World Crisis and 
Its Meaning 

This volume is not a war book, but primarily a 
work on social ethics, giving the views of one of the 
best known thinkers and moral leaders of to-day. 
Dr. Adler analyzes the causes of the war and ita 
effects, both present and future, upon civilization 
and considers the possibilities of future interna- 
tional peace. 
$1.50 net. 


This volume is a handbook on the relation 
of the citizen to the State, by a distinguished 
authority on international law. It is based on 
wide historical knowledge, is devoid of sensa- 
tionalism, and is presented with skill, force and 
terseness. $1.25 net. 

A History of Latin 
Literature 

By Marcus Dimsdale 
Professor at the University of Cambridge, England. 

An illuminating history of Latin Litera- 
ture written to be of interest to the general 
reader and at the same time of studied accuracy 
for the classroom use. Dr. Dimsdale has been 
for twenty-five years Classical Lecturer at 
Kings College, Cambridge, and his work bears 
the stamp of authority. $1.50 net. 

Jnion Woman 

ce Henry 
of " Life and Labor. " 

5 all the leading women's clubs in the country and is Secretary 
Dopular handbook on a very timely subiect, not only of great 
concerned in the new spirit of self-expression for women, both 
1 in October With numerous illustrations. $1.50 net. 

3 Study of Sociology 

rd C. Hayes 

in the University of Illinois. 

)lems of to-day and shows clearly how the individual personality 
the home, and how society is shaped by the co-operative en- 
on sociology that leads up to and culminates in a treatment of 
Ready in October $2.50 net. 

ricans Want to Know 

T. Tomlinson 
" The Boys of Old Monmouth, " etc. 

characteristic enthusiasm, has presented in a very readable form 
iraphy and scenic beauty of our country. The book is^sure to 
d know more of their own land and to increase their pride and 
iliness and splendid illustrations the book will make an excep- 
Profusely illustrated in line and half-tone. $1.50 net. 

ustment after the War 

nerican Specialist Authors 

reatest groups of American authorities which could be gathered 
ipon the United States and the questions which we shall have to 
$1.50 net. 

ien and War 

''ill Irwin 

s him, with the little personal touches delightful to the reader, 
m and imperturbability, the smiling fortitude of loyal practical 
inks with Blenheim and Waterloo as one of the greatest battles 
$1.00 net. 


The Trade \ 

By Al 

Formerly Editor 

In this volume Miss Henry, who has lectured before 
}f the National Women's Trade Union League, offers a ] 
nterest to all working women, but of value to every one 
ndividual and collective. Read: 

Introduction to th< 

By Edwa 

Professor of Sociology 

This work discusses in detail the practical social pro' 
s shaped by the society of the school, the playground anc 
ieavor of individuals. It is the only comprehensive work 
;he problems of education from the sociological viewpoint 

Places Young Ame 

By Everett 
Author of " The Colonial Boys, " 

In this interesting volume Dr. Tomlinson, with his 
descriptions of the most notable places in the history, geo 
arouse a desire in the boys -and girls of America to see an 
patriotism for their country. Because of its special time 
iionally fine gift book. 

Problems of Readji 

By Seven Eminent Ar 

After the War what? In this book one of the g 
together discuss the probable effects of the European War 
settle because of it. 

Men, Won 

By ^ 

With a power of vivid description which never fai 
Mr. Irwin pictures the wreckage of war, English patriotis 
France, and closes with a masterly story of Ypres, which r 
of history. 


D. APPLETON AND COMPANY PUBLISHERS NEW YORK 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



Appleton's Newest General Books 



The Construction of the Panama Canal 

By William L. Siebert 

Brig. -General, U. S. A., Division Engineer, Panama Canal, 1907-1914, and 
John F. Stevens, Chief Engineer, 1905-1907. 

A decidedly readable account of the construction of the Panama Canal, the greatest engineering feat in history. 
It is written in a style that will interest the general reader, for it tells the wonderful story of the construction of the Canal 
from the human side of it, a side that has never before been told. Ready in October Illustrated. $2.00 net. 

Regulation of Railroads and Utilities in Wisconsin 

By Fred L. Holmes 

Appleton's Railway Series. Edited by Emory R. Johnson, Ph. D. 

Wisconsin has been one of the pioneers in the field of railroad and public utility regulation by a State C9mmission. 
This is the history of the progress made within the State and its effects as a determining factor in the economic situation 
in Wisconsin and elsewhere. Ready in October $2.00 net. 

Life Insurance 

By Solomon S. Huebner 
Professor of Insurance and Commerce, University of Pennsylvania. 

A complete exposition of the principles of life insurance representing years of work by the author under the super- 
vision of the National Association of Life Underwriters. Every phase of the subject is covered and much new material 
not usually found to be available to the general reader is included in the book. $2.00 net. 

New York's Part in History 

By Sherman Williams 
Chief of School Libraries Division, the University of the State of New York. 

This is a genuinely interesting account of the distinguished work which has been done within the State by some 
of New York's greatest citizens and shows the very important part in history which has been accomplished by the State 
of New York. With eight half-tone illustrations and many maps. $2.50 net. 



Newspaper Editing 



By Grant Milnor Hyde 
Author of " Newspaper Reporting and Correspondence. " 

A text-book on journalism for the assistance of young newspaper workers who are learning the technique of their 
craft and for the use of classes in editing and headline-writing in schools of journalism. Every phase of the subject is dis- 
cussed in detail with a view to its helpfulness and practical bearing upon the work of the novice in journalism. $1.50 net. 

Ready in October 



Agricultural Commerce 

By Grover G. Huebner, Ph.D., 

Assistant Professor of Transportation and Commerce, 

Wharton School of Finance and Commerce, 

University of Pennsylvania. 

This book is intended for use as a text-book in 
schools of commerce, and agricultural colleges, and will 
be of great service to all merchants connected with the 
various exchanges, as well as to members of agricultural 
associations, and all farmers who wish to make a study 
of the best methods of sale for their products, and the 
best way of obtaining full market prices. $2.00 net. 

Ready in October 

Baedeker 
of the Argentine Republic 

By Senor Albert Martinez 

This is the only authoritative and comprehensive 
guide book of the Argentine Republic in existence. It 
takes up in detail the principal cities of the country, the 
objects of interest in each from historical, descriptive and 
general travelers' points of view, and contains an extraor- 
dinary amount of material in a comparatively small 
and compact space. The author is a noted Argentine 
statesman and historian. i6mo, flexible cloth, $3.00. 



New Volumes in the 

National Municipal League Series 

Edited by Clinton Rogers Woodruff 

Satellite Cities 

By Graham R. Taylor 

This is the history and discussion of various 
towns started by industrial establishments in the 
vicinity of large cities in England and America. 
Pullman, Granite City, Gary and Fairfield are 
discussed in detail the history of their founda- 
tion, their management, and the reasons for their 
success or failure. Ready about October i 

City Planning 

By John Nolen 

A volume discussing the planning and rebuild- 
ing of cities in an efficient and co-operative manner 
for the benefit of all the citizens. The author is a 
recognized authority in the United States in this 
particular field of city building and this volume 
will be sure to prove a valuable addition to the 
libraries of all those who are interested in public 
service, general municipal work and city improve- 
ment. Ready in October 

Each volume $1.50 net. Postage extra. 



D. APPLETON AND COMPANY PUBLISHERS NEW YORK 



180 THE DIAL [Sept. 16 



Attila and His Huns s y EDWARD HUTTON. 

The extraordinary career of the man known to history as the most ruthless employer of the policy of 

" f rightf ulness " in War. 

Attila, in the fifth century A. D. destroyed more of the works of civilization than any other human 

being has ever done. He created a huge Empire of savage tribes by means of which he ruined the 

Eastern Roman Empire, devastated Gaul, bathed Northern Italy in blood, and yet he failed in each 

one of his great undertakings. 

A terrible and yet splendid story of savage devastation finally stemmed and conquered by the courage 

and patience of civilization. Net $2,00 

The L-Og of the Ark By NOAH, illustrated by Ham, excavated by I. L. Gordon and A. J. Frueh. 

A clever and comical diary of Noah while in the Ark. It is illustrated very fully by an artist who has 

just caught the spirit of the author. Net $1.00 

TII c . f r* J Ol 1 By ANNE P. FIELD. 

1 he OtOry Ot Canada tSlackie Introduction by Thomas Mott Osborne. 

"Canada Blackie," the Uncle Tom of a prison servitude. A straightforward narrative of a convict's 
life, told for the most part in the prisoner's letters to his friends, giving expression both to the horror 
of the present regime and the spirit of the great movement so recently launched in New York and 
elsewhere for its reform. Cloth. Net $1.00 

From the Shelf By PAXTON HOLGAR. 

By a deserted monastery in a Spanish Mediterranean isle, amid blowing orchards of lemon trees and 
orange blossoms, the author settled himself "on the shelf," to rest after a season of worry and stress. 
Happy in his choice, happy in his contentment, and, above all, happy in the exquisite simplicity with 
which he has written down half humorist, half artist the incidents which made up the quiet life 
of his dream village, the author has given us here an atmosphere of security, peace, and refreshment, 
very welcome indeed in these troublous days. I2tno. Net $1.50 

1I71J D' J O By ERNEST HAROLD BAYNES. 

Wild Dird VjUestS (The father of the bird club movement). 

New edition with Preface by THEODORE ROOSEVELT. Thoroughly illustrated 

with Photogravures and Drawings. 

This is the most comprehensive book yet written concerning the fascinating art of attracting wild 
birds. The illustrations, chiefly from photographs taken by the author, form an array of interesting 
and convincing proof that by using Mr. Baynes' methods we can make our feathered guests feel thor- 
oughly at home. 8vo. Net $2.00 

Schools of To -Morrow By JOHN DEWEY and EVELYN DEWEY. 

The most significant and informing study of educational conditions that has appeared in 20 years. 
This is a day of change and experiment in education. The schools of yesterday that were designed 
to meet yesterday 's needs do not fit the requirements of to-day, and everywhere thoughtful people are 
recognizing this fact and working out theories and trying experiments. Illustrated. I2mo. Net $1.50 

The Belgian Cook Book 

Recipes contributed by Belgian refugees in England and, in most cases, signed by the authors. All 
Belgians are lovers of good feeding and are also strictly economists. The dainty dishes in this book 
are, therefore, works of her people who are connoisseurs in these two habits. Net $1.00 

Eat and GrOW Thin The Mahdah Menus, with a Preface by VANCE THOMPSON. 

A collection of the hitherto unpublished Mahdah menus and recipes for which Americans have been 
paying fifty-guinea fees to fashionable physicians in order to escape the tragedy of growing fat. 
Under the Mahdah method of reduction one continues to live really well, gains in health and strength, 
yet will lose twenty-five to thirty pounds in a few weeks without producing a wrinkle. Everyone 
tells a fat friend what not to eat; this book shows what he can eat and grow thin. Cloth. Net $1.00 

The Undying Story By w. DOUGLAS NEWTON. 

Depicting the famous retreat of the British from Mons to Ypres. Possibly the most vivid and remark- 
able piece of descriptive work the War has produced. Net $1.35 

Unknown Russia By ALAN LETHBRIDGE. 

An interesting account of the author's travels in the back-blocks of Eastern Europe and Western 
Siberia. Net $5.00 

ppi f U NT i. "V By D. M. C. Edited by R. Barry O'Brien, LL.D., 

1 tie IriSll INlinS at IpreS with an introduction by John Redmond, M. P.; with illustrations. 

Giving in a simple and affecting narrative, the bombardment of the doomed city by the Germans, 
the suffering of the nuns and their quiet heroism. I2mo. Net $1.25 

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By HENRY NEWBOLT. 



ALADORE 

A charming romance with a spiritual meaning, which makes it almost an allegory. The hero, Sir Ywain, 
suddenly leaves his property and home and goes out to meet his fate in the dress of a Pilgrim. He comes 
to the city of Paladore and meets his Lady Aithne, who is of fairy descent and has the faculty of absenting 
herself from Paladore and dwelling in Aladore, the spiritual counterpart of the former city. The story tells 
of Ywain's struggles and successes and how he too at last attained to Aladore. A singularly beautiful and 



pregnant book. 

The Little Mother Who 
Sits at Home 

Edited by The COUNTESS BARCYNSKA. 

A mother's thoughts, put down in black and white to 
help her think, tell the joy and pain of the unguessed sacri- 
fices she suffered to make her boy a gentleman. These posted 
and unposted letters of a lonely, selfless, little widow to her 
only child, as baby, boy, and man, are written with her very 
life's blood. Frontispiece in color. izmo. Net $1.00 

Two Sinners 

By MRS. DAVID RITCHIE. 

The plot is one of essential simplicity; its distinctive 
interest and appeal is derived from the deft and graceful manner 
in which the story is told. All of the characters are felici- 
tously drawn, and the elements of pathos and humor which 
enter into it are handled with much skill. I2mo. Net $1.35 

Blindstone 

By R. A. FOSTER-MELLIAR. 

The hero of this powerful story is a young man whose 
emotions are singularly hard to arouse. Engaged as a boy 
to marry a cousin by order of his elders, for the convenient 
settling of some family estate troubles, he misses the joy of 
winning a wife of his own choosing, and his whole outlook 
on life is vitiated. But after a period of stress and struggle, 
at last the great awakening comes, and his eyes are opened 
to the meaning of love. izmo. Net $1.33 



Net $2.00 



The Tollhouse 



By EVELYN ST. LEGER. 

The story of an old-fashioned English village, the Squire 
at the big house and the people in the village, and what came 
to them during the War. izmo. Net $1.00 

Some Women and Timothy 

By H. B. SOMERVILLE. 

Timothy, a wealthy young man of important social 
position, comes home after a big-game expedition of many 
months, and discovers that his brother has got tangled up 
with a pretty widow of doubtful antecedents. 

To set the youngster free from the fascinating siren, 
he arranges to make pretended love to her himself; and does 
with unexpected results, that cause a whole series of enter- 
taining complications, leading to a deep, satisfying love- 
story, izmo. Net $1.35 



Eve Dorre 



By EMILY VIELE STROTHER. 

It details in a simple, sweet way the life of an American- 
born girl who early in life was transplanted in Paris. Then the 
scenes shift from Paris to Burgundy and back again. Eve was 
a gentle, impulsive little creature, tossed here and there by 
chance and circumstance until she at last finds anchorage in a 
great love. But no mere description can show in any way the 
subtle, elusive charm of this book; it is a wonder volume of 
delicate lights and shadows, of sweet half-lights of the spirit. 

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Practical Books 

A series intended to guide the inexperienced in some 
of the many forms of manual training which may be worked 
out in the home and school so that the hand work may be not 
only a pleasant pastime, but of real educational value. 

Each illustrated. 8vo. Net $1.00 

LAUNDRY WORK FOR HOME AND SCHOOL; by 

L. WETENHALL; illustrations by ETHEL R. HAMBRIDGE. 

A manual of instructions for those who are intending 
to seek positions in laundries. Eminently adapted for trade 
schools and other technical institutions. It is full of very 
clear diagrams and the instructions are interestingly and 
vividly given. 

SCISSORS STORIES OR PICTURE CUTTING FOR 
LITTLE PEOPLE; by J. E. TOLSON. Fascinating as a 
pastime; interesting as an occupation and valuable as an 
educational process. 

KNITTING WITHOUT SPECIMENS. The Modern 
Book of School Knitting and Crochet, by ELLEN P. CLAYD'ON 
and C. A. CLAYDON. The scheme of knitting and crochet 
suggested in this book provides that girls shall learn all varie- 
ties of stitches while at the same time making useful articles 
and garments. 

SIMPLE ART APPLIED TO HANDWORK, by 

H. A. RANKIN and F. H. BROWN. The first thing that would 
appear to hold in decoration is that the decorator should 
know something of the thing to be decorated. Herein lies 
the good that handwork is likely to have on applied art 
and on the child mind. 

LANTERN MAKING, by H. A. RANKIN. As a motive 
for the designer's artistic ingenuity, lanterns are of abiding 
interest, and will also claim his notice on account of the well- 
nigh inexhaustible changes that may be rung on their shapes. 



Wayfarer's Library 

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A NEW AND COMPANIONABLE SERIES, covering 
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W Yet e 'THE WAYFARER'S LIBRARY is no haphazard 
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Send for a complete list. 

Everyman's Library 

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Contains the World's Best Books at the lowest prices 
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Everyman's Encyclopedia 

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THE DIAL 



[Sept. 16 



IMPORTANT PUTNAM PUBLICATIONS 

! Memories of a Publisher 

By GEORGE HAVEN PUTNAM, Litt.D., 

Author of "Memories of My Youth," "Books and Their Makers," "Abraham Lincoln," etc. 

8 Portrait $2.00 

The author records what he can remember of the people with whom he has had personal 
relations on both sides of the Atlantic during the fifty years since 1865, and he gives also his 
own views in regard to certain questions of the day in which, as a citizen, he has taken his part, 
such as Free Trade, Honest Money, Civil Service Reform, Copyright International and Domestic, 
and matters connected with municipal, state, and national politics. 

The book contains also some record of the undertakings of the Putnam Publishing House 
from 1872, the year of the death of its founder. The "Memoir of G. P. Putnam," published in 
1912, had presented an account of the publishing firm from the year of its organization. 



The Promise 



Two First Rate Stories 

What a Man Wills 



A Tale of the Northwest and of a Man 

Who Kept His Word 
By JAMES B. HENDRYX 

12 Frontispiece in color $1.35 

A tale of a strong man's regeneration of the transformation 
of "Broadway Bill" Carmody, millionaire's son, rounder and 
sport, whose drunken sprees have finally overtaxed the patience 
of his father and the girl, into a Man, clear-eyed and clean-lived, 
a true descendant of the fighting McKims. 

After the opening scenes in New York, we have a vivid 
narrative of the lumber-camps of the Northwest of the work 
of strong men of hardships undergone and of dangers met 
bravely and passed of the struggle against heavy odds, and 
of the making good of the "Man Who Could Not Die." 



By the Author of "An Unknown Lover" 

"Lady Cassandra," Etc. 
By MRS. G. DE HORNE VAIZEY 

12 350 pages Frontispiece in color $1.35 
The New Year's party was over. The house guests, gathered 
around the great fireplace, were drawn on by their hostess to tell 
of their ambitions and desires. The fulfillment of these declara- 
tions is told in the ensuing chapters, and the final results are 
shown when the same people gather once more around the same 
fireplace, but after a lapse of fifteen years. 

" Mrs. Vaizey has done something very big here." 



Oscar Wilde's Work 

Ravenna Edition 

13 vols. 1 6 Red Limp Leather Sold Separately, each, $1.25 net 
This is the first opportunity the public has been given to procure a Uniform Edition of Oscar Wilde, ONE 

VOLUME AT A TIME. 

Wilde was not only the keenest wit and most brilliant writer of his time he will live as a supreme master 
of the English tongue. As he himself truthfully and unblushingly said, "I am a lord of language." 



The Political Science of John Adams 

By CORREA MOYLAN WALSH 

A Study in the Theory of Mixed Government and the 
Bicameral System 

8 300 pages $2.25 

Treats of a theory which had extensive vogue at the time of the 
framing of the American State and Federal constitutions and 
powerfully contributed to the shaping of them in the form that 
still endures. The work also gives practical suggestions against 
the time when a thorough overhauling of our constitutions will 
become necessary. 

The Political History of Secession 

To the Beginning of the Civil War 
By DANIEL WAIT HOWE 

President of the Indiana Historical Society 
Author of "The Puritan Republic," "Civil -War Times," etc. 

8 $3-50 

Traces the causes that led to the Civil War. An important 
contribution to a momentous period, and enables the reader 
to grasp the issues and attempted compromises that antedated 
the final outbreak. 



Romanism in the Light 
of History 

By R. H. McKIM, D.C.L. 

12 $1.23 

Four essays by the Rector of the Church of the Epiphany, 
Washington, D. C. The first takes up the Present Outlook of 
Romanism; the sec9nd, Pope Leo's Encyclical on the Reunion of 
Christendom (subdivided into 19 Chapters); third, Fundamental 
Principles of Protestantism, and last, Religious Liberty and the 
Maryland Toleration Act. 

Lichens from the Temple 

By ROBERT RESTALRIG LOGAN 

12 $1.00 

"Life with its surging regret for the unfulfilled longings and 
the unattained mirage, life with its promise and life with its 
disappointment, is given expression in the fervid and colorful 
stanzas of this volume." 



ALL PRICES NET 



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1915] 



THE DIAL 



183 



SELECTED FROM SEPTEMBER'S LIST 

Incense and Iconoclasm 

By CHARLES LEONARD MOORE 

12 $1.50 net 
General Morris Schaff writes the author as follows: 

" Do you know this last book will put you in the very first rank, if not in the lead, 
of our critics on literature. It is altogether the firmest, broadest, and has the 
most marching step, so to speak, of anything that has appeared, and should bring 
you great honor, especially from students and teachers of literature, for no one 
can read your essays and not be conscious of a new light on the pages of the 
writers whose works and genius you have dealt with." 



The Sweet Scented Name 

And Other Fairy Tales, Fables and Stories 
By FEDOR SOLOGUB 

72 $1.50. 

Fedor Sologub is one of the cleverest of contem- 
porary Russian tale-writers and poets. He scents 
new thoughts and finds a new medium of style and 
language to present them to his age. His genius lies 
in the power he has to suggest atmosphere. He casts 
the reader into a spell through which he is infallibly 
beguiled out of the everyday atmosphere into the 
mirage or phantasy or trance which the author, who 
is a sort of Prospero, wishes. 

War and Christianity 

From the Russian Point of View 
By VLADIMIR SOLOVYOF 

I2 C $1.50. 

Solovyof is Russia's greatest philosopher and one 
of the greatest of her poets. In national culture 
he owned Dostoevsky as his prophet, and with him 
is one of the spiritual leaders of the Russian people. 
In this volume he combats Tolstoy and positivism, 
expressing the trust in spiritual power which was 
his deepest faith. 

The Decorating and 
Furnishing of Apartments 

By B. RUSSELL HERTS 

Large 8 32 full page Illus.; 8 in color $3.50. 

How to make your little or big flat tasteful, 
artistic, livable; by an expert. 



Secret Diplomatic Memoirs 

By COUNT HAYASHI 

8 $2.50. 

The veteran Japanese diplomat traces some of 
the great consummations of recent Japanese diplo- 
macy. The author, as the Ambassador from the 
Mikado's Empire to the Court of St. James, had 
a large measure of responsibility for the shaping of 
the Anglo- Japanese alliance. His verbatim account 
of the diplomatic play of forces gives a very clear 
impression of the conduct of this important affair 
of state. 

Isabel of Castile 

And the Making of the Spanish Nation 
By IERNE PLUNKET 

8 Illustrated $2.50. 

The story of a great woman and a great ruler, 
and the history of a nation in the making. Isabel 
opened her eyes on a world where her country 
stood discredited, the prey or mockery of stronger 
neighbors; and, when she closed them in death, it 
represented, in union with Aragon, the predomi- 
nant voice in the councils of Europe. 



City Planning 



By CHARLES MULFORD ROBINSON 

8 Fully Illustrated Probable Price, $2.00. 

This book is written with special reference to 
the planning of streets and lots, and is of special 
importance to the community because of its value 
to the operator. 



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184 



THE DIAL 



[ Sept, 16 



Of "The Century Co." Stamp and Standard 



By Bertha Runkle 

A story of love, loyalty, and mystery. It has all the 
story -telling charm of "The Helmet of Navarre"; but it 
deals with people and places of today, and is enriched by 
the author's fuller years of artistic endeavor. 

Jacket and frontispiece in colors, izmo, about 500 pages. 
$1.35 net, postage 10 cents. (Ready Sept. 24.) 



MARIE TARNOWSKA 

By A. Vivanti Chartres 

The true, authentic story, told in the first person, of 
the beautiful Countess Tarnowska, called in Europe "the 
Fatal Countess." As the book progresses the reader sees, 
more and more clearly, the influences that made her use 
for crime the strange and mysterious powers which she 
had over men. 

Illustrations from photographs. $1.30 net, postage 10 cents. 

(Just issued.) 



ME: A Book of Remembrance 

Anonymous 

The confessions of a well-known woman novelist 
describing the critical year of her girlhood. Before he 
covers many pages of this book, the reader will have 
sensed the captivating, arresting personality of the author; 
after that he will understand how she came to meet the 
experiences she did in the way she did. 
Jacket in color. $1.30 net, postage 10 cents. 

(Just issued.) 



HABITS THAT HANDICAP 

The Menace of Opium, Alcohol, and 
Tobacco, and the Remedy 
By Charles B. Towns 

The initiator of the recent legislation in New York 
State, directed against the drug-traffic, here classifies and 
describes the various habit-forming drugs; tells how 
habits are formed; and outlines an effective treatment. 
He discusses also the alcohol evil, the tobacco evil, etc. 

I2mo, 300 pages. $1.20 net, postage 10 cents. (Just issued.) 



PEGEEN 

By Eleanor Hoyt Brainerd 

A love story with trimmings of Irish humor, tenderness 
and fancy. He was an artist who couldn't keep house. 
As for Pegeen she couldn't help managing everything 
within her radius of acquaintance. So she manages him, 
and the Smiling Lady as well, not to mention Wiggles, 
Spunky, and Boots. 

Jacket and frontispiece in colors. $1.25 net, postage 10 cents. 

(Just issued.) 



ESCAPE AND OTHER ESSAYS 

By Arthur Christopher Benson 

Impressions and meditations by the celebrated English 
essayist and poet. Written in time of peace, they are 
sent forth by the author as emblems of the real life to 
which, in the midst of war, he believes we should try to 
return. Several of the essays are autobiographical. 

izmo, about 300 pages. $1.50 net, postage 10 cents. 

(Ready Sept. 24.) 



A HISTORY OF AMERICAN 
LITERATURE SINCE 1870 

By Fred Lewis Pattee 

The first full-length account of our contemporary 
literature; by the Professor of English at the Pennsylvania 
State College. 
8vo, about 500 pages. $2.00 net, postage 10 cents. 

(Ready Oct. 8.) 



THE FUN OF COOKING 

By Caroline French Benton 

A new kind of children's cook book; written in the form 
of a story, with an excellent receipt on almost every page. 

Illustrations. Oilcloth art cover, izmo, 241 pages. $1.00 
net, postage 10 cents. (Ready Sept. 24.) 



PEG O' THE RING 

By Emilie Benson Knipe and Alden Arthur Knipe 

The third and last story in the charming Denewood 
series; a book for boys and girls, set in the days of Wash- 
ington. 

Illustrations. I2tno, 375 pages. $1.25 net, postage 10 cents. 

(Ready Sept. 24.) 



TOMMY AND THE 
WISHING-STONE 

By Thornton W. Burgess 

About a small boy who discovers that whenever he 
sits on a certain old gray stone his wishes come true. 
Illustrations by Harrison Cady. i6mo, 300 pages. $1.00 
net, postage 10 cents. (Ready Sept. 24.) 



THE STRANGE STORY OF 
MR. DOG AND MR. BEAR 

By Mabel Fuller Blodgett 

A book of animal adventures for very young readers, 
printed in large type, with wide margins. Many pictures. 
Square I2mo, 125 pages. $1.00 net, postage 10 cents. 

(Ready Sept. 24.) 



THE BOARDED-UP HOUSE 

By Augusta Huiell Seaman 

How two girls invaded an empty house, what mysteries 
they found there, and how they unravelled them. 

Illustrations, izmo, 225 pages. $1.25 net, postage 10 cents. 

(Ready Sept. 24.) 



THE CENTURY CO. 

353 FOURTH AVENUE Publisher. NEW YORK CITY 



19151 



THE DIAL 



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Of "The Century Co." Stamp and Standard 



By Maxim Gorky, author of 

" Twenty-Six and One" 

The life-story of the famous Russian novelist from his 
earliest memory to his seventeenth year. Upon the pages 
of the book, out of the memory of his childhood, Gorky 
has written some of the fairest passages of all Russian 
literature. A presentation of the basic character of the 
Russian people. 

Frontispiece. Svo, 308 pages. $2.00 net, postage 10 cents. 

(Ready Oct. 8.) 



THE LOST PRINCE 

By Frances Hodgson Burnett 

Mrs. Burnett has never written a more charming story. 
The hero is a prince who does not know he is one; and he 
makes his way through Europe in the guise of a stalwart 
little tramp, ignorant of all but that he must obey and 
pass on in silence. 

Jacket embossed in gold and black. 

Illustrations by Maurice L. Bower, izmo, about 500 pages. 
$1.35 net, postage 10 cents. (Ready Oct. 8.) 



EARLY AMERICAN 
CRAFTSMEN 

By Walter A. Dyer, author of 

" The Lure of the Antique" 

Much has been written about the work of the early 
American craftsmen, but little attention has been paid to 
their personal lives and characters. Mr Dyer's book not 
only surveys their work in architecture, glassware, pot- 
tery, etc. but also the men themselves. 
More than 100 illustrations. Svo, 350 pages. $2.40 net, 
postage 10 cents. (Ready Oct. 8.) 



PARIS REBORN 

By Herbert Adams Gibbons 

An extended diary, written day by day in Paris during 
the first five months of the war, and reflecting freshly and 
spontaneously all the events and fluctuations of those 
exciting days. Gradually one gains a sense of the tragic 
significance of these events, in the midst of which the 
spirit of Paris has been born again. 

Illustrations in tint by Lester G. Hornby. Svo, 305 pages. 
$2.00 net, postage 10 cents. (Ready Oct. 8.) 



DEAR ENEMY 



By Jean Webster, author of " Daddy-Long-Legs" 

The story of one hundred and thirteen orphans, a crusty 
Scotch surgeon, and Sally McBride. Sally enters no heart 
except to make life sing in it more clearly, strongly, and 
sweetly. The author's illustrations have in them the kind 
of humor that is in the story. 
I2mo, about 300 pages. $1.30 net, postage 10 cents. 

(Ready Oct. 22.) 



PLEASURES AND PALACES 

By Princess Lazarovich-Hrebelianovich 
The romantic history of an American girl who went to 
London to win fame and fortune, who was made much of by 
royalty and the notable people of her time, and married 
a prince from a faraway land. An entertaining book of 
social and artistic gossip. 

Illustrations by John Wolcott Adams. Royal Svo, about 400 
pages. $3.00 net, postage 10 cents. (Ready Oct. 22.) 



PRESENT-DAY CHINA 

By Gardner L. Harding 

A book about awakened China, and from a new point 
of view, the work of a trained traveler, student, and writer. 

The author won the friendship of a great many leaders 
of the New China. His book is the best on this most tragic 
republic as it is today and will probably be tomorrow. 
Illustrated. i6mo, about 200 pages. $1.00 net, postage 5 
cents. (Ready Oct. 8.) 



ASHES AND SPARKS 

By Richard Wightman 

Poems by the author of "Soul-Spur" and "The Things 
He Wrote to Her," written in measures full of swing and 
variety. They bring refreshment, good cheer, and a new 
heart to those who crave a simple and workable philosophy 
of life. 
J2mo, 175 pages. $1.25 net, postage to cents. 

(Ready Oct. 8.) 



HIGH LIGHTS OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION 

By Hilaire Belloc, author of " Robespierre," etc. 

A brilliant series of essays in which the outstanding moments of the most dramatic hour in modern history are described 
by the ablest living writer on these themes. The Revolt of the Commons, the Flight to Varennes, the Storming of the 
Tuileries, the execution of Louis XVI are among the subjects he has chosen, and they are connected by prefatory notes briefly 
sketching the intermediate course of events. Picturesque, vivid, minutely circumstantial, rushing in interest. In literary 
qualities the episodes are comparable with those of Carlyle. 

Illustrated with 50 full-page reproductions of famous paintings and engravings in the spirit of the times. Frontispiece in full 
color. Royal octavo, about 300 pages. Price $3.00 net, postage 10 cents. (Ready Oct. 22.) 



THE CENTURY CO. 

353 FOURTH AVENUE Publishers NEW YORK CITY 



186 



THE DIAL 



[Sept. 16 



THE CENTURY 

For October 
Meddling with our Neighbors 

Have we Belgianized Nicaragua? The Stars and 
Stripes were floating over the White House in the 
Capital of Nicaragua when Lincoln G. Valentine wrote 
this astounding article. For five years Nicaragua has 
been virtually in charge of American Marines. The 
five Central American Republics, formerly a single 
union, are clamoring for re-union and armed resistance 
to the "Eagle of the North." 

The Friends 

One of the best short stories of the year, a thing of 
almost uncanny fascination. It is made of men and 
things as commonplace as cabbages; yet through some 
legerdemain in the telling it achieves a continuously 
cumulative interest that is fairly astounding. 

The Average Voter 

Is the average voter a failure? Is there an average 
voter? Walter Weyl, in this searching article, takes 
stock of America's voting quality. 

My Debut in Paris 

Francis Grierson, the strange musical genius who 
was raised in America and then amazed Europe with a 
new kind of music, tells of his introduction to the 
brilliant Parisian society of the end of the Second 
Empire. 

Female Delicacy in the Sixties 

What is so rare as a swooning lady now? But they 
weren't rare sixty years ago. They were the ideals 
then. Amy Louise Reed discusses the almost in- 
credible foolishnesses of and about women, especially 
young women, before the Civil War. 

"Here Comes Grover" 



The Fat Boy is peculiar to himself, typically unique. 
His heart and mind know different reactions from 
those of an ordinary mortal. His bashfulness betrays 
strange complexes. Grover, in Frank Leon Smith's 
story, lives, breathes, and pants. 

Rome Rampant 

Did Italy go to war to avoid revolution at home? 
T. Lothrop Stoddard analyzes the Italian situation in 
his usual clear, vigorous, entertaining way. 

Old Masters of Photography 

Alvan Langdon Coburn, himself a master of the art 
of which he writes, tells about four great pioneers in 
the field of photography. 

And 

"Pleasures and Palaces" the third instalment 
of Princess Lazarovich's sprightly reminiscences of 
social and artistic life in Europe; the third instalment 
of "Dear Enemy," Jean Webster's very charming 
serial; the fourth instalment of "We Discover New 
England," in which Louise Closser Hale and Walter 
Hale visit the North Shore; two humorous short 
stories; "The Long Way, " a piece of vigor and splendor 
in verse by Badger Clark; verse of distinction by Louis 
Untermeyer and others; and THE CENTURY'S cus- 
tomary offering of inset pictures. 



The Century Co., 353 Fourth Avenue 
New York City 

Gentlemen: Please find enclosed $4. for which send 
THE CENTURY for one year, beginning with the 
October number, to 



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important works in History, Phi- 
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of these subjects are The Balkans, by 
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fident that all such publications will 
stand the highest critical test. 

THE ABINGDON PRESS 



NEW YORK 
150 Fifth Avenue 

BOSTON 

581 Boylston Street 

(Copley Square) 

PITTSBURGH 

105 Fifth Avenue 

DETROIT 
12 Elizabeth Street, East 



CINCINNATI 

220 West Fourth Street 

CHICAGO 
1018-24 S. Wabash Avenue 

KANSAS CITY 
1121 McGee Street 

SAN FRANCISCO 
5 and 7 City Hail Ave. 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



187 



The Latest Doran Books 



BOON; The Mind of the Race, The Wild Asses of the Devil and 
The Last Trump By Reginald Bliss With an r tf i S 10 % E I L r / daction 

" Vivid, brilliant, varied, unusual, this book with the paragraph-long title is one to read, to laugh over, to admire 
and to think about quite seriously." New York Times. "A literary salad with plenty of red pepper in it; a 
bookman's holiday, with a few picnics and several visits to battlefields, on which the reader sees literary and 
political idols slain with shrapnel of satire." Philadelphia North American. I2mo. Net, $1.35 

ACCUSE (J'ACCUSE) By a German J' n l & d c % y 

Because a patriotic German, high in his Government's service, loved his Fatherland and hated the madness of 
militarism, he dared write this indictment of the Imperial hypnotist, this bold declaration that Germany has 
always had her place in the sun till in madness she cut off her own light. Not merely a book but as great 
an event in the War as any battle. I2mo. Net, $1.50 



THE SOUL OF GERMANY 



By Doctor Thomas F. A. Smith 



Whatever the turn of events, our relations with Germany will be close for years to come, and will demand a study 
of this standard book which does for Germany of today what Price Collier did for the peaceful Germany of some 
years ago studies intimately from rich personal knowledge her life in home, school, office, government bureau. 

I2mo. Net, $1.25 
PUNCH CARTOONS: The Great War in Pictures Humorous and Symbolic 

From the hundreds of pictures regarding the Great War, regarding England, Uncle Sam, the Kaiser, von Tirpitz, 
sick Turkey and the like, that have been appearing in Punch these cartoons and clever little sketches have been 
selected for America. 4to. Net, $1.50 

COLLECTED DIPLOMATIC DOCUMENTS OF THE WAR 

Here is given in full the only authoritative information regarding the outbreak of the war the British, French, 
Russian, Belgian, Serbian, German and Austrian diplomatic correspondence. 8vo. Net, $1.00 

ARE WOMEN PEOPLE? By Alice Duer Miller 

Humor is nothing but applied common sense. Hence in the splendid humor and melody of these rhymed answers 
to the pomposities of the anti-suffragists there are sounder suffrage arguments than in pages of statistics. 

I2mo. Net, $0.60 

HAPPY HOLLOW FARM 

Because of the success of his experiment in giving up city newspaper work to develop a run-down mountain 
farm, and because of the interest and lucidness with which he tells of this venture in freedom, Mr. Lighton may 
be regarded as leader of the Back to the Soil movement, and this book is the new authority for all who turn long- 
ing eyes from city to country. Many illustrations. I2mo. Net, $1.25 

Fiction of Real Greatness 



By William R. Lighton 



OF HUMAN BONDAGE 

By Somerset Maugham 

"A big piece of work; one of those novels which deserve 
the attention of all who care for what is worth while in 
contemporary fiction." New York Times. 

I2mo. Net, $1.50 

THE GOLDEN SCARECROW 

By Hugh Walpole 

With that rare instinct for pure beauty, which distin- 
guished "Fortitude" and his other novels, developed 
to the utmost, Mr. Walpole recreates for every grown- 
up the Golden Age of childhood. I2mo. Net, $1.25 

MINNIE'S BiSHOP 

By George A. Birmingham 

The newest volume of Irish stories by the sympathetic 
and witty author of "General John Regan," etc. 

I2mo. Net, $1.20 



THE STORY OF JACOB 



STAHL 



By J. D. Beresford 



In three volumes : 

THE EARLY HISTORY OF JACOB STAHL 
A CANDIDATE FOR TRUTH 

and the new volume 

THE INVISIBLE EVENT 

"They form practically one book. Despite the length 
of the book, Jacob is a person of whom we never grow 
weary. Here is the successful presentation of a human 
being, growing, changing, swiftly reacting to environ- 
ment, yet retaining his own individually. Beresford be- 
longs near to Walpole and Bennett. " New York Times. 
I2mo. Ea. vol., Net, $1.35. The three, boxed, Net, $2. 50 

THE RAT-PIT Patrick, MacGill 

A story of the Irish peasantry with the beauty of an 
October sunset somber, noble, unforgettable. 

I2mo. Net, $1.25 



AT ALL BOOKSELLERS 
Send for new announcement of autumn books of distinctive importance 

GEORGE H. DORAN COMPANY 38 w. 32nd st. NEW YORK 

PUBLISHERS IN AMERICA FOR HODDER & STOUGHTON 



188 



THE DIAL 



[Sept. 16 



Important Fall Books 

J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY 




PUBLISHERS 



PHILADELPHIA 



The Art of Ballet 

By MARE E. PERUGINI 
About 60 illustrations. Net, $2.50 

The History of the 
Harlequinade 

By MAURICE SAND 
16 hand-colored illustrations. 
2 volumes. Net, $6.00 

A Vagabond Voyage 
Through Brittany 

By MRS. LEWIS CHASE 
64 illustrations and a map. 8vo. 

Net, $2.00 



A Survey of Hellenic Culture and 

Civilization. 

By J. C. STOBART, M.A. 
Profusely illustrated. 8vo. New Edi- 
tion. Net, $2.00 

The Artistic Anatomy of 
Trees 

By REX VICAT COLE 
With several hundred illustrations and 
diagrams. Net, $1.75 

Great Schools of Painting 

A First Book of European Art 

By WINIFRED TURNER, B.A. 

32 illustrations. Net, $1.50 

Sailing Ships and Their 
Story 

By E. EEBLE CHATTERTON 
130 illustrations. New edition reduced 
from $3.75 to Net, $1.50 

The Antiquity of Man 

By ARTHUR KEITH, M.A., LL.D., 

F.R.S., Hunter ian Professor, R.C.S. 
About 150 illustrations. Net, $2.50 

The Gypsy's Parson 

His Experiences and Adventures 

By G. HALL 
64 illustrations Net, $2.50 

Peeps into Picardy 

By W. D. CRAUFURD and 

E. A. MANTON 
illustrations and a map. Net, $1.00 

Scientific Inventions of 
Today 

By T. W. CORBIN 

Illustrated. Net, $1.50 

My Adventures as a Spy 

By LIEUT. -GEN. SIR ROBERT 

BADEN-POWELL, K.C.B. 
Illustrated with the author's own 
sketches. . Net, $1.00 



Historic Virginia Homes and Churches 

By ROBERT A. LANCASTER, Jr. 

325 illustrations. Cloth Net, $7.50 Half morocco Net, $12.50 

A Limited Edition Printed from Type. Uniform with the Pennells' "Our 

Philadelphia." 

The most important work on any State yet published in this country. It describes 
practically all the houses of historic interest in Virginia, gives illustrations of most of them, 
as well as the churches most likely to engage attention. 



The Magic of Jewels and 
Charms 

By GEORGE FREDERICK KUNZ, 

A.M., Ph.D., D.Sc. 

With numerous plates in color, double- 
tone and line. Cloth Net, $5.00 
Half morocco Net, 10.00 

Uniform in style and size with "The 
Curious Lore of Precious Stones." 
The two volumes in-a box, Net ,$10.00 
The new volume gives much unique 
and interesting information especially 
relating to the magical power which pre- 
cious stones have been supposed to exert 
over individuals and events during past 
ages. 

The Civilization of 
Babylonia and Assyria 

By MORRIS JASTROW, Jr. 
170 illustrations. Octavo. Cloth, gilt 
top, in a box Net, $6.00 

The only book on the subject treating 
of the entire civilization of these ancient 
nations, languages, laws, religions, cus* 
toms, buildings, etc., other books have 
treated only partial phases of the subject. 



Heroes and Heroines of 

Fiction 

Classical, Mediaeval, and Legendary. 

By WILLIAM S. WALSH. 
Half morocco, Reference Library style. 
Net, $3.00 

Uniform with "Heroes and Heroines 
of Fiction. ' ' Modern Prose and 
Poetry. 

The two volumes in a box. Net, $6.00 
These books comprise a complete 
encyclopedia of interesting, valuable and 
curious facts regarding all the characters 
of any note whatever in literature. 

Quaint and Historic Forts 
of North America 

By JOHN MARTIN HAMMOND. 
Author of "Colonial Mansions of 

Maryland and Delaware." 
With photogravure frontispiece and 65 
illustrations. Ornamental cloth, 
gilt top, in a box. Net, $5.00 

Timely and interesting to the last 
degree in these days of war, is this volume, 
not on " fortifications'" as such, but on the 
old and existing forts, with their great 
romantic and historical interest. 



In the Land of Temples 

With 40 plates in photogravure from JOSEPH PENNELL'S LITHOGRAPHS 

Introduction by W. H. D. Rouse, Litt. D. Crown quarto. 

Lithograph on cover. Net $1.25 

Mr. Pennell's wonderful drawings present to us the immortal witnesses of the "Glory 
That Was Greece" just as they stand today, in their environment and the golden 
atmosphere of Hellas. 



Under the Red Cross Flag 

At Home and Abroad. 
By MABEL T. BOARDMAN 

Chairman. National Relief Board, 

American Red Cross. 
Fully illustrated. Decorated cloth, 
gilt top. Net, $1.50 

The story and the adventures of the 
Red Cross from the beginning of the 
organization up to and including the 
present war. 

Productive Advertising 

By HERBERT W. HESS. 

Professor of Advertising, Wharton 
School, University of Pennsylvania. 

Profusely illustrated with specimens, 

charts, diagrams, etc., etc. Octavo. 

Cloth. Net, $2.00 

This work covers the entire field, giving 

the principles of advertising in all its forms. 



English Ancestral Homes of 
Noted Americans 

By ANNE HOLLINGSWORTH 
WHARTON 

With about 28 illustrations. Orna- 
mental cloth, gilt top. Net, $2.00 
Half morocco, Net, 4.50 

George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, 
the Pilgrim Fathers, William Penn, Virginia 
Cavaliers and other noted Americans are 
traced to their English ancestral homes, 
with much entertaining and interesting 
information gathered on the way. 

Lippincott's Universal 
Pronouncing Dictionary of 
Biography and Mythology 

New Edition. 

One volume, sheep. Net, $10.00 

Half morocco, Net, 12.50 



_ Peg Along 

By GEORGE L. WALTON, M. D. 
Author of "Why Worry," etc. Net. $1.00 

Hundreds of -thousands of fussers, fretters, semi- and would-be invalids, and all other 
halterers by the wayside should be reached by Dr. Walton's stirring encouragement to 
"Peg Along. " 



1915] 



Neiy Fiction, Juveniles, Miscellaneous 

J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY 



PUBLISHERS 



PHILADELPHIA 




FICTION 

The Man from the Bitter Roots 

By CAROLINE LOCKHART 
Illustrated in color. $1.25 net. 

"Better than 'Me-Smith,'" is the word from those who have read this 
great account of Bruce Burt and his struggles. 

A Man's Hearth 

By ELEANOR INGRAM 
Illustrated in color. $1.25 net. 

' 'From the Car Behind" (five printings) was aptly termed "one contin- 
uous joy-ride, "and it was a big success. " A Man 's Hearth " has all the former 
story's vim and go, and also a heart interest that gives it a wider appeal. 

The Obsession of Victoria Gracen 

By Grace Livingston Hill Lutz 
Illustrated in color. $1.25 net. 

Another fine big, optimistic story by the author of "Lo Michael," 
"The Best Man," etc. 

Heart's Content 

By Ralph Henry Barbour 
Illustrated in color, and decorated. $1.50 net. 

Romance and plenty of it; fun and plenty ot it; a happy man who 
"starts things" and who at the end makes a woman happy, too. "Bright, 
cheerful, and snappy" will be the opinion of all readers. 

The Complete Sea Cook The Salvage of a Sailor 

By FRANK T. SULLEN By FRANK T. BULLEN 

Eight illustrations. Net, $1.00 Eight illustrations. Net, $1.00 

The Sea Hawk 

By RAFAEL SABATINI 

Net, $1.25 

JUVENILES 



Heidi 

By JOHANNA SPYRI 
Translated by Elisabeth P. Stork. 
Introduction by Charles Wharton 

Stork. 
Illustrations in color. Net, $1.25 

This is the New Volume in the 
STORIES ALL CHILDREN LOVE Series 

The Boy Scouts of Snow-Shoe Lodge 

By RUPERT SARGENT HOLLAND 

Illustrated in color and black and 

white by Will Thomson. 
Cloth. Net, $1.25 

Scenes laid in the Adirondacks. Plenty 
of sledding, snowshoeing, skiing, trapping, 
real winter sports and experiences. 

Gold Seekers of *49 

By EDWIN L. SABIN 
illustrated in color and doubletone by 
Charles H. Stephens. Net, $1.25 

This is the New Volume in the 

TRAIL BLAZERS SERIES, 

full of adventure and good fun. 

The Romance of the Spanish Main 

By NORMAN J. DAVIDSON, B.A. 

Illustrated. Net, $1.50 

Science for Children Series 
The Stars and Their Mysteries 

By CHARLES R. GIBSON, F.R.S.E. 
Illustrated. Net, $1.00 

The Violet Book of Romance 

A Tapestry of Old Tales 

Rewoven by ALETHEA CHAPLIN 

8 colored illustrations. 8vo. Net, $1.00 



American Boys' Book of Bugs, 
Butterflies and Beetles 
By DAN BEARD 

With 300 illustrations, some in color. 

Net, $2.00 

A practical book about bugs, butterflies 
and beetles, by the Founder of the first 
Boy Scouts. 

Winona of the Camp Fire 

By MARGARET WIDDEMER 
Illustrated in color. Net, $1.25 

The author of "The Rose-Garden 
Husband" (five printings) has written a 
charming story that all Camp Fire Girls 
and all who enjoy outdoor life will read and 
recommend to their friends. 

The Master of the World 

A Tale of Mystery and Marvel 

By JULES VERNE 
30 illustrations. Net, $1.00 

Ian Hardy, Senior Midshipman 

By COMMODORE E. HAMILTON 

CURRET, R.N. 
Colored illustrations. Net, $1.50 

Boy Scouts in Russia 
By JOHN FINNEMORE 

Illustrated. Net, $1.25 

The Darling of the School 

By LAURA T. MEADE 
Illustrated. Net, $1.25 



Illustrated. 



A Ripping Girl 

By MAY BALDWIN 



Net, $1.25 



A Great Novelist at 



MAURICE 



HEWLE1 




Wonderful 

New Romance 




Frontispiece by Edward Burne- 
Jones. $1.35 net. 

A "Hewlett" that you and 
everyone else will enjoy! It com- 
bines the rich romance of his 
earliest work with the humor, 
freshness and gentle satire of his 
more recent. 

CHARLES DICKENS'S 

Christmas Carol 

13 illustrations in color and many 
in black and white 

By ARTHUR RACKHAM 
Octavo, Decorated Cloth. Net $1.50 

The great circle of admirers of 
the distinguished illustrator have 
long been hoping to see his concep- 
tion of Old Scrooge, Tiny Tim, and 
the other interesting characters 
and scenes of Dickens 's master- 
piece. 



190 



THE DIAL 



[Sept. 16 



Some of Little, Brown & Co.'s Fall Books 



FICTION 



BELTANE, THE SMITH 

By JEFFERY FARNOL. A romance of the 
greenwood, by the author of "The Broad 
Highway." Illustrated. $1.50 net. 

THE WAY OF THESE WOMEN 

By E. PHILLIPS OPPENHEIM. A tensely written 
mystery novel containing the author's best 
portraiture of the fair sex. $1-35 net. 

THE LITTLE RED DOE 

By CHAUNCEY J. HAWKINS. A sympathetic 
story of a creature of the wilds. 

Illustrated. $1.00 net. 



THE STIRRUP LATCH 

By SIDNEY McCALL. A Southern story of love 
and temptation, by the author of "Truth Dexter." 

$1.33 net. 

JEAN OF THE LAZY A 

By B. M. BOWER. The moving-picture field in 
the West, with a real cowgirl for its heroine. 

$1.30 net. 

TAD AND HIS FATHER 

By F. LAURISTON BULLARD. A study of the 
home life of the great liberator, Lincoln. 

$1.00 net in leather; 50 cents in cloth. 



ILLUSTRATED GIFT BOOKS 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

By MARY H. NORTHEND. Shows the changes 
that converted twenty farmhouses into charm- 
ing homes. Superbly illustrated. 8vo. $5.00 net. 

OLD BOSTON MUSEUM DAYS 

By KATE RYAN. Brings close to the reader the 
lure and glamour of early stage life at the 
Museum. Illustrated. 8vo. $1.50 net. 

WALKS ABOUT WASHINGTON 

By FRANCIS LEUPP. Breathes the very spirit 

and atmosphere of the Capital city. 

Over 25 illustrations by Hornby. 8vo. $3.00 net. 



the 



OLD CONCORD 

By ALLEN FRENCH. Effectively depicts 

town's literary and historic associations. 

With 2Q illustrations by Hornby. 8vo. $3.00 net. 

THE STORY OF WELLESLEY 

By FLORENCE CONVERSE. Its traditions and 
history, by a graduate. 
Illustrated by Norman I. Black. 8vo. $2.00 net. 

STATELY HOMES OF CALIFORNIA 

By PORTER GARNETT. The construction and 
setting of twelve of California's finest homes. 

Illustrated in color. 8vo. $2.50 net. 



BIOGRAPHIES 

THE HENRY FORD BOOK REMINISCENCES AND LETTERS OF 

HELP THE OTHER FELLOW SIR ROBERT BALL 

By HENRY FORD. The childhood, youth and By W. V. BALL, his son. The autobiography 

ambitions of America's great manufacturer of of England's famous astronomer, 

automobiles. Illustrated. I2mo. $1.50 net. Illustrated. 8vo. $5.00 net. 

MISCELLANEOUS BOOKS 



DEMOCRACY IN THE MAKING 

By Various Contributors. A full account of 
the open forum movement at Ford Hall, Boston. 

I2mo. $1.50 net. 

PATHOLOGICAL LYING, 
ACCUSATION AND SWINDLING 

By WILLIAM HEALY, M.D. A study in forensic 
psychology, by an expert. 8vo. $2.50 net. 

SUNLIT DAYS 

By FLORENCE HOBART PERIN. A word of 
prayer for each day. Cloth, $1.00. 

White and gold, $1.25. Leather, $1.50 net. 

THE MOTHERCRAFT MANUAL 

By MARY L. READ. A young mother's guide, 
written by the Director, School of Mothercraft, 
New York. I2mo. $1.00 net. 



FUTURE OF SOUTH AMERICA 

By ROGER W. BABSON. A most readable story 
of the country of to-day. I2mo. $2.00 net. 

CLYDE FITCH PLAYS 

Memorial Edition. Includes plays never before 
put in print, personal data, etc. 

4 vols. $1.50 net each. 

CANNING, PRESERVING 
AND JELLY MAKING 



By JANET M. HILL. 
reliable guide. 



The latest recipes and a 
Illustrated. $1.00 net. 



HOW TO KNOW YOUR CHILD 

By MIRIAM F. SCOTT. Points out how to make 
the best of our children. izmo. $1.25 net. 



JUVENILES 



LITTLE WOMEN 

By LOUISA M. ALCOTT. A handsome new 
edition with 8 colored illustrations by Miss 
Smith. 8vo. $2.50 net. 



titles 



BEDTIME STORY BOOKS 

By THORNTON W. BURGESS. Two new 
in this series of animal stories. 

IX. Chatterer, The Red Squirrel. 

X. Sammy Jay. 

Each. Illustrated by Cady. 50 cents net. 



LITTLE, BROWN &f CO., Publishers, BOSTON, MASS. 



1915] 



THE DIAL 



191 



Recent and Forthcoming Books of Uncommon Interest 



WHY NOT? 

By MARGARET WIDDEMER 

Author of "The Rose Garden Husband" 
Ready September 14th 

A delightful love story designed to make people 
happier. Full of personality and charm. "There's 
no reason why not," says the author no reason 
why all of us should not realize our dreams. A 
book for all who believe that dreams and ideals are 
the greatest things in life. Illustrated. 

Price, $1.25 net. 

That Night 

and Other Satires 

By Freeman Tilden 

Ready October 6th 

The first volume of satiri- 
cal stories published in Am- 
erica, by the greatest master 
of satire in the American 
short story of to-day. Good 
satire in fiction is so rare that 
all discriminating readers will 
welcome this notable volume, 
which bids fair to place its 
author in the company of 
Mark Twain and O. Henry. 
Read Tilden and forget your 
troubles. Illustrated. 

Price, $1.00 net. 

The Marriage Revolt 

A Study of Marriage and Divorce 
By WILLIAM E. CARSON 

Author of "Social Problems of To-day," 
"Mexico, the Wonderland of the South," 
etc. Ready September 14th 

A radical but impartial study 
of the divorce question, childless 
unions, the coming marriage, etc. 
Dealing frankly but not objec- 
tionably with the perplexing sex 
problems of to-day, it is absorb- 
ing in interest and of high value. 
Illustrated. Price, $2.00 net. 



Elements of the Great War 

The First Phase 
By HILAIRE BELLOC 

Public Ledger, Phila.: "A masterly work, 
every page of which is full of the most vital 
interest." 

New York Sun: "A clear and orderly ex- 
position." 

Boston Transcript: "Mr. Belloc's book is 
a rare achievement." 

The Nation: "A model of clear exposition. 
It is and promises to be the most satisfac- 
tory work of its scope." 

Portland Oregonian: "An important his- 
tory a most complete work, the crowning 
effort of an expert." 

Phila. North American: " Many have been 
called, but few chosen, for such a weighty 
task. Mr. Belloc is of the elect he speaks 
authoritatively." 



King Albert's Book 

The World's Greatest Men and Women 
Made This Book to Help Belgium 

23 Stories. 12 Musical Com- 
positions. 22 Poems. I Play. 19 
Articles. 133 Prose Contributions. 
23 Illustrations. 1 1 Examples of 
photogravure, etching, pen and 
ink, charcoal and crayon drawings. 

Profits from the sale of this 
book will go to the Belgian Fund. 

Cloth, $1.50 net. Full Leather, 
$5.00 net. 



Ready September 28th 

Political Parties 

By ROBERT MICHELS, Professor of Political Economy 
and Statistics, University of Basle 

A sociological study of the oligarchical tendencies of modern 
democracy. This important volume has been issued in 
Italian, French, German and Japanese. The author's proph- 
ecies have been substantiated by events immediately preceding 
the outbreak of the Great War. Quarto. Price $3.50, net. 

DEFENSELESS AMERICA By Hudson Maxim 

A call to arms against war. Written in a vigorous, con- 
vincing style, its preachments are having a wide appeal. 

The Philadelphia Public Ledger says: 

"A powerful book on an imminent and national problem 
that every thinking citizen should read with care." Illustrated. 
Price, $2.00 net. 

1,001 TESTS OF FOODS, BEVERAGES AND TOILET 
ACCESSORIES By Harvey W. Wiley, M. D. 

A health-guard and money-saver to every woman who runs 
a house. A "Who's Who" of prominent products. The book 
tells, not only what to avoid, but what to put on the pantry 
shelf. Illustrated. Price, $1.25 net. 



ELTHAM HOUSE 

By MRS. HUMPHRY WARD 

Author of "Delia Blanchflower" 
Ready October 6th 

A profoundly moving story of English social life 
and politics, in which prejudice against a divorced 
woman plays a leading part. It has the note of 
elevation and nobility that marks great fiction. 
Unquestionably one of Mrs. Ward's finest novels. 
A fiction feature of the autumn. Illustrated. 

Price, $1.35 net. 

Mothercraft 

By Sarah Comstock 

Two hundred thousand 
children under five years of 
age die in the United States 
every year of preventable dis- 
eases. 

Who could have prevented 
them? 

"Mothers," answers the 
author of this book. 

"We know of no book upon 
this general subject that we 
can more confidently recom- 
mend." The Medical Coun- 
cil. Illustrated. 

Price, $1.00 net. 

Luther Burbank 

His Life and Work 

By HENRY SMITH WILLIAMS, 

M.D.. LL.D. 

Sec. of (he Lather Burbank Society ol America 
Ready Oct. 6th 

A popular and highly interest- 
ing account of the work of a 
practical scientist whose dis- 
coveries in fruits and flowers have 
made him world-famous. The 
author's purpose is to enable the 
reader to "Burbank" his own 
orchard, garden and door-yard. 
Illustrated. Price, $2.50 net. 

Ready September 28th 

The Story of a Hare 
The Life Story of an Otter 

By JOHN COULSON TREGARTHEN 

Animal stories with a charm comparable to that of Charles 
G. D. Roberts and Ernest Thompson-Seton. Illustrated. 
Price, $1.25 net, each. 

CALIFORNIA THE WONDERFUL By Edwin Markham 

The New York Times says: 

" California has not had a more vivid and exalted exposition 
than given in this book. Long before finishing the book one 
is filled with a desire to view the wonders so eloquently 
described." Illustrated. Price, $2.50 net. , 

CHARM OF THE ANTIQUE 

By Robert and Elizabeth Shackleton 

A book of the present-day possibilities for simple expenditure. 
It is full of the pleasant experiences and triumphs of col- 
lecting. Illustrated. Price, $2.50 net. 



HEARSTS INTERNATIONAL LIBRARY CO., 119 West 40th St., New York 



192 



THE DIAL 



[Sept. 16 



Pamphlet Cases 

Made of Bass Wood Covered with Marbled Paper 




PRICES : No. o 9^ X 7 X 3 inches outside, 15 cents each 
No. i ii xyxs inches outside, 20 cents each 
No. 212^x9x3 inches outside, 25 cents each 
These may be covered with cloth for 10 cents extra. 

Write for Catalog of Library Supplies 

DEMOCRAT PRINTING COMPANY 

LIBRARY SUPPLIES DEPARTMENT 
MADISON. WISCONSIN 



"AT McCLURG'S" 

It is of interest and importance 
to Librarians to know that the 
books reviewed and advertised 
in this magazine can be pur- 
chased from us at advantageous 
prices by 

Public Libraries, Schools, 
Colleges and Universities 

In addition to these books we 
have an exceptionally large 
stock of the books of all pub- 
lishersa more complete as- 
sortment than can be found on 
the shelves of any other book- 
store in the entire country. We 
solicit correspondence from 
librarians unacquainted with 
our facilities. 

LIBRARY DEPARTMENT 

A.C. McClurg & Co., Chicago 



BOOKS OF REAL 
INTEREST 

A Text-Book of the War 

/. WM. WHITE. $1.00 net 

Contains the vital facts and arguments under- 
lying the important questions involved in the 
European War. "Of the many books of this 
type it is one of the best." New York Evening 
Post. 500 pages. Cloth. 

Seeing America 

LOGAN MARSHALL. $1.25 net 

Describes all the important cities and places 
of scenic interest, and. the two Panama Ex- 
positions that mark the country's progress and 
achievement. 320 pages. Cloth. 100 half-tone 
illustrations. 

The Cry for Justice 

Edited by UPTON SINCLAIR. $1.00 net 

An anthology of the literature of social protest. 
Inspiring to every thinking man and woman; a 
stimulus to all students of social conditions and 
to all interested in human justice. 955 pages. 
32 illustrations. Cloth. 

Napoleon in Exile at St. Helena 

NORWOOD YOUNG. 2 vols. $7.00 net 

A history of Napoleon's exile on St. Helena, 
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The Factories and Other Lyrics 

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THE FRENCH ARMY BEFORE NAPOLEON 

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On Nazareth Hill ALBERT E. BAILEY 

With quite exceptional charm and great tact this story 
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in 2 colors. Price, $1.00 net. 
Our Man of Patience ANEES T. BAROODY 

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His Birthday MARY E. CHASE 

An exceptionally good story of the child Jesus centering 
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Little Miss Muffet Abroad ALICE E. BALL 

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A Captain of the Vanished Fleet BENJAMIN SHARP 

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The Dreamer EMMA D. COOLIDGE 

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Object Lessons for the Cradle Roll FRANCES WELD DANIELSON 

A series of fifty-two lessons which will enable the parent 
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A dozen new selections of music by Miss Grace W. Conant. 38 
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Forward in the Better Life OLIVIA E. P. STOKES 

A volume of stimulating little essays full of encouragement 
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Made in Germany FRANKLIN M. SPRAGUE 

Introduction by THEODORE ROOSEVELT. 
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Israel's Account of the Beginnings WALTER M. PATTON 
A text-book intended primarily for college students and 
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Conversations with Luther 

PRESERVED SMITH AND HERBERT P. GALLINGER 
Selection from recently published sources, of Luther's 
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Christ's Experience of God FRANK H. PECKER 

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The Church and the People's Play HENRY A. ATKINSON 

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Autobiography of George William Puddefoot 

Undoubtedly one of the most dramatic and popular 
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Biblical Nature Studies ANDREW ARCHIBALD 

A book of fine literary as well as religious flavor, with the 
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Science and Prayer and Other Papers 

GALUSHA ANDERSON 

A series of interesting essays taking a title from the 
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The Evolution of a Teacher ELLA GILBERT IVES 

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Some Principles of Religious Education EDGAR W. KNIGHT 
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Certainties and Hopes CHARLES BAKER RICE 

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The Unfolding Universe EDGAR L. HEERMANCE 

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Biographical and Literary Studies ALBERT H. CURRIER 
Widely diverse in temperament are the four great men of 
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The Present Day Message of Quakerism 

CHARLES M. WOODMAN 

The fundamentals of Quakerism and their application to 
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The Boy Problem in the Home 

WILLIAM BYRON